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University of California Berkeley 
From the papers of 






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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-four, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-three, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-two, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and eighty-one, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and eighty, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy eight, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy- seven, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-five, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-foil.', Oy 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy -three, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

(B9oed by subscription only, and not for sale in the bookstores. Residents of any State desiring a copy should address the Publishers, and %v Agent will o&U upon tten , 


All portions of this book are protected by copyright, and infringements will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. 



Written Ten Years after the First Issue of This Work, Giving an Outline Sketch 
of the Causes Which Produced Hill's Manual. 

I HE purpose of this book is to teach how to write the document correctly, and do the 
right thing at the right time in various important positions in life. 

Born in a retired part of New England, where school advantages in childhood were 
few, and possessed of extreme sensitiveness as to his lack of needed education, the 
author of this volume early realized the want of a work that would serve as a teacher 
and guide to those who desire an education, but have little opportunity for obtaining it. 
When quite young, he resolved to acquire not only a knowledge of practical life himself, but to 
embody in a volume, for the use of others, such information as he, in his own experience, had real- 
ized that the people required. 

Twenty years went by, during which time, with an ample experience as student, teacher, 
traveler, editor, publisher and business-man, he was selecting, arranging, and waiting that which he 
designed some day to publish in permanent form. At last, with time and means at command, 
he sat down to finish that labor which he had resolved in early years to execute, and at the end 
of two years and two months, from the time his close attention was given to the work, with the aid 
of skilled workmen in every department of book-making, at an expense of many thousands of dol- 
lars, HILL'S MANUAL was issued to the world. Its success was immediate and permanent; and 
its influence as an educator has been immense, over a quarter of a million of copies having been 
sold; while imitations of the work, under various names, have had, in the aggregate, also, a 
large circulation. 

Notwithstanding the great sale of this book, its author and publishers are not content to allow 
it to rest on its past success. With a full realization of the advancing spirit and demand of the age, 
coupled with superior opportunity and knowledge gathered from large experience, additions and im- 
provements are continually being made, and no expense or effort is spared to maintain the rep- 
utation that this work has sustained from the first, as a reliable and Standard Form-Book. 
CHICAGO, 1884. 

HILL'S MANUAL, first issued in 1873, though very complete at first, has been from time to time enlarged. 

The following are now the principal divisions of the work, each being quite fully treated, and several 

of them appropriately illustrated with instructive engravings. 



Containing Directions, with Illustrations, for Business Penman- 
ship, Off-Hand Flourishing, and Lithographic Plates, with 
Suggestions on Management of Writing Classes 17 


Giving Position for Holding Hand and Pen when Writing Short- 
Hand, with the Necessary Copies and Directions for En- 
abling Students to Write Short-Hand 44 


Containing Directions and Examples for Spelling Words Ac- 
cording to Established Usage, and also According to the 
Phonetic Method of Spelling by Sound 48 


Giving Examples Wherein All the Different Punctuation-Marks 
are Brought into Use ; Together with Sentences and Words 
that Begin with Capital Letters 52 


Containing Sentences in which Appear the Different Parts of 
Speech; Followed by an Exhaustive Table of Ungram- 
matical Sentences, with their Corrections 55 


Presenting Striking Illustrations of Correct and Incorrect Pos- 
tures when Reading; Suggestions and Examples in Com- 
position, and a List of Rhetorical Figures and Examples.... 58 


Giving the Spelling, Definitions and Synonyms of Several Thou- 
sand Words in Common Use, whereby Writers and Speak- 
ers may Avoid Tautology in their Language 65 



Containing Forms for Letters of Correspondence, Including 
Superscriptions, Complimentary Addresses, Complimentary 
Closing, Titles of Honor in America, Europe, Etc 77 


Including Letters of Business, Introduction, Advice, Recom- 
mendation, Love, Friendship, Apology, Sympathy, Con- 
gratulation and Regret, Etc. , and How to Write Them 85 


Giving Wedding- Cards, Wedding-Invitations, Marriage Cer- 
emony, Marriage -Li cense, Marriage-Certificate, Notices, 
Cards for Marriage Anniversaries, Visiting-Cards, Etc 119 


Illustrating the Correct Method of Filling a Complete Family 
Record; Place of Family Names; when Born; Details of 
Marriage; Date of Death, Etc 128 


Giving a Large List of Flowers and Plants; the Language 
Ascribed to Each, and Directions for Conversing in the Lan- 
guage of Flowers 136 


Containing a Large and Very Complete List of Mottoes, Sen- 
timents and Expressions, in Prose and Poetry, Suitable for 
Use in the Autograph Album 139 


Presenting, through Beautifully Engraved Illustrations, Ac- 
companied by Directions, the Rules that Govern Polite 
Society ; the Whole Corrected to the Latest Dates 143 




Giving Promissory Notes, Bills of Sale, Checks, Drafts, Re- 
ceipts, Bills of Exchange, Orders, Rates of Interest in 
Each State, Limits of Time for Accounts, Notes, Etc 187 


Presenting, in a Simple, Original, and Condensed Form, Tables 
by which the Interest May be Found on any Sum, for any 
Time, at any Rate per Cent - 192 


Suitable for the Use of Tradesmen, Mechanics and Farmers, of 
Great Service to the Masses, Because so Simplified as to be 
Easily Understood in a Short Time of Study 198 


Containing a Great Variety of Agreements, Bonds, Deeds, 
Leases, Letters of Credit, Liens, Mortgages, Naturalization 
Forms, Partnership, Passports, Patents, Pensions, Wills 203 


Giving an Epitomized History of Canada, the Constitution 
of the Dominion, and Some of the Most Important Legal 
Forms in General Use 260 


Containing Populations of Principal Cities, Game-Laws, Nativi- 
ty of Inhabitants, Tariff Rates upon Goods Sent Into and 
Out of Canada, List of Articles Admitted Free, Etc 266 


Presents the Law of Each State Relating to the Property Ex- 
empt from Attachment or Levy and Sale on Execution, 
Corrected to Date 276 


Gives Process of Collecting Moneys from Parties who Owe the 
Same, According to the Most Approved Legal Methods; 
How Lawsuits are Conducted, Etc 280 


Containing a Series of Tables Relating to Population, Measures, 
Weights, Distances, Sizes, History, Finance, Agriculture, 
Mechanics, Science, Politics, Religion, Art, Chronology 288 


Their Birthplaces, Dates of Birth, Ages when in Office, Length 
of Terms, Dates and Places of Death, Fatal Diseases and 
Burial Places 288 


Their Respective States, Salaries and Length of Terms; When 
State Legislatures Meet and the Limits of Each Legislative 
Session ... 288 



Elaborate Exhibits of the Value of Cotton, Sugar and Other 
Commodities, at Various Prices, for the Use of Planters, 
Merchants and Brokers 298 


Figures from the Last United States Census, Showing the 
Number of Persons employed in the Numerous Vocations 
of the Union 306 


Public Expenditures of the United States Government and the 
Public Debt under Each Administration, from Washington 
to the Present Time Historical Facts 305 


Giving the Name, Location and Area of Each in the Several 
Cities of the Union; including Numerous Weil-Known 
Places of Public Resort 310 


Famous Resorts of the Nobility, Gentry and People of Great 
Britain, France, Germany and other Countries Size and 
Location 313 


Comparative Views of the Tallest Edifices, Monuments, Etc., in 
the World, Carefully Illustrated, and Showing their Respec- 
tive Heights at a Glance 314 


That are Native to Asia, Africa, North and South America and 
Europe: Including Birds, Fruits, Vegetables, Quadrupeds, 
Reptiles and Trees 315 


Comparative Views of the Most Important Elevations of the 
Earth, in North and South America, Europe, Asia and 
Africa, Showing the Altitude of Each 316 


The Number of Miles between the Leading Cities of the United 
States and Smaller Towns and Cities, by Railway and 
Steamer Routes 330 


When and How our Presidents have been Chosen, with the Names 
of All the Candidates, the Electoral and Popular Votes cast 
for Each, Etc -.324 


List of All the Presidential Cabinets, from Washington to the 
Present Administration, with Biographical Notices of Each 
Officer 330 



1M.F.ASI It F. RESORTS IN A >l Kit II A . 

Descriptions of the Principal Places Where Rest and Recreation 
may be Obtained Objects of Interest at Each Historical 
Notes, Etc 332 


A List of the Most Important Bodies of Fresh Water in Each 
State and Territory, Suitable for Summer Resorts, Etc. 
Location and Dimensions.. . ...338 


A Complete and Illustrated Collection of Modern Vehicles for 
Pleasure Riding and Business Purposes in Use in the 
United States 346 


Giving a Very Full and Complete List of All Abbreviations in 
General Use, the Whole being Corrected and Brought Down 
to a Very Late Date 352 


Describing all the Battles in the Late War ; Who Commanded on 
Each Side ; How Many were Killed, Wounded, and Taken 
Prisoners ; History and Results 357 


Giving a Condensed History of the United States; the Declara- 
tion of Independence and the Constitution; the First Con- 
gress and the First Presidential Election 3(59 


Explaining the Work of the President, Vice-President, Each of 
the Cabinet Officers, and all the Principal Departments of 
the General Government . . .374 




Presenting the Naturalization Laws of Each State ; the Time of 
Residence Required in Each State, in County, Town and 
Precinct, in order to Vote, Etc 412 


Giving Constitutions, By-Laws, Calls for Public Meetings, Res- 
olutions, and Petitions to Public Bodies, with Particular 
Directions for Conducting Public Entertainments, Etc 414 


Containing Forms of Calling Meetings to Order; Procedure in 
Legislative Assemblies; Appointment of Committees, and 
Laws for the Correct Government of Public Meetings 427 


Presenting Numerous Illustrations showing Personal Qualities 
that Lead to Success in Public Speaking; Necessary Arrange- 
ments in Halls ; Lighting, Location of Audiences, Etc 444 



Giving a Large Number of Illustrations from Life, Representing 
Expression of Face, Gesture and Posture, in order to give 
Words their Best Effect 452 


Containing a Large Number of Forms of Speeches Suitable for 
Almost any Occasion, whether Patriotic, Humorous, Sedate, 
or Logical, Accompanied by Spirited Illustrations 460 


Giving General Directions for Local Reporting and Gathering 
News of General Interest; Subjects About which to Write, 
and Names of Different Kinds of Type 490 


Containing Examples of the Method of Making Corrections in 
Proof -Sheets, and Showing an Article when Corrected ; Rules 
for Proof -Reading, and a List of Proof-Marks 496 


Showing a Large Number of Flourished Designs, Initial-Letters 
and Monograms ; Together with Alphabets of Marking-Let- 
ters, and Plain Lettering for the Use of Sign-Painters 



Containing a Very Full List of Rightly Punctuated Signs, Sign- 
Wording and Inscriptions, the Most of which Many Sign- 
Painters Cannot Properly Punctuate 509 


Showing a Variety of those Sentences which Engravers Require 
when Lettering Silver-Plate, Cane-Heads, Coffin-Plates, 
Presentation-Gifts, and Other Articles 513 


Giving Epitaphs, Sentiments, Suitable Wording and Punctuation, 
with Those Form s which People Require in Perpetuating the 
Memory of Friends upon Monuments and Tombstones 515 


Containing a Definition of Poetry, Examples of Rhyme and Blank 
Verse, and Illustrations of the Various Kinds of Verse, in 
Long, Short and Common Meters, and Different Syllables. . .520 


Giving an Explanation and Example of the Beauty which is 
Added to a Sentiment when Told in Rhyme ; Followed by a 
Complete List of Those Words that Rhyme 527 


Containing Many of the Most Beautiful Poems in the Language 
Poems that will Live in the Ages to Come, Each Teaching a 
Moral, and Every One a Gem ... 535 

Abbreviations, Modern List of 352 

Accidents in Carriage Riding, Precautions Against Illustrated 171 

Acknowledgment, Forms of 204 

Before Justice of the Peace 221 

of Husband and Wife Before Notary 204 

Administration of Justice Illustrated. . . .402-404 

Admonition, Letter of 100 

Advice, Letters of 99 

Advertisements, Brief Forms for 89 

Affidavits, General Forms of 205 

to a Will, Form of 256 

Agreements, Law and Forms of 202 

for Building a House 203 

for Sale and Delivery of Personal Property 204 

to Convey Land by Deed 203 

with Clerk for Services.. 203 

Agricultural, Mechanical and Statistical Tables 295 

Aids to Composition Illustrated 58 

Albums, Selections for 139 

Alcohol, Amount of in Different Liquors 303 

Allusion in Writing and Speaking, Example of 63 

Allegory, as Used in Writing and Speaking, Definition of 62 

Alloys used in Preparing Metals 308 

Alphabet of Brush Letters for Marking Purposes Illustrated 500 

Doric Letter 501 

Mediaeval Letters 502 

Ornamental Initial Letters Illustrated 505 

Ornamental Capitals 506 

Ornamental Initial Script 507 

Old English Text 502 

Old English Fancy Text Illustrated 502 

of Plain Roman Letters 500 

of Antique Pointed Letters 501 

One Hand, Used by Deaf and Dumb Illustrated 501 

Pointed Condensed Letter 501 

Amendments to Questions, Suggestions Concerning 434 

Animals, Fruits, Etc., Native to the Four Continents 316-317 

Animals, Age to Which Various Kinds Live 290 

Animals, Size of Different Kinds of 345 

Antithesis in Writing and Speaking, Example of 62 

Anniversaries of Marriage, What They are Called 130 

Annual Salaries of United States Officers 350 

Apology, Letters of 101 

Apostrophe in Writing and Speaking 63 

Appeal to Higher Courts in Collection of Debts 283 

Application, Form foi Writing 89 

Apprentice Forms 205 

Arbitration, Suggestions Relating to 206 

Bond for Submission to 207 

Special Forms for 207 

Arbitrators, Forms of Notices to 208 

Award, Form of 208 

Settlement of Difficulties Relating to Wills 256 

Area and Population of the Earth 292 

Area in Square Miles of Different Countries 291 

In Square Miles of Each of the United States 291 

Army, Soldiers in from Each State During the Late Civil War 294 

of the United States, Military Equipment, etc Illustrated 380 

Armies of the World Number of Men 295 

Arrest, Who are Exempt from 283 

Assignment, Suggestions Relating to 208 

for Benefit of Creditors 211 

of Wages 2O9 

of a Mortgage 209 

of a Lease 210 

of an Insurance Policy 210 

of Railroad Stock 210 

of a Patent 210 

of a Copyright 210 

Assisting a Lady to Alight from a Carriage Illustrated 171 

Astronomical Tables, Giving Facts Concerning the Planets 303 

Attorney-General, Duties of 401 

Attachment, Legal Form of in Attaching Goods 283 

Attractive Personal Appearance Illustrated 176 

Ayes and Nays in Public Meetings, Calling the 432 


Bail, Suggestions Relating to 211 

Bait for Different Game 304 

Balls, How to Conduct Them Illustrated 154 

Conduct to be Avoided 155 

Evils of 154 

Invitations to, Forms of 154 

Baldness, How to Prevent 178 

Banking, Suggestions and Forms 194 

Bills of Exchange 196 

Deposit Tickets 194 

Forms in the Check-Book Illustrated 195 

Forms of Drafts Illustrated 197 

Laws of Grace on Sight Drafts 197 

Sight and Time Drafts, Forms of 197 

the Pass-Book 194 

Banquet, The Illustrated 481 

Baptismal Service Illustrated 480 

Bathing, Directions for 177 

Directions for in Letter of Advice 100 

Battles of the Civil War Illustrated 357 

Bays, Length and Breadth of Largest 292 

Beauty, Personal Habits Which Make It 177 

Bible, Summary of 301 

Bills of Lading, Form of Illustrated 213 

Bills of Exchange Illustrated 196 

Bills of Purchase, Forms of Illustrated 201 

Bills of Sale, Forms of - 212 

Birds, Age Attained by 295 

Birds, Speed at Which They Fly 290 

Blank Verse, Description and Illustrations of 521 

Blondes, Colors They Should Wear 179 

Board, Table Giving Price of per Day 299 

Bonds, Common Form of 214 

of the Cashier of a Bank 214 

of a Corporation 214 

Bonnets, Colors with which to Trim Them 179 

Bookkeeping, Directions for Keeping Books of Account 198 

the Day Book, the Ledger, Forms of Account Illustrated 198-199 

Book and Newspaper Type 494 

Books, Names of Different Sizes Illustrated 493 

the Folio, Quarto, Octavo and Duodecimo Illustrated 493 

Boxes, Capacity of Different Sizes 303 

Brevity in Composition, Examples of 60 

Bricks, Number Required in Walls of Different Thicknesses 303-309 

Brook, Artist's Illustrated 520 

Buildings, Highest on Earth Illustrated. . . 314-315 

Brunettes, Colors They Should Wear 179 

Business Letters Illustrated 85 

Bushel, Legal Weight of in Different States 299 

Business Man, Complimentary Address to 79 

By-La ws for the Government of Meetings 415 

Builders' Table of Brick for Walls 309 

Cabinet Officers, Their Duties 376 

Cabinet Officers in Each Administration 330 

Calling Cards, Forms of, When to Use Them 149 

Calls for Public Meetings, Forms of Wording Illustrated 416 

for Old Settlers' Reunion, Democratic Rally, School Meeting 416 

for Firemen's Review, Woman-Suffrage Convention, Railroad 

Meeting 416 

for Fourth of July Celebration, Temperance Convention, Eight-Hour 

Meeting 417 

When, Where and How to Call 148 

on New Year's Day 150 



Cambridge Literary Club Illustrated 445 

Canada, an Outline of Early History Illustrated 26<> 

Area, Population and Capitals of Provinces 266 

Birthplace of Inhabitants 266 

Constitution for the Government of 261 

Copyright in Canada 275 

Customs Tariff of Great Britain 270 

Legal Forms in General Use 271 

Number of Members of Different Religious Denominations 266 

Population of Principal Cities 266 

PosWDffice Savings-Bank 270 

Seasons in Which Game and Fish Must Not be Taken or Killed 266 

Sketch of Queen and Royal Family 275 

Tariff Duties Between Canada and the United States 267 

Canals, American, Their Length and Cost 304 

Capacity of Large Rooms 292 

Capacity of Freight Cars 292 

Capital Letters, Ornamental Illustrated 5O6 

Capital Letters Illustrated 23-26-27-31 

Capital Letters, Rules for the Use of 52 

Capitol at Washington Illustrated 405 

Cards, Address Illustrated 135 

Carriages, Modern, and Other Vehicles ; . . . Illustrated. . .346-347 

Carriage Riding, How to Make it Agreeable Illustrated 171 

How to Assist a Lady into a Carriage Illustrated 171 

How to Assist the Lady from the Carriage Illustrated 171 

Precaution Against Accidents 171 

Cards, Visiting and Business, Forms of Illustrated 135 

Cattle, Horses and Hogs Running at Will in Streets, Evil of 184 

Caution in Love Letters, Necessity of 1 10 

Celebrations and Festivals Illustrated 422 

Celebrations, Suggestions Concerning Arrangements. .Illustrated 422 

First Steps, Fourth of July 422 

Necessary Officers and Committees 422 

Public Dinners, Picnics and Festivals 422 

Ceremony of Marriage, Forms of 125 

Certificate of Marriage, Form of 125 

Charming Homes, How to Make Them Illustrated 185 

Division Fence Between Houses Illustrated 184 

Pleasant and Agreeable Neighbors Illustrated ...185 

Troublesome, Disagreeable Neighbors Illustrated 184 

Check-Book, Forms of Checks Illustrated 195 

Children, Importance of Biography of in Record 128 

China Weddings, Form of Invitation to 131 

Church Towers, Highest in the World Illustrated. .314-315 

Churches, Their Capacity ,...292 

Church Etiquette, What is Proper Illustrated 172 

Chronological Tables of Important Events 348-349 

Cisterns, Capacity of Different Sizes 394 

Cities at Last Census, Population of ... .296 

Civil War, Number of Men in United States Service 294 

Civil War, Number of Men Called to Serve 308 

Classification of Words in Spelling 49 

Cleanliness, Directions for in Letters of Advice 100 

Climax in Writing and Speaking, Example of 63 

Codicil, Form of 255 

Coins, Value of the Gold and Silver Coins of the World 308 

Colleges Where Presidents were Educated 294 

Collectors of Customs, Duties of 387 

Collection of Debts, Precautions and General Directions 280 

Attachment of Goods and Attachment of Body 283 

Cost of Serving Summons 284 

First Efforts at Collection by Letters 281 

First Legal Steps and Form of Summons 281 

Form of Writ for Summoning Jurors 282 

Form of Execution Against Goods and Chattels 282 

Forms of Capias and Special Bail 283 

Forms of Power of Attorney 285 

How Soon the Debt may be Collected 284 

Levying Upon Real Estate, and Appeal to Higher Courts 283 

Limit of Justices' Jurisdiction 281 

Expense Incident Upon Collection 281 

Who are Competent, and Who Exempt, as Jurors 282 

Who are Exempt from Arrest 283 

Colossal Wonders of the World in Ancient Times 234 

Colors, Combinations of Shades that Make Different Kinds of 304 

Suitable for Different Complexions 179 

Colors, in Dress Most Beautiful at Night 180 

in Dress Most Beautiful by Daylight 180 

Suitable to Wear at Different Seasons 180 

that Contrast, yet Harmonize , 180 

Committee Reports, Suggestions About 429 

Common Christian Names, List of 1 38 

Complaint, Form for Writing 87 

Complimentary Address, Forms of 79 

Compound Interest. How it Doubles : 290 

Committees Necessary in the Management of Celebrations 422 

Company, Bad, Letter of Advice to Beware of 100 

Complexion, Colors Suitable for the 179 

Composition and Declamation Illustrated 58 

Commercial Forms Illustrated 187 

Congressmen, Duties of Illustrated. . . 406-407 

Consumptives, Healthiest Regions for 302 

Conversation, How, When and Where to Speak 152 

Congress, Number of Representatives in from Each State 294 

Conducting Public Meetings, Official Form 431 

Congratulation, Form for Writing 95 

Conduct to Avoid in the Dining-Room 157 

Condolence, Letter of 93 

Constitution of the United States 371 

Constitution and By-Laws, Eorms of Illustrated 414 

for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 414 

of a Village Lyceum 415 

Contrast in Penmanship, Principles of Illustrated 27 

Construction of Sentences, Rules for 64 

Conditions, Favorable for Public Speaking Illustrated 449 

Copies Suitable for the Writing Lesson 41 

Copyright, Law of in the United States 287 

Coroner, Duties of 286 

Verdict in Case of Murder, Form of 286 

Verdict in Case of Suicide, Form of 286 

Verdict in Case of Drowning, Form of 286 

Verdict in Case of Natural Death, Form of 286 

Corporate Associations, Suggestions Relating to 215 

Correct Position for the Hand in Writing Illustrated 24 

Correct and Incorrect Positions in Writing Illustrated 29 

Cotton, Sugar and General Reckoning Tables 298 

Cotton Wedding, when it Occurs 130 

Countries of the World, Population, Size and Government 291 

Name of Capital and Prevailing Religion 291 

Number of Inhabitants to Square Mile 291 

Courtship and Marriage, Conditions that Promote Happiness 164 

Conduct of the Engagement 166 

Etiquette of the Wedding 166 

How to Court and Ho w to Propose 165 

Peculiarities Suitable for Each Other 165 

Providing for a Home ] 65 

the Wedding Dress 166 

the Wife's Duty After Marriage ...167 

the Husband's Duty After Marriage 167 

Whom to Marry, " Mismated" 164 

Criminals, Effects of Kindness to 186 

Crystal Wedding, Form of Invitation to 131 

Curved Lines in Penmanship, Beauty of 26 

Custody of Children Provided by Will 256 

Cubic Feet of Various Commodities, Weight of 290 

Dates of Important Events 348-349 

Days of Grace on Drafts, Notes, etc., in Different States 197 

Debts of Principal Countries 304 

Deeds, Form of Warranty Deed' with Covenants 220 

Quit-Claim, Forms of 220-221 

Declaration of Independence Illustrated 370 

Degrees at which Substances Melt, Boil, Freeze, etc 290 

of Heat at which Eggs Hatch 290 

Deposit Tickets Used by Bankers Illustrated 194 

Description, Letters of 109 

Diamond Wedding, when it Occurs 130 

Dictionary of Synonyms, Giving Several Thousand Words 65 

of Words that Rhyme 527 

Diet, Direction for in Letter of Advice 100 

Digestion, Periods of 309 



Dinner Parties, How to Conduct Them Illustrated 159 

Disadvantages in Public Speaking Illustrated 448 

Distances from Principal Cities to other Cities* 320-323 

Distances to the Principal Cities from New York City by Water 350 

Distances Around the World 303 

Dower, Table Showing Value of Widow's Dower 350 

Drafts, Forms of Bank, Sight and Time Drafts Illustrated 197 

Dresses, Trailing on the Street, Suggestions About 182 

Dress, Directions for in Letter of Advice 100 

Dress, Means by Which it is Made Beautiful 176 

Due-Bills, Form, Payable in Money 190 

Payable in Flour, in Merchandise 190 

Dunning Letters, Forms of 28] 

Duodecimo (12mo), Shape of Books Called Illustrated 493 

Duties of a Congressman Illustrated... .406-407 

Duties of the Vice-President ...Illustrated 376 

Earth, Different Divisions of the 292 

Eclipses of the Sun and Moon Before 1900 295 

Eight-Hour Meeting, Form of Call for 417 

Election Laws of the United States 412 

Elements of Small Letters in Writing Illustrated 22 

Elements of the Beautiful 176 

Elementary Sounds in the English Language 48 

Employes, Relations Between Employer and Employe 172 

Employment, Letters of Application for 90 

Engravers' Inscriptions, Suitable for Use of Jewelers. . .Illustrated 513 

for Use on Cases, Watches, Coffin-Plates Illustrated 514 

Suitable for Birthday, Christmas and Wedding Presents 514 

Engagement of Marriage, Suggestions About 166 

Envelopes, How to Address Illustrated 82-83 

Epitaphs, Form, Wording, etc Illustrated 515 

Epistolary Penmanship, Copies for Illustrated 43 

Essay, Reading the Illustrated 58 

Etiquette in the Church Illustrated 172 

Etiquette, Laws of Illustrated 143 

Etiquette, What to Say and How to Do Illustrated 152 

Assisting the Lady into and from the Carriage. ..Illustrated 171 

at Sociables, Tea-Parties, Picnics, etc 160 

Bad Manners at the Table Illustrated 158 

Colors Suitable for Different Complexions Illustrated 179 

Conduct When Shopping Illustrated 151 

Conditions that Make Happiness in Married Life 167-168 

Conduct Proper for the Street Illustrated 182 

Forms and Observances at the Funeral 170 

In the School Illustrated 173 

Hints on Traveling Illustrated 168 

Hints on Fashions Illustrated 181 

Horseback Riding Illustrated 169 

How to Please in Conversation Illustrated 152 

How Neighbors may have Happy Surroundings. . Illustrated 185 

Introductions, How to Make Them Illustrated 145 

Important General Rules of Conduct Illustrated 183 

Kind Treatment of Employes 172 

Kindness to the Erring and Unfortunate 186 

New Year's Calling Illustrated 150 

of Parties, Balls and Invitations to Illustrated 154 

Personal Habits which are Essential to Beauty. . .Illustrated 177 

Politeness and Gentility in the Dining-Room Illustrated 159 

Salutations, the Bow, Nicknames, etc Illustrated. ...146-147 

Suggestions about Visiting .162 

the Toilet, How to Dress Beautifully Illustrated 177 

the Use of Cards 149 

the Table, How to Set and Arrange It Illustrated 157 

Ungraceful Positions Sometimes Assumed Illustrated 148 

What to Observe and Avoid When Calling Illustrated 149 

What Makes Happy Home-Life Illustrated 174 

Euphemism in Writing and Speaking, Example of 63 

Events, Leading, on Every Day of the Year 348-349 

Exchange, Bills of Illustrated 196 

Exclamation in Writing and Speaking, Example of 63 

Excuse, Letters of 101 

Exercise, Directions for in Letter of Advice 100 

Exemptions from Forced Sale in Different States '...Illustrated 276 

Real Estate and Personal Property Exempt from Sale ... ... .276 

Execution Against Goods and Chattels, Form of 282 

Expression in Letter-Writing, Purity of , 78 

Expense Incident Upon Collection, of Debts 284 

Exports of Various Countries 292 

Extempore Speaking, Directions for 59 

Extradition, Forms in Use for .' 222 

Facial Expression Lady .13 Illustrations. . .456-459 

Facial Expression Gentleman 14 Illustrations. . .452-455 

Facts for Builders Superficies 309 

Family Records, Forms of Illustrated 129 

Fashion, Hints to Ladies and Gentlemen 181 

Faults in Large and Small Letters Illustrated 30-31 

Faults in Writing and Speaking 56 

Favors, Letters Asking 102 

Feet, How to Care for Them 178 

Fences Between Houses Illustrated 184 

Fencing, Lumber Required for 1 Mile 295 

Figures, Arabic and Roman Numerals 295 

Figures of Rhetoric, Examples of 62 

Financial History of the United States 305 

Fires, Greatest of Modern Times 309 

Flowers, Language and Sentiment of 136 

Flourishing with Pen and Pencil Illustrated 498 

Folio, Shape of Books Called Illustrated 493 

Food, Time Required to Digest Different Kinds 309 

Foods, Best for Sheep 301 

Foods, Relative Worth of Many 295 

Foods, Various, Nutriment in 295 

Foods, Relative Value of Different Kinds 302 

Solidity of Different Kinds 303 

Foreign Coins, Value of 308 

Foreign Words and Phrases, with Pronunciation 351 

Foreigners, Number of in the United States 294-301 

Form of a Letter Illustrated 79 

Fourth of July Oration Illustrated 444 

Fourth of July Celebration Illustrated 472 

Fourth of July Celebration, Call for 417 

Freight Car, its Capacity 292 

French Words and Phrases 351 

Friendship, Letters of 105 

Friendship, an Acrostic '. . . . 526 

Fruit, Time Required in Boiling for Canning 302 

Fuel, Value of Different Woods for '. 290 

Funeral Notice, Form of Illustrated 134 

Funerals, How to Conduct Them 17O 

Funerals, Public and Private Illustrated . . .473-515 

Garnishee, Suggestions About Suing 283 

Gentility in the Dining-Room Illustrated 159 

Gentility in the Parlor Illustrated 149 

Gentleman's Position When Writing Illustrated 20 

Gifts, Letters Accompanying 103 

Gold and Silver Coins, Value of 308 

Gold, Where it Comes From 293 

Golden Wedding, Form of Invitation to 131 

Government of the Patent Office 393 

Governors, Senators and Representatives, Terms, Etc 288 

Government in Different Countries, Forms of 291 

Government Land, Where and How to Get It 386 

Grace on Sight-Drafts, Laws of 197 

Grammar, Parts of Speech 55 

Grain, Natural Shrinkage 295 

Great Cities of the World, Population of : 297 

Green and Dry Wood, Difference in Weight of 290 

Guaranty for Payment of Note : 224 

of Performance of Contract 224 

of Father for Son's Fidelity 224 

Guarantee for Payment of Money, Form of 190 

Guardian and Minor Children 223 

Form of Bond for 223 

Petition to Have Appointed 223 

Guests, What is Expected of Them when Visiting 162 



Hair, How to Make it Abundant and Beautiful 178 

Hand, How to Make it Handsome 1 78 

Handshaking, Various Modes of Illustrated 147 

Happiness in Married Life, What Makes It 164 

Hay, Cost of Small Quantities 300 

Heat, Degrees at Which Substances Melt, Freeze, etc 290 

Height and Weight of Human Beings at Different Ages 304 

Historical Facts Relating to the United States 292 

Holidays, Where Legal in the United States .345 

Home Relations Between Parents and Children 174 

Home Made Beautiful, Views of Illustrated 185 

Homesteads, How to Secure Illustrated 386 

Honesty in Courtship, Importance of 110 

Horseback Riding, Cautions and Suggestions Illustrated 169 

Horses, Weight of Different Breeds 300 

Host and Hostess, Duties of Each when Receiving Visits 163 

House of Representatives Illustrated 4O7 

Husbands and Wives, Duty to Each Other 167 

Hyperbole in Writing and Speaking, Erainple of 62 


Ice, Strength of Different Thicknesses 294 

Illiteracy in Different Countries 302 

Important Events, When They Occurred 348 

Incorporation, Form of Application for 216 

Charter for a Company, Form of 217 

Cost of Organizing a Company 218 

Form of State License for 217 

Form of Incorporators' Report 217 

for Social and Benevolent Purposes 219 

for Religious Purposes 219 

Independence, Declaration of 370 

Indorsements of Promissory Notes, Form of 188 

Indian Meal, Value of 295 

Initial Letters, Ornamental Illustrated 505 

Initial Script, Ornamental Illustrated. . .507-508 

Initial Capital Letters Illustrated 505 

Ink Suitable to Use when Writing 19 

Inscriptions for Engravers 513 

Suitable for Tombstones 515 

Insurance Table of Expectation of Life 350 

Insurance, Form of Fire Policy Illustrated 225 

Form of Life Policy Illustrated 226 

Tables of Rates 299 

Interest, Short Rules for Finding Rate of 303 

How Rapidly it Doubles when Compounded 290 

Rates of Each State 191 

Tables, How to Compute Interest 193 

Intemperate Men, Danger to Women of Marrying Ill 

Interrogation in Writing and Speaking, Example of 63 

Interior, Duties of Secretary of 391 

Introduction, Letters of ". 97 

Introductions, Directions for Illustrated 145 

Invitations to Parties Illustrated. . . 132-133 

Invitations to Wedding Anniversaries Illustrated... 130-131 

Invitations to Receptions, Forms of Illustrated 127 

to Weddings Illustrated... 120-121 

Irony in Writing and Speaking, Example of 62 

Italian Words and Phrases 351 

Joint Note of Two or More Persons, Form of 189 

Judgment Note, Form of 190 

Jurors, Who are Competent to Serve on Juries 282 

Juries, Who are Exempt from Serving on 282 

Justice's Jurisdiction in Collecting Debts, Limit of 281 

Kindness, Its Importance with the Erring and Criminal Classes 186 

Kissing, Suggestions About : 147 

Knife, Fork, Teacup, How to Hold when Eating Illustrated 160 

Lading, Bills of Illustrated 213 

Lady's Position When Writing Illustrated 21 

Land Surveyors of the United States 392 


Lakes of the United States, Location and Size 338-344 

Lakes, their Length and Breadth t 292 

Landholders in Great Britain, Number of 301 

Land, Rules for Measuring It 289 

Language, Rules for Construction of 64 

Landlord's Notice to Tenant 228 

Landlord and Tenant, the Law of Different States 227 

Large Rooms, Capacity of 292 

Latin Words and Phrases 351 

Laws of Etiquette Illustrated 143 

Laws of Language 64 

Lease of a Farm and Buildings .228 

Lease of House for Term of Years 228 

Lease, Short Form 227 

Notice to Quit, Tenant's Notice 228 

Leather Wedding, when it Occurs 130 

Legal Business Forms Illustrated 202 

Legal Holidays in the United States 345 

Legal Steps to be Taken in Collection of Debts 281 

Lessons in Penmanship, Programme of 36 

Letter of Credit, Form of 229 

of Credit, a Guarantee 229 

Letter Writing; Originality and General Style Illustrated 77 

Forms of Superscriptions on Envelopes Illustrated 82 

Parts of a Letter, Form of Illustrated 78 

Positions of Various Parts Illustrated 79 

Titles of Address Used in Writing 80 

Letters of Business; Suggestions Concerning them 85 

Complaining of Error in Bill . 87 

Forms of Resignation 87 

Forms of Letters Ordering Books and Dry Goods 86 

Form a Young Man Commencing Business 86 

Notice of Having Forwarded Goods 87 

Reply from Wholesale House, with Invoice 86 

Requesting Information 86 

Recommending a Successor 87 

Requesting a Friend to Make Purchases 87 

Requesting a Settlement of Account < 88 

to Pioneer Settler with Reply 88 

Urging Payment of Rent 88 

Letters of Application, Forms of Advertising 89 

Answering Advertisement for a Bookkeeper 90 

for a Situation as Cook, Chambermaid, Gardener 90 

for Situation as Coachman, Governess 91 

for Situation as Dressmaker, Music Teacher, Printer 91 

from Persons Applying for Clerkships 90 

Letters of Recommendation, for Salesman, Schoolmistress 92 

for Bookkeeper, Waiter, Cook 92 

for Washerwoman, Port er 92 

Letters of Sympathy; to a Friend on the Death of a Husband 93 

on Death of Wife, Sister, Daughter, Infant 94 

to a Friend on the Death of a Mother 93 

to a Friend on the Death of a Brother 93 

to a Friend on Reverse of Fortune , 94 

Letters of Congratulation, to a Friend on Election to Office 95 

on Receiving a Legacy 96 

on Passing a Successful School Examination 96 

on Obtaining a Business Situation 96 

to a Gentleman upon His Marriage 96 

to a Friend upon the Birth of a Son 96 

to a Friend on a Wedding Anniversary 96 

to an Author on the Success of his Book 96 

Letters of Introduction, Introducing one Gentleman to Another 97 

Introducing one Lady to Another 97 

Introducing a Young Musician to a Lady Friend 97 

Introducing an Officer to a Brother Officer 97 

Introducing a Gentleman Seeking a Clerkship 98 

Introducing a Sister to a Schoolmate 98 

Introducing a Clerk to a Fellow Clerk 98 

Introducing a Student to the Writer's Mother 98 

Introducing a Friend to a Member of Congress 98 

Introducing a Literary Lady to a Publisher 98 

Introducing a Daughter About to Make a Visit 98 

Letters of Advice; Advising a Young Lady to Refuse Gifts from a Gentle- 
man 99 

Advising a Young Man to Beware of Bad Company 100 

Advising a Young Man against a Hurried Marriage 100 



Letters to a Gentleman on the Subject of Health 100 

to an Orphan Boy on How to Succeed 100 

Letters of Excuse ; Apologizing for a Broken Engagement 101 

Apologizing for Failure to Pay Money Promptly 101 

for Breaking a Business Engagement 101 

for Delay in Returning a Book 101 

to a Teacher from a Parent 101 

Letters Asking Favors ; Requesting the Loan of a Book 102 

Requesting the Loan of Money 102 

Requesting a Letter of Introduction 102 

Requesting the Loan of an Opera-Glass 102 

Requesting the Loan of a Pistol 102 

Letters Accompanying Gifts ; Accompanying Photographs 103 

Accompanying a Betrothal Gift or Ring 103 

Accompanying a Book 104 

Accompanying a Bouquet 104 

Accompanying a Birthday Gift 104 

Accompanying a Donation to a Clergyman 104 

Accompanying a Gift to a Superintendent 104 

Replies to Letters Accompanying Gifts 104 

Letters of Friendship ; From a Young Lady to a Schoolmate 106 

to a Friend About to Marry 108 

Letters to Relatives; From a Husband to his Wife 106 

from a Young Man at College to his Parents f 108 

from a Girl at School to her Mother 106 

from Absent Wife to Husband 107 

from a Daughter to her Parents 107 

from a Mother to Daughter in the City 107 

from a Father, Remonstrating with his Son 107 

Answer of Mother to the Daughter 107 

Answer of Husband to the Wife 107 

Reply of the Son to his Father 108 

Letters of Description ; From a Gentleman Visiting the Old Home 108 

from a Lady Visiting in Chicago 109 

Letters of Love: Cautions and Suggestions 110 

A Lover's Good-bye, and the Reply 113 

Asking for a Letter of Introduction 113 

A Gentleman Makes a Frank Acknowledgment 116 

An Offer of Marriage, with Favorable Reply 1 18 

Favorable and Unfavorable Replies 112 

Favorable and Unfavorable Replies to the Stranger 114 

from a Gentleman Confessing a Change of Sentiment 117 

from a Lover Going West, Favorable Reply 118 

How to Reply to the Personal Advertisement 115 

Invitation to a Place of Amusement 112 

With no Previous Acquaintance 114 

To an Entire Stranger 114 

One Way of Breaking the Ice 118 

Personal Advertisement in a Morning Paper 115 

Reply Accepting, Reply Refusing 112 

Reply to a Young Man Addicted to Intemperance 117 

Reply to a Young Man who Uses Tobacco 1 14 

Reply Accompanied by the Letter 113 

to the Father of the Lady 113 

The Father's Reply, Favorable and Unfavorable 114 

Unfavorable Reply, Favorable Reply .114 

Letters, No. in Various Alphabets 344 

License to Marry, Form of Illustrated 124 

to Peddle, Form of 230 

to Sell Ardent Spirits, Form of 230 

to Sell Tobacco and Cigars, Form of 230 

Limitation of Action in Different States 191 

Lincoln and His Cabinet Illustrated 377 

Losses in Battles, Ancient and Modern 344 

Losses in the American Civil War 344 

Love, Letters of 110 

Lungs, Directions for Inflation of 100 

Lumber Measure, Table for 293 

Lumber, Weight of 295 


Man in Oratory Illustrated 452 

Marks of Punctuation 52 

Marking Letters Illustrated 500 

Married Woman's Note in New York, Form of 189 

Marriage Anniversaries, When to Celebrate Them 130 

Ceremonies, How to Conduct Them 166 

Marriage Certificate, Form of Illustrated.. 

License, Form of Illustrated. . 

Notices, Forms of Illustrated. . 

Measuring Land, Rules for 

Measures, Long, Square and Cubic 

Mechanics' Lien, Form of 

Meetings, Directions for Conducting Them 

Metals and Their Alloys 

Metals, Most Valuable 

Metonymy in Writing and Speaking, Example of 

Metaphor, as Used in Writing and Speaking, Definition 

Meter, Definition, Examples of 

Metric System of Weights and Measures 

Military and Naval Rank, How Designated 

Milk, of What Composed 

Ministers to Foreign Countries, Duties of 

Mind, Directions for Condition of , 

Mining and Miners' Forms 

Affidavit of Labor Performed to Hold Claim 

Agreement for Prospecting, Form of 

Certificate of Having Located a Claim 

Diagram of Miner's Claim 

Forfeiture of Claim, Notice of 

How to Purchase a Mine from Government 

Important Facts for Miners 

Incorporating a Company for Mining, Form of 

Lease of Mine, Form of 

Miner's Lien for Labor Performed 

Relocating a Mine, Form of 

Selling a Mine, Form of Quit-Claim Deed 









. 62 

. 62 

Mistakes Common in Writing and Speaking 

Monograms of Two, Three, Four and Nine Letters Illustrated. 

Mortgages, Form of Chattel Mortgage 

Auctioneer's Affidavit that the Property was Sold 

Caution to Persons Loaning Money 

Form of Note Secured by Mortgage 

Foreclosing Mortgage, Mode of Procedure 

Notice of Sale of Mortgaged Property , 

Real Estate Mortgage to Secure Payment of Note 

Release of Mortgage, Forms of 

Moon, its Influence on Growth of Plants 

Money, When it Doubles at Interest 

Money, Amount in Circulation in Different Countries 

Mountains, Highest on the Face of the Earth Illustrated.. 

Mountains, Highest in Asia and Africa Illustrated. 

Mountains, Highest in North America Illustrated . 

Mountains, Highest in Europe Illustrated. 

Mountains, Highest in South America Illustrated 

Multiplication Table 


Names of Men and Women Alphabetically Arranged 

Nations, Names of their People and the Language 

Nature's Rules as Applied in Penmanship 

Naturalization, General Forms of 

Navy, Duties of Secretary of Illustrated. 

Negotiable Note, Form of 

Neighbors, How They may be Improved 

Newspaper and Book Type 

Newspaper Reporting, Suggestions About 

New Year's Calling, Etiquette of 

Nicknames, Importance of Avoiding 

" No," Importance of Saying it Politely 

Nobility, Titles of Used in Writing 

Notice of Marriage, Form of 

Notes of Invitation, Etiquette of, General Suggestions 

Answers Accepting and Declining Invitations 

for Dinner 

to an Intimate Friend 

to a Lawn Soiree 

to an Evening Party 

to a Dinner Party 

to a Hallowe'en Party 

to a Dancing Party 

to Balls 

to a Silk Wedding 

to a Crystal, China, Silver and Golden Wedding . . . . 





















































...... 132 










to a Wedding, Picnic, Festival, Funeral, Ball 134 

Nuncupative Will, Form of 256 

Number of Plants, Hills or Trees Contained on an Acre 300 

Oceans, Seas and Bays, Their Area, Length and Breadth 292 

Octavo (8vo), Shape of Books Called Illustrated 493 

Occupation of the People in the United States 306-307 

Officers in the Army 380-381 

Officers of the Army, Prominent in the Civil War 368 

Officers of Societies, Duties of Presiding Officer 427 

Oil, Amount of in Different Seeds 302 

Old English Text 502 

Onomatopoeia in Writing and Speaking, Example of 64 

Orders for Goods, Forms of 86 

Orders, Forms of Illustrated 200 

Originality in Letter-Writing, Suggestions About 77 

Ornamental Lettering Illustrated 503 

Paper Wedding; When It Occurs 130 

Parliamentary Rules, for the Use of Public Meetings 427 

An Amendment to an Amendment 435 

Committees Select, Standing, of the .Whole 428 

Decision as to Order, a Tie Vote 437 

Duties of Presiding Officer 427 

Duties of Secretary; of Treasurer 428 

Duties of Members of the Meeting 430 

Losing the Right to the Floor 438 

Means by which to Secure Passage of a Question 433 

Official Form of Conducting a Meeting 431 

Presenting Petitions, Calling Ayes and Nays 432 

Previous Question, Suppression of Question 433 

Privileged Questions .. 436 

Proper Time for Speaking to a Question 438 

Putting the Question, Taking up the Question 434 

Referring to a Committee, Amendments 434 

Reports of Committees 429 

Speaking to the Question 431 

Suspension of Rules, Taking a Vote 438 

The Member Entitled to Speak First 438 

Titles of Women who Act as Officers 439 

What Amendments are in Order 436 

Who has the Right to the Floor 430 

Paper, Different Sizes for Different Purposes 289 

Paper Money in Circulation 293 

Parks, Public in the United States 31O-312 

Parks, Public in Canada 312 

Parks, Public in Europe 313 

Parts of a Letter Illustrated 78 

Paralipsis in Writing and Speaking, Example of 62 

Parents, Approval of in Courtship 119 

Parental Government, Rules for 174-175 

Partnership, Form of Agreement 243 

Notice of Dissolution of 243 

Partners for Life, Whom to Marry 164 

Passports when Traveling Abroad, Form of Illustrated 244 

Pass-Books Used in Banking, Form of 194 

Patent. Form of Application for 245 

Agreement to Use Patent and Pay Royalty, Form of 246 

Agreements to Use and Sell Patents, Forms of 247 

for Design, Form of 246 

for Registration of Trade-Mark, Form of 246 

for Transfer of Trade-Mark, Form of 246 

Important Facts for Patentees 247 

Inventor's Oath, Form of 246 

Petition for Caveat, Form of 246 

Pavement, Cost of Different Kinds 303 

Pearl Wedding, when it Occurs 130 

Peculiarities Suitable Among Each Other of Those Who Marry 165 

Pen, Suitable to Use when Writing 18 

Pen and Pencil Flourishing 498 

Pensions, Monthly Pension to which Pensioners are Entitled 248 

Form of Application for 249 

Penmanship 17 

Blackboard Flourishing, Teaching Penmanship. Illustrated 33 


Blackboard Flourishing, Chalk and Pencil Drawing Ills 40 

Business Penmanship, Showing Letter of Introduction. . . Ills 35 

Contrast, Position of Hand in Flourishing Illustrated 27 

Copies for the Writing School Illustrated 41 

Copies of Ladies' Epistolary Penmanship Illustrated 43 

Correct Position for Standing While Writing Illustrated 28 

Correct and Incorrect Positions for Sitting Illustrated 29 

Correct Position for Holding Pen while Writing. Illustrated 24 

Description of the Plates 32 

How to Organize the Writing Class 34 

How to Arrange Copies, Commencement of the Writing School 35 

Incorrect Position for Pen while Writing Illustrated 25 

Introductory Remarks Illustrated 17 

Legibility, Elements of Small Letters Illustrated 22 

Lithographic Copies of Alphabets, Figures, Words and Sentences... 32 

Lithographic Copies Representing Ladies' Penmanship 34 

Lithographic Copies Comprising Off-hand Capitals, Round-hand 
and Flourishing 36 

Lithographic Copies, Representing Pen-pictures of Birds, etc 38 

Nature's Rules, Curved Lines, Proportion Illustrated 26 

Paper Ink How to Practice 19 

Position while Writing Illustrated 20 

Position for Sitting and Holding the Pen Illustrated 21 

Principles of Capital Letters, Capital Letters Illustrated 23 

Programme of Exercises for Each Lesson 36 

Reasons Why We Should Write Well 40 

System of Copies Principles Hens 18 

Small Letters Contrasted, Showing Probable Faults 30 

Suggestions to Teachers 39 

Personal Property and Real Estate Exempt from Forced Sale 276 

Personification in Writing and Speaking, Example of 62 

Petitions to Public Bodies, Suggestions and Directions 421 

Asking for a Policeman 421 

for Opening a Street 421 

from Farmers to the State Legislature 421 

Remonstrating Against a Nuisance 421 

to the Governor, Asking for a Pardon ."^ 421 

Piano Playing at Parties, Etiquette of 161 

Picnics, Festivals and Public Dinners, How to Conduct 422 

Plants, How the Moon Influences their Growth 350 

Planets, Their Size, Periods of Revolution, etc 303 

Pleasure Resorts in the United States 332-337 

Poetry i What is Poetry ! The Old Church ' 520 

Canzonets, Epitaphs, Satires, Parodies, Acrostics. 526 

Dactylic Verse, Poetical Pauses 524 

Epigrams, Sonnets, Cantatas, Charades 526 

Kinds of Poetic Feet, Meter, Iambic Verse 522 

Meter, Long, Short and Common, Trochaic and Anapaestic Verse.. .523 

Names of the Different Kinds of Poems 525 

Prologues, Epilogues, Impromptus 526 

Versification, Illustration of Blank Verse 521 

Poems; Choice Selections from the Poets 535 

Absence Frances Anne Kemble. 546 

A Deathbed James Aldrich. 564 

Ambition Lord Byron. 575 

Autumn 526 

A Message Eben E. Rexford 

A Musical Box Illustrated W. W. Story. 


A Snow-Storm Illustrated Charles G. Eastman. 

A Wish for Thee Illustrated John G. C. Brainard. 548 

Betsey and I are Out Will M. Carletnn. 542 

Bingen on the Rhine Illustrated Caroline E. Norton. 558 

Black Eyes and Blue 526 

Blessed are They that Mourn Wm. C. Bryant. 575 

Changes 551 

Cleon and I Charles Mackay. 570 

Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Thomas Gray. 562 

Eternal Justice Charles Mackay. 536 

Extract from ' ' The Battle-Field " Wm. C. Bryant. 578 

Extract from ' 'A Psalin of Life " Henry W. Longfellow. 578 

Hannah Jane Petroleum V. Nasby. 538 

Hannah Binding Shoes. . . Illustrated. Lucy Larcom. 552 

Hereafter 537 

Heaven by Littles J. G. Holland. 579 

How Betsey and I Made Up Will M. Carleton. 543 

If I Should Die To-Night Belle E. Smith. 570 

Jenny Kissed Me Illustrated Leigh Hunt. 572 

Judge Not 568 




Keep Pushing 578 

Little and Great Illustrated Charles Mackay. 549 

Little Feet Illustrated Florence Percy. 557 

Little Boy Blue Abby Sage Richardson . 578 

Love Lightens Labor. 571 

Lullaby Illustrated Alfred Tennyson. 553 

Maud Muller Illustrated John G. Whittier. 544 

Mignonette Illustrated Mary Bradley. 560 

Mismated Luna S. Peck. 164 

Never Again 537 

Oh, Why Should the Spirit of Mortal be Proud? Wm. Knox. 573 

On the Other Side 575 

Over the Hill to the Poor-House Will M. Carleton. 566 

Over the Hill from the Poor-House Will M. Carleton. 567 

Over the River Illustrated Nancy Amelia Priest . 581 

RockMe to Sleep, Mother Florence Percy . 553 

Roll Call 572 

Rain on the Roof Coates Kinney. 575 

Scatter the Germs of the Beautiful 578 

Some Mother's Child 186 

Sometime 574 

Song of the Brook Illustrated Alfred Tennyson. 576 

The Motherless Turkeys Marian Douglass. 539 

The Planting of the Apple-Tree Wm. C. Bryant. 540 

The Old Oaken Bucket Illustrated Samuel Woodworth. 541 

The Covered Bridge. . 94 

The Crooked Footpath.... Illustrated Oliver Wendell Holmes . 565 

The Future Life Wm. C.Bryant. 494 

The Lost Steamship Fitz-James O'Brien. 547 

The First Snow-Fail Illustrated James Russell Lowell. 564 

The Sculptor Boy 548 

The Old Love 565 

The Little Boy That Died , Illustrated Joshua D. Robinson . 569 

The Vagabonds J- T. Trowbridge. 550 

The Doorstep Illustrated. Edmund Clarence Stedman. 577 

The Evening Bells Thomas Moore. 554 

The Closing Scene T. Buchanan Read. 559 

There is No Such Thing as Death 549 

There's But One Pair of Stockings to Mend To-night ...555 

Two Little Pairs Mrs. Susan Teall Perry. 563 

Up-Hill Illustrated Christina G. Rossetti. 573 

Until Death 574 

Weeds 580 

Weighing the Baby Illustrated Ethel Lynn. 568 

We Parted in Silence Mrs. Crawford. 551 

Which Shall it Be? Ethel Lynn Beers. 580 

Words for Parting Mary Clemmer. 571 

You and I v 555 

You Had a Smooth Path '..Millie C. Pomeroy. 186 

Pope's Essay on Man, in Short-Hand 47 

Population, Center of Gravity of 304 

Population, Area, etc., of Each of the United States 291 

Different Divisions of the Earth 291 

Different Countries of the World 291 

of Cities at Last Census in the United States 296 

of Provinces and Cities in Canadian Dominion 266 

Pork, Cost of Producing It 300 

Portraits on Postage Stamps 344 

on United States Currency 344 

Positions When Standing and Sitting Illustrated 148-149 

for Sitting and Holding Pen While Writing Illustrated 20-21 

Postmaster-General, Duties of 397 

Postage Stamp, Where to Place it on Envelopes Illustrated 82 

Poultry, Different Breeds, Number of Eggs They will Lay, etc 301 

Poverty Should be no Hindrance to Marriage Ill 

Power of Attorney, Forms of 285 

Precious Metals of the Earth, Total Production 293 

Presidential Elections and Their Results 324-330 

President's Mansion Illustrated 375 

Presidents of the United States, Duties of Illustrated 375 

Presidents of the U. S., Where From, Age, Length of Term in Office 288 

and Vice-Presidents During Various Administrations 305 

Where Educated 294 

Principles from which Letters are Made in Penmanship..'. 23 

Proclamations, Buchanan's Proclamation in I860 250 

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 251 

Relating to Chicago Fire 251 

Relating to Thanksgiving and Mad Dogs 252 

Promissory Notes, Commercial Terms 187 

Form for Pennsylvania 189 

Guarantee Note 190 

Negotiable Notes, Indorsements 188 

Note for Two or More Persons, Note on Demand 189 

Note not Negotiable, Married Woman's Note in New York 189 

Note in Missouri 190 

Payable in Merchandise, Joint Note, Form for Indiana 190 

Payable in Installments, Judgment Note 190 

Pronunciation of French Words in Common Use 351 

Pronunciation, Marks of 54 

Proportion in Penmanship, Principles of 26 

Proof-Reading, Typographical Marks 496-497 

Proposal of Marriage, Suggestions Concerning it 165 

by Letter of Correspondence 1 18 

Public Speaking, Means by Which to Win Success Illustrated 59 

Public Meetings Illustrated 424 

Public Speaking Illustrated 444 

Public Speakers Contrasted Illustrated . . . .446-447-450 

Pulse, Number of Beats Per Minute in Health 304 

Punctuation, Rules of 52 

Directions for the Use of Sign-Painters 509 

Pupils, Their Duty in the School 173 


Quantity which an Acre will Produce..... 290 

Quarto (4to), Shape of Books Called Illustrated 493 

Questions of Privilege in Public Meetings 436 

Question in Public Meetings, Consideration of 434 

Quitclaim Deed. Form of 220 

Railways in the United States, Miles of 291 

Railway Signals by which Trains are Started, Stopped, etc 289 

Railway Traveling Illustrated 168 

Rainfall, Annual Average Amount in Different States 301 

Rates of Interest Illustrated.. 192 

Receipts, Various Illustrated 200 

Receipts; For Money on Account, In Full of all Demands '. 200 

in Full, For Money Advanced on Contract 200 

For Rent, For a Note, For a Note of Another Person 200 

Receptions, Invitations to 122 

Recommendation, Form for Writing 92 

Record of a Family, Containing Births, Marriages and Deaths 1 29 

Relatives, Forms of Letters to 106 

Release Deeds, Forms of 238 

Religions of All Nations 291 

Religions that Prevail in Different Countries 292 

Representatives in Congress, Number from Each State 294 

Request, Form for Writing 86 

Resignation, Form for Writing 87 

Resolutions, Ornamental Illustrated 419 

Resolutions; Complimenting a Teacher, On the Death of a Free-Mason. .417 

at a Temperance Meeting 420 

Complimenting a Public Officer, Captain of a Steamer 418 

Engrossed with a Pen Illustrated 419 

Instructing Representatives, Thanks to Officers 421 

of Remonstrance and Favorable to Forming an Association 420 

on the Departure of a Clergyman, a Sunday-school Teacher 420 

on the Death of a Clergyman and Member of an Association 418 

Thanking a Conductor and Commending a Railway 418 

Revenue. Collectors of 388 

Rhyming Dictionary 527 

Riding on Horseback, Conduct for Ladies and Gentlemen. Illustrated 169 

Rights of Others, How they Should be Observed 185 

Right to the Floor in Public Meetings, Suggestions About 430 

Rivers, their Length. Where they Rise and Empty 292 

Royalty, Titles of Used in Writing 80 

Rules in Public Meetings, Suspension of .'. .438 

Ruby Wedding, When it Occurs 1 30 

Salaries of the United States Civil, Military and Naval Officers 350 

Salaries of Kings, Queens, Emperors, Presidents, etc 302 

Savings, How they Accumulate 292 

School Etiquette, Duty of Teacher and Pupil 173 




Seas and Oceans, Dimensions 292 

Secretary of the Navy Illustrated 394 

Secretary of the Treasury Illustrated . . . .384-385 

Secretary of War Illustrated 379 

Seeds, Number of Various Kinds in a Pound 295 

Seeds, Time of Sprouting 295 

Seed, Length of Time it Retains its Vitality 300 

Number of Plants Produced by Certain Quantities 292 

Quantity Necessary to the Acre 300 

Secretary of State, Duties of 378 

Secretaries and Treasurers of Societies, Duties of 428 

Self-Instruction in Short-Hand Writing 44 

Senators and Representatives, Number from Each State 294 

Settlement of the United States, When, Where, by Whom 292 

Seven Wonders of the World 294 

Shaking Hands Illustrated 147 

Sheep, Food for 301 

Sheep, Increase of Weight by Different Foods 301 

Weight and Yield of Wool at Maturity 300 

Shopping, Suggestions Concerning the Etiquette of 151 

ShortHand Writing, Rules and Copies for Illustrated 45 

Signals Used in the Management of Railway Trains 289 

Sign- Writing, Wording and Punctuation Illustrated 509 

Silk Wedding, Form of Invitation to 130 

Silver, Where it Comes From 293 

Silver Wedding, Form of Invitation to 131 

Simile, a Rhetorical Figure as used in Writing and Speaking 62 

Sitting while Writing, Position for Illustrated 29 

Situation, Letters Applying for 90 

Skin, How to Make it Pure and Clear 177 

Sleep, Directions for in Letters of Advice 10O 

Slope, of Letter when Writing, Diagram of Illustrated 19 

Smoking in the Parlor Illustrated 163 

Snobbery in Shaking Hands, Illustration of 147 

Sociables, Picnics and Tea Parties, Etiquette of 160 

Soldiers, Number Called for in the Late Civil War 294 

Sounds, the Distance that Different Kinds of are Audible 304 

Sound, Spelling by 51 

Spanish Words and Phrases 351 

Speaking in Public, Rules for Success in 59 

Speakers of the XI. S. House of Representatives 331 

Specie, Amount in Circulation 293 

Speed, Fastest in going One Mile 344 

Speed at which Birds Fly 290 

Spelling, Rules and Directions for 48 

Speeches for Various Occasions Illustrated 444 

Standing while Writing, Position for Illustrated 28 

Street Cars, Etiquette in Illustrated 183 

Strength of Rope Hemp 295 

Strength of Ice 294 

Stumps, When They Decay 295 

Subscription Papers, How to Draft Them Illustrated 252 

Success, How to Win it; Letter to an Orphan Boy 100 

Sugar Plants, Amount of Sweetness in Each 295 

Summons, Legal Form of 281 

Superscriptions on Envelopes, Directions for Writing 82 

Synecdoche in Writing and Speaking, Example of 62 

Synonyms, Dictionary of 65 

Sympathy, Letters Expressing ... 93 

Table, How to Set and Arrange It Illustrated 157 

Tachygraphy, Alphabet of 45 

Teachers of Penmanship, Suggestions to 39 

Teaching Penmanship, Rules for 33 

Teeth, How to Make them Clean and White 179 

Telegrams, Long and Short Forms of 61 

Temperaments that Should go Together in Marriage 165 

Temperance Convention, Form of Call for 417 

Temperature, Average of in Different States. . 301 

Tenant's Notice to Landlord 228 

Territories, Duties of Officers in 410 

Territorial Laws Illustrated 410 

Testimonials and Recommendations 92 

Theatricals, Private Parlor 161 

Time at Various Parts of the World, Difference in 289 

Titles, His Excellency, Hon., Rev., Dr., Prof., Esq., etc ... 80 


Toasts and Sentiments Suitable for Public Occasions 423 

Tobacco, its Debasing Influence 114 

Toilet, Rules and Directions for 176 

Tombstone Inscriptions, Forms of 515 

Towers, Highest in the World .Illustrated... .314-315 

I Town, County, State, Where to Write the Same on Envelope 82 

| Training of Children, Directions for Illustrated. . . . 173-175 

Traveling, Hints About Illustrated 168 

| Treasury, Duties of Secretary of Illustrated 384-385 

Trees, Growth of Various Ones in 12 years 295 

Trotting, Fastest Time Made by Different Trotters 294 

Tunnels, Greatest in the World 344 

Type, Names of Different Sizes Used For Books and Newspapers 494 


Unclassified Laws of Etiquette Illustrated 183 

United States Army, its Strength 308 

United States, Early History and Government Illustrated 369 

United States, When, Where and by Whom Settled 292 

United States Supreme Court Illustrated 402 

United States, Area and Population 291 

Uses of Cards in Visiting, Business, etc 149 

Vegetables, Pounds Produced to the Acre 295 

Vegetables, Nutrition in 295 

Value of Foreign Coins in United States Money 308 

Velocity with which Different Objects Move 303 

Versification, Definition of 521 

Verdict of Coroner's Jury, Form of 286 

Vice Presidents of the United States, List of 305 

Vision, in Writing and Speaking, Example of 63 

Visiting, Duties of Guest and Hostess 162-163 

Vote of Chairman in Case of a Tie 437 

Voters, Native-born and Foreigners ; When They May Vote 412-413 

Vice-President, Duties of Illustrated 376 

Visiting Cards Illustrated 135 


Wages Table, Showing Earnings per Hour, Day, etc 290 

War, Duties of Secreta ry of Illustrated 379 

the Civil, Number of Men in United States Service 294 

Wars, American, Cost and Number of Troops 344 

Warrantee Deed, Form of 220 

Wealth, Effect of Marrying Ill 

Weather, Herschel's Table for Foretelling 309 

Wedding Ceremonies, Etiquette of Illustrated 123 

Weights, Measures, Variations of Time, etc 289 

Weights of a Cubic Foot'of Metals, Liquids, etc 290 

Weights and Measures for Cooks 303 

Weights of Different Articles as Allowed by Railroads 301 

Wheat Flour, Nutrition in 295 

Wills, the Law of 253 

Administrator's Advertisement Calling for Settlement 258 

Bond Required of Administrator. 257 

Duties of Administrators in Settling Estates 257 

General Form of Will, Codicil 254 

Inventory of Property in Settling Estates 258 

Keeping Account in Settling Estate, Form of 258 

Nuncupative Will, with Affidavit 256 

Providing for the Settling of Difficulties by Arbitrators 256 

Providing for the Custody of Children 256 

Short Form of Will 256 

Shorter Form of Will, Where Property is Left to Wife 255 

Summary of State Law Relating to Wills 259 

Wills, Where Property is Left to Wife During Widowhood 255 

Wooden Wedding, When it Occurs 130 

Woolen Wedding, When it Occurs 130 

Woman, Complimentary Address to 79 

Woman in Oratory Illustrated. . . . 456-459 

Women, Titles of Female Officers 439 

Wood, Value of Different Kind? for Fuel 290 

Wood, Weights of Various Kinds, Green or Dry 290 

Wood, Weight per Cord 295 

Words and Phrases from Foreign Languages 351 

World, Different Countries of the 291 

Writing Class, Directions for Organization of 34 

Writing for the Press, Rules and Directions for Illustrated 490 


KITING is the art of placing 
thought, by means of written 
characters, upon any object 
capable of receiving the same. 
The origin of this art is com- 
pletely veiled in obscurity, 
no history giving authentic 
account of its first introduc- 
tion and use. Its first recorded mention is in the 
Bible, wherein it is said, referring to the prep- 
aration of the Ten Commandments by Moses on 
Mount Sinai, that " The Tables were written 
on both their sides." 

Fifteen hundred years before Christ, Cadmus, 
the Phoenician, had introduced letters into 
Greece, being sixteen in number, to which 
several were afterwards added. It is certain 
that the Greeks were among the very earliest 
of the nations of the earth to invent and make 
use of written characters for the record of ideas, 
which could be clearly interpreted by succeed- 
ing generations; though the invention of the 
art came from the advancing civilization of man- 
kind, and had its origin with various nations' 
at first in the form of hieroglyphics, or picture 
writing, which characters have, as mankind 
progressed, been simplified, systematized, and 
arranged in alphabets, giving us the various 
alphabetical characters now in use. 

Writing and penmanship, though nearly 
synonymous terms, are quite different in mean- 
ing. Writing is the expression of thought by 
certain characters, and embraces penmanship, 
spelling, grammar and composition. 

ENMANSHIP is the combina- 
tion of peculiar characters used 
to represent the record of 
thought ; and having, since its 
first invention, continued to 
change its form down to the 
present time, so it is probable 
the style of penmanship will 
continue to change in the future., The great 
defect existing in the present system of pen- 
manship is the superabundance of surplus 
marks, that really mean nothing. This fault, 
along with our defective alphabet, consumes in 
writing, at present, a great amount of unneces- 
sary time and labor. Thus, in writing the 
word Though, we make twenty-seven motions, 
whereas, being but two sounds in the word, we 
actually require but two simple marks. 

That style of writing whereby we use a 
character to represent each sound, is known as 
phonography, which system of penmanship 
enables the penman to write with the rapidity 
of speech. The phonetic or phonographic 
system of spelling, wherein each sound is 
represented by a character, gives us the nearest 
approach to a perfect alphabet in existence, 
and is the method of spelling and the style of 
writing to which we will, beyond question, 
ultimately attain. 

It has been found extremely difficult, how- 
ever, to suddenly change a style of alphabet in 
general use in a living language; and the mass 
of the American and English people will, with- 
out doubt, use the present style of penmanship, 



with various modifications, many decades in the 
future. To the perfection of that system in 
general use, in the English and American 
method of writing, which the present genera- 
tion will be most likely to have occasion to use 
throughout their lifetime, this work is directed, 
as having thus the most practical value ; though 
Short-hand is illustrated elsewhere. 

System of Penmanship. 

Two styles of penmanship have been in use, 
and each in turn has been popular with 
Americans in the past fifty years ; one known 
as the round hand, the other as the angular 
writing. The objection attaching to each is, 
that the round hand, while having the merit of 
legibility, requires too much time in its exe- 
cution ; and the angular, though rapidly written, 
is wanting in legibility. The best teachers of 
penmanship, of late, have obviated the objec- 
tions attaching to these different styles, by com- 
bining the virtues of both in one, producing a 
semi-angular penmanship, possessing the legi- 
bility of the round hand along with the rapid 
execution of the angular. 

To the Duntons, of Boston, and the late P. 
R. Spencer, as the founders of the semi-angular 
penmanship, are the people indebted for the 
beautiful system of writing now in general use 
in the schools throughout the country. 


The copies, accompanied by directions in 
this book, will be found ample in number and 
sufficiently explicit in detail to give the student 
a knowledge of writing and flourishing. In 
acquiring a correct penmanship it is not the 
practice of many different copies that makes 
the proficient penman, but rather a proper 
understanding of a few select ones, for a few 
copies embrace the whole art. 

As will be seen by an examination of the 
copy plates, each letter of the alphabet is made 
in a variety of styles, both large and small, suc- 
ceeded by words alphabetically arranged in fine 

and coarse penmanship, which are excellently 
adapted to the wants of both ladies and gentle- 
men, according to the dictates of fancy in the 
selection of coarse and fine hand. 

As a rule, however, the bold penmanship, 
indicating force of character, will be naturally 
adopted by gentlemen, while the finer hand, 
exhibiting delicacy and refinement, will be 
chosen by the ladies. 


The principles of penmanship, also repre- 
sented, give the complete analysis of each 
letter, while the proper and improperly made 
letters, representing good and bad placed side 
by side, will have a tendency to involuntarily 
improve the penmanship, even of the person who 
makes a casual examination of the letters of 
the alphabet thus made in contrast. 

The illustrations of curves, proportions and 
shades that accompany these directions should 
also be carefully studied, as a knowledge of 
these scientific principles in penmanship will 
be found of great service to the student in 
giving a correct understanding of the formation 
of letters. 

Importance of Practice. 

It is not sufficient, however, that the student 
merely study the theory of writing. To be pro- 
ficient there must be actual practice. To con- 
duct this exercise to advantage it is necessary 
to have the facilities for writing well. Essen- 
tial to a successful practice are good tools with 
which to write. These comprise the following 
writing materials : 


Metallic pens have generally superseded the 
quill. They are of all styles and quality of 
metal, gold and steel, however, being the best. 
In consequence of its flexibility and great dur- 
ability, many prefer the gold pen ; though in 
point of fine execution, the best penmen prefer 
the steel pen, a much sharper and finer hair line 
being cut with it than with the gold pen. 




For practice in penmanship, obtain of the 
stationer five sheets of good foolscap paper. 
Midway from top to bottom of the sheet, cut 
the paper in two, placing one half inside the 
other. Use a strong paper for the cover, and 
sew the whole together, making a writing-book. 
Use a piece of blotting paper to rest the hand 
on. The oily perspiration constantly passing 
from the hand unfits the surface of the paper 
for receiving good penmanship. The hand 
should never touch the paper upon which it is 
designed, afterwards, to write. 


Black ink is best. That which flows freely, 
and is nearest black when first used, gives the 
most satisfaction. The inkstand should be heavy 
and flat, with a large opening, from which to 
take ink, and not liable to tip over. The best 
inkstand is made of thick cut glass, enabling 
the writer to see the amount of ink in the 
same, and shows always how deep to set the 
pen when taking ink from the stand. Care 
should be observed not to take too much ink on 
the pen ; and the surplus ink should be thrown 
back into the bottle, and never upon the carpet 
or floor. Close the bottle when done using 
it, thus preventing rapid evaporation of the ink, 
causing it soon to become too thick. 

Other Writing Materials. 

An important requisite that should accom- 
pany the other writing materials is the pen 
wiper, used always to clean the pen when the 
writing exercise is finished, when the ink does 
not flow readily to the point of the pen, or when 
lint has caught upon the point. A small piece 
of buckskin or chamois skin, obtained at the 
drug store, makes much the best wiper. The 
student should be provided with various sizes 
of paper, for different exercises to be written, 
such as commercial forms, letters, notes of 
invitation, etc., with envelopes to correspond in 
size ; together with lead-pencil, rubber, ruler, 

and mucilage. Thus provided with all the 
materials necessary, the writing exercise, which 
otherwise would be an unpleasant task, becomes 
a pleasure. 

How to Practice. 

Having the necessary materials in readiness 
for writing, the student should set apart a cer- 
tain hour or two each day for practice in pen- 
manship, for at least one month, carefully 
observing the following directions : 

See Plate 1. Carefully examine each copy 
on this plate. Devote one page in the writing 
book to the practice of each copy. Commence 
with copy No. 1. The practice of this copy is 
an important exercise for two reasons, being : 
first, to give sufficient angularity for rapidity in 
writing; and second, to give freedom of move- 

The student who carries a heavy, cramped 
hand, will find great benefit result from practic- 
ing this copy always at the commencement of 
the writing exercise. Rest the hand on the 
two lower fingers never on the wrist, and 
rest the body and arm lightly upon the fore- 
arm. Assume thus a position whereby the 
pen can take in the entire sweep of the page, 
writing this exercise, in copy No. 1, from the 
left to the right side of the page, without 
removing the pen from the paper while making 
the same. The student may write both with 
pen and lead -pencil, and should continue the 
practice of this exercise until perfect command 
is obtained of the fingers, hand and arm ; and 
all evidence of a stiff, cramped penmanship dis- 

Copy No. 2 is a contraction of copy No. 1, 

making the letter 

Great care should be 

use'd in writing this letter to make the several 
/ 5a parts of the same, uniform 
in height, size, and slope ; 
the downward slope of all 
the letters being at an angle 

of 52 degrees. See diagram illustrating slope 

of letters. 



object early to 
be attained, is to 
acquire an easy, graceful and 
healthful position of body while sitting 
or standing, when writing. To obtain this, 
the writer should sit with the right side to 
the desk, using a table so high as to compel the 
body to sit erect. 

Rest the arm lightly upon the elbow and fore- 
arm, and the hand upon the two lower fingers, the 
wrist being free from the desk. Allow the body and 
head to incline sufficiently to see the writing, but no 

Maintain a position such as will give a free expansion 
of the lungs, as such posture is absolutely indispensable 
to the preservation of health. 

A desk or table, with a perfectly level surface, is best 
for writing. Where a decided preference is manifested for sitting 
with the left side, or square, to the desk, such position may be 
taken. If the desk slopes considerably, the left side is preferable. 

Avoid dropping the body down into an awkward, tiresome position. If wearied 
with continued sitting, cease writing. Lay down the pen, step forth into the 
fresh air, throw back the arms, expand the chest, inflate the lungs, and take exercise. When 
work is again resumed, maintain the same erect position, until the habit becomes thoroughly fixed 
of sitting gracefully and easily, while engaged in this exercise. 




O secure the correct slope of 
a plain, rapid penmanship, 
when writing, keep the paper at right 
angles with the arm, holding the same 
in position with the left hand, the 
edge of the paper being parallel with edge of the 

Hold the pen between the thumb and second finger, 
resting against the corner of the nail, with the fore- 
finger on the back of the pen, for the purpose of steady- 
ing it; having the thumb sufficiently bent to come 
opposite the forefinger joint, the two last fingers being 
bent under, resting lightly on the nails. 

Avoid dropping or rolling the hand and pen too much to 
one side, thereby causing one point of the pen to drag more heavily 
than the other, thus producing a rough mark in writing. A smooth stroke 
indicates that the pen is held correctly; a rough one tells us when the 
position is wrong. 

Sit sufficiently close to the desk to avoid the necessity of leaning for- 
ward or sidewise in order to reach the same, and occupy a chair that gives support to the 
back, using a table large enough to comfortably hold all the writing materials tliat are necessary 
when writing. 



Copy No. 3 shows (see Plate I) the 
in words, and illustrates the distinction that 
should be made between the several letters, to 
make writing plain. See " Description of the 


Legibility is of the greatest importance in 
penmanship ; and care should be observed to 
make each letter very distinctly what it is 
designed to be. While practicing with a view 
to improvement, the student should beware of 
writing too fast. The copies are very simple, 
and are easily imitated by the student who may 
give the subject earnest attention and care. 

Proportion of Small Letters. 

The following diagrams represent the relative 
proportion of the capital and small letters. As 
will be seen in the diagram for the finer hand, 
there are eight lines, containing seven spaces. 
In the middle space are made the contracted 
letters which occupy one space, excepting 

^ and 6j which are a* little higher. The ^ -a 

and fa are each of the same height ; fa and -tz 

extend the same distance below the line. The 
loop letters are all of the same length above and 
below the line, the loop being two thirds the 
length of the letter. Capitals are of the same 
height as the loop letters above the line. 


Elements of Small Letters. 

By examination of the small letters of the 
alphabet, it is seen that they can be resolved 
into a few fundamental elements (or principles, 
as they are called by many teachers), being five 
in number, as follows : 

The 1st principle, , is found in the following 
letters, viz : last of /. ^, completely in the . 
in the fa^ with the lower part omitted ; last of 
the ^ first of the -i and dy completely hi the 
t/ completely in the ^ and last of 4U. 

The 2nd principle, *, forms the first of 
i. <M, and upper part of ^. 
The 3rd principle, "/ forms the lower part of 
the lower part of ^, last of Wt^ 44 and 
and first of -^ -W-, & and ^M. 
The 4th principle, ^/ forms the first part of 
^Z, left of ^, lower part of ^ left of ^ lower 
part of /, upper part of ^, the whole of -zz, 
upper part of ^ and right of d. 



The 5th principle, ^f forms the upper part of 

/u-, -A, <r2 and +. Inverted,it forms 
7 7 

the lower part of , /, -U and 4,. 

General Hints for Small Letters. 

Be careful to close the & at the top., else it 

will resemble a ^. Observe the distinction 
between the ^ and the ^. The /and ^are 

shaded at the top, and made square. The - 
is crossed one third the distance from the 
top. The loop is of uniform length in 
all loop letters. Avoid a loop in the upper 

part of 4> and d. The dot of the - should 
be at a point twice the height of the letter. 
Beware of making the extended letters crooked. 
The left hand mark of the loop letters should 
be straight, from the center of the loop to the 
line, sloping at an angle of 52 degrees. See 
diagram of slope. Figures are twice the height 
of the ^n. 

Principles of Capital Letters. 

No. i. 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

The capital stem 
(see No. 1) can be 
terminated at the 
bottom, as shown in 
the first character. 
Observe in Nos. 2 and 
3 the disposition of 
shades, curves and 
parallel lines. Their 
application in capitals 
will be seen in the 
next column. 


THREE standard principles are used in the 
formation of Capital Letters, viz: 

The 1st principle, (@/ called the capital 

stem, is found in 

The 2nd principle, 

The 3rd principle, 

upper part of 

is found in the 

and forms the first of 

Capital letters, in a bold penmanship, are 
three times the height of the small letter 



No. I. 

No. 2. 


No. I Represents the first position to be taken, when placing 
the hand in correct position for writing. As will be seen, the 
hand is squarely on the palm, and not rolled to one side. The 
wrist is free from the desk, and the two lower fingers are bent 
under, resting upon the nails. 

No. 2 Exhibits the hand elevated upon the two lower fingers, 
with the pen placed in correct position. The end of the large 
finger drops slightly beneath the penholder, giving a much greater 
command of the fingers than when it rests at the side or slightly 
on top of the holder. 

No. 3 Shows another view of correct position. It will be seen 
that no space is shown between the pen and finger, the holder 
crossing the forefinger in front of the knuckle-joint. The thumb 
is sufficiently bent to come opposite the forefinger-joint, supporting 
the holder on the end of the thumb. The end of the large finger 
should be about three-quarters of an inch from the point of the 

No. 4 Represents the correct position when t^e pen is at the 
bottom of an extended letter below the line, the pen being, as 
shown, nearly perpendicular. With the holder held snugly 
beneath the forefinger and supported on the end of the thumb, 
the greatest command is thus given to the fingers. 

No. 5 Exhibits the front view of the hand showing the position 
of the forefinger, which should rest squarely on the top of the 
holder. The large finger drops beneath the holder, which crosses 
the corner of the nail. The .hand is held, as shown, squarely on 
the palm and not dropped to one side. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 




No. 6 Represents the evil effect of rolling the hand too much 
to one side, and holding all of the fingers so straight as to com- 
pletely lose command of them. The result is a stiff, heavy, 
cramped penmanship, and rough marks, resulting from one point 
of the pen dragging more heavily than the other. 

No. 6. 

No. 7 Exhibits the pen " held so tightly that the hand is wearied 
and the letters look frightfully." The large finger should be 
straightened, and the end caused to drop lightly beneath the 
holder. The forefinger should be brought down snugly upon the 
holder, and the end of the thumb brought back opposite the fore- 
finger joint. Loosen the fingers , grasping the holder therein just 
firm enough to guide the pen and no more. 

No. 7, 

No. 8 Shows the result of dropping the hand too heavily upon 
the -wrist and allowing it to roll to one side. The writer has thus 
lost command of the hand and arm, and the pen scratches, result- 
ing from one point dragging more heavily than the other. The 
large finger should drop beneath the holder, and the hand should 
be brought up squarely upon the palm. 

No. 9 Represents another bad position, with pen held too 
tightly. The writer loses a command of the fingers, in this case, 
by allowing the holder to fall below the knuckle-joint between 
the forefinger and thumb. All the fingers are likewise out of 

The student should institute a rigid comparison between the 
correct and incorrect positions herewith shown, with an earnest 
resolve to reject the wrong and to hold fast that which is good. 

No. 8. 

No. 9. 




HERE are a few general prin- 
ciples in Nature that are appli- 
cable to penmanship. These 
principles are eternal, and will 
never change. 

Curved Lines. 

The first is that of curved lines. 
Those objects in Nature that we 
most admire possess a grace and fullness of 
curve which elicit our admiration. The edge 
of the flower curves. The trunk of the tree, 
the leaf, the bud, the dewdrop, the rainbow, 
all that is beautiful in Nature, in fact, is 
made up of curved lines. The human counte- 
nance, rounded and flushed with the rosy hue of 
health, is beautiful. Wasted by disease and 
full of angles, it is less attractive. The wind- 
ing pathway in the park, the graceful bending 
of the willow, the rounded form of every object 
that we admire, are among the many illustra- 
tions of this principle. This is finely shown in 
the engraving of birds and flowers at the head 
of this chapter. 

The same applied to the making of capital 
letters is shown in the following, representing 
in contrast letters made of curves and straight 
lines : 

As is exhibited in the above, those 
letters composed of curved lines pre- 
sent a grace and beauty not shown in 
those having straight lines and angles. 
As a rule, never make a straight line 
in a capital letter when it can be 


Another important principle is that of pro- 
portion. Any object, to present a pleasing 
appearance to the eye, should have a base of 
sufficient size and breadth to support the same. 
Nature is full of examples. The mountain is 
broadest at the base ; and the trunk of every 
tree and shrub that grows upon its sides, is 
largest near the earth, the roots spreading 
broader than the branches. 

The good mechanic builds accordingly. The 
monument is broadest at the base. The house 
has a foundation large enough for its support, 
and the smallest article of household use or 
ornament, constructed to stand upright, is made 
with reference to this principle of proportion, 
with base broader than the top. This principle, 
applied in capital letters, is shown by contrast 
of various letters made in good and bad pro- 
portion, as follows : 

Letters should be constructed self supporting 
in appearance, with a foundation sufficiently 
broad to support that which is above. 




A very important principle, also, is that of 
contrast. Nature is again the teacher, and 
affords an endless variety of lessons. Scenery 
is beautiful that is most greatly diversified by 
contrast. That is more beautiful which is 
broken by mountain, hill, valley, stream, and 
woodland, than the level prairie, where nothing 
meets the eye but brown grass. The bouquet of 
flowers is beautiful in proportion to the many 
colors that adorn it, and the strong contrast 
of those colors. Oratory is pleasing when 
accompanied by changes in the tone of voice. 
Music is beautiful from the variety of tone. 
The city is attractive from contrast in the style 
of buildings ; and the architecture of the edifice 
that is broken by striking projections, tall 
columns, bold cornice, etc., is beautiful from 
that contrast. Thus in penmanship. Made 
with graceful curves, and in good proportion, 
the letter is still more beautiful by the contrast 
of light and shaded lines, the heavy line giving 
life to the appearance of the penmanship. If 
desirous of observing this principle, care should 
be taken not to bring two shades together, as 
the principle of contrast is thus destroyed. 
The effect of shade is shown by the following 
letters in contrast. 

J& & 

Q Q 


In capitals, where one line comes inside 
another, it is important for beauty that the 
lines should run parallel to each other. The 
equi-distant lines of the rainbow, and the 
circles around the planets, are among Nature's 
illustrations. A uniformity of slope and height, 
in all letters should also carefully be observed. 

Again, as the well-trimmed lawn and the 
cleanly kept park, with no unsightly weeds or 
piles of rubbish to meet the gaze, are objects 
of admiration, so the neatly-kept page of writing, 
marred by no blots or stains, is beautiful to the 

Position of the Hand in Flourishing. 

In executing broad sweeps with the pen, and 
assuming a position that will give greatest com- 
mand of the hand in flourishing, the position 
of the pen in the hand should be reversed ; 
the end of the penholder pointing from the 
left shoulder, the pen pointing towards the body, 
the holder being held between the thumb and 
two first fingers, as shown above. 

Plain Penmanship and Flourishing. 

The chief merit of business penmanship is 
legibility and rapidity of execution. Without 
sacrificing these qualities, the student may add 
as much beauty as possible. The business pen- 
man should beware, however, of giving much 
attention to flourishing, its practice, aside from 
giving freedom with the pen, being rather to 
distract the mind from the completion of a good 
style of business writing. Especially in plain 
penmanship should all flourishing be avoided. 
Nothing is in worse taste, in a business letter, 
than various attempts at extra ornamentation. 

To the professional penman, however, in the 
preparation of different kinds of pen work, a 
knowledge of scientific flourishing is essential 
to the highest development of the art. 

The principles of curves, shades and propor- 
tion that govern the making of capital letters 
apply as well also in flourishing. 





^Position of" tine 

'HE desk at which the individual 
stands when writing, should 
slightly incline from the front 
upward. It should so project 
as to give ample room for the 
feet beneath, which should be so placed as to 
be at nearly right angles with each other, the 
right foot forward, the principal weight of the 
body resting upon the left. Incline the left 
side to the desk, resting the body upon the left 
elbow, as shown in the above engraving, thus 
leaving the right arm free to use the muscular 
or whole arm movement, as may be desired. 

The desk should be so high as to cause the 
writer to stand erect, upon which the paper 
should be placed with the edge parallel with 
the desk. 

Rest the body lightly on the forearm, and the 
hand upon the two lower fingers, the end of the 
penholder pointing towards the right shoulder. 
Practice in the position herewith shown, either 
with lead pencil or pen, upon waste paper, 
entirely regardless of the form of letters, until 
the pen can be held easily and correctly, and 
writing can be executed rapidly. Strike off- 
hand exercises, and the whole arm capitals, 
making each letter as perfectly as may be, the 
practice, however, being with special reference 
to acquiring the correct position, and freedom 
of movement. 

Steady the paper firmly with the left hand, 
holding it near the top of the sheet, as shown 
in the illustration. Beware of soiling the paper 
with perspiration from the left hand. 







'EREWITH are shown, in con- 
trast, the correct and incor- 
rect position s for sitting while 
writing ; the upright figure 
representing the youth who 
sits erect, graceful and easy, 
holding the paper at right angles with the arm, 
steadying the same with the left hand. 

As will be perceived, the correct position, 
here represented is at once conducive to health 
and comfort, being free from labored effort and 

On the opposite side of the table sits a youth 
whose legs are tired, whose hands are wearied, 
and whose head and back ache from his 
struggles at writing. This boy will be liable 
to become, ere long, near-sighted, from keeping 
his eyes so close to his work. He will be round- 

shouldered, will have weak lungs, and will 
probably early die of consumption, caused from 
sitting in a cramped, contracted and unhealthy 

The bad positions liable to be assumed in 
writing, are, first, the one here shown ; second, 
lying down and sprawling both elbows on the 
table ; third, rolling the body upon one side, 
turning the eyes, and swinging the head, at the 
same time protruding and twisting the tongue 
every time a letter is made. 

An earnest, determined effort should be made, 
when writing, to bring the body into an easy, 
graceful attitude, until the habit becomes 
thoroughly established. 

This illustration should be carefully studied 
by youth when learning to write ; and all 
writers should give the matter attention. 






1st a is not closed at the top. It resembles a u. 
2nd a contains a loop and resembles an e. 




1st j is crooked and contains too much loop at 
the bottom. 2nd/, loop too short. 



1st ^ is too short. 2nd ^ contains a loop, top and 



1st b is crooked. 2nd b has a loop too long. 



1st c has the connecting line too high. 2nd c has 
a loop too large, causing it to resemble the e. 

er- / 





1st k resembles an h and is crooked. 2nd /, loop 
too long ; lower part spreads too much. 

1st /, not crossed, is too round at the bottom, with 
bad connecting line. 2nd t slopes too much. 



XV roil". 


1st / is crooked. 2nd /, loop too broad and too 

1st resembles an n. 2nd u is irregular in 







1st (/contains a loop at the bottom. 2nd d 1st m lacks uniformity of slope and appearance, 
slopes too much. 2nd m lacks uniformity of height, and too angular. 

1st i> is too angular at the top and bottom. 2nd 
v spreads too much. 


Wrong. Right. 

1st e, loop too small. 2nd e, loop too large. 



1st lacks uniformity of slope. 2nd n resembles 
a u with first part too high. 



1st w is too angular. 2nd iu is irregular in height. 







1st f is crooked. 2nd f has a loop too long, 
top and bottom. 

1st o is left open at the top and resembles a v. 
2nd o contains a loop. 

1st x is spread too much. 2nd _r is too angular. 



1st g is left open at the top. It resembles a y. 
2nd contains a loop at the top. 





1st /is crooked. 2nd/ has been patched and i 
badly shaded. 

1st y is too high in the first part. 2nd y slopes 
too much. 

Wrong. Right. 

1st h is crooked. 2nd h has a loop too long. 





1st g is left open at the top. 2nd q contains a 
loop in the top. 

1st z has a loop at the top. 2nd z slopes too 



1st has no dot, and the lines unite too low. 
2nd has the dot too near the letter ; the lines 
are not sufficiently united. 





1st r contains a loop. 2nd r U too flat. 

The dollar mark should have parallel lines being 
crossed* by a character similar to the letter -S". 






1st A is too broad at the top. 2nd too much 
resembles the small a. 



1st J is crooked. 2nd J is too broad at the top, 
and contains a bad loop at the bottom. 



1st .S 1 has the loop too small at the top. 2nd S 
has the loop too large at the top. 

Wrong. Right. 

1st B has a bad capital stem. 2nd B, like the 
first, Is too large at the top. 





1st K has a bad capital stem. 2nd K has an 
angular capital stem, and spreads too much. 

1st T has a bad capital stem. 2nd T has a 
bad top. 

Wrong. Right. 

1st C has the loop too large, with base too small. 
2nd C contains an angle. 





1st L loop too large in upper part. 2nd L has 
the loop in the top too small. 

1st U contains angles in the upper part. 2nd U 
spreads too much at the top. 



1st D contains several angles. 2nd D is out of 

Wrong. Right. 

1st M spreads too much at the top and has a bad 
capital stem. 2nd M is too close at the top, has a 
bad capital stem, the last O part spreading too 



1st K contains angles. 2nd K spreads too much 
at the top. 



1st E contains angles. 2nd E^ out of proportion 
by beinf too large at the top. 

Wrong. Right. 

1st N has a bad capital stem, being too long and 
angular. 2nd N is out of proportion by spreading 
too much at the top. 



1st W contains angles in the upper portion of 
the first of the letter. 2nd W is out of proportion 
by having too much slope. 








1st F has the top too far to the left. 2nd ^"con- 
tains both a bad top and capital stem. 

1st O is too slim. 2nd O contains an angle at 
both top and bottom. 

1st X contains several angles where there should 
be none. 2nd X is spread too much. 





1st G is too small at the top. 2nd G is too large 
at the top 

1st P is too small at the top. 2nd /"has the top 
too large. 


1st Y has the top too long. 2nd Y is too small at 
the top. 


Wrong. Right. 

1st H has a bad capital stem. 2nd H resembles 






1st Q contains angles. 2nd Q is too large at the 

1st Z resembles a small letter y. 2nd Z is also 




1st 7 is too broad, and has the loop too large. 2nd 
/ has a bad capital stem. 

1st R is too large at the top. 2nd R contains 

Wrong. Right. 

1st character & is too slim. 2nd character 
spreads too much. Both slope badly. 




VERY Copy on Plates Nos. 1, 2, 
3 and 4 should be written with 
eare by all students desirous of 
improving their penmanship. 
Ladies can, if they wish, ter- 
minate with the finer hand, 
while gentlemen will end with 
the bolder penmanship. 

Plate I. 

Copy I is a free, off-hand exercise, calculated 
to give freedom and ease in writing. Observe 
to make an angle, top and bottom. A sufficient 
amount of practice on this copy, with pen or 
pencil, will break up all stiffness in the writing. 

Copy 2 is the contraction of copy No. 1 
into the letter Wl^ giving a free, open, bold, 
business hand. 

Copy 3 is composed of words of greater 
length, which should be written, if possible, by 
the student, from the beginning to the end of 
the word, without removing the pen from the 
paper until the word is finished. The words 

are composed principally of the letter <wi. 
which should be written with much care. 

Copies 4 and 5 are the small letters of the 
alphabet. Carefully observe the shades, and 
the uniformity in slope of letters. 

Copy 6 exhibits the figures, which are twice 
the height of small letters. The 7 and 9, 
in script, extend one-half their length below the 

Copies 7 and 8 are the capital letters of the 
alphabet, which are of the same height as the 

small letter <t. There is usually but one shade 

in a letter. Observe the directions, given else- 
where, for the making of capitals, and guard 
against the probable faults, as there expressed. 
Study also, carefully, the principles of curves, 

proportion and shades, as applied in the making 
of capital letters. 

The remainder of copies on Plates 1 and 
2 should be written with the greatest care, 
" Perseverance " being the motto. Do not leave 
these copies until they are thoroughly mastered. 

Plate III. 

This plate is composed of copies similar to 
the others, the same principles being applicable 
in the making of the letters. As will be seen, 
this is a much more delicate hand, and is 
especially adapted to fine epistolary writing. 

Plate IV. 

Plate IV illustrates the form of writing a letter 
of introduction, and may be copied by the 
student as a specimen business letter. 

Plate V. 

This plate exhibits the off-hand capitals, 
which should be made purely with the arm 
movement, the hand resting lightly on the two 
lower fingers. Practice, at first, in making 
them with a lead-pencil on waste paper, will be 
found quite beneficial. 

Plate VI. 

The copies of Round Hand on this plate 
should be written with especial care, being the 
style suitable for headings, etc. Observe in the 
small letters that each is round, and every down 
mark shaded. The alphabet of German Text 
on this page will be found useful for ornamental 

Plate VII. 

Plate VII exhibits a variety of pen work, 
containing both fine and bold penmanship, and 
will be found a superior copy in which the 
student can display a knowledge of penmanship 
and flourishing. 

Plate VIII. 

Plate VIII is an original off-hand specimen 
of flourishing, the curves, proportion and shades 
in which should be carefully observed. {See 
view of holding pen in flourishing, page 27.) 




I G JTaslopf. kimij^hnw (o 




v / >. X- .>=- 




Blackboard Flourishing. 

The plates, representing flourishing in white 
lines on dark groundwork, though designed to 
represent off-hand work upon the blackboard, 
will be found equally useful for practice with 
the pen. The figure of the Swan from Packard 
and Williams' " Gems of Penmanship " is a 
beautiful piece of flourishing, which finely 
illustrates how true to nature an object may be 
made with but very few strokes of the pen. As 
will be seen, the figures on these plates are 
composed wholly of curved lines. 


URING the past twenty years 
great improvement has been 
wrought in the penmanship of 
our youth, by the general intro- 
duction of writing books into 
our common schools, containing 
engraved copy lines ; and yet 
statistics show that vast num- 
bers of people in every State in the Union are 
unable to write ; and some of these are to be 
found in nearly every locality. A majority of 
these persons have passed their school days, 
but the necessity is none the less urgent with 
them for improvement in penmanship ; and they 
would gladly avail themselves of the opportu- 
nity for receiving instruction, if a competent 
teacher were to open a Writing School in 
their vicinity. 

There exists a general demand for good in- 
structors in Writing throughout the country, 
and teachers who will properly prepare them- 
selves for the profession, can have excellent 
remuneration for their services. It is true that 
many persons attempt to teach writing as a pro- 
fession, who, through bad management and 
want of moral principle, deservedly fail ; but the 
earnest, faithful, competent teacher is wanted, 
and will be well rewarded for his labor. 

The " 12 Lesson " System. 

There are but twenty-six letters in the alpha- 
bet to write ; fifty-two in all, capital and 
small letters. The principles from which these 
letters are formed are, in reality, very few ; and 
to obtain a mastery of these principles is the 
object of giving instruction. Therefore, to ac- 
quire a knowledge of how to write, a large 
number of lessons is not absolutely necessary. 
The course of instruction may be so arranged 
as to very completely include all the principles 
pertaining to penmanship in twelve lessons ; 
and the class may have such practice, each 
lesson being two hours in length, as will, with 
many pupils, completely change their penman- 
ship in that time. It is not pretended that any 
one can perfect their writing in twelve lessons. 
Real ease and grace in penmanship is the result 
of months and years of practice ; but a knowl- 
edge of how to practice, to impart which is the 
mission of the teacher, may be learned in a 
short time. In fact, most people are surprised 
to see how much may be accomplished in few 
lessons when the class is properly instructed. 

Should, however, the teacher wish to give a 
more extended term of instruction, it is only 
necessary to drill longer upon each principle, 
with elaborate blackboard illustration to corre- 
spond. If the time and means of the student 
prevent the taking of the longer course, the 
shorter term may be made proportionately ben- 
eficial. Should the Twelve - lesson term be 
adopted by the traveling teacher, the following 
suggestions may be of service in the organiza- 
tion and management of a Writing class. 

Having acquired proficiency in penmanship, 
and having good specimens of writing to exhibit, 
let the young teacher, desirous of establishing 
a Writing school, visit any locality where live 
a civilized pe6ple. While it is true that the 
more ignorant most greatly need the advantage 
of such instruction, it is nevertheless a fact that 
the more intelligent and educated the people 
of a community, the better will be the teacher's 



How to Organize the Class. 

Secure, if possible, a school -room provided 
with desks and a blackboard. It is no more 
than justice to present the directors and the 
teacher of the school, upon whom the respon- 
sibility of management of the school building 
rests, each with a scholarship in the writing class. 
Having obtained a school-room, the next thing 
to be done to secure success, is to thoroughly 
advertise the nature and character of the school, 
and the time of commencement. The teacher 
may do this in the following ways : 

First, By having editorial mention made in 
all newspapers published in the vicinity. 

Second, By posters, announcing the school, 
liberally distributed about the town. . 

Third, By circulars, giving full description 
of the school, sent to each house. 

Fourth, By visiting each school-room, sup- 
posing the day schools to be in session, in the 
vicinity, and, having obtained permission to do 
so, addressing the pupils of the school, accom- 
panied by blackboard illustrations, showing 
method of teaching, announcing terms, time of 
commencing school, etc., and 

Fifth, By personally calling at every public 
business place, and as many private houses as 
possible, in the neighborhood, exhibiting speci- 
mens and executing samples of writing when 

A lady or gentleman well qualified as a 
teacher, pursuing this plan will seldom fail of 
obtaining a large class. Having secured an 
established reputation as a good teacher, per- 
sonal canvass afterwards is not so necessary. 
Personal acquaintance with the patrons of the 
school, however, is always one of the surest 
elements of success with any teacher. 

If the school is held in a rural district, news- 
paper and printed advertising can be dispensed 
with. In the village or city it is indispensable. 

It is unwise to circulate a subscription paper, 
the establishment of the school being made 
contingent upon the number of subscribers to 
the class. A better way is to announce the 

school positively to commence at a certain time 
and certainly to continue through the course, 
which announcement inspires confidence and 
secures a much larger class. 

Ask no one to sign a subscription paper, or to 
pay tuition in advance. The fact of doing so 
argues that the teacher lacks confidence in the 
people, who, in turn, suspect the stranger that 
seeks advanced pay, and thus withhold their 
patronage. The better way is to announce that 
no subscription is required to any paper, and 
no tuition is expected in advance ; that all are 
invited to attend the school, and payment of 
tuition may be made when students are satis- 
fied of the worth of the school. The fairness 
of these terms will secure a larger attendance 
than could otherwise be obtained, and will 
induce the teacher to put forth the very best 
efforts to please the patrons of the school. 

Commencing about the middle of the term 
to make collection, by good management on the 
part of the teacher, if the school has been really 
meritorious, all the tuition will be paid by the 
time the last lesson is reached. 

How to Maintain Interest. 

To secure the best attendance, and the most 
interest on the part of pupils, the school should 
be in session every evening or every day, Sun- 
days excepted, until the close of the term. It 
is a mistaken idea that students do best receiv- 
ing but one or two lessons per week. During 
the intervening time between lessons pupils 
lose their interest, and the probability is that 
the class will grow smaller from the beginning 
to the close, if the mind of the student is 
allowed to become pre-occupied, as it will be, 
with other matters that occur between les- 
sons so far apart. On the contrary, a writing 
class that meets every day or evening, under 
the management of an enthusiastic, skillful 
master, will grow from the beginning in size 
and interest, and the student, like the daily 
attendant at the public school, will exhibit a 
good improvement, resulting from undivided 


/ y / 

stts sf sp* /?/ s>s s 

/ ;j cf ^cT / r^ 0. fc 

/ / 

/ ^y . . 

& ^/^^z^^^ 



/ / / 

/ / 


7 / / / / 






x^^-^c^. '-J^^^^^^^^^^^'^^^^-/^^^ 2 ^ > 












attention to the study, from the time of com- 
mencement to the close. 

Each pupil in the class should be provided 
with pen, ink, and a writing book. Practicing 
in the evening, each should be provided with a 
lamp, covered with a shade, throwing as strong 
light as possible on the writing. 

For the writing book, use five sheets of best 
foolscap paper. Cut in two, midway from top 
to bottom of the sheet ; put one half inside 
the other ; cover with strong paper, and sew 
the whole together, the cover extending one 
inch above the writing paper. 

How to Arrange Copies. 

Slips are best for copies, as they slide down 
the paper and can be kept directly above the 
writing of the pupil while practicing. Twenty- 
four copies will be generally sufficient to occupy 
the time of most pupils during the term, and 
should be arranged to embrace all the princi- 
ples and exercises it is necessary for the student 
to understand in writing plain penmanship. 

The copies may be written or printed. Writ- 
ten, if well executed; printed, if the teacher 
can obtain them, suitably arranged for the 
twelve-lesson term, as they are thus more per- 
fect than written copies are likely to be, and 
save the teacher the drudgery of writing copies. 
If printed, the copy should be a fine, elegant 
lithographic fac simile of perfect penmanship ; 
perfect, because it takes the pupil no longer 
to learn to make a correct than an incorrect 
letter. Numbered in the order of their suc- 
cession, from one to twenty-four, these slips 
should be wrapped together in a package, which 
should be pasted on the inside, at the top of 
the cover, whence they can be drawn as required 
by the student. When the copy is finished, 
the slip should be placed at the bottom of the 

The wrapper, holding the copies, should be 
sufficiently firm and tight to prevent the copies 
fa] ling from their places when the book is hand- 
led. If the copies are kept by the pupil free 

from wrinkles and blots, an advantage of this 
arrangement is, that when the book is written 
through the copies are yet carefully preserved 
in their place, when new writing paper may be 
added to the book and the copies used again 
by the same pupil or by others. 

Another plan is, for the teacher to keep the 
copies and distribute the same at the commence- 
ment of the lesson among the members of the 
class, and collect them at the close. When the 
teacher is short of copies, this plan may be pur- 
sued, though the other is the most systematic, 
and is attended with the least labor. 

The most advanced and rapid penmen of the 
class, who write out their copies before the 
close of the term, may be furnished with copies 
of various commercial forms, for practice, in 
the last of the term. 

Should a second term of lessons be given, 
those students who attend it should review the 
copies of the first term for about six lessons, 
after which they may be drilled in the writing 
of commercial forms, business letters, composi- 
tions, etc., according to the capacity and ad- 
vancement of the pupil. 

The copy should always be ready before the 
class assembles. The teacher should never be 
compelled to write a copy while the school is in 
session, especially if the class be large. 

Commencement of the School. 

The teacher having arranged to give a course 
of lessons in writing, should open the school 
at the hour appointed, even if there be no more 
than one pupil in attendance at the time of 
commencement, and should conduct the term 
through, unless insurmountable obstacles pre- 
vent. If the school possesses real merit the 
class will steadily increase in size, until a hun- 
dred pupils may be in attendance, even though 
but a half dozen were in the class at the open- 
ing lesson. 




First Lesson. 

LLING audience to order - Brief statement 
of what it is proposed to accomplish during 
the course of instruction. Assembling of the 
members of the class in front of the teacher, 
when each pupil, able to do so, should write 
a sample of penmanship, worded as follows : 
" This is a sample of my penmanship be- 
fore taking lessons in writing," each signing 
name to the same. 
Pupils should be urged to present the best specimen it is 
possible for them to write, in order that the improvement 
made may be clearly shown when the student writes a similar 
exercise at the close of the term. 

Specimens written, assume position for sitting and holding 
pen, full explanation being given by the teacher concerning 
correct and incorrect positions. Commence writing on the 
second page, the first page being left blank on which to write 
the name of the owner of the book. Let the first be a copy 
composed of quite a number of extended letters, containing 
such words as, ' My first effort at writing in this book." 
Writing these words in the first of the term enables the pupils 
to turn back from the after pages and contrast their writing 
with their first efforts in the book, on an ordinarily difficult 
copy, thus plainly showing their improvement as they could 
not perceive it by commencing with the simplest exercise. 
Students are encouraged to much greater exertion when they 
can plainly see their improvement. Having covered the first 
page with their ordinary penmanship, let the class commence 
with Copy No. 2, shown on page 41, in the set of writing-school 
copies, while the teacher fully explains, from the blackboard, 
the object of the copy. Give half an hour's practice on posi- 
tion and freedom of movement, making frequent use of the 
blackboard in illustrating the principles for making letters. 
The blackboard is, in fact, indispensable to the teacher of pen- 

Intermission of fifteen minutes. Criticism of position, ex- 
planation on blackboard of letter m, and practice on the letter 
by the class. Remarks by the teacher on the importance of a 
good handwriting, with brief outline of what the next lesson 
is to be. 

Second Lesson. 

Drill on position ; criticism. Use a separate slip of paper 
for ten minutes' practice on freedom of movement for hand and 
arm. See that every pupil has the requisite materials. Ex- 
planation again of letter m as made in words mum, man, mim, 
etc. Thorough drill, and examination by teacher of each 
pupil's writing. Intermission. Writing of short words, with 
special reference to perfecting the letter m. Blackboard 
explanation of slope of letters, with illustrations showing im- 
portance of uniformity of slope, etc. Hints in reference to 
neatness, order, and punctuality, and encouragement, if the 
improvement of the class warrants the same. Love of appro- 

bation is one of the ruling organs of the mind. Nothing is 
more gratifying, when the student has done well, than to be 
appreciated ; and the pupil is stimulated to much greater exer- 
tion, when receiving judicious praise from the teacher for work 
well performed. Prompt and early attendance of the class at 
the next lesson should be urged, and close by giving outline of 
next lesson. The teacher should gather and keep the books. 
Students may each care for their pens, ink, and light. 

Third Lesson. 

Drill in movement. Explanation of letter o on the black- 
board, and letters in which it is made, such as a, d,g, q, <?, etc., 
showing, also, faults liable to be made. Careful examination 
and criticism of the writing of every student in the class indi- 
vidually. Explanation of /, d, and/, on the board, showing 
probable faults, with other exercises at the discretion of the 
teacher. Intertnission. Explanation of length, size, and form 
of loop letters, the class being supposed to be practicing simi- 
lar exercises to those illustrated on the board. Explanation 
and illustration concerning the writing of all the small letters, 
representing on the board the principles upon which they are 
made. During the lesson, two hours in length, the students 
should always be engaged in writing, except at intermission, 
and while the attention of the class is engaged with the black- 
board illustrations. 

Fourth Lesson. 

A few minutes 'drill on freedom of movement. Explanation 
of position for sitting and holding the pen, showing faults. 
Illustrations on the blackboard of the fundamental principles 
for making capital letters, representing curves, proportion, 
shades, parallel lines, etc. ; students practicing the principles 
on a loose piece of paper. Careful drill on the capital stem. 
Caution by the teacher that students do not write too fast. 
General practice on copies including the capital letters. Indi- 
vidual examination by the teacher of all the writing books. 
Intermission. Blackboard illustration, showing faults in the 
making of the principles ; careful drill on position for sitting, 
holding pen, and freedom of movement. Representation by 
teacher of evil effects of cramped penmanship, and weariness 
resulting from sitting improperly. Earnest effort to induce 
every pupil to practice as much as possible between lessons, a 
premium being given to the member of the class who shows 
greatest improvement at the close of the lessons, and a premi- 
um to the best penman. 

Fifth Lesson. 

Five minutes' drill on off-hand movement, special attention 
being paid by the class to the position for sitting and holding 
the pen. Illustration by the teacher, on the blackboard, of 
capital letters from A to M, making each capital correctly, 
beside which should be made the same letter as the pupil is 
liable to make it, showing probable faults. Examination by 
the teacher of the writing in each book. Intermission. Urgent 
appeal by the teacher to students to secure the greatest possi- 
ble excellence in writing, by practice- both in and out of the 
school ; showing not only the reputation acquired by receiving 
the premium in the class, but the lasting advantage resulting 









from always being able to put thoughts beautifully and readily 
on paper. Blackboard illustrations, giving the capitals from 
M to Z, together with probable faults. Careful drill by pupils 
on capitals, accompanied by examination and criticism of each 
pupil by the teacher pleasantly suggesting a change where 
faults are visible, and praising all where improvement is plain. 

Sixth Lesson. 

General drill by the class on small letters and capitals. Re- 
view by the teacher of the capital stem on the blackboard and 
the making of all capitals in which it occurs. Examination 
by teacher of writing books. General remarks on punctuation, 
showing the importance of being able- to punctuate correctly ; 
followed by making each punctuation mark on the board, its 
use being explained by sentences written. Each student 
should give careful attention to all blackboard illustrations. 
Different sentences should be written, and the various mem- 
bers of the class required to punctuate the same, if possible, 
correctly. Intermission. Continued drill in penmanship. 
Special explanation of the capital letter O on the blackboard, 
showing faults liable to be made ; that the height of the O, 
correctly formed, is twice its width, is made of a perfect curve, 
with parallel lines, only one down mark shaded. The teacher 
will then, on the board, make the capitals in which the same 
is found. Twenty minutes' practice by the class, applying the 
principle. Rest occasionally by the class, in which the teacher 
further illustrates exercises in punctuation. 

Seventh Lesson. 

Drill in penmanship, the teacher yet watching and exposing 
every fault to be seen in sitting and holding the pen ; also any 
marked fault in penmanship ; calling, however, no names of 
pupils that may be at fault. Blackboard illustration, show- 
ing the principle found in the upper part of Q, W, etc. Capi- 
tals made in which it occurs. Careful drill by pupils on this 
exercise. Criticism of writing in each book by the teacher. 
General remarks by the teacher on the use of capital letters, 
followed by illustrations on the board showing where capitals 
should be used. Steady practice in penmanship by the class, 
the pupils being cautioned to write with the utmost care, 
making it a point to write every letter perfectly, no matter how 
long it may take to execute the same, remembering that prac- 
tice will bring rapid writing, but care alone, and attention to 
principles, will bring perfect penmanship. Brief drill by the 
class in off-hand penmanship, from copies on the board ; wrist 
free from the desk, and forearm resting lightly on the desk. 
The teacher should remind the pupil of the importance of 
always holding the paper with the left hand, and having now 
nearly completed the seventh lesson, what is yet the fault 
with any member of the class ? Students should ask them- 
selves, " What lack I yet in my penmanship ? " Intermission. 
Continued practice by the class. The pupils may rest while 
the teacher writes several sentences upon the board without 
capitals, the members of the class suggesting where capitals 
belong, and also being required to punctuate. Several words 
may be given for the students to practice next day, the student 
presenting the best specimen of the same, at the next lesson, 
to receive honorable mention. 

Eighth Lesson. 

Penmanship drill in the writing book. Blackboard illustra- 
tion, showing any fault yet discovered by the teacher. Gen- 
eral remarks on the importance of good penmanship, pecuniarily 
and intellectually, calculated to inspire the class with a due 
appreciation of their work. Students can generally write dur- 
ing the time the teacher is talking, except during blackboard 
illustration. The teacher will now give general remarks on 
the writing of business forms, concerning the value and use of 
promissory notes, bills, receipts, orders, checks, drafts, etc., 
following by writing a promissory note upon the board, accom- 
panying the same by an explanation of the form in which a 
note should be written to draw six per cent., ten per cent., no 
per cent., etc. If sold to another person, how it should be en- 
dorsed, etc. After writing one hour, at each lesson, should 
follow Intermission. Continued practice in penmanship in the 
writing. Write one copy to the page, a plain hand, and never 
anything but what is found in the copy. It is a great mistake 
to practice many styles of penmanship. In so doing the ordi- 
nary pupil becomes proficient in none. Blackboard illustra- 
tions, during this lesson, on writing orders, receipts, bills, etc., 
requiring students to capitalize and punctuate the same. The 
teacher should urge, at the close of the lesson, the great impor- 
tance of practice between lessons during the remainder of the 
term. To whom shall the premiums be given ? That will 
greatly depend upon the practice out of the school-room. 

Ninth Lesson. 

Require every student to write one page in the writing book 
with the greatest care. The teacher should examine every 
book. What faults yet remain ? Illustrate them on the board. 
More practice in the writing books. General remarks by the 
teacher on superscriptions, followed by illustrations on the 
blackboard. Illustrate why and where to place name on the 
envelope, together with name of town, county, state ; where to 
place postage stamp, how to write straight. Illustrate and ex- 
plain all the various titles used in addressing Kings, Queens, 
Presidents, Members of Congress, Governors, Judges, Lawyers, 
Physicians, Clergymen, Professors, etc., etc. Intermission. On 
a separate slip of paper the students may then each write the 
superscription they would use were they to address any official, 
military, or professional man. Continued practice in the writ- 
ing book, the lesson closing by the teacher requesting each 
pupil to bring five sheets of note paper and five envelopes for 
practice in letter writing at the next lesson. 

Tenth Lesson. 

Twenty minutes' practice in writing books until all the mem- 
bers of the class have assembled. General remarks by the 
teacher on the subject of letter writing and commercial corre- 
spondence, explaining the various kinds of letters for different 
purposes, size of paper and envelopes required for each, and 
all the essentials necessary to writing any kind of a letter well. 
The teacher will then write a brief friendship letter upon the 
board, explaining where and how to write the dating, the com- 
plimentary address, body of the letter, complimentary closing, 
signature, division of subjects into paragraphs, etc. The stu- 



dents should criticise the letter with reference to punctuation 
and capital letters, and when the subject is thoroughly under- 
stood by the class, let each pupil copy the letter from the 
board ; the teacher in the meantime passing to the desk of each 
pupil, criticising and making suggestions to pupils that may 
require assistance. See that all copy the letter. This exercise 
is invaluable, and every student should be required, if possible, 
to master it. This lesson, well conducted by the teacher, will 
give each member of the class information that is worth vastly 
more than the cost of his tuition for the entire term. Inter- 
mission. Each member of the class should copy the letter 
once more. With all the corrections and suggestions that 
have now been made, many of the class will write the exercise 
very well. The letter finished, write superscription on envel- 
ope, the pupils writing such address as they may choose. At 
the close of the lesson, the students may take with them their 
envelopes and letter paper, for practice on the morrow, and 
the pupil that will present the most correctly and beautifully 
written letter, at the eleventh lesson, shall be awarded a pre- 
mium of such character as the teacher may select. This will 
induce a great deal of practice in the next twenty-four hours 
in letter writing, and will be very beneficial to the class. 

Eleventh Lesson. 

General review in penmanship, with practice in writing 
book for half an hour, followed by writing of last specimens, 
as follows : 

" This is a specimen of my penmanship after taking les- 
sons in writing" each scholar signing name to specimen. 
Each pupil should write two samples at the commencement of 
the course of lessons, and two at the close, one of the first to 
be put with one of the last for the student to keep, showing 
the advancement made in a course of lessons. The other 
first and last will be preserved by the teacher, as a me- 
mento of the pupil, and also to show, in other localities, the 
amount of improvement made by students in this and pre- 
ceding classes. During this lesson the teacher will give 
general remarks on letters of introduction, and notes of 
invitation and acceptance, with illustrations on the black- 
board, explaining the circumstances under which they are 
used. Before the recess, the teacher should appoint three 
ladies and three gentlemen of the class to assemble at inter- 
mission, and select three disinterested persons to examine 
specimens of the class, to determine who shall receive premi- 
ums at the last lesson. Intermission. Every pupil should write 
a last specimen. Most students will be surprised to see their 
advancement in penmanship in the past ten lessons, though no 
one can actually see all the improvement that has been rrade, 
as much of the time of the class has been occupied in expla- 
nation, thus placing a knowledge of correct writing in the head. 
In after months of practice it will come out at the fingers. 
The remaining blackboard illustrations of the lesson may 
relate to card writing ; the teacher explaining the nature of 
business cards, wedding cards, visiting cards, and address 
cards ; showing how they should be written, when used, etc. 

At the close of the lesson, an invitation should be extended to 
all the people of the neighborhood to be present at the closing 
exercises of the last lesson to witness the award of premiums, 
see the improvement of the class, etc. 

Twelfth Lesson. 

Students in their seats, and continued practice in the writing 
books. The teacher has had all the specimens of the class, 
first and last of each pupil, examined by a committee chosen 
for that purpose, along with writing books when thought neces- 
sary, each pupil's name on the specimen being covered by a 
small piece of paper pasted across the same. The knowledge 
of who takes the premiums, however, should be entirely kept 
from the class until the last minute, when the same is announc- 
ed, amid a breathless silence, by the teacher. All the members 
of the class having assembled, the teacher will review the posi- 
tion for sitting, holding pen, kinds of materials to use, how to 
preserve materials, etc. He should dwell on the importance 
of frequent composition and letter writing, showing that the 
writing term, composed as it is of but twelve lessons, cannot 
be expected to make the student a finished penman in that 
course of time. That the object of the lessons has been to 
teach the members of the class how to learn ; that it now 
simply remains for the pupils to build on their knowledge of 
the principles. Upon the blackboard, the teacher will then 
review the fundamental principles over which the class has 
passed, showing how the principles of curves, proportion, 
shades, and parallel lines will give elegance and grace to the 
letter. A few perfect and imperfect letters should again be 
contrasted together for the benefit of the class, and the enter- 
tainment of the audience present, the blackboard illustrations 
comprising the making of birds, eagles, swans, pens, etc., 
showing the application of the principles in all forms, as well 
as letters ; thus impressing upon the class the necessity of care- 
ful attention to nature's rules, in the execution of beautiful 
penmanship. The teacher should be provided with a small 
writing desk, containing every article necessary for writing. 
This he should open before the class, and follow by showing 
the use for every article contained therein, the concluding 
remarks on penmanship being that students should provide 
themselves with every material necessary for composition and 
letter writing, thus making their practice in the future agree- 
able, and hence their continued improvement certain. Advert- 
ing now to the promise made in the early part of the term, 
that those students should be rewarded with honorable men- 
tion and premiums who had exhibited greatest improvement 
and excellence the teacher will explain the course pursued in 
the examination of writing by the committee, and after show- 
ing that perfect impartiality has been observed, he will 
announce the name of the person presenting the best letter, 
and present premium ; following with the name of the pupil 
having made greatest improvement, concluding with the an- 
nouncement of the student that is regarded the best penman 
in the class, accompanying the remarks by presentation of 
prizes. The exercises of the lesson should close with appro- 
priate farewell remarks. 


J. -. 

/ I , . , _S r ' / 





WRITING School conducted thus, 
according to the foregoing ar- 
rangement of lessons, the princi- 
ples of penmanship being ex- 
plicitly illustrated on the black- 
board and taught by a thoroughly 
competent teacher, will be of great 
and lasting service to the community in which 
it is held, and will afford every member of the 
class a season of highly profitable enjoyment. 
Of course the success of the school mainly 
depends upon the teacher. The instructor is, 
in fact, the life and soul of the class. If he 
possess love of order, tact, versatility, know- 
ledge of human nature, self-possession, with 
ability to illustrate, explain and entertain his 
class with story and anecdote pertaining to 
writing, he will find his classes large and the 
profession of teaching writing as profitable to 
himself and as beneficial to the public as any 
upon which he can enter. 

Should teaching writing be chosen as a pro- 
fession for a series of years, it is well for the 
teacher to select a dozen or twenty villages in 
which to teach, and give instruction in each of 
these localities, once or twice a twelvemonth 
for years in succession rather than teach over a 
very wide range of country. The teacher's 
reputation thus becomes established, the profes- 
sion is dignified and ennobled ; people knowing 
the worth of the school are free to patronize, 
and thus the avocation is made much more 
pleasant and profitable to the teacher. 

The outline of instruction given for the fore- 
going series of lessons is but a brief epitome of 
what each lesson ought to be. The enumer- 
ation of subjects may guide the young teacher 
somewhat, but the whole should be greatly 
elaborated, and will be, by the ingenious teacher, 
as circumstances demand. 

The usual charge for a course of instruction 
of 12 lessons is from f>2 to $5 per pupil. 

Teachers should furnish paper for students, 
and care for the books when not in use by the 
pupils. Students may take charge of the 
other materials required. 

The strictest order should be maintained. 
No whispering ought to be allowed. Such still- 
ness should reign in the school that every 
scratching pen may be distinctly heard. 

To secure order the teacher will notice when 
the first evidence of restlessness begins to mani- 
fest itself in the class ; certain students becom- 
ing tired of writing. If this uneasiness is allowed 
to continue twenty minutes, the school will be 
oftentimes a scene of confusion, but upon the 
first appearance of weariness, the attention of 
the class should be directed for a short time to 
the blackboard, or the time may be occupied for 
a little while by some story, humorous or other- 
wise, having a bearing upon writing ; listening to 
which the students become rested, and proceed 
with their practice afterwards with pleasure. 

Having invited the leading citizens of the 
town to visit the school, call upon them fre- 
quently for remarks to the class on the subject 
of writing. From the business and professional 
men who may thus address the class, the 
teacher and pupils may oftentimes gain many 
valuable ideas, the class will be encouraged, 
and better discipline will be secured. The 
great secret of preserving good order in school 
is to keep the mind of the students constantly 
employed with the work in hand. 

The subjects pertaining to writing are abun- 
dant, and it becomes the teacher to study and 
present them to the class in familiar lectures 
as occasion demands. Many of the succeeding 
chapters of this book afford subject matter, 
from which the teacher of penmanship can 
obtain topics to discuss, that will entertain and 
instruct the class, while the instructor should, 
at the same time, be on the alert for practical 
subjects to illustrate his work, from whatever 
source they may be obtained. For example, 
how character can be told from penmanship ; 
what faculties of mind are employed in the 



execution of writing ; why some pupils are 
naturally handsome penmen and others not; 
why Edward Everett should write elegantly 
and Horace Greeley with a scrawl ; why gentle- 
men naturally write a large hand, and ladies 
fine, etc. 

The effect of temperament on penmanship, 
and the result of using stimulants, should be 
thoroughly considered, and presented to the 
class. Students should be urged to avoid the 
u^e of tobacco as a noxious habit that lays the 
foundation for intemperance, and the use of 
strong drink as the destroyer of the soul ; both 
tobacco and stimulants being also destructive 
to that steadiness of nerve essential to the exe- 
cution of beautiful penmanship. 

Many a boy may be deterred from an evil 
habit by the good example and advice of the 
teacher, admonishing him that superiority in 
penmanship and great excellence in life will 
come from being strictly temperate. 


(HIS book, as is designed, will 
fall into the hands of many 
who will never have an oppor- 
tunity of receiving instruction 
from a professional teacher. 

To practice penmanship to 
advantage, unaided by the 
teacher, students should pro- 
vide themselves with necessary materials, as 
detailed elsewhere. 

For the purpose of making steady progress 
in the acquisition of an elegant,plain penman- 
ship, the student will be assisted by copying 
choice gems of poetry or prose, first writing 
each exercise on a separate slip of paper and 
afterwards transcribing the same in a book kept 
for the purpose. In the writing of original 
compositions and letters, each exercise should 
be copied as long as the student is desirous of 

improving in penmanship; the copy being always 
a great improvement upon the original, not only 
in penmanship, but in- spelling, grammar, use of 
capital letters, and composition. 

Writers should not rest satisfied until they 
have absolutely mastered a plain, rapid, and 
elegant penmanship. The art, being almost 
purely mechanical, is more easily acquired by 
some than others; but every person from eight 
years of age upwards, until the body becomes 
tremulous with age, having ordinary command 
of the hand, who will persevere in the attempt, 
can write a legible, easy penmanship. 

Among the benefits arising from a good 
handwriting, some are shown in the following 

Reasons why we should write well. 

Because, 1st. Good penmanship of itself 
adds greatly to our happiness. The conscious- 
ness to the lady or gentleman of being able to 
write a letter that shall win the admiration and 
praise of the friend to whom it is written is a 
source of unspeakable pleasure to the writer, 
and to possess this ability throughout our life- 
time is to be proficient in an accomplishment 
which adds to our happiness, as does excellence 
in oratory, painting or music. Good writing is 
a fine art, and is to the eye what good language 
is to the ear. 

2nd. Good writing is of great benefit to us 
pecuniarily. The person who may apply for a 
situation as teacher, clerk, or any position where 
intellectual ability is required, finds a beauti- 
fully written letter the best recommendation 
that can be sent when applying for that position. 
Hundreds of instances are on record, many 
doubtless within the knowledge of the reader, 
where lucrative situations have been obtained 
through good penmanship, that could never 
have been secured had the applicant not had a 
good handwriting. 

And, 3rd. A mastery of the art of writing 
is of great service to us intellectually. Persons 
who can write well, taking pleasure in the 
practice, will write more than they other- 
wise would. Every time they write a word 



they spell it, and thus improve in spelling. 
Every time a sentence is written, an application 
is made of grammar; and thus knowledge is 
obtained of how to speak correctly. The sub- 
ject they write about, they become familiar with ; 
and thus, in the act of writing, they are intel- 
lectually improved. The most intelligent and 
influential in any community are those who can 
express thought most easily and correctly on 


TANDAKD copies for the 
twelve lessons may consist 
of the following script lines, 
though it is important that 
they be as perfectly prepared 
as the copies shown on Plates 
I, II, III and IY. 
The extra practice, beyond the two copies 

assigned at each lesson, may be on a separate 
slip of paper, and should comprise the writing 
of the elements of letters, commercial forms, off- 
hand capitals, letter writing, etc. 

Students may join the class at any time, up to 
the last half of the term. Whatever may be 
the time of commencement, however, each pupil 
should begin with the first copies, and write 
as many of them as time will permit. The 
occasional review of the principles, by the 
teacher, will enable the students that join last 
to understand them ; though it is desirable, for 
the sake of practice, that each pupil commence, 
if possible, with the first lesson. 

As will be seen by examination, the style of 
penmanship, for ladies and gentlemen, is equally 
large up to the 17th copy. Beyond that, the 
size for ladies is decidedly finer. Though 
important that ladies should be able to write a 
bold penmanship for business and other writing, 
the lady involuntarily chooses a more delicate 
handwriting, by which she thus expresses her 
natural delicacy and refinement of character. 

First Lesson. 

<& -> 


Second Lesson. 

- -t/t> 




Third Lesson. 







Fourth Lesson.- 

4, 4- < 


Fifth Lesson. 

Sixth Lesson. 


-Seventh Lesson. - 

/ / 


/ / 

Eighth Lesson, 

Ninth Lesson. 


Tenth Lesson. 




Eleventh Lesson. 


/ / 

Twelfth Lesson. 




Ninth Lesson. 



Tenth Lesson. 



*y y 

't'e -td. z-a^ 


Eleventh Lesson. 

. Cs-e 

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-a-t -a-t^i 

/ y 


Twelfth Lesson. 




Short-Hand Writing. 

Short-Hand for Business Purposes. 

'VERY year adds proof, by the 
constantly increasing demand for 
it, how indispensable in a modern 
education is a knowledge of rap- 
id writing. The young, by all 
means, should acquhje it. 

It may be used by the author 
in his study, the editor in his 
" sanctum," the clergyman in his library, the 
lawyer in his office in fact, everywhere that 
writing is needed, the simplicity and dispatch of 
Short-hand make its value apparent. 

The beginner should determine, at the out- 
set, whether or not he will, for a time at least, 
do verbatim writing. If he wishes to do this, 
he must expect to give much time and close at- 
tention to it. The man or system that promises 
to give verbatim speed in a few weeks' time, is 
unworthy of confidence. It is useless to expect 
to be. a good reporter and follow some other 
business at the same time. Reporting is a pro- 
fession of itself, and requires the undivided at- 
tention of the person following it. If, however, 
the beginner, simply wishing relief from long- 
hand in his daily writing, is content with a rate 
of speed that gives a fully written and abso- 
lutely legible manuscript, a style that is easy to 
learn, write, read, and remember, let him take 
up the simplest style, master it thoroughly, and 
depend for speed upon perfect familiarity with 

the word-forms used, and the greatest facility 
in their execution, as in long-hand, and he will 
gain his object more easily and quickly than if 
he seeks it through shorter word-forms, which 
must necessarily be more difficult to learn and 
read. Very few people need to become verba- 
tim reporters ; every one, however, having much 
writing to do, can use a simple style of short- 
hand to advantage. 

The grand principle upon which a system of 
short-hand should be built is that of phonetics. 
Every sound in the language should be repre- 
sented by its individual sign, used for that 
sound and no other. As a simple sound is ut- 
tered by one impulse of the voice, so should the 
sign representing it be made by one movement 
of the hand; resulting in a single, simple sound 
being represented by a single, simple line. 
These lines should be of such a form that they 
may be easily joined, one to another, so that a 
word may be completely written without rais- 
ing the pen. The most frequently occurring 
sounds should be represented by the most easily 
written signs; and all the sounds should be 
represented by such signs as will give a free, 
flowing, forward direction to the writing, with- 
out running either too far above or below the 
line upon which it is written. There should be 
a distinct line drawn between the simplest style 
for general use which should contain no con- 


tracted, irregular, or exceptional word-forms 

In writing Tachygraphy the pen should be 

and the more brief and complicated styles for 

held between the first and second fingers, and 

the reporter's use. 

steadied by the thumb as shown in the cut at 

Of the various systems of Short-hand, that 

the beginning of this chapter so that such 

called Tachygraphy ( Ta-lcig-ra-Je}, a system 
invented and elaborated by D. P. Lindsley, of 

signs as | \ - may be easily made, without 
changing the position of the pen. 

Andover, Mass., probably more nearly meets 

The alphabet should be thoroughly mastered 

the requirements of the public than any now 
in use ; the advantage of this system of Short- 
hand being, that it combines rapidity with 

by taking up the signs in pairs, and writing them 
many times, repeating the sound represented as 
the sign is made, so as^to get the sound allied 

completeness of detail in a very large degree. 

with the sign, and both well fixed in the mind. 

By permission of Mr. Lindsley we are enabled 

It will be noticed that all heavy signs represent 

to present the following synopsis and illustra- 

vocal sounds, while nearly all the light signs 

tions from his work, " Elements of Tachygra- 

represent whispered sounds. 

phy," published by Otis Clapp, No. 3 Beacon 
St., Boston. 

The signs, | \ \ ) ) ( ( ~V\ are 

always written downward ; 


.xv .^ - * s <= <= , from left 


to right ; /^~ J / > either upward or down- 


ward, a,nd. <i ^- ^ ^ , always upward. 


In joining consonant signs with each other, 

i Be, b in bay. ~"N The, th in they. 


acute angles should be made where possible, 

Pe, p in pay. "^ Ith, th in oath. 

as they are more easily and rapidly made 

v Ga, g in go. f Em, m in may. 

than obtuse angles. The joining of a vowel 

N S Ka, k in key. ^ En, n in nay. 

sign with a consonant, at its beginning, should 

De, d in do. ^ Ing, ng in sing. 

always form an angle, thus ': 

_ Te, t in to. J El, 1 in lay. 

\ \^ ^_ \ ^^ ^ ^/ ^ 

) Ve, v in eve. / Ra, r in ray. 

Abe, eke, it, of, owes, on, oil, are. 

) Ef, f in if. </ Wa, w in we. 

At the end of a consonant, the semi-circular 

( Zhe, z in azure. e-/ Ya, y in ye. 

vowels are written, either in their alphabetic 

( Ish, sh in show. S Ha, h in high. 

form or as hooks on the consonant, whichever 

^ Ze, z in ooze. Ja, j in jail. 

is most convenient and adds most to facilitv 

^_^. Es, s in so. <= Cha, ch in each. 


in writing. The vowels r\ (distinguished 


mainly by size), are determined by their being 

written hi the direction the hands of a clock 

E, in eve. n I, i in it ; y in duty. 

move turning far enough to the right to 

c A, a in ace. 

form a proper angle with the following sign ; 

Ai, ai in air. e, e in ebb. 

w Ah, a in are. a, a in ask, at. 

and u u (also distinguished mainly by size), 

Oo, o in do. ' - 66, oo in foot ; u in full. 

are determined by their being written in the 

i O, o in ode. ^ u, ii in us, fun, hut. 

opposite direction. Examples : 

, Au, au in aught. * 6, o in on, or. 

1 v \ ~~? ^ } J ^* ^_ 

/, Oi, oy in boy. v I, i in ice. 

NT_ <i_^. ^ * 

4 Ow, ow in now. A Ew, ew in dew. 

\r" *~ _s~^- 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by D. P. LINDSLBY In the Clerk's Office 

Be, kid, keen, deep, tick, fish, leap, hid, bad, 

of th District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 

j i 

car, tan, narrow, last. 



The dash vowels should always form angles 
with consonant signs ; > are varied in their 
direction to facilitate this. Examples : 
^ v ^^ goat, knowing, | X^ up, cut. 

Either the first or second, or both strokes of 
the vowel diphthongs may be made straight or 
curved to facilitate joining, thus : 

v^ ^^~^ ^^/ /* 

Nine, size, noise, now, hew. 

The other vowel signs do not vary from the 
alphabetic position, arid must be disjoined when 
they will not form a proper angle. 

Disjoined vowels should be written to the left 
of upright and inclined, and above horizontal 
consonants, when the vowel sound precedes the 
consonant sound, and to the right of upright 
and inclined, and below horizontal consonants, 
when the vowel sound follows the consonantal. 


1 Br, as in brow. c_Dl, as in meddle. 

Tl, as in settle. 

VI, as in evil. 
Fl, as in fly. 

, as in ambrosial. 

, as in special. 
Nl, as in kennel. 


1 Pr, as in prow. 
*\ Gr, as in grow. 
% Cr, as in crow, 
e Dr, as in draw. 
<= Tr, as in try. 
) Vr, as in over. 

y Fr, as in free. 

f Zhr, as in measure. I Sp, as in spy. 

/ Shr, as in shred. \ Sk, as in sky. 

^ Thr, as in other. St, as in stay. 
="\ Thr, as in three. ) Sf, as in sphere. 

^ Nr, as in owner. ^~Sm, as in smith. 

f Bl, as in blow. c Sn, as in snow. 

PI, as in plow. 
Gl, as in glow. 
Cl, as in clay. 

^/ SI, as in slat. 
^^ Sw, as in sweet. 

Bz, as in hubs. 
Ps, as in hopes. 

also Gz, Ks, Dz, Ts, etc/ 

Vz, as in loaves. 
Fs, as in roofs. 

Zz, as in mazes. 
Sz, as in masses. 

also Thz, Ths, etc. 

Mz, as in hems. 

Nz, Ns, as in hens, 


Ngz, as in brings. 
Lz, Ls, as in owls, 

Rz, Rs, as in wars, 

Wh, as in when. 

These signs, it will be observed, are not new 
ones, but modifications of those already learned. 
They should be used only where no vowel 
sound occurs between the consonant sounds. A 
few examples will explain their use quite fully. 


Blow, glow, meddle, evil, brow, upper, gray, 
meeker, draw, utter, over, free, measure, shred, 
other, owner, spy, stay, sphere, smith, snow, 
sleep, sweet, when, special, kennel. 

Where the final consonant of a word is either 
s or z, preceded by a consonant, a circle is used 
for the s or z, thus : 

Hope, hopes, lad, lads, owl, owls, war, wars. 
When preceded by a vowel, use the alphabetic 
form for s and z. 

The circle is also used between two conso- 
nants, and is then written on the outside of the 
angle formed by the consonants when both 

are straight lines, as I ; on the inside 

of the curve, where one is a curve and the other 
a straight line, as ^ f ; and on the inside 
of both curves, when possible, as in 

It is sometimes necessary to write the circle 
on the inside of one curve and outside of the 

other, as in J 



Two or more words, closely allied in sense, 
may be joined into a phrase, where the signs 
composing the words unite readily, thus adding 
to both the speed and legibility of the writing. 
Example ; 

Of the, with it, it is, in such a way, I will be, I 

The first inclined or perpendicular consonant 
sign should rest upon the line the other signs 
following in their proper direction. Example : 

Seek always to form a free, flowing, graceful 
outline. The most easily written forms are the 
most beautiful, and vice versa. 

We have given, of this system, only a synop- 
sis of the fully written Common Style, but suf- 
ficient, however, to explain the merits and prin- 
ciples of Tachygraphy. Those who wish to fit 
themselves for verbatim writing ave referred to 
the work entitled, " The Note Taker. A Trea- 
tise on the Second Style of Lindsley's Brief 
Writing, for the use of Lawyers, Editors, Re- 
porters, Students, and all persons desirous of 
taking full notes in Courts of Record, Profes- 
sional Schools, Seminaries, and Public Assem- 
blies." Published by the firm to which we 
have before alluded. 

The following Extracts are from Pope's 
Essay on Man. 

Vice is a monster of so frightful mien, 

^ , ~1 ^ - ,^-n-* l_ 1 ^ 
; K - h o 

As, to be hated, needs but to be seen ; 

- _ .' 

Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face, 

We first endure, then pity, then embrace. 

Pope's Essay on Man. Second Epistle. 




IEAUTIFUL penmanship should be 
accompanied by correct spelling. If 
the person can possess but one ac- 
complishment, it is, in fact, better 
to spell correctly than to write well. 
Nothing so mars the effect of beau- 
tiful chirography as bad spelling, 
which is the more conspicuous when 
set on by good penmanship. True, there are 
over a hundred thousand words in the English 
language, and we cannot reasonably be expected 
to remember the correct orthography of them 
all; and not until the phonetic system is re- 
ceived, by which every word is represented by 
a recognized sign, can we spell all words cor- 
rectly without reference to the dictionary; but 
the few hundred words in general use are not so 
difficult to master. At any rate, the writer 
should have at hand a reliable dictionary, and 
no word should go from his hand without being 
correctly spelled. 

The following will aid students somewhat in 
their knowledge of spelling: 

Names of Elementary Sounds. 

An elementary sound is the simplest sound 
of the English language, as a, e, b, k. 

The English language contains about forty 
elementary sounds. 

These sounds are divided into three classes 
vocals, sub-vocals, and aspirates. 

The vocals consist of a pure tone only, as a, 
e, i, o, u. 

The sub-vocals consist of tone united with 
breath ; as b, d, 1, m, n, r. 

The aspirates consist of pure breath only ; as 
p, t, k, f. 

The following words contain the different 
elementary sounds of the language : 

VOCALS. N-a-me, b-a-11, a-t, m-e, m-e-t, 
f-z-ne, p-i'-n, s-0-ld, m-o-ve, n-o-t, m-w-te, p-w-11, 
c-w-p, f-ow-nd. 

SUB-VOCALS. .B-at, c?-og, g-o, /-oy, Z-ife, 

w-an, w-o, so-w<7, ba-r, tfA-ose, v-oice, w-ise, y-es, 
z-one, a-2-ure. 

ASPIRATES. J^-aith, A-at, ar-&, p-ine, -un, 
-ake, th-ink, sA-one, cA-ur-c/t, wh-en. 


A letter is a character used to represent an 
elementary sound. 

The English Alphabet contains twenty-six 
letters: A, a; B, b ; C, c ; D, d ; E, e ; F, f ; 
G, g ; H, h ; I, i ; J, j ; K, k ; L, 1 ; M, m ; N, 
n ; O, o ; P, p ; Q, q ; R, r S, s ; T, t ; U, u ; 
V, v ; W, w ; X, x ; Y, y ; Z, z. 

As will be seen, there are more elementary 
sounds than letters. It therefore follows that 
some letters must represent more than one sound 

Those letters which represent vocals are called 
vowels. They are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w 
and y. 

Those letters which represent sub-vocals and 
aspirates are called consonants. 

The sub-vocals and consonants are J, d, g, I, 
m, n, r, v, z. 

The aspirates and consonants are /, A, k, c, q, 
P, ^ s. 

Rules for Spelling. 

1. Words of one syllable ending in p, L, or s, preceded by a single 
vowel, double the final consonant ; as STAFF, MILL, PASS ; except IF, 


2. Words ending in any other consonant except F, L, and s, do not 
double the final letter; except ADD, ODD, EGG, EBB, INN, EBB, PUBB, 
BUTT, BUZZ, and some proper names. 

3. Words of one syllable, and words accented on the last syllable, 
when they end with a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, 
double the final consonant before an additional syllable beginning 
with a vowel ; as BOB, BOBBEB ; PEBMIT, PEBMITTING ; but x final, be- 
ing equivalent to KS, is an exception, and is never doubled. 

4. A final consonant, when not preceded by a single vowel, or when 
the accent is not on the last syllable, should remain single before an 
additional syllable; as TOIL, TOILING; VISIT, VISITED. L and s are 
often doubled, in violation of this rule, when the accent is not on the 
last syllable: as TBAVEL, TBAVELLEB; BIAS, BIASSED. It is better to 

5. Primitive words ending in LL reject one i before LESS and LT; as 
SKILL, SKILLESS ? FULL, FULLY : but words ending in any other double 
letter, preserve it double before these terminations ; as FBEE, FBEELY ; 


6. The final E of a primitive word is generally omitted before an 
additional termination beginning with a vowel ; as BATE, BATABLE ; 
FOBCE, FOBCIBLE ; but words ending in CE and GE retain the E before 

7. The final E of a primitive word is generally retained before an 
additional termination beginning with a consonant ; as PALE, PALK- 
NESS ; but when the E is preceded by a vowel it is sometimes omitted ; 
as TBUB, TBULY : and sometimes retained ; as SHOE, SHOELESS. 



8. The final T of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, 
is changed into i before an additional termination; as MEBRY, MEB- 
BII/Y: but with a vowel before, the T is not changed; as VALLEY, 
VALLEYS, and not VALLIBS, as frequently written ; and before ING the 
Y is retained to prevent the doubling of the i ; as PITY, PITYING. 

9. Compounds generally retain the orthography of Uie simple words 
of which they are composed ; as ALL-WISE, BLUE-EYED. 

10. Words ending in F or FE have v substituted for the F in f ormiug 
the plurals: as WIFE, WIVES ; KNIFE, KNIVES, etc., except when ending 

11. Some words are spelt the same in both the singular and plural ; 
as DEEB, SHEEP, etc., in which instance, by placing A before the word, 
one is meant, and by using THE, more than one. 

12. Some words are spelt altogether differently in the singular and 
plural; as MOUSE, MICE; GOOSE, GEESE. 

13. In spelling words it is necessary to consider well the different 
Bounds of each part of the word. Every separate sound in a word 
must have in it one of the following letters, A, E, i, o, or u. Take 
for instance, CONTEMPLATE, which consists of three different sounds, 
CON-TEM-PLATE ; there are the letters o, E, and A, respectively, in each 
sound or syllable, as it is called, and each one gives the sound to its 
syllable. In dividing such words at the end of a line, you must not 
let the last letter be any one of the above-mentioned five vowels, but 
must divide according to the syllable. 

Another rule to be observed in the spelling of words which have 
ING added to them, when such words end in E, the E must always be 

It is also found difficult when the letters i and E come together in a 
word, to know which is to be placed first. The following simple rule 
will obviate such difficulty: When i and E follow c in a word, the E 
is usually placed first ; as BECEIVE, DECEIVE, CONCEIVE, etc. ; in other 
instances the i comes before the E ; as BELIEVE, BELIEVE, etc. 

Words of Similar Pronunciation that are Spelled Differently. 

Ail, Ale. Ail, unwell ; Ale, a liquor. 

All, Awl. All, everyone ; Awl, shoemaker's tool. 

Bear, Bare. Bear, wild animal ; Bare, naked. 

Bier, Beer. Bier, frame for carrying corpse ; Beer, a malt liquor. 

Bore, Boar. Bore, carried, or to make a hole ; Boar, the male 


Birth, Berth. Birth, to be born ; Berth, sleeping place. 
Bee, Be. Bee, an insect ; Be, is used in every other instance. 
Call, Caul. Call, to visit, or shout after ; Caul, the covering 

on the heads of some children when born. 
Currant, Current. Currant, a fruit ; Current, a stream. 
Draft, Draught. Draft, commercial form, or current of air ; 

Draught, to draw a load, or a drink. 
Dear, Deer. Dear, not cheap, term of affection ; Deer, an 


Fourth, Forth. Fourth, next after third ; Forth, forward. 
Four, Fore. Four, the number after three ; Fore, the front. 
Great, Grate. Great, large ; Grate, fire support in the stove. 
Hail, Hale. Hail, to shout after, frozen rain ; Hale, vigorous. 
Hear, Here. Hear, to understand ; Here, in this place. 
Hole, Whole. Hole, an opening ; Whole, entire, complete. 
I, Eye. I, myself, used thus it should always be a capital ; 

Eye, organ of sight. 

Know, No. Know, to understand ; No, a denial. 
Lief, Leaf. Lief, willingly ; Leaf, part of a tree. 
More, Moor, Moore. More, in addition ; Moor, a piece of 

waste land ; Moore, a man's name. 

None, Nun. None, not any; Nun, a female who secludes 

herself from all worldly affairs. 
Piece, Peace. Piece, a bit ; Peace, quietness. 
Pare, Pear, Pair. Pare, to peel ; Pear, a fruit ; Pair, two. 
Rain, Rein, Reign. Rain, water falling from clouds ; Rein, a 

strap for guiding a horse ; Reign, to rule. 
Reed, Read. Reed, a kind of tall grass ; Read, the act of 


Red, Read. Red, a color; Read, past tense of read. 
Sign, Sine. Sign, a token ; Sine, a mathematical term. 
There, Their. There, in that place ; Their, apersonalpronoun. 
Tow, Toe. Tow, rope material ; Toe, a part of the foot. 
Vain, Vane. Vain, conceited ; Vane, a weathercock. 
Vice, Vise. Vice, wickedness ; Vise, a blacksmith's tool. 
Ware, Wear. Ware, goods, or earthen-ware ; Wear, to make 

use of clothing. 
Write, Wright, Rite, Right. Write, to use a pen ; Wright, a 

man's name ; Rite, a ceremony ; Right, not wrong. 
Wrote, Rote. Wrote, having written ; Rote, to repeat from 

YOU, Yew, Ewe. You, yourself; Yew, a tree; Ewe, female 


Blew, Blue. Blew, having blown ; Blue, a color. 
Made, Maid. Made, formed ; Maid, female servant. 
Pail, Pale. Pail, a vessel; Pale, white. 

Words having prefixes and suffixes of different spelling, 
while having each the same or nearly the same pronunciation. 

ible and able. 

The following words end in ible. Most other words of sim- 
ilar pronunciation end in able. 

Accessible, Decoctible, Fallible, 

Admissible, Deducible, Feasible, 

Appetible, Defeasible, Fencible, 

Apprehensible, Defectible, Flexible, 

Audible, Defensible, Forcible, 

Coercible, Depectible, Frangible, 

Collectible, Deprehensible, Fusible, 

Comminuible, Descendible, Horrible, 

Compatible, Destructible, Ignoscible, 

Competible, Digestible, ' Illegible, 

Comprehensible, Discernible, Immarcessible, 

Compressible, Discerptible, Immiscible, 

Conceptible, Distractible, Intelligible, 

Conclusible, Distensible, Irascible, 

Congestible, Divisible, Legible, 

Contemptible, Docible, Miscible, 

Contractible, Edible, Partible, 

Controvertible, Effectible, Perceptible, 

Convertible, Eligible, Permissible, 

Convincible, Eludible, Persuasible, 

Corrigible, Expansible, Pervertible, 

Corrosible, Enforcible, Plausible, 

Corruptible, Evincible, Possible, 

Credible, Expressible, Producible, 

Deceptible, Extendible, Quadrible, 

Decerptible, Extensible, Reducible, 


Referrible, Resistible, Sensible, 




Reflexible, Responsible, Tangible, 




Refrangible, Reversible, Terrible, 




Regible, Revertible, Transmissible, 




Remissible, Risible, Visible. 

Exceptional words. Coercion, Suspicion, Crucifixion. 

Reprehensible, Seducible, 

AAr~..*4~ !* F 

Words in 


The following words end in able : 




Approvable, Manifestable, Solvable, 




Blamable, Movable. Tamable, 




Conversable, Probable, Tenable, 




Dilatable, Retable, Transferable, 




Dissolvable, Referable, Unsalable, 




Incondensable, Reprovable, Untamable, 




Inferable, Salable, Untenable. 







The following words in spelling begin with Im. Other 




words of similar pronunciation begin with Em. 




Imbibe, Immingle, Implant, 

Words in 


Imboil, Immit, Implead, 
Imbound, Immix, Impart, 
Imbrue, Immure, Impose, 
Imbrute, Impact, Impound, 
Imbue, Impale, Impregnate, 
Imburse, Impassioned, Impress, 
Immanuel, Impawn, Imprint, 
Immaculate, Impeach. Impromptu, 
Immense , Impearl, Impugn, 

. Indite, 



Imminent, Impel, Impulse, 

Words ending 

in eive. 

Immigrant, Impen, Impunity, 




Immerge, Imperil, Imputable, 


Immerse, Impinge, Impute. 

Words ending 

in ieve. 





ise and ize. 






The following words terminate with ise. Other words of like 

pronunciation terminate with ize. 

Nouns which change f or fe 

into ves in the plural. 

Advertise, Criticise, Exercise, 




Advise, Demise, Exorcise. 




Affranchise, Despise, Merchandise, 





Apprise, Devise, Misprise, 




Catechise, Disfranchise, Recognise, 




Chastise, Disguise, Reprise, 

Nouns ending in f 

or fe in which 

S is only used in the plural. 

Circumcise, Divertise, Supervise, 




Comprise, Emprise, Surmise, 




Compromise, Enfranchise, Surprise. 




Words ending in d, de, ge, mit, rt, 86, or 88, take sion in 




derivatives. Other words of similar pronunciation in their 




ending are usually spelled with tion. 






Abscission, Confession, Divulsion, 


Abscersion, Confusion, Emersion, 

Adhesion, Conversion, Evasion, 

Nouns ending in eau, ieu, and ou, terminate the plural in x. 

Admission, Declension, Evulsion, 




Cohesion, Decursion, Exesion, 




Compulsion, Depulsion, Expulsion, 




Condescension, Dissension, Impression, 






superfluous letters could be dispensed with, 
educational reformers have long sought to 
introduce. Of these, the following method 
of Spelling by Sound was published some 
time since by the Hon. Joseph Medill, 
editor of the Chicago Tribune, its advantage 
over the strictly phonetic system being that the same alphabet is 
employed as that in general use, which makes it much easier 
to introduce. It is at the same time more agreeable to the 
eye. By this system the student can spell any word after 
learning the sounds, and the reader can readily pronounce any 
word when reading. The great advantages gained are less 
space used in writing, less time, correct pronunciation, and 
correct spelling. 

The application of this system of spelling is shown as 
follows : 

A Specimen of His System. 

The extreme iregularities ov our orthografy hav long ben a sours ov 
inconve'niens and anoians. Men eminent az skolars and statsmen hav 
often pointed out theze absurdities ov speling. Yet the eVil remanes. It 
encumbers our primary educasion and robs our yuth ov yeres ov time that 
shild be devoted tu the acquizision ov nolej. It impozes a burden upon 
the literary man thru life in the Use ov stiperfliius leters, and compels 
meny persons tu study speling from the cradle tu the grave or fale tu spel 
corectly. It iz a fereful barier tu formers hu wish to lern our langwaje ; 
and wors than aul, it hinders thousands ov persons from lerning tu rede 
and rite, and thus largly augments the ranks ov ign6rans and depravity. 

Theze e"vils ar so e'normus in theagre"gate that we fele competed tu en- 
dors the words ov the distinguished President ov the American Fil61ojical 
Asosiasion, Prof. F. A. March, uzed in hiz opening adres at the last 
anual mating ov the S6siety : 

" It iz no Use tu try tu caracterize with filing epithets the monstrous 
speling ov the English langwaje. The time lost by it is a larj part ov the 
hole skule time pv the most ov men. Count the ours which e'en person 
wasts at skule in lerning tu rede and spel, the ours spent thru life in 
keying up and perfecting hiz nolej ov speling, in consulting dicshunaries 
a work that never ends the ours that we spend in rfting silent leters ; 
and multiplying this time by the number ov persons hu speak English, 
and we hav a t6tal ov milyuns ov yeres wasted by e'en jenerdsion. The 
cost pv printing the silent leters ov the English langwaje iz tu be counted 
by milyuns ov dolors for e"ch jenerasion." 

" Suner or liter English orthografy must be simplified and reformed." 

" I fele very hopeful that a begining wil be made before long in reform- 
ing, not indede everything but at test sumthing in the unhistorical, unsis- 
tematic, unintelijible, unte'chable, but by no menes unamendable speling 
now curent in England.'' PROF. MAX MULLER. 

In spe'king ov the disgrasful state ov English orthografy and the best 
mode ov reforming it. the grate American lexicografer, Dr. N6ah Webster, 
in the intr6ducsion tu hiz Quarto Dicshunary, says : 

" Nothing can be more disreputable tu the literary caracter ov a nasion 
than the history ov English orthografy, unles it is that ov our or- 
th6epy." * * * 


prosecute hiz dezine. This ofer I declined tu acsept ; fQr I wos then, and 
am stil, convinsed that the skeme ov introducing nu caracters intu the 
langwaje is ne'ther practicable nor expedient. Eny atempt ov this kind 
must sertenly fale of sucses." 

"1 he mode ov asertaning the pronunsiasion ov words by marks, points 
or trifling olterasions ov the present caracters, semes tu be the 6nly won 
which can be refused tu practis." 

" Delitful task ! to rere the tender thaut, 
Tu te"ch the yung fde"a hou tu shutCj 
Tu pore fresh instruction o'er the mind, 
Tu brethe the enlivening spirit, and tu fix 
The jenerus purpos in the g!6ing brest." 

"O, thautles mortals ! ever blind tu fate, 
Tu sune dejected and tu sune e"late." 

" Worth makes the man and want ov it the felo ; 
The rest is aul but lether or pninela." 

Where there iz a wil there iz a wa ; and while the evil continues the ne- 
sesity for orth6grafic reform wil never cese. If there ar eny among us hu 
hav tu litle regard for there 6ne children tu smuthe for them the path on 
which there infant fete must stumble, we conjure them in the name ov God 
and humanity tu beware ov the grater sin ov crushing by op6zing influens 
the rising hopes ov milyuns les fortunate, hu hav ne'ther mony nor time tu 
squonder, but hu nede aul the ades posible tu endble them tu take a pozi- 
sion among the intelijent, vertUus and hapy sitizens ov our grate and 
gldrius cuntry. 

The foregoing will suffice to represent Mr. Medill's idea of 
simplified orthography. It is almost phonetic and yet pre- 
serves most of the analogies and peculiarities of the English 
language. He retains the general rule that e ending a word 
and preceding a consonant indicates that the vowel is "long." 
Thus he spells such words as 

belzVve, beleve, 

recve, reseve, 

release, relese, 

fierce, fdrse, 

repeal, repele, 

feel, fele, 

sleeve, sieve, 

league, lege, 

















prove, pruve, 

proof, prufe, 

through, thru, 

school, skule, 

door, dore, 

four, fore, 

boar, bore, 

blow, bio. 

Where the e sound does not indicate the long vowel 
sound, he proposes to use accented vowels, viz. : a, 6, i, 6, d, 
and for the sound of u in full, should, etc., he uses u : thus, 
ful, shud. For the broad sound of a heard in ought, faught, 
awful, all, broad, he employs au and spells them out ; caut, 
auful, aul, braud, etc. For the terminals tion, sion, cian, 
scion, etc., he uses sion. He retains ed as the sign of the past 
tense, and s as that of the plural of nouns and singular of 
verbs. Ble as a terminal is also retained. K is written for ch 
in all words in which ch has the sound of/5. Ex.: arkitect, 
monark, skule, etc. All double consonants are reduced to 
single ones, as only one of them is heard in pronunciation. In 
all words now spelled with ck, as back, beck, lick, rock, luck, 
he drops the c as being wholly superfluous. In words ending 
in ous, he omits the o, as in curius, spurius, and when ou has 
the sound u he also drops the o, as in duble, jurny. He retains 
y at the end of nouns in the singular, as copy, foly. He writes 
f for ph. in alfabet, fonetics, flosofy, etc. He omits all silent 
vowels in digraphs, and writes 

head, hed ? a 'd, ? e ^> tongue, tung, 



phthisic, tizic, 



sieve, siv, 

built, bilt, 

myrrh, mer. 

The proposed system is very easily written. After an hour's 
practice the pen runs naturally into it. The plan is one which 
would cost adults scarcely an effort to learn to write, and no 
effort at all to learn to read it. He thinks it is the simplest 
and most rational compromise with existing usage, prejudice, 
and etymologies, which can probably be devised with any hope 
of acceptance, and if accepted and adopted it would secure to 
the Anglo-American race throughout the world one of the 
simplest and best orthographies in existence. 




[ANY people greatly disfigure 
their writing, and stamp them- 
selves as illiterate, by the 
omission or improper use of 
capital letters. 

What do we think of the 
man who, wishing to place his 
son in the care of a teacher, 
wrote a letter, introducing his boy, thus? 

" deer sur yeW Bein a man of noleg i Wish tu Put Mi son 
in yure skull." 

Or, of the mother who sends a line by her 
child to the boot and shoe merchant as follows ? 

" mister Grean Wunt you let mi Boay hev a Pare ov Esy 
toad shuz." 

Fortunately the rules for using capitals are 
few, and once acquired, are easily remembered. 

Rules for the Use of Capitals. 

Begin every paragraph with a capital letter. 

Begin every sentence following a period with a capital 

Begin each proper name with a capital letter. 

Begin the names of places, as Boston, Newport, Niagara, 
with capital letters. 

Begin the words, North, South, East, West, and their com- 
pounds and abbreviations, as North-east, S. W., with capital 
letters, when geographically applied. 

Begin the names of the Deity and Heaven, or the pronoun 
used for the former, as, in His mercy Thou, Father, etc., 
with capital letters. 

Begin all adjectives formed from the names of places or 
points of the compass as English, Northern, each with a capital 

Begin each line of poetry with a capital letter. 

Begin all quotations with a capital letter. 

Begin all titles of books, and usually each important word of 
the title, as Hume's History of England, with capital letters. 

Begin the name of any historical event, as the French 
Revolution, with capital letters. 

The pronoun I and the interjection O must invariably be 
capital letters. 

Begin names of the month, as June, April, with capital let- 
ters. Also the days of the week, as Monday, Tuesday, etc. 

Begin all addresses, as Dear Sir Dear Madam, with capital 

Capital letters must never be placed in the middle of a word. 


HILE the omission of punctu- 
ation may not mar the appear- 
ance of writing, as do bad 
spelling and improper use of 
capitals, its correct use is, 
nevertheless, essential to the 
proper construction of a sen- 

Very ludicrous, and sometimes serious mis- 
takes result from improper punctuation. In 
the following sentence, the meaning is entirely 
changed by the location of the semicolon. 

" He is an old and experienced hand ; in vice and wicked- 
ness he is never found ; opposing the works of iniquity he takes 

" He is an old and experienced hand in vice and wickedness ; 
he is never found opposing the works of iniquity ; he takes 

Punctuation Marks. 

The following are the principal characters or 
points used in punctuation : 

Comma , 

Semicolon, ; 

Colon : 

Parenthesis ( ) 

Exclamation ! 
Interrogation ? 


The Caret A 

Quotation Marks " " 
Brackets [ ] 

Rules for Punctuation. 

The Comma (,). Wherever occurs a distinct 
natural division of a sentence; or where two 
or more words are connected, without the con- 
necting word being expressed, the comma is 
used i as 

"Dealer in hats, caps, boots, shoes, etc." " Hedges, trees, 
groves, houses, and people, all went rushing by." " Towering 
far above us stood the pines, silent, majestic, and grand." 
" Verily, verily, I say unto you." 

The Semicolon (;) is used where a sentence 
consists of several members each constituting a 
distinct proposition, and yet having dependence 
upon each other; as 



" Some men are born great ; some acquire greatness ; some 
have greatness thrust upon them." "Contributors: Will. M. 
Carleton ; Wm. C. Bryant ; B. F. Taylor ; John G. Saxe." 
" Contents : Riches ; Poverty ; Religion." 

The Colon (:) is used to divide a sentence 
into two or more parts, which, although the 
sense is complete in each, are not wholly inde- 
pendent ; as 

'^Temperance begets virtue : virtue begets happiness." " Two 
questions grow out of the subject : 1st : What is the necessity of 
a classical education ? 2d : How far can a classical education 
be made applicable to the ordinary business affairs of life ? " 

The Period (.) is placed at the end of every 
complete and independent sentence ; before 
decimals ; between pounds and shillings ; after 
initial letters, and for abbreviations; as 

"Man, know thyself." "Chas. Williams, M.D." "J. Q. 
Adams." " GenL Supt. of C., B., and Q. R. R." " 25. 8s. 4d." 
" 4.24 miles." 

The Exclamation Point (!) denotes sudden 
or violent emotion ; as 

" O blissful days ! Ah me ! How soon ye passed ! " " Charge, 
Chester, charge! On, Stanley, on! " " Great bargains! Clothing 
sold at forty per cent, below cost ! " " Rejoice ! Rejoice ! the 
summer months are coming." 

The Note of Interrogation (?) is used after 
every sentence in which a question is asked ; as 

" What season of the year do you enjoy most ? " 

It is also used to denote sneeringly the 
unbelief of the speaker ; as 

" His wise counsels (?) failed to accomplish their end." 

Brackets [ ] and Parentheses ( ) are employed 
to enclose words thrown into a sentence by way 
of explanation, which could be omitted without 
injury to its construction ; as 

" I have met (and who has not) with many disappointments." 
" Eight (8) miles and one hundred (100) yards." " In con- 
clusion, gentlemen, I am for the constitution, the whole consti- 
tution, and nothing but the constitution." [Great applause.] 

The Dash ( ) is used when the subject 
breaks off suddenly, and to show the omission 
of words, letters and figures ; thus : 

"I would but ah! I fear it is impossible I would I 
will reform." " The pulse fluttered stopped went on 
stopped again moved stopped." 

" This agreement entered into this day of , 18 , 

between o f the first part, and of 

the second part, witnesseth, etc." 

The Hyphen (-) is employed as a character 
between two words to show that they are con- 
nected together as a compound word ; thus : 

Thirty -fold, super-heated, four-leaved, etc. 

It is also used at the end of a syllable when 
the remainder of the word follows on the next 
line. Also in dividing a word to show its pro- 
nunciation ; as 

Pro-cras-ti-nate ; val-e-tud-i-na-ri-an ; co-op-e-rate. 

The Ellipsis (....) is used to represent the 
omission of words, syllables, and letters, and is 
sometimes represented by a dash ; thus, k g 
for king : occasionally by stars ; thus, * * * * : 

and sometimes by periods ; like these 

The following examples illustrate its use. 

" Mrs. W , of C , is said to be the for- 
tunate individual." " This was in 1850. * * * * Twenty 
years later, in 1870, we gather up, again, the thread of our dis- 
course." "If he had married .... Ah, well! it was not 
so to be." 

The Apostrophe (') is employed to distinguish 
the possessive case ; thus : 

" John's Book." " Superintendent's Office." " Wells' 
Grammar : " 

And the omission of letters in the beginning or 
middle of a word , thus , 

" I'll, " for " I will." " Thou'lt," for " Thou wilt." 
" Prop'r," for " Proprietor." " In'st," for " Interest," etc. 

See rules for punctuation, in the chapter 
relating to " Sign Painting." 

The Caret ( A ) is employed, in writing, to 
show where a word, or several words have been 
omitted in the sentence, and have been placed 
above the line ; as 

handmaid of e 

" Temperance is the virtue." " Improvment." 

A A 

Quotation Marks (" ") are used by the writer 
to designate a word or sentence quoted or 
copied from another author ; as 

" Three things bear mighty sway with men, 
The Sword, the Sceptre, and the Pen." 

The Marks of Reference (* t $ II IF) are 
used to call attention to notes of explanation at 
the bottom of the page. If many notes are 
used and these are all exhausted, they can be 


doubled. Some writers use letters, and some 
figures, for reference. 

Marks of Pronunciation. 

For the purpose of giving inflection to cer- 
tain words, or to designate the prolongation of 
occasional syllables in a word, the author 
frequently finds it convenient to use certain 
characters to denote such accents. To illus- 
trate : 

The Acute (a) gives the rising inflection ; as 

"Will you ride?" 

The G-rave Ccf) the falling ; as 

" Will you wilk or ride." 

The Circumflex (;V) indicates the rising and 
falling inflection in the same syllable ; as, 

" Machine," Montreal," etc. 

The Macron (-) placed above a letter desig- 
nates a full, long vowel sound ; as 

" Fate." " Home." " Note." " Eve," etc. 

A Breve ( w ) denotes a short sound, when 
placed above a vowel ; as 

" A-dore." " Glo-n-ous." 

The Diceresis (a) is used for the purpose of 
dividing a diphthong, or syllable into two dis- 
tinct syllables ; as 

" AvengSd." " Beloved." 

Also when two vowels come together, this 
character is sometimes used to show that they 
are not contracted into a diphthong ; as 

"Cooperate." "Reiterate." "Reappear." 

The Cedilla (f) is a mark placed under the 
c to denote that its sound is the same as the 
letter s; as 

" C/haise." " Fasade." 

The Tilde (n) placed over an n gives it the 
sound of ny ; as 

" Mifion." " Senor." 

Marks Directing Attention. 

The Index (5@ Q> ) is used to call special 
attention to an important line or clause in the 
writing or printing , as : 

Five per cent discount for cash." 

The Asterism or /Stars ( # * # ) is used to desig- 
nate a general reference ; as 

" **# The teacher should make frequent use of the black- 

The Brace ] is employed to unite two or 

more parts of speech or names that are brought 
into juxtaposition ac 

Wm. Smith. 

i Marculiiio. 
Gender < Feminine, 
( Neuter. 


John Brown. 

A Paragraph (^[) is used by the author fre- 
quently to designate, in the middle of a sen- 
tence, when he re-reads his manuscript, those 
words that he wishes to have commence a para- 
graph. It shows where something new begins. 

A Section () usually designates the smaller 
distinct parts of a book. 

As references they are frequently used with 
numbers ; thus : 

" *|f 87. Wedding Ceremonies in Different Countries." 
" 172. The Law of Usury in Different States." 

Leaders ( ) are employed to lead the eye 

from one portion of the page to another across 
blank space ; as 

London 123 

Paris ..- -- 84 

New York 304 


Words and sentences that the writer desires 
should be emphatic, are designated by lines 
drawn beneath the words that are to be empha- 
sized. Thus one line indicates italics; two 
lines, SMALL CAPITALS ; three lines, LARGE 
The words 

" To arms ! to arms ! ! to arms ! ! ! they cry," 

Underscored will appear in print thus 

" To arms ! TO ARMS ! ! TO ARMS ! ! ! they cry." 
" Upward and upward we went! gradually the scene grew 
more and more entrancing! until at length, faster, RICHER, 
WILDER, GRANDER the weird objects came and went, 
fading away at last in the long dim distance." 



The Parts of Speech. 


RAMMAR is the art of writing or speak- 
ing a language correctly. There are 
eight distinct parts of speech, named 
as follows: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, 
Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, 
and Interjection. 

The NOUN is the name of an object 
or some quality of the same; as, knife, 
horse, house, sharpness, speed, beauty. 
Nouns are of two classes, proper and 
common. A proper noun is the name 
of an individual object; as, England, William, Washington; 
and should always be capitalized. Names given to whole 
classes are common nouns; as, sea, land, army, tree, etc. 

A PRONOUN is a word that takes the place of a noun; as, 
"He reads," "She studies," "ft falls." 

An ADJECTIVE is a word used to describe a noun; as, "sweet 
cider," " educated people," "fast horse." 

The VERB is a word that expresses action; as, "He runs," 
"She sleeps," "It falls." 

The ADVERB tells how the action is performed, and modi- 
fies the meaning of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs; as, " He 
walks rapidly," "Very soon," "More pleasing," "Directly 
under," etc. 

A PREPOSITION is a word that connects other words, and 
shows the relation between them; as, "The snow lies on the 
ground," "He went to Europe." 

A CONJUNCTION is a part of speech used to connect words 
and sentences together; as, " Houses and lands;" " I walked 
in the meadows and in the groves, but I saw no birds nor 
animals of any kind, because of the darkness." 

An INTERJECTION is a word used to express sudden or strong 
emotion; as, O! Alas! Ah! 

As a full consideration of the subject of grammar requires a 
volume of itself, it is not, therefore, the purpose of this book 
to enter into a detailed explanation of the use of the various 
parts of speech, along with the rules for applying the same. 
Fuller instruction relating to the proper construction of lan- 
guage may be obtained in any of the various text-books on 
grammar, which may be procured at the bookstores. 

Mistakes Corrected. 

The object in introducing the subject of grammar here is to 
call attention to the faults liable to be made by the writer and 
speaker unacquainted with a knowledge of the correct use of 
language. To illustrate: special care shonld be taken to use 
the plural verb when the plural nominative is used; as, "Trees 
grows" should be "Trees grow" "Birds flies" should be 

" Birds fly" " Some flowers is more fragrant than others" 
should be " Some flowers are more fragrant than others." 

Care should be exercised in the use of the adjective pronoun; 
as, " Them men " should be " Those men." 

The past tense of the word do is frequently improperly 
used; as, " I done the example " should be " I did the example." 

Care should be taken with words terminating with ly; as, 
" Birds fly swift " should be " Birds fly swiftly; " " She sang 
beautiful " should be " She sang beautifully ; " " He walks 
rapid" should be "rapidly;" "He talks eloquent" should be 
" eloquently. " 

The word got is frequently unnecessarily used; as, "I have 
got the book" should be " I have the book." 

The word learn is often wrongly used in place of teach; as, 
"Will you learn me to write?" should be " Will you teach me 
to write? " 

The verbs lay and lie are frequently misused. 

The following examples illustrate the distinctions to be ob- 
served in their use: Thus, "I lie down; you lie down; he lies 
down." But, "I lay down the book; you lay down the carpet; 
he lays down the rules." 

The verbs sit and set are often used improperly. The fol- 
lowing sentences illustrate the difference between them: Thus, 
"I sit down; you sit down; he sits down." "I set the table; 
you set the trap; and he sets the saw." 

Care should be used not to have two negatives in a sentence 
when affirmation is meant; thus, "Don't never tell a lie" should 
be "Never tell a lie; " "I can't see nothing" should be "I can 
see nothing," or, "I cannot see anything." 

Slang Phrases, and Profanity. 

A man is known by the company he keeps. He is also known 
by his language. No amount of good clothes or outside 
polish can prevent a man from being regarded as vulgar and 
low-bred who is addicted to the use of profane words. The 
use of profanity plainly indicates that the person employing 
it has such a limited knowledge of words suitable to express 
ideas, that he is compelled to use vulgar language in order to 
convey his thought. And the same measurably is true of slang 
phrases. Such terms as " Level Best " " Right Smart," "Played 
out," " You Bet," " Bottom dollar" etc., while sometimes allowed 
among familiar acquaintances, are vulgarisms, and in all graver 
speaking and writing should be avoided. 

The uniform use of a chaste, refined and beautiful language 
is not only an index to a pure, clear and cultivated intellect, 
but is always, to the lady or gentleman, one of the surest 
elements of success in any business where language is required. 









Superfluous Words, Improper Phrases, and Errors of Grammar. 

ANY of the following expressions may be heard 
in the ordinary conversation of every day life. 
They indicate a lack of knowledge or want of 
care in the use of words which those who have 
been trained to the use of correct language 
immediately observe. 

In this connection it may be said that one of 
the most important studies is that of Grammar, 
which should be vigorously pursued until the student can properly 
construct sentences. On that qualification, in many positions of life, 

hangs success. Without this training the individual is liable at any 
time to use those expressions which indicate deficiency iii this branch 
of a primary education. 

These phrases are especially common in the language of those who 
are unskilled in knowledge of grammar. The corrections will aid 
the student somewhat in the acquisition of a better method of 
expression, but while they do this it is not pretended that they teach 
this art. They simply direct attention to the importance of this 
subject as a branch of education, and point out by example those 
phrases which are often used incorrectly. 

" It is me, " 
should be 
"It is I." 

"I done that," 

should be 
' ' I did that. " 

" I seen him," 

should be 
" I saw him." 

"We enter in," 

should be 
' ' We enter. " 

" This 'ere one," 

should be 
' ' This one. " 

' ' Is that Mm! " 

should be 
' ' Is that hel " 

' Call upon him, " 

should be 
' ' Call on him. " 

"Do like I do," 

should be 
" Do as I do." 

' Onec't or twice," 

should be 
' ' Once or twice. " 

" If I was him, " 

should be 
" If I were he." 

" In case I win," 

should be 

"If I win." 

' ' Let you and /, " 

should be 
' Let you and me. " 

" That there one," 

should be 
"That one." 

" Be you cold!" 

should be 
' ' Are you cold! " 

' ' Better than me, " 

should be 
" Better than /." 

" How/r is it," 

should be 
" How far is it. " 

"Hove beefsteak, " 

should be 
" I like beef steak." 

" Was you there!" 

should be 
" Were you there!" 

" Who done that!" 

should be 
" Who did that!" 

' ' I don't think so, " 

should be 
" I think not." 

" How do you dot" 

should be 
' ' How are you!" 

' ' Give me me hat, " 

should be 
" Give me my hat. " 

" A summer's day," 

should be 
' ' A summer day. " 

"I have got back," 

should be 
' ' I have returned. " 

' ' Not as I know of, " 

should be 
' ' Not that I know. " 

" I am very dry," 

should be 
' I am very thirsty. " 

' ' I have saw him," 

should be 
" I have seen him." 

' Both of these men, 

should be 
' ' Both these men. " 

' ' Who do you wish!" 
should be 
'Whom do you wish?" 

' ' He was_ to Henry's, " 
sho'uld be 
' ' He was at Henry's. " 

' ' Between you and I," 
should be 
' Between you and me." 

' ' I had rather do it, " 
should be 
' I would rather do it." 

" He travels rapid," 
should be 
" He travels rapidly." 

" It is three foot long," 
should be 
" It is three feet long. " 

' ' He had Jat'd down , " 
should be 
" He had lain down." 

" As soon as ever I can," 
should be 
' ' As soon as I can. " 

" She sings beautiful," 
should be 
"She sings beautifully." 

' What are the news!" 
should be 
"What is the news!" 

" The crops look finely," 
should be 
" The crops look fine. " 

' ' He won't never do it, " 
should be 
' ' He will never do it. " 

" Set down and rest," 
should be 
' ' Sit down and rest. " 

"Don't never do that," 
should be 
' ' Never do that. " 

' ' He made a dicker, " 
should be 
" He made a bargain. " 

' ' See that 'ere bird," 
should be 
"See that bird." 

" Can you learn me! " 
should be 
"Can you teach me!" 

' ' He fell on the floor," 
should be 
"He fell to the floor." 

" I had ought to go," 
should be 
" I ought to go." 

" I have got the book, " 
should be 
"I have the book." 

' ' Cover over the well, " 
should be 
"Cover the well." 

" They was talking," 
should be 
" They were talking." 

" I enjoy good health," 
should be 
" I have good health. " 

" If I am not mistaken," 
should be 
" If I mistake not." 

' Me and John saw it," 
should be 
' ' John and / saw it. " 

" I'll bet you'll go," 
should be 
" I think you will go." 

" He is up on the house," 
should be 
' ' He is on the house. " 

" Who did you say!" 
should be 
" Whom did you say!" 

' ' Let me dress me, " 
should be 
' ' Let me dress myself. " 

' ' I cannot by no means," 
should be 
' I cannot by any means. " 

' ' I swapped horses, " 
should be 
' ' I traded horses." 

" The man was beat," 
should be 
' ' The man was beaten." 

' ' The stone sinks down, " 
should be 
' ' The stone sinks. " 

' Are you uns going! " 
should be 
" Are you going! " 

" He is as good as him," 
should be 
" He is as good as he. " 

" It was her who called," 
should be 
' ' It was she who called. " 

' Such another error, " 
should be 
' Another such error. " 

"They returned back," 
should be 
' ' They returned. " 

" There was some men," 
should be 
1 ' There were some men. " 

" I can't stand it," 
should be 
" I cannot endure it." 

' ' The cloth was wove, " 
should be 
"The cloth was woven. " 

' ' He must stay to home, " 
should be 
' ' He must stay at home. " 


1 ' First of all let me say, " 

' ' You hadn't ought to go. " 

' ' When I get off from a car, " 

"He is down in the base- 

' ' He dropped down into the 

should be 

should be 

should be 


water, " 

' ' First, let me say. " 

" You ought not to go. " 

' ' When I get off a car. " 

should be 

should be 

" He is in the basement. " 

' ' He dropped into the water. " 

' ' New furnished rooms, " 

' ' There's lots of them," 

" Do you mean to do that!" 

should be 

should be 

should be 

"His manner admits of no 

"They differ among one an- 

' ' Newly furnished rooms. " 

' ' There are many of them. " 

"Do you intend to do that?" 


other, " 

should be 

should be 

' ' Do you see them men? " 
should be 

"I have rode with him," 
should be 

' ' Either of them are rich," 
should be 

' ' His manner admits no ex- 
cuse. " 

"They differ among them- 
selves. " 

"Do you see those men?" 

' ' I have ridden with him." 

' ' Each of them is rich. " 

' ' Received of John Brown five 

"Take three-fourths; give 

' ' Is your hands cold? " 
should be 

" I saw the Miss Browns," 
should be 

' ' I have a couple of dollars," 
should be 

should be 

me the the balance," 
should be 

' 'Are your hands cold? " 

' ' I saw the Misses Brown. " 

" I have two dollars." 

"Received from John Brown 
five dollars. " 

"Take three-fourths; give 
me the remainder. " 

" Above a year since," 
should be 

' ' Peaches were plenty, " 
should be 

' ' It spread all over the town, " 
should be 

4 ' No other means but this was 

"I see him every now and 

' ' Jfore than a year since. " 

" Peaches were plentiful." 

' ' It spread over all the town. " 



should be 

should be 

"These kind of apples," 

" Continue on in this way," 

" If I was him I would do it, " 

' ' No other means than this 

' ' I see him occasionally." 

should be 

should be 

was left. " 

"These kinds of apples," 

" Continue in this way. " 

" If I were he I would do it. " 

' ' I never play if I can help it, " 


' ' They will go from thence 

should be 

' ' This kind of apples. " 

" Don't give him no more," 

"I'll be blamed if I can tell," 

next week," 

' ' I never play if I can avoid 

should be 

it. " 

" He is in under the wall, " 

' ' Give him no more. " 

" I cannot tell." 

"They will go thence next 

should be 
" He is under the wall. " 

' ' I toted him across," 
should be 

' ' Walter and me went down," 
should be 
' ' Walter and / went down. " 

" Who is there?" "It is me," 
should be 
" Who is there I" " It is I. " 


" From now till Christmas," 
should be 
" From this time till Christ- 

' ' Look out or you'll get hurt, " 
should be 
' ' Be careful or you'll get 

"I carried him across." 

' I came from over yer," 
should be 

' ' Who does this belong to, " 
should be 
' ' Whom does this belong to. " 

' ' I took you for another, " 
should be 
' ' I mistook you for another. " 

mas. " 

"He has got over his trouble, " 
should be 

"Should have gloves like 
Henry has." 
should be 
' ' Should have gloves like 

' ' I came from yonder. " 

' 'As far as I am concerned, " 

' ' His faith has been shook," 

' ' He has recovered from his 
trouble. " 

Henry's. " 

' ' Lay down or set down , " 
should be 

should be 
' ' So far as I am concerned. " 

should be 
' ' His faith has been shaken. " 

" I know better; that ain't 

" I'd like/or you to go," 
should be 

" Lie down or sit down. " 

" Two spoonsful of tea," 
should be 

" He had near ten dollars," 
should be 
' ' He had nearly ten dollars. " 

" He died with consumption," 
should be 
' ' He died of consumption. " 

should be 
"Pardon me, I understand 
differently. " 

"I would be pleased to have 
you go. " 

" Two spoonfuls of tea." 

' 'We had an awful nice time," 

" You are stronger than me," 

' ' I know little or nothing of 

should be 

"I'll give you fits," 
should be 
' I will attend to you. " 

' ' A new pair of boots, " 
should be 

should be 
" We had a delightful time." 

' ' He rose up from his seat, " 
should be 
' ' He rose from his seat. " 

should be 
' ' You are stronger than I. " 

" I reckon I'll go to-morrow," 
should be 
' ' I intend to go to-morrow. " 

should be 
" I know little, if anything, of 

"He has four brother-in- 

' ' I may or I may not. " 

' ' I never see such a slew of 
people before, " 
should be 
' ' I never saw such a large 

' ' A pair of new boots. " 

should be 

number of people before. " 

' ' He came ladened with 

' ' I guess I'll go to-morrow, " 

' ' He has four brothers-in- 

' ' The best of the two, " 

honor, " 

should be 

law. " 

' ' His works are approved of 

should be 
' ' The better of the two. " 

should be 
" He came laden with honor. " 

" I think of going to-morrow." 

"I know Mr. and Mrs. Dr. 

by many," 
should be 

"I have lit the fire," 

' ' I expected to have seen him, " 

' ' He has a tarnal lot of pota- 
toes, " 

should be 

' ' His works are approved by 
many. " 

should be 

should be 

should be 

' ' I know Dr. and Mrs. 

' ' I have lighted the fire. " 

"I expected to see him. " 

' ' He hag a large quantity of 


' ' I don't know nothing about 

"I belong to the church," 
should Be 
' ' I am a churchmember. " 

' ' Give me a little bit of piece, " 
should be 
' ' Give me a small piece. " 

potatoes. " 

" Make haste and dress you," 
should be 

' ' It's funny how long she 
stays sick," 
should be 

should be 
' ' I know nothing about it. " 

"He climbed up the hill," 

' ' They despised one another," 

' ' Make haste and dress your- 

"It is singular that she 
should remain sick so 

" He has a heap of cattle," 
should be 

should be 

should be 

long. " 

"He has a large number of 

' ' He climbed the hill." 

' ' They despised each other. " 

' ' The two first men are the 

cattle. " 

"What beautiful sauce," 

" I was tickled to see him " 

should be 

"You lie; he got tight," 
should be 

' ' He had a right smart crop 

should be 
' ' What excellent sauce. " 

should be 
' ' I was pleased to see him. " 

"The first two men are the 
strongest. " 

' ' You are mistaken; he was 
drunk. " 

of corn last year, " 
should be 

' ' He had a large crop of corn 

' ' I had rather ride, " 

"He is heavier than I be," 

' ' She sang to the Baptist 

' ' I'll be goll darned if I know 

last year. " 

should be 

should be 


where it is," 

" I would rather ride. " 

"He is heavier than I am. " 

should be 

should be 

' ' He has a good bit of money," 

' ' She sang at the Baptist 

" I do not know where it is. " 

should be 

' ' Very warmish weather," 

" When we was living here," 

church. " 

' ' He has a good deal of 

should be 
' ' Very warm weather. " 

should be 
' ' When we were living here. " 

" Them is large enough for 

"Somehow or another I'm a 

money. " 


should be 

" I went to New York, you 

' ' There is a great many, " 
should be 

" He is better than you be, " 
should be 

' ' Those are large enough for 
you. " 

" For some reason I am 
always a failure. " 

know, and when I came back, 
you see, I commenced attend- 

' ' There are & great many. " 

" He is better than you are. " 

ing, school," 

"We won't say one single 

' ' Henry and John is coining," 

should be 

" I only want five dollars," 

" Similarity with each other," 


should be 

" I went to New York, and 

should be 

should be 

should be 

"Henry and John are com- 

when I returned I com- 

' ' I want only five dollars. " 

' ' Similarity to each other." 

" We will not say one word." 

ing. " 

menced attending school." 





I HAT is said elsewhere in this book in 
relation to the formation and expres- 
sion of language is of general interest 
to all who desire to speak and write 
correctly, and without these instruc- 
tions it is simply impossible to acquire 
proper methods of communicating ideas, 
either by tongue or pen. 

While with some persons it is very 

easy to convey elaborate intelligence distinctly, concisely and in a 

pleasing manner with the 

voice, others again find it 

extremely difficult to frame 

a sentence of ten words and 

utter it in company, with 

any degree of comfort to 

themselves or benefit to 


On the other hand, the 

most fluent speaker who 

can face a large audience 

and instruct and amuse his 

hearers in an hour's dis- 
course, without notes, may 

not be able to sit down and 

write an essay on some 

other topic than that em- 
braced in his se,rmon or lec- 
ture, that would interest a 

reader or be accepted for a 

magazine article. 

The art of writing corn- 

It is a public occasion. Coming to the 
front, upon the stage, confident, easy and 
natural, with manuscript held in the left 
hand, that the right may be free for ges- 
ture if required, the lady reads her essay; 

positions, like that of pub- 
lic speaking, may be ac- 
quired by diligent study 
and practice, but with some 
persons it is a gift so nat- 
ural that their ideas and 
sentences easily flow to- 
gether and combine with such rapidity that the pen cannot give 
expression to them as fast as the mind Conceives them. Where the 
ideas are brilliant with deep thought or beauty of expression, the 
possession of this faculty is called "genius," and fame and for- 
tune are usually at its command. 

But without genius a writer for the press or the forum may attain 
to such excellence of expression and methods of thought, by proper 
training of the natural faculties, as to rival the works of genius in 
positive value and interest. 

Unless, however, the habit of thinking is duly cultivated by read- 

The Reading of the Essay. 

ing the works of the best authors, living and dead, and meditating 
upon them carefully and patiently, superior effort can scarcely be ex- 
pected in a composition, either for the pulpit, the platform or the 
press. For thought begets thought, even in slow thinkers, and the 
suggestion of one author here, and of another there, will often lead 
to a train of thought in which few, if any, have ever before indulged. 
One of two things, therefore, is requisite in the construction of a suc- 
cessful composition the possession of a genius, (which is no com- 
mon gift), or habits of study, combined with observation in certain 
directions, which serve to evolve ideas from the writer's own 

brain and pen. 

Practice is a great per- 
fecter of the art of writing 
compositions. At first, the 
work may be irksome, but 
in due time, as it becomes 
easier, it unlocks the cham- 
bers of thought, the ideas 
begin to form and flow, and 
the task becomes a lasting 

In the schools it is a most 
important feature in the 
list of studies, and its daily 
exercise tends to indelibly 
fix upon the memory the 
proper spelling of words, 
the principles of penman- 
ship, punctuation, gram- 
mar, sentence-building and 
the use of capital letters. 
Even if a literar}' or jour- 
nalistic profession is not to 
be subsequently followed 
by the pupil, the art of writ- 
ing a composition, learned 
under the guidance of an 
experienced teacher, may 

the exercise being effective by originality 
of composition, fitting words, new and 
important thoughts, appropriateness, ease, 
and clearness of enunciation. Self-posses- 
sion is manifest in every tone and gesture. 

be of infinite service to the 
future man or woman, by inducing systematic methods of thinking. 

Out of school, in leisure moments, as a recreation, the pupil will 
find it profitable to plan the outline of a story, or frame a description 
of something seen or heard, the appearance or character of some 
peculiar individual in the neighborhood, the natural scenery of that 
locality, or some remembered incident of other days or climes. This 
practice fits one for a sudden call to prepare an address or petition, 
or to draft a letter of public interest, or it might lead to the produc- 
tion of an elaborate literary work that would prove both valuable and 
fai.ous. Many books have achieved accidental popularity. 



The use of compositions in village lyceums, or debating clubs, is 
productive not only of much genuine recreation, but is really a 
beneficial practice, especially if each paper is submitted to honest 
criticism as to its construction, after it has been read. Errors are 
thus corrected, and suggestions are made that tend greatly to im- 
provement in all future productions. 

Those who desire to excel in the composition of an essay, which is 
one of the noblest forms of literary production, will find the works 
of Joseph Addison, Dr. Samuel Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith and Lord 
Macaulay excellent models to study. Their clear-cut sentences, 
breathing wit, humor, sentiment and elevated thought, are delightful 
reading, and in beauty of construction cannot be surpassed. 

Probably, for discipline in forming a series of connected thoughts, 
all tending to the establishment of some important truth, the best is 
the sermon. This species of composition may be as systematically 
constructed as a house, which has abasement, first floor, chambers, 
attic and cupola. The foundation of the sermon is a well-chosen 
text, indicating the principal topic to be discussed. Following this 
is the exordium, or intro- 
duction, the object of which 
is to interest the hearer or 
reader in the subject by a 
few choice sentences and 
happy allusions to matters 
more or less intimately 
connected with the topical 
discussion. A good begin- 
ningisagreat point gained. 
The next step is the divis- 
ion of the subject into two 
or more heads, suggested 
by the text, each affording 
a fine field for the exercise 
of the intellect in creating 
and gathering pleasing and 
appropriate sentiments,and 
advancing arguments lead- 
ing to the one great truth 
to be impressed upon the 
mind of the reader. This 
portion of the composition 
requires skill in placing the 
arguments properly, and 
clinching them with logical 
force and appropriate drafts 
upon the writings of em- 
inent authors. The argu- 
ments finished, their strong points are briefly recounted and accom- 
panied by a direct appeal to the feelings of the reader, so that not 
only his intellect is convinced, but his better nature is affected. Fi- 
nally comes the peroration, or closing summing-up of the whole; 
and here is afforded one of the finest opportunities possible for a 
skillful and touching display of literary ability. 

Next to the sermon, the platform lecture demands great care and 
skill, and thus affords a profitable discipline for a youthful writer. 
The selection of the subject is all-important, for it should be one of 
general interest not a trivial one, even if the object is simply to 
amuse. "Artemus Ward's " best effort was named "The Babes in 
the Wood," but this title was only a fictitious one, on which to string 
choice bits of humor for two hours. In that connection any other 
title would have been as relevant, but, perhaps not so "taking." 
The subject having been chosen, the next object is to obtain, from 
sources at hand, all the information possible concerning it. From 
the mass of matter thus gathered, literary talent is taxed to make 

Apparently Extemporaneous. 

Two speakers are seen above. One makes 
no show of written notes, and speaks so in- 
dependently as to create the favorable 
impression which comes from a power- 
ful, extemporaneous address. The other 

such selections as seem best suited in every way to form attractive 
features, and exhibit them in the most fascinating manner possible. 
There should be an exordium and a peroration to each lecture, and if 
the subject is argumentative, or explanatory, it should be systematic- 
ally and logically presented. 

The newspaper article differs from most examples of composition. 
It is usually written under the pressure of business and in haste, 
relates to some current topic or event, and should be brief, concise 
and pointed. A long, dry, argumentative essay, however learned 
and valuable as a literary effort, would not be suitable for an editor's 
column in a daily journal. The paragraph style is most commonly 
esteemed. For instance: 

"Garfieldis dead; but as he once said, upon another important 
occasion, 'God reigns, and the republic still lives.' " 

" Chicago may have all the national conventions, but she can't fill 
all the offices. " 

"The price of this paper is two dollars a year, but this sum does 
not include the editor." 

" We are in favor of the constitution as it is, until it shall be 

constitutionally amended. " 

A few suggestions as to 
the composition of fiction 
by which is meant nov- 
els, tales, sketches and in- 
cidents originating in the 
writer's own brain, and 
having no foundation ex- 
cept in his imagination, 
may be appropriate here. 
Such reading-matter is 
more sought for, and more 
abundant, than any other. 
The tendency to write it is 
a common one, and when 
the laws of language, the 
purity of morals, and the 
probabilities of real exis- 
tence are not outraged in 
such works, as too fre- 
quently they are, fiction can 
be made the pleasing vehi- 
cle of valuable instruction. 
It is, perhaps, the easiest 
to write of all literature, 
and, too often, is made to 
bring the largest profits to 
author and publisher. 

Poetry is a peculiar gift, 

and unless it flows naturally and brilliantly from the mind and heart, 
should seldom be attempted. 

The engraving on this page is significant, and carries with it a 
powerful lesson. The gentleman on the right may be in every re- 
spect the equal of the one on the left may be quite as learned, 
quite as witty, quite as strong in real argument but he is a slave to 
his manuscript. He dare not lift up his head to speak two consecu- 
tive sentences without its aid, and if he takes his eyes from it, he is 
almost sure to skip words and stumble in his discourse. The speaker 
on the' left hand, standing firmly on his feet, erect in form, graceful 
in gesture, and with his well-balanced mind filled with the import- 
ance of his subject, overflows with spontaneous expressions that in- 
struct and delight his audience. Perhaps he has never written a 
single paragraph of the splendid discourse that falls from his lips, 
but every word is weighed, every sentence abounds with earnest 
argument and sentiment, and the impressions that he makes as 
his eloquence reaches throughout the hall will be felt for years. 

Confined to Manuscript. 

handles his papers and makes such a dis- 
play of his manuscript, and is so closely 
confined to its reading, as to greatly 
weaken the power of the discourse, and 
thus much of his influence is lost. 



Topics Suitable for Composition. 

A Visit to Chicago. 

Opportunity for Work. 

The Bachelor's Home. 

Discoveries of Galileo. 

Visit to a Poor-House. 

Thanksgiving Thoughts. 

People whom we Meet. 

Memory and Reflection. 

The Fate of Joan of Arc. 

Visit to a Printing Ofllce. 

My First School-Teacher. 

How we Spent Christmas. 

Pleasures of Suburban Life. 

As we Sow, we shall Reap. 

The Changes in Twenty Years. 

Night Scenes on the Battle-Field. 

The School -Ma' am' s Noonday Dream. 

The First Jewish High Priest. 

Honesty, the Poor Man's Riches. 

Real Life and Ideal Aspirations. 

Charity Toward All. 

A Trip on a Railroad. 

Some Business Signs. 

Benefits of Fine- Art. 

Talk in a Sewing- Circle. 

To be Hanged To-morrow. 

Love Conquers Selfishness. 

Things in a Country Store. 

Preparing for the Wedding. 

The Books we Ought to Read. 

A Bar-Tender's Fearful Dream. 

The Skeleton in the Household. 

My Last Visit to the Old Home. 

Home Amusements Considered. 

The Man in a Drunkard's Skin. 

My Garden, and What was In It. 

Old School-House by the Wayside. 

Going to Visit Mother Next Week. 

Life, Rightly Passed, Worth Living. 

New Inventions Discovered by Accident 

What is Worship? 

A Drunkard's Fate. 

Happiness in a Palace. 

The Last Day of School. 

Beauty at Seventy-Five. 

Bad Habits, Hard Masters. 

What Might have been, Was. 

Adventures in a Snow-storm. 

Description of a Spelling- Bee. 

A Man' s Lament at Growing Old. 

Description of a Writing- School. 

Description of a Singing-School. 

Mathematics a Finished Science. 

Description of a Church Choir. 

A Boy's Lament at being Young. 

Education Gained by Observation. 

An Instance of Presence of Mind. 

Lost in the Darkness City Sketch. 

Why Some People are Always Poor. 

Description of a Jail and its Inmates. 




,O be able to talk correctly, the stu- 
dent should first be able to write 
H2 properly. Not only should penman- 
ship be plain and easy, words rightly 
spelled, capitals correctly used, and sen- 
tences grammatically constructed and 
punctuated, but much depends, also, beyond 
that, upon the style of composition, mode of ex- 
pression, and language used, whether it be ac- 
ceptable to readers and hearers or not. 

As a rule, with the great sea of literature about 
us, the writer of to-day who is original and con- 
denses ideas into the smallest space, whether in 
the sermon, book, business-letter, or newspaper 
article, is much the most likely to have readers 
or hearers. The aim of the writer- should there- 
fore be, first, to say something new, presenting 

a subject fraught with original ideas; and, second, 
to give those ideas in the fewest possible words 
consistent with agreeable expression. 

"Why did you not make that article more 
brief?" said an editor to his correspondent. 

" Because, " said the writer, "I did not have 

The idea sought to be conveyed, concerning 
brevity, is clearly shown in that answer of the cor- 
respondent. It is an easy matter to dress ideas 
in many words. It requires much more care, how- 
ever, to clearly state the same idea in fewer 

The chief merit of Shakespeare is the thought 
conveyed in few words; the meaning that we 
catch beyond the words expressed. 

Those poets that will live in immortality have 



written thus. The reader cannot fail to recog- 
nize the truth and thought conveyed in this 
stanza of Cowper's, beyond the words them- 
selves : 

"Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, 

But trust Him for His grace; 
Behind a frowning providence 
He hides a smiling face." 

The idea expressed in these few lines brings up 
in long review the trials of a past life, and the 
recollection of sorrows and afflictions which we 
afterwards, not infrequently, discovered to be 
blessings in disguise, and in reality seemingly 
designed for our best good. 

There is much food for reflection in the follow- 
ing stanza from Gray's "Elegy": 

Full many a gem, of purest ray serene, 
The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear; 
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

"With this reading comes up the thought of 
those of our fellow-men whom we know to be 
good, noble, and worthy, but whose names will 
go down to the grave unhonored and unknown. 

Very plainly we see the meaning beyond the 
words in the following, also from Gray : 

Perhaps, in this neglected spot, is laid 
Some heart, once pregnant with celestial fire 
Hand, that the rod of empire might have swayed, 
Or waked to ecstacy the living lyre." 

A similar idea is expressed by Whittier, 
though in fewer words : 

Of all sad words of tongue or pen, 

The saddest are these, 'It might have been.' " 

Both stanzas are deeply freighted with thought 
beyond what is expressed. 

Those extracts, whether in prose or poetry, 
that are destined to go down to coming genera- 
tions, are so laden with ideas and suggestions 
that in listening, or reading, the scenes they 
suggest seem to move before us, and we forget 
words in contemplating that which the words 

Prose writings often contain gems of thought 
told very briefly, especially in the works of our 
best authors. In the following, from Irving' s 
description of the grave, the reader becomes so 
absorbed in the picture portrayed that the words 
themselves are lost in the emotions they enkin- 

" O the grave ! the grave ! It buries every error, covers every de- 
fect, extinguishes every resentment. From its peaceful bosom spring 
none but fond regrets and tender recollections. Who can look down 
upon the grave even of an enemy, and not feel a compunctious throb, 
that he should ever have warred with the poor handful of earth that 
lies mouldering before him. 

" But the grave of those we loved what a place for meditation! 
There it is that we call up in long review the whole history of virtue 
and gentleness, and the thousand endearments lavished upon us, al- 
most unheeded, in the daily intercourse of intimacy; there it is that 
we dwell upon the tenderness, the solemn, awful tenderness of the 
parting scene the bed of death, with all its stifled griefs, its noise- 
less attendants, its mute, watchful assiduities the last testimonies 
of expiring love the feeble, fluttering, thrilling O how thrilling! 
pressure of the hand the last fond look of the glazing eye, turned 
upon us even from the threshold of existence the faint, faltering 
accents struggling in death to give one more assurance of affection. 

"Ay, go to the grave of buried love, and meditate.' There settle 
the -account with thy conscience for every past benefit unrequited, 
every past endearment unregarded, of that departed being who can 
never never never return to be soothed by thy contrition." 

The Bible abounds in beautiful and expressive 
sayings, that reveal much in few words, as shown 
in the following : 

" The wicked flee when no man pursueth. " ' Boast not thyself of 
to-morrow. Thou knowest not what a day may bring forth. " 

" A soft answer turneth away wrath. " " Better is a dinner of herbs 
where love is, than a stalled ox and hatred therewith." 

"Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." "Cast thy bread upon 
the waters, for thou shalt find it after many days. " 

Care should be taken to prune out the unnec- 
essary words with an unsparing hand. Thus, 
in the sentence, "I have got back, having re- 
turned yesterday," it is better to say, "I re- 
turned yesterday." 

Two young men, upon going into the army 
during the late civil war, were requested by 
their friends to telegraph at the close of any 
battle they might take part in, concerning their 
condition. At the close of the battle of Perry- 
ville, one telegraphed the following : 

PERRYVILLE, KT., Oct. 9, 1862. 

As requested, I take the first opportunity after the late severe 
battle, fought at this place, to inform you that I came from the 
engagement uninjured. 


The other telegraphed as follows : 

PERRYVILLE, KY. , Oct. 9, 1862. 


Hiram well knew that his friends would hear 
immediately of the battle from the newspapers, 
and would learn from the same source that his 
regiment participated in the engagement. Their 



next question would then be "How is Hiram ? " 
To answer that, he had simply to telegraph one 
word. In a letter, afterwards, he gave the par- 

The following rules should be observed in 
writing : 

First. Never use a word that does not add 
some new thought, or modify some idea already 

Second. Beware of introducing so many sub- 
jects into one sentence as to confuse the sense. 

Third. Long and short sentences should be 
properly intermixed, in order to give a pleasing 
sound in reading. There is generally a rounded 
harmony in the long sentence, not found in the 
short, though as a rule, in order to express 
meaning plainly, it is better to use short sen- 

Fourth. Make choice of such words and phra- 
ses as people will readily understand. 

Rhetorical Figures, 

HE beauty, force, clearness, and 
brevity of language are frequently 
greatly enhanced by the judicious 
use of rhetorical figures, which are 
named and explained as follows : 

A Simile is an expressed comparison. 

EXAMPLE "Charity, like the sun, brightens every object on which 
it shines. '" 

The Metaphor is an implied comparison, indica- 
ting the resemblance of two objects by apply- 
ing the name, quality or conduct of one directly 
to the other. 

EXAMPLES " Thy word is a lamp to my feet. " " Life is an isthmus 
between two eternities. " "The morning of life. '' " The storms of 

An Allegory is the recital of a story under 
which is a meaning different from what is ex- 
pressed in words, the analogy and comparison 
being so plainly made that the designed con- 
clusions are correctly drawn. 

EXAMPLE Thou hast brought a vine (the Jewish nation) out of 
Egypt; thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it. Thou prepar- 
edst room before it and didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the 
land. The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs 
thereof were like the goodly cedars. BIBLE. 

In Hyperbole, through the effect of imagination 
or passion, we greatly exaggerate what is found- 
ed in truth, by magnifying the good qualities 
of objects we love, and diminish and degrade 
the objects that we dislike or envy. 

EXAMPLES "That fellow is so tall that he does not know when his 
feet are cold. " " Brougham is a thunderbolt. " 

Personification consists in attributing life to 
things inanimate. 

EXAMPLE "Hatred stirreth up strife; but love covereth all sins." 

A Metonymy (me-ton-y-my} substitutes the 
name of one object for that of another that 
sustains some relation to it, either by some de- 
gree of mutual dependence, or otherwise so 
connected as to be capable of suggesting it ; 
thus cause is used for effect, or the effect for the 
cause, the attribute for the subject, or the sub- 
ject for the attribute. 

EXAMPLES 1. Cause and effect; as "Extravagance is the ruin of 
many," that is, the cause of ruin. 

2. Attribute and that to which it belongs; as ''Pride shall be 
brought low," that is, the proud. 

A Synecdoche ( sin-ek-do-ke ) is a form of speech 
wherein something more or something less is 
substituted for the precise object meant, as 
when the whole is put for a part, or a part for 
the whole ; the singular for the plural or the 
plural for the singular. 

EXAMPLES " His head is grey," that is, his hair. "The world 
considers him a man of talent," that is, the people. 

Antithesis is the contrasting of opposites. 

EXAMPLES " Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give 
my hand and heart to this vote. " " Though deep yet clear. " 

Irony is a form of speech in which the writer 
or speaker sneeringly means the reverse of what 
is literally said, the words being usually mock- 
ery uttered for the sake of ridicule or sarcasm. 
Irony is a very effective weapon of attack, the 
form of language being such as scarcely to 
admit of a reply. 

EXAMPLE "Have not the Indians been kindly and justly treated? 
Have not the temporal things, the vain baubles and filthy lucre of 
this world, which are too apt to engage their worldly and selfish 
thoughts, been benevolently taken from them; and have they not, 
instead thereof, been taught to set their affections on things above?" 

Paralipsis pretends 

to conceal what is really 

EXAMPLE "Iiuill not call him villain, because it would be unpar- 
liamentary. I will not call him fool, because he happens to be chan- 
cellor of the exchequer. " 



Climax is the gradual ascending in the expres- 
sion of thought, from things lower to a higher 
and better. Reversed, it is called anticlimax. 

EXAMPLES "A Scotch mist becomes a shower; and a shower, a 
storm; and a storm, a tempest: and a tempest, thunder and lightning; 
and thunder and lightning, heavenquake and earthquake." "Then 
virtue became silent, heartsick, pined away, and died." 

Allusion is that use of language whereby in a 
word or words we recall some interesting inci- 
dent or condition by resemblance or contrast. 

EXAMPLES " Give them the Amazon in South America, and we'll 
give them the Mississippi in the United States. " 

After the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, Hancock remarked to his fellow- 
signers that they must all lumg together. "Yes," 
said Franklin, "or we shall all hang separately" 

The allusion in this case turns to a pun. which 
is a play upon words. 

EXAMPLE '' And the Doctor told the Sexton, 
And the Sexton tolled the bell. '' 

A continued allusion and resemblance in 
style becomes a parody. 

EXAMPLE " 'Tis the last rose of summer, left blooming alone; 
All her lovely companions are faded and gone; 
No flower of her kindred, no rosebud is nigh, 
To reflect back her blushes, and give sigh for sigh. 
I'll not leave thee, thou lone one, to pine on thy stem; 
Since the lovely are sleeping, go, sleep thou with them. 
Thus kindly I scatter thy leaves o'er the bed 
Where thy mates of the garden lie scentless and dead. " 

PARODY "'Tis the last golden dollar, left shining alone; 

All its brilliant companions are squandered and gone; 
No coin of its mintage reflects back its hue. 
They went in mint juleps, and this will go too! 
I'll not keep thee, thou lone one, too long in suspense; 
Thy brothers were melted, and melt thou, to pence ! 
I'll ask for no quarter, I'll spend and not spare, 
Till my old tattered pocket hangs centless and bare. " 
Pun " Ancient maiden lady anxiously remarks, 

That there must be peril 'mong so many sparks: 
Roguish-looking fellow, turning to the stranger, 
Says it's his opinion she is out of danger. " Saxe. 

Exclamation is a figure of speech used to ex- 
press more strongly the emotions of the speaker. 

EXAMPLES "Oh ! the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and 
the knowledge of God ! " 

" How poor, how rich, how abject, how august, 
How complicate, how wonderful is man ! 
Distinguished link in being's endless chain! 
Midway from nothing to the Deity ! 
A beam ethereal, sullied and absorbed ! 
Though sullied and dishonored, still divine! 
An heir of glory ! a frail child of dust: 
A worm ! a god ! I tremble at myself, 
And in myself am lost. " 

Interrogation is a rhetorical figure by which the 
speaker puts opinions in the form of questions, 
for the purpose of expressing thought more pos- 
itively and vehemently, without expectation of 
the questions being answered. 

EXAMPLES " He that planned the ear, shall He not hear? He that 

formed the eye, shall He not see?" "O Death, where is thy sting? 
O Grave, where is thy victory? " 

"But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week or the 
next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a Brit- 
ish guard shall be stationed in every house? * * * Is life so dear, 
or place so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and 

" Can storied urn or animated bust 

Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? 
Can Honor's voice provoke the silent dust, 

Or Flattery soothe the dull, cold ear of death?" 

Euphemism (u-fe-mis^em ) is a word or sentence 
so chosen and expressed as to make a disagree- 
able fact sound more pleasantly than if told in 
plain language. 

EXAMPLES '-Deceased" for "dead;" "stopping payment," in- 
stead of " becoming bankrupt;" " falling asleep," instead of "dying;" 
" you labor under amistake," for "you lie;" " he does not keep very 
correct accounts," instead of " he cheats when he can;" " she cer- 
tainly displays as liitle vanity in her personal appearance as any 
young lady I ever saw;" for " she is an intolerable slattern." 
" I see Anacreon laugh and sing; 
His silver tresses breathe perfume; 
His cheeks display a second spring 
Of roses taught by wine to bloom. " 

Apostrophe, like the exclamation, is the sudden 
turning away, in the fullness of emotion, to ad- 
dress some other person or object. In this we 
address the absent or dead as if present or alive, 
and the inanimate as if living. 

This figure of speech usually indicates a high 
degree of excitement. 

EXAMPLES " O gentle sleep, 

Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee, 
That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down. 
And steep my senses in forgetfulness?" 

Thus King David, on hearing of the death of 
Absalom, exclaims, ' ' O my son Absalom, my 
son, my son ! " 

Ossian's Address to the Moon is one of the 
most beautiful illustrations of the apostrophe: 

"Daughter of heaven, fair art thou ! The silence of thy face is 
pleasant. Thou comest forth in loveliness. The stars attend thy 
blue steps in the East. The clouds rejoice in thy presence, O Moon ! 
brighten their dark-brown sides. Who is like thee in heaven, daugh- 
ter of the night? The star's are ashamed in thy presence, and turn 
aside their sparkling eyes. Whither dost thou retire from thy course, 
when the darkness of thy countenance grows? Hast thou thy hall 
like Ossian? Dwellest thou in the shadow of grief? Have thy sisters 
fallen from heaven? and are they who rejoiced with thee at night 
no more? Yes, they have fallen, fair light ! and often dost thou retire 
to mourn. But thou thyself shall one night fail, and leave thy blue 
path in heaven. The stars will then lift their heads; they who in thy 
presence were astonished will rejoice. " 

" Thou lingering star with less'ning ray, 
That lov'st to greet the early morn, 
Again thou usher'st in the day 
My Mary from my soul was torn. 
O Mary ! dear departed shade ! " 

Vision is a figure of rhetoric by which the 
speaker represents the objects of his imagina- 
tion as actually before his eyes and present to 
his senses. 


EXAMPLES " Soldiers ! from tops of yonder pyramids forty cen- 
turies look down upon you! " 

"We behold houses and public edifices wrapt in flames; we hear the 
crash of roofs falling in, and one general uproar proceeding from a 
thousand different voices; we see some flying they know not whither, 
others hanging over the last embraces of their wives and friends; we 
see the mother tearing from the ruffian's grasp her helpless babe, and 
the victors cutting each others' throats wherever the plunder is most 

Onomatopoeia is the use of such word or words 
as by their sound will suggest the sense, as 
crash, buzz, roar, etc. Motion is thus easily im- 
itated, as is also sound, and even the reflections 
and emotions. 

EXAMPLES "Away they went pell mell, hurry skurry, wild 
buffalo, wild horse, wild huntsmen, with clang and clatter, and whoop 
and halloo that made the forest ring." "The ball went whizzing 

"While I nodded nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping 
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. " 

General Summary. 

Dr. Blair's system of rhetoric sums up the 
most important qualities of style in the six fol- 
lowing terms, being thus condensed by Kerl : 

" Purity, propriety, and precision chiefly in regard to words and 
phrases; and perspicuity, unity, and strength, in regard to sentences. 
He who writes with purity, avoids all phraseology that is foreign, un- 
couth, or ill-derived; he who writes with propriety, selects the most 
appropriate, the very best expressions, and generally displays sound 
judgment and good taste; he who writes with precision, is careful to 
state exactly what he means all that he means, or that is necessary, 
and nothing more; he who writes with perspicuity, aims to present his 
meaning so clearly and obviously, that no one can fail to understand 
him at once; he who observes unity, follows carefully the most agree- 
able order of nature, and does not jumble together incongruous things, 
nor throw out his thoughts in a confused or chaotic mass; and he who 
writes with strength, so disposes or marshals all the parts of each 
sentence, and all the parts of the discourse, as to make the strongest 
impression. A person's style, according as it is influenced by taste 
and imagination,, may be' dry, plain, neat, elegant, ornamental, florid, 
or turgid. The most common faulty style is that which may be de- 
scribed as being stiff, cramped, labored, heavy and tiresome ; its oppo- 
site is the easy, flowing, graceful, sprightly, and interesting style. 
One of the greatest beauties of style, one too little regarded, is sim- 
plicity or naturalness; that easy, unaffected, earnest, and highly im- 
pressive language which indicates a total ignorance, or rather inno- 
cence, of all the trickery of art. It seems to consist of the pure 
promptings of nature; though, in most instances, it is not so much a 
natural gift as it is the perfection of art. " 

Laws of Language. 

The following rules by Dr. Campbell, in refer- 
ence to the construction of sentences and choice 
of words, will be found of service : 

1. When the usage is divided as to any particular words or phrases, 
and when one of the expressions is susceptible of different meanings, 
while the other admits of only one signification, the expression which 
is strictly of one meaning should be preferred. 

2. In doubtful cases, analogy should be regarded. 

3. When expressions are in other respects equal, that should be 
preferred which is most agreeable to the ear. 

4. When none of the preceding rules takes place, regard should 
be had to simplicity. 

5. All words and phrases, particularly harsh and not absolutely 
necessary, should be dismissed. 

6 . When the etymology pjainly points to a different signification 
from what the word bears, propriety and simplicity require its dis- 

7. When words become obsolete,or are never used but in particular 
phrases, they should be repudiated, as they give the style an air of vul- 
garity and cant, when this general disuse renders them obscure. 

8. All words and phrases which analyzed grammatically, include 
an imperfection of speech, should be dismissed. 

9. All expressions which, according to the established rules of lan- 
guage, either have no meaning, or involve a contradiction, or accord- 
ing to the fair construction of the words, convey a meaning different 
from the intention of the speaker, should be dismissed. 

Specific Directions. 

PARAGRAPHS. One or more sentences form 
a paragraph. When a deviation or change is 
made in the subject, a new paragraph is com- 
menced. The first line of each paragraph in 
writing should commence about one inch from 
the left side of the sheet. Preserve a space 
half an inch in width between the left of the 
writing and the edge of the sheet. Write as 
close to the right edge of the sheet as possible. 
When lack of space prevents the completion 
of a word on the line, place the hyphen (-) at 
the end of the line and follow with the remain- 
ing syllables on the next line. Words may be 
divided, but never divide syllables. 

Rules of Construction. 

1. The principal words in a sentence should 
be placed where they will make the most strik- 
ing impression. 

2. A weaker assertion or argument should 
not follow a stronger one. 

3. The separation of the preposition from 
the noun which it governs, should be avoided. 

4. Concluding the sentence with an adverb, 
preposition, or other insignificant words, lessens 
the strength of the sentence. 

ORDER OF ARRANGEMENT. Young writers will 
find it well to prepare a memorandum of the sub- 
jects they wish to treat on a separate slip of paper, 
and the points they wish to make relating to each 
subject. Having the subjects clearly fixed in the 
mind, they should commence with the least im- 
portant and follow through to the end, consider- 
ing the most important at the close. 



|Dictionary of ^Synonyms, 


UITE a common fault is that of 
using, when writing, the same 
word several times in a sen- 
tence. To avoid this inelegant 
repetition, the writer should 
give careful attention to the 
selection of different words 
having a similar meaning. 
Observe the following : 


He is accurate in figures, accurate in grammar, accurate in 
spelling, accurate in writing. 


He is accurate in figxires, correct in grammar, exact in spell- 
ing, precise in writing. 

For the use of Writers and Speakers. 

See the word accurate in the dictionary, ac- 
companied by synonymous words. 


He made an excellent address in the morning, and his col- 
league made an excellent address in the evening. 


He made an excellent address in the morning, and his col- 
league entertained the assemblage with an eloquent speech in 
the evening. 


The patient suffered untold agony for years ; during which 
time he suffered not only agony of body, but agony of mind. 


The patient suffered untold agony for years ; during which 
time he endured not only torture of body, but anguish of mind. 

Abase humble, lower, degrade, 
depress, disgrace. 

Abate lessen, reduce, subside, de- 
crease, diminish. 

Abbreviate abridge, curtail, 
condense, compress, empitoinize, 
lessen, reduce, shorten. 

Abhor abominate, detest, hate, 

Ability capacity, power, skill, 

means, talent. 
Able capable, competent. 

Abode dwelling, habitation, resi- 



abhor, detest, hate, 

Abridge contract, diminish, les- 
sen, shorten. 

Absent abstracted, inattentive, 

Absorb engross, engulf, imbibe, 

Abstain forbear, refrain, with- 

Abstruse hidden, obscure, diffi- 

Absurd foolish, unreasonable, 

preposterous, ridiculous, silly. 
Abundant ample, copious, plen- 

Abuslve insolent, offensive, scur- 
rilous, disgraceful. 

Accede acquiesce, agree, con- 
sent, assent, comply, yield. 

Accept admit, receive, take. 

Acceptable agreeable, grateful, 

Accession addition, augmenta- 
tion, increase. 

Accommodate adjust, adapt, 
serve, suit, flt. 

Accomplice abettor, ally, assist- 
ant, accessory, associate. 

Accomplish complete, effect, 
achieve, fulfill, execute, realize, 

Account explanation, narration, 
description, recital. 

Accumulate heap, collect, gath- 
er, amass. 

Accurate precise, exact, correct. 

Accuse asperse, arraign, censure, 
impeach, defame, calumniate, de- 
tract, vilify. 

Achieve execute, complete, ful- 
fill, realize, accomplish, effect. 

Acknowledgment confession, 

Acknowledge confess, own, 
avow, grant. 

Acquaint inform, communicate, 
disclose, make known. 

Acquiesce comply, yield, con- 
sent, agree, assent. 

Acquire gain, attain, procure, 
win, obtain. 

Acquirement attainment, gain. 
Acquit free, pardon, forgive, 

discharge, clear. 
Active quick, nimble, agile, 

alert, prompt, industrious, busy, 

brisk, vigorous. 

Actual real, certain, positive. 

Actuate impel, induce, move. 

Acute sharp, keen, subtle, pierc- 
ing, shrewd, pointed, penetrating. 

Adapt suit, fit, adjust, accommo- 

Add join to, put to, increase. 
Address speech, utterance, abil- 
ity, courtship, skill, direction. 

Addition augmentation, acces- 
sion, increase. 

Adhere stick, cleave, hold, at- 

Adept apt, quick, skillful, expert. 
Adherent disciple, follower, par- 

Adhesion sticking, attachment, 

Adjacent close, near, adjoining, 


Adjourn postpone, defer, delay. 

Adjust settle, fix, suit, adapt, ac- 

Administer give, execute, dis- 
pense, manage, supply, serve. 

Admiration regard, esteem, 
wonder, surprise, amazement. 



entrance, access, ad- 

Admit allow, permit, tolerate, 
concede, grant. 

Admonition warning, advice, 

counsel, reproof. 

Adorn deck, embellish, beautify. 
Adroit agile, dexterous, clever, 


Adulterate corrupt, pollute, de- 
base, defile. 

Advancement progression, im- 

Advantage profit, benefit, use, 

Adventure chance, casualty, 
contingency, incident, occur- 

Adversary opponent, antago- 
nist, enemy. 

Adverse unfortunate, hostile, 
contrary, repugnant, opposed. 

Advert notice, turn, regard, al- 

Advise consult, consider, delib- 
erate, admonish. 

Advocate plead, argue, defend, 

Affability civility, courteous- 
ness, urbanity. 

Affable civil, courteous, urbane, 

Affair business, concern, matter, 



Affect aim, assume, move, pre- 
tend, arrogate 

Affecting: feeling, touching, pa- 

Affection love, fondness, attach- 
ment, kindness, tenderness. 

Affiliate adopt, receive, initiate, 

Affinity relationship, kindred, 
alliance, conformity, attraction. 

Affirm assure, assert, aver, de- 
clare, protest. 

Affliction pain, trouble, distress, 
grief, sadness, sorrow, tribula- 
tion, bereavement, calamity. 

Affluence plenty, abundance, 
riches, opulence, wealth, con- 
course, influx. 

Afford yield, grant, give, impart, 

Affright alarm, dismay, shock, 
terrify, appall, frighten, dis- 
hearten, intimidate. 

Affront provoke, outrage, insult, 

Afraid fearful, terrified, timid, 

A iced elderly, old, senile, ad- 
vanced in years. 

Agent representative, deputy. 

Aggregate mass, collect, ac- 

Agile alert, active, lively, quick, 
sprightly, nimble, brisk. 

Agitate shake, disturb, move, 

Agitation disturbance, trepida- 
tion, tremor. 

Agony pain, distress, torture, 
anguish, suffering. 

Agree accede, acquiesce, assent, 
consent, concur, comply. 

Agreeable suitable, acceptable, 
pleasing, grateful. 

Agreement harmony, accord- 
ance, covenant, concurrence, con- 
tract, bargain. 

Aid assist, help, succor, relieve. 

Aim aspire, eudeavor, level, 

Air aspect, manner, appearance, 
look, mien. 

Alarm fear, consternation, dread, 
apprehension, fright, terror, sum- 
mons, surprise. 

Alienate transfer, withdraw, 

Allege adduce, affirm, advance, 

Alleviate ease, abate, lessen, 
mitigate, relieve, diminish, soothe, 

Alliance coalition, union, com- 
bination, league, confederacy. 

Allot distribute, apportion, as- 
sign, appoint. 

Allowance wages, pay, stipend, 
salary, permission, concession, 

Allude refer, suggest, hint, inti- 

Allure tempt, entice, seduce, de- 
coy, attract. 

Alter change, vary, modify, re- 

Always ever, perpetually, con- 
stantly, continually, incessantly. 

Amass gather, heap, collect, ac- 

Amuzement astonishment, sur- 
prise, wonder, admiration. 

Ambiguous obscure, doubtful, 
equivocal, uncertain. 

Amenable answerable, respon- 
sible, accountable. 

Amend correct, improve, better, 
rectify, reform, mend. 

Amends recompense, restoration, 
reparation, restitution. 

Amiable lovely, kind, charming, 
delightful, obliging. 

Ample large, extended, spacious, 
copious, abundant, plenteous. 

Amusement entertainment, di- 
version, sport, pastime, recrea- 

Angry passionate, hot, irascible, 

Anguish pain, distress, suffering, 

Animate cheer, enliven, exhilar- 
ate, impel, incite, inspire, urge, 

Animation life, spirits, liveli- 
ness, buoyancy, gayety, vivacity. 

Animosity hatred, enmity, mal- 
ignity, hostility. 

Annex attach, affix, add, sub- 

Announce proclaim, declare, ad- 
vertise, publish. 

Annul destroy, revoke, abolish, 
cancel, repeal, annihilate. 

Answer reply, response, rejoin- 

Answerable amenable, account- 
able, responsible. 

Antagonist enemy, foe,, oppo- 
nent, adversary. 

Antecedent previous, former, 
anterior, preceding, prior, fore- 

Antipathy aversion, abhor- 
rence, dislike, detestation, hatred. 

Anxiety caution, care, perplex- 
ity, solicitude, uneasiness, dis- 

Apathy unfeeiingness, indiffer- 
ence, insensibility, unconcern. 

Aperture cavity, opening. 

Apology defense, plea, excuse. 

Apparent-evident, clear, plain, 
visible, distinct. 

Appeal invoke, refer, call upon. 

Appearance aspect, look, air, 
manner, mien, semblance. 

Appease calm, soothe, pacify, 
allay, assuage, tranquilize. 

Applaud praise, approve, extol, 

Applause acclamation, shout- 
ing, approval. 

Appoint allot, fix, provide, or- 
der, prescribe, ordain, depute, 

Appraise value, estimate. 

Appreciate value, esteem, esti- 
mate, prize. 

Apprehension terror, alarm, 
fear, seizure, dread, suspicion, 

Apprise inform, acquaint, dis- 

Approach admittance, access, 
avenue, passage. 

Approbation approval, concur- 
rence, consent, sanction, confirm- 

Appropriate assume, usurp, 
set apart. 

Appropriate peculiar, exclus- 
ive, adapted. 

Approve allow, like, applaud, 
esteem, commend. 

Arbitrator judge, umpire, ar- 

Archives annals, records. 

Ardent hot, eager, passionate, 
fervent, fiery, vehement. 

Arduous hard, difficult, labori- 

Argument proof, reason, dis- 

Arise mount, ascend, rise, stand 

Arraign charge, accuse, im- 

Arrange place, dispose, class, 

Arrogance assumption, pride, 
self-conceit, haughtiness, pre- 

Artful crafty, artificial, deceit- 
ful, cunning, dexterous. 

Articulate speak, pronounce, 

Artifice deception, imposition, 
stratagem, cheat, deceit, finesse. 

Attitude posture, gesture. 

Attract charm, captivate, win, 
allure, draw, entice. 

Attractions charms, allure- 
ments, enticements. 

Audacity impudence, boldness, 
hardihood, effrontery. 

Auspicious favorable, propi- 
tious, prosperous, lucky, fortu- 

Authentic genuine, authorized, 

Authority power, dominion, 
force, sway, influence, ascend- 

Avarice greed, covetousness, cu- 

Averse loth, unwilling, reluct- 
ant, repugnant, unfortunate, un- 

Aversion dislike, repugnan-je, 
antipathy, abhorrence, detesta- 

Avidity eagerness, greediness. 

Avocation calling, trade, pro- 
fession, office, business, employ- 
ment, occupation. 

Avoid shun, elude, eschew. 

Avow own, confess, recognize, 

Awake rouse.provoke, excite. 

Awe fear, dread, reverence. 

Babbling idle talk, loquacity, 
chattering, prattling. 

Hack ward loth, unwilling, re- 
luctant, averse. 

Baffle confound, defeat, discon- 
cert, elude, confuse. 

Balance settle, adjust, regulate, 

Banter taunt, ridicule, deride, 
rally, joke, jest. 

Bare stripped, naked, destitute, 
uncovered, unadorned. 

Bargain purchase, cheapen, 
contract, buy. 

Base mean, low, vile. 

Bashful shy, modest, diffident, 

Basis foundation, pedestal, base, 

Bastard spurious, illegitimate. 

Battle combat, fight, engage- 

Bear carry, bring forth, support, 
suffer, endure, sustain, undergo. 

Beat hit, strike, defeat, over- 

Bean sweetheart, gallant, dandy, 

Beautiful handsome, fine. 

Beautify embellish, decorate, 
adorn, deck, ornament. 

Becoming suitable, graceful, 
comely, decent, befitting, meet, 

Beg crave, beseech, entreat, ask, 
request, implore, solicit, suppli- 

Begin originate, enter upon, 

Beguile delude, mislead, amuse, 
deceive, impose upon. 

Behavior conduct, carriage, de- 
portment, manner, demeanor, 

Behold see, look, observe, view. 

Beholder spectator, looker on, 

Belief credit, faith, trust, cer- 
tainty, confidence, reliance, con- 
viction, opinion, assent. 

Below under, beneath. 

Bend lean, incline, distort, bow, 

Beneath under, below. 

Bequeath devise, give by will. 

Beseech solicit, crave, implore, 
beg, entreat, request, urge, suppli- 

Bestow grant, confer, give, pre- 

Better improve, mend, reform, 

Blame reprove, reproach, con- 
demn, censure, reprehend, incul- 
pate, upbraid. 

Blameless unblemished, fault- 
less, innocent, guiltless, spotless, 

Blast desolate, destroy, wither 
up, split. 

Blemish flaw, spot, defect, fault, 

Blunt dull, uncouth, insentient, 

Blunder error, mistake. 
Boaster braggard, braggart, 

braggadocio, vaunter, blusterer. 
Boasting parade, ostentation, 


Boisterous violent, furious, im- 

Bold courageous, daring, fear- 
less, impudent, insolent, auda- 

Bondage servitude, slavery, con- 
finement, imprisonment. 

Border edge, verge, rim, brim, 
margin, brink, side. 

Bore pierce, penetrate, perfor- 

Bound define, confine, restrict, 
terminate, limit, circumscribe. 

Bounty liberality, benevolence, 
generosity, beneficence. 

Brave bold, daring, heroic, un- 
daunted, courageous, intrepid, 

Breach gap, chasm, break, open- 

Break destroy, batter, dissolve, 
rend, tame, demolish, shatter. 

Breaker surge, billow, wave, 
sand-bank, covered rock. 

Brief short, concise, succinct, 
compendious, summary, epitom- 

Bright clear, shining, sparkling, 
brilliant, glistening, glittering, 
lucid, resplendent. 

Brilliancy-brightness, radiance, 
splendor, luster. 

Broad far-reaching, ample, ex- 
tensive, large, wide. 

Broil fight, quarrel, altercation, 

Bruise break, crush, squeeze, 
pound, compress. 

Build erect, establish, construct, 

Bulk greatness, largeness, size, 
extent, magnitude, dimensions. 

Burden load, freight, weight, 

Burning ardent, fiery, scorch- 
ing, hot. 

Burst break, rend, crack, split. 

Business trade, occupation, call- 
ing, work, avocation, profession, 

Bustle disorder, hurry, tumult, 

But except, still, however, save, 
nevertheless, yet, notwithstand- 

Butchery havoc, slaughter, car- 
nage, massacre. 

Buy procure, bargain, obtain, 

Cabal coalition, league, combin- 
ation, conspiracy, intrigue, plot. 

Calamity mishap, disaster, mis- 

Calculate count, number, com- 
pute, reckon, estimate. 

Call exclaim, cry, invite, name, 
summon, subpoena. 



Calling trade, occupation, pro- 
fession, business, employment, 

Calm soothe, compose, tranquil- 
ize, pacify, appease, assuage, al- 

Cancel erase, destroy, abolish, 
repeal, annul, revoke. 

Candid frank, open, artless, hon- 
est, ingenuous. 

Capable able, fitted, competent, 
qualified, skillful. 

Capacity capability, faculty, 
ability, genius, talent. 

Caprice fancy, humor, freak, 
whim, notion. 

Capricious notional, variable, 
fickle, changeable, fantastical, 

Captivate charm, enslave, at- 
tract, enchant, enrapture, take 
prisoner, fascinate. 

Captivity servitude, bondage, 
confinement, imprisonment. 

Capture prize, seizure. 

Care anxiety, solicitude, regard, 
attention, management, concern, 
disquietude, worry. 

Careful cautious, solicitous, at- 
tentive, provident, guarded, pru- 
dent, circumspect. 

Careless heedless, thoughtless, 
remiss, inattentive, negligent, 

Caress fondle, endear, embrace, 
stroke, soothe. 

Carnage massacre, butchery, 

Carriage manner, behavior, de- 
portment, mien, demeanor, walk, 

Carry transport, convey, bear. 

Cast throw, hurl, turn, direct, 

Catch snatch, seize, lay hold of, 
grasp, capture, grip. 

Cause origin, source, reason, in- 

Caution advice, warning, notice, 
admonition, care, solicitude, cir- 

Cautious careful, wary, watch- 
ful, prudent, circumspect. 

Cease leave off, desist, stop, dis- 


Celebrated honored, illustrious, 
famous, renowned. 

Celebrate praise, extol, com- 
mend, perpetuate. 

Censure rebuke, reprimand, con- 
demnation, reproach, stricture, 

Ceremony form, rite, observ- 

Certain manifest, actual, real, 
sure, constant. 

Chagrin vexation, mortification, 

Challenge demand, defy, claim, 
call, accuse, object, except. 

Chance hazard, casual, fortui- 

Change alteration, variety, mu- 
tation, conversion, vicissitude. 

Changeable uncertain, variable, 
fickle, mutable, inconstant, un- 

Character manner, reputation, 
description, letter, mark, quality. 

Charity kindness, benevolence, 
good-will, liberality, beneficence, 

Charm attract, bewitch, delight, 
enrapture, captivate, fascinate. 

Chasten correct, punish, afflict, 

Chasteness purity, continence, 
simplicity, chastity. 

Chastise correct, afflict, punish. 
Chattels effects, movable goods. 
Cheat fraud, deception, deceit, 

stratagem, imposition. 
Cheer incite, comfort, gladden, 

encourage, exhilarate. 

Cheerfulness mirth, gladness, 
liveliness, sprightliness, gayety, 
jollity, comfort. 

Cherish help, shelter, nurture, 
warm, foster. 

Chide scold, rebuke, reprove, rep- 

Chiefly mainly, principally, par- 
ticularly, especially. 

Childish simple, puerile, trifling. 

Childhood infancy, minority. 

Children offspring, issue, pro- 

Choke stifle, smother, suffocate. 

Choice selection, election, op- 

Choose prefer, select, pick, elect. 

Circulate spread, pass, diffuse, 

Circumscribe limit, confine, 
enclose, bound. 

Circumstance event, incident, 
state, situation, condition. 

Circumspect watchful, wary, 
cautious, particular, vigilant, pru- 

Circumstantial minute, partic- 
ular, incidental, accidental. 

Civil obliging, polite, affable, 
courteous, complaisant, polished, 

Civilization refinement, cul- 

Claim demand, pretension, right. 
Clandestine secret, hidden, pri- 

Class division, order, degree, 

Cleansing purifying, purging, 

Clear free, pure, acquit, absolve, 
discharge, satisfy, vindicate, ap- 
parent, evident, obvious. 

Clearly distinctly, lucidly, plain- 
ly, manifestly, obviously, visibly. 

Clemency mercy, mildness, len- 
ity, kindness. 

Clever adroit, skillful, ready, ex- 

Climb mount, scale, ascend. 

Cling stick, hold, cleave, clasp, 

Close shut, firm, compact, con- 
cise, confined, near. 

Clothes raiment, garments, cov- 
ering, attire, habiliments, ap- 

Clouded obscured, variegated, 
dark, gloomy, overcast, sullen. 

Clumsy awkward, unhandy, un- 
couth, bungling. 

Coadjutor assistant, colleague, 

Coalition conspiracy, league, 
union, combination. 

Coarse gross, inelegant, rough, 
rude, vulgar, unrefined. 

Coax flatter, wheedle, fawn, ca- 

Coerce force, compel, restrain. 

Cognomen name, appellation, 

Coherent consistent, adhesive, 

Coincide harmonize, agree, con- 

Cold reserved, chill, frigid, shy, 

Colleague ally, associate, part- 
ner, coadjutor. 

Collected calm, placid, unruffled, 
composed, gathered. 

Collection gathering, contribu- 
tion, assemblage, group. 

Colloquy dialogue, conference, 

Color dye, hue, tint, paint, tinge. 

Combination union, league, 
coalition, conspiracy, alliance, 

Comely graceful, handsome, 

Comfort solace, console, encour- 
age, enliven. 

Comfortless wretched, desolate, 

Comic funny, ludicrous, ridicu- 
lous, laughable. 

Command direction, behest, pre- 
cept, order, injunction. 

Commanding dictatorial, im- 
perative, authoritative, imperious. 

Commence undertake, originate, 

Commend praise, recommend, 
extol, applaud, approve, laud. 

Commensurate --sufficient, ade- 
quate, equal, proportionate. 

Comment utterance, explana- 
tion, exposition, annotation, note, 
observation, elucidation, remark. 

Commiseration feeling for, 
pity, compassion, sympathy, con- 

Commission authorize, enable, 

Commodious fit, suitable, con- 

Commodity goods, merchandise, 

Common mean, vulgar, frequent, 
low. general, ordinary, usual. 

Commotion perturbation, dis- 
turbance, tumult. 

Communicate tell, report, dis- 
close, make known, impart, re- 

Communication commerce, in- 
tercourse, conference. 

Communion fellowship, union, 
converse, intercourse. 

Commute exchange, barter. 

Compact contract, agreement, 
covenant, firm, solid, close. 

Companion ally, accomplice, 
associate, comrade, friend, confed- 
erate, partner. 

Company assembly, band, crew, 
corporation, congregation, associ- 

Compass attain, enclose, invest, 
besiege, environ, encircle, con- 

Compassion tenderness, pity, 
sympathy, commiseration. 

Compensation pay, amends, re- 
ward, remuneration, requital. 

Competent suitable, fitted, able, 
qualified, capable, efficient, skill- 
ful, effective. 

Competition rivalry, contest, 

Complaining lamenting, mur- 
muring, bemoaning, bewailing, 
regretting, repining. 

Complaisant agreeable, affable, 
courteous, civil. 

Complete conclude, fulfill, termi- 
nate, effect, accomplish, finish, 
consummate, execute. 

Complex intricate, complicate, 

Compliment extol, flatter, con- 
gratulate, praise. 

Comply agree, accord, accede, 
assent, yield, acquiesce, consent. 

Compose put together, form, set- 
tle, soothe, calm, quiet, com- 

Comprehend appreciate, em- 
brace, include, understand, com- 
prise, conceive. 

Compress condense, squeeze, 

Compulsion constraint, force, 
restraint, coercion. 

Compunction regret, penitence, 
remorse, repentance, contrition. 

Compute count, number, rate, 
estimate, calculate. 

Concede yield, grant, allow, de- 
liver, admit, surrender. 

Conceal hide, disguise, cover, 

Conceit imagination, fancy, no- 
tion, freak. 

Conceited vain, proud, egotis- 
tical, opinionated. 

Conception perception, knowl- 
edge, fancy, idea, imagination, 

Concern care, interest, business, 
affair, regard, matter. 

Concert contrive, manage, ad- 
just, consult. 

Conciliate win, reconcile, pro- 

Conclude finish, terminate, close. 
Conclusion termination, infer- 
ence, end. 

Conclusive convincing, decisive. 
Concord harmony, agreement, 
unity, amity, peace. 

Concur agree, coincide, approve, 

Condemn sentence, doom, blame, 

reproach, reprove. 

Condense abbreviate, shorten, 

Condescension humility, sub- 
mission, deference. 

Condition rank, state, compact, 
bond, case, situation, stipulation. 

Condolence compassion, com- 
miseration, sympathy. 

Conduce conduct, tend, lead, con- 

Conduct management, behavior, 
guidance, deportment. 

Confederate ally, accomplice, 

Confer give, bestow, discourse, 

Confess acknowledge, grant, own, 
admit, avow, recognize, disclose. 

Confide rely, trust, repose, de- 

Confident impudent, bold, posi- 
tive, dogmatical, absolute, assured. 

Confined limited, shut up, cir- 
cumscribed, restrained, contracted, 

Confirm corroborate, establish, 

Conflict contest, contention, fight, 
agony, combat, struggle, warfare, 

Conform submit, yield, comply. 

Confuse stupefy, embarrass, con- 
found, abash, disorder, perplex. 

Congrulty agreement, consist- 

Conjecture guess, think, belief, 

Connected joined, united, re- 

Connection intercourse, union, 
commerce, association, commun- 

Conquer subdue, vanquish, over- 
come, surmount. 

Conscious aware, sensible, ap- 

Consent yield, agree, assent, com- 
ply, acquiesce, accede. 

Consequence result, inference, 

Consequently hence, according- 
ly, therefore, wherefore. 

Consider ponder, dehoeratc, re- 
gard, reflect. 

Consign entrust, commit, trans- 
fer, make over. 

Consistent agreeing, consonant, 
accordant, firm. 

Console comfort, soothe, cheer. 

Conspicuous prominent, noted, 
distinguished, illustrious. 

Constancy perseverance, firm- 
ness, steadiness, stability. 

Constantly ever, continually, 
perpetually, unchangeably, inces- 

Construct make, build, erect, 

Consult consider, deliberate, ad- 

Consume waste, destroy, absorb, 



Consummation perfection, com- 

Con tuitions epidemic, infectious. 

Contain hold, include, embrace, 

Contaminate pollute, taint, de- 
file, corrupt, poison. 

Contemn scorn, despise, disdain. 

Contemplate consider, meditate, 

Contemptible paltry, vile, dis- 
dainful, mean, despicable, disrep- 
utable, low. 

Contend quarrel, debate, contest, 
argue, vie, strive. 

Contention strife, conflict, con- 
test, combat, dispute, dissension. 

Contentment acquiescence, hap- 
piness, satisfaction, gratification. 

Contiguous near, approximat- 
ing, adjacent. 

Continual perpetual, constant, 
incessant, unceasing, continuous. 

Continuation continuance, dura- 

Contract arrangement, bargain, 
agreement, compact, covenant. 

Contract curtail, abridge, con- 
dense, abbreviate, reduce, shorten. 

Contradict gainsay, deny, op- 

Contrary opposite, adverse, in- 

Contribute assist, administer, 
aid, share. 

Contrition remorse, penitence, 
repentance, compunction, regret. 

Contrivance device, means, in- 
vention, plan, scheme. 

Control subdue, restrain, check, 
govern, curb. 

Controversy argument, debate, 
disputation, contest. 

Convene call together, assemble, 

Convenient handy, adapted, 

Conversation dialogue, discus- 
sion, conference, colloquy. 

Converse commune, speak, talk, 

Convey take, carry, bear, trans- 

Conviction persuasion, detec- 
tion, satisfaction. 

Convivial agreeable, festal, so- 
cial, sociable. 

Convoke gather, assemble, con- 
vene, call together. 

Copious ample, full, abundant, 
exuberant, plenteous, bountiful. 

Cordial hearty, warm, sincere. 

Correct mend, amend, reform, 
better, improve, rectify. 

Corroborate establish, confirm, 

Corruption depravity, pollution, 
defilement, adulteration, contami- 
nation, infection, putridity. 

Costly expensive, precious, valu- 

Counsel advice, instruction, ex- 

Counteract change, defeat, op- 
pose, hinder, frustrate, prevent. 

Countenance uphold, favor, en- 
courage, support, sanction. 

Counterfeit forged, feigned, 
false, spurious, imposture, imita- 

Couple brace, pair, two, join, 

Courage heroism, valor, brav- 
ery, firmness, intrepidity, fearless- 

Course mode, way, track, line, 
career, progress, method, passage, 
road, route, series, succession. 

Courteous kind, civil, affable, 
polished, respectful, polite, well- 

Covenant arrangement, agree- 
ment, contract, pledge, stipula- 

Covering concealing, screening, 
sheltering, hiding, overspreading. 

Covetoiisness greed, avarice, 
cupidity, inordinate desire. 

Coward sneak, dastard, pol- 

Cowardice fear, timidity, cow- 

Crafty underhanded, cunning, 
artful, wily, deceitful, sly, subtle. 

Crave beg, pray, beseech, entreat, 
implore, request, solicit, suppli- 

Create build, form, make, cause, 
invent, originate, shape, produce. 

Crime evil, guilt, wickedness, sin, 

Crisis juncture, critical point. 

Criticism stricture, censure, re- 
view, remark, judgment. 

Crooked bowed, turned, curved, 
awry, bent, disfigured, deformed. 

Cross ill-tempered, fretful, peev- 
ish, spleeny, petulant, splenetic. 

Cruel barbarous, brutal, pitiless, 
inhuman, inexorable, unmerciful, 

Cultivation advancement, civil- 
ization, improvement, refinement, 

Cure heal, restore, remedy. 

Curious prying, inquisitive. 

Curse imprecation, malediction, 
anathema, execration. 

Cursory hasty, careless, slight, 
desultory, superficial. 

Curtail shorten, contract, abbre- 
viate, abridge. 

Custom habit, manner, usage, 
prescription, practice. 

Damage injury, hurt, loss, detri- 

Dampness wet, moisture, hu- 

Danger hazard, peril, risk, ven- 

Daring bold, fearless, valorous, 
courageous, intrepid, brave. 

Dark dismal, obscure, gloomy, 
dim. ' 

Date time, period, epoch, era, 

Dead still, lifeless, inanimate, 

Deadly fatal, mortal, destruc- 

Dealing trade, practice, traffic, 

Dearth famine, need, scarcity, 

Debar deter, hinder, prevent, 
exclude, preclude. 

Debase lower, degrade, humble, 

Debate argue, wrangle, dispute, 
controvert, contest. 

Debilitate impair, weaken, en- 
ervate, enfeeble. 

Debility infirmity, weakness, in- 
capacity, imbecility, feebleness. 

Decay decline, consumption. 

Decease demise, death, depart- 
ure of life. 

Deceit fraud, duplicity, decep- 
tion, cunning, artifice, trickery, 

Decent comely, fit, seemly, be- 

Decide settle, resolve, fix, deter- 

Decision sentence, determina- 
tion, judgment, resolution, conclu- 

Decisive conclusive, convincing, 

Declare announce, pronounce, 
testify, proclaim, assure, assert, 

Decline droop, decay, shun, re- 
ject, repel, sink, refuse. 

Decorate embellish, ornament, 
beautify, adorn. 

Decoy allure, tempt, seduce, en- 
tice, inveigle. 

Decrease lessen, diminish, sub- 
side, lower, abate. 

Dedicate devote, consecrate, set 

Deduction abatement, inference, 

Deed action, exploit, achieve- 
ment, feat. 

Deface mar, disfigure, destroy, 

Defame slander, vilify, scandal- 
ize, calumniate. 

Defeat beat, baffle, conquer, 
overcome, overthrow, vanquish, 

Defect want, flaw, blemish, im- 

Defective wanting, imperfect, 

Defender protector, advocate, 
pleader, vindicator. 

Defense apology, excuse, justifi- 
cation, protection, vindication. 

Defer delay, hinder, prolong, re- 
tard, postpone, protract, procras- 

Deference respect, regard, con- 
descension, submission, venera- 

Deficient lacking, wanting, im- 

Defile taint, poison, vitiate, cor- 
rupt, contaminate, pollute. 

Definite exact, precise, positive, 
certain, bounded, limited. 

Defraud swindle, cheat, rob, de- 
ceive, trick. 

Degrade lower, disgrace, lessen, 
reduce, decry, depreciate, dispar- 

Degree rank, position, station, 
class, order. 

Dejection depression, lowliness, 

Delay hinder, defer, detain, pro- 
long, protract, postpone. 

Deliberate slow, hesitating, 
considerate, thoughtful, cautious. 

Delicate frail, fine, nice, weak, 
tender, beautiful, elegant, dainty. 

Delighted pleased, glad, grate- 
ful, joyful. 

Delineate-^describe, draw, paint, 
sketch, depict, represent. 

Delinquent criminal, offender. 

Deliver give up, save, yield, 
utter, surrender, concede, rescue, 

Delude mislead, deceive, cheat, 

Delusion cheat, illusion, decep- 
tion, fallacy. 

Demand claim, require, ask. 

Demolish overthrow, destroy. 

Demonstrate illustrate, show, 
prove, manifest. 

Denominate name, title, style, 

Denote imply, signify, mark, be- 

Deny refuse, disown, contradict, 

Departure leaving, forsaking, 
going away, abandoning, exit. 

Dependence trust, reliance, con- 
fidence, connection. 

Deplore bemoan, bewail, mourn, 

Deportment behavior, conduct, 
character, carriage, demeanor. 

Depraved degraded, corrupt, 
abandoned, profligate, wicked, 

Deprecate underrate, disparage, 
detract, undervalue, degrade, tra- 
duce, lower. 

Deprive prevent, hinder, depose, 
divest, strip, abridge. 

Depute authorize, appoint, con- 

Deputy agent, substitute, repre- 
sentative, delegate. 

Derange disarrange, discompose, 
disorder, confuse, disconcert. 

Deride mock, ridicule, make fun 
of, banter, laugh at. 

Describe illustrate, narrate, de- 
lineate, recount, relate, represent. 

Description account, illustra- 
tion, narration, explanation, re- 
cital, relation, detail. 

Design intend, plan, scheme, pur- 
pose, project, sketch. 

Designate name, show, point 
out, indicate, choose, distinguish, 

Desist stop, leave off, cease, dis- 

Desperate desponding, hopeless, 
mad, careless, furious, regardless. 

Despicable mean, vile, pitiful, 
worthless, outrageous, contempt- 

Despise hate, scorn, loathe. 

Despotic arbitrary, self-willed, 

Destination point, location, lot, 
design, fate, purpose, appoint- 

Destitute bare, forlorn, poor, 
scanty, forsaken, needy. 

Destroy ruin, waste, demolish, 
consume, annihilate, dismantle. 

Desultory hasty, slight, loose, 

Detach sever, separate, disjoin, 

Detail account, tale, description, 
narration, recital. 

Detain keep, restrain, confine, 

Detect find, discover, convict. 

Determine fix, decide, bound, 
limit, settle, resolve, adjust. 

Determined firm, resolute, de- 
cided, fixed, concluded, ended, im- 

Detest hate, loathe, abominate, 

Detestable hateful, loathsome, 

abominable, execrable. 
Detract defame, degrade, vilify, 

slander, calumniate, scandalize, 


Detriment inconvenience, loss, 
injury, disadvantage, damage, 
hurt, prejudice. 

Develop grow, unravel, clear, 
unfold, disclose, exhibit. 

Deviate stray, wander, err, di- 
gress, swerve. 

Device design, scheme, show, 
plan, contrivance, stratagem, in- 

Devote give, apply, consecrate, 
set apart, dedicate. 

Devout pious, holy, religious, 

Dexterity adroitness, ability, 
expertness, aptness, skillfulness, 
skill, tact. 

Dialect language, speech, 

Dictate propose, direct, order. 

prescribe, instruct, suggest. 

Die expire, depart, perish, lan- 
guish, wither. 

Differ dispute, dissent, contend, 
vary, disagree. 

Different unlike, various, di- 

Difficult trying, arduous, hard, 

Difficulty obstacle, obstruction, 
embarrassment, trouble, perplex- 
ity, trial, impediment. 

Diffident retiring, fearful, bash- 
ful, distrustful, modest, hesitat- 

Dignified exalted, elevated, 
honored, stately. 

Diligent industrious, assiduous, 
laborious, active, persevering, at- 



Diminish shorten, curtail, abate, 
decrease, lessen, subside. 

Direct show, guide, conduct, 
manage, regulate, sway. 

Direction command, order, ad- 
dress, superscription. 

Directly at once, quickly, im- 
mediately, instantly, promptly, 

Disagree dispute, dissent, differ, 
quarrel, vary. 

Disappoint foil, defeat. 

Disaster misfortune, calamity, 
mischance, mishap. 

Disavow disown, deny, disclaim, 

Discard cast off, dismiss, dis- 

Discern distinguish. discrimi- 
nate, penetrate, behold, discover. 

Discernible plain, evident, per- 
ceptible, manifest, apparent. 

Disclose reveal, discover, di- 

Disconcert disorder, confuse, 
defeat, ruffle, fret, vex, unsettle, 
interrupt, derange. 

Discord contention, dissension, 

Discover make known, detect, 
communicate, reveal, impart, tell, 

Discredit dishonor, scandal, dis- 
grace, disrepute, ignominy, re- 

Discretion prudence, judgment. 

Disdain scorn, contempt, pride, 
arrogance, haughtiness. 

Disease sickness, distemper, mal- 
ady, disorder. 

Disgrace degrade, debase, dis- 
honor, abase. 

Disguise cover, disfigure, con- 
ceal, dissemble. 

Disgust loathing, nausea, dislike, 

Dishonor shame, disgrace. 

Dislike antipathy, aversion, re- 
pugnance, hatred, contempt, ab- 

Dismiss discharge, divest, dis- 

Disorder confusion, bustle, dis- 
ease, tumult, malady, distemper, 

Disparage lower, undervalue, 
degrade, detract, decry, depre- 

Disperse scatter, dissipate, deal 
out, spread, distribute. 

Display parade, exhibit, show, 

Displease offend, anger, vex. 

Dispose regulate, place, arrange, 
order, adapt. 

Dispute contest, debate, quarrel, 
altercation, difference, contro- 

Disseminate spread^ circulate, 
scatter, propagate. 

Dissertation discourse, essay, 
treatise, disquisition. 

Dissipate disperse, squander, 
waste, expend, consume, dispel. 

Distaste aversion, disgust, con- 
tempt, dislike, dissatisfaction, 

Distinct clear, obvious, different, 
separate, unlike, dissimilar. 

Distinguish discriminate, know, 
see, perceive, discern. 

Distinguished noted, eminent, 
conspicuous, celebrated, illustri- 

Distress grief, sorrow, sadness, 
suffering, affliction, agony, pain, 
anguish, misery. 

Distribute deal put, scatter, as- 
sign, allot, apportion, divide. 

District locality, section, tract, 
region, territory, province, cir- 
cuit, county. 

Diversion enjoyment, pastime, 
recreation, amusement, deviation, 

Divide separate, part, share, dis- 

Divine suppose, conjecture, fore- 
tell, guess. 

Dlvulge-^-disclose, impart, reveal, 
communicate, publish. 

Docile gentle, tractable, pliant, 
teachable, yielding, quiet. 

Doctrine belief , wisdom, dogma, 
principle, precept. 

Dogmatical positive, authorita- 
tive, arrogant, magisterial, confi- 

Doleful awful, dismal, sorrow- 
ful, woeful, piteous, rueful. 

Doubt suspense, hesitation, per- 
plexity, scruple, uncertainty. 

Doubtful unstable uncertain, 
dubious, precarious, equivocal. 

Drag pull, bring, haul, draw. 

Dread fear, apprehension. 

Dreadful fearful, frightful, ter- 
rible, awful, horrible. 

Dress array, apparel, vestments, 
garments, attire. 

Droop pine, sink, fade, decline, 

Dumb mute, still, silent, inartic- 

Durable lasting, constant, per- 
manent, continuing. 

Dutiful submissive, obedient, 

Dwelling home, house, abode, 
habitation, residence, domicile. 


Eager earnest, excited, ardent, 
impetuous, quick, vehement. 

Earn acquire, win, make, gain, 

Earth globe, world, planet. 

Ease rest, quiet, repose, facility, 

Economical careful, close, sav- 
ing, frugal, thrifty, sparing. 

Ecstasy happiness, joy, rapture, 
transport, delight, enthusiasm, 

Edifice building, fabric, struct- 

Education culture, cultivation, 
breeding, refinement, instruction, 
nurture, tuition. 

Efface destroy, obliterate, erase, 
expunge, eradicate. 

Effect consequence, result, pur- 
pose, event, issue, reality, mean- 

Effects things, goods, chattels, 
furniture, movables, property. 

Efficient competent, capable, 
able, effectual, effective. 

Effort endeavor, essay, attempt, 
exertion, trial. 

Elegant graceful, lovely, beauti- 
ful, handsome. 

Eligible suitable, fit, worthy, 

Embarrass trouble, entangle, 
puzzle, perplex, distress. 

Embellish ornament, decorate, 
adorn, illustrate, deck, beautify. 

Emblem symbol, figure, type. 

Embrace hold, clasp, hug, com- 
prehend, comprise. 

Emergency necessity, exigency, 

Emolument reward, profit, gain, 
advantage, lucre. 

Emotion feeling, tremor, excite- 
ment, agitation. 

Employment occupation, trade, 
profession, business, avocation. 

Empower enable, delegate, com- 
mission, authorize. 

Empty untenanted, vacant, void, 
evacuated, unfurnished, unfilled. 

Enchant beguile, charm, capti- 
vate, bewitch, fascinate, enrap- 

Encomium eulogy, praise. 

Encounter quarrel, assault, at- 
tack, combat, engagement, meet- 

Encourage cheer, stimulate, 
animate, incite, sanction, support, 
countenance, instigate. 

Encroach intrude, trespass, in- 

End finish, close, stop, extremity, 
termination, sequel, consequence, 
cessation, death, purpose. 

Endeavor aim, exertion, effort, 

Endless unending, everlasting, 
perpetual, interminable, infinite, 
incessant, eternal. 

Endurance submission, forti- 
tude, patience, resignation. 

Enemy adversary, opponent, foe, 

Energy determination, efficacy, 
force, vigor, strength, potency, 

Enervate weaken, enfeeble, un- 
nerve, debilitate, deteriorate. 

Engage employ, enlist, fight, 
induce, pledge, promise, attract, 

Enjoyment happiness, pleasure, 
joy, gratification. 

Enlarge extend, widen, length- 
en, increase. 

Enmity spite, hatred, hostility, 
malignity, animosity. 

Enough ample, sufficient, plenty, 

Enrage excite, irritate, inflame, 
incense, aggravate, exasperate. 

Enrapture charm, attract, cap- 
tivate, fascinate, enchant. 

Enterprise business, adventure, 
attempt, undertaking. 

Entertainment pastime, sport, 
amusement, recreation, diversion, 
performance, banquet, feast. 

Entice tempt, decoy, seduce, at- 
tract, allure. 

Entire full, whole, perfect, com- 
plete, total, integral. 

Entirely perfectly, completely, 

Entitle style, designate, name, 
characterize, denominate. 

Entreat-^ask, solicit, crave, beg, 
beseech, implore, petition, suppli- 

Envy suspicion, jealousy, grudg- 

Epitomize lessen, abridge, cur- 
tail, reduce, condense. 

Equal commensurate, adequate, 

Equitable just, right, honest, 
satisfactory, impartial, reason- 
able, fair. 

Eradicate exterminate, root out, 

Erase expunge, efface, cancel, 

Erect build, raise, found, set up, 
construct, elevate, establish, in- 

Error blunder, mistake, fault. 

Escape elope, evade, elude, fly, 
avoid, pass. 

Essential important, necessary, 
requisite, indispensable. 

Esteem respect, regard, value, 
appreciate, prize, love. 

Estimate rate, compute, value, 
calculate, appraise, appreciate, 

Eternal perpetual, forever, end- 
less, infinite, immortal, continual, 

Evade escape, elude, avoid, pre- 
varicate, shun. 

Even smooth, level, plain, equal, 

Event incident, adventure, issue, 
occurrence, result, consequence. 

Ever always, constantly, forever, 
unceasingly, continually, inces- 

Evidence proof, deposition, wit- 
ness, testimony. 

Evil sinful, wicked, bad. 

Exact enjoin, demand, extract, 

Exact sure, strict, punctual, pre- 
cise, accurate. 

Exalted high, elevated, refined, 
dignified, raised, sublime, mag- 

Examination search, scrutiny, 
investigation, inquiry, research. 

Example copy, precedent, pat- 

Exasperate excite, irritate, en- 
rage, vex, provoke, aggravate. 

Exceed improve, outdo, excel, 
surpass, transcend. 

Excellence goodness, purity, 
superiority, perfection, eminence. 

Except but, besides, unless, ob- 

Exchange barter, trade, traffic. 
Excite provoke, arouse, incite, 

stimulate, awaken, irritate. 
Exculpate forgive, exonerate, 

acquit, absolve, justify. 
Excuse pretense, pretext, plea, 

subterfuge, apology, evasion. 
Execrable hateful, detestable, 

contemptible, abominable. 

Exemption freedom, privilege, 

Exercise practice, exert, carry 

Exhaust empty, drain, spend. 

Exigency necessity, emergency. 

Exonerate clear, relieve, excul- 
pate, justify, acquit, absolve, 

Expectation belief, trust, hope, 
confidence, anticipation. 

Expedient fit, suitable, neces- 
sary, requisite. 

Expedite hurry, hasten, accel- 
erate, quicken. 

Expeditious speedy, diligent, 
quick, prompt. 

Expel exile, banish, cast out. 

Expensive dear, costly, valu- 

Experience knowledge, trial, 

experiment, proof, test. 
Expert handy, ready, skillful, 

adroit, dexterous. 
Explain show, elucidate, unfold. 
Explanation detail, account, 

description, relation, explication, 


Explicit clear, definite, express, 

Exploit feat, accomplishment, 
achievement, deed, performance. 

Explore search, examine. 

Extend spread out, stretch out, 
enlarge, increase, distend, diffuse. 

Extensive wide, comprehensive, 

Extenuate palliate, diminish, 
lessen, excuse. 

Exterior outward, outside, ex- 

Exterminate eradicate, extir- 
pate, destroy. 

External outward, exterior. 

Extol commend, praise, admire, 
laud, eulogize, applaud. 

Fac-etioiiK amusing, jocular, 

comic, jocose. 
Fact incident, circumstance. 

Faculty ability, gift, talent, 

Fulling weakness, imperfection, 
frailty, misfortune, miscarriage, 
foible, fault. 

Falr-^-clear, consistent, right, im- 
partial, straight, honest, just, 

Faith trust, belief, credit, fidel- 



Fallacious illusive, visionary, 
deceitful, delusive, fraudulent. 

Falsehood falsity, falsification, 
fabrication, fiction, lie, untruth. 

Familiar free, intimate, uncere- 

Famous celebrated. eminent, 
renowned, distinguished, illustri- 

Fanciful ideal, imaginative, 
capricious, fantastical, whimsical, 

Fancy imagination, taste, whim, 
caprice, inclination, liking, con- 
ceit, notion, conception, humor, 

Fascinate charm, attract, capti- 
vate, bewitch, enchant, enrapture. 

Fashion style, mode, custom, 
manner, way, practice, form, 

Fasten fix, hold, stick, annex, 
attach, affix. 

Fastidious particular, disdain- 
ful, squeamish. 

Fate destiny, chance, fortune, 
luck, doom, lot. 

Favor civility, support, benefit, 

Favorable auspicious, suitable, 

Fault failing, error, shortcoming, 
blemish, imperfection, offense. 

Faultless guiltless, blameless, 
spotless, innocent. 

Fear alarm, dread, timidity, ter- 
ror, fright, trepidation, appre- 

Fearful dreadful, horrible, ter- 
rible, awful, afraid, timorous, 

Fearless daring, brave, intrepid, 
undaunted, courageous. 

Feasible reasonable, plausible, 

Feat exploit, trick, achievement, 
act, deed. 

Feeble frail, infirm, weak. 

Feeling sensation, 'sympathy, 
generosity, sensibility. 

Felicity joy, delight, happiness, 
prosperity, bliss, blessedness. 

Fertile fruitful, prolific, abund- 
ant, productive. 

Fervor warmth, heat, ardor, 
vehemence, zeal. 

Festivity joyfulness, happiness, 
gayety, festival. 

Fickle unstable, changeable, in- 
constant, variable, capricious, 

Fiction invention, lie, untruth, 
falsehood, fabrication. 

Fidelity faith, honesty, loyalty. 

Fiery hot, fervent, impulsive, 
ardent, passionate, vehement. 

Figure shape, semblance, form, 
representation, statue. 

Fine delicate, nice, pretty, lovely, 
showy, beautiful, elegant. 

Finish conclude, end, terminate, 
close, complete, perfect. 

Firm ready, strong, immovable, 
solid, steady, sturdy, partnership, 

First highest, chief, earliest, pri- 
mary, primitive, pristine, com- 
mencement, original. 

Fitted suited, competent, quali- 
fied, adapted. 

Flag droop, languish, decline, 
pine, faint. 

Flagitious wicked, atrocious, 
flagrant, heinous. 

Flavor taste, odor, fragrance. 

Flaw spot, stain, speck, crack, 
blemish, defect. 

Fleeting transient, transitory, 
swift, temporary. 

Fleetness swiftness, rapidity, 
quickness, velocity, celerity. 

Fluctuate vary, waver, change, 
hesitate, vacillate. 

Follower adherent, successor, 
believer, disciple, partisan, pur- 

Fondness affection, love, attach- 
ment, tenderness. 

Foolish simple, stupid, silly, ab- 
surd, preposterous, irrational. 

Forbear refrain, spare, abstain, 

Forbid deny, prohibit, interdict, 

Force oblige, compel, restrain. 

Forcible powerful, strong, irre- 
sistible, mighty, potent, cogent. 

Forebode foretell, presage, be- 
token, prognosticate, augur. 

Forego quit, give up, resign. 

Foregoing before, former, pre- 
vious, prior, preceding, anterior, 

Forethought expectation, fore- 
sight, anticipation, premedita- 

Forfeiture penalty, fine. 

Forge counterfeit, frame, invent, 

Forgive absolve, pardon, remit, 
acquit, excuse. 

Forlorn forsaken, lost, lonely, 
destitute, deserted. 

Form -ceremony, observance, rite. 

Form al cermonious. particular, 
methodical, exact, stiff, precise. 

Forsake desert, abandon, leave, 
abdicate, relinquish, quit. 

Fortunate successful, lucky, 

Fortune estate, portion, success, 

Forward confident, eager, bold, 
ardent, immodest, presumptuous, 
ready, progressive. 

Foster keep, harbor, nourish, 
cherish, nurse. 

Fragile brittle, weak, tender, 

Frailty weakness, unsteadiness, 
instability, failing, foible. 

Frame fabricate, compose, plan, 
contrive, invent, form, adjust. 

Fraternity society, brother- 

Fraud cheat, imposition, deceit, 
deception, guile. 

Freak whim, caprice, humor, 

Free generous, liberal, candid, 
open, frank, familiar, unconfined, 
unconstrained, unreserved, mu- 
nificent, bounteous. 

Free deliver, liberate, rescue, 
clear, affranchise, enfranchise. 

Freedom liberty, independence, 
exemption, privilege, familiarity, 

Freely spontaneously, frankly, 
unreservedly, cheerfully, unhesi- 
tatingly, liberally. 

Frequently often, repeatedly, 
commonly, generally, usually. 

Fresh new, recent, cool, modern, 

Fret chafe, anger, gall, corrode, 
agitate, vex. 

Fretful captious, peevish, angry, 

Friendly pleasant, kind, agree- 
able, sociable, amicable. 

Fright panic, consternation, ter- 
ror, alarm. 

Frighten terrify, scare, alarm, 
intimidate, affright, daunt. 

Frightful horrid, horrible, terri- 
ble, terrific, dreadful, fearful. 

Frugal careful, saving, prudent, 

Fruitful abundant, plentiful, 
fertile, productive, prolific. 

Frustrate defeat, hinder, foil, 
nullify, disappoint. 

Fully-largely, amply, completely, 
copiously, abundantly. 

Futile useless, frivolous, trifling. 


Gain obtain, get, win, acquire, 
attain, profit. 

Gait bearing, mien, walk, car- 

Gale breeze, storm, hurricane, 

Gather collect, muster, infer, 
assemble, compress, fold. 

Gay dashing, showy, merry, fine, 

Generally usually, commonly, 

Generous liberal, bounteous, 
beneficent, munificent, noble. 

Genius talent, intellect, wisdom, 
ingenuity, capacity, ability, taste. 

Genteel polished, refined, man- 
nerly, cultured, polite. 

Gentle tame, meek, mild, quiet, 

Genuine real, actual, authentic, 
unalloyed, unadulterated, true, 

Germinate sprout, shoot, grow, 
bud, vegetate. 

Gesture action, motion, posture, 

Get ;gain, attain, obtain, procure, 
realize, acquire, possess. 

Gift donation, present, gratuity, 
benefaction, endowment, ability, 

Give impart, confer, grant, be- 
stow, consign, yield. 

Glad happy, gay, cheerful, joy- 
ful, joyous, delighted, gratified. 

Glance sight, look, glimpse. 

Glitter glisten, sparkle, shine, 
glare, radiate. 

Glittering glistening, sparkling, 
shining, bright, brilliant. 

Gloom dark, sad, dim, cloudy, 
dull, sullen, morose, melancholy. 

Glory fame, renown, splendor, 
praise, honor, reputation, bright- 

Graceful comely, genteel, be- 
coming, elegant, neat. 

Grand dignified, lofty, exalted, 
great, elevated, magnificent, sub- 
lime, majestic, glorious, superb, 

Grant give, bestow, cede, confer, 
concede, sell, yield. 

Grasp grip, seize, catch. 

Grateful thankful, agreeable, 
delicious, pleasing. 

Gratification indulgence, hap- 
piness, enjoyment, fruition, pleas- 

Grave slow, solemn, thoughtful, 
serious, important, sedate. 

Greatness size, bulk, grandeur, 
magnitude, immensity, dignity, 

Greediness ravenous, rapacity, 
voracity, covetousness, eagerness. 

Grief sadness, sorrow, distress, 
regret, melancholy, affliction, an- 

Grieve bemoan, bewail, afflict, 
lament, hurt, mourn, sorrow. 

Group cluster, collection, assem- 

Grow sprout, vegetate, proceed, 

Guarantee warrant, vouch for, 

Guard protect, defend, shield, 

Guess suppose, conjecture, think, 
surmise, divine. 

Guest stranger, visitor, visitant. 

Guide lead, direct, conduct, con- 
trol, instruct, regulate. 

Guilty depraved, wicked, sinful, 
criminal, debauched. 

Hale strong, sound, hearty, ro- 

Handsome fine, fair, beautiful, 
pretty, graceful, lovely, elegant, 

Happiness contentment, luck, 


felicity, bliss. 

Harass tire, molest, weary, dis- 
turb, perplex, vex, torment. 
Harbinger messenger* fore- 
runner, precursor. 
Hard near, close, unfeeling, in- 
exorable, arduous, difficult, firm, 
hardy, solid. 
Hardened unfeeling, obdurate, 

insensible, callous. 
Hardihood boldness, presump- 
tion, audacity, effrontery, daring, 

Hardly barely, scarcely, with 

Hardship affliction, oppression, 
grievance, injury. 

Harm evil, injury, damage, mis- 
fortune, hurt, ill, mishap. 

Harmless gentle, unoffending, 
inoffensive, innocent. 

Harmony unison, concord, ac- 
cordance, melody, agreement. 

Harsh rough, stern, severe, rig- 
orous, austere, morose. 

Hasten hurry, expedite, acceler- 
ate, quicken. 

Hastiness dispatch, speed, pre- 
cipitancy, hurry, rashness. 

Hasty rash, angry, quick, pas- 
sionate, cursory. 

Hate dislike, abjure, detest, ab- 
hor, loathe, abominate. 

Hateful odious, contemptible, 
execrable, detestable, abominable, 

Haughtiness vanity, self-con- 
ceit, arrogance, pride, disdain. 

Hazard trial, venture, chance, 
risk, danger, peril. 

Headstrong self-willed, stub- 
born, forward, violent, obstinate, 

Heal restore, cure, remedy. 

Healthy well, sound, wholesome, 
salutary, salubrious. 

Hear harken, listen, watch, at- 
tend, overhear. 

Hearty sincere, zealous, warm, 
strong, cordial, ardent, healthy. 

Heaviness sorrow, gloom, de- 
jection, weight, gravity. 

Heedless dilatory, thoughtless, 
negligent, remiss, careless, inat- 

Heighten raise, advance, im- 
prove, aggravate. 

Heinous wicked, sinful, flagrant, 

Help provide, serve, assist, aid, 
relieve, support, succor. 

Hence from, thence, so, accord- 
ingly, therefore, wherefore, con- 

Heroic bold, noble, brave, fear- 
less, valiant, courageous, intrepid. 

Heroism valor, boldness, cour- 
age, bravery, gallantry, fortitude. 

Hesitate pause, falter, wait, de- 
lay, doubt, demur, stammer. 

Hidden obscure, mysterious, 
secret, covert, concealed. 

Hideous awful, frightful, horri- 
ble, ghastly, grim, grisly. 

Hilarity-jollity, joviality, mirth, 
merriment, cheerfulness, gayety. 

Hinder interfere, impede, em- 
barrass, retard, prevent, oppose, 
stop, thwart, obstruct. 

Hold keep, occupy, maintain, 
retain, detain, grasp, possess. 

Honesty honor, fidelity, frank- 
ness, integrity, probity, purity, 
justice, sincerity, rectitude, up- 
rightness, truthfulness. 

Honor exalt t dignify, respect, 
adorn, revere, esteem, venerate, 

Hope desire, belief, trust, confi- 
dence, expectation, anticipation. 



Hopeless desponding, dejected, 

Horrible dreadful, terrible, ter- 
rific, fearful, frightful, awful. 

Hostile unfriendly, contrary, op- 
posite, repugnant. 

Hostility enmity, opposition, 
animosity, illwill, unfriendliness. 

House domicile, dwelling, home, 
habitation, family, race, quorum. 

However notwithstanding, but, 
nevertheless, yet, still. 

Humble meek, lowly, subdued, 
submissive, modest, unpretend- 
ing, unassuming. 

Hurry hasten, expedite, precip- 

Hurtful annoying, injurious, 
detrimental, mischievous, perni- 
cious, prejudicial. 

Hypocrisy dissimulation, pre- 
tence, deceit. 

U ea _notion, thought, conception, 
imagination, perception. 

Idle unoccupied, unemployed, in- 
active, indolent, still, lazy, sloth- 

Ignorant untaught, unskilled, 
uninformed, unlettered, illiterate, 

Illness sickness, disorder, dis- 
ease, malady. 

Illusion falsity, mockery, decep- 

Imagine think, suppose, fancy, 
conceive, deem, contrive, appre- 

Imbecility weakness, languor, 
feebleness, infirmity, debility, im- 

Imitate follow, copy, mimic. 

Immaterial unimportant, insig- 
nificant, inconsiderable, inconse- 
quential, uncorporeal, spiritual, 
unsubstantial, unconditioned. 

Immediately instantly, directly. 

Immense vast huge, enormous, 
prodigious, unlimited. 

Immodest impudent, bold, indel- 
icate, shameless, indecent, un- 

Impair lessen, weaken, injure, 

Impart gn..nt, bestow, disclose, 
communicate, reveal, divulge. 

Impatient uneasy, eager, rest- 
less, hasty. 

Impeach censure, reproach, ar- 
raign, accuse. 

Impede hinder, delay, obstruct, 

Impediment obstruction, ob- 
stacle, hinderance. 

Impel urge, force, incite, induce, 
instigate, animate, encourage. 

Impending imminent, threaten- 

Imperative commanding, im- 
perious, authoritative, despotic. 

Imperfection wanting, blemish, 
fault, defect, failing, frailty, 
foible, weakness. 

Imperious commanding, domi- 
neering, haughty, imperative, 
proud, lordly, overbearing, tyran- 

Impertinent rude, quarrelsome, 
intrusive, insolent, meddling, ir- 
relevant, troublesome. 

Impetuous hasty, rough, vehe- 
ment, violent, forcible, boisterous. 

Implicate involve, embarrass, 

Implore beg, beseech, ask, en- 
treat, supplicate, solicit, request. 

Imply mean, signify, denote, in- 
fer, involve. 

Importance weight, moment, 
signification, consequence. 

Imposture deceit, cheat, fraud, 
deception, imposition , counterfeit, 

Imprecation execration, curse, 
malediction, anathema. 

Improve cultivate, correct, re- 
form, rectify, amend, advance. 

Impudent insolent, bold, rude, 
saucy, impertinent, uncouth, im- 
modest, shameless. 

Impute charge, ascribe, attrib- 

Inability disability, weakness, 

Inactive sluggish, lazy, idle, 
slothful, inert, drowsy. 

Inadequate insufficient, incom- 
petent, unable, incapable. 

Inattentive negligent, heedless, 
careless, inadvertent, thoughtless, 
dilatory, remiss. 

Incessantly constantly, contin- 
ually, unremitingly, unceasingly. 

Incident contingency, circum- 
stance, event. 

Incite provoke, excite, stimulate, 
arouse, encourage, animate, ag- 

Include contain, enclose, com- 
prise, embrace, comprehend. 

Incommode molest, disturb, in- 
convenience, trouble, annoy. 

Incompetent inapt, insufficient, 
incapable, inadequate, unsuitable. 

Inconsistent incongruous, con- 
trary, ridiculous, absurd. 

Inconstant unstable, uncertain, 
fickle, variable, changeable, ver- 

Indecent unbecoming, impudent, 
immodest, indelicate. 

Indicate show, mark, point out, 

Indifferent passive, neutral, re- 
gardless, unconcerned, impartial. 

Indigence poverty, need, want, 

Indigenous native. 

Indignation temper, anger, dis- 
pleasure, contempt, resentment, 

Indiscretion imprudence, folly, 

Indispensable important, nec- 
essary, essential. 

Indisputable undeniable, in- 
dubitable, unquestionable, incon- 
trovertible, conclusive, settled. 

Indistinct confused, ambiguous, 
doubtful, dark. 

Induce persuade, lead, influence, 
urge, instigate, actuate. 

Industrious diligent, persever- 
ing, laborious, assiduous, active. 

Inevitable unavoidable, certain. 

Inexorable immovable, relent- 
less, unyielding, implacable. 

Inexpedient unsuitable, unfit, 

Infect taint, corrupt, defile, con- 
taminate, pollute. 

Inference deduction, conclusion. 

Inferior less, lower, secondary, 
subservient, subordinate. 

Infested disturbed, troubled, an- 
noyed, plagued. 

Infinite boundless, unbounded, 
illimitable, unlimited, immense, 

Infirm weak, sickly, decrepit, 
feeble, debilitated, imbecile. 

Influence authority, power, per- 
suasion, credit, favor, sway. 

Information notice, counsel, 
intelligence, advice, instruction. 

Ingenious inventive, talented, 

Ingenuity capacity, invention, 
genius, skill, talent. 

Inhabit dwell, occupy, reside, 
stay, abide, sojourn. 

Inherent innate, inborn, inbred. 

Inhuman cruel, savage, barbar- 
ous, brutal. 

Iniquitous unjust, evil, wicked, 

Injunction order, mandate, pre- 
cept, command. 

Injure harm, hurt, impair, dam- 
age, deteriorate. 

Innate natural, inherent, inbred, 

Innocent pure, blameless, guilt- 
less, faultless, inoffensive, harm- 
less, spotless. 

Inordinate immoderate, intem- 
perate, irregular, excessive. 

Inquisitive curious, inquiring, 
anxious, prying. 

Insanity derangement, madness, 

craziness, lunacy, mania. 
Insensibility dullness, apathy, 

indifference, stupidity, torpor, 

Insidious deceitful, sly, crafty, 

cunning, subtle, treacherous. 

Insignificant worthless, mean- 
ingless, inconsiderable, trivial, 

Insinuate hint, suggest, inti- 

Insolent insulting, abusive, rude, 
haughty, saucy, offensive, imper- 

Inspire animate, invigorate, en- 
liven, cheer, exhilarate, suggest. 

Instigate tempt, incite, urge, 
encourage, impel, move, stimu- 

Instill infuse, implant, sow. 

Instruction education, precept, 
teaching, suggestion, counsel, ad- 

Insufficient inadequate, incap- 
able, incompetent, unfit, unable, 

Insult abuse, affront, outrage, 
contempt, insolence, indignity. 

Integrity purity, probity, truth- 
fulness, uprightness, honesty. 

Intellect understanding, genius, 
ability, capacity, talent. 

Intelligence intimation, under- 
standing, information, notice, 
knowledge, intellect. 

Intemperate excessive, immod- 
erate, inordinate. 

Intend purpose, mean, design. 

Intercede mediate, interpose, 

Interline insert, alter, correct, 

Intermission cessation, stop, 
rest, vacation, interruption. 

Intermit abate, suspend, sub- 
side, forbear. 

Interpose mediate, interfere, 

Interpret explain, demonstrate, 
elucidate, expound, decipher. 

Interrogate examine, question, 

Interval space, interstice, time. 

Intervening coming between, 
interposing, intermediate. 

Intimidate frighten, alarm, 
daunt, scare. 

Intoxication infatuation, ine- 
briety, drunkenness. 

Intractable perverse, obstinate, 
stubborn, ungovernable, uncon- 
trollable, unmanageable. 

Intrepid fearless, undaunted, 
bold, daring, valiant, courageous, 

Intrinsic real, true, inherent, in- 
ward, essential, genuine. 

Introductory preliminary, pre- 
vious, prefatory. 

Intrude invade, infringe, en- 
croach, obtrude, entrench. 

Intrust confide, commit. 

Invade enter, attack, intrude, 
encroach, infringe. 

Invalid weak, sick, infirm, null, 
feeble, void. 

Invalidate weaken, injure, des- 
troy, overthrow. 

Invective censure, abuse, rail- 
ing, reproach, satire. 

Invent feign, fabricate, frame, 
conceive, discover, devise. 

Invest enclose, surround, confer, 
adorn, array, endow, endue. 

Investigation search, inquiry, 
examination, scrutiny, research. 

Inveterate obstinate, confirmed, 
constant, fixed. 

Invigorate restore, strengthen, 

Invincible unyielding, uncon- 

Involve envelop, enwrap, en- 
tangle, implicate. 

Irascible irritable, hasty, fiery, 
hot, angry. 

Ire anger, temper, wrath, pas- 
sion, resentment. 

Irony ridicule, sarcasm, satire, 

Irrational unreasonable, fool- 
ish, absurd, silly. 

Irrefragable undeniable, indis- 
putable, incontrovertible, unques- 

Irritate plague, anger, tease, 
excite, provoke, aggravate, exas- 

Irruption opening, invasion, in- 
road, bursting forth. 

Issue offspring, progeny, result, 
end, sequel, egress, evacuation, 
effect, consequence. 

Jade harass, weary, tire, dis- 

Jealousy suspicion, envy. 

Jest fun, joke, sport. 

Jocose funny, witty, merry, joc- 
ular, pleasant, facetious, wag- 

Jocund joyful, lively, merry, 
gay, sprightly, sportive, light- 
hearted, vivacious, mirthful. 

Join unite, add, combine, close, 
adhere, confederate league. 

Joke rally, sport. 

Jollity hilarity, mirth, gayety, 
merriment, festivity, joviality. 

Journey travel, trip, voyage, 

Joy happiness, delight, gladness, 
charm, rapture, ecstasy, felicity, 
exultation, pleasure, transport. 

Judgment sentence, decision, 
doom, opinion, discernment, dis- 
crimination, penetration, intelli- 
gence, sagacity. 

Just exact, accurate, correct, 
honest, barely, upright, righteous, 
equitable, incorrupt. 

Justify defend, excuse, clear, 
absolve, maintain. 

Justness exactness, correctness, 
accuracy, equity, propriety. 

Keen sharp, penetrating, acute, 
cutting, piercing, shrewd. 

Keep hold, detain, support, re- 
tain, maintain, guard, reserve, 

Kind indulgent, compassionate, 
tender, lenient, gentle, affable, 
courteous, benignant, bland. 

Kind sort, manner, class, race, 
species, way, genus. 

Knowledge understanding, per- 
ception, learning, erudition, skill, 

Labor toil, work, strive, exert, 

Lament sorrow, mourn, deplore, 
complain, bewail, grieve, regret. 

Language tongue, speech, dia- 
lect, idiom. 


Languid weary, weak, faint, 
exhausted, dull, drooping. 

Larger-comprehensive, capacious, 
extensive, big, great, huge. 

Lassitude prostration, languor, 
weariness, enervation, fatigue. 

Last latest, hindmost, ultimate, 
final, end. 

roasting durable, continuous, for- 
ever, continual, permanent, per- 
petual, eternal. 

Latent unseen, hidden, secret. 

Laudable praiseworthy, com- 

Laughable droll, ridiculous, 
comical, mirthful. 

Lavish profuse, wasteful, extrav- 

Lazy indolent, idle, slothful, in- 

Lean bend, incline, totter, waver. 

Learning intelligence, knowl- 
edge, erudition, science, litera- 
ture, information. 

Leave abandon, desert, resign, 
relinquish, bequeath. 

Legitimate real, legal, lawful, 

Lengthen protract, extend, con- 
tinue, draw out. 

Lessen diminish, decrease, abate, 
reduce, subside, shrink, degrade. 

Let allow, permit, suffer, leave, 

Lethargic dull, tired, weary, 
heavy, drowsy, sleepy. 

Level even, smooth, plain, flat. 

Levity giddiness, gayety, fickle- 
ness, vanity, lightness. 

Liable exposed, responsible, sub- 

Liberal benevolent, generous, 
munificent, charitable. 

Liberate free, set free, deliver, 

Liberty freedom, permission, 
license, leave, exemption, privilege. 

He deception, untruth, fiction, 
fabrication, falsehood. 

Life being, energy, vitality, vi- 
vacity, briskness. 

Lifeless deceased, dead, inani- 
mate, inactive, stale, flat, dull. 

1,1ft raise, elevate, exalt, hoist. 

Light illuminate, enlighten, nim- 
ble, kindle. 

Like probable, similar, uniform, 

Likeness resemblance, picture, 

Liking inclination, attachment, 
fondness, affection. 

Linger wait, delay, loiter, hesi- 
tate, saunter, tarry, lag. 

Liquid fluid, liquor. 

Listen hearken, attend, hear, 

Little small, diminutive. 

Live exist, subsist, dwell, abide, 

Lively active, energetic, brisk, 
nimble, jocund, merry, sprightly, 

Lodge accommodate, entertain, 
shelter, harbor. 

Loftiness height, haughtiness, 
stateliness, elevation, dignity, 

Loiter lag, saunter, linger. 

Lonely dreary, lonesome, retired, 

Look see, behold, view, inspect, 

Loose unconnected, open, unre- 
strained, dissolute, licentious, un- 

Loss injury, damage, detriment, 

Lot share, portion, fate, fortune, 

Loud noisy, vociferous, clamor- 
ous, turbulent, vehement. 

Love liking, affection, fondness, 
kindness, attachment, adoration, 

Lovely attractive, amiable, ele- 
gant, charming, handsome, fine, 
delightful, beautiful. 

Lover beau, wooer, suitor. 

Loving kind, affectionate, atten- 
tive, tender, amorous. 

Low humble, mean, base, abject, 
debased, dejected, despicable. 

Lower humble, humiliate, de- 
base, degrade. 

Lucky successful, fortunate, 

Ludicrous amusing, comical, 
droll, laughable. 

Lunacy mania, derangement, in- 
sanity, madness. 

Luxuriant excessive, voluptu- 
ous, abundant, exuberant. 

Luxury profusion, abundance, 


Magnificent noble, grand, sub- 
lime, glorious, splendid, superb. 

Magnitude size, greatness, bulk. 

Maintain sustain, keep, support, 
help, continue, assert, defend, 

Malady evil, disease, affliction, 
disorder, distemper. 

Manage control, direct, conduct. 

Mandate command, charge, in- 
junction, order. 

Mangle-^cut, lacerate, mutilate, 
tear, maim. 

Manifest evident, clear, open, 
apparent, obvious, plain. 

Margin edge, verge, rim, brim, 
brink, border. 

Mark stamp, impress, imprint, 
brand, show, observe. 

Marriage matrimony, wedlock, 

Marvel wonder, prodigy, mir- 

Massive large, heavy, bulky, 

Master achieve, overcome, sur- 
mount, conquer. 

Mature perfect, complete, ripe. 

Maxim saying, adage, proverb. 

Mean abject, low, despicable, 
miserly, sordid, penurious, nig- 

Meaning sense, import, signifi- 
cation, intention, purpose, design. 

Meanwhile meantime, interim, 

Mechanic artisan, artificer. 

Meddle interpose, interfere, in- 

Mediate intercede, interpose. 

Meek mild, soft, gentle, humble. 

Meet assemble, join, fit, becom- 

Meeting assembly, company, 
auditory, congregation. 

Melancholy sadness, distress, 
depression, gloom, grief, dejec- 

Melody harmony, unison, happi- 
ness, concord. 

Melt dissolve, soften, liquefy. 

Memory remembrance, reminis- 
cence, recollection. 

Mend improve, repair, rectify, 

Merciful mild, tender, gracious, 
benignant, compassionate, forgiv- 

Merciless hard-hearted, pitiless, 
cruel, unmerciful. 

Mercy pity, clemency, compas- 
sion, lenity. 

Merry happy, joyous, cheerful, 
gay, lively, mirthful, sportive, 
sprightly, vivacious. 

Messenger bearer, carrier, har- 
binger, forerunner, precursor. 

Metaphor similitude, trope, em- 
blem, allegory, symbol. 

Method order, manner, system, 
mode, rule, plan, regularity. 

Mighty strong, powerful, -great, 

Mild meek, gentle, kind, easy, 
sweet, tender, mellow. 

Mindful heedful, observant, at- 

Minister contribute, supply, ad- 

Mirth merriment, joy, hilarity, 
cheerfulness, vivacity, jollity. 

Mischief damage, harm, hurt, 
misfortune, injury. 

Miserly stingy, covetous, nig- 
gardly, penurious, avaricious. 

Misfortune calamity, harm, dis- 
aster, mishap, ill-luck. 

Mistake error, blunder, miscon- 

Misuse ill-treat, pervert, abuse, 

Mitigate lessen, alleviate, ap- 
pease, ameliorate, abate, assuage, 
soothe, mollify. 

Model pattern, copy, sample, 
mould, specimen. 

Moderation temperance, sobri- 
ety, frugality, forbearance, mod- 

Modern recent, late, new, novel. 

Modest quiet, retiring, reserved, 
diffident, bashful, unassuming. 

Modify re-arrange, change, ex- 
tenuate, alter, moderate. 

Molest annoy, vex, tease, incom- 
mode, trouble, disturb. 

Mollify ease, appease, moderate, 
mitigate, assuage, soften. 

Morose sour, rillen, gloomy, 
peevish, forbidding. 

Motive incentive, reason, cause, 

Mourn grieve, lament, sorrow, 
bewail, bemoan. 

Move change, pars, stir, incite, 
influence, persuade, actuate, in- 
stigate, impel. 

Munificent bounteous, bounti- 
ful, generous, beneficent, liberal, 

Muse study, ponder, wonder, re- 
flect, think, meditate, contem- 

Mutable changeable, unsteady, 
inconstant, fickle, wavering, un- 
stable, variable, alterable, irreso- 

Mutilate deface, injure, destroy, 
deprive, mangle, maim. 

Mutinous turbulent, seditious, 

Mysterious hidden, dim, dark 
obscure, mystic, latent. 


Naked exposed, nude, unclothed, 
uncovered, simple, plain. 

Name cognomen, appellation, 
title, reputation, credit, denomin- 

N arrow contracted, confined, 
limited, curtailed, close. 

Native indigenous, genuine, in- 

Near adjoining, adjacent, close, 

Necessary needful, expedient, 
indispensable, essential, import- 
ant, requisite. 

Need poverty, want, penury, in- 

Nefarious evil, wicked, unjust, 
wrong, iniquitous. 

Negligent careless, heedless, re- 
miss, neglectful, inattentive. 

New fresh, late, modern, novel. 

Nigh close, adjoining, contiguous, 
near, adjacent. 

Noble distinguished, elevated, 
exalted, illustrious, great, grand. 

Noisy boisterous, turbulent, high, 
clamorous, loud sounding. 

Noted renowned, distinguished, 
conspicuous, celebrated, eminent, 
notorious, illustrious. 

Notice warning, information, in- 
telligence, advice. 

Notion thought, opinion, senti- 
ment, whim, idea, conception, 

Notorious celebrated, renowned, 
distinguished, noted, public, con- 

Notwithstanding nevertheless, 

however, in spite of, yet. 
Nourish feed, uphold, maintain, 

cherish, nurture, support. 

Obdu rate inflexible, unfeeling, 
callous, impenitent, hardened, in- 
sensible, obstinate. 

Obedient submissive, compliant, 
yielding, dutiful, obsequious, res- 

Object end, subject, aim. 

Object oppose, against, except 

Oblige compel, coerce, bind, en- 
gage, force, favor, please, gratify. 

Obnoxious offensive, liable, dis- 
agreeable, unpleasant, exposed. 

Obscure hidden, concealed, in- 
distinct, difficult, dark, abstruse. 

Observance ceremony, rite, at- 
tention, form, respect. 

Observant watchful, attentive, 
mindful, regardful. 

Observe see, notice, watch, fol- 
low, remark, keep. 

Obsolete disused, old, worn-out, 
antiquated, ancient, old-fashioned. 

Obstacle impediment, obstruc- 
tion, difficulty, hinderance. 

Obstinate stubborn, resolute, 

Obstruct impedb, hinder, stop, 

Obtain gain, secure, get, win, 
acquire, procure, earn. 

Obvious plain, apparent, open, 
clear, evident, visible, manifest. 

Occupation work, profession, 
calling, trade, business, avoca- 
tion, employment. 

Occupy keep, hold, use, possess. 

Occurrence event, contingency, 
adventure, incident. 

Odor smell, fragrance, perfume, 

Offense trespass, crime, injury, 
sin, outrage, insult, misdeed, 
wrong, transgression. 

Offensive mean, abusive, insult- 
ing, impertinent, insolent, rude, 
scurrilous, obnoxious, opprobri- 

Officious busy, active, forward, 
obtrusive, intrusive. 

Only solely, singly, alone, simply, 

Open unravel, reveal, disclose, 

Opening fissure, aperture, hole, 

Operation performance, action, 

Opinion belief, idea, sentiment, 

Opinionated obstinate, stub- 
born, stiff, egotistical, conceited, 

Opponent opposer, adversary, 
roe, enemy, antagonist. 

Opposite contrary, repugnant, 

Opprobrious reproachful, inso- 
lent, abusive, offensive, insulting, 
scandalous, scurrilous. 

Opprobrium shame, disgrace, 
reproach, infamy, ignominy. 

Oration speech, sermon, lecture, 
discourse, address, harangue. 



Ordain appoint, invest, order, 

Order brotherhood, fraternity, 
rank, method, succession, series, 
degree, genus. 

Ordei mandate, injunction, pre- 
cept, command. 

Orderly precise, regular, system- 
atic, methodical. 

Ordinary usual, common. 

Origin rise, cause, source, foun- 
dation, beginning, descent, foun- 

Original primitive, flrst, pris- 
tine, primary. 

Ornament decorate, beautify, 
adorn, deck, embellish. 

Ornate decorated, adorned, em- 
bellished, bedecked, garnished. 

Ostentation parade, show, dis- 
play, boast. 

Outrage insult, injure, affront, 

Outward extraneous, apparent, 

Overbearing repressive, imper- 
tinent, haughty, lordly. 

Overcome vanquish, conquer, 
surmount, subdue. 

Overflow fill, inundate, deluge, 

Oversight ; mistake, error, mis- 
apprehension, inattention. 

Overwhelm overpower, crush, 
upturn, overthrow, subdue. 

Owner holder, proprietor, mas- 
ter, possessor. 

Pacify calm, still, quiet, soothe, 


Pain distress, afflict, torture, tor- 
ment, suffer, hurt. 
Paint portray, represent, depict, 

sketch, color, describe, delineate. 
Pair join, two, couple, brace. 
Pale fade, wan, white, pallid, 

Palpable gross, plain, apparent, 

discernible, perceptible. 
Palpitate tremble, throb, beat, 

flutter, gasp, pant. 
Pant; torture, torment, distress, 

agony, anguish, sorrow. 
Pardon acquit, forgive, clear, 

free, discharge, release, remit. 

Parsimonious mean, frugal, 
miserly, avaricious, penurious, 

Part share, portion, division, 
piece, action. 

Particular individual, specific, 
exact, appropriate, circumstan- 
tial, peculiar, exclusive, punctual, 

Particularly chiefly, mainly, 
principally, especially, distinctly, 

Partisan disciple, adherent, fol- 

Partner associate, accomplice, 

colleague, coadjutor. 
Passion desire, feeling, love, 

anger, excitement. 

Passionate hot, angry, irasci- 
ble, hasty, excitable. 

Passive submissive, unresisting, 
patient, resigned. 

Pathetic affecting, touching, 

Patience endurance, fortitude, 

Patient resigned, composed, en- 
during, calm, passive, an invalid. 

Peaceable quiet, calm, serene, 
tranquil, mild, gentle. 

Peevish fretful, disagreeable, 
petulant, cross, captious, irri- 

Penalty punishment, pain, fine, 
forfeiture, chastisement. 

Penitence contrition, remorse, 
compunction, repentance. 

Penurious parsimonious, spar- 
ing, miserly, niggardly, beggarly. 

Penury want, poverty, distress, 
indigence, need. 

Perceive observe, discern, dis- 

Perception belief, conception, 
sentiment, idea, sensation, notion. 

Peremptory positive, despotic, 
arbitrary, dogmatical, absolute. 

Perfect done, complete, finished. 

Perfidious false, treacherous, 

Perforate pierce, bore, pene- 

Perform execute, accomplish, 
effect, produce, achieve, fulfill. 

Perfume odor, smell, scent, ex- 
halation, fragrance. 

Period circuit, date, age, epoch, 

Permit allow, suffer, consent, 
admit, tolerate, yield. 

Pernicious noisome, ruinous, 
destructive, mischievous, hurtful, 

Perpetual uninterrupted, inces- 
sant, unceasing, constant, con- 

Perplex bewilder, annoy, con- 
fuse, involve, molest, puzzle, em- 
barrass, harass, entangle. 

Persevere endure, continue, 
persist, insist, pursue,, prosecute. 

Perspicuity clearness, transpar- 
ency, brilliancy. 

Persuade urge, induce, exhort, 
influence, entice, prevail upon. 

Perverse stubborn, un tractable, 
unmanageable, crooked, cross. 

Pestilential destructive, mis- 
chievous, epidemical, infectious, 

Petition prayer, supplication, 

request, suit, entreaty. 
Picture likeness, image, effigy, 

Pious spiritual, devout, godly, 

Pique offense, grudge, dislike, 

malice, spite, rancor. 
Pity sympathy, commiseration, 

compassion, condolence, mercy. 

Place site, ground, post, posi- 

Placid still, calm, gentle, quiet, 
tranquil, serene. 

Plague perplex, embarrass, tan- 
talize, annoy, importune, vex, 

Plain perceptible, discernible, 
manifest, obvious, clear, appar- 
ent, evident, distinct. 

Plan design, contrivance, device, 
scheme, arrangement, project, 

Pleasant cheerful, jocular, gay, 
vivacious, agreeable, facetious, 

Please gratify, satisfy, humor, 

Pleasure satisfaction, delight, 
happiness, enjoyment, joy. 

Pledge pawn, deposit, security, 
hostage, earnest. 

Plentiful bounteous, abundant, 
copious, exuberant, ample, plen- 

Pliant lithe, limber, yielding, 
bending, supple, flexible, pliable. 

Plight predicament, state, case, 
situation, condition, conjuncture. 

Plot plan, arrangement, project, 
conspiracy, combination, scheme, 

Polite courteous, well-bred, civil, 
polished, refined, genteel, affable. 

Politeness good manners, civil- 
ity, courtesy, suavity, good breed- 

Politic wise, careful, artful, cun- 
ning, civil, prudent. 

Pollute corrupt, taint, defile, in- 
fect, contaminate. 

Pompons lofty, stately, ostenta- 
tious, showy, dignified, magnitt- 

Ponder study, reflect, think, 
muse, consider. 

Portion piece, part, quantity, 
share, division, dower, fortune. 

Positive confident, certain, real, 
dogmatic, sure, absolute. 

Possess keep, hold, have, enjoy, 

Postpone retard, delay, prolong, 
protract, defer, procrastinate. 

Posture figure, gesture, action, 
position, attitude. 

Potent -~- powerful, strong, vigor- 
ous, mighty, forcible. 

Poverty want, need, indigence, 
penury , suffering. 

Practicable possible, feasible, 

Practice custom, style, manner, 
form, use, habit. 

Praise eulogize, applaud, laud, 
admire, commend. 

Prayer application, petition, re- 
quest, suit, entreaty, supplication. 

Precarious uncertain, dubious, 
doubtful, equivocal, unreliable. 

Precedence priority, superior- 
ity, preference. 

Preceding anterior, previous, 
prior, antecedent, former, fore- 

Precept maxim, rule, principle., 
injunction, law, doctrine, man- 
date, command. 

Precious choice, costly, valu- 
able, expensive, uncommon, rare. 

Precise careful, particular, ex- 
act, accurate, correct, nice. 

Preclude intercept, prevent, ob- 
viate, hinder. 

Predicament condition, plight, 
position, situation. 

Predict prophesy, foretell. 

Predominant prevalent, over- 
ruling, controlling, supreme, pre- 

Predominate prevail, rule over. 
Preference advancement, pri- 
ority, choice. 

Prejudice bias, injury, hurt, 

Preliminary previous, prepar- 
atory, introductory, antecedent. 

Prepare arrange, qualify, flt, 
equip, make ready. 

Preposterous impossible, ridic- 
ulous, absurd, foolish. 

Prerogative immunity, privi- 

Prescribe dictate, ordain, ap- 

Preserve uphold, maintain, pro- 
tecti spare, save. 

Pressing urgent, emergent, im- 
portunate, crowding, squeezing, 

Presume guess, suppose, think, 
surmise, conjecture, believe. 

Presuming forward, arrogant, 

Pretext excuse, pretense, pre- 

Pretty lovely, beautiful, fine, 

Prevailing dominant, ruling, 
overcoming, prevalent, predom- 

Prevent impede, obstruct, hin- 
der, obviate, preclude. 

Previous before, prior, anterior, 
preliminary, introductory. 

Price value, worth, expense, 

Pride self-esteem, arrogance, 
haughtiness, conceit, ostentation, 
loftiness, vanity. 

Primary elemental, flrst, orig- 
inal, pristine. 

Principal main, chief, capital, 
head, leading, important. 

Principle motive, tenet, constit- 
uent part, doctrine, element. 

Print impress, stamp, mark. 

Prior before, previous, former, 
antecedent, preceding, anterior. 

Priority preference, precedence, 

Pristine original, flrst, primi- 

Privacy seclusion, solitude, re- 
tirement, loneliness. 

Privilege prerogative, right, 
advantage, immunity, exemption. 

Probability supposition, likeli- 
hood, chance. 

Probity reliability, uprightness, 
honesty, integrity, veracity. 

Proceed progress, arise, issue, 

advance, emanate. 
Proceeding transaction, course, 

progression, work. 

Proclaim declare, publish, an- 
nounce, tell, advertise, promul- 

Proclivity liking, tendency, in- 
clination, proneness. 

Procure obtain, acquire, gain. 

Prodigal lavish, extravagant, 

Prodigious great, astonishing, 
vast, large, amazing, monstrous. 

Profane secular, irreverent, im- 
pious, irreligious. 

Profession calling, employment, 
business, vocation, work, labor. 

Proficiency advancement, im- 
provement, progress. 

Profit gain, advantage, benefit, 

Profligate depraved, wicked, 
corrupt, sinful, vicious, aban- 

Profuse lavish, wasteful, prodi- 
gal, extravagant. 

Progeny descendants, offspring, 
race, issue. 

Project invent, design, scheme, 

Prolific productive, fruitful, fer- 

Prol I x tiresome, 


Prolong extend, delay, protim-t, 
postpone, retard, procrastinate. 

Prominent eminent, conspicu- 
ous, distinguished. 

Promise agreement, assurance, 
engagement, declaration, pledge, 
word, obligation. 

Promote raise, encourage, for- 
ward, advance. 

Prompt quick, active, ready, 

Pronounce say, speak, utter, 
declare, affirm, articulate, enun- 

Proof evidence, testimony, argu- 

Propagate multiply, increase, 
disseminate, diffuse, circulate, 
spread, extend. 

Propensity liking, inclination, 
proneness, tendency, bias. 

Proper fit, right, suitable, just, 

Propitious favorable, auspi- 

Propitiate conciliate, appease, 

Proportionate equal, adequate, 

Propose offer, apply, tender, in- 
tend, purpose, bid. 

Prospect view, landscape, sur- 

Prospective future, foreseeing, 
hereafter, forward. 

Prosperous fortunate, lucky, 
flourishing, successful. 


Protect uphold, guard, shield, 
maintain, defend, cherish, foster, 

Protract withhold, retard, pro- 
long, delay, defer, postpone. 

Proud haughty, assuming, arro- 
gant, lofty, vain, conceited. 

Proverb maxim, saying, adage. 

Provide procure, furnish, sup- 
ply, prepare. 

Provident cautious, prudent, 
economical, careful. 

Proviso requirement, condition, 

Provoke excite, irritate, enrage, 
aggravate, exasperate, tantalize. 

Prudence forethought, careful- 
ness, wisdom, discretion, judg- 

Publish announce, promulgate, 
proclaim, advertise, declare. 

Puerile infantile, boyish, child- 
ish, juvenile. 

Pull bring, haul, draw, drag. 

Punctual prompt, particular, 

Punish whip, chastise, correct, 

Pursue follow, prosecute, chase, 
persist, continue, persevere. 

Puzzle confound, perplex, em- 
barrass, bewilder, entangle. 


Quack imposter, pretender, em- 
piric, charlatan. 

Qualified capable, fit, adapted, 

Quarrel fight, affray, riot, con- 
test, battle, contention, alterca- 
tion, dispute, tumult. 

Query question, interrogatory, 

Question ask, examine, doubt, 
dispute, consider, inquire, inter- 

Questionable suspicious, doubt- 

Quick rapid, active, lively, swift, 
prompt, expeditious, brisk. 

Quiet calm, repose, tranquillity, 
rest, ease, peaceable, placid, still. 

Quit depart, leave, resign, aban- 
don, forsake, relinquish. 

Quota rate, share, proportion. 

Quote copy, relate, cite, addiice. 

Race lineage, family, breed, gen 
eration, course. 

Radiance light, glory, bright 
ness, brilliancy. 

Rage indignation, anger, fury. 

Raise heighten, elevate, exalt, 
erect, collect, propagate. 

Rank class, degree, place, posi- 

Ransom purchase, free, redeem. 

Rapacious voracious, greedy, 

Rapidity swiftness, fleetness, 
celerity, speed, agility, velocity. 

Rapture joy, delight, transport, 

Rare scarce, uncommon, excel- 
lent, singular, unusual, incompar- 
able, raw. 

Rash impulsive, hasty, violent, 
thoughtless, headstrong. 

Rate price, quota, proportion, 
ratio, value, degree, assessment. 

Ravenous voracious, rapacious, 

Ray dawn, beam, gleam, streak, 

Real certain, true, genuine, pos- 
itive, actual. 

Realize reach, procure, achieve, 
consummate, accomplish, effect. 

Reason purpose, proof, motive, 
argument, origin, understanding. 

Reasonable fair, probable, just, 
moderate, equitable, honest, ra- 

Rebuke reprimand, reproach, 
reproof, censure. 

Recant revoke, recall, renounce, 
withdraw, retract, abjure. 

Recede retire, retrograde, fall 
back, retreat. 

Recite repeat, rehearse. 

Reckon count, number, esti- 
mate, calculate", compute. 

Reclaim reform, recover, cor- 

Recollection memory, remem- 
brance, reminiscence. 

Recompense satisfaction, pay, 
price, reward, equivalent, remun- 

Reconcile propitiate, conciliate. 

Recruit-repair, retrieve, replace, 

Rectify mend, improve, correct, 
amend, reform. 

Redeem restore, rescue, recover, 

Redress relief, remedy. 

Refer propose, suggest, allude, 
intimate, hint. 

Refined graceful, genteel, pol- 
ished, polite, elegant. 

Reform correct, amend, rectify, 
improve, better. 

Refractory unmanageable, un- 
ruly, contumacious, perverse. 

Refrain forego, forbear, spare, 

Regale refresh, entertain, feast, 

Regard respect, esteem, value, 
reverence, mind, heed. 

Regardless careless, negligent, 
indifferent, unconcerned, unob- 
servant, heedless. 

Region section, quarter, district, 

Regret sorrow, complaint, grief, 

Regulate control, rule, direct, 
govern, dispose, adjust. 

Rehearse detail, repeat, recite, 

Reject refuse, deny, decline, re- 

Rejoinder response, answer, re- 

Reliance trust, belief, repose, 
confidence, dependence. 

Relieve assist, help, succor, aid, 
alleviate, mitigate, support. 

Religious pious, devout, holy. 

Remain continue, stay, abide, 
tarry, sojourn. 

Remainder rest, residue, rem- 

Remark comment, observation, 

Reminiscence recollection, re- 

Remiss heedless, negligent, inat- 
tentive, careless, thoughtless. 

Remit send, transmit, liberate, 
abate, forgive, pardon, relax. 

Remorse penitence, contrition, 

Renew revive, refresh, renovate. 

Renounce leave, resign, abdi- 
cate, abandon, forego, relinquish, 

Renown reputation, celebrity, 

Repair improve, retrieve, re- 
cover, restore. 

Reparation restitution, restor- 
ation, amends. 

Repeal cancel, annul, revoke, 
abolish, abrogate, destroy. 

Repeat detail, rehearse, recite. 

Repetition-tautology, prolixity, 
iteration, reiteration. 

Replenish supply, fill, refill. 

Repose ease, sleep, rest, quiet. 

Reproach blame, reprove, cen- 
sure, condemn, upbraid, repri 

Repugnance aversion, abhor- 
rence, antipathy, dislike, hatred. 

Repugnant hostile, adverse, op- 
posite, contrary. 

Reputation repute, fame, char- 
acter, honor, renown, credit. 

Request solicit, ask, demand, 
entreat, beg, beseech, implore. 

Requisite important, necessary, 
essential, expedient. 

Research investigation, study, 
examination, inquiry. 

Resemblance similarity, sem- 
blance, similitude, likeness. 

Residence home, abode, house, 
dwelling, domicile. 

Residue leavings, remainder, 

Resign yield, abdicate, renounce, 
relinquish, forego. 

Resignation patience, endur- 
ance, submission, acquiescence. 

Resist endure, oppose, with 

Resolution firmness, determina- 
tion, fortitude, courage, decision. 

Resort visit, frequent, haunt. 

Respect esteem, regard, defer- 
ence, attention, consideration, 
good -will, estimation. 

Respectful deferential, dutiful, 
obedient, civil. 

Respite delay, suspension, in- 
terval, reprieve. 

Response reply, answer, re- 

Responsible amenable, answer- 
able, accountable. 

Rest quiet, ease, repose, inter- 
mission, stop, cessation, others, 

Restore cure, renew, return, 
repay, rebuild. 

Restrain confine, repress, re- 
strict, coerce, limit, constrain. 

Restrict limit, circumscribe, 
hold, bind. 

Result effect, issue, ultimate, 
consequence, event. 

Retain hold, detain, keep, re- 

Retard hinder, defer, protract, 
postpone, delay, procrastinate, 
prolong, prevent, impede. 

Retire recede, withdraw, re- 
treat, secede. 

Retract annul, take back, re- 
voke, recant, recall. 

Retrieve renew, recover, re- 

Reveal impart, divulge, commu- 
nicate, disclose, expose. 

Revenge vindicate, avenge. 

Revere adore, worship, rever- 
ence, venerate. 

Review examine, survey, no- 
tice, revision. 

Revive enliven, renew, reani- 
mate, refresh, renovate. 

Revoke cancel, annul, abolish, 
repeal, abrogate, efface, retract. 

Reward recompense, remunera- 
tion, compensation, satisfaction. 

Riches wealth, opulence, afflu- 

Ridicule deride, banter, laugh 

Ridiculous droll, absurd, ludic- 
rous, preposterous, unreasonable, 

Right correct, just, honest, 
proper, privilege, claim, direct, 
straight, immunity. 

Righteous just, godly, upright, 
honest, incorrupt, virtuous. 

Rite form, custom, ceremony, 

Road path, way, course, route. 

Roam wander, ramble, stroll, 
range, rove. 

Room chamber, space, place, 


Rough harsh, uncivil, rude, un- 
couth, unmannerly, unpolished, 

rugged, severe, stormy. 
Round globular, spherical, orb, 

circuit, tour. 

Route path, course, way. road. 
Rude rough, impertinent, coarse, 

impudent, unpolished, saucy, dis- 

greeable, bold. 
Rule authority, law, regulation, 

government, custom, maxim, 

habit, precept, guide. 

Sacred holy, divine, devoted. 

Sad sorrowful, mournful, de- 
jected, gloomy, melancholy. 

Sagacity perception, penetra- 
tion, acuteness, discernment. 

Salary wages, pay, stipend, hire, 
reward, remuneration. 

Sanction maintain, sustain, up- 
hold, countenance, ratify, sup- 

Sapient discreet, wise, sage, 

Sarcasm satire, irony, ridicule. 

Satisfaction compensation, re- 
muneration, contentment, atone- 
ment, reward. 

Saving prudent, thrifty, frugal, 
economical, close, sparing, stingy, 

Saying adage, maxim, proverb, 
by-word, relating, speaking, utter- 
ing, communicating. 

Scandal disgrace, reproach, dis- 
credit, baseness, infamy. 

Scarce uncommon, unusual, 
singular, rare. 

Scatter disseminate, dissipate, 
spread, disperse. 

Scent odor, smell, perfume, fra- 

Scoff ridicule, sneer, jeer, jibe, 

Scope object, tendency, aim, 

Scruple hesitate, doubt, fluc- 

Scrupulous truthful, upright, 
correct, careful, conscientious, 

Scrutinize search, examine, in- 

Scurrilous disgusting, abusive, 
offensive, insulting, insolent. 

Search inquiry, examination, 
scrutiny, pursuit, investigation. 

Secede withdraw, retire, recede. 

Seclusion quietude, privacy, 
solitude, retirement, loneliness. 

Secondary subordinate, infe- 

Secret hidden, quiet, still, con- 
cealed, latent, mysterious, clan- 

Secular temporal, wordly. 

Secure safe, certain, confident, 
sure, procure, warrant. 

Security pledge, warranty, de- 
fense, guard, protection. 

Sedate serene, calm, unruffled, 
unconcerned, still, quiet, com- 

Seduce decoy, betray, attract, 

See examine, look, behold, ob- 
serve, perceive, view. 

Sense idea, feeling, meaning, 
judgment, import, reason. 

Sensitive keen, susceptible, ap- 

Sentence mandate, judgment, 
decision, period, phrase, proposi- 

Sentiment expression, opinion, 
notion, feeling. 


Separate dissociate, detach, 

Settle determine, fix, establish, 
arrange, adjust, regulate. 

Settled conclusive, decided, con- 
firmed, established. 

Sever separate, disjoin, divide, 

Several sundry, different, va- 
rious, diverse. 

Severe cold, stern, harsh, sharp, 
rigid, cruel, heartless, rough, 
strict, unyielding, austere, rig- 

Shake shiver, quiver, shudder, 
quake, agitate, totter. 

Shame dishonor, disgrace, igno- 

Shameless insolent, impudent, 
immodest, indelicate, indecent. 

Shape form, fashion, mould. 

Share divide, distribute, appor- 
tion, participate, partake. 

Sharpness shrewdness, penetra- 
tion, keenness, acnteness, saga- 
city, cunning. 

Shelter shield, defend, screen, 
harbor, protect, cover. 

Shine illumine, glisten, gleam, 
glitter, glare. 

Shining bright, glittering, ra- 
diant, glistening, brilliant. 

Shocking: disgusting, terrible, 
dreadful, horrible. 

Short brief, concise, scanty, de- 
fective, brittle. 

Shorten lessen, contract, reduce, 
abridge, curtail. 

Show display, exhibition, pomp, 
parade, representation, spectacle, 

Showy grand, ostentatious, gay, 
gaudy, fine, sumptuous. 

Shrewd sharp, acute, keen, pre- 

Shan evade, avoid, elude. 

Sickly unwell, sick, ill, diseased, 

Sign indication, omen, symptom, 
signal, note, mark, token. 

Signify imply, express, betoken, 
denote, declare, utter, intimate, 

Silence quietude, stillness, mute- 

Silent dumb, mute, speechless, 

Silly ridiculous, foolish, absurd, 
stupid, dull, weak, simple. 

Similarity resemblance, like- 
ness, similitude. 

Simple weak, silly, artless, fool- 
ish, unwise, stupid, plain, single. 

Simply solely, merely, only. 

Since for, as, inasmuch, after. 

Sincere true, honest, frank, up- 
right, incorrupt, plain. 

Singular particular, eccentric, 
odd, strange, remarkable, rare, 

Situation place, position, em- 
ployment, site, locality, case, 
Condition, plight. 

Skillful expert, adroit, adept, 
dexterous, accomplished. 

Slander defame, vilify, calum- 
niate, detract. 

Slavery servitude, bondage, 

Slender slight, slim, fragile, 

Slow tardy, dilatory, tedious, 

Small little, minute, diminutive, 
narrow, infinitesimal. 

Smooth easy, mild, bland, even, 

Smother suffocate, stifle, sup- 
press, conceal. 

Snarling snappish, waspish, 

Sober grave, moderate, tem- 
perate, abstemious. 

Social sociable, companionable, 
convivial, familiar. 

Society fellowship, company, 
congregation, association, com- 

Soft flexible, ductile, yielding, 
pliant, mild, compliant. 

Solicit request, ask, entreat, im- 
plore, beg, beseech, supplicate, 

Solicitation entreaty, invita- 
tion, importunity. 

Solicitude care, earnestness, 

Solid-7-enduring, firm, hard, sub- 

Solitary sole, alone, desolate, 
only, lonely, remote, retired. 

Soothe quiet, compose, appease, 
calm, pacify, assuage, tranquil- 

Sorrow trouble, grief, affliction. 
Sort order, kind, species. 
Sound tone, firm, whole, hearty, 
healthy, sane. 

Sour tart, acid, acrimonious, 

Source head, origin, fountain, 
cause, spring, reason. 

Spacious capacious, ample, 

Sparkle glitter, glisten, shine, 
glare, radiate, corruscate. 

Speak utter, talk, articulate, 
pronounce, converse, say, tell, 
recite, relate. 

Species order, kind, class, sort. 

Specific definite, particular, spe- 

Specimen sample, model, pat- 

Spectator beholder, observer, 

Speech oration, address, lecture, 
harangue, sermon. 

Speechless dumb, silent, mute. 

Spend expend, exhaust, dissi- 
pate, squander, waste. 

Sphere orb, circle, globe. 

Spirited quick, animated, ar- 
dent, vivacious, active. 

Spiritual ethereal, immaterial, 
unearthly, incorporeal. 

Spite pique, malice, grudge, ma- 
lignity, hate. 

Splendid superb, magnificent, 
grand, sublime, heavenly. 

Splendor magnificence, luster, 
brightness, brilliancy. 

Splenetic peevish, melancholy, 
morose, sullen, gloomy, fretful. 

Sport play, game, amusement, 
pastime, diversion, recreation. 

Spotless faultless, unblemished, 
blameless, unsullied, clear, untar- 
nished, pure, innocent, stainless. 

Spread distribute, diffuse, circu- 
late, expand, disperse, dissemi- 
nate, propagate, scatter, dis- 
pense, sow. 

Spring leap, arise, start, flow, 
proceed, emanate, jump, issue. 

Sprinkle bedew, water, scatter, 

Sprout vegetate, germinate, 

Stability fixedness, continuity, 
steadiness, firmness. 

Stain mar, soil, tarnish, blemish, 
blot, flaw, spot, speck, tinge, 
color, discolor. 

Stammer hesitate, stutter, fal- 

Stamp mark, print, impress. 

Standard test, rule, criterion. 

State situation, condition, posi- 
tion, plight, predicament. 

Station place, situation, post, 

Stay dependence, reliance, staff, 
prop, abide, remain, continue, 
delay, hinder, support. 

Sterility barrenness, unfruitful- 
Stern unfeeling, severe, austere, 

strict, cold, rigid, rigorous. 
Still quiet, calm, silent, appease, 

assuage, lull, pacify. 
Stimulate arouse, excite, incite, 

urge, impel, encourage, instigate. 
Stock supply, collection, fund, 

accumulation, store, provision, 

Stop rest, intermission, vacation, 

cessation, delay, hinder, impede, 

Story tale, anecdote, incident, 


Straight direct, immediate. 
Strange unusual, curious, odd, 

singular, surprising, eccentric. 
Stratagem deception, cheat, ar- 

tiflce, fraud, trick, imposture, 

Strength potency, authority, 

power, force, might. 
Strict precise, exact, particular, 

accurate, nice, severe, harsh, 

rigorous, stern. 
Strife disagreement, dissension, 

discord, contest. 

Strong able, powerful, robust, 
stout, vigorous, firm, muscular, 

Style custom, mode, manner, 
pnraseology, diction. 

Subdue vanquish, conquer, over- 
come, subjugate, subject, sur- 

Subject control, liable, exposed, 
object, matter, material. 

Subjoin attach, connect, annex, 

Sublime lofty, elevated, great, 
exalted, grand, magnificent. 

Submissive obedient, yielding, 
humble, compliant. 

Subordinate subject, subserv- 
ient, inferior. 

Subsistence livelihood, living, 
sustenance, maintenance, support. 

Substantial reliable, strong, 
solid, stout, real, responsible. 

Substitute agent, representa- 
tive, exchange, change. 

Subtle sly, artful, cunning, de- 
ceitful, crafty, wily, perfidious, 
insidious, arch, acute, fine. 

Subtract withdraw, deduct, take 

Subvert ruin, overthrow, re- 
verse, controvert, invert, reverse. 

Successful prosperous, lucky, 
winning, fortunate. 

Succession series, order, con- 

Succor defend, help, aid, assist, 

Sudden unexpected, unlocked 
for, unanticipated, hasty. 

Suffer endure, tolerate, permit, 
bear, allow. 

Suffocate smother, choke, stifle. 

Sufficient plenty, abundance, 
enough, competent, adequate. 

Suffrage vote, ballot, aid, voice. 

Suggest propose, insinuate, hint, 
allude, intimate. 

Suitable appropriate, fit, be- 
coming, agreeable, expedient. 

Suitor beau, wooer, lover, peti- 

Summon cite, call, invite, bid, 

Sundry several, various, diverse, 

Superficial flimsy, slight, shal- 

Supersede supplant, overrule, 

Supplicate solicit, entreat, beg, 
beseech, ask, implore. 

Support maintain, uphold, sus- 
tain, defend, encourage, second, 

prop, protect, favor, forward, 
cherish, assist, endure. 

Sure reliable, confident, certain, 

Surmise presume, think, guess, 
suppose, believe, conjecture. 

Surmount subdue, overcome, 
vanquish, conquer. 

Surpass beat, outdo, outstrip, 
excel, exceed. 

Surprise astonishment, admira- 
tion, wonder, amazement. 

Surrender yield, resign, give 
up, deliver. 

Surround encompass, enclose, 
encircle, environ. 

Survey review, prospect, retro- 

Suspense hesitation, doubt, un- 

Suspicion distrust, jealousy, 

Sustain carry, bear, support, 
uphold, maintain. 

Sustenance livelihood, living, 
maintenance, support. 

Swiftness speed, rapidity, velo- 
city, fleetness, quickness, celerity. 

Symbol illustration, type, figure, 
emblem, metaphor. 

Symmetry harmony, propor- 

Sympathy compassion, condol- 
ence, agreement, commisera- 

Symptom evidence, indication, 

token, sign, mark, note. 
System order, method. 

Talent faculty, ability, gift, 
endowment, capability, intellec- 

Talk conference, discourse, chat, 
conversation, sermon, communi- 
cation, lecture, dialogue, col- 

Tantalize plague, tease, taunt, 
provoke, irritate, torment, aggra- 

Taste perception, discernment, 
judgment, flavor, savor, relish. 

Tax duty, assessment, rate, toll, 
tribute, contribution, custom. 

Tedious wearisome, slow, tire- 
some, tardy. 

Tell inform, communicate, re- 
veal, disclose, acquaint, impart, 
mention, state, talk, report. 

Temper mood, humor, tempera- 
ment, disposition. 

Temperate moderate, sober, 
abstemious, abstinent. 

Temporal worldly, mundane, 
sublunary, secular. 

Temporary uncertain, fleeting, 
transitory, transient. 

Tempt allure, induce, entice, at- 
tract, decoy, seduce. 

Tender propose, offer, bid. 

Tenderness fondness, love, hu- 
manity, affection, benignity. 

Tenet belief, dogma, doctrine, 
principle, position, opinion. 

Terms conditions, words, expres- 
sions, language. 

Terminate close, finish, end, 

Terrible awful, frightful, fear- 
ful, shocking, terrific, horrible. 

Terror alarm, fear, dread, con- 
sternation, apprehension, fright. 

Test experiment, proof, experi- 
ence, trial, standard, criterion. 

Testify prove, declare, swear, 
signify, witness, affirm. 

Testimony proof, evidence. 

Therefore wherefore, accord- 
ingly, then, hence, so, conse- 



Think consider, deliberate, me- 
diate, ponder, conceive, contem- 
plate, imagine, surmise. 

Though allow, while, although. 

Thought contemplation, medita- 
tion, fancy, idea, supposition, re- 
flection, conception, conceit. 

Thoughtful anxious, consider- 
ate, careful, attentive, discreet, 

Thoughtless inconsiderate, in- 
discreet, careless, foolish, hasty, 

Throw heave, cast, hurl, fling. 

Time period, season, age, date, 
duration, era, epoch. 

Timely opportune, seasonable, 

Tired wearied, fatigued, har- 

Title name, appellation, claim. 

Token emblem, sign, indication, 
symptom, mark, note. 

Tolerate permit, allow, suffer. 

Tortuous tormenting, crooked, 
twisted, winding. 

Total complete, whole, entire, 
gross, sum. 

Touching moving, pathetic, af- 

Tour round, circuit, jaunt, trip, 
journey, ramble, excursion. 

Trace clue, track, mark, vestige. 

Trade vocation, business, call- 
ing, labor, occupation, dealing, 

Traduce injure, condemn, cen- 
sure, depreciate, degrade, decry, 
calumniate, detract. 

Tranquillity stillness, peace, 
quiet, calm. 

Transact manage, conduct, ne- 

Transcend surpass, excel, ex- 
ceed, outdo. 

Transparent clear, pellucid, 
pervious, translucent. 

Transient brief, fleeting, short. 

Transport delight, rapture, 

Treacherous insidious, faith- 
less, dishonest, perfidious, hearc- 

Trepidation palpitation, emo- 
tion, trembling, tremor, agita- 

Trespass violation, transgres- 
sion, offense, misdemeanor. 

Trial endeavor, attempt, effort, 
experiment, test, proof, tempta- 

Trick cheat, fraud, deception, 
artifice, imposture, stratagem, 

Trifling: insignificant, inconsider- 
able, unimportant, light, futile, 
petty, frivolous. 

Trip journey, jaunt, excursion, 
tour, ramble, voyage. 

Trouble anxiety, vexation, ad- 
versity, affliction, sorrow, dis- 

Troublesome annoying, dis- 
turbing, vexing, perplexing, irk- 
some, teasing, harassing, impor- 

True honest, candid, sincere, re- 
liable, plain, upright. 

Truth fidelity, veracity, candor, 
faithfulness, honesty. 

Try endeavor, attempt. 

Turbulent raging, tumultuous, 
seditious, mutinous, riotous. 

Turn revolve, whirl, twist, cir- 
culate, wind, gyrate, contort, 
bend, distort, wheel. 
, Type illustration, symbol, figure, 
emblem, mark. 

Ultimate latest, last, final, end. 

Umpire judge, arbitrator, arbi- 

Unbelief incredulity, disbelief, 
skepticism, infidelity. 

Unblemished faultless, blame- 
less, spotless, irreproachable, un- 
tarnished, stainless. 

Unceasingly eternally, perpetu- 
ally, always, constantly, continu- 

Unchangeable unalterable, Im- 

Uncommon singular, unusual, 
rare, unique, infrequent, choice, 

Unconcerned careless, regard- 
less, uninterested, indifferent. 

Uncover reveal, expose, strip, 

Undaunted courageous, bold, 
fearless, intrepid. 

Undeniable indisputable, in- 
controvertible, unquestionable. 

Under subordinate, lower, be- 
neath, below, inferior, subject, 

Understanding conception, in- 
telligence, comprehension, sense, 
perception, faculty, reason, intel- 

Undetermined uncertain, irre- 
solute, hesitating, wavering, un- 
steady, doubtful, vacillating, fluc- 

Unfaithful untruthful, faith- 
less, dishonest, disloyal, treacher- 
ous, perfidious. 

Unfold explain, divulge, reveal, 
unravel, develop, expand, open, 

Unhandy ungainly, awkward, 
uncouth, clumsy. 

Unhappy distressed, miserable, 
unfortunate, afflicted, wretched. 

Uniform even, alike, equal, 

Unimportant trivial, trifling, 
immaterial, insignificant, petty, 

Unlearned uninformed, unlet- 
tered, ignorant, illiterate. 

Unlike distinct, dissimilar, dif- 

Unlimited infinite, boundless, 
unbounded, illimitable. 

Unquestionable indubitable, 
undeniable, indisputable, incon- 

Unravel unfold, disentangle, 
extricate, reveal. 

Unrelenting unforgiving, hard- 
hearted, inexorable, relentless. 

Unruly unmanageable, uncon- 
trollable, refractory, ungovern- 

Unseasonable ill-timed, unfit, 
untimely, unsuitable, late. 

Unsettled doubtful, wavering, 
undetermined, unsteady, vacillat- 

Unspeakable unutterable, in- 

Unstable inconstant, mutable, 
vacillating, changeable, waver- 

Untimely inopportune, prema- 
ture, unseasonable, unsuitable. 

Unwilling loth, backward, dis- 
inclined, disliking, averse, reluct- 

Upbraid reprove, censure, re- 
proach, blame. 

Uproar noise, confusion, bustle, 
tumult,' disturbance. 

Urbanity courtesy, affability, 
suavity, civility. 

Urge press, incite, impel, insti- 
gate, stimulate, encourage, ani- 

Urgent importunate, pressing, 

Usage habit, fashion, custom , 
treatment, prescription. 

Use practice, custom, habit, ser- 
vice, usage, advantage, utility. 

Usually generally, commonly. 

Utility use, service, benefit, ad- 
vantage, convenience, usefulness. 

Utterly perfectly, completely, 

Vacant void, empty, devoid, un- 

"Vague unsettled, indefinite. 

Vatn-^conceited, useless, fruitless, 
idle, ineffectual. 

Valedictory farewell, taking 

Valuable expensive, costly, pre- 
cious, useful, worthy, estimable. 

Value price, worth, rate, appre- 
ciation, estimation, account, ap- 
praise, assess, compute, regard, 

Vanity pride, haughtiness, con- 
ceit, arrogance. 

Vanquish subdue, overcome, 
slay, conquer, confute, subjugate. 

Variable transitory, capricious, 
fickle, unsteady, changeable, ver- 
satile, wavering. 

Variation deviation, change, 
variety, vicissitude. 

Variety diversion, change, dif- 

Various sundry, different, di- 

Vehement hot, eager, ardent, 
fiery, passionate, violent, impetu- 

Velocity speed, celerity, swift- 
ness, fleetness, rapidity, quick- 

Venerate worship, reverence, 
respect, adore. 

Veracity honesty, truth, integ- 

Verbal oral, vocal. 

Vestige evidence, mark, trace, 

Vexation chagrin, uneasiness, 
trouble, sorrow, mortification. 

Vicinity locality, neighborhood, 
nearness, section. 

View picture, prospect, survey, 
landscape, see, look, behold. 

Vigorous robust, active, ener- 
getic, powerful, agile, forcible, 

Violent turbulent, boisterous, 
impetuous, furious. 

Virtue chastity, purity, efficacy, 

Visible apparent, discernible, 
evident, plain, distinct, manifest, 
doubtless, obvious. 

Visionary fanatic, enthusiast, 
dreamer, imaginary, fanatical. 

Volatility lightness, flightiness, 
levity, giddiness, sprightliness, 

Vouch assure, warrant, affirm, 
aver, protest, attest. 

Vulgar ordinary, common, low, 


"Wages stipulation, hire, salary, 
pay, allowance. 

"Wakeful vigilant, attentive, ob- 
servant, watchful. 

"Wander roam, stroll, ramble, 

rove, range, journey. 
Want indigence, need, poverty, 


"Ware goods, merchandise, com- 

"Warlike military, martial. 

"Warmth fervor, ardor, cordi- 
ality, animation, heat, fervency, 
vigor, glow, zeal, vehemence. 

Warning notice, advice, moni- 
tion, caution. 

"Wary discreet, guarded, watch- 
ful, cautious, circumspect. 

Waste loose, dissipate, spend, 
expend, consume, lavish, squan- 

"Wasteful profuse, extravagant, 
lavish, prodigal. 

Watchful cautious, observant, 
vigilant, careful, circumspect, at- 
tentive, wakeful. 

"Waver hesitate, vacillate, fluc- 
tuate, scruple, to be undeter- 

"Way plan, method, course, man 
ner, system, means, fashion, road, 

"Weak infirm, feeble, enfeebled, 
debilitated, enervated. 

"Wealth opulence, riches, afflu- 

"Weakness debility, feebleness, 
frailty, infirmity, languor, fail- 
ing, imbecility, silliness, folly. 

Weariness languor, lassitude, 
tediousness, fatigue. 

W eary annoy , distress, harass, 
jade, tire, vex, perplex, subdue. 

Wedding: marriage, nuptials. 

"Weight load, burden, heaviness, 
gravity, importance, significa- 

Welcome desirable, agreeable, 
grateful, acceptable. 

Wherefore consequently, ac- 
cordingly, so, then, therefore, 
thence, hence. 

"Whiten blanch, fade, bleach. 

"Whole undivided, complete, en- 
tire, perfect, total, uninjured, 

Wicked sinful, guilty, unjust, 
flagrant, impious, atrocious, vil- 
lainous, criminal, depraved, out- 

"Wily cunning, artful, subtle, 

"Wisdom foresight, prudence, 
knowledge, understanding. 

Withdraw retreat, recede, go 
back, retire, take back, retro- 

Withhold forbear, refrain, re- 
fuse, hinder, keep back. 

"Wonder astonishment, marvel, 
surprise, admiration, amazement. 

"Wonderful strange, curious, 
astonishing, surprising, marvel- 
ous, admirable. 

"Worthy estimable, deserving, 

Wretched unhappy, miserable. 

"Writer author, scribe. 

Yearly annually. 

Yet but, however, notwithstand- 
ing, still, nevertheless. 

Yield comply, conform, concede, 
allow, produce, permit, resign, 

Zeal warmth, ardor, fervor, en- 

Zealous concerned, earnest, ar- 
dent, fervent, anxious, warm, 



OU have thoughts that you wish 
to communicate to another 
through the medium of a 
letter. Possibly you have a 
favor to bestow. Quite as 
likely you have a favor to ask. 
In either case you wish to 
write that letter in a manner such as to secure 
the respect and consideration of the person 
with whom you correspond. 

The rules for the mechanical execution of a 
letter are few ; understanding and observing 
the rules already considered for composition, 
the writer has only to study perfect naturalness 
of expression, to write a letter well. 

Style and Manner. 

The expression of language should, as nearly 
as possible, be the same as the writer would 
speak. A letter is but a talk on paper. The 

style of writing will depend upon the terms of 
intimacy existing between the parties. If to a 
superior, it should be respectful : to inferiors, 
courteous ; to friends, familiar ; to relatives, 


Do not be guilty of using that stereotyped 

Dear Friend : 

I now take my pen in hand to let you know that I am well, 
and hope you are enjoying the same great blessing. 

Be original. You are not exactly like any one 
else. Your letter should be a representative of 
yourself, not of anybody else. The world is full 
of imitators in literature, who pass on, leaving 
no reputation behind them. Occasionally origi- 
nals come up, and fame and fortune are ready 
to do them service. The distinguished writers 
of the past and present have gone aside from 
the beaten paths. Letter writing affords a fine 
opportunity for the display of originality. In 
your letter be yourself ; write as you would talk. 

* In the preparation of this chapter the author gathered many valuable suggestions from " Frost's Original Letter-Wriu 

ml other works on epistolary correspondence, published bj Dick & Fitzgerald, New York. 





Complimentary address. 

Body of the Letter. 

Complimentary closing. 




Purity of Expression. 

Bear in mind the importance, in your corre- 
spondence, of using always the most chaste and 
beautiful language it is possible to command, 
consistent with ease and naturalness of expres- 
sion. Especially in the long letters of friend- 
ship and love those missives that reveal the 
heart the language should show that the heart is 
pure. Let your letter be the record of the fancies 
and mood of the hour ; the reflex of your aspira- 
tions, your joys, your disappointments ; the 

faithful daguerreotype of your 
intellectuality and your moral 

You little dream how much 
that letter may influence your 
future. How much it may give 
of hope and happiness to the one 
receiving it. How much it may 
be examined, thought of, laugh- 
ed over and commented on ; and 
when you suppose it has long 
since been destroyed, it may be 
brought forth, placed in type, 
and published broadcast to mil- 
lions of readers. 

When, in after years, the letter 
you now write is given to the 
world, will there be a word, an 
expression, in the same that you 
would blush to see in print ? 

Write in the spirit of cheer- 
fulness. It is unkind to the 
correspondent to fill the sheet 
with petty complainings, though 
there are occasions when the 
heart filled with grief may con- 
fide all its troubles and sorrows 
to the near friend, and receive 
in return a letter of sympathy 
and condolence, containing all 
the consolation it is possible for 
the written missive to convey. 

The length of letters will 
depend upon circumstances. As 
a rule, however, business letters should be short, 
containing just what is necessary to be said, and 
no more. 


To be written correctly according to general 
usage, a letter will embrace the following parts : 
1st, the date ; 2nd, complimentary address ; 3rd, 
body of the letter ; 4th, complimentary closing ; 
5th signature ; 6th, superscription. 

The above shows the position of the several 
parts of an ordinary letter. 



Position of the Various Parts. 

The following position of the 
several parts of a letter should 
be observed : 

1. Write the date near the upper right hand 
corner of the sheet. 

2. Commence the complimentary address on 
the line next beneath one inch from the left 
eide of the sheet. 

3. The body of the letter should be com- 
menced nearly under the last letter of the com- 
plimentary address. 

4. Begin the complimentary closing on the 
line next beneath the body of the letter, one 
half of the distance from the left to the right 
side of the page. 

5. The center of the signature may be under 
the last letter of the complimentary closing. 

6. The name and address of the person writ- 
ten to should come on the line beneath the 
signature, at the left of the sheet. 

The Complimentary Address. 

Of late years it has become 
common, in business letters, in- 
stead of giving name and ad- 
dress at the close, to write the 
same at the commencement; 

To the Business Man. 


Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir : 

Your note of the 1st inst. received, etc. 

To the Married Woman. 


Baltimore, Md. 
Dear Madam : 

Enclosed find check for, etc. 

To the Unmarried Woman. 


Lowell, Mass. 
In reply to your favor of the 4th ult., etc. 

NoT.-It ia cu.tom.rj to address the married woman by 

i H T U8e " On her cards - II ia oPonal with 

the lady whether she uses her own name, Mrs. Helen K 
King,' or that of her husband, Mr.. Chas. H. King" 

Kinds of Paper to Use. 

Be particular to use a sheet appropriate in 
shape to the purpose for which it is employed. 
Paper is now manufactured of every size adapted 
to the wants of any article written. The names 
of the various kinds of paper in general use are 
Legal-cap, Bill-paper, Foolscap, Letter-paper, 
Commercial-note, Note-paper and Billet. 

In the writing of all Legal Documents, such as 
wills, taking of testimony, articles of agreement, 



(Complimentary Address.) 

(Body of the Letter.) 
yV- / / 

&sfcC4*p&CZ. <> 

<? <r 

r /" ^ 

y- x^ y y / y^i/ 

utSi-i-cSi C/ -t^it-fid a.'f.-iitt&ijd frcimz- &. Cx 

/^y / x 



&ct rf. 

ort *u Cs 


a^^e -tya-u -a^i 

S S 

.'m<M,-ez*i&e. & 


&-& -riefrt -fi&tei 
(Complimentary Closing.) 




etc., legal cap is generally used, characterized by 
a red line running from top to bottom of the 

For Bills, paper is commonly ruled express/y 
for the purpose, and generally bears the name 
and business advertisement of the person using 
the same, at the top. 

When writing Notes, Orders, Receipts, Com- 
positions, Petitions, Subscription Headings^ etc., 
foolscap paper is used. 

For the ordinary friendship letter or other 



long letter, it is best to use letter paper, which 
in size is four-fifths the length of foolscap. 

The common Business Letter should be so 
brief as generally to require but one page of 
commercial note, which is somewhat narrower 
and shorter than letter paper. 

Note and billet paper are the smallest sheets 
made, being suitable for Notes of Invitation, 
Parents' Excuses for children to teachers, and 
other written exercises that are very brief. 

Etiquette of Letter Writing. 

As a rule, every letter, unless insulting in its 
character, requires an answer. To neglect to 
answer a letter, when written to, is as uncivil as 
to neglect to reply when spoken to. 

In the reply, acknowledge first the receipt of 
the letter, mentioning its date, and afterwards 
consider all the points requiring attention. 

If the letter is to be very brief, commence 
sufficiently far from the top of the page to 
give a nearly equal amount of blank paper at 
the bottom of the sheet when the letter is 

Should the matter in the letter continue 
beyond the first page, it is well to commence 
a little above the middle of the sheet, extending 
as far as necessary on the other pages. 

It is thought impolite to use a half sheet of 
paper in formal letters. As a matter of economy 
and convenience for business purposes, how- 
ever, it is customary to have the card of the 
business man printed at the top of the sheet, 
and a single leaf is used. 

In writing a letter, the answer to which is of 
more benefit to yourself than the person to 
whom you write, enclose a postage stamp for 
the reply. 

Letters should be as free from erasures, inter- 
lineations, blots and postscripts as possible. It 
is decidedly better to copy the letter than to 
have these appear. 

A letter of introduction or recommendation, 
should never be sealed, as the bearer to whom 
it is given ought to know the contents. 


r IS customary, in the heading of petitions to persons 
in official positions, in the complimentary address of a 
letter, and in superscriptions, to give each their proper 
title. These are divided into titles of respect, military, 
and professional titles. 

Titles of respect are: Mr. , from Master; Mrs., 
from Mistress; Miss, from the French, De-moi-selle; 
Esq. , from Esquire, an English Justice of the Peace, 
or member of the legal profession, but applied very indiscriminately 
to males throughout this country generally. 

Two titles of the same class should not be applied to the same 
name. Thus, in addressing John Smith, do not say Mr. John 
Smith, Esq. ; though we may say Mr. John Smith, or John Smith, 

If the profession of the person addressed be known, the pro- 
fessional title alone should be used. If the person be entitled to 
two titles the highest is given. 

Titles of respect are usually placed before the name; as, Mr. , 
Hon. , Rev., Dr., and military titles. 

Professional titles sometimes precede and sometimes follow the 
name ; as, Dr. John Smith, or John Smith, M. D. ; Prof. John 
Smith, or John Smith, A. M. 

The following list illustrates the various titles used for the different 
ranks, among individuals, either in the complimentary address or 
superscription on the envelope. 

To Royalty. 

" To the King's Most Excellent Majesty." 

" To the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty." 

" To his Royal Highness, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales." 

In like manner all the other members, male and female, of the 
Royal family are addressed. 

To Nobility. 

"To his Grace the Duke of Argyle." 
" To the Most Noble the Marquis of Westminster." 
" To the Right Honorable the Earl of Derby." 
"To the Right Honorable Lord Viscount Sidney." 
' ' To the Honorable Baron Cranworth. " 

The wives of noblemen have the same titles as their husbands; 

' ' To her Grace the Duchess of Argyle. " 
"To the Most Noble the Marchioness of Westminster." 
"To the Right Honorable the Countess of Derby." 
" To the Right Honorable the Viscountess Sidney." 
" To the Honorable the Baroness Cranworth." 

The title of Honorable, in great Britain, is applied to the younger 
sons of noblemen (the elder son taking, by courtesy, the title next 
in rank below that of his father). It is also given to members of 
parliament and to certain persons holding positions of honor and 

To Baronets. 

' Sir Walter Scott, Bart. " 

To Knights. 

" Sir William Armstrong, Kt. 

Ellsworth's "Text-Book on Penmanship" gives the following 
classification of the various titles used in the United States. 

Titles ot Honor, Profession and Respect. 

f President of the United States, 
" His Excellency Richard Roe," { Governor of any State, or Mininster to 

[ Foreign Countries. 

f Vice-President, Senators and Representa- 
| tives of the U. S., Lieut. -Gov. of State, 
j State Senators and Representatives, 
1 Judges, Mayors, Consuls, Ministers Abroad, 

and Heads of Executive Departments of 
[the General Government. 

Doctor of Divinity. 

Doctor of Laws. 

Minister of the Gospel. 

Physician and Surgeon. 

Professor or teacher of any art or science. 

Member of the legal Fraternity. 

Non-professional gentleman. 

Plain signature. 

1.1 r>- v. ^ t> 
' Honorable Richard Roe, 

"Rev. Richard Roe, D.D. " 
" Richard Roe, LL.D. 
" Richard Roe." 
"Dr. Richard Roe. " 
"Prof. Richard Roe." 
' ' Richard Roe, Esq. " 
"Mr. Richard Roe. " 
" Richard Roe. " 


Richard X Roe." 

Unable to write his own name. 



Titles of the Dignitaries, Prelates, Clergy, and Other Officers Brigade-inspector. 


of the Roman Catholic Church. 



Of the Pope His Holiness Pope Leo XIII. 


Of a Cardinal His Eminence John, Cardinal McCloskey. 

Titles and Names of Naval Officers. 

Of an Archbishop Most Rev. T. J 

. Burroughs, D.D. 

The only titles generally used 

among naval officers are those of 

Of a. Bishop Rt. Rev. Thomas Foley, D. D. 
Of a Vicar-General Very Rev. J. D. Halbert, D.D. 

Admiral, Commodore, Captain and Lieutenant. 

Of a Priest Re v. Patrick Kelly, P. P. 


Second Assistant-Engineer. 

Of Directors of Parish Schools 

Rev. Provincial James Rice. 
Rev. Bro. Director Henry Baker. 


Third Assistant-Engineer. 
Naval Constructor. 

Of a Directress of a Seminary Madame De Vincent. 


Navy Agent. 

Of a Teacher of a Seminary Sister Le Clerc. 


Purser, or Storekeeper. 

Of a Lady Superintendent of a Convent Sister Superior Laflange. 


Secretary to Commander. 

Of a Lady Superintendent of a . Catholic Orphan Asylum Mother 

First Lieutenant. 

Navy-yard Clerks. 

Superior St. Agnes. 

Second Lieutenant. 


Military Titles in 

the United States. 



The following are addressed as 

General, Colonel, Major, Captain, 


Mate First, Second, and Third. 

Lieutenant, Corporal, or Sergeant, according to their rank : 

Fleet Surgeon. 




Ship's Surgeon. 

Ship's Corporal. 

General of the Army. 


Passed Surgeon. 

Section Captain. 

Lieutenant-General of the Army. 


Asssistant Surgeon. 



First Lieutenant. 

Retired Surgeon. 



Second Lieutenant. 





Assistant Paymaster. 








Professor of Mathematics. 




Engineer-in-Chief on shore. 




Chief Engineer on ship. 



Company Clerks. First Assistant-Engineer. 



NVELOPES that are perfectly 

Care should be taken to write upon the 

plain, for ordinary letter writing, 

envelope very plainly, 

giving the full name and 

are regarded as in much the 

title of the person addressed, with place of 

best taste. Ladies do well to use 

residence written out 

fully, including town, 


Buff, light straw color, 

county, State, and country if it goes abroad. 

or manila answer 'for business 

The designation of the street, number, drawer, 

purposes, though it is always in 

etc., when written upon the letter, is explained 

good taste to use white. 


The upper side of the envelope is that con- 

For light colored envelopes, a piece of paper 

taining the flap. Care 

should be observed, in 

a little smaller than the envelope may be ruled 

writing the superscription on the letter, to have 

with black ink over 

the blue lines, thus, and 

the same right side up. 

placed inside. 

Extensive practice enables 

business men to write 


paratively straight upon the A scra P of paper, ruled like this, when placed 

envelope, without the aid of 

a line. The inexperienced inside a light - colored envelope, will enable the 

penman may be aided in 

writing on the buff colored person writing on the same to trace distinctly 

which should never be 

used, these lines, and thus write the superscription 

however, unless comp 

erased by rubber after the straight. 

ink is dry. 



In writing the superscription, commence 
the name a little to the left of the center of 
the envelope. The town, on a line beneath, 
should extend a little to the right of the name. 

The State, next below, should stand by itself 
still further to the right. The county may be 
on the same line with the State, towards the left 
side of the envelope; thus* 



For the convenience of the mailing clerk in 
handling the letter, the postage stamp should 
be placed at the upper right hand corner of the 

If the town is a large metropolis, the county 

may be omitted. In that event the street and 
number are usually given, or the post office box. 
Each should be written very conspicuously 
upon the envelope, for the convenience of the 
post office clerk and the mail carrier; thus, 

i 5TIMP. 



If written in the care of any one, the follow- 
ing may be the form : 

It is usua 
the county, 

ially safest, in nearly all cases, to give 
, even if the town is well known ; thus, 

If, after remaining in the office at its destina- 
tion a certain length of time uncalled for, the 
writer is desirous of having the letter forwarded 
or returned, the same may be indicated upon 
the outside of the envelope ; thus, 

Tourists, when receiving letters abroad, fre- 
quently have their letters directed in the care 
of the bankers with whom they deal when on 
the continent, the form of superscription being 

If not called for in 10 days, 

P. M. please forward to 
Hotel de Ville^ Paris, France. 


If not called for in fifteen days^ please 

forward to 
Royal Bank of Scotland^ Glasgow. 

Letter Sent by a Private Party, 

acknowledging on the envelope obligation to the person carrying the same. 

Letter to a Person In the Immediate Vicinity 

Sent by carrier, but not through the mafi 






A letter to Germany will be superscribed 
somewhat as follows : 


Near Berlin, Prussia. PK USS1A . 

Letter from Germany : 


MCLEAN co., 

United States 

of America. ILLINOIS. 

The county, town, etc., on a letter to 
Ireland, is shown on the envelope as 
follows : 



County of 

Fermanagh. IRELAND. 

When it is desired to have the letter 
returned, if not called for, sooner than it 
otherwise would be, the direction may be 
so specified upon the upper left hand 
corner, similar to the following : 

If not called for in 10 dan, return 





Where it is desired to express the title 
of the husband, on a letter or note of 
invitation to the husband and wife, the 
following form may be used : 

His Excellency and Mrs. U. S. Grant. 
Governor and Mrs. Wm. H. Brown. 
Hon. and Mrs. I). B. Henderson. 
Rev. and Mrs. Chas. H. Smith. 
Professor and Mrs. K. A. Benson. 

Where a letter is addressed to a husband 
and wife, each of whom have a title, the 
address may read as follows : 

Drs. John E. and Jane H. Brown. 

To a man and woman, engaged as part- 
ners in business, but unmarried, the ad- 
dress may read : ' 

Mr. Wm. H. Smith and Miss Mary H. Boone. 
Or, Wm. B. Smith and Mary H. Boone. 

To a husband and wife, where the wife, 
alone, has the title, the superscription will 
read : 

Mr. J. B. and Mrs. Dr. E. L. King. 

To a husband and wife, each of whom 
have a title, the address may be as follows : 
Rev. W H. and Mrs. Dr. A. B. Smith. 

Where the wife has a title, and is, alone, 
addressed, the form may be 
Rev. Mrs. Chas. D. King. 
Or, Rev. Mrs. Jane E. King. 
Or, Rev. Jane E. King. 

If the lady's husband, alone, has the 
title, the address will properly read : 
Mrs. Rev. Chas. D. King. 

If the lady is unmarried, and is a minis- 
ter of the gospel or physician, her address 
may read : 

Rev. Miss Mary Williams. 

Or, Rev. Mary Williams. 

Miss Dr. Helen E. Snow. 

Or, Dr. Helen E. Snow. 


If people wish to have their letters perfectly 
secure from observation it is better to seal them 
with wax, which cannot be broken without ex- 
posure. The ordinary envelope is easily opened, 
and sealed again, leaving no trace of the fact ; 
though a very heavy fine is imposed as a pen- 
alty on any one convicted of opening a letter, 
that is not authorized to do so. 

In the United States, a letter not called for 
within a certain length of time is then adver- 
tised, after which it is held thirty days, when, 
no owner being found, the letter is forwarded 
to the Dead-Letter Office at Washington, where 
it is opened. If the address of the person who 
wrote the letter can there be learned, the letter 
is then returned to the writer. 

If the name or address be written or printed 
upon the envelope, instead of going to the 
Dead-Letter Office, the letter will be returned 
to the writer at the expiration of thirty days. If 

desirous of having it sooner returned, the writer 
should add, " Return in 5 days," or " 10 days," 
etc., as seen in the letter of Jansen, McClurg & 
Co., shown above. 

It is safest for persons sending letters to 
place stamps upon the envelopes themselves, 
and not depend upon postmasters or their clerks 
to do so, as, in their haste, they sometimes for- 
get directions. 

It has been suggested that the State be writ- 
ten first upon the envelope ; thus, 




As the State to which the letter is directed, is, 
however, no more conspicuous at the top of the 
superscription than at the bottom, there is no 
advantage gained in this mode of address, on 
the score of legibility. 



Business -ILottersJ 

letters of business, use as few words 
as possible. 

2. Business letters should be 
promptly answered. 

3. Use a clear, distinct writing, 
avoiding all flourish of penmanship 

or language. 

4. Come at once to your subject, and state 
it so clearly that it will not be necessary to 
guess your meaning. 

5. Give town, county, State and date ex- 
plicitly. It is frequently of great importance 
to know when a letter was written. 

6. Head your letter carefully when finished, 
to see that you have made no omissions and 
no mistakes. Also carefully examine your 
envelope, to see that it is rightly directed, with 
postage-stamp affixed. 

7. Copy all business letters, of your own, by 
hand, or with the copying-press made for the 

8. Send money by Draft, P. O. Money-Order, 
or Express, taking a receipt therefor; thus you 
have something to show for money, guarantying 
you against loss. Always state in your letter 
the amount of money you send, and by what 
means sent. 

9. Write date, and by whom sent, across the 
end of each letter received, and file for future 
reference, fastening the letters together with 
rubber bands, or binding in a letter-file adapted 
to the purpose. The possession of a letter 

sometimes prevents litigation and serious mis- 

Ordering Goods. 

In ordering goods, state very explicitly the 
amount, kind, quality, color, shape, size, etc., 
and on what terms wanted. Whether you wish 
the same sent by freight or express, and -what 
express. Much inconvenience is experienced 
among business men because of a neglect to 
designate explicitly what is wanted. 

Should the writer wish to make suggestions, 
ask questions, or add other matter to the letter, 
which is foreign to the subject, such words 
should be placed entirely separate from the 
order. Of fifty or a hundred letters received 
to-day by the merchant, that one which is 
mixed up with complaints, enquiries, etc., will 
probably be laid over till to-morrow, or until 
time can be spared to read it through. Had the 
order been explicitly stated, and the suggestions 
placed elsewhere, the goods would have been 
forwarded immediately. It is, in fact, better to 
write the order on a separate sheet from the 
other matter. 

Send your order, also, early enough to give 
yourself plenty of time in which to receive the 
goods before they are needed. 

Books, being a common article ordered, may 
be taken as an example showing the importance 
of giving a careful description of the goods 
wanted. To illustrate: be explicit in giving 
name of book, name of author, by whom pub- 



lished, style of binding, price at which it is 
advertised, etc. Thus, a careless person, order- 
ing of Harper & Brothers a United States 
History, will say, " Send me a United States 
History." Of course the lirst query of the 
shipping-clerk is, " Whose history?" There 
are many histories of the United States, pub- 
lished by as many different authors, and the* 
clerk is liable to send the one not wanted; in 
which case the person ordering is very likely to 
unjustly blame Harper & Brothers. 

If the writer should say, " Send me a copy 
of Willard's History of the United States, by 
Emma Willard, published by A. S. Barnes & Co., 
bound in cloth," there would be no liability to 
mistake. The following will serve as sample 
forms : 

Form of Letter Ordering Books. 

ROCKFORD, ILL., March 1, 18. 

Chicago, 111. 
Dear Sirs : 

Enclosed find draft for $48.75, for which please 
send, by American Express, 

10 Tennyson's Poems. Published by Harper & Bros. $1.25 $12.50 

10 Thirty Years in the Harem. " " " " 1.50 15.00 

10 Literature and Art, by M. Fuller. " Fowler & Wells. 1.00 10.00 

5 Getting on in the World, Mathews. S. C. Griggs & Co. 2.25 11.25 

Thanking yon for the promptitude with which you have filled my 

orders heretofore, I am, 

Very Respectfully, 


Form of an Order to a Dry-Goods Merchant. 

April 5, 18. 

New York. 
Dear Sirs : 

Enclosed find Post Office Order for $25, for which 
please send, by American Express, the following goods : 

2 Lancaster Table Spreads ($3.50), $ 7.00 

4 prs. Alexandre Kid Gloves ($2.50), No. 6y z , Brown, 

Green, Yellow, Black, 10.00 

8 yds. Calico, Brown, with small figure (25c.), 2.00 

12 " " White, " " pink dot " 3.00 

2 Linen Handkerchiefs (50c.), 1.00 

4 prs. Ladies 1 Cotton Hose (50c.), No. 9, 2.00 

Direct to 




From a Young Man Commencing Business, to a Wholesale 
House, with Order. 

RACINE, Wis., Aug. 10, 18. 

Chicago, 111. 
Dear Sirs : 

Having recently commenced business for myself, 
with fair prospects of success, I shall be pleased to open an account 
with your house, and trust it will be to our mutual advantage. Should 
you think favorably of the matter, you will please fill the accompany- 
ing order with the least possible delay, and on your best terms. 

For testimonials, I refer you to Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co., of your 
city, by whom I have been, until recently, employed; but, as this is 
my first transaction with your house, upon forwarding me an invoice 
of goods, and deducting your usual discount for cash, I will remit a 
sight draft on the First National Bank of your city, for the amount, by 
return mail. Expecting your usual prompt attention, I am, 
Yours Respectfully, 


Reply from Wholesale House, with Invoice. 

CHICAGO, Aug. 12, 18 . 

Racine, Wis. 
Dear Sir : 

We take pleasure in sending this day, by your 
order, the enclosed invoice of goods, amounting to $1,400, subject to 5 
per cent discount for prompt cash. 

Your references being entirely satisfactory, we have no hesitation 
in opening an account and allowing you our best terms. Trusting 
that the goods, which are shipped by express, will arrive safely and 
meet your favor, we are, 

Yours Truly, 


Requesting Information Concerning the Opening of a Store. 

BOSTON, MASS., Sept. 18, 18. 

Bennington, Vt. 

Dear Sir : 

My partner and myself being desirous of establish- 
ing a branch store in the clothing trade, I take the privilege of a 
friend in asking you to send me the number of clothing stores already 
in your village, and such other information as may be necessary, con- 
cerning the feasibility of establishing our business in your place. An 
early reply will greatly oblige, 

Yours, Very Truly, 


Answer to the Foregoing. 

BENNINGTON, VT., Sept. 20, 18. 

Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: 

I have taken occasion to enquire in relation to the 

extent and number of clothing stores in this place, and am happy to 
inform you that, while that department of trade is very fairly repre- 
sented, there seems to be a good opening for a first-class store, such as 
your house would undoubtedly establish. 

There is also a large store just vacated, in the center of the village, 
one of the best locations in the town, which can be had at reasonable 
rent. Hoping that you may carry out your design of locating here, 
and trusting that you may realize your expectations, I am, 
Yours Truly, 




Enquiry Concerning Real Estate. 

SPKINGLAKE, MICH., Sept. 4, 18 . 

Aurora, 111., 
Dear Sirs: 

Having heard much said in praise of your beauti- 
ful city, particularly concerning railroad privileges, church and educa- 
tional advantages, I have concluded to make your town my permanent 
place of abode, if I can locate myself aright, inasmuch as I have a large 
family of children to educate, and the numerous lines of railway radi- 
ating from your city will afford me the desired accommodations in my 
traveling agency. 

My object in writing you at present is to learn your best terms for a 
residence containing not less than ten rooms, having from six to ten 
acres of land attached, situated not over a mile from the postoffice. 
An immediate answer will oblige, 

Your Obedient Servant, 


Superintendent's Resignation. 

GALESBURG, ILL., Sept. i, 1878. 

Chicago, 111., 
Dear Sir : 

I herewith tender my resignation as local superin- 
tendent of the railroad repair works in this city, my labors in behalf of 
your company to cease October i, 1878. 

Respectfully Yours, 

Short Form of Resignation. 

PITTSBURGH, PA., Dec. 2, 1879. 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 
Dear Sirs : 

Please accept my immediate resignation as business 
manager of your manufactory. 

Yours Respectfully, 


Clergyman's Resignation. 


Pittsfield, Mass., 
Gentlemen : 

It has now been seven years since the commence- 
ment of my pastoral connection with the First Baptist Church of this 
city. During this time the church society has grown in numbers, the 
sabbath school has been continually blessed by a large attendance, and 
the relations between pastor and congregation have always been of a 
most pleasant character. For these and other reasons it would be 
agreeable to continue my connection with the society longer; but other 
fields of labor affording wider and better opportunities, I feel it but just 
that I accept the privileges offered. 

Thanking the congregation to whom I have ministered for their kind 
and unwavering support, and praying for your continued prosperity, I 
desire you to accept my resignation as pastor of your society, to take 
effect January 15, 1878. Yours Very Respectfully, 


Letter Complaining of Error in a Bill. 

% TROY, N. Y., June 10, 18 . 

New York, 
Dear Sirs : 

Upon examining bill accompanying your last lot 

of goods, I find that I am charged with four dozen pairs of cotton hose 
which I never ordered nor received. I enclose the bill and copy of the 
invoice of goods, that the error may be corrected. I am, gentlemen, 
Yours Very Respectfully, 


Answer to the Foregoing. 

NEW YORK, June u, 18 . 

Troy, N. Y., 
Dear Sir : 

We regret that you were put to any trouble by the 
carelessness of a clerk, who, having proved himself incompetent, has 
left our service. We enclose the correct bill to you, and offer apologies 
for the error. Truly Yours, 


An Application for a Situation on a Railway. 

DAVENPORT, IA., Jan. 15, 18 . 

Dear Sir : 

Understanding that you are a shareholder in some 

of the principal railways, and on intimate terms with several of the 
directors, I venture to solicit your kind interest in behalf of my eldest 
son, William, now in his twentieth year. His education has been 
varied and useful, and his character, so far as I know, is above reproach. 
For several years he has expressed a desire to enter the employ of a 
railroad company, and under the circumstances I venture to write to 
you, in the hope that, should you have it in your power to oblige me, 
you will kindly intercede in his favor. By doing so you will confer a 
lasting obligation both on him and me. I remain, sir, 
Your Ob'd't Servant, 

Recommending a Successor in Business. 

MILWAUKEE, Wis., Dec. 24, 18 . 
Dear Sirs : 

We flatter ourselves that there are many friends 

among our connection who will regret that we are on the point of relin- 
quishing business. In doing so our premises and stock of goods will 
be transferred to the hands of Messrs. Williams & Co., who will in 
future carry on the business on the same approved system and extensive 
scale as ourselves, provided they can rely upon receiving the patronage 
of our connection; in the hope of which, it is our pleasure and duty to 
present these gentlemen to your notice. We cannot speak too highly 
of the confidence we feel in their liberal mode of conducting mercantile 
transactions; and, in the hope that they may be honored with the same 
countenance received by ourselves from your respected firm, we beg to 

sign ourselves 

Your Most Obedient Servants, 


Notice of Having Forwarded Goods. 

SOUTH HAVEN, MICH., Sept. i, 18 . 

Chicago, 111., 
Dear Sirs : 

According to your order, I have shipped you this 
day, per Steamer Morning Star, 

200 baskets Peaches, (Marked H., S. & Co.) 

10 bbls. Sweet Potatoes, " " " 

12 " Apples, 

Trusting that these will prove as satisfactory as those heretofore sent, 
and bring as good a price, I am 

Respectfully Yours, 


Requesting a Friend to Make Purchases. 

KANKAKEE, ILL., Jan. i, 18 . 

I am going to trespass on your kindness by asking you to 
make a few purchases for me. Enclosed find twenty dollars and a 
memorandum of what I want. 

My household duties, combined with the objection I have to leaving 
my children at this season of the year in the care of servants, very 
closely confine me to my home, and are my excuse for troubling you. 


We are in usual health, and I hope this note will find your family 
all well. With kind regards to Mr. Webster and love to children, I 

Your Sincere Friend, 


Michigan Ave., Chicago.- 

Requesting Settlement of Account. 

MEMPHIS, TENN., Oct. 9, 18 

Nashville, Tenn. 


I enclose your account. I shall feel obliged by your 

settlement at an early date, as I have several heavy payments to make. 
Trusting that you will excuse my troubling you, I am, 
Yours Respectfully, 


Reply to the Preceding. 

NASHVILLE, TENN., Oct. 12, 18. 

Memphis, Tenn. 


As I am unable to send you the money for settlement of 

our account, without inconvenience, I enclose my acceptance for thirty 
days, which I trust you will be able to use. 

Yours Truly, 


Urging Payment of Rent. 

COLUMBUS, O., March 11, 18 . 
MR. D. P. HOYT. 

Dear Sir: 

I have waited patiently for your convenience in 

the payment of rent for the house you are at present occupying. As, 
however, you have now been my tenant for four months without meet- 
ing any of the payments, which were to be made monthly, I feel 
obliged to remind you of the fact that there are now $80 due to me. 
Trnsting that you will give the subject your immediate attention, I 


Yours Truly, 


Letter to a Pioneer Settler in the West. 

TOLEDO, OHIO, July 9, 18. 

Dear Sir: 

I take the liberty, though a stranger, of addressing 

you a few lines relative to the inducements for new settlers in your 
section of the country, having been recommended to do so through 
our mutual friend, Artemas Carter. 

As I have sold out my business in this city for ten thousand dol- 
lars, I am anxious to invest the proceeds in a large farm in a young 

State, feeling satisfied that a new country, like that you are now 
in, offers attractions for young and energetic men not found in the 
old cities. 

You will much oblige me by giving information concerning climate, 
soil, water, timber, and other inducements for settling in your vicinity. 
Trusting that doing so will not seriously trouble you, and that I may 
hear from you soon, I remain, 

Yours, Very Respectfully, 


Answer to the Foregoing. 


Toledo, Ohio. 
Dear Sir: 

Your welcome letter was received yesterday. I 
can assure you that I will be only too happy to furnish you all the 
information you desire relative to the prospects in this portion of 
Uncle Sam's domains. 

I have now been two years in this place, and I can truly say that 
these years have been the happiest of my life. True, we have 
endured some hardships incident to pioneer life; but the glorious 
freedom from the frivolities of fashion and the formalities of aristo- 
cratic life, common to the old towns in the East, together with the 
pleasure one takes in making new improvements, all have combined 
to render our family perfectly delighted with the country. 

For a quarter of the money in your possession, you can purchase all 
the land you will desire to cultivate; the remainder you can loan 
hereabouts, on bond and mortgage, at good interest. 

The climate here is healthy and invigorating; the soil good, with 
running streams in sufficient abundance to water most of the farms. 
Plenty of building material and fuel can be had in the timber skirting 
the streams ; and the prospect for the ultimate opening of the land in 
this section to a ready market, through several lines of railway now 
in contemplation, is very flattering. At present, however, the nearest 
station to my farm, on the stage route, is Chesterfield, thirty-four 
miles distant, at which place I will take great pleasure in meeting 
you, with my team, at any time you may appoint. 

A very excellent farm, adjoining mine, can be bought for five dollars 
($5) per acre. One corner of the land is crossed by a never-failing 
stream, with considerable timber along the same. 

You will have to rough it for a little while after you arrive ; but the 
neighbors will all turn out to aid in getting up your log house, after 
which yon will be at home "under your own vine and fig-tree." 

We have two rooms in our house, and, till your house is completed, 
we will give one of them to your family. It will seem a little odd, at 
first, for a fashionable family of six or eight persons to occupy one 
room, with wolf and deer skins for quilts and coverlets ; but, by-and- 
by, when the young ladies find they are in just as good style as any- 
body else, they will dismiss their fastidiousness, and think it jolly fun. 
These privations that we at first endure are necessary, perhaps, to 
enable us to appreciate the fine homes which we all expect to have in 
the good time coming. Hoping to have the pleasure of welcoming 
yourself and family as neighbors, I am, 

Yours, Very Truly, 




Applications for Situations, 

Letters Answering Advertisements. 

HE following advertisements, taken 
from metropolitan papers, are but 
samples of hundreds of such to be 
seen every day in the ad- 
vertising columns of the 
leading daily newspapers 
in the great cities; showing that 
abundant opportunities constantly 
offer for obtaining employment, the 
positions to be secured, however, by 
letters making application for them. 



literary paper. A thoroughly competent lady pre- 
ferred. Address D 71, Herald office, New York. 

a smart lad for office work ; must be a good pen- 
man. Address.^in own handwriting, stating age and 
salary expected,- W 32, Ledger office. 

goods store. Must be accustomed to the business. 
Address, with reference, B 80, Picayune office. 

one who writes neatly and rapidly; willing to 
work for a moderate salary, and who can bring A No. 1 
recommendations. Address, stating experience and 
particulars, X. Y. Z., Bulletin office. 

in a bank. Address, with reference, Z 61, Journal 

bold, distinct hand. Salary good. Address, in 
applicant's own handwriting, COPY, Republican office. 

sell pianos one who has experience and good 
references. Address, stating salary expected, PIANOS, 
Tribune office. 

young lady as a companion, to travel for six 
months in Europe, with a gentleman, wife, and daugh- 
ter. Must be a ready writer, a good conversationalist, 
and possess vivacity and pleasing manners. Wardrobe 
furnished, and money to pay all expenses. Address 
Z. B M., Commercial office, stating wnere an interview 
can be had. 

As a hundred different persons will sometimes 
make application for one position, which will be 
given to the individual writing the best letter, 
everything else being equal, this illustrates in a 
striking manner the importance of being able 
to write a letter elegantly and correctly. 

Answer to an Advertisement for an Assistant Editor. 

/L 4 -/<f -- 




/ /" / / S-s 
v-ez^-'it. ^o^i-ci- & 'C-t^e^i-fi^t^ii, 

s s / / s 

-cLoctwistj, -&e ms&di. - 

Y / f 



General Directions. 

Letters in reply to advertisements should be 
written immediately, else you may be too late. 

Paste the advertisement at the head of your 
letter; thus it will be known exactly what your 
communication has reference to. 

It is not necessary to speak much in praise of 
yourself, but you may state your reference, 
your experience, and qualifications fitting you 
for the position, the whole being told as briefly 
as possible. 

Write your application yourself, your hand- 
writing and the manner of expressing yourself 
being the test by which the advertiser judges 
you. If you have written testimonials, copy the 
same, marking them as such, and enclose the 

From a Boy Applying for a Clerkship. 

879 Market Street, PHILADELPHIA, PA., Nov. 4, 18. 

I notice in this morning's "Ledger" your advertisement 
of "a boy wanted in a grain commission house," which position I 
take the first opportunity to apply for. 

I am fourteen years old, have been at school most of the time, win- 
ters, for the past seven years, and understand bookkeeping and con- 
ducting correspondence pretty well, having assisted my father much 
of the time while he was in the coal trade, which was about three 

I am perfectly willing and ready to take my coat off and go right to 
work at handling grain or anything else in your line. 

I refer you to Mr. Ira Belden, coal dealer, at 56 Benton street, who 
has always known me. 

I will board at home, and will try to earn for you five dollars a week. 
Very Respectfully Yours, 


From a Young Lady Applying for a Clerkship in a Store. 

182 Murray St., BUFFALO, N. Y., May 19, 18. 

I take the earliest opportunity of replying to the' enclosed 

I have been for the past two years in the employ of Bennett & Haw- 
ley, dry-goods dealers, 492 Camden street, until the dissolution of 
their firm, about four weeks ago. I beg to refer you, for testimonials, 
to Mr. Chas. H. Bennett, of the firm of Snow, Williams & Bennett, 
178 Harvard street, should you entertain my application. 
Your Very Obedient Servant, 


Answering an Advertisement for a Bookkeeper. 

1184 Longworth St., CINCINNATI, O., May 1, 18 . 

In reply to your advertisement in to-day's " Commercial " 
for a clerk or assistant bookkeeper, I beg to offer my services to 
your firm. 

I have been in the employ of Mr. Wm. H. Wilson for the past four 
years, until he sold out his business a few days ago, having kept the 
books of his house during the time. 

He permits me to refer to him for any testimonial of character or 
ability which you may require. 

Should my application meet your views, it will be my earnest endea- 
vor to faithfully and punctually fulfill the duties required. I have the 
honor to remain, 

Yours, Very Respectfully, 


Answering an Advertisement for a Cook. 

48 Wentworth Ave., PITTSBURGH, PA., 

March 17, 1873. 

Respected Madam : 

Seeing an advertisement in this morning's 

" Press " for a good plain and fancy cook, I take the opportunity to 
apply for the situation. 

I have been with my present mistress, Mrs. Burton, for three years, 
and only leave because she has rented her house for the summer, to 
make an extended visit among her relatives in New England. 

I shall remain here until Tuesday next, unless I find a place sooner, 
and Mrs Burton will give you any information you may desire regard- 
ing my capacity. 

I Remain, Very Respectfully, 


Answer to an Advertisement for a Chambermaid. 

(Advertisement pasted in.) 


Feb. 14, 18. 

In answer to the above advertisement, I beg to state 
that I am about to leave my present situation, as Mrs. Harrington, 
with whom I have been for the past six years, is about breaking up 
housekeeping; and I take the opportunity to apply for the position 
you offer. 

Mrs. Harrington assures me that she will take pleasure in recom- 
mending me to any person who may apply to her concerning my 

industry and trustworthiness. 


Application for a Situation as Gardener. 

No. 7th St., NEW YORK, 

June 10, 18. 

Understanding that you want a gardener, I beg to offer 
myself as a candidate to fill the place. I have had constant experience 
for ten years, both in nursery grounds and private gardens, and am 
thoroughly acquainted with the management of the greenhouse and 

The enclosed testimonials, from gentlemen for whom I have worked, 
will, I trust, prove satisfactory. My last employer, Mr. Snow, I would 
like to have you see personally concerning my fitness for the position. 
I am a married man, thirty-three years of age. If favorable to my 
application, please address as above, and oblige, 
Your Obedient Servant, 




Application for a Situation as Coachman. 

178 St., BOSTON, 

April 10, 18. 
Dear Sir: 

Having been informed that you are in want of a 
coachman, I take the liberty of enclosing you the accompanying testi- 
monials, to which I ask your attention. Though reared in Deerfield, 
I have been in Boston for the past fourteen years, having constantly 
had charge of horses during that time, as I did on the farm before 
leaving home. 

As further evidence of my ability, I may mention that I had chief 
charge of the Tremont Street Livery Stable until the death of the 
owner, Mr. Paxton, after which the stock was sold and the stable 

Should my application meet your favor, I shall be glad to engage as 
your coachman, and will do all in my power to merit your approval. 
Yours Kespectfully, 


Application from a Governess Answering an Advertisement. 

(Advertisement pasted in.) 

No. 784 St., TROT, N. Y., 

July 18, 18. 

Dear Madam : 

In answer to the above, I would say that I am 

seeking such a situation as you offer. My present term of teaching 
will close August 15th, at which time I would be ready to enter upon 
the work of superintending the education of your daughters. 

I have, for several years, taught the higher English studies, besides 
German, Latin and drawing. For testimonials, I beg to refer you to 
the principal of my school, Rev. H. B. Watson. 

Hoping that I may hear from you soon, and that we may make an 
arrangement mutually satisfactory, I remain, 

Very Respectfully Yours, 


Requesting the Character of a Governess. 

No. 84 St., TROY, N. Y., 

July 19, 18. 

Principal, Glenhaven Seminary. 
My Dear Sir: 

Having inserted an advertisement in the papers 

requiring the services of a governess competent to instruct my two 
daughters, I will esteem it a great favor if you will inform me concern- 
ing the ability of Miss Chandler to give instructions in the higher 
English studies, German and drawing, she having referred me to you. 
I am especially desirous of securing the services of a young lady 
whose moral influence will guard my children from danger one 
whose amiability of character will make her a pleasant companion as 
well as teacher. I am much pleased with the appearance of Miss 
Chandler, and, if your report is favorable, I shall not hesitate to per- 
fect an engagement with her at once. 

Yours, Very Respectfully, 


Favorable Reply to the Foregoing. 


July 21, 18-. 

Dear Madam : 

Your letter of enquiry in regard to Miss Chandler 
is before me, in reply to which it affords me much pleasure to bear 
testimony to the high moral character, and superior intellectual cul- 
ture, of which she is possessed. During five years' residence in our 
family she has ever been as one of our own household, and I can thus 
speak understandingly of her merits. She is thoroughly conversant 

with the higher English branches, and is quite fluent in Latin and 
German. Should you complete an engagement with her, I feel confi- 
dent you will have every reason for being pleased with having done so. 
Very Truly Yours, 


Unfavorable Reply to the Foregoing. 


MBS. CLABA B. WILLIAMS. July 21, 18 . 

Dear Madam : 

In reply to your polite inquiries, I am sorry to 

pay that the educational acquirements of Miss Chandler, I fear, will 
not be up to the standard you require. While she has taught the 
higher English for some years, knowing, as I do, the proficiency of 
your daughters, I doubt if she is capable of advancing them in their 
studies. Another very unfortunate fault of which she is possessed, 
which causes me to dispense with her services at the close of the 
present term, is her failure to sufficiently command her temper. In 
other respects I have nothing to say to her prejudice. 

Regretting that I cannot give a more favorable reply to your letter, 
I remain, Your Most Obedient Servant, 


Answering an Advertisement for an Apprentice to a 

(Advertisement pasted in.) 


Dear Madam : 

In answer to the above, I respectfully apply for 

the situation. Though I never took up the business as a trade, I 
have long been in the habit of doing all the dressmaking for our 
family, and feel myself competent to do all plainer kinds of sewing 
neatly and rapidly. 

Having recently, by the death of an only brother, been thrown upon 
my own resources, I am thus induced to seek a position which I think 
I will enjoy. 

Hoping that you will accept my services, I remain, 
Very Respectfully Yours, 


Answer to an Advertisement for a Music-Teacher. 


June 9, 18 . 
Dear Sir: 

Seeing your advertisement in to-day's " Journal," I 
write to offer my services as music-teacher In your family. 

I am a graduate of Music Vale Seminary, and have taught a music- 
class in this institution for the past three terms. My training has 
been with special reference to teaching the piano, the guitar, and 
vocal music. 

I am permitted by Professor Weston, the teacher of music in the 
Academy, to refer to him for any testimonial of ability. I am, 
Yours, Very Respectfully, 


Answering an Advertisement for an Apprentice to a Printer. 


MB. A. B. COOK. Feb. 4, 18. 

Dear Sir: 

Having seen your advertisement in the last Eagle, I 
would respectfully apply for the position for my son Henry, who is 
anxious to learn printing. He is well versed in the common English 
branches, having been regular in attendance at the public school for 
the past seven years. He is now fifteen. 

I would like to have you take him on trial for a few weeks, and, if 
he pleases you, will arrange to have him remain until he masters the 
trade. Respectfully Yours, 




Letters of Recommendation. 

NOWLEDGE of persons recom- 
mended, of their fitness and capacity 
for the work they engage in, is always 
essential, before they can be conscien- 
tiously commended to others. 

A letter of recommendation should be written 
in a plain hand, in as few words as can be used 
to express the idea distinctly. 

A recommendation, after considering the 
moral character of the individual, should relate 
directly to the work of which the person makes 
a specialty. 

An individual giving a recommendation is, 
in 'a certain sense, responsible for the character 
and ability of the person recommended ; hence, 
certificates of character should be given with 
caution and care. 

Recommending a Salesman. 

SYRACUSE, N. Y., April 10, 18. 
Dear Sirs : 

Your favor of the 4th inst, relative to the ability 
of Mr. Benjamin Walker, is received. We take great pleasure in testi- 
fying to his high moral worth and his business capacity. He was in 
our employ for four years, as a salesman, during which time his affa- 
bility and uniform courtesy to customers, coupled with his truthful 
representations in regard to goods, made him a universal favorite. 

Accurate in accounts, ready and graceful as a penman, attentive and 
kind to all, he is a most useful man in the counting-room ; and the firm 
securing his services may be congratulated on their good fortune. 
Very Truly Yours, 


Recommending a Schoolmistress. 


March 1, 18. 
Dear Sir: 

It gives me pleasure, in reply to your note of the 
24th ult., to most cordially recommend Miss Fannie Chapman to the 
position of teacher of your village school. 

As a graduate of this Seminary, and subsequently as a teacher, much 
of the time conducting the various classes alone, she has proven her- 
self thoroughly competent to conduct a school under almost any cir- 

Though very amiable, she is a strict disciplinarian, and thoroughly 
conversant with the ordinary branches of an English education. 
Yours Respectfully, 


Principal Glen Dale Seminary. 

Recommending a Bookkeeper. 

WHITEHALL, N. Y., Sept. 10, 18. 

Mr. Ransom Fellows having been in my employ for the past two 
years as a bookkeeper, it gives me great pleasure to testify to his 
ability. He is an upright, conscientious, exemplary young man, a 
good penman and accountant, and a most faithful clerk. He leaves 
my employ voluntarily, with my best wishes. 


Recommending a Waiter. 


Aug. 11, 18. 

Arthur Brooks, who has been in my employ for two years, has given 
entire satisfaction, both to myself and guests, as a table-waiter. Hon- 
est, obliging and neat, it affords me pleasure, as he now leaves my 
employ, to commend him as a first-class hotel waiter. 


Steward, Tremont House. 

Recommending a Cook. 

HARRISBURG, PA., Dec. 20, 18 . 

This is to certify that Catherine Miller did the cooking for my family 
some ten months, to my entire satisfaction, serving me both as a plain 
and fancy cook. She is very attentive to her work, and strictly honest 
and reliable. 


Recommending a Washerwoman. 

NEW ORLEANS, LA., May 7, 18 . 

This certifies that Hannah Webber, who has been employed in my 
laundry for the past year, is an excellent washer and ironer, under- 
standing fine starching, crimping, polishing, etc. 


Recommending a Porter. 

CHARLESTON, S. C., Sept. 18, 18 . 

Donald Kennedy, the bearer of this, has been in my employ, as a 
porter, for the last eighteen months. He is a strong, honest, reliable 
man, and always very punctual, careful, and faithful in the discharge 
of his duty. 


Declining to Recommend a Cook. 

SAVANNAH, GA., Oct. 10, 18. 

In reply to your note of enquiry, I decline to recom- 
mend Bridget Mallory. She is both dishonest and addicted to intem- 




Letters of Sympathy. 


LETTER of sympathy and condo- 
lence, though unpleasant to write, 
may afford inexpressible comfort 
to a friend in the hour of affliction. 
Make your letter as brief, but 
earnest and sincere, as possible. 

Do not commit the mistake of 
insinuating that the misfortune is the fault of 
your friend. Better leave the letter unwritten. 
Admit the loss. Do not attempt to make 
light of it. If you are satisfied that it will 
eventuate in a blessing, you may gently point 
the way, but with a full admission of the pres- 
ent deep affliction. 

To a Friend, on the Death of a Husband. 

NEWARK, O., Oct. 18, 18. 

I know that no words can make amends for the great 
loss you have sustained. I deeply realize, from having passed through 
a similar bereavement, that expressions of condolence wholly fail to 
restore the loved and lost one, yet I cannot but hope that the heartfelt 
sympathy of a sincere friend will not be deemed intrusion on your 

It has been well said, that " we weep for the loved and lost because 
we know that our tears are in vain." I would ease your sorrow, and 
yet A know not how. We can only acknowledge that the affliction is 
God's will. Over in the beautiful land to which I trust your life-com- 
panion has gone, we may not doubt, he is free from the pains that he 
so long endured here ; and when we gather at the river, is it not a sweet 
consolation to think that among the loved and lost he may meet you 
on the other side ? 

Commending you to Him who doeth all things well, I remain, in the 
tenderest friendship, 

Your Sincere Friend, 

Columbus, O. 

Reply to the Foregoing. 

COLUMBUS, O., Oct. 20, 18. 

I can scarcely express to you how grateful I 

am for your sympathizing letter, yet the loss of my husband has so 
prostrated me that I am hardly able to write this reply. 

My friends assure me that time will reconcile me to my great 
bereavement. Yes, time, and the great consolation that you speak of, 
which comes from the hope that we will meet our friends in a world 
where partings are no more, will, I trust, enable me to bear my sorrow. 
God bless you for your thought of me in the dark hours, and your 
sweet words of consolation. 

Your Friend, 


To a Friend, on the Death of a Mother. 

EVANSVILLE, TENN., Oct. 16, 18. 

I have just learned, on my return from a visit in 
the far West, of the death of your mother. Having suffered the loss 
of my mother when a child, I know how to sympathize with you in 
your affliction; though, fortunately for you, your mother lived to 
guide the footsteps of her boy till manhood's years had crowned his 
intellect with judgment and fixed moral principles. It can truly 
be said that, in the training of her family, in the church, in the 
social circle, she always did her duty nobly, and was an ornament to 
society. Ripened in years, and fully prepared for another state of 
existence, she passes on now to enjoy the reward of a life well spent 
on earth. 

Restored to maidenhood prime, we cannot doubt that in the flowery 
walks of spirit life she is the same good woman that we knew so well 


Truly Yours, 


Belle Plain, Miss. 

To a Friend, on the Death of a Brother. 

LEXINGTON, Mo., Dec. 10, 18 . 

I have learned with profound regret of the death of 
your brother. I condole with you most sincerely on the sad event, 
and, if sympathy of friends can be any consolation under the trying 
circumstances, be assured that all who knew him share in your sorrow 
for his loss. There is, however, a higher source of consolation than 
earthly friendship, and, commending you to that, I remain, 
Yours Faithfully, 



To a Friend, on the Death of a Wife. 

BURLINGTON, IOWA, Nov. 10, 18 . 


I know that this letter will find yon filled 

with grief at the loss of your dear wife. You have, indeed, suffered a 
great affliction. A more faithful partner never lived, and few men, I 
venture to say, ever enjoyed more domestic tranquility than yourself. 

A true wife, and a devoted mother! No higher eulogy can be pro- 
nounced upon any woman. How the little motherless children will 
miss her tender care ! How those fragile little girls will miss her 
sweet presence at the evening hour, when she sat by the bedside and 
listened to their innocent prayers, soothing their little spirits as they 
dropped off to sleep ! Truly the great central sun of your household 
has gone down, and I most truly, deeply sympathize with you in your 

Let us hope, however, in the language of Scripture, " I go to prepare 
a place for you," that, TO the golden summer of another life, children, 
mother and father will gather again in a sweet reunion, where part- 
ings are unknown. 

Though the days are dark now, spring will come once more. Thus, 
I trust, pleasant days will come again for you and yours. 

Send both of the little girls to our home for a month's visit, and 
come yourself as soon as you can find time to do so. My previously 
arranged departure, to-morrow, prevents my visiting you. 

Your Friend, 


Henderson, Kentucky. 

To a Friend, on the Death of a Sister. 

AUBURN, N. Y., July 16, 18. 

I have learned, with sorrow, of the death of your 
sister Helen. Though I never knew her personally, I knew her so well 
through you, that it seems as if I, myself, had lost a very near and 
intimate friend. I recollect her from that sweet face and gentleness 
of manner, as I saw her once in your company, that impressed me 
with the belief that she was one of the angelic ones of earth. 

I know how deeply you must have grieved at her death. No one 
could mourn her loss so truly as yourself. Younger than you, frail and 
delicate, her guardianship entrusted to yourself, confiding everything 
to you, it was natural that to a sister's affection should be added, also, 
almost a mother's love for your gentle sister Helen. She died, too, at 
a time when life was apparently all blossoming before her. How 
hard to reconcile ourselves to the loss of dear kindred, when their con- 
tinued presence is so necessary to our happiness. But may we not 
hope that the same sweet voice, and gentle, confiding heart, that was 
BO dear to sister and kindred here, is waiting for you in the summer 
land? "Not dead, but gone before." 

The loss of near friends thus calls for our contemplation of another 
life toward which we are all tending. You and I, dear M., have 
talked these matters over often. I know you expect to meet her on 
the other side ; so do 1. Believing that your faith in that golden, 
sunny Future, which you and I have so often considered, will sustain 

you, I am, 

Your Ever Faithful Friend, 


To a Friend, on the Death of a Daughter. 

HARTFORD, CONN., Nov. 14, 18 . 

It is with profound sorrow that I have heard of the 
death of dear Mary. While you have lost a dutiful and affectionate 
daughter, I have lost one of the dearest friends on earth. Outside of 
yourself, I am confident no one could more fully appreciate her loss 
than myself. We were so much together that I can hardly reconcile 
myself to the thought that I can no more meet her here. True, her 
death teaches us that, sooner or later, we must all make the journey 
across that mystic river. The angels called, and, in the ways of an 

all-wise Providence, it was best that she should go. We all have 
the ordeal to pass. Fortunate it would be if all could be as certain 
of being among the exalted angels as was our darling Mary. I will 
come and see you soon. Apropos, I send you this little poem, "The 
Covered Bridge." 

Your Friend, MYRA. 



Tell the fainting soul in the weary form, 

There 's a world of the purest bliss, 
That is linked, as the soul and form are linked, 

By a Covered Bridge, with this. 

Yet to reach that realm on the other shore 
We must pass through a transient gloom, 

And must walk, unseen, unhelped, and alone, 
Through that Covered Bridge the tomb. 

But we all pass over on equal terms, 

For the universal toll 
Is the outer garb, which the hand of God 

Has flung around the soul. 

Though the eye is dim, and the bridge is dark, 

And the river it spans is wide. 
Yet Faith points through to a shining mount, 

That looms on the other side. 

To enable our feet in the next day's march 

To climb up that golden ridge, 
We must all lie down for one night's rest 

Inside of the Covered Bridge. 

To a Friend, on the Death of an Infant. 

PEMBERTON, Miss., Nov. 18, 18 . 

I realize that this letter will find you buried in the 
deepest sorrow at the loss of your darling little Emma, and that words 
of mine will be entirely inadequate to assuage your overwhelming 
grief; yet I feel that I must write a few words to assure you that I am 
thinking of you and praying for you. 

If there can be a compensating thought, it is that your darling 
returned to the God who gave it, pure and unspotted by the world's 

The white rose and bud, I send, I trust you will permit to rest upon 
your darling's pillow. 

With feelings of the deepest sympathy, I remain, dear friend, 
Yours, Very Sincerely, 


To a Friend, on a Sudden Reverse of Fortune. 

HANNIBAL, Mo., Aug. 18, 18 . 

I regret to hear of your sudden and unexpected 
heavy loss, and hasten to offer you, not only my earnest sympathy, but 
aid in whatever way I can assist you. 

I know your energy and hopeful spirit too well to believe that you 
will allow this to depress or discourage you from further effort. Per- 
haps there is, somewhere, a blessing in this reverse. I have had my 
dark days, but I learned to trust the truth of that little stanza of Cow- 


"Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, 

But trust him for his grace ; 
Behind a frowning Providence 
He hides a smiling face." 

The child learns to walk after many falls, and many of our richest 
and most prosperous men have attained their eminence and wealth 
only by the experience resulting from failure. 

I predict that you will build on your ruins a brilliant future. How 
can I serve you? Let me know; by so doing, I shall understand that 
you have not ceased to value my friendship. 

Sincerely Your Friend, 


Singleton, Me. 



Letters of Congratulation. 


tion are very 
properly writ- 
ten upon re- 
ceiving intel- 
ligence of the sudden 
prosperity of a near and 
intimate friend. 

They should be writ- 
ten as soon as possible 
after the occasion that 
calls them forth. 

These letters will ad- 
mit of an abundance of 
good-natured merri- 

Do not indulge in 
over-praise, or too much 
flowery exaggeration, 
lest your friend may 
doubt your sincerity. 

!No envy or discon- 
tent should show itself 
in such a letter. Nor 
should the same be 
marred by advice, bad 
news, the expression of 
any doubt, or any un- 
favorable prediction cal- 
culated to throw a cloud 
over the happiness of 
your friend. 

Form of Letter Congratulating a Friend upon Election to Office, 

// / 







Congratulating a Friend upon Receiving a Legacy. 

APPLETON, Wis., Jan. 1, 18. 

I have learned to-day, through our friend Charlie 

Goodwin, of your good fortune in receiving a very material addition 
to your worldly possessions. Good! I congratulate you. I know of 
no one who more justly deserves good fortune, and of no person 
who will use it more worthily. You would be ever the same to me, 
whether good or ill success should attend your pathway. As it is, I 
take a friend's delight in congratulating you upon your fortune. 
Your Friend, 


Congratulating a Gentleman upon his Marriage. 

KINGSTON, CANADA, April 4, 18 . 

I have just received a little missive, which informs me of 
two happy hearts made one. I wish you much joy. You have my 
earnest congratulations on the event, and good wishes for a long and 
serenely happy married life. May each succeeding year find you hap- 
pier than the one before. 

God bless you and yours, and surround you ever with his choicest 

Your Friend, 


Congratulating a Friend upon the Birth of a Son. 

GRACELAND, FLA., Jan. 3, 18 . 

Accept my warmest congratulations upon the birth of 
your son. May his years be long in the land which the Lord giveth 
him. May he honor his father and his mother, and be the blessing 
and support of their declining years. I anticipate holding the young 
gentleman on my knee, and will be over to see you in a few days. 
My kindest regards to Mrs. Henry. I remain, 
Faithfully Your Friend, 


Congratulating a Friend upon the Twenty-fifth Anniversary 
of his Wedding Day. 

DARTMOUTH, N. H., March 5, 18. 

I acknowledge the receipt of a kind 

invitation to be present at the celebration of the twenty-fifth annivers- 
ary of your marriage. I have since learned that large numbers of 
your friends were present on the occasion, presenting you with an 
abundant and varied collection of silver, and other elegant and appro- 
priate gifts. 

I congratulate you and your good wife upon passing the signal- 
station indicating a quarter of a century of blissful wedded life. That 
you may both live to allow your friends to celebrate your golden and 
diamond weddings, is the hope of, 

Your Sincere Friend, 


Congratulating a Lady upon her Approaching Marriage. 

BANGOR, ME., Dec. 2, 18 . 

Two beautiful cards on my table advise me of your 
approaching nuptials. Allow me to congratulate you upon the choice 
of such a noble man, to whom you are to entrust your life's happiness. 
That the mid-day and evening of your married life may be as cloudless 
and beautiful as the morning, is the earnest wish of, 

Your Loving Friend, 


Congratulating a Friend on Passing a Successful School 

UTICA, N. Y., April 6, 18. 

I was greatly pleased to hear, through our friend 
Mary, that you had, through diligent application, passed through the 
prescribed course of study in the Aurora public schools, and had grad- 
uated with honors. Knowing how deeply interested your parents and 
relatives have been in your success, it is particularly gratifying to have 
you reward them by the achievement of such rapid progress. Accept 
my best wishes for your future success. 

Your Friend, 


Congratulating an Author upon the Success of his Book. 

MARENGO, VA., May 7, 18. 

I have just finished an attentive examination 

of your most valuable book, and cannot wonder, after a careful read- 
ing, that it is meeting so large a sale. The world is greatly indebted 
to you for presenting in such an attractive form the amount of useful 
information you have collected within its pages. 

Thanking you for the benefit I have obtained from its perusal, I 
remain, Yours Truly, 


Congratulating a Friend upon Obtaining a Business Situation. 

ASHBURY, PA., June 8, 18 . 

I am greatly pleased to learn that, notwithstand- 
ing the general dullness of business, you have succeeded in obtaining 
a clerkship. I doubt not your firm will regard themselves fortunate 
in securing your services. In the meantime, accept my congratula- 
tions upon your success. 

Hoping that your stay may be permanent and prosperous, I am, 
Yours Truly, 




^ : - a^ll ji j^~l * -"*- i"> r ~a MT" C "Tr^Tr*!" _ 

f- Letters of Introduction. 

BETTERS of Introduction should be 
written very plainly, and should be 
brief, as the person introduced is com- 
pelled to wait while the letter is being read. 

In introducing a person in a business capacity, 
state distinctly what is his business; if a pro- 
fessional man, his profession, and your knowl- 
edge or information of his ability. 

The letter of introduction should be left 
unsealed. It would be a great discourtesy to 
prevent the bearer from seeing what you have 

As in letters of recommendation, the person 
giving a letter of introduction is, in a measure, 
responsible for the character and ability of the 
person introduced. Hence, such letters should 
be guardedly written, or given with full knowl- 
edge of the person they introduce. 

That the person receiving such a letter may 
know at a glance its character, the letter should, 
on the envelope, be addressed thus: 

P^ v 

Presenting the letter of introduction at the 
private house, send it by the servant to the per- 
son addressed, accompanied with your card. 

At the business house, send the letter to the 
counting-room, accompanied by your card. 

Introducing one Gentleman to Another. 

NORWAY, MAINE, July 9, 18. 

The bearer of this, Mr. Sterling Hepworth, is a 
dry-goods merchant in our town, who visits your city for the pur- 
pose of making purchases for his fall trade. Mr. H. is a heavy dealer 
in his line, pays cash for all he buys, and expects the discount 
accompanying cash payment. Any favor you can render him by intro- 
duction to your leading wholesale houses, or otherwise, will be 
appreciated by Mr. Hepwortb, and acknowledged by, 

Your Friend, 


Introducing one Lady to Another. 

ROME, GA., Aug. 10, 18. 

I take this occasion to introduce to you the 
bearer of this letter, Mrs. Pemberton, who is on a visit to her relatives 
in your city. Mrs. P. is my very dear friend, of whom you have often 
heard me speak. Believing that your acquaintance with each other 
would be mutually agreeable, I have urged her to call upon you during 
her stay. Any attention you may bestow upon her, during her visit, 
will be highly appreciated by, 

Your Friend, 


Introducing a Young Musician to a Lady Friend. 

SALEM, MASS., Sept. 12, 18. 
Dear Friend: 

The bearer, Miss Serena Snow, visits your city 

for the purpose of pursuing a musical education, being ae yet undeter- 
mined whom she will choose as an instructor. Any advice and assist- 
ance you may render will be highly appreciated by her, and duly 
acknowledged by her parents, who have great confidence in your judg- 
ment in matters pertaining to music. 

Trusting that you will find it agreeable to aid my young friend, I 

Yours Sincerely, 


Introducing an Officer to a Brother-Officer. 

HOLYOKE, MASS., Sept. 17, 18 . 

My old-time comrade, Capt. H. M. Benson, visits 
your town for the purpose of attending the Army Reunion on 
the 27th. As he will remain some little time, I commend him to your 
brotherly care. Believing that your acquaintance will be mutually 
agreeable, I remain, 

Fraternally Yours, 




Introducing a Gentleman Seeking a Clerkship. 

DENVER, COL., Oct. 13, 18. 

This letter will introduce to you my young 

friend, Morgan Hatfield, who has been in my employ as a clerk for the 
past eighteen months, and whom I would still retain, had not the dis- 
posing of a portion of my business rendered his services, with those 
of others of my clerks, unnecessary. 

Believing that your wide influence would very materially aid him in 
securing a good position in the dry-goods trade in your city, I presume 
upon the acquaintance of an old friend in thus writing you. For 
reference you can use my name. 

Believing that you will not afterwards regret any assistance you ren- 
der the young man, I am, 

Your Friend, 


Introducing a Sister to a Schoolmate. 

SALEM, OREGON, Nov. 14, 18 . 

This will be brought you by my sister Callie, of 
whom you have heard me talk so much. No words of mine are neces- 
sary in introducing yon. I have told you both so much of each other 
that you are already acquainted. I bid you love each other as well as 
I love yon both. 

Affectionately Yours, 


Introducing a Clerk to an Old Fellow-Clerk. 


My friend and fellow-clerk, Wm. Bell, will spend a 
week in your city, and wants to look at the desk where you and I stood, 
side by side, so long. You will find him a genial, friendly fellow, and 
will most assuredly not regret my sending him to you. 
Ever Your Friend, 


Introducing a Student to the Writer's Mother. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., Feb. 2, 18 . 

The bearer of this is my college chum, Harry 

Worthington. Being about to visit his parents at San Jose, I have per- 
suaded him to stop over one train to see you and sister Kate. Harry 

is in the same class with myself, and is, I can assure you, a splendid 
fellow. Of course, you and Kate will treat him so finely as to make 
him, perhaps, stay longer than one day. He will tell you all the news. 
Your Ever Affectionate Son, 


Introducing a Friend to a Member of Congress. 

DOVER, DEL., Mar. 3, 18 . 

Respected Sir: 

The bearer, Mr. D. H. Harmon, is the son of 

Mrs. Lieut. W. H. Harmon, of this town, whose husband was killed at 
the battle of luka, bravely defending the flag. This young man has 
just graduated from one of our best schools, and at my suggestion 
visits Washington, thinking to acquaint himself with the condition of 
things at the Capitol, and, if the same could be obtained, would gladly 
occupy a clerkship for a time. Should it be in your power to grant 
him such a favor, it will be warmly appreciated by his mother and 
myself. I remain, 

Yours Respectfully, 



Introducing a Literary Lady to a Publisher. 

BATON ROUGE, LA., March 4, 18 . 
Dear Sir: 

The bearer, Mrs. Lydia Hnntington, visits 

New York for the purpose of conferring with some publisher relative 
to introducing her first book to the public. She is a lady of well- 
known reputation and acknowledged talent throughout the South, 
and will, I feel sure, assume prominent rank ere long in the literary 
world. I take the liberty of an old friend to ask of you a consideration 
of her claims. 

Yours, Very Respectfully, 


Introducing a Daughter About to Make a Visit. 

CHARLESTON, S. C., May 6, 18 . 

In compliance with your oft-repeated 

request, I send my daughter to spend a few weeks of her vacation in 
your delightful country home, trusting that her visit may be as delight- 
ful for her and yourself as mine was a year ago. Anticipating a visit 
from you all, ere the close of the present summer, I remain, 
AB Ever, Your Devoted Friend, 




OUK life has 
been a suc- 
cess," said an 
individual to 


business man. 
"To what do 
you attribute 

your success? " " To an admonition 
given me by my father, when a 
boy, which was this: 

" First, to attend strictly to my 
own business. Second, to let other 
people's business alone. Observing 
this, I incurred no ill will by inter- 
meddling with others, and I saved 
my time for the development and 
improvement of my own business." 

Be very sparing of letters of 
advice. As a rule, you will have 
enough to do to attend to your 
own affairs; and, as a general thing, 
advice even when solicited is liable 
to give offence. 

If, however, you are asked to give 
an opinion, you may plainly state 
it. Do not give it, however, as a 
law, nor feel offended if your ad- 
vice is disregarded. 

Beware of giving advice from 
selfishness. Sooner or later your 
motive will be discovered. Let 
your admonition be alone for the 
interest and welfare of your friend. If you 
expect, however, to be benefited by the course 

Advising a Young Lady to Refuse Gifts from Gentlemen. 




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i^eypttde. -tMjpi*!. jpt-om, -tz^c -ef&n^sC&m&vi. 

which you advise the person to pursue, you may 
frankly state the fact. 



Letter Advising a Young Man to Beware of Bad Company. 

WASHINGTON, D. C., Jan. 1, 18. 


I observe, by the tone of your last letter, that 

you are becoming very intimate with Henry Hubbard and Barney 
Mclntosh. I need not tell you that your letter has given me much 
uneasiness. These young men are bad characters, and you cannot 
continue your association with them, without contaminating your 

I am an old man, and I write this, my boy, with a most earnest desire 
for your happiness. You have acquired a fine education, and have 
entered upon your profession with every prospect of success. Yon 
have a widowed mother to support, and an orphaned sister looking to 
you for guidance. It becomes you, therefore, to maintain a reputation 
unsullied, and obtain a good credit, which, to a young man in the com- 
mencement of a business career, is equal to a large capital of itself. 

Association with these young men will certainly carry you down- 
ward. They are both without employment, they drive fast horses, 
they wear flash jewelry, they frequent gambling-houses, they both 
use intoxicating drink, chew tobacco, and talk profane language. 
What would you think of another that might be seen in their company? 
People will judge you as you would judge any one else. There is 
much truth in the old proverb, " A man is known by the company he 
keeps," and I would have your company such as will reflect the high- 
est honor upon yourself. 

I have written this letter earnestly and strongly, for I believe your 
good judgment will take it kindly; and I trust, when you sincerely 
reflect upon the matter, yon will at once dismiss that class of associates 
from your company. 

Your Earnest Weil-Wisher 

and Sincere Friend, 


Advising a Young Man Against a Hurried Marriage. 

RUTLAND, VT., April 5, 18. 


You ask me if you will not act the wiser part by 
marrying Miss Manchester at once, and settling yourself permanently ; 
and yet you inform me that it has been but three weeks since you first 
made her acquaintance. You may possibly be in jest, and perhaps in 
earnest; in either case, as you ask my advice, I can but give it. 

The choosing of a life-companion, dear Charles, is a too serious 
matter to be so hastily decided. The selection of a partner for a 
dance or a ride may be of little moment; the choice of an associate 
for business may be determined in a short time ; but the acceptance 
of a partner for life requires the most serious deliberation. You 
should take ample time for the study of the character, temperament, 
disposition and accomplishments of the lady whom you choose to be 
the sharer of your labors, joys, sorrows, reverses and prosperity. 

Upon this step hangs a large share of your happiness in life. Do not 
act too hastily. Trusting, however, that I will some day see you 
happily married and settled, I am, as ever, 

Your Most Sincere Friend, 


Advice to a Gentleman on the Subject of Health. 

BOSTON, MASS., May 6, 18 . 


Yours of the 2d inst. is before me. I am pleased 
with the prospect that you report in your business, but regret that 
you should be discouraged about your health. You ask me what you 
had better do; I will answer. 

The first great secret of good health is good habits ; and the next is 
regularity of habits. They are briefly summed up in the following 

1. Sleep. Give yourself the necessary amount of sleep. Some men 
require five hours of the twenty-four; others need eight. Avoid 
feather beds. Sleep in a garment, not worn during the day. To 
maintain robust health, sleep with a person as healthy as yourself, or 
BO one. 

2. Dress. In cold weather, dress warmly with underclothing. 
Remove muffler, overcoat, overshoes, etc., when remaining any con- 
siderable length of time in a warm room. Keep your feet warm and 
dry. Wash them, in warm water, two or three times a week. Wear 
warm stockings, large boots, and overshoes when in the snow or wet. 
Wear a light covering on the head, always keeping it cool. 

3. Cleanliness. Have always a pint or quart of water in the sleep- 
ing room. In the morning, after washing and wiping hands and face, 
then wet, with the hands, every part of the body. Cold water will not 
be disagreeable when applying it with the bare hands. Wipe imme- 
diately; follow by brisk rubbing over the body. The whole operation 
need not take over five minutes. The result of this wash is, the blood 
is brought to the surface of the skin, and made to circulate evenly 
throughout the body. You have opened the pores of the skin, allow- 
ing impurities in the body to pass off, and have given yourself in 
the operation a good, vigorous morning exercise. Pursue this habit 
regularly, and you will seldom take cold. 

4. Inflation of the Lungs. Five minutes spent in the open air, after 
dressing, inflating the lungs by inhaling as full a breath as possible, 
and pounding the breast during the inflation, will greatly enlarge the 
chest, strengthen the lung power, and very effectually ward off 

5. Diet. If inclined to be dyspeptic, avoid mince pie, sausage and 
other highly seasoned food. Beware of eating too freely of soups ; 
better to eat food dry enough to employ the natural saliva of the 
mouth in moistening it. If inclined to over-eat, partake freely of rice, 
cracked wheat, and other articles that are easily digested. 

Eat freely of ripe fruit, and avoid excessive use of meats. Eat at 
regular hours, and lightly near the hour of going to bed. Eat slowly. 
Thoroughly masticate the food. Do not wash it down with continual 
drink while eating. Tell your funniest stories while at the table and 
for an hour afterwards. Do not engage in severe mental labor directly 
after hearty eating. 

6. Exercise. Exercise, not too violent, but sufficient to produce a 
gentle perspiration, should be had each day in the open air. 

7. Condition of Mind. The condition of the mind has much to do 
with health. Be 'hopeful and joyous. To be so, avoid business en- 
tanglements that may cause perplexity and anxiety. Keep put of debt. 
Live within your income. Attend church. Walk, ride, mix in jovial 
company. Do as nearly right as you know how. Thus, conscience will 
always be at ease. If occasionally disappointed, remember that there 
is no rose without a thorn, and that the darkest clouds have a silver 
lining; that sunshine follows storm, and beautiful spring follows the 
dreary winter. Do your duty, and leave the rest to God. who doeth all 
things well. 

Hoping to hear of your continued prosperity and recovery of health, 
I am, 

Your Very Sincere Friend, 


Advice to an Orphan Boy. 

ARLINGTON, N. C., June 7, 18. 


I received your letter last evening. I was greatly 
pleased to hear that you have secured a position with Colby, Hender- 
son & Co., and that your sisters are comfortably situated in their new 
homes. You ask me for advice as to what you shall do to maintain 
the good opinion of your employers, and thus ultimately prosperously 
establish yourself. 

This desire that you evince to please is one of the very best evi- 
dences that you will please. Your question is very commendable. 
How can you succeed? That should be the great question with all 
young men. It is best answered, perhaps, by the reply of the wealthy 
and honored old man, who gave this advice to his grandson : 

" My boy, take the admonition of an old man who has seen every 
phase of human life. 

" If I could give you but one precept to follow, it would be, Keep 
good company. But, adding more, I will say: 

"Be truthful; you thus always have the confidence of others. 

" Be temperate ; thus doing, you preserve health and money. 

" Be industrious ; you will then be constantly adding to your acqui- 

" Be economical ; thus, you will be saving for the rainy day. 

" Be cautious; you are not then so liable to lose the work of years. 

"Be polite and kind; scattering words of kindness, they are re- 
flected back upon yourself, continually adding to your happiness." 

Observe these directions, and you will prosper. With many wishes 
for your success, remember I am always, 

Your Friend, 




Letters of Excuse 

ETTEKS of Excuse should be written 
as promptly as may be. 

Any damage that may have been 
caused by yourself, you should, if pos- 
sible, repair immediately, with inter- 

In apologizing for misconduct, failing to meet 
an engagement, or for lack of punctuality, al- 
ways state the reason why. 

By fulfilling every engagement promptly, dis- 
charging every obligation when due, and always 
being punctual, you thereby entirely avoid the 
necessity for an excuse. 

Any article borrowed by measure, be certain 
to return in larger quantity and better quality, 
to make up the interest. To fail to make good 
that which has been borrowed is the certain 
loss of credit and business reputation in the 
neighborhood where you live. ~No letter of 
apology can make amends for neglecting to pay 
your debts. 

Apologizing for a Broken Engagement. 

FREDERICK, MD., July 13, 18 . 

I fear that you will feel injured at my failure 

to keep my appointment this evening. You will, however, I know, 
forgive me when I explain. When about to proceed to your residence, 
my horse, being very restive, became so frightened at an object by the 
roadside as to cause his runaway, throwing me violently to the ground, 
breaking an arm, and completely demolishing my carriage. Regret- 
ting my failure to keep my engagement, I am yet rejoiced that the 
accident occurred before you had entered the carriage. 
Trusting that my excuse is a sufficient apology, I remain, 
Tour Faithful Friend, 


Apologizing for Failure to Pay Money Promptly. 

DANBY, N. Y., July 11, 18-. 

Dear Sir: 

I very much regret that the failure of H. Cole 

& Son will prevent my payment of your note on the 20th instant, with- 
out serious inconvenience to myself. I shall be able to pay it, how- 
ever, promptly on the 25th. Should the five days 1 delay seriously incom- 
mode you, please write me at once, and I will aim to procure the 
money from another source. 

Your Obedient Servant, 


Excuse to a Teacher for Non-Attendance of Child at School. 

Miss BLAKE: 

You will please excuse Gertrude for non-attendance at 
school yesterday afternoon, she being detained in consequence of a 
severe headache. 

Very Respectfully, 


Apology for Breaking a Business Engagement. 

MONTICELLO, ILL., Oct. 15, 18 . 

Kensington. , 

Dear Sir: 

I very much regret being compelled to apologize 
for not meeting you at the railroad meeting in Salem last Saturday, as 
I agreed to do. The cause of my detention was the sudden and severe 
illness of my youngest child, whose life for a time we despaired of. 
Please write me the result of the meeting. Hoping that the arrange- 
ments we anticipated were perfected, I am, 

Yours Truly, 


Apology for Delay in Returning a Book. 

KENTLAND, IND., Nov. 19, 18 . 

You must excuse my long delay in returning your 
book. The truth is, it has been the rounds for several to read, though 
it has not been out of our house. When I had nearly finished its read- 
ing, Aunt Mary became interested in its contents and read it through. 
Her glowing description of the character of the work caused mother 
to peruse it; so that we have kept it from you several weeks. We feel 
very grateful to you, however, for furnishing us such an intellectual 
feast, and hope to have the pleasure of doing you a like favor. 
Truly Your Friend, 




Letters Asking Favors, 

T is to be hoped that you will not 
often be compelled to write a let- 
ter asking a favor. 

Do not urge your claims too 
strongly. Should you be refused, 
you will feel the more deeply 

In conferring a favor, avoid 
conveying the impression that the recipient is 
greatly under obligation to you. Rather imply 
that the granting and accepting of the favor is 
mutually a pleasure. 

Letters refusing a favor should be very kindly 
worded, and, while expressing regret at your 
inability to comply with the request, state the 
reason why. 


Requesting the Loan of a Book. 


Will you he so kind as to loan me, for a few days, " How 
I Found Livingstone f " By so doing, you will greatly oblige, 

Your Friend, 


Reply Granting the Favor. 


I send you the hook with pleasure, and hope you 
will enjoy its perusal as much as I did. I shall be over to see you next 
Thursday afternoon. 

Affectionately Yours, 

Requesting a Loan of Money. 

LISBON, ILL., Feb. 2, 18. 

Will you do me the kindness to loan me one hun- 
dred dollars until Wednesday of next week. Having several large 
collections to make during the next three days, I may return the loan 
before then. Yours Truly, 


Answer Refusing the Request. 

LISBON, ILL., Feb. 2, 18 . 

I regret that all the money I have at liberty I am 
compelled to use this afternoon; else I would comply with your 
request with pleasure. Respectfully, 


Requesting a Letter of Introduction. 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS., March 4, 18 . 

I start for Boston to-morrow, to make arrangements 
for our excursion. I shall arrange to have the journey extend as far 
as the Holy Land. Be so kind, if you please, as to give me a letter of 
introduction to Prof. Wm. Kidder, whom I hope, also, to enlist in the 
With wannest regards to your family, I remain, 

Very Truly Yours, 

Reply Granting the Request. 

SPARTA, R. I., March 6, 18. 

I enclose, with pleasure, the letter to Prof. Kidder, 
who, I think, will be pleased to join us. Wishing you much success, 
I am, Yours Truly, 


Requesting the Loan of an Opera Glass. 


Accompanied by cousin Fred and Jennie Masters, I am 
going to the theater to-night, and in behalf of Fred I wish you would 
loan me your opera-glass for the evening. 


Answer Refusing the Request. 

THURSDAY, April 7, 18. 

Charlie Hackney called and borrowed my glass about 
an hour since; otherwise, I would take the greatest pleasure in grant- 
ing your request. Wishing you a delightful evening, I am, 

Your Devoted Friend, 

Requesting the Loan of a Pistol. 


Please loan me your pistol this forenoon, and oblige 

Reply Granting the Request. 

FRIDAY, May 8, 18. 

Accept the pistol. Beware that you do not get hurt. I 
shall want it to-morrow. Truly Yours, 




Letters Accompanying Gifts. 

SUALLY, in sending 
gifts, it is custom- 
ary to accompany 
the same with a 
prettily written 
note. Such letters, 
with their answers, 
are very brief, and 
are usually written in the third per- 
son, unless among relatives or very 
intimate friends. 

Though a reply should be given 
immediately, no haste need be made 
in repaying the gift, else it would 
seem that you feel the obligation, 
and will experience relief by paying 
the debt. 

Accompanying a Betrothal Gift of a Ring. 

No. 84 ELDEIDGE COURT, Jan. 1, 18. 

Will you accept the accompanying 
ring, and wear it as a pledge of the undying affection 

Yours Constantly, 


Reply to the Foregoing. 

No. 8 ST., Jan. 2, 18. 

Your beautiful gift is on my finger, 
where it will be ever worn as a token of your love. 
Yours Truly, 


Form of Letter Accompanying Photographs. 


sCi- - 

-fi^-t^t 14 





- 4/tsa<m -isso-t 

Cx - 




Answer to the Foregoing. 

JACKSON, Miss., Oct. 25, 18 . 

I regret that we are not to have the anticipated 
visit from you thfe spring. We are very thankful for the photographs, 
however, if we can do no better. We regard them very life-like in 
expression, and truthful in representation. When baby is a few weeks 
older, we will group ourselves together, and you shall see us as we are. 
Our love to all your family, and remember me as, 

Your Constant Friend, 


Accompanying a Book Sent by the Author. 

SPRINGDALE, N. J., June 1, 18 . 

Miss Harmon will please accept the accompanying volume as a token 
of the high esteem and regard of the Author, 


Answer to the Foregoing. 

No. 9 ST., Aug. 2, 18. 

Miss Harmon presents her regards to Mr. Wells, and accepts with 
much gratification his highly esteemed and valuable gift. 

Accompanying a Bouquet to a Lady. 

Will Miss Beveridge honor Mr. Haines by carrying the accompany- 
ing flowers to the concert this evening? 

Answer to the Foregoing. 

Miss Beveridge's compliments and thanks to Mr. Haines. His beau- 
tiful and fragrant gift will be a welcome addition to her toilet for this 

Accompanying a Birthday Gift. 

BELVIDERE, ILL., Dec. 10, 18 . 

Sixty years ago, to-day, you and I exchanged 

birthday greetings, then in our twentieth year. How the years have 
flown by since then, sprinkling our heads with snow, and finally cover- 
ing them with white ! You will please accept this staff as an evidence 
that time cannot dim the unchanging friendship of, 

Your Friend, 


Answer to the Foregoing. 

FREEPORT, ILL., Dec. 10, 18 . 

Your very valuable and welcome gift came 

to-day. I lean on it, and look back. The noonday of our life has passed. 
Gradually we are descending the slope towards the going-down of our 
life's sun. It is appointed for all to reach life's meridian, stand there 
for a little while, and go down on the other side. Youth may not be 
recovered here, but I doubt not that we may be young again, in that 
bourne towards which we are fast passing. During my remaining 
years I will cherish your gift. Accept my warmest thanks, and remem- 
ber me as, 

Your Constant Friend, 


Accompanying a Donation to a Clergyman. 

Pastor of the th St. M. E. Church. 
Dear Sir : 

Will you confer upon us the great pleasure of 

appropriating to your own use the accompanying check ? It is pre- 
sented by your many friends in your congregation, as a slight token 
of the very high esteem in which you are held by the people, as a 
Christian gentleman and a most eloquent and instructive preacher. 

Trusting that its acceptance will afford you as much pleasure as is 
given us in the presentation, we are, 
Very Respectfully, 


WM. B. Ki v.. !- Com. of Presentation. 


Answer to the Foregoing. 

ST. Louis, Mo., Jan. 1, 18 . 

Gentlemen : 

Your very kind and courteous letter, accompanied 
by your valuable testimonial, is received, for which please accept my 
grateful acknowledgments. The gift itself, however, is not more 
valued than the golden words of sympathy and encouragement that 
accompany its presentation. Trusting that, through God's blessing, I 
may be able to serve the generous donors as acceptably in the future 
as your testimonial leads me to suppose I have in the past, I am, 
Your Very Obedient Servant, 


Accompanying a Gift to a Superintendent upon Retirement. 

CHICAGO, ILL., Feb. 2, 18~. 
Dear Sir: 

The undersigned, employes of the Northwestern 
Sheet Lead and Zinc Works, deeply regretting your departure from 
among us, desire your acceptance of the accompanying memorial, in 
testimony of our affection and respect for you as a gentleman and a 
mechanic, and as a faint expression of our appeciation of your kindly 
efforts to render our connection with this manufactory not only 
pleasant and agreeable to ourselves, but profitable to the company. 

Deeply regretting that our connection must be severed, we shall 
gratefully remember our association in the past, and hope always to 
be held in pleasurable remembrance by you. 


Answer to the Foregoing. 

CHICAGO, ILL., Feb. 3, 18 . 


I am in receipt of your kind letter and testimonial. 
Wherever fortune may cast my lot, I shall never cease to remember 
the pleasant associations of the past few years, and the many kind 
attentions I have received at your hands. If our relations and labors 
have been pleasant, I do not forget that they were largely made so by 
your always generous efforts and willing cooperation. 

I will ever cherish your beautiful gift as a memorial of our pleasant 
years together, and can only wish that each of you, when occupying 
positions of trust, maybe as warmly supported and as ably assisted by 
those in your charge as I have been since my connection with your- 
selves. Thanking you for this testimonial and your generous words 
of approval, I remain, 

Your Friend, 




BITE letters to friends 
and relatives very often. 
As a rule, the more frequent such 
letters, the more minute they are 
in giving particulars; and the longer 
you make them, the better. 
The absent husband should write a letter 
at least once a week. Some husbands make 
it a rule to write a brief letter home at the close 
of every day. 

The absent child need not ask, " Do they miss 
me at home ? " Be sure that they do. Write those 
relatives a long letter, often, descriptive of your jour- 
neys and the scenes with which you are becoming familiar. 
And, if the missive from the absent one is dearly cherished, 
let the relatives at home remember that doubly dear is the 
letter from the hallowed hearthstone of the home fireside, where the 
dearest recollections of the heart lie garnered. Do not fail to write very 
promptly to the one that is away. Give all the news. Go into all the little 
particulars, just as you would talk. After you have written up matters of 
general moment, come down to little personal gossip that is of particular 
interest. Give the details fully about Sallie Williams marrying John Hunt, and her parents 
being opposed to the match. Be explicit about the new minister, how many sociables you 
have a month, and the general condition of affairs among your intimate acquaintances. 

Don't forget to be very minute about things at home. Be particular to tell of "bub," and 
" sis," and the baby. Even " Major," the dog, should have a mention. The little tid-bits that 



are tucked in around, on the edge of the letter, 
are all devoured, and are often the sweetest 
morsels of the feast. 

Let the young, more especially, keep up a 
continual correspondence with their friends. 
The ties of friendship are thus riveted the 
stronger, and the fires of love and kind feeling, 
on the altar of the heart, are thus kept contin- 
ually burning bright. 

will drop away into happy homes, which, If they do not make them, 
they will at leaet adorn. 

And BO you are married. Well, I had some intimation, months 
ago, that such an event might sometime take place, but really I did 
not think yon would change your name BO soon. Mrs. Charles 
Blackwell ! well, that does sound a little odd, I confess, but then it is 
a pretty name, nevertheless. I assure you I am impatient to meet you, 
and witness how you dignify the name. 

Accept my most sincere good wishes for your future happiness, and 
tell your husband that he must be prepared to feel an interest in the 
welfare of all your old friends, especially, 

Your Friend, 


From a Husband, Absent on Business, to 
his Wife. 

DETROIT, MICH., Feb. 1, 18 . 

I have been to the end of my 
journey, and am now homeward bound. Another 
week, and I hope to kiss my wife and babies, and 
tell them that this is my last journey of the winter. 
One or two journeys next spring, and then I am 
done traveling away from home. What better 
news can I write you than this ? Yes, perhaps I 
have better news yet, which is, that I have com- 
pleted such arrangements, during my absence from 
yon this time, as will greatly increase my income 
without it being necessary for me to travel. 

Isn't that pleasant? How I long to get home 
and tell you all about it. At present, when not 
closely engaged in business, I am busy thinking 
of many improvements that we will make around 
our home next summer, being the very changes 
that you have so long desired, but which our 
means hitherto have not permitted us to make. 

Kiss Sammie and Tillie for me, and accept many 
kisses for yourself. I will write you from Cleve- 
land, if not before. Good night. 

Your Loving Husband, 


From a Young Cirl, at Boarding-School, to her Mother. 

From a Young Lady to a Schoolmate just 

GALVA, ILL., DEC. 26, 18. 

I have just heard, through our 
mutual friend and former schoolmate, Nellie 
Crandall, that you are the first of our school-girl 
circle who has taken upon herself the cares and 
duties of married life. 

Thus, one by one, I expect, our little band of 
joyous, happy girls, so short a time ago together, 






Answer of the Mother. 

NEW YORK, Oct. 3, 18. 


I am sorry that you should urge me to grant you 
such an unreasonable request. Of course, nothing could please me 
better than to have my darling little Ella sitting on my lap at this 
very moment; but think how seriously the absence from your school, 
now, would derange all your recitations for this term. You must not 
think of it; recollect that all your brothers and sisters have been away 
at school, and always remained until the vacations. It is true that you, 
being the youngest, have been petted more than the rest, but it would 
be very unfortunate to have my indulgence interfere with your studies. 
You know that you are the idol of our hearts ; for that very reason 
you should endeavor to become proficient in those branches of study 
that will render you an accomplished lady. 

Believe me, my dear child, you will find school more pleasant every 
day, as you get better acquainted with your schoolmates ; and, through 
improvement in your studies, you will steadily grow in favor with 
your teachers. 

I will write Mrs. Mayhew to render your tasks as light as possible at 
first, and I have no doubt she will do all in her power to aid you. 

Only a few weeks, remember, and you will be home for a long vaca- 
tion, which will be all the more delightful for the privation you are at 
present undergoing. Your father, brothers and sisters all unite with 
me in sending you their love. 

I remain, my dear child, 

Your Affectionate Mother, 


Hopeville Female Seminary. 

From an Absent Wife to her Husband. 

ARGYLE, N. Y., March 2, 18. 

I am at last safely under uncle's roof, having arrived 
here last evening, baby and myself both well, but really very tired. 
We had no delay, except about two hours at Buffalo. Uncle met 
me at the depot with his carriage, and, in fifteen minutes from the 
time of my arrival, I was cosily seated in my room, which was all in 
readiness for me. 

Uncle and aunt seem greatly pleased with my coming, and both are 
loud in their praise of the baby. They very much regret that you 
could not have come with me, and say they intend to prevail on you to 
make them a visit when I am ready to go home. 

Baby looks into my eyes once in a while and says, solemnly, " Papa, 
papa!" I do actually believe he is thinking about home, and wants 
to keep up a talk about you. Everybody thinks he looks like his papa. 

By day after to-morrow I will write a long letter. I want you to get 
this by the first mail, so I make it short. With dearest love, I am, 

Your Wife, 

Answer to the Foregoing. 


I was indeed rejoiced to hear of your safe arrival, having 
felt no little anxiety for you, which is relieved by the receipt of your 

I miss you very much, the house looks so dreary without your loved 
presence ; but I am, nevertheless, glad that you are making your visit, 
as the journey, I trust, will be beneficial to your health. 

Kiss baby for me. Only by his absence do I know how much I have 
enjoyed my play with our little Charlie. 

Don't take any concern about me. Enjoy your visit to the utmost 
extent. In one of my next letters I will write whether I can go East 
and return with you. 
Remember me to uncle and aunt. 

Your Ever-Faithful Husband, 


From a Servant in the City, to her Parents in the Country. 

NEW YORK, June 1, 18. 


I take the first opportunity, since I arrived in the 
city, to write to you. It was a sore trial, I assure you, to leave home, 
but since coming here I have been quite contented, and I am get- 
ting so well accustomed to my work that I begin to like my place 
very much. 

Mr. and Mrs. Benedict are both very kind to me. The family con- 
sists of father, mother and three children, the youngest being a little 
boy three years old a beautiful little fellow, that always reminds me 
of brother James. Eliza, the oldest girl, is thirteen, and Martha is 
eleven. They are both very kind to me, and do so much about the 
house that it helps me very considerably. 

Mr. Benedict is a clothing merchant in the city, and, I judge, is in 
very good circumstances. The girls are attending school at present. 
All the family are very regular in their attendance at church. 

For the first few days here, everything seemed very strange. I hardly 
knew what to make of so much noise and so many people on the 
streets. I have now, however, become accustomed to the multitudes, 
and would, I presume, consider my native village very dull indeed, 
compared with the bustle and activity of the city. 

I realize every day, dear parents, the worth of your good advice to 
me, which I never knew the value of so much before ; thanking you 
for the same, I will always endeavor to follow it. 

Give my love to Johnny, Mary, Jimmy and all inquiring friends. I 
shall anxiously look for a letter from you. Write me in the care of 

Solon Benedict, No. Thirteenth Street. 

Your Dutiful and Affectionate Daughter. 

Swallow Hill, Pa. 

The Mother's Reply. 

SWALLOW HILL, PA., June 7, 18 . 


Your letter, which has been received, affords great 
pleasure and satisfaction to your father and myself. Nothing could 
give our hearts greater happiness than to know of your enjoyment 
and firm purpose to do right. Now that you are removed from all 
parental restraint, it is of the most vital importance that you implic- 
itly rely upon the religious precepts which have been instilled into 
your mind, and that you daily pray to God for guidance and mercy. 

We are greatly pleased that you are well situated with Mr. and Mrs. 
Benedict ; in return for their kindness yon must be honest, industrious, 
kind and obliging, always doing your duty faithfully, which will be a 
real satisfaction to yourself as well as to your employers. 

Several of the neighbors, who have called, have wished to be remem- 
bered to you; Mary and Jimmy unite with you father and myself in 
sending you love. 

We shall constantly pray for your continued protection and pros- 
perity. I remain, dear Betsey, 

Your Affectionate Mother, 


Letter from a Father, Remonstrating with his Son. 

DANBURY, CONN., July 7, 18 . 

I am sorry to learn that yon are not inclined to be as 
strict in your line of duty as yon should be. Remember, my son, that 
a down-hill road is before you, unless you rouse yourself and shake off 
immediately the habits of dissipation that are fastening themselves 
upon you. Be sure, dear boy, that nothing but sorrow and shame can 
come of bad company, late hours, neglect of duty, and inattention to 
the obligations of morality. I am willing to think that you have not 
given this matter sufficient thought heretofore; that your actions are 
the result of thoughtlessness, rather than a disposition to do wrong. 



But be forewarned in time. You must change your course of action 
immediately, or incur my severe displeasure. 

I urge this, my boy, for your sake. Remember that my happiness is 
bound in your own, and that nothing could give me greater pleasure 
than your prosperity. I trust that it will not be necessary for me to 
UBC more severe language than this. 

Your Anxious Father, 


The Son's Reply. 

BOSTON, MASS., June 9, 18 . 

I realize that I need the good advice contained 
in yonr letter. I am aware, as I stop to think of my conduct, that I 
have given you reason for anxiety, but I intend, by attention to my 
business hereafter, and a complete reformation of my habits, to give 
'you no occasion for concern about me in the future. Believe me, I love 
and respect you too much to intentionally wound your feelings, or 
to bring down your gray hairs with sorrow. 

Excuse me, dear father, for having given yon this uneasiness, and 
trust me as, 

Your Affectionate and Repentant Son, 


From a Married Man to a Friend About to Marry. 

ATLANTA, GA., Aug. 30, 18 . 


Can it be possible ? Am I right, or am I 

dreaming? Has it come to this at last? You, Batchelder Button you 
cynic, railer against women, the unalterable, unchangeable bachelor, 
is it possible that you have at last been captured, and have surren- 
dered all your ordnance, heavy guns and small arms to the enemy? 

What a defeat! That large, strong heart of yours all crumbling to 
pieces, and surrendering to Cupid's battery ! 

Well, now, seriously, my friend, from my point of view, I think'you 
have done a very sensible thing. The man who goes the journey alone 
through life, lives but half a life. If you have found the woman fitted 
by temperament and accomplishments to render your pathway through 
life the joyous one that the married state should be, you are certainly 
to be congratulated for awakening to a true sense of your condition, 
though rather late in the day. 

Though but slightly acquainted with Miss Howell, I have formed a 
very favorable idea of her intelligence and worth, which opinion, I 
believe, is generally shared by those who know her beet. I doubt not, 
with her your married life will be a continually happy one. 

Your Friend, 


From a Young Man Who Has Recently Entered College. 



I am happy to inform you that I passed my 

examination with credit, if I am to believe the commendation bestowed 
upon me by Dr. H . 

I was very agreeably surprised, soon after my arrival, to meet my 
former schoolmate, Hartley Montague, who is one of the most respected 
and influential in his class, with whom I am, as formerly, on quite 
intimate terms. Many things are quite new to me here. The society 
is very much mixed, and I cannot tell just where my level is; but I 
trust I shall be able to follow the good advice of my parents, and 
always do credit to myself and my relatives, who have labored so assid- 
uously to advance me to this position. 

I thank yon for the check yon so kindly sent me, which was fully ade- 
quate to cover all expenses of entrance, and leave me a surplus 
sufficient for the rest of the term. 

Love to dear mother and sisters. Hoping to meet you all at our 
forthcoming commencement, I am, 

Your Affectionate Son, 


Descriptive Letter 

From a Young Man at the " Old Home," to his Parents in the 

CAMBRIDGE, N. Y., June 18, 1873. 


Agreeable to your request, I take the first 

opportunity, after my visit to the "old home" and a hurried call upon 
our relatives, to write you how I found the people and scenes that you 
knew so well in the days lang syne, and that I remember as a boy. 

I arrived at Cambridge after a ninety minutes' ride from Troy. What 
a great change in traveling! When last I was here, it was a day's 
journey from Troy, by stage-coach. To-day, New York, in time, is 
nearer to our old home than Troy was then; and Troy, after traveling 
among the thriving, driving cities of the great West, seems like a way- 
side village, instead of the great metropolis that it once seemed to be; 
though it is a beautiful, growing, wealthy manufacturing city to-day, 
nevertheless. It is not that the villages and cities that we once knew 
grow less, but by observation and comparison we class them where 
they belong. 

At Cambridge I secured a livery team for a three days' sojourn 
among the scenes of my boyhood. Up the Battenkill. Could it be that 
this was the great river in which my parents were in such constant 
fear of their boy being drowned? Was this the Mississippi of my 
childhood? Alas! that I had floated down the Ohio River to the real 
Mississippi, that I had been up the Missouri, two thousand miles 
from its mouth, and that I had navigated the Father of Waters from 
its fountain-head to its outlet in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Had the Battenkill been drying up? Not at all. Though a brook, 
comparatively, there are the same milldams, the same trout-holes, 
and the same bending willows by its side ; and the first to meet me 
among our old neighbors was uncle Nat., the same old jolly fisherman, 
returning from his daily piscatorial excursion, with a small string of 
trout. Uncle Nat. complains bitterly of the scarcity of fish at present 
in the river, caused, he says, by "them city chaps'" from Troy, New 
York and Albany, who are in the habit of sojourning during the sum- 
mer months in the hotels among the mountains hereabouts. 

Stopping first at uncle Henry's, I visited the old homestead towards 
evening on the day of my arrival. Whatever may be said about the 
village and rivers growing smaller, it must certainly be admitted that 
the mountains, hills and rocks hold their own. Up there, on the hill- 
side, was " the old house at home," which I had not seen for fifteen 
years. I went up the walk. There were the maples that I assisted 
father in planting, twenty years ago great, spreading trees now. 
There was the same rosebush that mother and I cared for sixteen years 
ago. No other evidence of the flowers and shrubbery that mother so 
much delighted in remained about the premises. 

I had learned that the place had passed into the hands of an Irish- 
man named Sweeny, so I rapped at the front door, and was met by 
Mrs. S., from whom I obtained permission to stroll around the place. 
" Oh, yes," said the kind-hearted woman, " go all about, and when 
Mr. Swainy comes, he'll go wid ye." 

So I strolled in the quiet evening hour, alone, among the scenes of 
my childhood, where we boys picked stones and played ball in the 
summer, and slid down hill and chopped firewood in the winter. The 
barn was the same old barn. I clambered to its old girtbeam, and sat 
looking down on the haymow where I had jumped, hundreds of times, 
into the hay below. I climbed to the box, close under the rafters, 
where we boys used to keep doves. The same box is there yet. I went 
down into the stables, where we hunted hens' eggs. Apparently, the 
same speckled hens are there now. And down around the barn are 
the same old maples, and willows beside the brook. 

I went out to the fields. What immense tracts of land I thought 
these ten-acre fields, when I was a boy ! The same orchards are there. 
The old Jones sweet-apple tree is dead, however, and none of the trees 
are looking thrifty. I took a drink from the upper spring, in the 
Barnes lot, which tasted just as cool as ever, and getting down on my 
hands and knees to drink seemed like old times. I saw a woodchuck 
and several squirrels, in my walk, and heard the same old caw, caw, 
of the crows, which brought back the past the most vividly of any- 
thing I had heard. 



Returning, and looking through the house, I found almost every- 
thing changed. Two American and three Irish families had occupied 
it since we left, and they, evidently thinking that they would soon 
leave, did not pretend to make any improvements for their successors 
to enjoy. To sum up the description of the house it has never been 
painted since we left; the dooryard fence is gone; the woodhouse 
has been removed; the outdoor cellar has caved in; the wagon- 
house leans so badly it is liable to fall over at any time; the house 
itself, in a few years, will go the way of the fences; and most of the 
outbuildings are already gone. Nearly every American family that 
once lived here has gone West; the population of the vicinity, at the 
present time, being largely made up of Irish. Another generation, 
and, it is probable, scarcely an American will be left to tell the tale. 
Though sorrowing to see the wreck of our old home, I am greatly 
enjoying the visit. The scenery is truly beautiful ; though, unfortu- 
nately, the people here know nothing of its beauties, and it takes us 
gome years on the level plains of the West to learn to appreciate it. 

One thing must be said of the people here, however, especially the 
Americans that are left they take their full measure of enjoyment. 
With continuous snow four months in the year, the winter is made up 
of sleighriding to parties and festal occasions; the sunshine of 
spring is the signal for maple-sugar-making, and sugaring-off parties ; 
the hard work of summer is broken up by fishing, berrying, and fre- 
quent excursions to various parts of the country; the fall is charac- 
terized by apple-parings and corn-huskings ; so that, with their maple 
sugar, berries, cream, trout, honey and pumpkin pies, they are about 
the best livers and happiest people I ever met. I never knew, till I 
returned, that they enjoyed themselves so well. 

I will continue the record of my visit in my next. 
Yours Affectionately, 


Descriptive Letter. 

From a Young Lady Visiting Chicago, to her Parents in the 

CHICAGO, ILL., June 1, 1873. 


Having been the rounds among our relatives here, 
I seat myself to give you something of an idea of this wonderful 
city in many respects one of the most remarkable on the face of the 
earth, having a population to-day of over 300,000. 

You have heard so much of the city that I must give you a brief 
sketch of its history. 

The first white man ever known to have set foot on the spot where 
Chicago now stands, was a French Missionary, from Canada, named 
Pierre Jacques Marquette, who, with two others, having been on a 
missionary tour in the southern part of Illinois, when homeward 
bound was detained at this place in the fall of 1673, in consequence 
of the severe cold, until the following spring. That was two hun- 
dred years ago. 

The first settler that came here was Point-au-Sable, a St. Domingo 
negro, who, in 1796, commenced a few improvements seventy-seven 
years since. Au-Sable soon afterwards removed to Peoria, 111., his im- 
provements passing into the hands of one Le Mai, a Frenchman, who 
traded considerably with the Indians. The first permanent settler here 
was John Kinzie, who came over from St. Joseph, Michigan, and com- 
menced his improvements in 1804 sixty-nine years ago. Mr. Kinzie 
was, indeed, what Romulus was to Rome, the founder of the city. 
There was a fort built that year, a blockhouse made of logs, a few rods 
southwest of what is now known as Rush street bridge. Mr. Kinzie 
had a house near the south end of the bridge, which bridge, of course, 
had no existence in those days. An employe of Mr. Kinzie, named 
Ouilmette, a Frenchman, had a cabin a little west of Mr. Kinzie; and 
a little further west was the log cottage of one Burns, a discharged 
soldier. South of the fort, on the South Side, a Mr. Lee had a farm, in 
the low swamp lands, where now stands the heart of the business 
center of the city, and his cabin was a half mile or so down the river. 

For a quarter of a century the growth of the village was remarkably 
slow, as shown by the fact that in 1830 there were but twelve houses 
in the village, with three suburban residences on Madison street, the 
entire population, whites, half-breeds and negroes, making about one 
hundred. That was forty years ago. 

I should have told you that Chicago has a river, which is doubtless 
the cause of the wonderful commercial growth of the place of late 
years, which, at the time of its discovery, was two hundred feet wide, 
and twenty feet deep, with banks so steep that vessels could come up 
to the water's edge and receive their lading. A half mile or more 
from the mouth of the river, the stream divides : that portion north 
of the stream being known as the North Side ; that between the forks, 
the West Side ; and that south of the river, the South Side. 

At that time, the North Side was covered with a dense forest of black 
walnut and other trees, in which were bears, wolves, foxes, wild cats, 
deer and other game in great abundance; while the South Side, now 
the business center, was a low, swampy piece of ground, being the 
resort of wild geese and clucks. Where the court house stands, was a 
pond, which was navigable for small boats. On the banks of the 
river, among the sedgy grass, grew a wild onion, which the Indians 
called Chikago, and hence the name of the city. 

On a summer day, in 1831, the first vessel unloaded goods at the 
mouth of the river. In 1832, the first frame house was built, by Geo. 
W. Dole, and stood on the southeast corner 'of Dearborn and South 
Water streets. At an election for township trustees in 1833, just forty- 
one years since there were twenty-eight voters. In 1840, there were 
less than 5,000 people in the place. Thus you see this city, now the 
fifth in the order of the population in the United States, has grown 
from 5,000 to 300,000 in thirty-three years. 

It is needless for me to describe the wonderfully rapid up-building of 
the city since the fire. You have heard all about it. What I want to 
tell you more especially is concerning our relatives. LTncles John, 
William and James, you recollect perhaps, all came here in 1836. 
They worked that summer for different parties, and until the next 
spring, when, in the summer of 1837, each of the men they had 
labored for failed. Uncle John had due him $150. Fortunately, as he 
thought, he was able to settle the claim at fifty cents on the dollar, and 
with $75 he left the place in disgust, and went to work for a farmer in 
Dupage County, a little distance west of Chicago. Uncle William 
could not get a cent. He even proposed to take $50 for the $175 that 
were due him, but cash could not possibly be obtained. He finally 
settled his claim by taking six acres of swampy land on the South 
Side, which he vainly tried to sell for several years that he might 
leave the city; but, unable to do so, he continued to work in Chicago. 
Uncle James took fifteen acres in the settlement of his claim, which he 
also found it impossible to sell, his experience beingabout the same as 
that of uncle William. Well, now the luck begins to come in. Uncle 
William got independent of his land by and by, but at last sold 
an acre for money enough to put up one of the most elegant residences 
you ever beheld. He sold afterwards another acre for money with 
which he bought a farm three miles from the court house, that is now 
worth $500,000. With two acres more, he got money enough to put up 
five business blocks, from which he gets a revenue, each year, sufficient 
to buy several farms. 

Uncle James' experience is almost exactly similar to uncle William's. 
He has sold small portions of his land at various times, re-investing 
his money in real estate, until he is worth to-day about $2,000,000. 
Uncle William is said to be worth about the same amount. Uncle John 
came in from the country a few years ago, and, in various capacities, 
is working for his brothers around the city, being to-day a poor man; 
but will, I presume, be just as rich in eternity as uncles James and 

All have interesting families of intelligent children, among whom 
I have almost terminated one of the most delightful visits I ever made. 
Such in brief is the history of Chicago, and a sketch of two of it8 
sample rich men, who were made wealthy in spite of themselves. 

In my next I will describe the parks and boulevards about the city. 
Till then, adieu. 

Your Affectionate Daughter, 




Letters of Love. 

F all letters, the love-letter 
should be the most carefully 
prepared. Among the written 
missives, they are the most 
thoroughly read and re-read, 
the longest preserved, and the 
most likely to be regretted in 
after life. 


They should be written with the utmost re- 
gard for perfection. An ungrammatical expres- 
sion, or word improperly spelled, may seriously 
interfere with the writer's prospects, by being 
turned to ridicule. For any person, however, 
to make sport of a respectful, confidential letter, 
because of some error in the writing, is in the 
highest degree unladylike and ungentlemanly. 


As a rule, the love-letter should be very 
guardedly written. Ladies, especially, should be 
very careful to maintain their dignity when 
writing them. When, possibly, in after time 
the feelings entirely change, you will regret 
that you wrote the letter at all. If the love 
remains unchanged, no harm will certainly be 
done, if you wrote with judgment and care. 


The love-letter is the prelude to marriage a 
state that, if the husband and wife be fitted for 
each other, is the most natural and serenely 
happy; a state, however, that none should 
enter upon, until, in judgment and physical de- 
velopment, both parties have completely ma- 
tured. Many a life has been wrecked by a blind, 

impulsive marriage, simply resulting from a 
youthful passion. As a physiological law, man 
should be twenty -five, and woman twenty-three, 
before marrying. 


While there may be exceptional cases, as a 
rule, correspondence should be conducted only 
with the assent and approval of the parents. If 
it is not so, parents are themselves generally to 
blame. If children are properly trained, they 
will implicitly confide in the father and mother, 
who will retain their love until they are suffi- 
ciently matured to choose a companion for life. 
If parents neglect to retain this love and confi- 
dence, the child, in the yearning for affection, 
will place the love elsewhere, frequently much 
too early in life. 


Ladies should not allow courtship to be con- 
ducted at unseasonable hours. The evening 


entertainment, the walk, the ride, are all favor- 
able for the study of each other's tastes and 
feelings. For the gentleman to protract his 
visit at the lady's residence until a late hour, is 
almost sure to give oftence to the lady's parents, 
and is extremely ungentlemanly. 


The love-letter should be honest. It should 
say what the writer means, and no more. For 
the lady or gentleman to play the part of a co- 
quette, studying to see how many lovers he or 
she may secure, is very disreputable, and bears 
in its train a long list of sorrows, frequently 
wrecking the domestic happiness for a life-time. 
The parties should be honest, also, in the state- 



ment of their actual prospects and means of sup- 
port. Neither should hold out to the other 
wealth or other inducements that will not be 
realized, as disappointment and disgust will be 
the only result. 


Let no lady commence and continue a corre- 
spondence with a view to marriage, for fear that 
she may never have another opportunity. It is 
the mark of judgment and rare good sense to 
go through life without wedlock, if she cannot 
marry from love. Somewhere in eternity, the 
poet tells us, our true mate will be found. Do 
not be afraid of being an "old maid." The 
disgrace attached to that term has long since 
passed away. Unmarried ladies of mature years 
are proverbially among the most intelligent, 
accomplished and independent to be found in 
society. The sphere of woman's action and 
work is so widening that she can to-day, if she 
desires, handsomely and independently support 
herself. She need not, therefore, marry for a 


Above all, no lady should allow herself to 
correspond with an intemperate man, with a 
view to matrimony. She may reform him, but 
the chances are that her life's happiness will be 
completely destroyed by such a union. Better, 
a thousand times, the single, free and independ- 
ent maidenhood, than for a woman to trail her 
life in the dust, and bring poverty, shame and 
disgrace on her children, by marrying a man 
addicted to dissipated habits. 


Let no man make it an ultimate object in life 
to marry a rich wife. It is not the possession, but 
the acquisition, of wealth, that gives happiness. 
It is a generally conceded fact that the inherit- 
ance of great wealth is a positive mental and 
moral injury to young men, completely destroy- 
ing the stimulus to advancement. So, as a rule, 
no man is permanently made happier by a 
marriage of wealth; while he is quite likely to 

be given to understand, by his wife and others, 
from time to time, that, whatever consequence 
he may attain, it is all the result of his wife's 
money. Most independent men prefer to start, 
as all our wealthiest and greatest men have 
done, at the foot of the ladder, and earn their 
independence. Where, however, a man can 
bring extraordinary talent or distinguished rep- 
utation, as a balance for his wife's wealth, the 
conditions are more nearly equalized. Obser- 
vation shows that those marriages prove most 
serenely happy where husband and wife, at the 
time of marriage, stand, socially, intellectually 
and pecuniarily, very nearly equal. For the 
chances of successful advancement and happi- 
ness in after life, let a man wed a woman 
poorer than himself rather than one that is 


Let no couple hesitate to marry because they 
are poor. It will cost them less to live after 
marriage than before one light, one fire, etc., 
answering the purpose for both. Having an 
object to live for, also, they will commence their 
accumulations after marriage as never before. 
The young woman that demands a certain 
amount of costly style, beyond the income of her 
betrothed, no young man should ever wed. Asa 
general thing, however, women have common 
sense, and, if husbands will perfectly confide in 
their wives, telling them exactly their pecuniary 
condition, the wife will live within the husband's 
income. In the majority of cases where men 
fail in business, the failure being attributed to 
the wife's extravagance, the wife has been kept 
in entire ignorance of her husband's pecuniary 
resources. The man who would be successful 
in business, should not only marry a woman 
who is worthy of his confidence, but he should 
at all times advise with her. She is more inter- 
ested in his prosperity than anybody else, and 
will be found his best counselor and friend. 


The love correspondence of another should 
be held sacred, the rule of conduct being, to do 



to others as you wish them to do to you. ~No 
woman, who is a lady, will be guilty of making 
light of the sentiments that are expressed to 
her in a letter. No man, who is a gentleman, 
will boast of his love conquests, among boon 
companions, or reveal to others the correspond- 
ence between himself and a lady. If an en- 
gagement is mutually broken off, all the love- 
letters should be returned. To retain them is 
dishonorable. They were written under cir- 
cumstances that no longer exist. It is better 
for both parties to wash out every recollection 
of the past, by returning to the giver every 
memento of the dead love. 


Some gentlemen, being very favorably im- 
pressed with a lady at first sight, and having 
no immediate opportunity for introduction, make 
bold, after learning her name, to write her at 
once, seeking an interview, the form of which 
letter will be found hereafter. A gentleman in 
doing so, however, runs considerable risk of 
receiving a rebuff from the lady, though not 
always. It is better to take a little more time, 
learn thoroughly who the lady is, and obtain an 
introduction through a mutual acquaintance. 
Much less embarrassment attends such a meet- 
ing; and, having learned the lady's antecedents, 
subjects are easily introduced in which she is 
interested, and thus the first interview can be 
made quite agreeable. 

The way is now paved for the opening of a 
correspondence, which may be done by a note 
inviting her company to any entertainment sup- 
posed to be agreeable to her, or the further 
pleasure of her acquaintance by correspondence, 
as follows: 

148 ST., July 2, 18-. 


Having greatly enjoyed our brief meeting at 

the residence of Mrs. Powell last Thursday evening, I venture to write 
to request permission to call on you at your own residence. Though 
myself almost entirely a stranger in the city, your father remembers, 
he told me the other evening, Mr. Williams of Syracuse, who is my 
uncle. Trusting that you will pardon this liberty, and place me on 
your list of gentleman acquaintances, I am, 

Yours, Very Respectfully, 


Favorable Reply. 

944 ST., July 8, 18-. 


Dear Sir: 

It will give me much pleasure to see you at our resi- 
dence next Wednesday evening. My father desires me to state that he 
retains a very favorable recollection of your uncle, in consequence of 
which he will be pleased to continue your acquaintance. 

Yours Truly, 


Unfavorable Reply. 

944 ST., July 2, 18-. 

Mies Myra Bronson, making it a rule to receive no gentleman visitors 
upon such brief acquaintance, begs to decline the honor of Mr. Will- 
iams 1 visits. 


An Invitation to a Place of Public Amusement. 

462 ST., April 4, 18. 


May I request the very great pleasure of escorting 
you to Barnum's Museum, at any time which may suit your conven- 
ience? To grant this favor will give me very much pleasure. No pains 
will be spared by myself to have you enjoy the occasion, and I will 
consult your wishes in every particular as to time of calling for you 
and returning. Waiting an early reply to this, I remain, 

Most Sincerely, 


Reply Accepting. 

876 ST., April?, 18 . 


Dear Sir: I thank you for your very kind invitation, which 
I am happy to accept. I will appoint next Monday evening, at which 
time, if you will call for me at our house, I will accompany you. 
Yours Sincerely, 


Reply Refusing. 

876 ST., April 4, 18. 


Dear Sir: I am grateful to you for your very polite invita- 
tion, but, as I should go only with my own family were I to attend 
any place of amusement, I am unable to avail myself of your kind- 
ness. Thanking you, I remain, 

Yours Truly, 


Reply with Conditions. 

876 ST., April 4, 18. 


Dear Sir: I shall be most happy to visit Barnum's Museum 
with you, but will prefer being one of a company in which yourself is 
included, such also being the wish of my mother, who sends her kind 
regards. A visit from you at our house, next Tuesday evening, will 
enable us to decide upon the time of going. 

Very Sincerely, 




Love at First Sight. 

96 ST., June 1, 18 . 


You will, I trust, forgive this abrupt and plainly 

spoken letter. Although I have been in your company but once, I 
cannot forbear writing to you in defiance of all rules of etiquette. 
Affection is sometimes of slow growth, but sometimes it springs up in 
a moment. I left you last night with my heart no longer my own. I 
cannot, of course, hope that I have created any interest in you, but 
will you do me the great favor to allow me to cultivate your acquaint- 
ance? Hoping that you may regard me favorably, I shall await with 
much anxiety your reply. I remain, 

Yours Devotedly, 


Unfavorable Reply. 

694 ST., June 1, 18. 


Sir: Your note was a surprise to me, considering that 
we had never met until last evening, and that then our conversation 
had been only on commonplace subjects. Your conduct is indeed 
quite strange. You will please be so kind as to oblige me by not 
repeating the request, allowing this note to close our correspondence. 


Favorable Reply. 

694 ST., June 1, 18. 


Dear Sir: Undoubtedly I ought to call you severely 
to account for your declaration of love at first sight, but I really can- 
not find it in my heart to do so, as I must confess that, after our brief 
interview last evening, I have thought much more of you than I should 
have been willing to have acknowledged had you not come to the con- 
fession first. Seriously speaking, we know but very little of each 
other yet, and we must be very careful not to exchange our hearts in 
the dark. I shall be happy to receive you here, as a friend, with a 
view to our further acquaintance. I remain, dear sir, 


A Lover's Good-bye Before Starting on a Journey. 

104 ST., May 10, 18. 


I go west, to-morrow, on business, leaving my 

heart in your gentle keeping. You need be at no expense in placing 
a guard around it, for I assure you that, as surely as the needle points 
towards the pole, so surely my love is all yours. I shall go, dearest, 
by the first train, hoping thereby to return just one train sooner, which 
means that not an hour, not a minute longer will I be absent from 
you, than is imperatively necessary. Like the angler, I shall " drop a 
line 1 ' frequently, and shall expect a very prompt response, letter for 
letter. No credit given in this case ; business is business I must have 
prompt returns. 

Ever Faithfully Yours, 


Reply to the Foregoing. 

814 ST., May 10, 18. 


I have had my cry over your letter a long, hard 
cry. Of course, I know that does not help the matter any. I suppose 
you must go, but I shall be so lonely while you are gone. However, 
you promise that you will return at the earliest moment, and that is 
one little ray of sunshine that lines the cloud. Shall we be enough 
happier after your return to pay for this separation ? Thinking that 

we may be, I will let that thought sustain me. In the meantime, from 
this moment until your return I will think of you, just once a 
long-drawn-out thought. 

Yours Affectionately, 


Letter Asking an Introduction through a Mutual Friend. 

912 ST., April 2, 18. 


I am very desirous of making the acquaintance of 
Miss Benjamin, with whom you are on terms of intimate friendship. 
Will you be so kind as to give me a letter of introduction to her? I 
am aware that it may be a delicate letter for you to write, but you 
will be free, of course, to make all needed explanations in your letter 
to her. I will send her your letter, instead of personally calling upon 
her myself, thus saving her from any embarrassment that may result 
from my so doing. By granting this favor, you will much oblige, 
Yours, Very Respectfully, 



117 ST., April 2, 18. 


Enclosed, find the note you wish. As you will observe, 
I have acted upon your suggestion of giving her sufficient explanation 
to justify my letter. Your desire to please the lady, coupled with your 
good judgment, will, I doubt not, make the matter agreeable. 
Truly Yours, 



DEAR Miss BENJAMIN: This will introduce to you my friend 
Win. Tyler, who is very desirous of making your acquaintance, and, 
having no other means of doing so, asks of me the favor of writing 
this note of introduction, which he will send you, instead of calling 
himself, thus leaving you free to grant him an interview or not. 
Mr. Tyler is a gentleman I very highly respect, and whose acquaint- 
ance, I think, you would not have occasion to regret. Nevertheless, 
you may not regard this a proper method of introduction, in which 
case, allow me to assure you, I will entertain the same respect for 
yourself, if you will frankly state so, though it would be gratifying 
to Mr. Tyler and myself to have it otherwise. With sincere respect, 
I am, . 

Very Respectfully, 


To the Father of the Lady. 

BURLINGTON, IOWA, Jan. 1, 18 . 


I take this means of consulting you on a subject 
that deeply interests myself, while it indirectly concerns you; and I 
trust that my presentation of the matter will meet with your approval. 

For several months your daughter Mary and myself have been on 
intimate terms of friendship, which has ripened into affection on my 
part, and I have reason to think that my attentions are not indifferent 
to her. My business and prospects are such that I flatter myself I 
can provide for her future, with the same comfort that has surrounded 
her under the parental roof. Of my character and qualifications, I 
have nothing to say ; I trust they are sufficiently known to you to give 
confidence in the prospect of your child's happiness. 

Believing that the parents have such an interest in the welfare of the 
daughter as makes it obligatory upon the lover to consult their desires, 
before taking her from their home, I am thus induced to request you 
to express your wishes upon this subject. 

I shall anxiously await your answer. 

Your Very Obedient Servant, 


184 ST. 



Favorable Reply. 


-ST., Jan. 1,18. 


I very highly appreciate the manly and 

honorable way in which you have addressed me in reference to my 
daughter Mary. 

Believing you to he honest, industrious, ambitious to do well, and 
possessed of an excellent moral character, I unite with Mrs. Franklin 
in the belief that our darling child may very safely trust her happi- 
ness to your protecting care. 

If agreeable and convenient to you, we shall be happy to have you 
dine with us to-morrow. 

Very Sincerely Yours, 


Unfavorable Reply. 

184 ST. 


Highly appreciating the straightforward and gentlemanly 
manner in which you have written me concerning a subject that 
every parent has an interest in, I am compelled to inform you that, 
though my daughter has treated you with much friendliness, as she is 
accustomed to with all her friends, she will be unable to continue with 
you a love acquaintance with a view to marriage, owing to a prior 
engagement with a gentleman of worth and respectability, which con- 
tract she has no occasion to regret. 

Fully sensible of your most excellent qualities, and the compliment 
paid in your selection of her, my daughter unites with me in the wish 
that you may meet with a companion in every way calculated to 
ensure your happiness. 

Yours, Very Respectfully, 


Reply to a Young Man that Uses Tobacco. 

663 ST., July 18, 18. 

Dear Sir: 

I am in receipt of your courteous letter, containing a 
declaration of Jove. I will be frank enough with you to admit that, 
while I have been sensible of your affectionate regard for me for some 
months, I have also cherished a growing interest in you. In truth, to 
make a candid confession, I most sincerely love you. I should, per- 
haps, say no more, but I feel it due to you, as well as to myself, to be 
strictly honest in my expression, lest we foster this growing love, 
which, under present conditions, must be broken off. 

I have always admired your natural ability; I appreciate you for 
your industry; I respect you for your filial conduct towards your 
parents. In fact, I consider you quite a model young man, were it not 
for one habit, which has always been, heretofore, a very delicate sub- 
ject for me to speak of, fearing that it might give you offense. But 
believing it best that I be true to my convictions and state my objec- 
tions plainly, I thus freely write them. 

I have reference to the use of tobacco. Apparently, this is a little 
thing. I am aware that ladies generally consider it beneath their 
notice; but so thoroughly convinced am I that it is one of the most 
destructive habits, sapping the morality and vigor of our young men, 
that I could never consent to wed a man addicted to its use, my reasons 
being as follows: 

It would impoverish my home. Only ten cents a day expended fora 
cigar, in a lifetime of forty years, with its accumulations of interest, 
amounts to over four thousand dollars ! The little sum of eleven cents 
per day, saved from being squandered on tobacco, and properly put at 
interest, amounts in that time to $5,160! No wonder so many homes, 
the heads of which use tobacco, are without the comforts of life. 

It might wreck my happiness. It is a well-known physological fact 
that the use of tobacco deadens the sense of taste; that water and all 
common drinks become insipid and tasteless when tobacco is used, so 

that the person using the same involuntarily craves strong drink, in 
order to taste it. Therein lies the foundation of a large share of the 
drunkenness of the country. Observation proves that, while many 
men use tobacco that are not drunkards, almost every drunkard is a 
user of tobacco, having nearly always formed the habit from the use 
of this narcotic weed. 

It would surround me with filth. To say nothing of the great drain 
on the physical health by the constant expectoration of saliva, thus 
ruining the health of many robust constitutions, I could not endure 
the fetid breath of the tobacco-user. I sicken at the sight of the brown 
saliva exuding from between the lips; physiology proving that, with 
tobacco-chewers, nearly all the waste fluids from the body pass 
through the mouth. I am immediately faint at the thought of dragging 
my skirts through spittle in a railway car, or any place where it is 
thrown upon the floor; I turn with disgust at the atmosphere God's 
pure, fresh air that is tainted with the stench of tobacco smoke. 
It would corrupt my husband's morals. All the associations of tobacco 
are bad. It is true that many good men use tobacco. It is also a truth 
that nearly every man that is bad is addicted to its use. To smoke in 
peace, the man must resort to the place where others smoke. In that 
room are profanity, obscene language and every species of vulgarity. 
There may be occasionally an exception. The fact is patent, however, 
that, in the room in which vulgarity and obscenity prevail, there is 
always tobacco smoke in the air, and the vile spittle on the floor. 

You will forgive me for speaking thus plainly. I love you too well 
to disguise my feelings on the subject. I could not possibly constantly 
love a tobacco-user, for the reasons that I have given. 

While I devotedly love you, I cannot consent that you should bestow 
your affections upon a person that would instinctively repel you. 
Believing, therefore, under the circumstances, that our further cor- 
respondence should cease, I remain, 

Your Friend and Well-Wisher, 


Letter to an Entire Stranger. 

478 ST., Jan. 1, 18. 


I beg to apologize for addressing you thus, 

being an entire stranger; but having the misfortune to be unknown to 
you is my excuse for this strange proceeding, which, I am well aware, 
is entirely at variance with the rules of etiquette. I have for two sab- 
baths seen you at church, and I am frank to confess that your appear- 
ance has made so deep an impression upon me as to make me extremely 
desirous of forming your acquaintance. I am, at present, a clerk in 
the ribbon department at Smith & Brown's store. Will you do me the 
great favor of allowing this to commence a friendship, which, I trust, 
will never be regretted by yourself. Please deign to give me at least 
a single line in reply to this, and oblige, 

Your Sincere Admirer, 


Unfavorable Reply. 


Dear Sir : 

I considerably question whether it is due to propriety 
to answer your note at all. But as you might fear that your letter had 
miscarried, and thus be induced to write again, it is best, probably, 
for me to make an immediate reply, and thus settle the affair entirely, 
and relieve you, possibly, of further suspense. It will be impossible 
for me to recognize you, or to think under any circumstances of per- 
mitting an acquaintance to be commenced by such an introduction as 
you seem to deem sufficient. More especially should I regret allow- 
ing a friendship to be formed by recognitions in the hours of divine 
service in church, while the mind should be employed in religious 
observances. You will, therefore, please understand that I am 
not favorable to further recognition, nor to a continuance of corre- 




Reply More Favorable. 

355 ST., June 10, 18. 

Dear Sir: 

I am in receipt of your note, and must confess that I 
am surprised at your request. I am entirely opposed to commencing, 
on general principles, an acquaintance with such an introduction, and 
consider it very improper, especially to allow it to originate in church 
during the hours of divine service. Were it not that I think your 
meaning kind and your intentions good, I would return your letter 
unanswered. As it is, I will take your request under consideration, 
and, if I think best to grant it, you may know of the fact by my recog- 
nition at the close of the service in the Sabbath School. 



An Advertisement in a Morning Paper. 

PERSONAL. Will the lady who rode up Broadway last Thursday 
afternoon, about two o'clock, in an omnibus, getting out at 
Stewart's, accompanied by a little girl dressed in blue suit, please 
send her address to D. B. St., Herald office? 


It is useless to advise people never to reply to 
a personal advertisement like the above. To do 
so is like totally refusing young people the priv- 
ilege of dancing. People will dance, and they 
will answer personal advertisements. The best 
course, therefore, is to properly direct the dan- 
cers, and caution the writers in their answers 
to newspaper personals. If the eye of the 
young lady referred to meets the above adver- 
tisement, she will possibly be indignant at first, 
and will, perhaps, resolve to pay no attention 
to it. It will continue to occupy her attention 
so much, however, and curiosity will become so 
great, that, in order to ease her mind, she will 
at last give her address; in which case she 
makes a very serious mistake, as any lady re- 
plying to a communication of such a character, 
giving her name and residence to a stranger, 
places herself at a great disadvantage. Should 
her communication never be answered, she will 
feel mortified ever afterwards that she committed 
the indiscretion of replying to the advertisement 
at all; and, should the person she addresses 
prove to be some worthless fellow who may 
presume to press an acquaintance upon the 
strength of her reply, it may cause her very 
serious perplexity and embarrassment. 

It is clearly evident, therefore, that she should 
not give her name and address as requested; 
and yet, as the advertisement may refer to a 
business matter of importance, or bring about 
an acquaintance that she will not regret, she 
may relieve her curiosity on the subject by ( 
writing the following note in reply: 


(Advertisement pasted in.) 
D. B. M.: 

I find the above advertisement in the "Herald" of this 
morning. I suppose myself to be the person referred to. You will 
please state your object in addressing me, with references. 

Address, A. L. K., Herald Office. 

It is probable that the advertiser, if a gentle- 
man, will reply, giving his reasons for request- 
ing the lady's address, with references, upon 
receiving which, the lady will do as she may 
choose relative to continuing the correspond- 
ence; in either case, it will be seen that she has 
in no wise compromised her dignity, and she 
retains the advantage of knowing the motive and 
object that prompted the advertisement, while 
she is yet unknown to the advertiser. 

Great caution should be exercised in answer- 
ing personals. The supposition is, if the adver- 
tiser be a gentleman, that he will honorably 
seek an interview with a lady, and pay court as 
gentlemen ordinarily do. Still, an occasion may 
happen to a man, who is in the highest sense 
a gentleman, wherein he sees the lady that he 
very greatly admires, and can learn her address 
in no other way without rendering himself 
offensive and impertinent; hence, the apparent 
necessity of the above personal advertisement. 

Instances have also occurred where gentlemen, 
driven with business, and having but little time 
to mingle in female society, or no opportunity, 
being strangers comparatively, desirous of form- 
ing the acquaintance of ladies, have honestly 
advertised for correspondence, been honestly 
answered, and marriage was the result. 

Those advertisements, however, wherein 
Sammy Brown and Coney Smith advertise for 



correspondence with any number of young 
ladies, for fun, mutual improvement, " and what 
may grow out of it, photographs exchanged," 
etc., young ladies should be very wary of an- 
swering. Instances have been known where 
scores of young ladies, having answered such 
an advertisement, could they have looked in 
upon those young men, a week afterwards, 
would have seen them with a pile of photo- 
graphs and letters, exhibiting them to their 
companions, and making fun of the girls who 
had been so foolish as to answer their advertise- 

It is true that no one but the meanest kind of 
a rascal would be guilty of such a disgraceful 
act as to advertise for and expose correspond- 
ence thus, and it is equally true that the young 
lady who gives the advertiser the opportunity 
to ridicule her shows herself to be very foolish. 

Personal Advertisement. 

T)ERSONAL. A gentleman, a new comer in the city, having a suffi- 
1 ciency of this world's goods to comfortably support himself and 
wife, is desirous of making the acquaintance of "a lady of middle years, 
with a view to matrimony. Address, in the strictest confidence, giving 
name, residence and photograph, H. A. B., Station H, Postomce. 


To H. A. B. 


I am led to suppose, from the reading of the above, that 
it is dictated in sincerity, by a desire to meet with a lady who would 
be treated with candor and respect. I have at present no acquaintance 
to whom I am inclined to give a very decided preference, nor have I 
ever had any very distinct ideas on the subject of marriage. I am free, 
however, to confess that, should circumstances favor my acquaintance 
with a gentleman whom I could honor and respect, I might seriously 
think of a proposal. Believing that you wish, as you intimate, this 
letter in confidence, I will say that I am years old, am in receipt of 

annually, from property that is leased. I have been told that I 

was handsome, though others, probably, have a different opinion. Of 
that fact, you must be the judge. I am entirely free to select whom- 
soever I may choose. My social standing, I trust, would be satisfac- 
tory, and my accomplishments have not been neglected. It is not nec- 
essary that I should write more. I shall be happy to correspond with 
you with a view to better acquaintance, when, if mutually agreeable, 
an introduction may take place. You desire me to send name, ad- 
dress and photograph, which, I trust you will perceive, would be 
improper for me to do. It is due to myself, and, under certain circum- 
stances, to yon, that I should be very guarded as to the manner of my 
introduction. A letter addressed to M. A. L., Station A, Postoffice, 
will reach me. 
I sign a fictitious name, for obvious reasons. 



A Gentleman Makes a Frank Acknowledgment Gushing 
with Sentiment, and Running Over with Poetry. 

"WHITE MOUNTAINS, N. H., Oct. 1. 18. 

One by one the brown leaves are falling, reminding 
us that the golden summer that we have so delightfully loitered 
through approaches its close. How thickly our pathway has been 
etrewu with roses; how fragrant have been the million blossoms; 
how sweetly the birds have sung; how beautiful have been the 
sunny days ; how joyous have been the starry nights ! Dear M., I do 
not need to tell you that this delightful summer has been to me one 
grand Elysian scene. I have gazed on and dreamed of thy beauty. I 
have been fed by thy sparkling repartee and merriment; I have 
drank at the fountain of thy intellectuality; but the feast is ended, 
and gradually the curtain is falling. Dear, beautiful summer; so 
beautiful to me because of thy loved presence. And standing now on 
the threshold of a scene all changed, I take a last, fond, long, lingering 
look on the beautiful picture that will return to me no more; and yet, 
who knowe, but on in that great eternity we may live again these 
Eden hours. 

"Like a foundling in slumber, the summer day lay 

On the crimsoning threshold of even, 
And I thought that the glow through the azure-arched way 

Was a glimpse of the coming of Heaven. 
There together w_e sat by the beautiful stream ; 

We had nothing to do but to love and to dream 
In the days that have gone on before. 

These are not the same days, though they bear the same name, 
With the ones I shall welcome no more. 

" But it may be the angels are culling them o'er, 

For a'Sabbath and Summer forever, 
When the years shall forget the Decembers they wore, 

And the shroud shall be woven, no, never! 
In a twilight like that, darling M. for a bride 

Oh ! what more of the world could one wish beside, 
As we gazed on the river unrpll'd 

Till we heard, or we fancied, its musical tide, 
Where it flowed through the Gateway of Gold?" 

Dearest, you must forgive my ardent expressions in this letter. 
With a temperament gushing to the brim and overflowing with senti- 
ment and rhapsody, I have passed the fleeting summer in thy charm- 
ing presence in one continual dream of poesy. I cannot now turn 
back to the solemn duties before me, without telling you what trem- 
bled on my tongue a thousand times, as we gathered flowers together 
and wove our chaplets in the sunny days gone by. Dear, darling Mary, 
7 love you, I adore you. How often in the beautiful moonlight nights, 
as we strolled among the lilacs and the primroses, have I been on the 
verge of clasping your jeweled hand and telling you all my heart. 
But, oh ! I did not quite dare ; the hours were so delightful, even as 
the}' were. Fearing that I might be repulsed, I chose to accept the 
joy even that there was, rather than run the risk of losing it all. 

How many a morning have I arisen and firmly resolved that, ere 
another day, I would know my fate! But, ah ! the twilight would fall, 
and the evening hour would pass by, and I never completely dared to 
risk the result of a declaration. The morrow I knew would be joyous 
if I bridled my impulse; it might not be if I made a mistake. But 
the dream has passed by. To-morrow, I bid adieu to these silvan 
groves, the quiet meadows and the gurgling brooks, to go back to the 
prose duties of business. And now, at the close of this festal season, 
as I am upon the verge of going, having nothing to lose and every- 
thing to gain, I have told you my heart. I have not the slightest idea 
what your reply will be. You have been to me one 'continual puzzle. 
If your answer is adverse, I can only entertain the highest respect for 
you ever in the future ; and memory shall keep alive the recollection 
of the most blissful summer I have ever known. If your reply is 
favorable dearest, may I fondly hope that it will be? then opens 
before me a great volume of happiness, of which this joyous summer 
has been but the opening chapter. 

Dear M., may I come again and see you, and address yon hence- 
forth as a lover? The messenger who brings you this will return 
again in an hour for your answer. I need not tell you what an hour 
of suspense this will be to me. Upon your reply hangs my 
future. If your reply is favorable, I shall tarry another day; and will 



you grant me a long interview, as I have much to talk over with you? 
If unfavorable, please return this letter with your note. Accept my 
warmest thanks for the entertainment which I, in common with 
others, have received at your hand iu the past; and, if I may not sign 
myself your devoted lover, I shall at least, I trust, have ever the 
pleasure of subscribing myself, 

Your Sincere Friend, 

Favorable Reply. 


I shall not attempt in this to answer your missive 
with the same poetic fervor that colors your letter from beginning to 
end. While it is given you to tread the emerald 
pavements of an imaginative Eden, in my plainer 
nature I can only walk the common earth. 

I fully agree with you in your opinion of the 
beautiful summer just passed. Though in seasons 
heretofore many people have been here from the 
cities, I have never known a summer so delightful. 
Yes, Clarence, these three months have been joy- 
ous, because shall I confess it? because you 
have been here. I need not write more. You have 
agreed to stay another day ; I shall be at home this 
afternoon, at two o'clock, and will be happy to see 

Yours Very Truly, 


the lady who knows how to get an excellent breakfast early in 
the morning, who is not only a model of neatness herself, but relieves 
her mother in household duties, keeping her younger brothers and 
sisters clean and orderly. 

I have admired and loved you for your musical talent and your fine 
conversational powers, but, as I could not keep the necessary servants 
to enable you constantly to gratify those talents to the exclusion of 
the more substantial duties, I feel that our marriage would be a mis- 
take for us both. 

You asked my reason for my changing love; I have reluctantly, 
yet plainly, stated it. Hoping, however, that you may always be happy 
in life, I am, 

Your Friend, 


To a Lady, from a Gentleman Confessing 
Change of Sentiment. 

844 ST., April 2, 18. 


Your note accusing me of cold- 
ness is before me. After spending several hours 
in a consideration of this subject, to determine what 
is my duty, I have concluded that it is decidedly 
best for me to be perfectly frank with you, and give 
my reasons for a change of sentiment. 

I do not think we could live happily together if 
we were married, because, from disparaging re- 
marks I have heard you make concerning people 
that are not wealthy, I think you would be entirely 
dissatisfied with my circumstances ; and the further 
fact that yon allow your mother to do all the 
drudgery of the household, you sitting in the parlor 
entertaining gentlemen, and affecting to have no 
knowledge of housekeeping, is proof that our 
tastes would not accord in home matters. I con- 
sider it just as honorable, and just as important, 
that young ladies should do something to support 
themselves, as that young men should. If the op- 
portunities are not as great for them to go abroad, 
they can, at least while at home, learn to be good 
in sewing, cooking and housekeeping, and thus be 
prepared when opportunities offer, to make pru- 
dent, economical, tidy housewives. I do not 
under-value the importance of being proficient in 
the lighter accomplishments which go to make 
a lady at ease in society; but I vastly more prize 

Reply to a Young Man Addicted to Intemperance. 

., ofo 





464. rz&mz -t^i^^i, 

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One Way of Breaking the Ice. 

584 ST., July 1, 18. 


I returned yesterday from a brief trip 

into Canada, my journey being most agreeable; only one little episode 
breaking the monotony, ae I neared home, which was this : iu the 
next seat behind me in the car sat a young couple, who were evidently 
regretting that their ride was so near an end. Though buried in my 
reading, I could not avoid hearing much that they said. One question 
asked by the young man made a striking impression on my mind. 
" Maggie," said he, " we- have now been acquainted a good while ; you 
know me, and I know you. I do not need to tell you that I love you 
with all my heart ; now, do you love me ? " 

I knew the young fellow had taken that occasion, when the cars 
were thundering along, so that he might not be knocked down by the 
beating of his own heart. I confess to have been guilty of eavesdrop- 
ping, then. I listened intently for the lady's answer, but just at that 
moment, as my ill luck would have it, another train came thundering 
by us, and her voice was drowned in the noise. I got to thinking like 
this: suppose yon and I were riding thus, and I should ask precisely 
the same question; what would be your reply? I am very curious to 
know what your answer would be, and shall await a letter from you, 
with much anxiety. 

Most Truly Yours, 


An Offer of Marriage. 

248 ST., Dec. 10, 18. 


I have intended, oh, how many times! when we 
have been together, to put the simple question which I intend this 
note shall ask; but, although apparently a very easy matter to ask the 
hand in marriage of one I so deeply love as yourself, it is no easy task. 
I therefore write what I have never found courage in my heart to 
speak. Dearest, will you bestow upon me the great happiness of per- 
mitting me to call you mine? If I have spoken this too boldly, you 
will forgive; but I fondly hope that you will not be indifferent to my 
appeal. I trust, if you answer this in the affirmative, that yon will 
never regret doing so. Anxiously awaiting your answer, I remain, 
Yours Affectionately, 


Favorable Reply. 

367 ST., Dec. 10, 18. 


Yonr proposal is quite unexpected to me, but it is made 
with such candor and frankness that 1 can take no offence. I cannot, 
in this note, give you a definite reply. Marriage is a very serious mat- 
ter; and, while I regard you with the greatest favor, I desire to consult 
my near relatives, and consider the subject myself car jfully for a few 
days, ere I give you a final answer. I think I can assure you, however, 
that you may hope. 

Very Sincerely, 


Letter from a Young Man Who Proposes Marriage and 

482 ST., April 16, 18. 


You have doubtless heard of my intention to go West 
in the coming month. Though surrounded here with my relatives and 
all the many friends of my boyhood, I have an intense desire to try 
my fortune amid new scenes, feeling that the fetters that now bind me 
and seem to hinder my upward progress will then be broken. 

I shall sunder my ties with some regrets, but, to commence my busi- 
ness career as I am desirous of doing, I must make the sacrifice ; in 
doing so, I do no more than thousands have done before me. In the 
great, broad fields of the growing West, a young man of resolution, 
ambition, honesty, temperance and perseverance cannot fail, I believe, 
to better his condition much more rapidly than he can here; you 
will, I think, coincide with me in this opinion. 

Dear Clara, of all my farewells, none will be so sad to me as that I 
shall bid to you. Dear, dear Clara, you cannot be indifferent to the 
fact that I have long devotedly loved you ; and, at the hour of parting, 
I feel that I cannot go without telling you my heart, and asking you if 
I may not have your love in return. And now, while I ani asking, 
will you not take me and my heart, and in turn allow me to be your 
protector through life? 

Dearest, I am going to press my suit still further. Will you not be 
mine before I go, and accompany me on my journey? I know this is 
asking a great deal of you. To accept of this proposition, is to take 
you from a home of affluence, where you are surrounded with every 
desired comfort. I have no right to ask the sacrifice ; and yet I have 
resolved to make bold before I go, and tell yon all. If you accept my 
offer, and will consent to cast your fortunes with me out in the g-reat 
Sea of the Hereafter, I can assure you that no trouble or sorrow will 
come to you through me ; and that, as you will be my dear, dear com- 
panion and sacred trust, so will I be to you all that alover and husband 
can be. 

Now, dearest, if you will accept my future as your own, and place 
yourself by my side, accepting the sorrow and partaking of the joy 
that is in store for me, yon will make me the happiest of men. If yon 
assent, God grant that you may never regret your faith. Do not decide 
the question hastily. The sacrifice is such, in leaving home and kin- 
dred, that you may not accept of my proposal even though you love. 
When you have fully determined, however, please send the answer, 
which I shall most anxiously await. Ever, Dear Clara, 

Your Affectionate, 



172 ST., April 16, 18. 


I cau make a reply to your candid question at once. 
I do not need to deliberate upon it long. I love you ; I confide in you. 
I will trust yon ; I will go with you ; I will accept the love and the future 
you offer. You may have many joys; you may experience some sor- 
rows : I will share and bear them all with you, trusting that patient, 
earnest, willing effort may crown our labors with success. Believing 
that God will guide and prosper us, I can only add, hoping to see you 
soon, that I am, Ever yours, 





Wedding Cards Invitations. 


the lady who marries resides 
with her parents, with relatives, 
guardians, or friends, and the 
marriage receives the approval of 
those parties, the ceremony usu- 
ally takes place at the residence 
of the bride, or at the church 
where she generally attends ; a 
reception being held at her resi- 
dence soon afterwards or upon the return from 
the bridal tour. 

Some parties prefer to marry very quietly, 
having but few guests at the wedding. Others 
make more elaborate display, and observe the 
time as an occasion of general rejoicing. Where 
many guests are invited, it is customary to issue 
notes of invitation to those persons whose at- 
tendance is desired, accompanied by wedding 
cards bearing the name of the bride and groom. 
The form of wording such notes and cards has 
changed but little for several years, though the 
style in which such wording appears, changes 

Two methods are pursued in preparing the 
invitations and cards : one being to have them 
neatly printed from type ; the other, and more 
expensive manner, is to have them engraved and 
printed in the metropolis, by a card- engraver, 
who makes an exclusive business of preparing 
such cards. 

The later style for cards and notes of invita- 
tion is to have the most of the wording in a 
light script, upon very fine, white, billet paper, 
and the cards upon thin bristol-board, some- 
times long, and frequently nearly square, accord- 
ing to fancy. 

The following cards and notes of invitation, 
while expressing the suitable wording, do not, 

in all cases, represent the size of the card or 
note of invitation. They are of various sizes, 
according to fancy, and generally a little larger 
than here illustrated. 

In sending the note of invitation, it is cus- 
tomary to inclose the cards in the same envel- 
ope. In cases where no guests are invited, yet 
it is desired to inform the acquaintances through- 
out the country of the marriage, it is usual to 
inclose the cards alone. Formerly, it was com- 
mon to use but one card, having Mr. & Mrs. 
Chas. H. Smith in the center of the card, while 
the lady's maiden name was placed upon the 
lower left-hand corner. Of late, it is regarded 
more in style to use two cards, one considera- 
bly larger than the other ; the larger bearing 
the names, Mr. & Mrs. Chas. H. Smith, the 
smaller, the lady's name alojie, thus: 



If it is definitely decided where the future 
permanent residence of the newly wedded 
couple is to be, it is proper to place the name 
of the town and state, at the lower left-hand 
corner of the larger card, as shown herewith. 

Invitations to the Wedding. 

HE following, are among the many 
of the various styles of notes of invita- 


tion to 
wedding cere- 
mony. The 
form shown 
here, is printed on paper 
about the width, but a 
little shorter than, com- 
mercial note paper, the 
wording being on the 
lower half of the sheet. 
In the center of the 
upper half of the sheet 
is the monogram, com- 
posed of the initial let- 
ters of the surnames of 
the bride and groom, 
blended together. This 
monogram is also printed 
upon the flap of the en- 
velope containing the 
invitation and cards. 
The accompanying is the 
note of invitation issued 
by Mr. & Mrs. D Col- 
lins, on the occasion of 
the marriage of their 
daughter, M. Louise, to 
Jay H. Sabray ; the cere- 
mony taking place at 
their residence. Two 
cards accompany this 
rote, one reading Mr. $ 
Mrs. Jay H. Sabray, the 
other, M. Louise Collins. 

Actual size of one form of Note of Invitation. This dotted line shows the fold. 

^ %j &t (? o' i 


, &*. 


If desirous of giving information of the time This style of invitation, printed on a fine card 
of return from the bridal tour, and an invita- about the size of a large envelope, is frequently 
tion to receptions afterwards, the address is employed. If desirous of using colored card- 
omitted on the larger card, and a third card board, a light olive or pink tint is sometimes 
may accompany the other two, worded as fol- admissible, though white is always in best 
lows : taste. 


H^ ' 



ffj)//' / / / s&T / 

^W &cZW&l<ez^>J -ezMfl. L.S't-t<ttz<i4d , 

m<^<~ /c*. frotk*.^, 



Cor. of Seventh and Clinton Sti. MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

At Eight o'clock. 

This style of invitation, requiring no cards, is Tlie following note, announcing, " At Home," 
frequently used : after October 15, requires no cards : 




^ mm es% 


^tr^ ^ % ' 

e^oiet^gpWT.^o |j 

/IT'lfiit*lY 3tit*i>ci'fiTi'i"*>vt7ir'H' OfMhitt*Hh 

vbfjll--U T J 1 1 y l|J' 11 I lull v_ IJ U 4 4 IJ 


-A.T 8 O'CLOCK:. 


At Home, after October 15th. No. 12 Oakland Street. 



The cards are often made in this proportion, 
and fastened with a ribbon, thus : 


The following invitation is accompanied by 
the cards shown above, fastened by a ribbon in 
the center. The larger card bears the names of 
Mr. and Mrs. James Wilson; the other, the 
name of the bride, Angeline Sherman. 

Of their Daughter, Angeline, Tuesday Eve'g, Apr. 23d, '72, 

112 Clinton St., Boiton. 

Not ^infrequently the cards are fastened at 
the top, as shown in this illustration: 


The succeeding invitation is issued by the 
parents ot the bride, the reception taking place 
at their residence, after the ceremony at church. 
As with the other invitations, this is also accom- 
panied by the monogram. 


r /' 

&; S:3C <z 



., O. 



AVING resolved 
upon marriage, the lady 

will determine when the cere- 
mony shall take place. 

No peculiar form of cere- 
mony is requisite, nor is it im- 
perative that it be performed by a particular 
person. In the United States, marriage is 
regarded as a civil contract, which may be entered 
into by a simple declaration of the contracting parties, 
made in the presence of one or more witnesses, that they, the -\ [ ^_J 

said parties, do respectively contract to be husband and wife. \ *-4 

In consequence of the recognized vast importance of mar- *^ 
riage to the parties contracting the same, long usage has estab- ^~\7~j 

lished the custom, almost universally, of having the ceremony perform- 
ed by, or in presence of, a clergyman or magistrate. 

To be entitled to contract marriage,, the following requisites are necessary: 
1st, That they be willing to marry ; 2d, That they be of sound mind ; 3d, That they 
have arrived at the age allowed by law ; 4th, That neither of the parties is mar- 
ried already to another who is living, and from whom such party has not obtained a divorce 
from the bonds of matrimony ; and 5th, That the parties are not so nearly related by consan- 
guinity, as to prohibit their marriage, by the laws of the State in which the marriage is contrac- 


In most of the States, the common law re- 
quires that the male be fourteen and the female 
twelve years of age, before the marriage can 
take place. In certain States, seventeen for 
males and fourteen for females ; in others, the 
age for males is eighteen, for females, fourteen. 

Formerly in certain Eastern States, parties in- 
tending to marry were required by statute to re- 
cord a notice of such intent with the town clerk 
for three weeks, at the expiration of which time, 
if no objection was interposed, the clerk was au- 
thorized to give a certificate to that effect, and the 
clergyman or magistrate was empowered to per- 
form the ceremony. In various States, the Jaw 
requires that parties intending marriage shall 

previously obtain from the city or town clerk, a 
certificate of their, respective names, occupa- 
tions, ages, birth-places, and residences upon 
receipt of which, any clergyman or magistrate 
is authorized to perform the ceremony. 

In several States of the Union, the consent 
of the parents or guardians is required, before 
the proper officer can issue a license, if the male 
be under twenty-one years, or the female under 

In some of the States, a license to marry must 
first be procured of the city, town, or county 
clerk, empowering the clergyman or magistrate 
to marry the contracting parties, which is word- 
ed as follows : 



&Sie Acc/iie ftjf tne &rtate c/.. ................................................ _, Jo anu AeUon, /ea.a$u autncliied to 6o 


utnoltted to totn in tne 

* f * * * * y a 

to cetefrlate tne liteA ana celemonieA o/ Q/nalliaae, Between J$lt. 

ana *H ................................................................................... acccldina to tne teduat custom and tauiA of tne 

/ / f 

. ........................................................... , ana ucu ale teauilea to tetittn tni6 -ucemte to me tvitfiin tfUltu aa<u4, Mom 

tne cetettlation o/ Aucn. QMalliaa.e , ttiitn a weltijficate of tn.e dame, aAhenaea tneletc, ana dianea -v^ uou, 

unaet tfle Aenattu of (fine opuin.alea zDouala. 
/ y f * 

oul Aaict woult and t&e. <&ea/ tAeleo/, at Ait Ojfj&ce, 

in Aaid TVcunt'u . tAid day. o/ , 

</' 7 f ............................................... > 

County Clerk. 


>\S.S. *'- ; ;; ; 

\ a _, helettiu celttf^- tnat on 

tne .... dau of. .... . /8J . Q/' toi-ned tn Q/nalliaae, 

y f ' . ' v 

jiitl t. } ana J~cl - _ _, aaleeavte to tne 

\ autnoliti- aiven tn. tne avove jtcen<ie, and tne cuAtowiA ana taivd of tnid Qstate. 
f if t 

d and deaf, //** da^- o/ ,Q$. %$., -idj ! 



The Ceremony. 

The license procured, the ceremony of mar- 
riage may take place wherever it best suits the 
convenience of the parties marrying, and may 
be performed by a clergyman, justice of the 
supreme court, judge of an inferior court, jus- 
tice of the peace, or police justice; one or more 
witnesses being present to testify to the mar- 
riage. The clergyman or magistrate may visit 
the candidates for matrimony at a private resi- 
dence, hotel, hall, church or other place ; or the 
parties may call upon the clergyman at his 
residence, or visit the magistrate in his office, 
where the rite may be performed. When the 
ceremony is conducted by the magistrate, the 
following is the usual form. 

Form of Marriage. 

(The man and woman rising, the justice will say to the man .) 
"Will yon have this woman. to be your wedded wife, to live together 
after God's ordinance, in the holy estate of Matrimony, to love her, 
comfort her, honor and keep her, in sickness and in health, and, for- 
saking all others, keep thee only unto her, so long as you both shall 

(Then, addressing the woman, the justice will say.) 

" Will you have this man to be your wedded husband, to live together 
after God's ordinance, in the holy estate of Matrimony, to love, honor 
and keep him, in sickness and in health, and, forsaking all others, 
keep thee only unto him, so long as you both shall live? " 

(The parties answering in the affirmative, the justice will then instruct 
to join hands, and say: 

"By the act of joining hands you take upon yourselves the relation 
of husband and wife, and solemnly promise and engage, in the pres- 

ence of these witnesses, to love, honor, comfort and cherish each other 
as such, so long as you both shall live; therefore, in accordance with 
the laws of the State of , I do hereby pronounce you hus- 
band and wife." 

Short Form of Marriage. 

(The justice will instruct, the parties to rise and join hands, and 
then say:) 

"By this act of joining hands yon do take upon yourselves the rela- 
tion of husband and wife, and solemnly proniise and engage, in the 
presence of these witnesses, to love and honor, comfort and cherish 
each other as such, as long as you both shall live; therefore in accord- 
ance with the laws of the State of , I do hereby pronounce 

you husband and wife." 

The form used by clergymen is essentially 
the same, though the wording may vary slightly 
to suit the occasion and conform to the rites of 
the church under which the parties marry. 

The marriage license is returned by the mag- 
istrate or clergyman to the clerk that granted 
it, for record. At the time of procuring the 
license, however, the bridegroom or other per- 
son should obtain a blank marriage certificate, 
usually furnished by the clerk, which should 
be filled by the clergyman or magistrate at the 
close of the ceremony, certifying to the mar- 
riage of the parties; which certificate should be 
always preserved by the husband and wife, as 
proof of marriage, if necessary, when they 
have removed to other parts of the country. 

The following is the form of the marriage 



That of in the State of and.... of in the State of.. 

were at in the said County, by me joined together in 

O L Y^JMI.A.T ttfStL O U^TY,^^) 

I On the , day of.. ,in the year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventy 




Marriage Notices, etc. 

SIDE from the entertainments of 
guests at the residence of the bride, 
the expenses of the marriage are 
entirely borne by the groom, who 
is understood to be the winner of 
the prize. If the parties marrying 
are wealthy and of undoubted 
standing and respectability in 
society, they can appropriately celebrate the nup- 
tial ceremony in an expensive manner, the occa- 
sion being taken by the relatives and friends as 
an opportunity for the making of every descrip- 
tion of present to the bride and groom. If, how- 
ever, the parties move in the humbler walks of 
life, an expensive bridal tour, and very great 
display at the wedding, are not advisable. It is 
much better for the ntwly wedded couple to 
commence life in a manner so plain and modest 
that succeeding years cannot fail to steadily 
increase their wealth and give them better 
opportunities. People always more highly 
respect those persons who steadily go upward, 
no matter how slowly, than those that attempt a 
display beyond their ability honestly to maintain. 

To legally marry in the United States, only a 
few incidental expenses are really necessary. Of 
these, the license costs, in different States, from 
one to two dollars, and the magistrate, for per- 
forming the ceremony, is allowed by law to 
charge two dollars. While no law regulates 
the price, it is customary to quietly present the 
clergyman five dollars or more, according to the 
ability and liberality of the groom. In giving 
notice of the marriage to the newspaper, it is 

courtesy always to enclose, with the same, a 
dollar bill. 

The wording of the marriage notice will 
depend upon circumstances. If the parties have 
a large circle of acquaintances, to whom they 
desire to offer an apology for not having invited 
them to the wedding, they will announce, with 
the notice, that no general invitation was 
extended, thus: 


LEONARD REYNOLDS. In this city, at the residence of the bride's 
father, January 1, 1873, by the Rev. Chae. G. Robinson, rector of 
Christ Church, Mr. Theron D. Leonard and Mrs. A. B. Reynolds, 
daughter of Wm. Fairbanks, Esq., all of Philadelphia. No cards. 

Other marriage notices, according to circum- 
stances, will read as follows: 

In this city, by the Rev. H. A. Henderson, CHARLES H. WILLIAMS 
and MYRA B. COOLEY, both of Chicago. 

On Tuesday, the 7th inst., by the Rev. Dr. Belmont. at the residence 
of the bride''s uncle, Harvey Baker, Esq., Cyrus E. Maynard, of New 
York, and Miss Lizzie H. Wentworth, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

On Thursday, January 20th, at the residence of Mr. Asa Sprague, 144 
Mayberry St., Anton D. Miller, of St. Joseph, Mich., and Harriet A. 
Sprague, of this city. 

St. Joseph papers please copy. 

At the Leland house, Springfield, 111., January 30, by the Rev. J. L. 
Stoddard, Stephen M. Byron, of Detroit, Mich., and Carrie D. Paine, 
of Springfield, 111. 

On the evening of the 30th, at the Revere House, by Winfield Gard- 
ner, Miss Emma Brown to William Wedgewood, all of this city. 

In this city, on Monday, at the residence of the bride's father, Mr. H. 
A. Waldron and Miss Agnes E. Willett. 

The ceremonies took place at the residence of Henry Wil- 
lett, Esq., on Beverly Place, yesterday morning at nine o'clock, 
only a select company of friends being present. The happy 
couple departed at once on their wedding tour, with New York 
as their main point of destination. Their visit will be protracted 
until the middle of next month, when, upon their return, Mr. 
Waldron will assume the secretaryship of the Great Western 
Mutual Insurance Company, of this city, to which position he 
has been recently called by the directors of the company. 



Invitations to Receptions and Parties, 


At 8 o'clock. 




. ffi. I3artlett, 


At 8 1-2 o'clock. 



t_g=^ Yourself and Ladies are Cordialty Incited. i= ~-> 

Committee of Arrangement* 





Family Hecords, 

How to Prepare the Register; giving Names of the Family, Births, Marriages and Deaths. 

URING LIFE, a carefully prepared 
record of the family, which should 
be arranged by the head of the 
household, is of great convenience for 
reference. This register should con- 
tain the name, birth, marriage, and death 
of each member of the family. It may be 
kept in the Bible, on a paper prepared 
especially for the purpose, suitable for framing, or 
in any manner whereby the same may be preserved. 
It may also contain brief biographical sketches of 
members of the family. 

N preparing the register, care should be 
taken to give the names of the family in 
full, the town and state where each was 
born, and date of birth; the state and 
town where each died, and date of death ; 
town and state where each married, and 
date, together with the name of the 
officiating clergyman, or magistrate, and of one or 
more witnesses to the marriage. In proving claims 
to pensions, or heirship to estates, this is frequently 
of great importance. Observe carefully the form 
of record shown on the opposite page. 

UARDIANS and parents are also 
recommended to prepare in a book 
of blank pages, made for the pur- 
pose, a biographical sketch of each 
child under their charge, noting pecul- 
iarities of birth, attending physician, color 
of hair, eyes, &c., when born ; strength of 
constitution, subsequent disposition, age at 
which the child first walks, talks, reads, writes, first 
attends school, and so on upwards until the child 
is able to take up the record itself. 


HE child's record should be made very 
full and explicit for many reasons, the 
principal being that it may be of great 
service to the future biographer of the 
child , while the physiologist may draw 
an important lesson by a comparison be- 
tween the habits of infancy and those 
of mature years. This record will certainly be a 
matter of value to the family, and like the infant- 
picture, it will be of especial interest to the man and 
woman as a daguerreotype of their early years. 









August 6, 1834, at Rome, N. Y. 
April 14, 1837, at Rome, N. Y. 
July 2, 1839, at Rome, N. Y. 
May 10, 1842, at Rome, N. Y. 
Nov. 18, 1845, at Detroit, Mich. 
Oct. 4, 1848, at Detroit, Mich. 






May 2, 1800, &t Concord, N. H. 
June 7, 1810, at Troy, N. Y. 


^|>@O>"S- O4>OOO.0S=S 4>O>O 

A Dec. 8, 1850, at Rome, N. Y. 

s . 










June 9, 1862, at Detroit, Mich. 

April 17, 1869, at Rome, N. Y. 
Feb. 6, 1855, at Detroit. Mich. 

By Whom Solemnized 

Names of Witnesses. 





By the Rev. A. H. BURLING, 

June 2, 1831, 
At Troy, New York. 

i A. D. BAKER, 

In Presence of < MARY E. SHERMAN, 




By the Rev. D. P. SMITH, 

Sept. 1,1859,. 
At Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

In Presence of { THOS. E. ANDREWS, 
/ W. H. BUBTON. 






Sept. 4, 1865, 
At Rome, New York. 

By the Rev. D. O. SMITH, 

Aug. 16, 1865, 
At Detroit, Michigan. 

By WM. M. KELLOGG, J. P., 

March 4, 1872, 
At St. Louis, Missouri. 




In Presence of < SELDEN MARSHALL, 

In Presence of < MALVINA SIMPSON, 

In Presence of < CHAS. D. WELDS, 



Marriage Anniversaries, 


ASHION has established the 
custom, of late years, of cele- 
brating certain anniversaries 
of the marriage, these being 
named as follows : 

The celebration at the expi- 
ration of the first year is called 
the COTTON wedding ; at two years comes the 
PAPER ; at three, the LEATHER ; at the close of 
five years comes the WOODEN ; at the seventh 
anniversary the friends assemble with the WOOL- 
EN, and at ten years comes the TIN. At twelve 
years the SILK AND FINE LINEN ; at fifteen the 
CRYSTAL wedding. At twenty, the friends gather 
with their CHINA, and at twenty-five the married 
couple, that have been true to their vows for a 
quarter of a century, are rewarded with SILVER 
gifts. From this time forward, the tokens of 
esteem become rapidly more valuable. At the 
thirtieth anniversary, they are presented with 
PEARLS ; at the fortieth, come the RUBIES ; and 
at the fiftieth, occurs the celebration of a glo- 
rious GOLDEN wedding. Beyond that time the 
aged couple are allowed to enjoy their many 
gifts in peace. If, however, by any possibility 
they reach the seventy-fifth anniversary, they 
are presented with the rarest gifts to be ob- 
tained, at the celebration of their DIAMOND wed- 

In issuing the invitations for celebrating these 
anniversaries, it is customary to print them on 
a material emblematical of the occasion. Thus, 
thin wood, leather, cloth, tin-foil, silk, silver 

and gold paper, and other materials are brought 
into use. 

Of course, those who accept of such an invi- 
tation, and partake of the hospitalities of the 
host and hostess, are expected to contribute 
to the collection of gifts that will grace the oc- 

The form of invitation for such an anniver- 
sary is represented in the following : 


^ v /*- / 




Invitation to the Crystal Wedding. 

Invitation to the China Wedding. 


N. Y. 

Invitation to the Silver Wedding. 

invite you to 6e /ileAent ctt l/iett 


No. 700 Broadway, New York. 

Ceremony at 8 o'Clock. 

1850 I 1870. 



/^ / J$> /7 

Cs u-ed.-c&city (Q-u-e. ^u^i.'e- 46, 



Invitation to the Golden Wedding. 





Notes of Invitation to Parties 


OTES of invitation to 
a large party are 
usually printed and 
displayed in a style 
similar to the an- 
nexed, being always 
worded in the third 
person. If written, 
and among intimate friends, a more 
familiar style may be adopted. 

Invitations should be written or 
printed upon a whole sheet of small 
note-paper, and should be issued at 
least a week before the time appointed 
for the party, so that, if necessary, 
a suitable dress may be obtained. For 
a costume ball or masquerade, two 
weeks is the usual time allowed for 

The letters R. S. Y. P. are some- 
times put at the end of a note. They 
stand for the French phrase, " Re- 
pondez s'il vous -plait "- answer, if 
you please. It is better, however, 
when an answer is particularly 
desired, to say, "An answer will 

It is courtesy to reply promptly to 
a note of invitation requesting an 

If no reply is requested, and you 
send no regrets, it is understood that 
you accept the invitation. 

Send invitations, to persons in 
your own city or neighborhood, by 
your own messenger. It is regarded 
a violation of etiquette to sena them 
by mail. 

Invitation to an Intimate Friend. 

Mrs. Langford may write to her intimate friend. Miss 
Burling, as follows: 







-ri-e -rs-MsasMtd. -n-e ttw/L'L &.& 



Invitation to a Lawn Soiree. 



Request the pleasure of your company, at a Lawn Soiree, Friday eve- 
ning, from half-past seven to half-past ten o'clock, June 20th, 18 , 
weather permitting. 
R. S. V. P. 

Invitation to an Evening Party. 

Mrs. Langford requests the pleasure of Mr. and Mrs. Bell's company 
on Thursday evening, 7th inst., at seven o'clock. 
No. 7 St., Dec. 1st. 

Answer Accepting the Invitation. 

- Mr. and Mrs. Bell accept, with pleasure, Mrs. Langford's kind invi- 
tation for Thursday evening, the 7th inst. 
No. 8 St., Dec. 2d. 

Answer Declining the Invitation. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bell regret their inability to accept Mrs. Langford's 
kind invitation for Thursday evening, the 7th inst. 
No. 8 St., Dec.2d. 

Invitation to a Dinner Party. 

Mr. Conklin presents his warm regards to Mr. Belden, and requests 
the pleasure of his company to dinner, on Thursday next (18th) at 5 
o'clock. Mr. Conklin expects the pleasure, also, of receiving Mr. Wil- 
bur, of Buffalo. 

An answer will oblige. 

No. 44 St., June 16, 18. 

Answer Accepting the Invitation. 

Mr. Belden presents his kind regards to Mr. Conklin, and accepts, 
with pleasure, his polite invitation for Thursday next. 
No. 17 St., June 17, 18. 

Answer Declining the Invitation. 

Mr. Belden regrets that a previously arranged business engagement 
will prevent his accepting Mr. Conklin's kind invitation for to-mor- 
row. Mr. Belden has delayed answering until to-day, hoping to effect 
a change of appointment, but has learned this forenoon that no change 
can be made without serious disappointment to others. 
No. 17 St., June 17, 18. 





f* f 

. 4<l>t 

Refreshments will be Served at Ten o'Clock. 



Familiar Invitation to a Wedding. 

The following exhibits the size of paper, and the wording of a Funeral 
Notice, in common use in the metropolitan cities, where it is impossible, 
frequently, for all the friends to know of the death. 


-St., Dec. 12, 18. 


I have Issued but few invitations 
for our Aggie's wedding, as we desire to be almost 
entirely private; but the presence of a few dear 
friends will give us all pleasure. Can we count you 
among those few? The ceremony will be at seven, 
on Tuesday evening next, December 18th, and at 
eight we will receive the other invited guests. 
Hoping to see you early, I am, 

Yours Affectionately, 


Answer Accepting the Invitation. 


-St., Dec. 13, 18. 


I accept with great pleasure 

your kind Invitation to Aggie's wedding, and will 
be punctual. I most earnestly pray that she may 
be very happy in her new life and home. Please 
give her my kindest love and best wishes. 
Your Friend, 


Answer Declining the Invitation. 


st., Dec. 13, 18. 


My recent great bereavement 

must plead my excuse for not attending the wedding 
of your dear daughter Aggie. I would not cloud the 
festal scene by my heavy weeds of mourning, and I 
could not lay them aside, even for an hour, while 
the wound In my heart is so fresh with grief. 

Deeply regretting that I cannot attend, I can only 
wish Aggie, in her new relations, the joyous life of 
happiness she so richly deserves. 

Your Sincere Friend, 




' /' 



. W. 

at t/ie 

Invitation to a Picnic. 

Invitation to a Ball. 

Invitation to a Festival. 

goung Eatika of iHt. |ope5enitnarg 

Solicit the presence of Yourself and Frien d> 



Fete Champetre, 


WED^ESD/Y /FTEI(NOO^ JU^E 10, 1874. 

Entrance Ticket^ 50 Cents. 

The above cards may be displayed in this manner, but for actual use should be about four times larger. 




Visiting and Address Cards. 

OUR kinds of cards are in 
general use, viz. : Wedding, 
Autograph or Visiting, Ad- 
dress, and Business cards. 
The wedding has already 
been described. The visiting 
card is used principally by 
the lady in her calls among acquaintances in the 
city. The address card is also frequently used 
for the same purpose, and is useful to present 
when it may be desired to open future corre- 
spondence. The business card is valuable for 
advertising and as being introductory to busi- 
ness acquaintance. In the autograph card, 
Chas. H. Briggs will write his name as follows : 

His wife will write her name : 

His daughters will add Miss to their names, 
thus : 

Or the name may be without the Miss, thus 

The address card may read thus 

18 Beverly Place. 

Or it may read thus : 

Appleton, Wis. 

Autograph cards should be used only among 
those acquaintances to whom the residence is 
well known. Business cards should contain 
upon their face the name, business, address and 
references, if references are used. 

NOTE. A former rule of etiquette, not now so much obsenred, was for the eldest daughter, only, to prefix " Miss " to her name. 




VERY charming- and interesting- method of commu- 
nicating- thought is by the aid of flowers, their lan- 
guage and sentiment being understood by the parties 
who present them. Although the following list is 
very complete, this vocabulary may be still enlarged 
by the addition of other definitions, the parties 
having an understanding as to what language the 
flower shall represent. Thus an extended and some- 
times important correspondence may be carried on 
by the presentation of bouquets, single flowers and 
even leaves; the charm of this interchange of 
thought largely consisting in the romance attendant 

upon an expression of sentiment in a partially disguised and hidden 


Of course much of the facility with which a conversation may be 

conducted, thus, will depend upon the intimate knowledge possessed of 

the language of flowers and the variety from which to select. 


A declaration of feeling between a lady and gentleman may be ex- 
pressed by single flowers, as follows: 

The gentleman presents a Red Rose " I love you." The lady 
admits a partial reciprocation of the sentiment by returning- a Purple 
Pansy "You occupy my thoughts." The gentleman presses his suit 
still further by an Everlasting Pea "Wilt thou go with me ?" The 

lady replies by a Daisy, in which she says "I will think of it." The 
gentleman, in his enthusiasm, plucks and presents a Shepherd's Purse 
"I offer you my all." The lady, doubtingly, returns a sprig of Laurel 
" Words, though sweet, may deceive." The gentleman still affirms his 
declaration by a sprig of Heliotrope "I adore you." The lady ad- 
mits a tenderness of sentiment by the Zinnia "I mourn your absence." 


A collection of flowers in a bouquet may mean very much. Thus a 
Rose, Ivy and Myrtle will signify "Beauty, Friendship and Love." A 
Bachelor's Button "Hope, " and a Red Rose "Love, " will indicate that 
" I hope to obtain your love." 


Jonquil Linden. 


Periwinkle Heath. 


White Verbena Wormwood. 

Thus longer and shorter sentences may be readily expressed by 
flower-language; and by agreement, if the variety of flowers is not suf- 
ficient, a change of definition may be given the more common blossoms 
and plants, whereby the language and correspondence may be conducted 
without inconvenience. 

Acacia, Rose Friendship. 

Acanthus Art. 

Adonis, Flos Painful recollections. 

Ag-nus Castus Coldness ; life without 


Agrimony Gratitude. 

Almonds Giddiness; heedless- 

Aloe -Bitterness. 

Amaranth Immortality; Unfad- 

Amaryllis - Beautiful but timid. 

Anemone, Garden. Forsaken; Withered 

hopes; Illness. 

Amethyst Admiration. 

Anemone, Windflower Desertion. 

Angelica Inspiration. 

Apple Blossom Preference. 

Arbor Vitae Unchanging Friend- 

Arbutus Thee only do I love. 

Ash Grandeur. 

Aspen Sighing. 

Asphodel Remembered beyond 

the tomb. 

Aster, Double German ..Variety. 

Aster, Large flowered Afterth'ought; Love of 


Bachelors : Button -Hope; Single Bless- 

Balm, Mint Pleasantry. 

Balm of Gilead Healing; I am cured. 

Balsamine . . -Impatience. 

Barberry -Petulance; HI temper. 

Basil Give me your good 


Bay Leaf I change but in death. 

Beech Lovers' tryst; Pros- 

Begonia Deformed. 

Bindweed Humility; Nieht. 

r, El 
Bittersweet Nightshade. Truth. 

Birch Grace; Elegance. 

Blackthorn, or Sloe Difficulties. 

Bladder Tree Frivolous amusement 

Flowers and their Sentiment. 

Blue Bell - Constancy. 

Blue Bottle Delicacy. 

Borage Abruptness. 

Box Stoicism. 

Briers Envy. 

Broom. Neatness; Humility. 

Bryony, Black Be my support. 

Buckbean Calmness ; Repose. 

Bugloss Falsehood. 

Bulrush Docility. 

Burdock .Touch me not; Impor- 

Buttercup Riches; Memories of 


Cabbage Profit 

Calla Delicacy; Modesty. 

Camillia .Gratitude; Perfect 


Camomile Energy in Adver- 

Candytuft Indifference; Archi- 

Canterbury Bell Constancy. 

Cardinal Flower Distinction; Prefer- 

Carnation Pure and deep love. 

China Aster Love of variety. 

Cedar Leaf I live for thee. 

Cherry A good education. 

Chestnut Do me justice. 

Cereus, Night Blooming.Transient Beauty. 

Chiccory Frugality ; Economy. 

Chrysanthemum A heart left to desola- 

Cinnamon Tree Forgiveness of inju- 

Cinquefoil A beloved daughter. 

Cistus Surety. 

Clover, Red Industry. 

Clematis Mental Beauty; Ar- 

Clover, White I promise. 

Clover, Four Leaved Be mine. 

Cockle Vain is beauty without 


Coltsfoot -Justice shall be done 


Columbine, Red Anxious and trem- 

Coreopsis Always cheerful. 

Coriander. Hidden merit. 

Corn. Riches; Abundance. 

Cornelian, Cherry -Continuance; Dura- 

Cowslip .Native grace; Pen- 


Coxcomb Foppery. 

Crocus. Cheerfulness. 

Cresses Stability. 

Crowfoot Ingratitude. 

Currant Thy frown will kill me 

Crown, Imperial Power ; Pride of birth 

Cucumber Criticism. 

Cypress -Despair ; Mourning. 

Dahlia Di guity and elegance. 

Daffodil Unrequited love. 

Daisy, Garden I sihare your feelings. 

Daisy, Single Field I will think of it. 

Dandelion Oracle ; Coquetry. 

Datura.. Deceitful charms. 

Dew Plant Serenade. 

Dittany of Crete Birth. 

Dodder Meanness; Baseness. 

Ebony Tree Blackness. 

Eglantine Poetry; I wound to 


Elder Compassion. 

Elecampane Tears. 

Everlasting Al wavs remembered. 

Everlasting Pea Wilt thou go with me ? 

Fennel Force ; Strength. 

Fern ...Sincerity. 

Fir Elevation. 

Flax I feel your benefits. 

Flos, Adonis Painful recollections. 

Forget-me-not ..Do not forget. 

Foxglove -Insincerity; Occupa- 

Fraxinella Fire. 

Fuchsia Taste; Frugality. 



Gentian Intrinsic worth. 

Geranium, Ivy I engage you for the 

next dance. 

Geranium, Oak A melancholy mind. 

Geranium, Rose I prefer you. 

Geranium, Scarlet Silliness. 

Gillyflower, Common Lasting Beauty. 

Gillyflower, Stock Promptness. 

Gladiolus Ready armed. 

Goats' Rue Reason. 

Gold Basket Tranquility. 

Gooseberry Anticipation. 

Grape Vine Intemperance. 

Grass Utility ; Submission. 

Greek Valerian Rupture. 

Golden Rod Encouragement. 

Gorse, or Turze Anger. 

Harebell Retirement ; Grief. 

Hawthorn Hope. 

Hazel Reconciliation. 

Heath Solitude. 

Heliotrope ladore you ; Devotion 

Henbane Blemish ; Fault. 

Hibiscus Delicate beauty. 

Hoarhound Fire. 

Holly Am I forgotten? Fore- 

Hollyhock Fecundity ; Ambition. 

Honey Flower Sweet and secret love. 

Hone ysuckle Devoted love ; Fidelity 

Hop Injustice. 

Hornbean Ornament. 

Horse Chestnut Luxury. 

Houstania Innocence ; Content. 

Houseleek Domestic economy. 

Hyacinth Constancy ; Benevo- 

Hydrangea Vain-glory; Heart- 


Ice Plant Your looks freeze me. 

Indian Plum Privation. 

Iris, Common Garden A message for thee. 

Iris, German Flame. 

Ivy Friendship; Marriage 

Jasmine, White Amiability. 

Jasmine, Yellow Grace and elegance. 

Jonquil Desire; Affection re- 

Jumper Asylum; Aid; Pro. 


Laburnum Pensive beauty. 

Ladyslipper Capricious beauty. 

Larch Boldness; Audacity. 

Larkspur, Pink Lightness; Fickleness 

Laurel, American Words, though sweet, 

may deceive. 

Lantana Rigor. 

Laurel, Mountain Glory; Victory; Am- 

Laurestine I die if neglected. 

Lavatera Svveet disposition. 

Lavender Mistrust. 

Lemon Blossom Prudence; Discretion. 

Lettuce Cold hearted; Cool- 

Lichen Dejection. 

Lilac, Purple First emotions of love 

Lilac, White Youth. 

Lily, Water Eloquence. 

Lily, White Majesty; Purity. 

Lily of the Valley Return of happiness. 

Linden, or Lime Conjugal; Marriage. 

Liverwort Confidence. 

Locust Tree, Green Lovebeyond the grave 

Lotus Leaf. Recantation. 

Lucern Life. 

Lupine Dejection. 

Madder Calumny. 

Magnolia Love of Nature. 

Maiden Hair Discretion. 

Marjoram Blushes. 

Manchineel Tree Falseness. 

Mandrake Rarity. 

Maple Reserve. 

Marigold Sacred affection. 

Marigold, Garden I Grief; Chagrin. 

Marigold, Rainv A storm. 

Marigold and Cypress Despair. 

Marshmallow Beneficence. 

Marvel of Peru Timidity. 

Mayflower Welcome. 

Meadow Saffron My best days are past 

Mezercon Desire to please. 

Mignonette Your qualities sur- 
pass your charms. 

Milfoil. War. 

Mint .Virtue. 

Milkweed Hope in misery. 

Mistletoe I surmount everything 

Mock Orange Counterfeit; Uncer- 

Monkshood Treachery; A foe is 


Morning Glory Coquetry; Affection. 

Mountain Ash I watch over you. 

Moss Maternal love. 

Mourning Bride I have lost all. 

Mug wort Good luck ; Happiness 

Mulberry, Black I shall not survive you 

Mulberry, White Wisdom. 

Mullen Good nature. 

Mushroom Suspicion. 

Musk Plant ..Weakness. 

Myrtle Love in Absence. 

Myrrh - Gladness. 

Narcissus Egotism ; Self-Love. 

Nasturtium Patriotism ; Splendor 

Nettle Cruelty. 

Nightshade Dark thoughts; Sor- 

Oak Hospitality; Bravery. 

Oleander Beware. 

Olive Peace. 

Orange Flower Chastity. 

Orchis, Bee Error. 

Orchis, Spider Skill. 

Osier '. .Frankness. 

Osmunda .Reverie. 

Oxalis Wood sorrel. 

Pansy, Purple You occupy my 


Parsley Festivity ; Banquet. 

Passion Flower Devotion; Religious 


Peach Blossom I am your captive. 

Peony Ostentation; Anger. 

Persimmons Bury me amid Na- 
ture's beauties. 

Peppermint Warmth of feeling. 

Pennyroyal Flee away. 

Periwinkle .Sweet memories. 

Phlox.. Our hearts are united. 

Pimpernel Rendezvous ; Change. 

Pine Endurance; Daring. 

Pine Apple You are perfect. 

Pink, Red Pure love. 

Plane, or Platane Geni us. 

Plum Tree Keep your promises. 

Plum, Wild Independence. 

Polyanthus Heart's mystery 

Pomegranate Conceit. 

Pompion, or Pumpkin Crossness; Coarseness 

Poplar, Black Courage. 

Poplar, White Time. 

Poppy, Corn Consolation. 

Poppy, White Sleep; Oblivion. 

Potatoe Benevolence. 

Primrose Modest worth; Silent 


Privit, or Prim Prohibition. 

Purple Scabious .Mourning. 

Queen of the Meadow Uselessness. 

Quince Temptation. 

Ranunculus, Garden You are radiant with 


Reeds Music. 

Rest Harrow Obstacle. 

Rhododendron Agitation. 

Rhubarb Advice. 

Rosebud Confession of love. 

Rosebud, White Too young to love. 

Rose, Cinnamon Without pretension. 

Rose, Hundred leaved. ..The graces. 

Rose, Austrian Thou art all that is 


Rose Leaf. I never trouble. 

Rose, Monthly Beauty ever new. 

Rose, Moss Superior merit; Vo- 

Rose, Musk Capricious beauty. 

Rose, Red I Jove you. 

Rose, White ..Silence. 

Rose, Wild, Single Simplicity. 

Rose, Yellow Infidelity ; Unfaithful - 


Rosemary Remembrance; Your 

presence revives me 

Rue Disdain. 

Rush Docility. 

Saffron , Meadow My best days are past. 

Saffron^ Crocus Do not abuse me. 

Sage Domestic Virtue ; Es- 

St. John's Wort Animosity. 

Sardonia Irony. 

Satin Flower Forgetfulness. 

Scratch Weed Roughness. 

Scotch Thistle Retaliation. 

Sensitive Plant Sensitiveness; Mod- 

Serpent Cactus Horror. 

Service Tree, or Sorb Prudence. 

Shepherd's Purse I offer you myall. 

Silver Weed. Naivete". 

Snapdragon Presumption. 

Snowball Goodness ; Thoughts 

of Heaven. 

Snowdrop Consolation ; A friend 

in adversity. 

Sorrel Parental Affection. 

Speedwell 9 Fidelity. 

Spindle Tree Your charms are gra- 
ven on my heart. 

Star of Bethlehem Reconciliation; Pu- 

Straw, Broken Quarrel. 

Straw Agreement; United. 

Strawberry Perfect excellence. 

Sumach Splendid misery. 

Sunflower, Tall Lofty and wise 


Sunflower. False riches. 

Sunflower, Dwarf. Adoration. 

Sweet Flag Fitness. 

Sweet Pea A meeting. 

Sweet Sultan Happiness. 

Sweet William ...Gallantry; Finesse; 


Syringa Memory ; Fraternal 


Sycamore Curiosity. 

Tare Vice. 

Teasel Misanthropy. 

Thistle Austerity. 

Thorn Apple Disguise. 

Thrift Sympathy. 

Thyme Activity. 

Tremella Resistance. 

Tube Rose Dangerous Pleasure; 

Sweet voice. 

Tulip, Variegated .Beautiful eyes. 

Tulip, Red Declaration of love. 

Valerian, Common. Accommodating dis- 

Valerian.. Facility. 

Venus's Looking Glass. .Flattery. 

Verbena Sensibility; Sensitive- 

Verbena, Purple 1 weep for you; Re- 

Verbena, White Prav for me. 

Vervain ..Enchantment. 

Vernal Grass Poor, but happy. 

Vetch I cling to thee. 

Violet, Blue Faithfulness. 

Violet, White Purity ; Candor ; Mod - 


Volkamenia May you be happy. 

Wall Flower Fidelity in misfor- 

Weeping Willow Melancholy. 

Wheat Wealth. 

Whortleberry Treachery. 

Willow, Common Forsaken. 

Willow Herb Pretension. 

Wood Sorrel , Joy. 

Woodbine Fraternal love. 

Wormwood Absence. 

Yarrow .Cure for the heart- 

Yew. Sadness. 

Zinnia. .. I mourn your absence. 


Names of Men, Alphabetically Arranged. 







N;ili um. 










































































Cad wallader. 

























































































































Clark. . 













Lyman. . 






















































































































































































































































Names of Women, Alphabetically Arranged. 






































































































































































Faustina. i 





































































































































































Jolt anna. 

M anal a. 






















































Aurelia. Corinna. 





HE individual is frequently called 
upon for his or her autograph. In 
complying, it is customary to 
couple with the same a senti- 
ment, signing the name beneath. 
If the matter written is original, 
be it long or short, it is usually 
more highly valued. If a brief selection 
be made, some of the following quotations 
may be appropriate : 

NATURE! though blessed and bright are thy 

O'er the brow of creation enchantingly thrown, 
Yet faint are they all to the luster that plays 
In a smile from the heart that is dearly our 


IAKE heart, nor of the laws of fate complain, 
Though now 'tis cloudy, *t will clear up again. 

SO far is it from being true that men are naturally equal, that no 
two people can be half an hour together but one shall acquire 
evident superiority over the other. 

IF others be as fair, 
What are their charms to me? 
I neither know nor care, 
For thou art all to me. 

PURCHASE not friends by gifts; when thou ceasest to give, such 
A will cease to love. 

OMALL service is true service while it lasts ; 
^ Of friends, however humble, scorn not one : 
The daisy, by the shadow that it casts, 

Protects the lingering dew-drop from the sun. 

LD Time will end our story, 
But no time, if we end well, will end our glory. 

'PHE most delicate, the most sensible of all pleasures, consists in 
I- promoting the pleasures of others. 


ND what is fame? the meanest have their day; 
The greatest can but blaze and pass away. 

AH! could you look into my heart 
And watch your image there! 
You would own the sunny loveliness 
Affection, makes it wear. 


E who labors with the mind governs others ; he who labors with 
the body is governed by others. 

'"INHERE is pleasure in the pathless woods, 
A There is rapture on the lonely shore, 

There is society, where none intrudes, 

By the deep Sea, and music in its roar: 
I love not Man the less, but Nature more. 


E who surpasses or subdues mankind, 
Must look down on the hate of those below. 

LET us deal very gently with the erring. We should always re- 
member that had we been born with a like unfortunate organiza- 
tion, and been trained amid as unfavorable circumstances, we would 
have done as badly ourselves. 

! DEEMED that time, I deemed that Pride 
Had quenched at length my boyish flame; 
Nor knew, till seated by thy side, 

My heart in all, save hope, the same. 

EARTH holds no other like to thee, 
Or if it doth, in vain for me. 

OH! many a shaft, at random sent, 
Finds mark the archer little meant; 
And many a word, at random spoken, 
May soothe or wound a heart that 's broken. 

T^HOSE who have finished by making others think with them, have 
A usually been those who began by daring to think with themselves. 

DESIRE not to live long, but to live well; 
How long we live, not years, but actions tell. 


HO does the best his circumstance allows, 
Does well, acts nobly; angels could do no more. 

AH, well! for us all some sweet hope lies 
Deeply buried from human eyes; 
And, in the hereafter, angels may 
Roll the stone from its grave away. 

HE who sedulously attends, pointedly asks, calmly speaks, coolly 
answers, and ceases when he has no more to say, is in the pos- 
session of some of the best requisites of man. 

OOMETIME, when all life's lessons have been learned, 

^ And sun and stars forever more have set, 

The things which our weak judgments here have spurned, 

The things o'er which we grieved with lashes wet, 
Will flash before us out of life's dark night, 

As stars shine most in deeper tints of blue ; 
And we shall see how all God's plans were right, 

And how what seemed reproof was love most true. 


erase these simple rhymes, 
If ever you read any, 

And think of me, sometimes, 
Among the many ! 

nffiray you through life remain the same, 
=* Unchanged in all except your name. 

Scrond Memory, come and hover o'er 
^^ This album page of my fair friend; 
Enrich her from thy precious store, 

And happy recollections send. 
If on this page she chance to gaze 

In years to come where'er she be 
Tell her of earlier happy days, 
And bring her back one thought of me. 

JEVhen I, poor elf, shall have vanished in vapor, 
&r May still my memory live on paper. 

d|_s half in shade, and half in sun, 
*=*T- This world along its path advances, 
Oh ! may that side the sun shines on 

Be all that ever meets thy glances; 
May Time, who casts his blight on all, 

And daily dooms some joy to death, 
On thee let years so gently fall 

They shall not crush one flower beneath. 

j^s flowers bloom'd in Petrarch's favorite grove, 
vr So glows the heart beneath the smile of love. 

f^ongest joys won't last forever 
i-~> Make the most of every day ; 
Youth and beauty Time will sever, 
But Content hath no decay. 

' care not for beauty, but give me that heart 

1 Where truth has its dwelling, and goodness a part. 

4i s o'er the cold, sepulchral stone 
^o^i- Some name arrests the passer-by, 
So, when thou view'st this page alone, 

Let mine attract thy pensive eye; 
And when by thee that name is read, 

Perchance in some succeeding year, 
Reflect on me as on the dead, 
And think my heart is buried here, 

8f Cupid be blind, as the ancients declare, 

5 'Tis strange he should always recognize the fair. 

tad I the power to carve or print 
Thy future, my dear friend, 
It would be fair and ever bright 
Unclouded to the end. 

fright be the years before thee, 
Friend of my childhood days ; 
Peace weave her olive o'er thee, 
And joy attend thy ways. 

T^rhen on this page you chance to look, 
^y Think of me and close the book. 

fhy memory, as a spell 
Of love, comes o'er the mind; 
As dew upon the purple bell, 

As perfume on the wind, 
As music on the sea, 

As sunshine on the river, 
So hath it always been to me, 
So shall it be forever. 

?ood sense and virtue must prevail 

O'er hearts where wit and beauty fall. 

fhe changeful sand doth only know 
The shallow tide and latest; 
The rocks have marked its highest flow, 

The deepest and the greatest: 
And deeper still the flood-marks grow ; 

So, since the hour I met thee. 
The more the tide of time doth flow, 
The less can I forget thee I 

hen you are gone, oh where has fled my rest? 
When yon are near, I feel supremely bless' d. 

[pair and flowery be thy way, 
& The skies all bright above thee, 
And happier every coming day 
To thee and those that love thee. 

Sweet is the girl who reads this line; 
y I wish her sweetness were all mine! 

jt may occur in after-life 
& That you, I trust, a happy wife, 
Will former happy hours retrace, 
Recall each well-remembered face. 
At such a moment I but ask, 
I hope 'twill be a pleasant task, 
That you'll remember as a friend 
One who'll prove true e'en to the end. 

rost noble and generous, benevolent and free, 

My heart beats with affection and friendship for thee. 

J^ry Album's open I Come and see I 
(oP'What! won't you waste a line on me? 

Write but a thought a word or two, 

That Memory may revert to you. 



t visions of midnight my thoughts are with thee ; 
O say, are thy fancies at midnight with me? 

hose who have written here before, 
Have sung thy praises o'er and o'er; 
And while the flattering verse they made, 
They doubtless felt the words they said. 

I lack the power that they possessed ; 
I stand in weakness here confessed; 
Powerless my feelings to reveal, 
I say much less than what I feel. 

rtf ay all your hours in sweetest bliss be spent, 
* Crowned with friendship, happiness, content. 

fhold it true, whate'er befall 
I feel it when I sorrow most 
'Tis better to have loved and lost, 
Than never to have loved at all. 

f hough Adam was holy, and Eve was fair, 
His happiness lingered till woman was there. 

nrhene'er thine eye shall fondly trace 
T These simple lines I've sketched for thee, 
Whate'er the time, whate'er the place, 
Then wilt thou think of me ? 

fhe stars of heaven are not more true 
Than this unchanging breast to you. 

M|ive for those that love you, 
T-^> For those whose hearts are true, 
For the Heaven that smiles above you 
And the good that you may do. 

rake care of these verses, preserve them awhile, 
? And some tedious hour they may help to beguile. 

pjrysterious maid! uncertain treasure, 
^ Thou bring' st more of pain or pleasure; 
Endless torments dwell about thee, 
Yet who would live, and live without thee? 

Mjror weeks may pass and years may end, 
* "% Yet you will find in me a friend. 

the storms of life, 
When you need an umbrella, 
May you have to uphold it 
A handsome young fellow. 

rhen the billows roll and waves around me rise, 
One thought of thee will clear the darkest skies. 

&|_s life flows on from day to day, 
^^ And this, your book, soon fills, 
How many may be far away 
From treasured vales and hills? 

But there is joy in future time 

To turn the pages o'er, 
And see within a name or rhyme, 

From one you'll see no more. 

jhe virtues of modesty, candor and truth, 
In woman exceed all the beauty of youth. 

rhy should I blush to own I love? 

'Tis love that rules the realms above. 
Why should I blush to say to all 
That virtue holds my heart in thrall? 

fhe girl of my choice must be free from disguise, 

Show her heart in her face and her soul in her eyes. 

fcStfrany years may come and go, 
{=- Many faces greet the sight, 
But among them none can show 
One like you to me so bright. 

,(8< ay, when I plough the watery deep, 
-^ Wilt thou this slight memento keep? 

-fVjftVhen in the course of human life, 
e; Five things observe with care ; 

To whom you speak, of whom you speak, 
How, when, and where. 

^Vhen the charms of thy youth and thy beauty are gone, 
e-T Then goodness and virtue thy face will adorn. 

-Mrrithin the oyster- shell, unsought, 
e; The purest crystals hide ; 

Trust me, you'll find a heart sincere 
Within the rough outside. 

i trive to keep the " Golden Rule,' and learn your les- 
" sons well at school. 



A| little health, a little wealth, 
^^ A little house and freedom; 

A few good friends for certain ends, 
And little use to need them. 

,@ome write for pleasure, some write for fame, but I 
-iy write simply to sign my name. 

jfflrtray you live in bliss, from sorrow away, 
sS^" Having plenty laid up for a rainy day ; 
And when you are ready to settle in life, 
May you find a good husband and make a good wife. 

g^tount that day lost whose low descending sun, views 
^ from thy hand nc worthy action done. 

f'~*" J hink of me when you are happy, 
Keep for me one little spot; 
In the depth of thine affection 
Plant a sweet " Forget-me-not. " 

jjSfrreanness shun and all its train; goodness seek and 
<oM" life is gain. 

f' Jtj hese few lines to you are tendered, 
T. . ;, i ,. 

By a friend, sincere and true; 

Hoping but to be remembered 
When I'm far away from you. 

fs it vain in life's wide sea, to ask you to remember me? 
Undoubtedly it is my lot, just to be known and then 

is your name, 

And single is your station, 
Happy will be the man 
Who makes the alteration. 

j-n the golden chain of friendship regard me as a link. 

iwjThink of me in the hour of leisure, 
T- Think of me in the hour of care, 
Think of me in the hour of pleasure, 

Spare me one thought in the hour of prayer. 

tfflsTot to go back is somewhat to advance. 

hen far away by love you're carried, 
And to some little fellow married, 

Remember me for friendship's sake, 
And send me a piece of wedding cake. 

{M5r av happiness ever be thy lot 
<3r- Wherever thou shalt be, 

And joy and pleasure light the spot 
That may be home to thee. 

remember me when "far, far off, where the wood- 
chncks die of whooping cough. " 

~<*s This wayward, loveless hea-t, it would be thine; 
But, check'd by every tie, I may not dare 
To cast a worthless offering at thy shrine. 

te is a coward who will not turn back, when first he 
discovers he's on the wrong track. 

jjSjJray heaven protect and keep thee 
r From every sorrow free, 

And grant thee every blessing 
My earnest wish for thee. 

JjjS thought, I thought, I thought in vain ; at last I thought 
e) I would write my name. 

^rGjrThen the golden sun is setting, 

& And your heart from care is free, 

When o'er a thousand things you're thinking, 
Will yon sometimes think of me? 

-/Tvjrrithin this book so pure and white, let none but 

aT friends presume to write ; and may each line, with 

friendship given, direct the reader's thoughts to heaven. 

f hough the lapse of years can change 
Cherished friendship to deceit, 
After all, within its range, 
I'm your friend whene'er we meet. 

rsTever trouble trouble, till trouble troubles you. 


\h, woman : Subtle, lovely, faithless sex ! 

' Born to enchant, thou studiest to perplex ; 
Ador'd as queen, thou play'st the tyrant's part, 
And, taught to govern, would'st enslave the heart. 

ul smooth sea never made a skillful mariner. 

ray He, who clothes the lilies 
k And marks the sparrow's fall. 
Protect and save you, Bella, 
And guide you safe through all." 




O be loved is the instinctive desire of 
every human heart. To be respected, to 
be honored, to be successful, is the uni- 
versal ambition. The ever constant desire 
of all is to be happy. This never varying 
instinct lies at the foundation of every ac- 
tion ; it is the constantly propelling force in our 
every effort. 

To be happy, we strive for the acquisition of 
wealth, for position and place, for social and po- 
litical distinction. And when all is obtained, the 
real enjoyment in its possession comes from the 
thousand little courtesies that are exchanged be- 
tween individuals pleasant words and kindly 
acts, which the poor may enjoy as well as the rich. 

In reality it need not take much to 
make one happy. Our real wants are 
very few. To be fed and clothed, and 
provided with comfortable shelter, are the 
prime necessities. Added to these are 
kindness and love from those with whom 
we associate. Given all these, with a con- 
tented spirit, and, however lowly our posi- 
tion, we may be very happy. 

There is one perpetual law, however, running 
through all our intercourse with others, which is 
that we may rightly possess nothing without ren- 
dering therefor just compensation. This law is 
recognized in the commercial world, and it should 
be strictly observed in the etiquette of social life. 



In short, in the many varied amenities of life, 
the fundamental rule of action should be the 
golden rule: " To do unto others as we would 
that others should do unto us." 

We are at ease, we are made peaceful, satis- 
fied and happy, by words and acts of kindly feel- 
ing extended to us; and in like manner we may 
strew the pathway of others with roses and sun- 
shine, by courteous action, and kind, gentle and 
loving conduct; to do which may cost us no 
effort, but on the contrary may afford us real 

In a business, social and artistic view, it is of 
very great advantage to most people to be pos- 
sessed of ease and grace of manner. By the 
possession of confidence and self-command, a sin- 
gle individual will oftentimes cause a large com- 
pany, that otherwise would be socially very inhar- 
monious, to be satisfied, composed and perfectly 
at ease; and in a thousand ways such a person 
will scatter happiness and blessings among those 
with whom he or she may come in contact. 

Natural and Acquired Politeness. 

To some, a pleasing manner comes very natu- 
rally. If born to the possession of an easy flow 
of language, agreeableness of address, poetical 
and imaginative power, and large knowledge of 
human nature, the whole accompanied by judi- 
cious training, good education and wide oppor- 
tunities, such persons will most surely, without 
studied effort, be self-possessed and at ease in any 
company, upon any occasion. 

On the contrary, if the natural advantages 
have been few, and the opportunities for acquir- 
ing polished deportment limited, then we may 
very appropriately make a study of the subject 
of how to please; and hence the necessity for 
special instruction on the subject of Etiquette. 

It is of the utmost importance, however, that 
there be no labored effort to behave by rule, and 
that the forms of etiquette be not carried too tar. 
The law of common sense should rest at the basis 
of our intercourse with society, and a kindly de- 
sire to make happy everybody with whom we 

come in contact, should actuate our conduct. 
Still, with all this, there are thousands of people 
of the kindest intentions, with much breadth of 
intellect, who continually violate the common 
usages of society, and who are liable to do the 
wrong thing at important times, and thus em- 
barrass their warmest friends. Hence, the need 
of a treatise on general conduct is evidently as 
much a necessity as is the text-book on grammar, 
penmanship or mathematics. 

If the soldier is more efficient by drill, the 
teacher more competent by practice, the parlia- 
mentarian more influential by understanding the 
code of parliamentary law, then equally is the 
general member of society more successful by 
an understanding of the laws of etiquette, which 
teach how to appear, and what to do and say in 
the varied positions in which we may be placed. 

In the study of etiquette, much may be learned 
by observation, but much more is learned by 
practice. "We may listen to the finest oratory 
for a dozen years, and yet never be able to speak 
in public ourselves ; whereas, by practice in the 
art of declamation, with passable talent, we may 
become quite proficient in half that time. We 
may thoroughly study the theory and art of lan- 
guage for twenty years, and yet be very poor 
talkers. We may practice the art of conversa- 
tion by familiar and continuous intercourse with 
the cultured and refined, and become fluent and 
easy in communicating thought in a few years. 

Such is the difference between theory and 
practice. Both are necessary the former in 
pointing the way; the latter by making use of 
theory in practical application. Thus we may 
acquire ease and grace of manner: First, by un- 
derstanding the regulations which govern social 
etiquette; and secondly, by a free intermingling 
in society, putting into continual practice the the- 
ories which we understand. To avail ourselves, 
however, to the fullest extent of society advan- 
tages, we must have acquaintance; and hence, we 
introduce the rules of etiquette by a chapter on 
the forms of presentation the art of getting 





howing the Means by which People are Gracefully and Easily 

Introduced to One Another. Pleasant Acquaintance 

Made, Resulting often in Lasting Friendship. 

HERE are various forms of 
introduction to be used, each 
depending on particular cir- 
cumstances. Thus, when 
introducing a gentleman to a 
lady, the party introducing them 
will say, bowing to each as the name of 
each is pronounced, "Miss Williamson, 
allow me to introduce to you my friend 
Mr. Grant; Mr. Grant, Miss Williamson. " 

Some prefer the word "present"' instead of 
the word "introduce." The choice of words is 
not-material. The form is all that is essential. 
Of two gentlemen being introduced, one of whom is more eminent 
in position, look first at the elder or superior, with a slight bow, 
saying, "Mr. Dunham, I make you acquainted with 
Mr. Stevens ; Mr. Stevens, Mr. Dunham. " 

The last clause, repeating the names, "Mr Stevens, 
Mr. Dunham," may be justly regarded as a useless 
formality, and is not necessary unless for the purpose 
of making the names more distinct by their repetition. 
Persons being introduced have an opportunity for 
conversation, and are immediately set at ease by the 
person introducing giving the place of residence and the 
business of each, with the introduction, thus: "Mr. 
Snow, allow me to make you acquainted with Mr. Bur- 
ton. Mr. Burton is extensively engaged in mining 
in Colorado. Mr. Snow is one of our lawyers in this city. " He 
may still continue, if he wishes to aid those whom he is introducing, 
by saying, "Mr. Burton comes East for the purpose of disposing of 
mining stock to some of our capitalists, and it is possible, Mr. Snow, 
that with your large acquaintance you can give him some information 
that will aid him." Such an introduction will immediately lead to 
a general conversation between the parties, and the person having 
introduced them can then retire if he so desires. 

It is always gratifying to any one to be highly esteemed, hence you 
will confer pleasure by always conveying as favorable an impres- 
sion as possible when giving the introduction. 

Always apply the titles when making introductions, where the 

persons are entitled to the same, as Honorable, Reverend, Professor, 
etc. Thus, in introducing a clergyman to a member of the legisla- 
ture, it is etiquette to say: " Mr. Shelden, permit me to present to 
you the Reverend Mr. Wing." Addressing Mr. Shelden, he says: 
"Mr. Wing is the pastor of the First Presbyterian church at Troy, 
New York. " Addressing Mr. Wing, he continues: "Mr. Shelden 
is at present our representative in the State Legislature, and author 
of the ' Shelden Letters ' which you have so admired. " 

If there are many introductions to be made, the simple words, 
"Mr. Smith, Mr. Jones," will serve the purpose. Mr. Smith and 
Mr. Jones will then take up the weather or some other topic, and 
proceed with their conversation. A \jery proper reply for either 
party to make when introduced is, " I am glad to meet you," or, " I 
am happy to make your acquaintance." 

If several persons are introduced to one, mention the name of the 
single individual but once, as follows: "Mr. Belden, 
allow me to introduce Mr. Maynard, Mr. Thompson, 
Miss Hayward, Mrs. Rice, Mr. Harmon, Mr. Brown," 
bowing to each as the name is mentioned. 

When introdncing a couple that may be somewhat 
diffident, the parties will be materially aided in becom- 
ing sociable and feeling at ease, by a very full introduc- 
tion, thus: "Miss Kennicott, allow me to present to 
you my friend Miss Swift. Miss Kennicott is from the 
far-famed city of New Haven, Connecticut; and, upon 
the close of her visit here, is going to California for a 
visit of a year. Miss Swift is from Buffalo, New York, 
and is attending Hopedale Seminary in this city. " 

General Suggestions About Introductions. 

Ladies being introduced should never bow hastily, but with slow 
and measured dignity. 

The inferior is to be introduced to the superior; the younger to 
the older; the gentleman to the lady. 

It is the lady's privilege to recognize the gentleman after an 
introduction, and his duty to return the bow. 

Introductions on the streets or in public places should be made so 
| quietly as not to attract public attention. 

Introduction on the Street. 



Perfect ease and self-possession are the essentials to the making 
and receiving of graceful and happy introductions. 

Etiquette requires that a gentleman always raise his hat when 
introduced to either a lady or gentleman on the street. 

Introduce to each other only those who may flnd acquaintance 
agreeable. If any doubt exists on the subject, inquire beforehand. 

When introducing parties pronounce the names distinctly. If 
you fail to understand the name when introduced, feel at liberty to 

One of the duties of the host and hostess of a private party is to 
make the guests acquainted with each other. Guests may, however, 
make introductions. 

Introductions are often dispensed with at a private ball, it being 
taken for granted that only those are invited who ought to be 
acquainted. Thus acquaintance may begin without formal introduc- 
tion. If upon any occasion you are introduced at a friend's house 
to even your bitterest enemy, courtesy requires that you salute him, 
or her, and give no sign of ill-feeling while you are the guest of 
your friend. 

If casually introduced to a stranger, when making a call at the 
house of a friend, etiquette does not require a subsequent recognition. 
It is optional with the parties whether the acquaintance be continued 
or not after such accidental meeting and 

Always pronounce the surname when giving 
the introduction. To be introduced to "my 
cousin Carrie " leaves the stranger at a loss 
how to address the .lady. In introducing a 
relative, it is well to say, "My brother, Mr. 
Wells;" "My mother, Mrs. Briggs," etc. 

To shake hands when introduced is op- 
tional; between gentlemen it is common, and 
oftentimes between an elderly and a young 
person. It is not common between an unmar- 
ried lady and a gentleman, a slight bow 
between them when introduced being all that 
etiquette requires. 

The married lady will use her discretion 
when introduced to gentlemen. Two persons 
meeting on the street, accompanied by friends, 
may stop and speak to each other without the 

necessity of introducing their friends, though, when parting, it is 
courtesy for each to give a friendly salutation as though acquaintance 
had been formed. 

Parties who may meet by chance at your house, when making calls, 
need not necessarily be introduced to each other. If, however, they 
continue their calls together, it may be agreeable to make them 
acquainted in order to more pleasantly carry forward conversation. 

If yon are a gentleman, do not let the lack of an introduction pre- 
vent you from rendering services to any unattended lady who may 
need them. Politely offer your protection, escort or assistance, and, 
when the service has been accomplished, graciously bow and retire. 

A visitor at your house should be introduced to the various callers, 
and the acquaintance should continue while the friend remains your 
guest. All callers should aim to make the visit of the friend as 
pleasant as possible, treating the guest as they would wish their 
friends to be treated under similar circumstances. 

If thrown into the company of strangers, without the formality of 
an introduction, as fs often the case when traveling and at other 
times, acquaintance may be formed between gentlemen and ladies, 
with proper reserve, but duty requires that the slightest approach 
toward undue familiarity should be checked by dignified silence. 

Street Salutation 

Persons who have been properly introduced have claims upon the 
acquaintance of each other which should call for at least a slight rec- 
ognition thereafter, unless there be very decided reasons for cutting 
the acquaintance entirely. To completely ignore another to whom 
you have been rightly introduced, by meeting the person with a 
vacant stare, is a mark of ill-breeding. 

Introductions at Court and Presidential Receptions. 

In paying your respects to the President of the United States, you 
will be introduced by the master of ceremonies on public occasions. 
At other times, to send in your card will secure you audience, although 
the better way is to be introduced by a mutual acquaintance, or a 
member of Congress. Introductions at Court in foreign countries 
are accompanied by a good deal of formality. At the English Court, 
the stranger, having the credential of the American Ambassador, will 
be introduced, if a lady, by a lady; if a gentleman, by a gentleman. 
Elsewhere abroad the proper method in each case can be best learned 
from our national representative at each capital. Court etiquette 
requires that the lady appear in full dress, and the gentleman in 
black suit, with white vest, gloves and necktie. 

Forms of Salutation. 

Common forms of salutation, in America, are the bow, the kiss, 
words of address, and shaking hands. 

Acquaintances are usually entitled to the 
courtesy of a bow. It is poor policy to refuse 
recognition because of a trifling difference 
between parties. 

The young lady should show similar defer- 
ence to an elderly lady, or to one in superior 
position, 'that a gentleman does to a lady. 

A gentleman who may be smoking when he 
meets a lady should, in bowing, remove the 
cigar from his mouth and from her presence. 

When bowing to ladies, it is etiquette for 
the gentleman to raise his hat from his head. 
If passing on the street, the hat should be 
raised and salute given with the hand farthest 
from the person addressed. 

A bow or graceful inclination should be 
made by ladies when recognizing their ac- 
quaintances of the opposite sex. It is the privilege of the lady 
to bow first. 

A gentleman on horseback should grasp whip and reins in his left 
hand, and raise his hat with his right, when saluting a lady. The 
lady salutes by bowing slightly. 

To a casual acquaintance you may bow without speaking; but to 
those with whom you are well acquainted greater cordiality is due. 
A bow should always be returned; even to an enemy it is courtesy 
to return the recognition. 

When a gentleman, accompanied by a friend, meets a lady upon 
the street, it is courtesy in the salutation for the gentleman's friend 
to bow slightly to the lady also, as a compliment to his companion, 
even though unacquainted with the lady. 

On meeting a party, some of whom you are intimately acquainted 
with, and the others but little, the salutation should be made as 
nearly equal as possible. A slight recognition of some and great 
demonstration of pleasure toward others is a violation of etiquette. 

A gentleman should return a bow made him on the street, even if 
the one making the same is not recognized. The person may possi- 
bly be a forgotten acquaintance; but, even if a mistake has been 



made, there will be less embarrassment if the bow is returned. 

A gentleman should not bow from a window to a lady on the street, 
though he may bow slightly from the street upon being recognized 
hy a lady in a window. Such recognition should, however, gener- 
ally be avoided, as gossip is likely to attach undue importance to it 
whc-ii seen by others. 

A warm cordiality of manner, and a general recognition of acquaint- 
ances, without undue familiarity, is a means of diffusing much 
happiness, as well as genial and friendly feeling. In thinly-settled 
localities the habit of bowing to every one yon meet is an excellent 
one, evincing, as it does, kindliness of feeling toward all. 

When meeting a lady who is a stranger, in a hallway, upon a stair- 
case, or in close proximity elsewhere, courtesy demands a bow from 
the gentleman . In passing up a stairway, the lady will pause at the 
foot and allow the gentleman to go first; and at the head of the stair- 
way he should bow, pause, and allow her to precede him in the 

How to Address Others Nicknames. 

Use the title, when speaking to others, whenever possible. Thus, 
addressing John Brown, a Justice of the Peace, say "Squire;" Dr. 
Bell you will address as "Doctor;" Mayor Williams, as "Mayor;" 
Senator Snow, as "Senator;" Governor Smith, as "Governor;" 
Professor Stevens, as "Professor," etc. 

Before all public bodies, take pains to address those in authority 
very respectfully, saying to the presiding officer, "Mr. President," 
orif he be a Mayor, Judge, or Justice, address him as "Your Honor," 

When stopping at the house of a friend, ascertain the Christian i 
names of all the children, and of those servants that you frequently 
have to address ; and then always speak respectfully to each, using 
the full Christian name, or any pet name to which they may be 

To approach another in a boisterous manner, saying, "Hello, Old 
Fellow!" "Hello, Bob!" or using kindred expressions, indicates ill- 
breeding. If approached, however, in this vulgar manner, it is 
better to give a civil reply, and address the person respectfully, in 
which case he is quite likely to be ashamed of his own conduct. 

Husbands and wives indicate pleasant conjugal relation exist- 

ing where they address each other in the family circle by their 
Christian names, though the terms of respect, "Mr." and "Mrs.," 
may be applied to each among strangers. When speaking of each 
other among near and intimate relatives, they will also use the 
Christiaii name; but among general acquaintances and strangers, 
the surname. 

Never call any one by a nickname, or a disrespectful name. Treat 
all persons, no matter how lowly, in addressing them, as you would 
wish to be addressed yourself. You involuntarily have more respect 
for people, outside of your family or relatives, who ca.ll you "Mr. 
Smith," or "Mr. Jones," than for those who call you "Jack," or 
"Jim. " Hence, when you speak to others, remember that you gain 
their favor by polite words of address. 

When speaking to a boy under fifteen years of age, outside of the 
circle of relatives, among comparative strangers, call him by his 
Christian name, as "Charles," "William," etc. Above that age, if 
the boy has attained good physical and intellectual development, 
apply the "Mr. " as "Mr. Brown," "Mr. King," etc. To do so 
will please him, will raise his self-respect, and will be tendering a 
courtesy, which you highly valued when you were of the same age. 

It is an insult to address a boy or girl, who is a stranger to you, as 
"Bub" or "Sis." Children are sometimes very sensitive on these 
points, resenting such method of being addressed, while they very 
highly appreciate being spoken to respectfully. Thus, if the child's 
name is unknown, to say "My Boy," or "My Little Lad," My Girl," 
or "My Little Lady," will be to gain favor and set the child a good 
example in politeness. Children forever gratefully remember those 
who treat them respectfully. Among relatives, nicknames should 
not be allowed. Pet names among the children are admissible, until 
they outgrow them, when the full Christian name should be used. 

Upon the meeting of intimate friends among ladies, at the private 
house, the kiss as a mode of salutation is yet common ; but even 
there it is not as customary as formerly. The custom ought to be 
abolished for physiological and other reasons. 

Upon the meeting or departure of a young person, as between 
parents and children, or guardians and wards, the kiss is not inappro- 
priate in public. Between all other parties it is a questionable 
propriety in public places, it being etiquette to avoid conduct that 
will attract the attention of strangers. . . 

Etiquette of Shaking Hands Ways of Clasping Hands. 

\ CCOMPANYING the salutation of hand- shaking, it is common, 
L\ according to the customs of English-speaking people, to inquire 
* * concerning the health, news, etc. 

Offer the whole hand. It is an insult, and indicates snobbery, to 
present two fingers (Fig. 1) when shaking hands. It is also insult- 
ing to return a warm, cordial greeting with a lifeless hand ( Fig. 2), 
and evident indifference of 
manner, when hand- shaking. 
Present a cordial grasp (Fig. 
3) and clasp the hand firmly, 
shaking it warmly for a pe- 
riod of two or three seconds, 
and then relinquishing the 

grasp entirely. It is rude to grasp the hand very tightly or to shake 
it over-vigorously. To hold it a very long time is often very em- 
barrassing, and is a breach of etiquette. It is always the lady's 
privilege to extend the hand first. In her own house a lady should 
give her hand to every guest. 

If both parties wear gloves, it is not necessary that each remove 
them in shaking hands; if one, however, has ungloved hands, it is 
courtesy for the other to remove the glove, unless in so doing it 

would cause an awkward pause; in which case apologize for not re- 
moving it, by saying, "Excuse my glove. " The words and forms 
will always very much depend upon circumstances, of which individ- 
uals can themselves best judge. Kid and other thin gloves are not 
expected to be removed in hand-shaking; hence, apology is only 
necessary for the non- removal of the thick, heavy glove. 

As a rule in all salutations, 
it is well not to exhibit too 
much haste. The cool, delib- 
erate person is the most 
likely to avoid mistakes. 
The nervous, quick-motioned 
impulsive individual will 
need to make deliberation a matter of study; else, when acting on 
the spur of the moment, with possibly slight embarrassment, ludi- 
crous errors are liable to be made. In shaking hands, as an evidence 
of cordiality, regard and respect, offer the right hand, unless the 
same be engaged; in which case, apologize, by saying "Excuse my 
left hand." It is the right hand that carries the sword in time of 
war, and its extension is emblematic of friendliness in time of 

Fig 8. The generous, frank, -whole- 
souled indivividual, that meets you 
with a warm, hearty grasp. 


Etiquette of -f Calling. 

HE morning call should be very brief. This formal call 
is mainly one of ceremony, and from ten to twenty 
minutes is a sufficient length of time to prolong it. 
It should never exceed half an hour. 

In making a formal call, a lady does not remove her 
bonnet or wraps. 

Unless there be a certain evening set apart for receiv- 
ing, the formal call should be made in the morning. 

It is customary, according to the code of etiquette, 
to call all the hours of daylight morning, and after 
nightfall evening. 

Calls may be made in the morning or in the evening. The call in the 
morning should not be made before 12 M., nor later than 5 p. M. 

A gentleman, making a formal call in the morning, must retain his 
hat in his hand. He may leave umbrella and cane in the hall, but not 
his hat and gloves. The fact of retaining hat indicates a formal call. 

When a gentleman accompanies a lady 
at a morning call (which is seldom), he 
assists her up the steps, rings the bell, 
and follows her into the reception-room. 
It is for the lady to determine when they 
should leave. 

All uncouth and ungraceful positions 
are especially unbecoming among ladies 
and gentlemen in the parlor. Thus (Fig. 
6), standing with the arms akimbo, sitting 
astride a chair, wearing the hat, and 
smoking in the presence of ladies, lean- 
ing back in the chair, standing with legs 
crossed and feet on the chairs all those 
acts evince lack of polished manners. 

If possible, avoid calling at the lunch 
or dinner hour. Among society people 
the most fashionable hours for calling 
are from 12 M. to 3 p. M. At homes 
where dinner or lunch is taken at noon, 
calls may be made from 2 to 5 P. M. 

Should other callers be announced, it 
is well, as soon as the bustle attending 
the new arrival is over, to arise quietly, 
take leave of the hostess, bow to the 
visitors, and retire, without apparently 
doing so because of the new arrivals. 
This saves the hostess the trouble of en- 
tertaining two sets of callers. 

To say bright and witty things during the call of ceremony, and go so 
soon that the hostess will desire the caller to come again, is much 
the more pleasant. No topic of a political or religious character should 
be admitted to the conversation, nor any subject of absorbing interest 
likely to lead to discussion. 

A lady engaged upon fancy sewing of any kind, or needlework, need 
not necessarily lay aside the same during the call of intimate acquaint- 
ances. Conversation can flow just as freely while the visit continues. 


No. 1. Stands with arms akimbo. 

" 2. Sits with elbows on the knees. 

" 3. Sits astride the chair, and wears 
his hat in the parlor. 

" 4. Stains the wall paper by press- 
ing against it with his hand; 
eats an apple alone, and stands 

During the visits of ceremony, however, strict attention should be given 
to entertaining the callers. 

Gentlemen may make morning calls on the following occasions: To 
convey congratulations or sympathy and condolence, to meet a friend 
who has just returned from abroad, to inquire after the health of a lady 
who may have accepted his escort on the previous day. (He should not 
delay the latter more than a day.) He may call upon those to whom let- 
ters of introduction are given, to express thanks for any favor which 
may have been rendered him, or to return a call. A great variety of cir- 
cumstances will also determine when at other times he should make calls. 

Evening Calls. 

Evening calls should never be made later than 9 P. M., and never pro- 
longed later than 10 P. M. 

In making a formal call in the evening, the gentleman must hold hat 
and gloves, unless invited to lay them aside and spend the evening. 

In making an informal call in the eve- 
ning, a gentleman may leave hat, cane, 
overshoes, etc., in the hall, provided he 
is invited to do so, and the lady may re- 
move her wraps. 

The evening call should not gener- 
ally be prolonged over an hour. With 
very intimate friends, however, it may 
be made a little longer; but the caller 
should be very careful that the visit be 
not made tiresome. 

General Suggestions. 

Calls from people living in the coun- 
try are expected to be longer and less 
ceremonious than from those in the city. 

When it has been impossible to at- 
tend a dinner or a social gathering, a 
call should be made soon afterwards, to 
express regret at the inability to be 

A gentleman, though a stranger, may 
with propriety escort an unattended lady 
to the carriage, and afterwards return 
and make his farewell bow to the hostess. 

Should a guest arrive to remain for 
some time with the friend, those who are 
intimate with the family should call as 

soon as possible, and these calls should be returned at the earliest op- 

Unless invited to do so, it is a violation of etiquette to draw near the 
fire for the purpose of warming one's self. Should you, while waiting 
the appearance of the hostess, have done so, you will arise upon her 
arrival, and then take the seat she may assign you. 

When a lady has set apart a certain evening for receiving calls, it is 
not usual to call at other times, except the excuse be business reasons. 

with his legs crossed. 
No. 5. Rests his foot upon the chair- 

" 6. Tips back his chair, soils the 
wall by resting his head against 
it, and smokes in the presence 
of ladies. 




The gentleman's card should bear nothing- but the name and address 
of the caller, in small script or card text. In addition, the lady's card 
may bear the "Mrs." or the "Miss, "thus: 


Cambridge, Mass. 17 Belmont Place. 

At Home Thursday Evenings. 

The eldest daughter and unmarried sisters often adopt the following: 

No. 44 Birch Street. No. I Day Street. 

The physician may have his professional title, as 

No. -jo Henderson St. No. 70 Henderson St, 

The officers of the army and navy may have their titles thus : 

A card left, during- your illness, should be answered by a call as soon 
as your health will permit. 

The honorary titles of Prof., Hon., Esq., etc., are not allowable upon 
the calling card in the United States. 

When about leaving town, the card which is left will bear on the 
lower left-hand corner the letters " P. P. C. " " Presents parting compli- 
ments," from the French "Pour Prendre Conge" to take leave. The 
card may also be sent by mail or private carrier, the latter mode of con- 
veyance showing most respect. * 

A card sent to a person who is ill or in affliction, from the loss of a 
relative, should be accompanied by verbal inquiries regarding the per- 
son's health. 

Cards may be left immediately where 
a death is known, but a call of sympa- 
thy and condolence is not usually made 
within a week after the bereavement. 

The lady in mourning who may not 
desire to make calls, will send mourn- 
ing cards instead of making calls for 
such period of time as she may not de- 
sire to mingle in general society. 

Should the servant reply to a gentle- 
man that the lady of the house, to 
whom the call is made, is not at home, 
but the daughter is, he should send in 
his card, as it is not usual for young la- 
dies to receive calls from gentlemen un- 
less they are quite intimate friends. 

It is well to have cards in readiness 
at every call. If a servant meets you at 
the door, to send up a card will save mis- 
pronouncing your name, and if the lady 
is not at home it will show that you have 
called. Should there be two or more la- 
dies in the household, to turn down one 
corner of the card will signify that the 
call was designed for all the family. 

The handsomest style of card is that 
which is engraved; next is that which is 
prettily written. Succeeding, comes the 

printed card, which, with some of the modern script or text types, makes 
a most beautiful card if neatly pruited. Extra ornament is out of place. 

When desirous of seeing anyone at a hotel or parlor, send up your 
card by the waiter, while you wait in the reception-room or office. 

The hostess should, if not desiring to see anyone, send word that she 
is "engaged" when the servant first goes to the door, and not after 
the card has been sent up. Should she desire certain persons only to be 
admitted, let the servant understand the names definitely. 
P. P. C. cards are no longer left when leaving home to be absent a few months. 


The figures In the above Illustra- 
tion represent graceful postures to 
be assumed by both ladies and gen- 
tlemen in the parlor. As will be 
seen, whether holding hat or fan, 
either sitting or standing, the posi- 
tions are all easy and graceful. 


Do not stare around the room. 
Do not take a dog or small child. 
Do not linger at the dinner-hour. 
Do not lay aside the bonnet at a formal call. 
Do not fidget with your cane, hat or parasol. 
Do not make a call of ceremony on a wet day. 
Do not turn your back to one seated near you. 
Do not touch the piano, unless invited to do so. 
Do not handle ornaments or furniture in the room. 
Do not make a display of consulting your watch. 
Do not go to the room of an invalid, unless invited. 
Do not remove the gloves when making a formal call. 
Do not continue the call longer when conversation begins to lag. 
Do not remain when you find the lady upon the point of going out. 
Do not make the first call if you are a new-comer in the neighborhood. 
Do not open or shut doors or windows or alter the arrangement of the 

Do not enter a room without first knocking and receiving an invitation 
to come in. ' 

Do not resume your seat after having risen to go, unless for important 

Do not walk around the room, examining pictures, while waiting for 
the hostess. 

Do not introduce politics, religion or weighty topics for conversation 
when making calls. 

Do not prolong the call if the room 
is crowded. It is better to call a day or 
two afterwards. 

Do not call upon a person in reduced 
circumstances with a display of wealth, 
dress and equipage. 

Do not tattle. Do not speak ill of 
your neighbors. Do not carry gossip 
from one family to another. 

Do not, if a gentleman, seat yourself 
upon the sofa beside the hostess, or in 
near proximity, unless invited to do so. 
Do not, if a lady, call upon a gentle- 
man, except officially or professionally, 
unless he may be a confirmed invalid. 

Do not take a strange gentleman 
with you, unless positively certain that 
his introduction will be received with 

Do not, if a gentleman, leave the hat 
in the hall when making merely a for- 
mal call. If the call is extended into a 
visit, it may set aside. Whether 
sitting or standing (Fig. 7), the hat may 
be gracefully held in the hand. 

To assume an easy, genteel atti- 
tude, the iinlivi.'i.:,! must be self- 
possessed. To be so, attention must 
be given to easy now of language, 
happy expression of thought, study 
of cultured society and the general 
laws of etiquette. 

Duty of the Hostess. 

She should greet each guest with 
quiet, easy grace. 
She should avoid leaving the room while guests are present 

She should furnish refreshments to those callers who come a long dis- 
tance to see her. 

She should be aided, upon important occasions, by a gentleman, in the 
reception of guests. 

She should avoid speaking disrespectfully of those who have previ- 
ously called upon her; she should equally divide her attentions among 
the several callers, that none may feel slighted. 



^TTTF' 1 .'{I, : i?">' I " ! '" ' ' . : n 

The Inquisitive, Disagreeable Caller. 

TJMONG the disagreeable callers are the husband and wife who 
/* come with a child and a small dog; the husband making himself 
familiar with the hostess, the dog barking at the cat, the child taking 
the free run of the house, while the wife, in the meantime, passes 
around the room, handling and examining the ornaments. 

Other unpleasant callers are the man with the muddy boots, and 
the individual just in out of the rain, from whose overcoat and 
umbrella the water drips on the carpet. 

Ready to Go, Yet Waiting. 

O[OME evening callers make themselves odious by continuing their 
J^ visit too long, and even when they have risen to depart they 
lack decision of purpose to go, but will frequently stand several 
minutes before taking final leave, and then when wraps are on and 
they are nearly gone, they will stand in the doorway to tell one 
more story while the hostess protects herself as best she can from 
the incoming gusts of wind and storm, sometimes thus taking a cold 
that ends in death. When the guest is ready to go go. 

New Year's Calling. 

OF LATE years it has become fashionable for ladies in many cities 
and villages to announce in the newspapers the fact of their 
intention to receive calls upon New Year's day, which practice 
is very excellent, as it enables gentlemen to know positively who 
will be prepared to receive them on that occasion; besides, changes 
of residence are BO frequent in large cities as to make the publi- 
cation of names and places of calling a great convenience. 

The practice of issuing personal notes of invitation, which is 
sometimes done, to a list of gentlemen acquaintances, stating that 
certain ladies will receive on New Year's day, is not to be com- 
mended. It looks very much like begging the gentlemen to come 
and see them; moreover, should the practice generally prevail, it 
would, in a brief time, abolish New Year's calls altogether, as gen- 
tlemen would not feel at liberty to make 
calls unless personally invited; and thus the 
custom would soon go into disuse. 

Upon calling, the gentlemen are invited to 
remove overcoat and hat, which invitation 
is accepted unless it is the design to make 
the call very brief. If refreshments are 
provided, the ladies will desiro to have the 
gentlemen partake of them, which cannot 
conveniently be done in overcoat, with hat 
in hand. Gloves are sometimes retained 
upon the hand during the call, but this is 

optional. Cards are sent up, and the gentle- Gentlemen Making New Year's Calls. 

men are ushered into the reception- room. The call should not exceed 
ten or fifteen minutes, unless the callers are few and it should be 
mutually agreeable to prolong the stay. 

Best taste will suggest that a lady having the conveniences shall 
receive her guests at her own home, but it is admissible and common 
for several ladies to meet at the residence of one and receive calls 
together. Whether ladies make announcement or not, however, it 
will be usually safe for gentlemen to call on their lady friends on 
New Year's, as the visit will generally be received with pleasure. 

It is customary for the ladies who announce that they will receive 
to make their parlors attractive on that day, and present themselves 
in full dress. They should have a bright, cheerful fire, if the weather 

be cold, and a table, conveniently located in the room, with re- 
freshments, consisting of fruits, cakes, bread and other food, such 
as may be deemed desirable, with tea and coffee. No intoxicating 
drinks should be allowed. Refreshments are in no case absolutely 
essential. They can be dispensed with if not convenient. 

Ladies expecting calls on New Year's should be in readiness to 
receive from 10 A. M. to 9 P. M. It is pleasant for two or more 
ladies to receive calls together on that occasion, as several ladies can 
the more easily entertain a party of several gentlemen who may be 
present at one time. While gentlemen may go alone, they also fre- 
quently go iu pairs, threes, fours or more. They call upon all the 
ladies of the party, and where they are not acquainted introductions 
take place, care being taken that persons do not intrude themselves 
where they would not be welcome. Each 
gentleman should be provided with a large 
number of cards, with his own name upon 
each, one of which he will present to every 
lady of the company where he calls. 

The ladies keep these cards for future 
reference, it being often pleasant to revive 
the incidents of the day by subsequent ex- 
amination of the cards received upon that 

An usher should be present wherever many 
calls are expected, to receive guests and care 
for hats and coats. The calls are necessarily 

very brief, and are made delightfully pleasant by continual change of 
face and conversation. But, however genial and free may be the in- 
terchange of compliments upon this occasion, no young man who is a 
stranger to the family should feel at liberty to call again without 
a subsequent invitation. 

The two or three days succeeding New Year's are the ladies' days 
for calling, upon which occasion they pass the compliments of the 
season, comment upon the incidents connected with the festivities 
of the holiday, the number of calls made, and the new faces that 
made their appearance among the visitors. It is customary upon 
this occasion of ladies' meeting to offer refreshments and to enjoy 
the intimacy of a friendly visit. 



HE above shows the in- 
terior of the grocery store 
where cheese, butter, flour, 
sugar and other articles, con- 
taining moisture, are saturated 
with tobacco smoke. It may 
be the privilege of the proprietor 
to make his store the general re- 
sort of amusement seekers, loungers 
and smokers, but such a course is never 
uded as profitable to business. 

WHE charming window dis- 
* play of goods in this store 
attract to the interior, where 
the order and general neatness 
are evidences that the groceries 
for sale here are of pure quality, 
the butter not filled with the 
flavor of tobacco, nor the sugar with 
kerosene. These pleasant surround- 
ings further indicate thai prompt 

and genteel attention will be given the customer 

Suggestions About Shopping. Conduct in the Store. 

PURCHASERS should, as far as possible, patronize the merchants 
of their own town. It is poor policy to send money abroad for 
articles which can be bought as cheaply at home. 

Do not take hold of a piece of goods which another is examining. 
Wait until it is replaced upon the counter before you take it up. 

Injuring goods when handling, pushing aside other persons, loung- 
ing upon the counter, whispering, loud talk and laughter, when in a 
store, are all evidences of ill-breeding. 

Never attempt to " beat down " prices when shopping. If the 
price does not suit, go elsewhere. The just and upright merchant 
will have but one price for his goods, and he will strictly adhere to it. 

It is an insult to a clerk or merchant to suggest to a customer 
about to purchase that he may buy cheaper or better elsewhere. It 
is also rude to give your opinion, unasked, about the goods that 
another is purchasing. 

Never expect a clerk to leave another customer to wait on you ; 
and, when attending upon you, do not cause him to wait while you 
visit with another. When the purchases are made let them be sent 
to your home, and thus avoid loading yourself with bundles. 

Treat clerks, when shopping, respectfully, and give them no more 
trouble than is necessary. Ask for what is wanted, explicitly, and 

if you wish to make examination with a view to future purchase, say 
so. Be perfectly frank. There is no necessity for practicing deceit. 

The rule should be to pay for goods when you buy them. If, how- 
ever, you are trusted by the merchant, you should be very particular 
to pay your indebtedness when you agree to. By doing as you prom- 
ise, you acquire habits of promptitude, and at the same time estab- 
lish credit and make reputation among those with whom you deal. 

It is rude in the extreme to find fault and to make sneering 
remarks about goods. To draw unfavorable comparisons between 
ths goods and those found at other stores does no good, and shows 
want of deference and respect to those who are waiting on yon. 
Politely state that the goods are not what you want, and, while you 
may buy, you prefer to look further. 

If a mistake has been made whereby you have been given more 
goods than you paid for, or have received more change than was 
your due, go immediately and have the error rectified. You cannot 
afford to sink your moral character by taking advantage of such mis- 
takes. If you had made an error to your disadvantage, as a merchant, 
you would wish the customer to return and make it right. You 
should do as you would be done by. Permanent success depends 
upon your being strictly honest. 

Say "No" Politely. 

A COMMON saying is, "A man's manners make his fortune." 
This is a well-known fact, and we see it illustrated every day. 
The parents who considerately train a child amid kindness and 
love, rear a support for their declining years. The teacher that rules 
well and is yet kind, is beloved by his pupils. The hotel proprietor, 
by affability and an accommodating spirit, may fill his hotel with 
guests. The railway conductor who has a pleasant word for the 
lonely traveler, is always remembered with favor. The postofftce 
clerk who very carefully looks through a pile of letters and says, 
"not any" very gently, pleasantly adding a word of hope by saying, 
"it may come on the afternoon train," we always gratefully 

recollect. When the time comes that we can return the kindness, 
we take great pleasure in doing so. 

The man who shows himself to be a gentleman, even though he 
may not buy what we have to (jell when we solicit him, we always 
know will get his reward. His affability, when he declined, demon- 
strated that he could say "no" with a pleasant word. The very fact 
of his impressing us so favorably, even when he did not purchase, 
clearly indicated that he was thoroughly schooled in the ways of 
politeness, and that he lived up to the golden rule of doing to others 
as he desired others to do to him. 


tiquette of Conversation. 


gO ACQUIRE the art of conversation in a supe- 
rior degree, there must be intimacy with those 
who possess refinement and general informa- 
tion. There must also be observed certain general rules 
in order to accomplish the best results, prominent among 
which are the following: 
In the first place, in 
order to converse well, 
there must be knowl- 
edge; there must be a 
command of language, assisted 
by imagination; there must be 
understanding of the rules of con- 
struction to frame sentences 
aright; there must be confidence 
and self-possession, and there 
must be courage to overcome 

To be an excellent conversa- 
tionalist is a very desirable ac- 
complishment. We talk more than 
we do anything else. By conver- 
sation we may make friends, we 
may retain them, or we may lose 
them. We may impart informa- 
tion; we may acquire it. We may 
make the company with whom we 
associate contented with itself, 
or we can sow inharmony and 
discord. Our success in life 
largely rests upon our ability to 
converse well; therefore, the 
necessity of our carefully study- 
ing what should and what should 
not be said when talking. 

Coarse and Boisterous. 

How to Please in Conversation. 

Use clear, distinct words to ex- 
press your ideas, although the tone of your voice should be subdued. 

Be cool, collected and self-possessed, using respectful, chaste and 
appropriate language. 

Always defend the absent person who is being spoken of, as far as 
truth and justice will permit. 

Allow people that you are with to do their full share of the talking 
if they evince a willingness to converse. 

Beware of talking much about yourself. Your merits will be dis- 
covered in due time without the necessity of sounding your own 

Show the courtesy, when another person joins the group where you 

WHE refinement and culture of an individual can be largely deter- 
* mined by the tone of voice and the manner of speaking. In 
ordinary conversation the wild gesticulation, the coarse and boisterous 
laugh, and the uncouth position are all indicative of ill-breeding. In 
such a domestic group as is here represented the ties of nature may 
be quite as strong as in more refined circles, and yet the tendency is 
to introduce a variety of topics into the general conversation that 
were better not discussed. The rude jest, the coarse criticism of 
absent ones, the unclean song and the foolish retort, are the natural 
outgrowth of such a gathering. Education and knowledge of the rules 
that govern polite society would have prevented such a scene as this 
by providing instruction and lessons of culture and refinement. 
While there is at the present day every facility for improving the 
minds of the young, it is no less true that politeness and respect for 
superiors are not properly taught. 

are relating an incident, of recapitulating what has been 

said, for the advantage of the new-comer. 

Recollect that the object of conversation is to entertain 

and amuse; the social gathering, therefore, should not be made the 

arena of dispute. Even slight mistakes and inaccuracies it is well 

to overlook, rather than to allow 
inharmony to present itself. 

Aim to adapt your conversation 
to the comprehension of those 
with whom you are conversing. 
Be careful that you do not un- 
dervalue them. It is possible 
that they are as intelligent as 
yourself, and their conversation 
can, perhaps, take as wide a range 
as your own. 

Remember that the person to 
whom you are speaking is not to 
blame for the opinion he enter- 
tains. Opinions are not made by 
us, but they are made for us by 
circumstances. With the same 
organization, training and circum- 
stances around us, we would have 
the same opinions ourselves. 

Remember that people are fond 
of talking of their own affairs. 
The mother likes to talk of her 
children, the mechanic of his 
workmanship, the laborer of what 
he can accomplish. Give every one 

an opportunity, and you will gain 
much valuable information besides 
being thought courteous and 

Be patient. The foreigner can- 
not, perhaps, recall the word he 
desires; the speaker may be slow 

of speech ; you may have heard the story a dozen times ; but even 
then you must evince interest and listen patiently through. By so 
doing you gain the esteem of the person with whom you are 

What to Avoid in Social Conversation. 

Do not manifest impatience. 

Do not engage in argument. 

Do not interrupt another when speaking. 

Do not find fault, although you may gently criticise. 

Do not talk of your private, personal and family matters. 

Do not appear to notice inaccuries of speech in others. 



Do not allow yourself to lose temper or to speak excitedly. 

Do not allude to unfortunate peculiarities of any one present. 

Do not always commence a conversation by allusion to the weather. 

Do not, when narrating an incident, continually say "you see," 
" you know," etc. 

Do not introduce professional or other topics in which the company 
generally cannot take an interest. 

Do not talk very loud. A firm, clear, distinct, yet mild, gentle 
and musical voice has great power. 

Do not be absent-minded, requiring the speaker to repeat what has 
been said that you may understand. 

Do not speak disrespectfully of personal appearance when any one 
present may have the same defects. 

Do not try to force yourself into the confidence of others. If they 
give their confidence, never betray it. 

Do not use profanity, vulgar terms, slang phrases, words of double 
meaning, or language that will bring the blush to any person. 

Do not intersperse your language with foreign words and high- 
sounding terms. It shows affecta- 
tion, and will draw ridicule upon 

Do not carry on a conversation 
with another in company about 
matters of which the general com- 
pany knows nothing. It is almost 
as impolite as to whisper. 

Do not allow yourself to speak 
ill of the absent if it can be 
avoided ; the day may come when 
some friend will be needed to 
defend you in your absence. 

Do not speak with contempt 
and ridicule of a locality where 
you may be visiting. Find some- 
thing to truthfully praise and 
commend; thus make yourself 

Do not make a pretense of gen- 
tility, nor parade the fact that you 
are a descendant of any notable 
family. You must pass for just 
what you are, and must stand on 
your own merit. 

Cultured and Refined. 

Do not contradict. In making 
a correction say, "I beg your 
pardon, but I had an impression 
that it was so and so. '' Be careful 
in correcting, as you may be 
wrong yourself. 

Do not be unduly familiar; you 
will merit contempt if you are. 
Neither -should you be dogmatic in your assertions, arrogating to 
yourself much consequence in your opinions. 

Do not be too lavish in your praise of various members of your 
own family when speaking lo strangers; the person to whom you are 
speaking may know some faults that you do not. 

Do not allow yourself to use personal abuse when speaking to 
another, as in so doing you may make that person a life -long enemy. 
A few kind, courteous words might have made him a life-long friend. 

Do pot discuss politics or religion in general company. You prob- 
ably would not convert your opponent, and he will not convert you. 
To discuss those topics is to arouse feeling without any good result. 

Do not make a parade of being acquainted with distinguished or 
wealthy people, of having been to college, or of having visited foreign 

TN the social gathering here brought to view we have a strong con- 
trast to that on the opposite page. The positions are graceful and 
easy, with quietude and gentleness of manner, and the self-possession 
which true politeness always produces. An air of refinement in dress 
and gesture indicates a degree of mental culture secured by early 
tiaining and the careful observance of the rules of social etiquette. In 
such a circle we should naturally expect the utterance of only the 
finest sentiments, the earnestness of sincerity, the purest of wit. 
Nothing is strained, far-fetched or improper, and the conversation is 
of that character that all may take a part in it and impart or receive 
lessons of truth and beauty, the remembrance of which will last as 
long as life itself. It is not necessary, in order to reap these advan- 
tages, to amass immense wealth. Even in the humblest households 
politeness, good nature and an easy demeanor may be cultivated 
with the happiest effects. 

lands. All this is no evidence of any real genuine worth on your 

Do not use the surname alone when speaking of your husband or 
wife to others. To say to another, that "I told Jones," referring to 
your husband, sounds badly. Whereas, to say, "I told Mr. Jones," 
shows respect and good-breeding. 

Do not feel it incumbent upon yourself to carry your point in con- 
versation. Should the person with whom you are conversing feel 
the same, your talk will lead into violent argument. 

Do not yield to bashfulness. Do not isolate yourself, sitting back 
in a corner, waiting for some one to come and talk with you. Step 
out ; have something to say. Though you may not say it very well, 
keep on. You will gain courage and will improve. It is as much 
your duty to entertain others as theirs to amuse you. 

Do not attempt to pry into the private affairs of others by asking 
what their profits are, what things cost, whether Melissa ever had a 
beau, and why Amarette never got married. All such questions are 
extremely impertinent, and are likely to meet with rebuke. 

Do not whisper in company; 
do not engage in private conver- 
sation ; do not speak a foreign 
language which the general com- 
pany present may not comprehend, 
unless it is understood that the 
foreigner is unable to speak your 
own language. 

Do not take it upon yourself to 
admonish comparative strangers 
on religious topics; the persons 
to whom you speak may have 
decided convictions of their own 
in opposition to yours, and your 
over- zeal may seem to them an 

Do not aspire to be a great 
story-teller; an inveterate teller 
of long stories becomes very tire- 
some. To tell one or two witty, 
short, new stories, appropriate to 
the occasion, is about all that 
one person should inflict on the 

Do not indulge in satire; no 
doubt you are witty, and you could 
say a most cutting thing that would 
bring the laugh of the company 
upon your opponent, but you 
must not allow it, unless to re- 
buke an impertinent fellow who 
can be suppressed in no other way. 
Do not forget that " words are the chariot wheels of thought," and 
that Dr. Samuel Johnson, Addison and Goldsmith won honor by the 
grace and eloquence of their language. 

Do not spend your time in talking scandal; you sink your own 
moral nature by so doing, and you are, perhaps, doing great injustice 
to those about whom you talk. You probably do not understand all 
the circumstances. Were they understood, you would, doubtless, 
be much more lenient. 

Do not flatter; in doing so you embarrass those upon whom you 
bestow praise, as they may not wish to offend you by repelling it, 
and yet they realize that if they accept it they merit your contempt. 
You may, however, commend their work whenever it can truthfully 
be done ; but do not bestow praise where it is not deserved. 




The Dance Rules that Should Govern It. 

The Preparations. The Invitations and General Conduct of the Entertainment. 

> HE entertainment yon intend giving is larger 
than a dinner party one to which yon will 
invite a greater number of your friends and 
associates so great a number, indeed, of young 
and middle-aged people, that the serious question 
is, how they shall be entertained ; you conclude that you will allow 
them to dance, and you will name your entertainment a ball. 

In this connection we will not express an opinion concerning the 
propriety or the impropriety of dancing. In the simple act of pass- 
ing through the figures of the dance there need be no wrong 
committed; but, as the ball is often conducted, very serious and 
unfortunate results follow. 

Evils of the Ball. 

For the company to assemble at a late hour and engage in unusual, 
exciting and severe exercise throughout the entire night is often too 
great a tax upon the physical system. To dress too thinly, and in a 
state of perspiration to be exposed, as ladies at the ball frequently 
are, to drafts of cold, is oftentimes to plant the seeds of a disease 
from which they never recover. Again, to come in contact, as ladies 
are liable to do, more especially at the public ball, with disreputable 
men, is sometimes to form alliances that will cause a lifetime of 

Well may the watchful parent look with anxiety and suspicion 
upon the ball, because its associations are so frequently dangerous. 
If in this chapter we may give admonitions and suggestions that shall 
tend to correct some, of the evils of the dance, our labors will not be 
in vain. 

The dancing- master should be in the highest sense of the term a 
gentleman ; he should be thoroughly schooled in the laws of etiquette ; 
he should be a man of good moral character; he should be a physiol- 
ogist ; he should be a reformer. Such a man at the head of a dancing- 
school would be of infinite assistance to the young men and women 
coming upon the stage of action. In his class he would teach his 
pupils the laws of good behavior; he would warn them concerning 
the evils of bad association; he wouldinstrnct them in the importance 
of regularity of habit and of keeping proper hours; with which 
instruction he would reform many abuses that now exist at public 

Fortunately we have some instructors who appreciate the impor- 
tance of their work, and are thus instrumental in doing a great amount 
of good to those who are so favored as to attend their classes. 

How to Conduct the Ball. 

The management of the ball will largely depend upon whether it is 
a public or private entertainment. If public, it will be under the 

control of managers who will send out tickets to those likely to 
attend, often several weeks before the ball is given. These tickets 
are sent only to gentlemen who invite such ladies to attend the ball 
with them as they may choose. 

In tendering the invitation, the gentleman frequently visits the 
lady personally. If he sends a written note of invitation, the form 
may be as follows : 

Wednesday, Oct. 10. 
Miss Hammond : 

May I have the pleasure of your company to the ball at 
the Grand Central Hotel, in New York, on the evening of October 2$th, 
at eight o' clock ? Very respectfully, 


The following may be the reply : 

Thursday, Oct. n. 
Mr. W. II. Simpson : 

I shall be happy to accompany you to the ball at the 
Grand Central on the evening of October 2jth. 

Or, if the invitation is declined, the note may have this form : 

Thursday, Oct. //. 
Mr. W. H. Simpson : 

I regret that absence from the city (or assign such 
other cause as may occasion the refusal) will deprive me of the pleas- 
ure of accompanying you to the ball at, the Grand Central on the 
evening of October 2$th. 


If the ball is to be given at a private residence, the notes of invita- 
tion should be sent by messenger or post to each guest, two or three 
weeks before the dance, and will read as follows: 

Mrs. Conklin' s compliments to Miss Henry, requesting the pleasure 
of her company at a ball on Thursday evening, April i2th, at eight, 
o 'clock. 

This should invariably be answered within a day or two, and, if 
accepted, the reply may read in the following form: 

Miss Henry's compliments to Mrs. Conklin, accepting with pleasure 
her kind invitation for Thursday evening, April i2th. 

If declined, the answer may be 

Miss Henry' s compliments to Mrs. Conklin, regretting that the recent 
death of a relative (or assign such other cause as may occasion the 
refusal) will prevent her acceptance of the kind invitation for the 
evening of April 72th. 



Invitations to all the Family. 

In sending invitations to a family where there are parents, sons 
and daughters, all of whom you desire to invite, inclose an invitation 
full and complete to the heads of the family, one to the daughters, 
and one to the sons. Should there be a visitor staying with the 
family a distinct card must be sent, but all can be inclosed in one 
envelope, and addressed to the lady of the house. The invitation to 
each may read as follows : 

(To the Parents. ) 

Mrs. Hobart's compliments to Mr. and Mrs. Hanson, requesting 
the pleasure of their company at a ball on the evening of Sept. 8th, at 
8 o'clock. 

R. 8. V. P.* 

(To the Daughters. ) 

Mrs. Hobart's compliments to Misses Ruth and Mary Hanson, 
requesting the pleasure of their attendance at a ball, Sept. 8th, at 8 

R. S. V. P.t 

(To the Sons. ) 

Mrs. Hobart's regards to Messrs. Robert D. , Henry H. and Chas. 
C. Hanson, soliciting their company at a ball on the evening of Sept. 
8th, at 8 o'clock. 
R. S. V. P. 

(To the Visitor. ) 

Mrs. Hobart's respects to Miss Williamson, desiring the pleasure 
of her company at a ball on the evening of Sfpt. 8th, at 8 o'clock. 

R. S. V. P. 

The acceptance or regrets from each party invited should be 
inclosed in one envelope, and directed to the hostess, being sent by 
a messenger within from one to three days after the time the invita- 
tions are received. 

The hostess having considered how many sets may be accommo- 
dated in the dancing- room, it may be well to invite twice that 
number to the entertainment, thus allowing for those who will decline 
and for those who will desire to rest while the others are engaged in 
the dance. 

The requisites of a room suitable for dancing purposes are a smooth 
floor and good ventilation ; added to these, an elaborate trimming of 
the room with various decorations will be appropriate. Floral 
embellishment gives much attraction, and if an abundance of flowers, 
shrubbery and evergreens are about the music-stand, concealing the 
musicians from view, the effect will be all the more charming. 

The dressing-room should be provided with servants to receive 
the wraps, to each of which a card should be attached bearing the 
name of the owner, or checks may be provided and the same system 
pursued as is ordinarily observed in checking baggage. 

A dressing-table in the ladies' room should be supplied with soap, 
water, towels, brushes, combs, pomade, face-powder, cologne, 
needles, thread, pins, etc. ; while water, soap, towels, brush-broom, 
comb, hair-brush, bootjack, and blacking- brush, with a box of 
blacking, should be in the gentlemen's dressing apartment. 

Unlike the dinner-party, it is not absolutely necessary that each 
guest come promptly at a certain time ; still, for the sake of regularity 
of sleep, it is well for each to go early and to retire early, though it 
will be allowable to go somewhat later than the hour appointed. 

The host and hostess should be near the door to welcome arrivals, 
occupying any unused time in making the guests acquainted with 
each other by introductions. Other members of the family will also 
intermingle with the company, giving introductions and seeing that 
all are provided with partners for dancing. 

R 8. V. P. From th 
t R. S. V. P. may be , 

French, "Repondei s'il vouj plait." Answer if you plea 
isidered unnecessary, as a reply should always be made. 

It is expected that those who accept an invitation to a ball are able 
to dance; otherwise it is better to decline, as the wall-flower serves 
but to embarrass the hostess and other members of the company. 

A gentleman, having arranged to accompany a lady to a ball, may 
very appropriately send her a bouquet of flowers in the afternoon, 
and in the evening he should call promptly with his carriage at the 
appointed hour. Upon reaching the house where the entertainment 
is given, he will conduct the lady immediately to the ladies' dressing- 
room; when, retiring to the gentlemen's apartment and putting his 
own toilet in order, he will return to the door of the ladies' room, 
meet his charge, and conduct her to the ball-room and the hostess. 

Etiquette requires that the lady dance first with her escort, and 
afterward he should see that she is provided with partners, and that 
she enjoys herself, though she may dance with whom she pleases. 
He should conduct her to supper, and will hold himself in readiness 
to escort her home whenever she desires to go. 

In inviting a lady to dance, various forms of invitation may be used 
to avoid repetition, as, "Will you honor me with your hand for the 
quadrille? " " May I have the honor of dancing this set with you? " 
" May I have the pleasure? " " Will you give me the pleasure? " etc. 
A gentleman who may be at the party unattended will invite one 
of the ladies of the house for the first dance, but she, possibly being 
otherwise occupied or engaged, will quite likely introduce him to 
another lady, whom he must accept. 

The music will first play a march, then a quadrille, a waltz, a polka, 
a galop, etc., interspersed with several round dances to each 
quadrille, usually ending with a march prior to supper, when the 
gentleman, presenting his arm to the lady he is dancing with at the 
time, unless she has come with another gentleman, will proceed to 
the table, where possibly a little more freedom will prevail than at 
the dinner-party, though essentially the same etiquette will govern it. 
If any lady is without an attendant, it should be the duty of the 
lady of the house to see that she is provided with an escort. After 
supper several dances will follow, the company dispersing, let us 
hope, at an early, temperate hour. 

Each dancer should be provided with a ball-card bearing a printed 
programme of the dances, having a space for making engagements 
upon the same, with a small pencil attached. Much care should be 
taken to keep each engagement. It is a great breach of etiquette to 
invite a lady to dance and then fail to remind her of her promise 
when the time comes for its fulfillment. 

It is customary for the lady and gentleman who accompany each 
other to the ball to dance together once or twice only; to dance as 
partners oftener is likely to excite remark, though, if the parties be 
indifferent to comment, no harm will be done. To dance together 
continually is impolite, and will deservedly provoke severe criticism. 
While upon the floor, awaiting the music, a lady and gentleman 
should avoid long conversations, as they are likely to interfere with 
the dance : but a pleasant word or two in light conversation will be 
appropriate if the parties are acquainted; if not, they may quietly 
wait. The bow should be given at the commencement and close of 
each dance. 

General Suggestions to Those who Attend Balls. 

When all the ladies are provided for at the table then the gentle- 
men may think of their own supper. 

Ladies will consult their own pleasure about recognizing a ball- 
room acquaintance at a future meeting. 

Gently glide in the dance, wearing a pleasant expression. "Bow 
the head slightly as you touch hands lightly. " 

Should you make a mistake in taking a position, apologize to the 
party incommoded, and take another place in the set. 



Any difficulty or misunderstanding at a public ball should be 
referred to the master of ceremonies, whose decision should be 
deemed final. 

In tendering an invitation to the lady to dance, allow her to desig- 
nate what set it shall be, and you are expected to strictly fulfill 
the engagement. 

A gentleman who goes to a ball should dance frequently; if he 
does not, he will not receive many invitations afterward; he is not 
invited to ornament the wall and "wait for supper." 

After dancing, a gentleman should conduct the lady to a seat, 
unless she otherwise desires; he should thank her for the pleasure 
she has conferred, but he* should not tarry- too long in intimate 
conversation with her. 

A gentleman having taken a lady's seat during a dance must rise 
as soon as it is over, and invite her to come and take it again. It is 
not necessary to bow more than once, though you frequently meet 
acquaintances upon the promenade; to bow every time would be 

What Conduct to Avoid at the Ball. 

A ball-room engagement should not be broken. 
A lady should not enter or cross the hall unattended. 
No gentleman should enter the ladies' dressing-room at a ball. 
No evidence of ill-nature should ever show itself at the ball. 
Never lead a lady in the hall by the hand; always offer the arm. 
Guests should remain at the supper-table no longer than is 

A couple should not engage in a long, private, confidential talk in 
a ball-room. 

While one dance is in progress it is not in good taste to be 
arranging for another. 

Do not engage yourself for the last two or three dances; it may 
keep you too late. 

Neither married nor unmarried ladies should leave a ball-room 
assemblage unattended. 

A gentleman should not wait until the music has commenced 
before selecting his partner. 

Do not aim to put in all the steps in the quadrille. The figures are 
now executed in a graceful walk. 

A gentleman should not insist upon a lady continuing to dance 
when she has expressed a desire to sit down. 

Excepting the first set, it is not etiquette for married people to 
dance together at either a public or private ball. 

Do not contend for a position in the quadrille at either head or 
sides. It indicates frivolity. You should be above it. 

A gentleman should not take a vacant seat beside a lady without 
asking permission, whether he is acquainted or not. 

The lady should never accept of an invitation to dance with one 
gentleman immediately after having refused another. 

No lady at a ball should be without an escort at the supper-table 
The hostess should see that she is provided with one. 

A gentleman should never presume upon the acquaintance of a 
lady after a ball; ball-room introductions close with the dancing. 

Ladies should not boast to others, who dance but little, of the 
great number of dances for which they are engaged in advance. 

No gentleman should use his bare hand to press the waist of a lady 
In the waltz. If without gloves carry a handkerchief in the hand. 

A lady should not select a gentleman to hold her bouquet, fan and 

gloves during the dance, unless he be her husband, escort or a 

Gentlemen should never forget that ladies are first to be cared for, 
to have the best seats, and to always receive the most courteous 

A gentleman in waltzing should not encircle the waist of a lady 
until the dancing commences, and he should drop his arm when the 
music ceases. 

No gentleman whose clothing or breath is tainted with the fumes 
of strong drink or tobacco should ever enter the presence of ladies 
in the dancing- room. 

When the company has been divided into two different sets you 
should not attempt to change from one to the other, except by 
permission of the master of ceremonies. 

A lady should not refuse to be introduced to a gentleman at a 
private ball. At a public ball she will use her discretion, and she 
can with propriety refuse any introduction. 

Never eat your supper in gloves. White kids should be worn at 
other times throughout the dancing. It is well to have two pairs, 
one before supper, and one afterward. 

Ladies should not be allowed to sit the evening through without 
the privilege of dancing. Gentlemen should be sufficiently watchful 
to see that all ladies present are provided with partners. 

Do not, unless for very urgent reasons, withdraw from a quadrille 
or a set where your assistance is required. Even then you should 
inform the master of ceremonies, that he may find a substitute. 

A gentleman should not invite a lady to be his partner in a dance 
with which he is not perfectly familiar. It is tiresome and 
embarrassing to a lady to have a partner who appears awkward. 

No gentleman should play the clown in the ball-room. Dancing 
a break-down, making unusual noise, dressing in a peculiar style, 
swaggering, swinging the arms about, etc. , are simply the character- 
istics of the buffoon. 

The lady is not obliged to invite her escort to enter the house 
when he accompanies her home, and if invited he should decline the 
invitation. But he should request permission to call the next day 
or evening, which will be true politeness. 

No display should be made when leaving the ball. Go quietly. 
It is not necessary to bid the host and hostess good-by. To do so 
may cause others to think it later than it is, and thus the ball may be 
broken up sooner than the hostess might desire. 

A lady may not engage herself to two gentlemen for the same 
dance, excepting the waltz, the first of which may be danced with 
one and the last with another, she explaining the matter to her first 
partner, so that he may not be offended when she leaves him for 
the other. 

The members of the family where the ball is given should not 
dance too frequently. It is possible that others may desire to fill 
their places, and they should have the opportunity. It is the duty of 
the family to entertain the guests and not usurp their opportunities. 

The carrying on of a secret and confidential talk in a ball-room is 
to be avoided, as is also boisterous and loud conversation. The old 
adage of doing in Rome as the Romans do is particularly applicable 
to those who attend the ball, conduct, dress and general deportment 
being such as not to attract especial attention. 

A gentleman should not be offended if a lady that has declined an 
invitation from him is seen dancing with another. Possibly she did 
not despise the one, but she preferred the other, or she may have 
simply redeemed a forgotten promise. Special evidences of partiality 
should, however, as much as possible be avoided at places where all 
should be courteous to each other. 






HE dinner-hour will completely test the refinement, the cul- 
ture and good breeding- which the individual may pos- 
sess. To appear advantageously at the table, the person 
must not only understand the laws of etiquette, but he 
must have had the advantage of polite society. It is the 
province of this chapter to show what the laws of the table 
are. It will be the duty of the reader, in the varied relations of life, to 
make such use of them as circumstances shall permit. 

Rules to be Observed. 

Sit upright, neither too close 
nor too far away from the table. 

Open and spread upon your lap 
or breast a napkin, if one is pro- 
vided otherwise a handkerchief. 

Do not be in haste; compose 
yourself; put your mind into a 
pleasant condition, and resolve to 
eat slowly. 

Keep the hands from the table 
until your time comes to be serv- 
ed. It is rude to take knife and 
fork in hand and commence drum- 
ming on the table while you are 

Possibly grace will be said by 
some one present, and the most 
respectful attention and quietude 
should be observed until the exer- 
cise is passed. 

It is the most appropriate time, 
while you wait to be served, for you 
to put into practice your knowledge of small talk and pleasant words 
with those whom you are sitting near. By interchange of thought, much 
valuable information may be acquired at the table. 

Do not be impatient to be served. With social chit- 
chat and eating, the meal-time should always be pro- 
longed from thirty minutes to an hour. 

Taking ample time in eating will give you better 
health, greater wealth, longer life and more happiness. 
These are what we may obtain by eating slowly in a 
pleasant frame of mind.thoroughly masticating the food. 

If soup comes first, and you do not desire it, you will 
simply say, "No, I thank you," but make no comment; 
or you may take it and eat as little as you choose. The 
other course will be along soon. In receiving it you 
do not break the order of serving; it looks odd to see 
you waiting while all the rest are partaking of the 
first course. Eccentricity should be avoided as much 
as possible at the table. 

The soup should be eaten with a medium -sized spoon, so slowly and 
carefully that you will drop none upon your person or the table-cloth. 
Making an effort to get the last drop, and all unusual noise when eating, 
should be avoided. 

Fig. 9 The general arrangement of the table set for i 
The plates ar^ often left off, and furnished by th 

Fig. 10. Relative position of plate, 
napkin, goblet, salt-cup, knife and 
fork, when the table is set. 

If asked at the next course what you desire, you will quietly state, and 
upon its reception you will, without display, proceed to put your food in 
order for eating. If furnished with potatoes in small dishes, you will 
put the skins back into the dish again; and thus where there are side- 
dishes all refuse should be placed in them otherwise potato-skins will 
be placed upon the table-cloth, and bones upon the side of the plate. If 
possible, avoid putting waste matter upon the cloth. Especial pains 
should always be taken to keep the table-cover as clean as may be. 

Eating with the Fork. 

Fashions continually change. 
It does not follow, because he does 
not keep up with them, that a man 
lacks brains; still to keep some- 
where near the prevailing style, 
in habit, costume and general de- 
portment, is to avoid attracting 
unpleasant attention. 

Fashions change in modes of 
eating. Unquestionably primitive 
man conveyed food to his mouth 
with his fingers. In process of 
time he cut it with a sharpened 
instrument, and held it, while he 
did so, with something pointed. In 
due time, with the advancement of 
civilization, there came the two- 
tined fork for holding and the 
broad -bladed knife for cutting the 
food and conveying it to the mouth. 
As years have passed on, bringing 
their changes, the three and four- 
tined forks have come into use, 
and the habit of conveying food with them to the mouth ; the advantage 
being that there is less danger to the tnouth from using the fork, and food is 
less liable to drop from it when being conveyed from the plate. Thus the 
knife, which is now only used for cutting meat, mash- 
ing potatoes, and for a few other purposes at the table, 
is no longer placed to the mouth by those who give 
attention to the etiquette of the table. 

Set the table as beautifully as possible. Use only the 
snowiest of linen, the brightest of cutlery, and the 
cleanest of china. The setting of the table (Fig. 9) 
will have fruit-plates, castors and other dishes for gen- 
eral use, conveniently placed near the center. The spe- 
cific arrangement (Fig. 10) of plate, knife, fork, nap- 
kin, goblet and salt-cup, is shown in the accompanying 

It is customary for the gentleman who is the head 
of the household, in the ordinary family circle, to sit 
at the side of the table, in the center, having plates at 
his right hand, with food near by. When all the 
family are seated, and all in readiness, he will serve the guests who may 
be present; he will next serve the eldest lady of the household, then the 
ladies and gentlemen as they come in order. The hostess will siV oppo- 
site her husband, and preside over the tea, sauces, etc. 




O NOT speak disrespectfully to the wait- 
ers, nor apologize to them for making 
them trouble; it is their business to 
bring forward the food called for. 
It is courtesy, however, when asked 
you desire a certain article, to reply, 
If you please;" "Not any, I thank 
you, " etc. ; when calling for an article, 
o say, "Will you please bring me," etc.; and 

vhen the article has been furnished, to say, "Thank you." 

Never eat very fast. 
Never fill the mouth very full. 
Never open your mouth when chewing. 
Never make noise with the mouth or throat. 
Never attempt to talk with the mouth full. 
Never leave the table with food in the mouth. 
Never soil the table-cloth if it is possible to avoid it. 
Never carry away fruits and confectionery from the table. 
Never encourage a dog or cat to play with you at the 

Never use anything but fork or spoon in feeding 

Never explain at the table why 
certain foods do not agree with 

Never introduce disgusting or 
unpleasant topics for conversa- 

Never pick your teeth or put 
your hand in your mouth while 

Never cut bread ; always break 
it, spreading with butter each 
piece as you eat it. 

Never come to the table in 
your shirt-sleeves, with dirty 
hands or disheveled hair. 

Never express a choice for any 
particular parts of a dish, unless 
requested to do so. 

Never hesitate to take the last 
piece of bread or the last cake; 
there are probably more. 

Never call loudly for the wait- 
er, nor attract attention to your- 
self by boisterous conduct. 

Never hold bones in your fin- 
gers while you eat from them. 
Cut the meat with a knife. 

Never use your own knife 
when cutting butter. Always 
use a knife assigned to that pur- 

Never pare an apple, peach or pear for another at the table without 
holding it with a fork. 

Never wipe your fingers on the table-cloth, nor clean them in your 
mouth. Use the napkin. 

Never allow butter, soup or other food to remain on your whiskers. 
Use the napkin frequently. 

Never wear gloves at the table, unless the hands from some special 
reason are unfit to be seen. 


So. 1. Tips back his chair. 

" 2. Eats with his mouth too full. 

" 3. Feeds a dog at the table. 

" 4. Holds his knife improperly. 

" 5. Engages in violent argument at the 


" 6. Lounges upon the table. 

" 7. Brings a cross child to the table. 

Never, when serving others, overload the plate nor force upon them 
delicacies which they decline. 

Never pour sauce over meat and vegetables when helping others. 
Place it at one side, on the plate. 

Never make a display of finding fault with your food. Very quietly 
have it changed if you want it different. 

Never pass your plate with knife and fork on the same. Remove 
them, and allow them to rest upon a piece of bread. 

Never make a display when removing hair, insects or other disagree- 
able things from your food. Place them quietly under the edge of your 

Never make an effort to clean your plate or the bones you have been 
eating from too clean; it looks as if you left off hungry. 

Never tip back in your chair nor lounge upon the table ; neither as- 
sume any position that is awkward or ill-bred. 

Never, at one's ov<n table or at a dinner-party elsewhere, leave before 
the rest have finished without asking to be excused. At a hotel or 
boarding house this rule need not be observed. 

Never feel obliged to cut off the kernels with a knife when eating 
green corn ; eaten from the cob, the corn is much the sweetest. 

Never eat so much of any 
oojS; one article as to attract atten- 
tion, as some people do who eat 
large quantities of butter, sweet 
cake, cheese or other articles. 

Never expectorate at the ta- 
ble; also avoid sneezing or 
coughing. It is better to arise 
quietly from the table if you 
have occasion to do either. A 
sneeze is prevented by placing 
the finger firmly on the upper lip. 

Never spit out bones, cherry 
pits, grape skins, etc., upon your 
plate. Quietly press them from 
your mouth upon the fork, and 
lay them upon the side of your 

Never allow the conversa- 
tion at the table to drift into any- 
thing but chit-chat; the con- 
sideration of deep and abstruse 
principles will impair digestion. 

Never permit yourself to en- 
gage in a heated argument at 
the table. Neither should you 
use gestures, nor illustrations 
made with a knife or fork on the 
table-cloth. The accompanying 
engraving (Fig. n) very forci- 
bly illustrates several faults to 
which many people are ad- 

No. 8. Drinks from the saucer, and laps with 

his tongue the last drop from the plate. 
" 9. Comes to the table in his shirt-sleeves, 

and puts his feet beside his chair. 
" 10. Picks his teeth with his fingers. 
" 11. Scratches her head and is frequently 

unnecessarily getting up from the 


Never pass forward to another the dish that has been handed to you, 
unless requested to do so; it may have been purposely designed for you, 
and passing it to another may give him or her what is not wanted. 

Never put your feet so far under the table as to touch those of the 
person on the opposite side; neither should you curl them under nor at 
the side of your chair. 

Never praise extravagantly every dish set before you ; neither should 
you appear indifferent Any article may have praise. 




ROPERLY conducted, the dinner-party 
should be a pleasant aftair; and if 
rightly managed, from the beginning 
to the end, it may prove a very en- 
joyable occasion to all in attendance, 
the dinner being from 5 to 8 p. M., the 
guests continuing at the table from 
one to two hours. 

ifw For a very pleasant social affair the 
rule is not to have the company when 

L \ seated exceed twelve in number. With a party of 
that size the conversation can be general, and all are 
likely to feel more at ease than if the number be larger, 
provided a selection of guests is made that are con- 
genial to each other. None of them should be con- 
spicuously superior to the others, and all should be 
from the same circle of society. 

Having determined upon the number of guests to be 
invited, the next thing in order will be the issuing of 
notes of invitation, by special messenger, which should 
be sent out ten or twelve days before the dinner is 
given. Their form will be 

Mr. and Mrs. L request the pleasure of the com- 
pany of Mr. and Mrs. T 

at dinner on Wednesday, 
the loth of March, at six 
o'clock P. M. 

R. S. V. P. 

The answer accepting the in- 
vitation may read 

Mr. and Mrs. T ac- 
cept with much pleasure Mr. 

and Mrs. L 's invitation 

for dinner on the loth of March. 

If declined, the form may be 
as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs. T re- 
gret that a previous engage- 
ment (or for other reasons 
which may be given) -will pre- 
vent their accepting Mr. and 

Mrs. L 's kind invitation 

jor dinner on the iot/1 of March. 

Should the invitation be de- 
clined, the declination, which 
should state the reason for non- 
acceptance of the invitation, 
should be sent immediately by 
a messenger, that the hostess 
may have an opportunity for 
inviting other guests in the 
place of those who decline. 

The evidences of good breeding with a party 
of ladies and gentlemen seated about a table, 
who are accustomed to the usages of polite 
society, are many. Among these will be the fact 
that the table is very beautifully and artistically 
spread. This need not require much wealth, but 
good taste is necessary to set it handsomely. 

Again, the company evince gentility by each 

Should the invitation be ac- 
cepted, nothing but serious 
difficulty should prevent the ap- 
pointment being fulfilled. 
Should anything happen to 
prevent attendance, notification should be given the hostess immediately. 

It is ot the utmost importance that all of the company be punctual, 
arriving from ten to fifteen minutes before the appointed time. To be 
ten minutes late, keeping the dinner waiting, is a serious offense which 
no one should be guilty of. 

The host, hostess and other members of the family should be early in 

the drawing-room to receive guests as they arrive, each of whom should 
be welcomed with a warm greeting. 

The hostess having determined who shall accompany each other to 
the table, each gentleman should be informed what lady he is expected 
to escort. The hour having arrived, the host offers his right arm to the 
most honored or possibly the eldest lady guest, and the gentleman most 
distinguished will escort the lady of the house. 

Proceeding to the dining-room when all is in readiness, the host will 
take his seat at the foot of the table, and the hostess at the head, the lady 
escorted by the host taking her seat at his right, and the escort of the 
hostess sitting also at her right. The next most honored seat is at the 
left of the hostess. The illustration (Fig. 12) upon this page shows a com- 
pany thus seated. 

It is fashionable to have cards laid upon the table, bearing the name, 
sometimes printed very beautifully upon silk, indicating where each 
guest shall sit, which saves confusion in being seated. The ladies having 
taken their places, the gentlemen will be seated, and all is in readiness for 
the dinner to be served, unless grace be said by a clergyman present or 
by the host 

Let us hope if there is any carving, it will be done before the meat is 
brought to the table, and the time of the company saved from this some- 
times slow and tedious work. Should soup be passed, it is well for each 
one to take it, and also the various courses as they are served, making no 

special comment on the food. 
The gentleman will, when a 
dish is brought, having seen 
the lady he escorted provided 
for, help himself and pass it 
on; he will pay no attention to 
the other lady near him, but 
will leave that to her escort 
In all cases he will be careful 
and attentive to the wants ot 
the lady in his charge, ascer- 
taining her wishes and issuing 
her orders to the waiters. 

No polite guest will ever fas- 
tidiously smell or examine any 
article of food before tasting 
it Such conduct would be 
an insult to those who have 
invited him; neither will the 
host or hostess apologize for 
the cooking or find fault with 
each other, the cook or the 
waiters; all having done the 
best they could, there is noth- 
ing left to do but to make the 
best of everything that is pro- 

Especial pains should be 
taken by the host and hostess, 
as well as all the company, to 
introduce topics of conversa- 
tion that shall be agreeable and 
pleasing, that the dinner hour 
may be in the highest degree 
entertaining. \Vhen all the 

giiests have finished their eating, the hostess, with a slight nod to one 
of the leading members of the party, will rise, as will all the company, 
and repair to the drawing-room, where, in social converse, the time should 
be spent for the next two or three hours. Etiquette demands that each 
member of the company remain at least an hour after the dinner is fin- 
ished, it being impolite to hurry away immediately after rising from the 
table. Should he do so, however, he will ask to be excused. 

assuming a genteel position while eating. It is 
not necessary that an elaborate toilet be worn at 
the table, but careful attention should always be 

ever plain may be the dress which is worn. 

Another evidence of good manners is the 
self-possession with which the company deport 
themselves throughout the meal. 




Fig. 13. Incorrect Position for Holding Knife 
and Fork. 

HEREWITH is shown 
a fault common with many 
] ! people of holding knife and 
fork above the hand (Fig. 
13) when mashing pota- 
toes, cutting meat, etc. The 
position is not only unfa- 
vorable for obtaining a 
good command of knife 
and fork, but it is likewise 
ungraceful. The contrast- 
ed OCri ing illustration (Fig. 14) 
represents an easy, grace- 
ful posture for hands, when 

eating. The habit of holding the hands thus in correct positions can be 
acquired as easily as any other. 

It is well to become accustomed to eating with the left 
hand, so as to avoid the necessity of changing the fork v 
from the left to the right hand frequently when eating 
meat. When no knife is required for spreading, mash- 
ing or cutting, lay it aside entirely and eat only with 
the fork, holding it with the right hand. 

Drinking from the Teacup. 

Formerly it was the fashion to pour tea into the sau- 
cer; not so now. Tea should be gently sipped from the 
spoon or cup, taking cup and spoon in hand (Fig. 15) 
when drinking, as shown in the accompanying diagram. 

The spoon should never be 
removed from the cup when 
the guest is satisfied with 
its contents. Should the 
cup be empty, and more be 
desired, to take the spoon 
out and place it beside the 
cup in the saucer is an in- 
timation to the waiter to 
have it refilled. If not 
empty, and the spoon is 
placed thus beside the cup, fi*o 
it is an intimation to the Fig ' 
waiter that you want the tea 

Correct Position for Holding Knife 
and Fork. 

or coffee changed. Do not call for "milk;" call for and speak only of 
cream." Never set your teacup upon the table-cloth. In taking sugar, 

use only the sugar -spoon. 

^? As in all the affairs of life, common sense must 
always rise superior to fashion or forms of etiquette. In 
this chapter on "The Table "we have aimed to give 
the leading outlines which should govern conduct in 
the dining-room. Much judgment will be required to 
always understand where these rules should be applied. 
Certainly to meet a company of people at the table, ap- 
pear to advantage, carry forward an intelligent con- 
versation, be agreeable and finish the meal, having 

eaten, in kind and quantity, sufficient to preserve health 
Fig. 15. Position for Holding Cup and 

Spoon. * and vigor, requires much wisdom and experience. 

The cup with handle, or of unusual size, may be held differently. 

tiquette of -fgartiGS in -f general 

Sociables, Tea-Parties, Private Theatricals, Picnics, Etc. 

HERE are many other kinds of gatherings, aside from the 
formal dinner-party and the ball, where less formality is re- 
quired, but where the rules of etiquette, nevertheless, must 
be continually brought into service. These comprise con- 
versations, or sociables, private concerts, readings, tea-parties, 
private theatricals, card -playing, etc. At these entertainments 
some prefer dancing, some music, some conversation, and some 
the playing of games. 

Whatever may be the nature of the entertainment, it is well to 
specify it in the invitation. -Thus, fora large, full-dress party, the in- 
vitation will read: 

Miss J 's compliments to Miss H , requesting the pleas- 
ure of her company for Friday evening, March 10, at eight o'clock. 

For the small party meeting for a specific purpose, the invitation will 
read thus: 

Miss B requests the pleasure of Miss K 's company on 

Friday evening next at 80* clock, to meet the members of the Salem Liter- 
ary Club, to which Miss B belongs. 


Miss B -would be happy to have Miss K- take part in an 

entertainment consisting of readings and recitations, at her residence, on 
Wednesday evening, March ijth, at eight o'clock. 

Like the dinner-party and ball, an answer should be promptly re- 
turned. The reply may read : 

Mis K accepts -with pleasure Miss B 's kind invitation 

for next Wednesday evening. 

Unable to accept the invitation, the reply may read as follows: 

Miss K regrets that a previous engagement (or other reason) 

will prevent her accepting Miss B 's kind invitation for Wednesday 

evening next. 

Should there be any probability of mistake as to time, and identity of 
the person sending the invitation, the date should be explicitly given in 
the body of the note, and the full name and address may be placed in 
the lower left-hand corner. 

As upon other occasions, it is the duty of the host and hostess to 
welcome arrivals and make all the guests feel at ease. To do this, much 
depends upon the hostess, who, by self-possession, geniality and contin- 
ual movement among the guests, will make all feel at home. More 
especially if the entertainment partakes of the character of a sociable, 
much tact is necessary upon the part of the family to have the gathering 

To keep the attention of the company occupied, as many rooms 
should be thrown open as possible, and many objects of interest should 
be scattered around the apartments to interest, amuse and instruct. 

If among the company there are those particularly eminent, there 
should be also other notables, that attention may not be entirely concen- 
trated upon the few. 

Special pains should be taken that the party does not divide itself up 
into cliques, twos, threes or more, leaving a number out who seem to 
possess no power to get into conversation. 

While it is not always advisable to break up a pleasant conversation 
going forward between two, three or four, care must be exercised that 
those inclined to drop aside and spend the time in conversing with each 
other are prevented by the hostess as much as possible from so doing, 
as the best conversationalists, thus going by themselves, would cause 



the remainder of the company to be wanting in spirit and animation. 
The introduction of others into the group, the calling- for a story, the 
reading of a poem, the singing of a song, with instrumental music, will 
thus effectually break up the monotony. 


Should dancing form a principal feature ot the entertainment, and 
the piano be used to furnish music, the hostess or one of the family 
should play the instrument. One of the guests should not be depended 
upon to furnish all of the music. If the hostess cannot play, a pianist 
for the occa 'on should be engaged. Either a lady or gentleman -guest 
may with propriety volunteer to play, if they choosf ; but the hostess 
cannot expect that music, thus voluntarily offered, will be cheerfully 
furnished for more than one dance. 

It is courtesy, while anyone is playing an instrument, or singing, to 
preserve as much stillness as possible. Should you converse, do it so 
quietly as not to be heard by those near the piano. Should your con- 
versation be animated, it is well to retire to another room. 

Amateur performers upon the piano should thoroughly commit to 
memory a few pieces to play independently of notes, as to take sheet- 
music to a party is a hint that they expect to be invited to play. 
If possible, have the voice in good condition also, so as not to be 
obliged to complain of a cold. To eat a small amount of horse-radish 
just previous to reading, singing or speaking, will quite effectually re- 
move hoarseness. 

Any lady-guest being invited to play the piano, it is courtesy for the 
gentleman nearest her to offer his arm and escort her to the instru- 
ment. While she is playing he will hold her bouquet, fan and gloves, 
and should also turn the leaves if he can readily read music, but he 
should not attempt it otherwise. 

When a guest is invited by another guest to play the piano, it will be 
well to wait until the request is seconded by others; and even then the 
guest may not play unless it should meet the favor of the hostess, and it 
is believed to be the pleasure of the majority of the company. If certain 
that the playing will be acceptable, it is well to suggest to the hostess to 
invite your friend. 

It is very impolite to speak disparagingly of the piano, however 
much it may be out of tune, or however inferior it may be. More espe- 
cially is it a breach of etiquette to draw unfavorable comparisons be- 
tween the instrument and another elsewhere. 

How to Entertain the Party. 

If it happens to be stormy on the evening of your party, an awning 
erected from the carriage -landing to the house, or a large umbrella car- 
ried by a servant, will be a kind provision for the comfort of the guests 
as they alight from their carriages. 

Suppers have wisely been dispensed with of late years at the ordi- 
nary evening party. To furnish a full, late supper is a piece of folly for 
various reasons; among them being the fact that it is positively injuri- 
ous to the health of the company to eat it. The majority of the party, 
in all probability, do not desire it; and consequently it is time, labor 
and expense, upon the part of the hostess, worse than thrown away. 
She should have all of her time to devote to her company ; to do which, 
she can provide only light refreshments, which may be passed around. 

Among the methods of entertainment resorted to, aside from conver- 
sation and dancing, may be those of a literary character. Thus a de- 
batable question may be propounded, a presiding officer selected, 
assisted by two, four or six others, two leading disputants appointed, 
debaters chosen upon each side, and the speakers given etich two, three 
or five minutes to talk; the president and board of arbitration to decide 
the question according to the weight of argument. This is a pleasant 
and profitable way of spending the evening, if all can be enlisted and 
be interested in listening or have something to say. 

Another intellectual and pleasant mode of spending an evening is 
for each member of the company to read or recite something that 
shall interest, amuse, instruct and entertain the audience. To do 
this rightly, some one should be appointed to act as master of cere- 
monies for the evening, being assisted by two or three others, who will 
make suggestions. It will be the duty of the presiding officer, at these 

parlor recitations, to ascertain in the beginning what each one will re- 
cite, make out a programme, and then announce the various readers and 
speakers of the evening, as they come in turn, having the exercises suit- 
ably interspersed with music. The pleasure of the occasion will much 
depend upon having every piece upon the programme short, and clearly 
announced by the presiding officer. 

Parlor-theatricals and parlor-concerts are a pleasant means of enter- 
taining an evening gathering a company of six, eight, or more, thor- 
oughly mastering a play and giving it to an audience that may assemble 
in the parlors. To have an entertainment of this kind pass smoothly 
through, some competent person must take upon himself or herself the 
duties of manager. Bach player should be consulted before parts 
are assigned, and it is of the utmost importance that the players be 
each prompt in rendering their parts. It is the province of the hostess 
to act tne part of stage -manager, unless she appoints some one from the 
audience to conduct the exercises. 

Croquet parties are very fashionable, and are a healthful, pleasant 
means of diversion. The essentials necessary to make the game pleas- 
ant are good grounds that can be 'shaded, and clean, comfortable, cool 
seats. A table may be set in the shade, and refreshments served thereon ; 
or they may be passed to the guests as they sit in their seats. 

On all occasions when a number of people convene together, whether 
indoors or out, the laws of courtesy should be obeyed. It is the duty 
of the gentlemen to be ever attentive to the ladies. If it be a picnic, 
the gentlemen will carry the luncheon, erect the swings, construct the 
tables, bring the water, provide the fuel for boiling the tea, etc. On the 
fishing excursion they will furnish the tackle, bait the hooks, row the 
boats, carry the fish, and furnish comfortable seats for the ladies. In 
gathering nuts, they will climb the trees, do the shaking, carry the nuts, 
and assist the ladies across the strea-ris and over the fences. If possible, 
in crossing the fields, go through the bars or gateway, and avoid the ne- 
cessity of compelling the ladies to clamber over the fences. Should it 
be necessary to climb them, it is etiquette for the gentleman to go over 
first, and when the lady is firmly on the top, he will gently help her 

It should ever be the rule, with both ladies and gentlemen, upon all 
such occasions, to render every assistance possible to entertain the 
company. Self should be forgotten. More or less assistance is all the 
time required by the managers of the outdoor gatherings, and labor is 
continually necessary to make the occasion pleasant. To aid in render- 
ing the affair agreeable by needed assistance will very likely give you 
more pleasure than to be entertained yourself. 

Etiquette for Public Places. 

It is not etiquette for a young lady to visit a place of public amuse- 
ment with a gentleman, alone, with whom she is but slightly acquainted. 
Her escort should the first time invite another member of the family to 
accompany her. 

The gentleman should make a point of extending his invitation to the 
lady long enough before the entertainment to be able to secure desirable 
seats. Most of the pleasure of the occasion will depend upon being so 
seated as to be able to witness the performance to advantage. 

The lady having received a note of invitation, she should reply to the 
same immediately, that the gentleman may make his arrangements ac- 

Should the weather be stormy, and for other reasons, it will be a 
very graceful way of complimenting the lady to provide a carriage for 
the occasion. 

Seats having been secured, it is not necessary to arrive until about 
five minutes before the commencement of the performance. It is bad 
manners to go late to a public entertainment; the bustle and noise inci- 
dent to the late arrival is often a serious interference with the exercises 
of the occasion. 

Upon entering the hall, secure a programme for each member of your 
party, and follow the usher to the designated seats. The gentleman will 
go first, and pauoe at the entrance, allowing the lady to pass into the 
seat, when he will follow. 




Etiquette of IVisiting 


EFORE making a visit, you should he per- 
fectly certain that your visit will be 

It is common for some people to be very 
cordial, and even profuse in their offers 
of hospitality. They unquestionably mean 
what they say at the time, but when they 
tender you an invitation to come and tarry 
weeks, it may seriously incommode them 
if you should pay them a visit of even a 
few days. 

As a rule, a visit should never be made upon a gen- 
eral invitation. Should you visit a city where a friend 
resides, it will be best to go first to the hotel, unless you 
have a special invitation from the friend. From the hotel 
you will make a polite call, and if then you are invited, 
you can accept of the hospitality. 

In all cases when you contemplate a visit, even with 
relatives, it is courtesy to write and announce your com- 
ln Ki giving* as nearly as possible, the day and exact 
time of your arrival. 
An invitation to visit a friend should be answered as soon as may be ; 
stating definitely when you will come, and how long you intend to stay. 
When near your destination, it is well to send a prepaid telegram, 
stating upon what train you will arrive. As a reward for this fore- 
thought, you will probably find your friends waiting for you at the depot, 
and the welcome will be very pleasant. 

What is Expected of the Guest when Visiting. 

You are expected to pleasantly accept such hospitality as your friends 
can afford. 

If no previous understanding has been had, the visit should be limited 
to three days, or a week at most. 

You should make your visit interfere as little as possible with the 
routine work of the household in which you are a guest. 

You should aim to conform your action, as much as may be, to the 
rules of the house, as to times of eating, retiring to rest, etc. 

You should ''ate upon your arrival how long you intend to stay, that 
your friends may arrange their plans to entertain accordingly. 

Letters and papers being received in the presence of the host, hostess 
and others, the guest should ask to be excused while reading them. 

Furnish your own materials in doing work for yourself when you are 
visiting, as much as possible, and never depend upon your entertainers. 

A kind courtesy, while you remain, will be to execute some work 
representing your own skill, to be given the hostess as a memento of 
the occasion. 

You should in shopping or transacting business, when you desire to 
go alone, select the hours of the-day when your friends are engaged in 
their own duties. 

The guest should beware of making unfavorable comment about the 
friends of the host and hostess, or of offering unfavorable criticism upon 
what they are known to favor or admire. 

Should you happen to injure any article or other property while 
visiting, you should have the same immediately repaired, and, if possible, 
the article put in better condition than it was before. 

You should not treat your friend's house as if it was a hotel, making 
your calls, visiting, transacting business about the town, and coming 
and going at all hours to suit your own convenience. 

Never invite a friend who may call upon you to remain to dinner or 
supper. This is a right which belongs to the hostess, and it is for her to 
determine whether she wishes your guest to remain or not. 

The guest should aim to render efficient assistance in case of sickness 
or sudden trouble at the house where the visit maybe made. Oftentimes 
the best service will be rendered by considerately taking your leave. 

Invitations accepted by the lady-guest should include the hostess, and 
those received by the hostess should include the guest. Thus, as much 
as possible, at all places of entertainment hostess and guest should go 

While husbands and wives are always expected to accompany each 
other, where either may be invited, it is a trespass upon the generosity 
of the friend to take children and servants unless they are included in 
the invitation. 

Never invite a friend who calls upon you into any other room than the 
parlor, unless it is suggested by the hostess that you do so. While you 
may have the right to enter various rooms, you have no authority for 
extending the privilege to others. 

Immediately upon the return to your home, after paying a visit, you 
should write to your hostess, thanking her for hospitality and the enjoy 
ment you received. You should also ask to be remembered to all of the 
family, mentioning each one by name. 

Expenses which the friends may incur in removal and care of bag- 
gage, in repairs of wardrobe, or any other personal service requiring cash 
outlay, the guest should be careful to have paid. Washing and ironing 
should be sent elsewhere from the place where the guest is visiting. 

The lady-guest should beware of receiving too many visits from 
gentlemen, and if invited to accompany them to places of amusement or 
on rides, she should consult with the hostess and learn what appoint- 
ments she may have, and whether the going with others will be satis- 
factory to her. 

Should a secret of the family come into your possession while on a 
visit, you should remember that the hospitality and privileges extended 
should bind you to absolute secrecy. It is contemptibly mean to become 
the possessor of a secret thus, and afterwards betray the confidence 
reposed in you % 

Be careful that you treat with kindness and care servants, horses, car- 
riages and other things at your friend's house which are placed at your 
disposal. To pluck choice flowers, to handle books roughly, to drive 
horses too fast, to speak harshly to servants all this indicates selfishness 
and bad manners. 

The visitor should beware of criticism or fault-finding with the family 
of the hostess. It is also in extremely bad taste for the guest to speak 
disparagingly of things about the home or the town where the visit is 
being made, being at the same time enthusiastic in praise of people and 
places elsewhere. 



When a child is taken along, the mother should be very watchful 
that it does no injury about the house, and makes no trouble. It is ex- 
cessively annoying to a neat housekeeper to have a child wandering 
about the rooms, handling furniture with greasy fingers, scattering 
crumbs over the carpets, and otherwise making disturbance. 

The gentleman visitor should be certain that smoking is not offensive 
to the various members of the family, before he indulges too freely in 
the pipe and cigar about the house. For the guest, without permission, 
to seat himself in the parlor (Fig. 16), and scent the room with the 
fumes of tobacco, is a serious impoliteness. 

When you can at times render assistance to those you are visiting, in 
any light work, you will often make your visit more agreeable. A lady 
will not hesitate to make her own bed if there be few or no servants, and 
will do anything else to assist the hostess. If your friend, however, 
declines allowing you to assist her, you should not insist upon the mat- 
ter further. 

Guests should enter with spirit and cheerfulness into the various 
plans that are made for their enjoyment. Possibly some rides will be 
had, and some visits made, that will be tiresome, but the courteous guest 
should find something to admire everywhere, and thus make the enter- 
tainers feel that their efforts to please are appreciated. 

Of various persons in the family where the guest may be visiting, 
gifts may most appropriately be given to the hostess, and the baby or 
the youngest child. If the youngest has reached its teens, then it 
may be best to give it to the mother. The visitor will, however, use 
discretion in the matter. Flowers and fancy needle-work will always 
be appropriate for the lady. Confectionery and jewelry will he appre- 
ciated by the children. Small articles of wearing apparel or money 
will be suitable for servants who have been particularly attentive to the 

Special pains should be taken by guests to adapt 
themselves to the religious habits of those with 
whom they are visiting. If daily prayers are had, 
or grace is said at meals, the most reverent attention 
should be given; though when invited to participate 
in any of these exercises, if unaccustomed to the 
same, you can quietly ask to be excused. As a rule, 
it is courtesy to attend church with the host and host- 
ess. Should you have decided preferences, and go 
elsewhere, do so quietly and without comment, and 
under no circumstances should there be allowed 
religious discussion afterwards. You visit the home 
of your friends to entertain and be entertained. Be 
careful that you so treat their opinions that they will 
wish you to come again. 

At the close of their stay, if you would be happy to have the visitors 
remain longer, you will frankly tell them so. If they insist upon going, 
you will aid them in every way possible in their departure. See that 
their baggage is promptly conveyed to the train. Examine the rooms 
to find whether they have forgotten any article that they would wish to 
take. Prepare a lunch for them to partake of on their journey. Go with 
them to the depot. Treat them with such kindness and cordiality to the 
close that the recollection of their visit will ever be a bright spot in their 
memory. Remain with them until the train arrives. They would be 
very lonely waiting without you. You will ever remember with pleasure 
the fact that you made the last hours of their visit pleasant. And thus, 
with the last hand-shaking, and the last waving of adieu, as the train 
speeds away, keep up the warmth of hospitality with your guests to the 
very end. It is, perhaps, the last time you will ever see them. 


While a quiet conversation is allowable in the intervals after the 
opening of the performance, close attention should be given to the stage. 
Should it be a concert, the utmost stillness should be observed, as the 
slightest whisper will disturb the" singers. This considerate attention 
should be given to the very end. It is in exceedingly bad taste, near the 
close of the last act, for the audience to commence moving about, putting 
on wraps and outer clothing, preparatory to leaving. Those who do so, 
lose the choicest part of the entertainment; they distract others who 
wish to be attentive, and they advertise the fact that they have no private 
carriage of their own, but on the contrary go by some public convey- 
ance, and with characteristic selfishness they intend to rush out first and 
secure the best seats. 

If the entertainment be a fancy fair, where goods 
which have been manufactured by a company of la- 
dies are sold for church or charitable purposes, good 
sense will immediately suggest that as large a price 
should be realized as possible, and hence it is not 
etiquette for the purchaser to attempt to buy under 
price. It is also courtesy for the saleswoman, when 
a larger sum is presented than is charged, to deduct 
the price and promptly return the change, unless the 
surplus be donated to the charity. 

Bad Manners. 

Do not forget, while you make yourself comforta- 
ble, that others have rights which should be always 

Pig. 17. The Visitor who Converts the Par- 
lor into a Smoking-Room. 

Hints to the Host and Hostess. 

Take the baggage-checks, and give personal attention to having the 
trunks conveyed to your residence, relieving the guest of all care in the 

Having received intelligence of the expected arrival of a guest, if 
possible have a carriage at the depot to meet the friend. Various mem- 
bers of the family being with the carriage will make the welcome more 

Have a warm, pleasant room especially prepared for the guest, the 
dressing-table being supplied with water, soap, towel, comb, hair-brush, 
brush-broom, hat-brush, pomade, cologne, matches, needles and pins. 
The wardrobe should be conveniently arranged for the reception of 
wearing apparel. The bed should be supplied with plenty of clothing, 
a side-table should contain writing materials, and the center-table should 
be furnished with a variety of entertaining reading matter. 

Arrange to give as much time as possible to the comfort of the guest, 
visiting places of amusement and interest in the vicinity. This should 
all be done without apparent effort on your part. Let your friends feel 
that the visit is a source of real enjoyment to you ; that through their 
presence and company you have the pleasure of amusements and recrea- 
tion that would, perhaps, not have been enjoyed had they not come. 
Treat them with such kindness as you would like to have bestowed 
upon yourself under similar circumstances. 

Do not talk loudly, laugh boisterously, or make 
violent gestures. 

Do not talk or whisper so loudly during the entertainment as to dis- 
turb those sitting near you. 

Do not make a display of secrecy, mystery, or undue lover-like affec- 
tion with your companion. 

Do not prevent your companion from giving attention to the exercises, 
even though they may be without interest to yourself. 

Do not, in a picture-gallery, stand conversing too long in front of 
pictures. Take seats, and allow others to make examination. 

Do not, if a lady, allow a gentleman to join you, and thus withdraw 
your attention from your escort. And do not, if a gentleman, ullow your 
attention to be taken up, to any great extent, with a lady other than the 
one you have in charge. 

Do not, if a gentleman, be continually going from the hall between 
the acts of the play. To be passing up and down the aisle, eating pep- 
pers and cardamom seeds, advertises the fact that you are addicted to 
the too frequent use of liquors. 

Do not join a party about to visit a place of amusement unless invited 
to do so. Should the party consist of one gentleman and two ladies, a 
gentleman, if well acquainted, may ask the privilege of attending one of 
the ladies. Should a ticket be furnished him, he should return the favor 
by an equal politeness bestowed upon the party, if possible, during the 



Courtship and Marriage. 


HE happiness of married life comes 
from pleasant, harmonious relations 
existing between husband and wife. 
If rightly mated in the conjugal state, 
life will be one continual joy. If un- 
happily wedded, the soul will be for- 
ever yearning, and never satisfied; 
happiness may be hoped for, may be 

dreamed of, may be the object ever labored for, but 

it will never be realized. 

In view, therefore, of the great influence that 
marriage has upon the welfare and happiness of all 
those who enter the conjugal relation, it becomes 
the duty of everyone to study the laws which 
make happy, enduring companionships between 
husbands and wives. It is a duty which not only 
the unmarried owe themselves, but it is an obliga- 
tion due to society, as the well-being of a commu- 
nity largely rests upon the permanent, enduring 
family relation. 

Very properly does the highest civilization not 
only recognize one woman for one man, and one 
man for one woman, but it ordains that mar- 
riage shall be publicly solemnized; and in view of its sacred nature 
and its vast influence on the welfare of society, that its rights shall be 
jealously guarded, and that a separation of those who pledge themselves 
to each other for life shall be as seldom made as possible. 

The young should, therefore, be thoroughly imbued with the idea that 
the marriage state may not be entered upon without due and careful con- 
sideration of its responsibilities, as explained in the introductory remarks 
found in the department devoted to " Love Letters." 

The province of this chapter is to consider the etiquette of courtship 
and marriage, not its moral bearings; and yet we may in this connection 
very appropriately make a few suggestions. 

Whom to Marry. 

There are exceptions to all rules. Undoubtedly parties have married 
on brfef acquaintance, and have lived happily afterwards. It is some- 
times the case that the wife is much older than the husband, is much 
wiser, and mich his superior in social position, and yet happiness in the 
union may follow. But, as a rule, there are a few fundamental requi- 
sites, which, carefully observed, are much more likely to bring happiness 
than does marriage where the conditions are naturally unfavorable". 

Of these requisites, are the following: 

Marry a person whom you have known long enough to be sure of 
his or her worth if not personally, at least by reputation. 

Marry a person who is your equal in social position. If there be a 
difference either way, let the husband be superior to the wife. It is diffi- 
cult for a wife to love and honor a person whom she is compelled to look 
down upon. 

Marry a person of similar religious convictions, tastes, likes and dis- 
likes to your own. It is not congenial to have one companion deeply 

religious, while the other only ridicules the forms of religion. It is not 
pleasant for one to have mind and heart absorbed in a ceftain kind 
of work which the other abhors; and it is equally disagreeable to 
the gentle, mild and sweet disposition to be united with a cold, heartless, 
grasping, avaricious, quarrelsome person. Very truthfully does Luna 
S. Peck, in the " Vermont Watchman," describe one phase of inhar- 
mony, in the following poem: 


HAWK once courted a white little dove, 
With the softest of wings and a voice full of love; 
And the hawk O yes, as other hawks go 
W^as a well-enough hawk, for aught that I know. 

But she was a dove, 

And her bright young life 

Had been nurtured in love, 

Away from all strife. 

Well, she married the hawk. The groom was delighted; 
A feast was prepared, and the friends all invited 
(Does anyone think that my story's not true ? 
He is certainly wrong the tacts are not new.) 

Then he flew to his nest, 

With the dove at his side, 

And soon all the rest 

Took a squint at the bride. 

A hawk for his father, a hawk for his mother, 
A hawk for his sister, and one for his brother, 
And uncles and aunts there were by the dozens, 
And oh, such a number of hawks for his cousins! 

They were greedy and rough 

A turbulent crew, 

Always ready enough 

To be quarrelsome, too. 

To the dove all was strange; but never a word 

In resentment she gave to the wrangling she heard. 

If a thought of the peaceful, far-away nest 

Ever haunted her dreams, or throbbed in her breast, 

No bird ever knew ; 

Each hour of her life, 

Kind, gentle and true 

Was the hawk's dove -wife. 

But the delicate nature too sorely was tried ; 
With no visible sickness, the dove drooped and died; 
Then loud was the grief, and the wish all expressed 
To call the learned birds, and hold an inquest. 

So all the birds came, 

But each shook his head : 

No disease could he name 

Why the dove should be dead; 

'Till a wise old owl, with a knowing look, 
Stated this: "The case is as clear as a book; 
No disease do I find, or accident's shock; 
The cause of her death was too much hawk ! 
Hawk for her father, and hawk for her mother, 
Hawk for her sister, and hawk for her brother, 
Was more than the delicate bird could bear; 
She hath winged her way to a realm more fair! 

She was nurtured a dove; 

Too hard the hawk's life 

Void of kindness and love, 

Full of hardness and strife." 

And when he had told them, the other birds knew 
That this was the cause, and the verdict was true ! 



Natural Selection. 

In the first place, observation proves that selections made in nature 
by the beasts of the field and fowls of the air, of couples which pair, 
the male is always the strongest, generally the largest, the most brave, 
and always the leader. The female follows, trusting to her companion, 
leaving him to fight the heavy battles, apparently confident in his bravery, 
strength and wisdom. 

If nature teaches anything, it is what observation and experience 
in civilized life has also proved correct, that of husband and wife, rightly 
mated, the husband should represent the positive the physical forces, 
the intellectual and the strongly-loving; while the wife will represent 
the negative the sympathetic, the spiritual, and the affectional. The 
husband should be so strong as to be a natural protector to his family. 
He should be brave, that he may defend his companion. He should be 
wise, and he should be so thoroughly true and devoted to his wife that 
he will delight in being her guardian and support. 

The wife, confident in the husband's strength and wisdom, will thus 
implicitly yield to his protecting care. And thus both will be happy 
he in exercising the prerogatives which belong naturally to the guardian 
and protector; and she in her confidence, love and respect for her com- 
panion, whom she can implicitly trust. 

Peculiarities Suitable for Each Other. 

Those who are neither very tall nor very short, whose eyes are neither 
very black nor very blue, whose hair is neither very black nor very reel, 
the mixed types may marry those who are quite similar in form, 
complexion and temperament to themselves. 

Bright red hair and a florid complexion indicate an excitable tem- 
perament Such should marry the jet-black hair and the brunette type. 

The gray, blue, black or hazel eyes should not marry those of the 
same color. Where the color is very pronounced, the union should be 
with those of a decidedly different color. 

The very corpulent should unite with the thin and spare, and the 
short, thick-set should choose a different constitution. 

The thin, bony, wiry, prominent-featured, Roman-nosed, cold-blooded 
individual, should marry the round -featured, warm-hearted and emo- 
tional. Thus the cool should unite with warmth and susceptibility. 

The extremely irritable and nervous should unite with the lymphatic, 
the slow and the quiet Thus the stolid will be prompted by the nervous 
companion, while the excitable will be quieted by the gentleness of the 
less nervous. 

The quick-motioned, rapid-speaking person should marry the calm 
and deliberate. The warmly impulsive should unite with the stoical. 

The very fine-haired, soft and delicate-skinned should not marry those 
like themselves; and the curly should unite with the straight and smooth 

The thin, long-face should marry the round -favored ; and the flat nose 
should marry the full Roman. The woman who inherits the features and 
peculiarities of her father should marry a man who partakes of the char- 
acteristics of his mother; but in all these cases where the type is not 
pronounced, but is, on the contrary, an average or medium, those forms, 
features and temperaments may marry either. 

Etiquette of Courtship. 

But however suitable may be the physical characteristics, there are 
many other matters to be considered before a man and woman may take 
upon themselves the obligation to love and serve each other through life, 
and these can only be learned by acquaintance and courtship, concern- 
ing which the following suggestions may be appropriate: 

Any gentleman who may continuously give special, undivided atten- 
tion to a certain lady, is presumed to do so because he prefers her to 
others. It is reasonable to suppose that others will observe his action. 
It is also to be expected that the lady will herself appreciate the fact, 
and her feelings are likely to become engaged. Should she allow an 
intimacy thus to ripen upon the part of the gentleman, and to continue, 
it is to be expected that he will be encouraged to hope for her hand; and 

hence it is the duty of both lady and gentleman, if neither intends mar- 
riage, to discourage an undue intimacy which may ripen into love, as it 
is in the highest degree dishonorable to trifle with the affections of an- 
other. If, however, neither has objections to the other, the courtship 
may continue. 

The Decisive Question. 

At length the time arrives for the gentleman to make a proposal. If 
he is a good judge of human nature, he will have discovered long ere 
this whether his favors have been acceptably received or not, and yet he 
may not know positively how the lady will receive an offer of mar- 
riage. It becomes him, therefore, to propose. 

What shall he say? There are many ways whereby he may intro- 
duce the subject. Among these are the following: 

He may write to the lady, making an offer, and request her to reply. 
He may, if he dare not trust to words, even in her presence write the 
question on a slip of paper, and request her laughingly to give a plain 
" no " or "yes." He may ask her if in case a gentleman very much like 
himself was to make a proposal of marriage to her, what she would say. 
She will probably laughingly reply that it will be time enough to tell 
what she would say when the proposal is made. And so the ice would 
be broken. He may jokingly remark that he intends one of these days to 
ask a certain lady not a thousand miles away if she will marry him, and 
asks her what answer she supposes the lady will give him ; she will quite 
likely reply that it will depend upon what lady he asks. And thus he 
may approach the subject, by agreeable and easy stages, in a hundred 
ways, depending upon circumstances. 


An engagement of marriage has been made. The period of court- 
ship prior to marriage has been passed by the contracting parties, doubt- 
less pleasantly, and we trust profitably. 

Let us hope that they have carefully studied each other's tastes, that 
they know each other's mental endowments, and that by visits, rides 
and walks, at picnics, social gatherings and public entertainments, they 
have found themselves suited to each other. 

Upon an engagement being announced, it is courtesy for various 
members of the gentleman's family, generally the nearest relatives, to 
call upon the family of the lady, who in turn should return the call as 
soon as possible. Possibly the families have never been intimate; it is 
not necessary that they should be so, but civility will demand the ex- 
change of visits. If the betrothed live in different towns, an exchange 
of kind and cordial letters between the families is etiquette, the parents 
or near relatives of the gentleman writing to the lady or her parents. 

A present of a ring to the lady, appropriately signalizes the engage- 
ment of marriage. This is usually worn on the fore-finger of the left 
hand. If the parties are wealthy, this may be set with diamonds; but if 
in humble circumstances, the gift should be more plain. Other presents 
by the gentleman to the lady, of jewelry, on birthdays, Christmas or 
New Year's, will be very appropriate; while she, in turn, may recip- 
rocate by gifts of articles of fancy-work made with her own hands. 

Aside from the engagement-ring, a gentleman should not, at this 
period of acquaintance, make expensive presents to his intended bride. 
Articles of small value, indicative of respect and esteem, are all that 
should pass between them. Should the marriage take place, and coming 
years of labor crown their efforts with success, then valuable gifts will 
be much more appropriate than in the earlier years of their acquaint- 

Arrangements for a Permanent Home. 

It remains to be seen whether the intended husband will prove a finan- 
cial success or not. He may be over benevolent; he may be too ready to 
become security for others; he may prove a spendthrift; he may lose his 
property in a variety of ways. It is therefore wise for the lady and her 
friends to see that, previous to the marriage, if she have money in her 
own right, a sufficient sum be settled upon her to provide for all contin- 
gencies in the future. This is a matter that the gentleman should him- 
self insist upon, even using his own money for the purpose, as many a 
man has found, when his own fortune was wrecked, the provision made 
for his wife to be his only means of support in declining years. 



Conduct During the Engagement. 

An engagement having been made, it is desirable that it be carried to 
a successful termination by marriage. To do this, considerable depends 
upon both parties. 

The gentleman should be upon pleasant terms with the lady's family, 
making himself agreeable to her parents, her sisters and her brothers. 
Especially to the younger members of her family should the gentleman 
render his presence agreeable, by occasional rides and little favors, 
presents of sweetmeats, etc. 

He should also take pains to comply with the general regulations of 
the family during his visits, being punctual at meals, and early in retir- 
ing; kind and courteous to servants, and agreeable to all. 

He should still be gallant to the ladies, but never so officiously atten- 
tive to anyone as to arouse uneasiness upon the part of his affianced. 
Neither should he expect her to eschew the society of gentlemen entirely 
from the time of her engagement. 

The lady he has chosen for his future companion is supposed to have 
good sense, and while she may be courteous to all, receiving visits and 
calls, she will allow no flirtations, nor do anything calculated to excite 
jealousy on the part of her fiance. 

The conduct of both after the engagement should be such as to in- 
spire in each implicit trust and confidence. 

Visits should not be unduly protracted. If the gentleman makes 
them in the evening, they should be made early, and should not be over 
two hours in length. The custom of remaining until a late hour has 
passed away in genteel society. Such conduct at the present time, among 
the acquaintance of the lady, is certain to endanger her reputation. 

For the gentleman and lady who are engaged to isolate themselves 
from others when in company, or do anything that shall attract the 
attention of the company to themselves, is in bad taste. Such conduct 
will always call forth unfavorable comments. The young ladies will 
sneer at it from jealousy, the young men will pronounce it foolish, and 
the old will consider it out of place. 

And yet, by virtue of engagement, the gentleman should be consid- 
ered the rightful escort, and upon all occasions the lady will give him 
preference; and he will especially see, however thoughtful he may be of 
others, that her wants are carefully attended to. 

Should a misunderstanding or quarrel happen, it should be removed 
by the lady making the first advances towards a reconciliation. She 
thus shows a magnanimity which can but win admiration from her 
lover. Let both in their conduct towards the other be confiding, noble 
and generous. 

The Wedding. 

The wedding-day having arrived, the presents for the bride, if there 
be any, which may be sent at any time during the previous week, will 
be handsomely displayed before the ceremony. The presents, which 
have the names of the donors attached, are for the bride never the 
bridegroom, although many of them may be sent by friends of the latter. 

The form and ceremony of the wedding will be as various as are the 
peculiarities of those who marry, and comprise every description of dis- 
play, from the very quiet affair, with but a few friends present, to 
the elaborate occasion when the church is filled to repletion, or in the 
palatial residence of the father of the bride, "the great house filled 
with guests of every degree." 

We will suppose that the parties desire a somewhat ostentatious wed- 
ding, and the marriage takes place in church. In arranging the prelim- 
inaries, the bride may act her pleasure in regard to bridesmaids. She 
may have none; she may have one, two, three, four, six or eight; and, 
while in England it is customary to have but one groomsman, it is 
not uncommon in the United States to have one groomsman for every 

The bridegroom should make the first groomsman the manager of 
affairs, and should furnish him with money to pay necessary expenses. 

Ushers are selected from the friends of the bride and groom, who, 
designated by a white rosette worn on the left lapel of the coat, will 

wait upon the invited guests at the door of the church, and assign them 
to their places, which will be a certain number of the front seats. 

The bridegroom should send a carriage at his expense for the officiat- 
ing clergyman and his family.- He is not expected to pay for the carriage 
of the parents of the bride, nor for those occupied by the bridesmaids 
and groomsmen. 

The latter will furnish the carriages for the ladies, unless otherwise 
provided. The invited guests will go in carriages at their own expense. 

The clergyman is expected to be within the rails, and the congrega- 
tion promptly in their seats, at the appointed hour. The bridegroom will 
proceed to the church, accompanied by his near relatives, and should 
precede the bride, that he may hand her from the carriage, if not waited 
upon by her father or other near relative. 

The bride goes to the church in a carriage, accompanied by her 
parents, or those who stand to her in the relation of parents (as may 
other relatives, or legal guardian), or she may be accompanied by the 

When the bridal party is ready in the vestibule of the church, the 
ushers will pass up the center aisle, the first groomsman, accompanied 
by the first bridesmaid, coming next, the others following in their order. 
The groom walks next with the bride's mother upon his arm, followed 
by the father with the bride. At the altar, as the father and mother 
'step back, the bride takes her place upon the left of the groom. 

Another mode of entering the church is for the first bridesmaid and 
groomsman to lead, followed by the bride and groom. When in front of 
the altar, the groomsman turns to the right, the bridesmaid to the left, 
leaving a space in front of the minister for the bride and groom ; the 
near relatives and parents of the bride and groom follow closely, and 
form a circle about the altar during the ceremony. 

The former mode is, however, established etiquette. At the altar the 
bride stands at the left of the groom, and in some churches both bride 
and groom remove the right-hand glove. In others it is not deemed 
necessary. When a ring is used, it is the duty of the first bridesmaid to 
remove the bride's left-hand glove. An awkward pause is, however, 
avoided by opening one seam of the glove upon the ring finger, and at 
the proper time the glove may be turned back, and the ring thus easily 
placed where it belongs, which is the third finger of the left hand. 

The responses of the bride and groom should not be too hastily nor 
too loudly given. 

Following the ceremony, the parents of the bride speak to her first, 
succeeded by the parents of the groom before other friends. 

Essentially the same ceremonies will be had, the same positions will 
be assumed, and the same modes of entering will be observed, in the 
parlors at the residence, as at the church. 

The bride and groom, after the ceremony, will go in the same carriage 
from the church to the home or to the depot. 

Should a breakfast or supper follow the ceremony, the bride will not 
change her dress until she assumes her traveling apparel. At the party 
succeeding the ceremony, the bridesmaids and groomsmen should be 
invited, and all may, if they prefer, wear the dresses worn at the wed- 

The Wedding Trousseau. 

It is customary, at the wedding, for the young bride to wear only 
pure white, with a wreath of orange flowers to adorn the full veil of lace. 
The widow or elderly lady will wear pearl color or tinted silk, without 
wreath or veil. The bridesmaid of the youthful bride may wear colors, 
but a very beautiful effect is produced by pure white, with colored trim- 
mings. In some cases, one-half of the bridesmaids will wear one color, 
and the other half another color. No black dresses should be worn by 
the guests. Any in mourning may, for the time, wear purple, lavender, 
iron -gray and other quiet colors. 

The bridegroom and groomsmen will wear white gloves, vest and 

The bride's traveling dress should be very quiet and modest, and not 
such as in any .way to attract attention. 



Only the bridegroom is congratulated at the wedding; it is he who is 
supposed to have won the prize. Acquaintances of both should speak 
to the bride first; but if acquainted with but one, they will address that 
one first, when introductions will take place. 

At the wedding breakfast or supper the bride sits by the side of her 
husband, in the center of the table, at the side; her father and mother 
occupy the foot and head of the table, and do the honors of the occasion, 
as at the dinner-party. 

The festivities of the occasion being over, and the hour of departure 
having 1 arrived, the guests disperse, it being etiquette for them to make a 
formal call on the mother of the bride in the succeeding two weeks. 

Etiquette Between Husbands and Wives. 

Let the rebuke be preceded by a kiss. 

Do not require a request to be repeated. 

N ever should both be angry at the same time. 

Never neglect the other, for all the world beside. 

Let each strive to always accommodate the other. 

Let the angry word be answered only with a kiss. 

Bestow your warmest sympathies in each other's trials. 

Make your criticism in the most loving manner possible. 

Make no display of the sacrifices you make for each other. 

Never make a remark calculated to bring- ridicule upon the other. 

Never deceive; confidence, once lost, can never be wholly regained. 

Always use the most gentle and loving words when addressing each 

Let each study what pleasure can be bestowed upon the other during 
the day. 

Always leave home with a tender good-bye and loving words. They 
may be the last 

Consult and advise together in all that comes within the experience 
and sphere of each individually. 

Never reproach the other for an error which was done with a good 
motive and with the best judgment at the time. 

The Wife's Duty. 

Never should a wife display her best conduct, her accomplishments, 
her smiles, and her best nature, exclusively away from home. 

Be careful in your purchases. Let your husband know -what you 
buy, and that you have wisely expended your money. 

Let no wife devote a large portion of her time to society-work which 
shall keep her away from home daytimes and evenings, without the 
full concurrence of her husband. 

Beware of entrusting the confidence of your household to outside par- 
ties. The moment you discuss the faults of your husband with another, 
that moment an element of discord has been admitted which will one day 
rend your family circle. 

If in moderate circumstances, do not be over ambitious to make an 
expensive display in your rooms. With your own work you can embel- 
lish at a cheap price, and yet very handsomely, if you have taste. Let 
the adornings of your private rooms be largely the work of your own 

Beware of bickering about little things. Your husband returns from 
his labors with his mind absorbed in business. In his dealings with his 
employes, he is in the habit of giving commands and of being obeyed. 
In his absent-mindedness, he does not realize, possibly, the change from 
his business to his home, and the same dictatorial spirit may possess 
him in the domestic circle. Should such be the case, avoid all disputes. 
What matters it where a picture hangs, or a flower-vase may sit. Make 
the home so charming and so wisely-ordered that your husband will 
gladly be relieved of its care, and will willingly yield up its entire man- 
agement to yourself. 

Be always very careful of your conduct and language. A husband 
is largely restrained by the chastity, purity and refinement of his wife. 

A lowering- of dignity, a looseness of expression and vulgarity of words, 
may greatly lower the standard of the husband's purity of speech and 

Whatever may have been the cares of the day, greet your husband with 
a smile when he returns. Make your personal appearance just as beau- 
tiful as possible. Your dress may be made of calico, but it should be 
neat Let him enter rooms so attractive and sunny that all the recol- 
lections of his home, when away from the same, shall attract him back. 

Be careful that you do not estimate your husband solely by his ability 
to make display. The nature of his employment, in comparison with 
others, may not be favorable for fine show, but that should matter not. 
The superior qualities of mind and heart alone will bring permanent 

To have a cheerful, pleasant home awaiting the husband, is not all. 
He may bring- a guest whom he desires to favorably impress, and upon 
you will devolve the duty of entertaining the visitor so agreeably that 
the husband shall take pride in you. A man does not alone require 
that his wife be a good housekeeper. She must be more; in conver- 
sational talent and general accomplishment she must be a companion. 

The Husband's Duty. 

A very grave responsibility has the man assumed in his marriage. 
Doting parents have confided to his care the welfare of a loved daugh- 
ter, and a trusting woman has risked all her future happiness in his 
keeping. Largely will it depend upon him whether her pathway shall 
be strewn with thorns or roses. 

Let your wife understand fully your business. In nearly every case 
she will be found a most valuable adviser when she understands all 
your circumstances. 

Do not be dictatorial in the family circle. The home is the wife's 
province. It is her natural field of labor. It is her right to govern and 
direct its interior management You would not expect her to come to 
your shop, your office, your store or your farm, to give orders how your 
work should be conducted ; neither should you interfere with the duties 
which legitimately belong to her. 

If a dispute arises, dismiss the subject with a kind word, and do not 
seek to carry your point by discussion. It is a glorious achievement to 
master one's own temper. You may discover that you are in error, and 
if your wife is wrong, she will gladly, in her cooler moments, acknowl- 
edge the fault. 

Having confided to the wife all your business affairs, determine with 
her what your income will be in the coming year. Afterwards ascertain 
what your household expenses will necessarily be, and then set aside 
a weekly sum, which should regularly and invariably be paid the wife 
at a stated time. Let this sum be even more than enough, so that 
the wife can pay all bills, and have the satisfaction besides of accu- 
mulating 1 a fund of her own, with which she can exercise a spirit of 
independence in the bestowal of charity, the purchase of a gift, or any 
article she may desire. You may be sure that the wife will very seldom 
use the money unwisely, if the husband gives her his entire confidence. 

Your wife, possibly, is inexperienced ; perhaps she is delicate in health, 
also, and matters that would be of little concern to you may weigh 
heavily upon her. She needs, therefore, your tenderest approval, your 
sympathy and gentle advice. When her efforts are crowned with suc- 
cess, be sure that you give her praise. Few husbands realize how happy 
the wife is made by the knowledge that her efforts and her merits are 
appreciated. There are times, also, when the wife's variable condition 
of health will be likely to make her cross and petulant ; the husband 
must overlook all this, even if the wife is at times unreasonable. 

Endeavor to so regulate your household affairs that all the faculties 
of the mind shall have due cultivation. There should be a time for labor, 
and a time for recreation. There should be cultivation of the social 
nature, and there should be attention given to the spiritual. The wife 
should not be required to lead a life of drudgery. Matters should be so 
regulated that she may early finish her labors of the day; and the good 
husband will so control his business that he may be able to accompany 
his wife to various places of amusement and entertainment. Thus the 
intellectual will be provided for, and the social qualities be kept contin- 
ually exercised. 



The wise husband will provide for the moral and spiritual growth of 
his family by regular attendance at church; the spiritual faculties of 
our nature are given for a beneficent purpose; their exercise and culti- 
vation leads up into the higher and the better; one day in seven, at least, 
should therefore be set apart for the spiritual improvement of the family. 
Select a church, the religious teaching in which is nearest in accord 
with the views of yourself and wife, and be regular in your attend- 
ance ; accompany your wife ; give her the pleasure of your escort ; 
see that she is provided with a good seat and all the advantages which 
the church has to give; enter fully and freely into the religious work of 
your church, and your family will be blessed in consequence. 

Give your wife every advantage which it is possible to bestow. Shut 
up with her household duties, her range of freedom is necessarily cir- 
cumscribed, and in her limited sphere she is likely to remain stationary 
in her intellectual growth. Indeed, oftentimes, if her family be large 
and her husband's means are limited, in her struggle to care for the 

family she will sacrifice beauty, accomplishments, health life, almost 
rather than that her husband shall fail. In the meantime, with wide op- 
portunities and intellectual advantages, he will be likely to have better 
facilities for growth and progression. There is sometimes thus a lia- 
bility of the husband and wife growing apart, an event which both 
should take every pains to avert. In avoiding this, much will depend 
upon the wife. She must resolutely determine to be in every wav the 
equal of her companion. Much also will depend upon the husband. 
The wife should have every opportunity whereby she may keep even 
pace with him. 

Possibly the wife in social position, intellectual acquirement, and very 
likely in moral worth, may be superior to her husband. It is equally 
necessary, therefore, that the husband put forth every effort to make him- 
self worthy of his companion. It is a terrible burden to impose on a wife 
to compel her to go through life with a man whom she cannot love or 

HE reader will call to mind people who always appear at 
ease when they are traveling. Investigation will prove 
that these individuals have usually had a wide experience 
in journeying, and an extensive acquaintance with the 
world. The experienced traveler has learned the necessity of 
always being on time, of having baggage checked early, of 
purchasing a ticket before entering the cars, and of procuring a 
seat in a good location before the car is full. 

The inexperienced traveler is readily known by his flurry 
and mistakes. He is likely to be behind time, and he is likely to be an 
hour too early. For want of explicit 
direction, his baggage often fails to 
reach the train in time, or does not 
come at all. His trunks, from lack of 
strength, are liable to be easily broken. 
In his general confusion, when he 
buys a ticket he neglects to place it 
where it will be secure, and conse- 
quently loses it. He forgets a por- 
tion of his baggage, and thus in a 
dozen ways he is likely to be in 

If the person be a lady who is un- 
acquainted with travel, she reveals 
the fact by a general impatience, 
restlessness, and absent-mindedness. 
In her want of self-possession she 
forgets several things she had in- 
tended to bring, and her continual 
fault-finding at flies, dust, heat, delay 
and other trials, all betray the fact 
that she has not heretofore been ac- 
customed to these difficulties. 

Fig. 17. The couple that make themselves appear ridiculous when traveling. 

The following suggestions relating to railway traveling may be of 
service : 

Whenever you contemplate a journey, consider carefully what route 
you want to take, and decide it definitely. Learn accurately what time the 
train leaves, and provide yourself with a table giving the running time 
of the road, stations on the way, etc., which will save you the trouble of 
asking many questions. 

If you desire to ride in a sleeping-car, secure your berth a day or two 
previous to the time of going, in order that you may be in time to take your 
choice. Tlje most desirable sections are in the center of the car, away from 
the annoyance of dust, drafts of air and sudden noises resulting from 
opening and closing doors. 

At least a day before you go, consider carefully what baggage you 
need to take, and have it packed. Take just as little as possible. Have 
your trunks very secure, and pack all articles of baggage in such a man- 
ner that they cannot shake and thus be broken. 

Provide among your baggage necessary toilet articles a linen wrap 
to exclude the dust from your finer clothing, and a small amount of read- 
ing-matter with very coarse type. See that your baggage is perfectly 
in order, and an hour before you start engage an authorized express- 
man to take your baggage to the depot State very distinctly where you 
want the baggage taken, and for what train. It is also a wise provision 
to have your trunk labeled with a card 
bearing your name and destination. 

Take the number of the express- 
man, ascertain his charge, and with- 
hold payment until he has assisted in 
finding baggage, and has aided in 
getting it checked at the depot Be 
very sure that your watch or clock is 
perfectly correct with railroad time, 
and that you, half an hour before the 
starting time of the train, arrive at the 
depot, buy a ticket, and take your seat 
in the car. You are probably early 
enough to take your choice of loca- 
tion in the seats. 

If in the summer time, and the train 
runs east or west, the north side will 
probably be most pleasant Seats 
midway in the car are easiest to ride 
in, and the left side is freest from sud- 
den gusts of wind which may come 
in at the open doors. 

Having selected a seat, it is cus- 
tomary to deposit the satchel, umbrella or some article of wearing- 
apparel in the same, should you not be ready to occupy it; and it is 
etiquette for anyone finding a seat so occupied to look further. 

You should carry just as little baggage into the car as possible, and 
all separate pieces should have your name plainly written or printed 
upon them, which will secure their being forwarded to you in case they 
are left upon the seat. 

Having paid for one ticket, you are entitled to only one seat It shows 
selfishness, therefore, when the coach is quite full to deposit a large 
amount of baggage in the surrounding seats and occupy three or four, 
and engage in reading, while others look in vain for a place to sit 



It is courtesy for a gentleman when sitting 1 alone to offer the vacant 
seat beside himself to a lady who may be unattended. He will also give 
his seat to two ladies, or a lady and gentleman who desire to sit together, 
and take a seat elsewhere. Such attention will often be a great kindness, 
while the individual bestowing it may suffer but very little inconvenience. 

The true lady or gentleman will always consult the convenience of 
others when traveling. Thus, care should be exercised that no one be 
incommoded bv your opening doors or windows in a railway coach. If 
possible, so arrange that the air of a window that you may open shall 
strike full upon yourself, and not upon those in the rear; certainly not if 
it is unpleasant to them. 

What to Avoid when Traveling. 

A lady and gentleman should avoid evidences of undue familiarity in 
the presence of strangers. Couples who may evince a silly affection by 
overfondling of each other in public (Fig. 17) make themselves appear 
extremely ridiculous to all who may see them. 

People with weak eyes should avoid reading on the train, and those 

having weak lungs should avoid much talking, as an undue effort will 
be required to talk above the noise of the train. 

Passengers should avoid eating at irregular times on the journey, and 
gentlemen should avoid smoking in the presence of those to whom it 
may be offensive. 

Avoid leaving the pockets so open and money so exposed that thieves 
may steal your effects. In the sleeping-car the valuables should be 
put in some article of wearing-apparel and placed under the pillow. 

Avoid undue haste and excitement when traveling, by forethought. 
Have a plan matured, and when the time comes to act you will know 
what to do, and with self-possession you accomplish your work very 
much better. 

Avoid wearing laces, velvets, or any articles that naturally accumu- 
late and hold dust. Excessive finery or a lavish display of jewelry 
are in bad taste on extended journeys. Before commencing a journey, 
consider carefully what will be most suitable to wear, and study how 
little baggage may be taken. 


Js^- WHEN -ss4 


If the gentleman is an authorized escort he will, if an old acquaintance, 
accompany the lady in his charge from her residence to the depot. If 
the acquaintance is of short duration, it will be sufficient to meet her 
at the depot in ample time to purchase tickets and see that her baggage is 
checked, while she remains in the sitting-room at the station. 

Arrangements being made, he will secure her a seat upon the train, 
will find a place for packages, will attend to her wants in adjusting the 
window, and will aim to put her entirely at ease. 

In getting on and off the train, the gen- 
tleman will care for all parcels and see that 
nothing is left. He will assist the lady 
into the coach or omnibus before getting in 
himself, and in getting out he will precede 
her, and afterwards turn and help her care- 
fully down. 

If requested by the lady to defray her 
expenses from her purse, the gentleman 
may take the same and keep it the entire 
journey, or he may pay from his own pocket 
and keep an account of expenses which she 
will refund at the end of the journey. 

He should purchase the needed confec- 
tions or literature on the train. He should 
be fruitful in the introduction of topics that 
will enliven, amuse and instruct the lady, 
if she is inclined to be reticent; and at her 
journey's end he should go with her to her 
home, or the place where she is to stop. He 
may call next day, and if the acquaintance 
seems desirable it may be continued. The 

gentleman should be very careful not to continue his visits unless cer- 
tain that they are acceptable. 

If a hotel be the point of destination, the gentleman will accompany 
the lady to the parlor. He will then secure for her a room, and leave her 
in care of a waiter; her desire being probably to proceed to her apart- 
ments at once, where she will remove the dust and travel stains of the 
journey, and meet him again at a concerted hour in the parlor. 

Ladies and gentlemen who are strangers, being thrown into the com- 
pany of each other for a long journey, need not necessarily refuse to 
speak to each other. While the lady should be guarded, acquaintance 
may be made with certain reserve. 




The gentleman takes his position at the right of the lady. 

A gentleman who may act as escort for a lady when riding should be 
very careful that the horse selected for her is entirely reliable and gentle. 
If he has no horse of his own, and she has none to which she is accus- 
tomed, he must understand that there is considerable danger in allow- 
ing her to use a horse that has not been tried, no matter what may 
be the representations of the liverymen or servant. 

A trustworthy horse having been secured for the lady, it is the gentle- 
man's duty before mounting to give a very 
thorough examination of the saddle and 
bridle, to see that all are secure. It will 
not do to leave this matter to the stable- 
men. They are accustomed to such con- 
tinuous handling of harness that they be- 
come careless, and are liable to overlook 
defects in buckles, girths, etc., that might 
cause a severe accident. 

When all is in readiness, it is the gentle- 
man's province to assist the lady in mount- 
ing. To do this, it is well to have some 
one hold the horse, otherwise he holds the 
bridle with his left hand. The lady, then, 
with her skirt in her left hand, will take 
hold of the pommel of the saddle with her 
right, her face turned towards the horse's 
head. The gentleman will stand at the 
horse's shoulder, facing the lady, and stoop, 
allowing her to place her left foot in his 
right hand. She will then spring, while he 
lifts her gently and steadily into her seat, 
following which he will place her left foot 
in the stirrup and arrange her riding habit 

After the lady is in position, the gentleman will still remain with her 
until she has whip and reins properly in hand and is securely in her 
seat, when he will mount his horse and take his place (Fig. 18) upon 
her right, as shown in the accompanying illustration. 

Should there be two ladies on horseback, the gentleman should ride 
to the right of both of them, unless they may need his assistance, in 
which case he will ride between them. 

In dismounting, the gentleman should take the lady's left hand in his 
right, remove the stirrup and take her foot in his left hand, lowering her 
gently to the ground. 


Etiquette of the Funeral. 


HOULD there be no competent, near friend 
of the family to take charge of the funeral, 
then its management should devolve upon 
the sexton of the church, the undertaker, or 
other suitable person. 

It is the duty of the person having 1 the 
funeral in charge to have one interview 
with the nearest relatives as to the man- 
agement, after which they should be re- 
lieved of all care in the matter. 

The expense of the funeral should be in accord- 
ance with the wealth and standing of the deceased, 
both ostentation and parade being avoided, as should 
also evidences of meanness and parsimony. It is 
well, in the interview between the manager and the 
relatives, to have a definite understanding as to the 
expense that should be incurred. 

In the large city, where many friends and even 
relatives may not hear of the death, it is common 
to send invitations to such friends as might not 
otherwise hear of the fact, worded somewhat as 

Yourself and family are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of 

H. H. B , on Thursday, the 271/1 of June, 1878, at a o'clock P. M., 

from his late residence, No. ib, street, to proceed to Rosehill Ceme- 

Or, if the services are conducted at a church: 

Yourself and family are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of 

H. H. B , from the church of the Redeemer, on Thursday, the 2jtk 

of June, 18 , at 2 o'clock P. M., to proceed to Rosehill Cemetery. 

It is customary to have these invitations printed according to the forms 
shown elsewhere under the head of " notes of invitation," and to send 
them by private messenger. The list of invited persons should be given 
to the manager, that he may provide a suitable number of carriages for 
the invited friends who may be likely to attend. It is a breach of eti- 
quette for any who have been thus personally invited not to attend. 

Persons attending a funeral are not expected to be present much 
before the hour appointed. Previous to this time it is well for the family 
of the deceased to take their last view of the remains, and thus avoid 

In assembling at the house, it is customary for some near relative, but 
not of the immediate family, to act as usher in receiving and seating the 
people. The ladies of the family are not expected to notice the arrival 
of guests. With gentlemen it is optional whether they do so or not. 

' The clergyman, or person chosen to make remarks upon the funeral 
occasion, should be one whose religious views would be most nearly in 
accord with those entertained by the deceased. But even if the deceased 
had no religious, convictions, and a clergyman of any denomination may 
be chosen, he should use the courtesy of saying nothing in his discourse 
which could in the least offend the mourners. 

The remains should be so placed, either in the house or church, that 
when the discourse is finished, if the corpse is exposed to view, the 
assembled guests may see the same by passing in single file past the 
coffin, going from foot to head, up one aisle and down another. 

While in the house of mourning, the hat should be removed from the 
head of the gentlemen, and not replaced again while in the house. 

Loud talk or laughter in the chamber of death would be a great 
rudeness. All animosities among those who attend the funeral should 
be forgotten, and interviews with the family at the time should not be 

The exercises at the house or church being finished, the clergyman 
enters a carriage, which heads the procession. The coffin being placed 
in the hearse, the bearers, who are usually six in number, will go in 
threes, on each side of the hearse, or in a carriage immediately before, 
while the near relatives directly follow the hearse, succeeded by those 
more distantly connected. As the mourners pass from the house to the 
carriages, no salutations are expected to take place, the gentlemen 
among the guests in the meantime standing with uncovered heads, as 
they do also when the coffin is carried from the house to the hearse. 

The master of ceremonies should precede the mourners to the car- 
riages, see that the proper carriages are in attendance, assist the ladies 
to their place, and signal the drivers to pass forward as their carriages 
are filled. Should the attending physician be present, he will occupy 
the carriage immediately following the near relatives of the deceased. 

The pall -bearers are selected from among the immediate friends of 
the deceased, and should be as near as possible of corresponding age, 
worth and intelligence. 

It is common, upon the coffin of the infant or young person, to lay a 
wreath of white flowers, and upon that of a married person a cross of 
white blossoms. Upon the coffin of a navy or army officer, the hat, 
epaulets, sash, sword and the flag may be borne; while his horse, 
if a mounted officer, will, without a rider, be led behind the hearse. It 
is sometimes the case that the private carriage of the deceased, with no 
occupant save the driver, follows the hearse in the procession. 

Arriving at the cemetery, the clergyman will precede the mourners 
to the grave; when gathered around, the bearers will place the coffin in 
its last resting place, and the final prayer will be said. This done, the 
guests will depart for their several homes, each informing the drivers 
where they desire to be left. 

With the more hopeful view of death which comes with the Christian 
belief, there is less disposition to wear evidences of mourning. It is 
well, however, to drape the door-knob, especially of the residence, with 
crape, during the days between the death and the funeral ; and the 
family should go out as little as possible during that time. The dress 
of all guests at the funeral should be of subdued and quiet colors, and, 
while for the young person it is customary to trim the hearse in white, 
it is common to drape it in dark, with black plumes, for the person 
of mature years. 

Should the deceased have been a member of an organization that 
might desire to conduct the funeral, immediate notification of his death 
should be sent to the organization, that its members may have time to 
make arrangements for attending the funeral. 



Etiquette of Carriage-Riding. 


JHE mode of entering a carriage will depend somewhat 
upon circumstances. Should the team be very restive, 
and the gentleman remain in the carriage the better 
to control his horses, the lady will enter upon the left 
side, the gentleman assisting her by the hand. While 
circumstances may sometimes prevent, it is always 
etiquette for the gentleman to see that the lady enters 
the carriage first To aid in entering and alighting 
from a carriage easily and safely, every residence should "be provided 
with an elevated platform near the walk, beside which the vehicle may 
be driven, as represented in the illustration. 

Of two seats in the carriage facing each other, that in the rear, and 
facing the horses, is the most desirable; the place of honor being the 
right side of this seat, which should be given to any elderly person, 
an honored guest or ladies, during the carriage ride. 
The la- 

fright. The lady should then place her hands upon the gentleman's 
shoulders (Fig. 20), while her escort, taking her by the elbows, will assist 
her carefully to the ground. Being aided thus in safely alighting, a 
lady will, oftentimes, be saved from severe injury. 

The gentleman on the pleasure ride should not drive so fast as to 
throw mud upon the occupants of the carriage. He should avoid fast 
driving if the lady is timid, and at the close of the ride he should take 
the friend to his or her residence. 

Horses should not have their heads checked painfully high. They 
will be less shy if trained and driven without blinds. They should be 
driven with tight rein, and care should be observed to avoid accidents. 

Ladles Unattended. 

For the advantage of the unattended lady who may be stopping at a 
hotel, the following suggestions are made. 

The la- 
dy should 
tel by the 
ladies' en- 
When in 
the parlor, 
she should 
send for 
the pro- 
prietor or 
clerk, pre- 
sent her 
card, and 
state the 
length of 
time that 
she de- 

Fig. 19. Assisting the lady into tbe carriage. 

gentleman last in will sit on the right, and upon him should devolve the 
giving of orders to the driver, and any other directions which the com- 
pany may determine upon. 

At the close of the ride, the gentlemen will dismount first, and after- 
wards help the ladies carefully from the carriage, taking care to keep 
their dresses from being soiled upon the wheels. 

The single carriage should be driven as near the curbstone as possible, 
on the right side. The driver, having the top of the carriage down, 
should then turn the horses to the left, spreading the wheels on the right 
side, giving an opportunity for the lady to get into the carriage without 
soiling her dress upon the wheels. The lady should have both of her 
hands free to assist herself, while the gentleman (Fig. 19) should aid her, 
as shown in the illustration. The lady being in her place, her escort will 
take his seat upon the right side, will spread a lap-robe in front of the 
lady and himself to ward off dust and mud, and all is in readiness 
for the ride. 

In getting from the carriage, the gentleman should alight first He 
should quiet the team, and turn them, that the wheels may spread apart, 
retaining the reins in his hand, that he may hold the horses in case of 

Pig. 20. Assisting tbe lady when alighting from the carriage. 

signs to 

By requesting the waiter to do so, he will meet the lady at the entrance 
to the dining-room and conduct her to a seat; thus saving her the neces- 
sity of crossing the room without an escort. 

Meeting friends at the table, the lady should converse in a voice so low 
and quiet as not to attract attention from strangers. Particularly should 
she avoid loud laughter or any conspicuous evidence of commenting 
upon others. 

To make the time spent at the hotel pass agreeably, care should be 
taken to obtain a pleasant room that will allow the entrance of sunshine 
and fresh air. 

Orders at the table should be given in a low, yet clear, distinct voice. 
In the interval while waiting to be served, it is allowable to read a paper. 
Staring about the room, handling of the knife, spoons, or other articles 
upon the table, should be avoided. 

Do not point at a dish wanted. A look in the direction of the article 
desired, and a request to the waiter that it be passed, will secure the dish 
without trouble. 

The lady in the dining-room, unless accompanied by an escort, should 
avoid dressing ostentatiously. A very modest dress is in best taste. 


Etiquette in Church. 

Suggestions Concerning Conduct Appropriate 
In the House of Worship. 

The Stillness, Order and Reverence Due the Place and Occasion. 

CHURCH should be entered with a most 
reverent feeling. The object of attend- 
ing divine service ia to improve the 
spiritual nature, and hence business and 
' everything of a secular character should 
be left behind when you enter the church portals. 

If a stranger, you will wait in the vestibule until the arrival of the 
usher, who will conduct you to a seat. 

Enter the church quietly, removing the hat, and never replacing it 
until the door is reached again at the close of the service. 

If a stranger and accompanied by a lady, you will precede her, and 
follow the usher up the aisle until the pew is reached, when you will 
pause, allow her to pass in, and you will follow, taking seats at the 
further end if you are first, so that you will not be disturbed by later 
arrivals. It is no longer a custom, as formerly, for the gentleman to 
step into the aisle and allow ladies that are strangers to pass to the 

The gentleman will place his hat, if possible, under the seat, and 
while in church the occupant should avoid making a noise, staring 
around the building, whispering, laughing or nodding to others. 

All greetings, recognitions and conversation should be conducted 
in the vestibule after service. While in church, the passage of a 

fan or hymn-book to another should be recognized by merely a quiet 

Should you see a stranger waiting, you may invite him to enter 
your pew. No speaking is necessary then, nor when you open the 
book and point out the service. 

If a stranger, it is best to coqform to the rules of the service, 
rising and sitting down with the congregation; and, although the 
forms may be radically different from what you are accustomed to, 
you should comport yourself with the utmost attention and reverence. 

Avoid making a noise when entering a church after the services 
have commenced. It is disrespectful to come late, and shows bad 
manners to leave before the service is through. You should wait 
until the benediction is pronounced before you commence putting 
your articles in order for leaving. 

It is a breach of etiquette for a number of young men to congregate 
in the vestibule and there carry forward a conversation, commenting 
upon the services and various members of the congregation present. 

If a member of a church, you should be regular in attendance. 
While the pastor has put forth, possibly, extra effort to prepare an 
effective sermon, it is poor encouragement to find members of the 
congregation absent because of a trivial storm, away upon the pleas- 
ure drive, or absorbed in the contents of the Sunday paper. 


' TAKES every grade of society to make the complete whole. 
One class is just as necessary as the other. In carrying 
forward great enterprises, how plainly do we see {this man- 
ifested. Take the building of a railroad as an illustration: 

A certain grade of mind is essential to prepare the road-bed 
and lay the track. This class of men must have strong physical 
natures, and the qualities that give the necessary force and energy 
to hew down rocks, .tunnel mountains and remove all obstructions. 
Another class will act as foremen of the laborers, another will 
srve as engineers, another is fitted to act as officers, while still 
another grade of mind projected the enterprise and furnished the 
means foi carrying it to a successful conclusion. 

As in the materials that enter into the erection of the building, the 
foundation stones that support the superstructure down deep in the 
earth, while they are never seen, are nevertheless just as essentinl 
to the completion of the building as are the ornamental capstone 
above the windows; so, in associated labor, each grade of mind does 
its appropriate work. We could not dispense with either, and all 
should have due praise. 

Each class being thus dependent one upon the other, all should 
labor in harmony together. The workman should guard his employer's 
interest. He should always be promptly on time and faithful to the 
last hour. He should make his work a study; he should give it 
thought, as thereby he renders his services eo much the more valuable, 
and his compensation in the end so much better. Probably, if faith- 
ful, he may succeed to the business of his employer; or may enter a 
separate field. It is certain, at any rate,- if he proves himself a com- 
petent assistant he is the more likely in time himself to become a 
manager of others. 

The employer, through kind and pleasant manner, may do much 
toward making the subordinate worthy and competent. The work- 
man should thoroughly understand what the duty is which he is 
expected to perform, and he should be required pleasantly yet firmly 
to execute it to the letter. When once there is a definite understand- 
ing on his part as to what is explicitly required, it is not necessary 
that an employer use harsh means or a manner in any way discour- 
teous in order to secure obedience to his commands. A word of 
encouragement will increase the harmony. 


in the School. 

following are the requisites for suc- 
cessful management in the school- 

The teacher must be a good judge of human 
nature. If go, his knowledge will teach him that 
no two children are born with precisely the same 
organization. This difference in mentality will make one child a 
natural linguist, another will naturally excel in mathematics, 
another will exhibit a fondness for drawing, and another for philoso- 
phy. Understanding and observing this, he will, without anger or 
impatience, assist the backward student, and will direct the more 
forward, ever addressing each child in the most respectful manner. 

As few rules as possible should be made, and the object and neces- 
sity for the rule should be fully explained to the school by the 
teacher. When a rule has been made obedience to it should be 
enforced. Firmness, united with gentleness, is one of the most 
important qualifications which a teacher can possess. 

Everything should be in order and the exercises of the day should 
be carried forward according to-an arranged programme. The rooms 
should be swept, the fires built and the first and second bells rung 
with exact punctuality. In the same manner each recitation should 
come at an appointed time throughout the school hours. 

The programme of exercises should be so varied as to give each 
pupil a variety of bodily and mental exercise. Thus, music, recrea- 
tion, study, recitation, declamation, etc. , should be so varied as to 
develop all the child's powers. Not only should boys and girls store 
their minds with knowledge, but they should be trained in the best 
methods of writing and speaking, whereby they may be able to impart 
the knowledge which they possess. 

The teacher should require the strictest order and neatness upon 
the part of all the students. Clean hands, clean face and neatly 
combed hair should characterize every pupil, while a mat in the door- 

the child. A schoolroom 
aquarium, the trailing vine 
history should adorn the 
handsome pictures should 
should be surrounded with 
inspire them to higher and 

way should remind every boy 
and girl of the necessity of 
entering the schoolroom with 
clean boots and shoes. Hab- 
its of neatness and order 
thus formed will go with the 
pupils through life. 

At least a portion of each 
day should be set apart by 
the teacher in which to im- 
part tothepupilsa knowledge 
of etiquette. Students shpuld 
be trained to enter the room 
quietly, to always close with- 
out noise the door through 
which they pass, to make 
introductions gracefully, to 
bow with ease and dignity, 
to shake hands properly, to 
address others courteously, 
to make a polite reply when 
spoken to, to sit and stand 
gracefully, to do the right 
thing in the right place, and 
thus, upon all occasions, to 
appear to advantage. 

All the furnishings of the 
schoolroom should be such 
as to inspire the holiest, loft- 
iest and noblest ambition in 
should be handsomely decorated. The 
, the blossom and the specimens of natural 
teacher's desk and the windows, while 
embellish the walls. In short, the pupils 
such an array of beauty as will constantly 
nobler achievements. 

Boys and girls should be taught that which they will use when they 
become men and women. In the first place they will talk more than 
they will do anything else. By every means possible they should be 
trained to be correct, easy, fluent and pleasant speakers; and next to 
this they should be trained to be ready writers. To be this, they 
should be schooled in penmanship, punctuation, capitalization, com- 
position and the writing of every description of forms, from the note 
of invitation to an agreement, from the epistle to a friend to the 
promissory note, from the letter of introduction to the report of a 

Above all, the teacher should be thoroughly imbued with the im- 
portance of inculcating in the mind of the student a knowledge of 
general principles. Thus, in the study of geography, the pupil 
should be taught that the earth is spherical in form ; that its outer 
surface is divided into land and water; that the land is divided into 
certain grand sections, peopled with different races of human beings 
who exhibit special characteristics. That civilization is the result 
of certain causes, and progress in the human race arises from the 
inevitable law of nature that everything goes from the lower steadily 
toward the higher. A study of the causes which make difference 
in climate, difference in animals, difference in intellectual and moral 
developments among the races a general study of causes thus will 
make such an impression upon the child's mind as will never be 
effaced; while the simple study of facts such as load the mind with 
names of bays, islands, rivers, etc. , is the crowding of the memory 
with that which is likely in time to be nearly all forgotten. 



Thus, in the study of history, dates will be forgotten, while the 
outlines of the rise and fall of kingdoms, and the causes which pro- 
duced the same, if rightly impressed by the teacher, will be ever 
stored in the mind of the pupil. 

So should the teacher instruct the student in every branch of study, 
remembering that facts are liable to be forgotten, but fundamental 
principles and causes, well understood, will be forever remembered. 

It is of the utmost importance, also, that the teacher continuously 
and persistently keep before the student the importance of temper- 
ance, justice and truth; as, without these, however superior the 
education, the individual is entirely without balance, and is always 
liable to fall. The teacher sbgrid never relax his efforts in this 

The good teacher will be a living example in all that he teaches to 
others. If wise, he will seldom or never resort to the infliction of cor- 
poral pain on the pupil, although, if a law or rule be violated, it is of 
the utmost importance that a just punishment follow the violation, 
but this should never be such as will destroy the child's self-respect. 

Duty of the Pupil. 

It should be the aim of the student to be punctual in attendance at 
school, to be thorough in study, and good in recitation. The boy or 
girl who would be successful in after-life must lay the foundation of 
success in youth. They should fully understand the importance of 
improving their school days for this purpose. 

The student who seeks every opportunity to idle away his time in 
making sport and amusement for himself and fellow- students will 
live to regret that he thus wasted his time. The happy, sportive, 
joyous, laughing boy and girl shed happiness wherever they go if 
they are careful to control their gayety and allow its flow only in the 

proper place; but they should never permit the love of the mirthful 
to infringe on the rules of the schoolroom or the laws of etiquette. On 
the contrary, true courtesy should teach them to use every endeavor 
to aid the teacher in his work, as in so doing they are themselves 
reaping the benefits. 

The boy and girl at school foretell the future man and woman. 
Those who are prompt, punctual and orderly will be so in after-life. 
Those who are truthful, reliable and honest in childhood, will be 
trusted in position and place in after-years; and those who store the 
mind in youth with valuable knowledge will possess that which can 
never be lost, but on the contrary will always be a means by which 
they may procure a livelihood; and, if united with energy and 
perseverance, will be sure to give them reputation, eminence of 
position, and wealth. 

The boy should never take piide in disobedience to the rules of 
school. To be, a truant, to be indolent, to be working mischief, 
evinces no talent; any rowdy could do this; most worthless men did 
this when they attended school. It requires effort to be a good 
scholar; it evinces brain-power to be a good student. 

The youth should earnestly resolve to achieve an honorable and 
noble position in life. With the wide opportunities which open to 
the ambitious and the enterprising in this age of progression there 
is no limit to the greatness which the thoroughly earnest student may 
attain. The idle and dissolute will, naturally, of their own weight 
drop out by the wayside and sink from sight. The plodder who is 
content to go the dull, daily round in the same narrow rut will get 
the reward of his labor, though he never betters his condition. But 
the earnest, original, aspiring, energetic, intelligent worker can 
always be sure of new fields to enter, nobler victories to gain, and 
grander work to be accomplished. 



TEMPERAMENT, physical characteristics, mental devel- 
opment and moral inclination, the child is what it has been 
made by its inheritance and the training it has received since 
infancy. Born of parents happy in disposition, harmonious 
in conjugal relation, and pleasant in circumstances, the child 
will as certainly be as sweet in temper as that sweet fluid 
which flows from a maple tree. More especially will this be true 
if the child was welcome, and the days of the mother prior to its 
birth were full of sunshine and gladness. 

If, on the contrary, a badly -developed and unhappy parentage has 
marked the child, then a correspondingly unfortunate organization of 
mind and unhappy disposition will present itself for discipline and 

Fortunate is it for the parent who can understand the cause of the 
child's predilections thus in the beginning. As with the teacher, 
when the causes that affect the child's mind are understood, the cor- 
rect system of government to be pursued is then more easily compre- 
hended. The result of this early appreciation of the case is to teach 
the parent and teacher that, whatever may be the manifestation of 
mind with the child, it should never be blamed. This is a funda- 
mental principle necessary to be understood by any person who would 
be successful in government. 

When thoroughly imbued with that understanding, kindness and 
love will take the place of anger and hatred, and discipline can be 
commenced aright. 

One of the first things that the child should understand is that it 
must implicitly obey. The parent should, therefore, be very careful 
to give only such commands as ought to be followed, and then 

carefully observe that the order is strictly but kindly enforced. 

To always secure obedience without trouble, it is of the utmost 
importance that the parent be firm. For the parent to refuse a 
request of a child without due consideration, and soon afterward, 
through the child's importunities, grant the request, is to very soon 
lose command. The parent should carefully consider the request, 
and if it be denied the child should feel that the denial is the result 
of the best judgment, and is not dictated by momentary impatience or 
petulance. A child soon learns to discriminate between the various 
moods of the fickle parent, and very soon loses respect for government 
that is not discreet, careful and just. 

If a command is disobeyed, parents should never threaten what 
they will do if the order is disobeyed again, but at once withhold, 
quietly, yet firmly and pleasantly, some pleasure from the child in 
consequence of the disobedience. The punishment should be very 
seldom, if ever, the infliction of bodily pain. A slight deprivation of 
some pleasure it may be very slight, but sufficient to teach the child 
that it must obey will be of great service to its future discipline and 
government by the parent. Commencing thus when the child is very 
young, treating it always tenderly and kindly, with mild and loving 
words, it will grow to womanhood or manhood an honor to the 

What Parents Should Never Do 

Never speak harshly to a child. 

Never use disrespectful names. 

Never use profane or vulgar words in the presence of a child. 

Do not be so cold and austere as to drive your child from yon. 



/TIHE neglected home, where the 
1 child grows up without knowledge 
of order or correct system; tools and 
vehicles exposed to all kinds of 
weather, rusting and falling to pieces 
from inattention. 

Never misrepresent. If you falsify the child will learn to deceive 

Never withhold praise when the child deserves it. Commendation 
is one of the sweetest pleasures of childhood. 

Never waken your children before they have completed their nat- 
ural slumbers in the morning. See that they retire early, and thus 
have the requisite time for sleep. Children require more sleep than 
older persons. The time will come soon enough when care and 
trouble will compel them to waken in the early morning. Let them 
sleep while they can. 

Do not reproach a child for a mistake which was made with a good 
motive at the time. Freely forgive, wisely counsel, and the child 
will thus be taught that there is no danger in telling the truth. 

Never give your children money indiscriminately to spend for their 
own use. However wealthy you may be teach the child the value 
of money by requiring it to earn it in some manner. Commencing 
young, let the child perform simple duties requiring labor, which the 
parent may reward by pennies and very small sums. Let the child 
thus spend only money of its own earning. The boy who thus early 
learns by labor the value of a dollar knows how to accumulate the 
same in after-life, and how to save it. 

Never demean yourself by getting angry and whipping a child. 
The very fact of your punishing in anger arouses the evil nature of 
the child. Some day the punishment thus inflicted will react upon 

What Parents Should Do. 

Always speak in a pleasant voice. 

Teach your children how to work; how to obtain a living by their 
own efforts. Teach them the nobility and the dignity of labor, that 
they may respect and honor the producer. 

Explain the reason why. The child is a little walking interrogation 
point. To it all is new. Explain the reason. Your boy will some 
day repay this trouble by teaching some other child. 

Teach your children the evil of secret vice, and the consequence of 
using tobacco and spirituous liquors; teach them to be temperate, 
orderly, punctual, prompt, truthful, neat, faithful and honest. 

Encourage your child to be careful of personal appearance; to 
return every tool to its place; to always pay debts promptly; to never 

n~lHE home of neighbor Thrifty, where 
1 the children learn habits of neat- 
ness, economy and good management; 
there being a place for every implement 
when not in use, and each kept where 
it belongs. 

shirk a duty; to do an equal share, and to always live up to an 

Teach your children to confide in you by conference together. Tell 
them your plans, and sometimes ask their advice ; they will thus open 
their hearts to you and will ask your advice. The girl who tells all 
her heart to her mother has a shield and a protection about her which 
can come only with a mother's advice and counsel. 

Give your children your confidence in the affairs of your business. 
They will thus take interest, and become co-workers with you. If 
you enlist their respect then their sympathy and co-operation, they 
will quite likely remain to take up your work when you have done 
and will go ahead perfecting what you have commenced. 

If you are a farmer do not overwork your children, and thus by a 
hard and dreary life drive them off to the cities. Arise at a reason- 
able hour in the morning, take an hour's rest after meals, and quit at 
five or six o'clock in the afternoon. Let the young people, in games 
and other amusements, have a happy time during the remainder of 
the day. There is no reason why a farmer's family should be 
deprived of recreation and amusement any more than others. 

Teach your child the value of the Sabbath as a day for the spiritual 
improvement of the mind; that on the Sabbath morn the ordinary 
work of the week should not be resumed if it is possible to avoid it; 
that the day should be passed in attendance upon religious service of 
some kind or exercises that will ennoble and spiritualize the nature. 
While rest and recreation maybe a part of the day's programme, true 
philosophy dictates that the spiritual faculties of the nature should 
be cultivated by setting apart a portion of the time for their 

Teach your children those things which they will need when they 
become men and women. As women they should understand how to 
cook, how to make a bed, how to preserve cleanliness and order 
throughout the house, how to ornament their rooms, to renovate and 
preserve furniture and clothing, how toeing, and play various games, 
that they may enliven the household. They should be taught how 
to swim, how to ride, how to drive , how to do business, and how to 
preserve health. The mother should early intrust money to the girl 
with which to buy articles for the household that she may learn its 
value. Think what a man and woman need to know in order to be 
healthy, happy, prosperous and successful, and teach them that. 



Attractive Personal Appearance. 


HE love of beautiful adorn- 
ment is innate in the human 
mind, and in reality has a 
great influence in elevating 
and refining the race. It is 
true that the mind maysome- 
times be too much given to 
personal decoration, but the 
instincts which cause us to 
clothe ourselves beautifully 
are all refining and elevating 
in character. 

The desire to please and to 
be beautiful surrounds us on 
every hand with grace, ele- 
gance and refinement. 

The person who cares nothing for personal appearance is a sloven. 
Were all to be thus, the human race would rapidly degenerate toward 
barbarism. The person who is careless of dress is likely to be equally 
regardless concerning purity of character. 

The little girl that studies her features in the mirror, while she evinces 
possibly a disposition to be vain, nevertheless in this act shows herself 
to be possessed of those instincts of grace which, rightly directed, will 
beautify and embellish all her surroundings through life. 

The boy that cares nothing for personal appearance, that does not 
appreciate beauty in others, is likely to develop into the man who will 
be slovenly in habits, whose home will quite probably be a hovel, and 
himself very likely a loafer or a tramp. But the boy the rolicsome, 
frolicsome boy, ready to roll in the dirt, possibly who, under all this, 
aspires to appear handsome, who desires a clean face, clean hands 
and a clean shirt, who admires a well-dressed head of hair and a good 
suit of clothes that boy possesses the elements which in the man, in an 
elegant home, will surround him with the artistic and the charming. 

The love of the beautiful ever leads to the higher, the grander and 
the better. Guided by its impulses, we pass out of the hut into the larger 
and better house; into the charming and elegantly-adorned mansion. 
Actuated by its influence, we convert the lumbering railway carriage 
into a palace-car, the swamp into a garden, and the desolate place into 
a park, in which we wander amid the trees, the streams of limpid water, 
and the fragrance of beautiful flowers. 

All along the world's highway are the evidences, among the most 
elevated and refined, of the love of the beautiful, which, perhaps more 
than in any other manner, finds expression in dress. 

This love of personal adornment being an inherent, desirable, refining 
element of character, it does not, therefore, become us to ignore or to 
suppress it On the contrary, it should be our duty to cultivate neatness 
of appearance and artistic arrangement in dress, the whole beinjf accom- 
panied by as much personal beauty as possible. 

In the cultivation of beauty in dress, it will become necessary to dis- 
criminate between ornament as displayed by the savage, and the science 
of beauty as observed in a more highly civilized life. Ornament is one 
thing ; beauty is quite another. 


The Curved Line. 

A prominent feature of beauty everywhere is the curved line. The 
winding pathway, the graceful outline of tree, cloud and mountain in 
the distance, the arched rainbow, the well -trimmed shrub, the finely- 
featured animal, the rounded form of everything that is beautiful all 
illustrate this principle. The delicately, finely rounded face, hands and 
general features, are essential to the highest forms of beauty in the per- 
son, and the same principles apply in the manufacture of dress. Every 
line and seam should run in curves. 

Symmetry of Proportion. 

As harmonious proportions always please the eye in every object, so 
we are pleased with the symmetry displayed in the human form and 
features. Thus svmmetry will give a well-shaped head, a moderate 
length of neck, a clearly-defined nose, mouth not too large, shoulders of 
even height, and all parts of the body of proportionate length and size. 
The clothing should be made to set oft" the natural features of the body 
to the best advantage. Thus the coat should be so cut as to make the 
shoulders of the man look broad. The dress should be so fitted as to 
cause the shoulders of the woman to appear narrow and sloping. 

Long garments will make the individual appear taller. Short gar- 
ments will cause the person to seem shorter. Lines that run perpendic- 
ularly add to the apparent height; horizontal lines shorten it. 


Another feature of beauty in personal appearance is contrast, or those 
qualities which give animated expression and vivacity of manner. Thus 
the sparkling eye, clear-cut features, a color of hair that contrasts with 
the skin; happy, lively expression of face; graceful, animated movement 
of body; interesting conversational powers all these make the face 
attractive by variety and contrast. 

The lady's dress is relieved by flounce, frill, and various other trim- 
mings, with colors more or less pronounced, according to the complexion 
of the wearer. The gentleman's dress, as now worn, does not admit of 
so great variety. 


The harmony of colors suitable for various complexions is quite fully 
detailed elsewhere. Harmony of association will include those princi- 
ples that derive their beauty chiefly from their association with other 
objects. Thus the best height and form for man or woman will be the 
average form of men and women with whom they associate. Anything 
unusual will detract from this beauty. 

Any article of jewelry or dress which may appear out of place for 
the occasion, or not appropriate with the other articles worn, is also 
included under this head. 






Xli A 
V M 

Hints on the Cafe of the Person. 

Colors that Befit the Blonde and Colors for the Brunette. 

SAFE is it to assume that the" reader desires 
health and beauty, and is willing perhaps 
to govern habits accordingly. Observe then the 
following regulations: 

Retire sufficiently early to get the necessary rest 
and sleep, that you may arise early in the morning. 

Be sure that plenty of fresh air is admitted to the room throughout 
the night, by the opening of windows. Avoid feathers. A perfectly 
clean, moderately hard bed is best for health. 

The Bath. 

Upon rising, take a complete bath. A simple washing out of the 
eyes is not sufficient. The complete bathing of the body once each 
day is of the utmost importance to health and beauty. Not more than 
a quart of water is necessary. Use the hands the same as you do 
upon the face. No sponge is required, and water is more agreeable 
to the skin when applied with the bare hand. Use rainwater; and, 
for a healthy person, the temperature of that which has been in the 
room during the night is about right. Use plenty of soap, and 
wash quickly. Follow by wiping the skin perfectly dry with a soft 
towel, and afterward give the body and limbs a thorough rubbing. 
The glow that is diffused throughout the face and body by this exer- 
cise is worth more in giving a ruddy, beautiful complexion than all 
the rouge and powder in the world. 

The arrangements for this bath are very simple. There is nothing 
required but a small amount of soft water, a piece of soap, and a 
towel. No elaborately-fltted-up bathroom is necessary. We have 
detailed all the appliances that are essential, and they are so simple 
that the laboring classes and the poor can have them, and be clean, 
as well as the rich. Occasionally, warm water, with a sponge, may 
be necessary to remove completely all the oily exudations from the 
body, but for the ordinary bath this is not essential. 

The sun and air bath is very excellent for health; therefore to leave 
the body exposed in the sun for a short time previous to dressing is 
very invigorating. 

Before the breakfast hour the lungs should be completely inflated 
with fresh air. The meals should be partaken of with regularity, 
while more or less of fruit, oatmeal, rice, cracked wheat, graham 
bread, etc., will be found necessary as a diet, in order to keep the 
skin clear. 

The Breath. 

The breath should be watched, lest it become offensive. Unfor- 
tunately, it is one of the troubles which we may not be aware of, as 
our friends may not feel at liberty to inform us of the difficulty. 

, , 

powdered coffee, IK ounces; gum arable, % ounce. Make into pellets of 18 

th will disappear. 

Offensive breath may arise from the stomach, the teeth, the lungs, or 
catarrhal affection of the throat and nose. 

Unquestionably the best remedy for bad breath is a system of diet 
and treatment that shall remove the cause. As a temporary expe- 
dient, when offensiveness arises from a peculiar food or drink which 
has been partaken of, a few grains of coffee, or cassia buds, cloves, 
cardamom seeds or allspice, may be used; although if the breath is 
very strong these will not always prove effective. It is better to 
remove the cause. 

The following remedies for offensive breath are commended by 
those who have had experience in testing the matter: 

Powdered sugar, % ounce; vanilla, % ounce; powdered charcoal, % ounce; 
owdered coffee, IK ounces; gum arable, 
grains each, and take six a day. Bad breat 

Disagreeable breath arising from decay or secretions about the 
teeth may be removed by the following: 

Rose-water, ] ounce, and permanganate of potash, 1 grain. Rinse the 
mouth every three hours. 

To remove catarrh, the following is highly commended: 

In pint of water put two tablespoonfuls of common fine table salt. Heat 
the water in a tin cup. With the aid of a nasal douche, obtained at the drug- 
store, or even without that, snuff about a teaspoonful of the brine up each 
nostril, requiring it to pass into, the mouth. Use twice a day morning and 

For offensive breath arising from foul stomach, the following is 

To a wine-glass of water add 3 grains of chloride of lime. Take a tahle- 
spopnful three times a day, before the meal, and eat of simple food which is 
easily digested. 

Another remedy for foul breath is powdered charcoal, half a tea- 
spoonful, spread on a piece of bread, and eaten once a day for two or 
three days. Another is a drink of pure water, taken twice a day, 
containing each time 20 grains of bisulphate of soda. The taste is 
made pleasant by a few drops of peppermint essence. 

The following is recommended as beneficial for the teeth, and 
effective in removing the acidity of the stomach : 

Take of gum arabic 5 drachms; vanilla sugar, 3 drachms; chlorate of lime, 
7 drachms, and mix with water to a stiff paste. Roll and cut into the ordinary 
sized lozenge, and eat six each day. 

The Skin. 

Beware of exterior application of cosmetics for the purpose of 
beautifying the skin. The greatest beautifiers in existence are plenty 
of exercise in the fresh air, the keeping of the pores of the siin com- 
pletely open by bathing, the feeding of the body with a sufficiency of 
simple, healthy food, and the obtaining of the requisite amount of 

It is true that sometimes a slight touch of art may improve the 




personal appearance. The very sallow complexion may be improved 
by a small amount of color applied; the hair, if naturally dry and stiff, 
may be kept in place by a simple hair preparation, and a white eye- 
brow may be brought into harmonious color with the hair of the head 
by a dye; all this being done so adroitly that the external application 
cannot be detected. But, as a rule, greatest beauty is obtained by 
a strict observance of the laws of health. 

The following preparations, culled from De la Bantu's " Advice to 
Ladies," are recommended for improving the complexion: 

Take a teaspoonful of powdered charcoal (kept by druggists) mixed with 
sweetened water or milk, for three nights successively. This should be fol- 
lowed by a gentle purge afterward, to remove it from the system. Taken 
once in two or three months, this remedy will prove efficacious in making the 
complexion clear and transparent. 


Tincture of balsam of Peru, 2 drachms ; tincture of tolu, 2 drachms; tintture 
of benzoin, 2 drachms. Mix with one gill of distilled water, and take of 
melted white wax, 1 ounce; spermaceti, J ounce; sweet almond oil, 8 
drachms, and rose-water, 1 ounce. Mix all the ingredients together, and beat 
thoroughly, applying to the skin with a sponge. 

This may be used with benefit where the skin presents a greasy 
appearance : 

To J<) pint of rose-water add chlorate of potash. 18 grains; glycerine, 1 
ounce. Mix carefully, and use in a pure state. Apply with a sponge or linen 
cloth. Should it irritate the skin dilute with) more water. These lotions 
should be applied with care, and are best used at night. 

The greasy skin, inclined to pimples, is benefited by the following 
preparation : 

Bicarbonate of soda, 18 grains; essence of Portugal. 6 drops; distilled 
water, y, pint. Mix and bathe the face. 

The shiny, polished skin, which is caused by fatty secretions 
beneath it, may have the difficulty removed by this preparation: 

Take 1 quart of camphor water, pure glycerine, 1 ounce, and % ounce of 
powdered borax. Mix and bathe the face. Let it dry and remain a few 
minutes after applying it, then wash the face thoroughly with soft water. 

If the skin is very pallid it is improved by a bath in lukewarm 
water, followed by brisk rubbing with a coarse towel and exercise in 
the air and sun. The pale skin is improved also by the sunshine. 
The rough skin is made smooth by the application of glycerine at 
night, followed by its removal with water and fine soap in the 

The skin may be whitened by the following prescription: 

To one pint of water add 1 wineglass of fresh lemon juice and 10 drops of 
attar of roses. Mix, and keep in a well-corked bottle. Use once a day. 

The sallow and muddy skin is improved by this preparation : 

To one pint of water add 2 drachms of iodide of potassium and 1 ounce of 
glycerine. Mix and apply with a sponge once a day. 

To keep the skin clear, beware of pork, cheese and other substances 
containing much grease. Also avoid alcoholic drinks. Keep the 
bowels loose by fruit and a sufficiency of coarse food. Take exercise 
sufficient, if possible, to produce a gentle perspiration each day; 
bathe daily, and get into the sunshine and open air. 

The Hand. 

Various are the recipes for keeping the hand beautiful. If not 
engaged in hard manual labor, and it is very desirable to make the 
hands present as handsome an appearance as possible, there are a few 
directions necessary to keep them well-preserved. Among these is 
perfect cleanliness, which is produced by a thorough washing, using 
an abundance of good toilet soap, and frequently a nail-brush. 

Should the hands be inclined to chap, they will be relieved of the 
difficulty by washing them in glycerine before going to bed. In the 
winter season, to wash them in snow and soap will leave them smooth 
and soft. 

To make the hands very white and delicate, the person is assisted 
by washing them several times for two or three days in milk and 
water, and, upon retiring to rest, bathing in palm oil and encasing 
them in a pair of woolen gloves, cleaning with warm water and soap 
the next morning. They should be thoroughly rubbed to promote 

circulation, and a pair of soft leather gloves should be worn during 
the day. 

Should the hands become sunburned, the tan may be removed by 
using lime-water and lemon-juice. 

Should warts make their appearance, they may be removed by 
paring them on the top and applying a small amount of acetic acid on 
the summit of the wart with a camel's hair brush, care being taken 
that none of the acid gets upon the surrounding skin. To prevent 
this, wax may be placed upon the finger or hand during the operation, 
or an old kid glove may be used, the wart being allowed to protrude 

The nails should be cut about once a week, directly after a bath, 
and should never be bitten. In rough, hard labor, if it is desired to 
protect the hands, gloves should be worn. 

But however beautiful it may be, the hand should do its full share 
of work. The hand that is beautiful from idleness is to be despised. 

The Feet. 

Much care should be taken to keep the feet in good condition. 
The first important consideration in their management is perfect 
cleanliness. Some people find it necessary to wash the feet morning 
and evening. Many find it indispensably necessary to wash them 
once a day, and no one should fail of washing them at least three 
times a week, and the stockings should be changed as frequently if 
much walking be done. 

Without washing, the feet are liable to become very offensive to 
others in a short time. The feet of some persons will become dis- 
agreeably so sometimes within a week if they are not washed, more 
especially if they perspire freely. 

A foot-bath, using warm water, followed by wiping the feet com- 
pletely dry, and afterward putting on clean stockings, is very invig- 
orating after a long walk, or when the feet are damp and cold. 

To escape chilblains avoid getting the feet wet. Should they 
become damp, change shoes and stockings at once. Wear woolen 
stockings, and do not toast the feet before the fire. The approach of 
the chilblain is frequently prevented by bathing the feet in a strong 
solution of alum. 

With the first indication of chilblains, as revealed by the itching 
sensation, it is well to rub them with warm spirits of rosemary, add- 
ing to the same a little turpentine. Lint, soaked in camphorated 
spirits, opodeldoc, or camphor liniment, may be applied and retained 
when the part is affected. 

It is claimed also that chilblains may be cured by bathing the feet 
in water in which potatoes have been boiled. 

Wear boots and shoes amply large for the feet, but not too large, 
and thus escape corns. A broad heel, half an inch in height, is all 
that comfort will allow to be worn. 

The Hair. 

The head should be washed occasionally with soap and water. 
Follow by wiping perfectly dry, and afterward brush the hair and 
scalp with a hair-brush of moderate hardness. When the hair is 
inclined to be harsh and dry, a moderate supply of olive oil, bear's 
grease or other dressing may be used. With many heads no oil is 
necessary, and with any over abundance is to be avoided. Frequent 
brushing with a perfectly clean brush is of great service in giving a 
glossy, beautiful appearance to the hair. The brush may be kept 
clean by washing every day or two in warm water and soda, or in 
diluted ammonia. 

For removing dandruff, glycerine diluted with a little rose-water 
is recommended. Rosemary in almost any preparation is a very 
cleansing wash. 

The yolk of an egg beaten up in warm water makes an excellent 
application for cleansing the scalp. 



To clip Che ends of the hair occasionally is an excellent plan for 
ladies, as it prevents the hair from splitting. 

It is doubtful if a hair-dye is ever advisable, though an eyebrow is 
sometimes improved by a light application, to bring it into harmonious 
color with the hair, as is also hair which grows white in patches. 
There is no objection to the hair growing gray. Indeed the gray is 
often fully as beautiful as the former color. 

Baldness is usually avoided by keeping the head cool. Women 
seldom have bald heads, but men often do, the baldness commencing 
upon the head at a point which is covered by the hat. In order to 
preserve the hair, gentlemen must avoid warm hats and caps, and 
whatever is worn must be thoroughly ventilated by apertures suffi- 
cient in quantity and size to allow all the heated air to escape. The 
silk hat should have at least twenty holes punched in the top to afford 
sufficient ventilation. 

The beard is nature's badge to indicate manhood . It was an unwise 
fashion that ordained that the face should be shaved. Gradually 
men begin to learn that health, comfort and improved appearance 
come with the full beard, and in later years the beard is acquiring 
the prestige it held in olden times. Care should be taken to keep the 
beard and hair so cut and trimmed that they may present a handsome 

The Teeth. 

The teeth should be thoroughly cleaned with a toothbrush each 
morning after breakfast. Some persons clean the teeth after every 
meal, which is a most excellent habit. By cleaning the teeth 
regularly, no washes are necessary, though occasionally castile soap 
will be beneficial. Should tartar collect in such quantity as to be 
difficult to remove the dentist should be consulted. Should the 
teeth begin to decay they should be immediately cared for by the 
dentist. Powdered charcoal easily removes stains and makes the 
teeth white. 

The following also is an excellent wash for the teeth: 

Tincture of myrrh, 1 ounce; compound tincture of cinchona, 1 ounce; 
water, 1 ounce. Put five drops on the toothbrush, dip the brush then in 
water, and wash the teeth. 

some of nature's requirements. (See remarks on "Health," in the 
" Letters of Advice," elsewhere in this volume. ) 

Keep the teeth clean, 

They look badly if not perfectly white and 

Ears, Eyes and Nose. 

In the daily bath all the crevices of the ear should be thoroughly 
cleaned, and the earwax carefully removed whenever it shows itself. 

Special pains should be taken to keep the eyes clean. It shows 
filthy habits to see matter gathering in the corners. If dirt accumu- 
lates between washings, the eyes should be carefully wiped with a 
soft handkerchief. 

Keep the nasal passages perfectly clear. If there is an inclination 
for accumulations to stop there, snuff water up the nose, and after- 
ward blow it, placing the thumb on one side while you blow the 
other. Keep the nose so clear that you can breathe through it with 
<-;iM', and avoid the coarse habit of picking it. 

Regularity of Habits. 

It is of the utmost importance, if the individual would enjoy health 
and possess beauty, that all the personal habits be perfectly regular, 
and that attention be given to these each twenty-four hours at a reg- 
ular time. 

Do not let visiting, traveling or business interfere with them. You 
must be regular in sleep, in evacuation of the bowels, in bathing and 
in eating. Nature will not be cheated. She requires perfect atten- 
tion to certain duties. If yon attempx to ,-ioiate her requirements ; 
you will be certainly punished. 

Whenever the person complains of sickness he confesses to a 
violation, consciously or unconsciously, unavoidably or otherwise, of 


Nature has her peculiar shades and contrasts, with which she 
embellishes all her works. 

Over the retreating dark gray cloud in the east does the rainbow 
show itself, strong by contrast, and beautiful in the harmony of its 
surroundings. Surpassingly lovely are the brilliant rays of the golden 
sunset, as they lie reflected upon the fleecy clouds at eventide, their 
charm coming from their surroundings of the gray and azure blue. 
Dazzlingly bright are the twinkling stars as they smile upon us in 
their bed of celestial blue ; and very beautiful is the rose, as it per- 
fumes the air and charms the eye amid its accompaniments of green. 

Nature thus robes all her works with shades that complement and 
harmonize ; the result being to show the object to the best advantage. 

In the higher civilization men have donned the conventional suit 
of black and have abandoned the domain of color to woman, who, with 
her keenly aesthetic nature can never be induced to forego the pleasure 
that comes from brilliant and harmonious hues. Alive as woman is, 
therefore, to the principles that make beauty, it becomes us to inves- 
tigate the subject of personal appearance as affected by color. 

Colors that Suit Different Complexions. 

Two distinct types of complexion exist among the white race, 
namely, the light-haired, fair and ruddy complexions, termed Blondes ; 
and the dark-haired and dark-skinned, called Brunettes. 

Between these are several intermediate tints and shades, all requir- 
ing much close observation to fully discriminate as to the colors most 
suitable to be worn to harmonize with the different shades of 

Investigation has proven that the light-haired and rosy-cheeked, 
with red or golden hair and ruddy complexion, require certain colors 
in headdress and drapery to harmonize; and the same is true of the 
dark complexion, with dark hair and eyebrows. 

The Shades that Blondes May Wear. 

Dark violet, intermixed with lilac and blue, give additional charms 
to the fair-haired, ruddy blonde. Green, also, with lighter or darker 
tints, is favorable. With the very ruddy, the blue and green should 
be darker rather than lighter. An intermixture of white may like- 
wise go with these colors. 

The neutral colors are also suitable to the ruddy blondes. Of these 
are the russet, slate, maroon, and ajl the hues of brown. Light neu- 
tral tints are also pleasing, such as gray, drab, fawn and stone colors. 

Transparent and delicate complexions, with light, chestnut or 
brown hair, should have the same set off by contrast. Thus blue, 
pale yellow, azure, lilac and black, trimmed with rose or pink, are 
suitable, as are also the various shades of gray. 

Colors that Become the Brunette. 

Glossy black becomes the brunette; so do white, scarlet, orange 
and yellow. The scarlet blossom in the hair, gold-colored ribbon and 
poppy colors, deftly but not too conspicuously woven about the neck 
and breast, will display the face to fine advantage. Green also befits 
the dark complexion. 

The sallow complexion is improved by the different shades of dark- 
green and red. A yellow complexion is made handsomer by the 
reflection of yellow about it ; especially if relieved by poppy colors 
or black. 

The red and yellow face is benefited by coming in contact with blue 
or orange. The red face is improved by red around it, red and blue 
tints being developed thereby. Red and blue are relieved by purple, 



and the blue and yellow by green. White and black become the pale 
face, but red and blue become it better. Light colors harmonize 
with and befit the pale skin, while the dark skin is improved by the 
darker tints. 

Colors in Bonnets. 

Black Bonnets, with white, pink or red flowers and white feather, 
become the fair complexion. They also become the black-haired type 
when trimmed with white, red, orange or yellow. 

White Bonnets, made of lace, muslin or crape, suit all complexions, 
though not so becoming to the rosy complexion as other colors. A 
white bonnet may be trimmed with white or pink, but with the blonde 
is handsomest when trimmed with blue flowers. For the brunette, 
preference should be given to trimmings of red, pink, orange and 
yellow never blue. 

Blue Bonnets are suitable only for fair or light, rosy complexions. 
They should never be worn by the brunette. 

Yellow and Orange Bonnets suit the brunette, their appropriate 
trimming being poppy colors, scarlet, white and black, black and 
scarlet, black, scarlet and 

Light Blue Bonnets are very 
suitable for those having light 
hair. They may be trimmed 
with white flowers, and in 
many cases with orange and 

Green Bonnets best become 
the fair and rosy complexion. 
White flowers will harmonize 
in the trimming, but pink is 

Colors for Different Seasons. 

Bed, in its various tints, 
being a warm color, when worn 
in dress, has a pleasing effect 
in winter. 

Purple is appropriate in win- 
ter, spring and autumn. 

Green is becoming in late 
summer and in autumn, by con- 
trast with the general somber 
appearance of dead foliage at 
that season of the year. 

White and light tints in clothing give an appearance of coolness 
and comfort in summer. 

Black and dark colors are appropriate at all seasons. 

Colors We See First. 

Of a variety or color to be seen, the white or light-colored will 
usually attract attention first and farthest, from the fact that, most 
objects being of dark shades of color, it is strongest by contrast. 
Next to white comes the scarlet red, which, close by, is one of the 
most brilliant and attractive colors. Yellow is one of the most 
noticeable, succeeded by the orange, crimson, blue and purple. 

Colors in Dress Most Beautiful at Night. 

A dress of a color that may be beautiful during the day may be 
lacking in beauty at night, owing to the effect of gaslight; and 
another, most charming in the evening, may possess little beauty in 
the daytime. Thus, crimson, which is handsome in the evening, 
loses its effect upon the complexion in the daytime. So white and 
yellow, that add beauty at night, are unbecoming by day. 

Ill-Fittfng and Unbecoming Dress. 

TJLTHOUGH the dress and costume shown above may be rich, costly 

/* and fashionable, it shows the form of the persons on whom it is 

worn to bad advantage. 

The scarlet, orange and the light brown are also most charming at 

Colors Most Beautiful by Daylight. 

Pale yellow, which is handsome by day, is > muddy in appearance by 
gaslight. So purple and orange, that harmonize and are beautiful by 
daylight, lose their charm at night. 

The beauty of rose-color disappears under the gaslight; and all the 
shades of purple and lilac, the dark-blues and green, lose their 
brilliancy in artificial light. Ordinarily, the complexion will bear 
the strongest color at night. 

Apparent Size Affected by Color. 

The apparent size is affected by colors. As white upon the build- 
ing will make it appear larger, so a light-colored dress will have the 
same effect upon the person. Thus the large figure will appear best 
in close-fitting black, and next best in the sober hues. The smaller 
figure will show to advantage in the light colors. Black, however, 
for a person of any size, is the most suitable color for nearly all 

occasions; and, handsomely 
made, well-fitted, artistically 
trimmed, and suitably relieved 
at throat and bodice with rib- 
bons, lace and flowers corre- 
sponding with the complexion, 
makes always a most beautiful 

Persons whose resources are 
limited and who cannot afford 
a varied wardrobe should by this 
fact be guided to a constant 
preference for black. 

Colors that Harmonize. 

The object of two or more 
different tints in dress is to 
obtain relief by variety, and yet 
the two shades brought thus in 
contrast should harmonize, else 
the beauty of each will be less- 
ened. Thus, a lady with a 
blue dress would greatly injure 
its effect by wearing a crimson 
shawl ; as she would also a lilac- 
colored dress by trimming it 
with a dark-brown material, no matter how rich. 

That the reader may understand the colors that will contrast and 
yet blend, the following list of harmonizing colors is given: 

Blue and gold; blue and orange ; blue and salmon-color; blue and 
drab; blue and stone-color; blue and white; blue and gray; blue 
and straw-color; blue and maize; blue and chestnut; blue and brown; 
blue and black; blue and white; blue, brown, crimson and gold. 

Black and white ; black and orange ; black and maize ; black and 
scarlet; black and lilac ; black and pink; black and slate-color; black 
and buff; black, white, yellow and crimson; black, orange, blue and 

Crimson and gold; crimson and orange; crimson and maize; 
crimson and purple ; crimson and black ; crimson and drab. 

Green and gold ; green and yellow ; green and orange ; green and 
crimson; green, crimson and yellow; green, scarlet and yellow. 

Lilac and gold; lilac and maize; lilac and cherry; lilac and scarlet; 
lilac and crimson; lilac, scarlet, white and black; lilac, gold and 
chestnut; lilac, yellow, scarlet and white. 

Orange and chestnut ; orange and brown ; orange, lilac and crimson ; 



orange, red and green ; orange, blue and crimson ; orange, purple and 
scarlet; orange, blue, scarlet, green and white. 

Purple and gold ; purple and orange; purple and maize; purple, 
scarlet and gold-color; purple, white and scarlet; purple, orange, 
blue and scarlet; purple, scarlet, blue, yellow and black. 

Red and gold; red, white or gray; red, green and orange; red, 
black and yellow ; red, yellow, black and white. 

Scarlet and purple; scarlet and orange; scarlet and blue; scarlet 
and slate- color; scarlet, black and white; scarlet, white and blue: 
scarlet, gray and blue; scarlet, yellow and blue; scarlet, blue, yellow 
and black. 

Yellow an& red; yellow and brown; yellow and chestnut; yellow 
and violet; yellow and blue; yellow and crimson; yellow and purple; 
yellow and black; yellow, purple and crimson; yellow and scarlet. 


Because change is one of nature's laws. If there was no change 
there would be no motion ; and without motion there would be no life. 

Change is ever going forward in 
nature. To-day it is spring and 
all nature is waking to new life. 
A few weeks hence and every tree 
and shrub will be clothed in a garb 
of green, sprinkled with blossoms. 
Later the green of various shades 
will merge into the autumn tints ; 
and, later still, nature will doff her 
garb entirely, only to clothe her- 
self in the coming years again 
with various changes, according 
to the seasons. 

So mankind instinctively change 
in style of costume, oftentimes 
for better, and sometimes, it must 
be admitted, for the worse. But 
the change ever goes forward, 
fashion repeating itself within the 
century, often within a generation, 
almost as certain as the seasons 
do within the year. 

There is no use, therefore, in 

Graceful and Refined in Appearance. 

issuing a flat against changes of 

fashion. Best judgment is shown in accepting of the inevitable and 

adapting ourselves to circumstances. 

Hints to Gentlemen. 

It is best to conform to fashion, avoiding extremes. 

While it is well to guard against the adoption of a decidedly unwise 
fashion, it is well also to avoid an oddity in dress. 

Well-dressed gentlemen wear dark clothing cut and made to meas- 
ure. Watch-chain, one ring, shirt-stud and sleeve-buttons, are all 
the jewelry allowable for the gentleman. 

Other colors than black will be appropriate in their season and for 
various kinds of enjoyment. 

Hints to Parents. 

Give the boy a good suit of clothes if you wish him to appear 
manly. An ill-fitting, bad-looking garment destroys a boy's respect 
for himself. 

To require the boy to wear men's cast-off clothing, and go sham- 
bling around in a large pair of boots, and then expect him to have 
good manners, is like giving him the poorest of tools, because he is 
a boy, and then compelling him to do as fine work with them as a 
man would with good tools. 

TV7HATEVEE may be the fashion, there is such grace and reflne- 

** ment bestowed upon the persons shown above, through properly 

made dress, as to win our admiration. 

Like the man or woman, the boy respects himself, and will do 
much more honor to his parents, when he is well dressed in a neatly 
fitting suit of clothes. Even his mother should relinquish her 
rights and let the barber cut his hair. 

As a rule well-dressed children exhibit better conduct than chil- 
dren that are careless in general appearance. While vanity should be 
guarded against, children should be encouraged to be neat in person 
and dress. 

The mother should strive also to make her boy manly. Possibly, 
as a pet, her boy has in infancy had his hair curled. Even now, 
when he is six or eight years of age, the curls look very pretty. But 
the mother must forego her further pleasure in the curls ; for the 
boy, to take his place along with the others, to run and jump, to 
grow manly and strong, must wear short hair. His mother can no 
longer dress it like a girl's. It will be necessary and best to cut off 
his curls. 

Hints to Ladies. 

Best taste will dictate an observance of fashion, avoiding extremes. 
'Dress the hair so that it will exhibit variety and relief, without 

making the forehead look too high. 

Have one pronounced color in 
dress, all other colors harmonizing 
with that. See " Harmony of 

A dress should fit the form. 
Well-fitted and judiciously trim- 
med, a calico dress is handsomer 
than an ill-fitting silk dress. 

To present a handsome ap- 
pearance, all the appurtenances 
of the lady's dress should be 
scrupulously neat and clean. 
Every article that is designed to 
be white shou'ld be a pure white, 
and in perfect order. 

Much taste may be displayed 
in dress about the neck, and care 
should be observed not to use 
trimmings that will enlarge the 
appearance of the shoulders. The 
dress should be close-fitting about 
the waist and shoulders, though 
it should not be laced too tightly. 

As with the gentleman, quiet colors are usually in best taste. 
Heavy, rich, dark materials best suit the woman of tall figure; while 
light, full draperies should be worn only by those of slender propor- 
tions. Short persons should beware of wearing flounces, or horizon- 
tal trimmings that will break the perpendicular lines as the effect is 
to make them appear shorter. The pictorial illustrations herewith 
show how differently people appear with different dress, our opin- 
ions of their intellectual capacity, their standing and respectability 
being largely influenced at first sight by this appearance. 

Care should be taken to dress according to the age, the season, the 
employment and the occasion. As a rule, a woman appears her 
loveliest when, in a dress of dark color, we see her with the rosy com- 
plexion of health, her hair dressed neatly, her throat and neck 
tastefully cared for, her dress in neither extreme of fashion, while 
the whole is relieved by a moderate amount of carefully selected 

We have aimed in this chapter on the toilet to present the 
scientific principles of dress principles that can be applied at all 
times, whatever may be the fashion. It now remains for the reader 
to study these principles and apply them in accordance with the 
rules of common sense and the fashions as they may prevail. 




ADIES and gentlemen, when meeting on the side- 

rwalk, should always pass to the right. Should the 
walk be narrow or dangerous, gentlemen will 
always see that ladies are protected from injury. 

Ladies should avoid walking rapidly upon the street, as 
it is ungraceful and unbecoming. 

Running across the street in front of carriages is dan- 
gerous, and shows want of dignity. 

The gentleman should insist upon carrying any package which the 
lady may have, when walking with her. 

Before recognizing a lady on the street, the gentleman should be cer- 
tain that his recognition will meet with favor. 

No gentleman should stand on the street- 
corners, steps of hotels, or other public places, 
and make remarks about ladies passing by. 

A gentleman may take two ladies upon his 
arms, but under no circumstances should the 
lady take the arms of two gentlemen. 

Upon the narrow walk, for her protection, 
the gentleman should generally give the lady 
the inside of the walk (Fig. 21), passing behind 
her when changing at corners. 

Allowing a dress to trail on the street is in 
exceedingly bad taste. Such a street costume 
simply calls forth criticism and contempt from 
the more sensible people. 

A gentleman walking with a lady should 
accommodate his step and pace to hers. For 
the gentleman to be some distance ahead, pre- 
sents a bad appearance. 

Should protection on the street be necessary, 
it is customary for the gentleman to give his 
right arm to the lady; but if more convenient, 
he may give the left. 

It is courtesy to give silent, respectful attention as a funeral pro- 
cession passes. It shows want of respect to pass between the carriages 
while the procession is moving. 

Staring at people, spitting, looking back after they pass, saluting peo- 
ple across the street, calling out loudly or laughing at people as they 
go by, are all evidences of ill-breeding. 

The gentleman accompanying a lady should hold the door open for 
the lady to enter first. Should he be near the door when a lady, unat- 
tended, is about to enter, he will do the same for her. 

In the evening, or whenever safety may require, a gentleman should 
give a lady his arm. It is not customary in other cases to do so on the 
street, unless with an elderly lady, or the couple be husband and wife. 

Some authorities claim that it is most sensible for the lady to walk always at the r 

free to hold trail, 

A gentleman will assist a lady over a bad crossing, or from an omni- 
bus or carriage, without waiting for the formality of an introduction. 
When the service is performed, he will raise his hat, bow, and pass on. 

In a street car or an omnibus, the passengers who are seated should 
strive to give seats to those who are standing, rendering such accommo- 
dation as they would themselves desire under similar circumstances. 

When crossing the pavement, the lady should raise her dress with the 
right hand, a little above the ankle. To raise the dress with both hands, 
is vulgar, and can be excused only when the mud is very deep. 

No gentleman will smoke when walking with, or standing in the 
presence of, a lady on the street He should remove the cigar from her 
presence entirely, even though permissioh be 
granted to continue the smoking. 

A gentleman should give his seat to any lady 
who may be standing in a public conveyance. 
For this favor she should thank him, which 
courtesy he should acknowledge by a slight 
bow. In an omnibus he will pass up the la- 
dies' fares. 

A true lady will go quietly and unobtru- 
sively about her business when on the street, 
never seeking to attract the attention of the op- 
posite sex, at the same time recognizing ac- 
quaintances with a courteous bow, and friends 
with pleasant words of greeting. 

Swinging the arms when walking, eating 
upon the street, sucking the parasol handles, 
pushing violently through a crowd, very loud 
and boisterous talking and laughing on the 
streets, and whispering in public conveyances, 
are all evidences of ill -breeding in ladies. 

A lady should have the escort of a gen- 
tleman in the evening. A gentleman at the 
hovse where she may call may return with her 

if she goes unattended ; gossip and scandal are best avoided, however, 
if she have some one from her home call for her at an appointed hour. 
On the narrow street-crossing the gentleman will allow the lady to 
precede him, that he may see that no injury befalls her. 

Should a lady stop in the street, when meeting a gentleman, it is 
courtesy for him to stop also. Should his business be urgent, he will 
apologize for not continuing the conversation, and ask to be excused. 
Should it be desirable to lengthen the interview, and the lady resumes 
her walk in the midst of her conversation, it is courtesy for him to turn 
and accompany her. Should she desire to end the conversation, a slight 
bow from her will indicate the fact, when he should bid her " good day " 

and take his leave. 

ight of the gentleman, whether on the street or indoors; her right hand being thus 
fan, or parasol. 




I'/EVER exaggerate. 

Never point at another. 
Never betray a confidence. 
Never wantonly frighten others. 
Never leave home with unkind words. 
Never neglect to call upon your friends. 
Never laugh at the misfortunes of others 

Never give a promise that yon do not fulfill. 

Never speak much of your own performances. 

Never fail to be punctual at the appointed time. 

Never make yourself the hero of your own story. 

Never send a present hoping for one in return. 

Never pick the teeth or clean the nails in company. 

Never fail to give a polite answer to a civil question. 

Never question a servant or a child about family matters. 

Never present a gift saying that it is of no use to yourself. 

Never read letters which you may find addressed to others. 

Never fail, if a gentleman, of being civil and polite to ladies. 

Never call attention to the features or form of any one present. 

Never refer to a gift you have made or favor you have rendered. 

Never associate with bad company. Have good company or none. 

Never look over the shoulder of another who is reading or writing. 
' Never seem to notice a scar, deformity or defect of any one present. 

Never arrest, the attention of an acquaintance by a touch. Speak 
to him. 

Never punish your child for a fault to which you are addicted 

Never answer questions in general company that have been put to 

Never, when traveling abroad, be over-boastful in praise of your 
own country. 

Never call a new acquaintance by the Christian name unless 
requested to do so. 

Never lend an article you have borrowed unless you have permis- 
sion to do so. 

Never attempt to draw the attention of the company constantly 
upon yourself. 

Never exhibit anger, impatience or excitement when an accident 

Never pass between two persons who are talking together, without 
an apology. 

Never enter a room noisily; never fail to close the door after you, 
and never slam it. 

Never forget that if yon are faithful in a few things, you may be 
ruler over many. 

Never exhibit too great familiarity with the new acquaintance; you 
may give offense. 

Never will a gentleman allude to conquests which he may have 
made with ladies. 

Laws of Etiquette, 

Never fail to offer the easiest and best seat in the room to an 
invalid, an elderly person, or a lady. 

Never neglect to perform the commission which the friend in- 
trusted to you. Yon must not forget. 

Never send your guest, who is accustomed to a warm room, off 
into a cold, damp, spare bed to sleep. 

Never enter a room filled with people without a slight bow to the 
general company when first entering. 

Never fail to answer an invitation, either personally or by letter, 
within a week after the invitation is received. 

Never accept of favors and hospitalities without rendering an 
exchange of civilities when opportunity offers. 

Never cross the legs and put out one foot in the street-car or places 
where it will trouble others when passing by. (See Illustration. ) 

Never fail to tell the truth. If truthful you get your reward. 
You will get your punishment if you deceive. 

Never borrow money and neglect to pay. If you do you will noon 
be known as a person of no business integrity. 

Never write to another asking for information, or a favor of any 
kind, without inclosing a postage stamp for the reply. 

Never compel a woman with an infant in arms to stand.Vhile you 
retain your seat. (See Illustration. ) 

Never fail to say kind and encouraging words to those whom you 
meet in distress. Your kindness may lift them out of their despair. 

Never refuse to receive an apology. You may not revive friend- 
ship, but courtesy will require, when an apology is offered, that you 
accept it. 

Never examine the cards in the card-basket. While they may be 
exposed in the drawing-room, you are not expected to turn them 
over unless invited to do so. 

Never, when walking arm in arm with a lady, be continually chang- 
ing and going to the other side, because of change of corners. It 
shows too much attention to form. 

Never should the lady accept of expensive gifts at the hands of a 
gentleman not related or engaged to her. Gifts of flowers, books, 
music or confectionery may be accepted. 

Never insult another by harsh words when applied to for a favor. 
Kind words do not cost much, and yet they may carry untold hap- 
piness to the one to whom they are spoken. 

Never fail to speak kindly. If a merchant, and you address your 
clerk; if an overseer, and you address your workmen; if in any 
position where you exercise authority, you show yourself to be a 
gentleman by your pleasant mode of address. 

Never attempt to convey the impression that yon are a genius by 
imitating the faults of distinguished men. Because certain great 
men were poor penmen, wore long hair, or had other peculiarities, it 
does not follow that you will be great by imitating their eccentricities. 

Never give all your pleasant words and smiles to strangers. The 
kindest words and the sweetest smiles should be reserved for home. 
Home should be our heaven. 

" We have careful thought for the stranger- 

And smiles for the sometimes guest; 
But oft for our own the bitter tone, 
Though we love our own the best. 
Ah! lips with the curl impatient 

Ah ! brow with the shade of scorn, 
'Twere a cruel fate were the night too late 
To undo the work of the morn. *' 



Etiquette Among Neighbors. 


JO BE kind, and to treat politely the persons with whom 
we are immediately associated, is not all, nor should 
civility cease with the casual intercourse between 
neighbors; it should go beyond. We should regard the 
rights of the individual. Were all to do so, mankind 
would take a long stride in advance of the present sel- 
fish and thoughtless conduct which too often actuates 
even those who are reputed to be good and respectable. 
This want of regard for the rights of others is shown in many ways. 
To illustrate: 

The individual who will conduct a house or an establishment that is 
unpleasant, injurious to health, or detrimental to the community, evinces 
a disregard for the courtesy that is due to his neighbors. 

The parents who al- 
low children to annoy 
their neighbors, are al- 
ways a most undesira- 
ble people to have in 
the vicinity. 

The people of a com- 
munity who will de- 
liberately turn horses, 
cattle and hogs into 
the street, entirely dis- 
regarding the fact that 
the animals are liable 
to do much damage to 
others, demonstrate a 
lack of regard for 
neighbors which is in- 
excusable, and can on- 
ly be explained on the 
ground that the habit 
is so common that they 
do not realize the in- 
jury they are doing. 

The fact that we ac- 
costed Mr. Jones po- 
litely, and said pleas- 
ant things in his 
presence, was good so 
far as it went, but the 
further fact that we 

turned our cattle into the street, well knowing they were liable to tram- 
ple Mr. Jones' sidewalk to pieces, and break down his trees, demonstrates 
that, while we are very agreeable to his face, we care but little what we 
may do behind his back. 

This utter disregard for the wants of others causes people generally 
to become suspicious of their neighbors. It is true that this suspicion is 
gradually becoming lessened. The time was when the inhabitants 
built a castle as nearly as possible impregnable; around that was built 
a high enclosure, and still outside of that was a canal with a draw- 
bridge. Gradually the fact has dawned that we need not be thus suspi- 


cious. We need not build a house of stone, we need not construct a 
canal, but we still adhere to the high wall or fence, as we are oftentimes 
compelled to because of the disposition of the neighbor to trample upon 
our rights by allowing his animals to destroy our property. 

The reader has doubtless seen a town in which the people allowed 
their domestic animals to run at large, the hogs to root the turf to pieces 
by the roadside, the cattle to destroy sidewalks, to break through fences 
and to tear down trees. This want of courtesy is not uncommon. In short, 
it is altogether too common in many towns of the country, and upon the 
part of the owners of animals it shows a complete disregard of the 
rights of those who would beautify their homes, and thus correspond- 
ingly beautify the town. 

The code of etiquette should not alone apply among individuals when 

directly associated to- 
gether. It should ex- 
tend further. It should 
go out and permeate a 
neighborhood. It 
should diffuse itself 
throughout a town. It 
should bind together 
the people of a State 
of a nation. It should 
be a rule of action 
among all nations. 
Already the evidences 
of courtesv among na- 
tions begins to mani- 
fest itself. The Inter- 
national Congress is 
based upon this princi- 
ple. The idea of 
friendly association of 
the representatives of 
nations for mutual ad- 
justment of differen- 
ces, is the beginning 
of a recognition of the 
rights of each other. 

The above illustration represents a common scene. The 
neighbors suspect each other, and they destroy the beauty 
of their grounds in the attempt to shut each other out. Sus- 
picion and selfishness rule. Regardless of the rights of 

others, anil 
walks, to d 
yard. Inhs 
pie are chai 

als are allowed to trample to pieces the side- 
troy shade trees and to despoil the neighbor's 
mony, disorder, and ill-feeling among the peo- 
cteristics of the neighborhood. 

This is evidence of 
a higher civilization. 
When we can rise su- 
perior to selfishness, 

when we are willing to consider the rights and the requirements of others, 
when we are governed by the generous spirit of doing unto others as 
we would that they should do unto us, then we are directed by a power 
that will make an entire people, as a whole, what the laws of etiquette 
determine they shall be individually, in their intercourse with each other. 
The illustration (Fig 22) upon this page represents a scene which may 
be observed in many villages or cities a group of residences, modern 
and beautiful in architecture, surrounded and disfigured by high inclos- 
ures put up to guard against people who allow their cattle and other 
animals to destroy their neighbor's property. 



Charming, Beautiful Homes 


HE fences shown upon the opposite page, separating 
houses and lots, often prevent acquaintance with neigh- 
bors being made. The result of this non-intercourse 
is usually a suspicion that the neighbor is unworthy of 
confidence, an opinion which is never overcome except 
by interchange of civilities which would show each 
the worth of the other. 

Unacquainted with his neighbors, the resident, ceas- 
ing to consider their rights, grows careless of his obligations toward 
others, and consequently becomes a less worthy citizen. 

The illustration upon this page (Fig. 23) represents the scene very 
much changed. Again we have the same residences, and the same 
neighbors, who have become acquainted and have learned to value 
each other. The re- 
sult of this social in- 
tercourse and evident 
observance of the 
rights of others has 
wrought a vast change 
in the appearance of 
the homes, which is 
manifest at a glance. 

It is plainly appar- 
ent in the scene that a 
higher civilization 
pervades the neigh- 
borhood. The animals, 
that broke down the 
trees and devastated 
the sidewalks and 
grounds, have been 
withdrawn by their 
owners, and sent to 
pastures, where they 
belong. This of itself 
is evidence of decided 

Examine the scene 
further. The fences 
have disappeared, 
save a low coping that 
determines the outer 
edge of the lot. In 

this alone a heavy item of expense has been removed, while with it has 
come the enlargement of grounds, which, studded with finely trimmed 
trees, and intersected with winding pathways, surround every residence 
with a most elegant park. That this improvement is enjoyed, is shown 
in the congregating of the neighbors together in the shady nook, the 
gambols of the children on the lawn, and the promenade of the ladies and 
gentlemen throughout the beautifully embellished grounds. All delight in 
the scene, and all are made better by it. While the resident could be 
coarse and selfish in his own little lot, he is now thrown upon his good 
behavior as he mingles with others on the beautiful grounds, and thus 


all are improved. Even the cat and dog that quarrelled in the former 

scene are now acquainted with each other, and happily play together. 

To maintain pleasant relations among neighbors, there are a few 

things which the citizen must avoid. Among these are the following: 

Never allow children to play upon a neighbor's grounds or premises 

unless they are invited and made perfectly welcome by the neighbor. 

Never allow fowls or animals of any kind, which you have control 
over, to trespass upon the premises or rights of other people. 

Never borrow of neighbors if it be possible to avoid it. It is better 
to buy what you need than to frequently borrow. There are a few things 
which a neighbor should never be expected to lend. Among these are 
fine-edged tools, delicate machinery, and any article liable to easily get 
out of order. The less business relations among neighbors, the better. 

Never fail to return, 
with thanks, any arti- 
cle borrowed, as soon 
as you have finished 
using it, and see that 
it is in as good or bet- 
ter condition than 
when you received it. 

Articles of provi- 
sions which may be 
borrowed should be 
very promptly return- 
ed in larger quantity, 
to pay interest, and 
better in quality if pos- 
sible. In no way can 
a neighbor lose char- 
acter more effectually 
in business dealing 
than by the petty mean - 
ness of borrowing and 
failing to pay, or by 
paying with a poorer 
quality and in less 

This illustration represents a neighborhood where the peo- 
ple evidently do unto others as they wish others to do unto 
them. They trust each other. The barriers between them 
are removed. No animal is allowed to do injury. Enjoying 

peace and beauty they evidently desire that the neighbor 
shall share the same. This co-operation, kindness and re- 
gard for all, give the beauty, the harmony, the peace, and 
the evident contentment which arc here presented. 

Avoid speaking evil 
of your neighbor. As 
a rule it is only safe 
to compliment and 
praise the absent one. 

If any misunderstanding arises between yourself and a neighbor, en- 
deavor to effect a reconciliation by a full explanation. When the matter 
is fully understood you will very likely be better friends evet afterwards. 
Never fail, if the grounds run together, to keep your premises in as 
good order as your neighbor's. Should you own the house and grounds, 
and others occupy the same, you will do well to arrange to keep the exte- 
rior of the premises in order at your own expense, as tenants have not 
the same interest. The improvements of grounds among neighbors thus 
will always be kept up; you will be compensated by securing the best 
class of tenants, and the neighborhood will be greatly improved. 



Kindness to the Erring. 


officer of the law you may be, and it be- 
comes you to care for the prisoner in 
your charge. While law should be en- 
forced, for the good of the criminal as 
well as the protection of society, it does 
not become you to be unkind. Perhaps 
investigation may prove that your pris- 
soner is innocent and has been 
wrongly arrested. But if guilty, at 
most he is simply unfortunate. He 
had no power to say what qualities 
of mind he should inherit, what his temperament 
should be, or what training he should receive in in- 
fancy; all of which are usually determining causes 
that fix man's destiny in after-life. 

He stands before you largely the victim of unfortu- 
nate circumstances. He lacks the moral strength 
which others possess, and hence his weakness and his 
errors. True, he must pay the penalty of his trans- 
gression, but you can temper the administration of 
your government with such justice as will tend to the 
improvement and, possibly, the reformation of the 
criminal. Whatever the conduct of the prisoner, you 
should always rise superior to the feelings of passion or revenge. 

In a thousand ways our paths in life will be crossed by those who 
commit errors. It will be easy to find fault; it will be natural to blame. 
But we must never forget that further back, far beyond our sight, lie 
causes that tended to produce these results. 

Well may the mother look with deep anxiety upon the infant, wonder- 
ing what destiny lies before it. Alas! that a mother's hopes and prayers 
often do not avail. Drifted away from parental control, the footsteps 
fall amid temptation, and a life of sorrow is the result. 

We should never forget, in our treatment of the erring, that, were 
the mother present, she would plead with us to deal gently with her 
child. Very touchingly does the following poem ask that we be lenient 
for her sake: 

Some Mother's Child. 

T home or away, in the alley or street, 

Whenever I chance in this wide world to meet 

A girl that is thoughtless, or a boy that is wild, 

My heart echoes sadly, " 'T is some mother's ch ild ! " 

And when I see those o'er whom long years have rolled, 
Whose hearts have grown hardened, whose spirits are cold 
Be it woman all fallen, or man all defiled, 
A voice whispers sadly, "Ah! some mother's child !" 

No matter how far from the right she hath strayed ; 
No matter what inroads dishonor hath made; 
No matter what element cankered the pearl 
Though tarnished and sullied, she's some mother's girl. 

No matter how wayward his footsteps have been ; 
No matter how deep he is sunken in sin; 
No matter how low is his standard of joy 
Though guilty and loathsome, he's some mother's boy. 

That head hath been pillowed on tenderest breast; 
That form hath been wept o'er, those lips have been pressed; 
That soul hath been prayed for in tones sweet and mild; 
For her sake deal gently with "some mother's child." 

WHILE error must be deplored and virtue ever commended, we 
should deal carefully and considerately with the erring, ever 
remembering that a myriad of untoward circumstances are 
continually weaving a network around the individual, fettering and 
binding a soul that otherwise would be white and pure. 

It is a most fortunate circumstance for the child to be born of an ex- 
cellent parentage, to be reared amid kindness, and to be guided in youth 
by wise counsels. Given all these favoring circumstances, and the 
chances are that the pathway in life will be honorable. Deprived of 
these advantages, the individual is likely to fall short in excellence in 
proportion as the circumstances have been unfavorable. 

There are those who seemingly have only a smooth pathway in life. 
They were so fortunate as to be born with an excellently balanced organ- 
ization of mind. They have no passion unduly in excess. They have 
no abnormal longings, no eccentricities, no weaknesses. Roses strew 
their way, and they live a life well rounded out and full of honor. 

But while there are those who are apparently exempt from temptation, 
all are not so fortunate in ability, in strength of purpose and in power of 
will which may enable them to resist evil. Some are liable to easily 
err, and it will take, possibly, but a trivial circumstance to carry them 
aside. In the transgression they will get their punishment they will 
suffer sufficiently. It does not become the more fortunate, therefore, to 
take too much credit to themselves for being more virtuous and free from 
error. It is vastly more noble and charitable to extend sympathy and 
compassion. This sentiment is well expressed in the following poem, 
by Millie C. Pomeroy: 

You Had a Smooth Path. 

NE morning, when I went to school, 
In the long- vanished Yesterday, 
I found the creek had burst its tanks, 
And spilled its waters o'er my wav. 
The little path was filled with mud; 
I tried to cross it on a log; 
My foot slipped, and I, helpless, fell 
Into a mass of miry bog. 

My clothes were pitiful to see; 
My hands and face were covered quite. 
The children laughed right heartily, 
And jeered me when I came in sisrht. 
Sweet Jessie Brown, in snow-white dress, 
Stood, smiling, by the teacher's desk, 
The while he, gravely as he might, 
Inquired the secret of my plight. 

Then Jessie shook her snow-white dress, 
And said, "What will you give to me 
For coming here so nice and clean? 
My very shoes from dirt are free." 
The tutor frowned, and answered her, 
"You merit no reward to-day; 
Your clothes and hands are clean, because 
You had a smooth path all the way." 

And so, I think, when children grown 
Are white in grace or black with sin, 
We should not judge until we know 
The path fate had them travel in ; 
For some are led on sunny heights, 
Bevond the power of Sin to sway ; 
While others grope in darksome paths, 
And face temptation all the way. 



Commercial Forms. 

RECEIPTS, Etc., Etc. 

the transaction of business, it 
becomes necessary for all per- 
sons to occasionally write various 
business forms. Among those in 
most frequent use are Receipts, 
Orders, Bills of Articles Pur- 
chased, Promissory Notes, Checks, 
Drafts, etc. 

To better understand these, it 
is well to be acquainted with the meaning of 
the various commercial terms to be constantly 
seen in our general reading. 

Definition of Commercial Terms. 

$ means dollars, being a contraction of 

U. S., which was formerly placed before any 
denomination of money, and meant, as it means 
now, United States Currency. 

means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to. lb for pound, and bbl. 
for barrel; *$ for per or by the. Thus, Butter 
sells at 20@30c ty lb, and Flour at $8@12 ^ bbl. 

J for per cent and j for number. 

May 1. Wheat sells at $1.20@1.25, "seller 
June." Seller June means that the person who 
sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering 
it at any time during the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a cer- 
tain amount of grain or stock, at a fixed price, 
within a certain length of time, when the seller 
has not the stock on hand. It is for the inter- 
est of the person selling " short," to depress the 

market as much as possible, in order that he 
may buy and fill his contract at a profit. Hence 
the " shorts " are termed " bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a cer- 
tain amount of grain or shares of stock at a 
fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, 
expecting to make a profit by the rise of prices. 
The "longs "are termed "bulls," as it is for 
their interest to " operate " so as to " toss " the 
prices upward as much as possible. 

Promissory Notes. 

A promissory note is a promise or engagement 
in writing to pay a specified sum at a time 
therein limited, or on demand, or at sight, to a 
person therein named, or his order or assigns, 
or to the bearer. The person making the note 
is called the drawer or maker. 

A note is void when founded upon fraud. 
Thus, a note obtained from a person when in- 
toxicated, or obtained for any reason which is 
illegal, cannot be collected.* A note given upon 
Sunday is also void in some States. 

Notes bear interest only when it is so ex- 
pressed; after they become due, however, they 
draw the legal rate of the State, f Notes payable 
on demand or at sight, draw no interest until 
after presentation or demand of the same has 

* If, however, the note is transferred to an innocent holder, the claim 
of fraud or no value received will not avail. The party holding- the note 
can collect it if the maker is able to pay it. 

t If it is intended to have the note draw more than the legal rate of 
interest, after maturity, the words should so specify in the body of the 
note as follows: "with interest at the rate of per cent until paid. 



been made, unless they provide for interest from 
date on their face ; they then draw the legal rate 
of interest of the State. 

If "with interest" is included in the note, it 
draws the legal rate of the State where it is 
given, from the time it is made. 

If the note is to draw a special rate of interest 
higher than the legal, but not higher than the 
law allows, the rate must be specified. 

If the note is made payable to a person or 
order, to a person or bearer, to a person or his 
assigns, or to the cashier of an incorporated 
company or order, such notes are negotiable. 

When transferring the note, the indorser frees 
himself from responsibility, so far as the payment 
is concerned, by writing on the back, above his 
name, " "Without recourse to me in any event." * 

When a note is made payable at a definite 
period after date, three days beyond the time 
expressed on the face of the note (called days of 
grace) are allowed to the person who is to pay 
the same, within which to make such payment. 
Notes payable on demand are not entitled to 
days of grace. * 

If a note is payable at a bank, and is held 
there on the day upon which it falls due, until 
the usual hour for closing, ready for receiving 
payment thereon, no further demand upon the 
maker is necessary, in order to charge the in- 
dorser. The demand must, in all cases, be made 
upon the last of the days of grace; a demand 

*Banks usually charge interest on Days of Grace. 

before that time passing for nothing as against 
the indorser. 

The days of grace, which must be computed 
according to the laws of the State where the 
note is payable, are to be reckoned exclusive of 
the day when the note would otherwise become 
due, and without deduction for Sundays or 
holidays; in which latter case, by special enact- 
ments in most of the States, notes are deemed to 
become due upon the secular day next preced- 
ing such days. Thus, a note, due upon the 
twenty -fifth day of December, is payable on the 
twenty-fourth, as the day when due is Christ- 
mas day; if the twenty -fourth chance to be 
Sunday, it is due upon the twenty-third. 

In order to charge an indorser, the note, if 
payable at a particular place, must be presented 
for payment at the place upon the very day it 
becomes due; if no place of payment be named, 
it must be presented, either to the maker per- 
sonally, or at his place of business, during busi- 
ness hours, or at his dwelling house, within rea- 
sonable hours; if payable by a firm, a present- 
ment may be made to either of the partners, or 
at the firm's place of business; if given by sev- 
eral persons jointly, not partners, the demand 
must be made upon all. If the note has bee^i 
lost, mislaid, or destroyed, the holder must still 
make a regular and formal demand, offering the 
party, at the same time, a sufficient indemnity in 
the event of his paying the same 

* The simple indorsment of the name of the person selling the note, 
which serves as a transfer, upon the back of the same, is not in some 
States a guarantee for the payment of the note at maturity. When it is 
designed particularly to be a guarantee, it should be so stated on the 
back of the note, as follows: 


"For -valve received, I (or tve) hereby guarantee the payment of the 

within note at maturity, or at any time thereafter, -with interest at 

per cent, until paid ; and agree to pay all costs or expenses paid or in- 
curred in collecting the same." 


To avoid the danger of the signer of the guarantee claiming at a 
future time that said guarantee was written above his name without his 
knowledge, it is best to have his signature written twice, once above the 
guarantee, to serve as a transfer, and once below to serve as the guaran- 
tee, as shown above. 

Negotiable Note. 

With interest at legal rate per cent, from date. 

$500. CHICAGO, ILL., Jan. 1, 18. 

Three months after date, for value received, I promise to 
fay Charles Mix, or order, Five Hundred dollars, with 


Negotiable Note. 

With interest at ten per cent, after maturity, until paid. 

$100. DES MOINKS, IA., April 2, 18. 

For value received, ninety days after date, I promise to 
pay Orlando Warner, or order, One Hundred dollars, with 
interest at ten per cent, after maturity, until paid. 




Form for Pennsylvania. 



Note not Negotiable. 




Note for Two or More Persons. 

//^ ' /' // rf y 
^/^np^--ui 0^^-^^ 
T <7 

4dw>4, & <ttd, wA&<m<d<e 
/ ; / 

Note on Demand. 


NORTHAMPTON, MASS., March i, 18 . 
On demand, I promise to pay Clinton Briggs, or order, 
One Hundred dollars, value received, with interest. 


Married Woman's Note in New York. 

$50. ROCHESTER, N. Y., April 10, 18 . 

For value received, I promise to pay A. B. Smith, or 
order, Fifty dollars, one year from date, with interest. Arid 
I hereby charge my individual property and estate with the 
payment of this note. 




Note Payable by Installments. 

$700. NASHVILLE, TENN., Feb. 10, 18 . 

For value received, I promise to pay to Simon Butterfield, or order, 
Seven Hundred dollars, in manner following^ to- wit: Two Hundred 
dollars in one month from date; Two Hundred dollars in two months; 
and Tiree Hundred dollars in three months, with interest on the several 
sums ; s they become due. CALEB PRINDLE. 

Judgment Note. 

$999 89^ CHICAGO, ILL., Oct. i, 1878. 

Ninety days after date, we promise to pay to the order of The Mer- 
chants' Savings, Loan and Trust Co. of Chicago, at its office, Nine Hun- 
dred, Ninety- Nine and 99-100 dollars, for value received, with interest 
at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, after due. 



Know all Men by these Presents, That we, the subscribers, are justly 
indebted to The Merchants' Savings, Loan and Trust Co., of Chicago, 
upon a certain Promissory Note, bearing even date herewith, for the sum 
of Nine Hundred, Ninety-Nine and 99-100 dollars, with interest at 
the rate of ten per cent, per annum, after due, and payable ninety days 
after date. 

Now, therefore, in consideration of the premises, we do hereby 
make, constitute and appoint Wm. H. King, or any Attorney of any 
Court of Record, to be our true and lawful Attorney, irrevocably, for us 
and in our names, place and stead, to appear in any Court of Record, in 
term time or vacation, in any State or Territory of the United States, at 
any time before or after said note becomes due, to waive the service of 
process, and confess a judgment in favor of The Merchants' Savings, 
Loan and Trust Co., of Chicago, or its assign or assigns, upon the said 
Note, for the amount thereof, and interest, together with costs, and ten 
dollars Attorney's fees, and also to file a cognovit for the amount thereof, 
with an agreement therein that no writ of error or appeal shall be prose- 
cuted upon the judgment entered by virtue hereof, nor any bills in equity 
filed to interfere in any manner with the operation of said judgment, and 
to release all errors that may intervene in the entering up of such judg- 
ment, or issuing the execution thereon; and also to waive all benefit or 
advantage to which we may be entitled by virtue of any Homestead or 
other exemption law now or hereafter in force, in this or any other State 
or Territory, where judgment may be entered by virtue hereof. Hereby 
ratifying and confirming all that our said attorney may do by virtue 

Witness our hands and seals this first day of October, A. D. 1878. 





Note in Missouri. 

$400. ST. JOSEPH, Mo., June i, 18 . 

Three months after date, I promise to pay to Orson Barber, Four 
Hundred dollars, for value received; negotiable and payable, without 
defalcation or discount. 


Note Payable in Merchandise. 

$',5. CHESTER, VT., July 14, 18 . 

For value received, on or before the first day of October next, we 
promise to pay H. Miller & Co., or order, Fifteen Hundred dollars, in 
good merchantable White Wheat, at our warehouse in this city, at the 
market value, on the maturity of this note. 


Joint Note. 


SPRINGFIELD, ILL., May 10, 18 . 

One year after date, we jointly and severally promise to pay Smith 
Fairbanks, or order, Nine Hundred and 50- 100 dollars, for value received, 
with interest at ten per cent. 


Form of a Note for Indiana. 

$'00^60^ INDIANAPOLIS, IND., March i, 18 . 

On demand for value received, I promise to pay Clinton Briggs, or 
order, One Hundred and 50-100 dollars, with interest; payable without 
any relief whatever from valuation or appraisement. 


Form of Guarantee. 

For and in consideration of One Dollar, to me paid by H. B. Claflin 
<t Co., of New York, who, at my request, purpose opening a credit with 
John Smith, of Aurora, III., I do hereby guarantee the payment to 
H. B. Claflin & Co., their successors and assigns, of all indebtedness 
which said John Smith has incurred or may incur for goods and mer- 
chandise sold to him, or delivered at his request, by said H. B. Claflin 
& Co., their successors and assigns, upon credit or for cash, or on note, 
or otherwise, without requiring any notice in respect thereto. 

This guarantee to be open and continuing, covering all interest on 
any such indebtedness, and also any costs and expenses which may be 
incurred by H. B. Claflin tt Co., their successors and assigns, in col- 

Further, it shall remain in full force until revoked by a written no- 
tice from me, provided, however, that my liability hereunder for pur- 
chases made shall not at any time exceed $ J,ooo. 

Witness my hand and seal, I WM H 

New York, Jan. i, 1878. i 


Form of Due-Bill Payable in Money. 

$100. ROCHESTER, N. Y., Oct. 2, 18 . 

Due Walter P. Kimball, or order, on demand, One Hundred dollars, 

value received. 


Payable in Flour. 

$400. KALAMAZOO, MICH., Feb. i, 18 . 

Due on demand, to Sanford Burton, Four Hundred dollars, in Floui; 
at the market value when delivered. Value received. 


Payable in Money and Merchandise. 

$200. KEOKUK, IOWA, May 19, 18 . 

Due, on the loth of June next, to A. B. Condit, or order, One Hun- 
dred dollars in cash, and One Hundred dollars in merchandise from our 


Payable in Merchandise. 

$20. WEST ARLINGTON, VT., April 9, 18 . 

Due Wright Marsh, Twenty Dollars, in merchandise from our 

R. T. KURD & CO. 




AND 1 rate of 

allowed by 

Penalties for Usury. 


rate of 

allowed by 

Penalties for Usury. 


per cent. 

per cent. 
. .8 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of prin'l and int. 

Forfeiture of excess of int. 
Forfeiture of principal. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of int. 
For. of 3 times excess of int. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of excess of int. 
Ten pr ct. on entire contract. 

Forfeiture of excess of int. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of int. 

Forfeiture of ex. of interest. 
Forfeiture of debt and int. 
Forfeiture of excess of int. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 


..10 .. 

per cent. 
A.ny rate. 

Forfeiture of int. and costs. 

For. of thrice the ex. & costs 
Forfeiture of int. and costs. 

Forfeiture of contract. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 
For. of ex. above 6 per cent. 

For. of principal and int. 
Forfeiture of excess of int. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 
For. of ex, of int. & $100 fine. 
Forteiture of all interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of int. 
For. of excess of 6 per cent. 

Forfeiture of excess of int. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

atutes of the State. 



Any rate. 
. . .10 . 




.. 6 .. 



Any rate. 



Any rate. 
Any rate. 
.. . .6 

New Hampshire. . . . 



..10 .. 

New Jersey 





New Mexico 


12 . 


.. 7... 

.. 12 

New York 
North Carolina 


... .6*... 
... .8 

. 8 . . 


...6 .. 

Any rate. 
.. .10.... 
Any rate. 
.. 8 

Dist. of Columbia. . 

.. 8 .. 

Ontario, Canada 

. . 6 

Any rate. 
.. .10 


...7 .. 


.. .6. .. 

.. .18.... 

Quebec, Canada 
Rhode Island 


Any rate. 



... .8 



. . .10 

South Carolina. . . . 





. ..12 



6. . 



... .6 



12. . 



... .8 



Any rate. 



Any rate. 
.. ..6 







8* . 

Massachusetts. .. . . . 

.. 6 .. 

Any rate. 
.. .10 

Washington Ter. . . . 
West Virginia 


Any rate. 




. . . .7. . . . 

Wisconsin. . .... 

..7 .. 

10 .. 


.. 6 .. 

10. . 

* Except 

in cases 

Any rate, 
ieflned by St 

Missouri. . . . 

.. .6 .. 










and wit- 








and wit- 








.. 3 .. 







. 5 

...5 .. 



.. .1... 

...3 .. 


..10. . 




...4 . 

.. 6 .. 


...4 .. 









New Hampshire 






New Jersey 


...6 .. 










New Mexico 
New York 


.. 6 

...6 .. 















North Carolina 

Ontario (U. Canada' 


. 6 



..10 . 

District of Columbia 


. .4 











.. 6 .. 

...6 .. 


..10 .. 









.. 6 .. 

...6 .. 


..20 .. 








Quebec (L. Canada) 

. 1... 

...6 .. 




South Carolina 
Texas... . 


. 1 .. 












..1 .. 






2 .. 






..2 .. 




...8 .. 


Washington Territor 
West Virginia 

. 2... 





. 2 .. 

.. 6... 


..20 .. 

.20 .. 












. 6 



.. 4 .. 

.. 5 .. 

.. 5 .. 

. 5 .. 








Promissory notes in Massachusetts, Maine, South Carolina and Vermont barred in six years, unless signed by attesting witnesses, 
t Slander, 6 months. Assault, 4 years. || Store accounts, 2 years. 
t Seals abolished. In certain courts, 20 years. Oil Store accounts, 3 years. 




.Rates of Interest. 

Showing Accumulations of interest on Moneys 
for Days, Months and Years. 


On the following page will be found several 
valuable Interest Tables, giving the principal 
legal rates of interest as adopted by the various 

States in the Union, and the means by which 
the interest, at any rate, on any amount of 
money, can be almost instantly computed. 

Explanation of n:nterest Tables. 

By reference to the table on the following 
page, the time or number of days, months, and 
years, will be found at the top of the columns ; 
and the amount of money up- 
on which interest is comput- 
ed, in the left hand column. 

Thus : If we wish to find 
the interest on $1,108 for one 
year, 3 months, and 29 days, 
at 7 per cent we trace from 
amounts towards the right, 
and from time, downwards ; resulting as 
shown in the accompanying example. 



sr'st c 

n $1000 f 

or 1 year < 
' 1 " 


erce ( 

Qt. $70.00 


1 " 








3 " 




. 3 .. 




' 29 days 

' 7 




'29 " 





'29 " 



Interest on the Amoui 

it . . . . 

. $103.20 

To find the interest for more than one year 
multiply by the number of years. For $20, f 40, 
, etc., multiply the interest on $10, by 2, 4, 
and so on. The same rule 
applies for hundreds or thou- 
sands. The interest at five 
per cent is one-half of ten per 
cent ; hence, divide by 2. 
The interest at 12 per cent 
is double 6 per cent , hence, 
multiply by 2. Other rates 
will be found thus by division and multiplica- 

J. 7 O 






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1 234567 8 9 10 11 







2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 



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3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 



001111 11 11222222222238333 

3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 



001111 11 22222222233333333 

4 7 11 14 18 21 25 28 32 36 39 



011111 11222222233333333444 

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 



5 9 14 18 23 27 32 36 41 46 60 






235 7 8101213151718202223252728303283353738404243454748 

50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 6.50 



17 33 50 67 83 1.00 1.17 1.33 1.50 1.67 1.83^.00 2.17 2.33 2.50 2.67 2.83 300 3.17 3.33 8.50 3.67 3.83 4.00 4.17 4.33 4.60 4.67 4.83 

5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 65.00 






ItS 4 66 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

1 234567 8 9 10 11 

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00000000000011111 llllll-ll 111 

1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 


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000000001 1111111111111112222 

2 4 5 7 9 11 12 14 16 18 19 



000000111 111111111222^222222 

2 5 7 9 12 14 16 19 21 23 26 



000001111 1111122922222223333 

3 6 9 12 15 18 20 23 26 29 32 



000011111 1122222222233333383 

4 7 11 14 18 21 26 28 32 35 39 



4 8 12 16 20 25 29 33 37 41 45 



6 11 16 21 26 32 37 42 47 63 68 
6 12 18 23 29 36 41 47 53 58 64 



246 8 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 26 27 29 31 33 36 37 39 41 43 46 47 49 51 53 64 66 

68 1.17 1,75 2.33 2.92 3.50 4.08 4.67 5.25 6.83 6.42 



19 39 58 78 97 1.17 1.36 1.56 1.75 1.94 2.14 2.33 2.53 2.72 2.92 3.11 3.31 3.50 3.69 3.89 4.06 4.28 4.47 4.67 4.86 6.06 6.26 6.44 6.64 

5.83 11.67 17.50 23.33 29.17 36.00 40.83 46.67 52.50 68.33 64.17 






123 4 56 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2* 29 

1234567 8 9 10 11 







I 2 

000000000001 1111111111111111 

1 3 4 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 15 



0000000 1111 1111111112222222 

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 


0000011 1111 1112222222222223 

8 6 8 11 13 16 19 21 24 27 29 



0000111 1111 2222222223333333 

S 7 10 13 17 20 23 27 30 83 37 



0001111 1112 2222233388838444 





6 11 16 21 27 32 37 43 48 53 59 




001 11122222333344 444555666666 

7 13 20 27 33 40 47 63 60 67 73 



847 9 11 13 16 18 20 22 24 27 29 31 33 36 38 40 42 44 47 49 51 63 56 58 60 62 64 

67 1.33 2.00 2.67 3.33 4.00 4.67 S.33 6.00 6.67 7.33 



22 44 67 89 1.11 1.33 1.56 1.78 2.00 2.22 2.44 2.67 2.89 3.11 3.33 3.66 3.78 4.00 4.22 4.44 4.67 4.89 5.11 6.33 6.66 6.78 6.00 6.22 6.44 

6.67 13.33 20.00 26.67 33.33 40.00 46.67 53.33 60.0C 66.67 73.33 






1234 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ;4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

1234567 8 9 10 11 




12334667 889 



S 3 5 7 8 10 12 13 15 17 18 
3 6 8 10 IS 15 18 20 23 25 28 




8 7 10 13 17 20 23 27 80 33 27 

6 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 
6 12 18 23 29 35 41 47 63 58 64 






3 9 11 14 17 19 22 25 28 81 33 36 39 42 44 47 60 53 56 68 61 64 67 69 72 75 78 81 

7 13 20 27 33 40 47 63 60 67 73 
8 15 23 30 38 45 53 60 68 75 83 
8 17 26 S3 42 60 68 67 75 83 92 
83 1.67 2.50 8.33 4.17 6.00 6.83 6.67 7.50 8.33 9.17 



28 56 83 1.11 1.39 1.67 1.94 2.22 2.50 2.78 3.06 3.33 3.61 3.89 4.17 4.44 4.72 6.00 6.28 6.56 6.83 6.11 6.39 6.67 6.94 7.22 7.60 7.78 8.06 

8.S3 16.67 25.00 SUB 41.67 60.00 58.33 66.67 76.00 88.13 91 67 





Importance of Keeping a Bank Account. 

'O business men or women, the keep- 
ing of a bank account is a matter of 
very considerable convenience, as 
well as pecuniary benefit. If much 
business is done, money is constantly 
accumulating, which is easily depos- 
ited, and is usually more secure from burglary 
in a reliable bank than elsewhere. It is true that 
money will sometimes be lost, through the rob- 
bery or failure of a bank ; but of all the chances 
for loss which business people have to contend 
with, that by failure of banks is the least ; while 
it is found that the practice of depositing each 
day's accumulations in a bank, having the same 
in readiness to draw whenever wanted, as a 
whole, works greatly to the advantage of people 
doing a large amount of business. 

Of course, where the deposits are large, and 
the rates of interest are good, the banker is 
considerably benefited by having the use of the 
money. Bankers, however, realize their indebt- 
edness to the customer, and in various ways, 
through their acquaintance and influence with 
wealthy men, often render such aid to their 
patrons in a time of need, as enables them to 
carry forward certain enterprises that would be 
found oftentimes very difficult to accomplish 
without such aid. 

If it is intended, when depositing money m 
a bank, to allow the same to remain for several 
weeks or months, the banker will usually give 
the person so depositing a " Certificate of De- 
posit ; " if, however, it is desired to draw the 
money out frequently, while daily, perhaps, 
adding more, the banker will present the depos- 
itor with a Pass Book, a Check Book, and De- 
posit Tickets. The Deposit Ticket is a blank 
form, which the customer will fill up, indicating 
when, as well as the amount, and kind of funds 
deposited. The following exhibits the form of 
a deposit ticket. That printed in Roman type 
represents the printed matter on the same ; the 

wording in script illustrates what is written by 
the depositor , thus : 

Deposit Ticket. 






Currency . 
Checks ... 



The Pass Book. 

The Pass Book is a memorandum book, in 
which the receiving teller of a bank enters the 
date and amount of deposits. On the opposite 
page is shown the amounts drawn out. From 
time to time a balance is struck, showing the 
amount of deposits then in bank. The follow- 
ing shows the ordinary form of keeping the 
bank account : 



June 8 
" iO 
" 15 
July 7 
" SO 

Aug. 7 

To Cash -_. 


Aug. 7 


ace . 









The Check Book is a book of blank orders, 
or checks as they are called, with a margin on 
which to make a memorandum of date, amount, 
and to whom the check is given. When the 
check is filled, it goes to the bank where the 
individual giving the check deposits money, 
while the memorandum remains in the book. 
An idea of the check book may be obtained 
from the following : 



Form of a Check Book. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 

No. 5. 






No. 1. New York, dLw </, 1873. 


Pay to C/ ^ <^W***, o^ Orc?er, 


2. JVgw Foryfc, j/^-4# y. 1873. 

V^r <r 


or Order, 

No. 3. JVew Yor, j s / 1873. 


or Order, 
^~ Dollars, 



No. 4. New York, Stt-fy &s, 1873. 


Pay to 


or Order, 


No. 5. New York, C^^// / 1873. 


Pay to 

or Order, 

F Dollars, 





A Bill of Exchange is an order addressed to 
some person at a distance, directing him to pay 
a certain amount to the person in whose favor 
the bill is drawn, or to his order. A merchant 
in Chicago, owing a sum of money for goods to 
a merchant in London, instead of remitting 
money or goods to the amount of the debt, goes 
into the bank and buys from the banker, who 
keeps an account in London, a bill of exchange 
for the amount, and sends it to his creditor ; in 
this way the creditor gets payment from a person 
in his own city, generally a banker, who keeps 
an account with some American banker for the 
purpose of paying such drafts. 

Letters of Credit have come largely into use, 
of late years, with tourists abroad, though Bills 
of Exchange are yet frequently used by per- 
sons who wish to travel in foreign countries. 
Thus, if A, an American, wishes to travel 
over Europe, he estimates the expense of the 
journey, and finds it to be, perhaps $3,000. To 
carry this with him, in gold, would be unsafe 
and troublesome. He, therefore, goes to a ban- 
ker and gets a bill of exchange for a thousand 

dollars, which is the amount he thinks he may 
require while in England. The banker also 
having money deposited in Paris, perhaps, and 
also in Vienna, he takes a bill for a thousand 
on a bank in each of those places. "With these 
bills in his possession, he commences his journey, 
with only money in his pocket sufficient to pay 
the incidental expenses of the trip, and draws 
on the London, Paris, and Vienna bankers as 
occasion requires. The object of this arrange- 
ment is to secure travelers against loss, the 
bankers affording this accommodation to mer- 
chants and travelers for a percentage, which is 
paid them when they sell the bill of exchange. 
In issuing these bills of exchange, it is cus- 
tomary for the banker to issue a set of two or 
three, worded nearly alike. One of these is 
kept by the purchaser, to be presented by him 
to the foreign banker, the other two are trans- 
mitted by mail, at different times, to the same 
bank. Thus, if the first bill is lost, the second 
or third, that goes by mail, will still be available, 
and the holder can obtain the money without 
being subjected to the delay of writing to 
America for another bill. These bills are 
worded as follows : 

Set of Foreign Bills of Exchange. 

Exchange for 

Chicago, III., July 10, 18 . 
Sixty days after sight. 

of this our FIRST OP EXCHANGE (.second 
and third of the same tenor and date un- 
paid), pay to the order of Abel Cummings, 
Two Hundred Pounds Sterling, value re- 
ceived, and charge the same to 

Henry Greenebaum & Co. 

To the Union Bank of London, ? 
No. 840. London, Eng. 5 

2 Chicago, July 10, 18 . 

Exchange for } 

2OO. f Sixty dayg a f ter gi h ^ ^ thig 

our SECOND OP EXCHANGE (first and third 
of the same tenor and date unpaid), pay to 
the order of A bel Cummings, Two Hundred 
Pounds Sterling, valuereceived, and charge 
the same, without further advice, to 

Henry Greenebaum 6 Co. 

To the Union Bank of London, \ 
No. 840. London, Eng. $ 

3 Chicago, July 10, 18 . 

Exchange for 1 

2OO. \ Sixty aays a ^ ter giflrW O j this 

our THIRD OP EXCHANGE (first and second 
of the same tenor and date unpaid), pay to 
the order of Abel (Jummings, Two Hundred 
Pounds Sterling, value received, and charge 
the same, without further advice, to 

Henry Greenebaum &* Co. 

To the Union Bank of London, ) 
No. 840. London, Eng. $ 


A draft may properly be called an inland bill 
of exchange. It is customary for the bankers 
in all large cities, to make deposits with bankers 
in other large cities, and also for the banks in 
the interior towns to make deposits with some 
one bank in the nearest metropolis. Thus, the 
bankers of Milwaukee, Chicago, and St. Louis, 
have deposits in New York, so that any person 
wishing to pay a certain sum of money to another 
person, East, has only to step into a bank and 

purchase a draft for the amount on New York, 
which he sends by mail to the creditor, who 
can usually get the amount the draft calls for, 
at the nearest bank. 

The banker, as with bills of exchange, charges 
a certain commission to pay him for his trouble, 
which is termed " Exchange." There being less 
liability to lose these inland bills, only one is 
usually issued. The merchant in the interior 
town, or other person, wishing to send money to 
Milwaukee, St. Louis, Cincinnati, or any other 



large city, can generally buy, of their home 
bank, drafts, thus, on the nearest metropolis, by 
the payment of the exchange. 

The object in purchasing a draft is to avoid 

the danger of loss when sending money from 
one part of the country to another. Such 
form is worded as follows, and is known as a 
bank draft. 

Form of a Bank Draft. 

In making collections of money, drafts are 
frequently used, which are usually sent through 
the banks. A sight draft is used where the 
person upon whom it is drawn is expected to 
pay the debt immediately. In the time draft 
the same is made payable in a certain number 
of days. 

Sight Draft. 


CINCINNATI, O., June 10, 18. 
At sight, pay to the order of Higgius & Co., Four Huu- 
dred Dollars, value received, and charge the same to our account. 
To B. L. SMITH, Milwaukee, Wis. POLLOK BROS. & CO. 

Time Draft. 


MEMPHIS, TENN., April 4, 18. 
Thirty days after date, pay to the order of Cobb & Co., 
Fifty Dollars, value received, and charge to our account. 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


The acceptance of a draft is effected by the 
drawee, or the person upon whom the same is 
drawn, if he consents to its payment, writing 
across the face of the draft, thus : " Accepted, 
June 12, 1873. B. L. Smith." 


Grace on Sight 
following States : 













Drafts is ALLOWED in the 

New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, 
North Carolina, 
Rhode Island, 
South Carolina, 

Grace on Sight Drafts is 
the following States : 






District of Columbia, 








New Mexico, 
New York, 

West Virginia. 
Washington Ter. 


IForms of ^Book-Keeping. 


VERY person having occasion to keep an account 
with others, is greatly benefited by a knowledge 
of book-keeping. There are two systems of keep- 
ing books In use: one known as SIM OLE ENTRY; 
the other, as DOUBLE ENTRY. 

In this chapter it is the design to give simply an 
outline of Single Entry, amethod of keeping books 
which answers every purpose with the majority 
ot people, besides being a system so plain and 
simple as to be readily comprehended. 

The books used in Single Entry are generally a Day-book, in which 
are recorded each day's sale of goods, or labor performed, and money, 
service, or goods received; and a Ledger, in which the sum total of 
each transaction is put in its proper place, so arranged as to show, on a 
brief examination, how the account stands. These books, of different 
sizes, may be found at the bookstores; though, in case of necessity, they 
can easily be made with a few sheets of foolscap paper, ruled as here- 
after shown. 

Persons having many dealings with customers should use a Day- 
book, in which is written each transaction; these being afterwards 
transferred to the Ledger. Where, however, accounts are few, the ac- 
count may be made complete in the Ledger, as shown in several forms 
on the following page. 

In making charges in a book and giving credit, it is necessary to keep 
clearly in mind whether the person of whom we write gives or receives. 
I f the individual gives he is a creditor, which Is designated by the abbre- 
viation, Cr. If the person receives, he is a Debtor, the sign for which 
is Dr. In the passage from the creditor to the debtor of any article, 
we get the word " To," with which the creditor commences the ac- 
count. In the reception by a debtor of an article from a creditor, we 
get the word " By." 

The following forms show the manner of keeping an account by Ar- 
thur Williams, a merchant, with Chas. B. Strong, a farmer, who buys 
goods and settles his bills, usually, at the end of every month ; in the 
meantime taking to the store various kinds of produce, for which the 
merchant gives credit according to the market value. Mr. Williams 
keeps two books, a Day-book and Ledger. 



Chas. B. Strong, Dr. 

To I lb. Tea, $1.25 

" 10 " Sugar, io<r. i.oo 

Chas. B. Strong, Dr. 
To 20 Yds. Calico, io</. 2.00 
" I Scoop Shovel, 1.25 

By 2 Bu. Potatoes, Sdf. 1.60 

" 10 Lbs. Butter, 2$c. 2 50 




Chas. B. Strong, Dr. 

To I Pr. Rubber Boots, 

Per D. Wilcox, 7.00 

7 00 


Chas. B. Strong, Cr. 

By Cash, to Balance Account, 

















Remarks Concerning the Ledger. 

S will be seen by the example in the Ledger, the first column contains 
months; second, day of the month; third, "To D" means To Day-book. 
In the fourth column, the 14, 38, and 80 refer to the No. of the page in the 
Day-book which by reference fully explains the transaction. The fifth 
and sixth columns contain the totals of each purchase or sale as recorded 
in the Day-book. The Ledger should have an index in the first part which, under 
the head of S, will contain "Strong, Chas. B.," opposite which is the number 66, 
showing that Strong's account may be found on page 66 of the Ledger. When the 
account is balanced and closed, a sloping line is drawn down the space containing the 
least writing and double lines are made beneath the totals, indicating that the account 
is "closed." 

The Day-Book. 

In the foregoing example only Chas. B. Strong's account is shown on a page of the 
Day-book. This is, however, a long book usually, each page being of sufficient length 
to contain the accounts of several customers. At the top of each page, the day of the 
week, day of the month, and year, should always be written. If the day's entries com- 
mence in the middle of the page, write the day of the week and day of the month dis- 
tinctly above the first, and thus at the beginning of each day's entries. 

When the total of the entry on the Day-book is transferred to the Ledger, the No. 
of the page in the Ledger where the account is kept, is placed beside the entry in the 
Day-book, which shows that the account has been " posted " to the Ledger. 


importance of Book-Keeping. 

TRANCE as it may 
seem, there are 
but very few peo- 
ple who can keep 
the simplest form 
of account cor- 
rectly. Most in- 
dividuals are ev- 
idently deterred 
from learning correct forms, from 
the supposition that the art of 
book-keeping is difficult to master. 
The fact is, however, all the book- 
keeping necessary to be understood 
by people having few accounts, is 
very easily learned, as will be seen 
by studying, for a little time, the 
accompanying forms. 

The importance of this know- 
ledge cannot be over-estimated. 


who is successful in business, keeps 
his accounts in a form so condensed 
and clear, that his assets and lia- 
bilities can be determined in a few 
minutes of examination. 


who would be prosperous keeps 
his books in such a manner, that he 
can tell at a glance what product 
is most profitable to raise, what he 
owes, and what is due him from any 


who keeps himself free from litiga- 
tion, and conducts his business 
successfully, has his dealings all 
clearly expressed in his accounts, 
and settles with his customers, if 
possible, once a month. 


of an association, whose accounts 
are clear, explicit, and correct, is 
justly appreciated for the evident 
honesty of the financial exhibit, 
and is selected for other places of 
responsibility and trust. 


who avoids misunderstandings with 
her servants, has her account writ- 
ten so clearly that no mistake is 
made, and no ill feeling is thus en- 
gendered in her settlements. 


in short, who have occasion to keep 
accounts with others, should have 
a plain condensed form, which will 
show at a glance how the account 

The accompanying forms show 
the correct methods of keeping 
accounts in the Ledger, according 
to the established principles of 
book-keeping by Single Entry. 

Farmer's Account -with the Merchant. Chas. B. Strong, having but few accounts, requires 
only the Ledger in which to keep them. He records his transactions with the merchant as follows: 





To 2 Bu. Potatoes, 80c. 
-" 10 Lbs. Butter, 25c. 




By 1 Lb. Tea, 

" 10 " Sugar, 

" 20 Yds. Calico, 

" 1 Scoop Shovel, 

" 1 Pair Rubber Boots, 


Farmer's Account -with Hired Man. A Memorandum in the back part of the Ledger should 
state the contract between the farmer and hired man. The Ledger shows how the account stands. 





To 1 Pair of Boots, 
" Wm. Wells, for Clothing, 
" R. JR. Ticket to Boston, 
" Cash, 
" NOTE AT 3 Mos. TO BAL. 


By 4 Months Labor at 16.00 
" 2 " " " 10.00 

" 8 Days " " 1.00 


Farmer's Account with Crops. That the farmer may know the profit on any of his crops, he 
may keep an account as follows. In like manner, an account may be kept with any enterprise. 


Acc't with Cornfield ; 16 Acres. 






To 6 Days Plowing, 2.50 

" 2 " Harrowing, 2.00 

" 4 " Planting, 1.00 

' 3 Bu. Seed Corn. 50 

' 2 Days Cultivating, 2.00 

" 2 " " 2.00 

" 10 " Cutting, 1.00 

" Husking and Cribbing, 

" Shelling 800 Bushels, 
" Cost of Taking to Market, 
" Interest on the Land, 












By Sialko jo. Fodder, 
" Husks****- Beds, 
" Matu, 

" 800 Bushels Corn, 50c. 





Blacksmith's Account with Farmer where Day-book and Ledger are Kept. 

When the account is not settled at the end of the month, it may be "closed," and the balance 
carried over into the next month, as follows: 










To Shoeing 2 Horses, 
" Repairing Wagon. 






By 4 Bu. Potatoes, 60c. 
" 6 " Apples, 50c. 





" Shoeing Horse, 





" 1 Ton Hay. 






" Mending Shovel, 




" BAL. TO NEW Ace., 



1 fi 







" Repairing Reaper, 
" Ironing Wagon, 








By 20 Lbs. Butter, 20c. 
" 2 Cds. Wood, 7.00 









' The flgures in this column refer to the number of the page in the Daj-book ; a book in which should be fully recorded each day's transacts 

Book-Keeping: for Housekeepers. The following form of account, with the servant, is appli- 
cable to all domestic affairs; such as accounts with grocerymen, boarders, etc. 









To 8 Yds. Cotton Cloth, We. 
" Cash, 
" 4 pairs Stockings, 25c. 






By Washing and Ironing, 
" Washing and Cleaning, 
" Cleaning Windows, 











" Washing and Ironing, 







Book-Keeping for Treasurers and Others. Treasurers of Societies are shown the correct 
method of keeping their accounts in the following form: 


Salem Lyceum in Acc't with Wm. Brown. 



To 6 Months Rent of Hall, 
" 2 Tons of Coal, 10.00 
" Lecture by J. Webb, 
" Gas, 

" 6 Months Rent of Hall, 









By Cash from Last Year, 
" Dues, 

" Initiation Fees, 
" Dues 





For Money. 

For Merchandise Not Exceeding in Value a 
Specified Sum. 

SANDUSKY, O. , Aug. 9, 18 . 

Please deliver to the bearer, 

W. H. Wing, such goods as he may desire from your 
store, not exceeding in value the sum of Fifty Dollars, 
and charge the same to my account. 


c or Merchandise. 

AUSTIN, TEXAS, Dec. 1, 18 . 

Please pay John Wilkins, Seventy-five Dollars in 
merchandise, and charge to 


For Goods Stored. 

HANNIBAL, Mo., April 11, 18 . 

Please Deliver to B. Hooper, or order, One 
Hundred Barrels of Flour, stored by me in your warehouse. 



' ' 3>&3 

For Money On Account. 


In Full of All Demands. 


(^K2 / / 


In Full of All Accounts. 


'''tw.t. Mi., ><^/-te-e- 

For Money Advanced on a Contract. 

$1,000. HENDERSON, KT. , July 16, 18. 

Received of Harvey Maynard, One Thousand 
Dollars in advance, on a contract to build for him a 
brick house at No. 1171 Walnut street, St. Louis. 

For Rent. 


RICHMOND, VA. , May 1, 18 . 
Received of Walter B. Haskins, Twenty- 
' ' five Dollars, for rent of dwelling at No. 784 Washing- 
ton street, for month of May, 1 8 . 


For a Note. 

, . $500. CHARLESTON, S. C. ,Dec. 31, 18. 

Received of Goldwin Hubbard, his note at sixty 
days for Five Hundred Dollars, in full of account. 

For a Note of Another Person. 


PENSACOLA, FLA., May 2, 18 . 
Received of Herbert Spencer, a note of 
Robt. Hatfield, for the sum of Two Hundred Dollars, 
which, when paid, will be in full of all demands to 






A Bill of Purchase is a statement of goods or 
wares bought at one time, embracing both the 
quantity and price of each article and the 
amount of the whole. If paid at the time of 

purchase, it should be receipted by the seller, 
as in the first of the following examples ; if 
settled " by note " as in the second example, 
or if " charged on acc't," it may be so stated. 

Forms of Bills of Purchase. 








<tzt . 





Including Agreements, Arbitrations, Assignments, Affidavits, Acknowledg- 
ments, Bills of Sale, Bills of Lading, Bonds, Corporation Charters, 
Deeds, Guaranty, Leases, Licenses, Mortgages, Patents, 
Pensions, Wills, Etc., 

Carefully Selected to the Latest Dates, Critically Examined by 

the Best Legal Talent, and Adapted to the Requirements 

of People in all Regions of +he Country. 

Forms of Agreements and Contracts. 

difference of 

agreement is virtually a 
contract by which indi- 
viduals, singly or collec- 
tively, agree to perform 
certain duties within a 
specified time. 

It is of much impor- 
tance, in all matters 
upon which may arise a 
opinion or misunder- 

standing, that contracts be reduced very 
explicitly to writing, thereby frequently sav- 
ing the parties to the contract a long and 
expensive law-suit. 

Agreements should show that they are made 
for a lawful consideration, else they are void in 

It is well to have a written agreement signed 
by a witness, though the witness need not know 
the contents of the document. 

While a signature, or mark, written with a 
pencil, if proven by witnesses, is good in law, 
it is always safest to execute the contract with 
pen and ink. 

A discovery of fraud, or misrepresentation by 
one party to the agreement, or changing of the 
date, renders the contract void. 

Every agreement should state most distinctly 
the time within which its conditions are to be 
complied with. 

Copies of an agreement should always be pre- 
pared in duplicate, and each party to the agree- 
ment should retain a copy. 

General Form of Agreement. 

THIS AGREEMENT, made the first day of August, 18 , between 
Isaac E. Hill, of Tarkio, county of Atchison, State of Missouri, of the 
first part, and Vardemon Blevins, of Fairfax, Mo., of the second 

WITNESSETH, that the said Isaac E. Hill, in consideration of the 
agreement of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, con- 

tracts and agrees to and with the said Vardemon Blevins, that fie will 
deliver, in good and marketable condition, at, the village of Corning, 
Mo. , during the month of September, of this year, one hundred tons 
of prairie hay, in the following lots, and on the following specified 
terms; namely, twenty-five tons by the seventh of September, twenty- 
five tons additional by the fourteenth of the month, twenty-five tons 



more by the twenty-first, and the entire one hundred tons to be all 
delivered by the thirtieth of September. 

And the said Vardernon Blevins, in consideration of the prompt 
fulfillment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, 
contracts to and agrees with the said Isaac E. Hill, to pay for said 
hay Six Dollars per ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the 
other One Hundred Dollars as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and 
year first above written. 


Agreement to Convey Land By Deed. 

ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT, made this seventh day of June in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy- three, between 
Luther Henderson, of Sandy Hill, Washington county, State of New 
York, party of the first part, and William W. Stewart, of Jamaica, 
county of Windham, State of Vermont, party of the second part: 

WITNESSETH, that said party of the first part hereby covenants and 
agrees, that if the party of the second part shall first make the pay- 
ment and perform the covenants hereinafter mentioned on his part to 
be made and performed, the said party of the first part will convey 
and assure to the party of the second part, in fee simple, clear of all 
incumbrances whatever, by a good and sufficient warranty deed, the 
following lot, piece, or parcel of ground, viz. : The west fifty-five (55) 
feet of the north half of lot number six (6) in block number three (3) 
Whitford's addition to Chicago, as recorded at .Chicago, Cook county, 

And the said party of the second part hereby covenants and agrees 
to pay to said party of the first part the sum of One Thousand Dollars, 
in the manner following: Three Hundred Dollars,cash in hand paid, 
the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and the balance in three 
annual payments, as follows, viz. : Two Hundred Dollars, June 7, 
1874; Two Hundred Dollars, June 7, 1875; and Three Hundred Dol- 
lars, June 7, 1876; with interest at the rate of ten per centum per 
annum, payable on the dates above specified, annually, on the whole 
sum remaining from time to time unpaid, and to pay all taxes, 
assessments, or impositions that may be legally levied or imposed 
upon said lands subsequent to the year 1873. And in case of the 
failure of the said party of the second part to make either of the 
payments, or perform any of the covenants on his part hereby made 
and entered into, this contract shall, at the option of the party of the 
first part, be forfeited and determined, and the party of the second 
part shall forfeit all payments made by him on this contract, and such 
payments shall be retained by the said party of the first part, in full 
satisfaction and in liquidation of all damages by him sustained, and 
he shall have the right to re-enter and take possession of the premises 
aforesaid, with all the improvements and appurtenances thereon, pay- 
ing said Wm. W. Stewart the apprajsed value of said improvements 
and appurtenances; said appraisement to be made by three arbitra- 
tors, one being chosen by each of the said parties, the other being 
chosen by the first two. 

It is mutually agreed that all the covenants and agreements herein 
contained shall extend to and be obligatory upon the heirs, executors, 
administrators and assigns of the respective parties. 

In witness whereof, the parties to these presents have hereunto set 
their hands and seals, the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered ^ LUTHEK HENDERSON, 

in presence of I 


Agreement with Clerk for Services. 

THIS AGREEMENT, made this fourteenth day of April, one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-one, between Thomas Babcock, of Ohio 
City, county of Cuyahoga, State of Ohio, party of the first part^ and 

Perley White, of Cleveland, county of Cuyahoga, State of Ohio, party 
of the second part: 

WITNESSETH, that said Perley White agrees faithfully and dili- 
gently to work as clerk and salesman for the said Thomas Babcock, 
for and during the space of one year from the date hereof, should 
both live such length of time, without absenting himself from his 
occupation; during which time, he, the said White, in the store of said 
Babcock, of Ohio City, will carefully and honestly attend, doing and 
performing all duties as clerk and salesman aforesaid, in accordance 
and in all respects as directed and desired by the said Babcock. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said 
White, the said Babcock agrees to pay to said White the annual sum 
of Twelve Hundred Dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments 
each upon the last day of each month; provided that all dues for 
days of absence from business by said White shall be deducted from 
the sum otherwise by this agreement due and payable by the said Bab- 
cock to the said White. 

Witness our hands. 


Agreement for Building a House. 

THIS AGREEMENT, made the tenth day of April, one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-two, between Jesse Perry, of Germantown, 
county of Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania, of the first part, and 
Abijah Howe, of the same town, county and State, of the second 

WITNESSETH, that the said Jesse Perry, party of the first part, for 
considerations hereinafter named, contracts and agrees with the said 
Abijah Howe, party of the second part, his heirs, assigns and admin- 
istrators, that he, the said Perry, will, within one hundred and twenty 
days, next following this date, in a good and workmanlike manner, 
and according to his best skill, well and substantially erect and finish 
a dwelling-house on lot number six, in block number nine, in Solo- 
mon's addition to Germantown, facing on Talpehocken street, which 
said house is to be of the following dimensions, with brick, stone, 
lumber and other materials, as are described in the plans and specifi- 
cations hereto annexed. 

[Here describe the house, material for construction, and plans in full. ] 

In consideration of which, the said Abijah Howe does, for himself 
and legal representatives, promise to the said Jesse Perry, his heirs, 
executors and assigns, to pay, or cause to be paid, to the said Perry, 
or his legal representatives, the sum of Seven Thousand Dollars, in 
manner as follows, to wit: One Thousand Dollars at the beginning of 
said work, One Thousand Dollars on the fifteenth day of May next, 
One Thousand Dollars on the first day of June next. Two Thousand 
Dollars on the first day of July next, and the remaining Two Thou- 
sand Dollars when the work shall be fully completed. 

It is also agreed that the said Jesse Perry, or his legal representa- 
tives, shall furnish, at his or their own expense, all doors, blinds, 
glazed sash and window frames, according to the said plan, that may 
be necessary for the building of said house. 

It is further agreed that in order to be entitled to said payments 
(the first one excepted, which is otherwise secured), the said Jesse 
Perry, or his legal representatives, shall, according to the architect's 
appraisement, have expended, in labor and material, the value of said 
payments, on the house, at the time of payment. 

For failure to accomplish the faithful performance of the agreement 
aforesaid, the party so failing, his heirs, executors or assigns, agrees 
to forfeit and pay to the other party, or his legal representatives, the- 
penal sum of Fifteen Hundred Dollars, as fixed and settled damages, 
within one month from the time of so failing. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the year and 
day first above written. 




Agreement for Sale and Delivery of Personal Property. 

ARTICLES or AGREEMENT, made this eighteenth da}- of June, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three, 
between Arthur Belden, of Salem, Washington county. New York, 
party of the first part, and Lemuel Baldwin, of Jackson, Washington 
county, New York, party of the second part : 

WITNESSETH, that the said party of the first part hereby covenants 
and agrees, that if the party of the second part shall first make the 
payments and perform the covenants hereinafter mentioned on his 
part to be made and perfermed, the said party of the second part will, 
on or before the first day of August next, deliver, in a clean and mar- 
ketable condition, twelve hundred pounds of wool, of his own pro- 
duction, at the wool- house of Barnard & dine, in Albany, New York. 
And the said party of the second part hereby covenants and agrees to 
pay to said party of the first part the sum of fifty-five cents per pound, 
in the manner following: One Hundred Dollars cash in hand paid, the 
receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and the balance at the time 

of delivery of said wool. And in case of the failure of the said party 
of the second part to make either of the payments, or perform any of 
the covenants on his part hereby made and entered into, this contract 
shall, at the option of the party of the first part, be forfeited and 
determined, and the party of the second part shall forfeit all pay- 
ments made by him on this contract, and such payments shall be 
retained by the said party of the first part in full satisfaction and in 
liquidation of all damages by him sustained, and he shall have the 
right to take possession of said wool, remove, and sell the same 
elsewhere, as he may deem for his interest. 

It is mutually agreed that all the covenants and agreements herein 
contained shall extend to and be obligatory upon the heirs, executors, 
administrators and assigns of the respective parties. 

In witness whereof, the parties to these presents have hereunto set 
their hands the day and year first above written. 



fO ACKNOWLEDGE anything is to admit 
of its existence, whether it be any known 
fact or circumstance, or the confession 
of any sentiment or act known only to our- 

In law, an acknowledgment is the assent; of 
any individual, in writing, made before a com- 
petent legal authority, that any document to 
which it is appended is true in fact, or that it is 
a voluntary act on the part of a person in trans- 
ferring property or any personal right to 

The law makes it necessary that persons who 
exec ate deeds for lands, or mortgages covering 

Examining Witnesses to a Deed, on Oath. 


You do solemnly swear that you will true answers make to such 
questions as shall be put to you in regard to the parties to the deed 
here shown to you, and the execution thereof ; so help you God. 


You do swear, in the presence of the everliving God, that you will 
true answers make to such questions as shall be put to you touching 
the parties to the deed here shown to you, and the execution thereof. 

A Single Grantor's Acknowledgment. 


County of Cook, j I, Martin Stone, a notary 

public for and within said county, in the State aforesaid, do hereby 
certify that Lewis Nott, personally known to me as the real person 
whose name is subscribed to the foregoing deed as having executed 
the same, appeared before me in person and acknowledged that he 
signed, sealed and delivered the said instrument of writing as his 
free and voluntary act, for the uses and purposes therein set forth. 

Given under my hand and seal of office, this tenth day of Decem- 
ber, A.D. 1882. 


Notary Public. 

any property, should acknowledge the execution 
of the paper in order that it may be recorded. 

An unmarried person's acknowledgment alone 
is sufficient on any legal document; but, if mar- 
ried, both husband and wife must sign the 
acknowledgment jointly, and the wife must also, 
in some States, make her voluntary and separate 
acknowledgment apart from her husband, 
wherever the sale or mortgaging of land is 

The forms of acknowledgments closely resem- 
ble each other, and but a few of them are here 
introduced as examples. 


Joint and Separate Acknowledgment of a Deed by Husband and Wife. 


County of Cook, j Before me, Martin Stone, 

a notary public for and within said county, in the State aforesaid, 
appeared the above-named Elias Robinson and Rhoda E. , his wife, 
both personally known to me as the real persons whose names are 
subscribed to the annexed deed, as having executed the same, and 
acknowledged that they signed, sealed and delivered the said instru- 
ment of writing as their free and voluntary act, for the use and pur- 
poses therein set forth. 

And the said Rhoda E. , wife of the said Elias Robinson, having 
been by me examined, separate and apart, and out of the hearing of 
her husband, and the contents and meaning of the said instrument of 
writing having been by me fully made known and explained to her ; 
and she also by me being fully informed of her rights under the 
homestead laws of this State, acknowledged that she had freely and 
voluntarily executed the same, and relinquished her dower to the 
lands and tenements therein mentioned, and also all the rights and 
advantages under and by virtue of all laws of this State relating to 
the exemption of homesteads, without compulsion of her husband; 
and that she does not wish to retract the same. 

Given under my hand and seal of office, this twelfth day of Novem- 
ber, A.D. 1882. 


Notary Public. 





AFFIDAVITS are of a confirmatory nature, 
and consist of written statements of facts, 
signed and sworn to (or affirmed) as true 
by the persons who make them. The cases in 
which they are used are numerous. 

A Common Form of Affidavit, Attached to a Declaration of Any 


County of Cook, | CHICAGO, November 6, 1882. 

Then the above-named Jesse James personally appeared and made 
oath (or solemnly affirmed) that the foregoing declaration, by him sub- 
scribed, Is true. Before me, 

GEORGE MOORE, Justice of the Peace. 

Form of Affidavit of Publication of a Legal Notice. 

County of Cook, j 


In the Superior Court of the City of Chicago, 

Illinois, of November term, 1882. 
Frank Smith, being duly sworn (or affirmed) according to law, says 
that he is the publisher of a weekly newspaper in the city of Chicago, 
in the county of Cook, and State of Illinois, called the Chicago 
Clarion, and that the above notice was published in his said news- 
paper for six consecutive weeks, the last publication of it being upon 
Saturday, November 18, A. D. 1882. 

Sworn to (or affirmed) and subscribed before me, this twentieth 
day of November, A.D. 1882. 

MOSES WILLETT, Justice of the Peace. 

Affidavit Requiring a Debtor to be Held to Bail. 

Cuyahoga County, j 

EDWAB PLACE i In the Court of Common Pleas of Cleveland, 
ROBERT^GRIMES. ) of November term, A. D. 1882. No. 283. 
Edward Place, of Cleveland, in said county, butcher, on oath 
declares that he has a demand against the within-named Robert 
Grimes, upon the cause of action stated in the within writ, which he 
believes to be justly due, and upon which he expects that he will 
recover Twelve Dollars and fifty- three cents, or upwards; and that he 

In courts of law or equity they are not testi- 
mony, because the makers of them (called 
affiants) are not cross-examined; but a false 
affiant may be punished as a perjurer, when the 
affidavit is required by law. 

has reasonable cause to believe that the said Robert Grimes is about 
to depart beyond the jurisdiction of the court to which said writ is 
returnable, and not to return until after judgment may probably be 
recovered in said suit, so that he cannot be arrested on the first exe- 
cution (if any) which may issue in said suit. 


Subscribed and sworn to this twenty- second day of November, 
A. D. 1882. Before me, 

JOHN BROWN, Justice of the Peace. 

Affidavit of a Creditor's Attorney, Requiring a Debtor to be 
Held to Bail. 


Cuyahoga County, j ' 

EDWARD PLACE | In the Court Qf Common pleas of Cleveland, 
ROBERT GRIMES. f of November term, A. D. 1882. No. 282. 

George Phillips, of Cleveland, in said county, a lawyer and attor- 
ney of Edward Place, of said city, county and State, butcher, on 
oath declares that the said Edward Place has a demand against the 
within-named Robert Grimes, upon the cause of action stated in the 
within writ, which this deponent believes to be justly due, and upon 
which he expects that the said Edward Place will recover Twelve Dol- 
lars and fifty-three cents, or upwards; and that this deponent has 
reasonable cause to believe that the said Robert Grimes is about to 
depart beyond the jurisdiction of the court to which said writ is 
returnable, that is to say, into the Province of Ontario, Canada, and 
not to return till after judgment may probably be recovered in said 
suit, so that he cannot be arrested on the first execution (if any) 
which may issue in said suit. 


Subscribed and sworn to this twenty-thifd day of November, A. D. 
1882. Before me, 

QUARTUS K. RICE, Notary Public. 


APPRENTICE may be either a boy or 
a girl, usually not younger, if a lad, than 
fourteen years of age. 
No child can be apprenticed for a term ex- 
tending beyond his twenty-first birthday. 

The usual motive for apprenticing children is 
that they may be thoroughly taught some honor- 
able trade or calling, becoming perfectly familiar 

with which, they may always be able to earn a 
livelihood and acquire wealth. 

The methods of apprenticing children and for 
protecting their rights and interests are gener- 
ally provided for in the laws of the several 
States. These methods differ but little, how- 
ever, in any of the States. 

No minor can alone bind himself or herself 



to learn any trade or calling. The parents, 
guardians, or overseers of the poor must give 
their consent, and the child must be willing to 
be bound. 

Any act or habit of the master that may be 
injurious to the morals or intellect of the appren- 
tice is a sufficient cause for the proper authorities 
to dissolve the contract of apprenticeship. No 
apprentice, for instance, can be compelled to 

Binding an Apprentice A General Form. 

THIS AGREEMENT, made this twenty-second day of November, 
A. D. 1882, between Parker Ellis, the father, and Allen Ellis, his 
son, aged fourteen years, both of Pittsburgh, in Allegheny county, 
and State of Pennsylvania, of the one part, and Marcus Moran, 
blacksmith, of the same place, of the other part, witnesseth: 

That the said Allen Ellis, with the consent of his father, Parker 
Ellis, does by these presents bind himself out as an apprentice to the 
said Marcus Moran, to be taught and exercise and employ himself in 
the trade of a blacksmith, in which the said Marcus Moran is now 
engaged, and to live with and serve as an apprentice until the expira- 
tion of six years, ten months and four days from the date hereof. 
That during said time said Allen Ellis shall and will, to his best and 
utmost ability, skill and knowledge, intelligently and faithfully 
serve, and be just and true to his said master, keep his secrets and 
counsel, and everywhere, and at all times, shall obey his lawful com- 
mands. That he shall do and attempt no hurt to his said master, in 
person, goods, estate, or otherwise, nor willingly suffer injury to the 
same to be done by others, but forthwith give his said master notice 
when he shall have any knowledge of such injury done or about to be 
done. That he shall not convert to his own nse or waste his said 
master's goods or money, nor suffer the same to be done by others. 
That he will not lend his masters goods or effects to any person or 
persons whomsoever, nor allow any one else to do so without his mas- 
ter's consent That he will not buy or sell any merchandise of his own 
or of others, during his term of apprenticeship, without his master's 
permission. That he shall not play with card;* or dice, nor take part 
in any unlawful games of skill or chance, whereby his master shall 
suffer loss or damage. That he shall not loiter about or in play- 
houses, theaters, saloons, or other disreputable resorts, nor visit 
them, except the business of his master shall require him to do so. 
That he shall not, at any time, willfully absent himself from his 
master's premises or service without leave. That in all things he 
will behave as a faithful apprentice ought to do throughout his term 
of service. 

And the said Marcus Moran, in consideration of these premises 
and the sum of Twenty Dollars, the receipt whereof is hereby 

work on Sundays, except in a case of absolute 

Should the master die before the expiration of 
the apprenticeship, unless the contract includes 
the master's "executors and administrators," the 
apprentice is free to seek a new master. 

The following forms will serve to indicate what 
is particularly expected of parents, children and 

acknowledged, does hereby promise, covenant and agree: That he 
will comfortably clothe and provide for the said Allen Ellis, his 
apprentice, and in sickness and in health supply him with sufficient and 
suitable food, lodging and medicine; and will instruct and teach his 
said apprentice, either by himself or others, whatever may be learned 
of the trade and mystery of blacksmithing during his said term of 
service. That he shall cause his said apprentice to be taught to read 
and write, and the elementary and compound rules of arithmetic and 
the rule of three. That he will, when the said term of apprentice- 
ship shall legally expire, give the said Allen Ellis, over and above the 
clothing he shall then possess, the following articles of apparel 
(name them here particularly), of quality, fit, and suitable for his 
condition in life. 

And for the true performance of all and singular the covenants 
and agreements aforesaid, the said parties bind themselves each to 
the other firmly by these presents. 

In witness whereof the parties aforesaid have hereunto inter- 
changeably set their hands the day and year first above written. 

(Apprentice) ALLEN ELLIS, 




Consent of a Parent, Indorsed on Indentures of Apprenticeship. 

I do hereby consent to, and approve of, the binding of my son, 
William Blair, as in the within indenture mentioned. Dated the 
twenty- second day of November, A. D. 1882. 


Certificate of a Justice as to Death of the Father of an Apprentice. 

I, Matthew Marr, a justice of the peace within and for the county 
of Cook and State of Illinois, residing in the town of Lake, in said 
county, do hereby certify that Thomas Blair, the father of the infant 
named in the within indenture, is dead (or has abandoned, and neg- 
lects to provide for, his family). Dated this twenty-second day of 
November, A. D. 1882. 

MATTHEW MARR, Justice of the Peace. 


'HE SUBMISSION of any question concern- 
ing the rights of persons or personal 
^ property, by parties in dispute, to the 
decision of one or more disinterested individuals, 
mutually agreed upon, instead of taking the con- 
troversy before a court of law, is called an arbi- 

Both parties niay have sufficient confidence in 
some one person to abide by his single decision. 
Usually, however, each party selects one indi- 
vidual, and the two thus appointed choose a 
third one, who is called the umpire, to assist 
them in forming their judgment. In such a case 
the decision is made either by all agreeing, or the 



agreement of two against the other, as may be 
provided in the submission. 

The parties engaged in determining disputes in 
this manner are known as arbitrators. 

The decision of the arbitrators is called an 

Arbitrations, and their determination of cases, 
are sometimes regulated by the laws of the State 
in which they occur. 

Arbitrations are not always voluntary on the 
part of the persons in dispute, for in some States 
one party may compel the other to refer the case 
to arbitrators, if he refuses to do so. This is 
called a reference. 

The courts may also sometimes order a dis- 
puted case to be settled in this manner, with the 
consent of both parties. 

A party cannot be compelled to agree to arbi- 
trate, nor after he has signed the agreement 
can he, as a general rule, be compelled to select 
his arbitrators, nor after the arbitrators are 
appointed can he be compelled to submit his side 
of the case. But after a valid award has been 
made the courts will enforce it. Either party 
may recall his submission to arbitration, how- 

ever, at any time before the award is written out; 
but the party who thus recalls the arbitration is 
responsible for all the costs and damages that 
have accrued in consequence of his previous con- 
sent to submit his case to arbitrators. 

If an award is illegal, unreasonable, incapable 
of being executed, or indecisive of any or all 
matters submitted to the arbitrators, it is not 

Beside the agreement to submit the questions 
in dispute, called a submission, the parties usu- 
ally execute to each other, with sureties, a bond 
to abide by and perform the award, on which 
also a suit can be brought, if the award is not 

Arbitrations are customary in disputes relating 
to wages for services, current accounts, failures 
to fulfill contracts, partnerships, annuities in lieu 
of dower, land titles, boundaries and trespasses. 

Awards may cover the payment of moneys, 
the fulfillment of agreements, the delivery of 
goods or writings, the assignment of mortgages 
and leases, and the specific conveyance of land, 
but not as to the title to land. 

Form of Submission to Arbitration. 

The following is the general form to be used in referring all 
matters in dispute between the parties at issue; the special 
form is used where the controversy is confined to one or two 
particular disagreements: 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That we, the undersigned, 
hereby mutually agree to submit all the matters in difference between 
us, of every kind, name and nature, to the determination and award 
of Edward Blair, Edward R. Stimpson and Robert Merritt, of Vil- 
lisca, Montgomery county, Iowa, as arbitrators. That said arbi- 
trators, or any two of them, shall hear and determine the matters in 
dispute between us, and award the payment of all the costs and 
expenses incurred in such arbitration. That the said arbitrators 
shall make their award in writing on or before the tenth day of 
January, A. D. 1883. Done at Villisca, Iowa, December 1, A. D. 


T. S. WALLET. \ Wltne88es - SIMON J. GROVER. 

Form for Special Arbitration. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That we, the undersigned, 
are partners doing business under the firm-name of Welch & Grover, 
at Villisca, Iowa, and are about to dissolve our partnership. That a 
controversy exists between us concerning the settlement of the firm 
business, and the business transactions and claims by and between 
us, subsequent to the twelfth day of June, A. D. 1882. That we 
hereby mutually agree to submit these matters in difference between 

us to' the determination and award of, etc. (As in the form of gen- 
eral submission, to the end. ) 

[Other special grievances may be embodied in a similar form. ]* 

Bond for Submission to Arbitration. 

Each party in dispute executes this bond to the other, so that 
both are equally bound to submit to the award of their chosen 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That I, Merrick Welch (or 
Simon J. Grover), of the town of Villisca, in the county of Montgomery, 
and State of Iowa, am held and firmly bound to Simon J. Grover (or 
Merrick Welch) in the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, for the payment 
of which I bind myself and my legal representatives by these presents. 

The condition of this obligation is: That if the above bounden 
Merrick Welch (or Simon J. Grover), or his legal representatives 
shall submit, perform, and comply with the award, determination, 
judgment and orders of Edward Blair, Edgar R. Stimpson and 
Robert Merritt, the arbitrators named and selected by the said 
Merrick Welch and Simon J. Grover to award, determine, judge and 
order of and concerning the controversy existing between them, as 
partners, as to the settlement of the firm business and the business- 
transactions and claims by and between them subsequent to the 
twelfth day of June, A. D. 1882 (with power to award payment 
of costs and expenses incurred in said arbitration), then this obliga- 
tion shall be void ; otherwise it shall remain in full force. 

Sealed with my seal and dated this first day of December, 1882. 




Sometimes the limitations of the time in which the arbitration 
award shall be made is embodied in the bond, as well as in the 
agreement of submission to the arbitration. 

Form of Notice to Arbitrators. 


GENTLEMEN You have been chosen arbitrators on behalf of the 
undersigned, to arbitrate and award between them, in such matters 
and things as set forth in their submission, which will be open to 
your inspection when you meet at the Runals House, in the village of 
Villisca, Iowa, on the second day of January, A. D. 1883, at ten 
o'clock in the forenoon, to hear the allegations and proofs of 
Yours, etc., 


Dated at Villisca, Iowa, this fifteenth day of December, A. D. 

From of Subpoena of Witness. 

The people of the State of Iowa, to Edmund W. Thomas and 
Samuel M. West: You, and each of you, are commanded personally 
to appear and attend at the Runals house, in the village of Villisca, 
in Montgomery county, Iowa, on the second day of January, A. D. 
1883, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, before Edward Blair, Edgar R. 
Stimpson and Robert Merritt, of Villisca, arbitrators chosen to 
determine a controversy between Merrick Welch and Simon J. 
Grover, then and there to testify as a witness in relation thereto, 
before said arbitrators, on the part of the said Merrick Welch. 
Hereof fail not at your peril. Given under my hand, this twenty- 
sixth day of December, A. D. 1882. 

ERICK LARSON, Justice of the Peace. 

It is customary to allow fees to arbitrators for their services 
equal to those given referees appointed by courts of law to de- 
termine cases. 

Form of Arbitrators' Oath. 

Before entering upon their duties, the arbitrators should, if 
required by law or the submission, go before a judge of some court 
of record, or a justice of the peace, and make oath as follows: 

You do severally swear, faithfully and fairly to hear and examine 
the matters in controversy between Merrick Welch, of the one part, 
and Simon J. Grover, of the other part, and to make a just award 
according to the best of your understanding. So help you God. 

The arbitrators can administer the oath to witnesses before them, 
in the usual form of courts of law, when they are acting under 
the order of a court or statute. 

General Form for the Arbitrators' Award. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that we, the undersigned, 
arbitrators of all matters in difference, of every kind, name and 

nature, between Merrick Welch and Simon J. Grover, by virtue of 
their agreement of submission of said matters, dated at Villisca, Iowa, 
on the first day of December, A. D. 1882, do award, order, judge and 
determine of and concerning the same as follows: 

1. That, etc. 1 Plainly setting forth each point of difference be- 

2. That, etc. I tween the parties, and the decision reached by the 

3. That, etc. [ arbitrators on each item, in accordance with law 

4. That, etc. I and equity, and with the testimony presented. 

In witness whereof, we have, in the presence of each other, here- 
unto set our hands this third day of January, A. D. 1883. 




Special Form of the Arbitrators' Award. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that we, the undersigned, 
arbitrators of the controversy existing between Merrick Welch and 
Simon J. Grover, partners, doing business at Villisca, Montgomery 
county, Iowa, under the firm- name of Welch & Grover, relative to 
a settlement of their firm business, and especially of the business 
transactions by and between them since the twelfth day of June, 
A. D. 1882, by virtue'bf their' submission to us of the settlement of 
said matters, dated at Villisca, Iowa, on the first day of December, 
A. D. 1882, do award, judge and determine of and concerning the 
same as follows: 

1. That the said partners are each equally liable for one-half of 
the indebtedness of said firm. 

2. That each of said partners is fully entitled to receive one-half 
of all profits accruing to their said business, if any there be, since 
the twelfth day of June, A. D. 1882. 

3. That the copartnership heretofore existing between the said 
Welch and Grover be, and hereby is, fully dissolved from and after 
the date hereof. 

4. That John Allen, of Villisca, Iowa, merchant, is hereby 
appointed and confirmed a receiver to take charge of all accounts 
and evidences of debt of said firm, and to sell to the best advantage, 
for cash, within one year, all the real estate and personal property of 
every kind, held and owned by said partners. 

5. That the money realized from the sales of the said property by 
the receiver of the said firm shall be discreetly used only for the 
payment of the indebtedness of said firm of Welch & Grover, until 
the expiration of two years from this date, at which time the surplus 
funds arising from such sales, and remaining after the indebtedness 
of the said firm, is all paid (if any such surplus shall exist), shall be 
equally divided between said partners by the said receiver. 

6. That the promissory note executed June 15, A. D. 1882, by the 
said Merritt Welch to the said Simon J. Grover, for the sum of One 
Thousand Dollars, which was given as a collateral security in a con- 
tingency which we, the said arbitrators, find did never exist, is 
declared void and uncollectable for want of a proper consideration 

In witness whereof, we have, in the presence of each other, here- 
unto set our hands the third day of January, A. D. 1883. 





ASSIGNMENT is the act which transfers 
the title to a right of property. The 
act may be by words, accompanied by de- 
livery of the thing assigned, or may be in 

Corporations, legally existing, may lawfully 
assign their interest in papers or property to 
other corporations, or to individuals. 

The writing by which ownership is thus trans- 
ferred is called an assignment. 



An assignor is one who transfers his interest, 
right or title to another. 

An assignee is one to whom a transfer is made. 

Certain assignments must be in writing, as 
transfers of real estate. 

All assignments relating to lands and tene- 
ments must be properly signed, sealed, acknowl- 
edged and recorded, like a deed. 

The usual phrase in making an assignment is 
"assign, transfer and set over;" but the words, 
"give, grant, bargain and sell," will constitute 
an assignment. 

Where property of any kind is assigned for the 
benefit of creditors, its immediate delivery to the 
assignee is required. 

An assignment may convey the whole property 
absolutely, or in trust, or only an equitable right 
to the benefit of it, the legal title remaining in 
the assignor. 

An assignment for the benefit of creditors may 
be at common law, or under a statute. At com- 
mon law the assignor may prefer creditors. By 
statute he can not. 

An assignment for the benefit of creditors must 
provide that the property be turned into cash and 
divided amongst creditors, and must not reserve 
any benefit to the assignor. Such an assignment 
should be of all the assignor's property liable to 
and not exempt from execution. 

Under some insolvent and bankrupt acts, the 
adjudication itself that a person is a bankrupt 
transfers his property to the assignee. 

When insured property is sold, the policy 
should be assigned to the purchaser. This can 
only be done with the consent of the insurer, to 

A Simple Assignment. 

For value received, I hereby assign all my right, title and interest 
in the within contract to John Doe. Dated Chicago, November 17, 
A. D. 1882. 


Assignment of Wages. 

of Riverside, Cook county, and State of Illinois, in consideration of 
Fifty Dollars, the receipt of which I acknowledge, do hereby assign, 
transfer and set over to George Z. Bassett, of the same place, all 
claims and demands which I now have, and all which at any time 
between the date hereof and the seventeenth day of January next, 
A. D. 1883, I may or shall have against Cooper Donelson for all sums 

be indorsed on the policy. Forms for transfer of 
the policy and assent are usually printed on the 

No one except the person owning insured 
property at the time of the assignment can legally 
become the assignee of an insurance policy cov- 
ering it, and then the consent of the insurers to 
the transfer must be obtained. Legal assign- 
ments can be made of copyrights, contracts, 
deeds, mortgages, bonds, leases, notes, drafts, 
accounts, judgments, all claims for money or 
wages, insurance, corporation shares, etc. 

All property assigned must be distinctly 
described in the assignment, or the schedule 
attached thereto. 

Stock in incorporated companies is assigned by 
an assignment on the back of the certificate, and 
by a transfer on the stock-book. Forms for this 
purpose are usually printed on the back of the 

All assignments, except statutoiy, are con- 
tracts, and subject to the same law. 

Thus, an assignment at common law for the 
benefit of creditors needs the assent of the 
creditors to make it valid. 

Assignments for the benefit of creditors are 
now regulated by statute law in nearly every 

An assignment of a debt or note carries with 
it all collaterals and securities. 

A mortgage cannot be assigned without a 
transfer, at the same time, of the debt, note or 
bond. In addition, in some States, the land also 
should be conveyed as in the form below. 

of money due, or to become due to me, as engineer in his factory ; 
that I do hereby appoint and constitute said George Z. Bassett, and 
his assigns, my attorney irrevocable, to do and perform all acts, 
matters and things in the premises in like manner, and to all intents 
and purposes, as I could if personally present. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this seventeenth 
day of November, A. D. 1882. 


[The above form is proper for all assignments of rights. ] 

Form of Assignment of a Mortgage. 

Cooper, of the town of Aurora, in Kane county, and State of Illinois, 
on the fifth day of August, A. D. 1881, by his deed of mortgage of 



that date, for the consideration of One Thousand Dollar?, did grant, 
bargain, sell and convey unto me, Cameron Smith, of Chicago, in 
Cook county and State of Illinois, my heirs and assigns, all and 
singular the real estate (minutely described) ; to have and to hold 
the same to me, the said Cameron Smith, my heirs and assigns, for- 
ever, upon condition (here insert the conditions of the mortgage). 
Now, therefore, I, the said Cameron Smith, in consideration of the 
sum of One Thousand Dollars, to me in hand paid before the ensealing 
hereof, do by these presents sell, assign, transfer, and set over unto 
William Anderson, of Aurora, in Kane county and State of Illinois, 
his heirs and assigns, forever, the mortgage, debt, notes, and bonds, 
and the said (premises or property), to have and to hold the same to 
him, the said William Anderson, his heirs and assigns, forever, as 
fully, and in as ample a manner as I, the said Cameron Smith, my 
heirs or assigns, might hold and enjoy the same by virtue of the 
mortgage deed aforesaid, and not otherwise. 

And I do, for myself, my heirs, executors, and administrators, 
hereby authorize and empower the said William Anderson, his heirs, 
executors, and administrators, to receive to his and their own use the 
sum or sums mentioned in the condition of said deed whenever the 
same shall be tendered or paid to him, or them, by the said Donald 
Cooper, his heirs, executors, or administrators, agreeably thereto, 
and to discharge the said mortgage, or to take and pursue such other 
steps and means for recovery of the said sum or sums, with the 
interest, by the sale of the said mortgaged premises, or otherwise, as 
by law are provided, as fully to all intents and purposes as I, the 
said Cameron Smith, my heirs, executors, or administrators, might 
or could do. 

And I do, for myself, my heirs, executors, and administrators, 
covenant with the said William Anderson, his heirs and assigns, that 
I have good right to assign the said mortgage, debt, and premises as 

aforesaid, that there is now due thereon Dollars; and that he, the 

said William Anderson, shall and may have, hold, occupy, possess, and 
enjoy the same (subject, however, to the right of redemption, as by 
law in such cases is provided), against the lawful claim of all per- 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 
eighteenth day of November, A. D. 1882. 

In presence of j 


[ The above should be acknowledged the same as a deed. ] 

Form of Assignment of a Lease. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That I, Jacob Spencer, of 
Chicago, in Cook county, and State of Illinois, for and in considera- 
tion of Two Hundred Dollars, to me duly paid by George J. Watson, 
of the same city, county and State, do by these presents grant, con- 
vey, assign, transfer and set over unto said George J. Watson a cer- 
tain instrument of lease, bearing date the first day of May, A. D. 
1882, executed by Andrew Knox, of the same city, county and State, 
to me for a term of two years, reserving unto said Andrew Knox the 
yearly rent of One Hundred and Eight Dollars, payable monthly. 

That this assignment shall take effect on the first day of November, 
A. D. 1882, to continue during all the remainder of said term of two 
years, subject, nevertheless, to the rents, covenants, conditions and 
provisions in said lease mentioned. 

That I do covenant, promise and agree, that I, Jacob Spencer 
aforesaid, am now in the full enjoyment and possession of said 
premises, and that they are now free and clear of all assessments, 
assignments, back- rents, bargains, demands, taxes, and all other 
encumbrances tending to disturb the peaceful enjoyment of said 
premises by the said George J. Watson during the unexpired term of 
this said lease. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 
eighteenth day of September, A. D. 1882. 

In presence of 



Assignment of an Insurance Policy. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That having sold and con- 
veyed the insured property within mentioned to George M. Porter, 
of Evanston, Cook county and State of Illinois, his heirs and assigns 
forever, I do hereby, for and in consideration of the sum of One 
Dollar, to me in hand paid by the said George M. Porter, assign and 
transfer the within policy of insurance to him, his executors, admin- 
istrators, and assigns; and the said George M. Porter, by subscribing 
this assignment, makes himself responsible for all the agreements 
to which I have bound myself by the within policy. 

Witness our hands and seals, at Chicago, Cook county and State of 
Illinois, this twenty-first day of November, A. D. 1882. 

Signed, sealed and delivered "| 
in presence of 



Assignment of Stock of Railroad and Other Corporations. 

Sycamore, De Kalb county, and State of Illinois, for and in consider- 
ation of Ten Thousand Dollars, to me duly paid by Mortimer M. 
Elliott, of Aurora, Kane county, and State of Illinois, do hereby 
assign, convey, transfer and set over unto said Mortimer M. Elliott 
all my right, title and interest in the shares, scrip and capital stock 
and property of the corporation and concern known as the Pullman 
& Burlington Railroad company, which company has its place of 
business at Chicago, in Cook county, and State of Illinois. And I 
further covenant and agree to and with the said Mortimer M. Elliott, 
his executors, administrators, and assigns, that, at the request of him 
or them, I and my executors, administrators and assigns, shall and 
will at all times hereafter*execnte any instrument that may be neces- 
sary to vest completely in him or them all my rights, title and 
interest to said property, scrip and stock, and to enable him or them 
to possess, control, enjoy and transfer all the property and choses in 
action herein assigned, or intended to be assigned. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto affix my hand and seal, at Sycamore, 
De Kalb county, and State of Illinois, this twenty-first day of Novem- 
ber, A. D. 1883. 

Signed, sealed and delivered 
in presence of 

T?n<;<5 ?',"""? 

>SS ' 

Form of Assignment of a Patent. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That in consideration of 
One Thousand Dollars, to me in hand paid by Norman Endicott, of 
the city of Rochester, in the county of Genesee, and State of New 
York, I do hereby sell and assign to the said Norman Endicott all my 
right, title and interest in and to the letters patent of the United 
States, No. 100,000, for an improvement in hydraulic engines, granted 
to me September twenty-one, A. D. 1882, the same to be held and 
enjoyed by the said Norman Endicott to the full end of the term for 
which said letters patent are granted, as fully and entirely as the 
same would have been held and enjoyed by me if this assignment 
and sale had not been made. 

Witness my hand and seal this twenty-first day of November, 
A. D. 1882, at the city of Buffalo, in the county of Erie, and State 
of New York. 

In presence of 



Form of Assignment of the Copyright of a Book. 

KNOW ALL _MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That in consideration of 
the sum of Three Thousand Dollars, to me in hand paid by Josiah 
Allen and Joshua Billings, partners and publishers, doing business 
at Boston, in the county of Suffolk, and State of Massachusetts,. I do 
hereby sell and assign the copyright heretofore taken out by me for 



the book entitled "Cottage Papers: A Literary Miscellany for All 
Ages," of which I am the author and proprietor, the certificate of 
which copyright is annexed to this assignment, with all my literary 
property, right, title and interest in and to said book, and all the 
profit, benefit, or advantage that shall or may arise from printing, pub- 
lishing and vending the same in all the States and Territories of the 
United States of America, to hold and enjoy the same during the 
full end and term for which the said copyright has been issued. 

In witness whereof, at Chicago, in Cook county, and State of 
Illinois, I have hereunto affixed my hand and seal this twenty-first 
day of November, A. D. 1882. 

In presence of j 



NOTE. To the foregoing assignment must be securely fastened 
either the original, or a properly certified copy, of the certificate of 
copyright for said book, issued by the librarian of Congress at 

Assignments of patent and copyrights should be acknowledged and 
recorded in the patent office, Washington, D. C. 

Assignment by a Debtor, for the Benefit of His Creditors. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that this assignment, made 
this twenty-first day of November, A. D. 1882, by Norton Norris, 
of Salamanca, in the county of Gregory, and State of Tennessee, 
dealer in general merchandise, of the first part, and Hiram Hunt, of 
the same place, of the second part, and the several persons, creditors 
of the said party of the first part, who have executed or shall here- 
after execute or accede to these presents, of the third part, witnesseth : 

That whereas the said party of the first part is justly indebted in 
considerable sums of money, and has become unable to pay and dis- 
charge the same with punctuality, or in full ; and that he, the said 
Norris Norton, is now desirous of making a fair and equitable distri- 
bution of his property and effects among his creditors: Now, 
therefore, the said party of the first part, in consideration of the 
premises, and of the sum of One Dollar, to him in hand paid by the 
party of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, 
has bargained, granted and sold, released, assigned, transferred, and 
set over and by these presents does grant, bargain and sell, release, 
assign, transfer, and set over unto the said party of the second part, 
and to his heirs and assigns forever, all and singular, his lands 
tenements, hereditaments, goods, chattels and choses in action, of 
every name, nature and description, wheresoever the same may be, 
more particularly enumerated and described in the schedule hereunto 
annexed, marked "Schedule 1," excepting and reserving such 
property only as is exempted by law* from attachment; to have and to 
hold the same unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and 
assigns; but in trust and confidence, nevertheless, to sell and dis- 
pose of the said real and personal estate, and to collect the said 

choses in action, and sell and dispose oi the same for cash upon 
such terms and conditions as in his judgment may appear best, 
and most for the interest of the parties concerned, making sales 
thereof for cash or on credit, at public auction, or by private con- 
tract, and with the right to compound for the said choses in action, 
accepting a part of the value thereof for the whole, where the trustee 
shall deem it expedient so to do; and then, in trust, to dispose of 
the proceeds of the said property in the manner following, to wit: 

First. To pay all such debts as by the laws of the United States 
are entitled to a preference in such cases. 

Second. To pay and discharge all the just and reasonable expenses, 
costs and charges of executing this assignment, and of carrying into 
effect the trust hereby created, including the lawful commissions of 
the party of the second part for his services in executing the said 

Third. To distribute and pay the remainder of said proceeds to the 
creditors of the said party of the first part, for all debts and liabilities 
which he may owe, or for which he may lawfully be held responsible, 
to any person whomsoever; provided, that should the proceeds aris- 
ing from the sale of his assets not be sufficient to pay all his indebt- 
edness, then the said debts are to be paid ratably and in proportion. 

Fourth. The residue and remainder of the proceeds of said sales 
and disposal of the assets of the party of the first part, if any there 
be, after paying all his debts in full, shall be repaid to him, the said 
party of the first part, his executors, administrators or assigns. 

And the party of the first part, for the better execution of these 
presents, and of the several trusts hereby reposed, does hereby make, 
nominate and appoint the said party of the second part, and his 
executors, administrators and assigns, his true and lawful attorney 
irrevocable, with full power and authority to do, transact and perform 
all acts, deeds, matters and things which can or may be necessary in 
the premises, as fully and completely as the said party of the first 
part might or could do, were these presents not executed ; and also 
for the purposes aforesaid, or for any of them, to make, constitute 
and appoint one or more attorneys under him, and at his pleasure to 
revoke the same ; hereby ratifying and confirming whatever the said 
party of the second part, or his substitute, shall lawfully do in the 

And the party of the second part, hereby accepting these trusts, 
covenants to and with each of the other parties hereto, to execute the 
same faithfully ; and that this covenant shall be as binding upon his 
executors, administrators and assigns as it is upon himself. 

In witness whereof the parties to these presents have hereunto set 
their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
In presence of j 

Creditors assent by proving their debts or filing the same with the 
assignee. As it conveys real estate, it should be acknowledged and 
recorded as a deed. 



f HE WORD BAIL, in law, has very much 
the same meaning as "guaranty," and is 
a voucher by a competent person, or 
persons, that another person will perform a duty 
required by the civil authority. 

The effect of such a voucher, or guaranty, is 
to temporarily set free, liberate, or release from 
custody a person, or persons, charged with the 
infraction of some public law. 

In law, such a guaranty is called a recogniz- 
ance, the surety being the bailor, and the pris- 
oner the bailee. 

The bailor usually engages, under the penalty 
of paying a certain sum of money, in case of 
forfeiture, that the bailee will be present and 
submit himself peaceably to the court whenever 
his trial or examination is appointed, and 
patiently abide the issue thereof. 



In case a prisoner who has been bailed out of 
custody does not appear for trial at the time 
specified in the bail-bond, the surety forfeits 
whatever sum is thereby pledged. 

Bail in civil transactions is seldom required. 
Guaranty Forms and Letters of Credit, elsewhere 
explained, appear to have superseded the neces- 
sity and practice of these obligations. 

Recognizance for Further Examination. 


County of Cook, ( This day personally appeared before the 
undersigned, a justice of the peace in and for said county, Henry 
Carter, George R. Brown and James T. White, all of Chicago, in 
said county and State, and jointly and severally acknowledged them- 
selves to be indebted unto the people of the State of Illinois, in the 
sum of Five Hundred Dollars, to be levied of their goods and chat- 
tels, lands and tenements. 

WHEREAS, the above bounden Henry Carter, on the thirtieth day of 
December, A. D. 1882, was brought and examined by and before 
Horace Donohue, a justice of the peace in and for the connty afore- 
said, on a charge preferred against the said Henry Carter, for stealing 
Fifty Dollars from the store of Julius Wright, in said county, and the 
further examination of said Henry Carter having been continued to 
the tenth day of January, A. D. 1883, at ten o'clock A. M. , and the said 
Henry Carter having been adjudged and required by the said justice 

to give bonds, as required by the statute in such case made and pro- 
vided, for his appearance to answer to said charge. Now the condi- 
tion of this recognizance is such that if the above-bounden Henry 
Carter shall be and appear before the undersigned, at the Third 
District Police court- room, in the city of Chicago, in said county, 
on the tenth day of January, A. D. 1883, at ten o'clock A.M., then 
and there to answer to the said people of the State of Illinois, on 
said charge, and abide the order and judgment of said court, and not 
depart the same without leave, then and in that case this recognizance 
to become void, otherwise to be and remain in full force and virtue. 

As witness our hands and seals .this thirtieth day of December, 
A. D. 1882. 
Taken, entered into and ~| 

acknowledged before HENRY CARTER, -(SEAL)- 

me, this thirtieth day I 

of December, 1882. f GEORGE R. BROWN, -(SEAL)- 

Justice of the Peace. I JAMES T. WHITE. -(SEAL)- 


felLLS OF SALE are written evidences of 
agreements by which parties transfer to 
Bothers, for a consideration, all their right, 
title and interest in personal property. 

The ownership of personal property, in law, 
is considered changed by the delivery of such 
property to the purchaser; though in some States, 
without delivery, a bill of sale is good evidence 
of ownership, even against creditors, provided 

the sale was not fraudulently made for the pur- 
pose of avoiding the payment of debts. 

Juries have power to determine the fairness 
or unfairness of a sale, and upon evidence of 
fraud such bill of sale will be ignored and de- 
clared void. 

Any form of words, importing that the seller 
transfers to the buyer the title to personal prop- 
erty, is a bill of sale. 

Common Form of Bill of Sale. 

KNOW ALL MEN by this instrument, that I, Philetus Howe, of 
Middlebury, Vermont, of the first part, for and in consideration of 
Four Hundred and Fifty Dollars, to me paid by Charles Rose, of the 
same place, of the second part, the receipt whereof is hereby ac- 
knowledged, have sold, and by this instrument do convey unto the said 
Rose, party of the second part, his executors, administrators and 
assigns, my undivided half of twenty acres of grass, now growing on 
the farm of Lorenzo Pease, in the town above mentioned ; one pair of 
mules, ten swine, and three cows, belonging to me and in my posses- 
sion at the farm aforesaid ; to have and to hold the same unto the par- 
ty of the second part, his executors and assigns, forever. And I do, 
for myself and legal representatives, agree with the said party of the 
second part, and his legal representatives, to warrant and defend the 
sale of the afore -mentioned property and chattels unto the said party- 
of the second part, and his legal representatives, against all and every 
person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand this tenth 
day of June, one thousand eight hundred and seventy. 


Bill of Sale of Personal Property. 

KNOW ALLMEN by these presents, that I, John T. Hall, of Mont- 
gomery, Alabama, planter, in consideration of Six Hundred and 

Sevcnty-FiveDollars ($675) to me in hand paid by Oscar D. Scott, of 
Montgomery, Albany, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, 
do hereby bargain, sell, and deliver unto the said Oscar D. Scott the 
following property, to wit: 

Four mules @ $125 $500 

Two sets Harness @ 20 40 

Two Farm Wagons @ 35 70 

One Corn-Planter @ 20 20 

Three Plows @ 15 45 

Total $675 

To have and to hold the said goods and chattels unto the said Oscar D. 
Scott, his executors, administrators, and assigns, to his own proper 
use and benefit, forever. And I, the said John T. Hall, do avow 
myself to be the true and lawful owner of said goods and chattels ; 
that I have full power, good right, and lawful authority to dispose of 
said goods and chattels in manner as aforesaid ; and that I will, and 
my heirs, executors, and administrators shall warrant and defend 
the said bargained goods and chattels unto the said Oscar D. Scott, 
his executors, administrators, and assigns, from and against the law- 
ful claims and demands of all persons. 

In witness whereof, I, the said John T. Hall, have hereto set my 
hand this first day of April, in the year of our Lord eighteen hun- 
dred and seventy-three. 





}ILLS OF LADING are accounts in writing 
of merchandise shipped from one place to 
another, by any person, on board of an 
ocean or lake vessel, or on a railroad car, signed 
by the master of the vessel, or an officer of a 
freight line or a railroad company, who thus 

acknowledges the receipt of the goods, and 
agrees to deliver them safely at the place to which 
they are sent. One bill of lading is kept by the 
shipper, one by the party transporting the goods, 
and one is sent to the person to whom the goods 
are directed. The following shows form of bill: 



GEO B. EDWARDS, Eastern Manager, Pittsburgh, Pa. D. S. GRAY, Western Manager, Columbus, Ohio. 

W. W. CHANDLER, General Agent, 

N. W. Corner Dearborn and Washington Streets, Chicago, 111. 


New York. 

This Bill of Lading 


Chicago, 111., 

The Eate of Freight Through is to be 

per 100 Ibs. 


Chicago, 111., 

Received from 

the following packages (contents and value unknown,) in apparent good order, viz. 

Marked and numbered as in the margin, to be transported by the Union Line, and the steamboats, rail- 
road companies and forwarding lines with which it connects, on the following terms and conditions, viz. : 
It being expressly understood and agreed, That the Union Line reserves the right, in consideration 
of issuing a through bill of lading, and guaranteeing a through rate, to forward said goods by any railroad 
line between points of shipment and destination. 

It is further agreed That the rates given on bulk freight are given on the understanding that not less 
than 24,000 pounds will be loaded in each car, and that such minimum weight may, at the option of this 
line, be charged for, whether that quantity is placed in the car or not. 

It is further agreed That all weight in excess of 30,000 Ibs. per car will be charged double the rate 
named in this bill of lading. 

It is further agreed That the said Union Line, and the steamboats, railroad companies and forward- 
ing lines with which it connects, and which receives said property, shall not be liable for leakage of oils 
or any kind of liquids ; breakage of any kind of glass, earthen or queensware, carboys of acids, or articles 
packed in glass, stoves and stove furniture, castings, machinery, carriages, furniture, musical instruments 
of any kind, packages of eggs; or for rust of iron and of iron articles; or for loss or damage by wet, dirt, 

__1 fire or loss of weight ; or for condition of baling in hay, hemp or cotton ; nor for loss or damage of any 

kind on any articles whose bulk requires it to be carried on open cars; nor for damage to perishable 

property of any kind, occasioned by delays from any cause, or by change of weather; nor for loss or damage on any article of property what- 
ever, by fire or other casualty, while in transit, or while in depots or places of transhipment, or at depots or landings at point of delivery; nor 
for loss or damage by fire, collision, or the dangers of navigation while on seas, rivers, lakes or canals. All goods or property under this bill 
of lading will be subject, at its owner's cost, to necessary cooperage or baling, and is to be transported to the depots of the companies or land- 
ing of the steamboats or forwarding lines, at the point receipted to, for delivery. 

It is further agreed That unless this bill of lading, properly indorsed, be delivered to the agent of the Union Line at destination, on or 
before the arrival thereof the herein-above-described property, the said line is authorized to deliver the said property to the consignee, or 
to the party to whose care it is, by this bill of lading, consigned; and after such delivery, the said line shall be no longer responsible for or on 
account of any assignment or transfer thereof. 

[ The claims relating to the time when the liability of the Union Line ceases, and the responsibility of shippers as to costs and charges, omitted.*] 
It is further stipulated and agreed That in case of any loss, detriment, or damage, done to or sustained by any of the property herein 
receipted for during such transportation, whereby any legal liability or responsibility shall or may be incurred, that company alone shall be held 
answerable therefor in whose actual custody the same may be at the time of the happening of such loss, detriment, or damage, and the carrier 
so liable shall have the full benefit of any insurance that may have been effected upon or on account of said goods. 

And it is further agreed That the amount of the loss or damage so accruing, so far as it shall fall upon the carriers above described, shall 
be computed at the value or cost of said goods or property at the place and time of shipment under this bill of lading, unless the value of 
the articles has been agreed upon with the shipper, or so determined by the classification upon which the rates are based. 
It is further agreed That all weights furnished by shippers are subject to corrections. 

This contract is executed and accomplished, and the liability of the companies, as common carriers thereunder, terminates on the arrival 
of the goods or property at the station or depot of delivery (and the companies will be liable as warehousemen only thereafter), and unless 
removed by the consignee from the stations or depots of delivery within twenty-four hours of their said arrival, they may be removed and 
stored by the companies, at the owner's expense and risk. 
NOTICE In accepting this bill of lading, the shipper or other agent of the owner of the property carried, expressly accepts and agrees to 

all its stipulations, exceptions and conditions. 

W. W. CHANDLER, Agrent. 



BOND is a written admission of an obliga- 
tion on the part of the maker, whereby 
he pledges himself to pay a certain sum 
of money to another person or persons, at a 
certain specified time, for some real consider- 

The person giving the bond is termed the 
obligor; the person receiving the same is called 
the obligee. 

A bond, as defined above, is a single bond; 
but generally conditions are added to the bond, 
whereby the person giving the same must per- 
form some specific act or acts, in which case the 
bond becomes void; otherwise it remains in full 
force and effect. 

The penalty attached to the bond is usually 
sufficient to cover debt, interest, and costs, be- 
ing generally placed at a sum twice the amount 

Common Form of Bond. 

KNOW ALL MEN by this instrument, that I, Jonas Clayton, of Wil- 
mington, Hanover County, State of North Carolina, am firmly bound 
unto Henry Morse of the place aforesaid, in the sum of One Thousand 
Dollars, to be paid to the said Henry Morse, or his legal representa- 
tives; to which payment, to be made, I bind myself or my legal 
representatives, by this instrument. 

Sealed with my seal, and dated this first day of July, one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-three. 

The condition of this bond is such that, if I, Jonas Clayton, my 
heirs, administrators, or executors, shall promptly pay the sum of 
five hundred dollars in three equal annual payments from the date 
hereof, with annual interest, then the above obligation to be of no 
effect; otherwise to be in full force and valid. 

Signed, sealed and de- | 

livered in presence of f JONAS CLAYTON. f"'s3 


Bond of Cashier of a Bank. 

KNOW ALL MEN by this instrument, that I, Nathaniel Howard, of 
San Antonio, County of Bexar, and State of Texas, am firmly 
bound to the First National Bank corporation of said town, county, 
and State, in the sum of One Hundred Thousand Dollars, to be paid 
to the First National Bank corporation, or assigns, aforementioned : 
for which payment I bind myself, my heirs, executors, and admin- 
istrators by this instrument. 

Sealed with my seal, and dated this third day of February, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two. 

Whereas, the above bounden Nathaniel Howard has been appointed 
cashier of the First National Bank of San Antonio, aforementioned, 
by reason whereof various sums of money, goods, valuables, and 
other property, belonging to said Bank corporation, will come into 
his custody; 

Therefore, the condition of the above bond is such, that, if the 
said Nathaniel Howard, his executors or administrators, at the expi- 
ration of his time of service to said bank, upon request to him or 

of the real debt, the fact being stated that such 
penalty is the sum fixed upon as liquidated or 
settled damages, in event of failure to meet 
payments according to the conditions of the 

The bond may be so drawn as to have the 
penalty attach and appertain to either the obli- 
gor or obligee. 

Though, under ordinary circumstances, the 
bond is in full effect, yet an act of Providence, 
whereby its accomplishment is rendered impos- 
sible, relieves the party obligated from an en- 
forcement of the penalty. 

Action on such instrument must be brought 
within twenty years after right of action ac- 
crues, or within such time as provided by the 
statutes of the different States. 

them made, shall deliver unto the said bank corporation or their 
agent, or their attorney, a correct account of all sums of money, 
goods, valuables, and other property, as it comes into his custody, as 
cashier of said bank, and shall pay and deliver to his successor in 
office, or any other person authorized to receive the same, all bal- 
ances, sums of money, goods, valuables, and other property, which 
shall be in his hands, and due by him to said bank corporation ; and 
if the said Nathaniel Howard shall justly, honestly, and faithfully, 
in all matters, serve the said bank corporation as cashier, during his 
continuance in such capacity, then the above obligation to be of no 
effect ; otnerwise to remain valid and in full force. 

Signed, sealed and delivered "I 

in presence of > NATHANIEL HOWARD. 


Bond to a Corporation. 

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, that I, Cornelius Burr, of 
West Chester, Chester county, State of Pennsylvania, am firmly 
bound unto the Chester County Beet-Sugar Manufacturing Company, 
in the sum of Twenty Thousand Dollars, to be paid to the said com- 
pany, or their assigns, for which payment to be made, I bind myself 
and representatives firmly by these presents. 

Sealed with my seal, and dated this first day of August, eighteen 
hundred and seventy. 

The condition of the above bond is such that, if I, the said Corne- 
lius Burr, my heirs, administrators, or assigns, shall pay unto the 
said Chester County Beet-Sugar Manufacturing Company, or assigns, 
Ten Thousand Dollars, in two equal payments, viz. : Five Thousand 
Dollars January first, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, and Five 
Thousand Dollars July first next following, with accrued interest, 
then the above to be void; otherwise to remain in full force and 
Signed, sealed and deO 

livered in presence of > CORNELIUS BURR. 





\ HEN THKEE or more individuals obtain 
from government the authority to act 
as one by their officers, with perpetual 
succession, and under a name selected for them, 
they become a corporation, with the right to 
transact the business for which it was organized 
in the same manner as an individual. 

When legally organized, the corporation, in a 
limited way, becomes a person and a citizen. 
The advantages of incorporation are these: It 
combines capital, knowledge and enterprise, with 
a limited pecuniary responsibility, which is gen- 
erally the amount of stock owned by a person. 

The powers possessed by a corporation are 
either granted or implied. 

The granted powers are such as the constitu- 
tion, laws and act of incorporation of the State 
give it. 

The implied powers are such as are usual, 
proper and necessary to carry into effect the 
objects of the corporation and its granted 



in law, "words importing the plural number 
may include the singular;" so the United States 
statutes provide that "the word person may 
extend and be applied to partnerships and cor- 
porations." They also provide that "the word 
company or association, when used in reference 
to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the 
words, successors and assigns of such company 
or association," the same as if these words had 
been definitely expressed. 


No officer or agent of any banking or other 
commercial corporation, and no member of any 
mercantile or trading firm, or person directly or 
indirectly interested in the pecuniary profits or 
contracts of such corporation or firm, shall be 
employed or shall act as an officer or agent of 
the United States for the transaction of business 
with such corporation or firm; and every such 

officer, agent, or member, or person, so inter- 
ested, who so acts, shall be imprisoned not more 
than two years, and fined not more than two 
thousand dollars, nor less than five hundred 


The legislature of each State enjoys the right 
to regulate the organization of busin