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Full text of "Manual of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico)"


AGiIIC. DtrTi F 




PRINCIPAL TEEE REGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA 

North Eastern B North. Western A B North Eastern & North Western 

Q South Eastern D Tropical Florida Texas-Mexican Boundary 

c Rocky Mountains Q Oregon & California H New Mexico & Arizona 

Mexican Boundary 



MANUAL OF THE TREES OF 
NORTH AMERICA 

(EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO) 






BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

Director of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 
Author of The Silva of North America 



WITH SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-THREE ILLUSTRATIONS 
FROM DRAWINGS BY 

CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 

AND 

MARY W. GILL 

Second Edition 




BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 

re$ CambriD0e 
1922 



^ I 



f 



COPYRIGHT, 1905 AND 1922, BY CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



AGniC. DEPT, 



TO 

M. R. S. 

THE WISE AND KIND FRIEND OF THERTY YEARS 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 
WITH GRATITUDE AND AFFECTION 



468541 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

THE studies of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico) which have been carried 
on by the agents and correspondents of the Arboretum in the sixteen years since the publi- 
cation of the Manual of the Trees of North America have increased the knowledge of 
the subject and made necessary a new edition of this Manual. The explorations of these 
sixteen years have added eighty-nine species of trees and many recently distinguished 
varieties of formerly imperfectly understood- species to the silva of the United States, and 
made available much additional information in regard to the geographical distribution of 
American trees. Further studies have made the reduction of seven species of the first edi- 
tion to varieties of other species seem desirable; and two species, Amelanchier obovalis and 
Cercocarpus parvifolius, which were formerly considered trees, but are more properly 
shrubs, are omitted. The genus Anamomis is now united with Eugenia; and the Arizona 
Pinus strobiformis Sarg. (not Engelm.) is now referred to Pinus flexilis James. 

Representatives of four Families and sixteen Genera which did not appear in the first 
edition are described in the new edition in which will be found an account of seven hundred 
and seventeen species of trees in one hundred and eighty-five genera, illustrated by seven 
hundred and eighty- three figures, or one hundred and forty-one figures in addition to those 
which appeared in the first edition. 

An International Congress of Botanists which assembled in Vienna in 1905, and again in 
Brussels in 1910, adopted rules of nomenclature which the world, with a few American ex-, 
ceptions, has now generally adopted. The names used in this new Manual are based on 
the rules of this International Congress. These are the names used by the largest number 
of the students of plants, and it is unfortunate that the confusion in the names of American 
trees must continue as long as the Department of Agriculture, including the Forest Service 
of the United States, uses another and now generally unrecognized system. 

The new illustrations in this edition are partly from drawings made by Charles Edward 
Faxon, who died before his work was finished; it was continued by the skillful pencil of 
Mary W. Gill, of Washington, to whom I am grateful for her intelligent cooperation. 

It is impossible to name here all the men and women who have in the last sixteen years 
contributed to this account of American trees, and I will now only mention Mr. T. G. Har- 
bison and Mr. E. J. Palmer, who as agents ofthe Arboretum have studied for years the 
trees of the Southeastern States and of the Missouri- Texas region, Professor R. S. Cocks, of 
Tulane University, who has explored carefully and critically the forests of Louisiana, and 
Miss Alice Eastwood, head of the Botanical Department of the California Academy of 
Sciences, who has made special journeys in Alaska and New Mexico in the interest of this 
Manual. Mr. Alfred Rehder, Curator of the Herbarium of the Arboretum, has added to 
the knowledge of our trees in several Southern journeys; and to him I am specially indebted 
for assistance and advice in the preparation of the keys to the different groups of plants 
found in this volume. 

This new edition of the Manual contains the results of forty-four years of my continuous 
study of the trees of North America carried on in every part of the United States and in 
many foreign countries. If these studies in any way serve to increase the knowl- 
edge and the love of trees I shall feel that these years have not been misspent. 

C. S. SARGENT. 
ARNOLD ARBORETUM 

September, 1921 



PREFACE 

IN this volume I have tried to bring into convenient form for the use of students the in- 
formation concerning the trees of North America which has been gathered at the Arnold 
Arboretum during the last thirty years and has been largely elaborated in my Silva of 
North America. 

The indigenous trees of no other region of equal extent are, perhaps, so well known as 
those that grow naturally in North America. There is, however, still much to be learned 
about them. In the southern states, one of the most remarkable extratropical regions in 
the world in the richness of its arborescent flora, several species are still imperfectly known, 
while it is not improbable that a few may have escaped entirely the notice of botanists; and 
in the northern states are several forms of Cratsegus which, in the absence of sufficient in- 
formation, it has been found impracticable to include in this volume. Little is known as 
yet of the silvicultural value and requirements of North American trees, or of the diseases 
that affect ihem; and one of the objects of this volume is to stimulate further investigation 
of their characters and needs. 

The arrangement of families and genera adopted in this volume is that of Engler & 
Prantl's Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, in which the procession is from a simpler to a 
more complex structure. The nomenclature is that of The Silva of North America. De- 
scriptions of a few species of Crataegus are now first published, and investigations made 
since the publication of the last volume of The Silva of North America, in December, 1902, 
have necessitated the introduction of a few additional trees described by other authors, and 
occasional changes of names. 

An analytical key to the families, based on the arrangement and character of the leaves, 
will lead the reader first to the family to which any tree belongs; a conspectus of the genera, 
embodying the important and easily discovered contrasting characters of each genus and 
following the description of each family represented by more than one genus, will lead him 
to the genus he is trying to determine; and a similar conspectus of the species, following the 
description of the genus, will finally bring him to the species for which he is looking. Fur- 
ther to facilitate the determination, one or more letters, attached to the name of the species 
in the conspectus following the description of the genus, indicate in which of the eight re- 
gions into which the country is divided according to the prevailing character of the arbores- 
cent vegetation that species grows (see map forming frontispiece of the volume). For 
example, the northeastern part of the country, including the high Appalachian Mountains 
in the southern states which have chiefly a northern flora, is represented by (A), and a per- 
son wishing to learn the name of a Pine-tree or of an Oak in that region need occupy him- 
self only with those species which in the conspectus of the genus Quercus or Pinus are 
followed by the letter (A), while a person wishing to determine an Oak or a Pine-tree in 
Oregon or California may pass over all species which are not followed by (G), the letter 
which represents the Pacific coast region south of the state of Washington. 

The sign of degrees () is used in this work to represent feet, and the sign of minutes (') 
inches. 

The illustrations which accompany each species and important variety are one half the 
size of nature, except in the case of a few of the large Pine cones, the flowers of some of the 



Vlll PREFACE 

Magnolias, and the leaves and flower-clusters of the Palms. These are represented as less 
than half the size of nature in order to make the illustrations of uniform size. These illus- 
trations are from drawings by Mr. Faxon, in which he has shown his usual skill and experi- 
ence as a botanical draftsman in bringing out the most important characters of each species, 
and in them will be found the chief value of this Manual. For aid in its preparation I am 
indebted to him and to my other associates, Mr. Alfred Render and Mr. George R. Shaw, 
who have helped me hi compiling the most difficult of the keys. 

C. S. SARGENT. 

ARNOLD ARBORETUM, JAMAICA PLAIN, MASS. 
January, 1905. 



TABLE OF CONTEXTS 

MAP OF NORTH AMERICA (exclusive of Mexico) showing the eight 
regions into which the country is divided according to the pre- 
vailing character of the trees Frcmtisspiece 

SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES OF PLANTS described in this work xi 
ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA OF PLANTS described in this 

work, based chiefly on the character of their leaves xvi 
MANUAL OF TREES 

Gymnospermse 1 

Angiospermae 96 

Monocotyledons 96 

Dicotyledons 118 

Apetahe 118 

Petalatse 342 

Polypetalae 342 

Gamopetalae 790 

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS 893 

INDEX 899 



SYNOPSIS 
OF THE FAMILIES OF PLANTS DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK 

Class I. GYMNOSPERM.E. 

Resinous trees; stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing in diameter by 
the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark; flowers unisexual; stamens 
numerous; ovules and seeds 2 or many, borne on the face of a scale, not inclosed in an 
ovary; embryo with 2 or more cotyledons; leaves straight-veined, without stipules. 

I. Pinaceae (p. 1). Flowers usually monoecious; ovules 2 or several; fruit a woody cone (in 
Juniperus berry-like); cotyledons 2 or many; leaves needle-shaped, linear or scale-like, per- 
sistent (deciduous in Larix and Taxodium). 

II. Taxaceae (p. 90). Flowers dioecious, axillary, solitary; ovules 1; fruit surrounded by or 
inclosed in the enlarged fleshy aril-like disk of the flower; cotyledons 2; leaves linear, alternate, 
persistent. 

Class II. ANGIOSPERM.E. 

Carpels or pistils consisting of a closed cavity containing the ovules and becoming 
the fruit. 

Division I. MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them, but without pith or 
annual layers of growth; parts of the flower in 3's; ovary superior, 3-celled; embryo 
with a single cotyledon; leaves parallel -veined, persistent, without stipules. 

III. Palmae (p. 96). Ovule solitary; fruit baccate or drupaceous, 1 or rarely 2 or 3-seeded; 
leaves alternate, pinnate, flabellate or orbicular, persistent. 

IV. Liliaceae (p. 110). Ovules numerous in each cell; fruit 3-celled, capsular or baccate; 
leaves linear-lanceolate. 

Division II. DICOTYLEDONS. 

Stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing by the addition of an annual 
layer of wood inside the bark; parts of the flower mostly in 4's or 5's; embryo with a 
pair of opposite cotyledons; leaves netted-veined. 

SUBDIVISION 1. APETAL^E. Flowers without a corolla and sometimes without a 
calyx. 

Section 1. Flowers in unisexual aments (female flowers of Juglans and Que-rcus 
solitary or in spikes) ; ovary inferior (superior in Leitneriaceoe) when a calyx is present. 

V. Salicaceae (p. 119). Flowers dioecious, without a calyx. Fruit a 2-4-valved capsule. 
Leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

VI. Myricaceae (p. 163). Flowers monoecious or dioecious; fruit a dry drupe, covered 
with waxy exudations; leaves simple, alternate, resinous-punctate, persistent. 

VII. Leitneriaceae (p. 167). Flowers dioecious, the staminate without a calyx; ovary 
superior; fruit a compressed oblong drupe; leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, decidu- 
ous. 

VIII. Juglandacese (p. 168). Flowers monoecious; fruit a nut inclosed in an indehiscent 
(Juglans) or 4-valved (Carya) fleshy or woody shell; leaves alternate, unequally pinnate 
without stipules, deciduous. 



Xll SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES 

IX. Betulaceae (p. 200). Flowers monoecious; fruit a nut at the base of an open leaf-like 
involucre (Carpinus), in a sack-like involucre (Ostrya), in the axil of a scale of an ament 
(Betula), or of a woody strobile (Alnus); leaves alternate, simple, with stipules, deciduous. 

X. Fagaceae (p. 227). Flowers monoecious; fruit a nut more br less inclosed in a woody 
often spiny involucre; leaves alternate, simple, with stipules, deciduous (in some species of 
Quercus and in Castanopsis and Lithocarpus persistent) . 

Section 2. Flowers unisexual (perfect in Ulmus) ; calyx regular, the stamens as 
many as its lobes and opposite them; ovary superior, 1 -celled; seed 1. 

XI. Ulmaceae (p. 308). Fruit a compressed winged samara (Ulmus), a drupe (Celtis and 
Trema), or nut-like (Planera), leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous (persistent in 
Trema). 

XII. Moraceae (p. 328). . Flowers in ament-like spikes or heads; fruit drupaceous, inclosecT 
in the thickened calyx and united into a compound fruit, oblong and succulent (Morus), large, 
dry and globose (Toxylon), or immersed in the fleshy receptacle of the flower (Ficus) ; leaves 
simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous (persistent in Ficus). 

Section 3. Flowers usually perfect; ovary superior or partly inferior, l-4celled> 
leaves simple, persistent in the North American species. 

XIII. Olacacese (p. 336). Calyx and corolla 4-6-lobed; ovary 1-4-celled; fruit a drupe 
more or less inclosed in the enlarged disk of the flower; leaves alternate or fascicled, without 
stipules. 

XIV. Polygonaceae (p. 338). Calyx 5-lobed; ovary 1-celled; fruit a nutlet inclosed in the 
thickened calyx; leaves alternate, their stipules sheathing the stems. 

XV. Nyctaginaceae (p. 340). Calyx 5-lobed; ovary 1-celled; fruit a nutlet inclosed in the 
thickened calyx; leaves alternate or opposite, without stipules. 

SUBDIVISION 2. PETALAT^. Flowers with both calyx and corolla (without a corolla 
in LauracecBj in Liquidainbar in Hamamelidacece, in Cercocarpus in Rosacece, in Euphor- 
biacece, in some species of Acer, in Reynosia, Condalia, and Krugiodendron in Rham- 
nacece, in Fremontia in Sterculiacece, in Chytraculia in Myrtacece, in Conocarpus in 
Combretacece and in some species of Fraxinus in Oleacece). 
Section 1. POLYPETAL^E. Corolla of separate petals. 

A. Ovary superior (partly inferior in Hamamelidacece; inferior in Mains, Sorbus, 
Heteromeles, Cratcsgus, and Amelanchier in Rosaceoe}. 

XVI. Magnoliaceae (p. 342). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals in 3 or 4 rows of 3 each; 
fruit cone-like, composed of numerous cohering carpels; leaves simple, alternate, their stipules 
inclosing the leaf-buds, deciduous or rarely persistent. 

XVII. Anonacese (p. 353) . Flowers perfect ; sepals 3 ; petals 6 in 2 series ; fruit a pulpy berry 
developed from 1 or from the union of several carpels; leaves simple, alternate, without stip- 
ules, deciduous or persistent. 

XVIII. Lauraceae (p. 356). Flowers perfect or unisexual; corolla 0; fruit a 1-seeded drupe 
or berry; leaves simple, alternate, punctate, without stipules, persistent (deciduous in Sassa- 
fras). 

XIX. Capparidaceae (p. 365). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 4; fruit baccate, elon- 
gated, dehiscent; leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, persistent. 

XX. Hamamelidaceae (p. 366). Flowers perfect or unisexual; sepals and petals 5 (corolla 
in Liquidambar) ; ovary partly inferior; fruit a 2-celled woody capsule opening at the summit ; 
leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

XXI. Platanaceae (p. 371). Flowers monoecious, in dense unisexual capitate heads; fruit 
an akene; leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

XXII. Rosaceae (p. 376). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5 (petals in Cercocarpus); 
ovary inferior in Malus, Sorbus, Heteromeles, Crateegus, and Amelanchier; fruit a drupe 
(Prunus and Chrysobalanus) , a capsule (Vauquelinia and Lyonothamnus) , an akene (Cowania 
and Cercocarpus), or a pome (Malus, Sorbus, Heteromeles, Cratsegus, and Amelanchier) ; leaves 
simple or pinnately compound, alternate (opposite in Lyonothamnus), with stipules, decidu- 
ous or persistent. 

XXIII. Leguminosse (p. 585). Flowers perfect, regular or irregular; fruit a legume; leaves 
compound, or simple (Dalea) , alternate, with stipules, deciduous or persistent. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES Xlll 

XXIV. Zygophyllaceae (p. 630). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; fruit capsular. 
becoming fleshy; leaves opposite, pinnate, with stipules, persistent. 

XXV. Malpigiaceae (p. 631). Flowers usually perfect rarely dimorphous; calyx 5-lobed; 
petals 5, unguiculate; fruit a drupe or samara; leaves opposite, simple, entire, persistent; 
often with stipules. 

XXVI. Rutaceae (p. 633). Flowers unisexual or perfect; fruit a capsule (Xanthoxylum) , a 
samara (Ptelea), of indehiscent winged 1-seeded carpels (Helietta), or a drupe (Amyris); 
leaves alternate or opposite, compound, glandular-punctate, without stipules, persistent or 
rarely deciduous (0 in Canotia). 

XXVII. Simaroubaceae (p. 641). Flowers dioecious, calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; fruit drupa- 
ceous (Simarouba), baccate (Picramnia), a samara (Alvaradoa); leaves alternate, equally 
pinnate, without stipules, persistent. 

XXVIII. Burseraceae (p. 645). Flowers perfect; calyx 4 or 5-parted; petals 5; fruit a 
drupe; leaves alternate, compound, without stipules, deciduous. 

XXIX. Meliaceae (p. 648). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; fruit a 5-celled de- 
hiscent capsule; leaves alternate, equally pinnate, without stipules, persistent. 

XXX. Euphorbiaceae (p. 649). Flowers perfect; calyx 4-6-parted (Drypetes), 3-lobed 
(Hippomane), or (Gymnanthes) ; petals 0; fruit a drupe (Drypetes and Hippomane), or a 
3-lobed capsule (Gymnanthes). 

XXXI. Anacardiaceae (p. 655). Flowers usually unisexual, dioecious or polygamo-dice- 
cious (Pistacia without a calyx, and without a corolla in the North American species) ; fruit a 
dry drupe; leaves simple or compound, alternate, without stipules, deciduous (persistent in 
Pistacia and in one species of Rhus). 

XXXII. Cyrillacese (p. 665). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-8-lobed; petals 5-8; fruit an 
indehiscent capsule; leaves alternate, without stipules, persistent (more or less deciduous in 
CyriUd). 

XXXIII. Aquifoliaceae (p. 668). Flowers polygamo-dicecious ; calyx 4 or 5-lobed; petals 
5; fruit a drupe, with 4-8 1-seeded nutlets; leaves alternate, simple, with stipules, persistent or 
deciduous. 

XXXIV. Celastraceae (p. 674). Flowers perfect, polygamous or dioecious; calyx 4 or 
5-lobed ; petals 4 or 5 ; fruit a drupe, or a capsule (Evonymus) ; leaves simple, opposite or al- 
ternate, with or without stipules, persistent (deciduous in Evonymus). 

XXXV. Aceraceae (p. 681). Flowers dioecious or monoeciously polygamous; calyx usually 
5-parted; petals usually 5, or 0; fruit of 2 long-winged samara joined at the base; leaves oppo- 
site, simple or rarely pinnate, without or rarely with stipules, deciduous. 

XXXVI. Hippocastanaceae (p. 702). Flowers perfect, irregular; calyx 5-lobed; petals 4 or 
5, unequal; fruit a 3-celled 3-valved capsule; leaves opposite, digitately compound, long- 
petiolate, without stipules, deciduous. 

XXXVII. Sapindaceae (p. 711). Flowers polygamous; calyx 4 or 5-lobed; corolla of 4 or 
5 petals; fruit a berry (Sapindus and Exothea), a drupe (Hypelate), or a 3-valved capsule 
(Ungnadia) ; leaves alternate, compound, without stipules, persistent, or deciduous (Ungna- 
dia). 

XXXVIII . Rhamnaceae (p. 718) . Flowers usually perfect ; calyx 4 or 5-lobed ; petals 4 or 5 
(0 in Reynosia, Condalia, and Krugiodendrori) ; fruit drupaceous; leaves simple, alternate 
(mostly opposite in Reynosia and Krugiodendrori), with stipules, persistent (deciduous in some 
species of Rhamnus) . 

XXXIX. Tiliaceae (p. 732). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5; fruit a nut-like berry; 
leaves simple, alternate, mostly oblique at base, with stipules, deciduous. 

XL. Sterculiaceae (p. 749). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals 0; fruit a 4 or 5-valved 
dehiscent capsule; leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, persistent. 

XLI. Theaceae (p. 750). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5; fruit a 5-celled woody de- 
hiscent capsule, loculicidally dehiscent; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent 
or deciduous. 

XLII. Canellaceae (p. 753). Flowers perfect; sepals 3; petals 5; filaments united into a 
tube; fruit a berry; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent. 

XLIII. Koeberliniaceae (p. 754). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 4, minute; leaves 
bract-like, alternate, without stipules, caducous. 

XLIV. Caricaceae (p. 755). Flowers unisexual or perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; fruit 
baccate ; leaves palmately lobed or digitate, alternate, without stipules, persistent. 



XIV SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES 

B. Ovary inferior (partly inferior in Rhizophora). 

XLV. Cactaceae (p. 757). Flowers perfect; petals and sepals numerous; fruit a berry; 
leaves usually wanting. 

XLVI. Rhizophoraceae (p. 763). Flowers perfect; calyx 4-parted; petals 4; ovary partly 
inferior; fruit a 1-celled 1-seeded berry perforated at apex by the germinating embryo; leaves 
simple, opposite, entire, with stipules, persistent. 

XLVII. Combretaceae (p. 764). Flowers perfect or polygamous; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5 
(0 in Conocarpus) ; fruit drupaceous; leaves simple, alternate or opposite, without stipules, 
persistent. 

XLVIII. Myrtaceae (p. 768). Flowers perfect; calyx usually 4-lobed, or reduced to a 
single body forming a deciduous lid to the flower (Chytraculia) ; petals usually 4 (0 in Chytra- 
culia); fruit a berry; leaves simple, opposite, pellucid-punctate, without stipules, persistent. 

XLIX. Melastomaceae (p. 776). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 4 or 5-lobed; stamens 
as many or twice as many as the lobes of the corolla ; fruit capsular or baccate, inclosed in the 
tube of the calyx; leaves opposite, rarely verticillate, 3-9-nerved, without stipules. 

L. Araliaceae (p. 777). Flowers perfect or polygamous; sepals and petals usually 5; fruit a 
drupe; leaves twice pinnate, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

LI. Nyssaceae (p. 779). Flowers dioecious, polygamous, dioecious or perfect; calyx 5- 
toothed or lobed; petals 5 or more, imbricate in the bud, or 0; stamens as many or twice as 
many as the petals; fruit drupaceous (Nyssa), usually 1-celled and 1-seeded; leaves alternate, 
deciduous, without stipules. 

LII. Cornaceae (p. 784). Flowers perfect or polygamo-dioecious; calyx 4 or 5-toothed; 
petals 4 or 5; fruit a fleshy drupe; leaves simple, opposite (alternate in one species of Cornus), 
without stipules, deciduous. 

Section 2. GAMOPETAL.E. Corolla of united petals (divided in Elliottia in Erica- 
ceae, in some species of Fraxinus in Oleacece). 

A. OVARY SUPERIOR (inferior in Vaccinium in Ericaceae, partly inferior in Symplo- 
caceae and Styracacece). 

LIII. Ericaceae (p. 790). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed (in Elliottia corolla of 4 
petals)', (ovary inferior in Vaccinium); fruit capsular, drupaceous or baccate; leaves simple, 
alternate, without stipules, persistent (deciduous in Elliottia and Oxydendrum). 

LIV. Theophrastaceae (p. 804). Flowers perfect, with staminodia; sepals and petals 5; 
stamens 5; fruit a berry; leaves simple, opposite or alternate, entire, without stipules. 

LV. Myrsinaceae (p. 805). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed; stamens 5; fruit a 
drupe; leaves simple, alternate, entire, without stipules, persistent. 

LVI. Sapotaceae (p. 808). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; corolla 5-lobed (6-lobed in Mi- 
musops), often with as many or twice as many internal appendages borne on its throat; fruit a 
berry; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent (deciduous in some species of 
Bumelia) . 

LVII. Ebenaceas (p. 820). Flowers perfect, dioecious, or polygamous; calyx and corolla 
4-lobed; fruit a 1 or several-seeded berry; leaves simple, alternate, entire, without stipules, 
deciduous. 

LVIII. Styraceae (p. 824). Flowers perfect; calyx 4 or 5-toothed; corolla 4 or 5-lobed or 
divided nearly to the base, or rarely 6 or 7-lobed; ovary superior or partly superior; fruit a 
drupe; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, deciduous; pubescence mostly scurfy or 
stellate. 

LIX. Symplocaceae (p. 830). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed; ovary inferior or 
partly inferior; fruit a drupe; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, deciduous; pubescence 
simple. 

LX. Oleaceae (p. 832). Flowers perfect or polygamo-dioecious; calyx 4-lobed (0 in some 
species of Fraxinus) ; corolla 2-6-parted (0 in some species of Fraxinus) ; fruit a winged samara 
(Fraxinus) or a fleshy drupe (Forestiera, Chionanthus and Osmanthus) ; leaves pinnate (Fraxi- 
nus) or simple, opposite, without stipules, deciduous (persistent in Osmanthus). 

LXI. Borraginaceae (p. 858). Flowers perfect or polygamous; calyx and corolla 5-lobed; 
fruit a drupe; leaves simple, alternate, scabrous-pubescent, without stipules, persistent or 
tardily deciduous. 

LXII. Verbenaceae (p. 864). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; corolla 4 or 5-lobed; fruit a 
drupe or a 1-seeded capsule; leaves simple, opposite, without stipules, persistent. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES XV 

LXIII. Solanaceae (p. 867). Flowers perfect; calyx campanulate, usually 5-lobed; corolla 
usually 5-lobed; fruit baccate, surrounded at base by the enlarged calyx; leaves alternate, 
rarely opposite, without stipules. 

LXIV. Bignoniaceae (p. 868). Flowers perfect; calyx bilabiate; corolla bilabiate, 5-lobed; 
fruit a woody capsule (Catalpa and Chilopsis) or a berry (Enallagma) ; leaves simple, opposite 
(sometimes alternate in Chilopsis), without stipules, deciduous (persistent in Enallagma). 

B. Ovary inferior (partly superior in Sambucus in Caprifoliacece). 

LXV. Rubiaceae (p. 875). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 4 or 5-lobed; fruit a capsule 
(Exostema and Pinckneya), a drupe (Guettarda), or nut-like (Cephalanthus) ; leaves simple op- 
posite, or in verticils of 3 (Cephalanthus), with stipules, persistent (deciduous in Pinckneya 
and Cephalanthus). 

LXVI. Caprifoliaceae (p. 882). Flowers perfect ; calyx and corolla 5-lobed; fruit a drupe; 
leaves unequally pinnate (Sambucus) or simple (Viburnum), opposite, without stipules, decid- 
uous in North American species. 



ANALYTICAL KEY 

TO THE GENERA OF PLANTS INCLUDED IN THIS BOOK, 
BASED CHIEFLY ON THE CHARACTER OF THE LEAVES 

I. Leaves parallel-veined, alternate, persistent, clustered at the end of the stem or 
branches. Monocotyledons. 

Stem simple; leaves stalked. 
Leaves fan-shaped. 
Leaf stalks unarmed. 

Rachis short; leaves usually silvery white below. 

Leaves 2-4'in diameter (green below in No. 2), their segments undivided at 
apex. Thrinax (p. 96). 

Leaves 18'-24' in diameter, their segments divided at apex. 

Coccothrinax (p. 100). 
Rachis elongated ; leaves green below, their segments divided at apex. 

Sabal (p. 101). 
Leaf stalks armed with marginal teeth or spines. 

Leaf stalks furnished irregularly with broad thin large and small, straight or hooked 
spines confluent into a thin bright orange-colored cartilaginous margin; leaves 
longer than wide, divided nearly to the middle into segments parted at apex and 
separating on the margins into thin fibres. Washingtonia (p. 104). 

Leaf stalks furnished with stout or slender flattened teeth; leaves suborbicular, 
divided to the middle or nearly to the base into segments parted at apex; seg- 
ments of the blade not separating on the margin into thin fibres. 

Acoelorraphe (p. 105). 
Leaves pinnate. 

Leaves 10-12 in length, their pinnae 2|-3 long and often 1| wide, deep green. 

Roystonea (p. 107). 

Leaves 5-6 long, their pinnse 18' long and 1' wide, dark yellow-green above, pale and 

glaucous below. Pseudophoenix (p. 109). 

Stem simple or branched; leaves sessile, lanceolate, long- and usually sharp-pointed at 

apex. Yucca (p. 110). 

H. Leaves i-nerved, needle-shaped, linear or scale-like, persistent (deciduous in 
Larix and Taxodium). Gymnospermae. 

1. LEAVES PERSISTENT. 

a Leaves fascicled, needle-shaped, in 1-5-leafed clusters enclosed at base in a membrana- 
ceous sheath. Pinus (p. 2) . 

aa Leaves scattered, usually linear. 

6 Leaves linear, often obtuse or emarginate. 

Base of the leaves persistent on the branches. 

Leaves sessile, 4-sided, or flattened and stomatiferous above. Picea (p. 34). 
Leaves stalked, flattened and stomatiferous below, or angular, often appear- 
ing 2-ranked. Tsuga (p. 42) . 
Base of the leaves not persistent on the branches; leaves often appearing 
2-ranked. 

Leaves stalked, flattened, stomatiferous below; winter-buds pointed, not 

resinous. Pseudotsuga (p. 47). 

Leaves sessile, flattened and often grooved on the upper side, or quadrangular, 

rarely stomatiferous above, on upper fertile branches often crowded; 

winter-buds obtuse, resinous (except in No. 9). Abies (p. 50). 

bb Leaves linear-lanceolate, rigid, 'acuminate, spirally disposed, appearing 2-ranked 

by a twist in the petiole. 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA XV11 

Leaves abruptly contracted at base, long-pointed, with pale bands of stomata 
on the lower surface on each side of the mid veins; fruit drupelike. 

Torreya (p. 91). 

Leaves gradually narrowed at base, short-pointed, paler, and without distinct 

bands of stomata on the lower surface; fruit berry-like. Taxus (p. 93). 

666 Leaves ovate-lanceolate and scale-like, spreading in 2 ranks or linear on the same 

tree, acute, compressed, keeled on the back and closely appressed or spreading 

at apex. Sequoia (p. 61). 

aaa Leaves opposite or whorled, usually scale-like. 

Internodes distinctly longer than broad; branchlets flattened, of nearly equal color 
on both sides; leaves eglandular. Libocedrus (p. 65). 

Internodes about as long as broad, often pale below, usually glandular. 
Branchlets flattened. 

Branchlets in one plane, much flattened, T \'-J' broad. Thuya (p. 67). 

Branchlets slightly flattened, ^'-jV broad. Chamaecyparis (p. 75). 

Branchlets terete or 4-angled. 

Branchlets more or less in one plane; fruit a cone. Cupressus (p. 69). 

Branchlets not in one plane ; fruit a berry (leaves needle-shaped, in whorls of 3 in 

No. 1). . Juniperus (p. 78). 

2. LEAVES DECIDUOUS. 

Leaves in many-leafed clusters on short lateral spurs. Larix (p. 31). 

Leaves spreading in 2 ranks. Taxodium (p. 63). 

III. Leaves netted-veined, rarely scale-like or wanting. Dicotyledons. 
A. LEAVES OPPOSITE. (B, see p. xxi). 
1. LEAVES SIMPLE. (2, see p. xx). 

* Leaves persistent. 
a Leaves with stipules. 

b Leaves entire or occasionally slightly crenate or serrate. 

c Leaves emarginate at apex, very short-stalked, l'-2' long. 

Leaves obovate, gradually narrowed into the petiole. Gyminda (p. 678). 
Leaves oval to oblong, rounded or broad-cuneate (rarely alternate). 

Branchlets densely velutinous. Krugiodendron (p. 721). 

Branchlets slightly puberulous at first, soon glabrous. 

Reynosia (p. 720). 
cc Leaves not emarginate at apex. 

Leaves obtuse, rarely acutish or abruptly short-pointed. 

Leaves elliptic, 3|'-5' long. Rhizophora (p. 763). 

Leaves obovate, usually rounded at apex, |'-2' long. 

Byrsonima (p. 632). 
Leaves acute to acuminate. 

Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate; branchlets glabrous. 

Exostema (p. 877). 
Leaves broad-elliptic to oblong-elliptic; branchlets villose. 

Guettarda (p. 879). 

66 Leaves serrate (often pinnate). Lyonothamnus (p. 378). 

an Leaves without stipules. 

Petioles biglandular; leaves obtuse or emarginate, l|'-2^' long. 

Laguncularia (p. 767). 
Petioles without glands. 

Leaves furnished below with small dark glands, slightly aromatic; petioles short. 
Leaves oblong to oblong-ovate and acuminate or elliptic and bluntly short- 
pointed. Calyptranthes (p. 769). 
Leaves ovate, obovate or elliptic. Eugenia (p. 770). 
Leaves without glands. 



XV111 ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA 

Leaves green and glabrous below. 

Leaves obtuse or emarginate at apex (rarely alternate), I'-l^' long. 

Tomibia (p. 341). 

Leaves acute, acuminate, or sometimes rounded or emarginate, 3'-5' long. 
Leaves distinctly veined. Citharexylon (p. 864). 

Leaves obscurely veined. Osmanthus (p. 856). 

Leaves hoary tomentulose or scurfy below. 

Leaves strongly 3-nerved, acuminate, densely scurfy oelow. 

Tetrazygia (p. 776). 
Leaves penniveined, rounded or acute at apex, hoary tomentulose below. 

Avicennia (p. 865). 

** Leaves deciduous. 
a Leaves without lobes. 
6 Leaves serrate. 

Winter-buds with several opposite outer scales. 

Leaves puberulous below, closely and finely serrate; axillary buds solitary. 

Evonymus (p. 675). 

Leaves glabrous below, remotely crenate-serrulate ; axillary buds several, 
superposed. Forestiera (p. 853). 

Winter-buds enclosed in 2 large opposite scales. Viburnum (p. 886). 

bb Leaves entire. 

c Leaves without stipules. 

Leaves suborbicular or elliptic to oblong. 

Leaves rounded or acutish at apex, l'-2' long, occasionally 3-foliolate, 
glabrous; branchlets quadrangular. Fraxinus anomala (p. 837). 

Leaves acuminate or acute at apex, 3'-4' long. 

Leaf-scars connected by a transverse line, with 3 bundle-traces; branch- 
lets slender, appressed-pubescent. Cornus (p. 785). 
Leaf-scars not connected, with 1 bundle-trace; branchlets stout, villose, 
puberulous or glabrous. Chionanthus (p. 855). 
Leaves broad-ovate, cordate, acuminate, 5' 12' long, on long petioles. 

Catalpa (p. 870). 

Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, short-stalked or sessile (sometimes alter- 
nate). Chilopsis (p. 869). 
cc Leaves with persistent stipules, entire. 

Leaves oval or ovate; winter-buds resinous, the terminal up to \' in length. 

Pinckneya (p. 876). 

Leaves ovate to lanceolate; winter-buds minute. Cephalanthus (p. 878). 
aa Leaves palmately lobed. Acer (p. 681). 

2. LEAVES COMPOUND. 

a Leaves persistent, with stipules. 

Leaves equally pinnate; leaflets entire. Guaiacum (p. 630). 

Leaves unequally pinnately parted into 3-8 linear-lanceolate segments (sometimes 
entire). Lyonothamnus (p. 378). 

Leaves trifoliate. 

Leaflets stalked. Amyris (p. 640). 

Leaflets sessile. Helietta (p. 637). 

aa Leaves deciduous. 

Leaves unequally pinnate or trifoliate. 

Leaflets crenate-serrate or entire, the veins arching within the margins; stipules 
wanting; winter-buds with several opposite scales. Fraxinus (p. 833). 

Leaflets sharply or incisely serrate, the primary veins extending to the teeth. 
Leaflets 3-7, incisely serrate; stipules present; winter-buds with 1 pair of obtuse 
outer scales. Acer Negundo (p. 699). 

Leaflets 5-9, sharply serrate; stipules present; winter-buds with many opposite 
acute scales; pith thick. Sambucus (p. 882). 

Leaves digitate, with 5-7, sharply serrate leaflets; terminal buds large. 

^sculus (p. 702). 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA XIX 

B. LEAVES ALTERNATE. 

1. LEAVES SIMPLE. (2, see p. xxvi). 
* Leaves persistent. (** see p. xxiv) . 

a Leaves deeply 3-5-lobed, g'-f ' long, with linear lobes, hoary tomentose below. . 

Cowania (p. 549). 
aa Leaves palmately lobed. 

Leaves stellate-pubescent, about l' in diameter, with stipules. 

Fremontia (p. 749). 

Leaves glabrous, l-2 in diameter, without stipules. Carica (p. 755). 

aaa Leaves not lobed or pinnately lobed. 
6 Branches spinescent. 

Leaves clustered at the end of the branches, at least 2'-3' long. 

Bucida (p. 765). 

Leaves fascicled on lateral branchlets, obtuse or emarginate, pale and glabrous 
beneath. Bumelia angustifolia (p. 816). 

Leaves scattered. 

Leaves generally obovate, mucronate, not more than \'-V long, glabrous and 

green or brownish tomentulose beneath. Condalia (p. 719). 

Leaves elliptic-ovate to oblong, obtuse or emarginate, glabrous, 1-2 cm. long. 

Ximenia (p. 337). 
66 Branches not spinescent. 

c Leaves serrate, or lobed (in some species of Quercus), (cc, see p. xxii.) 
d Juice watery, (dd, see p. xxii.) 

e Stipules present, (ee, see p. xxii.) 

/ Primary veins extending straight to the teeth. 

Leaves and branchlets glabrous or pubescent to tomentose with 
fascicled hairs. 

Leaves fulvous-tomentose beneath, repand-dentate, 3'-5' 

long. Lithocarpus (p. 236). 

Leaves glabrous or grayish to whitish tomentose beneath, 

entire, lobed or dentate. Quercus sp. 21-34 (p. 268). 

Leaves and branchlets coated with simpled silky or woolly 

hairs at least while young, not more than 2|' long. 

Cercocarpus (p. 550). 
ff Primary veins arching and united within the margin. 

Leaves 3-nerved from the base. Ceanothus (p. 726). 

Leaves not 3-nerved. 
Leaves acute. 

Leaves sinuately dentate, with few spiny teeth (rarely en- 
tire), glabrous. Ilex opaca (p. 669). 
Leaves serrate. ' 

Leaves tomentose below; branchlets tomentose. 

Leaves narrow-lanceolate, glabrous and smooth above. 

Vauquelinia (p. 377). 

Leaves ovate, cordate, scabrate above. Trema (p. 327). 
Leaves glabrous below. Heteromeles (p. 392). 

Leaves entire, very rarely toothed. 

Leaves elliptic, glabrous. Prunus caroliniana (p. 579) . 
Leaves oblanceolate, pubescent beneath when young. 

Ilex Cassine (p. 670). 
Leaves obtuse, sometimes mucronate. 
Leaves spinose-serrate, glabrous. 

Leaves broad-ovate to suborbicular or elliptic; branch- 
lets dark red-brown, spinescent. 

Rhamnus crocea (p. 723). 

Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate; branchlets yellow or 
orange-colored, not spinescent. 

Prunus ilicifolia (p. 581). 
Leaves crenate (often entire), oval to oblong. 

Ilex vomitoria (p. 671). 



XX ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA 

ee Stipules wanting. 

Leaves resinous-dotted, aromatic, l'-4' long. Myrica (p. 163). 
Leaves not resinous-dotted, crenately serrate, 4'-6' long. 

Leaves dark green, glabrous below. Gordonia Lasianthus (p. 751). 
Leaves yellowish green, pubescent below, sometimes nearly entire. 

Symplocos (p. 831). 
dd Juice milky. 

Petioles 2|'-4' long; leaves broad-ovate. Hippomane (p. 652). 

Petioles about \ f long; leaves elliptic to oblong-lanceolate. 

Gymnanthes (p. 654). 

cc Leaves entire (rarely sparingly toothed on vigorous branchlets). 
d Stipules present. 

e Stipules connate, at least at first. 

Stipules persistent, forming a sheath surrounding the branch above 
the node; leaves obtuse. Coccolobis (p. 338). 

Stipules deciduous, enveloping the unfolded leaf. 
Leaves ferrugineous-tomentose beneath. 

Magnolia grandiflora (p. 345). 

Leaves glabrous beneath, with milky juice. Ficus (p. 333) . 

ee Stipules free. 

/Juice milky; leaves oval to oblong, 3'-5' long. Drypetes (p. 650). 
ff Juice watery. 

g Leaves obtuse or emarginate at apex. 

Leaves with ferrugineous scales beneath, their petioles 
slender. Capparis (p. 365). 

Leaves without ferrugineous scales. 
Leaves soft-pubescent on both sides. 

Colubrina cubensis (p. 730). 
Leaves glabrous at least at maturity. 

Leaves rarely 2'-3' long, standing on the branch at 

acute angles. Chrysobalanus (p. 583). 

Leaves rarely more than 1' long, spreading (sometimes 

3-nerved). Ceanothus spinosos (p. 728). 

~gg Leaves acute or acutish. 

Petioles with 2 glands. Conocarpus (p. 766). 

Petioles without glands. 

Leaves and branchlets more or less pubescent, at least 

while young. 
Leaves fascicled except on vigorous branchlets. 

Cercocarpus (p. 550). 
Leaves not fascicled. 

Winter-buds minute, with few pointed scales. 
Leaves rounded or nearly rounded at base. 

Colubrina sp. 1, 3 (p. 729). 
Leaves broad-cuneate at base. 

Ilex Cassine (p. 670) . 

Winter-buds conspicuous, with numerous scales. 
Leaves usually lanceolate, entire, covered below 
with yellow scales. Castanopsis (p. 234) . 

Leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, repand-dentate, 
fibrous tomentose below. Lithocarpus (p. 236) . 
Leaves and branchlets glabrous. 

Leaf-scar with 1 bundle-trace. Ilex Krugiana (p. 672) . 
Leaf-scar with 3 bundle-traces. Cherry Laurels. 

Primus sp. 19-22 (p. 579) . 
dd Stipules wanting. 

e Leaves aromatic when bruised. 

Leaves resinous-dotted. Myrica (p. 163). 

Leaves not resinous-dotted. 

Leaves obtuse, obovate, glabrous. Canella (p. 753). 

Leaves acute. 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA XXI 

Leaves mostly rounded at the narrowed base, ovate to ob- 
long, acute, glabrous. Anona (p. 354). 
Leaves more or less cuneate at base, elliptic to lanceolate, 

usually acuminate. 

Leaves abruptly long-acuminate, glabrous, the margin un- 
dulate; branchlets red-brown. Misanteca (p. 364). 
Leaves gradually acuminate or nearly acute. 
Leaves strongly reticulate beneath. 

Branchlets glabrous, light grayish brown; leaves gla- 
brous, light green beneath. Ocotea (p. 359). 
Branchlets pubescent while young, greenish or yellow- 
ish; leaves pale beneath, pubescent while young. 

Umbellularia (p. 360). 

Leaves not or slightly reticulate, glaucous, glabrous or 
pubescent beneath. Persea (p. 356). 

ee Leaves not aromatic. 

/ Leaves acute or acutish. 

Leaves obovate, gradually narrowed into short petioles. 

Leaves 2'-2i' long. Schaefferia (p. 679). 

Leaves at least 6'-8' long. Enallagma (p. 873). 

Leaves elliptic to oblong or ovate. 

Leaves rough or pubescent above, pubescent below, subcor- 

date to cuneate at base. 

Leaves stellate-pubescent. Solanum (p. 867). 

Leaves scabrous above. 

Petiole j '-\' long; leaves oval or oblong, lj'-4' long. 

Ehretia (p. 862). 

Petiole I'-l^' long; leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, 3'-7' 
long. Cordia (p. 858). 

Leaves smooth above. 
Winter-buds scaly. 

Leaves covered below with ferrugineous or pale scales, 
l'-3' long. Lyonia (p. 797). 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so below. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, 4' 12' 
long, usually clustered at end of branchlet, veinlets 
below obscure. Rhododendron (p. 792). 

Leaves elliptic or oval to oblong or lanceolate. 

Leaves light yellowish green below and without dis- 
tinctly visible veins or veinlets, entire, 3'-4' long. 

Kalmia (p. 794). 

Leaves pale below and more or less distinctly reticu- 
late, occasionally serrate or denticulate, l'-5' 
long; bark of branches red. Arbutus (p. 799). 
Winter-buds naked. 

Leaves pubescent below when unfolding. 
Mature leaves nearly glabrous below. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to narrow-obovate. 

Dipholis (p. 810). 

Leaves oval. Sideroxylum (p. 809). 

Mature leaves covered below with brilliant copper- 
colored pubescence. 

Leaves glabrous below. Chrysophyllum (p. 817). 

Leaves marked by minute black dots, ovate to 

oblong-lanceolate. Ardisia (p. 806). 

Leaves lepidote, oblong-obovate. Rapanea (p. 807). 

ff Leaves obtuse or emarginate at apex. 

g Leaves rounded or cordate at base, emarginate, their petioles 

slender. 
Leaves reniform to broad-ovate, cordate; juice watery. 

Cercis (p. 603). 



XX11 ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA 

Leaves elliptic to oblong, rounded at base; juice milky or 

viscid. 

Leaves emarginate; petioles slender, rufous-tomentulose. 

Mimusops (p. 819). 

Leaves obtuse at apex; petioles stout, grayish-tomentu- 
lose or glabrous. Rhus integrif olia (p. 664) . 

gg Leaves cuneate at base. 

Petioles slender, % long. Beureria (p. 861). 

Petioles short and stout. 

Leaves coriaceous, with thick revolute margins (some- 
times opposite). Jacquinia (p. 804). 
Leaves subcoriaceous, slightly revolute. 
Leaves reticulate-veined beneath. 

Leaves oval to obovate or oblong-oval, more or less 
pubescent while young. Vaccinium (p. 802) . 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, glabrous. 

Cyrilla (p. 666). 
Leaves obscurely veined beneath, glabrous. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, narrowed toward the 
emarginate apex, decurrent nearly to base of 
petiole. Cliftonia (p. 667) . 

Leaves rounded at apex, distinctly petioled. 

Maytenus (p. 676). 
**Leaves deciduous. 

t Leaves conspicuous, (ft. see p. xxvi.) 

a Leaves entire, sometimes 3 or 4-lobed. (aa, see p. xxv). 
6 Stipules present. 

Juice milky. Madura (p. 331). 

Juice watery. 

Stipules connate, enveloping the young leaves, their scars encircling the 

branchlet. 
Leaves acute or acuminate, entire; winter-buds pointed, nearly terete. 

Magnolia (p. 342) . 
Leaves truncate, sinuately 4-lobed; winter-buds obtuse, compressed. 

Liriodendron (p. 351). 
Stipules distinct. 

Branches spinescent; leaves glandular, caducous (crenately serrate on vigor- 
ous shoots). Dalea (p. 621). 
Branches not spinescent; leaves without glands. 

Winter-buds with a single pair of connate scales. Salix (p. 138). 

Winter-buds with several pairs of imbricate scales. 

Branchlets without a terminal bud; leaves 3-nerved. Celtis (p. 318). 
Branchlets with a terminal bud, leaves penniveined. 

Quercus sp. 17-20 (p. 262). 
bb Stipules wanting. 

c Branchlets bright green and lustrous for the first 2 or 3 years; leaves some- 
times 3-lobed, aromatic. Sassafras (p. 362). 
cc Branchlets brown or gray. 

d Leaves acute or acuminate. 

Leaves 10'-12' long, obovate-oblong, acuminate, glabrous, emitting a 
disagreeable odor. Asimina (p. 353) . 

Leaves smaller. 

Petioles very slender, l'-2' long; leaves elliptic, acuminate. 

Cornus alternifolia (p. 789). 
Petioles short. 

Branchlets with a terminal bud. 

Leaf-scars about as long as broad; branchlets without lenticels, 
light reddish brown. Elliottia (p. 791). 

Leaf-scars crescent-shaped, broader than long, with 3 distinct 
bundle-traces. 






ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA XX1U 

Leaves pubescent on both sides, rugulose above; petioles l'-2' 
long, like the young branchlet densely pubescent. 

Leitneria (p. 167). 

Leaves glabrous and smooth above, glabrous or pubescent be- 
low ; petioles and branchlets usually glabrous or nearly so at 
maturity. Nyssa (p. 779). 

Branchlets without a terminal bud. 

Pubescence consisting of simple hairs or wanting. 

Leaves 4'-6' long, pubescent beneath while young; branchlet 
light brown or gray. Diospyros virginiana (p. 821) . 

Leaves 1^' 3' long, glabrous; branches light yellowish gray. 

Schoepfia (p. 336) 

Pubescence stellate; leaves obovate or elliptic, 2'-5' long, pu- 
bescent below. Styrax (p. 829). 
dd Leaves obtuse or acute. 

Branchlets not spinescent. 

Leaves glabrous at maturity, their petioles slender. Cotinus (p. 657). 
Leaves pubescent below at maturity; their petioles short and thick. 

Diospyros texana (p. 823). 
Branchlets spinescent; leaves often fascicled on lateral branchlets. 

Bumelia (p. 812). 
aa Leaves serrate or piunately lobed. 

b Stipules present, (bb, see p. xxvi.) 
c Winter-buds naked. 

Leaves oblique at base, the upper side rounded or subcordate, obovate, 
coarsely toothed. Hamamelis (p. 368). 

Leaves equal at base, cuneate, finely serrate or crenate. 

Rhamnus sp. 2, 3 (p. 724, 725). 
cc Winter-buds with a single pair of connate scales. 

Primary veins arching and uniting within the margins; leaves simply serrate 

or crenate, sometimes entire. Salix (p. 138). 

Primary veins extending to the teeth, leaves doubly serrate, often slightly 

lobed. Alnus (p. 220). 

ccc Winter-buds with several pairs of imbricate scales. 

d Terminal buds wanting; branchlets prolonged by an upper axillary bud. 
Juice milky; leaves usually ovate, often lobed. Moms (p. 328). 

Juice watery; leaves not lobed. 
Leaves distinctly oblique at base. 

Leaves with numerous prominent lateral veins. 

Leaves generally broad-ovate, simply serrate, stellate-pubescent 

at least while young, rarely glabrous. Tilia (p. 732). 

Leaves never broad-ovate, usually doubly serrate, more or less 

pubescent with simple hairs, at least while young. 
Winter-buds ovoid, usually acute, \ to nearly as long as peti- 
oles; leaves l'-7' long, doubly serrate. Ulmus (p. 309). 
Winter-buds subglobose, minute; leaves 2' 2^' long, crenate- 
serrate. Planera (p. 316). 

Leaves 3 or 4-nerved from the base. C61tis (p. 318). 

Leaves slightly or not at all oblique at base. 

Leaves 3-nerved from the base, glandular-crenate or glandular- 
serrate. Ceanothus (p. 726). 
Leaves not or obscurely 3-nerved at base, usually doubly serrate. 
Leaves blue-green; petioles \'-%' long; bark smooth, gray-brown. 

Carpinus (p. 201). 
Leaves yellow-green. 

Bark rough, furrowed; petioles \'-\' long; leaves not resinous- 
glandular. Ostrya (p. 202). 
Bark flaky or cherry-tree like; petioles J'-l' long; leaves often 
resinous-glandular while young. Betula (p. 205). 
dd Terminal buds present. 

Primary veins arching and uniting within the margin (extending to the 
margin in the lobed leaves of Mains). 



XXIV ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA 

Winter-buds resinous; leaves crenate, usually truncate at base; peti- 
oles slender. Populus (p. 119). 
Winter-buds not resinous. 

Leaf-scars with 3 bundle-traces. 

Leaves involute in bud, often lobed on vigorous shoots; winter- 
buds obtuse, short, pubescent. Malus (p. 379). 
Leaves conduplicate (or in some species of Prunus convolute), 

never lobed ; winter- buds acute. 
Winter-buds elongated ; branches never spinescent. 

Amelanchier (p. 393). 

Winter-buds not elongated, ovoid; branches sometimes spi- 
nescent. Prunus (p. 555). 
Leaf -scars with 1 bundle-trace; leaves simply serrate. 

Ilex sp. 5-6 (p. 673) . 

Primary veins extending to the teeth or to the lobes. 
Leaves lobed. Quercus sp. 1-16, 35-50 (pp. 241, 283). 

Leaves serrate-toothed. 

Winter-buds with numerous scales. 

Leaves lustrous beneath, remotely serrate or denticulate; winter- 
buds elongated, acuminate. Fagus (p. 228) . 
Leaves pale beneath, coarsely dentate or serrate; winter- buds 
acute. Chestnut Oaks. Quercus sp. 51-54 (p. 303). 
Winter-buds with 2 pairs of scales. Castanea (p. 230) . 
Leaves doubly or simply serrate, or lobed, with serrate lobes; branches 

often furnished with spines. 

Leaves involute in the bud ; branchlets often ending in blunt spines. 

Malus (p. 379) . 

Leaves conduplicate in the bud ; branches usually armed with sharp- 
pointed single or branched axillary spines. Crataegus (p. 397). 
bb Stipules wanting. 

c Leaves not lobed. 

Leaves subcoriaceous, oblong, sometimes nearly entire, glabrous. 

Symplocos (p. 831). 
Leaves thin. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, acute, pubescent beneath. 

Gordonia alatamaha (p. 752). 

Leaves oblong or lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous or puberulous while 

young, turning scarlet in the autumn. Oxydendrum (p. 796). 

Leaves ovate to elliptic, stellate-pubescent or glabrous, turning yellow in 

the autumn. Halesia (p. 824). 

cc Leaves palmately lobed. 

Stipules large, foliaceous, united ; branchlets without a terminal bud. 

Platanus (p. 371). 
Stipules small, free, caducous; branchlets with a terminal bud. 

Liquidambar (p. 367). 

tf Leaves inconspicuous or wanting; branches spiny or prickly. 

Branches or stems succulent, armed with numerous prickles. 

Branches and stems columnar, ribbed, continuous; leaves 0. Cereus (p. 757). 
Branches jointed, tuberculate; leaves scale-like. Opuntia (p. 759). 

Branches rigid, spinescent. 

Leaves minute, narrow-obovate. 

Branchlets bright green. Koeberlinia (p. 754). 

Branchlets red-brown. Dalea (p. 621). 

Leaves scale-like, caducous. Canotia (p. 677). 

2. LEAVES COMPOUND. 
* Leaves 3-foliolate, without stipules. 

Leaves persistent; leaflets obovate, entire, sessile. Hypelate (p. 716)_ 

Leaves deciduous. 






ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA XXV 

Leaflets deltoid to hastate, entire, rounded at apex; branches prickly. 

Erythrina (p. 627). 

Leaflets ovate to oblong, acuminate, strongly scented and bitter; branches unarmed. 

Ptelea (p. 639). 
** Leaves twice pinnate; stipules present. 

a Leaves unequally twice pinnate, 2-4 long, deciduous; leaflets serrate, 2'-3' in length; 

branches and stem armed with scattered prickles. Aralia (p. 778). 

aa Leaves equally twice pinnate, usually smaller; branches unarmed or armed with stipu- 

lar or axillary spines (in Parkinsonia often apparently simply pinnate) . 
b Leaflets crenate; leaves simply or twice-pinnate on the same plant, deciduous, 
usually armed with simple or branched axillary spines. Gleditsia (p. 607). 
66 Leaflets entire. 

Leaflets 2-2^' long; leaves deciduous; branchlets stout, unarmed. 

Gymnocladus (p. 605). 

Leaflets smaller; leaves usually persistent; branchlets slender. 
Branches armed with prickles or spines. 
Leaves with 2 or rarely 4 pinnse. 

Branches armed with axillary spines or spiny rachises. 

Pinnse with 4-8 leaflets; branches with short axillary spines. 

Cercidium (p. 613). 

Pinnse with 860 leaflets; branches armed with spiny rachises or rigid 
branchlets terminating in stout spines. Parkinsonia (p. 611). 

Branches armed with stipular prickles; leaves persistent. 

Pinnae with many oblong to linear leaflets. Prosopis (p. 599). 

Pinnse with 1 pair of orbicular to broad-oblong leaflets. 

Pithecolobium unguis-cati (p. 586). 
Leaves with 6, or more, rarely 4, pinnse. 

Prickles usually spreading, often recurved. Acacia (p. 591). 

Prickles usually more or less ascending, straight. Pithecolobium (p. 586). 
Branches unarmed. 

Branchlets and petioles glabrous; leaves with 2-5 pair of pinnse, each 
with 40-80 leaflets. Lysiloma (p. 589). 

Branchlets and petioles pubescent while young; leaves with 5-17 pair of 
many-foliolate pinnse, or pinnse 2-4 and each with 8-16 leaflets. 

Leucaena (p. 596). 

*** Leaves simply pinnate. 

a Leaves equally pinnate. 
Stipules wanting. 

Leaflets 2-4, generally oblong-obovate. Exothea (p. 714). 

Leaflets 6-12. 

Leaflets obtuse, usually oblong-obovate. 

Leaflets 8-12, 2'-3' long, pale below; leaves occasionally opposite. 

Simarouba (p. 642). 

Leaflets 6-8, I'-l^' long, green below. Xanthoxylum coriaceum (p. 637). 
Leaflets 6-8, acuminate. Swietenia (p. 648). 

Stipules present. 

Branches armed with infra-stipular spines in pairs; leaflets 10-15, usually oblong- 
obovate, \'-\' long, persistent. Olneya (p. 626). 
Branches unarmed; leaflets 20-46, ovals '-' long. Eysenhardtia (p. 620). 
aa Leaves unequally pinnate. 
6 Stipules present. 

Leaflets sharply serrate; leaves deciduous; winter-buds resinous. 

Sorbus (p. 390). 

Leaflets entire or crenately serrate. 
Leaves deciduous. 

Leaflets 7-11, 3'-4' long; branches unarmed. 

Leaflets usually alternate, thin and glabrous at maturity. 

Cladrastis (p. 618). 



XXVI ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE GENERA 

Leaflets opposite, coriaceous, pubescent beneath at least along the veins. 

Ichthyomethia (p. 628). 
Leaflets 9-21, 1-2 cm. long. 

Branches usually with stipular prickles, sometimes viscid. 

Robinia (p. 622). 
Branches unarmed, not viscid; leaflets 13-19, elliptic. 

Sophora affinis (p. 617). 
Leaves persistent. 

Leaflets 7-9, oblong-elliptic, l'-25' long; branches unarmed. 

Sophora secundiflora (p. 616). 

1 Leaflets 10-15; branches prickly. Olneya (p. 626). 

bb Stipules wanting. 

d Leaves persistent. 

Leaflets long-stalked (sometimes nearly sessile in Xanthoxylum flavum). 
Leaflets oblong-ovate, cuneate at base. 

Leaflets acuminate, glabrous. Picramnia (p. 643). 

Leaflets obtuse, tomentose when unfolding. 

Xanthoxylum flavum (p. 636). 
Leaflets broad-ovate, usually rounded or subcordate at base. 

Metopium (p. 658). 
Leaflets sessile or nearly so. 
Petiole and rachis winged. 

Leaflets crenate, obovate, about ^' long; branches prickly. 

Xanthoxylum Fagara (p. 634). 
Leaflets entire. 

Leaflets oblong, usually acute, 3'-4' long. 

Sapindus saponaria (p. 712). 
Leaflets spathulate, rounded at apex, not more than f ' long. 

Pistacia (p. 656). 
Petiole and rachis not winged. 

Leaflets 7-19, acuminate, 2'-5' long. Sapindus marginatus (p. 713). 
Leaflets 21-41, obtuse, |'-f long.' Alvaradoa (p. 644). 

dd Leaves deciduous. 

Leaflets long-stalked, 3-7, entire, acute. Bursera (p. 645). 

Leaflets sessile or nearly so. 

Branches prickly; leaflets crenate. Xanthoxylum clava-Herculis (p. 635). 
Branches unarmed. 

Juice milky or viscid; leaflets serrate or entire; rachis sometimes 
winged. Rhus species 1-3 (p. 660). 

Juice watery. 

Rachis without wings. 

Leaflets entire, acuminate, 7-9. Sapindus Drummondii (p. 714). 
Leaflets serrate or crenate. 

Winter-buds large; leaflets 5-23, aromatic. 

Winter-buds naked. Juglans (p. 169). 

Winter-buds covered with scales. Carya (p. 176). 

Winter-buds minute, globose, scaly; leaflets 5-7, ovate, not 

aromatic. Ungnadia (p. 717). 

Rachis winged ; leaflets 10-20, entire, rounded at apex, not more than 

i' long. Bursera microphylla (p. 647). 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 






TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

(EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO) 



CLASS 1. GYMNOSPERM.E. 

OVULES and seeds borne on the face of a scale, not inclosed in an ovary; 
resinous trees, with stems increasing in diameter by the annual addition of a 
layer of wood inside the bark. 

I. PINACE^). 

Trees, with narrow or scale-like generally persistent clustered or alternate leaves and 
usually scaly buds. Flowers appearing in early spring, mostly surrounded at the base by 
an involucre of the more or less enlarged scales of the buds, unisexual, monoecious (dioecious 
in Juniperus), the male consisting of numerous 2-celled anthers, the female of scales 
bearing on their inner face 2 or several ovules, and becoming at maturity a woody cone 
or rarely a berry. Seeds with or without wings; seed-coat of 2 layers; embryo axile in 
copious albumen; cotyledons 2 or several. Of the twenty-nine genera scattered over the 
surface of the globe, but most abundant in northern temperate regions, thirteen occur in 
North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Scales of the female flowers numerous; spirally arranged in the axils of persistent bracts; 
ovules 2, inverted; seeds borne directly on the scales, attached at the base in shallow 
depressions on the inner side of the scales, falling from them at maturity and usually 
carrying away a scarious terminal wing; leaves fascicled or scattered (deciduous in 
Larix). ABIETINE^E. 

Fruit maturing in two or rarely in three seasons; leaves fascicled, needle-shaped in 
axillary 1-5-leaved clusters, inclosed at the base in a membranaceous sheath; cone- 
scales thick and woody, much longer than their bracts. 1. Pinus 
Fruit maturing in one season. 

Leaves in many-leaved clusters on short spur-like branchlets, deciduous; cone-scales 
thin, usually shorter than their bracts. 2. Larix. 

Leaves scattered, linear. 

Cones pendulous, the scales persistent on the axis. 

Branchlets roughened by the persistent leaf-bases; leaves deciduous in drying; 

bracts shorter than the cone-scales. 

Leaves sessile, 4-sided, or flattened and stomatiferous above. 3. Picea. 

Leaves stalked, flattened and stomatiferous below, or angular. 4. Tsuga. 

Branchlets not roughened by leaf -bases; leaves stalked, flattened; not decidu- 
ous in drying; bracts of the cone 2-lobed, aristate, longer than the scales. 

5. Pseudotsuga. 

Cones erect, their scales deciduous from the axis, longer or shorter than the 

bracts; leaves sessile, flat or 4-sided. 6. Abies. 

Scales of the female flowers without bracts; ovules and seeds borne on the face of minute 

scales adnate to the base of the flower-scales, enlarging and forming the scales of the 

cone. Seeds with a narrow marginal wing (wingless in Juniperas). 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Scales of the Lmale flj-wers numerous, spirally arranged, forming a woody cone; ovules 
erect, 2 or many under each scale; leaves linear, alternate, often of 2 forms (decidu- 
ous in Taxodiurri). TAXODI.E. 

Ovules and seeds numerous under each scale. 7. Sequoia. 

Ovules and seeds 2 under each scale ; leaves mostly spreading in 2 ranks. 8. Taxodium, 

Scales of the female flower few, decussate, forming a small cone, or rarely a berry; ovules 

2 or many under each scale; leaves decussate or in 3 ranks, often of 2 forms, usually 

scale-like, mostly adnate to the branch, the earliest free and subulate. CUPRESSINE.E. 

Fruit a cone; leaves scale-like. 

Cones oblong, their scales oblong, imbricated or valvate; seeds 2 under each scale, 

maturing the first year. 
Scales of the cone 6, the middle ones only fertile; seeds unequally 2-winged. 

9. Libocedrus. 

Scales of the cone 8-12; seeds equally 2-winged. 10. Thuja. 

Cones subglobose, the scales peltate, maturing in one or two years; seeds few or 

many under each scale. 

Fruit maturing in two seasons; seeds many under each scale; branchlets terete or 
4-winged. 11. Cupressus. 

Fruit maturing in one season; seeds 2 under each scale; branchlets flattened. 

12. Chamaecyparis. 

Fruit a berry formed by the coalition of the scales of the flower; ovules in pairs or 
solitary; flowers dioecious; leaves decussate or in 3's, subulate or scale-like, often of 
2 forms. 13. Juniperus. 

1. PINUS Duham. Pine. 

Trees or rarely shrubs, with deeply furrowed and sometimes laminate or with thin 
and scaly bark, hard or often soft heartwood often conspicuously marked by dark bands 
of summer cells impregnated with resin, pale nearly white sapwood 5 and large branch- 
buds formed during summer and composed of minute buds in the axils of bud-scales, 
becoming the bracts of the spring shoot. Leaves needle-shaped, clustered, the clusters 
borne on deciduous spurs in the axils of scale-like primary leaves, inclosed in the bud 
by numerous scales lengthening and forming a more or less persistent sheath at the base 
of each cluster. Male flowers clustered at the base of leafy growing shoots of the year, 
each flower surrounded at the base by an. involucre of 3-6 scalelike bracts, composed 
of numerous sessile anthers, imbricated in many ranks and surmounted by crest-like 
nearly orbicular connectives; the female subterminal or lateral, their scales in the axils of 
non-accrescent bracts. Fruit a woody cone maturing at the end of the second or rarely 
of the third season, composed of the hardened and woody scales of the flower more or 
less thickened on the exposed surface (the apophysis), with the ends of the growth of the pre- 
vious year appearing as terminal or dorsal brown protuberances or scars (the urnbo) . Seeds 
usually obovoid, shorter or longer than their wings or rarely wingless; outer seed-coat 
crustaceous or thick, hard, and bony, the inner membranaceous; cotyledons 3-18, usually 
much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Pinus is widely distributed through the northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle 
to the West Indies, the mountains of Central America, the Canary Islands, northern 
Africa, the Philippine Islands, and Sumatra. About sixty-six species are recognized. Of 
exotic species the so-called Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris L., of Europe and Asia, the Swiss 
Stone Pine, Pinus cembra L., and the Austrian Pine and other forms of Pinus nigra 
Arnold, from central and southern Europe, are often planted in the northeastern states, 
and Pinus Pinaster Ait., of the coast region of western France and the Mediterranean 
Basin is successfully cultivated in central and southern California. Pinus is the classical 
name of the Pine-tree. 

The North American species can be conveniently grouped in two sections, Soft Pines 
and Pitch Pines. 






PINACE.E 3 

SOFT PINES. 

Wood soft, close-grained, light-colored, the sapwood thin and nearly white; sheaths of 
the leaf- clusters deciduous; leaves with one fibro- vascular bundle. 
Leaves in 5- leaved clusters. 

Cones long-stalked, elongated, cylindric bright green at maturity, becoming light 
yellow brown, their scales thin, with terminal unarmed umbos; seeds shorter than 
their wings. WHITE PINES. 
Leaves without conspicuous white lines on the back. 

Leaves slender, flexible; cones 4'-8' long. 1. P. Strobus (A). 

Leaves stout, more rigid; cones 5'-ll' long. 2. P. monticola (B, G). 

Leaves with conspicuous white lines on the back; cones 12'-18' long. 

3. P. Lambertiana (G). 
Cones short-stalked, green or purple at maturity, their scales thick. 

Cones cylindric or subglobose, their scales with terminal umbos; leaves 2' long or less. 
STONE PINES. 
Cones 3'-10' long, their scales opening at maturity; seeds with wings. 

4. P. flexilis (F, H). 
Cones '-3' long, their scales remaining closed at maturity; seeds wingless. 

5. P. albicaulis (B, F, G). 

Cones ovoid-oblong, their scales with dorsal umbos armed with slender prickles; 
seeds shorter than their wings; leaves in crowded clusters, incurved, less than 
2' long. FOXTAIL PINES. 

Cones armed with minute incurved prickles. 6. P. Balfouriana (G). 

Cones armed with long slender prickles. 7. P. aristata (F, G). 

Leaves in 1-4-leaved clusters; cones globose, green at maturity, becoming light brown, 

their scales few, concave, much thickened, only the middle scales seed-bearing; 

seeds large and edible, their wings rudimentary; leaves 2' or less, often incurved. 

NUT PINES. 8. P. cembroides (C, F, G, H). 

1. Pinus Strobus L. White Pine. 

Leaves soft bluish green, whitened on the ventral side by 3-5 bands of stomata, 3 '-5' 
long, mostly turning yellow and falling in September in their second season, or persistent 
until the following June. Flowers: male yellow; female bright pink, with purple scale 
margins. Fruit fully grown in July of the second season, 4 / -8 / long, opening and dis- 
charging its seeds in September; seeds narrowed at the ends, \' long, red-brown mottled 
with black, about one fourth as long as their wings. 

A tree, while young with slender horizontal or slightly ascending branches in regular 
whorls usually of 5 branches; at maturity often 100, occasionally 220 high, with a tall 
straight stem 3-4 or rarely 6 q in diameter, when crowded in the forest with short branches 
forming a narrow head, or rising above its forest companions with long lateral branches 
sweeping upward in graceful curves, the upper branches ascending and forming a broad 
open irregular head, and slender branchlets coated at first with rusty tomentum, soon 
glabrous, and orange-brown in their first winter. Bark on young stems and branches 
thin, smooth, green tinged with red, lustrous during the summer, becoming l'-2' thick 
on old trunks and deeply divided by shallow fissures into broad connected ridges covered 
with small closely appressed purplish scales. Wood light, not strong, straight-grained, 
easily worked, light brown often slightly tinged with red; largely manufactured into 
lumber, shingles, and laths, used in construction, for cabinet-making, the interior finish 
of buildings, woodenware, matches, and the masts of vessels. 

Distribution. Newfoundland to Manitoba, southward through the northern states to 
Pennsylvania, northern and eastern (Belmont County) Ohio, northern Indiana, valley of 
the Rocky River near Oregon, Ogle County, Illinois, and central and southeastern Iowa, 
and along the Appalachian Mountains to eastern Kentucky and Tennessee and northern 



4 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Georgia; forming nearly pure forests on sandy drift soils, or more often in small groves 
scattered in forests of deciduous-leaved trees on fertile well-drained soil, also on the banks 
of streams, or on river flats, or rarely in swamps. 




Fig. 1 

Largely planted as an ornament of parks and gardens in the eastern states, and in many 
European countries, where it grows with vigor and rapidity; occasionally used in forest 
planting in the United States. 

2. Pinus monticola D. Don. White Pine. 

Leaves blue-green, glaucous, whitened by 2-6 rows of ventral and often by dorsal 
stomata, mostly persistent .3 or 4 years. Flowers : male yellow; female pale purple. Fruit 




Fig. 2 



5'-ll' long, shedding its seeds late in the summer or in early autumn; seeds narrowed at 
the ends, $' long, pale red-brown mottled with black, about one third as long as their wings. 



A tree, often 100 or occasionally 150 high, with a trunk frequently 4-5 or rarely 
7-8 in diameter, slender spreading slightly pendulous branches clothing young stems 
to the ground and in old age forming a narrow open often unsymmetrical pyramidal head, 
and stout tough branchlets clothed at first with rusty pubescence, dark orange-brown and 
puberulous in their first and dark red-purple and glabrous in their second season. Bark 
of young stems and branches thin, smooth, light gray, becoming on old trees f'-l|' thick 
and divided into small nearly square plates by deep longitudinal and cross fissures, and 
covered by small closely appressed purple scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close, 
straight-grained, light brown or red; sometimes manufactured into lumber, used in con- 
struction and the interior finish of buildings. 

Distribution. Scattered through mountain forests from the basin of the Columbia 
River in British Columbia to Vancouver Island ; on the mountains of northern Washing- 
ton to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana; on the coast 
ranges of Washington and Oregon; and on the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges south- 
ward to the Kern River valley, California; most abundant and of its greatest value in 
northern Idaho on the bottom-lands of streams tributary to Lake Pend Oreille; reach- 
ing the sea-level on the southern shores of the Straits of Fuca and elevations of 10,000 on 
the California Sierras. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in Europe, and occasionally in the eastern United 
States where it grows more vigorously than any other Pine-tree of western America. 

3. Pinus Lambertiana Dougl. Sugar Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, 3j'-4' long, marked on the two faces by 2-6 rows of stomata; de- 
ciduous during their second and third years. Flowers: male light yellow; female pale 
green.. Fruit fully grown in August and opening in October, ll'-18' or rarely 21' long; 
seeds I'-f ' long, dark chestnut-brown or nearly black, and half the length of their firm 
dark brown obtuse wings broadest below the middle and \' wide. 

A tree, in early life with remote regular whorls of slender branches often clothing the 
stem tc the ground and forming an open narrow pyramid; at maturity 200-220 high, 




with a trunk 6-8 or occasionally 12 in diameter, a flat-topped crown frequently 60 or 
70 across of comparatively slender branches sweeping outward and downward in grace- 
ful curves, and stout branchlets coated at first with pale or rufous pubescence, dark 
orange-brown during their first winter, becoming dark purple-brown. Bark on young 
stems and branches thin, smooth, dark green, becoming on old trunks 2'-3' thick and deeply 
and irregularly divided into long thick plate-like ridges covered with large loose rich 
purple-brown or cinnamon-red scales. Wood light, soft, straight-grained, light red-brown; 



6 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



largely manufactured into lumber and used for the interior finish of buildings, woodwork, 
and shingles. A sweet sugar-like substance exudes from wounds made in the heart wood. 

Distribution. Mountain slopes and the sides of ravines and canons; western Oregon 
from the valley of the north branch of the Santiam River southward on the Cascade and 
coast ranges; California along the northern and coast ranges to Sonoma County; along 
the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, where it grows to its greatest size at elevations 
between 3000 and 7000; reappearing on the Santa Lucia Mountains of the coast ranges; 
and on the high mountains in the southwestern part of the state from Santa Barbara 
County southward usually at elevations of 5000-7000 above the sea; and on the San 
Pedro Martir Mountains in Lower California. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in western Europe and in the eastern states, 
the Sugar Pine has grown slowly in cultivation and shows little promise of attaining the 
large size and great beauty which distinguish it in its native forests. 

4. Pinus flexilis James. Rocky Mountain White Pine. 
Pinus strobiformis Sarg., not Engelm. 

Leaves stout, rigid, dark green, marked on all sides by 1-4 rows of stomata, I%'-3' long, 
deciduous in their fifth and sixth years. Flowers: male reddish; female clustered, bright 
red-purple. Fruit subcylindric, horizontal or slightly declining, green or rarely purple at 
maturity, 3'-10' long, with narrow and more or less reflexed scales opening at maturity; 
seeds compressed, |'-f ' long, dark red-brown mottled with black, with a thick shell pro- 

duced into a narrow margin, their wings 
about jV wide, generally persistent on 
the scale after the seed falls. 

A tree, usually 40-50, occasionally 80 
high, with a short trunk 2-5 in diameter, 
stout long-persistent branches ultimately 
forming a low wide round-topped head, 
and stout branchlets orange-green and 
covered at first with soft fine pubescence, 
usually soon glabrous and darker colored; 
at high elevations often a low spreading 
shrub. Bark of young stems and branches 
thin, smooth, light gray or silvery white, 
becoming on old trunks l'-2' thick, dark 
brown or nearly black, and divided by 
deep fissures into broad ridges broken into 
nearly square plates covered by small 
closely appressed scales. Wood light, 
soft, close-grained, pale clear yellow, turning red with exposure; occasionally manufactured 
into lumber. 

Distribution. Eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to western Texas 
and westward on mountain ranges at elevations of 5000 to 12,000 to Montana, and south- 
ern California, reaching the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada at the head of King's 
River near the summit of San Gorgonio Mountain and in Snow Canon, San Bernardino 
Range; usually scattered singly or in small groves; forming open forests on the eastern foot- 
hills of the Rocky Mountains of Montana and on the ranges of central Nevada; attaining 
its largest size on those of northern New Mexico and Arizona. 

5. Pinus albicaulis Engelm. White Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, slightly incurved, dark green, marked by 1-3 rows of dorsal stomata, 
clustered at the ends of the branches, 1|'-2|' long, persistent for from five to eight 
years. Flowers opening in July, scarlet. Fruit ripening in August, oval or subglobose, hori- 




Fig. 4 



PINACE.E 




zontal, sessile, dark purple, l^'-S' long, with scales thickened, acute, often armed with stout 
pointed umbos, remaining closed at maturity; seeds wingless, acute, subcylindric or flat- 
tened on one side, \'-\' long, |' thick, with a thick dark chestnut-brown hard shell. 

A tree, usually 20-30 or rarely 60 high, generally with a short trunk 2-4 in diameter, 
stout very flexible branches, finally often standing nearly erect and forming an open very 
irregular broad head, and 
stout dark red-brown or 
orange-colored branchlets 
puberulous for two years 
or sometimes glabrous; at 
high elevations often a low 
shrub, with wide-spread- 
ing nearly prostrate stems. 
Bark thin, except near the 
base of old trunks and 
broken by narrow fissures 
into thin narrow brown or 
creamy white plate-like 
scales. Wood light, soft, 
close-grained, brittle, light 
brown. The large sweet 
seeds are gathered and Fig. 5 

eaten by Indians. 

Distribution. Alpine slopes and exposed ridges between 5000 and 12,000 elevation, 
forming the timber-line on many mountain ranges from latitude 53 north in the Rocky 
Mountains and British Columbia, southward to the Wind River and Salt River Ranges, 
Wyoming, the mountains of eastern Washington and Oregon, the Cascade Range, the 
mountains of northern California and the Sierra Nevada to Mt. W'hitney. 

6. Pinus Balfouriana Balf . Foxtail Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, dark green and lustrous on the back, pale and marked on the ventral 

faces by numerous rows of sto- 
mata, l'-l|' long, persistent for 
ten or twelve years. Flowers : male 
dark orange-red; female dark 
purple. Fruit 3|'-5' long, with 
scales armed with minute incurved 
prickles, dark purple, turning after 
opening dark red or mahogany 
color; seeds full and rounded at 
the apex, compressed at the base, 
pale, conspicuously mottled with 
dark purple, \ f long, their wings 
narrowed and oblique at the apex, 
about 1' long and J' wide. 

A tree, usually 30-40 or rarely 
90 high, with a trunk generally 

Fig. 6 l-2 or rarely 5 in diameter, 

short stout branches forming an 

open irregular pyramidal picturesque head, and long rigid more or less spreading puber- 
ulous, soon glabrous, dark orange-brown ultimately dark gray-brown or nearly black 
branchlets, clothed only at the extremities with the long dense brush-like masses of foliage. 
Bark thin, smooth, and milky white on the stems and branches of young trees, becoming 
on old trees sometimes 




8 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



broken into nearly square plates separating on the surface into small closely appressed 
scales. Wood light, soft and brittle, pale reddish brown. 

Distribution. California, on rocky slopes and ridges, forming scattered groves on 
Scott Mountain, Siskiyou County, at elevations of 5000-6000; on the mountains at the 
head of the Sacramento River; on Mt. Yolo Bally in the northern Coast Range, and on 
the southern Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 11,500, growing here to its largest size 
and forming an extensive open forest on the Whitney Plateau east of the canon of Kern 
River, and at the highest elevations often a low shrub, with wide-spreading prostrate stems. 

7. Pinus aristata Engelm. Foxtail Pine. Hickory Pine. 

Leaves stout or slender, dark green, lustrous on the back, marked by numerous rows 
of stomata on the ventral faces, l'-l' long, often deciduous at the end of ten or twelve 
years or persistent four or five years longer. Flowers male dark orange-red; female dark 

purple. Fruit 3'-3' long, with scales 
armed with slender incurved brittle prick- 
les nearly \' long, dark purple-brown on 
the exposed parts, the remainder dull red, 
opening and scattering their seeds about 
the 1st of October; seeds nearly oval, 
compressed, light brown mottled with 
black, j' long, their wings broadest at the 
middle, about f ' long and \f wide. 

A bushy tree, occasionally 40-50 high, 
with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, 
short stout branches in regular whorls 
while young, in old age growing very 
irregularly, the upper erect and much 
longer than the usually pendulous lower 
branches, and stout light orange-colored, 
glabrous, or at first puberulous, ulti- 
mately dark gray-brown or nearly black 
branchlets clothed at the ends with long compact brush-like tufts of foliage. Bark 
thin, smooth, milky white on the stems and branches of young trees, becoming on old 
trees '-f thick, red-brown, and irregularly divided into flat connected ridges separating 
on the surface into small closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, light red; 
occasionally used for the timbers of mines and for fuel. 

Distribution. Rocky or gravelly slopes at the upper limit of tree growth and rarely 
below 8,000 above the sea from the outer range of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to 
those of southern Utah, central and southern Nevada, southeastern California, and the 
San Francisco peaks of northern Arizona. 

8. Pinus cembroides Zucc. Nut Pine. Pinon. 

Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, slender, much incurved, dark green, sometimes marked 
by rows of stomata on the 3 faces, l'-2' long, deciduous irregularly during their third and 
fourth years. Flowers: male in short crowded clusters, yellow; female dark red. Fruit 
subglobose, l'-2' broad; seeds subcylindric or obscurely triangular, more or less com- 
pressed at the pointed apex, full and rounded at base, nearly black on the lower side and 
dark chestnut-brown on the upper, \'-\' long, the margin of their outer coat adnate to 
the cone-scale. 

A bushy tree, with a short trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter and a broad round- 
topped head, usually 15-20 high, stout spreading branches, and slender dark orange- 
colored branchlets covered at first with matted pale deciduous hairs, dark brown and some- 
times nearly black at the end of five or six years; in sheltered canons on the mountains of 
Arizona and in Lower California occasionally 50 or 60 tall. Bark about \' thick, irregu- 




Fig. 7 




PINACE.E 

larly divided by remote shallow fissures and separated on the surface into numerous large 

thin light red-brown scales. Wood light, 

soft, close-grained, pale clear yellow. The 

large oily seeds are an important article of 

food in northern Mexico, and are sold in 

large quantities in Mexican towns. 

Distribution. Mountain ranges of cen- 
tral and southern Arizona, usually only 

above elevations of 6500, often covering 

their upper slopes with open forests; in an 

isolated station on the Edwards Plateau 

on uplands and in canons at the head- 
waters of the Frio and Nueces Rivers, 

Edwards and Kerr Counties, Texas; on 

the Sierra de Laguna, Lower California, 

and on many of the mountain ranges of Fig. 8 

northern Mexico; passing into the follow- 
ing varieties differing only in the number of the leaves in the leaf -clusters, and in their 

thickness. 

Pinus cembroides var. Parryana Voss. Nut Pine. Piiion. 

Pinus quadrifolia Sudw. 
Leaves in 1-5 usually 4-leaved clusters, stout, incurved, pale glaucous green, marked 

on the three surfaces by numerous rows of stomata, lj'-H' long, irregularly deciduous, 

mostly falling in their third year. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a short trunk occasionally 18' in diameter, and thick spread- 
ing branches forming a compact regu- 
lar pyramidal or in old age a low 
round-topped irregular head, and stout 
branchlets coated at first with soft 
pubescence, and light orange-brown. 
Bark \ r --f thick, dark brown tinged 
with red, and divided by shallow fis- 
sures into broad flat connected ridges 
covered by thick closely appressed 
plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, 
close-grained, pale brown or yellow. 
The seeds form an important article 
of food for the Indians of Lower Cali- 
fornia. 

Distribution. Arid mesas and low 

Fig- 9 mountain slopes of Lower California 

southward to the foothills of the San 

Pedro Martir Mountains, extending northward across the boundary of California to the 

desert slopes of the Santa Rosa Mountains, Riverside County, where it is common at 

elevations of 5000 above the sea -level. 

Pinus cembroides var. edulis Voss. Nut Pine. Pinon. 

Pinus edulis Engelm. 

Leaves in 2 or rarely in 3-leaved clusters, stout, semiterete or triangular, rigid, incurved, 
dark-green, marked by numerous rows of stomata, t'-l|' long, deciduous during the third 
or not until the fourth or fifth year, dropping irregularly and sometimes persistent for eight 
or nine years. 

A tree often 40-50 high with a tall trunk occasionally 2 in diameter and short erect 




10 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




Fig. 10 



branches forming a narrow head, or frequently with a short divided trunk and a low 
round-topped head of spreading branches, and thick branchlets orange color during their 

first and second years, finally becoming light 
gray or dark brown sometimes tinged with red. 
Bark |'-f thick and irregularly divided into con- 
nected ridges covered by small closely appressed 
light brown scales tinged with red or orange color. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, pale brown ; 
largely employed for fuel and fencing, and as 
charcoal used in smelting; in western Texas occa- 
sionally sawed into lumber. The seeds form an 
important article of food among Indians and 
Mexicans, and are sold in the markets of Colo- 
rado and New Mexico. 

Distribution. Eastern foothills of the outer 
ranges of the Rocky Mountains, from northern 
Colorado (Owl Canon, Lorimer County) ; to the 
extreme western part of Oklahoma (near Ken- 
ton, Cimmaron County, G. W . Stevens') and to 

western Texas, westward to eastern Utah, southwestern Wyoming, and to northern and 
central Arizona; over the mountains of northern Mexico, and on the San Pedro Martir 
Mountains, Lower California; often forming extensive open forests at the eastern base 
of the Rocky Mountains, on the Colorado plateau, and on many mountain ranges of 
northern and central Arizona up to elevations of 7000 above the sea. 

Pinus cembroides var. monophylla Voss. Nut Pine. PiSon. 
Pinus monophylla Torr. 

Leaves in 1 or 2-leaved clusters, rigid, incurved, pale glaucous green, marked by 18-20 
rows of stomata, usually about 1|' long, sometimes deciduous during their fourth and fifth 
seasons, but frequently persistent until their twelfth year. 

A tree usually 15-20, occasionally 40-50 high, with a short trunk rarely more than a 
foot in diameter and often divided near 
the ground into several spreading stems, 
short thick branches forming while the 
tree is young a broad rather compact 
pyramid, and in old age often pendulous 
and forming a low round-topped often 
picturesque head, and stout light orange- 
colored ultimately dark brown branch- 
lets. Bark about f ' thick and divided 
by deep irregular fissures into narrow 
connected flat ridges broken on the sur- 
face into thin closely appressed light or 
dark brown scales tinged with red or 
orange color. Wood light, soft, weak, 
and brittle; largely used for fuel, and 
charcoal used in smelting. The seeds 
supply an important article of food to Fig. 1 1 

the Indians of Nevada and California. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and mesas from the western base of the Wasatch 
Mountains of Utah, westward over the mountain ranges of Nevada to the eastern slopes 
of the southern Sierra Nevada, and to their western slope at the head-waters of the Tuo- 
lumne, Kings and Kern Rivers, and southward to northern Arizona and to the mountains 




PINACE.E 11 

of southern California where it is common on the San Beruadino and San Jacinto Moun- 
tains between altitudes of 3500 and 7000, and on the Sierra del Final, Lower California; 
often forming extensive open forests at elevations between 5000 and 7000. 

PITCH PINES. 

Wood usually heavy, coarse-grained, generally dark-colored, with pale often thick sap- 
wood; cones green at maturity (sometimes purple in 10 and 21) becoming various shades of 
brown; cone-scales more or less thickened, mostly armed; seeds shorter than their wings 
(except in 17 and 28) ; leaves with 2 fibro- vascular bundles. 

Sheaths of the leaf-clusters deciduous; cones |'-2' long, maturing in the third year, leaves 
in 3-leaved clusters, slender, 2|'-4' long. 9. P. leiophylla (H). 

Sheaths of the leaf-clusters persistent. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters (3 and 5-leaved in 10, 3-2 leaved in 12). 

Cones subterminal, usually deciduous above the basal scales persistent on the branch. 
Buds brown; leaves in 2-5-leaved clusters. 10. P. ponderosa (B,F,G,H). 

Buds white. 11. P. palustris (C). 

Cones lateral. 

Cones symmetrical, their outer scales not excessively developed. 
Leaves in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, 8'-12' long; cones short-stalked. 

12. P. caribaea (C). 
Leaves in 3-leaved clusters; cones sessile. 

Cones oblong-conic, prickles stout; leaves 6'-9' long. 13. P. taeda (A, C). 

Cones ovoid, prickles slender; leaves 3'-5' long. 14. P. rigida (A, C). 

Cones unsymmetrical by the excessive development of the scales on the outer side. 

Cones 5 '-6' long, their scales not prolonged into stout, straight or curved spines. 

Prickles of the cone-scales minute. 15. P. radiata (G). 

Prickles of the cone-scales stout. 16. P. attenuata (G). 

Cones 6'-14' long, their scales prolonged into stout, straight or curved spines; 

leaves long and stout. 

Cones oblong-ovoid; seeds longer than their wings. 17. P. Sabiniana (G). 

Cones oblong-conic; seeds shorter than their wings. 18. P. Coulteri (G). 

Leaves in 2-leaved clusters (2 and 3-leaved in 23). 
Cones subterminal. 

Cones symmetrical, 2'-2|' long, their scales unarmed; leaves 5 '-6' long. 

19. P. resinosa (A). 

Cones unsymmetrical by the greater development of the scales on the outer side, 
armed with slender prickles; leaves l'-4' long. 20. P. contorta (B, F, G). 

Cones lateral. 

Cones about 2' long. 

Cone-scales very unevenly developed and mostly unarmed; cones incurved; leaves 
less than 2' long. 21. P. Banksiana (A). 

Cone-scales evenly developed, armed with weak or deciduous prickles; leaves up 
to 4' in length. 

Bark of the branches and upper trunk smooth. 22. P. glabra (C). 

Bark of the branches and upper trunk roughened. 23. P. echinata (A, C). 
Cones about 3' long, armed with persistent spines. 
Cone-scales armed with slender or stout prickles. 

Cone-scales evenly developed, their prickles slender, acuminate, from a broad 

base; leaves 3' long or less. 

Cones opening at maturity. 24. P. virginiana (A, C). 

Cones often remaining closed for many years. 25. P. clausa (C). 

Cone-scales unevenly developed and armed with stout prickles; cones 2'- 3^' 

long, remaining closed; leaves 4'-6' long. 26. P. muricata. 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Cone-scales armed with very stout hooked spines; cones 2^'-3' long; opening 
in the autumn or remaining closed for two or three years; leaves 2' long or less. 

27. P. pungens. 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters; cones 4/-6' long, unsymmetrical, their scales thick; seeds 
longer than their wings; leaves stout, 9'-13' long. 28. P. Torreyana (G) 

9. Pinus leiophylla Schlecht. and Cham. Yellow Pine. 

Pinus chihuahuana, Erigelm. 

Leaves slender, pale glaucous green, marked by 6-8 rows of conspicuous stomata on 
each of the 3 sides, 2|'-4' long, irregularly deciduous from their fourth season, their 
sheaths deciduous. Flowers: male yellow; female yellow-green. Fruit ovoid, horizon- 
tal or slightly declining, long- 
stalked, l'-2' long, becoming 
light chestnut-brown and lus- 
trous, maturing at the end 
of the third season, with scales 
only slightly thickened, their 
ultimately pale umbos armed 
with recurved deciduous prickles; 
seeds oval, rounded above and 
pointed below, about ' long, 
with a thin dark brown shell, 
their wings f ' long and broadest 
near the middle. 

A tree, rarely more than 40-50 
high, with a tall trunk sometimes 
2 in diameter, stout slightly as- 
cending branches forming a nar- 

'2 row open pyramidal or round- 

topped head of thin pale foliage, 

and slender bright orange- brown branchlets, soon becoming dull red-brown. Bark of 
old trunks f'-H' thick, dark reddish brown or sometimes nearly black, and deeply 
divided into broad flat ridges covered w r ith thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, 
soft, not strong but durable, light orange color, with thick much lighter colored sapwood. 
Often forming coppice by the growth of shoots from the stump of cut trees. 

Distribution. Mountain ranges of southern New Mexico and Arizona, usually at eleva- 
tions between 6000 and 7000; not common; more abundant on the Sierra Madre of north- 
ern Mexico and on several of the short ranges of Chihuahua and Sonora, and of a larger size 
in Mexico than in the United States. 

10. Pinus ponderosa Laws. Yellow Pine. Bull Pine. 

Leaves tufted at the ends of naked branches, in 2 or in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, stout, dark 
yellow-green, marked by numerous rows of stomata on the 3 faces, 5 '-11' long, mostly 
deciduous during their third season. Flowers: male yellow; female clustered or in pairs, 
dark red. Fruit ellipsoidal, horizontal or slightly declining, nearly sessile or short-stalked, 
S'-6' long, often clustered, bright green or purple when fully grown, becoming light reddish 
brown, with narrow scales much thickened at the apex and armed with slender prickles, 
mostly falling soon after opening and discharging their seeds, generally leaving the lower 
scales attached to the peduncle; seeds ovoid, acute, compressed at the apex, full and rounded 
below, I' long, with a thin dark purple often mottled shell, their wings usually broadest 
below the middle, gradually narrowed at the oblique apex, !'-!' long, about 1' wide. 

A tree, sometimes 150-230 high, with a massive stem 5-8 in diameter, short thick 
many-forked often pendulous branches generally turned upward at the ends and forming 




PINACE.E 



13 




a regular spire-like head, or in arid regions a broader often round-topped head surmount- 
ing a short trunk, and 
stout orange-colored 
branchlets frequently 
becoming nearly black 
at the end of two or 
three years. Bark for 
80-100 years broken 
into rounded ridges 
covered with small 
closely appressed 
scales, dark brown, 
nearly black or light 
cinnamon-red, on older 
trees becoming 2'-4' 
thick and deeply and 
irregularly divided in- 
to plates sometimes Fig. 13 
4-5longandl2'-13' 

wide, and separating into thick bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood hard, strong, com- 
paratively fine-grained, light red, with nearly white sapwood sometimes composed of 
more than 200 layers of annual growth; largely manufactured into lumber used for all 
sorts of construction, for railway-ties, fencing, and fuel. 

Distribution. Mountain slopes, dry valleys, and high mesas from northwestern Ne- 
braska and western Texas to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and from southern British 
Columbia to Lower California and northern Mexico; extremely variable in different parts 
of the country in size, in the length and thickness of the leaves, size of the cones, and in the 
color of the bark. The form of the Rocky Mountains (var. scopuhrum, Engelm.), ranging 
from Xebraska to Texas, and over the mountain ranges of Wyoming, eastern Montana 
and Colorado, and to northern New Mexico and Arizona, where it forms on the Colorado 
plateau with the species the most extensive Pine forests of the continent, has nearly black 
furrowed bark, rigid leaves in clusters of 2 or 3 and 3' -6' long, and smaller cones, with thin 
scales armed with slender prickles hooked backward. More distinct is 

Pinus ponderosa var. Jeffrey! Vasey. 
This tree forms great forests about the sources of the Pitt River in northern California, 




Fig. 14 



14 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

along the eastern slopes of the central and southern Sierra Nevada, growing often on the 
most exposed and driest ridges, and in southern California on the San Bernardino and 
San Jacinto ranges up to elevations of 7000 above the sea, on the Cuyamaca Moun- 
tains, and in Lower California on the Sierra del Pinal and the San Pedro Martir Moun- 
tains. 

A tree, 100 to nearly 200 high, with a tall massive trunk 4-6 in diameter, covered 
with bright cinnamon-red bark deeply divided into large irregular plates, stiffer and more 
elastic leaves 4 / -9 / long and persistent on the glaucous stouter branchlets for six to nine 
years, yellow-green staminate flowers, short-stalked usually purple cones 5'-15' long, their 
scales armed with stouter or slender prickles usually hooked backward, and seeds often 
nearly \' long with larger wings. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in eastern Europe, especially the variety 
Jeffreyi, which is occasionally successfully cultivated in the eastern states. 

Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica Shaw. Yellow Pine. 
Pinus arizonica Engelm. 

Leaves tufted at the ends of the branches, in 3-5-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, dark green, 
stomatiferous on tTieir 3 faces, 5 '-7' long, deciduous during their third season. Fruit ovoid, 
horizontal, 2'-2|' long, becoming light red-brown, with thin scales much thickened at the 

apex and armed with slender 
recurved spines; seeds full and 
rounded below, slightly com- 
pressed towards the apex, f 
long, with a thick shell, their 
wings broadest above the mid- 
dle, about -|' long and J' wide. 
A tree, 80-100 high, with 
a tall straight massive trunk 
3-4 in diameter, thick spread- 
ing branches forming a regular 
open round-topped or narrow 
pyramidal head, and stout 
branchlets orange-brown and 
pruinose when they first appear, 
becoming dark gray-brown. 
Bark on young trunks dark 
brown or almost black and 

deeply furrowed, becoming on old trees 1^-2' thick and divided into large unequally 
shaped plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red 
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, rather brittle, light red or often yellow, with thick 
lighter yellow or white sapwood; in Arizona occasionally manufactured into coarse 
lumber. 

Distribution. High cool slopes on the sides of canons of the mountain ranges of southern 
Arizona at elevations between 6000 and 8000, sometimes forming nearly pure forests; 
more abundant and of its largest size on the mountains of Sonora and Chihuahua. 

11. Pinus palustris Mill. Long-leaved Pine. Southern Pine. 

Leaves in crowded clusters, forming dense tufts at the ends of the branches, slender, 
flexible, pendulous, dark green, 8'-18' long, deciduous at the end of their second year. 
Flowers in very early spring before the appearance of the new leaves, male in short dense 
clusters, dark rose-purple; female just below the apex of the lengthening shoot in pairs or 
in clusters of 3 or 4, dark purple. Fruit cylindric-ovoid, slightly curved, nearly sessile, hori- 
zontal or pendant, 6'-10' long, with thin flat scales rounded at apex and armed with small 




PINACE.E 



15 



reflexed prickles, becoming dull brown; in falling leaving a few of the basal scales attached 
to the stem; seeds almost triangular, full and rounded on the sides, prominently ridged, 
about ~Y long, with a thin pale shell marked with dark blotches on the upper side, and 
wings widest near the middle, gradually narrowed to a very oblique apex, about if long and 
T 7 B ' wide. 

A tree, 100-120 high, with a tall straight slightly tapering trunk usually 2-2^ or 
occasionally 3 in diameter, stout slightly branched gnarled and twisted limbs covered 
with thin dark scaly bark and forming an open elongated and usually very irregular head 
one third to one half the length of the tree, thick orange-brown branchlets, and acute 
winter-buds covered by elongated silvery white lustrous scales divided into long spreading 
filaments forming a cobweb-like network over the bud. Bark of the trunk iV"!' thick, 
light orange-brown, separating on the surface into large closely appressed papery scales. 




Fig. 16 



Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, tough, coarse-grained, durable, light red to orange 
color, with very thin nearly white sapwood; largely used as "southern pine" or "Georgia 
pine" for masts and spars, bridges, viaducts, railway-ties, fencing, flooring, the interior 
finish of buildings, the construction of railway-cars, and for fuel and charcoal. A large 
part of the naval stores of the world is produced from this tree, which is exceedingly rich 
in resinous secretions. 

Distribution. Generally confined to a belt of late tertiary sands and gravels stretching 
along the coast of the Atlantic and Gulf states and rarely more than 125 miles wide, from 
southeastern Virginia to the shores of Indian River and the valley of the Caloosahatchee 
River, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the uplands east of the Mississippi River, ex- 
tending northward in Alabama to the southern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains and 
to central and western Mississippi (Hinds and Adams Counties) ; west of the Mississippi 
River to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, and through eastern Texas and western 
Louisiana nearly to the northern borders of this state. 

12. Pinus caribsea Morelet. Slash Pine. Swamp Pine. 

Pinus heterophylla Sudw. 

Leaves stout, in crowded 2 and 3-leaved clusters, dark green and lustrous, marked by 
numerous bands of stomata on each face, 8'-12' long, deciduous at the end of their second 
season. Flowers in January and February before the appearance of the new leaves, male in 
short crowded clusters, dark purple; female lateral on long peduncles, pink. Fruit ovoid or 
ovoid-conic, reflexed during its first year, pendant, 2'-6' long, with thin flexible flat 



16 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

scales armed with minute incurved or recurved prickles, becoming dark rich lustrous brown; 
seeds almost triangular, full and rounded on the sides, le'-l*' long, with a thin brittle 
dark gray shell mottled with black, and dark brown wings f'-l' long, 4' wide, their 
thickened bases encircling the seeds and often covering a large part of their lower surface. 
A tree, often 100 high, with a tall tapering trunk 2^-3 in diameter, heavy horizontal 
branches forming a handsome round-topped head, and stout orange-colored ultimately 
dark branchlets. Bark \'-\' thick, and separating freely on the surface into large thin 
scales. Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, durable, coarse-grained, rich dark 
orange color, with thick nearly white sapwood; manufactured into lumber and used for 
construction and railway-ties. Naval stores are largely produced from this tree. 




Distribution. Coast region of South Carolina southward over the coast plain to the 
keys of southern Florida and along the Gulf coast to eastern Louisiana (Saint Tammany, 
Washington, southern Tangipahoa and eastern Livingston Parishes) ; common on the Ba- 
hamas, on the Isle of Pines, and on the lowlands of Honduras and eastern Guatemala: 
in the coast region of the southern states gradually replacing the Long-leaved Pine, Pinus 
palustris, Mill. 

13. Pinus taeda L. Loblolly Pine. Old Field Pine. 

Leaves slender, stiff, slightly twisted, pale green and somewhat glaucous, 6'-9' long, 
marked by 10-12 rows of large stomata on each face, deciduous during their third year. 
Flowers opening from the middle of March to the first of May; male crowded in short 
spikes, yellow; female lateral below the apex of the growing shoot, solitary or clustered, 
short-stalked, yellow. Fruit oblong-conic to ovoid-cylindric, nearly sessile, 2'-6' long, be- 
coming light reddish brown, with thin scales rounded at the apex and armed with short 
stout straight or reflexed prickles, opening irregularly and discharging their seeds during 
the autumn and winter, and usually persistent on the branches for another year; seeds 
rhomboidal, full and rounded, i' long, with a thin dark brown rough shell blotched with 
black, and produced into broad thin lateral margins, encircled to the base by the narrow 
border of their thin pale brown lustrous wing broadest above the middle, 1' long, about 
j' wide. 

A tree, generally 80-100 high, with a tall straight trunk usually about 2 but occa- 
sionally 5 in diameter, short thick much divided branches, the lower spreading, the upper 
ascending and forming a compact round- topped head, and comparatively slender glabrous 
branchlets brown tinged with yellow during their first season and gradually growing 
darker in their second year. Bark of the trunk f'-l|' thick, bright red-brown, and irreg- 



PINACE.E 



17 




ularly divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges covered with large thin closely 
appressed scales. Wood weak, brittle, coarse-grained, not durable, light brown, with 
orange-colored or often 
nearly white sapwood, 
often composing nearly 
half the trunk; large- 
ly manufactured into 
lumber, used for con- 
struction and the inte- 
rior finish of buildings. 
Distribution. Cape 
May, New Jersey 
through southern Del- 
aware and eastern 
Maryland and south- 
ward to the shores of 
Indian River and Tam- 
pa Bay, Florida, west- 
ward to middle North 
Carolina and through Fig. 18 

South Carolina and 

Georgia and the eastern Gulf states to the Mississippi River, extending into southern 
Tennessee and northeastern Mississippi; west of the Mississippi River from southern 
Arkansas and the southwestern part of Oklahoma through western Louisiana to the shores 
of the Gulf of Mexico, and through eastern Texas to the valley of the Colorado River; on 
the Atlantic coast often springing up on lands exhausted by agriculture; west of the Mis- 
sissippi River one of the most important timber-trees, frequently growing in nearly pure 
forests on rolling uplands. 

14. Pinus rigida Mill. Pitch Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, dark yellow-green, marked on the 3 faces by many rows of stomata, 
3 '-5' long, standing stiffly and at right angles with the branch, deciduous during their 

second year. Flowers: male in 
short crowded spikes, yellow or 
rarely purple ; female often clustered 
and raised on short stout stems, 
light green more or less tinged with 
rose color. Fruit ovoid, acute at 
apex, nearly sessile, often clus- 
tered, l'-3' long, becoming light 
brown, with thin flat scales armed 
with recurved rigid prickles, often 
remaining on the branches for ten 
or twelve years; seeds nearly tri- 
angular, full and rounded on the 
sides, I' long, with a thin dark 
brown mottled roughened shell and 
wings broadest below the middle, 
gradually narrowed to the very 
^^^ oblique apex, f ' long, ^' wide. 

Fig. 19 A tree, 50-60 or rarely 100 

high, with a short trunk occasion- 
ally 3 in diameter, thick contorted often pendulous branches covered with thick much 
roughened bark, forming a round-topped thick head, often irregular and picturesque, and 




18 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

stout bright green branchlets becoming dull orange color during their first winter and dark 
gray-brown at the end of four or five years; often fruitful when only a few feet high. Bark 
of young stems thin and broken into plate-like dark red-brown scales, becoming ton old 
trunks t'-l|' thick, deeply and irregularly fissured, and divided into broad flat connected 
ridges separating on the surface into thick dark red-brown scales often tinged with purple. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, very durable, light brown or red, 
with thick yellow or often white sap-wood; largely used for fuel and in the manufacture 
of charcoal; occasionally sawed into lumber. 

Distribution. Sandy plains and dry gravelly uplands, or less frequently in cold deep 
swamps; island of Mt. Desert, Maine, to the northern shores of Lake Ontario, and south- 
ward to southern Delaware and southern Ohio (Scioto County) and along the Appalachian 
Mountains to northern Georgia and to their w r estern foothills in West ^ 7 irginia, Kentucky, 
and Tennessee; very abundant in the coast region south of Massachusetts; sometimes 
forming pure forests in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

Pinus rigida var. serotina Loud. Pond Pine. Marsh Pine. 

Pinus serotina Michx. 

Leaves in clusters of 3 or occasionally of 4, slender, flexuose, dark yellow-green, 6 '-8' 
long, marked by numerous rows of stomata on the 3 faces, deciduous during their third and 

fourth years. Flowers: male 
in crowded spikes, dark orange 
color; female clustered or in 
pairs on stout stems. Fruit 
subglobose to ovoid, full and 
rounded or pointed at apex, 
subsessileor short-stalked,hor- 
izontal or slightly declining, 
2-2V long, with thin nearly 
fiat scales armed with slender 
incurved mostly deciduous 
prickles, becoming light yel- 
low-brown at maturity, often 
remaining closedfor one or two 
years and after opening long- 
persistent on the branches; 
seeds nearlv triangular, often 

20 ridged below, full and rounded 

at the sides, ' long, with a 

thin nearly black roughened shell produced into a wide border, the wings broadest at the 
middle, gradually narrowed at the ends, f ' long, i' wide. 

A tree, usually 40-50 or occasionally 70-80' high, with a short trunk sometimes 3 
but generally not more than 2 in diameter, stout often contorted branches more or less 
pendulous at the extremities, forming an open round-topped head, and slender branchlets 
dark green when they first appear, becoming dark orange color during their first winter 
and dark brown or often nearly black at the end of four or five years. Bark of the trunk 
5'-!' thick, dark red-brown and irregularly divided by narrow shallow fissures into small 
plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed scales. Wood very resinous, 
heavy, soft, brittle, coarse-grained, dark orange color, with thick pale yellow sap wood; 
occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. Low wet flats or sandy or peaty swamps; ne'ar Cape May, New Jersey, 
and southeastern Virginia southward near the coast to northern Florida and central Ala- 
bama. 




PINACE^E 19 

15. Pinus radiata D. Don. Monterey Pine. 

Leaves in 3, rarely in 2-leaved clusters, slender, bright rich green, 4 '-6' long, mostly de- 
ciduous during their third season. Flowers: male in dense spikes, yellow; female clustered, 
dark purple. Fruit ovoid, pointed at apex, very oblique at base, short-stalked, reflexed, 
3'-7' long, becoming deep chestnut-brown and lustrous, with scales much thickened and 
mammillate toward the base on the outer side of the cone, thinner on the inner side and 
at its apex, and armed with minute thickened incurved or straight prickles, long-per- 
sistent and often remaining closed on the branches for many years; seeds ellipsoidal, com- 
pressed, j' long, with a thin brittle rough nearly black shell, their wings light brown, longi- 
tudinally striped, broadest above the middle, gradually narrowed and oblique at apex, 1' 
long, f ' wide. 

A tree, usually 40- 60 rarely 100-115 high, with a tall trunk usually l-2 but occa- 
sionally 4-2 in diameter, spreading branches forming a regular narrow open round-topped 
head, and slender branchlets 
light or dark orange color, at 
first often covered with a glau- 
cous bloom, ultimately dark 
red-brown. Bark of the trunk 
l|'-2' thick, dark red-brown, 
and deeply divided into broad 
flat ridges broken on the surface 
into thick appressed plate-like 
scales. Wood light, soft, not 
strong, brittle, close-grained; 
occasionally used as fuel. 

Distribution. In a narrow 
belt a few miles wide on the 
California coast from Pescadero 
to the shores of San Simeon 
Bay ; in San Luis Obispo County Fig- 2 1 

near the village of Cambria; on 

the islands of Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz of the Santa Barbara group; and on Guada- 
loupe Island off the coast of Lower California; most abundant and of its largest size on 
Point Pinos south of the Bay of Monterey, California. 

Largely planted for the decoration of parks in western and southern Europe, occasionally 
planted in the southeastern states and in Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, and other re- 
gions with temperate climates, and more generally in the coast region of the Pacific states 
from Vancouver Island southward than any other Pine-tree. 

16. Pinus attenuata Lemm. Knob-cone Pine. 

Leaves slender, firm and rigid, pale yellow or bluish green, marked by numerous rows 
of stomata on their 3 f .ices. 3'-7', usually 4'-5' long. Flowers: male orange-brown; female 
fascicled, often with se . ral fascicles on the shoot of the year. Fruit elongated, conic, 
pointed, very oblique at base by the greater development of the scales on the outer side, 
whorled, short-stalked, strongly reflexed and incurved, 3 '-6' long, becoming light yellow- 
brown, with thin flat scales rounded at apex, those on the outer side being enlarged into 
prominent transversely flattened knobs armed with thick flattened incurved spines, those 
on the inner side of the cone slightly thickened and armed with minute recurved prickles, 
persistent on the stems and branches for thirty or forty years, sometimes becoming com- 
pletely imbedded in the bark of old trunks, and usually not opening until the death of the 
tree; seeds ellipsoidal, compressed, acute at apex, |' long, with a thin oblique shell, their 
wings broadest at the middle, gradually narrowed to the ends, 1 \' long, f ' wide. 

A tree, usually about 20 high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and often fruitful when 




TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




Fig. 22 



only 4 or 5 tall; occasionally growing to the height of 80-100, with a trunk 2^ thick, 
and frequently divided above the middle into two ascending stems, slender branches ar- 
ranged in regular 
whorls while the tree 
is young, and in old 
S^S age forming a narrow 
round-topped strag- 
gling head of sparse 
thin foliage, and 
slender dark orange- 
brown branchlets 
growing darker dur- 
ing their second sea- 
son. Bark of young 
stems and branches 
thin, smooth, pale 
brown, becoming at 
the base of old trunks 
|'-f ' thick and dark 

brown often tinged with purple, slightly and irregularly divided by shallow fissures and 
broken into large loose scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light 
brown, with thick sapwood sometimes slightly tinged with red. 

Distribution. Dry mountain slopes from the valley of the Mackenzie River in Oregon 
over the mountains of southwestern Oregon, where it is most abundant and grows to its 
largest size, often forming pure forests over large areas, southward along the western slopes 
of the Cascade Mountains; in California on the northern cross ranges, the coast ranges from 
Trinity to Sonoma Counties, the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to Mariposa County, 
and over the southern coast ranges from Santa Cruz to the dry arid southern slopes of the 
San Bernardino Mountains, where it forms a belt between City and East Twin Creeks at 
an altitude of 3500 above the sea. 

17. Pinus Sabiniana Dougl. Digger Pine. Bull Pine. 

Leaves stout, flexible, pendant, pale blue-green, marked on each face with numerous 
rows of pale stomata, 
8'-12' long, deciduous 
usually in their third 
and fourth years. Flow- 
ers: male yellow; fe- 
male on stout pedun- 
cles, dark purple. Fruit 
oblong-ovoid, full and 
rounded at base, point- 
ed, becoming light 'red- 
dish brown, 6'- 10' long, 
long-stalked, pendu- 
lous, the scales nar- 
rowed into a stout in- 
curved sharp hook, 
strongly reflexed to- 
ward the base of the 

cone and armed with ^ ^ Fig. 23 

spur-like incurved 

spines; seeds full and rounded below, somewhat compressed toward the apex, \' long, 
\' wide, dark brown or nearly black, with a thick hard shell, encircled by their wings much 







PINACE.E %\ 

thickened on the inner rim, obliquely rounded at the broad apex and about T length of 
nuts. 

A tree, usually 40-50 but occasionally 80 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, divided 
generally lo-20 above the ground into 3 or 4 thick secondary stems, clothed with short 
crooked branches pendant below and ascending toward the summit of the tree, and forming 
an open round-topped head remarkable for the sparseness of its foliage, and stout pale 
glaucous branchlets, becoming dark brown or nearly black during their second season. 
Bark of the trunk l'-2' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red or nearly black and 
deeply and irregularly divided into thick connected ridges covered with small closely ap- 
pressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, brittle, light brown or red 
with thick nearly white sapwood. Abietine, a nearly colorless aromatic liquid with the 
odor of oil of oranges, is obtained by distilling the resinous juices. The large sweet slightly 
resinous seeds formed an important article of food for the Indians of California. 

Distribution. Scattered singly or in small groups over the dry foothills of western Cali- 
fornia, ranging from 500 up to 4000 above the sea-level and from the southern slopes of 
the northern cross ranges to the Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra de la Liebre; most 
abundant and attaining its largest size on the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada near 
the centre of the state at elevations of about 2000; here often the most conspicuous feature 
of the vegetation. 

18. Pinus Coulter! D. Don. Pitch Pine. 

Leaves tufted at the ends of the branches, stout, rigid, dark blue-green, marked by 
numerous bands of stomata on the 3 faces, 6'-12' long, deciduous during their third and 




Fig. 24 



fourth seasons.- Flowers: male yellow; female dark reddish brown. Fruit oblong-conic, 
short-stalked and pendant, 10'-14' long, becoming light yellow-brown, with thick broad 
scales terminating in a broad, flat, incurved, hooked claw %'-\\' long, gradually opening in 
the autumn and often persistent on the branches for several years; seeds ellipsoidal, com- 
pressed, \' long, Y~ wide, dark chestnut-brown, with a thick shell, inclosed by their wings, 
broadest above the middle, oblique at apex, nearly 1' longer than the seed, about f ' wide. 
A tree, 40-90 high, with a trunk 1-2| in diameter, thick branches covered with dark 
scaly bark, long and mostly pendulous below, short and ascending above, and forming a 
loose unsymmetrical often picturesque head, and very stout branchlets dark orange-brown 
at first, becoming sometimes nearly black at the end of three or four years. Bark of the 



22 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

trunk l|'-2' thick, dark brown or nearly black and deeply divided into broad rounded 
connected ridges covered with thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, 
brittle, coarse-grained, light red, with thick nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for 
fuel. The seeds were formerly gathered in large quantities and eaten by the Indians of 
southern California. 

Distribution. Scattered singly or in small groves through coniferous forests on the dry 
slopes and ridges of the coast ranges of California at elevations of 3000-6000 above the 
sea, from Mount Diablo and the Santa Lucia Mountains to the San Bernardino and Cuya- 
maca Mountains; and on the Sierra del Final, Lower California; most abundant on the 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges at elevations of about 5000. 

19. Pinus resinosa Ait. Red Pine. Norway Pine. 

Leaves slender, soft and flexible, dark green and lustrous, 5' -6' long, obscurely marked 
on the ventral faces by bands of minute stomata, deciduous during their fourth and fifth 
seasons. Flowers: male in dense spikes, dark purple; female terminal, short-stalked, 
scarlet. Fruit ovoid-conic, subsessile, 2'-2|' long, with thin slightly concave scales, un- 




Fig. 25 

f 

armed, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous at maturity; shedding their seeds early 
in the autumn and mostly persistent on the branches until the following summer; seeds 
oval, compressed, f ' long, with a thin dark chestnut-brown more or less mottled shell and 
wings broadest below the middle, oblique at apex, f long, ' |' broad. 

A tree, usually 70-80 or occasionally 120 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 or 
rarely 5 in diameter, thick spreading more or less pendulous branches clothing the young 
stems to the ground and forming a broad irregular pyramid, and in old age an open round- 
topped picturesque head, and stout branchlets at first orange color, finally becoming light 
reddish brown. Bark of the trunk f'-l \' thick and slightly divided by shallow fissures into 
broad flat ridges covered by thin loose light red-brown scales. Wood light, hard, very 
close-grained, pale red, with thin yellow often nearly white sapwood; largely used in the 
construction of bridges and buildings, for piles, masts, and spars. The bark is occasion- 
ally used for tanning leather. 

Distribution. Light sandy loam or dry rocky ridges, usually forming groves rarely 
more than a few hundred acres in extent and scattered through forests of other Pines and 
deciduous-leaved trees; occasionally on sandy flats forming pure forests; Nova Scotia to 
Lake St. John, westward through Quebec and central Ontario to the valley of the Winni- 
peg River, and southward to eastern Massachusetts, the mountains of northern Penn- 
sylvania, and to central and southwestern (Port Huron) Michigan, Wisconsin, and Min- 
nesota, most abundant, and growing to its largest size in the northern parts of these states; 
rare and local in eastern Massachusetts and southward. 






PINACE^E 23 

Often planted for the decoration of parks, and the most desirable as an ornamental tree 
of the Pitch Pines which flourish in the northern states. 

20. Pinus contorta Loud. Scrub Pine. 

Leaves dark green, slender, I'-lV long, marked by 6-10 rows of stomata on each face, 
mostly persistent 4-6 years. Flowers orange-red: male in short crowded spikes; female 
clustered or in pairs on stout stalks. Fruit ovoid to subcylindric, usually very oblique 
at base, horizontal or declining, often clustered, f-2' long, with thin slightly concave 
scales armed with long slender more or less recurved often deciduous prickles, and toward 
the base of the cone especially on the upper side developed into thick mammillate knobs, 
becoming light yellow-brown and lustrous, sometimes opening and losing their seeds as 
soon as ripe, or remaining closed on the branches and preserving the vitality of their seeds 
for many years; seeds oblique at apex, acute below, about ' long, with a thin brittle 
dark red-brown shell mottled with black and wings widest above the base, gradually tap- 
ering toward the oblique apex, \' long. 

A tree, sometimes fertile when only a few inches high, usually 15-20 or occasionally 30 
tall, with a short trunk rarely more than 18' in diameter, comparatively thick branches 
forming a round-topped com- 
pact and symmetrical or an 
open picturesque head, and 
stout branchlets light orange 
color when they first appear, 
finally becoming dark red- 
brown or occasionally almost 
black. Bark of the trunk 
f '-!' thick, deeply and irreg- 
ularly divided by vertical 
and cross fissures into small 
oblong plates covered with 
closely appressed dark red- 
brown scales tinged with Fig. 26 
purple or orange color. Wood 

light, hard, strong although brittle, coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with 
thick nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for fuel. 

Distribution. Coast of Alaska, usually in sphagnum-covered bogs southward in the 
immediate neighborhood of the coast to the valley of the Albion River, Mendocmo County, 
California; south of the northern boundary of the United States generally inhabiting sand 
dunes and barrens or occasionally near the shores of Puget Sound the margins of tide pools 
and deep wet swamps; spreading inland and ascending the coast ranges and western slopes 
of the Cascade Mountains, where it is not common and where it gradually changes its 
habit and appearance, the thick deeply furrowed bark of the coast form being found only 
near the ground, while the bark higher on the stems is thin, light-colored, and inclined 
to separate into scales, and the leaves are often longer and broader. This is 

Pinus contorta var. latifolia S. Wats. Lodge-pole Pine. 

Pinus conlorta var. Murrayana Engelm. 

Leaves yellow-green, usually about 2' long, although varying from l'-3' in length and 
from iV to nearly f' in width. Fruit occasionally opening as soon as ripe but usually re- 
maining closed and preserving the vitality of the seeds sometimes for twenty years. 

A tree, usually 70-80 but often 150 high, with a trunk generally 2-3 but occasionally 
5-6 in diameter, slender much-forked branches frequently persistent nearly to the base 
of the stem, light orange-colored during their early years, somewhat pendulous below, 
ascending near the top of the tree, and forming a narrow pyramidal spire-topped head. 




TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Bark of the trunk rarely more than ' thick, close and firm, light orange-brown and covered 
by small thin loosely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained 
and easily worked, not durable, light yellow or nearly white, with thin lighter colored sap- 
wood ; occasionally manufactured 
into lumber; also used for railway- 
tics, mine-timbers, and for fuel. 

Distribution. Common on the 
Yukon hills in the valley of the 
Yukon River: on the interior pla- 
teau of northern British Columbia 
and eastward to the eastern foot- 
hills of the Rocky Mountains, 
covering with dense forests great 
areas in the basin of the Columbia 
River; forming forests on both 
slopes of the Rocky Mountains of 
Montana ; on the Yellowstone pla- 
teau at elevations of 7000-8000; 
Fig, 27 common on the mountains of Wy- 

oming, and extending southward 

to southern Colorado; the most abundant coniferous tree of the northern Rocky Moun- 
tain region; common on the ranges of eastern Washington and Oregon, on the mountains 
of northern California, and southward along the Sierra Nevada, where it attains its 
greatest size and beauty in alpine forests at elevations between 8000 and 9500; in 
southern California the principal tree at elevations between 7000 and 10,000 on the high 
peaks of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains; on the upper slopes of the 
San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California. 




21. Pinus Banksiana Lamb. Gray Pine. Jack Pine. 

Pinus divaricata Du Mont de Cours. 

Leaves in remote clusters, stout, flat or slightly concave on the inner face, at first light 
yellow-green, soon becoming dark green, f'-lj' long, gradually and irregularly deciduous 
in their second or third year. Flowers: male in short crowded clusters, yellow; female 




Fig. 23 

clustered, dark purple, often with 2 clusters produced on the same shoot. Fruit oblong- 
conic, acute, oblique at base, sessile, usually erect and strongly incurved, H'-2' long, dull 
purple or green when fully grown, becoming light yellow and lustrous, with thin stiff 



PINACE.E 



scales often irregularly developed, and armed with minute incurved often deciduous 
prickles; seeds nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides, T V long, with an almost 
black roughened shell and wings broadest at the middle, full and rounded at apex, ' long, 
\' wide. 

A tree, frequently 70 high, with a straight trunk sometimes free of branches for 20-30 
and rarely exceeding 2 in diameter, long spreading branches forming an open symmetrical 
head, and slender tough flexible pale yellow-green branchlets turning dark purple during 
their first winter and darker the following year; often not more than 20-30 tall, with a 
stem 10'-12' in diameter; generally fruiting when only a few years old; sometimes shrubby 
with several low slender stems. Bark of the trunk thin, dark brown slightly tinged with 
red, very irregularly divided into narrow rounded connected ridges separating on the sur- 
face into small thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, 
clear pale brown or rarely orange color, with thick nearly white sapwood; used for fuel 
and occasionally for railway-ties and posts; occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. From Nova Scotia to the valley of the Athabasca River and down the 
Mackenzie to about latitude 65 north, ranging southward to the coast of Maine, northern 
New Hampshire and Vermont, the Island of Nantucket (Wauwinet, J. W. Harshburger}, 
northern New York, the shores of Saginaw Bay, Michigan, the southern shores of Lake 
Michigan in Illinois, the valley of the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin, and central and 
southeastern Minnesota (with isolated groves in Root River valley, near Rushford, Fill- 
more County); abundant in central Michigan, covering tracts of barren lands; common 
and of large size in the region north of Lake Superior; most abundant and of its greatest 
size west of Lake Winnipeg and north of the Saskatchewan, here often spreading over great 
areas of sandy sterile soil. 

22. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine. Cedar Pine. 

Leaves soft, slender, dark green, l'-3' long, marked by numerous rows of stomata, 
deciduous at the end of their second and in the spring of their third year. Flowers: male 
in short crowded clusters, 
yellow; female raised on 
slender slightly ascending 
peduncles. Fruit single or 
in clusters of 2 or 3, reflexed 
on short stout stalks, sub- 
globose to oblong-ovoid, 
'-2' long, becoming red- 
dish brown and rather lus- 
trous, with thin slightly 
concave scales armed with 
minute straight or incurved 
usually deciduous prickles; 
seeds nearly triangular, full 
and rounded on the sides, 
I' long, with a thin dark gray 
shell mottled with black and 
wings broadest below the 
middle, f ' long, \' wide. 

A tree, usually 80-100 or occasionally 120 high, with a trunk 2-2| or rarely 3 in 
diameter, comparatively small horizontal branches, and slender flexible branchlets at first 
light red more or less tinged with purple, ultimately dark reddish brown. Bark of young 
trees and upper trunks smooth pale gray becoming on old stems '-f ' thick, slightly and 
irregularly divided by shallow fissures into flat connected ridges. Wood light, soft, not 
strong, brittle, close-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood; occasionally 
used for fuel and rarely manufactured into lumber. 




Fig. 29 



26 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Valley of the lower Santee River, South Carolina to middle and north- 
western Florida; banks of the Alabama River, Dallas County, Alabama; eastern and 
southwestern Mississippi, and sandy banks of streams in northeastern Louisiana; usually 
growing singly or in small groves; attaining its largest size and often occupying areas of 
considerable extent in northwestern Florida. 

23. Pinus echinata Mill. Yellow Pine. Short-leaved Pine. 

Leaves in clusters of 2 and of 3, slender, flexible, dark blue-green, 3'-5' long, beginning 
to fall at the end of their second season and dropping irregularly until their fifth year. 
Flowers: male in short crowded clusters, pale purple; female in clusters of 2 or 3 on 
stout ascending stems, pale rose color. Fruit ovoid to oblong-conic, subsessile and nearly 
horizontal or short-stalked and pendant, generally clustered, 1|'-2|' long, becoming 
dull brown, with thin scales nearly flat below and rounded at the apex, armed with short 
straight or somewhat recurved frequently deciduous prickles; seeds nearly triangular, full 
and rounded on the sides, about fV long, with a thin pale brown hard shell conspicuously 
mottled with black, their wings broadest near the middle, \' long, f ' wide. 




Fig. 30 

A tree, usually 80-100 occasionally 120 high, with a tall slightly tapering trunk 3-4 
in diameter, a short pyramidal truncate head of comparatively slender branches, and stout 
brittle pale green or violet-colored branchlets covered at first with a glaucous bloom, be- 
coming dark red-brown tinged with purple before the end of the first season, their bark be- 
ginning in the third year to separate into large scales. Bark of the trunk f'-l' thick and 
broken into large irregularly shaped plates covered with small closely appressed light 
cinnamon-red scales. Wood very variable in quality, and in the thickness of the nearly 
white sapwood, heavy, hard, strong and usually coarse-grained, orange-colored or yellow- 
brown; largely manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. Long Island (near Northport), and Staten Island, New York, and south- 
ern Pennsylvania to northern Florida, and westward through the Gulf states to eastern 
Texas, through Arkansas to southwestern Oklahoma (near Page, Leflore County, G. W. 
Stevens) and to southern Missouri and southwestern Illinois and to eastern Tennessee and 
western West Virginia ; most abundant and of its largest size west of the Mississippi River. 

24. Pinus virginiana Mill. Jersey Pine. Scrub Pine. 

Leaves in remote clusters, stout, gray-green, U'-3' long, marked by many rows of 
minute stomata, gradually and irregularly deciduous during their third and fourth years. 
Flowers : male in crowded clusters, orange-brown ; female on opposite spreading peduncles 
near the middle of the shoots of the year, generally a little below and alternate with 1 or 2 



27 

lateral branchlets, pale green, 2 '-3' long, the scale-tips tinged with rose color. Fruit ovoid- 
conic, often reflexed, dark red-brown and lustrous, with thin nearly flat scales, and stout 
or slender persistent prickles, opening in the autumn and slowly shedding their seeds, 
turning dark reddish brown and remaining on the branches for three or four years; 
seeds nearly oval, full and rounded, \' long, with a thin pale brown rough shell, their 
wings broadest at the middle, f long, about f wide. 

A tree, usually 30-40 high, with a short trunk rarely more than 18' in diameter, long 
horizontal or pendulous branches in remote whorls forming a broad open often flat-topped 
pyramid, and slender tough flexible branchlets at first pale green or green tinged with 
purple' and covered with a glaucous bloom, becoming purple and later light gray-brown; 
toward the western limits of its range a tree frequently 100 tall, with a trunk 2^-3 in 







Fig. 31 

diameter. Bark of the trunk \'-\' thick, broken by shallow fissures into flat plate-like 
scales separating on the surface into thin closely appressed dark brown scales tinged 
with red. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, durable in contact with 
the soil, light orange color, with thick nearly white sapwood; often used for fuel and 
occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. Middle and southern New Jersey; Plymouth, Luzerne County, and cen- 
tral, southern and western Pennsylvania to Columbia County, Georgia, Dallas County, 
Alabama (near Selma, T. G. Harbison), and to the hills of northeastern Mississippi 
(Bear Creek near its junction with the Tennessee River, E. N. Lowe}, through eastern 
and middle Tennessee to western Kentucky and to southeastern and southern (Scioto 
County) Ohio, and southern Indiana; usually small in the Atlantic states and only on 
light sandy soil, spreading rapidly over exhausted fields; of its largest size west of the 
Alleghany Mountains on the low hills of southern Indiana. 

25. Firms clausa Sarg. Sand Pine. Spruce Pine. 

Leaves slender, flexible, dark green, 2'-3|' long, marked by 10-20 rows of stomata, de- 
ciduous during their third and fourth years. Flowers: male in short crowded spikes, dark 
orange color; female lateral on stout peduncles. Fruit elongated ovoid-conic, often oblique 
at base, usually clustered and reflexed, 2'-3|' long, nearly sessile or short-stalked, with 
convex scales armed with short stout straight or recurved prickles, becoming dark yellow- 
brown in autumn; some of the cones opening at once, others remaining closed for three or 
four years before liberating their seeds, ultimately turning to an ashy gray color; others 
still unopened becoming enveloped in the growing tissues of the stem and branches and 
finally entirely covered by them; seeds nearly triangular, compressed, ' long, with a 



28 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

black slightly roughened shell, their wings widest near or below the middle, f ' long, 
about \' wide. 

A tree, usually 15-20 high, with a stem rarely a foot in diameter, generally clothed to 
the ground with wide-spreading branches forming a bushy flat-topped head, and slender 

tough flexible branchlets, pale yel- 
low-green when they first appear, 
becoming light orange-brown and 
ultimately ashy gray; occasionally 
growing to the height of 70-80 
with a trunk 2 in diameter. Bark 
on the lower part of the trunk 
i' I' thick, deeply divided by nar- 
row fissures into irregularly shaped 
generally oblong plates separating 
on the surface into thin closely ap- 
pressed bright red-brown scales; 
on the upper part of the trunk and 
on the branches thin, smooth, ashy 
gray. Wood light, soft, not strong, 
brittle, light orange color or yel- 
low, with thick nearly white sap- 
Fig. 32 wood; occasionally used for the 

masts of small vessels. 

Distribution. Coast of the Gulf of Mexico from southern Alabama to Peace Creek, 
western Florida; eastern Florida from the neighborhood of St. Augustine to Xew River, 
Dade County, covering sandy wind-swept plains near the coast; growing to its largest 
size and most abundant in the interior of the peninsula (Lake and Orange Counties). 

26. Pinus muricata D. Don. Prickle-cone Pine. 

Leaves in crowded clusters, thick, rigid, dark yellow-green, 4'-6' long, beginning to fall 
in their second year. Flowers: male in elongated spikes, orange-colored; female short- 





Fig. 33 

stalked, whorled, 2 whorls often being produced on the shoot of the year. Fruit ovoid, 
oblique at base, sessile, in clusters of 3-5 or sometimes of 7, 2'-3|' but usually about 
3' long, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous, with scales much thickened on the 






PINACE.E 



outside of the cone, those toward its base produced into stout incurved knobs sometimes 
armed with stout flattened spur-like often incurved spines, and on the inside of the cone 
slightly flattened and armed with stout or slender straight prickles; often remaining closed 
for several years and usually persistent on the stem and branches during the entire life 
of the tree without becoming imbedded in the wood; seeds nearly triangular, j' long, 
with a thin nearly black roughened shell, their wings broadest above the middle, oblique 
at apex, nearly 1' long, ' wide. 

A tree, usually 40-50 but occasionally 90 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, thick 
spreading branches covered with dark scaly bark, in youth forming a regular pyramid, and 
at maturity a handsome compact round-topped head of dense tufted foliage, and stout 
branchlets dark orange-green at first, turning orange-brown more or less tinged with 
purple. Bark of the lower part of the trunk often 4'-6' thick and deeply divided into long 
narrow rounded ridges roughened by closely appressed dark purplish brown scales. Wood. 
light, very strong, hard, rather coarse-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white sap- 
wood; occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. California coast region from Mendocino County southward, usually in 
widely separated localities to Point Reyes Peninsula, north of the Bay of San Francisco, 
and from Monterey to Coon Creek, San Luis Obispo County; in Lower California on 
Cedros Island and on the west coast between Ensenada and San Quentin; of its largest 
size and the common Pine-tree on the coast of Mendocino County. 

27. Pinus pungens Lamb. Table Mountain Pine. Hickory Pine. 

Leaves in crowded clusters, rigid, usually twisted, dark blue-green, \\'-%\' long, decidu- 
ous during their second and third years. Flowers: male in elongated loose spikes, yellow; 
female clustered, long-stalked. Fruit ovoid-conic, oblique at base by the greater de- 
velopment of the scales 
on the outer than on 
the inner side, sessile, 
reflexed, in clusters 
usually of 3 or 4, or 
rarely of 7 or 8, 2'-3' 
long, becoming light 
brown and lustrous, 
with thin tough scales 
armed with stout 
hooked curved spines 
produced from much 
thickened mammillate 
knobs, opening as soon 
as ripe and gradually 
shedding their seeds, 
or often remaining 
closed for two or three Fig. 34 

years longer, and fre- 
quently persistent on the branches for eighteen or twenty years; seeds almost triangular, 
full and rounded on the sides, nearly \' long, with a thin conspicuously roughened light 
brown shell, their wings widest below the middle, gradually narrowed to the ends, 1' long, 
\' wide. 

A tree, when crowded in the forest occasionally 60 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, 
and a few short branches near the summit forming a narrow round- topped head; in open 
ground usually 20-30 tall, and often fertile when only a few feet high, with a short thick 
trunk frequently clothed to the ground, and long horizontal branches, the lower pendulous 
toward the extremities, the upper sweeping in graceful upward curves and forming a flat- 
topped often irregular head, and stout branchlets, light orange color when they first appear,. 




30 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

soon growing darker and ultimately dark brown. Bark on the lower part of the trunk f '-!' 
thick and broken into irregularly shaped plates separating on the surface into thin loose 
dark brown scales tinged with red, higher on the stem, and on the branches dark brown 
and broken into thin loose scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very coarse- 
grained, pale brown, with thick nearly white sapwood; somewhat used for fuel, and in 
Pennsylvania manufactured into charcoal. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and ridges of the Appalachian Mountains from south- 
ern Pennsylvania to North Carolina, eastern Tennessee and northern Georgia, sometimes 
ascending to elevations of 3000, with isolated outlying stations in eastern Pennsylvania, 
western New Jersey, Maryland, the District of Columbia and Virginia; often forming 
toward the southern limits of its range pure forests of considerable extent. 

28. Pinus Torreyana Carr. Torrey Pine. 

Leaves forming great tufts at the ends of the branches, stout, dark green, conspicuously 
marked on the 3 faces by numerous rows of stomata, 8'-13' long. Flowers from January 
to March; male yellow, in short dense heads; female subterminal on long stout peduncles. 




Fig. 35 

Fruit broad-ovoid, spreading or reflexed on long stalks, 4'- 6' in length, becoming deep 
chestnut-brown, with thick scales armed with minute spines; mostly deciduous in their 
fourth year and in falling leaving a few of the barren scales on the stalk attached to the 
branch; seeds oval, more or less angled, f'-l' long, dull brown and mottled on the lower 
side, light yellow-brown on the upper side, with a thick hard shell, nearly surrounded by 
their dark brown wings often nearly \' long. 

A tree, usually 30-40 high, with a short trunk about 1 in diameter, or occasionally 
50-60 tall, with a long straight slightly tapering stem 2| in diameter, stout spreading and 
often ascending branches, and very stout branchlets bright green in their first season, be- 
coming light purple and covered with a metallic bloom the following year, ultimately nearly 
black. Bark \'-V thick, deeply and irregularly divided into broad flat ridges covered by 
large thin closely appressed light red-brown scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse- 
grained, light yellow, with thick yellow or nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for 
fuel. The large edible seeds are gathered in large quantities and are eaten raw or 
roasted. 

Distribution. Only in a narrow belt a few miles long on the coast near the mouth of 
the Soledad River just north of San Diego and on the island of Santa Rosa, California; 
the least widely distributed Pine-tree of the United States. 



PINACE.E 31 

Now planted in the parks of San Diego, California, and in New Zealand, growing rapidly 
in cultivation, and promising to attain a much larger size than on its native cliffs. 

2. LARK Adans. Larch. 

Tall pyramidal trees, with thick sometimes furrowed scaly bark, heavy heartwood, 
thin pale sapwood, slender remote horizontal often pendulous branches, elongated leading 
branchlets, short thick spur-like lateral branchlets, and small subglobose buds, their in- 
ner scales accrescent and marking the lateral branchlets with prominent ring-like scars. 
Leaves awl-shapad, triangular and rounded above, or rarely 4-angled, spirally disposed 
and remote on leading shoots, on lateral branchlets in crowded fascicles, each leaf in the 
axil of a deciduous bud-scale, deciduous. Flowers solitary, terminal, the staminate glo- 
bose, oval or oblong, sessile or stalked, on leafless branches, yellow, composed of numerous 
spirally arranged anthers with connectives produced above them into short points, the 
pistillate appearing with the leaves, short-oblong to oblong, composed of few or many 
green nearly orbicular stalked scales in the axes of much longer mucronate usually scarlet 
bracts. Fruit a woody ovoid-oblong conic or subglobose short-stalked cone composed of 
slightly thickened suborbicular or oblong-obovate concave scales, shorter or longer than 
their bracts, gradually decreasing from the centre to the ends of the cone, the small scales 
usually sterile. Seeds nearly triangular, rounded on the sides, shorter than their w r ings; 
the outer seed-coat crustaceous, light brown, the inner membranaceous, pale chestnut- 
brown and lustrous; cotyledons usually 6, much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Larix is widely distributed over the northern and mountainous region of the northern 
hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to the mountains of West Virginia and Oregon in the 
New World, and to central Europe, the Himalayas, Siberia, Korea western China, and 
Japan in the Old World. Ten species are recognized. Of the exotic species the European 
Larix decidua, Mill., has been much planted for timber and ornament in the northeastern 
states, where the Japanese Larix Kcempferi, Sarg., also flourishes. 

Larix is the classical name of the Larch-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Cones small, subglobose; their scales few, longer than the bracts, leaves triangular. 

l! L. laricina (A, B, F). 
Cones elongated; their scales numerous, shorter than the bracts. 

Young branchlets pubescent, soon becoming glabrous; leaves triangular. 

2. L. occidentalis (B, G). 
Young branchlets tomentose; leaves 4-angled. 3. L. Lyallii (B, F). 

1. Larix laricina K. Koch. Tamarack. Larch. 

Larix americana Michx. 

Leaves linear, triangular, rounded above, prominently keeled on the lower surface, f '-1 \' 
long, bright green, conspicuously stomatiferous when they first appear; turning yellow and 
falling in September or October. Flowers: male subglobose and sessile; female oblong, 
with light-colored bracts produced into elongated green tips, and nearly orbicular rose-red 
scales. Fruit on stout incurved stems, subglobose, rather obtuse, \'-\' long, composed of 
about 20 scales slightly erose on their nearly entire margins, rather longer than broad and 
twice as long as their bracts, bright chestnut-brown at maturity; usually falling during 
their second year; seeds f long, about one third as long as their light chestnut-brown wings 
broadest near the middle and obliquely rounded at apex. 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk 18'-20' in diameter, small horizontal branches forming 
during the early life of the tree a narrow regular pyramidal head always characteristic of 
this tree when crowded in the forest, or with abundant space sweeping out in graceful 



32 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

curves, often becoming contorted and pendulous and forming a broad open frequently 
picturesque head, and slender leading branchlets often covered at first with a glaucous 
bloom, becoming light orange-brown during their first winter and conspicuous from the 
small globose dark red lustrous buds. Bark ,^'-f ' thick, separating into thin closely 
appressed rather bright reddish brown scales. Wood heavy, hard, very strong, rather 
coarse-grained, very durable, light brown; largely used for the upper knees of small ves- 
sels, fence-posts, telegraph-poles, and railway-ties. 

Distribution. At the north often on well-drained uplands, southward in cold deep 
swamps which it often clothes with forests of closely crowded trees, from Labrador to the 
Arctic Circle, ranging west of the Rocky Mountains to latitude 65 35' north, and south- 




Fig. 36 



ward through Canada and the northern states to northern and eastern Pennsylvania, 
Garrett County, Maryland (Oakland to Thayerville), and Preston County, West Virginia 
(Cranesville Swamp), northern Indiana and Illinois, and northeartern Minnesota; along 
the eastern foothills of {he Rocky Mountains to about latitude 53 and between the Yukon 
River and Cook Inlet, Alaska (Larix alaskensis Wight.); very abundant in the interior of 
Labrador, where it is the largest tree; common along the margins of the barren lands 
stretching beyond the sub-Arctic forest to the shores of the Arctic Sea; attaining its largest 
size north of Lake Winnipeg on low benches which it occasionally covers with open forests; 
on the eastern slopes of the northern Rocky Mountains usually at elevation from 600- 
1700 above the sea; rare and local toward the southern limits of its range. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northeastern states, growing rapidly 
and attaining in cultivation a large size and picturesque habit. 

2. Larix occidentalis Nutt. Tamarack. 

Leaves triangular, rounded on the back, conspicuously keeled below, rigid, sharp- 
pointed, I'-lf long, about 3 V wide, light pale green, turning pale yellow early in the 
autumn. Flowers: male short-oblong; female oblong, nearly sessile, with orbicular scales 
and bracts produced into elongated tips. Fruit oblong, short-stalked, l'-lf long, with 
numerous thin stiff scales nearly entire and sometimes a little reflexed on their margins, 
much shorter than their bracts, more or less thickly coated on the lower surface below the 
middle with hoary tomentum, and standing after the escape of the seeds at right angles to 
the axis of the cone, or often becoming reflexed; seeds nearly ' long, with a pale brown 
shell, one half to two thirds as long as the thin fragile pale wings broadest near the middle 
and obliquely rounded at apex. 



PINACE.E 33 

A tree, sometimes 180 high, with a tall tapering naked trunk 6-8 in diameter, or on 
dry soil and exposed mountain slopes usually not more than 100 tall, with a short narrow 
pyramidal head of small branches clothed with scanty foliage, or occasionally with a larger 
crown of elongated drooping branches, stout branchlets covered when they first appear with 
soft pale pubescence, usually soon glabrous, bright orange-brown in their first year, ulti- 
mately becoming dark gray-brown, and dark chestnut-brown winter-buds about f in 
diameter. Bark of young stems thin, dark-colored and scaly, becoming near the base of 
old trunks 5' or 6' thick and broken into irregularly shaped oblong plates often 2 long 
and covered with thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales. Wood very heavy, 
exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, very durable in contact with the soil, bright 







Fig. 37 

light red, with thin nearly white sapwood; largely used for railway-ties and fence-posts, 
and manufactured into lumber used in cabinet-making and the interior finish of buildings. 

Distribution. Moist bottom-lands and on high benches and dry mountain sides gen- 
erally at elevations between 2000 and 7000 above sea-level, usually singly or in small 
groves, through the basin of the upper Columbia River from southern British Columbia to 
the western slopes of the continental divide of northern Montana, and to the eastern slopes 
of the Cascade Mountains of Washington and northern Oregon; most abundant and of its 
largest size on the bottom-lands of streams flowing into Flat Head Lake in northern Mon- 
tana, and in northern Idaho. 

Occasionally planted in the eastern states and in Europe, but in cultivation showing 
little promise of attaining a large size or becoming a valuable ornamental or timber-tree. 

3. Larix Lyallii Parl. Tamarack. 

Leaves 4-angled, rigid, short-pointed, pale blue-green, 1'-!$' long. Flowers: male 
short-oblong; female ovoid-oblong, with dark red or occasionally pale yellow-green scales 
and dark purple bracts abruptly contracted into elongated slender tips. Fruit ovoid, 
rather acute, 1%'-%' long, subsessile or raised on a slender stalk coated with hoary tomen- 
tum, with dark reddish purple or rarely green erose scales, fringed and covered on their 
lower surface with matted hairs at maturity spreading nearly at right angles and finally 
much reflexed, much shorter than their dark purple very conspicuous long-tipped bracts; 
seeds full and rounded on the sides, f ' long and about half as long as their light red lustrous 
wings broadest near the base with nearly parallel sides. 

A tree, usually 25-50 high, with a trunk generally 18'-20' but rarely 3-4 in diameter, 
and remote elongated exceedingly tough persistent branches sometimes pendulous, devel- 
oping very irregularly and often abruptly ascending at the extremities, stout branchlets 



34 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

coated with hoary tomentum usually persistent until after their second winter, ultimately 
becoming nearly black, and prominent winter-buds with conspicuous long white matted 
hairs fringing the margins of their scales and often almost entirely covering the bud. 
Bark of young trees and of the branches thin, rather lustrous, smooth, and pale gray 
tinged with yellow 7 , becoming loose and scaly on larger stems and on the large branches of 




old trees, and on fully grown trunks i'-f thick and slightly divided by shallow fissures into 
irregularly shaped plates covered by thin dark-red brown loosely attached scales. Wood 
heavy, hard, coarse-grained, light reddish brown. 

Distribution. Near the timber-line on mountain slopes at elevations of 4000-8000, 
from southern Alberta on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains and from the interior 
of southern British Columbia, southward along the eastern slopes of the Cascade Moun- 
tains of northern Washington to Mt. Stewart at the head of the north fork of the Yakima 
River, and along the continental divide to the middle fork of Sun River, Montana, form- 
ing here a forest of considerable size at elevations of 7000-8000, and on the Bitter Root 
Mountains to the headwaters of the south fork of the Clearwater River, Idaho. 

3. PICEA Dietr. Spruce. 

Pyramidal trees, with tall tapering trunks often stoutly buttressed at the base, thin 
scaly bark, soft pale wood containing numerous resin-canals, slender whorled twice or 
thrice ramified branches, their ultimate divisions stout, glabrous or pubescent, and leaf- 
buds usually in 3's, the 2 lateral in the axils of upper leaves. Leaves linear, spirally dis- 
posed, extending out from the branch on all sides or occasionally appearing 2-ranked by 
the twisting of those on its lower side, mostly pointing to the end of the branch, entire, 
articulate on prominent persistent rhomboid ultimately woody bases, keeled above and 
below, 4-sided and stomatiferous on the 4 sides, or flattened and stomatiferous on the upper 
and occasionally on the lower side, persistent from seven to ten years, deciduous in drying. 
Flowers terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, the male usually long-stalked, composed 
of numerous spirally arranged anthers with connectives produced into broad nearly circu- 
lar toothed crests, the female oblong, oval or cylindric, with rounded or pointed scales, 
each in the axis of an accrescent bract shorter than the scale at maturity. Fruit an ovoid 
or oblong, cylindric pendant cone, crowded on the upper branches or in some species 
scattered over the upper half of the tree. Seeds ovoid or oblong, usually acute at base, 
much shorter than their wings; outer seed-coat crustaceous, light or dark brown, the inner 
membranaceous, pale chestnut-brown; cotyledons 4-15. 






PINACE.E 35 

Picea is widely distributed through the colder and temperate regions of the northern hem- 
isphere, some species forming great forests on plains and high mountain slopes. Thirty- 
seven species are now recognized, ranging from the Arctic Circle to the slopes of the southern 
Appalachian Mountains and to those of northern New Mexico and Arizona in the New 
World, and to central and southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Himalayas, western 
China, Formosa and Japan. Of exotic species the so-called Norway Spruce, Picea Abies 
Karst., one of the most valuable timber-trees of Europe, has been largely planted for 
ornament and shelter in the eastern states, where the Caucasian Picea orientalis Carr., 
and some of the Japanese species also flourish. 

Picea was probably the classical name of the Spruce-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves 4-sided, with stomata on the 4 sides. 
Cone-scales rounded at apex. 

Cone-scales stiff and rigid at maturity; branchlets pubescent. 

Cones ovoid on strongly incurved stalks, persistent for many years, their scales 
erose or dentate; leaves blue-green. 1. P. mariana (A, B, F). 

Cones ovoid-oblong, early deciduous, their scales entire or denticulate; leaves dark 
yellow-green. 2. P. rubra (A). 

Cone-scales soft and flexible at maturity; branchlets glabrojus; cones oblong-cylindric, 
slender, their scales entire; leaves blue-green. 3. P. glauca (A, B, F). 

Cone-scales truncate or acute at apex, oblong or rhombic; leaves blue-green. 

Cones oblong-cylindric or ellipsoidal; branchlets pubescent; leaves soft and flexible. 

4. P. Engelmannii (F, B, G). 
Cones oblong-cylindric; branchlets glabrous; leaves rigid, spinescent. 

5. P. pungens (F). 

ves flattened, usually with stomata only on the upper surface; cone-scales rounded. 
Cone-scales ovate, entire; branchlets pubescent; cones ellipsoidal, leaves obtuse. 

6. P. Breweriana (G). 

Cone-scales elliptic, denticulate above the middle; branchlets glabrous; cones oblong- 
cylindric, leaves acute or acuminate, with stomata occasionally on the lower surface. 

7. P. sitchensis (B, G). 

1. Picea mariana B. S. P. Black Spruce. 

Leaves slightly incurved above the middle, abruptly contracted at apex into short 
callous tips, pale blue-green and glaucous at maturity, j'-f ' long, hoary on the upper sur- 
face from the broad bands of stomata, and lustrous and slightly stomatiferous on the lower 
surface. Flowers: male subglobose, with dark red anthers; female oblong-cylindric, 
with obovate purple scales rounded above, and oblong purple glaucous bracts rounded 
and denticulate at apex. Fruit ovoid, pointed, gradually narrowed at the base into 
short strongly incurved stalks, '-lf ' long, with rigid puberulous scales rounded or rarely 
somewhat pointed at apex and more or less erose on the notched pale margins, turning 
as they ripen dull gray-brown and becoming as the scales gradually open and slowly dis- 
charge their seeds almost globose; sometimes remaining on the branches for twenty or 
thirty years, the oldest close to the base of the branches near the trunk; seeds oblong, 
narrowed to the acute base, about f long, very dark brown, with delicate pale brown 
wings broadest above the middle, very oblique at the apex, about \' long, \' wide. 

A tree, usually 20-30 and occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 6'-12' and rarely 3 in 
diameter, and comparatively short branches generally pendulous with upward curves, 
forming an" open irregular crown, light green branchlets coated with pale pubescence, soon . 
beginning to grow darker, and during their first winter light cinnamon-brown and covered 
with short rusty pubescence, their thin brown bark gradually becoming glabrous and be- 
ginning to break into small thin scales during their second year; at the extreme north 



36 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



sometimes cone-bearing when only 2-3 high. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, light reddish 
brown, puberulous, about |' long. Bark j' |' thick and broken on the surface into thin 
rather closely appressed gray-brown scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, pale yellow- 
white, with thin sapwood; probably rarely used outside of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 
except in the manufacture of paper pulp. Spruce-gum, the resinous exudations of the 
Spruce-trees of northeastern America, is gathered in considerable quantities principally 
in northern New England and Canada, and is used as a masticatory. Spruce-beer is 
made by boiling the branches of the Black and Red Spruces 




Fig. 39 

Distribution. At the north on well-drained bottom-lands and the slopes of barren stony 
hills, and southward in sphagnum-covered bogs, swamps, and on their borders, from Labra- 
dor to the valley of the Mackenzie River in about latitude 65 north, and, crossing the 
Rocky Mountains, through the interior of Alaska to the valley of White River; southward 
through Newfoundland, the maritime provinces, eastern Canada and the northeastern 
United States to central Pennsylvania, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern 
Virginia; and from the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, through 
northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba, and south to northeastern and northern 
Minnesota, and central Wisconsin and Michigan; very abundant at the far north and the 
largest coniferous tree of Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba, covering here large areas 
and growing to its largest size; common in Newfoundland and all the provinces of eastern 
Canada except southern Ontario; in the United States less abundant, of small size, and 
usually only in cold sphagnum swamps (var. brevifolia Rehd.) 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree, the Black Spruce is short-lived in cultivation 
and one of the least desirable of all Spruce-trees for the decoration of parks and gardens. 

2. Picea rubra Link. Red Spruce. 

Picea rubens Sarg. 

Leaves more or less incurved above the middle, acute or rounded and furnished at the 
apex with short callous points, dark green often slightly tinged with yellow, very lustrous, 
marked on the upper surface by 4 rows and on the lower less conspicuously by 2 rows of 
stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, ^'-f long, nearly iV wide. Flowers: male 
oval, almost sessile, bright red; female oblong-cylinojric, with thin rounded scales reflexed 
and slightly erose on their margins, and obovate bracts rounded and laciniate above. 
Fruit on very short straight or incurved stalks, ovoid-oblong, gradually narrowed from 
near the middle to the acute apex.. l'-2' long, with rigid puberulous scales entire or 
slightly toothed at the apex; bright green or green somewhat tinged with purple when 



PINACE.E 



37 







fully grown, becoming light reddish brown and lustrous at maturity, beginning to fall a<* 
soon as the scales open in the autumn or early winter, and generally disappearing from the 
branches the following summer; seeds dark brown, about ' long, with short broad wings 
full and rounded above the middle. 

A tree, usually 70-80 and occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, 
branches long-persistent on the stem and clothing it to the ground, forming a narrow 
rather conical head, or soon disappearing below from trees crowded in the forest, stout 
pubescent light green branchlets, becoming bright reddish brown or orange-brown during 
their first winter, gla- 
brous the following 
year, and covered in 
their third or fourth 
year with scaly bark. 
Winter-buds ovoid, 
acute, ~ long, with 
light reddish brown 
scales. Bark \'-%' 
thick, and broken into 
thin closely appressed 
irregularly shaped red- 
brown scales. Wood 
light, soft, close- 
grained, not strong, 
pale slightly tinged 
with red, with paler Fig. 40 

sapwood usually about 

2' thick; largely manufactured into lumber in the northeastern states, Pennsylvania, and 
Virginia, and used for the flooring and construction of houses, for the sounding-boards 
of musical instruments, and in the manufacture of paper-pulp. 

Distribution. Well-drained uplands and mountain slopes, often forming a large part of 
extensive forests, from Prince Edward Island and the valley of the St. Lawrence southward 
to the coast of Massachusetts, along the interior hilly part of New England, New York, 
and northern Pennsylvania and on the slopes of the Alleghany Mountains at elevations 
above 2500 feet from West Virginia to North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Occasionally planted in the eastern states and in Europe as an ornamental tree, but 
growing in cultivation more slowly than any other Spruce-tree. 

3. Picea glauca Voss. White Spruce. 
Picea canadensis B. S. P. 

Leaves crowded on the upper side of the branches by the twisting of those on the lower 
side, incurved, acute or acuminate with rigid callous tips, pale blue and hoary when 
they first appear, becoming dark blue-green or pale blue, marked on each of the 4 sides 
by 3 or 4 rows of stomata, i'-f long. Flowers: male pale red, soon appearing yellow 
from the thick covering of pollen; female oblong-cylindric, with round nearly entire pale 
red or yellow-green scales, broader than long, and nearly orbicular denticulate bracts. 
Fruit nearly sessile or borne on short thin straight stems, oblong-cylindric, slendef, 
slightly narrowed to the ends, rather obtuse at apex, usually about 2' long, pale green 
sometimes tinged with red when fully grown, becoming at maturity pale brown and lus- 
trous, with nearly orbicular scales, rounded, truncate, and slightly emarginate, or rarely 
narrowed at apex, and very thin, flexible and elastic at maturity, usually deciduous in 
the autumn or during the following winter; seeds about f long, pale brown, with narrow 
wings gradually widened from the base to above the middle and very oblique at the apex. 

A treev with disagreeable smelling foliage, rarely more than 60-70 tall, with a trunk 




38 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

not more than 2 in diameter, long comparatively thick branches densely clothed with 
stout rigid laterals sweeping out in graceful upward curves, and forming a broad-based 
rather open pyramid often obtuse at the apex, stout glabrous branchlets orange-brown 

during their first au- 
tumn and winter, 
gradually growing 
darker grayish brown. 
Whiter-buds broadly 
ovoid, obtuse, cov- 
ered by light chest- 
nut-brown scales with 
thin often reflexed 
ciliate margins. Bark 
\'-\' thick, separat- 
ing irregularly into 
thin plate-like light 
gray scales more or 
less tinged with brown. 
Wood light, soft, 
Fig. 41 not strong, straight- 

grained light yellow, 

with hardly distinguishable sapwood; manufactured into lumber in the eastern provinces 
of Canada and in Alaska, and used in construction, for the interior finish of buildings, 
and for paper-pulp. 

Distribution. Banks and borders of streams and lakes, ocean cliffs, and in the north the 
rocky slopes of low hills, from Labrador along the northern frontier of the forest nearly 
to the shores of the Arctic Sea, reaching Behring Strait in 66 44' north latitude, and south- 
ward down the Atlantic coast to southern Maine, northern New Hampshire, Vermont, and 
New York, shores of Saginaw Bay, Michigan, northern Wisconsin and Minnesota, and 
through the interior of Alaska. 

The variety (var. albertiana Sarg.) of the Gaspe Peninsula and the valleys of the Black 
Hills of South Dakota and of the Rocky Mountains of northern Wyoming, Montana, 
Alberta and northward, is a tree with a narrow pyramidal head, sometimes 150 high, with 
a trunk 3 to 4 in diameter, and shorter and rather broader cones than those of the typical 
White Spruce of the east, although not shorter or as short as the cones of that tree in the 
extreme north. 

Often planted in Canada, northern New England, and northern Europe as an orna- 
mental tree; in southern New England and southward suffering from heat and dryness. 

4. Picea Engelmannii Engelm. White Spruce. Engelmann Spruce. 
Leaves soft and flexible, with acute callous tips, slender, nearly straight or slightly in- 
curved on vigorous sterile branches, stouter, shorter, and more incurved on fertile branches, 
l'-H' long, marked on each face by 3-5 rows of stomata, covered at first with a glaucous 
bloom, soon becoming dark blue-green or pale steel-blue. Flowers: male dark purple; 
female bright scarlet, with pointed or rounded and more or less divided scales, and oblong 
bracts rounded or acute or acuminate and denticulate at apex or obovate-oblong and 
abruptly acuminate. Fruit oblong-cylindric to ellipsoidal, gradually narrowed to the 
ends,, usually about 2' long, sessile or very short-stalked, produced in great numbers on the 
upper branches, horizontal and ultimately pendulous, light green somewhat tinged with 
scarlet when fully grown, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous, with thin flexible 
slightly concave scales, generally erose-dentate or rarely almost entire on the margins, 
usually broadest at the middle,wedge-shaped below, and gradually contracted above into 
a truncate or acute apex, or occasionally obovate and rounded above; mostly deciduous 
in the autumn or early in their first winter soon after the escape of the seeds ; seeds obtuse 



PINACE.E 



39 



at the base, nearly black, about ' long and much shorter than their broad very oblique 
wings. 

A tree, with disagreeable smelling foliage sometimes 120 high, with a trunk 3 in diam- 
eter, spreading branches produced in regular whorls and forming a narrow compact pyram- 
idal head, gracefully hanging short lateral branches, and comparatively slender branch- 
lets pubescent for three or four years, light or dark orange-brown or gray tinged with brown 
during their first winter, their bark beginning to separate into small flaky scales in their 
fourth or fifth year; at its highest altitudes low and stunted with elongated branches 
pressed close to the ground. Winter-buds conic or slightly obtuse, with pale chestnut- 
brown scales scarious and often free and slightly reflexed on the margins. Bark '-' 
thick, light cinnamon-red, and broken into large thin loose scales. Wood light, soft, not 
strong, close-grained, pale yellow tinged with red, with thick hardly distinguishable sap- 
wood; largely manufactured into lumber used in the construction of buildings; also 
employed for fuel and charcoal. The bark is sometimes employed in tanning leather. 




Fig. 42 



Distribution. High mountain slopes, often forming great forests from the mountains 
of Alberta, British Columbia and Alaska, southward over the interior mountain systems 
of the continent to southern New Mexico (the Sacramento Mountains) and northern 
Arizona, from elevations of 5000 at the north up to 11,500 and occasionally to 12,000 
at the south, and westward through Montana and Idaho to the eastern slopes of the Cas- 
cade Mountains of Washington and Oregon; attaining its greatest size and beauty north 
of the northern boundary of the United States. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the New England states and northern 
Europe, where it grows vigorously and promises to attain a large size; usually injured in 
western Europe by spring frosts. 

5. Picea pungens Englm. Blue Spruce. Colorado Spruce. 

Picea Parnjana Sarg. 

Leaves strongly incurved, especially those on the upper side of the branches, stout, rigid, 
acuminate and tipped with long callous sharp points, l'-lf long on sterile branches, often 
not more than half as long on the fertile branches of old trees, marked on each side by 4-7 
rows of stomata, dull bluish green on some individuals and light or dark steel-blue or silvery 
white on others, the blue colors gradually changing to dull blue-green at the end of three or 
four years. Flowers: male yellow tinged with red; female with broad oblong or slightly 
obovate pale green scales truncate or slightly emarginate at the denticulate apex, and acute 
bracts. Fruit produced on the upper third of the tree, sessile or short-stalked, oblong- 




40 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

cylindric, slightly narrowed at the ends, usually about 3' long, green more or less tinged 
with red when fully grown at midsummer, becoming pale chestnut-brown and lustrous, 
with flat tough rhombic scales flexuose on the margins, and acute, rounded or truncate 
at the elongated erose apex ; seeds |' long or about half the length of their wings, gradually 
widening to above the middle and full and rounded at apex. 

A tree, usually 80-100 or occasionally 150 high, with a trunk rarely 3 in diameter 
and occasionally divided into 3 or 4 stout secondary stems, rigid horizontal branches dis- 
posed on young trees in 
remote whorls and de- 
creasing regularly in length 
from below upward, the 
short stout stiff branchlets 
pointing forward and mak- 
ing flat-topped masses of 
foliage; branches on old 
trees short and remote, 
with stout lateral branches 
forming a thin ragged py- 
ramidal crown; branch- 
lets stout, rigid, glabrous, 
pale glaucous green, be- 
coming bright orange- 
brown during the first win- 
ter and ultimately light 
grayish brown. Winter- 
Fig. 43 buds stout, obtuse or rare- 
ly acute, j'-^' long, with 

thin pale chestnut-brown scales usually reflexed on the margins. Bark of young trees 
gray or gray tinged with cinnamon-red and broken into small oblong plate-like scales, 
becoming on the lower part of old trunks f'-lf thick and deeply divided into broad 
rounded ridges covered with small closely appressed pale gray or occasionally bright cin- 
namon-red scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, weak, pale brown or often nearly 
white, with hardly distinguishable sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams or on the first benches above them singly or in small 
groves at elevations between 6500 and 11,000 above the sea; Colorado and eastern Utah 
northward to the northern end of the Medicine Bow Mountains and on the Laramie Range 
in southern and on the Shoshone and Teton Mountains in northwestern Wyoming, and 
southward into northern New Mexico (Sierra Blanca, alt. 8000-! 1,000, Sacramento 
Mountains, Pecos River National Forest). 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern and northern states and in western 
and northern Europe, especially individuals with blue foliage; very beautiful in early life 
but in cultivation soon becoming unsightly from the loss of the lower branches. 

6. Picea Breweriana S. Wats. Weeping Spruce. 

Leaves abruptly narrowed and obtuse at apex, straight or slightly incurved, rounded 
and obscurely ridged and dark green and lustrous on the lower surface, flattened and con- 
spicuously marked on the upper surface by 4 or 5 rows of stomata on each side of the 
prominent midrib, |'-lf long, tV-iV wide. Flowers: male dark purple; female oblong- 
cylindric, with obovate scales rounded above and reflexed on the entire margins, and ob- 
long bracts laciniately divided at their rounded or acute apex. Fruit ellipsoidal, gradually 
narrowed from the middle to the ends, acute at apex, rather oblique at base, suspended 
on straight slender stalks, deep rich purple or green more or less tinged with purple when 
fully grown, becoming light orange-brown, 2' -4' long, with thin broadly ovate flat scales 
longer than broad, rounded at apex, opening late in the autumn after the escape of the 



PINACE.E 



41 



seeds, often becoming strongly reflexed and very flexible; usually remaining on the branches 
until their second winter; seeds acute at base, full and rounded on the sides, f long, 
dark brown, and about one quarter the length of their wings broadest toward the full and 
rounded apex. 

A tree, usually 80-100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter above the swelling of its 
enlarged and gradually tapering base, and furnished to the ground with crowded branches, 
those at the top of the tree short and slightly ascending, with comparatively short pendu- 
lous lateral branches, those lower on the tree horizontal or pendulous and clothed with 
slender flexible whip-like laterals often 7-8 long and not more than \' thick and furnished 
with numerous long thin lateral branchlets, their ultimate divisions slender, coated with 
fine pubescence persistent until their third season, bright red-brown during their first win- 
ter, gradually growing dark gray-brown. Winter-buds conic, light chestnut-brown, |' 




Fig. 44 



long and |' thick. Bark |'- ' thick, broken into long thin closely appressed scales dull 
red-brown on the surface. Wood heavy, soft, close-grained, light brown or nearly white, 
with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood. 

Distribution. Dry mountain ridges and peaks near the timber-line on both slopes of the 
Siskiyou Mountains on the boundary between California and Oregon, forming small groves 
at elevations of about 7000 above the sea; on a high peak wrest of Marble Mountain in 
Siskiyou County, California; on the coast ranges of southwestern Oregon at elevations of 
4000-5000. 

7. Picea sitchensis Carr. Tideland Spruce. Sitka Spruce. 

Leaves standing out from all sides of the branches and often nearly at right angles to 
them, frequently bringing their white upper surface to view by a twist at then* base, straight 
or slightly incurved, acute or acuminate with long callous tips, slightly rounded, green, 
lustrous, and occasionally marked on the lower surface with 2 or 3 rows of small conspicu- 
ous stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, flattened, obscurely ridged and almost 
covered with broad silvery white bands of numerous rows of stomata on the upper surface, 
i'-l|' long and jV~iV wide, mostly persistent 9-11 years. Flowers: male at the ends of 
the pendant lateral branchlets, dark red; female on rigid terminal shoots of the branches of 
the upper half of the tree, with nearly orbicular denticulate scales, often slightly truncate 
above and completely hidden by their elongated acuminate bracts. Fruit oblong-cylindric, 
short-stalked, yellow-green often tinged with dark red when fully grown, becoming lustrous 
and pale yellow or reddish brown, 2|'-4' long, with thin stiff elliptic scales rounded toward 
the apex, denticulate above the middle, and nearly twice as long as their lanceolate den- 




42 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

ticulate bracts; deciduous mostly during their first autumn and winter; seeds full and 
rounded, acute at the base, pale reddish brown, about f ' long, with narrow oblong slightly 
oblique wings i'-f ' in length. 

A tree, usually about 100 high, with a conspicuously tapering trunk often 3-4 in 
diameter above its strongly buttressed and much-enlarged base, occasionally 200 tall, 
with a trunk 15-16 in diameter, horizontal branches forming an open loose pyramid and 

on older trees clothed 
with slender pendant la- 
teral branches frequent- 
ly 2-3 long, and stout 
rigid glabrous branch- 
lets pale green at first, 
becoming dark or light 
orange-brown during 
their first autumn and 
winter and finally dark 
gray-brown; at the ex- 
treme northwestern lim- 
its of its range occa- 
sionally reduced to a 
low shrub. Winter-buds 
ovoid, acute or conical, 
\'-%' long, with pale 
Fig- 45 chestnut-brown acute 

scales, often tipped with 

short points and more or less reflexed above the middle. Bark l'-|' thick and broken 
on the surface into large thin loosely attached dark red-brown or on young trees some- 
times bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, straight-grained, light 
brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood; largely manufactured into lum- 
ber used in the interior finish of buildings, for fencing, boat-building, aeroplanes, cooper- 
age, wooden- ware, and packing-cases. 

Distribution. Moist sandy, often swampy soil, or less frequently at the far north on 
wet rocky slopes, from the eastern end of Kadiak Island, southward through the coast 
region of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon to Mendocino County, 
California; in Washington, occasionally ranging inland to the upper valley of the Nesqually 
River. 

Often planted in western and central Europe and occasionally in the middle Atlantic 
states as an ornamental tree. 

4. TSUGA Carr. Hemlock. 

Tall pyramidal trees, with deeply furrowed astringent bark bright cinnamon-red except 
on the surface, soft pale wood, nodding leading shoots, slender scattered horizontal often 
pendulous branches, the secondary branches three or four times irregularly pinnately rami- 
fied, with slender round glabrous or pubescent ultimate divisions, the whole forming grace- 
ful pendant masses of foliage, and minute winter-buds. Leaves flat or angular, obtuse 
and often emarginate or acute at apex, spirally disposed, usually appearing almost 2- 
ranked by the twisting of their petioles, those on the upper side of the branch then much 
shorter than the others, abruptly narrowed into short petioles jointed on ultimately woody 
persistent bases, with stomata on the lower surface; on one species not 2-ranked, and of 
nearly equal length, with stomata on both surfaces. Flowers solitary, the male in the 
axils of leaves of the previous year, globose, composed of numerous subglobose anthers, 
with connectives produced into short gland-like tips, the female terminal, erect, with 
nearly circular scales slightly longer or shorter than their membranaceous bracts. Fruit 



PINACE^E 



43 



an ovoid-oblong, oval, or oblong-cylindric obtuse usually pendulous nearly sessile green 
or rarely purple cone becoming light or dark reddish brown, with concave suborbicular or 
ovate-oblong scales thin and entire on the margins, much longer than their minute bracts, 
persistent on the axis of the cone after the escape of the seeds. Seeds furnished with resin- 
vesicles, ovoid-oblong, compressed, nearly surrounded by their much longer obovate- 
oblong wings; outer seed-coat crustaceous, light brown, the inner membranaceous, pale 
chestnut-brown, and lustrous; cotyledons 3-6, much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Tsuga is confined to temperate North America, Japan, central and southwestern China, 
Formosa, and the Himalayas; nine species have been distinguished. 

Tsuga is the Japanese name of the Hemlock-tree. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. N, 

Leaves flat, obtuse or emarginate at apex, with stomata only on the lower surface; 
ovoid, oblong or oblong-ovoid. 
Cones stalked. 

Cone-scales broad-obovate, about as wide as long, their bracts broad and truncate. 

1. T. canadensis (A). 
Cone-scales narrow-oval, much longer than wide, their bracts obtusely pointed. 

2. T. caroliniana (A). 
Cones sessile; cone-scales oval, often abruptly contracted near the middle, then* 

bracts gradually narrowed to an obtuse point. * 

3. T. heterophylla (B, F, G). 

Leaves convex or keeled above, bluntly pointed, with stomata on both surfaces; cones ob- 
long-cylindric, their scales oblong-obovate, longer than broad, much longer than their 
acwminate short-pointed bracts. 4. T. Mertensiana (B, F, G). 

1. Tsuga canadensis Carr. Hemlock. 

Leaves, rounded and rarely emarginate at apex, dark yellow-green, lustrous and ob- 
scurely grooved especially toward the base on the upper surface, marked on the lower sur- 
face by 5 or 6 rows of stomata on each side of the low broad midrib, s'-f ' long, about T V 




Fig, 46 



wide, deciduous in their third season from dark orange-colored persistent bases. Flowers: 
male light yellow; female pale green, with broad bracts coarsely laciniate on the margins 
and shorter than their scales. Fruit on slender puberulous stalks often \' long, ovoid, 
acute, |'-j' long, with broad-obovate scales almost as wide as long, and broad truncate 
bracts slightly laciniate on the margins, opening and gradually losing their seeds during 



44 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

the winter and mostly persistent on the branches until the following spring; seeds T ^' 
long, usually with 2 or 3 large oil-vesicles, nearly half as long as their wings broad at 
the base and gradually tapering to the rounded apex. 

A tree, usually 60-70, and occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 2-4 in diameter, 
gradually and conspicuously tapering toward the apex, long slender horizontal or pendu- 
lous branches, persistent until overshadowed by other trees, and forming a broad-based 
rather obtuse pyramid, and slender light yellow-brown pubescent branchlets, growing 
darker during their first winter and glabrous and dark red-brown tinged with purple in 
their third season. Winter-buds obtuse, light chestnut-brown, slightly puberulous, about 
T V long. Bark \'-\' thick, deeply divided into narrow rounded ridges covered with thick 
closely appressed scales varying from cinnamon-red to gray more or less tinged with purple. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, difficult to work, liable to wind-shake 
and splinter, not durable when exposed to the air, light brown tinged with red, with thin 
somewhat darker sap wood; largely manufactured into coarse lumber employed for the out- 
side finish of buildings. The astringent inner bark affords the largest part of the material 
used in the northeastern states and Canada in tanning leather. From the young branches 
oil of hemlock is distilled. 

Distribution. Scattered through upland forests and often covering the northern slopes 
of rocky ridges and the steep rocky banks of narrow river-gorges from Nova Scotia to 
eastern Minnesota (Carleton County), and southward through the northern states to New- 
castle County, Delaware, cliffs of Tuckahoe Creek, Queen Anne's County, Maryland, 
southern Michigan, southern Indiana (bank of Back Creek near Leesville, Laurence 
County), southwestern Wisconsin, and along the Appalachian Mountains to northern 
Georgia, and in northern Alabama; most abundant and frequently an important element 
of the forest in New England, northern New York, and western Pennsylvania ; attaining 
its largest size near streams on the slopes of the high mountains of North Carolina and 
Tennessee. 

Largely cultivated with numerous seminal varieties as an ornamental tree in the northern 
states, and in western and central Europe. 

2. Tsuga caroliniana Engelm. Hemlock. 

Leaves retuse or often emarginate at apex, dark green, lustrous and conspicuously 
grooved on the upper surface, marked on the lower surface by a band of 7 or 8 rows of 

stomata on each side of 
the midrib, \'-\' long, 
about T V wide, decidu- 
ous from the orange- 
red bases during their 
fifth year. Flowers: 
male tinged with pur- 
ple; female purple, 
with broadly ovate 
bracts, scarious and 
erose on the margins 
and about as long as 
their scales. Fruit on 
short stout stalks, ob- 
long, I'-l^' long, with 
narrow-oval scales 
gradually narrowed 
Fig. 47 and rounded at apex, 

rather abruptly con- 
tracted at base into distinct stipes, thiri, concave, puberulous on the outer surface, twice 
as long as their broad pale bracts, spreading nearly at right angles to the axis of the cone 




PINACE^E 



45 



at maturity, their bracts rather longer than wide, wedge-shaped, pale, nearly truncate or 
slightly pointed at the broad apex; seeds |' long, with numerous small oil-vesicles on 
the lower side, and one quarter as long as the pale lustrous wings broad or narrow at the 
base and narrowed to the rounded apex. 

A tree, usually 40-50, or occasionally 70 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 2 in 
diameter, short stout often pendulous branches forming a handsome compact pyramidal 
head, and slender light orange-brown pubescent branchlets, usually becoming glabrous 
and dull brown more or less tinged with orange during their third year. Winter-buds 
obtuse, dark chestnut-brown, pubescent, nearly ' long. Bark of the trunk f'-lj' thick, 
red-brown, and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges covered with thin closely 
appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, pale 
brown tinged with red, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Rocky banks of streams usually at elevations between 2500 and 3000 
on the Blue Ridge from southwestern Virginia to northern Georgia, generally singly or in 
small scattered groves of a few individuals. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern states, and in western 
Europe. 

3. Tsuga heterophylla Sarg. Hemlock. 

Leaves rounded at apex, conspicuously grooved, dark green and very lustrous on the 
upper surface, marked below by broad white bands of 7-9 rows of stomata, abruptly 
contracted at the base into slender petioles, l'-f long and TV- T V wide, mostly persistent 




Fig. 48 



4-7 years. Flowers: male yellow; female purple and puberulous, with broad bracts grad- 
ually narrowed to an obtuse point and shorter than their broadly ovate slightly scarious 
scales. Fruit oblong-ovoid, acute, sessile, f '-!' long, with slightly puberulous oval scales, 
often abruptly narrowed near the middle, and dark purple puberulous bracts rounded 
and abruptly contracted at apex; seeds |' long, furnished with occasional oil- vesicles, 
one third to one half as long as their narrow wings. 

A tree, frequently 200 high, with a tall trunk 6-10 in diameter, and short slender 
usually pendulous branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, and slender pale yellow- 
brown branchlets ultimately becoming dark reddish brown, coated at first with long pale 
hairs, and pubescent or puberulous for five or six years. Winter-buds ovoid, bright 
chestnut-brown, about y 1 / long. Bark on young trunks thin, dark orange-brown, and 



46 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

separated by shallow fissures into narrow flat plates broken into delicate scales, becoming 
on fully grown trees l'-l' thick and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges cov- 
ered with closely appressed brown scales more or less tinged with cinnamon-red. Wood 
light, hard and tough, pale brown tinged with yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood; 
stronger and more durable than the wood of the other American hemlocks; now largely 
manufactured into lumber used principally in the construction of buildings. The bark is 
used in large quantities in tanning leather; from the inner bark the Indians of Alaska obtain 
one of their principal articles of vegetable food. 

Distribution. Southeastern Alaska, southward near the coast to southern Mendocino 
County, California, extending eastward over the mountains of southern British Columbia, 
northern Washington, Idaho and Montana, to the western slopes of the continental divide, 
and through Oregon to the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, sometimes ascend- 
ing in the interior to elevations of 6000 above the sea; most abundant and of its largest 
size on the coast of Washington and Oregon; often forming a large part of the forests of the 
northwest coast. 

Frequently planted as an ornamental tree in temperate Europe. 

4. Tsuga Mertensiana Sarg. Mountain Hemlock. Black Hemlock. 
Leaves standing out from all sides of the branch, remote on leading shoots and crowded 
on short lateral branchlets, rounded and occasionally obscurely grooved or on young 
plants sometimes conspicuously grooved on the upper surface, rounded and slightly ribbed 




Fig. 49 

on the lower surface, bluntly pointed, often more or less curved, stomatiferous above and 
below, with about 8 rows of stomata on each surface, light bluish green or on some indi- 
viduals pale blue, '-1' long, about fa' wide, abruptly narrowed into nearly straight or 
slightly twisted petioles articulate on bases as long or rather longer than the petioles; 
irregularly deciduous during their third and fourth years. Flowers: male borne on slender 
pubescent drooping stems, violet-purple; female erect, with delicate lustrous dark purple 
or yellow-green bracts gradually narrowed above into slender often slightly reflexed tips 
and much longer than their scales. Fruit sessile, oblong-cylindric, narrowed toward the 
blunt apex and somewhat toward the base, erect until more than half grown, pendulous or 
rarely erect at maturity, f '-3' long, with thin delicate oblong-obovate scales gradually 
contracted from above the middle to the wedge-shaped base, rounded at the slightly 
thickened more or less erose margins, puberulous on the outer surface, usually bright 
bluish purple or occasionally pale yellow-green, four or five times as long as their short- 
pointed dark purple or brown bracts; seeds light brown, |' long, often marked on the 



PINACE^E 47 

surface next their scales with 1 or 2 large resin-vesicles, with wings nearly \' long, broadest 
above the middle, gradually narrowed below, slightly or not at all oblique at the rounded 
apex. 

A tree, usually 70-100 but occasionally 150 high, with a slightly tapering trunk 4-5 
in diameter, gracefully pendant slender branches furnished with drooping frond-like lateral 
branches, their ultimate divisions erect and forming an open pyramid surmounted by the 
long drooping leading shoot, and thin flexible or sometimes stout rigid branchlets light 
reddish brown and covered for two or three years with short pale dense pubescence, becom- 
ing grayish brown and very scaly. Winter-buds acute, about ' long, the scales of the 
outer ranks furnished on the back with conspicuous midribs produced into slender decidu^ 
ous awl-like tips. Bark I'-lA' thick, deeply divided into connected rounded ridges broken 
into thin closely appressed dark cinnamon scales shaded with blue or purple. Wood light, 
soft, not strong, close-grained, pale brown or red, with thin nearly white sap-wood; occa- 
sionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. Exposed ridges and slopes at high altitudes along the upper border of 
the forest from southeastern Alaska, southward over the mountain ranges of British Co- 
lumbia to the Olympic Mountains of Washington, and eastward to the western slopes of 
the Selkirk Mountains in the interior of southern British Columbia, and along the Bitter 
Root Mountains to the headwaters of the Clearwater River, Idaho; along the Cascade 
Mountains of Washington and Oregon, on the mountain ranges of northern California, 
and along the high Sierra Nevada to the canon of the south fork of King's River, Cali- 
fornia; in Alaska occasionally descending to the sea-level, and toward the southern limits 
of its range often ascending to elevations of 10,000. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, and rarely in the 
eastern United States. 






5. PSEUDOTSUGA Carr. 



Pyramidal trees, with thick deeply furrowed bark, hard strong wood, with spirally 
marked wood-cells, slender usually horizontal irregularly whorled branches clothed w r ith 
slender spreading lateral branches forming broat flat-topped masses of foliage, ovoid acute 
leaf-buds, the lateral buds in the axils of upper leaves, their inner scales accrescent and 
marking the branchlets with ring-like scars. Leaves petiolate, linear, flat, rounded and 
obtase or acuminate at apex, straight or incurved, grooved on the upper side, marked 
on the lower side by numerous rows of stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, 
spreading nearly at right angles with the branch. Flowers solitary, the male axillary, 
scattered along the branches, oblong-cylindric, with numerous globose anthers, their con- 
nectives terminating in short spurs, the female terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, 
composed of spirally arranged ovate rounded scales much shorter than their acutely 2-lobed 
bracts, with midribs produced into elongated slender tips. Fruit an ovoid-oblong acute 
pendulous cone maturing in one season, w r ith rounded concave rigid scales persistent on 
the axis of the cone after the escape of the seeds, and becoming dark red-brown, much 
shorter than the 2-lobed bracts with midribs ending in rigid woody linear awns, those at the 
base of the cone without scales and becoming linear-lanceolate by the gradual suppression 
of their lobes. Seeds nearly triangular, full, rounded and dark-colored on the upper side 
and pale on the lower side, shorter than their oblong wings infolding the upper side of the 
seeds in a dark covering; outer seed-coat thick and crustaceous, the inner thin and mem- 
branaceous; cotyledons 6-12, much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Pseudotsuga is confined to western North America, southern Japan, southwestern China 
and Formosa Four species are recognized. 

Pseudotsuga, a barbarous combination of a Greek with a Japanese word, indicates the 
relation of these trees with the Hemlocks. 



48 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves usually rounded and obtuse at apex, dark yellow-green or rarely blue-green; cones 
2'-4i' long, their bracts much exserted. 1. P. taxifolia (B, E, F, G, H). 

Leaves acuminate at apex", bluish gray; cones 4'-6^' long, their bracts slightly exserted. 

2. P. macrocarpa (G). 

1. Pseudotsuga taxifolia Britt. Douglas Spruce. Red Fir. 

Pseudotsuga mucronala Sudw. 

Leaves straight or rarely slightly incurved, rounded and obtuse at apex, or acute on 
leading shoots, f'-li' long, T y- T V wide, dark yellow-green or rarely light or dark bluish 
green, occasionally persistent until their sixteenth year. Flowers: male orange-red; fe- 




Fig. 50 

male with slender elongated bracts deeply tinged with red. Fruit pendant on long stout 
stems, 4'-6^' long, with thin slightly concave scales rounded and occasionally somewhat 
elongated at apex, usually rather longer than broad, when fully grown at midsummer 
slightly puberulous, dark blue-green below, purplish toward the apex, bright red on the 
closely appressed margins, and pale green bracts becoming slightly reflexed above the 
middle, '-' wide, often extending \' beyond the scales; seeds light reddish brown and 
lustrous above, pale and marked below with large irregular white spots, |' long, nearly \' 
wide, almost as long as their dark brown wings broadest just below the middle, oblique 
above and rounded at the apex. 

A tree, often 200 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, frequently taller, with a trunk 
10-12 in diameter, but in the dry interior of the continent rarely more than 80-100 
high, with a trunk hardly exceeding 2-3 in diameter, slender crowded branches densely 
clothed with long pendulous lateral branches, forming while the tree is young an open 
pyramid, soon deciduous from trees crowded in the forest, often leaving the trunk naked 
for two thirds of its length and surmounted by a comparatively small narrow head soi 
times becoming flap-topped by the lengthening of the upper branches, and slender brand 
lets pubescent for three or four years, pale orange color and lustrous during their fir 
season, becoming bright reddish brown and ultimately dark gray-brown. Winter-hue 
ovoid, acute, the terminal bud often \' long and nearly twice as large as the lateral buds. 
Bark on young trees smooth, thin, rather lustrous, dark gray-brown, usually becoming on 
old trunks 10'-12' thick, and divided into oblong plates broken into great broad rounded 
and irregularly connected ridges separating on the surface into small thick closely ap- 






PINACE^E 49 



pressed dark red-brown scales. Wood light, red or yellow, with nearly white sapwood; 
very variable in density, quality, and in the thickness of the sapwood; largely manu- 
factured into lumber in British Columbia, western Washington and Oregon, and used for 
all kinds of construction, fuel, railway-ties, arid piles; known commercially as "Oregon 
pine." The bark is sometimes used in tanning leather. 

Distribution. From about latitude 55 north in the Rocky Mountains and from the 
head of the Skeena River in the coast range, southward through all the Rocky Mountain 
system to the mountains of western Texas, southern New Mexico and Arizona, and of 
northern Mexico, and from the Big Horn and Laramie Ranges in Wyoming and from 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to the Pacific coast, but absent from the 
arid mountains in the great basin between the Wahsatch and the Sierra Nevada ranges 
and from the mountains of southern California; most abundant and of its largest size 
near the sea-level in the coast region of southern British Columbia and of Washington 
and Oregon, and on the western foothills of the Cascade Mountains; ascending on the 
California Sierras to elevations of 5500, and on the mountains of Colorado to between 
6000 and 11,000, above the sea. 

Often planted for timber and ornament in temperate Europe, and for ornament in 
the eastern and northern states, where only the form from the interior of the continent 
flourishes. (P. glauca Mayr.) 

2. Pseudotsuga macrocarpa Mayr. Hemlock. 

Leaves acute or acuminate, terminating in slender rigid callous tips, apparently 2- 
ranked by the conspicuous twist of their petioles, incurved above the middle, f'-lj' long, 
about T V wide, dark bluish gray. Flowers: male pale yellow, inclosed for half their length 




Fig. 51 

in conspicuous involucres of the lustrous bud-scales; female with pale green bracts tinged 
with red. Fruit produced on the upper branches and occasionally on those down to the 
middle of the tree, short-stalked, with scales near the middle of the cone 1^-2' across, stiff, 
thick, concave, rather broader than long, rounded above, abruptly wedge-shaped at the 
base, puberulous on the outer surface, often nearly as long as their comparatively short and 
narrow bracts with broad midribs produced into short flattened flexible tips; seeds full and 
rounded on both sides, rugose, dark chestnut-brown or nearly black and lustrous above, 
pale reddish brown below, \' long, f ' wide, with a thick brittle outer coat, and wings broad- 
est near the middle, about \' long, nearly \' wide, and rounded at the apex. 

A tree, usually 40-50 and rarely 90 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, remote elon- 
gated branches pendulous below, furnished with short stout pendant or often erect laterals 
forming an open broad-based symmetrical pyramidal head, slender branchlets dark reddish 



50 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

brown and pubescent during their first year, becoming glabrous and dark or light orange- 
brown and ultimately gray-brown. Winter buds ovoid, acute, usually not more than ' 
long, often nearly as broad as long. Bark 3'-6' thick, dark reddish brown, deeply divided 
into broad rounded ridges covered with thick closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, close-grained, not durable; occasionally manufactured into lumber; largely 
used for fuel. 

Distribution. Steep rocky mountain slopes in southern California at elevations of 
3000-5000 above the sea, often forming open groves of considerable extent, from the 
Santa Inez Mountains in Santa Barbara County to the Cuyamaca Mountains. 

6. ABIES Link. Fir. 

Tall pyramidal trees, with bark containing numerous resin-vesicles, smooth, pale, and 
thin on young trees, often thick and deeply furrowed in old age, pale and usually brittle 
wood, slender horizontal wide-spreading branches in regular remote 4 or 5-branched whorls, 
clothed with twice or thrice forked lateral branches forming flat-topped masses of foliage 
gradually narrowed from the base to the apex of the branch, the ultimate divisions stout, 
glabrous or pubescent, and small subglobose or ovoid winter branch-buds usually thickly 
covered with resin, or in one species large and acute, with thin loosely imbricated scales. 
Leaves linear, sessile, on young plants and on lower sterile branches flattened and mostly 
grooved on the upper side, or in one species 4-sided, rounded and usually emarginate at 
apex, appearing 2-ranked by a twist near their base or occasionally spreading from all sides 
of the branch, only rarely stomatiferous above, on upper fertile branches and leading 
shoots usually crowded, more or less erect, often incurved or falcate, thick, convex on the 
upper side, or quadrangular in some species and then obtuse, or acute at apex and fre- 
quently stomatiferous on all sides; persistent usually for eight or ten years, in falling 
leaving small circular scars. Flowers axillary, from buds formed the previous season on 
branchlets of the year, surrounded at the base by conspicuous involucres of enlarged bud- 
scales, the male very abundant on the lower side of branches above the middle of the tree, 
oval or oblong-cylindric with yellow or scarlet anthers surmounted by short knob-like pro- 
jections, the female usually on the upper side only of the topmost branches, or in some 
species scattered also over the upper half of the tree, erect, globose, ovoid or oblong, their 
scales imbricated in many series, obovate, rounded above, cuneate below, much shorter 
than their acute or dilated mucronate bracts. Fruit an erect ovoid or oblong-cylindric 
cone, its scales closely imbricated, thin, incurved at the broad apex and generally narrowed 
below into long stipes, decreasing in size and sterile toward the ends of the cone, falling at 
maturity with their bracts and seeds from the stout tapering axis of the cone long-per- 
sistent on the branch. Seeds furnished with large conspicuous resin-vesicles, ovoid or 
oblong, acute at base, covered on the upper side and infolded below on the lower side 
by the base of their thin wing abruptly enlarged at the oblique apex; seed-coat thin, of 
2 layers, the outer thick, coriaceous, the inner membranaceous; cotyledons 4-10, much 
shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Abies is widely distributed in the New World from Labrador and the valley of the Atha- 
basca River to the mountains of North Carolina, and from Alaska through the Pacific and 
Rocky Mountain regions to the highlands of Guatemala, and in the Old World from Si- 
beria and the mountains of central Europe to southern Japan, central China, Formosa, 
the Himalayas, Asia Minor, and the highlands of northern Africa. Thirty-three species 
are now recognized. Several exotic species are cultivated in the northern and eastern 
states; of these the best known and most successful as ornamental trees are Abies Nord- 
manniana, Spach, of the Caucasus, Abies cilicica Carr., of Asia Minor, Abies cepkalonica 
Loud., a native of Cephalonia, Abies Veitchii Lindl., and Abies homolepis S. & Z., of 
Japan, and Abies pinsapo, Boiss., of the Spanish Sierra Nevada. 

Abies is the classical name of the Fir-tree. 



PINACE.E 



51 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Winter-buds subglobose, with closely imbricated scales. 

Leaves flat and grooved above, with stomata on the lower surface (in Nos. 3 and 5, also 
on the upper surface), rounded and often notched, or on fertile branches frequently 
acute at apex. 

Leaves on sterile branches spreading, not crowded. 
Cones purple. 
Leaves dark green and lustrous above, pale below. 

Bracts of the cone-scales much longer than their scales, reflexed. 

1. A. Fraseri (A). 

Bracts of the cone-scales shorter or rarely slightly longer than their scales. 

2. A. balsamifera (A). 

Leaves pale blue-green, stomatose above. 3. A. lasiocarpa (B, F, G). 

Cones green (green, yellow, and purple in No. 5). 

Leaves dark green and lustrous above, pale below. 4. A. grandis (B, G). 

Leaves pale blue or glaucous, often stomatose above on the upper surface. 

5. A. concolor (F, G, H). 

Leaves on sterile branches pointing forward, densely crowded, dark green and lus- 
trous above, pale below. 6. A. amabilis (B, G). 
Leaves often 4-sided, with stomata on all surfaces, blue-green, usually glaucous, 
bluntly pointed or acute, incurved and crowded on fertile branches; cones purple. 
Leaves of sterile branches flattened and distinctly grooved above; bracts of the 
cone-scales rounded and fimbriate above, long-pointed, incurved, light green, 
much longer than and covering their scales. 7. A. nobilis (G). 
Leaves of sterile branches 4-sided; bracts of the cone-scales acute or acuminate 
or rounded above, with slender tips shorter or longer than their scales. 

8. A. magnifica (G). 

Winter-buds acuminate, with loosely imbricated scales; bracts of the cone-scales pro- 
duced into elongated ridged flat tips many times longer than the obtusely pointed 
scales ; leaves acuminate, dark yellow-green above, white below, similar on sterile and 
fertile branches. 9. A. venusta (G). 

i. Abies Fraseri Poir., Balsam Fir. She Balsam. 

Leaves obtusely short-pointed or occasionally slightly emarginate at apex, dark green 
and lustrous on the upper surface, marked on the lower surface by wide bands of 8-12 




Fig. 52 



52 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

rows of stomata, \' to nearly 1' long, about -fa' wide. Flowers: male yellow tinged with 
red; female with scales rounded above, much broader than long and shorter than their 
oblong pale yellow-green bracts rounded at the broad apex terminating in a slender 
elongated tip. Fruit oblong-ovoid or nearly oval, rounded at the somewhat narrowed 
apex, dark purple, puberulous, about 2|' long, with scales twice as wide as long, at maturity 
nearly half covered by their pale yellow-green reflexed bracts; seeds \' long, with dark 
lustrous wings much expanded and very oblique at apex. 

A tree, usually 30-40 and rarely 70 high, with a trunk occasionally 2| in diameter, 
and rather rigid branches forming an open symmetrical pyramid and often disappearing 
arly from the lower part of the trunk, and stout branchlets pubescent for three or four 
years, pale yellow-brown during their first season, becoming dark reddish brown often 
tinged with purple, and obtuse orange-brown winter-buds. Bark \'-\' thick, covered 
with thin closely appressed bright cinnamon-red scales, generally becoming gray on 
old trees. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, pale brown, with nearly white 
sap wood; occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution; Appalachian Mountains; Cheat Mountain, near Cheat Bridge, Randolph 
County, West Virginia, and from southwestern Virginia to western North Carolina and 
eastern Tennessee, often forming forests of considerable extent at elevations between 
4000 and 6000 above the sea-level. 

Occasionally planted in the parks and gardens of the northern states and of Europe, 
but short-lived in cultivation and of little value as an ornamental tree. 

2. Abies balsamea Mill. Balsam Fir. 

Leaves dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, silvery white on the lower surface, 
with bands of 4-8 rows of stomata, \' long on cone-bearing branches to \\ long on the 
sterile branches of young trees, straight, acute or acuminate, with short or elongated rigid 




Fig. 53 

callous tips, spreading at nearly right angles to the branch on young trees and sterile 
branches, on the upper branches of older trees often broadest above the middle, rounded 
or obtusely short-pointed at apex, occasionally emarginate on branches at the top of the 
tree. Flowers: male yellow, more or less deeply tinged with reddish purple; female 
with nearly orbicular purple scales much shorter than their oblong-obovate serrulate pale 
yellow-green bracts emarginate with a broad apex abruptly contracted into a long slender 
recurved tip. Fruit oblong-cylindric, gradually narrowed to the rounded apex, puberu- 
lous, dark rich purple, 2'-4' long, with scales usually longer than broad, generally almost 
twice as long; rarely not as long as their bracts, (var. phanerolepis Fern.); seeds about \' 
long and rather shorter than their light brown wings. 



PINACE.E 53 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk usually 12'-18', or rarely 30' in diameter, spreading 
branches forming a handsome symmetrical slender pyramid, the lower branches soon dying 
from trees crowded in the forest, and slender branchlets pale yellow-green and coated with 
fine pubescence at first, becoming light gray tinged with red, and often when four or five 
years old with purple. Winter-buds nearly globose, '-' in diameter, with lustrous dark 
orange-green scales. Bark on old trees often \' thick, rich brown, much broken on the 
surface into small plates covered with scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, 
perishable, pale brown streaked with yellow, with thick lighter colored sap wood; occasion- 
ally made into lumber principally used for packing-cases. From the bark of this tree oil 
of fir used in the arts and in medicine is obtained. 

Distribution. From the interior of the Labrador peninsula westward to the shores of 
Lesser Slave Lake, southward through Newfoundland, the maritime provinces of Canada, 
Quebec and Ontario, northern New England, northern New York, northern Michigan 
to the shores of Saginaw Bay, and northern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa, and 
along the Appalachian Mountains from western Massachusetts and the Catskills of 
New York to the high mountains of southwestern Virginia; common and often forming 
a considerable part of the forest on low swampy ground; on well-drained hillsides some- 
times singly in forests of spruce or forming small almost impenetrable thickets; in northern 
Wisconsin and vicinity occurs a form with longer and more crowded leaves and larger 
cones (var. macrocarpa Kent) ; near the timber-line on the mountains of New England and 
New York reduced to a low almost prostrate shrub. 

Sometimes planted in the northern states in the neighborhood of farmhouses, but usually 
short-lived and of little value as an ornamental tree in cultivation; formerly but now 
rarely cultivated in European plantations; a dwarf form (var. hudsonica Englm.) growing 
only a few inches high and spreading into broad nests is often cultivated. 

3. Abies lasiocarpa Nutt. Balsam Fir.' 

Leaves marked on the upper surface but generally only above the middle with 4 or 5 
rows of stomata on each side of the conspicuous midrib and on the lower surface by 2 
broad bands each of 7 or 8 rows, crowded, nearly erect by the twist at their base, on lower 
branches I'-lf long, about iV wide, and rounded and occasionally emarginate at apex, 
on upper branches somewhat thickened, usually acute, generally not more than \' long, 
on leading shoots flattened, closely appressed, with long slender rigid points. Flowers: 
male dark indigo-blue, turning violet when nearly ready to open; female with dark violet- 
purple obovate scales much shorter than tjieir strongly reflexed bracts contracted into 
slender tips. Fruit oblong-cylindric, rounded, truncate or depressed at the narrowed 
apex, dark purple, puberulous, 2|'-4' long, with scales gradually narrowed from the broad 
rounded or nearly truncate apex to the base, usually longer than broad, about three times 
as long as their oblong-obovate red-brown bracts laciniately cut on the margins, rounded, 
emarginate and abruptly contracted at the apex into long slender tips; seeds \' long, with 
dark lustrous wings covering nearly the entire surface of the scales. 

A tree, usually 80-100, occasionally 175, or southward rarely more than 50 high, 
with a trunk 2-5 in diameter, short crowded tough branches, usually slightly pendulous 
near the base of the tree, generally clothing the trunks of the oldest trees nearly to their 
base and forming dense spire-like slender heads, and comparatively stout branchlets coated 
for three or four years with fine rufous pubescence, or rarely glabrous before the end of their 
first season, pale orange-brown, ultimately gray or silvery white. Winter-buds sub- 
globose, \'-\' thick, covered with light orange-brown scales. Bark becoming on old 
trees \'-\\' thick, divided by shallow fissures and roughened by thick closely appressed 
cinnamon-red scales; on the San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, thicker and spongy (var. 
arizonica Lem.). Wood light, soft, not strong, pale brown or nearly white, with light- 
colored sapwood; little used except for fuel. 

Distribution. High mountain slopes and summits from about latitude 61 in Alaska, 
southward along the coast ranges to the Olympic Mountains of Washington, over all the 



54 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



high mountain ranges of British Columbia and Alberta, and southward along the Cas- 
cade Mountains of Washington and Oregon to the neighborhood of Crater Lake, over 




Fig. 54 

the mountain ranges of eastern Washington and Oregon, and of Idaho, Wyoming, Colo- 
rado, and Utah to the San Francisco peaks of northern Arizona, and on the Sandia and 
Mogollon Mountains of New Mexico. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern United States and in northern 
Europe, but of little value in cultivation. 

i ' 
4. Abies grandis Lindl. White Fir. 

Leaves thin and flexible, deeply grooved very dark green and lustrous on upper sur- 
face, silvery white on lower surface, with two broad bands of 7-10 rows of stomata, on 
sterile branches remote, rounded and conspicuously emarginate at apex, l'-2j' long, usu- 




Fig.55 

ally about |' wide, spreading in two ranks nearly at right angles to the branch, on cone- 
bearing branches more crowded, usually l'-lf long, less spreading or nearly erect, blunt- 
pointed or often notched at apex, on vigorous young trees |'-f' long, acute or acumi- 



PINACE^E 55 

nate, usually persistent 4-10 years. Flowers: male pale yellow sometimes tinged with 
purple; female light yellow-green, with semiorbicular scales and short-oblong bracts emar- 
ginate and denticulate at the broad obcordate apex furnished with a short strongly re- 
flexed tip. Fruit cylindric, slightly narrowed to the rounded and sometimes retuse apex, 
puberulous, bright green, 2'-4' long, with scales usually about two thirds as long as wide, 
gradually or abruptly narrowed from their broad apex and three or four times as long as 
their short pale green bracts; seeds f in length, light brown, with pale lustrous wings 
s'-f ' long and nearly as broad as their abruptly widened rounded apex. 

A tree, in the neighborhood of the coast 250-300 high, with a slightly tapering trunk 
often 4 in diameter, long somewhat pendulous branches sweeping out in graceful curves, 
and comparatively slender pale yellow-green puberulous branchlets becoming light reddish 
brown or orange-brown and glabrous in their second season; on the mountains of the in- 
terior rarely more than 100 tall, with a trunk usually about 2 in diameter, often smaller 
and much stunted at high elevations. Winter-buds subglobose, '-' thick. Bark becom- 
ing sometimes 2' thick at the base of old trees and gray-brown or reddish brown and divided 
by shallow fissures into low flat ridges broken into oblong plates roughened by thick closely 
appressed scales. Wood light, soft, coarse-grained, not strong nor durable, light brown, 
with thin lighter colored sap wood; occasionally manufactured into lumber in western 
Washington and Oregon and used for the interior finish of buildings, packing-cases, and 
wooden-w T are. 

Distribution. Northern part of Vancouver Island southward in the neighborhood of 
the coast to northern Sonoma County, California, and along the mountains of northern 
Washington and Idaho to the w r estern slopes of the continental divide in northern Montana, 
and to the mountains of eastern Oregon; near the coast scattered on moist ground through 
forests of other conifers; common in Washington and northern Oregon from the sea up 
to elevations of 4000 ; in the interior on moist slopes in the neighborhood of streams from 
2500 up to 7000 above the sea; in California rarely ranging more than ten miles inland 
or ascending to altitudes of more than 1500 above the sea. 

Occasionally planted in the parks and gardens of temperate Europe, where it grows 
rapidly and promises to attain a large size; rarely planted in the United States. 

5. Abies concolor Lindl. & Gord. White Fir. 

Leaves crowded, spreading in 2 ranks and more or less erect from the strong twist at their 
base, pale blue or glaucous, becoming dull green at the end of two or three years, with 2 
broad bands of stomata on the lower, and more or less stomatiferous on the upper surface, 
on lower branches flat, straight, rounded, acute or acuminate at apex, 2'-3' long, about 
iV wide, on fertile branches and on old trees frequently thick, keeled above, usually fal- 
cate, acute or rarely notched at apex, f'-lj' long, often \' wide. Flowers: male dark red 
or rose color; female with broad rounded scales, and oblong strongly reflexed obcordate 
bracts laciniate above the middle and abruptly contracted at apex into short points. 
Fruit oblong, slightly narrowed from near the middle to the ends, rounded or obtuse at 
apex, 3'-5' long, puberulous, grayish green, dark purple or bright canary-yellow, with 
scales much broader than long, gradually and regularly narrowed from the rounded apex, 
rather more than twice as long as their emarginate or nearly truncate bracts broad at the 
apex and terminating in short slender tips; seeds \'-\' long, acute at base, dark dull brown, 
with lustrous rose-colored wings widest near the middle and nearly truncate at apex. 

A tree, on the California sierras 200-250 high, with a trunk often 6 in diameter or in the 
interior of the continent rarely more than 125 tall, with a trunk seldom exceeding 3 in di- 
ameter, a narrow spire-like crown of short stout branches clothed with long lateral branches 
pointing forward and forming great frond-like masses of foliage, and glabrous lustrous com- 
paratively stout branchlets dark orange color during their first season, becoming light 
grayish green or pale reddish brown, and ultimately gray or grayish brown. Winter-buds 
subglobose, f '-' thick. Bark becoming on old trunks sometimes 5'-6' thick near the 
ground and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the surface into irregularly 



56 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

shaped plate-like scales. Wood very light, soft, coarse-grained and not strong nor durable, 
pale brown or sometimes nearly white; occasionally manufactured into lumber, in northern 
California used for packing-cases and butter-tubs. 

Distribution. Rocky Mountains of southern Colorado, westward to the mountain 
ranges of California, extending northward into northern Oregon, and southward over 




Fig. 56 



the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona into northern Mexico and Lower California 
(Mt. San Pedro Martir Mountains) ; the only Fir-tree in the arid regions of the Great Basin, 
of southern New Mexico and Arizona, and of the mountain forests of southern California. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in Europe (the California form usually as A. 
Lowiana Murr.) and in the eastern states where it grows more vigorously than other Fir- 
trees. 

6. Abies amabilis Forbes. White Fir. 

Leaves deeply grooved, very dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, silvery white 
on the lower, with broad bands of 6 or 8 rows of stomata between the prominent midribs 
and incurved margins, on sterile branches obtuse and rounded, or notched or occasionally 
acute at apex, t'-l|' long, -fa' fa' wide, often broadest above the middle, erect by a 
twist at their base, very crowded, those on the upper side of the branch much shorter 
than those on the low r er and usually parallel with and closely appressed against it, on 
fertile branches acute or acuminate with callous tips, occasionally stomatiferous on the 
upper surface near the apex, I'-f long; on vigorous leading shoots acute, with long rigid 
points, closely appressed or recurved near the middle, about f ' long and nearly |' wide. 
Flowers: male red; female with broad rounded scales and rhombic dark purple lustrous 
bracts erose above the middle and gradually contracted into broad points. Fruit oblong, 
slightly narrowed to the rounded and often retuse apex, deep rich purple, puberulous, 3|'-6' 
long, with scales \'-\\' wide, nearly as long as broad, gradually narrowed from the rounded 
apex and rather more than twice as long as their reddish rhombic or oblong-obovate bracts 
terminating in long slender tips; seeds light yellow-brown, \' long, with oblique pale brown 
lustrous wings about \ ' long. 

A tree, often 250 tall, or at high altitudes and in the north usually not more than 70-80 
tall, with a trunk 4-6 in diameter, in thick forests often naked for 150, but in open sit- 
uations densely clothed to the ground with comparatively short branches sweeping down 
in graceful curves, and stout branchlets clothed for four or five years with soft fine pu- 
bescence, light orange-brown in their first season, becoming dark purple and ultimately 
reddish brown. Winter-buds nearly globose, \'-\' thick, with closely imbricated lus- 
trous purple scales. Bark on trees up to 150 years old thin, smooth, pale or silvery white, 



PINACE.E 57 

becoming near the ground on old trees l^'-i^V thick, and irregularly divided into compara- 
tively small plates covered with small closely appressed reddish brown or reddish grayscales. 
Wood light, hard, not strong, close-grained, pale brown, with nearly white sap wood; in 
Washington occasionally manufactured into lumber used in the interior finish of buildings. 




Fig. 57 



Distribution. High mountain slopes and benches from southeastern Alaska (Boca de 
Quadra Inlet and Sandfly Bay), to Vancouver Island and southward along the coast ranges 
to Saddle Mountain near Astoria, Oregon, and on the Cascade Mountains to the slopes 
of Old Bailey Mountain, Oregon, ranging from the sea level at the north to elevations of 
from 3000-6000 southward; attaining its largest size on the Olympic Mountains of Wash- 
ington, where it is the most common Fir-tree. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and in western 
Europe, but without developing the beauty which distinguishes this species in its native 
forests. 

7. Abies nobilis Lindl. Red Fir. 

Leaves marked on the upper surface with a deep sharply defined groove, rounded and 
obscurely ribbed on the lower surface, stomatiferous above and below, dark or light blue- 
green, often very glaucous during their first season, crowded in several rows, those on the 
lower side of the branch two-ranked by the twisting of their bases, the others crowded, 
strongly incurved, with the points erect or pointing away from the end of the branch, 
on young plants and on the lower sterile branches of old trees flat, rounded, usually slightly 
notched at apex, !'-!' long, about ^V wide, on fertile branches much thickened and 
almost equally 4-sided, acuminate, with long rigid callous tips, '-f ' long, on leading shoots 
flat, gradually narrowed from the base, acuminate, with long rigid points, about 1' long. 
Flowers: male reddish purple; female often scattered over the upper part of the tree, with 
broad rounded scales much shorter than their nearly orbicular bracts erose on the margins 
and contracted above into slender elongated strongly reflexed tips. Fruit oblong-cylindric, 
slightly narrowed but full and rounded at apex, 4 '-5' long, purple or olive-brown, pu- 
bescent, with scales about one third wider than long, gradually narrowed from the rounded 
apex to the base, or full at the sides, rounded and denticulate above the middle and sharply 
contracted and wedge-shaped below, nearly or entirely covered by their strongly reflexed 
pale green spatulate bracts full and rounded above, fimbriate on the margins, with broad 
midribs produced into short broad flattened points; seeds \' long, pale reddish browrt, 
about as long as their wings, gradually narrowed from below to the nearly truncate 
slightly rounded apex. 

A tree, in old age with a comparatively broad somewhat rounded head, usually 150- 
200 and occasionally 250 high, with a trunk 6-8 in diameter, short rigid branches, short 
stout remote lateral branches standing out at right angles, and slender reddish brown branch- 



58 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



lets puberulous for four or five years and generally pointing forward. Winter-buds ovoid- 
oblong, red-brown, about f ' long. Bark becoming on old trunks l'-2' thick, bright red- 
brown, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges irregularly broken by cross fissures and 




Fig. 58 



covered with thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, hard, strong, rather close-grained, 
pale brown streaked with red, with darker colored sapwood; occasionally manufactured 
into lumber and used under the name of larch for the interior finish of buildings and for 
packing-cases. 

Distribution. Slopes of Mt. Baker in northern Washington and southward to the valley 
of the Mackenzie River, Oregon, and the Siskiyou Mountains, California, at elevations of 
from 2000-5000 above the sea; most abundant and often forming extensive forests on 
the Cascade Mountains of Washington; less abundant and of smaller size on the eastern 
and northern slopes of these mountains. In Oregon sometimes called Larch. 

Often planted in western and central Europe as an ornamental tree, and in the eastern 
states hardy in sheltered positions as far north as Massachusetts. 

8. Abies magnifica A. Murr. Red Fir. 

Leaves almost equally 4-sided, ribbed above and below, with 6-8 rows of stomata on 
each of the 4 sides, pale and very glaucous during their first season, later becoming 
blue-green, persistent usually for about ten years; on young plants and lower branches 
oblanceolate, somewhat flattened, rounded, bluntly pointed, f'-H' long, ^ wide, those 
on the lower side of the branch spreading in 2 nearly horizontal ranks by the twist at 
their base, on upper, especially on fertile branches, much thickened, with more prominent 




Fig. 59 



PINACE^E 59 

midribs, acute, with short callous tips, \ r long on the upper side of the branch to \\' long on 
the lower side, crowded, erect, strongly incurved, completely hiding the upper side of the 
branch, on leading shoots f ' long, erect and acuminate, with long rigid points pressed 
against the stem. Flowers: male dark reddish purple; female with rounded scales much 
shorter than their oblong pale green bracts terminating in elongated slender tips more or 
less tinged with red. Fruit oblong-cylindric, slightly narrowed to the rounded, truncate, 
or retuse apex, dark purplish brown, puberulous, from 6'-9' long, with scales often 1^' 
wide and about two thirds as wide as long, gradually narrowed to the cordate base, some- 
what longer or often two thirds as long as their spatulate acute or acuminate bracts slightly 
serrulate above the middle and often sharply contracted and then enlarged toward the 
base; seeds dark reddish brown, f long, about as wide as their lustrous rose-colored ob- 
ovate cuneate wings nearly truncate and often f ' wide at apex. 

A tree, in old age occasionally somewhat round-topped, frequently 200 high, with a 
trunk 8-10 in diameter and often naked for half the height of the tree, comparatively 
short small branches, the upper somewhat ascending, the lower pendulous, and stout light 
yellow-green branchlets pointing forward, slightly puberulous during their first season, 
becoming light red-brown and lustrous and ultimately gray or silvery white. Winter- 
buds ovoid, acute, i'-f ' long, their bright chestnut-brown scales with prominent midribs 
produced into short tips. Bark becoming 4'-6' thick near the ground, deeply divided into 
broad rounded ridges broken by cross fissures and covered by dark red-brown scales. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, comparatively durable, light red-brown, with thick somewhat 
darker sapwood; largely used for fuel, and in California occasionally manufactured into 
coarse lumber employed in the construction of cheap buildings and for packing-cases. 

Distribution. Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, southward over the mountain 
ranges of northern California (summits of the Trinity and Salmon Mountains and on the 
inner north coast ranges), and along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the divide 
between White and Kern Rivers; common in southern Oregon at elevations between 5000 
and 7000 above the sea, forming sometimes nearly pure forests; very abundant on the 
Sierra Nevada, and the principal tree in the forest belt at elevations between 6000 and 
9000; ascending towards the southern extremity of its range to over 10,000. Small 
stunted trees from the neighborhood of Meadow Lake, Sierra County, California, with 
yellowish cones have been described as var. xancocarpa Lemm. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, and sometimes 
hardy in the United States as far north as eastern Massachusetts. 

A distinct form is 

Abies magnifica var. shastensis Lemm. Red Fir. 

On the mountains of southern Oregon and at high elevations on those of northern Cali- 
fornia, and on the southern Sierra Nevada, occurs this form distinguished only by the 




Fig. 60 



60 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



longer rounded or obtusely pointed (not acute) bright yellow bracts which sometimes 
cover nearly half their scales. 

9. Abies venusta K. Koch. Silver Fir. 
Abies bracteata D. Don. 

Leaves thin, flat, rigid, linear or linear-lanceolate, gradually or abruptly narrowed 
toward the base, often falcate, especially on fertile branches, acuminate, with long slender 
callous tips, dark yellow-green, lustrous and slightly rounded on the upper surface marked 
below the middle with an obscure groove, silvery white or on old leaves pale on the lower 
surface, with bands of 8-10 rows of stomata between the broad midrib and the thickened 
strongly revolute margins, 2-ranked from the conspicuous twist near their base and spread- 
ing at nearly right angles to the branch, or pointing forward on upper fertile branches, 
l|'-2j' long, on leading shoots standing out at almost right angles, rounded on the upper 
surface, more or less incurved above the middle, l|'-lf' long, about |' wide. Flowers: 
male produced in great numbers near the base of the branchlets on branches from the 
middle of the tree upward, pale yellow; female near the ends of the branchlets of the 




Fig. 61 



upper branches only, with oblong scales rounded above and nearly as long as their cuneate 
obcordate yellow-green bracts ending in slender elongated awns. Fruit on stout peduncles 
sometimes \' long, oval or subcylindric, full and rounded at apex, glabrous, pale pur- 
ple-brown, 3'-4' long, with thin scales strongly incurved above, obtusely short-pointed 
at apex, obscurely denticulate on the thin margins, about one third longer than their 
oblong-obovate obcordate pale yellow-brown bracts terminating in flat rigid tips I'-lf ' long, 
above the middle of the cone pointing toward its apex and often closely appressed to its 
sides, below the middle spreading toward its base and frequently much recurved, firmly 
attached to the cone-scales and deciduous with them from the thick conical sharp-pointed 
axis of the cone; seeds dark red-brown, about f long, and nearly as long as their oblong- 
obovate pale reddish brown lustrous wings rounded at the apex. 

A tree, 100-150 high, with a trunk sometimes 3 in diameter, comparatively short 
slender usually pendulous branches furnished with long sinuous rather remote lateral 
branches sparsely clothed with foliage, forming a broad-based pyramid abruptly narrowed 
15-20 from the top of the tree into a thin spire-like head, and stout glabrous light reddish 
brown branchlets covered at first with a glaucous bloom. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, '-!' 
long, \-\' thick, with very thin, loosely imbricated, pale chestnut-brown, acute, boat-shaped 
scales. Bark becoming near the base of the tree z'-f ' thick, light reddish brown, slightly 



PINACE^E 61 

and irregularly fissured and broken into thick closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, 
not hard, coarse-grained, light brown tinged with yellow, with paler sapwood. 

Distribution. In the moist bottoms of canons and on dry rocky summits, usually at 
elevations of about 3000 above the sea on both slopes of the outer western ridge of the 
Santa Lucia Mountains, Monterey County, California. 

Occasionally and successfully grown as an ornamental tree in the milder parts of Great 
Britain and in northern Italy; not hardy in the eastern United States. 

7. SEQUOIA Endl. 

Resinous aromatic trees, with tall massive lobed trunks, thick bark of 2 layers, the outer 
composed of fibrous scales, the inner thin, close and firm, soft, durable, straight-grained 
red heartwood, thin nearly white sapwood, short stout horizontal branches, terete lateral 
branchlets deciduous in the autumn, and scaly or naked buds. Leaves ovate-lanceolate 
or linear and spreading in 2 ranks especially on young trees and branches, or linear, acute, 
compressed, keeled on the back and closely appressed or spreading at apex, the two 
forms appearing sometimes on the same branch or on different branches of the same tree. 
Flowers minute, solitary, monoecious, appearing in early spring from buds formed the 
previous autumn, the male terminal in the axils of upper leaves, oblong or ovoid, sur- 
rounded by an involucre of numerous imbricated ovate, acute, and apiculate bracts, with 
numerous spirally disposed filaments dilated into ovoid acute subpeltate denticulate connec- 
tives bearing on their inner face 2-5 pendulous globose 2-valved anther-cells; the female 
terminal, ovoid or oblong, composed of numerous spirally imbricated ovate scales abruptly 
keeled on the back, the keels produced into short or elongated points closely adnate to the 
short ovule-bearing scales rounded above and bearing below their upper margin in 2 rows 
5-7 ovules at first erect, becoming reversed. Fruit an ovoid or short-oblong pendulous 
cone maturing during the first or second season, persistent after the escape of the seeds, 
its scales formed by the enlargement of the united flower and ovuliferous scales, becoming 
woody, bearing large deciduous resin-glands, gradually enlarged upward and widening 
at the apex into a narrow thickened oblong disk transversely depressed through the middle 
and sometimes tipped with a small point. Seeds 5-7 under each scale, oblong-ovoid, com- 
pressed; seed-coat membranaceous, produced into broad thin lateral wings; cotyledons 
4-6, longer than the inferior radicle. 

Sequoia, widely scattered with several species over the northern hemisphere during the 
cretaceous and tertiary epochs, is now confined to the coast of Oregon and California and 
the mountains of California, where two species exist. 

The name of the genus is formed from Sequoiah, the inventor of the Cherokee alphabet. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves mostly spreading in 2 ranks; cones maturing in one season; buds scaly. 

1. S. sempervirens (G). 

Leaves slightly spreading or appressed; cones maturing in their second season; buds 
naked. 2. S. gigantea (G). 

1. Sequoia sempervirens Endl. Redwood. 

Leaves of secondary branches and of lower branches of young trees lanceolate, more or 
less falcate, acute or acuminate and usually tipped with slender rigid points, slightly thick- 
ened on the revolute margins, decurrent at the base, spreading in 2 ranks by a half-turn at 
their base, j' |' l n g> about f ' wide, obscurely keeled and marked above by 2 narrow bands 
of stomata, glaucous and stomatiferous below on each side of their conspicuous mid- 
rib, on leading shoots disposed in many ranks, more or less spreading or appressed, ovate 
or ovate-oblong, incurved at the rounded apiculate apex, thickened, rounded, and stoma- 
tiferous on the lower surface, concave, prominently keeled and covered with stomata 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




on the upper surface, usually about \' long; dying and turning reddish brown at least 
two years before falling. Flowers opening in December or January; male oblong, obtuse; 
female with about 20 broadly ovate acute scales tipped with elongated and incurved or 
short points. Fruit ripening in October, oblong, f '-!' long, ' broad, its scales gradually 

enlarged from slender 
stipes abruptly dilat- 
ed above into disks 
penetrated by deep 
narrow grooves, and 
usually without tips; 
seeds about ^V long, 
light brown, with 
wings as broad as 
their body. 

A tree, from 200- 
340 high, with a 
slightly tapering and 
irregularly lobed 
trunk usually free of 
branches for 75- 
100, usually 10-15, 
rarely 28 in diame- 
ter at the much but- 
tressed base, slender 

branches, clothed with branchlets spreading in 2 ranks and forming while the tree is young 
an open narrow pyramid, on old trees becoming stout and horizontal, and forming a nar- 
row rather compact and very irregular head remarkably small in proportion to the height 
and size of the trunk, and slender leading branchlets covered at the end of three or four 
years after the leaves fall with cinnamon-brown scaly bark ; when cut producing from the 
stump numerous vigorous long-lived shoots. Buds with numerous loosely imbricated 
ovate acute scales persistent on the base of the branchlet. Bark 6'-12' thick, divided into 
rounded ridges and separated on the surface into long narrow dark brown fibrous scales 
often broken transversely and in falling disclosing the bright cinnamon-red inner bark. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, easily split and worked, very durable in con- 
tact with the soil, clear light red; largely manufactured into lumber and used for shingles, 
fence-posts, railway-ties, wine-butts, and in buildings. 

Distribution. Valley of the Chetco River, Oregon, 8 miles north of the California state 
line, southward near the coast to Monterey County, California; rarely found more than 
twenty or thirty miles from the coast, or beyond the influence of the ocean fogs, or over 
3000 above the sea-level; often forming in northern California pure forests occupying the 
sides of ravines and the banks of streams; southward growing usually in small groves scat- 
tered among other trees; most abundant and of its largest size north of Cape Mendocino. 
Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the temperate countries of Europe, and occa- 
sionally in the southeastern United States. 



Fig. 62 



2. Sequoia gigantea Decne. Big Tree. 

Sequoia Wellingtonia Seem. 

Leaves ovate and acuminate, or lanceolate, rounded and thickened on the lower surface, 
concave on the upper surface, marked by bands of stomata on both sides of the obscure 
midrib, rigid, sharp-pointed, decurrent below, spreading or closely appressed above the 
middle, f'-|' or on leading shoots \' long. Flowers opening in late winter and early 
spring; male in great profusion over the whole tree, oblong-ovoid, with ovate acute or acumi- 
nate connectives; female with 25-40 pale yellow scales slightly keeled on the back and grad- 



PINACE.E 



63 



ually narrowed into long slender points. Fruit maturing in the second year, ovoid-oblong, 
2'-3|' long, l'-2j' wide, dark reddish brown, the scales gradually thickened upward from 
the base to the slightly dilated apex, f-'-l j' long, and j'-?' wide, deeply pitted in the middle, 
often furnished with an elongated reflexed tip and on the upper side near the base with 
two or three large deciduous resin-glands; seeds linear-lanceolate, compressed, |'-j' long, 
light brown, surrounded by laterally united wings broader than the body of the seed, apicu- 
late at the apex, often very unequal. 

A tree, at maturity usually about 275 high, with a trunk 20 in diameter near the ground, 
occasionally becoming 320 tall, with a trunk 35 in diameter, much enlarged and buttressed 




Fig. 63 



at base, fluted with broad low rounded ridges, in old age naked often for 150 with short 
thick horizontal branches, slender leading branchlets becoming after the disappearance of 
the leaves reddish brown more or less tinged with purple and covered with thin close or 
slightly scaly bark and naked buds. Bark l-2 thick, divided into rounded lobes 4-5 
wide, corresponding to the lobes of the trunk, separating into loose light cinnamon-red 
fibrous scales, the outer scales slightly tinged with purple. Wood very light, soft, not 
strong, brittle and coarse-grained, turning dark on exposure; manufactured into lumber 
and used for fencing, in construction, and for shingles. 

Distribution. Western slopes of the Sierra Nevada of California, in an interrupted belt 
at elevations of 5000-8400 above the level of the sea, from the middle fork of the Ameri- 
can River to the head of Deer Creek just south of latitude 36; north of King's River in 
isolated groves, southward forming forests of considerable extent, and best developed on 
the north fork of the Tule River. 

Universally cultivated as an ornamental tree in all the countries of western and southern 
Europe; and occasionally in the middle eastern United States. 

8. TAXODIUM Rich. Bald Cypress. 

Resinous trees, with furrowed scaly bark, light brown durable heartwood, thin white 
sapwood, erect ultimately spreading branches, deciduous usually 2-ranked lateral branch- 
lets, scaly globose buds, and stout horizontal roots often producing erect woody projec- 
tions (knees). Leaves spirally disposed, pale and marked with stomata below on both 
sides of the obscure midrib, dark green above, linear-lanceolate, spreading in 2 ranks, or 
scale-like and appressed on lateral branchlets, the two forms appearing on the same or on 
different branches of the same tree or on separate trees, deciduous. Flowers unisexual, 
from buds formed the previous year; male in the axils of scale-like bracts in long terminal 
drooping nanicles, with 6-8 stamens opposite in 2 ranks, their filaments abruptly enlarged 



64 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

into broadly ovate peltate yellow connectives bearing on their inner face in 2 rows 4-9 2- 
valved pendulous anther-cells; female scattered near the ends of the branches of the pre- 
vious year, subglobose, composed of numerous ovate spirally arranged long-pointed scales, 
adnate below to the thickened fleshy ovuliferous scales bearing at their base 2 erect bottle- 
shaped ovules. Fruit a globose or obovoid short-stalked woody cone maturing the first 
year and persistent after the escape of the seeds, formed from the enlargement and union 
of the flower and ovule-bearing scales abruptly dilated from slender stipes into irregularly 
4-sided disks often mucronate at maturity, bearing on the inner face, especialh 7 on the 
stipes, large dark glands filled with blood-red fragrant liquid resin. Seeds in pairs under 
each scale, attached laterally to the stipes, erect, unequally 3-angled; seed-coat light brown 
and lustrous, thick, coriaceous or corky, produced into 3 thick unequal lateral wings and 
below into a slender elongated point; cotyledons 4-9, shorter than the superior radicle. 

Taxodium, widely distributed through North America and Europe in Miocene and Plio- 
cene times, is now confined to the southern United States and Mexico. Two species are 
distinguished. 

The generic name, from rdoj and eidos, indicates a resemblance of the leaves to those 
of the Yew-tree. 

1. Taxodium distichum Rich. Bald Cypress. Deciduous Cypress. 
Leaves on distichously spreading branchlets, apiculate, ^'-f ' long, about iV wide, light 
bright yellow-green or occasionally silvery white below; or on the form with pendulous 




Fig. 64 



compressed branchlets long-pointed, keeled and stomatiferous below, concave above 
more or less spreading at the free apex, about \' long; in the autumn turning with the 
branchlets dull orange-brown before falling. Flowers: panicles of stamina te flowers 
4'-5' long, l^'-2' wide, with slender red-brown stems, obovoid flower-buds nearly f ' long, 
pale silvery-gray during winter and purple when the flowers expand in the spring. Fruit 
usually produced in pairs at the end of the branch or irregularly scattered along it for several 
inches, nearly globose or obovoid, rugose, about 1' in diameter, the scales generally destitute 
of tips; seeds with wings nearly \' long, \' wide. 

A tree, with a tall lobed gradually tapering trunk, rarely 12 and generally 4-5 in di- 
ameter above the abruptly enlarged strongly buttressed usually hollow base, occasionally 
150 tall, in youth pyramidal, with slender branches often becoming elongated and slightly 
pendulous, in old age spreading out into a broad low rounded crown often 100 across, and 
slender branchlets light green when they first appear, light red-brown and rather lustrous 



PINACE.E 65 

during their first winter, becoming darker the following year, the lateral branchlets de- 
ciduous, 3'-4' long, spreading at right angles to the branch, or in the form with acicular 
leaves pendulous or erect and often 6' long. Bark l'-2' thick, light cinnamon-red and 
divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges separating on the surface into long thin 
closely appressed fibrous scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, easily worked, light or dark 
brown, sometimes nearly black; largely used for construction, railway-ties, posts, fences, 
and in cooperage. 

Distribution. River swamps usually submerged during several months of the year, 
low wet banks of streams, and the wet depressions of Pine-barrens from southern New 
Jersey and southern Delaware southward generally near the coast to the Everglade Keys, 
southern Florida, and through the Gulf-coast region to the valley of Devil River, Texas, 
through Louisiana to southern Oklahoma, through southern and western Arkansas to 
southeastern Missouri, and through western and northern Mississippi to Tishomingo County, 
and in western Tennessee and Kentucky to southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana; 
most common and of its largest size '*n the south Atlantic and Gulf states, often covering 
with nearly pure forests great river swamps. From the coast of North Carolina to southern 
Florida, southern Alabama and eastern and western Louisiana the form with acicular 
leaves (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium, Sarg.) is not rare as a small tree in Pine- 
barren ponds and swamps. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the northern United States, and in the coun- 
tries of temperate Europe, especially the var. imbricarium (as Glyptostrobus sinensis Hort. 
not Endl.). 



9. LIBOCEDRUS Endl. 

Tall resinous aromatic trees, with scaly bark, spreading branches, flattened branchlets 
disposed in one horizontal plane and forming an open 2-ranked spray and often ultimately 
deciduous, straight-grained durable fragrant wood, and naked buds. Leaves scale-like, in 
4 ranks, on leading shoots nearly equally decussate, closely compressed or spreading, dying 
and becoming woody before falling, on lateral flattened branchlets much compressed, 
conspicuously keeled, and nearly covering those of the other ranks; on seedling plants 
linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flowers monoecious, solitary, terminal, the two sexes on 
different branchlets; male oblong, with 12-16 decussate filaments dilated into broad con- 
nectives usually bearing 4 subglobose anther-cells; female oblong, subtended at base by 
several pairs of leaf-life scales slightly enlarged and persistent under the fruit, composed 
of 6 acuminate short-pointed scales, those of the upper and middle ranks much larger 
than those of the lower rank, ovate or oblong, fertile and bearing at the base of a minute 
accrescent ovuliferous scale 2 erect ovules. Fruit an oblong cone maturing in one season, 
with subcoriaceous scales marked at the apex by the free thickened mucronulate border 
of the enlarged flower-scales, those of the lowest pair ovate, thin, reflexed, much shorter 
than the oblong thicker scales of the second pair widely spreading at maturity; those of 
the third pair confluent into an erect partition. Seeds in pairs, erect on the base of the 
scale; seed-coat membranaceous, of 2 layers, produced into thin unequal lateral wings, one 
narrow, the other broad, oblique, nearly as long as the scale; cotyledons 2, about as long 
as the superior radicle. 

Libocedrus is confined to western North America, western South America, where it is 
distributed from Chili to Patagonia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Formosa, 
and southwestern China. Eight species are distinguished. 

Libocedrus, from Xi/3ds and Cedrus, relates to the resinous character of these trees. 

1 . Libocedrus decurrens Torr. Incense Cedar. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, decurrent and closely adnate on the branchlets except at the 
callous apex, ' long on the ultimate lateral branchlets to nearly \' long on leading shoots, 
those of the lateral ranks gradually narrowed and acuminate at apex, keeled and glan- 






66 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



dular on the back, and nearly covering the flattened obscurely glandular-pitted and abruptly 
pointed leaves of the inner ranks. Flowers appearing in January on the ends of short lat- 
eral brarichlets of the previous year; male tingeing the tree with gold during the winter 
and early spring, ovate, nearly \' long, with nearly orbicular or broadly ovate connectives, 
rounded, acute or acuminate at the apex and slightly erose on the margins; female sub- 
tended by 2-6 pairs of leaf-like scales, with ovate acute light yellow-green slightly spread- 
ing scales. Fruit ripening and discharging its seeds in the autumn, oblong, f '-!' long, pen- 
dulous, light red-brown; seeds oblong-lanceolate, %'-%' long, semiterete and marked below 
by a conspicuous pale basal hilum; inner layer of the seed-coat penetrated by elongated 
resin-chambers, filled with red liquid balsamic resin. 

A tree, usually 80-100 or rarely 150 high, with a tall straight slightly and irregularly 
lobed trunk tapering from a broad base, 3 or 4 or occasionally 6 or 7 in diameter, 




Fig. 65 



slender branches erect at the top of the tree, below sweeping downward in bold curves, 
forming a narrow open feathery crown becoming in old age irregular in outline by the 
greater development of a few ultimately upright branches forming secondary stems, and 
stout branchlets somewhat flattened and light yellow-green at first, turning light red-brown 
during the summer and ultimately brown more or less tinged with purple, the lateral branch- 
lets much flattened, 4'-6' long, and usually deciduous at the end of the second or third 
season. Bark '-!' thick, bright cinnamon-red, and broken into irregular ridges covered 
with closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained very durable in 
contact with the soil, light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood; often injured 
by dry rot but largely used for fencing, laths and shingles, the interior finish of buildings, 
for furniture, and in the construction of flumes. 

Distribution. Singly or in small groves from the southeastern slope of Mt. Hood, Ore- 
gon, and southward along the Cascade Mountains; on the high mountains of northern 
California, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and in Alpine County on their 
eastern slope, on the Washoe Mountains, western Nevada, in the California coast ranges 
from the Santa Lucia Mountains, Monterey County to the high mountains in the south- 
ern part of the state; on the Sierra del Pimal and the San Pedro Martir Mountains, 
Lower California; most abundant and of its largest size on the Sierra Nevada, of central 
California at elevations of 5000-7000 above the sea. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, where it grows 
rapidly and promises to attain a large size; hardy and occasionally planted in the New 
England and middle Atlantic states. 



PINACE.E 67 

10. THUJA L. Arbor-vitae. 

Resinous aromatic trees, with thin scaly bark, soft durable straight-grained heartwood, 
thin nearly white sapwood, slender spreading or erect branches, pyramidal heads, flat- 
tened lateral pendulous branchlets disposed in one horizontal plane, forming a flat frond- 
like spray and often finally deciduous, and naked buds. Leaves decussate, scale-like, 
acute, stomatiferous on the back, on leading shoots appressed or spreading, rounded or 
slightly keeled on the back, narrowed into long slender points, on lateral branchlets much 
compressed in the lateral ranks, prominently keeled and nearly covering those of the other 
ranks; on seedling plants linear-lanceolate, acuminate, spreading or reflexed. Flowers 
minute, monoecious, from buds formed the previous autumn, terminal, solitary, the two 
sexes usually on different branchlets; male ovoid, with 4-6 decussate filaments, enlarged 
into suborbicular peltate connectives bearing on their inner face 2-4 subglobose anther- 
cells; female oblong, with 8-12 oblong acute scales opposite in pairs, the ovuliferous scales 
at their base bearing usually 2 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an ovoid-oblong erect 
pale cinnamon-brown cone maturing in one season, its scales thin (thick in one species), 
leathery, oblong, acute, marked near the apex by the thickened free border of the enlarged 
flower-scales, those of the 2 or 3 middle ranks largest and fertile. Seeds usually 2, erect 
on the base of the scale, ovoid, acute, compressed, light chestnut-brown; seed-coat mem- 
branaceous, produced except in one species into broad lateral wings distinct at the apex; 
cotyledons 2, longer than the superior radicle. 

Thuja is confined to northeastern and northwestern America, to Japan, Korea and 
northern China. Five species are recognized. Of the exotic species the Chinese Thuja 
orientalis, L., with many varieties produced by cultivation, is frequently planted in the 
United States, especially in the south and west, for the decoration of gardens, and is dis- 
tinguished from the other species by the thick umbonate scales of the cone, only the 4 
lower scales being fertile, and by the thick rounded dark red-purple seeds without wings. 

Thuja is the classical name of some coniferous tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Fruit with usually 4 fertile scales. 1. T. occidentalis (A). 

Fruit with usually 6 fertile scales. 2. T. plicate. (B, F, G). 

1. Thuja occidentalis L. White Cedar. Arbor-vitae. 

Leaves on leading shoots often nearly \' long, long-pointed and usually conspicuously 
glandular, on lateral branchlets much flattened, rounded and apiculate at apex, without 
glands or obscurely glandular-pitted, about ' long. Flowers opening in April and May, 
liver color. Fruit ripening and discharging its seeds in the early autumn, \'-\' long; 
seeds f ' long, the thin wings as wide as the body. 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a short often lobed and buttressed trunk, occasionally 6 
although usually not more than 2-3 in diameter, often divided into 2 or 3 stout secondary 
stems, short horizontal branches soon turning upward and forming a narrow compact 
pyramidal head, light yellow-green branchlets paler on the lower surface than on the 
upper, changing with the death of the leaves during their second season to light cinnamon- 
red, growing darker the following year, gradually becoming terete and abruptly enlarged 
at the base and finally covered with smooth lustrous dark orange-brown bark, and marked 
by conspicuous scars left by the falling of the short pendulous lateral branchlets. Bark '- 
\' thick, light red-brown often tinged with orange color and broken by shallow fissures into 
narrow flat connected ridges separating into elongated more or less persistent scales. Wood 
light, soft, brittle, very coarse-grained, durable, fragrant, pale yellow-brown; largely used 
in Canada and the northern states for fence-posts, rails, railway-ties, and shingles. Fluid 
extracts and tinctures made from the young branchlets are sometimes used in medicine. 

Distribution. Frequently forming nearly impenetrable forests on swampy ground or 



68 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



often occupying the rocky banks of streams, from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, north- 
westward to the mouth of the Saskatchewan, and southward through eastern Canada 
to southern New Hampshire, central Massachusetts, New York, central Ohio, northern 




Fig. 66 



Indiana and Illinois, and Minnesota; occasionally on the high mountains of Virginia, 
West Virginia, and northeastern Tennessee, and on the mountains of western Burke 
County, North Carolina, at an altitude of 3000 feet; very common at the north, less 
abundant and of smaller size southward. 

Often cultivated, with many, often dwarf, forms produced in nurseries, as an ornamental 
tree and for hedges; and in Europe from the middle of the sixteenth century. 

2. Thuja plicata D. Don. Red Cedar. Canoe Cedar. 

Leaves on leading shoots ovate, long-pointed, often conspicuously glandular on the 
back, frequently \' long, on lateral branchlets ovate, apiculate, without glands or obscurely 
glandular-pitted, usually not more than |' long, mostly persistent 2-5 years. Flowers 
about iV long, dark brown. 
Fruit ripening early in the 
autumn, clustered near the 
ends of the branches, much 
reflexed, \' long, with thin 
leathery scales, conspicuously 
marked near the apex by the 
free border of the flower-scale 
furnished with short stout 
erect or recurved dark mu- 
cros; seeds often 3 under each 
fertile scale, rather shorter 
than their usually slightly 
unequal wings about \' long. 

A tree, frequently 200 
high, with a broad gradually 

taper ing buttressed base some- Fig. 67 

times 15 in diameter at the 

ground and in old age often separating toward the summit into 2 or 3 erect divisions, 
short horizontal branches, usually pendulous at the ends, forming a dense narrow py- 
ramidal head, and slender much compressed branchlets often slightly zigzag, light bright 




PINACE.E 69 

yellow-green during their first year, then cinnamon-brown, and after the falling of the 
leaves, lustrous and dark reddish brown often tinged with purple, the lateral branchlets 
5'-6' long, light green and lustrous on the upper surface, somewhat paler on the lower sur- 
face, turning yellow and falling generally at the end of their second season. Bark bright 
cinnamon-red, '-f ' thick, irregularly divided by narrow shallow fissures into broad ridges 
rounded on the back and broken on the surface into long narrow rather loose plate-like 
scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, easily split, dull brown tinged 
with red ; largely used in Washington and Oregon for the interior finish of buildings, doors, 
sashes, fences, shingles, and in cabinet-making and cooperage. From this tree the Indians 
of the northwest coast split the planks used in the construction of their lodges, carved 
the totems which decorate their villages, and hollowed out their great war canoes, and 
from the fibres of the inner bark made ropes, blankets, and thatch for their cabins. 

Distribution. Singly and in small groves on low moist bottom-lands or near the banks 
of mountain streams, from the sea-level to elevations of 6000 in the interior, from Baranoff 
Island, Alaska, southward along the coast ranges of British Columbia, western Washing- 
ton, and Oregon, where it is the most abundant and grows to its largest size, and through 
the California-coast region to Mendocino County, ranging eastward along many of the 
interior ranges of British Columbia, northern Washington, Idaho, and Montana to the 
western slope of the continental divide. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the parks and gardens of western and central 
Europe where it has grown rapidly and vigorously, and occasionally in the middle and 
north Atlantic states. 

11. CUPRESSUS L. Cypress. 

Resinous trees, with bark often separating into long shred-like scales, fragrant durable 
usually light brown heartwood, pale yellow sapwood, stout erect branches often becoming 
horizontal in old age, slender 4-angled branchlets, and naked buds. Leaves scale-like, 
ovate, acute, acuminate, or bluntly pointed at apex, with slender spreading or appressed 
tips, thickened, rounded, and often glandular on the back, opposite in pairs, becoming 
brown and woody before falling; on vigorous leading shoots and young plants needle-shaped 
or linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flowers minute, monoecious, terminal, yellow, the two 
sexes on separate branchlets; the male oblong, of numerous decussate stamens, with short 
filaments enlarged into broadly ovate connectives bearing 2-6 globose pendulous anther- 
cells; female oblong or subglocose, composed of 6-10 thick decussate scales bearing in several 
rows at the base of the ovuliferous scale numerous erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an 
erect nearly globose cone maturing in the second year, composed of the much thickened 
ovule-bearing scales of the flower, abruptly dilated, clavate and flattened at the apex, 
bearing the remnants of the flower-scales developed into a short central more or less thick- 
ened mucro or boss; long-persistent on the branch after the escape of the seeds. Seeds 
numerous, in several rows, erect, thick, and acutely angled or compressed, with thin lateral 
wings; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thin and membranaceous, the inner thicker and 
crustaceous; cotyledons 3 or 4, longer than the superior radicle. 

Cupressus with ten or twelve species is confined to Pacific North America and Mexico 
in the New World and to southeastern Europe, southwestern Asia, the Himalayas, and 
China in the Old World. Of the exotic species Cupressus sempercirens L., of southeastern 
Europe and southwestern Asia, and especially its pyramidal variety, are often planted 
for ornament in the south Atlantic and Pacific states. 

Cupressus is the classical name of the Cypress- tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES 

JLeaves dark green. 

Leaves eglandular or obscurely glandular on the back. 

Leaves obtusely pointed; cones puberulous, !'-!' in diameter; seeds light chestnut- 
brown. 1. C. macrocarpa (G). 



70 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Leaves acutely pointed; cones \'-\' in diameter; seeds dark brown or black. 

2. C. Goveniana (G). 
Leaves glandular-pitted on the back, acute. 

Cones f'-l' in diameter; seeds brown, often glaucous. 3. C. Sargentii (G). 

Cones \'-V in diameter, often covered with a glaucous bloom; seeds dark chestnut- 
brown. 4. C. Macnabiana (G). 
Leaves pale bluish green. 

Leaves obtusely pointed, with small gland-pits; bark of the trunk smooth, lustrous, 
mahogany brown; branches bright red. 5. C. guadaloupensis (G). 

Leaves acute, eglandular or occasionally obscurely glandular (in var. glabra con- 
spicuously glandular); bark of the trunk dark brown, separating into long 
narrow persistent fibres; branchlets gray. 6. C. arizonica (H). 

1. Cupressus macrocarpa Gord. Monterey Cypress. 

Leaves dark green, bluntly pointed, eglandular, and j' |' long; deciduous at the end of 
three or four years. Flowers opening late in February or early in March, yellow. Fruit 

clustered on short stout 
stems subglobose, slightly 
puberulous, l'-l|' in diam- 
eter, composed of 4 or 6 
pairs of scales, with broadly 
ovoid thickened or occasion- 
ally on the upper scales sub- 
conical bosses, the scales of 
the upper and lower pairs 
being smaller than the others 
and sterile; seeds about 20 
under each fertile scale, an- 
gled, light chestnut-brown, 
about iV long. 

'/ * A tree, often 60-70 high, 

with a short trunk 2-3 or 

Fig. 68 exceptionally 5-6 in diam- 

eter, slender erect brandies 

forming a narrow or broad bushy pyramidal head, becoming stout and spreading in old 
age into a broad flat-topped crown, and stout branchlets covered when the leaves fall at 
the end of three or four years with thin light or dark reddish brown bark separating into 
small papery scales. - Bark f'-l' thick and irregularly divided into broad flat connected 
ridges separating freely into narrow elongated thick persistent scales, dark red-brown on 
young stems and upper branches, becoming at last almost white on old and exposed trunks. 
Wood heavy, hard and strong, very durable, close-grained. 

Distribution. .Coast of California south of the Bay of Monterey, occupying an area 
about two miles long and two hundred yards wide from Cypress Point to the shores of 
Carmel Bay, with a small grove on Point Lobos, the southern boundary of the bay. 

Universally cultivated in the Pacific states from Vancouver Island to Lower California, 
and often used in hedges and for wind-breaks; occasionally planted in the southeastern 
states; much planted in western and southern Europe, temperate South America, and in 
Australia and New Zealand. 




2. Cupressus Goveniana Gord. 
Cupressus pygmcea Sarg. 

Leaves acutely pointed, dark green. Flowers: male obscurely 4-angled, with broadly 
ovate peltate connectives : female with 6-10 ovate pointed scales. Fruit usually sessile> 



PINACE^E 



71 



subglobose \'-\ r in diameter, its scales terminating in small bosses; seeds compressed, 
black, or dark brown, papillose, about ' long. 

A tree rarely 75 high, with a tall trunk up to 2 10' in diameter, often not more than 25 
high, more often a shrub with numerous stems 1-15 tall, ascending branches, and compara- 
tively stout bright reddish brown branchlets, becoming purple and ultimately dark reddish 




Fig. 69 

brown ; often beginning to produce fertile cones when only 1 or 2 tall. Bark bright red- 
dish brown, about |' thick, and divided by shallow fissures into flat ridges separating on 
the surface into long thread-like scales. Wood soft?, very coarse-grained, pale reddish brown. 
Distribution. California: pine barrens on the western slope of Point Pinos Ridge two 
miles west of Monterey, and on alkaline soil in a narrow belt beginning about three quar- 
ters of a mile from the shore of Mendocino County and extending inland for three or four 
miles from Ten Mile Run on the north to the Navarro River on the south; arborescent 
and also of its smallest size only in this northern station. 

3. Cupressus Sargentii Jeps. Sargent's Cypress. 
Cupressus Goveniana Engelm. not Gord. (Silva N. Am. x. 107 t. 527) 

Leaves obscurely glandular or without glands, dark green, pungently aromatic, iV~i' 

long, turning bright red- 
brown in drying and 
falling at the end of 
three or four years ; on 
young plants f'-i' long. 
Flowers: male with thin 
slightly erose connec- 
tives: female of 6 or 8 
acute slightly spreading 
scales. Fruit often in 
crowded clusters, short- 
stalked, subglobose, \'- 
V in diameter, reddish 
brown or purple, lus- 

Fig. 70 trous, puberulous, its 6 

or 8 scales with broadly 

ovoid generally rounded and flattened and rarely short-obconic bosses; seeds brown, 
lustrous, often glaucous, with an acute margin, \' long, about 20 under each fertile scale. 







72 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A tree, shrub, or small bushy tree rarely more than 15 or 16 high, with a short trunk 
2 in diameter, slender erect or spreading branches forming a handsome open head, and 
thin branchlets covered with close smooth bark, at first orange-colored, becoming bright 
reddish brown, and ultimately purple or dark brown. Bark ?'-%' thick, dark grayish 
brown, irregularly divided into narrow ridges covered with thin persistent oblong scales. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. California: dry mountain slopes usually between altitudes of 1300 and 
2300 in few widely isolated stations, Red Mountain, Mendocino County, to Mt. Tamal- 
pais, Marin County; Cedar Mountain, Alameda County; Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa 
Cruz County; Santa Lucia Mountains, Monterey County; often covering great areas on 
the hills of Marin County with dense thickets only a few feet high. 

Occasionally cultivated as C. Goveniana in western and southern Europe as an orna- 
mental tree. 

4. Cupressus Macnabiana A. Murr. Cypress. 

Cupressus Bakeri Jeps. 
Cupressus nevadensis Abrams. 

Leaves acute or rounded at apex, rounded and conspicuously glandular on the back, 
deep green, often slightly glaucous, usually not more than ^y long. Flowers in March 
and April, male nearly cylindric, obtuse, with broadly ovate rounded connectives: 
female subglobose, with broadly ovate scales short-pointed and rounded at apex. 
Fruit oblong, subsessile or raised on a slender stalk, \'-l' long, dark reddish brown more or 
less covered with a glaucous bloom, slightly puberulous, especially along the margins of 
the 6 or rarely 8 scales, their prominent bosses thin and recurved on the lower scales, and 
much thickened, conical, and more or less incurved on the upper scales; seeds dark chest- 
nut-brown, usually rather less than ^V long, with narrow wings. 

A tree in Oregon occasionally 80 high with a tall trunk sometimes 31 in diameter, 
southward rarely more than 30 high, with a short trunk 12'-15' in diameter, slender 
branches covered with close smooth compact bark, bright purple after the falling of the 
leaves, soon beooming dark brown; more often a shrub with numerous stems 6-12 tall 
forming a broad open irregular head. Bark thin, dark reddish brown, broken into brown 

flat ridges, and separating 
on the surface into elon- 
gated thin slightly attached 
long-persistent scales. Wood 
light, soft, very close- 
grained. 

Distribution. Rare and 
local, usually in small groves; 
dry ridges of Mount Steve 
and adjacent mountains up 
to altitudes of 5300, Jo- 
sephine County, southwest- 
ern Oregon; California; on 
lava beds, southeastern Sis- 
kiyou and southwestern Mo- 
Fig. 7 1 no Counties (C. Bakeri) ; dry 

hills and low slopes, Mt. 

jEtna, in central Napa County; through Lake County to Red Mountain on the east side 
of Ukiah Valley, Mendocino County; in Trinity County between Shasta and Whiskey- 
town; and on the Sierra Nevada (Red Hill, Piute Mountains near Bodfish) Kern County, 
at an altitude of 5000 (C. nevadensis). 

Occasionally cultivated in western and southern Europe as an ornamental tree. 




PINACE^E 73 

5. Cupressus guadaloupensis S. Wats. Tecate Cypress. 

Leaves acute, rounded and minutely glandular-pitted or eglandular on the back, light 
blue-green, about ^V long. Fruit on stout stems j'-jj' in length, subglobose to short-ob- 
long, f '-1 j' in diameter, puberulous especially along the margins of the six or eight scales, 
with prominent flattened or conic acute often incurved bosses; seeds about 70 under each 
scale, short-oblong, nearly square, light chestnut-brown up to \' in length, with a narrow 
wing. 

A tree in California sometimes 20-25 in height, with a short slender or on exposed 
mountain slopes a trunk occasionally 2 or 3 in diameter, few short spreading or as- 




Fig. 72 

cending branches forming an open head, and light red-brown lustrous branchlets becoming 
purplish. Bark smooth, lustrous, without resin or fibres, mahogany brown, the thin scales 
in falling leaving pale marks. 

Distribution. San Diego County, California, rare and local; valley of the San Luis Rey 
River between Valley Centre and Pala; at altitudes between 1100 and 4000 in the gulches 
and on the summit of Mtr Tecate on the border between the United States and Lower 
California; on a mountain below Descanso and Pine Valley; in Cedar Cafion between El- 
nido and Dulzura; in Lower California on San Pedro Martir Mountain and Guadaloupe 
Island. The insular form is a larger tree often with larger gland-pits on the leaves, and 
now often cultivated in California, western Europe, and in other countries with temperate 
climates. 

6. Cupressus arizonica Greene. Cypress. 

Leaves obtusely pointed, rounded, eglandular or rarely glandular-pitted on the back, 
pale green, ^ '' long, dying and turning red-brown in their second season, generally falling 
four years later. Flowers: male oblong, obtuse, their 6 or 8 stamens with broadly ovate 
acute yellow connectives slightly erose on the margins: female not seen. Fruit on stout 
pedicels \'-% in length, subglobose, rather longer than broad, wrinkled, dark red-brown 
and covered with a glaucous bloom, the six or eight scales with stout flattened incurved 
prominent bosses; seeds oblong to nearly triangular, dark red-brown, iV~i' l n g with a 
thin narrow wing. 

A conical tree 40 -70 high with a trunk 2-4 in diameter, and stout spreading branches 
covered with bark separating into thin plates, leaving a smooth red surface, and branchlets 



74 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



dark gray after the leaves fall. Bark on young trunks separating into large irregular curl- 
ing thin scales, on old trees becoming dark red-brown and fibrous. 
Distribution. Mountains above Clifton, Greenlee County, eastern Arizona; on the 




Fig. 73 

San Francisco Mountains, Socorro County, and San Luis Mountains, Grant County, west- 
ern New Mexico; and in Chihuahua. Passing into 

Cupressus arizonica var. bonita Lemm. 
Cupressus glabra Sudw. 

Differing from the type in the prominent oblong or circular glandular depressions on the 
backs of the leaves. 

A tree 30-70 high, with a trunk 18'-24' or rarely 5 in diameter, erect branches forming 
a rather compact conical head. Bark of the trunk and large branches thin, smooth, dark 




Fig. 74 



reddish brown, separating into small curled scale-like plates, becoming on old trees dark 
gray and fibrous. Wood heavy, hard, pale straw color with lighter-colored sapwood, 



PINACE.E 75 

durable in contact with the ground, somewhat used for fence-posts, corral-piles, mine- 
timbers and in log cabins. 

Distribution. Gravelly slopes and moist gulches often in groups of considerable size 
at altitudes between 4000 and 7000, Arizona; near Camp Verde, Tonto Basin; Natural 
Bridge, Payson, etc.; on the Chiracahua Mountains (J. W. Tourney, July, 1894); on 
the Santa Rita and Santa Catalina Mountains, and in Oak Creek Canon twenty miles 
south of Flagstaff (P. Lowell, June, 1911). 

Now often cultivated in western Europe as C. arizonica. 

12. CHAMJECYPARIS. 

Tall resinous pyramidal trees., with thin scaly or deeply furrowed bark, nodding leading 
shoots, spreading branches, flattened, often deciduous or ultimately terete branchlets 
2-ranked in one horizontal plane, pale fragrant durable heartwood, thin nearly white 
sap-wood, and naked buds. Leaves scale-like, ovate, acuminate, with slender spreading or 
appressed tips, opposite in pairs, becoming brown and woody before falling, on vigorous 
sterile branches and young plants needle-shaped or linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flow- 
ers minute, monoecious, terminal, the two sexes on separate branchlets ; the male oblong, 
of numerous decussate stamens, with short filaments enlarged into ovate connectives de- 
creasing in size from below upward and bearing usually 2 pendulous globose anther-cells; 
the female subglobose, composed of usually 6 decussate peltate scales bearing at the base 
of the ovuliferous scales 2-5 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an erect globose cone ma- 
turing at the end of the first season, surrounded at the base by the sterile lower scales of 
the flowers, and formed by the enlargement of the ovule-bearing scales, abruptly dilated, 
club-shaped and flattened at the apex, bearing the remnants of the flower-scales as short 
prominent points or knobs; persistent on the branches after the escape of the seeds. Seeds 
1-5, erect on the slender stalk-like base of the scale, subcylindric and slightly compressed; 
seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thin and membranaceous, the inner thicker and crustaceous, 
produced into broad lateral wings; cotyledons 2, longer than the superior radicle. 

Chamsecyparis is confined to the Atlantic and Pacific coast regions of North America, 
and to Japan and Formosa. Six species are distinguished. Of exotic species the Japan- 
ese Retinosporas, Chamcecyparis obtusa Endl., and Chamcecyparis pisifera Endl., with 
their numerous abnormal forms are familiar garden plants in all temperate regions. 

Chamcecyparis is from x a /" a ^ n the ground, and KVTrd/Htrcros, cypress. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Bark thin, divided into flat ridges; 

Branchlets slender, often compressed; leaves dull blue-green, usually conspicuously 

glandular. 1. C. thyoides (A, C). 

Branchlets stout, slightly flattened or terete; leaves dark blue-green, usually without 

glands. 2. C. nootkatensis (B, G). 

Bark thick, divided into broad rounded ridges; branchlets slender, compressed; leaves 

bright green, conspicuously glandular. 3. C. Lawsoniana (G). 

1. Chamaecyparis thyoides B. S. P. White Cedar. 
Cupressus thyoides L. 

Leaves closely appressed, or spreading at the apex especially on vigorous leading shoots, 
keeled and glandular or conspicuously glandular-punctate on the back, dark dull blue- 
green or pale below, at the north becoming russet-brown during the winter, iV-i' long, 
dying during the second season and then persistent for many years. Flowers: male com- 
posed of 5 or 6 pairs of stamens, with ovate connectives rounded at apex, dark brown 
below the middle, nearly black toward the apex: female subglobose, with ovate acute 



76 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

spreading pale liver-colored scales and black ovules. Fruit \ r in diameter, sessile on a 
short leafy branch, light green, covered with a glaucous bloom when fully grown, later 
bluish purple and very glaucous, finally becoming dark red-brown, its scales terminat- 
ing in ovate acute, often reflexed bosses; seeds 1 or 2 under each fertile scale, ovoid, acute, 
full and rounded at the base, slightly compressed, gray-brown, about \' long, with wings 
as broad as the body of the seed and dark red-brown. 

A tree, 70-80 high, with a tall trunk usually about 2 and occasionally 3-4 in diam- 
eter, or northward much smaller, slender horizontal branches forming a narrow spire-like 
head, and 2-ranked compressed branchlets disposed in an open fan-shaped more or less de- 




Fig. 75 

ciduous spray, the persistent branchlets gradually becoming terete, light green tinged with 
red, light reddish brown during their first winter, and then dark brown, their thin close 
bark separating slightly at the end of three or four years into small papery scales. Bark 
f'-l' thick, light reddish brown, and divided irregularly into narrow flat connected ridges 
often spirally twisted round the stem, separating on the surface into elongated loose 
or closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, slightly 
fragrant, light brown tinged with red; largely used in boat-building and cooperage, for 
woodenware, shingles, the interior finish of houses, fence-posts, and railway-ties. 

Distribution. Cold swamps usually immersed during several months of the year, often 
forming dense pure forests; near Concord, New Hampshire, southern Maine, southward 
only near the coast to northern Florida, and westward to southwestern Mississippi; most 
abundant south of Massachusetts Bay; comparatively rare east of Boston and west of 
Mobile Bay. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and in the countries 
of temperate Europe. 

2. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Sudw. Yellow Cypress. Sitka Cypress. 
Cupressus nootkatensis Lamb. 

Leaves rounded, eglandular or glandular-pitted on the back, dark blue-green, closely 
appressed, about f long, on vigorous leading branchlets somewhat spreading and often 
\' long, with more elongated and sharper points, beginning to die at the end of their second 
year and usually falling during the third season. Flowers: male on lateral branchlets of the 
previous year, composed of 4 or 5 pairs of stamens, with ovate rounded slightly erose light 
yellow connectives: female clustered near the ends of upper branchlets, dark liver color, 
the fertile scales each bearing 2-4 ovules. Fruit ripening in September and October, 



PINACE.E 



- 77 




Fig. 76 






nearly \' in diameter, dark red-brown, with usually 4 or 6 scales tipped with prominent 
erect pointed bosses and frequently covered with conspicuous resin-glands; seeds 2-4 
under each scale, ovoid, 
acute, slightly flattened, 
about \' long, dark red- 
brown, with thin light red- 
brown wings often nearly 
twice as wide as the body 
of the seed. 

A tree, frequently 120 
high, with a tall trunk 
5-6 in diameter, hori- 
zontal branches forming a 
narrow pyramidal head, 
stout distichous somewhat 
flattened or terete light 
yellow branchlets often 
tinged with red at first, 
dark or often bright red- 
brown during their third 
season, ultimately paler and covered with close thin smooth bark. Bark \'-\' thick, 
light gray tinged with brown, irregularly fissured, and separated on the surface into large 
thin loose scales. Wood hard, rather brittle, very close-grained, exceedingly durable, 
bright clear yellow, with very thin nearly white sapwood; fragrant with an agreeable 
resinous odor; used in boat and shipbuilding, the interior finish of houses, and the manu- 
facture of furniture. 

Distribution. Islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska, and southward over the coast 
mountains of Alaska and British Columbia, and along the Cascade Mountains of Wash- 
ington and Oregon to the northeastern slopes of Mt. Jefferson, extending eastward to 
the headwaters of the Yakima River on the eastern slope of the range; on Whiskey 
Peak of the Siskiyou Mountains in the southeastern corner of Josephine County, Ore- 
gon and about two miles from the California line; most abundant and of its largest size 
near the coast of Alaska and northern British Columbia, ranging from the sea-level up 
to altitudes of 3000; at high elevations on the Cascade Mountains sometimes a low 
shrub. 

Occasionally cultivated, with its several abnormal forms, as an ornamental tree in the 
middle Atlantic states and in California, and commonly in the countries of western and 
central Europe. 

3. Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana Parl. Port Orford Cedar. Lawson Cypress. 
Cupressus Lawsoniana A. Murr. 

Leaves bright green or pale below, conspicuously glandular on the back, usually not more 
than iV long on lateral branchlets, on leading shoots often spreading at the apex, f to 
nearly ' long, usually dying, turning bright red-brown and falling during their third year. 
Flowers: male with bright red connectives bearing usually 2 pollen-sacs: female with dark 
ovate acute spreading scales, each bearing 2-4 ovules. Fruit clustered on the upper 
lateral branchlets and produced in great profusion, ripening in September and October, 
about ' in diameter, green and glaucous when full grown, red-brown and often covered 
with a bloom at maturity, its scales with thin broadly ovate acute reflexed bosses; seeds 
2-4 under each fertile scale, ovoid, acute, slightly compressed, j' long, light chestnut-brown, 
with broad thin wings. 

A tree, often 200 high, with a tall trunk frequently 12 in diameter above its abruptly 
enlarged base, a spire-like head of small horizontal or pendulous branches clothed with 



78 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



remote flat spray frequently 6'-8' long. Bark often 10' thick at the base of old trees and 
3'-4' thick on smaller stems, dark reddish brown, with 2 distinct layers, the inner '-$' 
thick, darker, more compact, and firmer than the outer, divided into great broad-based 
rounded ridges separated on the surface into small thick closely appressed scales. Wood 
light, hard, strong, very close-grained, abounding in fragrant resin, durable, easily worked, 







Fig. 77 

light yellow, or almost white, with hardly distinguishable sapwood; largely manufactured 
into lumber used for the interior finish and flooring of buildings, railway-ties, fence-posts, 
and boat and shipbuilding, and on the Pacific coast almost exclusively for matches. The 
resin is a powerful diuretic. 

Distribution. Usually scattered in small groves from the shores of Coos Bay, south- 
western Oregon, south to the mouth of the Klamath River, California, ranging inland 
usually for about thirty miles; near Waldorf, in Josephine County, Oregon, on the slopes 
of the Siskiyou Mountains, and on the southern flanks of Mt. Shasta, California; most abun- 
dant north of Rogue River on the Oregon coast and attaining its largest size on the western 
slopes of the Coast Range foothills, forming between Point Gregory and the mouth of the 
Coquille River a nearly continuous forest belt twenty miles long. 

Often cultivated with the innumerable forms originated in nurseries, in the middle 
Atlantic states and California, in all the temperate countries of Europe, and in New Zealand. 

13. JUNIPERUS L. Juniper. 

Pungent aromatic trees or shrubs, with usually thin shreddy bark, soft close-grained 
durable wood, slender branches, and scaly or naked buds. Leaves sessile, in whorls of 
3, persistent for many years, convex on the lower side, concave and stomatiferous above, 
linear-subulate, sharp-pointed, without glands (Oxycedrus) ; or scale-like, ovate, opposite 
in pairs or ternate, closely imbricated, appressed and adnate to the branch, glandular or 
eglandular on the back, becoming brown and woody on the branch, but on young plants 
and vigorous shoots often free and awl-shaped (Sabind). Flowers minute, dioecious, 
axillary or terminal on short axillary branches from buds formed the previous autumn on 
branches of the year; the male solitary, oblong-ovoid, w r ith numerous stamens decussate 
or in 3's, their filaments enlarged into ovate or peltate yellow scale-like connectives bear- 
ing near the base 2-6 globose pollen-sacs; the female ovoid, surrounded at the base by many 
minute scale-like bracts persistent and unchanged under the fruit, composed of 2-6 op- 
posite or ternate pointed scales alternate with or bearing on their inner face at the base 
on a minute ovuliferous scale 1 or 2 ovules. Fruit a berry-like succulent fleshy blue, blue- 



PINACE.E 79 

black, or red strobile formed by the coalition of the flower-scales, inclosed in a membra- 
naceous skin covered with a glaucous bloom, ripening during the first, second, or rarely 
during the third season, smooth or marked by the ends of the flower-scales, or by the pointed 
tips of the ovules, closed, or open at the top and exposing the apex of the seeds. Seeds 
1-12, ovoid, acute or obtuse, terete or variously angled, often longitudinally grooved by 
depressions caused by the pressure of resin-cells in the flesh of the fruit, smooth or rough- 
ened and tuberculate, chestnut-brown, marked below by the large conspicuous usually 
2-lobed hilum; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thick and bony, the inner thin, membra- 
naceous or crustaceous; cotyledons 2, or 4-6, about as long as the superior radicle. 

Juniperus is widely scattered over the northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to the 
highlands of Mexico, Lower California, and the West Indies in the New World, and to the 
Azores and Canary Islands, northern Africa, Abyssinia, the mountains of east tropical 
Africa, Sikkim, central China, Formosa, Japan and the Bonin Islands in the Old World. 
About thirty -five species are now distinguished. Of the exotic species cultivated in the 
United States the most common are European forms of Juniperus communis L. with fas- 
tigiate branches, and dwarf forms of the European Juniperus Sabina L., and of Juniperus 
chinensis L. 

Juniperus is the classical name of the Juniper. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers axillary; stamens decussate; ovules 3, alternate with the scales of the flower, their 
tips persistent on the fruit; seeds usually 3; leaves ternate, linear-lanceolate, prickle- 
pointed, jointed at the base, eglandular, dark yellow-green, channeled, -stomatose, and 
glaucous above; fruit maturing in the third year, subglobose, bright blue, covered with 
a glaucous bloom; buds scaly (Oxycedrus). 1. J. communis. 

Flowers terminal on short axiliary branchlets; stamens decussate or in 3's; ovules in the 
axils of small fleshy scales often enlarged and conspicuous on the fruit; seeds 1-12; 
leaves ternate or opposite, mostly scale-like, crowded, generally closely appressed, 
free and awl-shaped on vigorous shoots and young plants; buds naked (Sabina.) 
Fruit red or reddish brown. 

Bark of the trunk separating into long thin persistent scales; fruit maturing in one 

season. 
Leaves closely appressed to the branchlet, obtusely pointed. 

Leaves conspicuously glandular-pitted, ternate or opposite; fruit red, subglobose, 
\' in diameter. 2. J. Pinchotii (C, H). 

Leaves eglandular or slightly glandular; fruit reddish brown. 

Leaves ternate, rarely opposite; fruit short-oblong, \'-\' in diameter. 

3. J. californica (G). 

Leaves opposite, rarely ternate; fruit subglobose, i'-j', in one form f in 
diameter. 4. J. utahensis (F, G). 

Leaves not closely appressed, spreading at the apex, long-pointed, glandular or 
eglandular; fruit subglobose, \'-\' in diameter. 5. J. flaccida (L). 

Bark of the trunk divided into thick nearly square plates; leaves eglandular or oc- 
casionally glandular-pitted; fruit subglobose to short-oblong, \' in diameter, ripen- 
ing at the end of its second season. 6. C. pachyphlaea (H). 
Fruit blue or blue-black, with resinous juicy flesh, subglobose to short-oblong, iV~i' m 

diameter; seeds, 1-4; cotyledons 2. 

Leaves denticulately fringed, opposite or ternate; fruit maturing in one season. 
Branchlets about -% in diameter; leaves acute, conspicuously glandular; fruit short- 

oblong, \'-\' in diameter; seeds 2 or 3. 7. J. occidental's (B. G). 

Branchlets not more than % in Diameter; leaves usually ternate; fruit short-oblong. 
Seeds 1 or rarely 2, pale chestnut-brown, obtuse, prominently ridged; leaves 
acute or acuminate, usually glandular. 8. J. monosperma (F). 



80 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Seeds 1 or 2, dark chestnut-brown, acute, obscurely ridged; leaves obtusely 
pointed, often eglandular. 9. J. mexicana (C). 

Leaves naked on the margins, mostly opposite, glandular or eglandular; fruit sub- 
globose. 
Fruit ripening at the end of the first season. 

Fruit '-$' in diameter; seeds 1 or 2, rarely 3 or 4; leaves acute or acuminate; 

branches spreading or erect. 10. J. virginiana (A, C). 

Fruit iV~e' m diameter; seeds 1 or 2; leaves acute; branches usually pendulous. 

11. J. lucayana (C). 

Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, j' |' in diameter; seeds 1 or 2; 
leaves acute or acuminate. 12. J. scopulorum (B, F). 

1. Juniperus communis L. Juniper. 

Leaves spreading nearly at right angles to the branchlets, \'-\' long, about gV wide, 
turning during winter a deep rich bronze color on the lower surface, persistent for many 
years. Flowers : male composed of 5 or 6 whorls each of 3 stamens, with broadly ovate acute 
and short-pointed connectives, bearing at the very base 3 or 4 globose anther-cells; female 




Fig. 78 

surrounded by 5 or 6 whorls of ternate leaf-like scales, composed of 3 slightly spreading ovules 
abruptly enlarged and open at the apex, with 3 minute obtuse fleshy scales below and alter- 
nate with them. Fruit maturing in the third season, subglobose or short-oblong, about 
\' in diameter, with soft mealy resinous sweet flesh and 1-3 seeds; often persistent on the 
branches one or two years after ripening; seeds ovoid, acute, irregularly angled or flattened, 
deeply penetrated by numerous prominent thin-walled resin-glands, about f ' long, the 
outer coat thick and bony, the inner membranaceous. 

In America only occasionally tree-like and 10-20 tall, with a short eccentric irregularly 
lobed trunk rarely a foot in diameter, erect branches forming an irregular open head, slen- 
der branchlets, smooth, lustrous, and conspicuously 3-angled between the short nodes dur- 
ing their first and second years, light yellow tinged with red, gradually growing darker, 
their dark red-brown bark separating in the third season into small thin scales, and ovoid 
acute buds about \' long and loosely covered with scale-like leaves; more often a shrub, 
with many short slender stems prostrate at the base and turning upward and forming a 
broad mass sometimes 20 across and 3 or 4 high (var. depressa Pursh.) ; at high elevations 
and in the extreme north prostrate, with long decumbent stems and shorter and more 
crowded leaves (var. montana Ait.) passing into the var. Jackii Rehdr with long trailing 
branches and broader incurved leaves. Bark about t y thick, dark reddish brown, sepa- 



PINACE.E 



81 



rating irregularly into many loose papery persistent scales. Wood hard, close-grained, 
very durable in contact with the soil, light brown, with pale sapwood. In northern Europe 
the sweet aromatic fruit of this tree is used in large quantities to impart its peculiar flavor 
to gin; occasionally employed in medicine. 

Distribution. Occasionally arborescent in New England, eastern Pennsylvania, and on 
the high mountains of North Carolina; the var. depressa, common in poor rocky soil, 
Newfoundland to southern New England, and to the shores of the Great Lakes and north- 
westward; the var. montana from the coast of Greenland to northern New England, on 
the high Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina, and to northern Nebraska, along the 
Rocky Mountains from Alberta to western Texas, and on the Pacific coast from Alaska, 
southward along mountain ranges to the high Sierras of central California, extending 
eastward to the mountains of eastern Washington and Oregon, and on the high peaks of 
northern Arizona up to altitudes of 10,000-! 1,500 (P. Lowell); the var. Jackii on the 
j coast mountains from northern California to Vancouver Island; in the Old World widely 
| distributed in many forms through all the northern hemisphere from arctic Asia and Eu- 
j rope to Japan, the Himalayas and the mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. 

Often planted, especially in several of its pyramidal and dwarf forms, in the eastern 
United States and in the countries of western, central, and northern Europe. 

2. Juniperus Pinchotii Sudw. 

Leaves ternate, obtusely pointed, rounded and glandular-pitted on the back, T \' long, 
dark yellow-green, turning light red-brown before falling; on vigorous shoots and seedling 




Fig. 79 



plants linear-lanceolate, thin, acuminate, eglandular, \'-\' in length. Fruit ripening in 
one season, subglobose, bright red, \' in diameter, with a thin skin and thick dry mealy res- 
inous flesh and 1 seed; seed ovoid, bluntly pointed, deeply grooved, irregularly marked by 
the usually two-lobed hilum, \'-\' long and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree rarely 20 feet high, with a trunk 1 foot in diameter, stout wide-spreading branches 
forming an open irregular head and thick branchlets covered with dark gray-brown scaly 
bark, their ultimate divisions about ^ in diameter; more often a shrub with several stems 
1 to 12 tall. Bark thin, light brown, separating into long narrow persistent scales. 

Distribution. Dry rocky slopes and the rocky sides of canons, Panhandle of western 



82 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Texas (Armstrong, Potter and Hartley Counties), and in Hardaman, Garza, Tom Green, 
Kemble, Valverde and Menard Counties; on Comanche Peak near Granbury, Hood County, 
Texas; in central and on the mountains of southern Arizona. 

3. Juniperus californica Carr. Desert White Cedar. Sweet-berried Cedar. 

Leaves usually in 3's, closely appressed, thickened, slightly keeled and conspicuously 
glandular-pitted on the back, pointed at apex, cartilaginously fringed on the margins, 
light yellow-green, about ' long, dying and turning brown on the branch at the end of two 
or three years; on vigorous shoots linear-lanceolate, rigid, sharp-pointed, i'-f long, whitish 

on the upper surface. 
Flowers from Janu- 
ary to March; male 
of 18-20 stamens, dis- 
posed in 3's, with 
rhomboidal short- 
pointed connectives; 
scales of the female 
flower usually 6, ovate, 
acute, spreading, ob- 
literated or minute on 
the fruit. Fruit short- 
oblong or ovoid, \'-\' 
long, reddish brown, 
with a membrana- 
ceous loose skin cov- 
ered with a thick 
Fig. 80 glaucous bloom, thick 

fibrous dry sweet flesh, 

and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, obtusely pointed, irregularly lobed and angled, and 4-6 
cotyledons. 

A conical tree, occasionally 40 high, with a straight, large-lobed unsymmetrical trunk 
l-2 in diameter; more often shrubby, with many stout irregular usually contorted stems 
forming a broad open head. Bark thin and divided into long loose plate-like scales ashy 
gray on the outer surface and persistent for many years. Wood soft, close-grained, durable 
in contact with the soil, light brown slightly tinged with red, with thin nearly white sap- 
wood; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is eaten by Indians fresh or ground into 
flour. 

Distribution. Dry mountain slopes and hills at altitudes between 400 and 4000, from 
Moraga Pass and Mt. Diabolo, Contra Costa County, California, southward on the coast 
ranges, spreading inland to their union with the Sierra Nevada, and northward at low alti- 
tudes along the western slopes of the Sierras to Kern and Mariposa Counties; on the 
desert slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains, the northern foothills of the San Bernardino 
Mountains, on the western slopes of the San Jacinto and Cayamaca Ranges, and south- 
ward in Lower California to Agua Dulce; arborescent and probably of its largest size on the 
Mohave Desert. 

4. Juniperus utahensis Lemm. Juniper. 

Leaves opposite or in 3's, rounded, usually glandular, acute or often acuminate, light 
yellow-green, rather less than \' long, persistent for many years. Flowers: male with 
18-24 opposite or tenate stamens, their connectives rhomboidal; scales of the female flower 
acute, spreading, often in pairs. Fruit ripening during the autumn of the second season, 
subglobose or short-oblong, marked by the more or less prominent tips of the flower-scales, 
reddish brown, with a thick firm skin covered with a glaucous bloom and closely in- 




PINACE.E 



83 



vesting the thin dry sweet flesh, J'-f ' long, with 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, ob- 
tusely angled, marked to the middle by the hilum, with a hard bony shell, and 4-6 cotyle- 
dons. 

A bushy tree, rarely exceeding 20 in height, with a short usually eccentric trunk some- 
times 2 in diameter, generally divided near the ground by irregular deep fissures into 
broad rounded ridges, many erect contorted branches forming a broad open head, slender 
light yellow-green branchlets covered after the falling of the leaves with thin light red- 
brown scaly bark; more often with numerous stems spreading from the ground and fre- 
quently not more than 8-10 high. Bark about \' thick, ashy gray or sometimes nearly 




Fig. 81 

white, and broken into long thin persistent scales. Wood light brown, slightly fragrant^ 
with thick nearly white sap wood; largely used locally for fuel and fencing. The fruit is 
eaten by Indians fresh, or ground and baked into cakes. 

Distribution. Southwestern Wyoming (J. Knightii A. Nels.), southwestern Idaho (Po- 
catello, Bannock County), western Colorado, eastern Utah, and western New Mexico to 
northern Arizona and southeastern California at altitudes from 5000 to 8000; the most 
abundant and generally distributed tree of the Great Basin, forming in the valleys open 
forests of stunted trees and shrubs, and on arid slopes more numerous and of larger size 
in dense nearly pure forests. 

A variety (var. megalancocarpa Sarg.) occurs in eastern New Mexico and northern 
Arizona, with fruit sometimes f ' in diameter. A tree often 40 high with a single erect 
stem sometimes 3 in diameter. 



5. Juniperus flaccida Schlecht. Juniper. 

Leaves opposite, acuminate and long-pointed, spreading at the apex, glandular or 
eglandular on the back, light yellow-green, about -' long, turning cinnamon-red and dy- 
ing on the branch ; on vigorous young shoots ovate-lanceolate, sometimes \' long, with 
elongated rigid callous tips. Flowers: male slender, composed of 16-20 stamens, with 
ovate pointed connectives prominently keeled on the back; female with acute or acumin- 
ate spreading scales. Fruit subglobose, dull red-brown, more or less covered with a glau- 
cous bloom, i' I' in diameter, with a close firm skin and thick resinous flesh; seeds 
4-12, pointed at apex, slightly ridged, often abortive and distorted, |'-j' long, with 2 
cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with gracefully spreading branches and long slender droop- 
ing branchlets, covered after the leaves fall with thin bright cinnamon-brown bark separat- 



84 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



ing into thin loose papery scales; often a shrub. Bark about \' thick, reddish brown, sepa- 
rating into long narrow loosely attached scales. 




Fig. 82 

Distribution. In the United States only on the slopes of the Chisos Mountains, in 
Brewster County, southern Texas; common in northeastern Mexico, growing at elevations 
of 6000-8000 on the hills east of the Mexican table-lands. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern France and of Algeria. 

6. Juniperus pachyphlaea Ton. Juniper. Checkered-bark Juniper. 

Leaves appressed, acute and apiculate at apex, thickened, obscurely keeled and glan- 
dular on the back, bluish green, rather less than \ ' long; on vigorous shoots and young 
branchlets linear-lanceolate, tipped with slender elongated points, and pale blue-green like 
the young branchlets. Flowers opening in February and March: the male stout, \' long, 
with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives broadly ovate, obscurely keeled on the back, short- 




F,g. 83 

pointed: scales of the female flower, ovate, acuminate, and spreading. Fruit ripening in 
the autumn of its second season, subglobose to short-oblong, irregularly tuberculate, 
\'-\' in diameter, usually marked with the short tips of the flower-scales, occasionally 
opening and discharging the seeds at the apex, dark red-brown, more or less covered with 



PINACE.E 



85 



a glaucous bloom, especially during the first season and then occasionally bluish in color, 
with a thin skin closely investing the thick dry mealy flesh, and usually 4 seeds; seeds 
acute or obtusely pointed, conspicuously ridged and gibbous on the back, with a thick 
shell and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, often oO-60 high, with a short trunk 3-5 in diameter^, long stout spreading 
branches forming a broad-based pyramidal or ultimately a compact round-topped head, 
and slender branchlets covered after the disappearance of the leaves with thin light red- 
brown usually smooth close bark occasionally broken into large thin scales. Bark f '-4' 
thick, on young stems reddish brown becoming on old trunks whitish, deeply fissured and 
divided into nearly square plates 1'-%' long, and separating on the surface into small thin 
closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, clear light 
red often streaked with yellow, with thin nearly white sap wood; often producing vigorous 
shoots from the base of the trunk or from the stumps of felled trees. 

Distribution. Dry arid mountain slopes usually at elevations of 4000-6000 above the 
sea, from the Eagle and Limpio mountains in southwestern Texas, westward along the 
desert ranges of New Mexico and Arizona, extending northward to the lower slopes of 
many of the high mountains of northern Arizona, and southward into Mexico. 

7. Juniperus occidentalis Hook. Juniper. 

Leaves opposite or ternate, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, rounded and con- 
spicuously glandular on the back, denticulately fringed, gray-green, about ' long. Flow- 
ers: male stout, obtuse, with 12-18 stamens, their connectives broadly ovoid, rounded, 




Fig. 84 

acute or apiculate and scarious or slightly ciliate on the margins: scales of the female 
flower ovate, acute, spreading, mostly obliterated from the fruit. Fruit subglobose or 
short-oblong, '-f ' in diameter, with a thick firm blue-black skin coated with a glaucous 
bloom, thin dry flesh filled with large resin-glands, and 2 or 3 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, 
rounded and deeoly grooved or pitted on the back, flattened on the inner surface, about 
I' long, with a thick bony shell, a thin brown inner seed-coat, and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 60 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, more often 
not more than 20 in height, with a short trunk sometimes 10 in diameter, enormous 
branches, spreading at nearly right angles and forming a broad low head, and stout 
branchlets covered after the leaves fall with thin bright red-brown bark broken into loose 
papery scales; frequently when growing on dry rocky slopes and toward the northern 
limits of its range a shrub, with many short erect or semi-prostrate stems. Bark about 



86 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

\' thick, bright cinnamon-red, divided by broad shallow fissures into wide flat irregularly 
connected ridges separating on the surface into thin lustrous scales. Wood light, soft, 
very close-grained, exceedingly durable, light red or brown, with thick nearly white sap- 
wood; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is gathered and eaten by the California Indians. 
Distribution. Mountain slopes and high prairies of western Idaho and of eastern Wash- 
ington to the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains; eastern and southern Oregon up 
to altitudes of 4500; along the summits and upper slopes of the Sierra Nevada of Cali- 
fornia, and southward to the San Bernardino Mountains, here abundant in Bear and 
Holcomb valleys; attaining its greatest trunk diameter on the wind-swept peaks of the 
California sierras, usually at altitudes between 6000 and 10,000 above the sea. 

8. Juniperus monosperma Sarg. Juniper. 

Leaves opposite or ternate, often slightly spreading at apex, acute or occasionally 
acuminate, much thickened and rounded on the back, usually glandular, denticulately 
fringed, gray-green, rather less than \' long, turning bright red-brown before falling; on 
vigorous shoots and young plants ovate, acute, tipped with long rigid points, thin, con- 




Fig. 85 

spicuously glandular on the back, often \' long. Flowers: male with 8-10 stamens, their 
broadly ovate, rounded or pointed connectives slightly erose on the margins: female with 
spreading pointed scales. Fruit subglobose or short-oblong, \'-\' long, dark blue or per- 
haps occasionally light chestnut-brown with a thick firm skin covered with a thin glau- 
cous bloom, thin flesh, and 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds often protruding from the top of 
the fruit, ovoid, often 4-angled, somewhat obtuse at apex, with a small hilum, and 
2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 40-50 high, with a stout much-lobed and buttressed trunk some- 
times 3 in diameter, short stout branches forming an open very irregular head, and slen- 
der branchlets covered after the falling of the leaves with light red-brown bark spreading 
freely into thin loose scales; more often a much branched shrub sometimes only a few feet 
high. Bark ashy gray, divided into irregularly connected ridges, separating into long 
narrow persistent shreddy scales. Wood heavy, slightly fragrant, light reddish brown, 
with nearly white sap wood and eccentric layers of annual growth; largely used for fencing 
and fuel. The fruit is ground into flour and baked by the Indians, who use the thin 
etrips of fibrous bark in making saddles, breechcloths, and sleeping-mats. 

Distribution. Along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains from the valley of the 
flatte River, Wyoming (near Alcova, Natrona County) and the divide between the 



PINACE^ 



87 



Platte and Arkansas rivers in Colorado; western Oklahoma (near Kenton, Cimarron 
County, common) and western Texas; on the Colorado plateau, northern Arizona; over the 
mountain ranges of southwestern Wyoming, Nevada, southern New Mexico and Arizona, 
and southward into northern Mexico; often covering, with the Nut Pine, in southern 
Colorado and Utah, and in northern and central New Mexico and Arizona, great 
areas of rolling hills 6000-7000 above the sea-level; reaching its largest size in northern 
Arizona. 

9. Juniperus mexicana Spreng. Cedar. Rock Cedar. 

Juniperus sabinoides Nees. 

Leaves usually opposite or ternate, thickened and keeled on the back, obtuse or acute 
at apex, mostly without glands, denticulately fringed, rather more than iV long, dark 
blue-green, on vigorous young shoots and seedling plants lanceolate, long-pointed, rigid, 








Fig. 86 



'-f ' long. Flowers: male with 12-18 stamens, their connectives ovoid, obtuse, or slightly 
cuspidate: scales of the female flower ovate, acute, and spreading, very conspicuous when 
the fruit is half grown, becoming obliterated at its maturity. Fruit short-oblong to subglo- 
bose, j'~j' in diameter, dark blue, with a thin skin covered with a glaucous bloom, sweet 
resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds ovoid, acute, slightly ridged, rarely tuberculate, dark 
chestnut-brown, with a small hilum, a thin outer seed-coat, a membranaceous dark brown 
inner coat, and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 100 but generally not more than 20-30 high, with a short or elon- 
gated slightly lobed trunk seldom exceeding a foot in diameter, small spreading branches 
forming a wide round-topped open and irregular or a narrow pyramidal head, slender 
sharply 4-angled branchlets becoming terete after the falling of the leaves, light reddish 
brown or ashy gray, with smooth or slightly scaly bark; often a shrub, with numerous 
spreading stems. Bark on old trees j'-|' thick, brown tinged with red, and divided into 
long narrow slightly attached scales persistent for many years and clothing the trunk with 
a loose thatch-like covering. Wood light, hard, not strong, slightly fragrant, brown 
streaked with red; largely used for fencing, fuel, telegraph-poles, and railway-ties. 

Distribution. From Brazos County over the low limestone hills of western and south- 
ern Texas, and southward into Mexico; forming great thickets and growing to its largest 
size on the San Bernardo River; much smaller farther westward, and usually shrubby at the 
limits of vegetation on the high mountains of central Mexico. 



88 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

10. Juniperus virginiana L. Red Cedar. Savin. 

Leaves usually opposite, acute or acuminate or occasionally obtuse, rounded and glandu- 
lar or eglandular on the back, about iV long, dark blue-green or glaucous (var. glaucaCarr.), 
at the north turning russet or yellow-brown during the winter, beginning in their third 
season to grow hard and woody, and remaining two or three years longer on the branches, 
on young plants and vigorous branchlets linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, light yellow- 
green, without glands, \'-\' long. Flowers: dioecious or very rarely monoecious: male 
with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives rounded and entire, with 4 or occasionally 5 
or 6 pollen-sacs; scales of the female flower violet color, acute and spreading, becoming 
obliterated from the fruit. Fruit subglobose, \'-\' in diameter, pale green when fully 
grown, dark blue and covered with a glaucous bloom at maturity, with a firm skin, thin 




Fig. 87 

sweetish resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 or rarely 3 or 4 seeds; seeds acute and occasionally 
apiculate at apex, \'-\' long, with a comparatively small 2-lobed hilum, and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, often lobed and eccentric, 
and frequently buttressed toward the base, generally not more than 40-50 tall, with short 
slender branches horizontal on the lower part of the tree, erect above, forming a narrow 
compact pyramidal head, in old age usually becoming broad and round-topped or irregular, 
and slender branchlets terete after the disappearance of the leaves and covered with close 
dark brown bark tinged with red or gray; on exposed cliffs on the coast of Maine, sometimes 
only a few inches high with long branches forming broad dense mats. Bark \'-\' thick, 
light brown tinged with red, and separated into long narrow scales fringed on the margins, 
and persistent for many years. Wood light, close-grained, brittle, not strong, dull red, 
with thin nearly white sapwood, very fragrant, easily worked; largely used for posts, the 
sills of buildings, the interior finish of houses, the lining of closets and chests for the preser- 
vation of woolens against the attacks of moths, and largely for pails and other small 
articles of woodenware. A decoction of the fruit and leaves is used in medicine, and oil of 
red cedar distilled from the leaves and wood as a perfume. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and rocky ridges, often immediately on the seacoast, 
from southern Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to the coast of Georgia, the interior of 
southern Alabama and Mississippi, and westward to the valley of the lower Ottawa River, 
southern Michigan, eastern North and South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, and eastern 
Texas, not ascending the mountains of New England and New York nor the high southern 
Alleghanies; in middle Kentucky and Tennessee, and northern Alabama and Mississippi, 



PINACEvE 89 

covering great areas of low rolling limestone hills with nearly pure forests of small bushy 
trees. 

Often cultivated, in several forms, in the northern and eastern states as an ornamental 
tree and occasionally in the gardens of western and central Europe. 

11. Juniperus lucayana Britt. Red Cedar. 
Juniperus barbadensis Sarg. not L. 

Leaves usually opposite, narrow, acute, or gradually narrowed above the middle and 
acuminate, marked on the back by conspicuous oblong glands. Flowers opening in early 
March: male elongated, f to nearly j' long, with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives 
rounded, entire, and bearing usually 3 pollen-sacs : female with scales gradually narrowed 
above the middle, acute at apex, and obliterated from the ripe fruit. Fruit subglobose 
to short-oblong, dark blue, covered when ripe with a glaucous bloom, about ^' in diameter, 
with a thin skin, sweet resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 seeds; seeds acute, prominently ridged. 




Fig. 88 

A tree, sometimes 50 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, small branches 
erect when the tree is crowded in the forest, spreading when it has grown in open ground 
and forming a broad flat-topped head often 30 or 40 in diameter, long thin secondary 
branches erect at the top of the tree and pendulous below, and pendulous branchlets 
about -^ in diameter, becoming light red-brown or ashy gray at the end of four or five 
years after the disappearance of the leaves. Bark thin, light red-brown, separating into 
long thin scales. Wood light, close, straight-grained, fragrant, dull red; formerly exclu- 
sively used in the manufacture of the best lead pencils. 

Distribution. Inundated river swamps from southern Georgia, southward to the shores 
of the Indian River, Florida, and on the west coast of Florida from the northern shores 
of Charlotte Harbor to the valley of the Apalachicola River, often forming great thickets 
under the shade of larger trees; along streams and creeks in low woods near Houston, Harris 
County, and Milano, Milano County, Texas (E. J. Palmer} ; common in the Bahamas, San 
Domingo, eastern Cuba, and on the mountains of Jamaica and Antigua. 

Often planted for the decoration of squares and cemeteries in the cities and towns in 
the neighborhood of the coast from Florida to western Louisiana, and now often natural- 
ized beyond the limits of its natural range on the Gulf coast; occasionally cultivated in 
the temperate countries of Europe, and in cultivation the most beautiful of the Junipers. 



90 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



12. Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. Red Cedar. 

Leaves usually opposite, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, generally marked on the 
back by obscure elongated glands, dark green, or often pale and very glaucous. Flowers: 
male with about 6 stamens, their connectives rounded and entire, bearing 4 or 5 anther- 
sacs: scales of the female flower spreading, acute or acuminate, and obliterated from the 
mature fruit. Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, nearly globose, \'-\' in 
diameter, bright blue, with a thin skin covered with a glaucous bloom, sweet resinous 
flesh, and 1 or usually 2 seeds; seeds acute, prominently grooved and angled, about T 3 e ' 
long, with a thick bony outer coat and a small 2-lobed hilum. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a short stout trunk sometimes 3 in diameter, often divided 
near the ground into a number of stout spreading stems, thick spreading and ascending 





branches covered with scaly bark, forming an irregular round-topped head, and slender 
4-angled branchlets becoming at the end of three or four years terete and clothed with 
smooth pale bark separating later into thin scales. Bark dark reddish brown or gray 
tinged with red, divided by shallow fissures into narrow flat connected ridges broken on the 
surface into persistent shredded scales. 

Distribution. Scattered often singly over dry rocky ridges, usually at altitudes of 
5000 or 6000 but occasionally ascending in Colorado to 9000 above the sea, from the 
eastern foothill region of the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to the Black Hills of South 
Dakota, the valley of the Niobrara River, Sheridan County, northwestern Nebraska ( J. M. 
Bates) and to western Texas and eastern and northern New Mexico, and westward to 
eastern Oregon, Nevada, and northern Arizona; descending to the sea- level in Washing- 
ton on the shores of the northern part of Puget Sound and on the islands and mainland 
about the Gulf of Georgia, British Columbia. 



H. TAXACEJE. 

Slightly resinous trees and shrubs, producing when cut vigorous stump shoots, with 
fissured or scaly bark, light-colored durable close-grained wood, slender branchlets, linear- 
lanceolate entire rigid acuminate spirally disposed leaves, usually appearing 2-ranked 
by a twist in their short compressed petioles and persistent for many years, and small 
ovoid acute buds. Flowers opening in early spring from buds formed the previous au- 
tumn, dioecious or monoecious, axillary and solitary, surrounded by the persistent decus- 
sate scales of the buds, the male composed of numerous filaments united into a column, 



TAXACE.E 91 

each filament surmounted by several more or less united pendant pollen-cells; the female 
of a single erect ovule, becoming at maturity a seed with a hard bony shell, raised upon or 
more or less surrounded by the enlarged and fleshy aril-like disk of the flower; embryo axile, 
in fleshy ruminate or uniform albumen; cotyledons 2, shorter than the superior radicle. 
Of the ten genera widely distributed over the two hemispheres, two occur in North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Filaments dilated into 4 pollen-sacs united into a half ring; seeds drupe-like, green or 
purple, ripening at the end of the second season; albumen ruminate. 1. Torreya. 

Filaments dilated into a globose head of 4-8 connate pollen-sacs; seeds berry-like, scarlet, 
ripening at the end of the first season; albumen uniform. 2. Taxus. 

1. TORREYA ARN. 
Tumion Raf. 

Glabrous foetid or pungent aromatic trees, with fissured bark and verticillate or oppo- 
site spreading or drooping branches. Leaves thin, long-pointed, abruptly contracted 
at base, dark green, lustrous and slightly rounded above, thickened and revolute on the 
margins, with pale bands of stomata on each side of the midvein on the lower surface. 
Flowers dioecious; the male crowded in the axils of adjacent leaves, on shoots of the 
previous year, oval or oblong, composed of 6 or 8 close whorls each of 4 stamens, sub- 
verticillately arranged on a slender axis; filaments stout and expanded above into 4 globose 
yellow pollen-sacs united into a half ring, their connectives produced above the cells; the 
female on shoots of the year less numerous and scattered, sessile, the ovule surrounded by 
and finally inclosed in an ovoid urn-shaped fleshy sac, and becoming at the end of the second 
season an oblong-ovate yellow-brown seed, rounded and apiculate at apex, acute and 
marked at base by the large dark hilum; seed-coat thick and woody, its inner layer folded 
into the thick white albumen, surrounded and finally inclosed in the thick green or purple 
enlarged disk of the flower composed of thin flat easily separable fibers, splitting longitudin- 
ally when ripe into two parts and separating from the basal scales persistent on the 
short stout stalk of the seed. 

Torreya is now confined to Florida and Georgia, western California, Japan, the island of 
Quelpart, and central and northern China. Four species are recognized. Of the exotic 
species the Japanese Torreya nucifera S. &Z. is occasionally cultivated in the eastern states. 

The genus is named in honor of Dr. John Torrey, the distinguished American botanist. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves slightly rounded on the back, pale below; leaves, branches, and wood foetid; 

branchlets gray or yellowish green. 1. T. taxifolia (C). 

Leaves nearly flat, green below; leaves, branches and wood pungent-aromatic; branchlets 

reddish brown. 2. T. calif ornica (G). 

1. Torreya taxifolia Am. Stinking Cedar. Torreya. 
Tumion taxifolium Greene. 

Leaves slightly falcate, 1^' long, about |' wide, somewhat rounded, dark green and lustrous 
above, paler and marked below with broad bands of stomata. Flowers appearing in March 
and April; male with pale yellow anthers; female broadly ovoid, with a dark purple fleshy 
covering to the ovule, |' long, and inclosed at the base by broad thin rounded scales. Seed 
fully grown at midsummer, slightly obovoid, dark purple, I'-lJ' long, f ' thick, with a thin 
leathery covering, a light red-brown seed-coat furnished on the inner surface with 2 opposite 






92 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

longitudinal thin ridges extending from the base toward the apex, and conspicuously 
ruminate albumen. 

A tree, occasionally 40 high, with a short trunk l-2 in diameter, whorls of spreading 
slightly pendulous branches forming a rather open pyramidal head tapering from a broad 
base. Bark \' thick, brown faintly tinged with orange color, and irregularly divided by 




Fig. 90 



broad shallow fissures into wide low ridges slightly rounded on the back and covered with 
thin closely appressed scales. Wood hard, strong, clear bright yellow, with thin lighter 
colored sap wood; largely used for fence-posts. 

Distribution. On bluffs along the eastern bank of the Apalachicola River, Florida, 
from River Junction to the neighborhood of Bristol, Liberty County, and in the south- 
western corner of Decatur County, Georgia (R. M. Harper). Rare and local. 

Now often planted in the public grounds and gardens of Tallahassee, Florida. 

2. Torreya californica Torr. California Nutmeg. 
Tumion californicum Greene. 

Leaves slightly falcate, nearly flat, dark green and lustrous on the upper, somewhat 
paler and marked below with a narrow band of stomata, tipped with slender callous 




Fig. 91 






TAXACE.E 93 

points, l'-3|' long, yV-i' wide. Flowers appearing in March and April; male with broadly 
ovate acute scales; female nearly \' long, with oblong-ovate rounded scales. Seed ovoid or 
oblong-ovoid, l'-l|' long, light green more or less streaked with purple. 

A tree, 50-70 but occasionally 100 high, with a trunk l-2 or rarely 4 in diameter, 
and whorls of spreading slender slightly pendulous branches forming a handsome pyram- 
idal and in old age a round-topped head. Bark \'-\' thick, gray-brown tinged with 
orange color, deeply and irregularly divided by broad fissures into narrow ridges covered 
with elongated loosely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, clear 
light yellow, with thin nearly white sap wood; occasionally used for fence-posts. 

Distribution. Borders of mountain streams, California, nowhere common but widely 
distributed from Mendocino County to the Santa Cruz Mountains in the coast region and 
along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Eldorado to Tulare Counties at alti- 
tudes of 3000-5000 above the sea; most abundant and of its largest size on the northern 
coast ranges. 

Rarely cultivated as an ornamental tree in California and western Europe. 

2. TAXUS L. Yew. 

Trees or shrubs, with brown or dark purple scaly bark, and spreading usually horizontal 
branches. Leaves flat, often falcate, gradually narrowed at the base, dark green, smooth 
and keeled on the upper surface, paler, papillate, and stomatiferous on the lower surface, 
their margins slightly thickened and revolute. Flowers dioecious or monoecious: the male 
composed of a slender stipe bearing at the apex a globular head of 4-8 pale yellow stamens 
consisting of 4-6 conic pendant pollen-sacs peltately connate from the end of a short 
filament; the female sessile in the axils of the upper scale-like bracts of a short axillary 
branch, the ovule erect, sessile on a ring-like disk, ripening in the autumn into an ovoid- 
oblong seed gradually narrowed and short-pointed at apex, marked at base by the much- 
depressed hilum, about \' long, entirely or nearly surrounded by but free from the now 
thickened succulent translucent sweet scarlet aril-like disk of the flower open at apex; 
seed-coat thick, of two layers, the outer thin and membranaceous or fleshy, the inner much 
thicker and somewhat woody; albumen uniform. 

Taxus with six or seven species, which can be distinguished only by their leaf characters 
and habit, is widely distributed through the northern hemisphere, and is found in eastern 
North America where two species occur, in Pacific North America, Mexico, Europe, north- 
ern Africa, western and southern Asia, China, and Japan. Of the exotic species the Euro- 
pean, African, and Asiatic Taxus baccata L., and its numerous varieties, is often cultivated 
in the United States, especially in the more temperate parts of the country, and is replaced 
with advantage by the hardier Taxus cuspidata S. & Z., of eastern Asia in the northern 
states, where the native shrubby Taxus canadensis Marsh, with monoecious flowers is 
sometimes cultivated. 

Taxus, from rd^'os, is the classical name of the Yew-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Leaves usually short, yellow-green. 1. T. brevifolia (G). 

Leaves elongated, usually falcate, dark green. 2. T. floridana (C). 

1. Taxus brevifolia Nutt. Yew. 

Leaves |'-1' long, about -jV wide, dark yellow-green above, rather paler below, with 
stout midribs, and slender yellow petioles ^V long, persistent for 5-12 years. Flowers 
and fruit as in the genus. 

A tree, usually 40-50 but occasionally 70-80 high, with a tall straight trunk l-2 
or rarely 4^ in diameter, frequently unsymmetrical, with one diameter much exceeding 
the other, and irregularly lobed, with broad rounded lobes, and long slender horizontal or 
slightly pendulous branches forming a broad open conical head. Bark about \' thick 



94 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



and covered with small thin dark red-purple scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, bright 
red, with thin light yellow sap wood; used for fence-posts and by the Indians of the north- 
west coast for paddles, spear-handles, bows, and other small articles. 




Fig. 92 

Distribution. Banks of mountain streams, deep gorges, and damp ravines, growing usu- 
ally under large coniferous trees; nowhere abundant, but widely distributed usually in 
single individuals or in small clumps from the extreme southern part of Alaska, southward 
along the coast ranges of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, where it attains its 
greatest size; along the coast ranges of California as far south as the Bay of Monterey, and 
along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to Tulare County at altitudes between 
5000 and 8000 above the sea-level, ranging eastward in British Columbia to the Selkirk 
Mountains, and over the mountains of Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of 
the continental divide in northern Montana; in the interior much smaller than near the 
coast and often shrubby in habit. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of western Europe. 

2. Taxus floridana Chapm. Yew. 

Leaves usually conspicuously falcate, f ' to nearly 1' long, 3^ '-iV wide, dark green above, 
pale below, with obscure midribs and slender petioles about iV in length. Flowers ap- 
pearing in March. Fruit ripening in October. 




Fig. 93 



TAXACE.E 95 

A bushy tree, rarely 25 high, with a short trunk occasionally 1 in diameter, and numer- 
ous stout spreading branches; more often shrubby in habit and 12-15 tall. Bark ' 
thick, dark purple-brown, smooth, compact, occasionally separating into large thin irregu- 
lar plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, dark brown tinged with red, 
with thin nearly white sap wood. 

Distribution. River bluffs and ravines on the eastern bank of the Apalachicola River, 
in Gadsden County, Florida, from Aspalaga to the neighborhood of Bristol. 



96 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



CLASS 2. ANGIOSPER1VLE. 

Carpels or pistils consisting of a closed cavity containing the ovules and be- 
coming the fruit. 

DIVISION 1. MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them, but without 
pith or annual layers of growth. Parts of the flower in 3's; ovary superior; 
embryo with a single cotyledon. Leaves parallel-veined, alternate, long-per- 
sistent, without stipules. 

m. PALMJE. 

Trees, growing by a single terminal bud, with stems covered with a thick rind, usually 
marked below by the ring-like scars of fallen leaf-stalks, and clothed above by their long- 
persistent sheaths; occasionally stemless. Leaves clustered at the top of the stem, plaited 
in the bud, fan-shaped or pinnate, their rachis sometimes reduced to a narrow border, 
long-stalked, with petioles dilated into clasping sheaths of tough fibres (vaginas}; on fan- 
shaped leaves, furnished at the apex on the upper side with a thickened concave body 
(ligule). Flowers minute, perfect or unisexual, in the axils of small thin mostly deciduous 
bracts, in large compound clusters (spadix) surrounded by boat-shaped bracts (spathes); 
sepals and petals free or more or less united; stamens usually 6; anthers 2-celled, introrse, 
opening longitudinally; ovary 3-celled, with a single ovule in each cell; styles 1-3. Fruit 
a drupe or berry; embryo cylindric in a cavity of the hard albumen near the circumfer- 
ence of the seed. Of the 130 genera now usually recognized and chiefly inhabitants of the 
tropics, seven have arborescent representatives in the United States. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Leaves fan-shaped. 
Leaf -stalks unarmed. 

Calyx and corolla united into a short 6-lobed perianth. 

Fruit white, drupaceous; albumen even. 1. Thrinax. 

Fruit black, baccate; albumen channeled. 2. Coccothrinax. 

Calyx and corolla distinct ; fruit baccate. 3. Sabal. 

Leaf-stalks armed with marginal spines. 

Filaments slender, free; fruit baccate. 4. Washingtonia. 

Filaments triangular, united into a cup adnate to the base of the corolla; fruit 
drupaceous. 5. Acoelorraphe. 

Leaves pinnate. 

Flower-clusters produced on the stem below the leaves; fruit violet-blue. 

6. Roystonea. 
Flower-clusters produced from among the leaves; fruit bright orange-scarlet. 

7. Pseudophoenix. 

1. THRINAX Sw. 

Small unarmed trees, with stems covered with pale gray rind. Leaves orbicular, or 
truncate at the base, thick and firm, usually silvery white on the lower surface, divided 



PALM.E 97 

to below the middle into narrow acuminate parted segments with thickened margins and 
midribs; rachis a narrow border, with thin usually undulate margins; ligule thick, con- 
cave, pointed, lined while young with hoary tomentum; petioles compressed, rounded above 
and below, thin and smooth on the margins, with large clasping bright mahogany-red 
sheaths of slender matted fibres covered with thick hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, 
stalked, its primary branches short, alternate, flattened, incurved, with numerous slender 
rounded flower-bearing branchlets; spathes numerous, tubular, coriaceous, cleft and more or 
less tomentose at the apex. Flowers opening in May and June, and occasionally irregularly 
in the autumn, solitary, perfect; perianth 6-lobed; stamens inserted on the base of the peri- 
anth, with subulate filaments thickened and only slightly united at the base, or nearly trian- 
gular and united into a cup adnate to the perianth, and oblong anthers; ovary 1 -celled, grad- 
ually narrowed into a stout columnar style crowned by a large funnel-formed flat or oblique 
stigma ; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a globose drupe with juicy bitter ivory-white flesh easily 
separable from the thin-shelled tawny brown nut. Seed free, erect, slightly flattened at 
the ends, with an oblong pale conspicuous subbasilar hilum, a short-branched raphe, a thin 
coat, and uniform albumen more or less deeply penetrated by a broad basal cavity; embryo 
lateral. 

Thrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World and is distributed from southern 
Florida through the West Indies to the shores of Central America. Seven or eight species 
are now generally recognized. 

The wood of the Florida species is light and soft, with numerous small fibro-vascular 
bundles, the exterior of the stem being much harder than the spongy interior. The stems 
are used for the piles of small wharves and turtle-crawls, and the leaves for thatch, and in 
making hats, baskets, and small ropes. 

Thrinax, from dplva.%, is in allusion to the shape of the leaves. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers on elongated pedicels; perianth obscurely lobed; stamens much exserted, their 
filaments subulate, barely united at base; stigma oblique; cavity of the seed extending 
to the apex. 

Perianth obscurely lobed; style abruptly enlarged into a large oblique stigma; leaves 
silvery white on the lower surface. 1. T. floridana (D). 

Perianth deeply lobed; style narrowed gradually into a small oblique stigma; leaves green 
on both surfaces. 2. T. Wendlandiana (D). 

Flowers on short pedicels; lobes of the perianth ovate, acuminate; filaments nearly trian- 
gular, united below into a cup; stigma flat; cavity of the seed extending only to the 
middle. 
Seeds pale chestnut-brown; spadix about 6 long; leaves 3-4 in diameter. 

3. T. keyensis (D). 
Seeds dark chestnut-brown; spadix less than 3 long; leaves not over 2 in diameter. 

4. T. microcarpa (D). 

1. Thrinax floridana Sarg. Thatch. 

Leaves 2^-3 in diameter, rather longer than broad, yellow-green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, silvery white on the lower surface, with a long-pointed, bright orange-colored 
ligule f long and broad; petioles 4-4 long, pale yellow-green or orange color toward 
the apex, coated at first with hoary deciduous tomentum, much thickened and to- 
mentose toward the base. Flowers: spadix 3-3| long, the primary branches 6'-8' long 
and ivory-white, flower-bearing branches l|'-2' in length; flowers on slender pedicels 
nearly \' long, ivory-white, very fragrant, with an obscurely-lobed perianth, much ex- 
serted stamens barely united at the base, and a large stigma. Fruit f ' in diameter, 
somewhat depressed at the ends; seed from f to nearly \' in diameter, dark chestnut- 
brown. 



98 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



A tree, with a slightly tapering stem 20-30 high and 4'-6' in diameter, clothed to the 
middle and occasionally almost to the ground with the sheaths of dead leaf-stalks. 




Fig. 94 

Distribution. Florida, dry coral ridges and sandy shores of keys from Long Key to 
Torch Key, and on the mainland from Cape Romano to Cape Sable. 

2. Thrinax Wendlandiana Becc. Thatch. 

Leaves 2|-3 in diameter, orbicular, pale yellow-green, lustrous above, with a thick 
concave ligule, acuminate or rarely rounded at apex; petioles 2-4 long, much thick- 




Fig. 95 



ened and tomentose toward the base. Flowers: spadix stalked, 2-4 long, its primary 
branches short, flattened, incurved, with numerous terete flower-bearing branchlets; 
flowers on slender pedicels iV"!' long, with a deeply lobed perianth, the lobes nearly 



PALM.E 99 

triangular, acuminate, and a small stigma. Fruit J'-f ' in diameter, globose; seed from 
I'- 1' in diameter, dark chestnut-brown. 

A tree, in Florida, with a smooth pale trunk 20-25 high and 3'-4' in diameter. 

Distribution. Florida: Dade County, Madeira Hummock, Pumpkin Key, Flamingo, 
and northwest of Cape Sable; also in Cuba and on Mugueres Island, Gulf of Honduras. 

3. Thrinax keyensis Sarg. Thatch. 

Leaves rather longer than broad, 3-4 long, the lowest segments parallel with the 
petiole or spreading from it nearly at right angles, light yellow-green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, with bright orange-colored margins, below coated while young with decidu- 
ous hoary tomentum and pale blue-green and more or less covered with silvery white pu- 
bescence at maturity, with a thick pointed ligule 1' long and wide, lined at first with hoary 
tomentum; petioles flattened above, obscurely ridged on the lower surface, tomentose 
while young, pale blue-green, 3-4 long. Flowers: spadix usually about 6 long, spreading 
and gracefully incurved, with spathes more or less coated with hoary tomentum, large 
compressed primary branches, and short bright orange-colored flower-bearing branches; 




Fig, 96 

flowers on short thick disk-like pedicels, about |' long, white, slightly fragrant, with a tu- 
bular perianth, the lobes broadly ovate and acute, stamens with nearly triangular filaments 
united at the base, and a flat stigma. Fruit iV to nearly ' in diameter; seed brown, iV 
in diameter. 

A tree, with a stem often 25 high and 10'-14' in diameter, raised on a base of thick 
matted roots 2-3 high and 18'-20' in diameter, and a broad head of leaves, the upper erect, 
the lower pendulous and closely pressed against the stem. 

Distribution. Dry, sandy soil close to the beach on the north side of the largest of the 
Marquesas Keys, and on Crab Key, a small island to the westward of Torch Key, one of 
the Bahia Honda group, Florida; on the Bahamas. 

4. Thrinax microcarpa Sarg. Silvertop Palmetto. Brittle Thatch. 
Leaves 2-3 across, pale green above, silvery white below, more or less thickly coated 
while young with hoary tomentum, especially on the lower surface, divided near the base 
almost to the rachis, with an orbicular thick concave ligule lined with a thick coat of white 
tomentum; petioles thin and flexuose. Flowers: spadix elongated, with short, com- 
pressed erect branches slightly spreading below, numerous slender pendulous flower-bearing 
branches, and long acute spathes deeply parted at the apex, coriaceous and coated above 
the middle with thick hoary tomentum; flowers on short thick disk-like pedicels, with a 



100 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

cupular perianth, the lobes broadly ovate and acute, stamens with thin nearly triangular 
exserted filaments slightly united at base and oblong anthers becoming reversed and 
extrorse at maturity, and a deep orange-colored ovary narrowed above into a short thick 




Fig. 97 

style dilated into a large funnel-formed stigma. Fruit globose, |' in diameter; seed sub- 
globose, bright to dark chestnut-brown, depressed. 

A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 8'-10' in diameter. 

Distribution. Dry coral soil, on the shores of Sugar Loaf Sound, and on No Name and 
Bahia Honda keys, Florida; in Cuba. 

2. COCCOTHRINAX Sarg. 

Small unarmed trees, with simple or clustered stems or rarely stemless. Leaves orbicu- 
lar, or truncate at base, pale or silvery white on the lower surface, divided into narrow 
obliquely folded segments acuminate and divided at apex; rachis narrow; ligules thin, 
free, erect, concave, pointed at the apex; petioles compressed, slightly rounded and 
ridged above and below, thin and smooth on the margins, gradually enlarged below into 
elongated sheaths of coarse fibres forming an open network covered while young by thick 
hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, paniculate, shorter than the leaf-stalks, its primary 
branches furnished with numerous short slender pendulous flower-bearing secondary 
branches; spathes numerous, papery, cleft at the apex. Flowers solitary, perfect, jointed 
on elongated slender pedicels; perianth cup-shaped, obscurely lobed; stamens 9, inserted 
on the base of the perianth, with subulate filaments enlarged and barely united at the base, 
and oblong anthers; ovary 1 -celled, narrowed into a slender style crowned by a funnel- 
formed oblique stigma; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a subglobose berry raised on the thick- 
ened torus of the flower, with thick juicy black flesh. Seed free, erect, depressed-globose, 
with a thick hard vertically grooved shell deeply infolded in the bony albumen; hilum 
subbasilar, minute; raphe hidden in the folds of the seed-coat; embryo lateral. 

Coccothrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World. Two species, of which one is 
stemless, inhabit southern Florida, and at least two other species are scattered over several 
of the West Indian islands. 

Coccothrinax, from K6/ocoy and Thrinax, is in allusion to the berry-like fruit. 

1. Coccothrinax jucunda Sarg. Brittle Thatch. 

Leaves nearly orbicular, the lower segments usually parallel with the petiole, thin and 
brittle, 18'-24' in diameter, divided below the middle of the leaf or toward its base nearly 



PAL3VLE 



101 



to the ligule, with much-thickened bright orange-colored midribs ana margins, pale yellow- 
green and lustrous on the upper surface, bright silvery white and coated at first on the 
lower surface with hoary deciduous pubescence, with a thin undulate obtusely short-pointed 
dark orange-colored rachis, and a thin concave crescent-shaped often oblique slightly un- 
dulate short-pointed and light or dark orange-colored ligule f wide, \' deep; petioles 
slender, pale yellow-green, 2|-3 long. Flowers: spadix 18'-24' long, with flattened 
stalks, slender much-flattened primary branches 8'- 10' long, light orange-colored slen- 
der terete flower-bearing branches l|'-3' long, and pale reddish brown spathes coated 
toward the ends with pale pubescence; flowers opening in June and irregularly also in 
the autumn on ridged spreading pedicels ' long, with an orange-colored ovary surmounted 
by an elongated style dilated into a rose-colored stigma. Fruit ripening at the end of six 




Fig. 98 

months, from |'-f in diameter, bright green at first when fully grown, becoming deep vio- 
let color, with succulent very juicy flesh, ultimately black and lustrous; seed light tawny 
brown. 

A tree, with a stem slightly enlarged from the ground upward, 15-25 high, 4'-6' thick, 
covered with pale blue rind, and surmounted by a broad head of leaves at first erect, then 
spreading and ultimately pendulous. Wood used for the piles of small wharves and turtle- 
crawls. The soft tough young leaves are made into hats and baskets. 

Distribution. Dry coral ridges and sandy flats from the shores of Bay Biscayne along 
many of the southern keys to the Marquesas group (var. marquesensis Becc.) Florida; 
and on the Bahamas (var. macrosperma Becc.). 

3. SABAL Adans. Palmetto. 

Unarmed trees, with stout columnar stems covered with red-brown rind. Leaves fla- 
bellate, tough and coriaceous, divided into many narrow long-pointed parted segments 
plicate ly folded at base, often separating on the margins into narrow threads; rachis 
extending nearly to the middle of the leaves, rounded and broadly winged toward the 
base on the lower side, thin and acute on the upper side; ligule adnate to the rachis, 
acute, concave, with thin incurved entire margins; petioles rounded and concave on the 
lower side, conspicuously ridged on the upper side, acute and entire on the margins, with 
elongated chestnut-brown shining sheaths of stout fibres. Spadix interfoliar, stalked, 
decompound, with a flattened stem, short branches, slender densely flowered ultimate 
branches, and numerous acuminate spathes, the outer persistent and becoming broad and 



102 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



woody. Mowers solitary, perfect; calyx tabular, unequally lobed, the lobes slightly imbri- 
cated in the bud; corolla deeply lobed, with narrow ovate-oblong concave acute lobes 
valvate at the apex in the bud; stamens 6, those opposite the corolla lobes rather longer 
than the others, with subulate filaments united below into a shallow cup adnate to 
the tube of the corolla, and ovoid anthers, their cells free and spreading at the base; 
ovary of 3 carpels, 3-lobed, 3-celled, gradually narrowed into an elongated 3-lobed style 
truncate and stigmatic at the apex; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a small black 1 or 2 or 3- 
lobed short-stemmed berry with thin sweet dry flesh. Seed depressed-globose, marked on 
the side by the prominent micropyle, with a shallow pit near the minute basal hilum, a thin 
seed-coat, and a ventral raphe; embryo minute, dorsal, in horny uniform albumen pene- 
trated by a hard shallow basal cavity filled by the thickening of the seed-coat. 

Sabal belongs to the New World, and is distributed from the Bermuda Islands and the 
South Atlantic and Gulf states of North America through the West Indies to Venezuela 
and Mexico. 

Of the eight species now recognized four inhabit the United States; of these two are small 
stemless plants. 

The generic name is of uncertain origin. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Spadix short; fruit subglobose, 1-celled; seed-coat light chestnut color. 1. S. Palmetto (C). 
Spadix elongated; fruit often 2 or 3-lobed, with 2 or 3 seeds; seed-coat dark cliestnut-brown. 

.2. S. texana (E). 

1. Sabal Palmetto R. & S. Cabbage Tree. Cabbage Palmetto. 

Leaves 5-6 long and 7-8 broad, dark green and lustrous, deeply divided into narrow 
parted recurved segments, with ligules 4' long and more or less unsymmetrical at apex; 
petioles 6-7 long and \\' wide at apex. Flowers: spadix 2-2-| long, with slender incurved 




Fig. 99 

branches, slender ultimate divisions, and thin secondary spathes flushed with red at apex 
and conspicuously marked by pale slender longitudinal veins; flowers in the axils of 
minute deciduous bracts much shorter than the perianth, opening in June. Fruit 
ripening late in the autumn, subglobose or slightly obovoid, gradually narrowed at 
base, 1-seeded, about \' in diameter; seed light bright chestnut-colored, \' broad. 

A tree, often 40-50 and occasionally 80-90 high, with a tall clear trunk often 2 in 
diameter, sometimes branched by the destruction of the terminal bud, divided by shallow 



PALM.E 



103 



irregular interrupted fissures into broad ridges, with a short pointed knob-like under- 
ground stem surrounded by a dense mass of contorted roots often 4 or 5 in diameter and 
5 or 6 deep, from which tough light orange-colored roots often nearly ' in diameter pene- 
trate the soil for a distance of 15 or 20, and a broad crown of leaves at first upright, 
then spreading nearly at right angles with the stem, and finally pendulous. Wood light, 
soft, pale brown, or occasionally nearly black, with numerous hard fibro-vascular bundles, 
the outer rim about 2' thick and much lighter and softer than the interior. In the southern 
states the trunks are used for wharf-piles, and polished cross sections of the stem some- 
times serve for the tops of small tables; the wood is largely manufactured into canes. From 
the sheaths of young leaves the bristles of scrubbing-brushes are made. The large succulent 
leaf-buds are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, and coarse hats, mats, and baskets are made 
from the leaves. Pieces of the spongy bark of the stem are used as a substitute for 
scrubbing-brushes. 

Distribution. Sandy soil in the immediate neighborhood of the coast from the neigh- 
borhood of Cape Hatteras and Smith Island at the mouth of Cape Fear River, North Caro- 
lina, southward near the coast to northern Florida; in Florida extending across the penin- 
sula and south to Upper Metacomb Key, and along the west coast to Saint Andrews Bay; 
most abundant and of its largest size on the west coast of the Florida peninsula. 

Often planted as a street tree in the cities of the southern states. 

2. Sabal texana Becc. Palmetto. 

Sabal mexicana S. Wats., not Mart. 

Leaves dark yellow-green and lustrous, 5-6 long, often 7 wide, divided nearly to the 
middle into narrow divided segments, with thickened pale margins separating into long 




Fig. 100 

thin fibres, with ligules about 6' long; petioles 7-8 long, 1^' wide at the apex. Flowers: 
spadix 7-8 long, with stout ultimate divisions; flowers in Texas appearing in March or 
April in the axils of persistent bracts half as long as the perianth. Fruit ripening early in 
the summer, globose, often 2 or 3-lobed; seeds nearly \' broad and \' wide, dark chestnut- 
brown, with a broad shallow basal cavity, and a conspicuous orange-colored hilum. 

A tree, with a trunk 30-50 high, often 2 in diameter, and a broad head of erect ul- 
timately pendulous leaves. Wood light, soft, pale brown tinged with red, with thick 
light-colored rather inconspicuous fibro-vascular bundles, the outer rim 1' thick, soft, and 
light colored. On the Gulf coast the trunks are used for wharf -piles, and on the lower 
Rio Grande the leaves for the thatch of houses. 



104 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 






Distribution. Rich soil of the bottom-lands on the Bernado River, Cameron County, 
and near the mouth of the Rio Grande, Texas, and southward in Mexico in the neighbor- 
hood of the coast. 

Frequently planted as a street tree in the towns in the lower Rio Grande valley. 

4. WASHINGTONIA H. Wendl. 

Trees, with stout columnar stems and broad crowns of erect and spreading finally pen- 
dulous leaves. Leaves flabellate, divided nearly to the middle into many narrow deeply 
parted recurved segments separating on the margins into numerous slender pale fibres; 
rachis short, slightly rounded on the back, gradually narrowed from a broad base, with 
concave margins furnished below with narrow erect wings, and slender and acute above; 
ligule elongated, oblong, thin and laciniate on the margins; petioles elongated, broad and 
thin, flattened or slightly concave on the upper side, rounded on the lower, armed irregu- 
larly with broad thin large and small straight or hooked spines confluent into a thin bright 
orange-colored cartilaginous margin, gradually enlarged at base into thick broad con- 
cave bright chestnut-brown sheaths composed of a network of thin strong fibres. Spadix 
interfoliar, stalked, elongated, paniculate, with pendulous flower-bearing ultimate divisions 
and numerous long spathes. Flowers perfect, jointed on thick disk-like pedicels; calyx 
tubular, scarious, thickened at base, gradually enlarged and slightly lobed at apex, the 
lobes imbricated in the bud; corolla funnel-formed, with a fleshy tube inclosed in the 
calyx and about half as long as the lanceolate lobes thickened and glandular on the inner 
surface at the base, imbricated in the bud; stamens inserted on the tube of the corolla, with 
free filaments thickened near the middle and linear-oblong anthers; ovary 3-lobed, 3- 
celled, with slender elongated flexuose styles stigmatic at apex; ovules lateral, erect. 
Fruit a small ellipsoidal short-stalked black berry with thin dry flesh. Seed free, erect, 
oblong-ovoid, concave above, with a flat base depressed in the centre, a minute sublateral 
hilum, a broad conspicuous rachis, a minute lateral micropyle, and a thin pale chestnut- 
brown inner coat closely investing the simple horny albumen; embryo minute, lateral, with 
the radicle turned toward the base of the fruit. 

Three species of Washingtonia are known: one inhabits the interior dry region of south- 
ern California and the adjacent parts of Lower California, and the others the mountain 
canons of western Sonora and southern Lower California. 

The genus is named for George Washington. 

1. Washingtonia filamentosa O. Kuntze. Desert Palm. Fan Palm. 
Leaves 5-6 long and 4-5 wide, light green, slightly tomentose on the folds; petioles 




Fig. 101 



PALM.E 105 

4-6 long and about 2' broad at apex, with sheaths 16'-18' long and 12'-14' wide, and 
ligules 4' long and cut irregularly into long narrow lobes. Flowers: spadix 10-12 long, 
3 or 4 being produced each year from the axils of upper leaves, the outer spathe inclosing 
the bud, narrow, elongated, and glabrous, those of the secondary branches coriaceous, yel- 
low tinged with brown, and laciniate at apex; flowers slightly fragrant, opening late in 
May or early in June. Fruit produced in great profusion, ripening in September, J' long; 
seed 1' long, f ' thick. 

A tree, occasionally 75 high, with a trunk sometimes 50-60 tall and 2-3 in diameter, 
covered with a thick light red-brown scaly rind and clothed with a thick thatch of dead 
pendant leaves descending in a regular cone from the broad crown of living leaves some- 
times nearly to the ground. Wood light and soft, with numerous conspicuous dark orange- 
colored fibro- vascular bundles. The fruit is gathered and used as food by the Indians. 

Distribution. Often forming extensive groves or small isolated clumps in wet usually 
alkali soil in depressions along the northern and northwestern margins of the Colorado 
Desert in southern California, sometimes extending for several miles up the canons of the 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains; and in Lower California. 

Now largely cultivated in southern California, New Orleans, southern Europe, and 
other temperate regions. 

5. ACCELORRAPHE H. Wendl. 

Trees, with tall slender often clustered stems clothed for many years with the sheathing 
bases of the petioles of fallen leaves. Leaves suborbicular, divided into numerous two- 
parted segments plicately folded at the base; rachis short, acute; ligule thin, concave, fur- 
nished with a broad membranaceous dark red-brown deciduous border; petioles slender, 
flat or slightly concave on the upper side, rounded and ridged on the lower side, with a broad 
high rounded ridge, thickened and cartilaginous on the margins, more or less furnished with 
stout or slender flattened teeth; vagina thin and firm, bright mahogany red, lustrous, 
closely infolding the stem, its fibres thin and tough. Spadix paniculate, interpetiolar, its 
rachis slender, compressed, ultimate branches, numerous, slender, elongated, gracefully 
drooping, hoary-tomentose, the primary branches flattened, the secondary terete in the 
axils of ovate acute chestnut-brown bracts; spathes flattened, thick and firm, deeply two- 
cleft and furnished at apex with a red-brown membranaceous border, inclosing the 
rachis of the panicle, each primary branch with its spathe and the node of the rachis below 
it inclosed in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger spathe of the node 
next below. Flowers perfect, minute, sessile on the ultimate branches of the spadix, 
in the axils of ovate acute chestnut-brown caducous bracts, solitary toward the end of the 
branches and in two- or three-flowered clusters near their base; calyx truncate at base, 
divided into three broadly ovate sepals dentate on the margins, valvate in aestivation, en- 
larged and persistent under the fruit; corolla three-parted nearly to the base, its divisions 
valvate in aestivation, oblong-ovate, thick, concave and thickened at apex, deciduous; 
stamens six, included; filaments nearly triangular, united below into a cup adnate to the 
short tube of the corolla; anthers short-oblong, attached on the back below the middle, 
introrse, two-celled, the cells opening longitudinally; ovary obovoid, of three carpels, 
each with two deep depressions on their outer face, united into a slender style; stigma 
minute, terminal, persistent on the fruit; ovule solitary, erect from the bottom of the cell, 
anatropous. Fruit drupaceous, subglobose, one-seeded, black and lustrous; exocarp thin 
and fleshy; endocarp thin, crustaceous; seed erect, free, subglobose, light chestnut-brown; 
testa thin and hard; hilum small, suborbicular; raphe ventral, oblong, elongated, black, 
slightly prominent, without ramifications; embryo lateral; albumen homogeneous. 

Two species of Accelorraphe have been distinguished; they inhabit southern Florida, 
and one species occurs also in Cuba and on the Bahama Islands. 

The generic name, from d priv., KOI \o s and pa<fyf), refers to the character of the seed. 



106 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Petioles furnished with stout marginal teeth throughout their entire length; leaves green 
on both surfaces, their primary divisions extending to the middle, secondary divisions 
only from 3'-9' long; stems forming large thickets. 1. A. Wrightii (D). 

Petioles furnished with thinner teeth, usually unarmed toward the apex; leaves green or 
glaucescent on the lower surface, their primary divisions extending nearly to the base, 
secondary divisions often 10' long or more; stems often prostrate. 2. A. arborescens (D) . 

1. Acoelorraphe Wrightii Becc. 

Leaves 30'-36' in diameter, thin, light green, divided only to the middle, the divisions 

of the primary lobes 3^'-9' long; petioles thin, gradually tapering from the base, 40'-60' 




Fig. 102 

in length, armed throughout with stout straight or incurved teeth. Flowers: spadix 4- 
6 long; flowers '-' long, with a light chestnut-brown calyx and a pale yellow-green corolla. 
Fruit j' in diameter. 

A tree with numerous stems, in Florida sometimes 10 metnes high, forming great thickets. 

Distribution. Dade County, Florida, from the rear of Madeira Hummock to Cape; 
Sable, in swamps of fresh or brackish water at some distance from the coast; also in Cuba 
and on the Bahamas. 

2. Acoelorraphe arborescens Becc. 
Serenoa arborescens Sarg. 

Leaves about 2 in diameter, light yellow-green on the upper surface, blue-green or 
glaucescent on the lower surface, divided nearly to the base into numerous lobes slightlj 
thickened at the pale yellow midribs and margins; petioles 18'-24' long, armed, excepl 
toward the apex, with stout flattened curved orange-colored teeth. Flowers: spadi> 



PALM^E 



107 



3-4 long, with a slender much-flattened stalk, panicled lower branches 18'-20' in length, 
and 6-8 thick firm pale green conspicuously ribbed spathes dilated^ at apex into a 
narrow border; flowers with a light chestnut-brown calyx and a pale yellow-green corolla. 
Fruit globose, f ' in diameter; seed somewhat flattened below, with a pale vertical mark 
on the lower side, and a hilum joined to the micropyle by a pale band. 

A tree, from 30-40 high, with 1 or several clustered erect inclining or occasionally semi- 
prostrate stems 3'-4' in diameter, covered almost to the ground by the closely clasping 
bases of the leaf-stalks and below with a thick pale rind. 




Fig. 103 

Distribution. Low undrained soil covered for many months of every year in water 
from l'-18' deep, occasionally occupying almost exclusively areas of several acres in ex- 
tent or more often scattered among Cypress-trees or Royal Palms, in the swamps and 
along the hummocks adjacent to the Chokoloskee River and its tributaries and at the head 
of East River, Whitewater Bay, in southwestern Florida. 

6. ROYSTONEA Cook. Royal Palm. 

Unarmed trees, with massive stems enlarged near the middle, and terminating in long 
slender bright green cylinders formed by the densely imbricated sheaths of the leaf-stalks. 
Leaves equally pinnate, with linear-lanceolate long-pointed unequally cleft plicately-folded 
pinnae inserted obliquely on the upper side of the rachis, folded together at the base, with 
thin midribs and margins; rachis convex on the back, broad toward the base of the leaf 
and acute toward its apex; petioles semicylindric, gradually enlarged into thick elon- 
gated green sheaths. Spadix large, decompound, produced near the base of the green 
part of the stem, with long pendulous branches ad 2 spathes, the outer semicylindric and 
as long as the spadix, the inner splitting ventrally and inclosing the branches of the spadix. 
Flowers monoecious, in a loose spiral, toward the base of the branch in 3-flowered clusters, 
with a central staminate and smaller lateral pistillate flowers, higher on the branch the 
stamina te in 2-flowered clusters; calyx of the staminate flower of minute broadly ovate 
obtuse scarious sepals imbricated in the bud, much shorter than the corolla; petals nearly 
equal, valvate in the bud, ovate or obovate, acute, slightly united at the base, coriaceous; 
stamens. 6, 9, or 12, with subulate filaments united below and adnate to the base of the 
corolla, and large ovate-sagittate anthers, the cells free below; ovary rudimentary, sub- 
globose or 3-lobed; pistillate flowers much smaller, ovoid-conic; sepals obtuse; corolla 
erect, divided to the middle into acute erect lobes incurved at apex; staminodia 6, 
scale-like, united into a cup adnate to the corolla; ovary subglobose, obscurely 2 or 3-lobed, 



108 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



2 or 3-celled, gibbous, the cells crowned with a 3-lobed stigma becoming subbasilar on the 
fruit; ovule ascending. Fruit a short-stalked drupe with thin crustaceous flesh. Seed ob- 
long-reniform, marked by the conspicuous fibrous reticulate branches of the raphe radiating 
from the narrow basal hilum, and covered with a thin crustaceous coat; embryo minute, 
cylindric, lateral, in uniform albumen. 

Roystonea is confined to the tropics of the New World, where two or three species occur. 

The genus as here limited was named for General Roy Stone of the United States army. 

1. Roystonea regia Cook. Royal Palm. 

Oreodoxa regia H. B. K. 

Leaves 10-12 long, closely pinnate, the pinnae, 2-3 long, 1|' wide near the base of 
the leaf, and gradually decreasing in size toward its apex, deep green with slender conspicu- 
ous veins, and covered below with minute pale glandular dots; petioles almost terete, 
concave near the base, with thin edges separating irregularly into pale fibres, and enlarged 




into bright green cylindrical clasping bases 8 or 9 long and more or less covered with dark 
chaffy scales. Flowers: spadix about 2 long, with a nearly terete stem and slightly 
ridged primary and secondary branches compressed above, abruptly enlarged at the base, 
and simple slender flexuose long-pointed flower-bearing branchlets 3'-6' long, pendant and 
closely pressed against the secondary branches; flowers opening in Florida in January 
and February, the staminate nearly \' long and rather more than twice as long as the pis- 
tillate. Fruit oblong-obovoid, full and rounded at apex, narrowed at base, violet-blue, 
about ' long, with a thin outer coat and a light red-brown inner coat, loose and fibrous on 
the outer surface, and closely investing the thin light brown seed. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a trunk rising from an abruptly enlarged base, gradually 
tapering from the middle to the ends and often 2 in diameter, covered with light gray rind 
tinged with orange color, marked with dark blotches and irregularly broken into minute 
plates, the green upper portion 8-10 long, and a broad head of gracefully drooping leaves. 
Wood of the interior of the stem spongy, pale brown, much lighter than the hard exterior 
rim, containing numerous dark conspicuous fibro-vascular bundles. The outer portion of 
the stem is made into canes, and the trunks are sometimes used for wharf -piles and in con- 
struction. 

Distribution. Florida, hummocks on Rogue River twenty miles east of Caximbas Bay, 
on some of the Everglades Keys, Long's Key, and formerly on the shores of Bay Biscayne 
near the mouth of Little River; common in the West Indies and Central America. 

Largely cultivated as an ornamental tree in tropical countries, and often planted to form 
avenues, for which its tall pale columnar stems and noble heads of graceful foliage make it 
valuable. 



PALM.E 



109 



7. PSEUDOPHGEN1X H. Wendl. 

A tree, with a slender stem abruptly enlarged at the base or tapering from the middle to 
the ends, covered with thin pale blue or nearly white rind, and conspicuously marked by 
the dark scars of fallen leaf-stalks. Leaves erect, abruptly pinnate, with crowded linear- 
lanceolate acuminate leaflets increasing in length and width from the ends to the middle of 
the leaf, thick and firm in texture, dark yellow-green above, pale and glaucous below; 
rachis convex on the lower side, concave on the upper side near the base of the leaf, with 
thin margins, becoming toward the apex of the leaf flat and narrowed below and acute above, 
marked on the sides at the base with dark gland-like excrescences; petioles short, concave 
above, with thin entire margins separating into slender fibres, gradually enlarged into broad 
thick sheaths of short brittle fibres. Spadix interfoliar, compound, pendulous, stalked, 
much shorter than the leaves, with spreading primary branches, stout and much flattened 
toward the base, slender and rounded above the middle, furnished at the base with a 
thickened ear-like body, slender secondary branches, short thin rigid densely flowered 
ultimate divisions, and compressed light green double spathes erose on their thin dark 
brown margins. Flowers on slender pedicels articulate by an expanded base, widely 
scattered on the ultimate branches of the spadix, staminate and bisexual in the same in- 
florescence; calyx reduced to the saucer-like rim of the thickened receptacle, undulate on 
the margin, the rounded angles alternating with the petals; petals 3, valvate in the bud, ob- 
long, rounded at apex, thick conspicuously longitudinally veined, persistent; stamens 
6, with short flattened nearly triangular filaments slightly united at the base into a narrow 
fleshy disk, and triangular cordate anthers attached at the base in a cavity on their outer 
face, 2-celled, the cells opening by lateral slits; styles of the perfect flower 3-lobed at the 
apex with obtuse appressed lobes, that of the sterile flower as long or longer than that of the 
perfect flower, more slender and tapering into a narrow 3-pointed apex. Fruit a stalked 
globose 2 or 3-lobed orange-scarlet thin-fleshed drupe marked by the lateral style and sur- 
rounded' below by the withered remnants of the flower; pedicel abruptly enlarged at 
base, articulate from a persistent cushion-like body furnished in the centre with a minute 
point penetrating a cavity in the base of the pedicel. Seed subglobose, free, erect, with 
a basal hilum and a thin light red-brown coat marked by the pale conspicuous ascend- 
ing 2 or 3-branched raphe; embryo minute, basal, in uniform horny albumen. 

Pseudophcenix with a single species inhabits the keys of southern Florida, and the 
Bahamas. 

The generic name is in allusion to a fancied resemblance to Phoenix, a genus of Palms. 

1. Pseudophrenix vinifera Becc. 
Leaves 5-6 long, with pinnae often 18' long and 1' wide near the middle of the leaf, 




Fig. 105 



110 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

becoming at its extremities not more than half as long and wide; petioles 6'-8' in length. 
Flowers: spadix 3 long and 2| wide. Fruit ripening in May and June, '-f' in diameter 
on a peduncle \' long; seed \' in diameter. 

Distribution. Florida, east end of Elliot's Key, and east end of Key Largo near the south- 
ern shore, here forming a grove of 200 or 300 plants; more common on the Bahamas. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern Florida. 

IV. LILIACEJE. 

YUCCLE. 

Leaves, alternate, linear-lanceolate. Flowers in terminal panicles; sepals and petals 
nearly similar, subequal, withering-persistent; ovary with more or less deeply introduced 
dorsal partitions; ovules numerous, 2-ranked in each cell; embryo subulate, obliquely placed 
across the seed; cotyledon arched in germination. 

Yuccse as here limited consists of two American genera, Hesperaloe, with two species, 
low plants of Texas and Mexico, and Yucca. 

i. YUCCA L. 

Trees with simple or branched stems prolonged by axillary naked buds, dark thick corky 
bark, light fibrous wood in concentric layers, and large stout horizontal roots; or often 
stemless. Leaves involute in the bud, at first erect, usually becoming reflexed, abruptly 
narrowed above the broad thickened clasping base, usually widest near the middle, con- 
cave on the upper surface, involute toward the horny usually sharp-pointed apex, convex 
and often slightly keeled toward the base on the lower surface, the margins serrulate or 
filamentose, light or dull green. Flowers fertilized by insects and opening for a single 
night, on slender pedicels in 2 or 3-flowered clusters or singly at the base of the large com- 
pound panicle furnished with conspicuous leathery white or slightly colored bracts, those at 
the base of the pedicels thin and scarious; perianth cup-shaped, with thick ovate-lanceo- 
late creamy white segments more or less united at base, usually furnished with small tufts 
of white hairs at the apex, those of the outer rank narrower, shorter, and more colored than 
the more delicate petal-like segments of the inner rank; stamens 6, in 2 series, free, shorter 
than the ovary (as long in 1), white, with club-shaped fleshy filaments, obtuse and slightly 
3-lobed at the apex, and cordate emarginate anthers attached on the back, the cells 
opening longitudinally, curling backward and expelling the large globose powdery pollen- 
grains; ovary oblong, 6-sided, sessile or stalked, with nectar-glands within the partitions, 
dull greenish white, 3-celled, gradually narrowed into a short or elongated 3-lobed ivory- 
white style forming a triangular stigmatic tube. Fruit oblong or oval, more or less dis- 
tinctly 6-angled, 6-celled, usually beaked at the apex, baccate and indehiscent or capsular 
and 3-valved, the valves finally separating at the apex; pericarp of 2 coats, the outer at 
maturity thick, succulent and juicy, thin, dry and leathery, or thin and woody. Seeds 
compressed, triangular, obovoid, or obliquely ovoid or orbicular, thick, with a narrow 
2-edged rim, or thin, with a wide or narrow brittle margin; seed-coat thin, black, slightly 
rugose or smooth; embryo in plain or rarely ruminate hard farinaceous oily albumen; coty- 
ledon much longer than the short radicle turned toward the small oblong white hilum. 

Yucca is confined to the New World and is distributed from Bermuda and the eastern 
Antilles, through the south Atlantic and Gulf states to Oklahoma and Arkansas, and 
through New Mexico and northward along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to 
South Dakota, westward to middle California, and southward through Arizona, Mexico, 
and Lower California to Central America. About thirty species with many varieties 
and probable hybrids are recognized. Of the species which inhabit the territory of the 
United States nine assume the habit and attain the size of small trees. The root-stalks 
of Yucca are used as a substitute for soap, and ropes, baskets, and mats are made from 
the tough fibres of the leaves. Many of the species are cultivated, especially in countries^ 
of scanty rainfall, for their great clusters of beautiful flowers, or in hedges to protect gar- 
dens from cattle. 

The generic name is from the Carib name of the root of the Cassava. 






LILIACE.E 



111 






CONSPECTUS OF THE ABORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Flower-clusters usually sessile, or short-stalked. 

Fruit pendulous, with thick succulent flesh; seeds thick; albumen ruminate. 
Segments of the perianth slightly united at the base. 
Panicle glabrous or puberulous. 

Ovary stipitate; leaves sharply toothed on their horny margins, smooth, dark 
green, slightly concave. 1. Y. aloifolia (C). 

Ovary sessile. 

Leaves concave, blue-green, rough on the lower surface. 2. Y. Treculeana (E) . 
Leaves concave above the middle, light yellow-green, smooth. 

Style elongated. 3. Y. macrocarpa (E, H). 

Style short. 4. Y. mohavensis (G, H). 

Panicle coated with hoary tomentum; leaves concave, smooth, light yellow-green. 

5. Y. Schottii (H). 

Segments of the perianth united below into a narrow tube; leaves flat, smooth, dark 
green. 6. Y. Faxoniana (E). 

Fruit erect or spreading, the flesh becoming thin and dry at maturity; seeds thin; albu- 
men entire. 

Leaves rigid, concave above the middle, blue-green, sharply serrate. 

7. Y. brevifolia (F, G). 

Leaves thin, flat or concave toward the apex, nearly entire, rough on the lower 

surface, dull or glaucous green. 8. Y. gloriosa (C). 

Flower-clusters long-stalked; fruit capsular, erect, finally splitting between the carpels 

and through their backs at the apex; seeds thin; albumen entire; leaves thin, flat, 

filamentose on the margins, smooth, pale yellow-green. 9. Y. elata (E, H). 

i. Yucca aloifolia L. Spanish Bayonet. 

Leaves 18'-32' long, lj'-2^' wide, erect, rigid, conspicuously narrowed above the light 
green base, widest above the middle, slightly concave on the upper surface, smooth, dark 




Fig. 106 



rich green, with a stiff dark red-brown tip, and horny finely and irregularly serrate mar- 
gins; long-persistent. Flowers from June until August on stout pedicels, in nearly sessile 
glabrous or slightly pubescent panicles 18'-24' long; perianth l'-l' in length and 3' or 4' 
across when fully expanded, the segments ovate, thick and tumid toward the base, those 
of the outer rank rounded and often marked with purple at apex, the inner acuminate 



112 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



and short-pointed; stamens as long or sometimes a little longer than the light green ovary 
raised on a short stout stipe. Fruit ripening from August to October, elongated, ellipsoidal, 
hexagonal, 3'-4' long, 1\'-\%' thick, light green when fully grown, and in ripening turning 
dark purple, the outer and inner coats forming a thick succulent mass of bitter-sweet juicy 
flesh, finally becoming black and drying on its stalk; seeds \'-\' wide, about iV thick, 
with a thin narrow ring-like border to the rim. 

A tree, occasionally 25 high, usually much smaller, with an erect or more or less inclining 
simple or branched trunk slightly swollen at base, and rarely more than 6' in diameter; 
sometimes with numerous clustered stems. Bark near the base of the trunk thick, rough, 
dark brown, marked above by scars left by falling leaves. 

Distribution. Sand dunes of the coast from North Carolina to eastern Louisiana; west 
of the Apalachicola River attaining its largest size and sometimes ranging inland through 
Pine-forests for thirty or forty miles; and in Yucatan (var. yucatana Trel.). 

A common garden plant in all countries with a temperate climate, and long naturalized 
in the southern states far beyond the limits of its natural range, in some of the West Indian 
islands and on the Gulf coast of Mexico. Forms with leaves variously striped with white, 
yellow, and red or with recurving leaves are frequent in cultivation. 

2. Yucca Treculeana Carr. Spanish Bayonet. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 2^-4 long, 2'-3j' wide, slightly or not at all contracted above the dark red 
lustrous base, concave, stiff, rigid, dark blue-green, rough on the lower surface, nearly 
smooth on the upper, with a short stout dark red-brown tip, and dark brown margins 
roughened by minute deciduous teeth and ultimately separating into slender dark fibres; 




Fig. 107 



persistent for many years, the dead leaves hanging closely appressed against the trunk 
below the terminal crown of closely imbricated living leaves. Flowers in March and April 
on slender pedicels, in dense many-flowered glabrous or puberulous panicles 2-4 long and 
raised on short stout stalks; perianth l'-2' long, 2'-4' in diameter when fully expanded, 
with narrow elongated ovate-lanceolate to ovate segments, \' wide, acute, thin and delicate, 
furnished at apex with a conspicuous tuft of short pale hairs; filaments slightly papillose, 
about as long as the prismatic ovary gradually narrowed above and crowned by the deeply 
divided stigmatic lobes. Fruit ripening in the summer, 3'-4' long, about 1' thick, dark 
reddish brown or ultimately black, with thin succulent sweetish flesh; seeds about |' 
wide, nearly iV thick, with a narrow border to the rim. 

A tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a trunk sometimes 2 in diameter and numerous 
stout wide-spreading branches; usually smaller and often forming broad low thickets 4- 



LILIACE.E 



113 



5 tall. Bark on old trunks |'-' thick, dark red-brown and broken into thin oblong plates 
covered by small irregular closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, fibrous, spongy, 
heavy, difficult to cut and work. 

Distribution. Shores of Matagorda Bay, southward through western Texas into Nuovo 
Leon, and through the valley of the Rio Grande to the eastern base of the mountains of 
western Texas; forming open stunted forests on the coast dunes at the mouth of the Rio 
Grande; farther from the coast often spreading into great impenetrable thickets. 

Cultivated as an ornamental plant in the gardens of central and western Texas and 
in other southern States, and occasionally in those of southern Europe. 

3. Yucca macrocarpa Coville. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves lf-2 long, l'-2' wide, gradually narrowed from the dark red lustrous base to 
above the middle, rigid, concave, yellow-green, rough on the lower surface and frequently 
also on the upper surface, with a stout elongated dark tip, and thickened margins sep- 




Fig. 108 



arated into stout gray filaments. Flowers in March and April in densely flowered sessile 
or short-stalked glabrous or occasionally pubescent panicles; perianth usually about 2' 
long, with acuminate segments, those of the outer and inner rows nearly of the same size; 
stamens shorter than the elongated style. Fruit 3'-4' long, about \\' thick, abruptly 
contracted at apex into a stout point, nearly black when fully ripe, with sweet succulent 
flesh; seeds about \' wide, |' thick, with a narrow border to the rim. 

A tree, rarely exceeding 15 in height, with a usually simple stem 6' '-8' in diameter, and 
often clothed to the ground with living leaves. Bark dark brown and scaly. 

Distribution. Arid plains from western Texas to eastern Arizona and southward in 
Chihuahua. 

4. Yucca mohavensis Sarg. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 18'-20' long, about 1^' wide, abruptly contracted above the dark red lustrous 
base, gradually narrowed upward to above the middle, thin and concave except toward the 
slightly thickened base of the blade, dark green, smooth on both surfaces, with a stout rigid 
sharp-pointed tip, and entire bright red-brown margins soon separating into numerous 
pale filaments. Flowers from March to May on slender erect ultimately drooping pedicels 
l'-l|' long, in densely flowered sessile or short-stemmed panicles 12'-18' in length; perianth 
l'-2' long, the segments united at the base into a short tube, thickened and hood-shaped at 
the apex, those of the outer rank often deeply flushed with purple, but little longer than the 
less prominently ribbed usually wider and thinner segments of the inner rank; stamens 



114 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



with more or less pilose filaments nearly as long as the short style. Fruit ripening in Au- 
gust and September, 3'-4' long, about l' thick, usually much constricted near the middle, 




abruptly contracted at apex into a short stout point, dark dull brown or nearly black, 
with flesh often nearly \' thick; seeds \' wide, rather less than \' thick, with a narrow border 
to the rim. 

A tree, rarely exceeding 15 in height, with a trunk usually simple or occasionally fur- 
nished with short spreading branches, and 6'-8' in diameter, usually surrounded by a clus- 
ter of shorter more or less spreading stems and often clothed to the ground with living leaves. 
Bark dark brown and scaly. Wood soft, spongy, light brown. 

Distribution. Southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona across the Mohave Desert 
to the California coast, extending northward to the neighborhood of Monterey, California, 
and southward into northern Lower California; common and attaining its largest size 
on the Mohave Desert, and sometimes ascending arid mountain slopes to altitudes of 4000 
above the sea. 

5. Yucca Schottii Engelm. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 2^-3 long, about \\' wide, gradually narrowed upward from the comparatively 
thin lustrous red base to above the middle, flat except toward the apex, smooth, light 




Fig. 110 



LILIACEJE 



115 



yellow-green, with a long rigid sharp light red tip, and thick entire red-brown margins 
finally separating into short thin brittle threads. Flowers from July to September in erect 
stalked tomentose panicles; perianth I'-l-f long, the broad oval or oblong-obovate thin 
segments pubescent on the outer surface toward the base and furnished at the apex with 
conspicuous clusters of white tomentum; stamens about two thirds as long as the ovary, 
with filaments pilose at the base, and only slightly enlarged at the apex. Fruit ripening in 
October and November, obscurely angled, 3^'-4' long, about lj' thick, often narrowed 
above the middle, with a stout thick point, and thin succulent flesh; seeds \' wide, about 
\' thick, with a thin conspicuous marginal rim. 

A tree, in Arizona rarely 18-20 high, with a trunk often crooked or slightly inclining 
and simple or furnished with 2 or 3 short erect branches, covered below with dark brown 
scaly bark, roughened for many years by persistent scars of fallen leaves, and clothed above 
by the pendant dead leaves of many seasons. 

Distribution. Dry slopes of the mountain ranges, of Arizona near the Mexican boundary 
usually at altitudes between 5000 and 6000, and southward into Sonora. 

6. Yucca Faxoniana Sarg. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 2^-4 long, 2^'-3' wide, abruptly contracted above the conspicuously thickened 
lustrous base, widest above the middle, flat on the upper surface, thickened and rounded 
on the lower surface toward the base, rigid, smooth and clear dark green, with a short stout 




Fig. 1 1 1 



dark tip, and brown entire margins breaking into numerous stout gray or brown fibres 
short and spreading near the apex of the leaf, longer, more remote, and forming a thick 
cobweb-like mass at their base. Flowers appearing in April on thin drooping pedicels, 
in dense many-flowered glabrous panicles 3-4 long, with elongated pendulous branches; 
perianth 2|' long, the segments thin, concave, widest above the middle, narrowed at the ends, 
united at base into a short tube, those of the outer rank being about half as wide as those 
of the inner rank and two thirds as long; stamens much shorter than the ovary, with slender 
filaments pilose above the middle and abruptly dilated at apex; ovary conspicuously 
ridged, light yellow marked with large pale raised lenticels, and gradually narrowed into 
an elongated slender style. Fruit ripening in early summer, slightly or not at all angled, 
abruptly contracted at apex into a long or short hooked beak, 3'-4' long, \'-\\' thick, light 
orange-colored and lustrous when first ripe, becoming nearly black, with thick succulent 
bitter-sweet flesh; seeds \' long, about \' thick, with a narrow nearly obsolete margin to 
the rim. 

A tree, often 40 high, with a trunk sometimes 2 in diameter above the broad abruptly 



116 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



enlarged base, unbranched or divided into several short branches, and covered above by a 
thick thatch of the pendant dead leaves of many seasons; frequently smaller and until ten or 
twelve years old clothed from the ground with erect living leaves. Bark near the base of old 
trees dark reddish brown, $'-' thick, broken on the surface into small thin loose scales. 
Distribution. Common on the high desert plateau of southwestern Texas. 

7. Yucca brevifolia Engelm. Joshua Tree. 

Yucca arbor escens Trel. 

Leaves 5'-8' or on young plants rarely 10'-12' long, |'-|' wide, rigid, crowded in dense 
clusters, lanceolate, gradually tapering from the bright red-brown lustrous base, bluish 
green and glaucous, smooth or slightly roughened, concave above the middle, with a sharp 
dark brown tip, and thin yellow margins armed with sharp minute teeth; persistent 




Fig. 112 

for many years. Flowers appearing from March until the beginning of May, the creamy 
white closely imbricated bracts of the nearly sessile pubescent panicle forming before 
its appearance a conspicuous cone-like bud 8' or 10' long; perianth globose to oblong, 
l'-2' long, greenish white, waxy, dull or lustrous, its segments slightly united at the base, 
keeled on the back, thin below the middle, gradually thickened upward into the concave 
incurved rounded tip, those of the outer rank rather broader, thicker, and more prominently 
keeled than those of the inner rank, glabrous or pubescent; stamens about half as long as 
the ovary, with filaments villose-papillate from the base; ovary conic, 3-lobed above the 
middle, bright green, with narrow slightly developed septal nectar-glands, and a sessile 
nearly equally 6-lobed stigma. Fruit ripening in May or June, spreading or more or less 
pendant at maturity, oblong-ovoid, acute, slightly 3-angled, 2'-4' long, \\'-% thick, light 
red or yellow-brown, the outer coat becoming dry and spongy at maturity; seeds nearly 
\' long, rather less than ^' thick, with a broad well-developed margin to the rim, and a 
large conspicuous hilum. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, rising abruptly from a broad thick- 
basal disk, thick tough roots descending deeply into the soil, and stout branches spreading 
into a broad, often symmetrical head formed by the continued forking of the branches at 
the base of the terminal flower-clusters; the stem until 8-10 high simple and clothed to the 
ground with leaves erect until after the appearance of the first flowers, then spreading at 
right angles and finally becoming reflexed. Bark I'-l^' thick, deeply divided into oblong 
plates frequently 2 long. Wood light, soft, spongy, difficult to work, light brown or 
nearly white; sometimes cut into thin layers and used as wrapping material or manufac- 
tured into boxes and other small articles. The seeds are gathered and eaten by Indians. 



LILIACE^E 



117 



Distribution. Southwestern Utah to the western and northern rim of the Mohave Desert 
in California; most abundant and of its largest size on the foothills on the desert slope of 
the Tehachapi Mountains, California. 

8. Yucca gloriosa L. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 2-2| long, gradually narrowed above the broad base and then gradually broad- 
ened to above the middle, thin, flat or slightly concave toward the apex, frequently 
longitudinally folded, dull often glaucous green, roughened on the under surface especially 
above the middle, with a stout dark red tip, and pale margins serrulate toward the base 
of the leaf, with minute early deciduous teeth, or occasionally separating into thin fibres. 
Flowers in October, in pubescent or glabrate panicles, 2-4 long, on stout stalks sometimes 




Fig. 113 

t 

3-4 in length, their large creamy white bracts forming before the panicle emerges a con- 
spicuous egg-shaped bud 4'-6' long; perianth when fully expanded 3^'-4' across, its seg- 
ments thin, ovate, acute, or lance-ovate, often tinged with green or purple, slightly 
united at the base, pubescent at apex; stamens about as long as the ovary, with hispid or 
slightly papillose filaments and deeply emarginate anthers; ovary slightly lobed, 6-sided, 
light green, gradually narrowed into the elongated spreading stigmatic lobes. Fruit very 
rarely produced, prominently 6-ridged, pendulous, 3' long, 1' in diameter, cuspidate, raised 
on a short stout stipe, with a thin leathery almost black outer coat; seeds \' wide and about 
-$' thick, with a smooth coat and a narrow marginal rim. 

A tree, with a trunk occasionally 6-8 high and 4'-6' in diameter, simple or rarely fur- 
nished with a few short branches and usually clothed to the base with pendant dead leaves; 
in cultivation often becoming much larger, with a stout trunk covered with smooth light 
gray bark, and erect or in one form (var. recurvifolia Engelm.) pendulous leaves. 

Distribution. Sand dunes and the borders of beaches of the seacoast from North Caro- 
lina to northern Florida. 

Often cultivated with many forms in the gardens and pleasure-grounds of all temperate 
countries. 

9. Yucca elata Engelm. Spanish Dagger. 
1. Yucca radiosa Trel. 

Leaves 20'-30' long, \'-\' wide, rigid, gradually narrowed from the thin base, tapering 
toward the apex, or sometimes somewhat broadest at the middle, thin, flat on the upper 
surface, slightly thickened and rounded on the lower surface toward the base, smooth, pale 



118 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



yellow-green, with a slender stiff red-brown tip, and thickened entire pale margins soon 
splitting into long slender filaments. Flowers in May and June on slender spreading more 
or less recurved pedicels, in glabrous much-branched panicles 4-6 long, raised on stout 
naked stem 3-7 in length; perianth ovoid and acute in the bud, when fully expanded 
3|'-4' across, its segments united at the base into a short slender distinct tube, ovate or 
slightly obovate, those of the outer rank usually acute, not more than half as broad as those 
of the inner rank; stamens as long or a little longer than the ovary, with slender nearly 
terete filaments; ovary sessile, almost terete, pale green, abruptly contracted into the stout 
elongated style. Fruit an erect oblong capsule rounded and obtuse at the ends, tipped by 
a short stout mucro, conspicuously 3-ribbed, with rounded ridges on the back of the car- 
pels, Ij'-Z' long, l'-l' wide, with a thin firm light brown ligneous outer coat closely ad- 




Fig. 114 

herent to the lustrous light yellow inner coat, in ripening splitting from the top to the 
bottom between the carpels, and through their backs at the apex; seeds 3' wide and about 
^2' thick, with a smooth coat and a thin brittle wide margin to the rim. 

A tree, with a rough much-branched underground stem penetrating deep into the soil 
and a trunk often 15-20 high and 7'-8' in diameter, covered above with a thick thatch 
of the pendant dead leaves of many years, simple, or branched at the top with a few short 
stout branches densely covered with leaves at first erect, then spreading nearly at right 
angles, and finally pendulous. Bark dark brown, irregularly fissured, broken into thin 
plates, about |' thick. Wood light, soft, spongy, pale brown or yellow. 

Distribution. High desert plateaus from southwestern Texas to southern Arizona; 
southward into northern Mexico; most abundant and of its largest size on the eastern slope 
of the continental divide in southern New Mexico and along the northern rim of the 
Tucson Desert in Arizona. 

DIVISION II. DICOTYLEDONS. 

Stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing by the addition of an 
annual layer of wood inside the bark. Parts of the flower mostly in 4's and 
o's; embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons. Leaves netted-veined. 

Subdivision 1. Apetalse. Flowers without a corolla and sometimes with- 
out a calyx (with a corolla in Olacacece). 

Section 1. Flowers in unisexual aments (female flowers of Juglans and 
Quercus solitary or in spikes} ; ovary inferior (superior in Leitneriaceoe) when 
calyx is present. 



SALIC ACE,E 119 

V. SALICACEJE. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, alternate simple stalked deciduous leaves with stip- 
ules, soft light usually pale wood, astringent bark, scaly buds, and often stoloniferous roots. 
Flowers appearing in early spring usually before the leaves, solitary in the axils of the scales 
of unisexual aments from buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year, the male and 
female on different plants; perianth 0; stamens 1, 2 or many, their anthers introrse, 2-celled, 
the cells opening longitudinally; styles usually short or none; stigmas 2-4, often 2-lobed. 
Fruit a 1-celled 2-4-valved capsule, with 2-4 placentas bearing below their middle numer- 
ous ascending anatropous seeds without albumen and surrounded by tufts of long white 
silky hairs attached to the short stalks of the seeds and deciduous with them; embryo 
straight, filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons flattened, much longer than the short 
radicle turned toward the minute hilum. 

The two genera of this family are widely scattered but most abundant in the northern 
hemisphere, with many species, and are often conspicuous features of vegetation. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE GENERA. 

Scales of the aments laciniate; flowers surrounded by a cup-shaped often oblique disk; 

stamens numerous; buds with numerous scales. 1. Populus. 

Scales of the aments entire; disk a minute gland-like body; stamens 1, 2 or many; buds with 

a single scale. 2. Salix. 

1. POPULUS L. Poplar. 

Large fast-growing trees, with pale furrowed bark, terete or angled branchlets, resinous 
winter-buds covered by several thin scales, those of the first pair small and opposite, the 
others imbricated, increasing in size from below upward, accrescent and marking the base 
of the branchlet with persistent ring-like scars, and thick roots. Leaves involute in the 
bud, usually ovate or ovate-lanceolate, entire, dentate with usually glandular teeth, or 
lobed, penni veined, turning yellow in the autumn; petioles long, often laterally com- 
pressed, sometimes furnished at the apex on the upper side with 2 nectariferous glands, 
leaving in falling oblong often obcordate, elliptic, arcuate, or shield-shaped leaf-scars 
displaying the ends of 3 nearly equidistant fibre- vascular bundles; stipules caducous, those 
of the first leaves resembling the bud-scales, smaller higher on the branch, and linear- 
lanceolate and scarious on the last leaves. Flowers in pendulous stalked aments, the pis- 
tillate lengthening and rarely becoming erect before maturity; scales obovate, gradually 
narrowed into slender stipes, dilated and lobed, palmately cleft or fimbriate at apex, mem- 
branaceous, glabrous or villose, more crowded on the staminate than on the pistillate 
ament, usually caducous; disk of the flower broadly cup-shaped, often oblique/ entire, 
dentate or irregularly lobed, fleshy or membranaceous, stipitate, usually persistent under 
the fruit; stamens 4-12 or 12-60 or more, inserted on the disk, their filaments free, short, 
light yellow; anthers ovoid or oblong, purple or red; ovary sessile in the bottom of the disk, 
oblong-conical, sub-globose or ovoid-oblong, cylindric or slightly lobed, with 2 or 3 or 
rarely 4 placentas; styles usually short; stigmas as many as the placentas, divided into fili- 
form lobes or broad, dilated, 2-parted or lobed. Fruit ripening before the full growth of 
the leaves, greenish, reddish brown, or buff color, oblong-conic, subglobose or ovoid-oblong, 
separating at maturity into 2-4 recurved valves. Seeds broadly obovoid or ovoid, rounded 
or acute at the apex, light chestnut-brown; cotyledons elliptic. 

Populus in the extreme north often forms great forests, and is common on the alluvial 
bottom-lands of streams and on high mountain slopes, ranging from the Arctic Circle to 
northern Mexico and Lower California and from the Atlantic to the Pacific in the New 
World, and to northern Africa, the southern slopes of the Himalayas, central China, and 



120 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Japan in the Old World. Of the thirty-four species now generally recognized fifteen are 
found in North America. The wood of many of the American species is employed in large 
quantities for paper-making, and several species furnish wood used in construction and in 
the manufacture of small articles of woodenware. The bark contains tannic acid and is 
used in tanning leather and occasionally as a tonic, and the fragrant balsam contained in 
the buds of some species is occasionally used in medicine. The rapidity of their growth, 
their hardiness and the ease with which they can be propagated by cuttings, make many of 
the species useful as ornamental trees or in wind-breaks, although planted trees often suffer 
severely from the attacks of insects boring into the trunks and branches. Of the exotic 
species, the Abele, or White Poplar, Populus alba L., of Europe and western Asia, and its 
fastigiate form, and the so-called Lombardy Poplar, a tree of pyramidal habit and a form 
of the European and Asiatic Populus nigra L., and one of its hybrids, have been largely 
planted in the United States. . 

Populus, of obscure derivation, is the classical name of the Poplar. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Stigmas 2, 2-lobed, their lobes filiform; leaf stalks elongated, laterally compressed; buds 

slightly resinous. 

Leaves finely serrate; winter-buds glabrous. 1. P. tremuloides (A, B, F, G). 

Leaves coarsely serrate; winter-buds tomentose or pubescent. 2. P. grandidentata. 
Stigmas 2-4, 2-lobed and dilated, their lobes variously divided; buds resinous. 
Leaf-stalks round. 

Leaves tomentose below early in the season, broadly ovate, acute or rounded at apex. 

3. P. heterophylla (A, C). 
Leaves glabrous or pilose below. 

Leaves dark green above, pale, rarely pilose below. 

Ovary and capsule glabrous. 4. P. tacamahacca (A, B, F). 

Ovary and capsule tomentose or pubescent. 5. P. trichocarpa (B, F). 

Leaves light green on both surfaces, glabrous. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate. 6. P. angustifolia (F). 

Leaves rhombic-lanceolate to ovate. 7. P. acuminata (F). 

Leaf-stalks laterally compressed. 

Leaves without glands at apex of the petiole, coarsely serrate, thick. 
Pedicels shorter than the fruit. 
Disk cup-shaped. 

Branchlets stout; capsule '-' long. 8. P. Fremontii (G, H). 

Branchlets slender; capsule not more than \' long. 9. P. arizonica (F, H). 
Disk minute. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaves broad-ovate to deltoid, long-pointed and acum- 
inate at apex. 10. P. texana (C). 
Branchlets pubescent; leaves broad-ovate, abruptly short-pointed 'or acute at 
apex. 11. P. McDougallii (G, H). 
Pedicels 2 or 3 times longer than the fruit; leaves broadly deltoid, abruptly short- 
pointed. 12. P. Wislizenii (E, F). 
Leaves furnished with glands at apex of the petiole. 
Branchlets stout; leaves thick. 

Winter-buds puberulous; leaves coarsely serrate; branchlets light yellow. 

13. P. Sargentii (F). 

Winter-buds glabrous; leaves less coarsely serrate; branchlets gray or reddish 

brown. 14. P. balsamifera (A, C). 

Branchlets slender; leaves thin, ovate, cuneate or rounded at base, finely serrate. 

15. P. Palmeri (E). 



SALICACE^E 121 

1. Populus tremuloides Michx. Aspen. Quaking Asp. 

Leaves ovate to broad-ovate or rarely reniform (var. reniformis Tidestrom) abruptly short- 
pointed or acuminate at apex rounded or rarely cuneate at the wide base, closely crenately 
serrate with glandular teeth, thin, green and lustrous above, dull green or rarely pale below, 
up to 4|' long and broad with a prominent midrib, slender primary veins and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, compressed laterally, l|'-3' long. Flowers: aments 
l|'-2f long, the pistillate becoming 4' in length at maturity; scales deeply divided into 
3-5 linear acute lobes fringed with long soft gray hairs; disk oblique, the staminate entire, 
the pistillate slightly crenate; stamens 6-12; ovary conic, with a short thick style and erect 
stigmas thickened and club-shaped below and divided into linear diverging lobes. Fruit 
maturing in May and June, oblong-conic, light green, thin-walled, nearly ' long; seeds 
obovoid, light brown, about jz' in length. 

A tree, 20-40 high, with a trunk 18'-20' in diameter, slender remote and often con- 
torted branches somewhat pendulous toward the ends, forming a narrow symmetrical 




Fig. 115 

round-topped head, and slender branchlets covered with scattered oblong orange-colored 
lenticels, bright red-brown and very lustrous during their first season, gradually turning 
light gray tinged with red, ultimately dark gray, and much roughened for two or three 
years by the elevated leaf-scars. Winter-buds slightly resinous, conic, acute, often in- 
curved, about \' long, narrower than the more obtuse flower-buds, with 6 or 7 lustrous 
glabrous red-brown scales scarious on the margins. Bark thin, pale yellow-brown or 
orange-green, often roughened by horizontal bands of circular wart-like excrescences, fre- 
quently marked below the branches by large rows of lunate dark scars. Wood light 
brown, with nearly white sapwood of 25-30 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Southern Labrador to the southern shores of Hudson's Bay and north- 
westerly to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, through the northern states to the moun- 
tains of Pennsylvania, northern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, eastern and central Iowa 
and northeastern Missouri; common and generally distributed usually on moist sandy 
soil and gravelly hillsides; most valuable in the power of its seeds to germinate quickly in 
soil made infertile by fire and of its seedlings to grow rapidly in exposed situations; west- 
ward passing into the var. aurea Daniels, with thicker rhombic to semiorbicular or broad- 
ovate generally smaller leaves, usually pale on the lower surface, rounded or acute and 
minutely short-pointed at apex, rounded or cuneate at base, often entire with slightly 



122 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



thickened margins, or occasionally coarsely crenately serrate, with inconspicuous reticulate 
veinlets, turning bright golden yellow in the autumn before falling. 

A tree occasionally 100 high with a trunk up to 3 in diameter, with pale often white 
bark, becoming near the base of old stems 2' thick, nearly black, and deeply divided into 
broad flat ridges broken on the surface into small appressed plate-like scales. 

Distribution. Valley of the Yukon River to Saskatchewan, and southward through the 
mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountain region to southern New Mexico, the San Francisco 
Mountains of Arizona, and westward to the valley of the Skeena River, British Columbia, 
western Washington and Oregon, the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the high 
mountains of southern California, and eastward to North and South Dakota and western 
Nebraska; on the mountains of Chihuahua, and on the Sierra de Laguna, Lower California. 

Populus tremuloides var. vancouveriana Sarg. 
Populus vancouveriana Trel. 

Leaves broadly ovate to semiorbicular, abruptly short-pointed or rounded at apex, 
rounded or slightly cordate at the broad base, coarsely crenately serrate and sometimes 
obscurely crispate on the margins, when they unfold covered below and on the petioles with 




Fig. 116 

a thick coat of long matted pale hairs, and slightly villose, glabrous or nearly glabrous above, 
soon glabrous, and at maturity thick dark green, lustrous and scabrate on the upper surface, 
paler on the lower surface, 3'-4^' long and broad, with a prominent midrib and primary 
veins; petioles slender, compressed, becoming glabrous, 2'-3' in length. Flowers: stami- 
nate aments slightly villose; pedicels pubescent; disk of the flower puberulous toward the 
base; flowers as in the species; pistillate aments 2'-2' long, becoming 3-3^' in length at 
maturity; the rachis, pedicels and slightly lobed disk of the flower densely villose-pubes- 
cent; ovary conic, pubescent, with a short style and stigma divided into narrow divergent 
lobes. Fruit on pedicel not more than ^V in length, oblong-conic, pubescent or glabrous, 
long. 

A tree 30-36 high, with a trunk 12'-16' in diameter, stout spreading branches forming 
a round-topped head, stout, reddish brown pubescent or puberulous branchlets often be- 
coming glabrous during their first summer. Winter-buds acute, tomentose, pubescent 
or glabrous. 



SALICACE.E 

Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia and shores of Puget Sound; Tualitin, 
Washington County, and valley of the Willamette River at Corvallis, Benton County, 
Oregon. 

2. Populus grandidentata Michex. Poplar. 

Leaves semiorbicular to broad-ovate, short-pointed at apex, rounded, abruptly cuneate 
or rarely truncate at the broad entire base, coarsely repand-dentate above with few stout 
incurved teeth, covered like the petioles early in the season with white tomentum, soon 
glabrous, thin and firm in texture, dark green above, paler on the lower surface, 2'-3' long, 
2'-2^' wide, with a prominent yellow midrib, conspicuously forked veins, and reticulate 
veinlets; petioles slender, laterally compressed, l'-2|' long. Flowers: aments pubescent, 
1^'-2|' long, the pistillate becoming 4 '-5' long at maturity; scales pale and scarious below, 
divided above into 5 or 6 small irregular acute lobes covered with soft pale hairs; disk shal- 
low, oblique, the staminate entire, the pistillate slightly crenate; stamens 6-12, with short 
slender filaments and light red anthers ; ovary oblong-conic, bright green, puberulous, with 




Fig. 117 

a short style, and spreading stigmas divided nearly to the base into elongated filiform lobes. 
Fruit ripening before the leaves are fully grown, often more or less curved above the mid- 
dle, light green and puberulous, thin-walled, 2-valved, about |' long; pedicel slender, 
pubescent, about iV in length; seeds minute dark brown. 

A tree, often 60-70 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, slender rather rigid 
branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and stout branchlets marked by scattered 
oblong orange-colored lenticels. coated when they first appear with thick hoary deciduous 
tomentum, becoming during their first year dark red-brown or dark orange-colored, gla- 
brous, lustrous, or covered with a delicate gray pubescence, and in their second year dark 
gray sometimes slightly tinged with green and much roughened by the elevated 3-lobed 
leaf -scars; generally smaller, and usually not more than 30-40 tall. Winter-buds terete, 
broadly ovoid, acute, with light bright chestnut-brown scales, pubescent during the winter 
especially on their thin scarious margins, about f long and not more than half the size of 
the flower-buds. Bark thin, smooth, light gray tinged with green, becoming near the base 
of old trunks f'-l' thick, dark brown tinged with red, irregularly fissured and divided into 
broad flat ridges roughened on the surface by small thick closely appressed scales. Wood 
light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood of 20-30 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Rich moist sandy soil near the borders of swamps and streams; Nova 
Scotia, through New Brunswick, southern Quebec and Ontario to northern Minnesota, 



124 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



southward through the northern states to Pennsylvania, northern Ohio, and eastern (Mus- 
catine County) and central Iowa, and westward to central Kentucky and Tennessee; 
passing into the var. meridwnalis Tidestrom with broad-ovate acuminate leaves with more 
numerous teeth, often 4'-5' long and 3' wide; the common form in Maryland, northern 
Delaware, the piedmont region of Virginia and North Carolina, southern Ohio, and south- 
ern Indiana and Illinois; rare northward to northern New England. 

3. Populus heterophylla L. Swamp Cottonwood. Black Cottonwood. 
Leaves broadly ovate, gradually narrowed and acute, short-pointed or rounded at apex, 
slightly cordate or truncate or rounded at the wide base, usually furnished with a narrow 
deep sinus, finely or coarsely crenately serrate with incurved glandular teeth, covered as they 
unfold with thick hoary deciduous tomentum, becoming thin and firm in texture, dark 
deep green above, pale and glabrous below, with a stout yellow midrib, forked veins and 
conspicuous reticulate veinlets, 4'-7' long, 3'-6' wide; petioles slender terete tomentose or 
nearly glabrous 2'-3| in length. Flowers: staminate aments broad, densely flowered, 
1' long, erect when the flowers first open, becoming pendulous and 2'-2f long; scales nar- 
rowly oblong-obovate, brown, scarious and glabrous below, divided into numerous elon- 




Fig. 118 



gated filiform light red-brown lobes; disk oblique, slightly concave; stamens 12-20, with 
slender filaments about as long as the large dark red anthers; pistillate aments slender, 
pendulous, few-flowered, l'-2' long, becoming erect and 4'-6' long before maturing, their 
scales concave and infolding the flowers, linear-obovate, brown and scarious, laterally 
lobed, fimbriate above the middle, caducous; disk thin, irregularly divided in numerous 
triangular acute teeth, long-stalked; ovary ovoid, terete or obtusely 3-angled, with a short 
stout elongated style and 2 or 3 much-thickened dilated 2 or 3-lobed stigmas. Fruit on 
elongated pedicels, ripening when the leaves are about one third grown, ovoid, acute, dark 
red-brown, rather thick-walled, 2 or 3-valved, about \' long; seeds obovoid, minute, dark 
red-brown. 

A tree, 80-90 high, with a tall trunk 2-3 in diameter, short rather slender branches 
forming a comparatively narrow round-topped head, and stout branchlets, marked by 
small elongated pale lenticels, coated at first with hoary caducous tomentum, becoming 
dark brown and rather lustrous or ashy gray, or rarely pale orange color and glabrous or 
slightly puberulous, or covered with a glaucous bloom in their first winter, growing darker 
in their second year and much roughened by the large thickened leaf-scars; usually much 
smaller and at the north rarely more than 40 tall. Winter-buds slightly resinous, broadly 
ovoid, acute, with bright red-brown scales, about \' long and about one half the size of the 



SALICACE^E 125 

flower-buds. Bark on young trunks divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges sepa- 
rating on the surface into thick plate-like scales, becoming on old trunks f'-l' thick, light 
brown tinged with red, and broken into long narrow plates attached only at the middle and 
sometimes persistent for many years. Wood dull brown, with thin lighter brown sapwood 
of 12-15 layers of annual growth; now often manufactured into lumber in the valley of the 
Mississippi River and in the Gulf states, and as black poplar used in the interior finish of 
buildings. 

Distribution. Southington, Connecticut, and Northport, Long Island, southward near 
the coast to southern Georgia, and the valley of the lower Apalachicola River, Florida, 
through the Gulf states to western Louisiana, and through Arkansas to southeastern Mis- 
souri, western Kentucky and Tennessee, southern Illinois and Indiana, and in central and 
northern Ohio (Williams, Otta-wa and Lake Counties) ; in the north Atlantic states in low 
wet swamps, rare and local; more common south and west on the borders of river swamps; 
very abundant and of its largest size in the valley of the lower Ohio and in southeastern 
Missouri, eastern Arkansas, and western Mississippi. 

4. Populus tacamahacca Mill. Balsam. Tacamahac. 
Populus balsamifera Du Roi, not L. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed and acuminate at apex, cordate or rounded 
at base, or narrow-elliptic and acute or acuminate at the ends, finely crenately serrate, with 
slightly thickened revolute margins, coated when they unfold with the gummy secretions 




Fig. 119 

of the bud, glabrous, or puberulous on the under side of the midrib, becoming thin and firm 
in texture, deep dark green and lustrous above, pale green or glaucous and more or less 
rusty and conspicuously reticulate- venulose below, 3'-5' long, l^'-3' wide, with thin veins 
running obliquely almost to the margins; petioles slender, terete, \\' long, glabrous or 
rarely puberulous. Flowers : aments long-stalked, the pistillate becoming 4 '-5' long before 
the fruit ripens, glabrous or pubescent; scales broadly obovate, light brown and scarious, 
often irregularly 3-parted at apex, cut into short thread-like brown lobes; disk of the 
staminate flower oblique, short-stalked; stamens 20-30, with short filaments and large 
light red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped; ovary ovoid, slightly 2-lobed, 
with two nearly sessile large oblique dilated crenulate stigmas. Fruit ovoid-oblong, acute 
and often curved at apex, 2-valved, light brown, about \'-\ r long, nearly sessile or short- 
stalked, i' I' in length; seeds oblong-obovoid, pointed at apex, narrowed and truncate at 
base, light brown, about tV long. 

A tree, often 100 high, with a tall trunk 6-7 in diameter, stout erect branches usually 



126 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

more or less contorted near the ends, forming a comparatively narrow open head, and 
glabrous or occasionally pubescent branchlets marked by oblong bright orange-colored 
lenticels, much roughened by the thickened leaf-scars, at first red-brown and glabrous or 
pubescent, becoming bright and lustrous in their first winter, dark orange-colored in their 
second year, and finally gray tinged with yellow-green; usually much smaller toward the 
southern limits of its range. Winter-buds saturated with a yellow balsamic sticky exuda- 
tion, ovoid, terete, long-pointed; terminal I' long, f broad; axillary about f long, iV 
broad, with 5 oblong pointed concave closely imbricated thick chestnut-brown lustrous 
scales. Bark light brown tinged with red, smooth or roughened by dark excrescences, be- 
coming on old trunks f'-l' thick, gray tinged with red, and divided into broad rounded 
ridges covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, with thick nearly 
white sap wood. 

Distribution. Low often inundated river-bottom lands and swamp borders; Labrador 
to latitude 65 north in the valley of the Mackenzie River, and to the Alaskan coast, south 
to northern New England and New York, central Michigan, Minnesota (except in southern 
and southwestern counties), Turtle Mountains, Rolette County, North Dakota, the Black 
Hills of South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska (basin of Hat Creek), and in Colorado; the 
characteristic tree on the streams of the prairie region of British America, attaining its 
greatest size on the islands and banks of the Peace, Athabasca, and other tributaries of the 
Mackenzie; common in all the region near the northern boundary of the United States 
from Maine to the western limits of the Atlantic forests; the largest of the sub-Arctic 
American trees, and in the far north the most conspicuous feature of vegetation; passing 
into the variety Michauxii Farwell, with more cordate leaves, slightly pilose on the under 
side of the midrib and veins; common from Aroostook County, Maine, to the Province of 
Quebec, Newfoundland, and the shores of Hudson Bay. 

Often planted at the north for shelter or ornament. 

Populus candicans Ait., the Balm of Gilead of which only the pistillate tree is known, 
lias often been considered a variety of the North American Balsam Poplar. This tree has 
been long cultivated in the northeastern part of the country and has sometimes escaped 
from cultivation and formed groves of considerable extent, as on the banks of Cullasagee 
Creek on the western slope of the Blue Ridge in Macon County, North Carolina. The 
fact that only one sex is known suggests hybrid origin but of obscure and possibly partly 
of foreign origin. 

5. Populus trichocarpa Hook. Black Cottonwood. Balsam Cottonwood. 

Leaves broad-ovate, acute or acuminate at apex, rounded or abruptly cuneate at base, 
finely crenately serrate, glabrous, dark green above, pale and rusty or silvery white and 
conspicuously reticulate- venulose below, 3'-4' long, 2'-2f wide; petioles slender, pubes- 
cent, puberulous, pilose or rarely glabrous, l'-2' in length. Flowers: aments stalked, 
villose-pubescent, the staminate densely flowered, l'-2' long, $' thick, the pistillate loosely 
flowered, 2^'-3' long, becoming 4'-5' long before the fruit ripens; scales dilated at the apex, 
irregularly cut into numerous filiform lobes, glabrous or slightly puberulous on the outer 
surface; disk of the staminate flower broad, slightly oblique; stamens 40-60, with slender 
elongated filaments longer than the large light purple anthers; disk of the pistillate flower 
deep cup-shaped, with irregularly crenate or nearly entire revolute margins; ovary sub- 
globose, coated with thick hoary tomentum, with 3 nearly sessile broadly dilated deeply 
lobed stigmas. Fruit subglobose, nearly sessile, pubescent, thick-walled, 3-valved; seeds 
obovoid, apiculate at the gradually narrowed apex, light brown, puberulous toward the 
ends, iV long. 

A tree, 30-100 high, with a trunk l-3 in diameter, erect branches forming an open 
head, and slender branchlets terete or slightly angled while young, marked by many orange- 
colored lenticels, glabrous or when they first appear coated with deciduous rufous or pale 
pubescence, reddish brown during their first year, gradually becoming dark gray, and 
roughened by the greatly enlarged and thickened elevated leaf-scars. Winter-buds resin- 



SALICACE.E 



ous, fragrant, ovoid, long-pointed, frequently curved above the middle, ' long and \ f 
thick, with 6 or 7 light orange-brown slightly puberulous scales scarious on the margins. 
Bark %'-%%' thick, ashy gray, deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the 
surface into thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, dull brown, with thin nearly 
white sap wood. 




Fig. 120 

Distribution. In California in small groves with widely scattered individuals on the 
coast ranges, the western slope of the Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 6000-8000, and 
on the southern mountains to Mt. Palomar in San Diego County; on the California islands, 
and on the western slopes of the San Pedro Matir Mountains, Lower California. 

On the high Sierra Nevada and in northern California passing into the var. hastata A. 
Henry, differing in its thicker leaves, usually longer in proportion to their width, often 
long-acuminate, rounded or cordate at base, frequently 5' or 6' long and 3' or 4' wide, with 
glabrous petioles and larger sometimes nearly glabrous capsules on glabrous or pubescent 
aments, sometimes 10'-12' in length, and in its glabrous young branchlets. 

A tree sometimes 200 high, with a trunk 7-8 in diameter, and the largest deciduous- 
leaved tree of northwestern North America. The wood is largely used in Oregon and 
Washington for the staves of sugar barrels and in the manufacture of woodenware. 

Distribution. In open groves on rich bottom lands of streams from Siskiyou County, 
California, to southern Alaska; eastward in the United States through Oregon and 
Washington to western and southern Idaho; and to the mountains of western Nevada; 
in British Columbia to the valley of the Columbia River; on the banks of the east fork of 
the Kaweah River, Tulare County, California, at 10,000 above the sea. 

6. Populus angustifolia James. Narrow-leaved Cottonwood. 
Populus fortissimo A. Nels & Macbr. 

Leaves lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic or rarely obovate, narrowed to the taper- 
ing acute or rounded apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, finely 
or on vigorous shoots coarsely serrate, thin and firm, bright yellow-green above, 
glabrous or rarely puberulous and paler below, 2'-3' long, |'-1' wide, or on vigorous shoots 
occasionally 6'-7' long, and 1-|' wide, with a stout yellow midrib and numerous slender- 
oblique primary veins arcuate and often united near the slightly thickened revolute mar- 
gins; petioles slender, somewhat flattened on the upper side, and in falling leaving small 
nearly oval obcordate scars. Flowers: aments densely flowered, glabrous, short-stalked, 
%'-9>\' long, the pistillate becoming 2|'-4' long before the fruit ripens; scales broadly 
obovate, glabrous, thin, scarious, light brown, deeply and irregularly cut into numerous 






128 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

dark red-brown filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower cup-shaped, slightly oblique, 
short-stalked; stamens 12-20, with short filaments and large light red anthers; disk of the 
pistillate flower shallow, cup-shaped, slightly and irregularly lobed, short-stalked; ovary 
ovoid, more or less 2-lobed, with a short or elongated style and 2 oblique dilated irregu- 
larly lobed stigmas. Fruit broadly ovoid, often rather abruptly contracted above the 
middle, short-pointed, thin-walled, 2-valved; pedicels often \' long; seeds ovoid or obovoid, 
rather obtuse, light brown, nearly $' long. 




Fig. 121 



A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk rarely more than 18' in diameter, slender erect branches 
forming a narrow and usually pyramidal head, and slender glabrous or rarely puberulous 
branchlets marked by pale lenticels, at first light yellow-green, becoming bright or dark 
orange color in their first season, pale yellow in their second winter, and ultimately ashy 
gray. Winter-buds very resinous, ovoid, long-pointed, covered by usually 5 thin concave 
chestnut-brown scales; terminal \'-\' long and nearly twice as large as the axillary buds. 
Bark f '-!' thick, light yellow-green, divided near the base of old trees by shallow fissures 
into broad flat ridges, smooth and much thinner above. Wood light brown, with thin 
nearly white sap wood of 10-30 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Banks of streams usually at altitudes of 5000-10,000 above the sea; 
southern Alberta to the Black Hills of South Dakota and northwestern Nebraska (basin 
of Hat Creek) westward through Wyoming, Montana and Idaho to Yakima County, 
Washington, and southward to central Nevada, southwestern New Mexico (Silver City, 
Grant County) and northern Arizona; the common Cottonwood of northern Colorado, 
Utah, Wyoming, southern Montana, and eastern Idaho; on the mountains of Chihuahua. 

7. Populus acuminata Rydb. Cottonwood. 

Leaves rhombic-lanceolate to ovate, abruptly acuminate, gradually or abruptly nar- 
rowed and cuneate or concave-cuneate, or rarely broad and rounded at the mostly entire 
base, coarsely crenately serrate except near the apex, dark green and lustrous above, dull 
green below, 2'-4' long, f '-2' wide, with a slender yellow midrib, thin remote primary veins 
and obscure reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, nearly terete, l'-3' long. Flowers: 
aments slender, short-stalked, 2'-3' long, the pistillate becoming 4' or 5' long before the 
fruit ripens; scales scarious, light brown, glabrous, dilated and irregularly divided into 
filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower wide, oblique, and membranaceous; stamens 
numerous, with short filaments and dark red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower deep 
cup-shaped; ovary broad-ovoid, gradually narrowed above, with large laciniately lobed 
nearly sessile stigmas. Fruit pedicellate, oblong-ovoid, acute, thin-walled, slightly pitted, 



SALICACE.E 



129 



about \' long, 3 or rarely 2-valved; seeds oblong-obovoid, rounded at the apex, light 
brown, about T V m length. 

A tree, usually about 40 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, stout spreading and 
ascending branches forming a compact round-topped head, and slender terete or slightly 
4-angled pale yellow-brown branchlets roughened for two or three years by the elevated 
oval horizontal leaf-scars. Winter-buds acuminate, resinous, about ' long, with 6 or 7 
light chestnut-brown lustrous scales. Bark on young stems and large branches smooth, 
nearly white, becoming on old trunks pale gray-brown, about \' thick, deeply divided 
into broad flat ridges. 




Fig. 122 

Distribution. Banks of streams in the arid eastern foothill region of the Rocky Moun- 
tains; Assiniboia to the Black Hills of South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska, eastern 
Wyoming, southern Colorado, and southwestern New Mexico (Fort Bayard, Grant 
County); in Colorado crossing the Continental Divide to southeastern Utah; passing into 
the var. Rehderi Sarg. differing in the larger leaves on longer petioles, and in the pubes- 
cent branchlets and winter-buds. Borders of streams southeastern New Mexico. 

Sometimes planted as a shade-tree in the streets of cities in the Rocky Mountain region. 

X Populus Andrewsii Sarg. intermediate in its character between P. acuminata and P. 
'Sargentii and believed to be a natural hybrid of these species has been found growing 
naturally near Boulder and Walsenburg, Colorado, and as a street tree in Montrose, 
Colorado. 

8. Populus Fremontii S. Wats. Cottonwood. 

Leaves deltoid or reniform, generally contracted into broad short entire points, or rarely 
rounded or emarginate at apex, truncate, slightly cordate or abruptly cuneate at the entire 
base, coarsely and irregularly serrate, with few or many incurved gland-tipped teeth, 
coated like the petioles when they unfold with short spreading caducous pubescence, at 
maturity thick and firm, glabrous bright green and lustrous, 2'-2^' long, 2|'-3' wide, with a 
thin yellow midrib and 4 or 5 pairs of slender veins; petioles flattened, yellow, l|'-3' long. 
Flowers: staminate aments densely flowered, l|'-2' long, nearly \* thick, with slender 
glabrous stems, the pistillate sparsely flowered, with stout glabrous or puberulous stems, 
becoming before the fruit ripens 4' or 5' long; scales light brown, thin and scarious, dilated 
and irregularly cut at apex into filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower broad, oblique, 
slightly thickened on the entire re volute margin; stamens 60 or more, with large dark red 



130 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



anthers; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped; ovary ovoid or ovoid-oblong, with 3 or 
rarely 4 broad irregularly crenately lobed stigmas. Fruit ovoid, acute or obtuse,, slightly 




Fig. 123 



pitted, thick-walled, 3 or rarely 4-valved, \'-%' long; pedicel stout, from ^'-^ long; seeds 
ovoid, acute, light brown, nearly \' in length. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a short trunk 5-6 in diameter, stout spreading 
branches pendulous at the ends and forming a broad rather open graceful head, and slender 
terete branchlets light green and glabrous, becoming light yellow before winter, dark or 




Fig. 124 



light gray more or less tinged with yellow in their second year, and only slightly roughened 
by the small 3-lobed leaf-scars. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, with light green lustrous 



SALICACE.E 131 

scales, the terminal usually about \' long and usually two or three times as large as the 
lateral buds. Bark on young stems light gray-brown, thin, smooth or slightly fissured, 
becoming on old trees l|'-2' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and deeply and 
irregularly divided into broad connected rounded ridges covered with small closely ap- 
pressed scales. Wood light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams; valley of the upper Sacramento River southward 
through western California to the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California; most 
abundant in the San Joaquin Valley, and ascending the western slopes of the southern 
Sierra Nevada to altitudes of 3000. 

Often planted in southern California as a shade-tree, and for the fuel produced quickly 
and abundantly from pollarded trees. 

In San Bernardino and San Diego Counties, California, generally replaced by the var. 
pubescens Sarg., differing in its pubescent branchlets and ranging eastward to southwestern 
Nevada and southern Utah. In southern Arizona and near Silver City, Grant County, 
New Mexico, represented by the var. Thornberii Sarg., differing from the typical P. Fre- 
montii in the more numerous serratures of the leaves, in the ellipsoidal not ovoid capsules 
with smaller disk and shorter pedicels, and by the var. Toumeyi Sarg., differing from the 
type in the shallow cordate base of the leaves, gradually narrowed and cuneate to the in- 
sertion of the petiole, and in the larger disk of the fruit (Fig. 124). The var. macrodisca 
Sarg. with a broad disc nearly inclosing the ellipsoidal fruit is known only in the neigh- 
borhood of Silver City. 

X Populus Parryi Sarg., a probable hybrid of P. Fremontii and P. trichocarpa, with char- 
acters intermediate between those of its supposed parents, grows naturally along Cotton- 
wood Creek on the west side of Owens Lake, Inyo County, and in the neighborhood of 
Fort Tejon, Kern County, and as a street tree is not rare in San Bernardino, California. 

9. Populus arizonica Sarg. Cottonwood. 

Populus mexicana Sarg. not Wesm. 

Leaves deltoid or reniform, gradually or abruptly long-pointed at the acuminate entire 
apex, truncate or broad-cuneate at the wide base, finely serrate with numerous teeth, as 




Fig. 125 

they unfold dark red covered below with pale pubescence, pubescent above, ciliate on 
the margins, thin, glandular with bright red caducous glands, soon becoming glabrous, at 



132 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



maturity subcoriaceous, bright yellow-green, very lustrous, U'-2' long and broad, with a 
slender yellow midrib and obscure primary veins; petioles laterally compressed, sparingly 
villose when they first appear, soon glabrous, H'-2' long; leaves on vigorous leading shoots 
often rounded at apex, cuneate at base, and often 2' long and 3' w r ide, with petioles often 
3' in length. Flowers: stamina te aments dense, cylindric, l'-lf long, the pistillate 
slender, many-flowered, l^'-2' long, becoming 3'-4' long before the fruit ripens; disk of the 
staminate flower broad-oblong; stamens numerous: disk of the pistillate flower deep cup- 
shaped, nearly entire; ovary ovoid, rounded at apex, slightly 3 or 4-angled, short-stalked, 
nearly inclosed in the cup-shaped membranaceous disk. Fruit on short stout pedicels, 
round-ovoid, buff color, slightly 3 or 4-lobed, deeply pitted, thin-walled, about i' long. 

A tree, 50-70 high, with a trunk occasionally 3 in diameter, gracefully spreading and 
ascending branches forming a broad open head of wide-spreading branches, and slender often 
pendulous branchlets, pale green and glabrous or puberulous when they first appear, soon 
becoming glabrous, and light yellow during their first season. Winter-buds narrow, acute, 
light orange-brown, puberulous toward the base of the outer scales, the terminal about j' 
long, and two or three times as large as the much-compressed oblong lateral buds. Bark 
pale gray or rarely white, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges. 

Distribution. Banks of mountain streams; southwestern California (Mill Creek, above 
Forest Home, San Bernardino Mountains) and southern and central Arizona; widely dis- 
tributed through northern Mexico (var. Jonesii Sarg.) ; well distinguished from the other 
Cottonwoods of the United States by its small fruit. 

Often planted as a street tree in the towns of southern Arizona. 

10. Populus texana Sarg. 

Leaves thin, glabrous, broadly ovate, gradually narrowed, long-pointed and acuminate 
at apex, truncate at base, coarsely crenately serrate below the middle, entire above, 3'-3j' 




Fig. 126 

long and 2j'-2' wide; petioles slender, compressed, l'-2^' in length. Flowers not seen. 
Fruit: aments slender, glabrous, 2^'-3' long; fruit oblong-ovoid, acute, deeply pitted, 
glabrous, thin-walled, 3-valved, %' in length; disk slightly lobed; pedicel slender, -rV~f m 
length; seeds ovoid, acuminate, T y long. 

A tree up to 60 high, with a trunk sometimes 3 in diameter, stout more or less pendu- 
lous branches and stout glabrous pale yellow-brown branchlets. Winter-buds acuminate, 
glabrous. 

In canons and along the streams of northwestern Texas, where it appears to be the 
onlv Cottonwood. 



SALICACE^E 



133 



11. Populus McDougallii Rose. 

Leaves broadly ovate, abruptly short-pointed or acute at apex, broadly or acutely 
cuneate or truncate, or on vigorous shoots rarely slightly cordate at base, finely or often 
coarsely crenately serrate, bluish green, thin, pubescent on the under sides of the midrib 
and primary veins early in the season, otherwise glabrous, lj'-3' long and broad, with slen- 
der midribs and veins; petioles slender, slightly compressed, pubescent early in the season, 
becoming glabrous, H'-2' in length. Flowers not seen. Fruit: aments glabrous, short- 
stalked, 2'-2|' long; fruit ovoid and acute at apex to ellipsoidal and acute or acuminate at 
ends, glabrous, slightly pitted, thin-walled, 3-valved, ^'-\' long; disk not more than \' 
in diameter; pedicels glabrous, \'-\' in length; seeds oblong-ovoid, acuminate, \' long. 




Fig. 127 

A tree rarely 90-110 high, usually much smaller, with erect branches and slender 
branchlets pubescent or puberulous when they first appear, sometimes becoming glabrous 
during their first season, and sometimes pubescent during two years. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and springs, San Bernardino County, California (Cot- 
tonwood Springs, Meca, etc.), and eastward to the bottoms of the Colorado River from 
Clark County, Nevada, to Yuma, Arizona, and probably the only Cottonwood in this 
arid region. 

Often planted as a street tree in the towns of southwestern California and of adjacent 
Nevada and Arizona. 

12. Populus Wislizenii Sarg. Cottonwood. 

Leaves broadly deltoid, abruptly short- or long-pointed at apex, truncate or sometimes 
cordate at the broad entire base, coarsely and irregularly crenately serrate except toward 
the entire apex, coriaceous, glabrous, yellow-green and lustrous, 2'-2|' long, usually about 
3' wide, with a slender yellow midrib, thin remote primary veins and conspicuous reticulate 
veinlets; petioles slender, glabrous, l|'-2' long; on vigorous shoots often 3^'-4' long and 
wide with petioles 3'-4' in length. Flowers: aments 2'-4' long, the pistillate becoming 
4'-5' long before the fruit ripens; scales scarious, light red, divided at the apex into elon- 
gated filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower broad and oblique; stamens numerous, 
with large oblong anthers and short filaments; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped, 






134 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



irregularly dentate, inclosing to the middle the long stalked ovary full and rounded at apex, 
with 3 broad crenulate lobed stigmas raised on the short branches of the style. Fruit 
oblong-ovoid, thick-walled, acute, 3 or 4-valved, slightly ridged, buff color, |' long; pedi- 
cels slender, '-f ' in length and placed rather remotely on the slender glabrous rachis of 
the ament. 

A large tree, with wide-spreading branches, and stout light orange-colored glabrous branch- 





Fig. 128 

lets. Winter-buds acute lustrous, puberulous. Bark pale gray-brown, deeply divided 
into broad flat ridges. Wood used as fuel, for fence-posts and the rafters of Mexican 
houses. 

Distribution. Western Texas through New Mexico to the valley of Grand River, west- 
ern Colorado (Grand Junction, Mesa County); common in the valley of the Rio Grande 
in western Texas and New Mexico, and the adjacent parts of Mexico. 

Often planted as a shade tree in New Mexico. 



13. Populus Sargentii Dode. 
Popidus deltoides var. occidentalis Rydb. 

Leaves ovate, usually longer than broad, abruptly narrowed into a long slender entire 
acuminate point or rarely rounded at apex, truncate or slightly cordate at base, and 
coarsely crenately serrate, as they unfold slightly villose above and tomentose on the mar- 
gins, soon glabrous, light green and very lustrous, 3'-3|' long, 3|'-4' wide, with a thin mid- 
rib slender primary veins and reticulate veinlets occasionally furnished on the upper side 
at the insertion of the petiole with one or two small glands; petioles slender, compressed 
laterally, 2'-3' long. Flowers: aments short-stalked, glabrous, the staminate 2,'-ZV in 
length, the pistillate becoming 4 '-8' long before the fruit ripens; scales fimbriately divided 
at apex, scarious, light brown; disk of the staminate flow r er broad, oblique, slightly thickened 
on the margins; stamens 20 or more, with short filaments and yellow anthers; disk of the 
pistillate flower cup-shaped, slightly lobed on the margin; ovary subglobose, with 3 or 4 
sessile dilated or laciniately lobed stigmas. Fruit oblong-ovoid, gradually or abruptly 
narrowed to the blunt apex, thin-walled, about f- ' long and three or four times longer than 
the pedicel; seeds oblong-obovoid, rounded at apex, about T V in length. 

A tree 60-90 tall with a trunk often 6 or 7 in diameter, erect and spreading branches 
forming a broad open head, and stout glabrous light yellow often angular branchlets 
conspicuously roughened by the elevated scars of fallen leaf-stalks. Winter-buds ovoid, 



SALICACE.E 



135 



acute, with light orange-brown puberulous scales. Bark pale, thick, divided by deep fissures 
into broad rounded ridges broken into closely appressed scales. 




Fig. 129 

Distribution. The common Cottonwood along the streams in the eastern foothill region 
of the Rocky Mountains from Saskatchewan to New Mexico, and ranging east to the Da- 
kotas, western Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. 

Often planted as a shade and street tree in the Rocky Mountain states; hardy in Mas- 
sachusetts. 

14. Populus balsamifera L. Cottonwood. 

Populus angulata Michx. f. 

Leaves ovate, longer than broad, abruptly* acuminate and often long-pointed at apex, 
subcordate or rarely truncate at the wide base, finely crenately serrate with glandular 
teeth, furnished on the upper surface at the insertion of the petiole with two glands, thick, 
glabrous, green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler below, 5'-7' long and 4 '-5' wide, 
with stout midribs and conspicuous primary veins sometimes sparingly pilose below early 
in the season; petioles much compressed laterally, often more or less tinged with red, 3'-4' 
in length. Flowers: aments glabrous, short-stalked, the staminate densely flowered, 
H'-2' long, $'-' in diameter, the pistillate slender, sparsely flowered, 3'-3' in length; 
scales scarious, light brown, glabrous, dilated and irregularly divided at apex into filiform 
lobes; disk of the staminate flower broad, oblique, slightly thickened and revoliite on 
the margins; stamens 60 or more, with short filaments and large dark red anthers; disk 
of the pistillate flower broad, slightly crenate, inclosing about \' of the ovoid obtusely 
pointed ovary, with 3 or 4 sessile dilated lacinately lobed stigmas. Fruit on aments 8 '-12' in 
length, ellipsoidal, pointed, thin-walled, 3 or 4-valved, \' long, the disk little enlarged; 
pedicels jy'-|' in length; seeds oblong-obovoid, rounded at apex, light brown, about 
T2 r long. 

A large tree with massive spreading branches and stout yellow-brown often angular 
branchlets. Winter-buds resinous, acute, \' long with light chestnut brown lustrous 
scales. 



136 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Shores of Lake Champlain (Shelburne Point, Chittenden County), Ver- 
mont; western New York; Island of the Delaware River above Easton, Northampton 
County, Pennsylvania; Baltimore County, and Bare Hills, Maryland; northern banks of 




Fig. 130 



the Potomac River opposite Plummer's Island near Washington, D.C.; Artisia, Lowndes 
County, and Starkville, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi; rare and local. 

Populus balsamifera var. virginiana Sarg. Cottonwood. 

Populus deltoidea Marsh, at least in part. 
Populus nigra /3 virginiana Castiglioni. 

Leaves deltoid to ovate-deltoid, acuminate with entire points, truncate, slightly cordate 
or occasionally abruptly cuneate at the entire base, crenately serrate above, with incurved 
glandular teeth, fragrant with a balsamic odor, glabrous, thick and firm, light bright green 
and lustrous, paler on the lower than on the upper surface, 3'-5' long and broad, with a stout 
yellow midrib often tinged with red toward the base, raised and rounded on the upper 
side, and conspicuous primary veins; petioles slender, pilose at first, soon glabrous, com- 
pressed laterally, yellow often more or less tinged with red, 2'-3' long. Flowers and 
Fruit: as on the type. 

A tree, sometimes 100 high, with a trunk occasionally 7-8 in diameter, divided often 
20-30 above the ground into several massive limbs spreading gradually and becoming 
pendulous toward the ends, and forming a graceful rather open head frequently 100 across, 
or on young trees nearly erect above and spreading below almost at right angles with the 
stem, and forming a symmetrical pyramidal head, and stout branchlets marked with long 
pale lenticels, terete, or, especially on vigorous trees, becoming angled in their second year, 
with thin more or less prominent wings extending downward from the two sides and from 
the base of the large 3-lobed leaf-scars. Winter-buds very resinous, ovoid, acute, the lateral 
much flattened, % long, with 6 or 7 light chestnut-brown lustrous scales. Bark thin, 
smooth, light yellow tinged with green on young stems and branches, becoming on old 
trunks l'-2' thick, ashy gray, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken into 
closely appressed scales. Wood dark brown, with thick nearly white sapwood, warping 
badly in drying and difficult to season. 



SALICACE^E 



137 



Distribution. Banks of streams, often forming extensive open groves, and toward the 
western limits of its range occasionally in upland ravines and on bluffs; Province of Quebec 
and the shores of Lake Champlain, through western New England, western New York, 
Pennsylvania west of the Allegheny Mountains, and westward to southern Minnesota, 
North and South Dakota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and 
southward through the Atlantic states from Delaware to western Florida, and through the 
Gulf states to western Texas (Brown County). In the south Atlantic states and the valley 
of the Lower Ohio River and southward sometimes replaced by a variety with leaves covered 
above when they unfold with soft white hairs and below with close pubescence more or less 
persistent during the season especially on the midribs and veins (var. pUosa Sarg.). 




Fig. 131 

Often planted for shelter and ornament on the treeless plains and prairies between the 
Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, and as an ornamental tree in the eastern 
United States and largely in western and northern Europe. 

X Populus canadensis Moench, believed to be a hybrid between the northern glabrous 
form of P. balsamifera and the European P. nigra L., with several varieties, is cultivated in 
Europe and occasionally in the United States. The best known of these varieties, X P. cana- 
densis var. Eugenie Schelle, the Carolina Poplar of American nurseries, believed to be a 
hybrid of the northern Cottonwood with the Lombardy Poplar, has been planted in the 
United States in immense numbers. 

X Populus Jackii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of the northern Cottonwood with P. 
tacamahacca, with characters intermediate between those of its supposed parents, grows 
spontaneously near the mouth of the Chateaugay River and at Beauharnois, Province of 
Quebec, and at South Haven, Michigan, and is now occasionally cultivated. 

15. Populus Palmeri Sarg. 

Leaves thin, ovate, gradually or abruptly contracted at apex into a narrow acuminate 
entire point, cutieate or rounded at the broad base, finely serrate with incurved teeth, ciliate 
on the margins when they unfold, otherwise glabrous, 2'-5' long and l%'-2\' wide; petioles 
slender, glabrous, l|'-2' in length. Flowers not seen. Fruit: aments glabrous, 12-15cm. 
long; fruit ovoid, obtuse, slightly pitted, puberulous, thin-walled, 4-valved, '-' long, the 
disk deeply lobed; pedicel slender, \'-\' in length. 

A tree 60 tall, with a straight trunk 3 in diameter, erect smooth pale branches forming 
an open pyramidal head, the lower branches smaller, horizontal or pendulous, and slender 
glabrous branchlets light reddish brown early in the season, becoming pale grayish brown 



138 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



in their second year. Bark pale, 3'-4' thick, deeply divided by wide fissures into narrow 
ridges. 

Distribution. In moist fertile soil near springs, at the base of high chalky bluffs of 




Fig. 132 

Nueces Canon of the upper Nueces River, Uvalde County, growing with Salix nigra var. 
Lindheimeri, Carya pecan, Morus rubra and Ulmus crassifolia, and at Strawn, Palo Pinto 
County, Texas. 



2. SALIX L. Willow. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, scaly bark, soft wood, slender terete tough branchlets 
often easily separated at the joints, and winter-buds covered by a single scale of 2 coats, 
the inner membranaceous, stipular, rarely separable from the outer, inclosing at its base 
2 minute opposite lateral buds alternate with 2 small scale-like caducous leaves coated 
with long pale or rufous hairs. Leaves variously folded in the bud, alternate, simple, 
lanceolate, obovate, rotund or linear, penniveined ; petioles sometimes glandular at 
the apex, and more or less covering the bud, in falling leaving U-shaped or arcuate 
elevated leaf-scars displaying the ends of 3 small equidistant fibro- vascular bundles; 
stipules oblique, serrate, small and deciduous, or foliaceous and often persistent, generally 
large and conspicuous on vigorous young branches, leaving in falling minute persistent 
scars. Flowers in sessile or stalked aments, terminal and axillary on leafy branchlets; 
scales of the ament lanceolate, concave, rotund or obovate, entire or glandular-dentate, 
of uniform color or dark-colored toward the apex, more or less hairy, deciduous or per- 
sistent; disk of the flower nectariferous, composed of an anterior and posterior or of a single 
posterior gland-like body ; stamens 3-1 2 or I or 2, inserted on the base of the scale, with slender 
filaments free or rarely united and usually light yellow, glabrous, or hairy toward the base, 
and small ovoid or oblong anthers generally rose-colored before anthesis, becoming orange 
or purple; ovary sessile or stipitate, conic, obtuse to subulate-rostrate, glandular at the 
base, glabrous, tomentose or villose, with an abbreviated style divided into 2 short re- 
curved retuse or 2-parted stigmas; ovules 4-8 on each of the 2 placentas. Fruit an acum- 
inate 1 -celled capsule separating at maturity into 2 recurved valves. Seeds minute, nar- 
rowed at the ends, dark chestnut-brown or nearly black; cotyledons oblong. 

Salix inhabits the banks of streams and low moist ground, the alpine summits of moun- 



SALICACE^: 139 

tains, and the Arctic and sub- Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere, ranging south 
in the New World, with a few species, through the West Indies and Central America to 
Brazil, and the Andes of Chili, and in the Old World to Madagascar, southern Africa, 
the Himalayas, Burmah, the Malay peninsula, Java, and Sumatra. Of the 160 or 170 species 
which are now recognized about seventy are found in North America. Of these twenty- 
four attain the size and habit of trees, the others being small and sometimes prostrate 
shrubs. Of exotic species, Salix alba, L., and Salixfragilis L., important European timber- 
trees, are now generally naturalized in the northeastern states. The flexible tough branches 
of several species are used in making baskets; the bark is rich in tannic acid and is used in 
tanning leather and yields salicin, a bitter principle valuable as a tonic. Many of the 
species are cultivated as ornamental trees. 
Salix is the classical name of the Willow-tree. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES 

Scales of the flowers deciduous, pale straw color. 
Stamens 3 or more. 

Leaves green on both surfaces; petioles without glands at the base of the leaves; 
branchlets easily separable. 

Branchlets reddish or grayish purple; leaves mostly narrow-lanceolate; capsule 
glabrous. 1. S. nigra (A, C, E). 

Branchlets yellowish-gray; leaves lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate; capsule often 
more or less pubescent. 2. S. Gooddingii (F, G, H). 

Leaves (at least when fully grown) pale or glaucous below. 
Petioles without glands. 
Branchlets easily separable. 

Leaves narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate; petioles less than ' long. 

3. S.Harbisonii(C). 
Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, caudate; petioles '-f ' long. 

4. S. amygdaloides (A, B). 
Branchlets not easily separable. 

Capsules short-stalked (pedicels hardly more than ^' long), ovoid-conic, up 
to 5' in length; leaves more or less narrow-lanceolate, petioles glabrous or 
nearly so. 5. S. Bonplandiana (H). 

Capsules long-stalked (pedicels ri'-e' long), more or less acuminate. 
Petioles puberulous; leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate; stipules without 
glands on their inner surface; capsules hardly more than \' long. 

6. S.laevigata (G, F). 

Petioles hairy-tomentose; leaves lanceolate; stipules glandular on their inner 
surface; capsules \'-\' long. 7. S. longipes (C, D.) 

Petioles glandular; leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate, caudate; branchlets easily 
separable. 
Leaves distinctly pale or glaucous below, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate. 

8. S. lasiandra (B, G). 

Leaves pale green below, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, abruptly caudate-acu- 
minate. 9. S. lucida (A). 
Stamens 2. 

Stigmas linear, 4 or 5 times longer than broad. 

Leaves linear, hardly more than \' long; anthers very small, globose; aments small, 

in fruit hardly up to *' in length. 10. S. taxifolia (H). 

Leaves linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate; up to 2' in length; anthers ellipsoid; 

aments longer 11. S. sessilifolia (B, G). 

Stigmas short, hardly 2 or 3 times longer than broad. 



140 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Mature leaves covered below with appressed white silky hairs, those of flowering 
branchlets entire or barely denticulate. 12. S. exigua (B, F, G). 

Mature leaves glabrous below, those of flowering branchlets more or less dis- 
tinctly denticulate. 13. S. longifolia (A, F). 
Scales of the flowers persistent, dark brown or fuscous, at least toward the apex (in <S. 

Bebbiana more or less straw-colored or tawny). 
Stamens 2. 

Ovaries glabrous. 

Leaves more or less denticulate or serrate; styles short. 
Base of leaf cuneate or rounded. 

Leaves acute, oblanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; filaments mostly united 
below. 14. S. lasiolepis (G). 

Leaves mostly acuminate; filaments free. 

Branchlets glabrous, lustrous; leaves oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, 
up to 2' in length; pedicels $'-' long; stipules small. 

15. S. Mackenzieana (A, G). 

Branchlets pubescent; leaves narrowly lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 4'-6' 

long; pedicels 1.5-2.5 mm. long. 16. S. missouriensis (A). 

Base of leaf mostly more or less cordate; leaves glabrous; filaments free; pedicels 

long. 17. S. pyrifolia (A). 

Leaves entire, oval to broad-obovate; branchlets villose-pubescent during their first 

season. 18. S. amplifolia. 

Ovaries pubescent (glabrous often in No. 23). 

Leaves covered with a soft dense felt-like tomentum, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic- 
lanceolate. 19. S. alaxensis (B). 
Leaves glabrous or more or less villose-pubescent below. 

Bracts of the flowers pale or tawny, often reddish at the tip; pedicels up to 
' in length; leaves elliptic-lanceolate to obovate, reticulate beneath in 
age, pubescent or glabrate. 20. S. Bebbiana. 

Bracts of the flowers brown or fuscous. 

Stipules more or less distinctly developed; pedicels several times longer 

than the short styles. 
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic; mostly glabrous in age. 

21. S. discolor (A, B, F). 

Leaves oblanceolate to cuneate-obovate, covered beneath with short 
hairs or at maturity with a gray villose-pubescence. 

22. S. Scouleriana (A, B). 

Stipules usually wanting; pedicels hardly longer than the distinct styles; 

leaves broad-elliptic to obovate-oblong, more or less grayish villose 

beneath. 23. S. Hookeriana (B, G). 

Stamens usually 1; leaves obovate-oblong, densely covered below with lustrous silvery 

white silky tomentum. 24. S. sitchensis (B, G). 

1. Salix nigra Marsh. Black Willow. 

Leaves lanceolate, long-acuminate, often falcate, gradually cuneate or rounded at 
base, finely serrate, thin bright light green, rather lustrous, with obscure reticulate veins, 
glabrous or often pubescent on the under side of the midribs and veins and on the short 
slender petioles, 3'-6' long, |'-f wide; at the north turning light yellow before falling in 
the autumn; stipules semicordate, acuminate, foliaceous, persistent, or ovoid, minute, 
and deciduous. Flowers: aments terminal on leafy pubescent branches, narrowly cylin- 
dric, l'-3' long; scales yellow, elliptic to obovate, rounded at apex and coated on the inner 
surface with pale hairs; stamens 3-5, with filaments hairy toward the base; ovary ovoid, 
short-stalked, glabrous, gradually narrowed above the middle to the apex, with nearly 
sessile slightly divided stigmatic lobes. Fruit ovoid-conic, short-stalked, glabrous, about 
' long, light reddish brown. 



SALICACE.E 141 

A tree, usually 30-40 high, with usually several clustered stout stems, thick spreading 
upright branches forming a broad somewhat irregular open head, and reddish brown or 
gray-brown branchlets pubescent when they first appear, soon glabrous, and easily separated 
at the joints. Winter-buds acute, about ' long. Bark I'-l^' thick, dark brown or 
nearly black and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges separating freely into 







Fig. 133 



thick plate-like scales and becoming shaggy on old trunks. Wood light, soft, weak, light 
reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood ; now sawed into lumber in the valley of 
the lower Mississippi River and largely used for packing cases, cellar and barn floors, in 
furniture, and in the manufacture of toys and other purposes where strength is not im- 
portant as it does not warp, check or splinter. 

Distribution. Low moist alluvial banks of streams and lakes ; southern New Brunswick 
through southern Quebec and Ontario to the region north of Lake Superior, southward to 
northern and western North Carolina, through the Piedmont region of South Carolina and 
Georgia to eastern and central Alabama, and westward to southeastern North Dakota, 
eastern South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, the valley of Wichita River, Oklahoma, and 
central and western Texas to Valverde County. 

In southern Arkansas, in Louisiana and in eastern Texas Salix nigra is often replaced by 
var. altissima Sarg., differing from the type in the more pubescent young branchlets, leaves 
and petioles, in the more acute base of the leaves and longer petioles, and in its later 
flowering. A tree sometimes 120 feet high and the tallest of American Willows. 

Salix nigra var. Lindheimeri Schn. 

Salix Wrightii Sarg. not Anders. 

Leaves lanceolate, often slightly falcate, long-pointed and acuminate at apex, cuneate 
at base, finely glandular-serrate, glabrous, light green on the upper surface, paler below, 
4 '-5' long, \'-% wide; petioles pubescent early in the season, becoming glabrous, ^' |' in 
length. Flowers: aments slender, densely villose, 2'-3' long; scales ovate, acute or rarely 
rounded at apex, covered with matted white hairs, more abundant on the inner surface; 
stamens 4 or 5; filaments villose below the middle; ovary ovoid, gradually narrowed to the 
apex, the 2-lobed stigmas nearly sessile. Fruit ovoid-conic; pedicels about i' long. 

Atree,50-70,high with a trunk often 3 in diameter, large erect spreading branches 
forming an open irregular head, and slender branchlets light green and slightly pubescent 



142 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



when they first appear, becoming light orange or yellow-brown and lustrous. Bark thick, 
pale yellow-brown, deeply furrowed, the surface sometimes separating into long plate-like 
scales. 




Fig. 134 



Distribution. River banks, central and western Texas from Grayson and Dallas Coun- 
ties and the lower valley of the Brazos River to the valleys of the San Antonio and upper 
Guadalupe Rivers; in Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. 

2. Salix Gooddingii Ball. 
Salix vallicola Britt. 

Leaves lanceolate to narrow elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, acutely cuneate at 
base, finely glandular-serrate, often slightly falcate, silky pubescent when they unfold es- 
pecially below, glabrous and dull green at maturity, l^'-S' long,~y' |' wide, or on vigorous 
shoots 5' or 6' long and f wide; petioles pubescent, usually becoming glabrous, i'-j' in 




Fig. 135 



SALICACE.E 



143 



length; stipules orbicular-cordate, coarsely glandular-serrate, pubescent. Flowers: aments 
pubescent terminal on leafy pubescent branchlets, narrow-cylindric, l'-2' long; scales 
linear-oblanceolate, acute, yellow, hoary tomentose; stamens 3-5; filaments villose toward 
the base; ovary ovoid-conic, gradually narrowed to the acuminate apex, pubescent or 
glabrous; style distinct, 2-lobed. Fruit ovoid, acute, light reddish brown, glabrous or 
pubescent, |' long; pedicels glabrous or rarely pubescent, iV~l' i n length. 

A tree, 25-50 high, with slender light orange-colored or grayish glabrous or pubescent 
easily separable branchlets. Bark rough, thick, deeply furrowed, sometimes nearly black. 

Distribution. River banks; Reed Creek, Shasta County, and Red Bluff, Tehama 
County, California, southward in the interior valleys and on the western foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada to the mountain valleys in the southern part of the state, and to north- 
ern Lower California ; eastward through central and southern Arizona; in southeastern 
Nevada; through southern New Mexico to western Texas (El Paso, El Paso County, and 
Fort Davis, Jeff Davis County) ; and southward into northern Mexico. 

3. Salix Harbisonii Schn. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrow-elliptic or rarely obovate-lanceolate, acute or short- 
acuminate, obtusely or acutely cuneate at the base, and finely glandular dentate; when the 
flowers open more or less pubescent especially below or glabrous, and at maturity green on 




Fig. 136 



the upper surface, pale on the lower surface, glabrous, 4' or 5' long, f ' broad; petioles villose 
early in the season, becoming glabrous, \' in length, minutely glandular at apex; stipules 
wanting or minute, semicordate, acute, pubescent on vigorous leading branches and some- 
times \' long. Flowers: aments terminal on leafy branchlets, 2|'-3' in length, their rachis 
villose-pubescent ; scales ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or acute; stamens usually 5-7, rarely 
3-9; filaments densely villose; ovary ovoid, long-acuminate, glabrous, long-stalked; style 
short, distinct, 2-lobed. Fruit acuminate and long-pointed, acute at base, \ f long and 
about, as long as its pedicel. 

A tree, 30-50 high, with a trunk 10' or 12' in diameter, with often pendulous branches, 
and slender branchlets more or less densely pubescent or tomentose or nearly glabrous 
when they first appear, becoming glabrous and dark reddish purple in their second season, 



144 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



and easily separable at the joints; often only a large shrub. Bark thick, deeply furrowed, 
dark red-brown, separating on the surface into small appressed scales. 

Distribution. River banks and the borders of swamps ; Dismal Swamp, Norfolk County, 
Virginia; near Goldsboro, Wayne County, North Carolina; common in the coast region of 
South Carolina and Georgia, extending up the Savannah River at least as far as Augusta, 
Richmond County, and through southern Georgia to the valley of the Flint River; swamps 
near Jacksonville, Duval County, and in the neighborhood of Apalachicola, Florida. 

4. Salix amygdaloides Anders. Peach Willow. Almond Willow. 
Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, frequently falcate, gradually or abruptly nar- 
rowed into a long slender point, cuneate or gradually rounded and often unequal at base, 
finely serrate, slightly puberulous when they unfold, becoming at maturity thin and firm 
in texture, light green and lustrous above, pale and glaucous below, 2|'-4' long, f'-lj' 
wide, with a stout yellow or orange-colored midrib, prominent veins and reticulate veinlets; 
petioles slender, nearly terete |'-f in length; stipules reniform, serrate, often \' broad on 
vigorous shoots, usually caducous. Flowers: aments on leafy branchlets, elongated, cylin- 
dric, slender, arcuate, stalked, pubescent or tomentose, 2'-3' long; scales yellow, sparingly 
villose on the outer, densely villose on the inner face, the staminate broadly ovate, rounded 




Fig. 137 

at the apex, the pistillate oblong-obovate, narrower, caducous ; stamens 5-9, with free fila- 
ments slightly hairy at the base; ovary oblong-conic, long-stalked, glabrous, with a short 
style and emarginate stigmas. Fruit globose-conic, light reddish yellow, about \' in length. 

A tree, sometimes 60-70 high, with a single straight or slightly inclining trunk rarely 
more than 2 in diameter, straight ascending branches, and slender glabrous or rarely 
pilose (f. pilosiuscula Schn.) branchlets marked with scattered pale lenticels, dark orange 
color or red-brown and lustrous, becoming in their first winter light orange-brown. Win- 
ter-buds broadly ovoid, gibbous, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous above the middle, 
light orange-brown below, $' long. Bark |'-f thick, brown somewhat tinged with red, 
and divided by irregular fissures into flat connected ridges separating on the surface into 
thick plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick nearly 
white sap wood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams; Province of Quebec from the neighborhood of Montreal 
to Winnipeg, and along the fiftieth degree of north latitude to southeastern British Colum- 
bia, and to central New York, along the southern shores of Lake Erie, and through northern 
Ohio to northern Indiana, southwestern Illinois, northern and central Missouri, and to 



SALICACE.E 



145 



Kansas, northwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas; in Colorado, Utah and Nevada 
to central Oregon and southeastern Washington. 

> 

Salix amygdaloides var. Wrightii Schn. 

Salix Wrightii Anders. 

Leaves lanceolate, gradually acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate at base, finely 
serrate, occasionally slightly falcate, glabrous, yellow-green on the upper surface, pale on 
the lower surface, l|'-2' long, \'-\' wide, and on vigorous summer shoots sometimes 4' or 5' 
long and %' wide; petioles slender, glabrous, \'-\' in length. Flowers and Fruit as in the 
species. 




Fig. 138 

A small or large tree best distinguished from S. amygdaloides by the distinctly yellow or 
yellowish brown glabrous branchlets. 

Distribution. Barstow, Ward County, common along the Rio Grande near El Paso 
and at Belon, El Paso County, and on Amarillo Creek, Potter County, western Texas; 
through southern New Mexico to the Sacramento Mountains, Otero County. 

15. Salix Bonplandiana var. Toumeyi Schn. 
Salix Toumeyi. Britt. 
Leaves 4 '-6' long, ^'-f wide, linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate with a 
ng slender point at apex, gradually narrowed and often unequal at the cuneate base, 
obscurely serrate with glandular teeth, or entire with revolute margins, thick and firm, 
reticulate-venulose, yellow-green and lustrous above, silvery white below, with a broad 
yellow midrib; falling irregularly during the winter; petioles stout, grooved, reddish; 
stipules ovate, rounded, slightly undulate, thin and scarious, \'-\' broad, often persistent 
during the summer. Flowers: aments on leafy branchlets, cylindric, erect, slender, short- 
stalked, the staminate I'-l^' long and somewhat longer than the pistillate; scales 
broadly obovate, rounded at the apex, light yellow, viljose on the outer surface and glabrous 
or slightly hairy above the middle on the inner surface; stamens usually 3, with free fila- 
ments slightly hairy at the base; ovary slender, oblong-conic, short-stalked, glabrous, with 
nearly sessile much- thickened club-shaped stigmas, sometimes nearly encircled below by 
the large broad ventral gland. Fruit ovoid-conic, rounded at base, light reddish yellow. 
A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 12'-15' in diameter, slender erect and 
spreading branches often pendulous at the ends, forming a broad round-topped head, and 



146 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



slender glabrous branchlets marked with occasional pale lenticels, light yellow, becoming 
light or dark red-brown and lustrous, and paler orange-brown in their second year. Win- 
ter-buds narrowly ovoid, long-pointed, more or less falcate, bright red-brown, lustrous, 
j' long. Bark |'-f thick, dark brown or nearly black, and deeply divided by narrow 
fissures into broad flat ridges separating on the surface into closely appressed scales. 




Fig. 139 

Distribution. Banks of streams in the canons of the mountains of central and southern 
Arizona (Sicamore Canon near Flagstaff and Sabino Canon, Santa Catalina Mountains); 
and southwestern New Mexico (canon, Saint Louis Mountains, Grant County); in Chi- 
huahua, Sonora and Lower California. 

The typical S. Bonplandiana H. B. K. with broader and more coarsely serrate leaves, 
and flower-aments appearing from July to January from the axils of mature leaves is 
widely distributed in Mexico and ranges to Guatemala. 

6. Salix laevigata Bebb. Red Willow. 

Leaves obovate, narrowed and rounded or acute and mucronate at apex, cuneate at base, 
with slightly revolute obscurely serrate margins, on sterile branches lanceolate or oblong- 




Fig. 140 



SALICACE^E 147 

lanceolate, acute or acuminate, when they unfold light blue-green and coated on the lower 
surface with long pale or tawny deciduous hairs, at maturity glabrous, dark blue-green and 
lustrous above, paler and glaucous below, S'-Y long, f'-l|' wide, with a broad flat yel- 
low midrib; petioles broad, grooved, puberulous, rarely \' long; stipules ovate, acute, 
finely serrate, usually small and caducous. Flowers: aments cylindric, slender, lax, 
elongated, 2'-4' long, on leafy'branchlets; scales peltate, dentate at apex, covered with 
long pale hairs, the staminate obovate, rounded, the pistillate narrower and more or less 
truncate; stamens usually 5 or 6, with free filaments hairy at the base; ovary conic, acute, 
rounded below, short-stalked, glabrous, with broad spreading emarginate stigmatic lobes. 
Fruit elongated, conic, long-stalked, nearly \' in length. 

A tree, 40-50 high, with a straight trunk 2 in diameter, slender spreading branches, 
and slender light or dark orange-colored or bright red-brown glabrous, or in one form 
tomentose or villose (f. araquipa Jeps.) branchlets; often much smaller, with an average 
height of 20-30. Winter-buds ovoid, somewhat obtuse, pale chestnut-brown, J'-' long. 
Bark f'-l' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red and deeply divided into irregular 
connected flat ridges broken on the surface into thick closely appressed scales. Wood 
light, soft, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams; western California from the Oregon boundary to the 
southern borders of the state, ascending to altitudes of 4500 on the western slopes of the 
southern Sierra Nevada, and eastward to Mohave and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, south- 
eastern Nevada and southwestern Utah. 

7. Salix longipes Shuttl. 
Salix amphibia Small. 

Leaves lanceolate, acuminate or on fertile branches occasionally rounded at the apex, 
rounded or cuneate at the base, finely serrate, hoary-tomentose early in the season, becom- 
ing glabrous above, and pale and glabrous or pubescent below, 2'-4' long, '-f ' wide; peti- 




Fig. 141 



oles hoary-tomentose, \'~ long! stipules minute, ovate, acute, hoary-tomentose, caducous, 
on vigorous shoots foliaceous, reniform, serrate above the middle, often f ' in diameter. 
Flowers: aments terminal on leafy tomentose or glabrous branchlets, narrow-cylindric, 3' 
or 4' long; scales ovate, rounded at the apex, yellow, densely villose-pubescent; sta- 
mens 3-7, usually 5 or 6, the filaments hairy toward the base; ovary ovoid-conic, acute, 
cuneate at the base with a short 2-lobed style, and pedicels up to ' in length. Fruit ovoid, 
often rather abruptly contracted above the middle, \' in length. 



148 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



A tree, 20-30, high with a trunk occasionally 12'-18' in diameter, spreading branches, 
and glabrous or pubescent red-brown or gray-brown branchlets; or more often a shrub. 
Bark dark, sometimes nearly black, deeply divided into broad ridges covered by small 
closely appressed scales. 

Distribution. Borders of swamps and streams; coast of North Carolina southward to 
the Everglade Keys of Florida, ranging westward in Florida to the valley of the Saint 
Marks River, Wakulla County; in Cuba. 

A variety with narrower summer leaves and longer petioles is var. venulosa Schn. 

Distribution. Newbern, Craven County, North Carolina, southward near the coast to 
northern and western Florida, ranging inland in Georgia to the banks of the Savannah 
River near Augusta, Richmond County, and to Traders Hill, Charlton County; in the 
neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana (Drummond) ; in southwestern Oklahoma and in 
western Texas (Blan,co, Kendall, Kerr, Bandera and Uvalde Counties). 

A variety with obtuse stipules, usually glabrous branchlets and lanceolate or narrow 
elliptic-lanceolate leaves is distinguished as var. Wardii Schn. 

A shrub or small tree. 

Distribution. Banks of the Potomac River, District of Columbia, and Alleghany 
County, Maryland to Natural, Rockbridge, Fairfax and Elizabeth Counties, Virginia; 
northern Kentucky; northern Tennessee; northeastern Mississippi (near luka, Tishamingo 
County); St. Clair and Madison Counties, Illinois; more abundant in Missouri from Pike 
County southward to southwestern Kansas, western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. 

8. Salix lasiandra Benth. Yellow Willow. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate or 
rounded at base, often slightly falcate, finely serrate, glabrous, dark green and lustrous 
above, pale or glaucous below, l^'-3' long, about \' w r ide, on vigorous summer shoots often 




Fig. 142 

<>' or 7' long and 1^' wide; petioles slender, glabrous, glandular at apex, \' in length, or on 
summer shoots stout and \'-\\' long; stipules reniform, caducous. Flowers: aments ter- 
minal on leafy puberulous branchlets, narrow-cylindric, 2f '-3' in length; scales pale pubes- 
cent, those of the staminate ament lanceolate-acuminate to obovate and rounded at apex 
and entire, those of the pistillate ament obovate and usually dentate near the apex; sta- 
mens 5-9 ; filaments hairy below the middle; ovary rather abruptly narrowed above the 
middle and acuminate, long-stalked; style short with slightly emarginate lobes. Fruit 
light red-brown, \' long; pedicels about tV in length. 



SALICACEvE 



149 



Distribution. Valley of the Yukon River near Dawson, Yukon, Vancouver Island, 
and southward near the coast of Washington and Oregon, and on the western slope of 
the Sierra Nevada and on the coast ranges to southern California, ranging from the sea- 
level to altitudes of 8500 on the southern Sierra Nevada; in New Mexico (Glenwood, 
Soccoro County, and Santa Fe, Santa Fe County) ; in Colorado (Buena Vista, Chaff ee 
County, Alice Eastwood). Passing into var. caudata Sudw., distinguished by its caudate- 
acuminate leaves green on both surfaces, and by its bright yellow or orange-yellow branch- 
lets, and ranging from northeastern Oregon and eastern Washington through Idaho, and 
from northern Wyoming to southern Colorado, Utah and Nevada. 

A variety (var. lancifolia Bebb), differing from the typical S. lasiandra in the gray or 
rusty villose pubescence covering the branchlets during their first and sometimes their 
second season and the lower surface of the young leaves, is distributed from Dawson in the 
valley of the Yukon River southward to the valley of the upper Nesqually River, Wash- 
ington, to the valley of the Willamette River (Salem, Oregon), to Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz 
County, and to the San Bernardino Mountains, California. 

9. Salix lucida Muehl. Shining Willow. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, or narrow lanceolate (f. angustifolia Anders.), acuminate and 
long-pointed at apex, cuneate or rounded at base, finely serrate, 3'-5' long, l'-l' wide, 
covered when they unfold with scattered pale caducous hairs, at maturity coriaceous, 
smooth and lustrous, dark green above, paler below, with a broad yellow midrib, and slender 




Fig. 143 

primary veins arcuate and united near the margins; petioles stout, yellow, puberulous, 
glandular at the apex, with several dark or yellow conspicuous glands, \'-\' long; stipules 
nearly semicircular, glandular-serrate, membranaceous, \'-\' wide, often persistent during 
the summer. Flowers: aments erect, tomentose, on stout puberulous peduncles terminal 
on short leafy branchlets, the staminate oblong-cylindric, densely flowered, about 1^' in 
length, the pistillate slender, elongated, l'-2' long, often persistent until late in the season; 
scales oblong or obovate, rounded, entire, erose or dentate at apex, light yellow, nearly 
glabrous or coated on the outer surface with pale hairs, often ciliate on the margins; stamens 
usually 5, with elongated free filaments slightly hairy at base; ovary narrowly cylindric, long- 
stalked, elongated, glabrous, with nearly sessile emarginate stigmas. Fruit: cylindric, lus- 
trous, about \' long. 

A tree, occasionally 25 high, with a short trunk 6'-8' in diameter, erect branches forming 
a broad round-topped symmetrical head, and stout glabrous branchlets dark orange color 



150 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



and lustrous in their first season, becoming darker and more or less tinged with red the 
following year; usually smaller and shrubby in habit. Winter-buds narrowly ovoid, acute, 
light orange-brown, lustrous, about ' long. Bark thin, smooth, dark brown slightly 
tinged with red. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and swamps; Newfoundland to the shores of Hudson's 
Bay and northwestward to the valley of the Mackenzie River and the eastern base of the 
Rocky Mountains, southward to southern Pennsylvania, northeastern Iowa, the Turtle 
Mountains, North Dakota, and eastern Nebraska; very abundant at the north, rare south- 
ward; a variety from extreme northeastern New England and adjacent New Brunswick and 
Quebec (var. intonsa Fernald) is distinguished by its often linear leaves rufous pubescent 
during the season on the under side of the veins and by its pubescent branchlets; a shrub 
or tree up to 25. 

10. Salix taxifolia H. B. K. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrowed at the ends, acute, slightly falcate, mucronate at the 
apex, entire or rarely obscurely dentate above the middle, coated as they unfold with long 




Fig. 144 

soft white hairs, at maturity pale gray-green, slightly puberulous, I'-H' long, rV'-l' wide, 
with a slender midrib, thin arcuate veins, and thickened slightly re volute margins; petioles 
stout, puberulous, rarely yV long; stipules ovate, acute, scarious, minute, caducous. Flow- 
ers: aments densely flowered, oblong-cylindric or subglobose, \'-\' long, terminal, or ter- 
minal and axillary on the staminate plant, on short leafy branchlets; scales oblong or 
obovate, rounded or acute and sometimes apiculate at apex, coated on the outer surface 
with hoary tomentum and pubescent or glabrous on the inner; stamens 2, with free fila- 
ments hairy below the middle; ovary ovoid-conic, short-stalked or subsessile, villose, with 
nearly sessile deeply emarginate stigmas. Fruit cylindric, long-pointed, bright red-brown, 
more or less villose, short-stalked, about \' long. 

A tree, often 40-50 high, with a trunk 18' in diameter, erect and drooping branches 
forming a broad open head, and slender branchlets covered during their first season with 
hoary tomentum, becoming light reddish or purplish brown and much roughened by the 
elevated persistent leaf-scars. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, dark chestnut-brown, puberu- 
lous, about TS' long and nearly as broad as long. Bark of the trunk f '-!' thick, light gray- 
brown, and divided by deep fissures into broad flat ridges covered by minute closely ap- 
pressed scales. 

Distribution. Near El Paso, Texas; southwestern New Mexico, and along mountain 



SALICACE.E 



151 



streams in southern Arizona; southward through Mexico to Guatemala, and on the Sierra 
de la Victoria, Lower California. 

11. Salix sessilifolia Nutt. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, acute or acuminate at apex, cuneate at 
base, entire or furnished above the middle with a few remote apiculate glandular teeth, 
bluish green and thickly covered with silky white hairs most abundant on the lower side of 
the midrib, l'-2' long, '-' wide, or on vigorous summer shoots often 4' long and 1 j' wide; 
petioles densely villose-pubescent, yV'-i' in length; stipules ovate to lanceolate, acute, en- 
tire or denticulate. Flowers: aments appearing after the leaves, terminal on leafy 
branchlets, densely hoary-tomentose, 1|'-2|' long; scales broadly elliptic, acute or rounded 







Fig. 145 

at apex, cuneate at base, densely villose-tomentose; stamens 2; filaments villose below the 
middle; ovary sessile, villose, the stigmas sessile, deeply 2-lobed. Fruit ovoid-acuminate, 
densely villose, pubescent. 

A shrub or small tree occasionally 20 high, with short hairy tomentose branchlets. 

Distribution. River banks, southwestern British Columbia; Whitcomb County, Wash- 
ington, and on the TJmpqua and Willamette Rivers, western Oregon. Southward passing 
into 

Var. Hindsiana Anders., a large shrub with numerous stems often 20 high, differing in its 
more linear or narrow lanceolate usually entire leaves on longer petioles, smaller aments 
and pubescent, not tomentose, branchlets; and distributed from the valleys of central Cali- 
fornia to southwestern Oregon. A shrubby form of S. sessilifolia (var. leucodendroides 
Schn.) with longer and broader leaves is common on the banks of streams in southern 
California. 



12. Salix exigua Nutt. 

Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, acuminate at the ends, often slightly falcate, minutely 
glandular-serrate above the middle, bluish green and glabrous above, covered below with 
appressed silky white hairs, l^'-S' long, '-j' wide, or on summer shoots sometimes 4|' long 
and 1%' wide; petioles glabrous, iV long or less; stipules minute or wanting Flowers: 
aments terminal and solitary or terminal and axillary, on leafy glabrous branchlets, l'-2' 
in length; scales hoary pubescent, lanceolate and acute on staminate aments, often wider, 
obovate and rounded at the apex on pistillate aments; stamens, 2, filaments hairy 



152 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



below the middle; ovary sessile, villose, the stigmatic lobes sessile. Fruit ovoid, acuminate, 
glabrous. 

A shrub with stems 10 or 12 tall, or rarely a tree 25 high, with a trunk 5' or 6' in 
diameter, thin spreading branches forming a round-topped head, and slender glabrous red- 
brown branchlets. Bark of the trunk thin, longitudinally fissured, grayish brown. 




Fig. 146 

Distribution. Southern Alberta and valley of the Fraser River (Clinton), British Colum- 
bia, southward through western Washington and Oregon to San Diego County, California, 
and southeastern Nevada, and eastward to southern Idaho, central Nevada and western 
Wyoming (Yellowstone National Park). 

Apparently only truly a tree on the banks of the Palouse and other streams of eastern 
Washington. 

Several shrubby forms of S. exigua found in Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, western Ne- 
braska and in Lower California are distinguished. 

13. Salix longifolia Muehl. Sand Bar Willow. 

Salix fluviatalis Sarg. not Nutt. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, often somewhat falcate, gradually narrowed at the ends, long- 
pointed, dentate with small remote spreading callous glandular teeth, 2'-6' long, \'~\' 
wide, when they unfold coated below with soft lustrous silky hairs, at maturity thin, gla- 
brous, light yellow-green, darker on the upper than on the lower surface, with a yellow mid- 
rib, slender arcuate primary veins, and slender reticulate veinlets; petioles grooved, f'-y' 
long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, foliaceous, about \' long, deciduous Flowers: aments 
cylindric on leafy branchlets, pubescent, the stamina te about 1' long, \' broad, terminal and 
axillary, the pistillate elongated, 2' or 3' long, about \' broad; scales obovate-oblong, en- 
tire, erose or dentate above the middle, light yellow-green, densely villose on the outer 
surface, slightly hairy on the inner; stamens 2, with free filaments slightly hairy at the base; 
ovary oblong-cylindric, acute, short-stalked, glabrous or pubescent, with large sessile 
deeply lobed stigmas. Fruit light brown, glabrous or villose, about \' long. 

A tree, usually about 20 high, with a trunk only a few inches in diameter, spreading by 
stoloniferous roots into broad thickets, short slender erect branches, and slender glabrous 
light or dark orange-colored or purplish red branchlets, growing darker after their first sea- 
son; occasionally 60-70 high, with a trunk 2 in diameter; often a shrub not more than 
5-6 tall. Winter-buds narrowly ovoid, acute, chestnut-brown, about \' long. Bark 






SALICACE^E 153 

i'-j' thick, smooth, dark brown slightly tinged with red and covered with small closely 
appressed irregularly shaped scales. Wood light, soft, light brown tinged with red, with 
thin light brown sapwood. 

Distribution. River banks, sand bars and alluvial flats; shores of Lake St. John, 
Quebec to Manitoba, and southward through western New England to northeastern Vir- 
ginia, southern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, w r estern Kentucky, south Tennessee, to the 
mouth of the Mississippi River, and westward to southwestern South Dakota, southwestern 
Wyoming, northeastern Colorado, western Kansas and Oklahoma, and northern Texas. 




Fig. 147 



From central and northwestern Texas to northeastern Mexico and southern New Mexico 
represented by var. angustissima Anders., differing in the absence of a dorsal gland in the 
male flowers and in the silky pubescence of the young ovary. 

In the northern Rocky Mountains region replaced by var. pedunculata Anders., differ- 
ing from the type in its narrower linear leaves, glabrous ovaries and longer pedicels of the 
fruit, and ranging from western South Dakota and northwestern Wyoming, through eastern 
Montana, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, to the valley of the Yukon River in the neighbor- 
hood of Dawson. 

A shrubby form with leaves densely covered with silky pubescence (var. Wheeleri Schn.) 
is distributed from New Brunswick to North Dakota, Nebraska and Beckham County, 
Oklahoma. 

14. Salix lasiolepis Benth. Arroyo Willow. 

Leaves oblanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, often inequilateral and occasionally falcate, 
acute or acuminate or rarely rounded at apex, gradually or abruptly cuneate or rounded at 
base, entire or remotely serrate, pilose above and coated below with thick hoary tomentum 
when they unfold, at maturity thick and subcoriaceous, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, 
dark green and glabrous above, pale or glaucous and pubescent or puberulous below, 3'-6' 
long, '-1' wide, with a broad yellow midrib and slender arcuate veins forked and united 
within the slightly thickened and re volute margins; petioles slender, f |' long; stipules 
ovate, acute, coated with hoary tomentum, minute and caducous, or sometimes folia- 
ceous, semilunar, acute or acuminate, entire or denticulate, dark green above, pale below, 
persistent. Flowers: aments erect, cylindric, slightly flexuose, densely flowered, nearly 
sessile on short tomentose branchlets, 1|' long, the staminate %' thick, and nearly twice as 
thick as the pistillate; scales oblong-obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, dark- 
colored, clothed with long crisp white hair?, persistent under the fruit; stamens 2, with 
elongated glabrous filaments more or less united below the middle; ovary narrow, cylindric 



154 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



acute and long-pointed, dark green, glabrous, with a short style and broad nearly sessile 
stigmas. Fruit oblong-cylindric, light reddish brown, about \' long. 

A tree, 20-35 high, with a trunk 3'-7' in diameter, slender erect branches forming a 
loose open head, and stout branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum, bright yellow or 
dark reddish brown and puberulous or pubescent during their first year, becoming darker 




Fig. 148 

and glabrous in their second season; or often at the north and at high altitudes a low shrub. 
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, compressed, contracted laterally into thin wing-like margins, 
light brownish yellow, glabrous or puberulous. Bark on young stems and on the branches 
thin, smooth, light gray-brown, becoming on old trunks dark, about f ' thick, roughened 
by small lenticels and broken into broad flat irregularly connected ridges. Wood light, 
soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood; in southern California 
often used as fuel. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in low moist ground; valley of the Klamath River, 
California, southward along the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the central valley, and on 
the Coast Ranges to southern California; on Santa Catalina Island and on the mountains of 
southern Arizona; on the Sierra de Laguna, Lower California; occasionally ascending 
to altitudes of 4000 above the sea. 

15. Salix Mackenzieana Barr. 

Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, or elliptic, long-pointed at apex, cuneate or rounded 
at base, finely crenately serrate, reddish and pilose with caducous pale hairs when they un- 
fold, at maturity thin and firm in texture, light green above, pale below, If '-2' long, about 
'-' wide, on summer shoots, often 4' long and If wide, with a slender yellow midrib, 
arcuate veins, and obscure reticulate veinlets; petioles thin, yellow, about $' long; stipules 
reniform, conspicuously veined, about T ^' broad. Flowers: aments densely .flowered, gla- 
brous, erect, often more or less curved, about If long, terminal on short leafy branchlets; 
scales oblanceolate, acute, dark-colored; stamens 2, with elongated free glabrous filaments; 
ovary cylindric, long-stalked, elongated, gradually narrowed into a short style, with spread- 
ing emarginate stigmas. Fruit ovoid, acuminate, light brown, about f ' long; pedicels 
about ' in length. 

A small tree, with a slender trunk, upright branches forming a narrow shapely head, 
and slender branchlets marked with scattered lenticels, glabrous or slightly puberulous 
and often tinged with red when they first appear, soon becoming yellow and lustrous, grow- 
ing lighter colored in their second year. Winter-buds ovoid, rounded on the back, com- 
pressed and acute at the apex, bright orange color, about f long. 



SALICACE^E 155 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps; shores of Great Slave Lake southward 
through the region at the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to Saskatchewan, northern 




Fig. 149 



Idaho, and northwestern Wyoming, and to western Nevada (Lake County; M . S. Bebb), and 
on the high Sierra Nevada in Calaveras and Mariposa Counties, California (W. L.Jepsori). 

16. Salix missouriensis Bebb. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, acuminate and long-pointed at apex, gradually nar- 
rowed from above the middle to the cuneate or rounded base, finely glandular-serrate, 
coated with pale hairs on the lower surface and pilose on the upper surface when they un- 




fold, soon becoming nearly glabrous, at maturity thin and firm, dark green above, pale and 
often silvery white below, 4'-6' long, l'-l|' wide, with slender veins often united near the 
margins and connected by coarse reticulate veinlets; petioles stout, pubescent or tomen- 
tose, ^'-f'*long; stipules foliaceous, semicordate, pointed or rarely reniform and obtuse, 
serrate with incurved teeth, dark green and glabrous on the upper side, coated on the lower 
with hoary tomentum, reticulate-venulqse, often %' long, deciduous or persistent during 



156 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



the season. Flowers: aments oblong-cylindric, densely flowered, appearing early in Feb- 
ruary on short leafy brarichlets, the staminate 1^' long and nearly \' wide and rather longer 
than the more slender pistillate aments becoming at maturity lax and 3'-4' long; scales 
oblong-obovate, light green, and covered on the outer surface with long straight white 
hairs; stamens 2, with elongated free glabrous filaments; ovary cylindric, short-stalked, 
beaked, glabrous, with a short style and spreading entire or slightly emarginate stigmas. 
Fruit narrow, long-pointed, light reddish bro\vn, \' in length; pedicels about half the length 
of the scales. 

A tree, 40-50 high, with a tall straight trunk 10'-12' or rarely 18' in diameter, rather 
slender upright slightly spreading branches forming a narrow open symmetrical head, and 
slender branchlets marked by small scattered orange-colored lenticels, light green and 
coated during their first year with thick pale pubescence, becoming reddish brown and 
glabrous or puberulous in their second winter. Winter-buds ovoid, round, or flattened, 
acute at the apex, reddish brown, hoary- to mentose, nearly 1' long. Bark thin, smooth, 
light gray, slightly tinged with red, and covered with minute closely appressed plate-like 
scales. Wood dark red-brown, with thin pale sap wood; durable, used for fence-posts. 

Distribution. Deep sandy alluvial bottom-lands of the Missouri River in southwestern 
Nebraska to western Missouri; through northeastern Kansas and eastern Oklahoma to 
Cache Creek, Comanche County (G. W. Stevens); and from the neighborhood of St. Louis 
to southeastern and western Iowa. 

17. Salix pyrifolia Anders. 

Scdix balsamifera Barr. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acute at apex, broad and rounded and usually sub- 
cordate at base, finely glandular serrulate, balsamic particularly while young, when 
they unfold thin, pellucid, red and coated below with long slender caducous hairs, at ma- 
turity thin and firm, dark green above, pale and glaucous below, 2'-4' long, l'-l|' wide, 




Fig. 151 

with a yellow midrib and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; petioles reddish or yellow, %'-%' 
long; stipules often wanting or on vigorous shoots foliaceous, broadly ovate and acute. 
Flowers: aments cylindric, l'-l|' long, on short leafy branchlets, the staminate l'-lj' 
long and f in diameter and shorter and broader than the pistillate ament; scales obovate, 
rose-colored, coated with long white hairs; stamens 2, with free filaments and reddish ulti- 
mately yellow anthers; ovary narrow-ovoid, long-stalked, gradually contracted above the 
middle, with a short style and emarginate stigmas. Fruit ovoid-conic, |' long, dark 
orange color; pedicels ' in length. 






SALICACE^E 



157 



Usually a shrub, often making clumps of crowded slender erect stems generally destitute 
of branches except near the top, rarely arborescent, with a height of 25, a trunk 12'-14' in 
diameter, erect branches, and comparatively stout reddish brown branchlets becoming 
olive-green in their second year and marked with narrow slightly raised leaf-scars. Winter- 
buds acute, much-compressed, bright scarlet, very lustrous, about j' long. Bark thin, 
smooth, dull gray. 

Distribution. Cold w r et bogs; Newfoundland and the coast of Labrador to the valley 
of the Saskatchewan and the Mackenzie, and British Columbia, and to northern Maine, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Michigan, and northeastern South Dakota; reported to 
become arborescent only near Fort Kent on the St. John River, Aroostook, Maine. 

18. Salix amplifolia Cov. 

Leaves oval to broadly obovate, rounded or broadly pointed at apex, gradually or 
abruptly narrowed at the cuneate base, dentate-serrulate or entire, densely villose when 
they unfold, with long matted white hairs, at maturity nearly glabrous, pale yellow-green 
above, slightly glaucous below, 2'-2|' long, l'-l' wide, with a midrib broad and hoary- 
tomentose toward the base of the leaf and thin and glabrous above the middle; petioles 




Fig. 152 



slender, tomentose. Flowers: aments appearing about the middle of June, stout, peduncu- 
late, tomentose, on leafy branchlets, the staminate l^'-2' long and shorter than the pis- 
tillate; scales oblanceolate or lanceolate, dark brown or nearly black, covered with long pale 
hairs; stamens 2, with slender elongated glabrous filaments; ovary ovoid-lanceolate, short- 
stalked, glabrous or slightly pubescent, gradually narrowed into the elongated slender style 
crowned with a 2-lobed slender stigma. Fruit ovoid-lanceolate, glabrous, short-stalked, 

\' long- 

A tree, occasionally 25 high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and stout branchlets con- 
spicuously roughened by the large elevated U-shaped leaf-scars, and marked by occasional 
pale lenticels, coated at first with thick villose pubescence, becoming during their second 
and third years dark dull reddish purple. 

Distribution. Sand dunes on the shores of Yakutat Bay and Disenchantment Bay, 
Alaska. 

19. Salix alaxensis Cov. Feltleaf Willow. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to obovate, acute, acuminate or occasionally rounded at apex, 
gradually narrowed into a short thick petiole, coated above as they unfold with thin 
pale deciduous tomentum and covered below with a thick mass of snowy white lustrous 



158 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



hairs persistent on the mature leaves, entire, often somewhat wrinkled, dull yellow-green 
above, 2'-4' long, l'-lf wide, with a broad yellow midrib; stipules linear-lanceolate to fili- 
form, entire, '-f long, usually persistent until midsummer. Flowers: aments appearing 
in June when the leaves are nearly fully grown, stout, erect, tomentose, stalked, on leafy 
branchlets, the staminate l'-l?' long, much shorter than the pistillate; scales oblong- 
ovate, rounded at apex, dark-colored, and coated with long silvery white soft hairs; 
stamens 2, with slender elongated filaments; ovary acuminate, short-stalked, covered with 
soft pale hairs, gradually narrowed into the elongated slender style, with 2-lobed stigmas. 
Fruit nearly sessile, ovoid, acuminate covered with close dense pale tomentum, j' long. 
A tree, sometimes 30 high, with a trunk 4'-6' in diameter, and stout branchlets thickly 




Fig. 153 

coated at first with matted white hairs, becoming in their second year glabrous, dark 
purple, lustrous, marked by large elevated pale scattered lenticels and much roughened by 
large U-shaped leaf-scars; often shrubby, and in the most exposed situations frequently 
only a foot or two high, with semiprostrate stems. 

Distribution. Coast of Alaska from the Alexander Archipelago to Cape Lisbourne, and 
eastward to the valley of the Mackenzie River and to the shores of Coronation Gulf; the 
only arborescent Willow in the coast region west and north of Kadiak Island; attaining its 
largest size from the Shumagin Islands eastward. 

20. Salix Bebbiana Sarg. 

Leaves oblong-obovate to oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, acuminate and short-pointed or 
acute at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, remotely and irregularly 
serrate usually only above the middle, or rarely entire, when they unfold pale gray-green, 
glabrous or villose, and often tinged with red on the upper surface and coated on the lower 
with pale tomentum or pubescence, at maturity thick and firm, dull green and glabrous 
or puberulous above, blue or silvery white and covered with pale rufous pubescence below, 
especially along the midrib, veins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, l'-3' long, |'-1' 
wide; petioles slender, often pubescent, reddish, i'-|' long; stipules foliaceous, semicordate, 
glandular-dentate, sometimes nearly \' long on vigorous shoots, deciduous. Flowers: 
aments terminal on short leafy branchlets; scales ovate or oblong, rounded at apex, broader 
on the staminate than on the pistillate plant, yellow below, rose color at apex, villose with 
long pale silky hairs, persistent under the fruit; staminate aments cyhndric, obovoid, nar- 
rowed at base, densely flowered, f'-l' long, \'-\' thick; pistillate aments oblong-cylindric, 
loosely flowered, l'-l|' long, \' thick; stamens 2, with free glabrous filaments; ovary 



SALICACE^E 



159 






cylindric, villose; with long silky white hairs, gradually narrowed at apex, with broad sessile 
entire or emarginate spreading yellow stigmas; pedicel villose, about ' in length, and 
about as long as the scale. Fruit elongated-cylindric, gradually narrowed into a long thin 
beak, and raised on a slender stalk sometimes |' long. 

A bushy tree, occasionally 25 high, with a short trunk 6'-8' in diameter, stout ascending 
branches forming a broad round head, and slender branchlets coated at first with hoary 
deciduous tomentum, varying during their first winter from reddish purple to dark orange- 
brown, marked by scattered raised lenticels and roughened by conspicuous elevated leaf- 
scars, growing lighter-colored and reddish brown in their second year; usually much smaller 
and often shrubby in habit. Bark thin, reddish or olive-green or gray tinged with red, and 




Fig. 154 

slightly divided by shallow fissures into appressed plate-like scales. Winter-buds oblong, 
gradually narrowed and rounded at apex, full and rounded on the back, bright light chest- 
nut-brown, nearly \' long. 

Distribution. Borders of streams, swamps, and lakes, hillsides, open woods and forest 
margins, usually in moist rich soil; valley of the St. Lawrence River to the shores of Hud- 
son's Bay, the valley of the Mackenzie River within the Arctic Circle, Cook Inlet, Alaska, 
and the coast ranges of British Columbia, forming in the region west of Hudson's Bay al- 
most impenetrable thickets, with twisted and often inclining stems; common in all the 
northern states, ranging southward to Pennsylvania and westward to Minnesota and 
through the Rocky Mountain region from western Idaho and northern Montana to north- 
ern North Dakota, eastern South Dakota, northeastern and central Iowa, and western 
Nebraska, and southward through Colorado to northern Arizona; ascending as a low shrub 
in Colorado to an altitude of 10,000. 

21. Salix discolor Muehl. Glaucous Willow. 

Leaves lanceolate to elliptic, gradually narrowed at the ends, remotely crenulate-serrate, 
as they unfold thin, light green often tinged with red, pubescent above and coated with a 
pale tomentum below, at maturity thick and firm, glabrous, conspicuously reticulate- venu- 
lose, bright green above, glaucous or silvery white below, 3'-5' long, f'-l^' wide, with 
a broad yellow midrib and slender arcuate primary veins; petioles slender, '-!' long; stip- 
ules foliaceous, semilunar, acute, glandular-dentate, about j' long, deciduous. Flowers: 
aments appearing late in winter or in very early spring, erect, terminal on short scale- 
bearing branchlets coated with thick white tomentum, oblong-cylindric, about 1' long and 
j' thick, the staminate soft and silky before the flowers open and densely flowered; scales 



160 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



oblong-obovate, dark reddish brown toward the apex, covered on the back with long silky 
silvery white hairs; stamens 2, with elongated glabrous filaments; ovary oblong-cylindric, 
narrowed above the middle, villose, with a short distinct style and broad spreading entire 
stigmas; pedicel glabrous, about twice the length of the scale. Fruit cylindric, more or 
less contracted above the middle, long-pointed, light brown, coated with pale pubescence. 
A tree, rarely more than 25 high, with a trunk about 1 in diameter, stout ascending 




Fig. 155 



branches forming an open round-topped head, and stout branchlets marked by occasional 
orange-colored lenticels, dark reddish purple and coated at first with pale deciduous pubes- 
cence; more often shrubby, with numerous tall straggling stems. Winter-buds semiterete, 
flattened and acute at the apex, about f ' long, dark reddish purple and lustrous. Bark |' 
thick, light brown tinged with red, and divided by shallow fissures into thin plate-like 
oblong scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, brown streaked with red, with lighter 
brown sap wood. 

Distribution. Moist meadows and the banks of streams and lakes; Nova Scotia to 
Manitoba, and southward to Delaware, southern Indiana and Illinois, eastern and south- 
western Iowa, the Black Hills of South Dakota, and northeastern Missouri; common. 

A form of Salix discolor with more densely flowered and more silvery pubescent aments 
is described as var. eriocephala Schn. and a form w r ith loosely flowered aments with less 
tomentose fruits with longer styles and with narrower leaves as var. prinoides Schn. 

22. Salix Scouleriana Barr. Black Willow. 
Salix Nuttallii Sarg. 

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, acute or abruptly acuminate with a short or long- 
pointed apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate at the often unsymmetrical base, entire or 
remotely and irregularly crenately serrate, thin and firm, dark yellow-green and lustrous 
above, pale or glaucous and glabrous or pilose below, 1 J'-4' long, |'-1|' wide, with a broad 
yellow pubescent midrib and slender veins forked and arcuate within the slightly thickened 
and revoiute margins and connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, 
puberulous, \'-\' in length; stipules foliaceous, semilunar, glandular-serrate, \'-\' long, ca- 
ducous. Flowers: aments appearing before the leaves, oblong-cylindric, erect, nearly sessile 
on short tomentose scale-bearing branchlets, the staminate about 1' long and rather more 
than \' thick, the pistillate \\' long, about tV thick; scales oblong, narrowed at the ends, 
dark-colored, covered with long white hairs, persistent under the fruit; stamens 2, with free 



SALICACE^ 



161 



glabrous filaments; ovary cylindric, short-stalked, with a distinct style and broad emar- 
ginate stigmas: pedicels less than half the length of the scale, villose. Fruit oblong-ovoid, 
acuminate, light reddish brown, pale pubescent, about $' long. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a short trunk rarely exceeding 1 in diameter, slender 
pendulous branches forming a rather compact round-topped shapely head, and stout 
branchlets marked by scattered yellow lenticels, coated when they first appear with pale 
early deciduous pubescence, becoming bright yellow or dark orange color, and in their 
second year dark red-brown and much roughened by the conspicuous leaf -scars; or more 
often a shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, nearly terete or slightly flattened, with narrow 
lateral wing-like margins, light or dark orange color, glabrous or pilose at the base, about 







Fig. 156 



long. Bark thin, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and divided into broad flat ridges. 
Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sap- 
wood. 

Distribution. Cook's Inlet, coast of Alaska, and valley of the Yukon River near Daw- 
son southward through western British Columbia to northern California, ranging eastward 
through Washington and northwestern Oregon to northern Idaho and Montana. 

From central California to San Bernardino County represented by the variety crassijulis 
Andr. (S. brachystachys Benth.) with shorter and broader obovate leaves rounded at apex, 
pubescent and tomentose branchlets and larger pubescent winter-buds. A tree sometimes 
70 high with a trunk often 2| in diameter. 

On the high Sierra Nevada eastward to the eastern ranges of the Rocky Mountains ot 
Colorado and to northern New Mexico, northern Wyoming and the Black Hills of South 
Dakota represented by the var. flavescens Schn. A shrub or rarely a small tree with obo- 
vate rounded yellowish leaves and branchlets. 

23. Salix Hookeriana Barr. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, acute or abruptly acuminate, or rarely rounded and 
frequently apiculate at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, coarsely 
crenately serrate, especially those on vigorous shoots, or entire, when they unfold vil- 
lose with pale hairs, or tomentose above and clothed below with silvery white tomentum, 
at maturity tLin and firm, bright yellow-green and lustrous, nearly glabrous or tomentose 
on the upper surface, pale and glaucous and tomentose or pubescent on the lower surface, 
especially along the midrib and slender arcuate primary veins and conspicuous reticulate 
veinlets, 2'-6' long, I'-l^' wide; petioles stout, tomentose, |' |' long. Flowers: aments 



162 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



oblong-cylindric, erect, rather lax, often more or less curved, about 1|' long, on short 
tomentose scale-bearing branchlets, the staminate f thick and rather thicker than the 
pistillate; scales oblong-obovate, yellow, coated with long pale hairs, the staminate rounded 
above and rather shorter than the more acute scales of the pistillate ament persistent under 
the fruit; stamens 2, with free elongated glabrous filaments; ovary conic, glabrous, stalked, 
with a slender stalk about one third as long as the scale, gradually narrowed above, with a 
slender elongated bright red style and broad spreading entire stigmas. Fruit oblong- 
cylindric, narrowed above, about \' long. 




Fig. 157 



A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk about 1 in diameter, and stout branchlets 
marked by large scattered orange-colored lenticels, covered during their first season with 
hoary tomentum and rather bright or dark red-brown and pubescent in then* second sum- 
mer; more often shrubby, with numerous stems 4'-8' thick and 15-20 high; frequently a 
low bush, with straggling almost prostrate stems. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, nearly terete, 
dark red, coated with pale pubescence, about \' long. Bark nearly \' thick, light red- 
brown, slightly fissured and divided into closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, 
soft, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Borders of salt marshes and ponds and sandy coast dunes; Vancouver 
Island southward along the shores of Puget Sound and the Pacific Ocean to southern 
Oregon. 

24. Salix sitchensis Sanson. 

Leaves oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, entire or minutely glandular dentate, acute or 
acuminate, or rounded and short-pointed, or rounded at apex, gradually narrowed and 
cuneate at base, when they unfold pubescent or tomentose on the upper surface, and coated 
on the lower with lustrous white silky pubescence or tomentum persistent during the 
season or sometimes deciduous from the leaves of vigorous young shoots, at maturity thin 
and firm, dark green, lustrous and glabrous above, with the exception of the pubescent 
midrib, 2'-5' long, f'-l^' wide, with conspicuous slender veins arcuate and united within 
the margins and prominent reticulate veinlets; petioles stout, pubescent, rarely \' long; 
stipules rarely produced, foliaceous, semilunar, acute or rounded at apex, glandular- 
dentate, coated below with hoary tomentum, often \' long, caducous. Flowers: aments 
cylindric, densely flowered, erect on short tomentose leafy branchlets, the staminate 
H'-2' long and \' thick, the pistillate 2|'-3' long, and \' thick; scales yellow or tawny, the 
staminate oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, covered with long white hairs, much longer 
than the more acute pubescent scales of the pistillate ament: stamen 1, with an elongated 



MYRICACE^E 



163 



glabrous filament, or very rarely 2, with filaments united below the middle or nearly to the 
apex; ovary short-stalked, ovoid, conic, acute, pubescent and gradually narrowed into 
the elongated style, with entire or slightly emarginate short stigmas. Fruit ovoid, nar- 
rowed above, light red-brown, pubescent about \' long. 







Fig. 158 

A much-branched tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a short contorted often inclining 
trunk sometimes 1 in diameter, and slender brittle branchlets coated at first with hoary 
tomentum, pubescent and tomentose and dark red-brown or orange color during then- first 
winter, becoming darker, pubescent or glabrous, and sometimes covered with a glaucous 
bloom in their second season; more often shrubby and 6-15 tall. Winter-buds acute, 
nearly terete, light red-brown, pubescent or puberulous, about \' long. Bark about ' 
thick and broken into irregular closely appressed dark brown scales tinged with red. Wood 
light, soft, close-grained, pale red, with thick nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and in low moist ground; Cook Inlet and Kadiak Island, 
Alaska, southward in the neighborhood of the coast to Santa Barbara, California; on the 
Marble Creek of the Kaweah River at 6900 altitude (f. Ralphiana Jeps.) 

VI. MYRICACEJE. 

Aromatic resinous trees and shrubs, with watery juice, terete branches, and small scaly 
buds. Leaves alternate, re volute in the bud, serrate, resinous-punctate, persistent in our 
species, in falling leaving elevated semiorbicular leaf -scars showing the ends of three nearly 
equidistant fibro- vascular bundles. Flowers unisexual, dioecious or monoecious, usually 
subtended by minute bractlets, in the axils of the deciduous scales of unisexual or androgy- 
nous simple oblong aments from buds in the axils of the leaves of the year, opening in early 
spring, the staminate below the pistillate in androgynous aments; staminate, perianth 0; 
stamens 4 or many, inserted on the thickened base of the scales of the ament; filaments 
slender, united at the base into a short stipe; anthers ovoid, erect, 2-celled, introrse, open- 
ing longitudinally; ovary rudimentary or 0; pistillate flowers single or in pairs; ovary ses- 
sile, 1-celled; styles short, divided into 2 elongated filiform stigmas stigmatic on the inner 
face; ovule solitary, erect from the base of the cell, orthotropous, the micropyle superior. 
Fruit a globose or ovoid dry drupe usually covered with waxy exudations; nut hard, thick- 
walled. Seed erect, with a thin coat, without albumen; embryo straight; cotyledons plano- 
convex, fleshy; radicle short, superior, turned away from the minute basal hilum. 

The family consists of the genus Myrica L., of about thirty or forty species of small 



164 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

trees and shrubs, widely distributed through the temperate and warmer parts of both 
hemispheres. Of the seven North American species three are trees. Wax is obtained 
from the exudations of the fruit of several species. The bark is astringent, and sometimes 
used in medicine, in tanning, and as an aniline dye. Myrica rubra Sieb and Zacc., of 
southern Japan and China, is cultivated for its succulent aromatic red fruit. 

The generic name is probably from the ancient name of some shrub, possibly the Tam- 
arisk. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers dioecious. 

Leaves oblanceolate, usually acute or rarely rounded at apex, mostly coarsely serrate 

above the middle, yellow-green, coated below with conspicuous orange-colored 

glands. 1. M. cerifera (A, C). 

Leaves usually broadly oblong-obovate, rounded or rarely acute at apex, entire, dark 

green and lustrous. 2. M. inodora (C). 

Flowers monoecious; leaves oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sharply serrate, dark green 

and lustrous. 3. M. califomica (G). 

1. Myrica cerifera L. Wax Myrtle. 

Leaves oblanceolate or rarely oblong-lanceolate, acute or rarely gradually narrowed 
and rounded at apex, cuneate at base, decurrent on short stout petioles, coarsely serrate 
above the middle or entire, yellow-green, covered above by minute dark glands and below 




Fig. 159 



by bright orange-colored glands, l|'-4' long and \'-\' wide, with a slender pale midrib often 
puberulous below, and few obscure arcuate veins, fragrant with a balsamic resinous odor; 
gradually deciduous at the end of their first year. Flowers in small oblong aments. with 
ovate acute ciliate scales, those of the staminate plant |'-f long, about twice as long as 
those of the pistillate plant; stamens few, with oblong slightly obcordate anthers at first 
tinged with red, becoming yellow; ovary gradually narrowed into 2 slender spreading stig- 
mas longer than its scale. Fruit in short spikes, ripening in September and October and 
persistent on the branches during the winter, irregularly deciduous in the spring and early 
summer, globose, about \' in diameter, slightly papillose, light green, coated with thick 
pale blue wax; seed pale, minute. 

A tree, occasionally 40 high, with a tall trunk 8'-10' in diameter, slender upright or 
slightly spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender branchlets 



MYRICACE^E 



165 



marked by small pale lenticels, coated at first with loose rufous tomentum and caducous 
orange-colored glands, bright red-brown or dark brown tinged with gray, usually lustrous 
and nearly glabrous during their first winter, finally becoming dark brown; generally 
smaller, frequently shrubby. Winter-buds oblong, acute, YV~i' l n g> with numerous 
ovate acute imbricated scales, the inner scales becoming nearly %' long, and often persistent 
until the young branch has completed its growth. Bark of the trunk |' thick, compact, 
smooth, light gray. Wood light, soft and brittle, dark brown, with thin lighter-colored 
sap wood. 

Distribution. In the neighborhood of the coast; Cape May, New Jersey, southern 
Delaware and Maryland to the keys of southern Florida, and through the Gulf states to 
the shores of Aranzas Pass, San Patricio County, Texas, ranging inland to the neighbor- 
hood of Natchez, Jackson County, Mississippi, the valley of the Red River (Natchitoches, 
Louisiana and Fulton, Arkansas), and to Cherokee County, Texas, and northward to the 
valley of the Washita River, Arkansas; on the Bermuda and Bahama Islands and on several 
of the Antilles; most abundant and of its largest size on the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
in sandy swamps and pond holes; the most common woody plant and forming great thickets 
on the Everglades east of Lake Okeechobee, Florida; in the sandy soil of Pine-barrens and 
on dry arid hills of the interior, often only a few inches in height, var. pumila Michx. 

2. Myrica inodora W. Bartr. Wax Myrtle. 

Leaves broadly oblong-obovate or rarely ovate, rounded or sometimes pointed and occa- 
sionally apiculate at apex, narrowed at base, decurrent on short stout petioles, entire or 




Fig. 160 



rarely obscurely toothed toward the apex, thick and coriaceous, glandular-punctate, dark 
green and very lustrous above, bright green below, 2'-4' long, f '-1|' wide, with a broad con- 
spicuously glandular midrib slightly pubescent on the lower side, and few remote slender 
obscure primary veins forked and arcuate near the much-thickened and revolute margins; 
gradually deciduous from May until midsummer. Flowers in aments '-!' long, with 
ovate acute glandular scales; stamens numerous, with oblong slightly emarginate yellow 
anthers; pistillate flowers usually in pairs, with an ovate glabrous ovary and slender bright 
red styles. Fruit produced sparingly in elongated spikes, oblong, -^ long, papillose, 
black, and covered with a thin coat of white wax: seed oblong-oval, acute at apex, rounded 
at base, f ' long, bright orange-brown, with a pale yellow hilum. 

Usually a shrub, with numerous slender stems, occasionally arborescent and 18-20 
high, with a straight trunk 6-8 tall and 2'-3' in diameter, and stout branchlets roughened 



166 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



by small scattered lenticels, coated at first with dense pale tomentum, soon becoming 
bright red-brown, scurfy, and glabrous or pubescent. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, nearly 
f ' long, with numerous loosely imbricated lanceolate acute red-brown scurfy-pubescent 
scales. Bark thin, smooth, nearly white. 

Distribution. Deep swamps, Round Lake, Jackson County, and Appalachicola, and 
Saint Andrews Bay, Florida; near Mobile and Stockton, Alabama; near Poplarville, Pearl 
County, Mississippi, and Bogalusa, Washington Parish, Louisiana. 

3. Myrica californica Cham. Wax Myrtle. 

Leaves oblanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute at apex, remotely serrate except at the 
gradually narrowed base with small incurved teeth, decurrent on a short stout petiole, 
thin and firm, dark green and lustrous above, yellow-green, glabrous or puberulous and 




Fig. 161 



marked by minute black glandular dots below, 2'-4' long, \'-\' wide, with a narrow yellow 
midrib and numerous obscure primary veins arcuate near the thickened and revolute 
margins, slightly fragrant, gradually deciduous after the end of their first year. Flowers 
subtended by conspicuous bractlets, those of the two sexes on the same plant; staminate 
in oblong simple aments often 1' long, pistillate in shorter aments in the axils of upper 
leaves, androgynous aments occurring between the two with staminate flowers at their base 
and pistillate flowers above, or with staminate flowers also mixed with the pistillate at then- 
apex; scales of the aments ovate, acute, coated with pale tomentum; stamens numerous, 
with oblong slightly emarginate dark red-purple anthers soon becoming yellow; ovary ovoid, 
with bright red exserted styles. Fruit in short crowded spikes ripening in the early au- 
tumn and usually falling during the winter, globose, papillose, dark purple, covered with 
a thin coat of grayish white wax; seed pale reddish brown, minute. 

A tree, occasionally 40 high, with a trunk 14'-15' in diameter, short slender branches 
forming a narrow compact round-topped head, and stout branchlets coated at first with 
loose tomentum, dark green or light or dark red-brown, glabrous or pubescent during their 
first season, becoming in their second year much roughened by the elevated leaf -scars, darker 
and ultimately ashy gray; usually smaller at the north and toward the northern and south- 
ern limits of its range reduced to a low shrub often only 3-4 tall. Winter-buds ovoid, 
acute, about \' thick, with loosely imbricated ovate acute dark red-brown tomentose scales 
nearly \' long when fully grown and long-persistent on the branch. Bark smooth, compact, 
xV~i' thick, dark gray or light brown on the surface and dark red-brown internally. Wood 
heavy, very hard and strong, brittle, close-grained, light rose color, with thick lighter 
colored sapwood. 



LEITNEBIACE^E U)7 

Distribution. Ocean sand-dunes and moist hillsides in the vicinity of the coast from the 
shores of Puget Sound to the neighborhood of Santa Monica, Los Angeles County, Cali- 
fornia; of its largest size on the shores of the Bay of San Francisco. 

Occasionally used in California as a garden plant. 

VH. LEITNERIACE^:. 

A tree or shrub, with pale slightly fissured bark, scaly buds, stout terete pithy branchlets 
marked by pale conspicuous nearly circular lenticels and by elevated crescent-shaped 
angled or obscurely 3-lobed leaf-scars, very light soft wood, and thick fleshy stoloniferous 
yellow roots. Leaves involute in the bud, lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate or 
acute and short-pointed at apex, gradually narrowed at base, entire, with slightly revolute 
undulate margins, penniveined with remote primary veins arcuate and united near the 
margins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, petiolate, at first coated on the lower surface 
and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum and puberulous on the upper surface, thick 
and firm at maturity, bright green and lustrous above, pale and villose-pubescent below, 
deciduous. Flowers in unisexual aments, with ovate acute concave tomentose scales, the 
male and female on different plants, opening in early spring from buds formed the previous 
autumn and covered with acute chestnut-brown hairy scales; the staminate clustered near 
the end of the branches, their scales bearing on the thickened stipe a ring of 3-12 stamens, 
with slender incurved filaments and oblong light yellow introrse 2-celled anthers opening 
longitudinally; perianth 0; pistillate aments scattered, shorter and more slender than the 
staminate, their scales bearing in their axils a short-stalked pistil surrounded by a rudi- 
mentary perianth of small gland-fringed scales, the 2 larger lateral, the others next the axis 
of the inflorescence; ovary superior, pubescent, 1-celled, with an elongated flattened style 
inserted obliquely, curving inward above the middle in anthesis, grooved and stigmatic on 
the inner face; ovule solitary, attached laterally, ascending, semianatropous; micropyle 
directed upward. Fruit an oblong compressed dry drupe thick and rounded on the ventral, 
narrowed on the dorsal edge, rounded at base, thin and pointed at apex, chestnut-brown, 
rugose, with a thick dry exocarp closely investing the thin-walled light brown crustaceous 
rugose nutlet. Seed flattened, rounded at the ends, light brown, marked on the thick 
edge with the oblong nearly black hilum; embryo erect, surrounded by thin fleshy albu- 
men; cotyledons oblong, flattened; radicle superior, conical, short, and fleshy. 

The family consists of a single genus, Leitneria Chapm., with one species of the south- 
ern United States, named for a German naturalist killed in Florida during the Seminole 
War. 

1. Leitneria floridana Chapm. Cork Wood. 

Leaves 4'^6' long, 1|'-2|' wide, with petioles l'-2' in length. Flowers opening at the 
end of February or early in March; staminate aments I'-lj' long, \' thick, and twice as 
long as the pistillate. Fruit solitary or in clusters of 2-4, ripening when the leaves are 
about half grown, f long, \' wide. 

A shrub or small tree, occasionally 20 high, with a slender straight trunk 4'-5' in diame- 
ter above the swollen gradually tapering base, spreading branches forming a loose open 
head, and branchlets at first light reddish brown and thickly coated with gradually decidu- 
ous hairs, becoming in their first winter glabrous or puberulous, especially toward the ends, 
and dark red-brown. Winter-buds: terminal broad, conic, \ r long, covered by 10 or 12 
oblong nearly triangular closely imbricated scales coated with pale tomentum and long- 
persistent at the base of the branch; lateral scattered, ovoid, flattened. Bark about T V 
thick, dark gray faintly tinged with brown, divided by shallow fissures into narrow rounded 
ridges. Wood soft, exceedingly light, close-grained, the layers of annual growth hardty 
distinguishable, pale yellow, without trace of heartwood; occasionally used for the floats of 
fishing-nets. 

Distribution. Borders of swamps of the lower Altamaha River, Georgia (C. L. Boyntori)', 



168 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



muddy saline shores on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico near Apalachicola, Florida; 
swampy prairies, Velasco (E. J. Palmer), and swamps of the Brazos River near Columbia, 
Brazoria County, Texas; Varner, Lincoln County (B. F. Bush), and Moark, Clay County 




Fig. 162 



(E. J. Palmer) Arkansas; and in Butler and Dunklin Counties, southeastern Missouri, here 
sometimes occupying muddy sloughs of considerable extent to the exclusion of other woody 
plants. 

VIE. JTJGLANDACE^:. 

Aromatic trees, with watery juice, terete branchlets, scaly buds, the lateral buds often 
superposed, 2-4 together, and alternate unequally pinnate deciduous leaves with elongated 
grooved petioles and without stipules, the leaflets increasing in size from the lowest up- 
ward, penniveined, sessile, short-stalked or the terminal usually long-stalked. Flowers 
monoecious, opening after the unfolding of the leaves, the staminate in lateral aments and 
composed of a 3-6-lobed calyx in the axil of and adnate to an ovate acute bract, and numer- 
ous stamens inserted on the inner and lower face of the calyx in 2 or several rows, with 
short distinct filaments and oblong anthers opening longitudinally; the pistillate in a spike 
terminal on a branch of the year and composed ot a 1-3-celled ovary subtended by an in- 
volucre free toward the apex and formed by the union of an anterior bract and 2 lateral 
bractlets, a 1 or 4-lobed calyx inserted on the ovary, a short style with 2 plumose stigmas 
stigmatic on the inner face, and a solitary erect orthotropous ovule. Fruit drupaceous, 
the exocarp (husk) indehiscent or 4-valved, inclosing a thick- or thin-shelled nut divided 
by partitions extending inward from the shell, and like the shell more or less penetrated 
by internal longitudinal cavities often filled with dry powder. Seed solitary, 2-lobed 
from the apex nearly to the middle, light brown, its coat thin, of 2 layers, without albumen; 
cotyledons fleshy and oily, sinuose or corrugated, 2-lobed; radicle short, superior, filling 
the apex of the nut. Of the six genera of the Walnut family two occur in North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Aments of staminate flowers simple; husk of the fruit indehiscent; nut sculptured; pith in 
plates. 1. Juglans. 

Aments of staminate flowers branched; husk of the fruit 4-valved; nut not sculptured; 
pith solid. 2. Carya 






JUGLANDACE.E 169 

1. JUGLANS L. Walnut. 

Trees, with furrowed scaly bark, durable dark-colored wood, stout branchlets, laminate 
pith, terminal buds with 2 pairs of opposite more or less open scales often obscurely pinnate 
at apex, those of the inner pair more or less leaf-like, and obtuse slightly flattened axillary 
buds formed before midsummer and covered with 4 ovate rounded scales, closed or open 
during winter. Leaves with numerous leaflets, and terete petioles leaving in falling large 
conspicuous elevated obcordate 3-lobed leaf-scars displaying 3 equidistant U-shaped clus- 
ters of dark fibro- vascular bundle-scars; leaflets conduplicate in the bud, ovate, acute or 
acuminate, mostly unequal at base, with veins arcuate and united near the margins. 
Aments of the staminate flowers many-flowered, elongated, solitary or in pairs from lower 
axillary buds of upper nodes, appearing from between persistent bud-scales in the autumn 
and remaining during the winter as short cones covered by the closely imbricated bracts of 
the flowers; calyx 3-6-lobed, its bract free only at the apex; stamens 8-40, in 2 or several 
ranks, their anthers surmounted by a conspicuous dilated truncate or lobed connective; 
pistillate flowers in few-flowered spikes, their involucre villose, free only at the apex and 
variously cut into a laciniate border (cwolla?) shorter than the erect calyx-lobes; ovary 
rarely of 3 carpels; stigmas club-shaped, elongated, fimbriately plumose. Fruit ovoid, 
globose or pyriform, round or obscurely 4-angled, with a fleshy indehiscent glabrate 
or hirsute husk; nut ovoid or globose, more or less flattened, hard, thick-walled, longitu- 
dinally and irregularly rugose, the valves alternate with the cotyledons, and more or less 
ribbed along the dorsal sutures and in some species also on the marginal sutures. Seed 
more or less compressed, gradually narrowed or broad and deeply lobed at base, with con- 
spicuous dark veins radiating from the apex and from the minute basal hilum. 

Juglans is confined to temperate North America, the West Indies, South America from 
Venezuela to Peru, western and northern China, Korea, Manchuria, Japan, and Formosa^ 
Eleven species are known. Of exotic species Juglans regia L., an inhabitant probably 
originally of China, is cultivated in the middle Atlantic and southern states and largely 
in California for its edible nuts, which are an important article ot commerce. The wood 
of several species is valued for the interior finish of houses and for furniture. 

Juglans, from Jupiter and glands, is the classical name of the Walnut-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Fruit racemose; nut 4-ribbed at the sutures 'with smaller intermediate ribs, 2-celled at the 

base; heartwood light brown; leaflets 11-17, oblong-lanceolate. 1. J. cinera (A, C). 

Fruit usually solitary or in pairs; nut without sutural ribs, 4-celled at the base; heartwood 

dark brown. 

Nuts prominently and irregularly ridged with often interrupted ridges; leaflets 15-23, 
ovate-lanceolate. 2. J. nigra (A, C) 

Nuts more or less deeply longitudinally grooved. 

Nuts up to l' in diameter; leaflets 9-13, rarely 19, oblong-lanceolate to ovate, acumi- 
nate, coarsely serrate. 3. J. major (F, H). 
Nuts not more than f ' in diameter. 

Leaflets 17-23, narrow-lanceolate, long-pointed. 4. J. rupestris (C) . 

Leaflets 11-15 or rarely 19, oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, the lower often 

rounded at the apex. 5. J. californica (G). 

Nuts obscurely or not at all grooved, up to 2' in diameter; leaflets 15-19, ovate-lanceolate 

to lanceolate, long-pointed. 6. J. Hindsii (G). 

1. Juglans cinerea L. Butternut. 

Leaves 15'-30' long, with stout pubescent petioles, and 11-17 oblong-lanceolate acute 
or acuminate leaflets 2'-3' long, l'-2' wide, finely serrate except at the unequal rounded 



170 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



base, glandular and sticky as they unfold, at maturity thin, yellow-green and rugose above, 
pale and soft-pubescent below; turning yellow or brown and falling early in the autumn. 
Flowers: staminate in thick aments 3'-5' long; calyx usually 6-lobed, light yellow-green, 
puberulous on the outer surface, f long, its bract rusty-pubescent, acute at apex; 
stamens 8-12, with nearly sessile dark brown anthers and slightly lobed connectives; 
pistillate in 6-8-flowered spikes, constricted above the middle, about %' long, its bract 
and bractlets coated with sticky white or pink glandular hairs and rather shorter than 
the linear-lanceolate calyx-lobes; stigmas bright red, \' long. Fruit in 3-5 fruited droop- 
ing clusters, obscurely 2 or rarely 4-ridged, ovoid-oblong, coated with rusty clammy 
matted hairs, l^'-2^' long with a thick husk; nut ovoid, abruptly contracted and acu- 
minate at apex, with 4 prominent and 4 narrow less conspicuous ribs, light brown, deeply 
sculptured between the ribs into thin broad irregular longitudinal plates, 2-celled at the 
base and 1-celled above the middle; seed sweet, very oily, soon becoming rancid. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, and some- 
times free of branches for half its height; more frequently divided 20 or 30 above the 
ground into many stout limbs spreading horizontally and forming a Moad low symmetrical 




Ffe. 163 



round-topped head, and dark orange-brown or bright green rather lustrous branchlets 
coated at first with rufous pubescence, covered more or less thickly with pale lenticels, 
gradually becoming puberulous, brown tinged with red or orange in their second year and 
marked by light gray leaf-scars with large black fibro-vascular bundle-scars and elevated 
bands of pale tomentum separating them from the lowest axillary bud. Winter-buds: 
terminal ^'-f long, |' wide, flattened and obliquely truncate at apex, their outer scales 
coated with short pale pubescence; axillary buds ovoid, flattened, rounded at apex, ' long, 
covered with rusty brown or pale pubescence. Bark of young stems and of the branches 
smooth and light gray, becoming on old trees f'-l' thick, light brown, deeply divided into 
broad ridges separating on the surface into small appressed plate-like scales. Wood 
light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light brown, turning darker with exposure, with 
thin light-colored sapwood composed of 5 or 6 layers of annual growth ; largely employed 
in the interior finish of houses, and for furniture. The inner bark possesses mild cathartic 
properties. Sugar is made from the sap, and the green husks of the fruit are used to dye 
cloth yellow or orange color. 

Distribution. Rich moist soil near the banks of streams and on low rocky hills, southern 
New Brunswick to the valley of the St. Lawrence River in Ontario, the northern penin- 
sular of Michigan, southern Minnesota, eastern South Dakota, eastern Iowa, southeastern 
Nebraska, and southward to central Kansas, northern Arkansas, Delaware, eastern 



JUGLANDACE.E 



171 



Virginia, and on the Appalachian Mountains and their foothills to northern Georgia; in 
northern Alabama, southern Illinois and western Tennessee; most abundant northward. 

Occasionally cultivated. 

X Juglans quadrangulata A. Rehd., a natural hybrid of J. cinerea and the so-called Eng- 
lish Walnut (J. regia) is not uncommon in eastern Massachusetts, and a hybrid of /. 
cinerea with the Japanese J. Sieboldiana Maxm. has appeared in the United States. 

2. Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. 

Leaves l-2 long, with pubescent petioles, and 15-23 ovate-lanceolate leaflets 3'-3' 
long, l'-lj' wide, long-pointed, sharply serrate except at the more or less rounded often 
unequal base, thin, bright yellow-green, lustrous and glabrous above, soft-pubescent 
below, especially along the slender midrib and primary veins; turning bright clear 
yellow in the autumn before falling. Flowers: staminate in stout puberulous aments 
$'-5' long, calyx rotund, 6-lobed, with nearly orbicular lobes concave and pubescent on the 
outer surface, its bract ' long, nearly triangular, coated with rusty brown or pale 
tomentum; stamens 20-30, arranged in many series, with nearly sessile purple and trun- 
cate connectives; pistillate in 2-5 flowered spikes, ovoid, gradually narrowed at the apex, 
j' long, their bract and bractlets coated below with pale glandular hairs and green and 




Fig. 164 

puberulous above, sometimes irregularly cut into a laciniate border, or reduced to an 
obscure ring just below the apex of the ovary; calyx-lobes ovate, acute, light green, puber- 
ulous on the outer, glabrous or pilose on the inner surface; stigmas yellow-green tinged 
on the margins with red, '-f ' long. Fruit solitary or in pairs, globose, oblong and pointed 
at apex, or slightly pyriform, light yellow-green, roughened by clusters of short pale artic- 
ulate hairs, l|'-2' in diameter, with a thick husk; nut oval or oblong, slightly flattened, 
l'-l^' in diameter, dark brown tinged with red, deeply divided on the outer surface into 
thin or thick often interrupted irregular ridges, 4-celled at base and slightly 2-celled at the 
apex; seed sweet, soon becoming rancid. 

A tree, frequently 100 and occasionally 150 high, with a straight trunk often clear of 
branches for 50-60 and 4-6 in diameter, thick limbs spreading gradually and forming 
a comparatively narrow shapely round-topped head of mbstly upright rigid branches, and 
stout branch lets covered at first with pale or rusty matted hairs, dull orange-brown and 
pilose or puberulous during their first winter, marked by raised conspicuous orange- 
colored lenticels and elevated pale leaf-scars, gradually growing darker and ultimately 
light brown. Winter-buds: terminal ovoid, slightly flattened, obliquely rounded at apex, 
coated with pale silky tomentum, long, with usually 4 obscurely pinnate scales; axillary 



172 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

!' long, tomentose, their outer scales opening at the apex during the winter. Bark of 
young stems and branches light brown and covered with thin scales, becoming on old trees 
2'-3' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and deeply divided into broad rounded 
ridges broken on the surface into thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, 
rather coarse-grained, very durable, rich dark brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood 
of 10-20 layers of annual growth; largely used in cabinet-making, the interior finish of 
houses, gun-stocks, air-planes, and in boat and shipbuilding. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and fertile hillsides, western Massachusetts to south- 
ern Ontario, southern Michigan, southeastern Minnesota, central and northern Nebraska, 
central Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and southward to western Florida, central Alabama and 
Mississippi, and the valley of the San Antonio River, .Texas; most abundant in the region 
west of the Alleghany Mountains, and of its largest size on the western slopes of the high 
mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, and on the fertile river bottom-lands of 
southern Illinois and Indiana, southwestern Arkansas, and Oklahoma; largely destroyed 
for its valuable timber, and now rare. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern United States, and in west- 
ern and central Europe. X Juglans intermedia Carr., a natural hybrid, of J. nigra with the 
so-called English Walnut (J. regia) has appeared in the United States and Europe, and on 
the banks of the James River in Virginia has grown to a larger size than any other re- 
corded Walnut-tree. In California a hybrid, known as " Royal," between J. nigra and 
J. Hindsti has been artificially produced. 

3. Juglans major Hell. Nogal. 

Juglans rupestris var. major Torr. 

Juglans rupestris Sarg., in part, not Engelm. 

Leaves 8'-12' long, with slender pubescent petioles and rachis, and 9-13 rarely 19 oblong- 
lanceolate to ovate acuminate often slightly falcate coarsely serrate leaflets cuneate or 
rounded at base, coated when they first appear with scurfy pubescence, soon becoming 




Fig. 165 



glabrous, or at maturity slightly pubescent on the midrib below, 3'-4', or those of the lower 
pairs H'-2' long, and l'-lf wide, thin, yellow-green, with a thin conspicuous yellow midrib 
and primary veins. Flowers: staminate in slender puberulous or pubescent aments 8'-10' 



JUGLANDACE^E 



173 



long; calyx nearly orbicular, long-stalked, pale yellow-green, 5 or 6-lobed, the lobes ovate, 
acute, hoary pubescent on the outer surface, their bract acute, coated with thick pale 
tomentum; stamens 30-40, with nearly sessile yellow anthers, and slightly divided con- 
nectives; pistillate not seen. Fruit subglobose to slightly ovoid or oblong, abruptly con- 
tracted at apex into a short point (J. elaeopyren Dode), densely tomentose when half 
grown, l'-l-|' in diameter, with a thin husk covered with close rufous pubescence; nut dark 
brown or black, slightly compressed, usually rather broader than high, or ovoid, rounded 
or bluntly acute at apex, rounded and sometimes depressed at base, longitudinally grooved 
with broad deep grooves, thick shelled; seed small and sweet. 

A tree sometimes 50 high, with a straight trunk occasionally 3-4 in diameter, or 
divided at the ground into several large stems, stout branches forming a narrow head, and 
slender branchlets thickly coated when they first appear with rufous pubescence, becoming 
red-brown, pubescent or puberulous and marked by many small pale lenticels at the end 
of their first season and ashy gray the following year. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in the canons of central and southern New Mexico and 
Arizona, and on Oak Creek near Flagstaff, Arizona on the Colorado plateau (P. Lowell). 

4. Juglans rupestris Engelm. Walnut. 

Leaves 9'-12' long, with slender pubescent or puberulous petioles and rachis, and 13-23 
narrow lanceolate long-pointed usually falcate finely serrate leaflets entire or nearly entire 
on their incurved margins, cuneate or rounded at base, thin, light green, glabrous or pubes- 




Fig. 166 



cent on the midrib below, 2'-3' long and i'-f wide. Flowers: staminate in slender 
aments, 3'-!' long, pubescent when they first appear, becoming glabrous; calyx short- 
stalked, nearly orbicular, light yellow-green, puberulous on the outer surface, 3-5-lobed 
with rounded lobes, their bracts ovate-lanceolate, coated with hoary tomentum; stamens 
about 20, with nearly sessile yellow anthers and slightly lobed connectives; pistillate flowers 
oblong, narrowed at the ends, thickly coated with rufous pubescence; bract and bractlets 
irregularly divided into a laciniate border rather shorter than the ovate acute calyx-lobes; 
stigmas green tinged with red, %' long. Fruit globose or subglobose, tipped with the persis- 
tent remnants of the calyx, pubescent or puberulous with rusty hairs, ^'-f in diameter, 
with a thin husk; nut subglobose to slightly ovoid, sometimes obscurely 4-ridged from the 
apex nearly to the middle (J. subrupestris Dode), deeply grooved with longitudinal sim- 
ple or forked grooves, 4-celled at base, 2-celled at apex, thick shelled; seed small and 
sweet. 

A shrubby round-headed tree occasionally 20-30 high, with a short generally leaning 



174 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



trunk 18'-30' in diameter, usually branching from near the ground, and slender branchlets 
coated with pale scurfy pubescence often persistent for two or three years, orange-red and 
marked by pale lenticels in their first winter and ultimately ashy gray; often a shrub with 
clustered stems only a few feet high. Winter-buds : terminal, \'-%' long, compressed, nar- 
rowed and often oblique at apex, covered with pale tomentum; axillary \' long, compressed, 
coated with pale pubescence. Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rich dark brown with thick 
white sapwood. The beauty of the veneers obtained from the stumps of the large trees is 
fast causing their destruction. 

Distribution. Limestone banks of the streams of southern, central and western Texas 
from the Rio Grande to the mountains in the western part of the state; western Oklahoma 
(Kiowa, Greer, Beckham, Rogel, Mills and Ellis Counties); southeastern New Mexico. 

Occasionally cultivated in the eastern United States and in Europe, and hardy as far 
north as eastern Massachusetts; interesting as producing the smallest nuts of any of the 
known Walnut-trees. 

5. Juglans calif ornica S. Wats. 

Leaves 6'-9' long, with glandular pubescent petioles and rachis, and 11-15, rarely 19, 
oblong-lanceolate acute or acuminate glabrous finely serrate leaflets cuneate or rounded 
at base, -%%' long and 5' f ' wide, the lower often rounded at apex. Flowers : staminate 
in slender glabrous or puberulous aments 2'-3' long; calyx puberulous on the outer surface 
with acute or rarely rounded lobes, its bract, puberulous; stamens 30-40, with yellow 
anthers and short connectives bifid at apex; the pistillate subglobose, puberulous; stigmas 




Fig. 167 

yellow, y long. Fruit globose, $'-f ' in diameter, with a thin dark-colored puberulous husk; 
nut nearly globose, deeply grooved with longitudinal grooves, thick shelled, 4-celled at base, 
imperfectly 2-celled at apex; seed small and sweet. 

A shrubby round-headed tree or shrub generally 12-20, rarely 40-50 high, usually 
branching from the ground or with a short trunk 1 or rarely 2-3 in diameter, and slender 
branchlets coated with scurfy rufous pubescence when they first appear, glabrous, reddish 
brown and marked by pale lenticels at the end of their first season and gray the following 
year. Winter-buds coated with rufous tomentum. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and bottom-lands in the southern California coast 
region from Santa Barbara and the Ojai valley to San Fernando and the Sierra Santa 
Monica, and along the foothills of the Sierra Madre to the San Bernardino Mountains and 
southward to the Sierra Santa Anna. 



JUGLANDACE^E 



175 



A curious seminal variety (var. quercina Babcock) with compound leaves composed of 
3 oval leaflets, the terminal long-stalked and 2 or 3 times larger than the lateral leaflets, 
is occasionally cultivated in California. 

6. Juglans Hindsii Rehxl. 
Juglans californica S. Wats., in part. 
Juglans californica var. Hindsii Jep. 

Leaves 9'-12' long, with slender villose pubescent petioles and rachis, and 15-19, usually 
19, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate long-pointed often slightly falcate leaflets, serrate with 
remote teeth except toward the usually rounded cuneate or rarely cordate base, thin, 
puberulous above while young, becoming bright green, lustrous and glabrous on the upper 




Fig. 168 

surface, below furnished with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs, and villose-pubescent along 
the midrib and primary veins, 2'-4' long and f '-!' wide. Flowers : staminate in slender 
glabrous or sparingly villose aments 3'-5' long; calyx elongated, coated like its bract with 
scurfy pubescence, divided into 5 or 6 acute lobes; stamens 30-40, with short connectives 
bifid at apex; ovary of the pistillate flower oblong-ovoid, thickly covered with villose pubes- 
cence, f ' long, the border of the thin bract and bractlets much shorter than the calyx-lobes; 
stigma yellow. Fruit globose, lj'-2' in diameter, with a thin dark-colored husk covered 
with short soft pubescence; nut nearly globose, somewhat flattened at the ends, faintly 
grooved with remote longitudinal depressions, thick shelled; seed small and sweet. 

A tree usually 30-40, occasionally 75 high, with a tall trunk l-2 in diameter, stout 
pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and comparatively slender 
branchlets thickly coated when they first appear with villose pubescence, reddish brown and 
puberulous, and marked by pale lenticels and small elevated obscurely 3-lobed leaf scars 
during their first winter, becoming darker and nearly glabrous in their second year. Win- 
ter-buds coated with hoary tomentum; terminal acute, compressed, more or less enlarged 
at apex, %'~ l n g' axillary usually solitary, nearly globose, about T y in diameter. Bark 
gray-brown, smoothish, longitudinally fissured into narrow plates. Wood heavy, hard, 
rather coarse-grained, dark brown often mottled, with thick pale sapwood of from 8 to 
10 layers of annual growth. 



176 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Coast region of central California; banks of the lower Sacramento River; 
along streams near the western base of Mt. Diabolo, and on eastern slope of the Napa 
Range near Atlas Peak east of Napa Valley; near Loyalton in the Sierra Valley. 

Often cultivated in California as a shade tree and as stock on which to graft varieties 
of Juglans regia L., and rarely in the eastern states and in Europe. In California, a hybrid 
known as " Paradox " between J. Hindsii and J. regia has been artificially produced. 

2. CARYA NUTT. Hickory. 
Hicoria Rafn. 

Trees, with smooth gray bark becoming on old trunks rough or scaly, strong hard tough 
brown heartwood, pale sapwood and tough terete flexible branchlets, solid pith, buds covered 
with few valvate or with numerous imbricated scales, the axillary buds much smaller than 
the terminal. Leaves often glandular-dotted, their petioles sometimes persistent on the 
branches during the winter, and in falling leaving large elevated oblong or semiorbicular 
more or less 3-lobed emarginate leaf-scars displaying small marginal clusters and central 
radiating lines of dark fibre-vascular bundle-scars; leaflets involute in the bud, ovate or 
obovate, usually acuminate, thick and firm, serrate, mostly unequal at base, with veins 
forked and running to the margins; turning clear bright yellow in the autumn. Aments of 
the staminate flowers ternate, slender, solitary or fascicled in the axils of leaves of the 
previous or rarely of the current year, or at the base of branches of the year from the 
inner scales of the terminal bud, the lateral branches in the axils of lanceolate acute per- 
sistent bracts; calyx usually 2 rarely 3-lobed, its bract free nearly to the base and usually 
much longer than the ovate rounded or acuminate calyx-lobes; stamens 3-10, in 2 or 3 
series, their anthers ovate-oblong, emarginate or divided at apex, yellow or red, pilose or 
hirsute, as long or longer than their slender connectives; pistillate flowers sessile, in 2-10- 
flowered spikes, with a perianth-like involucre, slightly 4-ridged, unequally 4-lobed at apex, 
villose and covered on the outer surface with yellow scales more or less persistent on the 
fruit, the bract much longer than the bractlets and the single calyx-lobe; stigmas short, 
papillose-stigmatic. Fruit ovoid, globose or pyriform, with a thin or thick husk becoming hard 
and woody at maturity, 4-valved, the sutures alternate with those of the nut, sometimes 
more or less broadly winged, splitting to the base or to the middle; nut oblong, obovoid 
or subglobose, acute, acuminate, or rounded at apex, tipped by the hardened remnants of 
the style, narrowed and usually rounded at base, cylinclric, or compressed contrary to the 
valves, the shell thin and brittle or thick, hard, and bony, smooth or variously rugose or 
ridged on the outer surface, 4-celled at base, 2-celled at apex. Seed compressed, variously 
grooved on the back of the flat or concave lobes, sweet or bitter. 

Carya is confined to the temperate region of eastern North America from the valley 
of the St. Lawrence River to the highlands of Mexico, and to southern China where one 
species occurs. Of the seventeen species, fifteen inhabit the territory of the United States. 

The generic name is from Kapva an ancient name of the Walnut. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Bud-scales valvate, the inner strap-shaped and only occasionally slightly accrescent; fruit 
more or less broadly winged at the sutures; the thin partitions of the nut containing 
cavities filled with dark astringent powder (absent in 3 and 5). 
Shell of the nut thin and brittle; leaflets more or less falcate. 

Aments of staminate flowers nearly sessile, usually on branches of the previous year: 

lobes of the seed entire or slightly notched at apex. 

Leaflets 9-17; nut ovoid-oblong, cylindric; seed sweet. 1. C. pecan (A, C). 

Leaflets 7-13; nut oblong, compressed; seed bitter. 2. C. texana (C). 

Aments of staminate flowers pedunculate, on branches of the year or of the previous 
year; lobes of the bitter seed deeply 2-lobed. 



JUGLANDACE^E 177 

Leaflets 7-9; nut cylindric or slightly compressed. 3. C. cordiformis (A, C). 

Leaflets 7-13; nut compressed, usually conspicuously wrinkled. 4. C. aquatica (C). 
Shell of the ellipsoidal cylindric nut thick and hard; lobes of the sweet seed deeply 2-lobed; 
leaflets 7-9, occasionally 5, rarely slightly falcate; aments of staminate flowers long- 
pedunculate at the base of branches of the year. ' 5. C. myristicaefonnis (C). 
Bud-scales imbricated, the inner becoming much enlarged and often highly colored; aments 
of staminate flowers on peduncles from the base of branches of the year, rarely from the 
axils of leaves; fruit usually without wings; partitions of the nut thick without cavities 
filled with astringent powder; seed sweet, its lobes deeply 2-lobed. 
Branchlets usually stout (slender in 7); involucre \'-%' in thickness, opening freely 
to the base. 

Bark on old trunks separating into long, broad, loosely attached plates; nuts pale. 
Branchlets light red-brown; shell of the nut thin. 

Leaflets 5 or rarely 7, obovate to ovate, acute or acuminate; nut much compressed, 

often long-pointed at apex; branchlets glabrous or pubescent. 6. C. ovata (A, C). 

Leaflets 5, lanceolate, acuminate; nut little compressed, acute at apex; branchlets 

slender, glabrous. 7. C. carolinae-septentrionalis (C). 

Branchlets pale orange color, pubescent; leaflets usually 7-9; shell of the nut thick. 

8. C. laciniosa (A, C). 

Bark not scaly, on old trunks dark, deeply ridged; leaflets 7-9, often subcoriaceous, 

pubescent below; nut reddish brown, often long-pointed, thick shelled; branchlets 

pubescent. 9. C. alba (A, C). 

Branchlets slender; leaves 5-7-foliolate; involucre of the fruit tardily dehiscent to the 

middle, indehiscent or opening freely to the base; shell of the nut thick, bark close, 

(sometimes scaly in 13). 

Branchlets and leaves not covered when they first appear with rusty brown pubescence. 
Involucre of the fruit 3-5.5 mm. in thickness, opening freely to the base, leaves 

usually 7-foliolate; winter-buds pubescent. 

Leaflets hoary tomentose below in early spring, slightly pubescent at maturity; 
petioles and rachis glabrous; fruit broad-obovoid; branchlets glabrous. 

10. C. leiodermis (C). 

Leaflets covered in early spring with silvery scales, pale and pubescent below 
during the season; petioles and rachis more or less thickly covered with fasci- 
cled hairs; fruit ellipsoidal to obovoid or globose; branchlets glabrous or 
slightly pubescent. 11. C. pallida (A, C). 

Involucre of the fruit 1-3 mm. in thickness; winter-buds glabrous or puberulous. 
Leaves 5, rarely 7-foliolate, glabrous or rarely slightly pubescent; fruit obovoid, 
often narrowed below into a stipitate base, the involucre indehiscent or tardily 
dehiscent. 12. C. glabra (A, C). 

Leaves generally 7-foliolate, glabrous or rarely pubescent; fruit ellipsoidal, sub- 
globose or obovoid, the involucre opening freely to the base; bark often more 
or less scaly. 13. C. ovalis (A, C). 

Branchlets and leaves densely covered when they first appear with rusty brown pubes- 
cence; leaflets usually 5-7; winter-buds rusty pubescent. 

Fruit obovoid; the involucre 2-3 mm. in thickness; peduncles of the aments of 
staminate flowers often from the axils of leaves; branchlets soon becoming 
glabrous. 14. C. floridana (C). 

Fruit subglobose to broadly obovoid, ellipsoidal or pyriform, the involucre on the 
different varieties 2-13 mm. in thickness; branchlets pubescent through their 
first season. 15. C. Buckley! (A, C). 

1. Carya pecan Asch. & Gr. Pecan. 
Leaves 12'-20' long, with slender glabrous or pubescent petioles, and 9-17 lanceolate to 
rag-lanceolate more or less falcate long-pointed coarsely often doubly serrate leaflets 



178 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



rounded or cuneate at the unequal base, sessile, except the terminal leaflet, or short-stalked, 
dark yellow-green and glabrous or pilose above, and pale and glabrous or pubescent below, 
4 '-8' long, l'-3' wide, with a narrow yellow midrib and conspicuous veins. Flowers: 
stamina te in slender puberulous clustered aments 3'-5' long, from buds formed in the axils 
of leaves of the previous year or occasionally on shoots of the year, sessile or short-stalked, 
light yellow-green and hirsute on the outer surface, with broadly ovate acute lobes rather 
shorter than the oblong or obovate bract; stamens 5' or 6'; anthers yellow, slightly villose; 
pistillate in few or many flowered spikes, oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly 4-angled 
and coated with yellow scurfy pubescence. Fruit in clusters of 3-11, pointed at apex, 
rounded at the narrowed base, 4-winged and angled, l'-2^' long, %'-l' broad, dark brown 
and more or less thickly covered with yellow scales, with a thin, brittle husk splitting at 
maturity nearly to the base and often persistent on the branch during the winter after the 
discharge of the nut; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal, nearly cylindric or slightly 4-angled toward 
the pointed apex, rounded and usually apiculate at base, bright reddish brown, with irreg- 




Fig. 169 



ular black markings with a thin shell and papery partitions; seed sweet, red-brown, its 
nearly flat lobes grooved from near the base to the apex by 2 deep longitudinal grooves. 

A tree, 100-180 high, with a tall massive trunk occasionally 6 or 7 in diameter above 
its enlarged and buttressed base, stout slightly spreading branches forming in the forest 
a narrow symmetrical and inversely pyramidal head, or with abundant room a broad 
round-topped crown, and branchlets at first slightly tinged with red and coated with loose 
pale tomentum, becoming glabrous or puberulous in their first winter, and marked by 
numerous oblong orange-colored lenticels and by large oblong concave leaf-scars with 
a broad thin membranaceous border surrounding the lower axillary bud. Winter- 
buds acute, compressed, covered with clusters of bright yellow articulate hairs and pale 
tomentum; terminal \' long; axillary ovoid, often stalked, especially the large upper 
bud. Bark l'-l|' thick, light brown tinged with red, and deeply and irregularly divided 
into narrow forked ridges broken on the surface into thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, 
hard, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin light brown 
sap wood; less valuable than that of most Hickories, and used chiefly for fuel, and occa- 
sionally in the manufacture of wagons and agricultural implements. The nuts, which 
vary in size and shape and in the thickness of their shells and in the quality of the kernels, 
are an important article of commerce. 

Distribution. Low rich .ground in the neighborhood of streams; in the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi River, Iowa (Clinton and Muscatine Counties), southern Illinois, southwestern 



JUGLANDACE.E 



179 



Indiana (Sullivan and Spencer Counties), western Kentucky and Tennessee, western Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana, extreme western and southwestern Missouri (Jackson County south- 
ward, common only on the Marias de Cygne River), eastern Kansas to Kickapoo Island 
in the Missouri River near Fort Leavenworth, Oklahoma to the valley of the Salt Fork 
of the Arkansas River (near Alva Woods County) and to creek valleys near Cache, Co- 
manche County (G. W. Stevens), through Arkansas; and in Texas to the valley of the Devil's 
River and to that of Warder's Creek, Hardiman County; reappearing on the mountains of 
Mexico; most abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

Largely cultivated in the Southern States, in many selected varieties, for its valuable 
nuts. 

2. Carya texana Schn. Bitter Pecan. 

Leaves 10'-12' long, with slender petioles, and 7-13 lanceolate acuminate finely serrate 
leaflets, hoary-tomentose when they unfold, and more or less villose in the autumn, thin 
and firm, dark yellow-green and nearly glabrous above, pale yellow-green and puberulous 
below, 3' -5' long, about 1^' wide, the terminal leaflet gradually narrowed to the acute base 
and short-stalked, the lateral often falcate, unsymmetrical at the base, subsessile or short- 




Fig. 170 



stalked. Flowers: staminate in villose aments 2'-3' long, light yellow-green and villose 
on the outer surface, with oblong-ovate rounded lobes; pistillate in few fruited spikes, 
oblong, slightly 4-angled, villose. Fruit oblong or oblong-obovoid, apiculate at apex, 
slightly 4-winged at base, dark brown, more or less covered with yellow scales, l'-2' long, 
with a thin husk; nut oblong-ovoid or oblong-obovoid, compressed, acute at the ends, 
short-pointed at apex, apiculate at base, obscurely 4-angled, bright red-brown, rough and 
pitted, with a thin brittle shell, thin papery walls, and a low basal ventral partition; seed 
very bitter, bright red-brown, flattened, its lobes rounded and slightly divided at apex, 
longitudinally grooved and deeply penetrated on the outer face by the prominent reticu- 
lated folds of the inner surface of the shell of the nut. 

A tree, sometimes 100 high on the bottoms of the Brazos River, with a tall straight 
trunk 3 in diameter, and ascending branches, or on the borders of prairies in low wet 
woods usually 15-25 tall, with a short trunk 8'-10' in diameter, small spreading branches 
forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with thick 
hoary tomentum sometimes persistent until the autumn, bright red-brown and marked by 
occasional large pale lenticels during their first winter and by the large concave obcordate 
leaf-scars nearly surrounding the lowest axillary bud, becoming darker in their second 
season and dark or light gray-brown in their third year. Winter-buds covered with light 



180 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

yellow articulate hairs; the terminal oblong, acute, or acuminate, somewhat compressed, 
about j' long, and rather longer than the upper lateral bud. Bark |'-f ' thick, light reddish 
brown, and roughened by closely appressed variously shaped plate-like scales. Wood 
close-grained, tough and strong, light red-brown, with pale brown sapwood. 

Distribution. Bottom-lands and low wet woods; valley of the lower Brazos River, 
Texas; near Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish, and Laurel Hill, West Feliciana Parish, Lou- 
isiana; near Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi; valley of the Arkansas River (Arkansas 
Post, Arkansas County, and Van Buren, Crawford County), Arkansas. 

3. Carya cordiformis K. Koch. Pignut. Bitternut. 

Leaves 6'-10' long, with slender pubescent or hirsute petioles, and 7-9 lanceolate to 
ovate-lanceolate or obovate long-pointed sessile leaflets coarsely serrate except at the 
equally or unequally cuneate or subcordate base, thin and firm, dark yellow-green and gla- 
brous above, lighter and pubescent below, especially along the midrib, 4 '-6' long, f'-li' 
wide, or occasionally 2'-4' wide (var. latifolia Sarg.). Flowers: staminate in slightly 




Fig. 171 



pubescent aments, 3'-4' long, coated with rufous hairs like its ovate acute bract; stamens 
4, with yellow anthers deeply emarginate and villose at apex; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered 
spikes, slightly 4-angled, covered with yellow scurfy tomentum. Fruit cylindric or slightly 
compressed, f'-U' long, obovoid to subglobose, or oblong and acute at apex (var. elongata 
Ashe), 4-winged from the apex to about the middle, with a thin puberulous husk, more or 
less thickly coated with small yellow scales; nut ovoid or oblong, often broader than long, 
compressed and marked at base with dark lines along the sutures and alternate with them, 
depressed or obcordate, and abruptly contracted into a long or short point at apex, gray 
tinged with red or light reddish brown, with a thin brittle shell; seed bright reddish brown, 
very bitter, much compressed, deeply rugose, with irregular cross-folds. 

A tree, often 100 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, stout spreading 
branches forming a broad handsome head, and slender branchlets marked by oblong 
pale lenticels, bright green and covered more or less thickly with rusty hairs when they first 
appear, reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous during their first summer, reddish 
brown and lustrous during the winter and ultimately light gray, with small elevated ob- 
scurely 3-lobed obcordate leaf-scars. Winter-buds compressed, scurfy pubescent, bright 
yellow; terminal |'-f' long, oblique at apex, with 2 pairs of scales; lateral 2-angled, often 
stalked, f'-J' long, with ovate pointed slightly accrescent scales keeled on the back. 
Bark \'-\' thick, light brown tinged with red, and broken into thin plate-like scales sepa- 



JUGLANDACE^E 181 

rating on the surface into small thin flakes. Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, close- 
grained, dark brown, with thick light brown or often nearly white sapwood; largely used 
for hoops and ox-yokes, and for fuel. 

Distribution. Low wet woods near the borders of streams and swamps or on high rolling 
uplands often remote from streams, southern Maine to Quebec and Ontario, the northern 
shores of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, northern Minnesota, southeastern Nebraska, 
eastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and southward to northwestern Florida, Dallas County, 
Alabama, and eastern Texas; generally distributed, but not very abundant in all the cen- 
tral states east and west of the Appalachian Mountains; ranging farther north than the 
other species, and growing to its largest size on the bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin; 
the common Hickory of Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. 

A natural hybrid, X C. Brownii Sarg. of C. cordif&rmis with C. pecan, with characters 
intermediate between those of its supposed parents, occurs on bottom-land of the Ar- 
kansas River near Van Buren, Crawford County, Arkansas. Probably of the same parent- 
age is the so-called Galloway Nut found in Hamilton County, Ohio. Another hybrid, 
X C. Brownii var. varians Sarg., probably of the same parentage also, occurs near Van 
Buren. X C. Laneyi Sarg., a natural hybrid evidently of C. cordifarmis with C. ovata, has 
been found in Rochester, New York, and trees considered varieties of the same hybrid, 
var. chateaugayensis Sarg., occur near the mouth of the Chateaugay River, Province of 
Quebec, and at Summertown, Ontario. 

4. Carya aquatica Nutt. Water Hickory. 

Leaves 9'-15' long, with slender dark red puberulous or tomentose petioles, and 7-13 
ovate-lanceolate long-pointed falcate leaflets symmetrical and rounded or cuneate and un- 
symmetrical and oblique at base, finely or coarsely serrate, sessile or stalked, 3'-5' long, 




Fig. 172 

f'-l|' wide, covered with yellow glandular dots, thin, dark green above, brown and lus- 
trous or tomentose on the lower surface, especially on the slender midrib and primary 
veins, the terminal leaflet more or less decurrent by its wedge-shaped base on a slender 
stalk or rarely nearly sessile. Flowers: staminate in solitary or fascicled hirsute aments 
2|'-3' long, covered like their bract with yellow glandular pubescence; stamens 6, with 
yellow puberulous anthers; pistillate in several flowered spikes, oblong, slightly flat- 
tened, 4-angled, glandular-pubescent. Fruit often in 3 or 4-fruited clusters, much com- 
pressed, usually broadest above the middle, rounded at the slightly narrowed base, rounded 
or abruptly narrowed at apex, conspicuously 4-winged, dark brown or nearly black, covered 



182 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

more or Jess thickly with bright yellow scales, 1^' long, l'-lj' wide, with a thin brittle 
husk splitting tardily and usually only to the middle; nut flattened, slightly obovoid, 
nearly as broad as long, rounded and abruptly short-pointed at apex, rounded at the nar- 
row base, 4-angled and ridged, dark reddish brown, and longitudinally and very irregularly 
wrinkled, with a thin shell; seed oblong, compressed, dark brown, irregularly and usually 
longitudinally furrowed, very bitter. 

A tree, occasionally 80-100 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 2 in diameter, slender 
upright branches forming a narrow head, and slender dark reddish brown or ashy gray 
lustrous branchlets marked by numerous pale lenticels, at first slightly glandular and 
coated with loose pale tomentum, glabrous or puberulous during the summer, and marked 
during the winter by small nearly oval or obscurely 3-lobed slightly elevated leaf-scars, 
growing dark red-brown and ultimately gray. Winter-buds slightly flattened, acute, 
dark reddish brown, covered with caducous yellow scales; terminal i'-j' long, often 
villose; axillary much smaller, frequently nearly sessile, often solitary. Bark \'-\' thick, 
separating freely into long loose plate-like light brown scales tinged with red. Wood heavy, 
strong, close-grained, rather brittle, dark brown, with thick light-colored or often nearly 
white sapwood; occasionally used for fencing and fuel. 

Distribution. River swamps often inundated during a considerable part of the year from 
southeastern Virginia southward through the coast regions to the shores of Indian River 
and the valley of the Suwanee River, Florida, through the maritime portions of the Gulf 
states to the valley of the Brazos River, Texas, and northward through western Louisiana 
to southeastern Missouri, and to northeastern Louisiana, western Mississippi, and the valley 
of the lower Wabash River, Illinois; passing into the var. australis Sarg. with narrower 
leaflets, smaller ellipsoidal fruit, pale red-brown nuts without longitudinal wrinkles, and 
with close not scaly bark of the trunk. A large tree in dry sandy soil; high banks of the 
St. John's River, near San Mateo, Putnam County, near Jupiter, Palm Beach County, 
banks of the Caloosahatchie River at Alma, Lee County, and Old Town, Lafayette 
County, Florida; near Marshall, Harrison County, Texas. 

5. Carya myristicaeformis Nutt. Nutmeg Hickory. 

Leaves 7'-14' long, with slender terete scurfy-pubescent petioles, and 7-9, occasionally 
5, ovate-lanceolate to broadly obovate acute leaflets usually equally or sometimes un- 
equally cuneate or rounded at the narrow base, coarsely serrate, short-stalked or nearly 




Fig. 173 



sessile, thin and firm, dark green above, more or less pubescent or nearly glabrous and sil- 
very white and very lustrous below, 4'-5' long, 1'-!$' wide, with a pale scurfy pubescent 



JUGLANDACE^E 



183 



midrib; changing late in the season to bright golden-bronze color and then very conspicu- 
ous. Flowers: staminate in aments 3'-4' long and coated like the ovate-oblong acute 
bract and calyx of the flower with dark brown scurfy pubescence; stamens 6, with yellow 
anthers; pistillate oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly 4-angled, covered with thick 
brown scurfy pubescence. Fruit usually solitary, ellipsoidal or slightly obovoid, 4-ridge"d 
to the base, with broad thick ridges, 1|' long, coated with yellow-brown scurfy pubescence, 
the husk not more than ^V thick, splitting nearly ^o the base; nut ellipsoidal or some- 
times slightly obovoid, 1' long, f ' broad, rounded and apiculate at the ends, smooth, dark 
reddish brown, and marked by longitudinal broken bands of small gray spots covering 
the entire surface at the ends with a thick hard and bony shell, a thick partition, and a 
low thin dorsal division; seed sweet, small, dark brown; the lobes deeply 2-lobed at apex. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a tall straight trunk often 2 in diameter, stout slightly 
spreading branches forming a comparatively narrow rather open head, and slender branch- 
lets coated with lustrous golden or brown scales often persistent until the second year, 
light brown or ashy gray during their first winter, ultimately dark reddish brown, and 
marked by small scattered pale lenticels and small oval emarginate elevated leaf-scars. 
Winter-buds covered with thick brown scurvy pubescence; terminal \'-\' long, ovoid, 
rather obtuse; axillary much smaller, acute, slightly flattened, sessile or short-stalked, 
often solitary. Bark |'-f ' thick, dark brown tinged with red, and broken irregularly into 
small thin appressed scales. Wood hard, very strong, tough, close-grained, light brown, 
with thick lighter colored sapwood of 80-90 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Banks of rivers and swamps in rich moist soil or rarely on higher ground; 
eastern South Carolina, central Alabama, eastern, and northwestern (bluffs of the Yazoo 
River at Yazoo City) Mississippi, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, southeastern 
Oklahoma to Clear Boggy Creek, western Choctaw County, and in Beaumont County, 
Texas; on the mountains of northeastern Mexico; rare and local; abundant only in southern 
Arkansas. 

6. Carya ovata K. Koch. Shellbark Hickory. Shagbark Hickory. 
Leaves 8'-14' long, with stout glabrous or pubescent petioles, and 5 or rarely 7 ovate 
to ovate-lanceolate or obovate leaflets, acuminate or rarely rounded at apex, more or less 




Fig. 174 

thickly ciliate on the margins, finely serrate except toward the usually cuneate base, dark 
yellow- green and glabrous above, paler, glabrous and lustrous or puberulous below, the 
terminal leaflet decurrent on a slender stalk, 5'-7' long, 2'-3' wide, rather larger than the 
sessile or short-stalked upper leaflets, and two or three times as large as those of the lowest 



184 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

/ 

pair. Flowers: staminate opening after the leaves have grown nearly to their full size, in 
slender light green glandular-hirsute aments 4'-5' long, glandular-hirsute, their elongated 
ovate-lanceolate acute bract two or three times as long as the ovate concave rounded or 
acute calyx-lobes; stamens 4, with yellow or red anthers hirsute above the middle; pistillate 
in 2-5-flowered spikes, -5' long, clothed with rusty tomentum. Fruit solitary or in pairs, 
subglobose, rather longer than broad or slightly obovoid, depressed at apex, dark reddish 
brown or nearly black at maturity, roughened by small pale lenticels, glabrous or pilose, 
l'-2^' long, the husk, f |' thick, splitting freely to the base; nut oblong, nearly twice as 
long as broad, or obovoid and broader than long, compressed, prominently or obscurely 
4-ridged and angled, acute and gradually or abruptly narrowed or rounded or nearly 
truncate at apex, gradually narrowed and rounded at base, pale or nearly white, with a 
usually thin shell; seed light brown, lustrous, sweet, with an aromatic flavor. 

A tree, 70-90 and occasionally 120 high, with a tall straight trunk 3-4 in diameter, 
in the forest often free of branches for 50-60 above the ground and then divided into a 
few small limbs forming a narrow head, or with more space sometimes dividing near the 
ground or at half the height of the tree into stout slightly spreading limbs, forming a 
narrow inversely conic round-topped head of more or less pendulous branches, and stout 
branchlets marked with oblong pale lenticels, covered at first with caducous brown scurf 
and coated with pale glandular pubescence, soon bright reddish brown, and lustrous, gla- 
brous or pubescent, growing dark gray in their second year and ultimately light gray, and 
marked by pale and slightly elevated ovate semiorbicular or obscurely 3-lobed leaf-scars. 
Winter-buds: terminal broadly ovoid, rather obtuse, |'-f long, '-' broad, the 3 or 4 
outer scales nearly triangular, acute, dark brown, pubescent and hirsute on the outer 
surface, the exterior scales often abruptly narrowed into long rigid points and deciduous 
before the unfolding of the leaves, the inner scales lustrous, covered with resinous glands, 
yellow-green often tinged with red, oblong-obovate, pointed, becoming 2'-3' long and 
5' broad, usually persistent until after the fall of the staminate aments; axillary buds 
coated at first with thick white tomentum, becoming \'-% long when fully grown. Bark 
light gray, f'-l' thick, separating in thick plates often a foot or more long and 6'-8' wide, 
and more or less closely attached to the trunk by the middle, giving it the shaggy appear- 
ance to which this tree owes its common name. Wood heavy, very hard and strong, tough, 
close-grained, flexible, light brown, with thin nearly white sap wood; largely used in the 
manufacture of agricultural implements, carriages, wagons, and for axe-handles, baskets, 
and fuel. The nut is the common Hickory nut of commerce. 

Distribution. Low hills and the neighborhood of streams and swamps in rich deep 
moderately moist soil; southern Maine to the valley of the St. Lawrence River near Mon- 
treal, along the northern shores of Lakes Erie and Ontario to central Michigan, central 
Wisconsin, southeastern Minnesota, eastern Iowa and southeastern Nebraska, and south- 
ward to western Florida, northern Alabama and Mississippi, and to eastern Kansas, eastern 
Oklahoma, and eastern Texas; ranging further north than other Hickories with the excep- 
tion of C. cordiformis ; and in the Carolinas ascending to 3000 above the sea in valleys on 
the western slope of the Blue Ridge. Variable in the size and shape of the nut and in the 
character and amount of pubescence on the leaves and branchlets. These varieties are 
distinguished: var. Nuttallii Sarg., with nuts rounded, obcordate or rarely pointed at 
apex, rounded or abruptly pointed at base, much compressed, and only about f ' long and 
\'-\' broad; not rare and widely distributed northward. Var. complanata Sarg., with 
oblong-obovoid fruit and broadly obovoid much compressed slightly angled nuts cuneate 
at base and rounded, truncate or slightly obcordate at apex; a single tree on the Drushel 
Farm near Mt. Hope, Holmes County, Ohio. Var. ellipsoidalis Sarg., with ellipsoidal 
much compressed nuts abruptly long-pointed at apex, and slender reddish branchlets; 
near Hannibal, Marion County, and Oakwood, Rolles County, northeastern Missouri, 
and Indian River, Lewis County, and near Rochester, Munroe County, New York. Var. 
pubescens Sarg., differing in the dense pubescence of pale fascicled hairs on the young 
branchlets, and on the petioles, rachis and under surface of the leaflets; bottoms of the 



JUGLANDACE^E 



185 



Savannah River, Calhoun Falls, Abbeville County, South Carolina, bottom of Little 
River, Walker County, Georgia, Chattanooga Creek, Hamilton County, Tennessee, 
Valley Head, DeKalb County, Alabama, and Columbus, Lowndes County, Starkville, 
Oktibbeha County, and Brookville, Noxubee County, Mississippi. More distinct is 

Carya ovata var. fraxinifolia Sarg. 

Leaves 7'-9' long, with slender glabrous or puberulous petioles and 5 lanceolate to 
slightly oblanceolate acuminate finely serrate leaflets glabrous except on the under side of 
the midrib, the terminal leaflet 4 / -7 / long and 1|'-1' wide, the lateral sessile, unsymmetri- 




Fig. 175 

cal at base, those of the upper pair often larger than the terminal leaflet, those of the lower 
pair 2'-2|' long and l'-l|' wide. Flowers as in the species. Fruit obovoid, usually 
rounded at apex, compressed, about If long, the husk splitting freely to the base, '-' 
in thickness; nut much compressed, rounded at the ends, prominently angled. 

A large tree with bark separating in long loose plates, and slender reddish glabrous or 
puberulous branchlets. 

Distribution. Near Rochester, Munroe County, New York; common; near Kingston, 
Ontario, and westward through Ohio and Indiana; at Keosauqua, Van Buren County, 
Iowa, and near Myers, Osage County, Oklahoma. 

7. Carya carolinae-septentrionalis Schn. Shagbark Hickory. 

Leaves 4 '-8' long, with slender glabrous petioles, and usually 5 but occasionally 3 lanceo- 
late long-pointed leaflets gradually narrowed at the acuminate symmetrical or unsymmetri- 
cal base, coarsely serrate, ciliate with long white hairs as the leaves unfold, thin, dark green 
above, pale yellow-green and lustrous below, the upper leaflets 3'-4' long, I'-l^' wide, and 
about twice as large as those of the lower pair, turning dull brown or yellow-brown some 
time before falling. Flowers: staminate in slightly villose aments, glandular-hirsute on 
the outer surface, with linear elongated acuminate villose bracts; stamens 4; anthers 
puberulous; pistillate usually in 2-flowered spikes, oblong and covered with clustered golden 
hairs, their bract linear and ciliate on the margins. Fruit broader than high, or short- 
oblong, slightly depressed at apex, f '-If wide, dark red-brown, roughened by small pale 
lenticels, the husk f'-f' thick, splitting freely almost to the base; nut ovoid, compressed, 
prominently 4-angled, acute at ends, nearly white or pale brown, with a thin shell; seed 
light brown, sweet. 

A tree, on moist bottom-lands sometimes 80 tall, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, and 



186 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



short small branches forming a narrow oblong head, or on dry hillsides usually not more 
than 20-30 tall, with a trunk generally not exceeding a foot in diameter, and slender 
red-brown branchlets marked by numerous small pale lenticels and by the small low 
truncate or slightly obcordate leaf-scars, becoming ultimately dull gray-brown. Winter- 
buds: terminal ovoid, gradually narrowed to the obtuse apex, about ' long, with glabrous 
bright red-brown and lustrous acute and apiculate strongly keeled spreading outer scales, 
the inner scales becoming when fully grown bright yellow, long-pointed, and sometimes 2' 




Fig. 176 

long; axillary buds oblong, obtuse, not more than T y long. Bark light gray, |'-f ' thick, 
separating freely into thick plates often a foot or more long, 3' or 4' wide, and long-persist- 
ent, giving to the trunk the shaggy appearance pf the northern Shagbark Hickory. Wood 
hard, strong, very tough, light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Dry limestone hills, river-bottoms and low flat often inundated woods, 
frequently in clay soil; central North Carolina to northern Georgia, and through western 
North Carolina to eastern Tennessee, eastern Mississippi, and in Cullman and Dallas 
Counties, Alabama. 

8. Carya laciniosa Schn. Big Shellbark. King Nut. 

Leaves 15'-22' long, with stout glabrous or pubescent petioles often persistent on the 
branches during the winter, and 5-9, usually 7, ovate to oblong-lanceolate or broadly 
obovate leaflets, the upper 5'-9' long and 3'-5' wide and generally two or three times as 
large as those of the lowest pair, usually equilateral and acuminate at apex, equally or un- 
equally cuneate or rounded at the often oblique base, finely serrate, sessile or short-stalked, 
dark green and lustrous above, pale yellow-green or bronzy brown and covered with soft 
pubescence below. Flowers: staminate in aments 5 '-8' long, glabrous or covered with 
rufous scurfy tomentum, with linear-lanceolate acute bracts two or three times as long 
as the broad rounded calyx-lobes; anthers hirsute, yellow, more or less deeply emarginate; 
pistillate in 2-5-flowered spikes, oblong-ovoid, about twice as long as broad, slightly 
angled, clothed with pale tomentum, their linear bracts acute much longer than the nearly 
triangular bractlets and calyx-lobe. Fruit solitary or in pah's, ellipsoidal, ovoid or sub- 
globose, depressed at apex, roughened with minute orange-colored lenticels, downy or 
glabrous, light orange-colored or dark chestnut-brown at maturity, If '-2^' long and If '-2' 
broad, with a hard woody husk pale and marked on the inside with dark delicate veins, and 
\'-\' thick; nut ellipsoidal or slightly obovoid, longer than broad or sometimes broader 
than long, flattened and rounded at the ends, or gradually narrowed and rounded at base 



JUGLANDACE^E 



187 



and occasionally acuminate at apex, more or less compressed, prominently 4-ridged and 
angled or often 6-ridged, furnished at base with a stout long point, light yellow to reddish 
brown, \\'-Z\' long and H'-lf wide, with a hard bony shell sometimes \' thick; seed 
light chestnut-brown, very sweet. 

A tree, occasionally 120 high, with a straight slender trunk often free of branches for 
more than half its height and rarely exceeding 3 in diameter, comparatively small spread- 
ing branches forming a narrow oblong head, and stout dark or light orange-colored branch- 
lets at first pilose or covered with pale or rufous pubescence or tomentum, roughened by 
scattered elevated long pale lenticels, orange-brown and glabrous or puberulous during 
their first winter, and marked by oblong 3-lobed emarginate leaf-scars. Winter-buds: 
terminal ovoid, rather obtuse, sometimes 1' long and ' wide, and three or four times as 
large as the axillary buds, usually covered by 11 or 12 scales, the outer dark brown, puber- 
ulous, generally keeled, with a long point at apex, the inner scales obovate, pointed or 
rounded at apex, light green tinged with red, or bright red or yellow, covered with silky 
pubescence on the outer face, slightly resinous, becoming 2'-3' long and 1' wide. Bark 
l'-2' thick, light gray, separating into broad thick plates frequently 3-4 long, sometimes 




Fig. 177 



remaining for many years hanging on the trunk. Wood heavy, very hard, strong and 
tough, close-grained, very flexible,, dark brown, with comparatively thin nearly white 
sapwood. The large nuts are often sold in the markets of western cities and commercially 
are not often distinguished from those of the Shellbark Hickory. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands usually inundated during several weeks of every year; 
central and western New York and southeastern Ontario, and westward through southern 
Ohio, southern Michigan, Indiana and Illinois to southeastern Iowa and southeastern 
Nebraska, through Missouri and Arkansas to southeastern Kansas and northeastern Okla- 
homa, and southward through eastern Pennsylvania to western West Virginia; in south- 
eastern Tennessee; banks of the Alabama River, Dallas County, Alabama, and in West 
Feliciana Parish, Louisiana. 

X Carya Nussbaumerii Sarg. with leaves like those of C. laciniosa, slender branchlets, 
and large fruit of the shape of that of the Pecan but without sutural wings and white or 
nearly white nuts, believed to be a hybrid of these species, has been found near Fayette- 
ville, St. Clair County, Illinois, at Mt. Vernon, Posey County, Indiana, near Burlington, Des 
Moines County, Iowa, and from the neighborhood of Rockville, Bates County, Missouri. 

Trees intermediate in character between C. laciniosa and C. ovata growing on the bottoms 
of the Genessee River at Golah, Munroe County, New York, and believed to be hybrids 
of these species, are X C. Dunbarii Sarg. 



188 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



9. Carya alba K. Koch. Hickory. 

Leaves glandular, resinous, fragrant, 8'-12' long, with petioles covered like the rachis 
and the under surface of the leaflets with fascicled hairs, and 5 or 7 oblong-lanceolate to ob- 
ovate-lanceolate leaflets gradually or abruptly acuminate, mostly equilateral, equally or 
unequally rounded or cuneate at base, minutely or coarsely serrate, sessile or short- 
stalked, dark yellow-green and rather lustrous above, lustrous, paler or light orange- 
colored or brown on the lower surface, the upper leaflets 5' -8' long and 3'-5' wide, and 
two or three times as large as those of the lowest pair. Flowers : staminate in aments 
4'-5' long, with slender light green stems coated with fascicled hairs, pale yellow- 
green, scurfy-pubescent, with elongated ovate-lanceolate bracts ending in tufts of long 
pale hairs, and three or four times as long as the calyx-lobes; stamens 4, with oblong 
bright red hirsute anthers; pistillate in crowded 2-5-flowered spikes, slightly contracted 
above the middle, coated with pale tomentum, the bract ovate, acute, sometimes ' 
long, about twice as long as the broadly ovate nearly triangular bractlets and calyx- 
lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit ellipsoidal or obovoid, gradually narrowed at the ends, 
acute at apex, abruptly contracted toward the base, rarely obovoid with a stipe-like base 




Fig. 178 



(var. ficoides Sarg.), or ovoid with a long acuminate apex (var. ovoidea Sarg.), pilose or 
nearly glabrous, dark red-brown, If '-2' long, with a husk about i' thick splitting to the 
middle or nearly to the base; nut nearly globose, ellipsoidal, obo void-oblong or ovoid, 
narrowed at ends, rounded at base, acute, and sometimes attenuated and long-pointed at 
apex, much or only slightly compressed, obscurely or prominently 4-ridged, light reddish 
brown, becoming darker and sometimes red with age, with a very thick hard shell and 
partitions; in drying often cracking transversely; seed small, sweet, dark brown, and 
lustrous. 

A tree, rarely 100 high, usually much smaller, with a tall trunk occasionally 3 in 
diameter, comparatively small spreading branches forming a narrow or often a broad round- 
topped head of upright rigid or of gracefully pendulous branches, and stout branchlets 
clothed at first with pale fascicled hairs, rather bright brown, nearly glabrous or more or 
less pubescent, and marked by conspicuous pale lenticels during their first season, be- 
coming light or dark gray, with pale emarginate leaf-scars almost equally lobed, or elon- 
gated with the lowest lobe two or three times as long as the others. Whiter-buds: ter- 
minal broadly ovoid, acute or obtuse, f '-f ' long, two or three times as large as the axillary 
buds, the three or four outer bud-scales ovate, acute, often keeled and apiculate, thick and 
firm, dark reddish brown and pilose, usually deciduous late in the autumn, the inner scales 



JUGLANDACE^ 



189 



ovate, rounded or acute and short-pointed at apex, light green covered with soft silky 
pubescence on the outer, and often bright red and pilose on the inner surface, becoming 
I'-l^' long and \' broad. Bark |'-f thick, close, slightly ridged by shallow irregular 
interrupted fissures and covered by dark gray closely appressed scales. Wood very heavy, 
hard, tough, strong, close-grained, flexible, rich dark brown, with thick nearly white sap- 
wood; used for the same purposes as that of the Shell bark Hickory. 

Distribution. Eastern Massachusetts southward to Lake County, Florida, and east- 
ern Texas, and through Ohio, southwestern Ontario, southern Michigan, Illinois and Indi- 
ana to southeastern Iowa, and through Missouri to eastern Oklahoma; comparatively rare 
at the north, growing on dry slopes and ridges and less commonly on alluvial bottom- 
lands; absent from eastern Canada, northern and western New England, and New York 
except in the neighborhood of the coast; the most abundant and generally distributed Hick- 
ory-tree of the southern states, growing to its largest size in the basin of the lower Ohio 
River and in Missouri and Arkansas; commonly in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas, 
and occasionally in other southern states represented by var. subcoriacea Sarg., differing 
in its larger, thicker, more pubescent leaflets, more prominently angled fruit with a thicker 
husk, larger nuts, and in its longer winter-buds often |' long and f ' in diameter. 

X Carya Schneckii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of C. alba and C. pecan, has been 
found at Lawrenceville, Lawrence County, Illinois, and near Muscatine, Muscatine 
County, Iowa. 

10. Carya leiodermis Sarg. 

Leaves 12'-14' long, with slender petioles and rachis slightly or densely pubescent with 
fascicled hairs, becoming glabrous or nearly glabrous, and 7 or rarely 5 thin finely serrate 
leaflets, long-pointed at apex, and gradually narrowed, cuneate and unsymmetrical at base, 




Fig. 179 

at first hoary tomentose below and pubescent above, becoming dark green and lustrous 
on the upper surface and pale and slightly pubescent on the lower surface, especially on 
the stout midrib, the terminal oblong-obovate with a stalk ' f ' in length, or nearly ses- 
sile, of the same shape and often smaller than the nearly sessile upper leaflets, 4 '-5' long and 
2'-2f wide, and much larger than the lanceolate lower leaflets. Flowers: staminate open- 
ing after the leaves have grown nearly to their full size, in slender puberulous aments 



190 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



4'-4^' long; bract of the flower ovate, lanceolate, ciliate on the margins with long white 
hairs mixed with stipitate glands, a third longer than the ciliate calyx-lobes; stamens 4, 
anthers red, covered with long rigid white hairs; pistillate in short spikes, then- involucre 
and bracts densely clothed with white hairs. Fruit broadly obovoid, smooth, glabrous or 
puberulous, covered with scattered white scales, l^'-lf-' long, about \\' in diameter, the 
husk I' to nearly ' thick, opening freely to the base usually only by two sutures; nut el- 
lipsoidal or slightly obovoid, little compressed, rounded at the ends, tinged with red, with 
a shell '-' thick; seed small and sweet. 

A tree 60-75 tall with a trunk occasionally 3 in diameter, stout often pendulous 
branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender reddish brown lustrous branch- 
lets puberulous or pubescent when they first appear, becoming glabrous or nearly gla- 
brous by the end of their first season. Winter-buds : terminal acute, about \' long, the 
outer scales pubescent, the inner covered with appressed pale hairs and ciliate on the 
margins: axillary buds ovoid and rounded at apex or subglobose. Bark close, pale, only 
slightly, ridged. 

Distribution. Low wet woods; Louisiana to southern Arkansas, and in northwestern 
Mississippi (bluffs, Yazoo County) ; most abundant in western Louisiana from the neighbor- 
hood of the coast to the valley of Red River, and in Tangipahoa Parish east of the Missis- 
sippi River. 

Passing into var. callicoma Sarg., differing in the thinner husk of the fruit and hi the 
bright red color of the unfolding leaves. 

Distribution. Low wet woods; valley of the Calcasieu River (near Lake Charles), west- 
ern Louisiana to that of the Neches River (near Beaumont), Texas; in western and 
southern Mississippi (Warren, Adams, Hinds, Lafayette, Copiah, Lowndes and Oktibbeha 
Counties). 

11. Carya pallida Ashe. 

Leaves 7'-15' long, with slender petioles and rachis covered, like the under side of the mid- 
rib, with prominent persistent clusters of fascicled hairs mixed with silvery scales, and 




Fig. 180 

usually 7, rarely 9, lanceolate or oblanceolate leaflets, the terminal rarely obovate, finely 
serrate, resinous, fragrant, acuminate and long-pointed at apex, cuneate or rounded and 
often unsymmetrical at base, covered in spring with small silvery peltate scales, and at ma- 
turity light green and lustrous above, pale and pubescent or puberulous below, the terminal 
short-stalked or nearly sessile, 4 '-6' long and l'-2' wide, and as large or slightly larger 
than the upper lateral leaflets, those of the lower pairs usually not more than 2' long and 



JUGLANDACEyE 191 

\' wide. Flowers: staminate in aments covered with fascicled hairs and silvery scales, 
1\ r'-5' long, pubernlous and glandular on the outer surface, with linear acuminate bracts; 
stamens 4, anthers hirsute; pistillate usually solitary, oblong, covered with yellow scales, 
their bract ovate-lanceolate, ciliate on the margin. Fruit pubescent and covered with 
yellow scales, ellipsoidal to obovoid, broad-obovoid, subglobose to depressed-globose, and 
from '-H' in length, with a husk from $'-' in thickness, splitting tardily to the base by 2 
or 3 of the sutures, or occasionally remaining unopened until midwinter; nut white, rounded 
at the ends, or obcordate or obtusely pointed at apex, compressed, more or less prominently 
ridged nearly to the base, with a shell i'- T V thick; seed small and sweet. 

A tree occasionally 90-110 high, with a tall trunk 2f-3 in diameter, usually not more 
than 30-40 tall, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, stout branches, the upper erect, the lower 
often pendulous, and slender red-brown glabrous or pubescent branchlets. Winter-buds 
acute or obtuse, reddish brown, puberulous and covered with silvery scales, the terminal 
|' long with 6-9 scales and rather larger than the lateral buds usually covered with fewer 
scales. Bark of large trees grown in good soil pale and slightly ridged, that of trees 
on dry ridges, rough, deeply furrowed, dark gray and southward often nearly black. Wood 
brown with nearly white sapwood; probably little used except as fuel. 

Distribution. Sandy soil in the neighborhood of Cape May, New Jersey, in southern 
Delaware, and in the southern part of the Maryland peninsula; common in rich soil in 
Gloucester and James City Counties, Virginia, growing here to its largest size, and south- 
ward from southeast Virginia through the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina, 
ascending to altitudes of 2200 in the mountain valleys of these states; common in north- 
ern and central Georgia and southeastern Tennessee, occasionally reaching the Georgia 
coast and the southwestern part of that state; in western Florida, through northern and 
central Alabama to Dallas County, and through southern Mississippi to northeastern 
Louisiana (near Kentwood, Tangipahoa Parish) ; in Mississippi extending northward to 
the valley of the Yazoo River in Yazoo County; in northern Tennessee (Lexington, 
Henderson County) ; in Alabama the common Hickory on the dry gravelly and poor 
soils of the upland table-lands and ridges of the central part of the state. 

12. Carya glabra Sweet. Pignut. 
Carya porcina Nutt. 

Leaves 8'-12' long, with slender glabrous petioles and rachis, and 5 or rarely 7 lanceolate 
or oblanceolate finely serrate leaflets acuminate at the ends, yellow-green and glabrous 
above, glabrous, or pubescent on the midrib below, the terminal leaflet sometimes obo- 
vate, 4 '-4^' long and 5' or 6' wide, and raised on a glabrous or sparingly pubescent stalk, 
%'-%' in length, the lateral leaflets sessile, those of the upper pair about the size of the 
terminal leaflet, and two or three times larger than those of the lower pair. Flowers: stamin- 
ate in short-stalked pubescent aments 2'-2^' long, yellow-green, the bract villose, much 
longer than the calyx-lobes; stamens 4, anthers yellow, villose toward the apex; pistillate 
in few-flowered spikes, oblong, coated with hoary tomentum like the lanceolate acuminate 
bract. Fruit obovoid, compressed, rounded at apex, gradually narrowed below and often 
abruptly contracted into a stipe-like base, about 1' long and ' wide, with a husk from 
iV-i' in thickness, opening late by one or two sutures or often remaining closed; nut 
obovoid, compressed, without ridges, rounded or slightly obcordate at apex, gradually nar- 
rowed and rounded below, with a hard thick shell; seed small and sweet. 

A tree 60-90 high, with a trunk 2-2^ in diameter, with small spreading often drooping 
branches forming a tall narrow head, and slender glabrous reddish branchlets marked by 
pale lenticels. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, light brown, glabrous, '-' long and l'-\' in 
diameter, the inner scales covered with close pubescence. Bark close, ridged, light gray. 
Wood heavy, hard, strong and tough, flexible, light or dark brown, with thick lighter- 
colored sapwood; used for the handles of tools and in the manufacture of wagons and agri- 
cultural implements, and largely for fuel. 



192 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Distribution. Hillsides and dry ridges; southwestern Vermont to western New York, 
southeastern Ontario, southern Indiana and southwestern Illinois, and southward to Dela- 




Fig. 181 

ware, the District of Columbia and eastern Virginia, and along the Appalachian Mountains 
to North Carolina; in northern, central and eastern Georgia, northern Alabama and eastern 
Mississippi. 

The name " Pignut " usually applied to this tree and to the forms of C. ovalis Sarg., 
especially in the north, properly belongs to C. cordiformis Schn. 

Passing into 

Carya glabra var. megacarpa Sarg. 
Carya megacarpa Sarg. 

Leaves 12'-14' long, with slender glabrous petioles and 5-7 lanceolate to oblanceolate 
leaflets long-pointed and acuminate at apex, gradually narrowed and unsymmetrical at 
base, finely serrate, glabrous or very rarely pubescent, often furnished below with small 
clusters of axillary hairs, the three upper 8'-10' long and 1^'-2|' wide and about twice as 
large as those of the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate in slightly villose aments 2^'-3' in 
length, villose, their bract long-pointed, acuminate, villose, twice longer than the calyx- 
lobes, stamens 4-6, anthers yellow, villose above the middle; pistillate in short-stalked 
spikes, their involucre only slightly angled, covered with pale yellow hairs, the bract acu- 
minate, twice longer than the bractlets and calyx-lobes. Fruit oblong-obovoid with a stipe- 
like base to short-obovate and rounded or abruptly cuneate at base, rarely depressed at 
apex, slightly flattened, often covered with bright yellow scales, l'-2' long, l'-l ' in diameter, 
with a husk i' 5' in thickness, opening tardily to the middle usually by one or by two su- 
tures, or often remaining closed; nut broadest toward the rounded apex or oblong and oc- 
casionally acute at apex, gradually narrowed and acute at base, often compressed, slightly 
or rarely prominently angled (f. angulata Sarg.), with a shell f '-^' in thickness; seed small 
and sweet. 

A tree 50-70 high, with a trunk up to 2 in diameter, stout spreading and drooping 
branches, and stout or rarely slender glabrous branchlets, reddish brown at the end of their 



JUGLANDACILE 



193 



first season, becoming dark gray-brown. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, glabrous, up to \' 

in length, the inner scales puberulous. Bark close, only slightly ridged, light or dark gray. 

Distribution. Rochester, Munroe County. New York, through southern Ohio and 

Indiana to southern Illinois (Tunnel Hill, Johnson County); coast of New Jersey; District 




Fig. 182 



of Columbia and southward to the shores of Indian River and the valley of the Callusa- 
hatchie River, Florida, and through southern Alabama to western Louisiana; one of the 
commonest Hickories in the coast region of the south Atlantic and east Gulf states, occa- 
sionally ranging inland to central and northern Georgia and western Mississippi. 

13. Carya ovalis Sarg. 

Leaves 6'-10' long, with slender petioles often scurfy-pubescent early in the season, 
soon glabrous, and 7 or rarely 5 lanceolate to oblanceolate, or occasionally obovate finely 
serrate leaflets, long-pointed and acuminate or rarely rounded at apex, cuneate and un- 
symmetrical at base, early in the season often scurfy-pubescent and furnished below with 
small axillary tufts of pale hairs, soon glabrous, the upper 6' or 7' long and l'-2' wide, and 
raised, on a stalk \'-\' in length, the lateral sessile, those of the upper pah's as large or 
slightly smaller than the terminal leaflet. Flowers: staminate in puberulous aments 6'-7' 
long, pubescent, their bracts twice longer than the ovate acute calyx-lobes; stamens 4, an- 
thers yellow, thickly covered with pale hairs; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered spikes, obovoid, 
more or less thickly covered with yellow scales. Fruit ellipsoidal, acute or rounded at apex, 
rounded at base, puberulous, \'-\\' long, about f ' in diameter, with a husk T y- T V m thick- 
ness, splitting freely to the base; nut pale, oblong, slightly flattened, rounded at base, acute 
or acuminate and 4-angled at apex, the ridges extending for one-third or rarely for one- 
half of its length, with a shell rarely more than ' in thickness; seed small and sweet. 

A tree sometimes 100 high, with a tall trunk occasionally 3 in diameter, small spread- 
ing branches forming a narrow often pyramidal head, and slender lustrous red-brown 
branchlets marked by pale lenticels, often slightly pubescent when they first appear, soon 
glabrous. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, acute or acuminate; the terminal often \' long and 
twice as large as the lateral, the outer scales red-brown, lustrous and glabrous, the inner cov- 
ered with close pale tomentum. Bark slightly ridged, pale gray, usually separating freely 
into small plate-like scales, or occasionally close. Wood heavy, hard and tough, flexible, 
light or dark brown, with thick lighter-colored sap wood; used for the handles of tools, in the 
manufacture of wagons and agricultural implements, and largely for fuel. 



194 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Distribution. Hillsides and rich woods; western New York, eastern Pennsylvania and 
the District of Columbia to southern Illinois and central Iowa (Ames, Story County), and 




southward to the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, and to central Georgia and 
Alabama; usually rare and local; most abundant and generally distributed in Indiana. With 
its varieties usually but incorrectly called " Pignut." 

The following varieties differing in the shape of their fruit are distinguished: 

Carya ovalis var. obcordata Sarg. 

Carya microcarpa Darling, in part. 
Hicoria microcarpa Britt. in part. 

Fruit subglobose to short-oblong or slightly obovoid, I'-lJ' in diameter, with a husk 
T y-f in thickness, splitting freely to the base or nearly to the base by often narrow-winged 




Fig. 184 



sutures; nut much compressed, slightly angled and often broadest above the middle, 
rounded and usually more or less obcordate at apex, narrowed and rounded at base. 



JUGLANDACE.E 



195 



Distribution. Southern New England to southern Wisconsin, southwestern Missouri, 
western North Carolina, central and eastern Georgia, eastern Mississippi and centra) 
Alabama; the common and most widely distributed northern variety of Gary a ovalis; com- 
mon in the mountain districts of central Alabama; varying to the f. vestita Sarg. with 
stouter branchlets covered during their first year with rusty tomentum and more or less 
pubescent in their second and third seasons, leaflets slightly pubescent below, and with 
more compressed nuts and puberulous w r inter-buds. A single tree near Davis Pond, Knox 
County, Indiana. 

Carya ovalis var. odorata Sarg. 

Carya microcarpa Darling, in part. 
Hicoria microcarpa Britt. in part. 
Hicoria glabra var. odorata Sarg. in part. 

Fruit subglobose or slightly longer than broad, much flattened, '-f ' in diameter, with a 
husk not more than 2 y in thickness, splitting freely to the base by sutures sometimes f ur- 



% 




Fig. 185 



nished with narrow wings; nut compressed, rounded at apex, rounded or acute at base, 
slightly or nor at all ridged, pale or nearly white, with a shell T V or less in thickness. 

Distribution. Southern New England, eastern Pennsylvania and the District of Colum- 
bia to western New York, and southeastern Ontario, and through Ohio and Indiana to 
southern Illinois; near Atlanta, Georgia, and Starkville, Oktibbaha County, Mississippi; 
less variable in the size and shape of the fruit than the other varieties of C. ovalis. 



Carya ovalis var. obovalis Sarg. 

Hicoria glabra Sarg. in part. 

Fruit more or less obovoid, about 1' long and f ' in diameter, with a husk T y-f thick, 
splitting freely to the base. (Fig. 186.) 

Distribution. Southern New England to Missouri and northern Arkansas; on the 
mountains of North Carolina, on the coast of Georgia and in north central Alabama. The 
common " Pignut " in the middle western states, varying to f. acuta Sarg. with nuts 
pointed at the ends and closer bark; only near Rochester, Munroe County, New York. 

Other forms of C. ovalis are var. hirsuta Sarg. (Hicoria glabra hirsuta Ashe) with obovoid 
compressed fruit narrowed into a stipitate base, with a husk |' |' in thickness, scaly 
bark, pubescent winter-buds, leaves with pubescent petioles and leaflets pubescent on 
the lower surface; a common tree on the mountains of North Carolina up to altitudes of 
2000 above the sea; and var. borealis Sarg. (Hicoria borealift Ashe) with pubescent branch- 



196 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




Fig. 186 



lets and winter-buds, leaves pubescent early in the season, ellipsoidal or ovoid flattened 
fruit with a husk $'-' in thickness, an ovoid nut ridged to the base, and scaly bark; only 
in southeastern Michigan. 

14. Carya floridana Sarg. 

Leaves 6'-8' long, with slender petioles rusty pubescent when they first appear, soon 
glabrous, with 5 or rarely 7 lanceolate to oblanceolate leaflets long-pointed and acuminate 
at apex, unsymmetrical and rounded or cuneate at base, serrate with remote cartilaginous 
teeth, sessile or the terminal leaflet short-stalked, covered when they unfold with rufous 



9 

I 




Fig. 187 



pubescence, soon glabrous, at maturity thin, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, yellow- 
green above, often brownish below, the upper three 3^'-4' long, 1/-2' wide, and about twice 
larger than those of the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate in long-stalked scurfy pubescent 
aments l'-l' in length, produced at the base of branchlets of the year from the axils of 



JUGLANDACE.E 



197 



t 



bud-scales, and often of leaves, scurfy pubescent, their bract ovate, acuminate, a third 
longer than the calyx-lobes; stamens 4 or 5, anthers yellow, slightly villose near the apex; 
pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered spikes, obovoid, thickly covered, like their bracts, with yellow 
scales. Fruit obovoid, gradually narrowed, rounded and sometimes slightly depressed at 
apex, narrowed below into a short stipe-like base, occasionally slightly winged at the sutures, 
often roughened by prominent reticulate ridges, puberulous and covered with small yellow 
scales, f '-1|' long, f '-!' in diameter with a husk yV~i' thick, splitting freely to the base 
by 2 or 3 sutures; nut pale or reddish, subglobose, not more than f ' in diameter, or ovoid 
or rarely oblong, acute at base, narrowed and rounded at apex, slightly compressed, with 
a shell jV"?' m thickness. 

A tree 50-70 high with a trunk up to 20' in diameter, slender spreading branches form- 
ing a broad head, and slender branchlets at first coated with rufous pubescence, soon puber- 
ulous or glabrous, bright red-brown and marked by pale lenticels during their first winter; 
or in dry sand often a shrub producing abundant fruit on stems 3 or 4 high. Winter- 
buds ovoid, acute or obtuse, the outer scales covered with thick rusty pubescence and more 
or less thickly with yellow or rarely silvery scales, the inner coated with pale pubescence; 
the terminal 1'-%' in length and twice as large as the axillary buds. Bark slightly ridged, 
close dark gray-brown. Wood dark brown, with pale sapwood; probably used only for fuel. 

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges and low hills, Florida; east coast, Volusia County to 
Jupiter Island, Palm Beach County; in the interior of the peninsula as a shrub, from 
Orange to De Soto Counties, and on the shores of Pensacola Bay. 

15. Carya Buckleyi Durand. 
Carya texana Buckl., not Le Conte 

Leaves 8'-12' long, with slender petioles rusty pubescent and sparingly villose early in 
the season, and 5-7, usually 7, lanceolate to oblanceolate acuminate bluntly serrate sessile 




Fig. 188 



leaflets, the terminal occasionally broadly obovate and abruptly pointed, and sometimes 
raised on a winged stalk $'5' in length, when they unfold thickly covered with rusty pubes- 
cence mixed with small white scales and villose on the lower side of the midrib and veins, 



198 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

and at maturity dark green, lustrous, glabrous or puberulous along the midrib above, 
paler, glabrous or sparingly villose and furnished with small tufts of axillary hairs below, 
the upper three leaflets 4'-6' long and 2'-2' wide, and twice the size of those of the lowest 
pair. Flowers: staminate in rusty pubescent aments 2'-3' long, their bract slender, long 
acuminate, 3 or 4 times longer than the acuminate calyx-lobes; stamens 4 or 5, anthers 
yellow, slightly villose toward the apex; pistillate in 1 or 2-flowered short-stalked spikes, 
slightly angled, thickly coated with rufous hairs like the bract and bractlets. Fruit sub- 
globose, puberulous, Ij'-lf ' in diameter, with a husk T y~i' thick, splitting freely to the base 
by slightly winged sutures; nut slightly compressed, rounded at base, abruptly narrowed 
and acute at apex, 4-angled above the middle or nearly to the base; dark reddish brown, 
conspicuously reticulate- venulose with pale veins, with a shell about ' thick; in drying 
often cracking longitudinally between the angles; seed small and sweet. 

A tree, usually 30-45 or rarely 60 high, with a trunk 12'-24' in diameter, large spread- 
ing often drooping more or less contorted branches forming a narrow head, and slender light 
red-brown branchlets marked by pale lenticels, more or less densely rusty pubescent during 
their first season and dark gray-brown and glabrous or nearly glabrous the following year. 
Winter-buds ovoid, covered with rusty pubescence mixed with silvery scales, furnished at 
apex with long pale hairs; the terminal bud abruptly contracted and long-pointed at apex, 
f '-%' in length and |' |' in diameter, and 2 or 3 times larger than the flattened acute lateral 
buds. Bark thick, deeply furrowed, rough, dark often nearly black. Wood hard, brittle, 
little used except for fuel. 

Distribution. Dry sandy uplands with Post and Black Jack Oaks; northern and eastern 
Texas (Grayson, Cherokee, San Augustine and Atascosa Counties), and in central Okla- 
homa (dry sand hills, Muskogee County). 

Carya Buckleyi var. arkansana Sarg. 
Carya arkansana Sarg. 

Differing from Carya Buckleyi in the shape of the fruit and sometimes in the bark of the 
trunk. Fruit obovoid, rounded at apex, rounded or gradually narrowed or abruptly COD- 



r 




Fig. 189 



tracted into a more or less developed stipe at base, or ellipsoidal, or ovoid and rounded at the 
ends, t'-l^' in length and in diameter, with .a husk T V-y thick, splitting to the middle or 
nearly to the base by slightly winged sutures; nut oblong to slightly obovoid, rounded at 






JUGLANDACE.E 



199 



I 



the ends, compressed, slightly 4-angled occasionally to the middle, pale brown, with a 
shell '5' in thickness; seed small and sweet. 

A tree from 60-75 high, with a trunk 2 in diameter; southward usually much smaller. 
Bark on some trees dark gray, irregularly fissured, separating into thin scales, and on others 
close, nearly black and deeply divided into rough ridges. 

Distribution. Dry hillsides, rocky ridges, or southward on sandy upland; southwestern 
Indiana (Knox County), southern Illinois, northeastern Missouri and southward through 
Missouri and Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma, western Louisiana and northern and eastern 
Texas to the valley of the Atascosa River, Atascosa County; the common Hickory of the 
Ozark Mountain region, Arkansas, and here abundant on dry rocky ridges at altitudes 
of 1200-! 800; in Texas the common Hickory from the coast to the base of the Edwards 
Plateau; trees with the smallest fruit northward; those with the largest fruit with thickest 
husks in Louisiana, and in southern Arkansas (f. pachylemma Sarg.), a tree with slender 
nearly glabrous branchlets, deeply fissured pale gray bark, rusty pubescent winter-buds 
and fruit 2|' long and 2' in diameter, with a husk \' in thickness. 

Carya Buckleyi var. villosa Sarg. 

Hicoria glabra var. villosa Sarg. 

Hicoria villosa Ashe. 

Carya villosa Schn. 

Carya glabra var. villosa Robins. 

Leaves 6'-10' long, with slender petioles and rachis pubescent with fascicled hairs early in 
the season, generally becoming glabrous, and 5-7, usually 7, lanceolate to oblanceolate finely 
serrate leaflets long-pointed and acuminate at apex, cuneate or rounded and often unsym- 
metrical at base, sessile or the terminal leaflet sometimes short-stalked, dark green and gla- 




Fig. 190 

brous above, pale and pubescent below, the low::- side of the midrib often covered with fasci- 
cled hairs, the upper leaflets 3'-4>' long and I'-l^' wide, and twice as long as those of the low- 
est pair. Flowers : staminate in aments pubescent with fascicled hairs, 4 / -8 / long, pubescent, 
their bract acuminate, not much longer than the rounded calyx-lobes; pistillate in 1 or 
2-flowered spikes, rusty pubescent, slightly angled. Fruit obovoid to ellipsoidal, rounded 
at apex, cuneate and often abruptly narrowed into a stipitate base, rusty pubescent and 
covered with scattered yellow scales, about 1' long and f in diameter, with a husk iV in 
thickness, splitting tardily to the base by 1 or 2 sutures or indehiscent; nut ovoid, rounded 



200 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

at base, pointed at apex, only slightly angled, faintly tinged with red, with a shell rarely 
more than T ^' in thickness; seed small and sweet. 

A tree 30-40 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, stout often contorted branches and 
slender branchlets covered at first with rusty pubescence mixed with fascicled hairs and 
pubescent or glabrous during their first winter. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, covered with 
rusty pubescence mixed with yellow scales, often furnished near the apex with tufts of 
white hairs, the terminal \ r long and about twice as large as the compressed axillary 
buds. 

Distribution. Dry rocky hills, Allenton, Saint Louis County, Missouri. Distinct from 
other forms of Carya Buckleyi in the often indehiscent fruit and more numerous and 
longer fascicled hairs, and possibly better considered a species. 

DC. BETULACE^. 

Trees, with sweet watery juice, without terminal buds, their slender terete branchlets 
marked by numerous pale lenticels and lengthening by one of the upper axillary buds 
formed in early summer, and alternate simple penniveined usually doubly serrate deciduous 
stalked leaves, obliquely plicately folded along the primary veins, their petioles in falling 
leaving small semioval slightly oblique scars showing three equidistant fibro-vascular 
bundle-scars; stipules inclosing the leaf in the bud, fugacious. Flowers vernal, appearing 
with or before the unfolding of the leaves, or rarely autumnal, monoecious, the staminate 
1-3 together in the axils of the scales of an elongated pendulous lateral ament and composed 
of a 2-4-parted membranaceous calyx and 2-20 stamens inserted on a receptacle, with dis- 
tinct filaments and 2-celled erect extrorse anthers opening longitudinally, or without a 
calyx, the pistillate in short lateral or capitate aments, with or without a calyx, a 2-celled 
ovary, narrowed into a short style divided into two elongated branches longer than the 
scales of the ament and stigmatic on the inner face or at the apex, and a single anatropous 
pendulous ovule in each cell of the ovary. Fruit a small mostly 1-celled 1-seeded nut, the 
outer layer of the shell light brown, thin and membranaceous, the inner thick, hard, and 
bony. Seed solitary by abortion, filling the cavity of the nut, suspended, without albu- 
men, its coat membranaceous, light chestnut-brown; cotyledons thick and fleshy, much 
longer than the short superior radicle turned toward the minute hilum. 

Of the six genera, all confined to the northern hemisphere, five are found in North 
America; of these only Corylus is shrubby. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Scales of the pistillate ament deciduous; nut wingless, more or less inclosed in an involucre 
formed by the enlargement of the bract and bractlets of the flower; staminate flowers 
solitary in the axils of the scales of the ament; caylx 0; pistillate flowers with a 
calyx. 

Staminate aments covered during the winter: involucre of the fruit flat, 3-cleft, foli- 

aceous. 1. Carpinus. 

Staminate aments naked during the winter: involucre of the fruit bladder-like, closed. 

2. Ostrya. 

Scales of the pistillate ament persistent and forming a woody strobile ; nut without an in- 
volucre, more or less broadly winged; staminate flowers 3-6 together in the axils of the 
scales of the ament; calyx present; pistillate flowers without a calyx. 
Pistillate aments solitary, their scales 3-lobed, becoming thin, brown, and woody, de- 
ciduous; stamens 2; filaments 2-branched, each division bearing a half -anther; 
winter-buds covered by imbricated scales. 3. Betula. 

Pistillate aments racemose, their scales erose or 5-toothed, becoming thick, woody, and 
dark-colored, persistent; stamens 1-3 or 4; filaments simple; wings of the nut often 
reduced to a harrow border; winter-buds without scales. 4. Alnus. 



BETULACE^ 



201 



1. CARPINUS L. Hornbeam. 

Trees, with smooth close bark, hard strong close-grained wood, elongated conic buds 
covered by numerous imbricated scales, the inner lengthening after the opening of the 
buds. Leaves open and concave in the bud, ovate, acute, often cordate; stipules strap- 
shaped to oblong-obovate. Flowers: staminate in aments emerging in very early spring 
from buds produced the previous season near the ends of short lateral branchlets of the 
year and inclosed during the winter, composed of 3-20 stamens crowded on a pilose 
receptacle adnate to the base of a nearly sessile ovate acute coriaceous scale longer than 
the stamens; filaments short, slender, 2-branched, each branch bearing a 1-celled oblong 
yellow half-anther hairy at the apex; pistillate in lax semi-erect aments terminal on leafy 
branches of the year, in pairs at the base of an ovate acute leafy deciduous scale, each 
flower subtended by a small acute bract with two minute bractlets at its base; calyx adnate 
to the ovary and dentate on the free narrow border. Nut ovoid, acute, compressed, con- 
spicuously longitudinally ribbed, bearing at the apex the remnants of the calyx, marked 
on the broad base by a large pale scar and separating at maturity in the autumn from the 
leaf-like 3-lobed conspicuously serrate green involucre formed by the enlargement of the 
bract and bractlets of the flower and inclosing only the base of the nut, fully grown at 
mid-summer and loosely imbricated into a long-stalked open cluster. (Eucarpinus.) 

Carpinus is confined to the northern hemisphere, and is distributed from the Province 
of Quebec through the eastern United States to the highlands of Central America in the 
New World, and from Sweden to southern Europe, Asia Minor, the temperate Himalayas, 
Korea, southern China, Japan and Formosa in' the Old World. Fifteen or sixteen species 
are recognized. Of the exotic species, the European and west Asian Carpinus Betulus L. 
is frequently planted as an ornamental tree in the northeastern United States, where some 
of the species of eastern Asia promise to become valuable. 

Carpinus is the classical name of the Hornbeam. 

1. Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Hornbeam. Blue Beech. 

Leaves often somewhat falcate, long-pointed, sharply doubly serrate with stout spread- 
ing glandular teeth, except at the rounded or wedge-shaped often unequal base, pale 




Fig. 191 



bronze-green, and covered with long white hairs when they unfold, at maturity thin and 
firm, pale dull blue-green above, light yellow-green and glabrous or puberulous below, with 
small tufts of white hairs in the axils of the veins, 2'-4' long, I'-lf ' wide, with a slender 
yellow midrib, numerous slender veins deeply impressed and conspicuous above, and 
prominent cross veinlets; turning deep scarlet and orange color late in the autumn; 



202 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

petioles slender, terete, hairy, about $' long, bright red while young; stipules ovate-lanceo- 
late, acute, pubescent, hairy on the margins, bright red below, light yellow-green at the 
apex, I' long. Flowers: staminate aments 1|' long when fully grown, with broadly ovate 
acute boat-shaped scales green below the middle, bright red above; pistillate aments '- |' 
long, with ovate acute hairy green scales; styles scarlet. Fruit: nut \' long, its involucre 
short-stalked, with one of the lateral lobes often wanting, coarsely serrate, but usually on 
one margin only of the middle lobe, I'-l^' long, nearly 1' wide, crowded on slender terete 
pubescent red-brown stems 5'-6' in length. 

A bushy tree, rarely 40 high, with a short fluted trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, 
long slightly zigzag slender tough spreading branches pendulous toward the ends, and 
furnished with numerous short thin lateral branches growing at acute angles, and branch- 
lets at first pale green coated with long white silky hairs, orange-brown and sometimes 
slightly pilose during the summer, becoming dark red and lustrous during their first winter 
and ultimately dull gray tinged with red. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about |' long, with 
ovate acute chestnut-brown scales white and scarious on the margins. Bark light gray- 
brown, sometimes marked with broad dark brown horizontal bands, T V-f ' thick. Wood 
light brown, with thick nearly white sap wood; sometimes used for levers, the handles of 
tools, and other small articles. 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps, generally in deep rich moist soil; Nova 
Scotia and southern and western Quebec to the northern shores of Georgian Bay, south- 
ward to the shores of Indian River and those of Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward to 
central Minnesota, eastern Iowa (Sharpy County), eastern Nebraska (reported), eastern 
Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, and eastern Texas; reappearing on the mountains of southern 
Mexico and Central America; common in the eastern and central states; most abundant 
and of its largest size on the western slopes of the southern Alleghany Mountains and 
in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

2. OSTRYA Scop. Hop Hornbeam. 

Trees, with scaly bark, heavy hard strong close-grained wood, and acute elongated 
winter-buds formed in early summer and covered by numerous imbricated scales, the 
inner lengthening after the opening of the bud. Leaves open and concave in the bud; 
petioles slender, nearly terete, hairy; stipules strap-shaped to oblong-obovate. Flowers: 
staminate in long clustered sessile or short-stalked aments developed in early summer 
from lateral buds near the ends of short lateral branchlets of the year and coated while 
young with hoary tomentum, naked and conspicuous during the winter, and composed of 
3-14 stamens crowded on a pilose receptacle adnate to the base of an ovate concave scale 
rounded and abruptly short-pointed at the apex, ciliate on the margins, longer than the 
stamens; filaments short, 2-branched, each branch bearing a 1-celled half-anther hairy at 
the apex; pistillate in erect lax aments terminal on short leafy branches of the year, in pairs 
at the base of an elongated ovate acute leaf-like ciliate scale persistent until midsummer, 
each flower inclosed in a hairy sack-like involucre formed by the union of a bract and 2 
bractlets; calyx adnate to the ovary, denticulate on the free narrow border. Nut ovoid, 
acute, flattened, obscurely longitudinally ribbed, crowned with the remnants of the calyx, 
marked at the narrow base by a small circular pale scar, inclosed in the much enlarged pale 
membranaceous conspicuously longitudinally veined reticulate-venulose involucres of the 
flower, short, pointed and hairy at the apex, hirsute at the base, with sharp rigid stinging 
hairs, imbricated into a short strobile fully grown at midsummer, and suspended on a 
slender hairy stem. 

Ostrya is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere from Nova Scotia to Texas, 
northern Arizona, and to the highlands of southern Mexico and Guatemala in the New 
World, and through southern Europe and southwestern Asia, and in northern Japan and 
on the Island of Quelpart in the Old World. Of the four species now recognized two are 
North American. 

Ostrya is the classical name of the Hop Hornbeam. 



BETULACE.E 203 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or acute at apex. 1. O. virginiana (A, C). 

Leaves elliptic or obovate, acute or rounded at apex. 2. O. Knowltonii (F). 

1. Ostrya virginiana K. Koch. Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed into a long slender point or acute at apex, 
narrowed and rounded, cordate, or wedge-shaped at the often unequal base, sharply serrate, 
with slender incurved callous teeth terminating at first in tufts of caducous hairs, when they 
unfold light bronze-green, glabrous above and coated below on the midrib and primary 
veins with long pale hairs, at maturity thin and extremely tough, dark dull yellow-green 
above, light yellow-green and furnished with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs in the axils of 
the veins below, 3'-5' long, l^'-2' wide, with a slender midrib impressed and puberulous 
above, light yellow and pubescent below, and numerous slender veins forked near the 
margins; turning clear yellow before falling in the autumn; petioles hairy about i' long; 
stipules rounded and often short-pointed at apex, ciliate on the margins with long pale 
hairs, hairy on the back, about \' long and ' wide. Flowers: staminate aments about 
' long during their first season, with light red-brown rather loosely imbricated scales nar- 




Fig. 192 



rowed into a long slender point, becoming when the flowers open 2' long, with broadly 
obovate scales rounded and abruptly contracted at apex into a short point, ciliate on the 
margins, green tinged with red above the middle, light brown toward the base; pistillate 
aments slender, about \' long, on thin hairy stems, their scales lanceolate, acute, light 
green, often flushed with red above the middle, hirsute at the apex, decreasing in size from 
the lowest. Fruit: nuts \' long, about \' wide, rather abruptly narrowed below the apex, 
their involucres in clusters l^'-2' long and f '-!' wide, on slender hairy stems about 1' in 
length. 

A tree, occasionally 50-60 high, with a short trunk 2 in diameter, usually not more than 
20-30 tall, with a trunk 18'-20' thick, long slender branches drooping at the ends and 
forming a round-topped or open head frequently 50 across, and slender, very tough branch- 
lets, light green, coated with pale appressed hairs when they first appear, becoming light 
orange color and very lustrous by midsummer, glabrous, dark red-brown and lustrous during 
their first winter, and then growing gradually darker brown and losing their lustre; or cov- 
ered like the petioles and peduncles with short erect glandular hairs (var. glandulosa Sarg.)- 



204 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Winter-buds ovoid, light chestnut-brown, slightly puberulous, ' long. Bark about \' 
thick, broken into thick narrow oblong closely appressed plate-like light brown scales 
slightly tinged with red on the surface. Wood strong, hard, tough, durable, light brown 
tinged with red or often nearly white, with thick pale sapwood of 40-50 layers of annual 
growth; used for fence-posts., handles of tools, mallets, and other small articles. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and ridges often in the shade of oaks and other large 
trees; Island of Cape Breton and the shores of the Bay of Chaleur, through the valley of 
the St. Lawrence River, and along the northern shores of Lake Huron to western Ontario, 
Manitoba, Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, the foothills of the Black Hills of South Da- 
kota, eastern, northern and northwestern Nebraska, eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, and 
southward to northern Florida and eastern Texas; most abundant and of its largest size in 
southern Arkansas and in Texas. From Quebec and Ontario to western New England, 
western New York, Ohio and in Central Michigan, the glandular form prevails: the two 
forms occur in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, northern Illinois, southwestern Mis- 
souri, Oklahoma, and southward on the high Appalachian Mountains. 

2. Ostrya Knowltonii Cov. Ironwood. 

Leaves elliptic to obovate, acute or round at apex, gradually narrowed and often un- 
equal at the rounded cuneate rarely cordate base, sharply serrate with small triangular 
callous teeth, covered with loose pale tomentum when they unfold, at maturity dark 
yellow-green and pilose above,, pale and soft-pubescent below, l'-2' long, l'-l' wide, with 
a slender yellow midrib slightly raised on the upper side, and slender primary veins con- 
nected by obscure reticulate veinlets; turning dull yellow in the autumn before falling; 
petioles j'-J' long; stipules pale yellow-green, often tinged with red toward the apex, 
%' long, about \' wide. Flowers: staminate aments on stout stalks covered with rufous 
tomentum and sometimes \' long, rarely sessile, about \' long during their first season, with 




Fig. 193 

dark brown puberulous scales gradually contracted into a long slender subulate point, 
becoming when the flowers open l'-lj' long, with broadly ovate concave scales ab- 
ruptly narrowed into a nearly triangular point, yellow-green near the base, bright red 
above the middle; pistillate aments about \' long, with ovate-lanceolate light yellow-green 
puberulous scales ciliate on the margins- Fruit: nuts \' long, gradually narrowed at the 
apex, their involucres 1' long, nearly glabrous at the apex, sometimes slightly stained 
with red toward the base, in clusters l'-l|' long and about f broad, on stems \' in 
length. 



BETULACE.E 205 

A tree 20-30 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, usually divided 1 or 2 above the 
ground into 3 or 4 stout upright stems 4'-5' thick, slender pendulous often much contorted 
branches forming a narrow round-topped symmetrical head, and slender branchlets dark 
green and coated with hoary tomentum when they first appear, dark red-brown and pu- 
bescent during their first summer, becoming light cinnamon-brown, glabrous, and lustrous 
in the winter, and ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds ovoid, dark brownish red, about |' 
long. Bark internally bright orange color, ' thick, separating into loose hanging plate- 
like scales light gray slightly tinged with red, and l'-2' long and wide. Wood light red- 
dish brown, with thin sapwood. 

Distribution. On the southern slope of the canon of the Colorado River in Coconino 
County, Arizona, at altitudes of 6000-7000 above the sea (Hance trail, seventy miles 
north of Flagstaff); in the canon of Oak Creek, south of Flagstaff (P. Lowell); and on 
Grand River, Utah (Moab, Grant County, M . E. Jones}. 

3. BETULA L. Birch. 

Trees, with smooth resinous bark marked by long longitudinal lenticels, often separat- 
ing freely into thin papery plates, becoming thick, deeply furrowed, and scaly at the base of 
old trunks, short slender branches more or less erect and forming on young trees a narrow 
symmetrical pyramidal head, becoming horizontal and often pendulous on older trees, 
tough branchlets, short stout spur-like 2-leaved lateral branchlets much roughened by 
the crowded leaf-scars of many years, and elongated winter-buds covered by numerous 
ovate acute scales, and fully grown and bright green at midsummer. Leaves open and 
convex in the bud, often incisely lobed; stipules ovate and acute or oblong-obovate, scarious. 
Flowers in 3-flowered cymes, the lateral flowers of the cyme subtended by bractlets adnate 
to the base of the scale of the ament; staminate aments long, pendulous, solitary or clus- 
tered, appearing in summer or autumn in the axils of the last leaves of a branchlet or near 
the ends of short lateral branchlets, erect and naked during the winter, their scales in the 
spring broadly ovate, rounded, short-stalked, yellow or orange-color below the middle and 
dark chestnut-brown and lustrous above it; staminate flowers composed of amembrana- 
ceous 4-lobed calyx often 2-lobed by suppression, the anterior lobe obovate, rounded at apex, 
as long as the stamens, much longer than the minute posterior lobe, and of 2 stamens in- 
serted on the base of the calyx, with short 2-branched filaments, each branch bearing an 
erect half-anther; pistillate aments oblong or cylindric, terminal on the short spur-like 
lateral branchlets, their scales closely imbricated, oblong-ovate, 3-lobed, light yellow, often 
tinged with red above the middle, accrescent, becoming brown and woody at maturity, 
and forming sessile or stalked erect or pendulous short or elongated strobiles usually ripen- 
ing in the autumn, deciduous with the nuts from the slender rachis; calyx of the pistillate 
flower 0; ovary sessile, compressed, with styles stigmatic at apex. Nut minute, oval or 
obovoid, compressed, bearing at the apex the persistent stigmas, marked at the base by 
a small pale scar, the outer coat of the shell produced into a marginal wing interrupted at 
the apex. 

Betula is widely distributed from the Arctic circle to Texas in the New World, and to 
southern Europe, the Himalayas, China, and Japan in the Old World, some species form- 
ing great forests at the north, or covering high mountain slopes. Of the twenty-eight or 
thirty species now recognized twelve are found in North America; of these nine are trees. 
Of exotic species the European and Asiatic Betula pendula Roth, in a number of forms is a 
common ornamental tree in the northern states, where several of the Birch-trees of eastern 
Asia also flourish. Many of the species produce wood valued by the cabinet-maker, or used 
in the manufacture of spools, shoe-lasts, and other small articles. The thin layers of the 
bark are impervious to water and are used to cover buildings, and for shoes, canoes, and 
boxes. The sweet sap provides an agreeable beverage. 

Betula is the classical name of the Birch-tree. 



206 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Strobiles oblong-ovoid, nearly sessile, erect, the lateral lobes of their scales broad and slightly 
divergent; wing not broader than the nut; leaves with 9-11 pairs of veins; bark of young 
branches aromatic. 

Leaves heart-shaped or rounded at base; scales of the strobiles glabrous; bark dark 
brown, not separating into thin layers. 1. B. lenta (A, C). 

Leaves cuneate or slightly heart-shaped at base; scales of the strobiles pubescent; bark 
yellow, or silvery white, rarely dull yellowish brown; separating into thin layers. 

2. B. lutea (A). 
Strobiles oblong or cylindric, erect, spreading or pendant, on slender peduncles; wing 

broader than the nut; leaves with 5-9 pairs of veins. 

Strobiles oblong, erect, ripening in May or June, their scales pubescent, deeply lobed, the 
lateral lobes erect; leaves rhombic-ovate, glaucescent and more or less silky-pubescent 
beneath; bark light reddish-brown, separating freely into thin persistent scales. 

3. B. nigra (A, C). 
Strobiles cylindric, pendant or spreading. 

Scales of the strobiles pubescent, with recurved lateral lobes, the middle lobe triangu- 
lar, nearly as broad as long; leaves long-pointed; petioles slender, elongated. 
Leaves triangular to rhombic, bright green and lustrous; bark chalky white, not 
separable into thin layers. 4. B. populifolia (A). 

Leaves ovate, cuneate to truncate or rounded at base, dull blue-green; bark white 
tinged with pink, lustrous, not easily separable into thin layers. 

5. B. cxfirulea (A). 

Scales of the strobiles with ascending or spreading lateral lobes, the middle lobe usu- 
ally acuminate, longer than broad; leaves acute or acuminate. 
Bark separating freely into thin layers; scales of the strobiles glabrous. 
Bark creamy white, or in some forms orange-brown; leaves ovate. 

6. B. papyrifera (A, B, C, F). 
Bark dull reddish brown or nearly white; leaves rhombic to deltoid-ovate. 

7. B. alaskana (A, B). 
Bark not separable into thin layers, dark brown; scales of the strobiles glabrous 

or puberulous; branchlets glandular. 
Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, truncate or rounded at the broad base. 

8. B. fontinalis (B, F, G). 

Leaves broad-ovate to elliptic, acute, rounded or abruptly short-pointed, cuneate 
at base. 9. B. Eastwoodae'(F). 

1. Betula lenta L. Cherry Birch. Black Birch. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, gradually narrowed and often un- 
equal at the cordate or rounded base, sharply serrate with slender incurved teeth, or very 
rarely laciniately lobed (f . laciniata Rehdr.), when they unfold light green, coated on the 
lower surface with long white silky hairs, and slightly hairy on the upper surface, at ma- 
turity thin and membranaceous, dark dull green above, light yellow-green below, with 
small tufts of white hairs in the axils of the veins, 2|'-6' long, l%'-3' wide, with a yellow mid- 
rib and primary veins prominent and hairy on the lower surface, and obscure reticulate 
cross veinlets; turning bright clear yellow late in the autumn; petioles stout, hairy, deeply 
grooved on the upper side, f'-l' long; stipules ovate, acute, light green or nearly white, 
scarious and ciliate above the middle. Flowers : staminate aments during the winter about 
f ' long, nearly |' thick, with ovate acute apiculate scales bright red-brown above the middle 
and light brown below it, becoming 3'-4' long; pistillate aments '-f ' long, about f ' thick, 
with ovate pale green scales rounded at the apex; styles light pink. Fruit: strobiles ob- 
long-ovoid, sessile, erect, glabrous, I'-l^' long, about %' thick; nut obovoid, pointed at 
base, rounded at apex, about as broad as its wing. 



BETULACE.E 



207 



A tree, with aromatic bark and leaves, 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-5 in diameter, 
slender branches spreading almost at right angles, becoming pendulous toward the ends 
and gradually forming a narrow round-topped open graceful head, and branchlets light 
green, slightly viscid and pilose when they first appear, soon turning dark orange-brown, 
lustrous during the summer, bright red-brown in their first winter, becoming darker and 
finally dark dull brown slightly tinged with red. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about \' 
long, with ovate acute light chestnut-brown loosely imbricated scales, those of the inner 
ranks becoming \'-\' long. Bark on young stems and branches close, smooth, lustrous, 
dark brown tinged with red, and marked by elongated horizontal pale lenticels, becoming 
on old trunks '-' thick, dull, deeply furrowed and broken into large thick irregular plates 




Fig. 194 



covered with closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, 
dark brown tinged with red, with thin light brown or yellow sapwood of 70-80 layers of 
annual growth; largely used for floors, in the manufacture of furniture and for fuel, and 
occasionally in ship and boatbuilding. Sweet birch-oil distilled from the wood and bark is 
used for medicinal purposes and for flavoring as a substitute for oil of wintergreen, and 
beer is obtained by fermenting the sugary sap. 

Distribution. Rich uplands from southern Maine to northwestern Vermont, and eastern 
Ohio and southward to northern Delaware and along the Appalachian Mountains up to al- 
titudes of 4000 to northern Georgia; in Alabama, and in eastern Kentucky and Tennes- 
see; a common forest tree at the north, and of its largest size on the western slopes of the 
southern Alleghany Mountains. 

X Betula Jackii Schn., a natural hybrid of B. lenta with B. pumila Michx., has appeared 
in the Arnold Arboretum. 

2. Betula lutea Michx. Yellow Birch. Gray Birch. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, acuminate or acute at apex, gradually narrowed to the 
rounded cuneate or rarely heart-shaped usually oblique base, sharply doubly serrate, 
when they unfold bronze-green or red, and pilose with long pale hairs above and on the 
under side of the midrib and veins, at maturity dull dark green above, yellow-green below, 

4^' long, l|'-2' wide, with a stout midrib and primary veins covered below near the 
base of the leaf with short pale or rufous hairs; turning clear bright yellow in the autumn; 
petioles slender, pale yellow, hairy, i'-l' long; stipules ovate, acute, light green tinged with 
pink above the middle, about \' long. Flowers: staminate aments during the winter f'-l' 
long, about ' thick, with ovate rounded scales light chestnut-brown and lustrous above 
the middle, ciliate on the margins, becoming 3'-8i' long and \' thick; pistillate aments 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

about f ' long, with acute scales, pale green below, light red and tipped with clusters of long 
white hair at apex, and pilose on the back. Fruit: strobiles erect, sessile, short-stalked, 
pubescent, !'-!' long, about f thick; nut ellipsoidal to obovoid, about ' long, rather 
broader than its wing. 

A tree, with slightly aromatic bark and leaves, occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 
3-4 in diameter, spreading and more or less pendulous branches forming a broad round- 
topped head, and branchlets at first green and covered with long pale hairs, light orange- 
brown and pilose during their first summer, becoming glabrous and light brown slightly 
tinged with orange, and ultimately dull and darker. Winter-buds about \' long, some- 
what viscid and covered with loose pale hairs during the summer, becoming light chest- 
nut-brown, acute, and slightly puberulous in winter. Bark of young stems and of the 
branches bright silvery gray or light orange color, very lustrous, separating into thin loose 
persistent scales more or less rolled on the margins, becoming on old trees \' thick, reddish 




Fig. 195 

brown, and divided by narrow irregular fissures into large thin plates covered with minute 
closely appressed scales, or sometimes dull yellowish brown (B. alleghaniensi* Britt.). 
Wood heavy, very strong, hard, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin nearly 
white sapwood; largely used for floors, in the manufacture of furniture, button and tassel 
moulds, boxes, the hubs of wheels, and for fuel. 

Distribution. Moist uplands, and southward often in swamps; one of the largest decid- 
uous-leaved trees of northeastern America; Newfoundland and along the northern shores 
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the valley of Rainy River, and southward to Long Island 
(Cold Spring Harbor) and western New York, Pennsylvania, northern Delaware, south- 
eastern Ohio, northern Indiana, southwestern Wisconsin, northern, northeastern and cen- 
tral Iowa, and from the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia to the highest peaks of 
North Carolina and Tennessee at altitudes between 3000 and 5000; very abundant and 
of its largest size in the eastern provinces of Canada and in northern New York and New 
England; small and rare in southern New England and southward. 

X Betula Purpusii Schn. believed to be a natural hybrid of B. lutea with B. pumila 
var. glandulifera Regel has been found in Michigan and in Tamarack Swamps in Hennepin, 
Pine and Anoka Counties, Minnesota. 

3. Betula nigra L. Red Birch. River Birch. 

Leaves rhombic-ovate, acute, abruptly or gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, 
doubly serrate, and on vigorous young branches often more or less laciniately cut into acute 



BETULACEJE 209 

doubly serrate lobes, when they unfold light yellow-green and pilose above and coated 
below, especially on the midrib and petioles, with thick white tomentum, at maturity 
thin and tough, l'-3' long, l'-2' wide, deep green and lustrous above, glabrescent, pu- 
bescent or ultimately glabrous below, except on the stout midrib and remote primary 
veins; turning dull yellow in the autumn; petioles slender, slightly flattened, tomentose, 
about \' long; stipules ovate, rounded or acute at apex, pale green, covered below with 
white hairs. Flowers: staminate aments clustered, during the winter about \' long and 
T *g thick, with ovate rounded dull chestnut-brown lustrous scales, becoming 2'-3' long 
and ' thick; pistillate aments about \ ' long, with bright green ovate scales pubescent on 
the back, rounded or acute at apex, and ciliate with long white hairs. Fruit ripening 
in May and June; strobiles cylindric, pubescent, \'-\\' long, \' thick, erect on stout tomen- 







Fig. 196 



tose peduncles \* long; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal, \' in length, pubescent or puberulous at 
apex, about as broad as its thin puberulous wing, ciliate on the margin. 

A tree, 80-90 high, with a trunk often divided 15-20 above the ground into 2 or 
3 slightly diverging limbs, and sometimes 5 in diameter, slender branches forming in old 
age a narrow irregular picturesque crown, and branchlets coated at first with thick pale 
or slightly rufous tomentum gradually disappearing before winter, becoming dark red and 
lustrous, dull red-brown in their second year, and then gradually growing slightly darker 
until the bark separates into the thin flakes of the older branches; or often sending up from 
the ground a clump of several small spreading stems forming a low bushy tree. Winter- 
buds ovoid, acute, about \' long, covered in summer with thick pale tomentum, glabrous 
or slightly puberulous, lustrous and bright chestnut-brown in winter, the inner scales 
strap-shaped, light brown tinged with red, and coated with pale hairs. Bark on young 
stems and large branches thin, lustrous, light reddish brown or silvery gray, marked by 
narrow slightly darker longitudinal lenticels, separating freely into large thin papery scales 
persistent for several years, and turning back and showing the light pink-brown tints of 
the freshly exposed inner layers, becoming at the base of old trunks from f '-!' thick, dark 
red-brown, deeply furrowed and broken on the surface into thick closely appressed scales. 
Wood light, rather hard, strong, close-grained, light brown, with pale sapwood of 40-50 lay- 
ers of annual growth; used in the manufacture of furniture, woodenware, wooden shoes, 
and in turnery. 

Distribution. Banks of streams, ponds, and swamps, in deep rich soil often inundated 
for several weeks at a time; near Manchester, Hillsboro County, New Hampshire, north- 
eastern Massachusetts, Long Island, New York, southward to northern Florida through 
the region east of the Alleghany Mountains except in the immediate neighborhood of the 



210 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



coast, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Navasota River, Brazos County, Texas, 
and through Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, and Missouri to Tennessee 
and Kentucky, southern and eastern Iowa, southern Minnesota, the valley of the Eau 
Claire River, Eau Claire County, Wisconsin, southern Illinois, the valley of the Kankakee 
River, Indiana, and southern Ohio; the only semiaquatic species and the only species 
ripening its seeds in the spring or early summer; attaining its largest size in the damp 
semitropical lowlands of Florida, Louisiana, and Texas; the only Birch-tree of such warm 
regions. 

Often cultivated in the northeastern states as an ornamental tree, growing rapidly in 
cultivation. 

4. Betula populifolia Marsh. Gray Birch. White Birch. 

Leaves nearly triangular to rhombic, long-pointed, coarsely doubly serrate with stout 
spreading glandular teeth except at the broad truncate or slightly cordate or cuneate base, 
thin and firm, dark green and lustrous and somewhat roughened on the upper surface early 
in the season by small pale glands in the axils of the conspicuous reticulate veinlets, 2|'-3' 
long, 1|'-2|' wide, with a stout yellow midrib covered with minute glands, and raised and 
rounded on the upper side, and obscure yellow primary veins; turning pale yellow in the 
autumn; petioles slender, terete, covered with black glands, often stained with red on the 
upper side*, f'-l' long; stipules broadly ovate, acute, membranaceous, light green slightly 
tinged with red. Flowers: staminate aments usually solitary or rarely in pairs, 1^'-1' 
long, about f ' thick during the winter, becoming 2^'-4' long, with ovate acute apiculate 
scales; pistillate aments slender, as long as their glandular peduncles about \' in length, 




Fig. 197 

with ovate acute pale green glandular scales. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, pubescent, ob- 
tuse at apex, about f long and thick, pendant or spreading on slender stems; nut ellip- 
soidal to obovoid, acute or rounded at base, a little narrower than its obovate wing. 

A short-lived tree, 20-30 or exceptionally 40 high, with a trunk rarely 18' in diameter, 
short slender often pendulous more or less contorted branches usually clothing the stem to 
the ground and forming a narrow pyramidal head, and branchlets roughened by small 
raised lenticels, resinous-glandular when they first appear, gradually growing darker, bright 
yellow and lustrous before autumn like the young stems, bright reddish brown during their 
first winter, and ultimately white near thee trunk; often growing in clusters of spreading 
stems springing from the stumps of old trees. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, pale chestnut- 
brown, glabrous, about \' long. Bark about \' thick, dull chalky white on the outer sur- 
face, bright orange on the inner, close and firm, with dark triangular markings at the 



BETULACE.E 

insertion of the branches, becoming at the base of old trees thicker, nearly black, and 
irregularly broken by shallow fissures. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, not 
durable, light brown, with thick nearly white sap wood; used in the manufacture of spools, 
shoe-pegs and wood pulp, for the hoops of barrels, and largely for fuel. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly barren soil or on the margins of swamps and ponds; Prince 
Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the valley of the lower St. Lawrence 
River southward to northeastern, central and on South Mountain, Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware, and westward through northern New England and 
New York, ascending sometimes to altitudes of 1800, to the southern shores of Lake 
Ontario, and at the foot of Lake Michigan, Indiana; rare and local in the interior, very 
abundant in the coast region of New England and the middle states; springing up in great 
numbers on abandoned farm-lands or on lands stripped by fire of their original forest cover- 
ing; most valuable in its ability to grow rapidly in sterile soil and to afford protection to 
the seedlings of more valuable and less rapid-growing trees. 

A form with deeply divided leaves (var. laciniata Loud.) and one with purple leaves 
(var. purpurea E & B) are occasionally cultivated. 

A shrub believed to be a natural hybrid of B. populifolia with B. pumila Michx. has 
been found near Mt. Mansfield, Vermont. 

5. Betula coerulea Blanch. Blue Birch. 

Leaves ovate, long-pointed, broadly or narrowly concave-cuneate at the entire often 
unequal base, sharply mostly doubly serrate above with straight or incurved glandular 
often apiculate teeth, covered above when they unfold with pale deciduous glands, at 
maturity dull bluish green above, pale yellow-green below, and sparingly villose along the 
under side of the slender yellow midrib and primary veins, 2'-2|' long, I'-lJ' wide: 




Fig. 198 

petioles slender, f'-lf long, yellow more or less deeply tinged with red. Flowers: stam- 
inate aments usually in pairs, or singly or in 3's, l|'-2' long, about T y thick, with ovate 
rounded short-pointed scales; pistillate aments slender, about f ' long, with acuminate pale 
green much reflexed scales. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, pubescent, slightly narrowed at the 
obtuse apex, about 1' long and \' thick, pendant on slender peduncles \'-\' in length; nut 
ellipsoidal, much narrower than its broad wing. 

A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 8' -10' in diameter, small ascending 
finally spreading branches, and slender branchlets marked by numerous small raised pale 
lenticels, purplish and sparingly villose when they first appear, soon glabrous, becoming 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



bright red-brown; often forming clumps of several stems. Bark thin, white tinged with 
rose, lustrous, not readily separable into layers, the inner bark light orange color. 

Distribution. Moist slopes, Stratton and Windham, Windham County, Vermont, at alti- 
tudes of about 1800 (W. H. Blanckard), Haystack Mountain, Aroostook County, Maine 
(M. L. Fernald)', the American representative of the European Betula pendula Roth., and 
probably widely distributed over the hills of northern New England and eastern Canada. 
Perhaps with its variety best considered a natural hybrid between B. papyrifera and B. 
populifolia. 

Apparently passing into a form with larger leaves often rounded and truncate at the 
broad base, 3'-3|' long and 2' wide, stouter staminate aments, and strobiles frequently 
l' long and |' thick (var. Blanchardii Sarg. fig. 198 A). This under favorable conditions 
is a tree 60-70 high, with a trunk 18' in diameter; common with Betula coerulea at Wind- 
ham and Stratton, Vermont (W. H. Blanchard), and on a hill near the coast in Washington 
County, Maine (M. L. Fernald). 

6. Betula papyrifera Marsh. Canoe Birch. Paper Birch. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate with a short broad point, coarsely usually doubly and 
often very irregularly serrate except at the rounded abruptly cuneate or gradually nar- 
rowed base, bright green, glandular-resinous, pubescent and clothed below on the midrib 
and primary veins and on the petioles with long white hairs when they unfold, at maturity 
thick and firm, dull dark green and glandless or rarely glandular on the upper surface, light 
yellow-green and glabrous or puberulous, with small tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the 
primary veins and covered with many black glands on the lower surface, 2'-3' long, l^'-fc 7 
wide, with a slender yellow midrib marked, like the remote primary veins, with minute 




Fig. 199 



black glands, turning light clear yellow in the auutmn; petioles stout, yellow, glandular, 
glabrous or pubescent, |'-f long; stipules ovate, acute, ciliate on the margins with pale 
hairs, light green. Flowers: staminate aments clustered during the winter, f'-l?' long, 
about i' thick, with ovate, acute scales light brown below the middle, dark red-brown 
above it, becoming 3'-4' long, and about ' thick; pistillate aments I'-lf ' long, about T V 
thick, with light green lanceolate scales long-pointed and acute or rounded at apex; styles 
bright red. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, glabrous, about 1|' long and %' thick, hanging on 
slender stalks, their scales very rarely entire (var. elobata Sarg.); nut ellipsoidal, about 
r \' long, much narrower than its thin wing. 

A tree, usually 60-70 tall, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, becoming in old age, or 
when crowded by other trees, branchless below and supporting a narrow open head of 






BETULACE.E 

short pendulous branches, and branchlets at first light green, slightly viscid, marked by 
scattered orange-colored oblong lenticels and covered with long pale hairs, dark orange 
color and glabrous or pubescent during the summer, becoming dull red in their first winter, 
gradually growing dark orange-brown, lustrous for four or five years and ultimately covered 
with the white papery bark of older branches. Winter-buds obovoid, acute, about \' long, 
pubescent below the middle and coated with resinous gum at midsummer, dark chestnut- 
brown, glabrous and slightly resinous during the winter, their inner scales becoming strap- 
shaped, rounded at apex, about \' long and \' wide. Bark on young trunks and large 
limbs thin, creamy white or rarely bronze color or orange-brown and lustrous on the outer 
surface, bright orange color on the inner, marked by long narrow slightly darker colored 
raised lenticels, separating into thin papery layers, pale orange color when first exposed to 
the light, becoming on old trunks for a few feet above the ground sometimes \' thick, dull 
brown or nearly black, sharply and irregularly furrowed and broken on the surface into 
thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, strong, hard, tough, very close-grained, light 
brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sap wood; largely used for spools, shoe-lasts, 
pegs, and in turnery, the manufacture of wood-pulp, and for fuel. The tough resinous 
durable bark impervious to water is used by all the northern Indians to cover their canoes 
and for baskets, bags, drinking-cups, and other small articles, and often to cover their 
wigwams in winter. 

Distribution. Rich wooded slopes and the borders of streams, lakes, and swamps 
scattered through forests of other trees; Labrador to the southern shores of Hudson's Bay, 
and southward to Long Island, New York, northern Pennsylvania, central Michigan, 
northern Wisconsin, northern-central Iowa, eastern Nebraska, North and South Dakota 
and Wyoming; common in the maritime provinces of Canada and North of the Great Lakes, 
and in northern New England and New York; small and comparatively rare in the coast 
region of southern New England and southward; on the highest mountains of New Eng- 
land and northward the var. minor S. Wats and Cov. is common as a small shrub. 

Often planted in the northeastern states as an ornamental tree. 

X Betula Sandbergii Britt. and its f. maxima Rosend. generally believed to be natural 
hybrids of B. papyri/era and B. pumila var. glandulifera Regl. occur in Tamarack swamps 
in Hennepin County, Minnesota. 

Passing into the following varieties. 

Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia Fern. 

Leaves ovate, abruptly pointed and acuminate or acute at apex, cordate at base, coarsely 
doubly serrate, glabrous or pilose on the under side of the midrib and veins, often furnished 




Fig. 200 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

below with axillary tufts of pale hairs, l|'-3' long, l'-2'wide; petioles glabrous or rarely 
villose, ^'-f in length. Fruit: strobiles f '-2' long and f '-|' thick, on villose peduncles up 
to f in length; scales glabrous or pubescent. 

A tree rarely more than 30 tall, with slender glabrous or pubescent branchlets, and at 
high altitudes on the New England mountains reduced to a low shrub. Bark separating 
in thin layers, white or dark reddish brown. 

Distribution. Labrador and Newfoundland to northern New England, and westward 
to the shores of Green Bay, Wisconsin, and those of Lake Superior, Minnesota (Grand 
Marais, Cook County); on Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina, at an altitude of 5550 (W. W. 
Ashe). 

Betula papyrifera var. subcordata Sarg. 
Betula subcordata Rydb. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate at apex, slightly cordate or rounded at base, rarely 
slightly lobed above the middle, finely often doubly serrate with teeth pointing forward or 
spreading, glabrous, 2'-2^' long, I'-l^' wide; petioles sparingly villose or glabrous, ^' f' 
in length. Fruit: strobiles drooping on slender peduncles 1'-!$' long, about $' thick, 




Fig. 201 

their scales puberulous, ciliate on the margins, the middle lobe acute, rather longer than the 
broad truncate lateral lobes; nut obovoid, cuneate at base, iV long, narrower than its 
wings. 

A tree 25-40 or occasionally 60 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, and slightly 
glandular glabrous red-brown branchlets. Bark separating freely into thin layers, white or 
occasionally dark reddish brown or orange color. 

Distribution. Alberta (Crow Nest Pass, neighborhood of Jasper and Cypress Hills), 
through northern Montana and Idaho to western Washington, northeastern Oregon 
(Minum River Valley) and British Columbia. 

Betula papyrifera var. montanensis Sarg. 
Betula montanensis Butler. 

Leaves broadly ovate, acute at apex, truncate or rounded at base to oblong-ovate or 
lanceolate and long-pointed and acuminate at apex, narrowed and rounded at base, coarsely 
doubly serrate, thick, dark green above, paler, sparingly pubescent and furnished with 



BETULACE^E 



215 



conspicuous tufts of axillary hairs below, 3'-5' long, 2'-2' wide; petioles puberulous, 
f'-l' in length. Flowers unknown. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, If '-2' long, |' thick, 
pendent on puberulous peduncles \'-\' in length, their scales puberulous, finely ciliate on 




Fig. 202 

the margins, the slender base of those below the middle of the ament rather more than 
twice as long as the expanded upper portion of the scale. 

A tree 40-50 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, and slender branchlets red-brown, 
lustrous, marked by small pale lenticels and puberulous during their first season. Winter- 
buds narrow-obovoid, acuminate, dark red-brown, resinous, \' long. Bark white, or dark 
gray or brown. 

Distribution. Shore of Yellow Bay, Flathead Lake, Flathead County, Montana, and 
at Sandpoint, Bonner County, Idaho. 

Betula papyrifera var. occidentalis Sarg. 
Betula occidentalis Hook. 

Leaves ovate> acute, or abruptly acuminate at apex, rounded or occasionally cordate 
or rarely cuneate at the broad base, coarsely and generally doubly serrate with straight or 
incurved glandular teeth, thin and firm in texture, dull dark green above, pale yellow-green 
below, and puberulous on both sides of the stout yellow midrib and slender primary veins, 
3'-4' long, If -2' wide; petioles stout, glandular, at first tomentose, ultimately pubescent 
or puberulous, about f ' long; stipules oblong-obovate, rounded and acute or apisculate 
at apex, ciliate on the margin, puberulous, glandular-viscid. Flowers : staminate aments 
during the winter about f ' long and f' thick, with ovate scales rounded or abruptly nar- 
rowed and acute at apex, puberulous on the outer surface, ciliate on the margins, becoming 
3'-4' long and about \' thick; pistillate aments about 1' long and T V thick, with acuminate 
bright green scales. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, puberulous, spreading, \\'-\\' long, \'-\' 
thick, on stout peduncles f ' in length, their scales ciliate on the margins; nut oval, about 
T V in length, and nearly as wide as its wings. 

A tree, 100-120 high, with a trunk 3-^ in diameter, comparatively small branches 
often pendulous on old trees, and pale orange-brown branchlets more or less glandular and 
coated with long pale hairs when they first appear, becoming bright orange-brown and 
nearly destitute of glands during their first winter, and in their second year orange- 
brown, glabrous, and very lustrous. Winter-buds acute, bright orange-brown, \'-\' long, 
their light brown inner scales sometimes becoming f ' in length. Bark thin, marked by 
long oblong horizontal raised lenticels, dark orange-brown or white, very lustrous, sepa- 



216 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

rating freely into thin papery layers displaying in falling the bright orange-yellow inner 
bark. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and lakes; southwestern British Columbia and north- 
western Washington and eastward through eastern Washington and northern Idaho to 




Fig. 203 



northern Montana west of the continental divide; nowhere common and probably of its 
largest size on the alluvial banks of the lower Fraser River, and on the islands of Puget 
Sound. 

Betula papyrifera var. kenaica A. Henry. Red Birch. Black Birch. 
Betula kenaica Evans. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, broadly cuneate or somewhat rounded at the entire 
base, irregularly coarsely often doubly serrate, glabrous, dark dull green above, pale yel- 




Fig. 204 

low-green below, l'-2' long, l'-lf wide, with a slender yellow midrib and 5 pairs of thin 
primary veins; petioles slender, f'-l' long. Flowers: staminate aments clustered, 1' long, 



BETULACE^E 



with ovate acute scales apiculate at apex, puberulous on the outer surface; pistillate aments, 
i'-f' long, about iV thick, on slender glandular pubescent peduncles f'-f in length; scales 
acuminate light green strongly reflexed; styles bright red. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, gla- 
brous, 1' long, their scales ciliate on the margins; nut oval, somewhat narrower than its 
thin wing. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a trunk 12'-20' in diameter, wide-spreading branches, stout 
branchlets marked by numerous small pale lenticels, bright red-brown during 2 or 3 years, 
gradually becoming darker. Bark thin, more or less furrowed, very dark brown or nearly 
black near the base of the trunk, grayish white or light reddish brown and separating into 
thin layers higher on the stem and on the branches. 

Distribution. Coast of Alaska from Cook Inlet southward to the head of the Lynn 
Canal. 

7. Betula alaskana Sarg. White Birch. 

Leaves rhombic to deltoid-ovate, long-pointed, truncate, rounded or broadly cuneate, 
or on leading shoots occasionally cordate at the entire base, coarsely and often doubly 
glandular-serrate, thin, dark green above, pale and yellow-green below, l|'-3' long, I'-l^' 
wide, with a slender midrib and primary veins pubescent or ultimately glabrous be- 
low; petioles often bright red, somewhat hairy at first, finally glabrous, about 1' long; 
Flowers: staminate aments clustered, sessile, 1' long, |' thick, with ovate acuminate scales 







Fig. 205 

puberulous on the outer surface, and bright red, with yellow margins; pistillate aments slen- 
der, cylindric, glandular, 1' long, f ' thick, on stout peduncles nearly y in length. Fruit: 
strobiles glabrous, pendulous or spreading, I'-lj' long, f '-' thick, their scales ciliate on 
the margins; nut oval, narrower than its broad wing. 

A tree, usually 30-40, occasionally 80, high, with a trunk 6'-12' in diameter, slender 
erect and spreading or pendulous branches, and glabrous bright red-brown branchlets more 
or less thickly covered during their first year with resinous glands sometimes persistent 
until the second or third season. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse at the gradually narrowed 
apex, about \' long, with light red-brown shining outer scales sometimes ciliate on the 
margins, and oblong rounded scarious inner scales hardly more than \' long when fully 
grown. Bark thin, marked by numerous elongated dark slightly raised lenticels, dull red- 
dish brown or sometimes nearly white on the outer surface, light red on the inner surface, 
close and firm, finally separable into thin plate-like scales. 

Distribution. Valley of the Saskatchewan northwestward to the valley of the Yukon, 



218 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



growing sparingly near the banks of streams in forests of coniferous trees and in large 
numbers on sunny slopes and hillsides; the common Birch-tree of the Yukon basin. 

X Betula commixta Sarg., a shrub, growing on the tundra near Dawson, Yukon Terri- 
tory, is believed to be a hybrid between B. alaskana and B. glandulosa Michx. 

8. Betula fontinalis Sarg. Black Birch. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, sharply and often doubly serrate, except at the 
rounded or abruptly cuneate often unequal base, and sometimes slightly laciniately 
lobed, pale green, pilose above, and covered by conspicuous resinous glands when they 
unfold, at maturity thin and firm, dark dull green above, pale yellow-green, rather lus- 
trous and covered by minute glandular dots below, l'-2' long, f'-l' wide, with a slender 
pale midrib, remote glandular veins, and rather conspicuous reticulate veinlets; turning 
dull yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, puberulous, light yellow, glandular-dotted, 
flattened on the upper side, often flushed with red, $'-' long; stipules broadly ovate, 
acute or rounded at apex, slightly ciliate, bright green, soon becoming pale and scarious. 
Flowers: staminate aments clustered, |'-f long and y 1 ^' thick during the winter, with 
ovate acute light chestnut-brown scales pale and slightly ciliate on the margins, becoming 
2'-2i' long, and about f thick, with apiculate scales; pistillate aments short-stalked, 
about f long, with ovate acute green scales; styles bright red. Fruit: strobiles cylindric, 
rather obtuse, puberulous or nearly glabrous, l'-l|' long, \' thick, erect or pendulous on 




Fig. 206 



slender glandular peduncles, J' to nearly f in length; their scales ciliate, puberulous, 
the lateral lobes ascending, shorter than the middle lobe; nut ovoid or obovoid, puberulous 
at apex, nearly as wide as its wing. 

A tree 20-25 high with a short trunk, rarely more than 12' or 14' in diameter, ascending 
spreading and somewhat pendulous branches forming a broad open head, and slender 
branchlets, when they first appear light green glabrous or puberulous and covered with 
lustrous resinous glands persistent during their second season, and dark red-brown in their 
first winter; more commonly shrubby, with many thin spreading stems forming open clus- 
ters, 15-20 high; often much lower, and frequently , crowded in almost impenetrable 
thickets. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, very resinous, chestnut-brown, \' long. Bark about 
thick, dark bronze color, very lustrous, marked by pale brown longitudinal lenticels 
becoming on old trunks often 6'-8' long and \' wide. Wood soft and strong, light brown, 
with thick lighter-colored sapwood; sometimes used for fuel and fencing. 

Distribution. Moist soil near the banks of streams usually in mountain canons; gen- 



BETULACE^E 



219 



erally distributed, although nowhere very common: valley of the Saskatchewan (Saska- 
toon), Saskatchewan, westward to the basin of the upper Fraser and Pease Rivers, British 
Columbia, southward along the Rocky Mountains to eastern Utah, northern New Mexico 
and Arizona, the valleys of the Shasta region and the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
Dorthern California, and eastward in the United States to the eastern foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado, the Black Hills of South Dakota, and northwestern Nebraska. 
Passing into 

Betula fontinalis var. Piped Sarg. 
Betula Piperi Britt. 

A tree occasionally 50-60 high with a tall trunk 12'-18' in diameter, short spreading 
branches, and usually longer and often narrower strobiles. 




Fig. 207 

Distribution. Spokane, Spokane County, Almota and Pullman, Whitman County, 
eastern Washington. 

9. Betula Eastwood Sarg. 

Leaves broad-ovate to elliptic, acute, rounded or abruptly short-pointed at apex, coarsely 
serrate except at the cuneate base, thick, glabrous, dark green above, pale below, reticulate- 




Fig. 208 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

venulose, the veinlets more conspicuous on the lower surface, I'-lj' long, f'-l^' wide; 
petioles slender, glabrous '-$' in length; stipules scarious, ovate-oblong, rounded at apex. 
Flowers: staminate aments usually solitary or in pairs, sessile, l'-l|' long, ' thick, with 
broadly ovate pubescent dark red scales acute and apiculate at apex; pistillate aments 
\' long, about T V thick, with acute light green scales. Fruit: strobiles pendulous on 
peduncles \'-\' long, cylindric, f ' in length, about ' thick, their scales glabrous longer 
than broad, the lobes narrowed at the rounded apex, ciliate, the lateral slightly spread- 
ing, one third shorter than the terminal lobe. 

A tree 18-20 high, with a trunk rarely more than 6' in diameter, and slender red gla- 
brous branchlets thickly covered with circular white glands. Bark close, chestnut-brown, 
marked by conspicuous horizontal white lenticels, about \' thick. 

Distribution. Swamps near Dawson, Yukon Territory, forming jungles with Betula 
glandulosa Michx., B. alaskana Sarg., and various Willows: as a large shrub in Jasper 
Park near Jasper, Alberta. 

4. ALNUS L. Alder. 

Trees and shrubs, with astringent scaly bark, soft straight-grained wood, naked stipitate 
winter-buds formed in summer and nearly inclosed by the united stipules of the first leaf, 
becoming thick, resinous, and dark red. Leaves open and convex in the bud, falling 
without change of color; stipules of all but the first leaf ovate, acute, and scarious. Flowers 
vernal, or rarely opening in the autumn from aments of the year, in 1-3-flowered cymes, 
in the axils of the peltate short-stalked scales of stalked aments formed in summer or 
autumn in the axils of the last leaves of the year or of those of minute leafy bracts; stamin- 
ate aments elongated, pendulous, paniculate, naked and erect during the winter, each 
staminate flower subtended by 3-5 minute bractlets adnate to the scales of the ament, and 
composed of a 4-parted calyx, and 1-3 or usually 4 stamens inserted on the base of the calyx 
opposite its lobes, with short simple filaments; pistillate aments ovoid or oblong, erect, 
stalked, produced in summer in the axils of the leaves of a branch developed from the 
axils of an upper leaf of the year, and below the staminate inflorescence, inclosed at first 
in the stipules of the first leaf, emerging in the autumn and naked during the winter, or 
remaining covered until early spring; pistillate flowers in pairs, each flower subtended by 
2-4 minute bractlets adnate to the fleshy scale of the ament becoming at maturity thick 
and woody, obovate, 3-5-lobed or truncate at the thickened apex, forming an ovoid or 
subglobose strobile persistent after the opening of its closely imbricate'd scales; calyx 0; 
ovary compressed; nut minute, bright chestnut-brown, ovoid to oblong, flat, bearing at 
the apex the remnants of the style, marked at the base by a pale scar, the outer coat of 
the shell produced into lateral wings often reduced to a narrow membranaceous border. 

Alnus inhabits swamps, river bottom-lands, and high mountains, and is widely and gen- 
erally distributed through the northern hemisphere, often forming the most conspicuous 
feature of vegetation on mountain slopes, ranging at high altitudes southward in the New 
World through Central America to Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, and to upper Assam and 
Japan in the Old World. Of the eighteen or twenty species now recognized nine are North 
American; of these, six attain the size and habit of trees. Of the exotic species, Alnus 
vulgaris Hill., a common European, north African, and Asiatic timber-tree, was introduced 
many years ago into the northeastern states, where it has become locally naturalized. 
The wood of Alnus is very durable in water, and the astringent bark and strobiles are used 
in tanning leather and in medicine. 

Alnus is the classical name of the Alder. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Flowers opening in spring with or after the leaves; stamens 4; pistillate aments inclosed 
during the winter; wing of the nut broad; leaves ovate, sinuately lobed, lustrous on the 
lower surface. 1. A. sinuata (B, F, G). 



BETULACfi^ 

Flowers opening in winter or early spring before the unfolding of the leaves; pistillate 

aments usually naked during the winter. 

Wing of the nut broad; leaves ovate or elliptic, rusty-pubescent on the lower surface; 
pistillate aments often inclosed during the winter; stamens 4. 2. A. rubra (B, G). 
Wing of the nut reduced to a narrow border. 

Stamens 4; leaves oblong-ovate, glabrous or puberulous on the lower surface. 

3. A. tenuifolia (B, F, G). 
Stamens usually 2, or 3. 

Leaves ovate or oval. 4. A. rhombifolia (B, F, G). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute. 5. A. oblongifolia (H). 

Flowers opening in autumn from aments of the year; stamens 4; wing of the nut reduced 

to a narrow border; leaves oblong-ovate or obovate, dark green and lustrous above, 

pale yellow-green below. 6. A. maritima (A). 

1. Alnus sinuata Rydb. Alder. 

Alnus sitchensis Sarg. 

Leaves ovate, acute, full and rounded and often unsymmetrical and somewhat oblique 
or abruptly narrowed and cuneate at base, divided into numerous short acute lateral lobes, 
sharply and doubly serrate with straight glandular teeth, glandular-viscid as they unfold, 
at maturity membranaceous, yellow -green on the upper surface, pale and very lustrous on 




Fig. 209 



the lower surface, glabrous, or villose along the under side of the stout midrib with short 
brown hairs also forming tufts in the axils of the numerous slender primary veins, 3'-6' 
long, H'-4' wide; petioles stout, grooved, abruptly enlarged at the base, ^'-f in length; 
stipules oblong to spatulate, rounded and apiculate at apex, puberulous, about \' long. 
Flowers : staminate aments sessile, in pairs in the axils of the upper leaves sometimes re- 
duced to small bracts, and single in the axil of the leaf next below, during the winter about 
$' long and \' thick, with dark red-brown shining puberulous apiculate scales, becoming 
when the flowers open from spring to midsummer 4' or 5' long, with a puberulous light red 
rachis and ovate acute apiculate 3-flowered scales; calyx-lobes rounded, shorter than the 
4 stamens; pistillate aments in elongated panicles, inclosed during winter in buds formed 
the previous summer in the axils of the leaves of short lateral branchlets, long-peduncu- 
late, %' long, y thick. Fruit: strobiles on slender peduncles in elongated sometimes leafy 
panicles 4'-6' in length, oblong, |'-f ' long, about $-' thick, their truncate scales thickened 
at the apex; nut oval, about as wide as its wings. 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A tree, sometimes 40 high, with a trunk 7'-8' in diameter, short small nearly horizontal 
branches forming a narrow crown, and slender slightly zigzag branchlets puberulous and 
very glandular when they first appear, bright orange-brown and lustrous and marked by 
numerous large pale lenticels during their first season, much roughened during their second 
year by the elevated crowded leaf-scars, becoming light gray. Winter-buds acuminate, 
dark purple, covered especially toward the apex with close fine pubescence, about \' long. 
Bark thin bluish gray, with bright red inner bark; often a shrub only a few feet tall spread- 
ing into broad thickets. 

Distribution. Northwest coast from the borders of the Arctic Circle to the high moun- 
tains of northern California; common in the valley of the Yukon and eastward through 
British Columbia to Alberta, and through Washington and Oregon to the western slopes 
of the Rocky Mountains in Montana; at the north with dwarf Willows, forming great 
thickets; in southeastern Alaska often a tall tree on rich moist bottom-lands near the 
mouths of mountain streams, and at the upper limits of tree growth a low shrub; very 
abundant in the valley of the Yukon on the wet banks of streams and often arborescent in 
habit; in British Columbia and the United States generally smaller and a shrub, growing 
usually only at altitudes of more than 3000 above the sea, and often forming thickets 
on the banks of streams and lakes. 

2. Alnus rubra Bong. Alder. 
Alnus oregona Nutt. 

Leaves ovate to elliptic, acute, abruptly or gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, 
crenately lobed, dentate with minute gland-tipped teeth, and slightly revolute on the 
margins, covered when they unfold with pale tomentum, at maturity thick dark green and 
glabrous or pilose with scattered white hairs above, clothed below with short rusty pubes- 




Fig. 210 



cence, 3'-5' long, lf-3' wide, or on vigorous branchlets sometimes 8'-10' long, with a 
broad midrib and primary veins green on the upper side and orange-colored on the lower, 
the primary veins running obliquely to the points of the lobes and connected by con- 
spicuous slightly reticulate cross veinlets; petioles orange-colored, nearly terete, slightly 
grooved, I'-f in length; stipules ovate, acute, pale green flushed with red, tomentose, I'-J' 
long. Flowers: staminate aments in red-stemmed clusters, during the winter lj' long, 5' 
thick, with dark red-brown lustrous closely appressed scales, becoming 4'-6' long and 
thick, with ovate acute orange-colored glabrous scales; calyx yellow, with ovate rounded 



BETULACE.E 



lobes rather shorter than the 4 stamens; pistillate aments in short racemes usually in- 
closed during the winter in buds formed during the early summer and opening in the early 
spring, 3' I' long, about T V thick, with dark red acute scales; styles bright red. Fruit: 
strobiles raised on stout orange-colored peduncles sometimes \' in length, ovoid or oblong, 
'-!' long, \'-\' thick, with truncate scales much thickened toward the apex; nut orbicular 
to obovoid, surrounded by a membranaceous wing. 

A tree, usually 40-50, occasionally 90 high, with a trunk sometimes 3 in diameter, 
slender somewhat pendulous branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, and slender 
branchlets marked by minute scattered pale lenticels, light green and coated at first with 
hoary tomentum sometimes persistent until their second year, becoming during the first 
winter bright red and lustrous and ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds about \' long, 
dark red, covered with pale scurfy pubescence. Bark rarely more than f thick, close, 
roughened by minute wart-like excrescences, pale gray or nearly white, with a thin outer 
layer, and bright red-brown inner bark. Wood light, soft, brittle, not strong, close- 
grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sap wood; in Washington and 
Oregon largely used in the manufacture of furniture and for smoking salmon; by the Indians 
of Alaska the trunks are hollowed into canoes. 

Distribution. Shores of Yakutat Bay, southeastern Alaska, southward near the coast 
to the canons of the Santa Inez Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California; common 
along the banks of streams, and of its largest size near the shores of Puget Sound; in 
California most abundant in Mendocino, Humbolt and Marin Counties, forming groves on 
bottom-lands near the coast; often ranging inland for 20 or 30 miles, and occasionally 
ascending to altitudes of 2000 above the sea. 

3. Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. Alder. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, acute or acuminate, broad and rounded or cordate or occasionally 
abruptly narrowed and cuneate at base, usually acutely laciniately lobed and doubly ser- 




Fig. 211 



rate, when they unfold light green often tinged with red, pilose on the upper surface and 
coated on the lower with pale tomentum, at maturity thin and firm, dark green and glabrous 
above, pale yellow-green and glabrous or puberulous below, 2'-4' long, l^'-2^' wide, with a 
stout orange-colored midrib impressed on the upper side, and slender primary veins running 
to the points of the lobes; petioles stout, slightly grooved, orange-colored, f '-!' in length; 
stipules ovate, acute, thin, and scarious, \' long, about \' wide, covered with pale pubes- 
cence. Flowers: staminate aments 3 or 4 in number in slender-stemmed racemes, nearly 
sessile or raised on stout peduncles often \' long, during the winter light purple, f '-!' long 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

and j' thick, becoming l^'-2' in length; calyx-lobes rounded, shorter than the 4 stamens; 
pistillate aments naked during the winter, dark red-brown, nearly \' long, with acute apic- 
ulate loosely imbricated scales, only slightly enlarged when the flowers open. Fruit: 
strobiles obovoid-oblong, \'-% r long, their scales much thickened, truncate and 3-lobed at 
apex; nut nearly circular to slightly obovoid, surrounded by a thin membranaceous border. 

A tree, occasionally 30 tall, with a trunk 6 '-8' in diameter, small spreading slightly 
pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender branchlets marked 
at first by a few large orange-colored lenticels and coated with fine pale or rusty caducous 
pubescence, becoming light brown or ashy gray more or less deeply flushed with red in their 
first winter and ultimately paler; more often shrubby, with several spreading stems, and 
at the north and at high altitudes frequently only 4-5 tall. Winter-buds \'-\' long, 
bright red, and puberulous. Bark rarely more than \' thick, bright red-brown and broken 
on the surface into small closely appressed scales. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and mountain canons from Francis Lake in latitude 
61 north to the valley of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, eastward along the 
Saskatchewan to Prince Albert, and southward through the Rocky Mountains to northern 
New Mexico; on the Sierra Nevada of southern California, and in Lower California; the 
common Alder of mountain streams in the northern interior region of the continent; very 
abundant on the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains, and on the southern California 
Sierras; forming great thickets at 6000-7000 above the sea along the head-waters of the 
rivers of southern California flowing to the Pacific Ocean; the common Alder of eastern 
Washington and Oregon, and of Idaho and Montana; very abundant and of its largest size 
in Colorado and northern New Mexico. 

4. Alnus rhombifolia Nutt. White Alder. Alder. 

Leaves ovate or oval or sometimes nearly orbicular, rounded or acute at apex, especially 
on vigorous shoots, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate at base, finely or some- 
times coarsely and occasionally doubly serrate, slightly thickened and reflexed on the some- 




Fig. 212 



what undulate margins, when they unfold pale green and covered with deciduous matted 
white hairs, at maturity dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, frequently marked, 
especially on the midrib, with minute glandular dots, light yellow-green and slightly puber- 
ulous below, 2'-3' long, l|'-2' wide, with a stout yellow midrib and primary veins; peti- 
oles slender, yellow, hairy, flattened and grooved on the upper side, f '- f' long; stipules 
ovate, acute, scarious, puberulous, about \' in length. Flowers: staminate aments in 
slender-stemmed pubescent clusters, usually short-stalked, during the summer dark olive- 



BETULACE.E 



225 



brown and lustrous, -f'-l' long and about T V thick, beginning to lengthen late in the 
autumn before the leaves fall, fully grown and 4'-6' long and \' thick in January, with dark 
orange-brown scales, and deciduous in February before the appearance of the new leaves; 
calyx yellow, 4-lobed, rather shorter than the 2 or occasionally 3 or rarely single stamen; 
pistillate aments in short pubescent racemes emerging from the bud in December, their 
scales broadly ovate and rounded. Fruit: strobiles oblong, f'-|' long, with thin scales 
slightly thickened and lobed at apex, fully grown at midsummer, remaining closed until 
the trees flower the following year; nut broadly ovoid, with a thin margin. 

A tree, frequently 70-80 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, long slender 
branches pendulous at the ends, forming a wide round-topped open head, and slender 
branchlets marked by small scattered lenticels, at first light green and coated with pale 
caducous pubescence, soon becoming dark orange-red and glabrous, and darker during the 
winter and following summer. Winter-buds nearly \' long, very slender, dark red, and 
covered with pale scurfy pubescence. Bark on old trunks 1' thick, dark brown, irregularly 
divided into flat often connected ridges broken into oblong plates covered with small closely 
appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong* brittle, close-grained, light brown, with 
thick lighter colored often nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams from northern Idaho to the eastern slope of the Cascade 
Mountains of Washington and southeastern Oregon, and southward from the valley of the 
Willamette River, Oregon (near Salem, Marion County, J. C. Nelson) over the coast 
ranges and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the mountains of southern Cali- 
fornia (San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Cuyamaca Ranges) ; the common Alder of the 
valleys of central California, occasionally ascending on the southern Sierra Nevada to alti- 
tudes of 8000, and the only species at low altitudes in the southern part of the state. 

5. Alnus oblongifolia Torr. Alder. 
Alnus acuminata Sarg., not H. B. K. 

Leaves oblong- lanceolate, acute; or rarely obovate and rounded at apex, gradually nar- 
rowed and cuneate at base, sharply and usually doubly serrate, more or less thickly covered, 
especially early in the season, with black glands, dark yellow-green and glabrous or slightly 




Fig. 213 



puberulous above, pale and glabrous or puberulous below, especially along the slender 
yellow midrib and veins, with small tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the primary veins, 
2'-3' long, about l' wide; petioles slender, grooved, pubescent, ' long; stipules ovate- 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

lanceolate, brown and scarious, about \' in length. Flowers: staminate aments in short 
stout-stemmed racemes, during the winter light yellow, \'-\' long and about iV thick, 
becoming when the flowers open at the end of February before the appearance of the leaves 
2'-2|' in length, with ovate pointed dark orange-brown scales; calyx 4-lobed; stamens 3 or 
occasionally 2, with pale red anthers soon becoming light yellow; pistillate aments naked 
during the winter, \' to nearly ' long, with light brown ovate rounded scales; stigmas 
bright red. Fruit: strobiles \'-V long, with thin scales slightly thickened and nearly trun- 
cate at apex; nut broadly ovoid, with a narrow membranaceous border. 

A tree, in the United States rarely more than 20-30 high, with a trunk sometimes 8' in 
diameter, long slender spreading branches forming an open round-topped head, and slender 
branchlets slightly puberulous when they first appear, light orange-red and lustrous during 
their first winter, and marked by small conspicuous pale lenticels, becoming in their second 
year dark red-brown or gray tinged with red and much roughened by the elevated leaf- 
scars. Winter-buds acute, red, lustrous, glabrous, \' long. Bark thin, smooth, light 
brown tinged with red. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in camons of the mountains of southern New Mexico 
and Arizona at altitudes of 4000-6000 above the sea; in Oak Creek Canon near Flagstaff, 
northern Arizona (tree 1 00 X 3, P. Lowell} ; and on the mountains of northern Mexico. 

6. Alnus maritima Nutt. Alder. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, or obovate, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex, gradually nar- 
rowed and cuneate at base, remotely serrate with minute incurved glandular teeth, and 
somewhat thickened on the slightly undulate margins, when they unfold, light green tinged 
with red, hairy on the midrib, veins, and petioles, and coated above with pale scurfy 




Fig. 214 

pubescence, at maturity dark green, very lustrous, and covered below by minute pale 
glandular dots, 3'-4' long, l|'-2' wide, with a stout yellow midrib and primary veins promi- 
nent and glandular on the upper side and slightly puberulous below; petioles stout, yellow, 
glandular, flattened and grooved on the upper side, '-f ' in length; stipules oblong, acute, 
about f long, dark reddish brown, caducous. Flowers opening in the autumn: aments 
appearing in July on branches of the year and fully grown in August or early in Septem- 
ber; staminate in short scurfy-pubescent glandular-pitted racemes on slender peduncles 
sometimes 1' in length from the axils of upper leaves, covered at first with ovate acute 
dark green very lustrous scales slightly ciliate on the margins and furnished at apex with 
minute red points, at maturity 1|'-2|' long, \' to nearly \' thick, with dark orange-brown 
scales raised on slender stalks, and 4 bright orange-colored stamens; pistillate usually sol- 






FAGACE^E 

itary from the axils of the lower leaves on stout pubescent peduncles, bright red at apex 
and light green below before opening, with ovate acute scales slightly ciliate on the mar- 
gins, about I' long when the styles protrude from between the scales, beginning to enlarge 
the following spring. Fruit attaining full size at midsummer and then raised on a stout 
peduncle, broadly ovoid, rounded and depressed at base, gradually narrowed to the rather 
obtuse apex, about f ' long and \' broad, with thin lustrous scales slightly thickened and 
crenately lobed at apex, turning dark reddish brown or nearly black and opening late in the 
autumn and remaining on the branches until after the flowers open the following year; 
nut oblong-obovoid, gradually narrowed and apiculate at apex, with a thin membrana- 
ceous border. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a tall straight trunk 4 '-5' in diameter, small spreading 
branches forming a narrow round-topped head, slender slightly zigzag branchlets, light 
green and hairy at first, pale yellow-green, very lustrous, slightly puberulous, marked with 
occasional small orange-colored lenticels, and glandular with minute dark glandular dots 
during their first summer, becoming dull light orange or reddish brown in the winter, and 
ashy gray often slightly tinged with red the following season; more often shrubby, with 
numerous slender spreading stems 15-20 tall. Winter-buds acute, dark red, coated with 
pale lustrous scurfy pubescence, about |' long. Bark |' thick, smooth, light brown or 
brown tinged with gray. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick hardly 
distinguishable sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and ponds in southern Delaware and Maryland, and 
in south central Oklahoma (Johnson and Bryan Counties). 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and hardy as far 
north as Massachusetts. 

X. FAGACE^. 

Trees, with watery juice, slender terete branchlets marked by numerous usually pale 
lenticels, alternate stalked penniveined leaves, and narrow mostly deciduous stipules. 
Flowers monrecious, the staminate in unisexual heads or aments, composed of a 4-8-lobed 
calyx, and 4 or 8 stamens, with free simple filaments and introrse 2-celled anthers, the cells 
parallel and contiguous, opening longitudinally; the pistillate solitary or clustered, in ter- 
minal unisexual or bisexual spikes or heads, subtended by an involucre of imbricated bracts 
becoming woody and partly or entirely inclosing the fruit, and composed of a 4-8-lobed 
calyx adnate to the 3-7-celled ovary with as many styles as its cells and 1 or 2 pendulous 
anatropous or semi-anatropous ovules in each cell. Fruit a nut 1-seeded by abortion, the 
outer coat cartilaginous, the inner membranaceous or bony. Seed filling the cavity of 
the nut, without albumen; seed-coat membranaceous; cotyledons fleshy, including the min- 
ute superior radicle; hilum, basal, minute. 

The six genera of this widely distributed family occur in North America with the ex- 
ception of Nothofagus, separated from Fagus to receive the Beech-trees of the southern 
hemisphere. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Staminate flowers fascicled in globose-stalked heads; the pistillate in 2-4-flowered clusters. 

1. Fagus. 
Staminate flowers in slender aments. 

Pistillate flowers in 2-5-flowered clusters below the staminate, in bisexual aments. 
Nut inclosed in a prickly burr. 

Leaves deciduous; ovary 6-celled; nut maturing in one season; branchlets length- 
ening by an upper axillary bud; bud-scales 4. 2. Castanea. 
Leaves persistent; ovary 3-celled; nut maturing at the end of the second season; 
branchlets lengthening by a terminal bud; bud-scales numerous. 3. Castanopsis. 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Nut inclosed only partly in a shallow cup covered by slender recurved scales united 

only at the base, free above. 4. Lithocarpus. 

Pistillate flowers solitary, in few-flowered unisexual spikes; nut more or less inclosed in 

a cup covered by thin or thickened scales, closely appressed or often free toward its rim. 

5. Quercus. 

1. FAGUS L. Beech. 

Trees, with smooth pale bark, hard close-grained wood, and elongated acute bright 
chestnut-brown buds, their inner scales accrescent and marking the base of the branchlets 
with persistent ring-like scars. Leaves convex and plicate along the veins in the bud, thick 
and firm, deciduous; petioles short, nearly terete, in falling leaving small elevated semioval 
leaf-scars, with marginal rows of minute fibro- vascular bundle-scars; stipules linear-lance- 
olate, infolding the leaf in the bud. Flowers vernal after the unfolding of the leaves; stam- 
inate short-pedicellate, in globose many-flowered heads on long drooping bibracteolate 
stems at base of shoots of the year or from the axils of their lowest leaves, and com- 
posed of a subcampanulate 4-8-lobed calyx, the lobes imbricated in aestivation, ovate and 
rounded, and 8-16 stamens inserted on the base of and longer than the calyx, with slender 
filaments and oblong green anthers; pistillate in 2-4-flowered stalked clusters in the axils of 
upper leaves of the year, surrounded by numerous awl-shaped hairy bracts, the outer bright 
red, longer than the flowers, deciduous, the inner shorter and united below into a 4-lobed 
involucre becoming at maturity woody, ovoid, thick-walled, and covered by stout recurved 
prickles, inclosing or partly inclosing the usually 3 nuts, and ultimately separating into 
4 valves; calyx urn-shaped, villose, divided into 4 or 5 linear-lanceolate acute lobes, its 
3-angled tube adnate to the 3-celled ovary surmounted by 3 slender recurved pilose styles 
green and stigmatic toward the apex and longer than the involucre; ovules 2 in each cell. 
Nut ovoid, unequally 3-angled, acute or winged at the angles, concave and longitudinally 
ridged on the sides, chestnut-brown and lustrous, tipped with the remnants of the styles, 
marked at the base by a small triangular scar, with a thin shell covered on the inner surface 
with rufous tomentum. Seed dark chestnut-brown, suspended with the abortive ovules 
from the tip of the hairy dissepiment of the ovary pushed by the growth of the seed into 
one of the angles of the nut; cotyledons sweet, oily, plano-convex. 

Fagus as here limited is confined to the northern hemisphere, with a single American 
species and seven Old World species; of these one is widely distributed through Europe, 
another is found in the Caucasus, and the others are confined to eastern temperate Asia. 
Of exotic species, the European Fagus sylvatica L., an important timber- tree, is frequently 
planted for ornament in the eastern states in several of its forms, especially those with 
purple leaves, and with pendulous branches. The wood of Fagus is hard and close-grained. 
The sweet seeds are a favorite food of swine, and yield a valuable oil. 

Fagus is the classical name of the Beech-tree. 

1. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Beech. 
Fagus americana Sweet. 

Leaves remote at the ends of the branches and clustered on short lateral branchlets, 
oblong-ovate, acuminate with a long slender point, coarsely serrate with spreading or 
incurved triangular teeth except at the gradually narrowed generally cuneate base, when 
they unfold pale green and clothed on the lower surface and margins with long pale lus- 
trous silky hairs, at maturity dull dark bluish green above, light yellow-green, very 
lustrous, and glabrous or rarely pilose below (f. pubescens Fern. & Rehd.) with tufts of 
long pale hairs in the axils of the veins, 2'-5' long, l'-3' wide, with a slender yellow mid- 
rib covered above with short pale hairs, and slender primary veins running obliquely 
to the points of the teeth; turning bright clear yellow in the autumn; very rarely deeply 
laciniate; petioles hairy, '-|' in length; stipules ovate-lanceolate on the lower leaves, strap- 
shaped to linear-lanceolate on the upper, brown or often red below the middle, membra- 



FAGACE^ 

naceous, lustrous, I'-l^' long. Flowers opening when the leaves are about one third 
grown; staminate in globose heads 1' in diameter, on slender hairy peduncles about 2' 
long; pistillate in usually 2-flowered clusters, on short clavate hoary peduncles '- f' long. 
Fruit: involucres |'-f in length often shorter than the nuts, on stout hairy club-shaped 
peduncles '-f ' long, fully grown at midsummer, and then puberulous, dark orange-green, 
and covered by long slender recurved prickles red above the middle, becoming at maturity 
in the autumn light brown and tomentose, with crowded much recurved pubescent prickles, 
persistent on the branch after opening late into the winter; nut about f ' long. 

A tree, usually 70-80 but exceptionally 120 high, sending up from the roots numerous 
small stems sometimes extending into broad thickets round the parent tree, in the forest 
with a long comparatively slender stem free of branches for more than half its length, and 
short branches forming a narrow head, in open situations short-stemmed, with a trunk 
often 3-4 in diameter, and numerous limbs spreading gradually and forming a broad corn- 




Fig. 215 

pact round-topped head of slender slightly drooping branches clothed with short leafy 
laterals, and branchlets pale green and coated with long soft caducous hairs when they 
first appear, olive-green or orange-colored during their first summer, and conspicuously 
marked by oblong bright orange lenticels, gradually growing red, bright reddish brown 
during their first winter, darker brown in their second season and ultimately ashy gray. 
Winter-buds puberulous, especially toward the apex, f ' to nearly 1' long, about ' broad, 
the inner scales hirsute on the inner surface and along the margins and when fully grown 
often 1' long, lustrous, brown above the middle, and reddish below. Bark \'-% thick, with 
a smooth light steel-gray surface. Wood hard, strong, tough, very close-grained, not dur- 
able, difficult to season, dark or often light red, with thin nearly white sapwood of 20-30 
layers of annual growth; largely used in the manufacture of chairs, shoe-lasts, plane-stocks, 
the handles of tools, and for fuel. The sweet nuts are gathered and sold in the markets of 
Canada and of some of the western and middle states. 

Distribution. Rich uplands and mountain slopes, often forming nearly pure forests, and 
southward on the bottom-lands of streams and the margins of swamps; valley of the Resti- 
gouche River, New Brunswick, to the northern shores of Lake Huron and the southern 
shores of Lake Superior, and southward to Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, the ravines of Rock 
River near Oregon, Ogle County, Illinois, Minnesota and northern Missouri; southward 
passing into the var. caroliniana Fern. & Rehd., differing in its ovate to short-ovate 
thieker leaves, usually rounded or subcordate at base, and often less coarsely serrate or 



230 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

undulate on the margins, glabrous or rarely densely soft pubescent below (f. mollis Fern. 
& Rehd.), in the often shorter involucre of the fruit with shorter and less crowded prickles; 
usually on the bottom-lands of streams and the borders of swamps, New Jersey, and south- 
ern Ohio and Missouri to western Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, eastern Texas, 
and northeastern Oklahoma; ascending on the southern Appalachian Mountains to alti- 
tudes of 3000; probably growing to its largest size in eastern Louisiana. 

The northern form is occasionally planted in the northern states as a shade and park tree. 

2. CASTANEA Adans. Chestnut. 

Trees or shrubs, with furrowed bark, porous brittle wood, durable in the ground, terete 
branchlets without terminal buds, axillary buds covered by 2 pairs of slightly imbricated 
scales, the outer lateral, the others accrescent, becoming oblong-ovate and acute and mark- 
ing the base of the branch with narrow ring-like scars, and stout perpendicular tap-roots; 
producing when cut numerous stout shoots from the stump. Leaves convolute in the bud, 
ovate, acute, coarsely serrate, except at the base, with thin veins running to the points of the 
slender glandular teeth, deciduous; petioles leaving in falling small elevated semioval leaf- 
scars marked by an irregular marginal row of minute fibro- vascular bundle-scars; stipules 
ovate to linear-lanceolate, acute, scarious, infolding the leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers 
opening in early summer, unisexual, strong-smelling; the staminate, in 3-7-flowered cymes, 
in the axils of minute ovate bracts, in elongated simple deciduous aments first appearing 
with the unfolding of the leaves from the inner scales of the terminal bud and from the 
axils of the lower leaves of the year, composed of a pale straw-colored slightly puberulous 
calyx deeply divided into 6 ovate rounded segments imbricated in the bud, and 10-20 
stamens inserted on the slightly thickened torus, with filiform filaments incurved in the 
bud, becoming elongated and exserted, and ovoid or globose pale yellow anthers; the pistil- 
late scattered or spicate at the base of the shorter persistent androgynous aments from the 
axils of later leaves, sessile, 2 or 3 together or solitary within a short-stemmed or sessile 
involucre of closely imbricated oblong acute bright green bracts scurfy-pubescent or to- 
mentose below the middle, subtended by a bract and 2 lateral bractlets, each flower com- 
posed of an urn-shaped calyx, with a short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes, minute sterile 
stamens shorter than the calyx-lobes, an ovary 6-celled after fecundation, with 6 linear 
spreading white styles hairy below the middle and tipped by minute acute stigmas, and 2 
ovules in each cell, attached on its inner angle, descending, semianatropous. Fruit matur- 
ing in one season, its involucre inclosing 1-3 nuts, globose or short-oblong, pubescent or 
tomentose and spiny on the outer surface, with elongated ridged bright green ultimately 
brown branched spines fascicled between the deciduous scales, coated on the inner surface 
with lustrous pubescence, splitting at maturity into 2-4 valves; nut ovoid, acute, crowned 
by the remnants of the style, bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, tomentose or pubescent 
at apex, cylindrical, or when more than 1 flattened, marked at the broad base by a large 
conspicuous pale circular or oval thickened scar, its shell lined with rufous or hoary tomen- 
tum. Seed usually solitary by abortion, dark chestnut-brown, marked at apex by the 
abortive ovules, with thick and fleshy more or less undulate ruminate sweet farinaceous 
cotyledons. 

Castanea is confined to the northern hemisphere, and is widely distributed through east- 
ern North America, southern Europe, northern Africa, southwestern Asia, and central and 
northern 'China, Korea, and Japan. Seven species are distinguished. In the countries of 
the Mediterranean Basin much attention has been given to improving the fruit of the native 
species Castanea saliva Mill., which is occasionally planted in the middle United States; 
in Japan the seeds of Castanea crenata S. & Zucc. in many varieties and in China those of 
Castanea mollissima Bl. are important articles of food. Castanea produces coarse-grained 
wood very durable in contact with the soil, and rich in tannin. Chestnut-trees suffer in 
the eastern United States from the attacks of a fungus, Endothia parasitica Anders, which 
has nearly exterminated them in many parts of the country. 

Castanea is the classical name of the Chestnut-tree. 



FAGACE^E 



231 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Involucre of the fruit containing 2 or 3 flattened nuts. 1. C. dentate (A, C). 

Involucre of the fruit containing a single terete nut. 

Involucre of the fruit densely covered with spines; branchlets hoary tomentose. 

2. C. pumila (A, C). 

.Involucre of the fruit covered with scattered spines; branchlets glabrous or sparingly 
pilose. 3. C. alnifolia (C). 

1. Castanea dentate Borkh. Chestnut. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and long-pointed at apex, gradually narrowed and 
cuneate at base, when they unfold puberulous on the upper surface and clothed on the 
lower with fine cobweb-like tomentum, at maturity thin, glabrous, dark dull yellow-green 
above, pale yellow-green below, 6'-8' long, about 2' wide, with a pale yellow midrib and 




Fig. 216 



primary veins; turning bright clear yellow late in the autumn; petioles stout, slightly 
angled, puberulous, \' long, often flushed with red; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute, yellow- 
green, puberulous, about \' long. Flowers: staminate aments about \' long when they 
first appear, green below the middle and red above, becoming when fully grown 6'-8' long, 
with stout green puberulous stems covered from base to apex with crowded flower-clusters; 
androgynous aments, slender, puberulous, 2'-5' long, with 2 or 3 irregularly scattered 
involucres of pistillate flowers near their base. Fruit: involucre attaining its full size by 
the middle of August, 2'-2|' in diameter, sometimes a little longer than broad, some- 
what flattened at apex, pubescent and covered on the outer surface with crowded fascicles 
of long slender glabrous much-branched spines, opening with the first frost and gradually 
shedding their nuts; nuts usually much compressed, \'-V wide, usually rather broader than 
long, coated at apex or nearly to the middle with thick pale tomentum, the interior of the 
shell lined with thick rufous tomentum; seed very sweet. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a tall straight columnar trunk 3-4 in diameter, 
or often when uncrowded by other trees with a short trunk occasionally 10-12 in diame- 
ter, and usually divided not far above the ground into 3 or 4 stout horizontal limbs forming 
a broad low round-topped head of slightly pendulous branches frequently 100 across, and 
branchlets at first light yellow-green sometimes tinged with red, somewhat angled, lustrous, 
slightly puberulous, soon becoming glabrous and olive-green tinged with yellow or brown 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

tinged with green and ultimately dark brown. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about \' long, 
with thin dark chestnut-brown scales scarious on the margins. Bark from l'-2' thick, 
dark brown and divided by shallow irregular often interrupted fissures into broad flat 
ridges separating on the surface into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, 
not strong, liable to check and warp in drying, easily split, reddish brown, with thin lighter 
colored sapwood of 3 or 4 layers of annual growth; largely used in the manufacture of cheap 
furniture and in the interior finish of houses, for railway-ties, fence-posts, and rails. The 
nuts, which are superior to those of the Old World chestnuts in sweetness were formerly 
gathered in great quantities in the forest and sold in the markets of the eastern cities. 

Distribution. Southern Maine to Woodstock, Grafton County, New Hampshire (rare) 
and to the valley of the Winooski River. Vermont, southern Ontario, and southern 
Michigan, southward to Delaware and Ohio, southern Indiana, and southwestern Illinois 
(Pulaski County) along the Appalachian Mountains up to altitudes of 4000 to northern 
Georgia, and to western Florida (Crestview, Walton County) southeastern (Henry and 
Dale Counties) and south central (Dallas County) Alabama, Northern, central and 
southeastern Mississippi (Pearl River County), and to central Kentucky and Tennessee; 
very common on the glacial drift of the northern states and, except at the north, mostly 
confined to the Appalachian hills; attaining its greatest size in western North Carolina and 
eastern Tennessee. 

Formerly sometimes planted in the eastern states as an ornamental and timber tree, 
and for its nuts, of which several varieties have been recognized. 

X Castanea neglecta Dode with leaves intermediate between those of C. dentata and C. 
pumila and an involucre "containing a single large nut occurs on the Blue Ridge near 
Highlands, Macon County, North Carolina. 

2. Castanea pumila Mill. Chinquapin. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic to oblong-obovate, acute, coarsely serrate, with slender rigid spread- 
ing or incurved teeth, gradually narrowed and usually unequal and rounded or cuneate at 




ig.217 



base, when they unfold tinged with red and coated above with pale caducous tomentum 
and below with thick snowy white tomentum, at maturity rather thick and firm in texture, 
bright yellow-green on the upper surface, hoary or silvery pubescent on the lower, 3' -5' 
long, l^'-2' wide; turning dull yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent, flattened 
on the upper side, \'~V l n g> stipules light yellow-green, pubescent, those of the 2 lowest 
leaves broad, ovate, acute, covered at apex by rufous tomentum, on later leaves ovate- 
lanceolate, often oblique and acute, becoming linear at the end of the branch. Flowers: 



FAGACE^ 233 

staminate aments \' long when they first appear, pubescent, green below, bright red at 
apex, becoming when fully grown 4 '-6' long, with stout hoary tomentose stems and crowded 
or scattered flower-clusters; androgynous aments silvery tomentose, 3'-4' long; involucres 
1-flowered, scattered at the base of the ament or often spicate and covering its lower half, 
sessile or short-stalked. Fruit: involucre !'-!' in diameter, with thin walls covered with 
crowded fascicles of slender spines tomentose toward the base; nut ovoid, terete, rounded 
at the slightly narrowed base, gradually narrowed and pointed at apex, more or less coated 
with silvery white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous, f'-l' long, \' thick, 
with a thin shell lined with a coat of lustrous hoary tomentum, and a sweet seed. 

A round-topped tree, rarely 50 high, with a short straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, 
slender spreading branches, and branchlets coated at first with pale tomentum, becoming 
during iheir first winter pubescent or remaining tomentose at the apex, bright red-brown, 
glabrous, lustrous, olive-green or orange-brown during their second season and ultimately 
darker; east of the Mississippi River often a shrub spreading into broad thickets by prolific 
stolons, with numerous intricately branched stems often only 4 or 5 tall. Winter-buds 
ovoid, or oval, about \' long, clothed when they first appear in summer w 7 ith thick hoary 
tomentum, becoming red during the winter and scurfy-pubescent. Bark \'-\' thick, light 
brown tinged with red, slightly furrowed and broken on the surface into loose plate-like 
scales. Wood light, hard, strong, coarse-grained, dark brow r n, with thin hardly distin- 
guishable sap wood of 3 or 4 layers of annual growth; used for fence-posts, rails, and railway- 
ties. The sweet nuts are sold in the markets of the western and southern states. 

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges, rich hillsides and the borders of swamps; southern New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania to central (Lake County) and western Florida and westward 
through the Gulf States to the valley of the Neches River, Texas, and through Arkan- 
sas to eastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri; on the Appalachian Mountains as- 
cending to altitudes of 4500; most abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkan- 
sas and eastern Texas. 

3. Castanea alnifolia Nutt. Chinquapin 

A low shrub spreading into broad thickets by underground stems, with leaves pale pubes- 
cent on the lower surface; and distributed in the neighborhood of the coast from the valley 
of the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, to southern Georgia. Passing into 

Castanea alnifolia var. floridana Sarg. Chinquapin 

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex, gradually 
narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, irregularly sinuate-toothed with apiculate teeth. 




234 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

hoary tomentose below when they unfold, soon glabrous with the exception of the last 
leaves of vigorous summer shoots, and at maturity thin, glabrous, dark green above, light 
green and lustrous below, 3'-4' long and I'-lf ' wide; petioles stout, glabrous, about iV in 
length. Flowers: staminate aments pale pubescent, 4'-5' long; androgynous aments 
pubescent, as long or rather longer with ten or twelve involucres of pistillate flowers below 
the middle, often only the lowest being fertilized. Fruit: involucre 1-seeded, subglobose 
to short-oblong, pale tomentose, f to lj' in diameter, covered with stout pubescent scat- 
tered spines divided at base into numerous branches; nut ovoid, terete, acute, dark chest- 
nut-brown, lustrous, f ' to nearly f in length. 

A tree occasionally 40-45 high, with a tall trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, small 
irregularly spreading branches forming a narrow head, and slender glabrous or rarely pilose 
red-brown branchlets; more often a shrub sometimes with broader obovoid leaves some- 
times puberulous on the lower surface. 

Dry sandy soil; coast of North Carolina, near Wrightsville, New Hanover County; 
Dover, near the Ogechee River, Screven County, Georgia; Jacksonville, Duval County, 
and Panama City on Saint Andrew's Bay, Bay County, Florida; near Selma, Dallas 
County, Alabama; and Covington, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. 

A tree only on the shores of Saint Andrew's Bay. 


3. CASTANOPSIS Spach. 

Trees, with scaly bark, astringent wood, and winter-buds covered by numerous im- 
bricated scales. Leaves convolute in the bud, 5-ranked, coriaceous, entire or dentate, 
penniveined, persistent; stipules obovate or lanceolate, scarious, mostly caducous. Flow- 
ers in 3-flowered cymes, or the pistillate rarely solitary or in pairs, in the axils of minute 
bracts, on slender erect aments from the axils of leaves of the year; the staminate on 
usually elongated and panicled aments, and composed of a campanulate 5 or 6-lobed or 
parted calyx, the lobes inbricated in the bud, usually 10 or 12 stamens inserted on the 
slightly thickened torus, with elongated exserted filiform filaments and oblong anthers, 
and a minute hirsute rudimentary ovary; the pistillate on shorter simple or panicled aments 
or scattered at the base of the staminate inflorescence, the cymes surrounded by an in- 
volucre of imbricated scales; calyx urn-shaped, the short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes; 
abortive stamens inserted on the limb of the calyx and opposite its lobes; ovary sessile on 
the thin disk, 3-celled after fecundation, with 3 spreading styles terminating in minute 
stigmas, and 2 ovules in each cell attached to its interior angle. Fruit maturing at the end 
of the second or rarely of the first season, its involucre inclosing 1-3 nuts, ovoid or glo- 
bose, sometimes more or less depressed, rarely obscurely angled, dehiscent or indehiscent, 
covered by stout spines, tuberculate or marked by interrupted vertical ridges; nut more 
or less angled by mutual pressure when more than 1, often pilose, crowned with the rem- 
nants of the style, marked at the base by a large conspicuous circular depressed scar, the 
thick shell tomentose on the inner surface. Seed usually solitary by abortion, bearing 
at apex the abortive ovules; cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy, farinaceous. 

Castanopsis inhabits California with two species, and southeastern Asia where it is 
distributed with about twenty-five species from southern China to the Malay Archipelago 
and the eastern Himalayas. Of the California species one is usually arborescent and 
the other Castanopsis sempervirens Dudley is a low alpine shrub of the coast ranges and the 
Sierra Nevada. 

Castanopsis, from Kaerava and 6\f/ts, in allusion to its resemblance to the Chestnut-tree. 

1. Castanopsis chrysophylla A. DC. Chinquapin. Golden-leaved Chestnut. 
Leaves lanceolate or oblong-ovate, gradually narrowed at the ends or sometimes ab- 
ruptly contracted at apex into a short broad point, entire with slightly thickened revolute 
margins, when they unfold thin, coated below with golden yellow persistent scales and 
above with scattered white scales, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green and 



FAGACE.E 235 

lustrous above, 2'-6' long, \' to nearly 2' wide, with a stout midrib raised and rounded 
on the upper side; turning yellow at maturity and falling gradually at the end of their 
second or in their third year; petioles \'-\' in length; stipules ovate, rounded or acute at 
apex, brown and scarious, puberulous, \'-\' long. Flowers appearing irregularly from 
June until February in the axils of broadly ovate apiculate pubescent bracts on staminate 
and androgynous scurfy stout-stemmed aments 2'-2|' long and crowded at the ends of 
the branches; calyx of the staminate flower coated on the outer surface with hoary tomen- 
tum, divided into broadly ovate rounded lobes much shorter than the slender stamens; 
calyx of the pistillate flower oblong-campanulate, free from the ovary, clothed with hoary 
tomentum, divided at apex into short rounded lobes, rather shorter than the minute 
abortive stamens; anthers red; ovary conic, hirsute, with elongated slightly spread- 
ing thick pale stigmas. Fruit ripening at the end of the second season, involucre glo- 
bose, dehiscent, irregularly 4-valved, often slightly shorter than the nuts, sessile, solitary, 
or clustered, tomentose and covered on the outer surface by long stout or slender rigid 
spines, V-\\' in diameter, containing 1 or occasionally 2 nuts; nuts broadly ovoid, acute, 
obtusely 3-angled, light yellow-brown and lustrous; seeds dark purple-red, sweet and 
edible. " 







Fig. 219 



A tree, 50-100 high, with a massive trunk 3-6 in diameter, frequently free of branches 
for 50, stout spreading branches forming a broad compact round-topped or conic head, 
and rigid branchlets coated when they first appear with bright golden-yellow scurfy 
scales, dark reddish brown and slightly scurfy during their first winter, and gradually 
growing darker in their second season; often much smaller and sometimes reduced to a 
shrub, 2-12 high (var. minor A. De Candolle). Winter-buds fully grown at mid-sum- 
mer, usually crowded near the end of the branch, ovoid or subglobose, with broadly ovate 
apiculate thin and papery light brown scales slightly puberulous on the back, ciliate on 
the scarious often reflexed margins, the terminal about \' long and broad and rather larger 
than the often stipitate axillary buds. Bark l'-2' thick and deeply divided into rounded 
ridges 2'-3' wide, broken into thick plate-like scales, dark red-brown on the surface and 
bright red internally. Wood light, soft, close-grained, not strong, light brown tinged with 
red, with thin lighter colored sap wood of 50-60 layers of annual growth; occasionally used 
in the manufacture of ploughs and other agricultural implements. 

Distribution. Skamania County, Washington, valley of the lower Columbia River, Ore- 
gon, southward along the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, and in California along 
the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada and through the coast ranges to the elevated val- 
leys of the San Jacinto Mountains, sometimes ascending to altitudes of 4000 above the 
sea; of its largest size in the humid coast valleys of northern California. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of temperate Europe. 



236 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

4. LITHOCARPUS Bl. 

Pasania Orst. 

Trees, with astringent properties, pubescence of fascicled hairs, deeply furrowed scaly 
bark, hard close-grained brittle wood, stout branchlets, and winter-buds covered by few 
erect or spreading foliaceous scales. Leaves convolute in the bud, petiolate, persistent, 
entire or dentate, with a stout midrib, primary veins running obliquely to the points of 
the teeth, or on entire leaves forked and united near the margins, and reticulate veinlets; 
stipules oblong-obovate to linear-lanceolate, those of the upper leaves persistent and 
surrounding the buds during the winter. Flowers in erect unisexual and in bisexual 
tomentose aments from the axils of leaves of the year, from the inner scales of the ter- 
minal bud or from separate buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year; staminate in 
3-flowered clusters in the axils of ovate rounded bracts, the lateral flowers subtended by 
similar but smaller bracts, each flower composed of a 5-lobed tomentose calyx, with nearly 
triangular acute lobes, 10 stamens, with slender elongated filaments and small oblong or 
emarginate anthers, and an acute abortive hairy ovary; pistillate scattered at the base 
of the upper aments below the staminate flowers, solitary in the axils of acute bracts, 
furnished with minute lateral bractlets, and composed of a C-lobed ovoid calyx, with 
rounded lobes, inclosed in the tomentose involucral scales, 6 stamens, with abortive an- 
thers, an ovoid-oblong 3-celled ovary, 3 elongated spreading light green styles thickened 
and stigmatic at apex, and 2 anatropous ovules in each cell. Fruit an oval or ovoid nut 
maturing at the end of the second season, 1-seeded by abortion, surrounded at base by the 
accrescent woody cupular involucre of the flower, marked by a large pale circular basal scar, 
the thick shell tomentose on the inner surface. Seed red-brown, filling the cavity of the 
nut, bearing at apex the abortive ovules; cotyledons thick and fleshy, yellow and bitter. 

Lithocarpus is intermediate between the Oaks and the Chestnuts, and, with the excep- 
tion of one California species, is confined to southeastern Asia, where it is distributed with 
many species from southern Japan and southern China through the Malay Peninsula to 
the Indian Archipelago. 

Lithocarpus from X0os and Kap-n-dt, in allusion to the character of the fruit. 



1. Lithocarpus densiflora Rehd. Tan Bark Oak. Chestnut Oak. 
Quercus densiflora Hook. & Arn. 

Pasania densiflora Orst. 

Leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, rounded or acute or rarely cordate at base, acute or 
occasionally rounded at apex, or rarely lanceolate and acuminate (f. lanceolata Rehdr.) re- 
pand-dentate, with acute callous teeth, or entire with thickened revolute margins, coated 
when they unfold with fulvous tomentum and glandular on the margins with dark ca- 
ducous glands, at maturity pale green, lustrous and glabrous or covered with scattered 
pubescence on the upper surface, rusty-tomentose on the lower, ultimately becoming 
glabrous above and glabrate and bluish white below, 3'-5' long, f '-3' wide, with a midrib 
raised and rounded on the upper side, thin or thick primary veins and fine conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets; persistent until the end of their third or fourth year; petioles stout, rigid, 
tomentose, J'-f in length; stipules brown and scarious, hirsute on the outer surface. 
Flowers in early spring and frequently also irregularly during the autumn; aments stout- 
stemmed, 3'-4' long; staminate flowers crowded, hoary-tomentose in the bud, their bracts 
tomentose. Fruit solitary or often in pairs, on a stout tomentose peduncle '-!' in length ; 
nut full and rounded at base, gradually narrowed and acute or rounded at apex, scurfy- 
pubescent when fully grown, becoming light yellow-brown, glabrous and lustrous at ma- 
turity, |'-1' long, !'-!' thick, its cup shallow, tomentose with lustrous red-brown hairs on 
the inner surface, and covered by long linear rigid spreading or recurved light brown 
scales coated with fascicled hairs, frequently tipped, especially while young, with dark red 
glands and often tomentose near the base of the cup. 



FAGACE.E 237 

A tree, usually 70-80 but sometimes 150 high, with a trunk I --* in diameter, stout 
branches ascending in the forest and forming a narrow spire-like head, or in open positions 
spreading horizontally and forming a broad dense symmetrical round-topped crown, and 
branchlets coated at first with a thick fulvous tomentum of fascicled hairs often persistent 
until the second or third year, becoming dark reddish brown and frequently covered with 
a glaucous bloom; or sometimes reduced to a shrub, with slender stems only a few feet 
high (var. montana Rehdr.). Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, \'-\ r long, often surrounded by 
the persistent stipules of the upper leaves, with tomentose loosely imbricated scales, those 
of the outer ranks linear-lanceolate, increasing in width toward the interior of the bud, 
those of the inner ranks ovate or obovate and rounded at apex. Bark f '-14' thick. 




Fig. 220 

deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad rounded ridges broken into nearly square 
plates covered by closely appressed light red-brown scales. Wood hard, strong, close- 
grained, brittle, reddish brown, with thick darker brown sap wood; largely used as fuel. 
The bark is exceedingly rich in tannin and is largely used for tanning leather. 

Distribution. Valley of the TJmpqua River, Oregon, southward through the coast 
ranges to the Santa Inez Mountains, California, and along the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada up to elevations of 4000 above the sea to Mariposa County; very abundant in 
the humid coast region north of San Francisco Bay and on the Santa Cruz and Santa Lucia 
Mountains, and of its largest size in the Redwood forest of Napa and Mendocino Counties; 
southward and on the Sierras less abundant and of smaller size; the form lanceolata in 
southern Oregon and in Del Norte and Mendocino Counties, California; the var. montana 
at high altitudes on the Siskiyou Mountains, in the region of Mount Shasta and on the 
northern Sierra Nevada. 

5. QUERCUSL. Oak. 

Trees or shrubs, with astringent properties, pubescence of fascicled hairs, scaly or dark and 
furrowed bark, hard and close-grained or porous brittle wood, slender branchlets marked 
by pale lenticels and more or less prominently 5-angled. Winter-buds clustered at the 
ends of the branchlets, with numerous membranaceous chestnut-brown slightly accres- 
cent caducous scales closely imbricated in 5 ranks, in falling marking the base of the 
branchlet with ring-like scars. Leaves 5-ranked, lobed, dentate or entire, often variable on 
the same branch, membranaceous or coriaceous, the primary veins prominent and extend- 
ing to the margins or united within them and connected by more or less reticulate vein- 
lets, deciduous in the autumn or persistent until spring or until their third or fourth year; 



238 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

petioles in falling leaving slightly elevated semiorbicular more or less obcordate leaf-scars 
broader than high, marked by the ends of numerous scattered fibro-vascular bundles; 
stipules obovate to lanceolate, scarious, caducous, or those of upper leaves occasionally 
persistent through the season. Flowers vernal with or after the unfolding of the leaves: 
staminate solitary in the axils of lanceolate acute caducous bracts, or without bracts, in 
graceful pendulous clustered aments, from separate or leaf -buds in the axils of leaves of the 
previous year, or from the axils of the inner scales of the terminal bud or from those of the 
leaves of the year; calyx carnpanulate, lobed or divided to the base into 4-7, usually 6, 
membranaceous lobes; stamens 4-6, rarely 2, or 10-12, inserted on the slightly thickened 
torus, with free filiform exserted filaments and ovate-oblong or subglobose glabrous or rarely 
hairy 2-celled usually yellow anthers; pistillate solitary, subtended by a caducous bract 
and 2 bractlets, in short or elongated few-flowered spikes from the axils of leaves of the year; 
calyx urn-shaped, with a short campanulate 6-lobed limb, the tube adnate to the incom- 
pletely 3 or rarely 4 or 5-celled ovary inclosed more or less completely by an accrescent in- 
volucre of imbricated scales, becoming the cup of the fruit; styles as many as the cells of 
the ovary, short or elongated, erect or incurved, dilated above, stigmatic on the inner face or 
at apex only, generally persistent on the fruit; ovules anatropous or semianatropous, 2 in each 
cell. Fruit a nut (acorn) maturing in one or in two years, ovoid, subglobose, or turbinate, 
short-pointed at apex, 1-seeded by abortion, marked at base by a large conspicuous cir- 
cular scar, with a thick shell, glabrous or coated on the inner surface with pale tomentum, 
more or less surrounded or inclosed in the accrescent cupular involucre of the flower (cup), 
its scales thin or thickened, loosely or closely imbricated. Seed marked at base or at 
apex or rarely on the side by the abortive ovules; cotyledons thick and fleshy, usually 
plano-convex and entire. 

Quercus inhabits the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and high altitudes 
within the tropics, ranging in the New World southward to the mountains of Colombia 
and in the Old World to the Indian Archipelago. Two hundred and seventy-five species 
have been described; of the North American species fifty-four are large or small trees. 
Of exotic species, the European Quercus Robur L., and Quercus sessiliflora Salisb., have been 
frequently cultivated as ornamental trees in the eastern United States, where, however, 
they are usually short-lived and unsatisfactory. Many of the species are important 
timber-trees; their bark is often rich in tannin and is used for tanning leather, and all pro- 
duce wood valuable for fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal. 

Quercus is the classical name of the Oak-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Fruit maturing at the end of the second season (except 22); shell of the nut silky to- 

mentose on the inner surface; leaves or their lobes bristle-tipped. BLACK OAKS. 
Stamens usually 4-6; styles elongated, finally recurved; abortive ovules apical. 
Leaves deciduous in their first autumn or winter. 
Leaves pinnately lobed, convolute in the bud. 
Leaves green on both surfaces. 

Scales of the cup of the fruit closely appressed. 

Leaves usually dull on the upper surface, 7-11-lobed; cup of the fruit cup- 
shaped or in one variety broad and saucer-shaped, its scales thin. 

1. Q. borealis (A). 
Leaves lustrous. 

Leaves dimorphous, 5-7-lobed, axillary clusters of hairs large and promi- 
nent; cup of the fruit saucer-shaped or in one form deep cup-shaped. 

2. Q. Shumardii (A, C). 
Leaves similar on upper and lower branches. 
Cup of the fruit turbinate or deep cup-shaped. 

Leaves 5-lobed, the lobes usually entire, rarely furnished with tufts of 
axillary hairs below. 3. Q. texana (C). 



FAGACE^E 239 

Leaves 5-7-lobed, the lobes dentate, furnished with tufts of axillary 

hairs below. 4. Q. ellipsoidalis (A). 

Cup of the fruit deep cup-shaped to turbinate; leaves 5-9-lobed, the 

lobes toothed. 5. Q. coccinea (A, C). 

Cup of the fruit saucer-shaped. 

Leaves 5-9-lobed. 6. Q. palustris (A, C). 

Leaves 3-5-lobed. 7. Q. georgiana (C). 

Scales of the cup of the fruit more or less loosely imbricated, forming a free 

margin on its rim. 
Leaves usually 7-lobed. 

Winter-buds tomentose. 8. Q. velutina (A, C). 

Winter-buds pubescent only at apex. 9. Q. Kelloggii (G). 

Leaves usually 3-5-lobed; winter-buds rusty pubescent. 10. Q. Catesbaei(C). 
Leaves whitish or grayish tomentulose below. 

Leaves mostly acutely 5-lobed, pale or silvery white below. 1 1 . Q. ilicif olia (A) . 
Leaves often dimorphous, 3-11-lobed, the lobes often falcate. 

12. Q. rubra(A,C). 

Leaves broad-obovate, often abruptly dilated at the wide obscurely lobed apex. 
Leaves rounded or cordate at base. 

Lower surface of the leaves orange color or brownish, the upper scales of the cup 
forming with several rows a thick rim on its inner surface, often reflexed. 

13. Q. marilandica (A, C). 

Lower surface of the leaves pale, the erect scales on the rim of the cup in a 
single row. 14. Q. arkansana (C). 

Leaves cuneate at base. 

Leaves oblong-obovate. 15. Q. nigra (C). 

Leaves rhombic. 16. Q. rhombica (C). 

Leaves lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate-obovate, usually entire, involute in the 

bud. WILLOW OAKS. 
Leaves glabrous. 

Leaves lanceolate to oblanceolate, deciduous in autumn. 17. Q. Phellos ( A, C) . 
Leaves elliptic or rarely oblong-obovate, deciduous in the late winter. 

18. Q. laurifolia (C). 

Leaves tomentose or pubescent below, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate. 
Leaves pale blue-green, hoary tomentose below. 19. Q. cinerea (C). 

Leaves dark green, pubescent below. 20. Q. imbricaria (A). 

Leaves not deciduous in the autumn, revolute in the bud (convolute in 23). 

Leaves mostly persistent until after the appearance of those of the following year. 
Leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, pale and tomentose below. 

21. Q. hypoleuca (E, H). 

Leaves oval, orbicular to oblong, green and pubescent below; fruit maturing at 
the end of the first season. 22. Q. agrifolia (G). 

Leaves persistent until their second summer or autumn. 

Leaves lanceolate to oval or oblong-lanceolate, entire or serrate; cup of the fruit 
turbinate or tubular. 23. Q. Wislizenii (G). 

Leaves oval to oblong-obovate; cup of the fruit saucer-shaped or turbinate. 

24. Q. myrtifolia (C). 
Stamens usually 6-8; styles dilated; abortive ovules basal or lateral; leaves persistent 

until their third or fourth season, involute in the bud. 

Leaves oblong, entire, dentate, or sinuate-toothed, fulvous-tomentose and ultimately 

pale on the lower surface; cup of the fruit usually thick. 25. Q. chrysolepis (G, H). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, crenate-dentate or entire, pubescent or tomentose below; 

cup of the fruit usually thin. 26. Q. tomentella (G). 

Fruit maturing at the end of the first season; shell of the nut glabrous on the inner surface 



240 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

(hoary-tomentose in 27); abortive ovules basal; stamens 6-8; styles dilated; lobes of 
the leaves not bristle-tipped. WHITE OAKS. 
Leaves mostly persistent until the appearance of those of the following year, revolute 

in the bud (convolute in 28). 
Leaves yellow-green. 

Fruit sessile or short-stalked. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire or repand-dentate; inner surface of the nut 

hoary tomentose. 27. Q. Emoryi (F, H). 

Leaves oblong or obovate, entire, sinuate-toothed or lobed. 28. Q. dumosa (G). 

Fruit long-stalked; leaves oblong, elliptic or obovate, pale, glabrous or in one form 

densely tomentose below. 29. Q. virginiana (C). 

Leaves blue-green. 

Fruit usually in many-fruited long-stalked clusters; leaves broad-obovate, coarsely 
reticulate-venulose. 30. Q. reticulata (H). 

Fruit solitary or in pairs. 

Cup of the fruit saucer-shaped; leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, entire. 

31. Q. Toumeyi (H). 

Cup of the fruit cup-shaped or hemispherical, oblong-lanceolate to broad-obovate, 
pubescent below. 32. Q. arizonica (H). 

Cup of the fruit usually cup-shaped or turbinate. 

Leaves ovate, oval or obovate, usually cordate at base; fruit rather long- 
stalked. 33. Q. oblongifolia (E, H). 
Leaves oblong to obovate, usually cuneate or rounded or cordate at base. 

34. Q. Engelmannii (G). 
Leaves deciduous in their first season. 
Leaves blue-green. 

Arboreous; leaves oblong, lobed, spinescent-dentate or entire, pubescent below; cup 
of the fruit shallow cup-shaped. 35. Q. Douglasii (G). 

Arborescent or shrubby. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, undulate-lobed; cup of the fruit saucer-shaped 
to cup-shaped. 36. Q. Vaseyana (C). 

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic or lanceolate, undulate, serrate-toothed or irregu- 
larly lobed; cup of the fruit hemispheric to cup-shaped. 37. Q. Mohriana (C) . 
Leaves oblong to oblong-ovate, slightly lobed or entire; cup of the fruit cup- 
shaped or rarely saucer-shaped. 38. Q. Laceyi (C). 
Leaves yellow-green. 

Leaves entire or slightly lobed. 

Leaves different on upper and lower branches, oblong to oblong-obovate, slightly 
lobed or entire. 

Cup of the fruit cup-shaped. 39. Q. annulata (C). 

Cup of the fruit shallow saucer-shaped. 40. Q. Durandii (C). 

Leaves similar on upper and lower branches, entire or slightly sinuate-lobed 

toward the apex, oblong or oblong-obovate. 41. Q. Chapmanii (C). 

Leaves more or less deeply sinuate-lobed. 

Leaves white-tomentulose below (sometimes green and pubescent in 43) . 

Leaves obovate or oblong, lyrately pinnatifid or deeply sinuate-lobed; cup of 

the fruit fringed by the awned scales. 42. Q. macrocarpa (A, C, F). 

Leaves obovate-oblong, deeply 5-9-1 obed or pinnatifid; nut often inclosed in 

the cup. 43. Q. lyrata (A, C). 

Leaves pubescent below. 

Leaves usually covered above with fascicled hairs, obovate, 3-5-lobed, their 
lobes truncate or rounded. 44. Q. stellata (A, C). 

Leaves glabrous above at maturity. 

Leaves obovate to oblong; cup of the fruit shallow cup-shaped or slightly 
turbinate, its scales usually thin. 45. Q. Garryana (B, G.) 



FAGACE^E 



Leaves oblcng-obovate; cup of the fruit hemispheric, the scales often much 
thickened. 46. Q. utahensis (F). 

Leaves oblong-obovate, deeply lobed; nut conic, elongated, inclosed for one- 
third its length in the cup-shaped cup. 47. Q. lobata (G). 
Leaves glabrate or puberulous below, oblong to oblong-obovate. 

48. Q. leptophylk (F). 
Leaves glabrous below. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, usually 5-lobed. 49. Q. austrina (C). 

Leaves oblong-obovate, obliquely pinnatifid or 3-9-lobed. 50. Q. alba (A, C). 
Leaves coarsely sinuate- toothed. CHESTNUT OAKS. 

Fruit on peduncles much longer than the petioles; leaves obovate or oblong- 
obovate, generally sinuate-dentate or lobed, pubescent, and usually hoary on 
the lower surface. 51. Q. tricolor (C). 

Fruit on peduncles about as long or shorter than the petioles. 

Leaves obovate or oblong-obovate, cuneate or rounded at the broad or narrow 
base, tomentose or pubescent and often silvery white below. 

52. Q. Prinus (A, C). 

Leaves obovate or oblong to lanceolate, acuminate, with rounded or acute 

teeth. 53. Q. montana (A, C). 

Fruit sessile or nearly so; leaves oblong to lanceolate, acute or acuminate or 

broadly obovate, puberulous and pale, often silvery white on the lower 

surface. 54. Q. Muehlenbergii (A, C). 

i. Quercus borealis Michx. Red Oak. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, acute or acuminate, abruptly or gradually cuneate or 
rounded at the broad or narrow base, usually divided about half way to the midrib by 







Fig. 221 



wide oblique sinuses rounded at the bottom into 11 or sometimes into 7 or 9 acute oblique 
ovate lobes tapering from broad bases and mostly sinuately 3-toothed at apex with elongated 
bristle-pointed teeth, or sometimes oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate 
at base, and sinuately lobed with broad acute usually entire or slightly dentate lobes, 
when they unfold pink, covered with soft silky pale pubescence on the upper surface and 



242 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



below with thick white tomentum, soon glabrous, at maturity thin and firm, dark green, 
dull and glabrous above, pale yellow-green, glabrous or rarely puberulous and sometimes 
furnished with small tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the veins below, 5'-9' long, 4'-6' 
wide; falling early in the autumn after turning dull or sometimes bright orange color or 
brown; petioles stout, yellow or red, l'-2' in length. Flowers : staminate in pubescent aments 
4 '-5' long; calyx divided into 4 or 5 narrow ovate rounded lobes shorter than the stamens; 
pistillate on short glabrous peduncles, their involucral scales broadly ovate, dark reddish 
brown, shorter than the conspicuous linear acute bract of the flower and as long as the 
lanceolate acute calyx-lobes; stigmas bright green. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or 
short-stalked, ovoid, gradually narrowed and acute at apex or cylindric and rounded at 
apex, pale brown, lustrous, more or less tomentose toward the ends, '-!' long; %'-\' 
in diameter; cup cup-shaped, puberulous on the inner surface, covered with small closely 
appressed ovate acute red-brown pubescent scales slightly thickened on the back toward 
the base of the cup, with a thin dark-colored tip and margins. 

A tree usually not more than 60-70 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, often much 
smaller, stout branches forming a narrow head, and slender lustrous branchlets light green 
and covered with pale scurfy pubescence when they first appear, dark red during their first 
winter and ultimately dark brown. Winter-buds ovoid, gradually narrowed to the acute 
apex, about \' long, with thin ovate acute light chestnut-brown scales. Bark on young 
stems and on the upper part of the limbs of old trees !'-!' thick, dark brown tinged with 
red and divided into small thick appressed plates scaly on the surface. Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, close-grained, light reddish brown, with thin lighter-colored sap wood; used 
in construction, for the interior finish of houses, and in furniture. 

Distribution. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, through Quebec to southern Ontario, 
and southward to northern New England, western New York, northern Pennsylvania 
(Presque Isle, Erie County), northern Michigan, southeastern Wisconsin, central Minne- 
sota, central Iowa (Winneshick County), and on the Appalachian Mountains of North 
Carolina at altitudes of about 4000. Passing with many intermediate forms differing in 
the size of the nut and in the depth of the cup into 

Quercus borealis var. maxima Ashe. Red Oak. 

Quercus rubra Du Roi, not L. 

Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid to slightly obovoid, gradu- 
ally narrowed and rounded at apex, slightly narrowed at base, usually l'-l|' long and 
--'-' thick, occasionally not more than ' long and thick, inclosed only at the base in a 
thick saucer-shaped cup. 




FAGACE^E 



243 



A tree, usually 70-80, or occasionally 150 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, and 
stout spreading and ascending branches forming a broad head. 

Distribution. Province of Quebec in the neighborhood of Montreal, and southern 
Ontario, westward through southern Michigan to southeastern Nebraska, and southward 
to northern Georgia, on the southern Appalachian Mountains up to altitudes of 3000, 
southern Kentucky, eastern and central Tennessee, northeastern (Tishomingo County), 
northwestern (Yazoo County), and central and southern (Hinds and Union Counties) 
Mississippi, northern and southwestern Alabama (Dekalb, Cullman, Jefferson, and Dallas 
Counties), northwestern Arkansas, and eastern Kansas and Oklahoma; one of the largest 
and most generally distributed trees of the northern states; rare and local in the south; 
of its largest size in the region north of the Potomac and Ohio Rivers. 

Often planted as a park and shade tree in the northeastern states and in the counties of 
western and northern E urope ; generally more successful i n Europe than other American Oaks . 

X Quercus Lowellii Sarg., a possible hybrid of Quercus borealis and Q. ilicifolia, has been 
found in the neighborhood of Seabury, York County, Maine. 

X Quercus Porterii Trel., probably a hybrid of Quercus borealis var. maxima and Q. velu- 
tina, has been found on Bowditch Hill, Jamaica Plain, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 
on College Hill, Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, and near Columbus, Frank- 
lin County, Ohio. 

X Quercus runcinata Engelm., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus borealis var. maxima 
and Q. imbricaria first found near St. Louis, occurs also in the neighborhood of Indepen- 
dence, Jackson County, and at Williamsville, Wayne County, Missouri, and in Richland 
and Wayne Counties, Illinois. 






2. Quercus Shumardii Buckl. 
Quercus texana Sarg. in part, not Buckl. 
Leaves obovate, seven rarely five-lobed, the lobes two or three-lobed and sometimes 
dentate at apex, on leaves of lower branches short and broad, and separated by narrow 
sinuses pointed or rounded in the bottom, on upper branches deeply divided by broad 
rounded sinuses into narrow acuminate lobes, when they unfold often tinged with red 
and covered with pale loose tomentum deciduous before they are half grown, at maturity 
glabrous, dark green and lustrous above, paler and furnished below with large axillary tufts 




Fig. 223 



244 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



of pale hairs, 6'-8' long, 4 '-5' wide, with a thin midrib and slender primary veins running to 
the points of the lobes; petioles slender, glabrous, 2'-2|' in length. Flowers: staminate 
in slender glabrous aments 6'-7' long; calyx divided into 4 or 5 rounded slightly villose 
lobes shorter than the stamens; pistillate on pubescent peduncles, their involucral scales 
ovate, light brown, pubescent; stigmas red. Fruit: nut oblong-ovoid, narrowed and 
rounded at apex, f'-lj' long, |'-1' in diameter,- inclosed at the base only in the thick 
saucer-shaped cup with a slightly incurved rim and covered with closely appressed ovate 
pale pubescent or nearly glabrous scales narrowed above the middle, abruptly long-pointed, 
thin or often conspicuously tuberculate. 

A tree up to 120 high, with a tall trunk occasionally 5 in diameter, stout wide-spreading 
branches forming a broad rather open head, and gray or grayish brown glabrous branchlets. 
Winter-buds ovoid, acute or acuminate, about f long, with closely imbricated gray glabrous 
or rarely pubescent scales. Bark I'-l J-' thick, ridged, broken into small appressed plates 
scaly on the surface. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, light reddish brown, often manu- 
factured into lumber in the Mississippi valley and considered more valuable than that of 
the northern Red Oak. 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps in moist rich soil ; coast region of Texas east- 
ward from the Colorado River and ranging inland up the valley of that river to Burnet County, 
southeastern Oklahoma, through Arkansas, southeastern Kansas and Missouri to Fayette 
County, Iowa, southern Illinois and Indiana, the neighborhood of Columbus, Franklin 
County, Ohio, and southeastern Michigan (near Portage Lake, Jackson County) ; through 
the eastern Gulf States to western and central Florida and northward in the neighborhood 
of the coast to the valley of the Neuse River, North Carolina; Chesapeake Beach, Calvert 
County, Maryland (W. W. Ashe) ; ranging inland in the south Atlantic States to Rome, 
Floyd County, Georgia, Calhoun Falls, Abbeville County, and Columbia, Richland County, 
South Carolina, and Chapel Hill, Orange County, North Carolina. Passing into 

Quercus Shumardii var. Schneckii Sarg 

Quercus texana Sarg. in part, not Buckl. 

Quercus Schneckii Britt. 

Differing from the type in the deep cup-shaped cup of the fruit covered with thin scales, 
rarely much thickened and tuberculate at base (only on river banks near Vicksburg, 




Fig. 224 



FAGACE.E 245 

Warren County, Mississippi), and connected with it by forms with the cups of the fruit dif- 
fering from saucer to deep cup-shaped. 

Distribution. Growing with Qucrcus Shumardii; more common in Texas and in the 
Mississippi valley than the type, and ranging eastward through Louisiana and Mississippi 
to central and southern Alabama, central and southeastern Tennessee (neighborhood of 
Chattanooga), and central Kentucky; apparently not reaching the Atlantic States. 

3. Quercus texana Buckl. 

Leaves widest above the middle, broad-cuneate, concave-cuneate or nearly truncate at 
base, deeply or rarely only slightly divided by broad sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5 or 7 
lobes, the terminal lobe 3-lobed and acute at apex, the upper lateral lobes broad and more 
or less divided at apex and much larger and more deeply lobed than those of the lowest 
pair, when they unfold densely covered with fascicled hairs and often bright red, soon gla- 
brous, thin, dark green and lustrous above, pale and lustrous and rarely furnished below 




Fig. 225 



with small inconspicuous axillary tufts of pale hairs, 3'-3' long, 2|'-3' wide, with a thin 
midrib and slender primary veins running to the points of the lobes; petioles slender, soon 
glabrous, \'-\\' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender villose aments 3'-4' long; calyx 
thin, villose on the outer surface, divided into 4 or 5 acute lobes shorter than the stamens; 
pistillate on short hoary tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales brown tinged with 
red; stigmas bright red. Fruit short-stalked, usually solitary; nut ovoid, narrowed and 
rounded at apex, light red-brown, often striate, |'-f long and broad, sometimes acute, 
nearly 1' in length and not more than \' in diameter; cup turbinate, covered with thin 
ovate acuminate slightly appressed glabrous scales, in the small fruit of trees on dry hills 
inclosing a third or more of the nut, in the larger fruit of trees on better soil comparatively 
less deep. 

A tree on dry hills rarely more than 30 tall, with a trunk 8'-10' in diameter, small spreading 
or erect branches and slender red or reddish brown glabrous or rarely pubescent branchlets; 
often a shrub; on better soil at the foot of hills occasionally 50 high with a trunk 12'- 
18' in diameter. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, \'-\ r long and covered with closely imbri- 
cated acute slightly or densely pubescent red scales. Bark light brown tinged with red, 
f '-!' thick, deeply ridged and broken into plate-like scales. 

Distribution. Dry limestone hills and ridges, and in the more fertile soil at their base; 
central and western Texas (Dallas, Tarrant County to Travis and Bexar Counties), and 
to the Edwards Plateau (San Saba, Kerr, Brown, Coke and Uvalde Counties) ; westward 



246 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

replaced by the var. chesosensis Sarg. differing in the acuminate lobes of the leaves and 
smaller cups of the fruit; known only on the dry rocky slopes of the Chesos Mountains, 
Brewster County, Texas; and by the var. stellapila Sarg., differing in the presence of fas- 
cicled hairs on both surfaces of the mature leaves and on the branchlets of the year; above 
Fort Davis, Jeff Davis County, Texas. 

4. Quercus ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill. Black Oak. 

Leaves elliptic to obovate-orbicular, acute or acuminate, truncate or broadly cuneate at 
base, deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5-7 oblong lobes re- 
pandly dentate at apex, or often, especially those of the upper pair, repandly lobulate, 
when they unfold slightly tinged with red and hoary-tomentose, soon becoming glabrous 
with the exception of small tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the principal veins, at matur- 
ity thin and firm, bright green and lustrous above, paler and sometimes entirely glabrous 
below, 3'-5' long, 2|'-4' wide, with a stout midrib and primary veins and prominent re- 
ticulate veinlets; late in the autumn turning yellow or pale brown more or less blotched 




Fig. 226 

with purple; petioles slender, glabrous or rarely puberulous, l|'-2' in length. Flowers: 
staminate in puberulous aments l^'-2' long; calyx campanulate, usually tinged with red, 
2-5-lobed or parted into oblong-ovate or rounded segments, glabrous or slightly villose, 
fringed at apex with long twisted hairs, about as long as the 2-5 stamens, with short fila- 
ments and oblong anthers; pistillate on stout tomentose 1-3-flowered peduncles, red, their 
involucral scales broad, oblong, acute, hairy; calyx campanulate, 4-7-lobed, ciliate on the 
margins. Fruit short-stalked or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs; nut ellipsoidal to sub- 
globose, chestnut-brown, often striate and puberulous, inclosed for one third to one half its 
length in a turbinate or cup-shaped cup gradually narrowed at base, thin, light red-brown, 
and covered by narrow ovate obtuse or truncate brown pubescent closely appressed scales. 
A tree, 60-70 high, with a short trunk rarely 3 in diameter, much forked branches 
ascending above and often pendulous low on the stem, forming a narrow oblong head, 
and slender branchlets covered at first with matted pale hairs, bright reddish brown during 
their first winter, becoming dark gray-brown or reddish brown in their second season. Win- 
ter-buds ovoid, obtuse or acute, sometimes slightly angled, about \' long, with ovate 
or oval red-brown lustrous slightly puberulous outer scales ciliate on the margins. Bark 
thin, light yellow internally, close, rather smooth, divided by shallow connected fissures 
into thin plates, dark brown near the base of the tree, dull above, gray-brown and only 
slightly furrowed on the large branches. 



FAGACE.E 247 

Distribution. In the neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, to southeastern Minnesota 
common; often covering large areas of sandy soil with a stunted growth and on the prairies 
sometimes a low shrub; eastern Iowa (Muscatine County), and the Lower Peninsular of 
Michigan (Montmorency, Arenac, and St. Clair Counties). 

5. Quercus coccinea Muench. Scarlet Oak. Spanish Oak. 

Leaves oblong-obovate or elliptic, truncate or cuneate at base, deeply divided by wide 
sinuses rounded in the bottom into 7 or rarely 9 lobes repand-dentate at apex, the terminal 
lobe, ovate, acute, and 3-toothed, the middle division the largest and furnished with 2 small 
lateral teeth, the lateral lobes obovate, oblique or spreading, sometimes falcate, usually 
broad and oblique at the coarsely toothed apex, when they unfold bright red covered with 
loose pale pubescence above and below with silvery white tomentum, green at the end of 
a few days, at maturity thin and firm, bright green, glabrous and very lustrous above, 
paler and less lustrous and sometimes furnished with small tufts of rusty pubescence in the 
axils of the veins below, 3'-6' long, 2|'-4' broad, with a yellow midrib and primary veins, 




Fig. 227 



late in the autumn turning brilliant scarlet; petioles slender, terete, l|'-2' in length. 
Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous aments 3'-4' long; calyx pubescent, bright red be- 
fore opening, divided into 4 or 5 ovate acute segments shorter than the stamens; pistillate 
on pubescent peduncles sometimes \' long, bright red, their involucral scales ovate, pubes- 
cent, shorter than the acute calyx-lobes. Fruit sessile or stalked, solitary or in pairs; nut 
oval, oblong-ovate or hemispheric, truncate or rounded at base, rounded at apex, \'-\' long, 
i'-f ' thick, light reddish brown and occasionally striate, inclosed for one third to one half 
its length in a deep cup-shaped or turbinate thin cup light reddish brown on the inner sur- 
face, covered by closely imbricated oblong-ovate acute thin, or rarely much thickened 
(var. tuberculata Sarg.) light reddish brown slightly puberulous scales. 

A tree, 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, comparatively small branches 
spreading gradually and forming a rather narrow open head, and slender branchlets coated 
at first with loose scurfy pubescence, soon pale green and lustrous, light red or orange- 
red in their first winter and light or dark brown the following year; usually much smaller. 
Winter-buds ellipsoidal or ovoid, gradually narrowed at apex, \'-\' long, dark reddish 
brown, and pale-pubescent above the middle. Bark of young stems and branches smooth, 
light brown, becoming on old trunks ^'-1' thick and divided by shallow fissures into irregu- 
lar ridges covered by small light brown scales slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, coarse-grained, light or reddish brown, with thicker darker colored sap wood. 

Distribution. Light dry usually sandy soil; valley of the Androscoggin River, Maine, 






248 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



southern New Hampshire and Vermont to southern Ontario, southward to the District 
of Columbia and along the Appalachian Mountains to eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and northern Georgia; in central Georgia and northeastern Mississippi (near Corinth, 
Alcorn County), and westward through New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and southern 
Wisconsin to central Missouri (Jerome, Phelps County) ; in eastern Oklahoma (Arkansas 
River valley near Fisher, Creek County, G. W. Stevens); ascending to altitudes of nearly 
5000 on the southern mountains; the prevailing Oak above iioOO to the summits of the 
Blue Ridge of the Carolinas; very abundant in the coast region from Massachusetts Bay 
to southern New Jersey; less common in the interior, growing on dry gravelly uplands, and 
on the prairies skirting the western margins of the eastern forest. 

Occasionally planted in the northeastern states and in Europe as an ornamental tree 
valued chiefly for the brilliant autumn color of the foliage. 

X Quercus Robbinsii Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus coccinea and Q. illicifolia, 
occurs at North Easton, Bristol County, Massachusetts. 

X Quercus Benderi Baenitz, a supposed hybrid of Quercus coccinea and Q. borealis 
var. maxima, appeared several years ago in Silesia, and a similar tree has been found in 
the Blue Hills Reservation near Boston. 

6. Quercus palustris Muench. Pin Oak. Swamp Spanish Oak, 

Leaves obovate, narrowed and cuneate or broad and truncate at base, divided by 
wide deep sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5-7 lobes, the terminal lobe ovate, acute, 




Fig. 228 

3- toothed toward the apex, or entire, the lateral lobes spreading or oblique, sometimes fal- 
cate, especially those of the lowest pair, gradually tapering and acute at the dentate apex, 
or obovate and broad at apex, when they unfold light bronze-green stained with red on the 
margins, lustrous and puberulous above, coated below and on the petioles with pale scurfy 
pubescence, at maturity thin and firm, dark green and very lustrous above, pale below, 
with large tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the conspicuous primary veins; 4>'-6' long, 2'-4' 
wide, with a stout midrib; late in the autumn gradually turning deep scarlet; petioles 
slender, yellow, %'-%' in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 2'-3' long; calyx 
puberulous and divided into 4 or 5 oblong rounded segments more or less laciniately cut 
on the margins, shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short tomentose peduncles, their 
involucral scales broadly ovate, tomentose, shorter than the acuminate calyx-lobes; stig- 
mas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked, solitary or clustered; nut nearly hemispheric, 
about \' in diameter, light brown, often striate, inclosed only at the base in a thin saucer- 



249 

shaped cup dark red-brown and lustrous within, and covered by closely appressed ovate 
light red-brown thin puberulous scales. 

A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, often clothed with small 
tough drooping branches, or when crowded in the forest sometimes 120 high, with a 
trunk 60-70 tall and 4-5 in diameter, slender branches beset with short-ridged spur- 
like laterals a few inches in length, forming on young trees a broad pyramidal head, be- 
coming on older trees open and irregular, with rigid and more pendulous branches often fur- 
nished at first with small drooping branchlets, and slender tough branchlets dark red and 
covered by short pale silvery tomentum, soon becoming green and glabrous, lustrous dark red- 
brown or orange color in their first winter, growing darker in their second year and ultimately 
dark gray-brown. Winter-buds ovoid, gradually narrowed and acute at apex, about f ' 
long, with imbricated light chestnut-brown scales puberulous toward the thin sometimes 
ciliate margins. Bark of young trunks and branches smooth, lustrous, light brown fre- 
quently tinged with red, becoming on older trunks l'-\\' thick, light gray-brown, gener- 
ally smooth and covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, 
coarse-grained, light brown, with thin rather darker colored sap wood; sometimes used in 
construction, and for shingles and clapboards. 

Distribution. Borders of swamps and river-bottoms in deep rich moist soil; valley of the 
Connecticut River in western Massachusetts and Connecticut; on Grand Isle in the Niagara 
River, New York to southern Ontario and southwestern Michigan, and westward to eastern 
Iowa (Muscatine County), and southward to southern West Virginia (Hardy and Mercer 
Counties), southwestern Virginia (Wythe County), central North Carolina (on Bowling's 
Creek, near Chapel Hill, Orange County, and on Dutchman's Creek, Forsyth County); 
and to southern Kentucky, central Tennessee, southern Arkansas (Fulton, Hempstead 
County), and northeastern Oklahoma; rare and of small size in New England; exceedingly 
common on the coast plain south of the Hudson River; very abundant on the bottom-lands 
of the streams of the lower Ohio River. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the northeastern states and occasionally in 
the countries of western and central Europe. 

7. Quercus georgiana M. A. Curtis. 

Leaves convolute in the bud, elliptic or obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at 
base, divided generally about half way to the midrib by wide or narrow oblique sinuses 




Fig. 229 



rounded in the bottom into 3-7 lobes, the terminal lobe ovate, acute, or rounded and en- 
tire or frequently furnished with 1 or 2 small lateral teeth, the lateral lobes oblique or 



250 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

spreading, mostly triangular, acute and entire, or those of the upper and of the middle 
pair often broad and repand-lobulate at the oblique ends, sometimes gradually 3-lobed at 
the broad apex and narrowed and entire below, or equally 3-lobed, with broad or narrow 
spreading lateral lobes, or occasionally pinnatifid, when they unfold bright green tinged with 
red, ciliate on the margins and coated on the midrib, veins, and petioles with loose pale 
pubescence, at maturity thin, bright green and lustrous above, paler below, and gla- 
brous or furnished with tufts of hairs 'in the axils of the primary veins, usually about 
2^' long and 1|' wide; turning dull orange and scarlet in the autumn; petioles slender, 
s'-f' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous or pubescent aments 2'-3' long; 
calyx divided into 4 or 5 broadly ovate rounded segments rather shorter than the stamens; 
pistillate on short glabrous slender peduncles; their involucral scales rather shorter than 
the acute calyx-lobes, pubescent or puberulous; stigmas bright red. Fruit short-stalked; 
nut ellipsoidal or subglobose, $'-' long, light red-brown and lustrous, inclosed for one 
third to nearly one half its length in a thick cup-shaped cup light red-brown and lustrous 
on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate bright light red-brown truncate erose 
scales. 

Distribution. Georgia; on Stone Mountain, and Little Stone Mountain, Dekalb County; 
on a few other granite hills between the Yellow and Oconee rivers in the region south and 
east of Stone Mountain (Winder, Jackson County, Rockmart, Polk County and at Warm 
Springs, Meriwether County). 

Occasionally cultivated, and hardy in eastern Massachusetts. 

X Quercus Smallii Trel., a possible hybrid of Quercus georgiana and Q. marilandica, 
occurs on the slopes and summit of Little Stone Mountain, Dekalb County, Georgia. 

8. Quercus velutina Lam. Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak. 

Leaves ovate or oblong, rounded, cuneate or truncate at base, mostly 7-lobed 
and sometimes divided nearly to the middle by wide rounded sinuses into narrow obovate 
more or less repand-dentate lobes, or into elongated nearly entire mucronate lobes taper- 
ing gradually from a broad base, the terminal lobe oblong, elongated, acute, furnished with 
small lateral teeth, or broad, rounded, and coarsely repand-dentate, or slightly divided 
into broad dentate lobes or sinuate-dentate, bright crimson when they unfold, and covered 
above by long loose scattered white hairs and below with thick pale or silvery white tomen- 
tum, hoary-pubescent when half grown, and at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, 
dark green and lustrous above, below yellow-green, brown or dull copper color and more 
or less pubescent or glabrous with the exception of tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the 
principal veins, 3'-12' long and 2'-10' wide, but usually 5 '-6' long and 3'-4' wide, with a 
stout midrib and primary veins; late in the autumn turning dull red, dark orange color, 
or brown, and falling gradually during the winter; petioles stout, yellow, glabrous or puber- 
ulous, 3'-6' in length. Flowers: staminate in tomentose or pubescent aments 4 '-6' long; 
calyx coated with pale hairs, with ovate acute lobes; pistillate on short tomentose peduncles, 
their involucral scales ovate, shorter than the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas bright red. 
Fruit sessile or short-stalked, solitary or in pairs; nut ovoid-oblong, obovoid, oval or hemi- 
spheric, broad and rounded at base, full and rounded at apex, light red-brown, often 
striate, frequently coated with soft rufous pubescence, '- |' long and broad, or rarely I' long 
and broad, inclosed for about half its length or rarely nearly to the apex in the thin deeply 
cup-shaped or turbinate cup dark red-brown on the inner surface, covered by thin light 
chestnut-brown acute hoary scales closely appressed at the base of the cup, loosely im- 
bricated above the middle, with free scarious tips forming a fringe-like border to its rim. 

A tree, often 70-80 and occasionally 150 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, slender 
branches spreading gradually into a narrow open head, stout branchlets coated at first 
with pale or fulvous scurfy tomentum, becoming in their first winter glabrous, dull red or 
reddish brown, growing dark brown in their second year or brown slightly tinged with 
red. Winter-buds ovoid, strongly angled, gradually narrowed and obtuse at apex, hoary- 
tomentose, |'-|' long. Bark of young stems and branches smooth, dark brown, deep 



FAGACE^E 



251 



orange color internally, becoming f'-l|' thick on old trunks, and deeply divided into broad 
rounded ridges broken on the surface into thick dark brown or nearly black closely ap- 
pressed plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, bright brown tinged 
with red, with thin lighter colored sap wood; of little value except as fuel. The bark 
abounds in tannic acid and is largely used in tanning, as a yellow dye, and in medicine. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly uplands and ridges; coast of southern Maine to northern 
Vermont, southern and western Ontario, the southern peninsula of Michigan, north- 
western, eastern and southern Iowa, and southeastern Nebraska, and southward to 
western Florida, southern Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, eastern Kansas, northeastern 
Oklahoma and eastern Texas to the valley of the Brazos River; one of the commonest 
Oaks on the gravelly drift of southern New England and the middle states; ascending 
on the southern Appalachian Mountains to altitudes of about 4000, and often forming a 
large part of the forest growth on their foothills; abundant in all parts of the Mississippi 




Fig. 230 



basin, and of its largest size in the valley of the lower Ohio River; the common species 
of the Black Oak group reaching the south-Atlantic and Gulf Coast, and here generally 
scattered on dry ridges through the maritime Pine belt. 

Quercus velutina, which is more variable in the form of its leaves than the other North 
American Black Oaks, is easily recognized by the bright yellow color of the inner bark, 
in early spring by the deep red color of the unfolding leaves, becoming pale and silvery in 
a few days, and by the large tomentose winter-buds. From western Missouri to north- 
western Arkansas a form occurs (var. missouriensis Sarg.) with the mature leaves covered 
above with fascicled hairs, and coated below and on the petioles and summer branchlets 
with rusty pubescence, and with broader more loosely imbricated hoary-tomentose cup- 
scales. 



9. Quercus Kelloggii Newb. Bkck Oak. 
Quercus calif ornica Coop. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, truncate, cuneate or rounded at the narrow base, 7 or 
rarely 5-lobed by wide and deep or shallow and oblique sinuses rounded in the bottom, 
the terminal lobe ovate, 3-toothed at the acute apex, the lateral lobes tapering gradually 
from the base or broad and obovate, coarsely repand-dentate with acute pointed teeth, 
or rarely entire, when they unfold dark red or purple and pilose above and coated below 
and on the petioles with thick silvery white tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

lustrous, dark yellow-green and glabrous or rarely pubescent above, light yellow-green or 
brownish and glabrous or pubescent, or occasionally hoary-tomentose below, 3'-6' long, 2'-4' 
wide; turning yellower brown in the autumn before falling; petioles slender, yellow 7 , l'-2' 
in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 4 '-5' long; calyx pubescent, divided into 
4 or 5 ovate acute segments shorter than the stamens; anthers bright red; pistillate on 
short tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, coated like the acute calyx-lobes 
with pale tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit short-stalked, solitary or clustered; nut oblong, 
ellipsoidal or obovoid, broad and rounded at base, full and rounded or gradually narrowed 
and acute at the puberulous apex, l'-l' long, about f ' broad, light chestnut-brown, often 
striate, inclosed for one fourth to two thirds of its length in the deep cup-shaped cup 
light brown on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate-lanceolate lustrous light chest- 
nut brown scales, sometimes rounded and thickened on the back toward the base of the cup, 
their tips elongated, thin and erose on the margins, often forming a narrow fringe-like bor- 
der to the rim of the cup. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, stout spreading branches 
forming an open round-topped head, and branchlets coated at first with thick hoary ca- 




Fig. 231 

ducous tomentum, bright red or brown tinged with red, and usually glabrous or pubescent 
or puberulous during their first winter, becoming dark red-brown in their second year; fre- 
quently much smaller and at high elevations a small shrub (f. cibata Jeps.)- Winter-buds 
ovoid, gradually narrowed and acute at apex, about i' long, with closely imbricated pale 
chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the thin scarious margins and pubescent toward the point 
of the bud. Bark of young stems and branches smooth, light brown, becoming on old 
trunks l'-l?' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red or nearly black, divided into 
broad ridges at the base of old trees and broken above into thick irregular oblong plates 
covered by minute closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, very brittle, bright 
red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; occasionally used as fuel. 

Distribution. Valleys and mountain slopes; basin of the Mackenzie River in western 
Oregon, southward over the California coast ranges, and along the western slopes of the 
Sierra Nevada up to altitudes of 6500 to the Cuyamaca Mountains near the southern 
boundary of California; extending across the Sierra Nevada to the foothills of Owens valley 
(Jepsori) in eastern California; rare in the immediate neighborhood of the coast; the largest 
and most abundant Oak-tree of the valleys of southwestern Oregon and of the Sierra 
Nevada, sometimes forming groves of considerable extent in coniferous forests; of its 
largest size at altitudes of about 6000 above the sea. 



FAGACE^ 253 

10. Quercus Catesbaei Michx. Turkey Oak. 

Leaves oblong or obovate or nearly triangular, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, 
deeply divided by wide rounded sinuses into 3 or 5 or rarely 7 lobes, the terminal lobe 
ovate, elongated, acute and entire or repand-dentate, or obovate and coarsely equally or 
irregularly 3-toothed at apex, the lateral lobes spreading, usually falcate, entire and acute, 
tapering from the broad base, and broad, oblique, and repand-lobulate at apex, or 3- 
toothed at the broad apex and gradually narrowed to the base, coated when they unfold 
with rufous fascicled hairs, and when fully grown thick and rigid, bright yellow-green 
and lustrous above, paler, lustrous, and glabrous below, with large tufts of rusty hairs in 
the axils of the veins, 3'-12' long, 1/-10' wide, but usually about 5' long and wide, with a 
broad yellow or red-brown midrib; turning bright scarlet before falling in the late autumn 
or early winter; petioles stout, grooved, j'-f in length. Flowers: staminate in slender 
hairy red-stemmed aments 4 '-5' long; calyx puberulous and divided into 4 or 5 ovate 
acute lobes; pistillate on short stout tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales bright 
red, pubescent, hairy at the margins; stigmas dark red. Fruit short-stalked, usually soli- 
tary; nut oval, full and rounded at the ends, about I' long and f broad, dull light brown, 




Fig. 232 

covered at the apex by a thin coat of snow-white tomentum, inclosed for about one third 
its length in a thin turbinate cup often gradually narrowed into a stout stalk-like base, light 
red-brown and lustrous on the inner surface, covered by ovate-oblong rounded scales 
extending above the rim of the cup and down over the upper third of the inner surface, 
and hoary-pubescent except their thin bright red margins. 

A tree, usually 20-30, or occasionally 50-60 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 2 
in diameter, stout spreading more or less contorted branches forming a broad or narrow 
open irregular generally round-topped head, and stout branchlets coated at first with 
fascicled hairs, nearly glabrous and deep red when the leaves are half grown, dark red in 
their first winter, gradually growing dark brown; generally much smaller and sometimes 
shrubby. Winter-buds elongated, acute, \' long, with light chestnut-brown scales erose 
on the thin margins, and coated, especially toward the point of the bud, with rusty pubes- 
cence. Bark \'-\' thick, red internally, dark gray tinged with red on the surface, and at 
the base of old trunks becoming nearly black, deeply and irregularly furrowed and broken 
into small appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather close-grained, light brown 
tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fuel. 

Distribution. Dry barren sandy ridges and sandy bluffs and hummocks in the neighbor- 
hood of the coast; southeastern Virginia (near Zuni, Isle of Wight County) to the shores 



254 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

of Indian River and Peace Creek, Florida, and westward to eastern Louisiana; compara- 
tively rare toward the western limits of its range, and most abundant and of its largest 
size on the high bluff-like shores of bays and estuaries in South Carolina and Georgia; the 
prevailing tree with Quercus cinerea in the flat woods of the interior of the Florida penin- 
sula as far south as the sandy ridges in the neighborhood of Lake Istokpoga, De Soto 
County. 

X Quercus Mellichampii Trel. believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Catesbcei and Q. lauri- 
folia occurs at Bluffton on the coast of South Carolina, in the neighborhood of Orlando, 
Orange County and near San Mateo, Putnam County, Florida. 

X Quercus Ashei Trel. believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Catesbcei with Q. cinerea occurs 
at Folkston and near Trader's Hill, Charleton County and St. Mary's, Camden County, 
Georgia. 

X Quercus blufftonensis Trel., a probable hybrid of Quercus Catesbcei and Q. rubra L., 
has been found at Bluffton, South Carolina. 

X Quercus Walteriana Ashe, believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Catesbaei and Q. nigra, 
is not rare in the immediate neighborhood of the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, 
and occurs on sand hills in Sampson County, North Carolina, near Jacksonville, Duval 
County, Florida, at Mount Vernon, Mobile County and in the neighborhood of Selma. 
Dallas County, Alabama. 

11. Quercus ilicifolia Wang. Bear Oak. Scrub Oak. 

Quercus nana Sarg. 

Leaves obovate or rarely oblong, gradually or abruptly cuneate at base, divided by 
wide shallow sinuses into 3-7, usually 5, acute lobes, the terminal lobe ovate, elongated, 
rounded and 3-toothed or acute and dentate or entire at apex, the lateral lobes spreading, 




Fig. 233 



mostly triangular and acute, or those of the upper pair broad, oblique and repand-lobu- 
late or broad at apex, slightly 3-lobed and entire below, or deeply 3-lobed above and sinu- 
ate below, or occasionally oblong to oblong-obovate and entire, with undulate margins, 
when they unfold dull red and puberulous or pubescent on the upper surface and coated 
on the lower and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum, with conspicuous tufts of sil- 
very white hairs in the axils of the veins, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and lustrous 
above, covered below with pale or silvery white pubescence, 2'-5' long, l|'-3' wide, 



FAGACE^E 255 

with a stout yellow midrib and slender primary veins; turning dull scarlet or yellow in the 
autumn; petioles slender, glabrous, or pubescent, l'-l' in length. Flowers: staminate in 
hairy aments 4 '-5' long, and often persistent until midsummer; calyx red or green tinged 
with red and irregularly divided into 3-5 ovate rounded lobes shorter than the stamens; 
anthers bright red ultimately yellow; pistillate on stout tomentose peduncles, their involu- 
cral scales ovate, about as long as the acute calyx-lobes, red and tomentose; stigmas 
dark red. Fruit produced in great profusion, sessile or stalked, in pairs or rarely solitary; 
nut ovoid, broad, flat or rounded at base, gradually narrowed and acute or rounded at 
apex, about \' long and broad, light brown, lustrous, usually faintly striate, inclosed for 
about one half its length in the cup-shaped or saucer-shaped cup often abruptly enlarged 
above the stalk-like base, thick, light reddish brown within, and covered by thin ovate 
closely imbricated red-brown puberulous scales acute or truncate at apex, the minute free 
tips of the upper scales forming a fringe-like border to the cup. 

A tree, occasionally 18-20 high, with a trunk 5'-6' in diameter, with slender spread- 
ing branches usually forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets dark green 
more or less tinged with red and hoary-pubescent at first, during their first winter red- 
brown or ashy gray and pubescent or puberulous, becoming glabrous and darker in their 
second year and ultimately dark brown or nearly black; more frequently an intricately 
branched shrub, with numerous contorted stems 3-10 tall. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, 
about \' long, with dark chestnut-brown rather loosely imbricated glabrous or pilose 
scales. Bark thin, smooth, dark brown, covered by small closely appressed scales. 

Distribution. Dry sandy barrens and rocky hillsides; coast of eastern Maine south- 
ward through eastern and southern New England to southern and southwestern Penn- 
sylvania and along the Appalachian Mountains, principally on their eastern slopes, to 
southern Virginia; on Crowder and King Mountains, Gaston County, North Carolina; 
and westward to the shores of Lake George and the valley of the Hudson River; common 
in eastern and southern New Engnlad, in the Pine barrens of New Jersey, and in eastern 
Pennsylvania. 

X Quercus Brittonii Davis, believed to be a hybrid of Quercus ilicifolia and Q. mari- 
landica, has been found on Staten Island, New York, and at Ocean Grove, Monmouth 
County, New Jersey. 

X Quercus Gijfordii Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus ilicifolia and Q. Phellos, 
has been found at May's Landing, Atlantic County, New Jersey. 

X Quercus Rehderi Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus ilicifolia and Q. velutina, 
is not rare in eastern Massachusetts and occurs on Martha's Vineyard (Chilmark). 

12. Quercus rubra L. Red Oak. Spanish Oak. 

Quercus digitata Sudw. 

Leaves ovate to obovate, narrowed and rounded or cuneate at base, the terminal lobe 
long-acuminate, entire or slightly lobed, often falcate, usually longer than the 2 or 4 
acuminate entire lateral lobes narrowed from a broad base and often falcate, or oblong- 
obovate and divided at the broad apex by wide or narrow sinuses broad and rounded in 
the bottom into 3 rounded or acute entire or dentate lobes, and entire and gradually 
narrowed below into an acute or rounded base (var. triloba Ashe), the two forms usually 
occurring on different but sometimes on the same tree, at maturity thin and firm, dark 
green and lustrous above, coated below with soft close pale or rusty pubescence, 6'-7' long 
and 4'-5' wide, obscurely reticulate-venulose, with a stout tomentose midrib and primary 
veins; turning brown or dull orange color in the autumn; petioles slender, flattened, l'-2' in 
length. Flowers: staminate in tomentose aments, 3'-5' long; calyx thin and scarious, pu- 
bescent on the outer surface, divided into 4 or 5 ovate rounded segments; pistillate on stout 
tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales coated with rusty tomentum, as long or rather 
shorter than the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut 
subglobose to ellipsoidal, full and rounded at apex, truncate and rounded at base, about 



256 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



I' long, bright orange-brown, inclosed only at base or sometimes for one third its length in 
a thin saucer-shaped cup flat on the bottom or gradually narrowed from a stalk-like base, or 
deep and turbinate, bright red-brown on the inner surface, covered by thin ovate-oblong 
reddish scales acute or rounded at apex and pale-pubescent except on the margins. 

A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, large'spreading branches 
forming a broad round-topped open head, and stout branchlets coated at first, like the 
young leaves, with thick rusty or orange-colored clammy tomentum, dark red or reddish 
brown and pubescent or rarely glabrous during their first winter, becoming in their second 
year dark red-brown or ashy gray. The var. iriloba usually 20-30 rarely 40-50 high. 
Winter-buds ovoid or oval, acute, |'-j' long, with bright chestnut-brown puberulous or 
pilose scales ciliate with short pale hairs. Bark f'-l' thick, dark brown or pale, and di- 
vided by shallow fissures into broad ridges covered by thin closely appressed scales. Wood 







Fig. 234 



hard, strong, not durable, coarse-grained, light red, with thick lighter colored sap wood; 
sometimes used in construction, and largely as fuel. The bark is rich in tannin, and is 
used in tanning leather and occasionally in medicine. 

Distribution. Southeastern and southern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey 
southward to central Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos River, 
Texas, and through eastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri to central Tennessee 
and Kentucky, southern Indiana and Illinois, southern Ohio (Black Fork Creek, Lawrence 
County), and Kanawha County, West Virginia; in the north Atlantic states only in the 
neighborhood of the coast and comparatively rare; very common in the south Atlantic and 
Gulf states on dry hills between the coast plain and the Appalachian Mountains; less abund- 
ant in the southern maritime Pine belt. The var. triloba: rare and local. Pleasant Grove, 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and Jefferson County, Indiana, southward to central 
and western Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi, western Arkansas and eastern 
Texas; on dry uplands near Milledgeville, Baldwin County, Georgia, the prevailing form. 

Quercus rubra var. pagodaefolia Ashe. Swamp Spanish Oak. Red Oak. 

Quercus pagoda Rafn. 
Quercus pagodcefolia Ashe. 

Leaves elliptic to oblong, acuminate, gradually narrowed and cuneate or full and rounded 
or rarely truncate at base, deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded in the bottom into 5-1 1 
acuminate usually entire repand-dentate lobes often falcate and spreading at right angles 



FAGACE.E 



257 



to the midrib or pointed toward the apex of the leaf, when they unfold coated with pale 
tomentum, thickest on the lower surface, and dark red on the upper surface, at maturity 
dark green and very lustrous above, pale and tomentose below, 6'-8' long and 5'-6' wide, 
with a stout midrib usually puberulous on the upper side, slender primary veins arched to 
the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets; turning bright clear yellow 
before falling; petioles stout, pubescent or tomentose, 1^-2' in length. Flowers and Fruit 
as in the species. 

A tree, sometimes 120 high, with a trunk 4-5 in diameter, heavy branches forming in 
the forest a short narrow crown, or in more open situations wide-spreading or ascending 
and forming a great open head, and slender branchlets hoary tomentose at first, tomentose 
or pubescent during their first winter, and dark reddish brown and puberulous during their 
second year. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, often prominently 4-angled, about 3' long, with 




Fig. 235 

light red-brown puberulous scales sometimes ciliate at the apex. Bark about 1' thick 
and roughened by small rather closely appressed plate-like light gray, gray-brown or dark 
brown scales. Wood light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sap wood; largely manu- 
factured into lumber in the Mississippi valley, and valued almost as highly as white oak. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and the alluvial banks of streams; Maryland (Queen 
Anne County) and coast of Virginia to northern Florida, and through the Gulf states and 
Arkansas to southern Missouri, western Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Illinois 
and Indiana; most abundant and one of the largest and most valuable timber-trees in the 
river swamps of the Yazoo basin, Mississippi, and of eastern Arkansas. Differing chiefly 
from the type in the more numerous and more acuminate lobes of the usually more elon- 
gated leaves usually paler on the lower surface, and in the generally paler bark of the 
trunk; passing into Quercus rubravar. leucophylla Ashe with leaves on upper branches 
nearly as broad as long thickly covered below with brownish pubescence and deeply 
divided into 5-7 lobes, and on lower branches slightly obovate, less deeply divided, thin, 
dark green, sometimes pubescent becoming glabrous above and often covered below with 
pale or brown pubescence. 

A tree sometimes 120 high; in low rich soil; coast region of southeastern Virginia, south- 
ward to western Florida and through the Gulf states to the valley of the Neches River, 
Texas, and northward to northern Arkansas; in southern Illinois (near Mt. Carmel, Wa- 
bash County) and southwestern Indiana (near Hovey Lake, Posey County) ; abundant in 
low woods about River Junction, Gadsden County, Florida, and in central Mississippi. 

X Quercus Willdenoviana Zabel is believed in Europe to be a hybrid of Quercus rubra 
and Quercus velutina. 



258 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

13. Quercus marilandica, Muench. Black Jack. Jack Oak. 

Leaves broadly obovate, rounded or cordate at the narrow base, usually 3 or rarely 
5-lobed at the broad and often abruptly dilated apex, with short or long, broad or narrow, 
rounded or acute, entire or dentate lobes, or entire or dentate at apex, sometimes oblong- 
obovate, undulate-lobed at the broad apex and entire below, or equally 3-lobed with 
elongated spreading lateral lobes broad and lobulate at apex, when they unfold coated with a 
clammy tomentum of fascicled hairs and bright pink on the upper surface, at maturity 
thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark yellow-green and very lustrous above, yellow, orange 
color, or brown and scurfy-pubescent below, usually 6'-7' long and broad, with a thick broad 
orange-colored midrib; turning brown or yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, yellow, gla- 
brous or pubescent, |'-f' in length. Flowers: staminate in hoary aments 2'-4' long; 
calyx thin and scarious, tinged with red above the middle, pale-pubescent on the outer 
surface, divided into 4 or 5 broad ovate rounded lobes; anthers apiculate, dark red; pistillate 




Fig. 236 



on short rusty-tomentose peduncles coated like their involucral scales with thick rusty 
tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit, solitary or in pairs, usually pedunculate; nut oblong, 
full and rounded at the ends, rather broader below than above the middle, about f long, light 
yellow-brown and often striate, the shell lined with dense fulvous tomentum, inclosed for 
one third to nearly two thirds of its length in a thick turbinate light brown cup puberulous 
on the inner surface, and covered by large reddish brown loosely imbricated scales often 
ciliate and coated with loose pale or rusty tomentum, the upper scales smaller, erect, in- 
serted on the top of the cup in several rows, and forming a thick rim round its inner sur- 
face, or occasionally reflexed and covering the upper half of the inner surface of the cup. 

A tree, 20-30, or occasionally 40-50 high, with a trunk rarely more than 1' in di- 
ameter, short stout spreading often contorted branches forming a narrow compact round- 
topped or sometimes an open irregular head, and stout branchlets coated at first with 
thick pale tomentum, light brown and scurfy-pubescent during their first summer, becom- 
ing reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous in the winter, and ultimatey brown or ashy 
gray. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, prominently angled, light red-brown, coated with rusty 
brown hairs, about long. Bark l'-l|' thick, and deeply divided into nearly square plates 
l'-3' long and covered by small closely appressed dark brown or nearly black scales. Wood 
heavy, hard, strong, dark rich brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used as 
fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal. 

Distribution. Dry sandy or clay barrens; Long Island and Staten Island, New York, 
eastern and southern Pennsylvania, and southern New Jersey to the shores of Matanzas 
Inlet and Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward through the Gulf states to western Texas 



FAGACE.E 



259 



(Callahan County) and to western Oklahoma (Dewey and Kiowa Counties), Arkansas, 
eastern Kansas, southeastern Nebraska and through Missouri to northeastern Illinois, south- 
western and southern Indiana, and northeastern Kentucky (South Portsmouth, Greenup 
County, R. E. Horsey); rare in the north, very abundant southward; west of the Missis- 
sippi River often forming on sterile soils a great part of the forest growth; of its largest 
size in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

X Quercus Rudkinii Britt., with characters intermediate between those of Quercus 
marilandica and Q. Phellos, and probably a hybrid of these species, has been found near 
Tottenville, Staten Island, New York, at Keyport, Monmouth County, New Jersey, and 
at the Falls of the Yadkin River, Stanley County, North Carolina. 

X Quercus sterilis Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus marilandica and Q. nigra 
has been found in Bladen County, North Carolina. 

X Quercus Hastingsii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus marilandica and Q. 
texana, occurs near Boerne, Kendall County, and at Brownwood, Brown County, Texas. 

X Quercus Bushii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus marilandica and Q. velutina, 
although not common, occurs in eastern Oklahoma (Sapulpa, Creek County), Mississippi 
(Oxford, Lafayette County), Alabama (Dothan, Houston County, near Berlin, Dallas 
County, and Daphne, Baldwin County), Florida (Sumner, Levey County), and in Georgia 
(Climax, Decatur County). 

14. Quercus arkansana Sarg. 

Leaves broadly obovate, slightly 3-lobed or dentate at the wide apex, cuneate at base, 
on sterile branches often oblong-ovate, acute or rounded at apex, rounded at base, the 
lobes ending in long slender mucros, when they unfold tinged with red, thickly covered 
with pale fascicled hairs persistent until summer, the midrib and veins more thickly 




Fig. 237 



clothed with long straight hairs, and at maturity glabrous, with the exception of small 
axillary tufts of pubescence on the lower surface, light yellow-green above, paler below, 
2'-2f long and broad, with a slender light yellow midrib, thin primary veins and promi- 
nent veinlets; on sterile branches often 4|'-5|' long and 2|'-2f wide; petioles slender, 
coated at first with clusters of pale hairs, becoming glabrous or puberulous, f -*' in length. 
Flowers: s laminate in aments covered with clusters of long pale hairs, 2'-2|' long; calyx 



260 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

usually 4 rarely 3-lobed, thinly covered with long white hairs; stamens usually 4; anthers 
ovoid-oblong, apiculate, dark red; pistillate on stout peduncles hoary-tomentose like the 
scales of the involucre; stigmas dark red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, on short glabrous 
peduncles; nut broad-ovoid, rounded at apex, sparingly pubescent especially below the 
middle with fascicled hairs, light brown, obscurely striate, |' |' long, |'-f ' thick, inclosed 
only at base in the flat saucer-shaped cup, pubescent on the inner surface, covered with 
closely appressed scales obtuse at their narrow apex, red on the margins, pale pubescent, 
those of the upper rank smaller, erect, inserted on the top of the cup and forming a thin rim 
round its inner surface. 

A tree when crowded in the forest often 60-70 high, with a tall trunk, stout ascending 
branches forming a long narrow r head, and slender branchlets thickly coated early in the 
season with pale fascicled hairs, pubescent or nearly glabrous in their first autumn and 
darker and glabrous in their second year, when not crowded by other trees rarely 40 high 
with a short trunk occasionally 1 in diameter. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, with thin 
light chestnut-brown slightly pubescent or nearly glabrous scales. Bark thick, nearly 
black, divided by deep fissures into long narrow ridges covered with thick closely appressed 
scales. 

Distribution. Low woods and on rolling sand hills four miles north of Fulton, Hemp- 
stead County, Arkansas; rare and local. 

15. Quercus nigra L. Water Oak. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base and enlarged often 
abruptly at the broad rounded entire or occasionally 3-lobed apex, on vigorous young 
branchlets sometimes pinnatifid with acute, acuminate or rounded lobes or broadly oblong- 
obovate and rounded at apex with entire or undulate margins, on upper branches occa- 
sionally linear-lanceolate, on occasional trees narrowed below to an elongated cuneate 
base and gradually widened above into a more or less deeply 3-lobed apex, the lobes 
rounded or acute (var. tridentifera Sarg.), or often acute at the ends, and on upper branch- 
lets sometimes linear-lanceolate to linear-obovate, acute or rounded at apex, divided 
above the middle by deep wide rounded sinuses into elongated lanceolate acute entire 
lobes, or pinnatifid above the middle, when they unfold thin, light green more or less tinged 
with red and covered by fine caducous pubescence, with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs in 
the axils of the veins below, at maturity thin, dull bluish green, paler below than above, 
glabrous or with axillary tufts of rusty hairs, usually about %\' long and \\' wide, or on 
fertile branches sometimes 6' long and 2^' wide; turning yellow and falling gradually during 
the winter; petioles stout, flattened, \'-\' in length; leaves of seedling plants linear-lanceo- 
late with entire or undulate margins, or occasionally lobed with 1 or 2 pointed lobes, 
often deeply 3-lobed at a wide apex, and occasionally furnished below the middle with a 
single acuminate lobe, all the forms often occurring on a plant less than three feet high. 
Flowers: staminate in red hairy-stemmed aments 2'-3' long; calyx thin and scarious, 
covered on the outer surface with short hairs, divided into 4 or 5 ovate rounded segments; 
pistillate on short tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales a little shorter than the 
acute calyx-lobes and coated with rusty hairs; stigmas deep red. Fruit usually solitary, 
sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid, broad and flat at base, full and rounded at the pubescent 
apex, light yellow-brown, often striate, \'-\ ' long and nearly as thick, usually inclosed only 
at the base in a thin saucer-shaped cup, or occasionally for one third its length in a cup- 
shaped cup, coated on the inner surface with pale silky tomentum and covered by ovate 
acute closely appressed light red-brown scales clothed with pale pubescence except on their 
darker colored margins. 

A tree, occasionally 80 high, with a trunk 2-3| in diameter, numerous slender 
branches spreading gradually from the stem and forming a symmetrical round- topped 
head, and slender glabrous branchlets light or dull red during their first winter, becoming 
grayish brown in their second season. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, strongly angled, covered 
by loosely imbricated dark red-brown puberulous scales slightly ciliate on the thin margins. 



FAGACE^E 



261 



Bark -'-f ' thick, with a smooth light brown surface slightly tinged with red and covered 
by smooth closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, light 
brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; little valued except as fuel. 




Fig. 238 

Distribution. High sandy borders of swamps and streams and the rich bottom-lands 
of rivers, or northward sometimes in dry woods; southern Delaware, southward to the 
shores of the Indian River and Tampa Bay, Florida, ranging inland in the south Atlantic 
states through the Piedmont region, and westward through the Gulf states to the valley 
of the Colorado River, Texas, and through eastern Oklahoma and Arkansas to south- 
eastern Missouri and to central Tennessee and Kentucky. The var. tridentifera Sarg. rare 
and local; southwest Virginia to Alabama (near Selma, Dallas County), central and western 
Mississippi, eastern Louisiana; valley of Navidad River, Lavaca County, Texas. A form 
(f . microcarya Sarg. Quercus microcarya Small) occurs in the dry soil on slopes of Little 
Stone Mountain, Dekalb County, Georgia. 

The Water Oak is commonly planted as a shade-tree in the streets and squares of the 
cities and towns of the southern states. 

16. Quercus rhombica Sarg. 

Leaves rhombic, rarely oblong-obovate to lanceolate, acute or rounded and apiculate at 
apex, cuneate at base, the margins entire or slightly undulate, those on vigorous shoots 
occasionally furnished on each side near the middle with a short lobe, when they unfold 
deeply tinged with red, covered with short pale caducous pubescence and furnished be- 
low with usually persistent tufts of axillary hairs, at maturity thin, dark green and lus- 
trous above, pale below, 3^-4' long, l^'-2' wide, with a stout conspicuous yellow midrib 
and slender forked primary veins; turning yellow and falling gradually in early winter, 
rarely at the ends of branches, obovate and rounded, slightly 3-lobed or undulate at the 
broad apex (var. obovatifolia Sarg.); petioles yellow, \'-%' in length. Flowers not seen. 
Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid, rounded at apex, thickly covered with pale pu- 
bescence, f '-' long, f thick; inclosed only at the base in a saucer-shaped cup, rounded 
on the bottom, silky pubescent on the inner surface, and covered with slightly pubescent 
reddish brown loosely appressed scales rounded at apex, with free tips, those of the upper 
rank thin and ciliate on the margins. 

A tree often 120-150 high, with a tall trunk 3-4| in diameter, stout, wide-spreading 
smooth branches forming a broad open head, and slender glabrous branchlets red-brown 
during their first season and dark gray the following year. Bark pale gray, slightly fur- 
rowed and covered with closely appressed scales, '-' thick. 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Borders of swamps and low wet woods of the coast region; southeastern 
Virginia (Dismal Swamp) to northern Florida, and through the Gulf states to the valley 
of the Neches River (Beaumont, Jefferson County), eastern Texas; in Louisiana northward 




Fig. 239 



to the valley of the Red River; most abundant in south central Alabama and in Louisiana. 

X Quercus beaumontiana Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus rhombica and Q. rubra 
has been found growing by a street in Beaumont, Jefferson County, Texas. 

X Quercus Cocksii Sarg., probably a hybrid of Quercus rhombica and Q. velutina, has 
been found at Pineville, Rapides Parish, Louisiana. 

17. Quercus Phellos L. Willow Oak. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or rarely obovate-lanceolate, often somewhat falcate, gradu- 
ally narrowed and acute at the ends, and entire with slightly undulate margins, when they 
fold light yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, coated on the lower with pale 




Fig. 240 



caducous pubescence, at maturity glabrous, light green and rather lustrous above, dull and 
paler or rarely hoary-pubescent below, conspicuously reticulate- venulose, 2|'-5' long, 
|'-1' wide, with a slender yellow midrib and obscure primary veins forked and united 



FAGACE^S 263 

about halfway between the midrib arid margins; turning pale yellow in the autumn; petioles 
stout, about ' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender-stemmed aments 2'-3' long; calyx- 
yellow, hirsute, with 4 or 5 acute segments; pistillate on slender glabrous peduncles, their 
involucral scales brown covered by pale hairs, about as long as the acute calyx-lobes; 
stigmas bright red. Fruit short-stalked or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs; nut hemi- 
spheric, light, yellow-brown, coated with pale pubescence, inclosed only at the very base 
in the thin pale reddish brown saucer-shaped cup silky-pubescent on the inner surface, and 
covered by thin ovate hoary-pubescent closely appressed scales rounded at apex. 

A tree, often 70-90 high, with a trunk 2 or rarely 4 in diameter, small branches 
spreading into a comparatively narrow open or conical round-topped head, and slender 
glabrous reddish brown branchlets roughened by dark lenticels, becoming in then* second 
year dark brown tinged with red or grayish brown; usually much smaller. Winter-buds 
ovoid, acute, about f long, with dark chestnut-brown scales pale and scarious on the mar- 
gins. Bark --'-' thick, light red-brown slightly tinged with red, generally smooth but on 
old trees broken by shallow narrow fissures into irregular plates covered by small closely 
appressed scales. Wood heavy, strong, not hard, rather coarse-grained, light brown tinged 
with red, with thin lighter colored sap wood; occasionally used in construction, for clap- 
boards and the fellies of wheels. 

Distribution. Low wet borders of swamps and streams and rich sandy uplands; Staten 
Island, New York, southern New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania and southward 
to northeastern Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Navasota River, 
Brazos County, Texas, and through Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma and southeastern Mis- 
souri to central Tennessee and northwestern Kentucky (Ballard County), and in south- 
western Illinois (Massac and Pope Counties) ; in the Atlantic states usually confined to the 
maritime plain; less common in the middle districts, rarely extending to the Appalachian 
foothills. 

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree in the streets of southern towns, and rarely in 
western Europe; hardy in eastern Massachusetts. 

Quercus heterophylla Michx. f. 

This has usually been considered a hybrid between Quercus Phellos and Quercus velutina 
or Quercus borealis var. maxima; first known in the eighteenth century from an individ- 




Fig. 241 

ual growing in a field belonging to John Bartram on the Schuylkill River, Philadelphia. 
What appears to be the same form has since been discovered in a number of stations 



264 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

from New Jersey to Texas, and it is possible that Quercus heterophylla may, as many 
botanists have believed, best be considered a species. 

X Quercus subfalcata Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Phellos and Q. rubra 
has been found at Wickliffe, Ballard County, Illinois, at Campbell, Lawrence County, 
Mississippi, Fulton, Hempstead County, Arkansas, and Houston, Harris County, Texas; 
its var. microcarpa Sarg., probably of the same parentage, originated in a Dutch nursery. 

X Quercus ludoviciana Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus Phellos and Q. rubra 
var. pagodoefolia grows in low wet woods ten miles west of Opelousas, St. Landry Par- 
ish, Louisiana. 

18. Quercus laurifolia Michx. Laurel Oak. Water Oak. 

Leaves elliptic or rarely slightly broadest above the middle, acuminate at the ends, 
apiculate at apex, occasionally lanceojate or oblong-obovate and rounded at apex (var. 
hybrida Michx.) sometimes 3-lobed at apex, the terminal lobe acuminate, much larger 
than the others (var. tridentata Sarg.), frequently unequally lobed on vigorous branches of 




Fig. 242 

young trees, with small nearly triangular lobes, when they unfold in spring yellow-green, 
or later in the season often pink or bright red, and slightly puberulous, at maturity thin, 
green, and very lustrous above, light green and less lustrous below, usually 3 '-4' long and 
f wide, with a conspicuous yellow midrib; falling abruptly in early spring leaving the 
branches bare during only a few weeks; petioles stout, yellow, rarely more than \' in 
length. Flowers: staminate in red-stemmed hairy aments 2'-3' long; calyx pubescent 
on the outer surface, divided into 4 ovate rounded lobes; pistillate on stout glabrous 
peduncles, their involucral scales brown and hairy, about as long as the acute calyx- 
lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit sessile or subsessile, generally solitary; nut ovoid to hemi- 
spheric, broad and slightly rounded at base, full and rounded at the puberulous apex, 
dark brown, about \' long, inclosed for about one fourth its length in a thin saucer-shaped 
cup red-brown and silky-pubescent on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate light 
red-brown scales rounded at apex and pale-pubescent except on their darker colored 
margins. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a tall trunk 3-4 in diameter, and comparatively 
slender branches spreading gradually into a broad dense round-topped shapely head, and 
slender glabrous branchlets dark red when they first appear, dark red-brown during their 
first winter, becoming reddish brown or dark gray in their second season. Winter-buds 
broadly ovoid or oval, abruptly narrowed and acute at apex, T y-i' long, with numerous 



FAGACE.E 



265 



thin closely imbricated bright red-brown scales ciliate on the margins. Bark of young 
trees \'-\.' thick, dark brown more or less tinged with red, roughened by small closely 
appressed scales, becoming at the base of old trees l'-2' thick, nearly black, and divided 
by deep fissures into broad flat ridges. Wood heavy, very strong and hard, coarse-grained, 
liable to check badly in drying, dark brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sap- 
wood; probably used only as fuel. 

Distribution. Sandy banks of streams and swamps and rich hummocks in the neigh- 
borhood of the coast; North Carolina (near Newbern) southward to the shores of Bay 
Biscayne and the valley of the Caloosahatchie River, Florida, and in the interior of the 
peninsula to the neighborhood of Lake Istokpaga, De Soto County, and westward to 
eastern Louisiana, ranging inland to Darlington, Darlington County, South Carolina, 
to the neighborhood of Augusta, Richmond County, Mayfield, Hancock County, Albany, 
Dougherty County, Cuthbert, Randolph County, and Bainbridge, Decatur County, 
Georgia, Georgiana, Butler County, and Berlin, Dallas County, Alabama, Rockport, 
Copiah County, Mississippi, and to the neighborhood of Bogalusa, Washington Parish, 
Louisiana (R. S. Cocks) ; nowhere abundant, but most common and of its largest size in 
eastern Florida. 

19. Quercus cinerea Michx. Blue Jack. Upland Willow Oak. 

Quercus brevifolia Sarg. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate or some- 
times rounded at base, acute or rounded and apiculate at apex, entire with slightly thick- 
ened undulate margins, or at the ends of vigorous sterile branches occasionally 3-lobed at 




Fig. 243 



the apex and variously lobed on the margins (/3 dentato-lobata A. De Candolle), when they 
unfold bright pink and pubescent on the upper surface, coated on the lower with thick 
silvery white tomentum, at maturity firm in texture, blue-green, lustrous, conspicuously re- 
ticulate venulose above, pale-tomentose below, 2'-5' long, $'-!?' wide, with a stout yellow 
midrib and remote obscure primary veins forked and united within the margins; turn- 
ing red and falling gradually late in the autumn or in early winter; petioles stout, \'-\' 
in length. Flowers: staminate in hoary-tomentose aments 2'-3' long; calyx pubescent, 
bright red and furnished at apex with a thick tuft of silvery white hairs before opening, di- 
vided into 4 or 5 ovate acute lobes, becoming yellow as it opens; stamens 4 or 5; anthers 
apiculate, dark red in the bud, becoming yellow; pistillate on short stout tomentose 
peduncles, their involucral scales about as long as the acute calyx-lobes and coated with 



266 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

pale tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit produced in great profusion, sessile or raised on 
a short stalk rarely ' long; nut ovoid, full and rounded at the ends or subglobose, about 
\' long, often striate, hoary-pubescent at apex, inclosed only at the base or for one half 
its length in a thin saucer-shaped or cup-shaped cup bright red-brown and coated with 
lustrous pale pubescence on the inner surface, and covered by thin closely imbricated ovate- 
oblong scales hoary-tomentose except on the dark red-brown margins. 

A tree on dry hills, usually 15-20 high, with a trunk 5 '-6' in diameter, stout branches 
forming a narrow irregular head, and thick rigid branchlets coated at first with a dense 
fulvous or hoary tomentum of fascicled hairs, soon becoming glabrous or puberulous, 
dark brown sometimes tinged with red during their first winter and darker in their 
second year; or in low moist soil often 60-75 high, with a trunk 18'-20' in diameter, and 
a broad round-topped shapely head of drooping branches. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, with 
numerous rather loosely imbricated bright chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins, 
often \' long on vigorous branches, frequently obtuse and occasionally much smaller. 
Bark f-H' thick, and divided into thick nearly square plates l'-2' long, and covered by 
small dark brown or nearly black scales slightly tinged with red. Wood hard, strong, 
close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick darker colored sap wood; probably 
only used as fuel. 

Distribution. Sandy barrens and dry upland ridges, and in the rich moist soil of the 
pine-covered flats of the Florida peninsula; North Carolina southward to the shores of the 
Indian River and Peace Creek, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the valley of the 
Brazos River, Texas; in the Atlantic and middle Gulf states mostly confined to a maritime 
belt 40-60 wide, extending across the Florida peninsula as far south as the sand hills in 
the neighborhood of Lake Istokpoga, De Soto County, and west of the Mississippi River, 
ranging inland to the neighborhood of Dallas, Dallas County, Texas and to southeastern 
Oklahoma (near Antlers, Pushmataha County). 

X Quercus dubia Ashe, believed to be a hybrid of Quercus cinerea and Q. laurifolia occurs 
at Abbottsburg, Bladen County, North Carolina, on the coast of South Carolina, in south- 
ern Georgia and northern and central Florida, and at Mississippi City, Lincoln County, 
Mississippi. 

X Quercus subintegra Trel., a supposed hybrid of Quercus cinera and Q. rubra occurs 
at Lumber City, Telfair County, Georgia, Lake City, Columbia County, Florida, and at 
Berlin, Dallas County, Alabama. 

X Quercus sublaurifolia Trel., a supposed hybrid of Quercus cinerea and Q. laurifolia 
occurs at Folkston, Charlton County, Georgia, and at Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi. 

X Quercus carolinensis Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus cinerea and Q. mari- 
landica occurs at Newbern, Craven County, North Carolina, Lumber City, Telfair 
County and Climax, Decatur County, Georgia, and near Fletcher, Hardin County, Texas. 

X Quercus caduca Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus cinerea and Q. nigra, occurs 
at Folkston, Charlton County and Lumber City, Telfair County, Georgia, Jacksonville, 
Duval County, and Gainsville, Alachua County, Florida, Mississippi City, Harrison 
County, Mississippi, and at Milano, Milano County and Bryan, Brazos County, Texas. 

X Quercus oviedoensis Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus cinerea and Q. myrtifolia, 
has been found near Oviedo, Orange County, Florida. 

20. Quercus imbricaria Michx. Shingle Oak. Laurel Oak. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, apiculate and acute or rounded at apex, 
gradually narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, entire with slightly thickened, rev- 
olute often undulate margins, or sometimes more or less 3-lobed, or on sterile branches 
occasionally repand-lobulate, when they unfold bright red, soon becoming yellow-green, 
covered with scurfy rusty pubescence on the upper surface and hoary-tomentose on the 
lower, at maturity thin, glabrous, dark green, and very lustrous above, pale green or light 
brown and pubescent below, 4 '-6' long, f '-2' wide, with a stout yellow midrib, numerous 
slender yellow veins arcuate and united at some distance from the margins, and reticulate 



FAGACE.E 267 

veinlets; late in the autumn turning dark red on the upper surface; petioles stout, pubes- 
cent, rarely more than \' in length. Flowers : staminate in hoary-tomentose arnents, 2'-3' 
long; calyx light yellow, pubescent, and divided into 4 acute segments; pistillate on slender 
tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales covered with pale pubescence and about as 
long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas greenish yellow. Fruit solitary or in pairs, on stout 
peduncles often nearly \' in length; nut nearly as broad as long, full and rounded at the 
ends, dark chestnut-brown, often obscurely striate, |'-f long, inclosed for one third to 
one half its length in a thin cup-shaped or turbinate cup bright red-brown and lustrous 
on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate light red-ljrown scales rounded or acute at 
the apex and pubescent except on their darker colored margins. 

A tree, usually 50-60 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 3 in diameter, or rarely 
100 high, with a long naked stem 3-4 in diameter, slender tough horizontal or somewhat 
pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped picturesque head, and slender branch- 




Fig. 244 



lets dark green, lustrous, and often suffused with red when they first appear, soon gla- 
brous, light reddish brown or light brown during their first winter and dark brown in their 
second year. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, about \' long, obscurely angled, and covered by 
closely imbricated light chestnut-brown lustrous scales erose and often ciliate on the mar- 
gins. Bark on young stems and branches thin, light brown, smooth, and lustrous, becom- 
ing on old trunks i'-l|' thick, and slightly, divided by irregular shallow fissures into broad 
ridges covered by close slightly appressed light brown scales somewhat tinged with red. 
Wood heavy, hard, rather coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter 
colored sap wood; occasionally used in construction, and for clapboards and shingles. 

Distribution. Rich hillsides and the fertile bottom-lands of streams; Lehigh County 
(Allenton to Dorney's Park), Bedford, Huntington, Franklin and Union Counties, Penn- 
sylvania, westward through Ohio to southern Michigan, southern Wisconsin and southeast- 
ern and southern Iowa (Muscatine to Taylor County), and southward to the District of 
Columbia, along the Appalachian Mountains and their foothills, up to altitudes of 2200, 
to the valley of the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina, and to northern Georgia 
(Wilkes County), and middle Tennessee; through Missouri to northeastern Kansas and 
southeastern Nebraska, and in northern and southern Arkansas (Fulton, Hempstead 
County); comparatively rare in the east; one of the most abundant Oaks of the lower 
Ohio basin; probably growing to its largest size in southern Indiana and Illinois. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern states, and hardy as far 
north as Massachusetts. 



268 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Quercus Leana, Nutt., scattered usually in solitary individuals from the District of 
Columbia and western North Carolina to southern Michigan, central and northern Illinois 
and southeastern Missouri, is believed to be a hybrid between this species and Quercus 
velutina. 

X Quercus tridentata Engelm., described as a hybrid of Quercus imbricaria and Q. mari- 
landica first found at Allenton, Saint Louis County, Missouri, occurs also near Olney, 
Richland County, Illinois. 

X Quercus exacta Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus imbricaria and Q. palustris, 
occurs near Olney, Richland County, Illinois, and at Crown Point, Lake County, Indiana. 

21. Quercus hypoleuca Engelm. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, occasionally somewhat falcate, acute 
and often apiculate at apex, cuneate or bounded or cordate at the narrow base, entire 
or repandly serrate above the middle with occasionally small minute rigid spinose teeth, 




Fig. 245 

or on vigorous shoots serrate-lobed with oblique acute lobes, when they unfold light red, 
covered with close pale pubescence above and coated below with thick hoary tomentum, 
at maturity thick and firm, dark yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, covered 
on the lower with thick silvery white or fulvous tomentum, 2'-4' long, |'-1' wide, with 
thickened revolute margins; turning yellow or brown and falling gradually during the 
spring after the appearance of the new leaves^ petioles stout, flattened, pubescent or to- 
mentose, f'-J' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender aments 4 '-5' long; calyx slightly 
tinged with red, covered with pale hairs and divided into 4 or 5 broadly ovate rounded lobes; 
anthers acute, apiculate, bright red becoming yellow; pistillate mostly solitary, sessile OP 
short-stalked, their involucral scales thin, scarious, and soft-pubescent; stigmas dark red. 
Fruit sessile or borne on a stout peduncle up to \' in length, usually solitary; nut ovoid, 
acute or rounded at the narrow hoary-pubescent apex, dark green and often striate when 
ripe, becoming light chestnut-brown in drying, '-' long, the shell lined with white to- 
mentum, inclosed for about one third its length in a turbinate thick cup pubescent on 
the inner surface, and covered by thin broadly ovate light chestnut-brown scales rounded 
at apex and clothed, especially toward the base of the cup, with soft silvery pubescence. 

A tree, usually 20-30 or sometimes 60 high, with a tall trunk 10'-15' in diameter, 
slender branches spreading into a narrow round-topped inversely conic head, and stout 
rigid branchlets coated at first with thick hoary tomentum disappearing during the first 
winter, becoming light red-brown often covered with a glaucous bloom and ultimately 
nearly black; frequently a shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, about ' long, with thin 



FAGACE.E 269 

light chestnut-brown scales. Bark f'-l' thick, nearly black, deeply divided into broad 
ridges broken on the surface into thick plate-like scales. Wood heavy, very strong, hard, 
close-grained, dark brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Scattered but nowhere abundant through Pine-forests on the slopes 
of canons and on high ridges usually at altitudes between 6000-7000 above the sea on 
the mountains of western Texas, and of southern New Mexico and Arizona; in northern 
Chihuahua and Sonora. 

22. Quercus agrifolia Nee. Live Oak. Encina. 

Leaves oval, orbicular or oblong, rounded or acute and apiculate at apex, rounded 
or cordate at base, entire or sinuate-dentate with slender rigid spinose teeth, when they 
unfold tinged with red and coated with caducous hoary tomentum, at maturity subcoria- 
ceous, convex, dark or pale green, dull and obscurely reticulate above, paler, rather lus- 







Fig. 246 



trous, glabrous or pubescent below, with tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the principal 
veins, or sometimes covered above with fascicled hairs and coated below with thick 
hoary pubescence, f'-4' long and ^'-3' wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins; 
falling gradually during the winter and early spring; petioles stout or slender, pubes- 
cent or glabrous, '-!' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments 3' -4' long; 
calyx bright purple-red in the bud, sometimes furnished with a tuft of long pale hairs at 
the apex, glabrous or glabrate, divided nearly to the base into 5-7 ovate acute segments 
reddish above the middle; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales bright 
red and covered with thick hoary tomentum, or glabrous or puberulous; stigmas bright 
red. Fruit sessile or nearly so, solitary or in few-fruited clusters; nut elongated, ovate, 
abruptly narrowed at base, gradually narrowed to the acute puberulous apex, light chest- 
nut-brown, f'-l!' long, i'-f thick, the shell lined with a thick coat of pale tomentum, 
inclosed for one third its length or only at the base in a thin turbinate light brown cup 
coated on the inner surface with soft pale silky pubescence, and covered by thin papery 
scales rounded at the narrow apex, and slightly puberulous, especially toward the base 
of the cup. 

A tree, occasionally 80-90 high, with a short trunk 3-4 or rarely 6-7 in diameter, 
dividing a few feet above the base into numerous great limbs often resting on the ground 
and forming a low round-topped head frequently 150 across, and slender dark gray or 
brown branchlets tinged with red, coated at first with hoary tomentum persistent until 
the second or third year; or with a trunk, rising to the height of 30 or 40, and crowned 
by a narrow head of small branches; often much smaller; frequently shrubby in habit, 



70 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

with slender stems only a few feet high. Winter-buds globose and usually about -fa' thick, 
or ovoid-oblong, acute, and sometimes on vigorous shoots nearly \' in length, with thin 
broadly ovate closely imbricated light chestnut-brown glabrous or pubescent scales. 
Bark of young stems and branches thin, close, light brown or pale bluish gray, becoming on 
old trunks 2'-3' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and divided into broad rounded 
ridges separating on the surface into small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, 
close-grained, very brittle, light brown or reddish brown, with thick darker colored sapwood; 
valued and largely used for fuel. 

Distribution. Usually in open groves of great extent from Sonoma County, California, 
southward over the coast ranges and islands to the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower 
California; less common at the north; very abundant and of its largest size in the valleys 
south of San Francisco Bay and their commonest and characteristic tree; frequently cover- 
ing with semiprostrate and contorted stems the sand dunes on the coast in the central part of 
the state; in southwestern California the largest and most generally distributed Oak-tree 
between the mountains and the sea, often covering low hills and ascending to altitudes of 
4500 in the canons of the San Jacinto Mountains. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in temperate western, and in southern 
Europe. 

23. Quercus Wislizenii A. DC. Live Oak. 

Leaves narrowly lanceolate to broadly elliptic, generally oblong-lanceolate, acute or 
rounded and generally apiculate at apex, rounded or truncate or gradually narrowed and 
cuneate at base, entire, serrulate or serrate or sinuate-dentate with spreading rigid spines- 




Fig. 247 



cent teeth, when they unfold thin, dark red, ciliate, and covered with pale scattered fasci- 
cled hairs, at maturity thick and coriaceous, glabrous and lustrous, dark green on the upper 
and paler and yellow-green on the lower surface, usually l'-l|' long and about f ' wide, with 
obscure primary veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, gradually deciduous during their 
second summer and autumn; petioles coated at first with hoary tomentum, usually pu- 
bescent or puberulous at maturity, |' to nearly 1' in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy 
aments 3'-4' long; calyx tinged with red in the bud, divided into broadly ovate ciliate gla- 
brous light yellow lobes shorter than the 3-6 stamens; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, 
their involucral scales and peduncle hoary-tomentose. Fruit sessile, short-stalked or oc- 
casionally spicate; nut slender, oblong, abruptly narrowed at base, pointed and pilose at 
the apex, f'-H' long, about $' thick, light chestnut-brown, often striate, the shell lined 
with a scanty coat of pale tomentum, more or less inclosed in the thin turbinate sometimes 



FAGACE^E 271 

tubular cup '-1' deep, or rarely cup-shaped and shallow, light green and puberulous within, 
and covered by oblong lanceolate light brown closely imbricated thin scales, sometimes 
toward the base of the cup thickened and rounded on the back, usually pubescent or pu- 
berulous, especially above the middle, and frequently ciliate on the margins. 

A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a short trunk 4-6 in diameter, stout spreading 
branches forming a round-topped head, and slender rigid branchlets coated at first with 
hoary tomentum or covered with scattered fascicled hairs, puberulous or glabrous and 
rather light brown during their first season, gradually growing darker in their second 
year; usually much smaller and sometimes reduced to an intricately branched shrub, with 
numerous stems only a few feet tall. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, acute, |'-j' long, with 
closely imbricated light chestnut-brown ciliate scales. Bark on young trees and large 
branches thin, generally smooth and light-colored, becoming on old trunks 2'-3' thick, 
and divided into broad rounded often connected ridges separating on the surface into 
small thick closely appressed dark brown scales slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy, 
very hard, strong, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored 
sapwood; sometimes used for fuel. 

Distribution. Lower slopes of Mt. Shasta southward through the coast region of 
California to the Santa Lucia Mountains, and to Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, 
and along the slopes of the Sierra Nevada to Kern County, up to altitudes of 2000 at the 
north and of 4500 at the south; as a shrub 4-6 high with small thick leaves (var. fru- 
tescens Engelm.) on the desert slopes of the San Bernardino, San Ja^cinto and Cuyamaca 
mountains, at altitudes of 5000-7000 above the sea, and on San Pedro Martir in Lower 
California; nowhere common as a tree, but most abundant and of its largest size in the 
valleys of the coast region of central California at some distance from the sea, and on the 
foothills of the Sierra Nevada; very common as a shrub in the canons of the desert 
slopes of the mountains of southern California; near the coast and on the islands small and 
mostly shrubby. 

X Quercus morehus, Kell., a supposed hybrid between Quercus Wislizenii and Q. Kellog- 
gii occurs in Lake County, California. 

24. Quercus myrtifolia Willd. 

Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, acute and apiculate or broad and rounded at apex, 
gradually narrowed and cuneate or broad and rounded or cordate at base, entire, with 




Fig. 248 

much thickened revolute sometimes undulate margins, or on vigorous shoots sinuate-den- 
tate and lobed above the middle, when they unfold, thin, dark red, coated below and on the 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

petioles with clammy rusty tomentum and densely pubescent above, at maturity thick 
and coriaceous, lustrous, dark green, glabrous and conspicuously reticulate-venulose 
above, paler, yellow-green, or light orange-brown, glabrous or pubescent below, with 
tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the veins, \'-%,' long and \'-\' wide; falling gradually 
during their second year; petioles stout, pubescent, yellow, rarely more than \' in length. 
Flowers: staminate in hoary pubescent aments \'-\\' long; calyx coated on the outer 
surface with rusty hairs and divided into 5 ovate acute segments shorter than the 2 or 
3 stamens; pistillate sessile or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs, their involucral scales 
tomentose and tinged with red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or short-stalked; nut 
subglobose or ovoid, acute, |'-|' long, dark brown, lustrous and often striate, puberulous 
at apex, the shell lined with a thick coat of rusty tomentum, inclosed for one fourth to 
one third its length in a saucer-shaped or turbinate cup light brown and puberulous within, 
and covered by closely imbricated broad-ovate light brown pubescent scales ciliate on the 
margins and rounded at their broad apex. 

A round-topped tree, rarely 40 high, with a trunk 4'-5' or rarely up to 15' in diameter, 
short or rarely long spreading branches and slender branchlets coated at first with a 
thick pale fulvous tomentum of articulate hairs usually persistent during the summer, 
light brown more or less tinged with red or dark gray, and pubescent or puberulous during 
their first winter, becoming darker and glabrous in their second season; more often an intri- 
cately branched shrub, with slender rigid stems 3-4 or rarely 15-20 high and l'-3' 
in diameter. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, gradually narrowed to the acute apex, with closely 
imbricated dark chestnut-brown slightly puberulous scales. Bark thin and smooth, be- 
coming near the ground dark and slightly furrowed. 

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges on the coast and islands of South Carolina to Bay Bis- 
cayne, Florida, crossing the central peninsula and from the valley of the Caloosahatchee 
River, westward along the coast of Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi; most abundant 
on the islands off the coast of east Florida, and of Alabama and Mississippi ; often covering 
large areas with low impenetrable thickets; perhaps of its largest size in Orange County, 
on Jupiter Island, and on the coast west of the Appalachicola River, Florida. 

25. Quercus chrysolepis Liebm. Live Oak. Maul Oak. 

Leaves oblong-ovate to elliptic, acute or cuspidate at apex, cordate, rounded or cuneate 
at base, mostly entire on old trees, often dentate or sinuate-dentate on young trees with 




Fig. 249 



1 or 2 or many spinescent teeth, the two forms often appearing together on vigorous shoots, 
clothed when they unfold with a thick tomentum of fulvous hairs soon deciduous from the 



FAGACE.E 273 

upper and more gradually from the lower surface, at maturity thick and coriaceous, bright 
yellow-green and glabrous above, more or less fulvous-tomentose below during their first 
year, ultimately becoming glabrate and bluish white, 1'-- 1' long, '-2' wide, with thickened 
revolute margins; deciduous during their third and fourth years; petioles slender, yellow, 
rarely |' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender tomentose aments 2'-4' long; calyx 
light yellow, pubescent, divided usually into 5-7 broadly ovate acute ciliate lobes often 
tinged with red above the middle; pistillate sessile or subsessile or rarely in short few- 
flowered spikes, their broadly ovate involucral scales coated with fulvous tomentum; stig- 
mas bright red. Fruit usually solitary, sessile or short-stalked; nut ellipsoidal or ovoid, 
acute or rounded at the full or narrow slightly puberulous apex, light chestnut-brown, '-2' 
long and about as thick, the shell lined with a thin coat of loose tomentum, with abortive 
ovules scattered irregularly over the side of the seed, inclosed only at the base in a thin 
hemispheric or in a thick turbinate broad-rimmed cup pale green or dark reddish brown 
within, and covered by small triangular closely appressed scales with a short free tip, 
clothed with hoary pubescence, or often hidden in a dense coat of fulvous tomentum. 

A tree, usually not more than 40-50 high, with a short trunk 3-5 in diameter, di- 
viding into great horizontal limbs sometimes forming a head 150 across, and slender rigid 
or flexible branchlets coated at first with thick fulvous tomentum, becoming during their 
first winter dark brown somewhat tinged with red, tomentose, pubescent, or glabrous, 
and ultimately light brown or ashy gray; occasionally in sheltered canons producing 
trunks 8-9 in diameter; on exposed mountain sides forming dense thickets 15-20 high. 
Winter-buds broadly ovoid or oval, acute, about f long, w r ith closely imbricated light 
chestnut-brown usually puberulous scales. Bark f'-l' thick, light or dark gray-brown 
tinged with red, and covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, very 
strong, hard, tough, close-grained, light brown, with thick darker colored sap wood; used 
in the manufacture of agricultural implements and wagons. 

Distribution. Southern Oregon, along the California coast ranges and the western slopes 
of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains; of its largest size 
in the canons of the coast ranges of central California and on the foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada; ascending to altitudes of 8000-9000 above the sea; near the southern boundary 
of California, on the mountains of northern Lower California and Sonora and in Arizona 
(Santa Rita and Huachuca Mountains, on Beaver Creek and in Copper Canon near 
Camp Verde, and in Sycamore Canon south of Flagstaff), usually shrubby, with rigid 
branches, rigid coriaceous oblong or semiorbicular spinose-dentate leaves, subsessile or 
pedunculate fruit, with ovoid acute nuts l'-l|' long, their shells lined with thick or thin 
pale tomentum, and purple cotyledons (var. Palmeri Engelm. Quercus Wilcoxii Rydb.) 

26. Quercus tomentella Engelm. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, sometimes cuspidate or occasionally rounded at apex, 
broad and rounded or gradually narrowed and abruptly cuneate at base, remotely crenate- 
dentate with small remote spreading callous tipped teeth, or entire, when they unfold light 
green tinged with red, covered above with scattered pale fascicled hairs and below and on 
the petioles with thick hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green, 
glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and covered w r ith fascicled hairs on the 
lower surface, 2'-4' long, l'-2' wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins, and a 
pubescent midrib; gradually deciduous during their third season; petioles stout, pubescent, 
about \' in length. Flowers: staminate in pubescent aments 2^'-14' long, calyx light 
yellow, pubescent, divided into 5-7 ovate acute lobes; pistillate subsessile or in few-flow- 
ered spikes on short or elongated pubescent peduncles, their involucral scales like the calyx 
coated with fascicled hairs; stigmas red. Fruit subsessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid, 
broad at base, full and rounded at apex, about 1^' long and f ' thick, inclosed only at the 
base in a cup-shaped shallow cup thickened below, light brown and pubescent on the inner 
surface, and covered by thin ovate acute scales, their free chestnut-brown tips more or less 
hidden in a thick coat of hoary tomentum. 



274 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



A tree, 30-40, or occasionally 60 high, with a trunk l-2 in diameter, spreading 
branches forming a shapely round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with 
hoary tomentum, becoming light brown tinged with red or orange color. Winter-buds 
ovoid, acute or obtuse, nearly j' long, with many loosely imbricated light chestnut-brown 




Fig. 250 

scales more or less clothed with pale pubescence. Bark thin, reddish brown, broken into 
large closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, pale yellow- 
brown, with lighter colored sap wood. 

Distribution. Deep narrow canons and high wind-swept slopes of Santa Rosa, Santa 
Cruz, and Santa Catalina islands, California; on Guadalupe Island off the coast of Lower 
California. 

27. Quercus Emoryi Torr. Black Oak. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and mucronate at apex, cordate or rounded at the 
slightly narrowed base, entire or remotely repand-serrate with 1-5 pairs of acute rigid 
oblique teeth, when they unfold thin, light green more or less tinged with red and covered 
with silvery white tomentum, at maturity thick, rigid, coriaceous, dark green, very lus- 
trous and glabrous or coated above with minute fascicled hairs, pale and glabrous or puberu- 
lous below, usually with 2 large tufts of white hairs at the base of the slender midrib, 
obscurely reticulate-venulose, l'-2|' long, '-!' wide; falling gradually in April with the 
appearance of the new leaves; petioles stout, pubescent, about j' in length. Flowers: 
staminate in hoary tomentose aments; calyx light yellow, hairy on the outer surface, di- 
vided into 5-7 ovate acute lobes; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales 
covered with hoary tomentum. Fruit ripening irregularly from June to September, sessile 
or short-stalked; nut oblong, oval, or ovate, narrowed at base, rounded at the narrow 
pilose apex, '-f long, about f thick, dull light green when fully grown, dark chestnut- 
brown or nearly black at maturity, with a thin shell lined with thick white tomentum, 
inclosed for from one third to one half its length in the deeply cup-shaped or nearly hemi- 
spheric cup light green and pubescent within, and covered by closely imbricated broadly 
ovate acute thin and scarious light brown scales clothed with short soft pale pubescence. 

A tree, usually 30-40 high, with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, stout rigid rather 
drooping branches forming a round-topped symmetrical head, and slender rigid branch- 
lets covered at first with close hoary tomentum, bright red, pubescent or tomentose in 
their first winter, ultimately glabrous and dark red-brown or black; sometimes 60-70 
high, with a trunk 4-5 in diameter, with a head occasionally 100 across; or at high alti- 



FAGACE^E 



275 



tudes or on exposed mountain slopes a low shrub. Winter-buds ellipsoidal, acute, about ' 
long, pale pubescent toward the apex, with thin closely imbricated light chestnut-brown 
ciliate scales. Bark l'-2' thick, dark brown or nearly black, deeply divided into large 
oblong thick plates separating into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, 
strong, brittle, close-grained, dark brown or almost black, with thick bright brown sap- 
wood tinged with red. The sweet acorns are an important article of food for Mexicans 
and Indians, and are sold in the towns of southern Arizona and northern Mexico. 




Distribution. Mountain ranges of western Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona 
south of the Colorado plateau, and of northern Mexico; in Texas common in the can- 
ons and on the southern slopes of the Limpio and Chisos mountains; the most abundant 
Oak of southern New Mexico and Arizona, forming a large part of the forests covering 
the mountain slopes and extending from the upper limits of the mesa nearly to the 
highest ridges; attaining its largest size and beauty in the moist soil of sheltered canons. 

28. Quercus dumosa Nutt. Scrub Oak. 

Leaves oblong, rounded and acute at apex, broad and abruptly cuneate or rounded 
at base, usually about f long and %' wide, spinescent with a few minute teeth, or undu- 
late and entire or coarsely spinescent, with an obscure midrib and primary veins, con- 
spicuous reticulate veinlets, and stout petioles rarely ' long; or sometimes oblong to ob- 
long-obovate and divided by deep sinuses into 5-9 oblong acute rounded or emarginate 
bristle-tipped lobes, the terminal lobe 3-lobed, rounded or acute, 2'-4' long and I'-l^' 
wide, with primary veins running to the points of the lobes, obscure reticulate veinlets, 
and petioles sometimes 1' long, thin when they unfold and clothed with scattered fascicled 
hairs, or rarely tomentose above and coated below and on the petioles with hoary tomentum, 
at maturity thick and firm, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, paler and more 
or less pubescent on the lower surface; mostly deciduous during the winter. Flowers: 
staminate in pubescent aments; calyx divided into 4-7 ovate lanceolate hairy segments; 
pistillate sessile or stalked, in long many-flowered tomentose spikes, their involucral scales 
and calyx hoary-tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut ovoid, broad 
at base, broad and rounded or acute at apex, %'-!' long, |'-f thick, inclosed for one half 
to two thirds its length in a deep cup-shaped or hemispheric cup light brown and pubescent 
within, covered by ovate pointed scales coated with pale or rufous tomentum, usually 
much thickened, united and tuberculate, those above with free acute tips forming a fringe 
to the rim of the cup, or frequently with basal scales but little thickened and furnished with 
long free tips; in var. Alv&rdiana Jeps., with a nut l^'-lf long, j'-|' thick, gradually 
narrowed and acute at apex, inclosed only at base in a shallow cup-shaped cup. 



276 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A tree, rarely 20 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, small branches forming a 
round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum, becom- 
ing in their first winter ashy gray or light or dark reddish brown and usually pubescent 
or tomentose; more often an intricately branched rigid shrub, with stout stems covered by 




Fig. 252 



pale gray bark and usually 6-8 high, often forming dense thickets. Winter-buds ellip- 
soidal, generally acute, TV~~i' l n g with thin pale red often pilose and ciliate scales. Bark 
of the trunk bright brown and scaly. 

Distribution. California; western slopes of the central Sierra Nevada; common on the 
coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay and on the islands off the coast of the southern 
part of the state, ranging inland to the borders of the Mohave Desert and to the canons 
of the desert slopes of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains, and southward into 
Lower California; arborescent only in sheltered canons of the islands; the var. Alvordiana y 
in the San Emidio Canon of the coast ranges of Kern County and on the San Carlos 
Range, Fresno County; north of San Francisco Bay replaced by the variety bullata 
Engelm. ranging to Mendocino County and to Napa valley. 

X Quercus MacDonaldii Greene, a shrub or small tree with characters intermediate 
between those of Quercus dumosa and Q. Engelmannii, is usually considered a hybrid of 
these species, it occurs on Santa Cruz and Santa Catalina Islands, and in Santa Barbara, 
and Los Angeles Counties, California. 

29. Quercus virginiana Mill. Live Oak. 

Leaves oblong, elliptic or obovate, rounded or acute at apex, gradually narrowed 
and cuneate or Tarely rounded or cordate at base, usually entire with slightly revolute 
margins, or rarely spinose-dentate above the middle, thin, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, pale and pubescent on the lower surface, 2'-5' long, \'-%\' wide, and in- 
conspicuously reticulate-venulose, with a narrow yellow midrib, and few slender obscure 
primary veins forked and united at some distance from the margins; gradually turning 
yellow or brown at the end of the winter and falling with the appearance of the new leaves 
in the spring; petioles stout, rarely more than \' in length. Flowers: staminate in hairy 
aments 2'-3' long; calyx light yellow, hairy, divided into 5-7 ovate rounded segments; 
anthers hirsute; pistillate in spikes on slender pubescent peduncles l'-3' long, their in- 
volucral scales and ovate calyx-lobes coated with hoary pubescence; stigmas bright red. 
Fruit usually in 3-5 fruited spikes or rarely in pairs or single on stout light brown puberu- 
lous peduncles 1/-5' long; nut ellipsoidal or slightly obovoid, narrowed at base, rounded 
or acute at apex, dark chestnut-brown and lustrous, about 1' long and \' thick, inclosed 
for about one fourth its length in a turbinate light reddish brown cup puberulous within, 



FAGACE^E 



277 



its scales thin, ovate, acute, slightly keeled on the back, covered by dense lustrous hoary 
tomentum and ending in small closely appressed reddish tips; seed sweet, with light yel- 
low connate cotyledons. 

A tree, 40-50 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter above its swollen buttressed base, 
usually dividing a few feet from the ground into 3 or 4 horizontal wide-spreading limbs 
forming a low dense round-topped head sometimes 130 across, and slender rigid branch- 
lets coated at first with hoary tomentum, becoming ashy gray or light brown and pubescent 
or puberulous during their first winter and darker and glabrous the following season; occa- 
sionally 60-70 tall, with a trunk 6-7 in diameter; often shrubby and occasionally not 
more than a foot high. Winter-buds globose or slightly obovoid, about ' long, with thin 
light chestnut-brown scales white and scarious on the margins. Bark of the trunk and 
large branches %'-l' thick, dark brown tinged with red, slightly furrowed, separating on 







Fig. 253 



the surface into small closely appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, strong, tough, 
close-grained, light brown or yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood; formerly largely and 
still occasionally used in shipbuilding. 

Distribution. Shores of Mobjack Bay, Virginia, southward along the coast and islands 
to southern Florida, and along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico to northeastern Mexico, 
spreading inland through Texas to the valley of the Red River and to the mountains in 
the extreme western part of the state; on the mountains of Cuba, southern Mexico, and 
Central America; most abundant and of its largest size on the Atlantic and east Gulf 
coasts on rich hummocks and ridges a few feet above the level of the sea; abundant in 
Texas in the coast region, near the banks of streams, and westward toward the valley 
of the Rio Grande often forming the principal part of the shrubby growth on low moist 
soil; in sandy barren soil in the immediate vicinity of the seacoast or on the shores of 
salt water estuaries and bays often a shrub, sometimes bearing fruit on stems not more 
than a foot high (var. maritima, Sarg., and var. dentata Sarg.). 

Occasionally planted as a shade and ornamental tree in the southern United States. 

Variable in habit and in the size and thickness of the leaves the different forms of Quercus 
virqiniana show little variation in their fruit. The most important of these varieties is 

Quercus virginiana var. geminata Sarg. 

Quercus geminata Small. 
Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, rounded or acute at apex, cuneate or narrowed and 
rounded at base, occasionally slightly and irregularly dentate above the middle on vigor- 
ous shoots, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, hoary tomentose below, l^'-3' long, f'-l' 



278 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins; persistent until after the leaves of the 
typical Q. virginiana in the same locality have all fallen; occasionally in Florida with oblong- 
elliptic to slightly obovate leaves 4'-5' long and l'-2' wide (f. grandifolia Sarg.). Flowers 
and Fruit as in the species. 

A tree often 75 high with a trunk 3 in diameter, with the habit, branchlets, winter- 
buds and bark of the typical form; often much smaller and occasionally a shrub. 

Distribution. Sandy soil; coast region of North Carolina south of the Cape Fear River, 
South Carolina and Georgia, and southward in Florida to Jupiter Island on the east coast 
and the valley of the Caloosahatchee River on the west coast; abundant and often the 
common Live Oak in the central part of the peninsula, at least as far south as Orange 
County, and westward through western Florida, southeastern and southern Alabama to 
the Gulf coast and islands of Mississippi. 




Fig. 254 

Other varieties of Quercus virginiana are var. macrophylla Sarg., differing from the 
type in its much larger ovate or slightly obovate leaves rounded or acute at base, 
entire or occasionally repand-dentate, pale tomentose below, 3|'-4' long and lj'-2|' 
wide. Large trees forming groves; sandy bottoms of the Atascosa River and in flat 
woods above them, Pleasanton, Atascosa County, Texas: var. virescens Sarg., differ- 
ing from the type in the green glabrous or rarely puberulous lower surface of the leaves 
and in the glabrous branchlets. A large tree in sandy soil; Gainesville, Alachua County, 
Sanford, Seminole County, Sumner, Levey County, Simpson's Hummock, and near Long 
Key in the Everglades, Dade County, Florida: var. eximea Sarg., differing from the type 
in its narrow elliptic to narrow oblong-obovate leaves and pale bark; a tree rarely 20 high, 
with a trunk 8' '-12' in diameter; rarely a shrub; dry sandy open woods, near Springfield, 
Livingston Parish and near Hammond, Tangipahoa Parish, eastern Louisiana. The fol- 
lowing small shrubby small-leaved forms are recognized: var. fusiformis Sarg., with ob- 
long-ovate leaves acute at apex, rounded or cuneate at base, entire or occasionally dentate, 
and pale pubescent below, and small fruit; dry limestone ridges and flat-topped hills of the 
Edwards Plateau (Kerr and Comal Counties), western Texas: var. dentata Chapm., distinct 
in the oblong-obovate repand-dentate lower leaves with large triangular teeth, acute at 
the broad apex, often 4' long and 1|' wide at the base of the stems, and much larger than 
the oblong-lanceolate entire upper leaves; common in sterile pine-barrens near the coast 
of Florida: var. maritima Sarg., with oblong-obovate or rarely lanceolate leaves, acute and 
apiculate or rounded at apex, cuneate at base, and entire or slightly and irregularly toothed 
above the middle; fruit solitary or in pairs, or rarely in elongated spikes (Quercus succu- 



FAGACE^E 



279 



lenta Small); sandy barrens near the coast, South Carolina to Miami, Dade County, 
Florida: var. pygmaea Sarg., with oblong-obovate leaves, cuneate at base, 3-5 lobed at 
apex with small acute lobes, or rarely elliptic and entire, and nearly sessile fruit, the nut 
inclosed nearly to the apex; a shrub rarely 3 high; Pine- woods in sandy soil; widely 
distributed in Florida. 

30. Quercus reticulata H. B. K. 

Leaves broadly obovate, obtuse and rounded or rarely acute at apex, usually cordate or 
occasionally rounded at the narrow base, repandly spinose-dentate above the middle or 
only toward the apex with slender teeth, and entire below, when they unfold coated with 
dense fulvous tomentum, at maturity thick, firm, and rigid, dark blue and covered with 
scattered fascicled hairs above, paler and coated with thick fulvous pubescence below, 
l'-5' long, f'-4' broad, with a thick midrib, and primary veins running to the points of the 




Fig. 255 



teeth or arcuate and united within the slightly revolute margins, and very conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets; petioles stout about \' in length. Flowers: staminate in short tomen- 
tose aments in the axils of leaves of the year; calyx light yellow, hirsute, with pale hairs, 
divided into 5-7 ovate acute segments; pistillate in spikes on elongated peduncles, clothed 
like their involucral scales with hoary tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit usually in many- 
fruited spikes or occasionally in pairs or rarely solitary, on slender hirsute or glabrous 
peduncles 2'-5' long; nut oblong, rounded or acute at the pilose apex, broad at base, about 
' long, inclosed for about one fourth its length in a shallow cup-shaped cup dark brown 
and pubescent within, hoary tomentose without and covered by small ovate acute scales, 
with thin free scarious tips, slightly thickened and rounded on the back at the bottom of 
the cup. 

A tree, rarely more than 40 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, and stout branchlets 
coated at first with thick fulvous tomentum, light orange color and more or less thickly 
clothed with pubescence during their first winter, becoming ashy gray or light brown; in 
the United States usually shrubby in habit and sometimes only a few feet tall; becoming on 
the Sierra Madre of Mexico a large tree. Winter-buds ovoid to oval, often surrounded by 
the persistent stipules of the upper leaves, about \' long, with thin loosely imbricated 
light red scales ciliate on the margins. Bark about \' thick, dark or light brown, and cov- 
ered by small thin closely appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, dark 
brown, with thick lighter colored sapvvood. 

Distribution. Near the summits of the mountain ranges of southeastern New Mexico 
(Mogollon Mountains) and southeastern Arizona, and southward in Mexico. 



280 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

31. Quercus Toumeyi Sarg. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong or oval, acute and apiculate at apex, rounded or cordate 
at base, entire with thickened slightly revolute margins, or remotely spinulose-dentate, 
often minutely 3-toothed at apex, thin but firm in texture, light blue-green, glabrous and 
lustrous above, pale and puberulous below, conspicuously reticulate-venulose; \'-\ long, 
\'-\' wide; falling early in spring with the appearance of the new leaves; petioles stout, 




Fig. 256 

tomentose, about rV m length. Flowers unknown. Fruit sessile, solitary or in pairs, 
ripening in June; nut oval or ovoid, \'-\' long, \' thick, light brown and lustrous, furnished 
at the acute apex with a narrow ring of pale pubescence, inclosed for about one half its 
length in a thin shallow tomentose cup light green and pubescent within, and covered 
by thin ovate regularly and closely imbricated light red-brown scales ending in a short 
rounded tip and coated on the back with pale tomentum. 

A tree, 25-30 high, Avith a short trunk 6'-8' in diameter, dividing not far from the 
ground into numerous stout wide-spreading branches forming a broad irregular head, and 
slender branchlets bright red-brown more or less thickly coated with pale tomentum at 
midsummer, covered during their second and third years with thin dark brown nearly black 
bark broken into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, with thick pale 
sapwood. 

Distribution. Forming an open forest on the Mule Mountains, Cochise County, 
southeastern Arizona. 

32. Quercus arizonica Sarg. White Oak. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to broadly obovate, generally acute or sometimes rounded at 
apex, rounded or cordate at base, repandly spinose-dentate usually, except on vigorous 
shoots, only above the middle or toward the apex, or entire and sometimes undulate on 
the margins, when they unfold light red clothed with bright fulvous tomentum and furnished 
with dark dental glands, at maturity thick, firm and rigid, dull dark blue-green and glabrate 
above, duller and covered with thick fulvous or pale pubescence below, l'-4' long, -|'-2' 
wide, with a broad yellow midrib, slender primary veins, arcuate and united near the thick- 
ened revolute margins, and coarsely reticulate veinlets; falling in the early spring just be- 
fore the appearance of the new leaves; petioles stout, tomentose, \'-\' in length. Flowers: 
staminate in tomentose aments 2'-3' long; calyx pale yellow, ^pubescent, and divided into 
4-7 broad acute ciliate lobes; anthers red or yellow; pistillate on short stems tomentose 
like their involucral scales. Fruit sessile or on hoary-tomentose stems rarely \' long, usu- 
ally solitary, ripening irregularly from September to November; nut oblong, oval or slightly 



FAGACE.E 



281 



obovoid, obtuse and rounded at the puberulous apex, f'-l' long, |' thick, dark chestnut- 
brown, lustrous and often striate, soon becoming light brown, inclosed for half its length 
in a cup-shaped or hemispheric cup light brown and pubescent within, covered by regu- 
larly and closely imbricated scales coated with pale tomentum and ending in thin light red 
pointed tips, those below the middle of the cup much thickened and rounded on the back; 
seed dark purple, very astringent. 

A tree, occasionally 50-60 tall, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, and thick contorted 
branches spreading nearly at right angles and forming a handsome round-topped sym- 
metrical head, and stout branchlets clothed at first with thick fulvous tomentum persistent 
during their first winter, reddish brown or light orange color and pubescent or puberulous 
in their second season, ultimately glabrous and darker; usually not more than 30-40 
tall; at high elevations reduced to a low shrub. Winter -buds subglobose, about T 7 tf ' long, 
with loosely imbricated bright chestnut-brown puberulous scales ciliate on the margins. 
Bark of young stems and branches thin, pale, scaly with small appressed scales, becoming 
on old trunks about 1' thick and deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad ridges broken 




Fig. 257 



into long thick plate-like scales pale or ashy gray on the surface. Wood heavy, strong, hard, 
close-grained, dark brown or nearly black, with thick lighter colored sap wood; used only 
for fuel. 

Distribution. The most common and generally distributed White Oak of southern 
New Mexico and Arizona, covering the slopes of canons of mountain ranges at altitudes 
of from 5000-10,000 above the sea, often ascending nearly to the summits of the high 
peaks; and in northern Mexico. 

33. Quercus oblongifolia Torn White Oak. 

Leaves ovate, elliptic, or slightly obovate, rounded and occasionally emarginate or acute 
at apex, usually cordate or occasionally rounded at base, entire and sometimes undulate 
with thickened revolute margins, or remotely dentate with small callous teeth, on vigorous 
shoots and young plants oblong, rounded or cuneate at the narrow base, coarsely sinuate 
or undulate-toothed or 3-toothed at the broad apex and entire below, when they unfold 
bright red and coated with deciduous hoary tomentum, at maturity thin and firm, blue- 
green and lustrous above, paler below, l'-2' long, J'-f wide, or on vigorous shoots some- 
times 3'-4' long, with a prominent pale midrib, slender primary veins, and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets; persistent during the winter without change of color, gradually turning 
yellow in the spring and falling at the appearance of the new leaves; petioles stout, nearly 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

terete, about 1' in length. Flowers: staminate in short hoary-tomentose araents; calyx 
bright yellow, pilose, divided into 5 or 6 laciniately cut or entire acute segments tinged with 
red above the middle; pistillate usually sessile, or on peduncles tomentose like the involu- 
cral scales; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually solitary and sessile, rarely long-stalked; nut 
ovoid, ellipsoidal, or slightly obovoid, full and rounded at apex surrounded by a narrow 
ring of white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, striate, and very lustrous, soon becoming 
light brown in drying, '-f ' long, about ' thick, inclosed for about one third its length in a 
cup-shaped or rarely turbinate thin cup yellow-green and pubescent on the inner surface 
and covered by ovate-oblong scales slightly thickened on the back, coated with hoary 
tomentum antl ending in thin acute bright red tips ciliate on the margins and sometimes 
forming a minute fringe to the rim of the cup. 




Fig. 258 

A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a short trunk 18'-20' in diameter, many stout 
spreading often contorted branches forming a handsome round-topped symmetrical head, 
and slender rigid branchlets coated at first with pale or fulvous tomentum, light red- 
brown, dark brown or dark orange color in their first winter, becoming ashy gray in their 
second or third year. Winter-buds subglobose, T V'-i' long, with thin light chestnut- 
brown scales. Bark |'-1|' thick, ashy gray, and broken into small nearly square or oblong 
close plate-like scales. Wood very heavy, hard, strong, brittle, dark brown or nearly black, 
with thick brown sap wood; sometimes used as fuel. 

Distribution. Chisos Mountains, western Texas, southeastern New Mexico, southern 
Arizona, and southward into northern Mexico; comparatively rare in Texas; abundant 
on the foothills of the mountain ranges of southern New Mexico and Arizona at altitudes 
of about 5000, and dotting the upper slopes of the mesa where narrow canons open to 
the plain. 

34. Quercus Engelmannii Greene. Evergreen Oak. 

Leaves oblong to obovate, usually obtuse and rounded or sometimes acute at apex, 
gradually or abruptly cuneate or rounded or cordate at base, entire, often undulate, or 
sinuate-toothed with occasionally rigid teeth, or at the ends of sterile branches frequently 
coarsely crenately serrate with incurved teeth, or rarely lobed with acute oblique rounded 
lobes, when they unfold bright red and coated with thick pale rufous tomentum, at ma- 
turity thick, dark blue-green and glabrous or covered with fascicled hairs above, pale, 
usually yellow-green and clothed with light brown pubescence, or puberulous or often 
glabrous below, l'-3' long, |'-2' wide; deciduous in the spring with the appearance of the 



FAGACE^l 



283 



new leaves; petioles slender, tomentose, becoming pubescent, j'-|' in length. Flowers: 
stamina te in slender hairy aments 2'-3' long; calyx light yellow, pilose, with lanceolate 
acute segments; pistillate on slender peduncles, clothed like their involucral scales with 
dense pale tomentum. Fruit sessile or on slender pubescent peduncles sometimes f 
long; nut oblong, gradually narrowed and acute or broad rounded and obtuse at apex, 
broad or narrow at base, dark chestnut-brown more or less conspicuously marked by 
darker longitudinal stripes, turning light chestnut-brown in drying, f'-l' long, about \' 
thick, inclosed for about half its length in a deep saucer-shaped, cup-shaped or turbinate 
cup light brown and puberulous within, and covered by ovate light brown scales coated 
with pale tomentum, usually thickened, united and tuberculate at the base of the cup, 
and near its rim produced into small acute ciliate tips. 







Fig. 259 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, thick branches spreading nearly at 
right angles and forming a broad rather irregular head, and stout rigid branchlets coated at 
first with hoary tomentum, light or dark brown tinged with red and pubescent during their 
first winter, becoming glabrous and light brown or gray in their second or third year. 
Winter-buds oval or ovoid, about f long, with thin light red pubescent scales. Bark 
l'-2' thick, light gray tinged with brown, deeply divided by narrow fissures and separating 
on the surface into small thin appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, strong, close- 
grained, brittle, dark brown or nearly black, with thick lighter brown sap wood; used only 
for fuel. 

Distribution. Low hills of southwestern California west of the coast range, occupying 
with Quercus agrifolia Nee, a belt about fifty miles wide, and extending to within fifteen 
or twenty miles of the coast, from the neighborhood of Sierra Madre and San Gabriel, Los 
Angeles County, to the mesa east of San Diego; in northern Lower California. 

35. Quercus Douglasii Hook. & Arn. Blue Oak. Mountain White Oak. 
Leaves oblong, acute or rounded at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate or broad 
and rounded or subcordate at base, divided by deep or shallow, wide or narrow sinuses acute 
or rounded in the bottom into 4 or 5 broad or narrow acute or rounded often mucronate 
lobes, 2'-5' long, I'-lf wide, or oval, oblong or obovate, rounded or acute at apex, equally 
or unequally cuneate or rounded at base, regularly or irregularly sinuate-toothed with 
rounded acute rigid spinescent teeth, or denticulate toward the apex, l'-2' long, J'-l' 
wide, when they unfold covered by soft pale pubescence, at maturity thin, firm and rather 
rigid, pale blue, with scattered fascicled hairs above, often yellow-green and covered by short 



284 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

pubescence below, with a hirsute or puberulous prominent midrib and more or less con- 
spicuous reticulate veinlets; petioles stout, tomentose, \'-% in length. Flowers: staminate 
in hairy aments lf'-2' long; calyx yellow-green, coated on the outer surface with pale hairs, 
deeply divided into broad acute laciniately cut segments; pistillate in short few-flowered 
spikes coated like the involucral scales with hoary tomentum. Fruit sessile or short- 
stalked, solitary or in pairs; nut ellipsoidal, sometimes ventricose, with a narrow base, 
gradually narrowed and acute at apex, f'-l' long, |'-1' thick, or often ovoid and acute, 
green and lustrous, turning dark chestnut-brown in drying, with a narrow ring of hoary 
pubescence at apex, inclosed only at base in a thin shallow cup-shaped cup light green 
and pubescent on the inner surface, covered on. the outer by small acute and usually 
thin or sometimes, especially in the south, thicker tumid scales coated with pale pubes- 
cence or tomentum and ending in thin reddish brown tips. 







Fig. 260 

A tree, usually 50-60, rarely 80-90 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, short 
stout branches spreading nearly at right angles and forming a dense round-topped sym- 
metrical head, stout branchlets brittle at the joints, coated at first with short dense hoary 
tomentum, dark gray or reddish browr and tomentose, pubescent, or puberulous during 
their first winter, becoming ultimately ashy gray or dark brown ; frequently not more than 
20-30 high, and sometimes, especially southward shrubby, in habit. Winter-buds 
ovoid, obtuse, \'-\' long, with light rather bright red pubescent scales. Bark '-!' thick, 
generally pale, and covered by small scales sometimes tinged with brown or light red. 
Wood hard, heavy, strong, brittle, dark brown, becoming nearly black with exposure, with 
thick light brown sap wood; largely used as fuel. 

Distribution. Scattered over low hills, dry mountain slopes and valleys; California, 
Mendocino County, and the upper valley of the Sacramento River, southward along the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 4000, and through valleys of the 
coast ranges to the Tehachapi Pass, the borders of the Mohave Desert (Sierra de la Liebre) 
and the neighborhood of San Fernando, Los Angeles County; most abundant and of its 
largest size in the valleys between the coast mountains and the interior ridges of the coast 
ranges south of the Bay of San Francisco. 

X Quercus jolonensis Sarg. with characters intermediate between those of Quercus 
Douglasii and Quercus lobata and believed to be a hybrid of those species occurs, with a 
number of large trees, at Jolon and between Jolon and King City, Monterey County, 
California. 






FAGACE^E 



285 



36. Quercus Vaseyana Buckl. Shin Oak. 
Quercus undulata var. Vaseyana Rydb. 

Leaves oblong, rarely oblong-obovate, acute or rounded at apex, cuneate at base, undu- 
Jately lobed with small acute lobes pointing forward, rarely nearly entire, when they unfold 
covered above with short fascicled hairs sometimes persistent until midsummer, and 
tomentose below, and at maturity thin, pale gray-green, glabrous and lustrous above, pale 
pubescent below, I'-l-J' long and |'-f wide; deciduous late in winter or in early spring; 
petioles covered with fascicled hairs when they first appear, becoming glabrous, 5' in 
length. Flowers: staminate in villose aments l'-l|' long; calyx deeply divided into 4 or 
,5 ovate scarious lobes rounded at apex and shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short to- 




Fig. 261 

mentose peduncles, then- involucral scales ovate, acute, pubescent, shorter than the calyx- 
lobes; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or short-stalked; nut ellipsoidal and 
only slightly narrowed at the rounded ends to oblong and slightly ovoid or obovoid, i'-J' 
in length, Y~ in diameter, pale chestnut-brown and lustrous, the base only inclosed in 
the thin, saucer-shaped to cup-shaped cup, puberulous on the inner surface, covered with 
closely appressed ovate acute hoary tomentose scales, on some individuals abruptly con- 
tracted into short acute red-brown nearly glabrous tips. 

A tree, rarely 15-20 high, usually a shrub only l-3 tall, spreading into great thickets, 
with slender branchlets thickly covered with matted fascicled hairs during their first sea- 
son, and light gray and glabrous or puberulous in their second year. Winter-buds ovoid or 
obovoid, about f long, with red-brown scales ciliate on the margins. Bark rough, deeply 
furrowed and scaly. 

Distribution. Limestone slopes and ridges or in sheltered canons; western Texas; 
Kimble, Real, Kendall, Kerr, Uvalda, Edwards, Menard and Valverde Counties. 

37. Quercus Mohriana Rydb. Shin Oak. 

Leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic or lanceolate, acute, acuminate or rounded at apex, 
rounded or cuneate and often unsymmetrical at base, entire, undulate, sinuately toothed 
with triangular apiculate teeth, or occasionally irregularly lobed above the middle with 
rounded lobes, thick, gray-green, lustrous and covered above with short fascicled hairs, 



286 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

and densely hoary tomentose below, 2-4 long, '-!' wide, with a stout midrib thickly 
covered with fascicled hairs, sometimes becoming glabrous, slender primary veins and 
reticulate veinlets; petioles stout, hoary tomentose, \'-\' in length. Flowers: staminate 
in short hoary tomentose aments; calyx densely villose, deeply divided into broad ovate 
lobes rounded at apex; anthers red; pistillate on hoary tomentose peduncles, with hairy 
bracts and calyx-lobes. Fruit solitary or in pairs, nearly sessile or raised on a pubescent 
peduncle ^' |' in length; nut ellipsoidal or ovoid, broad and rounded at the ends, light 
chestnut-brown, lustrous, \'-%' long, i' |' thick, inclosed for from half to two thirds its 
length in the hemispheric to cup-shaped cup, hoary tomentose on the inner surface, and 




Fig. 262 



covered with small closely appressed acute hoary tomentose scales much thickened below 
the middle of the cup, thin and much smaller toward its rim. 

A tree, rarely 18-20 high, with a trunk rarely 1 in diameter, small spreading and as- 
cending branches forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets thickly coated dur- 
ing their first season with fascicled hairs, dark gray-brown and pubescent in their second 
season and ultimately gray and glabrous; usually a low shrub spreading into thickets. 
Winter-buds broad-ovoid, obtuse, pale pubescent. Bark thin, pale, rough, deeply fur- 
rowed. 

Distribution. On dry limestone hills, usually not more than 18 high with spreading 
branches; on deep sand, often not more than 3 high with more erect stems, often cover- 
ing thousands of acres; only a tree in the protection of ledges in deep ravines and on steep 
hillsides; northwestern Texas (Tom Green, Coke, Nolan, Howard, Armstrong, and Wheeler 
Counties) ; central Texas (Bryan, Brazos County) ; southwestern Oklahoma (Beckham 
County). 

38. Quercus Laceyi Small. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, usually with two pairs of small rounded lateral lobes, 
occasionally 3-lobed toward the apex, rarely nearly entire, narrowed and rounded at apex, 
rounded, cuneate or rarely cordate at the gradually narrowed base, coated below when 
they unfold with loose white tomentum, soon glabrous, at maturity thin, blue-green above, 
yellow-green below, 2'-3' long, f '-2' wide, with a slender midrib and primary veins, and 
conspicuous reticulate veinlets; deciduous late in the autumn; on vigorous shoots some- 
times 6'-7' long and 3'-4' wide; petioles glabrous or sparingly villose, \'-\' in length. 
Flowers: staminate in slightly villose aments 2'-2^' long; calyx deeply divided into 4 or 5 



FAGACE.E 



287 



ovate acuminate lobes shorter than the stamens; pistillate flowers not seen. Fruit solitary 
or in pairs, sessile or raised on a stem up to \' in length; nut ellipsoidal or oblong-ovoid, 
rounded at apex, slightly narrowed and nearly truncate at base, light chestnut-brown and 
lustrous, f'-l' long, \'-\' in diameter, the base inclosed in the thick, cup-shaped to 
rarely saucer-shaped cup, tomentose on the inner surface, covered with acute much 
thickened pale tomentose scales. 

A tree, 30-45 high, with a trunk 20'-30' in diameter, heavy erect and spreading branches 
and slender branchlets villose when they first appear, soon becoming glabrous and red- 
brown or gray during their second season; often a tall shrub with numerous stems. Win- 
ter-buds ovoid, acute, \' long, with chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins. Bark 
gray, thick, deeply ridged or checkered. 




Fig. 263 



Distribution. Rocky banks of streams, the steep sides of canons and on limestone 
bluffs; common in the southern and southwestern parts of the Edwards Plateau, western 
Texas (Kendall, Kerr, Bandera, Uvalde, Menard, Kemble, Real and Edwards Counties); 
easily distinguished in the field by the peculiar smoky or waxy appearance of the foliage. 

39. Quercus annulate Buckl. 

Quercus breviloba Sarg. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate or elliptic, rounded or acute at apex, cuneate or 
rounded at base, entire, undulate, slightly lobed with rounded or acute lobes, or 3-lobed, 
when they unfold covered above with fascicled hairs and tomentose below, and at ma- 
turity green, glabrous and lustrous above, green and pubescent below on lower branches, 
often pale or hoary tomentose on upper branches, 1|'-2|' long, |'-lj' wide; petioles 
covered when they first appear with fascicled hairs, soon glabrous, \'-\' in length; on vig- 
orous branchlets sometimes thinner, glabrous, divided into broad rounded lateral lobes, 
gradually narrowed and cuneate at the long base, 4' long and 2^' wide. Flowers: stami- 
nate in pubescent aments l'-2' long; calyx deeply divided in villose rounded lobes, shorter 
than the stamens; anthers red; pistillate on tomentose peduncles, their scales rounded, 
tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or in 2 or 3-fruited clusters, sessile or short-stalked, 
oblong-ovoid to ellipsoidal, slightly narrowed and rounded at apex, light yellow-brown and 
lustrous, f'-l' long, \'-%' in diameter; inclosed for about a quarter of its length in the 
cup-shaped cup, tomentose on the inner surface, covered with acute tomentose scales 
somewhat thickened and closely appressed below the middle of the cup, their tips chest- 
nut-brown, free and often glabrous. 

A tree, 20-30 tall with a trunk rarely more than 1 in diameter, small spreading often 



288 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



slightly pendulous branches forming a round-topped head, and slender branches covered 
when they first appear with fascicled hairs, soon becoming glabrous and gray or grayish 
brown; the large stems often surrounded by a ring of smaller stems produced from its 
roots; more often a shrub than a tree spreading into broad thickets. Winter-buds ovoid 




Fig. 264 



to ellipsoidal, acute, \'-\' long, with closely imbricated chestnut-brown puberulous scales 
ciliate on the margins. Bark thick, rough, deeply ridged. 

Distribution. Dry limestone hills and bluffs; central and western Texas, from the 
neighborhood of Dallas, Dallas County, and Palo Pinto County to Kendall, Kerr, Brown, 
Bandera, Real and Menard Counties. 



40. Quercus Durandii Buckl. 
Quercus breviloba Sarg. in part. 

Leaves thin, obovate to elliptic, entire, 3-lobed toward the rounded or acute apex or 
irregularly laterally lobed, the three forms appearing on different branches of the same 
tree, on lower branches usually lobed, dark green and lustrous above, often green and 
glabrous below, sometimes 6' or 7' long and 3' or 3?' wide, on upper branches mostly 
entire, white and pubescent or tomentose below, 2|'-3' long, |'~H' wide; falling late in the 
autumn; petioles glabrous, %'-\ r in length. Flowers: staminate in slender villose aments 
3'-4' in length; calyx deeply divided into acute villose lobes shorter than the stamens; 
pistillate on a short tomentose peduncle, the linear acuminate bract and involucral scales 
hoary-tomentose; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, short-stalked or nearly sessile; 
nut ovoid, or slightly obovoid, rounded or rarely acute at apex, nearly truncate at base, 
pale chestnut-brown, lustrous, '-f ' long, %-%' thick, barely inclosed at base in the thin, 
shallow saucer-shaped cup, pale tomentose on the inner surface, and covered with small 
acuminate closely appressed tomentose scales slightly thickened on the back. 

A tree, often 60-90 high with a tall trunk 2-3 in diameter, comparatively small 
branches, the lower horizontal, the upper ascending, forming a dense round-topped hand- 
some head, and slender pale gray-brown branchlets covered when they first appear with 
fascicled hairs, soon glabrous, or puberulous during their first season, and darker in their 
second season. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, \'-\' long with dark chestnut-brown rounded 
scales ciliate on the margins. Bark thin, light gray or nearly white and broken into thin 
loosely appressed scales. 

Distribution. East of the Mississippi River scattered on rich limestone prairies; west- 
ward on the well drained soil of river bottoms, and often on low hummocks; near Augusta, 



FAGACE^E 



289 



Richmond County, and De Soto, Sampson County, Georgia; West Point, Clay County, 
Columbus, Muscogee County, Brookville, Noxubesco County, and near Natchez, Adams 
County, Mississippi; McXab, Hempstead County, Arkansas; Natchitoches, Natchi- 







Fig. 265 

toches Parish, western Louisiana; coast region of eastern Texas to the bottoms of the 
Guadalupe River (Victoria, Victoria County), ranging inland to San Saba County and to 
the neighborhood of Dallas, Dallas County; on the mountains near Monterey, Nuovo 
Leon; rare and local. 

41. Quercus Chapmanii Sarg. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, rounded at the narrow apex, narrowed and cuneate 
or rounded or broad and rounded at base, entire with slightly undulate margins, or ob- 




Fig. 266 

scurely sinuate-lobed above the middle, when they unfold coated below with thick bright 
yellow pubescence and covered above with pale fascicled deciduous hairs, at maturity 



290 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green, glabrous and lustrous above, light green or 
silvery white and glabrous below except on the slender often pubescent midrib, usually 
2'-3' long and 1' wide, but varying from l'-3' in length and f'-l' in width; falling gradu- 
ally during the winter or sometimes persistent until the appearance of the new leaves in 
the spring; petioles tomentose, rarely ' in length. Flowers: staminate in short hirsute 
aments; calyx hirsute, divided into 5 acute laciniately cut segments; anthers hirsute; pis- 
tillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral 'scales coated with dense pale tomentum. 
Fruit usually sessile, solitary or in pairs; nut oval, about f long and f ' thick, pubescent 
from the obtuse rounded apex nearly to the middle, inclosed for nearly half its length in 
the deep cup-shaped light brown cup slightly pubescent on the inner surface, and covered 
by ovate-oblong pointed scales thickened on the back, especially toward the base of the 
cup, and coated with pale tomentum except on their thin reddish brown margins. 

Occasionally a tree, 50 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, stout branches forming a 
round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with dense bright yellow pubes- 
cence, becoming light or dark red-brown and puberulous during their first winter and ulti- 
mately ashy gray; more often a rigid shrub sometimes only l-2 tall. Winter-buds ovoid, 
acute, obtuse, about \ f long, with glabrous or puberulous light chestnut-brown scales. 
Bark dark or pale, separating freely into large irregular plate-like scales. 

Distribution. Sandy barrens usually in the neighborhood of the coast; Bluffton, 
Beaufort County, South Carolina, Colonels Islands, Liberty County, Georgia, southward 
along the east coast of Florida to the shores of Indian River; on the west coast from the 
valley of the Caloosahatchee River to the shores of Pensacola Bay, and in the interior of 
the peninsular from Lake County to De Soto County (neighborhood of Sebring) ; rare and 
local on the Atlantic coast; comparatively rare in the interior of the Florida peninsular; 
abundant in western Florida from the shores of Tampa Bay to those of Saint Andrews 
Bay. 

42. Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Burr Oak. Mossy Cup Oak. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, cuneate or occasionally narrow and rounded at base, di- 
vided by wide sinuses sometimes penetrating nearly to the midrib into 5-7 lobes, the 
terminal lobe large, oval or obovate, regularly crenately lobed, or smaller and 3-lobed at 




Fig. 267 



the rounded or acute apex, when they unfold yellow-green and pilose above and silvery 
white and coated below with long pale hairs, at maturity thick and firm, dark green, lus- 
trous and glabrous, or occasionally pilose on the upper surface, pale green or silvery white 
and covered on the lower surface with soft pale or rarely rufous pubescence, 6'-12' long, 



FAGACE^E 91 

3'-6' wide, with a stout pale midrib sometimes pilose on the upper side and pubescent on 
the lower, large primary veins running to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate 
veinlets; turning dull yellow or yellowish brown in the autumn; petioles stout, |'-1' in 
length. Flowers: staminate in slender aments 4'-6' long,, their yellow-green peduncles 
coated with loosely matted pale hairs; calyx yellow-green, pubescent, deeply divided into 
4-6 acute segments ending in tufts of long pale hairs; pistillate sessile or stalked, their 
involucral scales broadly ovate, often somewhat tinged with red toward the margins and 
coated, like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually soli- 
tary, sessile or long-stalked, exceedingly variable in size and shape; nut ellipsoidal or broad- 
ovoid, broad at the base and rounded at the obtuse or depressed apex covered by soft pale 
pubescence, f' long and f ' thick at the north, sometimes 2' long and 1^' thick in the south, 
its cup thick or thin, light brown and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose 
and covered on the outer surface by large irregularly imbricated ovate pointed scales, at 
the base of the cup thin and free or sometimes much thickened and tuberculate, and near 
its rim generally developed into long slender pale awns forming on northern trees a short 
inconspicuous and at the south a long conspicuous matted fringe-like border, inclosing 
only the base or nearly the entire nut. 

A tree, sometimes 170 high, with a trunk 6-7 in diameter, clear of limbs for 70-80 
above the ground, a broad head of great spreading branches, and stout branchlets coated 
at first with thick soft pale deciduous pubescence, light orange color, usually glabrous or 
occasionally puberulous during their first winter, becoming ashy gray or light brown and 
ultimately dark brown, sometimes developing corky wings often I'-lj' wide; usually not 
more than 80 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter ; toward the northwestern limits of its 
range sometimes a low shrub. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, acute or obtuse, f'-j' long, 
with light red-brown scales coated with soft pale pubescence. Bark l'-2' thick, deeply 
furrowed and broken on the surface into irregular plate-like brown scales often slightly 
tinged with red. Wood heavy, strong, hard, tough, close-grained, very durable, dark or 
rich light brown, with thin much lighter colored sapw r ood; used in ship and boatbuilding, for 
construction of all sorts, cabinet-making, cooperage, the manufacture of carriages, agricul- 
tural implements, baskets, railway-ties, fencing, and fuel. 

Distribution. Low rich bottom-lands and intervales, or rarely in the northwest on low 
dry hills; Nova Scotia and New Brunswick southward to the valley of the Penobscot River, 
Maine, the shore of Lake Champlain, Vermont, western Massachusetts, central, southern 
and western Pennsylvania, northern Delaware, northern West Virginia (Hardy and Grant 
Counties), prairies of Caswell County, North Carolina, and middle Tennessee, and west- 
ward through the valley of the Saint Lawrence River and along the northern shores of 
Lake Huron to southern Manitoba, through western New York and Ohio, northern Michi- 
gan, to Minnesota (except in the northeastern counties), eastern and northwestern Ne- 
braska, the Black Hills of South Dakota, the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota, and 
northeastern Wyoming, and to central Kansas, the valley of the north Fork of the Cana- 
dian River (Canton, Blaine County, and Seiling, Dewey County), Oklahoma, and the 
valley of the San Saba River, (Menard County and Callahan County), Texas; attaining 
its largest size in southern Indiana and Illinois; the common Oak of the " oak openings " 
of western Minnesota, and in all the basin of the Red River of the North, ranging farther 
to the northwest than the other Oaks of eastern America; common and generally distrib- 
uted in eastern Nebraska, and of a large size in canons or on river bottoms in the extreme 
northwestern part of the state; the most generally distributed Oak in southern Wisconsin, 
and in Kansas growing to a large size in all the eastern part of the state. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern United States and in South 
Africa. 

X Quercus Andrewsii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus macrocarpa and Q. undu- 
lata Torr., in habit and characters intermediate between those of its supposed 'parents 
with which it grows, occurs at Seiling, Dewey County, western Oklahoma. 

X Quercus guadalupensis Sarg., with characters intermediate between those of Quercus 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

macrocarpa and Q. stellata and evidently a hybrid of these species, occurs at Fredericksburg 
Junction in the valley of the Guadalupe River, Kendall County, Texas. 

X Quercus Hillii Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus macrocarpa and Q. Muehlen- 
bergii, has been found at Roby, Lake County, Indiana, and near Independence, Jackson 
County, Missouri. 

43. Quercus lyrata Walt. Overcup Oak. Swamp White Oak. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, divided into spread- 
ing or ascending lobes by deep or shallow sinuses rounded, straight, or oblique on the 
bottom, the terminal lobe oblong-ovate, usually broad, acute or acuminate at the elon- 




Fig. 268 

gated apex, and furnished with 2 small entire nearly triangular lateral lobes, the upper 
lateral lobes broad, more or less emarginate, or acuminate and entire or slightly lobed and 
much longer than the acute or rounded lower lobes, when they unfold bronze-green and 
pilose above with caducous hairs, and coated below with thick pale tomentum, at matur- 
ity thin and firm, dark green and glabrous above, silvery white and thickly coated with 
pale pubescence, or green and often nearly glabrous below, 7 '-10' long, l'-4' wide; turn- 
ing yellow or scarlet and orange in the autumn; petioles glabrous or pubescent, '-!' in 
length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments 4'-6' long; calyx light yellow, coated 
on the outer surface with pale hairs and divided into acute segments; pistillate sessile or 
stalked, their involucral scales covered, like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum. 
Fruit sessile or borne on slender pubescent peduncles sometimes \\' in length; nut subglo- 
bose to ovoid or rarely to ovoid-oblong, |'-1' long, usually broader at base than long, light 
chestnut-brown, more or less covered above the middle with short pale pubescence, en- 
tirely or for two thirds of its length inclosed in the ovoid, nearly spherical or deep cup- 
shaped thin cup, bright red-brown and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomen- 
tose and covered on the outer by ovate united scales produced into acute tips, much 
thickened and contorted at its base, gradually growing thinner and forming a ragged edge 
to the thin often irregularly split rim of the cup. 

A tree, rarely 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, generally divided 15-20 above 
the ground into comparatively small often pendulous branches forming a handsome sym- 
metrical round-topped head, and slender branchlets green more or less tinged with red 
and pilose or pubescent when they first appear, light or dark orange-color or grayish 
brown and usually glabrous during their first winter, ultimately becoming ashy gray or 
light brown. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, about f ' long, with light chestnut-brown scales 
covered, especially near their margins, with loose pale tomentum. Bark f'-l' thick, light 



FAGACE.E 



293 



gray tinged with red and broken into thick plates separating on the surface into thin ir- 
regular appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, very durable in contact with 
the ground, rich dark brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; confounded commercially 
with the wood of Quercus alba, and used for the same purpose. 

Distribution. River swamps and small deep depressions on rich bottom-lands, usually 
wet throughout the year; southern New Jersey (Riddleton, Salem County), and valley of 
the Patuxent River, Maryland, southward near the coast to western Florida, through the 
Gulf states to the valley of the Navasota River, Brazos County, Texas, and through 
Arkansas to the valley of the Meramec River (Allenton, St. Louis County), Missouri, and 
to central Tennessee and Kentucky, southern Illinois, and southwestern Indiana to Spencer 
County; comparatively rare in the Atlantic and east Gulf states; most common and of 
its largest size in the valley of the Red River, Louisiana, and the adjacent parts of Texas 
and Arkansas. 

Occasionally cultivated in the northeastern states and hardy in eastern Massachusetts. 

X Quercus Comptonae Sarg., a hybrid of Quercus lyrata and Q. virginiana, with char- 
acters intermediate between those of its parents, discovered many years ago on the banks 
of Peyton's Creek, Matagorda County, Texas (now gone), occurs with several individuals 
near dwellings in Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi, near Selma, Dallas County, Ala- 
bama, and in Audubon Park and streets, New Orleans, Louisiana. A tree, sometimes 
100 high and one of the handsomest of North American Oaks; also produced artificially 
by Professor H. Ness by crossing Quercus lyrata and Q. virginiana. 



44. Quercus stellata Wang. Post Oak. 

Quercus minor Sarg. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, usually deeply 5-lobed, with broad sinuses oblique in the bottom, 
and short wide lobes, broad and truncate or obtusely pointed at apex, gradually narrowed 
and cuneate, or occasionally abruptly narrowed and cuneate or rounded at base, when 




Fig. 269 

they unfold dark red above and densely pubescent, at maturity thick and firm, deep dark 
green and roughened by scattered fascicled pale hairs above, covered below with gray, 
light yellow, or rarely silvery white pubescence, usually 4'-5' long and 3'-4' across the 
lateral lobes, with a broad light-colored midrib pubescent on the upper side and tomentose 
or pubescent on the lower, stout lateral veins arcuate and united near th margins and 
connected by conspicuous coarsely reticulated veinlets; turning dull yellow or brown in 
the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent, \' to nearly I/ in length. Flowers: stamina te in 



294 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

aiuents 3'-4' long; calyx hirsute, yellow, usually divided into 5 ovate acute laciniately cut 
segments; anthers covered by short scattered pale hairs; pistillate sessile or stalked, their 
involucral scales broadly ovate, hirsute; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; 
nut oval to ovoid or ovoid-oblong, broad at base, obtuse and naked or covered with pale 
persistent pubescence at apex, \'-\' long, 'f ' thick, sometimes striate with dark longi- 
tudinal stripes, inclosed for one third to one half its length in the cup-shaped, turbinate, 
or rarely saucer-shaped cup pale and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose on 
the outer surface, and covered by thin ovate scales rounded and acute at apex, reddish 
brown, and sometimes toward the rim of the cup cilia te on the margins with long pale hairs. 

A tree, rarely 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, and stout spreading branches 
forming a broad dense round-topped head, and stout branchlets coated at first, like the 
young leaves and petioles, the stalks of the aments of staminate flowers and the peduncles 
of the pistillate flowers, with thick orange-brown tomentum, light orange color to reddish 
brown, and covered by short soft pubescence during their first winter, ultimately gray, 
dark brown, nearly black or bright brown tinged with orange color; usually not more 
than 50-60 tall, with a trunk l-2 in diameter, and at the northeastern limits of its range 
generally reduced to a shrub. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, obtuse or rarely acute, \'-\' 
long, with bright chestnut-brown pubescent scales coated toward the margins with scat- 
tered pale hairs. Bark '-1' thick, red more or less deeply tinged with brown, and divided 
by deep fissures into broad ridges covered on the surface with narrow closely appressed 
or rarely loose scales. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, durable in contact with 
the soil, difficult to season, light or dark brown, with thick lighter colored sap wood; largely 
used for fuel, fencing, railway-ties, and sometimes in the manufacture of carriages, for 
cooperage, and in construction. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly or sandy uplands; Cape Cod and islands of southern 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Long Island, New York, to western Florida and southern 
Alabama and Mississippi, and from New York westward to southern Iowa, Missouri, 
eastern Kansas, western (Dewey County) Oklahoma, Louisiana and Texas; most abund- 
ant and of its largest size in the Mississippi basin; ascending on the southern Appalachian 
Mountains to altitudes of 2500; the common Oak of central Texas on limestone hills and 
sandy plains forming the Texas "Cross Timbers "; usually shrubby and rare and local in 
southern Massachusetts; more abundant southward from the coast of the south Atlantic 
and the eastern Gulf states to the lower slopes of the Appalachian Mountains; in western 
Louisiana rarely in the moist soil of low lands. 

Showing little variation in the shape of the fruit and in the character of the cup scales 
Quercus stellata is one of the most variable of North American Oaks in habit, in the nature 
of the bark, and in the presence or absence of pubescence. Some of the best marked va- 
rieties are var. araniosa Sarg., a large tree differing from the type in the usually smooth 
upper surface of the leaves, in the floccose persistent tomentum on their lower surface, 
in the less stout usually glabrous yellow or reddish branchlets, and in its scaly bark; dry 
sandy soil, southern Alabama, western Louisiana, southern Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma and 
eastern Texas. Var. paludosa Sarg., a tree up to 75 in height, differing from the type in its 
oblong-obovate leaves 3-lobed above the middle, slightly pubescent branchlets becoming 
nearly glabrous, and in its scaly bark; in rich deep soil on the often inundated bottoms of 
Kenison Bayou, near Washington, St. Landry Parish, Louisiana. Var. attenuata Sarg., 
a large tree differing from the type in the oblong to oblong-obovate narrow leaves 3-lobed 
at apex and gradually narrowed to the long cuneate base; near Arkansas Post on the White 
River, Arkansas County, Arkansas. Var. parviloba Sarg., a round-topped tree 25-30 
high, differing from the type in the smaller lobes of the leaves with more prominent reticu- 
late veinlets; dry sandstone hills near Brownwood, Brown County, Texas. Var. anomala 
Sarg., a tree 15-18 high, differing from the type in its broadly obovate subcoriaceous 
leaves slightly 3-lobed and rounded at apex; dry sandstone hills near Brownwood, Brown 
County, Texas; possibly a hybrid. Var. Palmeri Sarg., a shrub 6-15 high, forming clumps, 
differing from the type in its narrow oblong or slightly obovate 5-7-lobed leaves with 



FAGACE^E 



295 



narrow lobes, densely tomentose below, and in the thicker and more tomentose scales of 
the cup; sandy uplands, Elk City, Beckham County, Oklahoma. Var. rufescens Sarg., a 
shrub 12-15 high, forming large clumps, differing from the type in the rusty brown 
pubescence on the lower surface of the polymorphous leaves, in the deeper cups of the 
fruit with thicker basal scales; sandy uplands, Big Spring, Howard County, Texas, and Elk 
City, Beckham County, Oklahoma. Var. Boyntonii Sarg, a shrub or small tree spreading 
into thickets, rarely more than 15 in height, differing from the type in its obovate leaves, 
mostly 3-o-lobed toward the apex, with small rounded lobes, and in their yellow-brown 
pubescence also found on the branchlets; in glades on the summit of Lookout Mountain, 
above Gadsden and Attala, Etowah County, Alabama. 

The common and most widely distributed of the varieties of the Post Oak is 

Quercus stellate var. Margarette Sarg. 
Quercus Margaretta Ashe 

Leaves oblong-obovate, rounded at apex, cuneate or rounded at base, 3-5-lobed with 
usually narrow rounded, but often broad and truncate lobes, the two forms frequently 
occurring on the same branch, usually becoming glabrous on the upper surface early in 
the season, slightly pubescent, sometimes becoming nearly glabrous below, 2^'-5 / long and 
2'-2|' wide; petioles glabrous or pubescent. Flowers and Fruit as in the species. 

A small tree, rarely 40 high, with slender glabrous reddish or reddish brown branchlets. 
Winter-buds ovoid, acute, \' long with closely imbricated chestnut-brown scales glabrous, 
or ciliate on the margins. Bark thick, rough and furrowed, light gray. 

Distribution. Usually on dry sandy slopes, hills and ridges, and southward on Pine- 




Fig. 270 

barren lands; coast of Virginia (Capron, Southampton County) southward in the coast 
and middle districts to central (Lake and Orange Counties) and western Florida, through 
central and southern Alabama, and eastern and southern Mississippi: in Western Louisi- 
ana (Natchitoches and Caddo Parishes) ; southern Arkansas (McNab. Hempstead County), 
and southwestern Missouri (Prosperity, Jasper County). The common Post Oak of the 
south Atlantic and Gulf states; occasionally a shrub (f. stonolifera Sarg.) 4-6 high, with 
smaller leaves, spreading into broad thickets by stoloniferous shoots; common near Selma, 
Dallas County, Alabama, and on the dry sand hills of central Oklahoma. 

X Quercus Harbisonii Sarg., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus stellata var. Margaretta 
and Q. virginiana var. geminata, has been found in the neighborhood of Jacksonville, 
Duval County, Florida. 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

45. Quercus Garryana Hook. White Oak. 

Leaves obovate to oblong, pointed at apex, cuneate or rounded at base, coarsely pinnat- 
ifid-lobed, with slightly thickened revolute margins, coated at first with soft pale lustrous 
pubescence, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green, lustrous and gla- 
brous above, light green or orange-brown and pubescent or glabrate below, 4'-6' long, 
2'-5' wide, with a stout yellow midrib, and conspicuous primary veins spreading at 
right angles, or gradually diverging from the midrib and running to the points of the 
lobes; sometimes turning bright scarlet in the autumn; petioles stout, pubescent, '-!' in 
length. Flowers: staminate in hirsute aments; calyx glabrous, laciniately cut into ovate 
acute slightly ciliate or linear-lanceolate much elongated segments; pistillate sessile and 
coated with pale tomentum. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; nut oval to slightly obovoid and 
obtuse, I'-l j' long and \'-\' thick, inclosed at the base in a shallow cup-shaped or slightly 
turbinate cup puberulous and light brown on the inner surface, pubescent or tomentose 




Fig. 271 

on the outer, and covered by ovate acute scales with pointed and often elongated tips, thin, 
free, or sometimes thickened and more or less united toward the base of the cup, decreasing 
from below upward. 

A tree, usually 60-70 or sometimes nearly 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, 
stout ascending or spreading branches forming a broad compact head, and stout branchlets 
coated at first with thick pale rufous pubescence, pubescent or tomentose and light or dark 
orange color during their first winter, becoming glabrous and rather bright reddish brown 
in their second year and ultimately gray; frequently at high altitudes, or when exposed 
to the winds from the ocean, reduced to a low shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, \'-\' 
long, densely clothed with light ferrugineous tomentum. Bark \'-\' thick, divided by 
shallow fissures into broad ridges separating on the surface into light brown or gray scales 
sometimes slightly tinged with orange color. Wood strong, hard, close-grained, fre- 
quently exceedingly tough, light brown or yellow, with thin nearly white sap wood; in Ore- 
gon and Washington used in the manufacture of carriages and wagons, in cabinet-making, 
shipbuilding, and cooperage, and largely as fuel. 

Distribution. Valleys and the dry gravelly slopes of low hills; Vancouver Island and the 
valley of the lower Fraser River southward through western Washington and Oregon and 
the California coast-valleys to Marin County; rare and local and the only Oak-tree in 
British Columbia; abundant and of its largest size in the valleys of western Washington 
and Oregon; on the islands in the northern part of Puget Sound reduced to a low shrub 



FAGACE^E 



297 



(Vine Oak) ; ascending in its shrubby forms to considerable altitudes on the western slopes; 
of the Cascade Mountains; abundant in northwestern California; less common and of 
smaller size southward. 

46. Quercus utahensis Rydb. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and rounded or cuneate at base, divided 
often nearly to the midrib by broad or narrow sinuses into four or five pairs of lateral 
lobes rounded or acute at apex, the upper lobes usually again lobed or undulate, the ter- 




Fig. 272 

minal lobe rounded at apex, entire or three-lobed, thick, dark green, glabrous or nearly 
glabrous above, pale and soft pubescent below, 2|'-7' long, l|'-3' wide, with a prominent 
midrib and primary veins, and conspicuous veinlets,; petioles stout, hoary-tomentose early 
in the season, pubescent or glabrous before maturity, f'-l' in length. Flowers: staminate 
in aments covered with fascicled hairs, 2'-2' long; calyx scarious, divided to the middle 
by wide sinuses into narrow acuminate lobes; anthers yellow; pistillate usually solitary or 
in pairs, the scales of the involucre thickly coated with hoary tomentum. Fruit usually 
solitary, sessile or raised on a stout pubescent peduncle \'-\' in length; nut ovoid, broad 
and rounded at the ends, f'-f long, \'-9,\' thick, usually inclosed for about half its length 
in the thick hemispheric cup covered with broad ovate pale pubescent scales much thick- 
ened on the back and closely appressed below the middle of the cup, gradually reduced in 
size upward, thin and less closely appressed toward its rim bordered by the free projecting 
tips of the upper row of scales. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk 4 '-8' in diameter, thick erect branches forming 
a narrow open head, and stout branchlets red-brown and covered with fascicled hairs when 
they first appear, becoming light orange-brown and puberulous. Bark dark gray-brown, 
rough and scaly. 

Distribution. Dry foothill slopes and the sides of canons; borders of southwestern 
Wyoming to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and to Utah, northern 
New Mexico and Arizona, passing into var. mollis Sarg. with thinner scales on the lower 
part of the cup of the fruit; with the species over its whole range, but most abundant on 
the Colorado Plateau of northern Arizona; here rarely 40 high, with a trunk 18'-20' in 
diameter. 



298 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



47. Quercus lobata Nee. White Oak. Valley Oak. 

Leaves oblong to obovate, deeply 7-11 obliquely lobed, rounded at the narrow apex, 
narrow and cuneate or broad and rounded or cordate at base, the lateral lobes obovate, 
obtuse or retuse, or ovate and rounded, thin, 2|'-3' or rarely 4' long, 1/-2' wide, dark green 
and pubescent above, pale and pubescent below, with a stout pale midrib, and conspicuous 
yellow veins running to the slightly thickened and revolute margins; petioles stout, hir- 
sute, \'-\' in length. Flowers: staminate in hirsute aments 2'-3' long; calyx light yellow 
and divided into 6 or 8 acute pubescent ciliate lobes; pistillate solitary, sessile or rarely in 
elongated few-flowered spikes, their involucral scales broadly ovate, acute, coated with 




Fig. 273 

dense pale tomentum, about as long as the narrow calyx-lobes. Fruit solitary or in pairs, 
nearly sessile; nut conic, elongated, rounded or pointed at apex, lj'-2j' long, bright 
green and lustrous when fully grown, becoming bright chestnut-brown, usually inclosed 
for about one third its length in the cup-shaped cup coated with pale tomentum on the 
outer surface, usually irregularly tuberculate below, all but the much-thickened basal 
scales elongated into acute ciliate chestnut-brown free tips longest on the upper scales and 
forming a short fringe-like border to the rim of the cup. 

A tree, often 100 feet high, with a trunk generally 3-4, but sometimes 10 in diameter, 
divided near the ground or usually 20-30 above it into great limbs spreading at wide 
angles and forming a broad head of slender branches hanging gracefully in long sprays and 
sometimes sweeping the ground; less frequently with upper limbs growing almost at right 
angles with the trunk and forming a narrow rigid head of variously contorted erect or 
pendant branches, and slender branchlets coated at first with short silky canescent pubes- 
cence, ashy gray, light reddish brown, or pale orange-brown and slightly pubescent in their 
first winter, becoming glabrous and lighter colored during their second year. Winter- 
buds ovoid, acute, usually about I' long, with orange-brown pubescent scales scarious and 
frequently ciliate on the margins. Bark f'-H' thick and covered by small loosely ap- 
pressed light gray scales slightly tinged with orange or brown, becoming at the base of old 
trees frequently 5 '-6' thick and divided by longitudinal fissures into broad flat ridges 
broken horizontally into short plates. Wood hard, fine-grained, brittle, light brown, with 
thin lighter colored sapwood; used only for fuel. 

Distribution. Valleys of western California between the Sierra Nevada and the ocean 
from the valley of the Trinity River to Kern and Los Angeles (rare) Counties; most 
abundant and forming open groves in the central valleys of the state. 



FAGACE^ 



48. Quercus leptophylla Rydb. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, cuneate or rarely rounded at base, divided about half- 
way to the midrib into two to four acute or rounded lateral lobes entire or occasionally 
furnished on the lower side with a small nearly triangular lobe, the terminal lobe short, 
entire, rounded at apex or three-lobed, when they unfold thickly coated with hoary to- 
mentum, about one-third grown when the flowers open and then covered above with 
fascicled hairs and tomentose below, at maturity thin, dark green, lustrous and glabrous or 
nearly glabrous on the upper surface, yellow-green and covered below by short white hairs 
most abundant on the midrib and veins, 3f '-4' long, l^'-2' wide; petioles slender, pubescent 
'-' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender villose aments; calyx scarious, divided 
into five or six narrow acute lobes; anthers dark red-brown as the flowers open; pistil- 




late not seen. Fruit solitary or racemose, sessile or raised on a stout tomentose peduncle 
!'-f in length;, nut oblong-ovoid, abruptly narrowed and rounded at base, gradually nar- 
rowed and rounded at apex, '-f' long; inclosed for half its length in the thin, hemi- 
spheric cup, f '-\' in diameter, and covered with acuminate only slightly thickened appressed 
scales densely covered with hoary tomentum. 

A tree, 30-45 high, with a trunk 16'-24' in diameter, heavy spreading ashy gray 
branches forming a round-topped nead, and stout branchlets, light red-brown or purple 
and covered with long fascicled hairs when they first appear, becoming light brown and 
glabrous before autumn. Bark thick, deeply furrowed, covered with small appressed 
pale gray scales. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands of the Cucharas River above La Veta, Huerfano 
County, Colorado; on the Mogollon Mountains, Socorro County, New Mexico. 



300 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

49. Quercus austrina Small. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, acute or rounded at apex, gradually narrowed to the long 
cuneate base or rarely rounded at base, usually 5-lobed with rounded lobes, the terminal 
lobe often 3-lobed, the upper lateral lobes pointing forward and much larger than those of 
the lower pair, or occasionally 3-lobed at the broad apex, or rarely nearly entire w r ith un- 
dulate margins, when they unfold sparsely covered below with caducous fascicled hairs, 
at maturity glabrous, dark green and lustrous above, paler below, 3'-8' long, l'-4' wide, 
with a prominent midrib and slender primary veins; petioles slender, at first pubescent, 
soon glabrous, J'-$' in length. Flowers not seen. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or 
raised on a stout stalk up to \' in length; nut ovoid, slightly narrowed toward the base, 
narrowed at the rounded pubescent apex, |'-f long, \' thick, inclosed for a third to a 




Fig. 275 

half its length in the thin hemispheric or deep cup-shaped cup, pale tomentose on the inner 
surface and covered with thin narrow loosely appressed blunt-pointed tomentose scales. 

A tree, 70-80 and rarely 100 high, with a tall trunk 2-3 in diameter, spreading and 
ascending branches forming a broad rather open head, and slender glabrous red-brown or 
gray-brown brittle- jointed branchlets. Winter-buds ovoid to ellipsoid, acute, \'-\' long, 
with closely imbricated acute puberulous chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins. 
Bark pale, scaly, and on old trunks divided into broad ridges. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and river bluffs in deep rich soil; coast of South Caro- 
lina (Bluffton, Clay County, and near Charleston) ; Dover, Scriven County, Mclntosh 
County, De Soto Co., Sumter County, and near Bainbridge, Decatur County, Geor- 
gia, to central and western Florida (Gainsville, Alachua County, near Santos, Marion 
County, Lake City, Columbia County, River Junction, Gadsden County, Marianna, 
Jackson County); western Alabama (Gallion, Hale County, and the neighborhood of Selma 
[common] and Pleasant Hill, Dallas County) ; and southern Mississippi (Meridian, Lau- 
derdale County, Laurel, Jones County, Byram and near Jackson, Hinds County, near 
Natchez, Adams County). 

50. Quercus alba L. White Oak. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and cuneate at base, divided often nearly to 
the midrib by narrow or broad sinuses usually oblique in the bottom into 7 or 9 lobes, the 
lateral, narrow, lanceolate or obovate, pointing forward, rounded or acute and often lobed 
at apex, the terminal usually obovate and 3-lobed, when they unfold bright red above, pale 



FAGACE^ 



301 



below and coated with soft pubescence, soon becoming silvery white and very lustrous, 
at maturity thin, firm, glabrous, bright green and lustrous or dull above, pale or glaucous 
below, 5'-9' long, 2'-4' wide, with a stout bright yellow midrib and conspicuous primary 
veins; turning late in the autumn deep rich vinous red, gradually withering and sometimes re- 
maining on the branches nearly through the winter; petioles stout, glabrous, '-!' in length. 
Flowers: staminate in hirsute or nearly glabrous aments 2^'-3' long; calyx bright yellow 
and pubescent, with acute lobes; pistillate bright red, their involucral scales broadly ovate, 
hirsute, about as long as the ovate acute calyx-lobes. Fruit sessile or raised on a slender 
peduncle lf-2' long, the two forms sometimes appearing on the same branch; nut ovoid to 
oblong, rounded at apex, lustrous, f long, green when fully grown, becoming light chest- 
nut-brown, inclosed for about one fourth its length in the cup-shaped cup coated with pale 




Fig. 276 



or light brown tomentum, its scales at the base much thickened, united and produced 
into short obtuse membranaceous tips, and thinner toward the rim of the cup. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, tall and naked in the forest, short 
in the open, and surmounted by a broad round-topped head of stout limbs spreading ir- 
regularly, small rigid branches, and slender branchlets at first bright green, often tinged 
with red, and coated with a loose mass of long pale or ferrugineous deciduous hairs, red- 
dish brown during the summer, bright red and lustrous or covered with a glaucous bloom 
during their first winter, becoming ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds broadly ovoid, 
rather obtuse, dark red-brown, about ' long. Bark light gray slightly tinged with red or 
brown, or occasionally nearly white, broken into thin appressed scales, becoming on old 
trunks sometimes 2' thick and divided into broad flat ridges. Wood strong, very heavy, 
hard, tough, close-grained, durable, light brown, with thin light brown sap wood; used in 
shipbuilding, for construction and in cooperage, the manufacture of carriages, agricultural 
implements, baskets, the interior finish of houses, cabinet-making, for railway-ties and 
fences, and largely as fuel. 

Distribution. Sandy plains and gravelly ridges, rich uplands, intervales, and moist 
bottom-lands, sometimes forming nearly pure forests; southern Maine to southwestern 
Quebec, westward through southern Ontario, the southern peninsula of Michigan, south- 
eastern Minnesota, eastern Iowa, and southeastern Nebraska, and southward to west- 
ern Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos River, Texas and through 
Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, Missouri, Tennessee, and Kentucky; 
ascending the southern Appalachian Mountains as a low bush to altitudes of 4500; 



302 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

most abundant and of its largest size on the lower western slopes of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains and on the bottom-lands of the lower Ohio Basin. Passing into 

Quercus alba var. latiloba Sarg. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, acute or rounded at apex, gradually narrowed and cuneate at 
base, divided usually less than half way to the midrib into broad rounded lobes; rarely 
obovate, with undulate margins, or slightly lobed, with broad rounded lobes (var. re- 
panda Michx.). Flowers as in the type. Fruit rarely more than 1^' in length, with 
usually thinner cup scales. 




Fig. 277 

Distribution. More abundant than the species and the common northern White Oak. 

X Quercus Beadlei Trel., believed to be a hybrid of Quercus alba and Q. Prinus, has been 
found in a swamp near Clarkton, Bladen County, North Carolina. 

X Quercus Bebbiana Schn., probably a hybrid of Quercus alba and Q. macrocarpa, occurs 
at Charlotte, Chittenden County, Vermont, and near Kenton, Hardin County, Ohio. 

X Quercus Deamii Trel., with characters intermediate between those of Quercus alba 
and Q. Muehlenbergii and evidently a hybrid of these species, is growing near Bluffton, 
Wells County, Indiana. 

X Quercus Faxonii Trel., with characters intermediate between those of Quercus alba 
and Q. prinoides and evidently a hybrid of these species, has been found in East Walpole, 
Norfolk County, and Concord, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and at Greenville, 
Montcalm County, Michigan. 

X Quercus Fernowii Trel., evidently a hybrid of Quercus alba and Q. stellata, has been 
found near Allenton, St. Louis County, Missouri, and on Red Clay Creek, Virginia. 

X Quercus Jackiana Schn., evidently a hybrid of Quercus alba and Q. bicolor, is growing 
in Franklin Park, Boston. 

X Quercus Saulei Schn., with characters intermediate between those of Q. alba and 
Q. montana and evidently a hybrid of these species, occurs with widely distributed indi- 
viduals in Vermont (Monkton, Addison County), eastern Massachusetts, near Providence, 
Rhode Island, New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia, on the 
Appalachian Mountains near Biltmore, Buncombe County, and Highlands, Macon 
County, North Carolina, at Valleyhead, Gadsden County, Alabama, and in Richland 
County, Illinois. 



FAGACE^ 



303 



51. Quercus tricolor Willd. Swamp White Oak. 
Quercus platanoides Sudw. 

Leaves obovate to oblong-obovate, rounded at the narrowed apex, acute or rounded 
at the gradually narrowed and cuneate entire base, coarsely sinuate-dentate, or sometimes 
pinnatifid, with oblique rounded or acute entire lobes, when they unfold light bronze- 
green and pilose above, covered below with silvery white tomentum, with conspicuous 
glands on the teeth, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper sur- 
face, pale or often silvery white or tawny on the lower surface, 5'-6' long, 2'-4' wide, with 
a slender yellow midrib, primary veins running to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous 




Fig. 278 

reticulate veinlets; turning in the autumn dull yellow-brown or occasionally orange-color 
or rarely scarlet before falling; petioles stout, pilose at first, becoming glabrous, \'-\' in 
length. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 3'-4' long; calyx light yellow-green, hirsute 
with pale hairs, and deeply divided into 5-9 lanceolate acute segments rather shorter than 
the stamens; pistillate in few-flowered spikes on elongated peduncles covered like the 
involucral scales with thick white or tawny tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually 
in pau*s on slender dark brown glabrous puberulous or pubescent stalks l'-4' in length; 
nut ovoid, with a broad base, rounded, acute and pubescent at apex, light chest- 
nut-brown, f ' -\\' long, \'-\ ' thick, inclosed for about one third its length in the thick cup- 
shaped light brown cup pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose, and sometimes 
tuberculate or roughened toward the base on the outer surface by the thickened contorted 
tips of the ovate acute scales, thin, free, acute and chestnut-brown higher on the cup, and 
often forming a short fringe-like border on its margin, or sometimes entirely covered 
by thin scales with free acute tips. 

A tree, usually 60-70 or exceptionally 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 or occasionally 
8-9 in diameter, rather small branches generally pendulous below and rising above into 
a narrow round-topped open head and often furnished with short pendulous laterals, and 
stout branchlets, green, lustrous, and slightly scurfy-pubescent when they first appear, 
light orange color or reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous during their first winter, 
becoming darker and often purplish and clothed with a glaucous bloom. Winter-buds 
broadly ovoid and obtuse, or subglobose to ovoid and acute, ' long, with light chestnut- 
brown scales usually pilose above the middle. Bark of young stems and small branches 
smooth, reddish or purplish brown, separating freely into large papery persistent scales 
curling back and displaying the bright green inner bark; becoming on old trunks l'-2' 



304 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



thick, and deeply and irregularly divided by continuous or interrupted fissures into broad 
flat ridges covered by small appressed gray-brown scales often slightly tinged with red. 
Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, light brown, with thin hardly distinguishable sap wood; 
used in construction, the interior finish of houses, cabinet-making, carriage and boat- 
building, cooperage, and railway-ties, and for fencing and fuel. 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps in moist fertile soil; southern Maine 
to northern Vermont and southwestern Quebec, through Ontario and the southern pen- 
insula of Michigan to southeastern Minnesota, eastern and southern Iowa, southeastern 
Nebraska and western Missouri, and to the District of Columbia, northern Kentucky 
and northeastern Oklahoma, and along the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia; 
widely scattered, usually in small groves but nowhere very abundant; most common and 
of its largest size in western New York and northern Ohio. 

X Quercus Schuettii Trel., with characters intermediate between those of Quercus bi- 
color and Q. macrocarpa, and probably a hybrid of these species, occurs at Fort Howard, 
Brown County, Wisconsin, near Rockfield and Chateaugay, Quebec, and near Rochester 
and Golah, Munroe County, New York. 

52. Quercus Prinus L. Basket Oak. Cow Oak. 

Quercus Michauxii Nutt. 

Leaves broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, acute or acuminate at apex with a short 
broad point, cuneate or rounded at the broad or narrow entire base, regularly crenately 
lobed with oblique rounded entire lobes sometimes furnished with glandular tips, or 




Fig. 279 



rarely entire with undulate margins, when they unfold bright yellow-green, lustrous and 
pubescent above, coated below with thick silvery white or ferrugineous tomentum, at 
maturity thick and firm or sometimes membranaceous, especially on young and vigorous 
branches, dark green, lustrous, glabrous or occasionally roughened by scattered fascicled 
hairs on the upper surface, more or less densely pubescent on the pale green or silvery white 
lower surface, 6'-8' long, 3 '-5' wide; turning in the autumn dark rich crimson; petioles 
stout, i'-l?' in length. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments, 3'-4' long; calyx light 
yellow-green, pilose with long pale hairs, and divided into 4-7 acute lobes; pistillate in few- 
flowered spikes on short peduncles coated like the involucral scales with dense pale ru- 
fous tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or subsessile, or borne 
on short stout puberulous stalks rarely %' in length ; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal, with a broad 



FAGACE.E 305 

base, and acute, rounded, or occasionally truncate at apex surrounded by a narrow ring 
of rusty pubescence, or sometimes pilose nearly to the middle, bright brown, rather lus- 
trous, l'-l' long, f'-li' thick, inclosed for about one third its length in the thick cup- 
shaped cup often broad and flat on the bottom, reddish brown and pubescent within, 
hoary -tomentose and covered on the outer surface by regularly imbricated ovate acute 
scales rounded and much thickened on the back, their short tips sometimes forming a rigid 
fringe-like border to the rim of the cup; seed sweet and edible. 

A tree, often 100 high, with a trunk sometimes free of branches for 40-50, and 3-7 
in diameter, stout branches ascending at narrow angles and forming a round-topped rather 
compact head, and stout branchlets at first dark green and covered by pale caducous hairs, 
becoming bright red-brown or light orange-brown during their first winter and ultimately 
ashy gray. Winter-buds broadly ovoid or oval, acute, \' long, with thin closely and reg- 
ularly imbricated dark red puberulous scales with pale margins, those of the inner ranks 
coated on the outer surface with loose pale tomentum. Bark \'-\' thick, separating into 
thin closely appressed silvery white or ashy gray scales more or less deeply tinged with red. 
Wood heavy, hard, very strong, tough, close-grained, durable, easy to split, light-brown, 
with thin darker colored sap wood; largely used in all kinds of construction, for agricultural 
implements, wheels, in cooperage, for fences and fuel, and in baskets. 

Distribution. Borders of streams, swamps, and bottom-lands often covered with water; 
New Jersey (Morristown, Morris County and Pittsgrove, Salem County), near Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, southward through the coast and middle districts to Putnam (San Mateo) 
and Citrus Counties, Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Trinity River, 
Texas, and through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri to central Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky, the valley of the lower Wabash River, Illinois, and southern Indiana eastward to 
Jefferson County (C. C. Deam); conspicuous from the silvery white bark, the massive 
trunk, and the broad crown of large bright-colored foliage. 

53. Quercus montana L. Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak. 
Quercus Prinus Engelm. not L. 

Leaves obovate or oblong to lanceolate, acute or acuminate or rounded at apex, gradu- 
ally or abruptly cuneate or rounded or subcordate at the narrow entire base, irregularly 
and coarsely crenulate-toothed with rounded, acute, or sometimes nearly triangular oblique 
teeth, when they unfold orange-green or bronze-red, very lustrous, and glabrous above with 
the exception of the slightly pilose midrib, green and coated below with soft pale pubes- 
cence, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, yellow-green and rather lustrous 
on the upper surface, paler and covered by fine pubescence on the lower surface, 4 '-9' 
long, If '-3' wide, with a stout yellow midrib and conspicuous primary veins, often much 
broader near the bottom of the tree than on fertile upper branches; turning dull orange 
color or rusty brown in the autumn; petioles stout or slender, '-!' in length. Flowers: stam- 
inate in elongated hirsute aments; calyx light yellow, pilose and deeply divided into 7-9 
acute segments tipped with clusters of pale hairs; pistillate in short spikes on stout puber- 
ulous dark green peduncles, their involucral scales covered with pale hairs; stigmas dark 
red. Fruit on short stout stems singly or in pairs; nut ovoid or ellipsoidal, rounded and 
rather obtuse or pointed at apex, bright chestnut-brown, very lustrous, l'-l|' long, f '-!' 
thick, inclosed for about half its length or sometimes only at the base in a turbinate or 
cup-shaped thin cup light brown and pubescent on the inner surface, reddish brown and 
hoary-pubescent on the outer surface roughened or tuberculate, especially toward the base, 
by small scales thickened and knob-like with nearly triangular free light brown tips. 

A tree, usually 60-70 or occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3-4 or rarely 6-7 in 
diameter, divided generally 15 or 20 above the ground into large limbs spreading into a 
broad open rather irregular head, and stout branchlets green tinged with purple or bronze 
color and glabrous or pilose when they first appear, light orange color or reddish brown 
during their first winter, becoming dark gray or brown; on dry exposed mountain slopes 



306 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

often not more than 20-30 tall, with a trunk 8'-12' in diameter. Winter-buds ovoid, 
acute or acuminate, j' |' long, with bright chestnut-brown scales pilose toward the apex 
and ciliate on the margins. Bark of young stems and small branches thin, smooth, purplish 
brown, often lustrous, becoming on old trunks and large limbs f'-l^' thick, dark reddish 
brown or nearly black, and divided into broad rounded ridges covered with small closely 
appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, close-grained, durable in con- 
tact with the soil, largely used for fencing, railway-ties, and fuel. The bark, which is rich 
in tannin, is consumed in large quantities in tanning leather. 

Distribution. Hillsides and the high rocky banks of streams in rich and deep or some- 
times in sterile soil; coast of southern Maine, southern New Hampshire and eastern Massa- 
chusetts, southward to Delaware and the District of Columbia, and along the Appalachian 




Fig. 280 



Mountains and their foothills to northern Georgia ( Wilkes County) ; ascending to altitudes 
of 4000-4500; in northern Alabama; westward to the shores of Lake Champlain, western 
New York; southeastern and southern Ohio, and southern Indiana westward to Orange 
County (C. C. Deam) ; and to central Kentucky and Tennessee, and northeastern Missis- 
sippi (Alcorn, Prentiss and Tishomingo Counties) ; rare and local in New England and 
Ontario; abundant on the banks of the lower Hudson River and on the Appalachian hills 
from southern New York to Alabama; most common and of its largest size on the lower 
slopes of the mountains of the Carolinas and Tennessee, here often forming a large part 
of the forest. 

X Quercus Sargentii Rehd. believed to be a hybrid of Quercus montana and the Euro- 
pean Q. Robur L., has been growing for nearly a hundred years at what is now Holm Lea, 
Brookline, Norfolk County, Massachusetts. 

54. Quercus Muehlenbergii Engelm. Yellow Oak. Chestnut Oak. 

Quercus acuminata Sarg. 

Leaves usually crowded at the ends of the branches, oblong-lanceolate to broadly 
obovate, acute or acuminate with a long narrow or with a short broad point, abruptly or 
gradually narrowed and cuneate or slightly narrowed and rounded or cordate at base, 
equally serrate with acute and often incurved or broad and rounded teeth tipped with 
small glandular mucros, or rarely slightly undulate, when they unfold bright bronzy green 
and puberulous above, tinged with purple and coated below with pale tomentum, at 



FAGACE^E 



307 



maturity thick and firm, light yellow-green on the upper surface, pale often silvery white 
and covered with short fine pubescence on the lower surface, 4 '-7' long, l'-5' wide, with 
a stout yellow midrib and conspicuous primary veins running to the points of the teeth; 
turning in the autumn orange color and scarlet; petioles slender f'-lf ' in length. Flowers : 
staminate in pilose aments 3'-4' long; calyx light yellow, hairy, deeply divided into 5 or 
6 lanceolate ciliate segments; pistillate sessile or in short spikes coated like their involucral 
scales with thick white tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or raised on a short 
stout peduncle, solitary or often in pairs; nut broadly ovoid, narrowed and rounded at 
apex, I' to nearly 1' long, light chestnut-brown, inclosed for about half its length in a 
thin cup-shaped light brown cup pubescent on the inner, hoary-tomentose on the outer 
surface, and covered by small obtuse scales more or less thickened and rounded on the 
back toward the base of the cup, the small free red-brown tips of the upper ranks form- 
ing a minute fringe-like border to its rim; seed sweet and sometimes edible. 




Fig. 281 

A tree, 80-100, occasionally 160 high, with a tall straight trunk 3-4 in diameter above 
the broad and often buttressed base, comparatively small branches forming a narrow 
shapely round-topped head, and slender branchlets, green more or less tinged with red or 
purple, pilose when they first appear, light orange color or reddish brown during their first 
whiter, and ultimately gray or brown; east of the Alleghany Mountains and on dry hills 
often not more than 20-30 tall. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, f'-J' long, with chestnut- 
brown scales white and scarious on the margins. Bark rarely \' thick, broken on the sur- 
face into thin loose silvery white scales sometimes slightly tinged with brown. Wood 
heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, durable, with thin light-colored sapwood; largely 
used in cooperage, for wheels, fencing, and railway-ties. 

Distribution. Gardner's Island, Lake Champlain, Vermont, western Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, near Newberg, Orange County, New York, westward through New York, 
southern Ontario and southern Michigan to northern Iowa, southeastern Nebraska, east- 
ern Kansas, and Oklahoma to the valley of the Washita River (Garvin County) and to 
the Devil's Canon near Hinton (Caddo County), and southward in the Atlantic states 
to the District of Columbia, eastern Virginia; sparingly on the eastern foothills of the 
Blue Ridge in North and South Carolina at altitudes between 1000 and 2000; in central 
Tennessee and Kentucky, central and northeastern Georgia, western Florida, and through 
the Gulf states to the valley of the Guadalupe River, Texas; on the Guadalupe Mountains, 
Texas, and on the Capitan Mountains, New Mexico (Lincoln County); rare and com- 
paratively local in the Atlantic states, usually on limestone soil; very abundant in the 
Mississippi basin, growing on ridges, dry flinty hills, deep rich bottom-lands and the 



308 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

rocky banks of streams; probably of its largest size on the lower Wabash River and its 
tributaries in southern Indiana and Illinois; on the Edwards Plateau (Kemble, Kerr, 
Uvalde, Bandera and Real Counties), Texas, a form occurs with nuts sometimes lj' long 
with deeper cups up to 1' in diameter (var. Brayi Sarg.). 

Section 2. Flowers unisexual (usually perfect in Ulmus); calyx regular; 
stamens as many as its lobes and opposite them; ovary superior, 1-celled 
(rarely 2-celled in Ulmus}\ seed 1. 

XI. ULMACE^E. 

Trees, with watery juice, scaly buds, terete branchlets prolonged by an upper lateral 
bud, and alternate simple serrate pinnately veined deciduous stalked 2-ranked leaves un- 
equal and often oblique at base, conduplicate in the bud, their stipules usually fugaceous. 
Flowers perfect or monceciously polygamous, clustered, or the pistillate sometimes soli- 
tary; calyx 4-9-parted or lobed; stamens 4-6; filaments straight; anthers introrse, 2-celled, 
opening longitudinally; ovary usually 1-celled; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex 
of the cell, anatropous or amphitropous; styles 2. Fruit a samara, nut, or drupe; albu- 
men little or none; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons usually flat or conduplicate. 
Five of the thirteen genera of the Elm family occur in North America. Of these four are 
represented by trees. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Fruit a dry samara, or nut-like. 

Flowers perfect; fruit a samara. 1. Ulmus. 

Flowers polygamo-moncecious ; fruit nut-like, tuberculate. 2. Planera. 
Fruit drupaceous. 

Pistillate flowers usually solitary. 3. Celtis. 

Pistillate flowers in dichotomous cymes. 4. Trema. 

1. ULMUS L. Elm. 

Trees, or rarely shrubs, with deeply furrowed bark, branchlets often furnished with 
corky wings, and buds with numerous ovate rounded chestnut-brown scales closely 
imbricated in two ranks, increasing in size from without inward, the inner accrescent, 
replacing the stipules of the first leaves, deciduous, marking the base of the branchlet 
with persistent ring-like scars. Leaves simply or doubly serrate; stipules linear, lan- 
ceolate to obovate, entire, free or connate at base, scarious, inclosing the leaf in the bud, 
caducous. Flowers from axillary buds near the ends of the branches similar to but larger 
than the leaf -buds, the outer scales sterile, the inner bearing flowers and rarely leaves. 
Flowers perfect, jointed on slender bibracteolate pedicels from the axils of linear acute 
scarious bracts, in pedunculate or subsessile fascicles or cymes sometimes becoming race- 
mose, appearing in early spring before the leaves in the axils of those of the previous year, 
or autumnal in the axils of leaves of the year; calyx campanula te, o-9-lobed, membranaceous, 
marcescent; stamens 5 or 6 inserted under the ovary; filaments filiform or slightly flat- 
tened, erect in the bud, becoming exserted; anthers oblong, emarginate, and subcordate; 
ovary sessile or stipitate, compressed, crowned by a simple deeply 2-lobed style, the 
spreading lobes papillo-stigmatic on the inner face, usually 1-celled by abortion, rarely 
2-celled; ovule amphitropous; micropyle extrorse, superior. Fruit an ovoid or oblong, often 
oblique, sessile or stipitate samara surrounded at base by the remnants of the calyx, the 
seminal cavity compressed, slightly thickened on the margin, chartaceous, produced into 
a thin reticulate-venulose membranaceous light brown broad or rarely narrow wing naked 
or ciliate on the margin, tipped with the remnants of the persistent style, or more or 



ULMACE.E 309 

less deeply notched at apex, and often marked by the thickened line of the union of the 
two carpels. Seed ovoid, compressed, without albumen, marked op the ventral edge by 
the thin raphe; testa membranaceous, light or dark chestnut-brown, of two coats, rarely 
produced into a narrow wing; embryo erect; cotyledons flat or slightly convex, much 
longer than the superior radicle turned toward the oblong linear pale hilum. 

Ulmus, with eighteen or twenty species, is widely distributed through the boreal and 
temperate regions of the northern hemisphere with the exception of western North Amer- 
ica, reaching in the New World the mountains of southern Mexico and in the Old World 
the Sikkim Himalaya, western China, and Japan. Of the exotic species, Ulmus iprocera 
Salisb., the so-called English Elm, and Ulmus glabra, Huds., the Scotch Elm, and several of 
its varieties, have been largely planted for shade and ornament in the north Atlantic 
states, where old and large specimens of the former can be seen, especially in the neighbor- 
hood of Boston. 

Ulmus produces heavy, hard, tough, light-colored wood, often difficult to split. The 
tough inner bark of some of the species is made into ropes or woven into coarse cloth, and 
in northern China nourishing mucilaginous food is prepared from the inner bark. 

Ulmus is the classical name of the Elm- tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers vernal, appearing before the leaves. 

Flowers on slender drooping pedicels; fruit ciliate on the margins. 
Wing of the fruit broad. 

Bud-scales and fruit glabrous; branchlets destitute of corky wings; leaves obovate- 

oblong to elliptic, usually smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower 

surface. 1. U. americana (A, C). 

Bud-scales puberulous; branches often furnished with corky wings; fruit hirsute; 

leaves obovate to oblong, smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower 

surface. 2. U. racemosa (A). 

Wing of the fruit narrow; bud-scales glabrous or slightly puberulous; branchlets 

usually furnished with broad corky wings; fruit hirsute, leaves ovate-oblong 

to oblong-lanceolate, smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface. 

3. U. alata (A, C). 

Flowers on short pedicels; fruit naked on the margins; bud-scales coated with rusty 

hairs; fruit pubescent, leaves ovate-oblong, scabrous on the upper, pubescent on 

the lower surface. 4. U. fulva (A, C). 

Flowers autumnal, appearing in the axils of leaves of the year; branchlets furnished with 

corky wings; fruit hirsute. 

Bud-scales puberulous; flowers on short pedicels; leaves ovate, scabrous on the 
upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface. 5. U. crassifolia (C). 

Bud-scales glabrous; flowers on long pedicels; leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, 
acuminate, glabrous on the upper, pale and puberulous on the lower surface. 

6. U. serotina (C). 

1. Ulmus americana L. White Elm. 

Leaves obovate-oblong to elliptic, abruptly narrowed at apex into a long point, full and 
rounded at base on one side and shorter and cuneate on the other, coarsely doubly serrate 
with slightly incurved teeth, when they unfold coated below with pale pubescence and 
pilose above with long scattered white hairs, at maturity 4'-6' long, l'-3' wide, dark green 
and glabrous or scarbate above, pale and soft-pubescent or sometimes glabrous below, 
with a narrow pale midrib and numerous slender straight primary veins running to the 
points of the teeth and connected by fine cross veinlets; turning bright clear yellow in the 
autumn before falling; petioles stout, \' in length; stipules linear-lanceolate, '-2' long. 
Flowers on long slender drooping pedicels sometimes 1' in length, in 3 or 4-flowered short- 



310 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



stalked fascicles; calyx irregularly divided into 7-9 rounded lobes ciliate on the margins, 
often somewhat oblique, puberulous on the outer surface, green tinged with red above the 
middle; anthers bright red; ovary light green, ciliate on the margins with long white hairs; 
styles light green. Fruit on long pedicels in crowded clusters, ripening as the leaves unfold, 
ovoid to obovoid-oblong, slightly stipitate, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, \' long, 
ciliate on the margins, the sharp points of the wings incurved and inclosing the deep notch. 
A tree, sometimes 100-120 high, with a tall trunk 6-ll in diameter, frequently en- 
larged at the base by great buttresses, occasionally rising with a straight undivided shaft 
to the height of 60-80 and separating into short spreading branches, more commonly 
divided 30-40 from the ground into numerous upright limbs gradually spreading and 
forming an inversely conic round-topped head of long graceful branches, often 100 or 
rarely 150 in diameter, and slender branchlets frequently fringing the trunk and its prin- 
cipal divisions, light green and coated at first with soft pale pubescence, becoming in their 
first winter light reddish brown, glabrous or sometimes puberulous and marked by scat- 




Fig. 282 

tered pale lenticels, and by large elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars showing the ends of three 
large equidistant fibro-vascular bundles, later becoming dark reddish brown and finally 
ashy gray. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, slightly flattened, about f long, with broadly 
ovate rounded light chestnut-brown glabrous scales, the inner bright green, ovate, acute, 
becoming on vigorous shoots often nearly V in length. Bark \'-\\' thick, ashy gray, di- 
vided by deep fissures into broad ridges separating on the surface into thin appressed scales. 
Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, difficult to split, coarse-grained, light brown, with thick 
somewhat lighter colored sapwood; largely used for the hubs of wheels, saddle-trees, in 
flooring and cooperage, and in boat and shipbuilding. 

Distribution. River-bottom lands, intervales, low rich hills, and the banks of streams; 
southern Newfoundland to the northern shores of Lake Superior and the headwaters of 
the Saskatchewan, southward to the neighborhood of Lake Istokpoga, De Soto County, 
Florida, westward in the United States to the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota, the 
Black Hills of South Dakota, western Nebraska, central Kansas and Oklahoma, and the 
valley of the upper Colorado River (Fort Chadbourne, Coke County), Texas; very com- 
mon northward, less abundant and of smaller size southward; abundant on the banks of 
streams flowing through the midcontinental plateau. 

Largely planted as an ornamental and shade tree in the northern states, and rarely in 
western and northern Europe. 



ULMACE^E 



311 



2. Ulmus racemosa Thomas. Rock Elm. Cork Elm. 

Ulmus Thomasii Sarg. 

Leaves obovate to oblong-oval, rather abruptly narrowed at apex into a short broad 
point, equally or somewhat unequally rounded, cuneate or subcordate at base, and coarsely 
doubly serrate, when they unfold pilose on the upper surface and covered on the lower 
with soft white hairs, at maturity 2'-2|' long, f'-l' wide, thick and firm, smooth, dark green 
and lustrous above, paler and soft-pubescent below, especially on the stout midrib and the 
numerous straight veins running to the point of the teeth and connected by obscure cross 
veinlets; turning in the autumn bright clear yellow; petioles pubescent, about \' in length; 
stipules ovate-lanceolate, conspicuously veined, light green, marked with dark red on the 
margins above the middle, f ' long, clasping the stem by their abruptly enlarged cordate 
base conspicuously dentate with 1-3 prominent teeth on each side, falling when the leaves 
are half grown. Flowers on elongated slender drooping pedicels often \' long, in 2-4, usu- 




Fig. 283 

ally in 3 flowered, puberulous cymes becoming more or less racemose by the lengthening 
of the axis of the inflorescence, and when fully grown sometimes 2' in length; calyx green, 
divided nearly to the middle into 7 or 8 rounded dark red scarious lobes; anthers dark 
purple; ovary coated with long pale hairs most abundant on the margins; styles light green. 
Fruit ripening when the leaves are about half grown, ovoid or obovoid-oblong, \' long, 
with a shallow open notch at the apex, obscurely veined, pale pubescent, ciliate on the 
slightly thickened border of the broad wing, the margin of the seminal cavity scarcely 
thickened. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a trunk occasionally 3 in diameter, and often free of branches 
for 60, short stout spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender 
rigid branchlets, light brown when they first appear, and coated with soft pale pubes- 
cence often persistent until their second season, becoming light reddish brown, puberulous 
or glabrous and lustrous in their first winter, and marked by scattered oblong lenticels and 
large orbicular or semiorbicular leaf-scars displaying an irregular row of 4-6 fibre- vascular 
bundle-scars, ultimately dark brown or ashy gray, and usually furnished with 3 or 4 thick 
corky irregular wings often \' broad, and beginning to appear in their first or more often 
during their second year. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, \' long, with broadly ovate rounded 
chestnut-brown scales pilose on the outer surface, ciliate on the margins, the inner scales 
becoming ovate-oblong to lanceolate, and \' long, often dentate at the base, with 1 or 2 
minute teeth on each side, bright green below the middle, marked with a red blotch above, 
and white and scarious at the apex. Bark \'-\' thick, gray tinged with red, and deeply 



312 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



divided by wide irregular interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges broken on the surface 
into large irregularly shaped scales. Wood heavy, hard, very strong and tough, close- 
grained, light clear brown often tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; 
largely employed in the manufacture of many agricultural implements, for the framework 
of chairs, hubs of wheels, railway-ties, the sills of buildings, and other purposes demanding 
toughness, solidity and flexibility. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly uplands, low heavy clay soils, rocky slopes and river 
cliffs; Province of Quebec westward through Ontario, the southern peninsula of Michi- 
gan and central Wisconsin to northeastern Nebraska, western Missouri and eastern Kansas, 
and southward to northern New Hampshire, southern Vermont, western New York, 
(valley of the Genessee River), northern New Jersey, southern Ohio (near Columbus, 
Franklin County), and central Indiana; rare in the east and toward the extreme west- 
ern and southern limits of its range. 

Occasionally planted as a shade and ornamental tree in the northern states. 

3. Ulmus alata Michx. Wahoo. Winged Elm. 

Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, often somewhat falcate, acute or acuminate, 
unequally cuneate or rounded or subcordate at base, and coarsely doubly serrate with 




Fig. 284 



incurved teeth, when they unfold pale green often tinged with red, coated on the lower 
surface with soft white pubescence and glabrous or nearly so on the upper surface, at ma- 
turity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green and smooth above, pale and soft-pubes- 
cent below, especially on the stout yellow midrib and numerous straight prominent veins 
often forked near the margins of the leaf and connected by rather conspicuous reticulate 
veinlets; turning yellow in the autumn; their petioles stout, pubescent, $' in length; stipules 
linear-obovate, thin and scarious, tinged with red above the middle, often nearly 1' long. 
Flowers on drooping pedicels, in short few-flowered fascicles; calyx glabrous and divided 
nearly to the middle into 5 broad ovate rounded lobes as long as the hoary-tomentose ovary 
raised on a short slender stipe. Fruit ripening before or with the unfolding of the leaves, 
oblong, \' in length, contracted at base into a long slender stalk, gradually narrowed and 
tipped at apex with long incurved awns, and covered with long white hairs most numer- 
ous on the thickened margin of the narrow wing; seed ovoid, pointed, \' long, pale, chest- 
nut-brown, slightly thickened into a narrow wing-like margin. 

A tree, occasionally 80-100 but usually not more than 40-50 high, with a trunk 2-3 
in diameter, short stout straight or erect branches forming a narrow oblong rather open 



ULMACE^S 



313 



round-topped head, and slender branchlets glabrous or puberulous and light green tinged 
with red when they first appear, becoming light reddish brown or ashy gray and glabrous, 
or on vigorous individuals frequently pilose in their first winter, marked by occasional 
small orange-colored lenticels and by small elevated horizontal semiorbicular leaf-scars, 
sometimes naked, more often furnished with usually 2 thin corky wings beginning to grow 
during their first or more often during their second season, abruptly arrested at the nodes, 
often wide, and persistent for many years. Winter-buds slender, acute, f long, dark 
chestnut-brown, with glabrous or puberulous scales, those of the inner ranks becoming 
oblong or obovate, rounded and tipped with a minute mucro, thin and scarious, light red, 
especially above the middle, and \' long. Bark rarely exceeding \' in thickness, light 
brown tinged with red, and divided by irregular shallow fissures into flat ridges covered by 
small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, difficult to 
split, light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; sometimes employed for the hubs of 
wheels and the handles of tools. Ropes used for fastening the covers of cotton bales are 
sometimes made from the inner bark. 

Distribution. Usually on dry gravelly uplands, less commonly in alluvial soil on the 
borders of swamps and the banks of streams, and occasionally in inundated swamps; 
southeastern Virginia, southwestern Indiana, southern Illinois (Richland and Johnson 
Counties) and southern Missouri, and southward to central Florida (Lake County), and 
the valley of the Guadalupe River, Texas; ranging westward in Oklahoma to Garfield 
County (near Kingfisher, G. W. Stevens). 

Often planted as a shade-tree in the streets of towns and villages of the southern states. 

4. Ulmus fulva Michx. Slippery Elm. Red Elm. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, abruptly contracted into a long slender point, rounded at base 
on one side and short-oblique on the other, and coarsely doubly serrate with incurved 




Fig. 285 

callous-tipped teeth, when they unfold thin, coated below with pale pubescence, pilose 
above with scattered white hairs, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and rugose with 
crowded sharp-pointed tubercles pointing toward the apex of the leaf above, soft, smooth, 
and coated below, especially on the thin midrib and in the axils of the slender straight 
veins with white hairs, 5'-7' long, 2'-3' wide; turning a dull yellow color in the autumn; 
petioles stout, pubescent, \' in. length; stipules obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, thin 
and scarious, pale-pubescent, and tipped with clusters of rusty brown hairs. Flowers on 
short pedicels, in crowded fascicles; calyx green, covered with pale hairs, divided into 5-9 



314 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

short rounded thin equal lobes; stamens with slender light yellow slightly flattened fila- 
ments and dark red anthers; stigmas slightly exserted, reddish purple, papillose with soft 
white hairs. Fruit ripening when the leaves are about half grown, semiorbicular, rounded 
and bearing the remnants of the styles or slightly emarginate at apex, rounded or cuneate 
at base, \' broad, the seminal cavity coated with thick rusty brown tomentum, the broad 
thin wing obscurely reticulate-veined, naked on the thickened margin, and marked by 
the dark conspicuous horizontal line of union of the two carpels; seed ovoid, with a large 
oblique pale hilum, a light chestnut-brown coat produced into a thin border wider below 
than above the middle of the seed. 

A tree, 60-70 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, spreading branches form- 
ing a broad open flat-topped head, and stout branchlets bright green, scabrate, and coated 
with soft pale pubescence when they first appear, becoming light brown by midsummer, 
often roughened by small pale lenticels, and in their first winter ashy gray, orange 
color or light red-brown, and marked by large elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars showing 
the ends of 3 conspicuous equidistant fibro-vascular bundles, ultimately dark gray or 
brown. Winter-buds ovoid, obtuse, \' long, with about 12 scales, the outer broadly ovate, 
rounded, dark chestnut-brown, and covered by long scattered rusty hairs, the inner when 
fully grown \' long, \'-\' wide, light green, strap-shaped, rounded and tipped at the apex 
with tufts of rusty hairs, puberulous on the outer surface, slightly ciliate on the margins, 
gradually growing narrower and passing into the stipules of the upper leaves. Bark 
frequently 1' thick, dark brown tinged with red, divided by shallow fissures and covered 
by large thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, durable, 
easy to split, dark brown or red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fence- 
posts, railway-ties, the sills of buildings, the hubs of w r heels, and in agricultural implements. 
The thick fragrant inner bark is mucilaginous and demulcent, and is employed in the treat- 
ment of acute febrile and inflammatory affections. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and low rocky hillsides in deep rich soil; comparatively 
common in the valley of the St. Lawrence River, Province of Quebec, and through Ontario 
to northern and eastern South Dakota, northeastern and eastern Nebraska, southeastern 
Kansas, and Oklahoma to the valley of the Canadian River (McClain County), and south- 
ward to western Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, western Louisiana and the 
valley of the upper Guadalupe (Kerr County) and Leon Rivers (Comal County), Texas; 
in the South Atlantic states not common and mostly confined to the middle districts, as- 
cending to altitudes of 2000 on the southern Appalachian foothills. 

5. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Cedar Elm. . 

Leaves elliptic to ovate, acute or rounded at apex, unequally rounded or cuneate and of- 
ten oblique at base, coarsely and unequally doubly serrate with callous-tipped teeth, when 
they unfold thin, light green tinged with red, pilose above and covered below with soft 
pale pubescence, at maturity thick and subcoriaceous, dark green, lustrous and roughened 
by crowded minute sharp-pointed tubercles on the upper surface and soft pubescent on 
the lower surface, l'-2' long, \'-V wide, with a stout yellow midrib, and prominent straight 
veins connected by conspicuous more or less reticulate cross veinlets; usually turning bright 
yellow late in the autumn; petioles stout, tomentose, \'-\' in length; stipules \' long, 
linear-lanceolate, red and scarious above, clasping the stem by their green and hairy bases, 
deciduous when the leaves are about half grown. Flowers usually opening in August and 
sometimes also in October, on slender pedicels \'-\' long and covered with white hairs, 
in 3-5-flowered pedunculate fascicles; calyx divided to below the middle into oblong pointed 
lobes hairy at base; ovary hirsute, crowned with two short slightly exserted stigmas. 
Fruit ripening in September and rarely also in November, oblong, gradually and often irregu- 
larly narrowed from the middle to the ends, short-stalked, deeply notched at apex, ' to 
nearly \' long, covered with soft white hairs, most abundant on the slightly thickened mar- 
gin of the broad wing; seed oblique, pointed, and covered by a dark chestnut-brown coat. 

A tree, often 80 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, sometimes free of 



ULMACE.E 



315 



branches for 30 or 40, divided into numerous stout spreading limbs forming a broad in- 
versely conic round-topped head of long pendulous branches, or while young or on dry up- 
lands a compact round head of drooping branches, and slender branchlets, tinged with red 
and coated with soft pale pubescence when they first appear, becoming light reddish 
brown, puberulous and marked by scattered minute lenticels and by small elevated semi- 
orbicular leaf-scars showing the ends of 3 small fibro-vascular bundles, and furnished with 
2 corky wings covered with lustrous brown bark, about \' broad and continuous except when 
abruptly interrupted by lateral branchlets, or often irregularly developed. Winter-buds 
broadly ovoid, acute, ' long, with closely imbricated chestnut-brown scales slightly puberu- 




Fig. 286 

lous on the outer surface, those of the inner ranks at maturity oblong, concave, rounded at 
apex, thin, bright red, sometimes f long. Bark sometimes nearly 1' thick, light brown 
slightly tinged with red, and deeply divided by interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges 
broken on the surface into thick scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, light brown 
tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; in central Texas used in the manufac- 
ture of the hubs of wheels, for furniture, and largely for fencing. 

Distribution. Valley of the Sunflower River, Mississippi (Morehead, Sunflower 
County), through southern Arkansas, and Texas to Nuevo Leon, ranging in western Texas 
from the coast to the valley of the Pecos River; in Arkansas usually on river cliffs and low 
hillsides, and in Texas near streams in deep alluvial soil and on dry limestone hills; the 
common Elm-tree of Texas and of its largest size on the bottom-lands of the Guadalupe 
and Trinity Rivers. 

Occasionally planted as a shade- tree in the streets of the cities and towns of Texas. 

6. Ulmus serotina Sarg. Red Elm. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, acuminate, very oblique at base, coarsely and doubly 
crenulate-serrate, when they unfold coated below with shining white hairs and puberulous 
above, at maturity thin and firm in texture, yellow-green, glabrous and lustrous on the up- 
per surface, pale and puberulous on the midrib and principal veins below, 2'-4' long, 1'- 
lf wide, with a prominent yellow midrib, about 20 pairs of primary veins extending 
obliquely to the points of the teeth and often forked near the margins of the leaf, and 
numerous reticular veinlets ; turning clear orange-yellow in the autumn ; petioles stout, about 
in length; stipules abruptly narrowed from broad clasping bases, linear-lanceolate, usu- 
ally about j' long, persistent until the leaves are nearly fully grown. Flowers opening in 



316 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



September on slender conspicuously jointed pedicels often ' long, in many-flowered gla- 
brous racemes from l'-l|' in length; calyx 6-parted to the base, with oblong-obovate red- 
brown divisions rounded at apex; ovary sessile, narrowed below, villose. Fruit ripening 
early in November, stipitate, oblong-elliptic, deeply divided at apex, fringed on the mar- 
gins with long silvery white hairs, about \' long. 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, comparatively small spreading 
or pendulous branches often forming a broad handsome head, and slender pendulous 
branchlets glabrous or occasionally puberulous when they first appear, brown, lustrous, 
and marked by occasional oblong white lenticels during their first year, becoming darker 




Fig. 287 

the following season and ultimately dark gray-brown, and often furnished with 2 or 3 
thick corky wings developed during their second or third years. Winter-buds ovoid, 
acute, \' long, their outer scales oblong-obovate, dark chestnut-brown, glabrous, the inner 
often scarious on the margins, pale yellow-green, lustrous and sometimes f ' long when fully 
grown. Bark \'-\' thick, light brown slightly tinged with red, and divided by shallow fis- 
sures into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into large thin closely appressed scales. 
Wood hard, close-grained, very strong and tough, light red-brown, with pale yellow sap- 
wood. 

Distribution. Limestone hills and river banks; rare and local; eastern (near Pikeville, 
Pike County) and southern Kentucky (Bowling Green, Warren County); banks of the 
Cumberland River, near Clarksville and Nashville, Tennessee; northeastern Georgia (cliffs 
of the Coosa River, near Rome, Floyd County); northern Alabama (Madison, Jefferson 
and Tuscaloosa Counties); valley of the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Crawford 
County, G. M. Brown) and northwestern Arkansas (Sulphur Springs, Benton Courty, and 
Boston Mountains near Jasper, Newton County, E. J. Palmer) ; eastern Oklahoma (near 
Muskogee, Muskogee County, B. H. Slavin); southwestern (Grand Tower, Jackson 
County, H. A.Gleasori) and southern Illinois (Richland County, R. Ridgway). 

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree in the streets of cities in northern Georgia and 
northern Alabama; hardy in Eastern Massachusetts. 



2. PLANERA Gmel. 

A tree, with scaly puberulous branchlets roughened by scattered pale lenticels, and 
at the end of their first season by small nearly orbicular leaf-scars marked by a row of 
fibro-vascular bundle-scars, minute subglobose winter-buds covered by numerous thin 



ULMACE.E 



317 



closely imbricated chestnut-brown scales, the outer more or less scarious on the margins, 
the inner accrescent, becoming at maturity ovate-oblong, scarious, bright red, %'-%' long, 
marking in falling the base of the branchlet with pale ring-like scars. Leaves alternate, 
2-ranked, ovate-oblong, acute or rounded at the narrowed apex, unequally cuneate or 
rounded at base, coarsely crenately serrate with unequal gland-tipped teeth, with numerous 
straight conspicuous veins forked near the margin and connected by cross reticulate vein- 
lets more conspicuous below than above, when they unfold puberulous on the lower and 
pilose on the upper surface, at maturity thick or subcoriaceous and scabrate; petiolate with 
slender terete puberulous petioles; stipules lateral, free, ovate, scarious, bright red. Flowers 
polygamo-moncecious, the staminate fascicled in the axils of the outer scales of leaf-bear- 
ing buds, short-pedicellate, the pistillate or perfect on elongated puberulous pedicels in the 
axils of the leaves of the year in 1-3-flowered fascicles; pedicels without bracts; calyx 
campanulate, divided nearly to the base into 4 or 5 lobes rounded at apex, greenish yellow 
often tinged with red; stamens inserted under the ovary in the pistillate flower, sometimes 
few or 0; filaments filiform, erect, exserted; anthers broadly ovate, emarginate, cordate; 
ovary ovoid, stipitate, glandular-tuberculate, narrowed into a short style divided into 2 
elongated reflexed stigmas papillo-stigmatic on the inner face, in the staminate flower; 
ovule anatropous; micropyle extrorse, superior. Fruit an oblong oblique drupe, narrowed 
below into a short stipe, inclosed at the base by the withered calyx, crowned by the rem- 
nants of the style, its pericarp crustaceous, prominently ribbed on the anterior and pos- 
terior faces, irregularly tuberculate with elongated projections, and light chestnut-brown; 
seed ovoid, oblique, pointed at apex, rounded below, without albumen; testa thin, lustrous, 
dark brown or nearly black, of two coats; raphe inconspicuous; embryo erect; cotyledons 
thick, unequal, bright orange color, the apex of the larger hooded and slightly infolding 
the smaller, much longer than the minute radicle turned toward the linear pale hilum. 

The genus is represented by a single species. 

The generic name is in memory of Johann Jacob Planer, a German botanist and physician 
of the eighteenth century. 

1. Planera aquatica Gmel. Water Elm. 

Leaves 2'-2' long, f '-!' wide, on petioles varying from J'-J' in length, dark dull green 
on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, with a yellow midrib and veins. Flowers 
appearing with the leaves. Fruit ripening in April, \ f long. 




Fig. 288 



A tree, 30-40 high, with a short trunk rarely exceeding 20' in diameter, rather slender 
spreading branches forming a low broad head, and branchlets brown tinged with red when 



318 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

they first appear, dark red in their first winter, and ultimately reddish brown or ashy 
gray. Bark about i' thick, light brown or gray, separating into large scales disclosing in 
falling the red-brown inner bark. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, light brown, 
with thick nearly white sapwood of 20-30 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Swamps covered with water during several months of the year, or low 
river banks; valley of the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, southward to northern Florida 
(Bradford County) and westward usually not far from the coast through the Gulf states 
to the valleys of the Navasota (Brazos County) and of the Colorado (Matagorda County) 
Rivers, Texas, and northward through western Louisiana, eastern Oklahoma, and Arkan- 
sas to southeastern Missouri, northeastern Mississippi (near luka, Tishomingo County, 
T. G. Harbison)., northern Kentucky (Henderson County), and the valley of the lower 
Wabash River, Illinois; comparatively rare and confined to the coast plain in the Atlan- 
tic states; abundant and of its largest size in western Louisiana and southern Arkansas. 

3. CELTIS L. 

Trees or shrubs, with thin, smooth often more or less muricate bark, unarmed or spinose 
branchlets, and scaly buds. Leaves serrate or entire, 3-nerved in one species, membrana- 
ceous or subcoriaceous, deciduous; stipules lateral, free, usually scarious, inclosing their 
leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers polygamo-moncecious or rarely monoecious, appearing 
soon after the unfolding of the leaves, minute, pedicellate, on branches of the year, the 
staminate cymose or fascicled at their base, the pistillate solitary or in few-flowered fas- 
cicles from the axils of upper leaves; calyx divided nearly to the base into 4 or 5 lobes, 
greenish yellow, deciduous; stamens inserted on the margin of the discoid torus; filaments 
subulate, incurved in the bud, those of the sterile flower straightening themselves abruptly 
and becoming erect and exserted, shorter and remaining incurved in the perfect flower; 
anthers ovoid, attached on the back just above the emarginate base; ovary ovoid, sessile, 
green and lustrous, crowned with a short sessile style divided into diverging elongated 
reflexed acuminate entire lobes papillo-stigmatic on the inner face and mature before the 
anthers of the sterile flower, deciduous; minute and rudimentary in the staminate flower; 
ovule anatropous. Fruit an ovoid or globose drupe tipped with the remnants of the style, 
\vith thin flesh covered by a thick firm skin, and a thick-walled bony nutlet, reticulate- 
pitted in the American species. Seed filling the seminal cavity ; albumen scanty, gelatinous, 
nearly inclosed between the folds of the cotyledons, or 0; testa membranaceous, of 2 con- 
fluent coats; chalaza colored, close to the minute hilum; embryo curved; cotyledons broad, 
foliaceous, conduplicate or rarely flat, variously folded, corrugate, incumbent, or inclosing 
the short superior ascending radicle. 

Celtis is widely distributed through the temperate and tropical regions of the world, 
fifty or sixty species being distinguished. 

Trees of the American species are often disfigured by gall-making insects which distort 
the buds and cause the production of dark broom-like clusters of short slender branchlets 
at the end of the branches. 

Celtis was the classical name of a species of Lotus. . 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Fruit on pedicels much longer than the petioles. 

Leaves not covered below with conspicuous reticulate veinlets, green on both surfaces, 
smooth or rough above; fruit dark purple. 1. C. occidentalis. 

Leaves covered below with a network of prominent veinlets, usually rough above. 
Leaves pale on the lower surface. 

Leaves broadly ovate, obliquely rounded at base, coarsely serrate, glabrous or 
slightly pilose below along the midrib and veins; fruit light orange-brown, the 
pedicels often 3 or 4 times longer than the petioles. 2. C. Douglasii. 






ULMACE^E 



319 



Leaves oblong-ovate, mostly cordate or occasionally rounded at base, entire or 

slightly serrate toward the apex, covered below with pilose pubescence; fruit 

dark reddish brown, the pedicels usually not more than twice as long as the 

petioles. 3. C. Lindheimeri. 

Leaves green on the lower surface, broadly ovate, obliquely rounded at base, entire, 

pubescent along the midrib and veins below, rarely smooth on the upper surface; 

fruit dark orange-red, the pedicels usually not more than twice as long as the 

petioles. 4. C. reticulate. 

Fruit on pedicels shorter or only slightly longer than the petioles. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate, unsymmetrically cuneate at base, often fal- 
cate, entire or more or less serrate, smooth or rarely roughened on the upper sur- 
face; fruit orange color or yellow, the pedicels shorter or somewhat longer than the 
petioles. 5. C. laevigate. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, coarsely serrate 
or nearly entire, smooth or in var. georgiana roughened on the upper surface; fruit 
dark orange red, the pedicels usually shorter than the petioles. 6. C. pumila. 

1 . Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry. Sugarberry. 

Leaves ovate, short-acuminate or acute at apex, obliquely rounded at base, sharply 
serrate often only above the middle, thin, slightly pubescent below on the slender midrib 
and veins early in the season, becoming glabrous or nearly glabrous, 2|'-3^' long, 




wide; turning yellow late in the autumn; petioles slender, glabrous, %'-%' in length. Flow- 
ers on drooping pedicels; calyx divided usually into 5 linear acute thin and scarious lobes 
rounded on the back, more or less laciniately cut, and often furnished with a tuft of pale 
hairs at apex; torus hoary-tomentose. Fruit on stems I'-f' long, ripening in September 
and October and often remaining on the branches during the winter, subglobose, ovoid 
or obovoid, dark purple, \' in diameter, with a thick tough skin, dark orange-colored flesh 
and a thick- walled oblong pointed light brown slightly rugose nutlet; seed pale brown. 

A tree, rarely more than 40-50 high with a trunk usually not more than 2 in diameter, 
spreading often pendulous branches forming a round-topped head, and slender ridged light 
brown glabrous branchlets marked by oblong pale lenticels, and by horizontal semioval or 
oblong leaf-scars showing the ends of three fibre-vascular bundles, becoming darker and in 
their second or third year often dark red-brown. Winter-buds ovoid, pointed, flattened, 
about j' long, with three pairs of chestnut-brown ovate acute pubescent caducous scales 
closely imbricated in two ranks, increasing in size from without inward. Bark l'-l|' 



320 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



thick, smooth, dark brown, and more or less thickly covered and roughened by irregular 
wart-like excrescences or by long ridges also found on the large branches. Wood heavy, 
rather soft, not strong, coarse-grained, clear light yellow, with thick lighter-colored sap- 
wood; used for fencing and in the manufacture of cheap furniture. 

Distribution. Rocky hills and ridges; New England (rare) to Virginia and westward 
to Iowa, eastern North Dakota, southwestern Missouri and northwestern Kansas. 

Often planted in some of its forms as a shade and ornamental tree in the towns of the 
Mississippi valley and occasionally in the eastern states and in Europe. 

Well distinguished by its large dark fruit, Celtis occidentalis is so variable in the shape of 
its leaves that two principal varieties are described as follows: 

Celtis occidentalis var. canina Sarg. Hackberry. 
Celtis canina Raf . 

Leaves oblong-ovate, gradually narrowed into a long acuminate point, obliquely rounded 
or unsymmetrically cuneate at base, finely serrate, glabrous or rarely pilose along the 
midrib and veins below, 2|'-6' long and f-2^' wide; petioles slender, glabrous or rarely 
pubescent, !' |' long. 




A tree, often 80-100 high; more common than the other forms of Celtis occidentalis. 

Distribution. Rich wooded slopes and bottoms, or eastward on rocky ridges; Province 
of Quebec to eastern Nebraska, and southward to the coast of Massachusetts, western 
New York, southern Ohio, southern Indiana and Illinois, southwestern Missouri, south- 
western Oklahoma (Snyder, Kiowa County), and in northwestern Georgia. 

Celtis occidentalis var. crassifolia A. Gray. Hackberry. 

Celtis crassifolia Lam. 

Leaves thicker, long-acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, usually more coarsely ser- 
rate, rarely nearly entire, rough on the upper surface, pilose below along the prominent 
midrib and veins, 3|'-5' long, 2'-2|' wide, much smaller in the Rocky Mountain region; 
petioles villose-pubescent, rarely glabrous, \'-% in length, much shorter than the pubescent 
pedicels of the fruit. 

A tree, 100-120 high; with pubescent or glabrous branchlets; rarely shrubby. The 
most widely distributed form of Celtis occidentalis. 

Distribution. Wooded slopes and rich bottoms; Virginia and along the Appalachian 
Mountains to North Carolina and westward to southern Minnesota, Missouri, central 



TJLMACE.E 



Kansas, eastern and northwestern Oklahoma, central Nebraska, North and South Da 
kota, canons of the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, and northwestern Idaho, and south 
ward to Dallas County, Alabama, and eastern Texas. 




Fig. 291 

Often cultivated in towns of the Mississippi Valley and in western Europe, and occa- 
sionally in the eastern states. 

2. Celtis Douglasii Plan. Hackbeny. 

Celtis rugulosa Rydb. 

Leaves broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acuminate, obliquely rounded or unsymmetrically 
subcordate at base, coarsely serrate, rough on the upper surface, pale and covered below 




Fig. 292 



with a network of reticulate veinlets inconspicuous early in the season, later becoming 
prominent, glabrous or sparingly pilose along the under side of the stout midrib and pri- 



322 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



mary veins, 2'-2|' long, l'-2' wide; petioles stout, slightly pubescent, \'-\' in length. 
Flowers on slender, pubescent pedicels; calyx divided into five linear acute scarious lobes 
laciniately cut at apex; torus hoary-tomentose. Fruit on slender drooping slightly pu- 
bescent or glabrous pedicels, \'-\' in length, subglobose to ellipsoid, light orange-brown, 
lustrous, \' in diameter. 

A small tree or shrub rarely more than 20' high, with slender slightly pubescent or gla- 
brous red-brown branchlets marked by small pale lenticels, becoming ashy gray in their 
second or third year. Bark rough, red-brown or gray. 

Distribution. Dry hillsides and rocky river banks; eastern Oregon from the valley of 
the Deschutes and Columbia Rivers to the canon of Snake River, Whitman County, 
Washington, and to Big Willow Creek, Canon County, western Idaho; on the western foot- 
hills of the Wasatch Mountains, in the canon of Grand River, and in Diamond Valley, 
Utah; southern California, near Independence, Inyo County, Hackberry Canon, Kern 
County, and Things Valley at base of Laguna Mountain, near Campo, southern San 
Diego County; on Cedros Island, and in northern Lower California; rim of the Grand 
Canon, Arizona, and on the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. 

Occasionally planted in the towns of western Washington, and when cultivated said to 
grow in good soil into a larger and more shapely tree with thinner leaves. 

3. Celtis Lindheimeri K. Koch. Palo Blanco. 
Celtis Helleri Small. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate or acute, cordate or obliquely cordate or rounded at 
base, entire, or crenately serrate on vigorous shoots, rough above, pale and clothed below 
with white hairs, becoming by midsummer thick and covered below with a conspicuous 
network of reticulate veinlets, H'-3' long, f'-2' wide; petioles densely villose-pubescent, 




Fig. 293 



|'-|' in length. Flowers opening toward the end of March on pubescent pedicels; calyx 
divided into five oblong scarious lobes narrowed and rounded at apex; torus tomentose. 
Fruit on slender tomentose stems i'-f ' long, ripening in September and persistent on the 
branches until spring, subglobose to ellipsoid, dark reddish brown, lustrous, j' in diameter. 



ULMACE^E 323 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk rarely more than 12'-18' in diameter, stout 
spreading branches forming a broad open irregular head, and slender pubescent branch- 
lets roughened by numerous small lenticels, becoming darker and glabrous in their second 
season. Bark of the trunk and large branches dark and covered with high thick wart-like 
excrescences and ridges. Wood not strong nor durable, of little value even for fuel. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and on low adjacent hills of streams flowing south- 
ward from the Edward's Plateau (Goliad, San Antonio, New Braunfels, San Marcos) and 
near Austin, Travis County, Texas. 

4. Celtis reticulata Torr. Hackberry. 

Leaves broadly ovate, acute or acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, entire, thick, 
dark green and rough or rarely smooth on the upper surface, yellow r -green and conspicu- 
ously reticulate-venulose and sparingly pilose along the prominent midrib and veins on 




Fig. 294 



the lower surface, lJ'-3' long, f'-l*' wide; petioles stout, \'-\' in length, more or less 
densely pubescent. Flowers not seen. Fruit on pubescent pedicels \'-\ r in length, ripen- 
ing in September, subglobose to ellipsoid, orange-red or yellow, lustrous, \ r in diameter. 

A tree, rarely 30 high with stout ascending branches forming an open irregular head, 
and slender red-brown branchlets tomentose or pubescent early in their first season and 
pubescent or glabrous in their second year; or often a shrub. Bark thick and rough. 

Distribution. Dry limestone hillsides, rocky ridges and canon slopes, western Texas, 
from the valley of the upper Rio Frio, Uvalde County, to Oklahoma (Ozark region, near 
Page, Le Flore County to the southwestern borders of the state) ; in mountain ravines 
through southern New Mexico, and in southern central and northeastern Arizona. 

A variety with more pubescent serrate leaves, those on vigorous shoots mostly cordate 
at base and covered above with short white hairs, is distinguished as var. vestita Sarg. 
A small tree with slender pubescent branchlets and a trunk 12'-15' in diameter. In low 
ground, along the North Fork of the Canadian River, near Canton, Blaine County, Okla- 
homa. 

5. Celtis laevigata K. Koch. Sugarberry. Hackberry. 

Celtis mississippiensis Spach. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long-pointed and acuminate at apex, unsymmetrically 
rounded or cuneate or obliquely cuneate at base, often falcate, entire or furnished with a 
few teeth near the apex or serrate (var. Smallii Sarg.), thin, smooth, glabrous or rarely 
rough above, light green on both surfaces, 2|'-5' long and f -l' wide, with a narrow yellow 



324 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



midrib, slender veins arcuate and united near the margins, and inconspicuous reticulate 
veinlets; petioles slender, glabrous, \'-\' in length. Flowers on slender glabrous pedicels; 
calyx divided into five ovate-lanceolate glabrous or puberulous scarious lobes furnished 
at apex with tufts of long white hairs. Fruit on glabrous pedicels shorter or slightly longer 
than the petioles, ripening in September, short-oblong to ellipsoid or obovoid, orange- 
red or yellow, \' in diameter; nutlet slightly rugose. 




Fig. 295 



A tree, 60-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, spreading or pendulous branches 
forming a broad head, and slender branchlets light green, glabrous or pubescent when they 
first appear, and during their first winter bright reddish brown, rather lustrous and marked 
by oblong pale lenticels and narrow elevated horizontal leaf-scars showing the ends of 
three fibro- vascular bundles; often much smaller. Winter-buds ovoid, pointed, rV-F 
long, with chestnut-brown puberulous scales. Bark \'-\' thick, pale gray and covered with 
prominent excrescences. Wood soft, not strong, close-grained, light yellow, with thick 
lighter-colored sapwood; commercially confounded with the wood of Celtis occidentalis 
and its varieties, and used for the same purposes. 

Distribution. Coast of Virginia to the Everglades Keys of southern Florida, through 
the Gulf states to the valley of the lower Rio Grande in Nuovo Leon, and through eastern 
Texas, Arkansas and Missouri to eastern Oklahoma to the valley of the Washita River 
(Zarvin County) and to Kiowa County, eastern Kansas, central Tennessee and Kentucky, 
and to southern Illinois and Indiana; in Bermuda. 

Often planted as a shade and street tree in the valley of the Mississippi River and in 
Texas. 

An arborescent form from the rocky banks of the Nueces River, western Texas, with 
shorter and thicker leaves is distinguished as var. brachyphylla Sarg.; and a small shrubby 
form with oblong-ovate cordate leaves and dark purplish fruit covered with a glaucous 
bloom, growing in deep sand in Callihan County, Texas, has been described as var. anomala 
Sarg. An Arizona form is 



Celtis laevigata var. brevipes Sarg. 

Celtis brevipes S. Wats. 

Leaves ovate, acuminate, unsymmetrically rounded or cuneate at base, entire or rarely 
furnished with occasional teeth, glabrous, dark green and smooth on the upper surface, 
yellow-green on the lower surface, with small clusters of pale hairs in the axils of the slen- 
der veins, and inconspicuous reticulate veinlets, l^'-2' long, '-!' wide; petioles slender, 



ULMACE.E 325 



puberulous, i'-i' in length. Fruit on glabrous pedicels shorter or slightly longer than 
the petioles, short-oblong, canary yellow, about j' long. 







Fig. 296 



A small tree with slender glabrous red-brown branchlets. 

Distribution. Central and southern Arizona. 

More distinct is the common Celtis of western Texas which has been described as 

Celtis laevigata var. texana Sarg. 

Leaves ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, unsymmetrically rounded or cordate at base, 
entire or sparingly and irregularly serrate, often subcoriaceous, dark green, smooth and 
granulate or rarely rough above, green below, with a slender midrib and primary veins 
glabrous or sparingly villose-pubescent and furnished with small tufts of axillary hairs, 
and only slightly raised reticulate veinlets, l'-3' long and f'-lj' wide; petioles slender. 




Fig. 297 

pale pubescent, '-j' in length. Fruit on glabrous or puberulous pedicels slightly longer 
than the petioles, subglobose but rather longer than broad, dark orange-red, about j' long. 

An arborescent shrub or small tree rarely more than 25 high, with slender reddish 
glabrous or gray-brown pubescent branchlets; often growing in clusters. Bark rough, 
pale or grayish and not often covered with wart-like excrescences. 

Distribution. Rocky bluffs near Dallas to New Braunfels, Texas, and westward to 



326 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

western Oklahoma, and southern New Mexico; in southwestern Missouri; in Tamaulipas 
and Coahuila, Mexico. The common Celtis of the Texas Panhandle. 

A shrubby form from Nolan County, Texas, with red-brown branchlets densely pubes- 
cent in their first season, becoming puberulous during their second year, and smaller 
leaves with more prominent reticulate veinlets, on densely pubescent petioles, is distin- 
guished as forma microphylla Sarg. 

6. Celtis pumila Pursh. 
This shrub of the eastern states is sometimes a small tree in its southern variety, 

Celtis pumila var. georgiana Sarg. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, obliquely rounded at base, entire or sharply serrate, 
especially on vigorous leading shoots, thin, dark green and rough on the upper surface, 
pale and more or less pubescent or nearly glabrous along the midrib and veins below. 
H'-2|' long and f'-H' wide; petioles slender, pubescent, |'-j' in length. Flowers on 
pubescent pedicels; calyx divided into usually five lanceolate acuminate lobes; the disk 








Fig. 298 

pubescent. Fruit on pubescent pedicels as long or slightly longer than the petioles, sub- 
globose, reddish purple, often covered with a glaucous bloom, \' in diameter; nutlet covered 
with conspicuous reticulate ridges. 

A shrub or small tree occasionally 30 high, with slender dark red-brown pubescent 
branchlets, light red-brown and sometimes bright red-brown before the end of their first 
year. 

Distribution. Piedmont region of North and South Carolina, central Georgia to western 
Florida; and Dallas County, Alabama; in southern Missouri, and southern Illinois. 

4. TREMA Lour. 

Unarmed trees and shrubs with watery juices and terete branchlets. Leaves alternate, 
often two-ranked, serrate, penniveined, three-nerved from the base, short-petiolate, per- 
sistent; stipules lateral, free, usually small, caducous. Flowers apetalous, small, monoe- 
cious, dioecious or rarely perfect, in axillary cymes; calyx five or rarely four-parted, the 
lobes induplicate, valvate or slightly imbricated in the bud, or in perfect flowers more or 
less concave and induplicate; stamens five or rarely four, opposite the calyx-lobes and in- 
serted on their base, occasionally present in the pistillate flower; filaments short, erect: 
anthers oblong, attached on the back near the base, introrse, two-celled, the cells opening 



ULMACE^E 



327 



longitudinally; ovary sessile, rudimentary or wanting in the staminate flower; style cen- 
tral, slightly or entirely divided into two linear fleshy stigmatic branches; ovule solitary, 
pendulous from the apex of the cell, anatropous; micropyle superior. Fruit drupaceous, 
short-oblong to subglobose, crowned by the persistent style; exocarp more or less fleshy: 
endocarp hard; seed filling the cavity of the nutlet; testa membranaceous, albumen fleshy, 
often scanty; embryo curved or slightly involute; cotyledons narrow; radicle incurved, 
ascending. 

Trema, with about twenty species, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical 
regions of the two hemispheres. Two species reach the coast region and the keys of 
southern Florida. Of these Trema mollis Lour, is a small tree, and Trema Lamarckiana 
Bl., which in Florida has been noticed only on Key Largo, where it grows as a small shrub, 
is widely distributed over the Bahamas and many of the West Indian islands. 

1. Trema mollis Lour. 
Trema floridana Britt. 

Leaves 2-ranked, ovate, abruptly acuminate at apex, rounded, cordate and often oblique 
at base, finely serrate with incurved or rounded apiculate teeth, dark green and scabrate 
above, covered with pale tomentum below, 3'-4' long, l'-2' wide; petioles stout, tomen- 




Fig. 299 



tose, about f ' in length ; stipules narrow, acuminate, covered with long white hairs, about 
one third as long as the petioles. Flowers in early spring, subtended by minute scarious 
deciduous bracts on short slender pedicels in bisexual many-flowered pedunculate villose 
cymes about as long as the petioles; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes oblong, acute and incurved 
at apex, villose on the outer surface; staminate with glabrous filaments and slightly ex- 
serted yellow anthers; pistillate with a style divided to the base. Fruit short-oblong, 
pale yellowish brown, i' 5-' in diameter. 

A fast-growing short-lived tree, in Florida occasionally 25-30 high, with a tall trunk 
1|'-2|' in diameter, small crowded branches ascending at narrow angles, and stout hoary- 
tomentose red-brown 2-ranked branchlets. Bark thin, chocolate-brown, roughened by 
numerous small wart-like excrescences, and separating into small appressed papery scales. 

Distribution. Rich hummocks; near the shores of Bay Biscayne, in the Everglades, and 



328 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

on the southern keys, Florida; common; often springing up where the ground has been 
burned over, or otherwise cleared of its forests; on many of the West Indian islands and in 
Mexico. 

XH. MORACEJE. 

Tree or shrubs, with milky juice, scaly or naked buds, and stalked alternate simple 
leaves with stipules. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, in ament-like spikes, or in heads on 
the outside of a receptacle or on the inside of a closed receptacle; calyx of the staminate 
flower 2-6-lobed or parted; stamens 1-4, inserted on the base of the calyx; calyx of the 
pistillate flower of 2-6 partly united sepals; ovary 1-2-celled; styles 1 or 2; ovule pendulous. 
Fruits drupaceous, inclosed in the thickened calyx of the flower and united into a compound 
fruit (syncarp) . The Mulberry family is widely distributed with fifty-four genera confined 
largely to the warmer parts of the world. Three genera only, all arborescent, are indige- 
nous in North America, although Broussonetia papyri/era Vent., the Paper Mulberry, a 
tree related to the Mulberry and a native of eastern Asia, and the Hop and the Hemp 
are more or less generally naturalized in the eastern and southern states. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Flowers on the outside of the receptacle; buds scaly. 

Flowers in ament-like spikes; syncarp oblong and succulent. I. Morus. 

Staminate flowers racemose, the pistillate capitate; syncarp dry and globose. 

2. Madura. 

Flowers on the inside of a closed receptacle; buds naked; syncarp subglobose to ovoid, 
succulent. 3. Ficus. 

1. MORUS L. Mulberry. 

Trees or shrubs, with slender terete unarmed branches prolonged by one of the upper 
axillary buds, scaly bark, fibrous roots, and winter-buds covered by ovate scales closely 
imbricated in 2 ranks, increasing in size from without inward, the inner accrescent, mark- 
ing in falling the base of the branch with ring-like scars. Leaves conduplicate in the bud, 
alternate, serrate, entire or 3-lobed, 3-5-nerved at base, membranaceous or subcoriaceous, 
deciduous; stipules inclosing their leaf in the bud, lateral, lanceolate, acute, caducous. 
Flowers monoecious or direcious, the staminate and pistillate on different branches of the 
same plant or on different plants, minute, vernal, in pedunculate clusters from the axils 
of caducous bud-scales or of the lower leaves of the year; staminate hi elongated cylin- 
dric spikes; calyx deeply divided into 4 equal rounded lobes; stamens 4, inserted opposite 
the lobes of the calyx under the minute rudimentary ovary, filaments filiform, incurved in 
the bud, straightening elastically and becoming exserted, anthers attached on the back 
below the middle, introrse, 2-celled, the cells reniform, attached laterally to the orbicular 
connective, opening longitudinally; pistillate sessile, in short-oblong densely flowered 
spikes; calyx 4-parted, the lobes ovate or obovate, thickened, often unequal, the 2 outer 
broader than the others, persistent; ovary ovoid, flat, sessile, included in the calyx, crowned 
by a central style divided nearly to the base into 2 equal spreading filiform villose white 
stigmatic lobes; ovule suspended from the apex of the cell, campy lotropous; micropyle 
superior. Drupes ovoid or obovoid, crowned with the remnants of the styles, inclosed in 
the succulent thickened and colored perianth of the flower and more or less united into 
a more or less juicy compound fruit; flesh subsucculent, thin; walls of the nutlet thin or 
thick, crustaceous. Seed oblong, pendulous; testa, thin, membranacfeous; hilum minute, 
apical; embryo incurved in thick fleshy albumen; cotyledons oblong, equal; radicle ascend- 
ing, incumbent. 

Morus with eight or nine species is confined to eastern temperate North America, the 
elevated regions of Mexico, Central America and western South America, southern and 



MOEACE.E 



329 



western Asia, Indo-China, China, Japan, the Bonin Islands and the mountains of the Indian 
Archipelago. Two species occur in North America. The most valuable species, Morut 
alba L., a native of China and Formosa, and largely cultivated in many countries for 
its leaves, which are the best food of the silkworm, has been planted in large quantities 
in the eastern United States; and Morus nigra L., probably a native of Persia, has been 
introduced into the southern and Pacific states for its large dark-colored juicy fruit. Morus 
produces straight-grained durable light brown or orange-colored valuable wood, and 
sweet acidulous and refreshing fruits. 

Morus is the classical name of the Mulberry-tree. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves coated below with pale pubescence; lobes of the stigma long; syncarp oblong, dark 
purple. 1. M. rubra (A, C). 

Leaves glabrous or pubescent below; lobes of the stigma short; syncarp subglobose or 
short-ovoid, nearly black. 2. M. microphylk (C, E, H). 

1. Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry. 

Leaves ovate, oblong-ovate or semiorbicular, abruptly contracted into a long broad 
point or acute at apex, more or less deeply cordate or occasionally truncate at base, coarsely 
and occasionally doubly serrate with incurved callous-tipped teeth, often, especially on 




Fig. 300 



vigorous young shoots, 3-lobed by broad deep oblique lateral rounded sinuses, when they 
unfold yellow-green, slightly pilose on the upper surface and hoary-tomentose on the lower 
surface, at maturity thin, dark bluish green, glabrous, smooth or scabrate above, pale 
and more or less pubescent below with short white hairs thickest on the orange-colored 
midrib, and on the primary veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by 
reticulate veinlets, or sometimes hoary-tomentose below (var. tomentosa Bureau), 3'-5' 
long, 2|'-4<' wide; turning bright yellow in the autumn; petioles stout, hoary-tomentose 
at first, becoming glabrous, f'-lj' in length; stipules lanceolate, acute, abruptly enlarged 
and thickened at base, sometimes tinged with red above the middle, coated with long white 
hairs, and often 1' in length. Flowers appearing with the unfolding of the leaves; stami- 
nate in narrow spikes 2'-2|' long, on stout light green peduncles covered with pale hairs: 
calyx divided nearly to the base into oblong concave lobes rounded at apex and hirsute on 
the outer surface; stamens with slightly flattened filaments narrowed from the base to the 
apex, and bright green anthers, their connectives orbicular, conspicuous, bright green; pis- 



330 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

tillate in oblong densely flowered spikes, 1' long, on short hairy peduncles, a few male 
flowers being sometimes mixed with them; calyx divided nearly to the base into 4 thick 
concave lobes rounded at apex, rounded or slightly keeled on the back, the 2 outer lobes 
twice as wide as the others, as long as and closely investing the glabrous light green ovary. 
Fruit: syncarp at first bright red when fully grown, I'-lj' long, becoming dark purple or 
nearly black and sweet and juicy when fully ripe; drupes about -%' long, with a thin fleshy 
outer coat and a light brown nutlet; seed ovoid, acute, with a thin membranaceous light 
brown coat. 

A tree, 60-70 high, with a short trunk rarely exceeding 3-4 in diameter, stout spread- 
ing smooth branches forming a dense broad round-topped shapely head, and slender 
slightly zigzag branchlets dark green often tinged with red, glabrous, more or less coated 
with pale pubescence, and covered with oblong straw-colored spots when they first appear, 
becoming in their first winter light red-brown to orange color and marked by pale lenticels 
and by large elevated horizontal nearly orbicular concave leaf-scars displaying a row of 
prominent fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and in their second and third years dark brown 
slightly tinged with red. Winter-buds ovoid, rounded or pointed at apex, \' long, with 
6 or 7 chestnut-brown scales, those of the outer rows broadly o^ate, rounded, and slightly 
thickened on the back, puberulous, ciliate on the margins, and much shorter than those 
of the next rows, the inner scales scarious, coated with pale hairs, oblong-lanceolate, 
rounded or acute at apex, and \'-\' long at maturity. Bark \'-\' thick, dark brown tinged 
with red and divided into irregular elongated plates separating on the surface into thick 
appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, rather tough, coarse-grained, very durable, 
light orange color, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fencing, in cooper- 
age, and in boatbuilding. 

Distribution. Intervales in rich soil and on low hills; western Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, and Long Island to southern Ontario, central Michigan, southeastern Minnesota, 
eastern Iowa, southeastern South Dakota, eastern Nebraska, central Kansas and Okla- 
homa, and southward to the shores of Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano, Florida, and to 
the canon of the Devil's River, Valverde County, Texas; most abundant and of its largest 
size in the basin of the lower Ohio River and on the foothills of the southern Appalachian 
Mountains; ascending to altitudes of 2000. 

Occasionally planted, especially in the southern states, for its fruit valued for fatten- 
ing hogs and as food for poultry. A few natural varieties, distinguished for the large size 
and good quality of their fruit, or for their productiveness, are occasionally propagated by 
pomologists. 

2. Morus microphylla Buckl. Mulberry. Mexican Mulberry. 
Morus celtidifolia Sarg. not H. B. K. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded or rarely truncate, or often on vigorous 
shoots cordate at the broad base, and 3-lobed with shallow lateral sinuses and broad 
coarsely serrate lobes, when they unfold coated below with pale tomentum, and puberu- 
lous above, at maturity thin and firm in texture, dark green and often roughened on the 
upper surface by minute pale tubercles, and paler, smooth or scabrate, and glabrous or 
coated with soft pubescence on the lower surface, and often hirsute with short stiff pale 
hairs on the broad orange-colored midrib, and on the primary veins connected by conspicu- 
ous reticulate veinlets, rarely more than 1^' long and f wide; turning yellow in the autumn; 
petioles slender, hoary-tomentose, becoming pubescent, %' in length; stipules linear-lanceo- 
late, acute, sometimes falcate, white and scarious, coated with soft pale tomentum, about 
long. Flowers usually direcious, staminate short-pedicellate, in short many-flowered 
spikes, |'-f long; calyx dark green, covered on the outer surface with soft pale hairs, 
deeply divided into equal rounded lobes reddish toward the apex; stamens with bright 
yellow anthers, their connectives conspicuous, dark green; pistillate sessile in few-flowered 
spikes, rarely f ' in length; calyx divided to the base into thick rounded lobes, the 2 outer 



MORACE^E 



331 



lobes much broader than the others, dark green, covered with pale scattered hairs; ovary 
green and glabrous, with short stigmatic lobes. Fruit: syncarp \' long, red becoming 
dark purple or nearly black, sweet and palatable; drupe \' long, ovoid, rounded at the 
ends, with a thin fleshy outer covering and a thick-walled light brown nutlet; seed ovoid, 
pointed, pale yellow. 

A tree, sometimes 15-20 high, with a trunk occasionally 12'-14' in diameter, and slen- 
der branchlets covered when they first appear with soft white hairs, soon becoming gla- 




Fig. 30! 

brous or nearly so, and in their first winter light orange-red and marked by small lenticels 
and small horizontal nearly orbicular elevated concave leaf-scars displaying a ring of 
fibro- vascular bundle-scars; often a shrub. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, sharp-pointed, and 
covered by thin lustrous chestnut-brown ovate rounded scales scarious on the margins, 
those of the inner rows ovate-oblong, rounded at apex, pale-pubescent on the outer surface, 
and nearly 1' long when fully grown. Bark smooth, sometimes nearly \' thick but usually 
thinner, light gray slightly tinged with red, deeply furrowed and broken on the surface into 
slightly appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, dark orange color or some- 
times dark brown, with thick light-colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Dry limestone hills, or westward only in elevated mountain canons in 
the neighborhood of streams ; valley of the Colorado River, Texas, southward into Mexico 
and through the mountain regions of western Texas and southern New Mexico to the 
Santa Rita Mountains and the canons of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona. 



2. MACLURA Nutt. 
Toxylon (loxylon) Rafn. 

A tree, with thick milky slightly acrid juice, thick deeply furrowed dark orange-colored 
bark, stout tough terete pale branchlets, with thick orange-colored pith, lengthening by 
an upper axillary bud, marked by pale orange-colored lenticels and armed with stout 
straight axillary spines, short stout spur-like lateral branchlets from buds at the base of 
the spines, and thick fleshy roots covered by bright orange-colored bark exfoliating freely 
in long thin persistent papery scales. Leaves involute in the bud, ovate to oblong-lanceo- 
late, acuminate and apiculate at apex, rounded, cuneate or subcordate at base, entire, 
penniveined, the veins arcuate near the margins and connected by conspicuous reticulate 
veinlets; petioles elongated, slender, terete, pubescent; stipules lateral, nearly triangular, 
minute, hoary-tomentose, caducous. Flowers dioecious, light green, minute, appearing in 



332 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

early summer; calyx 4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in sestivation; the staminate long- 
pedicellate, in short or ultimately elongated racemes borne on long slender drooping pe- 
duncles from the axils of crowded leaves on the spur-like branchlets of the previous year; 
calyx ovoid, gradually narrowed into the slender pubescent pedicel, coated on the outer 
surface with pale hairs, divided to the middle into equal acute boat-shaped lobes; stamens 
4, inserted opposite the lobes of the calyx on the margins of the minute thin pulvinate disk; 
filaments flattened, light green, glabrous, infolded above the middle in the bud, with the 
anthers inverted and back to back, straightening abruptly in anthesis and becoming ex- 
serted; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the middle, introrse, 2-celled, the cells 
attached laterally to a minute oblong or semiorbicular connective, free and spreading above 
and below, opening by longitudinal lateral slits; pistillate sessile in dense globose many- 
flowered heads on short stout peduncles axillary on shoots of the year; calyx ovoid, divided 
to the base into oblong thick concave lobes, rounded, thickened, and covered with pale hairs 
at the apex, longer than the ovary and closely investing it, the 2 outer lobes much broader 
than the others, persistent and inclosing the fruit; ovary ovoid, compressed, sessile, green, 
and glabrous; style covered by elongated slender filiform white stigmatic hairs; ovule sus- 
pended from the apex of the cell, anatropous. Drupes oblong, compressed, rounded and 
often notched at apex, acute at base, with thin succulent flesh, and a thin crustaceous 
light brown nutlet, joined by the union of the thickened and much elongated perianths of 
the flowers into a globose compound fruit saturated with milky juice, mammillate on the 
surface by their thickened rounded summits, light yellow-green, usually of full size but 
seedless on isolated pistillate individuals. Seed oblong, compressed, rounded at base, ob- 
lique and marked at apex by the conspicuous oblong pale hilum, without albumen ; seed- 
coat membranaceous, light chestnut-brown; embryo recurved; cotyledons oblong, nearly 
equal; radicle elongated, incumbent, ascending. 

The genus is represented by a single species of eastern North America. 

The generic name is in compliment to William Maclure, distinguished geologist. 

1. Madura pomifera Schn. Osage Orange. Bow Wood. 

Toxylon (loxylon) pomiferum Rafn. 

Leaves 3'-5' long, 2'-3' wide; turning bright clear yellow before falling in the autumn; 
petioles l|'-2' in length. Flowers: racemes of the staminate flowers I'-l?' long; heads 




Fig. 302 



of the pistillate flowers, f '-!' in diameter. Fruit 4'-5 / in diameter, ripening in the autumn, 
and soon falling to the ground. 



HORACES 333 

A tree, sometimes 50-60 high, with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, and stout erect 
ultimately spreading branches forming a handsome open irregular round-topped head, and 
branchlets light green often tinged with red and coated with soft pale pubescence when they 
first appear, soon becoming glabrous, light brown slightly tinged with orange color during 
their first winter, and ultimately paler. Winter-buds depressed-globose, partly immersed 
in the bark, covered by few closely imbricated ovate rounded light chestnut-brow T n ciliate 
conspicuous scales. Bark f '-!' thick, and deeply and irregularly divided into broad rounded 
ridges separating on the surface into thin appressed scales. Wood heavy, exceedingly 
hard, very strong, flexible, coarse-grained, very durable, bright orange color turning brown 
on exposure, with thin light yellow sapwood of 5-10 layers of annual growth; largely used 
for fence-posts, railway-ties, wheel-stock, and formerly by the Osage and other Indians 
west of the Mississippi River for bows and war-clubs. The bark of the roots contains 
moric and morintannic acid, and is used as a yellow dye. The bark of the trunk is some- 
times used in tanning leather. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands; southern Arkansas to southern Oklahoma and south- 
ward in Texas to about latitude 35 36'; most abundant and of its largest size in the valley 
of the Red River in Oklahoma. 

Largely planted in the prairie regions of the Mississippi basin as a hedge plant, and oc- 
casionally in the eastern states; hardy in New England; occasionally naturalized beyond 
the limits of its natural range. 

3. FICUS L. Fig. 

Trees, with milky juice, naked buds, stout branchlets, thick fleshy roots frequently 
produced from the branches and developing into supplementary stems. Leaves invo- 
lute, entire and persistent in American species; stipules inclosing the leaf in a slender 
sharp-pointed bud-like cover, interpetiolar, embracing the leaf-bearing axis and inclosing 
the young leaves, deciduous. Flo\ver-bearing receptacle subglobose to ovoid, sessile or 
stalked, solitary by abortion or in pairs in the axils of existing or fallen leaves, surrounded 
at base by 3 anterior bracts distinct or united into an involucral cup bearing on the interior 
at the apex numerous rows of minute triangular viscid bracts closing the orifice, those of 
the lower rows turned downward and infolding the upper flowers, those immediately 
above these horizontal and forming a more or less prominent umbilicus. Flowers sessile 
or pedicellate, the pedicels thickening and becoming succulent with the ripening of the 
fruit, unisexual, often separated by chaffy scales or hairs; calyx of the staminate flower 
usually divided into 2-6 sepals; stamen 1 ; filament short, erect; anther innate, ovoid, 
broad and subrotund, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally, in the pistillate flower; 
sepals or lobes of the calyx of the pistillate flower usually narrower than those of the stami- 
nate flower; ovary sessile, erect or oblique, surmounted by the lateral elongated style 
crowned by a 2-lobed stigma; ovule suspended from the apex or lateral below the apex 
of the cell, anatropous. Fruit mostly immersed in the thickened succulent receptacle, 
obovoid or reniform; flesh thin, mucilaginous; nutlet with a flat crustaceous minutely 
tuberculate shell. Seed suspended; testa membranaceous; embryo incurved, in thin fleshy 
albumen, cotyledons equal or unequal, longer than the incumbent radicle. 

Ficus, of which about six hundred species have been described, is largely distributed 
through the topics of both hemispheres, the largest number of species being found on the 
islands of the Indian Archipelago and the Pacific Ocean. A few species extend beyond 
the tropics into southern Florida, Mexico, Argentina, southern Japan and China, the coun- 
tries bordering the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands, and South Africa. Two species 
of the section Urostigma with monoecious flowers occur in tropical Florida. Ficus Carica 
L., probably a native of the Mediterranean basin, is cultivated in the southern states and 
in California for its large sweet succulent fruits, the figs of commerce. 



334 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Receptacles subglobose, sessile or short-stalked; leaves oblong, usually pointed at the 
ends. i. F. aurea (D). 

Receptacles obovoid, long-stalked; leaves broadly ovate, cordate at base. 

2. F. brevifolia (D). 

1. Ficus aurea Nutt. Wild Fig. 

Leaves oblong, usually narrowed at the ends, acute or acuminate, with a short broad 
point at apex, cuneate or rarely broad and rounded at base, 2'-5' long, l|'-3' wide, thick 
and coriaceous, dark yellow-green and lustrous above, paler and less lustrous below, with 




Fig. 303 



a broad light yellow midrib slightly grooved on the upper side, and numerous obscure 
primary veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by fine closely reticu- 
lated veinlets, continuing to unfold during a large part of the year; usually falling during 
their second season; petioles stout, slightly grooved, '-!' in length; stipules ovate-lance- 
olate, thick, firm, tinged with red, about 1' long. Flowers: receptacles developing in 
succession as the branch lengthens, subglobose, sessile or short-stalked, solitary or in 
pairs, the orifice lateral closed and marked by a small point formed by the union of the 
minute bracts, becoming ' in diameter and yellow when fully grown, ultimately turning 
bright red; flowers reddish purple, separated by minute reddish chaff-like scales more or 
less laciniate at apex, sessile or long-pedicellate; calyx of the staminate flower divided to 
below the middle into 2 or 3 broad lobes rather shorter than the stout flattened filaments; 
lobes of the anther oblong, attached laterally to the broad connective; calyx of the pistillate 
flower divided to the middle into 4 or 5 narrow lobes, closely investing the ovate sessile 
ovary. Fruit ovoid, immersed in the thickened reddish purple walls of the receptacle; 
seed ovoid, rounded at the ends, with a thin light brown coat and a large lateral oblong 
pale hilum. 

A broad round-topped epiphytal tree, 50-60 high, germinating and growing at first 
on the branches and trunks of other trees and sending down to the ground stout aerial 
roots which gradually growing together form a trunk often 3-4 in diameter, the growth 
of additional roots from the branches extending the tree over a large area, and terete 
pithy light orange-colored branchlets marked by pale lenticels, conspicuous stipular 
scars, large slightly elevated horizontal oval leaf-scars displaying a marginal ring of large 
pale fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and smaller elevated concave circular scars left by the 



MOKACEA: 335 

receptacles in falling. Bark smooth, ashy gray, light brown tinged with red, \' thick, and 
broken on the surface into minute appressed scales disclosing in falling the nearly black 
inner bark. Wood exceedingly light, soft, weak, coarse-grained, perishable in contact 
with the ground, light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Hummocks on the shores and islands of southern Florida; from the 
Indian River on the east coast and Tampa Bay on the west coast, to the southern keys; com- 
mon and now rapidly spreading over the eastern and southern borders of the Everglades; 
attaining its largest size in the neighborhood of Bay Biscayne; on the Bahama Islands. 

2. Ficus brevifolia Nutt. Fig. Wild Fig. 
Ficus populnea Sarg.,not Willd. 

Leaves broadly ovate or rarely obovate, contracted into a short broad point or occa- 
sionally rounded at apex, rounded, truncate or cordate at base, 2^'-5' long, I%'-5' wide, thin 
and firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler on the lower, with a light yel- 
low midrib, and slender remote primary veins arcuate and united near the margins and con- 
nected by finely reticulate veinlets; petioles slender, sometimes 1' in length; stipules 
ovate-lanceolate, \' long, tinged with red. Flowers: receptacles obovoid, solitary or in 
pairs, yellow until fully grown, ultimately turning bright red and becoming \'-\' long, on 
stout drooping stalks \'-\' in length; flowers sessile or pedicellate, separated by minute 
chaff-like scales more or less laciniate at apex; calyx of the staminate flower divided nearly 
to the base into three or four broad acute lobes; calyx of the pistillate flower with narrow 
lobes shorter than the ovoid pointed ovary. Fruit ovoid; seed ovoid, with a membrana- 
ceous light brown coat and an oblong lateral pale hilum. 




Fig. 304 

An epiphytal tree, rarely 40-50 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, spreading 
branches occasionally developing aerial roots and forming an open irregular head, and 
terete branchlets light red and slightly puberulous when they first appear, becoming 
brown tinged with orange and later with red, and marked by minute pale lenticels, narrow 
stipular scars, large elevated horizontal oval or semiorbicular leaf-scars showing a marginal 
row of conspicuous fibro- vascular bundle-scars, and elevated concave receptacle scars. 
Wood light, soft, close-grained, light orange-brown or yellow, with thick hardly distin- 
guishable sapwood. 

Distribution. Usually on dry slightly elevated coral rocks; Florida from the shores of 
Bay Biscayne to the Everglades Keys, and on several of the southern keys to Key West; 
not common; on the Bahama Islands and in Cuba. 



336 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

XHI. OLACACEJE. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juices, their stems sometimes twining, and alternate usu- 
ally entire persistent leaves, without stipules. Flowers perfect or polygamous, in axillary 
cymes or racemes, rarely solitary; calyx 4 to 6-lobed; petals 4-6, inserted on a hypogy- 
nous disk, free or united into a campaimlate or tubular corolla; stamens 4-12, inserted 
on the tube of the corolla; filaments free, rarely united; anthers oblong, introrse, opening 
longitudinally; ovary superior or partly inferior, free or immersed in the disk, 1-4-celled; 
styles mostly united; stigmas entire or lobed; ovules 1-3 in each cell of the ovary. Fruit 
drupaceous, naked or nearly inclosed in the enlarged disk, 1-celled, 1-seeded; seed pendu- 
lous; embryo minute, erect, in copious fleshly albumen; radicle superior. 

Olacaceae with twenty-five genera and a large number of species is confined to the tropics, 
and is most abundant in those of the Old World. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Corolla-lobes short; stamens as many as its lobes; drupe almost inclosed in the enlarged 
disk of the flower; branches unarmed. 1. Schoepfia. 

Corolla-lobes elongated; stamens twice as many as its lobes; drupe nearly naked; branch- 
lets armed. 2. Ximenia. 

1. SCHOEPFIA Schreb. 

Trees or shrubs with slender unarmed branchlets. Leaves entire, subcoriaceous, petio- 
late. Flowers small, perfect in axillary cymes, rarely solitary; calyx disciform, obscurely 
4-toothed, or nearly entire, petals 4, 5 or rarely 6, united, their tips free, valvate; stamens 
opposite the petals, filaments free, anthers attached by the back; ovary partly immersed in 
the disk, 3-celled; style elongated, stigma 3-lobed; ovules 3 in each cell, pendulous from 
the free apex of the axile placentas. Fruit nearly inclosed in the enlarged disk of the flower, 
the stone crustaceous or chartaceous. 

Schoepfia with twelve or fourteen species is distributed in the New World from southern 
Florida and Lower California to Brazil and Peru, and in the Old World from southern 
Japan and southern and western China to the East Indies and the eastern Himalayas. 

The generic name is in compliment to Johann David Schoepf, German physician and 
botanist, and traveler in North America and the West Indies. 

1. Schoepfia chrysophylloides Planch. 
Schoepfia Schreberi Small, not Gmel. 

Leaves elliptic to oblong-ovate, often slightly falcate, acuminate at apex, cuneate and 
often unsymmetric at base, light green and lustrous above, paler below, l'-S' long, f- 




Fig. 305 



OLACACE.E 



337 






1|' wide, and on vigorous shoots sometimes 4' long and If wide; petioles stout, wing- 
margined, 1' I' in length. Flowers sessile, pink or red, in axillary 1-3- usually 2-flowered 
clusters on peduncles aV-' in length; calyx cup-shaped, the rim slightly dilated, almost 
filled by the fleshy disk; corolla ovate-cylindric, i'-' long, 4-lobed, the lobes ovate, acute, 
united, reflexed; stamens 4, adnate to the base of the lobes of the corolla; anthers sessile; 
ovary mostly immersed in the disk; style not more than .^' long; Fruit ovoid or ovoid- 
oval scarlet, f'-|' in length; stone crustaceous; seed not seen. 

A tree, sometimes 25-30 high with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, small erect branches and 
slender pale gray unarmed branchlets. Bark thin, grayish brown, closely and regularly 
reticulated. 

Distribution. In sandy or rocky soil ; banks of the Caloosahatchee River, Lee County, 
near Miami and at Cocoanut Grove, Dade County, and on the southern keys, Florida; on 
the Bahama Islands, and in Cuba, Jamaica, and Guatamala. 



2. XIMENIA L. 

Trees and shrubs, with terete armed or unarmed branchlets. Leaves entire, subcoria- 
ceous, often fascicled, short-petiolate. Flowers perfect, white, on slender pedicels, in short 
axillary cymes or rarely solitary ; calyx small, 4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in the bud, per- 
sistent ; petals 4 or 5, hypogynous, narrow, bearded on their inner face, valvate in the bud, 
reflexed above the middle; stamens twice as many as the petals; filaments free, filiform; 
anthers linear, attached on the back near the base, 2-celled, the cells opening laterally, 
their connective apiculate at apex; ovary 4-celled below, only the apex 1-celled, ex- 
ternally 4-grooved, glandular at base, gradually narrowed into the slender style; stigma 
entire, subcapitate; ovules linear, solitary in each cell, pendulous from the apex of the 
axile placenta, anatropous; raphe dorsal; micropyle superior. Fruit ovoid or globose; exo- 
carp thick and succulent, endocarp crustaceous or subligneous; seed filling the cavity of the 
endocarp, pendulous, surrounded by a thin spongy coat; testa membranaceous; cotyledons 
elliptic; embryo minute, erect; raphe terete. 

Ximenia with four or five species is widely distributed on tropical shores of the two worlds. 

Ximenia commemorates the name of Francisco Ximenes, a Dominican priest who pub- 
lished in Mexico in 1615 a work on the plants and animals of that country. 

1. Ximenia americana L. 

Leaves oblong or elliptic, rounded and often emargmate and apiculate at apex, gradu- 
ally narrowed and cuneate at base, glabrous, bright green and lustrous above, pale below, 




338 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

lJ'-2' long, |'-lj' wide, with slightly thickened revolute margins, a prominent midrib 
and obscure primary veins; petioles slender, narrow wing-margined at apex, i'-f in length. 
Flowers bell-shaped, fragrant, about f long, on slender pedicels in the axils of minute 
acuminate caducous bractlets, in 3 or 4-flowered clusters on peduncles ^'-|' long; calyx- 
lobes acute, petals elliptic and rounded or obtusely pointed at apex, yellowish white, leathery, 
conspicuously bearded on the inner surface from base nearly to apex. Fruit broad-ovoid 
to subglobose, bright yellow, with thin acid flesh, l'-lj' long, on slender pedicels about 
-|' in length, in usually 2 or 3-fruited drooping clusters; stone ovoid, apiculate at apex, 
covered with minute pits, light red; seed yellow, with bright orange-colored cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a tall trunk 2|'-3|' in diameter, spreading branches 
armed with stout straight spines usually f'-l' in length, and slender branchlets slightly 
angled and light reddish brown when they first appear, becoming terete and light gray or 
red-brown and marked by numerous lenticels; more often a shrub with long vine-like stems. 
Bark close, dark red, astringent. Wood very heavy, tough, hard, close-grained, compact, 
brown tinged with red with lighter-colored sapwood. Hydrocyanic acid has been obtained 
from the fruit. 

Distribution. Florida, near Eustis Lake, Lake County, to the southern keys, attaining 
its largest size on the west coast and on Long Key in the Everglades; common on the shores 
of the Antilles and southward to Brazil, and on those of west tropical Africa, the Indian 
peninsula, the islands of the Malay Archipelago, New Guinea, Australia, and on those of 
many of the islands of the south Pacific Ocean. 

Section 3. Flowers perfect or unisexual; calyx 5-lobed; ovary superior, 1- 
celled; ovule solitary, rising from the bottom of the cell; fruit inclosed in the 
thickened calyx; leaves persistent. 

XIV. POLYGONACE^E. 

Trees, with alternate coriaceous stalked leaves, their stipules sheathing the stem. 
Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; stamens 8; ovary 3-celled; ovule orthotropous. Fruit a 
nutlet, inclosed in the thickened calyx-tube; seed erect; embryo axillary in ruminate 
farinaceous albumen; radicle superior, ascending, turned toward the hilum. Of this, 
the Buckwheat family with thirty widely distributed genera, only Coccolobis is arbo- 
rescent in North America. 

1. COCCOLOBIS P. Br. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves coriaceous, entire, orbicular, ovate, obovate, or lanceolate, 
petiolate, their stipules inclosing the branch above the node with membranaceous trun- 
cate entire brown persistent sheaths. Flowers jointed on ebracteolate pedicels, in 1 or 
few-flowered fascicles subtended by a minute bract and surrounded by a narrow trun- 
cate membranaceous sheath, each pedicel and those above it being surrounded by a simi- 
lar sheath, the fascicles gathered in elongated terminal and axillary racemes inclosed at 
the base of the sheath of the nearest leaf and sometimes also in a separate sheath; calyx 
cup-shaped, the lobes ovate, rounded, thin, white, reflexed after anthesis, and thicken- 
ing and inclosing the nutlet; stamens with filiform or subulate filaments dilated and united 
at base into a short discoid cup adnate to the tube of the calyx; anthers ovoid, introrse, 
2-celled, the cells parallel, opening longitudinally; ovary free, sessile, 3-angled, contracted 
into a short stout style, divided into three short or elongated stigmatic lobes. Fruit ovoid 
or globose, rounded or acute and crowned at apex by the persistent lobes of the calyx, 
narrowed at base; flesh thin and acidulous, more or less adnate to the thin crustaceous or 
bony w r all of the nutlet often divided on the inner surface near the base into several more 
or less intrusive plates. Seed subglobose, acuminate at apex, 3-6-lobed; testa membra- 
naceous, minutely pitted, dark red-brown, and lustrous. 

Coccolobis is confined to the tropics of the New World, with about one hundred and 



POLYGONACE^E 



339 



twenty species distributed from southern Florida to Mexico, Central America, Brazil, 
and Peru. It possesses astringent properties sometimes utilized in medicine. Many of 
the species produce hard dark valuable wood. 

Coccolobis, from KOKKOS and \o&6s, is in allusion to the character of the fruit. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Fruits crowded, in drooping racemes; leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular, cordate at base. 

1. C. uvifera (D). 
Fruits not crowded, in erect or spreading racemes; leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate. 

2. C. laurifolia (D). 

1. Coccolobis uvifera Jacq. Sea Grape. 

Leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular rounded or sometimes short-pointed at apex, deeply 
cordate at base, with undulate margins, thick and coriaceous, minutely reticulate-venulose, 
dark green and lustrous above, paler and puberulous below, 4'-5' long, 5'-6' wide, with a 
stout often bright red midrib frequently covered below with pale hairs, and about 5 pairs 
of conspicuous primary veins red on the upper side, arcuate near the margins and connected 
by cross veinlets ; gradually turning red or scarlet and falling during their second or third 





Fig. 307 

years; petioles short, stout, flattened, puberulous, abruptly enlarged at base, leaving 
in falling large pale elevated orbicular or semiorbicular scars; stipular sheath ' broad, 
slightly puberulous, persistent during 2 or 3 years. Flowers appearing almost continuously 
throughout the year on slender puberulous pedicels |' long, in 1-6-flowered subsessile fasci- 
cles, in terminal and axillary thick-stemmed many-flowered racemes 6'-14' in length; calyx 
I' across when expanded, the lobes puberulous on the inner surface and rather longer than 
the red stamens; ovary oblong, with short stigmatic lobes. Fruit crowded, in long hanging 
racemes, ovoid to obovoid, f long, gradually narrowed into a stalk-like base, purple or 
greenish white, translucent, with thin juicy flesh, and a thin-walled light red nutlet. 

A tree, in Florida rarely more than 15 high, with a short gnarled contorted trunk 3-4 
in diameter, stout branches forming a round compact head, and stout terete branchlets, 
with thick pith, light orange color, marked by oblong pale lenticels, gradually growing 
darker in their second and third years; frequently a shrub, with semiprostrate stems; in the 
West Indies often 50 tall. Bark about 3*5' thick, smooth, light brown and marked by 
large irregular pale blotches. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, dark brown or violet 
color, with thick lighter colored sap wood; sometimes used in cabinet-making. 



840 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Saline shores and beaches; Florida, from Mosquito Inlet to the southern 
keys on the east coast, and from Tampa Bay to Cape Sable on the west coast; common on 
the Bermuda and Bahama Islands, in the Antilles, and in South America from Colombia 
to Brazil. 

2. Coccolobis laurifolia Jacq. Pigeon Plum. 

Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate or obovate-oblong, rounded or acute at apex, rounded or 
cuneate at base, with slightly undulate revolute margins, thick and firm, bright green 
above, paler below, 3 '-4' long, \\'-%! wide, with a conspicuous pale midrib and 3 or 4 pairs 
of remote primary veins connected by prominent reticulate veinlets; petioles stout, flat- 
tened, \' in length, abruptly enlarged at base; stipular sheath glabrous, |' wide. Flowers 
in early spring, on slender pedicels J'long, in few or 1-flowered fascicles on racemes termi- 
nal on short axillary branches of