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Full text of "A manual of scientific terms, pronouncing, etymological, and explanatory, chiefly comprising terms in botany, natural history, anatomy, medicine, and veterinary science, with an appendix of specific names. Designed for the use of junior medical students, and others studying one or other of these sciences"

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pronouncing, (JHtgtnolostcal, antt 




Designed for ttye use of Junior fHrttcal Stuitnts, ano otfjtrs 
stooging one or otjjer of tfrese Sciences. 












Preface, . vii 

The Sounds of c and g, x 

Sound Symbols used in the Re-spellings, . . x 

Tables of Abbreviations, . . . xi 

The Terms of Manual, 1 

Specific Names, . - 448 

Prefixes, with Examples, . . .. . . . , 470 

Postfixes, with Examples, . . .. ,. . . . 480 

Abbreviations of Medical Terms, . .. . .. . . 483 

Nomenclature of Classification, ...... 488 


THE increasingly numerous class of learners and junior students in 
our higher class schools and colleges, as well as of general readers, 
experience the want of a ' Manual of Scientific Terms ' specially suited 
for the particular stage of their studies. The present work is an 
attempt to furnish such Lists of Terms in Botany, Natural History, 
Chemistry, Anatomy, Medicine, and Veterinary Science, as may be 
met with in the student's ordinary text-books, and in the current 
literature of the day. No attempt has been made to supply an 
exhaustive vocabulary. The selected words have been taken from the 
more popular text-books ; and the definitions are very generally given 
in the language employed in them, though often simplified. The 
Author feels assured that the special end in view, in the preparation of 
the present work, has been best served by making this legitimate use 
of such text-books ; for the language and phraseology employed in his 
text-books must become familiar to the student in the course of his 

The general terms in Botany will be found a pretty exhaustive list. 
All the names of Orders, and generally Sub- orders, as found in 
Balfour's Manual of Botany r , have been inserted. Only, however, 
such names of genera and species are given as have some noteworthy 
particulars or qualities affirmed of them. The list of Latin Anatomical 
terms will be found a very full one ; but only such compound terms 
are given as are deemed most useful, inasmuch as the Latin compounds 
are now very often laid aside, and their English equivalents employed 
instead. The terms in Natural History, Chemistry, Medicine, 
and Veterinary Science, will be found in sufficient numbers to meet 
ordinary requirements. 

Each term is followed by its re-spelling in simple phonetic characters, 
and accented, while the syllabication employed is that laid down in 
the Author's Handy English Word-Book and Complete Dictionary 
Appendix. 1 - By using these methods, the pronunciation has been indic- 
ated with very great precision. A system of re-spellings with the view of 
indicating the correct pronunciation of scientific terms was much needed, 
for the pronunciation of many of them sadly puzzled most persons, and 

i Edinburgh : W. P. Nimmo. 

viii PREFACE. 

even scientific men were frequently not agreed as to the correct pronuncia- 
tion of many terms which they were constantly using ; indeed, they 
were not unseldom inconsistent with themselves in the pronunciation of 
many scientific terms. The endeavour is here made, and it is hoped 
not unsuccessfully, to settle the pronunciation of terms in regard to 
which there has hitherto been no certain agreement. Where the 
pronunciation of a term has been fixed by usage, such of course has 
been retained. In every case, the analogy of the English language, 
and the etymology of the term, has been considered in fixing its 
pronunciation. The student must particularly remember that the 
symbols ( w ) here employed to indicate English pronunciation 
regard the quality of the vowel-sounds only, and not quantity, as in 
Latin and Greek. Hence it often happens that the root-words, or 
Latin words within the brackets, may have such a symbol as (J) 9 
while the corresponding syllable in the Latin word, re-spelt for pronun- 
ciation, may have the symbol (-), and vice versa. 

The student or learner should, in the case of a difficult or uncertain 
word, enunciate aloud each syllable of the re-spelling, distinctly and 
firmly, pronouncing each syllable and word repeatedly, always taking 
care to place a halt or stress on the accents marked thus (' or '). By 
such practice, the pronunciation of the terms will be well and correctly 
done ; and repetition, first slowly, and then more rapidly, will tend to 
fix their pronunciation in the memory. The re-spellings is an important 
feature in this work, and its importance will readily be seen and 
understood. The table of sound symbols on page x, should be care- 
fully studied. 

The root-words or etymologies, and Latin words with literal meanings 
and their quantities, are placed within brackets. It is of great import- 
ance to exhibit the primary meanings of the terms by means of root- 
words, and the simpler forms of Latin terms. A root- word not only 
exhibits the origin of a particular term, but very frequently supplies 
a key to the primary meanings of a large number of other related 
terms. In the case of specific and anatomical terms, the meaning of 
each Latin word is given clearly and literally. 

In the study of Botany, Anatomy, and Geology, specific names are 
apt to be misunderstood. At any rate, to the learner and young 
student, they are often mysterious and puzzling. Accordingly, a con- 
siderable list of the second names of the binomials, used as specific 
names, has been given by way of an Appendix, beginning on page 448. 
In order to smooth the way to many not over familiar with Latin, or 
entirely ignorant of that language, the list of specific names has been 
prefaced by a short introduction ; and a considerable number of 
examples of Latin nouns and adjectives have been declined, marked 
for pronunciation, and defined. This will be found no less useful 
to the student in the study of anatomical terms. 


Following the specific names, there will be found a pretty full list of 
prefixes, including those used in connection with scientific terms. The 
list of postfixes contains only the common terminations of scientific 
terms. These are not only explained, but also illustrated by examples. 
In the examples the roots are printed in black letters, and the prefixes 
and postfixes in italics, A list of abbreviations in use by medical 
practitioners, with their unabbreviated forms and meanings, concludes 
the work. 

Students or learners are recommended to use the present work before 
commencing their special studies, or, at least, in the earlier stages of 
them, as a daily lesson-book. Let a certain portion be accurately com- 
mitted to memory daily, or frequently, and the very great advantage of 
such a course will be seen and felt on its accomplishment, for by so 
doing students will attain a competent knowledge of the spellings of 
the terms, their pronunciation, their root-words, and their definitions. 
Equipped with this knowledge, they will be able to follow the lectures 
and instructions of their teachers and professors both with freshness 
and intelligence. In short, by a little hard work to begin with, their 
after-studies will become very much more pleasant and profitable. 

Though great care has been exercised in the preparation of the work, 
it is scarcely to be expected that it will be free from error. It is 
hoped, however, that errors will be unimportant, and few in number. 

The Author has here to acknowledge the deep obligation under 
which he lies to G. W. Balfour, Esq., M.D., E.R.C. P., of Edinburgh, 
and to Alexander Morison, Esq., M.D., of Canonbury, London, for many 
excellent suggestions. The whole proof sheets were carefully read by 
Dr. Balfour, and a similar service was rendered by Dr. Morison on the 
MS. Of course, the suggestions and corrections made by these gentlemen 
chiefly regarded terms in those departments of science with which they 
were most conversant. The Author also gladly acknowledges similar 
favours from other friends. While thus gratefully acknowledging his 
obligation to these gentlemen, and other friends, it must be distinctly 
understood that the Author is alone responsible for any deficiencies 
which may be found in the work. 

The Author of this compilation now submits his work to the 
judgment of professional men, and the general public, and he will be 
glad to learn that their judgment in regard to the objects of the work, 
as well as the manner of its execution, is a: favourable one. 

EDINBURGH, 15th March 1879, 

ING THE FOLLOWING PAGES. See list in English Spellings and 
Spelling Rules, p. 70. * 

I. c is generally pronounced as Tc (1) when followed by one of the 
vowels a, 0, u, as in 'cake,' 'becoming,' 'concuss'; (2) when 
followed by a consonant, except h, as in 'accord,' 'clime'; (3) when 
it terminates a word, as in 'physic,' 'music/ * zinc.' 

c is generally pronounced s when it comes before one of the 
vowels e, i, y, as in 'avarice,' 'cipher,' 'fancy.' 

II. g is generally pronounced as dj before e, i, y, ce, as in 'page,' 
'pageantry,' 'rage,' 'origin,' 'oxygen,' 'regent,' 'pugilism,' 'rugae,' 

g is generally 'hard (1) when it comes before the vowels a, o, u, as 
in ' prefigure, ' ' regulate, ' 'organ,' 'regard,' 'legume,' 'rigorous'; 
(2) when it comes before any consonant, except h t as in 'progress,' 
'quagmire,' 'pugnacious'; (3) when it terminates a word, as in 
' rag, ' ' ring, ' 'rung, ' ' strong. ' 

i Edinburgh : W. P. Nimmo. 




a, a as in mate, fate, fail, aye. 

ou,ow,em;asinnoun, bough, cow. 

a, a 

mat, fat. 

oi, oy, oy 

boy, soil. 

a, d 

far, calm, father. 

u, ew, u 

pure, due, few. 

a, aw, ctiv 

awl, fall, law. 

c, s 

acid, cell, face. 

e, ee, e 

mete, meet, feet, free. 

c, k 

cone, colic, tract. 

e, e 

met, bed. 

ch, tsh 

chair, larch, church. 

e, e 

her, fern, heard. 

ch, sh 

chemise, drench, match. 

i, I 

pine, height, sigh, tie. 

ch, Tc 

chaos, anchor, scholar. 

i, i 

pin, tin, ability. 

g, g 

game, gone, gun. 

o, 6 

note, toll, soul. 

g, i 

George, gem, gin. 

0, d 

o, oo, 6 

not, plot. 
move, smooth. 

g, dg, dj 
th, ih 

judge, ledge, rage, 
thing, breath. 

o, oo, do 

, woman, foot, soot. 

tfe, ih 

there, breathe. 

NOTE. Among well-educated people, in Scotland at least, I seems 
to have two sounds 

1. I in its proper name-sound, as in sigh, try, high, my, tie, liar, 

bye, hire, sire. 

2. ei forming a sound resulting from the combined sounds of e and 

i, as in height, pine, mine, sight, write, white, flight, fright, 
might, trite. 


a. or adj. adjective. 

nat. hist., 

. natural history. 

anat. , 



. neuter. 




. nominative. 



obj., . . 


chem. , 


ornith., . 

. palaeontology. 

E., . 


path. , 


en torn. , 


pert, . 

. pertaining. 

far. , . 


phren., . 

. phrenology. 

fern., . 


phys., . 

. physiology, physics. 

gen., . 

gender, genitive. 

plu., . . 

. plural. 




. possessive. 

hort. , 


pref., . 

. prefix. 

instr. , 



. South. 



sing., . 

. singular. 



superl., . 

. superlative. 



surg. r , 

. surgery. 

N., . 


W., . . 

. West. 

n., . noun. zool., 

. zoology. 




Ar., . Arabic. 

Icel. r . 

. Icelandic. 

AS., . Anglo-Saxon* 

It., . . 

. Italian. 

Celt., Celtic. 

L., . . 

. Latin. 

Chin. , Chinese. 

mid. L., 

. Latin of the Middle 

Dan., Danish. 

Ages, late Latin, or 

Dut, Dutch. 

Latin not classical. 

Eng., English. 

Norm. F., 

Norman French. 

F., . French. 

Old Eng.,. 

Old English. 

Gael., Gaelic. 

Sans., . . 


Ger., German. 

Scot., . . 


Gr., . Greek. 

Sp., . . 


NOTE. For Abbreviations of Medical Terms, see page 483. 




abaxial, a., ab-alcs'i-al (ab, from, 
and axial), not in the axis ; in bot. , 
applied to the embryo which is 
out of the axis of the seed : abaxile, 
a., db'dks'tt, in same sense. 

abbreviated, a., db-brev't-dt-Zd, 
also abbreviate, a., ab-brev'i-dt 
(L. ab, from; brevis, short), in bot., 
applied to one part when shorter 
than another. 

abdomen, n. , ab-ddm'$n(L. abdom- 
en, the belly from abdo, I con- 
ceal), the lower belly : abdom- 
inal, a., ab-dom'm-al, belonging 
to the lower belly. 

bbdticent, a., db-dus'ent (L. ab- 
ducens, leading away or from), 
separating ; drawing back : ab- 
ducens, n. , db-dus'enz (L. ), applied 
to the sixth cranial nerve, which, 
distributed to the external rectus 
muscle, turns the eyeball out- 
wards ; hence it is called the ab- 
ducens oculi, 61c f -ul-l (L. oculi, of 
the eye). 

abduction, n., ab-duk'-shun (L. ab, 
from; duco, I lead, ductus, led), 
the act of drawing away from ; 
the movement of a limb from 
the median line that is, the 
middle line of the body ; see 
' median line. ' 

abductor, n., tib-dtikt&r (L. ab- 
ductor, that which draws out- 


wards), a muscle that draws a 
limb or part outwards : abductor 
indicia manus, m'-dis-is mdn'-us 
(L. index, an index, indicis, of 
the index ; and manus, the hand, 
manus, of the hand), the muscle 
that puts outwards the index 
finger of the hand : abductor min- 
imi digiti, mtn'-lm-i didf-tt-l (L. 
minimus, the least; digitus, the 
finger), the abductor of the least 
finger ; the muscle that draws away 
the little finger from the ring 
finger : abductor minimi digiti 
pe3i8,ped'-is (L. pes, a foot, pedis, 
of a foot), the abductor of the least 
finger of the foot ; the muscle that 
draws the little toe away from its 
neighbour: abductor oculi, 8-ul-l 
(L. oculus, the eye, oculi, of the 
eye), the muscle that extends or 
expands the eye: abductor pollicis 
manus, pol'-lis-is man'-us (L. pol- 
lex, the thumb, pollicis, of the 
thumb ; manus, the hand, manus, 
of the hand), the muscle that draws 
outwards the thumb of the hand : 
abductor pollicis pedis, p%d f 4s (L. 
pes, a foot, p$dis, of a foot), the 
muscle that extends the thumb 
or great toe of the foot. 
aberrant, a., db-er^dnt (L. ab, 
from ; errans, wandering, gen. 
errantis), departing from the reg- 

ABI $ 

ulartype: aberration, n.,a&-r-a- 
shun, a disordered state of the 
intellect ; any deviation from the 
usual and natural appearance. 

Abies, n., ab'-l-ez (L. abies, the 
silver fir, abietis, of the silver fir), 
the fir tree ; a genus of trees : 
AbietinesB, n. piu., ab'-i-et-in'-e-e, 
the sub-order of the Coniferse or 
cone -bearing family, including 
the fir and spruce : abietic, a., 
ab'-i-et'ik, belonging to the fir 
tree : Abies picea, pis'-e-a (Gr. 
peuJce, the pine or pitch tree), the 
silver fir which furnishes turpen- 
tine : A. balsamea, bal-sam'S-a 
(L. balsameus, balsamic from 
balsamum, balsam), a species 
which produces Canada balsam ; 
balm of Gilead fir : A. Canadens- 
is, kan f 'd'dens f -is (from Canada), 
hemlock spruce, which furnishes 
a balsam : A. excelsa, ek-sels'a 
(L. excelsus, lofty, high), the 
Norway spruce, producing Bur- 
gundy pitch: A. nigra, mg'-ra 
(L. niger or nigra, black), the 
black spruce, from which, and 
other species, spruce beer is made. 

abiogenesis, n. , ab'-i'd'jen'es'is^?. 
a, without ; bios, life ; genesis, 
origin, source), the doctrine that 
living bodies may be evolved 
from inorganic matter ; spon- 
taneous generation. 

ablactation, n., ab'-lakt-d'sliun (L. 
ab, from ; lacto, I suckle from 
lac, milk), weaning of a child from 
the breast. 

ablation, n. , ab Id' shun (L. abldtum, 
to take or bear away from ab, 
from or away; latum, to carry 
or bear), a taking away ; the re- 
moval of a part from a body by 
excision, extirpation, or amputa- 

ablepsia, n., a-bleps'i-tf, also a- 
blepsy, n., a-bleps'-t (Gr. a } with- 
out, not; blepo, I see, blepso, I 
shall see), want of sight ; blind- 

abluent, n., a., ab'ld-ent(L. abluo, 
I wash off or away from ab, from j 


luo, I wash, luens, washing), a 
substance which carries off im- 
purities ; same as 'abstergent 'and 
'detergent': ablution, n., db-W- 
shun, a cleansing or purification. 

abnormal, a., ab-ndrm'dl (L. ab, 
from ; norma, a rule), anything 
out of the usual or natural course ; 

abomasum, n., db'-om-dz'-um, also 
abomas'us, -dz'us (L. ab, from ; 
dmdsum, tripe, the paunch), the 
fourth cavity of the stomach of 
ruminant animals, as the cow. 

aborticide, n., ab-ort'-i-sld (L. ab- 
ortus, an untimely birth ; ccedo, 
I kill), the destroying of the 
foetus in utero to effect a delivery : 
abortion, n., ab-tir'shun (L. ab- 
ortus), expulsion of the foetus 
before its time ; miscarriage ; in 
bot., the incomplete or non-forma- 
tion of a part : abortive, a., db- 
ort'w, not come to maturity; 
treating disease with the view of 
arresting its further development ; 

abrachia, n., a'brdk'-i-a (Gr. a, 
without, not ; Gr. brachion, L. 
bracJdum, the arm), imperfect de- 
velopment, or entire absence of 
the arms. 

abranchiate, a., a-brang'-ki-dt (Gr. 
a, without ; Gr. brangchia, L. 
branchice, the gills of a fish), destit- 
ute of gills or branchiae ; without 
lungs : abranchiata, n. plu. , a- 
brdng'ki-dt'd, animals which have 
no apparent organs of respiration, 
as the earthworm and leech. 

abrasion, n., db-rd'shun (L. ab y 
from ; rdsus, scraped), a partial 
rubbing off or tearing of the skin. 

abrupt, a., ab-rupt' (L. ab, from ; 
ruptus, broken), appearing as if 
broken or cut off at the extremity : 
abruptly-acuminate, a., -ak-um f > 
in-dt (L. acumen, a point), having 
a broad extremity, as a leaf, from 
which a point arises : abruptly- 
pinnate, a., -pin'-ndt (L. pinna, 
a feather or fin), having two or 
more leaflets attached to each 


side of a central rib without a 
terminal or odd leaflet. 
abscess, n., db'ses(L. abscessus, an 
abscess from abs, from or away ; 
cessum, to depart), a gathering of 
humour or pus in some part of 
the body. 

abscission, n., ab>sish'un (L. ab, 
from ; scissum, to cut, scissus, 
cut), in surg. , a cutting off or re- 
moval of a part ; the premature 
ending of a malady ; in bot., a 
cutting off; the separation of seg- 
ments or frustules : abscissa, n. , 
ab-sis'-sa, a part of the diameter 
of a conic section the plurals are 
abscissas, db - sis'sdz, and abscissae, 

absinthe, n., ab'-sinih (L. absin- 
thium, Gr. absinthion, worm- 
wood), a strong alcoholic liqueur, 
highly flavoured with a tincture 
of wormwood : absinthian, a., 
db'smth'i'dn, of the nature of 
wormwood, or pert, to it: ab- 
sinthiated, a., impregnated with 
wormwood : absinthate, n., db' 
smth'-at, combination of absinthic 
acid with a base : absinthic, a., 
belonging to absinthium ; denot- 
ing an acid obtained from it : 
absinthin, n. , the bitter principle 
discovered in absinthium : absin- 
thium, n. , db sinth'4- urn, the name, 
in the pharmacopoeia, of the artem- 
is'ia absinthium : absinthism, 
n., the symptoms produced by 
the excessive use of the liqueur 

abstergent, a., n., db-sterf-ent (L. 
abstergens, wiping dry from abs, 
from or away ; tergeo, I rub off), 
cleansing; a medicine that cleanses 
from foulness or sores. 
abyssic, a., a-bis'-ik (Gr. abussos, 
without a bottom from a, with- 
out, not ; bussos, a bottom), appliec 
to the earths which form the 
bottoms of ancient seas. 
Acacia, n., ok a'-shi-d (L. acacia, 
a thorn), a genus of Oriental trees , 
the Egyptian thorn ; gum arabic, 
Ord. Leguminosae, Sub-ord. Mini' 


osse : Acacia tortilis, tdrttilis (L. 
tprtllis, twined, twisted) : A. Arab- 
ica, ar-ab'-ik'd (from Arabia) ; A. 
vera, ver'd (L. verus, real, genu- 
ine) ; A. gummifera, gum-if-Zr-a 
(L. gummi, gum ; fero, I bear) ; 
A. albida, dl'-bid'd (L. albidus, 
whitish), and other species, yield 
the gums or gummy substances 
known as gum Arabic, gum Sene- 
gal, East Indian gum, etc. : A. cate- 
chu, ktit'e-ku, or M^g-sAoo(saidto 
be from Japanese kate, a tree ; chu, 
juice), an Indian shrub, which 
furnishes a kind of catechu, is 
used for tanning, and a powerful 
astringent : A. formosus, f6rm- 
6z'-us (L. formosus, finely formed, 
handsome from forma, shape), 
a species supplying the Cuban 
timber called sabicu. 
Acalephse, n. plu., dttdl-ef'-Z (Gr. 
akalephe, a nettle), a name ap- 
plied to thejelly-fishes, sea-nettles, 
and other radiate animals, from 
their power of stinging : acaleph- 
oid, n., atf-dl-ef'-dyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), an animal resem- 
bling a jelly-fish or sea-nettle, etc. : 
acalephous, a., dk-dl-ef'-us, be- 
longing to a nettle ; belonging to 
the Acalephre. 

Acanthaceae, n. plu., dk'dnth>d'- 
se-e (Gr. akantha, a spine), the 
Acanthus family, an order of her- 
baceous plants, chiefly tropical : 
Acanthus, n., dk-dnth'us, a genus 
of plants ; bear's breech: Acanthus 
mollis, mol'-lis (L. mollis, pliant, 
supple), a species the leaves of 
which, with their sinuated lobes, 
are said to have given origin to the 
capital of the Corinthian pillar : 
acanthaceous, ok '-antii-a'- shus, 
also acanthine, a., armed with 
prickles : Acanthocephala,n. plu. , 
dk'dnth'.o-sef.dl-d (Gr. kephale, 
the head), a class of parasitic 
worms in which the head is armed 
with spines : Acanthometrina, n. 
plu., dk-dnth'.o>met''rin'a (Gr. 
metra, a womb), a family of pro- 
tozoa characterized by having rad- 


iated siliceous spines : Acanth- 
opterygii, n. plu., dKdnih'tip'tr- 

idj'i-i (Gr. pterugion, a winglet 
or fin from pterux, a wing), a 
group of bony fishes with the 
spinous rays in the front of the 
dorsal fin. 

Acarina, n. plu., ak'-ar>in'a (L. 
acarus, Gr. akari, a mite), a 
division of the Arachnida of 
which the cheese mite is the type : 
acaroid, a., ak'-ar-oyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling the ac- 
arus or louse : Acarus, n. , ak'ar-us 
(L.), a genus of insects which in- 
fest the skin : Acari, n. plu. , akf- 
ar-i; Acaridse, n. plu., ak-ar'-id-e, 
the systematic name for such in- 
sects as the mite, the tick, the 
water mite, etc. 

acaulis, a., ak-awl'is, acaulous, 
a., ak-awl'-us, and acauline, a., 
ak'dwl'-m (Gr. a, without; Gr. 
Jcaulos, L. caulis, a stalk), with- 
out a stalk ; steuiless : acaules- 
cent, a., aktdwl'Zs'ent, having a 
shortened stem; denoting the 
non-development of the growing 
axis : acaulosia, n. , ak'a/wl-dz'i-a, 
the non-development of the stem 
of a plant. 

accelerator, n., ak-sel'-er-at'-or (L. 
accelero, I hasten forward from 
ad, to ; celero, I hasten, celer, 
swift), a hastener forward ; that 
which causes to move faster : 
accelerator urinse, ur-ln'-e (L. 
accelerator, a hastener ; urina, 
urine, urince, of urine), the acceler- 
ator of urine ; a muscle of the 
penis whose action propels the 
urine ; when it does the same for 
the semen, it is called the ejacul- 
ator seminis. 

accessorius, n., ak-ses-sor'-i-us (L. 
accessus, a coming to, an approach 
from ad, to ; cessum, to go), 
denoting any muscular append- 
age which assists the action 
of a larger muscle ; denoting 
two nerves of the neck: ac- 
cessorius ad sacro-lumbalem, 
ad sdk'-ro lum-bdl'Zm (L. 

t AGO 

ad, to; sacro, sacred; lumbalem, 
accus., lumbalis, nom., pert, 
to the lumbus or loin), de- 
noting the muscle which acts as 
an assistant to the sacro-lumbalis, 
consisting of muscular slips which 
pass from the lower six to the 
upper six ribs, near their angles : 
accessorius obturatorii, oV>tur- 
at-or'-i'l (L. obturator, a stopper 
up of a cavity, obturatorius, 
pert, to the stopper up of 
a cavity, obturatorii, gen. 
from obt&ro, I stop up), the 
accessory or assistant of the ob- 
turator applied to a muscle or 
nerve which assists, or is an 
appendage to, the obturator : 
accessorius pedis, p%d f -is(L. pes, a 
foot, p%dis, of a foot), an accessory 
muscle of the foot, arising from 
the under surface of the os calcis 
by two heads, and assists to bring 
the line of traction of the flexor 
tendons into the centre of the 

accouchement, n., ak-kdosh'mong 
(F. accoucher, to deliver from 
coucher, to lay down ; L. ad, 
to; colloco, I lay in a place), 
lying in child-birth ; the act 
of parturition : accoucheur, n. , 
d&koosh-er' ', a surgeon who at- 
tends women in child-birth ; a 
man -midwife ; an obstetrician : 
accoucheuse, n., ak'-kobsli-dz' , a 
female who practises midwifery ; 
a midwife. 

accrescent, a., ak-lcres'^nt (L. ad, 
to ; crescens, growing), denoting 
plants continuing to grow and 
increase after flowering. 

accrete, a. , ak-lcreif (L. ad, to; cret- 
um, to grow), grown together : 
accretion, n. , aTc-kresh'-un, the act" 
of growing by increase ; growth 
by external addition to new 
matter ; in surg. , the conjunc- 
tion of parts naturally separate. 

accumbent, a., ak-kumb-ent (L. 
accumbens, lying on from ad, 
to or on ; cubo, I lie down), 
lying on ; supine ; prostrate ; in 

ACE 5 

bot. , applied to the embryo of the 
Crueiferse when the cotyledons lie 
on their edges ; applied to the 
folded radicle: accument, a., ok- 
um'-Znt, in bot., lying against 
another body. 

acephalia, n., cis'-Z-fdl'-i-a (Gr. a, 
without ; kephale, the head), the 
condition of a monster without a 
head: acephalous, a., ds-ef-al-us, 
not possessing a distinct head. 

Aceracese, n. plu., ds-er-d'sZ-e 
(L. deer, a maple tree), the 
maple family, including the syca- 
more and Scotch plane tree : Acer, 
n., ds'er, a genus of trees, for the 
most part beautiful and of con- 
siderable size : Acer saccharinum, 
sak'-kdr-in'-um (L. saccharon, 
sweet juice, sugar), the sugar 
maple of America: aceric, a., 
dS'er'-ik, denoting an acid found 
in its juice. 

acerose, a., ds'er-oz, and acerous, 
a., ds'-er-us (L. deer, sharp- 
pointed, dceris, gen.), having a 
sharp point; narrow and slender. 

acervuli, n. plu., ds-Zrv'-ul-i (L. 
dsc&rvus, a heap), in bot., small 
heaps or clusters. 

acetabulum, n., ds'-et-ab'-ul-um (L. 
acetdbulum, a sucker, a vinegar 
cruet, a cup-shaped vessel), the 
cup-shaped socket of the hip- 
joint ; the socket of the innom- 
inate bone which receives the 
head of the femur ; one of the cup- 
like sucking discs on the arms of 
the cuttle-fish: acetabula, n. plu. , 
as'-et'db'ul'd, the sockets of the 
hip-joints ; the suckers of the 
cuttle-fishes : acetabuliform, a., 
as'-et-ab-ul'-i-ftirm (L. forma, 
shape), in the form of a cup. 

acetic, a., as-Ztf-ik (L. acetum, 
vinegar), denoting an acid ; vine- 
gar: acetate, n., ds'-et-at, the 
combination of acetic acid with 
a salifiable base. 

acheilary, a., a-kil'-dr-i (Gr. a, 
without ; cheilos, a lip), in bot., 
having the labellum undeveloped, 
as in some orchids. 


achene, n^dk-en'-e', alsoachaenium, 
n., tik'Sn't'tim; achasnia, plu. 
(Gr. achanes, not gaping, not 
opening the mouth from a, not; 
chaino, I yawn or crack, as ripe 
fruit), a monospermal seed-vessel 
which does not open or crack, 
whose pericarp does not adhere to 
the seed: achenodium, n., dk^en- 
od'i-tim (the Latinised suffix, ode, 
signifying 'fulness of), a fruit 
composed of many achsenia. 

Achillis tendo, ak-il'.lis tZnd'-o 
(L. tendo, a tendon ; Achillis, of 
Achilles), the vulnerable tendon 
or part in the heel of Achilles ; 
the united strong tendon of 
the gastrocnemius and solseus 

achinienes, n., akf-i-men'ez (a word 
of unknown meaning, originally 
given by Dr. Patrick Browne), an 
elegant and free-flowering genus 
of plants, Ord. Gesneracese. 

achlamydeous, a., ak'-ldm'id'e'US 
(Gr. a, without ; chlamus, a loose 
warm cloak), in bot., having no 
floral envelope ; denoting naked 
flowers : Achlamydeaa, n. plu., 
dk'-ldm'id^e'e, the class of naked 
flowers having only the essential 
organs and no floral envelope. 

acholia, n., d'kol'i-d (Gr. a, with- 
out ; chole, bile), absence or defici- 
ency of bile, occurring in acute 
atrophy of the liver. 

Achras, n., dk'-rds (Gr. achras, a 
species of wild pear tree, its fruit), 
a genus of trees of the sapotacese 
or sapadilla family, some of which 
yield edible fruits. 

achroma, n., ak-rom'-a (Gr. a, 
without ; chroma, colour), a defici- 
ency in the colour of the skin : 
achromatic, a., d&rdm-dtfik, free 
from colour ; applied to lenses 
which show objects without any 
prismatic colours ; achromatism, 
n., dk-rftm'dt'izm, the state of 
optical instruments which show 
objects without prismatic colours : 

(Gr. opsis, sight), incapacity of 


distinguishing colours ; colour 

acicular, a., as-i&ul-ar (L. dcus, 
a needle, acicula, a little needle), 
in shape like a needle ; having 
sharp points like needles : acic- 
ulus, n., as'ik'-ul'us, in bot., a 
strong bristle ; a little spike. 

acinaciform, a., ds'in-as't-fdrm 
(L. acmdces, a short sword, a 
sabre ; forma, shape), shaped like 
a sabre or scimitar : acinacifolious, 
a., as'-in-as-i-fdl'-i'tis (L. folium, 
a leaf), having leaves shaped like a 
sabre or scimitar. 

acinus, n., ds'-m-us (L. actnus, a 
berry, a stone or seed in a berry, 
acini plu.), in bot., one of the 
pulpy drupels forming the fruit 
of the raspberry or bramble ; in 
surg., small granulations of the 
liver and similar bodies : acini- 
form, a., ds-m'-i-form (L. forma, 
shape), having the form or colour of 
a clustered fruit, as the raspberry. 

acne, n., dk'ne (Gr. a, intensive; 
kneo, I scrape or gnaw), an erup- 
tion of hard inflamed tubercles 
often appearing in youth, gener- 
ally on the neck, face, shoulders, 
and breast, sometimes lasting for 
years so called in allusion to 
their appearance : acne rosacea, 
rdZ'ds'e'd (L. rosdceus, of or 
pert, to roses), the ruddy uneven 
nose of some who indulge in the 
excessive use of alcoholic liquors. 

aconitum napellus, ak-on-lt'-um 
ndp'U f 'lus (Gr. akonilon, the 
poisonous herb monk's-hood, ak- 
ontion, a small dart from akon, 
a dart, as darts were dipt in its 
poisonous juice ; L. napellus, 
diminutive of ndpus, a turnip), 
the plant monk's-hood, friar's-cap, 
wolfs -bane, or helmet -flower, 
which contains a narcotic alkaloid, 
one of the most deadly poisons 
known : aconite, n., ak'-on-lt, the 
common name for aconitum napel- 
lus : aconitine, or aconitia, ak-on' 
U'in, or -isUi-d, the alkaloid of ac- 
onite forming its active principle. 

6 ACR 

Acontotheci, n. plu., tik-tin-ttitU 
%'Si (Gr. akon, unwilling; tithemi, 
I put or place), a family of intest- 
inal worms. 

Acorns, n., ak'dr-us (L. acorus, 
Gr. akoros and akoron, the 
sweet-scented flag), a genus of 
plants ; the sweet flag, which 
has an aromatic odour combined 
with a bitterish acrid taste : 
Acorus calamus, kdl'-dm-us (L. 
calamus, a reed), the systematic 
name of acorus : Acorese, n. 
plu., dk'dr'-e-e, the sweet flag 

acotyledon, n., d&8t-tt-Sd'-fa (Gr. 
a, without; kotuledon, a seed lobe), 
a plant whose embryos or germs 
have no seed lobes : acotyledon- 
ous, a., dk'-ftt'tt-ed'oii'us, having 
no seed lobes. 

Acrita, n., dk'rit-d (Gr. akr'dos, 
confused), the lowest division of 
the animal kingdom, in which 
the organs are supposed to be 
combined confusedly with the 
other parts ; synonym of proto- 

acrobrya, n. plu., dk'ro-bri'd (Gr. 
akros, at the highest point ; bruo, 
I bud forth or germinate), a plant 
in which the growth is formed by 
additions in an upward direction ; 
synonym of acrogens. 

acrocarpi, n.plu.,dk'-rd'kdrp'i (Gr. 
akros, at the highest point ; kar- 
pos, fruit), mosses having their 
fructification terminating the 
axis: acrocarpous, a., d&rfrkdrp'- 
us, having the fructification ter- 
minating the axis. 

acrogens, n. plu., dk'-ro-jZnz (Gr. 
akros, at the highest point ; 
gennao, I produce), those plants 
which increase by growth at the 
summits or growing points, and 
whose stems do not materially 
increase in bulk, as the stems of 
ferns : acrogenous, a., dk-rddf- 
%n-us, increasing by growth at 
the summit or growing point. 

acromium, n., ak-rom'-i-um, also 
acromion, uk-rom'-l-tin (Gr. 


alcros, high, extreme ; omos, a 
shoulder), the projecting or outer 
part or process of the scapula or 
shoulder : acromial, a., ak-rdm'- 
i>dl, of or belonging to the ac- 
romium : acromiales cutanei, 
dk-rom'-i-dl'-ez ku-tdn'-Z-i (L. 
acromiales, plu., pert, to the 
acromium ; cutanei, plu., belong- 
ing to the skin), designating 
those nerves which pass over the 
acromium, and are thence dis- 
tributed to the skin: acromio, 
dk'rom f 'i'd, indicating connection 
with the acromion : acromio- 
clavicular, kldv-iktul'dr (L. 
clavis, a key), denoting the art- 
iculation at the shoulder of the 
outer end of the clavicle in the 
acromion process of the scapula ; 
also denoting two ligaments of the 
scapula and clavicle, named re- 
spectively the ' superior ' and the 

acropetal, a., ak-rop'et-dl (Gr. 
akros, at the highest point ; L. 
peto, I seek), in bot., seeking the 
summit ; applied to the develop- 
ment of lateral shoots from an axis. 

acrospire, n.,dk f -ro- spir(Gr. akros, 
the summit ; speira, a spiral line), 
the first shoot or sprout at the 
end of a germinating seed : acro- 
spore, n., dh'-ro-spor (Gr. spora, 
seed), a spore borne on the summit 
of a thread. 

actea, n., dk-te'd, or actsea race- 
mosa, dk-te'd ras'em'dzf-a (Gr. 
aktaia, the elder tree ; L. race- 
mosus, full of clusters, clustering), 
in med. , the black snake-root, black 
cohosh or bugbane, a sedative 
used in the treatment of rheum- 
atism, Ord. Ranunculacese. 

actinenchyma, n . , akt'-ln Zng'kim - a 
(Gr. aklin, a ray ; engchuma, 
an infusion), in lot., cellular 
tissue having a starlike or stel- 
late form. 

actinism, n., tikt'-m'fam(Gr. aktin, 
a ray), the chemical action of 
sunlight: actinocarpous, a., dkt< 
m-d'kdrp'-us (Gr. karpos, fruit), 


having trophosperms radiated like 
the rays of fruit : actinograms, 
n. plu., act-in'- o- grams (Gr. 
gramma, a letter), the results 
recorded by the actinograph : 
actinograph, n., dkt-m-d-grdf 
(Gr. grapho, I write), an instru- 
ment for recording the quantity 
of actinism present : actinog- 
raphy, n., -rdf-t, a description 
of the rays of light : actinoid, n., 
akt'-ln-oyd (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), resembling a ray : actin- 
ology, n., akt r -in>ol'-6'jl (Gr. 
logos, discourse), the doctrine of 
the rays of light : actinomeres, n. 
plu., akt'in-omf-er-ez (Gr. meros, 
a part), in zool., the lobes which 
are mapped out on the surface of 
the body of the ctenophora by the 
ctenophores, or comb -like rows 
of cilia : Actinosoma, n., dkt'm- 
o-som'-d (Gr. soma, a body), the 
entire body of any actinozoon, 
whether simple as in the sea- 
anemones, or composed of several 
zooids as in most corals : Actino- 
zoon, n., dkt r >in>6'Zd'dn, Actino- 
zoa, n. plu., -zo'd (Gr. zoo n, an 
animal), the division of the 
Cselenterata, of which the sea- 
anemones are the type. 

aculeate, &.,ak-ul'-e'dt(L. aciileus, 
a prickle or thorn from dcus, a 
needle), having prickles or sharp 
points: aculeiform, a., aTc r 'Ul-e f 'l- 

form (L. forma, shape), formed 
like a prickle or thorn : aculeus, 
n., ak'ul'-e-us, a prickle forming 
a process of the bark only, as in 
the rose : aculei, plu., ak-uV-e-l. 

acuminate, a., ak-um'-m-dt (L. 
acumen, a point, acummis, of a 
point), in bot., drawn out into a 
long point ; tapering : acuminif- 
erous, a., ak-um'in-if-er'us (L. 
fero, I bear), in zool., having 
pointed tubercles : acuminulate, 
a., dk''Um'in f -ul'dt, having a very 
sharp taper-point. 

acupressure, n., ak-u-presh'-ur (L. 
ticus, a needle ; pressum, to 
press), the employment of needles 


instead of ligatures for arresting 
hsemorrhagefroma cut or wounded 
vessel, by pressing a needle 
through it and pinning it against 
an adjacent tissue or bone. 

acupuncture, n., ak'u-pungk'tur 
(L. acus, a needle ; punctum, to 
prick or puncture), a method of 
lessening pain in a diseased part, 
as in neuralgia, by running into 
it one or more long fine needles. 

acute, a., ak-ut' (L. acutus, sharp, 
pointed), in bot., terminating 
gradually in a sharp point. 

acyclic, a., a-sik'-tik (Gr. a, with- 
out ; Eng. cyclic), without a cycle 
or circle. 

ad deliquium, ad de-ttk'-wi-um 
(L. ad, to ; deliquium, a want or 
defect), to fainting a direction 
in medicine given for venesection. 

adduction, n., ad-dukf-shtin (L. 
ad, to ; ductus, led), the act 
of moving towards ; the move- 
ment of a limb towards the 
median or middle line of the 

adductor, n., ad-duct'- or (L. ad- 
ductor, that which draws to- 
wards from ad, to ; ductus, led), 
a muscle that brings one part 
to wards another : adductor brevis, 
brev'is (L. brZvis, short), the 
name of a muscle which brings 
one part towards another, so 
called from its shortness : 
adductor longus, l$ng'-gus (L. 
longus, long), a muscle which 
brings one part towards another, 
so called from its length : ad- 
ductor magnus, mag'-nus (L. 
magnus, great), a muscle, so 
called from its size, which brings 
the thigh inwards and upwards : 
adductor minimi digiti, min'-im-l 
didf-it-i (L. minimus, the least, 
minimi, of the least ; digitus, a 
finger, digiti, of a finger), the 
adductor of the little finger ; the 
deepest of the muscles of the little 
finger, which arises from the 
unciform process and the annul- 
ar ligament: adductor pollicis 

8 ADI 

manus, pSl'lis-is man'-us (L. 
pollex, the thumb, pollicis, of the 
thumb ; manus, the hand, manus, 
of the hand), the adductor of the 
thumb of the hand ; the muscle 
that draws inwards the thumb of 
the hand : adductor pollicis pedis, 
p&d'-fe (L. pes, a foot, pedis, of 
a foot), the adductor of the great 
toe or thumb of the foot ; a muscle 
arising from the bases of the 
second, third, and fourth meta- 
tarsal, which draws the great toe 

Adelarthrosomata, n. plu., d-del- 
ar-thro-sd'm'at-a (Gr. adelos, 
hidden ; arthros, a joint ; soma, 
a body), in zooL, an order of the 
Arachnida, comprising the harvest 
spiders, the book scorpions, etc. 

adelphous, a., ad-Zlf-us (Gr. adel- 
phos, a brother, a blood relation), 
related; having an affinity ; in com- 
position, a union of filaments. 

adesmy, n., a-des'-mi (Gr. a, with- 
out ; desmos, a bond or ligament), 
in bot., a break or division in an 
organ usually entire. 

adherent, a., ad-her'e'nt (L. ad- 
hwrens, cleaving or sticking to, 
adhcerentis, gen. from ad, to ; 
hcereo, I stick), in bot., denot- 
ing the union of parts that are 
normally separate, and in differ- 
ent verticils, as the calyx when 
united to the ovary : adhesion, 
n., dd-hezh'un (L. ad, to ; 
hcesum, to stick), a union of parts 
of any body by means of cement, 
glue, growth, etc. ; in surg. t the 
reunion of parts that have been 

adiantum, n., ad'-i-ant'tim (Gr. 
adianton, the herb maidenhair 
from adiantos, not moistened ; so 
called from the belief that they 
will remain dry, though plunged 
among water), maidenhair, an eleg- 
ant species of ferns with beauti- 
ful leaves: Adiantum capillus 
Veneris, kap-il'-lus vZn'-e'r-is (L. 
capillus, hair ; Venus, goddess of 
love, vZneris of Venus), systematic 


name for adiantum : Adiantum 
pedatum, ped-at'-urn (L. peddtus, 
furnished with feet from pes, a 
foot, pedis, of a foot), this species, 
and the preceding, furnish the 
syrup of Capillaire, particularly 
the latter. 

adipose, a., ad'ip-os (L. adiposus, 
fatty from adeps, fat), denoting 
the fatty tissue which exists more 
or less throughout the body : 
adipocere, n., dd'-ip-ti-ser' (L. 
cera, wax), a fatty substance of 
a whitish grey colour, into 
which animal flesh and fat is 
often changed when buried in 
moist ground ; grave wax : adip- 
osis, n., ad'-tp-oz'-is, great fatness 
or obesity of the human body : 
adiposus panniculus, ad'ip-dz'us 
pan-niJc'-ul-Us (L. panniculus, a 
small piece of cloth from pan- 
nus, a cloth or garment), the deep 
layer of fat in horses and other 
animals which raises the skin and 
gives the appearance of roundness 
and plumpness. 

adnate, a., cid'ndt (L. ad. to; 
natus, born), in bot., applied to an 
organ united to another through- 
out its length, as the stipules in 
the rose ; adhering to other parts. 

adnexed, a., ad-nekst' (L. ad, to; 
nexum, to bind or tie), in bot., 
reaching to the stem only, as in 
the gills of Agarics. 

ad pondus omnium, dd ptind'us 
dm'ni'um (L. ad, to ; pondus, 
weight ; omnis, all, omnium, of 
all), to the weight of the whole ; 
in med., indicating the pro- 
portion of an ingredient in a 

adpressed, a., ad-prest' (L. ad, to; 
pressum, to press or squeeze), in 
bot. , closely pressed to a surface, 
as some hairs ; pressed close to 
anything ; also spelt appressed. 

aduncate, a., dd-ungk'-at (L. ad- 
uncus, hooked), in bot., crooked; 
bent in the form of a hook. 

adventitious, a.,ad''V%n'tish'>us(L. 
ad t to ; ventum, to come), come 


to accidentally; in bot., applied 
to organs produced in abnormal 
positions, as in roots arising from 
aerial stems ; unnatural, acci- 
dental, or acquired. 

-ZEgle, n., eg'le(L. ^Egle, a Naiad, 
daughter of Jupiter from aigle, 
brightness), a genus of shrubs 
producing fragrant flowers, Ord. 
Aurantiaceee : JEgle marmelos, 
martmel-os (Portg. marmelo, a 
quince), a species which yields 
an excellent fruit, much used in 

aerophytes, n. plu., dr'-o-fitz (Gr. 
aer, air ; phuton, a plant), plants 
which grow entirely in the air. 

aeruginose, a., e-rdodf-m-oz (L. 
ceruginosus, copper- rusted from 
cerugo, copper rust), verdigris- 
green, or copper rust. 

JBsculus, n., Zs'kul-us (L. esca, 
food), a genus of large showy trees, 
Ord. Sapindacese: -ZEsculus hip- 
pocastanum, hip'-po-hast'-an-urn 
(Gr. hippos, a horse ; Gr. Icast- 
anon, L. castdnea, the chestnut- 
tree), the horse-chestnut, recom- 
mended as a febrifuge, seeds 
sometimes used for coffee : -53. 
ohioensis, 6 -hi' 8 -ens' is (after 
Ohio, a State of U. States, 
Amer.), the buck-eye, or American 
horse-chestnut, leaves and fruit 
said to be poisonous. 

aestival, a., %s>tlv'-al (L. cestiva, 
summer quarters), produced in 
summer; pert, to summer: aes- 
tivation, n., Zs'tiv-d'shun, the 
arrangement of the unexpanded 
leaves of the flower in the flower- 
bud which burst in summer; 
opposed to vernation, the arrange- 
ment of the leaves of the bud on 
a branch which burst in spring. 

afferent, a., df-fer-^nt (L. a/ero, 
I bring or convey a thing to a 
place from ad, to ; fero, I 
carry), in anat., conveying from 
the surface to the centre. 

affinity, n., af-fin'-it-i (L. affinis, 
bordering on, related to from 
ad y to ; Jinis, an end), relation j 




agreement ; in chem., combining 
power of bodies ; in bot. , relation 
in all essential organs. 

affusion, n., af-fuzh'un (L. ad, 
to ; fusum, to pour), the act of 
pouring a cold or warm liquid on 
the whole body or a part of it from 
some elevation, as a remedial 
measure in many diseases ; in 
chem., the pouring water on a 
substance to cleanse it. 

agamic, a., dg-dm'ik (Gr. a, with- 
out ; gamos, marriage), in zool., 
applied to all forms of reproduction 
in which the sexes are not directly 
concerned : agamous, a., dg'dm- 
&s, in bot. , applied to plants with- 
out visible organs of fructification; 
cryptogamous : agamo - genesis, 
n., dg'-dm-o-jen'eS'is (Gr. genesis, 
generation, origin), the power of 
non-sexual reproduction. 

Agaricacese, n. plu., ag-ar'-ik-af* 
se-e (Gr. agarikon, touchwood, 
a mushroom), the Ord. of plants 
now called Fungi : Agarics, n. 
plu., dg-dr'-tks, the edible mush- 
rooms of this country : Agaricus 
campestris, ag-dr'ik-'uskdm'pest' 
ris (L. agaricus, an agaric ; cam- 
pestris, pert, to a level field), 
the common mushroom of this 
country : other edible species are, 
A. deliciosus, de-lish'-i-oz'-us (L. 
deliciosus, delightful from de- 
licice, delight) ; A. Georgii, jorf- 
i'l (L. Georgius, George, Georgii, 
of George) ; A. procerus, pro-str'- 
us (L. procerus, high, tall), 
eaten abroad, though considered 
poisonous in Britain ; and A. 
prunulus, proon'-ul-us (L. dimin- 
utive ofprunum, a prune), said to 
be the finest species of mushroom: 
A.oreades, or>e'ad'ez(L.Oreades, 
mountain nymphs); A. coccineus, 
kdk-sin'8-tis (L. coccineus, of a 
scarlet colour from coccum, a 
scarlet colour); and A. personatus, 
per'son-dt'tis (L. personatus, pro- 
vided with a mask, counterfeited), 
species of Fungi which, being 
developed in a centrifugal man- 

ner, form fairy rings : A. clearing, 
ol'-e'dr'-i-us (L. oledrius, belong- 
ing to oil from oleum, oil) ; and 
A. Gardner!, gardener -I (Latinised 
proper name, Gardneri, of Gard- 
ner), these, and other species, 
give out a sort of phosphorescent 

agathophyllum aromaticum, agl 
dth-o-fil'-lum dr'-dm-at'-ik-tim (Gr. 
agathos, good, pleasant ; phutton, 
a leaf ; Gr. aromatikos, L. 
aromaticus, fragrant), the clove 
nutmeg of Madagascar ; an orna- 
mental tree. 

agave, n., ag'-av or ag'av-e (Gr. 
agauos, admirable), the American 
aloe, from the juice of which the 
alcoholic liquor pulque is made 
the systematic name is Agave 
Americana, ag'-av-e dm-^-ik-dn^ 
d: Agavese, n. plu., dg'tiv-e'e, one 
of Lindley's four tribes into which 
he divides the Amaryllidaceae 
or Amaryllis family. 

agglomerate, a., dg-glom^er-dt (L. 
agglomero, I heap up), heaped 
up ; crowded together. 

agrimony, n., dg'ri-md'n<i, also 
agrimonia, -mon'-i-d (L. agri- 
monia), a wild British plant of the 
rose tribe, having bitter astring- 
ent properties. 

aizoon, n., d^i-zo^dn (Gr. aei, al- 
ways ; zoon, a living creature), one 
of the fig marigold and ice plant 
family so called as the plant lives 
under almost any treatment. 

ala, n., dl'd ; alae, plu., al'-e (L. 
ala, a wing), in anat., a part 
projecting like a wing ; in bot., 
the lateral petals of a papilion- 
aceous flower ; the membranous 
appendages of fruit, as in the 
elm. or of the seed, as in pines : 
alary, a., di'-dr-i, also alate, a., 
dl'-dt, wing-like. 

alabastrus, n., al'a-bast'-rtis (L. 
alabaster, a rose-bud in its green 
state), in bot., the flower -bud 
while yet green and before it opens. 

Alangiaceae, n. plu., dl-anf-i-d'- 
se>e (from alangium, its name in 




Malabar), a family of tall orna- 
mental trees. 

alaria esculenta, al-ar'i-a fe#t& 
Vnt'ti, (L. alaria, on the wings, 
winged ; esculenta, edible, good to 
eat), the winged esculent ; one 
of the Algae or seaweed family. 

albescent, a., alb-Zs'-ent (L. albesco, 
I grow white), growing white. 

albicant, a., alb -ik- ant (L. albico, 
I am white), growing more 
whitish ; somewhat white. 

albino, n., alb-in'-d (L. albus, 
white), persons with white skin 
and hair, eyes of a pink colour, 
and extremely sensitive to the 
light, who yet may have other- 
wise perfect health : albinism, n. , 
alb'-in-ism, a condition of the hair 
wanting in any positive colour ; 
a pale condition in a plant. 

albumen, n., alb-um'-en (L. album- 
en, the white of an egg from 
albus, white), the nutritious 
farinaceous matter stored up with 
the embryo; the perisperm or 
endosperm ; one of the proxi- 
mate principles of animals and 
plants ; the white of the eyes ; 
white of an egg : albuminous, a., 
dlb-um'm-us, having the nature 
of albumen : albuminoid, a., alb- 
um'-m-oyd (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), resembling albumen : 
albuminose,n., -m-oz, the soluble 
portion of fibrin : albuminuria, 
n., alb f 'Um'in'Ur'i'a (albumen; 
Gr. our on, L. urlna, the urine), 
a diseased state in which albumen 
may be detected in the urine ; a 
term indicative of the presence of 
albumen in the urine. 

alburnum, n., al-bur'-ntim (L. 
alburnum from albus, white), 
the soft white substance between 
the inner bark and the true 
wood ; the outer young wood of a 
dicotyledonous stem. 

alcohol, n., al'-ko-Ul (Ar. al, the ; 
kohol, the impalpable powder of 
antimony with which the Orientals 
stain their eyelids, a pure extract), 
spirits of wine ; distilled spirits 

highly rectified ; a product of the 
vinous fermentation : absolute 
alcohol, in med., the pharmac- 
opceial name for 'rectified spirits'; 
alcoholata, al'kd-hol-dt'a, dis- 
tillation of alcohol with aromatic 
substances : alcoholate, n., -at, 
a salt containing alcohol : alco- 
holise, -Iz, to convert into alcohol : 
alcoholisation, n.,- fa- a' shun, the 
art of rectifying spirits of wine 
till it is absolutely pure : alcohol- 
ism, n., al'-kd'hol'izm, the symp- 
toms produced by over-indulgence 
in the use of alcoholic liquids. 

alder, n., awld f -er (AS. air, Ger. 
etter), the common name for the 
A Inus glutinosa. 

Aldrovanda vesiculosa, ald'rov- 
and f -a ves-ik'-ul-oz'-a (after the 
Italian botanist A Idrovandus ; 
veslcula, a little blister, a vesicle), 
a curious aquatic plant found in 
the south of Europe, distinguished 
by its whorled cellular leaves or 
floating bladders, Ord. Drosera- 

aleurites lactifera, al'-ur-it'-ez lakt- 
if'-er-a (Gr. aleurites, made of 
wheaten flour, in allusion to the 
farinaceous substance which covers 
the whole plant from aleuron, 
wheaten flour; L. lac, milk, lactis, 
of milk ; fero, I carry), the green 
lac tree of Ceylon : aleurites 
triloba, trl'-lob-a (Gr. treis, three ; 
lobos, a lobe), the candle-nut tree, 
yielding an oil by expression, is 
purgative, and used by artists, 
Ord. Euphorbeaceae. 

Alga, n., alg'-d (L. alga, seaweed), 
a herb or weed growing in the 
sea or on the shore: Algse, n. plu., 
dlj'e, the Seaweed family, an Ord. 
of plants growing both in salt and 
fresh water also called hydroph- 
yta: algology, n., al-gol'-d-jl (Gr. 
logos, discourse), a treatise on 
the algse, or seaweeds ; the study 
of seaweeds. 

algaroba-bean, al'gar-ob'a, also 
carob, kar'-ob (Ar. al, the ; yar- 
oba* a bean tree), the common 




name for the pod of the Ceratonia 
siliqua, supposed to have been the 
locusts of St. John Baptist, used 
occasionally for feeding horses; 
the name of the tree itself, found 
in S. of Europe and Palestine. 

Alhagi Maurorum, dl-hadf-l 
mawr-or'-urn (Ar. alhaji, the 
camel's thorn ; Mauri, the Moors 
or Mauritanians, Maurorum, of 
the Moors), the camel's thorn, 
from the leaves and branches of 
which a sweet secretion or kind 
of manna exudes in hot weather, 
Ord. Leguminosae, Sub-ord. 

alhenna, n., dl-hen'na, or henna, 
n., Mn'nd (Ar. al, the ; hinna, 
henna), the Arabic name for the 
Lawsonia inermes, a tropical 
shrub, the leaves of which are 
used by Asiatics for dyeing the 
nails, etc. of an orange hue. 

Alismaceae, n. plu., dl'zs-md'-se-e 
(Gr. alisma, the water plantain), 
the water plantain family, an 
Ord. of plants growing in flowing 
or stagnant water : Alismese, n. 
plu., dl-is'me-e, a Sub-ord. : 
Alisma, n., dl-is'-md, a genus: 
alismaceous, a., dl'-is-ma'shus, 
having an arrangement of parts 
as in the water plantain family. 

alkali, n., dl'-kdl-i, alkalies, plu. 
(Ar. al, the ; gall or kali, the 
glass wort, the plant from which 
soda was first obtained), the 
oxides of certain metals, as potas- 
sium, sodium, calcium ; a sub- 
stance which has properties the 
reverse of an acid, and which 
combines with an acid so as to 
neutralise it and form a salt ; an 
alkali changes vegetable dyes, 
renders oil miscible with water, 
and possesses greater solubility 
than an earth: alkalifiable, a., 
-fl f -d'bl (L. fio, I am made), 
convertible into an alkali : alkal- 
ine, a., alk'-al'ln, having the 
properties of an alkali : alkalin- 
uria, n., dlk'-dl-in-ur'.i'd (Gr. 
ouron, L. urma, urine), an 

alkaline condition of the urine : 
alkaloid, n., dlfcdl-dyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), a vegetable 
principle which acts chemically 
like an alkali, as quinia, strychnia, 
morphia: adj., resembling an 

Allamanda, n., dl^ldm-dnd-d (after 
Professor Allamand of Leyden), a 
handsome and free-fl oweringgenus 
of plants: Allamanda cathartica, 
kdth-drt f 4k'd (Gr. kathartikos, 
purifying or cleansing), a species, 
a native of Ceylon and Java, an 
infusion of whose leaves is both 
emetic and cathartic. 

allantoic, a., dl'-ldnt-o'-ik (Gr. 
alias, a sausage, allantos, of a 
sausage), of or pert, to the allan- 
tois: allantois, n., dl'-ldnt-o'-is, 
a membranous projection near 
the hinder part of the embryo, 
continuous with the intestinal 
cavity, the lower part within the 
embryo becoming the bladder, 
and the upper denominated the 
urachus; the allantoid mem- 
brane: allantoid, a., al'-lant-dyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), resem- 
bling a sausage ; denoting one of 
the membranes of the foetus com- 
municating with the bladder and 
containing the foetal urine : Allant- 
oidea, n. plu., dl'ldnt-dyd'-e-d, 
the group of vertebrata in which 
the foetus is furnished with an 
allantois, comprising the Reptiles, 
Birds, and Mammals : allantoin, 
n., al'dnt-6 f -m, a white crystal - 
lisable acid obtained from the 
allantoic liquid. 

alliaceous, a., til'-li-d'-shus (L. 
allium, garlic), pert, to the 
allium or garlic family; having 
a smell like garlic. 

allium, n., dl'-lt-um (L. allium, 
garlic), a genus of plants, com- 
prising the onion, leek, garlic, 
shallot, and chives, etc., Ord. 
Liliacese : Allium sativum, sat' 
iv'um (L. sativum, sown or 
planted), garlic, whose bulb is 
used as an irritant, stimulant, 


and diuretic: A. cepa, sep'd (L. 
ccepa, an onion), the onion : A. 
porrum, pdr'-um (L. porrum, a 
leek), the leek. 

allopathy, n., dlldp'-dth-i (Gr. 
allos, another ; pathos, suffering, 
disease), that mode of medical 
practice which consists in the use 
of drugs to produce in the body a 
condition opposite to the disease 
to be cured ; opposed to homoe- 
opathy, which professes to cure 
diseases by remedies which in a 
state of health would have pro- 
duced similar symptoms of dis- 

allotropism, n., al-lot'rtip-ism (Gr. 
allos, another ; trope, change, 
conversion), the existence of the 
same body in more than one usual 
condition, and with different 
physical characteristics, as sul- 
phur, which is bright-yellow and 
brittle in one state, and when 
melted at a high temperature it 
becomes dark and extremely ten- 
acious: allotropy, n., al-ltit'rdp-i, 
same sense as allotropism : allot- 
ropic, a., dl'-lot-rop'-ik, of, or 
pert. to. 

Alnus, n., dl'nus (L. alnus, the 
alder tree), a genus of timber trees 
thriving best on the banks of 
rivers and in moist situations : 
Alnus glutinosa, gldif-ifi-oz'-d (L. 
glutinosus, gluey, glutinous from 
gluten, glue), the common alder, 
the wood used for underground 
purposes, and its charcoal in the 
manufacture of gunpowder : A. 
incana, in^kdn'-d (L. incdnus, 
quite grey, hoary), the bark of 
the species used in Kamtschatka 
in the preparation of a kind of 
bread, Ord. Betulacese. 

Aloe, n. , dl-o'-e (Gr. and L. aloe, the 
aloe, bitterness), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Liliacese, various species of 
which produce the drug called 
aloes : aloes, dl'oz, the inspissated 
juice of various species of the 
aloe, chiefly the Aloe Socotrina 
(from Sdcdtra), and Aloe spic- 

> ALS 

ata, spik'dt'd (L. spicatus, fur- 
nished with spikes), usually called 
Socotrine aloes, sdk'dt-rin dl'-oz : 
A. dichotoma, dl-Mt'-dm-d (Gr. 
dicholomos, cut into halves from 
dicha, doubly ; temno, I cut), an 
arborescent species of S. Africa, 
30 feet high, called the Quiver 
tree : A. vulgaris, vulg-dr'-is (L. 
vulgaris, common, vulgar), from 
E. and W. Indies, and the source 
of the Barbadoes aloes : aloetic, 
a., dl'-o-et'-ik, also aloetical, a., 
-Ik'dl, applied to a medicine 
which contains a large proportion 
of aloes: AloinesB, dl-d-m'-e-e, for 
Aloe, the aloe tribe: aloe, a., al'6, 
applied to the trees, Ord. Lili- 
acese : aloin, n., dl-o'-in, the 
active principle of aloes. 

alopecia, n., dl'-o-pe'-shi-d (L. al- 
opecia, the fox sickness or mange 
from Gr. alopex, a fox), the 
fox evil or scurf; any kind of 

Aloysia, n., dl'-O'is'i-d (in honour 
of Maria Louisa, a queen of Spain), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Ver- 
benacese : Aloysia citriodora, sit'- 
ri'6d'6r''d (citrus, the citron tree), 
the sweet-scented verbena or 
lemon plant. 

Alpinia, n., dlp'$n' ; i'a(ateYAlpini, 
an Italian botanist), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Zingiberacese : 
Alpinia officinarum, df-fls'in- 
dr'-um (L. officlna, a workshop, 
a laboratory, officinarum, of 
workshops), a Chinese plant, the 
root stock of which constitutes 
the Galangal root of commerce, 
having the same properties as 
ginger : A. Galanga, gdl-dng'-gd 
(a supposed Indian name), sup- 
plies a similar rhizome. 

alsinaceous, a., dl'sm-d'shus (Gr. 
alsis, leaping, jumping, in refer- 
ence to the intervals between the 
petals ; or alsos, a grove or shady 
place, in reference to usual places 
of growth ; alslne, chickweed), 
denoting a polypetalous corolla, 
in which there are intervals be- 


tween the petals, as in chick- 
weed : Alsinese, n. plu., al-sm'8-e, 
a tribe of plants of which the 
Alsine media, al>sln'-e med'-i-a 
(L. medius, midst, middle), com- 
mon chickweed, is the type, Ord. 

Alsodese, n. plu., dl-sod^-e (Gr. 
alsodes, blooming, woody), a 
tribe of the Violaceae or violet 
family: Alsodeia, n., dl'so-di'd, a 
genus of plants, Ord. Violacese. 

Alstonia, n., dl-ston'-i-d (after Dr. 
Alston of Edinburgh), a tribe of 
plants of the Ord. Apocynaceae : 
Alstonia scholaris, skal-dr'-is (L. 
schola, a school), a species used 
in India as a tonic. 

Alstromeria, n., dV-strdm'er^d 
(after Alstromer of Sweden), a 
tribe of beautiful plants of the 
Ord. Amaryllidacese. 

alterative, n., dwlt'er-dt'iv (L. 
alter, another), a medicine which 
is supposed to alter the condition 
of the blood and tissues without 
producing any apparent evacua- 
tion : adj., having the power to 
change or alter without sensible 

alternate, a., dwU-Zrn'dt (L. alter o, 
I do everything by turns ; alt- 
ernus, one after another), in lot., 
arranged at different heights 
on the same axis, as leaves or 
branches which stand out singly 
and by turns with those of the 
opposite side : alternate genera- 
tion, a mode of reproduction 
among the lowest animal types, 
in which the young do not re- 
semble the parent, but the grand- 

alternipinnate, &.,alt'$rn'i-pin'ndt 
(L. alternus, one after another ; 
pinna, a wing), in bot., applied to 
leaflets or pinnse which are placed 
alternately on each side of the 
midrib, and not directly opposite 
to each other; also called * altern- 
ately pinnate.' 

Althsea, n., al-fhef-a (L. althcea, 
Gr. althaia, the wild mallow 

14 AMA 

said to be from Gr. althos, a cure, 
a remedy), a genus of tall free- 
flowering plants, so called from 
the medicinal qualities of some 
of the species, Ord. Malvaceae : 
Althsea officinalis, of-fts'-m-dl-ts 
(L. officinalis, officinal from 
officina, a workshop), the marsh 
mallow, employed medicinally as 
a demulcent and emollient : A. 
rosea, roz'-e-a (L. rftseus, pert, 
to roses from rosa, a rose), the 
hollyhock, which yields fibres 
and a blue dye. 

alumina, n., dl-dm'-in-d (L. alum- 
en, alum), the clay, loam, or 
other substance from which alum 
is obtained ; pure alumina is an 
oxide of the metal aluminum. 

alveolsB, n. plu., dl-ve'-ol-e (L. 
alveus, a hollow, a cavity from 
alvus, the belly, the abdomen), 
in bot., regular cavities on a 
surface, as in the receptacle of 
the sunflower: alveolate, a., di- 
ve' 81- at, deeply pitted so as to 
resemble a honey-comb ; having 
little hollows or cavities : alveoli, 
n. plu., dl-ve'ol-i, the sockets of 
the teeth: alveolar, &.,al-ve f '6l-ar, 
and alveolary, a., -dr-i, connected 
with the alveoli or sockets of the 
teeth: alveus, n., al f >ve-us, in 
anat., tubes or canals through 
which a fluid flows, generally the 
enlarged parts : alvine, a. , al'vin, 
belonging to the belly, stomach, 
and intestines ; the fseces or dung 
are termed alvine discharges. 

amadou, n., amf-ad-6 (F.), German 
tinder; a substance resembling 
doeskin leather, prepared from a 
dry leathery fungus found on old 
ash and other trees. 
amalgam, 11., am-al'gam (Gr. 
liama, together ; gameo,! marry), 
a compound formed of mercury 
with any other metal. 
Amanita muscaris, dm 'dn-iif-d 
mus'kdr'-is (Gr. amanltes, a 
mushroom ; muscarium, a fly-flap, 
the hairy parts of plants from 
musca, a fly), a species of fungus, 




used as a means of intoxication | 
in Kamtschatka, Ord. Fungi: 
amanitin, n., dm'dn-U'm, the 
poisonous principle of fungi. 

Amaranthacese, n. plu., am'ar- 
dntli-d'-se-e (Gr. amarantos, L. 
amaranthus, unlading from Gr. 
a, not ; maraino, I parch or 
wither in reference to the length 
of time some of them retain their 
bright colours), the Amaranth 
family, an Ord. of plants : Amar- 
anthus, n., dmf-dr'dnth'us, also 
Amaranth, n., dm'dr'dnth, a 
Sub-ord. of the Amaranth family, 
among which are, * prince's 
feather, ' ' my-love-lies-bleeding, ' 
and ' cockscomb : ' amaranth- 
aceous, a., dm'dr-dnth-d'shus, 
having an arrangement of parts 
as in the amaranth : amarantous, 
a., amf-ar-ant'-us, undecayirig ; 

Amaryllidacese, n. plu., am'ar>il' 
li-dd'se-e (Amaryllis, a country 
girl celebrated by Virgil, the 
Latin poet), the Amaryllis family, 
an Ord. of beautiful bulbousplants : 
AmaryllesB, n. -p\u.,dm'>dr'tt'le-e, 
one of the tribes of the Amaryllis 
family; the snowdrop, the daffo- 
dil, and many other ornamental 
garden plants belong to this 

amaurosis, n., am'-aJwr-o^-is (Gr. 
amaurosis, the act of rendering 
obscure from amour os, obscure), 
imperfect vision or total blind- 
ness, due to paralysis of the optic 
nerves, arising from various 
causes : amaurotic, a., drnf-a/wr- 
ot'*ik, pert, to the partial blind- 
ness or loss of sight produced by 
paralysis of the optic nerves. 

amblyopia, n., dm'bli-Sp'i-d (Gr. 
amblus, blunt, weak ; dps, the 
eye), impaired or weakened vision ; 
obscurity of vision ; incomplete 

ambrina anthelmintica, dm-brm'd 
dnth'el-mmt'ik'd (not ascer- 
tained : Gr. anti, against ; hel- 
miw, a tape-worm), a plant of 

the Ord. Chenopodiacere, which 
yields a volatile oil, used in the 
cure of worms. 

ambulacra, n. plu., am'-bul-d^ra, 
(L. ambulacrum, a walking- place 
from ambulo, I walk up and 
down), the perforated spaces in 
the crusts or plates of the 
Echinodermata, through which 
are protruded the feet, by means 
of which locomotion is effected 
by them : ambulacriform, a., 
-dk'ri'fftrm (L. forma, shape), 
having the form and appearance 
of ambulacra : ambulatory, a., 
at'-^T'l, formed for walking. 

ambustio, n., dm-bust'i-d (L. am- 
bustio, a burn), a burn or scald : 
ambustial, a., dm-bust'i-dl, pro- 
duced by a burn. 

amenorrhoea, n., dm'en'dr-re'd 
(Gr. a, without; men, a month; 
rheo, I flow), the absence or re- 
tention of the usual flow of the 

amentum, n., dm-ent'-um (L. 
amentum, a leathern thong), in 
bot. , a catkin or imperfect flower 
hanging somewhat like a rope or 
cat's tail, consisting of an axis 
covered with bracts in the form of 
scales: amenta, n. plu., dm-ent'd: 
AmentifersB, n. plu., am^nt-lf- 
er-e (L. fero, I bear), a family of 
fossil plants, bearing amenta : 
amentiferous, a., -er-us, denoting 
plants having amenta or catkins : 
amentaceous, a., dm'ent>d'shus, 
having amenta or catkins. 

ametabolic, a., d-met'-a-bdl'-ik (Gr. 
a, without; metabole, change), 
applied to insects not possessing 
wings when perfect, and which, 
therefore, do not pass through 
any marked metamorphosis. 

Amherstia, n., dm-hers'ti-d (in 
honour of the Countess Amherst), 
a tribe of plants of the Sub-ord. 
Csesalpineae, and Ord. Legum- 
inosse, plants profusely orna- 
mented with pendulous racemes 
of large vermilion - coloured 




ammi copticum, am'-mikopt'tk-tim 
(Gr. ammos, sand, in reference 
to the soil best adapted for its 
growth), a plant of the Ord. 
Umbelliferse ; the Ajowan, or 
Omam, a condiment of India. 

ammonia, n., dm-mon'-l-d (Am- 
mon, the Libyan Jupiter ; after 
the place where first found, and 
where his temple stood), a trans- 
parent, pungent gas ; the volatile 
alkali ; spirits of hartshorn, a 
substance used in medicine and 
the arts : ammoniac, a., dm -mon 
i- ok, also ammoniacal, -i'-dk-dl, 
and ammonic, a., dm-mMik, 
pert, to or possessing the pro- 
perties of ammonia; pungent: 
ammonium, n., am-mori'-i-urn, 
the supposed base of ammonia : 
sal-ammoniac, n., the common 
name for chloride of ammonium : 
ammoniacum, n., amf-mdn-i'-ak- 
um (because the tree was sup- 
posed to grow chiefly at Ammon), 
the pharmacopoeial name of a 
gum resin from the north-east of 
India, exuded from the 'Dorema 
ammoniacum,' also called am- 
moniac, or gum-ammoniac: am- 
monio with the terminal o 
which indicates the leading in- 
fluencing power in a compound. 

Ammophila, n., am-mof-il-a (Gr. 
ammos, sand; phileo, I love), a 
genus of grasses which constitute 
bent and marram of the British 
shores, Ord. Graminese : ammoph- 
ila arenaria, dr'-en-fir'-i-a (L. 
arendrius, belonging to sand 
from arena, sand), one of the 
bents of the sea-shore, the roots 
forming a network among the 
sand: ammophilous, a., am-mof- 
il-fts, loving sand. 

amnesia, n., dm-nezh't-d (Gr. a, 
without ; mnesis, memory), an 
affection of the brain in which 
the memory is impaired ; want 
of memory : amnesic, a. , dm- 
nez'ik, caused by loss of memory. 

amnion, n., dm'm-dn (Gr. amnion, 
a vessel for receiving the blood of 

animals in sacrifice), the internal 
membrane of the ovum which 
completely envelopes the embryo, 
and contains the water surround- 
ing the ' foetus in utero :' amnios, 
n., dmf'Ui'Os, in bot., the fluid 
or semi-fluid matter in the em- 
bryo-sac : amniota, n. plu., dm'- 
m-ot'd, the group of the vert- 
ebrata in which the foetus is 
furnished with an amnion, com- 
prising reptiles, birds, and mam- 
mals : amniotic, a., am'-ni-ot'-ik, 
pert, to the amnion : amnitis, n., 
am-nit'-is, inflammation of the 

amceba, n., am-eh'-a (Gr. amoibos, 
doing in turn, exchanging), in 
zool., a species of rhizopod, so 
called from the numerous changes 
of form which it undergoes : 
amoebiform, a., am-eh'-i-form (L. 

forma, shape), resembling an 
amceba in shape : amoeboid, a., 
am-eb f 'dyd (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), amoebiform ; resembling 
the movements of amoeba. 

amonmm, n., dm-om'-um (Gr. a, 
without ; momos, a blemish, 
having a supposed allusion to the 
qualities of some of the species 
as counterpoisons), a Sub-ord. of 
plants, Ord. Zingiberacese, the 
cardamoms of commerce, consti- 
tuting the seed of several species ; 
the Grains of Paradise are the 
seeds of one of the species: am- 
omeous, a., dm'dm'&'US, having 
an arrangement of parts as in the 
amoma : Amomum cardamom- 
urn, kdrd'-dm-6m'iim (Gr. kard- 
amomon, an aromatic . plant ; 
kardamon, a kind of cress), sup- 
plies the round cardamoms of 
Java, Siam, and Sumatra : A. 
aromaticum, dr'-dm-at'-ik-wri (L. 
aromaticus, aromatic, fragrant), 
the Bengal cardamom : A. max- 
imum, maks'im-tim (L. maximus, 
greatest), another Java species fur- 
nishing a kind of cardamom : A. 
melegueta, mel-fy'-u-et'-d, Grains 
of Paradise, or Melegueta pepper. 




amorphous, a., am-8rf'us (Gr. a, 
without ; morphe, form or shape), 
having no regular structure or 
definite form : amorphism, n., 
dm-drf'izm, a condition of shape- 
lessness : amorphophyte, n., -o-fit 
(Gr. phuton, a plant), a plant 
that has irregular or anomalous 

amorphozoa, n. plu. , am-orf'dz-d'a 
(Gr. a, without ; morplie, shape ; 
zoon, an animal), a name some- 
times used to designate .the 
sponges : amorphozous, a., dm'- 
drj-Gz'us, designating animals 
without determinate shape. 

ampelidese, n. plu*, dm'p$l-id'$-e 
(Gr. ampelos, the vine plant ; 
ampelis, a small vine, ampelidos, 
of a small vine), the vine family.; 
also called the 'Vitacese': am- 
pelopsis, n., dm'pel-ops'-is (Gr. 
opsis, appearance), certain plants 
which resemble the vine ; the 
Virginian creeper, cultivated as a 
climbing plant. 

amphiarthrosis, n. ,dm'f$-dr'thrdz' 
is (Gr. amphi, about, on .both 
sides ; arthrosis, articulation 
from arthron, a joint), a mixed 
articulation with obscure and 
limited motion, of \yhich we have 
examples in the limited motion of 
the vertebrae. 

amphibia, n. plu., dm-fib'i-d, also 
amphibians, n. plu., -l-dnz (Gr. 
amphi, both, on both sides ; bios, 
life), animals that can live either 
on land or in water, as frogs, 
newts, and the like, which have 
gills when young, but breathe air 
directly when in the adult state : 
amphibial, a., and amphibian, 
a., pert, to: amphibious, a., -i-us, 
able to live on land or in water. 

amphicaelous, a., dm'-fi-sel'-us (Gr. 
amphi, on both sides ; koilos, 
hollow), applied to vertebrae 
which are concave at both ends. 

amphicarpous, a., am'-fi-karp'-tis 
(Gr. amphi, both ; Jcarpos, fruit), 
possessing two kinds of fruit. 

amphidiscs, n. plu., dm'-fi- disks 

(Gr. amphi, on both sides ; 
diskos, L. discus, a quoit, a disc), 
the spicula which surround the 
gemmules of Spongilla, and re- 
semble two toothed wheels united 
by an axil. 

amphigamse, n. plu., dm-yig'-dm-e 
(Gr. amphi, on both sides ; 
gamos, marriage), a Sub-ord. of 
the ; 0rd. Hepaticse, plants whose 
fructification is unknow r n, and 
which may therefore be of both 
sexes: amphigameous, a., dm-fi- 
gdm'-e'US) designating plants 
whose fructification has not yet 
been ascertained. 

amphigastria, n. plu., dm'fi-gas' 
tri'd (Gr. amphi, both ; g aster, 
the belly), the scale-like stipules 
of mosses. 

amphigenous, a,, dm'fidf-en-us 
(Gr. amphi, both ; genndo, I 
produce), applied to Fungi when 
the hymenium is not restricted to 
any particular surface. 

amphioxus, n., am'-fi-Sks'-us (Gr. 
amphi, on both sides ; oxus, 
sharp, pointed), the lancelet, a 
little fish, which itself alone con- 
stitutes the Ord. Pharyngobran- 

amphipneusta, n. plu., dm<fip> 
nust'-d (Gr. amphi, on both 
sides ; pneusis, breathing, res- 
piration), applied to those am- 
phibians which retain their gills 
along with their lungs, through 
life : amphipneustous, a., -nust'- 
us, having both branchiae and 
lungs as organs of respiration. 

amphipoda, n. plu.,, am-fip'tid-d 
(Gr. amphi, on both sides; pous, 
a foot, podos, of a foot), an Ord. 
of Crustaceae which have feet on 
both sides, directed partly for- 
wards and partly backwards, as 
feet for both walking and swim- 
ming i amphipodous, a., dm- 

fip'-od-us, having feet on both 

amphisarca, n., dm'-fi-sdrlc'-d^T. 
amphi, on both sides ; sarx, 
flesh, sarkos t of flesh), an inde- 




hiscent multilocular fruit with a 
hard exterior, and pulp round the 
seeds in the interior, as in the 
Baobab : amphisarcous, a., -mrV- 
us, fleshy or pulpy on all sides. 

amphistoma, n., am-fis'-tdm-a 
(Gr. amphi, on both sides; stoma, 
a mouth, stomata, mouths), a 
genus of the Entozoa having a 
cup at each extremity by which 
they adhere to the intestines : 
amphistomous, a., drn'/is'-tom-us, 
belonging to the amphistoma : 
amphistomum conicum, Ic6n'-ik> 
um (Gr. konikos, belonging to 
a cone from konos, a cone), a 
parasite met with in the stomachs 
of the ox and sheep : A. crum- 
eniferum, krdm'Zn-if'er-'iim (L. 
crtimena, a bag ; fero, I carry), a 
parasite of the ox: A. explanatum, 
eks'-plan-at'-um (L. explandtum, 
to flatten, to spread out), a para- 
site of the ox found in the liver : 
A. truncatum, trungk-dt'um (L. 
truncdtus, cut or lopped off), a 
parasite of the cat. 

amphitropal, a,, amfitfrtip-al 
(Gr. amphi, on both sides ; trope, 
a turn, a change), in bot., having 
an ovule or embryo curved on 
itself, with the hilum in the 

amphora, n., am'-for-a (L. and 
Gr. ), an ancient wine vessel of an 
oblong shape, with a handle on 
each side of the neck : amphoric, 
a., am-fdr'ik, belonging to or 
shaped like an amphora: am- 
phoric resonance, the peculiar 
clang which may accompany any 
of the ordinary auscultatory phen- 
omena when resonating within 
a large cavity. 

amplexicaul, a., am-pUks'-ik-awl 
(L. amplector, I embrace ; caulis, 
the stem), in bot., embracing the 
stem over a large part of its cir- 
cumference, as the base of a leaf. 

ampulla, n., am-pobl'-la (L. am- 
pulla, a bottle for liquids, narrow 
at the neck, and bulging out in 
the middle), in anat., the trum- 

pet - mouthed portions of the 
semicircular canals of the internal 
ear ; any part having the same 
shape; in ch em., a bellied vessel; in 
bot., a hollow leaf:ampullaceous, 
a., amf-pool'ld'-shus, like a bellied 
bottle or inflated bladder. 

Amygdalese, n. plu., am'-ig-dal'-e-e, 
also called ' Prunese ' (Gr. amug- 
dale, also amugddlos, the almond 
tree, the nut), a Sub-ord. of the 
Rosaceae, chiefly remarkable from 
the presence of hydrocyanic acid 
in their kernels, leaves, and 
flowers : amygdalae, n. plu., am- 
ig'-dal-e, the tonsils, the rounded 
lobes at the sides of the vallecula 
on the under surface of the cere- 
bellum : amygdalate, n. plu., 
am-ig'-dal-dt, made of almonds : 
amygdalic, a., am'ty'dal'ik, of 
or belonging to the almond ; ob- 
tained from amygdalin : amyg- 
dalin, n., a white crystalline 
substance obtained from bitter 
almonds ; the peculiar action of 
Synaptase on amygdalin, produces 
hydrocyanic acid also found 
in bitter almonds : amygdaloid, 
a., am-ig'-dal-oyd, and amygdal- 
oidal, a. (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), almond-shaped: Amyg- 
dalus, n., am-ig'-dal-tis, the 
almond tree, the A. dulcis, dul'> 
s$s (L. dulcis, sweet), yielding 
the sweet almond ; and the A. 
amara, am-dr'a (L. amdrus, 
bitter), the bitter almond. 

amylaceous, a., am'-il-af-shtis (Gr. 
amulon, L. amylum, starch), 
pert, to or resembling starch : 
amylene, n. , am'-il-en, a substance 
obtained from fusel oil distilled 
with chloride of zinc : amylic, 
a., am-il'-ik, obtained from starch : 
amyloid, &.,am'-ll'dyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling starch : 
amyl, n., am'il, the hypothetical 
basis of a series of compounds, 
comprising ' fusel oil ' : amyl al- 
cohol, an oily, colourless liquid, 
with a peculiar odour, and burn- 
ing, acrid taste ; fusel oil. 

AMY 19 

Amyridaceae, n. plu., arti'ir-ld-af- 
&-e (Gr. a, intensive ; murrhis, 
a sweet-scented plant, murrkidos, 
of a sweet-scented plant), an Ord. 
of plants, now referred to Ord. Bur- 
seracese, which see ; the balsam 
trees : Amyridesa, n. plu. , am'tr- 
wf-e-e, a Sub-ord. : Amyris, n., 
am'ir-is, a genus : Amyris 
toxifera, ttiks-if'er'd (L. toxic- 
urn, poison ; fero, I bear), a 
species said to be poisonous. 

anabasis, n., an-ab'-as-is (Gr. 
anabasis, an ascent,, progress 
from ana, up ; baino> 1 go, I 
ascend), in med., the increase of 
a disease or paroxysm ; Anabasis 
ammodendron, am'-mo-den'-dron 
(Gr. ammos, sand ; dendron, a 
tree), a peculiar leafless shrub of 

Anacardiaceae, n. plu., an'-d-Tcard- 
i-af'i&'Q (Gr. ana, similar to ; 
kardia, the heart so called from 
the form of the nuts of some of 
them), an Ord. of trees and 
shrubs; the cashew nut family, 
some of which bear edible fruits, 
as the mango,, and many of them 
furnish gum resins in much re- 
quest for varnishes and dyes : 
Anacarddum, n., an'-a-hard'-i-urn, 
a genus of plants : Anacard'ium 
occidentale, dk'si-d8nt'dl''& (L. 
ocddentalis, western), the tree 
which furnishes the cashew nut, 
remarkable for its large succulent 
peduncle supporting the fruit or 
nut: anacardiaceous, a., an'a- 
kdrd-i-af'Slius, having an arrange- 
ment of fruits as in the anacard- 

Anacharis, n., an-alc'-ar-is (Gr. 
ana, without; charis, grace, 
beauty), an aquatic plant, Ord. 
Hydrocharidacese, which exhibits 
under the microscope the rotation 
of protoplasm in its cells. 

Anacyclus, n., an'-a-silc'-lus (Gr. 
anthos, a flower; kuldos, a circle 
alluding to the rows of ovaries 
placed around the disc), a genus 
of hardy annuals, of the Sub-ord. 


Corymbiferse, Ord. Composite : 
Anacyclus pyrethrum, plr-eth'- 
rum (Gr. pur, fire), the pellitory 
of Spain, an irritant, and pro- 
moting the secretion of saliva, 
properties depending on the 
presence of a volatile oil. 

Anagallis, n.,an'a-gal'lis (Gr. and 
L. anagallis, the plant pimpernel 
from ana, up, through ; gala, 
milk from its property of coag- 
ulating milk), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Primulacese, flowering plants 
whose flowers are meteoric that 
is, open always only during good 
weather and at particular hours, 
so as to act as hour glasses and 
weather glasses: anagallis arv- 
ensis, arv>ens'is (L. arvensis, 
field inhabiting from arvum, a 
field),, the plant called 'the 
poor man's weather-glass,' or 
* shepherd's weather-glass,' whose 
flowers open about 8 A.M., but 
only in fine weather ; the scarlet 

anaemia, n., an-emf-i-d (Gr. a, 
without; haima, blood), diminu- 
tion in the amount of the blood ; 
the condition arising from such 
diminution : anaemic, a., dn>em'' 
lie, without blood. 

anaesthesia, n., an'-es-ihez'-i-a 
(Gr. anaisthesia, the want or 
loss of feeling from ana, with- 
out; aistkesis, sensation),, the loss 
of feeling or sensation induced 
by the inhalation of an etherial 
vapour; or due to organic or 
functional disease of the nervous 
system ; also, in same sense, an- 
aesthetics, n. plu., an'-es-thU'.iks: 
the agents which take away 
sensibility from a part, or from 
the whole system, by acting on 
the nervous system, are numerous, 
but those usually employed are 
such as, opium, ether, chloroform, 
aconite or aconitia, and bella- 

anallantoidea, n. plu., tin'dl-la.nt' 
oyd'-e-a (Gr. an, without ; and 
allantoidea, which sec), the gvoi^> 




of vertebrata in which the embryo 
is not furnished with an allantois. 
analogue, n., dn f -dl-6g{. analogue 
from Gr. ana, similar to ; logos, 
ratio, proportion), an object that 
has a resemblance to, or corre- 
spondence with, another object; a 
part or organ in one animal which 
has the same function as another 
part or organ in a different 
animal : analogue regards simil- 
arity of function, noniologue, 
identity of parts: analogy, n., 
dn-al'd-ji, resemblance between 
one thing and another in some 
points; in anat., the relation 
of parts of a different nature, 
which, however, perform similar 
functions: analogous, a., an-al'- 
dg-us, applied to parts of a differ- 
ent nature which perform the 
same or similar functions ; in bot. , 
applied to a plant'Which strikingly 
resembles one of another genus so 
as to represent it. 
Anamirta cocculus, an'-am-irt'-a 
kok f -ul'US (not ascertained : coccus, 
a berry; cocculus, a little berry), a 
plant of the Ord. Menispermacese, 
whose fruit, called Cocculus In- 
dicus, is extremely bitter ; its 
poisonous seeds were formerly 
employed to give bitterness to 
beer and porter. 

anamniota, n. plu., an-am'ni-ot'a 
(Gr. an, without ; amnion, a 
vessel for receiving the blood of 
an animal in sacrifice; see'amnos'), 
the group of vertebrata in which 
the embryo is destitute of an 

Ananassa sativa, an'-an-as'-sa sat- 
iv'-a (said to be from nanas, the 
Guiana name ; L. sativus, that 
is sown or planted), a species of 
the Ord. of trees Bromeliaceae, 
producing the well-known Ananas, 
or Pine-apples. 

anantherum, n., tin'an-ther'-um 

(Gr. ana, without; antheros, 

flowery, blooming), filaments 

with anthers. 

anarthropoda, n. plu. , an'-ftr-tlurop'- 

tid-d (Gr. an, without; arthros, 
a joint ; pous, a foot, podos, of a 
foot), that division of annulose 
animals in which there are no 
articulated appendages. 

anasarca, n., an'ci-sdrk'a (Gr. ana, 
through ; sarx, flesh, sarkos, of 
flesh), watery effusion into the 
cellular tissue; dropsy of the 
exterior of the body. 

anastatica, n., an'-as-tat'-ik-a (Gr. 
anastatikos, pert, to a recovery 
from anastasis, a rising up, a re- 
covery), the rose of Jericho, Ord. 
Crucilerse, the stalks of which, 
however curled and dry, will re- 
turn to their original form when 
immersed in water. 

anastomose, v., an-as'-tftm-oz (Gr. 
anastomosis, the formation of a 
mouth or aperture from ana, 
through; stoma, a mouth), to 
unite one vessel to another, as 
the mouth of a vein to that of 
another ; to inosculate : anas- 
tomosis, n., an-as'-tom-oz'-is, the 
union of the branch of a vessel 
with another from the same trunk, 
or from other trunks ; in bot., 
union of vessels ; union of the 
final ramifications of the veins of 
a leaf: anastomotic, a., tin-its' 
t8m-6t f -ik, pert, to anastomosis. 

anastomotica brachialis, an'-a- 
stom-ot'-ik'a &r<X&4tf*o#& (Gr. ana, 
by or through ; stoma, a mouth ; 
L. brachialis, belonging to the 
arm from brachium, the arm), 
in anat., one of the branches of 
the brachial artery which arises 
just above the elbow, and runs 
directly inwards, piercing the 
internal intermuscular septum, 
and supplying the parts about the 
elbow : anastomotica magna, 
mag'-na (L. magnus, great), one 
of the arteries arising from the 
femoral artery in Hunter's Canal : 
anastomotic, a., see 'anastomose.' 

anatropal, a., an-at'rdp-al, also 
anatropous, a., an-at'-rop-us (Gr. 
anatropeus, a subverter from 
ana, up or through; trepo, I turn), 




in bot., applied to an inverted 
ovule, the hilum and micropyle 
being near each other, and the 
chalaza at the opposite end ; 
having the embryo inverted, so 
that its base corresponds to the 
apex of the seed. 

anbury, n., also anberry, n., an'- 
b&r-ri (AS. ampre or ompre, a 
crooked swelling vein ; Old Eng. 
amper, an inflamed tumour), under 
these names, and the name angle- 
berry, are included, in veterinary 
language, both warts and mollusc- 
ous tumours ; in bot., a warty con- 
dition or swelling on the roots of 
such plants as turnips, cabbage,, 
etc., caused by insects. 

anceps, a., cin'seps (L. anceps, 
that has two heads, ancipitis, of 
two heads from an for ambi, 
around, round about; caput, the 
head), two-edged ; having the 
sides sharp like a two-edged 
sword ; see ' ancipital ' in Diet. 

Anchusa, n., ang-kwz'd (Gr. ang- 
chousa, the plant alkanet from 
en, in or on; cheo or ckeuo, I 
pour, I diffuse), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Boraginacese : Anchusa 
tinctoria, tmk-tor'-i-d (L. tinc- 
torius, of or belonging to dyeing 
from tingo, I dye), a plant 
which supplies the alkanet root, 
used as a reddish -brown dye; 
anciently used for staining the 
skin: anchusin, n., ang-kuz'-in, 
the red-coloured principle. 

anchylosis, n., ang'-ld-loz'-ls (Gr. 
angkulos, curved, crooked), the 
immovable state of a joint re- 
sulting from disease, and either 
osseous or fibrous in character; 
anchylosed, &. t dng'kt-ldzd, fixed: 
anchylotic, a., ang'-ki-l8t'-ik, pert, 

Anchylostomum, n., ang'-ki-los' 
t6m-um (Gr. angkulos, curved, 
crooked; stoma, a mouth), a 
genus of parasitic worms which 
infests animal bodies, one of the 
fywK'Jes of which, the anchylos- 
teinum tiuodenalis, afro- den- al'-is 

(L. duodenl, twelve each), infects 
the duodenum of man : anchy- 
lostoma, n. plu. 

anconeus, n., ang-kon'-e-us (L. 
ancon, Gr. angkon, the elbow, 
the curvature of the arm), a 
triangular muscle situated over 
the elbow, which assists in ex- 
tending the forearm: adj., pert, 
to the elbow : anconeous, a., ting- 
kon'-e-us, pert. to. 

Andira, n., and-lr'-a (a Brazilian- 
name), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Papilion- 
acese: Andira inermes, m-erm'ez 
(L. inermes, unarmed, without 
weapons), the cabbage tree of the 
West Indies, which acts as a 
purgative and anthelmintic. 

Andreaea,n., an'-dre-e'-a (in honour 
of Andrew, a German professor), 
a genus differing from all other 
mosses in having a capsule which 
splits into four valves, cohering 
at their ends by means of the per- 
sistent lid : Andrsea, n. , an-dre'a, 
Andrasae, plu., dn-dre f -e, also An- 
drseaceaB, n. plu., an'-dre-a'-se-e, a 
Sub-ord. of plants of the Ord. Musci 
or Bryacese, often found in the 
bleakest places near the limits of 
perpetual snow, and are usually 
termed split mosses because the 
spore cases open by valves with- 
out elaters. 

andrcecium, m.,dn-dre r -shi'Um (Gr. 
aner, a man, andros, of a man ; 
oikos, a house), in bot., the male 
organs of the flower ; the stamens 
taken collectively. 

andrographis, n., Gbn-drog'-raf-ls 
(Gr. aner, a man, andros, of a 
man ; grapho, I write), a plant of 
the Ord. Acanthacese : androg- 
raphis paniculata, pan-ik'-ul-at'-a 
(L. panicula, a tuft, a panicle in 
plants), a plant of India, employed 
as a pure bitter tonic by the name 
of Kariyat or Creyat. 

androgynal, a..,an-drddf-m-al, also 
androgynous, a., an-drtidfin-us 
(Gr. aner, a man, andros, of a 
man; gune } a woman), in bot., 




having male and female flowers 
combined on the same peduncle, 
as in some species of Carex ; same 
as 'Hermaphrodite,' and denoting 
that the two sexes are united in 
the same individual: androgyn- 
ism, n.,dn-drddf-m-izm, a change 
from a dioecious to a monoecious 

Andromeda, n., an-dro'm'Zd'a (L. 
Andromeda, Gr. Andrdmede, a 
virgin whom, when bound to a 
rock, Perseus rescued and mar- 
ried), a genus of plants having 
scaly buds and loculicidal cap- 
sules, very ornamental plants, 
Ord. Ericaceae. 

androphore, n., an-drdf'dr-e, also 
androphorum, n., dn-drdf'or-tim 
(Gr. aner, a man, andros, of a 
man ; phoreo, I bear), a stalk 
supporting the stamens, often 
formed by a union of the fila- 
ments : androphores, plu., -dr-ez, 
the medusiform gonophores of the 
Hydrozoa which carry the sperm- 
atozoa, and differ in form from 
those in which the ova are de- 

Andropogon, n. , dn'-dro-pog'-dn^?. 
aner, a man, andros, of a man ; 
pogon, a beard), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Graminese, having little tufts 
of hairs on the flowers resembling 
a man's beard, from some species 
of which a fragrant oil is procured. 

Androsace, n., dn-drds'ds-e (Gr. 
androsakes, among the ancients a 
plant which has not been identi- 
fied S aid to be from aner, a man, 
andros, of a man ; sakos, a buck- 
ler), a genus of plants, the round 
hollow leaf resembling an ancient 
buckler, Ord. Primulaceae. 

androspores, n. plu., an'-dro-sporz 
(Gr. aner, a man, andros, of a man ; 
spora, a seed), the developed male 
organs in certain of the Algsfc ; 
swarm spores. 

Aneimia, n., an-i'mi>a (Gr. anei- 
mon, naked), an ornamental genus 
of ferns having a naked inflores- 
cence, Ord. Filices. 

Anemoneaa, n. plu., 
(Gr. anemos, the wind), a sub- 
order of the Ord. Ranunculaceee : 
Anemone, n.,dn-$m'dn-e, a genus 
of plants, many of the species of 
which inhabit elevated windy 
places : anemone, n., dn-Zm'-dn-e, 
the wind flower: anemophilous, 
a., dnt&m-df'il-us (Gr. philos, 
loved), applied to plants fertilized 
by the agency of wind: Anemone 
nemorosa, nemf-or-oz^d (L. ne~ 
morosus, pert, to a grove from 
nVmus, a grove), a plant found in 
woods in Britain. 

aner, an'er, andro-, an'dro- (Gr. 
aner, a man, andros, of a man), 
in bot., terms in composition 
denoting 'male' or 'stamen.' 

Anethum, n., dn-eth'um (L. aneth- 
um, Gr. anethon, dill), a genus 
of plants, the seeds of which are 
used as flavouring agents by cooks 
and confectioners, and in med. as 
a carminative: A. graveolens, 
grdv'e-ol-enz (L. graveolens, 
strong - smelling), common gar- 
den dill ; see ' fennel ' in Diet. 

aneurism, n., dn'-ur-izm (Gr. 
aneurusma, the dilatation of an 
artery from ana, throughout ; 
eurus, broad), a tumour filled 
with blood, which communicates 
directly or indirectly with 
an artery, and arises from a 
rupture, a wound, an ulcera- 
tion, or from the simple dilata- 
tion of an artery ; also applied 
to enlargement or dilatation 
of the heart: aneurismal, a., 
dn'iir 'formal, pert. to. 

NOTE. An aneurism is an abnormal 
dilatation in the course of a vessel 
due to degeneration of its coats 
(true aneurism) ; or to the rupture 
of one or more of these coats (false 
aneurism) ; or from excessive anas- 
tomosis (aneurism by anastomosis). 
When applied to tte heart, aneurism 
signifies a circumscribed pouch 
caused by the breaking down of a 
limited portion of the heart- wall. 

anfractuose, a., dn-frakt'u-oz (L. . 
anfractus, a tortuous or circuitous 

ANG 23 

route), in bot. , wavy or sinuous, 
as the anthers of gourds and 

Angelica, n. , an -jel^k-d(L. angelus, 
an angel, from its supposed angelic 
virtues), plants whose roots have 
a fragrant, agreeable smell, and 
bitterish, pungent taste, Ord. 

angienchyma, n., dn'ji-eng'kim-a 
(Gr. anggeion, a vessel ; engchu- 
ma, an infusion from engchuo, 
I pour in), in bot., vascular tissue 
in general : angiocarpous, a. , an'- 
ji-o-karp'-us (Gr. karpos, fruit), 
applied to lichens having fructi- 
fication in cavities of the thallus, 
and opening by a pore; hav- 
ing seed in a vessel : angio- 
spermous, a., dn'ji-d-sperm'us 
(Gr. sperma, seed), having seeds 
contained in a seed vessel : 
angiosperms, n. plu., dn'jt-o- 
sperms (Gr. sperma, seed), the 
great mass of flowering plants, 
so called because the seeds 
are usually enclosed in a seed 
vessel or pericarp : angiospor- 
ous, a., an'-ji-ds'-pdr-us (Gr. 
spora, seed), applied to crypto- 
gamic plants having spores or 
seeds contained in a theca or 
sporangium, that is, in a spore 
case or seed vessel : Angiosporae, 
n. plu., dn'ji-ds'pdr-e (Gr. spora, 
seed), a sub-class nearly corre- 
sponding with the sub - class 
Acotyledons of the sub-kingdom 
Cryptogamous plants, having a 
certain amount of vascular tissue, 
and sporangia or thecse containing 

angina, n., an-jin'-a (L. angina, 
quinsy from ango, I choke or 
strangle), a general term for dis- 
eases in which a sense of suffoca- 
tion is a prominent symptom : 
anginal, a., an-jin'-al, alsoangin- 
ose, a., dn'jin-dz, pert, to angina: 
angina pectoris, p&kt''tir*te (L. 
pectus, the breast, pectoris, of 
the breast), a distressing malady, 
in which a most excruciating pain 


is felt in the chest, with a feeling 
of strangulation, and a terrible 
sense of impending death. 

angularis faciei, dng'ul-dr''isfas'- 
i-$i (L. angularis, angular from 
angulus, an angle ; fades, the 
face), the angular artery of the 
face, which forms the termination 
of the trunk of the facial, and 
ascends to the inner angle of the 

angustiseptse, n. plu,, ang'gust- 
i-s&pi'-e (L. angustus, narrow; 
septum, partition), those fruits or 
seed vessels which have their 
partition in their narrow diameter : 
angustiseptate, a., dng'-gust'i* 
sZpt'-at, having the partition of 
the fruit or seed vessel very 

anhydride, n., an-hld'-rid (Gr. an., 
not, without; hudor, water), in 
chem., a body destitute of water: 
anhydrous, a., an-hld'-rus, con- 
taining no water. 

Anigosanthus, n., dn'i-goz-dnth' 
us (Gr. not ascertained ; anthos, 
a flower), a genus of plants 
so called from their long con- 
spicuous scapes upon which the 
flowers are raised, Ord. Hsemo- 

anise, n., an'is (L. anlsum, Gr. 
anizon, anise), an annual plant 
whose seeds have an aromatic 
smell, and pleasant, warm taste, 
furnishing an aromatic oil : anise - 
seed or aniseed, the seed of the 
plant ; the Pimpinella anisum. 

anisos, an-is'd's (Gr. anisos, un- 
equal), in composition, denoting 
'unequal:' anisomerous, a., an'- 
t'Sdrn'Sr-us (Gr. meros, a part), 

anisostemonous, a., tints' ds* tern'- 
on- us (Gr. anisos, unequal; sterna, 
the stamen of a plant, the warp of 
a web), having stamens neither 
equal in number to the floral 
envelopes, nor a multiple of them : 
anisostemopetalous, a., an-is-d- 
sffimf'd-pet'dl'us (Gr. sterna, a 
stamen; petalon, a petal), naving 


stamens unequal in number to the 
divisions of the corolla: anisos- 
tomous, a., an'-is-os'tom-us (Gr. 
sfoma, a mouth), having unequal 
divisions of a calyx or corolla. 

Annelida, n. plu., dn'nel'id'd or 
an-nel'td-d, also annelids, n. plu. , 
dn'nel-tdz (L. annellus, a little 
ring; Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
those creatures that have their 
bodies formed of a great number 
of small rings, as the earth-worm, 
forming one of the divisions of 
the Anarthropoda. 

annotinus, n., dn-nM-in-us (L. 
annotmus, a year old from annus, 
a year), a year old ; that produces 
seed and dies within the same 
year in which it germinated: also 
annual, a., and annualis, in same 
sense: annotinous, a,, tin-not' m- 
us, showing last year's shoot by 
a visible point of junction. 

annulus, n., an' nul-us(L. annulus, 
a ring), in bot., applied to the 
elastic rim surrounding the 
sporangia of some ferns; the 
cellular rim on the stalk of the 
mushroom, being the remains of 
the veil; any circular opening 
resembling a ring : annulate, a. , 
dn'-nul-dt, also annulated, a., an' 
nul-dt-ed, composed of asuccession 
of rings : Annularia, n. plu. , an' 
nul'dr'-i-d, a genus of fossil herb- 
aceous plants, having whorls on 
the same plane with their stems : 
Annuloida, n. plu., dn'nul-oyd'd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), the sub- 
kingdom comprising Echinoderm- 
ata and Scolicida: Annulosa, n. 
plu. , dn'nul'Oz'd, the sub-kingdom 
comprising the Anarthropoda and 
the Arthropoda or Articulata ; in 
all, the body is more or less com- 
posed of a succession of rings : 
annulus ovalis, &vdl'ie(L. ovdlis, 
oval), inanat., the prominent oval 
margin of the foramen ovale. 

anodyne, n., dn'-od-ln (Gr. an, 
without ; odune, pain), any medic- 
ine which relieves pain. 

Anomoura, n. plu., an' dm- or' d, 

4 ANT 

also anomura, n. plu., an'om-6r'-& 
(Gr. anomos, irregular; oura, a 
tail), a family of crustaceans 
characterized by their irregular 
tails, of which the 'hermit crab' 
is the type. 

Anonacese, n. plu., dn'on-d'se-e 
(from anona or menona, its native 
Banda name), the custard apple 
family, an Order of ornamental 
trees and shrubs : Anona, n., 
an- on' a, a genus of trees, com- 
prising for the most part fruit- 
bearing plants : Anona muricata, 
mur-tk-dt'ti (L. muricdtus, shaped 
like the murex shell, pointed); 
A. squamosa, skwdwm-oz'd (L. 
squdrnosus, scaly from squama, 
a scale) ; and A. reticulata, re- 
tik'ul-dtf'd (L. reticuldtus;, net- 
like, reticulated from rete, a 
net), are the species which furnish 
the custard apples^ the sweet 
sops, and the sour sops of the East 
and West Indies : A. cherimolia, 
ker'i-mol'i'd (Sp. chirimoya, a 
custard apple), furnishes the 
cherimoyer, a well-known Peruv- 
ian fruit. 

Anoplura, n. pla.,an'd-pl6r'd (Gr. 
anoplos, unarmed; oura, a tail), 
an Order of apterous insects. 

anorexia, n., dn'o-reks'i-d (Gr. 
an, without; orexis, a longing 
for, eager desire), want of appetite . 
also anorexy, n., dn'o-reks-i. 

Anoura, n., dn-6r'd (Gr. a, with- 
out; oura, a tail), the order of 
Amphibia, comprising frogs and 
toads, in which the adult is destit- 
ute of a tail; also called Bat- 
rachia: anourous, a., an-dr'us, 

antacid, n., ant-as'id (Gr. anti, 
against ; L. acidus, sour), any 
medicines, as the alkalies and 
alkaline earths, which counteract 
the formation of acids in the 

antenna, n., tin-ten' na, antennae, 
plu., dn-ten'ne (L. antenna, a 
sail-yard), the jointed feelers or 
horns upon the heads of insects 




and Crustacea : antennules, n. 
plu., an'ten'nul-ez, the smaller 
pairs of antennae in the insects 
and Crustacea. 

anterior, a., dnt-er'i'er(L. anterior, 
former, that which lies before), 
before ; in front : anterior 
ligament, a ligament that lies in 
front or before another : anterior 
superior, the higher point of two 
situated anteriorly or in front 
see the separate words ; in bot., 
part of a flower next the bract, or 
in front; same as inferior when 
applied to the parts of the flower 
in their relation to the axis. 

anthela, n.,dnth-el r -d (Gr. anthele, 
a little blossom from anthe, a 
blossom), the cymose panicle of 
the Juncacese or Rush family ; a 
cluster of inflorescence, particul- 
arly on rushes, whose branches 
are widely expanded. 

anthelmintic, n., dnth'el-mmt'ik 
(Gr. anti, against; helmins, a 
tape-worm, helminthos, of a tape- 
worm), a medicine given for de- 
stroying or expelling intestinal 

Anthemis, n., dnth'Zm-is (Gr. 
anthemon, a flower, a blossom 
so called from its great production 
of flowers), a genus of plants of 
the Sub-ord. Corymbifene, Ord. 
Compositse: Anthemis nobilis, 
ntib'-il-is (L. nobills, famous, re- 
nowned), the chamomile, whose 
flowers are odoriferous and yield 
a volatile oil; the flowers are 
much employed in various ways 
medicinally : A. tinctoria, tingk- 
tdr f -i-d (L. tinctoria, dyeing, or 
belonging to a dyer), a species 
which supplies a yellow in dyeing. 

anther, n., anth'er (Gr. antheros, 
flowery, blooming from anthos, 
a flower), the head part of the 
stamen of a flower containing the 
pollen or fertilizing dust. 
Anthericese, n. plu., dnth'er-is'8-e 
(Gr. antherix, a stalk, antherikos, 
of a stalk), a tribe of plants of 
the Ord. Liliacese ; the Asphodel 

tribe: Anthericum, n., dnth-er' 
Ik-urn, a genus of plants com- 
prising some beautiful species. 

antheridium, n., dnth'-er-id'-i-um, 
antheridia, plu., dnth'-er-id'-i-d 
(Gr. antheros, flowery; eidos, 
resemblance), male organs in 
cryptogamic plants, frequently 
containing moving filaments 
analogous to spermatozoa of 
animals: antheriferous, a., tinth'- 
er-tf-er'US (L. fero t 1 bear), 
bearing anthers. 

antherozoa, n. plu., dnth'e'r-o-zo'd 
(Gr. antheros, flowery; zoon, an 
animal)) the spiral filaments or 
molecules having vibratile 
appendages discharged from the 
antheridia; the moving filaments 
in the antheridium of a flowerless 
plant: antherozoids, n. plu., 
dnth-'er f '6-zdydz (Gr. eidos, re- 
semblance), same sense; minute 
bodies which exhibit movements 
in the antheridium. 

anthesis, n., dnth-ez'-is (Gr. anthos, 
a flower), the opening of the 
flower; the production of flowers. 

anthistiria, n. plu., tinth'-fa-ttr'-l'd 
(Gr. anthesteria, the feast of the 
flowers), the kangaroo grass of 
Australia; satin grass; Ord. 

anthocarpous, a., dnth'-o-kdrp'us 
(Gr. anthos, a flower ; karpos, 
fruit), formed, as a certain class 
of fruits, from a number of 
blossoms united into one body; 
applied to multiple, polygynoecial, 
or confluent fruits, formed by the 
ovaries of several flowers. 

Anthocerotese, n. plu., anth-os^ 
er-tit'e-e (Gr. anthos, a flower; 
keras, a horn from the horn- 
like form of the theca), the third 
of the three sections of the Ord. 
Hepaticse : Anthoceros, n. , dnth' 
ds'er-os, a genus of small frond ose 
plants, so called from the horn- 
like form of the theca. 

anthocyane, n., ant/i'-d-sl'-an-e^r. 
anthos, a flower; kuanos, dark- 
blue, sky-coloured), the supposed 




blue colouring matter in flowers 
of that hue. 

anthodium, n., dnth-od^i-iim (Gr. 
anthodes, flowery from anthos, 
a flower; eidos, resemblance), 
the common calyx which contains 
the capitulum or head of flowers 
of composite plants. 

anthophore, n., anth'o-for (Gr. 
anthos, a flower ; phero, I carry), 
a stalk supporting the inner floral 
envelopes, and separating them 
from the calyx : anthophorous, 
a., dnth'df'or'tis, bearing many 

anthosperm, n., dnth*d-spe'rm (Gr. 
anthos, a flower ; sperma, seed), 
coloured matter in the cells of 
certain fronds. 

anthotaxis, n., dnth'-o-tdks'is (Gr. 
anthos, a flower ; taxis, arrang- 
ing), in bot., the arrangement of 
the flowers on the axis. 

anthoxanthine, n., dnth'-tiks-dnth'- 
in (Gr. anthos, a flower ; xanthos, 
yellow), the supposed yellow 
colouring matter in flowers of 
that hue. 

anthrax, n., dnth'rdks (Gr. anth- 
rax, a live coal), a carbuncle ; a 
local suppuration which may be 
idiopathic, or may accompany 
other diseases as diabetes, or 
malignant fevers such as the 
plague, etc., common also in the 
lower animals as well as in man: 
anthracoid, a., dnth<rdk-oyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), pert, to or 
resembling an anthrax or car- 

Antiaris, n., ant'i-ar^is (Antiar 
or Antschar, its Javanese name), 
a genus of plants of the Sub-ord. 
Artocarpese, Ord. Moracese : 
Antiaris toxicaria, tobs'-ik-dr'-i-a 
(L. toxicum, Gr. toxikon, poison), 
the source of the famous poison, 
called Bohun-Upas or Upas-An- 
tiar by the Javanese: antiarin, 
n., dnt-i'ar-m, the peculiar prin- 
ciple in the Upas tree to which it is 
said it owes its deadly properties: 
A. saccidora, sak'-sid-or'-d (Gr. 

sakkos, L. saccus, a sack, a bag ; 
Gr. doreo, I give or grant), a 
gigantic tree, whose fibrous bark 
is used as sacks. 

antibrachium, n., dnt^-brdk^i-um 
(Gr. anti, in front of; Gr. brachion, 
L. brachium, the arm), the fore- 
arm of the higher vertebrates, 
composed of the radius and ulna : 
antibrach'ial, a., pert. to. 

antic, n. plu.,aw-w'e(L. antlcus, 
that is before or in front), in bot., 
anthers are so called when they 
open on the surface next to the 
centre of the flower, and are 
called dntherce anticce : anticus, 
a., also anticous, a., dnt-ik'us, 
placed in front of a flower, as the 
lip of orchids. 

antihelix, n., &itffoh6&&8 (Gr. 
anti, opposite to, but here in the 
sense of 'before ' ; helix, anything 
twisted or convoluted, the ear), 
the curved prominence parallel 
with, and in front of, the helix or 
external prominent rim of the 
auricle of the ear. 

antiperistaltic, a. , dnt'-i-per-i- 
stalt'-lk (Gr. anti, against ; peri- 
staltikos, drawing together all 
round from peri, around ; stello, 
I send), applied to the vermicular 
contraction of the intestinal tube 
when that takes place in a direc- 
tion from behind forwards : 
antiperistalsis, n., -stals'-is, the 
inversion of the peristaltic motion 
of the intestines. 

antiphlogistic, a., dnt'-i-jld'dj-ist'.ik 
(Gr. anti, against ; phlogizo, I 
consume or burn), a theoretical 
term applied to medical treatment 
intended to subdue inflammation : 
n., a medicine that checks in- 

antipodal, a., dnt-fp'-ftd-dl (Gr. 
anti, opposite ; podes, feet), hav- 
ing the feet directly opposite ; in 
bot., applied to cells formed by a 
free-cell formation in phonero- 

AntirrhinesB, n. plu., dnt'-ir-rm'- 
(Gr. anti, like, similar ; rhis, 




a nose, rhinos, of a nose), the 
second of the three sections of 
the Ord. Scrophulariacese : Antir- 
rhinum, n., ant f 'ir-rin r -um, a 
genus of plants, the flowers of 
most of the species bearing a 
perfect resemblance to the snout 
of some animal. 

antiscorbutic, a., ant'i-slcST-but'-ik 
(Gr. anti, against; Eng. scorbutic), 
that is good against scurvy. 

antiseptic, n., dnttf-s&pf'ik (Gr. 
anti, against ; septos, putrid), a 
substance which prevents putre- 
faction: adj., counteracting putre- 

antispasmodic, n., dnt'i-spdz- 
m6d f -ik (Gr. anti, against ; Eng. 
spasmodic), any medicine which 
allays pain, cramp, or spasms in 
the human body. 

antitragus, n., dnt'-'t-trdg'tis (Gr. 
anti, against ; tragos, a he-goat), 
a small tubercle or conical 
eminence opposite the tragus 
of the ear, and separated from it 
by a deep notch ; see ' tragus. ' 

antitropal, a., dnt-ti'rb'p-Sl (Gr. 
anti, against ; tropos, a turn, 
mode, or manner from trepo, I 
turn), in bot., applied to an 
embryo whose radicle is diametric- 
ally opposite to the hilum ; in- 
verted with respect to the seed, 
as the radicle : also antitropous, 
a., dnt-U'rop-us. 

antlia, n., ant'-li-a (L. antlia, a 
pump), the spiral trunk with 
which butterflies and other lepid- 
opterous insects suck up the juices 
of flowers, 

antrum Highmori, dnt'rum hi- 
mor'i (L. antrum, a cave, a 
hollow ; after the English anat- 
omist, Highmore, the first de- 
scriber of it), the maxillary sinus, 
a large cavity lying above the 
molar teeth and below the orbital 
plate: antrum pylori, pt-lor'-l 
(Gr. puloros, a gate-keeper from 
pule, a gate ; pylorus is a Latinized 
form of the Gr. puloros; L. 
pylori, of the pylorus), in the 

stomach, the lesser pouch near 
the intestinal opening, which is 
guarded by a muscular ring called 
the pylorus. 

anus, n., an'us (L. anus, the 
fundament), the lower orifice of 
the bowels. 

aorta, n., d-tirf-d (Gr. aorto, was 
suspended from aeiro, I raise 
up), the great trunk artery of 
the body, which arises from the 
left side of the heart, and gives 
origin to all other arteries be- 
longing to the greater or systemic 
circulation: aortic, a., a-drt'-ik, 
pert, to : aorta abdominalis, ab> 
ddm'm-al'is (L. abdomen, the 
belly), the abdominal aorta, the 
direct continuation of the thoracic 
aorta: aorta thoracica, th6r*as' 
ik-d (L. thorax, the breast, the 
thorax, thordds, of the breast), 
the thoracic aorta, the continu- 
ation of the arch of the aorta, 
extending from the lower border 
of the fifth to the twelfth dorsal 

aperient, n., ap-er'-i-ent (L. 
aperiens, opening),, a medicine 
that opens the bowels: adj., 
gently purgative. 

aperispermic, a., ap-er'i-sperm'ik 
(L. aperio, I open; sperma, 
seed), in bot.. 9 without separate 

apetalous, a., a-pet'-al-us (Gr. a, 
without ; petalon, a leaf), hav- 
ing no petals ; monochlamyde- 

Aphaniptera, n., af-an-ip'ter-a 
(Gr. aphanes, unseen, not ap- 
parent from a, not, phaino, I 
snow ; pteron, a wing), an order 
of insects, comprising fleas, 
apparently without wings : aph- 
anipterous, a., af-an-ip'-ier-us, 
apparently without wings. 

aphasia, n., a-fa'-zhi-a (Gr. 
aphasia, inability to speak from 
a, not, and phdo, I speak), am- 
nesic loss of speech from loss of 
memory of words ; ataxic loss of 
speech from loss of co-ordinatiou 




of the muscles involved in articul- 
ate speech. 

Aphelandra, n. plu., df-el-dnd'-rti 
(Gr. apheles, simple, artless ; 
aner, a man, andros, of a man), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Acanth- 
aceae, some of the species of which 
are cultivated for their showy 

aphonia, n., d-fon'$-d(Gr. aphonia, 
want of voice from a, without; 
phone, voice), loss of voice. 

aphthse, n. plu., df'-the (Gr. aph- 
tkai, ulcerations inside the mouth 
from apto, I inflame), small 
white ulcers on the tongue, gums, 
palate, etc.; thrush: aphthous, 
a., df-thus, pert, to thrush; 
having aphthae or blisters on the 
skin or mucous membranes : 
aphthaphytes, n. plu., af'-tha- 
fits (Gr. phuton, a plant), the 
mould or fungi that gives rise to 
aphthae in the human species : 
aphthoid, a., df-thoyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling aphthaB. 

Aphyllantheaa, n. plu., af-il- 
dnih'-e-e (Gr. a, without; phullon, 
a plant ; anthos, a flower), a tribe 
of plants, Ord. Liliaceae ; the 
grass-tree tribe, having a rush-like 
habit, and membranous imbricated 
bracts: Aphyllanthes, n. plu., 
af f 'il-dnth f -ez, a genus of plants, 
having stems like a rush, and 
bearing on their summits little 
tufts of flowers. 

aphyllous, a., df-il'-lus or df'-il-lus 
(G. a, without; phullon, a leaf), 
in bot., destitute of leaves : 
aphylly, n., df-il'li, the suppres- 
sion or want of leaves. 

apical, a., dp'-ik-dl, also apicilar, 
a,, dp-isf-il-dr (L. apex, a tip or 
extremity, apicis, of an ex- 
tremity), relating to the pointed 
end of a cone-shaped body; at the 
apex; in bot., often applied to 
parts connected with the ovary. 

apiculus, n., dp-ik'ul-us, also 
apiculum, n., -til-urn (L. apic- 
ulus, a little point from apex, a 
tip or point), in bot., a terminal 

soft point springing abruptly: 
apiculate, a., dp-ik'-ul-dt, pert, 
to an apiculus, 

apillary, n.. dp'il-ldr-i (Gr. a, 
without; L. plleus, Gr. pilos, a 
felt cap), the suppression or want 
of the upper lip of a flower, 

Apios tuberosa, ap'-i-os tub'-Zr-dz'-d 
(Gr. apion, a pear ; apios, a pear 
tree; L. tuber, a protuberance, 
tub$ris, of a protuberance), a 
plant, of the Sub-ord. Papilion- 
aceae, and Ord. Leguminosae, 
whose roots are used as an article 
of food in America, 

Aplacentalia, n. plu., dp'-lds-%nt> 
dl'-i'd (Gr. a, without; Eng. plac- 
enta), the section of the Mam- 
malia, including the Didelphia 
and Monadelphia, in which the 
young is not furnished with a 
placenta : see ' placenta. ' 

aplanatic, a., dp'-ldn-at<ik (Gr. 
a, without; plando, I wander^, 
applied to lenses which entirely 
correct the aberration of the rays 
of light. 

aplectrum, n., d-plekt'rum (Gr. 
a, without; plektron, the point 
of a spear, the spur of a cock ; 
L. plectrum, a little stick or quill 
for playing on a stringed musical 
instrument), a curious little plant 
whose flowers are spurless, and 
which contains a very glutinous 
matter, Ord. Orchidiaceae ; in 
America the plant is called Putty- 

aploperistomi, n. plu., ap'-lo-pw- 
is f 't6m>l (Gr. aplSos, single ; peri, 
round about; stoma, a mouth), 
in bot., a term applied to those 
mosses which have the mouth of 
their thecae naked, or which have 
a single peristome : aploperis- 
tomatous, a., dp'-lo-per'-i-stdm'- 
dt-us (Gr. stoma, a mouth, stom- 
dtos, of a mouth), having a single 
peristome, or composed of only 
one row of teeth. 

aplostemonous, a., dp'ld-si&m' 
tin-us (Gr. aplotis, single ; Gr. 
sfemdn, L. stamen, the upright 




threads in an ancient loom which 
stood upright, while the same is 
now placed horizontally; a warp), 
in hot. , a flower with a single row 
of stamens. 

Aplotaxis, n., tip'-lo-tttlcs'-te (Gr. 
aplotis, single; taxis, order), a 
genus of plants of the Sub-ord. 
Cynarocephalse, Ord. Compos- 
itse, found in Cashmere, said to 
be the ancient Costus, used 
medicinally and for incense. 

apiioea, n., ap-m'-a (Gr. apnoia, 
without the power of breathing 
from a, without; pneo, I 
breathe), absence of respiration; 

apocarpous, a., ap'o-Mrp'-us (Gr. 
apo, from ; karpos, fruit), having 
the ovary and fruit composed 
of numerous distinct carpels ; 
applied to fruits when their 
carpels are either quite separate, 
or only partially united. 

Apocynacese, n. plu., ap'-os-m- 
af>&-e (Gr. apo, from; kuon, a 
dog), the Dog-bane family, an 
order of plants many of which 
are poisonous, and not a few 
bear handsome flowers : Apocyn- 
uxn, n., ap'8sf>in-um, a genus of 
plants, so called as believed by 
the ancients to be fatal to dogs if 
eaten by them. 

Apoda, n. plu., ap'dd-a (Gr. a, 
without ; pous, a foot, podos, of 
a foot), applied to those fishes 
which have no ventral fins; the 
footless Cseciliae amongst the 
Amphibia: apodal, a., ap'tid-al, 
also apodous, a., ap'-dd-us, 
having no feet; without ventral 
fins which in fish correspond to 
legs and feet among animals : 
apodia, n., d-pod'-i-a, the absence 
of feet. 

apodema, n. plu., ap-tid'em-a" (Gr. 
apo, from; dema, a cord, a 
bond ; demata, cords or bonds), 
certain appendages on the bodies 
of Articulata giving attachment 
to muscles, or articulating with 
wings and the like ; apcdemata, 

n. plu., ap'od'Zm'at-a, certain 
chitinous septa which divide the 
tissues in the Crustacea. 

aponeurosis, n., ap-on'ur-dz'is, 
aponeuroses, plu., -oz'ez (Gr. 
aponeurosis, the end of a muscle 
from apo, from or at ; and 
neuron, a nerve, a muscle), the 
extremity of a muscle where it 
becomes a tendon ; the fibrous 
sheath of a muscle or investment 
of a part. 

apophyllous, a., ap'-d-fil'lus (Gr. 
apo, from; phullon, a leaf), in 
bot., applied to the parts of a 
single perianth whorl when they 
are free leaves. 

apophysis, n., ap-of'-is-is (Gr. apo, 
from ; phuo, I grow), in anat. , a 
process or protuberance on the 
surface of a bone, generally at 
the ends; in bot., a swelling at 
the base of the theca in some 
mosses ; any irregular swelling oil 
the surface : apophysate, a. , 
ap-df'is-dt, having a swelling at 
the base. 

apoplexy, n., ap'-d-plelcs'-i ^Gr. 
apoplexia, stupor from apo, 
from ; plesso, I strike), stupor, 
or an unconsciousness like that 
produced by felling an ox : apo- 
plectic, a., ap'-d'plekt'-ik, pert, to, 

NOTE. Many diseases of the brain 
produce this symptom. As those 
earliest recognised were accom- 
panied by effusion of blood, the 
term has been irregularly applied 
to affections of other organs ac- 
companied by effusion of blood 
into their tissues, as pulmonary 
or splenic apoplexy, though these 
are unaccompanied by stupor. 

apostrophe, n., ap'Os'-trof-u (Gr. 
apo, from; strophe,^ a turning), 
in bot., the collection of proto- 
plasm and chlorophyll grains on 
the walls of cells that are adjacent 
to other cells. 

apothecium, n., dp-d'the'-slu-tim 
(Gr. apotkeke, L, apotheca, a 
storehouse from Gr. apo, 
from; the/ce, a box or chest), the 
rounded shield-like fructification 




of lichens, forming a receptacle 
for the reproductive bodies or 
spores: apothecia, n. plu., dp-o- 

appendices epiploicse, dp-pen^ 
dis-ez Zp'-ip-lo'-is-e (L. appendix, 
an addition, a supplement j Gr. 
epiploon, the omen turn), the 
epiploic appendage ; masses of 
i'at attached by pedicles along 
the free border of the intestines, 
which support the intestines : 
appendix vermiformis, verm'-i- 

fdrm'-is (L. vermis, a worm ; 

forma, shape), a small portion 
of the caecum which hangs down 
in a worm-like shape in the 
centre of the abdomen remark- 
able for no known use. 

NOTE. The enormous caecum of many 
of the lower animals is, in man, 
dwindled to a worm-like sac which 
has received this name. 

appendiculate, &.,dp'p%nd' ! ilf-ul'dt 
(L. appendicula, a small append- 
age), having a little appendage, 
as the scaly appendages of corollas, 
or found at the base of certain 

applanate, a., ap' plan- at (L. ad, 
to ; plandtus, made flat from 
pldnus, level, flat), in bot., 
flattened out ; horizontally ex- 

apposite, a., ap'p8z-it (L. ad, to ; 
positus, placed or put), in bot., 
having similar parts similarly 
placed, as side by side : appositi- 
onal, a., dp'-poz-'isli'-un'dl, in 
algae, having two branches lying 
side by side, partly uniting as to 
appear a compound branch. 

appressed, a., dp-prest' (L. ap, 
for ad, at or to ; pressus, pressed, 
kept under), in bot., denoting 
leaves which are applied to each 
other, face to face, without being 
folded or rolled together. 

Aptera, n. plu., dpt'-er-d (Gr. a, 
without ; pteron, a wing), a di- 
vision of insects characterized by 
the absence of wings in the adult 
condition : apterous, a. , dpt f >er* 

us, without wings : apteryx, n., 
dpt'-Zr-iks (Gr. pterux, a wing), 
the wingless bird of New Zealand, 
of the Ord. Cursores. 

aqua fortis, dV-wdfort'-is (L. aqua, 
water ; fortis, strong), strong 
water, the popular name for 
'nitric acid:' aqua regia, redj'-i-d 
(L. regius> royal), a mixture of 
nitric and hydrochloric acids, 
so called from its power of dissolv- 
ing gold, the king of metals. 

AquifoliaceaB, n. plu., dk'-wifol- 
I'ds'-Z-e (L. aquifolium^ the holly 
tree ;. aquifolius, having sharp or 
pointed leaves from acus, a 
needle, and folium, a leaf), the 
Holly family, an Order of evergreen 
trees or shrubs : Aquifolium, n. , 
dkf'Wi'foV-i'Um, the common holly, 
indigenous to Britain, forms ex- 
cellent fences. 

AquilariaceaB, n. plu., dlc'-wil-dr- 
i-ds'8-e(L. aquila, an eagle from 
the genus being called eagle-wood 
in Malacca), the Aquilaria family: 
Aquilaria, n. plu., dlc'-wil-dr'-i-d, 
a genus of evergreen shrubs, com- 
prising the eagle-wood, aloes- 
wood, and lign-aloes. 

arabin, n., dr'-db-m (from Arabia, 
where the gum -producing trees 
abound), a substance familiarly 
known as gum-arabic or gum- 
senegal ; the kind of gum which 
is soluble in cold water. 

AraceaB, n. plu., ar-ds'-Z-e (L. 
arum or aros, Gr. aron, the 
plant arum or wakerobin), the 
Arum family, whose general prop- 
erty is acridity. 

Arachis, n., dr'-ak-ls (Gr. a, with- 
out ; rhachis, a backbone or 
spine), a genus of plants of the 
Sub-ord. Papilionaceae, and Ord. 
Leguminosae, having only one 
species, the Arachis hypogaea, 

earth, subterranean from hupo, 
under ; gaia, the earth), a singul- 
ar plant that bears no branches, 
and has the strange power of 
forcing the fruit or pods as they 


increase in size into the earth, 
where they ripen their seeds, 
usually called the underground 
kidney -bean or ground-nut ; an 
oil is expressed from their ends, 
used for cramps in India, and 
occasionally as a substitute for 
cod-liver oil in medicine. 

Arachnida, n. plu., ar-ak'-md-a 
(Gr. arachne, a spider, a spider's 
web), a class of the Articulata, 
comprising spiders, scorpions, 
and ticks: arachnitis, n., dr^dk- 
nlt f 'is, inflammation of the arach- 
noid membrane ; sometimes ap- 
plied to the inflammation of the 
membranes of the brain : arach- 
noid, a., dr-ak'-noyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), applied to a mem- 
brane of the brain ; in bot. , ap- 
plied to fine hairs so entangled 
as to resemble a cobweb. 

AraliacesB, n. plu., ar-al'i'ds'-Z-e 
(aralia, an American word), the 
Ivy family : Aralia, n. plu., dr- 
dl'-i-d, a genus of the above, one 
species of which has fragrant and 
aromatic roots which are used in 
America as a substitute for sarsa- 
parilla : araliaceous, a., dr-dl'i- 
d'-shus, pert, to the Aralia. 

Aranthocephalis, n.,dr-dnth'd'Sef'- 
dl-is (probably Gr. arachne, a 
spider ; antlios, a flower ; kephale, 
the head), an Order of intestinal 
parasites ; the armed worms. 

araucaria, n. plu., dr r -aur'kdr'i-d 
(araucanos, its name in Chili), 
the Norfolk Island pine, famed 
for its size and for its wood : 
araucarites, n. plu., dr-dw- 
kdr-Uz, the fossil wood whose 
structure is identical with the 
living araucaria. 

arbor vitae cerebelli, drb'tir vlt'e 
sZr'8-bel'li (L. arbor, a tree; vitce, 
of life ; cerebelli, of a small or 
little brain), the tree of life of the 
brain ; the foliated or arborescent 
appearance presented by either 
hemisphere of the cerebellum 
when a vertical section is made 
through it: arbor vitse uterinus, 

31 ARC 

ut'Vr'in'iis (L. uterinus, uterine), 
the uterine tree of life ; the 
appearance of branches from the 
stem of a tree presented by the 
folds on the interior of the * cer- 
vix uteri. ' 

arborescent, a., dr'-bor-Zs'ent (L. 
arborescens, growing into a tree 
from arbor, a tree), branched like 
a tree. 

Arbutus, n., dr'-but-us (L. arbutus, 
the wild strawberry or arbute 
tree), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Ericaceas : Arbutus unedo, un'-ed-o 
(L. unedo, the arbute or straw- 
berry tree said to be from unus, 
one, and edo, I eat), the straw- 
berry tree, so called from its 
fruit resembling a strawberry ; 
the fruit is not agreeable, but a 
wine is prepared from it in Cor- 
sica: arbutean, a., dr-but'e-dn 
pert. to. 

archangelica, n., drk'-dn-jel'-ik-a 
(Gr. arcJws, chief, and angelica, 
from its supposed virtues), the 
botanical name for the Angelica 
plant and root. 

archegonium, n . , drk^i-gon^i- um 
(Gr. arche, beginning; gone, 
seed), in bot., the young female 
cellular organ in cryptogamic 
plants ; the early condition of a 
spore case. 

Archencephala, n. plu., drk'Zn* 
sZf'-dl'd (Gr. archo, I command, 
I rule over; engkephalos, the 
brain), Owen's name for his 
fourth and highest group of 
Mammalia, comprisingman alone. 

archil, n., drtsh f -il (Fr. orcheil: 
Sp. orchilla from Sp. roca, a 
rock), a rich purple colour, ob- 
tained from the lichen Koccella 
tinctoria, found growing on the 
rocks of the Canaries and other 

archisperms, n. plu., drk'-i-spermz 
(Gr. archos, chief; sperma, seed), 
another name for gymnosperms. 

arciform, a., drs f -i'f8rm (L. arcus, 
a bow ; forma, shape), applied in 
the medulla oblongata to some 




of its fibres which emerge at the 
anterior median fissure, and 
form a band which curves round 
the lower border of the olivary 
body, or which passes transversely 
across it, and round the sides of 
the medulla. 

Arctium, n. , drk'ti-um (Gr. arktos, 
a bear in reference to its rough, 
bristly fruit), a genus of plants 
of the Sub-ord. Cynarocephalse, 
Ord. Composite: Arctium lappa, 
ldp'-pd (L. lappa, a bur), the 
burdock, which is bitterish, and 
has been used in the form of in- 
fusion as a substitute for sarsa- 

Arctostaphylos, n., drk'to-sldf-il- 
8s (Gr. arktos, a bear ; staphule, 
a grape in allusion to the 
rough taste of the fruit), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Ericaceae : 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, uv'-a- 
ers'-i (L. uva, a grape -berry ; 
ursi, of the bear), the bearberry, 
whose fruit is used as an astring- 
ent: A. glauca, gldwk'a (L. 
glaucus, bluish grey), the man- 
zanita plant, which covers the 
mountains of California with a 
thick brushwood. 

arcuate, a., drk'-u-dt (L. arcus, a 
bow), curved in an arched man- 
ner like a bow. 

arcus senilis, drk'-us s&n-ll'is (L. 
arcus, a bow, an arch ; senilis, 
aged), the arch of the aged; 
a circular, opaque appearance 
round the margin of the cornea 
of aged persons, usually affecting 
both eyes. 

ardellas, n. plu., dr-aWle (Gr. 
arddlos, dirty, foul from ardo, 
I sprinkle), small apothecia of 
certain lichens, as Arthonia, 
having the appearance of dust. 

Areca, n. plu., dr-ek'-d (Indian 
name), a genus of plants of the 
Ord. Palime: Areca catechu, 
kat'e-shdo (said to be Japanese 
kate, a tree; chu, juice), an eleg- 
ant palm producing the betel 
nut, and an extract of an astring- 

ent nature like catechu : Are- 
cinese, n. plu., ar'-e-sm'-Z-e, the 
first of the five tribes into which 
the Ord. Palmse is divided. 

arenaceous, a., ar'en-a'-shus (L. 
arena, sand), composed of grains 
of sand ; having the properties 
of sand. 

areola, n., tir-ettlti, (L. dredla, a 
small open place, a small garden 
bed), the small coloured circle 
round the nipple, or a pustule: 
areolae, n. plu., dr-e'-dl-e, small 
interstices of cellular or other 
tissues ; little spaces on the area 
or surface; the spaces between 
the cracks in the lichens : are- 
olar, a., ar-e'-dl-ar, of or like an 
areola: areolate, a., dr-e'-ol-dt, 
in bot., divided into distinct 
angular spaces. 

Arethusa, n. plu., dr f -%>tliuz'd 
(after a nymph of Diana's, who 
was changed into a fountain), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Orchidacese: 
Arethusa bulbosa, bulb oz'- d 
(L. bulbus, a bulbous root), a 
plant which has a large fine lilac 
flower terminating each stem. 

arillus, n., dr-tt'-lus, also aril, 
n., dr'-il (Fr. arille, an arillus ; 
Sp. arillo, a small hoop from 
aro, a hoop ; L. aridus, dry), the 
exterior coat of a seed which 
drying falls off spontaneously : 
arillate, a., dr-il^ldt, having an 
aril: arillode, n., ar'-il-lod (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), an extra 
covering of the seed ; the 'arillus' 
proceeds from the placenta, as in 
the passion-flower, the 'arillode' 
from the exostome, as in the mace 
of the nutmeg. 

arista, n., ar-ist'-a (L. arista, the 
beard of an ear of corn), a long 
pointed process, as in barley and 
many grasses ; an awn : arist- 
ate, a., dr-ist<dt, furnished with 
beards or spikes, as barley and 
many grasses; awned: aristulate, 
a., dr-ist'ul'dt, having a very 
small arista. 

Aristolochiaceae, n. plu., ar-istio* 




Itik'i-d'-s&'e (Gr. aristos, best; 
locheia, child - birth, delivery), 
the Birth-wort family, a small 
Order of climbing herbaceous 
plants, bearing mottled and 
singularly-shaped flowers : Aristo- 
lochia, n., ar-ist'-o-m'-i-a, a 
genus whose flowers have more 
or less the appearance of a horn ; 
the names Birth-wort and Aristo- 
lochias have been given this 
genus of plants from their sup- 
posed action on the uterus : 
Aristolochia serpentaria, serp' 
ent'dr'i-d (L. serpens, a serpent, 
serpentis, of a serpent), the Vir- 
ginian snake-root, a native of 
the United States, formerly used 
as an antidote to snake poison : 
arist'olochia'ceous, a., -d'shus, 
having an arrangement of parts 
as in the Aristolochia. 

armature, n., drm'-at-ur (L. arma, 
arms, weapons), in bot. , the hairs, 
prickles, etc. covering an organ; 
a piece of iron used to connect 
the poles of magnets. 

Armeria, n., dr^mer'-i-d (armeria, 
the Latin name of sweet-william), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Plurnbag- 
inacese, which, though dwarf, are 
handsome, and well adapted for 
ornamenting rock-work : Armeria 
maritima, mdr-U'ini'a (L. marit- 
imus, belonging to the sea from 
mare, the sea), thrift or common 
sea-pink, grows on the sea-shore, 
and on the top of the highest 
mountain of Scotland. 

arnatto, n., ar-nat'to, also spelt 
arnotto and annotto (perhaps a 
corruption of arnot, the 'earth- 
nut,' from a mistaken notion of 
its origin), a red colour obtained 
from the reddish pulp which 
surrounds the seeds of the tree 
Bixa orellana, used for dyeing 
cheese and butter, imported into 
this country in three forms, viz. 
leaves, eggs, and rolls. 

arnica, n., drtnik-d, or arnica 
xnontana, mon-tdn'd (Gr. arnion, 
a little lamb ; montdnm, belong- 

ing to a mountain so called from 
the resemblance of the leaf to the 
soft coat of a lamb), mountain 
tobacco or leopard's bane, the ex- 
pressed juice of the root of which 
is used in medicine ; Sub-ord. 
Corymbiferse, Ord. Compositse. 

AroidesB, n. plu., ar-oyd'-e-e (arum, 
the plant wake-robin ; Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), an Order of plants 
having an arrangement of parts 
as in the Arum now called Ord. 
Aracesft, which see. 

Zs f 'kul-ent f 'a(arracacha, the South 
American name ; L. esculentus, fit 
for eating), a native of Grenada 
having large and esculent roots, 
resembling a parsnip in quality, 
which have been recommended as 
a substitute for the potato ; Ord. 

arrack, n., dr'-rak (Arab, araq, 
sweat, juice), a distilled impure 
spirit, much used in the East, 
obtained from fermented rice, 
betel nuts, and the sap and fruit 
of palms. 

Artanthe, n., ar-tanth'e (probably 
artaOj I make ready ; anthos, a 
flower), a genus of wooded plants 
with jointed stems, Ord. Piper- 
acea3: Artanthe elongata, e'-lting- 
gdt'-a (L. elongatus, made long 
from e, out ; longus, long), a 
shrub of S. America, from which 
the substance, consisting of the 
leaves and unripe fruit, called 
matico or matica is obtained ; 
it possesses aromatic, fragrant, 
and astringent qualities. 

Artemisia, n., dr'tZm-izh't-d (from 
Artemis, one of the names of 
Diana, who presided over women 
in childbed), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Compositae, and Sub-ord. 
Corymbiferse, the species of which 
are remarkable for their strong 
odour and bitter taste : Artemisia 
absinthium, db-smth'-t-um (L. 
absinthium, wormwood), worm- 
wood, the heads of the flowers of 
which, as well as other species, 




under the name of worm seed, are 
used as anthelmintics and tonics: 
A. mutellina and spicata, mut- 
til-lln'-a spik-dt'd (unascertained: 
L. splcdtus, furnished with a 
point), plants used in the prep- 
aration of tincture or distilled 
spirit, much in use and called in 
France 'eau'or'cremed'absinthe'(<5 
krdmddb-sdngt) : A. dracunculus, 
drd-kung'Jcul-us (L. dracunculus, 
a small serpent, a dragonet), the 
plant Tarragon, used in pickles 
and salads, and in the medication 
of vinegar : A. abrotanum, db- 
rdt'dn'Um (L. ahrotonum, Gr. 
abrottinon, southernwood), the 
plant southernwood, used on the 
Continent in the preparation of 
beer: A. Indica, md'ik-a (L. 
Indicus, Indian), the plant Sik- 
kim- worm seed, grows twelve feet 
high at elevations of from 2000 
to 6000 feet. 

arteria centralis retinae, drt-er r -i-d 
sent-rdl f -is ret'in-e (L. arteria, an 
artery; centrdlis, central; retinae, 
of the retina from rete, a net), 
one of the smallest branches of 
the ophthalmic artery, arising 
near the optic foramen : arteriae 
propriaa renales, drt-er'-i-e prop'- 
ri-e ren-dl'ez (L. arteries, arteries; 
proprice, proper, plu. ; renales, 
renal, plu. from renes, the kid- 
neys), the proper renal arteries 
which enter the kidney proper in 
the columns of Bertini : arterise 
receptaculi, res'-ep'taMul'l (L. 
arterice, of an artery; receptaculi, 
receptacles), the receptacles of an 
artery ; numerous small vessels 
derived from the internal carotid 
artery in the cavernous sinus. 

arteriolse rectse, drt-er'i'dl'e rekt'-e 
(L. arteriolce, small arteries; rectce, 
straight, plu. ), the straight small 
or branch arteries ; the second 
set of arteries which branch off 
from the 'arterise proprise renales' 
for the supply of the medullary 
pyramids, which they enter at 
their bases. 

arteritis, n.,4rf$r*ife (L. arteria, 
an artery ; itis, denoting inflam- 
mation), inflammation of an ar- 

artery, n., drt'Zr-i (L. arteria, an 
artery from Gr. aer, air, and 
tereo, I preserve, because believed 
by the ancients to circulate air), 
one of the vessels that convey the 
blood from the heart to all parts 
of the body, having valves only 
at their origin : arteriotomy, n. , 
art'er'-i'dt'-dm-i (Gr. tome, a cut- 
ting), the opening of an artery for 
the purpose of drawing blood from 

arthritic, a., Ar-tivrtittk (Gr. arth- 
ron, a joint), pert, to the joints 
or to the gout : arthritis, n., 
dr-thrU'is, inflammation of a 
joint; the goutj a chronic rheum- 
atic disease. 

arthrodia, n., dr-throcM-ft (Gr. 
arthron, a joint ; arthrodes, like 
joints), that kind of joint which 
admits of a gliding movement, 
and is formed by the approxima- 
tion of plane surfaces, or of one 
surface slightly concave and the 
other slightly convex ; the three 
principal forms of articulation 
are the Diarthrosis or moveable 
joints, the Synarthrosis or ini- 
moveable joints, the Ainphi-arth- 
rosis or mixed joints. 

arthrosterigmata, n. plu., ar'thro- 
ster'ig f >mat'd (Gr. arthron, a 
joint; sterigma, a joint), jointed 
Sterigmata, which see. 

articular, a., drt-ik'-ul-er (L. artic- 
ulus, a joint), relating to the 
joints : articulation, n., drt-ik- 
ul-d'shun, the particular mechan- 
ism by which the bones are 
united to each other in the skel- 
eton : articular surfaces, the 
peculiar gristly surfaces of bone 
joints : articularis, a., drt>ik'- 
ul'dr f -is, relating to joints ; ap- 
plied to the arteries branching 
off from the popliteal : Artier 1- 
ata, n. plu., drt-ik'-ul-at'-c, 
a division of the Animal king- 


dom, comprising insects, centi- 
peds, spiders, and crustaceans, 
which are characterised by 
the possession of jointed 
bodies or jointed limbs ; the 
Arthropoda, which is the term 
now more usually employed : 
articulated, a., drt'lk'-ul-dt-U, 
jointed ; having parts separating 
easily at some point : articulo 
morti?, drt'ikf'ut'6 mort' (L. 
articulo, in a joint, in point or 
moment ; mors, death, mortis, 
of death), at the point of death ; 
about to die. 

Artiodactyla, n. plu., drtfi-o-dak' 
til- a (Gr. artios, exactly fitted, 
even ; daktulos, a finger or toe), 
a division of the hoofed quadru- 
peds, in which each foot has an 
even number of toes, as two or 

Artocarpese, n. plu., drt'o-kdrp'e-e 
(Gr. artos, bread; karpos, fruit), 
a sub-order of the. Ord. Moracese : 
Artocarpus, n., a genus of trees, 
producing the breadrfruit, and 
flowers in dense heads: Artocarpus 
incisa, m-slz'-a (L. incisus, notch- 
ed, indented), the well-known 
bread-fruit tree, which furnishes an 
abundant supply of food in trop- 
ical countries, besides furnishing 
many other materials for domestic 
use : A. integrifolia, m-teg'-ri- 
fdl'i'O, (L. integrifolia, entire 
leaved from integer, entire, un- 
divided; folium, a leaf), the Jack 
or Jaca tree, the fruit of which 
attains a large size, weighing 
sometimes 30 Ibs., but is inferior 
in quality to the bread-fruit so 
called from its having entire or 
undivided leaves. 

Arum, n., ar f -um (L. drum ; Gr. 
dron, supposed to be an ancient 
Egyptian word, the plant wake- 
robin), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Aracese : Arum maculatum, 
mdkf-ul-dt''Um (L. maculatum, 
stained, spotted), the plant cuc- 
koo-pint or wakerobin ; the species 
of Arum with spotted leaves, and 

35 ARY 

poisonous, but yet from the 
rhizome of which Portland sago 
is prepared : A. dracunculus, 
drdk-unk'-ul'US (L. dracunculus, 
a small serpent), the plant drag- 
on's wort, and many-leaved 
Arum, which is extremely acri- 
monious : A. esculentum, &s&- 
ul-en&um (L. esculentum, fit for 
eating), a species of Arum used as 
a pot herb in the West Indies. 
aryteno, ar'it-en'o (Gr. arutaina, 
a pitcher in animals, the open- 
ing of the larynx with the aryt- 
enoid cartilages, bearing a 
resemblance to a pitcher with a 
spout), denoting connection with 
the arytenoid cartilages: aryten- 
o - epiglottidean, a., ep'-i-glot- 
tid^e-dn (Gr. epiglottis, a little 
tongue from epi, upon; glottis, 
the mouthpiece of a wind instru- 
ment, glottidos, of the mouthpiece 
of a wind instrument from 
glotta, the tongue), applied to 
the ligamentous and muscular 
fibres enclosed by a fold of 
mucous membrane which are 
stretched between the sides of 
the epiglottis and the apex of the 
arytenoid cartilages : aryteno- 
epiglottideus, ep'-i-glot-tid'-e-us, 
'superior' and 'inferior, ' designat- 
ing delicate muscular fasciculi, 
the former rising from the apex of 
the arytenoid cartilage, and the 
latter from the arytenoid carti- 
lage, just above the attachment 
of the superior vocal cord : 
arytenoid, a., ar'-it-en'-oyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), resembling 
the mouth of a pitcher : arytenoid 
cartilages, two cartilages, each 
having a pyramidal form, situated 
at the upp'er border of the cricoid 
cartilage, at the back of the lar- 
ynx : arytenoid glands, the 
muciparous glands found along 
the posterior margin of the 
aryteno - epiglottidean fold, in 
front of the aryteno-cartilages : 
arytenoideus, n., ar'4t-en'dyd'* 
e>us t applied to a single muscle 




filling up the posterior concave 
surface of the arytenoid cartil- 

asafcetida, n., as'- a -f Mid- a (L. 
asa, a gum suggested to be a 
corruption of the Persian name 
anguzeh', L. foetidus, fetid; Arab. 
asa, healing), the stinking healer, 
a fetid gum resin, being the con- 
crete juice of the plant Narthex 
asafoetida, or Ferula narthex, 
a plant found in Persia and 
Afghanistan, and also from 
Ferula Persica, and Scorodosma 
foetidum ; Ord. Umbelliferse. 

Asagrsea, n. plu., as'-a-gre'-a (in 
honour of Dr. Asa Gray), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Melanthacese : 
Asagrsea officinalis, of-fis'-m-aVis 
(L. officina-lis, officinal from of- 
ficlna, a workshop, a laboratory), 
a plant, a native of Mexico, whose 
fruit is called Cevadilla, used in 
the preparation of Veratria, which 
is employed in cases of neuralgia 
and rheumatism. 

aiarabacca, n., fa'-ar-a-bak'-M 
(from Asarum, wild spikenard, 
but origin unknown), the name 
given to the powdered leaves of 
' Asarum Europseum, ' used as an 
acrid emetic, Ord. Aristolochia- 

Asarum, n., as'-ar-um (L. asarum, 
Gr. asaron, hazel-wort, wild 
spikenard), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Aristolochiacese : Asarum 
Europseum, ur^-op-e'-um (L. Euro- 
pceum, belonging to Europe), a 
plant whose powdered leaves form 
an acrid emetic, and w r hose powd- 
ered leaves and roots enter into 
the composition of cephalic snuffs : 
asarin,, n., as'-ar-in, an active 
crystalline substance obtained 
from the plant: Asarin Canad- 
ense, kan'-ad'ens'-e (L. Canad- 
ensis, belonging to Canada), the 
wild ginger plant, or Canada 
snake-root, used as a spice in 

Ascaris, n., ask'-ar-is (Gr. askaris, 
a long round worm in the bowels, 

askaridos, of a long round worm), 
a genus of intestinal worms : 
Ascarides, n. plu., ask-ar'-id-ez, 
the intestinal thread - worms : 
Ascaris lumbricoides, lum'brik- 
oyd'-ez (L. lumbricus, a maw- 
worm from lumbus, a loin ; Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), the Ascarides, 
which resemble the earth-worm ; 
a worm found in the small intest- 
ine of man, and probably in the 
ox : A. megalocephala, meg'- 
al'd'Sef'al'a (Gr. megalos, great, 
large ; kephale, the head), the 
large-headed Ascarides, the intest- 
inal worms of the horse, ass, 
mule, etc., found in the small 
intestine, sometimes in stomach 
and large intestine : A. mystax, 
mis'taks (Gr. mustax, the upper 
lip, the moustache), the lipped 
or hairy worms ; the intestinal 
worms of the cat, lynx, tiger, etc., 
also of man : A. marginata, 
mdrj'fa'&f'd (L. margindtus, 
furnished with a border), the in- 
testinal worms of the dog, found 
in the small intestine : A. suilla, 
su-il'-la (L. suillus, belonging to a 
swine from sus, a swine), the 
intestinal worm of the pig. 
ascending, a., ds-send'-mg (L. ad, 
to ; scandens, climbing), in bot., 
applied to a procumbent stem 
which rises gradually from its 
base ; applied to ovules attached 
a little above the base of the 
ovary ; rising erect from the 
ground and forming a curve. 
asci, n. plu., as'-si {Gr. askos, L. 
ascus, a cavity or bladder), small 
membranous cells or bags which 
contain the sporules of crypto- 
gamic plants : ascidium, n., as* 
sid'-i-tim, ascidia, n. plu., as* 
sid f 'i'a((xY. askidion, a little bag), 
in bot. , pitcher leaves ; a form of 
leaf in which the stalk or petiole 
is widely and deeply hollowed, and 
closed by the blade as by a lid ; 
in zool, an order of shell-less 
molluscs, having the appearance 
of small leathern pouches or 




paps, found in the sea on 
rocks, old shells, etc., as a 
pap-like, gelatinous substance : 
Ascidioida, n. plu., ds-sid'-i-oyd'-d 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), a class 
of molluscous animals which have 
often the shape of a two-necked 
bottle ; synonym of * Tunicata : ' 
ascigerous, a., as-idj'-er-us (L. 
gero, I bear), producing asci. 

ascites, n. plu., as-slt'-ez (Gr. 
askos, a bag, a leathern bottle), 
dropsy of the abdomen ; a morbid 
accumulation of serous fluid in 
the cavity of the peritoneum. 

Asclepiadace89, n. plu., ds-klep'-i' 
dd-d'-se-e (Gr. Asklepios, L. 
jEscidapius, a celebrated anc. 
physician), the Asclepias family, 
an Order of plants : Asclepias, n., 
dS'klep f 'i-ds, a genus of plants : 
Asclepias tuberosa, lub'er-oz'a (L. 
tuberosus, having fleshy knobs), 
the butterfly weed or pleurisy root, 
a cathartic and diaphoretic : A. 
curassavica, kur'ds-sdv'ik-d (pro- 
bably L. cura, healing, cure 
from euro, I care for ; sudvium 
or sdvium, a mouth), wild ipecac- 
uanha : A. Syriaca, sir-l'-ak-a 
(of or belonging to Syria, or con- 
nected with it), found in Canada, 
a very odoriferous plant when in 
flower sugar is made from the 
flowers, and the cotton from its 
pods is very soft and silky. 

ascospore, n., dsk'd-spor (Gr. 
askos, a bag ; spora, a seed), 
spores borne within asci. 

asexual, a., a-sZks'-u-al (Gr. a, 
without ; and sexual), applied to 
modes of reproduction in which 
the sexes are not concerned ; 
having no apparent sexual organs. 

asiphonate, a., d-slf^n-at (Gr. a, 
without ; siphon, a siphon), not 
possessing a respiration tube or 
siphon ; applied to a division of 
the lamellibranchiate molluscs. 

asparagus, n., ds-pdr'-dg-us (L. 
asparagus, Gr. asparagos, the 
plant asparagus), a well-known 
plant, whose turios or young 

shoots, sent up from the under- 
ground stem, are cooked and eaten : 
asparagine, n., tis-pdr'-a-jm, the 
active principle of asparagus : 
Asparagese, n. plu., ds'-pdr- 
ddf-e-e, the Asparagus tribe of 
plants, Ord. Liliacese. 

aspect, n., dsf-pekt (L. ad. to, at ; 
specto, I look), in anat., look ; 

asperity, n., ds-p^it-i (L. asper, 
rough), in boL, roughness, as on 
the leaves of the Ord. Boragina- 

Asperula, n., ds-per'til-d (a dimin- 
utive of L. asper, rough), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Rubiacese : 
Asperula odorata, da'-tir-atf-d (L. 
odoratus, that has a smell from 
odor, smell), woodruff, a plant 
which gives out a pleasant frag- 
rance when dry. 

Asphodeleae, n. plu., as'fd-del'-e-e 
(Gr. asphodelos, asphodel, a plant 
sacred to Proserpine), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Liliacese, the flowers 
of which cannot be surpassed : as- 
phodel, n., as '/6-del, the day-lily, 
called also king's-spear. 

asphyxia, n., ds-fiks'-t-d (Gr. a, 
without ; sphuxis, the pulse), 
the temporary or permanent cessa- 
tion of the motions of the heart 
and respiration, as in drowning 
and suffocation ; a curious mis- 
nomer for 'suffocation,' in which 
the pulse never ceases while life 
lasts : asphyxiated, a., ds-fiks'- 
i- at -3d, suffocated as by hanging 
or drowning. 

Aspidium, n., ds-pid't-um (a dim- 
inutive from Gr. aspis, a shield, 
aspidos, of a shield), a genus of 
ferns, Ord. Filices : Aspidium 
filix mas, fil'-iks mas (L. filix, a 
fern ; mds, a male), the male 
shield-fern, used for tape-worm. 

Aspidosperma excelsum, as'pid-0' 
sperm'a ek-sels'um (Gr. aspis, a 
serpent, aspidos, of a serpent; 
sperma, seed), a Guiana tree, re- 
markable for the sinuous arrange- 
ment of its wood, which gives the 




stem a deeply-fluted appearance, 
Ord. Apocynacese. 

Asplenium, n., as-plen'i-um (Gr. 
a, without; splen, the spleen, 
from its being believed to remove 
disorders of that organ), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Filices; spleenwort. 

assurgent, a., fa-serf tint (L. as- 
surgens, rising up- from ad, to ; 
surgo, I rise), in bot., rising up- 
wards in a curve. 

Asteliese, n. plu.. d-steV-i-e-e (Gr. a, 
without ; sleleckos, the trunk of 
a tree, a stem), an Order of plants 
now included in the Ord. Simil- 
acese: Astelia, n., d-stel'-i-d, a 
genus of preceding; the plants 
have grass-like leaves yielding 
fibres, natives of New Zealand;, 
Tasmania, and S. Amer. : Astelia 
Solandri, Sol and' ri (after Sol- 
andra, a Swedish botanist), the 
tree flax of New Zealand. 

AsteraceaB, n. plu., dst'-er-a'-se-e 
(Gr. aster> a star), an Order of 
plants bearing compound flowers, 
now included in the vast Ord. 
Composites : Aster, n., ast<er, a 
genus of preceding order, stately 
and handsome plants, whose 
flowers have an arrangement re- 
sembling little stars. 

asteroid, a., dst'-Zr-oyd (Gr. aster, 
a star; eidos, resemblance),, star*- 
shaped ; possessing radiating 
lobes or rays like a star-fish : n., 
one of the minor planets : Aster - 
oidea, n. plu., ast'-er-oydte-d, in 
zool., an Order of the Echinoderm- 
ata, comprising the star-fishes, 
which are characterised by their 
rayed form. 

asthenia, n., as-then' i-d (Gr. as- 
theneia, want of strength, weak- 
ness from a, without ; sthenos, 
strength), in med., want or loss 
of strength ; debility : asthenic, 
a., dS'thZn'-ik, weak; debilitated. 

asthma, n., asthma (Gr. asthma, 
shortness of breath from do, I 
breathe), a disease of the breath- 
ing organs, characterised in its 
attacks by a gasping for breath. 

Astilbe, n., a-stiKbe (Gr. a, with- 
out; stilbe, brilliancy, lustre), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Saxifragace*?, 
ornamental, and attaining six feet 
in height. 

astomatous, a., d-sto'm'dt-'&s (Gr. 
a, without; stoma, a mouth, 
stomdta, mouths), not possessing 
a mouth ; having no true mouth 
or aperture. 

Astragalus, n., ds-trdg'-dl-us (Gr. 
astragalos, a die, the ankle 
joint, the corresponding bones of 
certain animals, as the sheep, 
being employed by the ancients 
as dice), in anat*, a bone of the 
foot which forms part of the 
ankle joint ; in bot. , a genus of 
plants, Ord. Leguminosne, Sub- 
ord. Papilionaceae, so called from 
the seeds being squeezed into a 
kind of square form in some of 
the species: Astragalus verus, 
ver'-us (L. verus, true), A.creticus, 
kret'ik-us (L. creticus, of or from 
Crete), A. aristatus, ar'ist-at'-us 
(L. aristatus, having an awn 
from arista, an awn), A. gurnmif er, 
gum'-mif-er (L. gummi, gum ; 
fero, I bear), and other species, 
are shrubs which yield gum-traga- 
canth: astragaloid, a., as-trdg'' 
dl-oyd (Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
pert, to or like the astragalus. 
astringent, n., ds-trinj'ent (L. 
astringens, drawing or binding 
tight from ad, to; stringo, I bind 
fast), a medicine which binds or 
contracts organic textures : adj. , 
binding or contracting as muscul- 
ar fibre. 

Asturian, a., as-tur'i-an (Asturia, 
an ancient division of Spain), 
designating a west Pyrenean flora, 
confined to the mountainous 
districts of the west and south- 
west of Ireland, the nearest 
Continental parts where they are 
native being the north of Spain. 
atavism, n., at'av'izm (L. atdvus, 
an ancestor from avus, a grand- 
father), the disappearance of any 
peculiarity or disease of a family 




during one generation, succeeded 
by its reappearance in another ; 
in zool,, the tendency of species 
or varieties to revert to an original 

ataxia, n., a- tabs' i> a (Gr. a, not, 
without; taxis, order from tasso, 
I put in order), want of co- 
ordination in the movements of a 
limb or organ, as * locomotor 
ataxia ; ' want of co-ordination in 
the movements of the arms or 
legs, or both, depending upon 
fascicular echrosis of the posterior 
column of the spinal cord : ataxic, 
a. , inco-ordinate : ataxic aphasia, 
loss of speech, from want of co-or- 
dination of the muscles employed 
in articulate speech. 

atheroma, n., dth'-$r-6m'd (Gr. or 
L. atheroma, a tumour filled 
with matter ; Gr. athdra, a pap 
made of meal), fatty calcareous de- 
generations in the body ; a curdy 
tumour: atheromatous, a., aih'- 
er'dmf'dt'US, containing matter 
of the nature of atheroma. 

atherosis, n., ath'-Zr-dz'-is (a word 
formed from Gr. atherdma, a 
tumour), chronic inflammation of 
the internal coat of the arteries. 

AtherospermaceaB, n. plu., ath'Zr- 
o- sperm- of- sZ-e (Gr. ather, the 
awn or beard of an ear of corn ; 
sperma, seed the seeds being 
furnished with awns), the plume 
nutmeg family, an Order of 
plants: Atherospenna, n., ath'er- 
6'Sperm'a, a genus of plants of 
preceding Order : Atherosperma 
moschatum, rnds-Tcdt'-um (mid. L. 
moschdtus, having a smell like 
musk from moschus, musk ; Gr. 
moschos, a sprout, a shoot), a 
native of Australia, the bark of 
which resembles sassafras in 

atlas, n., at'-lds (Gr. Atlas from 
a, intensive ; tlao, I bear, I sus- 
tain in the Greek mythology, 
a giant who bore up the earth 
upon his shoulders), the top joint 
of the neck bones which support 

the globe of the head ; the first 
vertebra of the neck. 

atlo-axoid, a., atf-lo-aks'-oyd (Eng. 
atlas, the first vertebra of the 
neck; Eng. axis, the second 
vertebra of the neck; Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), applied to the two 
pairs of ligaments which connect 
the atlas with the axis of the 

atonic, a., a>t$n f -ik (Gr. a, with- 
out; tonos, a tone), debilitated: 
atony, n., at'-8n4 t debility; 
muscular weakness. 

atrabiliary, a., dt'-rd-biM-dr-i (L. 
ater, black ; bills, bile), melan- 
cholic; hypochondriac. 

atractenchyma, n., at'-rak-ten'- 
kim-a (Gr. atraktos, a spindle, a 
distaff; chumos, juice, sap), in 
bot., tissue composed of spindle- 
shaped cells. 

Atriplex, n., dM-pttks (L. ater, 
black ; plexus, plaited, twisted), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Chenopod- 
iacese: Atriplex hortensis, h$r- 
tens'-is, garden Orach or wild 

atrium, n., dt'rt-um (L. atrium, 
a front hall), the great chamber 
or cloaca into which the intestine 
opens in the Tunicata. 

atropal, n., dt f -rop-dl (Gr. a, with- 
out; tropos, a turning), in bot., 
an ovule in its erect position. 

Atropese, n. plu., at-rdp'8-e (Gr. 
Atropos, in anc. mythology, one 
of the Fates, whose duty it was 
to cut short the thread of life), a 
Sub-ord. of the Ord. Solonacese : 
Atropa, n., dt r -rop-d, a genus of 
plants : Atropa belladonna, b^l'* 
Id-dMnd (see * belladonna '), 
deadly nightshade, a highly 
poisonous plant : atropia, n., 
dt-rop'-i-a, and atropin, n., 
dt'-rdp-m, a highly poisonous 
alkaloid extracted from the root 
of the 'Atropa belladonna,' form- 
ing its active principle : atropism, 
n., at'rop-izm, the symptoms pro- 
duced by the frequent medicinal 
use of belladonna. 




atrophia, n., at-rof'i-a, also at- 
rophy, n., at'rof-i (Gr. a, with- 
out ; trophe, nourishment from 
trepho, I nourish), a wasting away 
of the body or of an organ with 
or without apparent cause, and 
accompanied by impairment or 
destruction of functions: atropic, 
&.,dt-rtip'-tk, wasted; defectively 
nourished; in bot., abortion and 
degeneration of organs. 

atropous, a., at' r tip -us, andatropal, 
a., at'-rop-al (Gr. a, without ; 
trope, a turning), in bot., the 
ovule with foramen opposite to 
the hilum ; an ovule having its 
original, erect position ; syn. of 
'orthotropous ' and 'orthotropal.' 

Attalea, n., at-tal'-e-a (L. Attains, 
a king of Pergamos renowned for 
his wealth ; attalicus, woven 
with gold, magnificent), a fine 
genus of beautiful, ornamental 
palm trees, attaining a height of 
from 10 to 70 feet, Ord. Palmse : 
Attalea funifera, fun-if-er-a (L. 
funis, a cord ; fero, I bear), a 
palm whose fruit is known by 
the name of ' Coquilla nuts, ' and 
the hard pericarps furnish 
material for making umbrella 
handles, etc. 

attenuation, n., at't&n'u'd'shun 
(L. attenudtus, weak, reduced 
from ad, to ; tennis, thin), a 
term employed in homoeopathy 
to denote the dilution of drugs.' 

attollens aurem, at-tol'-Znz dwr'em 
(L. attollens, lifting up on high ; 
auris, the ear, aurem, ac.), rais- 
ing up the ear ; a muscle which 
raises the ear : attrahens aurem, 
at''tra>h$nzdwr''em(L. attrahens, 
drawing towards ; aurem, the 
ear), drawing towards the ear ; 
a muscle which draws the ear 
forwards and upwards : retrahens 
aurem, re'-trd-henz dwr'-Zm (re- 
trahens, drawing back; aurem, 
the ear), drawing the ear back ; 
a muscle which draws the ear 
back; the preceding three small 
muscles are placed immediately 

beneath the skin around the 
external ear, and, though their 
names express energy, they are 
rarely active in man. 

Aucklandia costus, divk'land'i-a 
kost-us (Auckland; Gr. kostos, 
L. costum, an Oriental aromatic 
plant), another name for 'Aplo- 
taxis lappa,' found in Cashmere, 
said to be the anc. Costus, the 
root having been celebrated for 
its virtues. 

Aucuba, n., awk'-ub-a' (name of 
the shrub in Japan), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Cornacese, fine 
hardy shrubs : Aucuba Japonica, 
jd-pSn'ik'a (Japtinicus, of or 
belonging to Japan), a shrub 
having beautifully blotched and 
variegated leaves. 

auditory, a., dfod'-tt-dr-t (L. 
auditor, a hearer from audio, I 
hear), pert, to the sense of hear- 

aura, n., dwr'a (Gr. and L. aura, 
the air), a peculiar sensation 
which sometimes gives warning 
of a fit of epilepsy. 

aural, a., dwr'-al (L. auris, an 
ear), pert, to the ear and its 

AurantiacesB, n. plu., dwr-an'-ti-d'- 
se-e(mid..Ij.auranlium, the orange 
from aurum, gold, in allusion 
to its colour), the Orange family, 
many of the species bearing well- 
known excellent fruit : auran- 
tium, n., dwr-an'shi-um (L.), 
the orange. 

aurella, n. plu., dwr-el'la (L. 
aurellum, a dimin. from aurum, 
gold), the chrysalides of some 
Lepidoptera, from their exhibiting 
a golden lustre. 

auricle, n., dwr'i-kl (L. auricula, 
the ear flap from auris, the 
ear), the outside ear, which pro- 
jects as a circular flap from the 
side of the head ; an ear-like 
appendage ; two muscular cavities 
of the heart, so called from their 
resemblance to the ear of a dog, 
named respectively the right and 




left : auricled, a., tiwr'-t-kld, 
having ears or ear-like appendages : 
auricula, n., awr-i^ul-d, showy 
garden flowers see ' Primula : ' 
auricular, a., dwr-tk'-ul-dr, pert, 
to the ear ; applied to the ear- 
shaped cavities of the heart : 
auriculate, a., dwr-ik'-ul-dt, in 
bot., having ear-like appendages ; 
applied to leaves with lobes or 
leaflets at their base : auricularis 
magnus, dwr-ikf-ul-dr'-is mag'nus 
(L. auricularis, auricular from 
auricula, the external ear ; mag- 
nus, great), a name designating 
the largest nerve of the ascending 
branches of the cervical plexus : 
auriculo-temporalis, awr-ik'ul'd- 
t$mp'or-dl f 'is (L. tempordlis, be- 
longing to time from tempus, 
time), the auriculo-temporal, 
designating a nerve lying immed- 
iately in front of the ear, and 
close to the temporal artery : 
auriculo- ventricular, -v%n trik f - 
ul-dr (L. ventriculus, a little 
belly, a ventricle of the heart 
from venter, the belly), of or be- 
longing to the great transverse 
groove separating the auricles of 
the heart from the ventricles, or 
the orifice forming the communic- 
ation between these chambers. 
aurist, n., awr'-ist {L. auris, an 
ear), one skilled in the cure of 
diseases of the ear : auriscope, 
n., awr'i'slcop (Gr. skopeo, I see), 
an instrument which covers the 
auricle for ascertaining the con- 
dition of the internal ear and its 

auscultation, n., aws'lcult'a'shun 
(L. auscultatio, a listening to 
with attention from Gr. ous, L. 
auris, an ear ; L. cultus, used or 
exercised), the method of dis- 
covering the extent and seat of [ 
any disease by listening with ' 
the ear alone (immediate ausc.), 
or through an instrument called 
a 'stethoscope' (mediate ausc.). 

autonomous, &.,dw'tdn''dm-us (Gr. 
autonomos, governed by their own 

laws from autos, self; nomos, a 
law), in bot., said of plants which 
are perfect and complete in them- 

autophagi, n. pln.,dw-tdf<d'ji (Gr. 
autos, self ; phago, I eat), those 
birds which can run about and 
obtain food for themselves as soon 
as they escape from the egg. 

autophyllogeny, n., dw'-td-fil-ddf- 
en-i (Gr. autos, self ; phullon, a 
leaf ; genesis, birth), in bot., the 
growth of one leaf upon another. 

autopsy, n., dw-tSps'i, also au- 
topsia, n., dw- tops' t-d (Gr. autos, 
self ; opsis t sight), seeing a thing 
one's self; ocular demonstra- 
tion ; examination after death. 

auxenometer, n., dwks'-en-om'- 
H-er (Gr. auxesis 9 increase ; 
metron, a measure), an instru- 
ment for measuring the growth of 
plants at intervals : auxospores, 
n. plu., aivJcs'o-spdrz (Gr. spora, 
a seed), large cells formed as 
concluding members <of a series 
of smaller cells in Diatomacese. 

Avena, n., av-en'd (K avena, the 
common oats), a genus of plants 
of the Ord. Gramineae : Avena 
sativa, sat-w'a (L. satlvus, fit to 
be planted from sdtus, sown, 
planted), the cereal oats : A. 
farina, far in' a ( L. far ma, meal, 
flour), the farina of oats, the 
pharmacopoeial name for oatmeal : 
avenacious, a., av'-en-a'-xhus, 
pert, to oats, or partaking of the 
nature of oats. 

avenia, n., av-en'-t-a (Gr. a, 
without ; vena, a vein), without 
veins or nerves; in bot. t vein- 

Averrhoa, n., av'er-ro'a (after 
Averrhoes, a physician of Spain), 
a genus of trees, Ord. Oxalidacese, 
the fruit of which frequently 
grows on the trunk itself below 
the leaves : Averrhoa bilimbi, 
bi'lim'-bi (an Indian name), a 
tree having a green, fleshy, 
oblong fruit, filled with acid 
juice, the fruit used as food in 

AVE 4 

the East Indies, and the juice in 
skin diseases. 

aves, n. plu.,ai/ez(L. avis, a bird), 
the class of birds. 

Avicennia, n., ditiS'ten'-nt-tt (after 
Avicenna, a Persian physician), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Ver- 
benacese, which have adventitious 
roots like the mangrove : Avicen- 
nia tomentosa, t8m-$n-tdz<d (L. 
tomentum, a stuffing for cushions, 
a downy pubescence), a species 
in great use in Brazil for tan- 

avicularium, n., av'ik'ul'ar't'tim 
(L. avicula, a little bird from 
avis, a bird), a singular appendage, 
frequently shaped like the head 
of a bird, found in many of the 

awn, n., awn (Icel. ogn ; Swed. 
agn; Gr. achne, chaff), the 
beard of corn or grass : awned, 
a., dwnd, having an awn or 

axil, n., dks'tt, also axilla, oks-il'-ld 
(L. axilla, the armpit), in bot., 
the upper angle where the leaf 
joins the stem: axilla, n., 
aks-il'ld, in anat., the armpit ; 
the pyramidal space situated be- 
tween the upper and lateral part 
of the chest, and the inner side 
of the arm ; a part forming a 
similar angle : axile, a., dks-il, 
also axial, dksf-i-dl, belonging to 
the axis : axillary, a,.,dks f -il-ldr>i, 
in bot., arising from the axis of 
a leaf; in anat., designating an 
artery which commences at the 
lower border of the first rib, and 
terminates at the lower border of 
the tendons of the 'latissimi 
dorsi' and 'teres major' muscles ; 
designating parts that belong to 
the axilla or armpit : axillary 
plexus, in anat., the brachial 
plexus, formed by the last three 
cervical and first dorsal nerves : 
axial skeleton, the whole ver- 
tebrae of the body, extending in a 
line from the top of the neck or 
atlas, to the bottom of the trunk. 


axis, n., dks'is, axes, plu., dies' ez 
(L. axis, Gr. axon, an axle-tree, 
a pole), in bot., the central por- 
tion of the plant from which the 
plumule and radicle are given off; 
the central organ bearing buds ; 
the common stem or main body 
of a plant ; in anat., the second, 
cervical vertebra, so called as 
forming the pivot upon which 
the atlas and head rotate : caeliac 
axis, the first trunk given off 
by the abdominal aorta : thyroid 
axis, a short trunk arising from 
the subclavian artery : axis 
cylinder, the central portion or 
axis tract of a nerve. 

Azalea, n., az-dl'$-a (Gr. azaUos, 
dry, parched, in allusion to the 
dry habitat of the plant from 
azo, I dry or parch), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Ericaceae, univers- 
ally admired for their white, 
orange, purple, scarlet, and 
variegated flowers : Azalea In- 
dica, m'-dik-d (L. Indicus, of or 
from India), a greenhouse plant 
of great beauty; A. Pontica, 
p8ntf>ik-a (L. Pontus, the Black 
Sea), is supposed to have been 
the plant whose flowers yielded 
the poisonous honey noticed by 
Xenophon in the retreat of the 
10,000 : A. procumbens, pro- 
kumf-bZnz (L. procumbens, lean- 
ing or bending forwards), grows 
on the mountains of Scotland 
and in the Arctic regions. 

azote, n., tiz'ot (Gr. a, without; 
zoe, life), nitrogen gas, so called 
because it will not support the 
respiration of animals : azotic, a., 
aZ'Qtf'ik, ^pert. to azote ; fatal to 
animal life: azotised, a., az'ot- 
Izd, containing nitrogen or azote. 

azoturia, n., az'-ot-ur'-i-a (Eng. 
azote ; Gr. ouron, L. urlna, 
urine), an excess of urea in the 
urine ; a disease of animals aris- 
ing from a too rapid disintegra- 
tion of tissues, or a de-fective 
assimilation of food. 

azygos, n., az'-ig-os (Gr. a, with- 




out; zugon, a yoke), a general 
name applied to muscles, arteries, 
veins, bones, and other parts 
that have no fellow or corre- 
spondent part but in anat., the 
ordinary meaning and application 
of the term is more or less a mis- 
nomer : azygous, a., dzf-ig'tis, 
single ; without a fellow : azygos 
processus, pro-s^s'-us (L. pro- 
cessus, a going forward, a pro- 
gression), a process of the sphenoid 
bone: A. uvulse, uv'-ul-e (L. uvula, 
a little cluster, a little grape 
from uva, a cluster, a grape), a 
muscle of the uvula, but really a 
pair of muscles : A. vena, ven'd 
(L. vena, a vein), a vein formed 
by the union of the lower inter- 
costal veins of the left side. 

NOTE. There are two 'azygous veins . ' 
the greater and the lesser, one on 
the right side, and the other on 
the left of the spine, forming a 
system of communication between 
the inferior and superior vena 
cava. There are also two 'azygous 
arteries,' one to each knee-joint. 
The term is only strictly applicable 
to the rostrum or central spine of 
the sphenoid bone, which is a true 
'azygous process.' 

bacca, n., ba&a (L. bacca, a berry), 
in hot. , a unilocular fruit having 
a soft outer skin which covers a 
pulp amongst which the seed is 
immersed: baccate, a., bdk'-dt, 
designating pulpy fruits in gener- 
al; fleshy: bacciferous, a., bdk> 
sif f >$r'US (L. fero, I bear), bearing 
or producing berries : baccifonn, 
a., bdk'-si-form (L. forma, shape), 
having the form or shape of a 

bacilli, n. plu., Ids-iUl (L. 
bdellium, a small staff or wand), 
in bot., the narrow plates of 
diatoms: bacillar, a., bas'-il-ldr, 
resembling rods ; somewhat club- 

bacterium, n., bdk'ter'i-tim, bac- 
teria, n. plu., bak'ter'-t-a (Gr. 
baktenon, a rod, a walking-stick), 
microscopic, staff - shaped or 
pointed filaments which are re- 

garded as one of the earliest forms 
of organic life, abounding in 
animal fluids in a state of 
decomposition, but their real 
nature has not yet been ascer- 
tained: bacteroid, a., baMt%r>dyd, 
resembling the bacteria. 

bactridium, n.> bak-trid'-i-um (Gr. 
baktron, a cane, a staff; eidos, 
resemblance), a genus of the Ord. 
Fungi, found on the horizontal 
surfaces of old stumps : bacter- 
idia, n. plu., bak'-ter-id^-a, a 
term applied to certain straight 
motionless bodies found in the 
blood of animals labouring Under 
malignant pustules. 

baculiform, a., bak-ul^-fdrm (L. 
baculum, a staff; forma, shape), 
in bot. , applied to rod-like bodies 
in the reproductive organs sphser- 
oplea: baculiferous, a., bak^-ul- 
if f -ef'US, bearing canes or reeds. 

BalanidaB, n. plu., bal-an<i-de(Gr. 
balanos, an acorn; and -idee), 
a family of sessile cifripedes, 
commonly called 'acorn shells;' 
balanoid, a., bdl'-dn-ofyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), having the 
shape of an acorn. 

Balanophoracea9> n. plu., bal'dn- 
tif'O'r'd'sZ'e (Gf. balanos, an 
acorn; phoreo, I bear or carry), 
the Balanophora order, having 
root - parasites and peculiar 
fungus-like stems: Balanophora, 
n., bal'-an-df-tir-d, a genus of 

balaustia, n., bdlawM-d (Gr. 
balaustion, a pomegranate flower), 
the fruit of the pomegranate ; an 
indehiscent inferior fruit, with 
many cells and seeds, the seeds 
being coated with pulp : balaus- 
tine, n., bdl-dws'-tin, the wild 
pomegranate tree. 

baleen, n., bdl-en' (L. balcena, a 
whale), the horny plates which 
occupy the palate of the true or 
'whale-bone' whales. 

balm, n., bdm (Fr. baume, balm ; 
Gr. balsamon, L. balsamum, 
balsam), a fragrant plant; any 




ointment that soothes: balsam, 
n., bdl'-sam, a soothing ointment 
of an oily nature. 

Balsaminacese, n . plu., bal'sam- 
wi-a-se-e(Gr. balsamon, ii.balsam- 
um, balsam), the Balsam family, 
an Order of plants consisting of 
lofty trees abounding in balsamic 
juices: Balsamina, n., bal'sam- 
In'-Gb (balassan, the name given by 
the Arabs), a genus of above 
Order: balsam, n., btittstimi, a 
beautiful and popular annual 
of our gardens, with its white, 
red, pink, purple, lilac, and 
finely variegated carnation-like 
flowers ; the juice with alum used 
by the Japanese to dye their nails 

Balsamodendron, n., bal'sam-d- 
den'dron (Gr. balsamon, balsam; 
dendron, a tree), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Burseracese, which yield a 
fragrant balsamic and resinous 
juice, often used as frankincense 
and in medicine ; Elimi is pro- 
duced by one species : Balsamo- 
dendron myrrha, mir^rd (L. 
myrrha, Gr. murrha, myrrh), a 
shrub of Abyssinia, the source 
of the officinal myrrh, a bitter 
aromatic gum resin, anciently 
used as frankincense : B. Afric- 
anum, df-rik-an'-um (L. Afrk- 
anus, belonging to Africa), pro- 
duces the resin bdellium : B. 
Gileadense, gil'-e-ad-ens'-Z (L. 
Gileadensis, belonging to Gilead), 
the celebrated balsam called Balm 
of Gilead. 

Bambusa, n., bam-buz'-a (bambos, 
the Indian name; Malay, bambu), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Graminese, 
including the bamboo- cane : Bam- 
busa arundinacea, ar-und'-in-af- 
se-a (L. arundinaceus, pert, to 
or like a reed from arundo, the 
reed-cane), the bamboo; a siliceous 
matter which accumulates in the 
joints of the stalks is called 

banana, n., ban-dn'd (Spanish 
name), a herbaceous plant and its 

fruit, differing from the plantain 
in having its stalks marked with 
dark purple stripes and spots, and 
the fruit shorter and rounder ; 
the systematic name is Musa 
sapientum, Ord. Musacese. 

bangue, n., bang ; see 'bhang.' 

Banisteria, n., ban'is-ter'-i-a (after 
the botanist Rev. J. Banister], a 
genus of plants of beautiful foli- 
age, Ord. Malpighiacese. 

Banksia, n., bank'-si-a (in honour 
of Sir Joseph Banks), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Proteaceae, so called 
because they present great di- 
versity of appearance, the clustered 
cone-like heads of the flowers 
having a remarkable appearance. 

banyan, n., ban'yan (Sans, punya, 
holy, sacred), the Indian fig tree, 
Ficus Indicus, which attains to 
an immense size. 

baobab, n., bd'-db-ab (probably 
from a native name), a tree of 
Senegal, Monkey-bread, one of 
the largest known trees the 
Adansonia digitata. 

Baphia, n., baf-i-d (Gr. baphike, 
the art of colouring or dyeing), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Leguminosse, 
Sub-ord. Csesalpiniese, which 
yield ringwood : Baphia nitida, 
nit^d'd (L. nitidus, shining, 
glittering), camwood. 

Baptisia, n., bap-tizh'-i-a (Gr. 
baptizo, I dip or immerse from 
bapto, I dye)j a genus of orna- 
mental border plants, Ord. Legum- 
inosse, Sub-ord. Papilionacese : 
Baptisia tinctoria, tink-tor'-i-d 
(L. linctorius, of or belonging to 
dyeing), a plant that gives a blue 
dye; the wild indigo of the 
United States. 

Barbadoes, a., bdrb-dd'-oz, of or 
from Barbadoes, one of the West 
India islands : Barbadoes tar, a 
mineral tar, a species of naphtha, 
found naturally in Barbadoes : 
Barbadoes aloes, the inspissated 
juice of the Aloe vulgaris, the 
most active form of that drug, im- 
ported in gourds from Barbadoes. 

BAR 4 

barbate, a., bdrb'dt (L. barba, a 
beard), in bot., bearded; having 
tufts of hair-like pubescence : 
barbs, n., bdrbs, hooked hairs: 
barbed, a., bdrbd, terminating 
in the sharp shoulders of a hook 
or arrow -head: barbula, n., 
bdrb'-ul-d (L. diminutive, a little 
beard), the teeth of the peristome 
of mosses. 

barilla, n., bar-il'la (Sp. barrilla, 
the plant glasswort; barrillar, 
the ashes of the plant), a crude 
soda extracted from the ashes of 
the plants Salsola and Sali- 
cornia, found growing in salt 
marshes on the Mediterranean 
and other shores, Ord. Chenopod- 

bark, n., baric (Dan. baric, IceL 
borkr, bark), the outer cellular 
and fibrous covering of the stem, 
called the Cortex: bark-bound, 
a., having the bark too firm or 

Barosma, n., bar-os'ma (Gr. 
barus, heavy ; osme, smell), a 
genus of plants, so called from 
the powerful scent of their leaves: 
Barosma crenulata, kren'-ul-dftd 
(L. crenulatus, slightly notched 
from crena, a notch), as also 
B. serratifolia, ser-rdt^i-foV-i-d 
(L. serratus, saw-shaped from 
serra, a saw ; folium, a leaf), and 
B. betulina, bet'ul-m'd (L. betula, 
the birch), the leaves of these and 
other species are used in medicine 
under the name of 'buchu,' and 
contain a yellowish oil having a 
powerful odour. 

Barringtonise, n. plu., bar'ing- 
ton'-l-e (after Harrington), a tribe 
of plants of the Ord. Myrtacese, 
having a fleshy, one-celled fruit : 
Barringtonia, n., barring -ton'-i- a, 
a genus of plants, many of which 
yield an aromatic, volatile oil. 

baryta, n. , bar-lt'-a, or barytes, n. , 
bar'it'-ez (Gr. barutes, weight, 
heaviness from barus, heavy), 
the heaviest of all the alkaline 


basal, a., bds f -dl, also basilar, a., 
bas'-il-dr (L. and Gr. basis, the 
foundation), in bot., attached to 
the base of an organ usually the 
embryo when situated at the 
bottom of the seed : basal pla- 
centa, pld'Sent f 'd (L. placenta, a 
cake), in bot. , the placenta at the 
base of the ovary j in anat. , the 
placenta at the base of the uterus : 
basilar, a., in anat., at the base, 
bottom, or foundation of a part ; 
applied to several bones ; also to 
a process of the occipital tons, 
and to the artery running over 

basidium, n. , bds-id'<i-&m, basidia, 
plu., bds-id f 'i-d (L. basidium, a 
little pedestal from basis, a 
pedestal), in some Fungi, a cell 
bearing on its exterior one or more 
spores : basidiospore, n., bds-id'- 
i'd-spor (Gr. spora, a spore), a 
spore borne upon a basidium: 
basid'iospcrous, a. , -spor'-us, 
bearing spores upon a basidium. 

basilar, see under * basal:' basilar 
aspect, in anat., that which is 
towards the base of the head: 
basilar artery, so named from 
its position at the base of the 

basilic, a., bds-il'-ik (Gr. basilikos t 
royal from basileus, a king), 
denoting parts supposed to hold 
a chief place in the animal func- 
tions : basilic vein, a vein of the 
upper extremity of considerable 
size, formed by the coalescence 
of the anterior and posterior ulnar 
veins: basilicon, n., bas-il'-ik^n, 
'royal ointment,' an old name 
for old-fashioned remedies for 
wounds, etc., of three kinds now 
restricted to that made of wax, 
resin, and lard. 

basio-glossus, bdztt-d'-glos'us (Gr. 
basis, a base; glossa, the tongue), 
the muscle extending from the 
base of the os hyoides to the 
tongue; one of the three supposed 
muscles of the hyo-glossus. 

basipetal, a., bas-zp^t-dl (Gr. 




basis, a base ; petalon, a leaf), 
development of a leaf from apex 
to base. 

basis, n., bds'is (Gr. basis, a base), 
in med. , the chief ingredient of a 

basis venae vertebrarum, bds'is 
ven'e vert'$b-rdr'um (L. vence, 
blood-vessels ; basis, of a base or 
body; vertebrarum, of the verteb- 
rae), the veins of the body of 
the vertebrae ; the veins contained 
in large tortuous channels in the 
substance of the bones of the 
vertebrae : basis cordis, kor'-dis 
(L. cor, the heart, cordis, of the 
heart), the base or broad part of 
the heart. 

bass, n., bas, also bast, n., bast 
(Dut. bast, bark, peel; Sw. basta, 
to bind), the inner fibrous bark 
of dicotyledonous trees, such as 
the lime tree, from which matting 
is made. 

Bassia, n., bds'si'd (in honour of 
Bassi of Bologna), a genus of 
handsome, lofty - growing trees, 
Ord. Sapotaceae : Bassia butyracea, 
but'$r-d's&'d (L. butyrum, Gr. 
boutouron, butter), a tree which 
yields a thick, oil -like butter. 

bassorin, n., bas'stir-m (first dis- 
covered in Bassora gum], a sub- 
stance obtained by treating gum 
resin successively with ether, 
alcohol, and water. 

bast, n., see * bass.' 

Batatas, n., bat-dt'as (Sp. batata, 
the sweet potato), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Convolvulaceae : 
Batatas edulis, 'ed-ul'-is (L. edulis, 
eatable), a plant which yields the 
sweet potato also called 'Cam- 
otas. ' 

bathymetrical, a., bath'-i-metf-riTc- 
al (Gr. bathus, deep ; metron, a 
measure), applied to the distribu- 
tion of plants and animals along 
the sea bottom which they in- 
habit ; denoting the depths at 
which plants grow on the sea 
bottom ; denoting the depth of 
any tissue or organ. 

Batides, n. plu., bat-id'-ez (Gr. 
batos, a bramble), the family of 
the Elasmobranchii, comprising 
the Kays. 

Batrachia, n. plu., bat-rak'-i-a 
(Gr. batrachos, a frog), applied 
loosely to any of the Amphibia; 
restricted sometimes to the Am- 
phibians as a class, or to the 
Anoura: batrachian, a., bat-rdk' 
I' an, relating to frogs, toads, and 
the like. 

Bauhinia, n., bdw-hm'i-a (in 
memory of Bauhin, a botanist of 
the 16th cent. ), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Leguminosae, Sub-ord. 
Caesalpinieae : Bauhinia tomen- 
tosa, t&m f > en-tort a (L. tomentum, 
a stuffing for cushions ; Sp. torn- 
entoso, pert, to tow or horse- 
hair), a plant whose dried leaves 
and young buds are prescribed 
in dysenteric affections : B. 
variegata, var^i-eg-at'-a (L. 
variegdtum, to make of various 
sorts and colours), a plant, the 
bark of which is used in tan- 
ning leather: B. racemosa, ras'-Z- 
moz'a (L. racemosus, full of clus- 
ters, clustering from racemus, 
a cluster of grapes), a plant whose 
bark is employed in making ropes. 

Beaumontia, n., bo-mon'shi-d (in 
honour of Lady Beaumont), a 
magnificent Indian climber, hav- 
ing splendid foliage and festoons 
of enormous funnel-shaped, white 

bebeeru, n., beb-er'6, also bibiru, 
n., bib-er'6 (bebeera, the green- 
heart tree, a supposed native 
name ; Latinised name, bebeerlna), 
the bark of the green -heart, a large 
tree 60 feet high found in British 
Guiana, whose wood is imported 
for shipbuilding : bebeerin, n., 
bZb-er'in, a vegetable alkaloid 
found in bebeerina, possessing 
tonic and other properties. 

begass, n., be-gas' (an American 
word), sugar - cane after being 
cut and crushed ; called megass 
and trash in the West Indies. 


Begoniacese, n. plu., 
(after Begon, a French botanist), 
the Begonia farnity, an Order of 
plants : Begonia, n., bZ-gon'-i-a, 
a genus of plants, having showy 
pink, white, or yellow flowers, and 
handsome succulent leaves, great 
favourites with cultivators : Be- 
gonia obliqua, tib-lik'wa (L. 
obliquus, slanting, oblique), a 
species said to have purgative 
roots, and is sometimes called 
wild rhubarb: B. gemmipara, 
jem-ip'-ar-a (L. gemma, a bud ; 
pario, I bring forth), a species 
from the Himalayas, which has 
gemmae in the axils of the stipules. 

belladonna, n., bel-la-ddn'nd (It. 
bella, beautiful ; donna, lady 
from its use as a cosmetic by the 
ladies of Italy), an extract of the 
leaves of the deadly nightshade, 
a valuable narcotic in small 
doses, but a deadly poison if 
exceeded, remarkable for its 
power, in certain doses, of dilat- 
ing the pupils of the eyes : Atropa 
belladonna, atf-r dp -a(Gr. A tropos, 
one of the three Fates, whose 
duty it was to cut the thread of 
life in allusion to its deadly 
effects), the systematic name for 
belladonna, is one of our most 
active indigenous poisons, Ord. 
Solanaceae, Sub-ord. Atropese. 

Bellis, n., bel'-tis (L. bellus, pretty, 
charming), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Compositse, including the 
common daisy : Bellis perennis, 
per-Zn'-ms (L. perennis, that lasts 
the whole year through, never- 
failing fromper, through; annus, 
a year), the always charming ; the 
common wild daisy of our fields 
and hills ; in Scotland called the 
Go wan : B. fistulosa, fist'-uloz'a 
(L. fistulosa, full of holes, porous), 
the red daisy of our gardens : B. 
hortensis, h&rt-ens'is (L. horten- 
sius, belonging to a garden from 
hortus, a garden), the common 
red daisy : B. prolifera, prd-tif- 
%r>a (L. proles, offspring ; ftro, 

47 BET 

I bear), the striped daisy, bearing 
abnormal buds. 

benzoin, n., bZn'zd-m (said to be 
from Ar. benzoah; Sp. benjui, 
benzoin), a concrete, balsamic 
exudation obtained by incisions 
from a tree of Sumatra and 
Borneo the Sty rax benzoin ; 
also called benzoe, and vulgarly 
benjamin: benzoic, a., ben- 
zo r -ik, denoting an acid obtained 
from benzoin, vulgarly called 
benjamin flowers : benzoinum, 
n., ben'-zo-in'-um, the pharma- 
copoeial name for * benzoin. ' 

BerberidacesB, n. plu., ber'-bZr-i- 
daf-se-e(L. berberis, the barberry ; 
Ar. berberi, wild), the Barberry 
family, an Ord. of plants : Ber- 
beris, n., ber'b$r-z8, a genus of 
plants : Berberis vulgaris, vulg- 
ar'-is (L. vulgaris, general, 
common), the common barberry 
tree, the bark and stem of which 
are astringent, and yield a yellow 
dye ; the fruit contains oxalic 
acid, and is used as a preserve : 
B. lycium, lisli'-l-um (Gr. lukion, 
a thorny tree of Thessaly ; Lycia 
in Asia Minor, where found), a 
tree which affords a medicinal 
extract in much repute in ancient 
times, and still in India, chiefly 
for ophthalmia : berberin, n., 
ber^ber-in, an alkaline substance 
obtained from the root of the 
barberry shrub. 

Bertholletia, n., berth<dl-le<shi-d 
(in honour of the chemist Ber- 
thollet), a genus of tall ornamental 
trees, Ord. Myrtacese : Berthol- 
letiaexcelsa, ek-sels'd(L. excekus, 
elevated, lofty) ; or, according to 
others, B. uobilis, nob'-il-is (L. 
nobilis, famous, celebrated), a tree 
which produces the well-known 
Brazil nuts. 

Berzelia, n., Ur-zel'-i-a (after the 
chemist Berzeliiis), a genus of 
pretty flowering plants, Ord. 

Beta, n., bet'-a (L. beta, the beet- 
root; said to be Celtic bett, red), a 




genus of plants, Ord. Chenopodi- 
acese, many of which are used as 
esculent pot-herbs : Beta vul- 
garis, vulg>dr'4s (L. vulgaris, 
common), the common beetroot 
of our gardens and fields ; also 
called B. campestris, kam-pest'ris 
(L. campestris, belonging to a 
field), field beet or mangold- 

betel-nut, betfl (F. betel, Sp. betel), 
the fruit of the Areca catechu, 
an elegant palm from 40 to 56 
feet high ; the powdered nut is 
used for tape-worm, and as an 
ingredient along with Piper-betle 
in the stimulating Eastern mastic- 
atory pan or betel. 

Betulacesa, n. plu., bet'-ul'd'-sZ-e 
(as if a Latin word batula f a 
stroke from bdtuo, 1 strike, I 
beat ; betu, said to be Celtic name 
of the birch), the Birch family, 
an Ord. of trees* consisting of the 
various kinds of birch and alder : 
Betula, bet'-ul-a, a genus of birch 
trees, in the sap of which a 
saccharine matter exists : Betula 
alba, alb' a (L. albus, white), and 
B. glutinosa, gloot'm-oz'd (L. 
glutinosus, gluey, glutinous), the 
common birch, the oil from the 
bark of which gives the peculiar 
odour to Russia leather : B. 
papyracea, pap'ir-a'se-a (L. 
papyrus, the paper reed), the 
canoe birch, whose bark is em- 
ployed in making boats in North 
America : B. lenta, lentf-a (L. 
lentus, tough, hard), the black 
birch of America, called also 
'mountain mahogany :' B. bhaja- 
paltra, badj'd'paU f >r<% (an Indian 
name), a tree whose bark is used 
in India in the manufacture of 

bhang, n., bang, and bangue or 
bang (Sans, bhangga, hemp), a 
plant, the Cannabis Indica, Indian 
hemp, used in India for intoxica- 
tion, in some parts, the dried 
larger leaves and seeds of fruit ; 
in others, the whole plant dried 

after flowering, and the tops 
and tender parts of the plant 

bi-acmninate, a. (bis, twice), two- 
pointed with the points diverg- 

bi-articulate, a. (bis, twice), two- 

biceps, n., bleeps (L. biceps, having 
two heads from bis, twice ; 
caput, the head; bicipitis, of 
having two heads; biclpites, plu.), 
in anat., a muscle that divides 
into two portions, or that has two 
distinct origins; applied to a 
muscle of the arm and of the thigh: 
bicipital, a., bl-sip^t-al, having 
two heads or origins; pert, to the 
biceps muscle : bicipital groove, 
the groove in the bone through 
which the biceps muscle passes : 
biceps anconeus, bi'seps an'-kon- 
e'-us (L. biceps, two-headed ; L. 
ancon, Gr. angkon, an elbow), the 
double-headed muscle at the elbow 
which assists in extending the 
fore -arm : b. femoris, fem'-or-is 
(L. femur, the thigh, femtiris, of 
the thigh), the two-headed muscle 
of the thigh; a large muscle of 
considerable length, situated on 
the posterior and outer aspect of 
the thigh, arising by two heads : 
b. flexor cubiti, fleks'-or Mb'-it-i 
(L. flexor, that which bends; 
cubitus, the elbow, cubiti, of the 
elbow), the double-headed muscle 
that bends the elbow : b. flexor 
cruris, kroor'is (L. crux, the leg, 
cruris, of the leg), the two-headed 
muscle which assists in bending 
the leg. 

bicuspid, a., bi-kusp'id (L. bis, 
twice ; cuspis, a spear, a point, 
cuspidis, of a spear), having two 
points; applied to teeth that 
have two fangs or points, as the 
first two molars on each side of 
the jaw; in bol., ending in two 
points, as leaves. 

bidental, a., bi-dtnt'-al (L. bis, 
twice ; dens, a tooth, dentis, of a 
tooth), having two teeth: bi- 


49 BIL 

dentate, a., bi-d$nt'-dt, in bot., 
having two tooth-like processes. 

biennial, a., bi-Zn'm-al (L. bien- 
nium, the space of two years 
from bis, twice; annus, a year), 
continuing or lasting throughout 
two years; applied to plants 
which do not bear flowers and 
seed till the second year, and then 
die: n., a plant that stands two 
years, and then dies. 

bifarious, a., bi-fdr'i-us (L. bi- 

fdr'ms, two-fold, double from 
bis, twice ;fari, to speak, to say), 
in bot., placed in two rows, one 
on each side of an axis. 

bifid, a., ttf'ftd or blf-td (L. Vtftdus, 
cleft or divided into two parts 
from bis, twice ; fidi, I cleft or 
split), forked ; cleft in two ; 
opening with a cleft, but not 
deeply divided. 

biflex, a., U'-fleks (L. bis, 'twice; 
flexus, bent, curved), in the sheep, 
designating a canal between the 
digits, so called from the peculiar 
curve which it takes ; also called 
the * interdigital canal. ' 

bi-foliate, a., bi-fol'-t-dt (L. bis, 
twice ; folidtus, leaved), in bot., 
applied to compound leaves 'hav- 
ing two leaflets : bi-follicular, 
a., bl-ftil'ik'-ul-ar (L. bis, twice; 

folliculus, a small bag or sack), 
in bot., having a double follicle. 

biforine, n., bif'dr-m (L. bifdris, 
having two doors from bis, 
twice ; foris, a door), in bot. , 
an oblong raphidian cell, having 
an opening at each end. 

bifurcate, a., bi-ferk'dt (L. bis, 
twice, double ; furca, a fork), in 
bot. , forked ; divided into two as 
a fork into its two branches : 
bifurcation, n., bi'ferk-d'-shun, 
a division into two branches. 

bigeminate, a., U-j$m'4n<at (L. 
bis, twice ; geminus, double), in 
bot. , doubly paired, or four in all ; 

Bignoniaceae, n. plu., Ug'non-i'd'- 
&& (in honour of Abbe Bignori), 
the Trumpet-flower family, an 

Order 'having many showy plants, 
whose flowers are frequently large 
and trumpet-shaped: Bignoniese, 
n. plu., big^nou'i-^e, a Sub-order: 
Bignonia, n., big-nori'i-ft, a genus 
whose species are conspicuous 
objects in tropical forests : Big- 
nonia chica, tshlk'-a (chica, Indian 
name, a beauty, a pretty girl ; 
chico, small), a plant from which 
the Indians obtain a red ochreous 
matter for painting their bodies ; 
a fermented liquor among the 

bijugate, a., bi'jdog-dt or bidj'- 
dog > at (L. bvjugus, yoked two 
together from bis, twice ; jugum, 
a yoke), applied to a compound 
leaf having two pairs of leaflets. 

bikh, n., 'bik; bish, n., bish; or 
nabee, n., nd*be', native names 
for the powerful East Indian 
poison extracted from the root 
of Aconitum ferox. 

bi-labiate, a., bi-ldb'-t-dt (L. bis, 
twice; labium, a lip), in bot., 
having -the mouth of a tubular 
organ divided into two parts; two- 

bi-lamellar, a., bi-ldm<el-ldr (L. 
lamella, a thin plate), in bot., 
having two lamellae or flat di- 
visions; formed of two plates ; 
also bi -lamellate, a., -lam'-M-ldt, 
in same sense. 

bilateral, a., bi-ldt^r-dl (L. bis, 
twice; Idtus, a side, Idteris, of a 
side), in bot. , arranged on opposite 
sides ; in zool., having two sym- 
metrical sides. 

bile, n., bil (L. bilis, bile), a thick, 
yellow, bitter liquor separated in 
the liver, and collected in the 
gall bladder; the hepatic se- 
cretion: biliary, a., Ul'-yer-i, of 
or relating to the bile : 'bilious, 
a., btt'-y&s, pert, to or affected 
by bile : bilin, n.,, bil'-m, a 
gummy, pale, yellow mass, said 
to be the principal constituent of 
the bile. 

bilifulvine, n., Ul'-l-fulv'-m (L. 
'bilis, bile ; fulvus, tawny yellow), 




the colouring matter of the bile, 
especially that of the ox. 

biliphaein, n., UVi-fe'-m (L. bills, 
bile ; phaios, of a brown colour), 
the brown colouring matter of 
the bile, and formerly supposed 
to be its primary form ; identical 
with ' bilifulvine ' and ' chole- 
pyrrhine. ' 

bilirubin, n., biV-i-rooW-in (L. bills, 
bile; rubens, growing red from 
ruber, red), a substance identical 
with the red colouring matter of 
the blood, from which are ob- 
tained, by various degrees of oxid- 
ation, a gradation of colours from 
the green of 'biliverdin' up to pale 

biUverdin, n.^ bil'-t-verd-m' (Fr. 
bile, bile ; vert, green colour), 
the form of pigment into which 
' bilirubin 'often passes, and into 
which it may be converted by 
oxidising agenta. 

BiUardiera, n.,, bU'ldrd^er^d 
(in honour of Labillardiere, a 
French botanist),, a genus of 
handsome climbers, Ord. Pitto- 
sporacese: Billardiera longiflora, 
I8nf>i-fldr f >a (L. longus, long ; 
flos, a flower, floris, of a flower), 
a species producing abundance 
of flowers and handsome blue 

bilobate, a., bl-lob'at, also bilobed, 
a., bi'-lobd (L. bis, twice; Gr. 
lobos, the ear-flap), having two 
lobes ; two-lobed. 

bilocular, a., bfrldk'ul-ar (L. bis, 
twice ; I6culus y a little place), in 
bot., containing two cavities or 

bimanoiis, a., bl-m&n'us (L. bis, 
twice ; manus, the hand), having 
two hands, applied to man only : 
Bimana, n. plu., bi-man'a, the 
Order Mammalia, comprising man 

binate, a., bin'-dt (L. bini, two by 
two), growing in pairs ; double ; 
applied to a leaf composed of two 
leaflets : binary, a., bin'dir>i, in 
chem., containing two units ; in 

anat., separating into two, and 
again into two. 

bi-nucleate, a., 'bl-nuk'-U-at (L. 
bis, twice ; nucleus, a small nut), 
having two nuclei. 

biogenesis, n., bi'-o-fen'-es-is (Gr. 
bios, life ; genesis, origin), a term 
employed to express the mode by 
which new species of animal life 
have been produced; the doctrine 
that all life springs from ante- 
cedent life ; in bot., the produc- 
tion of living cells from existing 
living cells of a similar nature. 

biology, n., bi-ol'ti-jt (Gr. bios, 
life ; logos, discourse), the science 
which investigates the phenomena 
of life, both animal and veget- 

bioplasm, n., bi'd-plazm (Gr. 
bios, life ; plasma, what has 
been formed, a model), the physic- 
al basis of life ; the material 
through which every form of 
life manifests itself : also proto- 
plasm, in same sense. 

biparous, a., bip'tir-tis (L. bis, 
double ;. pario, I bring forth), 
having two at a birth ; in bot. t 
applied to a cymose inflorescence, 
in which an axis gives rise to 
two bracts, from each of which 
a second axis proceeds, and so 

bipartite, a., bip'-art-lt (L. bis, 
twice ; partUus, divided), in bot. , 
divided into two parts nearly to 
the base.. 

biped, n., W-p'ed (L. bis, twice ; 
pes, a foot, p&dis, of a foot), an 
animal having two feet : bipedal, 

: a., bip'-Zd-al, having two feet ; 
walking upon two legs. 

bipinnate, a., bl-pm^nat (L. bis, 
twice; pinna or penna, a feather), 
having a leaf or frond growing 
from a stem, itself divided into 
leaflets and ranged in pairs; 
having leaflets in pairs. 

bipinnatifid, a., bi'-pin-naM-fid 
(L. bis, twice ; pinna, a feather ; 
Jindo, I cleave, fidl, I cleft), in 
bot., having pinnatifid leaves, 




the segments of which are them- 
selves pinnatifid. 

bipinnatipartite, a., bl'-pm-nat-i- 
pdrt'-U (L. bis, twice ; pinna, 
a feather ; partitus, divided), 
differing from pinnatifid in hav- 
ing the divisions of a pinnatifid 
leaf extending to near the mid- 

biplicate, a., Hp'-lflc-at (L. bis, 
twice; plicdtum, to fold), in bot., 
having two folds or plates. 

biporose, a., bi-por'-dz (L. bis, 
twice ; L. porus, Gr. poros, a 
pore), in bot., having two rounded 

biramous, a., bi-ram'us (L. bis, 
twice ; ramus, a branch), applied 
to a limb divided into two 
branches, as in the limbs of the 

bi-septate, a., bl-sept'dt> (L. bis, 
twice ; septum, a* fence, an en- 
closure), having two partitions. 

bi-serrate, a., bi-ser'dt (L. bi&,. 
twice ; serratus, saw-shaped),, in 
bot., having serratures whichi are 
themselves serrate. 

bi-sexual, a., bi-seks'-u-al (L..bis, 
twice, and sexual),, in. bot., male 
and female organs in the same 

bismuth, n.,, bismuth (Ger. wisz- 
muth, bismuth from wisz, white, 
and muth, lively), a hard, brittle, 
yellowish or reddish-white metal, 
used in the arts ;, used in medi- 
cine in two forms (1) the sub- 
nitrate,. (2) the carbonate of bis- 

bistort, n. , bis'tdrt (L. bis, twice ; 
tortus, twisted), the root of the 
plant Polygonum bistorta, so 
called on account of its double 
twist, is a powerful astringent ; 
snake weed. 

biternate, a., bi-tern'dt (L. bis, 
twice ; terni, three by three), in 
bot., having a leaf divided into 
three parts, and each division 
again divided into three parts. 

bivalve, n., bi'-v&lv (L. bis, twice ; 
valvce, folding doors), a shell con- 

sisting of two plates or valves, as 
in the mussel or oyster ; in bot., 
a seed case or vessel of a similar 

biventer cervicis, bl-vent'8r serv> 
is'-is (L. bis, twice, double ; 
venter, the belly ; cervicis, of the 
neck from cervix, the neck), the 
double-bellied muscle of the neck ; 
a muscle of the upper and back 
part of the neck, formed by a 
large fasciculus of the 'complexus' 
or ' trachelo-occipitalis, ' remark- 
able for consisting of two fleshy 
bellies with an intermediate 

Bixacese, n. plu., biks-a'-sZ-e (bixa, 
the name in S. America), the 

I Arnatto or Anatto* family, an 
Order of plants, many of which 
yield edible fruits : Bixe, n. 
plu.,> biks^e^e, one of. the four 
tribes of the Order : Bixa, n., 
biks'-a, a genus of plants of the 
Order : Bixa orellana, dr-Zl'-dn-d 
(Sp. orellana, arnatto or arnotto),. 
a plant,, the reddish pulp sur- 
rounding whose seeds yields the 
red colouring matter known as 
* arnatto, ' used to give a reddish 
tinge or colour to butter, cheese, 

blain, n., bldn (AS. blegen, Dut. 
or Dan. blegne, a boil or pimple), 
among cattle, a malignant car- 
buncle in the mouth, and especi- 
ally on the tongue ; also called 

blastema, lit, llas-ternf-a (Gr. 
blastema, a sprout, offspring- 
from blastano, I bud, I germin- 
ate), the axis of an embryo ;. the 
rudimental element of tissues ; an 
obsolete term for protoplasm. 

blastocolla, n.,.Uasttd-kol'-la (Gr. 
blastos, a bud.; kolla, glue), in 
bot., a gummy substance coating 

blastoderm, n., blast'o-derm (Gr. 
blastos, a bud ; derma, skin), the 
germinal disc or spot which 
forms on the egg in the early 
stage of incubation : blastoderm- 




ic, a., blast'-o-derm'-ik, of or be- 
longing to the blastoderm. 

Blastoidea, n. plu., blast- oyd'-Z-a 
(Gr. blastos, a bud; eidos, re- 
semblance), an extinct Order of 
Echinodermata : blastostyle, n., 
Uasl'-d-stil (G-r. stulos, a column), 
certain columniform zooids in the 
Hydrozoa which are destined to 
bear generative buds. 

blebs, see 'bulk.' 

Wetting, n., UtMng (Gr. bletos, 
thrown, wounded ; L. bliteus, 
tasteless, hard), the change that 
occurs in the pulp of a fruit after 
being kept for some time, and 
-from which a sour fruit becomes 
soft, edible, and pleasant. 

Blighia, n., btig'4-a (after Captain 
Bligh, who carried the breadfruit 
to the W. Indies), a plant which 
produces the Akel fruit, whose 
succulent arillus is used as food, 
the fruit being as large as a 
goose's egg, Ord. Sapindaceae. 

Bcehmeria, n., 'be-mer^i-d (in 
honour of Bcehmer, a German 
botanist), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Urticacese : Bcehmeria nivea, 
niv'-frd (L. niveus, snowy from 
nix, snow), a plant which supplies 
fibre for Chinese grass cloth, also 
the Rhea fibre of Assam. 

Boldoa, n., b8l*dd'-a (after Boldoa, 
a Spanish botanist), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Choniniiaceae : Bol- 
doa fragrans, fraf-granz (L. 
fragrans, emitting a smell), an 
aromatic tree of Chili whose leaves 
contain an essential oil. 

Boletus, n., bol-et'us (Gr. bolites, 
L. boletus, the boletus, the best 
kind of mushroom from bolos, a 
mass or lump, in reference to its 
massy or globular form), a genus 
of fungi found in woods, pastures, 
and on old trees a curious pro- 
duction whose species are succul- 
ent; the Chinese eat fungi largely, 
and prefer the Boleti to the Agar- 
ics : Boletus granulatus, gran'- 
ul'dt'-us (L. grdnulum, a little 
grain from granum, a grain); 

B. subtomentosus, tom'en-toz'-us 
(L. sub, a less or inferior degree ; 
tomVntum, a woolly flocks) ; and 
B. edulis, td-ul'-te (L. edulis, 
eatable), are all edible, and the 
last excellent when cooked. 

bolus, n., bol'-us (Gr. bolos, a mass 
or lump), a medicinal round mass, 
larger than a pill. 

Bombacese, n. plu., Wm-ba'-se-e 
'(L. bombyx, cotton, in allusion 
to the wool in the pods), a tribe 
of plants of the Ord. Steruliaceae, 
having hermaphrodite flowers 
and palmate or digitate leaves : 
Bombax, n., btim'-baks, a genus of 
plants, named 'silk-cotton trees: ' 
Bombax ceiba, se-ib'-a, (Sp. ctiba, 
the silk-cotton tree), the silk- 
cotton tree ; the cotton, having 
no cohesion in its fibres, can only 
be used for stuffing cushions and 
chairs, and similar domestic pur- 

Boraginacese,n. plu., bor- adf-in- 
sg-e(Sp. borrdja, borage; borago, 
a corruption of L. cor, the heart, 
and ago, I bring so called from 
the nourishing qualities of the 

Elant), the Borage or Bugloss 
imily, an 'Order of plants which 
are generally mucilaginous and 
emollient : Boraginese, n. plu., 
bo^-adj-m'-fre, a Sub-order : 
Borago, n., bdr'dg f -o, a genus of 
plants having succulent stems : 
Borago officinalis, df-fts'-m-dl'is 
(L. officinal), borage, which has 
been 'Used as a remedy in pectoral 
affections, and otherwise em- 

borax, n., bor^aks (Ar. baurac, a 
species of nitre), a salt in appear- 
ance like crystals of alum, a com- 
pound of boracic acid and soda; 
used as a domestic remedy for 
children whose mouths are sore, 
and for various antiseptic pur- 

Boronia, n., bor-on'-i-a (after 
Boroni, an Italian), a pretty and 
interesting genus of New Holland 
plants, Ord. Rutaceae, which 


are remarkable for their peculiar 

Boswellia, n., boz-w%l'-li>d (in 
honour of Dr. John Boswell, of 
Edinburgh), a genus of trees, 
Ord. Burseracese, several of whose 
species are called Olibanum or 
frankincense trees, and inhabit 
the hot and arid regions of 
Eastern Africa and Southern 
Arabia, producing fragrant juices 
and resins which in their dry 
state are used as frankincense, 
especially the extract called' Olib- 
anum ; the chief species are 
Boswellia Carterii, kdr-ter'4-i 
(after Carter)-, B. Bhau-Dajiana, 
bdw-dddj'i'dn'd (from native 
Indian names); B. Frereana, 

frer'-e-dn'-d (after Frere); B. 
thurifera, thur-if'-Zr-d (L. thus, 
incense, frankincense, thurts, of 
incense ; fero, I bear). 

bot, n., b$t, or bots,, Wtz (Fr. 
bout, end; Ger. butt, a short, 
thick thing), a worm which in- 
fests the intestines of horses, 
being the Iarva3 of the horse gad- 
fly said to be so called, 'bout,' 
'bot,' or 'end-worms,' because, 
after passing through the intes- 
tines, they hang for some days 
upon the margin of the funda- 
ment beneath the tail, where 
they occasion inconvenience and 
distress, and first attract atten- 

botany, n., btit'dn-i (Gr. btitane, a 
herb or plant), the science which 
treats of plants, their structure, 
functions, properties,, and habits, 
and their classification and 

bothrenchyma, n. , bo'th-rVng'-Mm-d 
(Gr. bothros, a ditch or furrow; 
engchuma, anything poured in, 
an infusion), dotted or pitted 
vessels with depressions inside 
their walls. 

Bothriocephalus, n., loth'-ri>o> 
sef'-dl-us (Gr. bothrion, a little 
ditch, a little pit; kephale, ahead), 
a genus of intestinal worms: 


Bothriocephalus latus, lat'-us (L. 
Idtus, broad), the pit-headed 
tape-worm, a Continental form 
chiefly infesting Switzerland and 
Russia, the germs of which are 
conveyed, through water : B. 
cordatus, Jcdr-ddt'-us (L. cordatus, 
heart-shaped), a species infesting 
the lower animals. 

Botrychium, n., btit-rik'i'um (Gr. 
botrus, a, bunch of grapes; cheo, 
I pour out, I scatter), a genus of 
ferns, so named from the form of 
their fructification, much like a 
bunch of grapes, known by the 
name of 'moon-worts,' Ord. 
Filices : Botrychium virginicum, 
ver-jin'ik'Um (L. virginicum, 
pert, to a virgin), the largest 
American kind, and named the 
'rattlesnake fern' from these rep- 
tiles abounding where they grow. 

botrytis, n., Wt'-rit-is (Gr. botrus, 
& bunch of grapes), a genus of 
fungi, whose little round seeds or 
seed vessels resemble a bunch of 
grapes: Botrytis bassiana, bds- 
si'dn'-d (after J3assi r ,of Bologna), 
the fungus which produces the 
disease in the silkworm called 
' muscardine. ' 

bougie, n., bd'-zhe or boo-zhe' (Fr. 
bougie, a wax candle or taper), a 
long slender instrument made of 
elastic gum, wax, or metal, for 
assisting in the removal of ob- 
structions in the oesophagus, 
urethra, rectum, etc., or in the 
treatment of stricture. 

Bovista, n., bd-vist f -d (a Latinised 
form of its German name, . bofist), 
a genus of fungi, characterised by 
the enormous size they attain, 
from 18 to 23 inches in diameter: 
Bovista gigantea, jig'-dnt-ef-d (L. 
giganteus, of or belonging to the 
giants fromgigantes, the giants), 
a very large and quickly-growing 
fungus, which has increased from 
the size of a pea to that of a 
melon in a single night. 

brachia, n..plu., brak'-i-d (L. arms}* 
two prominent white bands which 

BRA ( 

connect the two pairs of optic 
lobes on each side with the 
'thalamius opticus' and com- 
mencement of the optic tracts: 
brachialis, a., brak'.i-dVis (L. 
brachialis, pert, to the arm 
from brachium, the arm), pert, 
to 'the arm : brachialis internus, 
m-tern<us (L. internus, that is, 
within), an inner muscle of the 
arm which bends the forearm: 
brachial, a., brak'-i-al, of or pert, 
to the arm: brachialis anticus, 
ant'lkf-us (L. anticus, that is, 
before or in front from ante, 
before), a muscle of the arm 
which arises from the front of the 
shaft of the humerus in its lower 
half: bracMo-cephalic, a., brak< 
i-d-st-fal'-ik (Gr. kephale, the 
head), connected with the arm 
and head ; applied to the innomin- 
ate artery and vein. 

.brachiate, a., brdk^-dt (Gr. 
brachion, L. brachium, the arm), 
in bot., having opposite branches 
on the stem alternately crossing 
each other at right angles. 

3rachiopoda, n. plu., brak'i'd'p'. 
dd> a (Gr. 'brachion, the arm ; 
f pous, a foot, podes, feet), a class 
or tribe of the Molluscoida, often 
called 'lamp-shells,' which poss- 
ess two fleshy arms continued 
from the sides of the mouth : 
brachiopodous, a., brak'i-dp'- 
dd'US, having arms in place of 
feet and legs. 

brachium, n., brak'i-um, brachia, 
plu. (L. the arm), the upper arm 
of vertebrates. 

Brachychiton, n., brakf-i-kit'tin 
(Gr. brachus, short ; chaite, head of 
hair, the mane of a horse), a genus 
of plants having fine flowers and 
short stellate hairs : Brachychiton 
populneum, pop-ul'nZ'Um (L. 
populneus, belonging to the pop- 
lar from populus, the poplar 
tree), the poplar bottle tree of 

Brachyura, n. plu., brak'-i-tir'-d 
(Gr. brachus, short ; oura, a 

t BRA 

tail), a tribe of the decapod 
Crustaceans having short tails, as 
the crabs. 

bracteae, n. plu., brdktf-e-e (L. 
bractea, a thin plate of metal), 
bracts or floral leaves : bract, n. , 
brdkt, a floral leaf, a leaf more or 
less changed in form, from which 
a flower or flowers proceed : 
bracteate, a., brakt'e-dt, also 
bracteated, a., -dt-ed, applied to 
flowers having bracts : bracteoles, 
n. plu., brcikt'-e-olz (L. brdcteola, 
a thin leaf of gold, dim. of bractea), 
small or secondary bracts at the 
base of separate flowers, between 
the bracts and flowers : bractlet, 
n. , brdkt'-let, a bracteole. 

Bradypodidae, n. plu., brad'>f> 
pod'-id-e (Gr. bradus, slow ; 
podes, feet), the family of Eden- 
tata, comprising the sloths. 

branches, n. plu., brdnsh'-'es (It. 
branco, F. branche, a branch ; 
It. branca, the claw of a beast), 
in bot., principal divisions of an 
axis or stem ; a bough ; in anat. , 
the principal division of an art- 
ery or nerve: branchlets, n. plu., 
bransh'lets, little or secondary 

branchiae, n. plu., brdngkf-i-e (Gr. 
brangchia, the gill of a fish), the 
gills of a fish, respiratory organs 
adapted to breathe air dissolved 
in water: branchiate, a., brdngk'- 
i-dt, possessing gills or branchiae: 
Branchifera, n. plu., brangk-if. 
%r>d (Gr. phero, L.fero, I carry), 
a division of gasteropodous 
Molluscs having the respiratory 
organs mostly in the form of 
distinct gills: Branchio-gasterop- 
oda, brangk'4- d-gdst'8r - op'-od d, 
another name for Branchifera : 
branchiopoda, n. plu., brangk'-i- 
op'od-d, also branchiopods, n. 
plu., brang'i'd-p6ds (Gr. pous, 
a foot, podes, feet), Crustacea in 
which the gills are supported by 
the feet : branchiopodous, a., 
brdngk f -i-op f -6d'US, gill-footed. 

branchiostegal, a., 




teg'dl(Gr. brangchia, a gill; sfego, 
I cover, I conceal), among many 
fishes, having a membrane sup- 
ported by rays for covering and 
protecting the gills ; having a 
gill covering. 

brand, a., brand (Icel. brandr, 
Ger. brand, a fire-brand), in bot. , 
denoting certain parasitic fungi 
which produce a scorched or 
burnt appearance on the living 
leaves of a tree. 

Brassicaceas, n. plu., bras' si-ka' 
s$-e (L. brassica, W. bresych, 
cabbage said to be in allusion 
to the bunchy top), an extensive 
Order of plants, more commonly 
called Cruciferse : Brassica, n., 
bras'-sik-d, a genus of the Ord. 
Cruciferse. ; many of the common 
culinary vegetables belong to this 
Order, as cabbage, cauliflower, 
turnip, radish, cress, etc..: Brassica 
oleracea, dl'gr-d'sg-d (L. olera- 
ceus, herb-like from olus, a 
kitchen herb), the original species, 
whence all the varieties of cabbage, 
cauliflower, brocoli, and savoys 
have been obtained : B. rapa, 
rdp'-d (L. rdpum, a turnip), the 
common turnip : B. campestris, 
kdm-pest'-ris (L. campestris, be- 
longing to a level field from 
campus, a field), the source of 
the Swedish turnip : B. napus, 
ndp'us (L. napus, a species of 
turnip), rape or cole-seed, which 
yields colza and carcel oils : B. 
Chinensis, tshin-ens'is (mod. L. 
Chinensis, pert, to China), the 
plant which yields Shanghae oil : 
B. nigra, nig'rd (L. nigra, fern, 
black), a plant, the seeds of 
which furnish table-mustard. 

braxy, n., braks'4 (said to be from 
AS. breac, a rheum ; AS. broc, Icel. 
brak, disease, sickness may be 
connected with the root of brake 
and bracken, as indicating the 
nature of the ground where the 
disease prevails), chronic diarrhoea 
or dysentery among sheep ; in 
Scotland, a general term applied to 

diseases of sheep of the most 
opposite character. 

Bray era anthelmintica, brd-er'-a 
dnth'.Zl'mintf.ik'ti (Gr. antl, 
against ; helmins, a worm), the 
flowers of a tree of Abyssinia 
which have been found effective 
in Tsenia or tape -worms ; the 
drug Kousso or Cusso. 

bregma, n., br'eg'-md (Gr. bregma, 
the fore - part of the head from 
brecho, I moisten or wet), the top 
of the head ; the two spaces in 
the infant's head where the part 
of the bone is the longest in 

Brevilinguia, n., brZv'-t'ttng'gwt-ti 
(L. brevis, short,; lingua, the 
tongue), in zooL, a division of the 

Brevipennatae, n. plu , brVv'-i-pen- 
ndtf'6 (L. brevis, short ; penna, a 
wing), a group of the natatorial 
birds : brevipennate, a., brev'-i- 
pVn'ndt, sliort-winged. 

brevissimus oculi, br&V'fe'tin-fo 
ok'ul'i (L. brevissimus, very short 
from brevis, short ; oculi, of the 
eye), the * obliquus inferior, ' from 
its being the shortest muscle of 
the eye. 

Bromeliaceae, n. plu., brdm-el'i-d' 
se-e (after Bromel, a Swedish 
botanist), the Pine-apple Family, 
an Order of plants, natives of the 
warm parts of America : Bromel- 
ia, br 6m- el' i- a, a genus of plants, 
the woody fibres of many of which 
are used in manufactures : Bromel- 
ia pinguis. pmg'-gwis (L. pinguis, 
fat), a species used as a vermifuge 
in the \V. Indies. 

bromine, n., bromf-m (Gr. bromos, 
a carrion smell, a stench), a red 
elementary liquid of offensive 
odour, obtained from sea-water, 
salt-springs, and sea-weed, used 
extensively in medicine in the 
form of bromic acid, and its 
derivative hydrobromic acid. 

Bronms, n., brom'us (Gr. bromos, 
wild oats), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Graminese : Bromus purgans, 




perg'dnz (L. purgans, clearing 
or cleaning out), and B. cathart- 
icus, kath'drtf'ik-us (Gr. kath- 
airo, I clean or purge), grasses 
which have purgative properties. 

bronchus, n., brdngk'-us, bronchi, 
plu., brftngk'-i', also bronchia, n., 
ortingk'i'd, bronchise, plu., -i-e 
(Gr. brongchos, the windpipe), the 
two tubes that branch oft from the 
bottom of the trachea or wind- 
pipe, by which the air is con- 
veyed to the lungs : bronchial, a., 
brdngk'i-al, pert, to the bronchi: 
bronchiole,, n., brdngF-i-ol, a 
small bronchial tube : bronchitis, 
n., brongk'itf-is, the inflamma- 
tion of the lining membranes 
of the bronchial tubes : bronchio- 
cele, n., brongkti-d'Sel (Gr. kele, 
a tumour), an enlargement of the 
thyroid glands, known in Alpine 
regions as goitre, and in England 
as Derbyshire neck : bronchot- 
omy, n., brongk-dt'om-i (Gr. 
tome, a cutting), the operation of 
making an opening into the air 
passages ; when the larynx is 
cut, the operation is termed 
' laryngotomy, ' and when the 
trachea, 'tracheotomy:' bronch- 
ial breathing, a term applied to 
the sound, resembling that pro- 
duced by blowing, through tubes, 
which replaces the normal, vesic- 
ular, respiratory murmur, when 
the ear is applied over a solidified 
portion ot lung : broncophony, 
n., brftngk'ftf'On-i (Gr. phone, 
sound), the peculiarly distant 
resonance of the voice heard in 
similar circumstances to preced- 
ing ; the muffled and indistinct 
speech of any one labouring under 
a bronchial affection. 

Brosimum, n., broz'im-um (Gr. 
brosimos, eatable, nutritious in 
allusion to their eatable fruit), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Moracese : 
Brosimum utile, ut'-il-e (L. utile, 
profitable), the cow tree, whose 
juice can be employed as a substi- 
tute for milk: B..aubletii, a/fob.- 

lesh't'i; the snake-wood or letter- 
wood of Demerara: B.alicastrum, 
al f -ik'astf-rum,& tree which yields 
bread-nuts, nutritious and- agree- 
able when boiled or roasted. 

Broussonetia, n., brds'-on-esh'-i-cl 
(after Broussonet, a French 
naturalist), a genus of ornamental 
and fast-growing trees, Ord. 
Moracese: Broussonetia papyrif- 
era, . p&p'ir $?&& (L. papyrus, 
the paper reed ; fero, I bear), the 
paper mulberry ; the outer bark is 
used in China and Japan in the 
manufacture of a kind of paper, 
the juice as a glue in gilding 
leather and paper, and the bark 
produces a fine white cloth. 

bruit, n., brd'i (F. bruit, noise, 
din), applied to various sounds 
heard in auscultation in disease 
of the thorax or its organs. 

Bruniaceae, n. plu., br6n f -i-a'se>e 
(after Brun the traveller), the 
Brunia family, an Ord. of plants. 

Brunoniaceae, n. plu., brdn-dn'-i-d'- 
s&e (after Dr. Robert Brown), 
the Brunonia family, an Order of 

bruta, n., brdt'-a (L. brutus,. dull, 
stupid), used to designate the 
mammalian order of the Edentata. 

Bryaceaa, n. plu., bri-a'se-e (Gr. 
bruon, moss, seaweed from bruo, 
I bud or sprout), another name for 
theMusciorMoss family, so called 
because the germination of the 
seed commences on the plant ; 
flowerless plants known as ' urn 

bryology, n., bri'til'-ti-ji (Gr. bruon, 
moss ; logos, discourse), the study 
of the division of mosses ; same 
as ' muscology. ' 

Bryonia, n.,brl-dn^i'd(L. bryonia, 
Gr. bruon, bryonia, a kind of 
herb from Gr. bruo, I abound, I 
bud, so named from its abun- 
dance),, a genus of plants, Ord. 
Cucurbitacese : Bryonia alba, 
alb'-a (L. albus, white), a plant, a 
powerful purgative, used in medic- 
ine ; also B. dioica, di-dyV>& 




(Or. dis, twice ; oikos, a house, 
in allusion to the flowers with 
stamens, and those organs bear- 
ing seed growing on different 
plants), supposed to be the same 
as B. alba ; bryony or wild vine ; 
white bryony, applied to the 
root : bryonin, n., &ri-#n-lfo, a 
yellowish-brown bitter substance 
obtained from the root. 

Bryophillum, n., bri'd-fil'-um (Gr. 
bruo, I grow ; phullon, a leaf), a 
genus of curious plants, Ord. 
Crassulacese, so named in allusion 
to the circumstance that a leaf 
lying on damp earth emits roots, 
and throws up stems : Bryophil- 
lum calycinum, Edl'f-sin'-um (Gr. 
kalnx, a flower- cup or calyx, 
kaluJcos, of a flower-cup), a plant 
remarkable for producing ger- 
minating buds at the edges of its 

bryozoa, n. plu., 'brl'-oz-o'-a (Gr. 
bruon, moss, seaweed ; zoon, an 
animal), a synonym of * polyzoa. ' 

bubo, n., buf-bo, buboes, n. plu., 
bu'-boz (Gr. bonbon, the groin), 
an inflamed lymphatic gland, 
common in the groin : bubono- 
cele, n., bu-bdn'o-sel (Gr. Jcele, a 
tumour), a rupture in which the 
intestines break down into the 
groin ; incomplete inguinal her- 

buccal, a., buk'al (L. bucca, the 
cheek), belonging to the cheek or 
mouth, as buccal arteries: buccal 
membrane, the lining membrane 
of the mouth : buccales, n. plu. , 
buk'kdl'ez, the arteries, veins, 
nerves, etc. of the cheeks. 

buccinator, n., bu&sfn-dt'br (L. 
buccina, a kind of trumpet), one 
of the two broad thin muscles of 
the cheeks which act during the 
process of mastication, and in 
blowing wind instruments. 

bulb, n., bulb (L. bulbus, a 
globular root, an onion), in anat., 
resembling bulbous roots; in bot., 
a leaf-bud with fleshy scales, of a 
globular shape, growing on the 

soil or partly in it, as the onion : 
bulbi, n. plu., bulb'i, bulbs: 
bulbil, n., bulb'-tl, also bulblet, 
n., bulb' let, separable buds in the 
axil of leaves, as in some lilies : 
bulbose, a., bulb'os, having the 
structure of a bulb. 

bulbus olfactorius, bulb'-us diydkt- 
or'i-us (L. bulbus, a bulb ; olfact- 
on'ws,.pert. to smelling), the part 
of the olfactory nerve which 
swells into an oval enlargement 
or bulb: bulbar, a., pert, to a 
bulb, generally used in med. 
to qualify a peculiar form of 
paralysis due to disease of the 
medulla oblongata and its imme- 
diate surroundings. 

bulla, n., bid' la, bullse, plu., 
buttle (L. bulla, a water-bubble), 
the blisters or large vesicles 
appearing on the body in some 
forms of skin disease ; blebs : 
bullous, a.,, bul'lus, pert, to 

bullate, a., Wl'-lot (L. bulla, a 
bubble), having elevations like 
blisters ; puckered as- in the leaf 
of a Savoy cabbage. 

bunion, n., bun'-yun (Fr. bigne, a 
knob rising after a knock ; Icel. 
bingh, a heap ; Gr. bounion, a 
bulbous root from bounos, a 
mound),, a subcutaneous swelling 
frequently found on the inner 
side of the ball of the great toe, 
or it may be elsewhere. 

Bunium bulbocastanum, 
bulb f '8'kast f -an-um (Gr. 
a bulbous root from bounos, a 
mound; Gr. bolbos, L. bulbus, a 
bulb; Gr. kastanon, L. castdnea, 
a chestnut) ; also B. flexu- 
osum, fleks-u-oz'-um (L. flexus, 
bent), two species of plants of the 
Ord. Umbelliferse, the tubers of 
which are eaten under the name 
of pig-nuts or earth-nuts. 

Burro anniacese, n. plu., 6er-ma/i- 
m-a'-se-e (unascertained), the 
Burmannia family, an Order of 
tropical weeds allied to the 




bursa, n., bers<d, bursse, plu., 
bers'e (Gr. bursa, skin, leather); 
also bursa nmcosa, mu-kozf-a, 
burs89 mucosaB, plu., mu-koz'-e 
(L. mucosus, slimy, mucous), 
small sacs or cavities enclosing a 
clear viscid liquid, found inter- 
posed between surfaces which 
move upon each other so as to 
ensure their free and easy move- 
ment: bursa patellse, pat-U'-le 
(L. patella, a plate, a knee-pan), 
the skin of the knee-cap ; the 
subcutaneous synovial sac in 
front of the knee-cap: bursiform, 
a., bers'i-form (L. forma, shape), 
shaped like a purse ; sub- 

Burseracese, n. plu., bers'Zr-d'- 
sZ-e (after Burser, a botanist of 
Naples), the Myrrh and Frankin- 
cense family, an Order of plants : 
Bursera, n., bers'$r-d, a genus 
of large trees of considerable 
value which yield a 'balsamic and 
fragrant resinous iuice. 

bursicule, n., bers-ik-ul, alsoburs- 
icula, n., bers-ik'ul'd (L. dimin- 
utive of bursa, skin), in bot.., 
the part of the rostellum of the 
Orchids, excavated in the form 
of a sack: bursiculate, a*, bers- 
ik'ul'dt, purse-like. 

Butea, n., but'8>a (after John, 
Earl of Bute], a splendid genus 
of flowering plants, Ord. Legum- 
inosse: Butea frondoso, frond- 
6z f -o (L. frondosus, leafy from 
frons, a leaf), the Dhak tree of 
the East Indies, yields a product 
similar to Kino, and has bright 
orange-red petals, and a black 
calyx: B. superba, su-pertta (L. 
superbus, proud), yields with the 
preceding a beautiful dye, and roots 
can be made into strong ropes. 

ButomaceaB, n. plu., but'dm-d's&e 
(Gr. bous, an ox; temno, I cut), 
the flowering Rush family, an 
Order of plants: Butomus, n., 
but' dm- us, a genus of aquatic 
plants which receive their name 
because they are said to cause the 

mouths of the cattle to bleed who 
crop them: Butomus umbellatus, 
um-bH-dt'-us (L. umbella, a little 
shadow from umbra, a shadow), 
the flowering rush, a beautiful 
British aquatic plant. 

buttocks, n. plu., but'-tb'ks (Dut. 
bout, the leg or thigh of an 
animal), the protuberant part of 
the body behind ; the seat. 

Buxus, n., buks'us (L. buxus, the 
box tree, boxwood), a genus of 
hardy evergreen shrubs, much 
valued for its close, hard wood, so 
useful in the arts, Ord. Euphor- 
biacese : Buxus sempervirens, 
s&mp-er''Vir'$nz (L. semper ', al- 
ways ; virens, flourishing), the 
bark of this species is said to be 
alterative, and its leaves bitter 
and purgative. 

byssaceous, a., bis-sd'shus (Gr. 
bussos, L. byssus, fine flax), 
resembling or consisting of fine 
thread-like filaments : byssiferous, 
a,, bis-sif'-Zr-us (L. fero, I bear), 
producing or bearing a byssus: 
byssoid, a., Us'-soyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling very 
slender threads like a cobweb: 
byssus, n., bis'sus, the silky fila- 
ments by which the common 
mussel and other bivalve mol- 
lusca attach themselves to other 
objects, or to the sea bottom. 

Byttneriacese, n. plu., Ut'-ner-t- 
d'-se-e (after Buttner, a German 
naturalist), the Byttneria and 
Chocolate family, an Order of 
shrubs, some bearing showy 
.flowers, others, as the Theobroma 
cacao, producing the Cocoa of the 

cachexia, n., ka-k%ks f -i-a (Gr. 
kakos, bad; hexis, habit), a viti- 
ated or deranged condition of the 
body: cachexia aquosa, a- kwozt a 
(L. aquosus, abounding in water 
from aqua, water), a dropsical 
disease of sheep. 

Cactaceae, n. plu., kak-td'-sV-e (Gr. 
kaktos, L. cactus, a prickly plant), 




an Order of succulent herbs, 
natives of tropical America ; the 
Cactus or Indian Fig family, 
many species yielding edible 
fruits, as the prickly pear : Cactus, 
n., kakt'-us, a genus of plants; the 
melon thistle. 

cadaveric rigidity, kad>av'$r-lk 
rtdj-id'-tt-i (L. cadaver, a dead 
body), a term designating the 
stiffness or rigidity of the body 
which ensues shortly after death : 
cadaveric hyperaemia, hi'per- 
em'4-ob (Gr. huper, over, above ; 
haima, blood), usually termed 
'post-mortem hypostasis/ the 
livid discoloration on the body 
after death, caused by the gravi- 
tation of the blood. 

caducibranchiate, a., Md-us'-t- 
brangk'4-dt (L. caducus, falling ; 
brangchia, gills of a fish), having 
branchiae or gills which fall off 
before maturity is reached. 

caducous, a., kad-uk'-us (L. 
caducus, falling), in bot., falling 
off very early, as the calyx of the ' 
poppy ; applied to parts of an 
animal which fall off and are 
shed during its life. 

csecal, a., sek'-al (L. ccecus, blind), 
pert, to the csecum ; having a 
blind or closed end : csecum, n., 
sett-tim, a tube which terminates 
in a blind or closed end ; a little 
sac formed in the course of the 
intestines ; the part of the large 
intestine situated below the 
entrance of the ileum also called 
intestinuin esecum, m'tes-tin'um 
(L. intestmum, the bowel or gut). 

CaesalpinieaB, n. plu. , serf al-pm-l'^e 
(after Caxalpinus, physician of 
Pope Clement vni.), a Sub-order 
of plants, Ord. Leguminosse, 
among which there are many 
plants which furnish purgative 
remedies : CaBsalpinia, n. , ses'- 
al'pin'-i'ti, a genus of plants : 
Csesalpinia coriaria, k6r-i-dr f 'i-d 
(L. ctiridrius, pert, to leather 
from corium, leather), a species 
whose curved pods, under the 

name of Divi-divi, are used for 
tanning : 0. brasiliensis, brdz* 
il'4'$ns'is (L. formative from 
Portug. braza, glowing embers ; 
Old-Eng. brasil, of a bright red 
in allusion to its colour), a tree 
which yields .the Brazil wood of 
commerce : C. echinata, $ktm> 
dt'a (L. echlndtus, prickly), 
famishes Pernambuco wood : 
C. sappan, sap -pan' ', furnishes 
the sappan-wood of Scinde. 

Caesarian section or operation, 
ses-dr'-t-an (L. Ccesdrmnus, of or 
belonging to 'Caesar said to be so 
named after Julius Gcesar, who 
was brought into the world in 
this manner.; probably only an 
adaptation tof L. ccesus, cut), the 
operation of cutting into the 
womb in order to extract the 

caesious, a., sezh'i-us (L. ccesius, 
bluish-gray, cat-eyed), bluish- 
gray ; having a fine pale blue 

caespitellose, a., ses'-pU-eV-loz (L. 
ccuspes, turf, sod), a diminutive 
of csespitose : caaspitose, &. ,ses f -pit- 
oz, growing in little tufts ; tufted, 

Calamus, n., kdl'am-us (Gr. 
kalamos, L. calamus, a reed, a 
reed-pen), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Palm 8e, holding the middle place 
between the grasses and palms : 
Calamus draco, drd-6 (L. 
draco, Gr. drakon, a species 
of serpent, a dragon), one of 
the rattan palms in Sumatra 
and Borneo, whose resin is one of 
the substances called * dragon's 
blood' : C. scipionum, sip-i-on'- 
um (L. scipio, a staff carried by 
persons of distinction), a plant 
whose thinner stems go under 
the name of * rattans'; also C. 
rotang : C. rudentum, rd-denf- 
um (L. rudens, a rope, rudentis, 
of a rope, rudentum, of ropes), 
the common or cable cane, a 
native of the East Indies, etc., 
growing sometimes to the length 
of 500 feet. 




calamus scriptorius, kdl'dm-us 
skrip'tor^i'US (Gr. kalamos, L. 
calamus, a reed, a reed-pen ; 
scriptorius, for writing), that 
part of the floor of the fourth 
ventricle of the brain, the con- 
figuration of which resembles the 
point of a pen. 

Calathea, n., kdl'-dtU-ef.a (Gr. 
kalathos, L. caldthus, a wicker 
basket, a cup), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Marantacese, interesting and 
ornamental: Calathea zebrina, 
zeb-rm'd (Sp. zebra, It. zebro, 
a zebra), a plant, so called from 
its peculiar striped leaves and 
velvety asj ect. 

calathiform, a., kdl-dtli'i-fo'rm 
(L. caldthus, a basket, a cup ; 

forma, shape), in bot., hemi- 
spherical or concave, like a bowl 
or cup : calathium, Ml'-dth'i'tim, 
in same sense as 'capitulum* and 
' anthodium. ' 

calcaneum, n., kdl-kdn'-Z-um (L. 
calcdneum, the heel from calx, 
the heel), in anat., the os calcis, 
or largest bone of the foot, pro- 
jecting downwards and backwards 
to form the heel : calcaneo- 
cuboid, a., kdl-kdn'$'d-kub f 'dyd 
(Gr. Jcubos, a square ; eidos, re- 
semblance), an articulation in 
which the calcaneum is united to 
the cuboid bone by a synovial 
joint and ligaments : calcaneo, 
indicates a connection or articula- 
tion with the heel. 

calcar, n., kdttkdr (L. cakar,. a 
spur), a projecting hollow or 
solid process from the base of an 
organ ; in zool., the spur of a 
rasorial bird; the rudiments of 
hind limbs in certain snakes : 
calcarate, a., kal'-kdr-dt, having 
a spur or spurs: calcar avis, 
di/'is (L. avis, a bird, or 'of a 
bird'), the spur of the bird, a 
curved and pointed longitudinal 
eminence on the inner side of the 
floor of the cerebrum; also called 
* hippocampus minor. ' 

Calceolaria, n., 

(L. calceolus, a small shoe, in 
allusion to the form of the 
corolla), a favourite genus of 
plants, Ord. Scrophulariaceae, 
which contain some very showy 
species ; some of the species used 
in dyeing : calceolate, a., kdl>se'> 
8l> at, having the form of a 
slipper, applied to the hollow 
petals of orchids, and of the 

calculus, n., kdl f -kul-us (L. 
calculus, a small stone), a stony 
concretion in any gland or organ: 
calculi, n. plu., kdl f -kul-i t small 
stony concretions. 

Calendula, 11., kdl^nd'-ul-d (L. 
calender, the first days of the 
Koman month, the calends), a 
genus of showy plants, flowering 
almost every month : Calendula 
oflicinalis (L. offitindlis, officinal), 
the common marigold. 

calice, n., k&l'-ts-e or Ml'-te (L. 
calix, a cup ; calicis, of a cup ; 
calice, in or with a cup), the little 
cup in which the polype of a 
coralligenous zoophyte is con- 

Callitris, n., kdl'.it-ris (Gr. kalos, 
beautiful; thrix, hairy), a beauti- 
ful genus of trees, growing 20 or 
30 feet high, grows best south 
of the tropics, Ord. Coniferse, 
Sub-ord. Cupressinese : Callitria 
quadrivalvis, kwdd'-ri-vdlv'-u (L. 
quadrus, square from quatuor, 
four ; valvce, folding doors), the 
Arar tree, supplying a solid resin 
called 'sandarach' or 'pounce, 'used 
instead of blotting-paper to dry 
the ink by strewing it over MSB. 

callosity, n.,M-&s'&-(L. callosus, 
thick-skinned from callus, hard, 
thick skin), a horny hardness on 
the skin ; in bot., a leathery or 
hardened thickening of a part of 
an organ: callus, n., kdl'-us, same 
sense ; new bony matter, formed 
to unite the fractured ends of a 
bone ; in bot., a protuberance on 
the surface arising from the 
swelling of cambium cells : 




callous, a., kdl'us, hard, indur- 

Calluna, n., kdl-l6n'-d (Gr. kalluno, 
I make beautiful), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Ericaceae : Calluna 
vulgaris, vulg-dr'-is (L. vulgdris, 
common from vulgus, the multi- 
tude), ling or common heather, 
which has astringent qualities; 
used commonly for brooms. 

calomel, n., Ml'8>m&l (Gr. kalos, 
beautiful ; melas, black ; rather 
meli, honey), a mild preparation 
of mercury, chemically known as 
the sub-chloride of mercury. 

Calonyction, n., Ml'-Vn-iTc'-ti-dn 
(Gr. kalos, beautiful; nux, night, 
nuktos, of night), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Convolvulaceae, so 
called because they open their 
flowers at night : Oalonyction 
speciosum, spes'-i-dz'um (L. 
speciosum, full of beauty or dis- 
play from species, look, view, a 
sort), a plant with large white 
blossoms, which flowers at night, 
and has received the name * moon- 
plant. ' 

Calophyllum, n., Jsti&d-fffitim 
(Gr. kalos, beautiful ; phullon, a 
leaf), a genus of large-growing 
timber trees, Ord. Guttiferse or 
Clusiaceae ; Calophyllum calaba, 
kaV-ab'd (calaba, native name), 
the calaba tree, which yields the 
resin 'tacamahaca:'C.inophyllum, 
In'-O'fil'-tim (Gr. Is, a fibre, sinew, 
mos, of a fibre ; phullon, a leaf), a 
species from the seeds of which a 
useful oil is obtained. 

Calotropis, n., kdl-8Mp>w (Gr. 
kalos, beautiful ; tropis, a keel, 
the bottom of a vessel), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Asclepiadiacese, 
so called in allusion to the keel 
of the flowers : Calotropis procera, 
prd'Ser'a (L. procerus, high, tall), 
also C. gigantea, jiy'-dnt-e'.d (L. 
giganteus, belonging to the 
giants), the bark of whose roots 
furnishes the substance called 
'mudar'; the essential principle 
mudarine gelatinises on being 

heated, and becomes fluid on 

calumba, n., kdl-um'bd (Colomba, 
Ceylon, whence obtained ; ka~ 
lumb, the name in Mozambique), 
the root of Jateorhiza palmata, 
from East Africa, an infusion or 
tincture of which is used as a 
pure bitter tonic, the bitter 
crystallisable principle being 
called 'calumbin.' 

calvarium, n., kdl-vdr'-i-um, cal- 
varia, plu. (new L. from L. 
calva, the scalp without the 
hair; calvus, bald), the roof of 
the skull. 

Calycanthaceae, n. plu., kal'ik- 
anth-a'sV-e (Gr. kalux, a calyx ; 
anthos, a flower), the Calycanthus 
family, a small Order of beautiful 
early - flowering shrubs, whose 
flowers are aromatic : Calyc- 
anthus, n., kdl'-ik-dnth'-us, a 
genus of plants, so called in al- 
lusion to the colour of the calyx : 
Calycanthus floridus, fl^r'-id'US 
(L. floridus, flowery, gay), the 
Carolina or common American 

calycanthemy, n. , kdl'-ik.dnth'.em-t 
(Gr. kalux, a flower-cup; anthem- 
on, a flower), the conversion of 
sepals into petals either wholly 
or partially; the insertion of the 
corolla and stamens into the calyx : 
cal / ycanth / emous, a., -Zm-us, 
having the sepals wholly or 
partially converted into petals; 
having the corolla and stamens 
inserted into the calyx. 

CalyceraceaB, n. plu., kdl-fe'-Zr-d'- 
se*e (Gr. kalux, a flower-cup, 
kalukos, of a flower-cup), a small 
Order of herbaceous plants in- 
habiting S. America. 

calyces, see * calyx.' 

CalyciflorsB, n. plu., kdl-is'-i-jldr'>e 
(Gr. kalux, L. calyx, a flower- 
cup ; L. flordlis, floral from 
Flora, the goddess of flowers), 
a sub-class of the Ord. Ochnacese : 
calycifloral, a., kdl-ts'.i-Jldr''dl, 
applied to those plants where the 


petals are separate or united, and 
the stamens are inserted directly 
on the calyx. 

calycine, a., Ml'-is-ln (L. calyx, a 
flower- cup, calycis, of a flower- 
cup), of or belonging to a calyx 
or flower- cup: calycoid, a., kdl' 
ik-oyd (Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
resembling a calyx. 

Calycophoridse, n. plu., Ml'-ilc-o- 

fSr'-id-e (Gr. kalux, L. calyx,, a 
flower-cup; phoreo, I bear or 
carry), in zool.,. an Order of the 
Hydrozoa, so called from pos- 
sessing bell- shaped swimming 

calyculus, n.,, kal-ik'-ul-us (L. 
calyculus, a little flower-cup, 
a bud from calyx, a flower-cup), 
an outer row. of leaflets at the 
base of the calyx giving rise to a 
double or calyculate calyx ;. also 
calycle, n., katti'kl, in same 
sense: calyculate, a,.,kdl-$k'ul'dt, 
applied to flowers which appear 
as if they possessed a double 
calyx; a ring or outer covering 
of bracts appearing to form a 
distinct whorl of themselves. 

calyptoblastic, a. Ml'ip'-td'hlast'-ik 
(Gr. kaluptos, covered ; blastos, 
a sprout or bud), in zool., desig- 
nating the Hydrozoa in which 
the nutritive or generative buds 
possess an external receptacle. 

calyptra, n., kal-ip'-tra (Gr. kal- 
uplra, a covering, a veil), the 
outer covering of the sporangium 
of mosses; the hood of a moss 
theca: calyptrate, &.,kal-ip'trdt,. 

calyptrimorphous, a., kal'ip'-tri' 
mdrf-us (Gr. kaluptra,& covering; 
morphe, shape, form), in bot.,. 
applied to ascidia or pitchers that 
have a distinct lid. 

calyx, n., kdl f >iks, calyces, n. plu., 
kdl'-is-ez (Gr. kalux, L. calyx, a 
flower- cup ; Gr. kalukos, L. 
calycis, of a flower-cup), in bot., 
the outer envelope or whorl of a 
flower, the inner being called the 
corolla; in zool., the cup-shaped 

62 CAM 

body of the vorticella, or of a 
crinoid; in anat., calyces, short 
funnel-shaped tubes in the 
kidneys, into each of which one 
or more of the papillae of the 
renal substance projects. 
cambium, n., Jcam'bi-um (new L. 
cambium, nutriment ; L. cambio, 
I change), a viscid glutinous 
substance formed in spring be- 
tween the bark and the new 
wood of exogens,. the supposed 
matter for new layers of wood 
and bark. 

Camellia, n., Mm-eM-a (after 
Kamel or Camellus, a Moravian 
Jesuit), a genus of plants whose 
species are universally prized for 
their beautiful rose-like flowers, 
and dark -green shining leaves : 
Camellia Japonica, ja-ptin'-ik-a 
(L. Japonicue,, of or belonging to 
Japan), the species from which 
the cultivated varieties are chiefly 
obtained: C, Sasanqua, sas-sang'* 
kwd, the Sasanqua tea, is culti- 
vated for its flowers, which are 
used to impart fragrance and 
flavour to other teas: C. oleifera, 
dl'.&'tf.&r.d (L. oleum, oil;/ero, 
I carry), yields a valuable oil. 
CampanulaceaB, n.plu., kam-pan'- 
ul-d'-se-e (L. campanula, a little 
bell from cdmpdna, a bell), the 
Harebell family,, an Order of 
plants, chiefly herbaceous : Cam- 
panula, n. , kdm-pan'-ul-a, a genus 
of plants so called from the re- 
semblance of its corolla to a bell: 
Campanula rapuncula, rap* 
ungk'-ul'd (dim. of L. rdpum, a 
turnip), a species whose roots and 
young shoots are used for food: 
campanulate, a.,, kam-pdn'-ul-dt, 
having the shape of a little bell, 
as in the flower of the harebell. 
Campanularida, n. plu., Mm- 
pdn'-ul-ar'-id'd (L. campanula, a 
little bell), an Ord. of hydroid 

Camphora officinarum, k#m'fbr<& 
df-fis f 'm'dr''Um(&}). alcanfdr, cam- 
phor; L. camphora, camphor ; 


officlna, a workshop, a laboratory, 
ojficmdrum, of workshops), a tree, 
6rd. Lauracese, which chiefly 
produces the camphor of the 
shops, a native of China, Japan, 
and Cochin- China, obtained from 
the wood by distillation and 
sublimation: camphorated, a., 
Icdm'f&r-dt'Zd, impregnated with 

camptotropal, a., Mmp-tdt'-rdp-al 
(Gr. kamptos, flexible, bent; 
tropoSy a turn from trepo, I 
turn), in bot., having curved 
ovules when the portions on 
either side of the line of curvation 
are equal. 

campulitropal, see ' campylot- 
ropal. ' 

campylospermse, n. plu., kdmp' 
il-d-sperm'e (Gr. Jcampulos, bent, 
curved; sperma, seed), seeds 
with the albumen curved at the 
margins so as to form a longitud- 
inal furrow : camp'ylosperm'ous, 
a., -sperm'us, having the albumen 
of the seed curved at the margin, 
thus forming a longitudinal 

campylotropal, a., Jtttmp'U'tit'' 
rdp-al, also camp'ylot'ropous, a., 
-rSp'US (Gr. kampulos, bent, 
curved; tropos, a turn), in bot., 
having a curved ovule when the 
portions on either side of the 
curvation are unequal ; having a 
curved ovule, with the hilum, 
micropyle, and chalaza near each 

canaliculus, n., TcdMlW-ttt-tte,. 
canaliculi, n. plu., -ikf-ul-i (L. 
candliculus, a water channel 
from candlis, a pipe, a channel), 
a term applied to the minute 
canals of bone, and to the pas- 
sages which carry away the 
tears: canaliculate, a., Jctin'-al- 
W-ul'dt, channelled ; having lon- 
gitudinal grooves or furrows. 
canalis, n., kdn-dl'-is (L. candlis, 
a pipe), a small duct or canal in 
the human frame for the trans- 
mission of nerves, arteries, etc., 

63 CAN 

which have received names from 
their discoverers, as the canals of 
Fontana, Gartner, Havers, Nuck, 
Hunter, Petit, Sylvius, etc. , while 
others are so called from their 
position, as the following: 
Canalis centralis modioli, s$nt 
rdl-is modf-l'Ol'l (L. cenlralis, 
central, middle; mddwli, of the 
nave of a wheel), the central 
canal of the modiolus ; in the 
ear, one of the many small 
canals of the modiolus, larger 
than the rest, running from the 
base to the centre : Canalis 
membranacea, mem'bran-ds'e'd 
(L. membrdndcetis, belonging to 
skin or membrane), the mem- 
branous canal of the ear : C. 
reunions, r&un'-i-enz (L. re, 
again ; uniens, uniting), a small 
duct of the ear rendering the 
cavity of the canalis continuous 
with that of the saccule : C. 
spiralis modioli, splr-dV-is (L. 
spirdlis, coiled, twisted from 
spira, a coil, a twist), the spiral 
canal of the modiolus ; a small 
canal of the ear which winds 
around the modiolus : C. arteriosus, 
drt'erlt-ozf-us (L. arteriosus, pert, 
to an artery from arteria, an 
artery), the arterial canal : C. 
venosus, veri'dz'us (L. venosus, 
full of veins from vena, a vein), 
the venous canal; see 'Ductus 
arteriosus. ' 

cancelli, n. plu., Icfoi-s&ttll (L. 
cancelli, a lattice, a grating), the 
lattice-like texture of the internal 
bone : cancellate, a., kan'Sel'ldt, 
having an appearance like lattice- 
work ; in bot., composed of veins 
alone, or of lattice-like cells : 
cancellous, a.,. Ican-s&l'-lus, pert, 
to the net-like tissue, or lattice- 
work of the inner bone. 
cancrum oris, hank'-rum or'is (L. 
cancrum, a cancer from cancer, 
a crab ; os, a mouth, oris, of a 
mouth), a very rare but danger- 
ous form of gangrenous stomatitis, 
usually commencing in the cheek, 

CAN ( 

and occurring among children 
from two to thirteen years of 

Candollea, n., kdn-dtt'-te-d (after 
Decandolle of Geneva, an eminent 
botanist), a beautiful genus of 
plants, Ord. Dilleniacea?. 

CanellaceaB, n. plu., kan'-el-d'-se'-e 
(L. canna, a reed, a cane), the 
Canella family, an Order of plants 
of the West Indies, very aromatic : 
Canella, n., kdn^tta, a genus of 
plants, so called from their bark 
being rolled like cinnamon, valu- 
able and ornamental trees: Canella 
alba, dlb f 'd (L. albus, white), a 
tall tree yielding the canella bark, 
or white cinnamon, and likewise 
several kinds of oil. 

canescent, a., kdn-es'%nt (L. 
cdnescens, growing white or 
hoary), in bot., hoary; somewhat 
approaching to white. 

canine, a., kdn>in' (L. canis, a 
dog), designating the eye-teeth ; in 
mammals, the four teeth which 
immediately adjoin the incisors, 
two in each jaw ; resembling a 
dog in qualities or structure : 
canine madness, rabies. 

CannabinaceaB, n. plu., kdn'nd- 
bin^d'se^e (Gr. kannabis, L. 
cannabis, hemp), the Hemp and 
Hop family, an Order of herbaceous 
plants: Cannabis, n^kan'-ndb-is, 
a genus of plants : Cannabis 
sativa, sat-w'a (L. sativus, fit to 
be sown or planted), an herbaceous 
plant yielding the valuable fibre 
called hemp : C. Indica, m'dik-d 
(L. Indicus, Indian), a hemp 
plant used in India to produce 
intoxication Bhang is made from 
the larger leaves and fruit dried ; 
Gunjah or Ganja consists of the 
whole plant dried after flower- 
ing ; Haschisch or Qinnab, among 
the Arabs, is made from the 
tops and tender plants dried : 
cannabina, n., kdn f -nd'bin f 'd, 
medicine made from Cannabis 

Cannaceaa, n. plu., Tcdn-nd'se-e \ 

fc CAO 

(L. canna, a reed or cane), the 
Arrowroot family, an Order of 
plants, also called Marantacese : 
Canna, n., kdn'nd, a genus of 
plants containing much starch in 
rhizomes and roots, and producing 
abundance of bright flowers at all 
seasons, the seeds of cannas being 
round and black, and known as 
' Indian shot ' : Canna coccinea, 
kok-sin'8-a (L. coccirieus, of a 

.scarlet colour from coccum, 
scarlet); C. achiras, dk-ir'ds 
(Gr. a, without ; cheir, the 
hand; from W. L); C. edulis, 
%d-ul f 'is (L. edulis, eatable), 
three species of canna from 
which the arrowroot called ' tous 
le mois,' td le mwd, or St. Kitts' 
arrowroot, is obtained : C. iridi- 
flora, ir'-id-i-flor'-d (L. iris, the 
iris or sword lily, iridis, of the 
'iris.; Flora, the goddess of 
flowers), the most splendid 
flowering plant of the cannas. 

cantharis, n., kdnth'-dr-is, canth- 
arides, n. iplu.,kdnth'ar'$d-ez(GT. 
kanthdris, L. cantharis, a species 
of beetle ; Gr. kantharidos, L. 
cantharidis, of a beetle), the 
Spanish fly, so called, collected 
chiefly in Hungary, and is used 
in making blistering plasters, etc. ; 
a weak tincture is occasionally 
employed as a stimulating wash 
for promoting the growth of the 

canthus, n., also kanthos, kanth'* 
tis, -8s (Gr. kanthos, the corner 
of the eye), the angle or corner of 
the eye, respectively named the 
outer and inner angles : canthi, 
n. plu., kdnth'-l, the corners of 
the eye. 

canula, n., kdn'-ul-d (L. canula t 
a little reed from canna, a reed), 
a metallic or elastic tube used for 
surgical purposes, as for removing 
a fluid from a tumour. 

caoutchouc, n., kdo'-tshdok (a 
native Indian word), india-rubber, 
the dried juice of various tropical 
plants, such as Urceola elastica.. 




and Vahea gummifera, Ord. 
Apocynaceae ; also many o f the 
Artocarpus tribe, Ord. Moracese, 
furnish caoutchouc. 

capillaire, n., kap-tl-ldr' (F. 
capillaire, capillary, maidenhair), 
a syrup, prepared from Adiantum 
pedatum, or Canadian maiden- 

capillary, a., Mp'tt-lar-i (L. 
capillus, hair), in bot., filiform 
or thread-like ; hair-like. 

capillitium, n., Mp'-il'lisli'i-tim 
(L. capillitium, the hair collect- 
ively), the threads or hairs of 
puff-balls ; in prescriptions, the 
hair of the head as, abraditor 
capillitium, 'let the head be 

capitate, &.,Mp'-tt-at (L. capitatus, 
having a head from caput, the 
head), in bot., having a rounded 
or pin-like head, as on some 
hairs ; having a globose head : 
capitellum, n., Jcdp'tt-el'-um (L. 
capitellum, a dim. of caput), in 
anat., a rounded process or knob 
supported on a narrower, called 
its neck ; in bot. , the seed-vessel 
or head of mosses. 

capitulum, n., kdp-it'ul-um (L. 
capitulum, a little head from 
caput, the head), in bot., a 
flattened, convex, or slightly 
concave receptacle covered with 
flowers, having very short pedicles 
or none, as in the dandelion, 
daisy, and other composite 
flowers ; in some lichens, a stalk 
bearing a round head or knob ; 
in same sense, Anthodium and 
Calathiuin ; in anat., a process 
of bone, same as capitellum ; a 
protuberance or round head of 
bone, fitted into the concavity ot 
another ; in zool., the body of a 
barnacle, from its being supported 
on a stalk : capitula, n. plu., 
kdp-U'ul-a, small heads or knobs: 
capituliform, a., Mp'-U-ul'i-fdrm 
(L. forma, shape), having the 
appearance of a small head or 

Capparidaceae, n. plu., Mp'-dr-id- 
a'se-e (Gr. Tcappdris, L. cappdris, 
the caper tree, the caper ; Ar. 
algabr, the caper), the Caper 
family, an Order of herbaceous 
plants which have stimulant 
qualities, also called 'capparids': 
Capparis, n., Tcdp'-dr-is, a genus 
of plants, found chiefly in warm 
countries : Capparese, n. plu., 
kdp-par'-e-e, a Sub-order, having 
baccate fruit ; Capparis spinosa, 
spin-oz'-d (L. spmosus, thorny, 
prickly from spina, a spine), a 
species, the flower-buds of which 
furnish capers. 

capreolate, a., kdp'-r&d'l-dt (L. 
cdpreolus, the small tendrils of 
vines from cdprcea, a tendril), 
having tendrils, like vines. 

caprification, n., Mp'-ri-fik-a'- 
sliUn (L. caprificare, to ripen figs 
by the stinging of the gall-fly 
from caper, a he- goat, and flcus, 
a fig), a process of accelerating 
the ripening of fruit by punctur- 
ing or by insects, particularly of 
the cultivated fig. 

CaprifoliacesB, n. plu., Icdp'ri-f8l> 
i-a'sZ-e (L. cdprcea, a tendril ; 

folium, a leaf), the Honeysuckle 
family, an Order of plants, many of 
which, as the elder and honey- 
suckle, have odoriferous flowers: 
Caprifolium, n. ^ap'-ri-fol'-i'tim, a 
genus of favourite climbing plants, 
including the common honey- 
suckle so called from the climb- 
ing and twining habit of the 

Capsicum, n., Icaps'-ik-urn (L. 
capsa, a chest or case for fruit, in 
allusion to the fruit being con- 
tained in the pods), a genus of 
plants, Sub-ord. Solanese, and 
Ord. Solanacese, the different 
species of which furnish Cayenne 
pepper and chillies, natives of hot 
climates : Capsicum annuum, 
an'nu-um (L. annutis, annual 
from annus, a year), the plant 
from which capsicum and Cayenne 
or Guinea pepper are obtained : 




C. fastigiatum, 
(L. fastigiatus, pointed at the 
top fromfastigfum, a projecting 
point), name for same plant and 
its products as preceding : C. 
f rutescens, frdt $s enz (L. frtitex, 
a shrub or bush, fruticis, of a 
shrub), a shrubby plant which 
along with preceding supplies 
bird-pepper : C. baccatum, bdk- 
at'-urn (L. baccatus, furnished 
with berries from bacca, a 
berry), yields a globular fruit, 
furnishing cherry or berry caps- 

capsula circumscissa, 

serW urn- sis'- d (L. capsula, a little 
chest from capsa, a chest or 
box ; circumscissus, torn or cut 
off around), in bot., a capsule 
opening with a lid ; a pyxid- 

capsule, n., kdpsf-ul (L. capsula, 
a little chest), in anat., a mem- 
branous bag enclosing an organ ; 
in bol. , a dry seed-vessel opening 
by valves, teeth, or pores ; in 
cJiem., a small shallow cup : 
capsular, a., kdps'ul-er, relating 
to a capsule ; hollow ; full of 
cells : capsular ligament, %< 
d-ment, a little loose bag at a 
joint which contains the peculiar 
liquid for its lubrication : caps- 
uliferous, a., kdps'-ul'ifter-us 
(L. fero, I bear), bearing caps- 

caput, n., kdp'ut (L. caput, the 
head), in anat., a rounded proc- 
ess supported on a narrower part 
called its neck : caput caecum 
coli, k&pt&t koto (L. 
ccecus, blind ; Eng. colon, the 
great gut), a blind sac about two 
inches and a half in length, situat- 
ed at the upper extremity of the 
great gut. 

caramel, n., Mr'aw-^(F.), burnt 
sugar, chiefly used for colouring 
wines and brandies; a black por- 
ous substance obtained by heat- 
ing sugar to about 400. 

carapace, n., kdr'-d-pds (Gr. kara- 

bos, a crustaceous animal like the 
crab), the crustaceous and horny 
coverings of certain classes of 
animals, as crabs and lobsters, 
the tortoise, etc.; the protective 
shield or case of certain of the 

carbon, n., kdrb'tin (L. carbo, 
a coal, carbonis, of a coal), pure 
charcoal, exists pure only in the 
diamond : carbonate, n., Icdrb'- 
8n-at, a compound formed by the 
union of carbonic acid with a 

carbuncle, n., IcdrbJbng&l (L. 
carbuncUlm, a little coal from 
carbo, coal), a gem ; an intense 
inflammation occupying the 
whole thickness of the skin with- 
in a limited area : carbuncular 
angina, see * angina ' ; a disease 
of pigs, chiefly characterized by 
difficulty of breathing and pain- 
ful inflammatory swellings around 
the pharynx and larynx. 

carcerule, n., kdr'-ser-ul, also 
carcerulus, n., ktir-ser'ul>us (L. 
dim. from career, a prison, a 
gaol), in bot., a dry, indehiscent 
fruit, with the carpels adhering 
around a common axis, as in a 

carcinoma, n., Icdr'sin-owi'-d (Gr. 
karkinoma, cancer, karkinomatos, 
of a cancer from karkinos, a 
crab-fish), cancer: carcinomatous, 
a., Mr'sm-ow'a-#s, pert, to 

cardamoms, n. plu.,kdrd'dm'o'mz 
(Gr. kdrddmomtin, an aromatic 
plant, spice), oval trivalvular 
capsules containing seeds, fur- 
nished by various species of 
Amomum, Elettaria, and Ken- 
ealmia ; much used in giving 
colour and pleasant flavour to 

cardia, n., kdrd'-i>d (Gr. kardia, 
the heart), the opening which 
admits the food into the stomach : 
cardiac, a., kdrd'-i-dk, pert, to 
the heart ; invigorating the heart, 
as by stimulants : n., a medicine 




or cordial which animates the 
spirits: cardiac polypus, p8l'* 
ip-tis, a pre-mortem coagulation 
of the blood within the heart : 
cardialgia, n., Mrd'-i-dlj'i-d (Gr. 
algos, pain), pain in the stomach; 
heart-burn : carditis, n., Mrd- 
It'is, inflammation of the tissues 
of the heart. 

Carduus, n.,kdrd f 'U'%s(Ij. carduus, 
a thistle), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Composite, Sub-Ord. Cynaro- 
cephalse, which includes the 
various species of thistle : Card- 
uus benedictus, IZn'e-dikt'-us (L. 
ben&dfatus, commended, praised), 
the blessed thistle, formerly used 
as a stomachic. 

carex, n., Mr'-eks, carices, n. plu., 
kdr'-is-ez (L. carex, reed-grass), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Cyperacese : 
Carex arenaria, dr'-en-dr'-i-d (L. 
arendria, a sand-pit from arena, 
sand), C. disticha, dist'>$k>& (L. 
distichus, consisting of two rows), 
C. hirta, hertf-d (L. hirtus, rough, 
hairy), have been used under the 
name German sarsaparilla ; some 
of the carices, having creeping 
stems, bind together the loose 
moving sand ot the sea-shore. 

Caricese, n. plu., Icdr-is'-Z-e (origin 
unknown said to be from Cdria 
in Asia Minor, where cultivated), 
a tribe of plants, Ord. Papayacese : 
Carica, n., lcdr f >ilc-d, a genus of 
plants: Carica papaya, pdp-d'-yd, 
the Papaw tree, which yields an 
acrid milky juice, and an edible 

carices, n. plu., see 'carex.' 

caries, n., Tcdr'-i-ez (L. caries, 
rottenness), ulceration or rotten- 
ness of a bone, caries having 
the same relation to bone which 
ulceration has to soft parts, as 
in a decaying tooth : carious, a. , 
kdr f 'i'us, affected with caries. 

carina, n., kdr'ln r -d(L. cdrlna, the 
bottom of a ship, the keel), the 
two partially united lower petals 
of a papilionaceous flower, as in 
the lower petals of pea-flowers, 

which have a keel-like shape : 
carinal, a., Mr-in'-dl, said of 
the aestivation when the carina 
includes the other part 01 the 
flower: carinate, a., Mr -in' at, 

cariopsis, see 'caryopsis.' 

Carludovica, n.,kdr f 'l6>d$v'ik'a (in 
honour of Charles iv. of Spain 
and his queen), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Pandanacese : Carludovica 
palmata, pdl-rndt'-d (L. palmdtus, 
marked with the palm of the 
hand), a plant from whose leaves 
Panama hats are made, a valuable 

carminative, n. , Mr-min'-dt-w 
(It. carmmare, to card wool, to 
make gross humours fine and 
thin by medicine from carmen, 
a card for wool), remedies which 
relieve flatulence and alleviate 
colicky pains, as on the supposed 
old medical theory of humours. 

Carnivora, n. plu., Mr-niv'or-d 
(L. cdro, flesh, carnis, of flesh ; 
voro, I devour), the flesh-eating 
animals, an Order of the Mam- 
malia: carnivorous, a., Mr -HIV'- 
dr-us, feeding upon flesh. 

carnose, a., Mr-noz' (L. carnosus, 
fleshy from cdro, flesh), fleshy ; 
having a consistence resembling 
flesh : carnosity, n., Mr-ntis'tt-i, 
a small fleshy excrescence. 

carotid, n. or a., Mr -tit' id (car- 
.otldes, plu., a modern L. or Gr. 
formative from Gr. Tcaroo, I 
stupefy, from the idea of the 
ancients that by these arteries 
an increased flow of blood pro- 
duced sleep or stupor ; said also 
to be a Latinised formation from 
Gr. Icara, the head ; ous, the ear, 
otos, of the ear, from the con- 
nection of the arteries with the 
face and ear; more likely, from 
Gr. Tear os, deep sleep, because 
compression of them was sup- 
posed to produce sleep, hence 
they were also called 'arterise 
soporiferse'), one of the two large 
arteries of the neck, subdivided 




into the 'external carotid,' sup- 
plying the face and head, and 
* internal carotid, ' which divides 
into the interior and middle 
cerebral arteries, supplying the 
anterior and part of the middle 
lobes of the brain. 

carpel, n., Icdrp'el (Gr. karpos, 
fruit), the name of one or more 
modified leaves forming the pistil 
of a plant when formed of a 
single leaf, then pistil and carpel 
are identical; one of the parts 
which compose the innermost of 
the four sets of floral whorls 
into which the complete flower 
is separable ; also called * carp- 
idium': carpellary, a., kdrp-el- 
Zr-i, belonging to a carpel. 

carpoclonium, n., kdrp'o-klon't- 
um (Gr. karpos, fruit ; klonion, 
a small branch or shoot), in 
bot., a free spore case in certain 

carpogonium, n., Mrp'o-gon'-i-um 
(Gr. karpos, fruit ; goneus, a 
parent, or gune, a woman), in 
bot. , in certain Fungi, the twisted 
end of a branch of Mycelium, 
forming the female organs. 

carpology, n., karp-ol'-o-ji (Gr. 
Jcarpos, fruit ; logos, discourse), 
the part of botany which treats 
of the structure of fruits and 

carpophaga, n. plu., kdrp-fy'-ag-a 
(Gr. karpos, fruit ; phago, I eat), 
fruit-eating animals, a section of 
the Marsupialia: carpophagous, 
&.,kdrp-of -tig-us, living on fruits. 

carpophore, n., Mrp'o-for (Gr. 
karpos, fruit; phoreo, I carry or 
bear), in bot., a stalk raising the 
pistil above the whorl of the 

carpos, n., kdrp'd's (Gr. karpos, 
fruit), fruit ; in composition, 
assumes the form carpo. 

carpus, n., Mrp'us (Gr. karpos, 
Latinised form carpus, the wrist), 
the wrist: carpal, a., kdrp'-dl, 
belonging to the wrist : carpo- 
metacarpal, a., kdrp'-o 

karp'al, pert, to the hand and 
wrist, excluding the fingers. 

Carthamus tinctorius, kdrth'tim-us 
tink'tor r -i'US (said to be a corrup- 
tion of the Latinised Arabic 
name quortum, to paint ; L. 
tinctorius, belonging to dyeing), 
a species of plant, Ord. Composite, 
whose dried flowers constitute 
saftiower or bastard saffron, which 
yields a pink dye. 

cartilage, n., kdrt'il-ddj (L. cartil- 
dgo, gristle), gristle ; a whitish 
elastic substance, such as is at- 
tached to bones, but softer than 
bone: cartilaginous, a., kdrt'il- 
adj'm-us, consisting of gristle in- 
stead of bone ; hard and tough : 
cartilagines alarum nasi, kdrt-il- 
adj'-in-ez dl-dr'-um ndz'-i (L. cart- 
ildgo, gristle ; did, a wing ; 
ndsus, a nose), the cartilages of 
the wings of the nose ; the lower 
lateral cartilages of the nose, 
having a peculiar curved form : 
c. laterales nasi, lat'er-dl'ez (L. 
later dies, adj. plu., lateral), the 
lateral cartilages of the nose ; the 
upper lateral cartilages of the nose, 
situated in the upper part of the 
projecting portion of the nose : 
c. minores nasi, min-or'-ez (L. 
minor es, adj. plu., lesser), the 
lesser cartilages of the nose ; two 
or three cartilaginous nodules 
connected with the ascending 
process of the upper maxilla 
also called c. sesamoidese nasi 
(Gr. sesamon, fruit of the sesame; 
eidos, resemblance in allusion 
to their shape of seeds or nodules): 
cartilago nictitans, kdrt-tt-dg'o 
mkt'-it-anz (L. nictitans, winking), 
a small cartilage contained in the 
inembrana nictitans, which see : 
c. triticea, trit-is'-Z-a (L. trlticeus, 
wheaten from trlticum, wheat), 
the wheat-shaped cartilage ; a 
small oblong cartilaginous nodule 
connected with the lateral thyro- 
hyoid ligaments. 

Carum, n., kdr'um (said to be so 
called as coming from Caria, in 


Asia Minor; It., F., Scot. Oarvi; 
Span, alcaravea, caraway seed), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Umbellif- 
erae, sometimes called Apiacese: 
Carum carui, kar'-u-i (the Latin- 
ised form of Gr. karuon, a nut, 
signifying ' of a nut'), the species 
which produces the seeds or fruit 
known as ' caraway seeds, ' which 
furnish a volatile oil, and are 
carminative and aromatic. 

caruncula, n., kdr-ungk'-ul'd, also 
caruncle, n., Icdr'-ungk-l (L. 
caruncula, a little piece of flesh 
from caro, flesh), a small fleshy 
excrescence, diseased or natural, 
as the comb of a cock ; in bot., a 
fleshy or thickened appendage of 
the seed: carunculate, a., kdr- 
ungk'ul-dt, having a fleshy ex- 
crescence or protuberance: car- 
uncula lachrymalis, Idk'-rim-dl'-is 
(L. lachrymalis, belonging to 
the tears from lachryma, a tear), 
the lachrymal fleshy excrescence; 
a spongy-looking reddish eleva- 
tion, formed by a group of gland- 
ular follicles, situated in the in- 
ternal cavity of each eye : carunc- 
ulaB myrtiformes, kdr-tingk'ul-e 
mert'-i-ftirm'-ez, plu. (L. myrtus, 
a myrtle ; forma, shape the 
myrtle being sacred to Yenus), 
the myrtle-shaped fleshy excres- 
cences ; small rounded elevations 
near the vaginal orifice. 

Carya, n., kdr'i-d (Gr. karuon, a 
nut ; karua, a walnut), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Inglandacese, 
yielding edible oily nuts : Carya 
alba, alb'-a (L. albus, white), a 
species which yields the American 
hickory nut. 

Caryocar, n., kdr-i'dk-dr (Gr. kar- 
uon, a nut), a genus of fruit- 
bearing trees so called because 
the fruit of the species contains 
edible nuts, Ord. Ternstrcemi- 
acese : Caryocar butyrosum (L. 
butyrosum, pert, to butter from 
butyrum, butter), a tree which 
yields the Sonari or butter-nuts. 

Caryophyllaceae, n. plu., kdr'i-d' 

69 CAS 

fil-a's&'e (Gr. karuon, a nut; 
phullon, a leaf), the Chickweed 
and Clovewort family, an Order 
of plants, including the clove- 
pink or carnation and its numer- 
ous varieties : Car'yophylla'- 
ceous, a., -af-shus, belonging to 
the clove tribe ; having a corolla 
in which there are five petals 
with long, narrow, tapering claws, 
as in many pinks. 

Caryophyllus, n., kar^-d-fil'-us 
(Gr. Jcaruon, a nut; phullon, a 
leaf), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Myrtacesfc so called from the 
flower-bud being round like a 
nut: Caryophyllus aromaticus, 
dr'-om'dt'-ik'us (L. aromdticus, 
aromatic, fragrant), a tree origin- 
ally of the Moluccas, whose dried 
flower-buds in the form of nails 
constitute the cloves of commerce. 

caryopsis, n., kdr'-i-ops'is (Gr. 
Tcaruon, a nut ; opsis, sight, ap- 
pearance), a dry, one-seeded, in- 
dehiscent fruit, having the endo- 
carp adhering to the spermoderm ; 
a seed having the pericarp so in- 
corporated with itself as to be in- 
separable from it, as in grains of 
wheat, maize, and other grasses. 

Caryota, n., Icar'-l-dtid (Gr. karu- 
otoi, dates of the palm), a genus 
of palm-trees, Ord. Palmse : 
Caryota urens, ur'-enz (L. urens, 
parched, dried up), a species of 
palm from which sago, as well as 
sugar and a kind of wine, are pro- 

cascarilla, n. ,MsKar-$-a(Sp. casc- 
arilla, thin bark from cascara, 
bark), the bark of several species 
of Croton, as 'Croton eleuteria,' 
'C. cascarilla, 'and ' C. eleutheria, ' 
used in med. as a tonic and 

Casearia, n., kds^-dr^-d (after 
Casearius, a botanist), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Samydacese, some of 
which are bitter and astringent. 

casein, n., Tcds'>&m (F. caseine, 
casein from L. cdsZus, cheese), 
the cheesy portion obtained from 




the curd of milk; a substance 
procured from milk, animal flesh, 
or vegetables. 

cashew, n., kash<u (F. acajou 
from the native name), the nut 
of the Anacardium occidentale, 
remarkable for the large succulent 
peduncle which supports the 
fruit or nut. 

Cassia, n., Msh'i-a (Gr. kassia, 
L. cassia, a tree with an aromatic 
bark), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Csesal- 
piniese, whose species furnish 
purgative remedies: Cassia lan- 
ceolata, lan'-se-ol-dt'd (L. lanseol- 
dtus, lance-shaped from lancea, 
a lance or spear); C. acutifolia, 
ak-ut'-i-fol'i-a (L. acutus, sharp- 
pointed ; folium, a leaf); C. elong- 
ata, e-Wng-dif'd (L. elongdtus, 
lengthened out from e, out ; 
longus, long) ; C. obtusata, #& 
ttiZ'dt'd (L. obtusdtus, blunted); 
C. obovata, Sb'-d-vat'-ft (L. obo- 
vdtus, egg-shaped, but inversely 
from ob, opposite, and ovum, 
an egg), supply the various kinds 
of senna, while other species have 
purgative leaves : cassia-bark, 
believed to be obtained chiefly 
from the Cinnamomum cassia, 
Ord. Lauracese; yields also an oil, 
and both oil and bark are used as 
aromatic stimulants ; the flower- 
buds are used in confectionery. 

cassideous, a., Ms-sid'-e-us (L. 
cassis, a helmet, cassidis, of a 
helmet), helmet-shaped ; having 
a large helmet-shaped petal, as 
the aconite. 

cassowary, n., Tcas'-so-war'-i (Hind. 
kassuwaris, a large bird), a tree 
yielding excellent timber ; see 
* Casuarinacese. ' 

Cassythese, n. plu., kdS'Sith'e-e 
(unascertained), Dodder Laurels, 
a tribe of plants, Ord. Lauraceae : 
Cassytha, n., Ms-sith'-d, a genus 
of plants which are generally 
aromatic and fragrant. 

castoreum, n., Tcdst-or'-e-Um (L. 
castoreum, a secretion of the 

beaver from castor, a castor or 
beaver), a peculiar concrete sub- 
stance obtained from the iollicles 
of the prepuce of the castor or 

Casuarinacese, n. plu., Ms'-u-dr> 
lU'd'-se-e (kassuwaris, native name 
in allusion to the resemblance 
of the leaves to the feathers of 
the cassowary), the Beef-wood 
family, an Order of Australian 
trees or shrubs with filiform 
branches and toothed sheaths in 
place of leaves : casuarina, n., 
Tcds'-U'dT'in'-d, the Cassowary tree, 
yielding excellent timber, having 
somewhat the colour of raw beef, 
whence the name Beef-wood. 

cataclysm, n., katf-a-klfam (Gr. 
kataklusmos, inundation from 
kata, down, and kluzein, to 
wash), a deluge. 

catacorolla, n., ka^d-kor-o^a (Gr. 
kata, down, upon), in bot., another 
corolla, formed inside or outside 
the first one. 

catalepsy, n., Tcdt'-d-Ups-i (Gr. 
katalepsis, a seizing or grasping 
from kata, down ; lepsis, a seiz- 
ing), a peculiar disease in which 
motion and sensation seem to be 
suspended ; a trance : cataleptic, 
a., Mt'-d-lept'-ik, pert, to cata- 

catalysis, n., &&(&&& (Gr. katal- 
usis, disbandment, destruction 
from kata, down ; lusis, a loosen- 
ing), in chem., the influence 
which induces changes in the 
composition of substances by 
their mere contact with another 
body or power. 

catamenia, n., kat-d-men^i-d (Gr. 
katamenios, monthly from kata, 
down ; men, a month), the monthly 
discharges of females. 

cataphyllary, a., #&/tf4fir-f (Gr. 
kata, down ; phullon, a leaf), 
applied to the leaves of a plant 
when they are mere scales; having 
the leaves enclosed in buds by 
perules, or on a root-stock by 




cataplasm, n., Mt'-d-pldzm (Gr. 
kataplasma, L. cataplasma, a 
poultice from Gr. kata, down ; 
plasso, I form), a poultice or 

cataract, n., kdt'-dr-akt (Gr. kat- 
araktes, L. cataracta, a waterfall 
from Gr. kata, down ; rhaktos, a 
precipice), a large body of water 
rushing and falling over rocks ; 
in med., a disease of the eyes in 
which the vision becomes im- 
paired or destroyed, due to opacity 
of the crystalline lens. 

Catarhina, n., IcdMr-ln'-d (Gr. 
kata, down ; rhines, nostrils), in 
zool., a group of the Quadrumana, 
characterised by twisted or curved 
nostrils placed at the end of the 
snout: catarhine, a., kat'-ar-m, 
of or belonging to. 

catarrh, n., kat-dr' (L. catarrhus, 
a catarrh from Gr. katarrhed, I 
flow down from kata, down ; 
rheo, I flow), a nasal catarrh, a 
disease well known by its pro- 
ducing a running or flow of mucus 
from the nostrils, caused by ex- 
posure to sudden alternations of 
temperature ; catarrhal affections 
may implicate either the skin or 
mucous membranes ; they are 
mainly characterised by their 
superficial and spreading charac- 
ter, but do not necessarily aug- 
ment the secretions of the part 
affected : catarrhus sinuum front- 
alium, kat-ar'-us sm'u-um front- 
dl'i-um (L. sinuum, of curves 
from sinus, a curve, a hollow ; 

frontalium, gen. plu. offrontdlis, 
pert, to the front), the catarrh of 
the frontal sinuses, the sinuses 
being the hollow spaces in the 
bones which communicate with 
the nostrils. 

catechu, n., kat'Z-shoo, also 
cutch, n., kobtsli (said to be from 
Japanese cate, a tree ; chu, juice), 
the heart wood of the Acacia 
catechu, an Indian shrub which 
contains much tannin, and is a 
poweriul astringent. 

catenulate, a., Js&t-Zn'-ul-dt (L. 
catena, a chain), put together 
like the links of a chain. 

Catha, n., kath'-a (a native Arab- 
ian name), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Celastracese: Catha edulis, ed-til'-is 
(L. edulis, eatable from edo, I 
eat), a species, the young shoots 
of which furnish the Arabian 
drug called 'kat,' used as a 

cathartic, n., kath-drttik (Gr. 
kathairo, I clean or purge), a 
medicine which purges, as senna, 
castor-oil, etc. : adj. purgative. 

Cathartocarpus fistula, n., 
katli'drt'-d-kdrp'.us fist'.ul-a (Gr. 
kathairo, I clean or purge ; karpos, 
fruit ; fistula, a hollow reed, a 
stalk), a species of Sub-ord. 
Csesalpiniese, whose indehiscent 
pod contains a laxative pulp. 

catheter, n., kdth^t^r (Gr. kath- 
$ter, that which is let down, a 
probe from kathiemi, I let 
down), a curved tube of silver, 
india - rubber, or gum - elastic, 
employed for drawing off the 
urine from the bladder : cath- 
eterism, n., kcith-erfer-fam, the 
art or operation of introducing 
a catheter. 

catkin, n., kat'-km (after the 
domestic cat, and kin, little), a 
kind of flower, long and slender, 
resembling a cat's tail, as in the 
willow or hazel, the birch, etc.; 
same as Amentum. 

cauda equina, kdwd'-a e-kwm'-a 
(L. cauda, a tail ; equinus, be- 
longing to a horse from equus, 
a horse), the horse-tail; the bundle 
or brush of nervous cords termin- 
ating the spinal marrow in man ; 
the corresponding part in lower 

caudal, a., ka/wd'dl (L. cauda, a 
tail), pert, to a tail, or a tail-like 
appendage: caudate, a., kdwd'at, 
having a tail or feathery append- 
age : caudicle, n., kcfoa'tic-l, 
also caudicula, n., kawd-ikf-ul-a, 
a small membranous process 




supporting a pollen mass in 

caudex, n., Icawd'Zks (L. caudex, 
the trunk or stem of a tree, 
caudicis, of a trunk), the axis of 
a plant ; the stem of a palm or of 
a tree-fern : caudex ascendens, 
aS'sVnd'enz (L. ascendens, ascend- 
ing), the trunk or stem above 
ground : c. descendens, de-send^- 
&nz (L. descendens, descending), 
the root, being the stem below 

caul, n., kdwl (AS. cawl, !\ cdle, 
a kind of little cap), the membrane 
which sometimes covers the head 
and face or greater part of the 
body of a child when born, and 
consisting of the amniotic mem- 
branes ; a netted membrane 
covering the lower intestines; the 

caulescent, a., kawl-es'ent (L. 
caulis, a stalk or stem), growing 
up into a stem ; having an evid- 
ent stem. 

caulicle, n., Tcawl'ik'l, also 

cauliculus, n., Jcdwl-ik'ul-iis (L. 

cauliculus, a small stalk from 

caulis, a stalk), a stalk connecting 

the axis of the embryo and the 

cotyledons ; the part of the axis 

which intervenes between the 

collar and cotyledons. 

Caulinia fragilis, Ica/wl-m'-i-a 

fradj'-il-is (L. caulis, a stem ; 

fragilis, easily broken, brittle), 

one of the plants in which 

protoplasmic rotation has been 

observed, Ord. Naiadacese or 


caulis, n., Tcawl'is (L. caulis, a 

stalk), the stalk or stem of a 

plant ; an aerial stem : cauline, 

a., kdwV-ln, belonging to a stem 

or growing immediately upon it : 

cauline bundles, fibro-vascular 

bundles on a stalk which do not 

pass into leaves: caulinary, a., 

kawV-in-Zr-i, belonging to the stem 

or growing immediately from it 

same as ' cauline. ' 

caustic, n., kawst'-ik (Gr. kaustikos, 

having the power to burn), a sub- 
stance which possesses the prop- 
erty of corroding any part of a 
living body by its chemical action 
one of the mildest cauteries is the 
nitrate of silver or lunar caustic : 
cautery, n., Jcdiut'er-i, any sub- 
stance or agent employed for 
firing and searing any superficial 
part of the living body; potential 
cautery designates the various 
forms of caustic applications ; 
actual cautery consists in a rod 
or knob of iron heated to a dull 
red or white heat according to 
the effect desired ; galvanic 
cautery is applied by means of 
wires heated by a galvanic 
battery : cauterisation, n. , kdwt'- 
erdz-a'shun, the act or eftect 
of burning or searing a living 

cavernous respiration, a peculiar 
hollow sound, as that produced 
by blowing into a wide-mouthed 
glass vessel, heard by auscultation 
over a large dry cavity in a lung: 
cavernous tissue, in hot., any 
tissue consisting of layers or 
groups of cells with cavities 
between them. 

cavicornia, n. plu., Icav'-i-lctirn'i-a 
(L. cavus, hollow ; cornu, a 
horn), ruminants whose horns 
consist of a central bony core 
surrounded by a horny sheath. 
Ceanothus, n., se'-an-dth'-us (said 
to be from Gr. keanothos, a kind of 
thorn; keanthos, a kind of thistle), 
a genus of plants, often spiny, 
Ord. Rhamnaceae : Ceanothus 
Americanus, am>%r'-ik'an'>us, a 
plant whose leaves have been 
sometimes used in America as a 
substitute for tea, the roots used 
as an astringent. 

Cecropia, n., se-krop'$-a (after 
Cecropia, the citadel of Athens, 
named in honour of Cecrops, 
king of Attica, whose legs were 
fabled to have been serpents), a 
genus of trees, Ord. Moracese, 
having peltate leaves, and 




attaining a height of 30 feet : 
Cecropia peltata, pVlt-at'-a (L. 
peltdta, armed with a small pelt- 
ata, or small half-moon-shaped 
shield), the Trumpet-wood, so 
called from the hollowness of its 
stem and branches, which are 
used for wind instruments, the 
fibrous bark being used as cordage. 

Cedrelaceae, n. plu., sed'rel-d'se-e 
(Gr. kedros, L. cedrus, a cedar 
tree), the Mahogany family, an 
Order of trees having an aromatic 
fragrance: Cedrela, n., sed-rel'-a, 
a genus of trees : Cedrela febrif- 
nga, f%b-rif'ug>a (L. fZbris, a 
fever ; fugo, I drive away), a 
species whose bark is used for the 
cure of intermittent fevers, and 
the wood is sometimes called 
* bastard cedar. ' 

Cedrus, n., sed'rus (Gr. k$dros, L. 
cedrus, the cedar tree), a genus 
of cedar trees found on theCedron, 
Judaea, whence it is said the 
name, Ord. Coniferse, very valu- 
able for their timber : Cedrus 
Libani, lib'-an-l (L. Libanus, Leb- 
anon, a mountain of Syria), the 
Cedar of Lebanon : C. deodara, 
de'-od-ar'd (said to be from Hind. 
deva, a deity ; dara, timber ; 
Sans, div, heaven), the Deodar or 
Himalayan Cedar. 

Celastracese, n. plu.,seZ'&s^ra'sg-e 
(Gr. kelas, a winter's day, the fruit 
remaining on the tree all winter), 
the Spindle-tree family, an Order 
of small trees or shrubs, having 
sub-acrid properties, and the 
seeds of some yielding a useful 
oil: Celastrea3, n. plu., sel-as'> 
tre-e, a tribe or Sub-order: Celas- 
trus, n., sel'Cis'-trus, a genus : 
Celastrus nutans or paniculatus, 
nut r -dnz or pan-ik'ul-dt'us (L. 
nutans, nodding, tottering ; pan- 
wuldtus, tufted), two species 
which are said to be of a stimul- 
ating nature : C. venenatus, 
vm r -m>at'-us (L. venendtus, fur- 
nished with poison from v$nen- 
um, poison), this, as well as 

other species, are said to be 

cell, n., sU (L. cetta, a store- 
room), in bot., one of the minute 
globules or vesicles composing 
cellular tissue ; a small cavity or 
hollow part : cellular, a., sU'*ul- 
dr, composed or made up of cells : 
cellule, n. , sel'-ul, the very minute 
cells or vesicles composing the 
leaves of mosses and other plants: 
cellulose, n., sU'-ul-oz, the sub- 
stance of which cell walls are com- 
posed, constituting the material 
for the structure and growth of 
plants ; a similar material in 
animal tissue : cellular tissue, 
tissue formed by the union of 
minute globules or bladders, 
named 'cells,' 'cellules,' 'vesi- 
cles,' or 'utricles.' 

Cellulares, n. plu., sel'ul-dr'ez (L. 
cellula, a small storeroom from 
cella, a hiding-place), a Sub-class 
of the Ord. Hepaticse, plants 
which are acotyledons, and en- 
tirely composed of cellular tissue, 
having no distinct axis, and their 
leaves no stomata ; also called 
'cryptogamous,' and ' acotyled- 
onous ' plants. 

Celosia, n., sel>dz'i-a (Gr. kelos, 
dry, burnt), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Amaranthacese, some of 
which appear as if they were 
singed : Celosia cristata, Icrist- 
at'-a (L. cristatus, crested from 
crista, a tuft or crest), the plant 

celotomy, n., sel-ot'-dm-t (Gr. 
kele, a tumour ; tome, a cutting, 
a section), the operation for re- 
moving the stricture in strangul- 
ated hernia. 

Celtidese, n. jalti., *&#&? (said to 
be from celtis, an old name of the 
lotus), a Sub-order of plants, 
Ord. IJlmacese: Celtis, n., sZlt'-fo, 
a genus : Celtis occidentalis, 
tiktsid-gnt-dl'is (L. occidentalis, 
western occidens, the west), the 
nettle-tree or sugar-berry, which 
has a sweet drupaceous fruit. 


cenanthy, n. , sen-dnth'-t (Gr. l&nos t 
void, empty ; anthos, a flower), 
the absence of stamens and pistils 
in flowers. 

centrifugal, a., s^nt-rif-ug-dl (L. 
centrum, the centre ; fugio, I 
flee), tending to go away from the 
centre ; in bot., applied to the 
inflorescence in which the flower- 
ing commences first at the centre : 
centripetal, a., sent- rip' %t-al (L. 
peto, I seek), tending to the 
centre ; in bot. , applied to that 
inflorescence in which the flower- 
ing commences first at the cir- 
cumference or base, 
centrum ovale cerebri, sent'rum 
&v-al'-e ser'eb-ri (L. centrum, the 
centre ; ovale, oval from ovum, 
an egg ; cerebri, of the brain), 
the oval centre of the brain, 
called respectively, minus, mint 
us, little, and majus, mddf-us, 
great, being an oval central mass 
of white cerebral matter of the 
hemisphere of the brain. 
Cephaelis, n., sef-ct-eUs (Gr. 
Jcephale, the head, the flowers 
being disposed in heads), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Rubiacese, which 
furnish important articles to the 
Materia Medica ; Cephaelis 
ipecacuanha, tp^-MJc-u-dn^d (a 
native Brazilian word), the plant 
whose roots yield the ipecacuanha, 
extensively employed in medic- 

cephalagra, n., se/'dttdg-rd (Gr. 
Jcephale, the head; agra, seizure), 
acute pain in the head, either 
from gout or rheumatism : ceph- 
alalgia, n., sef'.al-alft-a (Gr. 
algos, pain), headache; continuous 
pain in the head. 

cephalic, a., sef'dl'*ik(&?. Jcephale, 
the head), pert, to the head ; 
pert, to a disease or affection of 
the head : cephalo, sef-dl-o, 
denoting attachment to or con- 
nection with the head : cephalo- 
branchiate, a., brdngJc^i-dt (Gr. 
brangchia, a gill), carrying gills 
upon the head ; applied to a 

74 CEP 

section of the Annelida : cephal- 
oid, a., sef'-dl-m/d (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), in bot. t capitate or 

cephalophora, n. plu., s&f'-ti,l-8f. 
dr-d (Gr. Jcephale, the head ; 
plwreo, I bear, I carry), a name 
for those Mollusca which have a 
distinct head ; more usual term 
is 'encephala.' 

Cephalopoda, n. plu., eef-dl'bpt 
od-d (Gr. kephale, the head ; 
podes, feet), a class of the Mol- 
lusca in which there is a series of 
arms around the head, as in the 
cuttle-fishes : cephalopodous, a., 
sef'dl'Op'od'US, pert, to those 
animals which have the feet or 
arms arranged around the head, 
or the head between the body 
and the feet, as in cuttle-fishes. 
Cephalotaxus, n., sef'-dl-d'tdM-us 
(Gr. Jcephale, the head ; L. taxus, 
a yew), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Coniferse, Sub-ord. Taxinese, 
handsome coniferous shrubs and 
trees, which have the habit of 
the yew. 

Cephalotese, n. plu., se/'-dl-dt'S-e 
(Gr. Jcephalotos, having a head or 
top), an Order of plants accord- 
ing to some, and by others in- 
cluded under the Ord. Saxifrag- 
acese : Cephalotus, n. ,sef{dl-dt'us, 
an anomalous apetalous genus of 
the Ord. Saxifragacese, of which 
there is only one species : Cephal- 
otus follicularis, fol-^ul-a^is 
(L. folliculus, a little bag inflated 
with air, a little bag from/o//is, 
an air-ball), a native of S.W. 
Australia, having leaves arranged 
as a rosette at the top of the 
rhizome, one kind having the true 
ascidia or pitchers. 
cephalo - thorax, n . , sef'dl 6- 
tlwr'dks (Gr. JcepJiale, the head ; 
thorax, the chest), the anterior 
division of the body, composed of 
the coalesced head and chest, in 
many Crustacea and Arachnida. 
cephalotomy, n., sef-dl-dt'Sm^ 
(Gr. kephale, the head; tome t a 


cutting), the art or operation of 
dissecting or opening the head. 

Ceradia, n., s$r>dd f -i'd (Gr. Jceras, 
a horn so called from the horn- 
like appearance of the branches) ; 
called also Ceradia furcata, ferk- 
dt'd (L. furcdtus, forked from 

furca, a fork), a peculiar plant, 
having the appearance of a shrub 
of coral spreading its short 
leather-coated branches upwards 
like a candelabra, a native of dry, 
sterile places in the S. and W. 
of Africa, yields a resinoid sub- 
stance called sometimes African 

ceramidium, n., ser'am'id'i'um 
(Gr. keramis, a tile, a copying 
stone, keramidis, of a tile ; ker- 
amion, an earthen vessel, a jar), 
a pear-shaped capsule or pitcher 
with a terminal opening, and a 
tuft of spores arising from the 
base, as seen in some Algae: cer- 
amium, n., s$r'dm'i'Um, an ex- 
tensive genus of sea-weeds, so 
called from their numerous pear- 
shaped capsules, Ord. Algae or 

cerasin, n., ser'as-in (Gr. kerasos, 
L. cerasus, the cherry tree so 
called from Cerasus of Pontus, in 
Asia), that part of the gum of 
the cherry, the plum, and almond 
trees, insoluble in cold water: 
Cerasus, n., ser'aS'US, a valuable 
genus of fruit trees, Ord. Eosacese : 
Cerasus laurocerasus, la/wr f '0'Ser'- 
as -us (L. laurus, a laurel tree ; 
cerasus, the cherry tree), the 
cherry laurel, the common bay 
laurel an oil in large quantities 
exists in the young leaves, giving 
to the water distilled from them 
poisonous qualities: C. avium, 
av'4-um (L. dvium, of birds from 
avis, a bird), the cherry of the 
birds, the common cherry, used 
in the manufacture of kirschen- 
wasser, cherry-brandy, literally 
cherry-water : C. Occidentalis, 
ok'-si-dent-al'.is (L. Occidentalis, 
western from Occidens, the 

75 CER 

West), used for flavouring Noyau; 
the kernels of the cerasus give 
flavour to Ratafia, Cherry -brandy, 
and Maraschino. 

cerate, n., ser'-at (L. ceratum, 
overlaid with wax from cera, 
wax), an ointment or unguent 
in which wax forms a chief in- 
gredient: cerated, a., ser-dt'ed, 
covered with wax. 

ceratiasis, n., ser'-dt-l'-as-fe (Gr. 
keras, horn), the growth of hard 
horny tumours : ceratitis, n. , 
s&r'dt-U'is, inflammation of the 

ceratium, n., ser-a'-shi-um (Gr. 
keration, a little horn), in bot., a 
long one-celled pericarp with two 
valves, containing many seeds 
attached to two placentae, which 
are alternate with the lobes of 
the stigma, as in Glaucium and 
Corydalis; a genus of minute 
Fungi, so called from the plants 
resembling small horns, found on 
dead wood. 

cerato, ser'dt-6 (Gr. keras, a 
horn), in composition, expressing 
a connection with the corriua of 
the hyoid bone, or with the 
cornea: cerato-genesis, jen'Zs-is 
(Gr. gennao, I beget), the forma- 
tion or production of horn. 

Ceratonia, n., se^d-ton'-i-d (Gr. 
keratia and keratonia, the carob 
tree from keration, a little horn, 
a pod), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Csesal- 
piniese : Ceratonia siliqua, sil'-i* 
kwd (L. sittqua, a pod of legum- 
inous plants, the carob), a pod 
known as the Algaroba bean; 
the carob tree, locust tree, or St. 
John's bread so called from the 
mistaken idea that the pods were 
John the Baptist's food in the 

CeratophyllaceaB, n. plu., sW-at* 
o-ftt-ld'-sfre (Gr. keras, a horn; 
phullon, a leaf), the Hornwort 
family, an Order of plants : 
Ceratophyllum, n., ser^at-a* 
fil'-lum, a genus of plants, so 


named from the petals being so 
cut as to resemble stags' horns : 
ceratophyllous, a., s&r'-dt-o-ftt'- 
lUs, horn-leaved. 

Cerbera, n.,ser'6gr-a(L. Cerberus, 
the three-headed dog of Pluto, 
whose bite was poisonous), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Apocyna- 
cese, generally poisonous : Cerbera 
Ahouai, d'hd f 'i(Ahouai, an Indian 
name), a plant whose fruit, con- 
tained in a nut, is deadly poison. 

Cercarise, n. plu., ser-kdr'-i-e (Gr. 
kerkos, a tail), a genus of infusory 
animalcules ; a remarkable genus 
of intestinal parasites, so called 
because in one stage of their 
existence they have a rudder tail: 
cercsB, n. plu., ser^-se, the feelers 
which project from behind in 
some insects. 

cercidium, n., ser-sid'i'um (Gr. 
kerkos, a tail), in bot., tail-like 
roots of some Fungi. 

cercomonas, n., serk-dm^n^ds 
(Gr. kerkos, a tail ; mdnos, single, 
solitary), a minute animalcule 
having a tail-like prolongation : 
cercomonas urinarius, ur'-m-ar'- 
i> us (L. urindrius, urinary from 
urina, urine), a minute intestinal 
parasite in the urine of animals, 
frequently in the fresh urine of 
the horse. 

cere, n., ser (L. cera, wax), the 
naked space found at the base of 
the bills of some birds. 

cerealia, n. plu., ser'-e'dV-i-a (L. 
ceredlis, pert, to Ceres, or to grain 
from Ceres, the goddess of corn 
and fruits), the different grains 
used for food ; also called cereals, 
n. plu., ser'-i-dlz : cerealin, n., 
ser'-^-dl'in, the nutritious or flesh- 
forming principle in flour. 

cerebellum, n., ser'eb'el'lum (L. 
cerebellum, a small brain from 
cerebrum, the brain), the hinder 
or lower part of the brain : cereb- 
ral, a., ser'&b-ral, pert, to the 
brain: cerebria, n. plu., ser-eb' 
rz-a, mental derangement: cer- 
ebriform, a., s^r-eb'-ri-form (L. 

76 CER 

forma, shape), having an ap- 
pearance like brain matter; desig- 
nating a form of cancer : cerebric, 
a., ser-eb'rflc, denoting one of the 
peculiar acids found in the fatty 
matter of the brain. 

cerebro, ser'-eb-ro (L. cerebrum, 
the brain), a prefix indicating 
a connection with the cerebrum 
or brain : cerebro -spinal, an ad- 
jective indicating connection or 
association with the brain and 
spine, as ' cerebro-spinal ' axis : 
cerebrum, n., ser'-gb-rum, the 
brain proper. 

Cereus, n., ser'-$-us (L. cer&us, 
waxen, pliant, soft), a very 
beautiful genus of plants, Ord. 
Cetacese, many of which show a 
tendency to spiral development : 
Cereus flageUiformis, fl&dj.&'.tt- 

fdrm'is (L. fldgellum, a whip, a 
vine-shoot; forma, shape), one 
of the species in which setse, 
spines, and hairs have a tendency 
to arrange themselves spirally : 
Cereus grandiflorus, grand't- 
flor'-us (L. grdndis, great, grand ; 
florus, having flowers from flos, 
a flower, floris, of a flower), one 
of the plants remarkable for only 
flowering at night, expanding its 
flower about 10 P.M., and lasting 
only for the night ; other two 
night - flowering plants are C. 
M'DonaldiaB, wiSfcWw^W^'^the 
Cereus of M 'Donald, and C. nyc- 
ticalus, nik-tik'-al-us (Gr. nux, 
night, nuktis, of night; kaleo, I 
call or summon), the plant that 
summons in the night; plants 
which flower only at night. 

ceriferous, a., ser -if '%r -us (L. cera, 
wax ; fero, I produce), in bot. , 
bearing or producing wax : cere- 
ous, a., ser'-e-us, like wax ; waxen. 

cernuous, a., sern f -u-us (L. cernuus, 
bending or stooping with one's 
head to the ground), in bot., 
hanging down the head ; nodding, 

Ceroxylon, n., ser-dks'il-d'n (L. 
cera, wax ; Gr. xulon, wood, 


timber), a palm tree which yields 
wax, forming a coating over its 
trunk, Ord. Palmse. 

cerumen, n., s$r-um'%n (L. cera, 
wax), the wax of the ear secreted 
by ceruminous glands: cerum- 
inous, a., ser-umf-m-us, of or 
belonging to the cerumen. 

cervical, a., serv-ik^dl or sen/'ik-dl 
(L. cervix, the neck, cervicis, of 
the neck), connected with the 
region of the neck : cervical vert- 
ebrse, n. plu., vert f -eb>re (L. 
vertebra, a joint), the seven bones 
of the spine of the neck : cervico, 
serv'ik'-o or serv'ik'd, denoting 
connection or association with the 
region of the neck proper, or 
simply with a neck: cervix, n., 
sen/'iks, the neck : cervix cornu 
poster ioris, korn'u post-cr'-i-or'-is 
(L. cornu, a horn ; posterioris, 
of posterior), the neck of the 
posterior horn ; a part of the 
grey substance of the spinal 
cord : cervix femoris, fern' or -is 
(L. femur, the thigh, femdris, of 
the thigh), the neck of the thigh 
bone between the head and the 
trochantes: c. uteri, ut'er-i (L. 
uterus, the womb, the matrix), 
the neck of the womb. 

cervicalis ascendens, serv'-ik-at'-is 
as-end?-enz(L. cervicdlis, belonging 
to the neck from cervix, the 
neck ; ascendens, ascending), the 
muscle which forms the continu- 
ation of the accessorius upwards 
into the neck. 

cestoidea, n. plu., stist-oyd'e-d 
(Gr. kestos t a girdle ; eidos, ap- 
pearance), an old name for Tseni- 
ada, a class of intestinal worms 
with flat bodies like tape ; tape- 
worms: cestoid, a., sest f -dyd, 
pert, to the cestoidea or tape- 

Cestraphori, n. plu., cest-raf-or-l 
(Gr. kestra, a military weapon ; 
phoreo, I bear), a group of Elas- 
mobranchii, represented by the 
Port Jackson shark. 

Cetacea, n. plu., set>d'shi-a (Gr. 

77 CHA 

ketos, L. cetus, a whale), the 
Order of the Mammals comprising 
the whales and dolphins : ceta- 
ceous, a., set-d'-shus, pert, to the 
whale kind. 

Cetraria, n. plu., set-rar'-i-a (L. 
cetra, a short shield or buckler), 
a genus of lichens: Cetraria 
Islandica, ls>land'4k-a (L. /*- 
Idndica, of or belonging to 
Iceland), Iceland moss, a lichen 
which contains a nutritious 
matter called lichen-starch or 
lichenin: cetrarin, n., set'rdr-m, 
the bitter principle existing in 
Iceland moss. 

Chserophyllum, n., ker'-d-fil'-lum 
(Gr. chairo, I am glad, I rejoice ; 
phullon, a leaf), a genus of plants 
so called from the pleasant smell 
of the leaves : Chserophyllum 
bulbosum, bulb-oz'um (L. bul- 
bosus, bulbous from bulbus, a 
bulb), bulbous chervil, which is 
used like carrots. 

ch.setognatha, n. plu., ket'og- 
ndth'-a (Gr. chaite, horse-hair ; 
gnathos, the cheek or jaw bone), 
an Order of the Anarthropoda, 
having only one genus, the 
oceanic Sagitta. 

chaffy, a., tshaf-i (AS. ceaf, Ger. 
kaff, chaff), in bot., covered with 
minute membranous scales. 

Chailletiacese, n. plu., kil'le'shi- 
af-se-e (after Challlet, a Swiss 
botanist), the Chailletia family, 
a small Order of trees and shrubs: 
Chailletia, n.,Jcil-le'shi'd, agenus: 
Chailletia toxicaria, tdks '4 - kar'4- a 
(Gr. toxikon, L. toxicum, poison 
in which arrows were dipped), a 
species whose fruit is poisonous, 
known in Sierra Leone as rats- 

chalaza, n., M-az-a(Gr. chalaza, 
hail, a small tubercle resembling 
a hailstone), in bot., the disc-like 
scar where the nourishing vessels 
enter the nucleus of the ovule : 
chalazse, n. plu., kdl-dz'e, in an 
egg, two spirally twisted bands 
having a pyramidal slope, one at 




each end, the apex adhering to 
the yolk, and the base to the 
white or glair : chalazion, n., 
lctil'da>l'8n t a little tumour on 
the edge of the eyelid, so called 
from its supposed resemblance to 
a hailstone. 

Chamselaucise, n. plu., Mm'-e- 
law'-si-e (Gr. chamai, upon the 
ground; and said to be lauchis, 
a poplar), fringe myrtles, a tribe 
of the Ord. Myrtacese, heath-like 
plants with fragrant foliage, and 
opposite dotted leaves : Chamse- 
laucium, n., kdm''$'ldw f -8l'&m, a 
genus of plants. 

Chamserops, n., Mm-e'-rops (Gr. 
chamai, upon the ground ; rhops, 
a thicket, a twig), a handsome 
genus of palms, so called from 
their lower growth : ChamsBrops 
humilis, hum'tt-ls (L. humttis, 
lowly, small from humus, the 
earth, the ground), the only 
European species of palrn. 

chancre, n. , shang'ker(Fr. chancre, 
a sore), a venereal ulcer or sore : 
chancroid, n., sMntf-kroyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), a venereal 
ulcer having a soft base. 

channelled, a., tshdn'-n&ld (L. 
candlis, a pipe for water), 
hollowed out like a gutter. 

CharacesB, n. plu., Mr-d'-se-e (Gr. 
chairo, I am glad), the Chara 
family, an Order of curious 
water-plants : Charas, n. plu., 
Jcdr'-az, also Charge, n. plu., 
kar^e, a genus of water-plants 
which grow in stagnant water ; 
some of them have their stems 
encrusted with carbonate of lime, 
and are used for polishing plate ; 
in others not so encrusted, the 
movement of rotation in the 
protoplasmic matter of the tubes 
is well seen. 

charpie, n., sMrp'-e (Fr. charpie, 
lint compress), the fine flock ob- 
tained by scraping linen rags or 
lint ; a coarse kind of lint or 
tow, used for absorbing blood, 
matter, and the like. 

Chavica, n., sliav-ik'-a (native 
name), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Piperacese, natives of the hottest 
parts of the world : Chavica 
Roxburghii, rdlcs-berg'-i-i (Rox- 
burgh, a county of Scotland), 
a plant which supplies long 
pepper : C. betle, bet' I (Sp. betle, 
the betel-nut), the leaf of betel 
pepper, which is chewed with 
the areca nut in the East, as a 
means of intoxication : * Piper' is 
the common systematic name for 
1 chavica. ' 

Cheiroptera, n. pin., Icir-op'ter-a 
(Gr. cheir, the hand; pteron, a 
wing), the Order of Mammals 
comprising the bats and the bat 
kind: cheiropterous, a., kir-opl 
ter-us, pert, to the bat kind. 

Cheirostemon, n., Icir'-S'Stern'on 
(Gr. cheir, the hand ; stemon, a 
stamen), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Sterculiacete, so called from 
having five stamens, and the 
filaments united at the base : 
Cheirostemon platanoides, plat' 
dn-oyd'-ez (L. plains, broad, 
wide ; Gr. eidos, appearance), 
the hand - plant of Mexico, so 
called from its five peculiarly- 
curved anthers, which resemble 
a claw or the human hand. 

chelae, n. plu., Icel'e (Gr. kele, a 
claw), the bifid claws or pincers 
terminating some of the limbs 
in such Crustacea as the crab, 
lobster, etc.: chelate, a., kel'-at, 
having chelae or two cleft claws. 

chelicerse, n. plu., kel-is'er-e (Gr. 
kele, a claw ; Jceras, a horn), the 
prehensile claws of the scorpion. 

Chelidonium, n., Icel'-i'don'-i-wn 
(Gr. chelidonion, the celandine 
from chelidon, a swallow), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Papaveracese, 
possessing narcotic properties ; 
an orange-coloured juice : Cheli- 
donium majus, mddf'&s (L. 
mdjus, great), celandine, which 
yields an orange-coloured juice, 
and is said tohaveacrid properties. 

Chelonia, n. plu., kel-on'-i-ti, (Gr. 




chelone, a shell, a tortoise), an 
Order of reptiles which comprise 
the tortoises and turtles : chelon- 
ian, a., hel-on'-i-an, pert, to anim- 
als of the tortoise kind : chel- 
onobatrachia, n. phi., kel-dn'o-ba- 
trdk'i-d (Gr. batrdchos, a frog), 
sometimes applied to the Anoura, 
comprising frogs and toads. 
Chenopodiacese, n. plu., k&n'd'p8d' 
i-d'se-e, also Chenopods, n. plu., 
Tcen'o-pddz (Gr. chen, a goose, 
chenos, of a goose ; pous, a foot, 
podes, feet), the Goosefoot family, 
an Order of plants, so called in 
allusion to many of the species 
having leaves resembling the 
webbed feet of the goose : Cheno- 
podium, 11., kZn'd'pdd'i'Um, a 
genus comprising several culinary 
herbs : Chenopodium bonus 
Henricus, bdn'iis hen-rik'-us (L. 
bonus, good ; Henricus, Henry), 
English mercury, the seeds of 
which are used in the manu- 
facture of shagreen : C. quinoa, 
kwin'o-a (unascertained), a plant 
which grows at a great eleva- 
tion, whose seeds are used in 
Peru as food by the name of 
* petty rice, ' the leaves as 
spinach, and which contains 
much starch and oil : C. erosum, 
e-roz'-um (L. erosum, to eat away, 
to corrode), the Australian spin- 
ach : C. tomentosum, tom'-en-tod 
tim (L. tomentosum, covered with 
a whitish, down-like wool from 
tdmentum, a woolly pubescence), 
the tea plant of Tristan d'Acun- 
ha and Inaccessible Island : some 
of the Chenopodiums emit a very 
fetid odour. 

Chiasma, n., ki-az'ma (Gr. chias- 
mos, a marking with the Gr. 
letter , a cut crosswise), in 
anat., the central body of nervous 
matter formed by the junction 
and the crossing of the inner 
fibres of the optic nerves, which 
go to opposite eyes, the outer 
fibres proceeding direct to the 
eye on the same side. 

chigoe, n., tshig'o (of Peruvian 
origin ; Sp. chico, small), a pain- 
ful sore beneath the epidermis of 
the toes or part of the feet in 
warm countries, caused by the 
entrance of flea -like insects of 
the same name the systematic 
names being 'pulex penetrans,' 
and 'pulex irritans': chigger, n., 
tsliig'-ger, another spelling of 

Chilognatha, n. plu., J&l'bg-ndth''ft 
(Gr. cheilos, the lip, the snout 
of an animal ; gnathos, a jaw), 
an Order of the Myriopoda : 
Chilopoda, n. plu., kll-op'od'O, 
(Gr. podes, feet), an Order of the 

Chimaphila, n., kim-af-il-a (Gr. 
chelma, a storm, frost ; phileo, I 
love), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Ericaceae, plants which are green 
in winter, and are ornamental 
and medicinal : Chimaphila 
umbellata, urnf-bel-ldtta (L. um- 
belldtus, bearing umbels from 
umbella, a sunshade), a North 
American plant, the winter - 
green, the only bitter tonic which 
is also diuretic. 

Chimonantlms, n., Idmttin-dnth' 
us (Gr. cheimon, winter ; anthos, 
a flower), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Calycanthacese, which flower in 
the winter- time, and the flowers 
have a delightful fragrance. 

China, Jcin-a, or China nova, 
nov f -d (It. china, Sp. quina, 
china; Swed. kinabark; L. novus, 
new), the German name for Peruv- 
ian or Jesuits' bark ; various 
kinds of cinchona bark. 

chiragra, n., kir-dg'-ra (L. chir- 
dgra, Gr. cheiragra, gout in the 
hand from Gr. cheir, the hand ; 
agra, a seizure), gout in the 

chiretta, n., kir-et'ta (a corruption 
of the systematic name chir ay ta 
from Tamil, shayraet), a 
name for the whole plant, in- 
cluding the flowers and roots, 
of Agathotes chirayta, found in 


Northern India, very bitter, and 
is an esteemed and slightly laxat- 
ive tonic : Chironia, n., kir-on'- 
I'd, a genus of plants, Ord. 

chiropodist, n., Hr-op'od-ist, (Gr. 
keiro, I clip or pare ; podes, the 
feet), one who extracts corns and 
removes bunions ; a corn and 
wart doctor. 

chitine, n., kU'Jn (Gr. chiton, a 
coat of mail), the peculiar chem- 
ical substance, nearly allied to 
horn, which forms the covering 
of many of the Crustacea, insecta, 
etc.: chitinous, a., kit'-in-us, con- 
sisting or having the nature of 

ChlsenaceaB, n. plu., kle-nd'sZ-e 
(Gr. chlaina, a gown or cloak), a 
small Order of trees or shrubs 
found in Madagascar. 

chlamys, n., klam'-is (Gr. chlamus, 
L. chlamys, a coat, an upper 
garment, chlamydis, of a coat), 
in bot., a covering, the floral 
envelope : chlainydeous, a., 
klam-id'e-us, pert. to. 

ChloranthacesB, n. plu., klor'- 
anth-a's&e (Gr. chloros, green ; 
anthos, a flower), the Chloranthus 
family, an Order of plants 
esteemed in tropical countries for 
medicinal properties: Chloranth- 
us, n., klor>anth''US, a genus of 
curious plants : Chloranthus 
officinalis, of-fts'-in-aMs (L. offic- 
Ina, a workshop), a species which 
is aromatic and fragrant : chlor- 
anthia, n., ktir'&nth'f-d, also 
chloranthy, n., klor-anth'-i, a 
vegetable luxuriance consisting 
of a bunch of leaves into which 
the floral organs of a flower have 
been converted. 

chlorine, n., Iclor'm (Gr. chloros, 
grass-green), a greenish - yellow 
gas, possessing great power as a 
bleacher : chloride, n., klor'-id. 

chloroform, n., klor'-o-form (so 
called because it consists of one 
atom of formyle and three atoms 
of chlorine), a clear, transparent, 

80 CHO 

watery-looking liquid, produced 
in the crude state by distilling 
rectified spirit from off chlorinated 
lime, usually called chloride of 
lime, remarkable for its property 
of producing insensibility to pain 
when inhaled ; also called the 
* perchloride of formyle. ' 

chlorofucine, n., kldrto-fus'in^f. 
chloros, grass-green ; Gr. phukos, 
L. fucus, the plant alkanet, the 
red colour from the same), a clear, 
yellow-green colouring matter. 

chlorophyll, n., Mor-o-fU (Gr. 
chloros, grass-green ; phullon, a 
leaf), the green colouring matter 
of plants, 

chloros, n., klorto's (Gr. chloros, 
grass-green), in composition, 
chloro-: chlorosis, n., Idor-oz'-is, 
a loss of colour ; a diseased state 
in which the skin assumes a 
sallow tint, its most prominent 
phenomenon being a spansemic 
condition of the blood, with 
diminution of the red corpus- 
cles : chlorotic, a., klor-ofiik, 
pert, to or affected with chlorosis. 

Chlorosporeae, n. plu., klor'-o -sport 
e-e (Gr. chloros, grass-green ; 
spora, a spore), a Sub -order of 
the Algae, plants growing in the 
sea, fresh water, or damp situa- 
tions, and usually of a grass-green 

Chloroxylon, n., klor-oks'-il-on 
(Gr. chloros, grass -green ; xulon, 
wood), a genus of fine timber 
trees, Ord. Cedrelacese, so named 
from the deep yellow colour of 
the wood: Chloroxylon Swietenia, 
swet-en f 'i-d (after Swieten, a 
Dutch botanist), a species which 
produces satin-wood, and a kind 
of oil. 

cholagogue, n., Tcol'-a-go'g (Gr. 
chole, bile ; agogos, a leader), 
a medicine which acts on the 
liver, and 'increases the flow of 

choledochus, a., Jctil-Zd'ok'tis (Gr. 
chole, bile ; dechomai, I receive), 
denoting the common bile duct, 




conveying bile both from the 
liver and the gall-bladder into 
the duodenum. 

cholepyrrhine, n., kol'^-pir'-rin 
(Gr. chole, bile; purrhos, red), a 
yellow substance in the bile. 

cholera, n., hotter -a (Gr. cholera, 
a water gutter from the roof of a 
house ; L. cholera, the gall, bile 
from chole, bile ; rheo, I 
flow ; or Gr. cholas, the bowels), 
a disease characterised in its 
severer forms by rice - water 
vomiting and purging, of the 
two kinds, British and Asiatic, 
the latter is terribly fatal : 
cholera morbus, morb'iis (L. 
morbus, sickness, disease), British 
cholera, a vomiting and purging, 
rarely fatal to adults : cholera 
maligna, mal-ia'-no, (L. malignus, 
malignant), Asiatic cholera. 

cholesteatoma, n., Jc8l'$st'-e-at> 
omf-d (Gr. chole, bile ; steatoma, 
tallow, a swelling resembling 
fat from stear, fat), an encysted 
tumour consisting almost entirely 
of cholesterin packed in spherical 
masses, and surrounded by a 
somewhat dense capsule : chol- 
esteatomatous, a., kol-Zstte- at- 
om' at -us, pert, to or consisting of 
an encysted fatty tumour. 

cholesterin, n., kSl-est'-er-m (Gr. 
chole, bile ; stear, fat, steatos, of 
fat ; or stereos, hard, solid), a 
white fatty matter found in the 
blood, brain, and bile, but 
chiefly in the bile. 

cholicele. n., ktil'-i-sel (Gr. chole, 
bile ; kele, a tumour, a swelling), 
the gall-bladder when unnaturally 
distended with bile. 

cholic, a., k8l<tk (Gr. chole, bile), 
of or belonging to bile ; an aeid 
obtained from bile ; also choleic, 
a., kdl-e'-ik : choloidic, a., kol> 
o|/G?-&(Gr. eidos, resemblance), de- 
noting an acid obtained from bile. 

cholochrome, n., kol'-o-krom (Gr. 
choll, bile ; chroma, colour), the 
colouring matter of bile ; bili- 


Chondodendron, n., ktin'-dd-dZn- 
dron (unascertained ; Gr. den- 
dron, a tree), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Monospermaceae : Cnondo- 
dendron tomentosum, tom r -%n'> 
tdz'iim (L. tomentosum, woolly, 
downy from tomentum, a woolly 
pubescence), a species found in 
Peru and Brazil, whose stem and 
root furnish 'Pareirabrava,' used 
in chronie inflammation of the 

chondrin, n., ktin'-drin (Gr. chon- 
dros, a grain, a clot, cartilage), a 
substance, a kind of animal gelat- 
ine, found in cartilages, fungous 
bone, and the cornea : chondro- 
glossus, lion'-drd - glos'-sus (Gr. 
glossa, the tongue), a muscle, 
being simply one of the three 
fibres of the hyo-glossus muscle 
running to the tongue : chon- 
droma, n., kou'drom-d, a growth 
of cartilage from bones ; a cartilag- 
inous tumour : chondrosis, n., 
kdn-droz'-is, a diseased conditkm 
or formation of cartilage. 

chondrus crispus, kon'drus krisp'- 
Us (Gr., chondros, a clot, cartilage; 
L. crispus, curled, wrinkled), a 
name frequently given to carra- 
geen or Irish moss; its system- 
atic name in America. 

chorda, n., kord'-a (Gr. chorde, 
L* chorda, a gut, a string, a 
chord), a cord ; a tendon ; a col- 
lection of fibres : chorda dorsalis, 
dor-sdl'is (L. dorsalis, pert, to the 
back from dorsum, the back), 
the linear condensed structure 
which appears in the foetal de- 
velopment immediately below 
the cerebro-spinal groove : c. 
tympani, timf-pdn-l (L. tym- 
panum, a drum, a tambourine, 
tympani, of a drum), the chord 
of the tympanum, a branch of 
the facial nerve which crosses the 
tympanum to join the gustatory 
nerve: chordae tendineae, plurals, 
k#rd'-e tgnd-m'-Z-e (L. Undo, a 
tendon, tendmis, of a tendon, 
tendineus, belonging to a tendon 




from lendo, I stretch out), the 
tendinous chords of the heart 
which connect the carneae col- 
umnse to the valves guarding the 
auricular orifice. 

chorea, n., Icor-e'a (Gr. choreia, 
a dance), St. Vitus's dance; a 
disease attended with irregular 
and involuntary movements of the 
voluntary muscles, except when 
asleep, occurring mostly in the 

chorion, n., Tcor'-i-on (Gr. chorion, 
skin or leather), in anat., the 
external membrane investing the 
foetus in the womb; in bot., a 
fluid pulp composing the nucleus 
of the ovule in the earliest stage : 
choroid, a., ktir'-oyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling the 
chorion; denoting a highly vas- 
cular membrane : n., the mem- 
brane of the eye, situated between 
the sclerotica and the retina. 

chorisis, n., kor'is-is (Gi: chorizo, 
I separate), in bot., separation of 
a lamina from one part of an 
organ, so as to form a scale or a 
doubling of the organ : chorisa- 
tion, n., kdr''fa'd''Shtin, in same 

Choristosporei, n. plu., lcor-ist'6- 
spor'e-i (Gr. choristos, separate, 
distinct; spora, a seed), a Sub- 
order of Algae, consisting of rose 
or purple - coloured sea weeds, 
with fronds formed of a single 
row of articulated cells. 

chroma, n., Icrdm'-a (Gr. chroma, 
colour), colour; in composition, 
chromo-: chromatism, n., Icrom'- 
at-izm, also chromism, n., krom' 
$zm, in bot., an unnatural colour- 
ing of plants and leaves. 

chromatometer, n., kr dm' at- 8m' 
Zt-er (Gr. chroma, colour, cTirom- 
dtos, of colour ; metron, a measure), 
a measurer of colours, especially 
as applied to plants. 

chromatophores, n. plu., krom-at'- 
6-forz (Gr. chroma, colour, 
chromatos, of colour; phoreo, 1 
carry), little sacs containing pig- 

ment - granules, found in the 
integument of cuttle - fishes : 
chromatophorons, a., krom'dt- 
ty'-dr-fts, containing or secreting 
colouring matter. 

chromatosis, n., krdm'dt-oz''is(GT. 
chroma, colour), constitutional 

chromogen, n., krdm'-d-jen (Gr. 
chroma, colour ; gennao, I pro- 
duce), a vegetable colouring 
matter, acted upon by acids and 
alkalies to produce red, yellow, or 
green tints : chromule, n. , krom- 
til (a diminutive of Gr. chroma, 
colour), the colouring matter of 
flowers; the colouring matter of 
plants except green. 

chrysalis, n., Tcris'al-is (Gr. chrus- 
allus, L. chrysalis, the gold- 
coloured chrysalis of the butter- 
fly from Gr. chrusos, gold), the 
second stage in the state of such 
insects as the butterfly, the moth, 
etc., so named as sometimes ex- 
hibiting a golden lustre ; some 
spell chrysalid, Tens'- al-id. 

Chrysanthemum, n. , kris-anth'$m- 
um(Gr. chrusos, gold; anthemion, 
a flower, a blossom), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Compositse, Sub-ord. 
Corymbiferse, so called alluding 
to some of the flowers being 
yellow ; the numerous species 
are exceedingly beautiful : Chrys- 
anthemum carneum, kdr'ne-um 
(L. carneus, fleshy from cdro, 
flesh, carnis, of flesh), a species, 
the flowers of which are said to 
destroy fleas. 

Chrysobalanese, n. plu., lcris'6' 
bal'dn'-8-e (Gr. chrmos, gold ; 
balanos, an acorn), a Sub-order 
of the Order of plants Rosacese, 
this Sub-order being chiefly nat- 
ives of tropical parts of Africa 
and America : Chrysobalanus, 
n., kris'd'bdl'dn-us, a genus of 
plants, the species bearing the 
common edible fruits, rasp- 
berries, strawberries, brambles,' 
apples, pears, plums, cherries, 
quinces, almonds, peaches, etc. 




Chrysophyll, n., kns'-o>fll (Gr. 
chrusos, gold; phullon, a leaf), 
the golden - yellow colouring 
matter in many plants and their 
flowers : Chrysophyllum, n., 
kris'-ft-fil'-lum, a fruit - bearing 
genus of plants, Ord. Sapotacese, 
the under surface of the leaves 
having dense hairs of a bright 
yellow colour : Chrysophyllum 
Cainito, kln-lt'o (a native name), 
a species which yields the fruit 

chrysops caecutiens, kris'ops se- 
ku'-shi-enz (Gr. chrusops, gold- 
coloured from chrusos, gold, ops, 
the eye ; L. cceculiens, blinding 
from ccecus, blind), an African 
fly which attacks horses' eyes and 
blinds them. 

churrus, n,, kur'rus or tshur'rus 
(native name), the Indian variety 
of the hemp plant, having a 
marked resinous varnish on its 
leaves ; a resinous extract from 
the Indian hemp or 'canna- 

chylaqueous, a., kll-ak'-we-us (Gr. 
chulos, juice, humour ; L. aqua, 
water), in zool, applied to a fluid 
consisting partly of water taken 
in from the exterior, and partly 
of the products of digestion which 
occupy the body cavity in many 
Invertebrates ; applied also to the 
special canal sometimes existing 
for its conduction. 

chyle, n., kll (Gr. chulos, juice), a 
white or milky fluid separated 
from the substances digested in 
the stomach, and conveyed into 
the circulation of the blood by 
the lacteal vessels: chylifio, a., 
kll'if-ik (L. facio, I make), pro- 
ducing chyle ; designating a part 
of the digestive apparatus of 
insects ; applied to one of the 
stomachs, where more than one 
is present : chylous, a., Ml' 
#s, pert, to or full of chyle : 
chylification, n., klMf-lk-a'- 
sliun, the process of making 
chyle from food : chyliferous, 

a., kil-if'er'Vis (L. fero, I bear), 
bearing or carrying chyle. 

chyli receptaculum, IcU'i res'ep- 
tak f 'Ul'Um (L. formative, chyli, 
of chyle ; L. receptdculum, a 
magazine, a receptacle), the re- 
ceptacle or reservoir of the chyle, 
a triangular dilatation of the 
thoracic duct, commencing in 
the abdomen. 

chylopoiesis, n., klV-o-poy-ez'-is 
(Gr. chulos, juice ; poieo, I make ; 
poiesis, a making or forming), 
the process of making chyle from 
food : chylopoietic, a., Jcil'o- 
poy-Zt'ik, making or producing 
chyle ; belonging to the stomach 
and intestines; same meaning as 
* chylification ' and * chylific,' but 
more correct in their formation. 

chyme, n., klm (Gr. chumos, juice, 
moisture), the pulpy mass of 
digested food before being changed 
into chyle: chyme mass, the 
central semi-fluid sarcode in the 
interior of the Infusoria : chymif- 
erous, a., klm-if'-er-us (L. fero, 
I bear), containing or bearing 
chyme : chymification, n. , Idm-if' 
ik-d'shun, the process of changing 
into chyme. 

Cibotium, n., sib-d'shi-uni (Gr. 
kibotos, a chest, a casket), a 
genus of ferns, Ord. Filices* so 
named in reference to the form of 
the indusium : Cibotium barom- 
etz, bar'-om-etz (a Russian name), 
a fern called the Scythian or 
Tartarean lamb, because, prepared 
in a particular way, it resembles 
a lamb. 

cicatricula, n., sik'at'rik'ul-a (L. 
dim. of cwdtrix, a mark or scar), 
the scar left after the falling of a 
leaf ; the hilum or base of the 
seed ; the point in the ovum or 
egg in which life first shows 
itself: cicatricose, a., sik-at'-ri- 
koz, marked with scars or cicat- 
rices: cicatrix, n., sik'at-riks, the 
scar or seam that remains on the 
skin after a wound has skinned 
over and healed. 

CIC i 

CichoraceaB, n. plu., slk^or>d f 'Se>e 
(Gr. kichorion, L. cichdrium, 
succory or endive), a Sub-order 
of the Ord. Composites, most of 
the plants of which yield a milky 
juice, and are bitter and astring- 
ent : Cichorium, n., sik-dr'-i-um, 
a genus of plants : Cichorium 
endivia, en-div'-i-a (F. endive, a 
salad), a species, the blanched 
leaves of which constitute endive : 
C. intybus, in'tib-us (said to be 
from L. in, in ; tubus, a tube 
from the hollow form of its stem), 
the succory or chicory, cultivated 
for the sake of its root, used for 
mixing with coffee when roasted 
and ground, or used alone as 
coffee : cichoriaceous, a., sik-or f - 
i-a'shus, having the qualities of 
chicory or wild endive. 

Cicuta, n., sik-ut'-a (L. cicuta, the 
plant hemlock), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Umbelliferse : Cicuta virosa, 
vir-oz'-d (L. virdsus, slimy, 
poisonous from virus, slime, 
poison), water-hemlock or cow- 

cilia, n. plu. , sil' i-a (L. cilium, an 
eyelid with the hairs growing on 
it ; cilia, eyelids), the hairs on 
the edge of the eyelids ; hairs on 
the margin of any body ; thin 
hair-like projections from an 
animal membrane which have a 
quick, vibratory motion in 
insects only microscopic ; in bot. , 
short stiff hairs fringing the 
margin of a leaf: ciliary, a., 
sil'-i-er-i, belonging to the eye- 
lids or cilia : ciliate, a., sil'-i-at, 
also ciliated, a., sil'-i-at^d, pro- 
vided with cilia ; fringed. 

ciliograda, n. plu., sil'-i'd-grdd'-d 
(L. cilium, an eyelid with the 
hairs on its margin ; grddior, I 
walk, grddus, a step), animals 
that swim by means of cilia 
same as 'Ctenophora:' ciliograde, 
a., siV-i'd-grad, swimming by the 
vibratory motion of cilia. 

Cinchonese, n. plu., sin-kon'e-e 
(after the wife of the Conde del 


Cinchon, a viceroy of Peru, who 
was cured of a fever by the Peruv- 
ian bark, 1638), a Sub-order of 
the Ord. Kubiacese: Cinchona, n., 
sin'kon'd, a genus of trees and* 
shrubs, various species of which 
furnish Peruvian or Jesuit's bark, 
growing abundantly in Tipper 
Peru : Cinchona Condaminea, 
k6n / 'dd'min f -e-d (after De la Con- 
damin, a celebrated navigator); 
C. calisaya, kdl'-is-a'-yd ; C. 
succirubra, sW-si-rdb'-rd (L. 
succus, juice, moisture ; ruber or 
rubra, red), are the three species 
which furnish the pharmaceutical 
bark ; about twelve species fur- 
nish the commercial bark, and 
for the manufacture of quinine, 
which the pharmacopoeia, how- 
ever, directs to be prepared from 
the yellow bark, the C. calisaya, 
and C. lancifolia: cinchonin, n., 
sin f -koii'in, also cinchonia, n., 
sin'kon'-i-d, an alkaloid obtained 
from cinchona bark : cinchonism, 
n., sin'kftn-izm, a disturbed 
condition of the general health 
by overdoses and too frequent 
use of quinine. 

cincinnus, n. , sin-sin'-us, or cicinus, 
n., sis-in'-us (Gr. kiklnos or kikin- 
nos, a lock of hair, a curled lock), 
applied to the hair on the temples; 
in bot., an inflorescence; a scorp- 
ioid cyme. 

cinclides, n. plu., sin-klid'ez (Gr. 
kingklis, a lattice, a grating), 
apertures in the column walls of 
some sea anemones, which prob- 
ably serve for the emission of 
the cord-like craspeda. 

cinenchyma, n.,sin'eng'Mm-a (Gr. 
kineo, I move; engchuma, an in- 
fusion), in bot., laticiferous tissue 
formed by anastomising vessels ; 
applied to laticiferous vessels of 
plants on account of the granules 
contained in the 'latex' exhibiting 
certain movements under the 
microscope: cinenchymatous, a., 
sm'eng-kim''dt<us, having laticif- 
erous tissue. 


85 cm 

cinereous, a., sin-er'-e'-us, also 
cineritious, a., singer -ish'-us (L. 
cmgrdceus, and ciner$us, resem- 
bling ashes, ash-coloured from 
cinis, ashes, cineris, of ashes), 
resembling ashes in colour, 
appearance, or consistence ; in 
anat., applied to the outer or 
cortical substance of the brain, 
which has a grey colour. 

Cinnamodendron, n., sin'nam-6- 
den'dron (Gr. kinnamomdn, Ar. 
kinamon, cinnamon; Gr.dendron, 
a tree), a genus of trees, Ord. 
Canellacese : Cinnamodendron 
corticosum, kdrt'ik-oz'um (L. 
corticosus, full of bark from 
cortex, bark, corticis, of bark), a 
tree of the "West Indies which 
yields an aromatic bark : Cin- 
namomum, n., sin^ndm-omf-um, 
a genus of plants, Ord. Lauracese : 
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, zi- 
lan'tk'Um (from Zeylan, Ceylon), 
the true cinnamon tree of com- 
merce, cultivated in Ceylon : C. 
cassia, hashed (see 'cassia'), the 
chief source of Cassia lignea, or 
cassia bark of commerce. 

circinate, a. r serf sin- at (L. circino, 
I turn round; circindtum, to turn 
round from circmus, a pair of 
compasses), in bot. , rolled inwards 
from the summit towards the 
base like a crosier, as the young 
fronds of ferns : circinal, a., serf 
sin-al, rolled in spirally with the 
summit in the centre. 

circulus articuli vasculosus, serk r - 
ul-us drt'ikf-uli vask'-ul-oMs (L. 
circulus, a circle ; articulus, a 
joint, articuli, of a joint ; vascul- 
osus, full of vessels, as veins and 
arteries), the vascular circle of a 
joint ; a narrow vascular border 
around an articular cartilage. 

circulus major, serk'ul-us mddf-dr 
(L. circulus, a circle ; major, 
greater), the greater circle ; a 
vascular ring in the ciliary muscle 
of the iris : circulus minor, min'> 
tir (L. minor, less or lesser), a 
second and lesser circle of anas- 

tomosis ending in small veins : 
c. tonsillaris, ton'sil-ldrfis (L. 
tonsilldris, belonging to the ton- 
sils from tonsilis, shorn, cut, or 
clipped), the tonsillar circle ; a 
kind of plexus formed by some 
branches of the glosso-pharyngeal 
nerve around the tonsil : c. ven- 
osus, veri'dz'us (L. venosus, full 
of veins from vena, a vein), an 
anastomatic venous circle sur- 
rounding the base of the nipple. 

circumduction, n., serk'um-duk'' 
shun(L. circum, around -,ductum, 
to lead), a slight circular motion 
which the head of a long bone 
describes in its socket, caused by 
the movement of the extremity 
of a limb describing a large circle 
on a plane said of the movements 
of the shoulder and hip-joints. 

circumferential, a., serk'-um-fer* 
en'shdl (L. circum, around iferens, 
carrying, ferentis, of carrying), 
pert, to the circumference ; n., a 
marginal fibro- cartilage attached 
around the lip of the cotyloid 
cavity as seen in the hip-joint. 

circumflexus, n., serk'-um-Jiek^us 
(L. circum, around ;flexus, bent), 
bent circularly ; circumflex ; 
applied to certain vessels and 
nerves from their course : circ- 
umflexus palati, pal-at'-i (L. 
paldtus, the palate, palati, of the 
palate), a broad, thin, ribbon- 
like muscle of the palate. 

circumscissile, a., serMum-sfa'-il 
(L. circum, around ; scissum, to 
cut), cut round in a circular 
manner, as in seed vessels open- 
ing by a lid. 

circumscription, n., serk'-um,' 
skrip'shun (L. circum, around ; 
scriptus, written), limitation ; the 
periphery or margin of a leaf or 
other organ. 

Cirrhipedia or Cirripedia, n. plu. , 
sirtri'ped'i'd (L. cirrus, F. cirrhe, 
a lock, a curl ; p$des, feet), a 
Sub-class of Crustacea, having 
curled, jointed feet: also, in same 
sense, Cirrhopoda or Cirropoda, 




sir-r8p'8d-a (Gr. pous, a foot, 
podes, feet): cirropodous, a., sir* 
rdp'tid'us, having filaments or 
cirri arranged in pairs on the 
abdomen, forming a sort of feet 
or fins. 

cirrhose, a., sir'-roz, also cirrhous, 
sir'-us (F. cirrhe, L. cirrus, a 
lock, a curl), having or giving 
off tendrils : cirrhus, n., sir'-us, 
also cirrus, n., slr'-Us, a tendril; 
a modified leaf in the form of a 
twining process : cirrhiform, a. , 
sir'-riform (L. forma, shape), 
having a tendril-like shape : cirrhi 
or cirri, n. plu., sir'4, in bot.> 
tendrils ; in zool., tendril-like 
appendages, such as the feet of 
barnacles and acorn shells ; the 
lateral processes on the arms of 
theBrachiopoda: cirrif'erous, a., 
(L.fero, I carry), also cirriger- 
ous, a., sir-idj^r'its (L. gero, \ 

carry), carrying cirri. 

cirrhosis, n., sir-roz'is (Gr. kirrhos, 
tawny-coloured), a pathological 
condition consisting of an excess- 
ive formation of fibrous connect- 
ive tissue, which conduces to 
various secondary changes ; a 
diseased state of the liver, in which 
it becomes smaller and firmer 
than usual, known commonly as 
' hob-nailed ' or ' gin-drinker's 

Cissampelos, n., sis- am' pel- 8s (Gr. 
kissos, ivy; ampelos, a vine), a 
beautiful genus of stove climbers, 
Ord. Menispermacese : Cissam- 
pelos ovalifolia, tiv-al'-i-fol'i'a 
(L. ovdlis, oval ; fdlium, a leaf, 

folia, leaves); alsoC. Mauritiana, 
mdw'rish'i'dn'a (after Prince 
Maurice of Nassau), species which 
are tonic and diuretic. 

Cissus, n., sis'-sus (Gr. kissos, ivy), 
a genus of climbers, Ord. Ampel- 
idese or Vitacese : Cissus cordata, 
kord-dt'-a (L. corddtus, heart- 
shaped), and C. setosa, set-ds'd 
(L. setosus, full of coarse hairs 
or bristles from seta, a bristle), 
species the leaves of which are 

said to possess acrid properties : 
C. tinctoria, tink-tor'-i-a (L. 
tinctorius, belonging to dyeing), 
a species whose leaves and 
fruit abound in a green col- 
ouring matter, which on expos- 
ure becomes blue, used as a dye 
for cotton fabrics. 

Cistacese, n. plu., sist-a'sV-e (Gr. 
kistos, the cistus or rock rose), 
the Rock Rose family, an Order 
of shrubs or herbaceous plants : 
Cistus, n., sist'us, a genus of 
plants, many of which yield a 
resinous balsamic juice : Cistus 
Creticus, kret r <ik-us (L. Creticus, 
of or from Crete, in the Levant), 
the principal species which pro- 
duces the resinous matter called 
' ladanum * or ' labdanum. ' 

cistella, n., sist-Zl'-La (L. cistella, a 
small basket from cista, a basket 
of wicker-work), in bot., a caps- 
ular shield of some lichens. 

cistolith, n., stetfo-ltth (L. cista, a 
basket of wicker-work ; Gr, litJios, 
a stone), in bot. t an agglomeration 
of raphides suspended in a sac by 
a tube, as in Ficus elastica. 

cistome, n., sist'-om-e (Gr. kiste, a 
small box or chest, or L. dsta, a 
basket of wicker- work; Gr. stoma, 
a mouth), in bot., a funnel-shaped 
prolongation of the cuticle into 
the openings of the stomata. 

citrate, n., sit' rat (L. citrus, a 
lemon, or the tree), a salt of citric 
acid, a common form of giving 
many remedies : citric acid, sit'> 
rik, the substance which gives 
the pleasant acid flavour to 
oranges, lemons, and most other 
fruits: citron, n., stt'ron, the fruit 
of the citron tree : citrine, a., 
sii f 'Tln, like a citron ; yellow-green. 

cladanthi, n. plu., kldd-anth-i (Gr. 
klados, a tender branch, a twig ; 
anthos, a flower), in bot., flowers 
which terminate a lateral branch 
in mosses. 

cladenchyma, n. plu., klad-eny'' 
kim-d(Gi\ klados, a tender branch; 
engchuma, an infusion), tissue 




composed of branching cells, as 
in some hairs. 

sladocarpi, n. plu., klad'-o-kctrp'-i 
(Gr. klados, a tender branch ; 
karpos, fruit), in bot. t mosses 
which produce sporangia on 
short lateral branches. 

cladocera, n. plu., klad-8s'$r-& 
(Gr. Uddos, a branch, a twig ; 
keras, a horn), an Order of Crus- 
tacea having branched antennae. 

cladodium, n., klad-od^i-um (Gr. 
klados, a tender branch), in bot., 
a plant that has flattened out 
branches, as in the butcher's broom 
and some cacti. 

Cladonia, n., klad-dn'.l-a (Gr. 
klados, a tender branch), a genus 
of lichens: Cladonia rangiferina, 
ranj'if'^T'wf'Gb (Lap. and Finn. 
raingo, the reindeer ; ferinus, of 
or belonging to a wild beast), 
the lichen upon which the rein- 
deer feeds. 

cladoptosis, n., klad'-dp-toz'-is (Gr. 
klados, a branch ; ptosis, a fall), 
in bot. , the fall of branches, as in 
Thuja, Taxodium, etc. 

Cladosporium, u.,klad'd'Spdr''i'iim 
(Gr. klados, a branch ; spora, 
seed), a genus of minute fungi, 
having the sporules attached to 
the branches, mostly found on old 
decaying wood : "Cladosporium 
herbarum, herb'tir'-urn (L. herba, 
grass, an herb, herbarum, of herbs), 
the minute fungi which cause 
the disease in silkworms called 
'gattine, ' which is a corruption of 
' catkin,' from its appearance. 

clathrate, a., klath'-rat (L. datliri, 
a trellis, a lattice), in hot., latticed 
like a grating. 

claustrum, n., kldwst'rum (L. 
claustrum, that which shuts off, 
a lock, a bar), a thin lamelliform 
deposit of grey matter in the 

rlavate, a., kldv'dt (L. cldvdtus, 
club - shaped from cldvus, a 
cudgel, a club), club-shaped ; be- 
coming gradually thicker towards 
the top: claviiorm, a., klav'-i- 

f6rm (L. forma, shape), same 
sen seas preceding: clavellose, a., 
kldv'el-loz, having club-like proc- 

Claviceps purpurea, kldt/'i-s&ps 
per-pur'-fra (L. cldviceps, club- 
headed from cldvus, a club ; 
cdput, ahe&d;purpur%us, purple- 
coloured), a species of fungi pro- 
ducing the disease called 'ergot/ 
which attacks rye and other 

clavicle, n., klav'-ik-l (L. cldvicula, 
a small key from cldvis, a key), 
the collar-bone, so called from its 
supposed resemblance to an ancient 

clavula, n., klav'ul-a (L. clavula, 
a little nail from cldvus, a nail), 
in bot. t the receptacle of certain 

clavus, n., kldi/-us (L. cldvus, a 
nail), a corn or callosity : clavus 
hystericus, his-ter'-ik-us (Gr. hus- 
terikos, L. hystericus, pert, to the 
womb, hysterical from Gr. hits- 
tera, the womb), an acute pain 
in the head, having the feeling as 
if a nail were being driven into 
the part, occurring in hysterical 

claw, n., kldw (Dut. klauwe, a 
ball or claw ; F. clou, a nail), in 
bot., the narrow end or base of 
some petals. 

Claytonia, n., kld-tdn'-i-& (after 
Clayton, an American botanist), 
a genus of very pretty plants, 
Ord. Portulacacese : Claytonia 
tuberosa, tub'er>dz'a(L. tuberosus, 
having fleshy knobs from tuber, 
a bump, a knob), a species of 
plants whose roots are eaten in 

cleido-mastoid, a. , Idld'-o-mast'-oyd 
(Gr. kleis, a key, or the clavicle, 
kleidos, of a key ; Eng. mastoid, 
nipple-like, as on the breast), 
one of two muscles which are 
attached inferiorly to the anterior 
surface of the sternum, and the 
inner third of the clavicle. 

Clernaiide83, n. pl 




(Gr. klema, a vine branch, klem- 
dtos, of a vine branch ; L. clem- 
atis, the clematis, clematidis, 
of the clematis), a Sub-order of 
plants, Ord. Ranunculacese: Clem- 
atis, n., kl&m'-dt'is, a genus of 
highly ornamental, and for the 
most part, climbing plants, so 
called because most of the species 
climb like the vine : Clematis 
recta, rekt f >a (L. rectns, straight, 
upright) ; C. flammula, flam'-ul-d 
(L. flammula, a little flame from 

flamma, a flame), two species, 
the leaves of which have been 
used as vesicants. 

Cleomese, n. plu., Ide-om'&e (Gr. 
kleid or kleo, I close or shut), a 
Sub-order of plants, Ord. Cappar- 
idacese: Cleome, n., kle-om^e, a 
genus of very pretty free-flowering 
plants, so called alluding to the 
parts of the flower ; some species 
are very pungent, and are used as 
substitutes for mustard: Cleome 
dodecandra, ('.rd (Gr. 
dodeka, twelve ; aner, a man, 
andros, of a man), a species 
whose root is used as an anthel- 

Clerodendron, n., kler'-d-den'-drd'n 
(Gr. kleros, a share, a lot ; den- 
dron, a tree), a beautiful genus 
of plants, Ord. Yerbenacese, so 
named from the uncertain medic- 
inal properties of the species ; 
the leaves when bruised are em- 
ployed to kill vermin on cattle in 
India : Clerodendron Thomsonae, 
torn' son- e, and its variety C. 
Balfourianum, bal-foor'i'dn'-um 
(Thomson, Balfour), are beauti- 
ful climbing plants, from the 
contrast between their scarlet 
flowers and white calyx. 

destines, n. plu., kles'-tin-ez (Gr. 
klestos or kleistos, shut or closed), 
in bot. , cells containing raphides. 

Clianthus, n., kli-anth'us (Gr. 
kleos or kleios, glory, renown ; 
anthos, a flower), a genus of plants 
so called in allusion to the noble 
appearance of the species, Ord. 

Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Papilion- 

clinandrium, n., klin-and'-ri-um 
(Gr. kline, a bed ; aner, a man, 
andros, of a man), in bot., the 
part of the column of orchideous 
plants in which the anther lies : 
clinanthium, n., klm-anth't-um 
(Gr. anthos, a flower), a common 
receptacle, assuming a flattened, 
convex, or concave form, bearing 
numerous flowers, as in the head 
of the daisy. 

clinical, a., Idin'-ik-al, sometimes 
clinic, a., klm'-ik (Gr. Mine, a 
bed), pert, to a bed ; applied to 
the instruction of a teacher to 
students of medicine at the bed- 
side of the patient, or from notes 
taken by a teacher at the bed- 
side : clinoid, a., Idin'-dyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), resembling a 
bed or parts of a bed ; applied to 
processes of bone of the sphenoid 
bone bearing a resemblance to 
the knobs of a bed. 

clitoris, n., kltt'-or-is (Gr, kkitorls, 
the clitoris from kleio, I shut), 
a small elongated body in the 
female, corresponding in conform- 
ation and structure to a diminut- 
ive penis : clitoritis, n., klit'-or- 
It-is, inflammation of the clitoris. 

cloaca, n., kld-akf-a (L. cloaca, a 
common eewer), the common 
cavity into which the intestinal 
canal and the ducts of the gener- 
ative and urinary organs open, 
and from which they discharge 
their contents, as in some Inverteb- 
rates, as among insects, and in 
many vertebrates, as among dom- 
estic fowls. 

clonic, a., kldn'-ik (Gr. kltinos, 
tumult), denoting a convulsion 
with alternate contraction and 

ClusiaceaB, n. plu., kldoz'i'd'se-e 
(after Charles de VEcluse, a 
botanist, 1609), an Order of 
beautiful trees and shrubs, yield- 
ing resinous juices, known also 
as Guttiferse or Guttifers, or the 


Gamboge family: Clusia, n., 
Icldozh I- a, a very ornamen tal gen u s 
of trees, remarkable for the mode 
in which they send out advent- 
itious roots : Clusia flava, fldv'-d 
(L. fldvus, golden - yellow), a 
species whose fruit, called also 
wild mango or balsam tree, yields 
a yellow juice like gamboge. 

clypeate, a., Idip'-Z-dt (L. clype- 
atus, furnished with a shield 
from clypeus, a shield), in bot., 
having the shape of a shield : 
clypeifonn, a., klip'e-i-ftirm (L. 
forma, shape), shield-shaped, as 
the carapace of the king-crab : 
clypeus rugulose, klip'-Z-us rug'- 
ul'dz (L. clypeus, a shield ; a dim. 
of L. ruga, a plait or wrinkle), 
a shield or horny covering full of 

clyster, n., klist^er (Gr. Muster, a 
clyster from kluzo, I wash), an 
injection into the bowels by the 

cnidaB, n. plu., nid'-e (Gr. Jcnide, a 
nettle, because it stings from 
knao, I excite itching), the 
urticating cells, or thread cells, 
which give many coelenterate 
animals power to sting. 

coagulum, n., ko-dg^ul-um, coag- 
ula, n. plu., ko-dg'-ul-a (L. codg- 
tilum, curdled milk), clot of 
blood ; the curd of milk ; a thick- 
ened or fixed mass of a liquid. 

coarctate, a., ko-drfctdt (L. coarc- 
tdtum, to press together), in bot., 
closely pressed ; enclosed in a 
case or covering in such a manner 
as to give no indication of what 
is within, as in the transformation 
of insects: coarctation, n., led'* 
drk-ta'shun, the act of straiten 
ing or pressing together, as in 
strictures of the intestine or 

cocci, n. plu., ktik'si, see 'coccus. 
coccidium, n., kdk-sid'i-um (Gr 
kokkos, a seed, a kernel; eidos 
resemblance), in Algae, a rounc 
conceptacle without a pore anc 
containing a tuft of spores : coc 

89 COC 

codes, n. plu., k$k'k8d>ez, round 
protuberances like peas. 
^occoliths, n. plu., ktik'-ktiJtiks 

(Gr. kokkos, a berry ; llthos, a 
stone), minute oval or rounded 
bodies, found either free or 
attached to the surface of cocco- 
spheres, probably of vegetable 

Coccoloba, n., kok'-kd-ldb'-d (Gr. 
kokkos, a berry ; lobos, a lobe), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Polygonaceae : 
Coccoloba uvifera, uv-if'8r-d (L. 
uvifera, bearing grapes from 
uva, a grape ; fero, I bear), the 
sea-side grape, so called from the 
appearance of the fruit, which 
yields an astringent substance 
called Jamaica kino. 

coccospheres, n. plu., ktik'kd-sfers 
(Gr. kokkos, a berry; sphaira, a 
sphere), spherical masses of sarc- 
ode, bearing coccoliths upon their 
external surface. 

cocculum, n., kdk'-ul-um (coccus, a 
L. formative from Gr. kokkos, a 
berry, a seed, a scarlet colour ; 
L. coccum, the berry of the scarlet 
oak), in bot., a seed cell which 
opens with elasticity : Cocculus, 
n., ko&ul'us, a genus of plants, 
Ord. Menispermacese, remarkable 
for their medicinal virtues, so 
named because most of the species 
bear scarlet berries : Cocculus In- 
dicus, m'-dik-us (L. Indicus, be- 
longing to India), the fruit of the 
Anamirta cocculus, which is ex- 
tremely bitter, and the seeds con- 
tain a poisonous narcotic principle, 
called Picrotoxin ; the pericarp 
yields a non-poisonous substance 
called Menispermin : coccus, n., 
kok'-us, and coccum, n., kok'-um, 
cocci, n. plu., kdk'si, portions of 
the dry elastic fruit of many of the 
Euphorbiacese, which separate 
with great force and elasticity in 
order to project their seeds: Coccus 
cacti, kok f 'U8 kdk'-ti (coccus, the 
scarlet-colour; L. cacti, of the 
cactus), the name of the cochineal 
insect, which feeds upon cactuses; 




the female insect when dried con- 
stitutes the cochineal of com- 

coccyx, n., kftk'-siks (Gr. kokkux, 
the cuckoo, imitation of its cry, 
a crest, kokkiigos, of the cuckoo; 
L. coccyx, the cuckoo, coccygis, 
of the cuckoo), the terminal por- 
tion of the spinal column in man, 
commonly consisting of four rudi- 
mentary vertebrae, so called from 
its resemblance to a cuckoo's beak 
or bill: coccygeal, a., kok-sidf- 
e-dl, connected with the coccyx : 
coccygeus, a., kSk-sidj^-iis, ap- 
plied to a muscle consisting of a 
thin, flat, and triangular sheet of 
fleshy and tendinous fibres con- 
nected with the coccyx. 

cochlea, n., ktikf-U-ti, (L. cochlea, 
a snail ; Gr. kochlias, a cockle, 
a snail with a spiral shell), in 
anat., the most interior division 
of the internal ear, consisting ex- 
ternally of a tapering spiral tube : 
cochleate, a., k8k r -le-dt, twisted 
like a snail shell. 

cochlear, n.,M;'^-ar(L. cochUar, 
a spoon, cochledris, of a spoon 
from cochlea, a snail shell), in 
bot., a kind of aestivation, in 
which a helmet-shaped part covers 
all the others in the bud : coch- 
leariform, a., ktik'-te-dr'i'fd'rm 
(L. forma, shape), shaped some* 
what like a spoon. 

Cochlearia, n* plu., ktiktle'dr'-i-a 
(L. cochlear, a spoon), a genus of 
plants, the leaves of which are 
hollowed like the bowl of a spoon, 
Ord. Cruci ferae : Cochlearia offic- 
inalis, of-fis'-in-dl'-is (L. officina, 
a workshop), the common scurvy- 
grass, used as a stimulant: 0. 
Armoracia, dr'-mor-d'shi-d (Ar* 
morica, Brittany, the district of 
France from Which first brought), 
the horse-radish, which has irrit- 
ant and also vesicant properties. 

Zocoinese, n. plu., k^k'-o-in^e 
(Prtg. coco, an ugly mask to 
frighten children, so named from 
the monkey-like face at the base 

of the nut), the Cocoa-nut tribe, a 
Sub -order of trees, Ord. Palmae, 
which consist of the oil-bearing 
palms : Cocos, n. , k8k'-6s, a genus 
of palm trees, including the cocoa- 
nut tree : Cocos nucifera, nu-sif- 
er-d (L. nux, a nut, niicis, of a 
nut; f&ro, I bear), the coco or 
cocoa-nut palm, the most useful in 
the world for its various products : 
cocoa, n., kok'-o, the very large 
nut of the cocos palm; also the 
name given to the fruit of the 
Theobroma cacao, which is of the 
size of a kidney-bean, and when 
dried and ground into powder, 
and variously prepared, is sold 
under the names cocoa and choco- 

codeia, n., IM-ftd or Wd-^yd, 
also kodein, n., k6d*etin (Gr. 
kodeia, a poppy head), an alkal- 
oid, one of the active medicinal 
principles of opium. 

codonostoma, n. plu., ktid'-fa*t& 
tom-d (Gr. kodon, a bell ; stoma, 
a mouth), the aperture or mouth 
of the disc of a medusa, or of the 
bell of a medusiform gonophore. 

Ccelenterata, n. plu., sel-en'-ier-at'-d 
(Gr. koilos, hollow ; enteron, a 
bowel or gut, entera, entrails), 
in zooL, the Sub-kingdom com- 
prising the Hydrozoa and Actin- 
ozoa, used instead of the old term 

cceliac, a., sel^dk (Gr, koilia, 
belly), pert, to the cavity of the 
belly : coeliac passion (passion, 
suffering), another name for colic : 
ccelitis, sel-U'-fot abdominal in- 

ccelosperm, n., sel'd-sperm, coalo- 
sperni88,n. plu., seV-o-sperm'-e^i'. 
koilos, hollow; koilia^ the belly; 
sperma, seed), seeds with the al- 
bumen curved at the ends. 

coenenchyma, n., sen'Vng'kim'd 
(Gr. koinos, common; engchuma, 
an infusion, tissue), the calcareous 
tissue which unites together the 
various corallites of a compound 




coenoecium, n., sen-e'sfii-tim (Gr. 
koinos, common ; oikos ) a house), 
in zool., the plant-like structure 
or dermal system of any polyzoon; 
another name for * polyzoary ' or 
' polypidom. ' 

coenosarc, n., sen'-d'Sdrk (Gr. 
koinos, common ; sarx, flesh), the 
common organized medium by 
which the separate polypites of 
compound hydrozoa are con- 
nected together. 

ccenurus, n., sen-ur^us, ccenuxi, n. 
plu.,sew-wr-(Gr. koinos, common; 
our a, tail), intestinal Worms, con-* 
sisting of cystose bladders, each 
of which contains several animals 
grouped together, and adhering 
to its sides : ccenurus cerebralis, 
ser'eb-rdl'is (L. cerebralis, be- 
longing to the brain from cereb- 
rum, the brain), the brain ccen- 
urus ; the disease sturdy in sheep, 
caused by coenuri. 

ccerulescent, a., ser'-ul-'es'Znt 
(L. c&ruleus, dark-blue, sky- 
coloured), of a blue or sky-blue 

Coffea, n M Icof-fef-a (Ar. kawah, 
Sp. cafe, coffee), the coffee trees, 
a genus of Very ornamental 
trees, Sub-ord. Coffese, kdf-fe'e, 
which furnish important articles 
of materia medica, Ord. Rubi<- 
aceae : Coffea Arabica, dr-db f 'ik-d 
(Arabica, from Arabia), the tree 
and its varieties which furnish 
the coffee of commerce, said to 
be a native of Caffa in Arabia : 
caffein, n., kaf<fe f -in, the bitter 
principle of coffee, identical with 
Theine, obtained from tea. 

Colchiceae, n. plu., kdl'tshts'-Z-e 
(said to be after Colchis, its 
original habitat), a Sub-order of 
the Ord. Melanthacese, which 
have, in general, poisonous proper- 
ties : Colchicum, n.,k6V'tshik-um, 
a genus of bulbous plants having 
important medicinal properties, 
acrid, purgative, emetic, and 
narcotic : Colchicum autumnale, 
aw'-tum-naV-Z (L. autumnalis, 

autumnal from autttmnus, 
autumn), meadow saffron, or 
autumn crocus, used in medicine 
as an extract, vinegar, or tincture : 
colchicin, n,, &##**A&*ln, an 
alkaloid obtained from the corn 
and seeds of the preceding species : 
Colchicum variegatum, vdr'i'e- 
gdt'um (L. variegatum, to make of 
various sorts or colours), a species 
used for diseases of the joints by 
the ancient physicians under the 
name ' hermodactyle. ' 

Coleoptera, n. plu., kdl^-dp^^r-d 
(Gr. koleos, a sheath ; pteron, a 
wing), the Beetle family, an 
Order of insects which have 
horny outer cases or sheaths for 
the protection of their mem- 
branous wings : coleopterous, a. , 
k&l'e-d'p'-ter'US, having horny 
sheaths or coverings for their 
wings, as the Beetle family. 

coleorhiza, n., kdl'-Z-o-riz'-ti (Gr. 
koleos, a sheath ; rhiza, a root), 
a sheath which covers the young 
rootlets of monocotyledonous 

colesule, n., ktil'gs'ul (diminutive 
of coleS) old name for the penis 
from Gr. kole, the penis), in bot. , 
a cellular ring surrounding the 
pistillidia in Jungermannise. 

colic, n., kWik (Gr. kolikos, L. 
colicus, pert, to the colic from 
Gr. kokn^ the largest intestine), 
severe twisting pain in the 
bowels, especially near the navel : 
colica pictonum, ktil'-ik-a pikt'- 
oii'um (L. PicttfneS) the Pict- 
avians or inhabitants of Poitou, 
France, where endemic, Pictonum, 
of the Pictavians), lead colic : 
colitis, n., kol>it'>is, inflammation 
of the colon. 

colica dextra, kftl'-ik-a deks'tra, 
(L. colicus, pert, to the colic 
from Gr. kolon, the great gut ; 
L. dextra, right), the right colic, 
an artery which arises about the 
middle of the mesenteric artery : 
c. media, med'-i-a (L. medius f 
middle), the middle colic, an 




artery which arises from the 
upper part of the mesenteric 

collateral, a., M-lcft'-tr-al (L. 
con, together ; Idtus, a side, 
lateris, of a side), in bot., placed 
by the side of another, as in some 

Collemaceae, n. plu., kSl'-U-maf'Se-e 
(Gr. kolle, glue), a small Order 
of flowerless plants, intermediate 
between the Algae and Lichens, 
bearing the thallus of an alga 
and the fruit of a lichen : Collema, 
n., Tc6l-lemf-d, a genus of Lichens, 
all the species of which are 

collenchyma, n., ktil-l$ng'kfm>a 
(Gr. kolle, glue ; engchuma, an 
infusion, tissue), in bot., the sub- 
stance lying between and uniting 

colleters, n. plu., T&llet'-trz (Gr. 
Icolletos, glued or cemented to- 
gether from kolle, glue), in bot. , 
glandular hairs on the leaves of a 
bud producing f blastocolla. ' 
colletic, a., kdl-let'-tk (Gr. kollet- 
ilcos, L. colleticus, sticky, gluey 
from Gr. kolle, glue), of the 
nature of glue ; gluey. 
collodion, n., k8l-ldd'$-8n (Gr. 
kolle, glue; eidos, resemblance), 
a solution of gun-cotton in ether 
and spirit: colloid, n., Wl'-ldyd, 
in chem., an inorganic compound 
having a gelatinous appearance ; 
a substance which cannot diffuse 
through organic membranes ; op- 
posed to a 'crystalloid, ' which does 
readily diffuse itself so : colloid 
cancer, a soft, jelly-like form of 

Colloinia, n., MJom'-t-d (Gr. kolle, 
glue, referring to the glutinous 
seeds), a genus of plants, Ord. 

collum, n., WV'lum (L. collum, a 
neck), in bot. , the part where the 
plumule and radicle, or root and 
stem, unite. 

collyrium, n., kdl-li'/'^um (Gr. 
kollurionj an eye-salve), a lotion 

or wash for any part of the body, 
latterly applied chiefly to a wash 
for the eyes ; an eye water. 

kasia, the root of the Egyptian 
bean), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Araceae : Colocasia esculenta, 
fok f -ul'$nt'-& (L. esculentus, fit for 
eating from e sea, food), a species 
which has edible corms or bulbs, 
which are called Eddoes and 
Cocoes in the W. Indies. 

colocynth, n., kdl'd-smth (Gr. 
kolokunthis, the wild or purging 
gourd), the pulp of a kind of 
gourd, common in many parts of 
Asia ; the bitter apple, which is a 
powerful purgative. 

colon, n., kol'on (Gr. kolon, L. 
colon, the great gut), the large 
intestine, from the caecum to the 

coloquintida, n., ktil'-o-kwint'td-a 
(the Latinised form of the Fr. 
coloquinte, colocynth), the bitter 
globular fruit, the pulp of which 
constitutes the medicinal colo- 
cynth ; see ' colocynth ' ; the 
Cucumis colocynthis, Ord. Cucur- 

colostrum, n., Ictil-o'st'rum (L. 
colostrum, the first milk of anim- 
als after delivery), the milk 
first secreted in the breasts after 

colotomy, n., Ico'l-o't'-orri'i (Gr. 
kolon, the colon or great gut ; 
tome, a cutting), an operation for 
opening the bowel in the left 
loin, to remove an obstruction in 
the lower part of the intestine. 

colpenchyma, n., Ictil-peng'Tcim-a 
(Gr. kolpos, the fold of a garment ; 
engchuma, an infusion, tissue), 
in bot., tissue composed of wavy 
or sinuous cells. 

Corubrina, n. plu., kftl'-U'lrm'-a 
(L. coluber, a snake), in zool., a 
division of theOphidia: colubrine, 
a., Jctft'-u-brin, pert, to serpents; 
having the appearance of a serpent, 

columba, n., kdl-um'-bd, or cal- 
umba, n., kdl-um'-bd (from Col- 




omba, in Ceylon), the root of 
the plant Cocculus palmatus, or 
Menispermum palmatum, an 
excellent tonic. 

Columbacei, n. plu., ktil'-tim-bd'&'i 
(L. columba, a dove), the division 
of rasorial birds which include 
doves and pigeons. 

Columbine, n., kdl'um-bin (L. 
columbinus, dove-like from col- 
umba, a dove ; may be only 
column, and bine from AS. bin- 
dan, Icel. binda, to bind, as in 
woodbine), the common climbing 
plant Aquilegia vulgaris, Ord. 

columella, n., kWtim-til'-ld (L. 
columella, a small column or 
pillar from columna, a column), 
the central column, as in the 
sporangia of mosses ; an axis 
which has carpels arranged around 
it ; the central axis round which 
the whorls of a spiral univalve 
are wound ; the central pillar 
found in the thecse of many 
corals : column, n., koV-um, the 
solid body formed by the union 
of the styles and filaments in 
some plants ; the cylindrical body 
of a sea anemone. 

columella cochlese, kdZtim-Wld 
kokf'le-e (L. columella, a small 
column ; cochlea, a spiral shell, 
cochleae, of a spiral shell), the 
central pillar round which turns 
the spiral tube of the ear. 

Columelliacese, n. plu., kol^m- 
Zl'li-d'se'-e (after Columella, a 
Spaniard), a small Order of ever- 
green shrubs and trees: Columel- 
lia, n., k^l'-iim-^V-U'd, a genus of 

columnse carnese, k$l-ftm'-n& kdr'- 
ri&'e (L. columnce, columns ; 
carnece, fleshy from caro, flesh, 
carnis, of flesh), the fleshy col- 
umns or pillars ; the irregular 
rounded muscular bands on a 
great part of the inner surfaces 
of the ventricles of the heart : 
columnsB recti, rekt'i (L. rectum, 
the rectum, recti, of the rectum 

from rectus, straight), the larger 
folds of the rectum. 

Colutea, n., kdl-ut'-Z-d (Gr. kolout- 
ea, a kind of tree which dies if 
mutilated ; L. colutea, a pod-like 
kind of fruit), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Leguminosse, Sub-ord. 
PapilionacetB : Colutea arbores- 
cens, dr'-bdr-fe''^ (L. arbores- 
cens, growing into a tree from 
arbor, a tree), the bastard or 
bladder senna, whose leaves are 
used abroad to adulterate the 
true senna. 

coma, n., kom'a (Gr. koma, a 
deep sleep), a kind of stupor, 
deep sleep, or insensibility ; a 
deep lethargic sleep from which 
the person cannot be awakened : 
comatose, a., k8m'at>oz, excess- 
ively drowsy ; lethargic. 

coma, n., kom'a (L. coma, Gr. 
kome, the hair of the head), tufts 
of hairs terminating certain seeds ; 
bracts or tufts as at the summit 
of a pine - apple : comose, a., 
kom-oz', furnished with hairs, as 
the seeds of the willow. 

CombretacesB, n. plu., ktimtbret' 
a'-se-e (combretum, said to have 
been a Latin name for a climbing 
plant), an Order of climbing 
plants: CombreteaB, n. plu., ktim* 
toet'-e-e, a Sub-order: Combretum, 
n., kdm-bretf-um, a genus. 

comes nervi ischiadici, kom'-ez 
nerv'-l is'-ki^d'-is-i (L. comes, a 
companion ; nervus, a nerve, 
nervi, of a nerve ; ischiadicus, 
that has hip-gout from ischias, 
hip-gout), the companion of the 
ischiadic nerve ; a branch of the 
sciatic artery : comes nervi 
phrenici, fren'-is-l (L. phremcus t 
belonging to the diaphragm 
from Gr. phren, the diaphragm), 
the companion of the phrenic 
nerve ; a very slender but long 
branch of the phrenic artery 
which accompanies the phrenic 

CommelynacesB, n. plu., kom> 
mel'-in-af'Se-e (after Commelin, a 




Dutch botanist), the Spider- wort 
family, an Order of plants, some 
of which have fleshy rhizomes 
which are used for food : Com- 
melyna, n, , kdm'mel-in'd, a genus 
of very handsome plants. 

commissure, n., kom-mish'-obr (L. 
commissura, a knot, a joint 
from con, together; missus, sent), 
the place where two parts meet 
and unite ; the point of union 
"between two parts that meet 
closely: commissural, a., kom- 
mish'-dor-al, connecting together; 
applied to nerve - fibres which 
unite different ganglia, 

complanate, a., kom'-pldn<at (L f 
compldno, I make level from 
con, together ; pldnus, level), in 
bot., flattened. 

complicate, a., komtpltic'dt (L. 
complicdtum, to fold together 
from con, together; plico, I 
fold), in lot., folded up upon 

Composite, n. plu., kom-p8z f -U-e 
(L. compositus, put together, 
compounded ; compono, I com- 
pound from con, together; pdno, 
I put or place), the Composite 
family, one of the largest and 
most important Orders in the 
vegetable kingdom, and distrib- 
uted over all quarters of the 

CDmpress, n., k8m'pr%s (L. com- 
pressus, pressed together from 
con, together ; pressus, pressed, 
kept under), folds of soft linen 
cloth, used to cover the dressings 
of wounds, etc.: compressed, a., 
Icom 'prest', in bot., flattened lat- 
erally : compression, n., kdm- 
pr%sh f 'Un, in anat. , pressure upon 
the brain caused by some severe 
injury : compressor, n., k6m> 
pres'-dr, a muscle which com- 
presses the parts on which it 
acts : compressorium, n. , Mm' 
pr%S'6r r >i'Um, that which com- 
presses or fixes ; a compressor. 

Conantherese, n. plu., ktin'dnth- 
er'-e-e (Gr. konos, a cone ; Eng. 

anther from Gr. antheros, L. 
anther a, flowery), a Sub-order of 
plants, Ord. Liliacese, so called 
because their anthers are united 
into a cone ; the stemless herbs 
of Peru and Chili : Conanthera, 
n., k$n'anth-er f 'a, a genus. 

conarium, n,, kon-ar'i-um (Gr. 
konos, L. conus, the fruit of the 
ftr), in anat., a small reddish 
body, about the size of a small 
cherry-stone, in the cerebrum, 
called also the ( pineal body ' or 
1 gland, ' 

concatenate, a., ktin-k&tftn-fit (L. 
con, together ; catendtus, chained 
from catena, a chain), chained 

concentric, a., ktin-s&nt'.rik (L. 
con, together ; centrum, the 
middle point), in bot., having a 
common centre. 

conceptacle, n., kdn-sept'-a-kl (L. 
conceptaculum, a receptacle), in 
bot., a hollow sac containing a 
tuft or cluster of spores ; the 
thecee of ferns. 

concha, n., kdngk'a (Gr. kongche, 
L. concha, a shell), the external 
ear, by which sounds are collected 
and transmitted through the 
modiolus to the internal ear. 

Conchifera, n. plu., kongk-if^er-a, 
also Conchifers, n. plu., kongk- 
if-ers (L. concha, a shell; fero, I 
bear or carry), an extensive class 
of bivalve shell-fish, including 
the oyster, mussel, cockle, and 
scallop ; a synonym for *lam- 
elli - branchiate : ' conchiferous, 
a., kongk-ij'er'US, producing or 
having shells : conchiform, a., 
kongk f 'i-form (L. forma, shape), 
having the shape of a shell. 

concolorate, a., kon'kol'or'dt, also 
concolorous, a., kon-kdl'-or-us 
(L. con, together ; color, colour), 
similar in colour. 

concrete, a., kong'kret (L. con, 
together ; cretum, to grow), 
united in growth; growing to- 
gether : concretion, n., kon- 
kresli'-un, a mass formed by the 




union of various parts adhering 
to each other. 

concussion, n., kon>kush'un (L. 
concussio, a shaking from con, 
together ; quassum, to shake), in 
med., a severe shattering or 
injury of some internal organ in 
consequence of a fall, or heavy 

conduplicate, a., Ic8n-du'-plik-at 
(L. con, together ; duplico, I 
double from duo, two ; plico, 
I fold), doubled ; folded upon 

condyle, n., kon'dil(Gr. kondulos, 
a knuckle, a knob), in anat., a 
protuberance having a flattened 
articular surface ; condyles, n. 
plu., the articular surfaces by 
which the skull articulates with 
the vertebral column : condyloid, 
a., kon'-dil-dyd (Gr. eidos, re- 
semblance), resembling a condyle. 

cone, n., kon (Gr. konos, L. conus, 
a cone), the scaly fruit of the fir, 
pine, etc. 

conenchyma, n., kon-eng'-kim-a 
(Gr. konos, the cone of the pine ; 
engchuma, an infusion, tissue), 
tissue composed of conical cells, 
as in the form of hairs. 

Conferva, n., kon-ferv'-a, Con- 
fervas, n. plu., kon-ferv'e (L. 
confer veo, 1 grow together), a 
very extensive and interesting 
genus of Algse, having branched 
cellular expansions, and nutritive 
and reproductive cells, often dis- 
tinct and separate so called on 
account of their coherence in a 
branched linear or lateral expan- 
sion : Confervacese, n. plu. , kdn' 
ferv'd'se-e, a Sub-order of flower- 
less water-plants of the simplest 
structure, of various colours 
green, olive, violet, and red : 
Conferva crispa, krisp'-a, (L. 
crispus, crisp, curled), the water- 
plant called "Water - flannel, 
forming beds of entangled fila- 
ments which enclose pentagonal 
and hexagonal spaces : conferv- 
oid, a., ktin-ferv-oyd (Gr. eidos, 

resemblance), formed of single 
rows of cells, as in the Confervse; 
having thread-like articulations. 

confluent, a., kdn'fldo-Znt (L. con, 
together ; ftuens, flowing), in 
bot., gradually uniting in the 
progress of growth. 

congenital, a., kon-jen'U-al (L. 
congemtus, born together from 
con, together ; genitus, brought 
forth, produced), existing from 
birth, as a disease or some de- 

congested, a., Ic6n-jest f -ed (L. con- 
gestus, pressed together from 
con, together ; gestum, to carry), 
in bot. , heaped together ; in med. , 
having an unnatural accumula- 
tion of blood : congestion, n., 
kon-jest'-yun, an unnatural collec- 
tion of blood in any part or organ 
of a body. 

conglobate, a., kdn'-glob-dt (L. 
conglobdtum, to gather into a 
ball from con, together ; globus, 
a ball), in the shape of a ball or 

conglomerate, a., kftn^glom'-er-dt 
(L. conglomeratum, to roll to- 
gether from con, together ; 
glomero, I wind into a ball or 
heap), in bot., clustered together ; 
applied to a gland composed of 
various glands or lobules with a 
common excretory duct ; denot- 
ing a stony mass composed of 
sandstone and various pebbles. 

conglutinate, a., kon-gldbt'-in-at 
(L. conglutindtus, glued or cem- 
ented), glued together in heaps ; 
united together as by a tenacious 

conia,n. plu., kon't'a(Gr. koneion, 
L. conium, hemlock), the active 
principle of hemlock, consisting 
of a volatile oleaginous alkali, 
which acts as an energetic poison : 
tJonium, n., Tcon f -i-um, a genus of 
plants, Ord. Umbelliferse : Conium 
maculatum, mak'-til-atf-tim (L. 
maculdtum, to spot, to stain 
from macula, a stain), the plant 
hemlock, probably the * koneion ' 




of the Greeks, and 'cicuta' of the 

conidia, n., ktin-id'-i-d (Gr. konis, 
a nit, the egg of a louse, flea, or 
bug, konidos, of a nit), in bot., 
the peculiar spores in fungi which 
resemble buds : conidiiferous, a. , 
ktin'id'i'if'er-us (L. fero, I bear 
or carry), producing or bearing 

ConifersB, n. plu., kdn-if'er-e, also 
Conifers, n. plu., kon'$f-ers (L. 
conus, a cone;/ero, I bear), the 
cone-bearing family, a very ex- 
tensive Order of trees having four 
Sub-orders: coniferous, a., kon- 
tf-er-us (L.fero, I bear), produc- 
ing or bearing cones. 

coniocyst, n., kan'-i-d-sist (Gr. 
konis, dust, a nit ; kustis, a 
bladder), in bot., spore cases 
resembling tubercles. 

Ooniomycetes, n., kdn'i-o-mi'Set'-ez 
(Gr. konis , a nit, dust ; mukes, 
a fungus, a mushroom, muketos, 
of a fungus), a Sub -order of 
Fungi, in which the flocci of 
the fruit are obsolete or mere 

coniothalameaa, n. plu., kon'i-8- 
thdl'dm^e (Gr. kdnis, a nit, 
dust ; thaldmos, a bedchamber, 
a nest), a Sub-order of lichens ; 
pulverulent lichens. 

Conirosters, n. plu., kon'i-rost'-ers 
(L. cdnus, a cone ; rostriim, a 
beak), in zool., the division of 
perching birds with conical beaks. 

conium, kon'-i'Um, see 'conia. ' 

conjugate, a., kon'-joog-at (L. con- 
jugatum, to unite from con, to- 
gether ; jugum, a yoke or bond), 
paired; joined by pairs : conjuga- 
tion, n., kon'jdog-d'shun, the 
union of two cells in such a way 
as to develop a spore : conjugate 
spirals, in bot. , whorled leaves so 
arranged as to give two or more 
generating spirals running par- 
allel to each other. 

conjunctiva, n., kSn'-jtinkt-iv'-a 
(L. conjunctivas, fastening to- 
gether from con, together; jungo, 

I joiii), the fine sensitive mem- 
brane which covers the front of 
the eyeball, and lines the eyelids. 

Connaraceae, n. plu., kon'-ndr-a' 
se-e (Gr. konndros, a species of 
tree), the Connarus family, a 
small Order of tropical trees and 
shrubs, some bearing handsome 
flowers, and others edible fruits : 
Connarus, n., kon'-ndr'tis, a genus 
of trees and shrubs. 

connate, a., kdn-ncUf (L. con, to- 
gether j ndtus, born), in bot., 
having two leaves with their 
bases united ; having parts united 
in any stage of development, which 
are normally distinct. 

connective, n., kdn-nZkt'w (L. con, 
together; necto, I tie), in bot., 
the fleshy part which connects 
the lobes of an anther. 

connivent, a., kdn-nlv^-ent (L. con- 
nivens, winking or blinking), in 
bot., having two organs arching 
over so as to meet above, as petals; 

conoid, a.,kon-dyd', also conoidal, 
a., kftn-dyd'-dl (Gr. konos, a cone; 
eidos, resemblance), shaped like 

constipation, n., kd 

(L. constipdtum, to press closely 
together from con, together ; 
stipo, I press together), sluggish 
action of the bowels ; difficult 
expulsion of the hardened fseces. 

constricted, a., kon-strikt'-td (L. 
constrictus, drawn or bound to- 
gether), in bot., tightened or con- 
tracted in width, as if tied with a 
cord: constrictor, n.,k8n-strikt'or, 
in anat., a muscle which draws 
together or contracts an opening 
of the body, as the pharynx. 

consumption, n., kdn'Siim'shtin 
(L. con, together; sumptum, to 
take) a gradual and general wast- 
ing of the body from diseased 
lungs, or other cause ; phthisis. 

contagion, n., kon-tddj-Hn (L. con- 
tagio, contact, touch), the com- 
munication of disease by contact 
or touch. 


continuous, a., l&n-tfttfafa (L. 

continuus, uninterrupted), in bot. , 
without joints or articulations. 

contorted, a., kon'tort'-$d (L. con, 
together; tortus, twisted), in lot., 
twisted regularly in one direction 
applied to a form of {estivation : 
contortive, a. , k$n>t$rtfiv, applied 
to the parts of a single whorl 
placed in a circle, each exhibiting 
a torsion of its axis. 

contortuplicate, a., ktin'ttir-tup'- 
Ilk- at (L. contortus, twisted ; 
plicdtum, to fold), in bot., twisted 
and folded in plaits. 

Contrayerva or Contrajerva, n., 
kon'-tra-yerv'-a (Indian - Spanish, 
contrayerva fromcontra, against ; 
yerva, poison, as supposed to be 
good against poison), the plant 
whose root yields the Contrayerva 
root of commerce, Ord. Moracese. 

contusion, n., kon-tu'zhun (L. con- 
tusum, a bruise from con, to- 
gether ; tusus, beaten), a form of 
injury caused by heavy pressure 
or a sharp blow without any ex- 
ternal wound ; a bruise : contused 
wound, when, in addition to the 
injury of the soft parts, the skin 
is broken. 

conus arteriosus, Icon' us drt-er'-$- 
oz'us (L. conus, a cone ; arteria, 
an artery), the arterial cone; a 
smooth, conical prolongation of 
the left ventricle upwards, from 
which the pulmonary artery 

convergent, a., kSn-verf-Znt (L. 
con, together; vergens, bending, 
turning), in bot., applied to ribs 
of leaves running from base to 
apex in a curved manner. 

convolute, a., kon'vdl-dt, also con- 
volutive, a., ktin'-vo'l'dtfiv (L. con, 
together ; volutus, rolled), in bot., 
having a leaf in a bud rolled upon 
itself; rolled up laterally so as 
partially to embrace each other. 

Convolvulaceae, n. plu., kon-vdlv'- 

ul-a'-sV-e (L. convolvulus, the plant 

bindweed from con, together ; 

volvo, I roll), the Convolvulus or 


97 COP 

Bindweed family, an extensive 
Order of twining shrubs and 
herbaceous plants, having gener- 
ally an acrid juice in the roots, 
which is purgative : Convolvulus, 
n., kftn'v6'lv''Ul'Us, a genus of 
plants so called from their twin- 
ing .or winding habit : Convolv- 
ulus scammonia, skdm-mon'-i-d 
(Gr. skammonia, L. scammonia, the 
plant scammony), a species the 
root of which yields a gummy 
resinous exudation : C. sepium, 
sZfii-um (L. sepium, the internal 
shell of the cuttle-fish), a species 
which yields a spurious kind of 
scammony : C. batatas, bat'titfas 
(a Spanish or Mexican word), a 
species which yields the sweet 
potato or yam, used as food in 
tropical countries : C. scoparius, 
skop-dr'i-us (L. scoparius, of or 
belonging to a broom ; scopce, a 
bunch of twigs, a broom), yields 
the oil called Rhodium. 

convulsions, n. plu., kdn-vul'-shuns 
(L. convulsw, a convulsion 
from con, together; vulsum, to 
pluck or tear away), violent and 
involuntary contractions of certain 
muscles of the body, as in fits. 

copaiba, n., ko-pab f -a, or copaiva, 
n., kd'pav f 'd (Sp. and Portg.), an 
oleo-resin or turpentine, obtained 
from various parts of S. America ; 
a balsam. 

Copaifera, n., ko-paf'-er-a (copaiba, 
and L. fero, I bear), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Leguminosse, Sub- 
ord. Csesalpiniese : Copaifera 
Jacquinii, jak-win'-i-l (after 
Jacquinia, a botanist of Vienna), 
the copaiba of Jacquinia: C. 
Langsdorfii, langs-dorf-i-l (of 
Langsdorff) ; C. bijuga, bidf-ug-a 
(L. bijugus, yoked two together 
from bis, twice ; jugum, a yoke) ; 
C. multijugus, mult-tdj'-ug-tls (L. 
multus, many ; jugum, a yoke) ; 
C. Martii, mdr'shi-i (L. of the 
month of March) ; C. Guianensis, 
gwi'-an-ens'-is (of or from Guiana}; 
C. coriacea, kdr'-e-a'ac-ti, (L. cori- 




dceus, leathery from cormm, 
skin, hide), are species which 
yield the balsam of copaiba. 

Copepoda,n., kdp>$p'dd'd(Gj:.kdpe, 
an oar ; podes, feet), oar-footed 
animals, an Order of Crustacea. 

coprolite, n., k6p f -r6-lit(Gi. kopros, 
dung ; lithos, a stone), the petri- 
fied dung of animals, chiefly of 

Coptis, n.,kop''tis (Gr. kopto> I cut), 
a genus of plants, so called in 
allusion to the division of the 
leaves, Ord. Ranunculacese : Cop- 
tis teetae, tef-te (a native name), 
a pretty species, the rhizome be- 
ing used in India as a bitter 

coracoid, a. , k8r'ak-oyd (Gr. koraks, 
a crow, korakos, of a crow, crow's; 
eidos, shape, likeness), applied to 
a process of bone of the shoulder- 
blade, so named from its resem- 
blance to a crow's beak ; one of 
the bones of the pectoral arch in 
birds and reptiles : coraco brach- 
ialis, kdr^dk-6 brdk'-t-dl'.is (Gr. 
koraks, a crow ; L brachidlis, 
pert, to an arm from brdchium, 
an arm), the muscle of the arm 
connected with the coracoid proc- 
ess ; a muscle connected with 
the coracoid process and inserted 
into the humerus or arm bone. 

coralliform, a., Hr-aW/oVm (Gr. 
korallion, L. cordlium, red coral ; 
L. forma, shape), also coralloid, 
a., kftr'-al'loyd (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), resembling coral : coral- 
lum, n., JcQr-al'ltim, the hard 
structure deposited in the struc- 
tures of the Actinozoa, called 
coral : corallite, n., kor'dl-lU, 
the portion of a corallum secreted 
by a single polype : coralliginous, 
a., Icor'-al-lidf-en'tis, producing a 
corallum: coralline, a., kdr'-al-tin 
like or containing coral: Coral- 
lina, n., kor'-al'lin'-a, a genus of 
plants resembling a coral, Ord. 
Algse : Corallina officinalis, of- 

f&-m-dl'ts(L. officinalis, officinal), 
one of numerous species considered 

vegetable, which are reckoned 
animal by many. 

Corchorus, n., kork'tir-tis (Gr. 
Jcore, the pupil of the eye ; koreo, 
I cleanse, I purge), a gemis of 
plants, Ord. Tiliaceae : Corchorus 
capsularis, kdps f -ul-dr f 'is (L. caps- 
uldris, pert, to a capsule from 
capsula, a little chest), a species 
which in India furnishes the jute 
used in making coarse carpets 
and gunny bags : C. olitorius, 
til'-it-or'-i-us (L. olitorius, belong- 
ing to vegetables from olitor, a 
market gardener), Jew's mallow, 
the leaves of which are used as a 
culinary vegetable : C. pyriformis, 
pir'-ifdrm'-is (L. pirum, a pear ; 

forma, shape), a species in Japan 
which furnishes fibres. 

corculum, n., k6rk f -ul>&,m (L. 
corculum, a little heart from 
cor, the heart), in lot., a name 
for the embryo. 

cord, n., kord (L. chorda, Gr. 
chorde, a string, a gut), the 
string or process which attaches 
the seed or embryo to the plac- 

cordate, a., Jctird'-dt (L. cor, the 
heart, eordis, of the heart), heart- 
shaped ; having the broad, heart- 
shaped part next the stalk or 
stem : cordiform, a. , kSrd^-fdrm 
(L. forma, shape), a solid body 
having the shape of a heart : 
cordate-hastate, a., -hdst'-dt (L. 
hasta, a spear), of a shape between 
a heart and a spear: cordate- 
sagittate, a. , -sadj-it'-dt (L. sagitta, 
an arrow),, of a shape between a 
heart and an arrow-head: cord- 
ate-ovate, a., -ov'dt (L. ovdtus, 
shaped like an egg), of a shape 
between a heart and an egg. 

Cordiaceae, n. plu., kdrd'-i-d'-sZ-e 
(after Cordus, a German botanist), 
the Cordia family, an Order of 
trees, some of which yield edible 
fruits: Cordia, n., kord'-i-a, a 
genus of plants : Cordia myxa, 
miks'd (Gr. muxa, mucus, mucil- 
age); also C. latifolia, lat'-l-JoU-a 




(L. ldtu.9, broad ; folium, a leaf), 
are species whose succulent, 
mucilaginous fruits are known by 
the name of Sebesten plums. 

Cordyline, n., k8rd'-il-in'-3 (Gr. 
kordule, a club, a bump), a genus 
of ornamental shrubs, Ord. Lili- 
acese : Cordyline Australis, dws- 
trdl'fa (from Australasia), the 
plant Ti of New Zealand ; also 
C. Banksii, banks'i-i (of Banks 
after Sir Joseph Banks], are 
species which yield fibres. 

coriaceous, a., kor'-i-d'-shus (L. 
corium, skin, hide), consisting of 
or resembling leather ; tough ; 

Coriandrum sativum, Ttor'-l-and'- 
rum sat'iv'-um (L. coriandrum r 
Gr. koriannon, the coriander 
from Gr. koris, a bug, alluding to 
the smell of the seed \ L. satlv- 
us, fit to be planted), a plant 
yielding seeds which are a 
warm and agreeable aromatic, 
Ord. llmbelliferae.. 

CoriariacesB, n. phu, Icor'-l-ar-i- 
d's&'e (L. corium, skin, hide), 
the Coriaria family, an Order of 
plants: Coriaria, n., kdr'i-dr'-i-a, 
a genus of plants : Coriaria 
myrtifolia, mert'.i-fdl'-i>a (Gr. 
murtos, the myrtle tree ; L. 

folium, a leaf), a species whose 
leaves have been employed on 
the Continent to adulterate senna; 
used for dyeing black and tanning, 
and with sulphate of iron makes 
a dark blue : C. ruscifolia, rus'-i- 

fdl'-i-a (L. ruscus, a probable 
adaptation of Russo-colore, from 
its colour), the Toot or Tutu plant 
of New Zealand the seeds and 
young shoots are poisonous. 

corium, n., Tcdr f -l-um (L. corium, 
skin), the cutis vera or true skin, 
consisting of a fibro-vascular 
layer ; called also the * derma, ' 
and is covered by the epidermis 
or scarf skin. 

conn, n., kdrm (Gr. Tcormos, a 
trunk, a log), the thickened or 
bulb-like solid base of the stems 

of plants, such as in the Colchicum 
and Arum : cormogenous, a., 
kdr-mtidf-en-us (Gr. gennao, I 
produce), having a corm or stem: 
cormus, n., korm'-us, same as 
* corm. ' 

Cornacese, n. plu., korn-d'-se-e (L. 
corneus, belonging to cornel- 
wood from cornu, a horn, as the 
wood is thought to be hard and 
durable as horn ; cornus, the 
cornel cherry tree), the Cornel 
family, an Order of trees, shrubs, 
and herbs: Cornus, n., korn'-us, 
an ornamental genus of plants ; 
the cornel tree: Cornus florida, 
fldr f 'id-a (L. floridus, flowery) ; 
and C. sericea, ser-is'e-a (L. 
sericeus, silky from sZrica, silks), 
species used in America as tonics 
and febrifuges : C. mascula, mdsk f - 
ul-a (L. masculus, male), a species 
whose fruit is used for food; the 
red-wood of Turkey, from which 
the Turks obtain the dye for their 
red fezes: C. sanguinea, sang* 
gwin'-Z-a (L. sanguinZus, of blood, 
bloody from sanguis, blood), a 

ries whose seeds furnish oil : 
Suecica, su-Zs'-ik-a or sw$s'- 
ik-a (L. Suecia, Sweden), a 
Scotch species whose fruit is 
said to be tonic: cornel, n., 
korn'el, a tree yielding small 
edible cherries; the dog -wood 

cornea, n., Icorn^-a (L. corneus, 
horny from cornu,. a horn), a 
horny transparent membrane 
forming the front part of the 
eyeball also called the cornea 
pellucida, pel-lds'-id-a (L. pel- 
lucidus,, transparent): c. opaca, 
o-pak'-a (L. opdcus shady, dark), 
the hinder part of the eyeball,, 
which, is opaque and densely 
fibrous ; also called the 'sclerotic 
coat. ' 

corneous, a., Icfon'-e-us (L. corn- 
&us, horny from cornu, a horn), 
in bot., having the consistence of 
horn ; horny : corniculate, a. , 
(L. cornicula, a 




little horn), having a horn-like 

cornicula laryngis, Icorn-ik'-ul-a, 
lar-mf-is (L. corniculum, a little 
horn-^from cornu, a horn ; Gr. 
larunx, the upper part of the 
windpipe, larunggos, of the wind- 
pipe), the little horns of the 
larynx ; two small cartilaginous 
nodules of a somewhat conical 
shape &t the summits of the 
arytenoid cartilages. 

cornu, n., ~korri-u (L. eornu, a 
horn), a horn : cornua, n. plu., 
k8rn''U'd, horns : cornus, see 
under 'cornacese :' cornute, a., 
korn'-ut, horn - shaped : cornu 
Ammonis, dm-mon-is (of Am- 
mori), the horn of Ammon, a long 
white eminence on the brain, 
indented or notched so as to 
present some resemblance to the 
paw of an animal ; called also 
' pes hippocampi. ' 

corolla, n., kor-ftl'ld (L. corolla, 
a small wreath or crown), in bot. , 
the second whorl of leaves in a 
flower, commonly the most bril- 
liantly coloured, the separate 
pieces of which are called ' petals' : 
corollifloral, a., kdr-M'.li-flor'.&l 
(L. flos, a flower, floris, of a 
flower), applied to those plants 
that have the united petals placed 
under the ovary, and the stamens 
either borne by the petals, or 
inserted independently into the 
torus : corolliflorse, n. plu. , kdr- 
ol'-li-flor'-e, all plants that have 
the calyx and corolla present, 
the corolla gamopetalous, hypog- 
ynous, usually bearing the 
stamens: corolline, a., kfrr'Ql'Un, 
of or belonging to a corolla. 

corona, n., k6r-6n f -d (L. corona, 
Gr. korone, a garland, a wreath), 
in bot., a corolline appendage 
between the corolla and stamens; 
cup -like or in rays, as the crown 
of the Daffodil ; in anat., the 
upper surface of the molar 

corona glandis, ktir-on'-d gldnd'-ls 

(L. corona, a crown ; glans, an 
acorn, a gland, glandis, of an 
acorn), the crown of the gland ; 
the elevated margin or bean of 
the glan penis. 

coronal, a., kor-on'-al (L. corona, a 
crown, a wreath), in anat., pert, to 
the crown of the head : coronary, 
a., koY-on-cr-l, encircling like a 
crown : coronate, a., ktir'-tin-dt, 
having little crown -like emin- 
ences : coronet, n., kdr'on-Zt, a 
little or inferior crown : corona 
radiata, rdd'i-at'a (L. radidtus, 
furnished with rays from radius, 
a staff, a ray), an assemblage of 
radiating fibres in each hemisphere 
of the cerebrum that may be com- 
pared to a fan: coronula, n. plu., 
K&r-on'ul-d, little crowns ; small 
calyx-like bodies ; borders sur- 
rounding the seeds of certain 

CoroniUa, n., k^on-il'-la (L. 
corona, a crown, referring to the 
arrangement of the flowers), an. 
"interesting genus of plants, Ord. 
Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Papilion- 
aceae : Coronilla varia, vdr'-i-a 
(L. varius, changing, varying), a 
species which acts as a narcotic 
poison: C. emerus, em'$r-us (Gr. 
emeros, not wild, cultivated), the 
leaves of this and preceding are 
sometimes used to adulterate 

coronoid, a., kdr'-Sn-oyd (Gr. cor- 
one, a crow, the beak of a crow ; 
eidos, resemblance), in anat., 
applied to a process of the large 
bone of the fore-arm, so named 
from its being shaped like the 
beak of a crow : coronoid fossa, 

ffts'sd (L. fossa, a ditch), a 
depression on the head of the 

corpus, n., kftrp'tis (L.), a body: 
corpora, n. plu., kdrp'-dr-a (L.), 
bodies : corpus albicans, alb'ik- 
dnz (L. sing.), corpora albicantia, 
alb'-ik-an'-shi-a (L. albicans, being 
white from albus, white), two 
round white eminences, situated 




behind the tuber cinereum, and 
between the crura cerebri : corpora 
amylacea, dm'il-d'se'd (L. amyl- 
dceus, belonging to starch from 
amylum, starch), minute, mostly 
microscopical, bodies, formerly 
believed to consist of starch, but 
of unknown chemical composi- 
tion, found in various organs : c. 
cavernosa, Icav'-er'noz'-a (L. cav- 
ernosus, full of cavities ; cdvus, 
hollow), the principal part of the 
body of the penis, consisting of 
two cylindrical bodies placed 
side by side, closely united and 
in part blended together : c. 
geniculata, jgn-iMul-dtf-d (L. 
geniculdtus, having knots from 
geniculum, a little knot), two 
little masses of grey matter, about 
the size and shape of coffee beans, 
placed on each side of the genu 
of the optic tract of the cerebrum, 
and named respectively the * ex- 
ternum ' and * internum * : c. 
quadrigemina, Icw6tf'rf>j%rnftn'd 
(L. quddrigce, a set of four from 
quatuor, four ; geminus, twin or 
twin-born), four rounded emin- 
ences separated by a crucial 
depression, arid placed two on 
each side of the middle line of the 
cerebrum : c. striata, stri'dt'd 
(L. stridta, a fluted shell), two 
large ovoid masses of grey matter, 
situated in front and to the 
outer side of the optic thalami, 
in the cerebrum. 

corpus callosum, Wrp'-us leal-lot' 
um (L. corpus, a body ; callosus, 
thick-skinned from callum, 
hard thick skin), a thick layer 
of medullary fibres passing 
transversely between the two 
hemispheres of the brain, and 
forming their great commissure : 
corpus dentatum, dent-dtf-um (L. 
dentdtus, toothed, having teeth), 
an open bag or capsule of grey 
matter,. the section of which pre- 
sents a dentated outline, in the 
cerebellum ; also called 'ganglion 
of the cerebellum': c. fimbriatum, 

fim'.bri'dt'.um (L, fimbridtus, 
fibrous, fringed from jimbrice, 
fibres, threads), a narrow, white, 
tape-like band situated immedi- 
ately behind the choroid plexus 
in the cerebrum. 

corpuscle, n,, Jctirp-usk'-l (L, corp- 
usculum, a little body from 
corpus, a body), a small body ; 
a particle : corpuscula tactus, 
Icdrp-usTc'-ul-a tdkt'-us (L. corpusc- 
ula, corpuscles ; tactus, , touch, 
tactus, of touch), . the touch 
bodies, or tactile corpuscles; min- 
ute bodies having the appearance 
of a miniature fir-cone, with great 
tactile sensibility, found in the 
skin of the hand and foot, and 
some other parts : corpusculated, 
a., k^rp-usK-ul'dt'-ed, applied to 
fluids which, like the blood, con- 
tain floating solid particles or 

Correa, n., Wr-re'd (after Corrcea, 
a Portuguese botanist), a genus 
of shrubs, Orfl. Rutacese, re- 
markable for their gamopetalous 

corrosive, z,.,.lcor-roz'-w (L. con, 
together; rosum, to gnaw), con- 
suming ; wearing away : corrosive 
sublimate, sub'-lim-at (L. sublim- 
dtum, to lift up on high), a very 
poisonous preparation of mercury; 
the perchloride of mercury. 

corrugate,, a.,, kdr'.rdog-dt, and 
corrugated, a., T&r'-rdog-dt'-ed 
(L. corrugdtum, to make full of 
wrinkles from con, together ; 
ruga, a wrinkle), in bot. 9 
crumpled; wrinkled. 

cortex, n., Tcort'-Zlcs (L. cortex, 
bark, corticis, of bark), the bark 
of trees: cortical, a., Jcdrt-zk-dl, 
belonging to the bark : corticate, 
a., Icdrt'-ilc'dt, covered with a 
layer of bark ; resembling bark : 
cortical layer, in zool., the layer 
of sarcode enclosing the chyme 
mass, and surrounded by the 
cuticle, in the Infusoria : cortic- 
olous, a., Mrt-ik'-dlUs (L. colo, 
1 dwell, I abide), growing on 




bark ; also applied to that por- 
tion of the kidney which lies be- 
tween the cones and the surface 
of the organ. 

cortina, n., Icftrt'ln'-d (L. cortina, 
the tripod of Apollo, a veil), in 
bot., the remains of the veil which 
continue attached to the edges of 
the pileus in Agarics : cortinate, 
a., wrtftn-dt, like a cobweb in 

Corydalis, n., Mrtt-ddZts (Gr. 
korudallis, the bulbous fumitory; 
koruddlos, the lark), a beautiful 
genus of plants, Ord. Fumari- 
acese, so called because the spurs 
of the flowers resemble the spurs 
of the lark : Corydalis bulbosa, 
Mlb-ozf.a (L. bulbosus, full of 
bulbs from bulbus, a bulb), a 
species whose tubes have been 
used as a substitute for Birth- 
worts in expelling intestinal 
worms : corydaline, a., Jcor'i- 
ddl'in, resembling the flower of 
the corydalis. 

Corylacese, n. plu., kdr't'ld'-sV-e 
(L. corylus } Gr. korulos, a hazel 
or filbert tree ; said also to be de- 
rived from Gr. korus, a helmet, 
koruthos, of a helmet, in reference 
to the calyx enwrapping the 
fruit), the Nut family or Mast- 
worts, an Order containing such 
timber trees as the oak, beech, 
and chestnut; the Order also 
called the Cupaliferse : Corylus, 
n., korltt'US, a genus of trees, 
chiefly cultivated for the sake of 
their fruit : Corylus Avellana, 
dv f -el'ldn f 'd (L. Avellanus, belong- 
ing to Avella, a town of Campania 
near which hazel trees were 
numerous), the species which 
produces the hazel-nut, with its 
involucral appendage. 

corymb, n. , Tc6r f -im (Gr. korumbos, 
L. cdrymbus, the top, a cluster), 
in bot., an inflorescence in which 
the lower stalks are longest, and 
all the flowers come nearly to the 
same level: CorymbifersB, n. plu., 
kdr'>tm-bif>&r-e (L.fero, I bear), 

the second of the three sections 
into which Jussieu divides the 
Compositse, included under the 
section Tubuliflorse of De Can- 
dolle: corymbiferous, a., kfr/'im- 
bif'er'tis, bearing a cluster of 
flowers in the form of a corymb 
also in same sense, corymbose, 
a., kdrtim-boz. 

Coryphineae, n. plu., kdr'-if-tn'-Z-e 
(Gr. koruphe, the top, the sum- 
mit), a Sub-order or tribe of 
palms, Ord. Palmse ; the talipot 
and date palms : Corypha, n., 
kor'if-a, a beautiful genus of 
palms, from 15 ft. to 150ft. high. 

coryza, n., kdr-iz'a (Gr. koruza, 
mucus of the nose), an inflam- 
matory affection of the mucous 
membrane lining the nose, re- 
sulting in an increased defluxion 
of mucus : coryza gangrenosa, 
gang' grew,- 6z' a (L. gangrcena, 
a cancerous ulcer), malignant 
catarrh, in which there is a dis- 
charge of ichor mixed with 
blood, and accumulations of pus 
in the nasal sinuses. 

Coscinium, n., kos-stn'-i-tim (Gr. 
koskinon, a sieve), a genus of 
climbing plants, Ord. Menisperm- 
acese, so called in allusion to 
the cotyledons being perforated : 
Coscinium fenestratum, fen'-es- 
trdt'um (L. fenestrdtum, to fur- 
nish with openings), a species 
which supplies a false calumba- 
root containing much berberine. 

costa, n., Icost'-a (L. costa, a rib, a 
side), a rib; the mid-rib: costse, 
n. plu., Jstistfe, in bot., the prom- 
inent bundles of vessels in the 
leaves ; in zool., the rows of plates 
which succeed the inferior or 
basal portion of the cup among 
Crinoidea ; vertical ridges on 
the outer surface of theca among 
corals: costal, a., kost'al, con- 
nected with the ribs : costate, 
a. , ktist'dt, provided with ribs ; 
having longitudinal ridges. 

costo, Icdst'-o (L. costa, a rib, a side), 
denoting muscles which arise from 




the ribs : costo-clavicular, denot- 
ing a ligament attached inferioiiy 
to the cartilage of the first rib 
near its sternal end : costo-sternal, 
applied to the ribs united to the 
sternum : costo-vertebrae, the ribs 
arising from the vertebrae or back- 

cotunnius, n., Ictit'tin'nt-fy, also 
liquor cotunnii (after first de- 
scriber), the perilymph, a limpid 
fluid secreted by the lining mem- 
branes of the osseous labyrinth -of 
the ear. 

cotyledon, n., Jcdl'il-ed'tin (Gr. 
kotuledon, the socket .of the hip 
joint, a cup-like hollow from 
kotule, a hollow), in bot., the 
temporary leaf, leaves, or lobes of 
the embryo of a plant which first 
appear above ground ; in anat., 
applied to the portions .of which 
the placentse of some animals are 
formed: cotyloid, a., k6t f -ildyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), a deep 
cup-shaped cavity in the os in- 
nominatum ; the acetabulum. 

couch, v., kowtsh (F. coucher, to 
lay down), in med. , to 'depress or 
remove the film called a cataract 
which overspreads the pupil of 
the eye : couching, n. , kvwtsh'-ing., 
the operation itself. 

coup-de-soleil, n.., koo'de'-so'l-el' 
(F. coup, stroke ; de, of ; soleil, 
the sun), sunstroke ; a dangerous 
disease produced by exposure of 
the head to the rays of the sun, 
almost wholly confined to tropical 

crampons, n. plu., kram'-ptinz, 
(Dut. krampe, F. crampon, hooks, 
claspers), in bot., the adventiti- 
ous roots which serve as fulcra 
or supports, as in the ivy. 

cranial, a., krdn'i-al (Gr. krdnion, 
Mid. L. cranium, the skull), of or 
pert, to the cranium or skull : 
craniology, n., kran'.i-Wo-ji (Gr. 
logos, discourse), a treatise on the 
skull: craniotomy, n., kran'-i- 
dt'dm-t (Gr. tome, a cutting), the 
operation of opening the skull, 

sometimes rendered necessary in 
effecting delivery : cranium, n., 
krdn''i-um, the bony or cartilag- 
inous case containing the brain. 

craspeda, n. plu., krdsp^ed-d (Gr. 
.kraspedon, a border, a tassel), 
the long cords, containing thread 
cells, which are .attached to the 
free margins of the mesenteries of 
a sea anemone. 

Crassulaceae, n. plu., 1cras'ul-&s&e 
(diminutive of L. iwassus, solid, 
thick, in allusion to the fleshy 
leaves and stems), the Houseleek 
or Stoneerop family, an Order of 
succulent herbs and shrubs of 
considerable ibeauty, found in the 
driest and most arid situations, 
where not a blade .of grass or a 
tuft >of moss could live : Crassula, 
n., Icrds'-ul-a, a genus of succulent 
plants: Crassula profusa, pro- 

fuz'-a <(L. profusus, spread out, 
-extended); C. lactea, lakt'-e-d (L. 
lactZus, containing milk, milky 
from lac, milk) ; and C. juarg- 
inata, mdrf-in-atf-a (L. marg- 
indtum, to furnish with ;a border), 
are species in the leaves of which 
there are two kinds of stomata, 
one scattered over the leaves, and 
the other, very minute, raised ,011 
discs arranged in a row within 
the margin of the leaf. 

cratera, n., krat-er'-a (.. crater a,, 
a -wine-cup from 'Gr. krater, a 
cup), in bot., a cup-shaped recep- 
tacle: crateriform, a., krat-er-i- 

ftirm (L. forma, shape), cup- 
shaped; concave: Craterina, n., 
Itrat'-er-ln'-a, a genus of parasitic 
insects : Craterina hirundinis, hir- 
und f 'in-i8 (L. hirundo, a swallow, 
hirundmis, of a swallow), a species 
found upon swallows. 

crease, v., kres (Breton or Prov. 
F. kriz, a wrinkle, a tuck in a 
garment), in far., to groove 
around the outer circumference 
of the iron shoe of a horse : 
creasing, n., kres'mg, the art of 
grooving an iron horse-shoe whicli 
marks the line where the nails 




are to be placed; also called 'ful- 
lering. ' 

creasote, n., kr&&*>8t t also cre- 
osote, n., Icre'-os-ot (Gr. kreas, 
flesh; zozo; I preserve), an oily, 
colourless liquid, with a charac- 
teristic smell, obtained from wood 
or coal tar. 

creatine or creatin, n., kre'-dt-m 
(Gr. kreas, flesh, kreatos, of flesh), 
a substance in the form of colour- 
less transparent crystals, obtained 
from flesh of different animals, 
as sheep, oxen, fowls, fish : creat- 
inin, n., kre-dt^m-m, an alkaline 
substance in the form of prism- 
atic crystals, procured chiefly 
from the urine. 

cremaster, n., krVm-dstf-Zr (Gr. 
kremao, I suspend ; kremdmai,. I 
am suspended, I hang), a muscle 
which draws up or suspends the 
testis in males : cremasteric, 
a., kr%m''dst-er f -ik, pert, to the 
cremaster muscle ; applied to a 

cremocarpj n,, krVm'o-kdrp (Gr. 
kremao, I suspend ; karpos, 
fruit), the fruit of the Umbellif- 
erse, consisting of two one-seeded 
carpels, completely invested by 
the tube of the calyx. 

crenate, a., kren-dt (Mid. L. 
crena, a notch), in bot., having 
a series of rounded marginal 
prominences ; having convex 
teeth, as on the margin of a leaf : 
denature, n.,. krZn'dt-ur, a di- 
vision or notch of the margin of 
a crenate leaf ; a notch in a leaf 
or style : crenulate, a., kren'- 
ul-dt (dim. of crena), having the 
edge slightly or minutely notched. 

crepitant, a., IcrZp'it-ant (L. 
crepitans, creaking or crackling 
gen. crepitantis), crackling : 
crepitant rale, rdl (F. rale, a 
rattling in the throat), a fine 
crackling sound heard in respira- 
tion, caused by the passage of the 
air through mucus in the bron- 
chial tubes : crepitation, n., 
Icrtp'U-d'shftn, a small, sharp, 

crackling noise, as of salt when 
thrown on the fire ; a rubbing 
of hair, a similar sound heard in 
inspiration' at the commencement 
of pneumonia. 

crepuscular, a., krZp-ftsk'ul-er 
(L. crepusculum, twilight, dusk), 
applied to animals which are 
active in the dusk or twilight. 

CrescentieaB, n. plu.,r2s'gg>i-^'g-e 
(after Crescenti of Bologna), a 
Sub-order of trees, whose fruit is 
woody and melon-shaped, Ord. 
Bignoniacese : Crescentia, n., 
IcreS'Sen'-shi'd, a genus of hand- 
some trees, some of them having 
edible fruits : Crescentia. Cujete, 
kudj-et'-& (from Jamaica), also 
called C. cuneifolia, kun'e-i* 

fol f 'i-d (L. cuneus, a wedge ; 

folium,, & leaf), the calabash tree 
of tropical America, the hard 
pericarps of whose melon-like 
fruit are used as cups and 

crest, ,n., Icrest (L. crista, the tuft 
or plume on the head of birds), 
an appendage to fruits or seeds 
having the form of a crest. 

cretaceous,, a., kret-a'-shtis (L. 
creta, chalk), composed of chalk ; 
chalky ; in bot. , chalky- white : 
creta preparata, kret'-d prep'-ar- 
at'd (L. prepardtus, prepared), 
a medical preparation of chalk. 

cretinism, n., kret'm-fam (F. 
Cretin, one of certain inhabitants 
of the Alps and other mountains, 
remarkable for their stupid and 
languid appearance), a peculiar 
kind of idiocy, attended with 
goitre and other malformations, 
with arrest of development, 
especially of the skull, which 
prevails in districts about the 
Alps and other mountains : 
Cretin, n., kret'in, one of the 
deformed idiots of the Alpine 
and other mountainous regions : 
in the Pyrenees they are called 

cribriform, a., krib'rl-fdrm (L. 
cribrum, a sieve ; forma, shape), 



pierced with small holes like a 
sieve ; perforated : cribrose, a., 
krib'roz, same sense. 

cricoid, a., krik'-oyd (Gr. krik'-ds, 
a ring ; eidos, resemblance), 
shaped like a ring : crico-aryten- 
oid, krikf-d-ar-ittZn-oyd, applied 
to articulations which are sur- 
rounded by a series of thin cap- 
sular fibres, and connected with 
the bases- of the arytenoid cartil- 

crinite, a., krin'-it (L. crlnis, the 
hair), in bot., having the appear- 
ance of a tuft of hair ;. bearded. 

crinoids, n. plu., krin'-oyds, also 
crinoidea, n. plu., krin-oyd'-Z-a 
(Gr. krinon, a lily ; eidos, re- 
semblance), in zool., an Order 
of Echinodermata, including 
forms which are usually stalked, 
and which sometimes resemble 

Crinum, n., Tcrm'-tim (Gr. krinon, 
a lily), a fine genus of bulbous 
plants, Ord. Amaryllidacese, hav- 
ing many of the species very 
beautiful, and producing delight- 
fully fragrant flowers in large 

crisis, n., krls'is, crises, n. plu., 
krls^ez (L. crisis, Gr. krisis, a 
decision), that important stage 
of some diseases which may 
eventuate in recovery or death. 

crisp, a., krisp (L. crispus, Old 
F. crespe, curled), in bot., having 
an undulated margin : crispate, 
a., krisp'dt, irregularly curled or 
twisted: crispation, n., krisp -a'- 
shun, in anat., the permanent 
shrinking of a tissue. 

cristate, a., krist'dt (L. crista, a 
crest), in bot. , crested ; tufted : 
crista frontalis, kristf-dfrdnt-aV-is 
(L. frontdlis, belonging to the 
forehead from frons, the fore- 
head), the frontal crest ; a ridge 
of bone on. the inner surface of 
the frontal bone of the skull : 
c. galli, gaV-ll (L. gallus, a cock, 
galli, of a cock), the crest of the 
cock, or cock's crest j a ridge of 

bone in the skull which rises into 
a thick process of the ethmoid 

Crithmum, n., krith'>mum (Gr. 
krithe, barley), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Umbelliferse, so called in 
allusion to the singularity of the 
seeds : Crithmum maritinmm, 
mar-it'-im'tim (L. maritimus, be- 
longing, to the sea from mare*, 
the sea), the samphire, found 
growing abundantly on the rocks 
near the sea, is used as a pickle. 

Crocodilia, n. plu., krdk'-dd-tt'.t-a 
(L. crocodilus,. Gr. krokodeilos, a 
crocodile),, a well-known Order 
of reptiles. 

Crocus, n., krok'us (L. crocus, Gr. 
krokos, Gael, crock, red), a well- 
known and much admired genus 
of early spring plants, Ord. 
Iridacese : Crocus sativus, sat- 
lv f 'US (L. sativus, that is -fit to be 
planted), a species which furnishes 
the colouring material called saf- 
fron: C. autumnalis, a/w'-tum- 
nal'>is (L. autumnalis,. autumnal 
from autumnus, autumn); and 
C. odoms, dd-or'-us (L. odorus, 
sweet-smelling from ddor, scent, 
smell), are species also supplying 

crotaphyte, n., krtit'-a-fU (Gr. 
krotaphos, a temple of the head), 
the temporal, muscle, which fills 
the temporal fossa and extends 
itself over a considerable part of 
the side of the head. 

Crpton, n., krotf-dn (Gr. krtiton, a 
tick, with reference to the re- 
semblance of the seeds), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Euphorbiacese : 
Croton tiglium, tlg'-ll-um (an 
Indian word), an Indian and 
Asiatic shrub, from whose seed 
croton-oil is expressed, inter- 
nally the oil acts as an irritant 
purgative, externally it produces 
pustules: C. Pavana, pav-an'-a 
(unascertained); also C. Roxburg- 
ii, r&ks-berg'-i'i (L. Roxburgii, of 
Roxburgh in Scotland), species 
which yield purgative oils : C. 




Malainbo, mal*amb f -o (unascer- 
tained), yields a tonic bark : C. 
eleuteria, el'-u-ter'-t.a (L. and Gr. 
eleutheria, freedom, liberty), pro- 
duces cascarilla bark, also called 
sea-side balsam or sweet wood, 
used as a tonic and stimulant : 
C. pseudo-china or niveuxn, 
sud f '0-kln f 'd or mv'8-um (Gr. 
pseudes, false, lying; china, Ger. 
name for Peruvian bark ; L. 
nlveus, snowy), produces copalchi 
bark, used as a tonic. 

croup, n., Jcrdp (Icel. Jcropa, Scot. 
roup, to cry), an inflammatory 
disease of the trachea, chiefly 
occurring in early childhood, 
attended by very noisy breath- 
ing : croupous, a. , krdp'tis, pert, 
to croup ; fibrinous. 

crown, n. , krown (W. crwn, round, 
circular; Gael. crfan, a boss, a 
garland ; L. corona, a crown), in 
bot. , the short stem at the upper 
part of the root of perennial 

Crozophora, n. plu., kroz-df-ftr-a 
(Gr. krossos, a pitcher, a pail ; 
phoreo, I bear), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Euphorbiaceae : Crozophora 
tinctoria, tmkt-dr f 4-d (L. tinct- 
orius, belonging to dyeing from 
tinctus, dyed), furnishes a purple 
dye called turnsole, which be- 
comes blue on the addition of 

CrucifersB, n. plu., krds-if'er-e (L. 
crux, a cross ;fero, I bear), the 
cruciferous or Cresswort family, 
an Order of herbaceous plants, 
comprising many of the common 
culinary vegetables, as cabbages, 
turnips, radish, cress so called 
from having the four petals of 
the flowers arranged in the form 
of a cross: cruciferous, a., krds- 
if'er-us, having flowers arranged 
in the form of a cross. 

cruciform, a., kr6s'i>form (L. 
crux, a cross, crucis, of a cross ; 

forma, shape), in bot., like the 
parts of a cross, as in flowers of 
Ouciferse ; arranged in the form 

of a cross ; also cruciate, a., 
krdsh'i'dt, same sense ; said of a 
flower when four petals are 
placed opposite each other and at 
right angles: crucial, a., krdsh'- 
i-dl, applied to certain ligaments 
of the knee which cross or inter- 
sect each other somewhat like the 
letter x. 

cruor, n., Icr6 f -or (L. cr&or, blood, 
cruoris, of blood), the soluble 
coloured ingredient of blood, 
separable into two substances, 
globulin and haematin. 

crura, n. plu., krdr'-d (L. crus, 
the leg, cruris, of a leg, crura, 
legs), the legs ; parts of the body 
which resemble legs ; in bot., 
divisions of a forked tooth : crus 
cerebelli, krus ser'-Zb-Zfa (L. 
cerebelli, of the cerebellum); the 
leg of the cerebellum : crura cere- 
belli, the legs of the cerebellum : 
crura cerebri,, ser'Zb-ri (L. cereb- 
rum, the cerebrum), the legs or 
pillars of the brain ; terms de- 
noting parts or divisions of the 
brain, so called from their ap- 
pearance : erural, a., kr6r'-al, 
pert, to the legs or lower limbs : 
crureus, a., Mr-e'tis, in anat., 
applied to one of the extensor 
muscles of the leg, arising from 
the thigh-bone and inserted into 
the knee-pan. 

crusta, n., krust'-a (L. crusta, 
skin, bark), in bot., the frosted 
appearance on the fronds of some 

Crustacese, n. plu., kr&st'd'-se-e 
also Crustaceans, n. plu., krust- 
d'se-ans (L. crusta, skin, bark), 
the articulate animals, comprising 
lobsters, crabs, etc., which have 
a hard shell or crust, which they 
cast periodically : crustaceous, 
a., also crustose, a., krust'-oz, 
pert, to the Crustacea ; of the 
nature of crust or shell ; in bot. , 
hard, thin, and brittle; applied 
to lichens hard and expanded 
like a crust ; having the appear- 
ance of hoar-frost. 




crusta petrosa, Icrust'a p&l-rdz'-a 
(L. crusta, skin, bark ; petrosus, 
very rocky from Gr. and L. 
petra, a rock), a rocky crust ; the 
layer of true bone which invests 
the root part of the teeth, or the 
part not protected by enamel. 

Cryptocarya, n., kript'o-kdr'-i-a 
(Gr. kruptos, hidden ; karua, 
a walnut alluding to the fruit 
oeing covered), a genus of shrubs, 
Ord. Lauracese : Cryptocarya 
moschata, mtis-kdt'-a (Mod. L. 
moschdtus, having a smell like 
musk from Arsib.mosch or mesk, 
musk), a species which produces 
the Brazilian nutmegs. 

cryptogamia, n., lcript'o-gdm'i-a\ 
(Gr. kruptos, hidden, concealed ; 
gamos, marriage), a general name i 
applied to all the lower orders of 
plants which have no apparent 1 
or true flowers, such as mush-; 
rooms, lichens, mosses, seaweeds, 
and ferns : cryptoganwms, a., 
kript-tig'am-us, having their 
organs of reproduction obscure : 
cryptogamic, a., kript'-o-gam'-ik, 
in same sense as cryptogamous. 

cryptorchismus, n., kript'tir-kfa' 
mus (Gr. kruptos, concealed; 
orchis, the testicles), the reten- 
tion of the testes in the abdomen. 

cryptos, a., Icript'-ds (Gr. kruptos, 
concealed, hidden), concealed ; 
not readily observed ; in compos- 
ition, crypto-. 

cryptostomata, n. plu., kript'o- 
sttim'at-a (Gr. kruptos, hidden ; 
stoma, a mouth, stomdta, 
mouths), circular nuclei on the 
surfaces of some algse. 

crystalloid, a., Tcrist'-al-oyd (Gr. 
krustallos, L. crystallum, ice, 
rock crystal ; Gr. eidos, resemb- 
lance), crystalline ; resembling 
crystal; in bot., applied to a 
portion of the protoplasmic sub- 
stance of cells having a crystal 
line form. 

ctenocyst, n., ten'o-sist (Gr. kteis, 
a comb, ktenos, of a comb ; 
kustis, a bag, a bladder), the 

sense organ in the ctenophora : 
ctenoid, a., t&n'dyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), having the appear- 
ance of a comb ; applied to those 
scales of fishes the hinder marg- 
ins of which are fringed with 
spines having the appearance of 
a comb : Ctenophora, n. plu., 
i&n-of-or-a, (Gr. phareo, I bear), 
an Order of Actinozoa, including 
sea creatures which swim by 
means of bands of cilia arranged 
in comb-like plates ; also called 
ctenophores, n. plu., ti&nf-d-fdrz. 

Cubeba, n., ku-beb<a (Arab, cu- 
babah), a small genus of plants, 
Ord. Piperacese : Cubeba officin- 
alis, tiffas'.m-ar-is (L. officinalis, 
officinal from officlna, a work- 
shop), ithe fruit of ;a climbing 
plant of Java and other Indian 
islands, used, under the name 
' cubeb-pepper, ' or 'icubebs, 1 in 
arresting discharges from mucous 
membranes ; also called ' Piper 

cubit, n. , Tctib'-it, also cubitus, n. , 
kub'it-us (L. cubitum, Gr. kubiton, 
the elbow or bending of the arm), 
the fore-arm. 

cuboid, a., kub'oyd (Gr. kubos, a 
cube ; eidos, resemblance), ap- 
plied to a bone situated at the 
outer side of the foot. 

cucullaris, a., ku'-kul-ldr'-is (L. 
cucullus, a hood), the trapezius 
muscle: cucullate, &.,ku'kul f -ldt, 
in bot., hooded ; formed like a 

Cucumis, n., kuk'tim-is (L. 
cucumis, a cucumber, cuctimeris, 
of a cucumber), an extensively 
cultivated genus of plants for 
culinary purposes, Ord. Cucurbit- 
acese : Cucumis melo, mel'-o (Gr. 
melon, L. melo, a melon), the 
common melon : C. sativus, sat> 
iv f -us (L. sativus, that is fit to 
be planted), the cucumber : C. 
colocynthis, kol'-d-smth'-is (Gr. 
kolokunthis, the wild gourd), a 
species which yields the globular 
fruit ' coloquintida ' or 'bitter- 




apple, ' the pulp of which is the j 
colocynth of medicine. 

Cucurbitaceae, n. plu., leu-kerb'- 
it-d's'e-e (L. cucurbita, a gourd), 
the Cucumber family, an Order of 
plants, many of which are drastic 
purgatives : Cucurbita, n., leu- 
kero-it-a, a genus of plants : 
Cucurbita citrullus, sit-rul'-lus 
(new L. citrullus, the Sicilian 
citrul or water-melon plant), the 
water-melon, prized for its cool, 
refreshing juice : C. pepo, pgp'd 
(L. p$po, a large melon, a pump- 
kin ; peponis, of a pumpkin), the 
white gourd : C. maxima, males'- 
im-d (L. maximus, greatest), 
the pumpkin or red gourd : C. 
melo-pepo, mel'-d-p%p'-d (L. melo, 
a melon ; pepo, a pumpkin), the 
squash : C. ovifera, ov-if'-er-a 
(L. ovum, an egg ; .fero, I bear), 
the egg gourd, or vegetable 
marrow : cucurbitaceous, a., 
leu-kerb'-it-d'shus, resembling a 
gourd or cucumber. 

cudbear, n., Md'bdr (after Sir 
Cuthbert Gordon),, a purple or 
violet colouring matter obtained 
from a lichen Lecanora tartarea. 

culm, n.,. k&lm (L. culmus, a 
stalk, a stem), the stalk or stem 
of corn or grasses, usually hollow 
and jointed: culmicolous, a. , 
leul-mik'-ol-us (L. colo, I clothe or 
dress), growing on the culm of 

Cuminum Cyminum, leum-ln'um 
sim-ln'-um (L. cuminum, Gr. 
cumlnon, cumin the systematic 
name being made up of a repetiti- 
on of the same word in its L. 
and Gr. forms), cumin, a plant, 
Ord. Umbelliferse, whose seeds 
have a very peculiar odour and 
bitter aromatic taste. 

cuneate, a., leun'-e-dt (L. cunedtus, 
pointed like a wedge from cun- 
eus, a wedge), shaped like a wedge 
standing upon its point ; wedge- 
shaped : cuneiform, a., kun'e-i- 

ftirm (L. forma, shape), same 
sense as ' cuneate. ' 

cuniculate, a., leun-ile'-ul-dt (L. 
cuniculus, a rabbit burrow), having 
a long pierced passage. 

Cunoniese, n. plu., lcun'on-l'l<e 
(after M. Cuno of Amsterdam), a 
Sub-order of trees and shrubs of 
the Southern Hemisphere, Ord. 

Cupania, n., Icu-pdn't-a (after 
Father Cupani of Italy), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Sapindacese : 
Cupania sapida, sap'id-a (L. 
sapidus, tasting, savouring from 
sapio, I taste), yields the Akel 
fruit, whose succulent arillus is 
used as food. 

cupel, n., kup'el (L. cupella, a 
little cup), a* very porous cup- 
like vessel used in refining 

cupola, n., Tcup'-ol-a (It. cupola, 
a round vaulted chapel behind 
the chancel), an arched or spheric- 
al vault on the top of an edifice; 

; in anat., an arched and closed 
extremity of the ear, forming the 
apex of the cochlea. 

cupping, n., k&p'-wig (It. coppa, a 
head ; L. cupa, a cask), a method 
of local blood-letting by means of 
a bell-shaped glass and a scarific- 

cupreous, a;, hup'-re-fts (L. cup- 
reus, of copper from cuprum, 
copper), consisting of or resem- 
bling copper;, coppery. 

Cupressinese, n. plu., Tcup r -res> 
sin'-e-e (L. cupressus, the cypress 
tree), a Sub- order of trees, com- 
prising, the cypress and juniper, 
Ord. Coniferae: Cupressus, n., 
lcup-r%s r -8U8, a genus of handsome 
evergreen trees : Cupressus sem- 
pervirens, sem-pe^vlr^nz (L. 
semper, always ; virens, verdant), 
the common cypress tree, which 
yields a durable wood, supposed 
to be the gopher wood of the 

cupula, n., Icup'ul-d (L. cupulus, 
a little cup from cupa, a cask, a 
cup), the cup of the acorn, formed 
by an aggregation of bracts : cup- 




ule, n., kup f -ul, a part of a fruit 
surrounding its lower part like a 
cup, as an acorn; a cupula: cupuli- 
form, a., kup-ul'4-fdrm (L. forma, 
shape), shaped like the cup of an 

Cupuliferse, n. plu., kup'-ul-if'-er-e 
(L. cupula, a little cup, a cupule; 

fero, I bear), the Nut family, an 
Order of trees, including the 
hazel and the oak ; also named 
CcrylacesB, n. plu., kdr'-il'd'-s^-e: 
cupuliferous, a., kup'-ul-if-er-us, 
having or bearing cupules. 

Curculigo, n., /cer'kul'ig'6 (L. 
curculio, a corn worm, a weevil), 
a genus of pretty herbaceous 
plants, so called from the seeds 
having a process resembling the 
beak of the weevil, Ord. Brom- 

Curcuma, n., kerk-um'-a (Ar. Icur- 
Jcum), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Zingiberacese : Curcuma longa, 
Iting'gd (L. longus, long), a species 
which furnishes Turmeric, a yel- 
low lemon powder used as a dye- 
stuff, employed medicinally as a 
carminative, and enters into the 
composition of curry powder : 
curcumin, n., JcerJc-um-m, the 
yellow colouring matter of tur- 
meric : Curcuma angustifolia, 
ang'gust f 'i'fol f 'i-d (L. angustus, 
narrow, contracted ; folium, a 
leaf), a species which furnishes 
the East Indian arrowroot : C. 
zerumbet, zer-um'-bet (from the 
East Indies), and C. leucorhiza, 
tt'-ktir-iz'-a, (Gr. leukos, white ; 
rhiza, a root), yield a starch 
similar in kind to East Indian 

Cursores, n. plu., kers-or'-ez (L. 
cursor, a runner from curro, 1 
run), an Order of birds formed for 
running swiftly, and destitute of 
the power of flight, as the ostrich 
and emu. 

curvembryeaB, n. plu., kerv'-Zm- 
bri'8-e (L. curvus, bent, crooked 
Gr. embruon, an infant in the 
womb), plants which have theii 

embryos curved: curvembryonic, 
a., kerv-%m''bri'8n'ik, having the 
embryo curved. 

Uuscutese, n. plu., Ms-&w'e-e(said 
to be a corruption of Gr. kadutas, 
a Syrian parasitical plant ; Arab. 
chessuth or chasuth), a Sub -order 
of the Ord. Convolvulaceae : Cus- 
cuta, n. , kus-kut'-a, a genus of curi- 
ous parasitical plants producing 
abundance of sweet-scented flowers 
in autumn : Cuscuta epithynmm, 
S'ptth'fm-'&m (Gr. epithumon, L, 
epithymon, the flower of a species 
of thyme from Gr. epi, upon ; 
thumon, the herb thyme), the 
dodder or scold weed, a parasitic 
plant ; this and other species have 
acrid purgative properties. 
cusparia, n., kus-pdr'-i'd (a 
native name), a name given to 
the bark of the Galepea cusparia, 
Ord. Rutacese, which is used as a 
tonic and febrifuge ; called also 
* Angostura bark. ' 
cuspidate, a., kusp'id'dt (L. cusp- 
is, point of a spear, cuspidis, of 
the point of a spear), in bot., 
gradually tapering to a sharp 
stiff point; in zoo/., furnished 
with small pointed eminences or 
cusps : cuspis, n., kusp'-is, also 
cusp, n. , kiisp, a spike, somewhat 
thick at the base, and tapering 
gradually to a point. 
cuticle, n., kuwk-l (L. cuticula, a 
little skin from ctitis, the skin), 
the thin exterior coat of the skin; 
in zooL, the pellicle which forms 
the outer layer of the body 
amongst the Infusoria ; in bot., 
the thin layer that covers the 
epidermis : cuticular, a., kut-ik^ 
ul-ar, belonging to the cuticle or 
outer surface : cutis, n., kut'-is, 
the true skin ; the inferior layer 
of the integument called skin ; 
in bot., the peridium of some 
fungi: cutis vera, kut'>is ver f -d (L. 
verus, true), the true skin, the 
sentient and vascular texture, 
which is covered and defended 
by the insensible and non-vascular 




'cuticle'; also called 'derma' 
or 'corium.' 

cyanic, a., sl-an'-ik (Gr. kuanos, 
dark-blue), denoting the blue 
appearance which a patient has 
in certain diseases ; in bot., 
denoting a series of colours in 
plants of which blue is the type, 
and which do not pass into yellow, 
comprising ' greenish -blue, blue, 
violet-blue, violet, violet-red, and 
red' : cyanide, n., si'an-id, a salt 
which is a compound of cyanogen 
with an elementary substance : 
cyanogen, n., si-an'-d-fen (Gr. 
gennao, I produce), a gas with an 
odour like crushed peach leaves, 
which burns with a rich purple 
flame, and is an essential ingred- 
ient in Prussian blue : cyanosis, 
n. , sftan-dz'-is, a diseased condition 
arising from a defect or malforma- 
tion in the heart, characterised 
by blueness of the skin, markedly 
in the hands, tip of nose, and 
ears ; also called 'morbus cser- 
uleus. * 

Cyathea, n., sf-atfi-^d (Gr. kuath- 
os, L. cyathus, a cup), a genus of 
fine tropical ferns, Ord. Filices, 
so named from the cup-shaped 
form of the indusium : Cyathea 
medullaris, med'-ul'ldr'-is (L. 
medulldris, belonging to or hav- 
ing the nature of marrow from 
medulla, the marrow), the ponga 
of New Zealand, which furnishes 
a gum used as a vermifuge. 

cyathiform, a., si-ath'-i-ftirm (L. 
cyathus, a cup ; forma, shape), 
shaped like a cup ; resembling a 
cup: cyathoid, a., sl'-aih-oyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), having 
the appearance of a cup ; cyathi- 
form : cyathus, n. r si'ath-us, the 
cup -like bodies in- marchantia or 

Cycadacese, n. plu.,. sik'-ad-d'sV-e 
(Gr. Tcukas, a kind of palm ; new 
L. cycas, a kind of palm, cycados, 
of a palm), the Cycas family, an 
Order of trees and shrubs with 
cylindrical trunks : Cycas, n., 

sik'-as, a genus of trees and 
shrubs which yield much starchy 
matter along with mucilage : 
Cycas revoluta, rtv'-dlooM (L. 
revolutum, rolled back from re, 
back or again ; volvo, I roll); 
also C. circinalis, sers'm-dl'-ts (L. 
circindlis, encircled, whorled 
fcomcircmus, a pair of compasses), 
are species from whose stems a 
kind of sago is made, and a clear 
transparent gum exudes from 
them : cycadaceons,. a., slk'-ad- 
a'shiis, pert, to the Cycads or 

Cyclamen,, n., sikf-lam-Zn (L. eye- 
larnlnos, Gr. kuklaminon, the 
plant sow-bread from Gr. kuk- 
los, a circle), a pretty bulbous 
genus of plants, Ord. Primulacese, 
having round leaves, the principal 
food of the wild boars of Sicily, 
hence its common name. 

CyclanthesB, n. plu., sik-lantJi'e-e 
(Gr. Icuklos, a circle ;. anthos, a 
flower), a Sub-order of the Ord. 
Pandanacese, having fan-shaped 
or pinnate leaves : Cyclanthus, 
n., sik-lanth'-tis, a genus of 

cycle, n., sik'l (Gr. Tcuklikos, L. 
cyclicus, circular from Gr. kuk- 
los, a circle),, in bot., the turn of 
a spiral as of a leaf so arranged : 
cyclic, a., sikf-lik, also cyclical, 
a., sik'lik-al, arranged in a circle 
round an axis ; coiled up. 

cyclogens, m plu., sik'lo-fens (Gr. 
kuklos, a circle ; gennao, I pro- 
duce), a name given to exogenous 
plants, in consequence of exhibit- 
ing concentric circles in their 
stems : cyclogenous, a., sik-lddf- 
en-tis, having concentric woody 

cycloid, a., sikf-ldyd (Gr. kuklos, a 
circle ; eidos, resemblance), in 
zool., applied to those scales of 
fishes which have a regularly 
circular or elliptical outline with 
an even margin. 

cyclosis, n., sik-ldz'-ts (<Gr. kuklosis, 
a surrounding, a circulation 




from kuklos, a circle), the partial 
circulation observable in the 
milky juice of certain plants. 

cyclostomi, n. plu., sik-los'tdm-i 
(Gr. kuklos, a circle ; stoma, a 
mouth), a name applied to the 
hag-fishes and lampreys, forming 
the Ord. Marsipobranchii, so 
called from their circular mouths : 
cyclostomous, a., sifo'ltis'tdm-us, 
having a circular mouth or aper- 
ture for sucking, among certain 
fishes, as the lamprey. 

Cydonia, n., sid-dn'i-a (so called 
as from Kydon, in Crete), a genus 
of fruit trees, Ord. Rosacese : 
Cydonia Japonica, ja-pdn'-ik-a 
(Japonicus, belonging to Japan), 
a handsome hardy shrub, produc- 
ing beautiful scarlet or white 
flowers in great abundance : C. 
vulgaris, vulg-ar'-is (L. vulgdris, 
common,, ordinary), the quince, 
the seeds or pips of which, when 
boiled in water, yield a mucilag- 
inous decoction. 

cylindrenchyma, n., sil'-iri'drVng'- 
kim-d (Gr. kulindros; engchuma, 
an infusion from chumos, juice),, 
in bol. , tissue composed of cylind- 
rical cells. 

cymbellaa, n. plu., sim-lel'-le (L. 
cymbula, a little boat from 
cymba, a boat), in Algae, repro- 
ductive locomotive bodies : cym- 
biform, a., sim'-M-fdrm (L. 

forma, shape), having the shape 
of a boat. 

cyme, n., sim (Gr. kuma, L. 
cyma, the young sprout of a 
cabbage), in bot., a mode of 
inflorescence resembling a flat- 
tened panicle, as that of the 
elder tree : cymose, a., sim-oz',, 
having an inflorescence in the 
form of a cyme. 

cynanehe, n., si-nang'ke (Gr, 
kuon, a dog ; angcho, I strangle), 
a disease of the windpipe, 
attended with inflammation, so 
called from the dog-like bark 
by which it is sometimes accom- 
panied : cynanehe maligna 

carbuncularis, ma-lig'na kdrb* 
ungk'ul'dr'-is (L. maligna, ma- 
lignant ; carbunculus, a small 
coal, a carbuncle), a malignant 
carbuncular cynanehe; malignant 
sore throat : cynanehe tons- 
illaris, t8ns f -il>ldr'-is (L. tonsillce, 
the tonsils in the throat), quinsy, 
a troublesome affection, consisting 
of inflammation of the tonsils 
and adjacent parts of the fauces : 
c. trachealis, trak'-e-dl'is (L. 
trachedlis, belonging to the 
trachea or windpipe), croup : 
c. parotidea, par-ot'id-e'-a (Gr. 
para, about ; ous, the ear, otos, 
of the ear), mumps ; another 
name for ' parotitis. ' 

Cynanchum, n., si-nang'kum 
(Gr. kuon, a dog; angcho, I 
strangle, in allusion to its 
poisonous qualities), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Asclepiadacese : 
Cynanchum monspeliacum, 
mdns'pel'i'ak'um (after Mont- 
pellier, in France), a species 
which furnishes Montpellier 

cynarocephalaa, n. plu., sm-dr'd- 
sef'dl-e (Gr. kuon, a dog ; kepJiale, 
a head), a Sub-order of plants, 
Ord. Compositae, which are 
usually tonic and stimulant : 
Cynara, n., sin'-ar-a (Gr. kuon, a 
dog), a genus of plants, so called 
in allusion to the spines of the 
involuerum: Cynara cardunculus, 
kdrd-ungk'-ul'US (L. cardunculus, 
a diminutive of carduus, a 
thistle), the cairdoon, a species 
resembling the artichoke, whose 
blanched stems and stalks are 
eaten : C. scolymus, skdl'tm-us 
(Gr. skolumos, L. scolymos, an 
edible kind of thistle), the arti- 
choke, the root of w r hich the 
Arabians considered an aperient. 

cynarrhodon, n., sm-dr'-rod-dn 
(Gr. kuon, a dog ; rhodon, a rose), 
applied to the hips or fruit of 
dog-roses, and roses in general. 

Cynodon, n., sin'tid-tin (Gr. kuon, 
a dog ; odous, a tooth, odontos, 




of a tooth), a genus of grasses, 
Ord. Graminese : Cynodon dactul- 
on, dakt'ul-dn (Gr. daktulos, 
L. dactylus* a finger, a sort of 
muscle), a species from whose 
roots a cooling drink is made in 
India ; is used in mucous dis- 
charges from the bladder. 

Cynoglossum, n., sm'-d-glos'siim 
(Gr. kudn, a dog ; glossa, a 
tongue), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Boragiiiacese, so called from their 
leaves resembling dogs' tongues, 
hence the common name 'hound's 
tongue ' ; the species are pretty 
border plants. 

Cynomorium, n., sin'o'mdr'i'iim 
(Gr. kudn, a dog ; L. morion, a 
narcotic plant, nightshade), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Balanophor- 
acese, which are root-parasites 
and tropical : Cynomorium coc- 
cineum, ktik'Sin'e-um (L. coc- 
cineus, of a scarlet colour from 
coccum, the berry of the scarlet 
oak), grows in Malta and Sardinia, 
and was long celebrated for 
arresting haemorrhage ; usually 
known under the name of Fungus 
Melitensis, after Melita, the 
old name of Malta. 

Cynosurus, n., sin'oS'tir'-us (Gr. 
kudn, a dog ; oura, a tail), a 
genus of grasses, Ord. Graminese, 
so called from its resemblance to 
a dog's tail, hence the common 
name, ' dog's-tail grass ' : Cynos- 
urus cristatus, krist-at'-us (L. 
cristdtus, crested, tufted from 
crista, a tuft on the head), 
esteemed one of the best fodder 
grasses in Europe. 

Cyperacese, n. plu., stp'$r'd's%-e 
(Gr. kupeiros, a kind of rush, the 
water-flag), the Sedge family, an 
Order of grass-like herbs, which 
do not supply nutriment to 
cattle : Cyperus, n., sip-er^us, a 
genus of sedges growing in water 
or in moist situations : Cyperus 
papyrus. pap-lr'-us (L. papyrus, 
Gr. papuros, the paper-reed), 
the Papyrus of the Nile, the 

cellular tissue of which was used 
in the manufacture of paper: 
C. Syriacus, sir-i'-ak-us (from 
Syria), differs from the C. pap- 
yrus in having the leaves and 
floral clusters drooping: C.longus, 
Idng'-gus (L. longus, long), a 
species whose roots have been 
used as bitter and tonic remedies : 
C. odoratus, dd'-dr-dt'us (L. odor- 
dtus, sweet-smelling from odor, 
a smell, scent), a species whose 
roots are aromatic : C. esculentus, 
%sk'ul-ent f -us (L. esculentus, ed- 
ible 'from esca, food), supposed 
to be the flag of the Bible. 

cyphellse, n. plu., sif>el'-le (Gr. 
kuphella, things which are hol- 
low, cups from kuphos, crooked, 
bent), in bot., urn-shaped soredia 
on the under surface of the thallus 
of some lichens : cyphellate, a., 
sif'ettlat, having minute sunken 
cup-like spots, as the under sur- 
face of the thallus of Sticta. 

cypsela, n., sip'sel-a (Gr. kupsele, 
a hollow, a chest), the inferior, 
monospermal, indehiscent fruit of 
Compositse ; an achsenium. 

Cyrtandrese, n. plu., ser-tand'-rZ-e 
(Gr. kurtos, crooked ; oner, a man, 
andros, of a man), a Sub-order 
of the Ord. Bignoniacese, having 
their fruit succulent or capsular, 
or siliquose and two-valved : Cyr- 
tandra, n., ser'tand'-ra, a genus 
of plants. 

cyst, n., sist, also cystis, n., msf-is 
(Gr. kustis, a bladder), in animal 
bodies, a bag containing morbid 
matter ; a sac or vesicle ; in bot. , 
a sub-globose cell or cavity : 
cystalgia, n., sist-al'-ji-a (Gr. 
algos, pain, grief), pain in the 
bladder : cystic, a. , sist'-ik, pert, 
to or contained in a cyst ; pert, to 
the gall-bladder: cystica, n. plu., 
sist'-ik-a, the embryonic forms of 
certain intestinal worms, as tape- 

Cysticercus, n., sistf-i-serk'us (Gr. 
kustis, a bladder ; kerkos, a tail), 
an embryo tapeworm which, in 




this stage, inhabits the flesh of 
various animals according to its 
species, and which consists of a 
head and neck like those of a 
tapeworm, from which, however, 
a vesicular appendage hangs down ; 
the tailed bladder- worm : Cysti- 
cercus cellulosae, stil'-ul'dtfe (L. 
cdlulosus, having cells), a species 
of tailed bladder-worm found in 
the substance of the heart of the 
pig ; the embryo of the tseriia 
solium : C. pisiformis, pls'i- 
form'-is (L. pisum, a pea ; forma, 
shape), a species found in the 
rabbit : C. tenuicollis, t^n^u-i- 
kdl'lis (L. tennis, thin; col- 
lum, the neck), a species about 
an inch long with a very small 
head: C. cucumerinus, kuk-um'* 
Vr-in'-us (L. cucumis, a cucumber, 
cucumeris, of a cucumber), a 
species of bladder- worms found in 
the rabbit: C. fasciolaris, fas'* 
si-ol-dr'-is (L. fascidla, a small 
bandage from fascia, a bandage), 
a species of bladder-worms found 
in the rat and mouse : all the 
preceding, and many others, are 
the embryos of the different 
species of tapeworm. 
cystidium, n. ,sist-id'>i- wm,cystidia, 
n. plu., sist-id'-i-a (dim. of Gr. 
kustis, a bladder), in bot., sacs 
containing spores ; a kind of 
fructification in fungi, 
cystitis, n., sist-lt'-is (Gr. kustis, 
a bladder), inflammation of the 
bladder : cystirrhoaa, n., sist'-tr- 
re'-a (Gr. rheo, I flow), a discharge 
of mucus from the bladder. 
cystocarp, n.,sist'd'kdrp(Gr. kustis, 
a bladder ; karpos, fruit), the re- 
ceptacle in which the spores are 
ultimately formed in Floridese, a 
Sub-order of seaweeds. 
cystocele, n., sist'o-sel (Gr. kustis, 
a bladder ; kele, a tumour), hernia 
of the bladder: cystodynia, n., 
sist f '6-dln f 'i'd (Gr. odune, pain), 
pain in the bladder. 
cystocestoid, a., sist'-d-sest'-dyd (Gr. 
kustis, a bladder; kestos, a girdle; 

eidos, resemblance), applied to 
intestinal, cystose parasites having 
flat bodies. 

cystoid, a., sist'oyd (Gr. kustis, a 
bladder ; eidos, resemblance), re- 
sembling a cyst: cystose, a., slst f ' oz, 
containing cysts. 

cystolith, n., sist'-o-lith (Gr. kustis, 
a bladder ; lithos, a stone), a cell 
containing numerous crystals, 
usually lying loose, as in the leaf 
of Ficus. 

Cytisus, n., sit'-is-us (Gr. kutisos, 
the bean trefoil tree), a very orna- 
mental genus of trees and shrubs, 
Ord. Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Papil- 
ionacese : Cytisus scoparius, skop- 
ar'-i-us (L. scoparius, a broom 
to sweep with), a species whose 
broom -tops are used as a diuretic: 
C. laburnum, lab-ern'-um (L. lab- 
urnum, the laburnum tree or 
shrub), the laburnum tree, the 
seeds and bark of which are nar- 

cytoblast, n., sU'd>bldst(Gi\ kutos, 
a vessel, a cell ; blastano, I bud), 
the nucleus of animal and vegetable 
cells: cytoblastema, n., sit'6- 
blast'em'a, the viscous fluid, or 
formative material, in which 
animal and vegetable cells are 
produced, and by which they are 
held together ; protoplasm. 

cytogenesis, n., slt'-o-jen'-es-is (Gr. 
kutos, a vessel, a cell ; genesis, 
origin), the development of cells 
in animal and vegetable structures : 
cytogenetic, a., sit'-o-jen-et'tk, 
pert, to cell formation : cytog- 
enous, a., sit-oaf-en-us, having 
connective tissue : cytogeny, n., 
sit'ddj f -^n'i, cell formation. 

Cyttaria Darwinii, sU-tdr'i-d ddr- 
wln'4'l (Gr. kuttdros, the cell in 
the comb of bees), a species of 
fungi named in honour of Darwin, 
found on the bark of the beech, 
globular, and of a bright yellow 
colour, and which the natives of 
Tierra del Fuego eat. 

Dactylis, n^ 

:. daktulos, 



L. dactylis, a finger), the cock's- 
foot grass, a genus of grasses, Ord. 
Graminese, so called from the 
fancied resemblance of the head 
to fingers. 

daedalenchyma, n., ded'dl-eng'- 
kim-a (Gr. daidaleos, skilfully 
wrought, variegated ; engchuma, 
an infusion, tissue), tissue com- 
posed of entangled cells, as in 
some fungi. 

Dalbergieae, n. plu., dal'berj-i'e-e 
(after Dalberg, a Swedish botan- 
ist), a tribe of plants, Sub-ord. 
Papilionacese, Ord. Leguminosse : 
Dalbergia, n., ddl-berfi-a, a 
genus of plants : Dalbergia 
sissoo, sis'sd'd (a native name), an 
Indian forest tree, valued for its 

daltonism, n., ddwlt'tin-fam, colour 
blindness ; a condition of the 
eye in which the individual can- 
not distinguish one colour from 
another, so called from Dr. 
Dalton, the chemist, who suffered 
under this defect. 

Dammar, n., ddm'ar (a native 
name), a very handsome genus 
of trees, Ord. Conifene, from a 
species of which, it is said, liquid 
storax is obtained : Dammar 
Australia, dws-trdl'is (L. Aus- 
trdlis, Sou them from Aicster,ihe 
South), the Kawri pine of New 
Zealand, which yields a hard 
resin : D. Orientalis, or'-i-Vnt- 
dl-is (L. Orientalis, Eastern from 
Oriens, the East), a species called 
the Amboyna pitch tree, also 
yielding resin : white Dammar, 
Indian copal or gum animi, used 
in India as a varnish, is obtained 
from Vateria Indica. 

dandelion, n., ddn'-dt-ltftin (F. 
dent, tooth ; de, of ; lion, lion), 
a well-known plant having a 
yellow flower on a naked stem, 
and deeply-notched leaves; yields 
a milky juice, used medicinally ; 
the Taraxacum Dens Leonis, Ord. 

dandriff, n., ddn'drif, also dan- 

druff, n., dan'drtif (Bret, tan, 
F. teigne, scurf; W. drwg, bad, 
evil), a disease of the scalp, char- 
acterised by quantities of little 
scales on the skin ; pityriasis. 

Daphnse, n. plu., ddf'ne (Gr. and 
L. Daphne, the daughter of the 
river god Peneus, changed into a 
laurel tree), a Sub-order of the 
Ord. Thymelseacese, having her- 
maphrodite or nearly unisexual 
flowers : Daphne, n., daf'ne, a 
genus of handsome dwarf shrubs, 
mostly evergreens : Daphne 
mezereum or mezereon, mez'er- 
ef-um or -e'dn (said to be Pers. 
madzaryoun), the bark of the 
root and branches used in decoc- 
tion as a diaphoretic in cutaneous 
and syphilitic affections, in large 
doses acts as an irritant poison, 
and the succulent fruit is poison- 
ous : D. gnidium, nid'-i-um 
(gnidia, ancient name of the 
laurel), the spurge flax or flax- 
leaved daphne, bark has been 
used in medicine : D. Alpina, 
dip-in' a (Alpinus, from the Alps), 
a dwarf olive tree, said to be 
purgative : D. cneorum, ne-or'-um 
(Gr. kneoron, a kind of nettle, a 
species of daphne), a beautiful 
species, having similar properties 
to the D. mezereum : D. Pontica, 
pont'ik'd (L. Ponticus, pert, to 
the Black Sea from Pontus, the 
Black Sea), a spurge laurel, hav- 
ing diaphoretic qualities : D. 
laureola, lafor-e'-d-& (L. Iaur8- 
tilus, a small laurel from laurea, 
a laurel tree), the spurge laurel, 
bark used in medicine, the 
berries are poisonous to all anim- 
als except birds : daphnein, n., 
daf'-ne-m, the neutral crystalline 
principle contained in the D. 

Darlingtonia, n., ddr '-ling- ton' i-d 
(after Dr. Darlington, of America), 
a genus of the Ord. Sarracenia- 
cese, pretty plants from the 
Piocky Mountains. 

darnel, n., ddrn'el (Prov. F. dar 




nelle ; Lith. durnas, foolish as 
in intoxication), a weed among 
corn, supposed to induce intoxic- 
ation ; the grass Lolium temul- 
entum, said to be poisonous, but 

dartos, n., dart'-tis (Gr. dartos, 
the fleshy coat covering the 
testes from d&ro, I nay), a thin 
layer of loose, reddish, musculo- 
cutaneous tissue, forming the 
tunic of the scrotum : dartoid, 
a., ddrt'-oyd, resembling the 

Datiscacese, n. plu., dat'-is-kd'-se-e 
(origin unknown), the Datisca 
family, an Order of herbaceous 
plants : Datisca, n., dat-is-a, a 
genus of hardy herbaceous plants, 
some of which are bitter : Datisca 
cannabina, kan'-d-bln'o, (Gr. 
Icannabis, L. canndbis, the hemp), 
a species said to have purgative 

Datura, n., dat-ur'a (a corruption 
of Arabic name tatorah), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Solanacese, Sub- 
ord. Atropeae, many of the 
species of which are powerfully 
narcotic : Datura stramonium, 
stra-m6n''i'Um(L. strdmen, straw, 
strammis, of straw, so called 
from its fibrous roots), the thorn 
apple, so called from its prickly 
capsule ; the leaves and seeds 
are used as narcotics, and in the 
form of powder and tincture as 
anodynes and antispasmodics, 
the leaves are smoked for asthma : 
D. Tatula, tdf-ul-a (1ST. American 
word) ; D. Metel, met'81 (from 
Asia) ; D. sanguinea, sang- 
givm'8-a(L. sangmn$us, of blood 
from sanguis, blood), the red 
thorn apple ; D. ferox, fer'-oks 
(L.ferox, wild, fierce) : D. fastu- 
Q&&,fdst r -U'6 i z f 'a (new L. fastuosus, 
pert, to pride from fastus, 
arrogance, pride), are species 
which have properties similar to 
D. stramonium : D. alba, alb'-fi, 
(L. albtis, white), the white- 
flowered Datura, whose leaves 

and seeds are used in India as 
sedative and narcotic. 

Daucus, n., ddwk'us (Gr. daukon, 
a kind of wild carrot), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Umbelliferse : Dauc- 
us carota, kar-ot'-a (mid. L. 
carota, a carrot), a species pro- 
ducing the esculent root, the 
common carrot ; from this and 
other species is made the Ajowan 
or Omam, a condiment of India. 

Davailia, n.,ddv-al'li-a (in honour 
of Davall, a Swiss botanist), a 
genus of very beautiful ferns : 
Davailia Canariensis, kan-ar'-l- 
ens'-is (new L. Canariensis, of or 
from the Canary Islands), a 
beautiful species of fern, whose 
root-stock, covered with coarse 
brown hair, very much resembles 
a hare's foot, hence the name 
' hare's-foot ' fern. 

decandrous, a., dek-dnd f -rus (Gr. 
deka, ten ; aner, a male, andros, 
of a male), in bot., applied to a 
flower that has ten stamens. 

decapoda, n. plu., dek-ap'-od-a 
(Gr. d%ka, ten ; podes, feet), a 
section of the Crustacese which 
have ten ambulatory feet; the 
family of cuttle-fishes, having ten 
arms or cephalic processes. 

deciduous, a., de-sid'-ii-us (L. de- 
ciduus, that falls down or off 
from de, down ; cado, I fall), not 
perennial or permanent ; applied 
to parts which fall off or are 
shed during the life of the animal ; 
in bot. , falling off after performing 
its functions for a limited time ; 
applied to trees which lose their 
leaves annually. 

declinate, a., dek'lm-dt (L. dec- 
lino, I turn aside, 1 bend from 
de, down; clino, I lean), in bot., 
directed downwards from its 
base ; bent downwards or on 
one side. 

decoction, n., de-kdk'-sTitin (L. 
decoctus, a boiling down from 
de, down ; coctus, boiled or baked), 
the extraction of the virtues of 
any substance by boiling it in 




water; the fluid in which the 
substance has been boiled. 

decollated, a., dZ-Ul'-lat-ed (L. 
decolldtum, to behead from de, 
down ; collum, the neck), applied 
to univalve shells, the apex of 
which falls off in the course of 
growth: decollation, n. } de-ktil- 
Id'shfm, the separation of the 
head from the trunk. 

decompound, a., de'-Wm^pownd 
(L. de, down, from ; and Eng. 
compound), in hot., applied to a 
leaf cut into numerous compound 

decorticate, a., de'-kd'rt'ik-dt, also 
decorticated, a., -dt'$d (L. de- 
corticdtum, to deprive of the bark 
from de, down, from ; cortex, 
bark), deprived of the bark or 
cortical layer : decortication, n., 
de-kdrt'ik-d'shun, the operation 
of stripping off bark. 

decumbent, a., d$>ktvmb'-Vnt (L. 
decumbens, lying down from de, 
down ; cumbo, I lie), in bot., lying 
flat along the ground, but rising 
from it at the extremity. 

decurrent, a., d8>kur>rent (L. de- 
currens, running down from a 
higher point from de, down ; 
currens, running), in bot., ap- 
plied to leaves which adhere to 
the stem beyond their point of 
attachment, forming a sort of 
winged or leafy appendage, as in 

decussate, a., de'lcus'sat (L. de- 
cussdtum, to divide crosswise, as 
in the form of an x), in bot., 
applied to opposite leaves crossing 
each other in pairs at right angles; 
v., to cross or intersect in the 
form of x: decussation, n., dttt- 
tiS'Sd'shun, the intersection or 
crossing of lines, etc. in the form 
of an x ; union in the shape of an 
x or cross : decussative, a., de- 
kus'sat-iv, formed in the shape of 
a cross. 

dedoublement, n., de-dub'-l'ment 
(L. de, down ; Eng. double) ; also 
deduplication, n. ? de-dup'-lik-a'- 

shun (L. de, down ; Eug. duplic- 
ation), the act of doubling down ; 
in bot., the separation of a layer 
from the inner side of a petal, 
either presenting a peculiar form, 
or resembling the part from which 
it is derived ; chorisis which see. 

defecation, n., def'-eTc-a'-shun (L. 
defcecdtum, to cleanse from dregs, 
to refine from de, down, from ; 

fcex, dregs or refuse matter, feeds, 
of dregs), the act of discharging 
the faeces from the bowels ; the re- 
moval of the lees or sediment of 
a liquid. 

defervescence, n., def'erv'^s'e'ns 
(L. defervescens, ceasing to boil, 
cooling down from de, down ; 
fervesco, I become hot), in med., 
the fall in the temperature in a 
patient, when convalescent from 
an acute disease. 

definite, a., def-in-tt (L. definltum, 
to limit from de, down, from ; 
finis, an end), in bot., applied to 
inflorescence, when it ends in a 
single flower, and the expansion 
of the flower is centrifugal ; 
having the number of the parts 
of an organ limited and not ex- 
ceeding twenty. 

deflexed, a., dZ-flekst' '(L. deflexum, 
to bend or turn aside from de, 
down ; flexum, to bend, to curve), 
in bot., bent in a continuous 

defoliation, n., de-foV-i-af-shun 
(mid. L. defolidtum, to shed 
leaves from de, down ; folium, 
a leaf), the fall or shedding of the 
leaves of plants. 

degeneration, n., de>jen'er>d'-shtin 
(L. degenerdtum, to depart from 
its race or kind from de, down ; 
genus, race, kind, generis, of a 
kind), a gradual deterioration in 
a part of a living body, in the 
whole living body, or in a race ; 
in bot., a deterioration of growth 
or development in a part, as when 
scales take the place of leaves. 

deglutition, n., deg'-lo'tish'-un (L. 
de, down; glutio, 1 swallow), the 




act of swallowing food after mastic- 

dehisce, v., de-his' (L. dehisco, I 
split open, I part asunder from 
de, down, from ; hisco, I open, I 
gape), in bot., to open or part 
asunder, as the seed -pods of 
plants . dehiscence, n. , de- his' 8ns, 
the mode of opening an organ, as 
of the seed vessel and anther, 
generally along a determinate 
line : dehiscing, a., dS-htittng, 
splitting into regular parts. 

Delesseria, n., d&l'e'S'Ser'i-a (in 
honour of Delessert, a French 
Dotanist), a beautiful genus of 
mostly deep-green Algae, found in 
the ocean and on the sea-shore. 

Delima, n., d&l-im'a (L. delimo, I 
file or shave off from de, down ; 
limo, I file), a genus of very fine 
climbing plants, Ord. Dilleniacese, 
so called from their leaves being 
used for polishing. 

deliquesce, v., del'-i-lcwes' (L. deli- 
quesco, I dissolve from de, down; 
liqueo, I am fluid), to melt or 
become liquid by attracting 
moisture from the air : deli- 
quescent, a., dZl'-i'Tcwes'-Znt, lique- 
fying by contact with the air : 
deliquescence, n., del'i'kwes'Zns, 
the melting by absorbing moisture 
from the air, as certain substances 

delirium, n., d&lir'-i-tim (L. de- 
lirium, madness), that condition 
of the mind in acute disease in 
which the mind wanders, result- 
ing in incoherent speech : de- 
lirium tremens, trem'-enz (L. 
tr$mens, shaking, quivering), 
temporary insanity accompanied 
with a tremulous condition of the 
body and limbs, a disease of 
habitual drinkers : d. traumatic- 
urn, trdwm-at'ik'tim (Gr. traum- 
alikos, L. traumdticus, fit for 
healing wounds), a similar disease 
which may follow serious accidents 
or surgical operations. 
delitescence, n., del'it-es'Zns (L. 
delilescens, lying hid from de, 

down ; latescens, hiding one- 
self), in med., the period during 
which morbid poisons, as small- 
pox, lie hid in the system ; the 
sudden termination of an inflam- 

Delphinium, n., cfel-fln't-tim (L. 
delphin, a dolphin from a sup- 
posed resemblance in the nectary 
of the plant to the imaginary 
figure of the dolphin), a genus of 
showy plants, Ord. Ranunculaceae: 
Delphinium staphysagria, stcif'i- 
sdg'ri-d (Gr. staphis, a dried 
grape ; agria, belonging to the 
country, rustic), the plant Staves- 
acre, whose seeds are irritant 
and narcotic, used for destroying 
vermin : D. glaciale, glas'i'dl'& 
(L. gldcidlis, icy, frozen), a species 
which grows at the height of 16,000 
feet on the Himalayas : D. ajacis, 
adj-ds'is (from Switzerland); and 
D. consolida, Icon-sdl'-id-a (L. 
consftlido, I make very solid or 
firm from cow, together; solidus, 
whole, complete), two species 
universally grown among border 
annuals ; the latter is regarded as 
a simple astringent. 
deltoid, a., delt'-oyd (the Gr. letter 
A, called delta ; eidos, resem- 
blance), shaped somewhat like a 
delta ; triangular in the outline 
or section ; denoting a large, 
thick, triangular muscle, which 
forms the convexity of the 
shoulder, and pulls the arm 
directly outwards and upwards ; 
deltoids, n. plu., also deltoides, 
n. plu., d&lt-oyd'ez : deltoid liga- 
ment, the internal lateral liga- 
ment of the ankle joint, consist- 
ing of a triangular layer of fibres. 
dementia, n., de-men'shi-a (L. 
dementia, the being out of one's 
mind from de, down ; mens, the 
mind), that form of insanity in 
which the powers of the mind 
gradually fade away, or become a 
perfect blank : dementia senilis, 
sen-ll'-is (L. senilis, aged, senile), 
the loss of intellect in old age. 




demodex folliculorum, d&ntftid-Zfa 

f6l-li-uldr f -um (Gr. demos, fat ; 
dex, a worm that devours wood ; 
L. folliculus, skin, follicle, fol- 
liculorum, of skins), the worm- 
like parasite found in the hair 
follicles of the human skin, especi- 
ally those on the side of the 

demulcent, a., de-muls'ent (L. 
demulcens, stroking down from 
de, down ; mulcens, soothing 
gently), softening ; mollifying : 
n., a medicine which softens or 

dendriform, .a., dend'riform (Gr. 
dendron, a tree ; L. forma, shape), 
also dendroid, a., d^nd^royd (Gr. 
dendron, a tree ; eidos, resem- 
blance), and dendritic, dend-rit'-ik, 
branched like a tree ; arborescent. 

Dendrobium, n., d^nd-rob'-i-um 
(Gr. dendron, a tree ; bios, life), 
a splendid genus of orchidaceous 
plants, Ord. Orchidacese, the 
species being generally found upon 
trees in the places of their natural 
growth : Dendrobium nobile, 
ndb'-tl-V (L. nobtlis, famous) ; D. 
chrysanthum, kris-dntUum (Gr. 
chrusos, gold; anthos, a flower) ; 
D. Gibsoni, gib-son'-i (Gibsoni, of 
Gibson) ; D. fimbriatum, fim'- 
brl-dt f >um (L. fimbriatum, fringed 
from fimbrice, fibres, threads) ; 
D. densifloruni, dens f -i-Jldr^um 
(L. densus, thick, dense ; Jlorum, 
shining, bright), are a few species 
unsurpassed in the beauty of their 

dengue, n. , deng'gd (in the British 
West Indian Islands, this disease 
was called dandy, in reference to 
the stiffness and restraint it gave 
to the limbs, afterwards translated 
by the Spaniards into their dangue, 
meaning prudery, fastidiousness, 
from its similarity of sound), 
a violent and singular form of 
fever and rheumatism which is 
an occasional epidemic in tropical 

dens prolifer, dens prol'-if-er (L. 

dens, a tooth ; proles, offspring ; 
fero, I bear), a tooth growing 
apparently on a parent tooth : 
dens sapientise, sdp'-i-en'-shi-e (L. 
sapientia, wisdom, sapientice, of 
wisdom), the tooth of wisdom, or 
the wisdom tooth, the last molar 
in each range of teeth, so called 
from its late appearance through 
the gums. 

dentate, a., dZnt'-at (L. dentdtus, 
having teeth from dens, a tooth), 
in bot., toothed ; having short 
triangular divisions of the margin: 
denticulate, a., d&nt-iTtf-ul-at (L. 
denticuldtus, furnished with small 
teeth), having very small tooth- 
like projections along the margin: 
denticulations, n. plu., dlnt-ik'- 
ul-a-shuns, very small teeth. 

dentine, n., dent f >in (L. dens, a 
tooth, dentis, of a tooth), the 
principal mass or foundation of 
the body and root of a tooth, 
resembling very compact bone, 
though not identical with it in 

dentirosters, n. plu., dent'i-rdst'- 
ers, or dentirostres, n. plu., 
-rost'-rez (L. dens, a tooth, dentis, 
of a tooth ; rostrum, a beak), the 
group of perching birds in which 
the upper mandible of the beak 
has its lower margin toothed 
dentirostrate, a., dent'i-rdsf-rdt, 
having the beak like a tooth. 

denudate, a., dZn'-ud-GA (L. denud- 
dtum, to lay bare, to make naked 
from de, down; nudus, naked), 
in bot., having a downy or hairy 
surface made naked: denudation, 
n., den f -ud>a f >shtin, the act or 
state of being laid bare or made 

deobstruent, n., de'tib'-siroo-^nt (L. 
de, down ; obstruens, building 
anything for the purpose of 
stopping the way, gen. obstru- 
entis], any medicine supposed to 
be able to remove an obstruction 
in a part of the body, such as 
enlargements, tumours, etc. 

deodorant, n., dt-od'-or-dnt (L. 




de, down ; odorans, giving a 
smell to from odor, a smell, good 
or bad), a substance which puri- 
fies the air and removes noxious 
vapours or gases which may be 
injurious to human life: deod- 
orise, v., de-od'dr-iz, to dis- 
infect : deodorisation, n., de-8d'- 
dr-lz-d'shun, the art or act of 
depriving of odour or smell. 

depilation, n., dep'-il-d'-shun (L. 
depildtum, to pull out the hair 
from de, down ; pilus, a hair), 
loss of hair, naturally or by art : 
depilatory, a., de-pil'at-dr-i, 
having the quality or power of 
removing hair : n. , any ointment 
or lotion to take off hair without 
injuring the skin. 

deplanate, a., d$p*ldn'&t (L. de, 
down ; pldndtum, to make level), 
in bot., flattened. 

deplete, v., de-plet' (L. depletum, 
to empty out from de, down ; 
pleo, I fill), to reduce in quantity 
by taking away : depletion, n., 
de-pie' shtin, the act of emptying ; 
the act diminishing the quantity : 
depletives, n. plu., de-pletf-ivs, 
substances calculated to diminish 
fulness of habit. 

depressed, a., de-prZst' (L. depres- 
sum, to press or weigh down 
from de, down ; pressum, to 
press), in bot. , applied to a solid 
organ having the appearance of 
being flattened from above down- 
wards : depression, n., dZ-presh'- 
tin, a hollow ; the hollow formed 
by the fractured portion of the 
cranial bone. 

depressor, n., d$-pres'sor (L. de- 
pressum, to press or weigh down), 
applied to certain muscles which 
draw down the parts on which 
they act : depressor alse nasi, 
de-pres'sor al'e ndz'i (L. depres- 
sor, that which depresses : dla, a 
wing, alee, of a wing ; ndsus, the 
no^e, ndsi, of the nose), a short 
radiated muscle whose fibres are 
inserted into the septum and back 
part of the ala of the nose : 

depressor anguli oris, ang'gul>i 
6r f -is (L. angulus, an angle, an- 
guli, of an angle ; os, the mouth, 
oris, of the mouth), a triangular 
muscle arising from its broad 
base from the external oblique 
line of the lower jaw, and passing 
upwards into the angle of the 

depurant, n., d&p'ur-dnt (L. de- 
purans, purifying or cleansing 
from de, down ; purus, clean, 
pure), a medicine supposed to be 
capable of purifying the blood : 
depuration, n., dep'ur-d'shun, 
the act or process of freeing from 
impurities ; the cleansing of a 

derma, n., derm'a (Gr. derma, a 
skin, dermatos, of a skin), the 
true skin; see 'cutis vera' : dermal, 
a., derm'al, belonging to or con- 
sisting of the true skin : dermat- 
oid, a., derm'at-oyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling the 
skin : dermatitis, n., derm'-at-U'- 
is, inflammation of the skin : 
dermatogen, n., derm-at'ti-jgn 
(Gr. gennao, I beget, I produce), 
the outermost layer or covering 
of the skin in plants which be- 
comes the epidermis. 

Dermatodectes, n. plu., derm'at- 
o-dek'-tez (Gr. derma, skin, der- 
matos, of a skin; deletes, a biter), 
a genus of parasites of the horse, 
ox, and sheep, so called because 
they simply bite and hold on to 
the skin. 

dermoid, a., derm'oyd (Gr. derma, 
skin; eidos, resemblance), resem- 
bling skin ; dermatoid : dermoid 
papilla, pap-il'-la (L. papilla, a 
nipple), in surg., a small emin- 
ence, covered with a skin-like 

dermosclerites, n. plu., derm- 8s' 
kl&T'tt'-ez (Gr. derma, skin ; 
skier os, hard), masses of spicules 
found in the tissues of some of 
the Alcyonidse. 

dermo-skeleton, n., derm'-o-ske'l' 
et-dn (Gr. derma, skin ; Eng. 




skeleton), the hard integument 
which covers many animals, and 
affords protection to them, mak- 
ing its appearance as a leathery 
membrane, or as shell, crust, 
scales, or scutes. 

descendens abdominis, dti-send'- 
$ns ab-domf-m-is (L. descendens, 
descending ; abdomen, the belly, 
abddminis, of the belly), the 
muscle that supports and com- 
presses the abdomen : descendens 
noni, non'-l (L. nonus, ninth, 
noni, of ninth), applied to a 
branch of the ninth pair of nerves 
of the neck. 

desiccation, n., dZs'-ik-a'sliun (L. 
desiccdtum, to dry up from de, 
down ; siccus, dry), the act of 
making quite dry ; the state of 
being dried: desiccant, a., des'-ik- 
ant, drying : n. , a medicine that 
dries a sore : also desiccative, a., 
des-ik'at'W, in same sense. 
Desmidiese, n. plu., des'-mid-l'-Z-e 
(said to be from Gr. desmos, a 
bond, from the parts cohering 
when in a state of dissolution), a 
Sub-order of plants, Ord. Con- 
jugatse, of the great combined 
Ord. Algae or Hydrophyta : Des- 
midium, n., des-mid'-i-um, a 
genus of minute green Algse, 
found in summer in still waters : 
Desmidise, n. plu., des-mid'-i-e, 
minute fresh-water plants of a 
green colour, without a siliceous 

Desmodium, n., des-mod't-um 
(Gr. desmos, a bond, having 
reference to the stamens being 
joined), a genus of plants, Sub- 
ord. Papilionacese, Ord. Legum- 
inosfe : Desmodium gyrans, jir f > 
dns (L. gyrans, turning round 
in a circle), the Gorachand of 
Bengal, a sensitive plant, whose 
compound leaves are in constant 
movement, in jerks, oscillatory 
movements, or movements up- 
wards and downwards, and which 
also exhibit a remarkable irrita- 
bility : D. gyroides, jir-oyd'-ez 

(L. gyrus, Gr. guros, a circular 
course ; eidos, resemblance) ; D. 
vespertilionis, vesp'er>til'i> on'-is 
(L. vespertllio, a bat, vespertili- 
onis, of a bat from vesper, the 
evening), are species which ex- 
hibit similar movements : D. 
diffusum, dif'fuz f >um(L.diffusum, 
to pour or spread out from dif, 
asunder ; fundo, I pour), a species 
affording a fodder plant. 

desquamation, n., des f >kwam-a'- 
shun (L. desqudmdtum, to scale 
or peel off from de, down ; 
squama, a scale), the act of 
throwing off in scales, as tho 
skin ; the separation of the 
scurf-skin in the form of scales, 
layers, or patches. 

desudation, n., des'-ud-a'sliun (L. 
desudo, I sweat greatly from de, 
down ; sudo, I sweat), a profuse 

detergent, n., d$>terf-Znt (L. 
detergens, wiping off from de, 
down ; tergeo, I wipe clean), 
cleansing: n., a medicine that 
cleans wounds, ulcers, etc. 

determinate, a., de-term'-in-at (L. 
determindtum, to border off, to 
bound from de, down ; terminus, 
a boundary), in bot., having a 
definite or cymose inflorescence ; 
the opposite of ' effuse. ' 

detrusor urinse, de-trdz'or ur-in'e 
(L. detrusor, that which forces 
away from de, down ; trudo, I 
thrust ; urlna, the urine, urince, 
of the urine), the external musc- 
ular coat of the bladder, which 
expels the urine. 

deuterozooids, n. plu., dut'er-o* 
zo'-oyds (Gr. deuteros, second ; 
zoo'n, an animal ; eidos, resem- 
blance), those zooids which are 
produced by germination from 

Deutzia, n., dutz't>a (after Deutz 
of Amsterdam), a genus of very 
ornamental plants, Ord. Phila- 
delphacese : Deutzia scabra, 
skab'-ra (L. scaber or scabra, 
rough, scabby), a species which 




has a scurfy matter on its leaves, 
which are used for polishing in 

development, n., d$-v$l'8p'm&nt 
(F. developper, to unfold), the 
progressive changes taking place 
in living bodies until maturity 
is reached ; increase ; growth : 
theory of development, the pro- 
gressive advancement of life from 
its lowest types as they first 
appeared on the earth, or are 
supposed to have first existed, up 
to those highest forms of life now 
existing on the earth, as contra- 
distinguished from acts of direct 
creation ; evolution. 

devitalise, v., de-vlt'-til-iz (L. de, 
down ; Eng. vitalise), to deprive 
of vitality or life, as the part of 
an animal body. 

dewlap, n., dvf-lap (Dan. dog-lcep, 
dew-sweeping ; Prov. Sw. dogg, 
Dut. douw, dew ; Dan. Icep, a 
flap), the loose skin which hangs 
down from the neck of an ox. 

dextral, a., deks'tral (L. dextra, 
the right hand), right hand, or 
to the right hand ; denoting the 
direction of the spiral in the 
greater number of univalve 

dextrine, n., debs' trin (L. dexter, 
right, on the right hand), a 
gummy matter into which the 
interior substance of starch 
globules is convertible by dias- 
tase, and by certain acids, so 
called from turning the plane in 
polarized light to the right hand. 

dextrorse, &.,deks-trors' (L. dexter, 
to the right ; versus, turned), 
directed towards the right. 

diabetes, n., di'd-bet'ez (Gr. dia- 
betes, a siphon fromdia, through; 
baino, I go), a disease charac- 
terised by passing an immoderate 
quantity of urine, with great 
thirst and general debility : 
diabetes insipidus, m-sip'-ld-us 
(L. insipidus, unsavoury from 
in, not ; sdpw, I taste), diabetes 
in which the urine is limpid and 

devoid of sugar : d. mellitus, 
mel-llt'-us (L. mellitus, tasting 
like honey from mel, honey), 
diabetes in which the urine is 
sweet, and contains sugar. 

diacetate, n., di-as'-et-at (Gr. dis, 
twice; Eng. acetate), an 'acetate 7 
is a combination of acetic acid 
with asalifiablebase; a 'diacetate' 
is an ' acid acetate, ' or a combina- 
tion of two parts of acetic acid 
with a salifiable base : diacetate 
of lead, sugar of lead ; commonly 
called ' acetate of lead. ' 

diachaenium, n., di'd-ken'i-um 
(Gr. dis, twice; Eng. achcenium), 
fruit composed of two achsenia 
united by a commissure to a com- 
mon axis ; same as ' cremocarp. ' 

diachylon, n., dl-ak'-il-ftn (Gr. dm, 
through, by means of ; chulos, 
juice), an adhesive plaster, formerly 
made from expressed juices, now 
made of an oxide of lead and oil ; 
litharge plaster. 

diachyma, n., dl-dJc^m-d (Gr. dia, 
through ; chumos, a fluid, juice), 
the cellular tissue of leaves oc- 
cupying the space between their 
two surfaces. 

diadelphous, a., dl'-a-delf-us (Gr. 
dis, twice ; adelphos, a brother), 
having stamens in two bundles 
united by their filaments. 

diagnosis, n., di'dg-noz'is (Gr. 
diagnosis, a judging power or 
faculty from dia, through ; gig- 
nosko, I know), the art of distin- 
guishing one disease from another. 

dialycarpous, a., til'-al-i-Mrp'-us 
(Gr. dialuo, I part asunder ; kar- 
pos, fruit), in bot., having a pistil 
or fruit composed of distinct 
carpels: dialypetalous, a., di'dl-fr 
pet-dl'US (Gr. petalon, a leaf), 
having corollas composed of sev- 
eral petals : dialysepalous, a., 
di'al-i'Sep'al'US (Eng. sepal), 
having a calyx composed of separ- 
ate sepals ; also diaphyllous, a. , 
dl-df f -il'lus (Gr. phullon, a leaf), 
in same sense. 

dialysis, n., di-dl'is-ts (Gr. dialusis. 




a dissolving or dissolution from 
dia, through ; luo, I loose), in 
chem., a process of analysis of a 
liquid by diffusion through or- 
ganic membranes, or such artificial 
septa of organic matter as parch- 
ment - paper ; the separation of 
crystallisable from uncrystallisable 
substances, a septum allowing the 
passage of the former and not of 
the latter ; in hot. , the separation 
of parts usually joined. 

diandrous, a., di-and'-rus (Gr. dis, 
twice ; aner, a male, andros, of a 
male), having two stamens, as a 

Dianthus, n., di-anth'us (Gr. dios, 
divine ; anthos, a flower having 
allusion to the fragrance and 
beautiful arrangement of the 
flowers), a very beautiful and 
ornamental genus of plants, Ord. 
Caryophyllacese, containing some 
of the most prized flowers we 
possess, such as clove-pink and 
carnation : Dianthus caryophyl- 
lus, ~kar'4>o-fil r -lus (Gr. karuon, a 
nut ; phullon, a leaf in reference 
to the shape of the flower-buds), 
the clove -pink, or clove gilly- 
flower; sometimes used in making 
a syrup. 

Diapensieae, n. plu., di'a'p%ns-l'$'e 
(Gr. dia, through ; pente, five 
alluding to flowers being five 
cleft), a Sub-order or tribe of 
plants, Ord. Hydrophyllacese. 

diaphanous, a., di-a/'-an-us (Gr. 
dia, through ; phaino, I show), 
allowing light to pass through ; 
nearly transparent. 

diaphoresis, n., dl^d-for^ez'-is (Gr. 
diaphoresis, a carrying through, 
perspiration from dia, through ; 
phoreo, I carry), an increase of 
perspiration : diaphoretic, n. , 
dfra-fdr-et'-ik, a medicine which 
increases perspiration. 

diaphragm, n., di'-a-fram (Gr. 
diaphragma, a partition wall 
from dia, through ; phrasso, I 
hedge or fence in), the midriff; 
the large muscle which forms the 

partition between the abdominal 
and thoracic cavities, also called 
the 'phren' or 'septum trans- 
versum'; in bot., a dividing mem- 
brane or partition : diaphragm- 
itis, n., di'-a-fram-it f >w, in- 
flammation of the diaphragm. 

diaphysis, n., dl-df-is-u (Gr, di- 
aphusis, the state of growing 
between or through from dia, 
through ; phuo, I produce), the 
central point of ossification for 
the shaft in the long bones ; in 
bot., the prolongation of the in- 

diapophysis, n., di'-a'ptif'-is-is, 
diapophyses, n. plu., -pdf'is-ez 
(Gr. dia, through ; apophuo, I 
send out shoots, I sprout), in 
anat. , the upper transverse proc- 
ess of a vertebra, as the dorsal 
transverse processes, and the 
posterior parts of the cervical 
transverse processes. 

diarrhsemia, n., di'dr-rem'-t-a (Gr. 
dia, through; rhed, I flow; haima, 
blood), among cattle, a disease 
characterised by breaking up of 
the blood, ecchymoses, and secre- 
tions tinged with blood. 

diarrhoea, n., dl'-ar-rM (Gr. 
diarrhoia, a violent purging 
from dia, through ; rheo, I flow), 
a purging or flux ; frequent loose 
evacuations from the bowels. 

diarthrosis, n., dl'-ar-tliros'-ls 
(Gr. diarthrosis, a separation or 
division by joints from dia, 
through ; arthron, a joint), in 
anat., a connection of two joints 
admitting of motion between 
them, which includes the greater 
proportion of the joints of the 
body : diarthrodial, a., di'^ar- 
thrdd''i-al, of or belonging to 

diastase, n., di'as-tds (Gr. dias- 
tasis, a standing apart, separation 
from dia, through, asunder ; 
histemi, I cause to stand), a pecul- 
iar azotised principle which has 
the property of converting starch 
into sugar : diastema, n., di'as- 




tem'd, a gap or interval, especially 
between teeth. 

diastole, n., di-as'tol-e (Gr. dias- 
tole, separation from did, 
through, separation ; stello, I set 
or place), the dilatation or open- 
ing of the heart after contraction; 
the contraction is the ' systole. ' 

diathesis, n., di-ath'-Zs-is (Gr. 
diathesis, a disposing or putting 
in order from dia, through ; 
tithemi, I put or place), a peculiar 
state or condition of body, which 
predisposes an individual to a 
disease or a group of diseases. 

Diatomacese, n. plu., dl'-a-tom-O!- 
se-e, also Diatoms, n. plu., dl'-at- 
6ms (Gr. diatome, dissection, 
division from dia, through, 
asunder; tome, a cutting the 
filaments being divided into 
joints), an Order or tribe of Algae, 
which are provided with siliceous 
envelopes, the fronds consisting 
of frustula or fragments united 
by a gelatinous substance, and 
which inhabit still waters and 
moist places : Diatoma, n., dl-dt- 
dm- a, very minute species of 
Algse, found in the sea, and ditches, 
at all seasons : diatomine, n., 
di-dt f >om-in, a buff-coloured sub- 
stance found in diatoms, which 
conceals the green colour of the 

Dibothria, n. plu.,dz-bdth<ri'd (Gr. 
dis, twice ; bothros, a hole, a pit), 
a genus of tape-worms : diboth- 
rium decipiens, di-both f >ri-um 
de-sip'i-ens (L. decipiens, en- 
snaring), a parasitic worm infest- 
ing the small intestine of the cat: 
d. serratum, ser-rdt^um (L. ser- 
ratus, saw-shaped), a parasitic 
worm infesting the small in- 
testine both of the dog and 

Dibranchiata, n. plu., di-brdngk' 
i-dt'-a (Gr. dis, twice, double ; 
brangchia, the gills of a fish), 
the Order of Cephalopoda in 
which only two gills are present, 
as in the cuttle-fishes : dibranch- 

iate, a., di'brdng&i-dt, having 
two gills. 

dichasium, n., di-kdz'i-um (Gr. 
dichdso, 1 divide into two), in 
bot., a form of definite inflores- 
cence in which each primary axis 
produces a pair of opposite lateral 
axes, each of which produces a 
similar pair. 

dichlamydeous, a., dikf-ldm-id'- 
e-us (Gr. dis, twice, double ; 
chlamus, a cloak, a garment), in 
bot., having a calyx and corolla ; 
having two whorls in the flowers. 

dichogamous, a. , di- kog' dm - Us 
(Gr. dicha, in two parts ; gameo, 
I marry), applied to plants in 
which the stamens and stigmas 
of the same flower do not reach 
maturity at the same time. 

Dichopetalum, n., dik'-d-pM-dl-tim 
(Gr. dicha, in two parts ;petalon, 
a leaf), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Umbelliferee, one of whose species 
in Victoria has five petaloid 

dichotomous, a., dik-St'tim-us (Gr. 
dichotomos, cut in two from 
dicha, in two parts ; tome, a cut- 
ting), in bot. , having the divisions 
of a stem always in pairs ; furcate 
or forked : dichotomous cyme, a 
definite inflorescence in which the 
secondary axes are produced in 
pairs, each one ending in a single 
flower : dichotomy, n., dik-6t f - 
om-i, a mode of branching by 
constant forking. 

diclesium, n., dl'kle^-i-um (Gr. 
diklis, twice-shutting from dis, 
twice ; kleid, I shut), a small, 
dry, indehiscent pericarp, having 
the indurated perianth adherent 
to the carpel, and forming part of 
the shell ; a fruit composed of an 
indehiscent, one-seeded pericarp, 
invested by a persistent and in- 
durated perianth, as in 'mirab- 
ilis. ' 

diclinous, a., di-ldln'-us (Gr. dis, 
twice ; kline, a couch), in bot., 
having the male and female organs 
in separate flowers ; unisexual. 




dicoccous, a., di-ktiKk&s (Gr. dis, 
twice, double ; kokkos, a berry, 
a kernel), having two capsules 
united, one cell in each ; split 
into two cocci. 

dicotyledonous, a. , di'-kfc il-ed'. 
dn-us (Gr. dis, twice; Eng. cot- 
yledonous), in bot., having two 
lobes, seed-leaves, or kotyledons : 
dicotyledon, n., di'-kot'tt-ed'-on, a 
plant whose seed consists of two 

Dicranum, n., di-lcran'-tim (Gr. 
dikranos, having two heads, 
cloven from krdnion, the 
skull, having reference to the 
divisions of the teeth of the 
capsule), a fine genus of mosses, 
Ord. Musci or Bryaceae, many of 
whose species form broad masses 
of turfy vegetation. 

Dictamnus, n., dik-tamf-nViS (Gr. 
diktamnos, L. dictamnum, the 
plant dittany of Crete), a genus 
of very ornamental plants, Ord. 
Kutacese, which emit a strong 
odour : Dictamnus fraxinella, 

fraks'-iU'el'-lcb (L. fraxmus, the 
ash tree, alluding to its leaves 
resembling those of the ash), the 
false dittany, whose leaves, when 
rubbed, emit a fine odour, some- 
what resembling that of lemon 
peel; this and other species abound 
so much in volatile oil, that, it is 
said, the atmosphere around them 
becomes inflammatory in hot, dry, 
and calm weather. 

dictyogens, n. plu., dik-tl'-o-jens 
(Gr. dilctuon, a net ; gennao, I 
produce), a great class of plants 
which have a cellular system, the 
latter consisting partly of elastic 
spiral vessels : dictyogenous, a. , 
dik'ti-d'dj'en'US, applied to mono- 
cotyledons which have netted 

Didelp'hia, n. plu., di-dtif-M (Gr. 
dis, twice ; delphus, the womb), 
the subdivision of Mammals com- 
prising the Marsupials. 

Didymocarpese, n. plu., did'-lm-o- 
karp'e-e (Gr. didumos, two-fold, 

twin; karpos, fruit in allusion 
to the twin capsules), a Sub-order 
of plants, Ord. Bignoniacese, 
having succulent or capsular 
fruit : Didymocarpus, n., did'-im* 
d-kdrp'u#, a genus of pretty 
plants : didymosis, n., did'im* 
oz'is, in bot., two united; union 
of two similar organs. 

didynamous, a., did-m'am-us (Gr. 
dis, twice, double ; dunamis, 
power), in bot., having two long 
and two short stamens. 

Dielytra, n., di-el'.U-ra (Gr. dis, 
twice, double; elutron, a case, a 
sheath), a genus of herbaceous 
plants, Ord. Fumariacese, the 
base of whose flowers is furnished 
with two sheath-like spurs. 

diencephalon, n., di'en-sej'al'd'n 
(Gr. dia, through, between ; eng- 
kephalon, the brain), the second 
of the divisions of the anterior 
primary vesicle of the brain. 

Diervilla, n., dtfer-Mlti, (after 
Dierville, a French surgeon), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Caprifolia- 

dietary, n., di'Zt-ar-i (Gr. diaita, 
L. diceta, mode or place of life, 
means of life; F. di&te), a sys- 
tematic course or order of diet 
with the view of maintaining the 
body in perfect health: adj., re- 
lating to diet: dietetics, n. plu., 
dl'-H-et'-iks, that branch of medic- 
ine which relates to the regula- 
tion of diets in sickness and 

diffluent, n., dlf-jloo^nt (L. 
diffluens, dissolving from dis f 
asunder; fluo, I flow), in bot., 
dissolving ; having the power to 

diffract, a., dif-frakt' (L. di/ractvs, 
broken in pieces, shattered from 
dis, apart, asunder; fractus, 
broken), in bot., broken into dis- 
tinct areolse separated by chinks. 

diffuse, a., dif-fus' (L. dijfusus, 
spread abroad from dis, asunder; 
fusus, poured or spread), widely 
spread; in bot t) spreading irregul- 




arly : diffusion, n., dif-fuzli'-un, 
in chem. , the property of becom- 
ing uniformly mixed. 

digastric, a., dl-gast'-rik (Gr. dis, 
twice ; gaster, the belly), having 
a double belly applied to a 
muscle of the lower jaw. 

digestion, n., di-jest'-yun (L. di- 
gestio, the dissolving of food, di- 
gestionis, of the dissolving of 
food), the changing of the food 
in the stomach into a substance 
called chyme, preparatory to its 
being fitted for circulation and 

digit, n., didf-tt (L. digitus, a 
finger), a finger or toe : digital, 
a., didf-it'dl, pert, to or re- 
sembling a finger: digitate, a., 
didf-tt-dt (L. digitdtus, having 
fingers), branched like fingers ; 
in bot., having a compound leaf 
composed of several leaflets at- 
tached to one point; digitate- 
pinnate, applied to a digitate 
leaf with pinnate leaflets. 

Digitalis, n., dtdj'-tt-al'-fc (L. 
digitalis, of or belonging to the 
finger from digitus, a finger, in 
reference to the flower having 
some resemblance to a finger), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Scrophul- 
ariacese, the most of whose 
species are showy flowers : Digit- 
alis purpurea, per-pur^e-d (L. 
purpureus, purple-coloured from 
purpura, a purple colour), fox- 
glove, the most important medic- 
inal plant of the Order, the seeds 
and leaves of which are employed 
in the form of powder, tincture, 
and infusion : digitalin, n., dzdf- 
U-dl f 'in, a crystalline principle 
which contains the active proper- 
ties of digitalis : Digitalis levig- 
ata, lev'ig-dt'-d (L. levigdtus, 
softened, macerated well) ; D. 
grandiflora, grdnd'i-Jldr'>d (L. 
grandis, high, grand ; jtos, a 
flower, floris, of a flower); D. 
lutea, lootfe-d (L. luteus, yellow, 
of the colour of the plant lutum) ; 
D. tomentosa, tdm'Zn-tdz'-d (L. 

tomentosus, downy from tomen- 
turn, a stuffing for cushions, a flock 
of wool), are other species which 
have similar properties : digitali- 
form, a., didf-it-atf-i-form (L. 

forma, shape), having a shape 
like the corolla of digitalis. 

Digitigrada, n., didj^it-i-grdd'-a 
(L. digitus, a finger ; gradior, I 
walk), a subdivision of the Car- 
nivora : digitigrade, a., didj'U- 
i-grdd, walking upon the tips of 
the toes, and not upon the soles 
of the feet, as the cat, the weasel, 
and the lion. 

digitipartite, a., didf-it-i-part'-it 
(L. digitus, a finger; partUus, 
divided in allusion to the five 
fingers of the hand), in bot., ap- 
plied to a leaf with five divisions 
extending to near the base ; also 
called ' quinquepartite. ' 

digynous, a., didf-m-us (Gr. dis, 
twice; gune, a woman), having 
two styles or pistils. 

dilamination, n. , di-ldrn'm-d'shtin 
(L. dis, asunder ; lamina, a 
blade), in bot., the separation of 
a layer from the inner side of a 
petal, either presenting a peculiar 
form, or resembling the part from 
which it is derived; also called 
* deduplication ' and ' chorisis. ' 

dilatation, n., dll'-at-af-shun (L. 
dilatdtus, enlarged, amplified 
from dis, asunder ; Idtus, wide), 
a spreading or extending in all 
directions: dilatator, n., dtl'-tit- 
at'-or, a muscle that dilates or 
expands a part : dilatator naris, 
nar'-is (L. naris, the nose, of the 
nose), one of two muscles which, 
expand the nose, or widen tha 

dill, n. , dil (AS. dile, anise ; Swed. 
dill, Prov. Dan. dull, still, quiet), 
the seeds of an aromatic plant, 
the Anethum graveolens, belong- 
ing to the Hemlock family, whose 
distilled oil or prepared water is 
used as a soothing medicine in 
maladies accompanied with flatul- 




Dilleniacese, n. plu., dil-ttn'i-d' \ 
s$-e (after Professor DUlenius, of 
Oxford), the Dillenia family, an 
Order of trees and shrubs of con- 
siderable beauty, some yielding 
fruit, others producing fine timber: 
Dillenia, n., dil-ten'-i-a, a genus 
of very elegant shrubs when in 

diluents, n., dil'u-Znts (L. dilutus, 
washed away, weakened from 
dis, asunder ; lutus, washed), in 
med., remedies made use of to 
quench thirst, or to make the 
blood thinner and cooler, such as 
toast-and- water, barley-water, etc. 

Dimerosomata, n. plu., dim'er'd- 
sdm'-at-a (Gr. dis, twice ; m$ros, 
a part ; soma, a body, somdtos, 
of a body), an Order of Arachnida, 
comprising spiders, so called from 
the marked division of the body 
into two parts, viz. the cephalo- 
thorax and abdomen. 

dimerous, a., dim-er^us (Gr. dis, 
twice ; m&ros, a part), in bot., 
composed of two pieces ; having 
parts arranged in twos. 

dimidiate, a., dim-id'-i-at (L. dim- 
ididtus, divided into halves 
from dimidium, the half), applied 
to an organ when the one half is 
smaller than the other half; split 
into two on one side, as the calyp- 
tra of some mosses ; applied to 
the gills of Argarics when they 
proceed only half-way to the stem. 

dimorphic, a., di'mdrf'tktfld. dis, 
twice ; morphe, shape), having 
two forms of flowers, differing in 
the size and development of the 
stamens and pistils, as in Primula 
and Linum : dimorphous, a. , dl- 
mdrf'us, assuming different forms 
in similar parts of a plant : di- 
morphism, n., di*morf''fam, the 
occurrence of the same species of 
plant in two or three different 

dimyary, a., di-ml'dr-i (Gr. dis, 
twice; mudn, a muscle of the 
body), closed by two muscles ; 
applied to those bivalve molluscs 

which have their shells closed by 
two adductor muscles. 

dioecious, a., di-e'-shus (Gr. dis, 
twice ; oiTcos, a house), in zool., 
having the sexes distinct, applied 
to species which consist of male 
and female individuals ; in bot., 
having staminiferous flowers on 
one plant, and pistiliferous flowers 
on another plant : dioecia, n. plu. , 
di-e'-shi-a, a class of plants having 
male flowers on one plant, and 
female on another : diceciously- 
hermaphrodite, a., having herm- 
aphrodite flowers, but only one of 
the essential organs perfect in a 

Dion, n. , di'-dn (Gr. dis, twice ; 
oon, an egg from each scale 
bearing two ovules), a remarkable 
genus of Mexican plants, Ord. 
Cycadacese: Dion edule, ed-ul'8 
(L. edulis, eatable), a species 
which yields a kind of arrowroot 
in Mexico. 

Dionsea, n. plu., dl'-on-ef-a (Di- 
onoea, Venus, being a patronymic 
from Dione, the mother of Venus ; 
Dione, a name of Venus herself), 
a genus of curious plants, Ord. 
Droseraceae: Dionsea muscipula, 
muS'Sip f -ul'd (L. muscipula, a 
mouse-trap from mus, a mouse ; 
capio, I take), Venus's fly-trap, a 
North American plant, having 
the laminae of the leaves in two 
lobes, the irritable hairs on which 
being touched cause the folding 
of the lobes and thus entrap flies. 

DioscoreacesB, n. plu., di^ds-Jcdr^^ 
d'-sft-e (after Dioscorides, a famous 
Greek physician), the Yam tribe, 
an Order of twining shrubs, 
natives of tropical countries : 
Diascorea, n., dl'-ds-Jcdr^e-d, a 
genus of climbing plants cultiv- 
ated in tropical climates for the 
sake of its roots, which are called 
yams, and are used in the same 
way as potatoes : Dioscorea alata, 
al'dtf-d (L. dldtus, furnished with 
wings) ; D. sativa, sat-iv'a (L. 
satlvusfit to be sown or planted); 




D. aculeata, ak-ul^-dM (L. 
acuUdtus, thorny, prickly from 
aciil&us, the sting of a bee), are 
the species which produce the 
tubers called Yams, used as 

Diosma, n., di-os'md (Gr. diosmos, 
transmitting odours from dios, 
godlike ; osme, smell), a genus 
of very beautiful heath-like shrubs, 
Ord. Rutaceae. 

Diospyros, n., di-ds'-pir-tis (Gr. 
diospuros, the fruit that caused 
oblivion from dios, godlike ; 
puros. wheat, fruit ; or piiren, a 
kernel, a berry), a genus of orna- 
mental and very valuable timber 
trees, Ord. Ebenacese, remarkable 
for the hardness and durability of 
their wood : Diospyros lotus, 
lot' us (Gr. lotos, L. lotus, the 
water-lily of the Nile), a species 
which is said to have produced 
the fruit which caused oblivion : 
D. reticulata, re-tik'ul-dt'd (L. 
reticuldtus, made like a net from 
rete, a net) ; D. ebenum, eb'$n-um 
(L. ebenus, the ebon-tree), along 
with other species furnish ebony, 
which is the black duramen of 
the tree : D. virginiana, verj-in' 
i-dn'-d (L. virgmeus, belonging 
to a virgin from virgo, a virgin), 
the persimon tree, yields a fruit, 
sometimes called the date-plum, 
which is sweet and eatable when 
ripe, especially after frost, and 
the bark has been employed as a 
febrifuge : D. kaki, kdk'i (a native 
name), the Keg fig of Japan, the 
fruit resembling a plum : D. em- 
bryopteris, ^m-bri-dp'ter-is (Gr. 
embruo, an embryo ; pteris, a fern 
from pteron, a wing), yields a 
succulent fruit, the pulp of which 
is astringent and very glutinous: 
D. qusesitus, kwes-U'us (L. quces- 
Itus, sought out, select), a species 
which supplies the Coromandel 
wood of Ceylon. 

dipetalous, a., dl-ptt'-cil-us (Gr. 
dis, twice petalon, a petal), 
having two petals. 

diphtheria, n., dif-ther'-i-d (Gr. 
diphthera, skin, leather), a dis- 
ease characterised by the forming 
of a leathery, false membrane on 
a diseased surface ; a disease of the 
pharynx and tonsils, so named, 
having a croupous, false mem- 
brane : diphtheritis, n., dif-ther- 
It'ts (itis, inflammation), same 
sense as * diphtheria ' : diphther- 
itic, a., dtf'-ther-tt'.ik, pert, to 

diphyodont, n., dif-i'-V-dtint (Gr. 
dis, twice ; phuo, I generate ; 
odous, a tooth, odontos, of a 
tooth), one of the Mammals 
which have two sets of teeth. 

diphyozooids, n. plu., dif-l'd-zd' 
oyds (Gr. dis, twice ; phuo, I 
generate ; zoon, an animal ; eiclos, 
resemblance), detached reproduct- 
ive portions of Calycophoridse, 
an Order of ocean Hydrozoa. 

diplecolobesB, n. plu., dip'le-ko- 
lob'-e-e (Gr. dis, twice ; pleko, I 
twine, I plant ; lobos, the lobe of 
the ear), in bot., cotyledons twice 
folded transversely. 

diploe, n., dip'-lo-e (Gr. diploe, a 
fold), in bot., the cellular tissue 
surrounding the vessels of the 
leaf, and enclosed within the 
epidermis sometimes called the 
'diachyma' and 'mesophyllum'; 
in anat., the network of bone 
tissue which fills up the interval 
between the two compact plates 
in the bones of the skull : diploic, 
a., dip-Id' ik, of or pert, to the 

diploperistomi, n. plu., dip'-ld* 
per-is'tdm-i (Gr. diploos, double ; 
peri, about ; stoma, a mouth), 
mosses which have a double per- 
istoine : diploperistomous, a. , 
dip'-lo-per-is'tdm-us, having a 
double peristome. 

diplostemonous, a., dtp' Id-stem' 
tin-us (Gr. diploos, double; stem- 
on, the thread called the warp, 
stemtinos, of the warp from his- 
temi, I cause to stand, the ancient 
looms being upright), in bot., 




having a double row of stamens, 
often double the number of the 
petals or sepals. 

diplotegia, n., dip'-lo-tedf-i-a (Gr. 
diploos, double ; t$gos, a cover- 
ing), in bot., an inferior, dry 
seed vessel, usually opening by 
valves or by pores, as in Cam- 
panula ; sometimes applied to a 
double covering, as a calyx and 
an epicalyx. 

Diplozygise, n. plu., dip'-lo-zidj'i-e 
(Gr. diploos, double ; zugia, the 
hornbeam, a tree having a smooth 
grey bark, ridged trunk, and very 
hard, white wood from zugon, a 
yoke, the wood being fit for the 
yokes of cattle), a section or Sub- 
order of trees, Ord. Umbelliferse ; 
also the name of a genus. 

Dipnoi, n. plu., dip'-no-i (Gr. dis, 
twice ; pnoe, breath), an Order of 
fishes represented by the Lepid- 
osiren, which has twofold respir- 
atory organs, both gills and true 

Dipsacacese, n. plu., dips' ak- a' 
s$-e (Gr. dipsakos, the fuller's 
thistle said to be from dipsa, 
thirst, their hollow leaves holding 
water to satisfy thirst), the Teazel 
family, an Order of plants : 
Dipsacus, n., dips'-dk-us, a curi- 
ous genus of plants : Dipsacus 
sylvestris, sil-vest'-ris (L. sylvest- 
ris, woody from sylva, a wood), 
the plant Venus 's bath, so called 
from the water contained in the 
hollow leaves being considered 
good for bleared eyes ; some of 
the species are considered febrif- 
ugal : D. fullonum, ful-lon'-um 
(L. fullo, a fuller, fullonis, of a 
fuller, fullonum, of fullers), a 
species the head s c of which are 
called fuller's teazel, from their 
spiny bracts being used in dress- 
ing cloth : D. pilosus, pU-dz'-ite 
(L. pilosus, hairy, shaggy from 
pilus, a hair), a very pretty flower- 
ing species. 

dipsomania, n., dips f -o>man'4-cL 
(Gr. dipsa, thirst ; mania, mad- 

ness), the irresistible longing for 
alcoholic liquors, either developed 
or innate in some men and 

Diptera, n. plu., dip'-Mr-a (Gr. 
dis, twice ; pteron, a wing), an 
Order of insects having two wings : 
dipterous, a., dip'ter-us, having 
two wings, or two wing -like 
appendages : Dipteraceae, n. plu. , 
dip'-ter-a'-se-e, an old term for 
Dipterocarpacese, which see. 

Dipterix, n., dtp'-tZr-tics (Gr. dis, 
twice ; pterux, a wing, the two 
upper lobes of the calyx, appearing 
as wings), a genus of ornamental 
trees, Sub-ord. Papiliouacese, 
Ord. Leguminosse : Dipterix 
odorata, od'-or-dt'a (L. odordtus, 
sweet - smelling ; 8dor, scent, 
smell), a species, the fragrant 
seeds of which are known as 
Tonka or Tonquin beans, used 
in giving a pleasant scent to 

DipterocarpacesB, n. plu., dip'-tZr- 
6'kdrp-d'se-e (Gr. dis, twice ; 
pterux, a wing ; karpos, fruit), 
the Sumatra camphor family, an 
Order of handsome ornamental 
trees abounding in resinous juice: 
Dipterocarpus, n., dip'-ter-o- 
kdrp'us, a genus of trees, various 
species of which yield a substance 
like balsam of copaiva : Diptero- 
carpus laevis, lev'-fs (L. Icevis or 
ttvis, light, not heavy) ; D. an- 
gustif olius, any gust'-i-fol'-l- us(L. 
angustus, narrow ; fdlmm, a leaf) ; 
D. turbinatus, terV-m-dtf-us (L. 
turbindtus, cone-shaped from 
turbo, a whipping-top); D. hisp- 
idus, hisp'-id'tis (L. Tiispidus, 
shaggy, hairy); D. Zeylanicus, 
zi-lan'ik-us (Zeylan, Ceylon), 
are species which yield wood 

Dirca, n., derk'a (Gr. Dirka, a 
fountain, in reference to the 
natural habitat of the plant), a 
genus of little shrubs growing in 
the marshes of N. America, Ord. 
Thymelseacese : Dirca palustris, 




pal-tist'rfe (L. palustris, marshy 
from pdlus, a swamp or marsh), 
the K". American leather wood, a 
species whose bark is used for 
cordage, and the twigs are made 
into ropes and baskets, the fruit 
is said to be narcotic. 

diremption, n., dir-em'shun (L. 
diremptus, separation or division), 
in bot.j the occasional separation 
or displacement of leaves. 

Disa, n., dlz r >a (origin of name un- 
known), a genus of interesting 
tuberous - rooted plants, Ord. 
Orchidiacese : Disa grandiflora, 
grund r 'l'jl6r r 'OL (L. grandis, large, 
great ; flos, a flower, floris, of a 
flower), a species found on Table 
Mountain in marshes : D. ferru- 
gme&,fer'-d6'jm'e>a (L. ferriigm- 
eus, of an iron-rust colour from 

ferrugo, iron-rust) ; also D. tenui- 
folia, t8n'-U'f>fdl''i-& (L. tenuis, 
thin ; folium, a leaf), are species 
found in same place at an elev- 
ation of 3582 feet. 

Dischidia, n., dis-kid'-i-a (Gr. dis, 
twice ; schizo, I split), a genus 
of ornamental plants, Ord. Asclep- 
iadacese: Dischidia Rafflesiana, 
rcLf-fles'-i-an'-a (after Sir /Stam- 
ford Raffles), an Indian climber 
whose pitchers are formed by the 
lamina of the leaf, and have an 
open orifice into which the root- 
lets at the upper part of the plant 
enter, thus probably furnishing a 
fluid for the nourishment of the 
upper branches. 

disciform, a., dis'-i-ftirm (L. discus, 
a quoit ; forma, shape), in the 
form of a disc ; flat and circular. 

discocarp, n., disk'o-kdrp (Gr. 
diskos, a disc; karpos, a fruit), 
applied to a collection of fruits 
in a somewhat globose receptacle. 

discoid, &.,disk f -oyd, also discoidal, 
a., disk'dyd'-al (Gr. diskos, a disc; 
eidos, resemblance), in the form 
of a disc ; disciform ; round, or 
having a convex face ; applied to 
the flosculous or tubular flowers 
of Composite. 

Discomycetes, n., disk' o -mis' %t<ez 
(Gr. diskos, a disc; mukes, a 
fungus, muketos, of a fungus), a 
section or Sub-order of the Fungi, 
including Morels and Truffles. 

Discophora, n., disk-of-or-a (Gr. 
diskos, a quoit; phoreo, I bear), 
the Medusae or jelly-fishes, so 
called from their shape ; applied 
sometimes to the leeches, Hiru- 
dinea, from their suctorial discs. 

discrete, a., dis-kret' (L. discretus, 
separated from dis, asunder ; 
cretus, separated), separated from 
each other; distinct; not con- 
tinuous or confluent. 

discus proligerus, distf-usprd-lidj'- 
%r-us (L. discus, a quoit, a disc ; 
proles, offspring; gero, I bear), 
in anat., a small flattened heap of 
granular cells, in the centre of 
which is embedded the ovum or 
germinal vesicle. 

disgorgement, n. , dis-gorj'-m&nt 
(L. dis, asunder; F. gorge, the 
throat), the discharge of a certain 
quantity ol fluid or semi-fluid 
matter by the mouth. 

disinfectant, n., dis'-m-fZlctf-dnt (L. 
dis, asunder ; Eng. infect), a sub- 
stance or fluid which destroys the 
evil effects of foul or infectious 

disintegration, n., dis'in-teg-rci'' 
shun (L. dis, asunder; integer, 
whole, entire), the breaking into 
numerous large and small pieces 
of any solid body; the wearing 
down or away from atmospheric 

dislocation, n., dis'lok-a'-shun (L. 
dis, asunder; locatus, put or 
placed), in surg., the displace- 
ment of one or more bones. 

dispermous, a., di-sperm'us (Gr. 
dis, double ; sperma, seed), 
having two seeds. 

dissect, v., dis-sekt' (L. dissectus, 
cut asunder from dis, asunder ; 
sectus, cut), to cut and separate 
parts of a body in order to ex- 
amine minutely its structure : 
dissected, a., dis-sZkt'ed, in bot., 




cut into a number of narrow 
divisions: dissection, n., dis- 
sZkf'Shun, the cutting or separat- 
ing parts of a body with the view 
of examining minutely its struct- 
ure and arrangement of parts. 

dissepiment, n., dis-sep'&ment (L. 
dissepio, I separate or divide 
from dis, asunder; sepes, a hedge), 
in bot., a partition in an ovary or 
fruit; used sometimes to designate 
certain imperfect transverse par- 
titions found growing from the 
septa of many corals. 

dissilient, a., dis-sil'-i-Znt (L, dis- 
siliens, leaping asunder, flying 
apart from dis, asun der ; saliens, 
leaping), in bot., bursting and 
opening with an elastic force. 

distal, a., distal (L. disto, I stand 
apart; a probable corruption of 
Eng. distant},, in anat., remote 
from the place of attachment, as 
the ' distal ' extremity of a bone ; 
farthest from the heart or trunk; 
in zool., applied to the quickly 
growing end of the hydrosoma of 
a hydrozoon by which the or- 
ganism is fixed, when attached at 
all ; the opposite end is called the 

distant, a., distant (L. distantia, 
remoteness from dis, asunder ; 
stans, standing)j in bot., applied 
to the gills of Agarics when widely 

distemper, TL.,. dis -tempter (L. dis, 
not; Eng. temper, the condition of 
the animal body in all its parts in 
health), a disease of some animals, 
chiefly the dog, whose leading 
symptoms are a running from the 
nose and eyes, and a loss of strength 
and spirits. 

distichous, a., dis'-tik-us (Gr. dis, 
twice ; stichos, a row), in bot., 
disposed in two rows on the op- 
posite sides of a stem, as the 
grains in an ear of barley. 

Distoma, n., dis'-tom-a (Gr. dis, 
twice ; stoma, a mouth, stdmdta, 
mouths), a genus of the Entozoa, 
having two pores or suckers : 

Distoma hepaticum, he-pat'th-tim 
(Gr. hepatikos, L. hepaticus, one 
diseased in the liver), a small, 
flat, -flounder-like worm found in 
the livers of sheep in a perfect 
condition, and in the bile ducts 
of sheep and oxen ; it also attacks 
the horse, the ass, the pig, and 
other animals, sometimes even 
man ; the ' Fasciola hepatica, ' 
which see: D. lanceolatum, lans'- 
e-o-lat'-um- (L. lanceola, a little 
spear from lancea, a spear), a 
species of intestinal worm which 
attacks the pig, cat, rabbit, etc., 
but finds' its most frequent 
habitat in the liver of the ox : 
distomidse, n. plu., dis-tom'-id-e, 
a family of the Entozoa or fluke- 
worms, comprising several genera, 
of which Distoma is one ; see 

distractile, a., dte-trtibtftt (L. dis- 
tractuS} divided, perplexed from 
dis, asunder ; tractus, drawn or 
dragged), in bot., separating two 
parts to a distance from each 
other ; torn asunder. 

dithecal, a., dl-thetfdl (Gr. dis, 
twice ; theke, a receptacle, a chest), 
in bot. , having two loculaments or 
cavities, said of an anther. 

dittany, n., dit'dn-i(Gr. diktamnos, 
L. dictamnus, the plant dittany 
from Dicte, the mountain in 
Crete where found), an aromatic 
plant whose leaves resemble lemon 
thyme in smell ; wild or bastard 
dittany is Dictamnus fraxinella, 
Ord. Rutacese, which abounds in 
a volatile oil ; the dittany of 
Crete is Origanum dictamnus, 
Ord. Labiatse. 

diuresis, Q..,di f 'Ur-e < zf-is(QT. dioureo, 
I void by urine from dia, through ; 
our on, urine), an increased or ex- 
cessive flow of urine : diuretic, 
(Gr. diouretikos), 

having the power of provoking 
urine : n., a medicine which in- 
creases the discharge of urine. 
divaricate, a., di-var'-ik-at (L. di- 
vdricdtuSf spread asunder from 




dls, asunder ; varicm, with feet 
spread apart), in lot., having 
branches coming off from the 
stein at a very wide or obtuse 
angle ; spreading irregularly and 

divergent, a., di-verf-Znt (L. dis, 
asunder ; vergens, inclining), in 
bot., radiating or spreading out- 
wards from a common centre. 

diverticulum, n., di'Vert'ilcf-ul'Um, 
diverticula, n. plu., -ul-d (L. 
diverticulum, a bye-way from 
diverto, I turn aside), in anat., 
a cul-de-sac, or blind lateral 
tube given off from the main 

Dochmius, n., ddtf-mi-fts (Gr. 
dochmios, L. dochmius, an ancient 
poetic foot), a genus of intestinal 
worms : Dochmius hypostomus, 
hi-ptis'ttim-us (Gr. hupo, under ; 
stdma, a mouth), a parasite of 
the sheep, goat, and other rumin- 
ants, found in the intestines : 
D. trigonocephalus, trig'-on-o-s&f- 
dl-us (Gr. trigonon, a triangle ; 
kephdle, the head), a species of 
parasites which infest the stomach 
and intestines of the dog : D. 
tubarformis, tub'.frf6rm'>is (L. 
tuba, a trumpet ; forma, shape), 
a species found in the duodenum 
of the cat; see 'Gamgee.' 

Dodder, n., dod'-der (Ger. dotter, 
the dodder ; Irish, dodd\ a bunch), 
curious leafless parasitical plants, 
whose slender, entangled, thread- 
like stems run over other plants 
and often smother them; the 
genus is Cuscuta, Ord. Convolvul- 
acese : Cuscuta Europsea, attacks 
thistles, oats, etc. : C.spithymum, 
found on heath, furze, etc. : C. 
epilinum, attacks flax : C. trifolii, 
is the pest of clover fields. 

dodecagynous, a., dod'-Zk-ddf-m-us 
(Gr. dodeka, twelve; gune, a 
woman), having twelve pistils : 
dodecandrous, a,.,dod<8k-dnd''rus 
(Gr. aner, a man, a male, andros, 
of a man), having twelve stamens. 

dolabriform. a.- do-ldb'-ri-fdrm (L. 

ddldbra, an axe ; forma, shape), 
in bot., shaped like an axe. 

dolichocephali, n. plu., dWfk-o- 
sef'al-i, also dolichocephalia, n. 
plu., ddl'.ik.d's8f'dl'.i'a (Gr. dol- 
ichos, long; kephale, the head), 
in anat., a monstrosity in which 
the head is unnaturally long, 
in a direction from before back- 
wards ; a term applied to a long- 
headed race of cave-dwellers who 
inhabited Britain in prehistoric 
times; dolicocephalic, a., dol'-ik* 
d-sef-al'ik, long-headed or long- 

Dorema, n.,dor-ew'a(Gr. dorema, 
a gift), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Umbelliferse, which produce gum 
ammoniac, natives of Persia; 
Dorema ammoniacum, .. am'-on-l* 
dk-um (Gr. Ammon, Egyptian 
name of Jupiter, whose temple 
was in the sandy deserts of 
Libya, where the tree grew), a 
tree which yields ammoniac, a 
fetid gum resin; the tree yields 
resin, gum, and volatile oil, all 
used- medicinally. 

dorsal, a., ddrs'-dl (L. dorsum, the 
back), pert, to the back, as the 
dorsal fin of a fish ; in bot. , ap- 
plied to the suture of the carpel 
which is farthest from the axis ; 
fixed upon the back : dorsiferous, 
a., ddrs-tf'Zr-us (L,few, I bear), 
applied to ferns which bear 
fructification on the back of 
their fronds : dorsum, n., ddrs- 
um, the part of the carpel 
farthest from the axis ; dorsal 
surface, in anat., the back or 
posterior, as distinguished from 
the ventral or anterior surface : 
dorsal vertebraa, the bones in 
the spine of the back, twelve in 

dorsales pollicis, do > rs-al'ezpo'l f 'liS' 
is (new L. dorsdlis, dorsal from 
L. dorsum, the back; pollex, a 
thumb, pollicis, of a thumb), in 
anat., the dorsal arteries of the 
thumb ; two small arteries which 
run along the sides of the dorsal 


aspect of the thumb : dorsalis 
indicia, ddrs-dl'ts m'-dis-is (L. 
index, anything that points out, 
the forefinger, indicis, of the fore- 
finger), a small branch artery 
which runs along the radial side 
of the back of the index finger : 
dorsalis hallucis, 'hal'-us-is (new 
L. hallux, the great toe, hallucis, 
of the great toe from L. hallex, 
the great toe, said to be from Gr. 
hallomai, I leap, as being , chiefly 
employed in leaping), an artery 
along the outer border of the first 
metatarsal bone, and at the cleft 
between the first and second toes: 
dorsalis pedis, ved'is (L. pes, a 
foot, p%dis, of a foot), the dorsal 
artery of the foot. 

dorsibranchiate, a., dtirs't'bra'ngk'- 
i-dt (L. dorsum, the back ; Gr. 
brangchia, gills of a fish), in 
zool., having external gills at- 
tached ito the .back. 

dorsi-lumbar, a., d$rs'i-l&mb'>ar 
(L. dorsum, the back, dorsi, of 
the back; lumbus, a loin), a 
small 'off-se(t from the lumbar 
plexus nerve. 

Dorstenia, n., dtir-slm'-i-a (after 
Dorsten, a German botanist), a 
genus of very curious plants, Ord. 
Moraceae, having a slightly con- 
cave, broad receptacle, bearing 
numerous flowers : Dorstenia 
contrayerva, ktin'tra-yerv'-a (L. 
contra, against ; yerba, the native 
name for mate" or Paraguayan tea, 
so called as esteemed good against 
poison); D. Houstoni, hows' tdn-i 
(after Houston)] D. Brasiliensis, 
brdZ'iV'i'ens'-is (of or from Brazil), 
are species which furnish the 
contrayerva root of commerce, 
used as a stimulant, tonic, and 

dossil, n., dtis'sil (F. dousil, a peg 
or tap to draw off liquor from a 
cask; Ger. docke, a bunch), a 
small portion of lint made round, 
or in the form of a date, to be 
laid on a sore. 

douche, n., ddsh (F. douche, a 

2 DRA 

shower bath), a bath given by a 
jet or stream of water poured from 
above on some part of the body. 

Dracaena, n., dra-sen'-a (Gr. dra- 
kaina, a she-dragon), a genus of 
trees, Ord. Liliacese, whose inspis- 
sated juice is said to become a 
powder like dragon's blood ; they 
often branch in a dichotomous 
manner, and attain large di- 
mensions: Dracaena draco, drak'-o 
(Gr. drakon, L. draco, a species 
of serpent), a species which, with 
others, yields an astringent resin 
called dragon's blood : D. termin- 
&lis, term-in-dl'is (L. terminalis, 
terminal from terminus, a 
'boundary, so called because 
planted in India to make bound- 
aries), a -species which in Java is 
considered valuable in dysenteric 
affections : Dracontium, n., drd- 
kon'-shi'Um, a genus of plants, so 
called 'because the stems are spot- 
ted like the skin of a snake, or from 
the appearance of its root : Dracon- 
tium fcetidum,/&-ftZ'&ra (L. fozt- 
idus, fetid, stinking), the skunk 
cabbage, which exhales a very 
fetid odour, and the powdered 
root used as an antispasmodic : 
D. pertusum, ver'tuz'um (L.per- 
tusus, perforated from per, 
through, thoroughly ; tusus, 
beaten), a very acrimonious plant, 
the fresh leaves used by the 
Indians over dropsical parts to 
produce vesications : D. poly- 
phyllum, pol'l-fil'-lum (Gr. polus, 
many; phullon, a leaf), a species 
whose prepared root in India is 
supposed to possess antispas- 
modic virtues, and to be a remedy 
in asthma. 

dracunculus, n., drd'kun-ul-us 
(a diminutive of Gr. drakon, a 
serpent), the Guinea -worm, the 
adult female of a nematode para- 
site, a worm which burrows 
beneath the skin of the legs and 
feet of human beings in certain 
limited intertropical districts of 
Asia and Africa. 




drastic, n., drast'-ilc (Gr. drastikos, 
active, vigorous from drao, I do 
or act), a purgative whose action 
is somewhat rapid and violent: 
adj., acting violently. 

dropsy, n., drftps'-i (L. hy drops, 
Gr. hudrops, the dropsy ; Gr. 
hudor, water ; ops, the eye the 
word formerly spelt hydropsy], 
an unnatural accumulation of 
fluid in the cellular tissues, or in 
other cavities of the body. 

Droseraceaa, n. phi., dros'-er-d'-se-e 
(Gr. droseros, dewy from drosos, 
dew), the Sundew family,, an 
Order of herbaceous plants grow- 
ing in damp places : Drosera, n., 
drds'8r-d, a genus of herbaceous 
plants, having acid taste combined 
with slight acridity, and the 
leaves furnished with red glandular 
hairs, discharging from their ends 
drops of a viscid acrid juice in sun- 
shine hence the name Sundew 
or 'Ros solis,' rtis sol'-is, dew of 
the sun ; some Droseras yield a 
dye, and their leaves fold upon 
insects that touch the hairs : 
DrosophyUum, n., drtisf-o-fil'-lum 
(Gr. phullon, a leaf), another 
genus of the same family. 

drug, n., drug (F. drogue, a drug; 
But. droog, dry), a general name 
for all medicinal substances. 

Drupacese, n. plu., drd-pd'-se-e (L. 
drupa, Gr. druppa, an over-ripe 
wrinkled olive), the almond- 
worts, an Order of trees and 
shrubs, now included under the 
Sub-ord. Amygdalese or Prunese, 
of the Ord. Rosacese, which bear 
such stone fruits as the cherry, 
plum, peach, etc.: drupe, n., 
drdp, a fleshy or purple fruit 
without valves, and containing a 
hard stony kernel; a stone fruit : 
drupaceous, a., drdp-af-sJius, con- 
sisting of or producing drupes : 
drupel, n., dr6p'-el (a diminutive 
of drupa}, a small drupe; a fleshy 
or purple fruit containing many 
small stony seeds, as the rasp- 
berry and blackberry. 

Dryandra, n., drl-and'-rd (after 
Dryander, a Swedish botanist), a 
genus of splendid plants nearly 
allied to Banksia, Ord. Proteacese. 

Drymis, n., drlmf-is (Gr. drumos, 
a forest, a grove), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Magnoliacese : Drymis 
Winter!, wmt'-er-i (after Captain 
Winter), also called D. aromatica, 
ar'-dm'at''ik-a (L. aromdticus, Gr. 
aromatikos,. aromatic, fragrant), 
a species brought by Captain 
"Winter from the Straits of Magel- 
lan, 1578 ; yields "Winter's bark ; 
has been employed as an aromatic 

Dryobalanops, n., dri'd-bal'-an-tips 
(Gr. drus, an oak tree ; bdldnos, 
an acorn), a genus of trees, Ord. 
Dipterocarpacea? : Dryobalanops 
camphora, Mmf-tir-a (F. camphre, 
Ar. kafur, Gr. kaphoura, camph- 
or), also called D. aromatica, 
ar'dm'at''ik-d (L. aromdticus, 
aromatic, fragrant), a tree which 
furnishes camphor oil, while solid 
camphor is found in the cavities 
of the wood, but only after the 
tree attains a considerable age. 

ductus ad nasum, dukt'-us ad 
ndz'-um (L. ductus, a leading or 
conducting ; ad, to ; nasus, the 
nose), a duct to the nose ; the 
nasal duct descending to the 
fore part of the lower meatus of 
the nose : ductus arteriosus, art- 
er'4'Oz f 'US (L. arteriosus, full of 
arteries from arteria, an artery), 
a short tube about half an inch in 
length at birth which unites the 
pulmonary artery with the aorta, 
but becomes obliterated after 
birth: d. communis choledochus, 
Icom-murf-is kol-ed'dk'US (L. corn- 
munis, common ; Gr. chole, bile ; 
doclios, holding or containing 
from dechomai, I receive), the 
common bile duct, the largest 
of the ducts, conveying the bile 
both from the liver and the gall- 
bladder into the duodenum : d. 
cysticus, sist'-ik-us (Gr. kustis, a 
bladder, a purse), the cystic or 




excretory duct which leads from 
the neck of the gall-bladder to 
join the hepatic : d. hepaticus, 
'he-pat'-ik-us (Gr. hepatikos, affect- 
ing the liver from hepar, the 
liver), the hepatic duct, formed 
by the union of the biliary pores, 
and proceeds from the liver to 
the duodenum : d. lachrymalis, 
Idk^ri-mdl'-fo (L. lachrymalis, 
lachrymal from Idchryma, a 
tear), the lachrymal duct ; the 
excretory ducts of the lachrymal 
gland : d. thoracicus, thor>as f > 
ik-us (Gr. thorax, the breast, 
thordkos, of the breast; L. thorax, 
thordcis}, the great trunk formed 
by the junction of the absorbent 

dulcamara, n., dulJc'dm-dr^d (L. 
dulcis, sweet ; amarus, bitter), 
a common British hedge-plant, 
called * bitter-sweet ' or ' woo.dy 
nightshade, ' from the root ,when 
chewed first tasting bitter, and 
then sweet ; the Solanum dulca- 
mara, Ord. Solanaceae : dulca- 
marine, n., dul&d-mdr'in, an 
extract from the plant, 
dumose, a., dum-oz' (L. dumosus, 
covered with bushes from dumus, 
a thorn-bush), full of bushes ; 
having a low, shrubby aspect. 
duodenum, ,n., du'-d-den-um (L. 
duodeni, twelve each), the first 
portion of the small intestines im- 
mediately succeeding the stomach, 
which in man is about eight or ten 
inches in length : duodenal, a., 
du'ti'den'-dl, connected with or 
relating to the duodenum. 
Dura-Mater, n., dur'd-mdt'-er (L. 
durus, hard ; mater, a mother), 
the semi-transparent outer mem- 
brane which invests and protects 
the brain and spinal cord. 
duramen, n., dur-dm'-Zn (L. dur- 
amen, hardness from durus, 
hard), the inner or heart wood of 
a tree. 

Durio, n., dur^l-o (from duryon, 
the native Malay name for the 
fruit), a genus of trees, Ord. 

Sterculiacese : Durio zibethinua, 
zW-Wi'ln'-us (said to be from Arab. 
zobeth, civet), the tree which pro- 
duces the fruit called durian, or 
civet durian, in the Indian Archi- 
pelago ; the fruit is about the 
size of a man's head, and con- 
sidered the most delicious of 
Indian fruits, though of a very 
fetid odour. 

Durvillea, n,, dur-viV-U-d (after 
D'-Urville), a genus of sea-plants, 
Ord. Algse : Durvillea utilis, 
ut'U-is (L. utilis, useful), one of 
the large - stemmed species of 

dynamics, n. plu., din-am' iks (Gr. 
dunamis, power), that branch of 

.mechanics which investigates the 
effects of forces not in equilibrium 

.but producing motion : dynam- 
ometer, n,, dm'am-dm'Zt-er (Gr. 
metron, a measure), an instrument 
for measuring the muscular power 
of men and animals. 

dyscrasia, n., dis-krazti-d (Gr. 
duscrdsia, a bad mixture from 
dus, an in separable particle, denot- 
ing 'with pain,' 'with difficulty,' 
* badly ' ; krasis, a mixture), a 
morbid or bad state of the vital 

dysentery, n., dis<ent-$r-i (Gr. 
dus8nt$ria, L. dysentZria, a flux, 
dysentery from dus, badly ; 
entera, the bowels), a flux or 
looseness of the bowels, with a 
discharge -of blood and mucus, 
and griping pains. 

dysmenorrhoea, n., c?fe-rae7i-#r-re'a 
(Gr. dus, badly ; menes, the 
menstrual discharges ; rheo, I 
flow), difficult menstruation. 

dyspepsia, n., dis-peps'-i-d (Gr. 
duspepsia, difficulty of digestion 
from dus, badly ; pepto, I 
digest), bad or difficult digestion. 

dysphagia, n., diS'/ddf-i-a (Gr. 
dus, badly ; phago, I eat), diffic- 
ulty of swallowing. 

dyspnoaa, n., disp-ne'-d (Gr. dusp- 
noia, L. di/spncea, difficulty of 
breathing from dus, badly; pneo, 




I breathe), a difficulty of breath- 

dysuria, n., dis-ur'i-a (Gr. dm, 
badly ; ouron, urine), difficulty 
in making urine. 

Ebenacese, n. plu., W-Zn-d'se-e 
(Gr. eb&nos. L. ebZnus, the ebon 
tree, ebony), the Ebony family, 
an Order of trees remarkable for 
the durability and hardness of its 
wood, and some bear edible fruits: 
ebony, n., $b'8n>t, the black 
duramen of the species Diospyros 
reticulata and ebonum. 

ebracteate, a., Z-brak'-te-dt (L. e, 
from ; bracffia, a thin layer of 
wood), in bot. f without a bract or 
floral leaf. 

eburnation, n., eb'-er-nd'-shun (L. 
ebur, ivory), an ivory-like con- 
dition of bone arising from dis- 
ease, chiefly in connection with 
rheumatoid arthritis. 

Ecballium agreste, ek-bdl'li-Um 
dg-r$st'& (Gr. ekballo, I cast out, 
I expel ; L. agrestis, belonging 
to the fields), or Ecballium offic- 
inarum, tif-ftf-fa-drtfim (L. offic- 
ma, the shop, qfflcindrum, of the 
shops), the wild or squirting 
cucumber ; the latter is the 
officinal name of the Momordica 
elaterium, Ord. Cucurbitacese. 

ecchymosis, n., Zk'-i-m&ztts (Gr. 
ek, out of; chumos, juice), livid 
spots or blotches on the skin 
arising from an escape of blood 
into the connective tissues of the 
skin, as may be caused by a fall or 
blow, or resulting from disease ; 
a bruise. 

Eccremocarpus, n., $k'kr$-mo' 
kdrp'&s (Gr. ekkremes, hanging 
down ; karpos, fruit), a genus of 
ornamental climbing plants, Ord. 
Bignoniacese, so called from the 
pendant character of its fruit : 
Eccremocarpus scaber, skdb'-Zr 
(L. scaber, rough), a commonly 
cultivated species. 
ecderon, n., ekf-der^n (Gr. ek, out 
deros, skin, hide), in zool, the 

outer of the two layers of that 
part of the skin called 'ectoderm/ 
corresponding to the * epidermis ' 
in man, into which it shows a 
tendency to break up. 

ecdysis, n., Zk'dis-ts (Gr. ekdusis, 
the act of stripping, an emerging), 
a shedding or moulting of the 

echinate, a., Wc-ln'dt or Wc'm-at 
(L. echindtus, prickly : from Gr. 
echinos, L. echinus, a sea-urchin, 
a hedgehog), covered with 
prickles like a hedgehog; prickly: 
echinus, n., Zk-in'us, a sea-hedge- 
hog ; the prickly head or top of a 

Echinocactus, n., ^k-in'o-kak'-tus 
(L. echinus, a hedgehog ; cactus, 
the cactus), a genus of spiny 
plants, Ord. Cactacese, of great 
beauty and interest: Echinocactus 
viznaga, mz-ndg'-a (vizndga, a 
carrot-like ammi), a species which 
attains large dimensions. 

Echinococcus, n., 8&in'>#%?*, 
Echinococci, n. plu., ek-m'6-kdk' 
si (Gr. echinos, a hedgehog ; kok- 
kos, a berry), the larval form of 
a minute tapeworm of the dog, 
the Tsenia echinococcus commonly 
called ' hydatid ' ; known by 
many other names, as Echinococ- 
cus hominis, hdrn'-in-is (L. homo, 
man, hommis, of man), a species 
which infests man ; and E. veter- 
inorum, vet'-gr-m-or'tim (L. veter- 
inorum, of beasts of burden), a 
species which infests cattle, etc. 

Echinodermata, n. plu., Zk-in'-d' 
derm' at- d (Gr. echinos, a sea- 
hedgehog; derma, skin), a class 
of animals comprising sea-urchins, 
star-fishes, etc., most of which 
have spiny skins : Echinoidea, 
n., eTc'-in-dyd'-Z-a (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), an Order of. animals 
which comprises sea-urchins. 
Echinorhynchus, ,n., Zk-lri'-d-rmglf- 
us (Gr. echinos, a hedgehog ; 
rungchos, a snout, a beak), a 
genus of intestinal worms : 
Echinorhynchus gigas, jig' as (L. 




gigas, a giant)^ a parasite which 
infests the intestines of the pig. 

echinulate, a., ek-in'-ul-dt (dim. of 
L. echinus, a hedgehog), possessed 
of small spines or prickles. 

Echites, n. plu., ek-it'ez (Gr. echis> 
a viper,, from its smooth, twining 
shoots), a beautiful genus of ever- 
green twiners, Ord. Apocynacese : 
Echites scholaris, skdl-dr'-is (L. 
scholdriS) scholarly from schola, 
a school), a species used in India 
as a tonic : E. antidysenterica, 
ant'-i'dis-en'tWiTc-a (Gr. anti, 
against; dusenterikos, one wha 
has the dysentery), a species said 
to be astringent and febrifugal. 

Echium, n., ekf-i-um (Gr. echis, a 
viper), a pretty genus of shrubs, 
Ord. Boraginacese, whose seeds 
are said to resemble the head of 
the viper. 

eclampsia, n.., ek-lamps'-i-a (Gr. 
eklampsis,. a shining forth from 
ek, forth; lampein, to shine), a 
convulsive attack, so termed from 
its suddenness. 

ecraseur, n., ek'-raz.-dr' (F. from 
ecraser? to crush, to grind), a 
surgical instrument for removing 
tumours by a combined process- 
of crushing and tearing, attended 
by much less bleeding than 
cutting out. 

ecstasy, n., ek'stas-% (Gr. ekstasis, 
change of state from ek, out; 
stasis, standing, state), intense 
nervous anclemotionalexcitement, 
in which the functions of the 
senses are suspended, and which 
is frequently accompanied by 
rigid immobility of one or more 
series of muscles. 

ectasis, n., ek'tas*is (Gr. ektdsis,. 
extension), the dilated condition 
of an artery, as in aneurisms, or 
of a vein, as in varices ; usually 
applied to the dilatation of small 

ecthyma, n., Vk'thlm'-ci (Gr. ek- 
thuma, an eruption), a skin 
disease consisting of large, 

circular, raised pustules, sur- 

rounded by livid, purplish 

Ectocarpus, n., Zk'td-Mrp'us (Gr. 
ektos, outside; karpos, fruit), a 
genus of dark - green marine 
plants, Ord. Algae, whose thecse 
are not enclosed, hence the 

ectocyst, n.,. %k'to>s$st (Gte ektos , 
outside; kustis, a bladder),, in 
zool., the external investment of 
the coenoecium of a polyzoon. 

ectoderm, n., ek'-to-derm (Gr. 
ektos, outside; derma,, skia), in 
z&ol.,. the external integumentary 
layer of the Coelenterata, corre- 
sponding to- the- epidermis in 
man ; the outer or upper layer of 
cells into which the blastoderm 
is divided after the completion of 
the segmenting process.. 

ectopia, n., ek-tdp'i-a (Gr. ek,, out 
of; topos, place), the displacement 
of a part : ectopia cordls, ktird'is 
(L. cor, the heart, cordis, of the 
heart), the displacement of the 
heart, in which the heart is situ- 
ated outside the chest at birth : 
e. vesicse, vZs-i'se (K vesica, the 
bladder, veslcce, of the bladder), a 
deficiency in the abdominal wall 
of the bladder, in which the 
bladder appears as a red surface 
on which the ureters open. 

ectosarc, n., Zk'to-sdrk (Gr. ektos, 
outside ;. sarx, flesh,, sarkos, of 
flesh), in zool., the outer trans- 
parent sarcode-layer of certain 
rhizopods, such as the Amoeba. 

ectozoon, n., ek'-to-z&tin, ectozoa, 
n. plu., Vlc'to-zo'-a (Gr. ektos, out- 
side ;. zodn, an animal,, zod, 
animals), animal parasites which 
attach themselves to the skin of 
the human body, as 'the itch 
insect,.' fc the louse/ * the chegoe,' 
and 'the Guinea worm.' 

ectropion, n., %k>trop r >l'0n, also 
ectropium, n., -i-um (Gr. ek, 
out ; trepo, I turn), a disease in 
which the eyelids are everted. 

ecyphellate, a., e-sif'el-ldt (Gr. 
e, for ex or ek, without ; Eng. 



cyphellate), in hot., not having 
minute sunken cup-like spots. 
eczema, n., e&zem-d (Gr. ekzesis, 
an eruption on the skin from 
ek, out; zeo, I boil), a catarrhal 
affection of the skin, which may be 
an erythema, a vesicle, a pustule, 
a fissure, etc.., and has received 
various names accordingly, as ec- 
zema chronicmn, krtin'ik-um (Gr. 
chronos, time),, chronic eczema; 
also psoriasis; a chronic inflam- 
mation of the skin,, associated 
with some thickening,, and the 
formation- of cracks and fissures ; 
popularly, the disease in horses 
is called 'rat tails, ' from' the elev- 
ated patches of scabs on the- 
back part of the limbs : e. im- 
petigjnodes^ im'-pet-idf-in-dd'-ez 
(L. impetigo, a skin disease, im- 
petigmes, skin diseases),, the 
eruption in dogs suffering from, 
red mange ;. grocer's, itch : e. 
rubrum, roob'rum (L. rubrum, 
red), the common red mange of 
smooth terriers and greyhounds;, 
the eruption of vesicles occurring 
on an inflamed skin : e. simplex, 
sim'pleks (L. simplex, simple, un- 
mixed), one of the mangy affec- 
tions of dogs ; 'humid tetter v 
in man: e. solare, solace (L. 
Solaris, belonging to- the sun 
from sol, the sun), an eruption 
on the skin from the effects of 
the sun or heated air in summer ;, 
heat spots: eczematous, a., ek- 
zem'at'US, of or belonging to the 
disease eczema. 

Edentata* n, pirn, e^nt-af-d (L. 
e, without ; dens, a tooth* dentes, 
teeth),, an Order of Mammalia,, so 
called because destitute of front 
or incisive teeth: edentate, a., 
e-dent'-at, without front teeth;, 
deprived of teeth: edentulous, 
a., e-den^ul'^s, toothless; ap- 
plied to the mouth of an animal 
without dental apparatus; ap- 
plied to the hinge of the bivalve 

Edriophthalmata, n. plu., ed'-ri* 


(Gr. hedraios, 
sitting, sedentary from hedzo, I 
sit; ophthalmos, an eye), the 
division of the Crustacea in 
which the eyes are not supported 
upon stalks : edriophthalmous, 
a., -thal'mtis, having immovable 
sessile eyes. 

efferent, a. ,. ef'fer-Znt (L. ef for ex, 
out \.ferO) 1 bear or carry), con- 
veying from or outwards ; carry- 
ing from the centre to. the periph- 
ery: n., a vessel which carries 
outwards, distinguished from 
afferent,, which means- ' conveying 
into or towards* ' 

effervescence, n. , ef'fer-ves'sZns 
(L, efferrvesco, I boil up or over)> 
the frothing or bubbling up of 
liquids from the generation and 
escape of gas. 

effloresco, 1 blow or bloom as^ a 
flower), a mealy-like substance 
which covers certain minerals 
when exposed to the influence of 
the atmosphere; the conversion 
of a solid substance into a powdbr. 

effluvium, m, ef-fl6v't-um (L. 
effluvium, a. flowing out from ex, 
out; fluo, I flow),, the invisible 
vapour arising from putrefying 
matter or from diseased bodies. 

effusion, n., ef-fuzh'-un (L. effusus, 
poured out or forth from ex^ out; 

fmus, poured),, the act of pouring 
a liquid into, or over;, what is 
poured out.. 

egranulose, a., &gran'ul>oz (L. e, 
without; Eng. granulose} r inbot., 
without granules. 

EhretiacesB, m plu., e'r'esh'<i'd's$'e 
(after Ehret,, a German botanical 
draughtsman),, a Sub-order of 
plants, Ord. Boraginaceae : 
Ehretia, n.., er*esTi'i'a,. a genus of 
plants of much beauty. 

ejaculator, n.,. e-jak'-ul'dt'-tir (L. 
ejaculdtus, cast or thrown out), 
name of one or two muscles : 
ejaculatores, n>. plu., e-jak'-ul-at- 
6r'-ez, the two muscles which sur- 
round the bulb of the urethra. 




(Gr. elaios, the wild olive; agnos, 
the 'agnus castus' or chaste tree), 
the Oleaster family, an Order of 
trees and shrubs usually covered 
with silvery stellate hairs : Else- 
agnus, n., We-tig'-ntis, a genus, 
several species of .which bear edible 
fruit : Elseagnus arborea, dr-bor'> 
$*d (L. arbtirZus, treelike from 
arbor, a tree) ; E. conferta, k$n- 

fert'a(Ij. confertus, thick, dense); 
andE. Orientalis, or r 'i-%nt-al'-is(Ij. 
Orientalis, Eastern from oriens, 
the rising sun), species which 
yield eatable fruit, the latter a 
dessert fruit called 'zinzeya': 
E. parvifolia, pdrv^-fol^-d (L. 
parvus, little; folium, a leaf), 
yields an edible fruit, has highly 
fragrant flowers, and abounds in 

ElseocarpesB, n. plu. ,%l'e-o-kdrp'$'e 
(Gr. elaios, a wild olive ; karpos, 
fruit), a Sub-order of plants, Ord. 
Tiliacese, whose fruit has been 
compared to an olive : Elaeo- 
carpus, n., Zl'-e-d-kdrp'-us, a very 
beautiful genus of plants, the 
bark is used as a tonic. 

Elseodendron, n., ^V-e-o-d'end'-r^n 
(Gr. elaios, a wild olive ; dendron, 
a tree), an ornamental genus of 
plants, Ord. Celastraceae. 

Elais, n., %1-af-is (Gr. elaia, an 
olive tree), a genus of palm trees, 
Ord. Palmse, from the fruit of 
which the natives of Guinea ex- 
press an oil as the Greeks do from 
the olive, hence the name : Elais 
Guineensis, gin'-e^ns'is (from 
Guinea, in Africa) ; and E. melan- 
ococca, mel'-an-o-lcdk'.Jca (Gr. 
melan, black; ^kokkos, a seed, a 
berry), species of palms from 
whose fruit the palm-oil imported 
from the "W. Coast of Africa is 

Elaphrium, n., el-a/'ri-tim (Gr. 
elaphros, light, of no value), 
a genus of ornamental trees, Ord. 
Burseracese, whose wood is of no 
value : Elaphrium tomentosum, 

tdm''%nt'dz'ii,m (L. tomentum, a 
stuffing for cushions), yields the 
Indian Tacamahac, a balsamic 
bitter resin. 

Elasmobranchii, n. plu., Zl-as'-md- 
brangk'-i-l (Gr. elasma, a plate of 
metal; brangchia, the gills of fish), 
an Order of fishes, including the 
sharks and rays. 

elaterium, n., Zl''.i.tim (L. 
elaterium, Gr. elaterion, the juice 
of the wild cucumber from Gr. 
elater, a driver), the sediment 
from the expressed juice of the 
squirting gourd or wild cucumber, 
which is a powerful drastic purg- 
ative : elaterin, n., %1-at'er-m, the 
active principle of elaterium : 
elaters, n. plu., U'-at-ers, elastic, 
spirally - twisted filaments for 
dispersing spores, found with 
spores in liverworts, etc. 

Elatinaceae, n. plu., el'-at'tn-a'se-e 
(Gr. elate, a pine tree, from the 
supposed resemblance of the 
leaves of some of them to thoss 
of the pine), the Water-pepper 
family, an Order of marsh plants 
found in all parts of the world : 
Elatine, n., el-dt'm-e, a genus of 
curious little aquatic plants. 

elecampane, n., el'&'kdm-pdn' (F. 
enule-campane; L. inula helenium 
from Gr. Jielenion, a plant said 
to have sprung from Helen's 
tears), the common name of 
Inula Helenium, whose root has 
stimulant and aromatic qualities. 

electrode, n., Z-letttrod (Gr. elek- 
tron,. amber; hodos, a way), the 
direction of an electric current ; 
the extremities of the conductors 
through which the electric current 
enters or quits a body. 

electuary, n., Z-lek'-tu-er-t (mid. 
L. electudrium, a confection 
from Gr. ek, out ; leicho, I lick), 
a medicine made up as a con- 
fection with honey or sugar. 

elemi, n., H'-em-l (F. elemi, but 
probably a native word), a resin- 
ous substance from several species 
of trees, brought from Ethiopia 




in masses of a yellowish colour, 
from species of Canarium com- 
mune and balsamiferum, Ord. 

elephantiasis, n., tl'Z-f&n'ttffe-te 
(Gr. elephas, an elephant, ele- 
phantis, of an elephant), a disease 
of the skin, in whicli it becomes 
thick and rugose ; the disease 
chiefly affects the lower limbs, 
and depends on different causes. 

Elettaria, n., &&&**& (elettdri, 
a Malabar word for the lesser 
cardamom), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Zingiberacese : Elettaria 
cardamomum, kdrd'am'dm'um 
(Gr. karddmdn, a kind of cress), 
the species which yields the 
Malabar cardamoms, the fruit 
being ovoid and three - sided : 
E. major, mddf-dr (L. major, 
greater), a variety, formerly so 
called, growing in Ceylon. 

eleutheropetalous, a.,, $l-doth'-$r-d' 
pU'-al-tis (Gr. eleutheros, free ; 
petalon, an unfolded leaf), in bot., 
polypetalous : eleutherosepalous, 
a., -s$p'dl'U8 (a simple arbitrary 
conversion of petalon into sepalon), 

elixir, n., %-liks'ir (Ar. el iksir, 
the philosopher's stone), a refined 
spirit ; a medicine supposed to be 
particularly efficacious. 

ellipsoidal, a., WKp-dfdM (I* 
ellipsis, Gr. elleipsis, an ellipsis, 
an omission ; Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), nearly oval in shape. 

Elodea, n., Zl-od'e-d (Gr. elodes, 
marshy, boggy), a ^genus of 
aquatic plants, Ord. Hypericacese. 

elutriation, n., e'ldt'ri-d'sh'tin (L. 
elutridtus, washed out from e, out 
of; lutus, washed), a process of 
washing for separating the finer 
particles of a powder from the 
coarser; also for separating the 
lighter earthy parts of metallic 

Elymus, n., Wfm-fa (Gr. eluo, I 
cover or wrap up), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Graminese : Elymus 
condensatus, Itfn'-d&ns-df-fta (L. 

condensdtus, made very dense- 
from con, together ; densus, dense, 
close), the bunch-grass of Cali- 
fornia, an early fodder-grass in 
Britain : E. arenarius, ar'Zn-dr- 
I'tis (L. drendrm, a sand-pit), 
this species, and Ammophila 
arenaria, form the 'bent* and 
* marram ' of our own shores. 

elytrum, n., &l'U-rum, elytra, n. 
plu., WU.r& (Gr. elutron, a 
covering or sheath), the hard 
wing-sheaths of beetles ; scales 
or plates on the back of the sea- 
mouse, Aphrodite : elytriform, 
SL.^l'^ri-fdrm (L. forma, shape), 
in the form of a wing-sheath : 
elytrine, n., W-U-rtn, the sub- 
stance of the coriaceous wing- 
sheaths of such insects as 

emarginate, a., %-mdrj'm-dt (L. 
emargindtus, deprived of its edge 
from e, out of ; margo, the 
extremity or margin), in bot., 
having a notch at the end or 
summit, as if a piece had been 
cut out. 

embolism, n., %m'b$l-fam (Gr. 
embollsma, a patch ; embdlos, 
what is thrust or put in from 
en, in ; ballo, I throw or cast), 
the plugging or blocking of an 
artery by any migratory foreign 
body, as an air bubble, an oil 
globule, a blood clot, or a granule 
of fibrin e ; also called embole, 
%m'-bol-e: embolon, n., Vrn'-btil'tin, 
the clot or other matter which, 
carried into the circulation of 
the blood, produces an embolism. 

embrocation, n., em'brok-d'shun 
(Gr. embroche, a steeping, an 
embrocation), the act of bathing 
and rubbing a diseased part with 
a liquid medicine ; the mixture 
so employed. 

embryo, n., Zm'-brt-d' (Gr. embruon, 
an infant in the womb from en, 
in ; bruo, I shoot or bud), the 
first rudiments of an animal or 
plant ; in bot., the young plant 
contained in the seed : embryo- 




buds, nodules in the bark of the 
beech and other trees : embry- 
ogeny, n., &n'.brt-8dj'-&n-t (Gr. 
gennao, I produce), in bot., the 
development of the embryo in 
the ovule : embryogenic, a., 
-jen'ik, of or belonging to : 
embryo-sac, same as embry- 
onary sac, which see. 

embryology, n., &m'<brt-$K8>ji 
(Gr. embruon, an infant in the 
womb ; logos, discourse), the 
study of th formation of the 
embryo; the anatomy whieh traces 
the development of the creature 
from the impregnated ovum. 

embryonary, a.,. Zm-bri'-on-er-i 
(Gr. embruon^ an infant in the 
womb), rekting to the embryo ;. 
rudimentary : embryonal, a.,. 
em-bri'dn-al, same sense : em- 
bryonary sac, in bot., the cell- 
ular bag; in which the- embryo is 

embryotega, n., Zm'-bri-otty-a 
(Gr. embruon, an infant in the 
womb ; tegos, a covering), in bot., 
a process or callosity raised from 
the spermoderm by the embryo 
of some seeds during germina- 
tion, as in the bean. 

emergent, a.,e-raer/'e?i (L.emergo., 
I rise up, I come forth from e, 
out of ; mergo,. I plunge or dip) y 
rising out of ; in bot., protruding 
through the cortical layer. 

emersed, a., e-merst f (L. e, out of; 
mersus, plunged or dipped), in 
bot. , protruded upwards. 

emesia, n., em-es'-i-a,. also emesis,. 
n., em'es-is(GY. emesia, an inclin- 
ation to vomit ; emesis, the act 
of vomiting), the act of vomiting.. 

emetic, n., e-met'-ik (Gr. emetiJcos, 
that causes vomiting from emeo, 
I vomit ; L. emetica, an emetic),, 
a medicine or other agent which 
produces vomiting : adj., that 
causes vomiting : emetin, n., 
emf-et-in, the active principle of 

emiction, n., V-mlUshtifr (L. e, out 
of; mictus, made water), the 

discharging of urine ; what is 
voided by the urinary passages. 

eminentia collateralis, 8m'm-en'> 
sM-d kol- lat'-Zr-dl'-is (L. eminentia, 
a prominence ; collateralis, col- 
lateral from con, together ; 
Idtus, a side), a smooth eminence 
between the middle and posterior 
horns of the cerebrum. 

emmenagogue, n., Zm-mm'-a-gog 
(Gr. emmena, the menses from 
en, in ; men, a month ; ago, I 
lead, I bring), a remedy supposed 
to promote the menstrual dis- 

emollient, n., e-mffili-ent (L. 
emolliens, making soft from e, 
out of; mollis, soft), a liquid 
remedy meant to soothe a part 
and diminish irritation, when 
applied externally. 

Empetraceae, n. plu., Zm'-pe't-rd'-sZ-e 
(Gr. 8mpetros, growing among 
rocks from en, in, among; petra, 
a rock), the Crowberry family, an 
Order of heath-like shrubs, bearing 
small sub-acid berries : Empet- 
rum,. n.,. ^m-pet^rum, a genus of 
heath-like shrubs, so called from 
the character of their place of 
growth : Empetrum nigrum, nig- 
rum (L. nigrum, black), the 
black crowberry, common in the 
mountainous parts of Northern 

emphysema, n., %m'fis-em'a (Gr. 
emphusema y a puffing up, in- 
flation from en, in ; pliusao, I 
blow), the distension of a tissue 
with air ;. a disease of the lungs 
in which the air cells become un- 
duly distended, and ultimately 
ruptured : emphysematous, a., 
em'-fis-em'-at-us, characterised by 
an abnormal distension of the air 
in the lungs, or by the presence 
of air as the result of injury or 
decomposition in a tissue. 

empiricism, n., %m-pir'is-izm (L. 
empirici, Gr. empeirikoi, ancient 
physicians who followed a system 
based on practical experience 
alone), practice in a profession 




founded on experience alone, as 
opposed to experience based on 
scientific knowledge ; the practice 
of medicine without a medical 
education ; quackery. 

emprosthotonos, n., Zm'pros'thtit'- 
6n-6s (Gr. emprosthen, in front ; 
teino, I bend), a form of tonic 
convulsion in which the patient 
is thrown forwards, as occurs in 
some cases of tetanus. 

empyema, n., %m'pi-&n'& (Gr. 
empuema, a purulent discharge 
from en, in ; puon, pus), a 
collection of purulent matter in 
the pleural cavity. 

emulsin, n., e-muls'-m (L. Zmtilsus, 
milked out, drained out from e, 
out of; mulgeo, I milk), a nitrog- 
enous compound found in certain 
oily seeds, as in almonds : emul- 
sion, n., e-mul'shun, a smooth 
liquid for softening; a cough 
mixture ; a bland fluid medicine 
having a milky appearance, pro- 
duced chiefly by the combination 
of an oily substance with water 
and an alkali. 

emunctory, n., e-mtingk'-ter-i, 
emunctories, n. plu., -ter-%z (L. 
emunctus, wiped or blown, as 
one's nose), a part of the body 
where anything excrementitious 
is collected or separated in readi- 
ness for ejectment. 

enarthrosis, n., en'-ar-thros'-is (Gr. 
enarthros, jointed from en, in; 
arthron, a joint), a ball-and- 
socket joint, like the shoulder 
and hip, allowing motion in every 

enation, n., %>naf-shun (L. endtus, 
grown or sprung up from e, out 
of; ndtus, born), the changes 
produced by excessive develop- 
ment in various organs of plants; 
the growth of adventitious lobes. 

Encephalartos, n., %n'-sef-dl-drt'-6s 
(Gr. engkephalos, that which is in 
the head from en, in; kephale, 
the head ; artos, bread), a genus 
of trees, Ord. Cycadacese, whose 
various species are known by the 

Hottentots under the general 
name 'bread-tree.' 

encephalitis, n., Zn'-sef-al-lt'-is or 
%ng f -kef-dl-lt''is (Gr. engkephalos, 
that which is in the head, the 
brain from en, in; kephale, the 
head), inflammation of the brain: 
encephaloid, a., %n-sej'-dldyd or 
%ng-kef f - (Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
resembling the materials of the 

encephalon, n., %n>sef-al-8n or 
eng-kef'-dl'On (Gr. engkephalos, 
the brain from en, in ; kephale, 
the head), the whole contents of 
the cranium ; the brain : enceph- 
alous, a., %n-sef-dl>tis or Vug-kef-, 
possessing a distinct head, applied 
to certain of the molluscs : 
encephalocele, n., Zn'-sef-til'd- 
sel or Zng'-kef-al'* (Gr. kele, a 
tumour), a congenital condition 
in which, owing to a de- 
ficiency in the cranial walls, a 
portion of the brain and its 
membranes are protruded; also 
called * hernia cerebri.' 

enchondroma, n., $n'-k8n-drdm r -d 
(Gr. en, in; chondros, cartilage), 
a tumour somewhat smooth on its 
surface, essentially consisting of 
cartilaginous structure. 

encipient, n., %n-sip'-i-ent (L. en, 
in; capio, I take), a palatable 
vehicle in which cattle may take 
a medical preparation, such as 
bruised coriander seeds. 

encysted, a., en-sist'-ed (Gr. en, in; 
kustis, a bladder), enclosed in a 
bag, sac, or cyst ; consisting of 
cysts: encystation, n., Vn'-stet* 
a'-shun, the transformation under- 
gone by certain of the Protozoa, 
when they become motionless, 
and surround themselves with a 
thick coating or cyst. 

endecagynian, a., Zn'd&k-fi-fln'- 
i- an, also endecagynous, a., 
Zn'-dZk-tidf-m-us (Gr. hendeka, 
eleven; gune, a woman), in bot., 
having eleven pistils. 

endemic, a., Zn-dtm'-ik (Gr. en, 
in ; demos, a people), peculiar to 




a district or to a certain class of 
persons; applied to a prevalent 
disease arising from local causes, 
as bad air or water : n., a disease 
prevailing in a particular locality, 
or among a particular class of 
persons : epidemic is an infectious 
or contagious disease attacking 
many persons at the same time, 
but of a temporary character ; 
while an endemic is due to local 
conditions, and is always more or 
less permanent in a district. 

endermic, a., tin-dermf'tit (Gr. en, 
in ; derma, skin), applied to the 
method of using certain medicines 
by injecting them under the skin. 

enderon, n., en'der-dn (Gr. en, in; 
deros, skin), in zool., the inner 
of the two layers of that part of 
the skin called * ectoderm' or 
* epidermis-' ; see 'ecderon.' 

endocardium, n., en'do-kdrdfytim 
(Gr. endon, within ; kardia, the 
heart), the membrane lining the 
interior of the heart : endocard- 
itis, n., en'-do-kdrd-U'is (L. itis, 
inflammation), the inflammation 
of the membrane lining the in- 
terior of the heart. 

endocarp, n., Vn'-do-Tcarp (Gr. 
endon, within ; karpos, fruit), 
in bet., the membrane which 
lines the cavity containing the 
seeds, as in the apple ; the stone 
or shell which encloses the seed 
or embryo, as in the plum. 

endochrome, n., en'-do-krom (Gr. 
endon, within ; chroma, colour), 
the colouring matter of cellular 
plants, exclusive of the green ; 
the cell contents of Algae. 

endocyst,n., Zn'-do-sist (Gr. endon, 
within ; kustis, a bag or cyst), in 
zool., the inner membrane or 
integumentary layer of a poly- 

endoderm, n., %n' do-derm (Gr. 
endon, within ; derma, skin), in 
zool., the inner or lower of the 
two layers of cells into which the 
blastoderm is divided after the 
completion of the segmenting 

process : endodermic, a., %n'-do* 
derm'ik, of or belonging to the 

endogenas, n. plu., Zn-dodf-$n-e, 
also endogens, n. plu., Zn'-do-jens 
(Gr. endon, within ; gennao, I 
produce), "that division of the 
vegetable kingdom, as palms, 
grasses, rushes, and the like, 
whose growth takes place from 
within, and not by external 
concentric layers, as in the 
' exogens ' ; also called Monocoty- 
ledons : endogenous, a., &i 
dtidj'-en-tis, increasing by internal 

endolymph, n., Vn'-dd'ttrnf (Gr. 
endon, within ; L. lympha, a 
water-nymph, water), the liquid 
contained within the membranous 
labyrinth of the ear. 

endometritis, n., $n*<Iom'-$t-rltiB 
(Gr. endon, within ; metra, the 
womb),, inflammation of the 
lining membrane of the uterus. 

endophloaum, n., tn'-do-fle'tim 
(Gr. endon, within ; phloios, the 
bark of trees), the inner layer of 
the bark of trees ; the liber. 

endoplenra, n., $n'dd'pl6r<a (Gr. 
endon, within ; pleura, a side), 
in bot., the inner covering of the 
seed immediately investing the 
embryo and albumen. 

endopodite, n., toi-dtyfoU (Gr. 
endon, within ; pous, a foot, 
podes, feet), in zool., the inner of 
the two secondary joints into 
which the typical limb of a 
crustacean is divided. 

endorhizal, a., en'-do-riz'-al (Gr. 
endon, within ; rhiza, a root), 
having a root within, applied to 
monocotyledonous plants, whose 
young root or radicle, when 
piercing the lower part of the 
axis, appears covered with a 
cellular sheath ; the sheath is 
denominated the 'coleorhiza.' 

endosarc, n., Zn'-do-sdrk (Gr. 
endon, within ; sarx, flesh), the 
inner molecular layer of sarcode 
in the Amoeba. 




endo-skeleton, n., 

(Gr. endon, within ; Eng. skel- 
eton), the internal hard structures, 
such as bones, which serve for the 
attachment of muscles, or the 
protection of organs, as opposed 
to the external hard covering of 

endosmometer, n., en'-dos-m$m r > 
%t>er (Eng. endosmosis ; Gr. 
metron, a measure), an instr. to 
show Endosmose and Exosmose, 
consisting of a bladder of syrup 
attached to a tube and plunged 
into a vessel of water. 

endosmose, n., Zn'-dds-moz, also 
endosmosis, n., en'-dds-moz^is 
(Gr. endon, within ; osmos, a 
thrusting, impulsion), that prop- 
erty of membranous tissue by 
which fluids of unequal densities, 
when placed on opposite sides of 
it, are enabled to pass through 
and intermix. 

endosperm, n., Zn'-do-sperm (Gr. 
endon, within ; sperma, seed), 
in bot., albumen formed within 
the embryo-sac : endospermic, 
a. , %n'do-sperm''ik, of or belonging 
to endosperm. 

endospore, n., Zn'dd'Spor (Gr. 
endon, within; spora, seed), the 
inner integument of spores: endo- 
sporous, B,.,en'dd-spdr'us, applied 
to Fungi which have their spores 
contained in a case. 

endosteum, n., en-dos'-te-um (Gr. 
endon, within ; osteon, a bone), 
the medullary membrane, a fine 
layer of highly vascular, areolar 
tissue within the bones. 

endostome, n., Zn'd8-stom (Gr. 
endon, within ; stoma, mouth), 
in bot., the passage through 
the inner integument of an 

endothecium, n., ^do'the'-shi-tim 
(Gr. endon, within ; theTce, a 
box), in bot., the inner lining of 
the anther cells. 

enema, n., en-em'-a, enemata, n. 
plu., en-emf-at-a (Gr. eniemi, I 
cast or throw in), a medicine or 

preparation of food thrown into 
the lower bowel ; injections ; 

enervation, n., 3n'erv-d's7i%n (L. 
enervatus, having the nerves and 
sinews taken out from from e, 
out of ; nervus, a nerve), a weak 
state of body or nervous debility 
arising from nervous disorders ; 
the state of being weakened. 

enervis, n., e-nerv'-is (L. enervis, 
nerveless from en, out of; nerv- 
us, a nerve), in bot., without 
nerves or veins. 

enneagynian, a., $n'-ne-fi'jm'i'an, 
also enneagynous, a., en'ne-adf- 
m*us (Gr. ennea, nine ; gune, a 
woman), in bot., having nine 

enneandrous, a.,, %n'n$-and'rus 
(Gr. ennea, nine ; aner, a male, 
a man, andros, of a male), in 
bot. , having nine stamens. 

enostosis, n., en''tis>toz'is (Gr. en. 
in ; osteon, a bone), a bony 
tumour growing inward into the 
medullary canal of a bone ; see 
* exostosis. ' 

ensiform, a., Vn^i-form (L. ensis, 
a sword ; forma, a shape), in the 
form of a sword, as the leaves of 
Iris ; sword-shaped. 

enteric, &., Zn-ter'-ik (Gr. enttron, 
an intestine), belonging to the 
intestines: enteritis, n., Zn'tZr* 
it'-is, inflammation of the intest- 
ines, especially of the small 
intestine : enterocele, n., en-tZr'- 
O'Sel (Gr. kele, a tumour), a 
hernial tumour containing in- 

enterorrhosa, n., Zn'-ter-d're'a (Gr. 
enteron, an intestine ; rheo, I 
flow), an abnormal increase of the 
secretions of the mucous glands 
of the intestines. 

enterotomy, n., %n f >&,r-ot'-om4 (Gr. 
enteron, an intestine ; tome, a 
cutting), an operation on, or 
dissection of, the intestines. 

enterozoa, n. plu., Zn'-ter-o-zd'a 
(Gr. enteron, an intestine ; zocw, 
an animal), a general name fol 


1 44 


the intestinal parasites which 
infest the bodies of animals. 

enthelmins, n., e'n-the'l'mins (Gr. 
entos, within ; helmins, a worm), 
an intestinal worm. 

entire, a., Zn-tir' (F. entier, 
whole, complete ; L. integer, 
whole), in bot., having no lobes 
or marginal divisions. 

entomic, a., en-tomf-ik (Gr. en- 
toma, insects), pert, to insects : 
entomoid, a., en'-tom-oyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), resembling 
an insect : entomology, n., $n- 
tom-ol'-o-ji (Gr. logos, discourse), 
the history and habits of insects : 
entomophaga, n. plu., en'-tom- 
of-ag'O, (Gr. phago, I eat), the 
section of the Marsupials which 
live chiefly on insects : entom- 
ophagous, a., Zn'tdm'fif'dg'US, 
chiefly subsisting on insects. 

entomophilous, a., en'-tdm-of'-il'iis 
(Gr. entoma, insects ; philo, I 
love), in bot., applied to flowers 
in which pollination is effected by 

entomostraca, n. plu., &i-0W'#s' 
trdk-d (Gr. entoma, insects ; os- 
trakon, a shell), in zool., a 
division of the Crustacea covered 
with a delicate membranaceous 
shell, of which the water-flea 
may be looked on as the type 
they are chiefly fresh- water, and 
usually microscopic : entomos- 
tracous, a., en'tom'os'trdk'us, 
enclosed in an integument, as 
an insect. 

entophyte, n. , Vn'-to-fit, entophyta, 
n. plu., en-tof'it'd (Gr. entos, 
within ; phuton, a plant), veget- 
able parasites which exist within 
the body, found in some diseases 
of the mucous membranes of the 
mouth and alimentary canal ; 
plants growing within others : 
entophytic, a. , Zn'to-fit'-ik, 
developing in the interior of 
plants and afterwards appearing 
on the surface, as fungi. 

entozoon, n., en'-to-zo'-Sn, entozoa, 
a. plu., Zn'-to-zo'd (Gr. entos, 

within ; zob'n, an animal), animal 
parasites which infest the interior 
of the bodies of other animals : 
entozoology, n., Zn'-to-zd-ol'-d-ji 
(Gr. logos, discourse), a discourse 
or treatise on internal parasites. 

entropion, n., en-trop-i-dn (Gr. 
en, in ; trope, a turning), the 
inversion or turning in of the 
eyelashes; entropy, n., Zn'-trop-i, 
dissipation of energy. 

enuresis, n., Vn'-ur-fyf-te (Gr. en- 
oureo, I make water from en, 
in ; ouron, urine), incontinence or 
involuntary escape of the urine. 

envelope, n., Zn'-vel-op (F. envel- 
opper, to fold up), a wrapper; 
an investing integument : floral 
envelopes, in bot. y the calyx and 

enzootic, a., &&#{ (Gr. en, 
in ; zodtdkos, bringing forth 
living animals from zoo'n, an 
animal ; tikto, I bring forth), 
applied to diseases peculiar to a 
district among the lower animals: 
enzootic haematuria, an endemic 
disease causing bloody urine 
among animals. 

Epacridacese, n. plu., %p'dk'-rid> 
ds'-e'-e (Gr. epi, upon; akros, the 
top, from the species found on 
hill-tops), the Epacris family, an 
Order of small shrubs and trees, 
allied to Ericaceae, which represent 
the heaths in Australia : Epacrese, 
n. plu., %p'dk'-re*e, a tribe or Sub- 
order: Epacris, n., ep'*dk-ris, a 
genus of very elegant greenhouse 

epanody, n., /?-cm'#c?-(Gr. epan- 
odos, a return from epi, upon ; 
ana, up; hodos, a way), in bot., 
the return of an irregular flower 
to a regular form. 

epencephalon, n., Zp'-Zn-sef'dl'&n 
(Gr. epi, upon ; engkephalos, 
what is in the head, the brain), 
one of the five primary divisions 
of the brain, including the cere- 
bellum, pons varolii, and the an- 
terior part of the fourth ventricle : 
epencephalic, a., 




situated over the contents of the 
head, or the brain. 

epenchyma, n., Zp-eng'-kim-a (Gr. 
epi, upon; chumos, juice), in bot., 
the nbro-vascular tissues. 

ependyma, n., %p-en'-dim*a (Gr. 
ependuma, an outer or upper 
tunic from epi, upon ; enduma, 
clothing), the delicate epitbeli- 
ated structure which lines the 
canal of the spinal cord and the 
cerebral ventricles : ependyma 
ventriculorum, v$n-trik''Ul-dr'um 
(L. ventriculus, the belly), the 
ependyma of the ventricles, the 
epithelial membranes lining the 

Ephedra, n. , ef-ed-rd (Gr. ephedra, 
a sitting, the plant horse-tail), a 
genus of curious plants, Sub-ord. 
Gnetacese, Ord. Coniferse, whose 
berries are eaten in Russia, and 
by the wandering tribes of Great 

ephelis, n., %f-el'is (Gr. epi, upon; 
helios, the sun), sun - burn ; 

ephemera, n., $f-$m'$r'& (Gr. epi, 
upon; hemera, a day), a fever 
which runs its course in a day : 
ephemeral, a., $f>em'8r>dl, ap- 
plied to flowers which open and 
decay in a day. 

ephippium, n., ef -ip'-pt-um (Gr. 
ephippeion, a saddle from epi, 
upon ; hippos, a horse), the deep 
pit in the middle of the superior 
surface of the sphenoid bone, so 
called from its shape. 

epiblast, n.', tp'-t-bldst (Gr. epi, 
upon ; blastos, a shoot), an 
abortive organ in the oat, sup- 
posed to be the rudiment of a 
second cotyledon. 

epibiema, n., ep'-t-blem'-a (Gr. epi, 
upon; blema, a wound), an imper- 
fectly formed epidermis covering 
the newly formed extremities of 
roots, etc., being, as it were, 
the tissue which first covers 

epicalyx, n., tp't.ldl'ifo (Gr. epi, 
upon; Eng. valyx), the outer 

calyx, consisting either of sepals 
or bracts, as in mallows. 

epicarp, n., Zp'-i-kdrp (Gr. epi, 
upon ; karpos, fruit), in bot. , the 
outer coat or covering of the fruit. 

epichilium, n., ^p'-i-kil^um (Gr. 
epi, upon or above; cheilos, a lip), 
in bot., the label or terminal 
portion of the articulated lip of 

epicline, n., ep'-i-klln (Gr. epi, 
upon; 'Mine, abed), in bot., the 
nectary when placed on the re- 
ceptacle of the flower : epiclinal, 
a., ep'-i'ldln'-al, seated on the disc 
or receptacle. 

epicondyle, n., ^4-lM-dll (Gr. 
epi, upon; kondulos, the elbow- 
joint), the protuberance on the 
external side of the distal end of 
the os humeri or shoulder-bone. 

epicorolline, n., %p'-i-kt)r'-6l'lin 
(Gr. epi, upon; Eng. corolline), 
in bot. , inserted upon the corolla. 

epicranium, n. f Vp'-i-kran'-i-ftm 
(Gr. epi, upon ; Icranion, the 
skull), the scalp or integuments 
lying over the cranium : epi- 
cranial, a.^p'-i-kran'-i-al, applied 
to the muscle which extends over 
the upper surface of the cranium 
uniformly from side to side, with- 
out division. 

epidemic, a., ty'-i-dem'-ik (Gr. epi, 
upon; demos, the people), pre- 
vailing generally ; affecting great 
numbers: n., a disease univers- 
ally prevalent in a district or 

Epidendrum, n., Zp't-dend'-rum 
(Gr. epi, upon; dendron, a tree 
as usually found growing on 
branches of trees), a very exten- 
sive genus of ' epiphytes,' Ord. 
Orchidacese, many of which are 
deserving of culture for the beauty 
and delicious fragrance of their 
flowers: Epidendrum frigidum, 
fridj'-id-um (L.frlgidus, cold), a 
species in Columbia, at an 
elevation of 12,000 or 13,000 feet, 
covered with a sort of varnish. 

epidermis, n., Zp'-i-derm'-is (Gr. 




epi, upon; derma, skin), the 
scarf or outermost layer of 
the skin ; in bot., the cellular 
layer covering the external surface 
of plants, the true skin of plants: 
epidermoid, a., tip'-i-derm'-dyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), like the 
epidermis: epidermic, a., Zp'-i- 
derm'-ik, pert, to the epidermis. 

epididymis, n., ^p'-i-dld'-lm-is (Gr. 
epi, upon ; didumos, a testicle), a 
long, narrow, flattened body 
lying upon the outer edge of the 
posterior border of the testis. 

epigseous, a., ep'-idj-ef-us, or epig- 
ffial, a., ep'-idj-e'-al (Gr. epi, 
upon; ged or ge, the earth), in 
bol., growing on the ground or 
close to it. 

epigastric, a., tp'-l-gfatf-rtit (Gr. 
epi, upon; gaster, the belly, the 
stomach), pert, to the upper part 
of the abdomen: epigastrium, 
n., Zp'-i-gast'-ri-um, the upper 
and middle part of the abdomen, 
nearly coinciding with the pit of 
the stomach. 

epigeal, a., ^.p'-i-je'-al (Gr. epi, 
upon; ge, the earth), in bot., 
above ground, applied to cotyled- 
ons ; synonym of epigaeal and 
epigseous, which see. 

epiglottis, n. , Vp'i-glStf-tls (Gr. epi, 
upon; glottis, the mouth of the 
windpipe from glotta, the 
tongue), the valve or cartilage 
that covers the upper part of the 
windpipe when food or drink is 
passing into the stomach: epi- 
glottitis, n., ep''i-gl8t-tit'4s, in- 
flammation of the epiglottis. 

epigone, n., Z-pig'-on-e (Gr. epi, 
upon; gone, seed, offspring), in 
bot., the cellular layer which 
covers the young seed-case in 
mosses and the liverworts: epi- 
gonium, n., ep'-i-gdn'-i-um, in 
same sense. 

epigynous, a., Vp-idj'-ln-us (Gr. 
epi, upon; gune, a female, a 
woman), in bot., above the ovary 
and attached to it. 

epihyal, a., tpfah&8l (Gr. epi, 

upon; Eng. hyoid, which see), 
applied to a considerable portion 
of thestylo-hyoid ligament, which 
is sometimes converted into bone 
in the human subject, and is in 
animals naturally osseous. 

epilepsy, n., ^p'-l-Ups'-i (Gr. epi- 
lepsia, a seizure, the falling sick- 
ness from epi, upon ; lambano, 
I seize), a disease characterised 
by a sudden loss of consciousness, 
and convulsions of greater or less 
severity: epileptic, a. , Zp'-i-lept'-ik, 
affected with falling sickness : 
epileptoid, a., Vp'-t-ttptdyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), resembling 

Epilobium, n., tp'.i>ldb'.i-um (Gr. 
epi, upon ; lobos, a lobe), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Onagracese, so 
called from the flowers having 
the appearance of being seated on 
the top of the pod ; many of the 
species are very ornamental. 

Epimedium, n., ^p'-i-med^um 
(Gr. epi, upon ; Media, an anc. 
country), a genus of elegant little 
plants, Ord. Berberidacese, which 
were said to grow in Media. 

epimera, n. plu., ep^i-mer'-a (Gr. 
epi, upon ; meros, the upper part 
of the thigh), the parts lying 
immediately above the joints of 
the limb, as the ' epimera ' or 
side segments of the lobster : 
epimeral, a., %p'i'mer'dl, applied 
to that part of the segment of 
an articulate animal which lies 
immediately above the joint of 
the limb. 

epinasty, n., ep'i>nast'i (Gr. epi, 
upon ; nastos, pressed together, 
stuffed), in bot., the nutation of 
bilateral, appendicular organs, 
when the growth is most rapid 
on the inner or upper side. 

epipetalous, a., &p<i-pU'-dl-&8 (Gr. 
epi, upon ; petalon, a leaf), in- 
serted upon the petals, or growing 
upon them. 

Epiphegus, n., ^p-if^g-Hs (Gr. 
epi, upon ; pMgos or phagos, a 
beech tree from phago, I eat), a 




genus of herbaceous parasitical 
plants, Ord. Orobanchacese, which 
are, in general, astringent and 
bitter : Epiphegus Virginiana, 
ver-jin'-i-an'-d (after Virginia, an 
American State from virgo, a 
virgin), a species called beech- 
drops, has been used in powder 
in cancerous sores. 

epiphloeum, n., Zp'.i-fle'-um (Gr. 
epi, upon, on the outside ; phloios, 
bark), an external layer of bark : 
epiphlceodal, a., fytf-fle-dcKdl, 
existing superficially in, the epi- 
dermis of bark. 

epiphorai n., ep-if-or-a (Gr. epi- 
phora, a bringing to or upon 
from epi, upon ; phero, I bring), 
watery eye, a derangement of the 
tear duct which allows the tears 
to flow down the cheeks. 

epiphragm, n., ep'-i-fram (Gr. epi, 
upon ; phragma, a division), in 
hot., the membrane closing the 
orifice of the thecse in the Urn 

epiphyllous, a., Zp'-i-fiV-lus (Gr, 
epi, upon ; pliullon, a leaf), in- 
serted or growing upon a leaf. 

epiphysis, n., Zp-if-is-is, epiph- 
yses, n. plu., -is-ez (Gr. epiph- 
usis, a growing upon, an addi- 
tional growth from epi, upon ; 
phuo> I grow), part of a bone 
separated from the shaft in early 
life by gristle, which finally 
becomes ossified to the main 

epiphyta, n. plu., ^p'-i-fit'-a, also 
epiphyte, n., 8p'i'fU, epiphytes, 
n. plu., -fltz (Gr. epi, upon ; 
phuton, a plant), vegetable par- 
asites found on the skin of the 
humanbody, forming very trouble- 
some skin affections ; plants 
attached to other plants, and 
growing suspended in the air ; 
a plant which grows on another 
plant, but not nourished by it : 
epiphytal, a., Zp'i-fU'al, growing 
upon another plant. 

epiploon, n., t-ptp'-lti-fa (Gr. 
epiploos, the caul from epi, 

upon ; pled, I swim), the omen- 
turn or caul ; a portion of the 
peritoneum or lining membrane 
of the abdomen, which covers 
in front, and as it were floats or 
sails on the intestines : epiploic, 
a., Zp'-ip-l&ilc, also epiploical, 
a., -lo'-fk-al, of or pert, to the 
epiploon or caul. 

epipodia, n. plu., Vptipdd'-l*d (Gr. 
epi, upon ; pous, the foot, fjodos, 
of the foot), the muscular lobes 
developed from the lateral and 
upper surfaces of the ' foot ' of 
some Molluscs : epipodite, n., 
Z-pip^od^lt, a process developed 
upon the basal joint of some of 
the limbs of certain Crustacea : 
epipodium, n., ep'-.i-pod^i-um, a 
disc formed of several knobs or 

epirreology, n., Vp-ir'-re-oV-o-ji 
(Gr. epirrhed, I flow upon or 
over from epi, upon ; rheo, I 
flow ; and logos, speech), that 
branch of natural history which 
treats of the influence of external 
agents on living plants. 

episepalous, a., ep'i-sep'dl-us (Gr. 
epi, upon ; Eng. sepal), in hot., 
growing upon the sepals. 

epispadias, n., ty'-i-spad'-i-as (Gr. 
epi, upon ; spao, I draw), a term 
applied to a malformation of the 
wall of the bladder and adjacent 
parts ; one whose urethral orifice 
is on the upper part of the penis. 

epispastic, a., ep'-i*spast f -ik (Gr. 
epi, upon ; spao, I draw), applied 
to substances, ' epispastics, ' 
which excite the skin and cause 
blisters, such as Spanish flies. 

episperm, n., %p'4-sperm (Gr. epi, 
upon; sperma, seed), the external 
covering of the seed. 

episporangium, n., Zp'-i-spor-anf. 
1-um (Gr. epi, upon ; spora, a 
seed ; anggos, a vessel), an in- 
dusium overlying the spore cases 
of certain ferns, as Aspidmm. 

epispore, n., %p''i>sp6r (Gr. epi, 
upon ; spora, a seed), the outer 
covering of some spores. 




epistaxis, n., ep'-is-taks'-is (Gr. 
epistazo, I cause to drop or 
trickle down, epistaxo, I shall 
cause to drop down from epi, 
upon ; stazo, I drop), haemor- 
rhage or bleeding from the nose. 

episterna, n., ^p'-i-stern'-a (Gr. 
epi, upon ; sternon, the breast- 
bone), the lateral pieces of the 
dorsal arc of the somite of a 
Crustacean : episternal, a., $p'- 
i-stern'-al, situated on or above 
the sternum or breast-bone. 

epistome, n., ep-is f -tdm-e (Gr. epi., 
upon ; stoma, a mouth), a valve- 
like organ which arches over the 
mouth in certain of the Polyzou. 

epistrophy, n., Zp-is'-trtif-i (Gr. 
epistrophe, a turning about, con- 
version from epi, upon; strophe, 
a turning), in bot., the reversion of 
a monstrous or variegated form 
to a normal one ; a mode of dis- 
tribution of protoplasm and 
chlorophyll granules on free cell- 
walls under the action of light. 

epithallus, n., Kpfctttt&i (Gr. 
epi t upon ; thallos, L. thallus, a 
young shoot or branch), the cort- 
ical layer of Lichens: epithalline, 
a., Zp'-i-thattlin, growing on the 

epitheca, n., ep'4-thek'a (Gr. epi t 
upon ; theJce, a sheath, a box), a 
continuous layer surrounding the 
thecse in some corals externally : 
epithecium, n., ep'-i-the'shi-um, 
the surface of the fructifying disc 
in certain Fungi and Lichens. 

epithelioma, n., %p r -i-thel f -i'dm'a 
(formed from epithelium, which 
see), epithelial cancer, occurring 
on tegumentary or mucous sur- 
faces, the lips and cheeks being 
the parts most commonly affected 
by it. 

epithelium, n., ^p'-l-fhel'-i-um (Gr. 
epi, upon ; thele, the nipple, or 
thallo, I grow), the layer of cells 
forming the surface of all 
the internal membranes of 
the body of the same nature 
as epidermis, but much finer j 

in plants, a finer epidermis having 
thin cells filled with colourless 
fluid, and lining the ovary, etc. : 
epithelial, a., tp'i-thel'-i-al, pert, 
to or formed of epithelium : 
epitheliated, a., Zp'-i-thel'-i-at-Zd, 
covered with the delicate lining 
called epithelium, as a serous 
cavity, a membrane, etc. 

epitrochlea, n., ep'-i-trdtflg-a (Gr. 
epi, upon; trochilia, L. trochlea, 
a pulley, a roller), in anat., the 
inner condyle of the humerus. 

epizoon, n., %p f 'i'Zd r -8n t epizoa, n. 
plu., Zp'-i'Zo'-a (Gr. epi, upon ; 
zodn, an animal), animals which 
are parasitic upon other animals, 
infesting the surface of the body; 
a division of the Crustacea which 
are parasitic upon fishes; opposed 
to ' entozoon ' and ' entozoa. ' 

epizootic, a., tp'-i-zo-Zt'-ik (Gr. epi, 
upon ; zob'n, an animal), applied 
to diseases prevailing among 
animals, corresponding to 'epi- 
demic ' diseases among men. 

epulis, n., %p f -ul-is (Gr. epi, upon; 
oulon, gum), a tumour of the 
gum, often connected with a 
carious tooth. 

equinia, n.,e-lciu ! in f >i>a, alsoequina, 
n., V'kwin'-a (L. equinus, of or 
belonging to ahorse from equus, 
a horse), glanders and farcy, a 
contagious disease peculiar to the 
horse and mule, but capable of 
transmission to man. 

Equisetaceae, n. plu., Vk'-wi-se-taf- 
s$-e (L. equisetis, the plant horse- 
tail from equus, a horse ; seta, 
hair), the Horse-tail family, an 
Order of plants found in ditches, 
lakes, rivers, and damp places, so 
called in allusion to the fine hair- 
like branches : Equisetum, n. , 
elc'wi'Set'-um, the only known 
genus of the Order ; from the 
quantity of silicic acid contained 
in them, some of the species are 
used in polishing mahogany : 
Equisetum hyemale, hl f -em-dl f -e 
(L. hiZmdlis, of or belonging to 
winter from hiems, winter), a 




species, often called Dutch 

equitant, a., Vk'-wi-tant (L. equi- 
tans, riding), in bot., having 
leaves folded longitudinally, and 
overlapping each other without 
any involution. 

erect, a., frr&kt' (L. erectus, raised 
or set up), in bot., having an 
ovule rising from the base of the 
ovary ; having innate anthers, 
that is, anthers attached to the 
top of the filament: erectile 
tissue, %-r%kt'-il tish'-u t in anat., 
a peculiar structure forming the 
principal part of certain organs 
which are capable of being ren- 
dered turgid or erected by dis- 
tension with blood : erector, n., 
%-rekt f '8r, a muscle which causes 
a part to erect or set up. 

ergot, n., er'-gtit (F. ergot, cock's- 
spur), a diseased state in the 
grains of rye caused by the fun- 
gus Claviceps purpurea, appearing 
as a black-looking protuberance 
or spur from the ear, hence the 
name 'spurred rye'; in anat., a 
name given to a curved and 
pointed longitudinal eminence 
on the inner side of the floor of 
the cerebrum ; also called ' calcar 
avis,' the bird's spur : ergo tin, 
n., e^got-m, the active principle 
of ergot, principally used for 
hypodermic injection to arrest 
hsemorrhage : ergotism, n., 
er'-gdt'fam, the effect sometimes 
produced in the individual 
who eats rye bread containing 

Ericaceae, n. plu., r'-M'sg-e (L. 
8ricceus, of heath or broom from 
L. $rice, Gr. erelke, heath, broom), 
the Heath family, an Order of 
shrubs or herbaceous plants : 
Ericeaa, n. plu.. er-is'8-e, a Sub- 
order, including the true heaths 
with naked buds, and the rho- 
dodendrons with scaly conical 
buds : Erica, n., $r-ik'd, a genus 
comprising a large number of 
very beautiful and interesting 

plants, mostly natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope : Erica cinerea, 
sm-er'-Z-a (L. cirierZus, ash- 
coloured from cinis, ashes), 
and E. tetralix, tet'-rdl-iks (L. 
and Gr. tetralix, the heath plant), 
are common in Britain : E. 
Mackaiana, mak'-i-an'-a (after 
the discoverer), and E. Mediter- 
ranea, med'i-ter-rdn'e'-d (after 
the sea so called), are peculiar 
to Ireland : E. ciliaris, stt'i-dr'is 
(L. cilidris, ciliary from cillum, 
an eyelid), and E. vagans, vagi 
dnz (L. vagans, wandering about), 
are two species common to Eng- 
land and Ireland. 

Eriobotrya, n., tr'-i-o-bd'M'd (Gr. 
erion, wool ; botrus, a bunch of 
grapes), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Rosacese, Sub-ord. Pomese, whose 
racemes are very woolly : Erio- 
botrya Japonica, jd-pSn'-ik-d 
(Japonfous, of or from Japan), 
yields the Japanese fruit loquat. 

Eriocaulon, n., Vr'-i-o-lcawl'-Sn (Gr. 
erion, wool ; kaulos, a stem or 
stalk), a genus of very interesting 
plants having woolly stems, Ord. 
Restiacese : Eriocaulon septang- 
ulare, s$pt'dng'gul-dr''$ (L. sept- 
anguldris, seven - angled from 
septem, seven ; angulus, an angle), 
a native of Britain and Ireland. 

Eriogonum, n. , er'-i-dg'tin-um^r. 
erion, wool ; gonu, the knee), a 
genus of pretty plants having 
their stems woolly at the joints, 
Ord. Polygonaceae, Sub-ord. or 
Tribe EriogoneaB, n. plu., er () 

gon* & -e. 

Eriophorum, n., er'-#/ t '#r-#ra (Gr. 
erion, wool ; phoreo, I bear), a 
genus of interesting plants, Ord. 
Cyperacese, whose seeds are covered 
with a woolly substance, found in 
boggy situations ; the species are 
called * cotton-grass. ' 

Eriospermeae, n. plu., er'-l-o* 
sperm'-fre (Gr. erion, wool ; 
sperma, seed), a tribe of plants, 
Ord. Liliacese, the stemless plants 
of S. Africa whose seeds are 




covered with long silky hairs : 
Eriospernmm, n., r- i-o- sperm'- 
ftm, a genus of Cape bulbs, orna- 
mental when in flower. 

eroded, a., $r-6d'ed, also erose, 
a., $r-6z' (L. erodo, I consume or 
eat away ; erosus, consumed or 
eaten away), in bot., irregularly 
toothed as if gnawed. 

Errantia, n. plu., Zr-ran'-sM-a (L. 
errans, wandering, -errantis, of 
wandering), an Order of Annelida, 
distinguished by their great loco- 
motive powers. 

erratic, a., tr-rat'-ik (L. erraticus, 
wandering about from erro, 1 
wander), in med., showing or 
having a tendency to spread. 

eructation, n., e'-ruk'ta-slmn (L. 
eructatus, belched out ^from e, 
out of ; ructatus, belched), the 
act of belching wind or foul air 
from the stomach, often a sign of 

erumpent, a., %-rump f >$nt (L. e, 
out of; rumpens, breaking, 
rumpentis, of breaking), in bot., 
showing prominence, as if burst- 
ing through the epidermis. 

Eryngium, n., fr-mf-i-urn (L. 
eryngion, a species of thistle ; Gr. 
erugglon, the plant eryngian 
said to be from erengo, I belch), 
an extensive genus of extremely 
ornamental and beautiful plants, 
Ord. Umbelliferse, some species 
of which are said to be good 
against flatulence : Eryngium 
campestre, Mm-p^st'-r^ (L. cam- 
pestris, belonging to a field from 
campus, a field), and E. marit- 
inmm, mar-it'-im-tim (L. marit- 
imus, belonging to the sea from 
mare, the sea), are species whose 
roots are sweet, aromatic, tonic, 
and diuretic : Eryngo, n., %r- 
ing'-o, the sea holly, growing 
abundantly on almost every sea- 
coast ; a name for either of pre- 
ceding, particularly the latter. 

erysipelas, n., Vi^i-sip^l'ds (Gr. 
erusipelas, a red eruption on the 
skin from eruthros, red ; pella, 

skin), an acute, diffuse, and 
specific inflammation of the 
skin, which frequently involves 
the subcutaneous cellular tissue ; 
the Rose ; St. Anthony's fire : 
erysipelatous, a,.,er'.i.sip-8l', 
eruptive ; of or resembling ery- 
sipelas : erysipelacea, n. plu., 
Vr'-i'Sip-Zl-a'-se-d, a class of dis- 
eases, such as erysipelas, small- 
pox, measles, and scarlet fever. 

erythema, n., Zr'ith-em'd (Gr. 
eruthema, redness from eruth- 
aino, I make red), a superficial 
redness of the skin ; a form of 
eczema : erythematous, a., %r'4- 
themf'dt'us, having a superficial 
redness of some portion of the 
skin : erythema nodosum, ntid- 
6z'-um (L. nodosum, full of knots 
from nodus, a knot), a form of 
erythema attended by an erup- 
tion of red oval patches, chiefly 
on the lower limbs, most 
common in young women : e. 
intertrigo, m'-ier-trig^o (L. inter- 
trlgo, a chafing or galling from 
inter, between ; tero, I rub), 
applied to those inflammations of 
the cutaneous surface arising from 
the friction of one part of the skin 
against another ; irritation of the 
skin from discharges flowing over 
it: e. paratrimma,^ar^a^rim'ma 
(Gr. para, near to, side by side ; 
trimma, what has been rubbed or 
bruised from tribo, I rub or 
bruise), a form of erythematous 
inflammation due to pressure or 
rubbing, such as arises in horses 
from saddles or collars. 

Erytlmea, n., tr'-i-thre'-d (Gr. 
eruthros, red from the colour of 
the flowers), a genus of pretty 
plants, Ord. Gentianacese : 
Erythrsea centaurium, sent-aw 1 /- 
i-um (Gr. Tcentaurion, L. centaur- 
eum, the plant centaury), the 
common centaury, whose flowering 
cymes are used as a substitute for 

Erythrina, n., ^I'thrln'd (Gr. 
eruthros, red, from the colour of 




the flowers), the coral flower ; a 
genus of splendid plants, with 
fine large leaves, and brilliant 
scarlet or red flowers, Ord. 
Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Papilion- 
acese : Erythrina monosperma, 
mdn'o-sperm'a (Gr. monos, alone; 
sperma, seed), a species which 
yields gum lac : erythrine, n. , 
erti'thrm, in great part or wholly 

Erythronium, n., ^r^-thrdn^'um 
(Gfr.eruthros,ied. from the colour 
of the leaves and flowers), a genus 
of handsome, dwarf - growing 
plants, Ord. Liliacese: Erythron- 
ium Americamim, dm-er'ik-dn' 
um (from America), a species 
whose root is used as an emetic : 
E. dens caninus, denz kdn-in'-us 
(L. dens, a tooth ; caninus, be- 
longing to a dog from cdnis, a 
dog), the dog-tooth violets, whose 
roots have been used in colic and 

erythrophyll, n., tr'.t-thro-ftl (Gr. 
eruthros, red ; phullon, a leaf), 
the red colouring matter of leaves, 
indicating change and low vitality 
in them. 

ErythroxylaceaB, n. plu., Wt- 
thrdks'tl-a's%-e (Gr. eruthros, red; 
xulon, wood), the Erythroxylon 
family, an Order of shrubs and 
trees, chiefly from W. Indies and 
S. America, whose species have 
tonic, purgative, and narcotic 
properties : Erythroxylon, n., 
trtf-thro'ks'-tt-Sn, a genus of trees 
whose wood is of a bright red 
colour, and yields a dye : Ery- 
throxylon coca, kok'-d (a Spanish 
name ; Gr. kokkos, a seed, a 
kernel), a plant whose leaves 
are used by the miners of Peru 
as a stimulant, and which are 
chewed with a small mixture of 
finely-powdered chalk ; the com- 
mon name for the prepared leaves 
is * coca ' or ' ipadu. ' 
Escalloniese, n. plu. , esk'dl- lon-i'V-e 
(in honour of Escallon, a Spanish 
traveller in S. Amer.), a Sub-ord. 

of the Ord. Saxifragacese : Escal- 
lonia, n., esk'dl-ldn'-i>d, a genus 
of plants whose species are very 
fine evergreen greenhouse shrubs: 
Escallonia macrantha, mak- 
ranth'-a (Gr. makros, of great 
extent, high ; anthos, a flower), 
and E. rubra, roo&rd (L. ruber, 
red), are grown in the milder 
parts of Britain. 

eschar, n., esk'dr (Gr. eschdra, a 
hearth, a scab), a crust or scab on 
a part, produced by burning or 
caustic : escharotic, a., esk'dr- 
tit'-ik, having the power to sear or 
burn the flesh : n. , any powerful 
chemical substance which, when 
applied to the body, destroys the 
vitality of a portion of it. 

Eschscholtzia, n., esh-shdUzf-i-d 
(after Eschscholtz, a botanist), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Papaver- 
acese, natives of California, etc., 
some species of which produce 
beautiful yellow flowers ; the 
dilated apex of the peduncle 
resembles the extinguisher of a 

Esculapian, a., Zsk'ul'dp't'dn (L. 
^Esculapius, Father of medicine), 
pert, to the healing art ; med- 

esculent, a., Vsk'ul'ent (L. esculent- 
us, fit for eating from esca, 
food), good as food for man : n., 
something that can be eaten, and 
good for food. 

esparcet, n., es-pdrs'$t (F. esparc- 
et, Sp. esparceta), a green crop, 
something like the leguminous 
plant sainfoin. 

essence, n., es'-sgns (L. essentia, 
the being of any thing; F. essence), 
the concentrated odour of a plant, 
occurring in any part, procured 
by distillation with water. 

estivation, n., Zs'-tw-a'-shun (L. 
c&stiva, summer quarters), in bot., 
the disposition of the parts of the 
perianth in the flower-bud; the 
arrangement of the unexpanded 
leaves of the flower-bud which 
burst in summer as opposed to 



vernation, the arrangement of 
the leaves of the bud on a branch 
which burst in spring. 

etserio, n., e-ter'-i-o (Gr. etairia, 
fellowship, society), the aggregate 
drupes which form the fruit of 
such as the strawberry and 

ether, n., eth'er (L. cether, Gr. 
aither, the upper or pure air), a 
very light, volatile, and inflam- 
mable liquid, obtained from 
alcohol and an acid by distil- 

ethmoid, a., Vih'-moyd, also eth- 
moidal, a., Wi-mdyd'-al (Gr. 
ethmos, a sieve ; eidos, resem- 
blance), in anat., a sieve -like 
bone which projects downwards 
from between the orbital plates 
of the frontal bone, and enters 
into the formation of the cranium ; 
the bone of the nose which is 
perforated like a sieve for the 
passage of the olfactory nerves. 

ethnography, n., ^th-ndg'rdf-i 
(Gr. ethnos, a race, a nation; 
grapho, I write), an account of 
the origin, dispersion, connection, 
and characteristics of the various 
races of mankind. 

etiolation, n., et'-i-ol-a'shiin (mid. 
L. etioldtus, blanched, deprived 
of colour : F. ttioler, to grow up 
long-shanked and colourless, as 
a plant), in lot, the process of 
blanching plants by excluding 
the action of light; absence of 
green colour : etiolated, a., et'4' 
ol-atf-Zd, blanched; deprived of 

etiology, n., et't-ffi-ti-ji (Gr. aitia, 
a cause ; logos, discourse), in med. , 
the doctrine of causes, particul- 
arly with reference to diseases. 

Eucalyptus, n., uttaUp'-tus (Gr. 
eu, well; kalupto, I cover), a 
genus of tall, handsome, fast- 
growing plants, Ord. Myrtacese, 
so called from the limb of the 
calyx covering the flower before 
expansion, which afterv arls falls 
off in the shape of a lid or cover; 

the species yield an astringent 
matter used for tanning ; some of 
the species constitute the gigantic 
gum trees of Australia : Eucal- 
yptus amygdalinus, am-ig'-dal- 
in f 'US (L. amygdalinus^ of or 
made from almonds from amyg- 
dala, an almond), an Australian 
gum tree which attains the 
height of 400 feet : E. mannifera, 
mdn-mf'%r'ti, (Eng. manna; L. 

fero, I bear), a species which fur- 
nishes a saccharine exudation 
resembling manna : E. globus, 
glob' Us (L. gltibus, a ball, a 
sphere), the blue gum tree, or 
fever gum tree, furnishes good 
timber, an astringent bark, and 
a fragrant oil : E. dumosa, dilm- 
oz'a (L. dumosus, bushy from 
dumus, a thorn bush), a species 
on whose leaves is found a 
saccharine substance mixed with 
cellular hairs, produced by the 
attacks of a species of insect : E. 
perfoliata, per'-foli-at'-a (L. per, 
through; foliatus, leaved from 

folium, a leaf), a handsome 
species, having hoary, bluish 
foliage, and a neat growth of the 
branches : E. resinifera, r^in- 
if-er'O, (L. reslna, resin; f$ro, 
I produce), the brown gum tree 
of New Holland, yields an 
astringent, resinous - like sub- 
stance, called 'kino,' which ex- 
udes from incisions in the bark 
as a red juice, a single tree pro- 
ducing as much as sixty gallons : 
Eucalypti, n. plu., uk'-dl-ip'-tl, a 
general name for all the species 
of Eucalyptus. 

Eugenia, n., U'jen'-i-a (in honour 
of Prince Eugene of Savoy), a 
very ornamental and highly use- 
ful genus of plants, Ord. Myrt- 
acese : Eugenia caryophyllata, 
k&r'.f.d'ftl'C&d (Gr. karuon, a 
nut; phullon, a leaf), yields the 
cloves of commerce ; also called 
Caryophyllusaromaticus: E. pirn- 
enta, pim-Zntf-a (Sp. pimiento, 
Indian pepper), a tree of the W. 




In dies and Mexico, producing pim- 
ento, allspice, or Jamaica pepper ; 
also called Pimenta officinalis, 
which see : E. acris, dk f >ris (L, 
deer or acris, sharp, pointed), a 
species used for pimento : E. 
jambos, jdm'bds (corrupted from 
schambu, the Malay name for one 
of the species) ; and E. Malac- 
censis, mal'-ak-sZus'is (from 
Malacca), are species which pro- 
duce the rose apples : E. cauli- 
flora, Icdwl f -i>jl6r / >d (L. caulis, a 
stem ; florus, shining, bright 
from /os, a flower); and E. ugni, 
ug'nl (ugni, a probable Chili 
name), species which produce 
fruits, the former eaten in Brazil, 
the latter in Peru. 

Eulophia, n., u-lof^d (Gr. eu* 
lophos, having a splendid crest), 
a very pretty genus of tuberous- 
rooted plants, Ord, Orchidiacese, 
so called in allusion to the la- 
bellum bearing elevated lines or 
ridges : Eulophia herbacea, 
herb-d'sZ-a (L. herbdcZus, grassy 
from herba, grass); and E. 
campestris, kam-pZst'-ris {L. 
campester or campestris, of or 
belonging to a level field from 
campus, a plain), are species pro- 
ducing from their tuberous roots, 
in common with other orchid- 
aceous plants, a substance called 
salep, which forms an article of 
diet for convalescents. 

Euonynms, n., u-dn^m-Us (Gr. 
euonumos, of good name, but, by 
a euphemism, unlucky, hurtful 
from eu, well; ondma, a name), 
spindle-tree, a genus of orna- 
mental shrubs, Ord. Celastracese; 
some species present a very 
showy appearance when the fruit 
is ripe : Euonynms tingens, 
tinj'-$nz (L. tingens, dyeing, 
colouring), a species whose bark 
yields a yellow dye, used in 
marking the tika on the forehead 
of Hindoos : E. Europseus, ur'-op- 
ef>us (L. Europceus, belonging to 
Europe), the young shoots, when 

charred, are used to form a par- 
ticular kind of drawing pencil ; 
its fruit and inner bark are said 
to be purgative and emetic. 

Eupatorium, n., up'-at-or'-i-urn 
(Gr. eupatoricn, agrimony from 
eupdtor, well-born), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Compositse : Eupat- 
orium ayapana, a'-yd-pan'-a (a 
Brazilian native name), a power- 
ful sodorific, has been used to cure 
the bites of snakes: E. perfoli- 
atum, per-fol f 'i-at f -um ("L. per, 
through ; foliatus, leafy from 
folium, a leaf), a species yielding 
a tonic stimulant, used as a sub- 
stitute for Peruvian bark. 

Euphorbiacese, n. phu, u-forb'-l- 
af-sb-e (in honour of Euphorbus, 
an ancient physician), the Spurge 
family, an Order of trees and 
shrubs, often abounding in acrid 
milk; many species are poisons, 
others medicinal, some contain 
starch for food, some dyes, and 
others furnish wood highly use- 
ful in the arts, as boxwood : 
Euphorbia, n., u-ftirtti-a, an ex- 
tensive genus of plants, many of 
which abound in a milky, caustic 
juice, and others irritant resins : 
Euphorbia ipecacuanha, ip'-%- 
kak'U-an'a (in S. America a word 
denoting simply a vomiting root), 
a species whose root has been em- 
ployed as a substitute for ipecac- 
uan: E. antiquorum, antfik-wor'- 
tim(L. antiquorum, of the ancients 
from antlquus, ancient); and 
E. Canariensis, kan-dr'-t-e'ns'is 
(of or from the Canary Islands), 
with some other fleshy species, 
produce the drug euphorbium : 
E. nereifolia, ner^e-i-fdU-d (L. 
Nereus, a sea-god ; folium, a leaf), 
the juice of the leaves used in 
India as a purge and deobstruent: 
E. thymifolia, tlm'-i-foV-l-d (L. 
thymum, thyme ; folium, a leaf), 
leaves and seed used in India for 
intestine worms : E. tirucalli, 
tlr'-u-kal'-li (an Indian name), a 
species whose fresh acrid juice is 




used in India as a vesicatory : 
E. heptagona, hZpt'd-gon'-d (Gr. 
hepta, seven ; gonia, an angle), is 
said to furnish the Ethiopians 
with a deadly poison for their 
arrows: euphorbium, n., u-fdrb'- 
t-um, the inspissated milky juice 
of certain species of euphorbia, a 
violent irritant, whether applied 
internally or externally : Eu- 
phorbium lathyris, lathf-ir-is 
(Gr. lathtiris, a plant of the 
spurge kind), caper spurge, has 
caihartic properties : E. pilosa, 
pil'dz f -d (L. pilosuS) hairy, 
shaggy); and E. palustris, pal- 
ust'-ris (L. pdluster and palustris, 
marshy, swampy from pdlus, a 
marsh), species, the roots of 
which are used as purgatives, 
and are said to be useful in 
hydrophobia : E. phosphorea, 

fds-fdr'-g-a (Gr. phosphtiros, L. 
phosphorus, the light-bringer, the 
morning star from Gr. phos, 
light ; phoreO) I bear), a species 
whose milky sap is said to emit a 
peculiar phosphorescent light. 

Euphrasia, n., u-frdz'-i-d (Gr. 
euphrdsia, gladness, joy), a genus 
of interesting plants, Ord. Scroph- 
ulariacese : Euphrasia officin- 
alis, 8f'fis'.in>dl f -is (L. officinalis, 
officinal from officina, a work- 
shop), eye-bright or euphrasy, so 
called because formerly used in 

Euryale, n., ur'i'al-e(GY. Euruale, 
one of the Gorgons), a genus of 
handsome Water-plants, whose fine 
large leaves float on the surface 
of the water, Ord. Kymphseacese. 

Euryangium, n. , ur'-i-anj-l-um (Gr. 
eurus, broad ; anggos, a vessel), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Umbell- 
iferse : Euryangium sumbul, 
sum'bul (an Eastern name), the 
sumbul root, brought to this 
country in large pieces like huge 
bungs, a nervin stimulant said to 
be employed in Germany and 
Russia with success against 

Eustachian tube, us-tak't-dn 
(after Eustacliius, its discoverer), 
in anat. , a tube or canal extending 
from behind the soft palate to the 
tympanum of the ear, to which 
it conveys the air : Eustachian 
valve, a fold of the lining mem- 
brane of the right auricle of the 
heart, supposed to assist in the 
proper direction of the foetal blood 

Eustrongylus, n., te'tr&ng<g&-fa 
(Gr. eu, well j stronggulos, round, 
globular), a genus of intestinal 
worms : Eustrongylus gigas, 
jig'-ds (L* gigas, a giant), a 
species found in the kidneys, 
bladder, and other parts of the 
horse, ox, dog, etc. 

Eutassa, n., u-tds'-sa (Gr. eu, well; 
tasso, I set in order), a genus of 
trees, Ord. Coniferae : Eutassa 
excelsa, Zlc-s&ls'-d (L. excelsus, 
lofty, high), the Norfolk Island 
pine, famed for its size and for 
its wood. 

Euterpe, n., u-terp'e(Gr. euterpes, 
pleasing, charming fiomEuterpe, 
one of the Muses), a fine genus of 
palms, some attaining a height of 
40 feet, Ord. Palmse : Euterpe 
montana, mon-tan'-d (L. mon- 
tdnus t mountain from mons, a 
mountain), the cabbage palm, the 
terminal buds of which are used as 
culinary vegetables : E. oleracea, 
Sl'-Zr-a'-se-d (L. olerdcVus, resem- 
bling herbs from dlus, a herb), 
the tallest of American palms, 
the white hearts of the green tops 
of which are eaten. 

Eutoca, n., u'tok-a (Gr. eutokos, 
prolific), a genus of very pretty 
flowering plants, Ord. Hydro- 

evacuant, n., Z-vak'-u-ant (L. evac- 
udtus, emptied out from e, out ; 
vacuus, empty), a medicine used 
for producing evacuation. 

eversion, n., e-ver'-shun (L. ever- 
sio, a turning out or expulsion 
from e, out ; versus, turned), the 
protrusion of organs from a cavity; 




the state of being turned back or 
evolution, n., fattil'i&ahiin (L. 

evdlutus, rolled out from e, out ; 
vofeo, I roll), the theory which 
maintains that the first created 
animals contained the germs of 
all future possible successors, 
successively included one within 
the other, and that generation 
is merely the act of unfolding the 

term ; the theory of the gradual 
evelopment, at various periods 
of the world's history of animals 
and of man from simpler forms 
and lower types to their present 
more complex structures. 

exacerbation^ n.,8ks'as'er-bd's7iun 
(L. exacerbdtus t provoked from 
ex, out ; acerbus, bitter, harsh), 
the increase of violence in the 
symptoms of a disease. 

exalbuminous, a., ^ks'-dl-bumf-m-us 
(L. ex, out of; Eng. albumen), 
in bot., without a separate store 
of albumen. 

exania, n., Vks-dn't-a (L. ex, out 
of; anus, the fundament), a 
falling down of the anus ; pro- 
lapsus ani. 

exammlate, a., Vks-an'-nul'dt (L. 
ex, out of; annulus, a ring), not 
having a thecal ring, applied to 
some ferns. 

exanthema, n., Vks'-anth-em'-d (Gr. 
exanthema, a blossom from ex, 
out of; anthos, a flower), an 
eruption ; applied to contagious 
febrile diseases terminating in an 
eruption on the skin, such as 
scarlet fever, measles, etc. : ex- 
anthemata, n. plu., tiktf&nth' 
Zm'-at-a: exanthematous, a., 
-Vrnf-at-us, of or pert. to. 

exasperate, a., egz-asp'&r-dt (L. 
exasperdtus, made rough, sharp- 
ened from ex, out of; asper, 
rough), in bot., covered with 
hard, stiff, short points. 

excentric, a,, eks-sentfrik (L. ex, 
out of; centrum, the centre), out 
of the centre ; removed from the 
centre or axis. 

exciple, n., VJcststp-l, also excip- 
ulum, n., ^ks-sip-'ul'um (L. ex- 
cipulum, a receptacle from ex- 
cipio, I catch) I receive), the ex- 
ternal investment of the thal- 
amium in the apothecia of lichens : 
excipuluB, n., eks-slp'-til-us, a re- 
ceptacle containing fructification 
in lichens ; a minute black fungus 
upon dead raspberry stems. 

excision, n., Zk-sizh'-'tm (L. excisus, 
cut out or off from ex t out of ; 
ccesus, cut), in surg., the removal 
by operation of a part of the 
body, but short of amputation. 

excoriation, n., Vks'-kor-i-a'-shun 
(L. ex, out of ; corium, skin, 
hide), a slight wound which only 
abrades the skin. 

excrement, n., %ks'kre>m%nt (L. 
excrementum, that which passes 
from the body from ex, out of ; 
cretus, separated), the matter dis- 
charged from animal bodies after 
digestion; faecal evacuation: ex- 
crementitious, a., eks'-kre-ment- 
ish'-uS) consisting of fsecal matter 
evacuated from an animal body. 

excrescence, n., eks-kres'ens (L. 
excrescentia, morbid excrescences 
on the body from ex, out of; 
crescens, growing), a preter- 
natural growth on any part of 
the body ; in bot. , a gnarr or 
wart on the stem of a tree. 

excreta, n. plu., <6k8-kr$tf-& (L. 
excretus, carried off or discharged 
from the body by stool or urine 
from ex, out of; cretus, separ- 
ated), the natural secretions or 
discharges which are thrown off 
from the body, as from the 
bowels, the bladder, or by perspir- 
ation; also excretions, n. plu., 
Zks-kre'' shuns, in same sense. 

excurrent, a., tks-kur'-rent (L. ex, 
out of ; currens, running), in bot. , 
running out beyond the edge or 
point ; central, as the stem of a 
fir with branches disposed regul- 
arly around it. 

exfoliation, n., Vks-fdZf-df-shtin 
(L. ex, out of ; folium, a leaf), 




the separation of a scale or dead 
portion of bone from the living. 

exindusiate, a., Vks'-m-duz'-i-at (L. 
ex, out of; indusium, a shirt), in 
bot., not having an indusium. 

exintine, n., Vks-ln'-tin (L. ex, 
from ; intus, within), in bot. , one 
of the inner coverings of the 
pollen grain. 

exogens, n., %ks'6>jenz (Gr. exo, 
without ; gennao, I produce), 
that division of the vegetable 
kingdom in which the plants 
grow by additions to the outside 
of the wood in the form of 
annual concentric layers, as in 
the oak, ash, elm, etc. the 'en- 
dogens ' being those whose growth 
is from within outwards : exog- 
enous, a., eJcs-ddf-Zn-tis, growing 
or increasing in size by annual 
additions to the outside : exog- 
enae, n. plu., ^ks-ddf-en-e, an- 
other name for exogens. 

Exogonium, n., eks'-d-gdn't-um 
(Gr. exo, without ; gonu, the 
knee), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Convolvulaceae : Exogonium 
purga, perg'-a (L. pur go, I clear 
or clean out), the jalap plant, a 
native of the Mexican Andes, 
whose roots, in size and shape 
from a walnut to a moderately- 
sized turnip, form the officinal 
part ; used in the form of powder 
and tincture as an active irritant 

exomphalos, n., eks-timf-al-fts (Gr. 
exo, without ; omphalos, a navel), 
umbilical hernia ; the protrusion 
of the intestine through the um- 

exophthalmos, n., Vks'tif-thal'-rnds, 
also exophthalmia, n., -thal'-mi-a 
(Gr. exo, without, outside; oph- 
thalmos, the eye), great promin- 
ence of the eyes, in which the 
individual has a marked and 
peculiar stare : exophthalmic, a., 
-thal'-mik, of or pert, to exoph- 

exopodite, n., eks-op'-od-lt (Gr. 
exo, outside ; pous, a foot, 2 j odos } 

of a foot), in zool., the outer o: 
the two secondary joints int( 
which the typical limb of a Crust- 
acean is divided. 

exorhizal, a., eks'd-riz'al (Gr. exo, 
outside; rhiza, a root), in bot., 
applied to those plants whose 
roots in germination proceed at 
once from the radicular extremity 
of the embryo. 

exoskeleton, n., eks'-o-skel'-Zt-dn 
(Gr. exo, outside ; skeleton, a dry 
body or skeleton), the external 
skeleton, constituted by a hard- 
ening of the integument; also 
called dermo-skeleton. 

exosmose, n., Zks'-d's-moz, also ex- 
osmosis, n., 'eks'-d's-moz'-is (Gr. 
exo, outside ; osmos, a thrusting, 
an impulsion), the passing out- 
wards of a fluid through a mem- 
brane from the inside; the passing 
inwards from the outside being 
called endosmose. 

exospore, n., Zks'-o-spor (Gr. exo, 
outside ; spora, a seed), the outer 
covering of a spore : exosporous, 
a., Vks-os'-por-tis, having naked 
spores, as in fungi. 

Exostemma, n., Zlcs'-O'StZm'-mti 
(Gr. exo, outside ; stemma, a 
crown alluding to the exserted 
stamens), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Rubiacese, whose species yield 
various kinds of false cinchona 
bark, which do not contain the 
cinchona alkalies : Exostemma 
floribundum, fl$r<i-bund''iim (L. 

flos, a flower, floris, of a flower ; 
abundus, abundant), a species 
described as a timber tree. 

exostome, n., %lcs f '0-stdm (Gr. exo, 
outside ; stSma, a mouth), in bot. , 
the outer opening of the foramen 
of the ovule. 

exostosis, n., &*?#&& (Gr. ex- 
ostosis, a bony excrescence from 
exo, outside ; osteon, a bone), an 
unnatural projection or growth 
from a bone; a wart-like ex- 
crescence often seen on the roots 
of leguminous plants. 

exothecium, n., vks'-o-the'sM-um 




(Gr. exo, without ; theke, a case), 
in hot., the outer coat of the 

exotic, a., Zgz-otf-ik (Gr. exotikos, 
foreign, strange from exo, out- 
side ; L. exoticus, foreign), 
foreign ; not native : n., a 
shrub or tree introduced from 
a foreign country ; indigenous, 
the opposite of exotic, means 
belonging naturally to a country j 

expectorant, n., eks-pe'kt'o'r-ant 
(L. expectordtus, driven from the 
breast from ex, out of; pectus, 
the breast), any medicine supposed 
capable of promoting the expulsion 
of fluid or phlegm from the air- 
passages or lungs : expectoration, 
n., -6r'af-shun, the act of discharg- 
ing matter from the air-passages 
or lungs. 

exserted, a., 8ks-sert'-8d (L. ex- 
sertus, thrust forth), in bot., 
projecting beyond something else, 
as stamens beyond the corolla ; 
proceeding from a common base : 
exsertile, a., Vks-sert'tl, capable 
of being thrust out or excluded. 

exsiccation, n., e^ks'sik-kd'shun 
(L. exsiccdtus, made quite dry 
from ex, out of; siccus, dried up), 
the expulsion of moisture from 
solid bodies by heat, pressure, or 
by any other means. 

exstipulate, a., ^ks-stip'-ul-dt (L. 
ex, without ; stipula, a stalk or 
stem), in bot. , having no stipules. 

extension, n., eks- ten' shun (L. 
extensus, stretched out), the 
pulling strongly a fractured or 
dislocated limb in order to reduce 
it : extensor, n., Zks-t$ns''8r, a 
muscle which extends or stretches 
out a part. 

extensor carpi radialis brevior, 
Zks'ttns'-dr kdrp'-i rdd f -i-aV4s 
brev'i-or (L. extensor, that which 
stretches out ; carpus, the wrist ; 
radius, the small bone of the 
fore-arm ; brevior, shorter), the 
shorter radial extensor of the 
wrist ; the muscle at the wrist 

which extends and brings the 
hand backwards ; e. carpi radi- 
alis longior, I6ri-jl-or (L. longior, 
longer), the longer radial extensor 
of the wrist ; the muscle which 
assists in extending and bringing 
the hand backwards : e. carpi 
ulnaris, ul-ndr'-w (L. ulna, the 
large bone of the fore-arm), the 
ulnary extensor of the wrist ; the 
muscle at the wrist : e. communis 
digitomm maims, kom-mun'ts 
didf*it'dr''um mdn'iis (L. corn- 
munis, common ; digitus, a finger 
or toe ; mantis, the hand, mantis, 
of the hand), the common ex- 
tensor of the fingers of the hand ; 
the muscle which extends all the 
joints of the finger : e. longus 
digitorum pedis, Iting'us didf-it- 
or'-urn ped f -is (L. longus, long ; 
digitus, a finger or toe, digitorum, 
of the fingers ; pes, a foot, pedis, 
of a foot), the long extensor of 
the toes of the foot ; the muscle 
which extends all the joints of 
the four small toes : e. proprius 
pollicis pedis, pr8p f -ri-us pol'-lis-is 
ped f -is(\j. proprius, proper ;pollex, 
the great toe of the foot, pollicis, 
of the great toe ; pes, a foot, 
pedis, of the foot), the proper 
extensor of the great toe of the 
foot ; the muscle which extends 
the great toe. 

extine, n., eks'-im (L. exter, on the 
outside), in bot,, the outer cover- 
ing of the pollen-grain. 

extra-axillary, a., Zks'tra-aks'il'- 
dr-i (L. extra, on the outside ; 
axilla, arm-pit), removed from 
the axil of the leaf, as some buds ; 
growing from above or below the 

extract, n. , eks'-trakt (L. extractus, 
drawn out or forth from ex, out 
of ; tractus, drawn), an infusion, 
decoction, or tincture of a med- 
icine evaporated to a paste. 

extravasation, n. , eks trav'-as - d'- 
shun (L. extra, without ; vasa, 
vessels of any kind), in med., 
the unnatural escape of a fluid 




from its vessel or its channel, 
and infiltration into surrounding 
tissues, as the blood after the 
rupture of a vessel. 

extrorse, a., %ks-tr$rs' (L. extra, 
on the outside ; orsus, beginning, 
commencement), in bot., applied 
to anthers in which the slit 
through which the pollen escapes 
is towards the outside of the 
flower, and not, as usual, towards 
the pistil ; turned outwards. 

exudation, n., Zksf-ud-a'-shun (L. 
exsudo, or exudo, I sweat out 
from ex, out of; sudo, I sweat), 
the discharge of moisture or 
juices from animal bodies or from 
plants ; the abnormal escape of 
the blood-plasma occurring in in- 
flammation of certain tissues, as 
the lungs. 

exutive, a., eTcS'Ut'>w (L. exutus, 
drawn out or off), in bot. t applied 
to seeds wanting the usual integu- 
mentary covering. 

exuviae, n. plu., eTcs-uv'-i-e (L. 
exuvice, that which is laid aside 
or taken off from the body), the 
cast off parts of animals or plants, 
as skins, shells, etc. : exuviation, 
n., ZTcs-uv'-i-d'-shun, the process 
by which animals and plants 
throw off their old coverings or 
shells and assume new ones, as 
serpents their skins, and Crust- 
acea their shells. 

Fabaceaa, n. plu., fab-d'-s^e (L. 

fdba, a bean ; connected with 
Sansc. bhac, Gr. phagein, to eat, 
to devour), Lindley's Order of 
the Pea and Bean tribe, now 
called Leguminosse : fabaceous, 
a., fdb'd-shus, of or like a 

facial, &.,fd f 'shi'al (L.facies, the 
face), the parts of the face, as 
opposed to the cranial parts of 
the head. 

faeces, n. plu. , fes'ez (L. fax, dregs 
or sediment, feeds, of sediment), 
the excrement or contents of the 
bowels ; sediment or settlings : 

faecal, a., fek'al, relating to ex- 

Fagopyrum, n.,fag'6-plr'um (Gr. 

fegos, L.fdgus, the beech-tree 
from phdgo, I eat ; Gr. puros, 
wheat), the genus of buckwheat 
plants, so called from the seeds 
being three-cornered like beech- 
nuts, Ord. Polygonacese : Fago- 
pyrum esculentum, te&ul-tntfum 
(L. esculmtus, full of food from 
esca, food), and F. tataricum, 
tat-ar'ik'Um (probably, of or from 
Tartary), species of buckwheat 
whose seeds are used as food. 

Fagus, n., fdg'-us (L. fdyus, Gr. 
fegos, the beech tree from Gr. 
phdgo, I eat), a genus of hand- 
some ornamental timber-trees, 
Ord. Cupuliferae or Corylaceae, so 
called as the nuts of the beech 
tree were used in early times as 
food: Fagus sylvatica, stlv-dt'* 
ik-d (L. sylvdticus, living in the 
woods from sylva, a wood), is 
the common beech tree : F. 
Forsteri (after Forster, a botan- 
ist), the evergreen beech of S. 
America : F. antarctica, dnt-drk'- 
tik- a (new L. antarcticus, southern 
from Gr. anti, opposite ; arlc- 
tikos, northern), a species of beech 
found in the Antarctic regions. 

fairy-rings, n. plu., fdr'-i-rings, 
scorched-like circles, or circles of 
greener grass, found frequently 
in pasture-lands in Britain, pro- 
duced by a peculiar mode in the 
growth of several species of 

falcate, a., fdW-dt (L. falcaius, 
scythe - shaped from falx, a 
reaping-hook), in bot., bent or 
shaped like a reaping-hook; 
crescent-shaped : falciform, a., 
fals'-ifdrm (L. forma, shape), in 
same sense; shaped like a reap- 

Fallopian tubes, faUop'4-an tubz 
(after Fallopius, their discoverer), 
hollow canals forming appendages 
to the womb and ducts of the 




falx cerebelli,/aftfo strtfrltl'-li (L. 

falx, a reaping-hook ; cerebellum, 
a little brain), in anat., a small 
triangular process of the dura 
mater received into the indent- 
ation between the two lateral 
lobes of the cerebellum behind : 
falx cerebri, ser'eb-ri (L. c&reb- 
rum, the brain, c&rebri, of the 
brain), a strong arched process of 
the dura mater, which descends 
vertically in the longitudinal 
fissure between the two hemi- 
spheres of the brain so named 
from its sickle-like form. 

Family, n., fdm'il-i (L. familia, 
a family or household; J.famille), 
the systematic name for the 
group above a Genus and below 
an Order; often used in a loose 
and general sense for Kind, Tribe, 
or Order. 

farcy, n., fdrs'i (It. farcina, F. 

farcin), a disease allied to 

farina, n., fdr-ln'-d (L. farina, 
meal from far, grain), meal or 
flour ; the dust or pollen of 
plants: farinaceous, a., far'-m- 
af-sUus, mealy; having the tex- 
ture or consistence of flour ; 
chaffy: farinose, a., fdr^m-oz, 
in bot., covered with a white, 
mealy powder. 

fascia, n.,fa^si-d, fasciae, n. plu., 
fds f 'Si>e (L. fascia, a bandage, a 
swathe), a surgical bandage ; a 
membranous lamina of a variable 
extent and thickness, investing 
and protecting as a sheath a 
delicate organ of the body : fascia 
dentata, dent-at'-d (L. dentdtus, 
toothed from dens, a tooth, 
dentis, of a tooth), a serrated band 
of grey substance in the lower 
boundary or floor of the middle 
or descending cornu of the cereb- 
rum: f. lata, Idt'-d (L. latus, 
broad), a broad, dense, fibrous 
aponeurosis, which forms a uni- 
form investment for the upper 
part of the thigh: f. obturator, 
'-dr (L. obturo, I stop up; 

obturator, that which stops up), 
a fascia which descends and 
covers the obturator interims 
muscle : f. palmar, palm'-ar (L. 
palmdris, a hand's- breadth from 
palma, the palm, the hand), a 
strong aponeurosis on the palm 
of the hand : f. plantar, pldnt'-ar 
(L. plantdris, belonging to the 
sole of the foot from planta, 
the sole), a fibrous membrane on 
the sole of the foot, stronger and 
thicker than any other. 

fasciated, a., fds'-si-at-ed (L. 

fascia, a bandage), bound with a 
bandage ; in bot., having a stem 
flattened out ; having several leaf- 
buds united in growth so as to 
produce a branch presenting a 
flattened appearance : fasciation, 
n., fds'-si-a'shun, the act or 
manner of binding up diseased 
parts ; in bot., the union of 
branches or stems in growth 
presenting a flattened appear- 

fascicle, n., fds'-ik-l, also fascic- 
ulus, n., faS'ik'-ul-us (L. fascic- 
ulus, a small bundle homfascia, 
a bandage), a little bunch; a 
cluster; in anat, a bundle of 
muscular fibre: fascicled, a., 

fds'ik>ld, also fasciculated, a., 

fds'ik f -ul>at-ed, the bunches or 
bundles proceeding from a 
common point ; arranged in 
bundles: fasciculate, a., fas-Ik' 
ul-dt, and fascicular, a., fas-ik'- 
ul'dr, in same sense as fascicled : 
fasciculus, n., fds-ik'ul'us, in 
bot.., a small collection of nearly 
sessile flowers, forming a dense, 
flat-topped bunch, as in the 
sweet-william; same sense as 
fascicle: fascicular tissue, in bot. t 
a tissue lying inside another 
tissue, in which the growth pro- 
ceeds at one or both ends, so as 
greatly to elongate it. 

fasciculi grzciles, fas-Mul-l grds'- 
il-ez (L. fasciculus, a small 
bundle, fasciculi, small bundles ; 
gracilis, sing., graciles, plu., 




small, slender), t wo narrow white 
cords placed one on each, side of 
the posterior median fissure of 
the medulla oMongata: f. ter- 
etes, ter'et-ez (L. ieres, rounded 
off, teretis, gen., ttretes, plu,), two 
bundles of white fibres mixed 
with much grey matter in the 
medulla oblongata : fasciculus 
cuneatus, kun'-l'.'at'us (L. cune- 
atus, shaped like a wedge from 
cuneus, a wedge I, the part of the 
posterior column of the cord 
which belongs to the restiform 
body of the medulla f. uncinatus, 
tin'-sin-arttis (L unclndtus, fur- 
nished with hooka from uncus, 
a hook), a white bundle of fibres 
seen on; the lower aspect of the 
hemisphere, the more superficial 
being curved. 

fistigiate, a., fas-tidf-i-at (L, 

fastlgium, a projecting ridge 
from fastlgo, I slope up to a 
point), in bot. 1 having a pyramidal 
form, from the branches being 
parallel and erect, as the Lom- 
bardy poplar ; nearly parallel and 
pointing upwards. 

Fatsia, n,, fats' fail (a native 
Chinese name), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Araliacese : Fatsia papyrif- 
era, pdp'^r-tf-Zr-d (L. papyrus, 
the paper-reed, paper ; f&ro, I 
bear), a species from whose pith 
the Chinese prepare the celebrated 
rice paper. 

fauces, n. , fdws'ez (L. fauces, the 
upper part of the throat ; faux, 
sing., the throat), the upper part 
of the throat, from the root of the 
tongue to the entrance of the 
gullet: faux, n..,fdwks, in bot., 
the throat or constricted part of 
a flower. 

fauna, n., fdwn'd (L. Faunus, 
one of the gods of the fields or 
woods), all the animals peculiar 
to a country, area, or period ; 
* flora ' denotes all the plants. 

favella, n., fdv>%l'-ld, favella, n. 
plu., fdv-el'-le (L. favilla, hot 
cinders or ashes), in bot. t a kind 

of conceptacle among Algae ; eon- 
ceptacular fruit in certain Algae : 
favellidium, n., fdv^l-M^-um, 
favelUdia, n. plu., -IM-i-a, 
spherical masses of spores con- 
tained in capsules ; a favella 
immersed in the frond of Algae. 

favus, n., fav'-us (L. fdvus, a 
honeycomb), a parasitic disease 
of the skin produced by the 
Aehorion Schbnleinii ; a form of 
ringworm : favose, a,, 
and faveolate, a., 

feather- veined, a., f%ikf>er-vand, 
in bot., applied to a leaf having 
the veins running from the mid- 
rib to the margin, at a more or 
less acute angle : feathery, a., 
feih'er-i, having hairs which are 
themselves hairy. 

febrile, a., ftb'-rtl (L. febris, a 
fever; F. febrile, pert, to a fever), 
pert, to a fever; indicating fever; 


feverish: febricula, n., 
ul-d (L. febricula, a slight fever), 
a fever characterised by its short 
duration and mildness of symp- 
toms : febrifuge, n., feb'ri-fudj 
(L. fugo, I drive away), any 
medicine which mitigates or 
removes a fever, as quinia, bark, 
and arsenic. 

fecula, n., also fsecula, n.,f$-ul'd 
(L.fwcula, salt of tartar deposited 
from urine from fcex, dregs or 
sediment), a powder obtained from 
plants and their seeds, etc., by 
crushing and washing them and 
allowing the matter to settle : 
feculence, n., fZ&ul-Zns, in 
phar., any substance settling 
from turbid fluids : feculent, a., 

fek'-ul-ent, abounding with sedi- 
ment or excrementitions. 

fecundation, n., fek'-und'Of-sliun 
(L. fecundus, fruitful, fertile), 
the act of making fruitful ; state 
of being impregnated : fecundity, 
Ti.,feJc'und-tt-z, fruitfulness ; the 
power of producing or bringing 
forth young. 

felo de se, fel'-o de se (mid. L., a 




felon upon himself), a suicide ; 
in law, one who commits a felony 
by suicide. 

female flower, fem'al flow'r, in 
bot. y a flower producing pistils 

femur, n. , fem'ur (L. f$mur, the 
thigh, f&moris), one of the thigh- 
bones ; one of the two largest 
and longest bones of the body : 
femoral, a., fem'tir-dl, pert, to 
the thigh : femoral condyles, 
the rounded eminences at each 
end of the thigh-bones; f. region, 
the thighs ' region ' simply 
denoting any artificial division of 
the body, as 'chest/ * abdomen,' 

fenestra, n.,/8n-&^r# (L.fenest- 
ra, a window), in anat., applied 
to two small openings in the 
petrous portion of the temporal 
bone : fenestra ovalis, ov-dl'-fo 
(L. ovalis, of or belonging to an 
egg from ovum, an egg), in the 
ear, a reniform opening, leading 
from the tympanum into the 
vestibule : f. rotunda, rot-und'd 
(L. rtitunduSy wheel - shaped 
from rota, a wheel), an oval 
aperture placed at the bottom of 
a funnel-shaped depression lead- 
ing into the cochlea : fenestrate, 
a., fen-est'rdt (L. fenestrdtus, 
furnished with openings or 
windows), in hot., having open- 
ings like a window ; having small 

fennel, n. , fWr&l (L. feniculum, 
fennel ; AS. feonel), an umbellif- 
erous plant of various species; one 
is cultivated as a pot herb, and 
for its seeds and an essential oil ; 
systematic name is Foeniculum 
vulgare, fen-ik'ul-um vulg-dr'-8 
(L. vulgdris, general, ordinary 
from vulgus, the people); also 
F. dulce, duls'8 (L. dulcis, 
sweet), sweet fennel, Ord. Um- 

Ferns, n. , fernz (AS. fearn, fern ; 
Swed. fara, to go applied to 
events produced by diabolic art), 

a family of cryptogamic plants, 
usually with broad feathery leaves 
or fronds, Ord. Filices ; the fern 
or male shield-fern (Asplenium 
filix mas) is a remedy of very 
great value in the treatment of 

Feronia, n.,/3r $*# (L. Feronia, 
an old Italian goddess of plants), 
a genus of fruit-bearing plants, 
Ord. Aurantiacese : Feronia ele- 
phantum, el'e-fant'um (L. ele- 
phantus, an elephant), a species 
from which is procured a gum, 
like gum-arabic ; a genus of ticks 
infesting the horse and the ass, 

ferruginous, a^fer-rddf-m-us (L. 

ferrugmeus, of the colour of iron 
rust from ferrum, iron), im- 
pregnated or coated with oxide 
of iron ; chalybeate ; applied to 
medicines having iron for their 
active principle ; in bot., rust- 

Ferula, n., fer'-ul-a (L. ferula, 
the plant fennel-giant, a rod for 
punishment), the giant-fennels, a 
genus of plants, Ord. Umbellif- 
erse : Ferula galbaniflua, gal'- 
ban-i-fld'a (L. galbdnum, the 
resinous sap of an umbelliferous 
plant in Syria ; fluo, I flow) ; 
also F. mbricaulis, roob'-rl- 
kdivl'fa (L. ruber, red ; caulis, 
a stem), are species which pro- 
duce the gum-resin galbanum, 
consisting of resin, gum, and a 
volatile oil, used as an antispas- 
modic and emenagogue : F. Pers- 
ica, Pers f -iJc-a (L. Persicus, of or 
from Persia), a plant whose leaves 
are very much divided, yields an 
inferior sort of asafoetida, consist- 
ing of a resinous and gummy 
matter with a sulphur oil, used 
as a stimulant, antispasmodic, 
and anthelmintic. 

Festuca, n., ftet-u&& (old F. 
festu, a straw ; L. festuca, the 
young shoot or stalk of a tree), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Graminese : 
fescue, n.,f$sk'u t a sharp-pointed 




kind of grass : Festuca flabel- 
loides, flab'-el'loyd'-ez (L. flabel- 
lum, a fly-flap ; Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), the Tussac grass of the 
Falkland Islands, which, though 
tender enough for animal food, 
attains a height of five or six 
feet ; festucine, a., fest-u'-sm, 
of a straw colour. 

fetlock, n., fWMk (Dut. vitloJc, 
Swiss, Jiesloch, the pastern of a 
horse ; Ger. Jitze, a bundle of 
threads), the tuft of hair growing 
a little above the back part of the 
hoof of a horse ; the joint on 
which such hair grows. 

Feverfew, n.,fev-er-fu (F. fievre, 
L. febris, a fever ; fugdre, to put 
to flight), a herb good against 
fevers ; the plant Pyrethruni 
parthenium, which is aromatic 
and stimulant. 

libra primitiva, fib'ra prim'-it- 
w'-d (L. flbra, a fibre, a band ; 
primitivus, that which is first or 
original from primus, first), 
the primitive band in the nervous 
system : fibrse vel processus ar- 
ciformes, vel prd'sZs'-sdos drs'i- 
form f -ez (L. vel, or ; processils, 
processes ; arciformes, a. plu., 
shaped like a bow from arcus, 
a bow ; forma, shape), the 
arciform fibres or processes, a 
set of superficial white fibres on 
the forepart and sides of the 
medulla oblongata. 

fibril, n., fW-ril (a dimin. of L. 
fibra, a fibre), a very minute or 
ultimate fibre : fibrillsB, n. plu., 
fib-ril'-le, in bot., the thread-like 
divisions of roots : fibrillation, 
n., fib'rtt-ld'shun, the state or 
condition of becoming fibrils, or 
in appearance like fibrils : fibril- 
lose, a., fib'-ril-loz, in bot., 
covered with little strings or 
fibres : fibrillous, a., flb'r&lfo, 
consisting of or formed of small 
fibres : fibrin, n., fib'rin, a 
peculiar substance found in 
animals and vegetables, which 
forms fibres and muscular flesh ; 

a substance formed in the act of 
coagulation of the blood by the 
union of fibrinogen, a body 
peculiar to intercellular fluid, 
with a fibrinoplastic substance 
termed paraglobulin, derived 
from the cellular structures 
of the body : fibrinogen, n., 
fib-rin'o-j%n (Gr. gennao, 1 pro- 
duce), one of the two substances 
which produce fibrin, the coag- 
ulum in hydrocele fluid, in serous 
fluids, and in blood, the other 
substance being named 'globulin': 
fibrinogenous, a., fW-rm-odf- 
$n-us, denoting a substance found 
in a hydrocele fluid, etc. ; pro- 
ducing fibrin : fibrinoplastic, a. , 
fib'rm-o-pldst'ik (Eng. plastic), 
denoting one of the ingredients 
which produce fibrin ; also de- 
noting globulin : fibrinoplastin, 
n. , -pldst'-m, another name for glob- 
ulin ; a substance supplied from 
the blood : fibroid, a. , fib'-royd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), resem- 
bling simple fibre in structure ; 
denoting a tumour in which the 
cell elements have assumed the 
appearance of fibres : fibro-cellul- 
ar, in bot., tissue composed of 
spiral cells : fibrous, a., fib'-rtis, 
composed of numerous fibres : 
fibro - vascular tissue, a tissue 
composed of mixed vessels, con- 
taining spiral and other fibres. 
fibula, n., fib'-ul'O, (L. fibtila, a 
buckle), the outer and smaller 
bone of the leg, so named as 
being opposite the part where 
the knee- buckle was placed when 
these were worn ; the part cor- 
responding to the ulna in the 

Ficoidese, n. plu., fik-oyd^-e (L. 
ficus, a fig), the Fig-marigold and 
Ice-plant family, an Order ot 
plants, the greater part found at 
the Cape of Good Hope some 
are used as food, others yield 
soda : ficoidean, &.,fzk-dyd f -Z-dn, 
having an arrangement of parts 
as in the fig plant. 




Ficus, n., fitftis (L. ficus, the 
fig tree and its fruit), an extensive 
genus of plants, Ord. Moraceae : 
Ficus Carica, kar'-ik-a (L. Car- 
icus, of or from Caria ; Cdricj,, 
a Carian-dried fig), the common 
fig mentioned in the Old and 
New Testaments, consisting of a 
succulent hollow receptacle, en- 
closing numerous single-seeded 
carpels, called a ' syconus ' : F. 
Indica, in'-dik-a (L. Indicus, of 
or from India), the banyan tree 
of India, whose juice is some- 
times used in toothache, and 
bark as a tonic : F. australis, 
dws-trdV'is (L. australis, south- 
ern), a species which can live 
suspended in the air for a long 
time : F. religiosa, re'lidf-i-ozf-d 
(L. religiosus, pious, religious 
from religio, religion), the pippul 
tree, or sacred fig of India : F. 
elastica, e-ldst'-ik-a (mid. L. 
elasticus, It. elastico, elastic), a 
species which produces a large 
amount of caoutchouc, as also a 
few others : F. sycomorus, sik'-o- 
mor'-us (L. sycomoros, a mulberry 
tree), probably the sycamore of 
the Bible, whose wood is said to 
be very durable : F. racemosa, 
ras'e-mdz'd (L. racemosus, full 
of clusters), a species which is 
slightly astringent, and the 
juice of the root a powerful 

filament, n.,fil f -d-ment (L,filum, 
a thread), a thread ; a fibre ; in 
bot., the stalk supporting the 
anther ; a thread-like substance 
formed of cells placed end on end : 
filamentous, a., fW'&m&ntf'fa, 
denoting a string of cells placed 
end to end ; thread-like ; bearing 
filaments: filiform, SL.,fil f -i'fdrm, 
slender like a thread. 

Filaria, n., fil-dr'-i-d (L.filum, a 
thread), a genus of parasitic 
worms : Filaria bronchialis, 
brong'-ki-dV-is (new L. bronchialis, 
bronchial from Gr. brongchos, 
the windpipe), a species once 

found in diseased bronchial 
glands : F. immitis, im-mlt'is, 
(L. immitis, not soft, rough, 
fierce), a parasite of the dog, 
found in the heart : f . lachrymal- 
is, lakf-rim-dV-is (L. Idchryma, a 
tear), a parasite of the horse and 
ox : F. Medinensis, med'-in-ens'-is 
(Medina, in Arabia, where fre- 
quently met with), the Guinea 
worm, a parasite met with chiefly 
on some parts of the shores of 
Africa, which penetrates the skin 
of the feet and legs, causing pain- 
ful symptoms : F. oculi humani, 
ti&iU'i hum>dn'*l (L. oculus, the 
eye; humdnus, human), the fil- 
aria of the human eye, a species 
discovered in the surrounding 
fluid and in the crystalline 
lens : F. papillosa, pap'-tt'loz'd 
(L. papillosus, having many 
small nipples from papilla, a 
nipple), a parasite of the horse, 
ox, and ass, found in the globe of 
the eye : F. sanguinis hominis, 
sdng'gimn-is hdm'm-ts (L. sang- 
uis, blood, sanguinis, of blood ; 
homo, man, hommis, of man), the 
filaria of the blood of man ; a 
parasite found in the blood of 
man, usually in connection with 
elephantiasis of the skin, and a 
milky state of the urine (chylous 
urine) : F. tripinnulosa, tri- 
pin'-ul-o'zf'd (L. tris, three ; pin- 
nula, a little wing), a parasite 
of the dog, found in capsule of 
crystalline lens. 

Filices, n. plu., /#&& (L.ftlix, 
a fern, filices, ferns), the Fern 
family, elegant, leafy, herbaceous 
plants, which in tropical and mild 
climates become large trees. 

filum terminale, fll'-urn term'in- 
al''% (L, termindlis, terminal from 
terminus, a bound, a limit), the 
terminal thread or ligament ; the 
central ligament of the spinal 

fimbria, n,, fim'-bri-a, finibrise, 
n. plu., fim'-bri-e (L. fimbrice, 
threads, fringe), in anat., any 




structure resembling a fringe : 
firnbriated, a., flm'-bri-aM, 

fringed at the margin. 

finger and toe, a diseased form of 
turnip growth, in which the bulbs 
are divided into two or more 

first intention, the healing up of 
a cut or wound without suppur- 

fissile, a., fis'-sil (L. fissilis, that 
may be split from jissus, cleft 
or split), having a tendency to 
become split or divided. 

fissilinguia, n . , fis'-si- ting'gwi' a 
(L. fissus, cleft ; lingua, the 
tongue), a division of Lacertilia 
having bifid tongues. 

fission, n. , fish'un (L. fissus, cleft 
or split), in zool., multiplication 
by means of a process of self-div- 
ision ; in bot., the division of an 
organ which is usually entire : 
fissiparous, a., fis-stp'ar-us (L. 
pario, I produce), applied to the 
multiplying or increasing certain 
animal forms by the self-division 
of the individual into two or more 
parts, each of which becomes a 
perfect creature, similar to the 
parent original ; in bot. , propag- 
ating by a division of cells ; div- 
iding spontaneously in to two parts 
by means of a septum : fissipara, 
n. plu. ,fis-sip f -ar'd, aname applied 
to those creatures which propag- 
ate by spontaneous fission : fissi- 
paration, n., fis'si-pdr'd'shun, 
the act or process of propagating 
by spontaneous fission, as among 
the Infusoria and Polyps, etc. 

Fissirostres, n. plu^fis'si-rd's'trez 
(L. fissus, cleft ; rostrum, a beak), 
a Sub - order of the perching 

fissura palpebrarum, fis-sur'-a, 
palp'Z'brdr'um (L. fissura, a 
cleft, a chink ; palp$bra, the eye- 
lid, palpebrarum, of the eyelids), 
the fissure of the eyelids ; the 
interval between the angles of 
the eyelids. 

fissure, n., fisti>uT (L. jissura, a 

cleft or slit; F. fissure), a straight 
slit in an organ for the discharge 
of its contents ; a slit or cleft. 

fistula, n., fist'-ul'd (L. fistula, a 
hollow reed), a narrow channel 
or tube leading to a cavity con- 
taining matter or dead bone, or 
communicating with the intest- 
inal canal or other cavity, and 
lined with a membrane wilich 
secretes a puriform fluid ; a deep 
narrow u]cer or sore ; fistular, a., 
fist'-ul-ar, also fistulous, a,.,fist- 
ul-us, having the nature of a fist- 
ula ; in bot., hollow like the 
stem of grasses. 

flabelliform, &. , flab-el'-li-fdrm (L. 
fiabellum, a fan ; forma, shape), 
in bot., shaped like a fan; plaited 
like a fan. 

flaccid, a., flak'sid (L. flaccidus, 
flabby, withered), soft and weak; 
wanting in stiffness. 

Flacourtieae, n. plu.,/a'oor.^.e 
(in honour of Flacourt, a French 
botanist), a tribe of shrubs or 
small trees, Ord. BixaceaB : Fla- 
courtia, fla-boor'-shi-a, a genus of 
ornamental fruit trees or shrubs, 
some bearing edible fruits, and 
others useful in medicine : F. 
ramontchi, ra-mon'tshi (a native 
name), a species from Madagascar, 
bearing leaves and fruit similar 
to those of a plum. 

flagellum, n., fla-jel'lum (L. fla- 
gellum, a whip, a scourge), in 
bot., a runner ; a creeping stem, 
bearing rooting buds at different 
points, as in the strawberry ; the 
lash -like appendage exhibited by 
many Infusoria: flagelliform, a., 
fia-jettlifd'rm (L. forma, shape), 
tapering and supple like a whip : 
flagellate, a.,fid'jel'ldt, in same 
sense ; having a long lash-like 

flavescent, &.,fidv-$s'$nt (L. flav- 
esco, I become golden-yellow), in 
bot., growing yellow : flavicant, 
&.,flav'>ik-ant, yellow. 

fleam, n., flem (F. flamme, a 
lancet ; Dut. vlieme, a sharp- 




pointed thing, a lancet), an 
instrument used for bleeding 
horses and cattle. 

flex, v.,fleks (L.flexus, bent), to 
extend the leg upon the thigh or 
upon the pelvis: flexing, bend- 
ing: flexed, flekst, bent: flexes, it 

flexion, n., flek'shun (L. flexus, 
bent), the bending of a limb, 
as opposed to 'extension,' the 
stretching out of a limb : flexor, 
n. , fleks f -6r, a muscle which bends 
or contracts a part of the body, 
and is opposed to 'extensor,' 
a muscle which extends a 

flexor carpi radians, jieks'-or icarp-i 
rdd'-i-al'-is (L. flexor, that which 
bends or contracts ; carpus, a 
wrist, carpi, of a wrist ; radius, 
the rotatory bone of the fore-arm), 
the radial flexor of the wrist ; the 
muscle which bends the hand and 
assists to turn its palm towards 
the ground: f. carpi ulnaris, 
ul-nar'-is (L. ulna, the large bone 
of the fore-arm), the ulnary flexor 
of the wrist ; the muscle which 
assists in bending the arm : f. 
longus digitorum manus, Idng' 
gus didf-it-or'-urn man'-us (L. lon- 
gus, long; digitus, a finger or toe, 
digitorum, of fingers or toes ; 
manus, a hand, manus, of a 
hand), the long flexor of the 
fingers of the hand ; the muscle 
which bends the joint or phalanx 
of the fingers: f. sublimis perf- 
oratus, sub'lwi f -ls perf'-or'at'-us 
(L. sublimis, high ; perfordtus, 
bored through), the high perfor- 
ated muscle, so named from its 
being perforated by the tendon of 
another flexor, the 'flexor pro- 
fundis'; the muscle which bends 
the second joint or phalanx of the 

flexuose, a.,/es-w-oz, orflexuous, 
a., fleks'-U'tis (L. flexudsus, full of 
windings, tortuous from flexus, 
a turning, a winding), in bot., 
having alternate curvations in 

opposite directions ; bent in a 
zigzag manner. 

flexure, n., flZks'ur (L. flexura, a 
bending or winding), a joint ; 
the part bent ; a curvature. 

flocculent, a., flok'-kul-Znt (L. floc- 
culus, a small lock of wool from 
floccus, a lock of wool), having 
the appearance of flocks or flakes; 
adhering in flocks or flakes : floc- 
culence, n.,fl6k f -kul>ens, the state 
of being in flocks or flakes ; ad- 
hesion in flocks : flocculose, a. , 
fldk'kul-dz, woolly ; like wool : 
flocculus, n.,fl8kf'kul-us, in anat. , 
a prominent tuft or lobule, sit- 
uated behind and below the 
middle peduncle of the cere- 

floccus, n., fldtekus, flocci, n. plu., 
fl$k''Si (L. floccus, a lock of wool), 
a tuft of hair terminating in a 
tail ; woolly hairs or threads ; 
woolly filaments with sporules 
in Fungi and Algae : floccose, a. , 
flok-koz', covered with wool-like 

flora, n., flor'-a (L. Flora, the 
goddess of flowers from flos, a 
flower, floris, of a flower), plants 
peculiar to a country, or to a 
geological era ; the opposite, 
'fauna,' signifies the animals 
peculiar to a district : floral, a., 
fl6r'-al, pert, to flowers ; in bot. , 
seated near the flower, and about 
the flower-stalk : floral envelopes, 
the calyx and corolla : florets, n. 
plu., flor'-ets, the little flowers 
collected into a head in composite 

Florideas, n. plu., flor-id'e-e (L. 
floridus, flowery from flos, a 
flower), a Sub-order of Algse ; 
rose or purple coloured sea-weeds, 
with fronds formed of a single row 
of articulated cells, or of several 
rows ; also called ' Rhodosporese, ' 
or ' Choristosporei. ' 
flosculous, a., fltisk'-ul-us, and 
floscular, ^./flosk'-ul-ar (L. flosc- 
ulus, a little flower from flos, a 
flower), in bot., applied to the 




tubular florets of Composite : 
floscule, n., fldsk'-ul, the partial 
or lesser floret. 

floss, n., fids (It. floscio, Pied. 
flos, drooping, flaccid ; F. flosche, 
weak, soft ; Bav. floss, loose, not 
fast), a downy or silky substance 
found in the husks of certain 

fluctuation, n., fl&&tii-&+h&n (L. 
fluctuatus, moved like a wave 
from fluctus, a wave), the wave- 
like movement, when there is 
any accumulation of fluid in a 
part, felt by manipulation. 

fluorine, n., fid'-or-m (L. fluo, I 
flow ; fluor, a flowing so called 
from being used as a flux), an 
elementary substance first found 
in fluor-spar. 

flux, n. , fluks (L. fluxus, a flow, a 
flux), an abnormal discharge of 
fluid matter from the bowels or 
other part. 

foetor, n,, fet'-8r (L. fcetor, a 
stench), a strong offensive smell. 

foetus, n,, fet'-us (L. fcetus, filled 
with young, pregnant), the young 
of animals in the womb, or in 
the egg after assuming a perfect 
form : foetal, a., fet'-al, pert, to 
the foetus: fcetation, n., fet-af* 
shun, the formation of a foetus : 
foeticide, n.,fet'i-sid (L. ccedo, I 
kill), the killer of a foetus. 

foliaceous, a., /6#-a'7i#a (L. 

folidcZus, like leaves from 

folium, a leaf), leafy ; having the 
form or texture of a leaf : foliar, 
a., fol'-i-ar, pert, to or growing 
upon leaves : foliation, n. , fol'-l- 
a'- shun, the leafing of plants ; the 
manner in which the young 
leaves of plants are arranged in 
the leaf-bud. 

foliicolous, a., fdV-U^ol-us (L. 

folium, a leaf; colo, I dwell), 
growing on leaves: foliiferous, 
&.,fdl f 'i-if'$ (L.fero, I bear), 
leaf -bearing; also spelt foliferous, 

foliola, n.,fol'i'-M-&, and foliole, 
n., fdl f >i>ol (new L. folffilum, a 

little leaf fromfoUnm, a leaf), a 
leaflet: foliolose, a., fol'-t-Sl-dz, 
consisting of minute leaf - like 

follicle, n.,/o& (L. folliculus, 
a small bag or sac inflated with 
air homfollis, a bag or bellows), 
a little bag ; a cavity ; in bot. , a 
seed-vessel opening along the 
side, to which the seeds are at- 
tached, as in the pea : follicular, 
a., fol-lik'-ul-ar, also folliculous, 
a., fol'lik'-ul-us, having follicles, 
or producing follicles. 

fomes, n., fom'-ez, fomites, n. 
plu., fom'-it-ez (L. fomes, touch- 
wood, fuel, fomites, touchwoods), 
porous substances capable of ab- 
sorbing and retaining contagious 
matter (probably germs) ; woollen 
cloth and wood are said to be 
excellent ' fomites, ' 

fontanelles, n. plu., f8n'tan-elz f 
(F. fontanelle, the meeting of the 
seams of the skull from F. 
fontaine, L. fons, a fountain so 
called from the pulsations of the 
brain, perceptible at the anterior 
fontanelle, as of a rising of water 
in a fountain), four spaces in the 
skull, opposite the angles of the 
parietal bones, which remain un- 
occupied by bone after the osseous 
wall has been formed elsewhere. 

NOTE. The smaller spaces at the in- 
ferior angles of the parietal bones are 
of little consequence, and are filled in 
soon after birth. The anterior fontan- 
elle between the anterior and superior 
angles of the parietal bones, and the 
superior angles of the ununited frontal 
segments, is of great importance to the 
accoucheur in determining the posi- 
tions of the child during labour. The 
anterior and superior fontanelles are 
generally not wholly filled in till the 
second year. 

foramen, n.,/or-am-ew, foramina, 
n. p\i\., for dm' m- a (L. foramen, 
an aperture or opening from 
foro, I bore), in anat., a small 
opening such as may be made 
into a substance by boring; in 
bot. , the opening in the coverings 
of the ovule: foramen obturator, 




ol>'-tur-alf'6r (L. foramen, an 
aperture or opening ; obturator, 
that which stops or closes up), 
an oval opening in both sides of 
the large bone that ends or closes 
up the trunk ; the large oval 
interval between the ischium and 
the pubes : f. thyroid, ihlr'-oyd 
(Gr. thureos, a shield ; eidos, 
resemblance), one of the two 
openings of the shield- like bones 
which terminate the trunk ; same 
as ' foramen obturator ' : f . caecum, 
sek''Um (L. ccecus, blind), a small 
opening which terminates below 
the frontal crest of the skull : f. 
commune anterius, kom-mun'8 
ant-er'i'US (L. communis, com- 
mon ; anterior, that which is 
placed before from ante, before), 
the anterior common foramen, 
an opening under the arch of the 
fornix: f. commune posterius, 
ptist-er'i'US (L. posterior, that 
which is placed behind from 
post, behind), the posterior 
common foramen, an opening be- 
tween the middle and the post- 
erior commissure of the brain : 
f. incisivum, in'-sis-iv'-urn (L. 
incisivus, of or belonging to the 
incisor teeth from inclsus, 
notched, indented), the incisor 
foramen ; the opening immedi- 
ately behind the incisor teeth : 
f. magnum occipitis, mag'num 
dJc-sip'it-is (L. magnus, great; 
occiput, the back part of the 
head, occipitis, of the back part 
of the head), the great foramen 
of the occiput ; the great opening 
at the under and fore part of the 
occipital bone: f. ovale, dv-dl'e 
(L. ovdlis, an oval), the oval 
foramen or aperture between the 
auricles of the foetal heart; an 
oval aperture between the tym- 
panum and the vestibule of the 
ear: f. rotundus, rot-und'-us (L. 
rotundus, round, circular), the 
round or triangular aperture of 
the internal ear. 
Foraminifera, n. plu., for-am'-m- 

if'er-a (L. foramen, an aperture ; 
fero, I carry), an Order o Proto- 
zoa having shells perforated by 
numerous pseudopodial apertures; 
many-celled organisms : foramin- 
iferous, a., fdr'am'in-if-er-us, 
having many chambers or holes. 

forceps, n. plu., for'seps (L. for- 
ceps, a pair of tongs, as ifferriceps 
from ferrum, iron ; capio, I 
take), a kind of tongs of various 
sizes and shapes, used by surg- 
eons, and by anatomists and 
accoucheurs : forcipate, a. , fdr'- 
sip'dt, in oot., forked like 

formication, n., form'-ik-af-shun 
(L. formica, an ant), a sensation 
resembling that caused by ants 
creeping on the skin. 

Fornasinia, n.,fdr'naS'in'-i'a (not 
ascertained), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Leguminosse, Sub - ord. 
Papilionaceae: Fornasinia ebenif- 
era, eb'-en-if-er-a (L. ZbZnus, the 
eben tree, ebony ; fero, I bear), 
produces a kind of ebony, a 
papilionaceous plant found in 

fornix, n., forn'-iks, fornices, n. 
plu., ftirn'is-ez (L. fornix, an 
arch, fornicis, of an arch), an 
arched sheet of white longitudinal 
fibres, which appears partly in 
the floor of both lateral ventricles 
of the brain, situated beneath 
the corpus callosum ; in bot., 
arched scales in the orifice of 
some flowers : fornicate, a. , forn' 
ik-dt (L. fornicdtus, arched), 

fossa, n., fos'sa, fossae, n. plu., 

fos'-se (L. fossa, a ditch ; fossus, 
dug), in anat., a little cavity or 
depression in a bone ; any depres- 
sion in the human body : fossa 
cystis fellesB, sist'-is fU'-le-e, (Gr. 
kustis, a bladder, a pouch ; L. 

felleus, pert, to the gall from 

fel, the gall-bladder), the fossa 
of the gall-bladder, a shallow 
oblong cavity on the under sur- 
face of the right lobe of the liver 




for the lodgment of the gall- 
bladder: f. hyaloidea, htf&l-dfyd' 

e-d (Gr. hualos, glass ; eidos, 
resemblance), a cup-like depres- 
sion on the anterior surface of the 
vitreous humour containing the 
crystalline lens: f. innominata, 
m-ndm f -in-dif'd (L. in, not ; nom- 
indtus, -named), in the external 
ear, a ^narrow curved groove 
between the helix and antihelix : 
f. lachrymalis, laW-rim-cLl'-is (L. 
lachryma, a tear), a depression in 
the frontal bone of the cranium 
for the reception of the lachrymal- 
gland : f. navicularis, nav-i^ul- 
dr'-is (L. ndvicula, a boat from 
ndvis, a ship), a depression separ- 
ating the two roots of the anti- 
helix ; a depression on the floor 
of the urethra ; a small cavity 
within the fourchette ; f. ovalis, 
6v-dl'is (L. ovalis, oval), an oval 
depression situated above the 
orifice of the inferior vena cava : 
f. scaphoides, sMf-oyd'-ez (Gr. 
slcaphe, a little boat ; eidos, 
resemblance), another name for 
' fossa navicularis. ' 

fossil, n.,ftis'-stt (L.fossus, dug), 
any remains of plants or animals 
dug out of the earth's crust 
changed into a stony consistence: 
adj. , dug out of the earth : 
fossiliferous, a., 
(L. fero, I bear). 

Fothergilla, ^.Jo 
Dr. FotJiergill, of London), a 
genus of beautiful shrubs, whether 
in leaf or flower, bearing pretty, 
sweet-scented flowers, Ord. Ham- 

founder, n.,fownd'-er (L.fundus, 
F.fond, the ground or bottom), 
a diseased state of the plantar 
region of the foot in the horse, 
generally both fore-feet, produc- 
ing lameness. 

fourchette, n.,/o5r-s/^' (F. four- 
chette, a fork), a small transverse 
fold, just within the posterior 
commissure of the vulva ; the 
bone in birds formed by the 

junction of the clavicles ; the 
wishing-bone in a fowl. 

fovea, n.,fov'$-d, fovese, n. plu., 

fov'8-e (L. fovea, a pit, a depres- 
sion), in anat., a slight depres- 
sion ; in bot.j a depression in 
front of a leaf of some Lycopod- 
iacese, containing the sporangium : 
foveate, a., fov'-e-dt, also fov- 
eolate, a., fov-e'-M-dt, having 
pits or depressions called fovese 
or foveolse : foveola, n., f6v-& 
til-it (L., a little pit), in bot., 
little pits or regular depressions. 

foviUa, n., fov-tt'-Ut (L. foveo, I 
nourish), in bot., the matter con- 
tained in the grains of pollen, 
consisting of minute granules 
floating in a liquid. 

fracture, n.,frdkt f >ur (L.fractura, 
a breach, a fracture fromfractus, 
broken), a broken bone : simple 
fracture, the breaking of a bone 
without the injury of the skin or 
adjacent soft parts : compound 
fracture, a broken bone with a 
wound through the skin and 
muscles, and exposure of bone : 
comminuted fracture, a bone 
broken into several small frag- 
ments : compound comminuted 
fracture, a bone broken into 
several small fragments, together 
with injury of the soft parts, 
whereby the bones are visibly 
exposed, or are accessible to the 

frsenum, n., fren'um, fraena, n. 
plu.,./rew-a (L.frcenum, a bit, a 
curb), in anat., a part which 
checks or curbs ; a membranous 
fold which keeps an organ in 
position : fraenulum, n. , fren'ul- 
um (dim. of frcenum), used in 
same sense : fraanum linguse, 
ling'gwe (L. lingua, a tongue), 
the curb of the tongue ; a fold 
at the under surface of the 
tongue when short or too far 
forward in infants, they are said 
to be tongue-tied. 

Francoaceae, n. plu., frdng-6'd'- 
s$-e, also Francoads, n. plu., 




f r angle'- o> ads (after Franco, a 
botanist of the 16th century), an 
Order of herbaceous plants with- 
out stems, natives of Chili; the 
species regarded in Chili as cool- 
ing and sedative, and their roots 
are used to dye black ; the Order 
is sometimes included under the 
Ord. Saxifragacese : Francoa, n., 

frangk'd'-a, a genus of plants 
beautiful when in flower. 

Frankeniaceae, n. plu.,frangk-en'- 
t-d'-sfre, or Frankeniads, n. plu., 

frangk-en'-i'ads (after Frankenius, 
of Upsal, 1661), the Frankeniad 
family, an Order of herbaceous 
plants : Frankenia, n., frangk- 
en' t'd, a genus of beautiful ever- 
green shrubs or herbs, said to 
be mucilaginous and slightly 

Frasera, n., fraz-er'-d (after 
Fraser, a collector of N. American 
plants), a genus of curious little 
plants, Ord. Gentianacese : Fras- 
era Walter!, wdlt'&r-i ( Walter, a 
proper name; Walteri, of Walter, a 
Latinised spelling), a species 
sometimes called the American 
calumba, found in the morasses 
of N. America; the root is said to 
furnish an excellent bitter. 

Fraxinella, see 'Dictamnus.' 

Fraxinus, n.,fraks f -m'US (L.frax- 
mus, an ash tree), a genus of trees, 
Ord. Oleacese: Fraxinus excelsior, 
ek-sels'i-fir (L. excelsior, loftier 
from excelsus, lofty), the common 
ash, whose tough, elastic wood 
is much used by coachmakers, 
wheelwrights, and implement 
makers ; the 'weeping ash ' is a 
pendulous variety ; the wood of 
the roots is beautifully veined ; 
for 'manna ash,' see 'Ornus.' 

freckle, n., frtttt (Icel. frekna, 
Norse yfaj&r, freckles; Ger. fleck, 
a spot), congenital pigmentation 
of the rete mucosum, the spots 
being the size of split peas or less, 
occurring on the skin beneath the 
clothing, as well as on the skin 
when exposed to light ; lentigo ; 

also minute coloured specks 
often seen on the skin, generally 
the face ; any small discoloured 
spot ; ephelis. 

Freycinetia, n., fra'sm-ef-shi-a 
(after Captain Freycinet, a 
French circumnavigator), a 
genus of ornamental tree-like 
plants, some having a climbing 
habit, Ord. Pandanaceae : Frey- 
cinetia Banksii, ~banks'-i>l (after 
Sir Joseph Banks), the kie-kie 
or screw pine of New Zealand, 
whose fleshy bracts, called ' taw- 
hara,' are eaten by the natives, 
and made into a luscious jelly by 
the colonists. 

Freziera, n., friz'-wr'-a (after 
Frezier, a French traveller), a 
genus of tall ornamental trees, 
Ord. Ternstroemiacese : Freziera 
theoides, ihe-oyd'-ez (fhea, the 
tea-plant; Chin, tshd, Russ. tshai, 
tea ; Gr. eidos, resemblance), a 
species whose leaves are used as 
tea in Panama. 

Fritillaria, n., frit'41'lar'.i-a (L. 

fritillus, a dice-box, a chess-board, 
alluding to the chequered sepals 
of the flowers), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Liliacese, having singular 
and showy flowers : Fritillary, 
n., frit'-il'tir-i, the name of a 
common showy garden flower. 

frond, n., frond (L. frons, a leaf, 
frondis, of a leaf), the peculiar 
leafing of palms and ferns ; the 
union of a leaf and branch : frond- 
escence, n., frond -Zs'sgns (L. 
frondesco, I shoot forth leaves), 
the time or season of putting forth 
leaves ; the conversion of petals 
or other organs into leaves : 
frondlet, n., frdnd'-lZt, a little 
frond : frondose, a., frdnd>dz', 
having a foliaceous or leaf-like 

frugivorous, a., frd'jiv'or'tis (L. 
frux, fruit, frugis, of fruit ; voro, 
I devour), applied to animals 
that feed upon fruits. 

frustules, n. plu., frustf-ulz, alsc 
frustula, n. plu.,/r#s^w-a (dim. 




of L. frustum, a fragment), in 
bot., the parts or fragments into 
which certain sea -weeds, the 
diatoms, separate : frustulose, 
a., frust'-ul'dz, consisting of 

frutex, n., fr6t'.$ks (L. frutex, a 
shrub, fruticis, of a shrub), in 
hot., a shrub: fruticose, a,.,fr6tf 
ik-oz, shrub-like : fruticulose, a., 

fr6t-ik f 'Ul-dz, a dim. of fruticose ; 
somewhat shrub-like ; slightly 
shrubby: fruticulus, n., frdt-ifc 
ul-us, an under shrub not ex- 
ceeding the length of the arm. 

FucacesB, n. plu., fu-kd'-s&e (L. 

fucus, the rock - lichen ; Gr. 
phukos, the plant alkanet, sea- 
weed), a Sub- order of Algse, 
brown or olive coloured plants, 
growing chiefly in salt water, 
consisting of cells which unite 
so as to form various kinds of 
thalli ; the brown sea-weeds or 
sea- wracks, some of which are 
eatable, and others possess med- 
icinal properties : Fucus, n., 

fuk'-us, a genus of sea-weeds : 
Fucus bacciferus, bdk- sifter -us 
(L. bacca, a berry ; fero, I bear), 
the Gulf-weed, eaten as a raw 
salad, and pickled : F. digitatus, 
didj'-it'dt'us (L. digitatus, having 
fingers or toes from digitus, a 
finger), the sea-girdle and hangers, 
growing on stones and rocks in 
the sea near the shore: F. edulis, 
%d'Ul f 'is (L. edulis, eatable from 
edo, I eat), the red dulse, eaten 
raw or broiled : F. esculentus, 
esk'-ul-ent'-us (L. esculentus, fit 
for eating from esca, food) ; 
and F. fimbriatus, fim'-bri-dt'-us 
(L. fimbriatus, fibrous, fringed 
from fimbrice, fibres, threads), 
edible sea-weeds or daber locks : 
F. natans, ndif-dns (L. natans, 
swimming, floating), the sea 
lentil, said to be useful in dys- 
uria : F. palmatus, palm^dtf-us 
(L. palmatus, marked like the 
palm of a hand from palma, the 
palm of the hand), the handed 

fucus or dulse, eaten raw or 
cooked : F. pinnatifidus, pin'- 
nat'if'id'US (L. pinna, a feather, 
a wing ; findo, I cleave, fidi, I 
have cleft), the pepper dulse, 
eaten as a salad, is warm like 
cresses : F. saccharinus, sak'kar- 
in'-us (L. saccharum, Gr. sakchar- 
on, sugar), the sweet fucus or sea- 
belts growing on stones and rocks; 
leaves sweet, which exude a 
sugary substance when dry : F. 
vesiculosus, ves-ik'-ul-oz'-us (L. 
vesicula, a little blister, a vesicle), 
the plant bladder-fucus, sea-oak, 
or sea- wrack. 

Fuchsia, n^fii'shi-a (after Fuchs, 
a German botanist), a very 
beautiful and well-known genus 
of shrubs, of numerous species ; 
some of the garden varieties are 
exceedingly beautiful, Ord. Ona- 

fucoxanthine, n., fuk'o-zanth'm 
(Gr. phukos, the plant alkanet, 
sea-weed ; xantJios, yellow), a 
colouring matter of the Xantho- 
phyll group, found in Melano- 

fugacious, &.,fug-d r 'Slius(L.fugax, 
swift, fugdcis, of swift from 
fugio, I fly), in bot., falling off 
early, as the petals of Cistus ; 

fuliginous, a., ful-idj'm-us (L. 

fullgo, soot, fuliginis, of soot), 
sooty ; in bot., smoke-coloured, 
or brownish -black. 

fulvous, a. , fulv'us (L. fulvus, of 
a deep yellow), tawny yellow ; of 
a saffron colour. 

FumariacesB, n. plu., fum-dr'i'd'- 
s%'e (L. fumus, smoke, from the 
smell of some of the species, or 
from the effect of the juice upon 
the eyes being the same as smoke), 
the Fumeworts or Fumitory 
family, an Order of herbaceous 
plants, said to be bitter and 
diaphoretic in their properties : 
Fumaria, K.,fum>dr'-i-a. a genus 
of plants: Fumitory, n. , fum'-it- 
or -i (fumeterre, a French name 




for the genus from L. fumus, 
smoke ; terrce, of the earth), the 
English name for the genus. 

fundament, n., fund'-a-mZnt (L. 

funddmentum, groundwork, basis 
from fundo, I lay the found- 
ation), the lower part of the 
rectum ; the anus ; the seat of 
the body : fundus, n., fund'tis 
(L. the bottom of a thing), the 
base or lower part of an organ 
which has a neck or external 
opening : fundal, a., fund'al, 
pert, to the fundus. 

fungous, a., fung'us, having the 
character or consistence of Fungi: 
fungosity, n., fung-fts'-i-li, a soft 
excrescence: fungiform, &.,f unf- 
it-form (L. forma, shape), having 
the shape of a fungus ; like a 
fungus : fungoid, a., fung'-oyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), like a 
fungus ; fungiform : Fungus 
hsematodes, hem'-at-od'ez (Gr. 
haima, blood; eidos, resemblance), 
a variety of soft cancer in which 
the tumour is large and of rapid 
growth, composed of soft cancerous 
tissue mixed with large clots of 
blood : F. vinosus, vin-oz'-us (L. 
vlnosus, having the taste of wine 
from vinum, wine), a dark- 
coloured fungus which vegetates 
in dry cellars where wine, ale, 
porter, etc. are kept. 

Fungus, n., fung'tis, Fungi, n. 
plu., funj'4(L. fungus, a mush- 
room or toadstool), a mushroom 
or toadstool ; the Mushroom 
family, an Order of plants ; 
in surg., the unnatural forma- 
tion of flesh about an ulcer, com- 
monly called 'proud flesh.' 

funiculus, n., fun-ik'-ul-us, also 
funicle, n., fun'-ik-l (L. funic- 
ulus, a slender rope from/wms, 
a cord), the umbilical cord con- 
necting the hilum of the ovule 
to the placenta ; a cord-like ap- 
pendage by which, in many 
cases, the seeds are attached ; 
in anat., a number of nerve- 
fibres enclosed in a tubular 

sheath forming a slender round 
cord of no determinate size. 

fur, n.,fer (Goth.fddr, a sheath ; 
Icel. fdtkr, Sp, forro, sheath, 
lining), soft, thick hair on certain 
animals ; a layer of morbid mat- 
ter, resembling fur, indicating a 
diseased state. 

furcate, a., ferk'-dt (L. furca, a 
fork), branching like the prongs 
of a fork : furcation, n., ferk-d* 
shun, the branching like a fork : 
furculum, n., ferk'ul-'iim, also 
furcula, -n.,ferk'ul'a (L.furcula, 
a forked prop, a dim. of furca, 
a fork), the v- shaped bone of 
birds, formed by the united 
clavicles ; the merry-thought ; 
in anat., the middle one of the 
three deep notches of the inanu- 
brium, or thickest part of the 

furfur, n., fer'fer (L. furfur, 
bran), scales like bran ; dan- 
driff: furfuraceous, a,,/er-/e'r-a- 
shus, scurfy or scaly ; covered 
with a meal-like powder : furfur- 
ation, n., fer'fer-d'shun, the 
state of suffering from scurf or 
scaliness of the skin. 

furunculus, iLjfur-ungk'-ul-us (L. 
furunculus, a petty thief, a boil 
from fur, a thief), a boil or 
small tumour having a central 
core, and suppurating imperfectly: 
furuncular, a., fur-ungk'ul-ar, 
of or belonging to a furunculus. 

fuscous, a., fusW'US (L. fuscus, 
dark, dusky), in bot., blackish- 
brown, or darkish-brown : fus- 
cescent, a., fus>s$s'ent, tending 
to a darkish brown. 

fusel oil, n., fuz'%1 (Ger. fusel, 
bad or poor brandy), an alcohol 
or volatile oil of a nauseous and 
irritating odour, contained in a 
greater or less quantity in all 
forms of crude spirits, and to 
which substance bad spirits owe 
their noxious qualities ; found 
only in minute quantity in fine 
wine spirits ; it is also spelt 




fusiform, a. , fuz'-i-form (L.fusus, 
a spindle ; forma, shape), shaped 
like a spindle ; tapering at both 

Galactodendron, n., gal-akt'o- 
dend'-rtin (Gr. gala, milk, gal- 
aktos, of milk ; dendron, a tree), 
a lofty-growing tree, called the 
cow-tree because its milky juice 
is used as a substitute for milk ; 
also called Brosmium utile, Ord. 

galactophorous, a., gal'-aJct-tif- 
6r>&s (Gr. gala, milk, galaktos, 
of milk ; phoreo, I carry), con- 
veying milk or white juice ; 
applied to certain ducts or 
canals in the mamma which 
convey the milk to the summit of 
the mammilla. 

galangal, a., gal'-an-gal (native 
name ; Sp. galanga, a species of 
the arrowroot), applied to a dried 
root brought from China, having 
an aromatic smell and a pungent 
bitter taste, formerly used in 
medicine ; the root - stock of 
Alpinia officinarum, Ord. Zingib- 

Galanthus, n., gal-ant'ti-us (Gr. 
gala, milk ; anlhos, a flower, 
alluding to the milk - white 
flowers), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Amaryllidaceae : Galanthus niv- 
alis, nw-al'-is (L. nivdlis, of or 
belonging to snow from nix, 
snow), the common snowdrop : 
G. plicatus, plilc-at'-us (L. plic- 
atus, folded), a larger and finer 
species of snowdrop, native of 
the Crimea. 

galbanum, n., gdlb^dn-iim (L. 
galbanum, Gr. chalbane, the resin- 
ous sap of a Syrian plant), the 
resinous gum of an umbelliferous 
plant imported from India and 
the Levant. 

galbulus, n., galb'-ul-tts (L. galb- 
ulus, Sp. galbulo, the nut or little 
round ball of the cypress tree), 
in bot., a modification of the 
cone, where the apex of each 

carpellary scale is much enlarged 
or fleshy, so that collectively they 
form a round, compact fruit. 

gale, n., gal or gal f -% (probably 
Norse galen, angry, mad; or Icel. 
gala, to sing from its supposed 
medical qualities ; F. gale], the 
Myrica gale ; the gale, Scotch 
myrtle, or bog myrtle, a native 
fragrant bush, common to marshy 
grounds and damp heaths in 
Britain, Ord. Myricaceae. 

galea, n., gal'-Z-a (L. gdlea, a 
helmet, a headpiece), in bot., a 
sepal or petal shaped like a hel- 
met: galeate, a., gaV-e-at, shaped 
in a hollow vaulted manner like 
a helmet. 

Galiese, n. plu., gal-i'$-e (Gr. gala, 
milk from the flowers of one of 
the species being used for curdling 
milk), one of the three series or 
Sub-orders into which the Ord. 
Rubiacese has been divided ; also 
named 'Stellatae,' because they 
have verticillate leaves : Galium, 
n., gal'-i-tim, a genus of plants, 
common weeds. 

galipea, n., gatti-pe'd (a native 
name; Sp. galipot, white frankin- 
cense), a genus of plants found in 
Venezuela, Ord. Rutacese : Gali- 
pea cusparia. kus-par'-i-d (L. cus- 
pis, a spear; but not ascertained); 
also G. officinalis, df-fis'm>al'.is 
(L. officinalis, officinal from 
officina, a workshop), plants which 
supply the Angostura bark, used 
as a tonic and febrifuge. 

gall, n., gdwl (AS. gealla, gall ; 
geakw, yellow ; Ger. galle, gall ; 
gelb, yellow), a bitter, yellow- 
ish - green fluid secreted by the 
liver ; bile : gall-bladder, n., 
a small pear - shaped sac which 
receives the bile from the liver : 
gall - stone, n., a concretion 
formed from the gall. 

gall, n., gdwl, also gall-nut (L. 
galla, F. galk, the oak-apple; It, 
galla, a bubble, an oak-gall), hard, 
round excrescences on the Quercus 
infectoria, caused by the punctures, 




and deposited eggs, of the Diplo- 
lepis Gallse tinctorise, etc. : gallic, 
a., gal' lik, denoting an acid 
obtained from gall-nuts. 

gall, v., gdwl (F. galler, to fret, 
to itch ; It. galla, scab ; Icel. 
galli, a fault or imperfection), to 
injure or break the skin by rub- 
bing : n., a wound in the skin 
produced by rubbing. 

Gallinacei, n. plu., gal'-ttn-H'sZ-l 
(L. galllna, a hen, a fowl), that 
section of the Order of Rasorial 
birds of which the common fowl 
is the type ; sometimes applied 
to the whole Order. 

galvanism, n., galv'-an-izm (after 
Galvani, the discoverer), electric- 
ity developed from the chemical 
action which takes place from 
certain bodies placed in contact, 
as different metals ; often applied 
to the body as a remedial agent, 
especially in the case of nervous 

3-amassia, n., gam-as'-si-a (a 
native name), the Gamass or 
Squamash, a genus of plants, 
Ord. Liliacese : Gamassia escul- 
enta, tek f -ul'<&n&& (L. esculentus, 
eatable, esculent from esca, 
food), a plant whose root bulb is 
used as food, and is called by the 
Indians of N. America ' biscuit- 
root. ' 

Jambier, n., gam'-bi-Zr, orGambir, 
n., gam'bir (from Gambler, East 
Indies), an astringent drug, and 
used as a substitute for catechu, 
obtained from the Uncaria gam- 
bier, Ord. Rubiacese. 

gamboge, n., gam-bddj' (from 
Cambodia, in Asia), a yellow or 
greenish kind of resin, used as a 
pigment, and in medicine as a 
powerful purgative. 

gamogastrous, a., gam'-d-gas'trtis 
(Gr. gamos, marriage, union ; 
gaster, the belly, an ovary), in 
bot., applied to a pistil formed by 
a union of the ovaries more or 
less complete, while the styles 
and stigmata remain free : gam- 

opetalous, a., gam'-d-pZt'al-us 
(Gr. petalon, a leaf), having a 
corolla formed by the union or 
grafting together of several petals, 
so as to form a tube ; monopetal- 
ous: gamosepalous, a., gam'-o- 
sep'-dl-us (sepalon, an adapted 
word, formed from Gr. petalon), 
having a calyx formed by the 
union of several petals ; mono- 
sepalous : gamophyllous, a., 
gam'-d-fil'-lus (Gr. phullon, a 
leaf), having one leaf or mem- 
brane ; monophyllous. 

ganglion, n., gdng'gli-dn, gangli- 
ons, n. plu., -tinz, or ganglia, 
n. plu., -li'd (Gr. gangglion, a 
little tumour under the skin near 
the sinews), in surg., a turn our in 
the sheath of a tendon ; a mass of 
nervous matter containing nerve 
cells and giving origin to nerve 
fibres; a nerve centre: ganglionic, 
a., gang'gtt'dn'tk, relating to 
ganglia ; applied to collections 
of nucleated nerve cells which are 
centres of nervous power to the 
fibres connected with them ; in 
bot., a swelling in the mycelium 
of some fungi : gangliated, a., 
gdng f -gli-dt'$d, having ganglions ; 
intertwined : gangliform, a. , 
gdng'-gli'f6rm (L. forma, shape), 
having the form of a ganglion : 
ganglioma, n., gdng'-gli-omf-d, a 
glandular or ganglionic tumour : 
ganglion intercaroticum, In'-ter* 
kdr>6t r -ik'Um (L. inter, between, 
amidst ; new L. caroticus, carotid 
from Gr. karoo, I throw into a 
deep sleep), a large ganglionic 
body placed on the inner side 
of the angle of division of the 
common carotid artery : g. thyr- 
oideum, thir>d^d^-um (new L. 
thyroldeus, resembling the shape 
of an oblong shield from Gr. 
thureos, a shield ; eidos, resem- 
blance), the smallest of the cerv- 
ical ganglia, placed on or near 
the inferior thyroid artery. 

gangrene, n., gang'-gren (L. gan- 
grcena, Gr.ganggraina, a gangrene 




from Gr. graino, I eat or gnaw), 
a condition of some soft part of a 
living body causing mortification 
and death of the part : gan- 
grenous, a., gang'gren-us, show- 
ing a tendency to gangrene ; 
having the character of gangrene: 
gangrena senilis, gang-gren'-d 
s&i'ittis (L. senilis, aged, senile), 
the gangrene which occurs in 
aged people from imperfect nutri- 
tion of a part, due to a diseased 
condition of the supplying blood- 

ganoid, a., gan'-oyd (Gr. ganos, 
splendour; eidos, resemblance), 
applied to an Order of fishes, 
living and extinct, having angular 
scales, composed of horny or 
bony plates covered with a shining 
enamel : Ganoidei, n. plu., gdn- 
dyd'-e-i, an Order of fishes. 

gapes, n. plu., gdpz (AS. geap, 
wide ; AS. geapan, Icel. gapa, to 
gape ; Gael, gab, a mouth), a 
fatal disease among poultry 
and birds, in which they open 
their mouths wide and gasp for 
breath, caused by the presence 
of the parasite sclerostoma syn- 
gamus in large numbers in the 
trachea, or partially developed in 
the lungs. 

Garcinia, n., gdr-sin'i-a (in 
honour of Dr. Laurent Garcin, 
a traveller), a valuable genus of 
fruit-bearing trees, Ord. Guttif- 
erse or Clusiacese : Garcinia 
morella or pedicellata, mdr-el'ld 
or ped'-i'Sel-ldt'-a (It. morello, 
dark, blackish ; F. morelle, the 
night - shade ; L. p%dicellus, 
a foot - stalk), a dioecious tree, 
with laurel - like foliage and 
small yellow flowers, found in 
CUmboja, Siam, etc., produces 
gamboge: G. pictoria, pik-tor'-i-a 
(L. pictorms, pictorial from 
pictor, a painter); and G. Travan- 
corica, trdv'dn-kor'tk-a (from 
Travancore, India), also furnish 
gamboge, which in commerce is 
received in the form of pipe, roll, 

lump, or cake gamboge : G. 
elliptica,e/-Z^^-a (L. elliptfaus, 
oval from ellipsis, an oval), a 
species producing a kind of 
gamboge, called 'coorg': G. man- 
gostana, man'- g 8s -tan'- a (Malay 
mangusta), a tree which bears the 
mangosteen, an E. Indian fruit, 
one of the finest known, re- 
sembling a middle-sized orange, 
filled with a sweet and highly- 
flavoured pulp. 

Gardenia, n., gdr-den'i-d (after 
Dr. Garden of Charleston, 
America), a splendid genus of 
plants, producing sweet-scented 
flowers of various colours, Ord. 

gargle, n., gdrg'l (F. gargouiller, 
to gargle, a word imitative of 
the sound produced ; gargareon, 
the throat), a liquid medicinal 
preparation, used for washing the 
mouth and throat : v. , to wash the 
mouth and throat by gargling the 
liquid up and down in them. 

Garryaceae, n. plu., gar'-ri-a's&e 
(after Nicholas Garry, of Hudson's 
Bay Company), a small Order, or 
rather Sub-order, of shrubs, with 
opposite leaves and pendulous 
amentaceous racemes of flowers, 
included in the Ord. Cornacese : 
Garrya, n., gdr f -ri-d, a genus of 
ornamental shrubs, similar in ap- 
pearance to Viburnum, and a 
great botanical curiosity: Garrya 
elliptica, el'lip r >tik-d(Lt. ellipticus, 
oval from ellipsis, an oval), 
a species which has unisexual 
flowers, and is prized for its 
peculiar silky catkins. 

Gasteromycetes, n., gast'-er-o-mi- 
set'-ez (Gr. gaster, the belly ; 
mulces, a fungus), a division of 
the Fungi in which the hymenium 
is enclosed in a membrane, the 
spores being scattered over it in 
sets of four, as seen in puff-balls. 

Gasteropoda, n. plu., gast'-er-tip'- 
dd-d (Gr. gaster, the belly ; podes, 
feet), an Order of molluscous 
animals which have their feet 




along the belly, or a ventral 
muscular disc adapted for creep- 
ing, as in the periwinkle. 

Gasterothalameae, n., gast'-Zr-d- 
tlial'drnf-e-e (Gr. gaster, the 
belly; thalamos, a bed-chamber, 
a receptacle), a section of the 
Lichens having the shields always 
closed, or opening by bursting 
through the cortical layer of the 
thallus, the nucleus containing 
the deliquescing or shrivelled 

gastric, a., gast'-rik (Gr. gaster. 
the belly or stomach), relating 
to the belly or stomach in man ; 
popularly applied to certain forms 
of fever : gastric juice, the fluid 
in the stomach which acts as the 
principal agent in digestion : gas- 
tritis, n., gast-rit'is, inflamma- 
tion of the stomach: gastro, 
gast'ro, signifying, related to, or 
connected with the stomach. 

gastricolse, n. plu., gast-riWift-e 
(Gr. gaster, the belly ; colo, I 
inhabit), intestinal parasites, 
being the larvse of certain flies, 
found in the intestines of various 

gastro-cephalitis, gast'-ro-sef-al 
It'-is (Gr. gaster, the belly ; 
Tcephale, the head), inflammation 
of the stomach with excitement 
of the brain and head. 

gastrocnemius, n., gast'-rtilc-nemf- 
i-us (Gr. gaster, the belly; Tcnerne, 
the leg), the muscle or muscles 
which principally form the calf 
of the leg, and whose office it is 
to extend the foot ; this muscle 
is also called ' gemellus superior. ' 

gastrodynia, n., gast'-rd-din'-i'a 
(Gr. gaster^ the belly ; odune, 
pain), a painful affection of the 

gastro - enteritis, gasf-ro - %n f -fer- 
lt f -is (Gr. gaster, the belly ; en- 
teron, an intestine), inflammation 
of the stomach and small intes- 

gastromalacia, n., gast'-rd-mal-d' 
shi-d (Gr. gaster, the belly ; L. 

malacus, Gr. malakos, soft to the 
touch, tender), a softening of the 
stomach, due to the action of the 
gastric juice on the coats of the 
stomach after death. 

gastrorrhoaa, n. , gast'rtir-re'a (Gr. 
gaster, the belly ; rheo, I flow), 
catarrh of the stomach, attended 
with the discharge of abundant 

gastro-splenic, a., gast'-rd-splen'-ih 
(Gr. gaster, the belly ; splen, the 
spleen), pert, to the stomach and 

gastrula, n., gast-rdl'-a (a dim. 
formed from Gr. gaster, the 
belly), a name applied to the 
developmental stage in various 
animals, in which the embryo 
consists of two fundamental 
membranes, an outer and an 
inner, enclosing a central cavity. 

gattine, n.,gat'tm (a corruption of 
catkin ; It. gattino, a kitten), 
a disease in silkworms caused 
by the fungus Cladospor- 
ium herbarnm, so called from 
the dead caterpillars presenting 
the appearance of a kind of pas- 
tille, as the disease ' muscardine ' 
has that of a little cake. 

Gaultheria, n., gdwl-ther^i-d (after 
Gaulthier, a botanist of Canada), 
a genus of ornamental shrubs, 
Ord. Ericaceae : Gaultheria pro- 
cumbens, pro-lcumf-benz (L. pro- 
cumbens, leaning forward, bending 
down); and G-. shallon, shal'ldn 
(name in Amer.), furnish suc- 
culent and grateful berries which 
yield a volatile oil. 

gelatine, n., jel'at-m (F. gelatine, 
It. and Sp. gelatina, gelatine ; 
L. gelatum, to congeal), the prin- 
ciple of jelly ; animal jelly ; 
gelatinous, a., jet-at'-m-us, re- 
sembling or consisting of jelly ; 
having the consistence of jelly. 

gelatio, n., jel-a'-shl-o (L. geldtio, 
frost), frostbite as it affects man: 
gelation, n., jel'of-shun, the rigid 
state of the body in catalepsy, aa 
if frozen. 




gemelli, n. plu., /&&# (a dim. 
of L. gemini, twins), the names 
of two muscles, named respectively 
the 'gemellus superior 'and 'gem- 
ellus inferior,' see 'gastrocnem- 

geminate, a.,/8f?ifti-ai (L. gemini, 
twins ; gemindtus, doubled), in 
lot., growing in pairs ; same as 
' binate. ' 

gemma, n., j$m'-ma, gemmae, n. 
plu. , jem'me (L. gemma, a bud ; 
gemmce, buds), in bot., a bud ; 
leaf buds as distinguished from 
flower buds ; reproductive buds 
found in liverworts ; the 
buds produced by any animal, 
whether detached or not : 
gemmate, a., j&mtmdt, having 
buds : gemmation, n., jem-md' 
shun, the development of leaf 
buds ; in zool., the process of 
producing new structures by 
budding : gemmiferous, a., jem- 
mif^r-us (L. fero, t bear), 
bearing buds : gemmifonn, a., 

fim'-mi'ftirm (L. forma, shape), 
shaped liked a bud : gemmip- 
arous, a., jem-m^p'-ar-us (L. 
pario, I produce), in bot., repro- 
ducing by buds ; in zool., giving 
origin to new structures by a 
process of budding. 

gemnmle, n., fem'mul (L. gem- 
mula, a little bud from gemma, 
a bud), in bot., the first bud of 
the embryo ; same as * plumule' ; 
in zool, the ciliated embryos of 
many Ccelenterata ; the seed-like 
reproductive bodies or spores of 

genera, see ' genus. ' 

generation, n., jen'&r'd'shun (L. 
generdtum, to beget, to engender 
from genus, a race or kind), 
production ; formation : gener- 
ative, &.,jen'-er-dt'iv, that gener- 
ates or produces. 

generic, pert, to a ' genus. ' 

genestade, n., jen'-Zs-tdd (a cor- 
ruption of L. genista or genesta, 
the broom plant), an enzootic 
disease of cattle, sthenic hsema- 

turia, due principally to the 
astringent principle of the plants 
and young trees which animals 
eat ; so called in France as due to 
animals eating the plant Genist- 
ica Hispanica, his-pan'-ik-a (of 
or from Hispania or Spain) : 
Genista, n., jtn-tetf-ct (called in F. 
plantegenet), a plant from which 
the Plantagenets took their name: 
Genista tinctoria, tinglc-tor'-i-a 
(L. tinctorius, belonging to dyeing 
from tingo, I dye), a dye-plant, 
formerly known as ' dyer's green- 
weed ' or ' dyer's broom. ' 

genial, a., j&n'-i-al (Gr. geneion, 
the chin), of or belonging to the 
chin : genio, jen'i-o, signifying 
in compounds a connection with 
the jaw : genio-hyo-glossus, hi-o- 
glos'>sus (Gr. letter v, upsilon, or 
Eng. u; glossa, the tongue), a 
thin, flat, triangular muscle, so 
named from its triple attachment 
to the jaw, the hyoid bone, and 
tongue : genio-hyoid, hi'-oyd, 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), a narrow, 
slender muscle situated immed- 
iately beneath the inner border 
of the mylo-hyoid. 

genitals, n. plu., flthf-tt-tila (L. 
genitdlis, serving to beget from 
gigno, I beget), the parts of an 
animal which are the immediate 
instruments of generation. 

genito-crural, a., jen'it-d-krdr f -al 
(L. genitdlis, serving to beget 
from gigno, I beget), applied to a 
nerve which belongs partly to the 
external genital organs, and partly 
to the thigh : genito indicates 
connection with the genital 

Gentianacese, n. plu., j8n'shi-an- 
af'SQ'G (after Gentius, the anc. 
king of Illyria who first proved 
its virtues), the Gentian family, 
a well-known Order of plants, 
principally herbaceous, distrib- 
uted over nearly every part of the 
world, prized for their beauty ; 
many exhibit great variety of 
colours, have a bitterness in their 




roots, leaves, and flowers, used as 
tonics : Gentianese, n. plu., fin' 
shi-an'e-e, a tribe of the Order : 
Gentiana, n,, jen'sht-dn'-d, an 
extremely beautiful genus of 
plants : Gentiana lutea., ldot'8-a 
(L. lutum,, a plant used in dyeing 
yellow), a species whose root is 
principally used in medicine, 
found at a high elevation on 
Pyrenees and Alps, produces 
showy yellow flowers, and the 
root yellow internally : G. punc- 
tata, pungk-tat'-a (L. punctdtus, 
punctured from punctum, a 
puncture, a sting) ; G. purpurea, 
per-pur'8-d (L. purpureus, 
purple-coloured from purpura, a 
purple colour) ; and G. Pannon- 
ica, pan-ntin'-ik-a (L. Panndnia, 
an anc. country of Turkey), 
are species whose roots- are often 
mixed with the root of G. lutea : 
G. kurroo, Icur-rd' (a native 
name), a species of the Himalayas 
having similar properties : G. 
campestris, kdm-pest-ris (L. cam- 
pestris, pert, to a level field from 
campus, a flat field) ; and G. am- 
areUa, am'-dr-eV-ld (a dim. of L. 
amdrus, bitter), British species 
which have also been used as 
bitter tonics. 

genu, n., fin'u (L. gZnu, the 
knee), the knee or bend of the 
corpus callosum. 

genus, n., fin' Us, genera, n. plu., 
jen'-er-d (L. genus, birth, race, 
g&n$ris, of a race), that which 
has several species under it ; a 
group next lower to an Order ; a 
Species is one of the group called 
a Genus, while accidental differ- 
ences in species give rise to 
Varieties ; we have accordingly 
in natural history, the Order, the 
Genus, the Species, the Variety, 
while to indicate minor differences 
we have often groups called Sub- 
orders, Sub -genera, Sub-species, 
and Sub-varieties ; see * Species. ' 

Geoffroya, n., jef-froy'.a (after M . 
Geo/roy, author of Materia Med~ 

ica. died 1731), a genus of trees, 
Ord. Leguminosae, Sub-ord. Pap- 
ilionacese : Geoffroya superba, 
su'perb'd (L. superbus, excellent, 
splendid), a species whose fruit, 
called Umari, is much used by 
the inhabitants of Brazil, etc. 

geotropism, n., je-ot'-rop-izm (Gr. 
g$d, the earth ; trope, a turning, 
a change), in bot., the influence 
of gravitation on growth. 

Gephyrea, n. plu., jef-ir'-Z'd (Gr. 
gephura, a mound or dyke), a 
class of the Anarthropoda, com- 
prising the spoon - worms and 
their allies. 

GeraniaceaB, n. plu.^r-aft^-a'sg-e 
(Gr. gerdnos, a crane, in allusion 
to the long beak-like prolongation 
of the axis), the Cranesbill family, 
an Order of plants which are as- 
tringent and aromatic : Gerani- 
um, n., fir-an'-i-tim, a genus, 
some of whose species produce 
very handsome flowers : Geranium 
maculatum, mak'-ul-at'-um (L. 
maculatus, spotted, speckled 
from macula, a spot), a species 
whose root is called ' alum root, ' 
from its being a very powerful 
astringent : G. oblongatum, 06- 
long-gat'-urn (L. oblongus, rather 
long, oblong), the yellow geran- 
ium, whose root-stock is used by 
the natives of Namaqualand, S. 
Africa, as an article of food ; G. 
B/obertianum, rob-ertf'i'dn'-um 
(from Robert, proper name), a 
species used in K. "Wales in 
nephritic complaints. 

germ, n., firm (L. germen, the 
bud of a tree, a young twig), that 
from which anything springs; the 
rudiment of an undeveloped new 
being: germ-cells, the cells or 
nuclei which contain active 
germinal matter or protoplasm ; 
germ-mass, the germinal matter 
or protoplasm ; the materials 
prepared for the future form- 
ation of the embryo : germen, 
n., firm'-Zn, in bot., a name for 
the ovary : germinal, a. , firm' 




pert, to a germ : germinal 
vesicle, in bot. and zool., a cell 
contained in the embryo sac from 
which the embryo is developed ; 
the small vesicular body within 
the ovum or the yolk of the egg : 
germination, n., jerm'in-af-shun, 
the first beginning of vegetation 
in seed ; the first act of growth. 

Gesneracese, n. plu., gte'-nZr-a'-se-e 
(after the botanist Gesner, of 
Zurich), the Gesnera family, an 
extensive Order of little, soft- 
wooded herbs or shrubs, generally 
possessing considerable beauty, 
natives chiefly of the warmer 
regions of America : Gesnera, n. , 
g$s'n$r-a, a genus whose species 
are very handsome plants. 

gestation, n., gest-a'-shun (L. gest- 
dtio, a bearing or carrying from 
gesto, I bear or carry), the period 
during which females carry the 
embryo in the womb from con- 
ception to delivery ; the state of 

Geum, ge'-um (Gr. geuo, I give to 
taste, I entertain), a genus of 
ornamental plants, Ord. Kosacese, 
distinguished by astringent and 
tonic qualities : Geum urbanum, 
erb'dn'um (L. urbdnus, belonging 
to the city or town from urbs, 
a city), the common and water 
avens; andG. rivale, rw-dl'e (L. 
rivalis, belonging to a brook 
from rlvus, a small stream), have 
been employed as tonics and as- 
tringents, and for efficacy have 
been compared to Cinchona: G. 
coccineum, kok-sm'-8-tim (L. coc* 
emeus, of a scarlet colour from 
coccum, the berry of the scarlet 
oak), an extremely handsome 

gibber, n., gffi-l&r (L. gibber, 
crook-backed, hunch-backed ', gib- 
bus, hunched, humped), in bot., 
a pouch at the base of a floral 
envelope: gibbosity, n., gib -bos 
i-ti, a round or swelling promin- 
ence ; in bot., a swelling at the 
base of an organ : gibbous, a., 

gtb'biis, swollen at the base; 
having a distinct swelling at some 
part of the surface. 

gid, n., gid (a corruption of giddy, 
unsteady, alluding to their totter- 
ing gait ; Norse gidda, to shake, 
to tremble), the disease called 
' sturdy ' among sheep, caused by 
parasites on the "brain, viz. the 
Coenurus cerebralis. 

GilliesiaceaB, n. plu., gtl-ltztt-a'- 
s$-e (after Dr. Gillies, of Chili), 
the Gilliesia family, an Order of 
herbs with tunicated bulbs, grass- 
like leaves, and umbellate, spath- 
aceous flowers : Gilliesia, n., gll- 
liz'-i-a, a genus of the Order. 

gills, n. plu. , gilz (AS. geaflas, the 
chaps, the jaws ; Swed. gel, a 
jaw, the gill of a fish), the organs 
of breathing in fishes, forming 
reddish fibrous flaps, or fringe- 
like processes, placed on both 
sides of the head ; in bot., the 
thin vertical plates on the under 
side of the cap of certain Fungi. 

ginger, n.,jmf-er (F. gingembre, 
L. zingiber, ginger), the under- 
ground stem or rhizome of the 
Indian plant Zingiber officinale, 
also named Amomum zingiber, 
Ord. Zingiberaceae, used as an 
aromatic stimulant. 

gingivse, n. plu., jin-jiv'-e (L. gin- 
glva, a gum), the gums ; a dense 
fibrous tissue, very closely con- 
nected with the periosteum of the 
alveolar processes, and covered by 
a red mucous membrane : gingiv- 
itis, n., jm f -jiv'it f 'is, inflammation 
of the gums. 

ginglymus, n., gtng f -gttm"&8 (Gr. 
gingglumos, the hinge of a door, 
a joint), in anat., a joint which 
allows motion in two directions 
only, as the joint of the elbow 
and the lower jaw : ginglymoid, 
a., ging'-glim-oyd (Gr. eidos, re- 
semblance), resembling a hinge. 

gizzard, n., giz'zerd (F. gtsier, a 
gizzard; Prov. F. grezie, a gizzard 
from gres, gravel), the strong 
muscular division of the stomacS 




in fowls, birds, and insects ; the 

glabella, n., gtitb-Wld (L. gldbel- 
lus, without hair, smooth dim. 
from gldber, smooth), in anat., 
the triangular space between the 
eyebrows ; the nasal eminence 
lying between the superciliary 

glabrous, a., gldb'rus (L. gldber, 
without hair, smooth), in bot., 
smooth ; devoid of hair. 

glacial, a., glaf-slii'dl (L. glades, 
ice), consisting of ice ; frozen : 
glacial acetic acid, the strongest 
acetic acid, so named from its 
crystallizing in ice-like leaflets at 
the ordinary temperature of 55. 

Gladiolus, n., glad-i'ol-us (L. 
gladiolus, a small sword from 
glddius, a sword), an extensive 
genus of plants, consisting chiefly 
of beautifully flowering bulbs 
from the Cape of Good Hope, 
Ord. IridacesB ; in anat., the 
second piece of the sternum, con- 
siderably longer, narrower, and 
thinner than the first piece. 

gladius, n., glddius (L. glddius, 
a sword), the horny endoskeleton 
or pen of certain cuttle-fishes : 
gladiate, a., glad'i-dt, in bot., 
shaped like a short, straight 

glair, n., gldr (F. glair e, white of 
an egg; Scot, glair or glaur, mud 
or slime), the white of a raw egg; 
any viscous transparent substance 

\ resembling it: glairy, a., gldr'-i, 
like glair ; slimy. 

gland, n., gland (L. glans, an 
acorn, glandis, of an acorn), 
organs of manifold forms and 
structure which perform the 
functions of secretion, or when 
ductless are believed to modify 
the composition of the blood, 
found in all parts of the body ; 
a similar combination of ducts 
or vessels in plants ; an organ 
of secretion in plants con- 
sisting of cells, generally on the 
epidermis ; wart-like swelling on 

plants : glans, n., glanz, in bot., 
the acorn or hazel nut, and such 
like, which are enclosed in bracts; 
the nut-like extremity of the 

glanders, n. plu., gland' erz (old 
F. glandre, a swelling of the 
glands ; L. glans, an acorn), a 
malignant contagious disease of 
equine animals capable of being 
conveyed to man, which primarily 
affects the mucous membranes 
of the nose, and is accompanied 
by a starchy or gluey (fibrinous) 

glandule, n., gland' ul, also gland- 
ula, n., gland' ul'd (L. glandulce, 
the glands of the throat, dim. of 
glans, an acorn), a small gland 
or secreting vessel : glandular, 
a., gland'ul' ar, consisting of or 
pert, to glands ; in bot., applied 
to hairs in plants having glands on 
their tips: glandulse ceruminosse, 
gland'ul' e ser-drn'm-oz'-e (new L. 
cerumen, the wax secreted by the 
ear from cera, wax), the cerum- 
inous glands; the numerous small 
glands or follicles which secrete 
the ear-wax. 

glaucium, n., gldws'i-um (Gr. 
glaukos, a colour between green 
and blue), a genus of very pretty 
plants, Ord. Papaveracese. 

glaucoma, n., gldwk-dm'-a (Gr. 
glaukoma, a certain disease of the 
eye from glaukos, blue -grey or 
sea-green ; L. glaucoma, an ob- 
scuration of the crystalline lens 
from glaucus, bluish-grey), a dis- 
ease of the eye giving to it a 
bluish or greenish tinge : glauc- 
ous, a., gldwkf'US, of a sea-green 
colour ; in bot. , covered or frosted 
with a pale-green bloom : glauc- 
escent, a., gldfos-'es f >sent, having 
a bluish-green or sea-green appear- 

Glaux, n., gldwks (Gr. glaukos, 
blue-grey or sea-green), a very 
pretty genus of plants, so called 
in allusion to the colour of the 
leaves, Ord. Primulacee : Glaux 




maritima, mar-U'im-a (L. marit- 
imus, maritime from mare, the 
sea), a species having the corolla 
abortive, and the calyx coloured. 

gleba, n., gleb'a (L. gleba, a lump 
of earth, a clod ; glebula, a small 
clod), the spore-forming apparatus 
of Phalloidese : glebulae, n. plu., 
gUb f 'Ul-e, crumb-like masses. 

gleet, n., glet (F. glette, the froth 
of an egg ; low Ger. glett, slip- 
pery), a slimy or glairy discharge 
from a wound ; the thin humour 
as the result of gonorrhceal dis- 

Gleichenieae, n. pin., glik'gn'i'e-e 
(after Baron Gleichen, a German 
botanist), a Sub-order of the Ord. 
Filices, having the sori dorsal, 
and the sporangia opening vertic- 
ally : Gleichenia, n., glik-enfoft, 
a genus of pretty ferns. 

glenoid, a., gttn'oyd (Gr. glene, 
the pupil of the eye, a socket ; 
eidos, resemblance), in anat., 
applied to a part having a shallow 
cavity, as the socket of the 
shoulder joint : glenoid fossa, 

fd/'Sd (L. fossa, a ditch), the 
socket of the shoulder joint : 
glene, n. , glen'e, the hollow part 
of a bone ; a socket. 

glioma, n., gll-dm'a, gliomata, n. 
plu., gli*6m'at-a (Gr. glia, glue), 
a tumour peculiar to the brain 
and similar nervous structures, 
generally the former ; a tumour 
very nearly allied to the sarcoma, 
consisting of primitive cells re- 
sembling those of the insterstitial 
substance of nervous structure. 

globate, a., glob f -dt (L. globdtus, 
made round from globus, a ball), 
globe-shaped: globoids, n. plu., 
glob'-oyds (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), non-crystalline, clustered 
granules enclosed in grains of 
aleuron : globose, a., glob-oz' (L. 
globosus, round as a ball), having 
the form of a ball ; spherical : 
globosity, n., gldb-os'tt-i, the 

quality of being round. 

Globularia, n., glob'-ul-ar'-i-a (L. 

globulus, a little ball from 
globus, a ball), a very handsome 
genus of plants, Ord. Verben- 
aeese, so named from the pro- 
duction of the flowers in globose 

globule, n., glob'-ul (L. gldbulus, 
a little globe from globus, a 
globe), a very minute particle of 
matter in a round form ; in bot. , 
the male organ of the Chara : 
globulin, n., gldb'-ul-m, the 
albuminous matter which forms 
the principal part of the blood 
corpuscles; in bot., the round, 
transparent granules formed in 
the cellular tissue, which constit- 
ute fsecula : globulus, n., glftb'- 
ul-us, the round deciduous shield 
of some lichens. 

globus hystericus, glob' us hist-Zr'- 
ik-tis (L. globus, a ball ; hyster- 
icus, Gr. husterikos, pert, to the 
womb, hysterical from hustera, 
the womb), in hysteria, the sen- 
sation of a ball rising up in the 
chest and throat ; the hysterical 

glochidiate, a., glo-kid'-i-at (Gr. 
glochis, the angular end of any- 
thing, as of an arrow from glox, 
the awn or beard of grain), in bot., 
applied to hairs on plants, the 
divisions of which are barbed like 
a fish hook. 

glomerate, a., gl8m'er-dt (L. 
glomeratus, gathered into a round 
heap from glomus, a ball or 
clew of thread), gathered into 
round heaps or heads. 

glomerule, n., glomf-er-ul, also 
glomerulus, n., glom-er'-ul-us 
(dim. of L. glomus, a ball or clew 
of thread), a head or dense 
cluster of flowers ; the powder- 
ing leaf lying on the thallus of 
lichens : glomerulus, n., glom- 
eruli, n. plu., gldm-er'ul-i, gran- 
ulous cells, being the result of 
the transformation of other cells, 
either of normal or pathological 
formation, as in the case of mucus 
or pus corpuscles; in bot.. 




powdery masses on the surfaces 
of some lichens: glomeruliferous, 
a., glftm'er'-ul-if'&r'US (L.fero, I 
bear), in bot, "bearing clusters of 
minutely - branched, coral like 

glossanthrax, n., gifts' san-thraks 
(Gr. glossa, the tongue; anthrax, 
burning coal), among cattle, a dis- 
ease characterised by a develop- 
ment of malignant carbuncle in 
the mouth, especially on the 

glosso, glfts'-so (Gr. glossa, the 
tongue), a prefix in compounds 
denoting ' attachment to or con- 
nection with the tongue' : glosso- 
pharyngeal, far'm-je'dl (Gr. 
pharungx, the gullet), a nerve 
connected with the tongue and 
pharynx : glossitis, n., glfts-sU' 
is, inflammation of the tongue : 
glossoid, a., gifts' oyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling the 
tongue : glossology, n., gifts- sftl' 
o-ji (Gr. logos, discourse), the 
explanation of the special terms 
used in any science : glottis, n. , 
glftt'tis (Gr. glotta or glossa, the 
tongue), the narrow opening at 
the upper part of the windpipe 
at the back of the tongue : glot- 
titis, n., glot'tU'is, inflammation 
of the glottis. 

Gloxinia, n., globs-tri'i-a (after 
the botanist Gloxin, of Colmar), 
a splendid genus of plants, worthy 
of extensive cultivation, Ord. 

glucose, n., gl6-koz' (Gr. glulcus, 
sweet), grape sugar ; the peculiar 
form of sugar which exists in 
grapes and other fruits ; also 
found in animals, as in the blood ; 
also excreted by the urine in 
Diabetes mellitus. 
glume, n., gldm (L. gluma, the 
husk of corn), the husk of corn 
or grasses formed of flaps or 
valves embracing the seed : 
glumaceous, a., gldm-d'shus, 
resembling the dry, scale-like 
glumes of grasses : glumiferous, 

a., gl6m>if'er>us (L.fero, I bear), 
bearing or producing glumes : 
glumelle, n., gldm-el, or glum- 
ellule, n., gldm-el'ul, the inner 
husk of the flowers of grasses ; 
the palea or fertile glume of a 
grass : glumellaB, n. plu., gl6m- 
el'le, a plural used to denote the 
palese or fertile glumes of grasses. 

gluten, n., gldt'en, also glutin, 
n., gldt'in (L. gluten, paste 
or glue), a tough substance 
obtained from wheat and other 
grains : glutenoid, a., gldt'-Zn-oyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), resem- 
bling gluten or allied to it. 

gluteus, n., gl6t-e'us (Gr. gloutos, 
the buttock or hip), one of the 
three large muscles which form 
the seat: they are named respect- 
ively gluteus maxim us, mdJcs' 
im-tis (L. maximus, the greatest), 
which extends the thigh, and is 
the largest ; g. medius, med'i-iis 
(L. medius, the middle), which 
acts when we stand, and is the 
second in size ; and g. minimus, 
min'-im-us (L. minimus, the 
least), which assists the other 
two, and is the third in size : 
gluteal, a., gldt-e'al, pert, to the 

glycerine, n., gtis'-e'r-in (Gr. gluk- 
us, sweet), the sweet principle of 
oils and fats : glyceric acid, 
glis-er'ik, an acid produced by 
the action of nitric acid on glyc- 
erine : nitro - glycerine, mt'-ro- 
glis'er-m, a powerful blasting oil, 
and very dangerous explosive 
agent, prepared by the action of 
nitric and sulphuric acids on 
glycerine: glycogen, n. , gliJc'6-jen 
(Gr. gennao, I produce), a sub- 
stance formed by the liver, and 
capable of being converted into 
grape sugar, or into glucose. 

glycocholic, a., glikf-8-lMfk (Gr. 
glukus, sweet ; chole, bile), de- 
noting an acid obtained from the 
bile of the ox and other animals. 

Glycyrrhiza, n., glis'-er-riz'-a (Gr. 
i, sweet ; rhiza, a root), a 




genus of plants, Ord. Legumin- 
osae, Sub-ord. Papilionacese, the 
sweet, sub -acrid, and mucilagin- 
ous juice of whose roots is used 
as a pectoral : Glycyrrhiza glab- 
ra, gldb'rd (L. glaber, without 
hair, smooth), the plant which 
yields liquorice root, used med- 
icinally as a demulcent : G. ech- 
inata, Vlc'-m-at'-a (L. echinatus, 
set with prickles, prickly) ; and 
G. glandulifera, gland'-uL-tf-er-ci 
(L. glandulce, glands ; fero, I 
bear), also possess a sweetness in 
their roots and leaves : glycyr- 
rhizin, n., glfo'-fo-riz'tn, or glyc- 
ion, n., gtts'i-dn, the peculiar 
sweet principle in the roots and 
leaves of the Glycyrrhiza, and 
other papilionaceous plants ; 

gnathic, a., nath'-ik (Gr. gnathos, 
the cheek or jaw bone), belonging 
to the cheek or superior maxilla : 
gnathites, n. plu., nath-U'ez, in 
zooL, the masticatory organs of 
the Crustacea : gnathitis, n., 
ndth'i&id, inflammation of the 
jaw : gnatho, ndth'o, a prefix in 
compounds indicating connection 
with the jaw. 

gnaurs, n. plu., ndwrs, better 
spelling gnar or gnarr, ndr (Dut. 
knarren, to growl; Swed. knarra, 
to creak ; knorla, to twist or curl), 
excrescences or warts on the stem 
of a tree. 

Gnetacese, n. plu., net'd r 'S^-e (from 
gnemon, a native name), the 
Joint-firs, an Order of small trees 
or shrubs, some species bearing 
eatable, fleshy fruit : Gnetum, 
n., net'um, a genus whose seeds 
in India are cooked and eaten, 
and the green leaves are used as 

gnomonicus, n., nnt*#9{3;*& (Gr. 
gnomon, the pin or style of a 
dial), in bot., applied to a stalk 
which is bent at right angles. 

goitre, n., goyt^r (F. goitre, a 
wen), a large tumour or swelling 
on the fore part of the neck, 

prevalent chiefly in Alpine dis- 

Gomphocarpus, n., gdrn'/o-kdrp'- 
tis (Gr. gomphos, a peg, a club ; 
karpos, fruit), a pretty Cape 
genus of plants, Ord. Asclepiad- 
acese : Gomphocarpus frnticosus, 

frdt'-i'Tcozf-fis (L. fruticosus, 
shrubby from frutex, a shrub), 
the silk plant of Madeira. 

Gompholobium, n., gtimffd*l6tfl* 
urn (Gr. gomphos, a peg, a club ; 
lobos, a pod), a splendid genus of 
New Holland plants, Ord. Leg- 
uminosse, Sub-ord. Papilionacese, 
having club- or wedge-shaped 
pods : Gompholobium uncinat- 
um, tin'sin'tit'tim (L. uncindtus, 
furnished with hooks from 
uncus, a hook), a species which 
has poisoned sheep in Swan River 

gomphosis, n>, gSm-fdz'is (Gr. 
gomphoS) a peg, a wedge), in anat. , 
a form of joint in which a conical 
body is fastened into a socket, as 
the teeth in the jaw. 

Gomphrena, n,, gdm-fren'a (Gr. 
gomphos, a club, from the shape 
of the flowers), a genus of plants 
having round heads of purple and 
w r hite flowers, Ord. Amaranth- 
aceae : Gomphrena globosa, glob- 
oz'-a (L. globosus, round from 
gltibuS) a ball, a globe), the Globe 

gonangium, n., gdn-an'-ji-um (Gr. 
gonos, offspring ; anggeion, a 
vessel), the chitinous receptacle 
in which the reproductive buds 
of certain of the Hydrozoa are 

gongylus, n., g$ncf.jil>tis, gongyli, 
n. plu., gong'-jU-l (Gr. gonggulos, 
round), in bot., round, hard 
bodies produced on certain Algae, 
which become ultimately de- 
tached, and germinate ; same as 
* gonidia. ' 

gonidia, n. plu., g8n-fd'>t-a (Gr. 
gonos, offspring, seed ; eidos, 
resemblance), green germinating 
cells in the thallus of lichens 




immediately beneath the sur- 

goiioblastidia, n. plu., gdn'o'blast- 
id'-i-a, (Gr. gonos, offspring ; 
blastidion, a dim. of blastos, a 
bud), the processes which carry 
the reproductive receptacles or 
' gonophoresj ' in many of the 

gonocalyx, n., gdn'-o-kdl'iJcs (Gr. 
gonos, offspring ; kalux, a cup), 
the swimming-bell in a medusi- 
form gouophore; the same struct- 
ure in a gonophore which is not 

gonophore, n., gon^d-for (Gr. 
gonos, offspring ; phoreo, I bear, 
I carry), in bot., an elevated or 
elongated receptacle bearing the 
stamens and carpels in a promin- 
ent and conspicuous manner ; in 
zool., the generative buds or 
receptacles of the reproductive 
elements in the Hydrozoa, 
whether these become detached 
or not. 

gonorrhea, n., g^n'-dr-re'-a (Gr. 
gonorrhoia, a gonorrhea from 
gone, semen ; rheo, I flow), the 
discharge of a purulent or muco- 
purulent fluid from the inflamed 
mucous membranes of the gen- 
erative organs, the result of in- 
fection, and highly contagious ; 
urethritis : gonorrheal, a., gtin'- 
tir-re'al, pert, to : gonorrheal 
ophthalmia, inflammation of the 
eye from the contact of gonorrheal 

gonosome, n., gdn'd-sdm (Gr. 
gonos, offspring ; sdma, body), a 
term applied to the reproductive 
zooids of a hydrozoon. 

gonotheca, n., gdn'-o-thek'.a (Gr. 
gonos, offspring ; theke, a chest, 
a case), the chitinous receptacle 
within which the gonophores of 
certain of the Hydrozoa are pro- 

gonus, gon'-tis (Gr. gdnu, the 
knee), and gonum, gon'-um (Gr. 
gonia, a corner or angle), in bot. , 
words in composition signifying 

either 'kneed' or 'angled,' the o 
short when the former, and long 
when the latter ; pofygdnum, 
many-kneed ; tetragonum, four- 

Goodeniaceae, n. plu., go6d'$n-i- 
af-se-e (in honour of Dr. Good- 
enough, Bishop of Carlisle), the 
Goodenia family, an Order mostly 
of herbaceous plants, of Australia 
and S. Sea Islands : Goodenia, 
n., good-en'-i-a, a very elegant 
genus of plants : Goodeniese, n. 
plu., gdod'-Zn-i'-e-e, a Sub-order. 

Gossypium, n., gbs-sip'-i-um (L. 
gossypion, the cotton tree said 
to be from Ar. goz or gothn, a 
soft substance), a highly valuable 
genus of plants comprising the 
various species of cotton plants, 
cotton being nothing more than 
the collection of hairs which 
surround the seeds, Ord. Malv- 
aceae : Gossypium Barbadense, 
bdrb'a-dZns'e (of or from Barba- 
does), the species which yields 
the best cotton, the Sea Island, 
New Orleans, and Georgian cot- 
ton : G. Peruvianum, per-6v'-i- 
dn'-tim (new L. Peruvidnus, of or 
from Peru) ; and G. acuminatum, 
ak-um''in'dt f >um (L. acummdtum, 
pointed, sharpened from acum- 
en, a point), species which furnish 
the S. American cotton: Gr. herb- 
aceum, herb-d'se-tim (L. herbdce- 
us, grassy from herba, grass), 
the common cotton of India; 
the Chinese Nankin cotton : 
Gr. arboreum, dr-bdr^^'um (L. 
arboreus, pert, to a tree from 
arbor, a tree), the Indian tree 

gout, n., gowt (L. gutta, a drop 
from the old medical theory 
which attributed all disorders to 
the settling of a drop of morbid 
humour upon the part affected ; 
F. goutte, a drop, the gout), a 
well-known painful disease of the 

gracilis, n., gras'-il-is (L. gradlis, 
slender), the name of a long, thin, 




flat muscle of the thigh, which 
assists the ' sartorius. ' 

grain, n., gran (L. granum, grain 
of corn ; F. grain), the fruit of 
cereal grasses ; the smallest 
weight, so named as supposed to 
be of equal weight with a grain 
of corn : grains of Paradise, the 
seeds of ' Amomum malegueta. ' 

Grallatores, n. plu., gral'-ld-tor'-ez 
(L. grattator, he that goes on 
stilts from grallce, stilts), the 
Order of the long-legged wading 

Graminege, n. plu., grdm-tn'8-e, 
also Graminaceae, gram'-in-d'-sZ-e 
(L. grdmineus, pert, to grass 
from grdmen, grass), the Grass 
family, an Order of plants form- 
ing the most important in the 
vegetable kingdom, as furnishing 
the chief supply of food for man 
in the cereals, etc. , and herbage 
for animals : graminaceous, a., 
fjram'in'd'shus, pert, to grass ; 
like grass: graminivorous, a., 
gram-in-iv'tir-us (L. voro, I de- 
vour), feeding or subsisting on 

Granatum, n., gran-at'-urn (L. 
granum, a grain), the pomegran- 
ate, so called because full of seed; 
see ' Punica granatum. ' 

granivorous, a., grdn-w'8r>u3 (L. 
granum, grain ; voro, I devour), 
living upon grains or other 

granule, n., grcin'ul, granules, n. 
plu., gran'-uls (dim. from L. 
granum, a grain), minute par- 
ticles of matter, either organic or 
inorganic ; in bot., minute bodies 
varying greatly in size, having 
distinct, external, shadowed rings 
or margins, the external edges of 
which are abrupt : granular, a. , 
gran'-ul-er, also granulose, a., 
gran'ul'dz, consisting of grains 
or granules; resembling granules: 
granulated, a., gran'-ul'dt-Zd, 
roughish on the surface ; com- 
posed of granules : granulations, 
n., grdn'-ul-d'-sMns, the small, 

soft nodules of a florid red colour 
which appear on the surface of 
healthy healing wounds or ulcers : 
granula-gonima, grdn'-ul-d-gtin' 
im-d (L. granula, a little grain ; 
Gr. gonimos, having the power of 
generating), clusters of spherical 
cells filled with green granular 
matter, seated beneath the cor- 
tical layer in lichens. 

Gratiola, n., grat-tidl-d (L. 
gratia, grace, favour, the grace of 
God from their supposed med- 
icinal virtues), a genus of pretty 
free - flowering plants, Ord. 
Scrophulariacese : Gratiola offic- 
inalis, df-fis'-m-dV-is (L. offic'm- 
alis, officinal), the plant hedge- 
hyssop, bitter and acrid, formerly 
called 'Gratia Dei,' the grace 
of God, from its efficacy as a 

gravel, n., grdv'%1 (It. gravella, 
F. gravelle, sand), small stony 
concretions formed in the kid- 
neys, which, when passed, form a 
gravelly kind of sediment in the 
urine ; the disease thus caused. 

gravid, a., grav'id (L. gravidus, 
pregnant from grdvis, heavy), 
pregnant; heavy or great with 

grease, n., gres (F. graisse, It. 
grascia, grease), a disease in 
horses, consisting of inflammation 
of the skin at the back of the 
fetlock and heels, on which pus- 
tules form, yielding a fetid, pur- 
ulent discharge. 

Gregarina, n., grZg'dr-ln'-d (L. 
gregarius 9 belonging to a herd or 
flock from grex, a flock), one of 
the Gregarinidae, greg'dr-m'-id-e, 
a class of the Protozoa. 

Grevillea, n., grev-il'l&d (after 
Greville, a patron of botany), a 
handsome genus of New Holland 
plants, Ord. Proteacese: Grevillea 
robusta, rd-bust'd (L. robustus, 
oaken from robur, an oak tree), 
the silver oak. 

Grewia, n., gr6'i-d (in honour of 
Dr. Grew, the botanist), a genus 




of plants, Ord. Filiaceae, having 
elm-looking leaves : Grewia mic- 
rocos, mik'rolC'OS (Gr. mikros, 
little ; Tcosmos, a world); and G. 
Asiatica, azUi-at'-ik-a, (from 
Asia), species whose fruits are 
agreeable, and are largely em- 
ployed in making sherbet in 
N.W. India : G. oppositifolia, 
dp'pdz'-it-l'fol^'a (L. oppositus, 
placed before or opposite ; folium, 
a leaf), a species whose fibres are 
used in making paper. 

groin, n., groyn (F. groin, snout 
of a hog), in the human body, 
the depressed part between the 
belly and the thigh. 

grossification, n., gros'-si-fik-a'- 
shun (L. grossm, thick ; facio, 
I make), in hot., the swelling of 
the ovary after impregnation. 

Grossulariacese, n. plu., gros'-u- 
Idr-$'d's8'e (mid. L. grossula, a 
gooseberry ; grossulus, a small 
unripe fig from grossm, an un- 
ripe fig), the Gooseberry and 
Currant family, natives of 
temperate regions, and many 
yield edible fruits. 

grumous, a., grdm'-us (L. grumus, 
a little heap or hillock), clotted ; 
knotted ; in bot. , collected into 
granule masses. 

Guaiacum, n . , gwa'-yd'lcum or gwd> 
ya'-kiim (Sp. guayaco, S. Amer. gua- 
iac, the name of the tree), a genus 
of lofty ornamental trees, Ord. 
Zygophyllacese : Guaiacum offic- 
inale, of-fis'm-al'-e (L. offidnalis, 
officinal), a beautiful W. Indian 
tree, whose wood, lignum vitae, 
is prized for its hardness, yields 
the resinous substance known as 
guaiac or gum-guaiac, gwl'dk or 
gwaf-yak, the gum and wood used 
medicinally as a stimulant and 
diaphoretic : G. sanctum, sangkf- 
turn (L. sanctus, holy), a species 
which also yields gum-guaiac. 

guano, n., gdo>dn'6 or gwdn'6 
(Sp. guano or huano from Per- 
uvian huanu, dung), the vast 
accumulations of the droppings 

of sea-fowls found on islands on 
the coast of S. America, much 
used as a manure. 

guaranine, n., gwdr^dn-in (after 
a tribe of American Indians so 
named), a bitter crystalline sub- 
stance obtained from the Guarana 
bread or Brazilian cocoa, identical 
with caffeine. 

guard, a., n., gdrd (F. garder, to 
keep ; It. guardare, to guard), 
in bot., applied to sister cells 
bounding a stoma, formed by 
bipartition of a mother cell ; in 
zool., the cylindrical fibrous 
sheath with which the internal 
chambered shell of a Belemnite is 

Guatteria, n., gwdt-ter'-i'd (after 
Guatteri, an Italian botanist), a 
splendid genus of plants, Ord. 
Anonacese : Guatteria virgata, 
verg'dt'd (L. virgdtus, made of 
twigs or osiers from virga, a 
twig), a species yielding the 
lance-wood of commerce. 

gubernaculum, n., gobb'-er-ndlff-ul- 
um (L. gubernaculum, a helm, a 
rudder from guberno, I steer), 
a conical-shaped cord, attached 
above to the lower end of the 
epididymis, and below to the 
bottom of the scrotum. 

Guilandina, n., </# aw -c?m'a (after 
the Prussian traveller and botan- 
ist, Guilandina), a genus of pretty 
shrubs, Ord. Leguminosse, Sub- 
ord. Caesalpiniese : Guilandina 
bonducella, bond'-u-sttf-la (unas- 
certained), the nicker tree, yields 
a bitter and tonic, and its seeds 
are said to be emetic. 

Guinea- worm, n., g%n'%-werm (of 
or from Guinea, in Africa), a worm 
which infests the skin of man in 
certain warm countries ; the Dra- 
cunculus, which see. 

gullet, n., gul'-let (F. goulet, the 
gullet from gpule,^ the mouth ; 
L. gula, the windpipe), the pas- 
sage in the neck of an animal 
down which food and drink pass 
into the stomach ; the oesophagus. 




gum, n., gtim (L. gummi, F. 
gomme, gum), a vegetable mucil- 
age found thickened on the sur- 
face of certain trees : gum-resin, 
an exudation from certain trees 
and shrubs partaking of the 
nature of a gum and a resin : gum- 
arabic, a gum procured from 
several species of acacia in Africa 
and S. Asia : gum-lac, a resinous 
substance exuded from the bodies 
of certain insects, chiefly found 
upon the banyan tree. 

gumma, n., gumf-md, gummata, 
n. plu., gumf-mat-d (L. gummi, 
gum ; gummdtus, containing 
gum, gummy), a species of new 
growths produced in various 
organs of the body, arising from 
constitutional syphilis ; also 
called ' syphiloma. ' 

gustatory, a., gust'dt-er-t (L. 
gustus, taste, flavour), pert, to 
the taste ; applied to a nerve of 
the sense of taste which supplies 
the papillae and mucous membrane 
of the tongue. 

gutta percha, n, gut'td per'-tsha 
(Malay, ragged gum), a kind of 
caoutchouc which softens at a 
moderate temperature, used for 
soles of shoes, straps, and 
numerous articles of domestic 
use, the produce of Isonandria 
gutta, Ord. Sapotacese, obtained 
from Borneo and Singapore* 

XOTE. Said also to be from the name 
of the tree, or the name of the island 
from which first imported, viz. Pulo- 

Guttiferae, n. plu., gut-tif-er-e (L. 
gutta, a drop ; fero, I bear), the 
Gamboge family, an Order of 
beautiful trees and shrubs yield- 
ing a resinous juice of a yellow 
colour, acrid and purgative ; 
Order also named Clusiacese : gut- 
tiferous, a., gut-tif'er-us, yielding 
gum or resinous substances. 

guttulate, a., gut'-tul-at (L. gut- 
tula, a little drop), in bot. , in the 
form of small drops; composed 
of small round vesicles. 

guttural, a., gut'ter-al (L. guttur, 
the throat), formed in the throat 
pert, to the throat. 

gymnaxony, n., jim-ndJcs'-Sn-i (Gr. 
gumnos, naked ; axon, an axle- 
tree), in bot., a state in which 
the placenta protrudes through 
the ovary and alters its position. 

gymnoblastic, a., jim'-no-blast'-ik 
(Gr. gumnos, naked; blastos, a 
bud), applied to the Hydrozoa in 
which the nutritive and repro- 
ductive buds are not protected by 
horny receptacles. 

gymnocarpous, v,jlm'n8-1carp'&& 
(Gr, gumnos, naked ; karpos, 
fruit), in bot.> applied to naked 
fruit, that is, fruit having no 
pubescence or floral envelope 
around it ; applied to lichens 
having fructifications in the form 
of a scutellate, cup-shaped, or 
linear thallus. 

gymnogen, n., jim'-nti-jtin (Gr. 
gumnos, naked ; gennao, I pro- 
duce), a plant with naked seeds, 
that is, seeds which are not en- 
closed in an ovary; a gymno- 
spermous plant. 

Gymnolaemata, n. plu., jim'-no- 
lemf'dt'd (Gr. gumnos, naked; 
laimos, the neck or throat), an 
Order of the Polyzoa, having the 
mouth devoid of the valvular 
structure known as the epistome. 

Gymnophiona, n. plu., jim-nqf' 
i-on'-a (Gr. gumnos, naked ; ophis, 
a serpent, ophws> of a serpent), 
the Order of the Amphibia com- 
prising the snake-like Ctecilise. 

Gymnosomata, n; phi*, jlmf-no- 
s8m f >dt-d (Gr. gumnos, naked ; 
soma, a body, somdtos, of a 
body), the Order of Pteropoda 
which have not the body pro- 
tected by a shell. 

gymnospermous, a. , jim'no-sperm'- 
us (Gr. gumnos, naked; sperma, 
seed), having naked seeds, or 
seeds not enclosed in a true ovary, 
as Conifers: gymnospermsB, n. 
Tp\\L.,j%m'nd'Spdrm''e, alsogymno- 
sperms, n. plu., -spermz, mono- 




chlamydeous or aehlamydeous 
plants differing from Exogens in 
having naked ovules ; ovules de- 
veloped without the usual integu- 

jymnospore, n., jim'-nd-spdr (Gr. 
gumnos, naked; spora, seed), a 
naked spore: gymnosporous, a., 
-spor'-us, pert, to : gymnosporae, n. 
plu., jim-no-spor'-e, the class of 
plants having naked spores. 

jymnostomi, n. pln^jim-n^tdm-l 
(Gr. gumnos, naked; stoma, a 
mouth), mosses without a peri- 
stome, or naked mouthed : gym- 
nos'tomous, a., -tom-us, naked 
mouthed; without a peri stome : 
Gymnos'tomum, n., -tdm-urn, a 
numerous genus of plants, grow- 
ing in tufts and patches of various 
colours, found in almost every 
situation, Ord. Musci or Bryacese, 
so called in allusion to the open 
orifice of the theca. 

gynandrophore, n., gin- and' ro -for 
(Gr. gune, a female ; aner, a 
male, andros, of a male ; phoreo, 
I bear), in bot,, a column bearing 
stamens and pistil. 

gynandrous, a., gfa'&nd'rfo (Gr. 
gune, a female; aner, a male, 
andros, of a male), having 
stamens and pistil in a common 
column, as in orchids* 

gynantherous, a., gm'anth'er-us 
(Gr. gune, a female ; anther os, 
"belonging to a flower from 
anthos, a flower), having the 
stamens converted into pistils. 
aynerium, n., gln-er'-l-um (Gr. 
gune, a female; erion, wool), a 
genus of plants, Ord* Graminese ; 
the pampas-grass, covering the 
vast plains of S. America, very 
ornamental in the flower-garden : 
Gynerium argenteum, dr-jent'- 
e-um (L. argenteus, silvery), the 
pampas-grass of the Cordilleras. 

gynizus, n., gin-iz'-us (Gr. gune, 
a female, a pistil; hizo, I cause 
to sit, I seat), the position of the 
stigma on the columns of orchids. 

gynobase, n., gm'o-bdz (Gr. gune, 

a female ; basis, a base), in bot. , 
a central axis, to the base of 
which the carpels are attached ; a 
fleshy receptacle bearing separate 
fruits : gynobasic, a., gin'-6> 
bdz'ik, having a gynobase. 

Gynocardia, n., grn'o-kdrd'-i-a 
(Gr. gune, a female; kardia, the 
heart), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Bixacese : Gynocardia odorata, 
tid'or-dt'd (L. odordtus, scented 
from odor, smell, scent), a 
species, called Chalmugra seeds, 
from whose seeds an oil is ex- 
pressed, used in India for the cure 
of leprosy and various cutaneous 

gyncecium, n., gin-e'sM-um (Gr. 
gune, a female; oiJcos, a house), 
in bot., the female organ of the 
flowers ; the pistil. 

gynophore, n., gtfrc-o/or (Gr. gune, 
a female ; phoreo, I bear), in bot. , 
a stalk supporting the ovary ; in 
zooL, the generative buds or 
gonophores of Hydrozoa contain- 
ing ova alone, and differing in 
form from those which contain 

gynostegium, n., gm'o-stedj'z-um 
(Gr. gune, a female, a pistil ; stego, 
I cover), the staminal crown of 

gynostemiutn, n., gin'-o-stem'Z'tim 
(Gr. gune, a female, a pistil ; 
stemon, a thread, a stamen), a 
column in orchids bearing the 
organs of reproduction ; the 
united stamens and pistil of 

gyrate, a.> jir'-dt (Gr. guros, L. 
gyrus, a ring, a circle), winding 
or going found as in a circle ; 
turning in a circular manner : 
gyration, n.,jir-d'shun, a turn- 
ing or whirling round ; rotation 
as in cells : gyri, n. plu., jir'-i, 
in the cerebrum, the numerous 
smooth and tortuous eminences 
into which the grey matter of the 
surface of the hemispheres is 
! Gyrencephala, n. }>\\\. t ji/>Zn>sef* 



al-d (Gr. gurtio, I curve or bend ; 
engkephalos, the brain), a section 
of the Mammalia, in which the 
cerebral hemispheres are abund- 
antly convoluted. 

Gyrocarpeas, n. plu., fir'-d-Mrp' 
e-e (L. gyro, I turn round in a 
circle ; karpos, fruit), a Sub- 
order or tribe of the Ord. Com- 
bretacea?,, so called in allusion to 
the fruit moving in the air : 
Gyrocarpus, n., jir'o-kdrp'tis, a 
genus of very ornamental plants. 

gyroma, n.Jlr-dm'd (Gr. guromd, 
a circle from guros, round), the 
annulus or ring around the spore- 
case of ferns. 

gyrophora, n., jir-df^r-a (Gr. 
guros, a circle ; pJioreo, I bear 
in allusion to the disc of the 
shield), a very interesting genus 
of plants of the Lichen family, 
found growing chiefly upon ex- 
posed rocks, Ord. Lichenes ; 
several species of Gyrophora 
constitute the Tripe -de-roche, 
on which Franklin and his 
companions existed for some 

gyrose, a., jir-oz' (Gr. guros, a 
circle), in hot, turned round like 
a crook ; folded and waved. 

habit, n., hob' it (L. habitus, state 
of the body, dress), in bot., the 
general external appearance of a 
plant: habitat, n., haV-U-at (L. 
habitat, it inhabits), the natural 
locality of an animal or plant ; 
the situation, district, or country 
inhabited by an animal or plant 
in its wild state. 

Habrothamnus, n., hab'-ro-tham'- 
niis(Gr. habros, graceful, elegant; 
thamnos, a shrub, a thicket), a 
genus of elegant greenhouse 
plants, bearing pannicles of 
flowers in profusion, Ord. Solan- 

haemal, a., hem'*al (Gr. haima, 
blood), connected with the blood 
or blood vessels ; applied to the 
arch under the vertebral column 

which encloses and protects the 
organs of circulation. 

Haemanthus, n., hem-anth'-us (Gr. 
haima, blood ; anthos, a flower 
in allusion to the colour of the 
flowers), a genus of fine bulbous 
plants, Ord. Amaryllidacese : 
Haemanthus toxicarius, t6ks'-ik- 
dr f -i'Us (Gr. toxikon, poison), a 
species whose root is poisonous. 

haBmapoiesis, n., hem'-a-poy '-ez't 
(Gr. haima, blood ; poiesis, the 
making or forming of a thing), 
the production or formation of 
blood : haemapoietic, a., hem'-a- 
poy-et'ik (Gr. poietikos, making, 
effecting), making or producing 

haemapophyses, n. plu., hem'-a,' 
pdf'is-ez (Gr. haima, blood; Eng. 
apophysis), in anat., the parts 
projecting from a vertebra which 
form the haemal arch. 

haematemesis, n., hem'a-tem'%s-\ 
(Gr. haima, blood, haimatos, of 
blood ; emeo y I vomit), a vomit- 
ing of blood. 

haematin, n., hem'at-in (Gr. 
haima, blood, haimatos, of blood), 
the colouring matter resulting 
from the decomposition of 
haemoglobin by heat : haematine, 
n., hem'-at'in, the colouring 
matter of logwood : haemat- 
oidin, n., htm'-at-dyd'm (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), the blood 
crystals found as a patho- 
logical production in old extrav- 
asations of blood : haematitis, n., 
hemf-at-lt'-is, inflammation of the 
blood : haematinuria, n., hem' 
at'in-ur'i-a (Gr. ouron, urine), a 
condition of the urine in which 
it contains hsematin. 

haematocele, n., hem-atio-sel (Gr. 
haima, blood, haimatos, of blood; 
kele, a tumour), a tumour formed 
by an effusion of blood from the 
vessels of the testis or its cover- 
ings, or of the sprematic cord ; 
any tumour consisting principally 
of blood, e.g., 'pelvic haemato- 




laematocrya, n. plu., h&n'-ftt'tik' 
ri-d (Gr. haima, blood ; kruos, 
cold), applied by Owen to the 
cold - blooded Vertebrates, viz. 
the Fishes, Amphibia, and Rep- 
tiles : haematocryal, a., hem' at- 
ftk'ri-dl, cold blooded. 
isematoidin, see 'hsematin.' 
isematoma, n., hem'dt-om'a, 
haematomata, n. plu., hem' at- 
om' dt-d (Gr. haima, blood, haim- 
dtos, of blood), a kind of tumour 
formed from an effused blood 
mass resulting from a hsemor- 

haematometra, n., hem'-dt-d-met'ra 
(Gr. haima, blood, haimatos, of 
blood ; metra, womb), an accum- 
ulation of menstrual blood in the 
uterus, which becomes thick, 
black, and tarry, and often 
causes great dilatation. 
Saamatopinus, n., hem'dt-op'in'tis 
(L. hcematopus, Gr. haimdtopous, 
a blood foot from Gr. haima, 
blood ; pous, a foot, podos, of a 
foot), a genus of animal para- 
sites: Haematopinus asini, as'-m-l 
(L. asinus, an ass), the louse 
of the ass, sometimes found on 
the horse : H. eurysternus, ur'is- 
tern'us (Gr. eurusternos, having 
a broad breast from eurm, 
broad ; sternon, the breast), the 
louse of the ox : H. piliferus, 
2ril-if f -er-us (L. pilus, hair ; f$ro, 
I carry), the louse of the dog, 
but not common, also found on 
ferrets : H. stenopsis, stZn-dps'-is 
(Gr. stenos, narrow; opsis, sight), 
the louse of the goat : H. suis y 
sii'-is (L. sus, a swine, stiis, of a 
swine), the louse of the swine, 
occurring on it in great num- 
bers : H. vituli, mt'-ul-l (L. vitu- 
lus, a calf), the louse of the 

haematotherma, n. plu., hem' a- 
td'themmf-a, (Gr. haima, blood; 
thermos, warm), the warm- 
blooded Vertebrates, viz. Birds, 
and Mammals : hsematothermal, 
a., -therm' al, hot blooded. 

Haematoxylon, n., hem'-at-tiks'tl-tin 
(Gr. haima, blood, haimdtos, of 
blood; xulon, wood), a genus of 
trees, Ord. Leguminosse, which 
furnish dyes : Hsematoxylon 
Campechianum, Mm -petsh'i- an' 
tim (from Bay of Campeachy, 
where largely obtained ; Sp. 
campeche, logwood), the log- 
wood tree, or Campeachy wood 
of commerce, the inner wood of 
which is used both as a dye and 
an astringent: hsematoxylin, n., 
hem'at-oks'il-in, the colouring 
principle of logwood, chiefly used 
for staining preparations for 
microscopic purposes. 

hsematuria, n., hem'-at-ur^i-a (Gr. 
haima, blood; ouron, urine), a 
discharge of urine containing 

haemin, n., hem'm, also called 
' hydrochlorate of hsematin ' (Gr. 
haima, blood), a crystalline deriv- 
ative from haemoglobin, which 
forms a most delicate medico-legal 
test of the presence of blood. 

Haemodoracese, n. plu., hem'o- 
dor-a'-se-e (Gr. haima, blood; 
doron, a gift), the Blood-root 
family, an Order of plants, so 
called from the red colour of their 
roots, used for dyeing: Haemo- 
dorum, n., hem'd-ddr'um, a 
genus of ornamental plants. 

haemoglobin, n. , hem'd-glob'm 
(Gr. haima, blood; L. globus, a 
ball), a red colouring matter 
which infiltrates the stroma of 
the blood corpuscles, and which 
may be decomposed into an 
albuminous substance called 
* globulin, ' and a colouring matter 
called ' hsematin ' ; also haemat- 
oglobulin, n., hem'dt-d-glob'ul- 

haemoptysis, n., hem-tip'-tis-is (Gr. 
haima, blood; ptuo, I spit), a 
coughing up or expectoration of 

haemorrhage, n., hem'-Sr-rddj (Gr. 
haimorrhagia, a flowing of blood 
from haima, blood ; rhegnumi, 



I burst forth), a discharge of 
blood from the lungs, nose, or 
intestines, or an effusion of blood 
into the brain, arising from the 
rupture of one or more blood 
vessels ; any bleeding : haemor- 
rhagic, &.,hem'or-radj'ik, pert, to 
or consisting of haemorrhage. 

haemorrhoids, n. plu., h&m'-b'r- 
royds (Gr. haima, blood ; rheo, 
I flow ; eidos, resemblance), piles, 
consisting of tumours, situated at 
or near the anus, varying in size 
from a pea to a pigeon's egg, and 
consisting essentially in a dilated 
and varicose condition of the hsem- 
orrhoidal veins : hsemorrhoidal, 
a., hem'-or-rdyd'-al, pert, to piles. 

hsemothorax, hem^o-thor'-alcs (Gr. 
haima, blood ; thorax, the 
trunk of the body), applied to the 
pleural sac filled with blood, or 
with a fluid of a sanguineous 
character, which undergoes various 
secondary changes and degenera- 
tions in which the surrounding 
tissues are also involved. 

Halesia, n., hal<esh'-i-a (after Dr. 
Hales, a vegetable physiologist), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Styraca- 
cese; the snowdrop trees of 
California, whose species are 
beautiful and valuable from their 
flowering so early in the season. 

Halimocnemis, n., hal'-i-mftk'- 
n$m-is (Gr. halimos, brackish, 
marine from hals, salt ; ri&mos, 
a grove), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Chenopodiacese, a species of which, 
growing in salt marshes, yields 

halitus, n., hal'it-tis (L. halitus, 
breath from halo, I breathe), a 
breathing ; the vapour arising from 
new-drawn blood. 

hallux, n., hdl'-lnlcs (L. hallex, the 
thumb or great ^toe), the great 
toe in man ; the innermost of the 
five digits which normally com- 
pose the hind foot of a vertebrate 

halophytes, n. plu., haVo-fitz (Gr. 
hals, the sea; phuton, a plant), 

plants of salt marshes, containing 
salts of soda in their composition. 

Halorageaceae, n. plu., hal'-d* 
rddf-e-d'se-e (Gr. hak, the sea ; 
rhax, a berry, a bush, rhdgos, of 
a berry), the Mare's-tail family, 
an Order of herbs or under shrubs, 
often aquatic, having whorled 
leaves and sessile flowers : Halor- 
agis, n., hal''0r-ddj f -is, a genus of 
rather curious plants. 

Halteres, n. plu., hdlt-er^ez (Gr. 
halteres, masses of lead held in 
the hands to balance leapers), the 
rudimentary filaments or balancers 
which represent the posterior 
pair of wings in the Order of 
insects called the Diptera. 

Hamamelidacese, n. plu., ham'-a* 
mel'i'dd'-se-e (Gr. hama, together, 
with ; melon, an apple, in allusion 
to the fruit accompanying the 
flower), the Witch-hazel family, 
an Order of small trees and 
shrubs: Hamamelis, n., ham'-a- 
mel'-is, a genus of plants whose 
species are ornamental trees, pro- 
ducing a fruit somewhat like a 
nut : Hamamelis virginica, ver- 
yin'-ik-a (of or from Virginia, 
Amer. ; L. virgo, a maid, a 
virgin, virgmis, of a virgin), a 
species whose seeds are used as 
food, while its leaves and bark 
are astringent and acrid. 

hamose, a., ham>6z', andhamous, 
a., hdm'us (L. hamus, a hook), 
in bot. , having the end hooked or 

hamular, &.,ham'ul-ar (L. hamul- 
us, a little hook from hdmus, a 
hook), in anat., having a hook- 
like appearance ; having small 
hooks: hamulose, a., ham'-ul-oz', 
in bot., covered with little hooks: 
hamulus, n., ham' til-its, in bot. t 
a kind of hooked bristle ; in anat. , 
a hook-like process : hamulus 
lachrymalis, lak'-ri-mdl'-ts (L. 
lachrymdlis, lachrymal from 
lachryma, a tear), the lachrymal 
hook-like process. 

harmonia, n., hdr-mon't-a (Gr. 




harmtinia, a joining together 
from harmozo, I fit together), in 
anat., a form of articulation 
in which there is neither serration 
of the edges of the bones nor 
interposed cartilage, and in which 
of course there is no movement. 

hastate, a., hast'-dt (L. hasta, a 
spear), shaped like a halbert, 
applied to leaves; applied to a 
leaf with two portions of the 
base projecting more or less com- 
pletely at right angles to the 

haulm, n., also halm, n., hdwm 
or ham (Ger. halm, F. chaulme, 
straw), the stem or stalk of grain ; 
the dead stems of herbs, as of the 

haunch, n., hdwnsh (F. hanche, 
the hip ; old H. Ger. hlancha, the 
flank), the hip; that part of a 
man or quadruped which lies be- 
tween the last rib and the thigh ; 
a joint of mutton or venison. 

haustellate, a., haws-Ml'ldt (L. 
haustellum, a sucker from 
haurio, I draw water), provided 
with suckers, applied to the 
mouths of certain Crustacea and 
Insecta : haustorium, n. , haws- 
tor'-i'um (L. haustor, a drawer), 
the sucker at the extremity of the 
parasitic root of the dodder ; the 
root-like sucker of the ivy, etc. 

haw, n., haw (AS. haya, Ger. 
hag, a hedge, an enclosure), the 
berry of the hawthorn ; the mem- 
brana nictitans, or third eyelid of 
birds and quadrupeds. 

heart, n., hart (AS. heorte; Goth. 
hair to; Sans, hardi; Gr. kardia, 
the heart), the central organ 
of the circulation, which, by 
alternate contracting and ex- 
panding, sends the blood through 
the arteries, to be again received 
by it from the veins. 

hectic, a., htMtik (Gr. hektikos, 
pert, to habit of body from 
hexis, habit of body), constit- 
utional ; habitual : hectic fever, 
a peculiar form of remittent 

fever, the result of exhausting 

hectocotylus, n., hek'to-Jcot'il-tis 
(Gr. hekaton, a hundred ; kotulos, 
a cup), the metamorphosed re- 
productive arm of certain of the 
male cuttle-fishes. 

Hedera, n., hed'er-a (L. hZdera, 
the plant ivy), a genus of ivy 
plants, Ord. Araliacese: Hedera 
helix, hel'-iks (Gr. helix, anything 
twisted, a fold; L. helix, a kind 
of ivy), a species of ivy whose 
succulent fruit is emetic and 
purgative: hederaceous, a., lied'- 
er-a'-shus, of or pert, to ivy. 

Hedysamm, n., hed'-is-dr'-um (Gr. 
hedus, sweet), a genus of very 
handsome flowering plants, pro- 
ducing racemes of beautiful pea- 
flowers, Ord. Leguminosse, Sub- 
ord. Papilionacese : Hedysarum 
gyrans, jlr'anz (L. gyrans, 
turning round in a circle), a species 
which exhibits a remarkable irrit- 
ability in its leaves; the Gora- 
chand of Bengal. 

Heimia, n., him'i-a (after Dr. 
Heim, a celebrated physician of 
Berlin), a genus of plants very 
pretty when in blossom, Ord. 
Lythracese : Heimia salicifolia, 
sal-is'-i-fol'-i-a (L. salix, a willow 
tree, sallcis, of a willow tree ; 
folium, a leaf), a species said to 
have diaphoretic properties, and 
by the Mexicans considered a 
potent remedy in venereal dis- 

Hekistotherms, n. plu., he-Ms'-to- 
thermz (Gr. hekistos, very little ; 
therme, heat), plants of the arctic 
and antarctic regions, and the 
higher regions of mountains in 
temperate climates, such as 
Mosses, Lichens, Coniferse, etc., 
which can bear darkness under 
snow, and require a small amount 
of heat. 

Helianthemum, n., heV-i-dntJi'-em' 
um (Gr. helios, the sun ; anthem- 
on, a flower in allusion to the 
yellow flowers), a genus of showy. 




free-flowering plants, including 
some of the prettiest little shrubs 
in cultivation for rock-work, Ord. 

Helianthus, n., hSM'toUh'-ti* (Gr. 
helios, the sun; anthos, a flower 
so called from the brilliant colour 
of the flowers, or from the erron- 
eous belief that the flowers al- 
ways turned towards the sun), a 
highly ornamental and extensive 
genus of plants, producing large 
heads of beautiful flowers, Ord. 
Composite, Sub-ord. Corymbif- 
erse : Helianthus annuus, an'- 
nu-us (L. annuus, that lasts a 
year from annus, a year), the 
common sunflower, whose seeds 
contain a bland oil, and when 
roasted have been used as a sub- 
stitute for coffee : H. tuberosus, 
tub'-ftr-dz'-us (L. tuberosus, full of 
humps or swellings from tuber, 
a hump), the Jerusalem or Giras- 
ole artichoke, whose roots are 
used as substitutes for pot- 

helicine, a., heV-ls-tn (Gr. h$lix, 
anything twisted, a fold, helikos, 
of a twisted thing), in anat., 
applied to certain arteries con- 
nected with the penis which 
assume a convoluted or tendril- 
like appearance ; winding ; spiral. 

helicis major, liel'4s-%s mddf-or 
(L. helix, a fold, ivy, helicis, of a 
twisted thing ; major, greater), 
the greater (muscle) of the helix ; 
applied to a narrow, vertical 
band of muscular fibres on the 
anterior margin of the helix : 
li. minor, min'or (L. minor, less 
or lesser), the lesser (muscle) of 
the helix ; applied to an oblique 
fasciculus attached to the part 
of the helix commencing from 
the bottom of the concha; see 

helicoid, a., hel'ik-dyd, also 
helicoidal, a., hel'.tk-oyd'.al (Gr. 
helix, a twisted thing ; eidos, 
resemblance), twisted like a 
snail shell, applied to inflores- i 

cence : helicoid cyme, a cyme in 
which the flowers are arranged in 
a continuous spiral round a false 

helicotrema, n, , IMl'-flc -a- trem'-d 
(Gr. helix, anything twisted ; 
trema, an opening, a hole), in 
anat., a small opening placed 
at the apex of the cochlea of the 

Helicterese, n. plu., h$l'<tJc-ter'.$-e 
(Gr. h$lix, a spiral, a screw), a 
Tribe or Sub-order of the Ord. 
Sterculiacese : Helecteres, n. 
plu., hZl'&k-ter'ez, the screw 
trees, a genus of free-flowering 
shrubs, so named in reference to 
the carpels being twisted. 

Heliotropiese, n. plu., hel'-f<d<trdp- 
i'$-e (Gr. helios, the sun ; trope, 
a turning), a Sub-order of the 
Ord. Boraginacese, so 1 called from 
their flowers being said to turn 
towards the sun : Heliotrope, n., 
hel'i-O'trop, also Heliotropium, 
n., hel'-i-d-trop'-i-um, a genus of 
plants, some of whose species are 
highly valued from the fragrance 
of their flowers : heliotropism, 
n., hel-i'6t'<rop'izm r that property 
"by which certain plants con- 
stantly tuin their leaves and 
flowers towards the sun ; the 
bending of a plant either from or 
towards light. 

helix, n., hel'tks, helices, n. plu., 

(Gr. helix, the twisted 
thing), something that is spiral ; 
in anat., the curved rim of the 
external body of the ear; the 
snail shell. 
Hellebores, n. plu., 
(Gr. hellebtiros, L. helttWrus, 
hellebore from Gr. helein, to 
kill or overcome ; bora, food), a 
Sub-order of the Ord. Kanuncul- 
acese, so called in reference to the 
poisonous qualities of the plants: 
Helleborus, n., liel-Ub'-dr-us, a 
genus of plants having poisonous 
qualities : Helleborus officinalis, 
8f : fis'w>dl'is (L. officinalis, offic- 
inal); H. niger, nldj f -er(L. mger, 




black), the Christmas rose; H. 
fcetidus, fet'-id-us (L. fcettdus, 
stinking, fetid); H. viridis, vir- 
id-is (L. viridis, green), are 
species which act as drastic purg- 
atives ; powerful cardiac sedat- 
ives; some of them were used 
in ancient times in cases of 
mania : Hellebore, n., hel'-le-bor, 
the common name of several of 
the species; the Christmas rose or 
flower; still employed in medicine. 

helminthoid, a., Ml'-minth-oyd 
(Gr. helmins, an intestinal worm ; 
eidos, resemblance), worm-shaped; 

hemelytra, n. plu., Mm-el'-it-rd 
(Gr. hemi, half ; elutron, a 
sheath), among certain insects, 
wings which have the apex mem- 
branous, while the inner portion 
is chitinous, and resembles the 
elytron of a beetle. 

hemeralopia, n., Mm^r-a-ldp'-i-a 
(Gr. hemera, day ; the latter part 
of doubtful formation, usually 
referred to Gr. ops, the eye, or 
opsomai, I see ; the 1 may be 
introduced for the sake of eu- 
phony), day vision only ; night 
blindness ; intermittent amaur- 
osis, in which the person is able 
to see only in daylight : hemer- 
alops, n., hem^T'd'lops, one 
afflicted with night blindness. 

Hemerocallide89, n. plu., hem'Zr- 
d'kal'lid'&'e (Gr. hemera, a day ; 
kallos, beauty), a Sub-order of 
the Ord. Liliacese, the Day lily 
tribe : Hemerocallis, n., h$m'$r- 
d'kal'-lis, an ornamental genus of 
flowering plants, whose beautiful 
flowers last a day ; the day 

heinicarp, n., h&m'i-karp (Gr. 
hemi, half ; karpos, fruit), in 
bot. , one portion of a fruit which 
spontaneously divides into 

hemicrania, n., hVm't'krdn'i-a 
(Gr. hemi, half ; kranion, the 
skull), pain confined to one 
side of the head ; brow ague. 

hemicyclic, a., hZm'i-sik'lik (Gr. 
hemi, half; Eng. cycle), in bot., 
applied to the transition from 
one floral whorl to another when 
it coincides with a definite num- 
ber of turns of the spiral. 

Hemidesnms, n., hem'i-d$z'mus 
(Gr. hemisus, a half ; desmos, a 
bond, a tie, in allusion to its 
filaments), a genus of pretty 
climbing plants, Ord. Asclepiad- 
acese : Hemidesmus Indicus, in'- 
dik-us (L. Indicus, of or belong- 
ing to India), a species whose 
fragrant roots are used in Madras 
as a substitute for sarsaparilla, 
under the name ' Country 
Sarza. ' 

hemimetabolic, a., Itim'-i-mU-a- 
bol'-ik (Gr. hemi, half; metabole, 
change), applied to insects which 
undergo an incomplete meta- 

hemiplegia, n., he'm'i-pledf-i'a 
(Gr. hemi, half; plege, a blow, a 
stroke), a paralysis of one lateral 
half of the body. 

Hemiptera, n. plu., hZm-ip'tZr-ti, 
(Gr. hemi, half ; pteron, a wing), 
an Order of insects which have 
sometimes the anterior wings 
hemelytra : hemipteral, a. , hem- 
ip'-ter-al, also hemipterous, a., 
hem-ip'tttr'tis, having the upper 
wings partly coriaceous and 
partly membranous. 

hemisphere, n., h&m'-i-sfer (Gr. 
hemi, half ; sphaira, a globe), in 
anat., applied to each lateral 
half of the brain. 

hemlock, n., hem'ldk (AS. hem- 
leac), an indigenous plant which 
possesses sedative properties, and 
is employed both internally and 
externally; the Conium macul- 
atum, Ord. TJmbelliferse. 

hemp, n., hemp (Dut. hennip, 
Ger. hanf, Icel. hanpr, hemp), a 
plant which yields the valuable 
fibres or threads of the same 
name ; the Cannabis sativa, Ord. 
Cannabinacese, a species of hemp 
used in India under various 




names as a narcotic and intoxic- 

henbane, n., lien'-ban (Eng. lien, 
and bane), a poisonous wild 
British herb, possessing narcotic 
properties, and used in medicine, 
so called from its being supposed 
to be poisonous to domestic 
fowls ; the Hyoscyamus niger, 
Ord. Solanaceee. 

henna, n., hen f >na, also called 
alhenna (Ar. hinna], a tropical 
shrub, whose powdered leaves 
made into a paste are used in 
Asia and Egypt in dyeing the 
nails, etc. an orange hue ; the 
Lawsonia inermis, Ord. Lyth- 

hepatic, a., liep-at'-ik (Gr. hepat- 
ikos, affecting the liver from 
hepar, the liver), belonging to the 
liver; applied to a duct conveying 
the bile from the liver ; having a 
liver-like colour and consistency : 
hepatitis, n., hep'-at-M'-is, in- 
flammation of the liver : hepat- 
isation, n., hep'-at-iz-a'shtin, a 
diseased part having the appear- 
ance of liver ; the second stage of 

Hepaticse, n. plu., hep-at'ts-e (Gr. 
hepatikos, belonging to the liver 
from hepar, the liver), the 
Liverwort family, an Order of 
plants the lobes of whose leaves 
have been compared to the lobes 
of the liver: Hepatica, n., hep- 
at'-ik-a, a genus of pretty plants, 
producing abundant flowers, 
Linnsean Ord. RanunculaceaB. 

hepato-cystic, a., hep-at'-d-sist'-ik 
(Gr. hepar, the liver ; kustis, a 
bladder), applied to small ducts 
passing from the liver to the 
gall-bladder ; pert, to the liver 
and gall-bladder. 

heptagynous, a., hVp-tadf-in-us 
(Gr. hepta, seven ; gune, female), 
in bot. , having seven styles. 

heptandrous, a., hZp-tand'-rtts 
(Gr. hepta, seven ; aner, a male, 
man), in bot. t having seven stam- 

herb, n., herb (L. herba, F. herbe, 
grass, vegetation), a plant with 
an annual stem, as opposed to 
one with a woody fibre : herba- 
ceous, a., herb-a'shus, applied to 
green succulent plants which die 
down to the ground in winter ; 
having annual shoots ; applied to 
green - coloured cellular parts : 
herbarium, n., herb-dr'-i-urn, a 
prepared collection of dried 

hermaphrodite, n., her-maf'rdd-U 
(Gr. Hermes, the god Mercury; 
Aphrodite, the goddess Venus), a 
living creature which is neither 
perfect male nor female ; in bot. . 
a plant which has the male and 
female organs, that is, stamens 
and pistil, in the same flower. 

hermodactyle, n., herm'-d-datf-til 
(Gr. Hermes, Mercury ; daktulos, 
a finger that is, the finger of 
Mercury), a species of colchicum, 
famous among the ancients for 
diseases of the joints ; probably 
a species of Colchicum Illyricum, 
or according to others of C. 
variegatum, Ord. Melanthacese. 

HernandiesB, n. plu., her'nan-di'* 
%-e (after Hernandez, a Spanish 
botanist), a section or Sub-order 
of the Ord. Thymelseaceae : Her- 
nandia, n., her-nan'-di-a, a genus 
of elegant and lofty-growing trees, 
whose bark, young leaves, and 
seeds are slightly purgative : 
Hernandia sonora, s&n-dr'a (L. 
sonorus, sounding ; Sp. sonora, a 
musical instrument), a species, 
the juice of whose leaves, it is 
said, is a powerful depilatory, 
destroying hair without pain. 

hernia, n., hern'-i-a (L. hernia, a 
rupture ; Gr. hernos, a branch, a 
sprout), the displacement of any 
viscus, or part of one, from its 
own cavity into an adjoiningspace: 
hernia cerebri, s%r'eb'ri (L. cer- 
ebrum, the brain), the hernia of 
the brain ; a protrusion of a por- 
tion of the brain and its mem- 




herpes, n., herp'-ez (L. Tierpes, a 
spreading eruption on the skin 
from Gr. herpo, I creep along), 
a skin eruption consisting of 
clusters of vesicles upon an in- 
flamed base : herpes labialis, lab'- 
i-dl'is (L. labialis, pert, to a lip 
from labium, a lip), herpes 
occurring on the upper lip : h. 
zoster, zost'er (Gr. zoster, a 
girdle or belt), a variety of herpes 
also called * shingles, ' which is of 
neurotic origin. 

hesperidium, n., hZs'-per-id'-i-tim, 
(L. Hesperus, Gr. Hesperos, Hes- 
perus, western in allusion to 
such fruit coming from the 
west of Europe), a fruit such as 
the orange, lemon, shaddock, in 
which the epicarp and mesocarp 
form a separate rind, the seeds 
being embedded amongst a mass 
of pulp. 

heterocephalous, a., hei'$r'd'Se'f / - 
dl-us (Gr. heteros, another ; Tceph- 
ale, the head), in bot., having 
some flower - heads male, and 
others female, on the same 

heterocercal, a., het'-er-Q-serk'-al 
(Gr. heteros, another ; kerkos, a 
tail), applied to fishes having 
unequally lobed tails, as in the 
sharks and dogfish. 

heterochromous, a., he't'e'r-o- 
krom f 'US (Gr. heteros, another ; 
chroma, colour), in bot., having 
the central florets of a different 
colour from those of the circum- 

heterocysts, n. plu., hetfer-o-sists 
(Gr. heteros, another; Tcustis, a 
bag), in bot., colourless large 
cells, incapable of division, 
occurring at intervals in the 
threads of Nostochinese. 

heterodromous, a., JiU^r-od'-rom* 
us (Gr. heteros, another, different; 
drdmos, a course), in bot., hav- 
ing spirals running in opposite 
directions ; running in different 
directions, applied to the arrange- 
ment of the leaves when these 

follow a different direction in the 
branches from that pursued in 
the stem. 

hetercecium, n., hZt'-Zr-e'-shi-tim 
(Gr. heteros, another, different; 
oikos, a house), applied to the 
potato fungus, so named on the 
supposition that it exists as a 
parasite on some other plant be- 
fore it attacks the potato, and so 
the potato fungus has received 
various names accordingly : 
heteroecism, het'-Zr-e-sizm, the 
state or condition of a parasitic 
fungus, which is found in one 
stage of development on one 
body, and in another stage of 
development on quite a different 

heterogamous, a., he'tler-tig'-dm-us 
(Gr. heteros, another, different ; 
gamos, marriage), in bot., having 
the essential parts of fructification 
on different spikelets arising from 
the same root ; having hermaph- 
rodite and unisexual flowers on 
the same head, as in Compositae ; 
heterogamy, n., het'e'r-o'g'am-i, 
a change in the function of male 
and female flowers ; the state in 
which the sexual organs are 
arranged in some unusual 

heterogangliate, a., hZt'er-o-gang'- 
gli'dt (Gr. heteros, another, 
different ; gangglion, a little 
tumour under the skin), in zool. , 
having a nervous system in which 
the ganglia are scattered and 
unsymmetrical, as in the Mol- 

heterogeneous, a., he't'gr'd-jen'e'' 
us (Gr. heteros, another, different; 
genos, birth, race ; genndo, I 
generate, I produce), of a differ- 
ent kind or nature ; confused 
and contradictory: heterogenesis, 
n., hZt'-Zr-o-fin'-es-is (Gr. genesis, 
origin, source), the doctrine that 
certain organisms are capable of 
giving origin to others totally 
different from themselves, and 
which show no tendency to revert 




to the parent form ; spontaneous 
generation, in which living cells 
are supposed to be produced by 
inorganic matter. 

heterologous, a., &tt$rdjp&9 
(Gr. heteros, another, different ; 
logos, speech, appearance), in 
anat. , applied to growths which, 
originating in the development of 
indifferent formative cells, end in 
developing a tissue diverse from 
the matrix, as cartilage in the 
testicle, etc. ; a synonym of 
' heteroplastic. ' 

heteromerous, a., he't'-e'r-Sm'-Zr-us 
(Gr. heteros, another, different ; 
rrieros, a part, a portion), in bot., 
applied to lichens where the 
thallus appears stratified by the 
crowding of the gonidia into one 
layer, and the hyphse form two 
layers ; in zool., applied to the 
coleopterous insects which have 
five joints in the tarsus of the 
first and second pairs of legs, 
and only four joints in the tarsus 
of the third pair : Heteromerans, 
n. plu., het'-er'tim'-er-anz (Gr. 
meros, the upper part of the 
thigh), coleopterous insects whose 
legs have a different structure one 
from another. 

lieteromorphic, a., het'-Zr-o-mtirf- 
ik (Gr. heteros, another, different; 
morphe, shape, form), differing 
in form or shape ; in bot, , having 
different forms of flowers as re- 
gards stamens and pistils, these 
being necessary for fertilization, 
as in Primula : heteromorphism, 
n., hZt'er-d'md'rf'izm, a deviation 
from the natural form or struct- 
ure: heteromorphous, a., hZt'er- 
o-m6rf'US, having an irregular or 
unusual form : heteromorphy, 
n., h&'er-d-mdrf'i, deformity in 
plants ; heteromorphism. 

Heterophagi, n. plu., het^r-df^a-ji 
(Gr. heteros, another; phago, I 
eat), those birds whose young are 
born in a helpless condition, and 
which require to be fed by the 
parents for a longer or shorter 

period ; birds that are foster- 
parents to young birds of a differ- 
ent kind, as to the young of the 

heterophyllous, a.. Ut'-er-o-fiVlus 
(Gr. heteros, another; phullon, a 
leaf), in bot., presenting two 
different forms of leaves : hetero- 
phylly, n., hMttr-frftftt, the 
variation in the leaves of plants 
in external form. 

heteroplastic, a., hZt'-er-d-plast'-ik 
(Gr. heteros, another ; plastikos, 
formed, fashioned from plasso 
I form), in anat. , applied to those 
growths which are unlike the 
tissues from which they take 
their rise ; syn. of ' heterologous, ' 
which see. 

heterorhizal, a., hZt'-er-o-riz'-cil 
(Gr. heteros, another, different ; 
rhiza, a root), in bot., having 
rootlets proceeding from various 
points of a spore during germin- 
ation ; rooting from no fixed 

heterosporous, a., li < et'-er-d'Spor'>us 
(Gr. heteros, another; spora, 
spore, seed), in cryptogamic 
plants, having both microspores 
and macrospores on the same in- 
dividual, as in Selaginella. 

heterotaxy, n., het'$r-d-taks'i (Gr. 
heteros, another; taxis, arrange- 
ment), in bot., the deviation of 
organs from their ordinary posi- 

heterotropal, a., het^r-St-rdp-dl 
(Gr. heteros, another, different; 
tropos, a turn, manner from 
trepo, I turn), in bot., lying 
across ; applied to the embryo 
of seeds when they lie in an 
oblique position; applied to the 
ovule when it is so attached to 
the placenta that the hilum is 
in the middle, and the foramen 
and chalaza at opposite ends, thus 
becoming transverse. 

Hevea, n., h6v&d (not ascer- 
tained), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Euphorbiacose : Hevea Brasili- 
ensis, braz-tt Ww'-fc (of or from 




Brazil), the Para rubber tree, 
which yields caoutchouc. 

hexagonenchyma, n., heks'-a-gon- 
eng'-kim-d (Gr. hexagonios or 
hexagonos, six-angled; engchuma, 
an infusion from chuma, tissue, 
juice), cellular tissue which when 
cut in any direction exhibits a 
hexagonal form. 

hexagynous, a., hZks-ddf-m-us 
(Gr. hex, six; gune, female), in 
bot. , having six styles or pistils. 

hexandrous, a., h$ks-an'-drtis (Gr. 
hex, six ; oner, a man, andros, of 
a man), having six stamens, as a 

hexapetalous, a., h^ks^d-p^-dl-tis 
(Gr. hex, six ; petalon, a petal), 
in bot., having six petals or 
flower leaves: hexapetaloid, a., 
h^ks f -d'pet f 'dl'dyd (Gr. eidos, re- 
semblance), having six coloured 
parts like petals. 

hexapod, n., heks'-d-pSd (Gr. hex, 
six; pous, a foot, podos, of a 
foot), a creature possessing six 
legs, as insects: hexapodotis, a., 
heks'dp'dd-us, having six legs. 

hibernacula, n., hib'-er-nak'-ul-d 
(L. hibernacula, winter quarters), 
a name applied to the leaf buds, 
as the winter quarters of the 
young branches ; the winter 
quarters of a wild animal, or of 
a plant. 

Hibiscese, n. plu., Jiib-is'-se-e (L. 
hibiscum, Gr. hibiskos, a species 
of wild mallow), a Tribe or Sub- 
order of the Ord. Malvaceae : 
Hibiscus, n., hib-is'-kus, a genus 
of plants producing showy flowers 
of a variety of colours in the 
species : Hibisca rosa-sinensis, 
roz'-d-sln-ens'-is (L. rosa, a rose; 
Sinensis, Chinese), a species pos- 
sessing astringent properties, used 
by the Chinese to blacken their 
eyebrows and their shoes : H. 
esculentus, esk'-ul-ent'-us (L. esc- 
ulentus, good for food from 
esca, food), whose fruit, from its 
abundant mucilage, a common 
ingredient in soups of hotter 

climates, under the name Ochro 
and Gombo : H. cannabiuus, 
kan-ncib'm-us (L. canndbmus, of 
or belonging to hemp from L. 
cannabis, Gr. kannabis, hemp), 
produces the Sunnee-hemp of 
India, yields a fibre like jute : 
H. mutabilis, mut-db'-il-is (L. 
mutdbilis, mutable from muto, 
I change), a species which re- 
ceives its name from the changing 
colour of its flowers, varying from 
a pale rose to a pink colour. 

hiccough and hiccup, n., hik'-up 
(Dut. huckup, F. hoquet, hic- 
cough ; Dut. hikken, to sob), a 
very troublesome affection, due 
to a short, abrupt contraction or 
convulsion of the diaphragm. 

hickory, n,, hik f '8r>i (not ascer- 
tained), a nut-bearing American 
tree, whose wood possesses great 
strength and tenacity ; the Carya 
alba, Ord. Inglandacese. 

Hieracium, n., hi^er-af'Si'tim (Gr. 
hi&rax, a hawk said to be so 
called because eaten by the hawk, 
or its juice used by it for sharp- 
ening its sight), an extensive 
genus of pretty flowering plants, 
adapted for rockwork, Ord. Com- 

hiera picra, hi'-Zr-a pl-rd (Gr. 
hieros, sacred ; pikroa, bitter), a 
popular remedy for constipation, 
known by the name 'hickory 
pickory, ' consisting of a mixture 
of equal parts of canella bark 
and aloes. 

hilum, n., hlV-um (L. hilum, a 
speck, a little thing), the eye of 
a seed ; the scar or spot in a 
seed indicating the point where 
the seed was attached to the peri- 
carp, as the dark mark at the 
one end of a bean ; in zool., 
hilum or hilus, a small fissure or 
aperture ; a small depression. 
hip, n., hip (Dut. heupe, Norse 
hupp, the flank, the hip), the 
projection caused by the haunch 
bone and its covering flesh ; the 
upper fleshy part of the thigh. 




Hippoboscidas, n. plu., hip'po 
bos'id-e (Gr. hippos, a horse ; 
bosko, I feed), a family of dip- 
terous insects, belonging to the 
Viviparous section of the Ord. 
Diptera, generally known by the 
name ' forest flies : ' Hippobosca, 
n., hip'po'bftsk'-a, a genus of in- 
sects which live upon quadrupeds 
and birds : Hippobosca equina, 
frkwin'-d (L. equmus, belonging 
to a horse from equus, a horse), 
the horse fly. 

hippocamp, n,, hfptpd-Jc&mp) also 
hippocampus, n., hlp'pd-kdmp'* 
us (Gr. hippos, a horse ; Jcampto, 
I bend or curve ; hippokampos, 
L. hippocampus, the sea-horse), 
the sea-horse, a fabulous monster; 
a small fish of singular shape, 
with head and neck like a horse, 
called the Pipe-fish or Sea-horse; 
in anat, , one of the two convolu- 
tions of the brain resembling a 
ram's horn or the shape of a sea- 
horse, named respectively hippo- 
campus minor and hippocampus 
major, that is, the lesser and 
greater hippocampus. 
Hippocratese, n. plu., Mtf-pQ-ler&t 
e-e (after Hippocrates, an ancient 
Greek physician, and one of the 
fathers of botany), a Tribe or Sub- 
order of the Ord. Celastraceae : 
Hippocratea, n., hip'pd-krdt'e-a, 
a genus of mostly climbing 
shrubs with very minute flowers : 
Hippocratea comosa, kom-oz'd 
(L. comosus, hairy from coma, 
the hair of the head), yields nuts 
which are oily and sweet. 
Hippomane, n., hip'pom'dn-e (Gr. 
hippomdnes, furious with desire, 
a plant which is said by the 
ancients to have driven horses 
mad if eaten by them from 
hippos, a horse ; mania, mad- 
ness), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Euphorbiacese: Hippomane man- 
cinella, man'siri'&l'ld (mod. L. 
mancinella, It. mancinello, the 
manchineel), the manchineel 
tree, growing 40 or 50 feet high 

in the W. Indian islands, yields 
a milky juice very acrid and 
poisonous, which applied to the 
skin excites violent inflammation 
and ulceration. 

hippopathology, n., Up'. po- path* 
M'-ti-ji (Gr. hippos, a horse ; Eng. 
pathology), the doctrine or de- 
scription of the diseases of horses ; 
the science of veterinary medic- 

Hippophae, n., hip-pof'-d-e (Gr. 
hippos, a horse ; phdo, I destroy, 
in allusion to the supposed poison- 
ous qualities of the seed), a genus 
of ornamental trees, Ord. Elseag- 
naceae : Hippophae rhamnoides, 
ram-noyd'-ez (Gr. rhamnos, the 
white thorn; eidos, resemblance), 
the sea buckthorn, furnished 
with sharp spines, fruit eaten, 
and has been used as a pre- 

hippophagy, n., hip-pdf'-a>ji (Gr. 
hippos, a horse ; phago, I eat), 
the practice of eating horse flesh : 
hippophagi, n. plu., htp-ptif'.&'ji, 
those who eat horse flesh. 

hippuria, n., hip-pur'-i-d (Gr. 
hippos, a horse ; ouron, urine), 
an excess of hippuric acid in the 
urine : hippuric, a., liip-pur'-ik, 
denoting an acid ; a constituent 
of the urine, obtained in greatest 
abundance from the urine of horses 
or cows ; said to be also found in 
the blood of herbivora. 

Hippuris, n., hip-pur'-is (Gr. hip- 
pos, a horse ; oura, a tail), a 
genus of curious aquatic plants, 
growing best in marshy places, 
so called from the stem resem- 
bling a mare's tail arising from the 
crowded whorls of very narrow, 
hair-like leaves ; Ord. Halorage- 

hirsute, a., her^-sut (L. hirsutus, 
rough, hairy), covered with long, 
stiffish hairs, thickly set ; 

Hirudinea, n., her<iid^n<e-d (L. 
hirudo, a leech, a blood-sucker, 
hirudinis, of a leech), in zool. t 




the Order of Annelida including 
the Leeches. 

hispid, a., hisp'-td (L. hisptdus, 
bristly, rugged), rough ; covered 
with strong hairs or bristles. 

histioid, a., his'ti-oyd (Gr. histos, 
a web, a tissue ; eidos, resem- 
blance), in anat., tissue-like. 

histogenesis, n., hfe'-td'j8n'>&s-is, 
also histogeny, n., his-ttidf-Zn-i 
(Gr. histos, a web, a tissue ; 
genndo, I produce), the origin 
or formation of organic tissue : 
histogenetic, a., hig<tG'fen',$tftic, 
promoting the formation of 
organic textures ; in bot., applied 
to minute molecules supposed to 
be concerned in the formation of 

histology, n., hte-t8l'-#-jt (Gr. 
histos, a web or tissue ; logos, 
discourse), the study of the tissues 
of the body, especially its min- 
uter elements ; the study of 
microscopic tissues in animals or 
plants : histological, a., his' to- 
lodj'ik-dl, relating to the descrip- 
tion of minute tissues in animals 
or plants. 

histolysis, n., his-tdl'-is-is (Gr. 
histos, a web or tissue ; lusis, a 
solution from lud, I dissolve), 
the disintegration of previously 
organized structures : histolytic, 
a., his'to-lit'ik, derived from the 
disintegration of previously 
organized structures ; of the 
nature of histolysis. 

hives, n. plu., hivz (as supposed 
to be shaped something like a 
beehive; may be a corruption of 
heave, to raise), variously applied 
to skin diseases among children, 
consisting of vesicles scattered 
over the body ; a popular name 
for chicken-pox. 

holly, n., IMll (AS. holegn], an 
evergreen shrub having prickly 
leaves, and producing red berries ; 
the leaves and bark said to 
possess tonic and febrifuge prop- 
erties, while the berries are emetic 
and purgative ; the wood is 

esteemed in turnery, etc., and 
the bark furnishes bird - lime ; 
systematic name, Ilex aquifol- 
ium, Ord. Aquifoliacese. 

hollyhock, n., hMli-hdk (holly, a 
corruption of holy, as supposed to 
have been brought from the Holy 
Land ; AS. hoc, W. hocys, 
mallows), a tall, beautiful garden 
flowering plant, employed medic- 
inally in Greece, yields fibres 
and a blue dye; the Althaea rosea, 
Ord. Malvaceae. 

Holocephali, n. plu., hWo-sZf.ali 
(Gr. holos, whole ; kephale, the 
head), in zool. , a Sub-order of tho 
Elasmobranchii, comprising the 

holometabolic, a., hdl'd-met-a- 
bol'-ik (Gr. holos, whole; metdbdle, 
change), applied to insects which 
undergo a complete metamorph- 

holosericeous, a., htil'd-ser-zsh'-'tis 
(Gr. holos, whole ; serikos, L. 
sericus, silky), covered with 
minute silky hairs, best discovered 
by touch. 

Holostomata, n. plu., hdl'-ti-stdml 
dt'd (Gr. holos, whole ; stdma, a 
mouth, stomata, mouths), a div- 
ision of gasteropodous molluscs 
in which the aperture of the 
shell is rounded or entire. 

Holothuroidea, n. plu., hol'-d- 
thur-oj/d'e-d (Gr. holothourion, 
a zoophyte resembling a sponge ; 
eidos, resemblance), an Order of 
Echinodermata, comprising the 
Trepan gs. 

Homaliacese, n. plu., hdm-dl't-d'- 
sZ-e, also Homaliads, n. plu., 
hom-dl'i-ddz (Gr. homalos, 
uniform, regular), the Homalia 
family, an Order of tropical trees 
and shrubs bearing flowers in 
spikes or racemes : Homalium, 
n., hdm-dl'-i-ttm, a genus, so 
called because their stamens are 
regularly divided into three 
stamened fascicles. 

homocarpous, a., htim'-o-kdrp'-us 
(Gr. homos, alike ; karpos, fruit), 




having all the fruits of a flower- 
head alike. 

homocercal, a., horned -serial (Gr. 
hdmos, alike; kerkos, the tail), 
having equally-bilobate tails, as 
in the herring, the cod, etc. ; com- 
posed of two equal lobes. 

homochromous, a., h6mf>o-lcrom'> 
Us (Gr. hdmos, alike ; chroma, 
colour), having all the flowerets 
on the same flower-head of the 
same colour. 

homodromous, a., hom-tid'-rim-us 
(Gr. htimos, alike ; dromos, a 
race-course), in bot., running in 
the same direction, as spirals, or 
leaves on the stem and branches. 

homoeopathy, n., hdm'-e-d'p'ath-i 
(Gr. homoios, similar, like ; 
pathos, suffering), a mode of 
treating diseases by the adminis- 
tration of medicines capable of 
exciting in healthy persons 
symptoms closely similar to those 
of the disease for which they are 
given; a theory of medical practice 
opposed to that commonly known 
as Allopathy. 

homogamous, a., hom-tig'-am-iis 
(Gr. homogamos, married to- 
gether from homos, alike, 
similar ; gamos, marriage), in 
bot., applied to composite plants 
having the flowers of the capitula 
all hermaphrodite. 

homogangliate, a., hdm'o-gang'- 
gti-at (Gr. homos, like; gangglion, 
a knot), in zool. , having a nervous 
system in which the ganglia are 
symmetrically arranged. 

homogeneous, a., horn'o-jen'-e-iis 
(Gr. homos, like; genos, kind), 
of the same kind or nature ; 
having a uniform structure or 
substance ; opposed to ' hetero- 
geneous. ' 

homologous, a., hdm-81'og'US (Gr. 
homdlogos, using the same words, 
of the same opinion from homos, 
like, similar; logos, speech, ap- 
pearance), having the same ratio 
or proportion ; constructed on 
the same plan, though differing 

in form and function; in anat., 
having a growth like normal 
tissues of the body, as opposed to 
'heterologous'; in chem., applied 
to analogous bodies whose com- 
positions differ by a constant 
difference : homologue, n., 
hdm''5>l8g, correspondence or 
equivalence of certain organs; a 
part in one animal which strictly 
represents a part in a different 
animal, as the arms in man, the 
wings in birds, and the pectoral 
fins in fishes : homology, n., 
hom-dV'd'ji, affinity dependent on 
structure or the essential corre- 
spondence of parts ; the identity 
of parts which are apparently 
distinct; similarity of structure 
of different parts, as between the 
upper and lower limbs, exhibiting 
a community of plan. 

homomorphy, n. , hom'-d-mftrf-i 
(Gr. homos, like, similar ; morphe, 
shape, form), in bot., the con- 
dition of the Compositse when 
the disc florets assume the form 
of ray florets ; the fertilization of 
the pistil by the pollen from its 
own flowers ; self-fertilization : 
homomorphic, a. , hdm'd-m8rf'-ik, 
having the pistil fertilized by the 
pollen from its own flowers : 
homomorphous, a., hom'-d-mor/'- 
us, in zool., having a similar ex- 
ternal appearance or form. 

homoomerous, a., hom'6'dm'er-us 
(Gr. homoios, like, similar; meros, 
a part), in bot., applied to lichens 
where the gonidia and hyphse in 
the thallus appear about equally 

homopetalous, a., hom'o-pVt'al'tiS 
(Gr. homos, like ; petalon, a 
leaf), in bot., having all the 
petals formed alike ; having all 
the florets alike in a composite 

homotropal, a., hom-fa'-rop-al (Gr. 
homos, like; tropos, a turning), 
in bot., having the same general 
direction as the body of which 
it forms a part ; applied to the 




slightly curved embryo when it 
has the same general direction as 
the seed. 

homotype, n., hom'-o-tlp (Gr. 
homos, like, similar ; tupos, form, 
a type), that part of an animal 
which corresponds to another 
part ; correspondence of parts 
which lie in series, as the hones 
of the foot with those of the 
hand : homotypy, n., hom-dt'ip'i, 
the state or condition of such 
correspondence : homotypic, a., 
hom'-o-tip'-ik, pert, to ; homol- 

honey-suckle, n., hun'-l-suH-l 
(Eng. honey, and suckle), a well- 
known climbing plant and 
flower ; the common name of the 
plants of the genus Lonicera, 
Ord. Caprifoliaceae ; honey-suckle 
is sometimes applied to meadow 
clover, Trifolium pratense; the 
French honey-suckle is Hedy- 
sarum coronarium. 

Honkeneja, n., hdng'kgn-e'ja (an 
Iceland word), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Caryophyllacese : Honkeneja 
peploides, pep-loyd'-ez (Gr.peplos, 
a covering, a robe; eidos, re- 
semblance), a species which has 
been used as a pickle, and in 
Iceland as an article of food. 

hops, n. plu., hftps (Ger. hopfen, 
Dut. happen, hops), a climbing 
plant whose seeds or flowers are 
employed in imparting bitterness 
to beer and ale ; the Humulus 
lupulus, Ord. Cannabinacese. 

hordeolum, n., hdrd-e'-dl-um (a 
dim. of L. hordeum, barley), in- 
flammation of one of the meib- 
omian glands in the margin of the 
eyelid, so called from its likeness 
in size and hardness to a small 
barley-corn ; the stye. 

Hordeum, n., hdrd'Z-Hm (L. 
hordeum, barley), a genus of the 
cereal grains, the barleys and 
barley grasses, Ord. Gramineee : 
Hordeum vulgare, vulg-ar'% (L. 
vulgaris, general, common), 
common barley : H. hexastichum, 

h%ks>ast f -ik>um (Gr. hex, six ; stix, 
order, rank, stichos, of order or 
rank), bere or bigg, a variety of 

horehound, n., hor'-hownd (AS. 
hara-hune from har, hoary, 
grey ; hune, consumption), a 
native wild plant, supposed 
to act as a tonic and ex- 
pectorant, but not now used by 
physicians ; the Marrubium 
vulgare, Ord. Labiata. 

horn-beam, n., horn'-bem (Goth. 
haurn, horn; Ger. baum, Dut. 
boom, a tree), a tree whose wood 
is white, hard, and heavy, hence 
its name ; the Carpinus betulus, 
Ord. Cupuliferse or Corylacese. 

horse-chestnut, n., the ^Esculus 
hippocastanum, Ord. Sapindaceae. 

horse-radish, n., the Cochlearia 
Armoracia, Ord. Cruciferae : 
horse-radish tree, the Moringa 
pterygosperma, Ord. Moringaceae. 

hortus siccus, Jiort'-us sik'-kus 
(L. hortus, a garden ; siccus, 
dry), in bot. , a collection of dried 
plants preserved between paper 
or in books ; a herbarium. 

hospitalism, n., hds'pit-al-izm (L. 
hospitalis, hospitable from 
hospes, a guest), the prejudicial 
influences of large hospital build- 
ings upon sick residents, es- 
pecially when the patients are 
numerous; the subject of hospital 

houseleek, n., hows'-lek (Eng. 
house; Icel. laukr, a leek), a 
well-known herb, the Sem- 
pervivum tectorum, Ord. Crassul- 

Hoya, n., hoy'-a (after Thomas 
Hoy, a botanist and gardener), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Asclepiad- 
acese, which bear very handsome 
waxy flowers : Hoya carnosa, 
kdr-noz'd (L. carnosus, fleshy 
from cdro, flesh), the wax-flower, 
so named from the peculiar 
aspect of its blossoms. 

humerus, n., hum f -er-us (L. hiim- 
Zrus, the shoulder), the arm from 




the shoulder to the elbow; the 
bone of that part, consisting of 
two parts, the scapula and the 
clavicle: humeral, a., hum'er-al, 
pert, to the shoulder. 

humifuse, a., humf-i-fuz (L. humus, 
the ground ; fusus, spread), in 
bot., spreading over the surface 
of the ground ; procumbent. 

HumiriacesB, n. plu., hum'-ir^-d' 
s$-e (formed probably from Umiri, 
where found), the Humiriads, an 
Order of plants of Brazil, which 
some place as a Sub-order under 
the Ord. Meliacese : Humiria, n. , 
hum-tr'-i-a, a genus : Humiria 
floribunda, flo^i-Mud'-a (L. 

flos, a flower, floris, of a flower ; 
abundans, abounding), a species 
whose trunk, when wounded, 
yields a liquid yellow balsam, 
called balsam of Umiri : H. bal- 
samifera, bal'-sam-if-tr-a (L. 
balsamum, balsam ; fero, I bear), 
yields a balsam used for perfumery 
and in medicine. 

humor or humour, n., humf-or 
(L. humor, fluid of any kind, 
moisture ; F. humeur), any 
moisture or fluid of the body 
except the blood ; certain parts 
of the eye which abound in fluid: 
humoral, a., hurn'or-al, pert, to 
the fluids of the body or proceed- 
ing from them ; in med. , applied 
to that doctrine which ascribes 
all diseases to a degenerate or 
disordered state of the fluids of 
the body : aqueous humor, the 
watery matter which fills the 
space in the forepart of the eye- 
ball between the cornea and iris. 

Humulus, n., hum'ul-us (L. 
humus, the earth, the ground), a 
genus of creeping plants, Ord. 
Cannabinacese, constituting the 
well - known Hop, extensively 
cultivated in some parts of 
England, so named as it creeps 
along the ground if not sup- 
ported: Humulus lupulus, loop'- 
ul'iis (dim. of L. lupus, a wolf), 
the common hops, the strobili 

of the female plants of which 
constitute the hops ; employed 
as a tonic and narcotic in the 
form of extract, infusion, and 

humus, n., hum'-us (L. humu*, 
earth, soil), vegetable mould, 
the product of decayed veget- 

Hura, n., hur'-a (S. Arner. name), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Euphorbi- 
acese: Hura crepitans, Jcrep'it-anz 
(L. crepitans, creaking, crack- 
ling), the sand-box tree or 
monkey's dinner-bell, the juice 
of which is very acrid ; the 
numerous parts of its fruit, when 
dry, separate from each other 
with great force. 

husk, n., husk (Dut. hulsche, the 
covering of seeds), the external 
covering of many fruits and 
seeds ; the pericarp. 

Hyacinthus, n., hi'-a-smth'us (L. 
Hyddnthus, Gr. Huakinthos, a 
beautiful youth, beloved by 
Apollo, and accidentally killed 
by a blow of his quoits, and from 
whose blood the flowers sprang ; 
the blue iris, corn-flag, or gladiol- 
us of the ancients), a beautiful 
and well-known genus of bulbous 
plants, Ord. Liliacese : Hyacinth- 
us orientalis, dr'-i-ent-dl'is (L. 
orientdlis, oriental from orient, 
arising), the hyacinth, a popular 
spring flower having numerous 
garden varieties and various 
colours of flowers. 

hyaline, a., hi'al-in (Gr. hualos, 
glass), consisting of or resembling 
glass ; in med. , clear and of a 
slight consistence like a jelly ; in 
bot., transparent or colourless : 
n., a substance which originates 
the cell-nucleus, or the part where 
the cell-nucleus appears : hyaloid, 
a., hl'-al-dyd (Gr. eidos, re- 
semblance), like glass ; trans- 
parent : n. , an extremely thin 
and clear membrane. 

hybrid, n., hi'-brid (L. hybrida, 
a hybrid, a mongrel from Gr. 




hubris, a wanton act, an outrage), 
an animal or plant the produce 
of different kinds or species ; a 
plant resulting from the fecunda- 
tion of one species by another : 
adj., having the origin or char- 
acter of a hybrid : hybridisation, 
n., hl'brid'$z-d'shun, the act of 
rendering hybrid. 

hydatids, n. plu., hid'&t-idz. and 
hydatides, n. plu., hld-at'-id-ez 
(Gr. hudatis, a vesicle, hudatldos, 
of a vesicle from hudor, water), 
little vesicles or bladders, with 
fluid or semi - fluid contents, 
found in the bodies of animals in 
a state of disease, and containing 
the larval forms of parasites : 
hydatid mole, the product of a 
morbid pregnancy consisting of 
bunches of mucoid vesicles, 
having a general resemblance to 
clusters of grapes. 

Hydnocarpus, n., hld'nd-kdrp'us 
(Gr. hudnon, a tuber ; karpos, 
fruit), a genus of small trees, 
Ord. Bixace?e : Hydnocarpus 
venenatus, ven'-Zn-at'us (L. ven- 
enatus, poisonous fromvenenum, 
poison), a species which produces 
a fruit of the size of an apple, 
which the Cingalese use to 
poison fish ; the seeds contain 
an oil used medicinally. 

Hydnora, n., hld-nor'-a (see 
Hydnum), a genus of root 
parasites having a fungus-like 
aspect, Ord. Cytinacese: Hydnora 
Africana, af'rik'dn'a(Africdnus, 
of or from Africa), a parasitic 
flowering plant of very singular 
construction, which attacks the 
roots of the Cistus, some succulent 
Euphorbiaceae, and other plants. 

Hydnum, n., hid'-num (Gr. hud- 
non, a mushroom), a genus of 
mushrooms, Ord. Fungi : Hyd- 
num coralloides, kdr'dl-oyd'ez 
(L. corallum, Gr. korallion, red 
coral), a species of mushroom 
which are eatable, found under 
the trunks of trees in moist situa- 

hydra, n., Jdd'rft (Gr. hudra, L. 
hydra, the hydra, a water snake; 
Gr. hudor, water), a water snake; 
a fabulous monster serpent hav- 
ing many heads, slain by Her- 
cules ; a fresh - water polype : 
hydraform, a., hid'ra'form (L. 
forma, shape), resembling the 
common fresh -water polype or 
hydra in form. 

hydragogue, n., hid^ra-gftg (Gr. 
hudor, wa,ter ; ago, I lead), a 
medicine which produces copious 
watery stools. 

Hydrangese, n. plu., hld-ranj'Z-e 
(Gr. hudor, water; anggeion, a ves- 
sel, a capsule), a Sub-order of the 
Ord. Saxifragacese : Hydrangea, 
n., a genus of plants, pretty 
when in flower, so called from 
the capsules of some of the 
species appearing like a cap : 
Hydrangea Thunbergii, tun- 
berj'i'i (after Thunberg, a celeb- 
rated traveller and botanist), a 
species whose leaves furnish a tea 
of a very recherche character, 
bearing the name Ama-tsja in 

hydranth, n., hld'ranth (Gr. 
hudra, a water serpent ; anthos, 
a flower), the polypite or proper 
nutritive zooid of the Hydro- 

hydrargyrum, n., hid-rdrj'Jr-'&m 
(Gr. hudrarguros, fluid silver 
from hudor, water ; arguros, 
silver), quicksilver or mercury : 
hydrargyria, n. plu., hld'-rdr- 
jir'i-a, one of the ill effects of 
mercury applied locally : hydrar- 
gyriasis, n., hid-rdr'-jir-i'-as-is, a 
disease produced by the abuse of 

Hydrastis, n., hld-ras'tis (Gr. 
hudor, water), a genus of plants 
growing in moist situations, Ord. 
Kanunculaceae : Hydrastis Can- 
adensis, kdn'-dd-Zntfta (of or 
from Canada), a species whose 
yellow roots are used as a tonic ; 
yellow root. 

hydrate, n., hid'-rat (Gr. hudor, 




water), a compound containing a 
definite proportion of water chem- 
ically combined : hydrated, a., 
htd'rdt'8d, combined with water 
in definite proportions : hydra- 
tion, n., htd-rd-sh'&n, the act or 
state of becoming chemically 
combined with water. 

hydraulic, a., hid-rdtffKtk (Gr. 
hudor, water ; aulos, a pipe), 
relating to the conveyance of 
water through pipes ; worked by 
water : hydraulics, n. plu. , hid- 
roJwl'-iks, the science which treats 
of the application of the forces 
influencing the motions of fluids; 
the art of raising, conducting, 
and employing water for practical 

hydrencephalocele, n., hid'-r$n- 
s%f'al''d'Sel (Gr. hudor ', water ; 
engkephalon, the brain ; kele, a 
tumour), a tumour occasioned by 
hernial protrusion of the mem- 
brane of the brain and the fluid 
contents of the cranium, through 
a deficiency in the latter. 

hydro, hid r -rd, and hydr, hid'-r 
(Gr. hudor, water), prefixes 
in scientific terms denoting the 
presence, action, or quality of 
water ; denoting the presence of 
hydrogen : hydro-carbon, kdrtf 
8n (Eng. carbon), a compound of 
hydrogen and carbon ; a term 
usually applied to bitumens, 
mineral resins, and mineral fats 
which are composed of hydrogen 
and carbon in varying propor- 
tions: hydro-carburet, n., hid'-ro- 
kdrb'ur'et, a compound of hydro- 
gen and carbon ; hydro-carbon. 

hydrocaulus, n., hid'-rd'kdwl'-us 
(Gr. hudra, a water serpent ; 
kaulos, a stem), in zool., the 
main stem of the coenosarc of a 

hydrocele, n., lild'-ro-sel (Gr. 
hudor, water ; kele, a tumour), 
dropsy of the testicle ; a collec- 
tion of serum in the external or 
serous covering of the testicle. 

hydrocephalus, n., hid'-rd-sef'-ul- 

Us (Gr. hudor, water ; kephale, 
the head), a disease chiefly char- 
acterised by an accumulation of 
serous fluid in the central cavities 
of the brain, and frequently a 
result of tubercular disease ; 
dropsy or water in the head : 
hydrocephalic, a., hid'rd'Sef'dl' 
ik, relating to or connected with 

HydrocharidaceaB, n. plu., hid'-ro- 
kar'-id-d'se'-e (Gr. hudor, water ; 
charis, grace, beauty), the Frog- 
bit family, an Order of floating 
or aquatic plants found in vari- 
ous parts of the world : Hydro- 
charis, n., hid-rd'k'ar'is, a genus 
of pretty aquatic plants, forming 
one of the prettiest ornaments 
of our still waters. 

hydrochlorate, n., hld'-rd-kld^-at 
(Eng. hydrogen and chlorine], a 
compound of hydrochloric acid 
with a base : hydrochloric, a. , 
hid'rd'kldr'ik, consisting of a 
combination of hydrogen and 
chlorine; denoting an acid known, 
also as muriatic acid and spirit 
of salt. 

Hydrocotyle, n., hid'>ro-kdt'il>e 
(Gr. hudor, water ; Tcotule, a 
hollow, a cavity), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Umbelliferas : Hyd- 
rocotyle Asiatica, dzh'i-at'-ik-a 
(of or from Asia], a species used 
in medicine: H. vulgaris, vul- 
gar'-is (L. vulgaris, general, 
common), a curious little native 
Umbellifer, called Pennywort, 
having round peltate leaves, 
growing in marshy situations, 
and reported injurious to sheep. 

hydrocyanic, a., lild'-rd'Sl-wnf-ik 
(Gr. hudor, water; kuanos, dark- 
blue), denoting an acid consisting 
of hydrogen and cyanogen ; 
Prussic acid : hydrocyanate, n. , 
hid'-rd'Si'-an-at, a compound of 
hydrocyanic acid with a base. 

hydrocysts, n. plu., hld f -r6-sists 
(Gr. hudra, a water serpent ; 
kustis, a bladder, a cyst), in zoo/. , 
curious processes attached to the 




coenosarc of the Physophoridse, 
and termed feelers. 

Hydrodictyon, n., hid'-ro-dik'ti-tin 
(Gr. hudor, water ; diktuon, a 
fishing-net), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Algae or Hydrophyta, so 
named from the reticulated struc- 
ture of the plants : Hydrodictyon 
utriculatum, ut-rik'-ul-at'-um (L. 
utriculus, a small skin or leathern 
bottle), a species called 'water 
net, ' which has the appearance of 
a green net composed of filaments 
enclosing pentagonal and hexag- 
onal spaces. 

hydroecium, n., hid-re'shi-um (Gr. 
hudra, a water serpent ; oikos, a 
house), the chamber into which 
the coenosarc in many of the 
Calycophoridse can be retracted. 

hydrogen, n. , hid'ro-jen (Gr. hudor , 
water ; gennao, I produce), a 
metal which, in its gaseous 
form, is the lightest of all 
known bodies, producing water 
when combined with oxygen : 
sulphuretted hydrogen, a com- 
bination of hydrogen with 
sulphur, producing a gas having 
a smell like rotten eggs, found as 
a constituent of mineral waters. 

Hydroida, n. plu., hid-royd'-a (Gr. 
hudra, a water snake ; eidos, re- 
semblance), in zool, the sub- 
class of the Hydrozoa which com- 
prises the animals most nearly 
allied to the hydra ; in geol. , an 
extensive genus of zoophytes. 

hydrometra, n., hid'ro-met'ra 
(Gr. hudor , water ; metra, womb), 
an excessive secretion and accum- 
ulation of fluid within the cavity 
of the uterus. 

hydronephrosis, n., hid'-rd-ntf- 
roz'is (Gr. hudor, water ; nephros, 
kidney), dropsy of the kidney, 
caused by any permanent obstruc- 
tion of the ureter. 

hydropathy, n., hid-r8p'>ath-i (Gr. 
hudor, water ; pathos, feeling), 
the water cure : hydropathic, a. , 
hid'- ro -path' ik, relating to the 
water care. 

hydropericardium, n., hld'-ro-ptr- 
i'kdrd'i-um (Gr. hudor, water ; 
peri, round about ; kardia, the 
heart), an eifusion of serum into 
the sac of the pericardium or 
membrane enclosing the heart ; 
dropsy of the pericardium. 

hydrophobia, n., hld'-rd-fob'-l-a 
(Gr. hudor, water ; phobos, fear, 
dread), a disease occurring in the 
human being after being bitten 
by any rabid animal, characterised 
by an aversion to water, and 
more or less general convulsions. 

Hydrophyllacese, n. plu., Jild'-ro- 
fil'la'-s&e (Gr. hudor, water ; 
phullon, a leaf), the Hydro - 
phyllum family, an Order of 
trees and herbaceous plants, many 
of which have showy flowers, and 
some have glandular or stinging 
hairs : HydrophyllesB, n. plu., 
hld'-ro-fim-e, a Sub-order : Hyd- 
rophyllum, n., kSd'-rG-fti'-ltim, a 

Hydrophyllia, n. plu., hid'rd-fiV* 
li-d (Gr. hudra, a water snake ; 
phullon, a leaf), in zool., over- 
lapping appendages or plates 
which protect the polypites in 
some of the oceanic Hydrozoa ; 
also termed ' bracts. ' 

Hydrophyta, n. plu., hld-rof-tt-a 
(Gr. hudor, water; phuton, a 
plant), the Sea-weed family ; the 
Algse or cellular plants found 
both in salt and in fresh water : 
hydrophyte, n^hid'rd-ftt, a plant 
which lives and grows in water 

hydrorhiza, n., hid'-ro-rlz'-a (Gr. 
hudra, a water snake ; rhiza, a 
root), in zool., the adherent base 
or proximal extremity of any 

hydrosoma, n., hld^rd-som'd (Gr. 
hudra, a water snake ; soma, 
body), in zool. , the entire organ- 
ism of any hydrozoon. 

hydrosulphuret, n., hid'-rd-sul/' 
ur-H (Eng. hydrogen and sul- 
phur], a compound of hydro- 
sulphuric acid with a base : hyd- 




rosulphuric, a., hld'-ro-sul/'Ur'- 
ik, pert, to or derived from 
hydrogen and sulphur. 

hydrotheca, n. plu., hid'-ro-iheMti 
(Gr. hydra, a water snake; theke, 
a chest), in zool., the little chit- 
inous cups in which certain 
polypites are protected. 

hydrothorax, n., hld'-rd-thdr'-aks 
(Gr. hudor, water ; thorax, the 
chest), a dropsical accumulation 
of fluid in the pleural sac ; water 
in the chest. 

Hydrozoa, n. plu., hid'-rd-zo'-d 
(Gr. hudra, a water serpent ; 
won, an animal), in zool., gelat- 
inous, oblong, or conical polypes 
organized like the hydra ; the 
class of the Ccelenterata com- 
prising animals constructed like 
the hydra. 

hydruria, n., hid-rdr'-i-a (Gr. 
hudor, water ; ouron, urine), an 
excessive secretion of limpid, 
watery urine. 

hygiene, n., hity-en' (L. Hygeia, 
Gr. Hugeia,ihe goddess of health), 
that department of medical prac- 
tice which treats of health, its 
preservation, restoration, and 

hygrometer, n., M-gr&mf-<tt*er (Gr. 
hugros, wet, moist ; logos, dis- 
course), an instrument for measur- 
ing the degree of moisture in the 
atmosphere : hygrometric, a., 
hi'-gro-met'-rik, of or relating to 
the hygrometer ; in bot. , moving 
under the influence of moisture. 

hygrophanous, a., hi-grof'-an-us 
(Gr. hugros, wet ; phaino, I 
show), in bot., appearing watery 
when moist, but becoming opaque 
when dry. 

Hygrophoms, n., lil-grof-or-tis 
(Gr. hugros, wet, moist ; phoreo, 
1 bear), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Fungi : Hygrophoms pratensis, 
pra>t$ns'>is (L. pratensis, growing 
in meadows from pratum, a 
meadow), a species of fungi, 
called the Herefordshire truffle. 

hygroscope, n., hi'-grd-skop (Gr. 

hugros, water, moisture ; sTcopeo, 
I see or view), an instrument to 
show the moisture or drynessofthe 
air: hygroscopic, a., M'-grd-skopt 
ik, pert, to ; applied to moisture 
not readily apparent. 

hymen, n., him'-en (Gr. humen, 
a thin membrane; Gr. Humen, L. 
Hymen, the god of marriage, the 
son of Bacchus and Venus), the 
valvular fold of membrane which 
protects the virginal vagina : 
hymeneal, a., him'en'e'al, pert, 
to marriage. 

Hymensea, n,, him'8n-e'a (Gr. 
Humen, L. Hymen, the god of 
marriage), a genus of trees, Ord. 
Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Csesalpin- 
ieae, whose species are highly 
ornamental, so named from its 
two leaflets : Hymenaea Courbaril, 
kdr'bar-il (unascertained), the 
West Indian locust tree ; the 
pods supply a nutritious matter, 
its inner bark is anthelmintic, 
and the plant yields a kind of 
resin called Anime. 

hymenium, n., him-en'i-um (Gr. 
humen, a membrane), in bot., 
that portion of the fructification 
of a fungus in which the sporules 
are situated, usually more or less 
a membranous expansion ; the 
part which bears the fructification 
in Agarics : hymenial, a., him- 
en'-i-al, belonging to the hymen- 
ium: hymenicolar, a., him'-Zn-itt 
ol-ar (L. colo, I inhabit), in bot., 
inhabiting the hymenium. 

Hymenomycetes, n., him^n^d- 
mi'Set f *ez (Gr. humen, a membrane; 
mukes, a fungus), a division of 
the Fungi in which the hymenium 
is naked; the spores appear in sets 
of four, borne on distinct sporo- 
phores, as seen in mushrooms. 

hymenophorum, n., Mnt<6n'8f-or* 
urn (Gr. humen, a membrane ; 
phoreo, I bear), in bot., the 
structure which bears the hymen- 

HymenophylleaB, n. plu.,him f -en-o- 

fil'-tt'G (Gr. humen, a membrane; 




phutton, a leaf), the Filmy Fern 
tribe, a Sub-order of the Ord. 
Filices or Ferns. 

Hyinenoptera, n. plu., &im'&idp 
t$r-a (Gr. humen, a membrane ; 
pteron, a wing), an Order of insects 
characterised by the possession of 
four membranous wings, as in 
bees, ants, etc. 

Hymenothalamese, n. plu., himf- 
(^n-d'thdl'dm^e-e (Gr. humen, a 
membrane ; thaldmos, a nest, a 
receptacle), a section or Sub-order 
of the Lichens, characterised by 
their open shields, and the nuc- 
leus bearing the sporangia on 
their surface. 

hymenulum, n., him'tin'-ul-ftm (a 
dim. from Gr. humen t a mem- 
brane), in bot., a shield containing 

hyo, hi'-o, a prefix denoting con- 
nection with the hyoid bone : 
hyoid, a., hi'-oyd (the Greek 
letter v, upsilon, from the shape 
of the bone ; eidos, resemblance), . 
the U - shaped bone situated 
between the tongue and the 
larynx : hyoglossus, n., hi'-d- 
gld/'Sus (Gr. glossa, tongue), a 
flat quadrate muscle, arising from 
the whole length of the great 
corner of the hyoid bone and the 

Hyoscyamus, n., hi'-fa-si'-tim-fa 
(L. hyoscyamus, Gr. huoskuamos, 
henbane from Gr. hus, a hog ; 
kuamos, a bean, in allusion to 
the fruit being eaten by swine), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Solanacese : 
Hyoscyamus niger, nldf-er (L. 
niger, black, dark), henbane, a 
biennial poisonous plant, with 
dingy yellow flowers, exhibiting 
beautiful purple reticulations, 
and having hairy viscous leaves ; 
a tincture of henbane is often 
used as a mild narcotic, 
and its oil is an energetic 
poison : hyoscyamia, n., hl'-8s- 
sl-am'i-d, an alkaloid obtained 
from hyoscyamus, to which the 
plant owes its narcotic properties. 

hypanthodium, n., hip'-an-thod'-i' 
um (Gr. hupo, under ; anthos, a 
flower), a fleshy receptacle en- 
closing the flowers, as in the fig ; 
the receptacle of Dorstenia, bear- 
ing many flowers. 

hypersemia, n., hip'er>em'-i'd (Gr. 
huper, over ; haima, blood), an 
excessive accumulation of blood 
in a part of the body ; a local or 
partial excess of blood. 

hyper sesthesia, n . , hip'- er-ez- the'- 
zhi-d (Gr. huper, above, over ; 
aisthesis, perception, sensation), 
excessive or morbid sensibility, 
as intolerance of light, sound, 

hypercatharsis, n., hlp'-er-kath- 
drs'-is (Gr. huper, above, over ; 
kathairo, I purge), excessive 
purging of the bowels. 

Hypericaceae, n. plu., hip'-er-fr 
kaf-s&e (Gr. hupereikon, the plant 
St. John's wort from ereike, 
heath, heather), the Tutsan or 
St. John's wort family, an Order 
of plants distributed very gener- 
ally over all parts of the globe, 
which yield a resinous coloured 
juice, having purgative properties 
and resembling gamboge: Hyper- 
icum,n.,hip'er^ik-um, an extens- 
ive genus, most of whose species 
produce showy plants: Hypericum 
connatum, kdn-ndt'-um (L. con- 
ndtus, born with from ndtus, 
born), a species from which a 
gargle for sore throats is prepared 
in Brazil : H. hircinum, her sin 1 '- 
Urn (L. hirclnus, of or from a 
goat from hircus, a he-goat), 
a species having a fetid odour : 
H. laxiusculum, laks'-i-usk'-ul-tim 
(L. laxus, wide, loose ; juscul- 
um, juice), a species, a de- 
coction from whose leaves is 
esteemed a specific against the 
bite of serpents in Brazil : H. 
perforatum, perf-6r>at'-um (L. 
perfordtus, bored or pierced 
through), St. John's wort, much 
esteemed by the ancients as an 




hyperostosis, n., 
(Gr. huper, over ; osteon, a bone), 
an unnatural growth or projec- 
tion from a bone ; same as * exos- 
tosis. ' 

hyperplasia, n . , hlp'-er -plas'-i- a 
(Gr. huper, over ; plasso, I form), 
the excessive multiplication of 
the elements of a part. 

hyperpyrexia, n., hip'er-pir-eks' 
i-d (Gr. huper, over ; Eng. pyr- 
exia), the temperature of any 
body when over 106 F. 

hypertrophy, n., hlp-er'-trdf-i 
(Gr. huper, over ; trophe, food, 
nourishment), excessive growth 
of a part ; an increase of size in 
the healthy structure of an organ, 
due to increased exercise or 
nutrition, as in the arms of a 
blacksmith, or in the limbs of an 
athlete; in bot., enlargement of 

hypha, n., hif'-a, hyphas, n. plu., 
hlf-e (Gr. huphe, weaving), the 
filamentous tissue in the thallus 
of lichens : hyphal, a., hif-al, 
pert, to a filamentous tissue. 

Hyphasne, n., hlf-en'% (Gr. huph- 
aino, I weave), a genus of orna- 
mental palm trees, Ord. Palmae : 
Hyphaene thebaica, the-bd'ik'd 
(L. Thebaicus, of or from Thebes, 
in Egypt), the doom-palm of 
Egypt, whose pericarp has the 
taste of gingerbread, and is used 
as food. 

hyphasma, n., hif'az'-ma, (Gr. 
huphe, weaving), in bot., a web- 
like thallus of Agarics ; the 
mycelium of certain fungi ; same 
sense as ' hypha. ' 

Hypnum, n. , hip'num (Gr. hupnon, 
moss or lichen), the most extensive 
genus among mosses, Ord. Musci 
or Bryacese, known by their 
prostrate, pinnated, bright green 

hypocarpogean, a., hip'o-kdrp'o- 
je<dn (Gr. hupo, under ; karpos, 
fruit; ge, earth), in bot., pro- 
ducing their fruit below ground, 
as in the ground nut. 

hypochilium, n., 
(Gr. hupo, under ; cheilos, the 
lip), in bot. , the lower part of the 
labellum when it is divided, as in 

hypochondrium, n., hip'-d-Wri'- 
dri'Um, also hypochondria, n., 
-dri-d (Gr. hupochondria, the 
viscera that lie under the cartilage 
of the ribs from hupo, under ; 
chondros, cartilage), the part of 
the belly under the short ribs 
containing the liver and spleen ; 
a disease characterised by un- 
easiness about the region of the 
stomach and liver : hypochon- 
driasis, n., hip'6'kon-dri'as'is, a 
form of insanity in which the 
patient converts an idea of 
purely mental origin into what 
appears to him to be a real 
material change ; a morbid self- 
consciousness similar in some 
respects to hysteria, but with the 
belief in the patient that he is 
suffering under numerous severe 
diseases : hypochondriac, a. , hip 
O'kdnd'-ri-ak, affected by severe 
depression of spirits : n., one who 
is suffering under severe de- 

Eressiou of spirits ; a sufferer 
:om hypochondriasis. 

hypocotyledonary, a., hip'-o-kot 
il-ed'-tin-ar-i (Gr. hupo, under ; 
Eng. cotyledon), in bot., applied 
to peculiar thickened roots whose 
structure it is often difficult to 
determine, and which have the 
aspect of stems. 

hypocraterifonn, &.,hip'6'lcrat''er r ' 
i-ftirm (Gr. hupo, under ; krater, 
a cup ; L. forma, shape), in bot. , . 
shaped like a saucer or salver, as 
the corolla of primula. 

hypodermic, a., hlp'-d'derm'ik^T. 
hupo, under ; derma, the skin), 
applied or inserted under the 
skin : hypodenna, n., hlp'-d- 
derm'-a,, in bot., the layers of 
tissue lying beneath the epiderm- , 
is, and serving to strengthen it : 
hypodermis, n., hlp'-d'dermf'is, in 
bot., the inner layer of moss thecse. 




hypogastrium, n., hip'o-gastf-ri- 
tim (Gr. hupo, under ; gaster, the 
belly), the lower anterior part of 
the abdomen, extending from the 
pubes to within about two inches 
of the umbilicus, and to each 
side as far as a line drawn upright 
from the anterior extremity of the 
crest of the haunch bone (ilium).: 
hypogastric, a., hip'-o-gasMJc, 
pert, to the middle part of the 
lower region of the belly. 

hypogeous, a., hip'-d-je'us, also 
hypogeal, a,, hip'o-je'al (Gr. 
hupo, under ; ge, the earth), in 
bot. , applied to the parts of plants 
growing beneath the surface of 
the soil : hypogenous, a.., hip-ddf- 
Vn-us, in bot., growing beneath. 

hypoglossal, a., hip'o-glos'sdl 
(Gr. hupo, under ; glossa,, the 
tongue), applied to the ninth pair 
of nerves, situated beneath the 

hypogynous, a., hip-8dj'in-us (Gr. 
hupo, under ; gune, a female), in 
bot., inserted below the ovary or 
pistil: hypogyn, n., hip'-o-jm, a 
hypogynous plant. 

hyponasty, n., Mp'd-ndst-i (Gr. 
hupo, under ; nastos, pressed to- 
gether, stuffed), in bot., a form 
of nutation when the organs grow 
most rapidly on the dorsal side ; 
see 'epinasty.' 

hypophlceodal, a., hip'-d-fle'tid-al 
(Gr. hupo, under ; phloios, bark), 
in bot., existing beneath the epi- 
dermis of the bark. 

hypophyllous, a. , hip'-ofil'-lus (Gr. 
hupo, under ; phullon, a leaf), in 
bot. , situated under the leaf ; 
growing from the under side of a 

hypophysis cerebri, hip -of -is -is 
s&rt$b-ri (Gr. hupo, under; phuo, 
I grow ; L. c$r$brum, the brain, 
cerebri, of the brain), the pituitary 
body; a small reddish grey mass of 
a somewhat flattened oval shape, 
widest in the transverse direction, 
occupying the 'sella turcica ' of 
the sphenoid bone. 

hypospadias, n., hip'o-spdd'i-as 
(Gr. hupo, under ; spddizo, I pull 
or tear off), a malformation some- 
times occurring in the under sur- 
face of the penis. 

hyposporangium, n., hip'-o-spor- 
anj'-i'Um (Gr. hupo, under; spora, 
seed ; anggos, a vessel), in bot., 
the indusium of ferns growing 
from beneath the spore-case. 

hypostome, n., hip-ds'tdm-e (Gr. 
hupo, under ; stoma, a mouth), 
in zool. , the upper lip or labium 
of certain Crustacea, as in the 

hypothallus, n,, hip'd-thal'-lus, 
-thalli, n. plu., -thal'li (Gr. hupo, 
under ; Gr. thallos, L. thallus, a 
young shoot or branch), delicate 
fungoid filaments, upon which a 
lichen thallus is first developed ; 
the mycelium of certain ento- 
phytic fungi, as Uredines. 

hypothecium, n., lilp'-o-ihe'-sM-um 
(Gr. hupo, under ; IheJce, a case), 
the cellular disc beneath the 
thalamium in lichens, which 
bears the thecse. 

hypothenar eminence, hip-dth- 
eri'dr (Gr. hupo, under ; thenar, 
the palm of the hand), the fleshy 
mass at the inner border of the 
hand, consisting of three muscles 
passing to the little finger. 

hypoxanthin, n., hip''6ks-anth f >in 
(Gr. hupo, under ; xanthos, yel- 
low), a peculiar organic compound 
found in the fluid of the spleen, 
and in very small quantity in 

Hypoxidacess, n. plu., hip tiles'- id- 
a'-se-e (Gr. hupo, under ; oxus, 
sharp-pointed referring to the 
base of the capsule), the Hypoxis 
family, an Order of herbaceous 
and usually stemless plants, 
some having bitter roots, and 
others edible tubers : Hypoxis, 
n., hip -(Iks' is, a genus of plants, 
natives of warm countries. 

hypsometry, n., hips'dm'$t'ri (Gr. 
hupsos, height ; metron, a meas- 
ure), the method of ascertaining 




heights by the barometer, or by 
boiling water : hypsometrical, 
a., hips'tirrfet'rik'Cil, pert. to. 

hypsophyllary, a., ltfpaf-d>fflf>l&r?l 
(Gr. Tiupsos, top, summit ; phul- 
lon, a leaf),, in bot., applied to 
leaves which are bracts. 

Hyptis, n., hip'tis (Gr. huptios, 
lying on the back with the face 
upward from hupo, under), a 
genus of shrubby plants, Ord. 
Labiatse,. so called because the 
limb of the corolla is turned on 
its back : Hyptis membranacea, 
m$m'brdn-a's&-a (L. membrdna, 
skin or membrane), a species 
which attains the height of 20 or 
30 feet in Brazil. 

Hyracoidea, n. plu., Tiirt-ak-oyd'- 
8-a (Gr. hurax, a shrew ; eidos, 
resemblance), an Order of the 
Mammalia with the single genus 
Hyrax : Hyrax, n., hir'-alcs, 
the rock badger of the Cape : 
hyraceuxn, n., hir-ds'e-um, a 
substance resembling castor in 
smell and properties, obtained 
from its urine. 

hyssop, n.,, his'sop (Gr. hussopos, 
L. hyssopus, hyssop), a garden 
plant having an aromatic smell 
and pungent taste, formerly used 
as a stomachic : Hyssopus, n., 
his-sop'-us, a genus of plants, 
Ord. Labiatse: Hyssopus officin- 
alis, of-fis'-in'ol'-is (L. offitindlis, 
officinal), the common hyssop; 
the hyssop in Scripture is sup- 
posed to be a species of caper, 
Capparis J^gyptiaca. 

hysteranthous, a., Mst'-Zr-anth'tis 
(Gr. husteros, coming after ; 
anthos, a flower), in bot., expand- 
ing after the flowers have opened, 
as leaves. 

hysteria, n., his-te^i-a, also hys- 
terics, n., his-ter'iks (Gr. Jiuster- 
ikos, caused by the womb from 
hustZra, the womb), a nervous 
disease or affection, not altogether 
peculiar to women, and not 
necessarily connected with the 
womb or ovaries, but due to an 

imperfectly balanced mental and 
moral system : hysteric, a., 
his'ter'ik, and hysterical, a., 
Jife't&r'tik'dl, affected with or 
liable to hysterics. 
Hysterophyta, n. plu., his'ter-of'- 
it- a, also hysterophytes, n. plu., 
his-ter'.o-fUz (Gr. hustera, the 
womb ; phuton, a plant), another 
name for the order Fungi ; plants 
living upon dead or living organic 
matter,, as the Fungi. 

Iceland moss, is'land m8s (moss 
from Iceland], the Cetraria Islan- 
dica, Ord. Lichenes, a lichen 
used as a demulcent and tonic in 
the form of a decoction or jelly, 
found chiefly in northern regions, 
and used in. Iceland and Lapland 
as food. 

ice plant,, is plant, the Mesembry- 
anthemum crystallinum, Ord. 
Ficoidese or Mesembryacese, a 
plant remarkable for the watery 
vesicles which cover its surface, 
having the appearance of particles 
of ice. 

ichor, n., ikf-or (Gr. ichor, matter, 
gore),, a thin, watery, humor-like 
whey flowing from an ulcer : 
ichorous, a., ik'tir-us, like ichor; 

ichthyic, a., flAtU-flc (Gr. iclithus, 
a fish), relating to fishes: ich- 
thyoid, a., iK'thi'dyd (Gr. eidos, 
resemblance), resembling a fish : 
ichthyology, n., ttftht-b'&o''ji 
(Gr. logos, discourse), that branch 
of zoology which treats of the 
structure, the classification, the 
habits, and the history of fishes : 
Ichthyomorpha, n. plu., ikf-thl' 
d'-mdrf'-a (Gr. morphe, shape), an 
Order of Amphibians, called also 
Urodela, comprising the fish- 
like newts : Ichthyophthira, n. 
plu., ik'-thi-of-thlr'-a (Gr. phtheir, 
a louse), an Order of Crustacea 
comprising animals which are 
parasitic upon fishes : Ichthyops- 
ida, n. plu., tJc'-thi-d'ps'.id-a (Gr. 
opsis, appearance), the primary 




division of Vertebrata, comprising 
fishes and amphibia. 

ichthyosis, n., W'tM-wf-fo (Gr. 
ichthua, the dried rough skin of 
the dog - fish from ichthus, a 
fish), a cutaneous disease in which 
the skin is dry, harsh, and rough, 
and apparently too tight for the 
body ; a form of the disease in 
which dry, hard, greyish or 
slate - coloured scales appear on 
different parts of the body. 

icosandria, n. plu., ik'-Ss-andf-ri-a 
(Gr. eikosi, twenty ; hedra, a 
seat, a basis), plants which have 
twenty or more stamens inserted 
on the calyx : icosandrous, a., 
iktd'S'dnd'rus, having twenty 

icterus, n., ik'-t^r-us (Gr. iJcteros, 
L. icterus, jaundice), jaundice : 
icterus neonatorumi, ne'-o-nat-or'' 
um (Gr. neos, new, fresh ; L. 
natorum, of the new-born from 
ndtus, born); the jaundice of the 
new-born ; yellow gum in new- 
born infants.. 

idiocy, n., id'i-ds-i (Gr. idiotes, a 
private individual from idios, 
proper, peculiar to oneself), a 
form of insanity where the mind 
from the first is imperfectly de- 
veloped, and remains permanently 
in this undeveloped state : idiot, 
n., id'-i'Ot, a human being more 
or less defective in regard to his 
mental or moral powers. 

idiopathy, n., td'-Wp'.&tM (Gr. 
idios, peculiar; pathos, suffering), 
a morbid state or condition not 
dependent on or caused by any 
other: idiopathic, a., &%'$ frpfttht 
ik, not depending on any other 
disease ; arising without any 
apparent exciting cause ; the 
opposite of * sympathetic. ' 

idiosyncrasy, n., td'i-d-stng'-krfo'i 
(Gr. idios, peculiar ; sungkrasis, 
a mixing together), an unusual 
peculiarity of an individual 
in consequence of which he is 
affected in a different manner 
from the majority by one or 

several influences; that condition 
of mind or body commonly known 
as 'antipathy.' 

idiot, see 'idiocy.' 

Idiothalameae, n. plu., id'-i-d-thal- 
dm'e-e (Gr. idios, peculiar ; thal- 
amos, a receptacle), a section of 
the Lichens, having their shields 
closed at first and open afterwards, 
containing free spores in a nucleus 
composed of the gelatinous re- 
mains of the paraphyses and 
sporangia : idiothalamous, a., 
id'-i-o-thdVam-us, possessed of a 
colour or texture differing from 
the thallus in lichens. 

Ignatia amara, ig-naf-slii-a dm- 
art a (St. Ignatius; amdrus, 
bitter), St. Ignatius's bean, pro- 
ducing strychnia ; also called 
Strychnos Ignatia. 

ileo, zl'8-o, denoting connection 
with the ileum, or some relation 
to it: ileo-csecal, se&dl (L. ccec- 
us, blind), applied to two semi- 
lunar folds of mucous membrane 
found at the termination of the 
ileum in the large intestine, 
forming the division between the 
caecum and colon. 

ileum, n., tt'e-tim^ (L. and Gr. 
ileos, a severe kind of colic from 
Gr. eileo, I turn or twist), the 
lower portion of the small intest- 
ine, so called from its numerous 
convolutions: ileus, n., tf**to, 
an obstruction in the bowels 
accompanied by vomiting, pain, 
and fever ; intussusception of the 
bowels; iliac passion. 

Hex, n., il'eks (L. ilex, a kind of 
oak), a genus of elegant trees and 
shrubs, having evergreen prickly 
foliage, Ord. Aquifoliacese : Ilex 
aquifolium, dk-wi-fol'i-um (L. 
dcus, a needle ; fdiium, a leaf), 
the common holly, indigenous 
in Britain ; the leaves and bark 
are said to possess tonic and febri- 
fuge properties, and its berries 
emetic and purgative: I. Para- 
guensis, pdr r 'd-gw%ns''ls (of or 
from Paraguay), a species which. 




furnishes Yerba mate, or Paraguay 
tea : I. vomitoria, vowf-it-or'-i-d 
(L. vomitorius, that provokes 
vomiting), a species from whose 
leaves the black drink of the 
Creek Indians is prepared. 

iliac, a., il'-l-ak (L. and Gr. ileos, a 
severe kind of colic from Gr. eitto, 
I turn or twist: L. ilia, the flanks, 
the entrails), pert, to the ileum, 
or to the bone called ilium : iliac 
passion, a vomiting of bilious and 
faecal matter in consequence of 
obstruction in the intestinal 
canal ; colic : iliac regions, the 
sides of the abdomen between the 
ribs and the hips : iliac crest, an 
eminence on the ilium resembling 
lines, but broader and more 
prominent: iliacus, n.., il'i'-ak'Us, 
a flat radiated muscle which fills 
up the whole of the internal iliac 
fossa : iliacus interims, m*tern' 
us (L. internus, that which is 
within), a muscle situated in the 
cavity of the ilium : iliacum os, 
another name for the 'os innomin- 
atum,' which see : ilium os, il'-l* 
tim os (L. ilia, the flanks ; os, a 
bone), the large, partly-flattened 
bone, forming the principal part 
of the pelvis, and entering into 
the composition of the hip-joint : 
ilia, n. plu., M'-i-d, the flanks, 
the loins ; the part extending 
from the lowest ribs to the groin: 
ilio, il'-i'O, a word denoting con- 
nection with the ' iliacum os. ' 

Hicine8B, n. plu., tl'i-stn'fre (L. 
ilex, a kind of oak, iticis, of an 
oak), the Holly family, an Order 
of plants, now generally called 

mecebrese, n. plu., iV-U-sW-r^-e 
(L. ill%c$bra, an attraction, an 
allurement ; plants so named by 
Pliny), a section or sub-order of 
plants, Ord. Paronychiacese: Illec- 
ebrum, n., &*4Jo<r#m, a genus 
of pretty and interesting dwarf 

Blicmm, n., tt4jff&<Mfc (L. illicio, 
I allure or attract), a genus of 

useful plants, Ord. Magnoliacese, 
so named from the agreeable 
perfume of the species : Hlicium 
anisatum, an'-is-atUm (L. an- 
Isum, Gr. anison, the anise plant), 
the star anise, so called from its 
carpels being arranged in a star- 
like manner, and having the 
taste and odour of anise. 

imago, n., tm-dg'o (L. imago, an 
image, an apparition), the third 
or perfect state of an insect, the 
first being the 'larva, 'and the 
second the ' pupa. ' 

imbecile, n., im'-bZs-el (L. imbec- 
illus, feeble, weak), an idiot of a 
higher grade ; a weak-minded or 
facile person : imbecility, n., im r > 
bes-il'-i-ti, a deficiency of mental 
and moral powers ; a state short 
of idiocy. 

imbibition, n., im'-bib-tsh'tin (L. 
imbibo, I drink in from im, in- 
to ; bibo, I drink), the action by 
which the passage of a fluid, or 
of gaseous matters, is affected 
through dead and living tissues ; 

imbricate, a., trn'-brik-at, also im- 
bricated, &.,-dt'ed(L. imbricatum, 
to form like a gutter tile from 
imbrex, a tile), in hot., having 
parts overlying each other like 
tiles on a house ; in zooL, applied 
to scales or plates which overlap 
one another like tiles : imbric- 
ative, a., im'bri&dt>fo, over- 
lapping at the edge : imbricated 
aestivation, in bot., the parts of 
the flower-bud alternatively over- 
lapping each other, and arranged 
in a spiral manner. 

immarginate, a., im-mdrf-zn-dt 
(L. im, not; margo, a border, 
marginis, of a border), in bot. t 
not having a border or margin. 

impaction, n., im-pak'shun (L. 
impactus, driven into from im, 
into ; pango, I drive), a disease 
in cattle, sheep, horse, fowls, etc., 
a fatal case of indigestion in 
which the food becomes closely 
impacted in the stomach ; be- 




coming hard and dry, it is in- 
capable of digestion, and the 
animal shortly dies ; the stomach 

impari-pinnate, a., im'par-i-pin' 
ndt (L. impar, unequal ; pin- 
natus, winged), unequally pin- 
nate ; a pinnate leaf ending in an 
odd leaflet. 

Impatiens, n., tm-pa'sM-Zm (L. 
impdtiens, that will not endure, 
impatient), a genus of very beauti- 
ful and singular plants, Ord. 
Balsaminaceae, so named from the 
elastic valves of the capsules 
bursting when touched, and 
throwing out the seeds with great 

mperf orate, a., im-per'-for-at (L. 
in, into ; per, through ; fordtus, 
bored), not bored or pierced 
through ; without a terminal 

impetigo, n., tm'-ptt'lg'-o (L. im- 
petigo, a scabby eruption from 
impeto, I attack), a skin disease, 
characterised by clusters of pus- 
tules which run into a crust ; 
pustular eruptions: impetiginous, 
a., tirfp&t-fdf'fa-tis, having the 
nature of or pert, to impetigo. 

impregnation, u.Jm'preg'nd'shun 
(L. im, in ; prcegndtus, preg- 
nancy), the act of impregnating 
or rendering fruitful ; fertilisa- 

impressio colica, im-pres'st-o ktil'- 
ik'd (L. impressio, an impression; 
colicus, of or pert, to the colic), 
the colic impression ; a shallow 
impression in front on the under 
surface of the right lobe of the 

inanition, n., tn'an-isli'un (L. 
indnis, empty), starvation ; a 
condition brought about by bad 
food, or food deficient in quan- 

inarching, n., in-drtsh'-tng (L. in, 
into ; arcus, a bow ; arcuo, I 
bend like a bow), a mode of 
grafting by bending two growing 
plants towards each other, and 

causing a branch of the one to 
unite to a branch of the other. 

inarticulate, a., m'-dri-ik'-til-at (L. 
in, not ; articulatus, furnished 
with joints), in bot., without 
joints or interruption to con- 

incanescent, a., Mfeff**8ffoiitt (L. 
incanescens, becoming grey or 
hoary), in bot. ,. having a grey or 
hoary appearance. 

incised, a., m'Sizd' (L. inclsus, 
cut into from in,, into ; ccedo, I 
cut), in bot., cut down deeply : 
incision, n., in-sizhf-un, a division 
of several tissues of the body, 
generally by a sharp-cutting in- 
strument : incisive, a., in'Sl^w 
having the quality of cutting; 
situated near the incisor teeth, or 
relating to them : incisors, n. 
plu., in'Slz'*drs, the four front 
teeth both in the upper and lower 
jaws, for cutting, dividing, or 
tearing the food before chewing 
or masticating it : incisura, n., 
m r -siz-ur'>a, a cut, gash, or 

included, a., m-kldd'-Zd (L. in- 
cludo, I shut up or in), in bot., 
having the stamens enclosed 
within the corolla, and not pushed 
out beyond its tube. 

incompatibles, n.^m^kdm-pat'i-bls 
(L. in, not ; Eug. compatible), 
in med., remedies which when 
mixed together destroy each 
other's effects, or materially alter 

inconspicuous, a., Wktin-spik'-u- 
us (L. in, not ; Eng. conspicu- 
ous), in bot., small in size ; not 
easily observed. 

incontinence, n., fa>lcon'tito'$M 
(L. in, not ; continens, keeping 
within bounds), want of restraint 
in the sexual appetite ; inability 
to restrain natural discharges. 

incrassate, a., m-krds'sdt (L. in, 
into ; crassus, thick, dense), 
thickened : incrassation, n., 
in'kraS'Sd'shun, the act of thick- 




incubation, n., tn' hub >d' shun (L. 
incubdtuSj lain or rested upon 
from in, on ; cubo, I lie down), 
in med., the period during which 
a contagious disease lies latent 
before showing itself : incubus, 
n., tn'-kub'tte (L. incubus, the 
nightmare from incubo, I lie 
upon), the nightmare ; any 
oppressive -or stupefying in- 

incumbent, a., in-ktirn'Mnt (L. 
incumbens, leaning or lying upon 
from in, on ; cubo or cumbo, I 
lie down), in bot., applied to 
cotyledons with the radicle on 
their back. 

incurvate, a., tn-kerv'-dt (L. in- 
curvdtus, bent or curved from 
in, into ; curvus, bent, crooked), 
in bot. t curved inwards or up- 

incus, in., in'US (L. incus, a 
smith's anvil), a small bone of 
the ear, so called from its sup- 
posed resemblance to an anvil. 

indefinite, a., ln-dtf-fa*U (L. in, 
not; Eng. definite), in bot., hav- 
ing an inflorescence with a cen- 
tripetal expansion ; having more 
than twenty stamens ; having 
numerous ovules and seeds ; 
generally denoting uncertainty, 
or without limit. 

indehiscent, a., &i'-dt>h&8%nl (L. 
in, not; dehisco, I open, I gape, 
dehiscens, opening, gaping), in 
bot., not opening ; having no 
regular line of suture ; applied to 
fruits such as the apple, which 
do not split open. 

independence, n., fo/-d&'p&nd'-$ns 
(L. in, not ; Eng. dependence), 
in bot., the separation of organs 
usually entire. 

indeterminate, a., $n'- de-term' in> 
at (L. in, not; Eng. determinate), 
in bot., unlimited ; indefinite. 

index finger, m'-d'elcs fing'-ger (L. 
indico, I point out ; index, an 
informer), the forefinger, being 
that employed in pointing at an 

indicator, n., In'-dik-at'-or (L, 
indicatus, pointed out), in anat. t 
the muscle which extends the 
forefinger ; the extensor indicis. 

indigenous, a., m-didf-^n-us (L. 
indigZna, a native, born and bred 
in the same country or town), 
not exotic or introduced, applied 
to plants ; an aboriginal native 
in a country. 

indigestion, n., m'-di-j$st'yun (L. 
indigestus, confused, disordered), 
a derangement of the powers of 
digestion ; a painful or imperfect 
change of food in the stomach ; 

indigo, n., in'-dlg-o (F. indigo 
from L. indicus, Indian), 
beautiful blue dye, procured by 
fermentation from various species 
of Indigofera : Indigofera, n. , 
in'-dig-of-Zr-a (Eng. indigo; L. 
fero, I bear), an extensive genus 
of elegant plants, Ord. Legum- 
inosse, Sub-ord. Papilionacese, 
most of whose species produce 
indigo, chiefly Indigofera tinc- 
toria, ftngk'tor-i'd (L. tinctorius, 
belonging to dyeing from tingo, 
I dye), also from I. anil, an'-il 
(Arab, annil, the indigo plant); 
I. caerulea, ser-dl'-Z-a (L. ccerul- 
eus, dark -blue); I. argentea, 
dr-jZnt'e-a (L. argentZus, made 
of silver from argentum, silver), 
and many others ; the powdered 
leaf of I. anil has been used in 

indumentum, n., in'-du-mentf-iim 
(L. indumentum, a garment 
from induo, I put on), the 
plumage of birds; in bot., a hairy 

induplicate, a., tn-dup'-lik-at (L. 
in, in ; duplicdtus, doubled), in 
bot., having the edges of the 
sepals or petals turned slightly 
inwards, in aestivation ; having 
the margins doubled inwards. 

induration, n., in'-dur-d'-shun (L. 
indurdtus, hardened from in, 
into ; duro, I harden), the 
hardening, or process of harden- 




ing of a part ; the hardening of 
tissues around a part formerly 

indusia, n., m-dutf-i-a, indusiae, 
n. plu., -%& (L. indusium, a 
shirt, a woman's under garment 
from induo, I put on), the 
cases or coverings of certain 
insects: indusium, n., m-duz'-i- 
tim, in bot., the epidermal cover- 
ing of the fructification in some 
ferns ; a collection of hairs so 
united as to form a sort of cup, 
and which encloses the stigma of 
a flower. 

indutive, a., tn-dutf-w (L. indutus, 
a putting on from induo, I put 
on), in bot., applied to seeds 
which have the usual integument- 
ary covering. 

inequilateral, a., m'^wi-ldt^er-al 
(in, not ; Eng. equilateral), 
having the two sides unequal, as 
in the case of the shells of the 
ordinary bivalves ; not having 
the convolutions of the shells 
lying in the same plane, but 
obliquely wound round an axis, 
as in the Foraminifera. 

inembryonate, a., fa*&rrt,'M'&H-&t 
(L. in, not; Eng. embryo], in bot., 
having neither embryo nor germ. 

inenchyma, n., In-frig'-ldm-a (Gr. 
ines, a fibre ; engchuma, what is 
poured in, juice, tissue), in bot., 
cells in which there is a spiral 
elastic fibre coiled up in the in- 
side, the cells generally consisting 
of membrane and fibre combined. 

inequivalve, n., fn-ek'wi-valv (L. 
in, not ; Eng. equivalve), a valve 
consisting of two unequal pieces 
or valves. 

inermis, a., m^erm'ts (L. inermis, 
unarmed), in bot., unarmed ; 
without prickles or thorns. 

infection, n., m-fVk'shun (L. in- 
fectus, tainted, dyed from in, 
into ; facio, I make), the act by 
which poisonous matter or ex- 
halations produce disease in a 
healthy body ; see ' contagious. ' 

inferior, a., m-fer'-i-or (L. inferior, 

lower from inform, beneath, 
below), in bot., growing below, 
as when one organ is below 
another ; applied to the ovary 
when it seems to be situated 
below the calyx, and to the part 
of a flower farthest from the axis ; 
below, lower, inner, as opposed 
to 'superior,' 'which signifies 
above, upper, outer : inferior 
extremities, the legs as the lower 
parts of the body. 

infiltration, n., In'-fil-traf-sli&n 
(L. in, into ; Eng. filtration), the 
act or process of passing into the 
textures of a body ; the liquid or 
substance which has so entered. 

inflammation, n. , m'flam'md'shun 
(L. inflammo, I set on fire from 
in, in or on ; flamma, a flame), 
redness and heat in some part of 
the body, accompanied with pain 
and swelling; the succession of 
changes which occurs in a living 
tissue when injured, provided its 
structure and vitality are not de- 

inflated, a., tn-flat'Zd (L. infldtus, 
blown into, swollen), in 'bot., 
puffed out ; distended. 

inflexed, a., in-flelcst' (L. inflexus, 
bent, curved), in bot., curved or 
bent upwards and inwards. 

inflorescence, n., m'-fldr-es's&ns (L. 
inflorescens, beginning to blossom 
from in, in or on; fioresco, I 
blossom), a flowering or putting 
forth blossoms ; the mode in 
which the flowers are arranged on 
the axis. 

influenza, n., in'fldo-Znz'a (It. 
influenza, influence ; L. influens, 
flowing into), a specific epidemic 
fever, chiefly attacking the lining 
membrane of the nose, larynx, 
and bronchial tubes, and lasting 
from four to eight days. 

infra-costales, n. plu., iflf-fra- 
kost-al'-ez, also infra-costals, n. 
plu., -Mst'alz (L. infra, under- 
neath, below; costa, a rib), in 
anat., small bundles of fleshy 
and tendinous fibres, which vary 




in number and length, arising 
from the inner surface of one rib, 
and inserted into the inner surface 
of the first, second, or third rib 
below: inf r a -maxillary, a., -males'- 
ll'lar-l (L. maxilla, the jaw), 
situated under the jaw,, as certain 
nerves : infra-orbital, a. , -drb'-it - dl 
(L. orbitum, the orbit), situated 
underneath the orbit, as an 
artery: ihfra-scapularis, a. , -skap'- 
ul'CLr f 'is (L, scapula, the shoulder- 
blade), situated underneath the 
shoulder-blade : infra-spinatus, 
a., -spin*at f 'US (L, spindtus, the 
spine from spina, a thorn), 
situated underneath a spinous 
process ; designating a muscle 
situated beneath the spine of the 
scapula, and inserted into the 

infundibulum, n., tn'fun*dib'- 
til-urn, infundibula, n. pin., 
-dib'Ul'd (L. infundibulum, a 
tunnel or funnel), in anat., a 
name given to various parts of 
the body which more or less re- 
semble a funnel ; in zool. , a tube 
formed by the coalescence or 
apposition of the epipodia in the 
Cephalopoda ; known also as the 
' siphon ' or ' funnel ' : infundib- 
uliform, a., in-fun'-dib-ul'-i-form 
(L. forma, shape), funnel-shaped. 

infusion, n., in-fuzli'-un (L. in, 
into ; fusus, poured, infusift, a 
pouring into), the operation of 
steeping a substance in hot or 
boiling water in order to extract 
its medicinal or other qualities. 

infusoria, n. plu., m'-fuz-or'-i-a (L. 
infusus, poured into, crowded 
in from in, into ; fusus, poured), 
very minute animal organisms, 
or animalcules, inhabiting water 
containing decaying vegetable or 
animal matter, so named from 
their being obtained in ' infusions ' 
of vegetable matter that have 
been exposed to the air ; a class 
of Protozoa: infusorial, a., m'fuz- 
or'-i-al, pert, to the infusoria ; 
obtained by infusion : infusory, 

a., tn-fuz'-ftr-i, applied to a class 
of animalcules obtained in in- 
fusions ; containing infusoria. 

ingesta, n k plu., in-fcstf-a (L. 
ingestus, poured or thrown into), 
things taken in> as food into the 
stomach; substances introduced 
into the digestive organs. 

inguinal, z.^ng'-gwin-alCL. inguen, 
the groin, ingumis^ of the groin), 
pert, to the groin ; connected with 
the groin or situated upon it. 

inhumation, n., in'-hum^d'shUn 
(L, in, in or into ; humus, the 
ground), the act of burying or 
placing in the ground ; a method 
of digesting a substance by bury- 
ing the vessel containing it among 
dung or warm earth. 

inject, v., in-jekt' (L. injectus, 
thrown or cast into from in, in- 
to ; jactus, thrown), to throw 
into: injected, a., m'jekt'ed, 
applied to a dead body, or a part, 
whose vessels have been filled by 
a composition forced into them : 
injection, n., in-j%k'-shun, the 
act of throwing or forcing a liquid 
into the vessels of a dead body ; 
the coloured liquid so thrown or 
forced into such vessels; a clyster, 
or method of administering rem- 
edies of various kinds, and of even 
feeding the patient by injecting 
medicinal or nutrient fluids into 
the lower bowel : hypodermic 
injection, a method of injecting 
various medicinal solutions 
beneath the skin by means of a 
syringe to which a hollow needle 
is attached. 

innate, a., m'-nat (L. inndtus, in- 
born, natural from in, into ; 
ndtus, born), in bot. 9 adhering to 
the apex ; attached to the top of 
the filament, as anthers : innato- 
fibrillose, In-natd-ftb'-ril-lfa' (L. 
fibra, a filament), clad with ad- 
herent fibrils. 

inner aspect, in anat., the inner 
appearance of a bone or a part. 

innervation, n., m'nerv-d'shun 
(L. in, into; nervus, a nerve), that 




ul-dt'a (L. in, not, without ; 
operculum, a lid), in zool., the 
division of pulmonate ' Gasterop- 
oda ' in which there is no shelly 
or horny plate to close the shell 
when the animal is withdrawn 
within it : inopercular, a., in'-o- 
perk f -ul'dr, without an operculum 
or lid, as certain univalve shells. 

inoscinic, a., In'-oS'Sin'-ik (Gr. is, 
fibre, lnos r of fibre ; kineo, I 
disturb, I change), applied to an 
acid obtained from muscular 
fibre : inoscinate, n.,. in-ds'-sin- 
at, the combination of inoscinic 
acid with a salifiable base. 

inosculation, n., In-fts'-knl-af-shun 
(L. in, into ; osculatus, kissed 
from osculum, a little mouth), the 
union, as two vessels in a living 
body ; in bot., grafting or 

inosite, n., wf-tis-U (Gr. is, fibre, 
inos, of fibre), a saccharine prin- 
ciple obtained from the juice of 
flesh, which is not susceptible of 
alcoholic fermentation : inosuria, 
n., in'6s-uir / -$'& (Gr. oureo, I 
make water), the same substance 
when found in morbid urine. 

insalivation, n., m-sal'-iv-af-shun 
(L. in, into ; sallvatio, a filling 
with saliva from salivo, I spit 
out), the process of mixing the 
saliva intimately with the food 
during mastication. 

insane, a., in-sdn' (L. insanus, 
unsound in mind from in, not ; 
sdnus, sound), deranged or 
unsound in mind : insanity, n., 
lU'San'-tt'i, unsoundness of mind; 
the state of mind which in- 
capacitates for the proper man- 
agement of property, or which 
renders the patient more or less 
an object of public danger ; 

Insecta, n. plu., tn-sZlclf-a (L. 
insectus, cut into, insecta, things 
cut into from in, into ; seco, I 
cut), the class of articulate 
animals commonly known as 
insects, which commonly under- 




go transformations; a small creep- 
ing or flying animal, as the fly, 
bee, etc. , whose body appears cut 
or almost divided into parts : In- 
sectivora, n. plu., In'-s^kt-w'-or-a 
(L. voro, I devour), an Order of 
Mammals, such as the hedgehog 
and the mole, which live chiefly 
on insects : insectivorous, a., 
in f 'Sekt'iv f 'dr'Us, living upon 

Insessores, n. plu., in'-ses-sor'-ez 
(L. insessus, seated or perched 
upon from in, on ; sedeo, I sit), 
the Order of the perching birds, 
who live habitually among trees : 
insessorial, a., m^ses-sor^i'dl, 
pert, to the perching birds. 

insolation, n., m'-sol'df-sh/un (L. 
insoldtus, placed in the sun 
from in, into ; sol, the sun), 
exposure to the sun's rays for 
drying or maturing, as fruits, 
drugs, etc. ; sunstroke. 

inspiration, n., in'-splr-a'-shUn (L. 
inspiro, I blow or breathe into 
from in, into ; spiro, I breathe), 
the act of drawing air into the 

inspissate, v., m-spis'-sat (L. in, 
into ; spissdtus, made thick), to 
thicken, as a fluid by evaporation : 
inspissated, v., in-spis'sdt-ed, 
thickened, as juice by evapora- 
tion : inspissation, n., m-spis> 
sd'shtin, the operation of render- 
ing a fluid thicker by evapora- 

insufflation, n., Zn'stif-jld'shtin 
(L. in, in ; suffidtus, blown up, 
puffed out), the act of blowing gas 
or air into a cavity of the body. 

integument, n., m-teg'u'mgnt (L. 
integumentum, a covering from 
in, in ; tego, I cover), the cover- 
ing skin, membrane, shell, etc., 
which invests a body ; in hot. , 
the external cellular covering of 

intention, first, n., 'm'tZn'shtin (L. 
intentus, stretched out, extended), 
applied to a wound which heals 
without suppuration. 

interaccessorii, n. plu., tn'.ter-tik'. 
seS'Sd'/'i-i (L. inter, between ; 
accessus, a coming to, an 
approach), another name for the 
muscles * inter-transversales. ' 

interambulacra, n. plu., m'>% 
am'-bul'd&rd (L. inter, between ; 
ambulacrum, that which serves 
for walking), in zool, the unper- 
forate places which lie between 
the perforate places, or * ambul- 
acra' in the shells or crusts of 
the sea-urchin and cidaris. 

interarticular, a., fa'-Mr-art-titt 
ul-dr (L. inter, between ; artic- 
ulus, a little joint), in anat., a 
term applied to the cartilages 
which lie within joints ; applied 
to certain ligaments, as that 
within the acetabulum. 

intercalate, v., m-ter'-kal-dt (L. 
intercalatum, to proclaim that 
something has been inserted 
among from inter, between ; 
calo, I call), to insert or place 
between: intercalated, a., -dt-ed, 
interposed ; placed 'between : 
intercalary, a., m-er-M-ar', 
in bot., applied to the growth 
of cell-wall, when a new deposi- 
tion takes place in such a man- 
ner that an interposed piece of 
cell - wall from time to time 

intercellular, a., tn'-ter-sZl'ul-dr 
(L. inter, between ; cellula, a 
little storehouse), in bot., lying 
between the cells, or the cellular 

intercostal, a., in'ter-co'st'al (L. 
inter, between ; costa, a rib), in 
anat., lying between the -ribs. 

interdigital, a., tn'-ter-didjttt-dl 
(L. inter, between ; digitus, a 
finger), in anat., situated between 
the fingers ; pert, to the spaces 
between the fingers. 

interfoliar, a., m'-tir-foU-ar (L, 
inter, between ; folium, a leaf), 
in bot., situated between two 
opposite leaves. 

interlobar, a., in'-ter-lob'-ar (L. 
inter, between; Gr. lobtis, a lobe), 



situated between the lobes of 

interlobular, a., In'-ter-lW-ul-dr 
(I i. inter, between ; lobulus, a 
little lobe), situated between the 
lobules of organs. 

intermaxillae, n. plu., in r -ter>maks> 
il'-le (L. inter, between ; maxillce, 
the jaws), the two bones which 
are situated between the two 
superior maxillse in vertebrata ; 
also called * prsemaxilke ' : inter- 
maxillary, a., -il'-lar-l, situated 
between the maxillary or jaw- 

intermission, n., fn'-ter-mfeh'-un 
(L. inter, between ; missus, sent), 
theperiod that intervenes between 
the end of one paroxysm of ague, 
and the beginning of the next ; 
also called apyrexia, dp'-ir-tics' 
l*a (Gr. a, without, not ; pur- 
esso, I have a fever from pur, 

intermittent, a., in'-ter-mit'-tent 
(L. inter, between ; mittens, 
sending), ceasing at intervals : 
n., a specific fever occurring in 
paroxysms, and characterised by 
a cold, a hot, and a sweating 
stage, followed by a period of 
complete absence from fever ; 

interneural, a., In'-tir-nur'-dl (L. 
inter, between ; Gr. neuron, a 
nerve), situated between the 
neural processes in spines ; 
applied to the sharp dermal 
bones in certain fish which sup- 
port the rays of their fins on the 
upper or neural part. 

internode, n., in'-ter-ndd (L. in- 
ternodum, the space between two 
knots or joints from inter, 
between ; nodus, a knot), in a 
plant, the part of the stem lying 
between two nodes or leaf buds : 
internodia, n. plu., -nod'i-a, in 
anat., the digital phalanges, or 
fourteen joints of the fingers and 

inter-osseous, a., in'-ter-tis'sV-us 
(L. inter, between ; os, a bone, 


belonging to a bone), a 
name applied to muscles situated 
between bones, as those between 
the metacarpal of the hand : 
inter-osseus membrane, n., the 
inter - osseous ligament which 
passes obliquely downwards from 
the ridge on the radius, or small 
bone of the arm, to that on the 
ulna, or large bone of the arm. 

inter-peduncular, a., in'-ter-ped' 
ungk r 'Ul'dr (L. inter, between ; 
mid. L. peduncidus, a little foot), 
in anat., applied to a lozenge- 
shaped interval of the brain, 
situated immediately behind the 
diverging optic tracts, and 
between them and the peduncles 
of the cerebrum. 

interpetiblar, a., in f -ter-p&t'4>$l-ar 
(L. inter, between ; petiolus, a 
little foot -from, pes, a foot), in 
bot. t situated between the pet- 
ioles or basis of opposite leaves. 

interrupted, a., in'-ter-tipt'-ed (L. 
interruptus, separated by breaking 
or rending), in bot., having the 
usual continuity of a part 
destroyed : interruptedly pin- 
nate, a., having a pinnate leaf in 
which pairs of small pinnse occur 
between larger pairs. 

interspinal, a., m'ter-spin'-al, 
also interspinous, a., -spin'-us 
(L. inter, between ; spina, a 
spine), in anat., inserted between 
the spinous processes of the vert- 
ebrae : interspinales, n. plu., 
-spln-dl'ez, short vertical fasciculi 
of fleshy fibres, placed in pairs 
between the spinous processes of 
the contiguous vertebrae. 

interstaminal, a., $n'ter'Stam'-in> 
dl (L. inter, between ; Eug. 
staminal), in bot., an organ 
placed between two stamens. 

interstitial, a., m'ter'Stish'al (L. 
interstitium, distance or space 
between from inter, between ; 
sisto, I stand), pert, to or con- 
taining interstices ; occupying 
the interstices of an organ. 

inter-transversales, n. plu., in' 




ter-trans'vers'dl'-ez (L. inter, 
between ; transversus, lying 
across, transverse), small muscles 
situated between the transverse 
processes of the vertebrae, devel- 
oped most in the cervical region : 
inter- transverse, a., trdns-vers, 
applied to a few, thin-scattered 
fibres, interposed between the 
transverse processes. 

intertrigo, n., m'-ter-trlg'-o (L. 
intertrlgo, a fretting or galling of 
the skin from inter, between; 
ttro, I rub), a local condition 
of the skin, called 'chafe' or 
* fret, ' consisting in redness and 
excoriation of a part of the skin, 
caused by friction. 

interval, n., in'ter-val (L. inter, 
between ; vallum, a wall), the 
period of time comprised between 
the beginning of one paroxysm 
of ague and the next, that is, the 
intermission and the preceding 

intervertebral, a., m'ter-vert'-eb- 
ral (L. inter, between ; Eng. 
vertebral), in anat., situated 
between the joints of the ver- 
tebrae or spine. 

intestines, n., tn-test'inz (L. 
intestlnus, inward, hidden from 
intus, within), the long canal or 
tube which extends from the 
stomach to the anus, different 
portions of it having different 
names (1) part nearest the 
stomach, the * duodenum, ' about 
twelve inches long ; (2) the 
'jejunum,' about two feet long ; 
(3) the 'ileum,' several feet in 
length which three portions 
make up the small intestines ; 
the large bowel or large intestine, 
as the continuation of the small 
intestines, commences in the 
right iliac region of the abdomen, 
as the ' caecum, ' and after a large 
curve it ends at the anus. 

intextine, n., in-teks'-tin (L. intus, 
within ; Eng. extine), in lot, , one 
of the inner coverings or mem- 
branes of the pollen grain, 

situated between the extine and 
the exintine. 

intine, n., In'-tm (L. intus, within), 
in bot. , the inner covering of the 
pollen grain. 

intrafoliaceous, a., tn'-tra-fol'i-a'- 
shus (L. intra, within ; folium, a 
leaf), in bot., situated within the 
axil of a leaf so as to stand 
between the leaf and the stem. 

intralobular, a., m'tra-lob'-ular 
(L. intra, within ; Eng. lobular), 
situated within lobules or little 

intrarious, a., m'trdr'-i-tis (L. 
intra, within), in bot. , applied to 
the embryo when it is surrounded 
by the perisperm on all sides 
except its radicular extremity. 

introrse, a., tn-trtirs' (L. intror- 
sum, within), in bot., turned 
inwards or towards the axis of the 
part to which it is attached ; 
opening on the side next the 
pistil, as some anthers. 

intussusception, n., tn-tus'-sus- 
sep'-shun (L. intus, within ; 
susceptus, taken or catched up), 
an invagination of a portion of 
the bowel, somewhat resembling 
the finger of a glove half turned 
inside out ; the act of taking 
foreign matter into a living 

Inula, n., m'-ul-a (L. inula, the 
plant elecampane), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Composite, Sub- 
ord. Corymbiferae, which are 
generally bitter, and some have 
an aromatic odour : Inula Helen- 
ium, Ml-en'-i-ftm (after the 
celebrated^-ZTefe/i of ancient Troy), 
elecampane, whose root has 
stimulant and expectorant qual- 
ities : Inulin, n., m'-ul-m, a 
white amylaceous matter, analo- 
gous to starch, found in the roots 
and tubers of I. Helenium. 

inunction, n., m-ungk^sJiUn (L. in, 
in ; unctus, smeared), the act of 
rubbing into a part of the surface 
of the body an ointment con- 
taining some remedial agent. 




invaginate, v., tn-vadf-in-dt (L. 
in, into ; vagina, a scabbard, a 
sheath), to operate for hernia, in 
which after reduction, the skin 
is thrust into the canal by 
the finger of the operator, and 
there retained by sutures, etc. 
till adhesion ensue : invagina- 
tion, n., m-vadf-m-af'sTiun, the 
operation for hernia as above, 
also sometimes applied to intus- 

invermination, n., In-verm'-m-af- 
shun (L. in, in ; vermino, I have 
worms), the diseased condition of 
the bowels caused by worms. 

inversion, n., m-ver'-shun (L. 
inversus, turned bottom upwards 
from in, in ; verto, I turn), 
said of an organ which is com- 
pletely or partially turned inside 
out, as the womb : inverted, a., 
fa'Vert'ed, in bot., having the 
radicle of the embryo pointing to 
the end of the seed opposite the 
hilum; having the ovules attached 
to the top of the ovary. 

invertebral, a., m-vert'eb-rai (L. 
in, not ; vertebra, a joint in the 
backbone), without a vertebral 
column or spine bone : inverteb- 
rate, n., m-vert'-tib-rat, an animal 
having no spinal bone : adj. , 
destitute of a backbone : invert- 
ebrata, n. plu., m-vert'-eb-rat'-a, 
the animals that are destitute of 
backbones and an internal skelet- 

invohicels, n. plu., in-vo'l'-us-'els 
(F. involucelle, an involucel ; L. 
involucrum, a wrapper), in bot., 
the collection of bractlets, or a 
sort of leaves, surrounding a 
secondary or partial umbel or 
flower head ; secondary involu- 

involucre, n., m'-vold'-kr (L. in- 
volucrum, a wrapper from in, 
into ; volvo, I roll), in bot., a 
collection of a sort of leaves round 
a cluster of flowers, or at some 
distance below them ; the layer 
of epidermis covering the spore 

cases in ferns : involucral, a., 
m''Vdl'6 f 'kral, belonging to the 

involute, a., $n'vol-6t, also invol- 
utive, a. , tn'vtil-dltiv (L. involutus, 
in wrapped, enclosed from in, 
into ; volvo, I roll), in bot., hav- 
ing the edges of leaves rolled 
inwards spirally on each side. 

involution, n., m'-vol'd'-shun (L. 
involutus, in wrapped from in, 
into ; volvo, I roll), the return of 
an organ or tissue to its original 
state, as the womb after having 
expelled the child. 

iodine, n., i'-od-ln (Gr. lodes, re- 
sembling a violet in colour from 
ion, violet ; eidos, resemblance), 
a solid elementary substance of 
a greyish-black colour, obtained 
from marine plants, sea water, 
etc., whose vapour is of a beauti- 
ful violet colour ; applied ex- 
ternally, it acts as an irritant : 
iodide, n., if-od-ld, a direct com- 
pound of iodine with a base : iod- 
ism, n., i'-od-izm, a morbid con- 
dition sometimes arising from the 
continued use of iodine, or some 
of its preparations. 

lonidium, n., i'-on-id'i-um (Gr. 
ion, a violet ; eidos, resemblance), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Violaceae, 
some of whose species are used in 
S. America as substitutes for 

ipecacuanha, n., ip'&kak-u-an'a, 
also ipecacuan, n., ip'-Z-kak'-u-dn 
(Brazilian or Portuguese), the 
root of a S. American plant, the 
* Cephaelis ipecacuanha, ' used in 
med. as an emetic, etc., belong- 
ing to the same Order, the Rubi- 
acese (Linn. Ord. Cinchonaceae), 
which yields the Peruvian or 
cinchona bark. 

Ipomoea, n., ip'-om^'-a (Gr. ips, a 
worm which infests the vine ; 
homoios, like, so named from its 
habit of creeping round other 
plants like a worm), a most beauti- 
ful genus of climbing plants, Ord. 
Convolvulacese : Ipomoea purga, 




perg'd (L. purgo, I cleanse, I 
purify), the Jalap plant, a native 
of the Mexican Andes, whose root 
tubers in powder, or as a tincture, 
is an active irritant cathartic ; 
also called Exogonium purga : 
I. Jalapa> jdl-cip'-d (Xalapa,. in 
Mexico, where it grows abund- 
antly), a species which yields 
Mechoacan root, having purgative 
properties : I. Orizabensis, dr-iz' 
ab-$ns'is (in Brazil), supplies a 
kind of Jalap, the Purgo Macho 
of the Mexicans : I. simularis, 
sim'ul'dr'is (L. simulo, I make 
like), a species which furnishes 
Tampico Jalap : I. Horsfallise, 
htirs-fdwl'li'e (unascertained), 
a species admirably suited for 
training to a trellis, having 
beautiful bright scarlet flowers. 

Iridacese, n. plu., ir'-id-d'sZ-e (Gr. 
iris, the rainbow, the flag, iridos, 
of the rainbow), the iris or flower- 
de-luce family, an Order of herb- 
aceous plants, so called in.allusion 
to the variety and beauty of the 
flowers : Iris, n. , Ir 'is, a genus of 
plants^ a great favourite in the 
flower garden : Iris Germanica, 
ye>'raa^'$-r/(oforfrom Germany); 
I. pallida, pal' lid- d (L. pallidus, 
pale, pallid); I. florentina, 
flor'-ent-in'-a (L. Morentinus, 
Florentine from Florentia, 
Florence), are species the root 
stock of which yields orris root 
which has a pleasant odour like 
violets, and an acrid taste, arising 
from the presence of a volatile 
oil: I. pseudacorus, sud-dlc'- 
or >us (Gr. pseudes^ false ; akoros, 
the sweet flag), the yellow water 
flag found in marshes, etc. , whose 
seeds have been used as a substit- 
ute for coffee. 

Iridsea, n., ir'id-e'd (L. iris, the 
rainbow, the flag), a genus of 
the Algse : Iridsea edulis, Vd-ul'te 
(L. edulis, eatable), an edible 
species of Algse. 

iris, n. , Ir '4s (L. iris, the rainbow, 
the flag), the coloured circle 

which surrounds the pupil of the 
eye ; a structure partly vascular, 
partly muscular, loaded with 
pigments, stretched before the 
lens of the eye, separating the 
anterior from the posterior 
chambers ; in lot*. , see under 
' Iridacese : ' iritis,, n., ir-it'is, 
inflammation of the iris of the 

Irish Moss, or Carrageen, the 
Sphserococcus crispus, also called 
Chondrus crispus, one of the 
Algse which supplies a nutri- 
tious article of diet. 

irrigation, n., ir'-ri-ga'-shtin (L. 
irrigatus, watered, irrigated), a 
medical treatment of an- injured 
or inflamed part in which cold 
water or a cooling lotion is made 
to drop continuously on its 

irritant, n i? ir'it-dnt (L, irritus, 
not ratified or settled), a substance 
which, applied externally or 
internally, gives rise to a greater 
or less degree of inflammation. 

Isatis, n., is-dt'is (Gr.. isazo, I 
make equal),, a genus of plants, 
Ord. Cruciferse, so called because 
it is believed by its simple applic- 
ation to destroy all roughness of 
the skin : Isatis tinctoria, tmgk- 
tor'-i-a (L. tinctorius,. belonging 
to dyeing), woad which, when 
treated like indigo, yields a blue 
dye : I. indigotica, m'-dig-dt'ik-d 
(L. indigo, a blue colouring 
matter), the Tein - Ching, or 
Chinese indigo.. 

ischium, n., isk'i-um (Gr. ischion, 
the hip), the hip-bone a spinous 
process of the os innomatum : 
ischial, a., isk'i-dl, pert, to the 
hip-bone : ischial tuberosity, n., 
the round knob of bone forming 
that part of the ischium on which 
we sit ; also called tuber-ischii, 
n., tuo'er-isk'i'i (L. tuber, a 
hump) : ischialgia, n.,isk'i-dlj'i-d 
(Gr. algos, pain), pain in or near 
the hip : ischiatic, a., isk'i-dt'ik, 
of or pert, to the hip : ischio, 




isk'i-o, attachment or connection 
with the ischium. 

ischuria, n., isk-ur'i-a, also 
ischury, n. , uk'ur-i (Gr. ischo, I 
stop or retain ; ouron, urine), the 
suppression or stoppage of urine : 
ischuretic, n., isk'-ur^-ik, a 
medicine adapted to relieve 
ischuria : adj. , having the power 
or quality of relieving ischuria. 

isidoid, a., is'-id-oyd (isidos, re- 
sembling coral from Gr. isos, 
equal, similar ; eidos, resem- 
blance), in bot., covered with a 
dense mass of conical soredia, as 
the surface of lichens : isidiose. 
a., iS'id'-i'dz, having powdery, 
coralline excrescences : isidiif- 
erous, a., iS'id f 'i-if-er-us(L.fero, 
I bear), having isidiose excres- 
cences: isidium, n,, iS'fd'i'tim, 
coral-like soredia on the surface 
of some lichens. 

isocheimal, a., is^d'Tclmf-dl, also 
isocheiminal, a., -lclm'>ln>dl (Gr. 
isos, equal, similar ; cheima, 
winter), of the same winter 
temperature; applied to imagin- 
ary lines drawn through places on 
the earth's surface which have the 
same mean winter temperature. 

isochomous, a., is-dMtim-us (Gr. 
isos, equal, similar ; choma, a 
heap, a mound), in bot., applied 
to branches springing from the 
same plant, and at the same 

IsoetacesB, n. plu., is'-d'et-d'se-e 
(Gr. isos, equal ; etos, a year 
the plants being the same 
throughout the year), the Quill- 
wort family, an Order of plants, 
generally included under the Ord. 
Lycopodiacese : Isoetes, n., s-o- 
Zt'-ez, a genus of curious little 
aquatic plants, found in some 
lakes in this country ; moss-like 
plants, intermediate between ferns 
and mosses. 

isomeric, a., Is'd-m&r'-ik (Gr. isos, 
equal ; meros, a part), formed of 
the same elements in the same 
proportions, but having different 

physical and chemical properties : 
isomerism, is-om'-er-izm, identity 
in elements, but with difference 
of properties : isomerous, a., 
iS'8m''%r-us, in bot., having each 
of the organs of a flower composed 
of an equal number of parts. 

Isonandra, n., is'on-and^ra (Gr. 
isos, equal ; aner, a male, andros, 
of a male), a genus of trees, Ord. 
Sapotacese : Isonandra gutta, 
gut f -td (L. gutta, a drop), the 
source of the Gutta Percha, a kind 
of caoutchouc,, used largely in the 
manufacture of articles of daily 

Isopod, n., is'o-pod; Isopoda, n. 
plu., iS'dp'-od-a (Gr. isos, equal; 
podes, feet), an Order of' Crust- 
acese in which the feet are like 
one another, and equal : isopod- 
ous, a., iS'dp'-od'US, having legs 
alike, and equal. 

isosporous, a., is-fa'por-us (Gr. 
isos, equal; poros, a pore), in bot., 
applied to cryptogamic plants 
which produce a single kind of 
spore, as ferns : isosporese, n. 
plu., is'ds'por'e-e, those ferns, 
* Ophioglossacese, ' and ' Equis- 
etacese,,' which produce a single 
kind of spore, which in its turn 
gives origin to a prothallus 
furnished with chlorophyll and 
roots, and capable of independent 

isostemonous, a., Is'-os-Urnf-on-us 
(Gr. isos, equal ; stemon, a thread 
or stem), in bot., having the 
stamens and petals equal in 
number ; having the stamens and 
floral envelopes the same in the 
number of their parts, or in the 
multiples of the parts. 

isotheral, a., ts-d'th' (Gr. isos, 
equal, similar ; theros, summer), 
passing through places on the 
earth which have the same summer 

isothermal, a., is'-o-therm'al (Gr. 
isos, equal ; thZrme, heat), having 
the same mean annual temperat- 
ure ; applied to imaginary lines 




connecting all places on the earth 
which have the same mean tem- 
perature : isotherm, n., is'-o-therm, 
one of those lines. 

isotropic, a., Is'-o-trop'-ik (Gr. isos, 
equal ; tropos, a turning), applied 
to the condition of ' fibrils ' which 
singly refract light ; the condition 
of ' fibrils ' which doubly refract 
light is called anisotropic, an'-is- 
o-trop'-ik (Gr. anisos, unequal ; 
tropos, a turning). 

issue, n., ish'-u (F. issu, born, 
sprung ; Norm. F. issir, to go 
out), an artificially - produced 
wound, kept raw and open that 
there may be a constant flow of 
pus from the surface. 

isthmus, n., ist'-mus (L. isthmus, 
Gr. isthmos, an isthmus), in anat. , 
the narrow intervening or uniting 
portion of organs : isthmic, a., 
fattmflt, of or pert, to an isthmus : 
isthmus favici\im,fdw'shi'um (L. 

fauces, the upper part of the 
throat, faucium, of the upper 
part of the throat), the space 
between the soft palate and the 
root of the tongue. 

itch, n., itsh (AS. gictha, an itch- 
ing, a scab), a very troublesome 
skin disease produced by the 
presence of the Acarus Scabiei, or 
itch parasite. 

iter ad infundibulum, U-er ad m' 

fund-ib'ul'um (L. iter, a path, a 
way ; ad, to ; infundibulum, a 
funnel), the passage between the 
third ventricle of the brain and 
infundibulum: iter a palato ad 
aurem, a pal -at'- 6 ad dwr'em (L. 
a, from ; paldtum, the palate ; 
auris, the ear), the passage from 
the palate to the ear; the Eustach- 
ian tube : iter a tertio ad 
quartum ventriculum, ler'shi-d 
dd kwawrt'-um vent-rik'ul'um (L. 
tertius, a third; quartus, a fourth; 
ventriculus, a ventricle of the 
heart), the passage between the 
third and fourth ventricles of 
the brain ; the aqueduct of Sil- 

Ivory Palm, or vegetable ivory, 

the hard albumen of the ' Phyt- 
elophas Macrocarpa, ' used in the 
same way as ivory. 

ivy, n., iv'i (AS. ifig; Ger. epheu, 
ivy), a well-known evergreen 
climbing plant ; the common ivy 
is theHedra Helix, Ord. Araliacese. 

Ixia, n., iks'-i'd (Gr. ixia and ixos, 
the mistletoe, bird lime), a genus 
of very handsome plants when in 
flower, Ord r Iridacese, so named 
from the viscous nature of some 
of the species : ixous, a. , ilcs'us, 
having bird lime ; viscous : Ix- 
odea, n., iks-dd'-Z-a, the ticks, 
usually parasitic, on domestic 
animals, occasionally on man, 
Ord. Arachnida. 

jactitation, n., jaMtit-a'shun (L. 
jactitio, I cast or toss to and fro), 
a tossing about the body ; uncon- 
scious movements of a patient in 
the delirium of a fever. 

jaggery, n., jatf-ger-i (an Indian 
name), a coarse dark sugar ob- 
tained from the cocoa-nut, and 
other palms, which when fer- 
mented produces arrack. 

jalap, n. ,jal'-ap (Xalapa in Mexico, 
where found; F. jalap), the dried 
root of the plant Exogonium 
purga, also called the ' Ipomcea 
purga, ' Ord. Convolvulacese, which 
in the form of powder is much 
used in medicine as a brisk purg- 

Janipha, n., jdn-i/'-a (from Janip- 
aba, the Brazilian name), a genus 
of interesting plants, Ord. Eu- 
phorbiacese : Janipha Manihot, 
m&n'l'&t (a Brazilian name), a 
shrub much cultivated in tropical 
countries for its produce of starchy 
matter, made into Cassava bread: 
J. Iseflingii, Uf-lin'-jl-l (unas- 
certained), a variety whose amyl- 
aceous matter is used as food 
under the name * Sweet Cas- 
sava' ; ' tapioca ' is obtained from 
the starch of the Bitter Cassava. 

Jasminaceae, n. plu., jds'mm-dl 




se>e (Arabic name gasmtri), the 
jasmine or jessamine family, an 
Order of plants, much esteemed 
from the delicious fragrance 
emitted by several of the species, 
from which an essential oil is 
obtained, natives of the tropics : 
Jasminum, n., jas-mln'-um, an 
elegant and familiar genus of 
plants : Jasminum officinale, #/ 
JW'fn-dl'8 (L. afficindlis, officinal); 
J. grandiflorum, grand'-i-flor'-um, 
(L. grandis, great, large ; flos, a 
flower, floris, of a flower) ; J. 
odoratissimum, dd'or-at-is'sim- 
tim (L. odoratissimum, very frag- 
rant from odordtus, sweet smel- 
ling, fragrant); and J. sambac, 
samf'bak (a native name), are 
species from which the essential 
oil of jasmine is procured : J. 
angustifolium, dng-gust^i-fol'-i- 
tim (angustus, small, narrow ; 
folium, a leaf), a species whose 
bitter root, ground small, and 
mixed with powdered Acarus 
calamus root, is considered good 
in India as an external application 
for ringworm : Jasmine, n. , jds f - 
min, the English name for the 
genus ; also spelt Jessamine. 
Jateorhiza, n., jat'-Z-o-rlz'-a, (Gr. 
later, a physician ; rhiza, a root), 
a genus of plants, closely allied 
to Cocculus, Ord. Menispermacese : 
Jateorhiza palmata, pal-mat'-a 
(L. palmdtus, marked with the 
palm of the hand from palmus, 
the palm of the hand), a plant of 
East Africa whose root, known as 
Calumba root, is used in the form 
of infusion or tincture, as a pure 
bitter tonic. 

Jatropha, n., jal<rof-a (Gr. later 
or iatros, a physician ; troplie, 
food), a genus of valuable medic- 
inal plants, Ord. Euphorbiacese, 
so named in allusion to their 
medicinal properties, and their 
use as food : Jatropha curcas, 
kerk'ds (S. American name), 
physic or purging nut, a plant 
from whose seeds an oil is pro- 

cured which has cathartic proper- 
ties : J. multifida, mult-fy'id-a 
(L. multifidus, cleft or split into 
many parts from multus, many; 

jindo, I cleave or divide), a species 
from whose seeds a purgative oil 
is obtained, said also to be good 
as an external application for 
itch : J. manihot, produces tapi- 
oca, now called JanipLa manihot, 
which see. 

jaundice, n. , ja/wnd'is (F. jaunisse, 
the yellow disease from jaune, 
yellow), a disease, or rather a 
symptom of disease, characterised 
by yellowness of the eyes, skin, 
etc., and general languor. 

jejunum, n.,je-jun'iim (L.jejunus, 
fasting, empty), the second por- 
tion of the small intestines, fol- 
lowing the 4 Duodenum, ' so named 
as supposed to be empty after 

jigger, n., jig'ger, another name 
for ' chigoe,' which see. 

juga, n. plu. , jdg'-a (L. jugum, a 
yoke), in bot., the ribs or ridges 
on the fruit of the umbelliferse : 
jugate, a. , J6g f -dt, having pairs of 
leaflets, as in compound leaves : 
jugum, n., jdg'um, a pair of 
opposite leaflets. 

JuglandacesB, n. plu., j6g'-land-a r - 
se-e (L. juglans, a walnut said to 
be a corruption of jovis glans 
from jovis, of Jupiter ; glans, 
a nut), the Walnut family, an 
Order of trees, yielding edible, 
oily nuts, and a valuable timber : 
Juglans, n., jdgtlanz, an orna- 
mental genus of tall, stately trees: 
Juglans regia, redf-i-d (L. 
regms, royal from rex, a king), 
the common walnut tree whose 
seeds yield a bland oil, used for 
olive oil : J. nigra, nlg'-rd (L. 
nigra, black), the black walnut 
whose wood when polished is of a 
fine dark-brown colour. 

jugular, a,, j6g''ul-ar (F.jugulaire, 
jugular ; L. jugulum, the collar- 
bone, the neck), pert, to the neck 
or throat ; applied to the large 




vein of the neck ; applied to the 
ventral fins of fishes, placed 
"beneath or in advance of the 

julep, n.,jdl'-$p (Pers. jullab from 
gulab, rose water and julep ; Sp. 
juUpe, julep ; Mod. Gr. zoulo, 
I squeeze out juice), a mixture 
as of water and sugar, to serve 
as a vehicle for a medicine ; an 
alcoholic beverage compounded 
and flavoured. 

Juncacese, n. plu., jung-kds'-e*e (L. 
juncus, a rush ; jungo, I join or 
weave), the Rush family, an 
Order of herbaceous plants : 
Juncas, n., jung'kds, a genus 
of plants found in moist situa- 
tions, or growing among water 
used for domestic purposes : 
Juncas glaucus, gldwk'-us (L. 
glaucus, Gr. glaukos, bluish- 
grey), the hard rush, used in the 
manufacture of rush fabrics : J. 
effusus, Zf-fuz'us (L. effusus, 
poured out, shed), the soft rush : 
J. conglomerates, k8n-gldm'$r- 
at' us (L. conglomerdtus, rolled 
together from con, together ; 
glomero, I wind into a ball), the 
hollow rush : junciform, a. , jun'- 
si-ftirm (L. forma, shape), like a 
rush ; long and slender : juncous, 
a. , jfmg'kus, full of rushes. 

Juncaginacese, n. plu., jung-kadj' 
in'd's8>e (L. juncus, a rush, and 
probably ago, I move, I drive), 
a Sub-order of the Ord. Alis- 
macese or Water- Plantain family, 
found growing in ponds and 
marshes with minute green 
flowers ; some resemble rushes, 
others are floating plants. 

Jungermanniese, n. plu., t /^?i^-^e>- 
mdn-nl'-e-e (after Jungermann, a 
German botanist), the Scale 
mosses, a Sub- order of plants, 
Ord. Hepaticse : Jungermannia, 
n., jung'-ger-man'm-d, a genus of 
plants, usually found in little 
patches upon trees or rocks, or in 
damp places on the earth. 

Juniperus, n., jdn-ip'-er-us (L. 

juniperus, the juniper tree), a 
well-known genus of shrubs, Ord. 
Coniferse : Juniperus communis, 
kom'mun'is (L. communis, 
common), the common juniper 
whose berries are used in the 
manufacture of Hollands or gin, 
and medicinally as a diuretic, as 
well as an oil procured from them: 
J. Sabina, sab -In' a (L. Sabinus, 
Sabine, because employed by 
the Sabine priests in their cere- 
monies), the plant Savin, the 
young branches and leaves of 
which contain an active, volatile 
oil, used as an anthelmintic and 
emenagogue : J. Bermudiana, 
ber-mud'i-dn'd (of or from Ber- 
muda}, a species whose wood 
furnishes Pencil Cedar : juniper, 
n., j6n f 'ip>er, the English name 
of the 'J. communis.' 

Justicia, n., jus-tish'i>a (after 
Justice, a Scotch botanist), an 
extensive ornamental genus of 
flowering plants, Ord. Acanth- 
acese ; a deep-blue dye is obtained 
from a species in China. 

jute, n , jdt (an Indian name), 
the fibres of the ' Corchorus 
capsularis ' and 'C. olitorius,' 
extensively used in the manu- 
facture of coarse cloths and 
cordage, and in mixing with 
other fibres in finer cloths. 

Kalmia, n., leal' mi- a (after Kalm, 
a Swedish naturalist), a genus of 
very handsome hardy shrubs, 
Ord. Ericaceae, some of whose 
species are poisonous and nar- 

kamela, n., Tcam'-'el'd (Bengalee 
kamala), bright - red, semi- 
translucent, resinous glandules 
covering the surface of the tricoc- 
cous fruit of Rottlera tinctoria, 
Ord. Euphorbiaceae, an Indian 
tree, used as a remedy against 
the tapeworm. 

kelis, n. , kel'te (Gr. belie, a stain, or 
chele, a claw or talon), another 
name for keloid; a disease of the 




skin, presenting a cicatrix-like 
appearance : keloid, n., kel'-ofyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), a dis- 
ease, consisting of an indurated 
mass putting forth processes at 
its edges resembling crab's claws. 

keratin, n., ker'dt-m (Gr. keras, 
a horn), the substance of the 
horny tissues : keratode, n. , 
kZr r -at'Q(L (Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
the horny substance making up 
the skeletons of many sponges : 
keratosa, n., ffirl&t-oz'-d, the 
division of sponges having the 
skeleton composed of keratode : 
kerato-cricoid, k^dt-o-krik^dyd 
(see 'cricoid'), a short slender 
bundle of muscle arising from 
the cricoid-cartilage. 

kidneys, n., Ud'-mz (Old Eng. 
kidnere, the kidneys from Old 
Eng. quid, Icel. koidr, Scot, kyte, 
the belly ; Old Eng. nere, Ger. 
niere, the testicles, kidneys), 
literally the testicles of the belly; 
two oblong flattened bodies lying 
behind the intestines of an animal, 
which secrete the urine. 

Kigelia, n., kig'81-i'a (kigelikeia, 
the negro name), a genus of 
African trees, Ord. Bignoniacese : 
Kigelia pinnata, pin-nat'd (L. 
pinnatus, feathered, winged from 
pinna, a wing), a tree yielding 
excellent timber in Africa, its 
long pendent fruit when roasted 
is there used as an external applic- 
ation for rheumatic complaints : 
K. Africana, df f -rik-an f 'd (of or 
from Africa), a species whose 
bark is used on the Gold Coast 
for dysentery. 

kind, n., kind, another name for 
4 genus, ' which see. 

kingdom, n., kmg'dttm, one of 
the three great divisions of nature, 
animal, vegetable, and mineral. 

kinic acid, kln'ik (from kina-kina, 
a name for cinchona), an organic 
acid found in the bark of various 
species of cinchona, principally 
yellow and pale Peruvian bark. 

kino, n., kin'-d (an Indian name), 

the concrete exudation from 
Pterocarpus marsupium, a tree of 
the Indian forests, Ord. Legum- 
inosse, which forms a very power- 
ful astringent ; ' P. erinaceus ' 
furnishes African kino. 

kirschwasser, n., kersh'vas'ser 
(Ger. cherry water from kirsche, 
cherry ; wasser, water), cherry- 
brandy, an alcoholic liquor dis- 
tilled from a variety of Cerasus 
aviuni, Ord. Rosacese, the sweet 
black cherry. 

kleistogamous, a., klist'dg'dm-tis 
(Gr. kleistos, closed ; gamos, 
marriage), in lot., having the 
fertilisation effected in closed 
flowers, as certain grasses. 

kleptomania, n., klep'*to*man f 'i'a 
(Gr. klepto, I steal ; mania, mad- 
ness), a morbid impulse or desire 
to steal or appropriate. 

knaurs, n. plu. , naswrs, or gnaurs, 
n. plu., ndwrs (Dut, knarren, to 
growl ; Swed. knorla, to twist, to 
curl), a hard woody lump pro- 
jecting from the trunk of a tree, 
as in the oak, thornbeam, etc. 

kombe, n., kdm'-be (native name), 
the famous arrow poison of 8. 
Africa, furnished by the Stroph- 
anthus kombe, Ord. Apocyn- 

koochla, n., kdtsli'-la (native 
name), the poison-nut tree of the 
Malabar and Coromandel coasts ; 
the 'Strychnos nux - vomica,' 
Ord. Loganiacese. 

koumiss or kumiss, n., kdm'is 
(Russ. kumys), a sparkling drink 
obtained by the Kalmucks, by 
fermenting the whey of mare's 
milk ; may also be made from 
cow milk. 

kousso, n., kows'-so, also kusso, 
n., kus'-sd (native name), the 
flowers of an Abyssinian tree, 
used in that country as a remedy 
for tapeworm ; the produce of 
Brayera anthelmintica, Ord. 

Krameria, n., kram^er^i-d (after 
Kramer, a German botanist), 




a genus of ornamental shrubs, 
Ord. Polygalacese. : Krameria 
triandra, tri-and'rd (Gr. treis, 
three ; aner, a male, a stamen, 
andros, of a male), a Peruvian 
plant which furnishes Rhatany- 
root, employed as an astringent 
in haemorrhage and mucous dis- 
charges, and its infusion of a 
iblood-red colour has been em- 
ployed to adulterate port wine : 
K. , cistoidea, sist-dyd'-Z-a (Gr. 
kiste, a box or chest ; eidos, 
resemblance), a Chilian plant 
'W'hiqh yields a kind of rhatany. 
ikreatin, n. , see ' creatin. ' 

;labellum, n., lab-el'-lum (L. Idb- 
,ellum, a little lip from labrum, 
.3. lip), in bot., one of the divisions 
,of .the inner whorl of the flower 
of Orchids ; the lip or lower 
petal of an Orchid, etc, : label, 
n., lab' el, the terminal division 
of the lip of the flower in 

,labia, labial, see 'la Mum.' 
labia cerebri, lab'-i-d ser^eb-rl (L. 
labia, lips ; cerebri, of the cereb- 
rum), the margins of the hemi- 
spheres of the brain which overlap 
the Corpus .caUosum. 
labiate, a., Idb'-i-at (L. labium, a 
lip), lipped; in bot., applied to 
irregular gamopetalous flowers, 
with an upper and under portion 
separated more or less by a gap ; 
having two unequal divisions : 
Labiatse, n. plu., Idb'i-at'e, the 
Labiate family, an extensive 
Order of plants, in general frag- 
rant and aromatic. 
Labiatiflorse, n. plu., labti-itt>l- 
flor'-e (L. labium, a lip ; floreo, I 
blossom ; Flora, the goddess of 
flowers), one of the great sections 
into which De Candolle divides 
the extensive Ord. Composite, 
characterised by hermaphrodite 
flowers divided into two lips. 
labium, n., lab'-i-urn (L. labium, a 
lip), in bot., the lower lip of a 
labiate flower j in zool. , the 

lower lip of articulate animals : 
labia, n. plu., lab'-i-a, the two 
divisions of irregular gamopetal- 
ous flowers separated by a hiatus 
or gap. 

laboratory, n., lab^r-dt-or'-i (F. 
laboratoire, a laboratory ; L. 
labor, labour), a druggist's shop ; 
the workroom of a chemist. 

labrum, n., lab'-rUm (L. labrum, a 
lip), the mouth cover, or lip-like 
shield of an insect's mouth ; the 
outer lip of a shell ; the upper lip 
of articulate animals, as the 
' labium ' is the lower lip. 

Laburnum, n., lab-ern'um (L.), 
a beautiful ornamental shrub, the 
' Cy tisus laburnum, ' Ord. Legum- 
inosa3, whose seeds are acrid and 

labyrinth, n., l&b'>tr.fnth(L. lab- 
yrinthus, any structure with many 
winding passages), the internal 
ear, consisting of three parts the 
vestibule, the semicircular canals, 
and the cochlea so named from 
the complexity of its shape. 

laccate, a., Idk'-kat (Ger. lack, It, 
lacca, a varnish; F. laque, a rost 
or ruby colour), in bot., appear- 
ing as if varnished, or lik< 

Lacertilia, n. plu., Ids'-er-til'i-c 
(L. lacerta, a lizard), an Order o: 
Reptilia, comprising the lizards 
and slow-worms. 

lacertus, n., Ids-ert'-us, lacerti, n, 
plu., Ids-ertf'l (L. lacertus, tht 
muscular upper part of the arm), 
a packet or bundle of muscular 
fibres enclosed in a membranous 
sheath ; another name for ' fas- 
ciculus. ' 

lachrymal, a., lak'-rim-dl (L, 
lachryma, a tear), pert, to tears 
generating or conveying tears. 

lacinia, n., las-iri-i-a, lacinise. 
n. plu., Ids-in'i-e (L. lacinia, tht 
lappet or flap of a garment), 
calycine segments, as in th 
violet : laciniate, a., Ids-in'i-df. 
also laciniated, a., Ids-in'-i-at-ed, 
in bot. , irregularly cut into narrow 




segments; fringed; also laciniose, 
a. , las-m'-i'dz, fringed : laciniolate, 
a., Ids-m'-i-til-dt (dim. of lacinia), 
having very minute lacinise : 
lacinula, n., las-m'-ul-a (dim,), 
the small inflexed point of the 
petals of TJmbellifers. 
Lacistemaceje, n. plu., las-is'titm,' 
Of-sZ-e (probably Gr, lakistos, torn, 
rent, from the appearance of the 
shrubs), the Lacistema family, 
an Order of small trees or shrubs, 
natives of warm parts of America: 
Lacistema, n., las'-is-ternf'^ a 

.acquer, n,, lak'er (F. laque, rose 
or ruby colour; Pers. lac, lac; Sp. 
lacre, sealing - wax), a varnish 
from shell-lac ; the hard black 
varnish of Japan is procured 
from Stigmaria verniciflua, Ord, 

lactation, n., lak-taf-shun (L. lac- 
tatum, to contain milk, to suck 
milk from lac, milk, lactis, of 
milk), the period of suckling a 
child ; the act of giving milk : 
lacteals, n. plu. y lak'te-als, min- 
ute vessels or absorbents which 
arise in small conical projections 
of the mucous or lining membrane 
of the intestines, whose function 
is to absorb the various soluble 
portions of the digested food or 
chyme as it passes along the 
intestinal canal : lactescence, n. , 
Iak>t8s'&ns, a milky colour : lac- 
tescent, a., lak-tes''8nt, producing 
milk ; in bot., yielding a milky 
juice : lactic, a., Idk'tik, pert, to 
milk ; of or from milk or whey, 
as ' lactic acid ' : lactiferous, a". , 
tdk-tyier-fa (L. fero, I bear), 
bearing or producing milk or 
milky juice : lactin, n., Idk'tm, 
sugar of milk : lactometer, n. , 
lak-tdm'%t'er (Gr. metron, a 
measure), an instrument for 
ascertaining the quality of milk. 
Lactuca, n., IdTc-tukf-a (L. lactuca, 
a lettuce from lac, milk ; from 
their milky juice), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Composite, Sub 

order Chichoracese : Lactuca sat- 
iva, sat'iv'-a (L. satlvus, that is 
sown or planted), the common 
lettuce, from which a milk - like 
juice exudes when broken : L. 
virosa, vir-oz'-a (L. virosus, slimy, 
fetid from virus, slime, stench), 
the wild or strong- scented lettuce ; 
the ' Lectuarium ' or lettuce opium 
is the inspissated juice of this and 
preceding, used for allaying pain 
and inducing sleep : lactucin, n. , 
Idk'tm'm, the active principle of 
the wild lettuce. 

lacuna, n., ldk-un'>d, lactinse, n. 
plu., lak-un'-e (L. lacuna, a hole, 
a cavity), in bot., a large space in 
the midst of a group of cells ; a 
depression ; a blank space ; in 
anat., minute recesses or cavities 
in bone: lacunar, a., Idk-un'ar, 
pert, to or arising from lacunae : 
lacuna magna, mdg'na (L, mag- 
nus, great), in anat., a large and 
conspicuous recess situated on the 
tipper surface of the Fossa navic- 
ularis : lacunose, a., Idk'iin-oz', 
furrowed or pitted ; having cavi- 

lacus lachrymalis, ldk'-us lak'-rlm* 
dl'-is (L. lacus, a basin, a tank; 
lachrymalis, pert, to tears from 
lachryma, a tear), the tear-lake ; 
a triangular space situated between 
the eyelids towards the nose, into 
which the tears flow. 

ladanum, n., Idd'an-um, or lab- 
danum, n. , lab'dan-um (L. ladan- 
um, a resinous juice), a resinous 
matter obtained from the genus 
* Cistus, ' chiefly from the species 
' Cistus creticus, ' Ord. Cistacese. 

Laemodipoda, n. plu., lem'o-dip'- 
fid- a (Gr. laimos, the throat ; dis, 
twice ; podes, feet), an Order of 
Crustacea, so named from having 
two feet placed so far forward as 
to be, as it were, under the 

IsevigatTis, a., see 'levigatus.' 

Lagenaria, n., ladf%n>ar'>i>a (L. 
lagena, a bottle), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Cucurbitacese, so named 




from the bottle - shaped fruit of 
some of the species : Lagenaria 
vulgaris, vulg-ar'-ls (L. vulgdris, 
common), the Bottle Gourd, the 
hard covering of whose fruit is 
used as a vessel or flask for con- 
taining fluid. 

lageniform, a., Iddj-en'i-form (L. 
lagena, a bottle, a flask ; forma, 
shape), in bot., having a shape 
like a Florence flask. 

Lagerstrcemia, n., Idg'-er-strem'-i-a 
(after Lagerstrcem of Gottenburg), 
a very splendid genus of plants, 
Ord. Lythracete: Lagerstroamia 
reginsB, re-jln'-e, (L. reglna, a 
queen, regince, of a queen) ; and 
L. indica, m'-dik-a (L. indicus, of 
or from India), produce flowers 
in panicles of a pale rose colour, 
gradually deepening to a beautiful 

Lagetta, n., ladj-Ztfta (name in 
Jamaica), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Thymelaeacese: Lagetta lintearia, 
lmtf-8'dr'i'a (L. lintedrius, of or 
pert, to linen from lintZum, linen 
cloth), a species whose inner bark, 
cut into thin pieces and macerated, 
assumes a beautiful net-like ap- 
pearance, and is called lace-bark. 

lambdoidal, a., lam-doyd'-al (Gr. 
letter A, called lambda; eidos, 
resemblance), having the form of 
the Greek letter A. 

lamella, n., ldm>%l'ld, lamellae, 
n. plu., lam-81'le (L. lamella, a 
small plate or loaf from lamina, 
a plate), thin plates or scales, as 
those composing shells or bones ; 
in bot., the gills of an Agaric ; 
the flat divisions of the stigma. 

Lamellibranchiata, n., ldm'el>fo 
brdng'-ki'dt'-d (L. lamella, a small 
plate or scale ; Gr. brangchia, 
gills), the class of Mollusca, com- 
prising the ordinary bivalves, 
which have lamellar gills : lam- 
ellibranchiate, a., -brdng'ki-dt, 
having gills in symmetrical semi- 
circular layers : Lamellirosters, 
n. plu., lam'.Zl'lt-rdst'.ers (L. 
rostrum, a beak), the flat-billed 

swimming birds, such as ducks, 
geese, and swans : lamellirostral, 
a., -r6st f -ral, having the margins 
of the back furnished with plates, 
as ducks and geese. 

Lamiacese, n. plu., lam'-i-d'sg-e 
(Gr. laimos, the neck, the throat, 
in allusion to the shape of their 
flowers), an extensive Order of 
plants, now named 'Labiatre,' 
which see : Lamium, n., Idm'i- 
tim, a genus of plants. 

lamina, n., lam* in a, laminse, n. 
plu., lam'in>e (L. lamina, a plate 
or leaf), a thin plate or scale ; a 
thin layer or coat lying over 
another ; the horny and sensitive 
folds by which the hoof wall is 
attached to the deeper - seated 
parts ; in bot., the blade of the 
leaf ; the broad part of a petal or 
sepal : laminated, a., lam'-m-at- 
$d, consisting of plates or layers 
disposed one over another : lam- 
ination, n., ldm f 'in-d f -shun, ar- 
rangement in layers : lamina 
cinerea, stn-er'-Z-a (L. cirierZus, 
ash-coloured from cinis, ashes), 
in anat., a thin layer of grey 
substance extending backwards 
above the optic commissure, from 
the termination of the corpus 
callosum to the tuber cinereum : 
lamina cribrosa, krib'rozf-a (L. 
cribrum, a sieve), a sieve-like 
layer formed by the sclerotica at 
the entrance of the optic nerve, 
pierced by numerous minute open- 
ings for the passage of the nerv- 
ous filaments : lamina spiralis 
ossea, splr-al'-is tis'se-d (L. spir- 
alis, spiral ; osseus, like bone, 
bony), a thin bony process pro- 
jecting from the modiolus, con- 
sisting of two thin lamella} of 

Laminaria, n. plu., Idm'tn-dr'i-a 
(L. lamina, a plate, a leaf), a genus 
of Ord. Algae, so named from the 
flat blade-like form of the fronds, 
which have stalks of considerable 
size : Laminaria digitata, dldg'' 
it-at'a (L. digitatus, having 




fingers or toes from digitus, a 
finger or toe), tangle, an esculent 
sea- weed, dried portions of which, 
from its property of absorbing 
moisture and thus increasing in 
bulk, are employed for the dilat- 
ation of narrow canals and apert- 
ures in dissections : L. sacchar- 
ina, sd&kar-m'a, an esculent 
sea -weed, from which a sweet 
extract is obtained, in Iceland. 

laminitis, n., Iam f 'in'lt f 4s (L. lam- 
ina, a thin plate of metal), in- 
flammation of the layers of the 
stomach, as in the horse. 

lampas, n., lam'-pas (Gr. lampas, 
a torch, a fiery meteor), among 
horses, the swelling of the gums 
and palate incidental to dentition, 
a term in use among horsemen. 

lanceolate, a., Idns'e-til-dt (L. 
lancWldtus, armed with a little 
lance or spear from lanc$a, a 
lance or spear), having the form 
of a lance-head ; narrowly ellip- 
tical, and tapering to both ends. 

lancet, n., Idns'&t (F. lancette, 
dim. from lance, a lance), a small, 
sharp, two-edged knife, used by 

lancewood, n., lans'-wood, a wood 
furnished by the Duguetia quiter- 
ensis, Ord. Anonacese. 

lancinating, a., lans'-in-at-ing (L. 
lancea, a lance), piercing or 
seeming to pierce with a sudden 
shooting pain. 

lansium, n., lans'-l-um (from native 
name), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Meliacese, which yields the Lansa, 
Langsat, or Ayer-ayer, a yellow 
fruit highly esteemed in the 

Lantana, n., lan-tdn^d (unas- 
certained), a genus of shrubs, 
Ord. Verbenacese, having an 
agreeable aromatic perfume, some 
of whose species are used as tea. 

lanuginous, a., Idn-udj'm-us, also 
lanuginose, a., lan-udj'm-dz (L. 
lanugmosus, woolly, downy 
from Idnugo, a wool -like produc- 
tion, down), in bot., woolly ; 

covered with long curled, inter- 
laced hairs: lanugo, n., lan-ug'-o, 
the fine down or hair which 
covers the human foetus during 
the sixth month. 

Larch, n., Idrtsh (L. and Gr. 
larix, It. larice, the larch), a 
forest tree, the Larix Europsea, 
Ord. Coniferse, also called Abies 
larix ; the American larch Abies 

lardaceous, a., Idrd-d'shus (L. 
lardum, F. lard, lard), resem- 
bling lard or bacon. 

Lardizabala, n., Idrd'iZ'ab'al'a 
(after Lardizabala,of S. America), 
a genus of hardy creepers, Ord. 
Berberidacese, which yield good 
edible fruit in Chili. 

Larix, n., lar'-iks (L. larix, the 
larch), a genus of forest trees, 
Ord. Coniferse, Sub-ord. Abiet- 
inese : Larix Europsea, ur'-op-e'-a 
(pert, to Europe), the larch. 

Larkspur, n., Idrk'-sper (lark and 
spur), a plant with showy flowers, 
usually of a vivid blue, genus 
Delphinium, Ord. Eanuncul- 

larva, n., Idrv'-a, larvsB, n. plu., 
larvae (L. larva, a ghost, a mask), 
an insect in the caterpillar or grub 
state after it has emerged from 
the egg. 

laryngismus, n., lar'-lng-jfa'-mtts 
(Gr. larunggismos, shouting, 
vociferation from larungglzo, I 
bawl out with open throat), a 
false or spasmodic croup, called 
' child crowing, ' from the crowing 
inspiration by which it is charac- 
terised ; a spasm of the glottis ; 
also laryngismus stridulus, strid'- 
ul'US (L. stridulus, a creaking or 
hissing), same meaning as pre- 
ceding ; due to destructive dis- 
ease of vocal apparatus. 

laryngo, n., lar-ing'-go (Gr. lar- 
ungx, the upper part of the wind- 
pipe), a word indicating connec- 
tion with the larynx. 

laryngoscope, n., Idr -ing'- go -shop 
(Gr. larungx, the larynx ; skopeo, 




I view or see), an instrument for j 
exploring the larynx and upper 
part of the windpipe, consisting 
of a small reflecting mirror on a 
slender stem, upon which rays of 
artificial light may be thrown 
from another mirror : laryngot- 
omy, n., larking -gStf-tim-i (Gr. 
tome, a cutting), the operation of 
cutting into the larynx to permit 
breathing in cases of obstruction. 

larynx, n., Idr'-inks (Gr. larungx, 
the upper part of the windpipe, 
larunggos, of the upper part, etc. ), 
the upper part of the trachea or 
windpipe, and concerned in mam- 
mals in the production of vocal 
sounds : laryngeal, a., Idr'-ing- 
je'dl or lar-ing'-gZ-al, pert, to the 
larynx: laryngitis, n., larking- 
jit' is, inflammation of the larynx : 
laryngo-tracheotomy, lar-ing'-go- 
trdk f -e -ot'-om-l (see 'tracheotomy '), 
the operation of opening the air- 
passage through the cricoid 
cartilage and upper ring of the 

Lasiandra, n., Ids'-i-and'-rd (Gr. 
lasios, hairy ; aner, a male, 
andros, of a male), an elegant 
genus of shrubs, Ord. Melastom- 
acese, having hairy stamens, and 
producing large purple blossoms 
in panicles. 

latent, a., latf-$nt (L. Idtens, con- 
cealing, hiding, Idtentis, of con- 
cealing), not visible or apparent ; 
in bot.j applied to buds that 
remain in a dormant state. 

lateral, a., lat'er-al (L. laterdlis, 
belonging to the side from latus, 
a side, IdtZris, of a side), arising 
from the side of the axis ; not 
terminal : lateralis nasi, ldtf-er> 
dl f -is ndzf-i (L. ndsus, the nose, 
ndsl, of the nose), the lateral of 
the nose; an artery derived from 
the facial as that vessel is ascend- 
ing along the side of the nose. 

lateritious, a., lat'&r'ish'-us (L. 
later, a brick, a tile, lateris, of a 
brick or tile), resembling brick 
dust in colour. 

latex, n., Idt^ks (L. latex, a 
liquid or juice, laticis, of a liquid), 
in bet. , a granular or viscid fluid 
contained in laticiferous vessels. 

LathrsBa, n., Idth-re'-a (Gr. lath- 
raios, secret, private), a genus of 
curious little root-parasites, fur- 
nished with white fleshy scales 
in the place of leaves, Ord. 
Orobanchacese, so named as 
being found in concealed places : 
La three a squamaria, skwom* 
dr f -i'd (L. squama, a scale), the 
tooth-wort, parasitical upon the 
roots of hazels, cherry laurels, 
and other trees. 

Lathyrus, n., ldth'>ir-us (Gr. lath- 
uros, a kind of small vetch or 
pulse), a considerable genus of 
handsome plants when in flower, 
Ord. Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Papil- 
ionacese : Lathyrus cicera, sis'- 
er*a (L. cicera, pulse from 
cicer, the chick-pea); also L. 
aphaca, df'-dk-d (L. aphaca, Gr. 
aphaka, a kind of pulse), possess 
narcotic qualities in their seeds, 
etc. ; the seeds of the latter pro- 
duce intense headaches if eaten in 
quantity : L. tuberosus, tub'er- 
oz'-us (L. tuberosus, having fleshy 
knobs from tuber, a protuber- 
ance), a species whose roots 
produce wholesome food : L. 
odoratus, od'-Sr-dtf-us (L. odor- 
dtus, scent, smell), the sweet-pea 
of our gardens : L. sativus, sat- 
iv'-us (L. satwus, sown orplanted), 
the Gesse or Jarosse of the S. of 
Europe whose seeds are eaten. 

laticiferous, a., lat'-i-sif-er-us (L. 
latex, a liquid, juice, laticis, of a 
liquid ; fero, I bear), conveying 
latex, or elaborated sap ; having 
anastomising tubes containing 

latiseptsB, n. plu., lat'-i-sep'te (L. 
latus, a side, lateris, of a side ; 
septum, a partition), in bot. t 
cruciferous plants which have a 
broad septum in their silicula. 

latissinms dorsi, n., lat-is'-sim-us 
dorsal (L. latissimus, very broad 




from latus, "broad ; dorsum, 
the back, dorsi, of the back), a 
flat muscle, situated on the back 
and side of the lower part of the 
trunk, which moves the arm 
backwards and downwards, or 
which brings forward the body 
when the hand is fixed, 
latrines, n. plu., IdMnz (F. 
latrines, a privy), a privy ; neces- 
sary conveniences or privies on a 
large scale. 

laudanum, n., Idwd'-an'tim (L. 
ladanum, the resinous substance 
from the plant Cistus creticus ; 
said to be formed from L. laude 
dignum, worthy of praise, from 
its soothing qualities), a prepara- 
tion of opium in spirits ; tincture 
of opium. 

Lauracese, n. plu., lawr-a's&.e 
(L. laurus, a laurel tree), the 
Laurel family, an Order of noble 
trees and shrubs, natives of the 
tropics in cool places, generally 
aromatic and fragrant, the species 
producing cinnamon, cassia, and 
camphor : Laurese, n. plu., 
ldwr'8'e, a Sub-order of the true 
laurel trees : Laurus, n., Idwr'^us, 
a handsome and interesting genus 
of plants : Laurus nobilis, ntib'- 
il-is (L. nobilis, famous, renowned), 
the common sweet bay ; the Vic- 
tor's laurel whose leaves were used 
to crown the conquerors in the 
Olympic games; the common bay 
or cherry laurel is the ' Prunus, 
or Cerasus lauro-cerasus, ' whose 
fresh leaves are employed in med- 
icine, also called * cherry laurel. ' 
Lavandula, n., ldv-and'ul-d (It. 
lavanda, the act of washing, 
lavender from Idvo, I wash, 
alluding to the uses made of 
its distilled water), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Labiatse, much 
esteemed for the fragrance of 
their flowers : Lavandula vera, 
ver'a (L. verus, real, genuine), 
yields the best oil of Lavender : 
L. latifolia, lat'.i-fdl'-i.d (L. latus, 
a side ; folium, a leaf), furnishes 

spike-oil : L. stoschas, stek'as 
(Gr. stoichas, a species of lav- 
ender), a species of the S. of 
Europe, which also supplies an 
oil : Lavender, n., lav'&nd-er, 
an odoriferous plant, the Lavand- 
ula vera, an under shrub having 
linear grey leaves, and close 
spikes of bluish flowers, from 
which the essential oil of lav- 
ender is distilled ; ' lavender ' is 
tonic, stimulant, and carminative. 

Lawsonia, n., Idw-son'i-a (after 
Dr. Isaac Lawson), a genus of 
ornamental trees, Ord. Lythracese, 
producing flowers in panicles or 
racemes : Lawsonia inermis, m> 
ermf'is (L. inermis, without 
weapons, unarmed), produces the 
* Henna' or 'Alhenna' of the 
Arabs, used in Egypt for dyeing 

laxative, a., lalcs'-at-iv (L. laxus, 
loose, open), a medicine which 
gently opens the bowels ; an 

laxator tympani, Idles- at' 'or timf- 
pdn-l (L. laxdtus, stretched out, 
extended ; tympanum, a drum, 
tympani, of a drum), the major, 
a muscle that arises from the 
spinous process of the sphenoid 
bone, etc., and is inserted into 
the head of the malleus of the 
ear ; the minor arises from the 
upper and back part of the ex- 
ternal meatus of the ear, both of 
these muscles are by some anat- 
omists regarded as ligaments. 

leader, n., led'er (Icel. leida, to 
lead), a popular name for a 
tendon ; in bot., the terminal 
or primary shoot of a tree. 

Lecanora, n., letf-an-or'-a (Gr. 
lekane, a dish, a basin, in allusion 
to the form of the shields), a 
genus of Lichens comprising 
some valuable plants : Lecanora 
tartarea, tdr-ta^e-a (L. Tartdr- 
lus, belonging to the infernal re- 
gionsfrom Tartarus, Tartarus), 
a species which supplies the dye 


Lecidea, n., le-sid'$-a (Gr. 
a basin, a saucer ; eidos, resem- 
blance), an extensive genus of 
Lichens found at all seasons of 
the year. 

lecotropal, a., UTc-oif-rop-dl (Gr. 
leJcos, a dish ; trope, a turning), 
in bot., shaped like a horse-shoe, 
as some ovules. 



Lecythideaj, n. plu., 
(Gr. lekuthos, an oil jar), a tribe 
or Sub -order of the Mystaceee, so 
named from the form of the seed 
vessels: Lecythis, n., IZs't-this, 
a genus of large trees of S. 
America, which furnish some of 
the nuts of commerce : Lecythis 
ollaria, dl>ldr'i-a (L. olldrms, of 
or belonging to pots from olla, 
a pot), a species producing large 
fruits, commonly known as 
Monkey Pots : L. usitata, uz'-lt- 
at'-a (L. usUdtus, used often), a 
species which produces the Sap- 
ucaia nuts, closely allied to Brazil 
nuts ; also called L. zabucajo, 
mUti-M'-yd (native name). 

Ledum, n., led'um (Gr. ledon, a 
species of Cistus), an ornamental 
genus of plants, Ord. Ericaceae : 
Ledum palustre, pdl-us^tre (L. 
pdluster, swampy), a low shrub 
called the Labrador tea. 

leeches, n. plu,, Utsh'Zs (Icel. 
Iceknir ; Goth, leiheis, a leech 
from Goth, leikinon, to heal ; 
Bav. lek, medicine), worm-like 
animals found in ditches and 
Rwamps, used to abstract blood 
from inflamed parts ; the 'Hirudo 
officinalis' and * medicinalis, ' 
Ord. Hirudinea, 

leek, see 'house-leek.' 

legume, n., teg-urn', also legumen, 
n., teg'Um'-%n(L. Ugiimen, pulse), 
a pod composed of one carpel 
opening usually by ventral and 
dorsal suture, as the pea; a dehis- 
cent two-valved carpel : legumin, 
n., ttg-umf-in, an essential prin- 
ciple of the seeds of leguminous 
plants, and of oily seeds ; casein : 
Leguminosse, n. plu., leg-umf-in- 

6zf-e, the pea and bean tribe, an 
Ord. of herbaceous plants, shrubs, 
or trees : leguminous, a., leg* 
umf-m-us, pert, to the pea or bean 

Lemnese, n. plu., Umf-ne-e (said 
to be corrupted from Gr. lepis, a 
scale), the duckweeds, a Sub- 
order of plants, Ord. Aracese : 
Lemna, n., Um'na, the duck- 
weeds, a curious genus of plants, 
floating as scales or small shield- 
like bodies on water, forming a 
green mantle. 

lemniscus, n., Um-msUus (Gr. 
lemniskos, a coloured band or 
fillet), in ctnat., the fillet or 
bundle of fibres on each side of 
the peduncular system of the 

lemon, n., ttm'b'n (Sp. limon, Ar. 
laymon, a lemon), a fruit of an 
oblong form, the produce of the 
Citrus limonum, Ord, Auranti- 
aceae, whose juice is anti-scorbutic, 
and is used in the manufacture of 
cooling drinks, 

lens, n., lenz, lenses, n, plu., Unzf- 
es (L. lens, a lentil), in the eye, 
a doubly convex transparent solid 
body with a rounded circumfer- 
ence ; in an optical instrument 
a piece of glass of a convex, con- 
cave, or other shape for changing 
the direction of rays of light. 

Lentibulariaceae, n. plu., ttnt-ib'- 
ul-dr-t-d'se'e (L. lenticula, the 
shape of a lentil from lens, a 
lefltil), the Butterwort family, 
an Order of plants, so named 
from the lenticular shape of the 
air bladders on the branches of 
titricularia, one of the genera. 

lenticel, n., tenths- el (L. dim. of 
lens, a lentil, lenlis, of a lentil), 
in bot., a small process on the 
bark of the Willow and other 
plants, from which adventitious 
roots spring. 

lenticular, a., lent-ikf-uldr (L. 
lenticula, the shape of a lens 
from lens, a lentil, lentis, of a 
lentil), resembling a double con- 




vex lens : lentiform, n., Unt'i- 

form, same sense. 

lentignose, a., Unt'ig-ndz f (L. lent- 
igndsus, full of freckles from 
lentlgo, a lentilshaped or freckly 
spot), in bot., covered with dots 
as if dusted: lentigo, n., l&nMgfo, 
a freckly eruption on the skin : 
lentiginous, a., Ignt-idj'm-us, 
freckly, scurfy. 

Lentisk, n., l&nt-lsk' (L. lentiscus, 
the mastich tree), the Pistacia 
lentiscus, Ord. Anacardiacese, a 
native of the Mediterranean coasts 
and islands, furnishes the concrete 
resinous exudation, called Mastich 
or Mastic. 

Leopard's bane, ttp'ardz ban, the 
Arnica Montana, Ord. Composite, 
Sub-order Corymbiferse, called also 
mountain tobacco, a plant which 
is an acrid stimulant, frequently 
applied much diluted to bruises, 

Leopoldinia, n., le'-d-pold-m'i'ct 
(fern, of Leopold, after an empress 
of Brazil), a genus of fine palms 
of Brazil, Ord. Palmee : Leopold- 
inia piassaba, pi'-as-sab'-a (native 
name), a fibre used in manufac* 
tures under the name Piassaba. 

Lepidium, n., Up-id'-i-tim (Gr. 
lepidion, a small scale, a plant 
from lepis, a scale), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Cruciferse, so called 
in allusion to the scale-like shape 
of the pods : Lepidium sativum, 
sat-lv'um (L. sativum, that is 
sown or planted), the wellknown 
garden cress. 

Lepidocaryinse, n. plu., Up'-id-d- 
kdr f 'i-in f -e (Gr. lepis, a scale, 
lepidos, of a scale ; karuon, a 
nut), a Sub-order of trees of the 
Ord. Palmse: Lepidocaryum, n., 
l$p'id'6'Jcdr''i'um, a genus of the 

Lepidoptera, n. plu., Up'-id-tip'- 
ter-d (Gr. lepis, a scale ; pteron, 
a wing), an Order of insects, 
comprising butterflies and moths, 
possessing four wings, which are 
usually covered with minute 

scales : Lepidopteral, a k , 
dp'-tZr-al, of or pert, to the Lep- 

lepidote, a., ttp'id-dt (Gr. lepidotos, 
covered with scales from lepis, 
a scale), in bot., scurfy from min- 
ute scales ; covered with scales or 
scurf: lepidota, n. plu., lep'-id- 
ot'a, in zool. , an old name for the 
Ord. Dipnoi, which contains mud 

lepiota, n. plu., ttp'-i-ot'-a (Gr. 
lepis, a scale), in bot. t the annules 
of some Fungi. 

lepis, n., Up' is (Gr. lepis, a hair), 
a name applied to expansions of 
the epidermis in plants producing 
a scale or scurf whose surface is 
then said to be ' epidote. * 

lepra, n., lep'-ra (Gr. lepra, leprosy; 
lepros, rough, scaly), a term 
formerly applied to leprosy, now 
confined to a form of psoriasis, 
which see : leprosy, n., lep'-rtis'i, 
a disease of the skin of two kinds 
the tuberculated one, in which 
the surface is marked with tuber- 
cles, and the anaesthetic, in which 
there is a number of spots hav- 
ing no feeling: leprous, a., l&pl 
rus, affected with leprosy; covered 
with white scales, or with a 
white mealy substance : leprose, 
a., ttp'rdz, in bot., scurf-like. 

Leptosiphon, n., Up'-to-slf-on (Gr. 
leptos, thin, slender ; siphon, a 
tube), a genus of very elegant 
annuals, Ord. Polemoniacese, so 
named from the slenderness of 
the tube of the corolla. 

Leptospermese, n. plu., Up' to* 
sperm' 8- e (Gr* leptos, thin, 
slender ; sperma, seed), a Sub- 
order of the Ord. Myrtacese, 
having opposite or alternate 
leaves, usually dotted : Lepto- 
spermum, n., l&p' to sperm' um, a 
genus of the Myrtacese, having 
a neat foliage, and beautiful 
blossoms ; leaves of several 
species are used in Tasmania and 
Australia as tea : Leptospermuin 
lanigerum, lan-ldf-er-um (L. 




lanager, wool-bearing from lana, 
wool ; gero, I bear), a species 
whose leaves are used as tea. 

lesion, n., lezh'-un (L. Icesus, hurt), 
a hurt ; an injury ; a morbid 
alteration in a function or struct- 

lethal, a., leth'-til (L. lethdlis, mor- 
tal from lethum, death), deadly; 

lethargy, n., Wt&r-ji (Gr. and 
L. lethargia, drowsiness from 
lethe, forgetfulness ; argos, idle), 
heavy, unnatural slumber; morbid 

lettuce, n., let'-tis (L. lactuca, a 
lettuce from lac, milk), a garden 
salad plant of various kinds ; the 
common lettuce is the Lactuca 
sativa, Ord. Compositse, Sub- 
ord. Cichoracese. 

leuchaemia, n., Idlc-em'-i-a (Gr. 
leukos, white ; haima, blood), a 
morbid condition of the blood ; 
the same as leucocythsemia, 
which see. 

leucin, n., M-in (Gr. leukos, 
white), a peculiar white sub- 
stance derived from nitrogenous 

leucocytosis, n., WS-rtt-faf-is (Gr. 
leukos, white ; kutos, a cell), an 
increase in the number of white 
corpuscles in the blood in several 
morbid as well as physiological 
conditions in the latter, after 
partaking of food for instance : 
leucocythsBmia, n., Idk'o-sith- 
em' i- a (Gr. haima, blood), the 
condition of the blood in which 
the white corpuscles are enor- 
mously increased in number. 

Leucodendron, n., Id&o-den'drdn 
(Gr. leukos, white ; dendron, a 
tree), a genus of splendid ever- 
green shrubs, having heads of 
yellow flowers, so called from 
their white leaves: Leucodendron 
argenteum, dr-jfytftWim (L. 
argent$us, made of silver from 
argentum, silver), the silver tree 
or AVitteboom of the Cape, having 
beautiful silky leaves, ( 

leucoderma, n., Idk'd-derm'a (Gr. 
leukos ; white ; derma, skin), a 
disease characterised by a mere 
discoloration of the skin, giving 
rise to no other symptoms. 

Leucojum, n., Idk-o'jum (Gr. 
leukos, white ; ion, a violet), a 
genus of hardy bulbs producing 
spikes of pretty white flowers, 
like the snowdrop, Ord. Amar- 
yllidacese : Leucojum vernum, 
vern'um (L. vernus, belonging 
to spring from ver, spring), 
the snow-flake. 

Leucopogon, n., IdTc'd-pog'tin (Gr. 
leukos, white ; pogon, the beard, 
the limb of the corolla being 
bearded with white hairs), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Epacrid- 
acese : Leucopogon Eichei, ritsh'- 
%-i (a proper name), a fruit-bear- 
ing plant of Australia called 
Native Currant. 

leucorrhcea, n., Idk'o'r-re'a (Gr. 
leukos, white ; rheo, I flow), the 
* whites,' a disorder frequently 
met with in women, and the 
result either of debility, or of 
inflammatory changes in the 
genital organs. 

leukaemia, n., Idk-em'i-a, see 
' leuchsemia. ' 

levator, n., Ifo-at'-tir (L. levdtor, a 
lifter from levo, I lift up), in 
anat., a muscle which raises up a 
part ; the muscle which lowers a 
part being called ' depressor ' : 
levator anguli oris, antf-gul-l 
or'4s (L. anguli, of the angle, os, 
the mouth, oris, of the mouth), a 
muscle arising in the canine 
fossa, and inserted into the angle 
of the mouth : levatores costar- 
um, lev f 'at-dr'ez ktist-ar'-iim (L. 
costa, a rib, costdrum, of ribs), 
muscles which raise the ribs, 

levis, a., lev'is (L. levis, smooth), 
in lot., even : levigatus, a., Uv 
ty'tit'-us (L.), made smooth ; 
having a smooth, polished appear- 
ance : levigation, n., W-vj-af" 
shun, the reduction of a hard 
substance by grinding or rubbing, 




with the aid of a little water, to 
an impalpable powder. 

lianas, n. plu., li-dn'ds, or lianes, 
n. plu., ll-dnz' (probably a native 
name ; Sp. liar, to fasten), in 
bot., luxuriant woody climbers, 
like those met with in tropical 

liber, n. , llb'er (L. liber, the inner 
bark of a tree, a book), the 
fibrous inner bark of trees or 
plants ; the endophloeum : libri- 
form, a., IW-rl-form (L. forma, 
shape), having the form of 
fibrous bark. 

lichen, n. , likf-tin or l&MVn (L. lich- 
en, a lichen), a skin eruption con- 
sisting of small pimples or papules, 
sometimes appearing in clusters, 
so named from its supposed resem- 
blance to lichens : lichenous, a. , 
lik'Zn-us, of or belonging to the 
skin eruption called lichen. 

Lichenes, n. plu., lik-en'-ez, also 
Lichens, n. plu., lik'-enz or litsh'- 
&nz (L. lichen, a lichen, llchenis, 
of a lichen ; Gr. leichen, the 
liverwort), the Lichen family, an 
Order of plants forming a thallus 
which is either foliaceous, crust- 
aceous, or pulverulent : lichenic, 
a., lik-en'-ik, pert, to lichens: 
lichenin, n., Uk'-en-m, the pecul- 
iar starch extracted from * Cet- 
raria islandica, ' or Iceland moss : 
lichenoid, a., tik'-tn-oyd (Gr. 
eidos, resemblance), irregularly 
lobed, as the leafy lichens. 

lienal, a., li-enf-al (L. lien, the 
milt or spleen, lienis, of the 
spleen), of or pert, to the spleen : 
lienculus, n., ti-eng'-kul-us (L. 
dim.), a small or supplementary 

ligament, n., lig'-a-ment (L. liga- 
mentum, a band, a tie from ligo, 
I bind), the strong fibrous sub- 
stance which connects the ends 
of the moveable bones, and which 
sometimes protects the joints by 
a capsular envelope : ligamentum 
nucha3, nu'-lce (mod. L. nucha, 
the nape of the neck, nuchce, of 

the nape said to be from Arabic), 
the band of elastic fibres by which 
the weight of the head in Mam- 
malia is supported : ligamenta 
lata, plurals, tig'-a-ment'-d ldt<d 
(L. Idtus, wide, broad), broad 

ligature, n., lig'*at-ur (L. ligatufi, 
bound), a cord or thread of silk, 
hemp, catgut, etc., employed to 
tie a blood-vessel or tumour. 

ligneous, a., tig'-rie-us (L. lignum, 
wood), woody ; resembling wood: 
lignin, n., lig'-nm, woody matter 
which thickens the cell-walls : 
lignum vitse, vtt'e (L. vita, life, 
vitce, of life), the Guaiacum 
officinale, a beautiful "W. Indian 
tree whose wood is prized for its 

ligula, n., lig'-ula (L. ligula, a 
little tongue, a shoe-strap), in bot., 
the strap-shaped florets of Com- 
positse ; in anat. , a thin lamina : 
ligulate, a., lig'-ul-dt, in bot., 
having strap-shaped florets as in 
the dandelion : ligule, n., lig'-ul, a 
tie ; a process arising from the 
petiole of grasses where it joins 
the blade : liguliflorse, n. plu., 
lig'-ul-i-flor'-e, (L. flos, a flower, 
floris, of a flower), composite 
plants having ligulate florets : 
liguliflorate, a., -flor'-at, having 
ligulate florets. 

Ligustrum, n., lig-ust'-rum (L. 
liguslrum, the plant privet), a 
genus of privets, Ord. Oleaceae : 
Ligustrum vulgare, vulg-dr'-e (L. 
vulgdris, common), the common 
privet, w r ell suited for hedges, 
whose leaves are astringent : L. 
lucidum, I6s'-id-um (L. lucidm, 
clear, bright), yields a kind of 
waxy excretion, usefully employed 
in China : L. ibota, Ib'-ot-a (un- 
ascertained), a Japan privet on 
which the wax insect feeds. 

lilac, n., lil'-ak (Sp. lilac, F. lilas, 
the lilac), the Syringa vulgaris, a 
shrub producing abundance of 
purple-coloured or white flowers : 
lilacine, n., lil'-as-m, a principle 




in the bark of the lilac to which 
is due its febrifuge qualities. 
LiliaceaB, n. phi., lil'-i-a'-sZ-e (L. 
lilium, a lily ; Basque, lili, a 
flower), the Lily family, an 
Order of plants containing many 
showy garden flowers, as tulips, 
lilies, tube-roses, hyacinths, etc. : 
Lilium, lil'-i-urn, the lilies, an 
ornamental and well - known 

fenus : Lilium Chalcedonicum, 
al'>sed-8n f -ik'um (from Chalcedon, 
a town of Bithynia), said to be 
the lilies of the tield of Scripture : 
L. auratum, dwr-dtf-um (L. 
auratus t overlaid with gold 
from aurum, gold), a lily of 
Japan having enormous white 
flowers, spotted with rich brown, 
and with numerous golden bands: 
L. pomponium, pom-pon'i-um 
(after Pompomus, an ancient geog- 
rapher), a species cultivated for 
its tubers in Kamtschatka as the 
potato in this country. 

limb, n., Urn (AS. Urn, a limb 
from lime, to join), the leg or arm 
of an animal ; in bot., the blade 
of the leaf ; the broad part of a 
petal or sepal. 

limbus luteus, lim'-bus I6t'-e-us (L. 
limbus, a border that surrounds 
anything ; luteus, golden -yellow ) , 
a yellow spot in the axis of the 
ball of the eye. 

lime, n., Urn (Ger. leim, a viscous 
substance; L. limus, slime, mud), 
a white caustic earth used with 
sand as mortar or cement, obtained 
by burning limestone, marble, 
chalk, etc. ; lime water, is used 
medicinally ; the Linden tree, 
Tilia Europsea, so called from the 
glutinous juice of the young 
shoots also said to be properly 
spelt ' line tree, ' from the fact of 
its bark being used for making 
cordage ; the fruit of the Citrus 

Limonia, n. , lim-on't-a (Gr. leimon, 
a green field from its colour; said 
to be Arab limoun, the citron), a 
genus of plants nearly allied to 

Citrus, Ord. Aurantiacese : Limonia 
laureola, Idwr-e'-dl-d (L. laureola, 
a laurel-branch from laured, a 
laurel), a species found near the 
summit of lofty mountains. 

Linacese, n. plu., lin-a'se-e (L. 
Imum, Gr, Imon, flax, lint), the 
Flax family, an Order of pjants 
which yield mucilage and fibre : 
Linum, n., lin'-urn, an ornamental 
genus of plants, many having 
showy flowers : Linacese grandi- 
florum, grandtt-Jldr'um (L. 
grandis, great, large ; flos, a 
flower, floris, of a flower), a linum 
of North Africa having beautiful 
crimson flowers : L. usitatissim- 
um, uz f 'U'dt-is f 'Sim'um (L. usitat- 
issimum, very common or familiar 
from usitdtus, common, 
familiar), the plant from the 
inner bark of whose stalk, after a 
process of steeping and breaking 
off the bark, the flax of commerce 
is procured ; from the mucil- 
aginous seeds, a demulcent and 
diuretic infusion is obtained: lin- 
seed oil, an oil obtained from the 
cotyledons of the seeds of L. usit- 
atissimum used extensively in 
med. , the arts, etc. ; the residue 
is made up into cakes, called oil- 
cake, for feeding cattle, and 
powdered receives the name lin- 
seed meal: L. catharticum, Mill- 
drt'-ik'tim (Gr. kathartikos, puri- 
fying or cleansing), a species 
which has purgative properties, 
the active principle being called 
linin, n., lln'-in : L. selaginoides, 
sel'-a-jm-oyd'-ez (seldgo, the up- 
right club moss ; Gr. eidos, re- 
semblance), esteemed a bitter and 
aperient in Peru. 

Linaria, n., Im-dr^i-d (L. linum, 
flax), a genus of annuals well 
adapted for rock-work, Ord. 
Scrophulariacese : Linaria vulg- 
aris, vulg-dr'ts (L. vulgdris, 
common), a species having five- 
spurred flowers instead of one- 
spurred : L. triornithophora, trl> 
8r>nith>df.$r>a (Gr. tris, thrice ; 




ornis, a bird, ornithos, of a bird ; 

phoreo, I bear), the form of whose 
flowers bears some resemblance to 
three little birds seated in the 

Linden, Im'd&n, or Lime tree, the 
Tilia Europsea, Ord. Tiliacese, 
from whose tough fibrous inner 
bark are manufactured Russian 
mats ; the bark is also called 
' bast ' or ' bass. ' 

linea alba, lin'-e-d aW-d (L. linea, 
a line ; albus, white), a white 
line formed by the meeting of the 
tendons of the abdominal muscles, 
which extend from the ensiform 
cartilage to the pubes : linea 
aspera, as'per-a (L. asper, rough, 
uneven), on the femur, a promin- 
ent ridge extending along the 
central third of the shaft pos- 
teriorly, and bifurcating above 
and below : 1. quadrata, Icwftd- 
rdt f 'd (L. quadrdtus, square, four- 
cornered), a well-marked emin- 
ence passing vertically downwards 
for about two inches along the 
back part of the shaft of the 
femur : 1. splendens, splen'd^nz 
(L. splendens, bright, shining), a 
conspicuous, fibrous band running 
down in front over the interior 
medium fissure of the pia mater 
of the spinal cord. 

lineae semilunares, lin'-e-e sem'-i- 
Idn-dr'ez (L. linece, lines ; semi, 
a half; luna, the moon), two 
curved tendinous lines on each 
side of the linea alba : linese 
transversae, trdns-vers'-e (L. 
transversus, turned or directed 
across from trans, across ; ver- 
sus, turned), three or four narrow 
transverse lines which intersect 
the rectus muscle. 

linear, a., lin'e-ar (L. linea, a 
line), narrow ; line-like ; in bot., 
having very narrow leaves much 
longer than broad. 

ling, n., ling (Icel. ling, any small 
shrub), common heather, the 
Culluna vulgaris, Ord. Ericaceae. 

lingual, a., llng'-gwdl (L. lingua, 

the tongue), connected with the 
tongue : lingualis, n., ling-gwdl'- 
is, a longitudinal band of muscular 
fibres situated on the under 
surface of the tongue, which 
contracts the tongue and com- 
presses its point : linguiform, a. , 
ling'-gwi'form (L. forma, shape), 
in bot., shaped like a tongue 
also Ungulate, a., llng'-gul-at, in 
same sense. 

liniment, n., Im'-i-ment (L. lini- 
mentum, an ointment from 
linere, to besmear), a thick, oily, 
or other liquid substance, to be 
rubbed into the skin. 

Linnaea, n., lin-ne'-a (after Lin- 
nceus the illustrious naturalist), 
a genus of elegant little plants, 
natives of northern regions, Ord. 
Caprifoliacese : Linnaea borealis, 
bor^e-aftis (L. borZdlis, northern), 
the two-flowered Linnsea. 

linum, see 'linacese.' 

lipoma, n., lip-dm'-a, lipomata, n. 
plu., lip-Smf-dt-a (Gr. tipos, fat), 
fatty tumours or growths. 

Liquidamber, n., W-w^d-^m-ber 
(L. liquidus, liquid ; ambar, am- 
ber, alluding to the gum which 
exudes from the trees), a genus 
of ornamental hard trees, Ord. 
Hamamelidacese : Liquidambar 
orientalis, or'-i-ent-dl'-is (L. ori- 
entdlis, eastern from orior, I 
arise), a species which yields 
liquid storax, used as a remedy 
for scabies : L. altingiana, dl- 
tinj f 'i'dn f -d (after Ailing, a German 
botanist) ; L. Formosana, for'- 
mdz-dn'-d (of or from Formosa}-, 
and L. styraciflua, stir'a-si/'ld-a 
(L. styrax, a resinous gum, storax, 
styrdcis, of storax ; fluo, I flow), 
the sweet gum tree, the three 
preceding yield resins which are 
used as fragrant balsams. 

liquor, n., lik'-er (L. liquor, a fluid 
from liqueo, I melt), a fluid or 
liquid; a natural fluid or secretion 
of the body ; a watery solution ; 
an extract ; a spirituous fluid : 
liquor ammonias, dm-mon^i-e (L. 




ammonia, of ammonia), a solution 
of ammoniacal gas in water: 1. cal- 
cis, kdl'-sis (L. calx, lime ; calds, 
of lime), lime-water : 1. Cotunnii, 
ko-tun'ni'i (first described by 
Cotunnius), a thin, slightly alb- 
uminous or serous fluid which 
separates the membranous from 
the osseous labyrinth in the 
vestibule and semicircular canals 
of the internal ear ; the perilymph : 
1. pericardii, per'-i-kdrd'-l-i (new 
L. of the pericardium), a serous 
fluid contained in the pericardium : 
1. sanguinis, sang'gwm-is (L. 
sanguis, blood, sangumis, of 
blood), the liquor of the blood ; 
the transparent colourless fluid 
part of the blood, in which the 
red corpuscles float during life : 
1. seminis, sem'in-ts (L, semen, 

. seed, seminis, of seed), the trans- 
parent albuminous fluid contain- 
ing the seed. 

lirella, n., lir-tl'-la (dim. of L. 
lira, a ridge of land), in hot., the 
apothecia of lichens when they 
are linear, as in Graphidese : lirel- 
late, a., lir-rel'ldt, like a furrow 
also lirelliform, a., Mr -Wit- 
ftirm (L. forma, shape), formed 
like a furrow. 

Liriodendron, n., lir'-i-0'd%n'dro'n 
(Gr. leirion, a lily ; dendron, a 
tree), a genus of trees, Ord. 
Magnoliacese, whose flowers bear 
some resemblance to the lily and 
tulip : Liriodendron tulipifera, 
tuV-ip-lf-er-a (F. tulipe, a tulip ; 
Pers. tuliban, a turban ; L. fero, 
I bear), the tulip tree, marked by 
its truncate leaves, used as a 
febrifuge, the wood used in orna- 
mental and carved work. 

Listera, n., lister -a (after Dr. 
Lister, an English naturalist), a 
genus of curious little plants, 
Ord. Orchidiacese, in which the 
viscid mass of the rostellum bursts 
with force, allowing the pollinia 
to escape. 

lithate, n., lith'-dt (Gr. lithos, a 
stone), a salt formed by lithic 

acid with a base ; the red or pink, 
sandy deposit which settles from 
the urine on cooling, often found 
in dyspepsia also named 'urate': 
lithia, n., lith'-i>a, an alkali, 
allied in its properties to potass, 
used as a remedy in gout : lithic, 
a., lith'ik, a term equivalent to 
uric, which see : lithiasis, n., 
lith-i'-as-is, gravel or urinary cal- 
culi, deposits of solid elements in 
the parts of the urinary apparatus: 
lithocysts, n. plu., ltth'6-sists 
(Gr. kustis, a cyst), in zool, the 
sense organs or marginal bodies 
of such as the * Lucernarida ' : 
lithology, n., Wh-M'-ti-ji (Gr. 
logos, discourse), a treatise on the 
stones or calculi found in the 
body : litholysis, n., lith>8l f -is-is 
(Gr. lusis, a loosening or release), . 
the treatment for the solution of! 
the stone in the bladder. 

lithontriptic, n., liiti.$n-trip'-tik 
(Gr. lithos, a stone ; tribo, I grind i 
or wear by rubbing), a medicament 
supposed to act as a solvent ofl 
urinary calculi in the natural: 

lithotomy, n., Itih-titf&m-t (Gr. 
lithos, a stone ; to me, a cutting), 
the operation of cutting into the 
bladder for the removal of a cal- 
culus or stone : lithotrity, n. , 
tith-ftt'ri'ti (L. tritus, bruised or 
ground), an operation in which 
the stone is crushed or broken, 
and removed without cutting. 

litmus, n., Utf-mus (Dut. lakmoes, 
an infusion of a lake or purple 
colour), a peculiar blue colouring 
matter extracted from lichens, 
the ' Rocella tinctoria, ' ' R. fuci- 
formis, ' and ' R. hypomecha, ' used 
as delicate tests for acids and 
alkalies, turned red by the former, 
and blue by the latter. 

liver, n., Uv'-er (AS. lifere; Ger. 
leber, the liver), the largest gland 
in the body, seated on the right 
side of the abdomen, below the 
diaphragm, one of whose func- 
tions is to secrete bile : liver 




fluke, an animal parasite found 
in the liver, the ' Fasciola hepat- 
ica, ' common in the sheep, some- 
times met with in the human 

lixiviation, n., liks-W-i-af-shun 
(L. lixivius, made into lye 
from lix, lye), the operation or 
process of extracting alkaline 
salts from ashes by mixing or 
washing them with water, and 
then running off and evaporating 
the water. 

Loasacese, n. plu., lo'-as-af'S^-e, 
(origin unascertained), the Chili 
nettle family, an Order of plants 
of America, distinguished by 
their stinging qualities : Loasa, 
n., lo-ds'a, a genus, highly in- 
teresting from the beauty of their 
curiously formed flowers : Loasa 
placei, plas f '&i (unascertained), 
a species possessing powerful 
stinging properties. 

lobe, n., lob (Gr. lobos, the tip of 
the ear), in bot., a large division 
of a leaf or seed; a division of 
the anther ; a part or division of 
the lungs, liver, etc.: lobate, a., 
lob'-dt, divided into small lobes ; 
having lobes or divisions ; lobulse, 
n. plu., Idb'iil-e, or lobules, n. 
plu., Idb'Ulz, subdivisions of a 
lobe ; very minute lobes. 

Lobeliacese, n. plu., lo-betfi-d'se'e, 
also Lobeliads, n. plu., Iti-bel'i- 
adz (after Lobel, the French 
physician and botanist to James 
I.), the Lobelia family, an Order 
of plants in which acridity pre- 
vails more or less : Lobelia, n., 
IS-bel'-i-a, a genus of plants pro- 
ducing beautiful blossoms : Lo- 
belia inflata, m-flatf-ct (L. infldt- 
us, puffed up, inflated from in, 
into;/0, I blow), Indian tobacco, 
a native of North America, used 
medicinally, chiefly as a sedat- 
ive : L. longiflora, Idn'-ji-flor'-a 
(L. longus, long ; flos, a flower, 
floris, of a flower), one of the 
most venomous of plants : L. 
syphilitica, sif-U-U^k-a (Gr. sun, 


with ; phileo, I love : or sits, a 
swine ; philos, dear), a plant 
whose root is acrid and emetic : 
L. urens, ur'-enz (L. wrens, burn- 
ing), a plant whose milky juice is 
said to be vesicant : lobelina, n., 
lob'-el-in'-a, a volatile alkaloid 
obtained from the Lobelia in- 

lobule, n., lob'ul (a dim. of Gr. 
lobos, a lobe, which see), a small 
lobe : lobulate, a., I6b'-ul'dt, 
divided into small lobes. 

lobulus, n., loV'Ul'Us (a mod. L. 
dim. of Gr. lobos, a lobe), a small 
lobe or division : lobulus auris, 
dwr'-is (L. auris, the ear, auris, 
of the ear), the lower dependent 
portion of the pinna of the ear : 
1. spigelii, spi-jel'-i'l (after Spigel, 
a Belgian physician), a small lobe 
of the liver, on the left of the 
great lobe : 1. caudatus, lcdwd< 
dt'-us (mod. L. caudatus, tailed 
from L. cauda, a tail), the tailed 
appendage ; a small tail - like 
appendage to the lobulus spigelii : 
lobuli testis, loV-ull &s f >tis (L. 
testis, a testicle, testis, of a tes- 
ticle), the lobules of the testis ; 
the numerous lobules of which 
the glandular structure of the 
testis consists. 

lochia, n., lolc-i'-a (Gr. locheia, 
child-birth), the discharges from 
the uterus and vagina after child- 
birth while the mucous membrane 
is returning to its primary con- 

lock - hospital, n., lok - htis'-pit-al 
(Dut. locken, Icel. loka, to shut, 
to fasten ; AS. loc, a place shut 
in : F. loquet, the latch of a 
door), a charitable institution for 
the treatment of venereal dis- 

NOTE. The origin of this name is much 
disputed. There seems to be but little 
doubt that the name was first applied 
to a leper or lazar-house in the sense, 
as given in the root-words, ' of being 
shut off or isolated from all others. ' The 
hospitals for venereal diseases, after 
the disappearance of leprosy from this 




country, appear to have replaced lazar- 
houses, or at least to have had the 
same name continued to them. We 
have also loke, a house for lepers ; and 
in Ger. lockern, to play the rake or 

lock-jaw, lok-jaw, the disease 
called ' trismus, ' in which the jaws 
become locked or closely joined 
together by the persistent contrac- 
tion of the voluntary muscles of 
the jaws. 

locomotor ataxia, n., Idlc'-d-mot'tir 
at- dies $ a ( L . loc us, a place ; motum, 
to move ; and ataxia, which see), 
the want of co-ordination in the 
movements of the arms, legs, or 
both, depending upon fascicular 
sclerosis of the posterior column 
of the spinal cord. 

loculament, n., lok'-ul-a-ment, 
also loculus, ii., lok'ul-us (L. 
loculamentum, a case, receptacle 
from loculus, a little place), in 
bot. , a cavity in the pericarp con- 
taining the seed called ' uni- 
locular ' with one cavity, and ' bi- 
locular with two cavities, and so 
on; one of the cells of the anther: 
loculicidal, a., lok'-ul-i'Sid'-al (L. 
ccedo, I cut), in bot., having the 
fruit dehiscing through the back 
of the carpels. 

locus coeruleus, lok'us ser-ul'8-us 
(L. locus, a place, a spot ; ccerul- 
$us, dark blue), in the fourth 
ventricle of the cerebellum, a 
small eminence of dark-grey sub- 
stance which presents a bluish 
tint through the thin stratum 
covering it : locus niger, nldj'6 
(L. niger, black, dark), a mass 
of dark-grey matter in the cer- 
ebrum, situated in the interior of 
the crura : 1. perforatus, per'for 
dt'-us (L. perforatus, bored 
through), a whitish - grey sub- 
stance situated between the crura 
cerebri, and perforated by apert- 
ures for vessels. 

locusta, n., Idk-ust'a (L. locusta, 
a cray-fish, a locust), in bot., a 
spikelet of grasses formed of one 
or more flowers : locust tree, the 

Ceretonia siliqua, Ord. Legum- 

inosse, Sub-ord. Csesalpinieae. 

lodicule, n., lo<l'-lk-ul (L. lodicula, 
a small coverlet), a scale at the 

base of the ovary of grasses, and 
of the grape vine. 

Loganiacese, n. plu., log'-an-i-af- 
se-e, also Loganiads, n. plu., log> 
an'-i-adz (after Logan, a botanist), 
the Nux Yomica family, an Order 
of plants possessing intensely 
poisonous properties, of which 
strychnos is an example : Logan- 
ieae, n. plu., Idg'-an'i'-e-e, a Sub- 
order : Logania, n., log-dn'-i-d, 
an interesting genus of shrubs 
producing their flowers in axillary 
or terminal branches. 

Lolium, n., lol'-l-um (L. lolmm, 
darnel, tares), a genus of grasses, 
rye-grass, Ord. Graminese : Lol- 
ium perenne, p$r'&n'-n& (L. per- 
ennis, that continues the whole 
year, perennial), the perennial 
rye-grass, an esteemed fodder- 
grass : L. temulentum, l&m'ul* 
ent'-um (L. temulentus, intoxic- 
ated), darnel grass, the supposed 
tares of Scripture, said to be 

Lomentacese, n. plu., lorn'tint-a'- 
se-e (L. lomentum, bean meal), a 
Sub- order or division of the Cru- 
ciferse, founded on the seed vessels: 
lomentum, n., lom-ent'-um, a 
legume or pod with transverse 
partitions, each division contain- 
ing one seed: lomentaceous, a., 
Idm'$nt>d f -8hu8, furnished with a 

longipennatae, n. plu., Ifafii'ptin* 
ndt'e (L. longus, long ; penna, a 
wing), in zool., a group of the 
natatorial birds : longipennate, 
a. , -pen'ndt, long - winged 
applied to birds. 

longirostres, n. plu., Idnj'i-rds'trez 
(L. longm, long ; rostrum, a 
beak), in zool., a group of the 
Wading birds, having long bills : 
longirostral, a., lonf-i-ros'-trul, 
long-beaked applied to birds. 

longissimus dorsi, Itin-jfe'sim-us 




dors' I (L. lonyissimus, very long 
from longus, long; and dor sum,, 
the back, dorsi, of the tack), the 
very long muscle of the back ; a 
muscle which extends the ver- 
tebrae, and raises and keeps the 
trunk of the body erect. 

longus colli, long'-gus kol'-ll (L. 
longus, long ; collum, the neck, 
colli, of the neck), the long muscle 
of the neck ; a long flat muscle 
on the anterior surface of the 
spine, which supports and bends 
the neck. 

Lonicerese, n. plu., lon'is-Zr f -e>e, 
(after Lonicer, a German botanist), 
a Sub-order of the Ord, Caprifoli- 
acese, which embraces the true 
honeysuckles : Lonicera, n. , I6n- 
is'er-a, a genus of very orna- 
mental shrubs. 

ophiostomate, a., lof'-l-fo'-t&m-at 
(Gr. lopheion, a ridge, a crest ; 
stoma, a mouth), in bot., having 
crested apertures or openings : 
lophophore, n., lof'-d-for (Gr. 
p?ioreo, I carry), in zool., the 
disc or stage upon which the 
tentacles of the Polyzoa are 

Lophyropoda, n. plu. , lof-i-rop'-od-ci 
(Gr. lopheion, a crest, tuft of hair; 
oura, a,ta,il', podes, feet), a section 
of the Crustacea, embracing those 
which have cylindrical, or conical 
ciliated or tufted feet. 
Loranthaceae, n. plu., lor'-anth- 
af-se-e (Gr. loron, a thong; anthos, 
a flower, alluding to the long 
linear form of the petals), the 
Mistletoe family, an Order of 
shrubs, usually parasitical, and 
growing into the tissues of other 
vegetables, many in Asia and 
America having showy flowers : 
Loranthus, n., lor-antHus, a 
genus of parasitical plants in- 
cluding the well-known mistletoe: 
Loranthus tetrandms, i&t-ran' 
drus (L. tetrans, a fourth part), 
a species used in Chili to dye 
lorica, n., lor'ik>a (L. lorica, a 

coat of mail ; loricdtum, to cover 
with a breastplate of metal), the 
protective case with which certain 
Infusoria are provided : Loricata, 
n. plu., Idr'ilc'dt'-a, the division 
of reptiles, comprising the Chel- 
onia and Crocodilia, which are 
protected by an armour of bony 
plates : loricate, a., lor'tk-dt, 
covered with horny plates or 
scales ; covered by a shell or 
husk : lorication, n., lor'-ik-af- 
shun, the act of covering with a 
plate or crust for defence. 

Lotus, n., lot'-us (Gr. lotos, L. 
lotus, the lotus), an ornamental 
genus of leguminous creeping 
plants, Ord. Leguminosse, Sub- 
ord. PapilionacesB : Lotese, n. 
plu., lot'-e-e, a tribe of the Sub- 
order: Lotus or Lote-bush, n., lot, 
an Egyptian water-plant, sacred 
with theanc. Egyptians; the plant 
of the anc. classics, the ' Zizyphus 
lotus,' bein<* the true lotus of the 
ancients : Lotus corniculatus, 
Tc8r-mk r -ul'dt''US (L. corniculatus, 
horned from cornu, a horn); 
also L. major, mddj'dr (L. major, 
greater), are species sometimes 
sown with white clover, etc., in 
laying down permanent pastures. 

lubricous, a., Idb'-rik-us (L. lub- 
ricus, slippery), in bot. , smooth ; 

Lucernarida, n. plu., I6s r -er* r nar f ' 
id-& (L. lucerna, a lamp), in 
zool., an Order of the Hydrozoa. 

Lucerne or Lucern, n., I6s f -ern (F. 
luzerne), the Medicago sativa, 
Ord. Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Pap- 
ilionacese, a well-known artificial 
grass, much cultivated as food 
for cattle. 

Lucuma, n., UlQ<umf>a (the native 
name in Peru), a genus of fruit- 
bearing trees, Ord. Sapotacese : 
Lucuma mammosa, mam-moz'-a 
(L. mammosus, having large 
breasts from mamma, a breast), 
a species whose kernels contain 
prussic acid. 
Luffa, n., luff a (Arabic fouf), a 




genus of plants producing a re- 
markable kind of gourd of a very 
disagreeable odour, Ord. Cucur- 
bitacese : Luffa Egyptiaca, e'-jlp- 
ti'dk'ti, (of or from Egypt), the 
towel gourd, its split fruit being 
used as a flesh brush. 

Luhea, n., 16 -h^ a (after Luhe, a 
German botanist), a genus of 
pretty plants, Ord. Tiliacese : 
Luhea grandiflora, grandf-l-fld^-a 
(L. grandis, great, large ; flos, a 
flower, /om, of a flower), a species 
whose bark is used in Brazil for 
tanning leather, and an infusion 
of whose flowers is used as an 
antispasmodic and expectorant. 

lumbago, n., lum-bag-o (mid. L. 
lumbago from Ij.lumbus, the loin 
or haunch), a form of chronic 
rheumatism, chiefly affecting the 
loins : lumbar, a. , lum'bdr, of or 
pert, to the loins: lumbar region, 
the lower part of the trunk : lum- 
bar vertebrae, the bones of the 
spine of the lower part of the 

lumbricales, n. plu., lum'bmk' 
al'-ez (L. lumbrlcus, an earth- 
worm), four muscles of the hand 
and foot which assist in bending 
the fingers or toes, so named from 
their resemblance to earth-worms : 
Lumbricus, n., lum'-brZk-iis, a 
genus of worms : Lumbricus 
terrestris, ter-rtstf-ris (L. terrest- 
ris, of or belonging to the earth 
from terra, the earth), the 
common earth-worm. 

lunate, a., I6n f -dt (L. luna, the 
moon), like a half moon ; cres- 
cent - shaped : lunar caustic (L. 
luna, old term for silver), nitrate 
of silver, used surgically as a 
caustic ; the Argenti nitras, or 
fused nitrate of silver, moulded 
into small sticks. 

lunula, n., Idn'-ul-a, lunulae, n. 
plu., Idn'-ut-e (L. lunula, a little 
moon from luna, the moon), a 
small portion of the nail near the 
root which is whiter than the 
rest, so named from its shape ; 

the thinner portions of the arterial 
valves of the heart. 

Lupinus, n., Idp-in'-us (L. luplnus, 
a kind of pulse), the lupine, a 
genus of very beautiful annual 
and herbaceous border flowers, 
Ord. Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Pap- 
ilionaceaB : Lupinus albus, alb f >us 
(L. albus, white), a species extens- 
ively cultivated in S. Europe for 
forage, the seeds or peas being 
used as food after their bitterness 
has been removed by boiling. 

lupulin, n., I6p'*ul-in (L. lupulus, 
the hops from lupus, the hop- 
plant), the bitter aromatic prin- 
ciple of hops : lupulinic glands, 
a., I6p f -ul'in r 'ik, the name applied 
to the resinous glandular scales 
surrounding the fruit of the hop- 
plants, also called ' lupulin. ' 

lupus, n., Idp'us (L. lupus, a wolf), 
a general name applied to certain 
forms of obstinate inflammatory 
and ulcerative affections of the 
nose, cheeks, and lips, which 
often destroy soft parts, and 
cause much disfigurement, usually 
associated with scrofula, and 
occasionally with syphilis : ery- 
thematous lupus (see 'erythema'), 
a variety least troublesome, in 
which slightly elevated deep-red 
or livid patches appear on the 
skin of the nose or face, which 
increase and run together, forming 
large purple patches, sometimes 
becoming covered with thick 
crusts of scarf skin : lupus non- 
exedens, n5n>eks f -%d'$nz (L. non, 
not ; ex&dens, eating up, devour- 
ing), a variety of the disease in 
which there is no destruction of 
parts : 1. exedens, the most 
severe form of the disease in 
which the parts affected, usually 
the nose or lips, are destroyed. 

lusus naturae, n., I6z f -Us ndt-ur'-e 
(L. lusus, sport or freak ; natura, 
nature, naturce, of nature), a term 
applied to anything unnatural in 
an animal at birth, or in a veget- 
able production ; a monstrosity. 


245 LYG 

Lychnis, n., lik'nis (Gr. luchnls, a 
plant with red flowers, used in 
making garlands ; said to be from 
Gr. luchnos, a torch, from the 
"brilliancy of their flowers), an 
extremely beautiful genus of 
plants, Ord. Caryophyllaceae, 
some of which are said to be 
poisonous ; among the showiest 
and most beautiful are Lychnis 
chalcedonica, kdl'-sed-tin'-ik-a (of 
or from Chalcedon) ; L. fulgens, 

ful'genz (L. fulgens, flashing, 
shining) ; L. grandiflora, grand'* 
l-flor'-a, (L. grandis, great, large ; 

flos, a flower, floris, of a flower), 
and L. cseli rosa, sel'-i roz'a (L. 
cceli, of the sky ; rosa, a rose). 

Lycoperdon, n., lik'-o-perd'-on (Gr. 
lukos, a wolf ; p'erdo, I break 
wind, I explode backwards), the 
puff-balls, a genus of roundish 
tuber-like plants, which, when 
ripe, explode and emit their 
sporules like smoke, Ord. Fungi : 
Lycoperdon giganteum, jig'an- 
It'-urn (L. giganteus, of or be- 
longing to the giants from 
gigantes, the giants), the common 
puff-balls, found in pastures, and 
on the stumps of trees. 

Lycopersicum, n., lited-pers'-ik-urn 
(Gr. lukos, a wolf ; persikon, the 
orange or lemon tree ; persikoi, 
peaches), the tomatoes or love- 
apples, a genus of plants, cultiv- 
ated for the sake of their fruit, 
Ord. Solanacese : Lycopersicum 
esculentum, esk'-ul-Znt'-um (L. 
esculentus, fit for eating), a species 
whose fruit is the edible tomato 
or love-apple. 

Lycopodiaceae, n. plu., tttfo-p8d'- 
i-a'se-e, also Lycopods, n. plu., 
W&d'p&h (Gr. lukos, a wolf; 
pous, a foot, podes, feet, so named 
from the appearance of the roots), 
the Club-moss family, an Order 
of moss-like plants, intermediate 
between ferns and mosses, having 
chiefly creeping stems : Lycopod- 
ium, n., tik f -6'p6d r 'i'Urn, a genus 
of moss-like plants, some of which 

are emetic and cathartic; the 
powdery matter in the thecse is 
inflammable, and has been used 
under the name Lycopod or veget- 
able brimstone : Lycopodium 
clavatum, klav-at'-um (L. cldv- 
dtus, fastened or furnished with 
nails from cldvus, a nail), a 
species whose spores, in the form 
of a yellow powder, are used for 
dusting excoriated surfaces, and 
putting in pill-boxes to preserve 
the pills from adhesion to one 
another : L. giganteum, jig'an- 
te'um (L. giganteus, of or belong- 
ing to the giants), a species in 
whose ash potassium phosphate 
is found in large quantity. 

Lycopus, n., W-op-us (Gr. lukos, 
a wolf ; pous, a foot, podes, feet), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Labiatse, 
so named from the appearance of 
their leaves : Lycopus virginicus, 
ver-jw'-ik-us (L. virginicum, be- 
longing to a virgin from virgo, 
a virgin), the plant bugle-weed; 
and ]j. Europseus, ur'-d-pe'-us (of 
or belonging to Europe), the 
plant gipsy-wort, are used as 
astringents and sedatives. 

lycotropal, a., lik-dt'-rdp-al (Gr. 
lukos, the knocker of a door ; 
tropos, a turning), in bot., an 
orthotropal ovule curved like a 

lyencephala, n. plu., ll^n-sef-dl-a 
(Gr. luo, I loose ; kephale, the 
head), Owen's primary division 
of mammals; the loose-brained 

Lygeum, n., tidj-e'um (Gr. lugizo, 
I bend or twist ; lugds, a twig, 
a wand), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Graminese, so named from 
their flexibility ; grasses with 
rushy leaves, much used in Spain, 
etc., for baskets, ropes, nets, 
mats, etc. : Lygeum spartum, 
spdr'-tum (L. spartum, Gr. 
sparton, a plant of Spain from 
Gr. spartos, a rope or cord), a 
species yielding fibres, which are 
used in making paper and mats. 


246 MAO 

Lygodium, n., lig>od r -i-um (Gr. 
lugodes, flexible, pliant), snake's 
tongues, a climbing genus of 
ferns, Ord. Tilices, so named in 
allusion to the twining habit of 
the plants. 

lymph, n., limf (L. lympha, 
water), in animal bodies 
an alkaline, colourless fluid 
which fills the absorbents or 
lymphatics: lymphatics, n. plu., 
limf-at'iks, the minute absorbent 
vessels which carry lymph from 
all parts of the body, generally 
closely accompanying blood- 
vessels : lymphadenoma, n., 
limf'ad f 'e'nom f -a (L. lympha, 
spring-water ; aden, an acorn, 
a gland, adenos, of a gland), a 
disease in which there is a 
gradual and it may be great 
enlargement of the lymphatic 
glands of the body, also lymph- 
oma, n., Itmf-om'd. 

lymphosarcoma, n. , limf'd-sark' 
om'a (L. lympha, spring-water ; 
sarcoma, which see), medullary 
sarcoma of the lymphatic glands, 
which may be either round-celled 
or spindle-celled. 

lyra, n. , llr '-a (Gr. lura, a lyre), a 
triangular portion of the corpus 
callosum of the cerebrum, marked 
with transverse, longitudinal, and 
oblique lines : lyrate, a., lir f -dt, 
in bot. , applied to a leaf having a 
large terminal lobe, and several 
pairs of smaller lobes decreasing 
in size towards the base ; pin- 
natifid, having the upper lobe 

Lythracese, n. plu., lith-ra'-sV-e 
(Gr. luthron, gore, black blood), 
the Loosestrife family, an Order 
of plants, so named in allusion to 
the purple colour of most of the 
flowers, many of the plants have 
astringent properties, some are 
used for dyeing : Lythrum, n., 
lith'-rtim, a genus of perennial 
and annual plants, the former of 
which are very handsome : Lyth- 
rum salicaria, sal'-i-ka^-i-cL (L. 

sdllx, a willow, solids, of a 
willow), the Loosestrife, or willow- 
strife, contains tannin and has 
been used in diarrhoea. 

mace, n., mas (L. mads, a spice ; 
F. mads), the arillus or arillode, 
being an additional covering of 
the seed of the tree Myristica 
officinalis, Ord. Myristicacese, 
commencing at the exostome, 
natives of Moluccas ; nutmeg and 
mace are used as aromatic stimul- 
ants and condiments, and in 
large doses are narcotic. 

maceration, n., mas f -er-af-sliun (L. 
maceratum, to soften by steeping 
from macer, lean, thin), the 
process or operation of softening, 
or extracting the soluble portion 
of anything by steeping in a 
liquid, as cold water : infusion 
is performed by pouring a hot or 
boiling liquid over a substance, 
as in making tea ; decoction, 
by boiling a substance in a 

Maclura, n., mak-ldr'-d (after 
Maclure, a N.American botanist), 
a genus of very ornamental 
trees, Ord. Moracese : Macluxa 
tinctoria, tink-tor'-i-a (L. tinctor- 
ius, of or belonging to dyeing 
from tin go, I dye), a species pro- 
ducing the yellow dye - wood 
called Fustic. 

Macrochloa, u.,mak'-rdk-ld'-a (Gr. 
makros, long ; chloa, green 
grass), a genus of plants having a 
long herbage, Ord. Graminese : 
macrochloa tenacissima, ten'-a- 
sis'-sim-a (L. tenadssimus, very 
tenacious or sticky from tenax, 
tenacious), Esparto or Spanish 
grass which yields fibres extens- 
ively employed in making paper, 
and mats, etc. 

Macrocystis, T\.,mak r -ro>sist'-is (Gr. 
makros, long ; kustls, a bladder), 
a genus of sea-plants, Ord. Algse: 
Macrocystis pyrifera, pir-if-er-d 
(L. pyrum, a pear ; fyro, I bear), 
one of the Algae or sea-weeds 




which in the Pacific and Northern 
Oceans reaches the enormous 
length of from 500 to 1500 feet, 
so named in reference to the 
extremity of its frond, swelling 
out like a pear. 

Macrodactyli, n. plu., mak'ro- 
ddkf-til'l (Gr. makros, long ; dak- 
tulos, a finger), a group of the 
wading birds. 

macroglossia, n., maUro-glos'si-a 
(Gr. makros, long ; glossa, the 
tongue), an extraordinary hyper- 
trophic enlargement of the tongue, 
in consequence of which it pro- 
trudes from the mouth. 

macrophyllin, a., matf-rd-fil'lm 
(Gr. makros, long'phullon, a leaf), 
in bot. , having elongated leaflets. 

Macropiper, n., mak'rd-pip'er 
(Gr. makros, long ; pippul, a 
Bengali name), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Piperacese : Macropiper 
methysticum, meth-ist'ik-um (Gr. 
methusis, intoxication), the Kava 
of the S. Sea Islanders, used for 
preparing a stimulating beverage. 

macropodous, a., mak-rop'od-us 
(Gr. makros, long ; pous, a foot, 
podes, feet), in hot., having the 
radicle large in proportion to 
the rest of the body, as in the 
thickened radicle of a monocotyl- 
edonous embryo. 

macrospores, n. plu., mak'ro- 
sporz (Gr. makros, long ; spora, 
seed), the large spores of Lyco- 
pods, etc. : macrosporangia, n. , 
mdk'rd-spdr-anf'i-a (Gr. anggos, 
a vessel), the cells or thecse which 
contain macrospores. 

macrotherm, n., mak'ro- therm 
(Gr. makros, long ; therme, 
heat), same as ' megatherm, ' 
which see. 

Macrura or macroura, n., mdk- 
r6r'-d (Gr. makros, long ; oura, 
a tail), a family of decapod crust 
aceans having long tails, as the 
lobster, the shrimp, etc. : mac- 
rourous, a., mak-rdr'-us, having 
long tails. 

macula, n., mak f -ul-d, maculaa, n. 

plu., -ul-e (L. macula, a spot), a 
spot, as on the skin ; skin dis- 
eases characterised by too much 
or too little pigment in the parts 
affected, as in the case of moles 
and freckles, which arise from too 
much colouring matter in the 
skin : maculate, a., mdk'-ul-dt, 
stained ; spotted : macula crib- 
rosa, krib'Tdz'-a (L. cribrum, a 
sieve), in the internal ear, the 
minute holes for the passage of 
the filaments of the auditory 
nerve : m. germinativa, jerm'-in- 
dt-lv'-d (L. germino, I bud or 
germinate), the germinal spot, 
found in the vesicle of the ovum : 
m. lutea, lot'e-a (L. lutum, a 
yellow colour), the yellow spot, a 
part of the retina lying directly 
in the axis of vision. 
madder, n., mdd'der (AS. mad- 
dere), the root of the Rubia tinc- 
toria containing the colouring 
matters, madder purple, orange, 
and red, Ord. Rubiacese. 
Madia, n., mdd'i-d (Gr. mados, 
bald, smooth), a genus of rather 
handsome plants, natives of 
Chili, Ord. Compositse, Sub-ord. 
Corymbiferse : Madia sativa, sat- 
iv'-d (L. sativum,so\\n or plan ted), 
a species cultivated for the bland 
oil extracted from its fruit. 
Madrepore, n., mad'-rfrpor (F. 
madrepore from madrd, spotted ; 
pore, a pore), a genus of corals 
having numerous star - shaped 
cavities dotting the surfaces of its 
spreading branching form : mad- 
reporiform, a.,ma^-re-jr>or^^orm 
(L. forma, shape), perforated 
with small holes, like a coral ; 
applied to the tubercle of the 
Echinoderms by which their 
ambulacral system generally com- 
municates with the exterior. 
magma ; n., mag' ma (L. and Gr. 
magma, the dregs of an unguent), 
a crude mixture of an organic or 
inorganic substance in a pasty 
state ; a thick ointment or con- 




magnesia, n., mag-nesli'i-a (Mag- 
nesia, a country of Thessaly ; F. 
magnesie, magnesia), in the form 
of an oxide, is obtained by burn- 
ing the carbonate, which then ap- 
pears as a white powder having 
hardly any taste : sulphate of 
magnesia, Epsom salts, obtained 
from dolomite limestone, formerly 
from sea-water, or mineral-waters. 

Magnoliaceae, n., mag-ndl'i-a'se-e 
(after Pierre Magnol, professor 
of medicine at Montpellier), the 
Magnolia family, an Order of 
splendid trees and shrubs, bear- 
ing large showy flowers with 
fine glossy leaves, and possessing 
bitter, tonic, and often aromatic 
properties : Magnoliese, n. plu., 
mag'-ndl-i'e'-e, a Sub - order of 
shrubs and trees : Magnolia, n., 
mag-nol'i-a, a genus of plants, 
remarkable for their large odorif- 
erous flowers, and tonic, aromatic 
qualities : Magnolia glauca, 
gldwk'a (L. glaucus, bluish-grey), 
the Swamp Sassafras or beaver 
tree whose bark is used as a sub- 
stitute for Peruvian bark : M. 
Yulan,?/dZ'aw (probably of Chinese 
origin), a species with deciduous 
leaves, whose seeds are used in 
China as a febrifuge. 

Maize, n., mdz (from mahiz, a 
native word), Indian corn, the 
' Zea mays, ' Ord. Graminese. 

Malachadenia, n., mdl'ak-a-den'' 
i-a (Gr. malache, a mallow ; 
denaios, lasting long), a genus of 
very singular plants, Ord. Orchid- 
acese : Malachadenia clavatus, 
Hav-at'-us (L. clavatus, furnished 
with clubs from cldva, a club), 
a plant having a very fetid odour 
resembling carrion. 

malacosteon, n., mtiK&Js-btf&'&n 
(Gr. malakos, soft ; osteon, bone), 
an abnormally soft condition of 

Malacostraca, n. plu., mal'-ok-fts'- 
trdk-a (Gr. malakos, soft; ostrak- 
on, a shell), a division of Crust- 
acea, originally applied to the 

entire class because their shells 
were softer than those of the 
Mollusca : malacostracous, a., 
-trak-us, belonging to such Crust- 
acea as the shrimp, lobster, etc. 

malaise, n., mal-dz' (F. malaise, 
uneasiness), in med., an indefin- 
ite feeling of uneasiness; being 
ill at ease. 

malanders, n. plu., mal'-and-erz 
(F. malandres; It. malandra, 
malanders from male, badly ; 
andare, to walk), chaps or scabs on 
the lowest parts of a horse's legs ; 
sores on the inside of the fore- 

malar, a., matter (L. mala, the 
cheek), pert, to the cheek. 

malaria, n., mal-dr'-i-a (It. male, 
ill, bad ; aria, air), exhalations 
from marshy districts which pro- 
duce fevers and ague: malar'ioid, 
a., -i-oyd (Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
resembling malaria. 

malic, a., maL'-ik (L. mdlum, an 
apple), of or from apples, as 
malic acid. 

malicorium, n., mal'-ik-dr'-i-tim 
(L. malicorium from mdlum, an 
apple ; corium, skin), the tough 
rind of a pomegranate. 

malignant, a., mal-ig'-nant (L. 
malignus, envious, spiteful 
from mains, bad), dangerous to 
life ; dangerous in symptoms ; 
malignant tumour, a tumour 
which though extirpated is sure 
to return, and probably diffuse 
itself more widely than before. 

mallenders, n. plu., see 'malan- 
ders. ' 

malleolus, n., mal-le'-ol-tis, mal- 
leoli, n. plu., mal-le'-ol-i (L. 
malleolus, a small hammer from 
malleus, a hammer), the ankle- 
bone, so called from its resem- 
blance to a mallet : malleolus 
externus, %ks-tern r -us (L. matte- 
olus, a small hammer ; externus, 
outward), the outward projection 
of the lower part of the leg-bone 
forming the ankle : m. internus, 
in-tern-us (L. internus, inward), 




the inward hump at the ankle : 
malle'olar, a., -ol-dr, of or be- 
longing to the ankle. 

malleus, n., mdl f 'U-us(L. malleus, 
a hammer), one of the three 
movable bones, viz. the malleus, 
the incus, and the stapes, which 
traverse the tympanum of the 
ear ; the malleus consists of a 
head, neck, and three processes, 
so named from its fancied resem- 
blance to a hammer. 

Mallophaga, n. plu., mal-ldf-ag-a 
(Gr. maUos, a fleece ; phago, I 
eat), an Order of insects, mostly 
parasitic upon birds. 

Malpighian, a., mdl-pig'-i-cin (after 
Professor Malpighi of Pisa, the 
discoverer or first describer), 
designating certain globular 
structures in the spleen and 
kidneys : Malpighiaceae, n. plu., 
mdl'pig f 'i'd f -s^-e, the Malpighia 
family, an Order of trees and 
shrubs, many species being 
astringent : Malpighia, n. , mal- 
pig f >i-d, a genus of interesting 
plants : Malpighia glabra, glab'-ra 
(L. gldber, without hairs or 
bristles, bald) ; and M. punici- 
folia, pun'iS'i'fol'i-d (L. punicus, 
belonging to Africa ; folium, a 
leaf), are species whose fruit is 
called the Barbadoes cherry, used 
as a table-fruit : malpighiaceous, 
a., m<il'pig f 'i-a''Shus, applied to 
peltate hairs such as are seen on 
the Malpighiacese. 

Malvacese, n. plu., malv-af-s^-e 
(L. malva, Gr. malacTie, mallows 
from Gr. malassi, I soften), 
the Mallow family, an extensive 
Order of plants which yield 
mucilage in large quantity, some 
furnish materials for cordage, and 
others yield cotton, so called 
from the emollient qualities of 
the species : Malvea3, n. plu., 
malv'-e-e, a tribe or Sub-order : 
Malva, n., malv'-a, an extensive 
genus of plants : Malva sylvest- 
ris, sil-vest'-ris (L. sylvestris, 
woody from silva, a wood), the 

common mallow, used medicinally : 
M. alcea, al'-se-a (L. alcea, a 
species of mallows), possesses 
astringent properties, used by 
Chinese to blacken their eye- 
brows, and the leather of their 
shoes : malvaceous, a., malv-d' 
shus, of or belonging to mallows. 

mamillaB, n. plu., mam-il'-le (L. 
mamilla, a nipple or teat), in bot. , 
granular prominences on pollen- 
grains, and suchlike: mamillated, 
a., mam'-il'lat-ed, in the form of 
a hemisphere with a wart at the 

mamma, n., mam'ma, mammse, 
n. plu., mamf-me (L. mamma, 
the breast, a mother), the 
breasts in the male or female : 
mam r miform,a.,-/orm (L. forma, 
shape), formed as breasts : mam'- 
mifer, n., -mi>fer (L. fero, I bear), 
one of the mammals : mammal, 
n., mamf-mdl, an animal which 
suckles its young : mammalia, 
n. plu., mam-mal'-i-d, or mam- 
mals, n. plu., mdmf-mdls, the 
great class of vertebrate animals 
which suckle their young by teats 
or nipples : mammary, a., mam'- 
mar -i, pert, to the breasts. 

manakin, n., man' d> kin, also 
manikin, n., man'-i-kin (F. 
mannequin, a layman, a manikin ; 
Eng. man and kin, literally, a 
little man), a figure on which a 
student may practise the applica- 
tion of bandages, and also the 
operations of midwifery. 

Manchineel, n., man'-tshm-el' (It. 
mancinello, Sp. manzanillo}, a 
large W. Indian tree, the Hippo- 
mane mancinella, Ord. Euphor- 
biacese, whose wood is hard, 
durable, and beautifully clouded, 
but whose sap is very acrid and 
poisonous, its application to the 
skin exciting violent inflammation 
followed by ulceration. 
mandibles, n., man'-di-lls (L. 
mandibulum, a jaw), the upper 
pair of jaws in insects ; applied 
to one of the pairs of the jaws in 




Crustacea and spiders ; the beak 
of cephalopods ; the lower jaw of 

mandioc, n., mand'-t-dk, and 
manioc, n., mdn'-l-tik, spellings 
of ' manihot, ' which see. 

Mandragora, n., man-drag<dr-a 
(L. and Gr. mandragoras, a 
mandrake from Gr. mandra, a 
stable or cattle house ; agdreud, 
I speak, as indicating the sort of 
place where they grow best), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Solanacese : 
Mandragora officinalis, df-fis'm- 
al'-is (L. officinaUs, officinal), the 
mandrake which acts as a stimul- 
ant on the nervous system, and 
its forked root was long celebrated 
for such virtues ; a powerfully 
narcotic plant. 

mandrake, n., m&tS'drdk, a cor- 
ruption of ' mandragora, ' which 

manganese, n., man'-gan-ez (new 
L. manganesia from L. magnes, 
the magnet from its presumed 
resemblance), a metal of a greyish- 
white colour, very hard and 
difficult to fuse ; applied to the 
black- oxide of the metal : man- 
ganesium, n., man'gan-ez'-i-um, 
the chemical term for the metal 

mange, n., mdnj (F. ddmanger, 
to itch from manger, to gnaw), 
the scab or itch in dogs, cattle, 

Mangifera, n., man-jif'-er-a 
(mango, the native name of the 
tree ; L. fero, I bear), a genus of 
much esteemed tropical fruit- 
trees, Ord. Anacardiaceae : Man- 
gifera indica, md'ik-a (L. 
Indicus, Indian), the common 
mango tree, whose fruit of a 
sweet perfumed flavour and 
grateful acidity is eaten within 
the tropics during the hot months 
with great avidity. 

Mangold- wurzel, n. , properly 
mangel, mang'-gl-wer'-zl (Ger. 
mangel, want, scarcity ; wurzel, 
root), the Beta campestris, Ord. 

Chenopodiacese, a plant of the 
beet kind, having a large root. 

mania, n., mdn'i-a (Gr. mania, 
madness), a form of madness 
characterised by undue excite- 
ment of the mental powers, with; 
or without delirium ; a general 
term to denote all kinds oil 
insanity: maniac, n., man'-i-ak, 
a madman : delirium is a 
symptom of some bodily disease, 
as in a fever : mania is a mental 
alienation or derangement. 

Manicaria, n., man'-ik-ar'-i-d (L. 
manica, a glove), a genus of fine 
palms, Ord. Palmse : Manicaria 
saccifera, sale -sifter- a (L. saccus, 
a bag ; fero, I bear), a species 
whose spathes come off in the 
form of conical caps, and are used 
as coverings for the head in the 
W. Indies. 

manicate, a., man'-ik-at (L. man- 
icatus, furnished with long sleeves 
from manica, a glove), in bot., 
covered with entangled hairs ; 
surrounded with matted scale? 
which are easily removed from 
the surface in a mass. 

manna, n., mdn'-na (Heb. man>. 
hu, what is this? L. and Gr. 
manna), the hardened exudations 
from the barks of various trees,, 
which form mild laxatives ; 
' Tamarix gallica, ' Ord. Tamar- 
icacese, produces Mount Sinai, 
manna; 'Alhaji maurorum,' 
Ord. Leguminosse, produces a 
kind of manna ; 'Ornus rotun- 
difolia,' ' 0. Europsea,' and other 
species of * Ornus, ' Ord. Oleacese, . 
natives of S. Europe, produce the 
common manna of the shops ; a 
kind of manna is produced from 
the larch and the cedar of Leb- 
anon : mannite, n., mdn'nit, the 
peculiar sweet principle of 
manna, called manna-sugar, which 
does not ferment; is found also in 
mushrooms and sea-weeds. 

mantle, n., man'tl (L. mantellum, 
a cloak), the outer soft integu- 
ment of the Mollusca, largely 




developed and forming a cloak 
which protects the viscera; also 
called the ' pallium. ' 
manubrium, n., man-ub'ri-um 
(L. manubrium, a handle from 
mdnus, a hand), in anat., the 
upper piece of the sternum re- 
presenting the handle, having a 
somewhat triangular form ; the 
polypite suspended from the roof 
of the swimming-bell of a medusa, 
also from the gonocalyx of a 
medusiform gonophore in the 
Hydrozoa ; in bot., cells project- 
ed inwards from the centre of 
shields of the globule in Char- 

nanus, n., man' us (L. manus, 
the hand), the hand of the 
higher Vertebrates. 

manyplies, n. plu., mWi-pllz, in 
Scot, moniplies, n. plu., mon'-i- 
pllz (Eng. many ; plies, folds), 
the popular name for the Omasum, 
or third part of the stomach of 
ruminants, so named from its 
numerous flaps or folds. 
larantaceae, n. plu., mar'-an-tob'- 
s$-e, also called Cannacese 
(after Maranti, a Venetian phy- 
sician), the Arrowroot family, an 
Order of plants containing much 
starch in the rhizomes and roots : 
Maranta, n., mar-an'tcL, a genus 
of interesting plants : Maranta 
arundinacea, ar'tind'-m-a'-sZ-a 
(L. arundindceus, pert, to or like 
a reed from arundo, the reed- 
cane); also M. Indica, md'-ik-a 
(L. Indicus, Indian), are species 
which produce the best arrowroot 
from their tuberous rhizomata. 

marasmus, n., mar-az'-mns (Gr. 
marasmos, decay, weakness), a 
wasting disorder of children ; 
emaciation or wasting ; atrophy. 

Marattiese, n. plu., mdr'-dt-ti'e'e, 
also Marrattia tribe, mdr-at'-ti-a 
(after Maratti, of Tuscany), a 
Sub -order of ornamental ferns, 
having their sporangia united in 

anarcescent, a., mdr>ses'$nt (L. 

marccscens, pining away or 
decaying), in bot., gradually 
withering, but not falling off 
until the part bearing it is per- 

Marcgravia, n., mdrk-grdv'i-a 
(after Marcgrave, a German bot- 
anist), a genus of curious shrubby 
and creeping plants, Ord. Tern- 
strcemiaceae or Tea family, which 
are occasionally furnished with 
bracts folded and united so as to 
form ascidia, containing a sweet 
liquid which attracts insectivor- 
ous birds, as in the Marcgravia 
nepenthoides, Hfy/'tnth-ofyd'-ez 
(Gr. nepenthes, a magic potion or 
drug from ne, not ; penthos, 
grief, sadness ; eidos, resem- 
blance); M. umbellata, tim'bel' 
lat'-a (L. umbella, a little shadow 
from umbra, a shade), a species 
whose stem, root, and leaves are 
regarded in the W. Indies as 

MarchantieaB, n. plu^mdr'shan-ti'- 
e-e (after Mar chant, a French 
botanist), the Liverworts, a sec- 
tion or Sub-order of the Ord. 
Hepaticae, which have thecse col- 
lected in heads, found growing 
on the ground or on trees in 
damp, shady places, and have a 
leathery structure : Marchantia, 
n., mdr-shan'-ti-a, a genus of 
creeping plants, having green, 
cellular, fleshy fronds : Marchan- 
tia hemisph erica, hemf-i-sjer'-ilc'd 
(Gr. hemi, half; sphaira, a globe), 
a species recommended in 

margaric, a., mdr-gar'-ik (Gr. 
margaron, a pearl), applied to an 
acid obtained by the action of 
potash upon cyanide of cetyl, and 
also obtained by saponifi cation. 
from vegetable wax, so named 
from presenting the appearance 
of pearly crystalline scales : mar- 
garine, n., trtdr'gar-m, one of 
the solid proximate principles of 
human fat. 

marginate, a., mdrf-m-dt (L. 




tnargo, an edge, margtnis, of an 
edge), in bot., having a distinct 
edge or border of a different tex- 
ture to the body. 

Marrubium, n., mdr-rdb'i-um (L. 
marrubium, the plant horehound), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Labiatse : 
Marrubium vulgare, vul-gdr'% 
(L. vulgar is, common, vulgar), 
white horehound, a plant having 
bitter tonic properties, a popular 
remedy for coughs and asthma. 

Marsdenia, n., mdrz-den'-i-a (after 
Marsden, author of a history of 
Sumatra), a genus of interesting 
plants, Ord. Asclepiadacese : 
Marsdenia flavescens, fldv-Zs'enz 
(L. flavescens, becoming golden 
yellow), a plant suited for cover- 
ing rafters, pillars, and trellis- 
work : M. tinctoria, tingk-tor'-i-a 
(L. tinctorius, of or belonging to 
dyeing from tingo, I dye), a 
species yielding a dye similar to 

Marsileacese, n. plu., mdrtstt-Z-d'- 
s%-e (after Count Marsigli, of Bol- 
ogna), also called Rhizocarpese, 
n. plu., riz f -d'kdrp'-%'e (Gr. rhiza, 
a root ; Tcarpos, fruit), the 
Pepperwort family, creeping or 
floating plants found in ditches 
and pools, and are apparently a 
link between ferns and club- 
mosses: Marsilea, n., mdr-sil^'d, 
a genus of curious aquatic plants : 
Marsilea macropus, maJc^ro-pus 
(Gr. mahros, long ; pous, a foot), 
also called. M. salvatrix, salv-at'> 
riks (L. a saviour), the Nardoo 
plant of Australia, the sporo- 
carps of which have been used 
as food by travellers in that 

xnarsupium, n., mdr-sup<i-um (L. 
marsupium, a pouch), the pouch 
of marsupial animals ; a dark- 
coloured membrane in the vitre- 
ous body of the eyes of birds : 
Marsupialia, n. plu., mdr-sup't- 
dl f 'i-d, an Order of Mammals in 
which the females generally have 
an abdominal pouch in which 

they carry their young, as the 

masked, a., maskt, in bot. 9 same 
as 'personate.' 

masseter, n., mas-setf-er (Gr. 
masseter, one that chews from 
massdomai, I chew), a short, 
thick muscle at the posterior 
part of the cheek, which raises 
the lower jaw: masseteric, a., 
mas'set-er'-ik, applied to an 
artery, a vein, or a nerve con- 
nected with the masseter muscle. 

mastax, n., mad-talcs (Gr. mastax, . 
the jaw, the mouth), the musc- 
ular pharynx or buccal funnel, 
into which the mouth opens in 
most of the Rotifera. 

mastication, n., mast' ik- a' shun > 
(L. masticdtum, to masticate ; 
Gr. mastax, the jaw, mastakos, 
of the jaw), the process by which 
the food, when taken into the 
mouth, is chewed into small 
piecesby the teeth, andthoroughly 
mixed with the saliva : mastic- 
atory, a., md8t'4Tc-atf-8r-t, adapted, 
for chewing : n., a substance to 
be chewed to increase the saliva. 

mastich or mastic, n., mast'-ik (L. . 
and Gr. mastiche, an odoriferous 
gum from the mastich tree ; ; 
mastzchdo, I chew ; F. mastic), , 
a concrete resinous exuda- 
tion furnished by the Pistacia; 
lentiscus, Ord. Anacardiacese, the 
Lentisk, a native of the islands 
and coasts of the Mediterranean, 
Hsed as a masticatory for con- 
solidating the gums and cleans- 
ing the teeth ; it enters into the 
composition of varnishes. 

mastoid, a., mast'-dyd (Gr. mastos, 
a breast ; eidos, resemblance), 
nipple-like : mastitis, n., mast- 
it'-is, inflammation of the breast : 
mastodynia, n., mast'-o-dm'i-d 
(Gr. odune, pain), pain in the 
breast : mastosis, n., mast-oz'ts, 
an osseous tumour of the breast : 
mastoid process, the pointed 
portion of the temporal bone 
behind the organ of hearing, 




ally found in the maw or 

maxilla, n., maks-il'la, maxillse, 
n. plu., -il'-le (L. maxilla, a jaw), 
in anat., a jaw-bone ; the inferior 
pair or pairs of jaws in the 
Arthropoda ; the upper jaw- 
bones of Vertebrates : maxillary, 
a., maks'-il-ler-i or mdks'tt', pert, 
to the jaw or jaw-bone. 

maxilliped, n. , maks-zl'li-ped, 
maxillipedes, n. plu., maks'-il- 
lip'-ed-ez (L. maxilla, a jaw ; 
pedes, feet), a jaw-foot ; the 
foot-like appendages of the mouth 
of a crab, a lobster, etc., which 
are converted into masticatory 

maximum, n., maks'Zm'um (L. 
maximum, the greatest from 
magnus, great), a term denoting 
the greatest quantity of effect ; 
opposed to minimum, the least 
quantity of effect; and contrasted 
with medium, a middle or mean 
between those extremes. 

measles, n. plu., mez'lz (Dut. 
mceselen, measles from mcese, 
a spot, a stain), a disease mani- 
fested by a peculiar crimson rash 
on the skin, chiefly affecting 
children ; a contagious febrile 
disorder, forming one of the group 
of the exanthemata : measly, a. , 
mez'-li, having the character or 
appearance of measles applied 
to the eruptions of typhus ; in- 
fected with measles applied to 
pork which contains the parasite 
Cysticercus cellulosus. 

meatus, n., me-at'-us (L. meatus, 
a going, a passing), in anat., a 
natural passage or canal wider 
than a duct ; an opening leading 
to a duct or cavity : meatus 
auditorius externus, ajwd f >it-dr'- 
l-us eks'tern'-us (L. audUorzus, 
relating to hearing from audio, 
I hear ; externus, external), the 
external auditory meatus ; the 
aperture of the ear forming a 
short canal which leads into the 
cavity of the tympanum : m. 




urinarius, ur'tn-dr'-i-us (L. urin- 
drius, urinary from urlna, 
urine), the orifice of the urethra 
in both sexes: meatuses, n. plu., 
me'dtius-fa, those of the nares or 
nostrils, named respectively the 
superior, middle, and inferior. 

meconic, a., mek-dn'ik (Gr. mekon, 
a poppy, the ink-bag of the 
cuttle-fish), applied to a peculiar 
acid contained in the juice of 
Papaver somniferum, Ord. Papav- 
eraceae, and in its concrete milky 
juice called opium : meconate, 
n., mek'-dn-dt, a salt consisting of 
meconic acid and a base. 

meconium, n., mek-on'i-tim (Gr. 
mekdnion, L. meconium, poppy 
juice from Gr. mekon, the 
poppy, the ink-bag of the cuttle- 
fish), the inspissated juice of the 
poppy ; opium ; the first dark 
slimy discharge from the bowels 
of a newly -born infant. 

medial, a., medf-l-al (L. medius, 
the middle), in bot., along the 
middle: median, a., med'-i-dn, 
relating to or connected with the 
middle of anything : median 
line, n., an ideal line dividing 
a body longitudinally into two 
equal parts. 

mediastinum, n., med'i-as'tin''um 
(L. mediastinus, one standing in 
the middle, a servant from 
medius, the middle; sto, I stand), 
the space left in the median line 
of the chest by the non-approxim- 
ation of the two plurae, extend- 
ing from the spine to the upper 
surface of the breast-bone : med- 
iastinal, a., nied'-i-as-tin'al, of or 
connected with the mediastinum: 
mediastinum testis, tes'-tis (L. 
testis, of a testicle), a vertical 
process, from which is given off 
numerous septa, situated in the 
centre of a fibrous covering en- 
closing the body of the testis, 
called the ' tunica albuginea. ' 

mediate, a., med'-i-dt (L. medius, 
middle), middle; situated between 
two extremes : mediate auscult- 

ation, auscultation through a 
stethoscope opposed to ' immedi- \ 
ate auscultation,' an auscultation j 
made directly by the ear. 

Medicago, n., med'-ik-dg'-o (Gr. 
medike, name given by Dios- 
corides to a Median grass), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Leguminl 
osse, affording some fodder plants : 
Medicago sativa, sat-iv'-a (L. 
sativum, sown or planted), the 
Lucerne, cultivated as green food : 
for horses and cattle: M. lupulina, 
I6p f 'ul'ln f '(t (new L. lupulus, the 
hop), the plant Nonsuch, intro- j 
duced into pastures along with : 
grasses and clovers, so named j 
from having the appearance of 
the hop in its floral capitules. 

medicament, n., med'fk-a-mZnt 
(L. medicdmentum, medicine, a 
drug ; medico, 1 heal or cure ; It. 
and Sp. medico, a physician), a 
substance given for curing a 
disease or a wound : medication, 
n., med'-ik-d'shun, the act or 
process of impregnating with a 
medicinal substance ; treatment 
by means of medicine : medicin- 
al, a., med-is f 'in-dl, having the 
properties of medicine ; used in 
medicine : medicine, n., med- 
is -in or med'-sin, a substance 
administered for the cure or mitig- 
ation of disease : medical juris- 
prudence, the applications of 
medical science to the determina- 
tion of certain questions in courts 
of law : medico-legal, pert, to 
law as aftected by medical facts. 

medick, n., med'-ik, same as 
* medicago, ' which see. 

medulla, n., med-ul'-la (L. m%d- 
ulla, the marrow, the pith from 
medius, the middle), the fat 
substance or marrow in the long 
bones ; the spinal cord ; the pith 
of plants ; the fibrous matter 
covering the petioles of palms : 
medullary, a., med-ul'lar-i, pert, 
to marrow or pith : medulla 
oblongata, db'hng-gdltd (L. 
oblonyus, long, oblong), the part 




continuous with the spinal cord 
within the skull resting on the 
basilar process of the occipital 
bone : m. ossium, os'-si-um (L. 
05, a bone, ossium, of bones), 
the marrow lodged in the interior 
of the bones : m. spinalis, spin' 
al'-is (L. splna, the backbone), 
the spinal marrow or cord : med- 
ullary rays, in bot., the rays of 
cellular tissue seen in a transverse 
section of exogenous wood, and 
which connects the pith with 
the bark : m. sheath, in bot. , 
a thin layer of vascular tissue 
which surrounds the pith in 
exogenous stems : m. substance, 
the interior white portion of the 
brain or kidney : m. system, the 
marrow bones, and the membranes 
which enclose the marrow : med- 
ullated, a., med-ul'-lat-$d, applied 
to the nerve fibres which form 
the white part of the brain, 
spinal cord, and nerves. 

Medusa, n., med-uz'a, Medusae, 
n. plu., med-uz'-e (L. Medusa, 
in anc. mythology a beautiful 
woman whose hair was turned into 
snakes), an Order of Hydrozoa ; 
sea animals, usually called sea- 
blubber, sea-nettles, or jelly-fish, 
whose usual form is that of a 
hemisphere with a marginal 
membrane and many trailing 
feelers, so named from the sup- 
posed resemblance of their 
tentacles or feelers to the snaky 
hair of Medusa: medusiforni, 
a., m&d'Uz'-i-form (L. forma, 
shape), resembling the medusae 
in shape : medusoid, a., m&d- 
uz'-oyd (Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
like a medusa ; medusiform : n., 
one of the medusiform gonophores 
of the Hydrozoa. 

megaspores, n. plu., mZg'a-sporz 
(Gr. megas, great ; spora, seed), 
the larger kind of reproductive 
spores found in Lycopods : meg- 
asporangia, n., meg'-d-spor-dnf- 
I'd, same as * macrosporangia. ' 

tnegatherms, n. plu., meg'-d* 

thermz(Gr. megas, great; therme, 
heat), plants requiring a high 
temperature ; also called ' mac- 
rotherms. ' 

megistotherms, n. plu., mVdj-fat 
to-thermz (Gr. megistos, very 
great ; therme, heat), plants 
requiring extreme or a very 
high degree of heat. 

megrim, n., meg'-rim (F. mi- 
graine, megrim; L. hemicranium, 
half the skull), a neuralgic pain 
confined to one side of the head ; 
sick headache. 

Meibomian glands, ml-bom'-i-an 
(first described by Meibom'ms), 
glands situated upon the inner 
surface of the eyelids, between 
the tarsal cartilages and con- 
junctiva, presenting the appear- 
ance of parallel strings of pearls, 
about thirty in the upper cartilage, 
and somewhat fewer in the 

meiophylly, n., mi'-of-ll'-li (Gr. 
'melon, less ; phullon, a leaf), in 
bot., the suppression of one or 
more leaves in a whorl. 

meiostemonous or miostemonous, 
a., ml'-d-stem'-on-us (Gr. meion, 
less ; stemon, a stamen), in bot., 
a term applied to stamens less in 
number than the parts of the 

meiotaxy, n., ml'>o>talcs r -i (Gr. 
meion, less ; taxis, arrangement), 
in bot., the complete suppression 
in a plant of a set of organs, as 
the corolla or the stamens. 

melsena, n., mel-en'-a (Gr. melan, 
black), the discharge of matter, 
black like tar, from the bowels. 

Melaleuca, n., mel'-a-Uk'-d (Gr. 
melan, black ; leukos, white), a 
genus of greenhouse plants, Ord. 
Myrtacese, producing splendid 
flowers so named because the 
trunk is black, and the branches 
white : Melaleuca leucadendron, 
I6k f 'a*dend'-ron (Gr. leukos, white; 
dendron, a tree) ; M. cajuputi, 
kadf'U-put'4 (Malay caju-puti, 
white tree), species, particularly 




the latter, whose leaves yield a 
volatile oil, called cajeput oil, 
of a green colour, a very powerful 
medicine ; the latter also named 
M. minor, min'>6r (L. minor, 

Melampyrum, n., mel'-dm-plr'-Um 
(Gr. melampuron, cow-wheat 
from melan, black \puros, wheat), 
a genus of plants, (3rd. Scrophul- 
ariaceee, one of whose species, 
Melampyrum arvense, ar-vZns'e 
(L. arvum, an arable field), 
is called cow-wheat, as being 
relished by cows. 

melancholia, n., mel'-an-lcol'i-a 
(Gr. melangcholia, black bile 
from melan, black; chole, bile), a 
variety of insanity characterised 
by dejection or depression of 

melanosis, n., mel'dn-oz'-is (Gr. 
melan, black), the deposition of 
black or dark-brown colouring 
matter in various textures and 
organs of the body ; the disease, 
melanotic cancer, in which 
tumours containing black pig- 
ment are developed : melanotic, 
a., mel'dn-til'ik, of or pert, to 

Melanosporese, n. plu., mel'-an-o* 
spdr'-Z-e (Gr. melan, black ; spora, 
seed), a Sub-ord. of Algae of an 
olive-green or olive-brown colour, 
and cellulse of filamentous struct- 
ure, found in the sea. 

MelanthacesB, n. plu., m^V-anth- 
of-se-e (Gr. melan 9 black ; anthos, 
a flower in allusion to the dusky 
colour of the flowers), the Col- 
chicum family, an Order of 
bulbous, tuberous, or fibrous 
rooted plants having medicinal 
properties, and sometimes bearing 
pretty flowers : Melanthium, n., 
m%l-antli'4'tim, a genus of plants. 

melasma, n., mel-dz'-md (Gr. 
melasma, a black spot), a black 
spot on the lower extremities, 
especially of old people ; a disease 
in which is associated a peculiar 
degeneration of the supra-renal 

capsules with extreme cachexia, 
and a peculiar pigmentation or 
bronzing of the skin ; also called 
* Addison's disease. ' 

Melastomacese, n. plu., mel'ti' 
8tom-d''se-e (Gr. melan, black ; 
stoma, the mouth), an Order of 
very beautiful trees, shrubs, and 
herbs, many bearing sweet eatable 
berries, so named from the fruit 
of some dyeing the lips black : 
Melastomeas, n., mel'-d-stom'-e-e, 
a Sub-order: Melastoma, n., 
mel-as'tdm^d, a genus of plants 
having very showy flowers : Mel- 
astoma elongata, e'long-gdt'-d 
(L. elongatus, made long from 
e, out ; longus, long), a species 
bearing large, beautiful flowers, 
varying from blue to purple and 

MeliacesB, n. plu., mgl'i-d'se-e 
(Gr. meiia, an ash tree), the 
Melia family, an Order of plants 
which are bitter, tonic, and 
astringent : Melia, n., mel f -i?ti, 
a genus of trees : Melia Indica 
or Azadirachta, md'-ik'd or dz-dd'- 
ir-dkt'd (L. Indica, of or from 
India ; Indian name), used in 
India as a febrifuge ; its fruit 
yields an oil much in household 
use, and as an antispasmodic ; 
its bark is tonic : M. azedarach, 
dZ'$d'dr-dk (an Indian name), 
native of China, an anthelmintic. 

Melilotus, n., mel'tt-ot'-us (L. 
mel, honey ; lotus, the lotus), the 
honey lotus, a genus of plants, 
Ord. Leguminosse, the favourite 
haunts of bees ; the Melilot is 
cultivated as fodder for cattle. 

Melissa, n., mel-is'sd (Gr. mel- 
issa, a bee), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Labiatae: Melissa officinalis, 
ty-fis'-in'til'is (L. officinalis, 
officinal from officina, a work- 
shop), common balm. 

Melloca, n., m^l-lob'-a (unrs- 
certained), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Portulacacese : Melloca 
tuberosa, tub f -$roz'-d (L. tuber- 
osus, having fleshy knots from 




tuber, a protuberance), a plant 
much cultivated in the elevated 
districts of Peru, Bolivia, etc., 
for its esculent tubers, which 
have been recommended as a 
substitute for the potato. 

Melocanna, n., mU'-o-kan^na (Gr. 
melon, an apple ; kanna, a reed), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Graminese : 
Melocanna bambusoides, bcim'- 
buz-oyd'<tz (Malay bambu, a 
bamboo ; Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
one of the bomboo kind in whose 
joints is a substance called tab- 
asheer, which is composed of 

membrane, n., m&n'-br&n (L, 
membrdna, skin, a film or mem- 
brane), a thin layer or skin, 
serving to cover some part of an 
animal, or of a plant : membran- 
aceous, a., mem'- bran- d'shus } 
also membranous, a., -bran-us, 
having the consistence and 
Structure of a membrane : mem- 
brana basilaris, m&m'-bran-a bds'- 
il-dr'is (L. basilaris, of or pert, 
to the base of a thing, as the 
skull from basis, the base), a 
thin membrane which extends 
over the bony wall of the cochlea, 
completing the scala tympani : 
membrana fusca, fusk'-a (L. 
fuscus, dark, of a greyish-brown 
colour), a fine cellular web con- 
nected with the inner surface of 
the sclerotic: m. germinativa, 
jer'min-dt-w'd (L. germmo, I 
sprout, I germinate), the germ- 
inal membrane, the earliest 
development of the germ in 
fishes, and the amphibia : m. 
limitans, lim'-it-dnz (L. limitans, 
limiting or bounding), an ex- 
tremely thin and delicate struct- 
ureless membrane which lines the 
inner surface of the retina, and 
separates it from the vitreous 
body: m. nictitans, nikt'-it-dnz 
(L. nictitans, winking often 
from nicto, I wink), the third 
eyelid found in all the mammalia 
except man, the quadrumana, 

and the cetacese, attaining its 
greatest development in birds; a 
thin plate of cartilage between 
the two layers of the ' plica semi- 
lunaris, ' which is the only trace 
of the third eyelid found in man: 
m. pituitaria, pU-u'it-dr'-i-d (L. 
pituUa, slime, phlegm), the 
membrane which lines the cavity 
of the nose : m. sacciformis, 
sd- si-form'- is (L. saccus, a sack ; 
forma, shape), the first of the 
synovial membranes; a membrane 
which covers the margin of the 
articular surface of the ulna, so 
named from its extreme looseness, 
forming a loose ' cul-de-sac ' : m. 
tympani, timf-pdn-l (L. tympan- 
um, a drum), the membrane of 
the tympanum, separating the 
cavity of the tympanum from the 
external meatus. 

ineninges, n. plu., m&**fa'jez (Gr. 
meningx, a membrane), the mem- 
branes which envelope the brain 
called the ' pia-mater ' and 
* dura-mater ' : meningeal, a. , 
m$n'm-je'dl, of or pert, to the 
membranes of the brain : men- 
ingitis, n., mSn'-fa-jUtti, inflam- 
mation of the membranes cover- 
ing the brain : meningo, m^n> 
ing'- go, denoting relation to, or 
connection with, membranes of 
the brain. 

meniscus, n., m&n-isTc'-us, men- 
isci, n. plu., men-is' si, or men- 
iscuses, n. plu., -us-ez (Gr. 
meniskos, a little moon from 
mene, the moon), a lens, concave 
on the one side, and convex on 
the other, having a sharp edge; 
in anat., an appearance resem- 
bling the new moon, applied to 
inter-articular fibrous cartilages, 
as the 'glenoid': meniscoid, a., 
m&n-isk'-oyd (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), having the shape of a 

Menispermacese, n. plu., m&n'-i' 
sperm- d'-s^-e (Gr. meniskos, a 
little moon ; sperma, seed), the 
Moon-seed family, an Order of 




plants whose seed or fruit is 
kidney or half-moon shaped, 
hence the name : Menispermum, 
n., a genus of hardy plants, pos- 
sessing strong narcotic properties : 
menispermin, n., -sperm'm, a 
non-poisonous substance obtained 
from the pericarp of the Anamirta 

menorrhagia, n., m^n f -6r-rddj f -i'd 
(Gr. men, a month ; menes, a 
woman's menses ; rhegnumi, I 
break or burst forth), an immod- 
erate flowing of the catamenia 
or menses. 

menses, n. plu., mZr'sSz (L. men- 
sis, a month), the monthly dis- 
charges of women. 

menstrual, a., men'stroo-al (L. 
menstrudlis, every month from 
mensis, a month), happening 
once a month ; lasting a month ; 
catamenial : menstruant, a., 
men'stroo-dnt, subject to monthly 
flowings : menstruation, n., 
m%n'strdo'a f 'shun, the periodical 
flow of the menses : menstruous, 
a., m&n'-strdb'US, pert, to the 
monthly discharges of women. 

menstruum, n., men'stroo-um, 
menstruums, n. plu., -stroo-umz, 
or menstrua, n. plu., -stroo-a. (L. 
menstruum, that which lasts or 
continues a month from mensis, 
a month), a solvent ; any liquor 
used in dissolving so named by 
the old chemists, because they 
supposed that the moon had a 
mysterious influence on the mak- 
ing of their preparations for 
dissolving metals, etc. 

mentagra, n., ment'-ag-ra (L. 
mentum, the chin ; Gr. agra, a 
seizure), a disease affecting the 
beard, moustache, whiskers, and 
inner part of the nostrils caused 
by minute fungi, or vegetable 
parasites at the roots of the hair ; 
Tinea sycosis. 

mentagraphyte, n., mVn-tag'-ra- 

fit (L. mentum,ihe chin; Gr. agra, 
a seizure ; Gr. phuton, a plant), 
crypto^amous plants, or mould, 

supposed to be the cause of the 
cutaneous disease mentagra ; 
synonym of 'mentagra.' 

Mentha, n., menth'-a, (from 
Menthe, a nymph, fabled to have 
been changed into mint by Pros- 
erpine in a fit of jealousy), the 
mints, a well-known genus of 
useful herbs, Ord. Labiatse, the 
species of which yield volatile 
oils : Mentha piperita, pip'-er* 
it'-a (L. piperltus, of or pert, to 
pepper from piper, pepper), 
peppermint, used as a carminat- 
ive and diffusive stimulant in 
flatulent disorders: M. pulegium, 
pul-edj'$'um (L. pulegium, flea- 
bane, pennyroyal from pulex, a 
flea, as the smell when burnt 
destroys fleas), pennyroyal ; M. 
viridis, mr'M-is (L. viridis, 
green), spearmint, both plants 
act like peppermint, but are less 

mentum, n., mZnt'um (L. merit- 
um, the chin), the basal portion 
of the labium or lower lip in 

Mentzelia, n., mZnt-zel'i-d (after 
Mentzel, a botanist of Branden- 
burg), a genus of curious plants, 
Ord. Loasacese : Mentzelia hisp- 

ida, lilsp'-id'd (L. hispidus, 
shaggy, hairy), a Mexican herb 
said to possess purgative quali- 

MenyanthesB, n. plu., men'i-dnth'- 
$6 (Gr. men, a month, oYmenuo, I 
show; anthos, a flower referring 
to the duration of the flowers), a 
Sub-order of the Ord. Geiitianaceae: 
Menyanthes, n., men'i-dnth'ez, a 
genus of plants : Menyanthes 
trifoliata, trX/oW-atM (L. tris, 
ihiee-, folium, a leaf), buck-bean, 
marsh-trefoil, or bog-bean, whose 
leaves are used as a substitute 
for Gentian. 

mephitic, a., mef'U^ik (L. meph- 
itis, a noxious, pestilential exhal- 
ation), offensive to the smell; 
noxious; deadly : mephitis, n., 
mef-U'is, or mephitism, n., mtf' 




it-izm, any foul or noxious ex- 
halation generally applied to 
that caused by carbonic acid gas. 

merenchyma, n., mer^ng'-klm-d 
(Gr. meris, a part, a particle ; 
engckuma, what is poured in 
from en, in ; chetima, tissue : 
perhaps Gr. memo, I wind or 
twine round), in bot., cellular 
tissue composed of more or less 
rounded cells. 

mericarp, n., mer'-i*kdrp (Gr. 
meris, a part ; karpos, fruit), in 
bot., the half of the fruit of an 
umbelliferous plant, like the 

merismatic, a., trier'-is-mat'-ik (Gr. 
merismos, division from meris, 
a part), in bot., taking place by 
division or separation, as into 
cells or segments. 

merispore, n., mer^i'spor (Gr. 
meris, a part ; spora, seed), in 
bot., a cell capable of germination, 
formed by the division of an 
ascospore or a basidiospore. 

meristem, n., m&r'i'Stem (Gr. 
meristos, separated, divisible 
from merizo, I divide into parts), 
in bot. t tissue formed of cells 
which are all capable of dividing, 
and producing new cells ; also 
called ' generative tissue.' 

merithal, n., mer^i-thdl (Gr. meris, 
a portion; thallos, a young shoot, 
a bough), in bot., a term used for 
* internode ' ; a term applied to 
the different parts of the leaf : 
merithalli, n. plu., m8r*i-lhal'3, 
the three principal parts of a 
plant the radicular merithal 
corresponding to the root, the 
cauline to the stem, and the 
foliar to the leaf. 

Merostomata, n. plu., mer'-d-stom'- 
at'd (Gr. meros, the upper part 
of the thigh ; stoma, a mouth), 
an Ord. of Crustacea in which 
the appendages placed round 
the mouth, and performing the 
office of jaws, have their free 
extremities developed into walk- 
ing or prehensile organs. 

Mertensia, n., mer-tens'-i-d (after 
Mertens, a professor of medicine 
at Bremen), a highly esteemed 
genus of plants producing brilliant 
flowers, Ord. Boraginaceee : Mer- 
tensia maritima, mdr-itf-im-d (L. 
maritimus, belonging to the sea 
from mar$, the sea), a species 
having the taste of oysters, hence 
called in Scotland the oyster 

Merulius, n., mer-dol't-us (origin 
unknown: said to be a corruption 
of metullus, the original name 
from L. meta, anything of a con- 
ical or pyramidal form, so named 
from its shape), a genus of fungi, 
one of whose species causes the 
dry rot in wood: merulius lacry- 
mans, Idk^ri^mdnz (L. lacrymans, 
weeping, lamenting), the most 
destructive of the parasitical 
fungi, producing what is called 
the dry rot, and a pest to wood 
and wooden structures, sometimes 
penetrating thick walls and 
destroying the mortar and 

MesembryacesB, n., m$s>em'-bri-d' 
se-e (Gr. mesembrm, mid-day), 
the Ficoidese or Fig-marigolds, 
and Ice-plant family, an Ord. of 
plants, natives of hot sandy plains: 
MesembryesB, n. plu., mes'-em- 
brl f -&e, a Sub-order having numer- 
ous conspicuous petals : Mesem- 
bryanthemum, n., mes-Zm'-bri- 
dnth'em'Um (Gr. cwitliemon, a 
flower), a genus of beautiful and 
well-known succulents : Meseni- 
bryanthenmm edule, $d-ul'-$ (L. 
edulis, eatable), the Hottentot- 
fig, whose leaves are used as an 
article of diet : M. crystallinum, 
krist-dl f 'lin>um (L. crystdlllnus, 
crystalline from crystallum, a 
crystal), the Ice-plant, remark- 
able for the watery vesicles which 
cover its surface, and which have 
the appearance of particles of ice: 
M. tripolium, tri-potti-tim (of or 
from Tripoli in Africa), has the 
property of expanding in a star- 




like manner when in water, and 
closing when dry. 
mesencephalon, n., m&ftt*0$^4Z- 

on (Gr. mesos, middle ; engkeph- 
dlon, the brain), the middle 
primary vesicle of the brain, 
forming one of its principal 
structures, and comprising the 
Crura cerebri, the Corpora 
quadrigemina, and the Aqueduct 
of Sylvius. 

mesentery, n. , mfc$ntfrlj mesen- 
teries, n. plu. , -t&r'fa (Gr. mesos, 
middle ; enteron, an intestine), a 
membrane in the cavity of the 
abdomen which serves to retain 
the intestines and their appen- 
dages in their position ; a double 
fold of the peritoneum ; the 
vertical plates which divide the 
somatic cavity of a sea-anemone 
into chambers : mesenteric, a., 
mezf-en'terfik, of or belonging to 
the mesentery : mesenteritis, n. , 
m^z-en'-ter-lt'-is, inflammation of 
the mesentery. 

mesial, a., mezf-i-al (Gr. mesos, 
middle), in anat. , middle ; divid- 
ing into two equal parts : mesial 
line, an imaginary plane dividing, 
from top to bottom, the head, 
neck, and trunk into right and 
left similar halves. 

mesocsecum, n. , mez'o-sek'um (Gr. 
mesos, middle ; L. ccecum, a 
portion of the large intestines), 
in anat., a duplicature of the 
peritoneum at the posterior part 
of the caecum, which series to 
connect the back part of the 
csecum with the right iliac fossa. 

mesocarp, n., mez'-o-kdrp (Gr. 
mesos, middle ; kdrpos, fruit), 
in fat*, the middle layer of 
the pericarp or coat of the 

mesocephalon, n., m&tfo-sVf'-ftl-dn, 
or -Mf'-dl-on (Gr. mesos, middle ; 
kephale, the head), in anat., an 
eminence of transverse fibres above 
and in front of the medulla oblong- 
ata, below and behind the Crura 
cerebri, and between the lobes 

of the cerebellum ; also called the 
Pons Varolii. 

mesochilium, n., mez'-o-Jctt'i'tim 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; cheilos, a 
lip), in bot., the middle portion 
of the labellum of orchids. 

mesocolon, n., mez'-o-'kol'-on (Gr. 
mesos, middle ; Eng. colon), in 
anat., that part of the mesentery 
to which the colon is attached. 

mesogastrium, n., mez'-o-gas'-tri- 
um (Gr. mesos, middle ; gaster, 
the belly), in anat. , the umbilical 
region of the abdomen ; a sus- 
pensory band of the stomach in 
early embryonic life, subsequently 
converted into a sac, called the 
' great omentum ' : mesogastric, 
a., m&z'-d-gas'-trik, that which 
attaches the stomach to the walls 
of the abdomen. 

mesophloaum, n. , i m&z f >o*fl&um 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; phloios, 
bark), in bot., the middle layer 
of the bark, situated between the 
liber and epiphlseum. 

mesophyllum, n. , m&z f -d-fil f >lum 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; phullon, a 
leaf), in bot., all the inner portion 
or parenchyma of leaves, situated 
between the upper and under 

mesopodium, n., m%z'd'p6d'-i-um 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; podes, feet), 
the middle portion of the foot of 

mesorchium, n. , mez-tirk'i-um (Gr. 
mesos, middle ; orchis, a testicle), 
a fold of the peritoneum which, 
in the fifth month of foetal life, 
supports the testicle in its position 
in the lumbar region before it 
passes into the scrotum. 

meso-rectum, n., mez'-O'rek'tum, 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; Eng. rectum), 
a narrow fold of the peritoneum 
which connects the upper part 
of the rectum with the front of 
the sacrum. 

mesosperm, n., m&z'o-sperm (Gr. 
'mesos, middle ; sperma, seed), in 
bot., the second membrane, or 
middle coat of a seed. 




mesosternum, n., mez'-d'Stern'-um 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; sternon, the 
breast-bone), the lower half of 
the middle segment of the thorax 
in insects ; the middle portion of 
the sternum intervening between 
the attachment of the second pair 
of ribs, and the xiphoid cartilage. 

mesotherms, n. plu., m&'o-tkermz 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; therme, 
heat), plants requiring but a 
moderate degree of heat for their 
perfect development. 

mesothorax, n., mte'-d-thdr'-clks 
(Gr. mesos, middle ; thorax, the 
trunk, the breast), the middle 
ring of the thorax in insects. 

Mesua, n., mes'-u-d (after Mesue, 
an ancient Arabian physician and 
botanist in the eighth century), a 
genus of trees, Ord. Guttiferae or 
Clusiacese: Mesuaferrea,/er'r-a 
(L. ferreus, made of iron from 
ferrum, iron), a tree producing 
beautiful orange and sweet-scented 
flowers which, dried, are esteemed 
for their fragrance, and used in 
India in medicine, yields a hard 
and durable timber. 

metabolic, a., mWdWik (Gr. 
metdbole, change from meta, 
beyond ; ballo, 1 throw), pert, to 
change or affinity ; applied to 
chemical changes occurring in 
living bodies : metabolic force, 
vital affinity. 

metacarpus, n. , met'd-kdrp'us (Gr. 
meta, beyond ; karpos, the wrist), 
in anat., that part of the hand 
situated between the wrist or 
carpus and the fingers or phal- 
anges : metacarpal, a. , -kdrp'-dl, 
pert, to the metacarpus : meta- 
carpal bones, the five long bones 
which form the back of the hand 
externally, and the palm inter- 
nally : metacarpal phalangeal, 
fdl'dnj-e'dl(Gr.phalangx, a body 
of soldiers), pert, to the bones of 
the hand situated between the 
wrist and the fingers, so named 
from their arrangement, 
metamorphosis, n. 

tis-ls (Gr. metamdrphosis, a trans- 
formation from meta, beyond, 
change ; morphe, form, shape), a 
transformation ; in zool., the 
change of form which certain 
animals undergo in passing irom 
their younger to their fully- 
grown condition ; in bot. , the 
change of one organ into another, 
as petals into stamens, or stamens 
into pistils sometimes called 
metamorphy, n., met'-d-mdrf'-i. 

metaphery, n., met-df-er-i (Gr. 
meta, beyond ; phoreo, I bear), 
in bot., the displacement of 

metaplasm, n., mZt'-d-plazm (Gr. 
meta, beyond, change ; plasma, 
that which has been formed, a 
model), the matter which gives 
the granular character to proto- 

metapodium, n., m$t f >d-pdd'i-um 
(Gr. meta, beyond, after ; podes, 
feet), the posterior lobe of the 
foot in Mollusca. 

metapophysis, n., m%t'd-p8f'iS'is 
(Gr. meta, beyond ; apophusis, 
a sprout, a process), the mam- 
millary processes, according to 

metasperms, n. plu., met'd-spermz 
(Gr. meta, beyond ; sperma, seed), 
in bot., another name for * angio- 
sperms ' : see under * angiocarp- 

metastasis, n. , mZt'ds'tdS'ZS (Gr. 
meta, beyond, over ; stasis, a 
placing or sitting, a posture), a 
change in the seat of a disease ; 
in bot., the sum of the changes 
undergone by the products of 
assimilation of the cells in plants: 
metastatic, a., met'-d-stdt-ik, of 
or belonging to metastasis. 

metastoma, n., met-ds^tdm-d (Gr. 
meta, beyond ; stdma, a mouth), 
the plate which closes the mouth 
posteriorly in the Crustacea. 

metatarsus, n., met'd'tdrs'us (Gr. 
meta, beyond ; tarsos, the sole of 
the foot), the bones which lie 
between the tarsus or ankle and 




the toes, consisting of five long 
bones, which corresponds to the 
' metacarpus ' of the hand : meta- 
tarsal, a., met'-d-tdrs'-dl, of or 
belonging to the metatarsus. 

metathorax, n. , mZt'-d'thdr'-dks (Gr. 
me ta, beyond ; thorax, the chest), 
the posterior or hinder ring of 
the thorax in insects. 

metencephalon, n., met'-en-sef'-dl- 
6)i (Gr. m$ta, beyond ; engkepli- 
alon, the brain), the posterior 
primary vesicle of the brain, com- 
prising the medulla oblongata, 
the fourth ventricle, and the 
auditory nerve. 

xnetria, n., met'ri-d (Gr. metra, 
the womb), child-bed or puerperal 
fever : metric, a. , met'rik, of or 
belonging to the womb : metritis, 
n., met'Tit'is, inflammation of the 
womb : metralgia, n. , met-rdl'- 
ji>d (Gr. algos, pain, grief), also 
metrodynia, n., met-ro-din^-d 
(Gr. od-une, pain), pain in the 
womb : metrophlebitis, n., metf 
rO'flZb'ltf'is (Gr. phlebs, a vein $ 
phlebos, of a vein), inflammation 
of the veins of the womb. 

Metroxylon, n., mefrr8ks'il*6n 
(Gr. meter, a mother ; xulon, 
wood), a genus of trees, Ord. 
Palmae : Metroxylon laBve, letfe 
(L. Icevis, light), a species pro- 
ducing fine sago. 

Mezereon, n., ra&s'er-e'flw, see 
' Daphnse.' 

miasm, n. , mi-tizm', also miasma, 
n., mi'dz'ma, more usually in 
the plu. : miasmata, mi-dz'-rndt-d 
(Gr. miasma, defilement), infec- 
tion or pollution in the air arising 
from diseased, putrifying, or 
poisonous floating substances : 
miasmal, a., mi-dz'mdl, contain- 
ing miasma : miasmatic, a., mi'* 
dz-mat'ik, pert, to miasma, or 
containing it. 

micrococcus., n., mik f -rO'kok f >us 
(Gr. mikros, small ; kokkos, a 
kernel), any minute form or 
organism supposed to have life; a 
genus of the Bacteria, the basis 

of all yeast formations, and the 
source of fermentations. 

microgonidium, n., mik^ro-gon- 
id'-i'um (Gr. mikros, small ; 
gonos, offspring, seed ; eidos, 
resemblance), in Alga3, a single 
small zoospore found in a germ- 
inating cell, formed at the 
expense of the contained plastic 

micrometer, n., mlk-rtim'-Zt-er 
(Gr. mikros, small ; metron, a 
measure), an instrument for 
measuring microscopic objects. 

microphylline, n., mik^rd-fil- 
lin (Gr. mikros, small ; phullon, 
a leaf), a material composed of 
minute leaflets or scales. 

microphytes, n. plu., mik'ro-fitz 
(Gr. mikros, small ; phuton, a 
plant), microscopic plants. 

micropyle, n., mlk'-rd-pil (Gr. 
mikros, small ; pule, a gate), in 
bot., the opening or foramen of 
the ripened seed for the escape of 
the root of the embryo ; a minute 

microscope, n., mik'ro-skop (Gr. 
mikros, small ; skopeo, I view), 
an instrument which enables 
minute objects, and those in- 
visible to the naked eye, to be 
seen distinctly : microscopy, n., 
mik-rtis'kdp'i, investigations by 
means of the microscope. 

microsporangia, n., mik'ro-spor- 
dnfi'd (Gr. mikros, small; spora, 
seed ; anggos, a vessel), in bot. t 
cells or thecse containing micro- 

microspores, n. plu., mik'-ro-sporz 
(Gr. mikros, small; spora, seed), 
in bot. , small reproductive spores 
in the capsules of Lycopods ; 
applied to certain vegetable par- 
asites present in various cutane- 
ous affections also in same sense 
microsporons, n. plu., mik-rds 

microsporon furfur, fetffer (see 
microspore ; L. furfur, bran, 
scurf), a fungus, consisting of 
small globular sporules with 




short branching thalli, just large 
enough to contain them, which, 
growing in the epidermis, produces 
the disease known as ' chloasma, ' 
or 'pityriasis versicolor.' 

microtherms, n. plu,, mi-ro- 
therms (Gr. mikros, small ; therme, 
heat), in bot., plants which re- 
quire only a small degree of heat 
to bring them to perfection. 

microzyines, n. plu., mtWro-zlmz 
(Gr. mikros, small ; zume, fer- 
menting matter), a general term 
for very minute organised par- 
ticles, which present themselves 
in liquids fermenting or under- 
going decomposition ; the minute 
organised particles which are 
supposed to be the contagious 
matter in zymotic diseases. 

midrib, n., mid'-rib (mid and 
rib), in bot., a large or central 
vein ; a continuation of the 

midriff, n., iM'-rff (AS. mid, 
middle ; hrif, entrails ; Dut. 
middelrift, the diaphragm), in 
anat., the muscular partition 
which separates the cavity of the 
chest from the belly ; the dia- 

migraine, n., mig>rdn' (a French 
corruption of hemicrania), the 
brow-ague ; a painful disorder 
generally on one side of the fore- 
head ; a megrim. 

Mikania, n., mile- an' I- a (after 
Professor Mikan, of Prague), a 

fenus of plants, Ord. Compositse, 
ub-ord. Corymbiferae : Mikania 
Guaco, gwdk'-o (from Guaco, S. 
America), a species which has 
been used to cure the bites of 

miliaria, n., miKi-d^i-d (L. mil- 
ium, a grain called millet), little 
vesicles or blisters on the skin, 
containing a sero - albuminous 
fluid, which is simply retained 
perspiration, so named as 
resembling millet seeds ; miliary 
fever, associated with excessive 
heat of skin : miliary, a. , mil'-i- 

ar-t, accompanied with an erup- 
tion resembling millet seeds. 

mimetic, a., mim-U'-ik (Gr. mim- 
etikos, imitative from mimos, a 
farcical entertainment, a mime), 
applied to organs or animals 
which resemble each other in 
external appearance, but not in 
characteristic structure ; appear- 
ing like imitations of others. 

Mimosese, n. plu., mim-6z'8-e (Gr. 
mimos, a mimic, an imitator), 
a Sub-order of Ord. Leguminosse, 
which yield gum in quantity, 
and whose bark is frequently 
astringent so named from many 
species mimicking animal sensi- 
bility in their leaves: Mimosa, n., 
mim-dzf-a, a genus of leguminous 
plants: Mimosa sensitiva, s&ntftt- 
iv''(i (L. sensus, the faculty or 
power of perceiving or feeling), and 
M. pudica, pud'ik'a (L. pudlcus, 
bashful, modest), are two species 
which are commonly called sens- 
itive plants. 

Mimulus, n., mtm'ul-us (Gr. 
mimos, a mimic), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Scrophulariaceae, 
many of which are showy so 
named from the ringent corollas 
of the species ; the two lamellae 
are irritable, and close when 
irritated : Mimulus guttatus, 
gut-tat'-us (L. guttatus, spotted, 
speckled from gutta, a drop), a 
species whose leaves are eatable 
as a salad: M. luteus, ldt'8'tis 
(L. lutZus, yellowish from lutum, 
a plant used in dyeing yellow), 
a species naturalised in many 
parts of Britain : M. moschatus, 
mos-kdt'us (mid L. moschatus , 
having a smell like musk from 
Ar. mosch, musk), a plant cultiv- 
ated on account of its musk-like 

Mimusops, n., mim'-us-Sps (Gr. 
mimo, an ape ; ops, the eye, the 
countenance), a genus of orna- 
| mental trees, Ord. Sapotaceae so 
named from the fancied resem- 
blance of the flowers to the face 




of a monkey : Minmsops elengi, 
&l'<6nj'-$ (E. Indies), a species 
yielding a durable timber in 
Ceylon, whose fruit, the Surinam 
medlar, is eaten ; its seeds yield 
an oil, and its flowers a perfume : 
M. hexandra, Mke-dnd<r& (Gr. 
hex, six ; aner, a man, andros, 
of a man, having six stamens), 
yields a durable wood : M. kaki, 
kalc'-i (Indian name), produces an 
eatable fruit. 

miostemonous, a., mi' o- stem'- dri- 
fts (Gr. melon, less ; stemon, a 
stamen), in hot., applied to a 
flower in which the stamens are 
neither equal to, nor a multiple 
of, the floral envelopes. 

Mirabilis, n., mir-tib'-il-fa (L. mir- 
dbilis, wonderful, marvellous 
from mlror, I wonder or marvel 
at), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Nyctaginacese so named from 
the appearance of their flowers : 
Mirabilis jalapa, jal-dp'-d (Xal- 
apa, in Mexico), so named as 
having been considered at one 
time as the Jalap-plant, but this 
is now ascertained to be Exogon- 
ium purga, one of the Convolvul- 
acese: M. dichotoma, dik-ot'dm-a 
(Gr. dichotdma, cut in two halves 
from dicha, doubly ; temno, I 
cut), the marvel of Peru, a com- 
mon garden plant, called in "W. 
Indies 'four o'clock flower,' from 
opening its blossoms at that hour 

mitral, a., mit'ral (L. and Gr. 
mitra, a headdress, a mitre), in 
anat. , applied to a valve attached 
to the circumference of the left 
auriculo-ventricular orifice, whose 
flaps are supposed to resemble the 
segment of a bishop's mitre : 
mitriform, a., mU'rt-form (L. 
forma, shape), shaped like a 
mitre or bishop's official hat ; 
conical ; hollow and open at the 

modiolus, n., mod-i'-til-fts (L. 
mddidlus, the nave of a wheel 
1'rom modius, a measure), in anat., 

the central axis or pillar of the 
internal ear, conical in form, and 
extending from the base to the 
apex of the cochlea. 

molar, a., mol'-ar (L. mola, a mill, 
moldris, a mill-stone), grinding ; 
having power to grind, as a tooth: 
molars, n. plu., mol'-arz, the 
grinders in man ; the teeth in 
diphyodont mammals which are 
not preceded by milk-teeth. 

mole, n., mol (L. mola, a false 
conception), in anat., a mass of 
fleshy matter generated by some 
morbid process in the uterus ; a 
morbid development of the plac- 
enta : hydatid mole, one resem- 
bling a hydatid. 

molecule, n., mol'-Vk-ul (F. moUc- 
ule, a small particle of matter or 
air from L. moles, a mass), a 
very minute particle of matter ; 
one of the elementary particles 
into which all bodies are supposed 
to be resolvable ; in bot. , a very 
minute body in which there is 
no obvious determinate external 
circle, or internal centre : molec- 
ular, a., mdl-Zk'-ul-ar, pert, to 
molecules ; designating that force 
or attraction by which the minute 
particles or molecules of a body 
are held together in one mass. 

NOTE. Molecule means strictly the 
smallest quantity of an element, or of 
a compound, that can exist in the free 
state probably in most cases consist- 
ing of two atoms ; an atom is an 
ultimate particle of matter. 

moles, n. plu., molz (Ger. mahl, a 
stain, a spot ; Scot, mail, a spot 
in cloth ; Sw. mal, a mark), con- 
genital marks of a light or dark 
brown, or of a black colour, on 
the human skin also called 
'liver stains,' 'mother's marks,' 
and 'pilous and pigmentary 

moles carnea, mol'-ez Mr'-rie-a (L. 

moles, a heavy mass ; carneus, 

fleshy from caro, flesh), another 

name for the ' flexor accessorius,' 

I a muscle connected with the 




tendon of the ' flexor longus dig- 
itorum,' which see. 

mollities ossium, m8l'lfyh'$'9 ds' 
sl-um (L. mollities, flexibility, 
softness ; os, a bone, ossium, of 
bones), a fatty degeneration which 
takes place in bone, and which 
renders it more brittle and liable 
to bend, brought about by an 
absorption of the earthy matter. 

Mollusca, n. plu,, mdl*lusk'-a, also 
molluscs, n. plu., mttt'lusks (L. 
molluscus, soft from mollis, soft; 
mollusca, a nut with a soft shell), 
the Sub 'kingdom, forming one of 
the grand divisions of the animal 
kingdom, comprising the shell- 
fish proper, the Polyzoa, the 
Tunicata, and the Lamp-shells 
so named from the general soft 
nature of their bodies, and 
absence of internal skeleton : 
Molluscoida, n. plu., mtil'lttsk- 
oyd'-a (Gr. eidos, resemblance), 
the lower division of the Mollusca; 
certain mollusc - like animals, 
often compound, lower in struc- 
ture than the true molluscs, and 
may have shelly or horny cover- 
ings : molluscum, n., mdl-lusJc'* 
Urn, in med. , small, soft tumours, 
produced by distensions of the 
sebaceous glands by secretions 
formerly applied to fibroma (L, 
fibra, a filament), a disease in 
which tubercles are formed by 
hypertrophy of the fibrous tissue 
of the skin. 

Momordica, n., mdm-drd'-ik-a (L. 
mordeo, I bite, mdmdrdi, I have 
bitten), a genus of plants, Ord. 
Cucurbitacese : Momordica elat- 
erium, gftfreKMim (Gr. elat- 
erion, that drives out or expels), 
the wild or squirting cucumber, 
so named on account of the force 
with which its seeds are expelled 
when ripe ; the feculence sub- 
siding from the juice constitutes 
the medicinal Elaterium, used in 
small doses as a violent cathartic 
in dropsical cases. 
monadelphous, a., 

(Gr. monos, one, alone ; adelpho?, 
a brother), in bot., having all the 
stamens united into one bundle 
by union of their filaments. 

monads, n. plu., mon'-adz (Gr. 
mdnas, unity, a monad, monddos, 
of a monad from monos, alone), 
microscopic organisms of the 
simplest structure ; an indivisible 
thing ; an ultimate particle ; a 
primary cell. 

monandrous, a., mtin-and'-rus (Gr. 
monos, one, alone ; aner, a male, 
andros, of a male), in bot. t having 
only one stamen. 

monembryony, n., mdn'Vm-bri'' 
on-l (Gr. monos, one ; embruon, 
an embryo), in bot,, the production 
of one embryo only : monembry- 
onic, a., mon-Zm'-bri-on'-ilc, hav- 
ing a single embryo. 

moniliform, a., mtin-il'-i-form (L. 
mdnile, a necklace ; forma, 
shape), beaded like a necklace ; 
jointed so as to resemble a string 
of beads, 

Monimiacess, n. plu,, m$n'int***d 
s'e-e (Gr, monimos, lasting, endur- 
ing), an Order of plants of S. 
America and Australia,' of some 
the bark and leaves are aromatic 
and fragrant, and the fruit of 
others is eaten : Monimia, n., 
mdn-im'i-a, a genus of plants. 

Monk's -hood, n., a poisonous 
plant so named from the cowl- 
like shape of the flowers ; the 
Aconitum napellus, Ord. Ranun- 

monobasic, a., mMo-batf-ik (Gr. 
monos, one ; basis, base), in chem. , 
containing one equivalent of base 
to one of acid. 

monocarpic, a., mo'n'o-lccirp'ik, 
also monocarpous, a., -Icdrp'&s 
(Gr. monos, one, alone ; Tcarpos, 
fruit), in bot., producing flowers 
and fruit once during life, and 
then dying. 

monochlamydese, n. plu., mftn'-o* 
klam-id'Z-e (Gr. monos, one, 
alone ; chlamus, a large cloak, 
chlamtidos, of a cloak), in bot., a 




large division of plants which 
have only one envelope in the 
flower : mon'ochlamyd'eous, a. , 
-id' 8 -Us, applied to a flower having 
a single envelope, which is the 

monoclinous, a., mdn'o-klln'tis 
(Gr. monos, alone ; klino, I bend), 
in bot., having both stamens and 
pistils in every flower. 

monocotyledons, n. plu., m8n'-6* 
k8t f -il-ed'-8nz (Gr. monos, alone ; 
kotuledon, the hollow of a cup, 
cup-shaped)) in bot., a great 
division of plants which have 
only one cotyledon or seed lobe, 
as in oats or wheat, the seeds of 
which are entire : mon'ocotyled' 
onous, a., -ed'dn-us, having one 
cotyledon or seed lobe. 

monoculous, a., mdn-dk^ul-Us (Gr. 
monoS) one ; L. oculus, the eye), 
possessed of only one eye : mon- 
ocule, n., mdn'dk-ftl, a one-eyed 

monocystic, a., mon'-o-sist'-ik (Gr. 
monos, one ; kustis, a bladder), 
consisting of only one cell or 
cavity ; unilocular. 

Monodelphia, n, plu., mMo- 
dVf'-l-d (Gr. monos t alone, 
single ; delplius, a womb), the 
division of Mammals which have 
the uterus single : monodelph- 
ous, a., mtin''fra$lf*fa, bringing 
forth the young fit to live ; 
of or pert, to the Monodelphia ; 
(Gr. adelphos, a brother), in 
bot., having all the filaments 
united into a tube around the 

monodichlamydeous, a., mtiti'dd' 
{kldm-id'8'US (Gr. monos, one ; 
dis, twice ; chlamus, a cloak or 
tunic), in bot., having either one 
or both floral envelopes. 

monoecious, a., mSn-e'sJifcus (Gr. 
monos, one, single ; oikos, ^ a 
house), in zool, applied to in- 
dividuals in which the sexes are 
united ; having male and female 
flowers on the same plants : mon- 
cecisni, n., racfo-e sizm, the con- 

dition where unisexual flowers are 
produced on different branches. 

monogamia, n. plu., mdn'o-gdml 
-a (Gr. monos, one, single ; 
gamos, marriage), a general name 
for plants which have their anthers 
united but their flowers not com- 
pound : monogam, n.,mdn'o-gam, 
a plant having a simple flower 
though the anthers are united. 

monogastric, a., mdn'd-gast'-rik 
(Gr. monos, one ; gaster, the 
belly), having only one stomach. 

monogynian, a., mffntd-jfyi'-t-tin, 
also monogynous, a., mon-ddf- 
in-tis (Gr. monos, one; gune, a 
female), in bot., having only one 
pistil or stigma in a flower ; 
applied to plants having one 
style : monogynoscial, a., mtin'-o- 

jin-e'sht-al (Gf. oikos, a house), 
in bot., applied to siinple fruits 
formed by the pistil of one flower. 

monolocular, a., mdn'-d-ldk'iil-dr 
(Gr. monos, one ; L. dim. of locus, 
a place), syn. of ' monocystic, ' or 
* unilocular. ' 

monomania, a., mSn'-d-man'- 
(Gr. monos, one ; mania, mad- 
ness), a mental disease in which 
madness exists on one particular 
subject, or a limited number of 
subjects, while the mind is 
tolerably lucid on others ; a 
lunatic who has passed through 
the acute stage of the malady. 

monomyary, n., mtin'o-mi'dr't 
(Gr. monos, one, single ; muon, 
a muscle, muonos, of a muscle), 
one of the bivalves, the Lamelli- 
branchiata, which have their 
shell closed by a single adductor 

monopetalous, a., mfai'o-pVlf-dl'US 
(Gr. monos, one ; petalon, a leaf), 
in bot., having the petals united 
by their edges into one organ ; 
gamope talons. 

monophyllous, a., mbn'G-ftt'lfy 
(Gr. monos, one ; phullon, a leaf 
or blade), having one leaf or 
membrane ; formed of one leaf 
only ; gamophyllous. 




.onophyodont, n., mtin'd>fi'8d- 
tint (Gr. monos, one ; plmo, I 
produce ; odous, a tooth, odontos, 
of a tooth), one of the Mammals 
in which only a single set of 
teeth is developed, that is, who 
never shed their teeth. 
lonoplast, n., mon'-o-plast (Gr. 
monos, one ; plastos, formed), a 
naked non-vasicular body ; an 
animal cell destitute of envelope : 
monoplastic, a,, mdn^d-pldst'ik, 
having one primary form, 
nonopodia, n., mMo-pod'-l'tiL (Gr. 
monos, one ; pous t a foot, podos, 
of a foot), a monstrosity having 
one foot only : mon/opod'ium, 
n., -pod'-i'Um, in bot., an 
elongated axis giving off lateral 
structures having a similar nature: 
mon'opod'ial, a. , -pdd'i-dl, applied 
to a kind of inflorescence ; race- 

tnonosepalous, a., 
(Gr. monos, one ; sepalon, a 
sepal), in bot., having the sepals 
which compose a flower united 
at their edges or margins so as to 
form a tube ; gamosepalous. 

monosis, n., mon-orf-is (Gr. monos, 
one, single), in bot. , the isolation 
of an organ from the rest* 

monospermous, a., mftn'-d- sperm'* 
Us (Gr. monos, one ; sperma, 
seed), in bot., one-seeded; applied 
to a fruit having only one seed : 
monosperm, n., m&n'o- sperm, a 
plant of one seed only. 

monostachous, a., md 
(Gr. monos, one ; stachus, an ear 
or spike), in bot., disposed or 
arranged in one spike only. 

monostomum, n., mdn-ds'tdmHm, 
monos'toma, n. plu., -ttim-tf, (Gr. 
monos, one ; stoma, a mouth), a 
species of Frematode worm having 
one sucker only. 

monothalamous, a., 
dm- Us (Gr. monos, one ; ihalamos, 
a chamber), possessing a single 
chamber only, applied to the 
shells of ' Foraminifera ' anc 
' Mollusca. ' 

monothecal, a., mSn'-d'tliek'al (Gr. 
monos, one ; theke, a sheath or 
case), in bot. > having a single 

Monotremata, IL plu^ mMfr 
tr&m'at-a (Gr. monos, one ; 
trema, an orifice, an opening, 
trematos, of an opening), an Order 
of Mammals which have the 
intestinal canal opening into a 
' cloaca, ' common to the ducts 
of the urinary and generative 
organs, as in the Duck-mole and 
the Echidna : monotrematous, 
a., m8n'6>tr%m'-at'us, having only 
one external opening or ' cloaca ' 
for urine and other excrements* 

MonotropaceaB, n. plu.> mon'-o* 
trop'QL f 'S&-e (Gr. monos, one ; 
tropeo, I turn), the Fir-rapes, a 
small Order of parasitic plants 
growing on the roots of fir-trees, 
several species of which are 
delightfully fragrant : Monotrop* 
ese, n. plu., mdn'd'trd'p'%'e, a 
Sub-order : Monotropa, n. , mdn* 
8t'rtip-a, a genus of plants, so 
named because all their flowers 
are turned one way ; curious 
parasitical plants growing on the 
roots of beech and pine trees in 
shady moist places. 

monstrosity, n., mdn-strds'i-ti (L. 
monstrum, anything strange or 
wonderful), an unnatural pro- 
duction ; in bot., an abnormal 
development, applied particularly 
to double flowers. 

monticulus cerebelli, m8nt*$& 
ul'Us s$r'$b'$l'li (L. monticftlus, 
a small mountain from mons, a 
mountain ; cer$b$llum, a small 
brain), in anat., the little 
mountain of the cerebellum ; the 
central projecting part of the 
superior vermiform process. 
Moracese, n. plu., mor-a'sZ-e (L. 
morus, Gr. mor$a, a mulberry 
tree), the Mulberry, Fig, and 
Bread Fruit family, an important 
Order of plants : Morese, n. plu. , 
mor'8-e, a Sub-order of plants, 
comprising the mulberries and 




figs : Morus, n., mor'tis, a genus 
of plants : Moms nigra, nig'rd 
(L. mger, black), the common 
black mulberry : M. alba, dlb'-d 
(L. albus, white), the white mul- 
berry, less esteemed than the 
black ; the leaves of both, 
especially the latter, are the 
favourite food of the silkworm, 
and the root of the white mul- 
berry is anthelmintic. 

morbid, a., m8rb'-id (L. morbus, 
disease, morbidus, sickly), 
diseased ; not sound and health- 
ful : morbidness, n., mdrb'id- 
n$ss, state of being diseased or 
unsound: morbific, a,, mdrb-if-ilc 
(L. facio, I make), causing 
disease ; generating a sickly 
state : morbid anatomy, the 
study of the alterations in the 
structure of the body, or a part, 
produced by disease, 

morbillous, a., mdrb-il'-lus (mid. 
L. morbilli, measles from L. 
morbus, disease), pert, to the 
measles ; measly : morbilli, n. 
plu., mdrb'il'-li, the measles. 

morbus cssruleus, morb'us s%r- 
obV-e-us (L. morbus, a disease ; 
ccerulZus, dark-blue, azure), blue 
disease, arising from a congenital 
malformation of the heart or its 
great vessels so named from the 
purple or livid colour of the 
skin : morbus coxarius, Tc^Tcs-dr'- 
%-iis (L. coxdrius, pert, to the 
hip from coxa, the hip), hip 
disease ; a scrofulous disease, 
nearly allied to white swelling. 

Morchella, n., mdr-k&l'ld (Ger. 
morchel, the morel), a genus of 
eatable fungi found on the 
ground : Morchella esculenta, 
&sJcf'Ul-ent'd (L. esculentus, fit for 
eating), an edible fungus: Morel, 
n., mdr-el', a genus of eatable 
fungi abounding with little 
holes, generally of the size of a 

mordant, n., mtird'dnt (L. mor- 
dax, biting, mordeo, I bite), a 
substance employed to give 

permanency or brilliancy to t 
dye ; any adhesive matter bj 
means of which gold leaf is madt 
to adhere to a surface. 

moribund, n. or a., mor'i-bund (L, 
moribundus, dying from mori, 
to die), in a state of dying. 

Morinda, n. , mor-ind'-a (corruptior 
of Morus indica, Indian mulberry), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Rubiaceae 
so named from the shape of theii 
fruit and native country : Mor- 
inda citrifolia, sit'-ri-fdl'i-a (L. 
citrus, a citron ; folium, a leaf), 
a plant whose root is employed 
in the East as a substitute for 
madder under the name Soor- 
anjee: morindin, n., mdr / -md-m, 
a peculiar colouring matter yielded 
by ' M. citrifolia. ' 

MoringacesB, n. plu., mdrting-grt 
s&e (from Muring r o, the native 
name in Malabar of the species), 
the Moringa family, a small Order 
of plants, some of which are 
pungent and aromatic : Moringa, 
n., mor-ing'-ga, a genus of plants: 
Moringa pterygosperma, ter'-i-go* 
sperm' d (Gr. pterux, a wing j 
sperma, seed), the Horse-radish 
tree whose seeds are winged, and. 
are called Ben-nuts ; from the 
seeds an oil is obtained, used by 
watchmakers ; the root is pungent: 
and stimulant, resembling Horse- 

morphia, n., mdrf't-d, also 
morphine, n., mdrf'm (Gr. 
Morpheus, the god of dreams), 
one of the alkaloids contained in 

morphology, n., morf-til'-o-jl (Gr. 
morphe, form, shape ; logos, 
description), that department of 
botany which treats of the forms 
that different organs of plants 
assume and the laws which 
regulate their metamorphoses, 
tracing their primary forms to the 
leaf as a type ; applied to animals 
in same sense : morphological, 
a., -ddf'ik'dl, connected with or 
relating to morphology. 




norphosis, n., mtirf-dztis (Gr. 
morphe, form, shape), in bot., 
the order or mode of development 
in any organ of a plant. 

nortification,n. , m6rt f -if'ik-d f 'shun 
(mid. L. mortificare, to mortify 
from mors, death ; facio, I 
make), the death of a part of the 
living body : gangrene, the 
stage in which the part is hot, 
swollen, and livid, but not quite 
dead : sphacelus, that stage in 
which the part is cold and dead : 
mummification, dry gangrene in 
which an extremity is dry and 
shrunken, but not quite dead : 
sloughing is the state in which 
the dead, soft parts come away 
gradually from the living parts : 
necrosis, the death of bone : 
ramollissement, the destruction 
and breaking down of brain 

EHorus, n., see 'Moracese.' 

motor, n., mdt'-dr (L. motum, to 
move), that which gives motion : 
adj., in anat., producing a regul- 
ating motion, applied to certain 
nerves and muscles : motorial, 
a., mot-or'-i-al, giving motion: 
motor oculi, dk'-ul-i (L. oculus, 
the eye, oculi, of the eye), the 
motor nerve of the eye, the third 
cerebral nerve, which supplies 
nearly all the muscles of the orbit: 
motores oculorum, mot-dr'-ez d& 
ul'dr r >um (L.), the motors of the 
eyes : motory, &.,mdt f -6r-i, exciting 
or controlling motion. 

Moxa, n., moks'a (F. moxa, but 
probably of Eastern origin), the 
woolly leaves of the Artemisia 
Moxa, Ord. Composite, Sub-ord. 
Corymbiferse, used in China to 
form the inflammable cones or 
cylinders called 'Moxas,' which 
are employed as counter-irritants ; 
a small cone of inflammable 
matter, chiefly used in Eastern 
countries as a counter-irritant by 
burning it above on the skin 
supposed to be good in the cure of 
gout and other deep-seated pain. 

mucedinous, a., mH-sed^m-ns (Gr. 
mukes, a mushroom, a mould), 
in bot., like a mould. 
mucilage, n., mua'-il'ddj (F. muc- 
ilage from L. mucus, the dis- 
charge from the nose), a solution 
of gummy matter, as gum-arabic, 
in water j a slimy substance found 
in many vegetables : mucic, a. , 
mus'-ik, of or from gtnn: mucipar- 
ous, a., muS'ip'<ar<us (L. pario, I 
produce), secreting or producing 
mucus : mucous, a. , mulc'-us, of 
or pert, to mucus; slimy: mucus, 
n., muMus, the slimy, glairy 
substance secreted from the 
mucous membrane : mucous 
membrane, an extremely delicate 
membrane which lines the interior 
cavities- of the human body ; the 
internal skin. 

mucro, n., muk'-ro (L. mucro, a 
sharp point or edge, mucronis, 
of a sharp point), a stiff or 
sharp point abruptly terminat- 
ing an organ : mucronate, a., 
muter on- at, having a mucro ; 
abruptly pointed by a sharp 

Mucuna, n., muk-un'-a (from the 

Brazilian name Mucuna-guaca, 

the cow-itch), a genus of plants, 

Ord. Leguminosse, Sub-ord. 

Papilionacese : Mucuna pruriens, 

prdr'-i-enz (L. pruriens, itching), 

and M. prurita, pr6r-U'd (L. 

pruritus, itched from prurio, 

I itch), the former species in the 

West, and the latter in the East 

Indies, have the name 'cowhage' 

or cow-itch applied to the hairs 

of their legumes ; they have 

irritating properties, and mixed 

with syrup, are used in treatment 

for intestinal worms. 

mucus, see under 'mucilage.' 

Mudar, n., mud'-ar (Indian name), 

a substance procured from the 

bark of the root of 'Calotropis 

procera' and ' C. gigantea,' used 

as a diaphoretic in India: Mud- 

arine, n., mud'-ar'in, a principle 

contained in Mudar which 




gelatinises on being heated, and 
becomes fluid on cooling. 

mulberry, n., mul'ber-ri (Ger. 
maulbeere, L. morns, Gr. mor$a, 
a mulberry), the fruit of the 
* Morus nigra ' and the * Morus 
alba,' Ord. Moracese : mulberry 
calculus, a stone in the bladder 
having a rugged surface. 

mullein, n., mul'-lm (F. mouleine 
or moUne, Dan. md, a moth), a 
name applied to species of Verb- 
ascum, Ord, Scrophulariacese ; 
the woolly leaves of the Great 
Mullein are emollient and slightly 
narcotic ; a wild hedge plant 
whose seed has been used to 
preserve clothes against moths. 

muller, n., mul'-Ur (L. mola, a 
mill-stone), a stone held in the 
hand, used for grinding powders 
upon a stone slab ; also mullet, 
n., mul'-Ut (F. molette, Sp. mol- 
eta), used in same sense. 

multicostate, a., muU'-i-kost'dt 
(L. multus, many ; costa, a rib), 
in bot., many-ribbed. 

multicuspid, a., m&lt'J'kfap''id 
(L. multus, many; cuspis, a spear- 
head, cuspidis, of a spear-head), 
having several tubercles or points; 
applied to the rough, grinding 
surfaces of the twelve molar 
teeth : multicuspidati, n. plu., 
mult'i'kusp'td-at'i, the molar 
teeth, twelve in number, six in 
each jaw ; the ' bicuspids ' are 
the small or false molars, and are 
eight in number. 

multifid, a., mult'-i-fld, also mult- 
ifidous, a., mult-ij'.id'us (L. 
multifidus, cleft or split into 
many parts from multus, many; 

Jindo, I cleave or split), having 
many clefts or divisions ; in bot., 
applied to a simple leaf divided 
laterally, to about the middle, 
into numerous portions when 
the divisions extend deeper it is 
called * multipartite. ' 

multifidus spinse, mfift*{ft&& 
spirts (L. multrfidus, many- 
cleft ; apma t a spine, spina, of a 

spine), the many-cleft part of the 
spine ; in anat., a number of 
fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, 
which fill up the groove on either 
side of the spinous processes of 
the vertebrae, from the sacrum to 
the axis. 

multijugate, a., mult'idf-oog-dt 
(L. multus, many ; jugum, a 
yoke), in bot. 9 having many 
pairs of leaflets. 

multilocular, a., multti'ldk'ul-ar 
(L. multus, many ; loculus, a 
small compartment, a cell), 
having many cells or chambers. 

multipartite, a. , mult - ip'art It 
(L. multus, many ; partltus, 
divided), in bot., divided into 
several strips or portions; divided . 
into many parts. 

multiple, a., mult'i-pl (L. muUus t 
many ; plico, I fold), in bot. t 
numerous ; manifold ; applied to 
anthocarpous or polygynoecial 
fruits formed by the union of 
several flowers : n., a quantity or 
number which contains another 
an exact number of times without 
a remainder, thus 12 is a multiple 
of 6, 4, 3, or 2. 

multipolar, a., mult-ip'-ol-ar (L. 
multus, many ; polus, a pole, a 
point), applied to nerve cells with 
many tail-like processes or pro- 

multiseptate, a., rnult'$-s$pt'dt (L. 
multus, many ; septum, a hedge), 
in bot. , having numerous septa or 

multivalve, n., mult'-i-val'O (L. 
multus, many ; valvce, folding 
doors or valves), a shell composed 
of more valves or pieces than 

multungula, n., mult^ng^gul-d 
(L. multus, many ; ungula, a 
hoof), the division of the Peris- 
sodactyle ungulates, which have 
more than a single hoof on each 
foot : multungulate, a. , mult' 
ting^gul'dt, having the hoof 
divided into more than two 


mumps, n. plu. , mumps (low Ger. 
mumms, a swelling of the glands 
of the neck ; Icel. mumpa, to 
eat voraciously), infectious dis- 
orders accompanied by a painful 
swelling of the salivary glands ; 
known also by the name ' Cyn- 
anche Parotidea.' 

muricate, a. , mur'-ik-dt, also mur- 
iculate, a., mur-ik'-ul-dt (L. 
muricatus, full of sharp points 
from murex, a shell-fish armed 
with sharp prickles), in bot., 
formed with sharp points ; 
covered with firm short points 
or excrescences. 

murifonn, a., mur^i-fdrm (L. 
murus, a wall ; forma, shape), 
in bot. , wall - like, applied to 
tissues presenting the appearance 
of bricks in a wall, 

murrain, n. , mur'-rdn (Sp. morrina, 
a disease among cattle ; old F. 
marine, the carcass of a .dead 
beast ; Gr. maraino, I destroy), 
a term formerly applied to many 
forms of cattle plague, now re- 
stricted to the aphtha epizootica, 
$p''$'ZO'dtfIk'& (epizootic aphthae), 
the foot-and-mouth disease. 

Musacese, n.plu., muz-d'se-e (after 
Antonius Musa, physician in 
ordinary to the anc. Roman king 
Augustus ; altered from Egyptian 
name Mauz), the Banana family, 
an Order of plants which furnish 
a very large supply of nutritious 
food to the inhabitants of warm 
countries, the tree also yielding 
other valuable products: Musa, 
n., muz'd, a genus of plants 
whose species produce, such as 
the ' Banana' and 'Plantain' : Musa 
sapientum, sap'-i-ent'-um (L. 
sdptens, tasting, aaplZntum, of 
good tastes, of the wise), the 
Musa-trees of the wise ; also M. 
cavendishii, kav'-en-dish'-i-i 

(proper name of Cavendish), 
are species which furnish 
different kinds of Banana : M. 
paradisiaca, pdr'-d-dis-i'-dk-d (L. 
paradisiacus, of or belonging to 

271 MUS 

Paradise from L. Pdrddisus, Gr. 
Paradeisos, a park, Paradise), a 
species which produces the 
Plantain : M. textilis, **z.^r/.r 

(L. textiUs, woven, wrought), 
yields a kind of fibre, used in 
India in the manufacture of fine 
muslins, and producss Manilla 
hemp ; the juice of the fruit, 
and the lymph of the stem of 
the Musa, are slightly astringent 
and diaphoretic : M. ensete, 
ens'-et-Z (unascertained), an Abys- 
sinian species whose succulent 
interior is eaten, but the fruit 
is dry and full of seeds. 

Musca, n., musk'-a (L. musca, a 
fly), a Linnaean genus of Dipterous 
insects : Musca domestica, dom* 
%st f -ik'O, (L. domesticus, belonging 
to the house from domus, a 
house), the common house-fly : 
M. vomitoria, vom^t-or^d (L. 
vomitorms, that provokes vomit- 
ingfrom vomo, I vomit), the 
large blow-fly : M. volitans, 
singular, vti&tt-tim, Muscse vol- 
itantes, plural, mus'-se vdl'-it-dnt'- 
ez, a diseased condition, variously 
occasioned, in which there is an 
appearance of spots floating before 
the eyes with varying rapidity 
and in various directions, as if 
they were flies. 

muscardine, n., muskf-drd-in (F.), 
a disease affecting silkworms and 
very destructive to them, caused 
by the fungus ' Botrytis Bassiana' 
so named from the fancied re- 
semblance of the dead caterpillar 
to a little cake, or a kind of 

Musci, n. plu. , mus'sl (L. muscus, 
moss), the Moss family, also 
called 'Bryacese,' an Order of 
plants, found in all regions, and 
are either terrestrial or aquatic : 
muscicolous, a., mus*ik'>dl-us (L. 
colo, I inhabit), growing on 
mosses : muscoid, a., musk'oyd 
(Gr. eidos, resemblance), resem- 
bling or belonging to moss : 
muscology, n., musk-dl'-ti-ji (Gr. 



logos, a discourse), the study of 
mosses, or a treatise on them, 
muscles, n., mus'-lz (L. musculus, 
a little mouse, a muscle of the 
body from Gr. mus, used in same 
sense), the organs of motion in 
the body forming what is termed 
the flesh, made up of bundles of 
fibres, by the contraction of which, 
under the influence of the will, 
the individual is able to perform 
various movements ; the middle 
part of a muscle is termed its 
belly, and its extremities its 
origin and insertion : muscular, 
a., muftkf-ul'ar, full of muscles ; 
performed by or dependent on 
muscles : muscular action, the 
motion of muscle either by 
contraction, or cessation of 
contraction, by which a part is 
moved, as a limb : involuntary 
muscles, those which contract and 
cease to contract independently 
of the will, as in the heart : 
voluntary muscles, those which 
move only in obedience to the 
will, as in any movement of a 
limb : muscular tissue, the 
fibrous or thready substance 
that makes up a muscle : 
musculi papillares, plurals, 
musk'ul-i pap f 'il'lar f -ez (L. 
musculi, muscles ; pdpilldris, 
belonging to the nipple from 
papilla, the nipple), a few bundles 
of muscular bands directed from 
the apex towards the base of the 
ventricle ; musculi pectinati, 
p\iiTvi[s,pect'in'dt'i (L. pectinatus, 
combed or carded from pecten, 
a comb), the muscular fasciculi, 
forming closely set reticulated 
bands in the appendix auriculae 
of the heart, presenting an 
appearance like the parallel 
arrangement of the teeth of a 

musk, n. , mUsk (Gr. moschos, Ar. 
mesh, musk), a strong-scented 
substance obtained from the 
musk - deer inhabiting Central 
Asia, contained in a bag situated 

on the belly of the male, stimul- 
ant and antispasmodic. 

mttitard, n., m&st'-erd (Venetian 
mostarda, a sauce ; F. moutarde, 
mustard), a common condiment, 
the black is obtained from the 
seeds of 'Sinapis nigra,' while 
'Sinapis alba' furnish white 
mustard, Ord. Cruciferse, both 
yield an oil, used as a rubefaciant 
or counter-irritant. 

muticotis, a., muf-ik-us (L. 
muticus, curtailed, docked, for 
mutilus), in bot., without any 
pointed process or awn. 

mycelium, n., ml-seV-i-um (Gr. 
mukes, a mushroom), the cellular 
spawn of Fungi; the rudiment- 
ary filaments from which fungi 
are developed. 

Mycina, n., mis -in' & (Gf. mukes, 
a mushroom, a mould), in bot. t 
a variety of Lichen shield, 

Mycoderma, n., mik'd'derm'-a(GT. 
mukes, a mushroom ; derma, 
skin), a genus of Fungi, peculiar 
species of which are developed in 
vinegar, yeast, and flour ; veget- 
able parasites which constitute 
the crust of Favus. 

mycology, n., milc-Sl'-d-fl (Gr. 
mukes, a mushroom ; logos, 
speech), the study of Fungi, or a 
treatise on them : mycorogist, 
n., -6'jist, one devoted to the 
study of the Fungi. 

mycrocysts, or microcysts, n.plu., 
mlk f -rd-sists (Gr. mikros, small ; 
kustis, a bag), in bot., swarm 
spores transformed from a plasmo- 
dium into cells with a cell-wall. 

myelitis, n., ml'-H-lt'-ls (Gr. mu$l- 
os, marrow), inflammation of the 
substance of the spinal oord, or of 
its membrane : myeloid, a., mi'Vl- 
oyd (Gr. eidos, resemblance), re- 
sembling marrow: myeloid tum- 
our, a tumour consisting chiefly 
of peculiar many-nucleated cells, 
like the marrow of bones. 

myelon, n., ml'-el-dn (Gr. muelos, 
marrow), the spinal cord of 
vertebrates: myelonal, a., ml- el- 




tin-al, of or pert, to the spinal 

myentericus, n., ml^n-fer'-ik-us 
(Gr. mus, a muscle ; Znteron, an 
intestine), in anat., a name 
applied to a peculiar nervous 
plexus, rich in ganglionic cells, 
situated between the circular and 
longitudinal muscular fibres of 
the intestine. 

myitis, n., ml-itf-is (Gr. mus, a 
muscle), inflammation of a 
muscle : myocarditis, n., mi'-o- 
Icdrd-ilf'is (Gr. Jcardia, the heart), 
inflammation of the muscular 
substance of the heart : myodyn- 
ia, n., mi'-d-din'-i-a (Gr. odune, 
pain), pain in the muscles ; 
cramp ; also termed ' myosalgia. ' 

mylitta, n., mil-tt'td (Gr. mule, 
a mill ; mulitai, the grinders 
of the teeth), a genus of Fungi : 
mylitta Australis, a/ws-tral'-is (of 
or from Australia}, a species of 
Fungi, known in Australia as 
native bread. 

mylo, prefix, mil'-o (Gr. mule, a 
mill ; mulai, grinders), denoting 
connection with the muscles near 
the grinders : mylo-hyoid, a. 
(see ' hyoid '), a triangular muscle 
arising from the inside of the 
lower jaw between the molar 
teeth and the chin, which raises 
the hyoid-bone or depresses the 
jaw ; denoting a branch of the 
dental artery which ramifies on 
the under surface of the mylo- 
hyoid muscle. 

myography, n., mi-8g'-r&f't (Gr. 
mus, a muscle of the body ; 
grapho, I write), an anatomical 
description of the muscles. 

my oid, a., ml'-oyd, (Gr. mus, a 
muscle ; eidos, resemblance), 
composed of fibre cells or musc- 
ular fibres : myoides, n. plu. , 
mi-dyd f -ez, a thin sheet of musc- 
ular fibres on the neck see 
* platysma myoides.' 

myolemma, n., mi'-d-Um'-md (Gr. 
mus or mudn, a muscle ; lemma, 
a husk or rind), in anat., a tub- 

ular sheath enclosing muscular 
fibre, consisting of transparent 
and apparently homogeneous 
membrane ; sarcolemma. 

myolin, n., mi'dl-m (Gr. mudn, 
muscular part), ithe fluid contents 
of the cells of which an ultimate 
muscular fibre is composed. 

myology, n., ml'dl'-o-ji (Gr. mus, 
a muscle ; logos, discourse), the 
doctrine of the muscles of the 
body ; myography. 

myoma, n., ml*dm'd (Gr. mudn, 
a muscle of the body, muonos, of 
a muscle), a fibrous tumour con- 
sisting of smooth muscular fibre. 

myopia, n., mi-dp't-d (Gr. mud, 
I shut or close ; ops, the eye), 
short or near - sightedness : 
myope, n., ml'-op, or myops, n., 
mi'dps, a near-sighted person. 

MyoporacesD, n. plu., ml'-d-pdr-a' 
se-e (Gr. muo, I shut ; poros, a 
pore), a Sub-order of plants, Ord. 
Verbenaceae : Myopomm, n., 
mi'dp^dr'Um, a genus of pretty 
shrubs: Myoporumplatycarpum, 
pldtfi-kdrp'-jim (Gr.pldtus, broad, 
Jcarpos, fruit), a species of Aus- 
tralia, which exudes a saccharine 
matter from its stem. 

myosalgia, n., ml'-os-dlf-i'd (Gr. 
mudn, a muscle of the body ; 
algos, grief, pain), muscular 
pain ; cramp. 

myosin, n., mi'-ds-m (Gr. mus, a 
muscle), an albuminoid body 
extracted from muscular fibre. 

myositis, n., mi'-fa't^te (Gr. mudn, 
a muscle of the body), inflamma- 
tion of the muscles, same as 
' myitis V; 'myosalgia,' which 

Myosotis, n., mtffa'dtfb (Gr. 
mus, a mouse, muds, of a mouse; 
ous, an ear, dtos, of an ear), a 
very beautiful genus of flowering 
plants so named from a fancied 
resemblance in the leaves, Ord. 
Boraginacese : Myosotis palustris, 
pdl'Us'tris (L. palustris, marshy 
from pdlus t a marsh), the 




myotome, n., mi-o-tom (Gr. mus, 
a muscle ; tome, a cutting), in 
anat. t the muscular section or 
segment of the skeleton : myot- 
omy, n.., mi'St'tim-i, the anat- 
omy of the muscles; the operation 
of dividing the muscles. 

myriapoda, n. vliL,mr''f-dp'-tid'& ) 
also myriopoda, n. plu., mir'-i- 
tip'tid-d (GY.murios, ten thousand; 
podes, feet), a class of Arthropoda, 
comprising the centipedes, which 
have numerous feet. 

MyricaceaB, n. plu., mir't-ka's&'e 
(Gr. murik t the shrub tamarisk), 
-the Gale family, an Order of 
plants : Myrica, n. , mfa'ik'a, a 
genus of plants, which are arom- 
atic, and yield resinous and oily 
matter : Myrica cerifera, ser'if- 
Zr-d (L. cera, wax;/m>, I "bear), 
a species whose fruit called wax- 
myrtle, bay-myrtle, or candle- 
berry, yields a greenish- coloured 
wax, used for candles : M. gale, 
gdl'*% or gal (old Eng. gale, Scot. 
gaul, Dutch or wild myrtle), Scotch 
or bog-myrtle, common in marshy 
grounds and damp heaths in 
Britain : M sapida, sap'-id-a (L. 
sapidus, tasting, savouring from 
sapto, I taste), a native of Nepaul 
and China, whose drupacious 
fruit is eaten. 

Myristicacese, n. plu., mir-ist'i- 
kd'-s&e (Gr. murismos, a be- 
sprinkling with perfumes from 
murizd) I perfume), the Nutmeg 
family, an Order of plants char- 
acterised by their acridity and 
aromatic fragrance : Myristica, 
n^mir-ist'-ik-a, a very^ interesting 
genus of plants : Myristica offic- 
inalis, 8f-ftoHn'd?>te (L. officm- 
dlis, officinal), also named M. 
moschata, mfoJc-dt'-d (mid. L. 
moschdtus, having a smell like 
musk from Ar. mosch, musk), 
M. fragrans, frdg'-ranz (L. frdg- 
rans, emitting a smell), or M. 
aromatica, dr'-dm-dt'ilc'd (L. 
aromdlicus, fragrant), the most 
important species, attaining 30 

feet in height, producing a drup- 
acious fruit, the hard kernel of 
which is the well-known nutmeg; 
nutmegs yield a concrete oil : the 
mace, an arollode or additional 
covering of the seed, yields a 
fatty matter and a volatile oil 
both are used as aromatic stimul- 
ants and condiments : M. tom- 
entosa, t$m'$nt-6z'd (L. foment- 
um, a stuffing for cushions), the 
kernels of w^hose fruit are used as 
aromatics under the name of 

Myrobalans, n., mir'tib'al-anz (L. 
myrobdlanum, the fruit of a 
species of palm from Gr. muron, 
perfume ; baldnos, an acorn), 
the fruit of Terminalia Belerica, 
used as an astringent, and in 
dyeing, and the manufacture of 

myronic, a.,rar-on-(Gr. murtin, 
any odorous juice flowing from a 
plant from muro, I drop or 
flow), denoting an acid, one of 
the components of black mustard 
seed, existing in the seed as a 
potassium salt: myrosin, n., 
mir'-ds-in, an albuminous ferment, 
likewise contained in the seeds. 

Myrospermum,n. ^'mlr'-o-sperm'-^m 
(Gr. muron, any odorous juice 
from a plant from muro, 1 drop 
or flow ; sperma, seed), a genus 
of plants, Ord. Leguminosse, 
Sub-ord. Papilionacese, whose 
seeds and cells yield a strong- 
smelled balsam : Myrospennum 
PereirsB, p&r-er'-e (of or from 
Pereira], the balsam of Peru : 
M. toluiferum, tf#tf-tf$r*im 
(Tolu, and L. fero, I bear), 
yields the balsam of Peru both 
preceding are used as stimulant 

Myroxylon, n., mtr-d'ks'fl'dn (Gr. 
muron, any odorous juice of a 
plant ; xulon, wood), another 
name for the genus Mono* 

Myrsinacese, n. plu. , mer^in-d^se-e 
(Gr. mursine, the myrtle tree), 




the Myrsine family, an Order of 
plants : Myrsine, n. , mers'm-e, a 
genus of plants : Myrsine bif- 
aria, bif-ar'-i-a (L. bifarius, 
divided into two parts from bis, 
twice ; fdri, to speak), a species 
whose berries are said to possess 
cathartic properties. 

Myrtacese, n. plu., mer'ld'se-e (Gr. 
murtos, L. myrtus, a myrtle tree), 
the Myrtle family, an Order of 
plants, which comprise the 
myrtle, the pomegranate, the 
rose-apple, the clove, and many 
plants producing beautiful 
flowers : Myrtese, n. plu. , mer' 
te-e, a Sub-order of plants : 
Myrtus, n. , mer'tus, a genus : 
Myrtus pimenta, pim-Znt'-a (Sp. 
pimienta, pepper) r also called 
* Eugenia pimenta/ Pimento, 
Allspice, or Jamaica pepper, the 
berried fruit of a tree which is 
a native of the W. Indies and 
Mexico ; it contains an acrid 
volatile oil, and is sometimes 
employed as a stimulant and 
carminative : M. communis, 
Icom-mim'-is (L. cdmmunis, 
common), the common myrtle 
whose berries are used as food. 

myrtiform, a., mer'tifdrm (L. 
myrtus, myrtle ; forma, shape), 
having the shape of myrtle leaves 
or berries : myrtiformfossa,/&s-sa 
(L. fossa, a ditch), in anat., a 
depression on the facial surface 
just above the incisor teeth, also 
called 'incisive fossa.' 

myxoma, n . , miles dm' a, myxomata, 
n. plu., miks'om'dt-d (Gr. muxa, 
mucus, slimy substance), a tumour 
composed of mucous tissue : myx- 
oamoebae, n. plu., miks'd-dm-e'be 
(Gr. amoibos, changing), swarm 
spores of myxomycetes. 

myxomycetes, n., miles'- tim-i- set'- 'ez 
(Gr. muxa, a slimy substance ; 
mukes, a fungus), a group of 
Thallophytes without chlorophyll, 
so named as the members of the 
group form creeping masses of 
naked protoplasm, which send up 

spore-bearing sporangia, whose 
spores are formed along with, and 
in the interstices of, thread-like 
filaments of varying character 
(the capillitium). 

myxospores, n., miks'o-sporz (Gr. 
muxa, mucus ;. spora, a seed), 
the spores formed in the sporangia 
of the myxomycetes : myxo- 
sporous,. a., miks-ds'por-us, 
having myxospores, or pert, to 

nacre, n. , ndk'r (F. nacre, mother- 
of-pearl), the beautiful, iridescent 
substance forming the inner 
covering of the shell of the pearl 
mussel or oyster, also called 
'mother-of-pearl': nacreous, a., 
ndk' re-Ms, having a pearly lustre; 
of the texture of mother-of- 

nsevns, n., nev'&s, naevi, n. plu., 
nev'l (L. ncevus, a mole on the 
body), congenital flat, or slightly 
elevated- structures, occurring 
principally on the skin of the 
lace, head, or neck, and composed 
of a plexus of the mere superficial 
vessels of the skin, which ceases to 
grow from the moment of birth 
more serious vascular tumours 
are sometimes included under 
this head ; a congenital spot or 
mark varying in its appearance : 
nsBVOse, a., nev-oz', freckled ; 
having congenital marks: nsevoid, 
a., nev'oyd (Gr. eidos, resem- 
blance), resembling a nsevus. 

NaiadaceaB, n. plu., nd'yad-d'-sZ-e, 
also called Potamese (Gr. 
NaiadZs, the Naiads or nymphs 
of the rivers and streams), the 
Naias or Pondweed family, an 
Order of plants living in fresh 
and salt water, one of the species 
of which is the lace-plant or 
lattice-plant of Madagascar, 
whose rhizome is used for food, 
and called the ' water yam ' : 
Naias, n., naf-yas, a genus of the 

napiform, a., nap' if firm (L. 




napus, a turnip ; forma, shape), 

Narcissus, n., ndr-sls'-sus (Gr. 
Narkissos, L. Narcissus, a man's 
name, a flower from Gr. narke, 
torpor, so called from the effect 
of its perfume on the nerves), a 
genus of favourite garden plants, 
Ord. Amaryllidacese, whose 
flowers grow upon a scape and 
have a cup at their mouth, 
including such species as Daffo- 
dils, Jonquils, and Tazettas, of 
soft and varied colours, and sweet 
scent : Narcissus pseudo-nar- 
cissus, sud'-o (Gr. pseudo, false), 
the Daffodil whose flowers are 
said to be poisonous : N. poeticus, 
pd'et'-ik'US (L. poeticus, poetical 
from poeta, a poet) ; N. jon- 
quilla, jting-kwil'ld (F. jonquille, 
one of the Daffodil species) ; N. 
odorus, od-or'-us (L. odor us, 
sweet - smelling from odor, 
smell) ; N. pseudo-narcissus ; 
N. Tazetta, t&z-U'.tti, (Tazetta, 
Spain), the bulbs of these and 
some other species are emetic. 

narcotic, a., ndr-kftt'-ik (Gr. nar- 
kotikos, having the power to 
benumb from narke, torpor), 
having the power of producing 
drowsiness, sleep, or stupor : 
narcotics, n. plu., ndr-kSt-iks, 
substances which procure sleep ; 
substances which may procure 
sleep by relieving pain : narcot- 
ism, n., ndr'kdt-izm, such effects 
as giddiness, headache, dimness 
of sight, partial stupor, produced 
by narcotic substances. 

Nardostachys, n., ndrd-Ss'tak-is 
(Heb. nard, Gr. nardos, spike- 
nard of the ancients; Gr. stachus, 
an ear, a spike), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Valerianacese : 
Nardostachys jatamansi, jatf 
a-'nians'-l (unascertained), the 
spikenard of the ancients, highly 
prized on account of its perfume. 

nares, n. plu., nar'-ez (L. naris, a 
nostril, ndres, nostrils), the 
openings of the nose, anterior and 

posterior ; the nostrils : septum 
narium, s&pt'-um nar'-t-um (L. 
septum, a fence, a wall ; narium, 
of the nostrils), the internal 
walls of the nostrils, chiefly 
formed by the central plate of the 
ethmoid bone and the vomer. 

Narthex, n., ndrth'eks (Gr. narth- 
ex, a plant resembling fennel), a 
genus of plants, Ord. Umbellif- 
erse : Narthex asafcetida, as'-a* 

fet'id-a (L. asa, a gum ; foztidus, 
fetid), a species which yields the 
asafcetida, a gum resin of highly 
offensive odour, much used in 

nasal, a., naz'-al (L. ndsus, the 
nose), of or pert, to the nose ; 
formed or affected by the nose : 
naso-, prefix, ndz'o, denoting 
connection with the nose. 

nascent, a., nas'ent (L. nascens, 
being in its birth, gen. nascentis 
from nascor, I am born), be- 
ginning to exist or grow ; in the 
moment of formation : nascency, 
n., nas'&ns-i, the beginning of 

nassology, n., nas-so'l f -6'-j ! t (Gr. 
nasso, 1 stuff; logos, discourse), 
the art of preparing specimens 
of animal bodies, or the art of 
stuffing them. 

Nasturtium, n., nas-ter'shi-um 
(L. nasus, the nose ; tor turn, to 
twist), Tropoeolum majus, Ord. 
Tropoeolacese ; the common 
Indian cress whose unripe 
fruit has been preserved and used 
as pickles. 

natant, a., ndtf&nt (L. natans, 
swimming, gen. natantis from 
nato, I swim), swimming; floating 
on the surface : natatores, n. 
plu., ndt'-at'dr'-ez, the Order of 
the swimming birds : natatory, 
a., ndt'-at-or'-i, formed or adapted 
for swimmimg. 

nates, n. plu., ndt'ez (L. nates, 
the rump, the buttocks), the 
prominent parts formed by the 
glutei muscles; the buttocks: nates 
cerebri, $%r f *$b-rl (L. cerebrum, 




the brain, cerebri, of the brain), 
the anterior tubercles of the 
quadrigeminal bodies of the 
brain ; the posterior are called 
the 'testes.' 

natural selection, that process in 
nature by which the strongest, 
swiftest, etc., outlive, and take 
the place of the weaker, etc. ; 
the preservation of favoured races 
in the struggle for life ; survival 
of the fittest. 

nausea, n., ndw'-zhe-a (L. nausea, 
Gr. nausia, sea-sickness from 
Gr. naus, a ship), a sensation of 
sickness, inclining to vomit. 

nautiloid, a., nawtf-il-oyd (Gr. 
nautilos, a nautilus ; eidos, re- 
semblance), resembling the shell 
of the nautilus in shape. 

navel, n., ndv'-el (Ger. navel, Dut. 
navel, Icel. nabli, the navel), the 
round depression in the centre of 
the lower part of the abdomen,, 
indicating the place of detach- 
ment of the umbilical cord after 
birth: navel string, the umbilical 

navicular, a., nav-ik'ul-ar (L. 
navicula, a little ship from 
navis, a ship), hollowed or shaped 
like a boat. 

necrogenous, a., nVk-rddf-en-us 
(Gr. nekros, dead ; genndo, I 
produce), applied to cryptogamous 
parasitic plants which grow upon 
sickly and dead plants, and 
accelerate the death of the 

necrosis, n., rielc-roz'-is (Gr. nek- 
rosis, a killing, deadness from 
nekros, dead), the mortification 
and death of bone, but also 
applied to the death of other 
structures, the dead portions of 
bone are called 'sequestra'; dry 
gangrene ; a disease of plants 
marked by small black spots, 
followed by decay. 

Nectandra, n., n&k-tand'ra (per- 
haps Gr. neklos, swimming ; 
andros, of a male), a genus of 
trees, Ord. Lauracese : Nec- 

tandra Rodiaei, rdd'-t-e'-i (after 
Dr. Rodie, a botanist), a tree of 
British Guiana 60 feet high, yields 
Bibiru or Bebeeru-bark, the wood 
used in shipbuilding, etc. , under 
the name ' Green - heart ' : Nec- 
tandrine, n., nek-tand'rm, an 
alkaloid obtained by Dr. Douglas 
Maclagan along with Bebeerine 
from its bark : N. puchury, putshf- 
er-i (native name), a species 
whose cotyledons are imported 
from Brazil under the name 
Puchrim beans or Sassafras 

nectar,. n., nW-tar (L. nectar, Gr. 
nehtar, the drink of the gods, 
honey), the sweet secretions of 
flowers ; any abnormal part of a 
flower : nectary, n., nZk'tar-i, 
nectaries, n. plu., nZk'tdr-tz, 
those parts of a flower which 
secrete a honey-like matter : 
nectariferous, a., -if-er-us (L. 
(fero, I bear), having or bearing 
honey-like secretions. 

necto-calyx, n., ne^-td-TcdV-ilcs (Gr. 
nektds, swimming ; kalux, cup), 
the swimming bell or disc of a 
Medusa or Jelly-fish. 

Nelumbonese, n., nel'tim>ldn'Z-e 
(nelumbo, the Cingalese name), 
the Water - beans, a Sub - order 
of plants, Ord. Nymphseacese : 
Nelumbium, n., nel-urnf-bi-um, a 
genus of water plants : Nelumbi- 
um speciosum, spe'shi-oz<um (L. 
spedosum, full of beauty or dis- 
play from species, look, view, a 
sort), a species whose flower is 
supposed to be the otus figured 
on Egyptian and Indian monu- 
ments ; the fruit is said to be the 
Pythagorean bean ; the sacred 
bean of India : N. Leichardti, 
lik-drdf'tl (after Leichardt, the 
traveller), the sacred bean of N. E. 

Nematelmia, n., nem'at-Vl'mi-a 
(Gr. nema, thread ; Tielmins, a 
worm), the Division of Scolecida, 
comprising the round - worms, 
thread- worms, etc. 




nemathecium, n., ri&m'a-the'shi- 
tim (Gr. nema, a thread ; theke, 
a chest, a sac), in bot., a case 
containing threads, as in some 
species of Sphserococcus. 

nematocysts, n. plu., riem-atf-6- 
sists (Gr. nema, thread ; Icustis, a 
bag), in zool., the thread cells of 
the Coelenterata. 

Nematoidea, n. plu., riem'at-dyd'- 
e-d (Gr. nema, thread ; eidos, 
resemblance), an Order of Scole- 
cida comprising the thread- 
worms, vinegar eels, etc. : nem- 
atoid, a., nem'at-dyd, long and 
slender ; 'thread - like : nemato- 
phores, n. plu., nZm-at'-d'forz 
(Gr. phoreo, I carry), in zool., 
csecal processes on the coenosarc 
of certain of the Sertularida, con- 
taining numerous thread-cells at 
their extremities. 

Nemese, n. plu., nem'e*e (Gr. 
nema, thread), in bot., a name 
applied to cryptogams in allu- 
sion to their germination by a 
protruded thread, without cotyl- 
edons : nemean, a., nZm-e'dn, 
lengthened like a thread. 

Nemertida, n. plu., nem-ert'-td-a 
(Gr. nem&rtes, unerring, true), a 
division of the Turbellarian worms, 
usually called * Ribbon- Worms. ' 

NepenthacesB, n. plu., ne'-pentli-af* 
se-e (Gr. nepenthes, a flower, 
supposed name for opium from 
ne, not ; penthos, grief, sadness), 
the Pitcher plant family, an 
Order of plants, having alternate 
leaves slightly sheathing at the 
<base, and having a foliaceous 
petiole which forms an ascidium 
at its extremity, with the lamina 
in the form of a lid : Nepenthes, 
n., ne-penth'ez, a genus of the 
plants : Nepenthes Wardii, ward'- 
I'l (after Ward, a botanist), a 
species found in the Seychelles at a 
height of 2500 feet : N.Kennedy- 
ana, ken>n^d f 'i'dn'a (after Ken- 
nedy, a botanist), a tropical 
Australian species. 

Nephelium, n., ri&f-el'-i-um (Gr. 

nephelion, L. rieplietium, a plant, 
the burdock), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Sapindacese, so named from 
the fruit having a resemblance to 
the heads of a burdock : Neph- 
elium longan, Idng'-gan (native 
name), and N. litchi, tttshti 
(native name), species in China 
producing excellent fruit, named 
respectively Longan and Litchi ; 
the kernel of the Longan powdered 
is sometimes made into paper. 

nephria, n., nef'ri-a (Gr. nephros, 
a 'kidney), Bright's disease of the 
kidney: nephritic, a., rief-rit'-ilc 
pert, to the kidneys; affected with 
disease of the kidneys, or relieving 
the disease: n., a medicine for the 
cure of disease of the kidneys : 
nephritis, n. , nef-rU'is, inflamma- 
tion of the kidney: nephralgia, n., 
nef-ralf-z-a (Gr. algos, pain), pain 
in the kidney: nephroid, a., rief* 
royd (Gr. eidos, resemblance), re- 
sembling a kidney in form or 

Nerium, n., ner'i-ttm (Gr. neros, 
humid, moist), a genus of plants, 
Ord. Apocynaceae : Nerium ole- 
ander, ol'Z-and'er (It. oleandro, 
a corruption of rhododendron), 
the common oleander, a poisonous 

Elant in all its parts ; the rose 
turel, or S. Sea rose : N. odorum, 
dd-or^um (L. odorus, sweet smel- 
ling from odor, smell), a species 
whose leaves, and bark of the root, 
are applied externally in India as 
powerful repellents. 
nervation, n., nerv-d'-shtin (L. 
nervus, a nerve), in bot., the 
character or disposition of the 
nerves of a leaf or other folia- 
ceous appendage : nerve, n. , nerv, 
in anat., one of the network of 
grey fibrous cords which are 
carried from the brain as their 
centre to all parts of the body, 
forming the organs of sensation 
and impressions ; in bot. , one of 
the fibrous bundles of the com- 
bined vascular and cellular tissue 
ramifying through leaves, etc., 




like veins and nerves in animals : 
nervine, a., nerv'-m, good for the 
nerves : n. , anything that affects 
the nerves : nervures, n. plu., 
nerv'urz, the ribs which support 
the membranous wings of insects. 
nervus superficialis cardiacus, 
nerv'us sup'er-fish-i'dl'is kdrd-i f - 
dk'US (L. nervus, a nerve ; super- 
ficidlis, superficial ; cardmcus, 
pert, to the stomach from Gr. 
kardia, the heart or upper orifice 
of the stomach), the superficial 
cardiac nerve, runs down the 
neck behind the common carotid 
artery : nervus cardiacus mag- 
nus, mag'-nus (L. magnus, great), 
the great cardiac nerve, descends 
on the right side, behind the 
common carotid artery, passing 
either in front of or behind 
the subclavian artery: nervus 
cardiacus minor, mln'-8r (L. 
minor, less), the less cardiac 
nerve, passes down behind the 
subclavian artery. 
neural, a., nur'dl (Gr. neuron, a 
nerve), connected with the nerv- 
ous system : neural arch, the 
arch of a vertebra which protects 
a part of the nervous system : 
neuralgia, n., nur-alf-i-a (Gr. 
algos, pain, grief), pains follow- 
ing the tracks of nerves. 
neurapophysis, n., nur'-a-po/'-fa-is 
(Gr. neuron, a -nerve ; apophusis, 
a projecting part, a sprout), the 
spinous process of a vertebra ; the 
process formed at the point of 
junction of the neural arches, 
which aids in forming the canal 
that protects the spinal cord. 
neurectomy, n., nur-^k'-tom-l (Gr. 
neuron, a nerve ; ek, out ; torrid, 
a cutting), the excision of part of 
a nerve. 

neurilercma, n.,nur'-$'tem'md (Gr. 
neuron, a nerve ; lemma, skin, 
bark), in anat., the delicate fib- 
rous sheath of a nerve, which 
may be easily separated in the 
form of a tube, from the fibres it 
encloses : neurilemmatous, a. , 

nur'l-lem'mat-us, connected with 
the neurilemma. 

neurin, n., nur'-m (Gr. neuron, a 
nerve), the matter which com- 
poses the nervous system : neur- 
itis, n., nur-lt f 'is, inflammation 
of a nerve : neuro-, nur'>d, indic- 
ating connection with a nerve 
or nerves. 

neuroglia, n., nur-tig'-li-a (Gr. 
neuron, a nerve ; glia, glue), a 
delicate form of connective tissue 
found in the eye, and in the 
interior of the nervous centres. 
neurology, n., nur-ol'-o-ji (Gr. 
neuron, a nerve ; logos, discourse), 
a treatise on the nerves; the 
doctrine of the nerves. 
neuroma, n., nur-om'a (Gr. 
neuron, a nerve), a tumour 
developed in the sheath of a 
nerve ; the true neuroma is com- 
posed of nerve-fibres, generally 
resembling those of the nerve 

neuropodium, n., nuT'-d-pod'-i-tim 
(Gr. neuron, a nerve ; podes, 
feet), the neutral or inferior divi- 
sion of the foot tubercle of an 
Annelid ; the ventral oar. 
neuroptera, n. plu., nur-d'p'-t'er-a 
(Gr. neuron, a nerve ; pteron, a 
wing), an order of insects char- 
acterised by four membranous 
wings with finely reticulated nerv- 
ures, as in Dragon-flies. 
neurosis, n., nur-oz'is (Gr. neuron, 
a nerve), a disease which depends 
on some perverted nervous in- 
fluence ; nervous affections or 
diseases in which sense or motion 
or both are impaired without any 
apparent local disease : neurotic, 
a., nur'Ot'-ik, seated in the nerves 
or pert, to them : n. , a disease of 
the nerves, or a medicine used 
for strengthening them. 
neurotome, n., nur'-d'tdm (Gr. 
neuron, a nerve ; tome, a cutting), 
the nervous section or segment 
of the skeleton ; a long, narrow, 
two-edged scalpel employed in 
dissecting the nerves: neuro tomy, 




n., nQr'8tf$m*$ dissection of the 

Nicotiana, n.,niJc'dsh<i-dn'a (after 
Nicot, a Frenchman who first 
introduced the seeds into France), 
a genus of plants in very extens- 
ive use as a popular narcotic, 
Order Sblanaceae : Nicotiana 
tobacum, td-bdJc'tim (of or from 
Tobago, in the "W. Indies), the 
species chiefly used in Europe as 
tobacco, which is an energetic 
narcotic poison : N. repanda, re- 
pdnd'a (L. repandus, bent back- 
ward, turned up), a species from 
whose leaves the small Havaunah 
cigars are prepared : N. rustica> 
r&st'-ik-a (L. rusticus, rustic, 
country), species producing E. 
Indian,. Latakia, and Turkish 
tobacco : N, Persica, pers'-ik-a (of 
or from Persia], produces the 
finest Shiraz tobacco : Nicotina, 
nik'St-in'-a, or nicotin, n., nik r - 
fit-in, the peculiar oily - like 
alkaloid on which the active 
properties of the tobacco plant 
depends ; ' tobacco ' is used in 
medicine as a sedative in the 
form of infusion, tincture, or 

nictation, n., nflc-id'-shUn, also* 
nictitation, n., nikf-ti>td f >shun (L. 
nictdtum, to make a sign with 
the eyes), the act of winking. 

nidulant, a., nid'ul-ant (L. nldul- 
us, a little nest from nidus, a 
nest), nestling, as a bird in its 
nest ; in bot. , embedded in pulp, 
as in a nest : nidtilaria, n. plu. , 
nid'ul-dr'i-a, a genus of Fungi, 
growing on rotten leaves, shav- 
ings of wood, bark, etc., having 
the appearance of cups, which 
contain egg - like seeds ; the 
myceliums of certain Fungi. 

nidus, n., nid'us (L. nidus, a 
nest), a place where parasites, 
worms, or insects lodge and lay 
their eggs .; a hatching place for 
infectious diseases : nidus hir- 
undinis, htr'&nd'fa'ls (L. lur- 
undo, a swallow, hirwndinif, of a 

swallow), the nest of the swallow; 
a deep fossa of the cerebellum, 
lying between the posterior med- 
ullary velum, and the nodulus 
and uvula. 

Nigella, n. , nig -el' la (L. nigellus, 
slightly black, dark from nlger, 
black); a genus of plants, Ord. 
Ranunculacese, so named from 
their black seed : Nigella sativa, 
sat'iv'a (L. satlvus, sown or 
planted), supposed to be the 
fitches of Scripture ; black cum- 
in and fennel flower, the black 
aromatic seeds of which are used 
in the East as a substitute for 
pepper : N. sativa and N. arven- 
sis, dr>v$ns'is (L. arvensis, field- 
inhabiting), are species whose 
seeds are employed in adulter- 
ating pepper : N. Damascena, 
dam f 'aS'Sm f 'd (L. damascenus, of 
or from Damascus); N. Bomana, 
rom-an'-a, (L. romdnus, of or 
from Rome)-, and N. Hispanica, 
liiS'pan'-ik'd (L. hispdnwus, of or 
from Spain), are species familiarly 
known by the name of Devil-in -a- 

nigrescent, a., nig^rea^s^nt (L. 
nigrescens,. growing black from 
nlger, black), growing dark or 
black ;. approaching black : nig- 
ricant, a., nig'-rik-ant, becoming 

Nipa, n>., nip' a (native name in 
the Molluccas), a genus of trees, 
Ord. Pandanacese, species of 
which yield a kind of wine from 
their spadices : Nipa fruticans, 

frdt'-ilc-anz (L. friiticans, putting 
forth shoots from frutex, a 
shrub or bush), yields a fruit 
called the Atap in India. 

nitidous, a., nit'-id-us (L. nitidus, 
shining), in bot., having a smooth 
and polished surface ; glossy. 

Nitraria, n., nlt-rdr'-i-ci (L. nit- 
rum, Gr. nitron, a mineral alkali), 
a genus of plants, Ord. Malpig- 
hiacese, curious dwarf -growing 
shrubs, with flesh yleaves, natives of 
Central Asia and Northern Africa, 




so named as first found near the 
nitre works of Siberia : Nitraria 
tridentata, trid'ent-dt'a (L. trid- 
ens, having three teeth or tines), 
a species found in the desert of 
Soussa near Tunis, is said to be 
the true Lotus- tree of the anc.. 

nitre, n., mt'-er (L. nitrum, Gr. 
nitron, F. nitre, a mineral alkali)^ 
saltpetre or nitrate of potash, a 
crystalline substance having the 
appearance of salt, used extens- 
ively in the manufacture of gun- 
powder : nitrate, n.,. nit' rat, a 
salt formed by the union of 
nitric acid with a base, as nitrate 
of soda : nitrite, n., mt f -rlt, 

having knots or swollen 
joints: nodosity, n., ndd-tis'i-ti, 
a knot of wood in the bark of 
certain trees formed of concentric 
layers ; in surg. t a calcareous 
concretion found in joints in 
gout, etc. 

nodule, n., nod r >ul (L. nodulus, a 
little knot), in anat., the anterior 
pointed termination of the infer- 
ior vermiform process which 
projects into the fourth ventricle 
of the cerebellum ; in bot., any 
knot-like body ;. in geol., any 
irregular concretion of rock- 
matter collected around some 
central nucleus: nodulose, a., 
nftd'-ul'dz' ', in bot., applied to roots 
having thickened knots at inter- 

noli-me-tangere, ndl'i-me-tanj' 
er-'e (L. noli, do not wish ; me, 
me ; tang ere, to touch), do not 
touch me ;. the deeply-ulcerating 

noma, n. ,, nomf-a (Or. nome, corro- 
sion from nemo, I corrode), a 
gangrenous form of stomatitis ; 
may also affect the labia pudenda, 
resembling gangrene of the 
mouth: nomae, n. plu., nomf-e, 
eating, corroding, or cancerous 

non compos mentis,, non komp'os 
ment'-is (L. non, not; compos, able, 
possessed of ; mens, mind, mentis, 
of mind), not sound of mind ; not 
in his right senses ; incapable of 
conducting their own affairs owing 
to a morbid condition of intellect. 

norma verticalis, norm'd vert'-ik- 
dV-is (L. norma, a rule ; vertical- 
is, vertical from vertex, the 
top or crown of the head), the 
examination of skulls by looking 
perpendicularly down upon them 
as a method of comparing skulls 
of different races. 

normal, a. , norm'-al (L. normdlis, 
according to rule from norma, 
a rule), conforming to the usual 
standard ; adhering to the ordin- 
ary structure. 




nosography, n., noz-tig'raf-i (Gr. 
nosos, disease ; grapho, I write), 
the scientific description of dis- 

nosology, n., noz-ol'ti-ji (Gr. 
nosos, disease ; logos, discourse), 
the systematic arrangement of 
diseases ; in bot., the study of 
diseases peculiar to plants ; the 
branch of medicine which treats 
of the systematic arrangement of 
diseases: nosological, a., ndz'd- 
Itidj'-ik'al, pert, to : nosologist, 
n., noz'dl'd-jist, one skilled in 
the systematic arrangement of 

nosophyta, n., noz-of^U-d (Gr. 
nosos, disease ; phuton, a plant), 
a disease caused by the growth 
or development of such parasitic 
plants as Fungi, in an animal 

nostalgia, n., nost-dlf-i-d (Gr. 
nostos, return, especially home ; 
algos, pain), a violent desire to 
return to one's native country ; 
home- sickness. 

NostochinesB, n. plu., nds'-td'Hn'' 
8-e (perhaps Gr. nostos, return, 
especially home; och$o, I bear or 
carry), a tribe or Sub-order of Algse, 
composed of moving filaments 
immersed in a gelatinous matter: 
Nostoc, n., ntis'tdk, a genus of 
Algse forming a kind. of mould ; 
one of the gelatinous, puckered, 
olive-coloured masses often found 
strewed on gravel and short grass 
after a few hours' rain. 

Notobranchiata, n. plu., not'-o- 
brdngk-i'dt'-a (Gr. notos, the 
back; brangchia, gills), a division 
of the Annelida, so named from 
carrying their gills upon the back. 

aotochord, n., not'-o-kdrd (Gr. 
notos, the back; dhorde, a chord), 
in zooL, a delicate fibrous band 
or rod developed in the embryo 
of vertebrates immediately be- 
neath the spinal cord, usually 
replaced in the adult by the 
vertebral column ; the ' chorda 
dorsalis. ' 

notoglossus, n., not f -o>gl$s'-us 
(Gr. notos, the back ; glossa, 
a tongue), a muscle of the 
tongue consisting mainly of 
longitudinal fibres, lying on the 
upper surface of the tongue, 
immediately beneath the mucous 
membrane ; the ' lingualis super- 
fieialis. ' 

Notopodium, n., notf-o-pod^-um 
(Gr. notos, the back ; podes, feet), 
in zooL, the dorsal division of 
one of the foot-tubercles of an 
Annelid ; the dorsal oar. 

NotorhizesB, n. plu., not'o-riz'-Z-e 
(Gr. notos, back ; rhiza, a root), 
a Sub-order of the Ouciferse, so 
named because in the plants the 
cotyledons are incumbent, and 
the radical dorsal, that is, applied ; 
to their back as in Shepherds' 
purses ; radicles on the back of 
the cotyledons : notorhizal, a., 
ndt'd'riz'dl, having the radicles 
in the embryonic plant on the 
back of the cotyledons. 

nucamentacesB, n. plu., nukf-d- 
m$nt'd''Se'e(~L.nucdmenta, things 
which hang down from trees in 
the shape of nuts, fir-cones, etc. ), 
in bot., one of the divisions of 
the Cruciferae founded on the 
seed-vessels : nucamentaceous, 
a., nuk'd-mZnt'd'shus, having a 
dry monospermal fruit, as certain 
Cruciferse ; producing nuts. 

nuciferous, a., nu-sif'-gr-us (L. 
nux, a nut, nucis, of a nut ; fero, 
I bear), bearing or producing 

nucleus, n., nuk'tt'us, nuclei, n. 
plu., nuk'-le-i (L. nucleus, a small 
nut, a kernel from nux, a nut), 
anything round which matter has 
accumulated ; the solid centre of 
any nodule or rounded mass ; the 
kernel of a nut ; the solid or 
vesicular body found in many 
cells ; the body which gives 
origin to new cells ; in zool. , the 
solid rod or band-shaped body 
found in the interior of many of 
the Protozoa, having sometimes 




are said to be astringent, and the 
seeds contain a good deal of 

nutation, n., nut- a' shun (L. 
nutdtio, a nodding ; niitans, a 
nodding or wagging the head), a 
constant and involuntary move- 
ment of the head in one or more 
directions ; in bot., the curvature 
in an organ of a plant, produced 
by the unequal growth of different 

nutrition, n., nut-risk'-un (L. 
nutrio, I nurse or nourish), that 
function or process in a living 
body by which matter or food, 
already elaborated 'by organic 
actions, is converted into their 
different tissues, thus repairing 
waste and promoting growth. 

nux vomica, nuks vom'ik'd, (L. 
nux, all fruits that have a hard 
shell ; vomzcus, pert, to vomiting 
-from vomo, I vomit), the nuts 
or fruit of the Strychnos nux- 
vomica, Ord. Loganiacese, which 
contains the alkaloids strychnia 
and brucia, and is a violent 
poison ; a medicinal preparation 
made from it and highly 

Nyctaginacese, n. plu., wttc'-t&dj* 
m-a'sfre (Gr. nux, night, nuktos, 
of night ; ago, I do, I act), a 
small Order of plants containing 
the -* Mirabilis ' or Marvel of 
Peru, a very showy plant whose 
flowers are very fragrant in the 
evening ; nearly all the plants 
of the Order have purgative 

Nyctanthes, n., rt&'titnth'-Sz (Gr. 
nux, night, nuktos, of night ; 
antJios, a flower), a genus of 
plants, Ord. Jasminacese : Nyc- 
tanthes arbor-tristis, drb'tfr-trfotf 
is (L. arbor, a tree ; tristis, sad), 
a tree valued on account of its 
fragrant flowers which expand at 
night, and fall off at the break of 

nymphsB, n. plu., nimf'e (Gr. 
numphe, L. nympha, a bride, a 




nymph), two small folds of 
mucous membrane, one on each 
side of the vagina ; the labia 

Nymphaeaceae, n. plu., nimf'e-a' 
se-e (L. nympha, Gr. numphe, a 
water nymph), an Order of 
floating plants having handsome 
flowers, and generally peltate 
leaves, some being bitter and 
astringent, others sedative : 
Nymphaea, n. plu., nimf'e-d, a 
genus of water-lilies : Nymphsea 
alba, aW-Oj (L. albus, white), the 
common white water-lily, a species 
whose rhizomes are better than 
oak-galls for dyeing grey, and 
are employed in tanning leather : 
N. lotus, lot'-us (Gr. lotos, L. 
lotus, the water-lily of the Nile), 
the Lotus Water-Lily, supposed 
to be the lily of the 0: T. 

nymphs, n. plu., nimfs (L. 
nympha, a maid), in? zool., the 
active pupae of certain insects. 

nystagmos, n., ms-tag'-mos (Gr. 
nustagmos, slumbering with 
nodding), an involuntary oscillat- 
ory movement of the eyeballs ; 
a condition of indistinct vision. 

obcompressed, a., 
(L. ob, reversed ; Eng. com- 
pressed), in bot., flattened in 
front and behind, not laterally. 

obcordate, a., db'kord'at (L. ob,. 
reversed ; cor, the heart, cordis, 
of the heart), heart-shaped, but 
inverted ; inversely cordate. 

obesity, n., ob-es'i-ti (L. obesus r 
fat, plump), excessive and un- 
healthy fatness ; corpulence. 

oblique, a., ob-lek r (L. obliquus, 
sidewise, slanting), deviating 
from straight line ; not parallel 
or perpendicular ; in bot., unequal- 

obliquus descendens externus 
abdominis, ob-llk'wus de-send'-ens 
elcs-tern'us ab-do'm'm-is (L. 
obliquus, sideways, slanting ; 
descendens, descending or falling; 
externus, o