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I LIBRARY 

1 OF THE 

University of California, 






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MANUAL OF STYLE 



MANUAL OF STYLE 



BEING A COMPILATION OF THE TYPOGRAPHICAL RULES 
IN FORCE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 



TO WHICH ARE APPENDED 

SPECIMENS OF TYPES IN USE 



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CHICAGO 
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

1906 



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Copyright 1906 By 
The University of Chicago 



Published November 1906 



Composed and Printed By 

The University of Chicago Press 

Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. 



m 



PREFACE 

The present work is a codification of the typographical 
rules and practices in force at the University of Chicago 
Press. Having its genesis, more than a decade ago, in a 
single sheet of fundamentals, jotted down at odd moments 
for the individual guidance of the first proofreader ; added 
to from year to year, as opportunity would offer or new 
necessities arise; revised and re-revised as the scope of 
the work, and, it is hoped, the wisdom of the workers, 
increased — it emerges in its present form as the embodi- 
ment of traditions, the crystalHzation of usages, the blended 
product of the reflections of many minds. 

Rules and regulations such as these, in the nature of 
the case, cannot be endowed with the fixity of rock-ribbed 
law. They are meant for the average case, and must be 
applied with a certain degree of elasticity. Exceptions 
will constantly occur, and ample room is left for individual 
initiative and discretion. They point the way and survey 
the road, rather than remove the obstacles. Throughout 
this book it is assumed that no regulation contained therein 
is absolutely inviolable. Wherever the peculiar nature of 
the subject-matter, the desirabiUty of throwing into relief 
a certain part of the argument, the reasonable preference 
of a writer, or a typographical contingency suggests a 
deviation, such deviation may legitimately be made. Each 
case of this character must largely be decided upon its 



234226 



own merits. Generally it may be stated that, where no 
question of good taste or good logic is involved, defer- 
ence should be shown to the expressed wishes of the 
author. 

The nature of the work of The Press itself — and this 
will apply, to a greater or less extent, to any similar in- 
stitution affected by local conditions — constantly calls for 
modification, now of this rule, now of that. It would be 
found impracticable, even were it desirable, to bring all 
of its publications into rigid uniformity of ''style" and 
appearance. Methods have been devised, systems evolved, 
in certain lines of work, which cannot bodily be carried 
over into the field of others. Thus, in the matter of literary 
references, for instance, general practice has estabhshed 
certain usages in some of the sciences which it would not 
be advisable to ignore. Similar discrepancies may be ob- 
served in other directions. • These deviations will be found 
mentioned at the appropriate places in the body of the 
book. On the whole, however, the rules are designed to 
govern all publications sent forth with the imprint of this 
Press. 

Concerning the character and contents of the book 
Httle need be added. Its origin, its primary aim, and its 
limitations, as outlined above, will suggest the bounds of 
its usefulness. It does not pretend to be exhaustive; a 
few things must be taken for granted, and the traditional 
territory of the dictionary has only exceptionally been in- 
vaded. It does not presume to be inflexibly consistent; 
applicability, in the printing-office, is a better test than 
iron-clad consistency, and common-sense a safer guide 

vi 



than abstract logic. It lays no claim to perfection in any 
of its parts; bearing throughout the inevitable earmarks 
of compromise, it will not carry conviction at every point 
to everybody. Neither is it an advocate of any radical 
scheme of reform; in the present state of the agitation for 
the improvement of spelhng, progressive conservatism has 
been thought to be more appropriate for an academic 
printing-office than radicalism. As it stands, this Manual 
is believed to contain a fairly comprehensive, reasonably 
harmonious, and wholesomely practical set of work-rules 
for the aid of those whose duties bring them into direct 
contact with the Manufacturing Department of The Press. 
If, in addition to this its main object, this Manual oj Style 
may incidentally prove helpful to other gropers in the 
labyrinths of typographical style, its purpose will have 
been abundantly realized. 

August 15, 1906 



vu 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Rules for Composition i 

Capitalization 3 

The Use of Italics 21 

Quotations 25 

Spelling T ... 29 

Punctuation 39 

Divisions .68^ 

Footnotes 71 

Tabular Work 74 

Technical Terms 79 

Appendix 93 

Hints to Authors and Editors 95 

Hints to Proofreaders 99 

Hints to Copyholders 103 

Proofreader's Marks 106 

Index 107 

Specimens of Types in Use 123 



IX 



RULES FOR COMPOSITION 



CAPITALIZATION 

Capitalize — 

1. Proper nouns and adjectives: 

George, America, Englishman; Elizabethan, French (see 46). 

2. Generic terms forming a part of geographical names: 

Atlantic Ocean, Dead Sea, Baffin's Bay, Gulf of Mexico, 
Strait of Gibraltar, Straits Settlements, Mississippi River, 
Three Rivers, Laughing Brook, Rocky Mountains, Blue 
Hills, Pike's Peak, Mount of Olives, Great Desert, Death 
Valley, Prince Edward Island, Sea (Lake) of Galilee. 

But do not capitalize words of this class when simply 

added, by way of description, to the specific name, 

without forming an organic part of such name: 

the river Elbe, the desert of Sahara, the island of Madagascar. 

3. Adjectives and nouns, used singly or in conjunction, 

to distinguish definite regions or parts of the world : 

Old World, Western Hemisphere, North Pole, Equator, 
the North ( = Scandinavia), the Far East, Orient, Levant; the 
North, South, East, West (United States). 

But do not, as a rule, capitalize adjectives derived 
from such names, even if used substantively; nor 
nouns simply designating direction or point of com- 
pass: 

oriental customs, the orientals, southern states, a southerner 
(but: Northman = Scandinavian) ; an invasion of barbarians 
from the north, traveling through the south of Europe. 

3 



The University of Chicago Press 

4. Generic terms for political divisions: (i) when the 
term is an organic part of the name, following the 
proper name directly; (2) when, with the preposition 
*'of," it is used in direct connection with the proper 
name to indicate certain minor administrative sub- 
divisions in the United States; (3) when used singly 
as the accepted designation for a specific division; 
(4) when it is part of a fanciful or popular appel- 
lation used as if a real geographical name : 

(i) Holy Roman Empire, German Empire {=Deutsches 
Reich), French Republic {—Republique Frangaise), United 
Kingdom, Northwest Territory, Cook County, Evanston 
Township, Kansas City (New York City — exception); (2) 
Department of the Lakes, Town of Lake, Borough of Man- 
hattan; (3) the Union, the States, the Republic (= United 
States), [the Confederacy], the Dominion ( = Canada); (4) 
Celestial Empire (Celestials), Holy (Promised) Land, Badger 
State, Eternal City, Garden City. 

But do not (with the exceptions noted) capitaHze such 

terms when standing alone, nor when, with *'of," 

preceding the specific name : 

the empire, the state; empire of Russia, kingdom of Bel- 
gium, [kingdom of God, or of heaven], duchy of Anhalt, 
state of Illinois, county of Cook, city of Chicago. 

5. Numbered political divisions: 

Eleventh Congressional District, First Ward, Second Precinct. 

6. The names of thoroughfares, parks, squares, blocks, 
buildings, etc.: 



Manual oj Style: Capitalization 5 

Drexel Avenue, Ringstrasse, Via Appia, Chicago Drainage 
Canal; Lincoln Park; Trafalgar Square ; Monadnock Block ; 
Lakeside Building, Capitol, White House, County Hospital, 
Boston Public Library, New York Post-Office, British 
Museum, Theatre Franfais, Lexington Hotel, Masonic Temple, 
[Solomon's temple, but, when standing alone: the Temple]. 

But do not capitalize such general designations of 
buildings as "courthouse," "post-office," "library," 
etc., except in connection with the name of the place 
in which they are located. 

7. The names of poHtical parties, religious denomina- 
tions or sects, and philosophical, literary, and artistic 
schools, and their adherents : 

Republican, Conservative, National Liberal, Social Democ- 
racy (where, as in continental Europe, it is organized as 
a distinct parliamentary faction); Christian, Protestantism, 
Evangelical Lutheran, Cathohc (Papist, Ultramontane), Re- 
formed, Greek Orthodox, Methodism, Anabaptist, Seventh- 
Day Adventists, the Establishment, High Church (High 
Churchman), Christian Science, Theosophist, Jew (but: gen- 
tile), Pharisee (but: scribe); Epicurean, Stoic, Gnosticism, 
Neoplatonism, Literalist; the Romantic movement; the Sym- 
bolic school of painters. 

But do not capitaUze any of the above or similar 
words, or their derivatives, when used in their origi- 
nal or acquired general sense of pervading spirit, 
point of view, trend of thought, attitude of mind, or 
mode of action : 

republican form of government, a true democrat and a con- 
servative statesman, socialism as an economic panacea, the 



) The University of Chicago Press 

communistic theory, single-taxer, anarchism; catholicity of 
mind, puritanical ideas, evangelical spirit, nonconformist, 
dissenter; pharisaic superciliousness; deist, pantheism, ra- 
tionalist; epicurean tastes, stoic endurance, dualism and 
monism in present-day philosophy, an altruistic world- view; 
the classics, a realistic novel. 

8. The names of monastic orders and their members: 
Black Friars, Dominican, Jesuitism. 

9. The proper (official) titles of social, religious, educa- 
tional, political, commercial, and industrial organiza- 
tions and institutions: 

Union League Club, Knights Templar; Young People's f 
Society of Christian Endeavor, Associated Charities; Smith- 
sonian Institution, State University of Iowa, Hyde Park High 
School; the Commercial Academy (Handelsakademie) of 
Leipzig, the Paris Lyceum (Lycee de Paris); [the forty Im- 
mortals]; Civic Federation, Cook County Democracy, Tam- 
many Hall; Associated Press, Typographical Union No. 16; 
The Macmillan Company, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railroad. 

But do not capitalize such generic terms when used 1 

to designate a class; nor when standing alone, even 

if applied to a specific institution, except to avoid 

ambiguity: 

young people's societies, the high school at Lemont, local ^ 
typographical unions; the club, the association, the company; 
but: "He joined the Hall [Tammany]," "a member of the 
[French] Academy;" "The University announces . . . ." 
(see 42). 

10. The names of legislative, judiciary, and administra- 



Manual oj Style: Capitalization 7 

tive bodies and governmental departments, and their 
branches, when specifically apphed: 

Congress (Senate, House of Representatives [the House], 
Committee of Ways and Means), Parliament (House of 
Lords, House of Commons), Reichstag, Chamber of Deputies 
(the Chamber), General Assembly of Illinois, Chicago City 
Council, Board of Aldermen, South Park Commissioners; 
Supreme Court of the United States, Circuit Court of Cook 
County, [Sanhedrin]; Department of the Interior, Census 
Office, Springfield Board of Education, Department of Pub- 
lic Works. 

But do not capitalize such general, paraphrastic, or 

incomplete designations as — 

the national assembly, the legislature of the state, the upper 
house of Congress, the German federal parliament, the 
Dutch diet; the council, the department, the board. 

11. Ordinals used to designate Egyptian dynasties, 

sessions of Congress, names of regiments, and in 

similar connections: 

the Eighteenth Dynasty, the Fifty-third Congress, the Second 
Illinois Regiment Band. 

12. Commonly accepted appellations for historical 

epochs, periods in the history of a language or 

literature, and geological ages and strata: 

Stone Age, Middle Ages, Crusades, Renaissance, Reforma- 
tion, Inquisition, Commonwealth (Cromwell's), Commune 
« (Paris); Old English (OE — see no), Middle High German 
(MHG), the Age of Elizabeth; Pleistocene, Silurian, Lower 
Carboniferous. 



8 The University of Chicago Press 

13. Names for important events: 

Thirty Years' War, Peasants' War (German), Revolution 
(French), Revolutionary War or War of Independence 
(American), Whiskey Insurrection (American), Civil War 
(American), War of 181 2, Franco -Prussian War, Battle of 
Gettysburg; Peace of Utrecht, Louisiana Purchase. 

14. Political alliances, and such terms from secular or 
ecclesiastical history as have, through their associa- 
tions, acquired special significance as designations 
for parties, classes, movements, etc. (see 7) : 
Protestant League, Holy Alliance, Dreibund; the Roses, the 
Roundheads, Independents, Independency (English history). 

15. Conventions, congresses, expositions, etc.: 

Council of Nicaea, Parliament of Religions, Fifteenth Inter- 
national Congress of Criminology, Westminster Assembly, 
Chicago World's Fair, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 

16. Titlesof specific treaties, acts, laws (juridical), bills, etc. : 
Treaty of Verdun, Art. V of the Peace of Prague, Edict of 
Nantes, Concordat, the Constitution (of the United States, 
when standing alone, or when referred to as a literary 
document). Declaration of Independence, Act of Emancipa- 
tion, Magna Charta, Corn Law, Reform Bill (Enghsh). 

17. Creeds and confessions of faith: 

Apostles' Creed, Augsburg Confession, Thirty-nine Articles; 
[the Golden Rule]. 

18. Civic and ecclesiastical feast-days: 

Fourth of July (the Fourth), Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day; 
Easter, Passover, Feast of Tabernacles, New Year's Day 
[but: sabbath = day of rest]. 



Manual oj Style: Capitalization 9 

19. Titles, civil and military, preceding the name, and 
academic degrees, in abbreviated form, following 
the name; all titles of nobihty, purely honorary, 
v^hen referring to specific persons, with or without 
the name attached; famihar names applied to par- 
ticular persons; orders (decorations) and the -titles 
accompanying them; titles, without the name, used 
in direct address; and the words 'Tresident," "Czar" 
("Tsar"), "Kaiser," "Sultan," and "Pope," stand- 
ing alone, w^hen referring to the president of the 
United States, the emperor of Russia, the emperor 
of Germany, the sultan of Turkey, and the pope 
at Rome: 

Queen Victoria, ex-President Cleveland, Rear-Admiral Dewey, 
United States Commissioner of Education Harris, Dr. Davis; 
Timothy D wight, D.D., LL.D.; the Prince of Wales, the 
Marquis of Lome, His Majesty, His Grace; the Apostle 
to the Gentiles, "the Father of his Country;" order of the 
Red Eagle, Knight Commander of the Bath; "Allow 
me to suggest, Judge ....;" "The President [of the 
United States] was chosen arbitrator," "the Kaiser's 
^loroccan policy," "the Pope's attitude toward the French 
Republic." 

But do not capitaHze the titles of occupants of actu- 
ally existing offices, when following the name (see 
42); when standing alone, without name (with the 
exceptions noted above, and see 42) ; or when, fol- 
lowed by the name, they are preceded by the article 
"the": 



lo The University o j Chicago Press 

McKinley, president of the United States; B. L. Gildersleeve, 
professor of Greek (see 42); Ferdinand W. Peck, commis- 
sioner-general to the Paris Exposition; the emperor of 
Germany, the vice-president, the secretary of the interior, the 
senator, the archbishop of Canterbury, the mayor of Chicago; 
the archduke Francis Ferdinand, the apostle Paul. 

20. Abbreviations like Ph.D., M.P., and F.R.G.S. (such 

titles to be set without space between the letters). 

But do not capitalize such phrases when spelled out : 

doctor of philosophy, fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society. 

21. Nouns and adjectives used to designate the Supreme 
Being or Power, or any member of the Christian 
Trinity; and all pronouns referring to the Deity, 
when not immediately preceded or followed by a 
distinctive name, and unless such reference is other- 
wise perfectly clear: 

the Almighty, Ruler of the universe, the First Cause, the 
Absolute, Providence (personified), Father, Son, Holy Ghost, 
the Spirit, Savior, Messiah, Son of man, Christology, the 
Logos, [the Virgin Mary]; "Put your trust in Him wHo rules 
all things;" but: "When God had worked six days, he rested 
on the seventh." 

But do not capitalize such expressions and deriva- 
tives as — 

(God's) fatherhood, (Jesus') sonship, messiahship, messianic 
hope, christological. 

22. "Nature" and similar terms, and abstract ideas, 
when personified: 



Manual oj Style: Capitalization ii 

"Nature wields her scepter mercilessly;" Vice in the old 
English morality-plays. 

23. ''Father" used for church father, and ''reformers" 

used of Reformation leaders, whenever the meaning 

otherwise would be ambiguous: 

the Fathers, the early Fathers, the Greek Fathers, [Pilgrim 
Fathers], the Reformers (but: the church reformers of the 
fifteenth century). 

24. The word "church" in properly cited titles of 
nationally organized bodies of believers in which, 
through historical associations, it has become insepa- 
rably Hnked with the name of a specific locahty; or 
when forming part of the name of a particular 
edifice : 

Church of Rome, Church of England, High Church ; Church 
of the Holy Sepulcher, Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, First 
Methodist Church. 

But do not capitaHze, except as noted above, when 

standing alone, in any sense — universal, national, 

local — or when the name is not correctly or fully 

quoted : 

the church ( = organized Christianity), the Eastern (Greek 
Orthodox) church, the Roman Catholic church, the estab 
lished church (but: the Establishment), the state church; the 
Baptist church in Englewood. 

Note. — In exceptional cases, where the opposition of Church 
and State constitutes a fundamental part of the argument, and it 
is desired to lend force to this antithesis, emphasis may be added 
by capitalizing the two words. (See Preface.) 



12 The University o j Chicago Press 

25. Names for the Bible and other sacred books: 

(Holy, Sacred) Scriptures, Holy Writ, Word of God, Book of 
Books; Koran, Vedas. 

But do not capitalize adjectives derived from such 

nouns : 

biblical, scriptural. 

26. Versions of the Enghsh Bible: 

King James's Version, Authorized Version (A. V.), Revised 
Version (R. V.), Polychrome Bible. 

27. Books and divisions of the Bible: 

Old Testament, Pentateuch, Exodus, II (Second) Kings, 
Book of Job, Psalms (Psalter), Song of Songs, the [Mosaic] 
Law and the [writings of the] Prophets, Minor Prophets, 
Wisdom literature, Septuagint (LXX); Gospel of Luke, 
Synoptic Gospels, Fourth Gospel, Acts of the Apostles (the 
Acts), Epistle to the Romans, Pastoral Epistles, Apocalypse 
(Revelation), Sermon on the Mount, Beatitudes, Lord's Prayer, 
Ten Commandments (Decalogue). 

But do not capitalize words Hke *'book," "gospel," 

''epistle," or ''psalm" in such connections as the 

following: 

the five books of Moses, the first forty psalms, the gospels 
and epistles of the New Testament, [the synoptic problem], 
the biblical apocalypses. 

28. Biblical parables: 

parables of the Prodigal Son and the Lost Coin. 

29. The following miscellaneous bibHcal terms: 

Last Supper, Eucharist, the Passion, the Twelve (apostles), 



■ 



Manual of Style: Capitalization 13 

the Seventy (disciples), the Servant, the Day of Yahweh, the 
Chronicler, the Psalmist. 

30. The first word of a sentence, and in poetry the first 
word of each Hne: 

In summer, on the headlands, 

The Baltic Sea along. 
Sits Neckan, with his harp of gold, 

And sings his plaintive song. 

In Greek and Latin poetry, however, capitalize only 
the first word of a paragraph, not of each verse : 

TolcTL 8' dotSos aeiSe TreptKXvTos, ol Se crioiirrj 
eiar' aKovovres' 6 8' 'Ap(aiwv vocttov aetSev, 
Xvypov, ov €K Tpoir]<s eTreretAaTO HaWas A6-qvrj. 
Tov 8' VTrepiOLoOev <f>p€.(Tl avvOcTO Bicrinv aoi^-qv 
Kovprj 'iKaptoLO, TrepL<f>p(i}v Ilr/veXoTreta' 

31. The first word after a colon only when introducing 
a complete passage, or sentence which would have 
independent meaning, as in summarizations and quo- 
tations not closely connected with what precedes; 
or where the colon has the weight of such expression 
as ''as follows," ''namely," "for instance," or a 
similar phrase, and is followed by a logically com- 
plete sentence: 

"In conclusion I wish to say: It will be seen from the above 
that ....;" *'As the old proverb has it: 'Haste makes 
waste;'" "My theory is: The moment the hot current strikes 
the surface ....;" "Several objections might be made to 
this assertion : First, it might be said that . . . ." 



14 The University o j Chicago Press 

But do not capitalize the first word of a quotation, if 
immediately connected with what precedes (unless, 
as the first word of a sentence, beginning a paragraph 
in reduced type) ; nor the first word after a colon, if 
an implied ''namely," or a similar term, is followed 
by a brief explanatory phrase, logically dependent 
upon the preceding clause; or if the colon signal- 
izes a note of comment: 

''The old adage is true that 'haste makes waste;'" "Two 
explanations present themselves: either he came too late for 
the train, or he was detained at the station;" "We could not 
prevail upon the natives to recross the stream: so great was 
their superstition." 

32. As a rule, the first word in sections of enumeration, 
if any individual link contains two or more distinct 
clauses (not inclosed in parentheses), separated by 
a semicolon, colon, or period, unless all are depend- 
ent upon the same term preceding them and leading 
up to them: 

"His reasons for refusal were three: (i) He did not have the 
time. (2) He did not have the means; or, at any rate, had no 
funds available at the moment. (3) He doubted the feasibility 
of the plan." But: "He objected that (i) he did not have the 
time; (2) he did not have the means; or, at any rate, had no 
funds available; (3) he doubted the feasibility of the plan." 
(See 125.) 

33. As a rule, nouns followed by a numeral — particu- 
larly a capitalized Roman numeral — indicating their 
order in a sequence: 



M an ua I j S t yl e : Capitalization 15 

Room 16, Ps. 20, Grade IV, Art. II, Act I; Vol. I, No. 2 (of 
journals; otherwise " no."), Book II, Div. Ill, Part IV. 

But do not capitalize such minor subdivisions of 

publications as — 

sec. 4, scene i; chap. 2 (ii), p. 7 (vii), vs. 11, 1. 5, n. 6. (On 
the abbreviation of these words see 100.) 

34. The first word of a cited speech (thought) in direct 

discourse, whether preceded by a colon or a comma 

(on this see 118): 

"On leaving he remarked: 'Never shall I forget this day;'" 
"With the words, 'Never shall I forget this day,' he departed;" 
"I thought to myself: This day I shall never forget" (without 
quotation marks). 

35. In resolutions, the first words following "Whereas" 

and ^^ Resolved'^ (these are preceded by a comma): 

Whereas, It has pleased God . . . . ; therefore be it 
Resolved, That .... 

36. The exclamations '' O " and " Oh " : 

" O Lord! " " Oh, that I were home again! " 

37. All the principal words (i. e., nouns, pronouns, 
adjectives, adverbs, verbs, first and last words) in 
English titles of publications (books, pamphlets, doc- 
uments, periodicals, reports, proceedings, etc.), and 
their divisions (parts, chapters, sections, poems, arti- 
cles, etc.); in subjects of lectures, papers, toasts, etc.; 
in cap-and-small-cap and itahc center-heads (both 
of which, however, should be avoided), and bold- 



i6 The University o j Chicago Press 

face cut-in and side-heads; in cap-and-small-cap box- 
heads in tables (for illustrations of these see 260-63) : 

The Men Who Made the Nation; The American College — 
Its Past and Present; the Report of the Committee of Nine; 
"In the Proceedings of the National Educational Association 
for 1899 there appeared a paper entitled, 'What Should Be 
the Attitude of the University on the Political Questions of 
Today ? ' " (In mentioning newspapers and magazines do not 
treat the definite article "the" as part of the title, unless 
necessary to the sense: the Forum, the North American 
Review, the Chicago Tribune; but: The World To-Day.) 

Note. — The Botanical Gazette capitalizes only first words 
and proper names. 

In foreign titles of the same class follow these general 
rules: In Latin, capitalize proper nouns and adjec- 
tives; in French, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish, 
capitalize only proper nouns ; in German and Dan- 
ish, capitalize both common and proper nouns; in 
Dutch, follow the same general rules as in German, 
and capitalize also proper adjectives: 

De amicitia, Bellum Gallicum; Histoire de la litterature 
frangaise, Novelle e racconti popolari italiani, Antologia de 
poetas liricos castellanos, Svenska litteraturens historic; Ge- 
schichte des deutschen Feudalwesens, Videnskabens Fremskridt 
i det nittende Aarhundrede; Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche 
Taal. 

38. Titles of ancient manuscripts (singular, MS; plural, 
MSS): 

Codex Bezae, Vatican Palimpsest, Gospel according to the 
Egyptians, Oxyrhynchus Logia (Sayings) of Jesus. 



Manual oj Style: Capitalization 17 

39. In titles with the main words capitahzed, all nouns 

forming parts of hyphenated compounds: 

" Twentieth-Century Progress," " The Economy of High- 
Speed Trains." 

But do not capitalize such components when other 

than nouns : 

Fifty-first Street, ''Lives of Well-known Authors," "World - 
Dominion of EngHsh-speaking Peoples." 

40. In zoological, botanical, and similar technical matter, 
the scientific (Latin) names of divisions, orders, 
families, and genera (the names of species in lower- 
case type, except when proper names in nominative 
or genitive cases, or proper adjectives [not geographi- 
cal]) : 

Vertebrata, Reptilia, Cruciferae, Salix; Felis ho, Cocos 
nucifera; (but: Rosa Carolina, Trijolium Willdenovii, Par- 
kinsonia Torreyana [Styrax californica]). (Names of species, 
as a rule, are to be set in italics; see 61.) 

41. In astronomical work, the names of the bodies of 
our solar system : 

Sun, Moon, Earth, the Milky Way. 

42. Divisions, departments, officers, and courses of study 

of the University of Chicago, in all official work 

deahng with its administration or curricula: 

(the University), the School of Education (the School), the 
University Extension Division (but: the division), the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology (but: the department); the Board of 
Trustees (the Trustees, the Board), the Senate, the Council, 



i8 The University of Chicago Press 

the Faculty of the College of Commerce and Administration 
(but: the faculty); the President, the Registrar, Professor of 
Physics, Assistant in Chemistry, Fellow, Scholar; the Van 
Husen Scholarship (but: the scholarship); courses in Political 
Economy, Autumn Quarter (but: a quarter), First Term (but: 
two terms; major, minor); [Hall (referring to the University 
dormitories)]. 

Use Capitals and Small Capitals for — 
43. The names of town and state in the date line, and 
the salutatory phrase at the beginning, of letters, 
and the signature and residence at the end of letters 

or articles, etc. : 

Chicago, III., January i, 1906 

(Set to the right, with one em's indention, and in smaller type 
than the body of the letter.) 

My dear Mr. Smith: 

(Set flush, followed by a colon, in the same type as the body 
of the letter, and in a separate line, unless preceded by 
another line giving the name and address, in which case it 
should be run in with the text of the letter [see 54]). 

Charles W. Scott 
(Set to the right, with one em's indention, and in the same 
type as the body of the letter or article.) 

Harvard University 

. Cambridge, Mass. 
(Set to the left, with two ems' indention, in smaller type.) 
(If this address contains more than one line, or the date or 
similar matter is added, only the first line is to be set in caps 
and small caps; the second, in caps and lower-case, and 
centered under the first.) 



Manual of Style: Capitalization 19 

44. In resolutions, the word ''Whereas" (see 35); in 
notes (not footnotes), the word ''Note," which 
should be followed by a period and a dash; in con- 
stitutions, by-laws, etc., the word "Section" intro- 
ducing paragraphs and followed by a number: 

Note. — It should be noticed that .... 
Section i . This association shall be styled .... 

Set in Small Capitals — 

45. A.M. and P.M. {ante and post meridiem), and B.C. 
and A. D. ("before Christ" and anno domini) ; these 
are to be set with a thin space between: 

11:30 A.M.; 53 B.C., 1906 A. D. 

Use Small Initial Letter for (i. e., " lower-case") — 

46. Words of common usage, originally proper names, 

and their derivatives, in whose present, generalized 

acceptation their origin has become obscured, and 

generally all verbs derived from proper names (see i) : 

Utopia, bohemian, philistine, titanic, platonic, quixotic, 
bonanza, china, morocco, guinea pig, boycott, roman (type), 
italicize, christianize, anglicize, macadamized. 

47. Such minor subdivisions in literary references as — 

chapter, section, page, verse, line, note. (See 33, 100, and 
218.) 

48. In italic side-heads, all but the first word and proper 
names. 

For illustrations see 156 and 261. 



20 The University of Chicago Press 

49. The first word of a quotation which, through a con- 
junction or similarly, is immediately connected with 
what precedes, even if such word in the original 
begins a sentence. 
For illustration and exception see 118; cf. 31. 



< 



Manual of Style: Italics 21 



THE USE OF ITALICS 

Italicize — 

50. Words or phrases to which it is desired to lend 

emphasis, importance, etc.: 

"This was, however, not the case;" "It is sufficiently plain 
that the sciences of life, at least, are studies of processes." 

51. From foreign languages, words and phrases inserted 
into the English text, and not incorporated into the 
English language; and single sentences or brief pas- 
sages not of sufficient length to call for reduced type 

(see 75) : 

''the Darwinian Weltanschauung;^^ ''Napoleon's coup d^etat;^' 
"the debater par excellence of the Senate;" "De gustibus non 
est disputanduMy or, as the French have it, Chacun d son 
goUtr 

But do not italicize foreign titles preceding names, 

or names of foreign institutions or places the meaning 

or position of which in English would have required 

roman type, and which either are without English 

equivalents or are by preference used in lieu of these ; 

nor words of everyday occurrence which have become 

sufficiently anglicized, although still retaining their 

accents : 

P^re Lagrange, Freiherr von Schwenau; the German 
Reichstag, the Champs Elysdes, the Museo delle Terme; 



22 



The University of Chicago Press 



a prion 


ennui 


per annum 


a propos 


entree 


per r^pita 


attache 


ex cathedra 


per contra 


bona fide 


ex officio 


post mortem 


bric-a-brac 


expose 


pro and con(tra) 


cafe 


facade 


protege 


charge d'affaires 


fete 


pro tem(pore) 


confrere 


habeas corpus 


regime 


connoisseur 


levee 


resume 


cul-de-sac 


litterateur 


role 


debris 


matinee 


savant 


debut 


melee 


soiree 


decollete 


motif 


umlaut 


denouement 


naive 


tete-a-tete 


depot (= depository) 


nee 


versus (vs.) 


dramatis personae 


net 


via 


eclat 


neve 


vice versa 


elite 


papier mache 


vis-a-vis 



52 . Titles of publications — books (including plays, essays, 
cycles of poems, and single poems of considerable 
length, usually printed separately, and not from the 
context understood to form parts of a larger vol- 
ume), pamphlets, treatises, tracts, documents, and 
periodicals (including regularly appearing proceed- 
ings and transactions; and also applying to the 
name of a journal appearing in the journal itself) : 

Spencer, Principles of Sociology; A Midsummer Night's 
Dream; Carlyle, Essay on Burns; Idylls of the King; Paradise 
Lost; the Independent, the Modern Language Review, the Chi- 
cago Tribune, Report of the United States Commissioner of 
Education, Transactions of the Illinois Society for Child Study. 

Note. — The Botanical Gazette uses itahcs for such titles in the 
"^ text only; in footnotes, reman. Its own name it prints in caps 
and small caps. 



Manual of Style: Italics 23 

Books of the Bible, both canonical and apocryphal, 
and titles of ancient manuscripts, should be set in 
roman type (see 27 and 38). 

53. The following words, phrases, and abbreviations 
used in literary references : 

ibid.j idem, loc. cit., op. cit.,ad loc, s. v., supra, infra, passim, vide . 

But do not itahcize — 

cf., i.e., e. g. (set with a thin space). 

54. Address lines in speeches, reports, etc., and primary 
address lines in letters: 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

Mr. 'John Smith, J2i Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. 

Dear Sir: I take pleasure in announcing .... 
(Set this flush, in a separate line, with nouns capitalized [see 43].) 

55. In signatures, the position or title added after the 
name. If this consists of only one word, it is run into 
the same line with the name; if of more than one, 
but no longer than the name, center the first letter 
under the name line, and indent one em on the 
right ; if longer than the name, center the name over 
the second hne and set this flush. These rules are, 
however, subject to the exigencies of special cases: 

Arthur P. Maguire, Secretary 

Yours very truly, 

Carter H. H,\rrison 

Mayor of Chicago 

Charles M. Gayley 
Professor of English Language and Literature 



24 The University of Chicago Press 

56. a), b)y c)j etc., used to indicate subdivisions (single 
parenthesis if beginning a paragraph, double paren- 
theses if "run in"); and a, 6, c, etc., affixed to the 
number of verse, page, etc., to denote fractional part: 
Luke 4 : 31a (with a hair-space). 

57. Letters used to designate unknown quantities, lines, 
etc., in algebraic, geometrical, and similar matter: 
ac + bc=cia + b); the lines ad and AD; the wth power. 

58. As a rule, letters in legends or in the text referring 
to corresponding letters in accompanying illustra- 
tions : 

"At the point A above (see diagram)." 

59. References to particular letters: 
the letter u, a small v. 

60. s. and d. (= shilHngs and pence) following numerals: 
3^. 6d. (with a hair- space). 

61. In zoological, botanical, and similar matter, scien- 
tific (Latin) names of species; and in astronomical 
matter, names of stars or constellations: 

Felis leo, Rosa Carolina; Saturn, Cassiopeia. 

62. In resolutions, the word ^^ Resolved'^ (see 35). 

63. After headlines, as a rule, the word ^'Continued;'' 
and [To be continued] at the end of articles: 

THE SCOPE OF SOCIOLOGY— Cow/mM^J 
[To he continued] 



M anual j S t yl e : Quotations 25 



QUOTATIONS 

Put between Quotation Marks (and in roman type — 
i.e., " roman-quote") — 

64. Citations, run into the text, of a passage from an 
author in his own words (see 75). 

65. Quotations from different authors following each 
other uninterrupted by any intervening original 
matter. 

66. A word or phrase accompanied by its definition: 

"Drop-foliQ" means a page-number at the bottom of the 
page; Such a piece of metal is called a "slug." 

67. An unusual, technical, ironical, etc., word or phrase 

in the text, whether or not accompanied by a word, 

like "so-called," directing attention to it: 

Her "five o'clocks" were famous in the neighborhood; She 
was wearing a gown of "lobster-colored " silk ; He was elected 
"master of the rolls;" We then repaired to what he called 
his "quarter deck;" A "lead" is then inserted between the 
lines; This so-called "man of affairs;" A self-styled "con- 



noisseur." 



68. In translations, the English equivalent of a word, 

phrase, or passage from a foreign language : 

Weltanschauung^ "world-view" or "fundamental aspect of 
life;" Mommsen, Romische Geschichte ("History of Rome"). 

69. The particular word or words to which attention is 
directed : 



26 The University of Chicago Press 

the term " lynch law;" the phrase " liberty of conscience;'* 
the concepts "good" and "bad;" the name " Chicago." 

70. Serial titles: 

"English Men of Letters" series; "International Critical 
Commentary." 

71. Titles of shorter poems (see 52): 
Shelley's "To a Skylark." 

72. Cited titles of subdivisions (e.g., parts, books, chap- 
ters, etc.) of publications; of papers, lectures, ser- 
mons, articles, toasts, mottoes, etc.: 

The Beginnings of the Science of Political Economy , Vol. I, 
'The British School," chap. 2, "John Stuart Mill;" the 
articles "Cross," "Crucifixion," and, "Crusade" in Hast- 
ings' Dictionary of the Bible; The subject of the lecture was 
'Japan — Its Past, Present, and Future;" the next toast on 
the programme was "Our German Visitor;" The king's 
motto is " For God and My Country." 

Note. — The Botanical Gazette, in footnotes, uses no quotation 
marks for such titles. 

References to the Preface, Introduction, Table of 

Contents, Index, etc., of a specific work, should be 

set with capitals, without quotation marks : 

Preface, p. iii; "The Introduction contains ....;" "The 
Appendix occupies a hundred pages;" but: "The book has 
a very complete index." 

73. Names of ships: 
theU. S. SS. "Oregon." 

74. Titles of works of art: 
Murillo's "The Holy Family." 



Manual of Style: Quotations 27 

Set in Smaller Type — 

75. Ordinarily, all prose extracts which will make three 
or more lines in the smaller type, and all poetry 
citations of two lines or more. An isolated prose 
quotation, even though its length would bring it 
under this rule, may properly be run into the text, if 
it bears an organic relation to the argument pre- 
sented. On the other hand, a quotation of one or 
two Unes which is closely preceded or followed by 
longer extracts, set in smaller type, may Hkewise be 
reduced, as a matter of uniform appearance. 

76. As a rule, reduce from ii-pt. and lo-pt. to 9-pt., 
from 9-pt. to 8-pt., from 8-pt. to 6-pt. (see 233). 

77. Reduced citations should not have quotation marks, 
except in such cases as noted in 65; nor should 
■quotation marks, as a rule, be used in connection 
with italics. 

General Rules — 

78. Quotation marks should always include elHpses, and 
the phrase "etc." when it otherwise would not be 
clear that it stands for an omitted part of the matter 
quoted, perfect clearness in each individual case 
being the best criterion: 

"Art. II, sec. 2, of the Constitution provides that 'each state 
shall appoint .... a number of electors equal to the whole 
number of senators and representatives ....;'" "He also 
wrote af series of 'Helps to Discovery, etc.'" — "etc." here 



28 The University of Chicago Press 

indicating, not that he wrote other works which are unnamed, 
but that the title of the one named is not given in full; but, 
on the other hand: "Preaching from the text, 'For God so 

loved the world,' etc " — "etc." here being placed 

outside of the quotation marks in order to show that it does 
not stand for other, unnamed, objects of God's love. 

79. Quoted prose matter (i. e., matter set with quotation 
marks; see above) which is broken up into para- 
graphs should have the quotation marks repeated 
at the beginning of each paragraph. 

80. Where alignment is desired, the quotation marks 

should be "cleared" — i.e., should project beyond 

the line of alignment : 

"Keep away from dirtiness — keep away from mess. 
Don't get into doin' things rather-more -or-less!" 

81. Double quotation marks are used for primary quota- 
tions; for a quotation within a quotation, single; 
going back to double for a third, to single for a 
fourth, and so on : 

"The orator then proceeded: 'The dictionary tells us that 
"the words 'freedom' and 'liberty,' though often inter-* 
changed, are distinct in some of their applications. 



)> } >> 



M antial j S I yl e : Spelling 29 



SPELLING 

Spell out — 

82. All civil and military titles, and forms of address, 
preceding the name, except Mr., Messrs., Mrs. 
(French: M., MM., M™^ M"^), Dr., Rev., Hon. 
{do not, except in quotations, set the Rev., the Hon.) ; 
Esq., following the name, should likewise always be 
abbreviated. 

83. Christian names, as George, Charles, John (not: 
Geo., Chas., Jno.), except where the abbreviated 
form is used in quoted matter or in original signa- 
tures; and "von" as part of a person's name. 

Note. — In the matter of alphabetizing names the following 
rules should be observed: 

a) Hyphenated names are ordinarily alphabetized under the 
name following the hyphen; thus, Henry Chandler-Taylor comes 
under Taylor and not under Chandler (Taylor, Henry Chandler-). 

h) French and German names preceded by the particles "de" 
and "von," written in the usual fashion with lower-case letters, 
are regularly listed under the letter following the particle. In 
individual cases it may be found that the person always capital- 
izes the particle and treats it as a part of the surname. (Ram- 
beau, Emile de; Stcrnthal, Max von; De Bey, Robert.) 

c) The Dutch prefi.x "Van" is regularly capitalized and 
treated as the first part of the surname; such names are listed 

, under V. (Van Maastricht, Hendrj^k.) 

d) Spanish names having two parts connected by the particle 
"y" are listed under the name preceding the connective. (Go- 
mez y Pineda, Liberio.) 



30 The University o j Chicago Press 

e) Names beginning with "Mc," whether the "Mc" part is 
written "Mc," "Mac," "M'," or "Mac" without the following letter 
being capitalized (as in "Macomber"), fall into one alphabetical 
list, as if spelled "Mac." 

84. In ordinary reading- matter, all numbers of less than 
three digits, unless of a statistical or technical charac- 
ter, or occurring in groups of six or more following 
each other in close succession : 

"There are thirty-eight cities in the United States with a 
population of 100,000 or over;" "a fifty-yard dash;" **two 
pounds of sugar;" "Four horses, sixteen cows, seventy -six 
sheep, and a billy goat constituted the live stock of the farm;" 
"He spent a total of two years, three months, and seventeen 
days in jail." But: "He spent 128 days in the hospital;" 
"a board 20 feet 2 inches long by ij feet wide and i\ inches 
thick;" "the ratio of 16 to i;" "In some quarters of Paris, 
inhabited by wealthy families, the death-rate is i to every 65 
persons; in others, inhabited by the poor, it is i to 15;" "His 
purchase consisted of 2 pounds of sugar, 20 pounds of flour, 
I pound of coffee, § pound of tea, 3 pounds of meat, and 
i\ pounds of fish, besides 2 pecks of potatoes and a pint of 
vinegar." 

Treat all numbers in connected groups alike, as far 

as possible; do not use figures for some and spell out 

others; if the largest contains three or more digits, 

use figures for all (see 86) ; per cent, should always 

take figures : 

"The force employed during the three months was 87, 93, 
and 106, respectively;" i-io per cent. 

85. Round numbers (i.e., approximate figures in even 



Manual oj Style: Spelling 31 

units, the unit being 100 in numbers of less than 

1,000, and 1,000 in numbers of more) : 

"The attendance was estimated at five hundred" (but: "at 
550"); "a thesis of about three thousand words" (but: "of 
about 2,700"); "The population of Chicago is approximately 
two milHons" (but: "1,900,000"). Cases like 1,500, if for 
some special reason spelled out, should be written "fifteen 
hundred," not "one thousand five hundred." 

86. All numbers, no matter how high, commencing a 

sentence in ordinary reading-matter : 

"Five hundred and ninety-three men, 417 women, and 126 
children under eighteen, besides 63 of the crew, went down 
with the ship." 

When this is impracticable, reconstruct the sentence; 
e. g. : 

"The total number of those who went down with the ship 
was 593 men," etc. 

87. Sums of money, when occurring in isolated cases in 
ordinary reading-matter : 

"The admission was two dollars." 

When several such numbers occur close together, and 
in all matter of a statistical character, use figures : 
"Admission: men, $2; women, $1; children, 25 cents." 

88. Time of day, in ordinary reading-matter: 

at four; at half-past two in the afternoon; at seven o'clock. 
Statistically, in enumerations, and always in connec- 
tion with A. M. and p. M., use figures: 
at 4:15 p. M. (omit "o'clock" in such connections). 



32 The University o j Chicago Press 

89. Ages: 

eighty years and four months old; children between six and 
fourteen. 

90. Numbers of centuries, of Egyptian dynasties, of 
sessions of Congress, of military bodies, of political 
divisions, of thoroughfares, and in all similar cases, 
unless brevity is an important consideration (see 
5, 6, and 11): 

nineteenth century; Fifth Dynasty; Fifty-fourth Congress, 
Second Session; Fifteenth Infantry I. N. G.; Sixth Con- 
gressional District, Second Ward; Fifth Avenue. 

91. References to particular decades: 
in the nineties. 

92. Names of months, except in statistical matter or in 
long enumerations: 

from January i to April 15 (omit, after dates, st, d, and th). 

93. ''United States," except in quotations and such con- 
nections as: General Schofield, U. S. A.; U. S. SS. 
''Oregon;" in footnotes and similar references: U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

94. "Railroad (-v^^ay)," and "Fort" and "Mount" in 

geographical appellations: 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad (not: R. R. or Ry.); 
Fort Wayne, Mount Elias. 

95. In most cases, all names of publications. This rule, 
like many another, is open to modification in particu- 
lar instances, for which no directions can here be 






Manual of Style: Spelling 33 

given. Expediency, nature of context, authoritative 
usage, and author's preference are some of the points 
to be considered. Generally, if in doubt, spell out; 
good taste will condone offenses in this direction 
more readily than in the opposite. 

Abbreviate — 

96. Names of states and territories in the United States 
following those of towns, with the usual exceptions, as 
follows : 

Ala. 1irV\.oVravv<-0i^ La. Ore. 0^ • 

Alaska Me. Pa. 'r^Atx-g.^ \v\Qk,v.M\\.OK. 

Ariz, p^y vTj ^:i^a^ Mass. >>-'^^, P. I. = Philippine 
Ark. 'ts-^ VvA^^ Md.Ha^^Vavj^-' Islands 

Cal.clcK.\v?W^^^Cv Mich.\\\c}^vQ^aw P. R.= Porto Rico 
Colo. ^^^Vc^vcx^c^ Minn.Hvv<wvi'QVovR. I. 
ConnCovNY\G.cA\cc/\ MissN^^'>vs'^\ T^<< ^ Samoa 
D. C.t>\&kxn<r^:C^ov*^o.V\,^^soov\ S. C.^ov.»V\j, c 
Del. VJ^V ex ^^o.x e. Mont. Vv t.^"^^^ ^ ' S. D." ' ' ■ 
Fla.~^Vcix v^cv, N. C."Vio>-\VA , ■ Tenn. " siv^ a . 
Ga. Oe o^ck^c- N. D.U^X'^^';^,Tex. r- : \ 
H. I. = Hawaiian Neb.l^e\>xasv.c.' Utah 

Islands Nev. Vi^^^cxo^rfx Vt. \] ev tv\(5a Y' 

Id. :L 00^ v^.q N. H.a^wa^A',U Va. " ' '• ^^''•■' " 

111. '^ - N. J.\\eu:i^'^--CM Wash. ^oa'~ 

Ind. N. M.>>,e'-soH^vv>\ Wis. *' \a 

la. N. Y. ^Je»^iM.G c >:-; W. Va. 

Kan. O. C3V\\cb Wyo. ^sv4'•u^ 

Ky. Ok. > 

97. In technical matter (footnote references, bibliogra- 
phies, etc.), "Company" and "Brothers," and the 
word "and" (& =" short and" or "ampersand"), in 
names of commercial firms : 



34 The University oj Chicago Press 

The Macmillan Co., Macmillan & Co., Harper Bros. ; Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. 

In text matter, not of a technical character, *' Com- 
pany" and "Brothers" may, however, be spelled 
out: 

"Harper Brothers have recently published ....;" "The 
Century Company announces ....;" "The extraordinary 1 
story of the South Sea Company." 

98. ** Saint " before a name : 

St. Louis, St. Peter's Church, SS. Peter and Paul. 

"St." should, however, preferably be omitted in con- 
nection with the names of apostles, evangelists, and 
church fathers : I 

Luke, Paul, Augustine; not: St. Luke, St. Paul, St. Augustine. 

99. In references to Scripture passages, most books of 
the Bible having more than one syllable, as follows : 



Gen. 
Ex. 

Lev. 

Num. 

Deut. 

Josh. 

Judg. 

Ruth 

I and II Sam. 

I and II Kings 

I and II Chron. 

Ezra 



OLD TESTAMENT 




Neh. 


Hos. 


Esther 

Job 

Psalms (Psalter) 

Prov. 

Eccles. 


Joel 

Am. 

Obad. 

Jonah 

Mic. 


Song of Sol. 
Isa. 


Nah. 
Hab. 


Jer. 

Lam. 
Ezek, 


Zeph. 

Hag. 

Zech. 


Dan.! 


Mai. 



Manual of S t yl 


e : Spelling 


35 




NEW TESTAMENT 




Matt. 


Gal. 


Philem. 


Mark 


Eph. 


Heb. 


Luke 


Phil. 


Jas. 


John 


Col. 


I and II Pet. 


Acts 


I and II Thess. 


I, II, and III John 


Rom. 


I and II Tim. 


Jude 


I and II Cor. 


Titus 

APOCRYPHA 


Rev. 


I and II Esd. 


Wisd. of Sol. 


Sus. 


Tob.=Tobit 


Ecclus. 


Bel and Dragon 


Jud.= Judith 


Bar. 


Pr. of Man. 


Rest of Esther 


Song of Three 


I, II, III, and IV 




Children 


Mace. 



100. In literary references, in footnotes and matter of a 
bibliographical character, '* volume," "number," 
"chapter," "article," "section," "page," "column," 
"verse," "line," "note," "figure," followed by their 
number (see 33 and 218); and the word "follow- 
ing" after the number to denote continuance: 

Vol. I (plural, Vols.), No. i (Nos.), chap. 2 (chaps.), Art. Ill 
(Arts.), sec. 4 (sees.), p. 5 (pp.), col. 6 (cols.), vs. 7 (vss.), 
1. 8 (11.), n. 9 (nn.); pp. 5-7 (=pages 5 to 7 inclusive), pp. 5, 6 
( = pages 5 and 6); pp. 5f. (=page 5 and the following page), 
pp. 5 ff. (= pages 5 and the following pages); Fig. 7. 

Where such phrases occur in isolated instances in 

the text, in continuous narrative (and not inclosed in 

parentheses), it is often preferable to spell them out, 

especially if beginning a sentence : 

"Volume II of this work contains, on page 25, a reference 
to .... ;" but: "Volume II ... . contains (p. 25) . . . ." 



36 The University oj Chicago Press 

1 01. The common designations of weights and measures 

in the metric system, when following a numeral : 

I m., 2 dm., 3 cm., 4 mm.; cm. (=cubic meter), c.d., c.c, 
c.mm.; g. (=gram; gr.= grain). 

General Rules — 

102. In extracts from modem authors whose spelling and 
punctuation differ but slightly from ours, and where 
such variations do not affect the meaning, use office 
style. In citations from Old English works, and in 
such cases where it appears to be essential to the 
writer's plan or the requirements of the context to 
give a faithful rendering, follow the original copy. 
Titles should always be accurately quoted. 

103. Form possessive of proper names ending in s or 
another sibilant, if monosyllabic, by adding an 
apostrophe and s; if of more than one syllable, by 
adding an apostrophe alone: 

King James's Version, Burns's poems, Marx's theories; 
Moses' law, Jesus' birth, Demosthenes' .orations, Berlioz' 
compositions; for convenience' sake. 

104. Before sounded h and long w, use **a" as the form 

of the indefinite article : 

a hotel, a harmonic, a historical, a union, [a euphonious word, 
such a one]. 

105. Do not use ligature cb and a?, but separate the letters, 
in quotations from Latin , and in anglicized derivatives 



Manual o j Style: Spelling 



37 



from Latin, or from Greek through Latin, where e 
has not been substituted for the diphthong: 

Aurea prima sata est aetasque, vindice nullo, 
sponte sua, sine lege, fidem rectumque colebat; 
poena metusque aberant .... 

the Aeneid, Oedipus Tyrannus, Caesar, aesthetic, subpoena. 

In quotations from Old English, and from French 
and such other modern languages as employ it, use 
the ligature : 
Alfred, AS /iw«/e = "wheat;" (Euvres de Balzac, chef-d'oeuvre. 

1 06. Differentiate "farther" and "further" by using the 
former in the sense of "more remote," "at a greater 
distance;" the latter in the sense of "moreover," 
"in addition": 

the farther end, he went still farther; further he suggested, a 
further reason. 

107. Spell: 



abridgment 


archaeology 


behavior 


castor (roller) 


accouter 


ardor 


biased 


catechize 


acknowledgmeni 


t armor 


blessed 


caviler 


adz 


artisan 


bowlder 


center 


aegis 


asbestos 


burned 


check 


Aeolian 


ascendency 


caesura 


chiseled 


aesthetic 


ascendent 


caliber 


chock-full 


afterward 


Athenaeum 


canceled 


clamor 


ambassador 


ax 


candor 


clinch 


amid 


aye 


cannoneer 


clue 


among 


bark (vessel) 


cannot 


color 


anyone (n.) 


barreled 


canon 


controller^ 


appareled 


bazaar 


carcass 


cotillon 


arbor 


Beduin 


caroled 


councilor 



' In official publications of the University of Chicago, "comptroller." 



38 



The University oj Chicago Press 



counselor 


glycerin 


mediaeval 


Sanskrit 


cozy 


good-bye 


meter 


Savior 


criticize 


governor 


mileage 


savor 


cue 


graveled 


miter 


scathe 


cyclopedic 


gray 


modeled 


scepter 


defense 


gruesome 


Mohammedan 


sepulcher 


demarkation 


Gipsy 


mold 


sergeant 


demeanor 


haematoxylin 


molt 


Shakspere 


diarrhoea 


harbor 


moneyed 


skepticism 


disheveled 


hectare 


mortgager 


skilful 


disk 


hemorrhage 


movable 


smolder 


dispatch 


hindrance 


mustache 


somber 


distil 


Hindu 


neighbor 


someone (n.) 


downward 


honor 


nomad 


specter 


draft 


horror 


odor 


staunch 


drought 


impale 


offense 


subpoena 


dueler 


impaneled 


paean 


succor 


dulness 


imperiled 


paleography 


sumac 


dwelt 


incase 


paleontology 


syrup 


embitter 


inclose 


paneled 


taboo 


emir 


incrust 


parceled 


talc 


encyclopedic 


incumbrance 


parole 


theater 


endeavor 


indorse 


parquet 


thraldom 


enfold 


ingraft 


partisan 


thrash 


engulf 


instal 


penciled 


today 


enrol 


instil 


Phoenix 


tomorrow 


ensnare 


insure 


plow 


tonight 


envelope (n.) 


intrench 


practice (n. & \ 


'.)tormentor 


enwrapped 


intrust 


pretense 


toward 


equaled 


jeweled 


primeval 


trammeled 


error 


Judea 


programme 


tranquilize 


Eskimo 


judgment 


pigmy 


traveler 


exhibitor 


kidnaper 


quarreled 


trousers 


fantasy 


Koran 


raveled 


tumor 


favor. 


labeled 


reconnoiter 


upward 


fetish 


labor 


reinforce 


valor 


fiber 


lacquer 


rencounter 


vapor 


flavor 


leveled 


reverie 


vendor 


focused 


libeled 


rigor 


vigor 


fulfil 


Uter 


rivaled 


whiskey 


fulness 


lodgment 


riveted 


wilful 


gauge 


maneuver , 


ruble 


woeful 


Galilean 


marshaled 


rumor 


woolen 


gaiety 


marvelous 


saber 


worshiper 


glamor 


meager 


salable 


Yahweh 



Manual oj Style: Punctuation 39 



PUNCTUATION 

108. All punctuation marks should be printed in the same 
type as the word or letter immediately preceding 
them: 

"With the cry of Banzai! the regiment stormed the hill;" 
Luke 4:16 a; no. i. 

Period — 

109. A period is used to indicate the end of a complete 
sentence (see, however, 112). 

no. Put a period after all abbreviations, except in cases 
where a mechanical necessity compels the omission 
of a letter or letters in the middle of a word for which 
there is no recognized abbreviated form ; such omis- 
sion is indicated by an apostrophe. Treat "per 
cent." and the metric symbols as abbreviations, but 
not the chemical symbols, nor "format" of books: 

Macmillan & Co., Mr. Smith, St. Paul, no. i, Chas. (see 
83), ibid., s. v.; 2 per cent., 10 mm.; but: m'f'g pl't 
(= manufacturing plant); O, Fe; 4to, 8vo 

Note. — With respect to symbols for measures the following 
exceptions should be noted: Astrophysical Journal, 12 mm 
(with thin space and no period) ; Botanical Gazette, 12^1"^ 125*^^ 
(superior, with hair-space); Journal 0} Geology, 12™™. Astro- 
physical Journal uses italics for chemical s>Tnbols: Fe. 

But do not use period, in technical matter, after the 
recognized abbreviations for linguistic epochs, or 



40 The U niv er sit y j Chicago Press 

for titles of well-known publications of which the 
initials only are given, nor after MS ( = manuscript) : 
IE ( =Indo-European), OE ( = Old English), MHG ( ^Middle 
High German); AJSL {= American Journal of Semitic 
Languages and Literatures), ZAW (=Zeitschri}t fur alttesta- 
mentliche Wissenschaft). 

111. Use no period after Roman numerals, even if having 
the value of ordinals : 

Vol. IV; Louis XVI 

112. Omit the period after running-heads (for explanation 
of this and the following terms see 260-64) > after 
centered headlines; after side-heads set in separate 
lines; after cut-in heads; after box-heads in tables; 
and after superscriptions and legends which do not 
form a complete sentence (with subject and predi- 
cate) ; after date lines at top of communications, and 
after signatures (see 43). 

113. The period is placed inside the quotation marks; 

and inside the parenthesis when the matter inclosed 

forms no part of the preceding sentence; otherwise 

outside : 

Tennyson's "In Memoriam." Put the period inside the 
quotation marks. (This is a rule without exception.) When 
the parenthesis forms part of the preceding sentence, put 
the period outside (as, for instance, here). 

Exclamation Point— 

114. The exclamation point is used to mark an outcry, or 
an emphatic or ironical utterance : 



Manual of Style: Punctuation 41 

"Long live the king!" "Heaven forbid!" "Good!" he 
cried; " How funny this seems ! " " This must not be ! " The 
subject of his lecture was "The Thisness of the That" ! The 
speaker went on: "Nobody should leave his home tomorrow 
without a marked ballot in their (!) pocket." 

115. The exclamation point is placed inside the quotation 
marks when part of the quotation ; otherwise outside. 
See illustrations in 114. 

Interrogation Point — 

116. The interrogation point is used to mark a query, or 
to express a doubt : 

"Who is this ? " The prisoner gave his name as Roger Crown • 
inshield, the son of an English baronet ( ?). 

Indirect questions, however, should not be followed 
by an interrogation point: 
He asked whether he was ill. 

117. The interrogation point should be placed inside the 
quotation marks only when it is a part of the quota- 
tion: 

The question: "Who is who, and what is what?" Were 
you ever in "Tsintsinnati" ? 

Colon — 

118. The colon is used to ''mark a discontinuity of 
grammatical construction greater than that indicated 
by the semicolon and less than that indicated by the 
period. It is commonly used (i) to emphasize a 
close connection in thought between two clauses of 
which each forms a complete sentence, and which 



42 The University of Chicago Press 

might with grammatical propriety be separated by 
a period; (2) to separate a clause which is gram- 
matically complete from a second which contains 
an illustration or amplification of its meaning; (3) 
to introduce a formal statement, an extract, a speech 
in a dialogue, etc." (Century Dictionary) y (unless 
this is preceded by a conjunction, like "that," 
immediately connecting it with what goes before). 
Before the quotation of a clause in the middle of a 
sentence use a comma: 

(i) "This argument undeniably contains some force: Thus 
it is well known that . . . ." "The secretion of the gland 
goes on uninterruptedly: this may account for the condition 
of the organ." "The fear of death is universal: even the 
lowest animals instinctively shrink from annihilation." (2) ' 
"Most countries have a national flower: France the lily, 
England the rose, etc." "Lambert pine: the gigantic sugar 
pine of California." (3) "The rule may be stated thus: 
. . . ." "We quote from the address: . . . ." "Charles: 
'Where are you going?' George: *To the mill-pond.*" 
But: "He stoutly maintained that 'the letter was a mon- 
strous forgery; ' " and: "Declaring, ' The letter is a monstrous 
forgery,' he tried to wash his hands of the whole affair," 

119. The colon thus often takes the place of an implied 
"namely," "as follows," "for instance," or a similar 
phrase. Where such word or phrase is used, it 
should be followed by a colon if what follows consists 
of one or more grammatically complete clauses; 
otherwise* by a comma (see 132) : 



Manual oj Style: Punctuation 43 

"This is true of only two nations — the wealthiest, though not 
the largest, in Europe: Great Britain and France;" but: "This 
is true of only two nations — the wealthiest, though not the 
largest, in Europe — viz.. Great Britain and France." "He 
made several absurd statements. For example: . . . .;" 
but: "There are several states in the Union — for instance, 
Kansas and Wyoming — which . . . ." 

120. Put a colon after the salutatory phrase at the begin- 
ning of a letter, and after the introductory remark 
of a speaker addressing the chairman or the audience : 

My dear Mr. Brown: (See 43.) 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: (See 54.) 

121. Put a colon between chapter and verse in Scripture 
passages, and between hours and minutes in time 
indications : 

Matt. 2:5-13; 4:30 P.M. 

122. Put a colon between the place of publication and 
the publisher's name in literary references : 
Clement oj Alexandria (London: Macmillan), II, 97. 

123. The colon should be placed outside the quotation 
marks, unless a part of the quotation : 

He writes under the head of "Notes and Comments": 
"Many a man has had occasion to testify to the truth of the 
old adage:" etc. 

Semicolon — 

124. A semicolon is used to mark the division of a sentence 
somewhat more independent than that marked by 
a comma: 



44 The University o j Chicago Press 

"Are we giving our lives to perpetuate the things that the 
past has created for its needs, forgetting to ask whether these 
things still serve today's needs; or are we thinking of living 
men ? " "This is as important for science as it is for practice ; 
indeed, it may be said to be the only important consideration." 
"It is so in war; it is so in the economic life; it cannot be 
otherwise in religion." "Let us not enter into this now; 
let us, rather, ask what the significance of our departed friend 
has been for his generation, not as a soldier and statesman, 
but as a philosopher and writer; not as an administrator 
and an organizer, but as the standard-bearer of civic right 
eousness." "In Russia the final decision rests with the Czar, 
advised by his ministers; in most constitutional countries, 
indirectly with the people as represented in parliament; in 
Switzerland alone, through the referendum, directly with the 
electorate at large." " This, let it be remembered, was the 
ground taken by Mill; for to him ^utilitarianism,' in spite 
of all his critics may say, did not mean the pursuit of bodily 
pleasure." ("For" in such cases should commonly be 
preceded by a semicolon.) 

125. In enumerations use a semicolon between the differ- 
ent links, if these consist of more than a few words 
closely connected, and especially if individual clauses 
contain any punctuation mark of less value than a 
period, or an exclamation or interrogation point 
(unless inclosed in parentheses), yet are intimately 
joined one with the other, and all with the sentence 
or clause leading up to them, for instance through 
dependence upon a conjunction, like "that,'* pre- 
ceding them (see 32) : 



Manual oj Style: Punctuation 45 

"The membership of the international commission was made 
up as follows: France, 4; Germany, 5; Great Britain, i 
(owing to a misunderstanding, the announcement did not 
reach the English societies in time to secure a full quota from 
that country. Sir Henry Campbell, who had the matter in 
charge, being absent at the time, great difficulty was experi- 
enced in arousing sufficient interest to insure the sending of 
even a solitary delegate); Italy, 3; the United States, 7." 
"The defendant, in justification of his act, pleaded that (i) 
he was despondent over the loss of his wife; (2) he was out 
of work; (3) he had had nothing to eat for two days; (4) he 
was under the influence of liquor." "Presidents Hadley, of 
Yale; Eliot, of Harvard; Butler, of Columbia; and Angell, 
of Michigan." "Smith was elected president; Jones, vice- 
president; Miller, secretary; and Anderson, treasurer." 

126. In Scripture references a semicolon is used to 
separate passages containing chapters : 

Gen. 2:3-6, 9, 14; 3:17; chap. 5; 6:15. 

127. The semicolon is always placed inside the quotation 
marks. 

Comma — 

128. The com.ma is ''used to indicate the smallest inter- 
niptions in continuity of thought or grammatical 
construction, the marking of which contributes to 
clearness" {Century Dictionary) : 

"Here, as in many other cases, what is sometimes popularly 
supposed to be orthodox is really a heresy, an exaggeration, 
a distortion, a caricature of the true doctrine of the church. 
The doctrine is, indeed, laid down by an authority here and 



46 The University o j Chicago Press 

there; but, speaking generally, it has no place in the stand- 
ards, creeds, or confessions of the great communions; e. g., 
the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, the canons of the early 
ecumenical councils, the Westminster Confession, the Thirty- 
nine Articles." "Shakspere and other, lesser, poets." **The 
books which I have read I herewith return" (i. e.j I return 
those [only] which I have read); but: "The books^ which I 
have read, I herewith return" (i.e., having read them [all], 
I now return them). "Gossiping, women are happy;" and: 
"Gossiping women are happy." "Of these four, two Ameri- 
cans and one Englishman, started;" and: "Of these, four — 
two Americans and two Englishmen — started." "The suffer- 
ing, God will relieve." "Behind, her 'stage mother' stood 
fluttering with extra wraps." "About [the year] 1840, 
daughters of self-respecting Americans worked in cotton- 
mills." "Some boys and girls prematurely announce them- 
selves, usually in uncomfortable, sometimes in bad, ways." 
"And, as I believe, we are beginning to see with clearer, and 
I hope with finer, vision." "This is, at least to some extent, 
true of everyone." 

129. Use a comma to separate proper nouns belonging 

to different individuals or places : 

"To John, Smith was always kind;" "To America, Europe 
awards the prize of mechanical skill." 

130. Put a comma before "and," "or," and "nor" 

connecting the last tv^o links in a sequence of three 

or more; or all the links in a series of greater length, 

or where each individual link consists of several 

words; always put a comma before " etc." : 

Tom, Dick, and Harry; either copper, silver, or gold; "He 
was equally familiar with Homer, and Shakspere, and 



Manual of Style: Punctuation 47 

V Moli^re, and Cervantes, and Goethe, and Ibsen;" "Neither 
France for her art, nor Germany for her army, nor England 
for her democracy, etc." 

But do not use a comma where ''and," etc., serves 
to connect all of the links in a brief and close-knit 
phrase : 

a man good and noble and true; "I do not remember who 
wrote the stanza — whether it was Shelley or Keats or Moore." 

131. Ordinarily, put a comma before and after clauses 
introduced by such conjunctions as "and," "but," 
"if," "while," "as," "whereas," "since," "because," 
"when," "after," "although," etc., especially if a 
change of subject takes place : 

"When he arrived at the railway station, the train had gone, 
and his friend, who had come to bid him good-bye, had 
departed, but left no word. As the next train was not due 
for two hours, he decided to take a ride about the town, 
although it offered httle of interest to the sightseer. While 
he regretted his failure to meet his friend, he did not go 
to his house, because he did not wish to inconvenience his 
wife, if it were true that she was ill." 

But do not use a comma before clauses introduced 

by such conjunctions, if the preceding clause is not 

logically complete without them; nor before "if," 

"but," and "though" in brief and close-welded 

phrases : 

"This is especially interesting because they represent the two 
extremes, and because they present differences in their rela- 
tions;" "This is good because true;" "I shall agree to this 



48 The University j Chicago Press 

only if you accept my conditions;" "I would not if I could, 
and could not if I would;" "He left school when he was 
twelve years old;" "honest though poor;" "a cheap but 
valuable book." 

132. Such conjunctions, adverbs, connective particles, or 
phrases as "now,'' "then," "however," "indeed," 
"therefore," "moreover," "furthermore," "never- 
theless," "though," "in fact," "in short," "for 
instance," "that is," "of course," "on the contrary," 
"on the other hand," "after all," "to be sure," 
etc., should be followed by a comma when stand- 
ing at the beginning of a sentence or clause to 
introduce an inference or an explanation, and should 
be placed between commas when wedged into the 
middle of a sentence or clause to mark off a distinct 
break in the continuity of thought or structure, 
indicating a summarizing of what precedes, the point 
of a new departure, or a modifying, restrictive, or 
antithetical addition, etc. : 

"Indeed, this was exactly the point of the argument;" 
"Moreover, he did not think it feasible;" "Now, the question 
'is this: . . . . " "Nevertheless, he consented to the 
scheme;" "In fact, rather the reverse is true;" "This, then, 
is my position : ....;" "The statement, therefore, cannot 
be verified;" "He thought, however, that he would like to 
try;" "That, after all, seemed a trivial matter;" "The gen- 
tleman, of course, was wrong." 

But do not use a conama with such words when the 
connection is logically close and structurally smooth 



M anual I S t yl e : Punctuation 49 

enough not to call for any pause in reading; with 

** therefore," *' nevertheless," etc., when directly 

following the verb; with "indeed" when directly 

preceding or following an adjective or another 

adverb which it qualifies; nor ordinarily with such 

terms as ''perhaps," "also," "likewise," etc.: 

"Therefore I say unto you ....;" "He was therefore 
unable to be present;" "It is nevertheless true;" "He is 
recovering very slowly indeed;" "He was perhaps thinking 
of the future;" "This is likewise true of the army;" "He 
was a scholar and a sportsman too." 

133. If among several adjectives preceding a noun the 
last bears a more direct relation to the noun than the 
others, it should not be preceded by a comma : 

"the admirable political institutions of the country;" "a hand- 
some, wealthy young man." 

134. Participial clauses, especially such as contain an 

explanation of the main clause, should usually be 

set off by a comma : 

"Being asleep, he did not hear him;" "Exhausted by a hard 
day's work, he slept like a stone." 

135. Put a comma before "not" introducing an anti- 
thetical clause: 

"Men addict themselves to inferior pleasures, not because 
they deliberately prefer them, but because they are the only 
ones to which they have access. " 

136. For parenthetical, adverbial, or appositional clauses 
or phrases use commas to indicate structurally 



5o The University o j Chicago Press 

disconnected, but logically integral, interpolations; 

dashes to indicate both structurally and logically 

disconnected insertions ; never use the two together 

(see 159)- 

" Since, from the naturalistic point of view, mental states are 
the concomitants of physiological processes ....;"" The 
French, generally speaking, are a nation of artists;" "The 
English, highly democratic as they are, nevertheless deem 
the nobility one of the fundamentals of their political and 
social systems." 

137. Use a comma to separate two identical or closely 
similar words, even if the sense or grammatical con- 
struction does not require such separation (see 129): 

"Whatever is, is good;" "What he was, is not known;" 
"The chief aim of academic striving ought not to be, to be 
most in evidence;" "This is unique only in this, that . . . ." 

138. In adjectival phrases, a complementary, qualifying, 

delimiting, or antithetical adjective added to the 

main epithet preceding a noun should be preceded 

and followed by a comma: 

"This harsh, though perfectly logical, conclusion;" "The 
deceased was a stem and unapproachable, yet withal sym- 
pathetic and kind-hearted, gentleman;" "Here comes in the 
most responsible, because it is the final, ojfice of the teacher;" 
"The most sensitive, if not the most elusive, part of the 
training of children . . . .;" "He always bought the very 
best, or at least the most expensive, articles." 

139. Two or more co-ordinate clauses ending in a word 



Manual of Style: Punctuation 51 

governing or modifying another word in a following 

clause should be separated by commas : 

" . . . .a shallow body of water connected with, but well 
protected from, the open sea;" "He was as tall as, though much 
younger than, his brother;" "The cultivation in ourselves of 
a sensitive feeling on the subject of veracity is one of the 
most useful, and the enfeeblement of that feeling one of the 
most hurtful, things to which our conduct can be instru- 
mental;" "This road leads away from, rather than toward, 
your destination." 

140. Similarly, use a comma to separate two numbers: 

"In 1905, 347 teachers attended the convention; " November 
I, 1905 (see 144). 

141. A comma is employed to indicate the omission, for 
brevity or convenience, of a word or words, the 
repetition of which is not essential to the meaning : 

"In Illinois there are seventeen such institutions; in Ohio, 
twenty-two; in Indiana, thirteen;" "In Lincoln's first cabinet 
Seward was secretary of state; Chase, of the treasury; 
Cameron, of war; and Bates, attorney-general. " 

Often, however, such constructions are smooth 

enough not to call for commas (and consequent 

semicolons) : 

"One puppy may resemble the father, another the mother, 
and a third some distant ancestor." 

142. Use a comma before ''of" in connection with resi- 
dence or position : 

Mr. and Mrs. Mclntyre, of Detroit, Mich.; President Hadley, 
of Yale University. 



52 The University o j Chicago Press 

Exceptions are those cases, historical and political, in 

which the place-name practically has become a part 

of the person's name, or is so closely connected with 

this as to render the separation artificial or illogical : 

Clement of Alexandria, Philip of Anjou, King Edward of 
England. 

143. Put a comma between two consecutive pages, 
verses, etc. ; and after digits indicating thousands : 
pp. 5, 6 (not: 5H3); 1,276, 10,419. 

144. Separate month and year, and similar time divisions, 

by a comma: 

November, 1905; New Year's Day, 1906. 

Note. — Astrophysical Journal and Botanical Gazette do not 
use a comma with four figures, nor between month and year, 

145. Omit the comma, in signatures and at the beginning 

of articles, after author's name followed by address, 

title, or position in a separate line, or after address 

followed by a date line, etc. : 

James P. Robinson 
Superintendent of Schools, Bird Center, 111. 

James P. Robinson 

Superintendent of Schools 
Bird Center, III. 
July I, 1906 

146. The comma is always placed inside the quotation 
marks. 

Apostrophe — 

147. An apostrophe is used to mark the omission of a 



Manual of Style: Punctuation 53 

letter or letters in the contraction of a word, or of 

figures in a number : 

ne'er, don't, 'twas, "takin' me 'at;" m'f'g; the class of '96 
(see no). 

148. The possessive case of nouns, common and proper, 

is formed by the addition of an apostrophe, or 

apostrophe and s (see 103): 

a man's, horses' tails; Scott's IvanhoCy Jones's farm, Themis- 
tocles' era; for appearance' sake. 

149. The plural of numerals, and of rare or artificial noun- 
coinages, is formed by the aid of an apostrophe and 
s; of proper nouns of more than one syllable ending 
in a sibilant, by adding an apostrophe alone (mono- 
syllabic proper names ending in a sibilant add es; 
others, s) : 

in the 1900's; in two's and three's, the three R's, the 
Y. M. C. A.'s; "these I-just-do-as-I-please's;" "all the 
Tommy Atkins' of England" (but: the Rosses and the Mac- 
Dougalls). 

Quotation Marks (see section on "Quotations," 64-81). 

Dashes — 

150. A dash is used to denote *'a sudden break, stop, or 

transition in a sentence, or an abrupt change in its 

construction, a long or significant pause, or an 

unexpected or epigrammatic turn of sentiment'* 

(John Wilson) : 

"Do we — can we — send out educated boys and girls from the 
high school at eighteen ? " "The Platonic world of the static. 



54 The University of Chicago Press 

and the Hegelian world of process — how great the contrast!" 
" ' Process' — that is the magic word of the modem period;" 
"To be or not to be — that is the question;" "Christianity 
found in the Roman Empire a civic life which was implicated 
by a thousand roots with pagan faith and cultus — a state 
which ofifered little . . . .;" "Care for the salvation of the 
soul, anxiety for its purity, expectation for the speedy end 
of the world — these overbore interest in moral society;" 
"This giving-out is but a phase of the taking-in — a natural 
and inevitable reaction;" "The advocates of this theory 
require exposure — long-time!" "Full of vigor and enthu- 
siasm and — mince pie." 

151. Use dashes (rarely parentheses — see 161) for paren- 
thetical clauses which are both logically and struc- 
turally independent interpolations (see 136): 

"This may be said to be — ^but, never mind, we will pass over 
that;" " 'God, give us men! A time like this demands 
strong minds, great hearts' — I have forgotten the rest;" 
"There came a time — let us say, for convenience, with 
Herodotus and Thucydides — when this attention to actions 
was conscious and deliberate;" "If it be asked — and in say- 
ing this I but epitomize my whole contention — why the 
Mohammedan religion . . . ." 

152. A clause added to lend emphasis to, or to explain or 
expand, a word or phrase occurring in the main 
clause, which word or phrase is then repeated, 
should be introduced by a dash : 

"To him they are more important as the sources for history — 
the history of events and ideas;" "Here we are face to face 
with a new and difficult problem — new and difficult, that is, 
in the sense that . . . ." 



Manual of Style: Punctuation 55 

153. Wherever a "namely" is implied before a paren- 
thetical or complementary clause, a dash should 
preferably be used (see 119): 

"These discoveries — gunpowder, printing-press, compass, 
and telescope — were the weapons before which the old science 
trembled ; " "But here we are trenching upon another division 
of our field — the interpretation of New Testament books." 

154. In sentences broken up into clauses, the final — 
summarizing — clause should be preceded by a dash : 

"Amos, with the idea that Jehovah is an upright judge 
. . . . ; Hosea, whose Master hated injustice and falsehood 
. . . . ; Isaiah, whose Lord would have mercy only on those 
who relieved the widow and the fatherless — these were the 
spokesmen . . . ." 

155* A word or phrase set in a separate line and succeeded 

by paragraphs, at the beginning of each of which it 

is implied, should be followed by a dash : 

"I recommend — 
"i. That we kill him. 
"2. That we flay him." 

156. A dash should be used in connection with side-heads, 
whether ''run in" or paragraphed: 

2. The language of the New Testatneni. — The lexicons 
of Grimm-Thayer, Cremer, and others .... 

Note. — The above statement has been taken from .... 

Biblical Criticism in the Church of England — 

A most interesting article appeared in the Expository 
Times .... 



56 The University of Chicago Press 

157. Use a dash for ''to" connecting two words or num- 
bers: 

May-July, 1906 (en-dash); May i, 1905 — November i, 1906 
(em-dash); pp. 3-7 (en-dash); Luke 3:6 — 5:2 (em-dash). 

In connecting consecutive numbers, omit hundreds 

from the second number — i. e., use only two figures 

— unless the first number ends in two ciphers, in 

which case repeat; if the next to the last figure in 

the first number is a cipher, do not repeat this in the 

second number : 

1880-95, pp. 1 13-16; 1900-1906, pp. 102-7. 

Note. — The Astrophysicai Journal repeats the hundreds: 1880- 
1895, pp. 113-116. 

158. Let a dash precede the reference (author, title of 

work, or both) following a direct quotation, consisting 

of at least one complete sentence, in footnotes or 

cited independently in the text (see 75) : 

^ "I felt an emotion of the moral sublime at beholding 
such an instance of civic heroism." — Thirty Years, I, 379. 

The green grass is growing, 

The morning wind is in it, 
'Tis a tune worth the knowing, 

Though it change every minute. 

—Emerson, "To Ellen, at the South." 

159. A dash should not ordinarily be used in connection 

with any other point, except a period : 

"Dear Sir: I have the honor . . . . ;" not: "Dear Sir:— 
I have . . . ." "This — I say it with regret — was not done;" 
not: "This, — I say it with regret, — was . . . ." 



Manual oj Style: Punctuation 57 

Parentheses — 

160. Place between parentheses figures or letters used to 

mark divisions in enumerations run into the text:^, 

"The reasons for his resignation were three: (i) advanced 
age, (2) failing health, (3) a desire to travel." 

If such divisions are paragraphed, a single paren- 
thesis is ordinarily used in connection with a lower- 
case (italic) letter; a period, with figures and capital 
(roman) letters. In syllabi, and matter of a similar 
character, the following scheme of notation and in- 
dention of subdivisions should ordinarily be adhered 
to: 

A. Under the head of . . . 

I. Under .... 

1. Under .... 

a) Under .... 

(i) Under .... 
(a) Under .... 
a) Under .... 
/3) Under .... 
(6) Under .... 
(2) Under .... 

b) Under .... 

2. Under .... 

II. Under . , . .> 

B. Under the head of ... . 

% 

161. Parentheses should not ordinarily be used for paren- 
thetical clauses (see 136 and 151), unless confusion 
might arise from the use of less distinctive marks, or 



58 The University of Chicago Press 

unless the contents of the clause is wholly irrelevant 

to the main argument: 

"He meant — I take this to be the (somewhat obscure) sense 
of his speech — that . . . . ;" "The period thus inaugurated 
(of which I shall speak at greater length in the next chapter) 
was characterized by . . . . ;" "The contention has been 
made {op. cit.) that . . . ." 

Brackets — 

162. Brackets are used to inclose an explanation or note, 
to indicate an interpolation in a quotation, to rectify 
a mistake, to supply an omission, and for a paren- 
thesis within a parenthesis : 

^ [This was written before the publication of Spencer's 
book. — Editor.] 

"These [the free-silver Democrats] asserted that the 
present artificial ratio can be maintained indefinitely." 

John Ruskin. By Henry Carpenter. ["English Men of 
Letters," IH.] London: Black, 1900. 

"As the Italian [Englishman] Dante Gabriel Ros[s]etti 
has said, . . . ." 

Deut. 3:46 [5]- 

Grote, the great historian of Greece (see his History, I, 
204 [second edition]), .... 

163. Such phrases as ^' Continuedy^^ ^^To he continuedy^ 
etc., at the beginning and end of articles, chapters, 
etc., should be placed between brackets (and set 
in italics — see 63) ; 

[Continued from p. j2o] 
[To be concluded] 



Manual of Style: Punctuation 59 

Ellipses — 

164. Ellipses are used to indicate the omission of one or 
more words not essential to the idea which it is 
desired to convey. For an ellipsis at the beginning, 
in the middle, or at the end of a sentence four periods, 
separated by a space (en- quad), should ordinarily 
be used, except in very narrow measures. If the 
preceding line ends in a point, this should not be 
included in the four. Where a whole paragraph, or 
paragraphs, or, in poetry, a complete line, or lines, 
are omitted, insert a full line of periods, separated 
by em- or 2 -em quads, according to the length of 
the line : 

The point .... is that the same forces .... are still 

the undercurrents of every human life We may never 

unravel the methods of the physical forces; .... but .... 

I think it worth giving you these details, because it is a 
vague thing, though a perfectly true thing, to say that it was 
by his genius that Alexander conquered the eastern world. 

His army, you know, was a small one. To carry a vast 
number of men .... 

.... he sought the lumberer's gang, 

Where from a hundred lakes young rivers sprang; 

Through these green tents, by eldest nature drest, 
He roamed, content alike with man and beast. 

165. An ellipsis should be treated as a part of the citation; 



6o The University of Chicago Press 

consequently should be inclosed in the quotation 
marks (see above). 

Hyphens — 

1 66. A hyphen is placed at the end of a line terminating 
with a syllable of a word, the remainder of which 
is carried to the next line (see section on " Divisions ") ; 
and between many compound words. 

167. Hyphenate two or more words (except proper names 

forming a unity in themselves) combined into one 

adjective preceding a noun: 

so-called Croesus, well-known author, first-class investment, 
better-trained teachers, high-school course, half-dead horse, 
never-ceasing strife, much-mooted question, joint-stock com- 
pany, EngHsh-speaking peoples, nineteenth-century progress, 
white-rat sermn, up-to-date machinery, four-year-old boy, 
house-to-house canvass, go-as-you-please fashion, deceased- 
wife's-sister bill; but: New Testament times. Old English 
spelling. 

Where such words are set in capitals (e. g., in head- 
lines), or where one of the components contains more 
than one word, an en-dash should be used in place 
of a hyphen : 

FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR; New York-Chicago freight 
traffic. 

But do not connect by a hyphen adjectives or par- 
ticiples with adverbs ending in "-ly;" nr .u-' 
combinations as the above when following uic n >uiij 
or qualifying a predicate : 



Manual oj Style: Pic net nation 6i 

highly developed species; a man well known in the neighbor- 
hood; the fly-leaf, so called; "Her gown and carriage were 
strictly up to date." 

1 68. Hyphenate, as a rule, nouns formed by the combina- 
tion of two noims standing in objective relation to 
each other — that is, one of whose components is de- 
rived from a transitive verb : 

mind-reader, story-teller, fool-killer, office-holder, well-wisher, 
evil-doer, property -owner; hero-worship, child-study; wood- 
turning, clay-modeling. 

Exceptions are such common and brief compounds 

as — 

lawgiver, taxpayer, proofreader, bookkeeper, stockholder. 

169. A present participle united (i) with a noun to form a 
new noun with a meaning different from that which 
would be conveyed by the two words taken separately, 
(2) with a preposition used absolutely (i. e., not gov- 
erning a following noun), to form a noun, should 
have a hyphen: 

boarding-house, dining-haii, sieeping-room, dwelling-place, 
printing-office, walking-stick, starting-point, stepping-stone, 
stumbling-block, working-man; the putting-in or taking-out 
of a hyphen. 

170. As a general rule, compounds of "book," "house," 
"mill," "room," "shop,'- .nd "work" should be 
printed as one compact word, without a hyphen, 
when the prefixed noun contains only one syllable, 
should be hyphenated when it contains two, and 



62 The University of Chicago Press 

should be printed as two separate words when it 

contains three or more : 

handbook, schoolbook, notebook, textbook; pocket-book, 

story-book; reference book. 

boathouse, clubhouse, schoolhouse, storehouse; engine-house, 

power-house; business house. 

commill, handmill, sawmill, windmill; water-mill, paper-mill; 

chocolate mill. 

bedroom, classroom, schoolroom, storeroom; lecture-room; 

recitation room. 

tinshop, workshop; bucket-shop, tailor-shop; policy shop, 

blacksmith shop. 

handwork, woodwork; metal- work; filigree work. 

Exceptions are rare combinations, and such as for 

appearance' sake would better be separated : 

source-book, wheat-mill, lunch-room, head-work, field-work. 

171. Compounds of "maker,'' "dealer," and other words 

denoting occupation should ordinarily be hyphenated ; 

likewise nouns denoting different occupations of the 

same individual : 

harness-maker, book-dealer, job-printer (see 168); a soldier- 
statesman, the poet-artist Rossetti. 

Exceptions are a few short words of everyday 

occurrence : 

bookmaker, dressmaker. 

172. Compounds of "store" should be hyphenated when 

the prefix contains only one syllable; otherwise not: 

drug-store, feed-store (but: bookstore); grocery store, dry- 
goods store. 



Manual oj Style: Punctuation 63 

173. Compounds of ''fellow" are always hyphenated: 
fellow-man, fellow-beings, play-fellow. 

174. Compounds of "father," "mother," "brother," 

"sister," "daughter," "parent," and "foster" should 

be hyphenated: 

father-love (but: fatherland), mother-tongue, brother-officer, 
sister-nation, foster-son, daughter-cells, parent-word. 

175. Compounds of " great, " indicating the fourth degree 
in a direct line of descent, call for a hyphen : 
great-grandfather, great-grandson. 

176. Compounds of "life" and "world" require a hyphen: 

life-history, life-principle (but: lifetime), world-power, world- 
problem. 

177. Compounds of "skin" with words of one syllable 
are to be printed as one word; with words of more 
than one, as two separate words : 

calfskin, sheepskin; alligator skin. 

178. Compounds of "master" should be hyphenated: 
master-builder, master-stroke (exception: masterpiece). 

179. Compounds of "god": 
sun-god, rain-god. 

180. "Half," "quarter," etc., combined with a noun 
should be followed by a hyphen : 

half-truth, half-tone, half-year, half-title, quarter-mile. 

181. "Semi," "demi," "bi," "tri," etc., do not ordinarily 
demand a hyphen: 



64 The University o j Chicago Press 

semiannual, demigod, demiurge, biweekly, bipartisan, bichro- 
mate, bimetallist, trimonthly, tricolor, trifoliate. 

Exceptions are long or unusual formations : 
semi-centennial, demi-relievo. 

182. Compounds of "self" are hyphenated: 
self-evident, self-respect. 

183. Combinations with "fold" are to be printed as one 
word, if the number contains only one syllable ; if it 
contains more, as two : 

twofold, tenfold; fifteen fold, a hundred fold. 

184. Adjectives formed by the suffixation of "like" to 

a noun are usually printed as one word if the noun 

contains only one syllable (except when ending in 

/); if it contains more (or is a proper noun), they 

should be hyphenated : 

childlike, homelike, warlike, godlike; eel-like, bell-like; 
woman -like, business-like; American -like (but: Christlike). 

185. "Vice," "ex-," "elect," "general," and "lieutenant," 

constituting parts of titles, should be connected 

with the chief noun by a hyphen : 

Vice-Consul Taylor, ex-President Cleveland, the governor- 
elect, the postmaster-general, a lieutenant-colonel. 

186. Compounds of "by-" should be hyphenated: 
by-product, by-laws. 

187. The prefixes "co-," "pre-," and "re-," when followed 
by the same vowel as that in which they terminate, 



Manual of Style: Punctuation 65 

take a hyphen ; but, as a rule, they do not when fol- 
lowed by a different vowel, or by a consonant : 

co-operation, pre-empted, re-enter; but: coequal, coeduca- 
tion, prearranged, reinstal; cohabitation, prehistoric, recast 
(re-read). 

Note. — The Botanical Gazette prints: cooperate, reenter, etc. 

Exceptions are combinations with proper names, long 
or unusual formations, and words in which the 
omission of the hyphen would convey a meaning 
different from that intended: 

Pre-Raphaelite, re-Tammanize; re-postpone, re-pulverization ; 
re-formation (as distinguished from reformation), re-cover 
(=cover again), re-creation. 

188. The negative particles "un-," "in-," and '*a-" do 
not usually require a hyphen : 

unmanly, undemocratic, inanimate, indeterminate, illimitable, 
impersonal, asymmetrical. 

Exceptions would be rare and artificial combinations. 
The particle "non-," on the contrary, ordinarily calls 
for a hyphen, except in the commonest words : 

non-aesthetic, non -subservient, non-contagious, non-ability, 
non-interference, non-unionist, non -membership; but: nonage, 
nondescript, nonessential, nonplus, nonsense, noncombatant. 

189. " Quasi " prefixed to a noun or an adjective requires 
a hyphen : 

quasi-corporation, quasi-historical. 



66 The University of Chicago Press 

190. **Over" and "under" prefixed to a word should not 

be followed by a hyphen, except in rare cases (lengthy 

words, etc.) : 

overbold, overemphasize, overweight, underfed, underestimate, 
undersecretary; but: over-soul, under-man, over-spiritualistic. 

191. The Latin prepositions "ante," "anti," "inter," 

"intra," "post," "sub," and "super" prefixed to a 

word do not ordinarily require a hyphen : 

antedate, antechamber, antediluvian, antidote, antiseptic (but: 
anti-imperialistic — cf. 187), international, interstate, intramural 
(but: intra-atomic), postscript, postgraduate, subtitle, subcon- 
scious, superfine. 

Exceptions are such formations as — 

ante-bellum, ante-Nicene, anti-Semitic, inter-university, post- 
revolutionary. 

192. "Extra," "infra," "supra," and "ultra" as a rule 

call for a hyphen: 

extra-hazardous, infra-mundane, supra-temporal, ultra-con- 
servative (but: Ultramontane). 

193. In fractional numbers, spelled out, connect by a 

hyphen the numerator and the denominator, unless 

either already contains a hyphen : 

"The year is two-thirds gone;" four and five-sevenths; 
thirty -hundredths; but: thirty -one hundredths. 

But do not hyphenate in such cases as — 

"One half of his fortune he bequeathed to his widow; the 
other, to charitable institutions." 



Manual oj Style: Punctuation 67 

194. In the case of two or more compound words occurring 

together, which have one of their component elements 

in common, this element is frequently omitted from 

all but the last word, and its implication should be 

indicated by a hyphen: 

in English- and German -speaking countries; one-, five-, and 
ten-cent pieces; "If the student thinks to find this character 
where many a literary critic is searching — in fifth- and tenth- 
century Europe — he must not look outside of manuscript tra- 
dition." 

Note. — Some writers regard this hyphen as an objectionable 
Teutonism. 

195. A hyphen is used to indicate a prefix or a suffix, as a 

particle or syllable, not complete in itself : 

**The prefix a-;" "The German diminutive suffixes -chen 
and -kin." 

196. A hyphen is employed to indicate the syllables of a 
word: 

di-a-gram, pho-tog-ra-phy. 

197. Following is a list of forty words of everyday occur- 
rence which should be hyphenated, and which do 
not fall under any of the above classifications : 

after-years cross-section man-of-war subject-matter 

bas-relief field-work object-lesson terra-cotta 

bee-line folk-song page-proof thought-process 

bill-of-fare food-stuff pay-roll title-page 

birth-rate fountain-head poor-law trade-union 

blood-feud good-will post-office view-point 

blood-relations high-priest price-Ust wave-length 

common-sense horse-power sea-level well-being 

cross-examine ice-cream sense-perception well-nigh 

cross-reference ill-health son-in-law will-power 



68 The University of Chicago Press 



DIVISIONS 

198. Avoid all unnecessary divisions of words. Wherever 
consistent with good spacing, carry the whole word 
over into the next line. 

199. Do not, in wide measures (20 ems or more), divide 
on a syllable of two letters, if possible to avoid 
it. Good spacing, however, is always paramount. 
Words of four letters — ^like on-ly — should never be 
divided; words of five or six — ^like oc-cur, oj-fice, 
let-teTj rare-ly — rarely. 

200. Never let more than two consecutive lines termi- 
nate in a hyphen, if at all avoidable. The next to 
the last line in a paragraph ought not to end in a 
divided word; and the last line (the ''breakline") 
should, in measures of 15 ems and up, contain at 
least four letters. Similarly, avoid a broken word 
at the bottom of a right-hand (recto) page. 

201. Do not divide proper nouns, especially names of 
persons, unless absolutely necessary. 

202. Do not separate (i. e., put in different lines) the 
initials of a name, nor such combinations as A. d., 
P.M., etc. 

203. Avoid the separation of a divisional mark (e.g., (a) 
or (i), in the middle of a sentence, from the section 
which it precedes. 



Manual of Style: Divisions 69 

204. Divide according to pronunciation (the American 

system), not according to derivation (the English 

system) : 

democ-racy, not: demo-cracy; knowl-edge, not: know-ledge; 
aurif-erous, not: auri-jerous; antip-odes (still better: antipo- 
des — see 207), not: anti-podes. 

205. However, divide on etymological lines, or according 

to derivation and meaning, as far as compatible with 

pronunciation and good spacing: 

dis-pleasure is better than displeas-ure; school-master, than 
schoolmas-ter. 

Shun such monstrosities as — 
Passo-ver, diso-bedience, une-ven, disa-bled. 

206. Do not terminate a line in a soft c or g, or in a j. 
Escape the division entirely, if possible; if not pos- 
sible, divide: 

pro-cess, not:' proc-ess; spa-cing, not: spac-ing (the rule being 
that in present participles the -ing should be carried over); 
pro-geny, not: prog-eny; pre-judice, not: prej-udice. 

207. Divide on a vowel wherever practicable. In case a 

vowel alone forms a syllable in the middle of a word, 

run it into the first line ; thus print : 

sepa-rate, not: sep-arate; particu-lar, not: partic-ular; criti- 
cism, not: crit-icism. 

Exceptions are words in -able and -ible, which should 
carry the vowel over into the next line : 
read-able, not: reada-ble; convert-ible, not: converti-ble. 



70 The University of Chicago Press 

208. In hyphenated nouns and adjectives avoid additional 
hyphens : 

object-lesson, not: object-les-son; fellow-being, not: jel-low- 
being; poverty-stricken, not: pov-erty-stricken, much less: 
pover-ty-stricken. 

209. A coalition of two vowel-sounds into one (i. e., a 
diphthong) should be treated as one letter. There- 
fore do not divide, if there is any escape : 

peo-ple (either syllable makes a bad division), Cae-sar (cf. 
201), ail-ing. 

210. In derivatives from words ending in /, the /, in 
divisions, should be carried into the next line with 
the suffix if the accent has been shifted ; if the deriva- 
tive has retained the accent of the parent-word, 
the t should be be left in the first line : 

objec-tive (from ob'ject); deject-ive (from deject'). 

211. The addition of a plural s, adding a new syllable 
to words ending in an 5-sound, does not create a 
new excuse for dividing such words : 

horses and circumstan-ces are impossible divisions. 

212. Adjectives in -ical should be divided on the i: 
phy si-cat, not: phys-ical or physic-al. 

213. Do not divide noth-ing. 



Manual o} Style: Footnotes 71 



FOOTNOTES 

214. For reference indices, as a rule, use superior figures. 
Only in special cases should asterisks, daggers, etc., 
be employed; for instance, in tabular or algebraic 
matter, where figures would be likely to cause con- 
fusion. Index figures in the text should be placed 
after the punctuation marks: 

.... the niceties of style which were then invading Attic 
prose, ^ and which made .... 

' In particular the avoidance of hiatus. 
P = y2-\-y3-* 

* Schenk's equation. 

When figures are not used, the sequence of indices 
should be: 

♦("asterisk'' or "star"), t ("dagger"), t ("double dagger"), 
§ ("section mark"), || ("parallels"), If ("paragraph mark"). 

215. Where references to the same work follow each other 

closely and uninterruptedly, use ibid, instead of 

repeating the title. This ibid, takes the place of as 

much of the previous reference as is repeated. 

Ibid, should, however, not ordinarily be used for the 

first footnote on a verso (left-hand) page; it is better 

usage either to repeat the title, if short, or to use 

loc. cit. or op. cit.: 

^ Spencer, Principles of Sociology, chap. 4. 

^ Ibid. 

3 Ibid.y chap. 5. 

* Spencer, loc. cit. 



72 The University oj Chicago Press 

2 1 6. If the author's name is given in the text in connec- 
tion with a reference to, or a quotation from, his work, 
it should not be repeated in the footnote : 

.... This theory is questioned by Herbert, as follows: 
*' I cannot admit . . . . "^ 

* Laws of the Ancients, I, 153. 

217. It is better to place the index figure in the text after 
the quotation than before it (see illustration above). 

218. Ordinarily, omit "Vol.," "chap.," and "p." in 
references to particular passages. Use Roman numer- 
als (capitals) for Volume, Book, Part, and Division ; 
Roman numerals (lower-case) for chapter and pages 
of introductory, matter (Preface, etc.) ; and Arabic 
numerals for number (Heft) and text pages. Only 
when confusion would be liable to arise, or in excep- 
tional cases, use "Vol.," etc., in connection with the 
numerals : 

^ Miller, The French Revolution (2ded.; London: Abra- 
hams, 1888), II, Part IV, iii. 

' S. I. Curtiss, "The Place of Sacrifice among Primitive 
Semites," Biblical World, XXI (1903), 248 ff. 

3 "Structural Details in Green Mountain Region," Bulletin 
iQS, U. S. Geological Survey. 

219. The date of publication in a reference to a periodical 
should immediately follow the volume number, and 
be put in parentheses (see above illustration). 

220. In work set on the linotype machine footnotes should 
be numbered consecutively through an article, or by 



Manual oj Style: Footnotes 73 

chapters in a book, to save resetting in case of 
change (see ** Hints to Authors and Editors," note 
under *' Footnotes," p. 96). 

Note. — Exceptions to these rules are footnotes in the Botani- 
cal Gazette, the Astrophysical Journal, and Classical Philology 
and the Classical Journal, which have adopted the following 
styles : 

Botanical Gazette — 

1 Livingston, B. E., (i) On the nature of the stimulus which 
causes the change in form of polymorphic green algae. Bot. 
Gaz. 30:289-317. 1900. 

, (2) Further notes on the physiology of polymorphism 

in the green algae. Bot. Gaz. 32:292-302. 1901. 

2 Castle, W. E., The heredity of sex. Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. 40:187-218. 1903. 

Astrophysical Journal — 

I "Revision of Wolf's Sun-Spot Relative Numbers," Monthly 
Weather Review, 30, 171, 1902. 

^Astrophysical Journal, 10, 333, 1899. 

3 Wolf, Astronomische Mittheilungen, No. 12, 1861. 

Classical Philology and Classical Journal — 

1 Gilbert Greek Constitutional Antiquities, p. 199. 

2 G. L. Hendrickson "Origin and Meaning of the Ancient 
Characters of Style," Am. Jour. Phil. XXV (1905), pp. 250-75. 

3 Cicero De offlciis i. 133-36, 140. 

Biblical World, Botanical Gazette, Elementary School Teacher, 
Journal of Political Economy, Journal of Semitic Languages and 
Literatures, Journal of Sociology, and Journal of Theology num- 
ber their footnotes consecutively throughout an article; Astro- 
physical Journal, Classical Journal, Classical Philology, Journal 
of Geology, Modern Philology, and School Review, from i up on 
each page. 



74 The U mv er s it y of Chicago Press 



TABULAR WORK 

221. In ii-pt. and lo-pt. matter open (unruled) tables 
should ordinarily be set in 9-pt. leaded; ruled, in 
8-pt. solid. In 9-pt. matter both open and ruled 
tables should be set in 8-pt. soHd. In 8-pt. matter 
open tables should be set in 6-pt. leaded; ruled, in 
6-pt. solid. In 6-pt. matter both open and ruled 
tables should be set in 6-pt. solid. 

222. Captions for the columns of open tables and box- 
heads for ruled tables should ordinarily be set in 
6-pt. In ruled tables with box-heads of several stories, 
the upper story — ^primary heads — should be set in 
caps and small caps ; the lower — secondary — in caps 
and lower-case. Wherever small caps are used in 
box-heads, the "stub" (i.e., first column) head 
should, as a rule, also be set in caps and small caps. 

223. In ruled tables there should be at least two leads' 
space between the horizontal rules and the matter 
inclosed, and, if practicable, at least the equivalent 
of an en-quad, of the type in which the body of 
the table is set, between the perpendicular rules and 
the matter inclosed. 

224. In open tables set by hand, periods, one em apart 
and aligned, should be used between the columns; 
when set on the linotype machine, use regular 



Manual of Style: Tabular Work 75 

leaders. In ruled tables, in the ''stub," leaders 
should usually be employed, if there is room. (A 
leader is a piece of type, having dots ["period 
leader"] or short lines [''hyphen leader"] upon 
its face, used in tables, indexes, etc., to lead the eye 
across a space to the right word or number.) 

225. In columns of figures, for blanks use leaders the 
width of the largest number in the column ; that is, 
for four digits use a 2-em leader, etc. (each em 
containing two dots; in no case, however, should less 
than two dots be used). Center the figures in the 
column; if they cannot be put in the exact center, 
and there is an unequal number of digits in the 
groups, leave more space on the right than on the left. 

226. When there is reading-matter in the columns of a 
ruled table, it should be centered, if possible ; if any 
line runs over, use hanging indention, and align all 
on the left. 

227. All tables, and the individual columns in tables, 
should be set to even picas, or nonpareils, if 
practicable. 

228. Double rules should be used at the top of all tables, 
but perpendicularly, as a usual thing, only when a 
table is doubled up on itself. 

229. Tables of two columns only should be set as open; 
of three or more, as ruled. 



76 



The University of Chicago Press 



230. ''Table I," etc., in headlines of tables should ordi- 
narily be set in caps of the type in which the body of 
the table is set; the following — descriptive — line, if 
any, in caps and small caps of the same type. A 
single (descriptive) headhne, not preceded by the 
number of the table, may be set in straight small 
caps of the type of the text in which the table is 
inserted. 

231. Specimen tables for illustration: 

TABLE I 

Series of Heads of Bands in the Spectrum of Barium 

Fluoride 



Series 


A 


B 


C 


I 


20111.0 
20197.8 
19842 . 7 
19711.7 
19416.2 

19531-9 


-0.4302 

-0.441 

-0.4362 

-0-35765 
-0.3932 

-0.479 


9-034 
7.06 

13-522 
16.715 
10.618 


2 


■2 




A 


C 




6 


7.19 





TABLE II — Continued 



Series C 


Series C 


m 


iVobs. 


iVcalc. 


m 


iVobs. 


N calc. 




I 

2 

3 

4 

5 


17094.8 
100.6 
106.4 
112. 2 
116. 5 
120.8 


17095.0 
100.8 
106.3 
III. 4 
116. 2 
120.6 


6 

7 

8 

9 

10 


17124.6 
128.3 

131-7 
134.6 

137-3 


17124-7 
128.4 

131-7 
134-7 
137-4 



Manual o j Style: Tabular Work 



77 



TABLE SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES 



States 



Illinois. . . 
Wisconsin 
Minnesota 
Michigan. 
Indiana .. 

Total 



No. OF 




Number of Employees 


Facto- 
ries 






Men 


Women 


Boys 


Girls 


527 


12,306 


809 


115 


^3 


117 


4,075 


618 


79 


5 


245 


6,714 


2>^>^ 


35 


• • 


203 


5.923 


414 


. . . 


• • 


370 


8,451 


511 


26 


6 


1,462 


37,469 


2,690 


155 


34 



Total 

13,253 

4,777 
7,087 

6,337 
8,994 

40,448 



Settings 







Wedge 







5 


10 


15 


cm. 


cm. 


cm. 


cm. 


M3I 


145-5 


158.3 


187. 1 


142.4 


144 


3 


160.9 


186.9 


143 -o 


143 


8 


159 6 


184.8 


142.2 


144 


9 


1593 


186.2 




144.2 






142.68 


144 


54 


159- 52 


186.25 



Diaph. I over s,. 
Diaph. 0.29 cm. over 

wedge. 
Reading of pointer, with 

meter - stick touching 

s, and screen 163.66 

cm. 




TECHNICAL TERMS 



EXPLANATION OF TECHNICAL TERMS 

The Point System — 

232. The point is the underlying unit of all typographical 
measures. 

233. The standard of measurement is the pica. A pica 
is twelve points (one-sixth of an inch). 

This line is set in 12-pt. {pica). 
This line is set in 11 -pt. {small pica). 
This line is set in lo-pt. (long primer). 
This line is set in 9-pt. {bourgeois). 
This line is set in 8-pt. {brevier). 
This line is set in 7-pt. {minion). 

This line is set in 6-pt. {nonpareil). 
This line is set in s-pt. (pearl) , 

The sizes larger or smaller than these are seldom 
used in book composition. 

Styles of Type — 

234. Ordinary type is called roman. To "roman-quote" 
is to put in roman type between quotation marks. 
This line is set in roman. 

235. Type with a sloping face is called italic or italics. 
ItaHc is indicated in manuscripts by a straight line 
under the word or words (see p. 106). 

This line is set in italics. 

81 



82 The University of Chicago Press 

236. Type with a heavy black face is called hold-face. 
Bold-face is indicated by a wave-line (see p. 106). 
This line is set in bold-face. 

237. The body of a type is called the shank; the upper 
surface, bearing the character, the face; the part 
of the face projecting beyond the shank, the kern; 
the part of the shank projecting beyond the face, 
the shoulder. 

238. A fonlj or complete assortment of a given size, of 
type includes large capitals {^'caps^^)y small capitals 
(^' small caps^')f and lower- case letters (so called from 
being placed in the lower half of the printer's case). 
Caps are indicated by three straight lines; small 
caps, by two (see p. 106). 

THESE ARE CAPS OF g-PT. ROMAN. 

THESE ARE SMALL CAPS OF Q-PT. ROMAN. 

These are lower-case of 9-pt. roman. 

Spacing — 

239. An em, em-quad, or simply quad (= quadrat) is a 
block of type the top of which forms a perfect 
square. A 12-pt. quad is thus a piece of metal 
one-sixth of an inch square at the ends. The term 
em is also used of the size of such a square in any 
given size of type as a unit of measurement. 
^* Indent 8-pt. 2 ems " thus means that the line should 
be indented 16 points. An em-dash is a dash the 
width of an em. 



Manual of Style: Technical Terms 83 

240. Two- and three-em quads are multiples of the above, 
cast in one block of type-metal. Two- and three-em 
dashes are dashes the width of 2- and 3-em quads, 
respectively. 

241. An en-quad is half the size of an em-quad in width. 
Thus an 8-pt. en-quad is 4 points wide (thick) and 
8 points long (deep). An en-dash is a dash the 
width of an en-quad. 

242. A three-em space is one-third of an em in thickness. 
This is also called a thick space, and is the standard 
space used to separate words. 

243. A jour-em space is one-fourth of an em; a jive-em 
space is one-fifth of an em. Four- and 5-em spaces 
are also called thin spaces. 

244. A hair- space is any space thinner than a 5-em. 

This line is spaced with em-quads. 

This line is spaced with en -quads. 

This line is spaced with 3-em spaces. 

This line is spaced with 4-em spaces. 

This line is spaced with 5-em spaces. 

The letters in this word are hair-spaced: America. 

This is a 3-em dash: 

This is a 2 -em dash: 

This is an em-dash: — ' ■ 

This is an en-dash: - 

245. Space evenly. A standard line should have a 3-em 
space between all words not separated by other 
punctuation points than commas, and after commas; 



84 The University of Chicago Press 

an en- quad after semicolons, and colons followed by 
a lower-case letter; two 3 -em spaces after colons 
followed by a capital; an em-quad after periods, 
and exclamation and interrogation points, conclud- 
ing a sentence. If necessary to reduce, begin with 
commas, and letters of slanting form — i. e., with a 
large "shoulder " on the side adjoining the space; if 
necessary to increase, begin with overlapping let- 
ters — i.e., with ''kerns" protruding on the side 
adjoining the space — straight-up-and-down letters, 
and points other than periods and commas (in this 
order). In a well-spaced line, with a 3-em space 
between a majority of the words, there should not 
be more than an en-quad between the rest; this 
proportion should be maintained in increasing or 
reducing. To justify a line is to adjust it, making 
it even or true, by proper spacing. 

246. Do not follow an exceptionally thin-spaced line with 
an exceptionally wide-spaced one, or vice versa, if 
at all avoidable. 

247. Never hair- space, or em-quad, a line to avoid a 
run-over. 

248. Do not space out the last line of a paragraph 
allowing of an em's or more indention at the end. 

249. Short words, like ''a," ''an," etc., should have the 
same space on each side. 



Manual of Style: Technical Terms 85 

250. Use a thin space after §, ^, and similar signs; before 
"f.," *'ff.," and the metric symbols; and between 
"A.M.;' "p.m.," "A.D.," "B.C.," "i.e.," ''e.g.": 

"§ 14. Be it further ordained ....;" pp. 10 ff.; 16 cm.; 
1906 A. D. 

251. In American and English sums of money no space 
is used between $ and £ (pounds), a hair-space 
between s. (shillings) and d, (pence), and the 
numerals : 

$2.75; £10 ss. 2d. 

252. After Arabic numerals at the beginning of lines, 
denoting subsections, there should be an en- quad; 
after Roman numerals, two 3-em spaces. After 
Roman numerals in cap, cap-and-small-cap, or 
small-cap center-heads there should be an em-quad. 
Small-cap headings should have an en-quad, cap- 
and-small-cap and cap headings, two 3-em spaces, 
between the words. 

253 . Scripture passages should be spaced thus : 
II Cor. 1:16-20; 2:5 — 3:12. 

254. In formulae, and elsewhere, put a thin space on 
each side of mathematical signs. Between letters 
forming products, and before superior figures 
indicating powers, ordinarily no space should be 
used: 



86 The University of Chicago Press 

Indentation (Printer's Term: Indention) — 

255. In measures of less than 10 picas' width, indent all 
sizes I em. In measures of from 10 to 20, indent 
ii-pt. I em; lo-pt., ij; 9-pt., ij; 8-pt., i|; 6-pt., 2. 
In measures of from 20 to 30, indent ii-pt. ij ems; 
lo-pt., I J; 9-pt., if; 8-pt., 2; 6-pt., 2 J. This is 
for plain paragraphs. In hanging indentions, in 
measures of less than 10 picas, indent all sizes 
I em; from 10 to 20, ii-pt., lo-pt., 9-pt., and 8-pt., 
ij ems; 6-pt., 2 ems; from 20 to 30, ii-pt., lo-pt., 
9-pt., and 8-pt., 2 ems; 6-pt., 3 ems. 

256. In poetry, center the longest line and let the inden- 
tion be governed by that; unless the longest line 
is of disproportionate length, in which case an 
average of the long lines should be struck, the idea 
being to give the whole a centered appearance. 
Where quotations from different poems, following 
each other in close succession, vary but slightly in 
length of verse lines, it is better to indent all alike. 

Indent according to rhymes and length of lines. 
In blank verse, where the lines are approximately of 
the same length, they should be aligned. If con- 
secutive lines rhyme, they should likewise, as a rule, 
be aligned. If the rhymes alternate, or follow at 
certain intervals, indent the rhyming lines alike ; that 
is, if, e. g., lines i and 3, and 2 and 4, rhyme, set the 
former flush in the measure previously determined 



Manual of Style: Technical Terms 87 

by the longest line, and indent the latter (usually one 
em) ; follow this scheme in any similar arrangement. 
If any line is disproportionately short — that is, con- 
tains a smaller number of feet — indent it more : 

And blessed are the homy hands of toil ! 
The busy worid shoves angrily aside 
The man who stands with arms akimbo set, 
Until occasion tells him what to do. 

I laugh at the lore and the pride of man, 
At the sophist schools and the learned clan ; 
For what are they all, in their high conceit, 
When man in the bush with God may meet ? 

So nigh is grandeur to our dust. 

So near is God to man. 
When Duty whispers low, "Thou must," 

The youth replies, "I can." 

Not lightly fall 

Beyond recall 
The written scrolls a breath can float; 

The crowning fact. 

The kingliest act 
Of Freedom is the freeman's vote ! 

257. In ordinary reading-matter ''plain paragraphs" 
are always preferable. Where it is desired to bring 
into relief the opening word or words of a paragraph, 
or the number introducing such paragraph, or where 
a center- head makes more than two lines, "hanging 
indention" is often employed (see 265). 



88 The University of Chicago Press 

Leads — 

258. A lead is a strip of metal used to separate lines of 
type. The ordinary (standard) lead is 2 points 

. . thick. Matter with leads between the lines is 

called leaded; without, solid. 

This book throughout is set leaded. Only this paragraph, 
for illustration, and the Index, are set solid. Nearly all books 
are leaded. 

259. A slug is a strip of metal, thicker than a lead, used 
in the make-up of printed matter into pages, to be 
inserted after headlines, etc. The two standard 
sizes are 6 and 12 points thick, respectively (a 
nonpareil and a pica). 

Heads or Headings — 

260. A center-head is a headline placed at equal distances 
from both margins of the page or column. Center- 
heads are usually set in caps or small caps. This 
is a center-head: 

SEC. VIT. THE PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY 

When such center-head makes more than two 
lines, either the (inverted) ''pyramid" form or 
"hanging indention" is employed: 

ART EDUCATION FOR THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, AS SHOWN AT 
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION IN THE 
NORMAL SCHOOLS, ART SCHOOLS, AND 
ART HANDICRAFT 

ART EDUCATION FOR THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, AS SHOWN AT 
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION IN THE NORMAL 
SCHOOLS, ART SCHOOLS, AND ART HANDICRAFT 



Manual of Style: Technical Ter^ns 89 

261. A side-head is a headline placed at the side of the 
page or column. It may either be set in a separate 
line, in which case it is usually set flush — that is, in 
alignment with the margin of the type-page; or 
run in — that is, run together in a continuous line 
with the paragraph to which it belongs. The latter 
is the more common form. Side-heads are most 
frequently set in italics ; sometimes in caps and small 
caps or in bold-face (see 156) : 

Side-head — 

A side -head is a headline .... 

Side-head. — A side-head is ... . 

Side-head. — A side -head is ... . 

Side-head — 

A side -head is ... . 

262. A cut-in head is a head placed in a box cut into 

the side of the type-page, usually set in different 

type, and as a rule placed under the first two lines 

of the text : 

In making inquiry, therefore, into the value of fraternity 

life among the children, it is necessary to test it entirely in 

accordance with its power to contribute to the 

rJfl'^L^^ welfare of the school as a social whole. The 
Influence 

school, being a social organization, has a right 
to demand that every individual contribute the best that is 
in him to the good of all. In making this contribution, it 

263. A hox-head is a head for a column in a ruled 
table (see 231). 



90 The University of Chicago Press 

264. A running-head is a headline placed at the top of 
each page of a book, etc., usually giving the main 
title of the work on the left-hand (verso) page, and 
the title of the chapter, or other subdivision, on 
the right-hand (recto) page. A good v^orking rule 
for running-heads is to set them in — roman or italic — 
capitals two sizes (points) smaller than the type 
of the text. 

Paragraphs — 

265. Two kinds of paragraphs are distinguished — plain 
and hanging. A plain (or regular) paragraph has 
the first line indented, and the others set flush. A 
hanging paragraph (^^ hanging indention^^) has the 
first line set flush, and the others indented: 

Human Nature and the Social Order. By Charles Horton 
CooLEY. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902- 
Pp. viii-}-404. 
In terms of his own thesis Dr. Cooley has transformed 

the social materials of his times into a personal product; 

his mind has reorganized and reproduced the suggested 

Proofs — 

266. A galley-proof is an impression of the type contained 
in a long, shallow receptacle of metal, known as a 
galley, into which the compositor empties the mate- 
rial as he sets it line by line from the manuscript. 

267. A page-proof is an impression of the type material 
made up into page- form. 



Manual of Style: Technical Terms 91 

268. A plate- proof or foundry- pr 00 j is a proof taken of the 
type-page immediately before an electrotype cast is 
made of it. This proof has a black border around 
the pages, made by ink from the metal frame used 
to hold the type in place while the cast is being 
made. Most publications nowadays are printed from 
such plates, and not directly from the type. 

269. A foul proof is a galley-proof containing author's 
corrections. 

270. A revise is a new proof of type corrected from a 
marked proof. 

Make-up^ 

271. The arranging into page-fonn of type-lines is called 
• the make-up. 

272. A folio is a page-number. Even numbers are placed 
on the verso; odd, on the recto. A drop-folio is a 
page-number placed at the bottom of a page. 

273. A half-title^ or bastard title, is the abbreviated title of 
a book placed on a separate page preceding the full 
title-page, or the title of a part, chapter, etc., preced- 
ing such part or chapter on a separate page in the 
body of the book. 

Typesetting Machines — 

274. The linotype — named Mergenthaler after its inven- 
tor — is a composing-machine on which, by touching 



92 



The University of Chicago Press 



a keyboard, the matrices from which the characters 
are cast arrange themselves automatically in lines 
in a receptacle, which then is brought in contact, 
on the same machine, with molten type-metal, 
through a mechanical device which liberates and 
arranges in order on a galley the stereotyped strips, 
each consisting of a line of type. 

275. The monotype — named Lanston after the patentee — 
is a composing-machine on which, by touching a key- 
board, perforations are made in strips of paper, which 
then are transferred to a second machine, where the 
matrices to which the perforations correspond are 
brought in contact with molten type-metal, each 
character being cast separately and arranged auto- 
matically on a galley in justified Hnes. 



APPENDIX 



HINTS TO AUTHORS AND EDITORS 

Preparation of Manuscripts — 

Manuscripts should be either typewritten or in a 
perfectly clear handwriting. The former is preferable. 

The sheets should be of uniform size; q^Xii" is a 
desirable size. 

Only one side of the paper should be used. 

Never roll manuscripts; place them flatly in a box 
or an envelope. 

The sheets should not be fastened together except by 
pins or clips, which can be easily removed. 

When one piece of a page is to be fastened to another, 
use mucilage, not pins. Pins are liable to become un- 
fastened, and the slips lost or misplaced. 

Liberal margins should be left at the top and left- 
hand side of the sheets. This space will be needed by 
the reader or printer for directions. 

The pages should be numbered consecutively. In- 
serted and omitted pages should be clearly indicated. 
Thus, sheets to be inserted after p. 4 should be marked 
"4A," "4B," etc.; sheets omitted between p. 4 and p. 8 
should be indicated by numbering p. 4, "4-7." 

Additions to original pages should be placed after the 
sheets to which they belong, and should be marked 
"Insert A," "Insert B," etc. The places where they are 

95 



g6 The University o j Chicago Press 

to be inserted should be indicated by writing "Here 
insert A," etc., on the margin of the original pages. 

Paragraphs — 

Paragraphs should be plainly indicated, either by 
indenting the first line or by a ^ mark. 

Footnotes — 

Footnotes should be clearly designated, either by 
separating them from the text by running a line across 
the page, or by using ink of different color. Some writers 
make a perpendicular fold in the paper, using two-thirds 
of the space for the text and one-third for the notes. 

The word in the text carrying the note should be 
followed by a superior figure corresponding to that pre- 
ceding the note. 

Footnotes should never be run into the text in manu- 
scripts, whether in parentheses or otherwise. 

Note. — It is important to remember that in matter set on the 
linotype machine the slightest change necessitates the resetting of 
the whole line. Since it is impossible to foresee how the notes will 
happen to come out in the make-up, it is impracticable to number 
them from i up on each page. The best way is to number them 
consecutively throughout an article, or by chapters in a book; bearing 
in mind, however, the very essential point that the change, by omission 
or addition, of one single number involves the resetting of the whole 
first line of each succeeding note to the end of the series. 

This difficulty is not met with in matter set on the monotype 
machine or by hand, where the change of a number amounts simply 
to substituting one figure for another. 



Manual oj Style: Appendix 97 

Proper Names, etc. — 

Proper names, foreign words, and figures should, in 
handwritten manuscript, be written with the utmost care 
and distinctness. 

Title- Pages, etc. — 

Copy for title-pages, prefaces, tables of contents, etc., 
should be submitted with the manuscript. Copy for 
indices should be compiled from the special set of page- 
proofs furnished for this purpose, and promptly delivered 
to the printers. Unnecessary delay is often caused by 
postponing these details till the last minute. 

Reading of Proofs— 

Read and return your proofs promptly. 

In marking proof-sheets, use the standard proofreaders' 
marks (see p. 106). Do not adopt a system of your 
own, which, however plain it may seem to you, is liable 
to appear less so to the compositor. 

Be careful to answer all queries in the proofs. Delays 
and errors often result from not attending to them. 

Remember that changes in the type cost money. The 
omission or addition of a word in the middle of a para- 
graph may necessitate resetting the whole of this from 
that point on; and if such alteration is made in the page- 
proof, it may further involve repaging the entire article 
or chapter. Make your manuscript as perfect as possible 
before delivering it to the printer. Any necessary altera- 
tions should be made in the galley-proof, as each succeed- 



98 The University o j Chicago Press 

ing stage will add to the cost. Corrections in plates should 
be studiously avoided. Not only are they expensive, but 
they are apt to injure the plates. 

The original manuscript should in each instance be 
returned with the galley-proof, in order that the proof- 
reader may refer to it, should any question arise; and 
each successive set of proofs returned should be accom- 
panied by the previous marked set. This will assist in 
calculating the cost of alterations properly chargeable to 
you. 



Manual of Style: Appendix 99 



HINTS TO PROOFREADERS 

Read everything as if you yourself were the author, 
and your reputation and fortune depended upon its ac- 
curacy. 

Be particularly careful about proper names and figures. 
If the copy is not perfectly clear, or if you have reason to 
doubt its correctness, look it up, or query it to the author. 

In asking questions of authors or editors, make your 
point clear. A simple query is often not enough to draw 
attention to the particular point you have in mind. 
Queries in the manuscript should be transferred to the 
proof, or attention should be directed in the manuscript to 
the proof. 

Be discreet about your queries. Don't stultify your- 
self and discredit the office by asking foolish questions 
on the proof. The author will be thankful for any sensible 
suggestion you may make, but will resent trivial criticisms. 
About many matters in this world, grammar and logic 
included, there is abundant room for differences of 
opinion. Grant writers the privilege of preferring theirs 
to yours. 

Make a study of the "personal equation" in the case 
of those individuals (editors and others) with whom you 
as a proofreader will constantly have to deal. One person 
may expect of you as a matter of course what another 
might regard as an unwarranted interference. 



loo The University oj Chicago Press 

Never hesitate to correct anything that is palpably 
wrong, however positively the copy may assert the con- 
trary. Remember that the blame for the error will 
eventually be laid at your door — and justly. 

Do not follow copy blindly, unreasoningly. Proof- 
reading machines are yet to be invented. Follow copy 
only when, and as far as, it is correct. Whether or not it is 
correct, you are the judge. 

Do not excuse yourself by saying, '*I thought the copy 
was edited;" or, '*I thought the author knew what he 
wanted." Editors are fallible, and should be made to 
live up to their own rules. And as for authors, typo- 
graphically they very often do not know what they want 
until they see it in type — and not always then. 

Do not ask authors or editors to decide questions of 
style. The Manual oj Style is primarily meant for you. 
Learn its rules by heart, so that you may correct any 
violation of them you may come upon, without asking 
questions. Stand on your own feet. In case the copy 
is not prepared, you ought to be capable of doing the 
preparing yourself. 

Do not fall into the fallacy that the author's or editor's 
O. K. relieves you of all or any part of your responsibility. 
Authors and editors depend on the proofreader to see to 
it that the typographical requirements have been met, 
and that the adopted style has been adhered to, and 
affix their signatures only on that supposition. 

Do not shield yourself behind your copyholder. The 



Manual o j Style: Appendix loi 

copyholder is there to assist you, not to tell you how to 
do things. If you think you have cause to suspect her 
version of a matter, investigate for yourself. 

Do not read to your copyholder. She is supposed to 
read to you. A copyholder may or may not be experi- 
enced and trustworthy enough to control the situation; 
but that is not what she is paid for. Besides, your mind 
will be freer to attend to your own part of the work, if 
you attempt to do only one thing at a time. 

Do not suggest from your proof a word or phrase which 
the copyholder has difficulty in making out from the 
manuscript. Let her work out her own salvation. If 
she cannot, remember that you are the arbiter, and not the 
compositor. 

Let your copyholder do your revising, except in diffi- 
cult cases. She likes to, and can do it. Your own time 
is too valuable — or ought to be. 

If memoranda or verbal instructions are given you 
bearing upon any particular piece of work you may have 
in hand, you will be expected to see to it that such direc- 
tions are adhered to without any further reminder. 

If work, for whatever reason, is accumulating upon 
your table faster than you can attend to it, or if you find 
that you cannot single-handed get out a piece of work at 
the time promised, notify the one in charge — and notify 
him in time. 

Do not permit yourself to be stampeded. Cultivate 
speed, but remember that accuracy is even more impor- 



I02 The University of Chicago Press 

tant. Do things right. If the necessary time is not given 
you, take it — within reasonable limits. The credit accru- 
ing to you from detecting an important error at the last 
moment is likely to outlast the displeasure at your lack 
of dispatch. 

In unavoidable cases of "rush," where conditions and 
orders are imperative, protect yourself by letting it be 
understood that you have done your best in the time allot- 
ted you, but must disclaim any further responsibility. 

Whoever has the final revision for press of a journal or 
a book should see to it that everything is complete, and that 
all the preliminary matter — title, copyright, contents, etc. 
— is there. 

Contents of journals should be made up at the time 
the first page-proofs are read. 

Put your initial at the top of every galley you read 
or revise. This will save time in tracing proofs, and insure 
the giving of credit where it belongs. 



Manual of Style: Appendix 103 



HINTS TO COPYHOLDERS 

Cultivate a low, soft, clear reading-voice. Do not 
imagine that it is necessary for everyone in the room to 
hear you. 

Remember that, from the proofreader's point of view, 
the small words are as essential as the big ones. Get 
them all in — and get them in right. 

Enunciate your plural 5's distinctly. 

Do not get offended when your reader asks you to 
repeat, or to look at the copy for himself. He intends no 
aspersion on your personal integrity. 

Regulate and equalize your speed. Do not race at a 
break-neck pace through typewritten copy, while you 
thread your path fumblingly through the mazes of manu- 
script. 

Do not keep guessing at a word. Look at it closely, 
consider the context, and do not speak it until you have 
made it out — or at least made the very best guess of 
which you are capable. 

Sit at right angles to your reader, if possible. He 
hears you better, and you can watch his hand better, if 
you do. 

Give your reader a chance to make his corrections. 
Slow up the moment he puts his pencil to the paper. 
This will save you going over the same ground twice. 

Evolve your own system of signals. Do not, for 



I04 T h\e Uln iversity of Chicago Press 

instance, waste time by saying ''in italics" for every 
word or letter so treated. Instead, raise your voice, or 
tap the table with your pencil once for each word, or both. 
Such a code need not be intelligible to others than your- 
self and your reader. 

Do not waste time over matters of style. The proof- 
reader is supposed to know the rules without your telling 
him; for instance, what titles are to be set in italics, and 
what roman-quoted. 

Be careful in transferring marks. A mark in the wrong 
place means two errors uncorrected in place of one cor- 
rected. 

In sending out proofs, see that everything is there. 
Arrange the copy and proof-sheets neatly and consecu- 
tively. 

When sending out proofs, consult the job ticket for the 
number wanted, and the name and address of the person 
to whom they are to be sent. If no number is mentioned, 
send two ; if no address is given, send to the editor (or the 
person regularly receiving them). 

Unless otherwise directed, as soon as you have an article 
completed, send it out. Don't wait until you have "a 
whole lot. " 

The manuscript should accompany the galley-proof; 
the foul proof (author's marked galley-proof) should 
accompany the page-proof. In case no galley-proof has 
been sent, the manuscript should accompany the page- 
proof. 



Manual of Style: Appendix 105 

Indicate in the lower left-hand corner the contents of 
all the envelopes you address. 

Fasten your pins in the center at the top, not diago- 
nally in the left-hand corner, thus covering up the direc- 
tions, etc., often written there. 

Return every evening to the file 01 the book-case any 
volume that may have been taken out for reference during 
the day. 

Remember that you are the housekeeper of the proof- 
room, and take pride in its neat and orderly appearance. 
Keeping the records, files, etc., naturally devolves upon 
you. Perfect your system so that everything can be 
located at a moment's notice. The more of that kind of 
work you do without being asked, and the better you do 
it, the more you will be appreciated. 



io6 The University of Chicago Press 



COM 



PROOFREADERS MARKS 

Put in capitols t ' 

Put in 'SMKEL CAPITALS? 



AJ'. 



i.e. P^t in LOWER CASE. 
jurrr,. Put in reman' type. 
dot. Put in italio t3rpe. 
6<iCci Put JP bold face type. 
^ Dele, or delete : take X out. 
9 Letter ^versed — turn. 
Q / <J Indent. J^ake a new paragraph. 
4t Put inspace. 
O Close up — no space. 
N>X Bad spacing :5paceinore evenly. 

I, Wrong foj^t: character of wrong size or style* 
\jj Transp^(|e. 
d [Tarry to the left. 

I CJrry to the right, 
rn 'gfevate. 
D^epress. 

Ij6perfect letter — correct. 
Space shows|between wofds — shove down. 
Straighten^ crooked line. 
^^ Restore or retain words crossed out. 
^ Print (£^, li, etc.) as a logotype, 
oat-iet coU Words are omitted from, or in, xopy. 
(T) Query to author; Is this right ? 




INDEX 



INDEX 

[The numbers, unless otherwise indicated, refer to sections] 



"A" and "an": use of, before h and «, 
104; spacing of, 249. 

"a-" (negative particle), compounds with, 
188. 

Abbreviations: in literary references, 100; 
of biblical books, list of, 99; of names 
of states, 96; of titles of publications, 
omission of period after initials used for, 
no; rules for, 96-101; use of apos- 
trophe in, no; of period after, no. 

"-able" and "-ible," in di\isions, 207. 

Academic degrees, abbreviation and capi- 
taUzation of, 19, 20. 

Accents, retention of, in foreign words 
incorporated into English, 51. 

Acts, juridical, capitalization of names of, 
16. 

A. D. (anno domini): spacing of, 45, 202, 
250; use of small caps for, 45. 

Address: capitalization of titles in direct, 
19. 

Address line: at end of letters, etc., how to 
set, 43; at opening of letters, etc., how 
to set, 54; omission of comma after, 
145- 

Addresses, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; to be roman- 
quoted, 72. 

Adjectives: capitalization of, in titles of 
pubUcations, 37; compound, 167; end- 
ing in "-ical," how to divide, 212; 
omission of comma between two, 133; 
proper, capitaUzation of, i (cf. 3, 46). 

Administrative bodies, capitalization of 
names of, 11. 

Adverbial clauses, 136. 

Adverbs: capitalization of, in titles of 
publications, 37; ending in "-ly," not 
to be hyphenated with adjectives or par- 
ticiples, 167; use of comma in connec- 
tion with, 132. 

ffi, rules for use of, 105. 

Ages: historical, linguistic, and geological, 
capitalization of, 12; to be spelled out, 
89. 



Algebraic formulae: letters used to desig- 
nate unknown quantities in, 57; spacing 
of, 254. 

Alignment, quotation marks to be 
"cleared" in, 80. 

Alliances, political, capitalization of names 

of, 14. 
Alphabetizing of names, rules for, 83. 

A. M. {ante meridiem): spacing of, 45, 202 
250; use of small caps for, 45. 

American system of divisions, 204. 

"Ampers and": definition of, 97; when 

used, 97. 
And: "short," 97; when to use comma 

before, 130. 

Anglicized derivatives from Latin and 

Greek, form of diphthongs a and ce in, 

105. 
"Ante," compounds with, 191. 
"Anti," compoimds with, 191. 
Antithetical clauses, 135. 
Apocrypha: Ust of abbreviations for, 99; 

titles of, to be set in roman, 52. 
Apostles, omission of "St." in connection 

with names of, 98. 

Apostrophe: rules for use of , 147-49; use 
of, in abbreviations, no; to form 
plural of numerals, 149; to form pos- 
sessive, 148 (cf. 103); to mark omis- 
sion of figures or letters, 147 (cf. no), 

Appositional clauses, 136. 
Arabic numerals, spacing of, at beginning 
of paragraphs, 252. 

Art, titles of works of, to be roman- 
quoted, 74. 

Article: definite, not to be used in connec- 
tion with "Rev." and "Hon.," 82; 
not to be treated as part of title of peri- 
odicals, 37; indefinite, form of, before 
eu, sounded fe, "one," etc., and long m, 
104. 

Articles, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; to be roman- 
quoted, 72. 



109 



no The University of Chicago Press 



Artificial noun-formations, plural of, 149. 

Artistic schools .capitalization of names of , 7 . 

"As follows," use of colon in connection 
with, 119. 

Asterisk, use of, for footnote index, 214. 

Astronomical terms: capitalization of, 
41; use of italics for, 61. 

A strophysical Journal: connecting num- 
bfers in, 157 note; metric and chemical 
symbols in, no note; style ior footnotes 
in, 220 note; use of comma with figiures 
in, 143 note. 

Authors: hints to, pp. 95-98; names of, if 
in text, not repeated in footnotes, 216. 

Bastard title: see Half-title. 

B.C. ("before Christ"): spacing of, 45, 
202, 250; use of small caps for, 45. 

"Bi-," compounds with, 181. 

Bible: books of, abbreviations for, 99; 
capitalization of names for, 2j; titles 
of books of, to be capitalized, 27; to be 
set in roman, 52. 

Biblical : books, abbreviations for, 99, and 
capitalization of names of, 27; parables, 
capitalization of, 28; terms, miscel- 
laneous, capitalization of, 29. 

Bills, legislative, capitalization of, 16. 

Biological terms, use of capitals in, 40. 

Black-face: see Bold-face type. 

Blank verse, indention of, 256. 

Blanks, use of leaders for, in columns of 
figures, 225. 

Blocks, capitalization of names of, 6. 

Bodies: legislative, judiciary, and admin- 
istrative, capitalization of names of, 10; 
military, numbers of, to be spelled 
out, 90. 

Bold-face type: defined, 236; how indi- 
cated, 236. 

"Book," compounds of, 170. 

Books: biblical, abbreviation of, 99, and 
capitaUzation of, 27; capitalization of 
titles of, 37; italics for titles of. 52. 

Botanical Gazette: exception to rule for capi- 
talization of titles of publications in, 37 
note; to hyphenization of compounds 
of "co-,"etc., 187 note; to rule for italics, 
52 note; to rule for quotation marks, 72 
note; metric symbols in, no note; 
footnotes in, 220 note; thousands in, 
143 note. 



Botanical terms: use of capitals in, 40; 
of italics, 40, 6 1. 

Bourgeois, explained, 233. 

Box-heads: defined, 263; how to set, 
222; illustrated, 231; omission of 
period after, 112; use of capitals in, 
37. 

Brackets, rules for use of, 162, 163. 

Break, or change, in sentence, to be indi- 
cated by dash, 150. 

Breakline: defined, 200; spacing of, 248. 

Brevier, explained, 233. 

"Brother," compounds of, 174. 

"Brothers," forming part of name of 
firm, 97. 

Buildings, capitaUzation of names of, 6. 

But-clauses, use of comma in connection 
with, 131. 

"By-," compounds with, 186. 

C, soft, do not divide on, 206. 

Capitalization: of abbreviations of aca- 
demic degrees, etc., 20; of books of the 
Bible, 27; of conventions, congresses, 
expositions, etc., 15; of creeds and con- 
fessions of faith, 17; of Egyptian dynas- 
ties, 11; of feast-days, i8; of geographi- 
cal names, 2, 3; of geological epochs, 
12; of governmental departments, 10; 
of historical epochs, 12; of important 
events, 13; of legislative, judiciary, and 
administrative bodies, 10; of Unguistic 
and literary periods, 12; of miscella- 
neous bibUcal terms, 29; of miscella- 
neous historical terms, 14; of monastic 
orders, 8; of names for the Bible, 25; 
of names of regiments, 11; of "nature," 
etc., and abstract ideas, personified, 22; 
of nouns and adjectives used to desig- 
nate the Supreme Being, or any member 
of the Trinity, 21; of organizations 
and institutions, 9, lo; of philosophical, 
literary, and artistic schools, 7; of 
political alliances, 14; of political 
divisions, 4, s; of political parties, 7; 
of pronouns referring to the Supreme 
Being, 21; of proper nouns and adjec- 
tives, I, 3, 46; of regions or parts of 
world, 3; of religious denominations, 7; 
of sessions of Congress, n ; of thorough- 
fares, parks, squares, blocks, buildings, 
etc., 6; of titles, academic degrees, 
orders (decorations), etc., 19 (cf. 42); of 
titles of publications, 37; of treaties, 
acts, laws, bills, etc., 16; of versions of 
the Bible, 26; rules for, 1-49- 



Manual o j Style: Index 



III 



Capitals: how indicated, 238; rules for 
use of . 1-42. 

CapitcJs and small capitals, rules for use 
of, 43, 44, 220, 222. 

Caps: see Capitals. 

Center-heads: defined, 260; illustrated, 
260; use of capitals in, 37. 

Centuries, numbers of ,to be spelled out, go* 

Cf., to be set in roman, 53. 

Chapters, titles of : capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; to be roman- 
quoted, 72. 

Chemical symbols, how to treat, no. 

Christian names, to be spelled out, 83. 

"Church," when capitalized, 24. 

Church fathers: omission of "St." in con- 
nection with names of, 98; when capi- 
talized, 23. 

Citations: from different authors follow- 
ing each other uninterrupted by any 
intervening original matter, 65; of pas- 
sages in author's own words, 64 (cf. 
75); rules for reduction of, 75-77; for 
punctuation of, 102. 

Civil titles, capitalization of, 19. 

Classical Journal, form of footnotes in, 
220 note. 

Classical Philology, form of footnotes 
in, 220 note. 

Clauses: adverbial, 136; antithetical, 
i35'» appositional, 136; complemen- 
tary, 153; conjunctive, 131; paren- 
thetical, 136, 151, 153, 161; participial, 
134; summarizing, 154. 

"Cleared," definition of, 80. 

"Co-," compounds with, 187. 

Colon: definition and illustration of use 
of, ii8; rules for use of, 118-23; use 
of, after salutatory phrase at beginning 
of letters, 120; between place of publi- 
cation and publisher's name, 122; in 
connection with introductory remarks 
of speaker, 120; to emphasize close 
coimection between two clauses, 118; 
to introduce statement, extract, etc., 
n8; to separate chapter and verse in 
Scripture passages, 121; clause from 
illustration or amplification, 118; hours 
and minutes in time indications, 121. 

Columns of figures, spacing of, 225. 

Combination of words into one adjective 
preceding noun, use of hyphen for, 167. 

Comma: definition and illustrations of 



use of, 128; omission of, between two 
adjectives, 133; in .signatures and after 
author's name at beginning of articles. 
14s; use of, after digits indicating 
thousands, 143; before "and," "or," 
and "nor," 130; before "of" in con- 
nection with residence or position, 142; 
between consecutive pages, etc., 143; 
between month and year, 144; in con- 
nection with adjectival phrases, 138; 
with adverbial clauses, 136; with anti- 
thetical clauses, 135; with appositional 
clauses, 136; with clauses ending in 
different prepositions, 139; with con- 
junctions, 131; with conjunctions, ad- 
verbs, connective particles, and phrases, 
132; with parenthetical clauses, 136; 
with participial clauses, 134; to indicate 
omissions, 141 ; to separate identical, or 
similar, words, 137; to separate num- 
bers, 140; to separate proper nouns, 
129; rules for use of, 128-46. 

Commercial: firms, how to treat titles of, 
97; organizations and institutions, capi- 
talization of names of, 9. 

"Company," to be abbreviated when 
forming part of name of firm, 97. 

Complementary clauses, use of dashes in 
connection with, 153. 

Component elements, omission of, in com- 
pound words, 194. 

Compound adjectives, 167. 

Compound words, omission of element 
common to two or more, to be indicated 
by hyphen, 194. 

Compounds: hyphenated, capitalization 
of nouns constituting parts of, 
in titles, 39; of "book," "house," 
"miU," "room," "shop," "work," 
170; of "father," "mother," "brother," 
"sister," "daughter," "parent." and 
"foster," 174; of "fellow," 173; of 
"god," 179; of "half," "quarter," etc., 
180; of "life" and "world," 176; of 
I' maker" and "dealer," 171; of 
"master," 178; of present participles 
with noims or prepositions, 169; of 
"self," 182; of "skin," 177; of "store," 
172; with "ante," "anti," "inter," 
"intra," "post," "sub," and "super," 
191; with "by-," 186, with "co-," 
"pre-," and "re-," 187; with "e.\tra," 
"infra," "supra," and "ultra," 192; 
with "fold," 183; with "great" in lines 
of descent, 175; with "like," 184; 
with negative particles "un-," "in-," 
and "a-," 188; with "non-," 188; 
with "over" and "under," 190; with 



112 The University o j Chicago Press 



"quasi," 189; with "semi." "demi," 
"tri," "bi," etc., 181; with "vice," 
"ex-," "elect," "general," and "lieu- 
tenant," in titles. 185. 

Confessions of faith, capitalization of 

names of, 17. 
Congress: capitalization of names of 

houses of, 10; of sessions of, 11; 

members of, to be lower-cased, 19; 

numbers of sessions of, to be spelled 

out, 90. 
Congresses, capitalization of names of, 15. 

Conjunctions, use of comma in connection 

with, 132. 
Connective particles, use of comma in 

cormection with, 132. 
" Continued": after headlines, to be set in 

italics, 63; at end of articles, etc., to be 

placed between brackets, 163. 

Contraction of word, use of apostrophe 

in, 147. 
Conventions, capitalization of names of , 15. 
Copyholders, hints to, pp. 103-5. 
Creeds, capitalization of names of, 17. 

Cut-in-heads: defined and illustrated, 

262; omission of period after, 112; use 

of capitals in, 37. 
Cycles of poems, titles of: capitalization 

of principal words in, 37; to be itaU- 

cized, 52. 

'Czar," when capitalized, 19. 

Dagger, use of, for footnote index, 214. 

Danish titles of publications, use of capi- 
tals in, 37. 

Dashes: definition and illustrations of use 
of, 150; different sizes of , explained, 239- 
41; illustrated, 244; rules for use of, 
150-59; use of, at end of word or phrase 
implied at beginning of each of succeed- 
ing paragraphs, 155; for emphasis, 152; 
in connection with Uterary references, 
158; with other points, 159; with 
parenthetical clauses, 151, 153; with 
complementary clauses, 153; to connect 
numbers, 157; to denote break, stop, 
transition, or change in sentence, 150; 
to precede summarizing clauses, 154. 

Dates: of publications, to follow volume 
numbers, in references to periodicals, 
2 19; st, d, and th to be omitted from, 92 ; 
use of comma between month and year 
in, 144. 

"Daughter," compounds of, 174. 



"De" and "von," rule for treatment of, 83, 

"Dealer," compounds of, 171. 

Decades, references to, to be spelled out, 
91. 

Decorations, capitalization of names of, 19. 

Degrees, academic, abbreviation and capi- 
talization of, 19, 20. 

"Demi," compoimds with, 181. 

Denominations, religious, capitalization 
of names of , 7. 

Departments: governmental, capitaliza- 
tion of names of, 10; of University of 
Chicago, 42. 

Derivation, division according to, 204, 205. 

Derivatives: from Greek and Latin. 105; 
from proper names, 46; from words 
ending in /, how to divide, 210. 

Diagrams, letters referring to, 58. 

Digraphs, rules for use of, 105. 

Diphthongs, to be treated as one letter in 

divisions, 209. 
Divided word to be avoided: at end of 

next to last line of paragraph, 200; at 

bottom of recto page, 200. 

Division of words: rules for, 198-213; 
systems of, 204; use of hyphen to indi- 
cate, 166. 

Divisional mark in middle of sentences, 
not to be put at end of line, 203. 

Divisions: avoidance of unnecessary, 198; 
on two letters, to be avoided, 199; rules 
for, 198-213. 

Divisions of pubUcations.titlesof : capitali- 
zation of principal words in, 37; to be 
roman-quoted, 72. 

Divisions: poKtical, capitalization of names 
of, 4, 5; numbered, to be spelled out, 
90; of University of Chicago, capitali- 
zation of names of, 42. 

Documents, titles of: capitaHzation of 
principal words in, 37; to be italicized, 
52 (cf. 16). 

Double dagger, use of, for footnote 
index, 214. 

Double rules, use of, in tables, 228. 

Doubt, use of interrogation point to ex- 
press, 116. 

Drop-folio, defined, 272. 

Dutch titles of publications, use of capi- 
tals in, 37. 

Dynasties, Egyptian: capitaHzation of 
names of , 11; to be spelled out, 90. 



Manual of Style: Index 



113 



Editors, hints to, pp. 95-98. 

Educational organizations and institu- 
tions, capitalization of names of, 9. 

E.g.: spacing of, 2 50; to be set inroman,53. 

"Elect," suffixed to titles, 185. 

Ellipses: rules for use of, 164, 165; to be 
treated as part of quotation, 78, 165; 
use of, to indicate omissions, 164. 

Em, defined, 239. 

Em-dash: defined, 239; illustrated, 244; 
use of, for "to" in time indications, 157. 

Emphasis: use of dashes for, 152; of 
exclamation points, 114; of italics. 50. 

Em-quad, defined, 239; illustrated, 244. 

En-dash: defined, 241; illustrated, 244; 
use of, instead of hyphen, in compounds, 
167; for "to" connecting two words or 
figures, 157. 

English: equivalent of foreign word or 
phrase, to be quoted, 68; system of 
division, 204; titles of publications, use 
of capitals in, 37. 

En-quad: defined, 241; illustrated, 244. 

Enumerations, use of parentheses in con- 
nection with letters or figures used to 
indicate subdivisions in, 160. 

Epigrammatic turn, use of dash to indi- 
cate, 150. 

Epochs, historical and geological , capitali- 
zation of names of, 12. 

Equivalent, English, of word or phrase 
from foreign language, to be roman- 
quoted, 68. 

Essays, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; to be italicized, 52. 

Etc.: use of comma before, 130; when 
to be treated as part of quotation, 78. 

Etymology, di\'ision according to (Eng- 
lish system), 204. 

CM, form of indefinite article before. 104. 

Even spacing, importance of, 245. 

Events, important historical, capitaliza- 
tion of names of, 13. 

"Ex-," prefixed to titles, 185. 

Exclamation point, rules for use of, 114, 

lis- 
Explanation: of technical terms, 232-75; 

use of brackets for, 162. 

Expositions, capitaUzation of names of, 15. 
"Extra," compounds with, 192. 
Extracts, rules for punctation of, 102. 



F., ff. (= "following"): spacing of, 250; 
use of, 100. 

Face, defined, 237. 

"Farther" and "further," differentiation 
of, 106. 

"Father": compounds of, 174; when 
capitalized, 23. 

Feast-days, capitalization of names of, i8. 

"Fellow," compounds of, 173. 

Figures: columns of, in tables, 225; rules 
for use of, 84-88. 

Figures (illustrations) in text, letters re- 
ferring to, 58. 

Firms, names of commercial: abbrevia- 
tion of, 97; capitalization of, 9. 

First words: after a colon, when capital- 
ized, 31; following 'Whereas" and 
"Resolved" in resolutions, capitali- 
zation of, 35; in sections of enumera- 
tion, when capitalized, 32; in titles of 
publications, capitalization of, 37; of 
citations, when capitalized, 34 (cf. 118); 
of lines of poetry, capitaUzation of, 30; 
of quotations, when lower-case is used 
for, 49 (cf. 118); of sentences, capitaU- 
zation of, 30. 

Five-em space, defined, 243. 

"Flush," defined, 261. 

"Fold," combinations with, 183. 

FoUo, defined, 272. 

Font, defined, 238. 

Footnotes: exceptions to general style 
for, 220 note; general style for, 218; 
indices for references to, 214; number- 
ing of, 220; rules for, 214-20; samples 
of, 218. 

Foreign institutions and organizations, 
capitalization of titles of, 9. 

Foreign languages: EngUsh translation 
accompanying word, phrase, or passage 
cited from, to be quoted, 68; sentences 
and passages quoted from, how to treat, 
51. 75; words and phrases from, use of 
italics for. 51; words and phrases bor- 
rowed from, incorporated into English, 
how to treat, 51; Ust of, 51. 

Foreign titles of pubUcations, capitaliza- 
tion of, 37. 

"Format" of books (4to, 8vo, etc.), not 
to be treated as abbreviations, no. 

Formulae, spacing of, 254. 

"Fort," to be speUed out, 94. 

"Foster," compounds of, 174. 



114 



The University oj Chicago Press 



Foul proof, defined, 269. 

Foundry-proof, defined, 268. 

Four-em space, defined, 243. 

Fractions, use of hyphen in, 193. 

French: titles of pubUcations, use of capi- 
tals in, 37; use of ligature m in, 105. 

"Further" and "farther," differentiation 
of, 106. 

G, soft, do not divide on, 206. 

Galley, defined, 266. 

Galley-proof, defined, 266. 

"General," combined with title, 185. 

Geographical names, capitalization of, 2 , 3. 

Geological terms, capitalization of, 12. 

Geology, Journal of, metric symbols in, 
no note. 

Geometry, letters used to designate lines, 
etc., in, 57. 

German titles of publications, use of capi- 
tals in, 37. 

Given names: see Christian names. 

"God," compounds of, 179. 

Governmental departments, capitalization 
of names of, 10. 

Grain, abbreviation for, 10 1. 

Gram, abbreviation for, 10 1. 

"Great," compounds of, 175. 

H, form of indefinite article before sounded, 
104. 

Hair-space, defined, 244. 

Hair-spacing, tabooed, 247. 

"Half," combinations of, with nouns, 180. 

Half-title, defined, 273. 

Hanging indention: defined and illus- 
trated, 260, 26s; indention in, 255. 

Headings, described, 260-64. 

HeadUnes: of tables, how to set, 230; 
omission of period after, 112; spacing 
of, 252; word "continued" following, 
to be set in italics, 63. 

Heads: see Headings, Headlines. 

Historical: epochs, capitalization of appel- 
lations for, 12; events, capitalization of , 
13; terms of special significance, capi- 
talization of, 14. 

Holidays: see Feast-days. 

Honorary titles, capitalization of, 19. 

"House," compounds of, 170. 



Hyphen leader, defined, 224. 

Hyphenated words: division of, to be 
avoided, 208; list of, 197. 

Hyphenization, rules for, i66-07- 

Hyphens: number of consecutive, allow- 
able at ends of lines, 200; rules for use 
of, 166-97. 

Ibid., use of, 215. 

Ideas, abstract, capitaUzation of, when 
personified, 22. 

I.e.: spacing of, 250; to be set in roman, 

53- 
If-clauses, use of comma in connection 

with, 131. 

Illustrations, letters referring to parts of, 
58. 

Implication of word or phrase, to be indi- 
cated by dash, 155. 

Importance, use of italics for, 50. 

"In-" (negative particle), compounds 
with, 188. 

Indentation: see Indention. 

Indention: explained, 255; rules for, 
255-57. 

Indices for footnote references: how to 
number, 220; placing of, 217; sequence 
of, 214; what to use for, 217. 

Industrial organizations and institutions, 
capitalization of names of, 9. 

"Infra," compounds with, 192. 

Initials: of titles of publications, use of, 
no; separation of, in different lines, to 
be avoided, 202. 

Institutions: capitahzation of names 'of, 
9; use of roman type for foreign, 51. 

"Inter," compounds with, 191. 

Interpolations, use of brackets for, 162. 

Interrogation point, use of, 116, 117. 

"Intra," compounds with, 191. 

Ironical word or phrase: use of quotation 
marks for, 67; of exclamation point, 
114. 

Italian titles of publications, use of capi- 
tals in, 37. 

Italics: defined, 235; how indicated, 235; 
rules for use of, 50-63. 

J, do not divide on, 206. 
Journals; see Periodicals. 



Manual of Style: I nd d x 



115 



Judiciary bodies, capitalization of names 
of, 10. 

Juridical acts, laws, bills, capitalization of 
names of, 16. 

"Justification," defined, 245. 

" Kaiser," when capitalized, 19. 
Kern, defined, 237. 

Lanston: see Monotype. 

Last words, capitalization of, in titles of 
publications, 37. 

Latin: non-use of ligature <? and as in, 
105; titles of publications, use of capi- 
tals in, 37. 

Laws, juridical, capitalization of names 
of, 16. 

" Leaded," defined, 258. 

Leaders: definition and use of, 224. 

Leads: defined, 258; use of, 259. 

Lectures, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37-, to be roman-quoted, 

72. 

Legends, omission of period after, 112. 

Legislative bodies, capitalization of names 
of, 10. 

Letters: in text or legends referring to 
corresponding letters in accompanying 
illustrations (diagrams), 58; references 
to particular, to be set in italics, 59. 

"Lieutenant," combined with other title, 

185. 
"Life," compounds of, 176. 
Ligature ce and ce, use of, 105. 
"Like," adjectives ending in, 184. 

Linguistic periods : abbreviation of names 
for, no; capitalization of, 12. 

Linotype machine (Mergenthaler) : de- 
scribed, 274; how to number footnotes 
in matter set on, 220; use of leaders in 
tables set on, 224. 

List: of hyphenated words, 197; of words 
of more than one spelHng, 107. 

Literary references: abbreviations in, 97; 
list of phrases and abbre\'iations used 
in, 53- 

Literary schools, capitaHzation of names 
of, 7. 

Loc. cit., use of, 215. 

Long primer, explained, 233. 

Lower-case: defined, 238; rules for use 
of, 46-49. 



Machines, type-setting, different styles 
of, 274, 275. 

Magazines: see Periodicals. 

"Maker," compounds of, 171. 

Make-up, defined, 271. 

"Manuscript," abbreviation for, 38, no. 

Manuscripts, titles of: to be set in roman, 

52; use of capitals in, 38. 
"Master," compounds of, 178. 
Mathematical signs, spacing of, 254. 
Measures, metric, how to designate, loi. 
Mergenthaler: see Linotype. 

Metric: symbols, how to treat, no; 
spacing of, 250; system, designation 
of weights and measures in, 10 1. 

Military titles, capitalization of, 19. 

"Mill," compounds of, 170. 

Minion, explained, 233. 

Monastic orders, capitalization of names 
of, 8. 

Monetary symbols, spacing of, 251. 

Money, sums of, how to treat, 87. 

Monotype machine (Lanston), described, 

275- 

Months, names of, when to be spelled 
out, 92. 

"Mother," compounds of, 174. 

Mottoes: capitaUzation of principal words 
in, 37; to be roman-quoted, 72. 

"Mount," to be spelled out, 94. 

Movements, historical, capitalization of 
names of, 14. 

"Namely," use of colon in connection 
with, 119. 

Names: alphabetization of, 83; Christian, 
to be spelled out, 83; familiar, applied 
to particular persons, to be capitahzed, 
19; proper, capitalization of, i. 

Nature, personified, capitalization of, 22. 

Negative particles "un-," "in-," and 
"a-," compounds with, 188. 

Newspapers, titles of: capitalization of 
principal words in. 37; to be italicized, 
52. 

New Testament books, list of abbrevia- 
tions for, 99. 

Nobility, capitalization of titles of, 19. 

"Non-," compounds with, 188. 

Nonpareil, explained, 233. 



ii6 The University of Chicago Press 



"Nor," when comma is used before, 130. 

"Not," use of comma before, in anti- 
thetical clauses, 135. 

"Note" introducing note not a footnote, 
use of cap and small caps for, 44. 

"Nothing," do not divide, 213. 

Nouns: capitalization of, in titles of pub- 
lications, 37; combination of, standing 
in objective relation to each other, 168; 
ending in a sibilant, formation of plural 
of, 149; followed by numeral, capitali- 
zation of, 33 (cf. 100); proper, capi- 
talization of, I (cf. 3, 46). 

Numbered political divisions, capitaliza- 
tion of names of, 5. 

Numbers: commencing a sentence, to be 
spelled out, 86; consecutive, treatment 
of, 143, 157; in connected groups to be 
treated alike, 84; in groups of six or 
more, closely connected, to be set in 
figures, 84; of less than three digits, to 
be spelled out in ordinary reading - 
matter, 84; round, treatment of, 85; use 
of comma after digits indicating thou- 
sands, 143; use of comma to separate, 
140; use of dash for "to" connecting, 
157- 

Numerals: Arabic, at beginning of lines, 
spacing of, 252; Roman, at beginning 
of lines and in headlines, spacing of, 
252; omission of period after, iii. 

"0" and "Oh," capitalization of, 36. 

Occupation, compounds denoting, 171. 

ce, rules for use of, 105. 

Ofl&ces, capitalization of names of, 10, 19, 

Officers: titles of, to be lower-cased, 19-, 
of University of Chicago, to be capi- 
talized, 42. 

Old Testament books, list of abbrevia- 
tions for, 99. 

Omission: of comma after signatures, 
etc., 14s; of figiu-es in numbers or letters 
in middle of word, use of apostrophe 
for, 147; of period after headlines, etc., 
112; after Roman numerals, in; of st, 
d, and th in dates, 92; of word or 
words, indicated by comma, 141; use of 
brackets for, 162; of ellipsis, 164. 

"One," "once," etc., form of indefinite 
article before, 104. 

Op. cit., use of, 215. 

Open tables: headlines for, 222; how to 
set, 221; specimen of, 231. 



"Or," when comma is used before, 130. 

Orders (decorations), capitaUzation of 
names of, 19. 

Orders, monastic, capitalization of names 
of, 8. 

Ordinals: when capitalized, 12; when 
not, 39. 

Organizations, capitaHzation of names of, 

9. 
Outcry, use of exclamation point after, 114. 
"Over," compounds with, 190. 

Pages, etc., use of comma between con- 
secutive, 143; of dash, 157. 

Page-proof, defined, 267. 

Pamphlets, titles of: capitaUzation of 
principal words in, 37; to be itaHcized, 
52. 

Papers (addresses), titles of: capitaliza- 
tion of principal words in, 37; to be 
roman-quoted, 72. 

Parables, biblical, capitalization of names 
of, 28. 

Paragraph mark: spacing of, 250; use of, 
for footnote index, 214. 

Paragraphs: explained, 265; first lines of, 
in quoted prose matter to begin with 
quotation marks, 79; indention of, 255; 
styles of, 257 (cf. 265). 

Parallel mark, use of, for footnote index, 

214. 
"Parent," compounds of, 174. 

Parentheses: rules for use of, 160, 161; 
use of, for parenthetical clauses, i6i 
(cf. 136, 151); in connection with figures 
or letters indicating subsections, 160. 

Parenthesis: placing of period in connec- 
tion with, 113; within parenthesis, use 
of brackets for, 162. 

Parenthetical clauses: use of commas in 
connection with, 136; of dashes, 151, 
153; of parentheses, 161 (cf. 136, 
151). 

Parks, capitalization of names of, 6. 

Participial clauses, use of comma in con- 
nection with, 134. 

Participle, present, united with noun, or 
with preposition, 169. 

Parties, pohtical, capitaHzation of names 
of, 7. 

Parts (of books, etc.), titles of: capitali- 
zation of principal words in, 37; to be 
roman-quoted, 72. 



Manual o j Style: Index 



117 



Pause, use of dash to indicate, 150. 

Pearl, explained, 233. 

Pence: see Shillings. 

Per cent.: to be followed by figures, 
84; to be treated as an abbreviation, 
110. 

Period: placing of, in connection with 
quotation marks, 113; rules for use 
of, 109-13; to be omitted after abbre- 
viations for linguistic epochs, no; after 
headlines. 112; after initials of titles of 
publications, no; after MS (= manu- 
script), no; use of, after abbreviations, 
no; at end of sentence, 109 (cf. 112). 

Period leader, defined, 224. 

Periodicals, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; definite article not 
to be treated as part of, 37; name of 
place in which published to be treated 
as part of, 37; to be italicized, 52. 

Periods, geological, historical, linguistic, 
and literary, capitalization of names of, 
12. 

Personifications, capitalization of, 22. 

Philosophical schools, capitalization of 
names of, 7. 

Phrases: adjectival, use of comma in con- 
nection with, 138; conjunctional, etc., 
132. 

Pica, explained, 233. 

Place of publication and publisher 's name , 
use of colon between, 122. 

Place-names, foreign, how to treat, 51. 

Plain paragraph: defined and illustrated, 
265; indention of, 255. 

Plate-proof, defined, 268. 

Plays, titles of: capitaHzation of principal 
words in, 37; to be italicized, 52. 

Plurals: formation of, 149; of abbrevia- 
tions in literary references, how formed, 
100; of nouns, not di\isible if singulars 
are not, 211; of numerals, formation 
of, 149. 

p. M. {post meridiem): spacing of, 45, 202, 
250; use of small caps for, 45. 

Poems: capitalization of first word of each 
line in English, 30; of first word of each 
paragraph in Greek and Latin, 30; 
of principal words in titles of, 37; 
titles of shorter, to be roman-quoted, 
71 (cf. 52); titles of, when set in itaHcs 
and when in roman, 52. 

Poetry indention of, 256; quotations 



from, when to reduce, 75; when to run 
into the text, 75. 

Point system, explanation of, 232, 233. 

PoHtical : alliances, capitalization of names 
of, 14; divisions, 4, 5; organizations, 9; 
parties, 7. 

"Pope," when capitalized, 19. 

Position, use of comma before "of" in 
connection with, 142. 

Possessive case, how formed, 103, 148. 

"Post," compounds with, 191. 

"Pre-," compounds with, 187. 

Preface, etc., quotation marks to be omit- 
ted with, 72. 

Prefix or suflix not complete in itself, to 
be indicated by hyphen, 195. 

Prefixes "co-," "pre-," and "re-," how 
to treat, 187. 

Prepositions: formation of nouns of pres- 
ent participles in connection with, 169; 
to be lower-cased in titles, 37; use of 
comma in connection with clauses end- 
ing in different, 139. 

"President," when capitahzed, 19, 42. 

Principal words: capitalization of , in titles 
of pubHcations, 37; definition of, 37. 

Proceedings (of societies), titles of: capi- 
talization of principal words in, 37; to 
be italicized, 52. 

Pronouns: capitaHzation of, in titles of 
pubHcations, 37; referring to Deity, 21. 

Pronunciation, division according to 
(American system), 204. 

Proofreaders: hints to, pp. 99-102; marks 
of, p. 106. 

Proofs, description of, 266-70. 

Proper names: capitaHzation of, i; how 
to form possessive of, 103; verbs and 
adjectives derived from, use of lower- 
case for, 46. 

Proper nouns: capitalization of, i, 3, 46; 
division of , to be avoided, 201. 

Prose: extracts, when to reduce, 75; 
when to run into text, 75; indention 
of paragraphs in, 255. 

Publications: period to be omitted after 
initials used as abbreviations for, no; 
titles of, capitaHzation of principal 
words in, 37; titles of subdivisions of, 
when to be roman-quoted, 72; use of 
italics for, 52; when to be spelled out, 
95- 



ii8 



The University of Chicago Press 



Punctuation: of extracts from modern 
authors, 102; rules for, io8-g7. 

Punctuation marks: placing of, with refer- 
ence to indices in text, 214; to be 
printed in same type as word or letter 
preceding them, 108. 

"Pyramid," explained and illustrated, 
260. 

Quad, defined, 239. 

Quadrat: see Quad. 

"Quarter," compounds of, 180. 

4to, 8vo, etc., not to be treated as abbre- 
viations, no. 

"Quasi," compounds with, 189. 

Query, use of interrogation point for, 116. 

Question mark: see Interrogation point. 

Questions: direct, to be followed by inter- 
rogation point, 116; indirect, not to 
be followed by interrogation point, 116. 

Quotation marks: not to be used in con- 
nection with reduced citations, 77; 
placing of colon in connection with, 
123; of comma, 146; of ellipsis, 165; 
of exclamation point, 115; of interro- 
gation point, 117; of period, 113; rules 
for use of, 64-81; to be omitted in 
references to Preface, Index, etc., 72; 
use of double and single, 81. 

Quotations, how to treat, 64-81. 

" Raihroad" and " Railway," to be spelled 
out, 94. 

"Re-," compounds with, 187. 

Reading-matter in columns of ruled 
tables, how to set, 226. 

Recto, defined, 264. 

Reductions: rules for, 75-77; scale of, 76. 

Reference indices, what to use for, 214. 

References, Uterary: list of words to be 
abbreviated in, 100 (cf. 33, 218); use 
of dash in connection with, 158. 

"Reformer," when capitalized, 23. 

Regiments, capitalization of names of, 11. 

Regions or parts of the world, capitali- 
zation of names of, 3. 

Regular paragraph : see Plain paragraph . 

Religious: denominations, capitalization 
of names of, 7; organizations, 9. 

Residence, use of comma before "of" in 
connection with, 142. 

Resolutions: how to introduce para. 



graphs in, 35, 44, 62; word "Resolved" 
in, how to set, 62; word "Whereas,' 
44- 
"Resolved," in resolutions, to be set in 
italics, 62. 

Revise, defined, 270. 

Rhymed lines, in poetry, indention of, 
256. 

Roman numerals: at beginning of Hues, 
spacing of, 252; in headUnes, spacing 
of, 252; omission of period after, in. 

"Roman-quote," defined, 64, 234. 

Roman type, defined, 234. 

"Room," compounds of, 170. 

Round numbers, definition and treatment 
of, 85. 

Ruled tables: box-heads for, 222; how 
to set, 221; reading-matter in, 226; 
specimens of, 231. 

Rules: double, use of, in tables, 228; 
rules for use of, in tables, 223. 

"Run in," defined, 261. 

Running-heads: defined, 264; omission 
of period after, 112; hint for setting of, 
264. 

Run-overs, avoidance of, 247. 

Sacred books, capitalization of names 
of, 25. 

"Saint": to be omitted in connection 
with names of apostles, church fathers, 
etc., 98; when abbreviated, 98. 

Salutatory phrase at beginning of letters, 
rules for setting, 43. 

Schools, philosophical, hterary, and artis- 
tic, capitaHzation of names of, 7. 

Scripture passages: names of books of 
Bible to be abbreviated in, 99; punctua- 
tion of, 121, 126; spacing of, 253. 

"Section," introducing paragraphs and 
followed by a number, use of cap and 
small caps for, 44. 

Section mark, spacing of, 250; use of, 
for footnote index, 214. 

Sects, religious, capitalization of names of, 
7- 

"Self," compounds of, 182. 

"Semi," compounds with, 181. 

Semicolon: illustration of use of, com- 
pared with that of comma, 124; placing 
of, in connection with quotation marks, 
127; rules for use of, 124-27; use of, 



Manual of Style: Index 



119 



in enumerations, 125; to mark division 
of sentence, 124; to separate passages 
in Scripture references containing chap- 
ters, 126. 

Sequences: of footnote indices, 214; of 
subdi\-isional numberings, 160; of three 
or more hnks, use of comma before 
"and," "or," and "nor" in, 130. 

Serial titles: to be roman-quoted, 70. 

Series, use of comma before final "and," 
"or," and "nor" in, 130. 

Sermons, titles of, to be roman-quoted, 72. 

Shank, defined, 237. 

Shillings and pence, how to treat abbre- 
viations for, 60. 

Ships, names of, to be roman-quoted, 73. 

"Shop," compounds of, 170. 

"Short and," definition of, Q7; when 
used, 94, 97. 

Short words: avoidance of di\asions of, 
199; spacing of, 249. 

Shoulder, defined, 237. 

Side-heads: defined, 261; omission of 
period after, 112; use of dash in con- 
nection with, 156; use of lower-case 
in, 48 (cf. 156). 

Signatures at end of letters or articles: 
omission of comma after, 145; of period, 
112; rules for setting of, 43, 55. 

"Sister," compounds of, 174. 

Sizes of type, in ordinary use, samples 

of, 233. 
"Skin," compounds of, 177. 
Slug, defined, 259. 

Small caps: defined, 238; how indi- 
cated, 238; use of, 45. 

Small pica, explained, 233. 

Social organizations, capitalization of 
names of, 9. 

Soft c or ^, do not divide on, 206. 

Solar system, capitalization of names of 
bodies in, in works on astronomy, 41. 

"SoUd," defined, 258. 

Spaces: different sizes of, explained, 239- 
44; specimen of lines spaced with 
different sizes of, 244. 

Spacing: of a.m., b. c, etc., 250; of 
divisional signs, 250; of figure col- 
umns in tables, 225; of formulae, 254; 
of headlines, 252; of metric symbols, 
250; of monetary symbols, 251; of 
numerals at beginning of paragraphs, 



252; of reading-matter in ruled tables, 
226; of rules in tables, 223; of Scrip- 
ture passages, 253; of short words, 249; 
rules for, 239-54; standard, 245; what 
is considered good, 245; with different 
sizes of spaces, samples of, 244. 

Spanish titles of publications, use of capi- 
tals in, 37. 

Species, scientific names of: use of capi- 
tals in, 40; of italics, 40. 

Specimen tables, 231. 

Spelled out, words, phrases, and titles 
which are to be, 82-95. 

Spelling: list of words of more than one, 
107; of ages, 89; of books of Bible, 99; 
of centuries, 90; of Christian names, 
83; of "Company" and "Brothers" 
in names of firms, 97; of decades, 91; 
of Egyptian dynasties, 90; of extracts 
from modern authors, 102; from Old 
English, 102; of indefinite article before 
h, u, etc., 104; of metric symbols, loi; 
of names of months, 92; of names of 
publications, 95; of names of regiments, 
90; of numbers commencing a sentence, 
86; of numbers of less than three 
digits, 84; of possessives of proper 
names ending in a sibilant, 103; of 
' ' Railroad " and " Railway , " 94 ; of round 
numbers, 85; of "Saint," 98; of ses- 
sions of Congress, 90; of states and 
territories, 96; of sums of money, 87; 
of time of day, 88; of titles, 82; of 
"United States," 93; of words denoting 
subsections, in literary references, 100; 
rules for, 82-107. 

Squares, capitalization of names of, 6. 

Standard: of measurement in typog- 
raphy, 233; space used to separate 
words, 242. 

"State," when capitalized, 24 note. 

States and territories, names of: list of 
abbreviations for, 96; to be abbreviated 
when following those of towns, 96. 

Statistics, treatment of numbers in, 84. 

"Store," compounds of, 172. 

Stub: definition of, 222; head for, 222. 

Styles of type, 234-38. 

"Sub," compounds with, 191. 

Subdivisions: in literary references, use 
of lower-case for, 47 (cf. 100, 218); 
letters used to indicate, to be set in 
italics, 56; use of parentheses in con- 
nection with, 56; of publications, capi- 
talization of principal words in titles of. 



I20 The University of Chicago Press 



37; titles of, to be roman-quoted, or 
capitalized without quotation marks, 72. 

Sufl&x or prefix, indicated by hyphen, 195. 
"Sultan," when capitaUzed, 19- 

Summarizing clauses, use of dashes in 

connection with, 154. 
"Super," compoimds with, 191. 
Superior figtires, use of, for reference 

indices, 214, 220. 
Superscriptions, omission of period after, 

112. 
"Supra," compounds with, 192. 

Supreme Being, capitaUzation of names 
for, and pronouns referring to, 21. 

Swedish titles of publications, use of 
capitals in, 37. 

Syllabi, scheme of notation and inden- 
tion of subdi\isions in, 160. 

Syllables, hyphen used to indicate, 196. 

Symbols: chemical, treatment of, no; 
metric, spacing of, 250; treatment of, 
loi, no; monetary, spacing of, 250. 

Tables: headhnes of, how to set, 230; 
of two columns, to be set as op)en, 229; 
of more than two, as ruled, 229; open, 
headlines for columns in, 222; open, 
how to set, 221; rvded, box-heads for, 
222; ruled, how to set, 221; rules for 
setting of, 221-31; rules for use of 
rules in, 223; specimen, 231; to be set 
to even picas or nonpareils, 227. 

Tabular work, rules for, 221-31 (see 
Tables). 

Technical: terms, explanation of typo- 
graphical, 232-75; words or phrases, 
use of quotation marks for, 67. 

Thick space, defined, 242. 

Thin space, defined, 243. 

Thin-spacing, where to avoid, 246. 

Thoroughfares: capitaUzation of names 
of, 6; numbers forming part of names 
of, to be spelled out, 90. 

Thousands, use of comma after digits 
indicating, 143. 

Three-era dash : defined, 240; illustrated, 
244. 

Three-em quad, defined, 240. 

Three-em space, defined, 242. 

Time: indications, how to punctuate, 121; 
of day, how to treat, 88. 



Titles: civil and military, capitalization 
of, 19; honorary, 19; in direct address, 
19; of nobility, 19; preceding names, 
to be spelled out, 82; list of exceptions, 
82; "vice," "ex-," "elect," "general," 
and "lieutenant," constituting parts of, 
how to treat, 185. 

Titles of publications: capitalization of 
principal words in, 37; use of capitals 
in: EngUsh, Latin, French, ItaUan, 
Spanish, Swedish, German, Danish, 
Dutch, 37; use of itaUcs for, 52; of 
roman, 70, 71, 72; to be correctly 
quoted, 102; when to be spelled out, 
9S; of addresses, 72; of articles, 72; 
of books, 52; of chapters, 72; of cycles 
of poems, 52; of divisions of books, 
etc., 72; of documents, 52; of essays, 
52; of lectures, 72; of newspapers, 52; 
of pamphlets, 52; of papers, 72; of 
periodicals, 52; of plays, 52; of poems, 
printed in separate volume, 52; of 
poems, short, 71 (cf. 52); of proceed- 
ings of societies, 52; of series, 70; of 
tracts, 52; of transactions of societies, 
52; of treatises, 52. 

Toasts, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; to be roman-quoted, 
72. 

"To be continued," at end of articles, how 
to set, 63. 

Town and state, names of, in date line, 
how to set, 43. 

Tracts, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; to be italicized, 52. 

Transactions (of societies), titles of: capi- 
talization of principal words in, 37; 
to be itahcized, 52. 

Transition, use of dash to indicate, 150. 

Translation: of names of foreign institu- 
tions, 9; of foreign words or phrases, 
68. 

Treaties, capitalization of names of, 16. 

Treatises, titles of: capitalization of prin- 
cipal words in, 37; to be italicized, 52. 

"Tri," compounds with, 181. 

Trinity, Christian, capitalization of names 
of members of, 21. 

Two-column tables, to be set as open, 229. 
Two-em dash: defined, 240; illustrated, 

244. 
Two-em quad, defined, 240. 

Two-letter syllables, avoidance of, in 
divisions, 199 



Manual of Style: Index 



121 



Type: different parts of body of, ex- 
plained, 237; names for different sizes 
of, 233; styles of, 234-38. 

Typesetting machines, 274, 275. 

Typographical terms, explanation of, 
232-75. 

U, long, form of indefinite article before, 
104. 

"Ultra," compounds with, 192. 

"Un- " compounds with, 188. 

"Under," compoimds with, 190. 

Unit, typographical, explained, 232. 

"United States": when to be spelled out, 
93; when to be abbreviated, 93. 

University of Chicago: capitalization of 
special terms dealing with organization, 
administration, and curricula of, 42; 
of titles of divisions, departments, offi- 
cers, and courses and units of study, in 
official work dealing with, 42. 

Unusual word or phrase, use of quotation 
marks for, 67. 

Verbs: capitaUzation of, in titles of pub- 

Ucations, 37; derived from proper 

names, how to treat, 46. 
Verse or page, letter affixed to number of, 

to denote fractional part: to be set in 

italic, 56; spacing of, 56. 



Versions of Bible: abbreviations for, 26; 
capitalization of, 26. 

Verso, defined, 264. 

"Vice," prefixed to titles, how to treat, 185. 

"Vol.," "chap.," "p.," etc., in literary 
references: use of numerals with, 218; 
when omitted, 218. 

' ' Von " and " de , " rule for treatment of , 83 . 

Vowel: divide on, whenever possible, 207; 
single, forming separate syllable in 
middle of word, to be put in first Hne 
in di\iding, 207. 

Weights and measures metric: how to 
designate, loi; spacing of, 250. 

"Whereas," in resolutions, use of cap and 
small caps for, 44. 

Wide spacing, where to avoid, 246. 

Word or phrase : accompanied by its defi- 
nition, to be quoted, 66; to which 
attention is directed, use of quotation 
marks for, 69. 

Words: hyphenated, list of , 197; of more 
than one spelling, how to spell, 107. 

"Work," compounds of, 170. 

"World," compovmds of, 176. 

Zoological terms: use of capitals in, 40; 
of italics, 61. 



SPECIMENS OF TYPES IN USE 



MODERN BODY TYPE 

FIVE POI NT NO. 67 

Wlien thoughtful flreeka like Polybius biiw the full of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have 
felt that they had reached one of the great turning-points in the world's liistory. There was no longer 
any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of con- 
trasts iu population, in government, in language, in traditions, would now be directed by the will of 
one people, by the influence of one system of law, by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth to the world. When Alex- 
ander was yet a young man, returning from his conquests in the far East, men must have anticipated, 
as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of the West would have been no 
difficult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, 
with his small army, against the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, 
show what would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius and armaments, against 
the younger and feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by 
his early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years aspired to 1)e his sole 
successor, hoping to complete his work and regenerate the distracted world by the potent influence of 
Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the Mediterranean Sea, reaching to 
THE FROZEN NORTH AND THE TORRID SOUTH AS ITS NATURAL LIMITS, EXCHANGING THE 
VIRGIN ORES or Spain for the long-sought spices of Araby the blest, was therefore 1234567890 
But while those that had conceived it and striven for it consciously had 1234567890 

SIX POINT NO. 57 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of 
Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one of the great turning- 
points in the world's history. There was no longer any doubt that all the 
civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of con- 
trasts in population, in government, in language, in traditions, would now be 
directed by the will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, by 
the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth to 
the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from his con- 
quests in the far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire 
not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of the West would have been no 
difficult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. 
The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome of the 
third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what would have been 
the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius and armaments, against the 
younger and feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams 
WAS HINDERED BY HIS EARLY DEATH, MOST OF THE EARLY 
Diadochi had each foe many hakd-fought years 1234567890 

sole successor, hoping to complete his work and regenerate 1234567890 

AElOU A^fotJ AEtOtT IfilOt AEIOU AElOlJ AgS ^^KSST 
lElou AEf 6tr AfiiOtJ ktlot aEIOC aeIou Aqn aeiou 66l6u &&if)u aglOu aeiOfl aeI6u 
AElOU A£:16jy AtltOU A£:t6ry AElOU AElOty Cf^HH&T hhsStz 
aeiuii d^ldu d,6ldu dild'G, dSlOil aeidii dfnD5 PI) d p 63 k^Q h^iksStuz 



126 The University of Chicago Press 



SEVEN POINT NO. 57 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and 
of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one of the great 
turning-points in the world's history. There was no longer any doubt 
that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by 
reason of contrasts in population, in government, in language, in tradi- 
tions, would now be directed by the will of one people, by the influence 
of one system of law, by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth 
to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from his 
conquests in the far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an 
empire not unlike that of Rome ; for the conquest of the West would 
have been no difficult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia 
under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against 
the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, 
show what would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant 
genius and armaments, against the younger and feebler republic. And 
if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his early 
death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years 
aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his work and regen- 
erate the distracted world by the potent influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the Medi- 
terranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid South as its 
natural limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain for the long-sought 
spices of Araby the blest, was therefore no very wild imagination. But 
while those that had conceived it and striven for it consciously had failed, 
who could have imagined that it should drop almost suddenly, unexpect- 
edly, by the force, not of genius, but of circumstances, into the hands of 
a people who attained it, not by the direction of an Alexander, but by 
such national qualities as had gained for Sparta precedence and respect, 
coupled with aggressive wars under the guise of securing ever- widening 
frontiers, such as those which mark the rapid strides of Philip's Mace- 
donia? 

Any political thinker who witnessed this mighty outcome of half a 
century might indeed feel uneasy at the result, if he were not, like most 

OF THE STOICS, AN OPTIMIST OR A FATALIST. THERE WAS, 

NO DOUBT, THE MANIFEST GAIN OF A GREAT PEACE THRO 1234567890 

of the real settlement of disputes by the arbitration 1234567890 
ACAE AO AMCti hh\bt ft6iOtl fteldtt ft^ft dei&ii dmn U^XMl dHdil amoii dffl 



sped m ens o j Type s i n Use 127 

EIGHT POI NT NO. 57 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Car- 
thage and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached 
one of the great turning-points in the world's history. There was 
no longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at vari- 
ance, or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in 
government, in language, in traditions, would now be directed by 
the will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, by 
the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been 
held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, 
returning from his conquests in the far East, men must have 
anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for 
the conquest of the West would have been no difficult matter to 
Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The 
successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome 
of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what 
would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius 
and armaments, against the younger and feebler republic. And 
if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his 
early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard- 
fought years aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete 
his work and regenerate the distracted world by the potent influ- 
ence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the 
Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid 
South as its natural limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain 
for the long-sought spices of Araby the blest, was therefore no 
very wild imagination. But while those that had conceived it 
and striven for it consciously had failed, who could have imagined 
THAT IT SHOULD DROP ALMOST SUDDENLY, UNEX- 
PECTEDLY, BY THE FORCE, NOT OP GENIUS, BUT OP 1234:567890 

into the hands of a people who attained it, not 123 4567 8 90 

AEiOtJ AEf 6u Aei6i> Ai5 AOto 6 AgN qq eEaoAq 

aeC AEf6tJ AEiotr aJ;6u aeiGu aeiou S e aelou ^^loii hh\b\i aglOtl 
afeioa &§en6 aeloii d^idil dHdii dHOfl deioU dgn 



128 The University of Chicago Press 

■■■■■■^■■■■■■■■■■■■■MHHHflHBBHIMHHBiBMBHBHMHHHBIHHIHIBBHHIH^BBMBHHHHHl^BBiHBBMV 

NINE POI NT NO. 57 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of 
Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had 
reached one of the great tm-ning-points in the world's history. 
There was no longer any doubt that all the civilized nations 
hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of con- 
trasts in population, in government, in language, in traditions 
would now be directed by the will of one people, by the influ 
ence of one system of law, by the predominance of a common 
language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been 
held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young 
man, returning from his conquests in the far East, men must 
have anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of 
Rome; for the conquest of the West would have been no diffi- 
cult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under 
his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, 
against the adult Rome of the third centiu'y, fi-esh from her 
Samnite conquests, show what would have been the successes 
of Alexander, with his giant genius and armaments, against 
the younger and feebler republic. And if the realization of 
the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his early death, most 
of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years 
ASPIRED TO BE HIS SOLE SUCCESSOR, HOPING 

TO COMPLETE HIS WORK AND REGENERATE THE 1234567890 

by the potent influence of Hellenistic cultu 1234 567 8 9 

AEIOU A^iCU AEtot llSlOt Al^lOt) AElOt AgN 

AElotJ AEf6i5 AfeiotJ AfefoO AElot) Aeiou aqS 

aeiou d^ioti aM5u aSiofi aeioii aeiou kgn 

AElOtj aM6u lEidu AMdtf Amoty AMOtj Ag^ 

delou dH6ii d,^\bfi deiou de'iOu aeiou dgn 
CHSIKSSSTZZ accghhiiknoo6ssstuuuyyzz 
HffiTdSehhitrssiuz B b d P p p 05 



specimens oj Types in Use 129 



ELEVEN rorNT NO. 65 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall 
of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that 
they had reached one of the great turning-points in the 
world's history. There was no longer any doubt that all 
the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, dis- 
tracted by reason of contrasts in population, in govern- 
ment, in language, in traditions, would now be directed 
by the will of one people, by the influence of one sys- 
tem of law, by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had 
been held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet 
a young man, returning from his conquests in the far 
East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire 
not unlike that of Rome ; for the conquest of the West 
would have been no difficult matter to Alexander, with 
ALL THE RESOURCES OF ASIA UNDER HIS 
HAND. The successes of Pykrhus, 1234567890 
army, against the adult Rome of the 12 3 4 567890 
AEIOU AElOt AEIOtJ AfilOC AfilOt) AElOt 

AEIOU Ae16u AeIOU AEiot AElOtJ AEIOtr 1 g N 

aeiou d6i6ii ^6i6ii aeiCti aeioti a^iou k q n 

AEIOD A£lOiy AiJtdtJ A£:16& AMOV AmOtJ 

aeidil d6i6iX a^ibii clilOtl deioil deiou a q fi 
aqb)bcde^^^hUiikltiii^9f>PPqk 

qq4qr^ssti;?uz^^ 

lg:5agK!?sgT AgkifS^^T hbissttiz 

DS Pp 0o 53^^co dp dqct^Sedf^^fuuif 



130 The University of Chicago Press 



OLD STYLE BODY TYPE 

FIVE POINT NO. 83 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt 
that they had reached one of the great turning-points in the world's history. There was no longer 
any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of con- 
trasts in population, in government, in language, in traditions, would now be directed by the will of 
one people, by the influence of one system of law, by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth to the world. When Alexan- 
der was yet a young man, returning from his conquests in the far East, men must have anticipated, 
as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of the West would have been no 
difiicult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, 
with his small army, against the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, 
show what would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius and armaments, against 
the younger and feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by 
his early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years aspired to be his 
sole successor, hoping to complete his work and regenerate the distracted world by the potent 
influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the 
FROZEN NORTH AND THE TORRID SOUTH AS ITS NATURAL LIMITS, EXCHAN- 
GING THE VIRGIN ORBS OF SPAIN FOR THE LONG-SOUGHT SPICES OF 1234567890 
Araby the hiest, was there/ore 710 very wild unagination. But 7uhile those 1 2J 4S 67 8go 



SIX PCI NT NO 8 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, they 
must have felt that they had reached one of the great turning-points in the world's history. 
There was no longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at 
war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in government, in language, in 
traditions, would now be directed by the will of one people, by the influence of one system 
of law, by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth to the world. 
When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from his conquests in the far East, men 
must have anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome ; for the conquest 
of the West would have been no difiicult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of 
Asia under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult 
Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what would have 
been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius and armaments, against the 
younger and feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hin- 
dered by his early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years 
aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his work and regenerate the distracted 
world by the potent influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A WORLD-EMPIRE, INCLUDING ALL THE LANDS AND NATIONS ABOUT 
THE Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and 1234567890 
torrid South as its natural limits, exchanging the virgin i 23 4S(>t 8qo 

5r Q XoiJ E £ E E aioU aeiou aeibu aeidu ii g 
O C aeidii dt'ioTi aei\ e deiou q 



spec i m ens o j Types i n Use J3 1 

SEVEN POI NT NO. B 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of 
Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one of the great turning- 
points in the world's history. There was no longer any doubt that all the 
civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of con- 
trasts in population, in government, in language, in traditions, would now be 
directed by the will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, by 
the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth to the 
world. When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from his conquests 
in the far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike 
that of Rome ; for the conquest of the West would have been no difficult mat- 
ter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The successes 
of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome of the third century, 
fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what would have been the successes 
of Alexander, with his giant genius and armaments, against the younger and 
feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hin- 
dered by his early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard- 
fought years aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his work and 
regenerate the distracted world by the potent influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid South as its natural 
limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain for the long-sought spices of Araby 
the blest, was therefore no very wild imagination. But while those that had 
conceived it and striven for it consciously had failed, who could have imagined 
that it should drop almost suddenly, unexpectedly, by the force, not of genius, 
but of circumstances, into the hands of a people who attained it, not by the 
directions of an Alexander, but by such national qualities as had gained for 
Sparta precedence and respect, coupled with aggressive wars under the gu'\se 
of securing ever- widening frontiers, such as those which mark the rapid 
strides of Philip's Macedonia? 

Any political thinker who witnessed this mighty outcome of half a century 
might indeed feel uneasy at the result, if he were not, like most of the Stoics, 
an optimist or a fatalist. There was, no doubt, the manifest gain of a great 
peace throughout the world, of the real settlement of disputes by the arbitra- 

ENLIGHTENMENT. THESE MATERIAL GAINS WERE INDISPUT- 
ABLE, EVEN THOUGH A DANGEROUS MONOPOLY WAS 1234567890 
dein^ established not merely through the enormous advan 1 23 456^ 8 go 
Q f5 aeioii aeiou aeiou aeioii aeiQii aeioii 9 n 
^ fj aeioii aeid/i aeioii deioii aeioii iiiioit f n 



132 The University of Chicago Press 



EIGHT POINT NO. 8 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and 
of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one of the great 
turning-points in the world's history. There was no longer any doubt 
that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted 
by reason of contrasts in population, in government, in language, in 
traditions, would now be directed by the will of one people, by the 
influence of one system of law, by the predominance of a common 
language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth 
to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from 
his conquests in the far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, 
an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of the West would 
have been no difficult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia 
under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against 
the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, 
show what would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant 
genius and armaments, against the younger and feebler republic. And 
if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his early 
death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years 
aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his work and regen- 
erate the distracted world by the potent influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the Med- 
iterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid South as its 
natural limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain for the long-sought 
spices of Araby the blest, was therefore no very wild imagination. But 
while those that had conceived it and striven for it consciously had failed, 
who could have imagined that it should drop almost suddenly, unex- 
pectedly, by the force, not of genius, but of circumstances, into the hands 
of a people who attained it, not by the direction of an Alexander, but by 
SUCH NATIONAL QUALITIES AS HAD GAINED FOR SPARTA 

PRECEDENCE AND RESPECT, COUPLED WITH AGGRES- I234S6789O 

sive wars under the guise of securing ever -widening 1 23 45 6y 8qo 
AEIOU AEIoU AtlJ AE AEiOU A g I^ § aeiou ktXot kkbt 

AE AEiou X 9 N aeiou aeiou khibh A6\6\x aeiou a9nafh60D«pt> 
A/0 AEldtj AkU E AEIOU AgN$ deioic AHdil aiu dk deloii dchl 



sped m e n s o j T y p e s in U s e 133 



NINE POI NT NO. 8 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 
and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one of 
the great turning-points in the world's history. There was no 
longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, 
or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in gov- 
ernment, in language, in traditions, would now be directed by the 
will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, by the 
predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been 
held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, 
returning from his conquests in the far East, men must have 
anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for 
the conquest of the West would have been no difficult matter to 
Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The 
successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome 
of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what 
would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius 
and armaments, against the younger and feebler republic. And 
if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his 
early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard- 
fought years aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete 
his work and regenerate the distracted world by the potent 
influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the 
THAT IT SHOULD DROP ALMOST SUDDENLY, UNEX- 
PECTEDLY, BY THE FORCE, NOT OF GENIUS, I23456789O 
but of circumstances, into the hands of a people i 2j 4^ 67 8 g o 

AEiOtJ AEIOU AEU AE AEIOU a C N S 

AEioiJ ktiot AEU e6 A9 

aeioii aeiou aeou deiou aci5u ^a9n6tljhkmsg0 

Ai'dU AEIU AE U AEIOU A C N 

> 

aeioii detoil am deidu deiofi doii s i^ h p D '5 



134 The University of Chicago Press 



TEN POrNT NO. 8 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of 
Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had 
reached one of the great turning-points in the world's his- 
tory. There was no longer any doubt that all the civilized 
nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by reason 
of contrasts in population, in government, in language, in 
traditions, would now be directed by the will of one people, 
by the influence of one system of law, by the predominance 
of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had 
been held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a 
young man, returning from his conquests in the far East, 
men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire not 
unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of the West would 
have been no difficult matter to Alexander, with all the 
resources of Asia under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, 
with his small army, against the adult Rome of the third 
century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what would 
have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius 
and armaments, against the younger and feebler republic. 
And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hin- 
dered by his early death, most of the early Diadochi had 

A WORLD-EMPIRE, INCLUDING ALL THE 

LANDS AND NATIONS ABOUT THE MeDI- I23456789O 

terranean Sea, reaching to the frozen j 2j 4^ 67 8 g o 

AEIOUAiotTEUE AElOUgNg AEioiJAEidtrEijEOAEiou 

A 9 N aeiou a^iou adiou a^ioii aeloii aacpnhnirssY 

AEIOU AEldt/ AEIOU AEIOU AEIOU A E ^ JSf ^ 
aeiou dewu aeibit deibu deloii d f H s ce ^ iu dh 



specimens oj Types in Use 135 



ELEVEN POINT NO. 8 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall 
of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that 
they had reached one of the great turning-points in 
the world's history. There was no longer any doubt 
that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at 
war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, 
in government, in language, in traditions, would now 
be directed by the will of one people, by the influence 
of one system of law, by the predominance of a com- 
mon language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect 
had been held forth to the world. When Alexander 
was yet a young man, returning from his conquests in 
the far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, 
an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest 
of the West would have been no difificult matter to 
Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his 
hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, 
against the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from 
AND IF THE REALIZATION OF THE CON- 

QUEROR's DREAMS WAS HINDERED BY I23456789O 

his early death, most of the early i2j4^6'/8go 

Aeiou AeIOO Aeij t AEIOU A g N S 

AEIOU AfeioU AeIOU AEIOIJ AElOU A g N 

aeioii aeiOu aeiou aeiou aeiou afio hkrnsy du a 9 

Aeiou A&I60 aeu ^ aeiou AgN 

aeioii detovt dh\ dHou aeiou da ^H 



136 The University of Chicago Press 



TWELVE POINT NO. 8 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw 
the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, they must 
have felt that they had reached one of the great 
turning-points in the world's history. There 
was no longer any doubt that all the civilized 
nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted 
by reason of contrasts in population, in govern- 
ment, in language, in traditions, would now be 
directed by the will of one people, by the influence 
of one system of law, by the predominance of a 
common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand pros- 
pect had been held forth to the world. When 
Alexander was yet a young man, returning from 
his conquests in the far East, men must have 
anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike 
that of Rome; for the conquest of the West 
would have been no difficult matter to Alexan- 
TURY, FRESH FROM HER SAMNITE 

CONQUESTS, SHOW WHAT WOULD I23456789O 

/lave been the successes of Alex i 2 ^ 4 5(>"j 8 go 

Aeiou Afilou fell E AgN 

AEiou AfitoO tiJ £ AC N aeiou aeiou aeu aei6u ^(pn 

AEIOO Aj^ioO A^u £ gjv 

deioii dHdu aeu dH6u f n 



specimens oj Types in Use 137 



FOURTEEN POINT NO. 8 



When thoughtful Greeks Hke Polybius 
saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, 
they must have felt that they had reached 
one of the great turning-points in the 
world's history. There was no longer any 
doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto 
at variance, or at war, distracted by reason 
of contrasts in population, in government, 
in language, in traditions, would now be 
directed by the will of one people, by the 
influence of one system of law, by the pre- 
dominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand 
prospect had been held forth to the world. 
When Alexander was yet a young man, 
FOR THE CONQUEST OF THE 
West would have been 1234567890 
no difficult matter to Alex i2j436j8go 

AEiou Aeiou Aeu e a N 

AEIOU Al&iOt AEU ^ A C N 

aeiou aeiou aeu aeiou aon ago 
6 A a doii aeu du den 



138 The University of Chicago Press 



EIGHTEEN POINT NO. 8 



When thoughtful Greeks like Poly- 
bius saw the fall of Carthage and of 
Corinth, they must have felt that they 
had reached one of the great turning- 
points in the world's history. There 
was no longer any doubt that all the 
civilized nations hitherto at variance, 
or at war, distracted by reason of con- 
trasts in population, in government, 
in language, in traditions, would now 
be directed by the will of one people, 
by the influence of one system of law, 
by the predominance of a common 
language. 

GRAND PROSPECT HAD 

BEEN HELD FORTH TO 1234567890 

the world. When A 1 1 2^45678(^0 
AEOO Afi6u feO 6 A N 



specimens oj Types in Use 139 



MONOTYPE TYPE 

SIX POI NT NO. 3 1 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, 
they must have felt that they had reached one of the turning-points in the world's his- 
tory. There was no longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, 
or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in government, in language, 
in traditions, would now be directed by the will of one people, by the influence of one 
system of law, by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth to the world. 
When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from his conquests in the far East, 
men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the 
conquest of the West would have been no diflicult matter to Alexander, with all the 
resources of Asia under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against 
the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what would 
have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius and armaments, against 
the younger and feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams 
was hindered by his early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard- 
fought years aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his work and regenerate 
the distracted world by the potent influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the Mediterranean 
Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid South as its natural limits, exchanging 
the virgin ores of Spain for the long-sought spices of Araby the blest, was therefore no 
wild imagination. But while those that had conceived it and striven for it consciously 
had failed, who could have imagined that it should drop almost suddenly, unexpectedly, 
by the force, not of genius, but of circumstances, into the hands of a people who attained 
it, not by the direction of an Alexander, but by such national qualities as had gained 
for Sparta precedence and respect, coupled with aggressive wars under the guise of 
securing ever widening frontiers, such as those which mark the rapid strides of Philip's 
Macedonia ? 

Any political thinker who witnessed this mighty outcome of half a century might 
indeed feel uneasy at the result, if he were not, like most of the Stoics, an optimist or 
a fatalist. There was, no doubt, the manifest gain of a great peace throughout the 
world, of the real settlement of disputes by the arbitration of an umpire with power to 
enforce his will; there was the consequent development of wide commerce, with its 
diffusion, not only of wealth, but of enlightenment. These material gains were indis- 
putable, even though a dangerous monopoly was being established, not merely through 
the enormous advantages inseparable from Roman influence, but by the jealous de- 
struction of all those commercial centers which might have rivaled Rome by reason 

RULERS HAD RECEIVED ANY EDUCATION TO FIT THEM FOR AN IM- 
PERIAL POLICY. Administrative ability there was in plenty, 1234567890 
just as there had been tactical knowledge to win battles without any 12J4S678QO 

AEiotJ AEi6i5 Afeioir kttbt aeiou a£I6& C n C 
aeI5u aeiou aeiou aeioft aSi6u aeioii ffi 
aeidii deidii (ieidit dewH aeioii ieldii f n 



T40 The University of Chicago Press 



EIGHT POINT NO. 31 



Wlien thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 
and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one of the 
great turning-points in the world's history. There was no longer any 
doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, dis- 
tracted by reason of contrasts in population, in government, in language, 
in traditions, would now be directed by the will of one people, by the 
influence of one system of law, by the predominance of a common 
language. 

It is not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth 
to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from 
his conquests in the far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, 
an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of the West would 
have been no difficult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of 
Asia under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, 
against the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite 
conquests, show what would have been the successes of Alexander, 
with his giant genius and armaments, against the younger and feebler 
repubhc. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered 
by his early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard- 
fought years aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his 
work and regenerate the distracted world by the potent influence of 
Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the 
Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid South 
as its natural limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain for the long- 
sought spices of Araby the blest, was therefore no very wild imagination. 
But while those that had conceived it and striven for it consciously had 
failed, who could have imagined that it should drop almost suddenly, 
UNEXPECTEDLY, BY THE FORCE, NOT OF GENIUS, BUT 

OF CIKCUMSTANCES, INTO THE HANDS OF A PEOPLE I23456789O 

who attained it, not by the direction of an Alexander 12J4J678QO 

AEiou AEi6u AEibtr Attot AEiou A£i6t^ 

aeiou aeiou abiou aeioti aeioii 3,eI6ii 

deiou aeiou aeiou, deioH aeioii deioH 

TDK HH^ S§ dkhhfy Ss f»f 



specimens oj Types in Use 141 



NINE POI NT NO. 3 1 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 
and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one 
of the great turning-points in the world's history. There was no 
longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, 
or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in govern- 
ment, in language, in traditions, would now be directed by the 
will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, by the 
predominance of a common language. 

It is not the first time that this grand prospect had been held 
forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, re- 
turning from his conquests in the far East, men must have anti- 
cipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for 
the conquest of the West would have been no difficult matter to 
Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The 
successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome 
of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what 
would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius 
and armaments, against the younger and feebler republic. And 
if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his 
early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard- 
fought years aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete 
his work and regenerate the distracted world by the potent influence 
of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the 
Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and torrid South 
as its natural limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain for the 

IMAGINATION. BUT WHILE THOSE THAT HAD CON- 
CEIVED IT AND STRIVEN FOR IT CONSCIOUSLY 123456789O 

had failed, who could have imagined that it 12^4^628^0 

AEiotJ aIiou AEibtr Xtiot aeiou A£I5tj g n 

aeiou aeiou aeioii aeiou aeioii S.6i6u g h 

deidu deidu aeloii aeioii deidil dBdii Q nQ 



142 The University oj Chicago Press 



TEN POINT NO. 31 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Car- 
thage and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached 
one of the great turning-points in the world's history. There 
was no longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto 
at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in 
population, in government, in language, in traditions, would 
now be directed by the will of one people, by the influence 
of one system of law, by the predominance of a common 
language. 

It is not the first time that this grand prospect had been 
held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young 
man, returning from his conquests in the far East, men must 
have anticipated, as very near, an empire not unHke that of 
Rome ; for the conquest of the West would have been no diffi- 
cult matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under 
his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, 
against the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her 
Samnite conquests, show what would have been the successes 
of Alexander, with his great genius and armaments, against 
the younger and feebler repubUc. And if the reahzation of 
the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his early death, most 
of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years 
AND REGENERATE THE DISTRACTED WORLD BY 

THE POTENT INFLUENCE OF HELLENISTIC 123456789O 

culture. A world-empire, including all the 1234567890 

AEiotJ ktiot aM5u Attou aeiou M16t g n 

aeioQ aeiou aeiou aeiou aeioii a,gT6u 9 

deioU aeiou hHou detoH aeiou deidU f n 

TQDKHHH^S dkhhW 



specimens oj Types in Use 143 



ELEVEN POINT NO. 31 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of 
Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that they 
had reached one of the great turning-points in the world's 
history. There was no longer any doubt that all the 
civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted 
by reason of contrasts in population, in government, in 
language, in traditions, would now be directed by the 
will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, 
by the predominance of a common language. 

It is not the first time that this grand prospect had 
been held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet 
a young man, returning from his conquests in the far 
East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire 
not unHke that of Rome; for the conquest of the West 
would have been no difficult matter to Alexander, with all 
the resources of Asia under his hand. The successes of 
Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome of 
the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show 
what would have been the successes of Alexander, with his 
giant genius and armaments, against the younger and 
feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's 
DREAMS WAS HINDERED BY HIS EARLY 

DEATH, MOST OF THE EARLY DiADOCHI 1234567890 

had each for many hard-jought years i2j4j6y8go 

AEIOU AEIOU AEIOU AEiot^ AEIOtJ AEIOU fNf 

aeiou a^ioii aeiou aeioii aeiou aSiou 9 
deidii aeiou aeiou detoH d'etdii aeiou Q n Q 



144 The University oj Chicago Press 



TWELVE POINT NO. 31 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall 
of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that 
they had reached one of the great turning-points of 
the world's history. There was no longer any doubt 
that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or 
at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in popula- 
tion, in government, in language, in traditions, would 
now be directed by the will of one people, by the in- 
fluence of one system of law, by the predominance 
of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect 
had been held forth to the world. When Alexander 
was yet a young man, returning from his conquests 
in the far East, men must have anticipated, as very 
near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the 
conquest of the West would have been no difficult 
matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia 
under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with his 
small army, against the adult Rome of the third cen- 
tury, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what 

HIS GIANT GENIUS AND ARMAMENTS, 

AGAINST THE YOUNGER AND FEEBLER 1234567890 

republic . A nd ij the realization oj the 1 2j^^6y8go 



^ ^t.*:^ •'*•"** '^ AAAAA VVVVV ^ ^ ^ ^ 



— — WW 



Aou aeiou aeiou aeiou aeou mm 5 
dkhh h^st d'eldil detou del deio del et 



specimens oj Types in Use i45 



LINOTYPE TYPE 

Ere H T POI NT NO. I 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 
and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one 
of the great turning-points in the world's history. There was no 
longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at vari- 
ance, or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in 
government, in language, in traditions, would now be directed by 
the will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, by 
the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been 
held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, 
returning from his conquests in the far East, men must have 
anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome ; for 
the conquest of the West would have been no difficult matter to 
Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The 
successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome 
of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what 
would have been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius 
and armaments, against the younger and feebler republic. And 
if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his 
early death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard- 
fought years aspired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete 
his work and regenerate the distracted world by the potent influ- 
ence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the 
Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid 
South as its natural limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain 
for the long-sought spices of Araby the blest, was therefore no 

THAT IT SHOULD DROP ALMOST SUDDENLY, Unex- 
pectedly, BY THE FORCE, NOT OF GENIUS, BUT OF I23456789O 
circumstances, into the hands of a people who at- 1234567890 
£fi AEOU AEOU AE'iou AEiou c gfi acio aeiou aeioii aeiou 
££ deio aeloii de'idil aeiou gii 



146 The University j Chicago Press 

NINE POINT NO. I 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of 
Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had 
reached one of the great turning-points in the world's history. 
There was no longer any doubt that all the civilized nations hither- 
to at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in 
population, in government, in language, in traditions, would 
now be directed by the will of one people, by the influence of 
one system of law, by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been 
held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young 
man, returning from his conquests in the far East, men must 
have anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome ; 
for the conquest of the West would have been no difficult matter 
to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. 
The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult 
Rome of the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, 
show what would have been the successes of Alexander, with 
his giant genius and armaments, against the younger and feebler 
republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams 
was hindered by his early death, most of the early Diadochi had 
each for many hard-fought years aspired to be his sole successor, 
hoping to complete his work and regenerate the distracted world 
by the potent influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the 
Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid 
South as its natural limits, exchanging the virgin ores of Spain 

FOR THE LONG-SOUGHT SPICES OF ARABY THE 

BLEST^ WAS THEREFORE NO VERY WILD IMAGINATION. I23456789O 

But while those that had conceived it and striven 1234567890 

£fi AEOU AEOU AEiou aeIou g Qn aeio aeioti aeiou aeioii 

E^ deio deidu d'eidii deiou gn 



specimens oj Types in Use 147 



TEN FOI NT NO. 



When thoughtful Greeks Hke Polybius saw the fall of 
Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that they 
had reached one of the great turning-points in the world's 
history. There was no longer any doubt that all the 
civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted 
by reason of contrasts in population, in government, in 
language, in traditions, would now be directed by the 
will of one people, by the influence of one system of law, 
by the predominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had 
been held forth to the world. When Alexander was yet 
a young man, returning from his conquests in the far 
East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire 
not unlike that of Rome ; for the conquest of the West 
would have been no difficult matter to Alexander, with all 
the resources of Asia under his hand. The successes of 
Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome of 
the third century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show 
what would have been the successes of Alexander, with 
his giant genius and armaments, against the younger and 
feebler republic. And if the realization of the conqueror's 
dreams was hindered by his early death, most of the 
early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years as- 
pired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his 
WORK AND REGENERATE THE DISTRACTED 

WORLD BY THE POTENT INFLUENCE OF I23456789O 

A ivorld-empire, including all the 1^3436/8^0 
££ AEOU AEOU AEioiJ AEiou g qh aeio aeiou aeioii aeiou 
£^ deio deidii d'eidii deioii gn 



148 The University j Chicago Press 



ELEVEN POINT NO. I 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall 
of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt that 
they had reached one of the great turning-points in the 
world's history. There was no longer any doubt that 
all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at war, 
distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in gov- 
ernment, in language, in traditions, would now be di- 
rected by the will of one people, by the influence of one 
system of law, by the predominance of a common 
language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had 
been held forth to the world. When Alexander was 
yet a young man, returning from his conquests in the 
far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an 
empire not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of 
the West would have been no difficult matter to Alex- 
ander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. 
The successes of Pyrrhus, with his small army, against 
the adult Rome of the third century, fresh from her 
Samnite conquests, show what would have been the 
successes of Alexander, with his giant genius and ar- 
maments, against the younger and feebler republic. 
AND IF THE REALIZATION OF THE CON- 
queror's dreams was hindered by 1234567890 
his early death, most of the early 1 2 ^ 4 ^6'/ 8 ^o 
fifi AEOU AEou aeiou aeiou q Qn aeio aeiou aeioii aeiou 
&R aeio aeidit aeioii aewu gn 



specimens oj Types in Use 149 



CASLON OLD STYLE 

EIGHT POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of 
Corinth, they must have felt that they had, reached one of the great turning-points 
in the world's history. There was no longer any doubt that all the civilized 
nations hitherto at variance, or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in popula- 
tion, in government, in language, in traditions, would now be directed by the will 
of one people, by the influence of one system of law, by the predominance of a 
common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held forth to the 
world. When Alexander was yet a young man, returning from his conquests in 
the far East, men must have anticipated, as very near, an empire not unlike that 
of Rome; for the conquest of the West would have been no difficult matter to 
Alexander, with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The succe3«es of 
Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome of the third century, fresh 
from her Samnite conquests, show what would have been the successes of Alex- 
ander, with his giant genius and armaments, against the younger and feebler repub- 
lic. And if the realization of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his early 
death, most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years aspired to 
be his sole successor, hoping to complete his work and regenerate the distracted 
world by the potent influence of Hellenistic culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the Mediterranean 
Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid South as its natural limits, 
exchanging the virgin ores of Spain for the long-sought spices of Araby the blest, 
was therefore no wild imagination. But while those that had conceived it and 
striven for it consciously had failed, who could have imagined that it should drop 
almost suddenly, unexpectedly, by the force, not of genius, but of circumstances, 
into the hands of a people who attained it, not by the direction of an Alexander, 
Jbut by such national qualities at had gained for Sparta precedence and respect, 
coupled with aggressive wars under the guise of securing ever-widening frontiers, 
such as those which mark the rapid strides of Philip's Macedonia? 

Any political thinker who witnessed this mighty outcome of half a century 

MIGHT INDEED FEEL UNEASY AT THE RESULT, IF HE WERE 

NOT, LIKE MOST OF THE StOICS, AN OPTIMIST OR A FATALIST. I23456789O 

There was, no doubt, the manifest gain of a great peace througbont / 2J^j6j8go 



150 The University 0} Chicago Press 

CASLON OLD STYLE 

TEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 
and of Corinth, they must have felt that they had reached one of the 
great turning-points in the world* s history. There was no longer 
any doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at variance, or at 
war, distracted by reason of contrasts in population, in government, 
in language, in traditions, would now be directed by the will of 
one people, by the influence of one system of law, by the pre- 
dominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect had been held 
forth to the world. When Alexander was yet a young man, return- 
ing fi-om his conquests in the far East, men must have anticipated, 
as very near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest 
of the West would have been no difficult matter to Alexander, 
with all the resources of Asia under his hand. The successes of 
Pyrrhus, with his small army, against the adult Rome of the third 
century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show what would have 
been the successes of Alexander, with his giant genius and arma- 
ments, against the younger and feebler republic. And if the reali- 
zation of the conqueror's dreams was hindered by his early death, 
most of the early Diadochi had each for many hard-fought years as- 
pired to be his sole successor, hoping to complete his work and 
regenerate the distracted world by the potent influence of Hellenistic 
culture. 

A world-empire, including all the lands and nations about the 
Mediterranean Sea, reaching to the frozen North and the torrid 
AND IF THE REALIZATION OF THE CONQUEROR 

DREAMS WAS HINDERED BY THE POTENT INFLUENCE I 23456789O 

^ world-empire y 171 eluding all the nations and I2J 4^ 678(^0 



specimens oj Types in Use 151 



TWELVE POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the 
fall of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have felt 
that they had reached one of the great turning-points 
in the world's history. There was no longer any 
doubt that all the civilized nations hitherto at vari- 
ance, or at war, distracted by reason of contrasts in 
population, in government, in language, in traditions, 
would now be directed by the will of one people, 
by the influence of one system of law, by the pre- 
dominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand prospect 
had been held forth to the world. When Alexander 
was yet a young man, returning from his conquests 
in the far East, men must have anticipated, as very 
near, an empire not unlike that of Rome; for the 
conquests of the West would have been no difficult 
matter to Alexander, with all the resources of Asia 
under his hand. The successes of Pyrrhus, with 
his small army, against the adult Rome of the third 
century, fresh from her Samnite conquests, show 
what would have been the successes of Alexander, 
with his giant genius and armaments, against the 

AND IF THE REALIZATION OF THE 

conqueror's dreams was hindered 1234567890 
by his early death, most of the early 1 2 j^^ 6j8 go 



152 T' h e University of Chicago Press 

CASLON OLD STYLE 

FOURTEEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw 
the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, they must 
have felt that they had reached one of the great 
turning-points in the world's history. There 
was no longer any doubt that all the civilized 
nations hitherto at variance, or at war, dis- 
tracted by reason of contrasts in population, in 
government, in language, in traditions, would 
now be directed by the will of one people, by 
the influence of one system of law, by the pre- 
dominance of a common language. 

It was not the first time that this grand 
prospect had been held forth to the world. 
When Alexander was yet a young man, return- 
ing from his conquests in the far East, men 
must have anticipated, as very near, an empire 
not unlike that of Rome; for the conquest of 
the West would have been no difficult matter 

AND IF THE REALIZATION OF THE 

conqueror's dreams was hin I 2 34567890 
bis early death, most of the early l2J4^6'/8go 



specimens oj Types in Use 153 

PORSON GREEK 

SIX POINT 

TaSe 5e /aot Trai'Tw?, e</)vj, Kpoiae, Ae'fof ttws aTro/Se'/SrjKe Ta e/c tow «i' AeA(/)oif XP'?" 
arrjpiov aol yap 6rj Aeyerat navv ye TfOepanevaOai, 6 'AttoAAwj' Kai (re jraj'Ta eKC(V<i> 
Tr€i06fJiei>of irpamiv, 'E/3ovA6(u,tj»» af , Jt KOpe, ovtws exeii' • vui* 6e itavTa Tavavria. 
evdi/i e^ oipxv^ nparroiv npQcry]vix^W '^V 'AiroAAwj't. n«tis fie; ec^rj 6 KOpo; • &iSaaKe • 
iravv ydp napdSo^a Ae'yei?, 'On npuiTov fxev, €(^tj, a/aeA77<ra9 epwrai' toi' ^eoi' ei ti eSeo- 
jiATji', aTreTreipw/u.'r)!' avToO ei SxjvaiTO a\r}diveiv. 

EIGHT POINT 

TdSe 5^ /AOi Trdvrw?, e(f>7}, Kpoice^ \^^ov ttcDs diro^i^rjKe to. iK tov iv 
A€\(pois xPV<^''"'1P''0^ ' '^ol yap 8t} Xiyerai xdvv ye TedepaireOadai. 6 'A7r6X\a>i' 
KaL ae iravra ^/cei'vy iTei.d6iievov Tpdrreiu. 'E^ov\6fir)v iv, c5 KOpe, oI/tws 
€Xf' ■ ''I'*' 5^ Trdvra rdvavria €vdi>s i^ dpxv^ irpdrruv irpocrrivix^V'' '^V 
'ATriXXwvt. IltDs 5^; ^(pr] 6 Kvpos • 5i5a<7Ke • irdw yap irapddo^a 'K4y€t.s. 

TEN POI NT 

TaSt 8c fxoL TravTws, €<^>7, Kpoitre, Xc^ov ttws aTro^€J3r]K€ to. Ik 

TOV iv AeA^ots ^^prjarypiov' (tol yap Srj Xeyerat ttovv ye reOepa- 

Trev(T$aL 6 AttoAXwv Kai ae irdvTa eKeivu) TreLdo/xevov irpaTTCLV. 

HjpovAofXYjv av, Q) r^vpe, ovtws ^X^^^ * ^^^ "^ iravTa ravavTca ei^t/v? 

€$ a.p-)(rj<; trparroiv Trpo(r7jvi)($r]V tw 'A7rdA\<ovt. IlaJs Se; l^ry 6 

ELEVEN POINT 

TaSe Be /JLOL Traz/ro)?, ec^?;, K/30tcre, Xe^ov 7roj<; airoffe/SijKe 
TOL eK TOV iv Ae\(f)ol<i ')(^pr](TT7]piov ' aol yap 8r) XeyeTat irdvv 
ye TeOepairevaOaL 6 ^ KttoWcov Kai ae irdvTa eKeivo) TreiOo- 
ixevov TrpciTTetv. *l^ffov\6/jLr)v dv^ & KO/oe, ovro)? ey^eiv vvv 

TWELVE POINT 

TaSe he [xol iravTco^;, e(\)y)^ Kpolcre, \4^ov ttcj? oltto- 
/Be^rjKe ra iK tov iv AeXc^oi? xprjcrTrjpLov aol yap 
Srj Xeyerat rrapv ye TedepairevaOai 6 ^ AttoWojv Kai 
ere TrdvTa iKetvcp TreiOopievov irpaTTeiv. 'FA/BovXofxrjv 



154 The University oj Chicago Press 

ANTIQUE GREEK 

EIGHT POINT 

Td8£ 8^ fioi irdvTws, e*})!!, Kpoicrc, Xe'lov irdis diroPePTjKC rd Ik tov 
Iv A€|i4>ots xpT]<rTTipiou' o-ol "ydp St] \€"y€Tai irdvv 76 rcGepaircvo-Oai 6 
'AiroWwv Ka( <r€ irdvTa IkcCvo) irei06p.£vov irpdrretv. 'EPovXoifqv dv, w 
Kvpe, ovTws c'xciv vvv 8c irdvTa rdvavria cvOvs l| dpx^js irpdrrttv irpoo-- 
T)V€x9i]v T« 'AiroXXwvt. Iltiis Se'l 'i^y\ 6 Kvpos • 8C8a(rK€' irdw -ydp 

ELEVEN POINT 

Td8€ hi |xoi irdVTcDS, €(|)T|, KpoLo-€, X€|ov irws diropepiiK€ 
TcL €K TOV €V A€\<j>OLS xP'H^'^'HP^oi) • aol •ydp 8t| Xc^ycTai 
Trdvu ^e T€0€paTr€{lo'0ai 6 * AttoXXwv Kai cc Trdvra €K€iv(o 
ireiSoiJLevov irpdrTciv. 'EpovX6(XT|v dv, S K-upe, outcos 

INSCRIPTION GREEK 



TEN POINT 



PH^ANTA'^Yr^PA<t>YAAEAOTA 
TTAN^Ai<^^YPA4>YAAINTA 
TAMie¥^ANTAAEKATT<t>TEYiANTA^l, 
QPAMMATEY^ANTAKAITHC4>1A0^EBA^T0Y 

HEBREW 

SIX POINT 

rnnV no^w"^ n-QDn nrnb : bi^nici trbia TiTp nb'bc ^^bt?^ 

I^Ti AT jt:t -j-t i-t«"Iv» k t 1 v J s •■:•» 

nnb tD'^nm^ mitti^ pis bsicn no^'a nnpb :nrn -"-iia^ 
iiDi npb aoi'^n ddh y^iij"" : nisTia^ nr^ i::7bb nianr D'^^nsb 

f J r^AV ••• J J T TV J- J • IT • 1 - J- --« AT t T J" T I • 

NINE POI NT 

nc^^j^ rrcar\ n^^ib : b^nic^ 'nV'ri ii'n-p ra'b-i ^biii^j 

AT jT : T •"_i~T I" T : • Iv V A* T I V -J : •• : ■<- 

mw2^ mi bsisn ^&)2 rrnpb :nrn ^17J5< rinb 
:?7^^^ : n^aT^a^ to^ "i3?bb' n^a-i3> D^i^nsb nnb : D"nir"7j!i 



AT : T _>• T : • J"T !• T I" 



specimens oj Types in Use 155 

NESTORIAN SYRIAC 

NINE POI NT 

p"J^^577 P» f ... 7 

I *.JD9Q.a£ '111 sk *^ i^J g ^ lll-^ V^r^O >3^9^.i*^ ^ >n^w»9 (.^oLo 

ARABIC 



NINE POI NT 



L:Lir ^y ^^ ULT Jc^^ --^ ^.JU! JU dU jJ^ JUJI 

Jjuo ^ JouJl CoU iJU-wio 2oL^ J>«l jVo Uoj. iUx«-o 

ETHIOPIC 



NINE POI NT 






156 The University of Chicago Press 

MISCELLANEOUS SIGNS 

SIX POINT 

EIGHT POI NT 

-H ^XzbO©A<n:::^±^±i/f-'-°"'/#^?^"^^ 

NINE POI NT 

- + - -^x < ± ± = : ::-H-/<"Il'''".''?nAi/f 

TEN POINT 

^^"// II I 



ELEVEN POINT 



FIVE POINT SEVEN POINT TWELVE POINT 

- = + = + --i-X*''"# o/ff^CDfl 

f f f f V V x/ xl 



S p e cim en s j T y p e s i n U s e 157 

CASLON OLD STYLE 

EIGHTEEN POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 



TWENTY-TWO POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful Gr 1906 
THE FIRST TIME TH 



TH I RTY POI NT 



When thoughtful 1906 
THE FIRST TIME T 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



When thoug 1906 
THE FIRST TIM 



1 58 The University o j Chicago Press 



CASLON OLD STYLE 

FORTY-EIGHT POINT 

When th 1906 

THEFIRST 



CASLON OLD STYLE ITALIC 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like Pol I go 6 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 



TWENTY-TWO POINT 



JVhen thoughtful Greeks lik 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks igo6 

THE FIRST TIME THA 



THIRTY POINT 



JVHEN thoughtful igo6 



S p e c im e n s j T y p e s in U s e 159 

OLD STYLE NO. 8 

TWENTY-TWO POINT 

When thoughtful Gre 1906 
THE FIRST TIME TH 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtfu iqo6 
THE FIRST TIME 



THIRTY-TWO POINT 



When thoug 1906 



THE FIRST TIM 



FORTY-FOUR POINT 



Whenth 190 
THE FIRST 



i6o The University oj Chicago Press 

OLD STYLE NO, 8 ITALIC 

TWENTY-TWO POINT 

When thoughtful Gr igo6 
THE FIRST TIME TH 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful iqo6 
THE FIRST TIME 



THIRTY-TWO POINT 



When thou igo6 
THE FIRS T T 



FORTY-FOUR POINT 



When tho ig o 

THE FIRST 



specimens oj Types in Use i6i 



CENTURY EXPANDED 

SIX POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HEL 1906 

EIGHT POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT 1906 

TEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 1906 

ELEVEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND 1906 

TWELVE POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAN 1906 

FOURTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 1906 



EIGHTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THA 1906 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 

THE FIRST TIME 1906 



THIRTY POINT 



THE FIRST TI 190 



i62 The University of Chicago Press 



FRENCH OLD STYLE 

SIX POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Gorlnth, 1906 
When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH 

SEVEN POINT 

WHEN THOUGHTFUL GREEKS LIKE POLYBIUS SAW THE FALL OF 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD 

EIGHT POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Cartha 1906 

When thoughtful Greeks like polybius saw the fallo 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEE 

TEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw 1906 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT H 

TWELVE POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Poly 1906 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 

FOURTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE OR 1906 

SIXTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 1906 

TWENTY POINT 

THE FIRST TIMET 1906 

TWENTY-FOUR POINT 

THE FIRST TIM 1906 



specimens oj Types in Use 163 



THI RTY POI NT 



THE FIRST 1906 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



THE FIRST 190 



FORTY-EIGHT POINT 



THgFI906 



SIXTY POINT 



THR 906 



CONDENSED OLD STYLE 

EIGHT POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND IQ06 

NINE POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT 1906 

TEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 1906 

TWELVE POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRA 1906 

SIXTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GR 190 



i64 The University oj Chicago Press 



CONDENSED OLD STYLE 

EIGHTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT T 1906 



TWENTY POI NT 



THEFIRSTT1METH1906 



TWENTY-TWO POINT 



THE FIRST TIME T 1906 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



THE FIRST TIM 1906 



TWENTY-EIGHT POINT 



THE FIRST TI 1906 



THIRTY-TWO POINT 



THE FIRST 1906 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



THE FIRS 1906 



FORTY POINT 



THE FIR 1906 



specimens oj Types in Use 165 

SIX POI NT 

93t)rn tl|iiu9l;tful (^xg^ka Uki Palybiua sam tl|r fall of ([lartliaQr and of QJart 1906 

EIGHT POI NT 

Wiifn tifaugjtittid O&rrrks lik? p^lgbtuB Bam tt;e fall of (darttiag^ 190G 

TEN POINT 

HJlpn tlinuglytful (BrttkB i\kt fni^bim aafo tl|0 fall 1005 

TWELVE POI NT 

Wiim tljnugljtful (Sr^^ka lik^ JPnlgbitm mm 1300 

FOURTEEN POI NT 

Wifm tlinugljtful (Smka Itk^ JPnlijbtuH 1900 

EIGHTEEN POINT 

m\^m tljo«9l|tf«l d^mks ixkt 190H 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



m\^m tl|0«9l|tfttl ®r 1000 



THI RTY POI NT 




If^n tlj0«gljtf«l lanfi 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 




Ijptt tl|a«9 19nfi 



FORTY-EIGHT POINT 




hm th 1 900 



i66 The University of Chicago Press 



|3rtarp €tj:t 

EIGHT POINT 

Whtn tt)Ouabtful <!5recfe? \ihe pai^hiu^ jsato tbe faH of Cartftage leoe 



TEN POINT 

Whtn t6ati2:f)tfttl (Sxtt'ks like polpbiug 0atD tje fall of 1906 



TWELVE POINT 



Wf)tn tliou2|)tful €ireebfl( like |0ol^biu0 siatD tlie 1906 



FOURTEEN POINT 



^^ett ti^oug^tful (KteefejS Kfee i^olt looe 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



l^ljen t|)oug|)tful (§xttkslik 1906 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



l^ljen tj)0U5l)tful (8m 1906 



THl RTY POI NT 



W^m tj)0ugj)tful 1906 



THl RTY-SIX POI NT 



W))m tI)ougl) 1906 



specimens oj Types in Use 167 

I^u^ot Black 

SIX POI NT 

Wben tboudbtful <3tcek9 Ukc pol^btus saw tbc fall of dartba^e and of Cod 1906 

EIC HT POI NT 

Wiben tbouflbtful (5rceft0 lihe pol^blus saw tbc tall ot 1906 

TEN POINT 

TlClben tbouabttul Greel^s like pol^blus sa 1906 

TWELVE POINT 

Mben tbougbtful (Brcehs Ifhe pol? 1906 

EIGHTEEN POI NT 

Mben tbougbtful (3reeh8 X906 



TWENTY POINT 



Mben tbougbtful (5 1906 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



lUaben tbou 1906 



Bradley Ccxt 

TEN POINT 

mben tDoudDtful Greeks like Polybius saw tbe fall of wo6 

TWELVE POINT 

mben tbougbtful Greeks like Polybius $m tbe 1906 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



(Uben tboudbtful Greeks like Poly \m 



i68 The University of Chicago Press 



Braaiey Cext 

TWENTY-FOUR POINT 

OiiKU tbouabtfnl 6mk m 



TOURAINE OLD STYLE 

SIX POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Covin igo6 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPEC7 HAD BEEN HELD 

EIGHT POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carth igo6 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD 

TEN POINT 

When ihouglitful Greeks like Polybius saw tl^e I go 6 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 

TWELVE POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw igo6 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND P 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks igo6 



TWENTY -FOUR POINT 



Wl^en thoughtful igo6 



specimens ol Types in Use 169 



THIRTY POrNT 



When thought 1906 



TH I RTY-SI X POI NT 



Whe n tho igod 

\A/HITTIER 

SIX POI NT 

NO. I 
WHEN THOUGHTFUL CREEKS LIKE POLYBIUS SAW THE FALL OF CAR 123456 78 90 

NO. 2 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD 1905 

NO. 3 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEE 1906 

NO. 4 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT 1906 

TWELVE POINT 
NO. I 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND 1906 

NO. 2 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 1906 

NO. 3 

THE FIRST TIME THAT TH 1906 

NO. 4 

TH E Fl RST TI M E TH 1906 

EIGHTEEN POI NT 
NO. I 

THE FIRST TIM 1906 

NO. 2 

THE FIRST T 1906 



lyo The University of Chicago Press 



ENGRAVER'S BOLD 



SIX POI NT 

NO. I 
THE FIRST TI>IB THAT THB ORANO PROSPECT HAD BEEN HEL.I> FORTH TO THE M'OR ISOa 

NO. 2 
THE FIRST Tl^fE THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO leOB 

NO. 3 
THB FIRST TIME THAT THE GRA-ND PROSPECT HAD BKIEN HELD 1906 

NO. 4 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HA 1906 

NO. 5 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 1906 

TWELVE POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GR 1906 



COIVEMIISRCIAIL. 

SIX POINT 

NO. I 
THE FIRST TIMS THAT THB GRAND PROSPECT HAZ> BEEN BEr.I> FORTH TO THE WOR 1S06 

NO. 2 
THE FIRST TIMS THAT THBJ GRAND PROSPKOT HAD BKBN IQOB 

NO. 3 
THE FIRST TIlVtE THAT THE GRAND PROSPEC 1906 

NO. 4 

THK jniRST XIMIE THAT THIG GRAND P»R 1906 

EIGHT POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRA 1906 

TEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIM:E THAT 1906 

TWELVE POINT 

THE FIRST TIME 1906 



specimens oj Types in Use 171 

DELLA ROBBIA 

SIX POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, they 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH 

EIGHT POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of 1906 
THE FIPvST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN 

TEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPE 

TWELVE POINT 

\A/hen thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PK 

FOURTEEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Poly hi 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE G 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks li 1906 

THE FIRST TIME THAT T 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful Gre 19 

THE FIRST TIME TH 



172 The University of Chicago Press 



DELLA ROBBIA 

THIRTY POINT 

When thoughtful 1 9 

THE FIRST TIME 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



When though 1 9 

THE FIRST TI 



FORTY-EIGHT POINT 



When tho 1 9 

THE FIRST 



SIX POINT BLACK NO. 13 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corint 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO 



TWELVE POINT OLD ENGLISH 



FOURTEEN POINT CADET 



specimens oj Types in Use 173 

JENSON OLD STYLE 

EIGHT POI N T 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD 

TEN POI N T 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPE 



TWELVE POI NT 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw J906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like J 906 

THE FIRST TIME THAT T 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful Greek 19 

THE FIRST TIME TH 



THIRTY-SrX POINT 



When thoughtf 1 9 

THE FIRST TI 



174 The University of Chicago Press 

JENSON OLD STYLE ITALIC 

SIX POINT 

When thoaghtfal Greeks like Pohbius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, the 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH T 

EIGHT POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius sa<w the fall of Carthag 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEE 

TEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks tike Polybius sam) the fall of 1 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND "PROSPEC 

TWELVE POI NT 

When thoaghtfal Greeks like T'olybius sa J 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PR 

EIGHTEEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks 19 

THE FIRST TIME THA 



THIRTY POINT 



When thoaghtfal G 19 

THE FIRST TIME T 



specimens oj Types in Use 175 



TH I RTY-SIX POI NT 



When thought fu 19 

THE FIRST TIM 

OLD STYLE EXTENDED 

TWENTY-FOUR POINT 

When though 1906 
THE FIRST TIME 



TH I RTY-Srx POI NT 



When tho 19 
THE FIRST T 



FORTY-EIGHT POINT 



When 19 
THE FIR 



176 The University oj Chicago Press 

BOLD-FACE ITALIC 

SIX POINT 

When thottghtful Greeks like JPolybius saw the fall of Carthage a 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN 

NINE POI NT 

When thoughtful Ch'eeks like Polybiiis satv the f 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPE 



INTERCHANGEABLE GOTHIC 

SIX POINT 
NO. I 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO THE WOR 1«0« 

NO. 2 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO T 1906 

NO. 3 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD F 1906 

NO. 4 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN 1906 

NO. 5 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT 1906 

EIGHT POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PRO 1906 

TEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GR 1906 

TWELVE POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT 1906 

EIGHTEEN POINT 

THE FIRSTTIIVI1906 

TWENTY-FOUR POINT 

THE FIRST 19 



specimens oj Types in Use I'jy 

GOTHIC CONDENSED 

SI X POI N T 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, th 1 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO T 

EIGHT POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HE 

TEN POI NT 

When thoughtful Greei(s like Polybius saw the fall 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD 



TWELVE POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw 1 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPE 



EIGHTEEN POI N T 



When thoughtful Greeks like P 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRA 



TWENTY-TWO POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks 1 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GR 



LIGHT-FACE GOTHIC 

SIX POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth, they 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO 

EIGHT POI N T 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HE 



178 The University oj Chicago Press 



LINING GOTHIC CONDENSED 

SIX POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO THE WORLD 1906 

EIGHT POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO THE WORLD 1906 

TEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO 1906 

TWELVE POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HE 1906 

FOURTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THATTHE GRAND PROSPECT HAD 1906 

EIGHTEEN POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSP 1906 

TWENTY-FOUR POINT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 6RA 1 906 



THIRTY POINT 



THE FIRST TIME THAT 1906 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



THE FIRST TIME TH 1906 



FORTY-TWO POINT 



THE FIRST TIME 1906 



specimens of Types in Use 179 



FORTY-EIGHT POINT 



THE FIRST Tl 1906 



SIXTY POINT 



THE FIRST 1906 



SEVENTY-TWO POINT 



THE FIR 1906 



CLARENDON 

SIX POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HEL 

NINE POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HA 

SEVEN POINT FIGURES 

1234567890 



i8o The University o j Chicago Press 

SLOPING GOTHIC 

SIX POINT (agate face) 
TH£ FiaST TIME THAT THE QRAND PROSPECT HAD BE 

SIX POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Corinth. 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO THE 

EIGHT POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthag 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD F 

TEN POI NT 

Wher) thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN 

TWELVE POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius sa 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HA 



LiaHT-FACE 

SIX POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAITD PROSPECT HAD BE 1906 

EIGHT POINT 

THE FIRST TIxME THAT THE GRAND PROSP 1906 

NINE POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND 1906 

TEN POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GR 1906 

TWEUVE POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT T 1906 



Specimens oj Types in Use i8i 

PONTIAC 

SIX POINT 

When thouflhtful Greeks like Polyblus saw the fail of Carthage and of Corinth, they must have 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO THE WORLD 

EIGHT POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fail of Carthage and of Corinth. 1906 
THE fIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORTH TO THE 

TEN POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD 

TWELVE POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall o 1 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BE 



FOURTEEN POINT 



Wlien tlioujiitful Greeks like Polybius saw the 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HA 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius 1 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like 1 906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRA 



i82 The University of Chicago Press 

PONTIAC 

THIRTY POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks 19 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



When thoughtful Gre 19 
THE FIRST TIME THAT 



OLD STYLE ANTIQUE 

SIX POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HE 

EIGHT POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Cart 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT H 



TEN POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 



TWELVE POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRA 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



When thoughtful Greeks 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT 



specimens of Types in Use 183 

POST OLD STYLE 

SIX POINT 

'WHen tHou^Htft&l GreeKs like Polybius saw 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT 

EIGHT POINT 

\^Ken tKoug'Htftil GreeKs liKe Polybi 1906 
THE FIRST TIMB THAT THB GRAND PR 

TEN POI NT 

V^hen tl\otigl\tf\il GreeKs liKe 1900 

the: first time that the gr 

TWELVE POI NT 

WKen tHoughtful Greeks li 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE G 



EIGHTEEN POINT 



When thoug'htfu I906 
THE FIR^ST TIME TH 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoug'htf 19 
THE FIR5T TIM 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



When tho 19 
THE FIR»ST 



184 The University of Chicago Press 

GUSHING OLD STYLE 

SIX POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of Cori 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FORT 

- SEVEN POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD 

EIGHT POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthag 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN 

NINE POI NT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthag 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEE 

TEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Ca 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD 

TWELVE POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw th 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPE 

FOURTEEN POINT NO. I 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND P 

FOURTEEN POINT NO. 2 

When thoughtful Greeks like Po 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GR 



specimens of Types in Use 185 

GUSHING OLD STYLE 

EIGHTEEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT T 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful Gr 19 
THE FIRST TIME TH 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



When though 19 

THE FIRST TI 



FORTY-EIGHT POINT 



When tho 19 
THE FIRST 



i86 The University of Chicago Press 

DE VINNE 

SIX POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of Carthage and of 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BEEN HELD FO 

EIGHT POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the fall of 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT HAD BE 

TEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybius saw the 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROSPECT 

TWELVE POINT 

When thoughtful Greeks like Polybi 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND 

EIGHTEEN POINT 

When thoughtful Greek 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT T 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



When thoughtful 190 
THE FIRST TIME T 



THIRTY POI NT 



When thought 19 
THE FIRST TIME 



specimens o j Types in Use 187 



THIRTY-SIX POINT 



When thou 19 
THE FIRST T 



FORTY-TWO POINT 



When tho 19 
THE FIRST 



SIXTY POI NT 



When 19 
THE PI 



i88 The University oj Chicago Press 



SEVENTY-TWO POINT 




Wheip 
THE 

Wh 
TAIR 




specimens of Types in Use 



189 



NINETY-SIX POINT 



lolin 
HIM 



ONE-HUNDRED-AND-TWENTY POINT 




igo The University of Chicago Press 



CONDENSED DE VINNE 

SEVENTY-TWO POINT 

When li 



NINETY-SIX POINT 



The 




ON E-H U N DRED-AN D TWENTY POINT 



Thcl 



specimens oj Types in Use 191 

REMINGTON TYPEWRITER 

When thoughtful Greeks like Poly- 
bius saw the fall of Carthage and of 
Corinth, they must have felt that 
they had reached one of the great 
turning-points in the world's his- 
tory* There was no longer any doubt 
that all the civilized nations hither- 
to at variance, or at war, distracted 
by reason of contrasts in population, 
in government, in language, in 1906 
THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS? 

E'EW MODEL REMmGTOl^ TYPEWRITER 

When thoughtful Greeks like Poly- 
bius saw the fall of Carthage and 
of Corinth, they must have felt that 
they had reached one of the great 
turning-points in the world's his- 
tory. There was no longer any doubt 
that all the civilized nations 
hitherto at variance, or at war, 
distracted by reason of contrasts 
in population, in government, 1906 

THE EIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PROS 



192 



The University of Chicago Press 



ORNAMENTS 








il^^v^Mi 



5 






specimens o j Types in Use 



193 



ORNAMENTS 



9 



10 




11 



W 




12 



13 




14 





194 The University of Chicago Press 



ORNAMENTS 




specimens of Types in Use 



195 



ORNAMENTS 


















49 




196 



The University of Chicago Press 



ORNAMENTS 



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ii.«'i ^^^ 




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52 



53 






57 



58 




59 



sped 7n ens of Types in Use 



197 



INITIALS 






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198 



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INITIALS 




^ 




■_^ ■ 




8 






11 





12 



18 



specimens o j Types in Use 



199 



BORDERS 



Six Point No* 1 
Six Point No. 2 



Six Point No. 3 




Six Point No. 4 



Ten Point No. 1 
Twelve Point No. 1 
Twelve Point No. 2 
Twelve Point No. 8 



Twelve Point No. 4 



200 The University o j Chicago Press 

BORDERS 

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Twelve Point No. 5 



^ Twelve Point No. 6 




Twelve Point No. 7 



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Twelve Point No. 8 









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Twenty-four Point No. 1 




Twenty-four Point No. 2 




Thirty-six Point No. 1 




Double Eule Border 



Triple Rule Border 



specimens of Types in Use 



lOl 



INDEX TO TYPES 



PAGE 

Antique Greek 154 

Arabic 155 

Black 172 

Body Type: 

Modem 125-29 

Old Style 130-38 

Monotype 139-44 

Linotype 145-48 

Caslon 149-52 

Bold-Face Italic 176 

Borders i99i 200 

Bradley Text 167, 168 

Cadet 172 

Caslon Old Style 149-52, 157. 158 

Caslon Old Style Italic 158 

Century Expanded 161 

Clarendon 179 

Commercial 170 

Condensed De Mnne 190 

Condensed Old Style 163, 164 

Cushing Old Style 184, 185 

Delia Robbia 171, 172 

De Vinne 186-89 

Condensed 190 

Engraver's Bold 170 

Engraver's Old English 165 

Ethiopic 155 

French Old Style 162, 163 

Gothic Condensed 177 

Greek: 

Porson 153 

- Antique 154 

Inscription 154 



PAGE 

Hebrew 154 

Initials 197, 198 

Inscription Greek 154 

Interchangeable Gothic 176 

Jenson Old Style 173 

Jenson Old Style Italic 174, 175 

Light-Face 180 

Light-Face Gothic 177 

Lining Gothic Condensed 178, 179 

Linotype Type 145-48 

Miscellaneous Signs 156 

Modem Body Type 125-29 

Monotype Type 139-44 

Nestorian Syriac 155 

New Model Remington Typewriter. ... 191 

Old English 172 

Old Style Antique 182 

Old Style Body Type 130-38, 159 

Old Style Extended 175 

Old Style ItaHc 130-38, 160, 

Ornaments 192-98 

Pontiac 181, 182 

Porson Greek 153 

Post Old Style 183 

Priory Text 166 

Remington Typewriter 191 

New Model 191 

Sloping Gothic 180 

Syriac, Nestorian 155 

Touraine Old Style 168. 169 

Tudor Black 167 

Whittier 169 



specimens of Types i n Use [Supplement No. i 



TITLE 

NINE POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GRAND PR 1906 

ELEVEN POi NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE GR 1906 

TWELVE POI NT 

THE FIRST TIME THAT THE 1906 



FOURTEEN POINT 



THE FIRST TIME THAT 190G 



SIXTEEN POI NT 



THE FIRST TIME TH 1906 



EIGHTEEN POI NT 



THE FIRST TIME T 1906 



TWENTY POI NT 



THE FIRST TIM 1906 



TV/ENTY-TWO POINT 



THE FIRST TIM 1906 



TWENTY-FOUR POINT 



THE FIRST T 1 906 



A 






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