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Full text of "Manual of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico)"

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Cljarlea J&prastte Sargent 



A MANUAL OF THE TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, EX- 
CLUSIVE OF MEXICO. With over 600 illustrations drawn 
by Charles Edward Faxon. In one octavo volume. $6.00, 
net, postpaid. 

THE SILVA OF NORTH AMERICA; OR A DESCRIPTION 
OF THE TREES WHICH GROW NATURALLY IN NORTH 
AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO. With about 740 
plates, drawn from Nature, by Charles Edward Faxon, de- 
scribing 567 species belonging to the Forest Flora of North 
America, exclusive of varieties. 14 volumes. 410, $350.00, net. 
{Sold only by subscription for the entire set.} 

TREES AND SHRUBS. Illustrations of New or Little Known 
Ligneous Plants. Prepared chiefly from material at the Ar- 
nold Arboretum of Harvard University, and edited by Charles 
Sprague Sargent. Issued in 410 Parts, four Parts to a Volume. 
With Plates, by Charles Edward Faxon. Each Part, $5.00, 
net. Volume I. now ready. 



THE FOREST FLORA OF JAPAN. 
$7.50, net. 



With illustrations. 410, 



HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 
Boston and New York 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




100 JOO 800 l"05w 



- 



PRINCIPAL TREE REGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA 

A North Eastern B North "Western A B North Eastern & North Western 

C South Eastern D Tropical Florida E Texas- Mexican Boundary 



F Kocky Mountains G Oregon & California H New Mexico & Arizona 

Mexican Boundary 



OF THE TREES 
OF NORTH AMERICA 

(EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO) 



BY 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 

Director of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 
Author of The Silva of North America 



WITH SIX HUNDRED AND FORTY-FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS 
FROM DRAWINGS BY 

CHARLES EDWARD FAXON 





BOSTON AND NEW YORK 
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

bc rtiUcrsi&c press, Cambridge 
1905 



COPYRIGHT IQOS BY CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



Published March, 



To M. R. S., 

THE WISE AND KIND FRIEND OF THIRTY YEARS, THIS BOOK IS 
DEDICATED WITH GRATITUDE AND AFFECTION 



PREFACE 

IN this volume I have tried to bring into convenient form for the use of students 
the information concerning the trees of North America which has been gathered at 
the Arnold Arboretum during the last thirty years and has been largely elaborated 
in my Silva of North America. 

The indigenous trees of no other region of equal extent are, perhaps, so well 
known as those that grow naturally in North America. There is, however, still 
much to be learned about them. In the southern states, one of the most remarkable 
extratropical regions in the world in the richness of its arborescent flora, several 
species are still imperfectly known, while it is not improbable that a few may have 
escaped entirely the notice of botanists; and in the northern states are several forms 
of Crataegus which, iu the absence of sufficient information, it has been found im- 
practicable to include in this volume. Little is known as yet of the silvicultural 
value and requirements of North American trees, or of the diseases that affect them ; 
and one of the objects of this volume is to stimulate further investigation of their 
characters and needs. 

The arrangement of families and genera adopted in this volume is that of Engler & 
Prantl's Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, in which the procession is from a simpler to 
a more complex structure. The nomenclature is that of The Silva of North America. 
Descriptions of a few species of Cratsegus are now first published; and investiga- 
tions made since the publication of the last volume of The Silva of North America, 
in December, 1902, have necessitated the introduction of a few additional trees de- 
scribed by other authors, and occasional changes of names. 

An analytical key to the families, based on the arrangement and character of the 
leaves, will lead the reader first to the family to which any tree belongs; a con- 
spectus of the genera, embodying the important and easily discovered contrasting 
characters of each genus and following the description of each family represented 
by more than one genus, will lead him to the genus he is trying to determine; 
and a similar conspectus of the species, following the description of the genus, will 
finally bring him to the species for which he is looking. Further to facilitate the 
determination, one or more letters, attached to the name of the species in the 
conspectus following the description of the genus, indicate in which of the eight 
regions into which the country is divided according to the prevailing character of 
the arborescent vegetation that species grows (see map forming frontispiece of the 
volume). For example, the northeastern part of the country, including the high Ap- 
palachian Mountains in the southern states which have chiefly a northern flora, is 
represented by (A), and a person wishing to learn the name of a Pine-tree or of an 



Vlii PREFACE 

Oak in that region need occupy himself only with those species which in the conspectus 
of the genus Quercus or Pinus are followed by the letter (A), while a person wishing 
to determine an Oak or a Pine-tree in Oregon or California may pass over all species 
which are not followed by (G), the letter which represents the Pacific coast region 
south of the state of Washington. 

The sign of degrees () is used in this work to represent feet, and the sign of min- 
utes (') inches. 

The illustrations which accompany each species and important variety are one 
half the size of nature, except in the case of a few of the large Pine cones, the flow- 
ers of some of the Magnolias, and the leaves and flower-clusters of the Palms. These 
are represented as less than half the size of nature in order to make the illustrations 
of uniform size. These illustrations are from drawings by Mr. Faxon, in which he 
has shown his usual skill and experience as a botanical draftsman in bringing out 
the most important characters of each species, and in them will be found the chief 
value of this Manual. For aid in its preparation I am indebted to him and to my 
other associates, Mr. Alfred Render and Mr. George R. Shaw, who have helped me 

in compiling the most difficult of the keys. 

C. S. SARGENT. 

ABNOLD ARBORETUM, JAMAICA PLAIN, MASS. 
January, 1905. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

MAP OF NORTH AMERICA (exclusive of Mexico) showing the eight re- 
gions into which the country is divided according to the prevailing 
character of the trees ...... Frontispiece 

SYNOPSIS OF FAMILIES OF PLANTS xi 

ANALYTICAL KEY OF FAMILIES OF PLANTS, based on the character of 

their leaves ........... xvi 

MANUAL OF TREES 

Gymnospermae .......... 1 

Angiospermae . .102 

Monocotyledons 10- 

Dicotyledons !-."> 

Apetala lltf 

Petalaa :n:> 

Polypetalae 315 

Gamopetalae 718 

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS 815 

INDEX 819 



SYNOPSIS 

OF THE FAMILIES OF PLANTS DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK 
Class I. GYMNOSPERM^E. 

Resinous trees ; stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing in diam- 
eter by the annual addition of a layer of wood inside the bark ; flowers uni- 
sexual ; stamens numerous ; ovules and seeds 2 or many, borne on the face of 
a scale, not inclosed in an ovary ; embryo with 2 or more cotyledons ; leaves 
straight-veined, without stipules. 

I. Conif erae (p. 1 ). Flowers usually monoecious ; ovules 2 or several ; fruit a woody cone 
(in Juniperus berry-like) ; cotyledons 2 or many ; leaves needle-shaped, linear or scale-like, 
persistent (deciduous in Larix and Taxodium). 

II. Taxaceae (p. ( ,l~). Flowers dioecious, axillary, solitary ; ovules 1 ; fruit surrounded 
by or inclosed in the enlarged fleshy aril-like disk of the flower ; cotyledons 2 ; leaves 
linear, alternate, persistent. 

Class II. ANGIOSPERM^. 

Carpels or pistils consisting of a closed cavity containing the ovules and 
becoming the fruit. 

Division I. MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them, but without 
pith or annual layers of growth ; parts of the flower in 3's ; ovary superior, 
3-celled ; embryo with a single cotyledon ; leaves parallel-veined, persistent, 
without stipules. 

III. Palmae (p. 102). Ovule solitary ; fruit baccate or drupaceous, 1 or rarely 2 or 
3-seeded ; leaves alternate, pinnate, flabellate or orbicular, persistent. 

IV. Liliaceae (p. 115). Ovules numerous in each cell ; fruit 3-celled, capsular or bac- 
cate ; leaves linear-lanceolate. 

Division II. DICOTYLEDONS. 

Stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing by the addition of an 
annual layer of wood inside the bark ; parts of the flower mostly in 4's or 5's ; 
embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons ; leaves netted-veined. 

SUBDIVISION 1. APETAL^. Flowers without a corolla and sometimes with- 
out a calyx. 

Section 1. Flowers in unisexual aments (female flowers of Juglans and 
Quercus solitary or in .syy/V.-t's) ; ovary inferior (superior in Leitneriacece) 
when a calyx is present. 

V. Juglaiidaceae (p. 125). Flowers monoecious; fruit a nut inclosed in an indehiscent 
(Juglans) or 4-valved (Hicoria) fleshy or woody shell ; leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, 
without stipules, deciduous. 



xii SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES 

VI. Myricaceae (p. 146). Flowers monoecious or dioecious ; fruit a dry drupe, covered 
with waxy exudations ; leaves simple, alternate, resinous-punctate, persistent. 

VII. Leitiieriaceae (p. 150). Flowers dioecious, the staminate without a calyx ; ovary 
superior; fruit a compressed oblong drupe; leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, 
deciduous. 

VIII. Salicaceae (p. 152). Flowers dioecious, without a calyx. Fruit a 2-4-valved 
capsule. Leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

IX. Betulaceae (p. 189). Flowers monoecious ; fruit a nut at the base of an open leaf- 
like involucre (Carpinus), in a sack-like involucre (Ostrya), in the axil of a scale of an 
ameiit (Betula), or of a woody strobile (Alnus) ; leaves alternate, simple, with stipules, 
deciduous. 

X. Fagaceae (p. 216). Flowers monoecious ; fruit a nut more or less inclosed in a woody 
often spiny involucre ; leaves alternate, simple, with stipules, deciduous (in some species of 
Quercus and in Castanoj)sis and Pasania persistent). 

Section 2. Flowers unisexual (perfect in Ulmus) ; calyx regular, the 
stamens as many as its lobes and opposite them ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; 
seed 1. 

XI. Ulmaceae (p. 287). Fruit a compressed winged samara (Ulmus) or a drupe (Celtis) ; 
leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

XII. Moraceae (p. 302). Flowers in ament-like spikes or heads; fruit drupaceous, 
inclosed in the thickened calyx and united into a compound fruit, oblong and succulent 
(Morus), large, dry and globose (Toxylon), or immersed in the fleshy receptacle of the 
flower (Ficus) ; leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous (persistent in Ficus), 

Section 3. Flowers usually perfect ; calyx 5-lobed ; ovary superior, 1-celled ; 
fruit a nutlet inclosed in the thickened calyx ; leaves simple, persistent. 

XIII. Polygonaceae (p. 311). Leaves alternate, their stipules sheathing the stems. 

XIV. Nyctaginaceae (p. 313). Leaves alternate or opposite, without stipules. 

SUBDIVISION 2. PETALS. Flowers with both calyx and corolla (without 
a corolla in Lauracece, in Liquidambar in Hamamelidacece, in Cercocarpus 
in Rosacece, in Euphorbiacece, in some species of Acer, in Reynosia, Con- 
dalia, and Krugiodendron in Rhamnacece, in Fremontodendron in Sterculia- 
cece, in Chytraculia in Myrtacece, and in Conooarpus in Combretacece). 

Section 1. Polypetalse. Corolla of separate petals. 

A. Ovary superior (partly inferior in Hamamelidacece ; inferior in Mains, 
Sorbus, Cratcegus, and Amelanchier in Rosacece). 

XV. Magnoliaceae (p. 315). Flowers perfect ; sepals and petals in 3 or 4 rows of 3 
each ; fruit cone-like, composed of numerous cohering carpels ; leaves simple, alternate, 
their stipules inclosing the leaf-buds, deciduous or rarely persistent. 

XVI. Aiionaceae (p. 326). Flowers perfect ; sepals 3 ; petals 6 in 2 series ; fruit a 
pulpy berry developed from 1 or from the union of several carpels ; leaves simple, alter- 
nate, without stipules, deciduous or persistent. 

XVII. Lauraceae (p. 329). Flowers perfect or unisexual; corolla 0; fruit a 1-seeded 
drupe or berry ; leaves simple, alternate, punctate, without stipules, persistent (deciduous 
in Sassafras). 

XVIII. Capparidaceae (p. 338). Flowers perfect ; sepals and petals 4 ; fruit baccate, 
elongated, dehiscent; leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, persistent. 

XIX. Hamamelidaceae (p. 339). Flowers perfect or unisexual ; sepals and petals 5 
(corolla in Liquidambar) ; ovary partly inferior ; fruit a 2-celled woody capsule opening at 
the summit ; leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES Xlll 

XX. Platanaceae (p. 34:)). Flowers monoecious, in dense unisexual capitate heads; 
fruit an akene; leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

XXL. Rosaceae (p. :'.!>). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5 { jietals in Cercocar- 
pus) ; ovary inferior in Mains, rturbita. Grata t/nx. am/ A/nclanc/tif r ; fruit a drupe (Hetero- 
meles, Prunus. and Chrysobalanns), a capsule ( Vaui|uelinia and Lyonothamnus). an akene 
(Cercocarpus), or a pome (Mains, Sorlms, rrata>gus. and Anielaneliier) ; leaves simple 
or pinnately compound, alternate (opposite in Lyunothamnus), with stipules, deciduous or 
persistent. 

XXII. Leguminosae (p. 5:',:)). Flowers perfect, regular or irregular; fruit a legume; 
leaves compound, or simple (l)alea). alternate, with stipules, deciduous or persistent. 

XXIII. Zygophyllacese (p. 57*). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lohed ; petals 5; fruit 
capsular, becoming ileshy ; leaves opposite, pinnate, with stipules. p,-rsistenr. 

XXIV. Rutaceae (p. 5Si>). Flowers unisexual or perfect ; fruit a capsule ( Fagara), a 
samara (Ptelea), of indehiscent winged 1 -seeded carpels ( Heli.-tta '. or a drupe (Ainyris); 
leaves alternate or opposite, compound, glandular-punctate, without stipules, persistent or 
rarely deciduous (0 in Canotia). 

XXV. Simarubaceae (p. 5S<). Flowers dioecious, calyx 5-lobed ; petals 5; fruit 
drupaceous; leaves alternate, equally pinnate, without stipules, persistent. 

XXVI. Burseraceae (p. 5'.U). Flowers perfect ; calyx 4 or 5-parted ; petals 5 ; fruit 
a drupe; leaves alternate, compound, without stipules, deciduous. 

XXVII. Meliaceae (p. 51KJ). Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed ; petals 5 ; fruit a 5-celled 
dehiscent capsule; leaves alternate, equally pinnate, without stipules, persistent. 

XXVIII. Euphorbiaceae (p. 504). Flowers perfect; calyx 4-ii-parted ( Drypetes), 3- 
lobed (Ilippomane), or (Gymnanthes) ; petals 0; fruit a drape (Drypetes and Ilipponiane). 
or a 3-lobed capsule (( Jynmanthes). 

XXIX. Aiiacardiaceae (p. 001). Flowers usually unisexual, diu-cious or polygamo- 
dioecious; fruit a dry drupe ; leaves simple or compound, alternate, without stipules, decid- 
uous iprrtixtrnt in one specif* f Ilhus). 

XXX. Cyrillaceae (p. (110). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-8-lobed : petals 5-S : fruit an 
indehiscent capsule ; leaves alternate, without stipules, persistent (>nor> or h-sa di ciduoits in 
Cyrilla). 

XXXI. Aquifoliaceae (p. 013). Flowers polygamo-dioecious; calyx 4 or 5-lobed; 
petals 5; fruit a drupe, with 4-S 1 -seeded nutlets; leaves alternate, simple, with stipules, 
persistent or deciduous. 

XXXII. Celastraceae (p. 01'.)). Flowers perfect, polygamous or dioecious: calyx 4 or 
5-lobed; petals 4 or 5; fruit a drupe, or a capsule (Kvonymus) : le.-ives simple, opposite or 
alternate, with or without stipules, persistent (dicitliiunx in Krntii/mut). 

XXXIII. Aceraceae (p. <>24). Flowers diu-cious or mono'ci.iiisly polygamous ; calyx 
usually 5-parted; petals usually 5. or 0; fruit of '2 long-winged samara joined at the base ; 
leaves opposite, simple or rarely pinnate, without or rarely with stipules, deciduous. 

XXXIV. Hippocastaiiaceae (p. U4:!). Flowers perfect, irregular; calyx 5-lobed; 
petals 4 or 5, unequal; fruit a 3-celled 3-valved capsule; leaves opposite, digitately com- 
pound, long-])etiolate, without stipules, deciduous. 

XXXV. Sapindaceae (p. 049). Flowers polygamous; calyx 4 or 5-lobed; corolla of 

4 or 5 petals; fruit a berry (Sapindus and Kxothea), a drupe (Hypelate). or a ^-celled 
capsule (Ungnadia) ; leaves alternate, compound, without stipules, persistent, or deciduous 
(Ungnadia). 

XXXVI. Rhamnaceae (p. 057). Flowers usually perfect ; calyx 4 or 5-lobed ; petals 4 oi< 

5 (0 in Reynosia, Condalia. and Knujimlf tu/ron) ; fruit drupaceous ; leaves simple, alternate 
(mostly opposite in Reynosia and Kruyiodendron), with stipules, persistent (deciduous in some 
species <>f lihamnn^. 

XXXVII. Tiliaceae (p. O(iit). Flowers perfect; sepals and petals 5 ; fruit a nut-like 
berry ; leaves simple, alternate, mostly oblique at the base, with stipules, deciduous. 



xiv SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES 

XXXVIII. Sterculiaceae (p. 676). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed ; petals ; fruit 
a 4 or f)-valved dehiscent capsule ; leaves simple, alternate, with stipules, persistent. 

XXXIX. Theaceae (p. 677). Flowers perfect ; sepals and petals 5 ; fruit a 5-celled 
woody dehiscent capsule, loculicidally dehiscent ; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, 
persistent or deciduous. 

XL. Caiiellaceae (p. 680). Flowers perfect ; sepals 3 ; petals 5 ; filaments united into a 
tube ; fruit a berry ; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent. 

XLI. Kceberliniaceae (p. 681). Flowers perfect ; sepals and petals 4, minute ; leaves 
bract-like, alternate, without stipules, caducous. 

XLII. Caricaceae (p. 682). Flowers unisexual or perfect; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; 
fruit baccate ; leaves palniately lobed or digitate, alternate, without stipules, persistent. 

B. Ovary inferior (partly inferior in fthizophora) . 

XLIIL Cactaceae (p. 684). Flowers perfect ; petals and sepals numerous ; fruit a berry ; 
leaves usually wanting. 

XLIV. Rhizophoraceae (p. 691). Flowers perfect; calyx 4-parted ; petals 4; ovary 
partly inferior ; fruit a 1-celled 1-seeded berry perforated at the apex by the germinating 
embryo j leaves simple, opposite, entire, with stipules, persistent. 

XLV. Myrtaceae (p. 693). Flowers perfect; calyx usually 4-lobed, or reduced to a 
single body forming a deciduous lid to the flower (Chytraculia) ; petals usually 4 (0 in 
Chytraculia) ; fruit a berry ; leaves simple, opposite, pellucid-punctate, without stipules, 
persistent. 

XLVI. Combretaceae (p. 700). Flowers perfect or polygamous; calyx 5-lobed; 
petals 5 (0 in Conocarpus) ; fruit drupaceous ; leaves simple, alternate or opposite, without 
stipules, persistent. 

XL VII. Araliaceae (p. 704). Flowers perfect or polygamous ; sepals and petals usu- 
ally 5 ; fruit a drupe ; leaves twice pinnate, alternate, with stipules, deciduous. 

XLVIII. Cornaceae (p. 706). Flowers perfect or polygamo-dioecious ; calyx 4 or 5- 
toothed ; petals 4 or 5 ; fruit a fleshy drupe ; leaves simple, opposite (alternate in one species 
ofCornus), without stipules, deciduous. 

Section 2. Gamopetalse. Corolla of united petals (divided in Elliottia in 
Ericacece, in some species of Fraxinus in Oleacece.) 

A. Ovary superior (inferior in Vaccinium in Ericacece, partly inferior in 
Symplocacece and Styracece). 

XLIX. Ericaceae (p. 718). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed (in Elliottia 
corolla of 4 petals) ; (ovary inferior in Vaccinium) ; fruit capsular, drupaceous or baccate ; 
leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent (deciduous in Elliottia and Oxydendrum). 

L. Myrsinaceae (p. 733). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed; stamens 5; 
fruit a drupe ; leaves simple, alternate, entire, without stipules, persistent. 

LI. Theophrastaceae (p. 735). Flowers perfect, with staminodia ; sepals and petals 
5 ; stamens 5 ; fruit a berry ; leaves simple, opposite or alternate, entire, without stipules. 

LII. Sapotaceae (p. 736). Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed ; corolla 5-lobed (G-lobed 
in Mimusops), often with as many or twice as many internal appendages borne on its 
throat ; fruit a berry ; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, persistent (deciduous in 
some species of Bumelia). 

LIII. Ebenaceee (p. 748). Flowers perfect, dioecious, or polygamous ; calyx and co- 
rolla 4-lobed ; fruit a 1 or several seeded berry ; leaves simple, alternate, entire, without 
stipules, deciduous. 

LIV. Symplocaceae (p. 752). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed; ovary 
partly inferior ; fruit a drupe ; leaves simple, alternate, without stipules, deciduous ; pubes- 
cence simple. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILIES XV 

LV. Styraceae (p. 754). Flowers perfect ; calyx 4-toothed ; corolla 4-lobed or divided 
nearly to the base ; ovary partly inferior ; fruit a drupe ; leaves simple, alternate, without 
stipules, deciduous ; pubescence mostly scurfy or stellate. 

LVI. Oleaceae (p. 757). Flowers perfect or polygamo-dicecious ; calyx 4-lobed (0 in 
some species of Fraxinus) ; corolla 2-6-parted (0 in some species of Fraxinus}; fruit a winged 
samara (Fraxinus) or a fleshy drupe (Chionanthus and Osmanthus) ; leaves pinnate (Fraxinus) 
or simple, opposite, without stipules, deciduous (persistent in Osmanthus). 

LVII. Borraginaceae (p. 781). Flowers perfect or polygamous ; calyx and corolla 
5-lobed ; fruit a drupe ; leaves simple, alternate, scabrous-pubescent, without stipules, per- 
sistent or tardily deciduous. 

LVIII. Verbenaceae (p. 787). Flowers perfect; calyx 5-lobed; corolla 4 or 5-lobed; 
fruit a drupe or a 1-seeded capsule ; leaves simple, opposite, without stipules, persistent. 

LIX. Bignoniaceae (p. 791). Flowers perfect; calyx bilabiate; corolla bilabiate, 5- 
lobed ; fruit a woody capsule (Catalpa and Chilopsis) or a berry (Crescentia) ; leaves sim- 
ple, opposite (sometimes alternate in Chilopsis), without stipules, deciduous (persistent in 
Crescentia). 

B. Ovary inferior (partly superior in Sambucus in Caprifoliacece). 

LX. Rubiaceae (p. 798). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 4 or 5-lobed; fruit a cap- 
sule (Exostema and Pinckneya), a drupe (Guettarda), or nut-like (Cephalanthus); leaves 
simple, opposite, or in verticils of 3 (Cephalanthus), with stipules, persistent (deciduous in 
Pinckneya and Cephalanthus). 

LXI. Caprifoliaceae (p. 804). Flowers perfect; calyx and corolla 5-lobed; fruit a 
drupe; leaves unequally pinnate (Sambucus) or simple (Viburnum), opposite, without 
stipules, deciduous. 



ANALYTICAL KEY 

TO THE FAMILIES OF PLANTS INCLUDED IN THIS BOOK, 
BASED ON THE CHARACTER OF THE LEAVES 

1. Leaves opposite. 
*Leaves simple. 
-i-Leaves persistent. 

a Leaves with stipules. 

Leaves entire or sometimes slightly crenate or serrate. 

Leaves emarginate at the apex, very short-stalked, H'-2' long. 
Leaves obovate, gradually narrowed into the petioles. 

Gyminda in Celastraceae (p. 621). 

Leaves oval to oblong, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base (rarely alter- 
nate). 

Reynosia and Krugiodendron in Rhamnaceae (pp. 658, 660). 
Leaves obtusish, 3'-5' long. RhizOphoraceae (p. 691). 

Leaves acute or acuminate. 

Exostema and Guettarda in Rubiaceae (pp. 800, 803). 
Leaves serrate (usually compound). Lyonothamnus in Rosaceae (p. 350). 
aa Leaves without stipules. 

Petioles with 2 large glands ; leaves obtuse, l-'-2' long. 

Laguncularia in Combretaceae (p. 703). 
Petioles not glandular. 

Leaves furnished on the under side with dark glands, obtuse to acute, aromatic ; 
petioles short. Myrtaceae (p. 693). 

Leaves without glands on the under side. 
Leaves obtuse or emarginate, rarely acute. 

Leaves green and glabrous beneath, obovate to oblong-obovate, !'-!' long 

(sometimes alternate). Nyctaginaceae (p. 313). 

Leaves pubescent or canescent beneath, generally obovate-oblong, 2'-4' long. 

Verbenaceae (p. 787). 

Leaves acute or acuminate, glabrous. Osmanthus in Oleaceae (p. 779). 
---*-Leaves deciduous. 

a Leaves without lobes. 
6 Leaves serrate. 

Winter-buds with several opposite outer scales ; leaves puberulous beneath. 

Evonymus in Celastraceae (p. 619). 

Winter-buds enveloped by 2 large scales ; leaves glabrous, or rufous-tomentu- 
lose along the midribs beneath. Viburnum in Caprif oliaceae (p. 804). 
bb Leaves entire. 

c Leaves without stipules. 
Leaves oval to oblong. 

Winter-buds small, with several pairs of opposite scales. 

Fraxinus anomala and Chionanthus in Oleaceae (pp. 765, 777). 
Winter-buds enveloped by 2 opposite scales. 

Cornus in Cornaceae (p. 712). 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES xvii 

Leaves broadly ovate, cordate at the base, acuminate, 5'-12 long, on long 

petioles. Catalpa in Bignoniaceae (p. 702). 

Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, short-stalked or sessile (s<nnftiiin'x alternate). 

Chilopsis in Bignoniaceae (p. 791). 
cc Leaves with persistent stipules, entire. 

Pinckneya and Cephalanthus in Rubiaceae (pp. 7is, SOL'). 
aa Leaves palmately lobed. Aceraceae (p. 024). 

**Leaves compound. 

-^-Leaves persistent, with stipules. 

Leaves equally pinnate ; leaflets entire. Zygophyllaceae (p. 578). 

Leaves unequally pinnately parted into 3-8 linear-lanceolate segments (tomitiiitt s 
entire). Lyonothamnus in Rosaceae (p. :i.")O). 

Leaves trifoliate. Helietta and Amyris in Rutaceae (pp. > 

-+--*-Leaves deciduous. 

Leaves unequally pinnate or trifoliate. 

Winter-buds with 1 or 2 pairs of obtuse outer scales, usually puberulous. 
Leaflets 3-5, incisely serrate; primary veins extending to the teeth. 

Acer Neguiido in Aceraceae (p. 641). 

Leaflets usually many, rarely 3 or 1, crenate-serrate or entire, the veins arching 

and uniting within the margin. Fraxinus in Oleaceae (p. ">). 

Winter-buds with many opposite acute glabrous scales; leaflets sharply serrate; 

branches with thick pith. Sambucus in Caprifoliaceae (p. M>.~>). 

Leaves digitate, with 5-7 sharply serrate leaflets ; terminal buds lar^e. 

Hippocastauaceae (p. C.4:'-). 
2. Leaves alternate. 
*Leaves simple. 
-Leaves persistent. 

a Leaves crowded at the end of simple or sparingly branched stems, parallel-nerved, 
without stipules. 

Leaves flabellate, stem simple. Thrinax, Coccothrinax, Sabal, Wash- 
ingtonia. Serenoa in Palmae (pp. lo.'Mll). 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, stem often branched. Liliaceae (p. 1 1~>). 

aa Leaves scattered singly or in fascicles along the branches. 
6 Leaves linear or scale-like, without stipules. 

Leaves linear, flattened, light green beneath ; branchlets remaining green 2-4 

years. Taxaceae (p. !7). 

Leaves scale-like, needle-shaped or flattened ; marked by white bands of stomata. 

Coniferae (p. 1). 
66 Leaves orbicular to lanceolate. 
c Leaves palmately lobed. 

Leaves stellate-pubescent, about H' in diameter, with stipules. 

Sterculiaceae (p. r,7r,). 

Leaves glabrous, l-2 in diameter, without stipules. Caricaceae (p. (>_'). 
cc Leaves not lobed. 

d Branches spinescent. 

Leaves clustered at the ends of the branches, at least 2'-.'}' long. 

Bucida in Combretaceae (p. 702). 

Leaves scattered, not more than i'-l' long, generally obovate, mucronate, 
glabrous and green or brownish tomentulose beneath. 

' Condalia in Rhamnaceae (p. <..Y7). 

Leaves fascicled on lateral branchlets obtuse or emarginatt 1 , pah- and gla- 
brous beneath. Bumelia angustifolia in Sapotaceae (p. 744). 
dd Branches not spinescent. 
e Leaves serrate or lobed. 



XVlii ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

/Juice watery. 

Stipules present. 

h Primary veins extending straight to the teeth. 

Pasania and some species of Quercus in Fagaceae (pp. 224, 

226). 

hh Primary veins arching and united within the margin. 
Leaves 3-nerved from the base. 

Ceanothus in Rhamnaceae (p. 665). 
Leaves not 3-nerved. 
Leaves acute. 
Leaves sinuately dentate, with few spiny teeth, glabrous. 

Ilex opaca in Aquifoliaceae (p. 614). 
Leaves serrate. 

Vauquelinia, Heteromeles,and Prunus Carolin- 
iana and Prunus ilicif olia in Rosaceae (pp. 349, 

358, 527, 530). 

Leaves obtuse, sometimes mucronate. 
Leaves spinose-serrate, glabrous. 

Rhamnus crocea in Rhamnaceae (p. 662). 
Leaves crenate (often entire), oval to oblong. 

Hex vomitoria in Aquifoliaceae (p. 616). 
hkh Primary veins extending straight to the teeth. 

Cercocarpus in Rosaceae (p. 504). 
gg Stipules wanting. 

Leaves resinous-dotted, aromatic. Myricaceae (p. 146). 

Leaves not resinous-dotted, crenately serrate, gradually narrowed 
into short stout petioles ; bark red-brown. 

Gordonia Lasianthus in Theaceae (p. 678). 
//"Juice milky. 

Hippomane and Gymnanthes in Euphorbiaceae (pp. 598, 599). 
ee Leaves entire (rarely sparingly toothed on vigorous branchlets). 
i Stipules present. 
j Stipules connate, at least at first. 

Stipules persistent, forming a sheath surrounding the branch above 
the node; leaves obtuse. Polygonaceae (p. 311). 

Stipules deciduous, enveloping the young leaf before unfolding. 
Leaves ferrugineous-tomentose beneath. 

Magnolia fcetida in Magnoliaceae (p. 316). 
Leaves glabrous beneath, with milky juice. 

Ficus in Moraceae (p. 308). 
jj Stipules free. 
k Juice milky. 

Drypetes and Gymnanthes in Euphorbiaceae 

(pp. 595, 599). 
kk Juice watery. 

I Leaves obtuse or emarginate at the apex. 

Leaves with ferrugineous scales beneath, their petioles slender. 

Capparidaceae (p. 338). 
Leaves without ferrugineous scales. 

Leaves rarely 2'-3' long, standing on the branch at acute 

angles. Chrysobalanus in Rosaceae (p. 532). 

Leaves rarely more than 1' long, spreading (sometimes 3-nerved). 

Ceanothus spinosus in Rhamnaceae (pp. 667). 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES xix 

U Leaves acute. 

Petioles with 2 glands. 

Conocarpus in Combretaceae (p. 700). 
Petioles without glands. 

Leaves and hranchlets more or less pubescent, at least while 
young. 
Leaves fascicled except on young hranchlets. 

Cercocarpua in Rosaceae (p. 504). 
Leaves not fascicled. 

Winter-buds minute, with few pointed scales. 

Ilex Cassine in Aquifoliaceae (p. <>i:>). 
Winter-buds conspicuous, with numerous scales. 

Castanopsis. Fasania, and Quercus in 
Fagaceae (pp. 2L'2, -2-24, ^r,). 
Leaves and branchlets glabrous. 

Frunus (Cherry Laurels), in Rosaceae (p. 527). 
u Stipules wanting. 

m Leaves aromatic when bruised. 

Leaves resinous-dotted. Myricaceae (p. 146). 

Leaves not resinous-dotted. 

Leaves obtuse, obvate, glabrous. Canellaceae (p. 680). 

Leaves acute. 

Leaves mostly rounded at the narrowed base, glabrous. 

Anona in Anonaceae (p. 328). 
Leaves more or less wedge-shaped at the base. 

Fersea, Ocotea, and Umbellularia in Lauraceae 

(pp. 329, 332, 334). 
mm Leaves not aromatic. 

n Leaves acute or acutish. 

Leaves obovate, gradually narrowed into short petioles. 
Leaves 2'-2' long. Schaefferia in Celastraceae (p. 622). 
Leaves at least G'-8' long. 

Crescentia inBignouiaceae (p. 796). 
Leaves elliptic to oblong or ovate. 

Leaves rough above, pubescent below, subcordate to cuneate at 
the base. 

Ehretia and Cordia in Borraginaceae (pp. 781, 785). 
Leaves smooth above. 
Winter-buds scaly. 

Rhododendron, Kalmia, Xolisma. Arbutus 
in Ericaceae (pp. 720. 722, 720, 727). 
Winter-buds naked. 

Leaves more or less pubescent below. 

Sideroxylum, Dipholis, Chrysophyllum (with 
milky juice), in Sapotaceae (pp. 737. 7: 58, 745). 
Leaves glabrous beneath, marked by minute black dots. 

Myrsinaceee (p. 733). 
nn Leaves obtuse or emarginate at the apex. 

o Leaves rounded or cordate at the base, emarginate, their petioles 
slender. 

Leaves reniform to broadly ovate, cordate ; juice watery. 

Cercis in Leguminosae (p. 551). 
Leaves elliptic to oblong, rounded at base ; juice milky or viscid. 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Leaves emarginate ; petioles slender, rufous-tomentulose. 
Mimusops in Sapotaceae (p. 746). 
Leaves obtuse at the apex ; petioles stout, grayish-tomen- 
tulose or glabrous. 

Rhiis integrifolia in Anacardiaceae (p. 609). 
oo Leaves cuneate at the base. 

Petioles slender, ' long. Bourreria in Borraginaceae (p. 784). 
Petioles short and stout. 

Leaves coriaceous, with thick revolute margins (sometimes oppo- 
site). Theophrastaceae (p. 735). 
Leaves subcoriaceous, slightly revolute. 

Leaves oval to obovate ; branches spreading. 

Vaccinium in Ericaceae (p. 731). 

Leaves obovate-oblong to oblong -lanceolate ; branches upright 
(sometimes deciduous in Cyrilla). Cyrillaceae (p. 610). 
^Leaves deciduous. 
++Leaves conspicuous. 

a Leaves entire, sometimes 3 or 4-lobed. 
6 Stipules present. 

Juice milky. Moraceee (p. 302). 

Juice watery. 

Stipules connate, enveloping the young leaves. Magnoliaceae (p. 315). 
Stipules distinct. 

Branches spinescent, leaves glandular, caducous (crenately serrate on 
vigorous shoots). Dalea in Leguminosae (p. 570). 

Branches not spinescent ; leaves without glands. 
Winter-buds with a single pair of connate scales. 

Salix in Salicaceae (p. 166). 

Winter-buds with several pairs of imbricate scales ; branchlets without 
terminal buds. 

Celtis Mississippiensis in Ulmaceae (p. 300). 
bb Stipules wanting. 

c Leaves broad, oval to lanceolate. 

Branchlets bright green and lustrous for the first 2 or 3 years; leaves 
sometimes 3-lobed, aromatic. Sassafras in Lauraceae (p. 335). 

Branchlets brown or gray. 
Leaves acute or acuminate. 

Leaves 10'-12' long, obovate-oblong, acuminate, glabrous, emitting a 
disagreeable odor. Asimina in Anonaceae (p. 326). 

Leaves smaller. 

Leaves glabrous, or pubescent below at maturity. 

Petioles very slender l'-2' long ; leaves elliptic, acuminate. 

Cornus alternifolia in Cornaceae (p. 717). 
Petioles short. 

Branchlets without lenticels, light reddish brown. 

Elliottia in Ericaceae (p. 719). 
Branchlets with small lenticels. 
Branchlets with terminal buds. 

Nyssa in Cornaceae (p. 707). 
Branchlets without terminal buds. 

Diospyros Virginiana in Ebenaceae (p. 749). 
Leaves tomentose below, elliptic to lanceolate-oblong. 

Leitneriaceae (p. 150). 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES XXI 

Leaves obtuse or acute. 
Branehlets not spinescent. 

Leaves glabrous at maturity, their petioles slender. 

Cotinus in Anacardiaceae (p. 601). 

Leaves pubescent below at maturity ; their petioles short and thick. 
Diospyros Texana in Ebenaceae (p. 750). 
Branehlets spinescent ; leaves often fascicled on lateral branchlets. 

Bumelia in Sapotaceae (p. 740). 

cc Leaves linear, fascicled and scattered on the young branches, or 2-ranked in 
Taxodium. Larix and Taxodium in Coniferae (pp. 34, 70). 

era Leaves serrate or pinnately lobed. 
d Stipules present. 
e Winter-buds naked. 

Leaves oblique at the base, the upper side rounded or subcordate, ob- 
ovate, coarsely toothed. 

Hamamelis in Hamamelidaceae (p. 341). 
Leaves equal at the base, cuneate, finely serrate or crenate. 

Rhamnus Caroliniana and Rhamnus Purshiana in 
Rhamnaceae (pp. (kio. r,04). 
ee Winter-buds covered by scales. 

Winter-buds with a single pair of connate scales. 

Primary veins arching and uniting within the margins; leaves sim- 
ply serrate or crenate, sometimes entire. 

Salix in Salicaceae (p. KJrt). 

Primary veins extending to the teeth, leaves doubly serrate, often 
slightly lobed. Alnus in Betulaceae (p. 208). 

fee Winter-buds with several pairs of imbricate scales. 

Terminal buds wanting, branchlets prolonged by upper axillary buds. 
Leaves distinctly oblique at the base. Ulmaceae (p. 287). 

Leaves slightly or not at all oblique at the base. 

Carpinus, Ostrya, and Betula in Betulaceae (pp. 100, 

I'.tl. 194). 
Terminal buds present. 

Primary veins arching and uniting within the margin (extending to 
the margin in the lobed leaves of Mains). 

Winter-buds resinous ; leaves crenate, usually truncate at the 
base ; petioles slender. 

Populus in Salicaceae (p. 152). 
Winter-buds not resinous. 

Malus, Amelanchier, Prunus in Roaaceae (pp. 351, 

300, 509). 
Primary veins extending to the teeth or to the lobes. 

Leaves lobed or remotely dentate or crenate ; lobes not serrate, 
but occasionally coarsely toothed. 

Fagus, Castanea, Quercus in Fagaceae (pp. 217, 

219, 20). 

Leaves doubly or simply serrate, or lobed, with serrate lobes ; 
branches often furnished with spines. 

Malus and Crataegus in Rosaceae (pp. 351, 363). 
dd Stipules wanting. 
^Leaves not lobed. 

Leaves subcoriaceous. 
Leaves obovate, acute. 

Gordonia Altamaha in Theaceae (p. 679). 



ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Leaves oblong 1 , narrowed at the ends, sometimes nearly entire. 

Symplocaceae (p. 752). 
Leaves membranaceous. 

Leaves oblong or lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous or puberulous while 
young, turning scarlet in the autumn. 

Oxydendrum in Ericaceae (p. 724). 

Leaves ovate to elliptical, stellate-pubescent while young, turning 
yellow in the autumn. Styraceae (p. 754). 

ves palmately lobed. 
Stipules large, foliaceous, united ; branchlets wHhout terminal buds. 

Platanaceae (p. 343). 
Stipules small, free, caducous ; branchlets with terminal buds. 

Liquidambar in Hamamelidaceae (p. 339). 
**** Leaves inconspicuous or wanting ; spiny or prickly trees. 

Branches or stems succulent, armed with numerous prickles. 

Cactaceae (p. 684). 
Branches rigid, spinescent. 

Leaves minute, narrowly obovate. 

Branchlets bright green. Kceberliniaceae (p. 681). 

Branchlets red-brown. Dalea in Leguminosae (p. 570). 

Leaves scale-like. Canotia in Celastraceee (p. 623). 

**Leaves compound. 
-* Leaves 3-foliolate, without stipules. 

Leaves persistent ; leaflets entire. Hypelate in Sapindaceae (p. 654). 

Leaves deciduous, strongly scented and bitter ; leaflets serrate or entire, acute. 

Ftelea in Rutaceae (p. 587). 
-Leaves pinnate. 

a Leaves twice pinnate ; stipules present. 

Branches and stem armed with scattered prickles ; leaves 2-4 long ; leaflets 
serrate, 2'-3'long. Araliaceae (p. 704). 

Branches unarmed, or armed with axillary or stipular spines ; leaflets entire or 
crenate-serrate. 

Zygia, Lysiloma, Acacia, Leucaena, Gymnocladus, Gle- 
ditsia in Leguminosae (pp. 535, 538, 540, 545, 553, 555). 
aa Leaves equally pinnate. 

Stipules wanting ; leaves persistent ; leaflets entire. 

Leaflets 2-4, generally oblong-obovate. Exothea in Sapindaceae (p. 653). 
Leaflets 6-12. 

Leaflets obtuse, 6-12. 

Leaflets 8-12, 2'-3' long ; leaves occasionally opposite. 

Simarubaceae (p. 589). 

Leaflets 6-8, !'-!' long. Fagara coriacea in Anacardiaceae (p. 584). 
Leaflets acuminate, 6-8. Meliaceae (p. 593). 

Stipules present ; leaves deciduous or persistent. 

Prosopis, Parkinsonia, Cercidium, Eysenhardtia, Olneya 
in Leguminosae (pp. 547, 559, 562, 569, 575). 
aaa Leaves unequally pinnate. 
b Stipules present. 

Leaflets sharply serrate ; leaves deciduous ; winter-buds resinous. 

Sorbus in Rosaceae (p. 356). 

Leaflets entire or crenately serrate ; leaves deciduous (persistent in Eysenhardtia, 
Olneya, and in Sophora secundiflord). 

Gleditsia, Sophora, Cladrastis, Robinia, Olneya, Ichthy- 
omethia in Leguminosae (pp. 555, 564, 567, 571, 575, 577). 






ANALYTICAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES XXU1 

bb Stipules wanting. 

c Leaves clustered at the apex of simple stout stems, parallel-nerved, persistent. 

Roystonea and Pseudophcenix in Pa.lm.se (pp. 112, 114). 
cc Leaves scattered on branched stems. 
d Leaves persistent. 

Leaflets long-stalked (sometimes nearly sessile in Fagara flava). 
Leaflets ovate-oblong, wedge-shaped at the base. 

Fagara flava in Rutaceae (p. 583). 
Leaflets broadly ovate, usually rounded or subcordate at the base. 

Metopium in Anacardiaceae (p. 603). 
Leaflets sessile or nearly so. 
Petiole and rachis winged. 
Leaflets crenate, obovate, about ' long ; branches prickly. 

Fagara Fagara in Rutaceae (p. 581). 
Leaflets entire, oblong, usually acute, 3'-4' long ; branches unarmed. 

Sapindus Saponaria in Sapiiidaceae (p. 650). 
Petiole and rachis not winged; leaflets acuminate, 7-1 1). 

Sapindus marginatus in Sapiiidaceae (p. 651). 
dd Leaves deciduous. 

Leaflets long-stalked, entire, acute, 3-7. Burseraceae (p. 591). 

Leaflets sessile or nearly so. 

Branches prickly ; leaflets crenate. 

Fagara Clava-Herculis in Rutaceae (p. 582). 
Branches unarmed. 

Juice milky or viscid ; leaflets serrate or entire ; rachis sometimes 
winged. Rhus in Anacardiaceae (p. 604). 

Juice watery ; rachis without wings. 
Leaflets entire, acuminate, 7-9. 

Sapindus Drummondi in Sapindaceae (p. 652). 
Leaflets serrate or crenate. 

Winter-buds large and scaly or naked ; leaves aromatic. 

Juglandaceae (p. 125). 

Winter-buds minute, globose, scaly ; leaflets 5-7, ovate, not aro- 
matic. Unguadia in Sapindaceae (p. 655). 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

(EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO) 

CLASS 1. GYMNOSPERM^E. 

OVULES and seeds borne on the face of a scale, not inclosed in an 
ovary ; resinous trees, with stems increasing in diameter by the annual 
addition of a layer of wood inside the bark. 

I. CONIFERJE. 

Trees, with narrow or scale-like generally persistent clustered or alternate 
leaves and usually scaly buds. Flowers appearing in early spring, mostly sur- 
rounded at the base by an involucre of the more or less enlarged scales of the 
buds, unisexual, monoecious (dioecious in Jnniperus), the staminate consisting 
of numerous 2-celled anthers, the pistillate of scales bearing on their inner 
face 2 or several ovules, and becoming at maturity a woody cone or rarely a 
berry. Seeds with or without wings ; seed-coat of 2 layers ; embryo axile in 
copious albumen ; cotyledons 2 or several. Of the thirty-one genera scattered 
over the surface of the globe, but most abundant in northern temperate regions, 
thirteen occur in North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Scales of the pistillate flowers in the axils of persistent bracts ; ovules and seeds borne 
directly on the scales. 

ABIETINE^:. Scales of the pistillate flower numerous, spirally arranged ; ovules 2, 
inverted ; seeds attached at the base in shallow depressions on the inner side of the 
scales, falling from them at maturity and usually carrying away a scarious wing ; 
leaves fascicled or scattered (deciduous in Larix). 
Fruit maturing in two or rarely in three seasons. 
Leaves fascicled, needle-shaped. 

Leaves in axillary l-fi-h-aved clusters, inclosed at the base in a membranaceous 
sheath ; cone-scales thick and woody, much longer than their bracts. 

1. Pinus. 
Fruit maturing in one season. 

Leaves in many-leaved clusters on short spur-like branchlets, deciduous ; cone- 
scales thin, usually shorter than their bracts. 2. Larix. 
Leaves scattered, linear. 

Cones pendulous, the scales persistent on the axis. 

Branchlets roughened by the persistent leaf -bases ; leaves deciduous in dry- 
ing ; bracts shorter than the cone -scales. 

Leaves sessile, 4-sided, or flattened and stomatiferous above. 3. Picea. 
Leaves stalked, flattened and stomatiferous below, or angular. 4. Tsuga. 



2 TEEES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Branchlets not roughened by leaf -bases. 

Leaves stalked, flattened ; bracts of the cone 2-lobed, aristate, longer 
than the scales. 5. Pseudotsuga. 

Cones erect, their scales deciduous from the axis, longer or shorter than the 
bracts. 

Leaves sessile, flat or 4-sided. 6. Abies. 

Scales of the pistillate flowers without bracts ; ovules and seeds borne on the face of minute 
scales adnate to the base of the flower-scales, enlarging and forming the scales of the 
cone. 

TAXODLE. Scales of the pistillate flowers numerous, spirally arranged, forming a woody 
cone ; ovules erect, 2 or many under each scale ; leaves linear, alternate, often of 2 
forms (deciduous in Taxodium). 

Ovules and seeds numerous under each scale ; leaves persistent. 7. Sequoia. 
Ovules and seeds 2 under each scale ; leaves mostly spreading in 2 ranks, decidu- 
ous. 8. Taxodium. 
CuPBESSiNE2E. Scales of the pistillate flower few, decussate, forming a small cone, or 
rarely a berry ; ovules 2 or many under each scale ; leaves decussate or in 3 ranks, 
often of 2 forms, usually scale-like, mostly adnate to the branch, the earliest free 
and subulate. 

Fruit a cone ; leaves scale-like. 

Cones oblong, their scales oblong, imbricated or valvate ; seeds 2 under each 
scale, maturing the first year. 

Scales of the cone 6, the middle ones only fertile ; seeds unequally 2-winged. 

9. Libocedrus. 

Scales of the cone 8-12 ; seeds equally 2-winged. 10. Thuya. 

Cones subglobose, the scales peltate or wedge-shaped, maturing in one or two 
years ; seeds few or many under each scale. 

Fruit maturing in two seasons ; seeds many under each scale. 

11. Cupressus. 
Fruit maturing in one season ; seeds 2 under each scale. 

12. Chamaecyparis. 

Fruit a berry formed by the coalition of the scales of the flower ; ovules in pairs 
or solitary ; flowers dioacious ; leaves decussate or in 3's. 

Leaves subulate or scale-like, often of 2 forms. 13. Juniperus. 

1. PINUS, Duham. Pine. 

Trees or rarely shrubs, with deeply furrowed and sometimes laminate or with thin 
and scaly bark, hard or often soft heartwood often conspicuously marked by dark 
bands of summer cells impregnated with resin, pale nearly white sapwood, and large 
branch-buds formed during summer. Leaves needle-shaped, clustered, the clusters 
borne on rudimentary branches in the axils of scale-like primary leaves, inclosed in 
the bud by numerous scales lengthening and forming a more or less persistent sheath 
at the base of each cluster. Staminate flowers clustered at the base of leafy growing 
shoots of the year, each flower surrounded at the base by an involucre of 3-6 scale- 
like bracts, composed of numerous sessile anthers, imbricated in many ranks and sur- 
mounted by crest-like nearly orbicular connectives ; the pistillate subterminal or 
lateral, their scales in the axils of non-accrescent bracts. Fruit a woody cone matur- 
ing at the end of the second or rarely of the third season, composed of the hardened 
and woody scales of the flower more or less thickened on the exposed surface (the 
apophysis), with the ends of the growth of the previous year appearing as terminal 
or dorsal brown protuberances or scars (the umbo). Seeds usually obovate, shorter or 



CONIFERS 3 

longer than their wings; outer seed-coat crustaceous or thick, hard, and bony, the 
inner membranaceoiis ; cotyledons 3-18, usually much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Piuus is widely distributed through the northern hemisphere from the Arctic 
Circle to the West Indies, the mountains of Central America, the Canary Islands, 
northern Africa, Bermuda, the Philippine Islands, and Sumatra. About eighty species 
are recognized. Of exotic species the so-called Scotch Pine, Pinus sylvestris, L., of 
Europe and Asia, the Swiss Stone Pine, Pinus Cembra, L., and the Austrian Pine and 
other forms of Pinus Laricio, Poir., from central and southern Europe, are often 
planted in the northeastern states, and Pinus Pinaster, Ait., of the coast region of 
western France and the Mediterranean Basin is successfully cultivated in central and 
southern California. Pinus is the classical name of the Pine-tree. 

The North American species can be conveniently grouped in two sections, Soft 
Pines and Pitch Pines. 

SOFT PINES. 

Wood soft, close-grained, light-colored, the sapwood thin and nearly white ; sheaths of the 
leaf -clusters deciduous ; leaves with one fibro-vascular bundle. 
Leaves in 5-leaved clusters. 
Cones long-stalked. 

Cones bright green at maturity, becoming light yellow-brown, their scales thin, 
with terminal unarmed umbos. WHITE PINES. 

Seeds shorter than their wings ; leaves 4/ long or less. 
Leaves slender, flexible. 

Cones 5'-6' long. 1. P. Strobus (A). 

Leaves stout, more rigid. 

Cones 5'-ll' long. 2. P. monticola (B, G). 

Cones 12'-18' long. 3. P. Lambertiana (G). 

Seeds longer than their wings ; leaves slender, 3$'-4' long. 

Cones 5'-9' long, their scales strongly reflexed at the apex. 

4. P. strobiformis (H). 
Cones short-stalked. 

Cones green or purple at maturity, becoming yellow-brown, their scales thick with 
terminal sometimes pointed umbos. 

Seeds much longer than their wings ; leaves 2' long or less, stout and rigid. 
STONE PINES. 

Cones 3' -10' long, their scales opening at maturity and losing their seeds. 

5. P. flexilis (F). 
Cones $'-3' long, their scales remaining closed at maturity. 

6. P. albicaulis (B, F, G). 

Cones purple at maturity, their scales thick, the dorsal umbos armed with slender 
prickles ; seeds shorter than their wings ; leaves in crowded clusters, incurved, 
less than 2' long. FOXTAIL PINKS. 

Cones armed with minute incurved prickles. 7. P. Balfouriana (G). 

Cones armed with long slender prickles. 8. P. aristata (F, G). 

Leaves in 1-4-leaved clusters. 

Cones globose, green at maturity, becoming light brown, their scales few, concave, 
much thickened, only the middle scales seed-bearing ; seeds large and edible, 
their wings rudimentary ; leaves 2' or less, often incurved. Xt'T PINES. 

Leaves stout, usually in 4-leaved clusters. 9. P. quadrifolia (G). 

Leaves slender, usually in 3-leaved clusters. 10. P. cembroides (H). 

Leaves stout, in 2-leaved clusters. 11. P. edulis (F). 

Leaves stout, usually in 1-leaved clusters. 12. P. monophylla (F, G). 



TREES OP NORTH AMERICA 



1. Leaves in 5-leaved clusters. 

* Cones long-stalked, their scales thin, unarmed. 
h Wings longer than the seeds. 

1. Finns Strobus, L. White Pine. 

Leaves soft bluish green, whitened on the ventral side by 3-5 bands of stomata, 
3'-5' long, mostly turning yellow and falling in September in their second season, 

or persistent until 
the following June. 
Flowers: stami- 
nate yellow, pistil- 
late bright pink, 
with purple scale 
margins. Fruit 
fully grown by July 
1st of the sec- 
ond season, o'-ll' 
long, opening and 
discharging its 
seeds in September ; 
seeds narrowed at 
the ends, \' long, 
red-brown mottled 
with black, about 
one fourth as long 
as their wings. 

A tree, while 

young with slender horizontal or slightly ascending branches in regular whorls 
usually of 5 branches; at maturity often 100, occasionally 250 high, with a tall 
straight stem 3-4 or rarely 6 in diameter; when crowded in the forest with 
short branches forming a narrow head, or rising above its forest companions with 
long lateral branches sweeping upward in graceful curves, the upper branches 
ascending and forming a broad open irregular head, and slender branchlets coated 
at first with rusty tomentum, soon glabrous, and orange-brown in their first winter. 
Bark on young stems and branches thin, smooth, green tinged with red, lustrous 
during the summer, becoming l'-2' thick on old trunks and deeply divided by shal- 
low fissures into broad connected ridges covered with small closely appressed pur- 
plish scales. Wood light, not strong, straight-grained, easily worked, light brown 
often slightly tinged with red ; largely manufactured into lumber, shingles, and 
laths, used in construction, for cabinet-making, the interior finish of buildings, 
woodenware, matches, and the masts of vessels. 

Distribution. Newfoundland to Manitoba, through the northern states to Penn- 
sylvania, Illinois, and Iowa, and along the Alleghany Mountains to eastern Kentucky 
and Tennessee and northern Georgia, forming nearly pure forests on sandy drift 
soils, or more often in small groves scattered in forests of deciduous-leaved trees on 
fertile well-drained soil, also on the banks of streams, river flats, or rarely in swamps. 
Largely planted as an ornament of parks and gardens in the eastern states, and 
in many European countries, where it grows with vigor and rapidity. 




CONIFERS 



2. Finns monticola, D. Don. White Pine. 

Leaves blue-green, glaucous, whitened by 2-6 rows of ventral and often by dorsal 
stomata. Flowers : staminate yellow; pistillate pale purple. Fruit 12'-18' long, 




shedding its seeds late in the summer or in early autumn; seeds narrowed at the 
ends, $' long, pale red-brown mottled with black, about one third as long as their wings. 

A tree, often 100 or occasionally 150 high, with a trunk frequently 4-5 or 
rarely 7-8 in diameter, slender spreading slightly pendulous branches clothing 
young, stems to the ground and in old age forming a narrow open often unsymmetri- 
cal pyramidal head, and stout tough branchlets clothed at first with rusty pubescence, 
dark orange-brown and puberulous in their first'and dark red-purple and glabrous in 
their second season. Bark of young stems and branches thin, smooth, light gray, 
becoming on old trees f'-l^' thick and divided into small nearly square plates by 
deep longitudinal and cross fissures covered by small closely appressed purple scales. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, light brown or red; sometimes 
manufactured into lumber, used in construction and the interior finish of buildings. 

Distribution. Scattered through mountain forests from the basin of the Columbia 
River in British Columbia to Vancouver Island, along the western slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains to northern Montana, on the mountains of northern Idaho and 
Washington, on the coast ranges of Washington and Oregon, and on the Cascade 
and Sierra Nevada ranges southward to the Kern River valley, California ; most 
abundant and of greatest value in northern Idaho on the bottom-lands of streams 
tributary to Lake Pend Oreille; reaching the sea-level on the southern shores of the 
Straits of Fuca, and elevations of 10,000 on the California Sierras. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in Europe, and occasionally in the eastern 
United States where it grows more vigorously than any other Pine-tree of western 
America. 

3. Finus Lambertiana, Dougl. Sugar Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, 3^ '-4' long, marked on the two faces by 2-6 rows of stomata; 
deciduous during their second and third years. Flowers : staminate light yellow, 
pistillate pale green. Fruit fully grown in August and opening in October, 11/-18' 
or rarely 21' long; seeds l^'-5' long, dark chestnut-brown or nearly black, and half 



G 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



the length of their firm dark brown obtuse wings broadest below the middle and 
' wide. 

A tree, in early life with remote regular whorls of slender branches often clothing 
the stem to the ground and forming an open narrow pyramid ; at maturity 200-220 
high, with a trunk 6-8 or occasionally 12 in diameter, a flat-topped crown fre- 
quently 60 or 70 across of comparatively slender branches sweeping outward and 
downward in graceful curves, and stout branchlets coated at first with pale or rufous 
pubescence, dark orange-brown during their first winter, becoming dark purple- 
brown. Bark on young stems and branches thin, smooth, dark green, becoming on 
old trunks 2'-3' thick and deeply and irregularly divided into long thick plate-like 
ridges covered with large loose rich purple-brown or cinnamon-red scales. Wood 
light, soft, straight-grained, light red-brown; largely manufactured into lumber and 




used for the interior finish of buildings, woodwork, and shingles. A sweet sugar-like 
substance exudes from wounds made in the heartwood. 

Distribution. Mountain slopes and the sides of ravines and canons; Oregon from 
the valley of the Santiam River southward along the Cascade and coast ranges; Cali- 
fornia along the northern and coast ranges to Sonoma County, along the western 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada, where it grows to its greatest size at elevations between 
3000 and 7000, on the mountains in the southern part of the state; and on Mt. San 
Pedro Martir in Lower California. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in western Europe and in the eastern 
states, the Sugar Pine has grown slowly in cultivation and shows little promise of 
attaining the large size and great beauty which distinguish it in its native forests. 

-- -i- Wings shorter than the seeds. 

4. Pinus strobiformis, Engelm. White Pine. 

Leaves slender, rigid, pale green, whitened on the ventral side by 3-4 rows of 
stomata, 3'^1' long, deciduous during their third and fourth years. Fruit 5'-9' long, 
with scales much reflexed at the apex; seeds broadly ovate, ty long, about ^' wide, 
dark red-brown, with a thin shell produced into a narrow margin, their wings 
rounded, about ' wide. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a trunk rarely more than 2 in diameter, a narrow 



CONIFERS! 




p\ ramidal head of slender often pendulous branches and slender branchlets at first 
orange-brown, becoming pur- 
ple, often covered with a 
glaucous bloom and coated 
while young with rufous pu- 
lu-srcnce. Bark !'-!' thick 
and irregularly divided by 
onnected fissures into 
narrow rounded ridges cov- 
ered by small loose red-brown 
scales. Wood hard, light, 
not strong, pale red. 

Distribution. Scattered 
usually singly or occasionally 
in small clusters on rocky 
ridges and the sides of ca- 
nons of the Santa Catalina, 
Santa Rita, and Chiracahua 
Mountains of southern Arizona, and on the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua. 

**Cones short-stalked, their scales thickened irings much shorter than the seeds. 

5. Finus flexilis, James. Rocky Mountain White Pine. 
Leaves stout, rigid, dark green, marked on all sides by 1-4 rows of stomata, 
l'-3' long, deciduous in their fifth and sixth years. Flowers: staminate reddish; 
pistillate clustered, bright red-purple. Fruit oval or subcylindrical, horizontal or 
slightly declining, green or rarely purple at maturity, 3'-10' long, with narrow and 
slightly reflexed scales opening at maturity ; seeds compressed, \'-% long, dark 
red-brown mottled with black, with a thick shell produced into a narrow margin. 

their wings about ^' wide, generally 
persistent on the scale after the seed 
falls. 

A tree, usually 40-50, occasionally 
80 high, with a short trunk '--5 
in diameter, stout long - persistent 
branches ultimately forming a low 
wide round-topped head, and stout 
branchlets orange-green and covered 
at first with soft fine pubescence, usu- 
ally soon glabrous and darker colored; 
at high elevations often a low-spread- 
ing shrub. Bark of young stems and 
branches thin, smooth, light gray or 
silvery white, becoming on old trunks 
l'-2' thick, dark brown or nearly 
black, and divided by deep fissures into broad ridges broken into nearly square plates 
covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, pale 
clear yellow, turning red with exposure ; occasionally manufactured into lumber. 
Distribution. Eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to western 



\VM 




8 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Texas, and westward on mountain ranges at elevations of 5000 to 12,000 to Montana, 
and southeastern California, reaching the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada at the 
head of King's River; usually scattered singly or in small groves; forming open 
forests on the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Montana and on the ranges 
of central Nevada; attaining its largest size on those of northern New Mexico and 
Arizona. 

6. Pinus albicaulis, Bngelm. White Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, slightly incurved, dark green, marked by 1-3 rows of dorsal 
stoinata, clustered at the ends of the branches, l^'-2^' long, persistent for five to 
eight years. Flowers opening in July, scarlet. Fruit ripening in August, oval or 
subglobose, horizontal, sessile, dark purple, l^'-3' long, with scales thickened, acute, 
often armed with stout pointed umbos, remaining closed at maturity; seeds acute, 
subcylindrical or flattened on one side, \'-^' long, \' thick, with a thick dark chestnut- 
brown hard shell produced into a narrow border, and wings about V broad. 

A tree, usually 20-30 or rarely 60 high, generally with a short trunk 2-4 in 

diameter, stout very 
flexible branches, finally 
often standing nearly 
erect and forming an 
open very irregular 
broad head, and stout 
dark red-brown or or- 
ange-colored branchlets 
pubertilous for two years 
or sometimes glabrous; 
at high elevations often 
a low shrub, with wide- 
spreading nearly pros- 
trate stems. Bark thin, 

6 except near the base of 

old trunks and broken 

by narrow fissures into thin narrow brown or creamy white plate-like scales. 
Wood light, soft, close-grained, brittle, light brown. The large sweet seeds are 
gathered and eaten by Indians. 

Distribution. Alpine slopes and exposed ridges between 5000 and 12,000 eleva- 
tion, forming the timber-line on many mountain ranges from latitude 53 north in 
the Rocky Mountains and from the valley of the Iltasyouco River southward through 
British Columbia, along the Rocky Mountains to the Yellowstone plateau, and on 
the mountains of eastern Washington and Oregon, the Cascade Range, on Mt. 
Shasta and along the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino Mountains of southern 
California. 

* Cones short-stalked, subcylindrical, dark purple, their scales armed with slender 
prickles wings longer than the seeds ; leaves in crowded clusters. 

7. Pinus Balfouriana, A. Murr. Foxtail Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, dark green and lustrous on the back, pale and marked on the 
ventral faces by numerous rows of stomata, l'-l' long, persistent for ten or twelve 
years. Flowers: staminate dark orange-red ; pistillate dark purple. Fruit 3'-5' 




CONIFERS; 




long, with scales armed with minute incurved prickles, dark purple, turning after open- 
ing dark red or mahogany color; seeds full and rounded at the apex, compressed at 
the base, pale, conspicuously mottled with dark purple, \' long, their wings nar- 
rowed and oblique at the apex, 
about 1- long and \' wide. 

A tree, usually 30-40 or 
rarely 90 high, with a trunk 
generally l-2 or rarely 5 in 
diameter, short stout branches 
forming an open irregular 
pyramidal picturesque head, 
and long rigid more or less 
spreading puberulous, soon 
glabrous, dark orange-brown 
ultimately dark gray-brown or 
nearly black branchlets, clothed 
only at the extremities with 
the long dense brush - like 
masses of foliage. Bark thin, 
smooth, and milky white on the stems and branches of young trees, becoming on old 
trees sometimes f thick, dark red-brown, deeply divided into broad Hat ridges, 
broken into nearly square plates separating on the surface into small closely ap- 
pressed scales. "Wood light, soft and brittle, pale reddish brown. 

Distribution. California, on rocky slopes and ridges, forming scattered groves on 
Scott Mountain, Siskiyou County, at elevations of r>000-(3000 , on the mountains at 
the head of the Sacramento River, on Mt. Yolo Bally in the northern Coast Range, 
and on the southern Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 11,500, growing here to its 
largest size, and hereat the highest elevations often a low shrub, with wide-spread- 
ing prostrate stems. 

8. Finns aristata, Engelm. Foxtail Fine. Hickory Pine. 

Leaves stout or slender, dark green, lustrous on the baek, marked by numerous 

rows of stomata on the ventral faces, 
!'-!' long, often deciduous at the end 
of ten or twelve years or persistent 
four or five years longer. Flowers : 
staininate dark orange-red, pistillate 
dark purple. Fruit 3'-3^' long, with 
scales armed with slender incurved 
brittle prickles nearly \' long, dark 
purple-brown on the exposed parts, the 
remainder dull red, opening and scat- 
tering their seeds about the 1st of Octo- 
ber ; seeds nearly oval, compressed, 
light brown mottled with black, j' long, 
their wings broadest at the middle, 
about \' long and ^-' wide. 

A bushy tree, occasionally 40-50 
high, with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, short stout branches i regular whorls 




10 TKEES OF NORTH AMERICA 

while young, in old age growing very irregularly, the upper erect and much longer 
than the usually pendulous lower branches, and stout light orange-colored, glabrous, 
or at first puberulous, ultimately dark gray-brown or nearly black branchlets 
clothed at the ends with long compact brush-like tufts of foliage. Bark thin, smooth, 
milky white on the stems and branches of young trees, becoming on old trees ^'-f ' 
thick, red-brown, and irregularly divided into flat connected ridges separating on 
the surface into small closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, light 
red; occasionally used for the timbers of mines and for fuel. 

Distribution. Rocky or gravelly slopes at the upper limit of tree growth from 
the outer range of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to those of southern Utah, cen- 
tral and southern Nevada, southeastern California, and the San Francisco peaks of 
northern Arizona. 

2. Leaves in 1-^-leaved clusters ; cones short-stalked or nearly sessile, globose, with 
few much-thickened scales seeds large and edible, with rudimentary wings. 

9. Pinus quadrifolia, Sudw. Nut Pine. Fifion. 

Leaves in 1-5 usually 4-leaved clusters, stout, incurved, pale glaucous green, 
marked on the three surfaces by numerous rows of stomata, l^'-l^' long, irregularly 

deciduous, mostly falling in their 
third year. Flowers: staminate 
in elongated spikes, the bracts of 
their involucres large and conspic- 
uous; pistillate nearly sessile. 
Fruit subglobose, l'-2' broad; 
seeds narrowed and compressed 
at the apex, rounded at the base, 
I' long, dark red-brown and mot- 
tled, their wings -' wide. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a 
short trunk occasionally 18' in 
diameter, and thick spreading 
branches forming a compact regu- 

' '^ 7 lar pyramidal or in old age a low 

round-topped irregular head, and 

stout branchlets coated at first with soft pubescence and light orange-brown. Bark 
i'-f thick, dark brown tinged with red, and divided by shallow fissures into broad 
flat connected ridges covered by thick closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood 
light, soft, close-grained, pale brown or yellow. The seeds form an important article 
of food for the Indians of Lower California. 

Distribution. Arid mesas and low mountain slopes of Lower California south- 
ward to the foothills of Mt. San Pedro Martir, extending northward across the bound- 
ary of California to the desert slopes of the Santa Rosa Mountains, Riverside 
County, where it is common at elevations of 5000 above the sea-level. 

10. Finus cembroides, Zucc. Nut Fine. Pifion. 

Leaves in 2 or 3-leaved clusters, slender, much incurved, dark green, marked by 
rows of stomata on the 3 faces, 1/-2' long, deciduous irregularly during their third and 
fourth years. Flowers : staminate in short crowded clusters, yellow ; pistillate 




CONIFERS 



11 




IO 



dark red. Fruit subgtobose, l'-2' broad ; seeds subcylindrical or obscurely tri- 
angular, more or less compressed at the pointed apex, full and rounded at the base, 
nearly black on the lower side and dark chestnut-brown on the upper, '~f' long, 
their wings light chestnut-brown, about ^' wide. 

A bushy tree, with a short trunk 
rarely more than a foot in diameter 
and a broad round-topped head, usually 
15-20 high, stout spreading branches, 
and slender dark orange - colored 
branchlets covered at first with matted 
pale deciduous hairs, dark brown and 
sometimes nearly black at the end of 
five or six years; in sheltered canons 
on the mountains of Arizona and in 
Lower California occasionally 50 q or 
00 tall. Bark about % thick, irregu- 
larly divided by remote shallow fis- 
sures and separated on the surface into 

numerous large thin light red-brown scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, pale 
clear yellow. The large oily seeds are an important article of food in northern 
Mexico, and are sold in large quantities in Mexican towns. 

Distribution. Mountain ranges of central and southern Arizona, usually only 
above elevations of 6500, often covering their upper slopes with open forests; 
Lower California, and over many of the mountain ranges of northern Mexico. 

11. Pinus edulis, Engelm. Nut Pine. Pifion. 

Leaves in 2 or rarely in 3-leaved clusters, stout, semiterete or triangular, rigid, 
incurved, dark green, marked by numerous rows of stomata, '-!' long, deciduous 
during the third or not until the fourth or fifth year, dropping irregularly and some- 
times persistent for eight or nine years. Flowers : staminate in elongated' clusters, 
dark red; pistillate short-stalked. Fruit subcylindrical, f'-H' long and almost 
as broad; seeds ovate, acute, full and rounded at the base, dark red-brown on the 

lower and light orange-yellow on the upper 
side, ' long, with a thin brittle shell, their 
wings light reddish brown and about \' wide. 
A tree, rarely 30-40 high, with a 
short often divided trunk occasionally 2 
in diameter, stout branches forming at first 
a broad compact pyramid, and in old age a 
dense low round-topped head, and stout 
branchlets orange color during their first 
and second years, finally becoming light gray 
or dark brown sometimes tinged with red. 
Bark '-$ ' thick and irregularly divided into 
connected ridges covered by small closely 
appressed light brown scales tinged with 

red or orange color. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, pale brown; largely 
used for fuel and fencing, and as charcoal used in smelting; in western Texas 
occasionally sawed into lumber. The seeds form an important article of food 




12 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



among Indians and Mexicans, and are sold in the markets of Colorado and New 
Mexico. 

Distribution. Eastern foothills of the outer ranges of the Rocky Mountains, from 
Colorado to western Texas, westward to the eastern borders of Utah, southwestern 
Wyoming, northern and central Arizona, and over the mountains of northern Mexico; 
often forming extensive open forests at the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, 
on the Colorado plateau, and on many mountain ranges of northern and central Ari- 
zona up to elevations of 7000 above the sea. 

12. Pinus monophylla, Torr. Nut Pine. Pifion. 

Leaves in 1 or 2-leaved clusters, rigid, incurved, pale glaucous green, marked 
by 18-20 rows of stomata, usually about 1^' long, sometimes deciduous during 

their fourth and fifth seasons, but 
frequently persistent until their 
twelfth year. Flowers: staminate 
dark red ; pistillate short-stalked. 
Fruit short-oblong, 1^-2^' long; 
seeds oblong, full and rounded at 
the base, acute at the apex, dark 
red-brown and rounded on the lower 
side, slightly compressed and pale 
yellow-brown on the upper side, 
about I' long and ^' broad, with a 
thin brittle shell, their wings light 
brown, ^' to ' wide. 

A tree, usually 15-20, occa- 
sionally 40-50 high, with a short 
trunk rarely more than a foot in 
diameter and often divided near the ground into several spreading stems, short thick 
branches forming while the tree is young a broad rather compact pyramid, and in 
old age often pendulous and forming a low round-topped often picturesque head, 
and stout light orange-colored ultimately dark brown branchlets. Bark of the trunk 
about f thick and divided by deep irregular fissures into narrow connected flat 
ridges broken on the surface into thin closely appressed light or dark brown scales 
tinged with red or orange color. Wood light, soft, weak, and brittle; largely used 
for fuel, and charcoal used in smelting. The seeds supply an important article of 
food to the Indians of Nevada and California. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and mesas from the western base of the Wasatch 
Mountains of Utah, westward over the mountain ranges of Nevada to the eastern 
slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada, and to their western slope at the head-waters 
of King's River, and southward to northern Arizona and to the mountains of southern 
and Lower California; often forming extensive open forests at elevations between 
5000 and 7000. 




p 

' l( 5 12 



PITCH PINES. 

Wood usually heavy, coarse-grained, generally dark-colored, with pale often thick sap- 
wood ; cones green at maturity (sometimes purple in 15 and ,?7) becoming various shades 
of brown ; cone-scales more or less thickened, mostly armed ; seeds shorter th?^n their 
wing-s (fxcqrt in 23 and 34} ; leaves with 2 fibro-vascular bundles. 



CONIFERS 13 

Sheaths of the leaf-clusters deciduous. 

Cones V-2' long, maturing in the third year, leaves in 3-leaved clusters, slender, 
long. 13. P. Chihuahuana (H). 

Sheaths of the leaf -clusters persistent. 

Leaves in 3-leaved clusters (-' and ..'-leaved in 15, 17, and 21, 5-leaved in 14)- 
Cones subterminal. 

CotlM 2*-2f long; leaves in 5-leaved clusters. 14. P. Arizonica (H). 

Cones usually deciduous above the basal scales persistent on the branch. 

IJuds brown ; leaves in 2 and 3-leaved clusters. 15. P. poilderosa (B, F, G, H). 
Im.is white. !<> P. paluatris (C). 

Cones lateral. 

( \ini-s symmetrical, their outer scales not excessively developed. 

Young cones reflexed; leaves in 2 and 3-leaved clusters, 8'-12' long. 

17. P. Caribaea (C). 

( 'ones oblong, prickles stout ; leaves G'-9' long. is. P. Taeda ( A 

Cones ovate, prickles slender. 

Leaves 3'-5' long. !'.. P. rigida (A). 

Leaves ii'-8' long. 20. P. serotina (C). 

< 'ones unsymmetrical by the excessive development of the scales on the outer side. 

Prickles of the cone-scales minute. 21 . P. radiata (G). 

Prickles of the cone-sc-ales stout. 22. P. atteiiuata (G). 

( 'ones G'-14' long, their scales prolonged into stout straight or curved spines ; 

leaves long and stout. 

Cones broad-ovate ; seeds longer than their wings. 23. P. Sabiniaiia 
',.ues oblong-conical 24. P. Coulter! (G) 

Leaves iii 2-h-aved clusters (.' and 3-leaved in 29). 
Cones subterminal. 

Cones symmetrical. 2'-2 1 , ' long, their scales unarmed ; leaves 5'-(i long, flexible. 

_'.">. P. resinosa (A). 

Cones unsymmetrical by the greater development of the scales on the outer 
side, armed with slender prickles; leaves l'-4' long. 

26. P. contorta (B, F, G). 

Cones lateral. 

Cones about 2' long, mostly unarmed and incurved, their scales very unevenly 
developed ; leaves less than 2' long. 27. P. divaricata (A). 

Cones about 2' long, their scales evenly developed, armed with weak or decidu- 
ous prickles; leaves 4 long or less. 

IJark of the branches and upper trunk smooth. 2S. P. glabra (C). 

Hark of the branches and upper trunk nm-hened. 2J>. P. echinata (A, C). 
Cones about 3' long, armed with persistent spines. 

Cone-scales evenly developed, their prickles slender, acuminate, from a broad 
base ; leaves soft, .'!' long or less. 

Conea opening at maturity. 30. P. Virginiana i 

Cones often remaining closed for many years. 31. P. clausa (C). 

Outer cone-scales excessively developed and armed with stout prickles. 

Cones 2'-3i' long, remaining close, 1 : leaves I'-d' long. 32. P. muricata (G). 
Cone-scales armed with very stout hooked spines. 

Cones 2|'-3' long ; leaves 2' long or Lew, 3.",. P. pungeiis (A). 

Leaves in 5-leaved clusters. 

Cones 4 -('' long, unsymmetrical, their scales thick ; seeds shorter than their wings : 
leaves stout, 9'-13' long. 34. P. Torreyana (G). 




14 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

1. Sheaths of the leaf-clusters deciduous leaves in 3-leaved clusters. 

13. Pinus Chihuahuana, Engelni. Yellow Pine. 

Leaves slender, pale glaucous green, marked by 6-8 rows of conspicuous stomata 
on each of the 3 sides, 2|'-4' long, irregularly deciduous from their fourth season, 
their sheaths deciduous. Flowers : staminate yellow; pistillate yellow-green. Fruit 

ovate, horizontal or slightly 
declining, long-stalked, l'-2' 
long, becoming light chestnut- 
brown and lustrous, maturing 
at the end of the third season, 
with scales only slightly thick- 
ened, their ultimately pale um- 
bos armed with recurved de- 
ciduous prickles ; seeds oval, 
rounded above and pointed be- 
low, about ^' long, with a thin 
dark brown shell, their wings 
\' long and broadest near the 
middle. 

A tree, rarely more than 
40-50 high, with a tall trunk 

sometimes 2 in diameter, stout slightly ascending branches forming a narrow open 
pyramidal or round-topped head of thin pale foliage, and slender bright orange- 
brown branchlets, soon becoming dull red-brown. Bark of old trunks f'-l^' thick, 
dark reddish brown or sometimes nearly black, and deeply divided into broad flat 
ridges covered with thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong but 
durable, light orange color, with thick much lighter colored sap wood ; occasionally 
used as fuel. 

Distribution. Mountain ranges of southern New Mexico and Arizona, usually at 
elevations between 6000 and 7000 ; not common ; more abundant on the Sierra 
Madre of northern Mexico and on several of the short ranges of Chihuahua and 
Sonora, and of a larger size in Mexico than in the United States. 

2. Sheaths of the leaf-clusters persistent. 

* Leaves in 3-leaved clusters (3 and 2-leaved in 15, 17, and 21, 5-leaved in llf). 
-t- Cones subterminal. 

14. Pinus Arizonica, Engelni. Yellow Pine. 

Leaves tufted at the ends of the branches, in 5-leaved clusters, stout, rigid, dark 
green, stomatiferous on their 3 faces, 5'-7' long, deciduous during their third season. 
Flowers dark purple: staminate in short spikes; pistillate on stout peduncles, usually 
in pairs. Fruit oval, horizontal, 2'-2' long, becoming light red-brown, with thin 
scales much thickened at the apex and armed with slender recurved spines ; seeds 
full and rounded below, slightly compressed towards the apex, ' long, with a thick 
shell, their wings broadest above the middle, about ' long and \' wide. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a tall straight massive trunk 3-4 in diameter, thick 
spreading branches forming a regular open round-topped or narrow pyramidal head, 
and stout branchlets orange-brown when they first appear, becoming dark gray- 



CONIFERS: 



15 




brown. Bark 011 young trunks dark brown or almost black and deeply furrowed, 
becoming on old trees l^'-2' thick and divided into large unequally shaped plates 
separating on the 
surface into thin 
closely appressed 
light cinnamon-red 
scales. Wood light, 
soft, not strong, 
rather brittle, light 
red or often yellow, 
with thick lighter 
yellow or white sap- 
wood ; in Arizona 
occasionally manu- 
factured into coarse 
lumber. 

Distribution. 
High cool slopes on 
the sides of canons of 

the mountain ranges of southern Arizona at elevations between G000 and 8000, 
sometimes forming nearly pure forests ; more abundant and of its largest size on 
the mountains of Sonora and Chihuahua. 

15. Finus ponderosa, Laws. Yellow Pine. Bull Pine. 

Leaves tufted at the ends of naked branches, in 2- or iti 2 and 3-leaved clus- 
ters, stout, dark yellow-green, marked by numerous rows of stomata on the 3 faces, 
o'-ll' long, mostly deciduous during their third season. Flowers : staminate yel- 
low; pistillate clustered or in pairs, dark red. Fruit oval, horizontal or slightly 
declining, nearly sessile or short-stalked, 3'-G' long, often clustered, bright green or 
purple when fully grown, becoming light reddish brown, with narrow scales much 

thickened at the apex and 
armed with slender prickles, 
mostly falling soon after 
they open and discharge 
their seeds, generally leav- 
ing the lower scales attached 
to the peduncle ; seeds 
ovate, acute, compressed at 
the apex, full and rounded 
below, ^' long, with a thin 
dark purple often mottled 
shell, their wings usually 
broadest below the middle, 
gradually narrowed at the 
>blique apex, I'-IJ-' long, 
about 1' wide. 

A tree, sometimes 150- 

230 high, with a massive stem 5-8 in diameter, short thick many-forked often 
pendulous branches generally turned upward at the ends and forming a regular 




16 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

spire-like head, or in arid regions a broader often round-topped head surmounting 
a short trunk, and stout orange-colored branchlets frequently becoming nearly 
black at the end of two or three years. Bark for 80-100 years broken into 
rounded ridges covered with small closely appressed scales, dark brown, nearly 
black or light cinnamon-red, on older trees becoming 2'-4' thick and deeply and 
irregularly divided into plates sometimes 4-5 long and 12'-18' wide, and sepa- 
rating into thick bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood hard, strong, comparatively 
tine-grained, light red, with nearly white sapwood sometimes composed of more 
than 200 layers of annual growth ; largely manufactured into lumber used for all 
sorts of construction, for railway-ties, fencing, and fuel. 

Distribution. Mountain slopes, dry valleys, and high mesas from northwestern 
Nebraska and western Texas to the shores of the Pacific Ocean, and from southern 
British Columbia to Lower California and northern Mexico ; extremely variable in 
different parts of the country in size, in the length and thickness of the leaves, size of 
the cones, and color of the bark. The form of the Rocky Mountains (var. scopulorum, 
Engelm.), ranging from Nebraska to Texas and over the mountain ranges of Wy- 
oming, eastern Montana, and Colorado, and to northern New Mexico and Arizona, 
where it forms on the Colorado plateau the most extensive Pine forests of the conti- 
nent, has nearly black furrowed or bright cinnamon-red bark, rigid leaves in clusters 
of 2 or 3 and 3'-6' long, and smaller cones, with thin scales armed with slender 
prickles hooked backward. More distinct is 

Pinus ponderosa, var. Jeffreyi, Vasey. 

This tree forms great forests about the sources of the Pitt River in northern 
California, along the eastern slopes of the central and southern Sierra Nevada, 




growing often on the most exposed and driest ridges, and in southern California on 
the San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges up to elevations of 8000 above the sea, 
on the Cuyamaca Mountains, and in Lower California on Mt. San Pedro Martir. 

A tree, 100 to nearly 200 high, with a tall massive trunk 4-6 in diameter, 
covered with bright cinnamon-red bark deeply divided into large irregular plates, 
atiffer and more elastic leaves 4'-9' long and persistent on the glaucous stouter 
branchlets for six to nine years, yellow-green staminate flowers, short-stalked usually 



CONIFERS IT 

purple cones 5'-15' long, their scales armed with stout or slender prickles usually 
hooked backward, aud seeds often nearly ' long and larger wings. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in eastern Europe, especially the 
variety Je/reyi, which is occasionally successfully cultivated in the eastern states. 

16. Firms palustris, Mill. Long-leaved Pine. Southern Pine. 
Leaves in crowded clusters, forming dense tufts at the ends of the branches, 
slender, flexible, pendulous, dark green, 8'-18' long, deciduous at the end of their 




second year. Flowers in very early spring before the appearance of the new leaves, 
staminate in short dense clusters, dark rose-purple; pistillate just below the apex 
of the lengthening shoot in pairs or in clusters of 3 or 4, dark purple. Fruit 
cylindrical or conical-oblong, slightly curved, nearly sessile, horizontal or pendant, 
6'-10' long, with thin flat scales rounded at the apex aud armed with small retlexed 
prickles, becoming dull brown ; in falling leaving a few of the basal scales attached 
to the stems; seeds almost triangular, full and rounded on the sides, prominently 
ridged, about \' long, with a thin pale shell marked with dark blotches on the upper 
side, and wings widest near the middle, gradually' narrowed to a very oblique apex, 
about If long and ^' wide. 

A tree, 100-120 high, with a tall straight slightly tapering trunk usually 2-2 
or occasionally 3 in diameter, stout slightly branched gnarled and twisted limbs 
covered with thin dark scaly bark and forming an open elongated and usually very 
irregular head one third to one half the length of the tree, thick orange-brown 
brauchlets, and acute winter-buds covered by elongated silvery white lustrous scales 
divided into long spreading filaments forming a cobweb-like network over the bud. 
Bark of the trunk ^'-^' thick, light orange-brown, separating on the surface into 
large closely appressed papery scales. Wood heavy, exceedingly bard, strong, 
tough, coarse-grained, durable, light red to orange color, with very thin nearly 
white sapwood ; largely used as "southern pine" or "pitch pine" for masts and 
-pars, bridges, viaducts, railway-ties, fencing, flooring, the interior finish of buildings, 
the construction of railwav-cars, and for fuel and charcoal. A large part of tin* 
naval stores of the world is produced from this tree, which is exceedingly rich in 
resinous secretions. 



18 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Generally confined to a belt of late tertiary sands and gravels 
stretching along the coast of the Atlantic and Gulf states and rarely more than 125 
miles wide, from southeastern Virginia to Cape Canaveral and the shores of Tampa 
Bay, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the uplands east of the Mississippi River, 
extending northward in Alabama to the southern foothills of the Appalachian Moun- 
tains; west of the Mississippi River to the valley of the Trinity River, and through 
eastern Texas and western Louisiana nearly to the northern borders of this state. 

-^-t-Cones lateral. 

17. Pinua Caribsea, Morelet. Slash Pine. Swamp Pine. 

(Pinus heterophylla, Silva N. Am. xi. 157.) 

Leaves stout, in crowded 2 and 3-leaved clusters, dark green and lustrous, 
marked by numerous bands of stomata on each face, 8'-12' long, deciduous at the 
end of their second season. Flowers in January and February before the appear- 
ance of the new leaves, staminate in short crowded clusters, dark purple; pistillate 
on long peduncles, pink. Fruit ovate or elongated, reflexed during its first year, 
conical, pendant, 3'-6' long, with thin flexible flat scales armed with minute incurved 
or recurved prickles, becoming dark rich lustrous brown ; seeds almost triangular, 




full and rounded on the sides, l^'-l^' long, with a thin brittle dark gray shell mottled 
with black, and dark brown wings |'-1' long and \' wide, their thickened bases en- 
circling the seeds and often covering a large part of their lower surface. 

A tree, often 100 high, with a tall tapering trunk 2^-3 in diameter, heavy hori- 
zontal branches forming a handsome round-topped head, and stout orange-colored 
ultimately dark branchlets. Bark f'-' thick, and irregularly divided by shallow 
fissures into thin dark red-brown scales. Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, 
durable, coarse-grained, rich dark orange color, with thick nearly white sapwood ; 
manufactured into lumber and used for construction and railway-ties. Naval stores 
are largely produced from this tree. 

Distribution. Coast region of South Carolina southward over the coast plain to 
the keys of southern Florida and along the Gulf coast to the valley of the Pearl River, 
Louisiana; common on the Bahamas, on the Isle of Pines, and on the highlands of 




CONIFERS 19 

Central America; in the coast region of the southern states gradually replacing the 
Long-leaved Pine, Pinu* pdluxtritt, Mill. 

18. Pinus Tseda, L. Loblolly Pine. Old Field Pine. 

Leaves slender, stiff, slightly twisted, pale green and somewhat glaucous, 6'-9' 
long, marked by 10-12 rows of large stomata on each face, deciduous during their 
third year. Flow- 
ers opening from 
the middle of March 
to the first of May; 
staminate crowded 
iu short spikes, yel- 
low; pistillate lateral 
below the apex of the 
growing shoot, soli- 
tary or clustered, 
short -stalked, yel- 
low. Fruit ovate- 
oblong to broadly 
conical, nearly ses- 
sile, 3'-o' l n gi he- 
coming light reddish 
brown, with thin 

scales rounded at the apex and armed with short stout straight or reflexed prickles, 
opening irregularly and discharging their seeds during the autumn and winter, and 
usually persistent on the branches for another year; seeds rhomboidal, full and 
rounded, \' long, with a thin dark brown rough shell blotched with black, and pro- 
duced into broad thin lateral margins, encircled to the base by the narrow border of 
their thin pale brown lustrous wings broadest above the middle, 1' long and about 
\' wide. 

A tree, generally 80-100 high, with a tall straight trunk usually about 2 but occa- 
sionally 5 in diameter, short thick much divided branches, the lower spreading, the 
upper ascending and forming a compact round-topped head, and comparatively slender 
glabrous branches brown tinged with yellow and covered with a glaucous bloom dur- 
ing their first season and gradually growing darker in their second vear. Bark of 
the trunk |'-1' thick, bright red-brown, and irregularly divided by shallow fissures 
into broad flat ridges covered with large thin closely appressed scales. Wood weak, 
brittle, coarse-grained, not durable, light brown, with orange-colored or often nearly 
white sapwood, often composing nearly half the trunk; largely manufactured into 
lumber, used for construction and the interior finish of buildings. 

Distribution. Cape May, New Jersey, southward near the coast to Cape Malabar 
and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, westward to middle North Carolina and through 
South Carolina and Georgia and the eastern Gulf states to the Mississippi River, ex- 
tending into southern Tennessee; west of the Mississippi River from southern Arkan- 
sas and the southwestern part of the Indian Territory through western Louisiana to 
the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, and through eastern Texas to the valley of the 
Colorado River; on the Atlantic coast often springing up on lands exhausted by 
agriculture; west of the Mississippi River one of the most important timber-trees, 
frequently growing in great nearly pure forests on rolling uplands. 




20 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

19. Fiuus rigida, Mill. Pitch Pine. 

Leaves stout, rigid, dark yellow-green, marked on the 3 faces by many rows of 
stomata, 3'-5' long, standing stiffly and at right angles with the branches, decidu- 
ous during their second year. 
Flowers : staminate in short 
crowded spikes, yellow or 
rarely purple ; pistillate often 
clustered and raised on short 
stout stems, light green more 
or less tinged with rose color. 
Fruit ovate-conical or ovate, 
nearly sessile, often clustered, 
l'-3|' long, becoming light 
brown, with thin flat scales 
armed with recurved rigid 
prickles, often remaining on 
the branches for ten or twelve 

2.O '^^^^^^ years ; seeds nearly triangular, 

full and rounded on the sides, 
^' long, with a thin dark brown 

mottled roughened shell and wings broadest below the middle, gradually narrowed 
to the very oblique apex, |' long, ^' wide. 

A tree, 50-60 or rarely 80 high, with a short trunk occasionall}' 3 in diameter, 
thick contorted often pendulous branches covered with thick much roughened bark, 
forming a round-topped thick head, often irregular and picturesque, and stout 
bright green branchlets becoming dull orange color during their first winter and 
dark gray-brown at the end of four or five years; often fruitful when only a few feet 
high. Bark of young stems thin and broken into plate-like dark red-brown scales, 
becoming on old trunks f'-l^' thick, deeply and irregularly fissured and divided 
into broad flat connected ridges separating on the surface into thick dark red-brown 
scales often tinged with purple. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse- 
grained, very durable, light brown or red, with thick yellow or often white sap- 
wood ; largely used for fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal ; occasionally sawed 
into lumber. 

Distribution. Sandy plains and dry gravelly uplands, or less frequently cold deep 
swamps ; valley of the St. John River in New Brunswick to the northern shores of 
Lake Ontario, southward in the Atlantic states to northern Georgia; crossing the 
Alleghany Mountains to their western foothills in West Virginia, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee ; very abundant on the Atlantic coast south of Massachusetts Bay ; often 
forming extensive forests in southern New Jersey. 

20. Finus serotina, Michx. Pond Pine. Marsh Pine. 

Leaves in clusters of 3 or occasionally of 4, slender, flexuose, dark yellow-green, 
6'-8' long, marked by numerous rows of stomata on the 3 faces, deciduous dur- 
ing their third and fourth years. Flowers : staminate in crowded spikes, dark 
orange color ; pistillate clustered or in pairs on stout stems. Fruit subglobose to 
ovate-oblong, full and rounded or pointed at the apex, subsessile or short-stalked, 
horizontal or slightly declinate, 2'-2' long, with thin nearly flat scales armed with 



CONIFERS 



21 




slender incurved mostly deciduous prickles, becoming light yellow-brown at matu- 
rity, remaining closed tor one or two years and after opening long-persistent on the 
branches ; seeds nearly tri- 
angular, often ridged be- 
low, full and rounded at the 
sides, I' long, with a thin 
nearly black roughened 
shell produced into a wide 
border, and wings broadest 
;it the middle, gradually 
narrowed at the ends, f 
long, y wide. 

A tree, usually 40-50 
or occasionally 70-80 
high, with a short trunk 
sometimes 3 but generally 
not more than 2 in diame- 
ter, stout often contorted branches more or less pendulous at the extremities, form- 
ing an open round-topped head, and slender branchlets dark green when they first 
appear, becoming dark orange color during their first winter and dark brown or 
often nearly black at the end of four or five years. Bark of the trunk '-?-' thick, 
dark red-brown and irregularly divided by narrow shallow fissures into small plates 
separating on the surface into thin closely appressed scales. Wood very resinous, 
heavy, soft, brittle, coarse-grained, dark orange color, with thick pale yellow sap- 
wood ; occasionally manufactured into lumber. In the coast region of North Caro- 
lina turpentine is produced from this tree. 

Distribution. Low wet flats or sandy or peaty swamps ; North Carolina southward 
near the coast to the banks of the .St. John's River, Florida. 

++Cones unsymmelrical by the excessive development of the scales on the outside. 

21. Pinus radiata, D. Don. Monterey Pine. 

Leaves in 3 rarely in 2-leaved clusters, slender, bright rich green, 4'-6' long, 

mostly deciduous during 
their third season. Flow- 
ers : staminate in dense 
spikes, yellow ; pistillate 
clustered, dark purple. 
Fruit oval, pointed at the 
apex, very oblique at the 
base, short-stalked, deflexed, 
3'-5' long, becoming deep 
chestnut-brown and lustrous, 
with scales much thickened 
and mammillate toward the 
base on the outer side of the 
cone, thinner on the inner 
side and at its apex, and 
armed with minute thickened incurved or straight prickles, long-persistent and 




22 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



often remaining closed on the branches for many years ; seeds oval, compressed, \' 
long, with a thin brittle rough nearly black shell, their wings light brown, longitudi- 
nally striped, broadest above the middle, gradually narrowed and oblique at the 
apex, V long and %' wide. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a tall trunk usually 2-3 but occasionally 5-6 in 
diameter, spreading branches forming a regular narrow open round-topped head, 
and slender branchlets light or dark orange color, at first often covered with a glau- 
cous bloom, ultimately dark red-brown. Bark of the trunk l^'-2' thick, dark red- 
brown, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into thick 
appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained ; 
occasionally used as fuel. 

Distribution. Only in a narrow belt a few miles wide on the California coast from 
Pescadero to the shores of San Simeon Bay, on the islands of Santa Rosa and Santa 
Cruz of the Santa Barbara group; and on Guadaloupe Island off the coast of Lower 
California ; most abundant and of i\$ largest size on Point Pinos south of the Bay of 
Monterey. 

Largely planted for the decoration of parks in western and southern Europe, 
occasionally planted in the southeastern states and in Mexico, Australia, New Zea- 
land, and other regions with temperate climates, and more generally in the coast 
region of the Pacific states from Vancouver Island southward than any other Pine- 
tree. 

22. Pinus attenuata, Lemm. Knob-cone Pine. 

Leaves slender, firm and rigid, pale yellow or bluish green, marked by numerous 
rows of stomata on their 3 faces, 3'-7', usually 4'-5' long. Flowers : staminate 




orange-brown; pistillate fascicled, often with several fascicles on the shoot of the 
year. Fruit elongated, conical, pointed, very oblique at the base by the greater 
development of the scales on the upper side, whorled, short-stalked, strongly reflexed 
and incurved, 3'-6' long, becoming light chestnut-brown, with thin flat scales rounded 
at the apex, those on the outer side being enlarged into prominent transversely flat- 
tened knobs armed with thick flattened incurved spines, those on the inner side of 
the cone slightly thickened and armed with minute recurved prickles, persistent on 
the stems and branches for thirty or forty years, often becoming completely imbedded 
in the bark of old trunks and usually not opening until the death of the tree ; seeds 



CONIFERS 



23 



nearly oval, compressed, acute at the apex, ' long, with a thin oblique shell, their 
wings broadest at the middle, gradually narrowed to the ends, 1^' long, ' wide. 

A tree, usually about 20 high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and often fruitful 
when only 4 or 5 tall ; occasionally growing to the height of 80-100, with a 
trunk 2 thick, and frequently divided above the middle into two ascending stems, 
slender branches arranged in regular whorls while the tree is young, and in old age 
forming a narrow round-topped straggling head of sparse thin foliage, and slender 
dark orange-brown branchlets growing darker during their second season. Bark of 
young stems and branches thin, smooth, pale brown, becoming at the base of old 
trunks \'-% thick and dark brown often tinged with purple, slightly and irregularly 
divided by shallow fissures and broken into large loose scales. Wood light, soft, 
not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light brown, with thick sapwood sometimes 
slightly tinged with red. 

Distribution. Dry mountain slopes from the valley of the Mackenzie River in 
Oregon over the mountains of southwestern Oregon, where it is most abundant and 
grows to its largest size, often forming pure forests over large areas, southward 
along the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, the cross ranges of northern 
California, the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and over the California coast 
ranges from Santa Cruz to the southern slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains, 
where it is abundant up to elevations of 4000 above the sea. 

M--M- Cones very large, their scales prolonged into stout straight or curved spines. 

23. Pinus Sabiniana, Dougl. Digger Pine. Bull Pine. 

Leaves stout, flexible, pendant, pale blue-green, marked on each face with numer- 
ous rows of pale stomata, 8'-12' long, deciduous usually in their third and fourth 
years. Flowers: staminate yellow; pistillate on stout peduncles, dark purple. 
Fruit oblong-ovate, 
full and rounded at 
the base, pointed, be- 
coming light reddish 
brown, 6'-10' long, 
long-stalked, pendu- 
lous, with scales nar- 
rowed into promi- 
nent flattened knobs 
erect or incurved 
above the middle of 
the cone, strongly re- 
flexed below, and 
armed with short 
sharp hooks and 
spur-like incurved 
spines ; seeds full 

and rounded below, somewhat compressed toward the apex, ' long, ' wide, dark 
brown or nearly black, with a thick hard shell, encircled by their wings much thick- 
ened on the inner rim, obliquely rounded at the broad apex and about ^ f longer 
than the seeds. 

A tree, usually 40-50 but occasionally 80 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diame- 




24 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



ter, divided generally 15-20 above the ground into 3 or 4 thick secondary stems, 
clothed with short crooked branches pendant below and ascending toward the sum- 
mit of the tree, and forming an open round-topped head remarkable for the sparse- 
ness of its foliage, and stout pale glaucous branchlets, becoming dark brown or 
nearly black during their second season. Bark of the trunk l'-2' thick, dark 
brown slightly tinged with red or nearly black and deeply and irregularly divided 
into thick connected ridges covered with small closely appressed scales. Wood 
light, soft, not strong, close-grained, brittle, light brown or red, with thick nearly 
white sapwood. Abietine, a nearly colorless aromatic liquid with an odor of oil of 
oranges, is obtained by distilling the resinous juices. The large sweet slightly resin- 
ous seeds formed an important article of food for the Indians of California. 

Distribution. Scattered singly or in small groups over the dry foothills of western 
California, ranging from 500 up to 4000 above the sea-level and from the southern 
slopes of the northern cross range to the Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra de la 
Liebre ; most abundant and attaining its largest size on the eastern foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada near the centre of the state at elevations of about 2000; here often 
the most conspicuous feature of the vegetation. 

24. Pinus Coulteri, D. Don. Pitch Pine. 

Leaves tufted at the ends of the branches, stout, rigid, dark blue-green, marked 
by numerous bauds of stomata on the 3 faces, 6'-12' long, deciduous during their 
third and fourth seasons. Flowers: staminate yellow; pistillate dark reddish brown. 




Fruit oval, acute, short-stalked and pendant, 10'-14' long, becoming light yellow- 
brown, with thick broad scales terminating in flattened elongated knobs straight or 
curved backward and armed with flattened more or less incurved spines ^'-H' long, 
gradually opening in the autumn and often persistent on the branches for several 
years ; seeds oval, compressed, \' long, \'-\' wide, dark chestnut-brown, with a thick 
shell, inclosed by their wings broadest above the middle, oblique at the apex, nearly 
1' longer than the seeds, about |' wide. 

A tree, 50-70 high, with a trunk sometimes 4 in diameter, thick branches covered 
with dark scaly bark, long and mostly pendulous below, short and ascending above, 



CONIFERS 25 

and forming a loose unsymmetrical often picturesque head, and very stout branch- 
lets dark orange-brown at first, becoming sometimes nearly black at the end of 
three or four years. Bark of the trunk l'-2' thick, dark brown or nearly black 
and deeply divided into broad rounded connected ridges covered with thin closely 
appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light red, 
with thick nearly white sapwood ; occasionally used for fuel. The seeds were for- 
merly gathered in large quantities and eaten by the Indians of southern California. 
Distribution. Scattered singly or in small groves through coniferous forests on the 
dry slopes and ridges of the coast ranges of California at elevations of 3000-6000 
above the sea, from Mount Diablo and the Santa Lucia Mountains to the Cuyamaca 
Mountains ; most abundant on the San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges at eleva- 
tions of about 5000. 



** Leaves in 2-leaved cluster* (.> and 3-leaved in . 
-t- Cones subterminal. 

25. Pinus resinosa, Ait. Red Pine. Norway Pine. 

Leaves slender, soft and flexible, dark green and lustrous, o'-6' long, obscurely 
marked on the ventral faces by bands of minute stomata, deciduous during their 




fourth and fifth seasons. Flowers: staminate in dense spikes, dark purple; pistil- 
late terminal, short-stalked, scarlet. Fruit ovate-conical, subsessile, 2'-2^' long, with 
thin. slightly concave scales, unarmed, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous 
at maturity ; shedding their seeds early in the autumn and mostly persistent on the 
branches until the following summer; seeds oval, compressed, -|' long, with a thin 
dark chestnut-brown more or less mottled shell and wings broadest below tho middle, 
oblique at the apex, |' long. ^'-^' broad. 

A tree, usually 70 -80 or occasionally 150 high, with a tall straight trunk 
2-3 in diameter, thick spreading more or less pendulous branches clothing the 
young stems to the ground and forming a broad irregular pyramid, and in old age 
an open round-topped picturesque head, and stout branchlets at first orange color, 
finally becoming light reddish brown. Bark of the trunk f'-iy thick and slightly 
divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges covered by thin loose light red- 
brown scales. Wood light, hard, very close-grained, pale red, with thin yellow 
often nearly white sapwood; largely used in the construction of bridges and build- 
ings, for piles, masts, and spars. The bark is occasionally used for tanning leather. 



26 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Light sandy loam or dry rocky ridges, usually forming groves 
rarely more than a few hundred acres in extent and scattered through forests of other 
Pines and deciduous-leaved trees from Nova Scotia to Lake St. John, westward 
through Quebec and central Ontario to the valley of the Winnipeg River, and south- 
ward to eastern Massachusetts, the mountains of Pennsylvania; and to central 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, most abundant and growing to its largest size 
in the northern parts of these states; rare and local in eastern Massachusetts and 
southward. 

Often planted for the decoration of parks, and the most desirable as an ornamental 
tree of the Pitch Pines which flourish in the northern states. 

26. Pinus contorta, Loud. Scrub Pine. 

Leaves dark green, slender, I'-l^' long, marked by 6-10 rows of stomata on each 
face, mostly deciduous in their seventh and eighth years. Flowers orange-red : 
staminate in short crowded spikes ; pistillate clustered or in pairs on stout stalks. 

Fruit oval to subcylindri- 
cal, usually very oblique 
at the base, horizontal or 
declining, often clustered, 
f'-2' long, with thin 
slightly concave scales 
armed with long slender 
more or less recurved 
often deciduous prickles, 
and toward the base of 
the cone especially on the 
upper side developed into 
thick mammillate knobs, 
becoming light yellow- 
brown and lustrous, sometimes opening and losing their seeds as soon as ripe, or 
remaining closed on the branches and preserving the vitality of their seeds for many 
years ; seeds oblique at the apex, acute below, about \' long, with a thin brittle 
dark red-brown shell mottled with black and wings widest above the base, gradually 
tapering toward the oblique apex, \ long. 

A tree, sometimes fertile when only a few inches high, usually 15-20 or occa- 
sionally 30 tall, with a short trunk rarely more than 18' in diameter, compara- 
tively thick branches forming a round-topped compact and symmetrical or an open 
picturesque head, and stout branchlets light orange color when they first appear, 
finally becoming dark red-brown or occasionally almost black. Bark of the trunk 
'-!' thick, deeply and irregularly divided by vertical and cross fissures into small 
oblong plates covered with closely appressed dark red-brown scales tinged witli 
purple or orange color. "Wood light, hard, strong although brittle, coarse-grained, 
light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly white sapwood ; occasionally used for 
fuel. 

Distribution. Coast of Alaska, usually in sphagnum-covered bogs southward in 
the immediate neighborhood of the coast to the valley of the Albion River, Men- 
docino County, California ; south of the northern boundary of the United States 
generally inhabiting sand dunes and barrens or occasionally near the shores of 
Puget Sound the margins of tide pools and deep wefc swamps ; spreading inland 





CONIFERS 27 

and ascending the coast ranges and western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, where 
it is not common and where it gradually changes its habit and appearance, the thick 
deeply furrowed bark of the coast form being found only near the ground, while 
the bark higher on the stems is thin, light-colored, and inclined to separate into 
scales, and the leaves are often longer and broader. This is 

Pinus contorta, var. Murrayana, Engelm. Lodge Pole Pine. 

Leaves yellow-green, usually about 2' long, although varying from 1/-3' in 
length and from t y to nearly |' in width. Fruit occasionally opening as soon as 
ripe but usually remaining closed 
and preserving the vitality of 
the seeds sometimes for twenty 
years. 

A tree, usually 70-80 but 
often 150 high, with a trunk 
generally 2-3 but occasionally 
5-G in diameter, slender much- 
forked branches frequently per- 
sistent nearly to the base of 
the stem, light orange-colored 
during their early years, some- 
what pendulous below, ascend- 
ing near the top of the tree, 
and forming a narrow pyrami- 
dal spire-topped head. Bark of the trunk rarely more than ^' thick, close and 
tirm, light orange-brown and covered by small thin loosely appressed scales. Wood 
light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained and easily worked, not durable, 
light yellow or nearly white, with thin lighter colored sapwood ; occasionally 
manufactured into lumber, also used for railway-ties, mine-timbers, and for 
fuel. 

Distribution. Common on the Alaska hills in the valley of the Yukon River ; on 
the interior plateau of northern British Columbia, and eastward to the eastern foot- 
hills of the Rocky Mountains, covering with dense forests great arras in the basin of 
the Columbia River ; forming forests on both slopes of the Rocky Mountains of 
Montana, on the Yellowstone plateau at elevations of 7000-8000; common on the 
mountains of Wyoming, and extending southward to southern Colorado; common 
on the ranges of eastern Washington and Oregon, on the mountains of northern 
California, and southward along the Sierra Nevada, where it attains its greatest size 
and beauty in alpine forests at elevations between 8000 and 9500 ; in southern 
California forming the timber-line on the highest peaks of the San Bernardino and 
San Jacinto Mountains. 

-+ - Cones lateral. 

27. Pinus divaricata, Du Mont de Cours. Gray Pine. Jack Pine. 

Leaves in remote clusters, stout, flat or slightly concave on the inner face, at first 

light yellow-green, soon becoming dark green, f '-IV lo{?> gradually and irregularly 

deciduous in their second or third year. Flowers : staminate in short crowded 

clusters, yellow ; pistillate clustered, dark purple, often with 2 clusters produced on 



28 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

the same shoot. Fruit oblong-conical, acute, oblique at the base, sessile, usually 
erect and strongly incurved, l'-2' long, dull purple or green when fully grown, 
becoming light yellow and lustrous, with thin stiff scales armed with minute incurved 
often deciduous prickles ; seeds nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides, f ' 
long, with an almost black roughened shell and wings broadest at the middle, full 
and rounded at the apex, ^' long, ^' wide. 

A tree, frequently 70 high, with a straight trunk sometimes free of branches 
for 20-30 and rarely exceeding 2 in diameter, long spreading branches form- 
ing an open symmetrical head, and slender tough flexible pale yellow-green branch- 
lets turning dark purple during their first winter and darker the following year; 
often not more than 20-30 tall, with a stem 10'-12' in diameter ; generally 
fruiting when only a few years old ; sometimes shrubby with several low slender 
stems. Bark of the trunk thin, dark brown slightly tinged with red, very irregu- 
larly divided into narrow rounded connected ridges separating on the surface into 
small thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, 
clear pale brown or rarely orange color, with thick nearly white sapwood ; used for 
fuel and occasionally for railway-ties and posts ; occasionally manufactured into 
lumber. 

Distribution. From Nova Scotia to the valley of the Athabasca River and down 
the Mackenzie to about latitude 65 north, ranging southward to the coast of Maine, 




northern New Hampshire and Vermont, northern New York, the southern shores 
of Lake Michigan, northern Illinois, and central Minnesota ; abundant in central 
Michigan, covering tracts of barren lands ; common and of large size in the region 
north of Lake Superior ; most abundant and of its greatest size west of Lake Winni- 
peg and north of the Saskatchewan, here often spreading over great areas of sandy 
sterile soil. 

28. Pinus glabra, "Walt. Spruce Pine. Cedar Pine. 

Leaves soft, slender, dark green, l^'-3' long, marked by numerous rows of sto- 
mata, deciduous at the end of their second and in the spring of their third year. 
Flowers : staminate in short crowded clusters, yellow; pistillate raised on slender 
slightly ascending peduncles. Fruit single or in clusters of 2 or 3, reflexed on short 
stout stalks, subglobose to oblong-ovate, ^'-2' long, becoming reddish brown and 
rather lustrous, with thin slightly concave scales armed with minute straight or 
incurved usually deciduous prickles; seeds nearly triangular, full and rounded on 



CONIFERS 



29 



the sides, \' long, with a thin dark gray shell mottled with black and wings broadest 
below the middle, |' long, \' wide. 

A tree, usually 80-100 or occasionally 120 high, with a trunk 2-2 or rarely 
3 in diameter, comparatively small horizontal branches, and slender flexible branch- 
lets at first light red more or less tinged with purple, ultimately dark reddish 
brown. Bark '-f thick, 
slightly and irregularly 
divided by shallow fis- 
sures into flat connected 
ridges broken into small 
closely appressed light 
reddish brown scales. 
Wood light, soft, not 
strong, brittle, close- 
grained, light brown, with 
thick nearly white sap- 
wood ; occasionally used 
for fuel and rarely maim- 
fai-tured into lumber. 

Distribution. Valley 
of the lower Santee River, 

South Carolina to middle and northwestern Florida, and to central Mississippi and 
the swamps of Bayou Phalia, eastern Louisiana ; usually growing singly or in small 
groves; attaining its largest size and often occupying areas of considerable extent in 
northwestern Florida. 

29. Pinus echinata, Mill. Yellow Pine. Short-leaved Pine. 
Leaves in clusters of 2 and of 3, slender, flexible, dark blue-green, .">' -Y long, be- 
ginning to fall at the end of their second season and dropping irregularly until their 
fifth year. Flowers : staminate in short crowded clusters, pale purple ; pistillate in 





clusters of 2 or 3 on stout ascending stems, pale rose color. Fruit ovate to oblong- 
conical, subsessile and nearly horizontal or short-stalked and pendant, generally 
clustered, l^'-2^' long, becoming dull brown, with thin scales nearly flat below and 
rounded at the apex, armed with short straight or somewhat recurved frequently 



30 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

deciduous prickles; seeds nearly triangular, full and rounded on the sides, about 
T 3 g ' long, with a thin pale brown hard shell conspicuously mottled with black, their 
wings broadest near the middle, \' long, \' wide. 

A tree, usually 80-100 occasionally 120 high, with a tall slightly tapering trunk 
3-4 in diameter, a short pyramidal truncate head of comparatively slender branches, 
and stout brittle pale green or violet-colored branchlets covered at first with a glau- 
cous bloom, becoming dark red-brown tinged with purple before the end of the first 
season, their bark beginning in the third year to separate into large scales. Bark of 
the trunk f '-!' thick and broken into large irregularly shaped plates covered with 
small closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales. Wood very variable in quality, 
and in the thickness of the nearly white sapwood, heavy, hard, strong and usually 
coarse-grained, orange-colored or yellow-brown; largely manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. Staten Island, New York, to North Florida and to West Virginia 
and eastern Tennessee, and through the Gulf states to eastern Louisiana, and 
southern Missouri to eastern Texas; most abundant and of its largest size west of 
the Mississippi River. 

30. Pinus Virginiana, Mill. Jersey Pine. Scrub Pine. 

Leaves in remote clusters, stout, gray-green, l^'-3' long, marked by many 
rows of minute stomata, gradually and irregularly deciduous during their third and 
fourth years. Flowers : staminate in crowded clusters, orange-brown; pistillate 
on opposite spreading peduncles near the middle of the shoots of the year, gener- 
ally a little below and alternate with 1 or 2 lateral branchlets, pale green, the scale- 




tips tinged with rose color. Fruit oblong-conical, often curved, dark green and lus- 
trous, with thin nearly flat scales, bright red-brown umbos and stout or slender 
persistent prickles, 2'-3' long, becoming dark red-brown, opening in the autumn 
and slowly shedding their seeds, turning dark reddish brown, and remaining on the 
branches for three or four years; seeds nearly oval, full and rounded, \' long, with a 
thin pale brown rough shell, their wings broadest at the middle, ' long, about ^' wide. 
A tree, usually 30-40 high, with a short trunk rarely more than 18' in diame- 
ter, long horizontal or pendulous branches in remote whorls forming a broad open 
often flat-topped pyramid, and slender tough flexible branchlets at first pale green 
or green tinged with purple and covered with a glaucous bloom, becoming purple 



CONIFERS 31 

and later light gray-brown ; toward the western limits of its range a tree frequently 
100 tall, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter. Bark of the trunk \'-\' thick, broken 
by shallow fissures into flat plate-like scales separating on the surface into thin 
closely appressed dark brown scales tinged with red. Wood light, soft, not strong, 
brittle, coarse-grained, durable in contact with the soil, light orange color, with 
thick nearly white sapwood ; often used for fuel and occasionally manufactured into 
lumber. 

Distribution. Long Island, New York, southward generally near the coast to 
the valley of the Savannah River, Georgia, to northeastern Alabama and through 
eastern and middle Tennessee and Kentucky to southern Indiana ; usually small in 
the Atlantic states and only on light sandy soil, spreading rapidly over exhausted 
fields ; attaining its largest size west of the Alleghany Mountains on the low hills 
of southern Indiana. 

31. Pinus clausa, Sarg. Sand Pine. Spruce Pine. 

Leaves slender, flexible, dark green, 2'-3^' long, marked by 10-20 rows of sto- 
mata, deciduous during their third and fourth years. Flowers : staminate in short 
crowded spikes, dark orange 
color; pistillate lateral on stout 
peduncles. Fruit ovoid-conical, 
often oblique at the base, usu- 
ally clustered and reflexed, 2'- 
3' long, nearly sessile or short- 
stalked, with concave scales 
armed with short stout straight 
or recurved deciduous prickles, 
becoming dark reddish brown 
in the autumn; some of the 
cones opening at once, others re- 
maining closed for three or four 
years before liberating their 
seeds, ultimately turning to an 
ashy gray color; others still un- 
opened becoming enveloped in the growing tissues 'of the stem and branches and 
finally entirely covered by them ; seeds nearly triangular, compressed, \' long, with 
a black slightly roughened shell, their wings widest near or below the middle, ^' long, 
about \' wide. 

A tree, usually 15-20 high, with a stem rarely a foot in diameter, generally 
clothed to the ground with wide-spreading branches forming a bushy Hat-topped 
head, and slender tough flexible branchlcts, pale yellow-green when they first appear. 
becoming light orange-brown and ultimately ashy gray ; occasionally growing to 
the height of 70-80 with a trunk 2 in diameter. Bark on the lower part of 
the trunk \'-% thick, deeply divided by narrow fissures into irregularly shaped 
generally oblong plates separating on the surface into thin closely appressed bright 
red-brown scales; on the upper part of the trunk and on the branches thin, 
smooth, ashy gray. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, light orange color or 
yellow, with thick nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for the masts of small 




Distribution. Coast of the Gulf of Mexico from southern Alabama to Peace 



32 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Creek, Florida, seldom extending more than thirty miles inland ; eastern Florida 
from the neighborhood of St. Augustine to New River, occupying a narrow belt 
usually not more than a mile or two wide, and covering sandy wind-swept plains ; 
growing to its largest size on the east coast of Florida near the head of Halifax 
River. 

32. Pinus muricata, D. Don. Prickle-cone Pine. 

Leaves in crowded clusters, thick, rigid, dark yellow-green, 4'-6' long, beginning 
to fall in their second year. Flowers: staminate in elongated spikes, orange- 




colored ; pistillate short-stalked, whorled, 2 whorls often being produced on the 
shoot of the year. Fruit ovate-oblong, oblique at the base, sessile, in clusters of 3-5 
or sometimes of 7, 2'-3' but usually about 3' long, becoming light chestnut-brown 
and lustrous, with scales much thickened on the outside of the cone, those toward 
its base produced into stout mammillate incurved knobs sometimes armed with stout 
flattened spur-like spines incurved above the middle of the cone and recurved 
toward its apex, and on the inside of the cone slightly flattened and armed with 
stout or slender straight prickles; often remaining closed for several years and usu- 
ally persistent on the stem and branches during the entire life of the tree without 
becoming imbedded in the wood ; seeds nearly triangular, \' long, with a thin 
nearly black roughened shell, their wings broadest above the middle, oblique at the 
apex, nearly 1' long and \' wide. 

A tree, usually 40-50 but occasionally 90 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diame- 
ter, thick spreading branches covered with dark scaly bark, in youth forming a 
regular pyramid, and at maturity a handsome compact round-topped head of dense 
tufted foliage, and stout branchlets dark orange-green at first, turning orange- 
brown more or less tinged with purple. Bark of the lower part of the trunk often 
4'-6' thick and deeply divided into long narrow rounded ridges roughened by closely 
appressed dark purplish brown scales. Wood light, very strong, hard, rather 
coarse-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood ; occasionally manu- 
factured into lumber. 

Distribution. California coast region from Mendocino County southward, usually 
in widely separated localities to Tomales Point, north of the Bay of San Francisco, 



CONIFERS 



33 



aiid from Monterey to San Luis Obispo County; in Lower California on Cedros 
Island, and on the coast between Ensanado and San Quintan; of its largest size and 
the most common Pine-tree on the coast of Mendocino County. 

33. Finus puiigens, Michx. Table Mountain Pine. Hickory Pine. 

Leaves in clouded clusters, rigid, usually twisted, dark blue-green, l^'-2' long, 
deciduous during their second and third years. Flowers : staminate in elongated 
loose spikes, yellow; pistillate clustered, long-stalked. Fruit oblong-conical, oblique 
at the base by the greater development of the scales on the upper than on the lower 
side, sessile, deflexed, in clusters usually of 3 or 4, or rarely of 7 or 8, 2'-3' 
long, becoming light brown and lustrous, with thin tough scales armed with stout 
hooked spines incurved above the middle of the cone and recurved below it, those 
on the inner side of the cone slightlv thickened, and on the outer, especially near 
the base of the cone, produced into much thickened mam initiate knobs, opening 
as soon as ripe and gradually shedding their seeds, or often remaining closed for 
two or three years longer, and frequently persistent on the branches for eighteen or 
twenty years; seeds almost triangular, full and rounded on the sides, nearly ^' 
long, with a thin conspicuously roughened light brown shell, their wings widest 
below the middle, gradually narrowed to the ends, 1' long, ^' wide. 

A tree, when crowded in the forest occasionally 60 high, with a trunk 2-3 iu 
diameter, and a few short branches near the summit forming a narrow round-topped 
head; ill open ground 
usually 20-30 tall, 
and often fertile 
when only a few feet 
high, with a short 
thick trunk frequent- 
ly clothed to the 
ground, and long 
horizontal branches, 
the lower pendulous 
toward the extremi- 
ties, the upper sweep- 
ing in graceful up- 
ward curves and 
forming a flat-topped 
often irregular head, 

and stout branchlets, light orange color when they first appear, soon growing darker 
and ultimately dark brown. Bark on the lower part of the trunk ^'-1' thick and 
broken into irregularly shaped plates separating on the surface into thin loose dark 
brown scales tinged with red, higher on the stem, and on the branches dark brown 
and broken into thin loose scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very coarse- 
grained, pale brown, with thick nearly white sapwood ; somewhat used for fuel, 
and in Pennsylvania manufactured into charcoal. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and ridges of the Appalachian Mountains 
from Pennsylvania to North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, sometimes ascending 
to elevations of 3000, with isolated outlying stations in Virginia, eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, and western New Jersey; often forming toward the southern limits of its 
range pure forests of considerable extent. 




34 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

***Leaves in 5-leaved clusters. 
Seeds shorter than their wings. 

34. Pinus Torreyana, Torr. Torrey's Pine. 

Leaves forming great tufts at the ends of the branches, stout, dark green, 
conspicuously marked on the 3 faces by numerous rows of stomata, 8'-13' long. 
Flowers from January to March ; staminate yellow, iu short dense heads ; pistillate. 




subterminal on long stout peduncles. Fruit broadly ovate, spreading or deflexed, on 
long stalks 4'-6' in length, becoming bright chestnut-brown, with thick scales armed 
with minute spines ; mostly deciduous in their fourth year and in falling leaving 
a few of the barren scales on the stalk attached to the branch ; seeds oval, more 
or less angled, f'-l' long, dull brown and mottled on the lower side, light yellow- 
brown on the upper side, with a thick hard shell, nearly surrounded by their dark 
brown wings often nearly ^' long. 

A tree, usually 30-40 high, with a short trunk about 1 in diameter, or occa- 
sionally 50-60 tall, with a long straight slightly tapering stem 2^ in diameter, 
stout spreading and often ascending branches, and very stout branchlets bright green 
in their first season, becoming light purple and covered with a metallic bloom the 
following year, ultimately nearly black. Bark of the trunk -|'-1' thick, deeply and 
irregularly divided into broad flat ridges covered by large thin closely appressed 
light red-brown scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light yellow, 
with thick yellow or nearly white sapwood; occasionally used for fuel. The large 
edible seeds are gathered in large quantities and are eaten raw or roasted. 

Distribution. Only in a narrow belt a few miles long on the coast near the mouth 
of the Soledad River just north of San Diego, and on the island of Santa Rosa, Cali- 
fornia; the least widely distributed Pine-tree of the United States. 

2. LARIX, Adans. Larch. 

Tall pyramidal trees, with thick sometimes furrowed scaly bark, heavy heartwood, 
thin pale sapwood, slender remote horizontal often pendulous branches, elongated 
leading branchlets, short thick spur-like lateral branchlets, and small subglobose 
buds, tlreir inner scales accrescent and marking the lateral branchlets with promi- 



CONIFERvE 35 

nent ring-like scars. Leaves awl-shaped, triangular and rounded above, or rarely 
4-angled, spirally disposed and remote on leading shoots, on lateral branchlets in 
crowded fascicles, each leaf in the axil of a deciduous bud-scale, deciduous. Flowers 
solitary, terminal, the staminate globose, oval or oblong, sessile or stalked, on leaf- 
less branches, yellow, composed of numerous spirally arranged anthers with connec- 
tives produced above them into short points, the pistillate appearing with the leaves, 
subglobose, composed of few or many green nearly orbicular stalked scales in the 
axes of much longer mucronate usually scarlet bracts. Fruit a woody ovoid-oblong 
conical or subglobose short-stalked cone composed of slightly thickened suborbicular 
or oblong-obovate concave scales, shorter or longer than their bracts, gradually de- 
creasing from the centre to the ends of the cone, the small scales usually sterile. 
Seeds nearly triangular, rounded on the sides, shorter than their wings; the outer 
seed-coat crustaceous, light brown, the inner membranaceous, pale chestnut-brown 
and lustrous; cotyledons usually (5, much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Larix is widely distributed over the northern and mountainous region of the north- 
ern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to the mountains of Pennsylvania and Oregon 
in the New World, and to central Europe, the Himalayas, central China, and Japan 
in the Old World. Nine species are recognized. Of the exotic species the European 
Larix Larix, Karst., has been much planted for timber and ornament in the northeast- 
ern states, where the Japanese Larix Kirm/ifcri, Sarg., also flourishes. 

Lurix is the classical name of the Larch-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

uall, subglobose ; their scales few, longer than the bracts. 

L.-aves triangular. 1. L. Americana (A B, F). 

("ones elongated ; their scales numerous, shorter than the bracts. 

Young branchlets pubescent, soon becoming glabrous ; leaves triangular. 

2. L. occidentalis (B, G). 
Young branchlets tomentose ; leaves 4-angled. ',}. L. Lyallii (B, F). 

1. Larix Americana, Michx. Tamarack. Larch. 

Leaves linear, triangular, rounded above, prominently keeled on the lower surface, 
I'-lj' long, bright green, conspicuously stomatiferous when they first appear; turn- 
ing yellow and falling in September or October. Flowers : staminate subglobose 
and sessile, pale yellow ; pistillate oblong, with light-colored bracts produced into 
elongated green tips, and nearly orbicular rose-red scales. Fruit on stout incurved 
stems, oblong, rather obtuse, ^'-f long, composed of about 20 scales slightly erosi- 
on their nearly entire margins, rather longer than broad and twice as long as their 
bracts, bright chestnut-brown at maturity, usually falling during their second year: 
seeds J -' long, about one third as long as their light chestnut-brown wings broadest 
near the middle and obliquely rounded at the apex. 

A tree, oO-60 high, with a trunk 18'-20' in diameter, small horizontal branches 
forming during the early life of the tree a narrow regular pyramidal head always 
characteristic of this tree when crowded in the forest, or with abundant space sweep- 
ing out in graceful curves, often becoming contorted and pendulous and forming a 
broad open frequently picturesque head, and slender leading branchlets often covered 
at first with a glaucous bloom, becoming light orange-brown during their first win- 
ter and conspicuous from the small globose dark red lustrous buds. Bark of the 
trunk '-|' thick, separating into thin closely appressed rather bright reddish brown 



36 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

scales. Wood heavy, hard, very strong, rather coarse-grained, very durable, light 
brown ; largely used for the upper knees of small vessels, fence-posts, telegraph-poles, 
and railway-ties. 

Distribution. At the north often on well-drained uplands, southward in cold 
deep swamps which it often clothes with forests of closely crowded trees, from 




Labrador to the Arctic Circle, ranging west of the Rocky Mountains to latitude 
65 35' north, and southward through Canada and the northern states to northern 
Pennsylvania and Preston County, West Virginia, northern Indiana and Illinois, and 
central Minnesota, and along the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains to about 
latitude 53; very abundant in the interior of Labrador, where it is the largest 
tree; common along the margins of the barren lands stretching beyond the sub- 
Arctic forest to the shores of the Arctic Sea; attaining its largest size north of Lake 
Winnipeg on low benches which it occasionally covers with open forests; rare and 
local toward the southern limits of its range. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in the northeastern states, growing rapidly 
and attaining in cultivation a large size and picturesque habit. 

2. Larix occidentalis, Nutt. Tamarack. 

Leaves triangular, rounded on the back, conspicuously keeled below, rigid, sharp- 
pointed, l'-lf long, about fa' wide, light pale green, turning pale yellow early in 
the autumn. Flowers: staminate oblong, pale yellow; pistillate oblong, nearly ses- 
sile, with orbicular scales and bracts produced into elongated tips. Fruit oblong, 
short-stalked, V-\\' Ipng, with numerous thin stiff scales nearly entire and some- 
times a little reflexed on their margins, much shorter than their bracts, more or less 
thickly coated on the lower surface below the middle with hoary tomentum, and 
standing after the escape of the seeds at right angles to the axis of the cone, or often 
becoming reflexed; seeds nearly \' long, with a pale brown shell, one half to two 
thirds as long as the thin fragile pale wings broadest near the middle and obliquely 
rounded at the apex. 

A tree, sometimes 250 high, with a tall tapering naked trunk 6-8 in diame- 
ter, or on dry soil and exposed mountain slopes usually not more than 100 tall, 
surmounted by a short narrow pyramidal head of small branches clothed with scanty 



CONIFERS 



37 



foliage, or occasionally by a larger crown of elongated drooping branches, stout 
branchlets covered when they first appear with soft pale pubescence, usually soon 
glabrous, bright orange-brown in their first year, ultimately becoming dark gray- 
brown, and dark chestnut-brown winter-buds about ' in diameter. Bark of young 
stems thin, dark-colored and scaly, becoming near the base of old trunks 5' or 6' thick 
and breaking into irregularly shaped oblong plates often 2 long and covered with 
thin closely appressed light cinnamon-red scales. Wood very heavy, exceedingly 
hard and strong, close-grained, very durable in contact with the soil, bright light red, 
with thin nearly white sapwood; largely used for railway-ties and fence-posts, and 
manufactured into lumber used in cabinet-making and the interior finish of buildings. 
Distribution. Moist bottom-lands and on high benches and dry mountain sides 
generally at elevations between 2000 and 7000 above the sea-level, usually singly or 




in small groves, through the basin of the upper Columbia River from southern British 
Columbia to the western slopes of the continental divide of northern Montana, and 
to the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains of Oregon; most abundant and of its 
largest size on the bottom-lands of streams flowing into Flat Head Lake in northern 
Montana, and in northern Idaho. 

Occasionally planted in the eastern states and in Europe, but in cultivation showing 
little promise of attaining a large size or becoming a valuable ornamental or timber- 
tree. 

3. Larix Lyallii, Parl. Tamarack. 

Leaves 1-angled, rigid, short-pointed, pale blue-green, l'-iy long. Flowers : 
staminate oblong, with pale yellow anthers; pistillate ovate-oblong, with dark red or 
occasionally pale yellow-green scales and dark purple bracts abruptly contracted 
into elongated slender tips. Fruit ovate, rather acute, l^'-2' long, snbsessile or 
raised on slender stalks coated with hoary tomentum, with dark reddish purple or 
rarely green erose scales, fringed and covered on their lower surface with matted 
hairs and at maturity spreading nearly at right angles and finally much reflexed, 
much shorter than their dark purple very conspicuous long-tipped bracts; seeds full 
and rounded on the sides, ^' long and about half as long as their light red lustrous 
wings broadest near the base with nearly parallel sides. 

A tree, usually 40-50 C but occasionally 75 high, with a trunk generally 18'-20' 
but rarely 3-^ in diameter, and remote elongated exceedingly tough persistent 



38 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

branches sometimes pendulous, developing very irregularly and often abruptly ascend- 
ing at the extremities, stout branchlets coated with hoary tomentum usually persist- 
ent until after their second winter, ultimately becoming nearly black, and prominent 
winter-buds with conspicuous long white matted hairs fringing the margins of their 
scales and often almost entirely covering the bud. Bark of young trees and of the 
branches thin, rather lustrous, smooth, and pale gray tinged with yellow, becoming 
loose and scaly on larger stems and on the large branches of old trees, and on fully 
grown trunks \'-\' thick and slightly divided by shallow fissures into irregularly 
shaped plates covered by thin dark red-brown loosely attached scales. Wood heavy, 
hard, coarse-grained, light reddish brown. 

Distribution. Near the timber-line on mountain slopes at elevations of 4000- 
5200, from southern Alberta on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains and the 
interior of southern British Columbia, southward along the Cascade Mountains of 




northern Washington to Mt. Stewart at the head of the north fork of the Yakima 
River, and along the continental divide to the middle fork of Sun River, forming 
here a forest of considerable size at elevations of 7000-8000, and to Fend d'Oreille 
Pass, Montana. 

3. PICEA, Link. Spruce. 

Pyramidal trees, with tall tapering trunks often stoutly buttressed at the base, 
thin scaly bark, soft pale wood containing numerous resin canals, slender whorled 
twice or thrice ramified branches, their ultimate divisions stout, glabrous or pubescent, 
and leaf-buds usually in 3's, the 2 lateral in the axils of upper leaves. Leaves linear, 
spirally disposed, extending out from the branch on all sides or occasionally appear- 
ing 2-ranked by the twisting of those on its lower side, mostly pointing to the end 
of the branch, entire, articulate on prominent persistent rhombic ultimately woody 
bases, keeled above and below, 4-sided and stomatiferous on the 4 sides, or flattened 
and stomatiferous on the upper or occasionally on the lower side, persistent from 
seven to ten years, deciduous in drying. Flowers terminal or in the axils of upper 
leaves, the staminate usually long-stalked, composed of numerous spirally arranged 
anthers with connectives produced into broad nearly circular toothed crests, the pis- 
tillate oblong, oval or cylindrical, with rounded or pointed scales, each in the axis of 
an accrescent bract shorter than the scale at maturity. Fruit an ovoid or oblong- 






CONIFERS 39 

cylindrical pendant cone, crowded on the upper branches or in some species scattered 
over the upper half of the tree. Seeds ovoid or oblong, usually acute at the base, 
much shorter than their wings ; outer seed-coat crustaceous, light or dark brown, the 
inner membranaceous, pale chestnut-brown ; cotyledons 4-15. 

Picea is widely distributed through the colder and temperate regions of the north- 
ern hemisphere, some species forming great forests on plains and high mountain 
slopes. Eighteen species are now recognized, ranging from the Arctic Circle to the 
slopes of the southern Appalachian Mountains and to those of northern New Mexico 
and Arizona in the New World, and to central and southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, 
the Himalayas, western China and Japan. Of exotic species the so-called Norway 
Spruce, Picea Abies, Karst., one of the most valuable timber-trees of Europe, has 
been largely planted for ornament and shelter in the eastern states, where the Cau- 
casian Picea orientalis, Carr., and some of the Japanese species also flourish. 

Picea was probably the classical name of the Spruce-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves 4-sided, with stomata on the 4 sides. 
Cone-scales rounded at the apex. 

Cone-scales stiff and rigid at maturity ; branchlets pubescent. 

Cones ovate on strongly incurved stalks, persistent for many years, their scales erose 

or dentate ; leaves blue-green. 1. P. Mariana (A B, F). 

Cones ovate-oblong, early deciduous, their scales entire or denticulate ; leaves dark 

yellow-green. 2. P. rubens (A). 

Cone-scales soft and flexible at maturity ; branchlets glabrous. 

Cones oblong-cylindrical, slender, their scales entire ; leaves blue-green. 

3. P. Canadensis (A B, F). 

Cone-scales oblong or rhomboidal, narrowed to the truncate or acute apex ; leaves blue- 
green. 

Cones oblong-cylindrical or oval ; branchlets pubescent ; leaves soft and flexible. 

4. P. Engelmanni (F, B, G). 
Cones oblong-cylindrical ; branchlets glabrous ; leaves rigid, spinescent. 

5. P. Parryana (F). 

Leaves flattened, usually with stomata only on the upper surface. 
Cone-scales rounded, entire ; branchlets pubescent. 

Cones oblong-cylindrical, leaves obtuse, with stomata only on the upper surface. 

6. P. Breweriana (G). 

Cone-scales oblong-oval, rounded, denticulate above the middle ; branchlets glabrous. 
Cones cylindrical-ovoid, leaves acute or acuminate, with stomata occasionally on the 
lower surface. 7. P. Sitchensis (B, G). 

1. Leaves 4-sided. 

* Cone-scales rounded at the apex. 
-^Branchlets pubescent. 

1. Picea Mariana, B., S. & P. Black Spruce. 

Leaves slightly incurved above the middle, abruptly contracted at the apex into 
short callous tips, pale blue-green and glaucous at maturity, -J-'-f ' l"g hoary on 
the upper surface from the broad bands of stomata, and lustrous and slightly stoma- 
tiferous on the lower surface. Flowers : staminate subglobose, with dark red 
anthers ; pistillate oblong-cylindrical, with obovate purple scales rounded above, and 
oblong purple glaucous bracts rounded and denticulate at the apex. Fruit ovate, 






40 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



pointed, gradually narrowed at the base into short strongly incurved stalks, '-!' 
long, with rigid puberulous scales rounded or rarely somewhat pointed at the apex 
and more or less erose on the notched pale margins, turning as they ripen dull gray- 
brown and becoming as the scales gradually open and slowly discharge their seeds 
almost globose ; sometimes remaining on the branches for twenty or thirty years, 
the oldest close to the base of the branches near the trunk ; seeds oblong, nar- 
rowed to the acute base, about ^' long, very dark brown, with delicate pale brown 
wings broadest above the middle, very oblique at the apex, about ^ long and ^' 
wide. 

A tree, usually 20-30 and occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 6'-12' and rarely 
3 in diameter, and comparatively short branches generally pendulous with upward 
curves, forming an open irregular crown, light green branchlets coated with pale 
pubescence, soon beginning to grow darker, and during their first winter light cinna- 
mon-brown and covered with short rusty pubescence, their thin brown bark gradu- 
ally becoming glabrous and beginning to break into small thin scales during their 
second year ; at the extreme north sometimes a low semiprostrate shrub ; fre- 
quently cone-bearing when only 2-3 high. Winter-buds ovate, acute, light 
reddish brown, puberulous, about |' long. Bark \'-\' thick and broken on the surface 
into thin rather closely appressed gray-brown scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, 
pale yellow-white, with thin sapwood ; probably rarely used outside of Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan, except in the manufacture of paper pulp. Spruce-gum, the resinous 




exudations of the Spruce-trees of northeastern America, is gathered in considerable 
quantities principally in northern New England and Canada, and is used as a mas- 
ticatory. Spruce-beer is made by boiling the branches of the Black and Red Spruces. 
Distribution. At the north on well-drained bottom-lands and the slopes of barren 
stony hills, and southward in sphagnum-covered bogs, swamps and on their borders, 
from Labrador to the valley of the Mackenzie River in about latitude 65 north, and, 
crossing the Rocky Mountains, through the interior of Alaska to the valley of White 
River ; southward through Newfoundland, the maritime provinces, eastern Canada 
and the northeastern United States to Pennsylvania, and along the Alleghany Moun- 
tains to northern Virginia; and from the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains 
in Alberta, through Assiniboia, northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba, to 
central Wisconsin and Michigan ; very abundant at the far north and the largest 
coniferous tree of Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba, covering here large areas 



CONIFEILE 



41 




p 

PC, 41 



and growing to its largest size ; common in Newfoundland and all the provinces of 
eastern Canada except southern Ontario ; in the United States less abundant and 
usually only in cold sphagnum swamps. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree, the Black Spruce is short-lived in cul- 
tivation and one of the least desirable of all Spruce-trees for the decoration of parks 
and gardens. 

2. Picea rubens, Sarg. Red Spruce. 

Leaves more or less incurved above the middle, acute or rounded and furnished 
at the apex with short callous points, dark green often slightly tinged with yel- 
low, very lustrous, 
marked on the upper 
surface by 4 rows of 
stomata and on the 
lower less conspicu- 
ously by 2 rows of 
stomata on each side 
of the prominent mid- 
rib, ^' I' long, nearly 
t y wide. Flowers: 
staminate oval, al- 
most sessile, bright 
red; pistillate ob- 
long-cylindrical, with 
thin rounded scales 

reflexed and slightly erose on their margins, and obovate bracts rounded and lacini- 
ate above. Fruit on very short straight or incurved stalks, ovate-oblong, gradually 
narrowed from near the middle to the acute apex, l^'-2' long, with rigid puberu- 
lous scales entire or slightly toothed at the apex ; bright green or green somewhat 
tinged with purple when fully grown, becoming light reddish brown and lustrous 
at maturity, beginning to fall as soon as the scales open in the autumn or early 
winter, and generally disappearing from the brunches the following summer ; 
seeds dark brown, about ' long, with short broad wings full and rounded above the 
middle. 

A tree, usually 70-80 and occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in dia- 
meter, branches long-persistent on the stem and clothing it to the ground, forming 
a narrow rather conical head, or soon disappearing below from trees crowded in 
the forest, stout pubescent light green branchlets, becoming bright reddish brown 
or orange-brown during their first winter, glabrous the following year, and covered 
in their third or fourth year with scaly bark. Winter-buds ovate, acute, ^'-J' 
long, with light reddish brown scales. Bark \'-^ f thick, and broken into thin closely 
appressed irregularly shaped red-brown scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, 
not strong, pale slightly tinged with red, with paler sapwood usually about 2' thick; 
largely manufactured into lumber in the northeastern states, Pennsylvania, and 
western Virginia, and used for the flooring and construction of houses, for the 
sounding-boards of musical instruments, and in the manufacture of paper pulp. 

Distribution. Well-drained uplands and mountain slopes, often forming a large 
part of extensive forests, from Prince Edward Island and the valley of the St. 
Lawrence southward to the coast of Massachusetts, along the interior hilly part of 



42 



TKEES OF NORTH AMERICA 



New England and New York, and the Alleghany Mountains to the high peaks of 
North Carolina. 

Occasionally planted in the eastern states and in Europe as an ornamental tree, 
but growing in cultivation more slowly than any other Spruce-tree. 

-4+Branchlets glabrous. 

3. Picea Canadensis, B., S. & P. White Spruce. 

Leaves crowded on the upper side of the branches by the twisting of those on the 
lower side, 4-sided, incurved, acute or acuminate and terminating in rigid callous 
tips, pale blue and hoary when they first appear, becoming dark blue-green or pale 
blue, marked on each of the 4 sides by 3 or 4 rows of stomata, \'-% long. Flowers : 
staminate pale red, soon appearing yellow from the thick Covering of pollen ; pis- 
tillate oblong-cylindrical, with round nearly entire pale red or yellow-green scales, 
broader than long, and nearly orbicular denticulate bracts. Fruit nearly sessile or 
borne on short thin straight stems, oblong-cylindrical, slender, slightly narrowed to 
the ends, rather obtuse at the apex, usually about 2' long, pale green sometimes 

tinged with red when 
fully grown, becom- 
ing at maturity pale 
brown and lustrous, 
with nearly orbicu- 
lar scales, rounded, 
truncate, and slight- 
ly emarginate, or 
rarely narrowed at 
the apex, and very 
thin, flexible and 
elastic at maturity, 
usually deciduous in 
the autumn or dur- 
ing the following 

winter; seeds about ^' long, pale brown, with narrow wings gradually widened 
from the base to above the middle and very oblique at the apex. 

A tree, with disagreeable smelling foliage, sometimes 150 high, with a trunk 
3^4 in diameter, but east of the Rocky Mountains and especially toward the south- 
eastern limits of its range rarely more than 60-70 tall, with a trunk not more 
than 2 in diameter, long comparatively thick branches densely clothed with stout 
rigid laterals sweeping out in graceful upward curves, and forming a broad-based 
rather open pyramid often obtuse at the apex, stout glabrous branchlets orange- 
brown during their first autumn and winter, gradually growing darker grayish 
brown. Winter-buds broadly ovate, obtuse, covered by light chestnut-brown scales 
with thin often reflexed ciliate margins. Bark \'-\' thick, separating irregularly 
into thin plate-like light gray scales more or less tinged with brown on the surface. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, straight-grained, light yellow, with hardly distinguish- 
able sapwood; manufactured into lumber in the eastern provinces of Canada and 
in Alaska, and used in construction, for the interior finish of buildings, and for paper 
pulp. 

Distribution. Banks and borders of streams and lakes, ocean cliffs, and in the 




CONIFERS 43 

north the rocky slopes of low hills, from Labrador along the northern frontier of 
the forest nearly to the shores of the Arctic Sea, reaching Behring Strait in 66 44' 
north latitude, and southward down the Atlantic coast to southern Maine, northern 
New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York, northern Michigan and Wisconsin, the 
Black Hills of Dakota, and through the interior of Alaska and along the Rocky 
Mountains to northern Montana. 

Often planted in Canada, northern New England, and northern Europe as ar 
ornamental tree; southward suffering from heat and dryness. 

** Cone-scales oblong or rhomboidal. 
-t-Branchlets pubescent. 

4. Picea Engelmanni, Engelm. White Spruce. Engelmann Spruce. 
Leaves soft and flexible, with acute callous tips, slender nearly straight or slightly 
incurved on vigorous sterile branches, stouter shorter and more incurved on fer- 




43 



tile branches, !'-!' long, marked on each face by 3-5 rows of stomata, covered 
at first with a glaucous bloom, soon becoming dark blue-green or pale steel-blue. 
Flowers : staminate dark purple; pistillate bright scarlet, with pointed or rounded 
and more or less divided scales, and oblong bracts rounded or acute or acuminate 
and denticulate at the apex or obovate-oblong and abruptly acuminate. Fruit 
oblong-cylindrical, oval, gradually narrowed to the ends, usually about 2' long, 
sessile or very short-stalked, produced in great numbers on the upper branches, hori- 
zontal and ultimately pendulous, light green somewhat tinged with scarlef when 
fully grown, becoming light chestnut-brown and lustrous, with thin flexible slightly 
concave scales, generally erose-dentate or rarely almost entire on the margins, 
usually broadest at the middle, wedge-shaped below, and gradually contracted above 
into a truncate or acute apex, or occasionally obovate and rounded above; mostly 
deciduous in the autumn or early in their first winter soon after the escape of the 
seeds ; seeds obtuse at the base, nearly black, about \' long and much shorter than 
their broad very oblique wings. 

A tree, with disagreeable smelling foliage, often 150 high, with a trunk 4-5 
in diameter, spreading branches produced in regular whorls and forming a narrow 
compact pyramidal head, gracefully hanging short lateral branches, and compara- 
tively slender branchlets pubescent for three or four years, light or dark orange- 



44 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

brown or gray tinged with brown during their first winter, their bark beginning to 
separate into small flaky scales in their fourth or fifth year. Winter-buds coni- 
cal or slightly obtuse, with pale chestnut-brown scales scarious and often free and 
slightly reflexed on the margins. Bark of the trunk \'^' thick, light cinnamon-red, 
and broken into large thin loose scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, 
pale yellow tinged with red, with thick hardly distinguishable sapvvood ; largely manu- 
factured into lumber used for the construction of buildings; also employed for fuel 
and charcoal. The bark is sometimes employed in tanning leather. 

Distribution. High mountain slopes, often forming great forests from the moun- 
tains of Alberta and British Columbia, southward over the interior mountain sys- 
tems of the continent to northern New Mexico and Arizona, from elevations of 5000 
at the north up to 11,500 at the south, and westward through Montana and Idaho 
to the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon; attaining its greatest size 
and beauty north of the northern boundary of the United States. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the New England states and north- 
ern Europe, where it grows vigorously and promises to attain a large size; usually 
injured in western Europe by spring frosts. 

-tt-Branchlets glabrous. 

5. Picea Parryana, Sarg. Blue Spruce. 

Leaves strongly incurved, especially those on the upper side of the branch, stout, 
rigid, acuminate and tipped with long callous sharp points, l'-l|' long on sterile 

branches, often not more 
than half as long on the 
fertile branches of old 
trees, marked on each 
side by 4-7 rows of sto- 
mata, dull bluish green 
on some individuals and 
light or dark steel-blue 
or silvery white on oth- 
ers, the blue colors grad- 
ually changing to dull 
blue-green at the end of 
three or four years. 
Flowers: staminate yel- 
low tinged with red ; pis- 
tillate with broad oblong 
or slightly obovate pale 

green scales truncate or slightly emarginate at the denticulate apex, and acute bracts. 
Fruit produced on the upper third of the tree, sessile or short-stalked, oblong- 
cylindrical, slightly narrowed at the ends, usually about 3' long, green more or less 
tinged with red when fully grown at midsummer, becoming pale chestnut-brown 
and lustrous, with flat tough rhomboidal scales flexuose on the margins, and acute, 
rounded, or truncate at the elongated erose apex ; seeds %' long or about half the 
length of their wings, gradually widening to above the middle and full and rounded 
at the apex. 

A tree, usually 80-100 or occasionally 150 high, with a trunk rarely 3 in dia- 




CONIFERS 45 

meter and occasionally divided into 3 or 4 stout secondary stems, rigid horizontal 
branches disposed on young trees in remote whorls and decreasing regularly in 
length from below upward, the short stout stiff branchlets pointing forward and 
making flat-topped masses of foliage, 011 old trees short and remote, with stout 
pendant lateral branches forming a thin ragged pyramidal crown and stout rigid 
glabrous branchlets, pale glaucous green, becoming bright orange-brown during the 
first winter and ultimately light grayish brown. Winter-buds stout, obtuse or rarely 
acute, \'~^' long, with thin pale chestnut-brown scales usually rettexed on the mar- 
gins. Bark of young trees gray or gray tinged with cinnamon-red and broken into 
small oblong plate-like scales, becoming on the lower part of old trunks f'-l^' 
thick and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges covered with small closely ap- 
pressed pale gray or occasionally bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood light, soft, 
close-grained, weak, pale brown or often nearly white, with hardly distinguishable 
sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams or on the first benches above them singly or in 
small groves at elevations between GoOO and 10,000 above the sea; Colorado and 
eastern Utah northward to the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern and northern states and in 
western and northern Europe, especially individuals with blue foliage; very beauti- 
ful in early life but in cultivation soon becoming unsightly from the loss of the 
lower branches. 

2. Leaves flattened. 

* Cone-scales rounded at the apex. 

6. Picea Breweriana, Wats. Weeping Spruce. 

Leaves abruptly narrowed and obtuse at the apex, straight or slightly incurved, 
rounded and obscurely ridged and dark green and lustrous on the lower surface, flat- 




tened and conspiciiously marked on the upper surface by 4 or 5 rows of stomata on 
each side of the prominent midrib, f'-l^' long, fa'- fa' wide. Flowers : staminate 
dark purple; pistillate oblong-cylindrical, with obovate scales rounded above and re- 
flexed on the entire margins and oblong bracts laciniately divided at their rounded 
or acute apex. Fruit oblong, gradually narrowed from the middle to the ends, acute 



46 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

at the apex, rather oblique at the base, suspended on straight slender stalks, deep 
rich purple or green more or less tinged with purple when fully grown, becoming 
light orange-brown, 2'-4' long, with thin broadly ovate flat scales longer than broad, 
rounded at the apex, opening late in the autumn after the escape of the seeds, often 
becoming strongly reflexed and very flexible; usually remaining on the branches until 
the second winter; seeds acute at the base, full and rounded on the sides, ^' long, 
dark brown, and about one quarter the length of their wings broadest toward the 
full and rounded apex. 

A tree, usually 80-100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter above the swell- 
ing of its enlarged and gradually tapering base, and furnished to the ground with 
crowded branches, those at the top of the tree short and slightly ascending, with com- 
paratively short pendulous lateral branches, those lower on the tree horizontal or 
pendulous and clothed with slender flexible whip-like laterals often 7-8 long and 
not more than ' thick and furnished with numerous long thin lateral branchlets, 
their ultimate divisions slender, coated with fine pubescence persistent until their 
third season, bright red-brown during their first winter, gradually growing dark 
gray-brown. Winter-buds conical, light chestnut-brown, \' long and ^' thick. Bark 
of the trunk '-f ' thick, broken into long thin closely appressed scales dull red-brown 
on the surface. Wood heavy, soft, close-grained, light brown or nearly white, with 
thick hardly distinguishable sapwood. 

Distribution. Dry mountain ridges and peaks near the timber-line on both slopes 
of the Siskiyou Mountains on the boundary between California and Oregon, forming 
small groves at elevations of about 7000 above the sea; on a high peak west of 
Marble Mountain in Siskiyou County, California; on the Oregon coast ranges at the 
head-waters of the Illinois River at elevations of 4000-000. 

** Cone-scales oblong-oval, denticulate above the middle. 

7. Picea Sitchensis, Carr. Tideland Spruce. Sitka Spruce. 

Leaves standing out from all sides of the branches and often nearly at right 
angles to them, frequently bringing their white upper surface to view by a twist at 
their base, straight or slightly incurved, acute or acuminate, with long callous tips 
slightly rounded, green, lustrous, and occasionally marked on the lower surface with 
2 or 3 rows of small conspicuous stomata on each side of the prominent midrib, 
flattened, obscurely ridged and almost covered with broad silvery white bands 
of numerous rows of stomata on the upper surface, '-! ' long and iV~iV w ^ e> 
Flowers : staminate at the ends of the pendant lateral branchlets, dark red ; pistil- 
late on rigid terminal shoots of the branches of the upper half of the tree, with 
nearly orbicular denticulate scales, often slightly truncate above and completely 
hidden by their elongated acuminate bracts. Fruit cylindrical-oval, short-stalked, 
yellow-green often tinged with dark red when fully grown, becoming lustrous and 
pale yellow or reddish brown, 2^'^t' long, with thin stiff oblong-oval scales rounded 
toward the apex, denticulate above the middle, and nearly twice as long as their lan- 
ceolate denticulate bracts, deciduous mostly during their first autumn and winter; 
seeds full and rounded, acute at the base, pale reddish brown, about \' long, with 
narrow oblong slightly oblique wings \'-\' in length. 

A tree, usually about 100 high, with a conspicuously tapering trunk often 3 - 
4 in diameter above its strongly buttressed and much-enlarged base, occasionally 
200 tall, with a trunk 15 - 16 in diameter, horizontal branches forming an open 



CONIFERS 



47 



loose pyramid and on older trees clothed with slender pendant lateral branches 
frequently 2-3 long, and stout rigid glabrous branchlets pale green at first, 
becoming dark or light 
orange-brown during 
their first autumn and 
winter and finally dark 
gray - brown ; at the 
extreme northwestern 
limits of its range occa- 
sionally reduced to a 
low shrub. Winter- 
buds ovate, acute, or 
conical, \'-^' long, with 
pale chestnut - brown 
acute scales, often 
tipped with short 
points and more or less 
reflexed above the mid- 
die. Bark \'-^' thick and broken on the surface into large thin loosely attached 
dark red-brown or on young trees sometimes bright cinnamon-red scales. Wood 
light, soft, not strong, straight-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick 
nearly white sapwood; largely manufactured into lumber used in the interior finish 
of buildings, for fencing, boat-building, cooperage, wooden-ware, and packing-cases. 

Distribution. Moist sandy, often swampy soil, or less frequently at the far north 
on wet rocky slopes, from the eastern end of Kadiak Island southward through the 
coast region of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon to Mendocino 
County, California. 

Often planted in western and central Europe and occasionally in the middle Atlan- 
tic states as an ornamental tree. 




4-6 



4. TSUGA, Carr. Hemlock. 

Tall pyramidal trees, with deeply furrowed astringent bark bright cinnamon-red 
except on the surface, soft pale wood, nodding leading shoots, slender scattered hori- 
zontal often pendulous branches, the secondary branches three or four times irregu- 
larly pinnately ramified, with slender round glabrous or pubescent ultimate divisions, 
the whole forming graceful pendant masses of foliage, and minute winter-buds. 
Leaves flat or angular, obtuse and often emarginate or acute at the apex, spirally 
disposed, usually appearing almost 2-ranked by the twisting of their petioles, those 
on the upper side of the branch then much shorter than the others, abruptly nar- 
rowed into short petioles jointed on ultimately woody persistent bases, with stomata 
on the lower surface ; on one species not 2-ranked, and of nearly equal length, with 
stomata on both surfaces. Flowers solitary, the staminate in the axils of leaves of 
the previous year, globose, composed of numerous subglobose anthers, with connec- 
tives produced into short gland-like tips, the pistillate terminal, erect, with nearly 
circular scales slightly longer or shorter than their membranaceous bracts. Fruit 
an ovate-oblong, oval, or oblong-cylindrical obtuse usually pendulous nearly sessile 
green or rarely purple cone becoming light or dark reddish brown, with concave sub- 
orbicular or ovate-oblong scales thin and entire on the margins, much longer than 



48 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

their minute bracts, persistent on the axis of the cone after the escape of the seeds. 
Seeds furnished with resin-vesicles, ovate-oblong, compressed, nearly surrounded by 
their much longer obovate-oblong wings; outer seed-coat crustaceous, light brown, 
the inner membranaceous, pale chestnut-brown, and lustrous ; cotyledons 3-6, much 
shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Tsuga is confined to temperate North America, Japan, central and western China, 
and the Himalayas ; seven species have been distinguished. 

Tsuga is the Japanese name of the Hemlock-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves flat, obtuse or emarginate at the apex, with stomata only on the lower surface ; 
cones ovate-oblong or oval. 
Cones stalked. 

Cone-scales orbicular-oblong, about as wide as long, their bracts broad and truncate. 

1. T. Canadenais (A). 
Cone-scales oblong, much longer than wide, their bracts obtusely pointed. 

2. T. Caroliniana (A). 
Cones sessile. 

Cone-scales oblong, longer than broad, often abruptly contracted near the middle, 
their bracts gradually narrowed to an obtuse point. 

3. T. heterophylla (B, F, G). 

Leaves convex or keeled above, bluntly pointed, with stomata on both surfaces ; cones ob- 
long-cyndrical. 

Cone-scales oblong-obovate, longer than broad, much longer than their acuminate 
short-pointed bracts. 4. T. Merteusiana (B, F, G). 

1. Tsuga Canadensis, Carr. Hemlock. 

Leaves oblong, rounded and rarely emarginate at the apex, dark yellow-green, 
lustrous and obscurely grooved especially toward the base on the upper surface, 
marked on the lower surface by 5 or 6 rows of stomata on each side of the low 
broad midrib, ^'-f' long, about fa' wide, deciduous in their third season from dark 
orange-colored persistent bases. Flowers : staminate light yellow ; pistillate pale 
green, with broad bracts coarsely laciniate on the margins and shorter than their 
scales. Fruit on slender puberulous stalks often \' long, ovate-oblong, acute, |'-f' 
long, with orbicular oblong scales almost as wide as long, and broad truncate bracts 
slightly laciniate on the margins, opening and gradually losing their seeds during 
the winter and mostly persistent on the branches until the following spring ; seeds 
fa' long, usually with 2 or 3 large oil-vesicles, nearly half as long as their wings 
broad at the base and gradually tapering to the rounded apex. 

A tree, usually 60-70, and occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 2-4 in diame- 
ter, gradually and conspicuously tapering toward the apex, long slender horizontal 
or pendulous branches, persistent until overshadowed by other trees and forming 
a broad-based rather obtuse pyramid, and slender light yellow-brown pubescent 
branchlets, growing darker during their first winter and glabrous and dark red- 
brown tinged with purple in their third season. 'Winter-buds obtuse, light che*st- 
nut-brown, slightly puberulous, about fa long. Bark of the trunk '-f ' thiclc, deeply 
divided into narrow rounded ridges covered with thick closely appressed scales 
varying from cinnamon-red to gray more or less tinged with purple. Wood light, 
soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, difficult to work, liable to wind-shake and 
splinter, not durable when exposed to the air, light brown tinged with red, with thin 



CONIFERS 49 

somewhat darker sapwood ; largely manufactured into coarse lumber employed for 
the outside finish of buildings. The astringent inner bark affords the largest part 
of the material used in the northeastern states and Canada in tanning leather. From 
the young branches oil of hemlock is distilled. 

Distribution. Scattered through upland forests and often covering the northern 
slopes of rocky ridges and the steep rocky banks of narrow river-gorges from Nova 
Scotia to eastern Minnesota, and southward through the northern states to New- 
castle County, Delaware, southern Michigan, southwestern Wisconsin, and along the 
Appalachian Mountains to northwestern Alabama; most abundant and frequently 




Pic, 47 



an important element of the forest in New England, northern New York, and west- 
ern Pennsylvania; attaining its largest size near streams on the slopes of the high 
mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Largely cultivated with numerous seminal varieties as an ornamental tree in the 
northern states, and in western and central Europe. 

2. Tsuga Caroliniana, Engelm. Hemlock. 

Leaves retuse or often emarginate at the apex, dark green, lustrous and conspic- 
uously grooved on the upper surface, marked on the lower surface by a band of 
7 or 8 rows of stomata on each side of the midrib, ^'-f ' long, about Jj' wide, decidu- 
ous from the orange-red bases during their fifth year. Flowers: staminate tinged 
with purple; pistillate purple, with broadly ovate bracts, scarious and erose on the 
margins and about as long as their scales. Fruit on short stout stalks, oblong, !'-!' 
long, with oblong scales gradually narrowed and rounded at the apex, rather abruptly 
contracted at the base into distinct stipes, thin, concave, puberulous on the outer 
surface, twice as long as their broad pale bracts, spreading nearly at right angles to 
the axis of the cone at maturity, their bracts rather longer than wide, wedge-shaped, 
pale, nearly truncate or slightly pointed at the broad apex ; seeds ^' long, with 
numerous small oil-vescicles on the lower side, and one quarter as long as the pale 
lustrous wings broad or narrow at the base and narrowed to the rounded apex. 

A tree, usually 40-oO, or occasionally 70 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
2 in diameter, short stout often pendulous branches forming a handsome compact 
pyramidal head, and slender light orange-brown pubescent branchlets, usually 
becoming glabrous and dull brown more or less tinged with orange during their 



50 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



third year. Winter-buds obtuse, dark chestnut-brown, pubescent, nearly ' long. 

Bark of the trunk '-!' thick, red-brown, and deeply divided into broad flat con- 
nected ridges cov- 
ered with thin closely 
appressed plate-like 
scales. Wood light, 
soft, not strong, brit- 
tle, coarse-grained, 
pale brown tinged 
with red, with thin 
nearly white sap- 
wood. 

Distribution. 
Rocky banks of 
streams usually at 
elevations between 
2500 and 3000 on 
the Blue Ridge from 

southwestern Virginia to northern Georgia, generally singly or in small scattered 

groves of a few individuals. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in the northern states, and occasionally in 

western Europe. 

3. Tsuga heterophylla, Sarg. Hemlock. 

Leaves rounded at the apex, conspicuously grooved, dark green and very lus- 
trous on the upper surface, marked below by broad white bands of 7-9 rows of 
stomata, abruptly contracted at the base into slender petioles, ^'-f ' l n g an d ^'"iV 
wide. Flowers : staminate yellow; pistillate purple and puberulous, with broad 
bracts gradually narrowed to an obtuse point and shorter than their broadly ovate 





slightly scarious scales. Fruit oblong-oval, acute, sessile, -f'-l' long, with slightly 
puberulous scales longer than broad, often abruptly narrowed near the middle, and 



CONIFERS 51 

dark purple puberulous bracts rounded and abruptly contracted at the apex; seeds 
^' long, with occasional oil-vesicles, one third to one half as long as their narrow 
wings. 

A tree, frequently 200 high, with a tall trunk 6-10 in diameter, and short 
slender usually pendulous branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, and slender 
pale yellow-brown branchlets ultimately becoming dark reddish brown, coated at 
first with long pale hairs, and pubescent or puberulous for five or six years. Win- 
ter-buds ovate, bright chestnut-brown, about ^' long. Bark on young trunks thin, 
dark orange-brown, and separated by shallow fissures into narrow flat plates broken 
into delicate scales, becoming on fully grown trees l'-l' thick and deeply divided 
into broad flat connected ridges covered with closely appressed brown scales more 
or less tinged with cinnamon-red. Wood light, hard and tough, pale brown tinged 
with yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood ; stronger and more durable than the 
wood of the other American hemlocks; now largely manufactured into lumber used 
principally in the construction of buildings. The bark is used in large quantities 
in tanning leather; from the inner bark the Indians of Alaska obtain one of their 
principal articles of vegetable food. 

Distribution. Southeastern Alaska, southward near the coast to Marin County, 
California, extending eastward over the mountains of southern British Columbia, 
northern Washington and Idaho, to the western slopes of the continental divide, and 
through Oregon to the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, sometimes ascend- 
ing in the interior to elevations of 6000 above the sea ; most abundant and of its 
largest size on the coast of Washington and Oregon; often forming a large part of 
the forests of the northwest coast. 

Frequently planted as an ornamental tree in temperate Europe. 

4. Tsuga Mertensiana, Sarg. Mountain Hemlock. Patton Spruce. 
Leaves standing out from all sides of the branch, remote on leading shoots and 
crowded on short lateral branchlets, rounded and occasionally obscurely grooved or 




on young plants sometimes conspicuously grooved on the upper surface, rounded and 
slightly ribbed on the lower surface, bluntly pointed, often more or less curved, 
stomatiferous above and below, with about 8 rows of stomata on each surface, light 
bluish green or on some individuals pale blue, -^5'-!' long, about fa' wide, abruptly 



52 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

narrowed into nearly straight or slightly twisted petioles articulate on bases as long 
or rather longer than the petioles, irregularly deciduous during their third and fourth 
years. Flowers : staminate borne on slender pubescent drooping stems, violet- 
purple; pistillate erect, with delicate lustrous dark purple or yellow-green bracts 
gradually narrowed above into slender often slightly reflexed tips and much longer 
than their scales. Fruit sessile, cylindrical-oblong, narrowed toward the blunt apex 
and somewhat toward the base, erect until more than half grown, pendulous or 
rarely erect at maturity, |'-3' long, with thin delicate scales usually as broad as 
long, and gradually contracted from above the middle to the wedge-shaped base, 
rounded at the slightly thickened more or less erose margins, puberulous on the 
outer surface, usually bright bluish purple or occasionally pale yellow-green, four 
or five times as long as their short-pointed dark purple or brown bracts ; seeds light 
brown, ty long, often marked on the surface next their scales with 1 or 2 large 
resin-vesicles, with wings nearly ^' long, broadest above the middle, gradually 
narrowed below, slightly or not at all oblique at the rounded apex. 

A tree, usually 70-100 but occasionally 150 high, with a slightly tapering trunk 
4-5 in diameter, gracefully pendant slender branches furnished with drooping 
frond-like lateral branches, their ultimate divisions erect and forming an open 
pyramid surmounted by the long drooping leading shoots, and thin flexible or some- 
times stout rigid branchlets light reddish brown and covered for two or three years 
with short pale dense pubescence, becoming grayish brown and very scaly. Winter- 
buds acute, about ^' long, the scales of the outer ranks furnished on the back with 
conspicuous midribs produced into slender deciduous awl-like tips. Bark of the 
trunk I'-l^' thick, deeply divided into connected rounded ridges broken into thin 
closely appressed dark cinnamon scales shaded with blue or purple. Wood light, 
soft, not strong, close-grained, pale brown or red, with thin nearly white sapwood; 
occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. Exposed ridges and slopes at high altitudes along the upper border 
of the forest from southeastern Alaska, southward over the mountain ranges of 
British Columbia to the Olympic Mountains of Washington, and eastward to the 
western slopes of the Selkirk Mountains in the interior of southern British Colum- 
bia, northern Montana, northern Idaho, the Powder River Mountains, and along the 
Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon, on the mountain ranges of northern 
California, and along the Sierra Nevada to the canon of the south fork of King's 
River, California; in Alaska occasionally descending to the sea-level, and toward 
the southern limits of its range often ascending to elevations of 10,000. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, and rarely in 
the eastern United States. 



5. PSEUDOTSUGA, Carr. 

Pyramidal trees, with thick deeply furrowed bark, hard strong wood, with spirally 
marked wood-cells, slender usually horizontal irregularly whorled branches clothed 
with slender spreading lateral branches forming broad flat-topped masses of foliage, 
ovate acute leaf-buds, the lateral buds in the axils of upper leaves, their inner scales 
accrescent and marking the branchlets with ring-like scars. Leaves linear, flat, 
rounded and obtuse or acuminate at the apex, straight or incurved, grooved on the 
upper side, marked on the lower side by numerous rows of stomata on each side of 
the prominent midrib, spreading nearly at right angles with the branch. Flowers 






* CONIFERS 53 

solitary, the staminate axillary, scattered along the branches, oblong-cylindrical, 
with numerous globose anthers, their connectives terminating in short spurs, the pis- 
tillate terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, composed of spirally arranged ovate 
rounded scales much shorter than their acutely 2-lobed bracts, with midribs pro- 
duced into elongated slender tips. Fruit an ovate-oblong acute pendulous cone 
maturing in one season, with rounded concave rigid scales persistent on the axis of 
the cone after the escape of the seeds, and becoming dark red-brown, much shorter 
than the 2-lobed bracts with midribs ending in rigid woody linear awns, those at the 
base of the cone without scales and becoming linear-lanceolate by the gradual sup- 
pression of their lobes. Seeds nearly triangular, full, rounded and dark-colored on 
the upper side and pale on the lower side, shorter than their oblong wings infolding 
the upper side of the seeds in a dark covering; outer seed-coat thick and crusta- 
ceous, the inner thin and membranaceous; cotyledons 6-12, much shorter than the 
inferior radicle. 

Pseudotsuga is confined to western North America and Japan. Three species are 
recognized. 

Pseudotsuga, a barbarous combination of a Greek with a Japanese word, indicates 
the relation of these trees with the Hemlocks. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves usually rounded and obtuse at the apex, dark yellow-green or rarely blue-green ; 
cones small, their bracts much exserted. 1. P. mucronata (B, E, F, G, H). 

Leaves acuminate at the apex, bluish gray ; cones large, their bracts slightly exserted. 

2. P. macrocarpa (G). 

1. Pseudotsuga mucronata, Sudw. Douglas Spruce. Red Fir. 

Leaves straight or rarely slightly incurved, rounded and obtuse at the apex, or 
acute on leading shoots, |'-1^' long, ^'"lY w 'de, dark yellow-green or rarely light 
or dark bluish green, usually persistent until their eighth year. Flowers : stami- 
nate orange-red ; pistillate with slender elongated bracts deeply tinged with red. 
Fruit pendant on long stout stems, %-ty' long, with thin slightly concave scales 
rounded and occasionally somewhat elongated at the apex, usually rather longer than 
broad, when fully grown at midsummer slightly puberulous, dark blue-green below, 
purplish toward the apex, bright red on the closely appressed margins, and pale 
green bracts becoming slightly reflexed above the middle, \'~^' wide, often extending 
' beyond the scales; seeds light reddish brown and lustrous above, pale and marked 
below with large irregular white spots, \' long, nearly \' wide, almost as long as their 
dark brown wings broadest just below the middle, oblique above and rounded at the 
apex. 

A tree, often 200 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, frequently taller, with a 
trunk 10-12 in diameter, but in the dry interior of the continent rarely more than 
80-100 high, with a tnmk hardly exceeding 2-3 in diameter, slender crowded 
branches densely clothed with long pendulous lateral branches, forming while the 
tree is young an open pyramid, soon deciduous from trees crowded in the forest, often 
leaving the trunk naked for two thirds of its length and surmounted by a compara- 
tively small narrow head sometimes becoming flap-topped by the lengthening of the 
upper branches, and slender branchlets pubescent for three or four years, pale orange 
color and lustrous during their first season, becoming bright reddish brown and ulti- 
mately dark gray-brown. Winter-buds ovate, acute, the terminal bud often \' long 



54 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

and nearly twice as large as the lateral buds. Bark on young trees smooth, thin, rather 
lustrous, dark gray-brown, usually becoming on old trunks 10'-12' thick, and divided 
into oblong plates broken into great broad rounded and irregularly connected ridges 
separating on the surface into small thick closely appressed dark red-brown scales. 
Wood light red or yellow, with nearly white sapwood ; very variable in density, 
quality, and in the thickness of the sapwood ; largely manufactured into lumber in 
British Columbia, western Washington and Oregon, and used for all kinds of con- 
struction, fuel, railway-ties, and piles. The bark is sometimes used in tanning 
leather. 

Distribution. From about latitude 55 north in the Rocky Mountains and from the 
head of the Skeena River in the coast range, southward through all the Rocky Moun- 
tain system to the mountains of western Texas, southern New Mexico and Arizona, 
and of northern Mexico, and from the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to 
the Pacific coast, but absent from the arid mountains in the great basin between the 
Wahsatch and the Sierra Nevada ranges ; most abundant and of its largest size near 
the sea-level in the coast region of southern British Columbia and of Washington 




and Oregon, and on the western foothills of the Cascade Mountains; ascending on 
the California Sierras to elevations of 5500 above the sea. 

Often planted for timber and ornament in temperate Europe, and for ornament in 
the eastern and northern states, where only the form from the interior of the con- 
tinent flourishes. 

2. Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, Mayr. Hemlock. 

Leaves acute or acuminate, terminating in slender rigid callous tips, apparently 
2-ranked by the conspicuous twist at their base, incurved above the middle, f '-IV 
long, about -fa' wide, dark bluish gray. Flowers : staminate pale yellow, inclosed 
for half their length in conspicuous involucres of the lustrous bud-scales; pistillate 
with pale green bracts tinged with red. Fruit produced on the upper branches and 
occasionally on those down to the middle of the tree, short-stalked, 4'-6' long, with 
scales near the middle of the cone l'-2' across, stiff, thick, concave, rather broader 
than long, rounded above, abruptly wedge-shaped at the base, puberulous on tKe 
outer surface, often nearly as long as their comparatively short and narrow bracts 
with broad midribs produced into short flattened flexible tips; seeds full and rounded 



CONIFERS 55 

on both sides, rugose, dark chestnut-brown or nearly black and lustrous above, pale 
reddish brown below, ' long, $' wide, with a thick brittle outer coat and wings 
broadest near the middle, about ^' long, nearly -J' wide, and rounded at the apex. 

A tree, usually 40-50 and rarely 80 high, with a trunk 3^ in diameter, 
remote elongated branches pendulous below, furnished with short stout pendant 




or often erect laterals forming an open broad-based symmetrical pyramidal head, 
slender branchlets dark reddish brown and pubescent during their first year, be- 
coming glabrous and dark or light orange-brown and ultimately gray-brown. "Win- 
ter-buds ovate, acute, usually not more than -|' long, often nearly as broad as 
long. Bark 3'-6' thick, dark reddish brown, deeply divided into broad rounded 
ridges covered with thick closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, 
close-grained, not durable; occasionally manufactured into lumber; largely used for 
fuel. 

Distribution. Steep rocky mountain slopes in southern California at elevations of 
3000-5000 above the sea, often forming open groves of considerable extent, from 
the Santa Inez Mountains in Santa Barbara County to the Cuyamaca Mountains. 

6. ABIES, Link. Fir. 

Tall pyramidal trees, with bark containing numerous resin-vesicles, smooth, pale, 
and thin on young trees, often thick and deeply furrowed in old age, pale and usually 
brittle wood, slender horizontal wide-spreading branches in regular remote 4 or 
5-branched whorls, clothed with twice or thrice forked lateral branches forming flat- 
topped masses of foliage gradually narrowed from the base to the apex of the branch, 
the ultimate divisions stout, glabrous, or pubescent, and small globose or oblong win- 
ter branch-buds usually thickly covered with resin, or in one species large and acute, 
with thin loosely imbricated scales. Leaves linear, sessile, on young plants and on 
lower sterile branches flattened and mostly grooved on the upper side, or in one 
species 4-sided, rounded and usually emarginate at the apex, appearing 2-ranked by 
a twist near their base or occasionally spreading from all sides of the branch, only 
rarely stomatiferous above, on upper fertile branches and leading shoots usually 
crowded, more or less erect, often incurved or falcate, thick, convex on the upper 
side, or quadrangular in some species and then obtuse, and acute at the apex and 



56 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

frequently stomatiferous above; persistent usually for eight or ten years, in falling 
leaving small circular scars. Flowers axillary, from buds formed the previous sea- 
son on branchlets of the year, surrounded at the base by conspicuous involucres of 
enlarged bud-scales, the staminate very abundant on the lower side of branches above 
the middle of the tree, oval or oblong-cylindrical, with yellow or scarlet anthers sur- 
mounted by short knob-like projections, the pistillate usually on the upper side only 
of the topmost branches, or in some species scattered also over the upper half of the 
tree, erect, globose, ovoid or oblong, their scales imbricated in many series, obovate, 
rounded above, cuneate below, much shorter than their acute or dilated mucronate 
bracts. Fruit an erect ovoid or oblong cylindrical cone, its scales closely imbricated, 
thin, incurved at the broad apex and generally narrowed below into long stipes, 
decreasing in size and sterile toward the end of the cone, falling at maturity 
with their bracts and seeds from the stout tapering axis of the cone long-persist- 
ent on the branch. Seeds furnished with large conspicuous resin-vesicles, ovoid or 
oblong, acute at the base, covered on the upper side and infolded below on the 
lower side by the base of their thin wings abruptly enlarged at the oblique apex; 
seed-coat thin, of 2 layers, the outer thick, coriaceous, the inner membranaceous; 
cotyledons 4-10, much shorter than the inferior radicle. 

Abies is widely distributed in the New World from Labrador and the valley of the 
Athabasca River to the mountains of North Carolina, and from Alaska through the 
Pacific and Rocky Mountain regions to the highlands of Guatemala, and in the Old 
World from Siberia and the mountains of central Europe to southern Japan, central 
China, the Himalayas, Asia Minor, and the highlands of northern Africa. Twenty- 
five species are now recognized. Several exotic species are cultivated in the north- 
ern and eastern states; of these the best known and most successful as ornamental 
trees are Abies Nordmanniana, Spach, of the Caucasus, Abies Cilicica, Carr., of 
Asia Minor, Abies Cephalonica, Loud., a native of Cephalonia, Abies Veitchi, Lindl., 
and Abies homolepis, S. & Z., of .Japan, Abies Picea, Lindl., of the mountains of south- 
ern and central Europe, and Abies Pinsapo, Boiss., of the Spanish Sierra Nevada. 

Abies is the classical name of the Fir-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves flat and grooved above, with stomata on the lower and sometimes on the upper sur- 
face, rounded and often notched, or on fertile branches frequently acute at the apex. 
Leaves dark green and lustrous above, pale below. 
Cones purple. 

Bracts of the cone-scales much longer than their scales, reflexed. 

1. A. Fraseri (A). 
Bracts of the cone-scales shorter or rarely slightly longer than their scales. 

2. A. balsamea (A). 

Bracts of the cone-scales gradually narrowed into long slender tips half the length 
of their scales ; leaves crowded, silvery white below. 3. A. amabilis (B, G). 
Cones green. 

Bracts of the cone-scales laciniate and short-pointed at the apex ; leaves conspicu- 
ously notched on fertile branches. 4. A grandis (B, G). 
Leaves pale blue-green. 
Cones purple. 

Bracts of the cone-scales rounded, emarginate and long-pointed at the apex ; leaves 
obtusely pointed and occasionally notched, and on fertile branches thickened and 
acute at the apex. 5- A. lasiocarpa (B, F, G). 



CONIFERS 



57 



Cones purple, green, or yellow. 

Bracts of the cone-scales short-pointed ; leaves more or less erect by the twist at 
their base, on fertile branches often falcate, thickened and keeled above. 

<;. A. concolor (F, G, H). 

Bracts of the cone-scales produced into elongated rigid, flat tips many times longer 
than the obtusely pointed scales ; leaves acuminate, dark yellow-green above, 
white below, similar on sterile and fertile branches; winter-buds large, with thin 
loosely imbricated scales. 7. A. venusta (G). 

Leaves often 4-sided, blue-green, usually glaucous, with stomata on all surfaces, bluntly 
pointed or acute, incurved and crowded on fertile branches ; cones purple. 
Leaves of sterile branches flattened and distinctly grooved above. 

Bracts of the cone-scales rounded and fimbriate above, long-pointed, incurved, light 
green, much longer than and covering their scales. 8. A. nobilis (G). 

Leaves of sterile branches 4-sided. 

Bracts of the cone-scales acute or acuminate or rounded above, with slender tips 
shorter or longer than their scales. 9. A. magiiifica (G). 

1. Leaves Jlat. 

* Leaves dark green. 
-* Cones purple. 

1. Abies Fraseri, Poir, Balsam Fir. She Balsam. 

Leaves obtusely short-pointed or occasionally slightly emarginate at the apex, 
dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, marked on the lower surface by 




wide bands of 8-12 rows of stomata, ^' to nearly 1' long, about T y wide. Flowers : 
staminate yellow tinged with red; pistillate with scales rounded above, much broader 
than long and shorter than their oblong pale yellow-green bracts rounded at the 
broad apex terminating in a slender elongated tip. Fruit oblong-ovate or nearly 
oval, rounded at the somewhat narrowed apex, dark purple, pubertilous, about 2^' 
long, with scales twice as wide as long, at maturity nearly half covered by their pale 
yellow-green reflexed bracts; seeds |' long, with dark lustrous wings much ex- 
panded aind very oblique at the apex. 

A tree, usually 30-40 and rarely 70 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diame- 
ter, and rather rigid branches forming an open symmetrical pyramid and often dis- 



58 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

appearing early from the lower part of the trunk, and stout branchlets pubescent for 
three or four years, pale yellow-brown during their first season, becoming dark reddish 
brown often tinged with purple, and obtuse orange-brown winter-buds. Bark of the 
trunk \'-^ f thick, and covered with thin closely appressed bright cinnamon-red scales, 
generally becoming gray on old trees. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, 
pale brown, with nearly white sap wood; occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

Distribution. Appalachian Mountains from southwestern Virginia to western 
North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, often forming forests of considerable extent 
at elevations between 4000 and 6000 above the sea-level. 

Occasionally planted in the parks and gardens of the northern states and of 
Europe, but short-lived in cultivation and of little value as an ornamental tree. 

2. Abies balsamea, Mill. Balsam Fir. 

Leaves dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, silvery white on the lower 
surface, with bands of 4-8 rows of stomata, ' long on cone-bearing branches to iy 




long on the sterile branches of young trees, straight, acute or acuminate, with short 
or elongated rigid callous tips, spreading at nearly right angles to the branch on 
young trees and sterile branches, on the upper branches of older trees often broadest 
above the middle, rounded or obtusely short-pointed at the apex, occasionally 
emarginate on branches at the top of the tree. Flowers: staminate yellow, more 
or less deeply tinged with reddish purple; pistillate with nearly orbicular purple 
scales much shorter than their oblong-obovate serrulate pale yellow-green bracts 
emarginate with a broad apex abruptly contracted into a long slender recurved tip. 
Fruit oblong-cylindrical, gradually narrowed to the rounded apex, puberulous, dark 
rich purple, 2'-4' long, with scales usually longer than broad, generally almost twice 
as long but rarely not as long as their bracts ; seeds about ' long and rather 
shorter than their light brown wings. 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk usually 12'-18', or rarely 30' in diameter, spread- 
ing branches forming a handsome symmetrical open broad-based pyramid, the lower 
branches soon dying from trees crowded in the forest, and slender branchlets pale 
yellow-green and coated with fine pubescence at first, becoming light gray tinged 
with red, and often when four or five years old with purple. 'Winter-buds nearly 
globose, $'-\' in diameter, with lustrous dark orange-green scales. Bark on old 
trees often ^' thick, rich brown, much broken on the surface into small plates covered 



CONIFERS 59 

with scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, perishable, pale brown 
streaked with yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood; occasionally made into 
lumber principally used for packing-cases. From the bark of this tree oil of fir used 
in the arts and in medicine is obtained. 

Distribution. From the interior of the Labrador peninsula northwestward to the 
shores of the Lesser Slave Lake, southward through Newfoundland, the maritime 
provinces of Canada, Quebec and Ontario, northern New England, northern New 
York, northern Michigan and Minnesota to northern and central Iowa; and along 
the Appalachian Mountains from western Massachusetts and the Catskills of New 
York to the high mountains of southwestern Virginia; common and often forming 
a considerable part of the forest on low swampy ground ; on well-drained hillsides 
sometimes singly in forests of spruce or forming small almost impenetrable thickets; 
near the timber-line on the mountains of New England and New York reduced to a 
low almost prostrate shrub. 

Often planted in the northern states in the neighborhood of farmhouses, but 
usually short-lived and of little value as an ornamental tree in cultivation; formerly 
but now rarely cultivated in European plantations. 

3. Abies amabilis, Forbes. White Fir. 

Leaves deeply grooved, very dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, sil- 
very white on the lower, with broad bands of 6 or 8 rows of stomata between the 
prominent midribs and recurved margins, on sterile branches obtuse and rounded, 
or notched or occasionally acute at the apex, f'-l^' long, fa -^ wide, often broadest 
above the middle, erect by a twist at their base, very crowded, those on the upper 
side of the branch much shorter than those on the lower and usually parallel with 




and closely appressed against it, on fertile branches acute or acuminate, with callous 
tips, occasionally stomatiferous on the upper surface near the apex, ^'-f ' long, on 
vigorous leading shoots acute, with long rigid points, closely appressed or recurved 
near the middle, about \' long and nearly \' wide. Flowers: staminate red; pistil- 
late with broad rounded scales and rhombic dark purple lustrous bracts erose above 
the middle and gradually contracted into broad points. Fruit oblong, slightly nar- 
rowed to the rounded and often retuse apex, deep rich purple, puberulous, 3'-6' 
long, with scales I'-l^' wide, nearly as long as broad, gradually narrowed from the 
rounded apex and rather more than twice as long as their reddish rhombic or oblong- 



60 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

obovate bracts terminating in long slender tips; seeds light yellow-brown, ^' long, 
with oblique pale brown lustrous wings about -|' long. 

A tree, often 250 tall, or at high altitudes and in the north usually not more than 
70-80 tall, with a trunk 4-6 in diameter, in thick forests often naked for 150, 
but in open situations densely clothed to the ground with comparatively short 
branches sweeping down in graceful curves, and stout branchlets clothed for four or 
five years with soft fine pubescence, light orange-brown in their first season, becom- 
ing dark purple and ultimately reddish brown. Winter-buds nearly globose, \'-^ 
thick, with closely imbricated lustrous purple scales. Bark on trees up to 150 years 
old thin, smooth, pale or silvery white, becoming near the ground on old trees !'- 
2^' thick, and irregularly divided into comparatively small plates covered with 
small closely appressed reddish brown or reddish gray scales. Wood light, hard, 
not strong, close-grained, pale brown, with nearly white sapwood ; in -Washington 
occasionally manufactured into lumber used in the interior finish of buildings. 

Distribution. High mountain slopes and benches from British Columbia south- 
ward along the Cascade Mountains to northern Oregon, and on the coast ranges of 
Oregon and Washington ; attaining its largest size on the Olympic Mountains, where 
it is the most common Fir-tree. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in western Europe, but without de- 
veloping there the beauty which distinguishes this species in its native forests. 

-H i- Cones green. 

4. Abies grandis, Lindl. White Fir. 

Leaves thin and flexible, deeply grooved, very dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface, silvery white on the lower surface, with two broad bands of 7-10 




rows of stomata, on sterile branches remote, rounded and conspicuously emarginate 
at the apex, l'-2^' long, usually about \' wide, spreading in two ranks nearly at 
right angles to the branch, on cone-bearing branches more crowded, usually I'-l^' 
long, less spreading or nearly erect, blunt-pointed or often notched at the apex, on 
vigorous young trees '- f' long, acute or acuminate. Flowers: staminate pale yel- 
low sometimes tinged with purple; pistillate light yellow-green, with semiorbicular 



CONIFERS 61 

scales and short oblong bracts emargiuate and denticulate at the broad obcordate 
apex furnished with a short strongly reflexed tip. Fruit cylindrical, slightly nar- 
rowed to the rounded and sometimes retuse apex, puberulous, bright green, 2'-4' 
long, with scales usually about two thirds as long as wide, gradually or abruptly nar- 
rowed from their broad apex and three or four times as long as their short pale 
green bracts; seeds f in length, light brown, with pale lustrous wings ' f' long 
and nearly as broad at their abruptly widened rounded apex. 

A tree, in the neighborhood of the coast 250-300 high, with a slightly tapering 
trunk often 4 in diameter, long somewhat pendulous branches sweeping out in 
graceful curves, and comparatively slender pale yellow-green puberulous branchlets 
becoming light reddish brown or orange-brown and glabrous in their second season; 
on the mountains of the interior rarely more than 100 tall, with a trunk usually 
about 2 in diameter, often smaller and much stunted at high elevations. Winter- 
buds globose, ^'-\' thick. Bark becoming sometimes 2' thick at the base of old trees 
and gray-brown or reddish brown and divided by shallow fissures into low flat ridges 
broken into oblong plates roughened by thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, 
soft, coarse-grained, not strong nor durable, light brown, with thin lighter colored 
sapwood; occasionally manufactured into lumber in western Washington and Oregon 
and used for the interior finish of buildings, packing-cases, and wooden-ware. 

Distribution. Vancouver Island southward in the neighborhood of the coast to 
Mendocino County, California, and along the mountains of northern Washington 
and Idaho to the western slopes of the continental divide in northern Montana, and to 
the mountains of eastern Oregon; near the coast scattered on moist ground through 
forests of conifers; common in Washington and northern Oregon from the sea up 
to elevations of 4000; in the interior on moist slopes in the neighborhood of streams 
from 2500 up to 7000 above the sea. 

Occasionally planted in the parks and gardens of temperate Europe, where it 
grows rapidly and promises to attain a large size ; rarely planted in the United 
States. 

**Leaves pale blue-green. 
Cones purple. 

5. Abies lasiocarpa, Nutt. Balsam Fir. 

Leaves marked on the upper surface but generally only above the middle with 
4 or 5 rows of stomata on each side of the conspicuous midribs and on the lower 
surface by 2 broad bands each of 7 or 8 rows, crowded, nearly erect by the twist 
at their base, on lower branches l'-lf long, about ^' wide, and rounded and occa- 
sionally emarginate at the apex, on upper branches somewhat thickened, usually 
acute, generally not more than ' long, on leading shoots flattened, closely appressed, 
with long slender rigid points. Flowers: staminate dark indigo-blue, turning violet 
when nearly ready to open; pistillate with dark violet-purple obovate scales much 
shorter than their strongly reflexed bracts contracted into slender tips. Fruit 
oblong-cylindrical, rounded, truncate or depressed at the narrowed apex, dark purple, 
puberulous, 2^'-4' long, with scales gradually narrowed from the broad rounded or 
nearly truncate apex to the base, usually longer than broad, about three times as 
long as their oblong-obovate red-brown bracts laciniately cut on the margins, rounded, 
emarginate and abruptly contracted at the apex into long slender tips; seeds ^' 
long, with dark lustrous wings covering nearly the entire surface of the scales. 



62 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A tree, usually 80-100, occasionally 175 high, with a trunk 2-5 in diame- 
ter, short crowded tough branches, usually slightly pendulous near the base of the 




tree, generally clothing the trunks of the oldest trees nearly to their base and form- 
ing dense spire-like slender heads, and comparatively stout branchlets coated for three 
or four years with fine rufous pubescence, or rarely glabrous before the end of their 
first season, pale orange-brown, ultimately gray or silvery white. Winter-buds 
subglobose, \'-\' thick, covered with light orange-brown scales. Bark becoming on 
old trees f'-l^' thick, divided by shallow fissures and roughened by thick closely 
appressed cinnamon-red scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, pale brown or nearly 
white, with light-colored sapwood; little used except for fuel. 

Distribution. High mountain slopes and summits from about latitude 61 in 
Alaska, southward along the coast ranges to the Olympic Mountains of Washington, 
over all the high mountain ranges of British Columbia and Alberta, and southward 
along the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon, over the mountain ranges 
of eastern Washington and Oregon, and of Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah 
to the San Francisco peaks of northern Arizona. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern United States and in 
northern Europe. 

-K Cones yellow, green, or purple. 

6. Abies concolor, Lindl. & Gord. White Fir. 

Leaves crowded, spreading in 2 ranks and more or less erect from the strong 
twist at their base, pale blue or glaucous, becoming dull green at the end of two or 
three years, with 2 broad bands of stomata on the lower, and more or less stoma- 
tiferous on the upper surface, on lower branches flat, straight, rounded, acute or 
acuminate at the apex, 2'-3' long, about ^' wide, on fertile branches and on old 
trees frequently thick, keeled above, usually falcate, acute or rarely notched at 
the apex, -f'-l^' long, often \' wide. Flowers: staminate dark red or rose color; 
pistillate with broad rounded scales, and oblong strongly reflexed obcordate bracts 
laciniate above the middle and abruptly contracted at the apex into short points. 
Fruit oblong, slightly narrowed from near the middle to the ends, rounded or obtuse 
at the apex, 3'-5' long, puberulous, grayish green, dark purple or bright canary- 
yellow, with scales much broader than long, gradually and regularly narrowed from 



CONIFERS 



63 



the rounded apex, rather more than twice as long as their emarginate or nearly 
truncate bracts broad at the apex and terminating in short slender tips; seeds '-' 
long, acute at the base, dark dull brown, with lustrous rose-colored wings widest 
near the middle and nearly truncate at the apex. 

A tree, on the California sierras 200-250 high, with a trunk often 6 in diame- 
ter or in the interior of the continent rarely more than 125 tall, with a trunk seldom 
exceeding 3 in diameter, a narrow spire-like crown of short stout branches clothed 
with long lateral branches pointing forward and forming great frond-like masses of 
foliage, and glabrous lustrous comparatively stout branchlets dark orange color dur- 
ing their first season, becoming light grayish green or pale reddish brown, and ulti- 
mately gray or grayish brown. Winter-buds globose, \'-^' thick. Bark becoming 
on old trunks sometimes 5'-G' thick near the ground and deeply divided into 
broad rounded ridges broken on the surface into irregularly shaped plate-like scales. 




Wood very light, soft, coarse-grained and not strong nor durable, pale brown or 
sometimes nearly white; occasionally manufactured into lumber and in northern 
California used for packing-cases and butter-tubs. 

Distribution. Rocky Mountains of southern Colorado, westward to the mountain 
ranges of California, extending northward into northern Oregon, and southward 
over the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona into northern Mexico; the only Fir- 
tree in the arid regions of the Great Basin and of southern New Mexico and 
Arizona. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in Europe, and in the eastern states where it 
grows more vigorously than other Fir-trees. 



***Leaves yellow-green. 

Bracts of the cone-scales with long rigid flat tips ; winter-buds elongated, with 
loosely imbricated scales. 

7. Abies venusta, K. Koch. Silver Fir. 

Leaves thin, flat, rigid, linear or linear-lanceolate, gradually or abruptly nar- 
rowed toward the base, often falcate especially on fertile branches, acuminate, with 
long slender callous tips, dark yellow-green, lustrous and slightly rounded on the upper 



64 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

surface, marked below the middle with obscure grooves, silvery white or on old 
leaves pale on the lower surface, with bands of 8-10 rows of stomata between the 
broad midrib and the thickened strongly revolute margins, 2-ranked from the con- 
spicuous twist near their base and spreading at nearly right angles to the branch or 




somewhat ascending on upper fertile branches, l'-2' long, on leading shoots stand- 
ing out at almost right angles, rounded on the upper surface, more or less incurved 
above the middle, 1^'-1|' long, about ^' wide. Flowers : staminate produced in 
great numbers near the base of the branchlets on branches from the middle of the 
tree upward, pale yellow ; pistillate near the ends of the branchlets of the upper 
branches only, with oblong scales rounded above and nearly as long as their cuneate 
obcordate yellow-green bracts ending in slender elongated awns. Fruit on stout 
peduncles sometimes ' long, oval or subcylindrical, full and rounded at the apex, 
glabrous, pale purple-brown, 3'-4' long, with thin scales strongly incurved above, 
obtusely short-pointed at the apex, obscurely denticulate on the thin margins, about 
one third longer than their oblong-obvate obcordate pale yellow-brown bracts termi- 
nating in flat rigid tips I'-lf ' long, above the middle of the cone pointing toward its 
apex and often closely appressed to its sides, below the middle spreading toward its 
base and frequently much recurved, firmly attached to the cone-scales and decidu- 
ous with them from the thick conical sharp-pointed axis of the cone; seeds dark 
red-brown, about |-' long, and nearly as long as their oblong-obovate pale reddish 
brown lustrous wings rounded at the apex. 

A tree, 100-150 high, with a trunk sometimes 3 in diameter, comparatively 
short slender usually pendulous branches furnished with long sinuous rather remote 
lateral branches sparsely clothed with foliage, forming a broad-based pyramid 
abruptly narrowed 15-20 from the top of the tree into a thin spire-like head, and 
stout glabrous light reddish brown branchlets covered at first with a glaucous bloom. 
Winter-buds ovate, acute, f '-!' long, \'-^' thick, with very thin loosely imbricated 
pale chestnut brown acute, boat-shaped scales. Bark becoming near the base of the 
tree ^'-f ' thick, light reddish brown, slightly and irregularly fissured and broken into 
thick closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, not hard, coarse-grained, light brown 
tinged with yellow, with paler sapwood. 

Distribution. In a few isolated groves along the moist bottoms of canons, usually 



CONIFERS 



65 



at elevations of about 3000 above the sea on both slopes of the outer western ridge 
of the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey County, California. 

Occasionally and successfully grown as an ornamental tree in the milder parts of 
Great Britain and in northern Italy. 

2. Leaves mostly J^-sided, blue-green. 
* Cones purple. 

8. Abies nobilis, Lindl. Red Fir. Larch. 

Leaves marked on the upper surface with deep sharply defined grooves, rounded 
and obscurely ribbed on the lower surface, stomatiferous above and below, dark 
or light blue-green, often very glaucous during their first season, crowded in 
several rows, those on the lower side of the branch two-ranked by the twisting 
of their bases, the others crowded, strongly incurved, with the points erect or 
pointing away from the end of the branch, on young plants and on the lower 




sterile branches of old trees flat, rounded, usually slightly notched at the apex, I'-l^' 
long, about ^' wide, on fertile branches much thickened and almost equally 4-sided, 
acuminate, with long rigid callous tips, '-f long, on leading shoots flat, gradually 
narrowed from the base, acuminate, with long rigid points, about 1' long. Flowers: 
staminate reddish purple; pistillate often scattered over the upper part of the tree, 
with broad rounded scales much shorter than their nearly orbicular bracts erose on 
the margins and contracted above into slender elongated strongly reflexed tips. 
Fruit oblong-cylindrical, slightly narrowed but full and rounded at the apex, 4' -5' 
long, purple or olive-brown, pubescent, with scales about one third wider than long, 
gradually narrowed from the rounded apex to the base, or full at the sides, rounded 
and denticulate above the middle and sharply contracted and wedge-ahaped below, 
nearly or entirely covered by their strongly reflexed pale green spatulate bracts, full 
and rounded above, fimbriate on the margins, with broad foliaceous midribs produced 
into short broad flattened points; seeds ^' long, pale reddish brown, about as long 
as their wings, gradually narrowed from below to the nearly truncate slightly 
rounded apex. 

-A tree, in old age with a comparatively broad somewhat rounded head, usually 
150 -200 and occasionally 250 high, with a trunk 6-^ in diameter, short rigid 



66 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



branches, short stout remote lateral branches standing out at right angles, and slender 
reddish brown branchlets puberulous for four or five years and generally pointing 
forward. Winter-buds ovoid-oblong, red-brown, about \' long. Bark becoming 
on old trunks l'-2' thick, bright red-brown, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges 
irregularly broken by cross fissures and covered with thick closely appressed 
scales. Wood light, hard, strong, rather close-grained, pale brown streaked with 
red, with darker colored sapwood; occasionally manufactured into lumber and used 
under the name of larch for the interior finish of buildings and for packing-cases. 

Distribution. Often forming extensive forests on the Cascade Mountains of Wash- 
ington, ranging southward to the valley of the Mackenzie River, Oregon; coast moun- 
tains of Washington to the Siskiyou Mountains, California; most abundant on the 
western slopes of the Cascade Range in Washington and northern Oregon at eleva- 
tions of 2500 to 5000 above the sea; less abundant and of smaller size on the 
eastern and northern slopes of these mountains. 

Often planted in western and central Europe as an ornamental tree, and in the 
eastern states hardy in sheltered positions as far north as Massachusetts. 

9. Abies magnifica, A. Murr. Red Fir. 

Leaves almost equally 4-sided, ribbed above and below, with 6-8 rows of 
stomata on each of the 4 Sides, pale and very glaucous during their first season, later 




becoming blue-green, persistent usually for about ten years; on young plants and 
lower branches oblanceolate, somewhat flattened, rounded, bluntly pointed, f'-l^' 
long, ^j' wide, those on the lower side of the branch spreading in 2 nearly horizon- 
tal ranks by the twist at their base, on upper, especially on fertile branches, much 
thickened, with more prominent midribs, acute, with short callous tips, ^' long on 
the upper side of the branch to \\' long on the lower side, crowded, erect, strongly 
incurved, completely hiding the upper side of the branch, on leading shoots f long, 
erect and acuminate, with long rigid points pressed against the stem. Flowers: 
staminate dark reddish purple; pistillate with rounded scales much shorter than 
their oblong pale green bracts terminating in elongated slender tips more or less 
tinged with red. Fruit oblong-cylindrical, slightly narrowed to the rounded truncate 
or retuse apex, dark purplish brown, puberulous, from 6'-9' long, with scales often 
1^' wide and about two thirds as wide as long, gradually narrowed to the cordate base, 



CONIFERS 



67 



somewhat longer or often two thirds as long as their oblong spatulate acute or acu- 
minate bracts with slender tips slightly serrulate above the middle and often sharply 
contracted and then enlarged toward the base; seeds dark reddish brown, |' long, 
about as wide as their lustrous rose-colored obvate cuneate wings nearly truncate 
and often f ' wide at the apex. 

A tree, in old age occasionally somewhat round-topped, often 200 high, with 
a trunk 8-10 in diameter and often naked for half the height of the tree, com- 
paratively short small branches, the upper somewhat ascending, the lower pen- 
dulous, and stout light yellow-green branchlets pointing forward, slightly puberulous 
during their first season, becoming light red-brown and lustrous and ultimately gray 
or silvery white. Winter-buds ovate, acute, '-' long, their bright chestnut-brown 
scales with prominent midribs produced into short tips. Bark becoming 4'-6' thick 
near the ground, deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken by cross fissures 
and covered by dark red-brown scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, comparatively 
durable, light red-brown, with thick somewhat darker sapwood; largely used for 
fuel, and in California occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber employed in 
the construction of cheap buildings and for packing-cases. 

Distribution. Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, southward over the moun- 
tain ranges of northern California, and along the entire length of the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevada; common in southern Oregon at elevations between 5000 and 
7000 above the sea, forming sometimes nearly pure forests; very abundant on the 
Sierra Nevada, and the principal tree in the forest belt at elevations from 6000 to 
9000; ascending towards the southern extremity of its range to over 10,000. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, and some- 
times hardy in the United States as far north as eastern Massachusetts. 

A distinct form is 

Abies magnifica, var. Shastensis, Lemm. Red Fir. 

On the mountains of southern Oregon and at high elevations on those of northern 
California, and on the southern Sierra Nevada, occurs this form distinguished only 




by the longer rounded or obtusely pointed (not acute) bright yellow bracts which 
sometimes cover nearly half their scales. 



68 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

7. SEQUOIA, Endl. 

Resinous aromatic trees, with tall massive lobed trunks, thick bark of 2 layers, the 
outer composed of fibrous scales, the inner thin, close and firm, soft, durable, straight- 
grained .red heartwood, thin nearly white sapwood, short stout horizontal branches, 
terete lateral branchlets deciduous in the autumn, and scaly or naked buds. Leaves 
ovate-lanceolate or linear and spreading in 2 ranks especially on young trees and 
branches, or linear, acute, compressed, keeled on the back and closely appressed or 
spreading at the apex, the two forms appearing sometimes on the same branch or on 
different branches of the same tree. Flowers minute, solitary, monoacious, appearing 
in early spring from buds formed the previous autumn, the staminate terminal in the 
axils of upper leaves, ovoid or oblong, surrounded by an involucre of numerous im- 
bricated ovate acute and apiculate bracts, with numerous spirally disposed filaments 
dilated into ovate acute subpeltate connectives bearing on their inner face 2-5 pendu- 
lous globose 2-valved anther-cells; the pistillate terminal, ovoid or oblong, composed 
of numerous spirally imbricated ovate scales abruptly keeled on the back, the keels 
produced into short or elongated points closely adnate to the short ovule-bearing 
scales rounded above and bearing below their upper margin in 2 rows 5-7 ovules at 
first erect, becoming reversed. Fruit an ovoid or short-oblong pendulous cone ma- 
turing during the first or second season, persistent after the escape of the seeds, its 
scales formed by the enlargement of the united flower and ovuliferous scales, becom- 
ing woody, bearing large deciduous resin-glands, gradually enlarged upward and 
widening at the apex into a narrow thickened oblong disk transversely depressed 
through the middle and sometimes tipped with small points. Seeds 5-7 under each 
scale, oblong-ovate, compressed; seed-coat membranaceous, produced into broad thin 
lateral wings; cotyledons 4-6, longer than the inferior radicle. 

Sequoia, widely scattered with several species over the northern hemisphere during 
the cretaceous and tertiary epochs, is now confined to the mountains of California, 
where two species exist. 

The name of the genus is formed from Sequoiah, the inventor of the Cherokee 
alphabet. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves of 2 forms, mostly spreading in 2 ranks ; cones maturing in one season ; buds scaly. 

1. S. sempervirens (G). 

Leaves ovate, acute or lanceolate, slightly spreading or compressed ; cones maturing in 
their second season ; buds naked. 2. S. Wellingtonia (G). 

1. Sequoia sempervirens, Endl. Redwood. 

Leaves of secondary branches and of lower branches of young trees lanceolate, 
more or less falcate, acute or acuminate and usually tipped with slender rigid points, 
slightly thickened on the revolute margins, decurrent at the base, spreading in 2 ranks 
by a half-turn at their base, \'-\' long, about \' wide, obscurely keeled and marked 
above by 2 narrow bands of stomata, glaucous and stomatiferous below on each 
side of their conspicuous midribs, on leading shoots disposed in many ranks, more 
or less spreading or appressed, ovate or ovate-oblong, incurved at the rounded apicu- 
late apex, thickened, rounded, and stomatiferous on the lower surface, concave, promi- 
nently Iceeled and covered with stomata on the upper surface, usually about \' long; 
dying and turning reddish brown at least two years before falling. Flowers opening 






CONIFERS 69 

in late winter or very early spring; staminate ovate, obtuse ; pistillate with about 
20 broadly ovate acute scales tipped with elongated and incurved or short points. 
Fruit oblong, f '-!' long, ' broad, its scales gradually enlarged from slender stipes 
abruptly dilated above into disks penetrated by deep narrow grooves, and usually 
without tips; seeds about ^' long, light brown, with wings as broad as their body. 

A tree, from 200-340 high, with a slightly tapering and irregularly lobed trunk 
usually free of branches for 75-100, usually 10-15, rarely 28 in diameter at 
the much buttressed base, slender branches, clothed with branchlets spreading in 
2 ranks and forming while the tree is young an open narrow pyramid, on old trees 
becoming stout and 
horizontal, and form- 
ing a narrow rather 
compact and very 
irregular head re- 
markably small in 
proportion to the 
height and size of 
the trunk, and slen- 
der leading branch- 
lets covered at the 
end of three or four 
years after the leaves 
fall with cinnamon- 
brown scaly bark. 
Buds with numerous 
loosely imbricated 

ovate acute scales persistent on the base of the branchlet. Bark 6'-12' thick, divided 
into rounded ridges and separated on the surface into long narrow dark brown 
fibrous scales often broken transversely and in falling disclosing th'e bright cinnamon- 
red inner bark. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, easily split and worked, 
very durable in contact with the soil, clear light red; largely manufactured into 
lumber and used for shingles, fence-posts, railway-ties, wine-butts, and for building 
purposes. 

Distribution. Southern borders of Oregon, southward near the coast to Monterey 
County, California, rarely found more than twenty or thirty miles from the coast, or 
beyond the influence of the ocean fogs, or over 3000 above the sea-level; often form- 
ing in northern California pure forests occupying the sides of ravines and the banks 
of streams; southward growing usually in small groves scattered among other trees; 
most abundant and of its largest size north of Cape Mendocino. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the temperate countries of Europe. 

2. Sequoia Wellingtonia, Seem. Big Tree. 

Leaves ovate and acuminate, or lanceolate, rounded and thickened on the lower 
surface, concave on the upper surface, marked by bands of stomata on both sides 
of the obscure midribs, rigid, sharp-pointed, decurrent below, spreading or closely 
appressed above the middle, ^'-^' or on leading shoots ' long. Flowers opening in 
late winter and early spring; staminate in great profusion over the whole tree, ter- 
minal, with ovate acute or acuminate connectives; pistillate with 25-40 pale yellow 
scales slightly keeled on the back and gradually narrowed into long slender points. 




70 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Fruit "maturing in the second year, ovate-oblong, 2'-3^' long, i^'-2' wide, dark 
reddish brown, the scales gradually thickened upward from the base to the slightly 




P/Q 64- 



dilated apex, f -1^' long and ^'-^' wide, deeply pitted in the middle and often fur- 
nished with an elongated reflexed tip ; seeds linear-lanceolate, compressed, \'-\' 
long, light brown, surrounded by laterally united wings broader than the body of the 
seed, apiculate at the apex, often very unequal. 

A tree, at maturity usually about 275 high, with a trunk 20 in diameter near 
the ground, occasionally becoming 320 tall, with a trunk 35 in diameter, much 
enlarged and buttressed at the base, fluted with broad low rounded ridges, in old age 
naked often for 150, with short thick horizontal branches, slender leading branchlets 
becoming after the disappearance of the leaves reddish brown more or less tinged 
with purple and covered with thin close or slightly scaly bark and naked buds. Bark 
l-2 thick, divided into rounded lobes 4-5 wide, corresponding to the lobes of 
the trunk, separating into loose light cinnamon-red fibrous scales, the outer scales 
slightly tinged with purple. Wood very light, soft, not strong, brittle and coarse- 
grained, turning dark on exposure; manufactured into lumber and used for fencing, 
in construction, and for shingles. 

Distribution. Western slopes of the Sierra Nevada of California, in an inter- 
rupted belt at elevations of 5000-8400 above the level of the sea, from the middle fork 
of the American River to the head of Deer Creek just south of latitude 36; north of 
King's River in isolated groves, southward forming forests of considerable extent, 
and best developed on the north fork of the Tule River. 

Universally cultivated as an ornamental tree in all the countries of central and 
southern Europe; and occasionally in the eastern United States, where it does not 
flourish. 

8. TAXODIUM, Rich. Bald Cypress. 

Resinous trees, with furrowed scaly bark, light brown durable heartwood, thin white 
sapwood, crept ultimately spreading branches, deciduous usually 2-ranked lateral 
branchlets, scaly globose buds, and stout horizontal roots often producing erect woody 
projections {knees}. Leaves spirally disposed, pale and marked with stomata below 
on both sides of the obscure midribs, dark green above, linear-lanceolate, spreading 
in 2 ranks, or scale-like and appressed on lateral branchlets, the two forms appearing 



CONIFERS 71 

on the same or on different branches of the same tree or on separate trees, deciduous. 
Flowers unisexual, from buds formed the previous year; staminate in the axils of 
scale-like bracts in long terminal drooping panicles, with 6-8 stamens, opposite in 2 
ranks, their filaments abruptly enlarged into broadly ovate peltate yellow connectives 
bearing on their inner face in 2 rows 4-9 2-valved pendulous anther-cells ; pistillate 
scattered near the ends of the branches of the previous year, subglobose, composed 
of numerous ovate spirally arranged long-pointed scales aduate below to the thick- 
ened fleshy ovuliferous scales bearing at their base 2 erect bottle-shaped ovules. 
Fruit a globose or obovoid short-stalked woody cone maturing the first year and per- 
sistent after the escape of the seeds, formed from the enlargement and union of the 
flower and ovule-bearing scales abruptly dilated from slender stipes into irregularly 
4-sided disks often mucronate at maturity, bearing on the inner face, especially on 
the stipes, large dark glands filled with blood-red fragrant liquid resin. Seeds in 
pairs under each scale, attached laterally to the stipes, erect, unequally 3-angled; 
seed-coat light brown and lustrous, thick, coriaceous or corky, produced into 3 thick 
unequal lateral wings and below into a slender elongated point; cotyledons 4-9, 
shorter than the superior radicle. 

Taxodium, widely distributed through North America and Europe in Miocene and 
Pliocene times, is now confined to the coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf 
states and to Mexico. Two species are distinguished. 

The generic name, from rd^of and eZdof, indicates a resemblance of the leaves with 
those of the Yew-tree. 

1. Taxodium distichum. Rich. Bald Cypress. Deciduous Cypress. 

Leaves on distichously spreading branchlets linear-lanceolate, apiculate, ^'-f ' long, 
about T y wide, light bright yellow-green or occasionally silvery white below, or ou 




the form with pendulous compressed branchlets long-pointed, keeled and stomatifer- 
ous below, concave above, more or less spreading at the free apex, about ^' long; in 
the autumn turning with the branchlets dull orange-brown before falling. Flowers: 
panicles of staminate flowers 4'-5' long, l'-2' wide, with slender red-brown stems, 
obovate flower-buds nearly |' long, pale silvery-gray during winter and purple when 
the flowers expand in the spring. Fruit usually produced in pairs at the extremity 



72 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

of the branch or irregularly scattered along it for several inches, nearly globose or 
obovate, rugose, about 1' in diameter, the scales generally destitute of tips ; seeds 
with wings nearly ' long and ^' wide. 

A tree, with a tall lobed gradually tapering trunk, rarely 12 and generally 4 Q -5 
in diameter above the abruptly enlarged strongly buttressed usually hollow base, 
occasionally 150 tall, in youth pyramidal, with slender branches often becoming 
elongated and slightly pendulous, in old age spreading out into a broad low rounded 
crown often 100 across, and slender branchlets light green when they first appear, 
light red-brown and rather lustrous during their first winter, becoming darker the 
following year, deciduous lateral branchlets 3' -4' long, spreading at right angles to 
the branch, or in the form with acicular leaves pendulous or erect and often 6' long. 
Bark 1/-2' thick, light cinnamon-red and divided by shallow fissures into broad flat 
ridges separating on the surface into long thin closely appressed fibrous scales. Wood 
light, soft, not strong, easily worked, light or dark brown, sometimes nearly black; 
largely used for construction, in cooperage, railwa.y-ties, posts, and fences. 

Distribution. River swamps usually submerged during several months of the 
year, low wet banks of streams, and the wet depressions of Pine-barrens from south- 
ern Delaware southward near the coast to the shores of Mosquito Inlet and Cape 
Romano, Florida, and through the Gulf coast region to the valley of Devil River, 
Texas, through Louisiana and Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, and through west- 
ern Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky to southern Illinois and Indiana; most 
common and of its largest size in the south Atlantic and Gulf states, often cover- 
ing with nearly pure forests great river swamps. From South Carolina to western 
Florida and southern Alabama the form with acicular leaves ( Taxodium distichum, 
var. imbricarium, Sarg.) is not rare as a small tree in Pine-barren ponds. 

Often cultivated, especially the var. imbricarium, AS an ornamental tree in the north- 
ern United States, and in the countries of temperate Europe. 

9. LIBOCEDRUS, Endl. 

Tall resinous aromatic trees, with scaly bark, spreading branches, flattened branch- 
lets disposed in one horizontal plane and forming an open 2-ranked spray and often 
ultimately deciduous, straight-grained durable fragrant wood, and naked buds. Leaves 
scale-like, in 4 ranks, on leading shoots nearly equally decussate, closely compressed 
or spreading, dying and becoming woody before falling, on lateral flattened branch- 
lets much compressed, conspicuously keeled, and nearly covering those of the other 
ranks ; on seedling plants linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flowers monoecious, solitary, 
terminal, the two sexes on different branchlets; staminate oblong, with 12-16 decus- 
sate filaments dilated into broad connectives usually bearing 4 subglobose anther-cells; 
pistillate oblong, subtended at the base by several pairs of leaf-like scales slightly 
enlarged and persistent under the fruit, composed of 6 acuminate short-pointed scales, 
those of the upper and middle ranks much larger than those of the lower rank, ovate 
or oblong, fertile and bearing at the base of a minute accrescent ovuliferous scale 2 
erect ovules. Fruit an oblong cone maturing in one season, with subcoriaceous scales 
marked at the apex by the free thickened mucronulate border of the enlarged flower- 
scales, those of the lowest pair ovate, thin, reflexed, much shorter than the oblong 
thicker scales of the second pair widely spreading at maturity; those of the third 
pair confluent into an erect partition. Seeds in pairs, erect on the base of the scale; 
seed-coat membranaceous, of 2 layers, produced into thin unequal lateral wings, one 



CONIFERS 73 

narrow, the other hroad, ohlique, nearly as long as the scale; cotyledons 2, about 
as long as the superior radicle. 

Libocedrus is confined to western North America, western South America, where it 
is distributed from Chili to Patagonia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, New Guinea, 
Formosa, and southwestern China. Eight species are distinguished. 

Libocedrus, from \i&ds and Cedrus, relates to the resinous character of these trees. 

1. Libocedrus decurrens, Torr. Incense Cedar. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, decurrent and closely adnate on the branchlets except at 
the callous apex, \' long on the ultimate lateral branchlets to nearly ' long on leading 




Pic, 66 



shoots, those of the lateral ranks gradually narrowed and acuminate at the apex, 
keeled and glandular on the back, and nearly covering the flattened obscurely glandu- 
lar-pitted and abruptly pointed leaves of the inner ranks. Flowers appearing in 
January o.n the ends of short lateral branchlets of the previous year;staininate tinge- 
ing the tree with gold during the winter and early spring, ovate, nearly ^' long, with 
nearly orbicular or broadly ovate connectives, rounded, acute or acuminate at the 
apex and slightly erose on the margins; pistillate subtended by 2-6 pairs of leaf-like 
scales, with ovate acute light yellow-green slightly spreading scales. Fruit ripening 
and discharging its seeds in the autumn, oblong, |'-1' long, pendulous, light red- 
brown; seeds oblong-lanceolate, J'-^' long, semiterete and marked below by con- 
spicuous pale basal hilums; inner layer of the seed-coat penetrated by elongated 
resin-chambers filled with red liquid balsamic resin. 

A tree, frequently 150 high, with a tall straight slightly and irregularly lobed 
trunk tapering from a broad base and sometimes 7 in diameter, slender branches erect 
at the top of the tree, below sweeping downward in bold curves, forming a narrow open 
feathery crown becoming in old age irregular in outline by the greater development 
of a few ultimately upright branches forming secondary stems, and stout branchlets 
somewhat flattened and light yellow-green at first, turning light red-brown during the 
summer and ultimately brown more or less tinged with purple, the lateral branchlets 
much flattened, 4'-6' long, and usually deciduous at the end of the second or third 
season. Bark '-!' thick, bright cinnamon-red, and broken into irregular ridges 
covered with closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained 



74 TREES OP NORTH AMERICA 

very durable in contact with the soil, light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sap- 
wood; often injured by dry rot but largely used for fencing, laths and shingles, the 
interior finish of buildings, for furniture, and in the construction of flumes. 

Distribution. Singly or in small groves from the basin of the Santiam River, Ore- 
gon, southward along the Cascade Mountains and the western slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada, and on the California coast ranges from Mendocino County to the mountains 
of southern California and Lower California; most abundant and of its largest size 
on the sierras of central California at elevations of 5000-7000 above the sea. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in western and central Europe, where it 
grows rapidly and promises to attain to a large size; hardy and occasionally planted 
in the middle Atlantic states. 

10. THUYA, L. Arbor-vitae. 

Resinous aromatic trees, with thin scaly bark, soft durable straight-grained heart- 
wood, thin nearly white sapwood, slender spreading or erect branches, pyramidal 
heads, flattened lateral pendulous branchlets disposed in .one horizontal plane, form- 
ing a flat frond-like spray and often finally deciduous, and naked buds. Leaves 
decussate, scale-like, acute, stomatiferous on the back, on leading shoots appressed 
or spreading, rounded or slightly keeled on the back, narrowed into long slender 
points; on lateral branchlets much compressed in the lateral ranks, prominently 
keeled and nearly covering those of the other ranks; on seedling plants linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate, spreading or reflexed. Flowers minute, monoecious, from 
buds formed the previous autumn, terminal solitary, the two sexes usually on dif- 
ferent branchlets ; stamiuate ovoid, with 4-6 decussate filaments, enlarged into sub- 
orbicular peltate connectives bearing on their inner face 2-4 subglobose anther-cells; 
pistillate oblong, with 8-12 oblong acute scales opposite in pairs, the ovuliferous 
scales at their base bearing usually 2 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an ovoid- 
oblong erect pale cinnamon-brown cone maturing in one season, its scales thin, 
leathery, oblong, acute, marked near the apex by the thickened free border of the 
enlarged flower-scales, those of the 2 or 3 middle ranks largest and fertile. Seeds 
usually 2, erect on the base of the scale, ovate, acute, compressed, light chestnut- 
brown ; seed-coat membranaceous, usually produced into broad lateral wings distinct 
at the apex; cotyledons 2, longer than the superior radicle. 

Thuya is confined to northeastern and northwestern America, to Japan and 
northern China. Four species are recognized. Of the exotic species the Chinese 
Thuya orientalis, L., with many varieties produced by cultivation, is frequently planted 
in the United States, especially in the south, for the decoration of gardens, and is 
distinguished from the Japanese and American species by the thick umbonate scales 
of the cone, only the 4 lower scales being fertile, and by the thick rounded dark red- 
purple seeds without wings. 

Thuya is the classical name of some coniferous trees. 

* 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Fruit with usually 4 fertile scales. 1. T. occidentalis (A). 

Fruit with usually 6 fertile scales. 2. T. plicata (B, F, G). 

1. Thuya occidentalis, L. White Cedar. Arbor-vitae. 

Leaves on leading shoots often nearly \' long, long-pointed and usually conspicu- 
ously glandular, on lateral branchlets much flattened, rounded and apiculate at the 



CONIFERS 75 

apex, without glands or obscurely glandular-pitted, about %' long. Flowers opening 
in April and May, liver color. Fruit ripening and discharging its seeds in the early 
autumn, '-' long; seeds ' long, the thin wings as wide as the body. 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a short often lobed and buttressed trunk, occasion- 
ally 6 although usually not more than 2-3 in diameter, often divided into 2 or 
3 stout secondary stems, short horizontal branches soon turning upward and forming 
a narrow compact pyramidal head, light yellow-green branchlets paler on the lower 
surface than on the upper, changing with the death of the leaves during their 
second season to light cinnamon-red, growing darker the following year, gradually 
becoming terete and abruptly enlarged at the base and finally covered with smooth 
lustrous dark orange-brown bark, and marked by conspicuous scars left by the 
falling of the short pendulous lateral branchlets. Bark \'-\' thick, light red-brown 
often tinged with orange color and broken by shallow fissures into narrow flat 
connected ridges separating into elongated more or less persistent scales. Wood 
light, soft, brittle, very coarse-grained, durable, fragrant, pale yellow-brown; largely 




used in Canada and the northern states for fence-posts, rails, railway-ties, and shin- 
gles. Fluid extracts and tinctures made from the young branchlets are sometimes 
used in medicine. 

Distribution. Frequently forming nearly impenetrable forests on swampy ground 
or often occupying the rocky banks of streams, from Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, northwestward to the mouth of the Saskatchewan, and southward through the 
northern states to southern New Hampshire, central Massachusetts and New York, 
northern Pennsylvania, central Michigan, northern Illinois, and central Minnesota, 
and along the high Alleghany Mountains to southern Virginia and northeastern 
Tennessee; very common at the north, less abundant and of smaller size southward; 
on the southern Alleghany Mountains only at high elevations. 

Often cultivated, with many forms produced in nurseries, as an ornamental tree 
and for hedges; and in Europe from the middle of the sixteenth century. 

2. Thuya plicata. D. Don. Red Cedar. Canoe Cedar. 

Leaves on leading shoots ovate, long-pointed, often conspicuously glandular on 
the back, frequently \' long, on lateral branchlets ovate, apiculate, without glands 



76 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




or obscurely glandular-pitted, usually not more than \' long. Flowers about 1 1 ^' 
long, dark brown. Fruit ripening early in the autumn, clustered near the ends of 

the branches, much reflexed, 
' long, with thin leath- 
ery scales, conspicuously 
marked near the apex by 
the free border of the flow- 
er-scales furnished with 
short stout erect or recurved 
dark mucros; seeds often 
3 under each fertile scale, 
rather shorter than their 
usually slightly unequal 
wings about \' long. 

A tree, frequently 200 
high, with a broad gradu- 
ally tapering buttressed 
base sometimes 15 in di- 
ameter at the ground and in old age often separating toward the summit into 2 or 3 
erect divisions, short horizontal branches usually pendulous at the ends forming a 
dense narrow pyramidal head, and slender much compressed branchlets often slightly 
zigzag, light bright yellow-green during their first year, then cinnamon-brown, and 
after the falling of the leaves, usually in their third year, lustrous and dark reddish 
brown often tinged with purple, the lateral branchlets 5'-6' long, light green and 
lustrous on the upper surface, somewhat paler on the lower surface, turning yellow 
and falling generally at the end of their second season. Bark bright cinnamon-red, 
i' '' thick, irregularly divided by narrow shallow fissures into broad ridges rounded 
on the back and broken on the surface into long narrow rather loose plate-like scales. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, easily split, dull brown tinged 
with red; largely used in Washington and Oregon for the interior finish of build- 
ings, doors, sashes, fences, shingles, and in cabinet-making and cooperage. From 
this tree the Indians of the northwest coast split the planks used in the construction 
of their lodges, carved the totems which decorate their villages, and hollowed out 
their great war canoes; and from the fibres of the inner bark made ropes, blankets, 
and thatch for their cabins. 

Distribution. Singly and in small groves on low moist bottom-lands or near 
the banks of mountain streams, from the sea-level to elevations of 6000 in the 
interior, and from Yas Bay, Alaska, southward along the coast ranges of British 
Columbia, western Washington and Oregon, where it is the most abundant and 
grows to its largest size, and through the California coast region to Mendocino 
County, spreading eastward along many of the interior ranges of British Columbia 
to the western slope of the continental divide, and along those of northern Washing- 
ton and Idaho to the mountains of northern Montana. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the parks and gardens of western and 
central Europe where it has grown rapidly and vigorously, and occasionally in the 
middle and north Atlantic states. 



CONIFERS 77 

11. CUPRESSUS, L. Cypress. 

Resinous trees, with bark often separating into long shred-like scales, fragrant 
durable usually light brown heartwood, pale yellow sapwood, stout erect branches 
becoming horizontal in old age, slender 4-augled branchlets, and naked buds. Leaves 
scale-like, ovate, acute or acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, with slender 
spreading or appressed tips, thickened, rounded, and often glandular on the back, 
opposite hi pairs, becoming brown and woody before falling; on vigorous leading 
shoots and young plants needle-shaped or linear-lanceolate and spreading. Flowers 
minute, moiuBcious, terminal, yellow, the two sexes on separate branchlets; the 
staminate oblong, of numerous decussate stamens, with short filaments enlarged 
into broadly ovate connectives bearing 2-6 globose pendulous anther-cells; pistil- 
late oblong or subglobose, composed of 6-10 thick decussate scales bearing in sev- 
eral rows at the base of the ovuliferous scale numerous erect bottle-shaped ovules. 
Fruit an erect nearly globose cone maturing 'in the second year, composed of the 
much thickened ovule- bearing scales of the flower, abruptly dilated, clavate, and 
flattened at the apex, bearing the remnants of the flower-scales developed into short 
central more or less thickened mucros or bosses; long-persistent on the branch 
after the escape of the seeds. Seeds numerous, in several rows, erect, thick, and 
acutely angled or compressed, with thin lateral wings; seed-coat of 2 layers, the 
outer thin and membranaceous, the inner thicker and crustaceous; cotyledons 3 or 
4, longer than the superior radicle. 

"Cupressus with ten or twelve species is confined to Pacific North America and 
Mexico in the Xew World and to southeastern Europe, southwestern Asia, the Hima- 
layas, and China in the Old World. Of the exotic species Cupressus semper vir ens, L., 
of southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, and especially its pyramidal variety, 
are often planted for ornament in the south Atlantic and Pacific states. 

Cupressus is the classical name of the Cypress-tree. 


CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves obscurely glandular. 

Branchlets stout; leaves dark green. 1. C. macrocarpa (G). 

Branchlets stout ; leaves glaucous. 2. C. Arizonica (F, H). 

Branchlets slender; leaves dark green. 3. C. Goveniana (G). 

Branchlets stout ; leaves dark green ; seeds black. 4. C. pygmaea (G). 
Leaves conspicuously glandular; branchlets slender; leaves dark green, often slightly 

glaucous. .">. C. Macnabiana (G). 

1. Cupressus macrocarpa, Gord. Monterey Cypress. 

Leaves about \' long, dark green, on young plants prominently ridged below and 
\'-^' long; deciduous at the end of three or four years. Flowers opening late in Feb- 
ruary or early in March, yellow; staminate with 6 or 8 stamens, their connectives 
bearing 4 or 5 dark-colored pollen-sacs; pistillate oblong, with spreading acumi- 
nate scales. Fruit clustered on short stout peduncles, oblong, slightly puberulous, 
I'-l^' long, about f ' broad, composed of 4 or 6 pairs of scales, with broadly ovate thick- 
ened or occasionally on the upper scales snbconical bosses, the scales of the upper 
and lower pairs being smaller than the others and sterile; seeds about 20 under each 
fertile scale, angled, light chestnut-brown, about ^' long. 

A tree, often 60-70 high, with a short trunk 2-3 or exceptionally 5-6 



78 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




6s 



in diameter, slender erect branches forming a narrow or broad bushy pyramidal 
head, becoming stout and spreading in old age into a broad flat-topped crown, stout 

branchlets covered when 
the leaves fall at the end 
of three or four years 
with thin light or dark 
reddish brown bark sep- 
arating into small pa- 
pery scales. Bark |'-1' 
thick and irregularly di- 
vided into broad flat con- 
nected* ridges separating 
freely into narrow elon- 
gated thick persistent 
scales, dark red-brown 
on young stems and up- 
per branches, becoming 
at last almost white on 

old and exposed trunks. Wood heavy, hard and strong, very durable, close-grained. 
Distribution. Coast of California south of the Bay of Monterey, occupying an area 
about two miles long and two hundred yards wide from Cypress Point to the shores 
of Carmel Bay, with a small grove on Point Lobos, the southern boundary of the bay. 
Universally cultivated in the Pacific states from Vancouver Island to Lower Cali- 
fornia, and often used in hedges and for wind-breaks ; occasionally planted in the 
southeastern states; much planted in western and southern Europe, temperate South 
America, and in Australia and New Zealand. 

2. Cupressus Arizonica, Greene. Cypress. 

Leaves thick, keeled, usually without glands, pale glaucous green, about \' long, 
dying and becoming light red-brown and glaucous in their second season, and 
remaining on the 
branches for two or 
three years longer. 
Flowers : stami- 
nate oblong, obtuse, 
their 6 or 8 stamens 
with broadly ovate 
acute yellow connec- 
tives slightly erose 
on the margins; pis- 
tillate not seen. 
Fruit on stout pe- 
duncles, \'\' long, 
subglobose, slightly 

puberulous, about 1' I I Q 

in diameter, dark 

red-brown, covered with a thick glaucous bloom, their 6 or occasionally 8 scales with 
stout cylindrical pointed or incurved prominent bosses; seeds oblong to nearly tri- 
angular, ^g'-|' long, dark red-brown, with thin narrow wings. 




CONIFERS 79 

A tree, usually 30-40 but occasionally 70 high, with a trunk 2-4 in diame- 
ter, horizontal branches forming a narrow pyramid or occasionally a broad flat head, 
and stout branchlets covered after the leaves have fallen with smooth close thin light 
red-brown bark more or less covered with a glaucous bloom. Bark of young trunks 
and branches broken into large irregular thin scales, becoming on old trees dark red- 
brown, and separating freely into long shreds l'-2' wide, and often persistent for 
many years. Wood light, soft, close-grained, gray often faintly streaked with 
yellow. 

Distribution. Mountains of central, eastern, and southern Arizona, often on 
northern slopes forming almost pure forests of considerable extent at elevations of 
5000-GOOO above the sea; on the mountains of northern Souora and Chihuahua. 

Rarely cultivated as an ornamental tree in western Europe. 

3. Cupressus Goveiiiana, Gord. Cypress. 

Leaves obscurely glandular or without glands, dark green, j 1 ^' J-' long, turning 
bright red-brown in drying and falling at the end of three or four years; on young 
plants i'-j' long. 
Flowers: staminate 
with thin slightly 
erose connectives; 
pistillate of 6 or 8 
acute slightly spread- 
ing scales. Fruit 
subglobose or oblong, 
\'-V long, reddish 
brown or purple, lus- 
trous, slightly puber- 
ulous, its 6 or 8 scales 
with broadly ovate 
generally rounded 

and flattened and ' F'<i 70 

rarely short-obconical 
bosses; seeds light brown and lustrous, ^' long, about 20 under each fertile scale. 

A tree, occasionally 50 high, with a short trunk 2 in diameter, slender erect or 
spreading branches forming a handsome open head, and thin branchlets covered with 
close smooth bark, at first orange-colored, becoming bright reddish brown, and ulti- 
mately purple or dark brown; usually much smaller and often shrubby. Bark 
\'-% thick, dark brown tinged with red, irregularly divided into narrow ridges cov- 
ered with thin persistent oblong scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, light brown, 
with thick nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Widely distributed through the California coast regions from So- 
noma County to the mountains of San Diego, frequently ascending in the canons of 
the mountain ranges of the central part of the state to elevations of nearly 3000 
above the sea-level. 

Occasionally cultivated in western and southern Europe as an ornamental tree. 

4. Cupressus pygmsea, Sarg. Cypress. 

Leaves dark green, without glands. Flowers : staminate obscurely 4-angled, 
with broadly ovate peltate connectives; pistillate with 6-10 ovate pointed scales. 




80 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Fruit usually sessile, short-oblong, \'-% long, its scales terminating in small bosses; 
seeds compressed, black, about \' long. 

A tree, sometimes 30 high, often beginning to bear cones when only 1 or 2 tall, 
with a trunk rarely more than 1 in diameter, ascending branches, and comparatively 




7' 



stout bright reddish brown branchlets, becoming purple and ultimately dark reddish 
brown. Bark bright reddish brown, about \' thick, and divided by shallow fissures 
into flat ridges separating on the surface into long thread-like scales. Wood soft, 
very coarse-grained, pale reddish brown. 

Distribution. Sandy barrens of Mendocino County, California, in a narrow belt, 
beginning about three quarters of a mile from the ocean, and extending inland for 
three or four miles from Ten-Mile Run on the north to the Navarro on the south. 

5. Cupressus Macnabiana, A. Murr. Cypress. 

Leaves acute or rounded at the apex, rounded and conspicuously glandular on the 
back, deep green, often slightly glaucous, usually not more than T y long. Flowers 

in March and April, the 
staminate nearly cylindri- 
cal, obtuse, with broadly 
ovate rounded connectives; 
pistillate subglobose, with 
broadly ovate scales short- 
pointed and rounded at the 
apex. Fruit oblong, sub- 
sessile or raised on a slen- 
der stalk, f'-l' long, dark 
reddish brown more or 
less covered with a glau- 
cous bloom, slightly puber- 
ulous, especially along the 
margins of the 6 or rarely 
8 scales, their prominent bosses thin and recurved on the lower scales, and much 







CONIFERS 81 

thickened, conical, and more or less incurved on the upper scales ; seeds dark 
chestnut-brown, usually rather less than -fa' long, with narrow wings. 

A bushy tree, rarely 30 high, with a short trunk 12'-15' in diameter, slender 
branches covered with close smooth compact bark, bright purple after the falling of 
the leaves, soon becoming dark brown; more often a shrub with numerous stems 
6-12 tall forming a broad open irregular head. Bark thin, dark reddish brown, 
broken into brown flat ridges, and separating on the surface into elongated thin 
slightly attached long-persistent scales. Wood light, soft, very close-grained. 

Distribution. California, dry hills and low slopes, Mt. JEtna, in central Napa 
County through Lake County to Red Mountain on the east side of Ukiah Valley, 
Mendocino County, and in Trinity County between Shasta and Whiskey town. 

Occasionally cultivated in western and southern Europe as an ornamental tree. 

12. CHAMJBCYPARIS. 

Tall resinous pyramidal trees, with thin scaly or deeply furrowed bark, nodding 
leading shoots, spreading branches, flattened, often deciduous or ultimately terete 
branchlets 2-ranked in one horizontal plane, pale fragrant durable heartwood, thin 
nearly white sapwood, and naked buds. Leaves scale-like, ovate, acuminate, with 
slender spreading or appressed tips, opposite in pairs, becoming brown and woody 
before falling, on vigorous sterile branches and young plants needle-shaped or linear- 
lanceolate and spreading. Flowers minute, momficious, terminal, the two sexes on 
separate branchlets, the staminate oblong, of numerous decussate stamens, with 
short filaments enlarged into ovate connectives decreasing in size from below upward 
and bearing usually 2 pendulous globose anther-cells; the pistillate subglobose, 
composed of usually 6 decussate fertile peltate scales bearing at the base of the ovu- 
liferous scales 2-5 erect bottle-shaped ovules. Fruit an erect globose cone maturing 
at the end of the first season, surrounded at the base by the sterile lower scales of 
the flowers, formed by the enlargement of the ovule-bearing scales, abruptly dilated, 
club-shaped and flattened at the apex, bearing the remnants of the flower-scales as 
short prominent points or knobs; persistent on the branches after the escape of the 
seeds. Seeds 1-5, erect on the slender stalk-like base of the scale, subcylindrical 
and slightly compressed ; seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thin and membranaceous, 
the inner thicker and crustaceous, produced into broad lateral wings; cotyledons 2, 
longer than the superior radicle. 

Chamaecyparis is confined to the Atlantic and Pacific coast regions of North 
America, and to Japan and Formosa. Six species are distinguished. Of exotic species 
the Japanese Retinosporas, Chamazcyparis obtnxa, Endl., and Chamcecyparis pisifera, 
Endl., with their numerous abnormal forms are familiar garden plants in all tem- 
perate regions. 

Chamcecyparis, is from xa^al, on the ground, and uir<{pi<r(ros, cypress. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Bark thin, divided into flat ridges. 

Branchlets slender, often compressed; leaves dull blue-green, usually conspicuously 

glandular. 1. C. thyoides (A, C). 

Branchlets stout, slightly flattened or terete ; leaves dark blue-green, usually without 

glands. 2. C. Nootkatensis (B, G). 

Bark thick, divided into broad rounded ridges. 

Branchlets slender, compressed ; leaves bright green, conspicuously glandular. 

3. C. Lawsoniana (G). 



82 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

1. Chamaecyparis thyoides, Britt. White Cedar. 

(Cupressus thyoides, Silva N. Am. x. 111.) 

Leaves closely appressed or spreading at the apex, especially on vigorous leading 
shoots, keeled and glandular or conspicuously glandular-punctate on the back, dark 
dull blue-green, at the north becoming russet-brown during the winter, ^'-\' long, 
dying during the second season and then persistent for many years. Flowers : stami- 
nate composed of 5 or 6 pairs of stamens, with ovate connectives rounded at\he apex, 
dark brown below the middle, nearly black toward the apex; pistillate subglobose, 
with ovate acute spreading pale liver-colored scales and black ovules. Fruit globose, 
\' in diameter, sessile on a short leafy branch, light green covered with a glaucous 




bloom when fully grown, then bluish purple and very glaucous, finally becoming dark 
red-brown, its scales terminating in ovate acute, often reflexed bosses; seeds 1 or 2 
under each fertile scale, ovate, acute, full and rounded at the base, sightly com- 
pressed, gray-brown, about \' long, with wings as broad as the body of the seed and 
dark red-brown. 

A tree, 70-80 high, with a tall trunk usually about 2 and occasionally 3-4 
in diameter, slender horizontal branches forming a narrow spire-like head, 2-ranked 
compressed branchlets disposed in an open fan-shaped more or less deciduous spray, 
the persistent gradually becoming terete, light green tinged with red, light reddish 
brown during the first winter, and then dark brown, their thin close bark separating 
slightly at the end of three or four years into small papery scales. Bark |'-1' 
thick, light reddish brown, and divided irregularly into narrow flat connected ridges 
often spirally twisted round the stem, separating on the surface into elongated loose 
or closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, 
slightly fragrant, light brown tinged with red; largely used in boat-building and 
cooperage, for woodenware, shingles, the interior finish of houses, fence-posts, and 
railway-ties. 

Distribution. Cold swamps usually immersed during several months of the 
year, often forming dense pure forests, from southern Maine southward only near 
the coast to northern Florida, and westward to the valley of the Pearl River, Mis- 
sissippi; most abundant south of Massachusetts Bay; comparatively raTe east of 
Boston and west of Mobile Bay. 



he, 74 







CONIFERS 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and in the coun- 
tries of temperate Europe. 

2. Chameecyparis Nootkatensis, Lamb. Yellow Cypress, Sitka Cypress. 

(Cupressus Nootkatensis, Silva N. Am. x. 115.) 

Leaves rounded, eglandular or glandular-pitted on the back, dark blue-green, 
closely appressed, about ' long, on vigorous leading branchlets somewhat spreading 
and often ^' long, with 
more elongated and 
sharper points; begin- 
ning to die at the end 
of their second year 
and usually falling dur- 
ing the third season. 
Flowers : staminate 
on lateral brauchlets of 
the previous year, com- 
posed of 4 or 5 pairs of 
stamens, with ovate 
rounded slightly erose 
light yellow connec- 
tives ; pistillate clus- 
tered near the ends of 

upper branchlets, dark liver color, the fertile scales bearing 24 ovules each. Fruit 
ripening in September and October, subglobose, nearly ^' in diameter, dark red- 
brown, with usually 4 or 6 scales tipped with prominent erect pointed bosses and 
frequently covered with conspicuous resin-glands; seeds 2^4 under each scale, ovate, 
acute, slightly flattened, about ^' long, dark red-brown, with thin light red-brown 
wings often nearly twice as wide as the body of the seed. 

A tree, frequently 120 high, with a tall trunk 5-6 in diameter, horizontal 
branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, stout distichous somewhat flattened or 
terete light yellow branchlets often tinged with red at first, dark or often bright 
red-brown during their third season, ultimately paler and covered with close thin 
smooth bark. Bark '-f thick, light gray tinged with brown, irregularly fissured 
and separated on the surface into large thin loose scales. Wood hard, rather 
brittle, very close-grained, exceedingly durable, bright clear yellow, with very thin 
nearly white sapwood; fragrant, with an agreeable resinous odor; used in boat and 
shipbuilding, the interior finish of houses, and the manufacture of furniture. 

Distribution. Southwestern Alaska, and southward over the highlands and coast 
mountains of Alaska and British Columbia, and along the Cascade Mountains of 
Washington and Oregon to the valley of the Santiam River, extending eastward to 
the head-waters of the Yakima River on the eastern slope of the range; most abun- 
dant and of its largest size near the coast of Alaska and northern British Columbia, 
ranging from the sea-level up to elevations of 3000 ; at high elevations on the Cas- 
cade Mountains sometimes a low shrub. 

Occasionally cultivated, with its numerous abnormal forms, as an ornamental tree 
in the middle Atlantic states and in California, and commonly in the countries of 
western and central Europe. 



84 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

3. Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana, A. Murr. Port Orford Cedar. Lawsoii 

Cypress. 

(Cupressus Lawsoniana, Silva N. Am. x. 119.) 

Leaves bright green, conspicuously glandular oil the back, usually not more than 
^' long on lateral branchlets, on leading shoots often spreading at the apex, \' to 
nearly ^' long; usually dying, turning bright red-brown and falling during their 
third year. Flowers : staminate with bright red connectives bearing usually 2 pol- 
len-sacs; pistillate with dark ovate acute spreading scales, each bearing 2-4 ovules. 
Fruit clustered on the upper lateral branchlets and produced in great profusion, 
ripening in September and October, globose, about \' in diameter, green and glaucous 
when full grown, red-brown and often covered with a bloom at maturity, its scales 
with thin broadly ovate acute reflexed bosses ; seeds 2-4 under each fertile scale, 
ovate, acute, slightly compressed, \' long, light chestnut-brown, with broad thin wings. 

A tree, often 200 high, with a tall trunk frequently 12 in diameter above its 
abruptly enlarged base, a spire-like head of small horizontal or pendulous branches 
clothed with remote flat spray frequently 6'-8' long. Bark often 10' thick at the 




base of old trees and 3'^' thick on smaller stems, dark reddish brown, with 2 dis- 
tinct layers, the inner \'-^' thick, darker, more compact, and firmer than the outer, 
divided into great broad-based rounded ridges separated on the surface into small 
thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, hard, strong, very close-grained, abound- 
ing in fragrant resin, durable, easily worked, light yellow or almost white, with 
hardly distinguishable sapwood ; largely manufactured into lumber used for the 
interior finish and flooring of buildings, railway-ties, fence-posts, and ship and boat- 
building, and on the Pacific coast almost exclusively for matches. The resin is a 
powerful diuretic. 

Distribution. Usually scattered in small groves from the shores of Coos Bay, 
southwestern Oregon, south to the mouth of the Klamath River, California, ranging 
inland usually for about thirty miles; also near Waldorf, in Josephine County, Ore- 
gon, on the slopes of the Siskiyou Mountains, and on the southern flanks of Mt. 
Shasta; most abundant north of Rogue River on the Oregon coast and attaining its 
largest size on the western slopes of the Coast Range foothills, forming between Point 



CONIFERS 85 

Gregory and the mouth of the Coquille River a nearly continuous forest belt 
twenty miles long. 

Often cultivated with the innumerable forms originated in nurseries, in the middle 
Atlantic states and California, and in all the temperate countries of Europe. 

13. JUNIPERUS, L. Juniper. 

Pungent aromatic trees or shrubs, with usually thin shreddy bark, soft close-grained 
durable wood, slender branches, and scaly or naked buds. Leaves sessile, in whorls 
of 3, persistent for many years, convex on the lower side, concave and stomatiferous 
above, linear-subulate, sharp-poiuted, without glands; or scale-like, ovate, opposite in 
pairs or ternate, closely imbricated, appressed and aduate to the branch, glandular on 
the back, becoming brown and woody on the branch, but on young plants and vigor- 
ous shoots often free and awl-shaped. Flowers minute, dioecious, axillary or terminal 
on short axillary branches from buds formed the previous autumn on branches of 
the year; the staminate solitary, oblong-ovate, with numerous stamens decussate or 
in 3's, their filaments enlarged into ovate or peltate yellow scale-like connectives 
bearing near the base 2-6 globose pollen-sacs; the pistillate ovoid, surrounded at 
the base by many minute scale-like bracts persistent and unchanged under the fruit, 
composed of 2-6 opposite or ternate pointed scales alternate with or bearing on their 
inner face at the base on a minute ovuliferous scale 1 or 2 ovules. Fruit a berry-like 
succulent fleshy blue, blue-black, or red strobile formed by the coalition of the flower- 
scales, inclosed in a membranaceous epidermis covered with a glaucous bloom, ripening 
during the first, second, or rarely during the third season, smooth or marked by the 
ends of the flower-scales, or by the pointed tips of the ovules, closed, or open at the 
top and exposing the apex of the seeds. Seeds 1-12, ovate, acute or obtuse, terete 
or variously angled, often longitudinally grooved by depressions caused by the pres- 
sure of resin-cells in the flesh of the fruit, smooth or roughened and tuberculate, 
light chestnut-brown, marked below by the large conspicuous usually 2-lobed hilum; 
seed-coat of 2 layers, the outer thick and bony, the inner thin, membranaceous or 
crustaceous; cotyledons 2, or 4-6, about as long as the superior radicle. 

Juniperus is widely scattered over the northern hemisphere from the Arctic Cir- 
cle to the highlands of Mexico, Lower California, and the West Indies in the New 
World, and to the Azores and Canary Islands, northern Africa, Abyssinia, the moun- 
tains of east tropical Africa, Sikkim, central China, and the mountains of southern 
Japan in the Old World. About thirty-five species are now distinguished. Of the 
* exotic species cultivated in the United States the most common are European forms 
of Juniperus communis, L., with fastigiate branches, and dwarf forms of Juniperus 
Sabina, L., and of Juniperus recurva, I). Don, of the Himalayas. 
Juniperus is the classical name of the Juniper. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers axillary ; stamens decussate; ovules 3, alternate with the scales of the flower, their 
tips persistent on the fruit ; seeds usually 3 ; leaves in 3's, awl-shaped, rigid, free and 
jointed at the base, without glands ; buds scaly. 

Fruit subglobose, bright blue covered with a glaucous bloom ; leaves spreading, dark 
yellow-green, channeled and white glaucous on the upper surface. 

1. J. communis (A, B, F). 
Flowers terminal, on short axillary branchlets ; stamens decussate or in 3's ; ovules in the 



86 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

axils of small fleshy scales, often enlarged and conspicuous on the fruit; seeds 1-12; 
leaves in 3's or opposite, mostly scale-like, crowded, closely appressed and adnate on the 
branches, free and awl-shaped on vigorous shoots and young plants ; buds naked. 
Fruit large, reddish brown, with dry fibrous sweet flesh. 
Seeds single or few ; cotyledons 4-6. 

Fruit usually oblong ; seeds 1 or 2 ; leaves in 3' 8, rounded at the apex, conspicu- 
ously glandular on the back ; branchlets stout. 2. J. Calif ornica (G). 
Fruit mostly globose ; seeds usually solitary ; leaves in 3's or in pairs, acute or 
acuminate, without glands ; branchlets slender. 3. J. Utahensis (F, G). 
Seeds 4-12 ; cotyledons 2. 

Fruit oblong or globose ; leaves in pairs, glandular, often slightly spreading at the 
acute or acuminate apex ; branchlets slender. 4. J. flaccida (F). 

Fruit globose ; seeds usually 4 ; leaves in pairs, acute, glandular ; branchlets slen- 
der ; bark thin, broken into small oblong plates. 5. J. pachyphlaea (E, F, H). 
Fruit small (large in 6), blue or blue-black (rarely copper color in 7), with resinous 

juicy flesh ; seeds 1-4 ; cotyledons 2. 

Fruit subglobose or oblong, the flesh filled with large resin-glands ; seeds 2 or 3 ; 
leaves in 3's, conspicuously glandular ; branchlets stout. 

6. J. occidentalis (B, G). 

Fruit globose or oblong ; seeds 1 or rarely 2 ; leaves usually without glands ; 
branchlets slender. 7. J. monosperma (F). 

Fruit globose ; seeds 1-4 ; leaves obtuse or rarely acute, Reeled and glandular ; 
branchlets slender. 8. J. sabinoides (C). 

Fruit subglobose ; seeds 1-4 ; leaves acute, acuminate, or rarely obtuse, glandu- 
lar ; branchlets stout, often erect. 9. J. Virginiana (A, C). 
Fruit small, subglobose ; seeds usually 2 ; leaves in pairs, acute or acuminate, 
glandular; brauchlets very slender ; pendulous. 10. J. Barbadensis (C). 
Fruit subglobose, maturing the second season ; seeds usually 2 ; leaves acute or 
acuminate; branchlets rigid, often erect. 11. J. scopulorum (B, F). 

1. Leaves awl-shaped, rigid, free and jointed at the base. 

1. Juniperus communis, L. Juniper. 

Leaves in ternate whorls, spreading nearly at right angles to the branchlets, linear- 
lanceolate, acute and tipped with sharp slender points, articulate and truncate at the 
base, thickened, rounded, obscurely ridged, dark green and lustrous on the lower 
surface, snowy white and covered with stomata on the upper surface, \'-^' long, about 
3*3 ' wide, turning during winter a deep rich bronze color on the lower surface, per- 
sistent for many years. Flowers : staminate composed of 5 or 6 "whorls each of 3 
stamens, with broadly ovate acute and short-pointed connectives, bearing at the very 
base 3 or 4 globose anther-cells; pistillate surrounded by 5 or 6 whorls of ternate 
leaf-like scales, composed of 3 slightly spreading ovules abruptly enlarged and ope.n 
at the apex, with 3 minute obtuse fleshy scales below and alternate with them. 
Fruit maturing in the third season, subglobose or oblong, tipped with the remnants 
of the enlarged points of the ovules, about \' in diameter, with soft mealy resinous 
sweet flesh and 1-3 seeds; often persistent on the branches one or two years after 
ripening; seeds ovate, afcute, irregularly angled or flattened, deeply penetrated by 
numerous prominent thin-walled resin-glands, about \' long, the outer coat thick and 
bony, the inner membranaceous. 

In America only occasionally tree-like and 20-30 tall, with a short eccentric ir- 
regularly lobed trunk rarely a foot in diameter, erect branches forming an irregular 






CONIFERS 87 

open bead, slender brauchlets, smooth, lustrous, and conspicuously 3-angled between 
the short nodes during their first and second years, light yellow tinged with red, 
gradually growing darker, their dark red-brown bark separating in the third season 
into small thin scales, and ovate acute buds about ^' long and loosely covered with 
scale-like leaves ; more often a shrub, with many short slender stems prostrate at 
the base and turning upward and forming a broad mass sometimes 20 across and 
3 or 4 high ; at high elevations and in the extreme north prostrate, with long de- 
cumbent stems (var. Sibirica, Rydb.). Bark about fa' thick, dark reddish brown, 
separating irregularly into many loose papery persistent scales. Wood hard, close- 
grained, very durable in contact with the soil, light brown, with pale sapwood. In 




northern Europe the sweet aromatic fruit of this tree is used in large quantities to 
impart its peculiar flavor to gin; occasionally employed in medicine. 

Distribution. Southern Greenland to the highlands of Pennsylvania, northern 
Nebraska, along the Rocky Mountains to western Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, 
and on the Pacific coast from Alaska to northern California, only becoming truly 
arborescent in America on the limestone hills of southern Illinois; in the Old World 
widely distributed through all the northern hemisphere from arctic Asia and Europe 
to the Himalayas and the mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. 

Often planted, especially in some of its pyramidal and dwarf forms, in the eastern 
United States and in the countries of western, central, and northern Europe. 

2. Leaves scale-like, closely oppressed and adnate to the branches. 
*Fruit large, reddish brown. 
-t-Seeds single or few. 

2. Juniperus Californica, Carr. Juniper. 

Leaves usually in 3's, closely appressed, thickened, slightly keeled and conspicu- 
ously glandular-pitted on the back, rounded at the apex, distinctly cartilaginously 
fringed on the margins, light yellow-green, about |' long, dying and turning brown 
on the branch at the end of two or three years; on vigorous shoots linear-lanceolate, 
rigid, sharp-pointed, \'-^' long, whitish on the upper surface. Flowers from 
January to March; staminate of 18-20 stamens, disposed in 3's, with rhomboidal 



88 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




short-pointed connectives; scales of the pistillate flower usually 6, ovate, acute, 

spreading, obliter- 
ated or minute on 
the fruit. Fruit 
ripening in the au- 
tumn of the second 
season, globose or 
oblong, ^'-f' long, 
reddish brown, with 
a niembranaceous 
loose epidermis cov- 
ered with a thick 
glaucous bloom, thin 
fibrous dry sweet 
^_ flesh, and 1 or 2 

| l^ 77 ^d$^ large seeds; seeds 

ovate, acute, sharp- 
pointed, irregularly 

lobed and angled, with a thick shell, the outer coat hard and bony, the inner thin, 
white, and cartilaginous, and 4-6 cotyledons. 

A conical tree, occasionally 40 high, with a straight large-lobed unsymmetrical 
trunk l-2 in diameter; more often shrubby, with many stout irregular usually con- 
torted stems forming a broad open head. Bark thin and divided into long loose 
plate-like scales ashy gray on the outer surface and persistent for many years. Wood 
soft, close-grained, durable in contact with the soil, light brown slightly tinged with 
red, with thin nearly white sapwood; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is eaten 
by Indians fresh or ground into flour. 

Distribution. Dry mountain slopes and plains from the valley of the lower Sac- 
ramento River southward through the California coast-ranges to Lower California, 
spreading inland along the southern coast mountains to their union with the Sierra 
Nevada, and northward along the western slopes of the sierras to the neighborhood 
of Kernville; also on the desert slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains, or the north- 
ern foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the eastern slopes of the San 
Jacinto and Cuyamaca ranges. 

3. Juniperus Utahensis, Lemm. Juniper. 

Leaves opposite or occasionally in 3's, rounded, mostly without glands on the back, 
acute or often acuminate, light yellow-green, rather less than |' long, persistent for 
many years, the elongated and long-pointed leaves of young shoots passing gradually 
into the acerose leaves of more vigorous shoots and seedling plants. Flowers : 
staminate with 18-24 opposite or ternate stamens, their connectives rhomboidal; 
scales of the pistillate flower acute, spreading, often in pairs. Fruit ripening during 
the autumn of the second season, subglobose or oblong, marked by the more or less 
prominent tips of the flower-scales, reddish brown, with a thick firm epidermis cov- 
ered with a glaucous bloom and closely investing the thin dry sweet flesh, \'-\' long, 
with 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds ovate, acute, conspicuously acutely angled, marked 
nearly to the apex by the hilum, T V~i' l n g w ^ n a hard bony shell, a membranaceous 
pale brown inner seed-coat, and 4-6 cotyledons. 

A bushy tree, rarely exceeding 20 in height, with a short usually eccentric trunk 



CONIFERS 89 

sometimes 2 in diameter, generally divided near the ground by irregular deep fis- 
sures into broad rounded ridges, many erect contorted branches forming a broad open 
head, slender light yellow-green brauchlets covered after the falling of the leaves 
with thin light red-brown scaly bark; more often with numerous stems spreading 
from the ground and frequently not more than 8-10 high. Bark about \' thick, 




ashy gray or sometimes nearly whits, and broken into long thin persistent scales. 
Wood light brown, slightly fragrant, with thick nearly white sapwood; largely used 
locally for fuel and fencing. The fruit is eaten by Indians fresh or ground and 
baked into cakes. 

Distribution. In the desert region between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra 
Nevada, where it is the most abundant and most generally distributed tree, from the 
western foothills of the Wahsatch Mountains in eastern Utah to southeastern Cali- 
fornia, northern Arizona, western Colorado, and southern Wyoming; in central 
Nevada often descending into the valleys and forming open stunted forests at ele- 
vations of about 5000 ; more abundant and of larger size on arid slopes to eleva- 
tions of 8000 above the sea in dense nearly pure forests. 



4. Juniperus flaccida, Schlecht. Juniper. 

Leaves opposite, long-pointed, and sometimes slightly spreading at the apex, 
rounded and conspicuously glandular on the back, light yellow-green, about -J-' long, 
turning cinnamon-red and dying on the branch; on vigorous young shoots ovate- 
lanceolate, sometimes ^' long, with elongated rigid callous tips. Flowers: stami- 
nate slender, composed of 16-20 stamens, with ovate pointed connectives promi- 
nently keeled on the back; pistillate with acute or acuminate spreading scales. 
Fruit globose or oblong, irregularly tuberculate, dull red-brown, more or less 
covered with a glaucous bloom, marked by the numerous reflexed tips of the flower- 
scales, '-' long, with a close firm epidermis and dry mealy flesh ; seeds 4-12, 
often abortive and distorted, about \' long, with 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with gracefully spreading branches and long slender 
drooping branchlets, covered after the leaves fall with thin bright cinnamon-brown 
bark separating into thin loose papery scales; often a shrub. 



90 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




F". 79 



Distribution. In the United States only on the slopes of the Chisos Mountains 
in southwestern Texas; common in northeastern Mexico, growing at elevations of 
6000-8000 on the hills east of the Mexican table-lands. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern France and Algeria. 

5. Juniperus pachyphlaea, Torr. Juniper. Checkered-bark Juniper. 

Leaves in pairs, appressed, rounded and apiculate at the apex, thickened, obscurely 
keeled and glandular on the back, bluish green, rather less than ^' long; on vigorous 
shoots and young branchlets linear-lanceolate, tipped with slender elongated points, 
and pale blue-green like the young branchlets. Flowers opening in February and 
March, the staminate stout, \' long, with 10 or 12 stamens, their connectives broadly 
ovate, obscurely keeled on the back, short-pointed; scales of the pistillate flower 
ovate, acuminate, and spreading. Fruit ripening in the autumn of the second 
season, globose or oblong, irregularly tuberculate, about ' long, usually marked 



TIC, SCO 




with the short tips of the flower-scales, occasionally opening and discharging the 
seeds at the apex, dark red-brown, more or less covered with a glaucous bloom, 
especially during the first season and then occasionally bluish in color, with a thin 
epidermis closely investing the thick dry mealy flesh, and usually 4 seeds; seeds 
acute, conspicuously ridged and gibbous on the back, with a thick shell, a pale inner 
seed-coat, and 2 cotyledons. 



CONIFERS 91 

A tree, often 50-60 high, with a short trunk 3-5 in diameter, long stout 
spreading branches forming a broad-based pyramidal or ultimately a compact round- 
topped head, and slender branchlets covered after the disappearance of the leaves 
with thin light red-brown usually smooth close bark occasionally broken into large 
thin scales. Bark '-4' thick, dark brown tinged with red, deeply fissured and 
divided into nearly square plates l'-2' long, and separating on the surface into small 
thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, 
clear light red often streaked with yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood. The 
fruit is gathered and eaten by Indians. 

Distribution. Dry arid mountain slopes usually at elevations of 4000-6000 
above the sea, from the Eagle and Limpio mountains in southwestern Texas, west- 
ward along the desert ranges of New Mexico and Arizona, south of the Colorado 
plateau, extending northward to the lower slopes of many of the high mountains of 
northern Arizona and southward into Mexico. 

**Fruit small [large in 6], blue or blue-black seeds 1-4- 

6. Juniperus occidentalis, Hook. Juniper. 

Leaves in 3's, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, rounded and conspicuously 
glandular on the back, gray-green, about ^' long. Flowers : staminate stout, obtuse, 
with 12-18 stamens, their connectives broadly ovate, rounded, acute or apiculate and 




scarious or slightly ciliate on the margins; scales of the pistillate flower ovate, 
acute, spreading, mostly obliterated from the fruit. Fruit subglobose or oblong, 
\'-^' long, with a thick firm blue-black epidermis coated with a glaucous bloom, thin 
dry flesh filled with large resin-glands, and 2 or 3 seeds; seeds ovate, acute, rounded 
and deeply grooved or pitted on the back, flattened on the inner surface, about 
\' long, with a thick bony shell, a thin brown inner seed-coat, and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 60 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, more 
often hardly exceeding 20 in height, with a short trunk sometimes 10 in diameter, 
enormous branches, spreading at nearly right angles and forming a broad low head, 
and stout branchlets covered after the leaves fall with thin bright red-brown bark 
broken into loose papery scales; frequently when growing on dry rocky slopes and 



92 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

toward the northern limits of its range shrubby, with many short erect or semi- 
prostrate stems. Bark about \' thick, bright cinnamon-red, divided by broad shallow 
fissures into wide flat irregularly connected ridges separating on the surface into thin 
lustrous scales. Wood light, soft, very close-grained, exceedingly durable, light red 
or brown, with thick nearly white sap wood ; used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is 
gathered and eaten by the California Indians. 

Distribution. Mountain slopes and high prairies of western Idaho and western 
Washington and Oregon, along the summits and upper slopes of the Sierra Nevada 
of California, southward to the San Bernardino Mountains; attaining its greatest 
trunk diameter on the wind-swept peaks of the California sierras, usually at eleva- 
tions between 6000 and 10,000 above the sea. 

7. Juniperus monosperma, Sarg. Juniper. 

Leaves in pairs or rarely in 3's, often slightly spreading at the apex, acute or 
occasionally acuminate, much thickened and rounded on the back, usually without 




or occasionally with obscure dorsal glands, gray-green, rather less than \' long, turn- 
ing bright red-brown before falling; on vigorous shoots and young plants ovate, acute, 
tipped with long rigid points, thin, conspicuously glandular on the back, often \' long. 
Flowers : staminate with 8-10 stamens, their broadly ovate, rounded, or pointed con- 
nectives slightly erose on the margins; pistillate with spreading pointed scales. 
Fruit globose or oblong, \'-\' long, dark blue or occasionally copper color, with a 
thick firm epidermis covered with a thin glaucous bloom, thin resinous flesh, and 1 or 
rarely 2 or 3 seeds; seeds broadly ovate, often 4-angled, somewhat obtuse at the 
apex, with numerous slender grooves between the ridges, a comparatively thin brittle 
shell, and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 40-50 high, with a stout much-lobed and buttressed trunk 
sometimes 3 in diameter, short stout branches forming an open very irregular 
head, and slender branchlets covered after the falling of the leaves with light red- 
brown bark spreading freely into thin loose scales. Bark thin, ashy gray, divided 
into irregularly connected ridges, broken into long narrow persistent shreddy scales. 
"Wood heavy, slightly fragrant, light reddish brown, with nearly white sapwood and 
eccentric layers of annual growth; largely used for fencing and fuel. The fruit is 



CONIFERJE 93 

ground into flour and baked by the Indians, who use the thin strips of fibrous bark 
in making saddles, breechcloths, and sleeping-mats. 

Distribution. Along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains from the divide 
between the Platte and Arkansas rivers in Colorado to western Texas, spreading 
over the Colorado plateau, over the mountain ranges of Nevada, southern New 
Mexico and Arizona, and southward into northern Mexico; often covering, with the 
Nut Pine, in southern Colorado and Utah, and in northern and central New Mexico 
and Arizona, great areas of rolling hills 6000-7000 above the sea-level; reaching 
its largest size in northern Arizona. 

8. Juniperus sabinoides, Nees. Cedar. Rock Cedar. 

Leaves in pairs, thickened and keeled on the back, obtuse or acute at the apex, 
mostly without glands, rather more than ^' long, dark blue-green; on vigorous 
young shoots and seedling plants lanceolate, long-pointed, rigid, \'-\' long. Flowers : 
staminate with 12-18 stamens, their connectives ovate, obtuse, or slightly cuspidate; 
scales of the pistillate flower ovate, acute, and spreading, very conspicuous when the 
fruit is half grown, becoming obliterated at its maturity. Fruit subglobose, \'-\' in 
diameter, dark blue, with a thin epidermis covered with a glaucous bloom, sweet 
resinous flesh, and 1 or rarely 2 seeds; seeds broadly ovate, acute, slightly or 




conspicuously ridged, rarely tuberculate, nearly \' long and \' thick, with a small 
hilum, a thin outer seed-coat, a membranaceous dark brown inner coat, and 2 coty- 
ledons. 

A tree, occasionally 100 but generally not more than 20-30 high, with a short 
or elongated slightly lobed trunk seldom exceeding a foot in diameter, small spread- 
ing branches forming a wide round-topped open and irregular or a narrow pyramidal 
head, slender sharply 4-angled branchlets becoming terete after the falling of the 
leaves, light reddish brown or ashy gray, with smooth or slightly scaly bark; often a 
shrub, with numerous spreading stems. Bark on young stems and on the branches 
gray tinged with red, covered with a network of flat plates, scaly on the surface and 
separated on the margins into thin pale shreds, becoming on old trees %'-$' thick, 
brown tinged with red, and divided into long narrow slightly attached scales per- 
sistent for many years and clothing the trunk with a loose thatch-like covering. 



94 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Wood light, hard, not strong, slightly fragrant, brown streaked with red; largely 
used for fencing, fuel, telegraph-poles, and railway-ties. 

Distribution. From Brazos County over the low limestone hills of western and 
southern Texas, and southward into Mexico; forming great thickets and growing to 
its largest size on the San Bernardo River; much smaller farther westward, and 
usually shrubby at the limits of vegetation on the high mountains of central Mexico. 

9. Juniperus Virginiana, L. Red Cedar. Savin. 

Leaves in opposite pairs, acute or acuminate with short slender points or occa- 
sionally obtuse, rounded and glandular or eglandular on the back, about ^' long, 




dark blue-green or glaucous, at the north turning russet or yellow-brown during the 
winter, beginning in their third season to grow hard and woody, and remaining two 
or three years longer on the branches; on young plants and vigorous branches linear- 
lanceolate, long-pointed, light yellow-green, without glands, '-f ' long. Flowers : 
dioecious or very rarely monoecious; staminate with 10 or 12 stamens, their connec- 
tives rounded and entire, with 4 or occasionally 5 or 6 pollen-sacs; scales of the 
pistillate flower violet color, acute and spreading, becoming obliterated from the 
fruit. Fruit subglobose, \'-\' in diameter, pale green when fully grown, dark blue 
and covered with a glaucous bloom at maturity, with a firm epidermis, thin sweet- 
ish resinous flesh, and 1 or 2 or rarely 3 or 4 seeds; seeds acute and occasionally 
apiculate at the apex, marked below with a comparatively small 2-lobed hilum, 
' I' long, with a thick bony outer coat, a pale brown raembranaceous inner coat, 
and 2 cotyledons. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, often lobed and 
eccentric, and frequently buttressed toward the base, generally not more than 40- 
50 tall, with short slender branches horizontal on the lower part of the tree, erect 
above, forming a narrow compact pyramidal head, in old age usually becoming broad 
and round-topped or irregular, and slender 4-angled branchlets terete after the dis- 
appearance of the leaves and covered with close dark brown bark tinged with red or 
gray. Bark \'\' thick, light brown tinged with red, and separated into long narrow 
scales fringed on the margins, and persistent for many years. Wood light, close- 
grained, brittle, not strong, dull red, with thin nearly white sapwood, very fragrant, 
easily worked; largely used for posts, the sills of buildings, the interior finish of 



CONIFERS 



95 



houses, the lining of closets and chests for the preservation of woolens against the 
attacks of moths, and largely for pails and other small articles of woodenware. A 
decoction of the fruit and leaves is used in medicine, and oil of red cedar distilled 
from the leaves and wood as a perfume. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and rocky ridges, often immediately on the sea- 
coast, from southern Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to the coast of Georgia, the 
interior of southern Alabama and Mississippi, and westward to the valley of the 
lower Ottawa River, eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, the Indian Ter- 
ritory and eastern Texas, not ascending the mountains of New England and New 
York nor the high southern Alleghanies; in middle Kentucky and Tennessee, and 
northern Alabama and Mississippi, covering great areas of low rolling limestone hills 
with nearly pure forests of small bushy trees. 

Often cultivated in the northern and eastern states as an ornamental tree and 
occasionally in the gardens of western and central Europe. 

10. Juniperus Barbadensis, L. Red Cedar. 

Leaves opposite in pairs, narrow, acute or gradually narrowed above the middle 
and acuminate, marked on the back by conspicuous oblong glands. Flowers open- 
ing in early March, staminate elongated, ' to nearly \' long, with 10 or 12 stamens, 
their connectives rounded, entire, and bearing usually 3 pollen-sacs; pistillate with 
scales gradually narrowed above the middle, acute at the apex, and obliterated from 




the ripe fruit. Fruit subglobose, dark blue, covered when ripe with a glaucous 
bloom, usually about ' in diameter, with a thin epidermis, sweet resinous flesh, 
and usually 2 seeds. 

A tree, sometimes 50 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, small branches 
erect when the tree is crowded in the forest, spreading when it has grown in open 
ground and forming a broad flat-topped head often 30 or 40 in diameter, long 
thin secondary branches erect at the top of the tree and pendulous below, and 
slender 4-angled pendulous branchlets becoming light red-brown or ashy gray at the 
end of four or five years after the disappearance of the leaves. Bark thin, light 
red-brown, separating into long thin scales. Wood light, close, straight-grained, 



96 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

fragrant, dull red; formerly exclusively used in the manufacture of the best lead 
pencils. 

Distribution. Inundated river swamps from southern Georgia, southward to the 
shores of the Indian River, Florida, and on the west coast of Florida from the north- 
ern shores of Charlotte Harbor to the valley of the Appalachicola River, often forming 
great thickets under the shade of larger trees; common on the Bahamas, San Do- 
mingo, the mountains of Jamaica, and Antigua. 

Often planted for the decoration of squares and cemeteries in the cities and towns 
in the neighborhood of the coast from Florida to western Louisiana, and now often 
naturalized on the Gulf coast; occasionally cultivated in the temperate countries of 
Europe, and in cultivation the most beautiful of the Junipers. 

11. Juniperus scopulorum, Sarg. Red Cedar. 

Leaves opposite in pairs, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, marked on the 
back by obscure elongated glands, dark green, or often pale and very glaucous. 
Flowers : staminate with about 6 stamens, their connectives rounded and entire, 




bearing 4 or 5 anther-sacs ; scales of the pistillate flower spreading, acute or acumi- 
nate, and obliterated from the mature fruit. Fruit ripening at the end of the second 
season, nearly globose, \'-\' in diameter, bright blue, with a thin epidermis covered 
with a glaucous bloom, sweet resinous flesh, and 1 or usually 2 seeds; seeds acute, 
prominently grooved and angled, about T 3 ^' long, with a thick bony outer coat and a 
small 2-lobed hilum. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a short stout trunk sometimes 3 in diameter, often 
divided near the ground into a number of stout spreading stems, thick spread- 
ing and ascending branches covered with scaly bark, forming an irregular round- 
topped head, and slender 4-angled branchlets becoming at the end of three or four 
years terete and clothed with smooth pale bark separating later into thin scales. 
Bark dark reddish brown or gray tinged with red, divided by shallow fissures 
into narrow flat connected ridges broken on the surface into persistent shredded 
scales. 

Distribution. Scattered often singly over dry rocky ridges, except near the 
coast usually at elevations of more than 5000 above the sea, from the eastern foot- 



TAXACE^E 97 

hill region of the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to western Texas, and westward to 
the coast of British Columbia and Washington and to eastern Oregon, Nevada, and 
northern Arizona. 

II. TAXACEJB. 

Slightly resinous trees and shrubs, producing when cut vigorous stump 
shoots, with fissured or scaly bark, light-colored durable close-grained wood, 
slender green branchlets, linear-lanceolate entire rigid acuminate sharp-pointed 
spirally disposed leaves, usually appearing 2-ranked by a twist in their short 
compressed petioles and persistent for many years, and small ovate acute buds. 
Flowers opening in early spring from buds formed the previous autumn, 
dioecious, axillary and solitary, surrounded by the persistent decussate scales 
of the buds, the staminate composed of numerous filaments united into a 
column, each filament surmounted by several more or less united pendant pollen- 
cells ; the pistillate of a single erect ovule, becoming in fruit a seed with a 
hard bony shell, raised upon or more or less surrounded by the enlarged and 
fleshy aril-like disk of the flower; embryo axile, in fleshy ruminate or uniform 
albumen ; cotelydons 2, shorter than the superior radicle. Of the ten genera 
widely distributed over the two hemispheres, two occur in North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Filaments dilated into 4 pollen-sacs united into a half ring ; fruit drupe-like ; albumen 
ruminate. 1. Tumion. 

Filaments dilated into a globose head of 4-8 connate pollen-sacs ; fruit berry-like, scarlet ; 
albumen uniform. 2. Taxus. 

1. TUMION, Raf. 

Glabrous foetid or pungent aromatic trees, with fissured bark and verticillate or 
opposite spreading or drooping branches. Leaves thin, long-pointed, abruptly con- 
tracted at the base, slightly rounded on the back, grooved below, with a broad sto- 
matiferous groove on each side of the midvein, revolute and slightly thickened on 
the margins, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, often pale on the lower 
surface. Flowers : the staminate crowded in the axils of adjacent leaves, oval or 
oblong, composed of 6 or 8 close whorls each of 4 stamens, subverticillately arranged 
on a slender axis ; filaments stout and expanded above into 4 globose yellow pollen- 
sacs united into a half ring, their connectives produced above the cells ; the pistillate 
less numerous and scattered, sessile, the ovule surrounded by and finally inclosed 
in an ovate urn-shaped fleshy sac, and becoming at maturity an ovoid or obovate 
drupe-like green or purple fruit pointed at the apex, separating when ripe from the 
basal scales persistent on the short stout stalk, covered with a thick leathery outer 
coat closely investing the seed. Seed ovoid, acute at the ends, apiculate at the apex, 
marked at the base by the large dark hilum; seed-coat thick and woody, its inner 
layer folded into the thick white albumen. 

Tumion is now confined to Florida, western California, Japan, and central and 
northern China. Four species are recognized. Of the exotic species the Japanese 
Tumion nuciferum, Greene, is occasionally cultivated in the eastern states. 

Tumion is from OV/JLIOV, a name given by the ancients to some kind of Yew-tree. 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves slightly rounded on the back, pale on the lower surface ; fruit more or less deeply 
tinged with purple ; leaves, branches, and wood foetid. 1. T. taxifolium (C). 

Leaves nearly flat, green below, elongated ; fruit green slightly tinged with purple ; leaves, 
branches, and wood pungent-aromatic. 2. T. Calif oriiic urn (G). 

1. Tumion taxifolium, Greene. Stinking Cedar. Torreya. 

Leaves slightly falcate, 1^' long, about ' wide, somewhat rounded, dark green and 
lustrous above, paler and marked below with broad shallow grooves. Flowers 
appearing in March and April; staminate with pale yellow anthers; pistillate broadly 
ovate, with a dark purple fleshy covering to the ovule, |' long, and inclosed at the 
base by broad thin rounded scales. Fruit fully grown at midsummer, slightly obovate, 
dark purple, V-\\' long, f ' broad, with a thin leathery covering, a light red-brown 
seed furnished on the inner surface of the brittle woody coat with 2 opposite longitu- 
dinal thin ridges extending from the base toward the apex, and conspicuously rumi- 
nate albumen penetrated by the brown inner seed-coat. 

A tree, occasionally 40 high, with a short trunk l-2 in diameter, whorls of 
spreading slightly pendulous branches forming a rather open pyramidal head 




tapering from a broad base. Bark \' thick, brown faintly tinged with orange 
color, and irregularly divided by broad shallow fissures*into wide low ridges slightly 
rounded on the back and covered with thin closely appressed scales. Wood hard, 
strong, clear bright yellow, with thin lighter colored sapwood; largely used for 
fence-posts. 

Distribution. Limestone soil on bluffs along the eastern bank of the Appalachi- 
cola River, Florida, from River Junction to the neighborhood of Bristol, Gadsden 
County. 

Occasionally cultivated in the northern states and in western Europe. 

2. Tumion Californicum, Greene. California Nutmeg. 

Leaves slightly falcate, nearly flat, dark green and lustrous on the upper, some- 
what lighter and marked with deep narrow grooves on the lower surface, tipped with 
slender callous points, l'-3^' long, fa'-\' wide. Flowers appearing in March and 



TAXACILE 99 

April; staminate with broadly ovate acute scales; pistillate nearly ^' long, with 
oblong ovate rounded scales. Fruit ovate or oblong-ovate, I'-l^' long, light green 
more or less streaked with purple. 

A tree, 50-70 but occasionally 100 high, with a trunk l-2 or rarely 4 in 
diameter, and whorls of spreading slender slightly pendulous branches forming 
a handsome pyramidal and in old age a round-topped head. Bark '-' thick, 
gray-brown tinged with orange color, deeply and irregularly divided by broad fis- 
sures into narrow ridges covered with elongated loosely appressed plate-like scales. 




Wood light, soft, close-grained, clear light yellow, with thin nearly white sapwood; 
occasionally used for fence-posts. 

Distribution. Borders of mountain streams, California, nowhere common but 
widely distributed from Mendocino County to the Santa Cruz Mountains in the coast 
region and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Eldorado to Tulare 
County at elevations of 3000-5000 above the sea; most abundant and of its largest 
size on the northern coast ranges. 

Rarely cultivated as an ornamental tree in western Europe. 

2. TAXUS, L. Yew. 

Trees or shrubs, with brown or dark purple scaly bark, and spreading usually hori- 
zontal branches. Leaves flat, often falcate, gradually narrowed at the base, dark 
green, smooth and keeled on the upper surface, paler, papillate, and stomatiferous 
on the lower surface, their margins slightly thickened and revolute. Flowers : the 
staminate composed of a slender stipe bearing at the apex a globular head of 4-8 
pale yellow stamens consisting of 4-6 conical pendant pollen-sacs peltately con- 
nate from the end of a short filament; the pistillate sessile in the axils of the upper 
scale-like bracts of a short axillary branch, the ovule erect, sessile on a ring-like 
disk, ripening in the autumn into an ovate-oblong seed gradually narrowed and 
short-pointed at the apex, marked at the base by the much-depressed hiluin, about ^' 
long, entirely or nearly surrounded by but free from the now thickened succulent 
translucent sweet scarlet aril-like disk of the flower closed or open at the apex; 
seed-coat thick, of two layers, the outer thin and membranaceous or fleshy, the 
inner much thicker and somewhat woody; albumen uniform. 



100 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Taxus with six species, which can be distinguished only by their leaf characters and 
habit, is widely distributed through the northern hemisphere, and is found in east- 
ern North America where two species occur, in Pacific North America, Mexico, Europe, 
northern Africa, western and southern Asia, China and Japan. Of the exotic species 
the European, African, and Asiatic Taxus baccata, L., and its n\imerous varieties, is 
often cultivated in the United States, especially in the more temperate parts of the 
country, and is replaced with advantage by the hardier Taxus cuspidata, S. & Z., of 
eastern Asia in the northern states, where the native shrubby Taxus Canadensis, 
Marsh, with monoecious flowers is sometimes cultivated. 

Taxus, from rc^os, is the classical name of the Yew-tree. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 



Leaves short, yellow-green. 

Leaves elongated, usually falcate, dark green. 



1. T. brevifolia (G). 

2. T. Floridana (C). 



1. Taxus brevifolia, Nutt. Yew. 



Leaves '-f' long, about T y wide, dark yellow-green above, rather paler below, 
with stout midribs, and slender yellow petioles -^ long, persistent for four or five 
years. Flowers and fruit as in the genus. 

A tree, usually 40-50 but occasionally 70-80 high, with a tall straight trunk 
l-2 or rarely 4^ in diameter, frequently unsymmetrical, with one diameter much 
exceeding the other, and irregularly lobed, with broad rounded lobes, and long slender 
horizontal or slightly pendulous branches forming a broad open conical head. Bark 
about \' thick and covered with small thin dark red-purple scales. Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, bright red, with thin light yellow sap wood; used for fence-posts and by 
the Indians of the northwest coast for paddles, spear-handles, bows, and other small 
articles. 

Distribution. Banks of mountain streams, deep gorges, and damp ravines, grow- 
ing usually under large coniferous trees; nowhere abundant, but widely distributed 




usually in single individuals or in small clumps from Queen Charlotte Islands and 
the valley of the Skeena River, southward along the coast ranges of British Colum- 
bia, Washington, and Oregon, where it attains its greatest size, along the coast ranges 
of California as far south as the Bay of Monterey, and along the western slopes of 



101 

the Sierra Nevada to Tulare County at elevations between 5000 and 8000 above 
the sea-level, ranging eastward in British Columbia to the Selkirk Mountains, and 
over the mountains of Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of the conti- 
nental divide in Montana; in the interior much smaller than near the coast and 
often shrubby in habit. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of western Europe. 

2. Taxus Floridana, Chapm. Yew. 

Leaves usually conspicuously falcate, f ' to nearly 1' long, ^'-J' wide, dark green 
above, pale below, with obscure midribs and slender petioles about -fa' long. Flowers 
appearing in March. Fruit ripens in October. 

A bushy tree, rarely 25 high, with a short trunk occasionally 1 in diameter, 
and numerous stout spreading branches; more often shrubby in habit and 12-15 




f i(i 90 



tall. Bark ^' thick, dark purple-brown, smooth, compact, occasionally separating 
into large thin irregular plate-like scales. "Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, 
dark brown tinged with red, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. River bluffs and ravines on the eastern bank of the Appalachicola 
River, in Gadsdeu County, western Florida, from Aspalaga to the neighborhood of 
Bristol. 



102 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



CLASS 2. ANGIOSPER1VLE. 

Carpels or pistils consisting of a closed cavity containing the ovules 
and becoming the fruit. 

DIVISION I. MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

Stems with woody fibres distributed irregularly through them, but 
without pith or annual layers of growth. Parts of the flower in 3's : 
ovary superior ; embryo with a single cotyledon. Leaves parallel- 
veined, alternate, long-persistent, without stipules. 

HI. PALM-SI. PALMS. 

Trees, growing by a single terminal bud, with stems covered with a thick 
rind, usually marked below by the ring-like scars of fallen leaf-stalks, and 
clothed above by their long-persistent sheaths ; occasionally stemless. Leaves 
clustered at the top of the stem, plaited in the bud, fan-shaped or pinnate, 
their rachises sometimes reduced to a narrow border, long-stalked, with petioles 
dilated into clasping sheaths of tough fibres (vaginas), on fan-shaped leaves, 
furnished at the apex on the upper side with a thickened concave body (ligule). 
Flowers minute, perfect or unisexual, in the axils of small thin mostly decid- 
uous bracts, in large compound clusters (spadix) surrounded by boat-shaped 
bracts (spathes) ; sepals and petals free or more or less united ; stamens 
usually 6 ; anthers 2-celled, introrse, opening longitudinally ; ovary 3-celled, 
with a single ovule in each cell ; styles 13. Fruit a drupe or berry ; embryo 
cylindrical in a cavity of the hard albumen near the circumference of the seed. 
Of the 130 genera now usually recognized and chiefly inhabitants of the tropics, 
seven have arborescent representatives in the United States. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Leaves fan-shaped. 
Leaf-stalks unarmed. 

Calyx and corolla united into a short 6-lobed cup. 

Fruit white, drupaceous ; albumen even. 1. Thrinax. 

Fruit black, baccate ; albumen channeled. 2. Coccothrinax. 

Perianth of a distinct calyx and corolla. 

Filaments subulate, united below into a slender cup adnate to the base of the corolla ; 
fruit baccate. 3. Sabal. 

Leaf -stalks armed with marginal spines. 

Filaments slender, free ; fruit baccate. 4. Washingtonia. 

Filaments triangular, united into a cup adnate to the base of the corolla ; fruit dru- 
paceous. 5. Sereiioa. 
Leaves pinnate. 

Flower-clusters produced on the stem below the leaves ; fruit violet-blue. 

6. Roystonea. 
Flower-clusters produced from among the leaves ; fruit bright orange-scarlet. 

7. Fseudophcenix. 






PALM^E 103 

1. THRINAX, Sw. 

Small unarmed trees, with stems covered with pale gray rind. Leaves orbicular, or 
truncate at the base, thick and firm, usually silvery white on the lower surface, divided 
to below the middle into narrow acuminate parted segments with thickened margins 
and midribs; rachises narrow borders, with thin usually undulate margins; ligules 
thick, concave, pointed, lined while young with hoary tomeutum ; petioles com- 
pressed, rounded above and below, thin and smooth on the margins, with large clasp- 
ing bright mahogany-red sheaths of slender matted fibres covered with thick hoary 
tomentura. Spadix interfoliar, stalked, its primary branches short, alternate, flat- 
tened, incurved, with numerous slender rounded flower-bearing branchlets; spathes 
numerous, tubular, coriaceous, cleft and more or less tomentose at the apex. Flowers 
opening in May and June, and occasionally irregularly in the autumn, solitary, per- 
fect ; perianth 6-lobed ; stamens inserted on the base of the perianth, with subulate 
filaments thickened and only slightly united at the base, or nearly triangular and 
united into a cup adnate to the perianth, and oblong anthers; ovary 1-celled, grad- 
ually narrowed into a stout columnar style crowned by a large funnel-formed flat or 
oblique stigma; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a globose drupe with juicy bitter ivory 
white flesh easily separable from the thin-shelled tawny brown nut. Seed free, erect, 
slightly flattened at the ends, with an oblong pale conspicuous subbasilar hihun, a 
short-branched raphe, a thin coat, and uniform albumen more or less deeply pene- 
trated by a broad basal cavity ; embryo lateral. 

Thrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World and is distributed from south- 
ern Florida through the West Indies to the shores of Central America. Seven or 
eight species are now generally recognized. 

The wood of the Florida species is light and soft, with numerous small fibro-vascu- 
lar bundles, the exterior of the stem being much harder than the spongy interior. 
The stems are used for the piles of small wharves and turtle crawls, and the leaves 
for thatch, and in making hats, baskets, and small ropes. 

Thrinax, from 6piva. is in allusion to the shape of the leaves. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Flowers on elongated pedicels ; perianth obscurely lobed ; filaments subulate, barely united 
at the base ; stigma oblique. 1. T. Floridana (D). 

Flowers on short pedicels; lobes of the perianth ovate, acuminate ; filaments nearly trian- 
gular, united below into a cup ; stigma flat. 

Seeds pale chestnut-brown ; spadix about 6 long ; leaves 3-4 in diameter. 

i'. T. Keyensia (D). 

Seeds dark chestnut -brown ; spadix less than 3 long ; leaves not over 2 in diameter. 

3. T. microcarpa (D) 

1. Thrinax Floridana, Sarg. Thatch. 

Leaves 2^-3 in diameter, rather longer than broad, yellow-green and lustrous on 
the upper surface, silvery white on the lower surface, with long-pointed, bright 
orange-colored ligules |' long and broad; their petioles 4-4^ long, pale yellow-green 
or orange color toward the apex, coated at first with hoary deciduous tomentum, 
much thickened and tomentose toward the base. Flowers: spadix 3-3^ long, 
the primary branches 6'-8' long and ivory-white, flower-bearing branches l^'-2' in 
length. Flowers on slender pedicels nearly ' long, ivory-white, very fragrant, with 



104 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

an obscurely-lobed perianth, much exserted stamens barely united at the base, and 
an oblique stigma. Fruit -f' in diameter, somewhat depressed at the ends; seeds 




from -|' to nearly \' in diameter, dark chestnut-brown, penetrated almost to the 
apex by the broad basal cavity. 

A tree, with a slightly tapering stem 20-30 high and 4'-6' in diameter, clothed 
to the middle and occasionally almost to the ground with the sheaths of dead leaf- 
stalks. 

Distribution. Florida, dry coral ridges and sandy shores of keys from Long Key 
to Torch Key, and on the mainland from Cape Romano to Cape Sable. 

2. Thrinax Keyensis, Sarg. Thatch. 

Leaves rather longer than broad, 3-4 long, the lowest segments parallel with the 
petiole or spreading from it nearly at right angles, light yellow-green and lustrous 
on the upper surface, with bright orange-colored margins, below coated while young 




with deciduous hoary tomentum and pale blue-green and more or less covered 
with silvei-y white pubescence at maturity, with thick pointed ligules 1' long and 
wide, lined at first with hoary tomentum ; their petioles flattened above, obscurely 



PALMJS 105 

ridged on the lower surface, tomentose while young, pale blue-green, 3-4 long. 
Flowers: spadix usually about 6 long, spreading and gracefully incurved, with 
spathes more or less coated with hoary tomentum, large compressed primary 
branches, and short bright orange-colored flower-bearing branches. Flowers on short 
thick disk-like pedicels, about \' long, white, slightly fragrant, with a tubular 
perianth, the lobes broadly ovate and acute, stamens with nearly triangular filaments 
united at the base, and a flat stigma. Fruit fa' to nearly ^' in diameter; seeds 
brown, ^' in diameter, penetrated only to the middle by the basal cavity. 

A tree, with a stem often 25 high and 10'-14' in diameter, raised on a base 
of thick matted roots 2-3 high and 18'-20' in diameter, and a broad head of 
leaves, the upper erect, the lower pendulous and closely pressed against the stem. 

Distribution. Dry sandy soil close to the beach on the north side of the largest 
of the Marquesas Keys, and on Crab Key, a small island to the westward of Torch 
Key, one of the Bahia Honda group, Florida; on the Bahamas. 

3. Thrinax microcarpa, Sarg. Silver-top Palmetto. Brittle Thatch. 

Leaves 2-3 across, pale green above, silvery white below, more or less thickly 
coated while young with hoary tomentum, especially on the lower surface, divided 




near the base almost to the rachis, with orbicular thick concave ligules lined with 
a thick coat of white tomentum; their petioles thin and flexuose. Flowers: spadix 
elongated, with short compressed erect branches slightly spreading below, numerous 
slender pendulous flower-bearing branches, and long acute spathes deeply parted 
at the apex, coriaceous and coated above the middle with thick hoary tomentum. 
Flowers on short thick disk-like pedicels, with a cupular perianth, the lobes broadly 
ovate and acute, stamens with thin nearly triangular exserted filaments slightly 
united at the base and oblong anthers becoming reversed and extrorse at maturity, 
and a deep orange-colored ovary narrowed above into a short thick style dilated 
into a large funnel-formed stigma. Fruit globose, -|' in diameter; seeds subglobose, 
bright to dark chestnut-brown, depressed, penetrated nearly to the middle by the 
broad basal cavity. 

A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 8'-10' in diameter. 

Distribution. Dry coral soil, on the shores of Sugar Loaf Sound, and on No 
Name and Bahia Honda keys, Florida. 



106 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



2. COCCOTHRINAX, Sarg. 

Small unarmed trees, with simple or clustered stems or rarely stemless. Leaves 
orbicular, or truncate at the base, pale or silvery white on the lower surface, divided 
into narrow obliquely-folded segments acuminate and divided at the apex; rachises 
narrow; ligules thin, free, erect, concave, pointed at the apex; petioles compressed, 
slightly rounded and ridged above and below, thin and smooth on the margins, 
gradually enlarged below into elongated sheaths of coarse fibres forming an open 
network covered while young by thick hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, panicu- 
late, shorter than the leaf-stalks, its primary branches furnished with numerous 
short slender pendulous flower-bearing secondary branches; spathes numerous, papery, 
cleft at the apex. Flowers solitary, perfect, jointed on elongated slender pedicels; 
perianth cup-shaped, obscurely-lobed ; stamens 9, inserted on the base of the perianth, 
with subulate filaments enlarged and barely united at the base, and oblong anthers; 
ovary 1-celled, narrowed into a slender style crowned by a funnel-formed oblique 
stigma; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a subglobose berry raised on the thickened torus 
of the flower, with thick juicy black flesh. Seed free, erect, depressed-globose, with 
a thick hard vertically-grooved shell deeply infolded in the bony albumen; hilum 
subbasilar, minute; raphe hidden in the folds of the seed-coat; embryo lateral. 

Coccothrinax is confined to the tropics of the New World. Two species, of which 
one is stemless, inhabit southern Florida, and at least two other species are scat- 
tered over several of the West Indian islands. 

Coccothrinax, from K&KKGS and Thrinax, is in allusion to the berry-like fruit. 

1. Coccothrinax jucunda, Sarg. Brittle Thatch. 

Leaves nearly orbicular, the lower segments usually parallel with the petiole, thin 
and brittle, 18'-24' in diameter, divided below the middle of the leaf or toward its 




base nearly to the ligule, with much-thickened bright orange-colored midribs and mar- 
gins, pale yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, bright silvery white and 
coated at first on the lower surface with hoary deciduous pubescence, with thin undu- 
late obtusely short-pointed dark orange-colored rachises, thin concave crescent- shaped 
often oblique slightly undulate short-pointed and light or dark orange-colored ligules 



107 

I' wide, ' deep, their petioles slender, pale, yellow-green, 2^-3 long. Flowers : 
spadix 18'-24' long, with flattened stalks, slender much-flattened primary branches 
8'-10' long and light orange-colored slender terete flower-bearing branches l^'-3' 
long, and pale reddish brown spathes coated toward the ends with pale pubescence. 
Flowers opening in June and irregularly also in the autumn on ridged spreading 
pedicels ^' long, with an orange-colored ovary surmounted by an elongated style 
dilated into a rose-colored stigma. Fruit ripening at the end of six months, from 
V-|' in diameter, bright green at first when fully grown, becoming deep violet color, 
with succulent very juicy flesh, ultimately black and lustrous; seeds light tawny 
brown. 

A tree, with a stem slightly enlarged from the ground upward, 15-25 high, 4'-6' 
thick, covered with pale blue rind, and surmounted by a broad head of leaves at first 
erect, then spreading and ultimately pendulous. "Wood used for the piles of small 
wharves and turtle crawls. The soft tough young leaves are made into hats and 
baskets. 

Distribution. Dry coral ridges and sandy flats from the shores of Bay Biscayne 
along many of the southern keys to the Marquesas group, Florida. 

3. SABAL, Adans. Palmetto. 

Unarmed trees, with stout columnar stems covered with red-brown rind. Leaves 
flabellate, tough and coriaceous, divided into many narrow long-pointed parted 
segments plicately folded at the base, often separating on the margins into narrow 
threads; rachises extending nearly to the middle of the leaves, rounded and broadly 
winged toward the base on the lower side, thin and acute on the upper side; ligules 
adnate to the rachises, acute, concave, with thin incurved entire margins; petioles 
rounded and concave on the lower side, conspicuously ridged on the upper side, acute 
and entire on the margins, with elongated chestnut-brown shining sheaths of stout 
fibres. Spadix interfoliar, stalked, decompound, with a flattened stem, short branches, 
slender densely flowered ultimate branches, and numerous acuminate spathes, the 
outer persistent and becoming broad and woody. Flowers solitary, perfect, calyx 
tubular, unequally lobed, the lobes slightly imbricated in the bud; corolla deeply 
lobed, with narrow ovate-oblong concave acute lobes valvate at the apex in the bud; 
stamens 6, those opposite the corolla-lobes rather longer than the others, with subu- 
late filaments united below into a shallow cup adnate to the tube of the corolla and 
ovate anthers, their cells free and spreading at the base; ovary of 3 carpels, 3-lobed, 
3-celled, gradually narrowed into an elongated 3-lobed style truncate and stigmatic 
at the apex; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit a small black 1 or 2 or 3-lobed short-stemmed 
berry with thin sweet dry flesh. Seed depressed-globose, marked on the side by the 
prominent micropyle, with a shallow pit near the minute basal hilum, a thin seed-coat, 
and a ventral raphe; embryo minute, dorsal, in horny uniform albumen penetrated 
by a hard shallow basal cavity filled by the thickening of the seed-coat. 

Sabal belongs to the New World, and is distributed from the Bermuda Islands 
and the south Atlantic and Gulf states of North America, through the West Indies 
to Venezuela and Mexico. 

Of the eight species now recognized four inhabit the United States; of these two 
are small stemless plants. 

The generic name is of uncertain origin. 



108 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Spadix short ; fruit subglobose, 1-celled ; seed-coat light chestnut color. 

1. S. Palmetto (C). 

Spadix elongated ; fruit often 2 or 3-lobed, with 2 or 3 seeds ; seed-coat dark chestnut- 
brown. 2. S. Mexicaiia (E). 

1. Sabal Palmetto, R. & S. Cabbage Tree. Cabbage Palmetto. 
Leaves 5-6 long and 7-8 broad, dark green and lustrous, deeply divided 
into narrow parted recurved segments, with ligules 4' long; their petioles 6-7 long 
and \\' wide at the apex. Flowers : spadix 2-2 long, with slender incurved 
branches, slender ultimate divisions, and thin secondary spathes flushed with red at 
the apex and conspicuously marked by pale slender longitudinal veins. Flowers in 
the axils of minute deciduous bracts much shorter than the perianth, opening in 




June. Fruit ripening late in the autumn, subglobose or slightly obovate, gradu- 
ally narrowed at the base, 1-seeded, about ' in diameter ; seeds light bright chestnut- 
colored, \' broad. 

A tree, with a trunk often 30-40 high, and 2 in diameter, broken by shallow 
irregular interrupted fissures into broad ridges, with a short pointed knob-like under- 
ground stem surrounded by a dense mass of contorted roots often 4 or 5 in diameter 
and 5 or 6 deep, from which tough light orange-colored roots often nearly ^' in 
diameter penetrate the soil for a distance of 15 or 20, and a broad crown of leaves at 
first upright, then spreading nearly at right angles with the stem, and finally pendu- 
lous. Wood light, soft, pale brown, with numerous hard fibro-vascular bundles, the 
outer rim about 2' thick and much lighter and softer than the interior. In the south- 
ern states the trunks are used for wharf-piles, and polished cross sections of the 
stem sometimes serve for the tops of small tables; the wood is largely manufactured 
into canes. From the sheaths of young leaves the bristles of scrubbing-brushes are 
made. The large succulent leaf-buds are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, and coarse 
hats, mats, and baskets are made from the leaves. Pieces of the spongy bark of the 
stem are used as a substitute for scrubbing-brushes. 

Distribution. Sandy soil in the immediate neighborhood of the coast from 
Smith Island at the mouth of Cape Fear River, North Carolina, to Key Largo, 



PALM^E 109 

Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the mouth of the Appalachicola River; most 
abundant and of its largest size on the west coast of the Florida peninsula. 
Occasionally cultivated for ornament in the cities of the south Atlantic states. 

2. Sabal Mexicana, Mart. Palmetto. 

Leaves dark yellow-green and lustrous, 5-6 long, often 7 wide, divided nearly 
to the middle into narrow divided segments, with thickened pale margins sepa- 




rating into long thin fibres, with ligules about 6' long, their petioles 7-8 long, 1^' 
wide at the apex. Flowers : spadix 7-8 long, with stout ultimate divisions. 
Flowers in Texas appearing in March or April in the axils of persistent bracts half 
as long as the perianth. Fruit ripening early in the summer, globose, often 2 or 
3-lobed; seeds nearly \' broad and ' wide, dark chestnut-brown, with a broad shallow 
basal cavity and a conspicuous orange-colored hilum. 

A tree, with a trunk 30-50 high, often 1\ in diameter, and a broad head of erect 
ultimately pendulous leaves. Wood light, soft, pale brown tinged with red, with thick 
light-colored rather inconspicuous fibro-vascular bundles, the outer rim 1' thick, soft, 
and light-colored. On the Gulf coast the trunks are used for wharf-piles, and on the 
lower Rio Grande the leaves for the thatch of houses. 

Distribution. Rich soil of the bottom-lands near the mouth of the Rio Grande 
in Texas, and southward in Mexico in the neighborhood of the coast. Frequently 
planted as a street tree in the towns on the lower Rio Grande. 

4. WASHINGTONIA. H. Wendl. 

Trees, with stout columnar stems and broad crowns of erect and spreading finally 
pendulous leaves. Leaves flabellate, divided nearly to the middle into many narrow 
deeply parted recurved segments separating on the margins into numerous slender 
pale fibres; rachises short, slightly rounded on the back, gradually narrowed from a 
broad base, with concaved margins furnished below with narrow erect wings, and 
slender and acute above; ligules elongated, oblong, thin and laciniate on the margins; 
petioles elongated, broad and thin, flattened or slightly concave on the upper side, 
rounded on the lower, armed irregularly with broad thin large and small straight 
or hooked spines confluent into a thin bright orange-colored cartilaginous margin, 



110 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



gradually enlarged at the base into thick broad concave bright chestnut-brown 
sheaths composed of a network of thin strong fibres. Spadix interfoliar, stalked, 
elongated, paniculate, with pendulous flower-bearing ultimate divisions and numerous 
long spathes. Flowers perfect, jointed on thick disk-like pedicels; calyx tubular, 
scarious, thickened at the base, gradually enlarged and slightly lobed at the apex, 
the lobes imbricated in the bud; corolla funnel-formed, with a fleshy tube inclosed 
in the calyx and about half as long as the lanceolate lobes, thickened and glandular 
on the inner surface at the base, imbricated in the bud; stamens inserted on the 
tube of the corolla, with free filaments thickened near the middle and linear-oblong 
anthers; ovary 3-lobed, 3-celled, with slender elongated flexuose styles stigmatic at 
the apex; ovules lateral, erect. Fruit a small ellipsoidal short-stalked black berry 
with thin dry flesh. Seed free, erect, oblong-ovate, concave above, with a flat base 
depressed in the centre, a minute sublateral hilum, a broad conspicuous rachis, a 
minute lateral micropyle, and a thin pale chestnut-brown inner coat closely investing 
the simple horny albumen; embryo minute, lateral, with the radicle turned toward 
the base of the fruit. 

Two species of Washingtonia are known: one inhabits the interior dry region of 
southern California and the adjacent parts of Lower California, and the second the 
mountain canons of western Sonora and southern Lower California. 

The genus is named for George Washington. 

1. Washingtonia filamentosa, O. Kuntze. Desert Palm. Fan Palm. 
Leaves 5-6 long and 4-5 wide, light green, slightly tomentose on the folds, 
their petioles 4-6 long and about 2' broad at the apex, with sheaths 16'-18' long 
and 12'-14' wide, and ligules 4' long and cut irregularly into long narrow lobes. 




Flowers: spadix 10-12 long, 3 or 4 being produced each year from the axils 
of upper leaves, the outer spathe inclosing the bud, narrow, elongated, and gla- 
brous, those of the secondary branches coriaceous, yellow tinged with brown, and 
laciniate at the apex. Flowers slightly fragrant, opening late in May or early in 
June. Fruit produced in great profusion, ripening in September, ^' long; seeds 
\' long, \' thick. 

A tree, occasionally 75 high, with a trunk sometimes 50-60 tall and 2-3 in 
diameter, covered with a thick light red-brown scaly rind and clothed with a thick 



111 

thatch of dead pendant leaves descending in a regular cone from the broad crown of 
living leaves sometimes nearly to the ground. Wood light and soft, with numerous 
conspicuous dark orange-colored fibro-vascular bundles. The fruit is gathered and 
used as food by the Indians. 

Distribution. Often forming extensive groves or small isolated clumps in wet 
usually alkali soil in depressions of the Colorado Desert in southern California, 
sometimes extending for several miles up the canons of the San Bernardino and San 
Jacinto mountains, and in Lower California. 

Now largely cultivated in southern California, southern Europe, and other tem- 
perate regions. 

5. SERENOA, Hook. f. 

Unarmed trees and shrubs, with tall often clustered stems, or on one species 
with subterranean stems. Leaves semiorbicular, truncate at the base, coriaceous, 
divided from the apex to below the middle into numerous parted segments ob- 
liquely folded at the base; rachises short, acute; ligules thin, concave, abruptly 
short-pointed, with a broad thin dark red deciduous border; petioles slender, flat on 
the upper, rounded and ribbed on the lower surface, denticulate on the margins, 
with thin light mahogany-red sheaths of slender fibres. Spadix interfoliar, pani- 
culate, elongated, with a slender compressed stem and numerous slender elongated 
gracefully drooping flat branches coated with hoary tomentum, slender terete flower- 
bearing secondary branches, and flattened clavate spathes furnished at the apex 
with a thin red-brown border. Flowers perfect, sessile, solitary, or in 2 or 3-flow- 
ered clusters; calyx unequally lobed, the lobes valvate in the bud; corolla parted 
nearly to the base, its divisions valvate in the btod, oblong, thick, concave, acute, 
grooved on the inner surface with 2 or 3 deep depressions; stamens with nearly 
triangular filaments united below into a cup adnate to the tube of the corolla, and 
short-oblong anthers; ovary of 3 carpels, free below, united above into a long slen- 
der style tipped with a minute stigma; ovule erect from the bottom of the cell. 
Fruit a 1-seeded black drupe, the outer coat thin and fleshy, the inner orange- 
brown, resinous, fibrous, and strong-smelling, closely investing the pale brown thin- 
shelled nut. Seed erect, with a hard chestnut-brown coat, lighter-colored with a 
conspicuous mark on the ventral side, a small subbasilar hilum, and an elongated 
ventral raphe; embryo lateral in homogeneous albumen. 

Serenoa, with two species, is confined to the south Atlantic and Gulf region of North 
America. One species is arborescent, the other is a low shrub often occupying wide 
areas of sandy barren soil from South Carolina to Louisiana. 

Serenoa commemorates the botanical labors of Sereno Watson. 

1. Serenoa arboresceiis, Sarg. 

Leaves about 2 in diameter, light yellow-green on the upper surface, blue-green 
on the lower surface, divided nearly to the base into numerous lobes, slightly thick- 
ened at the pale yellow midribs and margins, their petioles 18'-24' long, armed 
with stout flattened curved orange-colored teeth. Flowers: spadix 3-4 long, 
with a slender much-flattened stalk, paniclod lower branches 18'-20' in length, and 
6-8 thick firm pale green conspicuously ribbed spathes deeply divided and dilated 
at the apex into a narrow membranaceous border. Flowers solitary toward the 
ends of the branches and in 2 or 3-flowered clusters at their base, with a light chest- 
nut-brown calyx and a pale yellow-green corolla. Fruit globose, \' in diameter; 



112 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

seeds subglobose, somewhat flattened below, with a pale vertical mark on' the lower 
side, and a minute hilum joined to the micropyle by a pale band. 

A tree, from 30-40 high, with 1 or several clustered erect inclining or occa- 




sionally semiprostrate stems 3'-4' in diameter, covered almost to the ground by 
the closely clasping bases of the leaf-stalks and below with a thick pale rind. 

Distribution. Low undrained soil covered for many months of every year in 
water from 1/-18' deep, occasionally occupying almost exclusively areas of several 
acres in extent or more often scattered among Cypress-trees or Royal Palms, in the 
swamps and along the hummocks adjacent to the Chokoloskee River and its tribu- 
taries in southwestern Florida. 

6. ROYSTONEA, Cook. Royal Palm. 

Unarmed trees, with massive stems enlarged near the middle, and terminating in 
long slender bright green cylinders formed by the densely imbricated sheaths of 
the leaf-stalks. Leaves equally pinnate, with linear-lanceolate long-pointed un- 
equally cleft plicately-folded pinnae inserted obliquely on the upper side of the rachis, 
folded together at the base, with thin midribs and margins; rachises convex on the 
back, broad toward the base of the leaf and acute toward its apex; petioles semi- 
cylindrical, gradually enlarged into thick elongated green sheaths. Spadix large, 
decompound, produced near the base of the green part of the stem, with long 
pendulous branches and 2 spathes, the outer semicylindrical and as long as the 
spadix, the inner splitting ventrally arid inclosing the branches of the spadix. 
Flowers monoecious, in a loose spiral, toward the base of the branch in 3-flowered 
clusters, with a central staminate and smaller lateral pistillate flowers, higher on the 
branch the staminate in 2-flowered clusters; calyx of the staminate flower of minute 
broadly ovate obtuse scarious sepals imbricated in the bud, much shorter than the 
corolla; petals nearly equal, valvate in the bud, ovate or obovate, acute, slightly 
united at the base, coriaceous; stamens 6, 9, or 12, with subulate filaments united 
below and adnate to the base of the corolla, and large ovate-sagittate anthers, the 
cells free below; ovary rudimentary, subglobose or 3-lobed; pistillate flowers much 
smaller, ovoid-conical; sepals obtuse; corolla erect, divided to the middle into acute 



PALM.E 



113 



erect lobes incurved at the apex; stain inodia 6, scale-like, united into a cup adnate to 
the corolla; ovary subglobose, obscurely 2 or 3-lobed, 2 or 3-celled, gibbous, the cells 
crowned with a 3-lobed stigma becoming subbasilar on the fruit; ovule ascending. 
Fruit a short-stalked drupe with thin crustaceous flesh. Seed oblong-reniform, 
marked by the conspicuous fibrous reticulate branches of the raphe radiating from 
the narrow basal hilum, and covered with a thin crustaceous coat; embryo minute, 
cylindrical, lateral, in uniform albumen. 

Roystonea is* confined to the tropics of the New World, where two or three species 
occur. 

The genus as here limited was named for General Roy Stone of the United States 
army. 

1. Roystonea regia, Cook. Royal Palm. 
(Oreodoxa regia, Silca N. Am. x. 31.) 

Leaves 10-12 long, closely pinnate, the pinnae 2^-3 long, !' wide near the 
base of the leaf, and gradually decreasing in size toward its apex, deep green with 
slender conspicuous veins, and covered below with minute pale glandular dots, their 
petioles almost terete, concave near the base, with thin edges separating irregularly 




into pale fibres, and enlarged into bright green cylindrical clasping bases 8 or 9 
long and more or less covered with dark chaffy scales. Flowers: spadix about 2 long, 
with a nearly terete peduncle and slightly ridged primary and secondary branches 
compressed above, abruptly enlarged at the base, and simple slender flexuose long- 
pointed flower-bearing branchlets 3' -6' long, pendant and closely pressed against 
the secondary branches. Flowers opening in Florida in January and February, the 
staminate nearly \' long and rather more than twice as long as the pistillate. Fruit 
oblong-obovate, full and rounded at the apex, narrowed at the base, violet-blue, 
about ' long, with a thin outer coat and a light red-brown inner coat, loose and 
fibrous on the outer surface, and closely investing the thin light brown seed. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a trunk rising from an abruptly enlarged base, grad- 
ually tapering from the middle to the ends and often 2 in diameter, covered with 
light gray rind tinged with orange color, marked with dark blotches and irregularly 
broken into minute plates, the green upper portion 8-10 long, and a broad head 
of gracefully drooping leaves. Wood of the interior of the stein spongy, pale brown, 



114 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

much lighter than the hard exterior rim, containing numerous dark conspicuous fibro- 
vascular bundles. The outer portion of the stem is made into canes, and the trunks 
are sometimes used for wharf-piles and in construction. 

Distribution. Florida, hummocks on Rogue River twenty miles east of Caximbas 
Bay, Long's Key, and the shores of Bay Biscay ne near the mouth of Little River; 
common in the West Indies and Central America. 

Largely cultivated as an ornamental tree in tropical countries, and often planted 
to form avenues, for which its tall pale columnar stems and noble heads of graceful 
foliage make it valuable. 

7. PSEUDOPHCBNIX, H. Wendl. 

A tree, with a slender stem abruptly enlarged at the base or tapering from the 
middle to the ends, covered with thin pale blue or nearly white rind, and conspicu- 
ously marked by the dark scars of fallen leaf-stalks. Leaves erect, abruptly pinnate, 
with crowded linear- lanceolate acuminate leaflets increasing in length and width 
from the ends to the middle of the leaf, thick and firm in texture, dark yellow-green 
above, pale and glaucous below; rachises convex on the lower side, concave on the 
upper side near the base of the leaf, with thin margins, becoming toward the apex of 
the leaf flat and narrowed below and acute above, marked on the sides at the base 
with dark gland-like excrescences; petioles short, concave above, with thin entire 
margins separating into slender fibres, gradually enlarged into broad thick sheaths 
of short brittle fibres. Spadix interfoliar, compound, pendulous, stalked, much 
shorter than the leaves, witli spreading primary branches, stout and much flattened 
toward the base, slender and rounded above the middle, furnished at the base with 
a thickened ear-like body, slender secondary branches, short thin rigid densely flow- 
ered ultimate divisions, and compressed light green double spathes eroded on their 




thin dark brown margins. Flowers unknown. Fruit a stalked globose 2 or 3-lobed 
orange-scarlet thin-fleshed drupe marked by the lateral style and surrounded below 
by the withered remnants of a 3-lobed calyx, oblong reflexed petals, and 6 slender 
spreading staminodia tipped with abortive anthers; peduncle abruptly enlarged at 
the base, articulate from a persistent cushion-like body furnished in the centre witli 






115 

a minute point penetrating a cavity in the base of the peduncle. Seed subglobose, 
free, erect, with a basal hilum and a thin light red-brown coat marked by the pale 
conspicuous ascending 2 or 3-branched raphe; embryo minute, basal, in uniform 
horny albumen. 

PseudopluEnix with a single species inhabits the keys of southern Florida, and the 
Bahamas. 

The generic name is in allusion to a fancied resemblance to Phoenix, a genns of 
Palms. 

1. Pseudophcenix Sargenti, H. Wendl. 

Leaves 5-6 long, with pinnae often 18' long and 1' wide near the middle of 
the leaf, becoming at its extremities not more than half as long and wide; their 
petioles 6'-8' in length. Flowers : spadix 3 long and 2^ wide. Fruit ripening in 
May and June, ^'-f in diameter on a peduncle \' long; seeds -}' in diameter. 

Distribution. Florida, east end of Elliott's Key, and east end of Key Largo near 
the southern shore, here forming a grove of 200 or 300 plants. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of southern Florida. 



IV. LILIACE-ffi. 
(YUCCLE.) 

Leaves, alternate, linear-lanceolate. Flowers in terminal panicles ; sepals 
and petals nearly similar, subequal, withering-persistent ; ovary with more or 
less deeply introduced dorsal partitions ; ovules numerous, 2-ranked in each 
cell ; embryo subulate, obliquely placed across the seed ; cotyledon arched in 
germination. 

Yuccae as here limited consists of two American genera, Hesperaloe. with two 
species, low plants of Texas and Mexico, and Yucca. 

1. YUCCA, L. 

Trees, with simple or branched stems prolonged by axillary naked buds, dark 
thick corky bark, light fibrous wood in concentric layers, and large stout horizontal 
roots. Leaves involute in the bud, at first erect, usually becoming reflexed, abruptly 
narrowed above the broad thickened clasping base, usually widest near the middle, 
concave on the upper surface, involute toward the horny usually sharp-pointed apex, 
convex and often slightly keeled toward the base on the lower surface, the margins 
serrulate or filamentose, light or dull green. Flowers fertilized by insects and open- 
ing for a single night, on slender pedicels in 2 or 3-flowered clusters or singly at the 
base of the large compound panicle furnished with conspicuous leathery white or 
slightly colored bracts, those at the base of the pedicels thin and scarious; perianth 
cup-shaped, with thick ovate-lanceolate creamy white segments more or less united 
at the base, usually furnished with small tufts of white hairs at the apex, those of the 
outer rank narrower, shorter, and more colored than the more delicate petal-like 
segments of the inner rank; stamens 6, in 2 series, free, shorter than the ovary (as 
long in 1), white, with club-shaped fleshy filaments, obtuse and slightly 3-lobed at 
the apex, and cordate emarginate anthers attached on the back, the cells opening 
longitudinally, curling backward and expelling the large globose powdery pollen- 
grains; ovary oblong, 6-sided, sessile or stalked, with nectar-glands within the par- 
titions, dull greenish white, 3-celled, gradually narrowed into a short or elongated 



116 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

3-lobed ivory-white style forming a triangular stigmatic tube. Fruit oblong or oval, 
more or less distinctly 6-angled, 6-celled, usually beaked at the apex, baccate and 
indehisceut or capsular and 3-valved, the valves finally separating at the apex; peri- 
carp of 2 coats, the outer at maturity thick, succulent and juicy, thin, dry and 
leathery, or thin and woody. Seeds compressed, triangular, obovate or obliquely ovate 
or orbicular, thick, with a narrow 2-edged rim, or thin, with a wide or narrow brittle 
margin; seed-coat thin, black, slightly rugose or smooth; embryo in plain or rarely 
ruminate hard farinaceous oily albumen; cotyledon much longer than the short 
radicle turned toward the small oblong white hilum. 

Yucca is confined to the New World and is distributed from Bermuda and the 
eastern Antilles, through the south Atlantic and Gulf states, and through New Mex- 
ico and northward along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to South Dakota, 
westward to middle California, and southward through Arizona, Mexico, and Lower 
California to Central America. About thirty species with many varieties and probable 
hybrids are recognized. Of the species which inhabit the territory of the United 
States nine assume the habit and attain the size of small trees. The root-stalks of 
Yucca are used as a substitute for soap, and ropes, baskets, and mats are made from 
the tough fibres of the leaves. Many of the species are cultivated, especially in 
countries of scanty rainfall, for their great clusters of beautiful flowers, or in hedges 
to protect gardens from cattle. 

The generic name is from the Carib name of the root of the Cassava. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE ARBORESCENT SPECIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Flower-clusters usually sessile, or short-stalked. 

Fruit pendulous, with thick succulent flesh ; seeds thick ; albumen ruminate. 
Segments of the perianth slightly united at the base. 
Panicle glabrous or puberulous. 
Ovary stipitate. 

Leaves sharply toothed on their horny margins, smooth, dark green, slightly con- 
cave. 1. Y. aloifolia (C). 
Ovary sessile. 

Leaves concave, blue-green, rough on the lower surface. 

2. Y. Treculeana (E). 
Leaves concave above the middle, smooth, light yellow-green. 

Style elongated. 3. Y. macrocarpa (E, H). 

Style short. 4. Y. Mohavensis (G, H). 

Panicle coated with hoary tomentum. 

Leaves concave, smooth, light yellow-green. 5. Y. Schottii (H). 

Segments of the perianth united below into a narrow tube. 

Leaves flat, smooth, dark green. 6. Y. Faxoniana (E). 

Fruit erect or spreading, the flesh becoming thin and dry at maturity ; seeds thin ; albu- 
men entire. 

Leaves concave above the middle, blue-green, sharply serrate. 

7. Y. arborescens (F, G). 

Leaves thin, flat or concave toward the apex, rough on the lower surface, dull or 
glaucous green, more or less plicately folded. 8. Y. gloriosa (C). 

Flower-clusters long-stalked ; fruit capsular, erect, finally splitting between the carpels 
and through their backs at the apex ; seeds thin ; albumen entire. 

Leaves thin, flat, filamentose on the margins, smooth, pale yellow-green. 

9. Y. radiosa (E. H). 



LILIACE^E 

1. Fruit with thick succulent flesh. 
* Segments of the flower slightly united at the base. 



117 



1. Yucca aloifolia, L. Spanish Bayonet. 

Leaves 18'-32' long, l\'-2% wide, erect, rigid, conspicuously narrowed above the 
light green base, widest above the middle, slightly concave on the upper surface, 
smooth, dark rich green, with stiff dark red-brown spines and horny finely and ir- 
regularly serrate margins; long-persistent. Flowers from June until August on 
stout pedicels, in nearly sessile glabrous or slightly pubescent panicles 18'-24/ long; 
perianth I'-l^' in length and 3' or 4' across when fully expanded, the segments 
ovate, thick and tumid toward the base, those of the outer rank rounded and often 




marked with purple at the apex, the inner acuminate and short-pointed ; stamens as 
long or sometimes a little longer than the light green ovary raised on a short stout 
stipe. Fruit ripening from August to October, elongated, elliptical, hexagonal, 
3' -4' long, l^'-l^' thick, light green when fully grown, and in ripening turning 
dark purple, the outer and inner coats forming a thick succulent mass of bitter- 
sweet juicy flesh, finally becoming black and drying on its stalk; seeds \'-^' broad, 
about -j^' thick, with thin narrow ring-like borders to the rim. 

A tree, occasionally 25 high, usually much smaller, with an erect or more or less 
inclining simple or branched trunk slightly swollen at the base, and rarely more 
than 6' in diameter; sometimes with numerous clustered stems. Bark near the 
base of the trunk thick, rough, dark brown, marked above by scars left by falling 
leaves. 

Distribution. Sand dunes of the coast from North Carolina to eastern Louisi- 
ana ; west of the Appalachicola River attaining its largest size and sometimes 
ranging inland through Pine forests for thirty or forty miles. 

A common garden plant in all countries with a temperate climate, and long natu- 
ralized in some of the West Indian islands and on the Gulf coast of Mexico. Forms 
with leaves variously striped with white, yellow, and red are frequent in cultivation. 

2. Yucca Treculeana, Carr. Spanish Bayonet. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 2^^ long, 2'-3^' wide, slightly or not at all contracted above the 
dark red lustrous base, concave, stiff, rigid, dark blue-green, rough on the lower sur- 



118 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

face, nearly smooth on the upper, with short stout dark red-brown spines and dark 
brown margins roughened by minute deciduous teeth and ultimately separating into 
slender dark fibres; persistent for many years, the dead leaves hanging closely 
appressed against the trunk below the terminal crown of closely imbricated living 
leaves. Flowers in March and April on slender pedicels, in dense many-flowered 




glabrous or puberulous panicles 2-4 long and raised on short stout stalks; peri- 
anth l'-2' long, 2'-4' in diameter when fully expanded, with narrow elongated ovate- 
lanceolate to ovate segments, \' wide, acute, thin and delicate, furnished at the apex 
with conspicuous tufts of short pale hairs; filaments slightly papillose, about as 
long as the prismatic ovary gradually narrowed above and crowned by the deeply 
divided stigmatic lobes. Fruit ripening in the summer, 3'-4' long, about 1' thick, 
dark reddish brown or ultimately black, with thin succulent sweetish flesh; seeds 
about \' broad, nearly T y thick, with narrow borders to the rim. 

A tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a trunk sometimes 2 in diameter and 
numerous stout wide-spreading branches; usually smaller and often forming broad 
low thickets 4-5 tall. Bark on old trunks \' -\' thick, dark red-brown and 
broken into thin oblong plates covered by small irregular closely appressed scales. 
Wood light brown, fibrous, spongy, heavy, difficult to cut and work. 

Distribution. Shores of Matagorda Bay, southward through western Texas into 
Nuovo Leon, and through the valley of the Rio Grande to the eastern base of the 
mountains of western Texas; forming open stunted forests on the coast dunes at the 
mouth of the Rio Grande; farther from the coast often spreading into great im- 
penetrable thickets. 

Cultivated as an ornamental plant in the gardens of central and western Texas, 
and occasionally in those of southern Europe. 

3. Yucca macrocarpa, Coville. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves l^-2 long, l'-2' wide, gradually narrowed from the dark red lustrous 
bases to above the middle, rigid, concave, yellow-green, rough on the lower surface 
and frequently also on the upper surface, with stout elongated dark spines and thick- 
ened margins separated into stout gray filaments. Flowers in March and April in 
densely flowered sessile or short-stalked glabrous or occasionally pubescent panicles; 
perianth usually about 2' long, with acuminate segments, those of the outer and 



LILIACE^E 



119 



inner rows nearly of the same size; stamens shorter than the elongated style. 
Fruit 3' i' long, about 1^' thick, abruptly contracted at the apex into a stout point, 




nearly black when fully ripe, with sweet succulent flesh; seeds about ' wide, 
\' thick, with narrow borders to the rim. 

A tree, rarely exceeding 15 in height, with a usually simple stem 6'-8'. in 
diameter, and often clothed to the ground with living leaves. Bark dark brown and 
scaly. 

Distribution. Arid plains from western Texas to eastern Arizona and southward 
in Chihuahua. 

4. Yucca Mohavensis, Sarg. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 18'-20' long, about 1^' wide, abruptly contracted above the dark red lus-* 
trous base, gradually narrowed upward to above the middle, thin and concave except 




toward the slightly thickened base of the blade, dark green, smooth on both sur- 
faces, with stout rigid sharp-pointed tips and entire bright red-brown margins soon 
separating into numerous long thick pale filaments. Flowers from March to 



120 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



May on slender erect ultimately drooping pedicels I'-l^' long, in densely flowered 
sessile or short-stemmed panicles 12'-18' in length ; perianth l'-2' long, the seg- 
ments united at the base into a short tube, thickened and hood-shaped at the apex, 
those of the outer rank often deeply flushed with purple, but little longer than 
the less prominently ribbed usually wider and thinner segments of the inner rank; 
stamens with more or less pilose filaments nearly as long as the short style. Fruit 
ripening in August and September, 3'-4' long, about 1^' thick, usually much con- 
stricted near the middle, abruptly contracted* at the apex into a short stout point, 
dark dull brown or nearly black, with flesh often nearly ' thick; seeds ' wide, 
rather less than -J-' thick, with narrow borders to the rim. 

A tree, rarely exceeding 15 in height, with a trunk usually simple or occasionally 
furnished with short spreading branches, and 6'-8' in diameter, usually sur- 
rounded by a cluster of shorter more or less spreading stems and often clothed to 
the ground with living leaves. Bark dark brown and scaly. Wood soft, spongy, 
light brown. 

Distribution. Southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona across the Mohave 
Desert to the California coast, extending northward to the neighborhood of Monterey, 
California, and southward into northern Lower California; common and attaining 
its largest size on the Mohave Desert, and sometimes ascending arid mountain slopes 
to elevations of 4000 above the sea. 

5. Yucca Schottii, Engelm. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 2-3 long, about 1^' wide, gradually narrowed upward from the com- 
paratively thin lustrous red base to above the middle, flat except toward the apex, 




smooth, light yellow-green, with long rigid sharp light red points and thick entire 
red-brown margins finally separating into short thin brittle threads. Flowers from 
July to September in erect stalked tomentose panicles; perianth I'-lf long, the 
broad oval or oblong-obovate thin segments pubescent on the outer surface toward 
the base and furnished at the apex with conspicuous clusters of white tomentum ; 
stamens about two thirds as long as the ovary, with filaments pilose at the base, 
and only slightly enlarged at the apex. Fruit ripening in October and November, 
obscurely angled, 3^'-4' long, about 1^' thick, often narrowed above the middle, with 



LILIACE^E 



121 

broad, about 1' thick, 



a stout thick point, and thin sweet succulent flesh; seeds 
with thin conspicuous marginal rims. 

A tree, in Arizona rarely 18-20 high, with a trunk often crooked or slightly 
inclining and simple or furnished with 2 or 3 short erect branches, covered below 
with dark brown scaly bark, roughened for many years by persistent scars of fallen 
leaves, and clothed above by the pendant dead leaves of many seasons. 

Distribution. Dry slopes of the mountain ranges of Arizona near the Mexican 
boundary, usually at elevations between 5000 and 6000, and southward through 
Sonora. 

** Segments of the flowers united below into a narrow tube. 

6. Yucca Faxoniana, Sarg., nov. nom. Spanish Dagger. 

( Yucca macrocarpa, Silva N. Am. x. 13.) 

Leaves 2^^1 long, 2^' -3' wide, abruptly contracted above the conspicuously 
thickened lustrous base, widest above the middle, flat on the upper surface, thick- 
ened and rounded on the lower surface toward the base, rigid, smooth and clear dark 
green, with short stout dark spines and brown entire margins breaking into numer- 







ous stout gray or brown fibres short and spreading near the apex of the leaf, longer, 
more remote, and forming a thick cobweb-like mass at their base. Flowers appear- 
ing in April on thin drooping pedicels, in dense many-flowered glabrous panicles 
3-4 long, with elongated pendulous branches; perianth 2^' long, the segments thin, 
concave, widest above the middle, narrowed at the ends, united at the base into a 
short tube, those of the outer rank being about half as wide as those of the inner 
rank and two thirds as long; stamens much shorter than the ovary, with slender 
filaments pilose above the middle and abruptly dilated at the apex; ovary con- 
spicuously ridged, light yellow marked with large pale raised lenticels, and gradually 
narrowed into an elongated slender style. Fruit ripening in early summer, slightly 
or not at all angled, abruptly contracted at the apex into a long or short hooked beak, 
3'-4' long, 1 '-!' thick, light orange-colored and lustrous when first ripe, becoming 
nearly black, with thick succulent bitter-sweet flesh ; seeds \' long, about \' thick, 
with narrow nearly obsolete margins to the rim. 

A tree, often 40 high, with a trunk sometimes 2 in diameter above the broad 



122 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

abruptly enlarged base, unbranched or divided into several short branches, and 
covered above by a thick thatch of the pendant dead leaves of many seasons; fre- 
quently smaller and until ten or twelve years old clothed from the ground with 
erect living leaves. Bark near the base of old trees dark reddish brown, '-^' thick, 
broken on the surface into small thin loose scales. 

Distribution. Common on the high desert plateau of southwestern Texas. 

2. Fruit with thin dry flesh. 

7. Yucca arborescens, Trel. Joshua Tree. 

Leaves 5'-8' or on young plants rarely KX-12' long, \'-^' wide, rigid, crowded 
in densely imbricated clusters, lanceolate, gradually tapering from the bright red- 
brown lustrous base, bluish green and glaucous, smooth or slightly roughened, con- 




cave above the middle, with sharp dark brown points, and thin yellow margins 
armed with sharp minute teeth; persistent for many years. Flowers appearing 
from March until the beginning of May, the creamy white closely imbricated bracts 
of the nearly sessile pubescent panicle forming before its appearance a conspicuous 
cone-like bud 8' or 10' long ; perianth globose to oblong, l'-2' long, greenish white, 
waxy, dull or lustrous, its segments slightly united at the base, keeled on the 
back, thin below the middle, gradually thickened upward into the concave incurved 
rounded tip, those of the outer rank rather broader, thicker, and more prominently 
keeled than those of the inner rank, glabrous or pubescent; stamens about half as 
long as the ovary, with filaments villose-papillate from the base; ovary conical, 
3-lobed above the middle, bright green, with narrow slightly developed septal nectar- 
glands and a sessile nearly equally 6-lobed stigma. Fruit ripening in May or June, 
spreading or more or less pendant at maturity, oblong-ovate, acute, slightly 3-angled, 
2'-4' long, l^'-2' broad, light red or yellow-brown, the outer coat becoming dry and 
spongy at maturity; seeds nearly \' long, rather less than T y thick, with broad 
well-developed margins to the rim and large conspicuous hilums. 

A tree, 30^10 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, rising abruptly from a 
broad thick basal disk, stout tough roots descending deeply into the soil, and stout 
branches spreading into a broad, often symmetrical head formed by the continued 
forking of the branches at the base of the terminal flower-clusters; until 8-10 



LILIACE^E 



123 



high the stem simple and clothed to the ground with leaves erect until after the ap- 
pearance of the first flowers, then spreading at right angles and finally becoming 
reflexed. Bark I'-l^' thick, deeply divided into oblong plates frequently 2 long. 
Wood light, soft, spongy, difficult to work, light brown or nearly white; sometimes 
cut into thin layers and used as wrapping material or manufactured into boxes and 
other small articles. The seeds are gathered and eaten by the Indians. 

Distribution. Southwestern Utah to the western and northern rim of the Mo- 
have Desert in California; most abundant and of its largest size on the foothills on 
the desert slope of the Tehachapi Mountains. 

8. yucca gloriosa, L. Spanish Dagger. 

Leaves 2-2^ long, gradually narrowed above the broad base and then gradually 
broadened to above the middle, thin, flat or slightly concave toward the apex, 
frequently longitudinally folded, dull often glaucous green, roughened on the under 
surface especially above the middle, with stout dark red points, and pale margins 
serrulate toward the base of the leaf, with minute early deciduous teeth, or occa- 
sionally separating into thin fibres. Flowers in October, in pubescent or glabrate 
panicles, 2-4 long, on stout stalks sometimes 3-4 in length, their large 




creamy white bracts forming before the panicle emerges a conspicuous egg-shaped 
bud 4'-6' long; perianth when fully expanded 3'^4' across, its segments thin, ovate, 
acute, or lance-ovate, often tinged with green or purple, slightly united at the base, 
pubescent at the apex; stamens about as long as the ovary, with hispid or slightly 
papillose filaments and deeply emarginate anthers; ovary slightly lobed, 6-sided, 
light green, gradually narrowed into the elongated spreading stigmatic lobes. Fruit 
very rarely produced, prominently 6-ridged, pendulous, 3' long, V in diameter, 
cuspidate, raised on a short stout stipe, with a thin leathery almost black outer 
coat; seeds \' wide and about ^' thick, with a smooth coat. 

A tree, with a trunk occasionally 6-8 high and 4'-6' in diameter, simple or 
rarely furnished with a few short branches and usually clothed to the base with pend- 
ant dead leaves; in cultivation often becoming much larger, with a stout trunk 
covered with smooth light gray bark, and erect or in one form (var. recurvifolia, 
Engelm.) pendulous leaves. 



124 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Distribution. Sand dunes and the borders of beaches of the South Carolina 
seacoast. 

Often cultivated with many forms in the gardens and pleasure-grounds of all 
temperate countries. 

3. Fruit a capsule. 

9. Yucca radiosa, Trel. Spanish Dagger. 

(Yucca constricta, Silva N. Am. x. 27.) 

Leaves 20'-30' long, \'-% wide, rigid, gradually narrowed from the thin base, 
tapering toward the apex, or sometimes somewhat broadest at the middle, thin, flat 
on the upper surface, slightly thickened and rounded on the lower surface toward 




the base, smooth, pale yellow-green, with slender stiff red-brown points, and thick- 
ened entire pale margins soon splitting into long slender filaments. Flowers in 
May and June on slender spreading more or less recurved pedicels, in glabrous much- 
branched panicles 4-6 long, raised on stout naked stems 3-7 in length ; perianth 
ovate and acute in the bud, when fully expanded 3^'^!' across, its segments united 
at the base into a short slender distinct tube, ovate or slightly obovate, those of the 
outer rank usually acute, not more than half as broad as those of the inner rank; 
stamens as long or a little longer than the ovary, with slender nearly terete 
filaments; ovary sessile, almost terete, pale green, abruptly contracted into the 
stout elongated style. Fruit an erect oblong capsule rounded and obtuse at the 
ends, tipped by a short stout mucro, conspicuously 3-ribbed, with rounded ridges on 
the back of the carpels, l'-2' long, !'-!' wide, with a thin firm light brown ligneous 
outer coat closely adherent to the lustrous light yellow inner coat, in ripening split- 
ting from the top to the bottom between the carpels and through their backs at the 
apex; seeds \' wide and about ^' thick, with a smooth coat and thin brittle wide 
margins to the rim. 

A tree, with a tough much-branched underground stem penetrating deep into the 
soil and a trunk often 10-12 high and T-S' in diameter, covered above with a 
thick thatch of the pendant dead leaves of many years, simple, or branched with 
numerous short stout branches densely covered with leaves at first erect, then 
spreading nearly at right angles, and finally pendulous. Bark dark brown, irregu- 



JUGLANDACE^: 125 

larly fissured, broken into thin plates, about \' thick. Wood light, soft, spongy, 
pale brown or yellow. 

Distribution. High desert plateaus from southwestern Texas to southern Arizona, 
southward into northern Mexico; most abundant and of its largest size on the eastern 
slope of the continental divide in southern New Mexico and along the northern rim 
of the Tucson Desert in Arizona. 



DIVISION II. DICOTYLEDONS. 

Stems formed of bark, wood, or pith, and increasing by the addi- 
tion of an annual layer of wood inside the bark. Parts of the flower 
mostly in 4's and 5's ; embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons. 
Leaves netted-veined. 

Subdivision 1. Apetalae. Flowers without a corolla and some- 
times without a calyx. 

Section 1. Flowers in unisexual aments (female flowers of 
Juglans and Quercus solitary or in spikes) ; ovary inferior 
(superior in Leitneriacece) when calyx is present. 

V. JUGLANDACE-5J. 

Aromatic trees, with watery juice, terete branchlets, scaly buds, the lateral 
buds usually superposed, 2^ together, and alternate unequally pinnate decid- 
uous leaves with elongated grooved petioles, and without stipules, the leaflets 
increasing in size from the lowest upward, penniveined, sessile, short-stalked or 
the terminal usually long-stalked. Flowers monoecious, opening after the un- 
folding of the leaves, the staminate in lateral aments and composed of a 3-6- 
lobed calyx in the axil of and ad n ate to an ovate acute bract, and numerous 
stamens inserted on the inner and lower face of the calyx in 2 or several rows, 
with short distinct filaments and oblong anthers opening longitudinally ; the 
pistillate in a spike terminal on a branch of the year and composed of a 1-3- 
celled ovary subtended by an involucre free toward the apex and formed 
by the union of an anterior bract and 2 lateral bractlets, a 1 or 4-lobed calyx 
inserted on the ovary, a short style with 2 plumose stigmas stigmatio on the 
inner face, and a solitary erect orthotropous ovule. Fruit a nut inclosed in an 
indehiscent or 4-valved husk, its walls and partition! more or less penetrated 
by internal longitudinal cavities filled with dry powder. Seed solitary, 2-lobed 
from the apex nearly to the middle, light brown, its coat thin, of 2 layers, with- 
out albumen ; cotyledons fleshy and oily, sinuose or corrugated, 2-lobed ; radicle 
short, superior, filling the apex of the nut. Of the six genera of the Walnut 
family two occur in North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Aments of staminate flowers simple, sessile, or short-stalked ; husk of the fruit indehiscent ; 

nut sculptured ; pith in plates. 1. Juglans. 

Aments of staminate flowers branched, long-stalked ; husk of the fruit 4-valved ; nut not 

sculptured ; pith solid. 2. Hicoria. 



126 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

1. JUGLANS, L. Walnut. 

Trees, with furrowed scaly bark, durable dark-colored wood, stout branchlets, 
laminate pith, terminal buds with 2 pairs of opposite more or less open scales often 
obscurely pinnate at the apex, those of the inner pair more or less leaf-like, and ob- 
tuse slightly flattened axillary buds formed before midsummer and covered with 4 
ovate rounded scales, closed or open during winter. Leaves with numerous leaflets, 
and terete petioles leaving in falling large conspicuous elevated obcordate 3-lobed 
leaf-scars displaying 3 equidistant U-shaped clusters of dark fibro-vascular bundle- 
scars; leaflets conduplicate in the bud, ovate, acute or acuminate, mostly unequal 
at the base, with veins arcuate and united near the margins. Aments of the stami- 
nate flowers many-flowered, elongated, solitary or in pairs from lower axillary buds of 
upper nodes, appearing from between persistent bud-scales in the autumn and remain- 
ing during the winter as short cones covered by the closely imbricated bracts of the 
flowers; calyx 3-6-lobed, its bract free only at the apex; stamens 8-40, in 2 or several 
ranks, their anthers surmounted by a conspicuous dilated truncate or lobed con- 
nective; pistillate flowers in few-flowered spikes, their involucre villous, free only at 
the apex and variously cut into a laciniate border (corolla f) shorter than the erect 
calyx-lobes; ovary rarely of. 3 carpels; stigmas club-shaped, elongated, fimbriately 
plumose. Fruit ovoid, globose or pyriform, cylindrical or obscurely 4-angled, with 
a fleshy indehiscent glabrate or hirsute husk; nut ovoid or globose, more or less flat- 
tened, hard, thick-walled, longitudinally and irregularly rugose, the valves alternate 
with the cotyledons, and more or less ribbed along the dorsal sutures and in some 
species also on the marginal sutures. Seed more or less compressed, gradually nar- 
rowed or broad and deeply lobed at the base, with conspicuous dark veins radiating 
from the apex and from the minute basal hilum. 

Juglans is confined to temperate North America, the West Indies, South America 
from Venezuela to Peru, Persia, northwestern India, northern China, Manchuria, and 
Japan. Ten species are known. Of exotic species Juglans regia, L., an inhabitant 
probably of Persia and northwestern India, is cultivated in the middle Atlantic and 
southern states and largely in California for its edible nuts, which are an important 
article of commerce. The wood of several species is valued for the interior finish of 
houses and for furniture. 

Juglans, from Jupiter and glands, is the classical name of the Walnut-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Fruit racemose ; nut prominently 4-ribbed at the sutures, 2-celled at the base ; heartwood 
light brown. 

Leaflets 11-17, oblong-lanceolate. 1. J. cinerea (A). 

Fruit usually solitary or in pairs ; nut without sutural ribs, 4-celled at the base ; heartwood 
dark brown. 

Leaflets 15-23, ovate-lanceolate ; nut prominently and irregularly ridged, with often 
interrupted ridges. 2. J. nigra (A, C.) 

Leaflets 9-23, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate ; nut deeply grooved. 

3. J. rupestris (C, E, H). 
Leaflets 11-17, ovate-lanceolate ; nut obscurely grooved. 4. J. Californica (G.) 

1. Juglans cinerea, L. Butternut. 

Leaves lo'-30' long, with stout pubescent petioles, and 11-17 oblong-lanceolate 
acute or acuminate leaflets 2'-3' long, l'-2' wide, finely serrate except at the 



JUGLANDACEvE 127 

unequal rounded base, glandular and sticky as they unfold, at maturity thin, yellow- 
green and rugose above, pale and soft-pubescent below, turning yellow or brown and 
falling early in the autumn. Flowers : staininate in thick aments 3' -5' long, calyx 
usually 6-lobed, light yellow-green, puberulous on the lower surface, \' long, their 




bracts rusty-pubescent, acute at the apex; stamens 8-12, with nearly sessile dark 
brown anthers and slightly lobed connectives; pistillate in 6-8-flowered spikes, con- 
stricted above the middle, about ^' long, their bracts and bractlets coated with sticky 
white or pink glandular hairs and rather shorter than the linear-lanceolate calyx- 
lobes; stigmas bright red, ' long. Fruit in 3-o-fruited drooping clusters, cylindri- 
cal, obscurely 2 or rarely 4-ridged, ovate-oblong, coated with rusty clammy matted 
hairs, l^'-2' long; nut ovate, abruptly contracted and acuminate at the apex, with 4 
prominent and 4 narrow less conspicuous ribs, light brown, deeplv sculptured between 
the ridges into thin broad irregular longitudinal plates, 2-celled at the base and 
1-celled above the middle, with a narrow pointed apical cavity; seed sweet, very 
oily, soon becoming rancid. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, and 
sometimes free of branches for half its height; more frequently divided 20 or 30 
above the ground into many stout limbs spreading horizontally and forming a broad 
low symmetrical round-topped head, and dark orange-brown or bright green rather 
lustrous branchlets coated at first with rufous pubescence, covered more or less thickly 
with pale lenticels, gradually becoming puberulous, brown tinged with red or orange 
in their second year and marked by light gray leaf-scars with large black fibro-vas- 
cular bundle-scars and elevated bands of pale tomentum separating them from the 
lowest axillary buds. Winter-buds : terminal '-$' long, ^' wide, flattened and 
obliquely truncate at the apex, their outer scales coated with short pale pubescence; 
axillary ovate, flattened, rounded at the apex, \' long, covered with rusty brown or 
pale pubescence. Bark of young stems and of the branches smooth and light gray, 
becoming on old trees f'-l' thick, light brown, deeply divided into broad ridges 
separating on the surface into small appressed plate-like scales, that of young trunks 
and branches smooth and light gray. Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, 
light brown, turning darker with exposure, with thin light-colored sapwood com- 
posed of 5 or 6 layers of annual growth; largely employed in the interior finish of 



128 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

houses, and for furniture. The inner bark possesses mild cathartic properties. Sugar 
is made from the sap, and the green husks of the fruit are used to dye cloth yellow 
or orange color. 

Distribution. Rich moist soil near the banks of streams and on low rocky hills, 
southern New Brunswick and the valley of the St. Lawrence River in Ontario to 
eastern Dakota, southeastern Nebraska, central Kansas, northern Arkansas, and 
Delaware, and on the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and northern 
Alabama; most abundant and of its largest size northward. 

2. Juglans nigra, L. Black "Walnut. 

Leaves l-2 long, with pubescent petioles, and 15-23 ovate-lanceolate leaflets 
3'-3^' long, I'-l^' wide, often unequal at the base, long-pointed, sharply serrate 
except at the more or less rounded unequal base, thin, bright yellow-green, lustrous 
and glabrous above, soft-pubescent below, especially along the slender midribs and 




primary veins, turning bright clear yellow in the autumn before falling. Flowers : 
staminate in stout puberulous aments 3' -5' long, rotund, 6-lobed, with nearly orbicu- 
lar lobes concave and pubescent on the outer surface, their bracts \' long, nearly 
triangular, coated with rusty brown or pale tomentum; stamens 20-30, arranged 
in many series, with nearly sessile purple and truncate connectives; pistillate in 
2-5-flowered spikes, ovate, gradually narrowed at the apex, \' long, their bracts and 
bractlets coated below with pale glandular hairs and green and puberulous above, 
sometimes irregularly cut into a laciniate border, or reduced to an obscure ring just 
below the apex of the ovary; calyx-lobes ovate, acute, light green, puberulous on the 
outer, glabrous or pilose on the inner surface; stigmas yellow-green, tinged on the 
margins with red, ^'| ' long. Fruit solitary or in pairs, globose, oblong or slightly 
pyriform, light yellow-green, roughened by clusters of short pale articulate hairs, 
l^'-2' in diameter; nut oval or oblong, slightly flattened, l^'-l^' in diameter, dark 
brown tinged with red, deeply divided on the outer surface into thin or thick often 
interrupted irregular ridges, 4-celled at the base and slightly 2-celled at the apex; 
seed sweet, soon becoming rancid. 

A tree, frequently 100 and occasionally 150 high, with a straight trunk often clear 
of branches for 50-60 and 4-6 in diameter, thick limbs spreading gradually 
and forming a comparatively narrow shapely round-topped head of mostly upright 



JUGLANDACE^E 129 

rigid branches, and stout branchlets covered at first with pale or rusty matted hairs, 
dull orange-brown and pilose or puberulous during their first winter, marked with 
raised conspicuous orange-colored lenticels and elevated pale leaf-scars, gradually 
growing darker and ultimately light brown. "Winter-buds: terminal ovate, slightly 
flattened, obliquely rounded at the apex, coated with pale silky tomentuin, ' long, 
with usually 4 obscurely pinnate scales; axillary ' long, tomentose, their outer scales 
opening at the apex during the winter. Bark of young stems and branches light 
brown and covered with thin scales, becoming on old trees 2'-3' thick, dark brown 
slightly tinged with red, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the 
surface into thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather coarse- 
grained, very durable, rich dark brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood of 10-20 
layers of annual growth; largely used in cabinet-making, the interior finish of houses, 
gun-stocks, and in boat and shipbuilding. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and fertile hillsides, western Massachusetts to 
southern Ontario, southern Michigan and Minnesota, central and northern Nebraska, 
eastern Kansas, and southward to western Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, 
and the valley of the San Antonio River, Texas; most abundant in the region west 
of the Alleghany Mountains, and of its largest size on the western slopes of the high 
mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, and on the fertile river bottom-lands 
of southern Illinois and Indiana, southwestern Arkansas, and the Indian Territory; 
largely destroyed for its valuable timber, and now rare. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern United States, and 
in western and central Europe. 

3. Juglans rupestris, Engelrn. Walnut. 

Leaves 7'-15' long, with slender scurfy-pubescent petioles and 9-23 ovate-lanceo- 
late leaflets unequal on the two edges, coarsely or finely crenulate-serrate nearly to 




the rounded or unequal base, dark yellow-green and glabrous, 2|'-5' long, \'-l' 
wide, thin, dark yellow-green and glabrous, or pubescent on the lower surface, 
especially along the stout yellow midribs and primary veins, turning yellow before 
falling in the autumn. Flowers: staminate in slender aments 2^'-4' long, 3-5-lobed, 
nearly orbicular, light yellow-green, glabrous or slightly pubescent on the lower 
surface, short-stalked, their bracts ovate-lanceolate, acute, coated with thick pale 



130 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

tomentum; stamens about 20, with nearly sessile yellow anthers and dark conspicu- 
ous slightly lobed connectives; pistillate in few-flowered spikes, narrowed at the 
ends, coated with pale or rufous tomentum, ^'-J' long, their bract and bractlets green 
above, puberulous at the apex on the outer surface, and irregularly divided into a 
laciniate border rather shorter than the ovate acute calyx-lobes puberulous on the 
outer surface; stigmas green, tinged with red, \' long. Fruit globose or rarely 
oblong, ^'-1^' in diameter, with a thin husk glabrate or coated with short rufous 
hairs; nut globose, without ridges, often compressed at the ends and sometimes 
flattened laterally, dark reddish brown to black, deeply grooved, with longitudinal 
simple or forked grooves, 4-celled at the base, 2-celled at the apex; seed small 
and sweet, retaining its flavor for a long time. 

A tree, 50 high, with a short trunk occasionally 5 in diameter, sometimes 
divided near the ground or usually 10-15 above it into several stout nearly 
upright branches forming a narrow head, or in moist soil frequently spreading a 
few feet above the division of the trunk and becoming pendulous at the extremities, 
and branchlets coated at first with pale or light brown scurfy pubescence or tomentum 
often persistent for two or three years, orange-red in their first winter, marked by 
many small pale lenticels, and ultimately pale or nearly white; often a shrub send- 
ing up from the ground a cluster of stems only a few feet tall. Winter-buds: ter- 
minal \'% long, compressed, narrowed and often oblique at the apex, covered with 
rusty or pale tomentum; axillary \' long, compressed, coated with pale pubescence. 
Bark of young trunks and of the branches smooth, pale, often nearly white, becoming 
on old trees V thick, deeply furrowed and brbken on the surface into thin appressed 
scales. Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rich dark brown, with thick nearly white 
sapwood. 

Distribution. Limestone banks of the streams of central and western Texas, here 
shrubby or rarely more than 30 high; common and of larger size in canons of the 
mountains of New Mexico and Arizona south of the Colorado plateau; in northern 
Mexico. > 

Occasionally cultivated in the eastern United States, and hardy as far north as 
Massachusetts; and rarely in Europe. 

4. Juglans Californica, Wats. "Walnut. 

Leaves 6'-9' long, with slender puberulous petioles, and 11-17 ovate-lanceolate 
often somewhat falcate long-pointed leaflets l^'-3' long, ^'-f ' wide, coarsely serrate 
except at the rounded or subcordate or wedge-shaped base, thin, light green, glabrous 
or furnished on the under surface with tufts of pale hairs in the axils of primary 
veins. Flowers: staminate in slender puberulous aments 2'-3' long, calyx elongated, 
light green, coated like its bract on the outer surface with rufous pubescence, divided 
into 5 or 6 acute lobes, short-stalked; stamens 30-40, with yellow anthers and short 
connectives bifid at the apex; pistillate broadly ovate or subglobose, glabrate or 
puberulous, \' long, the free border of their bract and bractlets ring-like, nearly entire 
and much shorter than the broad ovate pubescent calyx-lobes; stigmas yellow, ^' long. 
Fruit globose, f '-!' in diameter, with a thin dark-colored husk coated with soft 
pubescence; nut nearly globose, without ridges, slightly compressed, sometimes flat- 
tened at the ends, dark brown, obscurely grooved, with remote shallow grooves, 
4-celled at the base, imperfectly 2-celled at the apex; seed large and sweet, 
retaining its flavor for several months. 

A tree, rarely 60 high, with a trunk 18'-20' in diameter, and stout pendulous 



JUGLANDACE^E 



131 



branches forming a graceful symmetrical round-topped head, and slender branchlets 
covered while young with rufous scurfy tomeutum, dark reddish brown, puberulous, 
and marked during their first winter with pale scattered lenticels and small elevated 
obscurely 3-lobed leaf -scars, becoming darker and gradually glabrous in their second 
year and ultimately nearly white; often much smaller, sometimes shrubby in !fkbit. 




"Winter-buds: terminal acute, compressed, more or less oblique at the apex, coated 
with pale tomeutum, \' long; axillary usually solitary, nearly globose, ^ ff ' long, and 
covered with thick pale rufous tomentum. Bark of young stems and upper branches 
smooth, pale or nearly white, becoming on old trunks ^'-^' thick, dark brown or 
nearly black, deeply divided into broad irregular ridges separating on the surface 
into thin appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, rather cross-grained, dark brown, 
often mottled, with thick pale sapwood of 8-10 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and bottom-lands in the California coast region, 
usually twenty or thirty miles from the sea, from the valley of the lower Sacramento 
River to the southern slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains. 

Often cultivated in California as a shade-tree and as stock on which to graft 
varieties of Juglans regia, L. 

2. HICORIA, Raf. Hickory. 

Trees, with smooth gray bark becoming on old trunks rough and scaly, strong 
hard tough brown wood, tough terete flexible branches, solid pith, buds covered with 
few valvate or with numerous imbricated scales, the axillary buds often stalked and 
sometimes solitary. Leaves often glandular-dotted, their petioles sometimes per- 
sistent on the branches during the winter, and in falling leaving large elevated ob- 
long or semiorbicular more or less 3-lobed emarginate leaf-scars displaying small 
marginal clusters and central radiating lines of dark fibro- vascular bundle-scars; 
leaflets, involute in the bud, ovate or obovate, usually acuminate, thick and firm, 
serrate, mostly unequal at the base, with veins forked and running to the margins, 
turning clear bright yellow in the autumn. Aments of the staminate flowers ternate, 
slender, solitary or fascicled in the axils of leaves of the previous year or at the base 
of branches of the year from the inner scales of the terminal bud, the lateral branches 



132 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



in the axils of lanceolate acute persistent bracts; calyx usually 2 rarely 3-lobed, 
its bract free nearly to the base and usually much longer than the ovate rounded 
calyx-lobes; stamens 3-10, in 2 or 3 series, their anthers ovate-oblong, emarginate 
or divided at the apex, pilose or hirsute, as long or longer than their slender con- 
nectPfes; pistillate flowers sessile, in 2-10-flowered spikes, with perianth-like involu- 
cres, slightly 4-ridged, unequally 4-lobed at the apex, villous on the outer surface, 
the bract much longer than the bractlets and single calyx-lobe ; stigmas short, 
papillose-stigmatic. Fruit ovoid, globose or pyriform, with a thin or thick husk 
becoming hard and woody at maturity, 4-valved, the sutures alternate with those of 
the nut, sometimes more or less broadly winged, splitting to the base or to the mid- 
dle; nut oblong, obovate or subglobose, acute, acuminate, or rounded at the apex, 
tipped by the hardened remnants of the style, narrowed and usually rounded at the 
base, cylindrical or compressed contrary to the valves, the wall thin and brittle or 
thick, hard, and bony, smooth or variously rugose or ridged on the outer surface, 
4-celled at the base, 2-celled at the apex. Seed compressed, variously grooved on 
the back of the flat or concave lobes, sweet or bitter. 

Hicoria is confined to the temperate region of eastern North America from the 
valley of the St. Lawrence River to the highlands of Mexico. Of the twelve species, 
eleven inhabit the territory of the United States. 

The generic name is formed from the popular name of these trees. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Bud-scales few, valvate, the inner strap-shaped and only slightly accrescent ; fruit more or 
less broadly winged at the sutures ; shell of the nut thin and brittle, with large cavities 
(thick in 4). 

Aments of staminate flowers nearly sessile, usually on branches of the previous year. 
Leaflets 13-15, oblong-lanceolate, more or less falcate ; nut ovate-oblong, cylin- 
drical ; kernel sweet. 1. H. Pecan (A, C). 
Leaflets 7-11, lanceolate, often falcate ; nut oblong, compressed; kernel bitter. 

2. H. Texana (C). 

Aments of staminate flowers long-stalked on branches of the year or of the previous 
year. 

Leaflets 7-11, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate ; nut often broader than long, slightly 
4-angled ; kerne.1 bitter. 3. H. minima (A, C). 

Leaflets 7-11, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate-obovate ; nut ellipsoidal, cylindrical, 
thick-shelled; kernel sweet. 4. H. myristicaeformis (C). 

Leaflets 7-13, lanceolate, more or less falcate ; nut compressed, rugose, prominently 
ridged; kernel bitter. 5. H. aquatica (C). 

Bud-scales numerous, imbricated, the inner becoming much enlarged, often highly colored 
and much reflexed and twisted before falling ; aments of staminate flowers at the base 
of branches of the year, long-stalked ; fruit without sutural wings (sometimes slightly 
winged in 11) ; shell of the nut thick and bony, with minute cavities. 
Bark separable from old trunks in long loose plates. 
Branchlets light red-brown ; nut pale or nearly white. 

Leaflets 5-7, ovate to oblong-lanceolate or obovate ; nut thick or thin-shelled ; 
branchlets stout. 6. H. ovata (A, C). 

Leaflets usually 5, lanceolate ; nut thin-shelled ; branchlets slender. 

7. H. Carolinae-septentrionalis (C). 
Branchlets pale orange color. 

Leaflets 5-9, obovate or oblong-lanceolate, puberulous on the lower surface ; nut 
ovate, thick-walled, prominently 4-angled, dull white to light reddish brown. 

8. H. laciniosa (A, C). 



JUGLANDACE2E 133 

Bark closely furrowed, rarely exfoliating in plate-like scales. 

Leaflets 7-0, oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate, more or less tomentose on the 
lower surface, very fragrant ; nut globose or oblong, often long-pointed, 4-ridged 
toward the apex, thick-shelled, reddish brown. U. H. alba (A, C). 

Leaflets usually 5-7, oblong to obovate-lauceolate, glabrous or villous-pubeaeent ; 
fruit pyriform or globose ; husk usually thin, slightly ridged at the sutures ; nut 
oblong-oval or globose, thick or thin-shelled. 10. H. glabra (A, C). 

Leaflets 5-0, lanceolate to oblanceolate, pubescent and covered below while young 
with silvery peltate scales ; fruit subglobose to pyriform ; husk thin ; nut angled, 
thick-shelled. 1 1. H. villosa (A, C). 

1. Bud-scales few, valvate. 

1. Hicoria Pecan, Britt. Pecan. 

Leaves 12'-20' long, with slender glabrous or pubescent petioles, and 9-17 
lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate more or less falcate long-pointed coarsely often 
doubly serrate leaflets rounded or wedge-shaped at the unequal base, sessile, with 
the exception of the terminal leaflet, or short-stalked, thin and firm, dark yellow- 
green and glabrous or pilose above, and pale and glabrous or pubescent below, 




4'-8' long, 1/-3' wide, with narrow yellow midribs and conspicuous veins. Flowers: 
staminate in slender puberulous clustered aments 3'-5' long, from buds formed in 
the axils of leaves of the previous year or occasionally on shoots of the year, sessile 
or short-stalked; calyx light yellow-green and hirsute on the outer surface, with 
broadly ovate acute lobes rather shorter than the oblong or obovate bract, and nearly 
sessile yellow anthers; pistillate oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly 4-angled and 
coated with yellow scurfy pubescence. Fruit in clusters of 311, pointed, 4-winged 
and angled, l'-2^' long, ^'-1' broad, dark brown and coated with clusters of yellow 
articulate hairs, with a thin hard and brittle husk splitting at maturity nearly to the 
base and often persistent on the branch during the winter after the discharge of 
the nut; nut ovoid to ellipsoidal, nearly cylindrical or slightly 4-angled toward the 
pointed apex, rounded and usually apiculate at the base, bright reddish brown, with 
irregular black markings, l'-2' long, with thin brittle walls and papery partitions; 



134 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

seed sweet, red-brown, its nearly flat lobes grooved from near the base to the apex 
by 2 deep longitudinal grooves. 

A tree, 100-170 high, with a tall massive trunk occasionally 6 in diameter above 
its enlarged and buttressed base, stout slightly spreading branches forming in the 
forest a narrow symmetrical and inversely pyramidal head, or with abundant room a 
broad round-topped crown, and branchlets at first slightly tinged with red and coated 
with loose pale tomentum, becoming glabrous or puberulous in their first winter, 
and marked with numerous oblong orange-colored lenticels and with large oblong 
concave leaf-scars surrounded by a broad thin membranaceous border embracing the 
lower axillary bud. Winter-buds acute, compressed, covered with clusters of bright 
yellow articulate hairs and pale tomentum, terminal ^' long; axillary ovate, often 
stalked, especially the large upper one. Bark l'-l^' thick, light brown tinged with 
red, and deeply and irregularly divided into narrow forked ridges broken on the 
surface into thick appressed scales. "Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, coarse- 
grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin light brown sapwood; less valuable 
than that of most Hickories, and used chiefly for fuel, and occasionally in the manu- 
facture of wagons and agricultural implements. The nuts, whicby vary in size and 
shape and in the thickness of their shells and in the quality of the kernels, are an 
important article of commerce. 

Distribution. Low rich ground in the neighborhood of streams from the valley 
of the Mississippi River in Iowa, through southern Illinois and Indiana, western 
Kentucky and Tennessee, to central Mississippi and Alabama, and through Missouri 
and Arkansas to southeastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, western Louisiana and 
the valley of the Concho River, Texas, reappearing on the mountains of Mexico; 
most abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and 
eastern Texas. 

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree, especially in the southern states, and now 
largely for its nuts in orchards of trees raised from selected seeds or by grafts of 
trees producing nuts of the largest size and best quality. 

2. Hicoria Texana, Le Conte. Bitter Pecan. 

Leaves 10'-12' long, with slender petioles, and 7-11 lanceolate acuminate finely 
serrate leaflets, hoary-tomentose at first, and more or less villous in the autumn, 
thin and firm, dark yellow-green, nearly glabrous above, pale yellow-green and 
puberulous below, 3'-5' long, about 1^' wide, the terminal leaflet gradually narrowed 
to the acute base and short-stalked, the lateral often falcate, unsymmetrical at the 
base, subsessile or short-stalked. Flowers: staminate in villous aments 2'-3' long; 
calyx light yellow-green and villous on the outer surface, with oblong-ovate rounded 
lobes, much shorter than the ovate acuminate bract; pistillate oblong, slightly 4-an- 
gled, villose. Fruit in few-fruited clusters, oblong or oblong-obovate, apiculate at 
the apex, slightly 4-winged at the base, dark brown, more or less covered with artic- 
ulate hairs, l^'-2' long, with a thin husk; nut oblong-ovate or oblong-obovate, com- 
pressed, acute at the ends, short-pointed at the apex, apiculate at the base, obscurely 
4-angled, bright red-brown, rough and pitted and usually l^'-l^' long, with a thin 
brittle shell, thin papery walls, and a low basal ventral partition; seed very bitter, 
bright red-brown, flattened, its lobes rounded and slightly divided at the apex, 
longitudinally grooved and deeply penetrated on the outer face by the prominent 
reticulated folds of the inner surface of the shell of the nut. 

A tree, sometimes 100 high on the bottoms of the Brazos River, with a tall straight 



JUGLANDACEJE 135 

trunk 3 in diameter, and ascending branches, or on the borders of prairies in low 
wet woods usually 15-25 tall, with a short trunk 8'-10' in diameter, small 
spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head; and slender branchlets 
coated at first with thick hoary tomentum sometimes persistent until the autumn, 
bright red-brown and marked by occasional large pale lenticels during their first 




winter and by the large concave obcordate leaf-scars nearly surrounding the lowest 
axillary buds, becoming darker in their second season and dark or light gray-brown 
in their third year. Winter-buds covered with light yellow articulate hairs, ter- 
minal oblong, acute or acuminate, somewhat compressed, about ^' long, and rather 
longer than the upper lateral bud. Bark ^'-f ' thick, light reddish brown, and rough- 
ened by closely appressed variously shaped plate-like scales. Wood close-grained, 
tough and strong, light red-brown, with pale brown sapwood. 

Distribution. Bottom-lands and low wet woods of eastern Texas for a distance 
of 100 to 150 miles from the coast. 

3. Hicoria minima, Britt. Bitternut. Swamp Hickory. 

Leaves 6'-10' long, with slender pubescent or hirsute petioles, and 5-9 lanceolate 
to oblong or ovate-lanceolate or obovate long-pointed sessile leaflets coarsely serrate 
except at the equally or unequally wedge-shaped or subcordate base, thin and firm, 
dark yellow-green and glabrous above, lighter and pubescent below, especially along 
the midribs, 4'-6' long, f -1^' wide. Flowers: staminate in slightly pubescent aments 
3'-4' long, with a slender peduncle often 1' in length, usually on branches of the 
previous year or rarely from the base of shoots of the year; calyx coated with 
rufous hairs like its ovate acute bract; stamens 4, with ovate yellow anthers deeply 
emarginate at the apex; pistillate ' long, slightly 4-angled,- covered with yellow 
scurfy tomentum. Fruit |' -1^' long, obovate to subglobose, 4-winged from the apex 
to about the middle, with a thin husk, more or less thickly coated with yellow scurfy 
pubescence; nut ovate or oblong, often broader than long, compressed and marked 
at the base with dark lines along the sutures and alternate with them, depressed 
or obcordate, and abruptly contracted into a long or short point at the apex, gray 
tinged with red or light reddish brown, with a thin brittle shell; seed bright reddish 
brown, very bitter, much compressed, deeply rugose, with irregular cross-folds. 



136 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, 

A tree, often 100 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, stout 
spreading branches forming a broad handsome head, and slender branchlets marked 
with oblong pale lenticels, bright green and covered more or less thickly with rusty 
hairs at first, reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous during their first summer, 
reddish brown and lustrous during the winter and ultimately light gray, with small 
elevated obscurely 3-lobed obcordate leaf-scars. Winter-buds compressed, bright 
yellow, terminal '-f long, oblique at the apex, covered with 2 pairs of scales; lat- 
eral slightly 4-angled, often stalked, |'-^' long, with ovate pointed slightly accres- 
cent scales keeled on the back. Bark '-' thick, light brown tinged with red, and 
broken into thin plate-like scales separating on the surface into small thin flakes. 
"Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, close-grained, dark brown, with thick light 
brown or often nearly white sap wood; largely used for hoops and ox-yokes, and for 
fuel. 

Distribution. Low wet woods near the borders of streams and swamps or high 
rolling uplands often remote from streams, southern Maine to Ontario, central 




pic, 116 



Michigan and Minnesota, southeastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas and the Indian 
Territory, and southward to northwestern Florida, northern Alabama, and eastern 
Texas; one of the largest and commonest Hickory-trees of southern New England, 
and abundant in all the central states east and west of the Appalachian Mountains; 
growing to its largest size on the bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin; the common 
Hickory of Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. 

4. Hicoria myristicaeformis, Britt. Nutmeg Hickory. 

Leaves 7'-14' long, with slender terete scurfy-pubescent petioles, and 5-11 ovate- 
lanceolate to broadly obovate acute leaflets usually equally or sometimes unequally 
wedge-shaped or rounded at the narrow base, coarsely serrate, short-stalked or 
nearly sessile, thin and firm, dark green above, more or less pubescent or nearly 
glabrous and silvery white and very lustrous below, 4'-5' long, I'-l^' wide, with 
pale scurfy pubescent midribs, changing late in the season to bright bronzy brown. 
Flowers: staminate in aments 3'-4' long and coated like the ovate-oblong acute 
bract and calyx of the flower with dark brown scurfy pubescence; stamens 6, with 
oblong emarginate anthers; pistillate oblong, narrowed at the ends, slightly 4-angled, 



JUGLANDACE^ 137 

covered with thick brown scurfy pubescence. Fruit usually solitary, ellipsoidal or 
slightly obovate, 4-ridged to the base, with broad thick ridges, 1^' long, coated with 
yellow-brown scurfy pubescence, the husk not more than fa' thick, and splitting 




nearly to the base: nut ellipsoidal or sometimes slightly obovate, 1' long, |' broad, 
rounded and apiculate at the ends, smooth, dark reddish brown, and marked with 
longitudinal broken bands of small gray spots covering the entire surface at the 
ends, the shell ^' or more thick, hard and bony, with a thick partition, and a low 
thin dorsal division; seed sweet, small, dark brown. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a tall straight trunk often 2 in diameter, stout 
slightly spreading branches forming a comparatively narrow rather open head, and 
slender branchlets coated with lustrous golden or brown scales often persistent 
until the second year, light brown or ashy gray during their first winter, ultimately 
dark reddish brown, and marked with small scattered pale lenticels and small oval 
emarginate elevated leaf-scars. "Winter-buds covered with thick brown scurfy 
pubescence, terminal \'-\' long, ovate, rather obtuse; axillary much smaller, acute, 
slightly flattened, sessile or short-stalked, often solitary. Bark ^'-f thick, dark 
brown tinged with red, and broken irregularly into small thin appressed scales. 
"Wood hard, very strong, tough, close-grained, light brown, with thick lighter 
colored sapwood of 80-90 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Banks of rivers and swamps in rich moist soil or rarely on higher 
ground, eastern South Carolina, and through central Alabama and Mississippi to 
southern Arkansas; on the mountains of northeastern Mexico; rare and very local in 
the coast region of South Carolina; more abundant westward; common in southern 
Arkansas. 

5. Hicoria aquatica, Britt. Bitter Pecan. Water Hickory. 
Leaves 9'-15' long, with slender dark red puberulous or tomentose petioles, and 
7-13 ovate lanceolate long-pointed falcate equilateral leaflets rounded or wedge- 
shaped at the base or oblique and very unequally wedge-shaped, finely or coarsely 
serrate, sessile or stalked, 3'-5' long, ^'-1^' wide, covered with yellow glandular 
dots, thin and membranaceous, dark green above, brown and lustrous or tomentose 
on the lower surface, especially on the slender midribs and primary veins, the ter- 



138 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



urinal leaflet more or less decurrent by its wedge-shaped base on a slender stalk or 
rarely nearly sessile. Flowers : staminate in solitary or fascicled hirsute aments 
2^'-3' long from branches of the previous year or at the base of branches of the 
year; calyx covered like the bract with yellow glandular pubescence; stamens 6, with 
oblong slightly emarginate anthers; pistillate oblong, slightly flattened, 4-angled, 
glandular-pubescent. Fruit often in 3 or 4-fruited clusters, much compressed, 
usually broadest above the middle, rounded at the slightly narrowed base, rounded 
or abruptly narrowed at the apex, conspicuously 4- winged, dark brown or nearly 
black, covered more or less thickly with bright yellow pubescence, 1^' long, I'-l^' 
wide, with a thin brittle husk splitting tardily and usually only to the middle; nut 
flattened, slightly obovate, !'-!' long, nearly as broad, rounded and abruptly short- 
pointed at the apex, rounded at the narrow base, 4-angled and ridged, dark reddish 
brown, and longitudinally and very irregularly wrinkled, with thin walls and par- 
titions containing large irregular cavities filled with dark red bitter powder; seed 
oblong, compressed, dark brown, irregularly and usually longitudinally furrowed. 

A tree, occasionally 80-100 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 2 in diameter, 
slender upright branches forming a narrow head, and slender dark reddish brown 
or ashy gray lustrous branchlets marked with numerous pale lenticels, at first slightly 
glandular and coated with loose pale tomentum, glabrous or puberulous during the 
summer, and marked during the winter with small nearly oval or obscurely 3-lobed 
slightly elevated leaf-scars, growing dark red-brown and ultimately gray. Winter- 
buds slightly flattened, acute, dark reddish brown, covered with caducous yellow 
glands, terminal \'-\' long, often villose; axillary much smaller, frequently nearly 
sessile, often solitary. Bark '-' thick, separating freely into long loose plate-like 




light brown scales tinged with red. "Wood heavy, strong, close-grained, rather brit- 
tle, dark brown, with thick light-colored or often nearly white sapwood ; occasionally 
used for fencing and fuel. 

Distribution. River swamps often inundated during a considerable part of the 
year from southeastern Virginia southward through the coast regions to Cape Mal- 
abar and the valley of the Caloosa River, Florida, through the maritime portions 
of the Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos River in Texas, and northward through 
western Louisiana to northeastern Arkansas, western Mississippi, and southern Illi- 



139 

i, Arkansas, and 



JUGLANDACEJE 

nois; most abundant and of its largest size in western 
Louisiana. 



2. Bud-scales numerous, imbricated. 

6. Hicoria ovata, Britt. Shellbark Hickory. Shagbark Hickory. 

Leaves 8'-14' long, with stout glabrous or pubescent petioles, and 5 or rarely 7 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate or obovate leaflets, acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, 
sessile or short-stalked, more or less thickly ciliate on the margins, finely serrate ex- 
cept toward the usually cuneate base, thick and firm, dark yellow-green and glabrous 




above, paler, glabrous and lustrous or puberulous below, the terminal leaflet decur- 
rent on a slender stalk, 5'-7' long, 2'-3' broad, rather larger than the upper leaflets, 
and two or three times as large as those of the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate 
opening after the leaves have grown nearly to their full size, in slender light green 
glandular-hirsute arnents 4'-5' long, short-stalked, glandular-hirsute, their elon- 
gated ovate acute lanceolate bract two or three times as long as the ovate concave 
rounded or acute calyx-lobes; stamens 4, with nearly sessile yellow anthers tinged with 
red; pistillate in 2-5-flowered spikes, |' long, clothed with rusty tomentum. Fruit 
solitary or in pairs, subglobose, rather longer than broad or slightly obovate, de- 
pressed at the apex, dark reddish brown or nearly black at maturity, roughened by 
small pale lenticels, glabrous or pilose, l'-2^' long, the husk ^'-^' thick and splitting 
freely to the base ; nut oblong, nearly twice as long as broad, or obovate and broader 
than long, compressed, prominently or obscurely 4-ridged and angled, acute and 
gradually or abruptly narrowed or rounded and nearly truncate at the apex, gradu- 
ally narrowed and rounded at the base, pale or nearly white, thick or rarely thin- 
walled, '-!' long, !'-!' wide; seed light brown, lustrous, sweet, with an aromatic 
flavor. 

A tree, 70-90 and occasionally 120 high, with a tall straight trunk 3-4 in 
diameter, in the forest often free of branches for 50-60 above the ground and 
then divided into a few small limbs forming a narrow head, or with more space some- 
times dividing near the ground or at half the height of the tree into stout slightly 
spreading limbs, forming a narrow inversely conical round-topped head of more or 



140 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

less pendulous branches, and stout branchlets marked with oblong pale lenticels, 
covered at first with caducous brown scurf and coated with pale glandular pubes- 
cence, soon bright reddish brown and lustrous, glabrous or pubescent, growing dark 
gray in their second year and ultimately light gray, and marked by pale and slightly 
elevated ovate semiorbicular or obscurely 3-lobed leaf -scars. Winter-buds: ter- 
minal broadly ovate, rather obtuse, ^' f' long, '-' broad, the 3 or 4 outer scales 
nearly triangular, acute, dark brown, pubescent and hirsute on the outer surface, the 
exterior scales oten abruptly narrowed into long rigid points and deciduous before 
the unfolding of the leaves, inner scales lustrous, covered with resinous glands, yel- 
low-green often tinged with red, oblong-obovate, pointed, becoming 2^'-3' long and 
y broad, usually persistent until after the fall of the staminate ameuts; axillary 
coated at first with thick white tomentum, becoming \'-\' long when fully grown. 
Bark light gray, |'-1' thick, separating in thick stripes often a foot or more long and 
6'-8' wide, and more or less closely attached to the trunk by the middle, giving it 
the shaggy appearance to which the tree owes its common name. Wood heavy, very 
hard and strong, tough, close-grained, flexible, light brown, with thin nearly white 
sapwood; largely used in the manufacture of agricultural implements, carriages, 
wagons, and for axe-handles, baskets, and fuel. The nut is the common hickory nut 
of commerce. 

Distribution. Low hills or near streams and swamps, in rich deep moderately 
moist soil from southern Maine to the valley of the St. Lawrence River near Mon- 
treal, south westward along the northern shores of Lake Erie and Ontario to southern 
Michigan, central Minnesota, and southeastern Nebraska, southward to Pennsylvania 
and Delaware and along the Appalachian Mountains to western Florida, northern 
Alabama and Mississippi, and westward to central Kansas, the Indian Territory and 
eastern Texas; most common and of its largest size on the western slopes of the 
southern Alleghany Mountains and in the basin of the lower Ohio River. 

7. Hicoria Carolinse-septentrionalis, Aslie. Shagbark Hickory. 

Leaves 4' 8' long, with slender glabrous petioles, usually 5 but occasionally 3 
lanceolate long-pointed leaflets gradually narrowed at the acuminate symmetrical 
or unsymmetrical base, coarsely serrate, ciliate with long white hairs as the leaves 
unfold, thin, dark green above, pale yellow-green and lustrous below, the upper 
leaflets 3'-4' long, !'-!' wide, and about twice as large as those of the lower pair, 
turning dull brown or yellow-brown some time before falling. Flowers : stami- 
nate in slightly villous aments, pedicellate, glandular-hirsute on the outer surface, 
with linear elongated acuminate villous bracts; stamens 4; pistillate usually in 2- 
flowered spikes, oblong and covered with clustered golden hairs, their bract linear 
and ciliate on the margins. Fruit broader than high, or short-oblong, slightly de- 
pressed at the apex, f '-\\' wide, dark red-brown, roughened by small pale lenticels, 
with a husk ^'-f thick, splitting freely almost to the base; nut ovate, compressed, 
prominently 4-angled, acute at the ends, nearly white or pale brown, f '-!' long, with 
a thin shell; seed light brown, sweet. 

A tree, on moist bottom-lands sometimes 80 tall, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, 
and short small branches forming a narrow oblong head, or on dry hillsides usually 
not more than 20-30 tall, with a trunk generally not exceeding a foot in diame- 
ter, and slender red-brown branchlets marked by numerous small pale lenticels and 
by the small low truncate or slightly obcordate leaf-scars, becoming ultimately dull 
gray-brown. Winter-buds : terminal ovate, gradually narrowed to the obtuse 



JUGLANDACE^E 141 

apex, about ^' long, with glabrous bright red-brown and lustrous acute and apiculate 
strongly keeled spreading outer scales, the inner scales becoming when fully grown 




bright yellow, long-pointed, and sometimes 2' long; axillary oblong, obtuse, not 
more than fa' long. Bark light gray, ^'-f thick, separating freely into thick strips 
often a foot or more long, 3' or 4' wide, and long-persistent, giving to the trunk the 
shaggy appearance of the northern Shagbark Hickory. "Wood hard, strong, very 
tough, light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Dry limestone hills, and river-bottoms; central North Carolina 
to northern Georgia, and through western North Carolina to eastern Tennessee and 
central Alabama. 

8. Hicoria lacinioaa, Sarg. Big Shellbark. Bottom Shellbark. 

Leaves 15'-22' long, with stout glabrous or pubescent petioles often persistent 
on the brandies during the winter, and 5-9, usually 7, ovate to oblong-lanceolate or 
broadly obovate leaflets, the upper 5'-9' long and 3'-5' broad and generally two or 
three times as large as those of the lowest pair, usually equilateral, acuminate, equally 
or unequally wedge-shaped or rounded at the often oblique base, finely serrate, ses- 
sile or short-stalked, dark green and lustrous above, pale yellow-green or bronzy 
brown and covered with soft pubescence below. Flowers : staminate in aments 
5'-8' long and glabrous or covered with rufous scurfy tomentum, short-pedicellate, 
with linear-lanceolate acute bracts two or three times as long as the broader rounded 
calyx-lobes, and hirsute yellow subsessile more or less deeply emarginate anthers; 
pistillate in 2-5-flowered spikes, oblong-ovate, about twice as long as broad, slightly 
angled, clothed with pale tomentum, with linear acute bracts much longer than the 
nearly triangular bractlets and calyx-lobe. Fruit solitary or in pairs, ellipsoidal, 
ovate or subglobose, depressed at the apex, roughened with minute orange-colored 
lenticels, downy or glabrous, light orange-colored or dark chestnut-brown at matur- 
ity, l|'-2^' long and l^'-2' broad, with a hard woody husk pale and marked on the 
inside with dark delicate veins, and ^'-^' thick ; nut ellipsoidal or slightly obovate, 
longer than broad or sometimes broader than long, flattened and rounded at the ends 
or gradually narrowed and rounded at the base, and occasionally acuminate at the 
apex, more or less compressed, prominently 4-ridged and angled or often 6-ridged, 



142 



TREES OP NORTH AMERICA 



furnished at the base with a stout long point, light yellow to reddish brown, l|'-2^' 
long and l^'-lf ' wide, with a hard bony shell sometimes \' thick ; seed light chest- 
nut-brown, very sweet. 

A tree, occasionally 120 high, with a straight slender trunk often free of branches 
for more than half its height and rarely exceeding 3 in diameter, comparatively 
small spreading branches forming a narrow oblong head, and stout dark or light 
orange-colored branchlets at first pilose or covered with pale or rufous pubescence 
or tomentum, roughened by scattered elevated long pale lenticels. orange-brown and 
glabrous or puberulous during their first winter and marked with oblong 3-lobed 
emarginate leaf-scars. Winter-buds: terminal ovate, rather obtuse, sometimes V 
long and ' broad, and three or four times as large as the axillary buds, usually 
covered by 11 or 12 scales, the outer dark brown, puberulous, generally keeled, 
with a long point at the apex, the inner scales obovate, pointed and rounded at the 
apex, light green tinged with red, or bright red or yellow, covered with silky pu- 
bescence on the outer face, slightly resinous, becoming 2'-3' long and 1' broad. Bark 




l'-2' thick, light gray, separating into broad thick plates frequently 3-4 long, 
sometimes remaining for many years hanging on the trunk. Wood heavy, very 
hard, strong and tough, close-grained, very flexible, dark brown, with comparatively 
thin nearly white sapwood. The large nuts are often sold in the markets of western 
cities and commercially are not often distinguished from those of the Shellbark 
Hickory. 

Distribution. Rich deep bottom-lands usually inundated during several weeks 
of every year from Iowa to southeastern Nebraska, through Missouri and Arkansas, 
eastern Kansas and the eastern portion of the Indian Territory, through southern 
Illinois and Indiana to East Tennessee, southern Michigan, western and central 
New York, eastern Pennsylvania and middle North Carolina; rare and local east of 
the Alleghany Mountains and comparatively rare in Arkansas, Kansas, and the In- 
dian Territory; one of the commonest trees of the great river swamps of central 
Missouri and the lower Ohio basin. 

Occasionally cultivated on old estates in Virginia, and rarely in central and west- 
ern Europe. 



JUGLANDACE^ 143 

9. Hicoria alba, Britt. Mockernut. Big Bud Hickory. 

Leaves fragrant, with a powerful resinous pleasant odor, 8'-12' long, with hirsute 
or tomentose petioles, and 57 oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate leaflets gradu- 
ally or abruptly acuminate, mostly equilateral, equally or unequally rounded or 
wedge-shaped at the base, minutely or coarsely serrate, sessile or short-stalked, dark 
yellow-green and rather lustrous above, lustrous, paler or light orange-colored or 
brown and clothed with soft pale pubescence on the lower surface, the upper leaflets 
5'-8' long and 3'-5' wide, and two or three times as large as those of the lowest pair. 
Flowers: staminate in aments 4' 5' long, with slender light green stems coated 
with matted hairs, short-stalked, pale yellow-green, jV ^' long, scurfy-pubescent, 
with elongated ovate-lanceolate bracts ending in tufts of long pale hairs, and three 
or four times as long as the calyx-lobes, and 4 stamens with nearly sessile oblong 
emarginate bright red hirsute anthers; pistillate in crowded 2-5-flowered spikes, 
slightly contracted above the middle, coated with pale tomentum, the bract ovate, 
acute, sometimes \' long, about twice as long as the broadly ovate nearly triangular 
bractlets and calyx-lobe; stigmas dark red. Fruit ellipsoidal or obovate, gradually 
narrowed at the ends, acute at the apex, abruptly contracted toward the base, pilose 
or nearly glabrous, dark red-brown, l^'-2' long, with a husk about ' thick splitting 
to the middle or nearly to the base; nut nearly globose, ellipsoidal or obvate- 
oblong, narrowed at the ends, rounded at the base, acute and sometimes attenuated 
and long-pointed at the apex, much or only slightly compressed, obscurely or promi- 
nently 4-ridged, light reddish brown, becoming darker and sometimes red with age, 
|'-2' long, f'-l^' wide, with very thick hard walls and partitions; seed small, sweet, 
dark brown, and lustrous. 

A tree, rarely 100 high, usually much smaller, with a tall trunk occasionally 3 
in diameter, comparatively small spreading branches forming a narrow or often a 




broad round-topped head of upright rigid or of gracefully pendulous branches, and 
stout branchlets clothed at first with thick pale tomentum, rather bright brown, 
nearly glabrous or pubescent or tomentose, and marked by conspicuous pale lenticels 
during their first season, becoming light or dark gray, with pale emarginate leaf- 
scars almost equally lobed or elongated with the lowest lobe two or three times as 



144 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



long as the others. Winter-buds: terminal broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, \'-\' 
long, two or three times as large as the axillary buds, the three or four outer bud- 
scales ovate, acute, often keeled and apiculate, thick and firm, dark reddish brown 
and pilose, usually deciduous late in the autumn, the inner scales ovate, rounded or 
acute and short-pointed at the apex, light green covered with soft silky pubescence 
on the outer, and often bright red and pilose on the inner surface, becoming I'-l^' 
long and ^' broad. Bark '-f ' thick, slightly ridged by shallow irregular interrupted 
fissures and covered by dark gray closely appressed scales. Wood very heavy, 
hard, tough, strong, close-grained, flexible, rich dark brown, with thick nearly white 
sapwood; used for the same purposes as that of the Shellbark Hickory. 

Distribution. Southern Ontario southward to Cape Canaveral and the shores of 
Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward to eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, and 
eastern Texas; comparatively rare at the north, growing on ridges and less fre- 
quently on alluvial river-bottoms; the most abundant and generally distributed of 
the Hickory-trees of the south, attaining its largest size in the basin of the lower 
Ohio River and in Missouri and Arkansas; the only Hickory in the southern mari- 
time Pine-belt, growing in great abundance on low sandy hummocks close to the 
shores of bays and estuaries along the coast of the south Atlantic and Gulf states. 



10. Hicoria glabra, Britt. Pignut. 

Leaves 8'-12' long, with slender glabrous petioles, and 5 or 7 or rarely 9 oblong 
to obovate-lanceolate leaflets gradually or abruptly long-pointed at the apex, equally 




or unequally rounded at the base, sharply serrate, subsessile or short-stalked, thick 
and firm, at first glandular-punctate and villose, becoming glabrous, dark yellow-green 
above, paler and sometimes bright yellow or yellow-brown below, the upper 6'-8' 
long and 2'-2' broad, and three or four times larger than those of the lowest pair. 
Flowers: staminate in short-stalked scurfy pubescent aments 3'-7' long, yellow- 
green coated with pale pubescence or tomentum, with bracts lanceolate, acute and 
much longer than or ovate rounded and not longer than the calyx-lobes, and 4 stamens, 
with nearly sessile ovate emarginate orange-colored anthers slightly hirsute above 
the middle; pistillate in 2-5-flowered spikes, \' long, more or less prominently 
4-ribbed, nearly glabrous or coated with scurfy pubescence or pale tomentum, their 



JUGLANDACE^ 145 

bract lanceolate, acute, sometimes \' long, much longer than the ovate acute brart- 
lets and the calyx-lobe; stigmas yellow. Fruit extremely variable in shape and size, 
pyriform, ellipsoidal, or subglobose (var. odorata, Sarg.), rounded or often much 
depressed at the apex, abruptly or gradually narrowed at the base, cylindrical or 
often obscurely winged to the middle or nearly to the base, reddish brown, often 
pubescent or covered with scattered clusters of bright yellow hairs, 1^-' '2' long, 
f'-l^' broad, with valves gV~iV thick, opening in some forms only at the apex and 
continuing to inclose the nut after it has fallen to the ground, in others splitting 
to the middle or nearly to the base; nut ellipsoidal to subglobose, often nearly as 
broad as long, rounded at the ends, or obcordate or rarely acuminate at the apex, 
obscurely 4-angled, compressed or cylindrical, '-!' long, with thick or thin hard 
walls and partitions; seed small, light brown, bitter or sweet. 

A tree, 80-90 high, with a tall slender often forked trunk occasionally 3 or 4 
in diameter, spreading limbs forming a rather narrow head of slender more or less 
pendulous and often contorted branches, and slender branchlets marked with oblong 
pale lenticels, light green and nearly glabrous at first, rather light red-brown during 
their first season, turning dark red in their second year, with small semiorbicular to 
oblong obscurely lobed leaf-scars. Winter-buds: terminal usually about ^' long, 
ellipsoidal, acute or obtuse*, and two or three times as large as the axillary buds, the 
outer scales acute or often slightly keeled and frequently long-pointed, light orange- 
brown or dark reddish brown, lustrous and covered with short soft pubescence, 
usually deciduous early in the autumn, the inner scales yellow-green more or less 
tinged with red, covered with long pale hairs on the outer surface, lustrous on the 
inner, lanceolate and acute to broadly obovate and apiculate, frequently becoming 
2' long and 1\' wide. Bark of the trunk '-' thick, light gray, with a firm close 
surface usually divided by small fissures, or rarely scaly, with loose thick plate-like 
scales 5' or 6' long. Wood heavy, hard, very strong and tough, flexible, light or 
dark brown, with thick lighter colored or often nearly white sapwood; used for the 
handles of tools and in the manufacture of wagons and agricultural implements, and 
largely for fuel. 

Distribution. Dry ridges and hillsides, southern Maine to southern Ontario, 
and southward to the shores of the Indian River and Peace Creek, Florida, southern 
Alabama and Mississippi, and through southern Michigan to southeastern Nebraska, 
Missouri, eastern Kansas, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and Texas; most common 
in Missouri and Arkansas; of its largest size in the basin of the lower Ohio River; 
ranging farther south in Florida than other Hickories, and, with the exception of 
the Pecan, farther to the southwest in Texas. The var. odorata from eastern New 
England to Michigan and Missouri, and southward to the District of Columbia. 

11. Hicoria villosa, Ashe. Hickory. 

Leaves G'-10' long, with slender petioles pubescent in the spring and furnished 
with conspicuous tufts of pale or brownish hairs, and glabrous or puberulous in the 
autumn, and 5-9, usually 7, sessile or short-stalked lanceolate or oblanceolate acumi- 
nate leaflets gradually or abruptly narrowed and nearly symmetrical or unsymmet- 
rical at the entire base, coarsely serrate above, with remote glandular incurved teeth, 
covered as they unfold with deciduous resinous globules and on the lower surface 
with soft hairs mixed with the peltate silvery scales characteristic of this tree in 
early spring and often deciduous before the leaves are fully grown; at maturity dark 
green and glabrous above, pale or bright yellow below, the largest 4'-5' long, I'-l^' 



146 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

wide, and more than twice as large as those of the lowest pair. Flowers: staminate 
in hairy catkins 5'-7' long, with broad rounded bracts and bractlets, scurfy, villous on 
the outer surface, and 4 nearly sessile hairy anthers; pistillate oblong, prominently 
4-ribbed, coated with scurfy yellow pubescence, their bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 
much longer than the ovate acute bractlets and the calyx-lobe. Fruit subglobose to 
pyriform, f '-If ' long, 4-winged, more or less thickly covered with yellow scurfy 




1.24- 



scales, with a thin husk splitting to below the middle or nearly to the base; nut 
slightly angled, somewhat compressed, narrowed at the ends, pale or light brown, 
with a thick shell; seed light brown, small, and sweet. 

A tree, usually not more than 18-20, or sometimes 40-50 high, with a short 
trunk 12'-18' in diameter, and small branches, the upper ascending, forming a nar- 
row oblong head, the lower pendulous, and slender branchlets coated at first with 
pale tomentum or pubescence, mixed with silvery peltate scales, glabrous or puber- 
ulous, bright purplish brown during their first winter, and marked by occasional 
oblong light gray lenticels and by the small low nearly circular leaf-scars, becoming 
rather darker colored the following year. Winter-buds : terminal sessile or stalked, 
ovate, acute, fy to nearly -|-' long, with puberulous scales more or less covered on the 
outer surface with yellow glands ; axillary often solitary. Bark ^'-f ' thick, light 
gray or grayish brown, and irregularly divided by deep fissures into broad connected 
ridges covered with closely appressed scales. 

Distribution. Sandy plains or sterile rocky ridges from southern New Jersey to 
eastern Florida, and from the valley of the Maramec River, Missouri, to eastern 
Texas; common on the sandy soil of southern Delaware and in the foothill region 
of the southern Appalachian Mountains; very abundant and often the only Hickory- 
tree on the dry flinty soil of low hills in southern Missouri and Arkansas. 

VI. MYRICACE-SS. 

Aromatic resinous trees and shrubs, with watery juice, terete branches, and 
small scaly buds. Leaves alternate, revolute in the bud, serrate, resinous- 
punctate, persistent, in falling leaving elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars show- 
ing the ends of three nearly equidistant fibro- vascular bundles. Flowers 



MYRICACEJE 147 

unisexual, dioecious or monoecious, usually subtended by minute bractlets, in the 
axils of the deciduous scales of unisexual or androgynous simple oblong aments 
from buds in the axils of the leaves of the year, opening in early spring, the 
staminate below the pistillate in androgynous aments ; staminate, perianth ; 
stamens 4 or many, inserted on the thickened base of the scales of the ament ; 
filaments slender, united at the base into a short stipe ; anthers ovate, erect, 
2-celled, introrse, opening longitudinally ; ovary rudimentary or ; pistillate 
flowers single or in pairs ; ovary sessile, 1-celled ; styles short, divided into 2 
elongated filiform stigmas stigmatic on the inner face; ovule solitary, erect 
from the base of the cell, orthotropous, the micropyle superior. Fruit a globose 
or ovoid dry drupe usually covered with waxy exudations ; nut hard, thick- 
walled ; seed erect, with a thin coat, without albumen ; embryo straight ; 
cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy ; radicle short, superior, turned away from the 
minute basal hiltim. 

The family consists of the genus Myrica, L., of about thirty or forty species 
of small trees and shrubs, widely distributed through the temperate and warmer 
parts of both hemispheres. Of the seven North American species three are 
trees. Wax is obtained from the exudations of the fruit of several species. 
The bark is astringent, and sometimes used in medicine, in tanning, and as 
an aniline dye. Myrica sapida, Wall., of eastern Asia and the Malay Archi- 
pelago, is cultivated for its succulent aromatic fruit. 

The generic name is probably from the ancient name of some shrub, possibly 
the Tamarisk. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers dioecious. 

Leaves oblong-spatnlate, usually acute or rarely rounded at the apex, mostly coarsely 

serrate above the middle, yellow-green, coated below with conspicuous orange-colored 

glands. l. M. cerifera (A, C). 

Leaves usually broadly oblong-obovate, rounded or rarely acute at the apex, entire, dark 

green, and lustrous. 2. M. inodora (C). 

Flowers monoscious. 

Leaves lanceolate-cuneate or oblong-lanceolate, sharply serrate, dark green, and lustrous. 

:!. M. California (G). 

1. Myrica cerifera, L. Wax Myrtle. 

Leaves lanceolate-cuneate or oblong-lanceolate, acute or rarely gradually nar- 
rowed and rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base, decurrent on short stout petioles, 
coarsely serrate above the middle or entire, yellow-green, covered above by minute 
dark glands and below by bright orange-colored glands, l\'-A' long and \'-% wide, 
with slender pale midribs often puberulous below, and few obscure arcuate veins, 
fragrant with a balsamic resinous odor, gradually deciduous at the end of their first 
year. Flowers in small oblong aments, with ovate acute ciliate scales, those of the 
staminate plant '-f' long, about twice as long as those of the pistillate plant; 
stamens few, with oblong slightly obcordate anthers at first tinged with red, becoming 
yellow ; ovary of the pistillate flower gradually narrowed into 2 slender spreading 
stigmas longer than its scale. Fruit in short spikes, ripening in September and 
October and persistent on the branches during the winter, irregularly deciduous in 
the spring and early summer, globose, about \' in diameter, slightly papillose, light 
green, coated with thick pale blue wax. 



148 TREES OP NORTH AMERICA 

A tree, occasionally 40 high, with a tall trunk 8'-10' in diameter, slender up- 
right or slightly spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and 
slender branchlets marked by small pale lenticels, coated at first with loose rufous 
tomentum and caducous orange-colored glands, bright red-brown or dark brown 
tinged with gray, usually lustrous and nearly glabrous during their first winter, 
finally becoming dark brown; generally smaller, frequently shrubby, with many 
slender stems, sometimes only a few inches high. Winter-buds oblong, acute, 
numerous ovate acute imbricated scales, the inner scales becoming 




nearly ' long, and often persistent until the young branch has completed its growth. 
Bark of the trunk \' thick, compact, smooth, light gray. Wood light, soft and 
brittle, dark brown, with thin lighter-colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Cape May, New Jersey, southern Delaware and Maryland to 
southern Florida in the neighborhood of the coast, through the Gulf states to the 
shores of Aransas Bay, Texas, and northward in the region west of the Mississippi 
River to the valley of the Washita River, Arkansas; on the Bermuda and Bahama 
islands and on several of the Antilles; most abundant and of its largest size on the 
south Atlantic and Gulf coasts in sandy swamps and pond holes; in the sandy soil 
of Pine-barrens and on dry arid hills of the interior, often only a few inches in 
height. 

2. Myrica inodora, W. Bartr. Wax Myrtle. 

Leaves broadly oblong-obovate or rarely ovate, rounded or sometimes pointed 
and occasionally apiculate at the apex, narrowed at the base, decurrent on short 
stout petioles, entire or rarely obscurely toothed toward the apex, thick and coria- 
ceous, glandular-punctate, dark green and very lustrous above, bright green below, 
2'-4' long, f'-l^' wide, with broad conspicuously glandular midribs slightly pubes- 
cent on the lower side, and few remote slender obscure primary veins forked and 
arcuate near the much-thickened and revolute margins, gradually deciduous from 
May until midsummer. Flowers in aments '-!' long, with ovate acute glandular 
scales; stamens numerous, with oblong slightly emarginate yellow anthers; pistillate 
flowers usually in pairs, with ovate glabrous ovaries and slender bright red styles. 
Fruit produced sparingly in elongated spikes, oblong, ' % long, papillose, black, and 
covered with a thin coat of white wax. 



MTRICACE^: 



149 



Usually a shrub, with numerous slender stems, occasionally arborescent and 18- 
20 high, with a straight trunk 6-8 tall and 2-3' in diameter, and stout branchlets 




roughened with small scattered lenticels, coated at first with dense pale tomenttim, 
soon becoming bright red-brown, scurfy, and glabrous or pubescent. Bark thin, 
smooth, nearly white. Winter-buds ovate, acute, nearly \' long, with numerous 
loosely imbricated lanceolate acute red-brown scurfy-pubescent scales. 

Distribution. Deep swamps near Appalachicola, Florida, near Mobile and 
Stockton, Alabama, and near Poplarville in the valley of the Pearl River, Missis- 
sippi. 

3. Myrica Californica, Cham. Wax Myrtle. 

Leaves lanceolate-cuneate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, remotely serrate except 
at the gradually narrowed base, with small incurved teeth, decurrent on short stout 
petioles, thin and firm, dark green and lustrous above, yellow-green, glabrous or 




puberulous and marked with minute black glandular dots below, 2'-4' long, ^'-f ' 
wide, with narrow yellow midribs and numerous obscure primary veins arcuate near 



150 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

the thickened and revolute margins, slightly fragrant, gradually deciduous after the 
end of their first year. Flowers subtended by conspicuous bractlets, those of the 
two sexes on the same plant; staminate in oblong simple aments often 1' long, pis- 
tillate in shorter aments in the axils of upper leaves, androgynous aments occurring 
between the two with staminate flowers at their base and pistillate flowers above, 
or with staminate flowers also mixed with the pistillate at their apex; scales of the 
aments ovate, acute, coated with pale tomentum; stamens numerous, with oblong 
slightly emarginate dark red-purple anthers soon becoming yellow; ovary ovate, 
with bright red exserted styles. Fruit in short crowded spikes ripening in the 
early autumn and usually falling during the winter, globose, papillose, dark purple, 
covered with a thin coat of grayish white wax. 

A tree, occasionally 40 high, with a trunk 14/-15' in diameter, short slender 
branches forming a narrow compact round-topped head, and stout branchlets, coated 
at first with loose tomentum, dark green or light or dark red-brown, glabrous or 
pubescent during their first season, becoming in the second year much roughened 
by the elevated leaf-scars, darker and ultimately ashy gray; usually smaller at the 
north and toward the northern and southern limits of its range reduced to a low 
shrub often only 3^ tall. Winter-buds ovate, acute, about ^' thick, with 
loosely imbricated ovate acute dark red-brown tomentose scales nearly ^' long when 
fully grown and long-persistent on the branch. Bark smooth, compact, -fa'fa' thick, 
dark gray or light brown on the surface and dark red-brown internally. Wood 
heavy, very hard and strong, brittle, close-grained, light rose color, with thick lighter 
colored sap wood. 

Distribution. Ocean sand-dunes and moist hillsides in the vicinity of the coast 
from the shores of Puget Sound to the neighborhood of Santa Monica, California ; 
of its largest size on the shores of the Bay of San Francisco. 

Occasionally used in California as an ornamental plant. 

VII. LEITNERIACEJE. 

A tree or shrub, with pale slightly fissured bark, scaly buds, stout terete 
pithy branchlets marked by pale conspicuous nearly circular lenticels and with 
elevated crescent-shaped angled or obscurely 3-lobed leaf-scars, very light soft 
wood, and thick fleshy stoloniferous yellow roots. Leaves involute in the bud, 
lanceolate to elliptical-lanceolate, acuminate or acute and short-pointed at the 
apex, gradually narrowed at the base, entire, with slightly revolute undulate 
margins, penniveined, with remote primary veins arcuate and united near the 
margins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, petiolate, at first coated on the 
lower surface and on the petioles with thick pale tomentum and puberulous on 
the upper surface, thick and firm at maturity, bright green and lustrous above, 
pale and villose-pubescent below, deciduous. Flowers in unisexual aments, with 
ovate acute concave tomentose scales, the male and female on different plants, 
opening in early spring from buds formed the previous autumn and covered 
with acute chestnut-brown hairy scales ; the staminate clustered near the ends 
of the branches, their scales bearing on the thickened stipes a ring of 3-12 sta- 
mens, with slender incurved filaments and oblong light yellow introrse 2-celled 
anthers opening longitudinally ; perianth ; pistillate aments scattered, shorter 
and more slender than the staminate, their scales bearing in their axils a 
short-stalked pistil surrounded by a rudimentary perianth of small gland- 
fringed scales, the 2 larger lateral, the others next the axis of the inflorescence ; 



LEITNERIACE^E 



151 



ovary superior, pubescent, 1-celled, with an elongated flattened style inserted 
obliquely, curving inward above the middle in anthesis, grooved and stigmatic 
on the inner face ; ovule solitary, attached laterally, ascending, semianatropous ; 
micropyle directed upward. Fruit an oblong compressed dry drupe thick and 
rounded on the ventral, narrowed on the dorsal edge, rounded at the base, thin 
and pointed at the apex, chestnut-brown, rugose, with a thick dry exocarp 
closely investing the thin-walled light brown crustaceous rugose nutlet. Seed 
flattened, rounded at the ends, light brown, marked on the thick edge with the 
oblong nearly black hilum ; embryo erect, surrounded by thin fleshy albumen ; 
cotyledons oblong, flattened ; radicle superior, conical, short, and fleshy. 

The family consists of a single genus, Leitneria, Chapm., with one species 
of the southern United States, named for a German naturalist killed in Florida 
during the Seminole War. 

1. Leitneria Floridana, Chapm. Cork Wood. 

Leaves 4'-6' long, 1^-2^' wide, with petioles l'-2' in length. Flowers opening at 
the end of February or early in March; staminate aments I'-l^' long, \' thick, and 
twice as long as the pistillate. Fruit solitary or in clusters of 2-4, ripening when 
the leaves are about half grown, |' long, \' wide. 

A shrub or small tree, occasionally 20 high, with a slender straight trunk 4t'-5' 
in diameter above the swollen gradually tapering base, spreading branches form- 




ing a loose open head, and branchlets at first light reddish brown and thickly coated 
with gradually deciduous hairs, becoming in their first winter glabrous or puber- 
ulous, especially toward the ends, and dark red-brown. Winter-buds : terminal 
broad, conical, \' long, covered by 10 or 12 oblong nearly triangular closely imbri- 
cated scales coated with pale tomentum and long-persistent at the base of the 
branch; lateral scattered, ovoid, flattened. Bark about ^' thick, dark gray faintly 
tinged with brown, divided by shallow fissures into narrow rounded ridges. Wood 
soft, exceedingly light, close-grained, the layers of annual growth hardly distinguish- 
able, pale yellow, without trace of heartwood ; occasionally used for the floats of 
fishing-nets. 



152 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Distribution. Muddy saline shores on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico near Appa- 
lachicola, Florida, swamps of the Brazos River near Columbia, Texas; and in Butler 
and Duncan counties, southeastern Missouri, here sometimes occupying muddy 
sloughs of considerable extent to the exclusion of other woody plants. 

VIII. SALICACE-ZB. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, alternate simple stalked deciduous leaves 
with stipules, soft light usually pale wood, astringent bark, scaly buds, and 
often stolonif erous roots. Flowers appearing in early spring before the leaves, 
solitary in the axils of the scales of unisexual aments from buds in the axils of 
leaves of the previous year, the male and female on different plants ; perianth 
; stamens 2 or many, their anthers introrse, 2-celled, the cells opening longi- 
tudinally ; styles usually short or none ; stigmas 2-4, often 2-lobed. Fruit a 
1-celled 2-4-valved capsule, with 2-4 placentas bearing below their middle 
numerous ascending anatropous seeds without albumen and surrounded by tufts 
of long white silky hairs attached to the short stalks of the seeds and deciduous 
with them ; embryo straight, filling the cavity of the seed ; cotyledons flattened, 
much longer than the short radicle turned toward the minute hilum. 

The two genera of this family are widely scattered but most abundant in the 
northern hemisphere, with many species, and are often conspicuous features 
of vegetation. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE GENERA. 

Scales of the aments laciniate ; flowers surrounded by a cup-shaped often oblique disk ; 

stamens numerous ; buds with numerous scales. 1. Fopulus. 

Scales of the ament entire ; disk a minute gland-like body ; stamens 2 or many ; buds with 

a single scale. 2. Salix. 

1. FOPULUS, L. Poplar. 

Large fast-growing trees, with pale furrowed bark, terete or angled branchlets, 
resinous winter-buds covered by several thin scales, those of the first pair small and 
opposite, the others imbricated, increasing in size from below upward, accrescent 
and marking the base of the branchlet with persistent ring-like scars, and thick 
roots. Leaves involute in the bud, usually ovate or ovate-lanceolate, entire, dentate, 
with usually glandular teeth, or lobed, penniveined, turning yellow in the autumn, 
long-stalked, the stalks sometimes laterally compressed, those of the lower leaves 
furnished at the apex on the upper side with 2 nectariferous glands, leaving in fall- 
ing oblong often obcordate, elliptical, arcuate, or shield-shaped leaf-scars displaying 
the ends of 3 nearly equidistant fibro-vascular bundles; stipules caducous, those of 
the first leaves resembling the bud-scales, smaller higher on the branch, and linear- 
lanceolate and scarious on the last leaves. Flowers in pendulous stalked aments, 
the pistillate lengthening and rarely becoming erect before maturity, their scales 
obovate, gradually narrowed into slender stipes, dilated and lobed, palmately cleft 
or fimbriate at the apex, membranaceous, glabrous or villose, more crowded on the 
staminate than on the pistillate ament, usually caducous; disk of the flower broadly 
cup-shaped, often oblique, entire, dentate or irregularly lobed, fleshy or membrana- 
ceous, stipitate, usually persistent under the fruit; stamens 4-12 or 12-60 or more, 
inserted on the disk, their filaments free, short, light yellow; anthers ovate or 
oblong, purple or red; ovary sessile in the bottom of the disk, oblong-conical, sub- 



SALICACE^E 153 

globose or ovate-oblong, cylindrical or slightly lobed, with 2 or 3 or rarely 4 placentas; 
styles usually short; stigmas as many as the placentas, divided into filiform lobes 
or broad, dilated, 2-parted or lobed. Fruit ripening before the full growth of the 
leaves, greenish, reddish brown, or buff color, oblong-conical, subglobose or ovate- 
oblong, separating at maturity into 2^1 recurved valves. Seeds broadly obovate or 
ovate, rounded or acute at the apex, light chestnut-brown; cotyledons elliptical. 

Pdpulus in the extreme north often forms great forests, and is common on the 
alluvial bottom-lands of streams and on high mountain slopes, ranging from the 
Arctic Circle to northern Mexico and Lower California and from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific in the New World, and to northern Africa, the southern slopes of the 
Himalayas, central China, and Japan in the Old World. Of the twenty-five species 
now generally recognized eleven are found in North America. The wood of many 
of the American species is employed in large quantities for paper-making, and 
several species furnish wood used in construction and in the manufacture of small 
articles of woodemvare. The bark contains tannic acid and is used in tanning 
leather and occasionally as a tonic, and the fragrant balsam contained in the buds 
of some species is occasionally used in medicine. The rapidity of their growth, their 
hardiness and ease with which they can be propagated by cuttings, make many of 
the species useful as ornamental trees or in wind-breaks, although planted trees 
often suffer severely from the attacks of insects boring into the trunks and branches. 
Of the exotic species, the Abele, or W T hite Poplar, Populus alba, L., of Europe and 
western Asia, and its fastigiate form, and the so-called Lombard v Poplar, a tree of 
pyramidal habit and a form of the European and Asiatic Populus nigra, L., have 
been largely planted in the United States. 

Populus, of obscure derivation, is the classical name of the Poplar. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Stigmas 2, 2-lobed, their lobes filiform ; capsule oblong-conical, thin-walled, 2-valved ; 
leaf-stalks elongated, compressed laterally ; buds slightly resinous. 

Leaves ovate or semiorbicular, short-pointed, slightly cordate or truncate at the base, 
finely serrate; buds usually glabrous. 1. P. tremuloides (AB. F, G). 

Leaves broadly ovate, coarsely crenate ; buds tomentose. v 

2. P. grandidentata (A). 

Stigmas 2-4, 2-lobed and dilated, the lobes variously divided ; capsule subglobose to ovate- 
oblong, usually thick-walled, 2-4-valved ; buds resinous. 
Leaf-stalks round. 

Leaves broadly ovate, acute, short-pointed or rounded at the apex, crenately serrate. 

3. P. heterophylla (A, C). 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, dark green and lustrous on the upper 
surface, pale and often rusty on the lower. 

4. P. balsamifera (AH. F, G). 

Leaves ovate or lanceolate, green on both surfaces. 5. P. angustifolia (F). 

Leaves rhomboid-lanceolate, long-pointed, green on both surfaces. 

6. P. acuminata (F). 

Leaves usually broadly ovate, acuminate, rounded or cordate at the broad base, dark 
green on the upper surface, pale, rusty, or silvery on the lower ; ovary tomentose. 

7. P. trichocarpa (B, G). 

Leaves rhombic to broadly deltoid, elongated, acute or acuminate, green on both 
surfaces. 8. P. Mexicana (H). 

Leaf-stalks compressed laterally. 
Pistillate flowers on short pedicels. 



154 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Leaves- deltoid or broadly ovate, usually abruptly acuminate, coarsely crenately 
serrate. 9. P. deltoidea (A, C, F). 

Leaves deltoid or reniform, usually short-pointed at the apex, coarsely and irregu- 
larly crenately serrate. 10. P. Fremontii (F, G). 
Pistillate flowers on long slender pedicels. 

Leaves deltoid, abruptly short-pointed, coarsely crenately serrate. 

11. P. Wislizeni (E, H). 

1. Stigmas 2 , capsule 2-valved; leaf -stalks compressed laterally; buds slightly resinous. 

1. Fopulus tremuloides, Michx. Aspen. Quaking Asp. 
Leaves ovate or semiorbicular, abruptly narrowed at the apex into short broad 
points, regularly serrate, with small incurved callous glandular teeth, except at the 
broad slightly cordate truncate or rarely wedged-shaped base, thin and firm, dark 
green and lustrous above, pale dull yellow-green below, l'-2' long and broad, with 
slender veins forked and united near the margins and reticulate veinlets; their peti- 







oles slender, compressed laterally, l'-3' long. Flowers : aments l'-2^' long, the 
pistillate becoming 4' long at maturity, their scales deeply divided into 3-5 linear 
acute lobes fringed with long soft gray hairs; disk oblique, the staminate entire, the 
pistillate slightly crenate; stamens 6-12; ovary conical, with a short thick style and 
erect stigmas thickened and club-shaped below and divided into linear diverging 
lobes. Fruit maturing in May and June, oblong-conical, light green, thin-walled, 
nearly ^' long; seeds obovate, light brown, about -fa long. 

A tree, often 100 high, with a trunk occasionally 3 but generally not more than 
18'-2(y in diameter, slender remote and often contorted branches somewhat pen- 
dulous toward the ends, forming a narrow symmetrical round-topped head, and 
slender branchlets covered with scattered oblong orange-colored lenticels, bright 
red-brown and very lustrous during their first season, gradually turning light gray 
tinged with red, ultimately dark gray, and much roughened for two or three years 
by the elevated leaf-scars. "Winter-buds slightly resinous, conical, acute, often 
incurved, about \' long, narrower than the more obtuse flower-buds, with 6 or 7 
lustrous glabrous red-brown scales scarious on the margins. Bark thin, pale yellow- 



SALICACE^E 



155 



brown, orange-green, or nearly white, often roughened by horizontal bands of circular 
wart-like excrescences, frequently marked below the branches by large rows of 
lunate dark scars, becoming near the base of old trees nearly black, 2' thick, and 
deeply divided into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into small appressed 
plate-like scales. Wood light brown, with nearly white sapwood of 25-30 layers 
of annual growth. 

Distribution. Southern Labrador to the southern shores of Hudson's Bay and 
northwesterly to the mouth of the Mackenzie River and the valley of the Yukon 
River, Alaska, through the northern states to the mountains of Pennsylvania, north- 
eastern Missouri and northwestern Nebraska, and through all the mountain regions 
of the west, often ascending to elevations of 10,000 above the level of the sea, 
to the sierras of central California, northern Arizona and New Mexico, the high 
mountain ranges of Chihuahua and to Mt. San Pedro Martir in Lower California; in 
the east common and generally distributed usually on moist sandy soil and gravelly 
hillsides; bordering the midcontinental prairie region with a wide belt, and growing 
with its greatest vigor and to its largest size on the western margin of the Atlantic 
forest north of the 49th degree; farther to the northwest forming with the Birch 
and the Spruce the forests of high ridges; in the west and southwest on the high 
slopes of mountains and along the'banks of streams; most valuable in the power of 
its seeds to germinate quickly in soil made infertile by fire and of its seedlings to 
grow rapidly in exposed situations; now widely spread over vast areas of the slopes 
of the Rocky Mountains swept by fire of their former covering of coniferous trees. 

2. Populus grandidentata, Michx. Poplar. 

Leaves broadly ovate, short-pointed and coarsely and irregularly crenate, with 
stout incurved callous teeth except at the broad abruptly wedge-shaped truncate or 
rounded base, thin and firm in texture, dark green above, paler on the lower surface, 




3'-4' long, 2'-3' broad, with prominent yellow midribs, conspicuously forked veins, 
and reticulate veinlets, their petioles slender, laterally compressed, \%-l\' long. 
Flowers: aments l^'-2' long, the pistillate becoming 4'-5' long at maturity, 
their scales pale and scarious below, divided above into 5 or 6 small irregular 
acute lobes covered with soft pale hairs; disk shallow, oblique, the staminate entire, 



156 TREES OF NORTH 

the pistillate slightly crenate; stamens 6-12, with short slender filaments and light 
red anthers; ovary oblong-conical, bright green, puberulous, with a short style and 
spreading stigmas divided nearly to the base into elongated filiform lobes. Fruit 
ripening as the leaves unfold, often more or less curved above the middle, light 
green and puberulous, thin-walled, 2-valved, about \' long, and raised on a slender 
pubescent stalk; seeds minute, dark brown. 

A tree, often 60-70 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, and slender 
rather rigid branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and stout branchlets 
marked with scattered oblong orange-colored lenticels, coated at first like the un- 
folding leaves, their petioles and stipules with thick short hoary deciduous tomentum, 
becoming during their first year dark red-brown or dark orange-colored and glabrous 
or lustrous, or covered with a delicate gray pubescence, and in their second year 
dark gray sometimes slightly tinged with green and much roughened by the elevated 
3-lobed leaf-scars; generally smaller and usually not more than 30-40 tall. Win- 
ter-buds terete, broadly ovate, acute, with light bright chestnut-brown scales, pu- 
berulous during the winter especially on their thin scarious margins, about \' long 
and not more than half the size of the flower-buds. Bark thin, smooth, light gray 
tinged with green, becoming near the base of old trunks f '-!' thick, dark brown 
tinged with red, irregularly fissured and divided into broad flat ridges roughened on 
the surface by small thick closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, with thin 
nearly white sapwood of 20-30 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Rich moist sandy soil near the borders of swamps and streams; 
Nova Scotia, through New Brunswick, southern Quebec and Ontario to northern 
Minnesota, southward through the northern states to northern Delaware, southern 
Indiana and Illinois, northeastern and central Iowa, and along the Alleghany Moun- 
tains to North Carolina, and westward to central Kentucky and Tennessee. 

2. Stigmas 2-4 ; capsules 2-4-valved buds very resinous. 
* Leaf -stalks round. 

3. Populus heterophylla, L. Swamp Cottonwood. Black Cottonwood. 

Leaves broadly ovate, gradually narrowed and acute, short-pointed or rounded at 
the apex, slightly cordate or truncate or rounded at the broad base, usually fur- 
nished with a narrow deep sinus, finely or coarsely crenate, with small incurved 
glandular teeth, covered as they unfold with thick hoary tomentum soon deciduous 
from the upper surface, becoming thin and firm in texture, dark deep green above, 
pale and glabrous below, with stout yellow midribs, forked veins and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets, 4'-7' long, 3'-6' broad, with slender terete tomentose or nearly 
glabrous petioles 2^'-3^' long. Flowers: staminate aments broad, densely flowered, 
1' long, erect when the flowers first open, becoming pendulous and 2'-2|' long, their 
scales narrowly oblong-obovate, brown, scarious and glabrous below, divided into 
numerous elongated filiform light red-brown lobes; disk oblique, slightly concave; 
stamens 12-20, with slender filaments about as long as the large dark red anthers; 
pistillate aments slender, pendulous, few-flowered, l'-2' long, becoming erect and 
4'-6' long before maturing, their scales concave and infolding the flowers, linear- 
obovate, brown and scarious, laterally lobed, fimbriate above the middle, caducous; 
disk thin, irregularly divided in numerous triangular acute teeth, long-stalked; 
ovary ovoid, terete or obtusely 3-angled, with a short stout elongated style and 2 or 3 
much-thickened dilated 2 or 3-lobed stigmas. Fruit on elongated pedicels, ripening 



4p SALICACILE 157 

when the leaves are about one third grown, ovate, acute, dark red-brown, rather 
thick- walled, 2 or 3-valved, about \' long; seeds obovate, minute, dark red-brown. 

A tree, 80-90 high, with a tall trunk 2-3 in diameter, short rather slender 
branches forming a comparatively narrow round-topped head, and stout branchlets, 




marked by small elongated pale lenticels, coated at first with hoary caducous tomen- 
tum, becoming dark brown and rather lustrous or ashy gray, or rarely pale orange 
color and glabrous or slightly puberulous, or covered with a glaucous bloom in 
their first winter, growing darker in their second year and much roughened by the 
large thickened leaf-scars; usually much smaller and at the north rarely more than 
40 tall. "Winter-buds slightly resinous, broadly ovate, acute, with bright red- 
brown scales, about ^' long and about one half the size of the flower-buds. Bark on 
young trunks divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges separating on the 
surface into thick plate-like scales, becoming on old trunks f '-!' thick, light brown 
tinged with red, and broken into long narrow plates attached only at the middle and 
sometimes persistent for many years. Wood dull brown, with thin lighter brown 
sapwood of 12-15 layers of annual growth; now often manufactured into lumber in 
the valley of the Mississippi River and in the Gulf states, and as black poplar used 
in the interior finish of buildings. 

Distribution. Southington, Connecticut, and Northport, Long Island, southward 
near the coast to southern Georgia, through the Gulf states to western Louisiana, 
and through Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, western Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and southern Illinois and Indiana; in the north Atlantic states in low wet swamps, 
and rare and local; more common south and west on the borders of river swamps; 
very abundant and of its largest size in the valley of the lower Ohio and in south- 
eastern Missouri, eastern Arkansas, and western Mississippi. 

4. Populus balsamifera, L. Balsam. Tacamahac. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed and acute or acuminate at the apex, 
rounded or cordate at the broad or rarely narrowed base, finely crenately serrate, 
with slightly thickened revolute margins, coated when they unfold with the gummy 
secretions of the bud and sometimes slightly puberulous, becoming thin and firm in 
texture, deep dark green and lustrous above, pale green and more or less rusty and 
conspicuously reticulate-venulose below, 3'-o' long, l'-3' wide, with thin veins run- 



158 TREES OF NOJjfTLH 

ning obliquely almost to the margins, and slender terete petioles \\' 16ng^ abruptly 
enlarged at the base. Flowers: aments long-stalked, the pistillate becoming 4'-5' 
long before the fruit ripens, their scales broadly obovate, light brown and scarious, 
often irregularly 3-parted at the apex, cut into short thread-like brown lobes; disk 
of the stamiuate flower oblique, short-stalked; stamens 20-30, with short filaments 
and large light red anthers; dis^W the pistillate flower cup-shajted; ovary ovate, 
slightly 2-lobed, with 2 nearly sesnfe large oblique dilated crenulate stigmas. Fruit 
ovate-oblong, acute and often curved at the apex, 2-valved, light brown, about \' 
long, raised on a slender stalk ^'-\' long; seeds oblong-obovate, pointed at the 
apex, narrowed and truncate at the base, light >rown, about -fa' long. 

A tree, often 100 high, ^i tall trunk 6-7 in diameter, stout erect branches 
usually more or less contorted near the ends, forming a comparatively narrow 
open head, and branchlets marked by oblong bright orange-colored lenticels, much 




roughened by the thickened leaf-scars, at first red-brown and glabrous or pubescent, 
becoming bright and lustrous in their first winter, dark orange-colored in their 
second year, and finally gray tinged with yellow-green ; usually much smaller toward 
the southern limits of its range. Winter-buds saturated with a yellow balsamic 
sticky exudation, ovate, terete, long-pointed, terminal 1' long and ' broad; axillary 
about I' long, -fa' broad, with 5 oblong pointed concave closely imbricated thick 
chestnut-brown lustrous scales! Bark light brown tinged with red, smooth or 
roughened by dark excrescences, becoming on old trunks '-!' thick, gray tinged 
with red, and divided into broad rounded ridges covered by small closely appressed 
scales. Wood light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Low often inundated river-bottom lands and swamp borders; 
Labrador to latitude 65 north in the valley of the Mackenzie River, and to the Alas- 
kan coast, south to northern New England and New York, central Michigan and Min- 
nesota, the Black Hills of Dakota, northwestern Nebraska, northern Montana, Idaho, 
Oregon, and Nevada; the characteristic tree on the streams of the prairie region 
of Hritish America, attaining its greatest size on the islands and banks of the Peace, 
Athabasca, and other tributaries of the Mackenzie; common in all the region near 
the northern boundary of the United States from Maine to the western limits of the 
Atlantic forests; the largest of the sub- Arctic American trees, and in the far north 
the most conspicuous feature of vegetation. 

Often planted at the north for shelter or ornament. 



159 

In the northeastern United States and in Canada a form of this tree, var. candi- 
cans, Gray, Balm of Gilead, is frequently cultivated as a shade-tree and has some- 
times escaped and become spontaneous. It differs from the common form in its 
more spreading Ranches, forming a broader and more open head, in its broader 
cordate coarsely serrate leaves, with gland-tipped^teeth, more or less pubescent 
when young and {tfwiaturity paler on the lower s^^r, ciliate on the margins, with 
short white hairs and usually pubescent along the principal veins, and in its pubes- 
cent petioles and rather heavier wood; of uncertain origin, probably not indigenous 
in New England or eastern Canada. , %f 

5. Populus angustifolia, James. Narrow-I^^pd Cottonwood. 
Leaves lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or rarely obovate^ narrowed to the tapering 
acute or rounded -apex, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or rounded at the 
base, finely or on vigorous shoots coarsely serrate, thin and firm, bright yellow-green 
above, glabrous or rarely puberulous and paler below, 2'-3' long, '-!' wide, or on 
vigorous shoots occasionally G'-T long, and !' wide, with stout yellow midribs 
and numerous slender oblique primary veins arcuate and often united near the 




slightly thickened revolute margins; their peiioles slender, somewhat flattened on 
the upper side, and in falling leaving small nearly oval obcordate scars. Flowers: 
aments densely flowered, glabrous, short-stalked, l'-2^' long, the pistillate becoming 
2^'^t' long before the fruit ripens, their scales broadly obovate, glabrous, thin, sca- 
rious, light brown, deeply and irregularly cut into numerous dark red-brown fili- 
form lobes; disk of the staminate flower cup-shaped, slightly oblique, short-stalked; 
stamens 12-20, with short filaments and lasge light red anthers; disk of the pistil- 
late flower shallow, cup-shaped, slightly < ^and > irregularly lobed, short-stalked; ovary 
ovate, more or less 2-lobed, with a short or elongated style and 2 oblique dilated 
irregularly lobed stigmas. Fruit broadly*<ftratle, often rather abruptly contracted 
above the middle, short-pointed, thin-walled, 2-ralved, on stems often ^' long; seeds 
ovate or obovate, rather obtuse, light brownfliearly |' long. 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk rarely more than 18' in diameter, slender 
erect branches forming a narrow and usually pyramidal head, and slender glabrous 
or rarely puberulous branchlets marked by pale lenticels, at first light yellow- 
green, becoming bright or dark orange-colored during their first winter, pale yellow 



TREES OF NORTH 



AMERICA 



160 

in their second, and ultimately ashy gray. "Winter-buds very resinous, ovate, long- 
pointed, covered hy usually 5 thin concave chestnut-brown scales, the terminal 
i'_^' long and nearly twice as large as the axillary buds. Bark f '-!' thick, light 
yellow-green, divided near the base of old trees by shallow fissures into broad flat 
ridges, smooth and much thinner above. "Wood light brown, with thin nearly white 
sapwood of 10-30 layers of anqyp growth. ,r 

Distribution. Banks of streams usually at elevations of 5000-10,000 above 
the sea; southwestern Assiniboia to the Black Hills of Dakota and northwestern 
Nebraska, and southward along the mountain streams of the interior of the conti- 
nent to central Nevada andNew Mexico and southern Arizona; the common Cot- 
tonwood of northern Colofljuo, Utah, Wyoming, southern Montana, and eastern 
Idaho. 

6. Populus acuminata, Rydb. Cottonwood. 

Leaves rhombic-lanceolate, abruptly acuminate, gradually or abruptly narrowed 
and cuneate or concave-cuneate, or rarely broad and rounded at the mostly entire 
base, coarsely crenately serrate except near the apex, dark green and lustrous above, 
dull green below, 2'-4' long, |'-2' wide, with slender yellow midribs, thin remote 
primary veins and obscure reticulate veinlets; their petioles slender, nearly terete, 
l'-3' long. Flowers: aments slender, short-stalked, 2'-3' long, the pistillate becom- 
ing 4' or 5' long before the fruit ripens, their scales scarious, light brown, glabrous, 
dilated and irregularly divided into filiform lobes; disk of the staminate flower wide, 
oblique, and membranaceous; stamens numerous, with short filaments and dark red 
anthers; disk of the pistillate flower deep cup-shaped; ovary broadly ovate, gradually 




narrowed above, with large laciniately lobed nearly sessile stigmas. Fruit pedicel- 
late, oblong-ovate, acute, thin-walled, slightly pitted, about \' long, 3 or rarely 
2-valved; seeds oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, light brown, about -fa' in 
length. 

A tree, usually about 40 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, stout spreading 
ascending branches forming a compact round-topped head, and slender terete or 
slightly 4-angled pale yellow-brown brauchlets roughened for two or three years by 



SALICACE^E 



161 



the elevated oval horizontal leaf-scars. Winter-buds acuminate, resinous, about ' 
long, with 6 or 7 light chestnut-brown lustrous scales. Bark on young stems and 
large branches smooth, nearly white, becoming on old trunks pale gray-brown, about 
\' thick, deeply divided into broad flat ridges. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in the arid eastern foothill region of the Rocky 
Mountains ; Assiniboia to western Nebraska, eastern Wyoming, and southern Colo- 
rado. 

Sometimes planted as a shade-tree in the streets of cities in the Rocky Mountain 
region. 

7. Populus trichocarpa, Hook. Black Cottonwood. Balsam Cottonwood. 
Leaves broadly ovate to oblong-rhombic, gradually narrowed and usually short- 
pointed or rarely acute at the apex, broad, rounded or slightly cordate or occasion- 
ally slightly narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, finely crenately serrate, coated 




at first with rufous or pale pubescence, becoming thick and firm, dark rich green, 
glabrous or puberulous and lustrous above, pale and rusty or silvery white and con- 
spicuously reticulate-venulose below, 3' -4' long, l^'-3' broad; their petioles slender, 
terete, puberulous, l'-2' long. Flowers : aments stalked, the staminate densely flow- 
ered, l'-2'long, \' thick, with slender glabrous stems, the pistillate loosely flowered, 
2^'-3' long, with stout hoary-tomentose stems becoming 4'-5' long before the fruit 
ripens, their scales dilated at the apex, irregularly cut into numerous filiform lobes, 
glabrous or slightly puberulous on the outer surface; disk of the staminate flower 
broad, slightly oblique; stamens 40-60, with slender elongated filaments longer than 
the large light purple anthers; disk of the pistillate flower deep cup-shaped, with 
irregularly crenate or nearly entire revolute margins; ovary subglobose, coated with 
thick hoary tomentum, with 3 nearly sessile broadly dilated deeply lobed stigmas. 
Fruit subglobose, nearly sessile, pubescent or rarely almost glabrous, thick-walled, 
3-valved; seeds obovate, apiculate at the gradually narrowed apex, light brown, 
puberulous toward the ends, ^' long. 

A tree, often 200 high, with a trunk 7-8 in diameter, heavy upright branches 
forming a broad open head, and stout branchlets terete or slightly angled while 
young, marked by many orange-colored lenticels, coated at first with deciduous 
rufous or pale pubescence, light or dark orange-colored and lustrous during their 



162 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

first year, gradually becoming dark gray, and roughened by the greatly enlarged 
and thickened elevated leaf-scars. Winter-buds resinous, fragrant, ovate, long- 
pointed, frequently curved above the middle, f ' long and \' broad, with 6 or 7 
light orange-brown slightly puberulous scales scarious on the margins. Bark l'-2l' 
thick, ashy gray, deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the surface 
into thick closely appressed scales. Wood light, dull brown, with thin nearly white 
sapwood; largely used in Oregon and Washington for the staves of sugar barrels 
and in the manufacture of woodenware. 

Distribution. In open groves by the banks of streams; southern Alaska, south- 
ward to western Oregon, along the mountains and islands of western California to the 
southern slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains, and eastward through British 
Columbia to the valley of the Columbia River; of its largest size near the level 
of the sea in all the coast region north of California; southward and beyond the 
influence of the ocean often not more than 30-40 tall ; sometimes ascending to 
elevations of 6000 above the sea on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada of 
central California; the largest of the broad-leaved trees of British Columbia, Wash- 
ington, and Oregon. 

8. Populus Mexicana, Wesm. Cottonwood. 

Leaves rhombic and long-pointed, especially on young trees, or broadly deltoid 
and acute or acuminate, broadly or acutely cuneate or truncate or slightly cordate 
at the base, or often rounded at the apex and much broader than long, usually 
coarsely and irregularly crenately serrate except at the base and toward the apex, 
the broad and*rounded leaves finely crenulate-serrate above the middle, as they un- 
fold dark red, covered below with pale pubescence, puberulous above, ciliate on the 




margins, thin, terete, glandular, with bright red caducous glands, soon becoming 
glabrous, and at maturity subcoriaceous, bright yellow-green, very lustrous, 2'-3' 
long and somewhat narrower or much broader than long, with slender yellow mid- 
ribs and obscure primary veins; their petioles terete, at first puberulous, soon gla- 
ms, l'-2' long. Flowers: staminate aments dense, cylindrical, !'-!' long; pis- 
illateaments slender, many-flowered, l'-2' long, 3'-4' long before the fruit ripens; 



SALICACE^E 



163 



disk of the staminate flower broad, oblong; stamens numerous; disk of the pistillate 
flower deep cup-shaped, nearly entire; ovary ovate, rounded at the apex, slightly 3 
or 4-angled, short-stalked, nearly inclosed in the cup-shaped membranaceous disk. 
Fruit on short stout pedicels, round-ovoid, buff color, slightly 3 or 4-lobed, deeply 
pitted, thin-walled, about ^' long. 

A tree, sometimes 80 high, with a trunk 3^4 in diameter, gracefully spread- 
ing and ascending branches forming a broad open head, and slender branchlets, pale 
green and more or less pubescent or villose at first, soon becoming glabrous, and 
light yellow-brown during their first season. Winter-buds narrow, acute, light 
orange-brown, puberulous toward the base of the outer scales, the terminal about \' 
long, and two or three times as large as the much-compressed oblong lateral buds. 
Bark pale gray or rarely white, and deeply divided into broad flat ridges. 

Distribution. Banks of mountain streams; southern Arizona and southwestern 
New Mexico; widely distributed through northern Mexico. 

Often planted as a shade-tree in Mexican cities. 

** Leaf-stalks compressed laterally. 

9. Fopulus deltoidea, Marsh. Cottonwood. 

Leaves deltoid or broadly ovate, acuminate, with entire points, or rarely rounded 
at the apex, truncate, slightly cordate or occasionally abruptly wedge-shaped at the 
entire base, coarsely crenately serrate above, with incurved glandular teeth, as they 







f '< D7 



unfold gummy, fragrant with a balsamic odor, covered more thickly below than above 
with soft white caducous hairs, and tomentose on the margins, at maturity thick and 
firm, light bright green and lustrous, paler on the lower than on the upper surface, 
3'-5' long and broad, with stout yellow midribs often tinged with red toward the base, 
raised and rounded on the upper side, and conspicuous primary veins; their petioles 
slender, pilose at first, soon glabrous, compressed laterally, yellow more or less 
tinged with red, 2'-3^' long. Flowers : aments short-stalked, the staminate densely 
flowered, 3'-4' long, \' thick, with stout glabrous stems, the pistillate sparsely 
flowered, thin-stemmed, often becoming a foot long before the fruit ripens, their 
scales scarious, light brown, glabrous, dilated and irregularly divided at the apex 



164 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

into filiform lobes ; disk of the staminate flower broad, oblique, slightly thickened 
and revolute on the margins ; stamens 60 or more, with short filaments and large 
dark red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower broad cup-shaped; ovary subglobose, 
with 3 or 4 nearly sessile dilated or laciniately lobed stigmas. Fruit oblong-ovate, 
rather abruptly contracted and acute at the apex, slightly pitted, thin-walled, \'-\' 
long, dark green, 3 or 4-valved, its stem %'-%' long ; seeds oblong-obovate, rounded 
at the apex, light brown, about ^' long. 

A tree, sometimes 100 high, with a trunk occasionally 7-8 in diameter, divided 
often 20-30 above the ground into several massive limbs spreading gradually 
and becoming pendulous toward the ends, and forming a graceful rather open head 
frequently 100 across, or on young trees nearly erect above and spreading below 
almost at right angles with the stem, and forming a symmetrical pyramidal head, 
and stout branchlets marked with long pale lenticels, terete or, especially on vigor- 
ous trees, becoming angled in their second year, with thin more or less prominent 
wings extending downward from the two sides and the bases of the large 3-lobed leaf- 
scars. Winter-buds very resinous, ovate, acute, the lateral much flattened, ^' long, 
with 6 or 7 light chestnut-brown lustrous scales. Bark thin, smooth, light yellow 
tinged with green on young stems and branches, becoming on old trunks l^'-2' thick, 
ashy gray, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken into closely ap- 
pressed scales. Wood dark brown, with thick nearly white sapwood, warping badly 
in drying and difficult to season. 

Distribution. Banks of streams, often forming extensive open groves; Province 
of Quebec and the shores of Lake Champlain, through western New England and 
New York, Pennsylvania west of the Alleghany Mountains, and the Atlantic states 
south of the Potomac River to western Florida, and westward to the base of the 
Rocky Mountains from southern Alberta to northern New Mexico; westward passing 
into the var. occidentalis, Rydb., with deltoid more abruptly acuminate and more 
coarsely toothed leaves with longer points, and broader at the base, and the com- 
mon Cottonwood in the region along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains from 
Alberta to New Mexico and through western Texas. Comparatively rare and of 
smaller size in the east and in the coast region of the' south Atlantic and east Gulf 
states, and the largest and one of the most abundant trees along the streams between 
the Appalachian and the Rocky Mountains, marking their course over the midconti- 
nental plateau to the extreme limit of tree-growth, and growing to its largest size as 
far west as the 100th meridian. 

Often planted for shelter and ornament on the treeless plains and prairies between 
the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, and as an ornamental tree in the 
eastern United States, and largely in western and northern Europe. 

10. Populus Fremontii, Wats. Cottonwood. 

Leaves deltoid or reniform, generally contracted into broad short entire points, 
or rarely rounded or emarginate at the apex, truncate, Jightly cordate or abruptly 
wedge-shaped at the entire base, coarsely and irregularly serrate, with few or many 
incurved gland-tipped teeth, coated like the petioles when they unfold with short 
spreading caducous pubescence, at maturity thick and firm, bright green and lus- 
trous, 2'-2' long, 2'-3' broad, with thin yellow midribs and 4 or 5 pairs of slender 
veins; their petioles flattened, yellow, l'-3' long. Flowers: staminate aments 
densely flowered, l'-2' long, nearly \' broad, with slender glabrous stems; the 
pistillate sparsely flowered, with stout glabrous or puberulous stems, 2' long, becom- 



SALICACE^E 



165 



ing before the fruit ripens 4' or 5' long , their scales light brown, thin and scarious, 
dilated and irregularly cut at the apex into filiform lobes; disk of the stain mate 




f '<< 133 



flower broad, oblique, slightly thickened on the entire revolute margins; stamens 60 
or more, with large dark red anthers; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped; 
ovary ovate or ovate-oblong, with 3 broad irregularly crenately lobed stigmas. 
Fruit ovate, acute or obtuse, slightly pitted, thick- walled, 3 or rarely 4-valved, 
'-' long, its stalk stout, from ytf'-J' long; seeds ovate, acute, light brown, and 
nearly ' long. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a short trunk 5-6 in diameter, and stout 
spreading branches pendulous at the ends and forming a broad rather open graceful 
head, and slender terete branchlets light green and covered at first with short pale 
caducous pubescence, becoming light yellow before winter, dark or light gray more 
or less tinged with yellow in their second year, and only slightly roughened by the 
small 3-lobed leaf-scars. Winter-buds ovate, acute, with light green lustrous scales, 
the terminal usually about ^' long and usually two or three times as large as the 
lateral buds. Bark on young stems light gray-brown, thin, smooth or slightly 
fissured, becoming on old trees l^'-2' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and 
deeply and irregularly divided into broad connected rounded ridges covered with 
small closely appressed scales. Wood light brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams ; valley of the upper Sacramento River south- 
ward through western California to Lower California and eastward to central Ne- 
vada, southern Utah, southern Colorado, and western Texas. 

Often planted in southern California as a shade-tree, and for the fuel produced 
quickly and abundantly from pollarded trees. 

11. Populus Wislizeni, Sarg. Cottonwood. 

Leaves broadly deltoid, abruptly short-pointed, truncate or sometimes cordate at 
the broad entire base, coarsely and irregularly crenately serrate except toward the 
entire apex, coriaceous, glabrous, yellow-green and lustrous, 2'-2' long, usually about 
3' wide, with slender yellow midribs, thin remote primary veins and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets; their petioles slender, glabrous, l^'-2' long. Flowers: aments 
2'-4' long, the pistillate becoming 4'-5' long before the fruit ripens, their scales 
scarious, light red, divided at the apex into elongated filiform lobes; disk of the 



166 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



staminate flower broad and oblique; stamens numerous, with large oblong anthers 
and short filaments; disk of the pistillate flower cup-shaped, irregularly dentate, 
inclosing to the middle the long-stalked ovary full and rounded at the apex, with 
3 broad crenulate lobed stigmas raised on the short branches of the style. Fruit 
oblong-ovate, thick-walled, acute, 3 or 4-valved, slightly ridged, buff color, \' long, 
on slender pedicels ^'-f ' in length and placed rather remotely on the slender gla- 
brous rachis of the ament. 

A large tree, with wide-spreading branches, stout light orange-colored glabrous 





09 



branchlets, and acute lustrous buds. Bark pale gray-brown, deeply divided into 
broad flat ridges. 

Distribution. The common Cottonwood in the valley of the Rio Grande of 
western Texas and New Mexico, and the adjacent parts of Mexico. 

2. SALIX,L. Willow. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, scaly bark, soft wood, slender terete tough 
branchlets often easily separated at the joints, and winter-buds covered by a single 
scale of 2 coats, the inner membranaceous, stipular, rarely separable from the 
outer, inclosing at its base 2 minute opposite lateral buds alternate with 2 small 
scale-like caducous leaves coated with long pale or rufous hairs. Leaves variously 
folded in the bud, alternate, simple, lanceolate, obovate, rotund or linear, penni- 
veined; their petioles sometimes glandular at the apex, and more or less covering the 
bud, in falling leaving U-shaped or arcuate elevated leaf-scars displaying the ends 
of 3 small equidistant fibro-vascular bundles; stipules oblique, serrate, small and 
deciduous, or foliaceous and often persistent, generally large and conspicuous on 
vigorous young branches, leaving in falling minute persistent scars. Flowers in 
sessile or stalked ainents, terminal and axillary on leafy branchlets; scales of the 
ament lanceolate, concave, rotund or obovate, entire or glandular-dentate, of uniform 
color or dark-colored toward the apex, more or less hairy, deciduous or persistent; 
disk of the flower nectariferous, composed of an anterior and posterior or of a single 
posterior gland-like body; stamens 3-12 or 2, inserted on the base of the scale, with 
slender filaments free or rarely united and usually light yellow, glabrous or hairy 
toward the base, and small ovate or oblong anthers generally rose-colored before 



SALIC ACE^E 167 

authesis, becoming orange or purple; ovary sessile or stipitate, conical, obtuse to 
subulate-rostrate, glabrous, tomentose or villous, with an abbreviated style divided 
into 2 short recurved retuse or 2-parted stigmas; ovules 4-8 on each of the 2 
placentas. Fruit an acuminate 1-celled capsule separating at maturity into 2 re- 
curved valves. Seeds minute, narrowed at the ends, dark chestnut-brown or nearly 
black ; cotyledons oblong. 

Salix inhabits the banks of streams and low moist ground, the alpine summits of 
mountains, and the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere, ran- 
ging southward in the New World, with a few species, through the West Indies and 
Central America to the Andes of Chili, and in the Old World to Madagascar, 
southern Africa, the Himalayas, Burmah, the Malay peninsula, Java, and Sumatra. 
Of the 160 or 170 species which are now recognized about seventy are found in North 
America. Of these twenty-one attain the size and habit of trees, the others being 
small and sometimes prostrate shrubs. Of exotic species, Salix alba, L., and Salix fra- 
gilis, L., important European timber-trees, are now generally naturalized in the 
northeastern states. The flexible tough branches of several species are used in mak- 
ing baskets; the bark is rich in tannic acid and is used in tanning leather and yields 
salicin, a bitter principle valuable as a tonic. Many of the species are cultivated 
as ornamental trees. 

Salix is the classical name of the Willow-tree. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Scales of the aments of uniform color ; amenta usually on leafy branches. 
Stamens 3 or more ; aments terminal. 
Petioles without glands. 

Leaves green on both surfaces, narrowly lanceolate, long-pointed, often falcate. 

1. S. nigra (A, C, E, G, H). 
Leaves pale below, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate. 

Leaves silvery white below, short-petiolate. 2. S. longipes (A, C, H). 

Leaves pale or glaucous below, slender-petiolate. 

3. S. amygdaloides (A, B, F). 

Leaves pale blue-green, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, minutely 
denticulate or nearly entire, coriaceous, subperjistent. 

Leaves pale or glaucous below. 4. S. laevigata (G). 

Leaves of ten -falcate, silvery white below, distinctly serrulate. 

f>. S. Bonplandiana (H.) 
Petioles glandular ; leaves lanceolate, taper-pointed. 

Leaves pubescent as they unfold, pale or glaucous below. 

6. S. lasiandra (B, F, G). 
Leaves glabrous, coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, pale below. 

7. S. lucida (A). 
Stamens 2 ; aments terminal and axillary ; leaves linear-lanceolate. 

Leaves denticulate, usually green on both surfaces, mostly glabrous. 

8. S. fluviatilis (A, B, C, E, F, G, H). 

Leaves entire or nearly so, light yellow-green, villous below, with lustrous pale 
hairs. 9. S. sessilifolia (B, G). 

Leaves small, entire or nearly so, pale gray-green and puberulous. 

10. 6. taxifolia (H). 

Scales of the amenta dark-colored at the apex ; aments on short branches, with leaves 
usually reduced to scales ; stamens 2. 



gg TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Capsules glabrous. 
Leaves acute. 

Leaves ovate or lanceolate, glaucous and conspicuously reticulate-veined below. 

11. S. balsamifera (A). 

Leaves oblanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, pale or glaucous below. 

12. S. lasiolepia (G, H). 

Leaves acuminate, lanceolate to oblanceolate. 

Leaves glabrous and glaucous below ; branchlets glabrous. 

13. S. cordata var. Mackenzieana (F, G)- 

Leaves pale, of ten silvery white below, pubescent, at least while young ; branch- 
lete pubescent. 14- S. Missouriensis (A). 

Capsules pubescent (glabrous in 19). 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so at maturity (pubescent sometimes in 15) ; style short. 
Leaves elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, acute, with a usually twisted apex, serrate 
or sometimes entire. 

Leaves usually glabrous, glaucous below ; pedicel of the ovary shorter than 
the scale ; branchlets glabrous or rarely puberulous. 

15. S. discolor (A). 

Leaves pubescent or tomentose below, often nearly glabrous at maturity ; 
pedicel of the ovary much longer than the scale ; branchlets pubescent. 

16. S. Bebbiana (A, B, F). 

Leaves obovate to oblong, obtuse to acute, entire or nearly so ; style elongated. 
Leaves yellow-green. 17. S. Huttallil (F, G). 

Leaves glaucous below. 18. S. amplifolia (B). 

Leaves pubescent or tomentose below. 

Leaves hoary-tomentose below, elliptic to oblong-obovate ; capsule glabrous; 
aments thick. 19- S. Hookeriana (B, G). 

Leaves densely covered below with a shiny white tomentum ; aments slender. 
Leaves oblong-obovate to oblanceolate ; stamens united. 

20. S. Sitchensis (B, G). 
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to obovate ; stamens distinct. 

21. S. Alaxensis (B). 

1. Scales of the aments of uniform color. 
*Stamens 3 or more aments terminal. 

-t- Petioles without glands..^' ' ^ 

1. Salix nigra, Marsh. Black Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, lanceolate, gradually narrowed above into long taper- 
ing usually curved tips, wedge-haped 4>r rounded below, finely serrate, thin bright 
light green, rather lustrous,"with obscure reticulate veins, glabrous or often pubes- 
cent on the under side of the midribs and veins and on the short slender petioles, 
3'-6' long, ^' f' wide, sometimes conspicuously scythe-shaped (var. falcata, Torr.); 
at the north turning light yellow before falling in the autumn; stipules semicordate, 
acuminate, foliaceous, persistent, or ovoid, minute, and deciduous. Flowers : aments 
terminal on leafy branches, narrowly cylindrical, l'-3' long, with short yellow scales 
rounded at the apex and coated on the inner surface with pale hairs; stamens 3-5, 
with filaments hairy toward the base; ovary ovate, long-stalked, glabrous, gradually 
narrowed above the middle to the apex, with nearly sessile thick slightly divided 
stigmatic lobes. Fruit ovate-conical, short-stalked, glabrous, about ^' long, light 
reddish brown. 

A tree, usually 30^40 high, with usually several clustered stout stems, occa- 



SALICACE^E 



169 



sionally 120 high, with a trunk 3 in diameter, stout spreading upright branches 
forming a broad somewhat irregular handsome open head, and rather bright reddish 
brown to pale orange-colored branchlets, glabrous or coated at first with pale pubes- 
cence or snowy tomentum and easily separated at the joints. Winter-buds acute, 
about ^' long. Bark I'-l^' thick, dark brown or nearly black or light brown tinged 
with orange color, and deeply divided into broad flat connected ridges separating freely 
into thick plate-like scales and becoming shaggy on old trunks. Wood light, soft, 
weak, light reddish brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Low moist alluvial banks of streams and lakes; southern New 
Brunswick and the northern shores of Lakes Huron and Superior to southern Florida, 
and to eastern Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and the Indian Territory; through west- 
ern Texas, southern New Mexico and Arizona, and southward in Mexico; along the 
western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, and northward in western California to the 




valley of the Sacramento River and the eastern base of the Coast Range in Caloosa 
County ; the largest and most conspicuous native Willow of eastern North America; 
most abundant in the basin of thf Mississippi Ri^er, and of its largest size in southern 
Indiana and Illinois and in the vajjey of the lower Colorado River in Texas; rare in 
California. 

2. Salix longipes, Anders. Black Willow. 
(Salix Wardi, and Salix occidentalis, Silva N. Am. ix. 107, 109.) 

Leaves involute in the bud, finely and unequally serrate, lanceolate to ovate-lance- 
olate, often slightly falcate, rounded or cordate at the base, obliquely long-pointed, 
4'-7' long, I'-l^' wide, or linear-lanceolate, acute, rounded or auriculate at the base 
and often less than ' wide, often puberulous, becoming glabrous and bright light 
green above, silvery white below, pubescent along the under side of the midribs and 
veins, their petioles broad, flat, sometimes f long; stipules foliaceous, reniform, 
rhomboidal or oblong, obtuse, serrate above the middle, frequently % long, some- 
times persistent. Flowers: aments terminal on leafy glabrous or hoary-pubescent 
branches, narrowly cylindrical, the staminate 3' or 4' long, rather longer than the 
pistillate, their scales ovate, obtuse, villous, orange-yellow; stamens 3-7, with fila- 
ments furnished at the base with numerous long slender hairs; anthers yellow; ovary 



170 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

globose, ovate or ovate-conical, long-stalked, with nearly sessile slightly divided 
stigmatic lobes. Fruit globose-conical, about \' long, light reddish brown, minutely 
glandular. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk 6'-8' in diameter, slender spreading 
slightly drooping branches, and slender branchlets not easily separated at the joints, 




hoary-pubescent sometimes into their second year, becoming in their first winter red- 
dish brown and gray tinged with brown the following year; usually smaller, fre- 
quently shrubby in habit. "Winter-buds bright chestnut-brown, lustrous, about 
fa' long. Bark '\'-% thick, dark reddish brown or nearly black, deeply ridged and 
crosschecked, covered by small closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood dark red- 
brown, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Rocky or gravelly banks and beds of streams; near the city of 
Washington, near Lexington, Kentucky, central Tennessee and western Illinois, cen- 
tral Missouri, and southward to southern Florida, the Indian Territory, southern 
Texas, and New Mexico; very abundant and a conspicuous feature of vegetation in the 
Ozark region of southwestern Missouri and in northwestern and western Arkansas. 

3. Salix amygdaloides, Anders. Peach "Willow. Almond Willow. 

Leaves revolute in the bud, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, frequently falcate, 
wedge-shaped or gradually rounded and often unequal at the base, gradually or 
abruptly narrowed into long slender points, finely serrate, slightly puberulous when 
they unfold, becoming at maturity thin and firm in texture, light green and lustrous 
above, pale and glaucous below, 2'-4' long, '-!' wide, with stout yellow or orange- 
colored midribs, prominent veins and reticulate veinlets; their petioles elongated, 
slender, nearly terete; stipules reniform, serrate, often ' broad on vigorous shoots, 
usually caducous. Flowers: aments elongated, cylindrical, slender, arcuate, stalked, 
pubescent or tomentose, 2'-3' long, on leafy branches; their scales yellow, sparingly 
villous on the outer, densely villous on the inner face, the staminate broadly ovate, 
rounded at the apex, the pistillate oblong-obovate, narrower, caducous; stamens 5-9, 
with free filaments slightly hairy at the base; ovary oblong-conical, long-stalked, 
glabrous, with a short style and emarginate stigmas. Fruit globose-conical, light 
reddish yellow, about \' long. 



SALICACE^; 



171 



A tree, sometimes 60-70 high, with a single straight or slightly inclining trunk 
rarely more than 2 in diameter, straight ascending branches, and slender glabrous 
branchlets marked with scattered pale leuticels, dark orange color or red-brown 
and lustrous, becoming in their first winter light orange-brown. Winter-buds 
broadly ovate, gibbous, dark chestnut-brown, very lustrous above the middle, light 
orange-brown below, ' long. Bark '-f' thick, brown somewhat tinged with red, and 
divided by irregular fissures into flat connected ridges separating on the surface 
into thick plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick 
nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams; near Montreal and in Cayuga County, New 
York, to the valley of the Saskatchewan, southward to Ohio and Missouri, and 







westward over the great plains and through the Rocky Mountains from southwestern 
Texas to Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia; comparatively rare in the 
east; abundant in the lower Ohio valley; the common arborescent Willow on the 
streams flowing eastward from the Rocky Mountains and in all the central mountain 
region of the continent. 

4. Salixleevigata, Bebb. Black Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at 
the base, narrowed and rounded or acute and mucronate at the apex, with slightly 
revolute obscurely serrate margins, on sterile branches lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate; in one form narrow, long-pointed, and falcate (var. angustifolia, 
Bebb) ; when they unfold light blue-green and coated on the lower surface with long 
pale or tawny deciduous hairs, at maturity glabrous, dark blue-green and lustrous 
above, paler and glaucous below, 3'-7' long, f '-!' wide, with broad flat yellow 
midribs, their petioles broad, grooved, puberulous, rarely \' long; stipules ovate, 
acute, finely serrate, usually small and caducous. Flowers: aments cylindrical, 
slender, lax, elongated, 2'-4' long, on leafy branches; their scales peltate, dentate at 
the apex, covered with long pale hairs, the staminate obovate, rounded, the pistillate 
narrower and more or less truncate; stamens usually 5 or 6, with free filaments hairy 
^at the base; ovary conical, acute, rounded below, rather short-stalked, glabrous, 
with broad spreading emarginate stigmatic lobes. Fruit elongated, conical, long- 



172 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




stalked, nearly ' in length, or in one form globose-conical and short-stalked (var. 
congesta, Bebb). 

A tree, 40 -50 high, with a straight trunk nearly 2 in diameter, slender spread- 
ing branches, and slender light or dark orange-colored or bright red-brown branch- 
lets coated at first with hoary deciduous pubescence; often much smaller, with an 
average height of 20-30. Winter-buds ovate, somewhat obtuse, pale chestnut- 
brown, \'-\' long. Bark '-!' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red and deeply 
divided into irregular connected flat ridges broken on the surface into thick closely 
appressed scales. "Wood light, soft, light brown tinged with red, with thick nearly 
white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams; western California from the Oregon boundary 
to the southern borders of the state, ascending to elevations of 3000 on the western 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada. 

5. Salix Bonplandiana, H. B. K. "Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, 4'-6" long, '-f ' wide, linear-lanceolate to oblong- 
lanceolate, gradually narrowed and often unequal at the wedge-shaped base, acumi- 
nate, with long slender points, obscurely serrate, with- glandular teeth, or entire, 
with revolute margins, thick and firm, reticulate-veiujlose,yellow-green and lustrous 
above, silvery white below, with broad yellow midribs, falling irregularly during 
the winter; their petioles stout, grooved, reddish; stipules ovate, rounded, slightly 
undulate, thin and scarious, ^ f -\' iMtoad, often persistent during the summer. 
Flowers: aments on leafy branches, cylindrical, erect, slender, short-stalked, the 
staminate l'-l' long and somewhat longer than the pistillate; their scales broadly 
obovate, rounded at the apex, light yellow, villose on the outer face and glabrous 
or slightly hairy above the middle on the inner face ; stamens usually 3, with free 
filaments slightly hairy at the base; ovary slender, oblong-conical, short-stalked, 
glabrous, with nearly sessile much-thickened club-shaped stigmas, surrounded below 
by a large irregular cup-shaped glandular disk. Fruit ovate-conical, rounded at 
the base, light reddish yellow. 

A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 12'-15' in diameter, slender 
erect and spreading branches often pendulous at the ends, forming a broad round- 
topped head, and slender glabrous branchlets marked with occasional pale lenticels, 



SALICACE^E 



173 



light yellow, becoming light or dark red-brown and lustrous, and paler orange- 
brown in their second year. Winter-buds narrowly ovate, long-pointed, more or 
less falcate, bright red-brown, lustrous, \' long. Bark ^'-f ' thick, dark brown or 




nearly black, and deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad flat ridges separating 
on the surface into closely appressed scales. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in the cafions of the mountains of southern 
Arizona; through central and southern Mexico. 



-i- -i- Petioles glandular. 

6. Salix lasiandra, Benth. Black Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, gradually rounded at 
the narrowed base, finely serrate, when they unfold pilose on the upper surface and 
pubescent or tomentose on the lower, at maturity dark green and lustrous above, 
pale or glaucous below, 4'-5' long, '-!' wide, with broad orange-colored midribs; 
their petioles glabrous or pubescent, |'-^' long, furnished at the apex with 2 or more 
large dark glands; stipules .semilunar, glandular-serrate, small and deciduous, or on 
vigorous shoots large and foli^ceous. Flowers : aments terminal, erect, cylindrical, 
l^'-2' long, on leafy branches, the staminate sometimes ^' in diameter and nearly twice 
as broad as the pistillate, their scales obovate, yellow, more or less villous below the 
middle, glandular-dentate, scales of the pwfillate ament narrower and sometimes 
nearly entire ; stamens 5-9, with free filaments hairy at the base; ovary cylindrical, 
short-stalked, glabrous, with a short style and spreading slightly emarginate stigmas. 
Fruit light reddish brown, about \' long. 

A tree, often GO high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, straight ascending branches 
forming an open irregular hoad, rather stout branchlets, at first dark purple, reddish 
brown or yellow, pilose, with scattered hairs, or pubescent or tomentose or often 
covered with a glaucous bloom, becoming at the end of the first season dark pur- 
ple, bright red-brown, or light orange color ; toward the southern limits of its range 
and in the interior of the continent much smaller, sometimes shrubby. Winter- 
buds broadly ovate, acute, light chestnut- brown and lustrous above the middle, pale 



174 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



at the base, $' long. Bark $'-f ' thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red and 
divided by shallow fissures into broad flat scaly ridges broken by cross fissures into 
oblong plates. Wood light, soft, brittle, light brown, with lighter colored or often 
nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. River banks and the shores of lakes; California west of the Sierra 
Nevada; in western Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia often re- 
placed by the var. Lyallii, Sarg., with leaves tapering from a rounded or subcordate 
base, usually white below and often 7'-8' long, more glandular petioles, and narrow 
and less hairy scales of the pistillate ament, and in western Oregon and Washington 
one of the commonest trees on river banks, with tall clustered stems ; in the interior 
from the sierras of northern California to northern Montana, Colorado, and northern 




New Mexico by the var. caudata, Sudw., with smaller thicker and more coriaceous 
often more or less falcate leaves, wedge-shaped at the base, green above and below, 
with thicker and more densely flowered staminate aments, yellow branchlets, and 
larger often villous winter-buds. 

7. Salix lucida, Muehl. Shining Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, lanceolate, gradually or abruptly narrowed and 
wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, acute at the apex, with long tapering points, 
finely serrate, 3'-5' long, !'-!' wide, covered when they unfold with scattered pale 
caducous hairs, at maturity coriaceous, smooth and lustrous, dark green above, paler 
below, with broad yellow midribs, and slender primary veins arcuate and united near 
the margins; their petioles stout, yellow, puberulous, glandular at the apex, with 
several dark or yellow conspicuous glands, \'-\' long ; stipules nearly semicircular, 
glandular-serrate, membranaceous, \'~^' broad, often persistent during the summer. 
Flowers: aments erect, tomentose, on stout puberulous peduncles terminal on short 
leafy branches, the staminate oblong-cylindrical, densely flowered, about !' broad, 
the pistillate slender, elongated, l^'-2' long, often persistent until late in the season; 
their scales oblong or obovate, rounded, entire, erose or dentate at the apex, light 
yellow, nearly glabrous or coated on the back with pale hairs, often ciliate on the 
margins; stamens usually 5, with elongated free filaments slightly hairy at the base; 



8ALICACEJE 175 

ovary narrowly cylindrical, long-stalked, elongated, glabrous, with nearly sessile 
emarginate stigmas. Fruit cylindrical, about ^' long, lustrous. 

A tree, occasionally 25 high, with a short trunk 6'-8' in diameter, erect branches 
forming a broad round-topped symmetrical head, and stout glabrous branchlets dark 




orange color and lustrous in their first season, becoming darker and more or less 
tinged with red the following year; usually smaller and shrubby in habit. Winter- 
buds narrowly ovate, acute, light orange-brown, lustrous, about \' long. Bark thin, 
smooth, dark brown slightly tinged with red. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and swamps ; Newfoundland to the shores of 
Hudson's Bay and northwestward to the valley of the Mackenzie River and the 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, southward to southern Pennsylvania and west- 
ward to eastern Nebraska; very abundant at the north, rare southward. 

**Stamens 2- aments terminal and axillary. 

8. Salix fluviatilis, Nutt. Sand Bar Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, linear-lanceolate or often somewhat falcate, gradually 
narrowed at the ends, long-pointed, dentate, with small remote spreading callous 
glandular teeth, 2'-6' long, \'-$ f wide, when they unfold coated below with soft lus- 
trous silky hairs, at maturity thin, glabrous, light yellow-green, darker on the upper 
than on the lower surface, with yellow midribs, slender arcuate primary veins, and 
slender reticulate veinlets, their petioles grooved, \'-\' long; stipules ovate-lance- 
olate, foliaceous, about ^' long, deciduous. Flowers: aments on stout peduncles 
covered with soft silky pale pubescence, the pistillate oblong-cylindrical, about 1' long, 
\' broad, terminal or axillary on short or elongated lateral branches, the staminate 
cylindrical, elongated, 2' or 3' long, about \' broad, terminal on leafy branches; their 
scales obovate-oblong, entire, erose or dentate above the middle, light yellow-green, 
densely villous on the outer surface, slightly hairy on the inner; stamens 2, with free 
filaments slightly hairy at the base; ovary oblong-cylindrical, acute, short-stalked, 
glabrous or pubescent, with large sessile deeply lobed stigmas. Fruit light brown, 
glabrous or villous, about \' long. 

A tree, usually about 20 high, with a trunk only a few inches in diameter, spread- 



176 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

ing by stoloniferous roots into broad thickets, short slender erect branches, and 
slender glabrous light or dark orange-colored or purplish red branchlets, growing 
darker after their first season ; occasionally 60-70 high, with a trunk 2 in diame- 
ter; often a shrub not more than 5 -6 tall. Winter-buds narrowly ovate, acute, 
chestnut-brown, about \' long. Bark \'-\' thick, smooth, dark brown slightly tinged 
with red and covered with small closely appressed irregularly shaped scales. Wood 
light, soft, light brown tinged with red, with thin light brown sapwood. 

Distribution. River banks and sand-bars; shores of Lake St. John and the Island 
of Orleans in the Province of Quebec, southward through western New England to the 
valley of the Potomac River, northwestward to within the Arctic Circle in the valley of 
the Mackenzie River and to British Columbia and California, and southward through 
the basin of the Mississippi River to northern Mexico and Lower California; exceed- 
ingly common in the valley of the Mississippi, attaining its largest size in southern 
Indiana and Illinois and in southern Arkansas; gradually becoming smaller and less 
common toward the Atlantic seaboard; abundant in all the prairie region of British 
America and lining the banks of streams flowing eastward through the central plateau 
of the continent, where it is the commonest Willow; common in Texas west of the 




valley of the Pecos River; rare in New Mexico and Arizona south of the Colorado 
plateau; common in the region adjacent to the Pacific coast from Lower California 
to northern British Columbia. From western Texas to northern California often 
replaced by the var. argyrophylla, Sarg., with leaves and capsules covered with silky 
pale tomentum, and by the var. exigua, Sarg., with very short linear leaves. 

9. Salix sessilifolia, Nutt. Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, often slightly falcate, 
narrowed at the ends, long-pointed at the apex, entire or dentate above the mid- 
dle, covered as they unfold with hoary tomentum, at maturity light yellow-green, 
glabrous or puberulous above, villous below, with silky lustrous white hairs, l'-5' 
l n g TVH' wide with yellow midribs and obscure arcuate veins; their petioles stout, 
pubescent, rarely more than \' long; stipules acute, hoary pubescent, about \' long, 
deciduous. Flowers: aments cylindrical, densely flowered, terminal and axillary on 
leafy branches, 3' long on the pistillate plant, not more than one half as long and 



SALICACE^: 



177 



broader on the stamiuate plant; their scales oblong-obovate, erose and denticulate 
above the middle, pale yellow-green and villous on the back, with pale silky hairs, 
those of the staminate ament rather broader than those of the pistillate; stamens 
2, with free glabrous filaments; ovary oblong-cylindrical, short-stalked, villous, 
crowned with a nearly sessile bifid stigma. Fruit elongated, cylindrical, bright red- 
brown, more or less villous, about \' long. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, slender erect branches 
forming a narrow head, and slender branchlets coated at first with hoary pubescence 
gradually deciduous during the summer, becoming reddish brown; or often, espe- 
cially at the south, reduced to a tall or a low shrub. Winter-buds narrow, ovate, 
acute, nearly |' long. Bark nearly % thick, dark brown, slightly fissured and cov- 




ered with thick irregular closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, 
light red, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams from the shores of Puget Sound, southward 
through western Washington and Oregon and along the western slopes and foothills 
of the Sierra Nevada to the valleys and foothills of the coast ranges of southern 
California, where it is one of the commonest Willows. 

10. Salix taxifolia, H. B. K. Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, linear-lanceolate, narrowed at the ends, acute, slightly 
falcate and mucronate at the apex, entire and obscurely dentate above the middle, 
coated as they unfold with long soft white hairs, at maturity pale gray-green, slightly 
puberulous, '-!' long, fa'-\' wide, with slender midribs, thin arcuate veins, and 
thickened slightly revolute margins; their petioles stout, puberulous, rarely ^'long; 
stipules ovate, acute, scarious, minute, caducous. Flowers: aments densely flowered, 
oblong-cylindrical or subglobose, \'-\' long, terminal, or terminal and axillary on the 
staminate plant, on short leafy branches; their scales oblong or obovate, rounded 
or acute and sometimes apiculate at the apex, coated on the outer surface with hoary 
tomentum and pubescent or glabrous on the inner; stamens 2, with free filaments 
hairy below the middle; ovary ovate-conical, short-stalked or subsessile, villous, with 
pale hairs, with nearly sessile deeply emarginate stigmas. Fruit cylindrical, long- 
pointed, bright red-brown, more or less villous, short-stalked, about \' long. 



178 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



A tree, often 40-50 high, with a trunk 18' in diameter, erect and drooping 
branches forming a broad open head, and slender brauchlets covered during their 
first season with hoary tomentum, becoming light reddish or purplish brown and 
much roughened by the elevated persistent leaf-scars. Winter-buds ovate, acute. 




dark chestnut-brown, puberulous, about ^' long and nearly as broad as long. Bark 
of the trunk |'-1' thick, light gray-brown, and divided by deep fissures into broad 
flat ridges covered by minute closely appressed scales. 

Distribution. Near El Paso, Texas, and along mountain streams in southern Ari- 
zona, southward through Mexico to Guatemala, and in Lower California. 

2. Scales of the aments dark-colored at the apex; stamens 2. 
*Capsule glabrous. 

11. Salix balsamifera, Barr. Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, broad 
and rounded and usually subcordate at the base, finely serrate, with glandular teeth, 
balsamic particularly while young, when they unfold thin, pellucid, red and coated 
below with long slender caducous hairs, at maturity thin and firm, dark green above, 
pale and glaucous below, 2'-4' long, I'-l^' wide, with yellow midribs and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets; their petioles reddish or yellow, \'-\' long; stipules often want- 
ing or on vigorous shoots foliaceous, broadly ovate and acute. Flowers: aments 
cylindrical, !'-!' long, on long slender leafy branches; their scales obovate, acute, 
rose-colored, coated with long white hairs; stamens 2, with free filaments and reddish 
ultimately yellow anthers; ovary narrow, long-stalked, gradually contracted above the 
middle, with nearly sessile emargiuate stigmas. Fruit ovate-conical, long-stalked, 
\' long, dark orange color. 

Usually a shrub, often making clumps of crowded slender erect stems generally 
destitute of branches except near the top, rarely arborescent, with a height of 25, a 
trunk 12'-1-1' in diameter, erect branches, and comparatively stout reddish brown 
branchlets becoming olive-green in their second year and marked with narrow 
slightly raised leaf-scars. Winter-buds acute, much-compressed, bright scarlet, 
very lustrous, about \' long. Bark thin, rather smooth, dull gray. 



SALICACE^E 



179 




Distribution. Cold wet bogs; coast of Labrador to northern Maine, northern 
New Hampshire and New York, and westward to the valley of the Saskatchewan, 
and to northern Michigan and Minnesota; known to become arborescent only near 
Fort Kent on the St. John River, Maine. 

12. Salix lasiolepis, Benth. White Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, oblanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, often inequilateral 
and occasionally falcate, gradually or abruptly wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, 
acute or acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, entire or remotely serrate, pilose 
above and coated below with thick hoary tomentum when they unfold, at maturity 
thick and subcoriaceous, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, dark green and glabrous 
above, pale or glaucous and pubescent or puberulous below, 3'-6' long, '-!' wide, 
with broad yellow midribs and slender arcuate veins forked and united within the 
slightly thickened and revolute margins; their petioles slender, ^'-^' long; stipules 




ovate, acute, coated with hoary tomentum, minute and caducous, or sometimes foli- 
aceous, semilunar, acute or acuminate, entire or denticulate, dark green above, pale 



180 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



below, persistent. Flowers: aments erect, cylindrical, slightly flexuose, densely 
flowered, nearly sessile, on short tomentose brauchlets, !' long, the staminate ' thick, 
and nearly twice as thick as the pistillate; their scales oblong-obovate, rounded or 
acute at the apex, dark-colored, clothed with long crisp white hairs, persistent under 
the fruit; stamens 2, with elongated glabrous filaments more or less united below 
the middle; ovary narrow, cylindrical, acute and long-pointed, dark green, glabrous, 
with a short style and broad nearly sessile stigmas. Fruit oblong, cylindrical, light 
reddish brown, about \' long. 

A tree, 20-30, or occasionally 50 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, slender 
erect branches forming a loose open head, and stout branchlets coated at first with 
hoary tomentum, bright yellow or dark reddish brown and puberulous or pubescent 
during their first year, becoming darker and glabrous in their second season; or often 
at the north and at high elevations a low shrub. Winter-buds ovate, acute, com- 
pressed, contracted laterally into thin wing-like margins, light brownish yellow, 
glabrous or puberulous. Bark on young stems and on the branches thin, smooth, 
light gray-brown, becoming on old trunks dark, about ^' thick, roughened by small 
lenticels and broken into broad flat irregularly connected ridges. Wood light, soft, 
close-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood; in southern California 
often used as fuel. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in low moist ground; valley of the Klamath 
River southward through western California to Lower California, and on the moun- 
tains of southern Arizona; one of the commonest and most variable of the California 
Willows, growing at the south at low altitudes as a large tree; on the western slopes 
of the Sierra Nevada and in Arizona reduced to a many-stemmed shrub. 

13. Salix cordata, var. Mackenzieana, Hook. Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, lanceolate to oblanceolate, gradually narrowed or 
wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, long-pointed, occasionally slightly falcate 




above the middle, finely and obscurely crenately serrate or entire, reddish and 
pilose with caducous pale hairs when they unfold, at maturity thin and firm in 
texture, dark green above, pale below, 2'-3' long, about ' wide, with slender yellow 
midribs, arcuate veins, and obscure reticulate veinlets; their petioles thin, yellow, 



SALIC ACKE 181 

about J' long; stipules reniform, conspicuously veined, about fa' broad, usually 
persistent during the season. Flowers: aments densely flowered, oblong, cylindrical, 
erect, often more or less curved, about 1^' long, terminal on short branches ; their 
scales oblong-obovate, acute, dark-colored, glabrous except at the base, persistent 
under the fruit; stamens 2, with elongated free glabrous filaments; ovary cylindri- 
cal, long-stalked, elongated, gradually narrowed into a slender style, with spreading 
emarginate stigmas. Fruit elongated, light brown slightly tinged with red, about 

V lon g- 

A small tree, with a slender trunk and upright branches forming a narrow shapely 
head, and slender branchlets marked with scattered lenticels, glabrous or slightly 
puberulous and often tinged with red at first, soon becoming yellow and lustrous, 
growing lighter colored in their second year. Winter-buds ovate, rounded on the 
back, compressed and acute at the apex, bright orange color, about \' long. 

Distribution. Shores of Great Slave Lake southward through the region at 
the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to northern Idaho, and to Lake County, 
California, and now regarded as a western form of the shrubby Salix cordata, Muehl., 
one of the commonest and most variable of American Willows, ranging from the 
Arctic Circle to the northern United States, and from the shores of the Atlantic 
Ocean to British Columbia and California. 

14. Salix Missouriensis, Bebb. Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, lanceolate or oblanceolate, gradually narrowed from 
above the middle to the wedge-shaped or rounded base, acuminate and long-pointed 
at the apex, finely serrate, with glandular teeth, coated with pale hairs on the lower 




surface and pilose on the upper surface when they unfold, soon becoming nearly gla- 
brous, at maturity thin and firm, dark green above, pale and often glaucous below, 
4'-6' long, l'-l|' wide, with slender veins often united near the margins and connected 
by reticulate coarse veinlets; their petioles stout, pubescent, or tomentose, '-f long; 
stipules foliaceous, semicordate, pointed or rarely reniform and obtuse, serrate, with 
incurved teeth, dark green and glabrous on the upper side, coated on the lower 
with hoary tomentum, reticulate-venulose, often ' long, deciduous or persistent 
during the season. Flowers: aments oblong-cylindrical, erect, densely flowered, 



182 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

appearing early in February on short leafy branches, the staminate 1% long and 
nearly ' wide and rather longer than the more slender pistillate aments becoming 
at maturity lax and 3'^i' long ; their scales oblong-obovate, light green, and clothed 
on the outer surface with Jong straight silvery hairs; stamens 2, with elongated free 
glabrous filaments; ovary cylindrical, short-stalked, beaked, glabrous, with a short 
style and spreading entire or slightly emarginate stigmas. Fruit narrow, long- 
pointed, light reddish brown, long-stalked. 

A tree, 40-50 high, with a tall straight trunk 10'-12' or rarely 18' in diameter, 
rather slender upright slightly spreading branches forming a narrow open symmet- 
rical head, and slender branchlets marked by small scattered orange-colored lenticels, 
light green and coated during their first year with thick pale pubescence, becoming 
reddish brown and glabrous or puberulous in their second winter. Winter-buds 
ovate, rounded on the back, flattened or acute at the apex, reddish brown, hoary- 
tomentose, nearly 1' long. Bark thin, smooth, light gray slightly tinged with red, 
and covered with minute closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood dark red-brown, 
with thin pale sapwood ; durable, used for fence-posts. 

Distribution. Deep sandy alluvial bottom-lands of the Missouri River in western 
Missouri, through northeastern Kansas, and from the neighborhood of St. Louis to 
northwestern Iowa. 

**Capsule pubescent (glabrous in 19). 

-t-Leaves glabrous or nearly so at maturity (pubescent sometimes in 15). 

15. Saliz discolor, Muehl. Glaucous Willow. 

Leaves convolute in the bud, oblong or oblong-obovate or rarely lanceolate, gradu- 
ally narrowed at the ends, remotely crenulate-serrate, as they unfold thin, light 
green often tinged with red, pubescent above and coated with pale tomentum below, 
at maturity thick and firm, glabrous, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, bright green 
above, glaucous or silvery white below, 3'-5' long, f '-!' wide, with broad yellow 




midribs and slender arcuate primary veins; their petioles slender, '-!' long; stipules 
foliaceous, semilunar, acute, glandular-dentate, about \' long, deciduous. Flowers : 
aments appearing late in winter or in very early spring, erect, terminal on abbre- 



SALICACE^E 



183 



viated branches coated with thick white tomentum, with leaves reduced to minute 
deciduous scales, oblong-cylindrical, about 1' long and f thick, the staininate soft and 
silky before the flowers open and densely flowered ; their scales oblong-obovate, dark 
reddish brown toward the apex, covered on the back with long silky silvery white 
hairs; stamens 2, with elongated glabrous filaments; ovary oblong-cylindrical, long- 
stalked, narrowed above the middle, villous, with a short distinct style and broad 
spreading entire stigmas. Fruit cylindrical, more or less contracted above the 
middle, long-pointed, light brown, coated with pale pubescence. 

A tree, rarely more than 25 high, with a trunk about 1 in diameter, stout as- 
cending branches forming an open round-topped head, and stout brauchlets marked 
by occasional orange-colored lenticels, dark reddish purple and coated at first with 
pale deciduous pubescence; more often shrubby, with numerous tall straggling stems. 
Winter-buds semiterete, flattened and acute at the apex, about f ' long, dark red- 
dish purple and lustrous. Bark \' thick, light brown tinged with red, and divided 
by shallow fissures into thin plate-like oblong scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, 
brown streaked with red, with lighter brown sap wood. 

Distribution. Moist meadows and the banks of streams and lakes; Nova Scotia 
to Manitoba, and southward to Delaware, southern Indiana and Illinois, and north- 
eastern Missouri; common. 

16. Salix Bebbiana, Sarg. Willow. 

Leaves conduplicate in the bud, oblong-obovate to oblong-elliptical or lanceolate, 
gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, acuminate and short- 




pointed or acute at the apex, remotely and irregularly serrate usually only above the 
middle, or rarely entire; when they unfold pale gray-green, glabrous or villous, and 
often tinged with red on the upper surface and coated on the lower with pale tomen- 
tum or pubescence, at maturity thick and firm, dull green and glabrous or puberulous 
above, blue or silvery white and covered with pale rufous pubescence below, espe- 
cially along the midribs, veins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, l'-3' long, ^'-1' 
wide; their petioles slender, often pubescent, reddish, \'-%' long; stipules foliaceous, 
semicordate, glandular-dentate, sometimes nearly ' long on vigorous shoots, decid- 
uous. Flowers: aments erect and terminal on short leafy branches; their scales 



184 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

ovate or oblong, rounded at the apex, broader on the staminate than on the pistillate 
plant, yellow below, rose color at the apex, villose, witli long pale silky hairs, per- 
sistent under the fruit; staminate cylindrical, obovate, narrowed at the base, densely 
flowered, '-!' long, '-f' broad; pistillate oblong-cylindrical, loosely flowered, about 
1' long; stamens 2, with free glabrous filaments; ovary cylindrical, villous, with long 
silky white hairs, gradually narrowed at the apex into broad sessile entire or emar- 
ginate spreading yellow stigmas. Fruit elongated-cylindrical, gradually narrowed 
into a long thin beak, and raised on a slender stalk sometimes |' long. 

A bushy tree, occasionally 25 high, with a short trunk 6'-8' in diameter, stout 
ascending branches forming a broad round head, and slender branchlets coated at 
first with hoary deciduous tomentum, varying during their first winter from reddish 
purple to dark orange-brown, marked by scattered raised lenticels and roughened 
by conspicuous elevated leaf-scars, growing lighter colored and reddish brown in 
their second year; usually much smaller and of ten shrubby in habit. Winter-buds 
oblong, gradually narrowed and rounded at the apex, full and rounded on the back, 
bright light chestnut-brown, nearly ' long. Bark thin, reddish or olive-green or 
gray tinged with red, and slightly divided by shallow fissures into appressed plate- 
like scales. 

Distribution. Borders of streams, swamps, and lakes, hillsides, open woods and 
forest margins, usually in moist rich soil; valley of the St. Lawrence River to the 
shores of Hudson's Bay, the valley of the Mackenzie River within the Arctic Circle, 
Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the coast ranges of British Columbia, forming in the region 
west of Hudson's Bay almost impenetrable thickets with twisted and often inclin- 
ing stems; common in all the northern states, ranging southward to Pennsylvania 
and westward to Minnesota, through the Rocky Mountain region from western 
Idaho and northern Montana to the Black Hills of Dakota and western Nebraska, 
and southward through Colorado to northern Arizona; ascending as a low shrub in 
Colorado to elevations of 10,000. 

17. Salix Nuttallii, Sarg. Black Willow. 

Leaves involute in the bud, oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped at the often unequal base, acute or abruptly acuminate, with short or long 
points, or broad and rounded at the apex, entire or remotely and irregularly cre- 
nately serrate, pilose above and coated below with pale pubescence or tomentum 
when they unfold, at maturity thin and firm, dark yellow-green and lustrous above, 
pale and glabrous or pilose below, l^'-4' long, \'-\\' wide, with broad yellow pubescent 
midribs and slender veins forked and arcuate within the slightly thickened and revo- 
lute margins and connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets, their petioles slender, 
puberulous, \'-\' long; stipules foliaceous, semilunar, glandular-serrate, \'-\' long, 
caducous. Flowers: aments oblong-cylindrical, erect, nearly sessile, on short tomen- 
tose branches, the staminate about 1' long and rather more than ^' thick, the pistillate 
1^' long, about |' thick, their scales oblong, narrowed at the ends, acute at the apex, 
dark-colored, covered with long white hairs, persistent under the fruit ; stamens 2, 
with free glabrous filaments; ovary cylindrical, short-stalked, long-pointed, coated 
with hoary pubescence, with broad nearly sessile emarginate stigmas. Fruit light 
reddish brown, covered with pale pubescence, about \' long. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a short trunk rarely exceeding 1 in diameter, 
slender pendulous branches forming a rather compact round-topped shapely head, 
and stout branchlets marked by scattered yellow lenticels, coated at first with pale 



SALICACE^E 



185 



early deciduous pubescence, becoming bright yellow or dark orange color, and in 
their second year dark red-brown and much roughened by the conspicuous leaf-scars. 
Winter-buds ovate, acute, nearly terete or slightly flattened, with narrow lateral 
wing-like margins, light or dark orange color, glabrous or pilose at the base, about 
^' long. Bark thin, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and divided into broad flat 
ridges. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick 
nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Borders of mountain streams usually at high elevations; southern 
Assiniboia and the banks of the Columbia River in British Columbia, southward 
throufh the Rocky Mountain region to northern New Mexico and Arizona; in Cali- 
fornia on the Sierra Nevada and on the San Bernardino Mountains as a low shrub 




up to elevations of 10,000 above the sea. In the Pacific coast region from Alaska 
to Santa Barbara, California, represented by the var. brachystachys, Sarg., a tree 
sometimes 70 high, with a tall trunk often 2-^' in diameter, stouter branches, larger 
pubescent winter-buds, larger obovate leaves, and rather shorter pistillate aments; 
the most abundant Willow of western Washington and Oregon, and of its largest 
size in swamp and bottom-lands near the shores of Puget Sound. 

18. Salix amplifolia, Cov. Willow. 

Leaves revolute in the bud, oval to broadly obovate, rounded or broadly pointed 
at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed at the cuneate base, dentate-serrulate 
or entire, densely villous when they unfold, with long matted white hairs, at maturity 
nearly glabrous, pale yellow-green above, slightly glaucous bejow, 2'-2' long, !'-!' 
wide, with midribs broad and hoary-tomentose toward the base of the leaf and thin 
and glabrous above the middle; their petioles slender, tomentose. Flowers : aments 
appearing about the middle of June, stout, pedunculate, tomentose, on lateral leafy 
bniiH-hlets, the staminate l'-2' long and shorter than the pistillate, their scales 
oblanceolate or lanceolate, dark brown or nearly black, covered with long pale hairs; 
stamens 2, with slender elongated glabrous filaments; ovary ovate-lanceolate, short- 
stalked, glabrous or slightly pubescent, gradually narrowed into the elongated slender 
style crowned with a 2-lobed slender stigma. Fruit ovoid-lanceolate, glabrous, 
short-stalked, \' long. 



186 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A tree, occasionally 25 high, with a trunk a foot in diameter, and stout branch- 
lets conspicuously roughened by the large elevated U-shaped leaf-scars, and marked 




'J7 



by occasional pale lenticels, coated at first with thick villous pubescence, becoming 
during their second and third years dark dull reddish purple. 

Distribution. Sand dunes on the shores of Yakutat Bay and Disenchantment 
Bay, Alaska. 

-t~+Leaves pubescent or tomentose below. 

19. Salix Hookeriana, Hook. -Willow. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or 
rounded at the base, acute or abruptly acuminate, with short points, or rarely 
rounded and frequently apiculate at the apex, coarsely crenately serrate, especially 
those on vigorous shoots, or entire, when they unfold villous, with pale hairs, or 




tomentose above and clothed below with silvery white tomentum, at maturity thin 
and firm, bright yellow-green and lustrous, nearly glabrous or tomentose on the 
tipper surface, pale and glaucous and tomentose or pubescent on the lower surface, 



SALICACE^E 



187 



especially along the midribs and slender arcuate primary veins and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets, 2'-6' long, I'-l^' wide; their petioles stout, tomentose, ^'-^' long. 
Flowers: aments oblong-cylindrical, erect, rather lax, often more or less curved, 
about 1^' long, on short tomentose branchlets, the staminate $' thick and rather 
thicker than the pistillate; their scales oblong-obovate, yellow, coated with long pale 
hairs, the staminate rounded above and rather shorter than the more acute scales 
of the pistillate ament persistent under the fruit; stamens 2, with free elongated 
glabrous filaments; ovary conical, stalked, with a slender stalk about one third as 
long as the scale, gradually narrowed above, with a slender elongated bright red 
style and broad spreading entire stigmas. Fruit oblong-cylindrical, narrowed above, 
about \' long. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, and stout branchlets 
marked by large scattered orange-colored lenticels, covered during their first 
season with hoary tomentum and rather bright or dark red-brown and pubescent 
in their second summer; more often shrubby, with numerous stems 4'-8' thick and 
15-20 high; frequently a low bush, with straggling almost prostrate stems. Win- 
ter-buds ovate, acute, nearly terete, dark red, coated with pale pubescence, about 
^' long. Bark nearly ^' thick, light red-brown, slightly fissured and divided into 
closely appressed plate-like scales. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown 
tinged with red, with thin nearly white sapwood. 

Distribution. Borders of salt marshes and ponds and sandy coast dunes; Van- 
couver Island southward along the shores of Puget Sound and the Pacific Ocean to 
southern Oregon. 

20. Salix Sitchensis, Bong. Willow. 

Leaves conduplicate in the bud, oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, entire or dentate, 
with remote minute spreading glandular teeth, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped 
at the base, acute or acuminate, or rounded and short-pointed, or rounded at the 




apex, when they unfold pubescent or tomentose on the upper surface, and coated 
on the lower with lustrous white silky pubescence or tomentum persistent during 
the first season or sometimes deciduous from the leaves of vigorous young shoots, 
at maturity thin and firm, dark green, lustrous and glabrous above, with the excep- 
tion of the pubescent midribs, 2'-5' long, f '-!$' wide, with conspicuous slender veins 



188 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

arcuate and united within the margins and prominent reticulate veinlets; their petioles 
stout, pubescent, rarely ' long; stipules foliaceous, semilunar, acute or rounded at the 
apex, glandular-dentate, coated below with hoary tomentum, often % long, caducous. 
Flowers: aments cylindrical, densely flowered, erect on short tomentose branches, 
the staminate l'-2' long and Abroad, the pistillate 2'-3' long, and \' broad; their 
scales yellow or tawny, the staminate oblong-obovate, rounded at the apex, covered 
with long white hairs, much longer than the more acute pubescent scales of the pistil- 
late ament; stamen 1, with an elongated glabrous filament, or very rarely 2, with 
filaments united below the middle or nearly to the apex; ovary short-stalked, ovate, 
conical, acute, and gradually narrowed into the elongated style, with entire or slightly 
emarginate stigmas. Fruit ovate, narrowed above, light red-brown, about \' long. 

A much-branched tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a short contorted often 
inclining trunk sometimes 1 in diameter, and slender branchlets coated at first with 
hoary tomentum, pubescent and tomentose and dark red-brown or orange color during 
their first winter, becoming darker, pubescent or glabrous, and sometimes covered 
with a glaucous bloom in their second season; more often shrubby and 6-15 tall. 
Winter-buds acute, nearly terete, light red-brown, pubescent or .puberulous, about 
y long. Bark about ' thick and broken into irregular closely appressed dark brown 
scales tinged with red. Wood light, soft, close-grained, pale red, with thick nearly 
white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and low moist ground; Cook Inlet and Kadiak 
Island, Alaska, southward in the neighborhood of the coast to Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia. 

21. Salix Alaxensis, Cov. Feltleaf Willow. 

Leaves revolute in the bud, elliptical-lanceolate to obovate, acute or occasionally 
rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed below into short thick petioles, coated 
above as they unfold with thin pale deciduous tomentum and covered below with a 
thick mass of snowy white lustrous hairs persistent on the mature leaves, entire, 
often somewhat wrinkled, dull yellow-green above, 2'-4', long, I'-l^' wide, with 
broad yellow midribs; stipules linear-lanceolate to filiform, entire, ^'-f' long, usually 




persistent until midsummer. Flowers: aments appearing in June when the leaves 
are nearly fully grown, stout, erect, tomentose, stalked, on lateral pendulous branchlets, 



BETULACE^: 189 

the staminate I'-l^' long, much shorter than the pistillate; their scales oblong-ovate, 
rounded at the apex, dark-colored, and coated with long silvery white soft hairs; 
stamens 2, witli slender elongated filaments; ovary acuminate, short-stalked, covered 
with soft pale hairs, gradually narrowed into the elongated slender style with 2-lobed 
stigmas. Fruit nearly sessile, ovate, acuminate, covered with close dense pale 
tomentum, \' long. 

A tree, sometimes 30 high, with a trunk 4'-6' in diameter, and stout branchlets 
thickly coated at first with matted white hairs, becoming in their second year gla- 
brous, dark purple, lustrous, marked by large elevated pale scattered lenticels and 
much roughened by large U-shaped leaf-scars; often shrubby and in the most exposed 
situations frequently only a foot or two high, with semiprostrate stems. 

Distribution. Coast of Alaska from the Alexander Archipelago to Cape Lis- 
bourne, and eastward to the valley of the Mackenzie River and to the shores of 
Coronation Gulf; the only arborescent Willow in the coast region west and north of 
Kadiak Island; attaining its largest size from the Shumagin Islands eastward. 

IX. BETULACE.S3. 

Trees, with sweet watery juice, without terminal biuls, their slender terete 
branchlets marked by numerous pale lenticels and lengthening by one of the 
upper axillary buds formed in early summer, and alternate simple penniveined 
usually doubly serrate deciduous stalked leaves, obliquely plicately folded along 
the primary veins, their petioles in falling leaving small semioval slightly 
oblique scars showing three equidistant fibre-vascular bundle-scars ; stipules 
inclosing the leaf in the bud, fugacious. Flowers vernal, appearing with or 
before the unfolding of the leaves, or rarely autumnal, monoecious, the stami- 
nate 1-3 together in the axils of the scales of an elongated pendulous lateral 
ament and composed of a 2-4-parted membranaceous calyx and 2-20 sta- 
mens inserted on a receptacle, with distinct filaments and 2-celled erect 
extrorse anthers opening longitudinally, or without a calyx, the pistillate in 
short lateral or capitate aments, with or without a calyx, a 2-celled ovary, nar- 
rowed into a short style divided into two elongated branches longer than the scales 
of the ament and stigmatic on the inner face or at the apex, and a single ana- 
tropous pendulous ovule in each cell of the ovary. Fruit a small mostly 1 -celled 
1-seeded nut, the outer layer of the shell light brown, thin and membranaceous, 
the inner thick, hard, and bony. Seed solitary by abortion, filling the cavity of 
the nut, suspended, without albumen, its coat membranaceous, light chestnut- 
brown ; cotyledons thick and fleshy, much longer than the short superior radi- 
cle turned toward the minute hilum. 

Of the six genera, all confined to the northern hemisphere, five are found in 
North America; of these only Corylus is shrubby. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Scales of the pistillate ament deciduous ; nut wingless, more or less inclosed in an involucre 

formed by the enlargement of the bract and bractlets of the flower ; staminate flowers 

solitary in the axils of the scales of the ament ; calyx ; pistillate flowers with a calyx. 

Staminate aments covered during the winter : involucre of the fruit flat, 3-cleft, foli- 

aceous. 1. Carpinus. 

Staminate aments naked during the winter : involucre of the fruit bladder-like, closed. 

2. Ostrya. 



190 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Scales of the pistillate ament persistent and forming a woody strobile ; nut without an in- 
volucre, more or less broadly winged ; staminate flowers 3-6 together in the axils of the 
scales of the ament ; calyx present ; pistillate flowers without a calyx. 

Pistillate aments solitary, their scales 3-lobed, becoming thin, brown, and woody, de- 
ciduous ; stamens 2 ; filaments 2-branehed, each division bearing a half -anther ; 
winter-buds covered by imbricated scales. 3. Betula. 

Pistillate aments racemose, their scales erose or 5-toothed, becoming thick, woody, and 
dark-colored, persistent ; stamens 1-3 or 4 ; filaments simple ; wings of the nut often 
reduced to a narrow border ; winter-buds without scales. 4. Alnus. 

1. CARFINTJS, L. Hornbeam. 

Trees, with smooth close bark, hard strong close-grained wood, elongated conical 
buds covered by numerous imbricated scales, the inner lengthening after the open- 
ing of the buds. Leaves open and concave in the bud, ovate, acute, often cordate; 
stipules strap-shaped to oblong-obovate. Flowers : staminate in aments emerging 
in very early spring from buds produced the previous season near the ends of short 
lateral branchlets of the year and inclosed during the winter, and composed of 3-20 
stamens crowded on a pilose receptacle adnate to the base of a nearly sessile ovate 
acute coriaceous scale longer than the stamens; filaments short, slender, 2-branched, 
each branch bearing a 1-celled oblong yellow half-anther hairy at the apex; pistillate 
in lax semierect aments terminal on leafy branches of the year, in pairs at the base 
of an ovate acute leafy deciduous scale, each flower subtended by a small acute bract 
with two minute bractlets at its base; calyx adnate to the ovary and dentate on the 
free narrow border. Nuts ovate, acute, compressed, conspicuously longitudinally 
ribbed, bearing at the apex the remnants of the calyx, marked on the broad base by 
a large pale scar and separating at maturity in the autumn from the leaf-like 3-lobed 
conspicuously serrate green involucres formed by the enlargement of the bract and 
bractlets of the flowers and inclosing only the base of the nuts, fully grown at mid- 
summer and loosely imbricated into a long-stalked open cluster. 

Carpinus is confined to the northern hemisphere, and is distributed from the 
Province of Quebec through the eastern United States to the highlands of Central 
America in the New World, and from Sweden to southern Europe, Asia Minor, the 
temperate Himalayas, central China and Japan in the Old World. Ten or twelve 
species are recognized; one only is American. Of the exotic species, the European 
and west Asian Carpinus Betulus, L., is frequently planted as an ornamental tree in 
the northeastern United States, where some of the species of eastern Asia promise to 
become valuable. 

Carpinus is the classical name of the Hornbeam. 

1. Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt. Hornbeam. Blue Beech. 
Leaves often somewhat falcate, long-pointed, sharply doubly serrate, with stout 
spreading glandular teeth, except at the rounded or wedge-shaped often unequal 
base, pale bronze-green, and covered with long white hairs when they unfold, at 
maturity thin and firm, pale dull blue-green above, light yellow-green and glabrous 
or puberulous below, with small tufts of white hairs in the axils of the veins, 2'-4' 
long, l'-lf wide, with slender yellow midribs, numerous slender veins deeply 
impressed and conspicuous above, and prominent cross veinlets, turning deep scarlet 
and orange color late in the autumn; their petioles slender, terete, hairy, about ' 
long, bright red while young; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute, pubescent, hairy on the 



BETUL AGILE 191 

margins, bright red below, light yellow-green at the apex, J'long. Flowers: stam- 
inate aments 1^' long when fully grown, with broadly ovate acute boat-shaped 
scales green below the middle, bright red above; pistillate aments '-f' long, with 
ovate acute hairy green scales; styles scarlet. Fruit: nuts ' long, their involucres 




short-stalked, with one of the lateral lobes often wanting, coarsely serrate, but 
usually on one margin only of the middle lobe, !'-!' long, nearly 1' wide, on slender 
terete pubescent red-brown stems 5'-6' long. 

A bushy tree, rarely 40 high, with a short fluted trunk occasionally 2 in 
diameter, long slightly zigzag slender tough spreading branches pendulous toward 
the ends, and furnished with numerous short thin lateral branches growing at acute 
angles, and branchlets at first pale green coated with long white silky hairs, orange- 
brown and sometimes slightly pilose during the summer, becoming dark red and 
lustrous during the first winter and ultimately dull gray tinged with red. Winter- 
buds ovate acute, about ^' long, with ovate acute chestnut-brown scales white and 
scarious on the margins. Bark light gray-brown, sometimes marked with broad 
dark brown horizontal bands, T V~V thick. Wood light brown, with thick nearly 
white sap wood; sometimes used for levers, the handles of tools, and other small 
articles. 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps, generally in deep rich moist soil; 
southern and western Quebec to the northern shores of Georgian Bay, southward 
to Cape Malabar and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, and westward to northern 
Minnesota, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas; 
reappearing on the mountains of southern Mexico and Central America; common 
in the eastern and central states, most abundant and of its largest size on the 
western slopes of the southern Alleghany Mountains and in southern Arkansas and 
Texas. 

2. OSTRYA, Scop. Hop Hornbeam. 

Trees, with scaly bark, heavy hard strong close-*grained wood, and acute elongated 
winter-buds formed in early summer and covered by numerous imbricated scales, 
the inner lengthening after the opening of the bud. Leaves open and concave in 
the bud; their petioles slender, nearly terete, hairy; stipules strap-shaped to oblong- 
obovate. Flowers: staminate in long clustered sessile or short-stalked aments de- 



192 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



veloped in early summer from lateral buds near the ends of short lateral branchlets 
of the year and coated while young with hoary tomentum, naked and conspicuous 
during the winter, and composed of 3-14 stamens crowded on a pilose receptacle 
adnate to the base of an ovate concave scale rounded and abruptly short-pointed at 
the apex, ciliate on the margins, longer than the stamens; filaments short, 2-branched, 
each branch bearing a 1-celled half-anther hairy at the apex; pistillate in erect lax 
atnents terminal on short leafy branches of the year, in pairs at the base of an 
elongated ovate acute leaf-like ciliate scale persistent until midsummer, each flower 
inclosed in a hairy sack-like involucre formed by the union of a bract and 2 
bractlets; calyx adnate to the ovary, denticulate on the free narrow border. Nuts 
ovate, acute, flattened, obscurely longitudinally ribbed, crowned with the remnants 
of the calyx, marked at the narrow base by a small circular pale scar, inclosed in 
the much enlarged pale membranaceous conspicuously longitudinally veined reticu- 
late-venulose involucres of the flower, short, pointed and hairy at the apex, hirsute 
at the base, with sharp rigid stinging hairs, imbricated into a short strobile fully 
grown at midsummer, and suspended on a slender hairy stem. 

Ostrya is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere from Nova Scotia to 
Texas, northern Arizona, and to the highlands of southern Mexico and Guatemala in 
the New World, and through southern Europe and southwestern Asia and in northern 
Japan in the Old World. Of the four species now recognized two are American. 

Ostrya is the classical name of the Hop Hornbeam. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 



Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or acute at the apex. 
Leaves oval or obovate, acute or rounded at the apex. 



1. O. Virginiana (A, C). 
2. O. Knowltoni (F). 



1. Ostrya Virginiana, K. Koch. Hop Hornbeam. Ironwood. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed into long slender points or acute 
at the apex, narrowed and rounded, cordate or wedge-shaped at the often unequal 




base, sharply serrate, with slender incurved callous teeth terminating at first in tufts 
of caducous hairs, when they unfold light bronze-green, glabrous above and coated 
below on the midribs and primary veins with long pale hairs, at maturity thin and 



BETULACE^E 193 

extremely tough, dark dull yellow-green above, light yellow-green and furnished 
with conspicuous tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the veins below, 3'-o' long, l'-2' 
wide, with slender midribs impressed and puberulous above, light yellow and pubes- 
cent below, and numerous slender veins forked near the margins, turning clear 
yellow before falling in the autumn; their petioles about 1' long; stipules rounded 
and often short-pointed at the apex, ciliate on the margins, with long pale hairs, 
hairy on the back, about ' long and ^' broad. Flowers : staminate aments about 
\' long during their first season, with light red-brown rather loosely imbricated 
scales narrowed into long slender points, becoming when the flowers open 2' long, 
with broadly obovate scales rounded and abruptly contracted at the apex into short 
points, ciliate on the margins, green tinged with red above the middle, light brown 
toward the base; pistillate aments slender, about \' long, on thin hairy steins, their 
scales lanceolate, acute, light green, often flushed with red above the middle, hirsute 
at the apex, decreasing in size from the lowest. Fruit : nuts |' long, about \' wide, 
rather abruptly narrowed below the apex, their involucres in clusters l^'-2' long 
and f'-l' wide, on slender stems about V in length. 

A tree, occasionally 50 -0 high, with a short trunk 2 in diameter, usually not 
more than20-30 tall, with a trunk 18'-20' thick, long slender branches drooping at 
the ends and forming a round-topped or open head frequently 50 across, and slender, 
very tough branchlets, light green, coated with pale hairs when they first appear, 
becoming light orange color and very lustrous at midsummer, dark red-brown and 
lustrous during their first winter, and then gradually darker brown and losing their 
lustre. Winter-buds ovate, light chestnut-brown, slightly puberulous, \' long. 
Bark about \' thick, broken into thick narrow oblong closely appressed plate-like 
light brown scales slightly tinged with red on the surface. Wood strong, hard, 
tough, durable, light brown tinged with red or often nearly white; with thick pale 
sapwood of 40-50 layers of annual growth; used for fence-posts, handles of tools, 
mallets, and other small articles. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly slopes and ridges often in the shade of oaks and other 
large trees; Island of Cape Breton and the shores of the Bay of Chaleur, through 
the valley of the St. Lawrence River, and along the northern shores of Lake Huron 
to western Ontario, northern Minnesota, the Black Hills of Dakota, eastern and 
northern Nebraska, eastern Kansas and southward to northern Florida and eastern 
Texas; most abundant and of its largest size in southern Arkansas and Texas. 

2. Ostrya Knowltoni, Cov. Ironwood. 

Leaves oval to obovate, acute or rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed and 
often unequal at the rounded wedge-shaped rarely cordate base, sharply serrate, 
with small triangular callous teeth, covered with loose pale tomentum when they un- 
fold, at maturity dark yellow-green and pilose above, pale and soft-pubescent below, 
l'-2' long, I'-l^' wide, with slender yellow midribs slightly raised on the upper side, 
few slender primary veins connected by obscure reticuLite veinlets, turning dull 
yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles \'-^' long; stipules pale yellow- 
green, often tinged with red toward the apex, \' long, about ' wide. Flowers: 
staminate aments on stout stalks covered with rufous tomentum and sometimes ' 
long, rarely sessile, about ^' long during their first season, with dark brown puber- 
ulous scales gradually contracted into long slender subulate points, becoming when 
the flowers open I'-l^' long, with broadly ovate concave scales abruptly narrowed 
into nearly triangular points, yellow-green near the base, bright red above the mid- 



194 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

die; pistillate aments about \' long, with ovate-lanceolate light yellow-green puber- 
ulous scales ciliate on the margins. Fruit: nuts \' long, gradually narrowed at the 




apex, their involucres 1' long, nearly glabrous at the apex, sometimes slightly stained 
with red toward the base, in clusters I'-l^' long and about f ' broad, on stems \' long. 

A tree 20-30 high, with a trunk 12' -IS' in diameter, usually divided 1 or 2 
above the ground into 3 or 4 stout upright stems 4/-5' thick, slender pendulous often 
much contorted branches forming a narrow round-topped symmetrical head, and 
slender branchlets dark green and coated with hoary tomentum when they appear, 
dark red-brown and pubescent during their first summer, becoming light cinnamon- 
brown, glabrous, and lustrous in the winter, and ultimately ashy gray. Winter- 
buds ovate, dark red-brown, about ' long. Bark internally bright orange color, 
\' thick, separating into loose hanging plate-like scales light gray slightly tinged 
with red, l'-2' long and 1' or 2' wide. Wood light reddish brown, with thin sap- 
wood. 

Distribution. Only on the southern slope of the caiion of the Colorado River in 
Arizona at elevations of 6000-7000 above the sea near Talfrey, seventy miles 
north of Flagstaff. 

3. BETULA, L. Birch. 

Trees, with smooth resinous bark marked by long longitudinal lenticels, often sep- 
arating freely into thin papery plates, becoming thick, deeply furrowed, and scaly at 
the base of old trunks, short slender branches more or less erect and forming on young 
trees a narrow symmetrical pyramidal head, becoming horizontal and often pendu- 
lous on older trees, tough branchlets, short stout spur-like 2-leaved lateral branchlets 
much roughened by the crowded leaf-scars of many years, and elongated winter- 
buds covered by numerous ovate acute scales, and fully grown and bright green at 
midsummer. Leaves open and convex in the bud, often incisely lobed; stipules ovate 
and acute or oblong-obovate, scarious. Flowers in 3-flowered cymes, the lateral 
flowers of the cyme subtended by bractlets adnate to the base of the scale of the 
ament; staininate aments long, pendulous, solitary or clustered, appearing in summer 
or autumn in the axils of the last leaves of a branchlet of the year or near the ends 
of the short lateral branchlets, erect and naked during the winter, their scales in the 
spring broadly ovate, rounded, short-stalked, yellow or orange-color below the middle 



BETULACRffJ 195 

and dark chestnut-brown and lustrous above; staminate flowers composed of a mem- 
branaceous 4-lobed calyx often 2-lobed by suppression, the anterior lobe obovate, 
rounded at the apex, as long as the stamens, much longer than the minute posterior 
lobe, and of 2 stamens inserted on the base of the calyx, with short 2-branched 
filaments, each branch bearing an erect half-anther; pistillate aments oblong or 
cylindrical, terminal on the short spur-like lateral branchlets, their scales closely 
imbricated, oblong-ovate, 3-lobed, light yellow, often tinged with red above the 
middle, accrescent, becoming brown and woody at maturity, and forming sessile or 
stalked erect or pendulous short or elongated strobiles usually ripening in the 
autumn, deciduous with the nuts from the slender rachis; calyx of the pistillate 
flower 0; ovary sessile, compressed, with styles stigmatic at the apex. Nut minute, 
oval or obovate, compressed, bearing at the apex the persistent stigmas, marked at 
the base by a small pale scar, the outer coat of the shell produced into a marginal 
wing interrupted at the apex. 

Betula is widely distributed from the Arctic Circle to Texas in the New World, 
and to southern Europe, the Himalayas, China, and Japan in the Old World, some 
species forming great forests at the north, or covering high mountain slopes. Of the 
twenty-eight or thirty species now recognized thirteen are found in North America; 
of these ten are trees. Of exotic species the European and Asiatic Betula alba, L., 
in a number of forms is a common ornamental tree in the northern states, where 
several of the Birch-trees of eastern Asia also flourish. Many of the species produce 
wood valued by the cabinet-maker, or used in the manufacture of spools, shoe-lasts, 
and other small articles. The thin layers of the bark are impervious to water and 
are used to cover buildings, and for shoes, canoes, and boxes. The sweet sap pro- 
vides an agreeable beverage. 

Betula is the classical name of the Birch-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Strobiles oblong-ovoid, nearly sessile, erect, the lateral lobes of their scales broad and 
slightly divergent ; wing not broader than the nut ; leaves with 9-11 pairs of veins ; bark 
of young branches aromatic. 

Leaves heart-shaped or rounded at the base ; scales of the strobiles glabrous ; bark 
dark brown, not separating into thin layers. 1. B. lenta (A, C). 

Leaves wedge-shaped or slightly heart-shaped at the base ; scales of the strobiles 
pubescent ; bark yellow or silvery white, separating into thin layers. 

2. B. lutea (A). 

Strobiles oblong or cylindrical, erect, spreading or pendant, on slender peduncles; wing 
broader than the nut ; leaves with 5-9 pairs of veins. 

Strobiles oblong, erect, ripening in May or June, their scales pubescent, deeply lobed, 
the lateral lobes erect. 

Leaves rhombic-ovate, glaucescent and more or less silky-pubescent beneath ; bark 
light reddish brown, separating freely into thin persistent scales. 

3. B. nigra (A, C). 
Strobiles cylindrical, pendant or spreading. 

Scales of the strobiles pubescent, with recurved lateral lobes, the middle lobe trian- 
gular, nearly as broad as long ; leaves long-pointed, their petioles slender, elon- 
gated. 

Leaves triangular to rhomboidal, bright green and lustrous ; bark chalky white, 
not separable into thin layers. 4. B. populifolia (A). 



196 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Leaves ovate, wedge-shaped to truncate or rounded at the base, dull blue-green ; 
bark white tinged with pink, lustrous, not easily separable into thin layers. 

5. B. ccerulea (A). 

Scales of the strobiles with ascending or spreading lateral lobes, the middle lobe 
usually acuminate, longer than broad ; leaves acute or acuminate, their petioles 
more or less stout. 

Bark separating freely into thin layers. 
Bark creamy white and lustrous. 
Leaves ovate, dull dark green ; scales of the strobiles glabrous. 

6. B. papyrifera (A, F). 

Bark reddish brown to grayish white ; scales of the strobiles ciliate. 
Leaves ovate, mostly rounded or cordate at the broad base ; scales of the 
strobiles puberulous. 7. B. occidentalis (B). 

Leaves ovate, cuneate ; scales of the strobiles glabrous except on the mar- 
gins ; young branches not or only slightly glandular. 

8. B. Kenaica (B). 

Leaves rhomboidal to deltoid ; scales of the strobiles glabrous except on 
the margins ; young branchlets thickly covered with glands. 

9. B. Alaskana (A, B). 

Bark not separable into thin layers, dark brown; scales of the strobiles 
glabrous or puberulous. 

Leaves ovate, truncate or rounded at the broad base, dull green. 

10. B. fontinalis (B, F, G). 

1. Strobiles oblong-ovoid, erect; wing not broader than the nut leaves with 9-11 pairs 
of veins. 

1. Betula lenta, L. Cherry Birch. Black Birch. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, gradually narrowed and often 
unequal at the cordate or rounded base, sharply serrate, with slender incurved teeth, 
when they unfold light green, coated on the lower surface and the margins with 




long white silky hairs, and slightly hairy on the upper surface, at maturity thin and 
membranaceous, dark dull green above, light yellow-green below, with small tufts 
of white hairs in the axils of the veins, 2^-6' long, l'-3' wide, with yellow midribs 
and primary veins prominent and hairy on the lower surface, and obscure reticulate 



BETULACEvE 197 

cross veinlets, turning bright clear yellow late in the autumn; their petioles stout, 
hairy, deeply grooved on the upper side, |'-1' long; stipules ovate, acute, light greeu 
or nearly white, scarious and ciliate above the middle. Flowers: stamiuate aments 
during the winter about f ' long, nearly $' thick, with ovate acute apiculate scales 
bright red-brown above the middle and light brown below, becoming 3' -4' long; pis- 
tillate aments '-f ' long, about ' thick, with ovate pale greeu scales rounded at the 
apex; styles light pink. Fruit: strobiles oblong-ovoid, sessile, erect, glabrous, l'-l^' 
long, about ' thick; nut obovate, pointed at the base, rounded at the apex, about as 
broad as its wing. 

A tree, with aromatic bark and leaves, 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-5 in diame- 
ter, slender branches finally spreading almost at right angles, becoming pendulous 
toward the ends and gradually forming a narrow round-topped open graceful head, 
and branchlets light green, slightly viscid and pilose when they first appear, soon 
turning dark orange-brown, lustrous during the summer, bright red-brown in their 
first winter, becoming darker and finally dark dull brown slightly tinged with red. 
Winter-buds ovate, acute, about \' long, with ovate acute light chestnut-brown 
loosely imbricated scales, those of the inner ranks becoming '-f ' long. Bark on 
young stems and branches close, smooth, lustrous, dark brown tinged with red, and 
marked by elongated horizontal pale lenticels, becoming on old trunks '-f ' thick, 
dull, deeply furrowed and broken into large thick irregular plates covered with 
closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, dark 
brown tinged with red, with thin light brown or yellow sap wood of 70-80 layers of 
annual growth; largely used in the manufacture of furniture and for fuel, and occa- 
sionally in ship and boatbuilding. Oil used medicinally as a flavor is distilled from 
the wood, and beer is obtained by fermenting the sugary sap. 

Distribution. Rich uplands from Newfoundland and the valley of the Saguenay 
River to northwestern Ontario, and central Iowa, and southward to Delaware, south- 
ern Indiana and Illinois, and along the Alleghany Mountains to western Florida, 
central Kentucky and Tennessee; a common forest tree at the north, and of its 
largest size on the western slopes of the southern Appalachian Mountains. 

2. Betula lutea, Michx. Yellow Birch. Gray Birch. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, acuminate or acute at the apex, gradually narrowed 
to the rounded cuneate or rarely heart-shaped usually oblique base, sharply doubly 
serrate, when they unfold bronze-green or red and pilose, with long pale hairs above 
and on the under side of the midribs and veins, at maturity dark dull green above, 
yellow-green below, 3' 4^' long, l'-2' wide, with stout midribs and primary veins 
covered below near the base of the leaf with short pale or rufous hairs, turning clear 
bright yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles slender, pale yellow, hairy, 
!'-!' long; stipules ovate, acute, light green tinged with pink above the middle, 
about ^' long. Flowers: staminate aments during the winter |'-1' long, about ^' 
thick, with ovate rounded scales light chestnut-brown and lustrous above the middle, 
ciliate on the margins, becoming 3' 3^' long and ^' thick; pistillate aments about |' long, 
with acute scales, pale green below, light red and tipped with clusters of long white 
hairs at the apex, and pilose on the back. Fruit: strobiles erect, sessile, short-stalked, 
pubescent, !'-!' long, about |-' thick; nut oval or obovate, about |' long, rather 
broader than its wing. 

A tree, with slightly aromatic bark and leaves, occasionally 100 high, with a 
trunk 3-4 in diameter, spreading and more or less pendulous branches forming 



198 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

a broad round-topped head, and branchlets at first green and covered with long pale 
hairs, light orange-brown and pilose during their first summer, becoming glabrous 
and light brown slightly tinged with orange, and ultimately dull and darker. Win- 
ter-buds about \' long, somewhat viscid and covered with loose pale hairs during 
the summer, becoming light chestnut-brown, acute, and slightly puberulous in winter. 
Bark of young stems and of the branches bright silvery gray or light orange color, 
very lustrous, separating into thin loose persistent scales more or less rolled on the 
margins, becoming on old trees ' thick, reddish brown, and divided by narrow irregu- 
lar fissures into large thin plates covered with minute closely appressed scales. Wood 




heavy, very strong, hard, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin nearly 
white sapwood ; largely used in the manufacture of furniture, button and tassel 
moulds, boxes, the hubs of wheels, and for fuel. 

Distribution. Moist uplands, in rich soil, and one of the largest deciduous-leaved 
trees of northeastern America; Newfoundland and along the northern shores of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to the valley of Rainy River, and southward to northern Dela- 
ware and northern Minnesota, and along the Alleghany Mountains to the high peaks 
of North Carolina and Tennessee; very abundant and of its largest size in the east- 
ern provinces of Canada and in northern New York and New England ; small and 
rare in southern New England and southward. 

2. Strobiles oblong or cylindrical wing broader than the nut; leaves with 5-9 pairs 
of veins. 
*Strobiles oblong, erect, ripening in May or June. 

3. Betula nigra, L. Red Birch. River Birch. 

Leaves rhombic-ovate, acute, abruptly or gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped 
at the base, doubly serrate, on vigorous young branches often more or less laciniately 
cut into acute doubly serrate lobes, when they unfold light yellow-green and pilose 
above and coated below, especially on the midribs and petioles, with thick white 
tomentum, at maturity thin and tough, l^'-3' long, l'-2' wide, deep green and 
lustrous above, glabrescent, pubescent, or ultimately glabrous below, except on the 
stout midribs and remote primary veins, turning dull yellow in the autumn ; their 



BETULACE^ 



199 



petioles slender, slightly flattened, tomentose, about ' long; stipules ovate, rounded 
or acute at the apex, pale green, covered below with white hairs. Flowers: stami- 
nate ainents clustered, during the winter about ' long and ^y thick, with ovate 
rounded dull chestnut-brown lustrous scales, becoming 2'-3' long and ^' thick; pistil- 
late aments about ' long, with bright green ovate scales pubescent on the back, 
rounded or acute at the apex, and ciliate, with long white hairs. Fruit ripening in 
May and June; strobiles cylindrical, pubescent, I'-l^' long, \' thick, erect on stout 
tomentose peduncles ' long; nut ovate or oval, \' long, pubescent or puberulous at 
the apex, about as broad as its thin puberulous wing ciliate on the margin. 

A tree, 80-90 high, with a trunk often divided 15-20 above the ground 
into 2 or 3 slightly diverging limbs, and sometimes 5 in diameter, slender branches 
forming in old age a narrow irregular picturesque crown, and branchlets coated at 
first with thick pale or slightly rufous tomentum gradually disappearing before 
winter, becoming dark red and lustrous, dull red-brown in their second year, and 
then gradually growing slightly darker until the bark separates into the thin flakes 
of the older branches; or often sending up from the ground a clump of several 







small spreading stems forming a low bushy tree. Winter-buds ovate, acute, about 
\' long, covered in summer with thick pale tomentum, glabrous or slightly puberulous, 
lustrous and bright chestnut-brown in winter, the inner scales strap-shaped, light 
brown tinged with red, and coated with pale hairs. Bark on young stems and large 
branches thin, lustrous, light reddish brown or silvery gray, marked by narrow 
slightly darker longitudinal lenticels, separating freely into large thin papery scales 
persistent for several years, and turning back and showing the light pink-brown 
tints of the freshly exposed inner layers, becoming at the base of old trunks from 
I'-!' thick, dark red-brown, deeply furrowed and broken on the surface into thick 
closely appressed scales. Wood light, rather hard, strong, close-grained, light 
brown, with pale sapwood of 40-50 layers of annual growth; used in the manufacture 
of furniture, woodenware, wooden shoes, and in turnery. 

Distribution. Banks of streams, ponds, and swamps, in deep rich soil often 
inundated for several weeks at a time; northeastern Massachusetts, Long Island, 
New York, southward to western Florida through the region east of the Alleghany 
Mountains except in the immediate neighborhood of the coast, through the Gulf 



200 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

states to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, and through the Mississippi valley 
to the Indian Territory, eastern Kansas, the bottom-lands of the Missouri River, 
in eastern Nebraska, central Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, and Ohio; the only 
semiaquatic species and the only species ripening its seeds in the spring or early 
summer; attaining its largest size in the damp semitropical lowlands of Florida, 
Louisiana, and Texas, and the only Birch-tree of such warm regions. 

Often cultivated in the northeastern states as an ornamental tree, and growing 
rapidly in cultivation. 

** Strobiles cylindrical, pendant or spreading. 

-^-Scales of the strobiles pubescent, with recurved lateral lobes, the middle lobe 
nearly as broad as long leaves long-pointed, their petioles slender, elongated. 

4. Betula populifolia, Marsh. Gray Birch. "White Birch. 

Leaves nearly triangular to rhomboidal, long-pointed, coarsely doubly serrate, 
with stout spreading glandular teeth except at the broad truncate or slightly cordate 
or wedge-shaped base, thin and firm, dark green and lustrous and somewhat rough- 
ened on the upper surface early in the season by small pale glands in the axils of 
the conspicuous reticulate veinlets, 2^'-3' long, l^'-2^' wide, with stout yellow 
midribs covered with minute glands, and raised and rounded on the upper side, and 
obscure yellow primary veins, turning pale yellow in the autumn; their petioles 
slender, terete, covered with black glands, often stained with red on the upper side, 
|'-1' long; stipules broadly ovate, acute, membranaceous, light green slightly tinged 
with red. Flowers : staminate aments usually solitary or rarely in pairs, l^'-l^' 




long, about |' thick during the winter, becoming 2'-4' long, with ovate acute 
apiculate scales; pistillate aments on glandular peduncles about \' long, slender, 
about ' long, with ovate acute pale green glandular scales, Fruit: strobiles cylin- 
drical, pubescent, obtuse at the apex, about f long and ' thick, pendant or spreading 
on slender stems; nut oval or obovate, acute or rounded at the base, a little narrower 
than its obovate wing. 

A short-lived tree, 20'-30' or exceptionally 40 high, with a trunk rarely 18' in 
diameter, short slender often pendulous more or less contorted branches usually 






BETULACE^: 201 

clothing the stem to the ground and forming a narrow pyramidal pointed head, and 
branchlets roughened by small raised lenticels, resinous-glandular when they first 
appear, like the unfolding leaves, gradually growing darker, bright yellow and 
lustrous before autumn like the young stems, bright reddish brown during the first 
winter, and ultimately white near the trunk; often growing in clusters of spreading 
steins springing from the stumps of old trees. Winter-buds ovate, acute, pale 
chestnut-brown, glabrous, about \' long. Bark about \' thick, dull chalky white on 
the outer surface, bright orange on the inner, close and firm, with dark triangular 
markings at the insertion of the branches, becoming at the base of old trees thicker, 
nearly black, and irregularly broken by shallow fissures. Wood light, soft, not 
strong, close-grained, not durable, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood; 
used in the manufacture of spools, shoe-pegs and wood pulp, for the hoops of bar- 
rels, and largely for fuel. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly barren soil or on the margins of swamps and ponds; 
Nova Scotia and the valley of the lower St. Lawrence River southward to northern 
Delaware, and westward through northern New England and New York, ascending 
sometimes to altitudes of 1800, to the southern shores of Lake Ontario; rare and 
local in the interior, very abundant in the coast region of New England and the 
middle states; springing up in great numbers on abandoned farm-lands or on lands 
stripped by fire of their original forest covering; most valuable in its ability to 
grow rapidly in sterile soil and to afford protection to the seedlings of more valuable 
and less rapidly growing trees. 

5. Betula ccerulea, Blanch. Blue Birch. 

Leaves ovate, long-pointed, broadly or narrowly concave-cuneate at the entire 
often unequal base, sharply mostly doubly serrate above, with straight or incurved 




glandular often apicnlate teeth, covered above when they unfold with pale deciduous 
glands, at maturity dull bluish green on the upper surface, pale yellow-green on 
the lower, and sparingly villose along the under side of the slender yellow midribs 
and primary veins, 2'-2' long, !'-!' wide, their petioles slender, f '-!' long, yellow 
more or less deeply tinged with red. Flowers: staminate aments usually in pairs, 
or singly or in 3's, l'-2' long, about T y thick, with ovate rounded short-pointed 



202 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

scales; pistillate aments slender, about ' long, with acuminate pale green much re- 
flexed scales. Fruit: strobiles cylindrical, pubescent, slightly narrowed at the obtuse 
apex, about 1' long and \' thick, pendant on slender peduncles ^' ' in length; nut 
oval, much narrower than its broad wing. 

A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a trunk 8'-10' in diameter, small ascend- 
ing finally spreading branches, and slender branchlets marked by numerous small 
raised pale lenticels, purplish and sparingly villous when they first appear, soon 
glabrous, becoming bright red-brown; often forming clumps of several stems. Bark 
thin, white tinged with rose, lustrous, not readily separable into layers, the iiyier 
bark light orange color. 

Distribution. Moist slopes, Stratton and Windham, Vermont, at elevations of 
about 1800 (W. H. Blanchard), Haystack Mountain, Aroostook County, Maine 
(M. S. FernalcT)', the American representative of the European Betula pendula, 
Roth., and probably widely distributed over the hills of northern New England and 
eastern Canada. 

Apparently passing into a form with larger leaves often rounded and truncate at 
the broad base and 3'-3' long and 2' wide, stouter staminate aments, and strobiles 
frequently 1^' long and ' thick (var. Blanchardi, Sarg. nov. nom. fig. 168 A). This 
under favorable conditions is a tree 60-70 high, with a trunk 18' in diameter, and 
possibly when better known may be considered a distinct species; common with 
Betula coerulea at Windham and Stratton, Vermont (H. )V. Blanchard}, and on a 
hill near the coast in Washington County, Maine (M L. Fernald}. 



of the strobiles with ascending or spreading lateral lobes, the middle 
lobe longer than broad ; leaves acute or acuminate. 
++Bark creamy white to reddish brown, separating freely into thin layers. 

6. Betula papyrifera, Marsh. Canoe Birch. Paper Birch. 
Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, with short broad points, coarsely usually 
doubly and often very irregularly sen-ate except at the rounded abruptly wedge- 
shaped, gradually narrowed, or deeply cordate (var. cordifolia, Fern.) base, bright 




green, glandular-resinous, pubescent and clothed below on the midribs and primary 
veins and on the petioles with long white hairs when they unfold, at maturity thick 



BETULACE^E 



203 



and firm, dull dark green arid glandless or rarely glandular on the upper surface, 
light yellow-green and glabrous or puberulous, with small tufts of pale hairs in the 
axils of the primary veins and covered with many black glands on the lower sur- 
face, 2'-3' long, l'-2' wide, with slender yellow midribs marked, like the remote 
primary veins, with minute black glands, turning light clear yellow in the autumn; 
their petioles stout, yellow, glandular, glabrous or pubescent, \'-\' long; stipules 
ovate, acute, ciliate on the margins, with pale hairs, light green. Flowers : stami- 
nate aments clustered, during the winter f '-!$ long, about |' thick, with ovate, acute 
scales light brown below the middle, dark red-brown above, becoming 3^' -4' long, 
and about \' thick; pistillate aments I'-l}' long, about ^ thick, with light green 
lanceolate scales long-pointed and acute or rounded at the apex; styles bright 
red. Fruit : strobiles cylindrical, glabrous, about 1^' long and \' thick, hanging on 
slender stalks; nut oval, about ^' long, much narrower than its thin wing. 

A tree, usually 60-70 tall, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, becoming in old age, 
or when crowded by other trees, branchless below and supporting a narrow open head 
of short pendulous branches, and branchlets at first light green, slightly viscid, 
marked by scattered orange-colored oblong lenticels and covered with long pale 
hairs, dark orange color and glabrous or pubescent during the summer, becoming 
dull red in their first winter, gradually growing dark orange-brown, lustrous for four 




or five years and ultimately covered with the white papery bark of older branches. 
Winter-buds ovate, acute, about ^' long, pubescent below the middle and coated 
with resinous gum at midsummer, dark chestnut-brown, glabrous and slightly resin- 
ous during the winter, their inner scales becoming strap-shaped, rounded at the 
apex, about ' long and \' wide. Bark on young trunks and large limbs thin, creamy 
white, lustrous on the outer surface, bright orange color on the inner, marked by 
long narrow slightly darker colored raised lenticels, separating into thin papery lay- 
ers pale orange color when first exposed to the light, becoming on old trunks for a few 
feet above the ground sometimes \' thick, dull brown or nearly black, sharply and 
irregularly furrowed and broken on the surface into thick closely appressed scales. 
"Wood light, strong, hard, tough, very close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with 
thick nearly white sapwood; largely used for spools, shoe-lasts, pegs, and in turnery, 
the manufacture of wood-pulp, and for fuel. The tough resinous durable bark im- 
pervious to water is used by all the northern Indians in their canoes and for baskets, 



204 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



bags, drink ing-cups, and other small articles, and often to cover their wigwams in 
winter. 

Distribution. Rich wooded slopes and the borders of streams, lakes, and swamps, 
scattered through forests of other trees; Labrador to the southern shores of Hud- 
son's Bay and Great Slave Lake, and southward to Long Island, New York, north- 
ern Pennsylvania, central Michigan, central Iowa, northern Nebraska, the Black 
Hills of Dakota, northern Montana and northwestern Washington; common in the 
maritime provinces of Canada and north of the Great Lakes, and in northern New 
England and New York; small and comparatively rare in the coast region of south- 
ern New England and southward; not common in the Rocky Mountain region; on 
the highest mountains of New England the var. cordifolia (Fig. 170) is common as 
a small tree or shrub, and also occurs northward and on the Rocky Mountains. 

Often planted in the northeastern states as an ornamental tree. 

7. Betula occidentalis, Hook. Birch. 

Leaves ovate, acute, usually rounded, occasionally cordate or rarely cuueate at 
the broad base, coarsely and generally doubly serrate, with straight or incurved 
glandular teeth, while young light yellow-green, covered with dark reddish resinous 
viscid glands, and villous along the midribs and veins, with long white hairs often 
also in large persistent tufts in the axils of the primary veins, and at maturity thin 
and firm in texture, marked by the scars of the fallen glands, dull dark green above, 
pale yellow-green below, and puberulous on both sides of the stout yellow midribs 
and slender primary veins, 3'-4' long, l'-2' wide ; their petioles stout, glandular, at 
first tomeutose, ultimately pubescent or puberulous, about f ' long ; stipules oblong- 
obovate, rounded or acute and apiculate at the apex, ciliate on the margins, puber- 
ulous, glandular-viscid, about ^' long, \'-\' wide. Flowers: staminate aments dur- 
ing the winter about ' long and \' thick, with ovate scales rounded or abruptly 




narrowed and acute at the apex, puberulous on the outer surface, ciliate on the 
margins, becoming 3'-4' long and about \' wide ; pistillate aments about 1' long 
and ^y thick, with acuminate bright green scales. Fruit : strobiles cylindrical, pu- 
berulous, spreading, l^'-l^' long, \'-% thick, on stout peduncles ' in length, their 
scales ciliate on the margins ; nut oval, about ^' long, and nearly as wide as its wings. 



BETULACE^E 



205 



A tree, 100-120 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, comparatively small 
branches often pendulous on old trees, and pale orange-brown brauchlets more or less 
glandular and coated with long pale hairs when they first appear, becoming bright 
orange-brown and marked by numerous minute pale lenticels and pubescent or 
puberulous during their first winter and nearly destitute of glands, and in their 
second year orange-brown, glabrous, and very lustrous. Winter-buds acute, bright 
orange-brown, ^'-^' long, their light brown inner scales sometimes becoming ' long. 
Bark thin, marked by large oblong horizontal raised lenticels, dark orange-brown, 
very lustrous, separating freely into thin papery layers displaying in falling the 
bright orange-yellow inner bark. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and lakes ; southwestern British Columbia and 
northwestern Washington ; nowhere common and probably of its largest size on the 
alluvial banks of the lower Fraser River, and on the islands of Puget Sound. 

8. Betula Kenaica, Evans. Red Birch. Black Birch. 

Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, broadly cuneate or somewhat rounded at the 
entire base, irregularly coarsely often doubly serrate above, puberulous on the upper 




surface and ciliate on the margins when they unfold, at maturity glabrous, dark 
dull green above, pale yellow-green below, l^'-2' long, I'-lf ' wide, with slender yel- 
low midribs and 5 pairs of thin primary veins ; their petioles slender, J'-l' long. 
Flowers : staminate aments clustered, 1' long, with ovate acute scales apiculate at 
the apex, puberulous on the outer surface ; pistillate aments ^' ^' long, about ^' 
wide, on slender glandular pubescent peduncles -J' |' long, with acuminate light 
green strongly reflexed scales; styles bright red. Fruit : strobiles cylindrical, gla- 
brous, V long, their scales ciliate on the margins; nut oval, somewhat narrower than 
its thin wing. 

A tree, 30 -40 high, with a trunk 12'-2(X in diameter, wide-spreading branches, 
stout branchlets marked by numerous small pale lenticels, bright red-brown during 
2 or 3 years, gradually becoming darker. Bark thin, more or less furrowed, very 
dark brown or nearly black near the base of the trunk, grayish white or light red- 
dish brown and separating into thin layers higher on the stem and on the branches. 



206 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Distribution. Coast of Alaska from Cook Inlet southward to the head of the 
Lyun Canal. 

9. Betula Alaskana, Sarg. White Birch. 

Leaves rhomboidal to deltoid-ovate, long-pointed, truncate, rounded or broadly 
cuueate, or on leading shoots occasionally cordate at the entire base, coarsely and 
often doubly glandular-serrate above, when they unfold yellow-green and covered 
with resinous glands, lustrous and villous above and slightly puberulous below, at 




maturity thin, dark green above, pale and yellow-green below, l^'-3' long, !'-!' 
wide, with slender midribs and primary veins pubescent or ultimately glabrous be- 
low ; their petioles often bright red, somewhat hairy at first, finally glabrous, about 
1' long; stipules oblong, gradually narrowed and rounded at the apex, villous partic- 
ularly toward the margins. Flowers : staminate aments clustered, sessile, 1' long, 
y thick, with ovate acuminate scales puberulous on the outer surface, bright red, with 
yellow margins; pistillate aments slender, cylindrical, glandular, 1' long, ' thick, 
on stout peduncles nearly ^' long. Fruit : strobiles glabrous, pendulous or spread- 
ing, I'-l^' long, J'-^' thick, their scales ciliate on the margins; nut oval, narrower 
than its broad wing. 

A tree, usually 30-40, occasionally 80, high, with a trunk 6'-12' in diameter, 
slender erect and spreading or pendulous branches, and glabrous bright red-brown 
branchlets more or less thickly covered during their first year with resinous glands 
sometimes persistent until the second or third season. Winter-buds ovate, obtuse 
at the gradually narrowed apex, about \' long, with light red-brown shining outer 
scales sometimes ciliate on the margins, and oblong rounded scarious inner scales 
hardly more than ' long when fully grown. Bark thin, marked by numerous elon- 
gated dark slightly raised lenticels, dull reddish brown or sometimes nearly white 
on the outer surface, light red on the inner surface, close and firm, finally separable 
into thin plate-like scales. 

Distribution. Valley of the Saskatchewan northwestward to the valley of the 
Yukon, growing sparingly near the banks of streams in forests of coniferous trees 
and in large numbers on sunny slopes and hillsides; the common Birch-tree of the 
Yukon basin. 



BETULACE^E 



207 



Bark dark brown, not separable into thin layers. 

10. Betula fontinalis, Sarg. Black Birch. 

Leaves broadly ovate, acute, sharply and often doubly serrate, except at the 
rounded abruptly wedge-shaped truncate subcordate and often unequal base, and 
sometimes slightly laciniately lobed, pale green, pilose above, and covered by conspicu- 
ous resinous glands when they unfold, at maturity thin and firm, dark dull green 
above, pale yellow-green, rather lustrous and covered by minute glandular dots be- 
low, l'-2' long, '-!' wide, with slender pale midribs, remote glandular veins, and 
rather conspicuous reticulate veinlets, turning dull yellow in the autumn before falling; 
their petioles stout, puberulous, light yellow, glandular-dotted, flattened on the upper 
side, often flushed with red, '-' long; stipules broadly ovate, acute or rounded at 
the apex, slightly ciliate, bright green soon becoming pale and scarious. Flowers: 
stamiuate amenta clustered, '-f ' long and ^' thick during the winter, with ovate 
acute light chestnut-brown scales pale and slightly ciliate on the margins, becoming 




2'-2'long, and about \' thick, with apiculate scales; pistillate aments short-stalked, 
about I' long, with ovate acute green scales; styles bright red. Fruit: strobiles 
cylindrical, rather obtuse, puberulous or nearly glabrous, I'-l-J-' long, erect or pendu- 
lous on slender glandular stalks, \' to nearly |' long; nut ovate or obovate, puberulous 
at the apex, much narrower than its wing. 

A tree, occasionally 30-40 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, slender 
spreading gracefully pendulous branches forming an open feathery head, and branch- 
lets light green and much roughened at first by large lustrous resinous glands 
persistent until the second season, soon becoming dark orange color, rather bright 
red-brown during their first winter, dark reddish brown or bronze color and very 
lustrous the following summer, and marked by conspicuous pale lenticels; more 
commonly shrubby, with many thin spreading stems forming open clusters, 15-20 
high, often much lower, and frequently crowded in almost impenetrable thickets. 
Winter-buds oval to ovate, acute, very resinous, chestnut-brown, \' long. Bark 
about \' thick, dark bronze color, very lustrous, marked by pale brown longitudinal 
lenticels becoming on old trunks often 6'-8' long and \' wide. Wood soft and 



208 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

strong, light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; sometimes used for fuel and 
fencing. 

Distribution. Moist soil near the banks of streams in mountain canons; gen- 
erally distributed, although nowhere very common, from the basin of the upper Fraser 
and Peace rivers in British Columbia, southward to the valleys of Mt. Shasta and 
the eastern slopes of the northern Sierra Nevada, California, eastward through 
Alberta and along the valley of the Saskatchewan, and southward along the Rocky 
Mountains and the interior ranges of Nevada, Utah, and northern New Mexico, 
extending eastward in the United States to the Black Hills of Dakota, northwestern 
Nebraska, and the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. 

4. ALNUS, L. Alder. 

Trees and shrubs, with astringent scaly bark, soft straight-grained wood, naked 
stipitate winter-buds formed in summer and nearly inclosed by the united stipules 
of the first leaf, becoming thick, resinous, and dark red. Leaves open and convex 
in the bud, falling without change of color; stipules of all but the first leaf ovate, 
acute, and scarious. Flowers vernal or in one species autumnal, in 1-3-flowered 
cymes in the axils of the peltate short-stalked scales of stalked aments formed in 
summer or autumn in the axils of the last leaves of the year or of those of minute 
leafy bracts; staminate aments elongated, pendulous, paniculate, naked and erect 
during the winter, each staminate flower subtended by 3-5 minute bractlets adnate 
to the scales .of the ament, and composed of a 4-parted calyx, 1-3 or usually 4 
stamens inserted on the base of the calyx opposite its lobes, with short simple 
filaments; pistillate aments ovoid or oblong, erect, stalked, produced in summer in 
the axils of the leaves of a branch developed from the axils of an upper leaf of the 
year, and below the staminate inflorescence, inclosed at first in the stipules of 
the first leaf, emerging in the autumn and naked during the winter, or remaining 
covered until early spring; pistillate flowers in pairs, each flower subtended by 2-4 
minute bractlets adnate to the fleshy scale of the ament becoming at maturity 
thick and woody, obovate, 3-5-lobed or truncate at the thickened apex, forming an 
ovoid or subglobose strobile persistent after the opening of its closely imbricated 
scales; calyx 0; ovary compressed; nut minute, bright chestnut-brown, ovate to 
oblong, flat, bearing at the apex the remnants of the style, marked at the base by 
a pale scar, the outer coat of the shell produced into lateral wings often reduced 
to a narrow membranaceous border. 

Alnus inhabits swamps, river bottom-lands, and high mountains, and is widely and 
generally distributed through the northern hemisphere, often forming the most 
conspicuous feature of vegetation on mountain slopes, ranging at high altitudes 
southward in the New World through Central America to Colombia, Peru, and 
Bolivia, and to upper Assam and Japan in the Old World. Of the eighteen or twenty 
species now recognized nine are North American ; of these six attain the size and habit 
of trees. Of the exotic species, Alnus glutinosa, Gaert., a common European, North 
African, and Asiatic timber-tree, was introduced many years ago into the northeast- 
ern states, where it has become locally naturalized. The wood of Alnus is very 
durable in water, and the astringent bark and strobiles are used in tanning leather 
and in medicine. 

Alnus is the classical name of the Alder. 



BETULACE.E 209 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Flowers opening in spring with or after the leaves ; stamens 4 ; pistillate anients inclosed 
during the winter ; nut furnished with a broad wing. 

Leaves ovate, sinuately lobed, lustrous on the lower surface. 

1. A. Sitchensis (B, F, G). 

Flowers opening in winter or early spring before the unfolding of the leaves ; pistillate 
anients usually naked during the winter. 
Wing of the nut broad. 

Leaves ovate or elliptical, rusty-pubescent on the lower surface ; pistillate amenta 
often inclosed during the winter ; stamens 4. 2. A. Oregoiia (B, G). 

Wing of the nut reduced to a narrow border. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, glabrous or puberulous on the lower surface ; stamens 4. 

;5. A. tenuifolia (B, F, G). 
Stamens usually 2 or 3. 
Leaves ovate or oval, pale and slightly puberulous on the lower surface. 

4. A. rhombif olia (B, F, G). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, pale and sometimes puberulous on the lower sur- 
face. ~>. A obloiigifolia (H). 
Flowers opening in autumn from anients of the year ; stamens 4 ; wing of the nut reduced 
to a narrow border. 

Leaves oblong-ovate or obovate, dark green and lustrous above, pale yellow-green 
below. 6. A. maritima (A). 

1. Flowers opening in spring with or after the leaves: pistillate aments inclosed during 
the winter. 

1. Alnus Sitchensis, Sarg. Alder. 

Leaves ovate, acute, full and rounded and often unsymmetrical and somewhat 
oblique, or abruptly narrowed and cuneate at the base, divided into numerous short 
acute lateral lobes, sharply and doubly serrate, with straight glandular teeth, glundu- 




lar-viscid as they unfold, at maturity membranaceous, yellow-green on the upper 
surface, pale and very lustrous on the lower surface, glabrous, or villous along the 
under side of the stout midribs, with short brown hairs also forming tufts in the axils 
of the numerous slender primary veins, 3'-6' long, l^'-4' wide ; their petioles stout, 



210 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

grooved, abruptly enlarged at the base, |'-f long; stipules oblong to spatulate, 
rounded and apiculate at the apex, puberulous, about \' long. Flowers: staminate 
aments in pairs in the axils of the upper leaves sometimes reduced to small bracts, 
and single in the axil of the leaf next below it, sessile, during the winter about % 
long and \' thick, with dark red-brown shining puberulous apiculate scales, becoming 
when the flowers open from spring to midsummer 4' or 5' long, with a puberulous 
light red rachis and ovate acute apiculate 3-flowered scales; calyx-lobes rounded, 
shorter than the 4 stamens; pistillate aments in elongated panicles, inclosed during 
winter in buds formed the previous summer in the axils of the leaves of short lateral 
branchlets, long-pedunculate, \' long, ' thick. Fruit: strobiles on slender peduncles 
in elongated sometimes leafy panicles 4'-6' long, oblong, ' |' long, about ^' thick, 
their truncate scales thickened at the apex; nut oval, about as wide as its wings. 

A tree, sometimes 40 high, with a trunk 7'-8' in diameter, short small nearly 
horizontal branches forming a narrow crown, and slender slightly zigzag branchlets 
puberulous and very glandular when they first appear, bright orange-brown and 
lustrous and marked by numerous large pale lenticels during their first season, 
much roughened during their second year by the elevated crowded leaf-scars, becom- 
ing light gray. Winter-buds acuminate, dark purple, covered especially toward 
the apex with close fine pubescence, about ^' long; often a shrub only a few feet tall 
spreading into broad thickets. 

Distribution. Northwest coast from the borders of the Arctic Circle to Oregon; 
common in the valley of the Yukon and eastward through British Columbia to Al- 
berta, and through Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of the Rocky Moun- 
tains; at the north with dwarf Willows, forming great thickets; in southeastern Alaska 
often a tall tree on rich moist bottom-lands near the mouths of mountain streams, or 
at the upper limits of tree growth a low shrub; very abundant in the valley of the 
Yukon on the wet banks of streams and often arborescent in habit ; in British Co- 
lumbia and the United States generally smaller, growing usually only at elevations of 
more than 3000 above the sea, and often forming thickets on the banks of streams 
and lakes. 

2. Flowers opening in winter or early spring 'before the unfolding of the leaves ; pistil- 
late aments usually naked during the winter. 

2. Alnus Oregona, Nutt. Alder. 

Leaves ovate to elliptical, acute, abruptly or gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped at the base, crenately lobed, dentate, with minute gland-tipped teeth, and 
slightly revolute on the margins, covered when they unfold with pale tomentum, at 
maturity thick dark green and glabrous or pilose, with scattered white hairs above, 
clothed below with short rusty pubescence, 3'-5' long, l|'-3' broad, or on vigorous 
branches sometimes 8'-10' long, with broad midribs and primary veins green on the 
upper side and orange-colored on the lower, the primary veins running obliquely 
t<> the points of the lobes and connected by conspicuous slightly reticulate cross vein- 
lets; their petioles orange-colored, nearly terete, slightly grooved, '-f' long; stipules 
ovate, acute, pale green flushed with red, tomentose, \'-\' long. Flowers: stami- 
nate aments in red-stemmed clusters 2'-3' long, during the winter \\' long, \' 
thick, with dark red-brown lustrous closely appressed scales, becoming 4'-6' long 
and \' thick, with ovate acute orange-colored glabrous scales; calyx yellow, with 
ovate rounded lobes rather shorter than the 4 stamens; pistillate aments in short 



BETULACE^E 211 

racemes usually inclosed during the winter in buds formed during the early summer 
and opening in the early spring, ' ' long, about ^' thick, with dark red acute 
scales; styles bright red. Fruit: strobiles raised on stout orange-colored peduncles 




sometimes ^' long, ovate or oblong, '-!' long, J' ' wide, with truncate scales much 
thickened toward the apex ; nut orbicular to obovate, surrounded by a membrana- 
ceous wing. 

A tree, usually 40-50, occasionally 80 high, with a trunk sometimes 3 in 
diameter, slender somewhat pendulous branches forming a narrow pyramidal head, 
and slender Branchlets marked by minute scattered pale lenticels, light green and 
coated at first with hoary tomentum sometimes persistent until their second year, 
becoming during the first winter bright red and lustrous and ultimately ashy gray. 
Winter-buds about ^' long, dark red, covered with pale scurfy pubescence. Bark 
rarely more than ^' thick, close, roughened by minute wart-like excrescences, pale 
gray or nearly white, with a thin outer layer, and bright red-brown inner bark. 
Wood light, soft, brittle, not strong, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, 
with thick nearly white sapwood; in Washington and Oregon largely used in the 
manufacture of furniture; by the Indians of Alaska the trunks are hollowed into 
canoes. 

Distribution. Southeastern Alaska southward, near the coast to the canons of 
the Santa Inez Mountains, California; common along the banks of streams, and of 
its largest size near the shores of Puget Sound. 

3. Alnus tenuifolia, Nutt. Alder. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, acute or acuminate, broad and rounded or cordate, or occa- 
sionally abruptly narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, usually acutely laciniately 
lobed and doubly serrate, when they unfold light green often tinged with red, pilose 
on the upper surface and coated on the lower with pale tomentum, at maturity thin 
and firm, dark green and glabrous above, pale yellow-green and glabrous or puberu- 
lous below, 2'-4' long, l'-2^' wide, with stout orange-colored midribs impressed on 
the upper side and slender primary veins running to the points of the lobes; their 
petioles stout, slightly grooved, orange-colored, ^'-1' long; stipules ovate, acute, thin, 
and scarious, ^' long, about ' wide, covered with pale pubescence. Flowers: stami- 



212 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



nate aments 3 or 4 in number in slender-stemmed racemes, nearly sessile or raised 
on stout peduncles often ' long, during the winter light purple, f'-l' long and 
^' thick, becoming l^'-2' long; calyx-lobes rounded, shorter than the 4 stamens; 
pistillate aments naked during the winter, dark red-brown, nearly ^' long, with 
acute apiculate loosely imbricated scales, only slightly enlarged when the flowers 
open. Fruit : strobiles ovate-oblong, \'-% long, their scales much thickened, trun- 
cate and 3-lobed at the apex; nut nearly circular to slightly obovate, surrounded 
by a thin membranaceous border. 

A tree, occasionally 30 tall, with a trunk 6'-8' in diameter, small spreading 
slightly pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and slender branch- 
lets marked at first by a few large orange-colored lenticels and coated with fine pale 
or rusty caducous pubescence, becoming light brown or ashy gray more or less 




deeply flushed with red in their first winter and ultimately paler; more often shrubby, 
with several spreading stems, and at the north and at high elevations frequently only 
4-5 tall. Winter-buds '-' long, bright red, and ptiberulous. Bark rarely more 
than \' thick, bright red-brown, and broken on the surface into small closely ap- 
pressed scales. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and mountain canons from Francis Lake in 
latitude 61 north, to the valley of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, east- 
ward along the Saskatchewan to Prince Albert, and southward through the Rocky 
Mountains to northern New Mexico; on the Sierra Nevada of southern California, 
and in Lower California; the common Alder of mountain streams in the northern 
interior region of the continent; very abundant on the eastern slopes of the Cascade 
Mountains, and on the southern California sierra, forming great thickets at 6000- 
7000 above the sea along the head-waters of the rivers of southern California flowing 
to the Pacific Ocean; the common Alder of eastern Washington and Oregon, and of 
Idaho and Montana; very abundant and of its largest size in Colorado and northern 
New Mexico. 

4. Alnus rhombifolia, Nutt. Alder. 

Leaves ovate or oval or sometimes nearly orbicular, rounded or acute at the apex, 
especially on vigorous shoots, gradually or abruptly narrowed and wedge-shaped at 



BETULACE.E 213 

the base, finely or sometimes coarsely and occasionally doubly serrate, slightly thick- 
ened and reflexed on the somewhat undulate margins, when they unfold pale green 




and covered with deciduous matted white hairs, at maturity dark green and lustrous 
on the upper suface, frequently marked, especially on the midribs, with minute glan- 
dular dots, light yellow-green and slightly puberulous below, 2'-3' long, l^'-2' wide, 
with stout yellow midribs and primary veins; their petioles slender, yellow, hairy, 
flattened and grooved on the upper side, '-f' long; stipules ovate, acute, scarious, 
puberulous, about \' long. Flowers: staminate aments in slender-stemmed pubescent 
clusters, usually short-stalked, during the summer dark olive-brown and lustrous, 
'-!' long and about ^' thick, beginning to lengthen late in the autumn before the 
leaves fall, fully grown and 4'-6' long and \' thick in January, with dark orange- 
brown scales, and deciduous in February before the appearance of the new leaves; 
calyx yellow, 4-lobed, rather shorter than the 2 or occasionally 3 or rarely single 
stamen; pistillate aments in short pubescent racemes emerging from the bud in 
December, their scales broadly ovate and rounded. Fruit : strobiles oblong, ^'-^' 
long, with thin scales slightly thickened and lobed at the apex, fully grown at mid- 
summer, remaining closed until the trees flower the following year; nut broadly 
ovate, with a thin acute margin. 

A tree, frequently 70-SO high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, long 
slender branches pendulous at the ends, forming a wide round-topped open head, 
and slender branchlets marked by small scattered lenticels, at first light green and 
coated with pale caducous pubescence, soon becoming dark orange-red and glabrous, 
and darker during the winter and following summer. Winter-buds nearly ' long, 
very slender, dark red, and covered with pale scurfy pubescence. Wood light, soft, 
not strong, brittle, close-grained, light brown, with thick lighter colored often nearly 
white sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams from northern Idaho to the eastern slope of the 
Cascade Mountains of Washington and southwestern Oregon and southward over the 
coast ranges and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the mountains of 
southern California; the common Alder of the valleys of central California, and the 
only species at low altitudes in the southern part of the state. 



214 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



5. Alnus oblongifolia, Torr. Alder. 

(Alnus acuminata, Silva, N. Am. ix. 79.) 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute or rarely obovate and rounded at the apex, grad- 
ually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, sharply and usually doubly serrate, 
more or less thickly covered, especially early in the season, with black glands, dark 
yellow-green and glabrous or slightly puberulous above, pale and glabrous or puber- 
ulous below, especially along the slender yellow midribs and veins, with small tufts 
of rusty hairs i the axils of the primary veins, 2'-3' long, about 1^' wide; their 
petioles slender, grooved, pubescent, f long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, brown and 
scarious, about ^ long. Flowers: staminate aments in short stout-stemmed racemes, 
during the winter light yellow, '-' long and about T y thick, becoming when the 
flowers open at the end of February before the appearance of the leaves 2'-2' 




long, with ovate pointed dark orange-brown scales; calyx 4-lobed; stamens 3 or occa- 
sionally 2, with pale red anthers soon becoming light yellow; pistillate aments naked 
during the winter, ^' to nearly ^' long, with light brown ovate rounded scales; 
stigmas bright red. Fruit : strobiles \'-V long, with thin scales slightly thickened 
and nearly truncate at the apex; nut broadly ovate, with a narrow membranaceous 
border. 

A tree, in the United States rarely more than 20-30 high, with a trunk some- 
times 8' in diameter, long slender spreading branches forming an open round-topped 
head, and slender branchlets slightly puberulous when they first appear, light orange- 
red and lustrous during their first winter, and marked by small conspicuous pale 
lenticels, becoming in their second year dark red-brown or gray tinged with red and 
much roughened by the elevated leaf-scars. Winter-buds acute, bright red, lus- 
trous, glabrous, \' long. Bark thin, smooth, light brown tinged with red. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in canons of the mountains of southern New 
Mexico and Arizona at elevations of 4000 -6000 above the sea; and on the moun- 
tains of northern Mexico. 



BETULACE^E 

3. Flowers opening in autumn from aments of the year. 



215 



6. Alnua maritima, Nutt. Alder. 

Leaves oblong, ovate, or obovate, acute, acuminate, or rounded at the apex, grad- 
ually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, remotely serrate, with minute in- 
curved glandular teeth, and somewhat thickened on the slightly undulate margins, 







when they unfold, light green tinged with red, hairy on the midribs, veins, and 
petioles, and coated above with pale scurfy pubescence, at maturity dark green, 
very lustrous, and covered below by minute pale glandular dots, 3'^4' long, l^'-2' 
wide, with stout yellow midribs and primary veins prominent and glandular on the 
upper side and slightly puberulous below; their petioles stout, yellow, glandular, 
flattened and grooved on the upper side, '-' long; stipules oblong, acute, about 
\' long, dark reddish brown, caducous. Flowers: aments appearing in July on 
branches of the year and fully grown in August or early in September; staminate in 
short scurfy-pubescent glandular-pitted racemes on slender peduncles sometimes 
^' in length from the axils of upper leaves; pistillate usually solitary from those of 
the lower leaves; staminate aments covered at first with ovate acute dark green 
very lustrous scales slightly ciliate on the margins and furnished at the apex with 
minute red points, at maturity l'-2^' long, \' to nearly ^ thick, with dark orange- 
brown scales raised on slender stalks, and bright orange-colored stamens; pistillate 
aments on stout pubescent peduncles, bright red at the apex and light green below 
before opening, with ovate acute scales slightly ciliate on the margins, about \' long 
when the styles protrude from between the scales, beginning to enlarge the follow- 
ing spring. Fruit attaining full size at midsummer and then stalked, broadly ovate, 
rounded and depressed at the base, gradually narrowed to the rather obtuse apex, 
about I' long and ^' broad, with thin lustrous scales slightly thickened and crcnately 
lobed at the apex, turning dark reddish brown or nearly black and opening late in 
the autumn and remaining on the branches until after the flowers unfold the follow- 
ing year; nut oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and apiculate at the apex, with a 
thin membranaceous border. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a tall straight trunk 4'-5' in diameter, small 
spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head, slender slightly zigzag 



216 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

branchlets, light green and hairy at first, pale yellow-green, very lustrous, slightly 
puberulous, marked with occasional small orange-colored leuticels, and glandular, 
with minute dark glandular dots during their first summer, becoming dull light 
orange or reddish brown in the winter, and ashy gray often slightly tinged with red 
the following season; more often shrubby, with numerous slender spreading stems 
15-20 tall. Winter-buds acute, dark red, coated with pale lustrous scurfy pubes- 
cence, about \' long. Bark ' thick, smooth, light brown or brown tinged with 
gray. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light brown, with thick hardly distinguish- 
able sapwood. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and ponds in southern Delaware and Maryland, 
and on the banks of the Red River in the Indian Territory. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and hardy as 
far north as Massachusetts. 

X. FAGACEJB. 

Trees, with watery juice, slender terete branchlets marked by numerous usu- 
ally pale lenticels, alternate stalked penni veined leaves, and narrow mostly 
deciduous stipules. Flowers monoacious, the staminate in unisexual heads or 
aments, composed of a 4 8-lobed calyx, and 4 or 8 stamens, with free simple 
filaments and introrse 2-celled anthers, the cells parallel and contiguous, open- 
ing longitudinally ; the pistillate solitary or clustered, in terminal unisexual or 
bisexual spikes or heads, subtended by an involucre of more or less united 
imbricated bracts becoming woody and partly or entirely inclosing the fruit, and 
composed of a 4 8-lobed calyx adnate to the 3-7-celled ovary with as many 
styles as its cells and 1 or 2 pendulous anatropous ovules in each cell. Fruit a 
nut 1-seeded by abortion, the outer coat cartilaginous, the inner membrana- 
ceous or bony. Seed filling the cavity of the nut, without albumen ; seed-coat 
membranaceous ; cotyledons fleshy, including the minute superior radicle ; 
hilum basal, minute. 

The six genera of this widely distributed family are represented in the North 
American silva with the exception of Nothofagus, separated from Fagus to 
receive the Beech-trees of the southern hemisphere. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Staminate flowers fascicled in globose-stalked heads ; the pistillate in 2-4-flowered clusters. 
Nut triangular. 1. Fagus. 

Staminate flowers in slender aments. 

Pistillate flowers in 2-5-flowered clusters below the staminate, in bisexual aments. 
Fruit inclosed in a prickly burr. 

Leaves deciduous ; ovary 6-celled ; fruit maturing in one season ; branchlets length- 
ening by an upper axillary bud ; bud-scales 4. 2. Castaiiea. 
Leaves persistent ; ovary 3-celled ; fruit maturing at the end of the second season ; 
branchlets lengthening by a terminal bud ; bud-scales numerous. 

3. Castanopsis. 

Fruit inclosed only partly in a shallow cup covered by slender recurved scales united 
only at the base, free above. 4. Pasania. 

Pistillate flowers solitary, in few-flowered unisexual spikes. 

Fruit more or less inclosed in a cup covered by thin or thickened scales, closely ap- 
pressed or often free toward its rim. 5. Quercus. 






FAGACE^ 217 

1. FAGUS, L. Beech. 

Trees, with smooth pale bark, hard close-grained wood, and elongated acute 
bright chestnut-brown buds, their inner scales accrescent and marking the base of 
the branchlets with persistent ring-like scars. Leaves convex and plicate along the 
veins in the bud, thick and firm, deciduous; their petioles short, nearly terete, in, 
falling leaving small elevated semioval leaf-scars, with marginal rows of minute 
fibre- vascular bundle-scars; stipules linear-lanceolate, infolding the leaf in the bud. 
Flowers vernal after the unfolding of the leaves; staminate short-pedicellate, in 
globose many-flowered heads on long drooping bibracteolate stems at the base 
of the shoots of the year or from the axils of their lowest leaves, and composed of 
a subcampanulate 4-8-lobed calyx, the lobes imbricated in aestivation, ovate and 
rounded, and 8-1G stamens inserted on the base of and longer than the calyx, with 
slender filaments and oblong green anthers; pistillate in 2-4-flowered stalked 
clusters in the axils of upper leaves of the year, surrounded by numerous awl-shaped 
hairy bracts, the outer bright red, longer than the flowers, deciduous, the inner 
shorter and united below into a 4-lobed involucre becoming at maturity woody, 
ovoid, thick-walled, and covered by stout recurved prickles, inclosing the usually 3 
nuts and ultimately separating into 4 valves; calyx urn-shaped, villous, divided into 
4 or 5 linear-lanceolate acute lobes, its 3-angled tube aduate to the 3-celled ovary 
surmounted by 3 slender recurved pilose styles green and stigmatic toward the apex 
and longer than the involucre; ovules 2 in each cell. Nut ovate, unequally 3-angled, 
acute or winged at the angles, concave and longitudinally ridged on the sides, 
chestnut-brown and lustrous, tipped with the remnants of the styles, marked at the 
base by a small triangular scar, with a thin shell covered on the inner surface with 
rufous tomentum. Seed dark chestnut-brown, suspended with the abortive ovules 
from the tip of the hairy dissepiment of the ovary pushed by the growth of the seed 
into one of the angles of the nut; cotyledons sweet, oily, plano-convex. 

Fagus as here limited is confined to the northern hemisphere, with a single 
American species and four or five Old World species; of these one is widely dis- 
tributed through Europe to southwestern Asia, and the others are confined to eastern 
temperate Asia. Of exotic species, the European Fagus st/lvatica, L., an important 
timber-tree, is frequently planted for ornament in the eastern states in several of 
its forms, especially those with purple leaves, and with pendulous branches. The 
wood of Fagus is hard and close-grained. The sweet seeds are a f&vorite food of 
swine, and yield a valuable oil. 

Fagus is the classical name of the Beech-tree. 

1. Fagus Americana, Sweet. Beech. 

Leaves remote at the ends of the branches and clustered on short lateral 
branchlets, oblong-ovate, acuminate, with long slender points, coarsely serrate, with 
spreading or incurved triangular teeth except at the gradually narrowed wedge- 
shaped rounded or cordate base, when they unfold pale green and clothed on the 
lower surface and margins with long pale lustrous silky hairs, at maturity dull dark 
bluish green above, light yellow-green and very lustrous below, with tufts of long 
pale hairs in the axils of the veins, 2^'-5' long, l'-3' broad, with slender yellow 
midribs covered above with short pale hairs, and slender primary veins running 
obliquely to the points of the teeth, turning bright clear yellow in the autumn; their 
petioles hairy, \'-% long; stipules ovate-lanceolate on the lower leaves, strap-shaped 



218 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



to linear-lanceolate on the upper, brown or often red below the middle, membrana- 
ceous, lustrous, I'-l^' long. Flowers opening when the leaves are about one third 
grown; staminate in globose heads 1' in diameter, on slender hairy peduncles about 2' 
long; pistillate in usually 2-flowered clusters, on short clavate hoary peduncles \'-$' 
long. Fruit: involucres about ' in length, on stout hairy club-shaped peduncles 
l'_|' long, fully grown at midsummer, and puberulous, dark orange-green, and cov- 
ered by slender straight or slightly recurved prickles red above the middle, be- 
coming at maturity in the autumn light brown, tomentose, with much recurved 
pubescent prickles, persistent on the branch after opening late into the winter; 
nut about ' long. 

A tree, usually 70-80 but exceptionally 120 high, sending up from the roots 
numerous small stems sometimes extending into broad thickets round the parent 
tree, in the forest with a long comparatively slender stem free of branches for more 
than half its length, and short branches forming a narrow head, in open situations 




short-stemmed, with a trunk often 3-4 in diameter, and numerous limbs spreading 
gradually and forming a broad compact round-topped head of slender slightly 
drooping branches clothed with short leafy laterals, and branchlets pale green and 
coated with long soft caducous hairs when they first appear, olive-green or orange- 
colored during their first summer and conspicuously marked by oblong bright 
orange lenticels, gradually growing red, bright reddish brown during their first 
winter, darker brown in their second season and ultimately ashy gray. Winter- 
buds puberulous, especially toward the apex, |' to nearly V long, about \' broad, the 
inner scales hirsute on the inner surface and along the margins and when fully 
grown often 1' long, lustrous, brown above the middle, and reddish below. Bark 
\'-ty thick, with a smooth light steel gray surface. Wood hard, strong, tough, very 
close-grained, not durable, difficult to season, dark or often light red, with thin 
nearly white sapwood of 20-30 layers of annual growth; largely used in the manu- 
facture of chairs, shoe-lasts, plane-stocks, the handles of tools, and for fuel. The 
sweet nuts are gathered and sold in the markets of Canada and of some of the 
western and middle states. 

Distribution. Rich uplands and mountain slopes, often forming nearly pure 



FAGACE^E 219 

forests, and southward on the bottom-lands of streams and the margins of swamps; 
valley of the Restigouche River, the northern shores of Lake Huron and northern 
Wisconsin, southward to western Florida, and through southern Illinois and south- 
eastern Missouri to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas; one of the most widely 
distributed trees of eastern North America; of its largest size in the forests on 
intervale lands in the basin of the lower Ohio River, and on the slopes of the southern 
Alleghany Mountains. 

Often planted in the northern states as an ornamental tree. 

2. CASTANEA, Adans. Chestnut. 

Trees or shrubs, with astringent juice, furrowed bark, porous brittle wood, terete 
branchlets without terminal buds, axillary buds covered by 2 pairs of slightly im- 
bricated scales, the outer lateral, the others accrescent, becoming oblong-ovate and 
acute and marking the base of the branch with narrow ring-like scars, stout perpen- 
dicular tap-roots; producing when cut numerous stout shoots from the stump. Leaves 
convolute in the bud, ovate, acute, coarsely serrate, except at the base, with thin veins 
running to the points of the slender glandular teeth, deciduous; their petioles leav- 
ing in falling small elevated semioval leaf-scars marked by an irregular marginal 
row of minute fibre-vascular bundle-scars; stipules ovate to linear-lanceolate, acute, 
scarious, infolding the leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers monoecious, opening in 
early summer, unisexual, strong-smelling; the staminate, in 3-7-flowered cymes, in 
the axils of minute ovate bracts, in elongated simple deciduous aments first appearing 
with the unfolding of the leaves from the inner scales of the terminal bud and from 
the axils of the lower leaves of the year, composed of a pale straw-colored slightly 
puberulous calyx deeply divided into 6 ovate rounded segments imbricated in the bud, 
and 10-20 stamens inserted on the slightly thickened torus, with filiform filaments 
incurved in the bud, becoming elongated and exserted, and ovoid or globose pale 
yellow anthers; the pistillate scattered or spicate at the base of the shorter persist- 
ent androgynous aments from the axils of later leaves, sessile, 2 or 3 together or soli- 
tary within a short-stemmed or sessile involucre of closely imbricated oblong acute 
bright green bracts scurfy -pubescent or tomentose below the middle, subtended by a 
bract and 2 lateral bractlets, each flower composed of an urn-shaped calyx, with 
a short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes, minute sterile stamens shorter than the 
calyx-lobes, an ovary 6-celled after fecundation, with 6 linear spreading white styles 
hairy below the middle and tipped by minute acute stigmas, and 2 ovules in each 
cell, attached on its inner angle, descending, semianatropous. Fruit maturing in one 
season, its involucre inclosing 1-3 nuts, globose or oblong, pubescent or tomentose 
and densely spiny on the outer surface, with elongated ridged bright green ultimately 
brown branched spines fascicled between the deciduous scales, coated on the inner 
surface with lustrous pubescence, splitting at maturity into 2-4 valves; nut ovate, 
acute, crowned by the remnants of the style, bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, 
tomentose or pubescent at the apex, cylindrical, or when more than 1 flattened, 
marked at the broad base by a large conspicuous pale circular or oval thickened 
scar, its shell lined with rufous or hoary tomentum. Seed usually solitary by abor- 
tion, dark chestnut-brown, marked at the apex by the abortive ovules, with thick 
and fleshy more or less undulate ruminate sweet farinaceous cotyledons. 

Castanea is confined to the northern hemisphere, and is widely distributed through 
eastern North America, southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, and central 



220 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

and northern China and Japan. Four species are distinguished. Of the exotic species, 
the European Castanea Castanea, Karsten, a tree frequently cultivated in Europe and 
Japan for its large sweet seeds which are an important article of food in the countries 
of southern Europe and in eastern Asia, has been occasionally planted in the middle 
states. Of the American species two are trees, and one, Castanea alnifolia, Nutt, is a 
low shrub. Castanea produces coarse-grained wood very durable in contact with the 
soil, and rich in tannin. 

Castanea is the classical name of the Chestnut-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, long-pointed, green and glabrous on both surfaces ; nuts 2 or 3 
in each involucre, flattened. 1- C dentata (A, C). 

Leaves oblone, acute, silvery white and pubescent on the lower surface ; nut solitary, cylin- 
drical. 2. C.pumila(A,C). 

1. Castanea dentata, Borkh. Chestnut. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and long-pointed at the apex, gradually narrowed 
and wedge-shaped at the base, when they unfold puberulous on the upper surface 
and clothed on the lower with fine cobweb-like tomentum, at maturity thin, glabrous, 




dark dull yellow-green above, pale yellow-green below, 6'-8' long, about 2' wide, 
with pale yellow midribs and primary veins, turning bright clear yellow late in the 
autumn; their petioles stout, slightly angled, puberulous, ^' long, often flushed with 
red ; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acute, yellow-green, puberulous, about \' long. Flow- 
era : staminate aments about ^' long when they first appear, green below the middle 
and red above, becoming when fully grown 6'-8' long, with stoiit green puberulous 
stems covered from the base to the apex with crowded flower-clusters; androgynous 
aments, slender, puberulous, 2^'-5' long, with 2 or 3 irregularly scattered involucres 
of pistillate flowers near their base. Fruit: involucres attaining their full size by 
the middle of August, 2'-2^' in diameter, sometimes a little longer than broad, some- 
what flattened at the apex, glabrous and covered on the outer surface with crowded 
fascicles of long slender glabrous much-branched spines, opening with the first 
frost and gradually shedding their nuts; nuts usually much compressed, '-!' wide, 















FAGACE^: 221 

usually rather broader than long, coated at the apsx or nearly to the middle with 
thick pale tomentuin, the interior of the shell lined with thick rufous tomentum ; 
seed very sweet. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a tall straight columnar trunk 3^ in diame- 
ter, or often when uncrowded by other trees with a short trunk occasionally 10-12 
in diameter, and usually divided not far above the ground into 3 or 4 stout horizon- 
tal limbs forming a broad low round-topped head of slightly pendulous branches 
frequently 100 across, and branchlets at first light yellow-green sometimes tinged 
with red, somewhat angled, lustrous, slightly puberulous, soon becoming glabrous 
and olive-green tinged with yellow or brown tinged with green and ultimately dark 
brown. Winter-buds ovate, acute, about \' long, with thin dark chestnut-brown 
scales scarious on the margins. Bark from l'-2' thick, dark brown and divided by 
shallow irregular often interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges separating on the 
surface into small thin closely appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, liable 
to check and warp in drying, easily split, reddish brown, with thin lighter colored 
sapwood of 3 or 4 layers of annual growth ; largely used in the manufacture of cheap 
furniture and in the interior finish of houses, for railway-ties, fence-posts, and rails. 
The nuts, which are superior to those of the Old World Chestnut in sweetness and 
flavor, are gathered in great quantities in the forest and sold in the markets of the 
eastern cities. 

Distribution. Southern Maine to the valley of the Winooski River, Vermont, 
and southern Ontario, along the southern shores of Lake Ontario to southern Michi- 
gan, southward to Delaware and southeastern Indiana, and along the Alleghany 
Mountains to central Alabama and Mississippi, and to central Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee; very common on the glacial drift of the northern states and, except at the 
north, mostly confined to the Appalachian hills; attaining its greatest size in western 
North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. 

Occasionally planted in the eastern states as an ornamental and timber tree, and 
for its nuts, of which several varieties are now recognized. 

2. Castanea pumila, Mill. Chinquapin. 

Leaves oblong-oval to oblong-obovate, acute, coarsely serrate, with slender rigid 
spreading or incurved teeth, gradually narrowed and usually unequal and rounded 
or wedge-shaped at the base, when they unfold tinged with red and coated above 
with pale caducous tomentum and below with thick snowy white tomentum, at ma- 
turity rather thick and firm in texture, bright yellow-green on the upper surface, 
hoary or silvery-pubescent on the lower, 3'-5' long, 1^-2' wide, turning dull yel- 
low in the autumn; their petioles stout, pubescent, flattened on the upper side, \'-\' 
long; stipules light yellow-green, pubescent, those of the 2 lowest leaves broad, 
ovate, acute, covered at the apex by rufous tomentum, on later leaves ovate-lanceo- 
late, often oblique and acute, becoming linear at the end of the branch. Flowers : 
stauiinate aments ^' long when they first appear, pubescent, green below, bright red 
at the apex, becoming when fully grown 4'-fl' long, with stout hoary tomentose stems 
and crowded or scattered flower-clusters; androgynous aments silvery tomentose, 
3'-!' long; involucres 1-flowered, scattered at the base of the ament or often spicate 
and covering its lower half, sessile or short-stalked. Fruit : involucres l'-l' in di- 
ameter, with thin walls coated on the inner surface with pale silky hairs, tomentose 
and covered on the outer surface with crowded fascicles of slender spines tomentose 
toward the base, or with scattered clusters of stouter spines; nut ovate, cylindrical, 



222 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

rounded at the slightly narrowed base, gradually narrowed and pointed at the apex, 
more or less coated with silvery white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, very lus- 
trous, f'-l' long, ^' broad, with a thin shell lined with a coat of lustrous hoary 
tomentum, and a sweet seed. 

A round-topped tree, rarely 50 high, with a short straight trunk 2-3 in diame- 
ter, slender spreading branches, and brancblets coated at first with pale tomentum, 
becoming during their first winter pubescent or remaining tomentose at the apex, 




bright red-brown, glabrous, lustrous, olive-green or orange-brown during their 
second season and ultimately darker; usually a shrub spreading into broad thickets 
by prolific stolons, with numerous intricately branched stems often only 4 or 5 
tall. Winter-buds ovate, or oval, about \' long, clothed when they first appear in 
summer with thick hoary tomentum, becoming red during the winter and scurfy- 
pubescent. Bark '-1' thick, light brown tinged with red, slightly furrowed and 
broken on the surface into loose plate-like scales. Wood light, hard, strong, 
coarse-grained, dark brown, with thin hardly distinguishable sapwood of 3 or 4 
layers of annual growth; used for fence-posts, rails, and railway-ties. The sweet 
nuts are sold in the markets of the western and southern states. 

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges, rich hillsides and the borders of swamps; 
southern Pennsylvania to northern Florida and the valley of the Neches River, 
Texas; usually shrubby in the region east of the Alleghany Mountains ; arborescent 
west of the Mississippi River; most abundant and of its largest size in southern 
Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

3. CASTANOPSIS, Spach. 

Trees, with scaly bark, astringent wood, and winter-buds covered by numerous 
imbricated scales. Leaves convolute in the bud, 5-ranked, coriaceous, entire or 
dentate, penniveined, persistent; stipules obovate or lanceolate, scarious, mostly 
caducous. Flowers in 3-flowered cymes, or the pistillate rarely solitary or in pairs, 
in the axils of minute bracts, on slender erect aments from the axils of leaves of the 
year; the staminate on usually elongated and panicled aments, and composed of a 
campanulate 5 or6-lobed or parted calyx, the lobes imbricated in the bud, usually 10 
or 12 stamens inserted on the slightly thickened torus, with elongated exserted filiform 



FAGACILE 



223 



filaments and oblong anthers, and a minute hirsute rudimentary ovary; the pistillate 
on shorter simple or panicled aments or scattered at the base of the staminate 
inflorescence, the cymes urrounded by an involucre of imbricated scales; calyx 
urn-shaped, the short limb divided into 6 obtuse lobes; abortive stamens inserted 
on the limb of the calyx and opposite its lobes; ovary sessile on the thin disk, 
3-celled after fecundation, with 3 spreading styles terminating in minute stigmas, 
and 2 ovules in each cell attached to its interior angle. Fruit maturing at the end 
of the second season, its involucre inclosing 1-3 nuts, ovoid or globose, sometimes 
more or less depressed, rarely obscurely angled, dehiscent or indehiscent, covered 
by stout spines, tuberculate or marked by interrupted vertical ridges; nut more 
or less angled by mutual pressure when more than 1, often pilose, crowned with 
the remnants of the style, marked at the base by a large conspicuous circular 
depressed scar, the thick shell tomentose on the inner surface. Seed usually solitary 
by abortion, bearing at the apex the abortive ovules; cotyledons plano-convex, fleshy, 
farinaceous. 

Castanopsis inhabits California with one species, and southeastern Asia where it is 
distributed with about twenty-five species from southern China to the Malay Archi- 
pelago and the eastern Himalayas. 

Castanopsis, from Kouyrava and fyis, in allusion to its resemblance to the Chestnut- 
tree. 

1. Castanopsis chrysophylla, A. DC. Chinquapin. Golden-leaved 
Chestnut. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong, gradually narrowed at the ends or sometimes ab- 
ruptly contracted at the apex into short broad points, entire, with slightly thickened 
revolute margins, when they unfold thin, coated below with golden yellow persistent 
scales and above with scattered white scales, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark 




green and lustrous above, 2'-6' long, ' to nearly 2' broad, with stout midribs raised 
and rounded on the upper side, turning yellow at maturity and falling gradually at 
the end of their second or in their third year; their petioles \'-\' long; stipules 
ovate, rounded or acute at the apex, brown and scarious, puberulous, \'-\' long. 
Flowers appearing irregularly from June until February in the axils of broadly 
ovate apiculate pubescent bracts on staminate and androgynous scurfy stout-stemmed 



224 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

aments 2'-2' long and crowded at the ends of the branches; calyx of the stami- 
nate flower coated on the outer surface with hoary tomentum, divided into broadly 
ovate rounded lobes much shorter than the slender stamens; calyx of the pistillate 
flower oblong-campanulate, free from the ovary, clothed with hoary tomentum, 
divided at the apex into short rounded lobes, rather shorter than the minute abortive 
stamens, with red anthers; ovary conical, hirsute, with elongated slightly spreading 
thick pale stigmas. Fruit : involucres globose, dehiscent, irregularly 4-valved, sessile, 
solitary or clustered, tomentose and covered on the outer surface by long stout or 
slender rigid spines I'-l^' in diameter, containing 1 or occasionally 2 nuts; nuts 
broadly ovate, acute, obtusely 3-angled, light yellow-brown and lustrous; seeds 
dark purple-red, sweet and edible. 

A tree, 100-150 high, with a massive trunk 5-10 in diameter, frequently free 
of branches for 80, stout spreading branches forming a broad compact round- 
topped or conical head, and rigid branchlets coated when they first appear with 
bright golden-yellow scurfy scales, dark reddish brown and slightly scurfy during 
their first winter, and gradually growing darker in their second season; generally 
much smaller and sometimes, especially at high elevations and southward, reduced 
to a low shrub, with slender diverging stems. Winter-buds fully grown at mid- 
summer, usually crowded near the end of the branch, ovate or subglobose, with 
broadly ovate apiculate thin and papery light brown scales slightly puberulous on 
the back, ciliate on the scarious often reflexed margins, the terminal bud about \' 
long and broad and rather larger than the often stipitate axillary buds. Bark l'-2' 
thick and deeply divided into rounded ridges 2'-3' broad, broken into thick plate- 
like scales, dark red-brown on the surface and bright red internally. Wood light, 
soft, close-grained, not strong, light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored 
sapwood of 50-60 layers of annual growth; occasionally used in the manufacture of 
ploughs and other agricultural implements. 

Distribution. Valley of the Columbia River, Oregon, southward along the west- 
ern slopes of the Cascade Mountains, and in California along the western slopes of 
the Sierra Nevada and through the coast ranges to the elevated valleys of the Sari 
Jar in to Mountains, sometimes ascending to elevations of 4000 above the sea; usu- 
ally shrubby at high elevations and on the California coast ranges south of the 
Bay of San Francisco; of its largest size in the humid coast valleys of northern 
California. 

Occasionally cultivated in the gardens of temperate Europe. 

4. PASANIA, Orst. 

Trees, with astringent properties, stellate pubescence, deeply furrowed scaly bark, 
hard close-grained brittle wood, stout branchlets, and winter-buds covered by few 
erect or spreading foliaceous scales. Leaves convolute in the bud, petiolate, persist- 
ent, entire or dentate, with stout midribs, primary veins running obliquely to the 
points of the teeth, or on entire leaves forked and united near the margins, and retic- 
ulate veinlets; stipules oblong-obovate to linear-lanceolate, those of the upper leaves 
persistent and surrounding the buds during the winter. Flowers in erect unisexual 
and in bisexual tomentose aments from the axils of leaves of the year, from the inner 
scales of the terminal bud or from separate buds in the axils of leaves of the previous 
year; staminate in 3-flowered clusters in the axils of ovate rounded bracts, the lateral 
flowers subtended by similar but smaller bracts, each flower composed of a 5-lobed 



FAGACEJS 225 

tomentose calyx, with nearly triangular acute lobes, 10 stamens, with slender elon- 
gated filaments and small oblong or emarginate anthers, and an acute abortive hairy 
ovary; pistillate scattered at the base of the upper aments below the staminate 
flowers, solitary, in the axils of acute bracts, furnished with minute lateral bractlets, 
and composed of a 6-lobed ovate calyx, with rounded lobes, inclosed in the tomen- 
tose involucral scales, 6 stamens, with abortive anthers, an ovate-oblong 3-celled 
ovary, 3 elongated spreading light green styles thickened and stigmatic at the apex, 
and 2 anatropous ovules in each cell. Fruit an oval or ovate nut maturing at the 
end of the second season, 1-seeded by abortion, surrounded at the base by the 
accrescent woody cupular involucre of the flower, marked at the base by a large 
pale circular scar, the thick shell tomentose on the inner surface. Seed red-brown, 
filling the cavity of the nut, bearing at the apex the abortive ovules; cotyledons thick 
and fleshy, yellow and bitter. 

Pasania is intermediate between the Oaks and the Chestnuts, and, with the excep- 
tion of one California species, is confined to southeastern Asia, where it is distributed 
with many species from southern Japan and southern China through the Malay 
Peninsula to the Indian Archipelago. 

Pasania is from the vernacular name of one of the Java species. 

1. Pasania densiflora, Orst. Tan Bark Oak. Chestnut Oak. 
(Quercus densiflora, Silva N. Am. viii. 183.) 

Leaves oblong or oblong-obovate, rounded or acute or rarely cordate at the 
base, occasionally rounded at the apex, repand-dentate, with acute callous teeth, or 
entire, with thickened revolute margins, coated when they unfold with fulvous 
tomentum and glandular on the margins, with dark caducous glands, at maturity 
pale green, lustrous and glabrous or covered with scattered stellate pubescence on 





the upper surface, rusty-tomentose on the lower, ultimately becoming glabrous 
above and glabrate and bluish white below, 3'-5' long, |'-3' wide, with midribs raised 
and rounded on the upper side, thin or thick primary veins and fine conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets, persistent until the end of their third or fourth years; their 
petioles stout, rigid, tomentose, '-f' long; stipules brown and scarious, hirsute on 
the outer surface. Flowers in early spring and frequently also irregularly during 



226 TREES OP NORTH AMERICA 

the autumn; aments stout-stemmed, 3'-4' long; staminate flowers crowded, hoary- 
tomentose in the bud, their bracts tomentose. Fruit solitary or often in pairs, on a 
stout tomentose peduncle '-!' long; nut full and rounded at the base, gradually 
narrowed and acute or rounded at the apex, scurfy-pubescent when fully grown, 
becoming light yellow-brown, glabrous and lustrous at maturity, f'-l' long, '-!' 
broad, its cup shallow, tomentose, with lustrous red-brown hairs on the inner surface, 
and covered by long linear rigid spreading or recurved light brown scales coated 
with stellate hairs, frequently tipped, especially while young, with dark red glands 
and often tomentose near the base of the cup. 

A tree, usually 70-80 but sometimes nearly 100 high, with a trunk 3-6 in 
diameter, stout branches ascending in the forest and forming a narrow spire-like 
head, or in open positions spreading horizontally and forming a broad dense sym- 
metrical round-topped crown, and branchlets coated at first with a thick fulvous 
tomentum of stellate hairs often persistent until the second or third year, becoming 
dark reddish brown and frequently covered with a glaucous bloom; or sometimes 
reduced to a shrub, with slender stems only a few feet high (var. echinoides, Sarg.). 
"Winter-buds ovate, obtuse, \'-%' long, often surrounded by the persistent stipules 
of the upper leaves, with tomeutose loosely imbricated scales, those of the outer 
ranks linear-lanceolate, increasing in width toward the interior of the bud, those of 
the inner ranks ovate or obovate and rounded at the apex. Bark -f'-l^' thick, 
deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad rounded ridges broken into nearly 
square plates covered by closely appressed light red-brown scales. Wood hard, 
strong, close-grained, brittle, reddish brown, with thick darker brown sapwood; 
largely used as fuel. The bark is exceedingly rich in tannin and is largely used for 
tanning leather. 

Distribution. Valley of the Umpqua River, Oregon, southward through the 
coast ranges to the Santa Inez Mountains, California, and along the western slope of 
the Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 4000 above the sea to Mariposa County; 
very abundant in the humid coast region north of San Francisco Bay and of its 
largest size in the Redwood forest of Napa and Mendocino counties; southward and 
on the Sierras less abundant and of smaller size. 



5. QUERCUS, L. Oak. 

Trees or shrubs, with astringent properties, stellate pubescence, scaly or dark and 
furrowed bark, hard and close-grained or porous brittle wood, slender branchlets 
marked by pale lenticels and more or less prominently 5-angled. Winter-buds clus- 
tered at the ends of the branchlets, with numerous membranaceous chestnut-brown 
slightly accrescent caducous scales closely imbricated in 5 ranks, in falling marking 
the base of the branchlet with ring-like scars. Leaves 5-ranked, lobed, dentate or 
entire, often variable on the same branch, membranaceous or coriaceous, the primary 
veins prominent and extending to the margins or united within them and connected 
by more or less reticulate veinlets, deciduous in the autumn or persistent until 
spring or until their third or fourth year; their petioles in falling leaving slightly 
elevated semiorbicular more or less obcordate leaf-scars broader than high, marked 
by the ends of numerous scattered fibre- vascular bundles; stipules obovate to lanceo- 
late, scarious, caducous, or those of upper leaves occasionally persistent through the 
season. Flowers vernal with or after the unfolding of the leaves; staminate solitary, 
in the axils of lanceolate acute caducous bracts, or without bracts, in graceful pen- 



FAGACE.E 227 

dulous clustered aments, from separate or leafy buds iu the axils of leaves of the 
previous year, or from the axils of the inner scales of the terminal bud or from 
those of the leaves of the year; calyx campanulate, lobed or divided to the base into 
4r-7, usually C, membranaceous lobes; stamens 4-6, rarely 2, or 10-12, inserted on 
the slightly thickened torus, with free filiform exserted filaments and ovate-oblong 
orsubglobose glabrous or rarely hairy 2-celled usually yellow anthers; pistillate soli- 
tary, subtended by a caducous bract and 2 bractlets, in short or elongated few- 
flowered spikes from the axils of leaves of the year; calyx urn-shaped, with a short 
campanulate 6-lobed limb, the tube adnate to the incompletely 3 or rarely 4 or 
5-celled ovary inclosed more or less completely by an accrescent involucre of imbri- 
cated scales, becoming the cup of the fruit; styles as many as the cells of the ovary, 
short or elongated, erect or incurved, dilated above, stigmatic on the inner face or at 
the apex only, generally persistent on the fruit; ovules aiiatropous or semianatropous, 
2 in each cell. Fruit a nut (acorn) maturing in one or in two years, ovoid, globose, or 
turbiuate, short-pointed at the apex, 1-seeded by abortion, marked at the base by a 
.large conspicuous circular scar, with a thick shell, glabrous or coated on the inner 
surface with pale tomentum, more or less surrounded or inclosed in the accrescent 
cupular involucre of the flower (cu/>), its scales thin or thickened, loosely or closely 
imbricated. Seed marked at the base or at the apex or rarely on the side by the 
abortive ovules; cotyledons thick and fleshy, usually plano-convex and entire. 

Quercus inhabits the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and high 
altitudes within the tropics, ranging in the New World southward to the mountains 
of Colombia and in the Old World to the Indian Archipelago. Two hundred and 
seventy-five species have been described; fifty-two are North American; of these 
five are shrubs. Of exotic species, the European Quercus pedunculata, Ehrh., and 
(Inercus sessiliflora, Salisb., have been frequently cultivated as ornamental trees in 
the eastern United States, where, however, they are usually short-lived and unsatis- 
factory. Many of the species are important timber-trees; their bark is often rich in 
tannin and is used in tanning leather, and all produce wood valuable for fuel and in 
the manufacture of charcoal. 

Quercus is the classical name of the Oak-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 
1. Fruit maturing at the end of the second season (except 22} ; shell of the acorn silky- 
tomentose on the inner surface ; leaves or their lobes bristle-tipped. BLACK OAKS. 
*Stamens usually 4-6 ; styles elongated, finally recurved ; abortive ovules basal. 
-Leaves deciduous in their first autumn or winter. 
** Leaves pinnately lobed, convolute in the bud. 
Leaves green on both sides. 

Cup saucer-shaped ; leaves glabrous, with exception of axillary tufts of hairs ; 
winter-buds glabrous or puberulous. 
Cup broad and thick. 

Leaves dull green above, pale yellow-green below, oblong-obovate to 
oblong, the lobes t;ip'ring gradually from broad bases and acute 
and usually dentate at the apex. 1. Q. rubra (A). 

Cup thin and narrow ; leaves lustrous. 

Leaves obovate, sinuate-lobed by deep wide sinuses, the spreading lobes 
acute or obtuse, usually coarsely repand-dentate. 

2. Q. palustris (A, C). 

Leaves oval or obovate, glabrous, sinuately lobed, their lobes usually 
acute and entire. 3. Q. Georgiana (C). 



228 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Cup turbinate or hemispherical (sometimes saucer-shaped in 6). 

Scales of the cup small, closely appressed ; leaves lustrous, glabrous with 
l the exception of axillary tufts of hairs ; winter-buds glabrous or puberu- 

lous. 

Leaves oval to obovate-orbicular, deeply 5-7-lobed, dark green and 

lustrous on the upper surface. 4. Q. ellipsoidalis (A). 

Leaves obovate, truncate or abruptly wedge-shaped at the base, deeply 

lobed, with broad rounded sinuses, the lobes sinuate-dentate at the 

usually broad apex. 5. Q. Texana (A, C). 

Leaves oblong or obovate, deeply lobed, with broad rounded sinuses, 

the slender lobes coarsely repand-dentate toward the apex, glabrous. 

6. Q. coccinea (A). 

Scales of the cup large, more or less loosely imbricated, forming a free 
margin ; leaves usually pubescent below. 

Winter-buds tomentose ; leaves ovate or obovate, slightly or deeply 
lobed, with broad or narrow nearly entire or dentate lobes, more or 
less pubescent below. 7. Q. velutina (A, C). 

Winter-buds glabrous or puberulous. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, deeply lobed, the lobes tapering, acute, 
or broad and obovate at the apex, repand-dentate or entire, gla- 
brous or pubescent below. 8. Q. Californica (G). 
Leaves oblong-obovate or triangular, distinctly cuneate, deeply lobed, 
with acute spreading often falcate lobes, glabrous or rusty-pubes- 
cent below, short-stalked. 9. Q. Catesbaei (C). 
Leaves whitish or grayish tomentulose below. 

Leaves mostly acutely 5-lobed, obovate, with short broad lobes. 

10. Q. nana (A). 
Leaves with elongated mostly falcate lobes. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, fulvous or pale pubescent below, the lobes 
usually elongated and falcate, or broad and 3-lobed at the apex. 

11. Q. digitata (A, C). 

Leaves oval to oblong, deeply 5-11-lobed, the -lobes acuminate, mostly 
falcate, white -tomentose below. 12. Q. pagodaefolia (A, C). 

Leaves widening upward, often abruptly dilated at the broad sinuate or 
obscurely 3-5-lobed apex. 

Leaves broadly obovate, rusty-pubescent below. 

, 13. Q. Marilandica (A, C). 

Leaves obovate-spatulate or narrowly wedge-shaped, glabrous. 

14. Q. nigra (C). 

H-M-Leaves lanceolate to oblong or lanceolate-obovate, usually entire, involute in the 
bud. WILLOW OAKS. 
Leaves glabrous. 

Leaves lanceolate, narrowed and acute at the ends. 

15. Q. Phellos (A, C). 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, dark green and lustrous above, 
somewhat paler below. 16. Q. laurifolia (C). 

Leaves tomentulose or pubescent below, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate. 
Leaves pale blue-green, coated below with hoary tomentum. 

17. Q. brevifolia (C). 
Leaves dark green and lustrous above, pubescent below. 

18. Q. imbricaria(A). 

-i- -"Leaves persistent until the appearance of those of the following year, revolute in 
the bud (involute in 21). 

Leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptical, entire or spinose- 



FAGACE^E 229 

toothed toward the apex, covered below with pale or fulvous toraen- 

tum. * 19. Q. hypoleuca (E, H). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire or sinuate-dentate, dark green and 

lustrous. 20. Q. Wislizeni (G). 

Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, mostly 

entire, with thickened revolute margins, involute in the bud. 

21. Q. myrtifolia (C). 

Leaves oval, orbicular to oblong, entire or sinuately spinose-toothed, 

convex on the upper surface ; fruit maturing at the end of the first 

season. 22. Q. agrifolia (G). 

**Stamens usually G-8 ; styles dilated ; abortive ovules basal or lateral ; leaves persistent, 

involute in the bud. 

Leaves oblong, acute or cuspidate, entire or dentate or sinuate-toothed, fulvous- 

tomentose and ultimately pale on the lower surface. 23. Q. chry solepis (G, H). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, crenate-dentate or entire, conspicuously veined, 

pubescent or tomentose below. 24. Q. tomentella (G). 

2. Fruit maturing at the end of the first season ; shell of the acorn glabrous on the inner 

surface (hoary-tomentose in 47) ', abortive ovules basal ; stamens G-8 ; styles dilated. 

WHITE OAKS. 

*Leaves and their lobes usually without bristle-tips, except on vigorous shoots, yellow- 
green, deciduous in their first autumn or winter, convolute in the bud (conduplicate 
in 25 and 26). 
- Leaves lyrate or sinuate-pinnatifid, rarely nearly entire. 

Leaves glabrous, obovate-oblong, obliquely 3-9-lobed or pinnatifid, pale below, 
conduplicate in the bud. 25. Q. alba (A, C). 

Leaves pubescent beneath. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, deeply lobed, usually stellate-pubescent above, pale 
below, conduplicate in the bud. 26. Q. lobata (G). 

Leaves obovate or oblong, coarsely pinnatifid-lobed. 

27. Q. Garryana (B, G). 
Leaves obovate or oblong-lanceolate, lobed or pinnatifid. 

28. Q. Gambelii (F). 

Leaves oblong-obovate, usually 5-lobed, stellate-pubescent above ; anthers hir- 
sute. 29. Q. minor (A, C). 
Leaves entire or slightly sinuate-lobed toward the apex, oblong or oblong- 
obovate ; anthers hirsute. 30. Q. Chapman! (C). 
Leaves white-tomentulose beneath. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, lyrately pinnatifid or deeply sinuate-lobed or divided ; 

cup fringed by the awned scales. :'.!. Q. macrocarpa (A, C). 

Leaves obovate-oblong, deeply 5-9-lobed or pinnatifid ; nut often nearly inclosed 

in its cup. 32. Q. lyrata (C). 

-* --Leaves coarsely sinuate-toothed. CHESTNUT OAKS. 

Fruits on peduncles much longer than the petioles ; leaves obovate or oblong- 
obovate, generally sinuate-dentate or lobed, pubescent, and usually hoary on 
the lower surface. :',:;. Q. platanoides (A, C). 

Fruits on peduncles about as long or shorter than the petioles. 

Leaves obovate or oblong-obovate, wedge-shaped or rounded at the broad 
or narrow base, tomentose or pubescent, and often silvery white below. 

34. Q. Michauxii (A, C). 

Leaves obovate or oblong to lanceolate, acuminate, with rounded or acute 

teeth. 35. Q. Prinus (A). 

Fruits sessile or nearly so ; leaves oblong to lanceolate, acute or acuminate, or 

broadly obovate, puberulous and pale, often silvery white on the lower surface. 

36. Q. acuminata (A, C). 



230 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

**Leaves often dentate or spinesoent, or sometimes entire. 

- Leaves deciduous in their first autumn or winter, blue-green, convolute in the bud. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, undulate-lobed or entire, pale, and often silvery white 

and pubescent on the lower surface. 37. Q. breviloba (C). 

Leaves oblong, sinuate-dentate, entire, pinnatifid-lobed or spinescent, pubescent 

below. 38. Q. undulata (F, H). 

Leaves oblong, lobed, spinescent or entire, pubescent below. 

39. Q. Douglasii (G). 

-t---Leaves mostly persistent until the appearance of those of the following spring, 
re volute in the bud (convolute in 45) 
Leaves blue-green. 

Fruit solitary or in pairs. 

Cup hemispherical or turbinate, inclosing about one third of the acorn, 
raised on a short peduncle or nearly sessile. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, usually obtuse and rounded at the apex, entire 

or remotely dentate. 40. Q. Engelmanni (G). 

Leaves ovate, oval or obovate, usually cordate, entire or remotely 

spinulose-dentate. 41. Q. oblongifolia (E, H). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate or broadly obovate, cordate or rounded at 

the base, spinose-dentate, pubescent and conspicuously reticulate- 

venulose on the lower surface. 42. Q. Arizonica (H). 

Cup saucer-shaped, inclosing about one fourth of the acorn, sessile ; leaves 

ovate or ovate-oblong or oval, entire or remotely spinose-dentate. 

43. Q. Toumeyi (H). 

Fruits several on a long and slender peduncle. Leaves broadly obovate, 
cordate, usually "rounded and obtuse at the apex, repandly spinose-dentate, 
coarsely reticulate-venulose. 44. Q. reticulata (H). 

Leaves dark green. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, entire, sinuate-toothed or lobed, pubescent and 
often pale below, convolute in the bud. 45. Q. dumosa (G). 

Leaves oblong, elliptical or obovate, entire or remotely spinose-dentate, 
pale or silvery white on the lower surface ; anthers hirsute. 

46. Q. Virginiana (C). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire or repand-serrate, coriaceous ; inner sur- 
face of the shell of the acorn hoary-tomentose. 47. Q. Emoryi (F, H). 

1. Fruit maturing at the end of the second season (except 22) ; shell of the acorn tomen- 
tose on the inner surface leaves or their lobes bristle-tipped. BLACK OAKS. 
* Stamens usually J^-Q abortive ovules basal. 

-t-Leaves deciduous in their first autumn or winter. 
+-t-Leaves pinnately lobed. 

1. Quercus rubra, L. Red Oak. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, acute or acuminate, abruptly or gradually wedge- 
shaped or rounded at the broad or narrow base, usually divided about half way to 
the midribs by wide oblique sinuses rounded at the bottom into 11 or sometimes 
into 7 or 9 acute oblique ovate lobes tapering from broad Eases and mostly sinuately 
3-toothed at the apex, with elongated bristle-pointed teeth, or sometimes oblong- 
obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, and sinuately lobed, with 
broad acute usually entire or slightly dentate lobes, when they unfold pink, covered 
with soft silky pale pubescence on the upper surface and below with thick white 
tomentum, soon glabrous, and at maturity thin and firm, dark green, dull and gla- 



FAGACE^E 



231 



brous above, pale yellow-green, glabrous or rarely puberulous and sometimes fur- 
nished with small tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the veins below, 5'-9' long, 4'-6" 
broad, falling early in the autumn after turning dull or sometimes bright orange- 
color or brown; their petioles stout, yellow or red, l'-2' long. Flowers: staminate in 
pubescent ameuts 4'-5' long; calyx deeply divided into 4 or 5 narrow ovate rounded 




lobes shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short glabrous peduncles, their invo- 
lucral scales broadly ovate, dark reddish brown, shorter than the conspicuous linear 
acute bract of the flower and as long as the lanceolate acute calyx-lobes; stigmas 
bright green. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or stalked; acorn ovate or oval, with 
a broafl base, gradually narrowed and rounded at the apex, f '-1^' long, ^'-1' wide, 
usually inclosed only at the base in the thick shallow sancer-shnped cup reddish 
brown and puberulous within, and covered by thin closely appressed ovate acute 
bright red-brown pnberulous scales. 

A tree, usually 70-80 or occasionally 150 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, 
and stout branches spreading gradually and usually forming a comparatively narrow 
round-topped head, or growing at right angles to the stem into a broad round-topped 
crown, and slender lustrous branchlets bright green and covered when they first 
appear with pale scurfy caducous pubescence, dark red during their first winter, be- 
coming more or less tinged with orange-green in their second and third years and 
ultimately dark brown. Winter-buds ovate, gradually narrowed at the acute apex, 
about Y long, with thin ovate acute light chestnut-brown scales. Bark on young 
stems and on the upper part of the limbs of large trees smooth, light gray, becoming 
on older trunks l'-l' thick, dark brown tinged with red, and divided into small thick 
appressed plates scaly on the surface. Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, 
light reddish brown, with thin darker colored sapwood; used in construction, for the 
interior finish of houses, and in furniture. 

Distribution. Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick through Quebec to the 
northern shores of Lake Huron and to Lake Namekagon, southward to middle Ten- 
nessee and Virginia, and along the high Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia, 
and westward to eastern Nebraska and central Kansas; rare and of small size toward 
the northern limits of its range; abundant in southern Nova Scotia, Quebec, and 
Ontario; one of the largest and most common trees of the forests of the northern 



232 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

states, and of its largest size in the region north of the Ohio River; less common 
and usually of smaller size southward. 

Often planted as an ornamental or shade tree in the northeastern states and in 
the countries of western and northern Europe; generally more successful in Europe 
than other American Oaks. 

2. Quercus palustris, Muench. Pin Oak. Swamp Spanish Oak. 
Leaves obovate, narrowed and wedge-shaped or broad and truncate at the base, 
divided by wide deep sinuses rounded at the bottom into 5-7 lobes, the terminal 
lobe ovate, acute, 3-toothed toward the apex or entire, the lateral lobes spreading or 
oblique, sometimes falcate, especially those of the lowest pair, gradually tapering 
and acute at the dentate apex or obovate and broad at the apex, when they unfold 
light bronze-green stained with red on the margins, lustrous and puberulous above, 




coated below and on the petioles with pale scurfy pubescence, at maturity thin and 
firm, dark green and very lustrous above, pale below, with large tufts of pale hairs 
in the axils of the primary veins, 4'-6' long, 2'-4' wide, with stout midribs and con- 
spicuous primary veins, late in the autumn turning gradually deep scarlet; their 
petioles slender, yellow, fy-2' long. Flowers : staminate in hairy aments 2'-3' long; 
calyx puberulous and divided into 4 or 5 oblong rounded segments more or less 
laciniately cut on the margins, shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short tomentose 
peduncles, their involucral scales broadly ovate, tomentose, shorter than the acumi- 
nate calyx-lobes; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked, solitary or clus- 
tered; acorn nearly hemispherical, about \' in diameter, light brown, often striate, 
inclosed only at the base in a thin saucer-shaped cup dark red-brown and lustrous 
within, and covered by closely appressed ovate light red-brown thin puberulous 
scales. 

A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, often clothed with 
small tough drooping branches, or when crowded in the forest sometimes 120 high, 
with a trunk 60-70 tall and 4-5 in diameter, slender branches beset with short- 
ridged spur-like laterals a few inches in length, forming while young a broad sym- 
metrical pyramidal head, becoming open and irregular, with rigid and more pendu- 
lous branches often furnished with small drooping branchlets, and slender tough 



FAGACE^E 



233 



branchlets dark red and covered at first by short pale silvery tomentum, soon be- 
coming green and glabrous, lustrous, dark red-brown or orange color in their first 
winter, growing darker in their second year and ultimately dark gray-brown. 
Winter-buds ovate, gradually narrowed and acute at the apex, about ' long, with 
imbricated light chestnut-brown scales puberulous toward the thin sometimes ciliate 
margins. Bark of young trunks and branches smooth, lustrous, light brown fre- 
quently tinged with red, becoming on older trunks f'-l^' thick, light gray-brown, 
generally smooth and covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, coarse-grained, light brown, with thin rather darker colored sapwood; 
sometimes used in construction, and for shingles and clapboards. 

Distribution. Borders of swamps and river-bottoms in deep moist rich soil; 
valley of the Connecticut River in western Massachusetts to southern Missouri, and 
southward to the valley of the lower Potomac River, Virginia, central Kentucky, 
southwestern Tennessee, northern Arkansas and the eastern borders of the Indian 
Territory; rare and of small size in New England; exceedingly common on the coast 
plain south of the Hudson River; of its largest size and very abundant on the bot- 
tom-lands of the streams of the lower Ohio basin. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the northeastern states and in the coun- 
tries of western and central Europe. 

3. Quercus Georgiana, M. A. Curtis. 

Leaves convolute in the bud, oval or obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped at the base, divided generally about half way to the midribs by wide or nar- 
row oblique sinuses rounded at the bottom into 3-7 lobes, the terminal lobe ovate, 
acute, or rounded and entire or frequently furnished with 1 or 2 small lateral teeth, 
the lateral lobes oblique or spreading, mostly triangular, acute and entire, or those 




of the upper or of the middle pair often broad and repand-lobulate at the oblique 
ends, sometimes gradually 3-lobed at the broad apex and narrowed and. entire below, 
or equally 3-lobed, with broad or narrow spreading lateral lobes, or occasionally 
pinnatifid, when they unfold bright green tinged with red, ciliate on the margins 
and coated on the midribs, veins, and petioles with loose pale stellate pubescence, at 
maturity thin, bright green and lustrous above, paler below, and glabrous or fur- 



234 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

nished with tufts of hairs in the axils of the primary veins, usually about 2^' long 
and 1^' wide, turning dull orange and scarlet in the autumn before falling; their 
petioles slender, '-f' long. Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous or pubescent 
auaents 2'-3' long; calyx divided into 4 or 5 broadly ovate rounded segments rather 
shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short glabrous slender stalks, their involucral 
scales rather shorter than the acute calyx-lobes, pubescent or puberulous; stigmas 
bright red. Fruit short-stalked; acorn ellipsoidal or subglobose, \'-\' long, light 
red-brown and lustrous, inclosed for one third to nearly one half its length in a 
thick cup-shaped cup light red-brown and lustrous on the inner surface, and cov- 
ered by thin ovate bright light red-brown truncate erose scales. 

Distribution. Central Georgia, on Stone Mountain. Dekalb County, and on a 
few other granite hills between the Yellow and Oconee rivers in the region south 
and east of Stone Mountain. 

4. Quercus ellipsoidalis, E. J. Hill. Black Oak. 

Leaves oval to obovate-orbicular, acute or acuminate, truncate or broadly cune- 
ate at the base, deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded at the bottom into 5-7 
oblong lobes repandly dentate at the apex, or often, especially those of the upper 




pair, repandly lobulate, when they unfold slightly tinged with red and hoary-tomen- 
tose, soon becoming glabrous with the exception of small tufts of pale hairs in the 
axils of the principal veins, at maturity thin and firm, bright green and lustrous 
above, paler and sometimes entirely glabrous below, 3'-5' long, 2-'-4' wide, with 
stout midribs and primary veins and prominent reticulate veiulets, late in the 
autumn turning yellow or pale brown more or less blotched with purple; their peti- 
oles slender, glabrous or rarely puberulous, l^'-2' long. Flowers: staminate in 
puberulous aments l^'-2' long; calyx membranaceous, campanulate, usually tinged 
with red, 2-5-lobed or parted into oblong-ovate or rounded segments, glabrous or 
slightly villous, fringed at the apex with long twisted hairs, about as long as the 2-5 
stamens with short filaments and oblong anthers; pistillate on stout tomentose 1-3- 
flowered peduncles, red, their involucral scales broad, hairy, oblong, acute; calyx 
campanulate, 4-7-lobed, ciliate on the margins. Fruit short-stalked or nearly ses- 
sile, solitary or in pairs; acorn ellipsoidal, cylindrical to subglobose, chestnut-brown, 






FAGACE^E 



235 



often striate and puberulous, inclosed for one third to one half its length in a turbi- 
nate or cup-shaped cup gradually narrowed at the base, thin, light red-brown, pu- 
berulous on the inner surface, and covered by narrow ovate obtuse or truncate 
brown pubescent closely appressed scales. 

A tree, 60-70 high, with a short trunk rarely 3 in diameter, much forked 
branches ascending above and often pendulous low on the stem, forming a narrow 
oblong head, and slender branchlets covered at first with matted pale hairs, bright 
reddish brown during their first winter, becoming dark gray-brown or reddish brown 
in their second season. Winter-buds ovate, obtuse, or acute, sometimes slightly 
angled, about 'long, with ovate or oval red-brown lustrous slightly puberulous outer 
scales ciliate on the margins. Bark thin, light yellow internally, close, rather 
smooth, divided, by shallow connected fissures into thin plates, dark brown near the 
base, dull above, gray-brown and only slightly furrowed on the large branches. 

Distribution. In the neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, to eastern Iowa and 
southeastern Minnesota. 

5. Quercus Texana, Buckl. Red Oak. 

Leaves obovate, truncate or abruptly or rarely gradually wedge-shaped at the 
base, divided by wide or narrow oblique sinuses rounded at the bottom into usually 
7 rarely 9 or sometimes 5 lobes, the terminal lobe oblong, dentate or entire toward 
the acute apex, with two spreading lateral teeth, the lateral lobes contracted below 
the broad apex or occasionally tapering from the base and coarsely repand-dentate 
above the middle, when they unfold light red and covered with pale scurfy pu- 
bescence, at maturity thin and firm, bright green, lustrous and glabrous above, paler, 




with large tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the primary veins below, 2^'-6' long, 
2'-5' wide, with slender red or yellow midribs, late in the autumn turning gradually 
dark vinous red or brown, or often falling with only a slight change of color; their 
petioles slender, nearly terete, reddish, 1/-2' long. Flowers : staminate in slender 
slightly pubescent aments 2'-3' long; calyx thin, villotis on the outer surface, divided 
into 4 or 5 acute laciniately cut segments; pistillate on short hoary-tomentose pe- 
duncles, their involucral scales brown tinged with red, pubescent; stigmas bright 
red. Fruit sessile or stalked, usually solitary; acorn oval, abruptly narrowed and 



236 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

rounded at the base, full and rounded or gradually or abruptly narrowed and rounded 
at the apex, puberulous, light reddish brown, sometimes conspicuously striate, with 
broad dark bands, '-!' long, inclosed for one third to nearly one half its length in 
a turbinate or deeply cup-shaped cup light reddish brown and puberulous within, 
covered by thin closely imbricated light brown scales rounded at the ends and hoary - 
tomentose, except on their red-brown margins. 

A tree, occasionally nearly 200 high, with a trunk free of branches for 80-90, 
and 7-8 in diameter above the much enlarged buttressed base, comparatively 
small branches spreading into a narrow head, and stout brittle branchlets coated at 
first with hoary pubescence, soon glabrous and bright green, lustrous, orange or 
reddish brown during their first winter, becoming ashy gray or dark brown the fol- 
lowing year; often much smaller toward the western limits of its range in Texas 
and usually 30^40 tall; sometimes reduced to a shrub. "Winter-buds ovate or 
obovate, full and abruptly rounded at the apex, -jf'-^' long, with thin closely imbri- 
cated dark brown scales. Bark of young stems and branches thin, smooth, light 
gray, becoming on old trunks f'-l^' thick, light brown tinged with red, and divided 
into broad ridges broken into thick square plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard, 
close-grained, light reddish brown; now often manufactured into lumber in the 
Mississippi valley and considered more valuable than that of the eastern Red Oak. 

Distribution. Northeastern Iowa and central Illinois, through southern Illinois 
and Indiana and western Kentucky and Tennessee to the valley of the Appalachi- 
cola River, Florida, northern Georgia, central South Carolina, and the coast plain 
of North Carolina, and through southern Missouri, Arkansas, and Louisiana to the 
mountains of western Texas; most abundant and of its largest size on the low bot- 
tom-lands of the Mississippi basin, often forming a considerable part of lowland 
forests; less abundant in the eastern Gulf states; in western Texas on the low lime- 
stone hills and on bottom-lands in the neighborhood of streams. 

6. Quercus coccinea, Moench. Scarlet Oak. 

Leaves oblong-obovate or oval, truncate or wedge-shaped at the base, deeply 
divided by wide sinuses rounded at the bottom into 7 or rarely 9 lobes repand-den- 
tate at the apex, the terminal lobe ovate, acute, arid 3-toothed, the middle division 
the largest and furnished with 2 small lateral teeth, the lateral lobes obovate, oblique 
or spreading, sometimes falcate, usually broad and oblique at the coarsely toothed 
apex, when they unfold bright red covered with loose pale pubescence above and 
below with silvery white tomentum, green at the end of a few days, at maturity 
thin and firm, bright green, glabrous and very lustrous above, paler and less lustrous 
and sometimes furnished with small tufts of rusty pubescence in the axils of the 
veins below, 3'-6' long, 2^'-4' broad, with yellow midribs and primary veins, late in 
the autumn turning brilliant scarlet; their petioles slender, terete, l'-2' long. 
Flowers: staminate in slender glabrous aments 3'-4' long; calyx pubescent, bright 
red before opening, divided into 4 or 5 ovate acute segments shorter than the 
stamens; pistillate on pubescent peduncles sometimes \' long, bright red, their in- 
volucral scales ovate, pubescent,' shorter than the acute calyx-lobes. Fruit sessile or 
stalked, solitary or in pairs; acorn oval, oblong-ovate or hemispherical, truncate or 
rounded at the base, rounded at the apex, \'-V long, '-f ' broad, light reddish brown 
and occasionally striate, inclosed for one third to one half its length in a deeply cup- 
shaped or turbinate thin cup light reddish brown on the inner surface, and covered by 
closely imbricated oblong-ovate acute light reddish brown slightly puberulous scales. 



FAGACEJE 



237 



A tree, 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, comparatively small branches 
spreading gradually and forming a rather narrow open head, and slender branchlets 
coated at first witli loose scurfy pubescence, soon pale green and lustrous, light red 




or orange-red in their first winter and light or dark brown the following year; usu- 
ally much smaller. Winter-buds oval or ovate, gradually narrowed at the acute 
apex, ft-\ f long, dark reddish brown, and pale-pubescent above the middle. Bark 
of young stems and branches smooth, light brown, becoming on old trunks '-!' 
thick and divided by shallow fissures into irregular ridges covered by small light 
brown scales slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, 
light or reddish brown, with thicker darker colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Light dry usually sandy soil; valley of the Androscoggin River, 
Maine, through southern New Hampshire and Vermont and central New York to 
southern Ontario, westward through central Michigan and Minnesota to southeastern 
Nebraska, and southward to the District of Columbia and northern Illinois, and 
along the Alleghany Mountains to North Carolina; very abundant in the coast 
region from Massachusetts Bay to southern New Jersey; less common in the inte- 
rior, growing on dry gravelly uplands, and on the prairies skirting the western mar- 
gins of the eastern forest. 

Occasionally planted in the northeastern states and in Europe as an ornamental 
tree valued chiefly for the brilliant autumn color of the foliage. 

7. Quercus velutina, Lam. Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak. 
Leaves ovate or oblong, rounded, wedge-shaped or truncate at the base, mostly 
7-lobed and sometimes divided nearly to the middle by wide rounded sinuses into 
narrow obovate more or less repand-dentate lobes, or into elongated nearly entire 
mucronate lobes tapering gradually from a broad base, the terminal lobe oblong, 
elongated, acute, furnished with small lateral teeth, or broad, rounded, and coarsely 
repand-dentate, or slightly divided into broad dentate lobes or sinuate-dentate, 
bright crimson when they unfold, and covered above by long loose scattered white 
hairs and below with thick pale or silvery white tomentum, hoary-pubescent when 
half grown, and at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green and lustrous 
above, below yellow-green, brown or dull copper color and more or less pubescent 
or glabrous with the exception of tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the principal 



238 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

veins, 3'-12' long and 2'-10' wide, but usually 5'-6' long and 3'^4' wide, with stout 
midribs and primary veins, late in the autumn turning dull red, dark orange color. 
or brown, and falling gradually during the winter; their petioles stout, yellow, gla- 
brous or puberulous, 3'-6' long. Flowers: staminate on tomentose or pubescent 
aments 4'-6' long; calyx coated with pale hairs, with ovate acute lobes; pistillate 
on short tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, shorter than the acute 
calyx-lobes; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked, solitary or in pairs; 
nut ovate-oblong, obovate, oval or hemispherical, broad and rounded at the base, 
full and rounded at the apex, light red-brown, often striate, frequently coated with 
soft rufous pubescence, '-' long, inclosed for about one half its length in the thin 
deeply cut-shaped turbinate cup dark red-brown and puberulous on the inner surface, 




covered by thin light chestnut-brown acute hoary scales closely appressed at the base 
of the cup, loosely imbricated above the middle, with free scarious tips forming a 
fringe-like border to its rim. 

A tree, often 70-80 and occasionally 150 high, with a trunk 3^t in diameter, 
slender branches spreading gradually into a narrow open head, stout branchlets 
coated at first with pale or fulvous scurfy tomentum, becoming in their first winter 
glabrous, dull red or reddish brown, growing dark brown in their second year or 
brown slightly tinged with red. Winter-buds ovate, strongly angled, gradually 
narrowed and obtuse at the apex, hoary-tomentose, \'-% long. Bark of young stems 
and branches smooth, dark brown, deep orange color internally, becoming |' -!' 
thick on old trunks, and deeply divided into broad rounded ridges broken on the 
surface into thick dark brown or nearly black closely appressed plate-like scales. 
"Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, bright brown tinged with red, with thin 
lighter colored sapwood; of little value except as fuel. The bark abounds in tannic 
acid and is largely used in tanning, as a yellow dye, and in medicine. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly uplands and ridges; coast of southern Maine to 
northern Vermont, southern and western Ontario and central Minnesota, and south- 
ward to northern Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi, southeastern Nebraska, 
eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory and eastern Texas; one of the commonest Oaks 
on the gravelly drift of southern New England and the middle states; often forming 
a large part of the forest growth in the foothill regions of the southern Appalachian 



FAGACE^E 239 

Mountains; abundant in all parts of the Mississippi basin, and of its largest size in 
the valley of the lower Ohio River; the common species of the Black Oak group 
reaching the south- Atlantic and Gulf coast, and here generally scattered on dry 
ridges through the maritime Pine belt. 

Quercus velutina, which is more variable in the form of its leaves than the other 
North American Black Oaks, is easily recognized by the bright yellow color of the 
inner bark, in early spring by the deep red color of the unfolding leaves, becoming 
pale and silvery in a few days, and by the large tomentose winter-buds. From west- 
ern Missouri to northwestern Arkansas a form occurs (var. dftMOttrtOMftf, Sarg., nov. 
uar.) with the mature leaves stellate-pubescent above, and coated below and on the 
petioles and summer branchlets with rusty pubescence, and with broader more loosely 
imbricated hoary-tomentose cup-scales. 

8. Quercus Californica, Coop. Black Oak. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, truncate, wedge-shaped or rounded at the narrow base, 
7 or rarely 5-lobed by wide and deep or shallow and oblique sinuses rounded at the 
bottom, the terminal lobe ovate, 3-toothed at the acute apex, the lateral lobes taper- 
ing gradually from the base or broad and obovate, coarsely repand-dentate, with 
acute pointed teeth, or rarely entire, when they unfold dark red or purple and pilose 
above and coated below and on the petioles with thick silvery white tomentum, at 




maturity thick and firm, lustrous, dark yellow-green and glabrous or rarely stellate- 
pubescent above, light yellow-green or brownish and glabrous or pubescent, or occa- 
sionally hoary-tomentose below, 3'-6' long, 2'-4' wide, turning yellow or brown in 
the autumn before falling; their petioles slender, yellow, l'-2' long. Flowers : 
staminate in hairy aments 4'-5' long; calyx pubescent, divided into 4 or 5 ovate 
acute segments shorter than the stamens, with bright red anthers; pistillate on short 
tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales ovate, coated like the acute calyx-lobes 
with pale tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit short-stalked, solitary or clustered; 
acorn oblong, oval or obovate, broad and rounded at the base, full and rounded or 
gradually narrowed and acute at the puberulous apex, !'-!' long, about f broad, 
light chestnut-brown, often striate, inclosed for one fourth to two thirds its length 
in the deep cup-shaped cup light brown and puberulous on the inner surface, and 
covered by thin ovate-lanceolate lustrous light chestnut-brown scales, sometimes 



240 TREES OF NORTH 'AMERICA 

rounded and thickened on the back toward the base of the cup, their tips elongated, 
thin and erose on the margins, often forming a narrow fringe-like border to the rim 
of the cup. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3^ in diameter, stout spreading 
branches forming an open round-topped head, and branchlets coated at first with 
thick hoary caducous tomentuui, bright red or brown tinged with red, and usually 
glabrous or pubescent or puberulous during their first winter, becoming dark red- 
brown in their second year; frequently much smaller and at high elevations a small 
shrub. Winter-buds ovate, gradually narrowed and acute at the apex, about \' 
long, with closely imbricated pale chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the thin scari- 
ous margins and pubescent toward the point of the bud. Bark of young stems and 
branches smooth, light brown, becoming on old trunks I'-l^' thick, dark brown 
slightly tinged with red or nearly black, divided into broad ridges at the base of old 
trees and broken above into thick irregular oblong plates covered by minute closely 
appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, very brittle, bright red, with thin 
lighter colored sapwood; occasionally used as fuel. 

Distribution. Valleys and mountain slopes ; basin of the Mackenzie River in 
western Oregon, southward over the California coast ranges, and along the western 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 7000-8000 to the Cuyamaca Moun- 
tains near the southern boundary of California; rare in the immediate neighborhood 
of the coast; the largest and most abundant Oak-tree of the valleys of southwestern 
Oregon and of the Sierra Nevada, sometimes forming groves of considerable extent 
in coniferous forests; of its largest size at elevations of about 6000 above the sea. 

9. Quercus Catesbeei, Michx, Turkey Oak. 

Leaves oblong or obovate or nearly triangular, gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped at the base, deeply divided by wide rounded sinuses into 3 or 5 or rarely 7 




lobes, the terminal lobe ovate, elongated, acute and entire or repand-dentate, or 
obovate and coarsely equally or irregularly 3-toothed at the apex, the lateral lobes 
spreading, usually falcate, entire and acute, tapering from their broad bases, and 
broad, oblique, and repand-lobulate at the apex; or 3-toothed at the broad apex and 
gradually narrowed to the base, coated when they unfold with rufous articulate 









FAGACE.E 241 

hairs, and when fully grown thick and rigid, bright yellow-green and lustrous above, 
paler, lustrous, and glabrous below, with large tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the 
veins, 3'-12' long, l'-10' wide, but usually about 5' long and broad, with broad yel- 
low or red-brown midribs, turning brown or dull yellow before falling in the autumn; 
their petioles stout, grooved, \'-\' long. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy red- 
stemmed aments 4'-5' long; calyx puberulous and divided into 4 or 5 ovate acute 
lobes; pistillate on short stout tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales bright 
red, pubescent, hairy at the margins; stigmas dark red. Fruit short-stalked, usually 
solitary; acorn oval, full and rounded at the ends, about 1' long and |' broad, dull 
light brown, covered at the apex by a thin coat of snow-white tomentum, inclosed 
for about one third its length in a thin turbinate cup often gradually narrowed into 
a stout stalk-like base, light red-brown, lustrous, and puberulous on the inner surface, 
covered by ovate-oblong rounded scales extending above the rim of the cup and down 
over the upper third of the inner surface, and hoary-pubescent except on their thin 
bright red margins. 

A tree, usually 20-30, or occasionally 50-60 high, with a trunk rarely exceed- 
ing 2 in diameter, stout spreading more or less contorted branches forming a nar- 
row open irregular generally round-topped head, and stout branchlets coated at first 
with stellate articulate hairs, nearly glabrous and deep red when the leaves are half 
grown, dark red in their first winter, gradually growing dark brown; generally much 
smaller and sometimes shrubby. Winter-buds elongated, acute, ^' long, with light 
chestnut-brown scales erose on the thin margins, and coated, especially toward the 
point of the bud, with rusty pubescence. Bark \'-V thick, red internally, dark gray 
tinged with red on the surface, and at the base of old trunks becoming nearly black, 
deeply and irregularly furrowed and broken into small appressed scales. Wood 
heavy, hard, strong, rather close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick 
lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fuel. 

Distribution. Dry barren sandy ridges and sandy bluffs and hummocks in the 
neighborhood of the coast; North Carolina to Cape Malabar and the shores of Peace 
Creek, Florida, and to eastern Louisiana; comparatively rare toward the western 
limits of its range, and most abundant and of its largest size on the high bluff-like 
shores of buys and estuaries in South Carolina and Georgia. 

10. Quercus nana, Sarg. Bear Oak. Scrub Oak. 

Leaves obovate or rarely oblong, gradually or abruptly wed^e-shaped at the 
base, divided by wide shallow sinuses into 3-7, usually 5, acute lobes, the terminal 
lobe ovate, elongated, rounded and 3-toothed or acute and dentate or entire at the 
apex, the lateral lobes spreading, mostly triangular and acute, or those of the upper 
pair broad, oblique and repand-lobulate, or broad at the apex, slightly 3-lobed and 
entire below, or deeply 3-lobed above and sinuate below, or occasionally oblong to 
oblong-obovate and entire, with undulate margins, dull red and puberulous or 
pubescent on the upper surface and coated on the lower and on the petioles with 
thick pale tomentum when they unfold, when half grown light yellow-green, lus- 
trous, slightly pubescent above and tomentose below, with conspicuous tufts of silvery 
white hairs in the axils of the veins, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and 
lustrous above, covered below with pale or silvery white pubescence, 2'-5' long, 
l^'-3' wide, with stout yellow midribs and slender primary veins, turning dull 
scarlet or yellow before falling in the autumn; their petioles slender, glabrous, or 
pubescent, I'-l^' long. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 4'-5' long, and often 



242 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

persistent until midsummer; calyx red or green tinged with red and irregularly 
divided into 3-5 ovate rounded lobes shorter than the stamens, with bright red 
ultimately yellow anthers; pistillate on stout tomentose peduncles, their involucral 
scales ovate, about as long as the acute calyx-lobes, red, and tomeutose; stigmas 




dark red. Fruit produced in great profusion, sessile or stalked, in pairs or rarely 
solitary; acorn ovoid, broad, flat or rounded at the base, gradually narrowed and 
acute or rounded at the apex, about ' long and broad, light brown, lustrous, usually 
faintly striate, inclosed for about one half its length in the cup-shaped or saucer- 
shaped cup often abruptly enlarged above the stalk-like base, thick, light reddish 
brown and puberulous within, and covered by thin ovate closely imbricated red- 
brown puberulous scales acute or truncate at the apex, the minute free tips of the 
upper scales forming a fringe-like border to the cup. 

A tree, occasionally 18-20 high, with a trunk 5'-6' in diameter, with slender 
spreading branches usually forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets 
dark green more or less tinged with red and hoary-pubescent at first, during their 
first winter red-brown or ashy gray and pubescent or puberulous, becoming glabrous 
and darker in their second year and ultimately dark brown or nearly black; more 
frequently an intricately branched shrub, with numerous contorted stems 3-10 tall. 
Winter-buds ovate, obtuse, about ^' long, with dark chestnut-brown rather loosely 
imbricated glabrous or pilose scales. Bark thin, smooth, dark brown, covered by 
small closely appressed scales. 

Distribution. Dry sandy barrens and rocky hillsides; coast of eastern Maine 
southward through eastern and southern New England to eastern Pennsylvania and 
along the Alleghany Mountains to southern Virginia, and westward to the shores of 
Lake George and the valley of the Hudson River; common in eastern and southern 
New England, in the Pine barrens of New Jersey, and in eastern Pennsylvania. 

11. Quercus digitata, Sudw. Spanish Oak. 

Leaves oblong or obovate, generally narrowed and wedge-shaped or abruptly 
wedge-shaped or rounded and slightly narrowed at the base, sometimes divided by 
deep wide sinuses rounded at the bottom into 3, 5, or 7 lobes, the terminal lobe 



FAGACEJE 



243 



generally much elongated, often falcate, acute, entire or repand-dentate at the apex, 
the lateral lobes oblique and spreading or often falcate, gradually narrowed from a 
broad base, acute, and entire; or oblong-obovate and divided at the broad apex by 
wide or narrow sinuses broad and rounded at the bottom into 3 rounded or acute 
entire or dentate lobes, and entire and gradually narrowed below into an acute or 
rounded base, the two forms usually occurring on different but sometimes on the 
same tree; hanging closely appressed against the stem when they unfold, when fully 
grown thin and firm, dark green and lustrous above, coated below with soft close 
pale or rusty pubescence, 6'-7' long and 4'-o' wide, obscurely reticulate-venulose, 
with stout tomentose midribs and primary veins, turning brown or dull orange color 
in the autumn before falling; their petioles slender, flattened, l'-2' long. Flowers: 
staminate in tomentose ameuts, 3'-5' long; calyx thin and scarious, pubescent on the 
outer surface, divided into 4 or 5 ovate rounded segments; pistillate on stout tomen- 
tose peduncles, their involucral scales coated with rusty tomentum, as long or rather 




shorter than the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; 
acorn subglobose to ellipsoidal, full and rounded at the apex, truncate and rounded 
at the base, about ^' long, bright orange-brown, inclosed only at the base or some- 
times for one third its length in a thin saucer-shaped cup flat on the bottom or 
gradually narrowed from a stalk-like base, or deep and turbinate, bright red-brown 
and puberulous on the inner surface, covered by thin ovate-oblong reddish scales 
acute or rounded at the apex and pale-pubescent except on the margins. 

A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, stout spreading 
branches forming a broad round-topped open head, and stout branchlets coated at 
first, like the young leaves, with a thick rusty or orange-colored clammy tomentum 
of articulate hairs, dark red or reddish brown and pubescent or rarely glabrous 
during their first winter, becoming in their second year dark red-brown or ashy 
gray. Winter-buds ovoid or oval, acute, |'-^' long, with bright chestnut-brown 
puberulous or pilose scales ciliate, with short pale hairs. Bark |'-1' thick, dark 
brown, and divided by shallow fissures into broad ridges covered by thin closely 
appressed scales. Wood hard, strong, not durable, coarse-grained, light red, with 
thick lighter colored sapwood ; sometimes used in construction, and largely as fuel. 
The bark is rich in tannin, and is used in tanning leather and occasionally in medicine. 

Distribution. Southern New Jersey southward to central Florida, through the 
Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos River, Texas, through Arkansas and south- 



244 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



western Missouri to central Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Indiana and 
Illinois; in the north Atlantic states only in the neighborhood of the coast and com- 
paratively rare; very common in the south Atlantic and Gulf states on dry hills 
between the coast plain and the Appalachian Mountains; less abundant in the south- 
ern maritime Pine belt. 

12. Quercus pagodaefolia, Ashe. Swamp Spanish Oak. Red Oak. 

Leaves oval to oblong, acuminate, gradually narrowed and cuneate, or full and 
rounded or rarely truncate at the base, deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded at 
the bottom into 5-11 acuminate usually entire repand-dentate lobes often falcate 
and spreading at right angles to the midrib or pointed toward the apex of the leaf, 
when they unfold coated with pale tomentum, thickest on the lower surface, and 
dark red on the upper surface, at maturity dark green and very lustrous above, pale 
and tomentose below, 6' 8' long and 5'-6' wide, with stout midribs usually puberu- 
lous on the upper side, slender primary veins arched to the points of the lobes, and 
conspicuous reticulate veinlets, turning bright clear yellow before falling in the 
autumn; their petioles stout, pubescent or tomentose, 1^ '-2' long. Flowers : stami- 
nate in cftstered slender villous aments 2'-3' long; calyx thin, scarious, pubescent 
on the outer surface, more or less deeply tinged with red, divided into 4 or 5 rounded 
segments; pistillate on 1-3-flowered tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales 
hoary-tomentose, about as long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit 
short-stalked or nearly sesile; acorn ovate to subglobose, light yellow-brown, puber- 
ulous toward the rounded apex, about f ' in diameter, inclosed for nearly one half its 




length in a flat or slightly turbinate cup thin, slightly lobed on the border, glabrous 
on the inner surface, and covered by oblong rather loosely imbricated scales pale- 
pubescent except on their dark margins. 

A tree, sometimes 120 high, with a trunk 4-5 in diameter, heavy branches 
forming in the forest a short narrow crown, or in more open situations wide-spread- 
ing or ascending and forming a great open head, and slender branchlets hoary 
tomentose at first, tomentose or pubescent during their first winter, and dark reddish 
brown and puberulous during their second year. Winter-buds ovoid, acute, often 
prominently 4-angled, about \' long, with light red-brown puberulous scales some- 
times ciliate at the apex. Bark about 1' thick and roughened by small rather 
closely appressed plate-like light gray or gray-brown scales. Wood light reddish 






FAGACEJE 245 

brown, with thin nearly white sapwood; largely manufactured into lumber in the 
Mississippi valley arid valued almost as highly as white oak. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and the alluvial banks of streams; southwest- 
ern Virginia to northern Florida, and through the Gulf states and Arkansas to 
southern Missouri, western Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Illinois and 
Indiana; most abundant and one of the largest and most valuable timber-trees in 
the river swamps of the Yazoo basin, Mississippi, and of eastern Arkansas. 

13. Quercus Marilandica, Muench. Black Jack. Jack Oak. 

Leaves broadly obovate, rounded or cordate at the narrow base, usually 3 or rarely 
5-lobed at the broad and often abruptly dilated apex, with short or long, broad or 
narrow, rounded or acute, entire or dentate lobes, or entire or dentate at the apex, 
sometimes oblong-obovate, undulate-lobed at the broad apex and entire below or 




equally 3-lobed, with elongated spreading lateral lobes broad and lobulate at the 
apex, when they unfold coated with a clammy tomentum of articulate hairs, and 
bright pink on the upper surface, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark 
yellow-green and very lustrous above, yellow, orange color, or brown and scurfy- 
pubescent below, usually G'-T long and broad, with thick broad orange-colored mid- 
ribs, turning brown or yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles stout, 
yellow, glabrous or pubescent, '-f long. Flowers: staminate in hoary aments 
2'-4' long; calyx thin and scarious, tinged with red above the middle, pale-pubescent 
on the outer surface, divided into 4 or 5 broad ovate rounded lobes; anthers apicu- 
late, dark red; pistillate on short rusty-tomentose peduncles coated like their involucral 
scales with thick rusty tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit, solitary or in pairs, 
usually pedunculate; acorn oblong, full and rounded at the ends, rather broader 
below than above the middle, about |' long, light yellow-brown and often striate, the 
shell lined with dense fulvous tomentum, inclosed for one third to nearly two thirds 
its length in a thick turbinate light brown cup puberulous on the inner surface, and 
covered by large reddish brown loosely imbricated scales often ciliate and coated 
with loose pale or rusty tomentum, the upper scales smaller, erect, inserted on the 
top of the cup in several rows, and forming a thick rim round its inner surface, or 
occasionally reflexed and covering the upper half of the inner surface of the cup. 
A tree, 20-30, or occasionally 40-50 high, with a trunk rarely more than 18' 



246 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



in diameter, short stout spreading often contorted branches forming a narrow com- 
pact round-topped or sometimes an open irregular head, and stout branchlets coated 
at first with a thick pale tomentum of articulate and stellate hairs, light brown and 
scurfy-pubescent during their first summer, becoming reddish brown and glabrous or 
puberulous in the winter, and ultimately brown or ashy gray. Winter-buds ovate 
or oval, prominently angled, light red-brown, coated with rusty brown hairs, about \' 
long. Bark I'-l^' thick, and deeply divided into nearly square plates 1/-3' long 
covered by small closely appressed dark brown or nearly black scales. Wood heavy, 
hard, strong, dark rich brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used as 
fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal. 

Distribution. Dry sandy or clay barrens; Long Island, New York, through 
northern Ohio and Indiana to southeastern Nebraska, central Kansas, and the Indian 
Territory, and southward to the shores of Matauzas Inlet and Tampa Bay, Florida, 
and to the valley of the Nueces River, Texas; rare in the north; very abundant 
southward; west of the Mississippi River often forming on sterile soils a great part 
of the forest growth ; of its largest size in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

14. Quercus nigra, L. Water Oak. 

Leaves usually oblong-obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, 
enlarged sometimes abruptly at the broad generally rounded or sometimes pointed 
entire or slightly or deeply 3-lobed apex, or often acute .at the ends, and on upper 




branchlets sometimes linear-lanceolate to linear-obovate, acute or rounded at the 
apex, divided above the middle by deep wide rounded sinuses into elongated lanceo- 
late acute entire lobes, or pinnatifid above the middle, when they unfold thin, light 
green more or less tinged with red, and covered bv fine caducous pubescence, with 
conspicuous tufts of pale hairs in the axils of the veins below, at maturity thin dull 
bluish green, paler below than above, glabrous or with axillary tufts of rusty hairs, 
usually about 2^' long and 1^' wide, or on fertile branches sometimes 6' long and 
2' wide, falling gradually during the winter; their petioles stout, flattened, \'-^' 
long. Flowers : staminate in red hairy-stemmed aments 2'-3' long; calyx thin and 
scarious, covered on the outer surface with short hairs, deeply divided into 4 or 5 
ovate rounded segments; pistillate on short tomentose peduncles, their involucral 
scales a little shorter than the acute calyx-lobes and coated with rusty hairs; stigmas 
deep red. Fruit usually solitary, sessile or short-stalked; acorn ovoid, broad and flat 



FAGACEJE 247 

at the base, full and rounded at the pubescent apex, light yellow-brown, often striate, 
'-$' long and nearly as broad, usually inclosed only at the base in a thin saucer- 
shaped cup, or occasionally for one third its length in a cup-shaped cup, coated on 
the inner surface with pale silky tomentum and covered by ovate acute closely ap- 
pressed light red-brown scales clothed with pale pubescence except on their darker 
colored margins. 

A tree, occasionally 80 high, with a trunk 2-3^ in diameter, numerous slender 
branches spreading gradually from the stem and forming a symmetrical round-topped 
head, and slender glabrous branchlets light or dull red during their first winter, 
becoming grayish brown in the second season. Winter-buds ovate, acute, strongly 
angled, covered by loosely imbricated dark red-brown pnberulous scales slightly ciliate 
on the thin margins. Bark ^'-f thick, with a smooth light brown surface slightly 
tinged with red and covered by smooth closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, 
strong, close-grained, light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; little valued 
except as fuel. 

Distribution. High sandy borders of swamps and streams and the rich bottom- 
lands of rivers; southern Delaware southward to Cape Malabar and the shores of 
Tampa Bay, Florida, ranging inland through the south Atlantic states to the base of 
the Appalachian Mountains, west through the Gulf states to the valley of the Colo- 
rado River, Texas, through the eastern borders of ,the Indian Territory, and through 
Arkansas to southeastern Missouri and to central Tennessee and Kentucky. 

Commonly planted as a shade- tree in the streets and squares of the cities and 
towns of the southern states. 

++++Leaves lanceolate to oblong or lanceolate-obovate, usually entire. WILLOW OAKS. 

15. Quercus Phellos, L. Willow Oak. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or rarely lanceolate-obovate, often somewhat falcate, 
gradually narrowed and acute at the ends, and entire, with slightly undulate margins, 
when they unfold light yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, coated on the 
lower with pale caducous pubescence, at maturity glabrous, light green and rather 
lustrous above, dull and paler or rarely hoary-pubescent below, conspicuously reticu- 
late-venulose, 2^'-5' long, }'-!' wide, with slender yellow midribs and obscure pri- 
mary veins forked and united about half way between the midribs and margins, 
turning pale yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles stout, about \' long. 
Flowers : staminate in slender-stemmed aments 2'-3' lonjr; calyx yellow, hirsute, 
with 4 or 5 acute segments; pistillate on slender glabrous peduncles, their involucral 
scales brown covered by pale hairs, about as long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas 
bright red. Fruit short-stalked or nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs; acorn hemi- 
spherical, light yellow-brown, coated with pale pubescence, inclosed only at the very 
base in the thin pale reddish brown saucer-shaped cup silky-pubescent on the inner 
surface and covered by thin elongated ovate truncate hoary-pubescent scales dark 
red-brown on the margins. 

A tree, occasionally 70-80 high, with a trunk 2 or rarely 4 in diameter, small 
branches spreading into a comparatively narrow open or conical round-topped head, 
and slender glabrous reddish brown branchlets roughened by dark lenticels, becom- 
ing in their second year dark brown tinged with red or grayish brown ; usually 
much smaller. Winter-buds ovate, acute, about ^' long, with dark chestnut-brown 
scales pale and scarious on the margins. Bark ^' f ' thick, light red-brown slightly 



248 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



tinged with red, generally smooth but on old trees broken by shallow narrow fissures 
into irregular plates covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, strong, 
not hard, rather coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored 
sapwood; occasionally used in construction, for clapboards and the fellies of wheels. 




Distribution. Low wet borders of swamps and streams and rich sandy uplands; 
Staten Island, New York, to northeastern Florida, through the Gulf states to the 
valley of the Sabine River, Texas, and through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri 
to central Tennessee and southern Kentucky; in the Atlantic states usually confined 
to the maritime plain; less common in the middle districts, rarely extending to the 
Appalachian foothills. 

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree in the streets of southern towns, and rarely in 
western Europe. 

Quercus Rudkini, Britt., a supposed hybrid between Quercus Phellos and Quercus 
Marilandica, is common on Staten Island and in southern New Jersey. 

Quercus heterophylla, Michx. f. 




This is perhaps a hybrid between Quercus Phellos and Quercus velutina. It was first 



FAGACE^E 249 

known in the eighteenth century from an individual growing in a field belonging to 
John Bartram on the Schuylkill River, Philadelphia. What appears to be the same 
form has since been discovered in a number of stations from New Jersey to Texas, 
and it is possible that Quercus heterophylla may, as many botanists have believed, best 
be considered a species. 

16. Quercus laurifolia, Michx. Water Oak. 

Leaves oblong-oval to oblong-obovate, sometimes falcate, gradually narrowed 
and acute or rarely rounded at the ends, entire, with slightly thickened often undu- 
late margins, or on vigorous branches of young trees frequently unequally lobed, 




with small almost triangular lobes, when they unfold green tinged with dark red 
and slightly puberulous, at maturity thin, green, and very lustrous above, light green 
and less lustrous below, usually 3'-4' long and f ' wide, with conspicuous yellow mid- 
ribs, falling irregularly during the winter; their petioles stout, yellow, rarely more 
than \' long. Flowers: staminate in red-stemmed hairy aments 2'-3' long; calyx 
thin and scarious, pubescent on the outer surface, deeply divided into 4 ovate rounded 
lobes; pistillate on stout glabrous peduncles, their involucral scales brown and hairy, 
about as long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas dark red. Fruit sessile or subsessile, 
generally solitary; acorn nearly ovoid to hemispherical, broad and slightly rounded 
at the base, full and rounded at the puberulous apex, dark brown, becoming striate 
in drying, with brown and dark olive-green stripes, about ' long, inclosed for about 
one foTirth its length in a thin saucer-shaped cup red-brown and silkv-pubescent on 
the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate light red-brown scales rounded at the 
ends and pale-pubescent except on their darker colored margins. 

A tree, occasionally 100 high, with a tall trunk 3 -4 in diameter, and compara- 
tively slender branches spreading gradually into a broad dense round-topped shapely 
head, and slender glabrous branchlets dark red when they first appear, dark red- 
brown during their first winter, becoming reddish brown or dark gray in their second 
season. Winter-buds broadly ovate or oval, abruptly narrowed and acute at the 
apex, ^j'Ht' long, with numerous thin closely imbricated bright red-brown scales 
ciliate on the margins. Bark of young trees '-!' thick, dark brown more or less 
tinged with red, roughened by small closely appressed scales, becoming at the base 



250 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

of old trees l'-2' thick, nearly black, and divided by deep fissures into broad flat 
ridges. Wood heavy, very strong and hard, coarse-grained, liable to check badly 
in drying, dark brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; probably 
used only as fuel. 

Distribution. Sandy banks of streams and swamps and rich hummocks in the 
neighborhood of the coast; Dismal Swamp, Virginia, southward to the shores of 
Mosquito Inlet and Cape Romano, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to Louisiana; 
nowhere abundant, but most common and of its largest size in eastern Florida. 

17. Quercus brevifolia, Sarg. Blue Jack. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to obloug-obovate, gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped or sometimes rounded at the base, acute or rounded and apiculate at the 
apex, entire, with slightly thickened undulate margins, or at the ends of vigorous 
sterile branches occasionally 3-lobed at the apex and variously lobed on the margins, 
when they unfold bright pink and pubescent on the upper surface, coated on the 
lower with thick silvery white tomentum, at maturity firm in texture, blue-green, 
lustrous, conspicuously reticulate-venulose above, pale-torn entose below, 2'-5' long, 
^'-1^' wide, with stout yellow midribs and remote obscure primary veins forked and 
united within the margins, deciduous late in the autumn or in early winter; their 
petioles stout, \'-\' long- Flowers : staminate in hoary-tomentose aments 2' 3' 
long; calyx pubescent, bright red, furnished at the apex with a thick tuft of silvery 
white hairs before opening, divided into 4 or 5 ovate acute segments, becoming yel- 
low as it unfolds; stamens 4 or 5; anthers apiculate, dark red in the bud, becoming 
yellow; pistillate on short stout tomentose peduncles, their involucral scales about 




he, 



as long as the acute calyx-lobes and coated with pale tomentum; stigmas dark red. 
Fruit produced in great profusion, sessile or raised on a short stem rarely \' long; 
acorn ovate, full and rounded at the ends, subglobose, about ' long, often striate, and 
hoary-pubescent at the apex, inclosed only at the bottom or for one half its length 
in a thin saucer-shaped or cup-shaped cup bright red-brown and coated with lustrous 
pale pubescence on the inner surface, and covered by thin closely imbricated ovate- 
oblong scales hoary-tomentose except on the dark red-brown margins. 

A tree, usually 15-20 high, with a trunk 5'-6' in diameter, stout branches form- 



FAGACE^E 



251 



ing a narrow irregular head, and thick rigid branchlets coated at first with a dense 
fulvous hoary touieutum of articulate and stellate hairs, soon becoming glabrous or 
puberulous, dark brown sometimes tinged with red during their first winter and 
darker in their second year; or occasionally 50 high, with a trunk 18'-20' in diame- 
ter, and a broad round-topped shapely head. Winter-buds ovate, acute, with numer- 
ous rather loosely imbricated bright chestnut-brown scales ciliate on the margins, 
often \' long on vigorous branches, frequently obtuse and occasionally much smaller. 
Bark f'-l^' thick, and divided into thick nearly square plates l'-2' long, and cov- 
ered by small dark brown or nearly black scales slightly tinged with red. Wood 
hard, strong, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick darker colored 
sapwood; probably used only as fuel. 

Distribution. Sandy barrens and upland ridges; North Carolina south to Cape 
Malabar and the shores of Peace Creek, Florida, and westward along the Gulf coast 
to the valley of the Brazos River, Texas; in the Atlantic and middle Gulf states 
usually confined to a maritime belt 40-50 miles wide; extending across the Florida 
peninsula, and in Texas ranging inland to the neighborhood of Dallas in about lati- 
tude 33. 

18. Quercua imbricaria, Michx. Shingle Oak. Laurel Oak. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-obovate, apiculate and acute or rounded at 
the apex, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, entire, with 




slightly thickened revolute often undulate margins, or sometimes more or less 3- 
lobed, or on sterile branches occasionally repand-lobulate, when they unfold bright 
red, soon becoming yellow-green, covered with scurfy rusty pubescence on the upper 
surface and hoary-tomentose on the lower, at maturity thin, glabrous, dark green, 
and very lustrous above, pale green or light brown and pubescent below, 4'-6' long, 
f-2' wide, with stout yellow midribs, numerous slender yellow veins arcuate and 
united at some distance from the margins, and reticulate veinlets, late in the autumn 
before falling turning dark red on the upper surface; their petioles stout, pubescent, 
rarely more than ' long. Flowers: staminate in hoary-tomentose aments 2'-3' 
long; calyx light yellow, pubescent, and divided into 4 acute segments; pistillate on 
slender tomentose peduncles, their iiivolucral scales covered with pale pubescence 



252 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

and about as long as the acute calyx-lobes; stigmas greenish yellow. Fruit solitary 
or in pairs, on stout peduncles nearly ' long; acorn nearly as broad as long, full and 
rounded at the ends, dark chestnut-brown, often obscurely striate, ^' -' long, in- 
closed for one third to one half its length in a thin cup-shaped or turbinate cup 
bright red-brown and lustrous on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate light 
red-brown scales rounded and acute at the apex and pubescent except on their darker 
colored margins. 

A tree, usually 50-60 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 3 in diameter, or 
rarely 100 high, with a long naked stem 3-4 in diameter, slender tough horizontal 
or somewhat pendulous branches forming a narrow round-topped picturesque head, 
and slender branchlets dark green, lustrous, and often suffused with red when they 
first appear, soon glabrous, light reddish brown or light brown during their first 
winter and dark brown in their second year. Winter-buds ovate, acute, about 
\' long, obscurely angled and covered by closely imbricated light chestnut-brown 
lustrous scales erose and often ciliate on the margins. Bark on young stems and on 
their branches thin, light brown, smooth, and lustrous, becoming on old trunks |' -!' 
thick, and slightly divided by irregular shallow fissures into broad ridges covered by 
close slightly appressed light brown scales somewhat tinged with red. Wood heavy, 
hard, rather coarse-grained, light brown tinged with red, with thin lighter colored 
sapwood; occasionally used in construction, and for clapboards and shingles. 

Distribution. Rich uplands and the fertile bottom-lands of rivers; Lehigh County, 
Pennsylvania, westward through southern Michigan and Wisconsin to northern Mis- 
souri and northeastern Kansas, southward to the District of Columbia, and along the 
Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama, middle Tennessee and north- 
ern Arkansas; comparatively rare in the east; one of the most abundant Oaks of 
the lower Ohio basin; probably growing to its largest size in .southern Indiana and 
Illinois. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the northern states, and hardy as far 
north as Massachusetts. 

Quercus Leana, Nutt., scattered usually in solitary individuals from the District 
of Columbia and western North Carolina to southern Michigan, central and northern 
Illinois and southeastern Missouri, is believed to be a hybrid between this species 
and Quercus velutina. 

** Leaves persistent until the appearance of those of the following year. 

19. Quercus hypoleuca, Engelm. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate to elliptical, occasionally somewhat fal- 
cate, acute and often apiculate at the apex, wedge-shaped or rounded or cordate at 
the narrow base, entire or repandly serrate above the middle, with occasionally small 
minute rigid spinose teeth, or on vigorous shoots serrate-lobed, with oblique acute 
lobes, when they unfold light red, covered with close pale pubescence above and 
coated below with thick hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, dark yellow- 
green and lustrous on the upper surface, covered on the lower with thick silvery 
white or fulvous tomentum, 2'-4' long, '-!' wide, with thickened revolute margins, 
turning yellow or brown and falling gradually during the spring after the appear- 
ance of the new leaves; their petioles stout, flattened, pubescent or tomentose, \'-\' 
long. Flowers : staminate in slender aments 4'-5' long; calyx thin and scarious, 
slightly tinged with red, covered with pale hairs and deeply divided into 4 or 5 



FAGACEJE 



253 



broadly ovate rounded lobes; anthers acute, apiculate, bright red becoming yellow; 
pistillate mostly solitary, sessile or short-stalked, their iuvolucral scales and calyx- 




lobes thin, scarious, and soft-pubescent; stigmas dark red. Fruit sessile or borne on 
a stout peduncle ^' long, usually solitary; acorn ovate, acute or rounded at the nar- 
row hoary-pubescent apex, dark green and often striate when ripe, becoming light 
chestnut-brown in drying, '-f' long, the shell lined with white tomentum, inclosed 
for about one third its length in a turbinate thick cup pubescent on the inner sur- 
face, and covered by thin broadly ovate light chestnut-brown scales rounded at the 
apex and clothed, especially toward the base of the cup, with soft silvery pubescence. 

A tree, usually 20-30 or sometimes GO high, with a tall trunk 10'- 15' in diame- 
ter, slender branches spreading into a narrow round-topped inversely conical head, 
and stout rigid branchlets coated at first with thick hoary tomentum disappearing 
during the first winter, becoming light red-brown often covered with a glaucous 
bloom and ultimately nearly black; frequently a shrub. Winter-buds ovate, obtuse, 
about \' long, with thin light chestnut-brown scales. Bark J'-l' thick, nearly black, 
deeply divided into broad ridges broken on the surface into thick plate-like scales. 
"Wood heavy, very strong, hard, close-grained, dark brown, with thick lighter 
colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Scattered but nowhere abundant through Pine forests on the slopes 
of canons and on high ridges usually from 6000- 7000 above the sea on the moun- 
tains of western Texas, and of New Mexico and Arizona south of the Colorado 
plateau; in northern Chihuahua and Sonora. 

20. Quercus Wislizeni, A. DC. Live Oak. 

Leaves narrowly lanceolate to broadly oval, mostly oblong-lanceolate, acute or 
rounded and generally apiculate at the apex, rounded or truncate or gradually nar- 
rowed and wedge-shaped at the base, entire, serrulate or serrate or sinuate-dentate, 
with spreading rigid spinescent teeth, when they unfold thin, dark red, ciliate, and 
covered with pale scattered stellate hairs, at maturity thick and coriaceous, glabrous 
and lustrous, dark green on the upper ;iml puler and yellow-green on the lower 
surface, usually I'-l^' long and about $' wide, with obscure primary veins and con- 
spicuous reticulate veinlets, gradually deciduous during their second summer and 



254 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

autumn; their petioles coated at first with hoary tomentum, usually pubescent or 
puberiilous at maturity, |' to nearly 1' long. Flowers: staminate in hairy aments 
3'_4' long; calyx tinged with red in the bud, deeply divided into broadly ovate cili- 
ate glabrous light yellow lobes shorter than the 3-6 stamens; pistillate sessile or 
short-stalked, their involucral scales and peduncle hoary-tomentose. Fruit sessile, 
short-stalked or occasionally spicate; acorn slender, oblong-oval, abruptly narrowed 
at the base, pointed and pilose at the apex, f '-!' long, about ' wide, light chestnut- 
brown, often striate, the shell lined with a scanty coat of pale tomentum, more 
or less inclosed in the thin turbinate sometimes tubular cup \'-\.' deep, or rarely 
cup-shaped and shallow, light green and puberulous within, and covered by oblong- 
lanceolate light brown closely imbricated thin scales, sometimes towards its base 




thickened and rounded on the back, usually pubescent or puberulous, especially 
above the middle, and frequently ciliate on the margins. 

A tree, usually 70-80 high, with a short trunk 4 -6 in diameter, stout spread- 
ing branches forming a round-topped head, and slender rigid branchlets coated at 
first with hoary tomentum or covered with loose scattered stellate pubescence, puber- 
ulous or glabrous and rather light brown during their first season, gradually grow- 
ing darker in their second year; usually much smaller and sometimes reduced to 
an intricately branched shrub, with numerous stems only a few feet tall. Winter- 
buds ovate or oval, acute, \'-\' long, with closely imbricated light chestnut-brown 
ciliate scales. Bark on young trees and large branches thin, generally smooth and 
light-colored, becoming on old trunks 2' -3' thick, and divided into broad rounded 
often connected ridges separating on the surface into small thick closely appressed 
dark brown scales slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close- 
grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; sometimes 
used for fuel. 

Distribution. Lower slopes of Mt. Shasta southward through the coast region of 
California to the Santa Lucia Mountains, and to Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, 
and along the slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the Tejon Pass; as a shrub on the 
desert slopes of the San Bernardino, San Jacinto and Cuyamaca mountains, and on 
San Pedro Martir in Lower California; nowhere common as a tree, but most abundant 
and of its largest size in the valleys of the coast region of central California at some 



FAGACE^E 255 

distance from the sea, and on the foothills of the Sierra Nevada; very common as 
a shrub in the canons of the desert slopes of the mountains of southern California; 
near the coast and on the islands small and mostly shrubby. 

Quercus Morehus, Kell., a supposed hybrid between this species and Quercus Cali- 
fornica, occurs in Lake County, California. 

21. Quercus myrtifolia, Willd. Scrub Oak. 

Leaves oval to oblong-obovate, acute and apiculate or broad and rounded at the 
apex, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or broad and rounded or cordate at 
the base, entire, with much thickened revolute sometimes undulate margins, or on 
vigorous shoots sinuate-dentate and lobed above the middle, when they unfold, thin, 
dark red, coated below and on the petioles with clammy rusty tomentum and covered 
above with stellate pubescence, at maturity thick and coriaceous, lustrous, dark 
green, glabrous, and conspicuously reticulate-venulose on the upper surface, paler, 
yellow-green, or light orange-brown, glabrous or pubescent, on the lower surface, 
with tufts of rusty hairs in the axils of the veins, ^'-2' long and \'-V wide, falling 
gradually during their second year; their petioles stout, pubescent, yellow, rarely 




more than \' long. Flowers: staminate in hoary stellate pubescent aments !'-!' 
long; calyx coated on the outer surface with rusty hairs and divided into 5 ovate 
acute thin segments shorter than the 2 or 3 stamens; pistillate sessile or nearly 
sessile, solitary or in pairs, their involucral scales tomentose and tinged with red. 
Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or short-stalked; acorn subglobose or ovate, acute, 
y_' long, dark brown, lustrous and often striate, puberulous at the apex, the shell 
lined with a thick coat of rusty tomentum, inclosed for one fourth to one third its 
length in a saucer-shaped or turbinate cup light brown and puberulous within, and 
covered by closely imbricated broad ovate light brown pubescent scales ciliate on 
the margins and rounded at their broad apex. 

A slender tree, rarely 20 high, with a trunk 4'-5' in diameter, with short spread- 
ing branches and slender branchlets coated at first with a thick pale fulvous tomen- 
tum of articulate hairs usually persistent during the summer, light brown more or 
less tinged with red or dark gray, and pubescent or puberulous during their first 
winter, becoming darker and glabrous in their second season; more often an intri- 



256 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

cately branched shrub, with slender rigid stems 3-4 or rarely 15-20 high and 
l'-3' in diameter. Winter-buds ovate or oval, gradually narrowed to the acute 
apex, with closely imbricated dark chestnut-brown slightly puberulous scales. Bark 
thiu and smooth, becoming near the ground dark and slightly furrowed. 

Distribution. Dry sandy ridges on the seashore and islands from South Carolina 
to eastern Florida and from the shores of Bay Biscay ne to eastern Louisiana; most 
abundant on the islands off the coast of Alabama and Mississippi, often covering 
large areas with low impenetrable thickets; probably only arborescent near the 
mouth of the Appalachicola River, Florida. 

22. Quercus agrifolia, Ne'e. Live Oak. Encina. 

Leaves oval, orbicular or oblong, rounded or acute and apiculate at the apex, 
rounded or cordate at the base, entire or sinuate-dentate, with slender rigid spinose 
teeth, when they unfold tinged with red and coated with caducous hoary tomentum, 
at maturity subcoriaceous, convex, dark or pale green, dull and obscurely reticulate 




above, paler, rather lustrous, glabrous, or stellate-pubescent below, with tufts of 
rusty hairs in the axils of the principal veins, or sometimes covered above with stel- 
late hairs and coated below with thick hoary pubescence, varying from |'-4' long 
and from ^'-3' wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins, falling gradually 
during the winter and early spring; their petioles stout or slender, pubescent or 
glabrous, %'-V long. Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments 3' -4' long; calyx 
bright purple-red in the bud, sometimes furnished with a tuft of long pale hairs at 
the apex, glabrous or glabrate, divided nearly to the base into 5-7 ovate acute 
segments reddish above the middle; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral 
scales bright red and covered with thick hoary tomentum, or glabrous or puberulous; 
stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or nearly so, solitary or in few-fruited clusters; 
acorn elongated, ovate, abruptly narrowed at the base, gradually narrowed to the 
acute puberulous apex, light chestnut-brown, f'-l^' long, ^'-f ' broad, the shell lined 
with a thick coat of pale tomentum, inclosed for one third its length or only at the 
base in a thin turbinate light brown cup coated on the inner surface with soft pale 
silky pubescence, and covered by thin papery scales rounded at the narrow apex, 
and slightly puberulous, especially toward the base of the cup. 



FAGACEvE 



257 



A tree, occasionally 80-90 high, with a short trunk 3-4 or rarely 6-7 in 
diameter, dividing a few feet above the base into numerous great limbs often resting 
on the ground and forming a low round-topped head frequently 150 across, and 
slender dark gray or brown brauchlets tinged with red, coated at first with hoary 
tomentum persistent until the second or third year; or sometimes the trunk, rising 
to the height of 30 or 40, is crowned by a narrow head of small branches; often 
much smaller; frequently shrubby in habit, with slender steins only a few feet high. 
"Winter-buds globose and usually about J^' long, or ovate-oblong, acute, and some- 
times on vigorous shoots nearly \' in length, with thin broadly ovate closely imbri- 
cated light chestnut-brown glabrous or pubescent scales. Bark of young stems and 
branches thin, close, light brown or pale bluish gray, becoming on old trunks 2' 3' 
thick, dark brown slightly tinged with red, and divided into broad rounded ridges 
separating on the surface into small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, 
close-grained, very brittle, light brown or reddish brown, with thick darker colored 
sapwood; valued and largely used for fuel. 

Distribution. Usually in open groves of great extent from Mendocino County, 
California, southward through the coast ranges and islands to Mt. San Pedro Martir, 
Lower California; less common at the north; very abundant and of its largest size 
in the valleys south of San Francisco Bay; frequently covering with semiprostrate 
and contorted stems the sand dunes on the coast in the central part of the state ; in 
southwestern California the largest and most generally distributed Oak-tree between 
the mountains and the sea, often covering low hills and ascending to elevations of 
2800 in the canons of the San Gorgonio Pass. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in temperate western and southern 
Europe. 

** Stamens usually 6-8 j stigmas dilated ; abortive ovules basal or lateral ; leaves 
persistent. 

23. Quercus chrysolepis, Liebm. Live Oak. Maul Oak. 

Leaves oblong-ovate to elliptical, acute or cuspidate at the apex, cordate, rounded 
or wedge-shaped at the base, mostly entire on old trees or often dentate or sinuate- 




dentate on young trees, with 1 or 2 or many spinescent teeth, the two forms often 
appearing together on vigorous shoots, clothed when they unfold with a thick tomen- 



258 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

turn of fulvous articulate hairs soon deciduous from the upper and more gradually 
from the lower surface, at maturity thick and coriaceous, bright yellow-green and 
glabrous above, more or less fulvous-tomentose below during their first year, ulti- 
mately becoming glabrate and bluish white, l'-4' long, ^'-2' wide, with thickened 
revolute margins; deciduous during their third and fourth years; their petioles 
slender, yellow, rarely % long. Flowers: staminate in slender tomentose aments 
2'^4' long; calyx light yellow, pubescent, divided usually into 5-7 broadly ovate 
acute ciliate lobes often tinged with red above the middle; pistillate sessile or 
subsessile or rarely in short few-flowered spikes, their broadly ovate involucral 
scales coated with fulvous tornentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually solitary, 
sessile or short-stalked; acorn oval or ovate, acute or rounded at the full or narrow 
slightly puberulous apex, light chestnut-brown, ^'-2' long and about as broad, the 
shell lined with a thin coat of loose tomentum, with abortive ovules scattered irregu- 
larly over the side of the seed, inclosed only at the base in a thin hemispherical or 
in a thick turbiuate broad-rimmed cup pale green or dark reddish brown within, 
and covered by small triangular closely appressed scales, with short free tips clothed 
with hoary pubescence, or often hidden in a dense coat of fulvous tomentum. 

A tree, usually not more than 40-50 high, with a short trunk 3-5 in diameter, 
dividing into great horizontal limbs sometimes forming a head 150 across, and 
slender rigid or flexible branchlets coated at first with thick fulvous tomentum, 
becoming during their first winter dark brown somewhat tinged with red, tomentose, 
pubescent', or glabrous, and ultimately light brown or ashy gray; occasionally in 
sheltered canons producing trunks 8-9 in diameter; on exposed mountain sides 
forming dense thickets 15-20 high; and on high subalpine slopes a low prostrate 
shrub (var. vacdnifolia, Engelm.), with small leaves and acorns and thin shallow 
cups covered by thin red-brown slightly pubescent scales. Winter-buds broadly 
ovate or oval, acute, about ^' long, with closely imbricated light chestnut-brown 
usually puberulous scales. Bark f '-!' thick, light or dark gray-brown tinged with 
red, and covered by small closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, very strong, 
hard, tough, close-grained, light brown, with thick darker colored sap wood; used in 
the manufacture of agricultural implements and wagons. 

Distribution. Southern Oregon, along the California coast ranges and the western 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains, and 
on Mt. San Pedro Martir in Lower California; on the high summits of the moun- 
tain ranges of southern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora, and here 
usually small or shrubby; of its largest size in the canons of the coast ranges of 
central California and on the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, ascending to eleva- 
tions of 8000-9000 above the sea; in its Alpine shrubby form covering great areas 
with dense thickets; near the southern boundary of California usually shrubby, with 
rigid branches, rigid coriaceous oblong or semiorbicular spinose-dentate leaves, sub- 
sessile or pedunculate fruit, with ovate acute acorns 1-1^' long, their shell lined 
with thick or thin pale tomentum, and purple cotyledons (Q. chrysolepis, var. Pal- 
meri, Engelm.). 

24. Quercus tomentella, Engelm. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, sometimes cuspidate or occasionally rounded at 
the apex, broad and rounded or gradually narrowed and abruptly wedge-shaped at 
the base, remotely crenate-dentate, with small remote spreading callous tipped teeth, 
or entire, when they unfold light green tinged with red, covered above with scat- 



FAGACK*: 259 

tered pale stellate hairs and below and on the petioles with thick hoary tomentum, 
at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green, glabrous and lustrous on the upper 
surface, pale and covered with stellate hairs on the lower surface, 2'^4' long, l'-2' 
wide, with thickened strongly revolute margins, and pubescent midribs, gradually 
deciduous during their third season; their petioles stout, pubescent, about ' long. 
Flowers: staminate in pubescent ameuts 2^'-14' long, calyx light yellow, stellate- 
pubescent, divided into 5-7 ovate acute lobes; pistillate subsessile or in few-flowered 




spikes on short or elongated pubescent peduncles, their involucral scales like the calyx 
coated with stellate hairs; stigmas red. Fruit subsessile or short-stalked; acorn 
oval, broad at the base, full and rounded at the apex, about 1^' long and |^ wide, 
inclosed only at the base in a cup-shaped shallow cup thickened below, light brown 
and pubescent on the inner surface, and covered by thin ovate acute scales, with free 
chestnut-brown tips more or less hidden in a thick coat of hoary tomentum. 

A tree, 30^K), or occasionally 60 high, with a trunk l-2 in diameter, spread- 
ing branches forming a shapely round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at 
first with hoary tomentum, becoming light brown tinged with red or orange color. 
Winter-buds ovate, acute or obtuse, nearly |' long, with many loosely imbricated 
light chestnut-brown scales more or less clothed with pale pubescence. Bark thin, 
reddish brown, broken into large closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, 
close-grained, compact, pale yellow-brown, witli lighter colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Deep narrow canons and high wind-swept slopes of Santa Rosa, 
Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina islands, California; on Guadaloupe Island off the 
coast of Lower California. 

2. Stamens uxnnlhj i>-8 ; stigmas dilated ; fruit maturing at the end of the first season; 
shell of the acorn glabrous on the inner surface (hoary-tomentose in 4?) ', abortive 
ovules basal. WHITE OAKS. 

*Leaves or their lobes usually without bristle tips except on vigorous shoots. 
-+. Leaves deciduous in their first autumn or winter. 
++Leaves lyrate or sinuate-pinnatifid, rarely entire. 

25. Quercus alba, L. White Oak. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, acute or rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed and 
wedge-shaped at the base, divided into usually 7 oblique broad or narrow mostly 



260 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

entire lobes, the lateral lobes sometimes slightly lobed, when they unfold bright red 
above, pale below and coated with soft pubescence, soon becoming silvery white and 
very lustrous, at maturity thin, firm, glabrous, bright green and lustrous or dull 
above, pale or glaucous below, 5'-9' long, 2'-4' broad, with stout bright yellow mid- 
ribs, conspicuous primary veins, turning late in the autumn deep rich vinous red, 
gradually withering and sometimes remaining on the branches nearly through the 
winter; their petioles stout, glabrous, ^' 1' long. Flowers: staminate in hirsute or 
nearly glabrous aments 2'-3' long; calyx bright yellow and pubescent, with acute 
lobes; pistillate bright red, their involucral scales broadly ovate, hirsute, about as 
long as the ovate acute calyx-lobes. Fruit sessile or raised on a slender peduncle 
1/-2' long, the two forms sometimes appearing on the same branch ; acorn ovoid to 
oblong, rounded at the apex, lustrous, f long, green when fully grown, becoming 
light chestnut-brown, inclosed for about one fourth its length in the cup-shaped cup 




coated with pale or light brown tomentum, its scales at the base much thickened, 
united and produced into short obtuse membrauaceous tips, and thinner toward the 
rim of the cup. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, tall and naked in the forest, 
short in the open, and surmounted by a broad round-topped head of stout limbs 
spreading irregularly, small rigid branches, and slender branchlets at first bright 
green, often tinged with red, and coated with a loose mass of long pale or ferrugine- 
ous deciduous hairs, reddish brown during the summer, bright red and lustrous or 
covered with a glaucous bloom during their first winter, becoming ultimately ashy 
gray. Winter-buds broadly ovate, rather obtuse, dark red-brown, about |' long. 
Bark light gray slightly tinged with red or brown, or occasionally nearly white, 
broken into thin appressed scales, becoming on old trunks sometimes 2' thick and 
divided into broad flat ridges. Wood strong, very heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, 
durable, light brown, with thin light brown sap wood; used in shipbuilding, for con- 
struction and in cooperage, the manufacture of carriages, agricultural implements, 
baskets, the interior finish of houses, cabinet-making, for railway-ties and fences, 
and largely as fuel. 



FAGACE.E 261 

Distribution. Sandy plains and gravelly ridges, rich uplands, intervales, and 
moist bottom-lands, sometimes forming nearly pure forests; southern Maine to 
southwestelii Quebec, westward through southern Ontario, the lower peninsula of 
Michigan, and southern Minnesota to southeastern Nebraska and eastern Kansas, 
and southward to northern Florida and the valley of the Brazos River, Texas; most 
abundant and of its largest size on the western slopes of the southern Alleghany 
Mountains, and on the bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin. 

26. Quercus lobata, Nde. White Oak. Valley Oak. 

Leaves oblong to obovate, deeply 7-11 obliquely lobed, rounded at the narrowed 
apex, narrowed and wedge-shaped or broad and rounded or cordate at the base, the 
lateral lobes obovate, obtuse or retuse, or ovate and rounded, thin, 2'-3' or rarely 
4' long, 1/-2' broad, dark green and stellate-pubescent above, pale and pubescent 
below, with stout pale midribs, and conspicuous yellow veins running to the slightly 
thickened and revolute margins; their petioles stout, hirsute, \'-\' long. Flowers: 
stamiuate in hirsute aments 2'-3' long; calyx light yellow and divided into 6 or 8 
acute pubescent ciliate lobes; pistillate solitary, sessile or rarely in elongated few- 
flowered spikes, their involucral scales broadly ovate, acute, coated with dense pale 
tomentum, about as long as the narrow calyx-lobes. Fruit solitary or in pairs, 
nearly sessile; acorn conical, elongated, rounded or pointed at the apex, 1^-2^' long, 




bright green and lustrous when fully grown, becoming bright chestnut-brown, usu- 
ally inclosed for about one third its length in the cup-shaped cup coated with pale 
tomentum on the outer surface, usually irregularly tuberculate below, all but the 
much-thickened basal scales elongated into acute ciliate chestnut-brown free tips 
longest on the upper scales and forming a short fringe-like border to the rim of the 
cup. 

A tree, often 100 high, with a trunk generally 3-4, but sometimes 10 in diam- 
eter, divided near the ground or usually 20-30 above it into great limbs spread- 
ing at wide angles and forming a broad head of slender branches hanging gracefully 
in long sprays and sometimes sweeping the ground; less frequently with upper limbs 
growing almost at right angles with the trunk and forming a narrow rigid head of 



262 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



variously contorted erect or pendant branches, and slender branchlets coated at first 
with short silky canescent pubescence, ashy gray, light reddish brown, or pale orange- 
brown and slightly pubescent in their first winter, becoming glabrous And lighter 
colored during their second year. Winter-buds ovate, acute, usually about ' long, 
with orange-brown pubescent scales scarious and frequently ciliate on the margins. 
Bark '-!' thick and covered by small loosely appressed light gray scales slightly 
tinged with orange or brown, becoming at the base of old trees frequently 5'-6' thick 
and divided by longitudinal fissures into broad flat ridges, broken horizontally into 
short plates. Wood hard, fine-grained, brittle, light brown, with thin lighter colored 
sap wood; used only for fuel. 

Distribution. Valleys of western California between the Sierra Nevada and the 
ocean from the upper Sacramento to the Tejon Pass; most abundant and forming 
open groves in the central valleys of the state. 

27. Quercus Garryana, Hook. White Oak. 

Leaves obovate to oblong, pointed at the apex, wedge-shaped or rounded at the 
base, coarsely pinnatifid-lobed, with slightly thickened revolute margins, coated at 
first with soft pale lustrous pubescence, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, 




dark green and lustrous and glabrous above, light green or orange-brown and pubes- 
cent or glabrate on the lower surface, 4'-6' long, 2'-5' broad, with stout yellow mid- 
ribs, and conspicuous primary veins spreading at right angles, or gradually diverging 
from the midrib and running to the points of the lobes, sometimes turning bright 
scarlet in the autumn; their petioles stout, pubescent, \'-V long. Flowers: stami- 
nate in hirsute aments; calyx glabrous, laciniately cut into ovate acute slightly ciliate 
or linear-lanceolate much elongated segments; pistillate sessile and coated with pale 
tomentum. Fruit sessile or short-stalked; acorn oval to slightly obovate and obtuse, 
I'-l^' long and ^'-1' broad, inclosed at the base in a shallow cup-shaped or slightly 
turbinate cup puberulous and light brown on the inner surface, pubescent or tomen- 
tose on the cuter, and covered by ovate acute scales with pointed and often elon- 
gated tips, thin, free, or sometimes thickened and more or less united toward the 
base of the cup, decreasing from below upward. 

A tree, usually 60-70 or sometimes nearly 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in 



FAGACE.E 



263 



diameter, stout ascending or spreading branches forming a broad compact head, 
and stout branchlets coated at first with thick pale rufous pubescence, pubescent or 
tomentose and light or dark orange color during their first winter, becoming gla- 
brous and rather bright reddish brown in their second year and ultimately gray; 
or frequently at high elevations, or when exposed to the winds from the ocean, 
reduced to a low shrub. Winter-buds ovate, acute, ^' \' long, densely clothed with 
light ferrugineous tomentum. Bark \'-\' thick, divided by shallow fissures into 
broad ridges separating on the surface into light brown or gray scales sometimes 
slightly tinged with orange color. Wood strong, hard, close-grained, frequently 
exceedingly tough and valuable, light brown or yellow, with thin nearly white sap- 
wood; in Oregon and Washington used in the manufacture of carriages and wagons, 
in cabinet-making, shipbuilding, and cooperage, and largely as fuel. 

Distribution. Valleys and the dry gravelly slopes of low hills; Vancouver Island 
and the valley of the lower Eraser River southward through western Washington 
and Oregon and the California coast-valleys to the Santa Cruz Mountains; rare and 
local and the only Oak-tree in British Columbia; abundant and of its largest size 
in the valleys of western Washington and Oregon, and ascending in its shrubby 
forms to considerable elevations on the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains; 
abundant in northwestern California; less common and of smaller size southward. 

28. Quercus Gambelii, Nutt. White Oak. Shin Oak. 

Leaves broadly obovate to oblong-lanceolate, rounded at the narrow apex, wedge- 
shaped or sometimes narrowed and rounded or broad and cordate at the base, 
variously lobedor pinnatifid, the lobes entire, emarginate, orlobed, when they unfold 
coated below with thick white tomentum and above with scattered stellate pubes- 
cence, at maturity thick and firm, glabrous and rarely stellate-pubescent, lustrous 
and dark yellow-green or dull yellow-green above, and paler and soft-pubescent 




below, 3'-5' long, l'-5' wide, with prominent pale midribs hirsute below and occa- 
sionally above, primary veins running to the points of the lobes, secondary veins 
arcuate and united near the margins, and conspicuous veinlets, turning scarlet or 
orange-colored in the autumn; their petioles stout, glabrous, \'-% long. Flowers: 
staminate in slender hirsute aments ; calyx yellow, divided into 5 or 6 acute lobes; 



264 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

pistillate bright red, sessile or short-stalked, solitary or in elongated few-flowered 
spikes, their involucral scales ovate, rounded, coated with soft pale tomentum, about 
as long as the acute calyx-lobes. Fruit sessile or pedunculate; acorn oval, broad at 
the base, obtuse and rounded or sometimes narrowed and acute at the apex, usually 
about I' long and |' wide, frequently much smaller, dark chestnut-brown or nearly 
black, ultimately becoming light chestnut-brown, more or less deeply inclosed in the 
saucer-shaped, cup-shaped, or rarely turbinate cup light brown and pubescent on the 
inner surface, coated on the outer surface with pale tomentum, and much roughened 
below by the thickened mostly united scales rounded on the back and narrowed 
except at the base of the cup into short pointed free tips, or rarely with the lower 
scales only slightly thickened, with long free tips. 

A tree, 20-25 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, or rarely 40-50 high, with a 
trunk 18' in diameter, small branches spreading nearly at right angles and forming 
a narrow round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with short pale 
ferrugineous tomentum, becoming light orange-brown or reddish brown and glabrous 
or puberulous in their first winter, growing gradually darker or sometimes ashy gray 
during their second and third years and ultimately dark brown or gray; more often 
shrubby, forming by vigorous stolons broad low thickets 3-4 or 15-20 high, 
with a single stem often rising high above the others. Winter-buds ovate, acute, 
or obtuse, about % long, with light chestnut-brown pubescent scales. Bark '-' 
thick, and deeply divided into broad irregular and often connected flat ridges 
separating on the surface into thin dark gray scales frequently tinged with red or 
brown. Wood heavy, hard, strong, often tough, dark red-brown, with thin lighter 
colored sapwood; largely used for fuel. The bark is occasionally used in tanning 
leather. 

Distribution. Eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado at elevations 
of 6000-7000 above the sea, westward to the Wasatch Mountains of Utah and 
southward over mountain ranges and high plateaus to the mouth of the Pecos 
River, Texas, the Charleston Mountains of southwestern Nevada, and the mountains 
of northern Sonora; common and usually shrubby on the eastern foothilk of the 
Rocky Mountains; more abundant and the only Oak in southern and southwestern 
Colorado, often ascending to elevations of nearly 10,000, and frequently covering 
hillsides with interrupted thickets thousands of acres in extent; very abundant on 
the mountains of northern New Mexico and western Texas; the common Oak of the 
Colorado plateau, and of its largest size in southern Utah and northern Arizona at 
elevations of 6000-7000 above the sea; on the mountains of southern New Mexico 
and Arizona forming a narrow fringe above the groves of Evergreen Oaks and 
below the forests of Nut Pines. 

29. Quercus minor, Sarg. Post Oak. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, usually deeply 5-lobed, with broad sinuses oblique at the 
bottom, and short wide lobes, broad and obtusely pointed at the apex, gradually 
narrowed and wedge-shaped or occasionally abruptly narrowed and wedge-shaped 
or rounded at the base, when they unfold dark red above and densely pubescent, 
at maturity thick and firm, deep dark green and roughened by scattered stellate 
pale hairs above, covered below with gray, light yellow, or rarely silvery white 
pubescence, usually 4'-5' long and 3'-4' across the lateral lobes, with broad light- 
colored midribs pubescent on the upper side and tomentose or pubescent on the 
lower, stout lateral veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by 



FAGACE.E 



265 



conspicuous coarsely reticulated veinlets, turning dull yellow or brown in the autumn; 
their petioles stout, pubescent, \' to nearly V long. Flowers: staminate in aments 
3' -4' long; calyx hirsute, yellow, usually divided into 5 ovate acute laciniately cut 
segments; anthers covered by short scattered pale hairs; pistillate sessile or stalked, 




their involucral scales broadly ovate, hirsute; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile or 
short-stalked; acorn oval to ovate or ovate-oblong, broad at the base, obtuse and 
naked or covered with pale persistent pubescence at the apex, \'-V long, ^'-f ' broad, 
sometimes striate, with dark longitudinal stripes, inclosed for one third to one half 
its length in the cup-shaped turbinate or rarely saucer-shaped cup pale and pubescent 
on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose on the outer surface, and covered by thin 
ovate scales rounded and acute at the apex, reddish brown and sometimes toward 
the rim of the cup ciliate on the margins, with long pale hairs. 

A tree, rarely 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, and stout spreading 
branches forming a broad dense round-topped head, and stout branchlets coated at 
first, like the young leaves and petioles, the stalks of the aments of staminate 
flowers and the peduncles of the pistillate flowers, with thick orange-brown tomen- 
tum, light orange color to reddish brown, and covered by short soft pubescence 
during their first winter, ultimately gray, dark brown, or nearly black or bright 
brown tinged with orange color; usually not more than 50-60 tall, with a trunk 
l-2 in diameter, and at the northeastern limits of its range generally reduced to 
a shrub. "Winter-buds broadly ovate, obtuse or rarely acute, \'-\' long, with 
bright chestnut-brown pubescent scales coated toward the margins with scattered 
pale hairs. Bark \'-V thick, red more or less deeply tinged with brown, and divided 
by deep fissures into broad ridges covered on the surface with narrow closely appressed 
scales. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, durable in contact witli the soil, 
difficult to season, light or dark brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely 
used for fuel, fencing, railway-ties, and sometimes in the manufacture of carriages, 
for cooperage, and in construction. 

Distribution. Cape Cod and islands of southern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Long Island, New York to northern Florida and southern Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, and from New York westward to Missouri, eastern Kansas, the Indian Terri- 
tory, and Texas; most abundant and of its largest size on dry gravelly uplands in 



266 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

the Mississippi basin; the common Oak of central Texas on limestone hills and 
sandy plains; usually shrubby and rare and local in southern Massachusetts; more 
abundant southward from the coast of the south Atlantic and the eastern Gulf states 
to the lower slopes of the Appalachian Mountains. 

30. Quercus Chapmaiii, Sarg. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, rounded at the narrow apex, narrowed and 
wedge-shaped or rounded or broad and rounded at the base, entire, with slightly 
undulate margins, or obscurely sinuate-lobed above the middle, when they unfold 
coated below with thick bright yellow pubescence and covered above with pale stel- 
late deciduous hairs, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, dark green, gla- 
brous and lustrous above, light green or silvery white and glabrous below except on 




the slender often pubescent midribs, usually 2'-3' long and 1' wide, but varying from 
l'-3' in length and f'-l' in width, falling gradually during the winter or sometimes 
persistent until the appearance of the new leaves in the spring; their petioles tomen- 
tose, rarely ' long. Flowers : staminate in short hirsute aments ; calyx hirsute, divided 
into 5 acute laciuiately cut segments; anthers hirsute; pistillate sessile or short- 
stalked, their involucral scales coated with dense pale tomentum. Fruit usually 
sessile, solitary or in pairs; acorn oval, about ' long and ' broad, pubescent from 
the obtuse rounded apex nearly to the middle, inclosed for nearly one half its length 
in the deep cup-shaped light brown cup slightly pubescent on the inner surface, and 
covered by ovate-oblong pointed scales thickened on the back, especially toward the 
base of the cup, and coated with pale tomentum except on their thin reddish brown 
margins. 

Occasionally a tree, 30 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, stout branches forming 
a round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with dense bright yellow 
pubescence, becoming light or dark red-brown and puberulous during their first win- 
ter and ultimately ashy gray; more often a rigid shrub sometimes only l-2 tall. 
Winter-buds ovate, acute, obtuse, about ' long, with glabrous or puberulous light 
chestnut-brown scales. Bark dark, separating into large irregular plate-like scales. 

Distribution. Sandy barren Pine lands usually in the immediate neighborhood 
of the coast from South Carolina to Florida; comparatively rare on the Atlantic sea- 



FAGACE^E 



267 



board and in the interior of the Florida peninsula; very abundant in western Florida 
from the shores of Tampa Bay to Appalachicola and Santa Rosa Island. 

31. Quercus macrocarpa, Michx. Burr Oak. Mossy Cup Oak. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, wedge-shaped or occasionally narrow and rounded at 
the base, divided by wide sinuses sometimes penetrating nearly to the midrib into 
5-7 lobes, the terminal lobe large, oval or obovate, regularly crenately lobed, or 
smaller and 3-lobed at the rounded acute apex, when they unfold yellow-green and 
pilose above and silvery white and coated below with long pale hairs, at maturity 
thick and firm, dark green, lustrous and glabrous, or occasionally pilose on the upper 
surface, pale green or silvery white and covered on the lower surface with soft pale 
or rarely rufous pubescence, 6'-12' long, 3'-G' wide, with stout pale midribs some- 
times pilose on the upper side and pubescent on the lower, large primary veins run- 
ning to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, turning dull yellow 
or yellowish brown in the autumn; their petioles stout, ^'-1' in length. Flowers : 
staminate in slender aments 4/-6' long, with yellow-green stems coated with loosely 
matted pale hairs; calyx yellow-green, pubescent, divided into 4-6 laciniately cut 
acute segments ending in tufts of long pale hairs; pistillate sessile or stalked; their 
involucral scales broadly ovate, often somewhat tinged with red toward the margins 





and coated, like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit 
usually solitary, sessile or long-stalked, exceedingly variable in size and sh:ipi>; acorn 
oval or broadly ovate, broad at the base and rounded at the obtuse or depressed apex 
covered by soft pale pubescence, $' long and J' wide at the north, sometimes 2' long 
and 1^' wide in the south, its cup thick or thin, light brown and pubescent on the 
inner surface, hoary-tomentose and covered on the outer surface by large irregularly 
imbricated ovate pointed scales, at the base of the cup thin and free or sometimes 
much thickened and tuberculate, and near its rim generally developed into long 
slender pale awns forming on northern trees a short inconspicuous and at the south 
a long conspicuous matted fringe-like border inclosing only the base or nearly the 
entire acorn. 

A tree, sometimes 170 high, with a trunk 6-7 in diameter, clear of limbs for 
70-80 above the ground, a broad head of great spreading branches, and stout 
branchlets coated at first with thick soft pale deciduous pubescence, light orange 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

color, usually glabrous or occasionally puberulous during their first winter, becoming 
ashy gray or light brown and ultimately dark brown, sometimes developing corky 
wings often V-\\' wide; usually not more than 80 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diame- 
ter; toward the northwestern limits of its range sometimes a low shrub. Winter- 
buds broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, \'-\' long, with light red-brown scales coated 
with soft pale pubescence. Bark l'-2' thick, deeply furrowjed and broken on the 
surface into irregular plate-like brown scales often slightly tinged with red. Wood 
heavy, strong, hard, tough, close-grained, very durable, dark or rich light brown, 
with thin much lighter colored sapwood; used in ship and boatbuilding, for con- 
struction of all sorts, cabinet-making, cooperage, the manufacture of carriages, 
agricultural implements, baskets, railway-ties, fencing, and fuel. 

Distribution. Low rich bottom-lands and intervales or rarely in the northwest 
on low dry hills; Nova Scotia and New Brunswick westward through the valley of 
the St. Lawrence River to Ontario, and along the northern shores of Lake Huron to 
southern Manitoba, southward to the valley of the Peuobscot River, Maine, to the 
shores of Lake Champlain, Vermont, western Massachusetts, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, central Tennessee, the Indian Territory and the valley of the Nueces 
River, Texas, westward to the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Montana, 
western Nebraska and central Kansas; attaining its largest size in southern Indiana 
and Illinois; the common Oak of the "oak openings" of western Minnesota, and 
in all the basin of the Red River of the North, ranging farther to the northwest than 
the other Oaks of eastern America; common and generally distributed in Nebraska, 
and of a large size in canons or on river bottoms in the extreme western part of 
the state; the most generally distributed Oak of Kansas, growing to a large size in 
all the eastern part of the state. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern United States. 

32. Quercus lyrata, Walt. Overcup Oak. Swamp White Oak. 
Leaves obovate-oblong, gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, di- 
vided into 5-9 lobes by deep or shallow sinuses, rounded, straight, or oblique at the 




bottom, the terminal lobe oblong-ovate, usually broad, acute at the elongated apex, 
and furnished with 2 small entire nearly triangular lateral lobes, the upper lateral 



FAGACEuE 269 

lobes broad, more or less emarginate, much longer than the acute or rounded lower 
lobes, when they unfold bronze-green and pilose above, with caducous hairs, and 
coated below with thick pale tomentuui, at maturity thin and firm, dark green and 
glabrous above, silvery white or rarely light green, and coated with pale pubescence 
below, 7'-8' long, 1' 4' broad, turning bright scarlet or scarlet and orange in the 
autumn; their petioles glabrous or pubescent, ^'-1' long. Flowers: staminate in 
slender hairy aments 4' -6' long; calyx light yellow, coated on the outer surface with 
pale hairs and divided into acute segments; pistillate sessile or stalked, their invo- 
lucral scales covered, like the peduncles, with thick pale tomentum. Fruit sessile 
or borne on slender pubescent peduncles sometimes 1^' long; acorn subglobose to 
ovate or rarely to ovate-oblong, ^'-1' long, usually broader at the base than long, 
light chestnut-brown, more or less covered above the middle with short pale pu- 
bescence, almost or entirely or rarely for only half its length inclosed in the ovate 
or rarely deeply cup-shaped or nearly spherical thin cup, bright red-brown and 
pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose and covered on the outer by ovate 
united scales produced into acute tips, much thickened and contorted at its IIHM-, 
gradually growing thinner and forming a ragged edge to the thin often irregularly 
split margin of the cup. 

A tree, rarely 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, generally divided 15- 
20 above the ground into comparatively small often pendulous branches forming a 
handsome symmetrical round-topped head, and slender branchlets green more or less 
tinged with red and pilose or pubescent when they first appear, light or dark orange- 
color or grayish brown and usually glabrous during their first winter, ultimately 
becoming ashy gray or light brown. Winter-buds ovate, obtuse, about ' long, with 
light chestnut-brown scales clothed, especially near their margins, with loose pale 
tomentum. Bark |'-1' thick, light gray tinged with red and broken into thick plates 
separating on the surface into thin irregular appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, 
strong, tough, very durable in contact with the ground, rich dark brown, with thick 
lighter colored sapwood; confounded commercially with the wood of Quercus alfia, 
and used for the same purpose. 

Distribution. River swamps and small deep depressions on rich bottom-lands, 
usually wet throughout the year; valley of the Patuxent River, Maryland, southward 
near the coast to western Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Trinity 
River, Texas, and through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri to central Tennessee, 
southern Indiana and Illinois; rare in the Atlantic and east Gulf states; most com- 
mon and of its largest size in the valley of the Red River, Louisiana, and the adjacent 
parts of Texas and Arkansas. 

Occasionally cultivated in the northeastern states and hardy in eastern Massachu- 
setts. 

++++Leaves coarsely sinuate-toothed. CHESTNUT OAKS. 

33. Quercus platanoides, Sudw. Swamp White Oak. 

Leaves obovate to oblong-obovate, rounded at the narrowed apex, acute or rounded 
at the gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped entire base, coarsely sinuate-dentate, or 
sometimes pinnatifid, with oblique rounded or acute entire lobes, when they unfold 
light bronze-green and pilose above, covered below with silvery white tomentum, 
with conspicuous glands on the teeth, at maturity thick and firm, dark green and 
lustrous on the upper surface, pale or often silvery white or tawny on the lower 



270 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



surface, 5'-6' long, 2'-4' wide, with slender yellow midribs, primary veins running 
to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, turning in the autumu 
dull yellow-brown or occasionally orange-color or red before falling ; their petioles 
stout, pilose at first, becoming glabrous, '-' long. Flowers : staminate in hairy 
aments 3'-4' long; calyx light yellow-green, hirsute, with pale hairs, and deeply 
divided into 5-9 lanceolate acute segments rather shorter than the stamens; pis- 
tillate in few-flowered spikes on elongated peduncles covered like their involucral 




scales with thick white or tawny tomentum, stigmas bright red. Fruit usually in 
pairs on slender dark brown glabrous puberulous or pubescent stalks l^'-4' long; 
acorn oval, with a broad base, rounded, acute, and pubescent at the apex, light chest- 
nut-brown, f'-l^' long, ^'-f ' wide, inclosed for about one third its length in the 
th'ick cup-shaped light brown cup pubescent on the inner surface, hoary-tomentose 
and sometimes tuberculate or roughened toward the base on the outer surface by 
the thickened contorted tips of the ovate acute scales, thin, free, acute, and chestnut- 
brown higher on the cup, and often forming a short fringe-like border on its margin, 
or sometimes in a cup entirely covered by thin scales with free acute tips. 

A tree, usually 60-70 or exceptionally 100 high, with a trunk 2-3 or occa- 
sionally 8-9 in diameter, rather small limbs generally pendulous below and rising 
above into a narrow round-topped open head and often furnished with short pendu- 
lous laterals, and stout branchlets, green, lustrous, and slightly scurfy-pubescent 
when they first appear, light orange color or reddish brown and glabrous or puberu- 
lous during their first winter, becoming darker and often purplish and clothed with 
a glaucous bloom. Winter-buds broadly ovate, obtuse or subglobose to ovate and 
acute, y long, with light chestnut-brown scales usually pilose above the middle. 
Bark of young stems and small branches smooth, reddish or purplish brown, separat- 
ing freely into large papery persistent scales curling back and displaying the bright 
green inner bark; becoming on old trunks l'-2' thick, and deeply and irregularly 
divided by cohtinuous or interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges covered by small 
appressed gray-brown scales often slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy, hard, 
strong, tough, light brown, with thin hardly distinguishable sapwood; used in con- 
struction, the interior finish of houses, cabinet-making, carriage and boatbuilding, 
cooperage, railway-ties, fencing, and fuel. 






271 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps in moist fertile soil; southern 
Maine to northern Vermont and southwestern Quebec, westward through Ontario 
and the southern peninsula of Michigan to southeastern Iowa and western Missouri, 
and southward to the District of Columbia, northern Kentucky and Arkansas, and 
along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia; widely scattered, usually in 
small groves but nowhere very abundant; most common and of its largest size in 
western New York and northern Ohio. 

34. Quercus Michauxii, Nutt. Basket Oak. Cow Oak. 

Leaves broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, acute or acuminate at the apex, with 
short broad points, wedge-shaped or rounded at the broad or narrow entire base, 
regularly crenately lobed, with oblique rounded entire lobes sometimes furnished 
with glandular tips, or rarely entire, with undulate margins, when they unfold bright 
yellow-green, lustrous and pubescent above, coated below with thick silvery white 
ferrugineous tomentum, at maturity thick and tirra or sometimes membrauaceous, 




especially on young and vigorous branches, dark green, lustrous, glabrous or occa- 
sionally roughened by scattered stellate hairs on the upper surface, more or less 
densely pubescent on the pale green or silvery white lower surface, 6'-8' long, 3'-5' 
wide, turning in the autumn dark rich crimson; their petioles stout, ^'-1^' l oll g- 
Flowers: staminate in slender hairy aments .'V-l' long; i-alyx light yellow-green, 
pilose, with long pale hairs, and divided into 4-7 acute lobes; pistillate in few-flow- 
ered spikes on short peduncles, coated like their involucral scales with dense pale 
rufous tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or subsessile, 
or borne on short stout puberulous stalks rarely \' long; acorn oval or ovate, with 
a broad base, and acute, rounded, or occasionally truncate at the apex surrounded by 
a narrow ring of rusty pubescence, or sometimes pilose nearly to the middle, bright 
brown, rather lustrous, I'-l^' long, f'-l^' broad, inclosed for about one third its 
length in the thick cup-shaped cup often broad and flat on the bottom, reddish brown 
and pubescent within, hoary-tomentose and covered on the outer surface by regularly 
imbricated ovate acute scales rounded and much thickened on the back, their short 
tips sometimes forming a rigid fringe-like border to the rim of the cup; seed sweet 
and edible. 



272 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



A tree, often 100 high, with a trunk sometimes free of branches for 40-50, and 
3-7 in diameter, stout branches ascending at narrow angles and forming a round- 
topped rather compact head, and stout branchlets at first dark green and covered by 
pale caducous hairs, becoming bright red-brown or light orange-brown during their 
first winter and ultimately ashy gray. Winter-buds broadly ovate or oval, acute, \' 
long, with thin closely and regularly imbricated dark red puberulous scales with pale 
margins, those of the inner ranks coated on the outer surface with loose pale tomen- 
tum. Bark '-!' thick, separating into thin closely appressed silvery white or ashy 
gray scales more or less deeply tinged with red. "Wood heavy, hard, very strong, 
tough, close-grained, durable, easy to split, light-brown, with thin darker colored 
sapwood; largely used in all kinds of construction, for agricultural implements and 
wheels, in cooperage, for fences and fuel, and the manufacture of baskets. 

Distribution. Borders of streams, swamps, and bottom-lands often covered with 
water; Wilmington, Delaware, southward through the coast and middle districts to 
northern Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, 
and through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri to central Tennessee and Kentucky, 
and to the valley of the lower Wabash River in Illinois and Indiana; conspicuous 
from the silvery white bark, the massive trunk, and the broad crown of large bright- 
colored foliage. 

35. Quercus Prinus, L. Chestnut Oak. Rock Chestnut Oak. 

Leaves obovate or oblong to lanceolate, acute or acuminate or rounded at the 
apex, gradually or abruptly wedge-shaped or rounded or subcordate at the narrowed 
entire base, irregularly and coarsely crenulate-toothed, with rounded, acute, or some- 
times nearly triangular oblique teeth, when they unfold orange-green or bronze-red, 
very lustrous, and glabrous with the exception of the slightly pilose midribs above, 




green and coated below with soft pale pubescence, at maturity thick and firm or 
subcoriaceous, yellow-green and rather lustrous on the upper surface, paler and cov- 
ered by fine pubescence on the lower surface, 4^'-9' long, l|'--3' wide, with stout 
yellow midribs and conspicuous primary veins, often much broader near the bottom 
of the tree than on fertile upper branches, turning a dull orange color or rusty brown 



FAGACE.E 273 

iu the autumn before falling; their petioles stout or slender, ^'-1' long. Flowers: 
staiuinate in elongated hirsute aments; calyx light yellow, pilose and deeply divided 
into 7-9 acute segments tipped with clusters of pale hairs; pistillate in short spikes 
on stout puberulous dark green peduncles, their iuvolucral scales covered with pale 
hairs; stigmas dark red. Fruit on short stout stems singly or in pairs; acorn oval 
or ovate, rounded and rather obtuse or pointed at the apex, bright chestnut-brown, 
very lustrous, I'-l^' long, f '-!' broad, inclosed for about one half its length or some- 
times only at the base in a turbinate cup-shaped thin cup light brown and pubes- 
cent on the inner surface, reddish brown, hoary -pubescent, and roughened or tuber- 
culate, especially toward the base, on the outer surface by small scales thickened and 
knob-like, with nearly triangular free light brown tips. 

A tree, usually 60-70 or occasionally 100 high, with a trunk 3-4 or rarely 
6-7 in diameter, divided generally 15 or 20 above the ground into large limbs 
spreading into a broad open rather irregular head, and stout branchlets green tinged 
witli purple or bronze color and glabrous or pilose when they appear, light orange 
color or reddish brown during their first winter, becoming dark gray or brown; on 
dry exposed mountain slopes often not more than 20-30 tall, with a trunk 8'-12' 
in diameter. Winter-buds ovate, acute or acuminate, \'-% long, with bright chest- 
nut-brown scales pilose toward the apex and ciliate on the margins. Bark of young 
stems and small branches thin, smooth, purplish brown, often lustrous, becoming on 
old trunks and large limbs -f'-l^' thick, dark reddish brown or nearly black, and 
divided into broad rounded ridges separating on the surface into small closely ap- 
pressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, close-grained, durable 
in contact with the soil, largely used for fencing, railway-ties, and fuel. The bark, 
which is rich in tannin, is consumed in large quantities in tanning leather. 

Distribution. Hillsides and the high rocky banks of streams in rich and deep 
or sometimes in sterile soil; coast of southern Maine, the Blue Hills of eastern Mas- 
sachusetts, southward to Delaware and the District of Columbia, and along the 
Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama, westward to the shores 
of Lake Champlain and the valley of the Genesee River, New York, the northern 
shores of Lake Erie, and to central Kentucky and Tennessee; rare and local in New 
England and Ontario; abundant on the banks of the lower Hudson River and on the 
Appalachian hills from southern New York to Alabama; most common and of its 
largest size on the lower slopes of the mountains of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 
here often forming a large part of the forest. 

36. Quercus acuminata, Sarg. Yellow Oak. Chestnut Oak. 
Leaves usually crowded at the ends of the branches, oblong-lanceolate or broadly 
obovate, acute or acuminate, with long narrow or with short broad points, abruptly 
or gradually narrowed and wedge-shaped or slightly narrowed and rounded or cor- 
date at the base, equally serrate except at the base, with acute and often incurved or 
broad and rounded teeth tipped with small glandular mncros, or rarely slightly un- 
dulate, when they unfold bright bronzy green and puberulous above, tinged with 
purple and coated below with pale tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, light 
yellow-green on the upper surface, pale often silvery white and covered with short 
fine pubescence on the lower surface, 4'-7' long, l'-5' broad, with stout yellow mid- 
ribs and conspicuous primary veins running to the points of the teeth, turning in the 
autumn orange color and scarlet; their slender petioles f'-l^' long. Flowers: stami- 
nate in pilose aineuts 3'-4' long; calyx light yellow, hairy, deeply divided into 5 or 



274 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

6 lanceolate ciliate segments; pistillate sessile or borne in short spikes coated like 
their involucral scales with thick white tomentum; stigmas bright red. Fruit sessile 
or raised on a short stout peduncle, solitary or often in pairs; acorn broadly ovate to 
oval, narrowed and rounded at the apex, % to nearly 1' long, light chestnut-brown, 
inclosed for about one half its length in a thin cup-shaped light brown cup pubescent 
on the interior, hoary-tomentose on the exterior, and covered by small obtuse scales 




more or less thickened and rounded on the back toward the base of the cup, the small 
free red-brown tips of the upper ranks forming a minute fringe-like border to its 
margin; seed sweet and sometimes edible. 

A tree, 80-100, occasionally 160 high, with a tall straight trunk 3-4 in diam- 
eter above the broad and often buttressed base, comparatively small branches forming 
a narrow shapely round-topped head, slender branchlets, green more or less tinged 
with red or purple and pilose when they first appear, light orange color or reddish 
brown during their first winter, and ultimately gray or brown; east of the Alleghany 
Mountains and on dry hills often not more than 20-30 tall. Winter-buds ovate, 
acute, \'-\' long, with chestnut-brown scales white and scarious on the margins. 
Bark rarely \' thick, broken on the surface into thin loose silvery white scales some- 
times slightly tinged with brown. Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, 
durable, with thin light-colored sap wood; largely used in cooperage, for wheels, 
fencing, and railway-ties. 

Distribution. Gardner's Island, Lake Champlain, western Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, and near the city of Newburg, New York, westward through southern 
Ontario to southeastern Nebraska and eastern Kansas, southward in the Atlantic 
states to the District of Columbia and the valley of the upper Potomac River, and 
west of the Alleghany Mountains to central Alabama and Mississippi, through 
Arkansas and northern Louisiana, to the eastern borders of the Indian Territory and 
to the valley of the Nueces River and the Guadaloupe Mountains, Texas; rare and 
comparatively local in the Atlantic states, usually on limestone soil; very abundant 
in the Mississippi basin, growing on limestone ridges, dry flinty hills, or deep rich 
bottom-lands and the rocky banks of streams; of its largest size on the lower 
Wabash River and its tributaries in southern Indiana and Illinois. 



275 



**Leaves often dentate or spinescent. 

^-Leaves blue-green, deciduous in their first autumn or winter. 

37. Quercus breviloba, Sarg. White Oak. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, broad and rounded or rarely acute at the apex, usually 
gradually narrowed and acute, or rarely broad and equally or unequally rounded at 
the base, undulate-lobed, with 47 broad lobes, or obscurely 3-lobed at the broad apex 
and entire below, or undulate or coarsely and remotely dentate, with acute spinescent 
teeth, or often entire, on vigorous shoots frequently oblong-obovate and more or less 
deeply divided by wide sinuses into broad lobes, when they unfold thin, covered with 
scattered stellate pale hairs on the upper surface and pale pubescent on the lower, 
at maturity thin in the eastern Gulf states, thicker and often subcoriaceous in the 
drier climate of Texas, light blue or yellow-green, usually lustrous above, pubescent 




and paler and often silvery white below, usually l^'-3' long, f'-l' wide, or east of 
the Mississippi River and on young and vigorous branches sometimes 4'-6' long and 
2' broad, with slender yellow midribs and veins and reticulate veinlets, turning pale 
yellow and falling in the autumn, or in western Texas sometimes irregularly during 
the winter and early spring; their petioles stout, rarely more than \' long. Flowers : 
staminate in hairy aments l^'-2' long; calyx pale yellow, divided into nearly tri- 
angular segments much shorter than the stamens; pistillate on short peduncles 
coated like their involucral scales with thick hoary tomentum; stigmas dull red. 
Fruit sessile or subsessile, usually solitary; acorn, ovate, obovate, or oval, acute or 
rounded and sometimes depressed at the broad apex usually furnished with a narrow 
ring of pale pubescence, \'-V long, f'-f ' wide, inclosed only at the base in the thin 
saucer-shaped cup, bright reddish brown and pubescent on the inner surface, covered 
on the outer by closely imbricated ovate bright red scales hoary-pubescent except at 
their acute or rounded appressed tips. 

A tree, east of the Mississippi River 80-90 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 
in diameter, in Texas much smaller and rarely more than 20-30 high, with a 
short trunk usually divided at the ground into 2 or 3 spreading limbs and rarely 
more than 12'-15' in diameter, and slender branchlets coated at first with hoary 
tomentum, gray faintly tinged with red or ashy gray during their first winter, 



276 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

becoming darker in their second and third years; frequently, especially in western 
Texas, small and shrubby and often forming extensive thickets. Winter-buds 
broadly ovate or oval, acuminate, ^'-^' long, with light chestnut-brown closely 
imbricated puberulous scales. Bark \'-% thick, separating into long and narrow 
plate-like scales, silvery white tinged with reddish brown on the surface. Wood 
heavy, hard, strong, brittle, brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood; most valuable 
east of the Mississippi River. 

Distribution. Rich limestone prairies of central Alabama and Mississippi, banks 
of the Red River at Shreveport, Louisiana, and in Texas on dry limestone banks of 
streams and rocky bluffs from the neighborhood of the city of Dallas westward to 
the central part of the state and southward to the mountains of Nuevo Leon. 

38. Quercus undulata, Torr. Scrub Oak. Shin Oak. 

Leaves oblong, acute or rarely rounded at the apex, broad and rounded or cor- 
date or rarely cuneate at the base, sinuate-dentate, entire, pinnatifid, lobed or spi- 
nescent, when they unfold coated with hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, 
light blue-green, more or less covered with stellate hairs above and clothed below 
with pale or yellow pubescence, l'-3' long, '-' wide, with pale slender midribs 
and few conspicuous primary veins running to the points of the teeth or arcuate and 
united with the thickened and revolute margins, deciduous in the autumn at the 
north and at high elevations, southward often remaining on the branches until the 
appearance of the leaves of the following year; their petioles stout, pubescent or 
tomentose, \'-V long. Flowers: staminate in tomentose aments l'-2' long; calyx 




hairy, divided into acute segments; pistillate sessile or raised on peduncles tomen- 
tose like their involucral scales; stigmas red. Fruit solitary or in pairs, sessile or 
on stout hoary peduncles sometimes nearly 2' long; acorn oval, rounded and rather 
obtuse or acute at the apex, f'-l' long, inclosed for about one third its length in 
a thick cup-shaped cup reddish brown and pubescent on the inner surface, hoary- 
tomentose and covered on the outer by ovate acute scales usually thickened and 
tumid toward its base and above the middle ending in thin bright red free ciliate 
tips; seed sweet. 

A tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a straight trunk 6'-8' in diameter, and 



FAGACE.E 277 

slender brauchlets coated at first with dense hoary tomentum, light reddish brown 
or ashy gray and pubescent or tonaentose during their first winter, ultimately gla- 
brous and dark brown or gray; usually a shrub, forming small thickets by vigorous 
stolons, with stout more or less contorted stems 2-8 tall. "Winter-buds oval, 
about ^' long, with few thiii light red-brown scales often ciliate on the margins. 
Bark thin, scaly, pale gray slightly tinged with reddish brown. 

Distribution. Dry rocky mountain ridges; cliffs above the canon of the Arkan- 
sas River, and the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, to western 
Texas, and through New Mexico and Arizona to southern Utah and Nevada, and 
southward into northern Mexico; in central Arizona south of the Colorado plateau 
covering low mountain ranges with vast thickets; less common in southern Utah 
and Nevada; arborescent only in the canons of the mountain ranges of southeastern 
Arizona. 

39. Quercus Douglasii, Hook. & Arn. Blue Oak. Mountain White Oak. 

Leaves oblong, acute or rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed and wedge- 
shaped to broad and rounded or subcordate at the base, divided by deep or shallow, 
wide or narrow sinuses acute or rounded at the bottom into 4 or 5 broad or narrow 




acute or rounded often mucronate lobes, 2'-5' long, I'-lf broad, or oval, oblong or 
obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, equally or unequally wedge-shaped or 
rounded at the base, regularly or irregularly sinuate-toothed, with rounded acute 
rigid spinescent teeth, or denticulate toward the apex, l'-2' long, \'-l' wide, when 
they unfold covered by soft pale pubescence, at maturity thin, firm and rather rigid, 
pale blue, with scattered stellate hairs above, often yellow-green and covered by 
short pubescence below, with hirsute or puberulous prominent midribs and more 
or less conspicuous reticulate veinlets; their petioles stout, tomentose, \'^' long. 
Flowers: staminate in hairy aments l'-2' long; calyx yellow-green, coated on the 
outer surface with pale hairs, deeply divided into broad acute laciniately cut seg- 
ments; pistillate in short few-flowered spikes coated like the involucral scales with 
hoary tomentum. Fruit sessile or short-stalked, solitary or in pairs; acorn broadly 
oval, sometimes ventricose, with a narrow base, gradually narrowed and acute at the 
a pex, !'-!' long, ^'-1' broad, or often ovate and acute, green and lustrous, turning 



278 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

dark chestnut-brown in drying, with a narrow ring of hoary pubescence at the apex, 
inclosed at the base only in a thin shallow cup-shaped cup light green and pubescent 
on the inner surface, covered on the outer by small acute and usually thin or some- 
times, especially in the south, thicker tumid scales coated with pale pubescence or 
tomentum and ending in thin reddish brown tips. 

A tree, usually 50-60, rarely 80-90 high, with a trunk 3-^ in diameter, 
short stout branches spreading nearly at right angles and forming a dense round- 
topped symmetrical head, stout branchlets brittle at the joints, coated at first with 
short dense hoary tomentum, dark gray or reddish brown and tomentose, pubescent, 
or puberulous during their first winter, becoming ultimately ashy gray or dark 
brown; frequently not more than 20-30 high, and sometimes, especially south- 
ward, shrubby in habit. Winter-buds ovate, obtuse, \'-$' long, with light rather 
bright red pubescent scales. Bark '-!' thick, generally pale, and covered by small 
scales sometimes tinged with brown or light red. Wood hard, heavy, strong, brittle, 
dark brown, becoming nearly black with exposure, with thick light brown sapwood ; 
largely used as fuel. 

Distribution. Scattered over low hills, dry mountain slopes and valleys; Cali- 
fornia, Mendocino County, and the upper valley of the Sacramento River, southward 
along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada up to elevations of 4000, and through 
valleys of the coast ranges to the Tehachapi Pass and the borders of the Mohave 
Desert; most abundant and of its largest size in the valleys between the coast moun- 
tains and the interior ridges of the coast ranges south of the Bay of San Francisco. 

-tt-Leaves mostly persistent until the appearance of those of the following spring. 
++Leaves blue-green. 

40. Quercus Engelmanni, Greene. Evergreen Oak. 

Leaves oblong to obovate, usually obtuse and rounded or sometimes acute at the 
apex, gradually or abruptly wedge-shaped or rounded or cordate at the base, entire, 




often undulate, or sinuate-toothed, with occasionally rigid teeth, or at the ends of 
sterile branches frequently coarsely crenately serrate, with incurved teeth, or rarely 
lobed, with acute oblique rounded lobes, when they unfold bright red and coated 






FAG AGILE 279 

with thick pale rufous tomentmn, at maturity thick, dark blue-green, and glabrous 
or covered with scattered stellate hairs above, pale, usually yellow-green and clothed 
with light brown pubescence, or puberulous or often glabrous below, l'-3' long, '-2' 
broad, deciduous in the spring with the appearance of the new leaves; their petioles 
slender, tomentose, becoming pubescent, \'-\' long. Flowers : staininate in slender 
hairy aments 2'-3' long; calyx light yellow, pilose, with lanceolate acute segments; 
pistillate on slender peduncles, clothed like their involucral scales with dense pale 
tomentum. Fruit sessile or on slender pubescent stalks sometimes |' long; acorn 
oblong, oval, and gradually narrowed and acute or broad and rounded at the obtuse 
apex, broad or narrow at the base, dark chestnut-brown more or less conspicuously 
marked by darker longitudinal stripes, turning light chestnut-brown in drying, '-!' 
long, about % broad, inclosed for about one half its length in a deep saucer-shaped 
cup-shaped or turbinate cup light brown and puberulous within, and covered by ovate 
light brown scales coated with pale tomentum, usually thickened, united and tuber- 
culate at the base of the cup, and near its rim produced into small acute ciliate tips. 

A tree, 50 -60 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, thick branches spreading 
nearly at right angles and forming a broad rather irregular head, and stout rigid 
branchlets coated at first with hoary tomentum, light or dark brown tinged with 
red and pubescent during their first winter, becoming glabrous and light brown or 
gray in their second or third years. 'Winter-buds oval or ovate, about \' long, 
with thin light red pubescent scales. Bark l^'-2' thick, light gray tinged with 
brown and deeply divided into narrow fissures separating on the surface into small 
thin appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, brittle, dark 
brown or nearly black, with thick lighter brown sapwood; used only as fuel. 

Distribution. Low hills of southwestern California west of the coast range, oc- 
cupying with Quercus agrifolia, Ne'e, a belt about fifty miles wide, and extending to 
within fifteen or twenty miles of the coast, from the neighborhood of Sierra Madre 
to the mesa east of San Diego. 

41. Quercus oblongifolia, Torr. "White Oak. 

Leaves ovate, oval, or slightly obovate, rounded and occasionally emarginate or 
acute at the apex, usually cordate or occasionally rounded at the base, entire and 
sometimes undulate, with thickened revolute margins, or remotely dentate, with 
small callous teeth, on vigorous shoots and young plants oblong, rounded or cuneate 
at the narrow base, coarsely sinuate or undulate-toothed or 3-toothed at the broad 
apex and entire below, when they unfold bright red and coated with deciduous 
hoary tomentum, at maturity thin and firm, bluo-green and lustrous above, paler 
below, l'-2' long, ^' J' broad, or on vigorous shoots sometimes 3'-4' long, with pro- 
minent pale midribs, slender primary veins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets, per- 
sistent during the winter without change of color, gradually turning yellow in the 
spring and falling at the appearance of the new leaves; their petioles stout, nearly 
terete, about \' long. Flowers: staminate in short hoary-tomentose aments; calyx 
bright yellow, pilose, divided into 5 or 6 laciniately cut or entire acute segments 
tinged with red above the middle; pistillate usually sessile, or on peduncles tomen- 
tose like the involucral scales; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually solitary and ses- 
sile, rarely long-stalked; acorn ovate, oval, or slightly obovate, full and rounded at the 
apex, surrounded by a narrow ring of white pubescence, dark chestnut-brown, striate, 
and very lustrous, soon becoming light brown in drying, ' f' long, about \' broad, 
inclosed for about one third its length in a shallow cup-shaped or rarely turbinate 



280 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

thin cup yellow-green and pubescent on the inner surface and covered by ovate- 
oblong scales slightly thickened on the back, coated with hoary tomentum and ending 
in thin acute bright red tips ciliate on the margins and sometimes forming a minute 
fringe to the rim of the cup. 

A tree, rarely more than 30 high, with a short trunk 18'-20' in diameter, many 
stout spreading often contorted branches forming a handsome round-topped symmet- 
rical head, slender rigid branchlets coated at first with pale or fulvous tomentum, 




N- 227 



light red-brown, dark brown or dark orange color in their first winter, becoming 
ashy gray in their second or third year. Winter-buds subglobose, obtuse, -jV~V 
long, with thin light chestnut-brown scales. Bark | '-1^-' thick, ashy gray, and broken 
into small nearly square or oblong close plate-like scales. Wood very heavy, hard, 
strong, brittle, dark brown or nearly black, with thick brown sapvvood; sometimes 
used as fuel. 

Distribution. Chisos Mountains, western Texas, through southern New Mexico 
and Arizona, and southward into northern Mexico; comparatively rare in Texas; 
abundant on the foothills of all the mountain ranges of New Mexico and Arizona 
south of the Colorado plateau at elevations of about 5000, and dotting the upper 
slopes of the mesa where narrow canons open to the plain. 

42. Quercus Arizonica, Sarg. White Oak. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to broadly obovate, generally acute or sometimes 
rounded at the apex, rounded or cordate at the base, repandly spinose-dentate usu- 
ally, except on vigorous shoots, only above the middle or toward the apex, or entire, 
and sometimes undulate on the margins, when they unfold light red clothed with 
bright fulvous tomentum and furnished with dark dental glands, at maturity thick, 
firm and rigid, dark blue-green and glabrous or stellate pubescent above, yellow- 
green or pale blue and covered with thick fulvous or pale pubescence below, l'-4' 
long, '-2' broad, with broad yellow midribs, slender primary veins, arcuate and 
united near the thickened revolute margins, and coarsely reticulate veiulets, falling 
in the early spring just before the appearance of the new leaves; their petioles 
stout, tomentose, \'-% r long. Flowers: staminate in tomentose aments 2'-3' long; 
calyx pale yellow, pubescent, and divided into 4-7 broad acute ciliate lobes; anthers 



FAGACE^ 



281 






red or yellow; pistillate on short stems tomentose like their involucral scales. Fruit 
sessile or on hoary-tomentose stalks rarely ' long, usually solitary, ripening irregu- 
larly from September to November; acorti oblong, oval or slightly obovate, obtuse 
and rounded at the ptiberulous apex, '-!' long, ' broad, dark chestnut-brown, lus- 
trous and often striate, soon becoming light brown, inclosed for one half its length 
in a cup-shaped or hemispherical cup light brown and pubescent within, covered by 
regularly and closely imbricated scales coated with pale tomentum and ending in 
thin light red pointed tips, those below the middle of the cup much thickened and 
rounded on the back; seed dark purple, very astringent. 

A tree, occasionally 50-60 tall, with a trunk 3^1 in diameter, and thick con- 
torted branches spreading nearly at right angles and forming a handsome round- 
topped symmetrical head, and stout branchlets clothed at first with thick fulvous 
tomentum persistent during their first winter, reddish brown or light orange color 
and pubescent or puberulous in their second season, ultimately glabrous and darker; 
usually not more than 30-40 tall; at high elevations reduced to a low shrub. 
Winter-buds subglobose, about -j^' long, with loosely imbricated bright chestnut- 
brown puberulous scales ciliate on the margins. Bark of young stems and branches 
thin, pale, scaly, with small appressed scales, becoming on old trunks about 1' thick 




tigub 



and deeply divided by narrow fissures into broad ridges broken into long thick plate- 
like scales pale or ashy gray on the surface. Wood heavy, strong, hard, close- 
grained, dark brown or nearly black, with thick lighter colored sap wood; used only 
for fuel. 

Distribution. The most common and generally distributed White Oak of southern 
Arizona and New Mexico, covering the slopes- of cafions of the mountain ranges 
south of the Colorado plateau at elevations of 5000-10,000 above the sea, often 
ascending nearly to the summits of the high peaks; and in northern Mexico. 

43. Quercus Toumeyi, Sarg. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong or oval, acute and apiculate at the apex, rounded 
or cordate at the base, entire, with thickened slightly revolute margins, or remotely 
spinulose-dentate, often minutely 3-toothed at the apex, thin but firm in texture, 
light blue-green, glabrous and lustrous above, pale and puberulous below, ^'-f ' long, 



282 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

^'_' wide, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, falling early in the spring with the 
appearance of the new leaves; their petioles stout, tomentose, about ^' long. 
Flowers unknown. Fruit sessile, solitary or in pairs, ripening in June; acorn oval 




or ovate, '-f ' long, \' broad, light brown and lustrous, furnished at the acute apex 
with a narrow ring of pale pubescence, inclosed for about one half its length in a 
thin shallow tomentose cup light green and pubescent within, and covered by thin 
ovate regularly and closely imbricated light red-brown scales ending in short 
rounded tips and coated on the back with pale tomentum. 

A tree, 25-30 high, with a short trunk 6'-8' in diameter, dividing not far from 
the ground into numerous stout wide-spreading branches forming a broad irregular 
head, and slender branchlets bright red-brown more or less thickly coated with pale 
tomentum at midsummer, covered during their second and third years with thin 
dark brown nearly black bark broken into small thin closely appressed scales. 
Wood light brown, with thick pale sapwood. 

Distribution. Forming an open forest on the Mule Mountains, Cochise County, 
southeastern Arizona. 

44. Quercus reticulata, H. B. K. 

Leaves broadly obovate, obtuse and rounded or rarely acute at the apex, usually 
cordate or occasionally rounded at the narrow base, repandly spinose-dentate above 
the middle or only toward the apex, with slender teeth, and entire below, when they 
unfold coated with dense fulvous tomentum, at maturity thick, firm, and rigid, dark 
blue and covered with scattered stellate clusters of hairs above, paler and coated 
with thick fulvous pubescence below, l'-5' long, f-4' broad, with thick midribs, 
running to the points of the teeth or arcuate and united within the slightly revolute 
margins, and very conspicuous reticulate veinlets; their stout petioles about \' long. 
Flowers: staminate in short tomentose aments in the axils of leaves of the year; 
calyx light yellow, hirsute, with pale hairs, divided into 5-7 ovate acute segments; 
pistillate in spikes on elongated peduncles, clothed like their involucral scales with 
hoary tomentum; stigmas dark red. Fruit usually in many-fruited spikes or occa- 
sionally in pairs, or rarely solitary, on slender hirsute or glabrous peduncles 2'-5' 
long; acorn oblong, rounded or acute at the pilose apex, broad at the base, about 
^' long, inclosed for about one fourth its length in a shallow cup-shaped cup dark 



FAGACK*: 283 

brown and pubescent within, hoary tomentose without and covered by small ovate 
acute scales with thin free scarious tips, slightly thickened and rounded on the back 
at the bottom of the cup. 

A tree, rarely more than 40 high, with a trunk 1 in diameter, and stout branch- 
lets coated at first with thick fulvous tomentum, light orange color and more or less 
thickly clothed with pubescence during their first winter, becoming ashy gray or 
light brown; in the United States usually shrubby in habit and sometimes only a 
few feet tall; becoming on the Sierra Madre of Mexico a large tree. Winter- 
buds ovate to oval, often surrounded by the persistent stipules of the upper leaves, 




about I' long, with thin loosely imbricated light red scales ciliate on the margins. 
Bark about \' thick, dark or light brown, and covered by small thin closely appressed 
scales. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, dark brown, with thick lighter 
colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Near the summits of the mountain ranges of southern Arizona, 
on the San Luis and Auimas mountains of southern New Mexico, and southward in 
Mexico. 

++++Leaves dark green. 

45. Quercus dumosa, Nutt. Scrub Oak. 

Leaves oblong, rounded and acute at the apex, broad and abruptly wedge-shaped 
or rounded at the base, usually about ' long and ' broad, spinescent, with few 
minute teeth, or undulate and entire or coarsely spinescent, with obscure midribs and 
primary veins, conspicuous reticulate veinlets, and stout petioles rarely ' long; or 
sometimes oblong to oblong-obovate and divided by deep sinuses into 5-9 oblong 
acute rounded or emarginate bristle-tipped lobes, the terminal lobe 3-lobed, rounded 
or acute, 2'-4' long and !'-!' broad, with primary veins running to the points of the 
lobes, obscure reticulate veinlets, and petioles sometimes 1' long; thin when they un- 
fold and clothed with scattered stellate hairs, or rarely tomentose above and coated 
below and on the petioles with hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and firm, dark 
green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler and more or less pubescent on the 
lower surface, mostly deciduous during the winter. Flowers: staminate in pubes- 
cent aments; calyx divided into 4-8 ovate lanceolate hairy segments; pistillate ses- 



284 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

sile or stalked, in long many-flowered tomentose spikes, their involucral scales and 
calyx hoary-tomentose ; stigmas red. Fruit sessile or short-stalked ; acorn oval, 




broad at the base, broad and rounded or acute at the apex, '-!' long, '-' broad, 
inclosed for one half to two thirds its length in a deep cup-shaped or hemispherical 
cup light brown and pubescent within, covered by ovate pointed scales coated with 
pale or rufous tomentum, usually much thickened, united and tuberculate, those above 
with free acute tips forming a fringe to the rim of the cup, or frequently with basal 
scales but little thickened and furnished with long free tips. 

A tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, small branches 
forming a round-topped head, and slender branchlets coated at first with hoary tomen- 
tum, becoming in their first winter ashy gray or light or dark reddish brown and 
usually pubescent or tomentose; more often an intricately branched rigid shrub, with 
stout stems covered by pale gray bark and usually 6-8 high, often forming dense 
thickets. Winter-buds oval, generally acute, ^ -^ long, with thin pale red often 
pilose and ciliate scales. Bark of the trunk bright brown and scaly. 

Distribution. California; western slopes of the central Sierra Nevada; common 
on the coast ranges south of San Francisco Bay and the islands off the coast of the 
southern part of the state, ranging inland to the borders of the Mohave Desert and 
to the canons of the desert slopes of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains, 
and southward into Lower California; arborescent only in sheltered canons of the 
islands; north of San Francisco Bay replaced by the variety revoluta, Sarg., ranging 
to Mendocino County and to Napa valley. 

46. Quercus Virginiana, Mill. Live Oak. 

Leaves oblong, elliptical or obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, gradually nar- 
rowed and wedge-shaped or rarely rounded or cordate at the base, usually entire, 
with thickened strongly involute margins or rarely spinose-dentate above the middle: 
when they unfold light green tinged with red, covered by scattered stellate pale hairs 
above and coated below with thick hoary tomentum, at maturity thick and coriaceous, 
dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and silvery white and pubescent 
or puberiilous on the lower surface, 2'-5' long, ^'-2^' wide, and conspicuously or 
inconspicuously reticulate-venulose, with narrow yellow midribs and few slender 



FAGACE^E 



285 



obscure primary veins forked and united at some distance from the margins, gradu- 
ally turning yellow or brown at the end of the winter and falling with or soon after 
the appearance of the new leaves in the spring; their petioles stout, rarely more than 
}' long. Flowers : staminate in hairy aments 2 '-3' long; calyx light yellow, hairy, 
divided into 5-7 ovate rounded segments; anthers hirsute?; pistillate in spikes on 
slender pubescent peduncles 1/-3' long, their involucral scales and ovate calyx-lobes 
coated with hoary pubescence ; stigmas bright red. Fruit usually in 3-5-fruited 
spikes or rarely in pairs or single on stout light brown puberulous peduncles l'-5' 
long; acorn oval or slightly obovate, narrowed at the base, rounded or acute at the 
apex, dark chestnut-brown and lustrous, about V long and |' wide, inclosed for about 
one fourth its length in a turbinate light reddish brown cup puberulous within, its 
scales thin, ovate, acute, slightly keeled on the back, covered by dense lustrous 
hoary tomentum and ending in small closely appressed reddish tips ; seed sweet, 
with light yellow connate cotyledons. 

A tree, 40-50 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter above its swollen buttressed 
base, usually dividing a few feet from the ground into 3 or 4 horizontal wide-spread- 
ing limbs forming a low dense round-topped head sometimes 150 across, and slender 
rigid branchlets coated at first with hoary toinentuin, becoming ashy gray or light 
brown and pubescent or puberulous during their first winter and darker and glabrous 




the following season; occasionally 60-70 tall, with a trunk P>-7 in diameter; 
often shrubby and occasionally not more than a foot high. Winter-buds globose 
or slightly obovate, about \' long, with thin light chestnut-brown scales white and 
scarious on the margins. Bark of the trunk and large branches \'-V thick, dark 
brown tinged with red, slightly furrowed, separating on the surface into small closely 
appressed scales. Wood very heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, light brown 
or yellow, with thin nearly white sap wood; formerly largely and still occasionally 
used in shipbuilding. 

Distribution. Shores of Mobjack Bay, Virginia, southward along the coast and 
islands to southern Florida, and along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico to northeast- 
ern Mexico, spreading inland through Texas to the valley of the Red River and to 
the mountains in the extreme western part of the state; on the mountains of Cuba, 
southern Mexico, Central America, and Lower California; most abundant and of its 



286 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

largest size on the Atlantic and east Gulf coasts on rich hummocks and ridges a few 
feet above the level of the 3ea; abundant in Texas, in the coast region near the banks 
of streams, and westward toward the valley of the Rio Grande often forming the 
principal part of the shrubby growth on low moist soil ; in sandy barren soil in the 
immediate vicinity of the seacoast or on the shores of salt water estuaries and bays 
often a shrub, sometimes bearing fruit on stems not more than a foot high (var. 
maritima, Sarg., and var. minima, Sarg.). 

Often planted as a shade and ornamental tree in the southern United States. 

47. Quercus Emoryi, Torr. Black Oak. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute and mucronate at the apex, cordate or rounded 
at the slightly narrowed base, entire or remotely repand-serrate, with 1-5 pairs of 




acute rigid oblique teeth, when they unfold thin, light green more or less tinged 
with red and covered with silvery white tomentum, at maturity thick, rigid, coria- 
ceous, dark green, very lustrous and glabrous or coated with minute stellate hairs 
above, pale and glabrous or puberulous below, usually with 2 large tufts of white 
hairs at the base of the slender midrib, obscurely reticulate-venulose, l'-2^' long, 
\'-V broad, falling gradually in April with the appearance of the new leaves; their 
petioles stout, pubescent, about \' long. Flowers: staminate in hoary-tomentose 
aments; calyx light yellow, hairy on the outer surface, divided into 5-7 ovate acute 
lobes; pistillate sessile or short-stalked, their involucral scales covered with hoary 
tomentum. Fruit ripening irregularly from June to September, sessile or short- 
stalked ; acorn oblong, oval, or ovate, narrowed at the base, rounded at the narrow 
pilose apex, '-f long, about \' wide, light dull green when fully grown, dark chest- 
nut-brown or nearly black at maturity, with a thin shell lined with thick white 
tomentum, inclosed for one third to one half its length in the deeply cup-shaped or 
nearly hemispherical cup light green and pubescent within and covered by closely 
imbricated broadly ovate acute thin and scarious light brown scales clothed with short 
soft pale pubescence. 

A tree, usually 30 -40 high, with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, stout rigid 
rather drooping branches forming a round-topped symmetrical head, and slender 
rigid branchlets covered at first with close hoary tomentum, bright red, pubescent or 









ULMACE^: 287 

tomentose in their first winter, ultimately glabrous and dark red-brown or black; 
sometimes 60-70 high, with a trunk 4-5 in diameter, with a head occasionally 
100 across; or at high elevations or on exposed mountain slopes a low shrub. 
Winter-buds oval, acute, about -J' long, pale pubescent toward the apex, with thin 
closely imbricated light chestnut-brown ciliate scales. Bark l'-2' thick, dark brown 
or nearly black, deeply divided into large oblong thick plates separating into small 
thin closely appressed scales. Wood heavy, strong, brittle, close-grained, dark 
brown or almost black, with thick bright brown sapwood tinged with red. The 
sweet acorns are an important article of food for Mexicans and Indians, and are sold 
in the towns of southern Arizona and northern Mexico. 

Distribution. Mountain ranges of western Texas, southern New Mexico and 
Arizona south of the Colorado plateau, and of northern Mexico; in Texas common 
in the canons and on the southern slopes of the Limpio and Chisos mountains; the 
most abundant Oak of southern New Mexico and Arizona, forming a large part of 
the forests covering the mountain slopes and extending from the upper limits of the 
mesas nearly to the highest ridges; attaining its largest size and beauty in the 
moist soil of sheltered cafions. 



Section 2. Flowers unisexual (usually perfect in Ulmus) ; 
calyx regular ; stamens as many as its lobes and opposite them ; 
ovary superior, 1-celled (rarely ^-celled in Ulmus} ; seed 1. 

XI. ULMACE-53. 

Trees, with watery juice, scaly buds, terete branchlets prolonged by an upper 
lateral bud, and alternate simple serrate pinnately veined deciduous stalked 
2-ranked leaves unequal and often oblique at the base, conduplicate in the bud, 
their stipules usually fugaceous. Flowers perfect or monoeciously polygamous, 
clustered, or the pistillate sometimes solitary ; calyx 4-9-parted or lobed ; 
stamens 4-6 ; filaments straight ; anthers introrse, 2-celled, opening longitudi- 
nally ; ovary usually 1-celled ; ovule solitary, suspended from the apex of the 
cell, anatropous or amphitropous ; styles 2. Fruit a samara, nut, or drupe ; 
albumen little or none ; embryo straight or curved ; cotyledons usually flat or 
conduplicate. Five of the thirteen genera of the Elm family occur in North 
America. Of these three are represented by trees. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Fruit a samara ; flowers perfect. 1. Ulmus. 

Fruit nut-like, tuberculate. 2. Planera. 

Fruit a drupe ; pistillate flowers usually solitary. 3. Celtis. 

1. ULMUS, L. Elm. 

Trees, or rarely shrubs, with deeply furrowed bark, branchlets often furnished 
with corky wings, and buds with numerous ovate rounded chestnut-brown scales 
closely imbricated in two ranks, increasing in size from without inward, the outer 
sterile, the inner accrescent, replacing the stipules of the first leaves, deciduous, 
marking the base of the branchlet witli persistent ring-like scars. Leaves simply or 
doubly serrate; stipules linear, lanceolate to obovate, entire, free or connate at the 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

base, scarious, inclosing the leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers from axillary buds 
near the ends of the branches similar to but larger than the leaf-buds, the outer 
scales sterile, the inner bearing flowers and rarely leaves. Flowers perfect, jointed 
on slender bibracteolate pedicels from the axils of linear acute scarious bracts, in 
pedunculate or subsessile fascicles or cymes, appearing in early spring before the 
leaves in the axils of those of the previous year, or autumnal in the axils of leaves 
of the year; calyx carnpanulate, 5-9-lobed, membranaceous, marcescent; stamens 
5 or 6 inserted under the ovary; filaments filiform or slightly flattened, erect in the 
bud, becoming exserted; anthers oblong, emarginate, and subcordate; ovary sessile 
or stipitate, compressed, crowned by a simple deeply 2-lobed style, the spreading 
lobes papillo-stigmatic on the inner face, usually 1-celled by abortion, rarely 2-celled; 
ovule amphitropous; micropyle extrorse, superior. Fruit an ovate or oblong, often 
oblique, sessile or stipitate samara surrounded at the base by the remnants of the 
calyx, membranaceous, the seminal cavity compressed, slightly thickened on the 
margin, chartaceous, produced into a thin reticulate-venulose membranaceous light 
brown broad or rarely narrow wing naked or ciliate on the margin, tipped with the 
remnants of the persistent style, or more or less deeply notched at the apex, and 
often marked horizontally by the thickened line of the union of the two carpels. 
Seed ovate, compressed, without albumen, marked on the ventral edge by the thin 
raphe; testa membranaceous, light or dark chestnut-brown, of two coats, rarely pro- 
duced into a narrow wing; embryo erect ; cotyledons flat or slightly convex, much 
longer than the superior radicle turned toward the oblong linear pale hilum. 

Ulmus, with fifteen or sixteen species, is widely distributed through the boreal 
and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere with the exception of western 
North America, reaching in the New World the mountains of southern Mexico and 
in the Old World the Sikkim Himalaya, northern China, and Japan. Of the exotic 
species, Ulmiis campestris, L., and Ulmus glabra, Huds., have been largely planted for 
shade and ornament in the north Atlantic states, where old and large specimens of 
the former can be seen, especially in the neighborhood of Boston. 

Ulmus produces heavy, hard, tough, light-colored wood, often difficult to split. 
The tough inner bark of some of the species is made into ropes or woven into 
coarse cloth, and in northern China nourishing mucilaginous food is prepared from 
the inner bark. 

Ulmus is the classical name of the Elm-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Flowers vernal, appearing before the leaves. 

Flowers on slender drooping- pedicels ; fruit ciliate on the margins. 
Wing of the fruit broad. 

Bud-scales and fruit glabrous ; branchlets destitute of corky wings ; leaves obovate- 
oblong to oval, usually smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface. 

1. U. Americana (A, C). 

Bud-scales puberulous ; branches often furnished with corky wings ; fruit hirsute ; 
leaves obovate to oblong-oval, smooth on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower 
surface. 2. U. Thomasi (A). 

Wing of the fruit narrow. 

Bud-scales glabrous or slightly puberulous ; branchlets furnished with broad corky 
wings; fruit hirsute, stipitate ; leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, smooth 
on the upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface. 3. U. alata (A, C). 



ULMACE^E 



289 



Flowers on short pedicels ; fruit naked on the margins. 

Bud-scales coated with rusty hairs ; brauchlets destitute of corky wings ; fruit 

pubescent ; leaves ovate-oblong, scabrous on the upper, pubescent on the lower 

surface. 4. U. fulva (A, C). 

Flowers autumnal, appearing in the axils of leaves of the year ; branchlets furnished 

with corky wings ; fruit hirsute. 

Bud-scales puberulous ; flowers on short pedicels ; leaves ovate, scabrous on the 
upper, soft-pubescent on the lower surface. 5. U. crassif olia (C). 

Bud-scales glabrous ; flowers on long pedicels ; leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, 
acuminate, glabrous on the upper, pale and puberulous on the lower surface. 

6. U. serotina (C). 
1. Flowers vernal, appearing before the leaves. 

1. Ulmus Americana, L. White Elm. 

Leaves obovate-oblong to oval, abruptly narrowed at the apex into long points, 
full and rounded at the base on one side and shorter and wedge-shaped on the other, 
coarsely doubly serrate, with slightly incurved teeth, when they unfold coated below 
with pale pubescence and pilose above, with long scattered white hairs, at maturity 
4'-6' long, 1/-3' wide, dark green and glabrous or scabrate above, pale and soft- 
pubescent or sometimes glabrous below, with narrow pale midribs and numerous 





slender straight primary veins running to the points of the teeth and connected by 
fine cross veinlets, turning bright clear yellow in the autumn before falling; their 
petioles stout, ^' long; stipules linear-lanceolate, ^'-2' long. Flowers on long slen- 
der drooping pedicels sometimes 1' in length, in 3 or 4-flowered short-stalked fasci- 
cles; calyx irregularly divided into 7-9 rounded lobes ciliate on the margins, often 
somewhat oblique, puberulous on the outer surface, green tinged with red above the 
middle; anthers bright red; ovary light green, ciliate on the margins, with long white 
hairs; styles light green. Fruit on long stems in crowded clusters, ripening as the 
leaves unfold, ovate to obovate-oblong, slightly stipitate, conspicuously reticulate- 
venulose, ' long, ciliate on the margins, the sharp points of the wings incurved and 
inclosing the deep notch. 

A tree, sometimes 100-120 high, with a tall trunk 6-ll in diameter, frequently 
enlarged at the base by great buttresses, occasionally rising with a straight nncli- 



290 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



vided shaft to the height of 60-80 and separating into short spreading branches, 
more commonly divided 30-40 from the ground into numerous upright limbs grad- 
ually spreading and forming an inversely conical round-topped head of long graceful 
branches, often 100 or rarely 150 in diameter, and slender branchlets frequently 
fringing the trunk and its principal divisions, light green and coated at first with 
soft pale pubescence, becoming in their first winter light reddish brown, glabrous or 
sometimes puberulous and marked by scattered pale lenticels and by large elevated 
semiorbicular leaf-scars showing the ends of three large equidistant fibro-vascular 
bundles, later becoming dark reddish brown and finally ashy gray. Winter-buds 
ovate, acute, slightly flattened, about |' long, with broadly ovate rounded light chest- 
nut-brown glabrous scales, the inner bright green, ovate, acute, becoming on vigor- 
ous shoots often nearly 1' long. Bark I'-l^' thick, ashy gray, divided by deep fis- 
sures into broad ridges separating on the surface into thin appressed scales. "Wood 
heavy, hard, strong, tough, difficult to split, coarse-grained, light brown, with thick 
somewhat lighter colored sapwood; largely used for the hubs of wheels, saddle-trees, 
in flooring and cooperage, and in boat and shipbuilding. 

Distribution. River bottom-lands, intervales, low rich hills, and the banks of 
streams; southern Newfoundland to the northern shores of Lake Superior and the 
eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, southward to Cape Canaveral and the shores 
of Peace Creek, Florida, westward to the Black Hills of Dakota, western Nebraska, 
western Kansas, the Indian Territory, and the valley of the Rio Concho, Texas; very 
common northward, less abundant and of smaller size southward; abundant on the 
banks of streams flowing through the midcontinental plateau. 

Largely planted as an ornamental and shade tree in the northern states, and rarely 
in western and northern Europe. 

2. Ulmus Thomasi, Sarg. Rock Elm. Cork Elm. 

Leaves obovate to oblong-oval, rather abruptly narrowed at the apex into short 
broad points, equally or somewhat unequally rounded, wedge-shaped or subcordate 




at the base and coarsely doubly serrate, when they unfold pilose on the upper sur- 
face and covered on the lower with soft white hairs, at maturity 2'-2' long, '-!' 
wide, thick and firm, smooth, dark green and lustrous above, paler and soft-pubes- 



ULMACE^E 



291 



\cent below, especially on the stout midribs and the numerous straight veins running 
to the points of the teeth and connected by obscure cross veinlets, turning in the 
autumn bright clear yellow; their petioles pubescent, about $' long; stipules ovate- 
lanceolate, conspicuously veined, light green, marked with dark red on the margins 
above the middle, ' long, clasping the stem by their abruptly enlarged cordate 
bases, conspicuously dentate, with 1-3 prominent teeth on each side, falling when the 
leaves are half grown. Flowers on elongated slender drooping pedicels often ^' 
long, in 2-4, usually in 3, flowered puberulous cymes becoming more or less race- 
mose by the lengthening of the axis of the inflorescence, and when fully grown some- 
times 2' in length; calyx green, divided nearly to the middle into 7 or 8 rounded 
dark red scarious lobes; anthers dark purple; ovary coated with long pale hairs most 
abundant on the margins; styles light green. Fruit ripening when the leaves are 
about half grown, ovate or obovate-oblong, \' long, with a shallow open notch at the 
apex, obscurely veined, pale pubescent, ciliate on the slightly thickened border of 
the broad wing, the margin of the seminal cavity scarcely thickened. 

A tree, 80-100 high, with a trunk occasionally 3 in diameter, and often free of 
branches for 60, short stout spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped 
head, and slender rigid branchlets, light brown when they first appear, and coated 
with soft pale pubescence often persistent until their second season, becoming light 
reddish brown, puberulous or glabrous and lustrous in their first winter, and marked 
by scattered oblong lenticels and large orbicular or semiorbicular leaf-scars display- 
ing an irregular row of 4-6 fibre-vascular bundle-scars, ultimately dark brown or 
ashy gray, and usually furnished with 3 or 4 thick corky irregular wings often % 
broad, and beginning to appear in the first or more often during the second year. 
Winter-buds ovate, acute, ^' long, with broadly ovate rounded chestnut-brown 
scales pilose on the outer surface, ciliate on the margins, the inner scales becoming 
ovate-oblong to lanceolate, and ' long, often dentate at the base, with 1 or 2 minute 
teeth on each side, bright green below the middle, marked with a red blotch above, 
and white and scarious at the apex. Bark f '-!' thick, gray tinged with red, and 
deeply divided by wide irregular interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges broken 
on the surface into large irregularly shaped scales. W^ood heavy, hard, vorv strong 
and tough, close-grained, light clear brown often tinged with red, with thick lighter 
colored sapwood; largely employed in the manufacture of many agricultural imple- 
ments, for the framework of chairs, hubs of wheels, railway-ties, the sills of build- 
ings, and other purposes demanding toughness, solidity, and flexibility. 

Distribution. Dry gravelly uplands, low heavy clay soils, rocky slopes and 
river cliffs; Province of Quebec westward through Ontario, southward through north- 
ern New Hampshire to southern Vermont, and to northern New Jersey, and west- 
ward through northern New York, southern Michigan, and central Wisconsin to 
northeastern Nebraska and western Missouri; rare in the east and toward the ex- 
treme western and southern limits of its range; most abundant and of its largest 
size in Ontario and the southern peninsula of Michigan. 

Occasionally planted as a shade and ornamental tree in the northern states. 

3. Ulmus alata, Michx. Wahoo. Winged Elm. 

Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, often somewhat falcate, acute or 
acuminate, unequally wedge-shaped or rounded or subcordate at the base, and 
coarsely doubly serrate, with incurved teeth, when they unfold pale green often 
tinged with red, coated on the lower surface with soft white pubescence and gla- 



292 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

brous or nearly so on the upper surface, at maturity thick and firm or subcoriaceous, 
dark green and smooth above, pale and soft-pubescent below, especially on the stout 
yellow midribs and numerous straight prominent veins often forked near the mar- 
gins of the leaf and connected by rather conspicuous reticulate veinlets, turning dull 
yellow color in the autumn; their petioles stout, pubescent, ' long ; stipules linear- 
obovate, thin and scarious, tinged with red above the middle, often nearly V long. 




Flowers on drooping pedicels, in short few-flowered fascicles ; calyx glabrous and 
divided nearly to the middle into 5 broad ovate rounded lobes as long as the hoary- 
toinentose ovary raised on a short slender stipe. Fruit ripening before oi' with the 
unfolding of the leaves, oblong, ^' in length, contracted at the base into a long 
slender stalk, gradually narrowed and tipped at the apex with long incurved awns, 
covered with long white hairs most numerous on the thickened margin of the nar- 
row wing ; seed ovate, pointed, ^' long, pale chestnut-brown, slightly thickened 
into a narrow wing-like margin. 

A tree, 40-50 high, with a trunk rarely 2 in diameter, short stout straight or 
erect branches forming a narrow oblong rather open round-topped head, and slender 
branchlets glabrous or puberulous and light green tinged with red when they first 
appear, becoming light reddish brown or ashy gray and glabrous, or on vigorous 
individuals frequently pilose in their first winter, marked by occasional small orange- 
colored lenticels and by small elevated horizontal semiorbicular leaf-scars, some- 
times naked, more often furnished with usually 2 thin corky wings beginning to 
grow during the first or more often during their second season, abruptly arrested at 
the nodes, often \' wide, and persistent for many years. Winter-buds slender, 
acute, \' long, dark chestnut-brown, with glabrous or puberulous scales, those of 
the inner ranks becoming oblong or obovate, rounded and tipped at the apex with 
minute tips, thin and scarious, light red, especially above the middle, and \' long. 
Bark rarely exceeding \' in thickness, light brown tinged with red, and divided by 
irregular shallow fissures into flat ridges covered by small closely appressed scales. 
Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, difficult to split, light brown, with 
thick lighter colored sapwood; sometimes employed for the hubs of wheels and the 
handles of tools; rope used for fastening the covers of cotton bales is sometimes 
made from the inner bark. 



ULMACE^E 



293 



Distribution. Usually on dry gravelly uplands, less commonly in rich alluvial 
soil along the borders of swamps and the banks of streams, southern Virginia through 
the middle districts to western Florida, and from southern Indiana and Illinois 
through western Kentucky and Tennessee to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, and 
through southern Missouri, Arkansas, and the eastern part of the Indian Territory 
to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas; of its largest size and most abundant west 
of the Mississippi River. 

Often planted as a shade-tree in the streets of towns and villages of the southern 
states. 

4. Ulmus fulva, Michx. Slippery Elm. Red Elm. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, abruptly contracted into long slender points, rounded at 
the base on one side and short-oblique on the other, and coarsely doubly serrate, with 
incurved callous-tipped teeth; when they unfold thin, coated on the lower surface 
with pale pubescence, pilose on the upper, with scattered white hairs, at maturity 




thick and firm, dark green and rugose with crowded sharp-pointed tubercles pointing 
toward the apex of the leaf, soft, smooth, and coated below, especially on the thin 
midribs and in the axils of the slender straight veins, with white hairs, 5'-7' long, 
2'-3' broad, turning a dull yellow color in the autumn; their petioles stout, pubescent, 
\' long; stipules obovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, thin and scarious, pale-pubes- 
cent, and tipped with clusters of rusty brown hairs. Flowers on short pedicels, 
in crowded fascicles; calyx green, covered with pale hairs, divided into 5-9 short 
rounded thin equal lobes; stamens with slender light yellow slightly flattened fila- 
ments and dark red anthers; stigmas slightly exserted, reddish purple, papillose, 
with soft white hairs. Fruit ripening when the leaves are about half grown, semi- 
orbicular, rounded and bearing the remnants of the styles, or slightly emarginate at 
the apex, rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, \' broad, the seminal cavity coated 
with thick rusty brown tomentum, the broad thin wing obscurely reticulate-veined, 
naked on the thickened margin, and marked by the dark conspicuous horizontal line 
of union of the two carpels; seed ovate, with a large oblique pale hilura, a light 
chestnut-brown coat produced into a thin border wider below than above the middle 
of the seed. 

A tree, 60-70 high, with a trunk occasionally 2 in diameter, spreading branches 




294 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



forming a broad open flat-topped head, and stout branchlets bright green, scabrate, 
and coated with soft pale pubescence when they first appear, becoming light brown 
by midsummer, often roughened by small pale leuticels, and in their first winter 
ashy gray, orange color, or light red-brown, and marked by large elevated semiorbicu- 
lar leaf-scars showing the ends of 3 conspicuous equidistant fibro-vascular bundles, 
ultimately dark gray or brown. "Winter-buds ovate, obtuse, \' long, with about 
12 scales, the outer broadly ovate, rounded, dark chestnut-brown, and covered by 
long scattered rusty hairs, the inner when fully grown ^' long, \'-\' wide, light green, 
strap-shaped, rounded and tipped at the apex with tufts of rusty hairs, puberulous 
on the outer surface, slightly ciliate on the margins, gradually growing narrower and 
passing into the stipules of the upper leaves. Bark frequently V thick, dark brown 
tinged with red, divided by shallow fissures and covered by large thick appressed 
scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, durable, easy to split, dark 
brown or red, with thin lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fence-posts, rail- 
way-ties, the sills of buildings, the hubs of wheels, and in agricultural implements. 
The thick fragrant inner bark is mucilaginous and demulcent, and is employed in 
the treament of acute febrile and inflammatory affections. 

Distribution. Banks of streams and low rich rocky hillsides in deep fertile soil; 
comparatively common from the valley of the St. Lawrence River through Ontario 
to north Dakota, eastern Nebraska, and northern and western Kansas, and south- 
ward to western Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and the valley of the 
San Antonio River, Texas. 

2. Flowers autumnal, appearing in the axils of leaves of the year. 

5. Ulmus crassifolia, Nutt. Cedar Elm. 

Leaves obloug-oval, acute or rounded at the apex, unequally rounded or wedge- 
shaped and often oblique at the base, coarsely and unequally doubly serrate, with 
callous-tipped teeth, when they unfold thin, light green tinged with red, pilose above 




and covered below with soft pale pubescence, at maturity thick and subcoriaceous, 
dark green, lustrous and roughened by crowded minute sharp-pointed tubercles on 
the upper surface and soft pubescent on the lower surface, 1/-2' long, |'-T wide, 



ULMACE^: 295 

with stout yellow midribs, prominent straight veins connected by conspicuous more 
or less reticulate cross veinlets, usually turning bright yellow late in the autumn; 
their petioles stout, tomeutose, \'^' in length; stipules |' long, linear-lanceolate, 
red and scarious above, clasping the stem by their green and hairy bases, deciduous 
when the leaves are about half grown. Flowers usually opening in August and 
sometimes also in October, on slender pedicels ' \' long, covered with white hairs, 
in 3-5-flowered pedunculate fascicles; calyx divided to below the middle into oblong 
narrow-pointed lobes hairy at the base; ovary hirsute, crowned with two short 
slightly exserted stigmas. Fruit ripening in September and rarely also in Novem- 
ber, oblong, gradually and often irregularly narrowed from the middle to the ends, 
short-stalked, deeply notched at the apex, \' to nearly ^' long, covered with soft white 
hairs, most abundant on the slightly thickened margin of the broad obscure wing; 
seed oblique, pointed, and covered by a dark chestnut-brown coat. 

A tree, often 80 high, with a tall straight trunk 2-3 in diameter, sometimes 
free of branches for 30 or 40, divided into numerous stout spreading limbs form- 
ing a broad inversely conical round-topped head of long pendulous branches, or while 
young or on dry uplands a compact round head of drooping branches, and slender 
branchlets, when they first appear tinged with red and coated with soft pale pubes- 
cence, becoming light reddish brown, puberulous and marked by scattered minute 
lenticels and by small elevated semiorbicular leaf-scars showing the ends of 3 small 
fibro-vascular bundles, and furnished with 2 corky wings covered with lustrous brown 
bark, ' broad and continuous except when abruptly interrupted by lateral branch- 
lets or often irregularly developed. Winter-buds broadly ovate, acute, \' long, 
with closely imbricated chestimt-brown scales slightly puberulous on the outer sur- 
face, those of the inner ranks at maturity oblong, concave, rounded at the apex, thin, 
bright red, sometimes |' long. Bark sometimes nearly 1' thick, light brown slightly 
tinged with red and deeply divided by interrupted fissures into broad flat ridges 
broken on the surface into thick scales. Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, light 
brown tinged with red, with thick lighter colored sapwood; in central Texas used in 
the manufacture of the hubs of wheels, for furniture, and largely for fencing. 

Distribution. Vallev of the Snnflowef River, Mississippi, through southern 
Arkansas and Texas to Xuevo Leon, ranging in western Texas from the coast to the 
valley of the Pecos River; in Arkansas usually on river cliffs and low hillsides, and 
in Texas near streams in deep alluvial soil and on dry limestone hills; the common 
Elm-tree of Texas and of its largest size on the bottom-lands of the Guadalupe 
and Trinity rivers. 

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree in the streets of the cities and towns of Texas. 

6. Ulrnus serotina, Sarg. Red Elm. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-obovate, acuminate, very oblique at the base, coarsely 
and doubly crenulate-serrate; when they unfold coated below with shining white 
hairs and puberulous above, at maturity thin and firm in texture, yellow-green, 
glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and puberulous on the midribs and 
principal veins on the lower surface, 2'-4' long, l'-l|' wide, with prominent yellow 
midribs, about 20 pairs of primary veins extending obliquely to the points of the 
teeth and often forked near the margins of the leaf, and numerous reticulate vein- 
lets, turning clear orange-yellow in the autumn; their petioles stout, about ^' long; 
stipules abruptly narrowed from broad clasping bases, linear-lanceolate, usually 
about Y long, persistent until the leaves are nearly fully grown. Flowers opening in 




296 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

September on slender conspicuously jointed pedicels often ' long, in many-flowered 
glabrous racemes from l'-l' in length; calyx 6-parted to the base, with oblong- 
obovate red-brown divisions rounded at the apex; ovary sessile, narrowed below, 
villous. Fruit ripening early in November, stipitate, cblong-elliptical, deeply divided 
at the apex, fringed on the margins with long silvery white hairs, about ^' long. 

A tree, 50-60 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter and comparatively small 
spreading or pendulous branches often forming a broad handsome head, and slender 




pendulous branchlets glabrous or occasionally puberulous when they first appear, 
brown, lustrous, and marked by occasional oblong white lenticels during their first 
year, becoming darker the following season and ultimately dark gray-brown, and 
often furnished with 2 or 3 thick corky wings developed during their second or third 
years. Winter-buds ovate, acute, \' long, their outer scales oblong-obovate, dark 
chestnut-brown, glabrous, the inner often scarious on the margins, pale yellow-green, 
lustrous., and sometimes f long when fully grown. Bark ^'-f ' thick, light brown 
slightly tinged with red, and divided by shallow fissures into broad flat ridges broken 
on the surface into large thin closely appressed scales. Wood hard, close-grained, 
very strong and tough, light red-brown, with pale yellow sapwood. 

Distribution. Limestone hills and river banks; southern Kentucky to northern 
Alabama and northeastern Georgia. 

Occasionally planted as a shade-tree in the streets of cities in northern Georgia 
and northern Alabama. 

2. PLANERA, Gmel. 

A tree, with scaly puberulous branchlets roughened by scattered pale lenticels, 
and at the end of their first season by small nearly orbicular leaf-scars marked by a 
row of fibro-vascular bundle-scars, minute subglobose winter-buds covered by numer- 
ous thin closely imbricated chestnut-brown scales, the outer more or less scarious 
on the margins, the inner accrescent, becoming at maturity ovate-oblong, scarious, 
bright red, \'-\' long, marking in falling the base of the branchlet with pale ring- 
like scars. Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, ovate-oblong, acute or rounded at the nar- 
rowed apex, unequally wedge-shaped or rounded at the base, coarsely crenately 
serrate, with unequal gland-tipped teeth, petiolate, with slender terete puberulous 



ULMACE^E 



297 



petioles, numerous straight conspicuous veins forked near the margin and connected 
by cross reticulate veinlets more conspicuous below than above, when they unfold 
puberulous on the lower and pilose on the upper surface, at maturity thick or sub- 
coriaceous and scabrate; stipules lateral, free, ovate, scarious, bright red. Flowers 
polygamo-moncecious, the staminate fascicled in the axils of the outer scales of 
leaf-bearing buds, short-pedicellate, the. pistillate or perfect on elongated puber- 
ulous pedicels in the axils of leaves of the year in 1-3-flowered fascicles; pedicels 
without bracts; calyx campanulate, divided nearly to the base into 4 or 5 lobes 
rounded at the apex, greenish yellow often tinged with red; stamens inserted under 
the ovary in the pistillate flower, sometimes few or 0; filaments filiform, erect, 
exserted; anthers broadly ovate, emarginate, cordate; ovary ovate, stipitate, gland- 
ular-tuberculate, narrowed into a short style divided into 2 elongated reflexed 
stigmas papillo-stigmatic on the inner face, in the staminate flower; ovule, anatro- 
pous; micropyle extrorse, superior. Fruit an oblong oblique drupe, narrowed below 
into a short stipe, inclosed at the base by the withered calyx crowned by the rem- 
nants of the style, its pericarp cnistaceous, prominently ribbed on the anterior 
and posterior faces, irregularly tuberculate, with elongated projections, and light 
chestnut-brown; seed ovate, oblique, pointed at the apex, rounded below, without 
albumen; testa thin, lustrous, dark brown or nearly black, of two coats; raphe 
inconspicuous; embryo erect; cotyledons thick, unequal, bright orange color, the 
apex of the larger hooded and slightly infolding the smaller, much longer than 
the minute radicle turned toward the linear pale hilum. 

The genus is represented by a single species. 

The generic name is in memory of Johann Jacob Planer, a German botanist and 
physician of the eighteenth century. 

1. Planera aquatica, Gmel. "Water Elm. 

Leaves 2'-2^' long, '-!' wide, on petioles varying from ^'-^' in length, dark 
dull green on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, with yellow midribs and 
veins. Flowers appearing with the leaves. Fruit ripening in April, ' long. 



A tree, 30-40 high, with a short trunk rarely exceeding 20' in diameter, rather 
slender spreading branches forming a low broad head, and brauchlets brown tinged 




298 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

with red when they first appear, dark red during their first winter, and ultimately 
reddish brown or ashy gray. Bark about \' thick, light brown or gray, separating 
into large scales disclosing in falling the red-brown inner bark. Wood light, soft, 
not strong, close-grained, light brown, with thick nearly white sapwood of 20-30 
layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Swamps covered with water during several mouths of every year, 
from the valley of the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, to western Florida, and 
through southern Alabama and Mississippi to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, 
and northward through western Louisiana and Arkansas to southern Missouri, cen- 
tral Kentucky, and the valley of the lower Wabash River, Illinois; comparatively 
rare, and only in the neighborhood of the coast in the Atlantic and east Gulf states; 
abundant and of its largest size in western Louisiana and southern Arkansas. 

3. CELTIS, L. 

Trees or shrubs, with thin, smooth often more or less muricate bark, unarmed 
or spinose branchlets, and scaly buds. Leaves serrate or entire, 3 or rarely 4 or 
5-nerved, membranaceous or subcoriaceous, deciduous; stipules lateral, free, usually 
scarious, inclosing their leaf in the bud, caducous. Flowers polygamo-mouoecious or 
rarely monoecious, appearing soon after the unfolding of the leaves, minute, pedi- 
cellate on branches of the year, the staminate cymose or fascicled at their base, the 
pistillate solitary or in few-flowered fascicles from the axils of upper leaves; calyx 
divided nearly to the base into 4 or 5 lobes, greenish yellow, deciduous; stamens in- 
serted on the margin of the discoid torus; filaments subulate, incurved in the bud, 
those of the sterile flower straightening themselves abruptly and becoming erect 
and exserted, shorter and remaining recurved in the perfect flower; anthers ovate, 
attached on the back just above the emarginate base; ovary ovate, sessile, green and 
lustrous, crowned with a short sessile style divided into diverging elongated reflexed 
acuminate entire lobes papillo-stigmatic on the inner face and mature before the 
anthers of the sterile flower, deciduous; minute and rudimentary in the staminate 
flower; ovule anatropous. Fruit an ovoid or globoate drupe tipped with the remnants 
of the style, with thin flesh covered by a thick firm skin, and a thick-walled bony 
smooth or rugose nutlet. Seed filling the seminal cavity; albumen scanty, gelati- 
nous, nearly inclosed between the folds of the cotyledons, or 0; testa membra- 
naceous, of 2 confluent coats; chalaza colored, close to the minute hilum; embryo 
curved; cotyledons broad, foliaceous, conduplicate Or rarely flat, variously folded, 
corrugate, incumbent, or inclosing the short superior ascending radicle. 

Celtis is widely distributed through the temperate and tropical regions of the 
world, fifty or sixty species being distinguished. The North American species vary 
greatly in the form of their leaves in different parts of the country, and it is not 
improbable that a larger number of species than are here enumerated may be conven- 
iently recognized when these trees can be more fully studied. 

Celtis was the classical name of a species of Lotus. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sharply and coarsely serrate. 

1 C. occidentalis (A, B, C, F). 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, entire or occasionally obscurely and 
remotely serrate, thin or in one form subcoriaceous. 

2. C. Mississippiensis (A, C, E, G, H). 



ULMACEJE 



299 



1. Celtis occidentalis, L. Hackberry. Sugarberry. 

Leaves broadly ovate, more or less falcate, gradually or abruptly contracted into 
long narrow points, rounded and usually very oblique at the base, coarsely serrate, 
with callous-tipped teeth except at the entire ends, 3-ribbed, when they unfold pale 
yellow-green, coated on the lower surface with soft silky white hairs and pilose on 
the upper surface, at maturity thin, light green and lustrous, smooth, scabrate or 
scabrous above, paler and glabrous or slightly hairy below on the prominent midribs 
and primary veins, arcuate and united near the margins and connected by con- 
spicuous reticulate veinlets, 2^'^t' long, l'-2' wide, turning light yellow late in the 
autumn before falling; their petioles slender, hairy, '-f long; stipules linear, 
strap-shaped, white and scarious, nearly ^' long, or on sterile shoots ovate, acute, 
concave, sometimes f long and \' wide. Flowers on slender drooping pedicles; 
calyx divided usually into 5 linear acute thin and scarious lobes rounded on the 




back, more or less laciniately cut at the apex, tinged with red, and often furnished 
with a tuft of pale hairs; torus hoary-tomentose. Fruit on slender stem ^'-f long) 
ripening in September and October and often remaining on the branches during the 
winter, oblong, about \ f long, dark purple, with a thick tough skin, dark orange-colored 
flesh, and a smooth thick- walled oblong pointed light brown nut; seed pale brown. 
A tree, sometimes 130 high, with a straight slender trunk 2^-3 in diameter, 
often free of branches for 70 or 80, and slender slightly zigzag and glabrous or 
puberulous branchlets containing a thick light-colored pith, light green when they 
first appear, gradually becoming tinged with red and in their first winter bright red- 
brown, rather lustrous, and marked by horizontal semioval or oblong leaf-scars show- 
ing the ends of 3 fibro-vascular bundles, darker in their second or third year, and 
ultimately dark brown slightly tinged with red; usually much smaller and in the 
eastern states generally short-trnnked, with stout spreading ri<;id or frequently pen- 
dulous branches forming a handsome round-topped tree. Winter-buds ovate, 
pointed, flattened, about \' long, with 3 pairs of chestnut-brown ovate acute pubes- 
cent caducous scales closely imbricated in '2 ranks, inereasing in size from without 
inward and gradually passing into the stipules of the lower leaves. Bark I'-l^' thick, 



300 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



light brown or silvery gray, broken on the surface into thick appressed scales, and 
sometimes roughened by irregular wart-like excrescences or ridges also found on 
the large branches. Wood heavy, rather soft, not strong, coarse-grained, clear light 
yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used for fencing and in the 
manufacture of cheap furniture. 

Distribution. Valley of the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, westward to 
southern Ontario, and in the United States from the shores of Massachusetts Bay to 
northwestern Nebraska, North Dakota, southern Idaho, eastern Washington and 
Oregon, western Washington, Nevada, New Mexico, and southward to the shores of 
Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano, Florida, and to Missouri and eastern Texas; rare 
east of the Hudson River, more abundant in western New York and the middle 
states, and of its largest size on the rich bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin ; grow- 
ing usually in rich moist soil and often, especially in the east, on dry gravelly or 
rocky hillsides; west of the Rocky Mountains, a small tree or shrub rarely 30 high, 
with thick rigid scabrous reticulate leaves, exceedingly rare and only on the banks 
of streams. A dwarf shrubby form found usually on the rocky banks of streams 
with stems 4-10 tall and small usually rugose leaves is not uncommon in the south 
Atlantic states, ranging westward to Missouri, Colorado, Utah, and Nevada (var. 
pumila, Gray). 

Often planted as a shade and ornamental tree in the states between the Mississippi 
River and the Rocky Mountains and occasionally in the eastern states and in Europe. 

2. Celtis Mississippiensis, Bosc. Sugarberry. Hackberry. 

Leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, long-pointed, more or less falcate, unequally 
rounded or very oblique or unequally wedge-shaped at the base, entire or occasion- 
ally serrate, with minute incurved teeth, or rarely furnished above the middle 




with 1 or 2 broad sharp teeth, when they unfold light yellow-green and nearly 
glabrous or coated with pale pubescence, at maturity firm, smooth, glabrous, dark 
green on the upper and pale on the lower surface, 3'-4' long, f'-3' wide, with nar- 
row yellow midribs and slender veins arcuate and united near the margins and con- 
nected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets; their petioles slender, \'-\' long; stipules 
linear-strap-shaped, coated with soft white hairs. Flowers on slender hirsute ped- 
icels; calyx divided into 5 ovate lanceolate glabrous or puberulous scarious lobes 



ULMACE.E 301 

furnished at the apex with tufts of long white hairs. Fruit ovate, ^'-\' long, bright 
orange-red, with thin dry flesh and a smooth light brown nut. 

A tree, G0-80 high, with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, spreading sometimes 
pendulous branches forming a broad and often graceful head, and brauchlets light 
gref n, glabrous or covered with pale pubescence when they first appear, bright red- 
dish brown, rather lustrous, and marked by oblong pale lenticels and narrow elevated 
horizontal leaf-scars showing the ends of 3 fibro-vaseular bundles during their first 
winter; often much smaller and sometimes shrubby. Winter-buds ovate, pointed, 
t y-jf' long, with chestnut-brown puberulous scales. Bark '-' thick, light blue- 
green, and covered with prominent excrescences. Wood rather soft, not strong, 
close-grained, light yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood; confounded com- 
mercially with the wood of Celtis occidental!* and used for the same purposes. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands and the banks of streams or occasionally dry 
limestone hills from southern Indiana and Illinois through Kentucky, Tennessee, and 
Alabama to the shores of Bay Biscayne, Florida, and through Missouri, Arkansas, 
and Texas to Nuevo Leon; also in Bermuda; very abundant and of its largest size 
in the basin of the Lower Ohio River; the common species in central and western 
Kentucky and Tennessee; rare in the Gulf states; exceedingly common west of the 
Mississippi River, especially in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, and in Xuevo Leon. 
In Texas gradually passing into a form with thicker and more conspicuously reticu- 
late-venulose leaves. This is 

Celtis Mississippieiisis, var. reticulata, Sarg. 

Leaves broadly ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded or cordate and usually oblique 
and very unequal at the base, entire or rarely furnished above the middle with few 
large teeth, thick and coriaceous, dark green and glabrous or scabrate above, pale 




yellow-green, glabrous or hirsute, and covered by a network of prominent yellow 
veinlets below. Fruit \'-\' long, dark orange-red. 

A small bushy tree, 40-50 high, with stout branches, a short trunk covered with 
smooth blue-gray bark roughened by prominent excrescences usually interrupted or 
broken into short lengths; in arid regions often a low shrub. 

Distribution. Texas, in the neighborhood of Dallas, southward to the Rio 



302 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Grande, and westward through New Mexico and Arizona to southern Utah and 
Nevada, and the western rim of the Colorado Desert in California; and in Lower 
California; in eastern Texas usually on dry limestone hills; westward only near the 
banks of streams in mountain canons. 

I 

XII. MORACE-S3. 

Trees or shrubs, with milky juice, scaly or naked buds, and stalked alter- 
nate simple leaves with stipules. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, in ament- 
like spikes or heads on the outside of a receptacle or on the inside of a closed 
receptacle ; calyx of the staminate flower 3 or 4-lobed or parted ; stamens 1-4 
inserted on the base of the calyx ; calyx of the pistillate flower of 3-5 partly 
united sepals ; ovary 1-2 celled ; styles 1 or 2 ; ovule pendulous. Fruits dru- 
paceous, inclosed in the thickened calyx of the flower and united into a com- 
pound fruit. The Mulberry family is widely distributed with fifty-four genera 
confined largely to the warmer parts of the world. Three genera only, all 
arborescent, are indigenous in North America, although Broussonetia papyri- 
fera, Vent., the Paper Mulberry, a tree related to the Mulberry and a native 
of eastern Asia, and the Hop and the Hemp are more or less generally natural- 
ized in the eastern and southern states. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Flowers on the outside of the receptacle ; buds scaly. 

Flowers in ament-like spikes; compound fruit oblong and succulent. 1. Morus. 

Staminate flowers racemose, the pistillate capitate ; compound fruit dry and globose. 

2. Toxylon. 

Flowers on the inside of a closed receptacle ; buds naked ; compound fruit subglobose to 
ovoid, succulent. 3. Ficus. 

1. MORUS, L. Mulberry. 

Trees or shrubs, with slender terete unarmed branches prolonged by one of the 
upper axillary buds, scaly bark, and fibrous roots. Winter-buds covered by ovate 
scales closely imbricated in 2 ranks, increasing in size from without inward, the 
inner accrescent, marking in falling the base of the branch with ring-like scars. 
Leaves conduplicate in the bud, alternate, serrate, entire or 3-lobed, 3-5-nerved at 
the base, membranaceous or subcoriaceous, deciduous; stipules inclosing their leaf 
in the bud, lateral, lanceolate, acute, caducous. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, 
the staminate and pistillate on different branches of the same plant or on different 
plants, minute, vernal, in pedunculate clusters from the axils of caducous bud-scales 
or of the lower leaves of the year, the staminate in elongated cylindrical spikes; 
calyx deeply divided into 4 equal rounded lobes; stamens 4, inserted opposite the 
lobes of the calyx under the minute rudimentary ovary; filaments filiform, incurved 
in the bud, straightening elastically and becoming exserted; anthers attached on 
the back below the middle, introrse, 2-celled, the cells reniform, attached laterally to 
the orbicular connective, opening longitudinally; the pistillate sessile, in short- 
oblong densely flowered spikes; calyx 4-parted, the lobes ovate or obovate, thick- 
ened, often unequal, the 2 outer broader than the others, persistent; ovary ovoid 
flat, sessile, included in the calyx, crowned by a central style divided nearly to the 
base into 2 equal spreading filiform villous white stigmatic lobes; ovule suspended 
from the apex of the cell, campylotropous; micropyle superior. Drupes ovate or 



MORACE^ 



303 






obovate, crowned with the remnants of the styles, inclosed in the succulent thick- 
ened and colored perianth of the Mower and more or less united into a more or less 
juicy compound fruit (syncarp); flesh subsucculent, thin; walls of the nutlet thin or 
thick, crustaceous. Seed oblong, pendulous; testa thin, membranaceous; hilum 
minute, apical; embryo incurved in thick fleshy albumen; cotyledons oblong, equal; 
radicle ascending, incumbent. 

Morus with six or seven species is confined to eastern temperate North America, 
the elevated regions of Mexico, Central America and western South America, western 
Asia, Indo-China, Japan, and the high mountains of the Indian Archipelago. Two 
species occur in North America. The most valuable species, Morus alba, L., a native 
of northern China and Japan, and largely cultivated in many countries for its leaves, 
which are the best food of the silkworm, has been planted in large quantities in the 
eastern United States; and 3forus nigra, L., probably a native of Persia, has been 
introduced into the southern and Pacific states for its large dark-colored juicy fruit. 
Morus produces straight-grained durable light brown or orange-colored valuable 
wood, and sweet acidulous and refreshing fruits. 

Morus is the classical name of the Mulberry-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves coated below with pale pubescence ; lobes of the stigma long ; fruit oblong, dark 
purple. 1. M. rubra (A, C). 

Leaves glabrous or pubescent on the lower surface ; lobes of the stigma short ; fruit sub- 
globose or short ovate, nearly black. 2. M. celtidifolia (C, E, II). 

1. Morus rubra, L. Red Mulberry. 

Leaves ovate, oblong-ovate or semiorbicular, abruptly contracted into long broad 
points or acute at the apex, more or less deeply cordate or occasionally truncate at 





the base, coarsely and occasionally doubly serrate, with incurved callous-tipped teeth, 
often, especially on vigorous young shoots, ,'Mobed by broad deep oblique lateral 
rounded sinuses, when they unfold yellow-green, slightly pilose on the Upper sur- 
face and hoary-tomentose on the lower surface, at maturity thin, dark bluish green, 



304 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

glabrous, smooth, or scabrate above, pale and more or less pubescent below, with 
short white hairs thickest on the orange-colored midribs and primary veins arcuate 
and united near the margins and connected by reticulate veinlets, or sometimes 
hoary-tomentose below, 3'-5' long, 2'-4' broad, turning bright yellow in the autumn; 
their petioles stout, hoary-tomentose at first, becoming glabrous, f'-l^'long; stipules 
lanceolate, acute, abruptly enlarged and thickened at the base, sometimes tinged 
with red above the middle, coated with long white hairs, and often V in length. 
Flowers appearing with the unfolding of the leaves, staminate in narrow spikes 
2'-2' long, on stout light green peduncles covered with pale hairs; calyx divided 
nearly to the base into 4 oblong concave lobes rounded at the apex and hirsute on 
the outer surface; stamens with slightly flattened filaments narrowed from the 
base to the apex, and bright green anthers, their connectives orbicular, conspicuous, 
bright green; pistillate in oblong densely flowered spikes, 1' long, on short hairy 
peduncles, a few male flowers being sometimes mixed with them; calyx divided nearly 
to the base into 4 thick concave lobes rounded at the apex, rounded or slightly keeled 
on the back, the 2 outer lobes twice as wide as the others, as long as and closely 
investing the glabrous light green ovary. Fruit: syncarp at first bright red when 
fully grown, I'-l^' long, becoming dark purple or nearly black and sweet and juicy 
when fully ripe; drupes about -fa' long, with a thin fleshy outer coat and a light 
brown nutlet; seed ovate, acute, with a thin membranaceous light brown coat. 

A tree, 60-70 high, with a short trunk rarely exceeding 3-4 in diameter, stout 
spreading smooth branches forming a dense broad round-topped shapely head, and 
slender slightly zigzag branchlets dark green often tinged with red, glabrous, more 
or less coated with pale pubescence, and covered with oblong straw-colored spots 
when they first appear, becoming in their first winter light red-brown to orange 
color and marked by pale lenticels and by large elevated horizontal nearly orbicular 
concave leaf-scars displaying a row of prominent fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and in 
their second and third years dark brown slightly tinged with red. Winter-buds 
ovate, rounded or pointed at the apex, \' long, with 6 or 7 chestnut-brown scales, 
those of the outer rows broadly ovate, rounded, and slightly thickened on the back, 
puberulous, ciliate on the margins, and much shorter than those of the next rows, 
the inner scales scarious, coated with pale hairs, oblong-lanceolate, rounded or acute 
at the apex, and ^'-f ' long at maturity. Bark ^'-f ' thick, dark brown tinged with 
red and divided into irregular elongated plates separating on the surface into thick 
appressed scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, rather tough, coarse-grained, very 
durable, light orange color, with thick lighter colored sapwood; largely used for 
fencing, in cooperage, and in ship and boatbuilding. 

Distribution. Intervales in rich soil and on low hills; western Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, and Long Island to southern Ontario and central Michigan, southeast- 
ern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and southward to the shores of Bay Biscayne and 
Cape Romano, Florida, and to the valley of the Colorado River, Texas; most abun- 
dant and of its largest size in the basin of the lower Ohio River and on the foothills 
of the southern Appalachian Mountains. 

Occasionally planted, especially in the southern states, for its fruit valued for fat- 
tening hogs and as food for poultry. A few natural varieties, distinguished for the 
large size and good quality of their fruit, or for their productiveness, are occasion- 
ally propagated by pomologists. 



MORACE^E 



305 



2. Morus celtidifolia, H. B. K. Mulberry. Mexican Mulberry. 
Leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded or rarely truncate, or often on vigor- 
ous shoots cordate at the broad base, and 3-lobed, with shallow lateral sinuses and 
broad coarsely serrate lobes, when they unfold coated below with pale tomentum, and 
puberulous above, at maturity thin and firm in texture, dark green and often rough- 
ened on the upper surface, with minute pale tubercles, and paler, smooth or scabrate, 




and glabrous or coated with soft pubescence on the lower surface, and often hirsute, 
with short stiff pale hairs on the broad orange-colored midribs and primary veins 
connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets, in the United States rarely more than 
1^' long and f wide, turning yellow in the autumn; their petioles slender, hoary- 
tomentose, becoming pubescent, ^' long, and on trees cultivated in northern Mexico 
often 4' -5' long, and 2' 3' wide; stipules linear-lanceolate, acute, sometimes falcate, 
white, and scarious, coated with soft pale tomentum, about ^' long. Flowers usu- 
ally dioecious, staminate short-pedicellate, in short many-flowered spikes, '-f ' long, 
calyx dark green, covered on the outer surface with soft pale hairs, deeply divided 
into 4 equal rounded lobes reddish toward the apex; stamens with bright yellow 
anthers, their connectives conspicuous, dark green; pistillate sessile, in few-flow- 
ered spikes, rarely ^' long; calyx divided to the base into 4 thick rounded lobes, the 
2 outer lobes much broader than the others, dark green, covered with pale scat- 
tered hairs; ovary green and glabrous, with short stigmatic lobes. Fruit : syncarp 
\ long, dark purple or nearly black, sweet and palatable; drupe "2 lines long, ovate, 
rounded at the ends, with a thin fleshy outer covering and a thick-walled light brown 
nutlet; seed ovate, pointed, pale yellow. 

A tree, sometimes 30 high, with a trunk occasionally 12'-14' in diameter, and slen- 
der branchlets covered when they first appear with soft white hairs, soon becoming 
glabrous or nearly so, and in their first winter light orange-red and marked by small 
lenticels, and by small horizontal nearly obicular elevated concave leaf-scars display- 
ing a ring of fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Winter-buds ovate, acute, sharp-pointed, 
and covered by thin lustrous chestnut-brown ovate rounded scales scarious on the 
margins, those of the inner rows ovate-oblong, rounded at the apex, pale-pubescent 
on the outer surface, and nearly V long when fully grown. Bark smooth, some- 



306 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

times nearly % thick but usually thinner, light gray slightly tinged with red, deeply 
furrowed and broken on the surface into slightly appressed scales. Wood heavy, 
hard, close-grained, dark orange color or sometimes dark brown, with thick light- 
colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Dry limestone hills, or westward only in elevated mountain canons 
in the neighborhood of streams; from the valley of the Colorado River, Texas, south- 
ward into Mexico, and through the mountain regions of western Texas and southern 
New Mexico to the Santa Rita Mountains of Arizona; common on the mountain 
ranges of northern Mexico from Nuevo Leon to Chihuahua, and southward through 
southern Mexico and Central America to Peru. 

Frequently planted in the countries south of the United States as a fruit-tree. 

2. TOXYLON, Raf. 

A tree, with thick milky slightly acrid juice, thick deeply furrowed dark orange- 
colored bark, stout tough terete pale branchlets, with thick orange-colored pith, 
lengthening by an upper axillary bud, marked by pale orange-colored lenticels and 
armed with stout straight axillary spines, short stout spur-like lateral branchlets from 
buds at the base of the spines, and thick fleshy roots covered by bright orange-colored 
bark exfoliating freely in long thin persistent papery scales. Leaves involute in the 
bud, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate and apiculate at the apex, rounded, wedge- 
shaped or subcordate at the base, entire, penniveined, the veins arcuate near the mar- 
gins and connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets; their petioles elongated, slen- 
der, terete, pubescent; stipules lateral, nearly triangular, minute, hoary-tomentose, 
caducous. Flowers dioecious, light green, minute, appearing in early summer; calyx 
4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in aestivation; corolla 0; thestaminate long-pedicellate, 
in short or ultimately elongated racemes borne on long slender drooping peduncles 
from the axils of crowded leaves on the spur-like branchlets of the previous year; 
calyx ovate, gradually narrowed into the slender pubescent pedicel, coated on the 
outer surface with pale hairs, divided to the middle into equal acute boat-shaped lobes; 
stamens 4, inserted opposite the lobes of the calyx on the margins of the minute thin 
pulvinate disk; filaments flattened, light green, glabrous, infolded above the middle 
in the bud, with the anthers inverted and back to back, straightening abruptly in 
anthesis and becoming exserted; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the mid- 
dle, introrse, 2-celled, the cells attached laterally to a minute oblong or semiorbicular 
connective, free and spreading above and below, opening by longitudinal lateral slits; 
the pistillate sessile in dense globose inanv-flowered heads on short stout peduncles 
axillary on shoots of the year; calyx ovate, divided to the base into oblong thick con- 
cave lobes, rounded, thickened, and covered with pale hairs at the apex, longer than 
the ovary and closely investing it, the 2 outer lobes much broader than the others, 
persistent and inclosing the fruit; ovary ovate, compressed, sessile, green, and gla- 
brous; style covered by elongated slender filiform white stigmatic hairs; ovule sus- 
pended from the apex of the cell, anatropous. Drupes oblong, compressed, rounded 
and often notched at the apex, acute at the base, with thin succulent flesh, and a 
thin crustaceous light brown nutlet, joined by the union of the thickened and much 
elongated perianths of the flowers into a globose compound fruit saturated with 
milky juice, mammillate on the surface by their thickened rounded summits, light 
yellow-green, usually of full size but seedless on isolated pistillate individuals. Seed 
oblong, compressed, rounded at the base, oblique and marked at the apex by the 



MORACE.E 



307 



conspicuous oblong pale hiluin, without albumen; seed-coat membranaceous, light 
chestnut-brown; embryo recurved; cotyledons oblong, nearly equal; radicle elon- 
gated, incumbent, ascending. 

The genus is represented by a single species of eastern North America. 

The generic name, from r6^oy and v\ov, alludes to the Indian use of the wood. 

1. Toxylon pomiferum, Raf. Osage Orange. Bow Wood. 

Leaves 3'-5' long, 2'-3' wide, turning bright clear yellow before falling in the 
autumn ; their petioles l^'-2' long. Flowers : racemes of the staminate flowers 
!'-!' long; heads of the pistillate flowers, f'-l' in diameter. Fruit 4'-5' in diam- 
eter, ripening in the autumn, and soon falling to the ground. 

A tree, sometimes oO-60 high, with a short trunk 2-3 in diameter, and stout 
erect ultimately spreading branches forming a handsome open irregular round- 
topped head, and branchlets light green often tinged with red and coated with soft 
pale pubescence when they first appear, soon becoming glabrous, light brown slightly 
tinged with orange color during their first winter, and ultimately paler. Winter- 
buds depressed-globose, partly immersed in the bark, covered by few closely imbri- 
cated ovate rounded light chestnut-brown ciliate conspicuous scales. Bark '-!' 
thick and deeply and irregularly divided into broad rounded ridges separating 011 




the surface into thin appressed scales. Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, 
flexible, coarse-grained, very durable, bright orange color turning brown on expos- 
ure, with thin light yellow sapwood of 5-10 layers of annual growth; largely used 
for fence-posts, railway-ties, wheel-stock, and formerly by the Osage and other 
Indians west of the Mississippi River for bows and war-clubs. The bark of the roots 
contains moric and morintannic acid, and is used as a yellow dye. The bark of the 
trunk is sometimes used in tanning leather. 

Distribution. Rich bottom-lands; southern Arkansas to the southern portions of 
the Indian Territory, southward in Texas to about latitude 35 36'; most abundant 
and of its largest size in the valley of the Red River in the Indian Territory. 

Largely planted in the prairie regions of the Mississippi basin as a hedge plant, 
and occasionally in the eastern states; hardy in New England. 



308 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

3. FICUS, L. Fig. 

Trees, with milky juice, naked buds, stout branchlets, thick fleshy roots frequently 
produced from the branches and developing into supplementary stems. Leaves alter- 
nate, involute in the bud, entire, penniveined, persistent; stipules inclosing the leaf 
in a slender sharp-pointed bud-like cover, interpetiolar, embracing the leaf-bearing 
axis and inclosing the young leaves, deciduous. Flower-bearing receptacle subglobose 
to ovoid, sessile or stalked, solitary by abortion or in pairs in the axils of existing or 
fallen leaves, surrounded at the base by 3 anterior bracts distinct or united into an 
involucral cup bearing on the interior at the apex numerous rows of minute trian- 
gular viscid bracts closing the orifice, those of the lower rows turned downward and 
infolding the upper flowers, those immediately above these horizontal and forming 
a more or less prominent umbilicus. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, the pedicels 
thickening and becoming succulent with the ripening of the fruit, unisexual, often sep- 
arated by chaffy scales or hairs; calyx of the staminate flower usually divided into 
2-6 sepals; stamens 1; filaments short, erect; anther innate, ovate, broad and sub- 
rotund, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally, in the pistillate flower; sepals or 
lobes of the calyx of the pistillate flower usually narrower than those of the stami- 
nate flower; ovary sessile, erect, or oblique, surmounted by the lateral elongated 
style crowned by a 2-lobed stigma; ovule suspended from the apex or lateral below 
the apex of the cell, anatropous. Fruit drupaceous, mostly immersed in the thick- 
ened succulent receptacle, obovoid or reniform; flesh thin, mucilaginous; nutlet with 
a flat crustaceous minutely tuberculate shell. Seed suspended ; testa membranaceous; 
embryo incurved, in thin fleshy albumen; cotyledons equal or unequal, longer than 
the incumbent radicle. 

Ficus, of which six hundred species have been described, is largely distributed 
through the tropics of both hemispheres, the largest number of species being found 
on the islands of the Indian Archipelago and the Pacific Ocean. A few species extend 
beyond the tropics into southern Florida, Mexico, Argentina, southern Japan and 
China, the countries bordering the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands, and South 
Africa. Two species of the section Urostigma with monoecious flowers occur in trop- 
ical Florida. Ficus Carica, L., probably a native of the Mediterranean basin, is cul- 
tivated in the southern states and in California for its large sweet succulent fruits, 
the figs of commerce. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Receptacles subglobose, sessile or short-stalked; leaves oblong, usually pointed at the 
ends. 1. F. aurea (D). 

Receptacles oblong, long or short-stalked ; leaves broadly ovate, cordate at the base. 

2. F. populnea (D). 

1. Ficus aurea, Nutt. Wild Fig. 

Leaves oblong, usually narrowed at the ends, acute or acuminate, with short 
broad points at the apex, wedge-shaped or rarely broad and rounded at the base, 
2'-5' long, l^'-3' wide, thick and coriaceous, dark yellow-green and lustrous above, 
paler and less lustrous below, with broad light yellow midribs slightly grooved on 
the upper side and numerous obscure primary veins arcuate and united near the 
margins, and connected by fine closely reticulated veinlets, continuing to unfold 
during a large part of the year, and usually falling during their second season; their 



MORACE.E 309 

petioles stout, slightly grooved, ^'-1' long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, thick, firm, 
tinged with red, about 1' long. Flowers: receptacles developing in succession as the 
branch lengthens, axillary, subglobose, sessile or short-pedunculate, solitary or in pairs, 
the lateral orifice closed arid marked by a small point formed by the union of the 




minute bracts, becoming ' in diameter and yellow when fully grown, ultimately turn- 
ing bright red; flowers reddish purple, separated by minute reddish chaff-like scales 
more or less laciniate at the apex, sessile or long-pedicellate; calyx of the staminate 
flower divided to below the middle into 2 or 3 broad lobes rather shorter than the 
stout flattened filament; lobes of the anther oblong, attached laterally to the broad 
connective; calyx of the pistillate flower divided to the middle into 4 or 5 narrow 
lobes, closely investing the ovate sessile ovary. Fruit ovate, immersed in the thick- 
ened reddish purple walls of the receptacle; seed ovate, rounded at the ends, with 
a thin light brown coat and a large lateral oblong pale hilum. 

A broad round-topped parasitic tree, 50-60 high, germinating and growing at 
first on the branches and trunks of other trees and sending down to the ground stout 
aerial roots which gradually growing together form a trunk often 3-4 in diame- 
ter, the growth of additional roots from the branches extending the tree over a large 
area, and stout terete pithy light orange-colored branchlets marked by pale lenti- 
cels, conspicuous stipular scars, large slightly elevated horizontal oval leaf-scars 
displaying a marginal ring of large pale fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and smaller 
elevated concave circular scars left by the receptacles in falling. Bark smooth, 
ashy gray, light brown tinged with red, ' thick, and broken on the surface into 
minute appressed scales disclosing in falling the nearly black inner bark. Wood 
exceedingly light, soft, very weak, coarse-grained, very perishable in contact with the 
ground, light brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood. 

Distribution. Hummocks on the shores and islands of southern Florida; from 
the Indian River on the east coast and Tampa Bay on the west coast, to the south- 
ern keys, attaining its largest size in the neighborhood of Bay Biscayne; on the 
Bahama Islands. 



310 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

2. Ficus populnea, Willd. Fig. Wild Fig. 

Leaves broadly ovate or rarely obovate, contracted into short broad points or 
occasionally rounded at the apex, rounded, truncate or cordate at the base, 2'-5' 
long, l^'-5' wide, thin and firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, 
paler on the lower, with light yellow midribs, slender remote primary veins arcuate 
and united near the margins and connected by finely reticulate veinlets ; their peti- 
oles slender, sometimes V long; stipules ovate-lanceolate, \' long, tinged with red. 
Flowers: receptacles obovate, axillary, solitary or in pairs, yellow until fully 
grown, ultimately turning bright red and becoming \'-% long, on stout drooping 
peduncles \'-V in length; flowers sessile or pedicellate, separated by minute chaff- 
like scales more or less laciniate at the apex; calyx of the staminate flower divided 
nearly to the base into three or four broad acute lobes; calyx of the pistillate flower 
with narrow lobes shorter than the ovate pointed ovary. Fruit ovate; seed ovate, 
with a membranaceous light brown coat and an oblong lateral pale hilum. 

An epiphytal tree, rarely 40-50 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, spreading 
branches occasionally developing aerial roots and forming an open irregular head, and 




stout terete branchlets light red and slightly puberulous when they first appear, 
becoming brown tinged with orange and later with red, and marked by minute pale 
lenticels, narrow stipular scars, large elevated horizontal oval or semiorbicular leaf- 
scars showing a marginal row of conspicuous fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and ele- 
vated concave receptacle scars. Wood light, soft, close-grained, light orange-brown 
or yellow, with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood. 

Distribution. Usually on dry slightly elevated coral rocks; comparatively rare 
in Florida from the shores of Bay Biscayne and on several of the keys to Key West; 
in the West Indies. 



POLYGONAC^E 311 

Section 3. Flowers perfect or unisexual ; calyx 5-lobed ; 
ovary superior, 1-celled ; ovule solitary, rising from the bottom 
of the cell ; fruit inclosed in the thickened calyx ; leaves per- 
sistent. 

XIII. POLYGONACE^l. 

Trees, with alternate coriaceous stalked leaves, their stipules sheathing the 
stem. Flowers perfect ; calyx 5-lobed ; stamens 8 ; ovary 3-celled ; ovule 
orthotropous. Fruit a nutlet, inclosed in the thickened calyx-tube ; seed erect ; 
embryo axillary in ruminate farinaceous albumen ; radicle superior, ascending, 
turned toward the hilum. Of this, the Buckwheat family with thirty widely 
distributed genera, only Coccolobis is arborescent in North America. 

1. COCCOLOBIS, P. Br. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves coriaceous, entire, orbicular, ovate, obovate, or lanceolate, 
petiolate, their stipules inclosing the braucli above the node with membrauaceous trun- 
cate entire brown persistent sheaths. Flowers jointed on ebracteolate pedicels, in 1 
or few-flowered fascicles subtended by a minute bract and surrounded by a narrow 
truncate membranaceous sheath, each pedicel and those above it being surrounded 
by a similar sheath, the fascicles gathered in elongated terminal and axillary racemes 
inclosed at the base in the sheath of the nearest leaf and sometimes also in a sepa- 
rate sheath; calyx cup-shaped, the lobes ovate, rounded, thin, and white, reflexed after 
anthesis, and thickening and inclosing the nut; stamens with filiform or subulate 
filaments dilated and united at the base into a short discoid cup adnate to the tube 
of the calyx; anthers ovate, introrse, 2-cell'ed, the cells parallel, opening longitudi- 
nally; ovary free, sessile, 3-angled, contracted into a short stout style, divided into 
three short or elongated -stigmatic lobes. Fruit ovoid or globose, rounded or acute 
and crowned at the apex by the persistent lobes of the calyx, narrowed at the base; 
flesh thin and acidulous, more or less adnate to the thin crustaceous or bony wall of 
the nutlet often divided on the inner surface near the base into several more or less 
intrusive plates. Seed subglobose, acuminate at the apex, 3-6-lobed; testa membra- 
naceous, minutely pitted, dark red-brown, and lustrous. 

Coccolobis is confined to the tropics of the New World, with about one hundred 
and twenty species distributed from southern Florida to Mexico, Central America, 
Brazil, and'Peru. It possesses astringent properties sometimes utilized in medicine. 
Many of the species produce hard dark valuable wood. 

Coccolobis, from jrrfKKor and \o&6s, is in allusion to the character of the fruit. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Fruits crowded, in drooping racemes ; leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular, cordate at the 
base. 1. C. uvifera (D). 

Fruits not crowded, in erect or spreading racemes ; leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate. 

2. C. laurifolia (D). 

1. Coccolobis uvifera, Jacq. Sea Grape. 

Leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular, rounded or sometimes short-pointed at 
the apex, deeply cordate at the base, with undulate margins, thick and coriaceous, 
minutely reticulate-venulose. dark green and lustrous above, paler and puberulous 



312 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

below, 4'-5' long, 5'-6' wide, with stout often bright red midribs frequently covered 
below with pale hairs, and about 5 pairs of conspicuous primary veins red on the 
upper side, arcuate near the margins and couriected by cross veinlets, gradually turn- 
ing red or scarlet and falling during their second or third years; their petioles 
short, stout, flattened, puberulous, abruptly enlarged at the base, leaving in falling 




large pale elevated orbicular or semiorbicular scars; stipular sheath \ r broad, slightly 
puberulous, persistent during 2 or 3 years. Flowers appearing almost continually 
throughout the year on slender puberulous pedicels ' long, in 1-6-flowered subses- 
sile fascicles, in terminal and axillary thick-stemmed many-flowered racemes 6'-14' 
long; calyx ^' across when expanded, the lobes puberulous on the inner surface and 
rather longer than the red stamens; ovary oblong, with short stigmatic lobes. Fruit 
crowded, in long hanging racemes, ovoid to obovoid, |' long, gradually narrowed 
into a stalk-like base, purple or greenish white, translucent, with thin juicy flesh, and 
a thin-walled light red nutlet. 

A tree, in Florida rarely more than 15 high, with a short gnarled contorted trunk 
3-4 in diameter, stout branches forming a round compact head, and stout terete 
branchlets, with thick pith, light orange color, marked by oblong pale lenticels, 
gradually growing darker in their second and third years; frequently a shrub, with 
semiprostrate stems; in the West Indies often 50 tall. Bark about T y thick, 
smooth, light brown, and marked by large irregular pale blotches. Wood very 
heavy, hard, close-grained, dark brown or violet color, with thick lighter colored sap- 
wood; sometimes used in cabinet-making. 

Distribution. Saline shores and beaches, Florida, from Mosquito Inlet to the 
southern keys on the east coast, and from Tampa Bay to Cape Sable on the west 
coast; common on the Bermuda and Bahama Islands, in the Antilles, and in South 
America from Colombia to Brazil. 

2. Coccolobis laurifolia, Jacq. Pigeon Plum. 

Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate or obovate-oblong, rounded or acute at the apex, 
rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, with slightly undulate revolute margins, thick 
and firm, bright green above, paler below, 3'-4' long, l^'-2' broad, with conspicuous 
pale midribs and 3 or 4 pairs of remote primary veins connected by prominent reticu- 



NYCTAGINACE^fc 313 

late veinlets; their petioles stout, flattened, ' long, abruptly enlarged at the base; 
stipular sheaths glabrous, ^' wide. Flowers in early spring, on slender pedicels ^' 
long, in few or 1-tlowered fascicles on racemes terminal on short axillary branches 
of the previous year, and 2'-3' in length; calyx ' across, the cup-shaped lobes 
rather shorter than the stamens, with slender yellow filaments enlarged at the base, 
and dark orange-colored anthers; ovary oblong, with elongated stigmatic lobes. 
Fruit in erect or spreading sparsely-fruited racemes, ripening during the winter and 
early spring, ovoid, narrowed at the base, rounded at the apex, dark red, |'. long, 
with thin acidulous flesh and a hard thin-walled light brown nutlet. 

A glabrous tree,60-70 high, with a tall straight trunk l-2 in diameter, spread- 
ing branches forming a dense round-topped head, slender terete slightly zigzag 




branchlets usually contorted and covered with light orange-colored bark, becoming 
darker and tinged with red in their second or third year. Wood heavy, exceedingly 
hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, rich dark brown tinged with red, with thick 
lighter colored sapwood; occasionally used in cabinet-making. 

Distribution. One of the largest and most abundant of the tropical trees of the 
seacoast of southern Florida from Cape Canaveral to the keys and on the west coast 
from Cape Romano to Cape Sable; common on the Bahama Islands, on many of the 
Antilles, and in Venezuela. 

XIV. NYCTAGINACE^l. 

Trees, with alternate stalked persistent leaves without stipules. Flowers per- 
fect or unisexual ; calyx corolla-like, 5-lol>ed ; stamens 5-8 ; ovule campylo- 
tropous. Fruit a nutlet inclosed in the thickened calyx and crowned by its 
persistent teeth. Seed erect ; cotyledons unequal, folded around the soft scanty 
albumen ; radicle short, inferior, turned toward the hiluni. A family of about 
twenty genera widely distributed chiefly in the warmer and tropical parts of 
the New World, with a single arborescent representative in North America. 

1. PIS ONI A, L. 

Glabrous or pubescent trees or shrubs, unarmed or rarely spinescent, erect or 
semiscandent. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire, short-stalked. Flowers perfect, 



314 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

dioecious or rarely monoecious; calyx, 5-lobed or toothed, the divisions induplicate- 
valvate in the bud, petaloid, tubular or funnel-shaped in the staminate flower, 
elongated and often notched at the base of the tube in the pistillate flower, the 
limb 5-lobed, the lobes plaited in the bud, erect or spreading ; stamens 5-8, inserted 
on the base of the calyx under the ovary, minute or rudimentary in the unisexual 
pistillate flower ; filaments folded in the bud, filiform, unequal, free; anthers oblong, 
introrse, 2-celled, the cells parallel, opening longitudinally; ovary oblong-ovoid, 
sessile, 1-celled, gradually narrowed into a columnar style; stigmas capitate, lacerate. 
Fruit fleshy, cylindrical, costate, smooth; utricle elongated, with a thin membrana- 
ceous wall confluent with the thin transparent coat of the erect seed. 

Pisonia is chiefly tropical, with the largest number of species in the New World. 
Two species extend into southern Florida ; of these one is arborescent. 

Pisonia was named in honor of Willem Piso, a Dutch physician and naturalist. 

1. Pisonia longifolia, Sarg., nov. nom. Blolly. 

(Pisonia obtusata, Silva N. Am. vi. 111.) 

Leaves opposite and sometimes alternate, obovate-oblong, rounded or occasionally 
emarginate at the apex, gradually narrowed at the base, l'-l|' long, ^' broad, thick 
and firm, with slightly thickened undulate margins, light green and glabrous, paler 
on the lower than on the upper surface, with stout midribs and obscure veins; their 
petioles stout, channeled, \' long. Flowers perfect or unisexual, autumnal, green- 
ish yellow, short-pedicellate, in terminal long-stalked few-flowered panicled cymes, 
with slender divergent branches, the ultimate divisions 2 or 3-flowered; bracts and 




bractlets minute, acute; calyx funnel-shaped, divided nearly to the middle into acute 
erect lobes about half as long as the stamens and as long as the style. Fruit ripen- 
ing in the winter or early spring, prominently costate, with ten rounded ribs, fleshy, 
smooth, bright red, |' long; utricle terete, light brown. 

A tree, 30-50 high, with an erect or inclining trunk 15'-20' in diameter, stout 
spreading branches forming a compact round-topped head, and slender terete branch- 
lets light orange color when they first appear, later often producing numerous short 
spur-like lateral branchlets, light reddish brown or ashy gray, and marked by large 
elevated setniorbicular or lunate leaf-scars ; usually much smaller. Bark about T ^' 
thick, light red-brown, and broken into thin appressed scales. Wood heavy, rather 



MAGNOLIACKE 315 

soft, weak, coarse-grained, yellow tinged with brown, with thick darker colored 
sap wood. 

Distribution. Sea-beaches and the shores of salt water lagoons ; Cape Canaveral, 
Florida to the southern keys, attaining its largest size in Florida on Elliott's Key and 
Old Rhodes Key; common on many of the West Indian islands and southward to 
Brazil. 

Subdivision 2. Petalse. Flowers with both calyx and corolla 
(without a corolla in Lauraceoe, in I/iquidambar in ffamameli- 
dacece, in JZuphorbiacece, in some species of Acer, in Reyno- 
sia, Condalia, and Krugiodendron in Rhamnacece, in Fremonto- 
dendron in Stercyliacecp, in Chytraculis in Myrtacew, and in 
Conocarpus in Combretacece). 

Section 1. Polypetalae. Corolla of separate petals (0 in 
Cercocarpus in Rosaceai). 

A. Ovary superior (partly inferior in ffamamelidacece ; 
inferior in Malus, Sorbus, Cratcegus, and Amelanchier in 
Rosacece). 

XV. MAGNOLIACEJE. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, branchlets lengthening by large terminal 
or the flower-bearing branchlets by upper axillary buds, the other axillary buds 
obtuse, flattened, and rudimentary, bitter aromatic bark, and thick fleshy roots. 
Leaves alternate, conduplicate and inclosed in their stipules in the bud, feather- 
veined, petiolate. Flowers perfect, large, solitary, terminal, pedunculate, in- 
closed in the bud in a stipular caducous spathe ; sepals and petals imbricated 
in the bud, inserted under the ovary, deciduous ; stamens and pistils numerous, 
imbricated in many ranks, the stamens below the pistils on the surface of an 
elongated receptacle ripening into a compound fruit of 1-2-seeded follicles or 
samara ; ovules 2, collateral, anatropous. Four of the ten genera of the Mag- 
nolia family are represented in North America ; of these two are arborescent. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Anthers introrse ; mature carpels, fleshy, opening on the back at maturity, persistent ; seed- 
coat thick, pulpy, and bright scarlet ; leaves entire, or auriculate at the base. 

1. Magnolia. 

Anthers extrorse ; mature carpels dry, indehiscent, deciduous ; seed-coat dry and coriaceous ; 
leaves lobed or truncate. 2. Liriodendron. 

1. MAGNOLIA, L. Magnolia. 

Trees, with ashy gray or brown smooth or scaly bark, branchlets conspicuously 
marked by large horizontal or longitudinal leaf-scars and by narrow stipular rings, 
and large terete acuminate or often obtusely-pointed more or less gibbous winter- 
buds usually broadest at the middle, their scales large membranaceous stipules 
adnate to the base of the petioles and deciduous with the unfolding of each succes- 
sive leaf, the petiole of the outer stipule rudimentary, adnate on the straight side of 
the bud, and marked at its apex by the scar left by the falling of the last leaf of the 



316 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

previous season. Leaves entire, sometimes auriculate, persistent or deciduous, often 
minutely punctate, their numerous primary veins arcuate and more or less united 
within the margins. Flowers appearing in the American species after the leaves, 
their stipular spathes thin and membranaceous; sepals 3, spreading or reflexed; 
petals 6-12 in series of 3's, concave, erect or spreading; stamens early deciduous, 
their filaments shorter than the 2-celled introrse anthers and terminating in apiculate 
fleshy connectives; ovary sessile, 1-celled; style short, recurved, stigmatic on the 
inner face; ovules horizontal. Fruit a scarlet or rusty brown cone formed of the 
coalescent 2-seeded drupaceous persistent follicles opening on the back; seeds sus- 
pended at maturity by long thin cords of unrolled spiral vessels; seed-coat thick, 
drupaceous, the outer portion becoming fleshy and at maturity pulpy, red or scar- 
let, the inner crustaceous; embryo minute at the base of the fleshy homogeneous 
albumen, its radicle next the hilum; cotyledons short and spreading. 

Magnolia with about twenty species is confined to eastern North America, south- 
ern Mexico, and eastern and southern Asia, seven species growing naturally in the 
United States. All the parts are slightly bitter and aromatic, and the dried flower- 
buds are sometimes used in medicine. Several species from eastern Asia and their 
hybrids producing flowers before the appearance of the leaves are favorite garden 
plants in the United States. 

The genus is named in honor of Pierre Magnol (1638-1715), professor of botany 
at Montpellier. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves scattered along 1 the branches; leaf -buds tomentose or silky-pubescent. ' 

Leaves persistent ; fruit tomentose. 1. M. f oetida (C). 

Leaves deciduous or subpersistent ; fruit glabrous. 2. M. glauca (A, C). 

Leaves deciduous. 

Leaves oblong-ovate or subcordate ; flowers small, green or yellow. 

3. M. acuminata (A, C). 
Leaves obovate or oblong, cordate at the narrow base ; flowers large and white. 

4. M. macrophylla (C). 
Leaves crowded at the summit of the flowering branches ; leaf-buds glabrous. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, pointed at the ends. 5. M. tripetala (A, C). 

Leaves obovate-spatulate, auriculate at the base. 

Leaves acute ; tips of the mature carpels elongated, nearly straight. 

6. M.Fraseri (A). 
Leaves mostly abruptly pointed ; tips of the mature carpels short, incurved. 

7. M. pyramidata (C). 

1. Magnolia foetida, Sarg. Magnolia. 

Leaves oblong or ovate, coriaceous, bright green and shining above, more or less 
densely coated below with thick rusty tomentum, 5'-8' long, 2'-3' wide, with promi- 
nent midribs and primary veins, deciduous in the spring at the end of their second 
year; their petioles stout, rusty-tomentose, l'-2' long. Flowers on stout hoary- 
tomentose peduncles '-!' long, opening from April or May until July or August, 
fragrant, 7'-8' across, the petaloid sepals and 6 or sometimes 9 or 12 petals abruptly 
narrowed at the base, oval or ovate, those of the inner ranks often somewhat acu- 
minate, concave, and coriaceous, 3'-4' long and l'-2' wide; base of the receptacle 
and lower part of the filaments bright purple. Fruit ovate or oval, rusty brown, 
covered while young with thick lustrous white tomentum, at maturity rusty-tomen- 



MAGNOLIACE^E 



317 



tose, 3'-4' long, l'-2' wide; seeds obovoid or triangular obovoid, more or less 
flattened, \' long. 

A tree, of pyramidal habit, 60-80 liigh, with a tall straight trunk occasionally 
4-4^ in diameter, rather small spreading branches, and brauchlets hoary-tomentose 
at first, slightly tomentose in their second year, and much roughened by the elevated 







leaf-scars displaying a marginal row of conspicuous fibre-vascular bundle-scars. 
Winter-buds pale or rusty-tomentose, the terminal I'-l^'. long. Bark J'-f thick, 
gray or light brown and covered with thin appressed scales, rarely more than 1' 
long. Wood hard, heavy, creamy white, soon turning brown with exposure, hardly 
distinguishable from the heartwood of 60-80 layers of annual growth; little used 
except for fuel. 

Distribution. Rich moist soil on the borders of river swamps and Pine-barren 
ponds, or rarely on high rolling hills; coast of North Carolina southward to Mosquito 
Inlet and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, extending across the peninsula, and 
through the maritime portions of the other Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos 
River, Texas, through western Louisiana to southern Arkansas, and on the bluffs 
of the lower Mississippi River northward to the mouth of the Yazoo River; best 
developed and often the characteristic and most conspicuous feature of the forest in 
western Louisiana. 

Largely cultivated as an ornamental tree in all countries of temperate climate; in 
the eastern United States precariously hardy as far north as Philadelphia. Numer- 
ous varieties, differing in the form of the leaf and in the duration of the flowering 
period, have appeared in European nurseries; of these, the most distinct is the vari- 
ety Exoniensis, Loud., with a rather fastigiate habit and broadly elliptical leaves 
densely clothed with rusty tomentum on the lower surface, which begins to flower 
when only a few feet high. 

2. Magnolia glauca, L. Sweet Bay. Swamp Bay. 

Leaves oblong or oval and obtuse or somewhat oblong-lanceolate, covered when 
they unfold with long white silky deciduous hairs, at maturity bright green, lustrous 
and glabrous on the upper surface, minutely pubescent and pale or nearly white on 
the lower surface, 4'-6' long, ^'-2^' wide, with conspicuous midribs and primary 
veins, falling in the north late in November and in early winter, at the south remain- 



318 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

ing on the branches with little change of color until the appearance of the new leaves 
in the spring; their petioles slender, '-' long. Flowers on slender glabrous pe- 
duncles ^' f ' long, creamy white, fragrant, globular, 2'-3' across, continuing to open 
during several weeks in spring and early summer; sepals membranaceous, obtuse, 
concave, shorter than the 912 obovate often short-pointed concave petals. Fruit 
oval, dark red, glabrous, 2' long and ' broad ; seeds obovoid, oval, or suborbicular, 
much flattened, \' long. 

A slender tree, 50-70 high, with a trunk 2-3 in diameter, with small mostly 
erect ultimately spreading branches and slender bright green branchlets hoary- 
pubescent when they first appear, soon glabrous, marked by narrow horizontal pale 
lenticels, gradually turning bright red-brown in their second summer; often much 
smaller, and at the north reduced to a low shrub. Winter-buds covered with fine 
silky pubescence, the terminal '-f ' long. Wood soft, light brown tinged with red, 
with thick creamy white sapwood of 90-100 layers of annual growth; occasionally 
used in the southern states in the manufacture of broom handles and other articles 
of woodenware. 

Distribution. At the north in deep wet swamps, southward along the borders of 
Pine-barren ponds and in shallow swamps; Magnolia, Essex County, Massachusetts, 




Suffolk County, Long Island, and southward from New Jersey generally near the 
coast to the shores of Bay Biscayne and Tampa Bay, Florida, in Pennsylvania 
ranging inland to Franklin County, and through the Gulf states to southwestern 
Arkansas and the valley of the Trinity River, Texas; most abundant and of its 
largest size in the interior of the Florida peninsula on fertile hummocks rising above 
the level of the Pine-lands. 

Often cultivated as a garden plant in the eastern states and in Europe. Magnolia 
glauca longifolia with lanceolate leaves, and a blooming period extending through 
two or three months, is probably of garden origin. Magnolia major or Thompso- 
m'ewa, a probable hybrid between Magnolia glauca and Magnolia tripetala, raised in 
an English nursery a century ago, and still a favorite garden plant, is intermediate 
in character between these species. 



I 



MAGNOLIACE^E 319 

3. Magnolia acuminata, L. Cucumber-tree. Mountain Magnolia. 

Leaves oblong, pointed, sometimes rounded or slightly cordate at the base, 
covered when they first appear with white silky caducous hairs longest and most 
abundant on the lower surface, at maturity thin, glabrous above, slightly pubescent 
below, T-W long, 4'-6' wide, with prominent midribs and primary veins, turning 
yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles slender, I'-l^' long. Flowers 
on hairy soon glabrous peduncles ^'-f ' long, bell-shaped, glaucous, green or pale 
yellow; sepals membranaceous, acute, I'-l^' long, soon reflexed; petals 6, ovate or 
obovate, concave, pointed, erect, 2^'-3' long, those of the outer row rarely more 
than 1' broad and much broader than those of the inner row. Fruit ovate or oblong, 
often curved, glabrous, dark red, 2^'-3' long, rarely more than 1' broad; seeds obp- 
void, acute, compressed, about \' long. 

A pyramidal tree, 60-90 high, with a trunk 3-4 in diameter, comparatively 
small branches spreading below and erect toward the top of the tree, and slender 
branchlets coated at first with soft pale caducous hairs, soon bright red-brown, 




lustrons, and marked by numerous small pale lenticels, turning gray during their 
third season. Winter-buds thickly covered with long lustrous white hairs, the 
terminal ^' ' long, and about three times as long as the obtuse lateral buds nearly 
surrounded by the narrow elevated leaf-scars conspicuously marked by a double row 
of large fibro-vascular bundle-scars. Bark \'-\' thick, furrowed, dark brown, and 
covered by numerous thin scales. Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained and 
durable, light yellow-brown, with thin lighter colored often nearly white sapwood 
of usually 25-30 layers of annual growth; occasionally manufactured into lumber 
used for flooring and cabinet-making. 

Distribution. Low mountain slopes and rocky banks of streams; western New 
York, westward through southern Ontario to southern Illinois, and southward along 
the Appalachian Mountains to southern Alabama, central Kentucky and Tennessee 
and northeastern Mississippi, and in northeastern, southern, and southwestern Arkan- 
sas; rare at the north; most abundant and of its largest size in the narrow valleys 
at the base of the high mountains of the Carolinas and Tennessee. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern states and in northern and 
central Europe. 



320 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

What is probably a variety of this species is 

Magnolia acuminata, var. cor data, Sarg. 

This tree has been cultivated in gardens for nearly a century, and is distinguished 
by its broader darker green more persistent leaves sometimes cordate at the base, 




and by its smaller bright canary-yellow flowers. Forms approaching the cultivated 
plant in the shape and texture of the leaves and in the size and color of the flowers 
are occasionally found on the Blue Ridge in South Carolina, and in central 
Alabama, although none of these resemble exactly the cultivated plant, which is not 
known in a wild state. 

4. Magnolia macrophylla, Michx. Large-leaved Cucumber-tree. 

Leaves obovate or oblong, acute or often abruptly narrowed and acute or 
rounded at the apex, narrowed and cordate at the base, bright green and glabrous on 
the upper surface, silvery gray, and pubescent, especially along the stout midribs 
and primary veins on the lower surface, 20'-30' long, 9'-10' wide, falling in the 
autumn with little change of color; their petioles stout, 3'-4' long, at first tomentose, 
becoming pubescent. Flowers on stout hoary-tomentose peduncles, !'-!' long, soon 
becoming glabrous or puberulous, white, cup-shaped, fragrant, 10'-12' across when 
expanded; sepals membranaceous, ovate or oblong, rounded at the apex, 5'-6' long, 
much narrower than the 6 ovate concave thick creamy white petals Q'-T long and 
3'-4' wide, at maturity reflexed above the middle, those of the inner row narrower 
and often somewhat acuminate. Fruit ovate to nearly globose, pubescent, 2'-3' 
long, bright rose color when fully ripe; seeds obovoid, compressed, ' long. 

A tree, 30-50 high, with a straight trunk 18'-20' in diameter, stout wide- 
spreading branches forming a broad symmetrical round-topped head, and stout 
brittle branchlets hoary-tomentose when they first appear, light yellow-green, 
pubescent, and conspicuously marked during their first winter by the large irregu- 
larly shaped sometimes longitudinal slightly raised leaf-scars, with many scattered 
fibro- vascular bundle-scars, turning reddish brown during the second and gray during 
their third season. ^Winter-buds: terminal, bluntly pointed, covered with a thick 
coat of snowy white tomentum, If -2' long, '-f' wide; lateral, much flattened, 



MAGNOLI ACE^E 



321 



brownish, pubescent, \'-$' long. Bark generally less than \' thick, smooth, light 
gray, divided on the surface into minute scales. Wood hard, close-grained, light, 
not strong, light brown, with thick light yellow sapwood of about 40 layers of annual 
growth. 

Distribution. Sheltered valleys in deep rich soil; nowhere common, and grow- 
ing generally in isolated groups of a few individuals in the region about the base of 




the southern Alleghany Mountains from North Carolina and southeastern Kentucky 
to middle and western Florida, southern Alabama, northern Mississippi, and the 
valley of the Pearl River, Louisiana, and in central Arkansas. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern states, and in the 
temperate countries of Europe; hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts. 

5. Magnolia tripetala, L. Umbrella-tree. Elkwood. 

Leaves obovate-lanceolate, narrowed at the ends, acute or bluntly pointed at the 
apex, when they unfold nearly glabrous above, covered below with thick silky 
caducous tomentum, at maturity inembranaceous, glabrous, 18'-20' long, 8'-10' 
wide, with thick prominent midribs and numerous slender primary veins, falling 
in the autumn with little change of color; their petioles stout, !'-!' long. Flowers 
on slender glabrous peduncles covered with a glaucous bloom and 2'-2J' long, cup-< 
shaped, creamy white, 4'-5' deep; sepals narrowly obovate, 5'-6' long, 1^', wide, 
thin, light green, becoming reflexed; petals 6 or 9, concave, coriaceous, ovate, short- 
pointed, erect, those of the outer row 4'-.T long and sometimes 2' wide, mnc-h longer 
and broader than those of the inner rows; filaments bright purple. Fruit ovate, 
glabrous, 2^'-4' long, rose color when fully ripe; seeds obovoid, V long. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a straight or often inclining trunk rarely more than IS' 
in diameter, stout irregularly developed contorted branches wide-spreading nearly 
at right angles with the stem or turning up toward the ends and growing parallel 
with it, and stout brittle branchlets green during their first season, becoming in their 
first winter bright reddish brown, very lustrous, and marked by occasional minute 
scattered pale lenticels, and by the large oval horizontal slightly raised leaf-scars, 
with scattered fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and brown during their second and gray 
during their third season; generally much smaller, sometimes surrounded by several 
stems springing from near the base of the trunk and growing into a large bush 



322 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

surmounted by the head of the central stem. "Winter-buds: terminal, acute or 
bluntly pointed, purple, glabrous, covered with a glacous bloom, usually about 1' 
long; axillary globose, the color of the branch. Bark ' thick, light gray, smooth, 
and marked by many small bristle-like excrescences. Wood light, soft, close- 
grained, not strong, light brown, with creamy white sapwood of 35-40 layers of 
annual growth. 

Distribution. Deep rather moist rich soil along the banks of mountain streams 
or the margins of swamps, and widely distributed in the Appalachian Mountain 
region, but nowhere very common ; valley of the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, 
to southern Alabama, middle Kentucky and Tennessee, northeastern Mississippi, and 




in central and southwestern Arkansas, extending in the south Atlantic states nearly 
to the coast; of its largest size in the valleys along the western slopes of the Great 
Smoky Mountains in Tennessee. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the northern States, and in northern and 

central Europe. 



6. Magnolia Fraseri, Walt. Mountain Magnolia. Long-leaved Cucumber- 
tree. 

Leaves obovate-spatulate, acute or bluntly pointed at the apex, cordate and con- 
spicuously auriculate at the base, bright green and often marked on the upper surface 
when young with red along the principal veins, glabrous, KX-12' long, 6'-7' wide, or 
on vigorous young plants sometimes of twice that size, falling in the autumn without 
change of color; their petioles slender, 3'-4' long. Flowers on stout glabrous pedun- 
cles covered with a glaucous bloom and I'-l^' long, creamy white, sweetly scented, 
8'-10' in diameter; sepals narrowly obovate, rounded at the apex, 4'-5' long, de- 
ciduous almost immediately after the opening of the bud, shorter than the 6 or 9 
obovate acuminate membranaceous spreading petals contracted below the middle, 
those of the inner rows narrower and conspicuously narrowed below. Fruit oblong, 
glabrous, bright rose-red when fully ripe, 4'-5' long, l'-2' wide, the mature carpels 
ending in long subulate persistent tips; seeds obovoid, compressed, ' long. 



MAGNOLIACE.E 



323 



A tree, 30-40 high, with a straight or inclining trunk 12'-18' in diameter, often 
undivided for half its length or separating at the ground into a number of stout diver- 
ging stems, regular wide-spreading or more or less contorted and erect branches, and 
stout brittle branchlets soon becoming bright red-brown, lustrous, marked by numer- 
ous minute pale lenticels and in their first winter by the low horizontal leaf-scars 
with crowded compressed fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and grayish in their second 
year. Winter-buds: terminal, glabrous, purple, l^'-2' long, ^ wide; axillary, 
minute, and obtuse. Bark rarely more than ' thick, dark brown, smooth, covered 







by small excrescences, or on old trees broken into minute scales. Wood light, soft, 
close-grained, not strong, light brown, with thick creamy white sapwood of 30-40 
layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Valleys of the streams of the southern Appalachian Mountains from 
southwestern Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama, eastern Tennessee and north- 
ern Mississippi; probably most abundant and of its largest size on the upper waters of 
the Savannah River in South Carolina. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in the eastern states, and occasionally in 
the temperate countries of Europe; hardy as far north as eastern Massachusetts. 

7. Magnolia pyramidata, Pursh. 

Leaves obovate-spatulate, the apex usually abruptly narrowed into a short blunt 
point, auriculate at the base, with more or less spreading lobes, thin, glabrous, light 
yellow-green on the upper, pale and glaucous on the lower surface, particularly while 
young, 5^'-8^' long, from 3^'-4^' wide, with slender yellow midribs, numerous slender 
forked primary veins and conspicuously reticulate veinlets; their petioles slender, 1^'- 
2^' in length. Flowers creamy white, .'^'-4' in diameter when fully expanded; sepals 
oblong-obovate, abruptly narrowed to the short pointed apex, much shorter than the 
oblong-acuminate petals gradually narrowed from near the middle to the base. Fruit 
oblong, 2'-2^' long, bright rose color, the mature carpels ending in short incurved 
persistent tips; seeds ovate, compressed. 

A slender tree, 20-30 high, with ascending branches, slender branchlets bright 
red-brown and marked by small pale lenticels and by the small low oval leaf-scars, 
with many crowded fibro-vascular bundle-scars, later becoming ashy gray. 



324 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 




Distribution. Low rich soil near the streams of the coast region from southern 
Georgia through western Florida to southern Alabama. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree in western Europe. 

2. LIRIODENDRON, L. 

Trees, with deeply furrowed brown bitter bark and slender branchlets marked by 
elevated leaf-scars and narrow stipular rings, and compressed obtuse winter-buds, 
their scales membranaceous stipules joined at the edges, accrescent, strap-shaped, 
often slightly falcate, oblique at the unequal base, tardily deciduous after the unfold- 
ing of the leaf. Leaves recurved in the bud by the bending down of the petiole near 
the middle, bringing the apex of the blade to the base of the bud, sinuately 4-iobed, 
heart-shaped, truncate or slightly wedge-shaped at the base, truncate at the apex by 
a broad shallow sinus and minutely apiculate. Flowers appearing after the unfold- 
ing of the leaves, cup-shaped, conspicuous, inclosed in the bud in a 2-valved stipu- 
lar membranaceous caducous spathe; sepals spreading or reflexed, ovate-lanceolate, 
concave, greenish white, early deciduous; petals erect, rounded at the base, early 
deciduous; filaments filiform, half as long as the linear 2-celled extrorse anthers 
adnate to the outer face of the connective terminating in a short fleshy point; pistils 
imbricated on the elongated sessile receptacle into a spindle-shaped column; ovary 
inserted by a broad base; style narrowly acuminate, laterally flattened, appressed; 
stigmas short, recurved at the summit; ovules 2, suspended from near the middle 
of the ventral suture. Fruit a narrow light brown cone formed of the closely im- 
bricated dry and woody indehiscent carpels consisting of a laterally compressed 
4-ribbed pericarp, the lateral ribs confluent into the margins of the large wing-like 
lanceolate compressed style marked vertically by a thin sutural line, the carpels 
deciduous when ripe in the autumn from the slender elongated axis of the fruit 
persistent on the branch during the winter. Seeds suspended, 2 or single by abor- 
tion; testa thin, coriaceous, and marked by a narrow prominent raphe; embryo mi- 
nute at the base of the fleshy albumen, its radicle next the hilum. 

Liriodeudron, widely distributed in North America and Europe during the crusta- 
ceous period, is now represented by two species, one in eastern North America, the 
other in central China. 

Liriodendron, from \lpiov and StvSpov, is descriptive of the lily-like flower. 



MAGNOLIACE^E 



325 



1. Liriodendron Tulipifera, L. Yellow Poplar. Tulip-tree. 

Leaves dark green ami shining on the upper, paler on the lower surface, 5'-6' 
long and broad, turning clear yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles 
slender, angled, 5'-6' long. Flowers l^'-2' deep, on slender peduncles f '-!' long. 
Fruit 2'-3' long, about \' wide, ripening late in September and in October, the 
mature carpels l'-l' long and about \' wide. 

A tree, sometimes nearly 200 high, with a straight trunk 8-10 in diameter, 
destitute of branches for 80-100 from the ground, short, comparatively small 
brandies forming a narrow pyramidal, or in old age a broader spreading head, and 
slender branchlets light yellow-green and often covered with a glaucous bloom dur- 
ing their first summer, reddish brown, lustrous, and marked by many small pale len- 
ticels and roughened by the elevated orbicular or semiorbicular leaf-scars marked by 
numerous small scattered nbro-vasciilar bundle-scars during their first winter, and 
dark gray during their third year. Winter-buds dark red covered by a glaucous 
bloom, the terminal % long, much longer than the lateral buds. Bark thin and scaly 




on young trees, becoming deeply furrowed, brown, and l'-2' thick. Wood light, 
soft, brittle, not strong, easily worked, light yellow or brown, with thin creamy white 
sapwood; largely manufactured into lumber used in construction, the interior finish 
of houses, boatbuilding, and for shingles, brooms, and woodenware. The intensely 
acrid bitter inner bark, especially of the root, is used domestically as a tonic and stim- 
ulant, and hydrochlorate of tulipiferine, an alkaloid separated from the bark, pos- 
sesses the property of stimulating the heart. 

Distribution. Deep rich rather moist soil on the intervales of streams or on 
mountain slopes; Rhode Island to southwestern Vermont, and westward to the 
southern shores of Lake Michigan, southward to northern Florida, southern Alabama 
and Mississippi, and in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas; most 
abundant and of its largest size in the vallevs of the lower Ohio basin, and on the 
lower slopes of the high mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Often cultivated as an ornamental tree in the eastern states, and in western and 
central Europe. 



326 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

XVI. ANONACE-2EJ. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, slender terete branchlets marked by 
conspicuous leaf-scars, and fleshy roots. Leaves alternate, conduplicate in the 
bud, entire, feather-veined, petiolate, without stipules. Flowers perfect, soli- 
tary, axillary or opposite the leaves ; sepals 3, valvate in the bud ; petals 6, 
in 2 series, imbricated or valvate in the bud ; stamens numerous, inserted on 
the subglobose or hemispherical receptacle, with distinct filaments shorter than 
their fleshy connectives terminating in a broad truncate glandular appendage ; 
anthers introrse, 2-celled, opening longitudinally ; pistils inserted on the sum- 
mit of the receptacle ; ovary 1-celled ; ovules 1 or many, anatropous. Fruit 
baccate or compound. Seeds inclosed in an aril ; seed-coat thin, crustaceous, 
smooth, brown, and lustrous; albumen ruminate, deeply penetrated by the 
folds of the inner layer of the seed-coat ; embryo minute ; radicle next the 
hilum. Two of the forty-eight or fifty genera of the Custard-apple family, 
confined almost exclusively to the tropics and more numerous in the Old 
World than in the New, occur in North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GENERA. 

Petals imbricated in the bud ; ovules numerous; fruit developed from one pistil. 

1. Asimina. 

Petals valvate in the bud ; ovule solitary ; fruit developed from several confluent pistils. 

. 2. Anona. 
1. ASIMINA, Adans. 

Trees or shrubs, emitting a heavy disagreeable odor when bruised, with minute buds 
covered with cinereo-pubescent caducous scales, and branchlets marked by conspicuous 
leaf-scars. Leaves membranaceous, feather-veined, reticulate-venulose, deciduous. 
Flowers pedunculate, nodding, purplish, bad-smelling; sepals ovate, smaller than the 
petals, green, deciduous; petals imbricated in the bud, hypogynous, sessile, ovate or 
obovate-oblong, reticulate-veined, accrescent, the three exterior alternate with the 
sepals, spreading, those of the interior row opposite the sepals, erect, and much 
smaller than those of the outer row; stamens linear-cuneate, densely packed on the 
receptacle; filaments shorter than the fleshy connective; anther-cells separated on 
the connective; pistils sessile on the summit of the receptacle, projecting from the 
globular mass of stamens; ovary 1-celled; style oblong, slightly recurved toward 
the apex and stigmatic along the margin; ovules 4-20, horizontal, 2-ranked on the 
ventral suture, the raphe toward the suture. Fruit baccate^, sessile or stipitate, oval 
or oblong, smooth. Seeds in 1 or 2 ranks, ovate, apiculate, compressed, marked at 
the base by a large pale hilum. 

Asimina is confined to eastern North America. Six species are distinguished; of 
these one is a small tree; the others are low shrubs of the south Atlantic and Gulf 
regions. 

Asimina is from Asiminier, the old colonial name of the French in America for 
the Pawpaw. 

1. Asimina triloba, Dunal. Pawpaw. 

Leaves obovate-lanceolate, sharp-pointed at the apex, gradually and regularly 
narrowed to the base, when they unfold covered below with short rusty brown cadu- 
cous tomentum and slightly pilose above, and at maturity light green on the upper 
surface, pale on the lower surface, 10'-12' long, 4'-6' wide, with prominent midribs 



ANONACE^: 327 

and primary veins. Flowers nearly 2' across when fully grown, on stout club- 
shaped peduncles !'-!' long and covered with long scattered rusty brown hairs; 
sepals ovate, acuminate, pale green, densely pubescent on the outer surface; petals 
green at first, covered with short appressed hairs, gradually turning brown and at 
maturity deep vinous red and conspicuously venulose, those of the outer row broadly 
ovate, rounded or pointed at the apex, reflexed at maturity above the middle and 
2 or 3 times longer than the sepals, those of the inner row pointed, erect, their base 
concave, glandular, nectariferous, marked by a broad band of a lighter color. Fruit 
attached obliquely to the enlarged torus, oblong, nearly cylindrical, rounded or some- 
times slightly pointed at the ends, more or less falcate, often irregular from the 
imperfect development of some of the seeds, 3'-5' long, I'-l^' in diameter, greenish- 
yellow, becoming when fully ripe in September and October dark brown or almost 
black, with thick semitransparent sweet and luscious flesh; seeds separating read- 
ily from the aril, V long, ^' broad, ovate, and rounded at the ends. 

A shrub or low tree, sometimes 35-40 high, with a straight trunk rarely exceed- 
ing a foot in diameter, small spreading branches, and slender light brown branchlets 




tinged with red and marked by longitudinal parallel or recticulate narrow shallow 
grooves. Winter-buds acuminate, flattened, ^' long, and clothed with rusty brown 
hairs. Bark rarely more than |' thick, dark brown, marked by large ash-colored 
blotches, covered by small wart-like excrescences and divided by numerous shallow 
reticulate depressions. Wood light, soft and weak, coarse-grained, spongy, light 
yellow shaded with green, with thin darker colored sapwood of 12-20 layers of an- 
nual growth. The inner bark stripped from the branches in early spring is used 
by fishermen of western rivers for stringing fish. The sweet and luscious wholesome 
fruit is sold in large quantities in the cities and towns in those parts of the country 
where the tree grows naturally. 

Distribution. Deep rich moist soil; western New Jersey to the northern shores 
of Lake Ontario, and eastern central Pennsylvania, westward to southern Michigan, 
eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and southward to middle Florida, and to the val- 
ley of the Sabine River, Texas; comparatively rare in the region adjacent to the 
Atlantic seaboard; very common in the Mississippi valley, forming the thick forest 
undergrowth on rich bottom-lands, or thickets many acres in extent. 



328 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Occasionally cultivated in the eastern states, and precariously hardy as far north 
as eastern Massachusetts ; interesting as the most northern representative of the 
Custard-apple family and its only species extending far beyond the tropics. 

2. ANONA, L. 

Trees or shrubs, with glandular often reticulated bark, terete branchlets marked 
by conspicuous leaf-scars, and often pubescent during their first season. Leaves 
coriaceous, often glandular-punctate, persistent or tardily deciduous. Flowers nod- 
ding on bracted peduncles; calyx small, 3-lobed, green, deciduous; petals 6 in 2 
series, valvate in the bud, hypogynous, sessile, ovate, concave, 3-angled at the apex, 
thick and fleshy, white or yellow, the exterior alternate with the sepals, those of the 
inner row opposite the sepals and often much smaller than those of the outer row; 
stamens club-shaped, densely packed on the receptacle; filaments shorter than the 
fleshy connective; anther-cells confluent; pistils sessile on the receptacle, free or 
united; ovary 1-celled; style sessile or slightly stipitate, oblong; stigmatic on the 
inner face, ovule 1, erect; raphe ventral. Fruit compound, many-celled, fleshy, 
ovate or globose, many-seeded. Seeds ovate to elliptical; cotyledons appressed. 

Of the fifty species of Anona widely distributed in the tropics of the two worlds, 
a single species reaches the coast of southern Florida. Of exotic species, Anona 
muricata, L., the Soursop, and Anona reticulata, L., of the West Indies, and Anona 
Cherimolia, Mill., of western tropical America, are now occasionally cultivated as 
fruit-trees in Florida. 

Anona is the name given by early authors to the Soursop. 

1. Anona glabra, L. Pond Apple. 

Leaves oval or oblong, acute, tapering or rounded at the base, bright green on 
the upper, paler on the lower surface, coriaceous, 3'-5' long, l^'-2' broad, with 
prominent midribs; their stout petioles % long. Flowers nodding on short stout 




peduncles thickened at the ends, opening in April from an ovoid 3-angled bud; calyx 
3-lobed, with broadly ovate acute divisions; petals connivent, acute, concave, pale 
yellow or dirty white, those of the outer row marked on the inner surface near the 






LAURACEJ 329 

base by a bright red spot, and broader and somewhat longer than those of the inner 
row. Fruit ripening in November, broadly ovate, truncate or depressed at the base, 
rounded at the apex, 3' 5' long, 2' 3^' broad, light green when fully grown, becom- 
ing yellow and often marked by numerous dark brown blotches when fully ripe, 
with a thick elongate fibrous torus and light green slightly aromatic insipid flesh 
of no comestible value ; seeds ' long, slightly obovate, turgid, rounded at the ends, 
their margins contracted into a narrow wing formed by the thickening of the outer 
coat. 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a short trunk often 18' in diameter above the swell of 
the thickened tapering base sometimes enlarged into spreading buttresses, stout 
wide-spreading often contorted branches, slender branchlets brown or yellow during 
their first season, becoming in their second year brown and marked by small scat- 
tered wart-like excrescences. Bark \' thick, dark reddish brown, divided by broad 
shallow fissures separating on the surface into numerous small scales. Wood light, 
soft, not strong, light brown streaked with yellow. 

Distribution. Florida from Cape Malabar to the shores of Bay Biscayne, and on 
the west coast from Peace Creek to the Caloosa River; in shallow fresh water 
ponds, on swampy hummocks, or on the borders of fresh water streams flowing from 
the everglades; of its largest size on the shores of Bay Biscayne near the Miami 
River, growing in the shade of larger trees; on the Bahama Islands and on several 
of the Antilles. 

XVII. LAURACE.53. 

Aromatic trees and shrubs, with slender terete branchlets, naked or scaly 
buds, and alternate punctate leaves without stipules. Flowers small, perfect 
or polygamo-dioecious, yellow or greenish ; calyx 6-lobed, the lobes in 2 series, 
imbricated in the bud ; corolla ; stamens 9 or 12, inserted on the base of the 
calyx in 3 or 4 series of 3's, distinct, those of the fourth series sterile; anthers 
4-celled, superposed in pairs, opening from below upward by persistent lids ; 
ovary 1-celled ; stigma discoid or capitate ; ovule solitary, suspended from the 
apex of the cell, anatropous. Fruit a 1 -seeded berry ; seed without albumen ; 
testa thin and membranaceous, of 2 coats ; embryo erect ; cotyledons thick and 
fleshy ; radicle superior, turned toward the hilum, included between thick and 
fleshy cotyledons. The Laurel family with about forty genera, confined mostly 
to the tropics, is represented in North America by six genera ; of these four 
are arborescent. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Leaves entire, persistent ; stamens 1 

Calyx-lobes persistent under the fruit. 1. Persea. 

Calyx-lobes deciduous. 

Flower cymose in axillary or subterminal panicles. '2. Ocotea. 

Flowers in axillary many-flowered umbels inclosed before anthesis in an involucre of 

deciduous scales. :!. TTmbellularia. 

Leaves entire or lobed, deciduous; stamens'.!; flowers dio3cious in few-flowered drooping 

racemes. 4. Sassafras. 

1. PERSEA, L. 

Trees, with naked buds. Leaves revolute in the bud, alternate, scattered, penni- 
veined, subcoriaceous, rigid, tomentose or rarely glabrous, persistent. Flowers per- 



330 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

feet, vernal, in 2 or 3-flowered cymes in short axillary or axillary and terminal 
panicles on slender peduncles from axils of the leaves of the year, pedicellate, their 
pedicels bibracteolate near the middle, the lateral flowers of the ultimate divisions 
of the inflorescence in the axils of small deciduous lanceolate acute bracts; calyx 
campanulate, divided nearly to the base into 6 lobes, those of the outer series 
shorter than the others, enlarged and persistent under the fruit; stamens 12, in 4 
series, about as long as the inner lobes of the calyx; filaments flattened, longer 
than the anthers, hirsute, those of the third series furnished near the base with 
2 nearly sessile orange-colored glands rounded on the back and slightly 2-lobed 
on the inner face; anthers ovate, flattened, erect, those of the outer series introrse 
or subiutrorse, those of the third series extrorse or laterally dehiscent, the upper 
cells rather larger than the lower; staminodia large, sagittate, stipitate, 2-lobed on 
the inner face, beaded at the apex; ovary sessile, subglobose, glabrous, narrowed 
into a slender simple style gradually enlarged at the apex into a discoid obscurely 
2-lobed stigma. Fruit ripening in the autumn, oblong-obovate to subglobose, more 
or less fleshy, surrounded at the base by the enlarged spreading persistent lobes of 
the calyx. Seed globose, pendulous, without albumen; testa thin and membrana- 
ceous, separable into 2 coats, the outer cartilaginous, grayish brown, the inner gray 
or nearly white, closely adherent to the thick dark red cotyledons. 

About fifty species of Persea are distinguished. With the exception of one species 
of the Canary Islands they are confined to the New World, where they are dis- 
tributed from the coast region of the southern United States to Brazil and Chili. 
Persea Persea, Cockerell, the Avocado or Alligator Pear, a native of the Antilles and 
cultivated for its edible fruit in all tropical countries, is now sparingly naturalized 
in southern Florida. Many species yield hard dark-colored 'handsome wood valued 
in cabinet-making. 

Persea was the classical name of a tree of the Orient, transferred by Plumier to 
one of the tropical species of this genus. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Peduncles short ; leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, obscurely veined, glabrous ; branch- 
lets puberulous. 1. P. Borbonia (C). 

Peduncles elongated; leaves oval to lanceolate, conspicuously veined, tomentose on the 
lower surface ; branehlets tomentose. 2. P. pubescens (C). 

1. Persea Borbonia, Spreng. Red Bay. 

Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, entire, often slightly contracted into long 
points rounded at the apex, gradually narrowed below, when they unfold thin, 
pilose, and tinged with red, and at maturity thick and coriaceous, bright green and 
lustrous above, pale and glaucous below, 3' 4' long, f -1^' wide, with thickened revo- 
lute margins, narrow orange-colored midribs, remote obscure primary veins arcuate 
near the margins, and thin closely reticulated veinlets, unfolding early in the spring, 
gradually turning yellow a year later and falling during their second spring and 
summer; their petioles stout, rigid, red-brown, ^'-f long, flattened and somewhat 
grooved on the upper side, in falling leaving small circular leaf-scars displaying the 
ends of a single fibro-vascular bundle. Flowers: peduncles glabrous, ^'-V long; 
calyx pale yellow or creamy white, about \' long, with thin lobes ciliate on the mar- 
gins, the outer broadly ovate, rounded and minutely apiculate, puberulous, about 



LAURACE^E 331 

half as long as the oblong-lanceolate acute lobes of the inner series covered within 
by long pale hairs. Fruit ^' long, dark blue or nearly black, very lustrous; flesh 
thin and dry, not readily separable from the ovate slightly pointed seed. 

A tree, 60-70 high, with a trunk 2'-3' in diameter, stout erect branches forming 
a dense shapely head, thick fleshy yellow roots, and branchlets many-angled, light 
brown, glabrous or coated with pale or rufous pubescence when they first appear, 
becoming in their second year terete and dark green; usually much smaller. 
Winter-buds coated with thick rufous tomeiitum, ^' long. Bark ^'-f ' thick, dark 




red, deeply furrowed and irregularly* divided into broad flat ridges separating on 
the surface into small thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, hard, very strong, 
rather brittle, close-grained, bright red, with thin lighter colored sapwood of 4 or 5 
layers of annual growth; occasionally used for cabinet-making, the interior finish of 
houses, and formerly in ship and boatbuilding. 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps in rich moist soil, or occasionally 
in dry sandy loam in forests of the Long-leaved Pine; coast region from Virginia to 
the shores of Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano, Florida, along the Gulf coast to the 
valley of the Brazos River, Texas, and northward through Louisiana to southern 
Arkansas. 

2. Persea pubescens, Sarg. Swamp Bay. 

Leaves oval or lanceolate, entire, often narrowed toward the apex into long 
points, gradually narrowed at the base, when they unfold dark red, thin, and tomen- 
tose, at maturity thick and coriaceous, pale green and lustrous above, pale and 
pubescent and rusty-tomentose on the midribs and primary veins below, 4'-6' long, 
f'-l^' wide, with thick conspicuous veins and slightly revolute margins, persistent 
until after the beginning of their second year and then turning yellow and falling 
gradually; their petioles stout, rusty-tomentose, ^'-f' long. Flowers: peduncles 
tomentose, 2'-3' long; calyx pale yellow or creamy white, often nearly \' long, 
with tbick firm lobes coated on the outer surface with rusty tomentum, those of the 
outer series broadly ovate, abruptly pointed at the apex, pubescent on the inner 
surface, about half as long as the ovate lanceolate lobes of the inner series, slightly 
thickened at the apex, and hairy within. Fruit nearly black, ' long. 



332 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



A slender tree, occasionally 30-40 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding a foot in 
diameter, and stout branchlets terete or slightly angled while young, coated when 




they first appear with rusty tomentum reduced in their second season to fine pubes- 
cence persistent until the end of their second or third year. Bark rarely exceeding 
\' in thickness, dull brown, irregularly divided by shallow fissures, the surface 
separating into thick appressed scales. Wood heavy, soft, strong, close-grained, 
orange color streaked with brown, with thick light brown or gray sapwood of 36^10 
layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Pine-barren swamps, almost to the exclusion of other plants, in the 
immediate neighborhood of the coast of the south Atlantic and Gulf states from 
North Carolina to Mississippi. 

2. OCOTEA, Aubl. 

Aromatic trees. Leaves scattered, alternate or rarely subopposite, penniveined, 
coriaceous, rigid, glabrous or more or less covered with pubescence. Flowers gla- 
brous or tomentose on slender bibracteolate pedicels from the axils of lanceolate 
acute minute bracts, in cymose clusters in axillary or subterminal stalked panicles; 
calyx-tube campanulate, the 6 lobes of the limb nearly equal, deciduous; stamens 
12, in 4 series, those of the inner series reduced to linear staminodia, with minute 
abortive anthers; filaments inserted on the tube of the calyx; those of the outer series 
opposite its exterior lobes, shorter or sometimes rather longer than the anthers, 
glabrous or hirsute, furnished in the third series near the base with two conspicuous 
globose stalked yellow glands; anthers oblong, flattened, 4-celled, introrse in the 
2 outer series, extrorse, subextrorse, or very rarely introrse in the third series, in 
the pistillate flower rudimentary and sterile; ovary ovate, glabrous, more or less 
immersed in the tube of the calyx, gradually narrowed into a short erect style 
dilated at the apex into a capitate obscurely lobed stigma; in the stain inate flower 
linear-lanceolate, effete or minute, sometimes 0; raphe ventral; micropyle superior. 
Fruit nearly inclosed while young in the thickened tube of the calyx, exserted at 
maturity, surrounded at the base by the cup-like truncate or slightly lobed calyx- 
tube; pericarp thin and fleshy. Seed ovate, pendulous; testa thin, membranaceous. 

Ocotea with nearly two hundred species is confined principally to the tropical 



LAURACE^E 



333 



region of the New World from southern Florida to Brazil and Peru, with Old 
World representatives in the Canary Islands, South Africa, and the Mascarene 
Islands. One species grows naturally in Florida. 

Ocotea produces hard strong durable beautifully colored wood often employed in 
cabinet-making. 

The name is derived from the native name of one of the species of Gt 



1. Ocotea Catesbyaiia, Sarg. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire, slightly contracted above into long points 
rounded at the apex, when they unfold thin, membranaceous, light green tinged 
with red, and sometimes puberulous on the lower surface, and at maturity thick and 
coriaceous, dark green and lustrous above, pale below, 3'-6' long, l'-2' wide, with 
thickened slightly revolute margins, broad stout midribs, slender remote primary 
veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by coarsely reticulate 
conspicuous veinlets; their petioles broad, flat, J'-^' long. Flowers perfect, appear- 
ing in early summer in elongated panicles, their stalks slender, glabrous, light red, 
solitary or 2 or 3 together from the axils of the leaves of the year or from those of 




the previous year, and 3'-4' long; calyx nearly ^' across when expanded, pubescent 
on the outer surface, tomentose on the inner surface, about twice as long as the 
stamens; filaments of the 2 outer series slightly hirsute at the base and shorter than 
their introrse anthers; filaments of the third series as long or longer than their 
extrorse anthers. Fruit ripening in the autumn, ovate or subglobose, $' long, lus- 
trous, dark blue or nearly black, the thickened cup-like tube of the calyx truncate 
or obscurely lobed and bright red like the thickened pedicels; flesh thin and dry; 
seed with a thin brittle red-brown coat, the inrier layer lustrous on the inner surface 
and marked by broad light-colored veins radiating from the small hilum; embryo 
^' long, light red-brown. 

A tree, 20-30 high, with a trunk rarely exceeding 18' in diameter, slender 
spreading branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and thin terete branchlets 
glabrous and dark reddish brown when they first appear, soon becoming lighter 
colored, and in their second year light brown or gray tinged with red and often 
marked by minute pale lenticels, and in their second or third year by small semi- 



334 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

orbicular leaf-scars, displaying a single central fibro-vascular bundle-scar. Bark 
about ^' thick, dark reddish brown, and roughened on the otherwise smooth surface 
by numerous small excrescences. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, rich dark 
brown, with thick bright yellow sapwood of 20-30 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Shores and islands of Florida south of Cape Canaveral on the east 
coast and of Cape Romano on the west coast; comparatively common except on some 
of the western keys, and most abundant and of its largest size on the rich wooded 
hummocks adjacent to Bay Biscayne; also in the Bahamas. 

3. UMBELLULARIA, Nutt. 

A pungent aromatic tree, with dark brown scaly bark, slender terete branchlets 
marked in their second and third years by small semicircular or nearly triangular 
elevated leaf-scars displaying a horizontal row of minute fibro-vascular bundle-scars, 
naked buds, and thick fleshy brown roots. Leaves alternate, involute in the bud, 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or rounded at the narrow apex, cuneate or some- 
what rounded at the base, entire, with thickened slightly revolute margins, petiolate, 
coated when they appear on the lower surface with pale soft pubescence and puber- 
ulous on the upper surface, at maturity thick and coriaceous, dark green and lus- 
trous above, dull and paler below, with slender light yellow midribs, and remote, 
obscure, arcuate veins more or less united near the margins, and connected by 
conspicuous reticulate veinlets. Flowers in axillary stalked many-flowered umbels, 
inclosed in the bud by an involucre of 5 or 6 imbricated broadly ovate or obovate 
pointed concave yellow caducous scales, the latest umbels subsessile at the base of 
terminal leaf-buds; pedicels slender, puberulous, without bractlets, from the axils 
of obovate membranaceous puberulous deciduous bracts decreasing in size from 
the outer to the inner; calyx divided almost to the base into 6 nearly equal broadly 
obovate rounded pale yellow lobes spreading and reflexed after anthesis; stamens 
inserted on the short slightly thickened tube of the calyx; filaments flat, glabrous, 
pale yellow, rather shorter than the anthers, those of the third series furnished 
near the base with 2 conspicuous stipitate orange-colored orbicular flattened glands; 
anthers oblong, flattened, light yellow, those of the first and second series introrse, 
those of the second and third series extrorse ; stamens of the fourth series reduced to 
minute ovate acute yellow staminodia; ovary sessile, ovate, often more or less gib- 
bous, glabrous, abruptly contracted into a stout columnar style rather shorter than 
the lobes of the calyx and crowned by a simple capitate discoid stigma. Fruit ovate, 
surrounded at the base by the enlarged and thickened truncate or lobed tube of the 
calyx, yellow-green sometimes more or less tinged with purple; pericarp thin and 
fleshy. Seed ovate, light brown ; testa separable into 2 coats, the outer thick, hard, 
and woody, the inner thin and papery, closely investing the embryo, chestnut-brown, 
and lustrous on the inner surface. 

Umbellularia consists of a single species. 

The generic name, a diminutive of Umbella, relates to the character of the inflo- 
rescence. 

1. Umbellularia Calif ornica, Nutt. California Laurel. Spice-tree. 

Leaves 2'-5' long, ^'-1^' wide, unfolding in winter or early in the spring and 
continuing to appear as the branches lengthen until late in the autumn, beginning to 
fade during the summer, turning to a beautiful yellow or orange color and falling one 



LAURACEJE 335 

by one during their second season, or often remaining on the branches until the sixth 
year; their petioles ^'-1' long. Flowers appearing in January before the unfolding 
of the young leaves on pedicels sometimes 1' in length. Fruit about 1' long, in 







clusters of 2 or 3, on elongated thickened stalks, persistent on the branch after the 
fruit ripens and falls late in the autumn; seeds germinating soon after they reach 
the ground, the fruit remaining below the surface of the soil and attached to the 
young plant until midsummer. 

A tree, 80 -90 high, with a trunk 4-5 in diameter, sometimes tall and straight 
but usually divided near the ground into several large diverging stems, stout spread- 
ing branches forming a broad round-topped head, and branchlets light green and 
coated with soft pale pubescence when they first appear, soon becoming glabrous 
and yellow-green, and in their second and third years light brown tinged with red; 
at high elevations above the level of the sea and in southern California much 
smaller and often reduced to a low shrub. Bark '-!' thick, dark brown tinged 
with red, separating on the surface into thin appressed scales. "Wood heavy, hard, 
strong, close-grained, light rich brown, with thick lighter colored sapwood of 30-40 
layers of annual growth; the most valuable wood produced in the forests of Pacific 
North America for the interior finish of houses and for furniture. The leaves yield 
by distillation a pungent volatile oil, and from the fruit a fat containing umbellulic 
acid has been obtained. 

Distribution. Valley of Rogue River, Oregon, through the California coast 
ranges and along the high western slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the southern 
slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains up to elevations of 2500; usually near the 
banks of watercourses and sometimes on low hills; common where it can obtain an 
abundant supply of water; most abundant and of its largest size in the rich valleys 
of southwestern Oregon, forming with the Broad-leaved Maple a considerable part 
of the forest growth. 

4. SASSAFRAS, Nees. Sassafras. 

Aromatic trees, with thick deeply furrowed dark red-brown bark, scaly buds, 
slender light green lustrous brittle branchlets containing a thick white mucilaginous 
pith and marked by small semiorbicular elevated leaf-scars displaying single hori- 



336 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

zoiital rows of minute fibro-vascular bundle-scars, and stout spongy stoloniferous 
roots covered by thick yellow bark. Flower-bearing buds terminal, ovate, acute, 
with 9 or 10 imbricated scales increasing in size from without inward, the 3 outer 
scales ovate, rounded, often apiculate at the apex, keeled and thickened on the back, 
pale yellow-green below, dull yellow-brown above the middle, loosely imbricated, 
slightly or not at all accrescent, deciduous at the opening of the bud, much smaller 
than the thin accrescent light yellow-green scales of the next rows turning dull red 
before falling, and obovate, rounded at the apex, cuueate below, concave, coated on 
the outer surface with soft silky pubescence, glabrous or lustrous on the inner sur- 
face, reflexed, f ' long, nearly ^' broad, tardily deciduous, the 2 inner scales folia- 
ceous, lanceolate-acute, light green, coated on the outer surface with delicate pale 
hairs, glabrous on the inner surface, infolding the leaves; sterile and axillary buds 
much smaller. Leaves involute in the bud, ovate or obovate, entire or often 1-3- 
lobed at the apex, the lobes broadly ovate, acute, divided by deep broad sinuses, 
gradually narrowed at the base into elongated slender petioles, feather-veined, with 
alternate veins arcuate and united or running to the points of the lobes, the lowest 
parallel with the margins, conspicuously reticulate-venulose, mucilaginous, deciduous, 
as they unfold light green and somewhat pilose above, with scattered white hairs, 
ciliate, clothed below with a loose pubescence of long lustrous white hairs, at ma- 
turity membranaceous, dark dull green above, pale and glabrous or pubescent below. 
Flowers opening in early spring with the first unfolding of the leaves, the males and 
females usually on different individuals, in lax drooping few-flowered racemes in the 
axils of large obovate bud-scales, their pedicles slender, rarely forked and 2-flowered, 
without bracts, pilose, from the axils of linear acute scarious hairy deciduous bracts, 
or that of the terminal flower often without bracts; calyx pale yellow-green, divided 
nearly to the base into narrow obovate concave lobes spreading or reflexed after 
anthesis, those of the inner row a little larger than the others; stamens 9, inserted 
in 3 series on the somewhat thickened margin of the shallow concave calyx-tube, 
those of the outer series opposite its outer lobes; filaments flattened, elongated, 
light yellow, those of the inner series furnished at the base with 2 conspicuous 
orange-colored stipitate glands rounded on the back, obscurely lobed on the inner 
face; anthers oblong, flattened, truncate or slightly emarginate at the apex, rounded 
or wedge-shaped at the base, orange-colored, introrse, in the female flower reduced 
to flattened ovate pointed or slightly 2-lobed dark orange-colored stipitate stami- 
nodia, or occasionally fertile and similar to or a little smaller than those of the 
staminate flower; ovary ovate, light green, glabrous, nearly sessile in the short tube 
of the calyx, narrowed into an elongated simple style gradually enlarged above into 
a capitate oblique obscurely lobed stigma. Fruit an oblong dark blue lustrous berry 
surrounded at the base by the enlarged and thickened obscurely 6-lobed or truncate 
scarlet limb of the calyx, raised on a much elongated scarlet stalk thickened above 
the middle; pericarp thin and fleshy. Seed oblong, pointed, light brown; testa thin, 
membranaceous, barely separable into 2 coats, the inner coat much thinner than fche 
outer, dark chestnut-brown, and lustrous. 

Sassafras is confined to temperate eastern North America and to China, where a 
species, not now distinguishable from the American tree but still imperfectly known, 
has recently been discovered. 

Sassafras was first used as a popular name for this tree by the French in Florida. 



LAURACE^E 



337 



1. Sassafras Sassafras, Karst. Sassafras. 

Leaves 4'-6' long, 2'-4' wide, turning in the autumn delicate shades of yellow or 
orange more or less tinged with red; their petioles f'-l^' l n g- Flowers ^' long 
when fully expanded, in racemes about 2' long. Fruit ripening in September and 
October, J' long, on stalks l'-2' in length, separating when ripe from the thick 
calyx-lobes persistent with the stalks of the fruit on the branches until the beginning 
of winter. 

A tree, occasionally 80-90 high, with a trunk nearly 6 in diameter, short stout 
more or less contorted branches spreading almost at right angles and forming a 
narrow usually flat-topped head, and slender branchlets light yellow-green and 




coated when they first appear with pale pubescence, soon glabrous, bright green 
and lustrous, gradually turning reddish brown at the end of two or three years; 
frequently not more than 40-50 tall; at the north generally smaller and often 
shrubby. Winter-buds ^' |' long. Bark of young stems and branches thin, red- 
dish brown, divided by shallow fissures, becoming on old trunks sometimes 1|' thick, 
dark red-brown, and deeply and irregularly divided into broad flat ridges sepa- 
rating on the surface into thick appressed scales. Wood soft, weak, brittle, coarse- 
grained, very durable in the soil, aromatic, dull orange-brown, with thin light yellow 
sapwood of 7 or 8 layers of annual growth; largely used for fence-posts and rails, in 
the construction of light boats, ox-yokes, and in cooperage. The roots and especially 
their bark are a mild aromatic stimulant, and oil of sassafras, used to perfume soap 
and other articles, is distilled from them. Gumbo filet, a powder prepared from the 
leaves by the Choctaw Indians of Louisiana, gives flavor and consistency to gumbo 
soup. 

Distribution. Usually in rich sandy well-drained soil, southern Maine and east- 
ern Massachusetts, through southern Vermont, southern Ontario, central Michigan, 
and southeastern Iowa to eastern Kansas and the Indian Territory, and southward 
to central Florida and the valley of the Brazos River, Texas; in the south Atlantic 
and Gulf states often taking possession of abandoned fields. 

Occasionally cultivated in the eastern states as an ornamental tree. 



338 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

XVIII. CAFFARIDACEJE. 

Annual or perennial herbs, trees, or shrubs, with acrid often pungent juices, 
alternate or rarely opposite leaves, and regular or irregular usually perfect 
flowers in terminal cymes or racemes, or solitary, numerous ovules inserted in 
two rows on each of the two placentas, capsular or baccate 1-celled fruit, and 
seeds without albumen. A family of thirty-four genera, mostly confined to 
the warmer parts of the world and widely distributed in the two hemispheres. 
Of the seven genera which occur in North America only one has an arbores- 
cent representative. 

1. CAPPARIS, L. 

Trees, with naked buds. Leaves conduplicate in the bud, entire, feather-veined, 
coriaceous, persistent, without stipules. Flowers regular, in terminal cymes; sepals 
4, valvate in the bud, glandular on the inner surface; petals 4, inserted on the base 
of the short receptacle; stamens numerous, inserted on the receptacle, their filaments 
free, elongated, much longer than the introrse 2-celled anthers opening longitudi- 
nally; ovary long-stalked, 2-celled, with 2 parietal placentas; stigmas sessile, orbic- 
ular; ovules campylotropous. Fruit baccate, siliquiform (in the North American 
species) separating into 3 or 4 valves. Seeds reniform, numerous, surrounded by 
pulp; seed-coat coriaceous; embryo convolute; cotyledons foliaceous, fleshy. 

Capparis, with more than one hundred species, mostly tropical, is found in the two 
hemispheres, the largest number of species occurring in Central and South America. 
Two of the West Indian species reach the shores of southern Florida, the most north- 
ern station of the genus in America; of these one is arborescent. 

Capparis, from icdinrapts, the classical name of Capparis spinosa, L., is derived from 
the Persian kabor, capers, the dried flower-buds of that species. 

1. Capparis Jamaicensis, Jacq. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, rounded and emarginate at the apex, slightly revolute, 
coriaceous, light yellow-green, smooth and lustrous on the upper surface, covered on 




the lower by minute ferrugineous scales, 2'-3' long, I'-l^' broad, with prominent 
midribs and inconspicuous primary veins. Flowers 1^ in diameter, opening in Florida 



HAMAMELIDAf II 339 

in April and May from obtuse or acute 4-angled buds; sepals ovate, acute, lepidote 
on the outer surface, furnished on the inner with a small ovate gland, recurved when 
the flower is fully expanded, and about half the size of the roundish white petals 
turning purple in fading; stamens 20-30, with purple filaments villose toward the 
base, l'-2' long; anthers yellow; ovary raised on a slender stipe about !' long. 
Fruit U'-12' long, terete, sometimes slightly torulose, pubescent-lepidote, the long 
stalk appearing jointed by the enlargement of the pedicel and torus below the inser- 
tion of the stipe ; seed light brown, 1^' long. 

A small slender shrubby tree, 18-20 high, with a trunk sometimes o'-6' in 
diameter, and thin angled branchlets dark gray, smooth or slightly rugose, and cov- 
ered with minute ferrugineous scales. Bark rarely more than -|' thick, slightly 
fissured, the dark red-brown surface broken into small irregularly shaped divisions. 
"Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, yellow faintly tinged with red, witli lighter 
colored sapwood of about 15 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Florida coast from Cape Canaveral to the southern keys; generally 
distributed, but nowhere abundant; common on several of the Antilles. 

XIX. HAMAMELIDACE^E. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juice, slender terete branchlets, naked or scaly 
buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, deciduous. 
Flowers perfect or unisexual ; calyx 4-parted or ; petals 4 or ; stamens 
4-8 ; anthers attached at the base, introrse, 2-celled ; ovary inserted in the 
bottom of the receptacle, 2-celled ; ovules 1 or many, anatropous, suspended 
from sin axile placenta ; micropyle superior ; raphe ventral. Fruit a woody 
capsule opening at the summit. Seed usually 1 ; embryo surrounded by fleshy 
albumen ; cotyledons oblong, flat, longer than the terete radicle turned toward 
the hilum. The Witch Hazel family with eighteen genera is confined to eastern 
North America, southwestern, southern, and eastern Asia, the Malay Archi- 
pelago, Madagascar, and South Africa. Of the three North American genera 
two are arborescent. 



CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 

Flowers usually unisexual, capitate, without petals, the pistillate without sepals ; capsules 
consolidated by their bases into a globose head ; seed with a terminal wing ; leaves pal- 
mately lobed. 1. Liquidambar. 

Flowers usually perfect, with calyx and corolla; carpels not consolidated into a head ; seed 
without a wing. 1>. Hamamelis. 

1. LIQUIDAMBAR, L. 

Trees, with balsamic juices, scaly bark, terete often winged branchlets, scaly buds, 
and fibrous roots. Leaves plicate in the bud, alternate, palmately lobed, glandular- 
serrate, long-petiolate ; stipules lanceolate, acute, caducous. Flowers monoecious or 
rarely perfect in capitate heads surrounded by involucres of 4 deciduous bracts, the 
staminate in terminal racemes, the pistillate in solitary long-stalked heads from 
the axils of upper leaves; staminate flowers without a calyx and corolla; stamens 
indefinite, interspersed with minute scales; filaments filiform, shorter than the oblong 
obcordate anthers opening longitudinally; pistillate flowers surrounded by long- 
awned scales, the whole confluent into globular heads; calyx obconic, its limb short 



340 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



or nearly obsolete; stamens usually 4, inserted on the summit of the calyx; anthers 
minute, usually rudimentary or abortive, rarely fertile; ovary partly inferior, of 2 
united carpels terminating in elongated subulate recurved persistent styles stigmatic 
on the inner face; ovules numerous. Capsules armed with the hardened incurved 
elongated styles, free above, septicidally dehiscent at the apex, consolidated by their 
bases into a globose head; pericarp thick and woody; endocarp thin, corneous, 
lustrous on the inner surface. Seeds usually solitary or 2 by the abortion of many 
ovules, compressed, angulate; seed-coat opaque, crustaceous, produced into a short 
membranaceous obovate terminal wing rounded at the oblique apex. 

Liquidambar with about four species is confined to the eastern United States, to 
southern and central Mexico, Central America, southwestern Asia, middle and 
southeastern China, and Formosa. The species produce hard straight-grained hand- 
some dark-colored wood and valuable balsamic exudations. Liquid storax, an opaque 
grayish brown resin, is derived from Liquidambar orientalis, Mill., a native of Asia 
Minor. 

1. Liquidambar Styracifltia, L. Sweet Gum. Bilsted 

Leaves generally round in outline, truncate or slightly heart-shaped at the 
base, deeply 5-7-lobed, with acutely pointed divisions finely serrate, with rounded 
appressed teeth, when they unfold pilose on the lower surface, soon becoming 




glabrous with the exception of large tufts of pale rufous hairs in the axils of the 
principal veins, at maturity thin, bright green, smooth and lustrous, 6'-7' across, 
with broad primary veins and finely reticulate veinlets, exhaling when bruised 
a pleasant resinous fragrance, in the autumn turning deep crimson; their petioles 
slender, covered at first near the base with rufous caducous hairs, and 5'-<3' long; 
stipules entire, glabrous, \'-% long. Flowers: staminate in racemes 2'-3' long, 
covered with rufous hairs, in heads stalked toward the base of the raceme and nearly 
sessile above, \' in diameter and surrounded by ovate acute deciduous hairy bracts 
much larger than the lanceolate acute bracts of the female inflorescence ^ across 
and conspicuous from the broad stigmatic surfaces of the recurved and contorted 
styles. Fruit I'-l^' in diameter, persistent during the winter, the carpels opening 
in the autumn; seed ' long and rather longer than its wing, with a light brown coat 
conspicuously marked by oblong resin-ducts. 









HAMAMELIDACE^ 341 

A tree, 80-140 high, with a straight trunk 4-5 in diameter, slender branches 
forming while the tree is young a pyramidal head, and in old age a comparatively 
small oblong crown, and slender branchlets containing a large pith, slightly many- 
angled, covered when they first appear with caducous rufous hairs, light orange 
color to reddish brown in their first winter, marked by occasional minute dark 
lenticels and by large arcuate leaf-scars showing the ends of 3 conspicuous fibro- 
vascular bundles, developing in their second season corky wings appearing on the 
upper side of lateral branches in 3 or 4 parallel ranks and irregularly on all sides of 
vertical branches and increasing in width and thickness for many years, sometimes 
becoming 2'-3' broad and 1' thick. Winter-buds acute, \' long, and covered by 
ovate acute minutely apiculate orange-brown scales rounded on the back, those of 
the inner rows accrescent, tipped with red, and about 1' long at maturity. Wood 
heavy, hard, straight, close-grained, not strong, bright brown tinged with red, with 
thin almost white sapwood of GO-70 layers of annual growth; used for the outside 
finish of houses, in cabinet-making, for street pavement, wooden dishes, and fruit 
boxes. 

Distribution. Fan-field County, Connecticut, to southeastern Missouri, south- 
ward to Cape Canaveral and the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, and through Ar- 
kansas and the Indian Territory to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, reappearing 
on the mountains of central and southern Mexico and on the highlands of Guatemala; 
in the maritime region of the south Atlantic states and in the basin of the lower 
Mississippi River one of the most common trees of the forest, covering rich river 
bottom-lands usually inundated every year; in the northern and middle states on 
the borders of swamps and low wet swales; at the north rarely more than G0-70 
tall, with a trunk usually not more than 2 in diameter. 

Unsurpassed in the brilliancy of the autumnal colors of the leaves; and often 
planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern states. 

2. HAMAMELIS, L. Witch Hazel. 

Trees or shrubs, with scaly bark, terete zigzag branchlets, naked buds, and fibrous 
roots. Leaves involute in the bud, unsymmetrical at the base, crenate-toothed, the 
primary veins conspicuous and nearly parallel with the margins; stipules acute, 
infolding the bud, deciduous. Flowers autumnal, perfect, in terminal 3-tiowered 
clusters on axillary simple peduncles furnished near the middle with 2 acute decid- 
uous bractlets, each flower surrounded by 2 or 3 ovate acute bracts, the outer 
slightly united at the base into a 3-lobed involucre; calyx 4-parted, persistent, on the 
base of the ovary, the lobes reflexed; petals inserted on the margin of the cup- 
shaped receptacle, alternate with the sepals, strap-shaped; stamens 8, inserted in 2 
rows on the margin of the receptacle, the 4 opposite the lobes of the calyx fertile, 
the others reduced to minute strap-shaped scales; filaments free, shorter than the 
calyx, prolonged into a thickened pointed connective; anthers elliptical, opening 
laterally from without by persistent valves; ovary of 2 carpels, free at their apex, 
inserted in the bottom of the receptacle, partly superior; styles subulate, spreading, 
stigmatic at the apex, persistent; ovule solitary. Fruit a capsule, 2-beaked at the 
apex, the thick and woody outer layer splitting from above loculicidally before the 
opening of the thin crustaceous inner layer. Seed oblong, acute, suspended; testa 
crustaceous, chestnut-brown, shining, forcibly discharged when ripe by the contrac- 
tion of the edges of the valves of the bony endocarp; embryo surrounded by thick 






342 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

fleshy albumen ; cotyledons oblong, f oliaceous, longer than the radicle turned toward 
the oblong depressed hilum. 

Hamamelis is confined to eastern North America and eastern Asia, with one 
American and two or three Asiatic species. 

The name is from fi/xo, at the same time with, and JUTJAIS an Apple-tree, and was 
applied by the ancients to the Medlar or some similar tree. 

1. Hamamelis Virginiana, L. Witch Hazel. 

Leaves obovate, acuminate, long-pointed or sometimes rounded at the apex, very 
unequal at the base, the lower side rounded or subcordate, the upper usually wedge- 
shaped and smaller, irregularly and coarsely serrate-toothed above the middle, entire 
or dentate below, when they unfold with veins, especially on the lower surface, 
petioles, and stipules coated with stellate ferrugineous pubescence, at maturity mem- 
branaceous, dull dark green and glabrous or pilose above, lighter colored, lustrous, 
and pubescent or puberulous on the stout midribs and 6 or 7 pairs of primary veins 
below, 4'-6' long, 2'-2^' broad, turning delicate yellow color in the autumn; their 




stipules lanceolate, acute, coriaceous, \'-% long. Flowers from buds appearing in 
August on short recurved peduncles developed from the axils of leaves of the year, 
covered like the acute bracts and bractlets with dark ferrugineous pubescence, 
opening from the middle of September to the middle of November; calyx in the 
autumn coated on the outer surface with thick pale pubescence, orange-brown on 
the inner surface, the rounded lobes ciliate on the margins; petals bright yellow, 
'-' long, falling like the stamens as soon as the ovules are fertilized; ovary remaining 
during the winter without enlarging and surrounded and protected by the pubescent 
calyx. Fruit ripening in the autumn, usually 2 from each flower-cluster, discharging 
its seeds when the flowers of the season are expanding, ^' long, pubescent, dull 
orange-brown and surrounded for half its length by the large persistent calyx bearing 
at its base the blackened remnants of the floral bracts; seed \' long. 

A tree, occasionally 25-30 high, with a short trunk 12'-14' in diameter, spread- 
ing branches forming a broad open head, and slender flexible branchlets coated at 
first with scurfy rusty stellate hairs, gradually disappearing during the summer, and 
in their first winter glabrous or slightly puberulous, light orange-brown and marked 



PLATANACE^ 343 

by small white dots, becoming in their second year dark or reddish brown; usually 
a stout shrub sending up from the ground numerous rigid diverging stems 5-20 
tall. "Winter-buds acute, slightly falcate, light orange-brown, covered with short 
fine pubescence, '-' long. Bark \' thick, light brown, generally smooth but broken 
into minute thin appressed scales disclosing in falling the dark reddish purple inner 
bark. Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with 
thick nearly white sapwood of 30-40 layers of annual growth. The bark and leaves 
are slightly astringent and although not known to possess essential properties are 
largely used in the form of fluid extracts and decoctions and in homoeopathic practice, 
Pond's Extract being made by distilling the bark in diluted alcohol. 

Distribution. Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the valley of the St. Lawrence 
River to southern Ontario, Wisconsin and eastern Nebraska, and southward to north- 
ern Florida and eastern Texas, growing usually on the borders of the forest in low 
rich soil or on the rocky banks of streams; of its largest size and probably only arbo- 
rescent on the slopes of the high Alleghany Mountains in North and South Carolina 
and Tennessee. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the northern states, and in 
western and northern Europe. 

XX. PLATANACEJE. 

Trees, with watery juice, thick deeply furrowed scaly bark exfoliating from 
the branches and young trunks in large thin plates, terete zigzag pithy branch- 
lets prolonged by an upper axillary bud, and fibrous roots. Winter-buds 
axillary, conical, large, smooth, and lustrous, nearly surrounded at the base by 
the narrow leaf-scars displaying a row of conspicuous dark fibro-vascular 
bundle-scars, covered by 3 deciduous scales, the 2 inner accrescent, strap- 
shaped, rounded at the apex at maturity, marking in falling the base of the 
branchlet with narrow ring-like scars, the outer scale surrounding the bud and 
splitting longitudinally with its expansion, the second light green, covered by 
a gummy fragrant secretion and usually inclosing a bud in its axil, the third 
coated with long rufous hairs. Leaves longitudinally plicate in vernation, 
alternate, broadly ovate, cordate, truncate, or wedge-shaped and decurrent 
on the petiole at the base, more or less acutely 3-7-lobed, and occasionally 
furnished with a more or less enlarged basal lobe, the lobes entire, dentate, 
with minute remote callous teeth, or coarsely sinuate-toothed, penniveined, the 
veins arcuate and united near the margins and connected by inconspicuous 
reticulate veinlets, clothed while young like the petioles, stipules, and young 
branchlets with caducous stellate sharp-pointed branching hairs, pale on the 
lower and rufous on the upper surface, long-petiolate, turning brown and 
withering in the autumn before falling ; their petioles abruptly enlarged at 
the base and inclosing the buds, stipules membranaceous, laterally united below 
into a short tube surrounding the branchlet above the insertion of their leaf, 
acute, more or less free above, dentate or entire, thin and scarious on flowering 
shoots, broad and leaf-like on vigorous sterile branchlets, caducous, marking the 
branchlet in falling with narrow ring-like scars. Flowers minute, appearing 
with the unfolding of the leaves in dense unisexual pedunculate solitary or 
spicate heads, the staminate and pistillate heads on separate peduncles or rarely 
united on the same peduncle ; staminate heads dark red on axillary peduncles ; 
pistillate heads light green tinged with red, on long terminal peduncles, the 



344 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

lateral heads in the spicate clusters sessile and embracing at maturity the 
peduncle, usually persistent on the branches during the winter ; calyx of the 
staminate flower divided into 3-6 minute scale-like sepals slightly united at 
the base, about half as long as the 36 cuneiform sulcate scarious pointed 
petals ; stamens as many as the divisions of the calyx, opposite them, with 
short nearly obsolete filaments, and elongated clavate 2-celled anthers, their 
cells opening longitudinally, crowned by a capitate pilose truncate connective ; 
calyx of the pistillate flower divided into 3-6, usually 4, rounded sepals much 
shorter than the acute petals ; stamens scale-like, elongated-obovate, pilose at 
the apex ; ovaries as many as the divisions of the calyx, superior, sessile, oblong, 
surrounded at the base by long ridged jointed pale hairs persistent round the 
fruit, gradually narrowed into long simple bright red styles papillose-stigmatic 
to below the middle along the ventral suture ; ovules 1 or rarely 2, suspended 
laterally, orthotropous. Heads of fruit composed of elongated obovate akenes 
rounded and obtuse or acute at the apex, surmounted by the persistent styles, 
1-seeded, light yellow-brown ; pericarp thin, coriaceous. Seed elongated, 
oblong, suspended ; testa thin and firm, light chestnut-brown ; embryo erect in 
thin fleshy albumen ; cotyledons oblong, about as long as the elongated cylin- 
drical erect radicle turned toward the minute apical hilum. A family of a 
single genus. 

1. PLATANUS, L. Plane-tree. 

Characters of the family. 

A genus of six or seven species of eastern and western North America, Mexico, 
Central America, and of southwestern Asia, all resembling each other except in the 
form of the lobes of the leaves and the amount of pubescence on their lower surface, 
in the pointed or obtuse apex of the akene, and in the number of heads of pistillate 
flowers on their peduncle. 

Of the exotic species,. the Old World Platanus orientalis, L., now a common street 
tree in all the countries of temperate Europe, has been used as a shade-tree in the 
eastern states and in California. 

Platanus is the classical name of the Plane-tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Leaves broadly ovate, shallowly 3-5-lobed, the lobes mostly serrulate-toothed, truncate or 
rarely wedge-shaped at the base ; head of fruit usually solitary. 

1. P. occidentalis (A, C). 

Leaves deeply 5-lobed, the lobes entire, remotely and obscurely dentate or rarely sinuate- 
toothed, truncate or rarely slightly cordate or wedge-shaped at the base ; heads of fruit 
racemose. 2. P. racemosa (G). 

Leaves deeply 3-7-lobed, the lobes elongated, slender, entire or rarely remotely dentate, 
deeply cordate or rarely wedge-shaped or truncate at the base ; heads of fruit racemose. 

3. P. Wrightii (H). 

1. Flatanus occidentalis, L. Sycamore. Buttonwood. 
Leaves broadly ovate, more or less 3-5-lobed by broad shallow sinuses rounded 
at the bottom, the lobes broad, acuminate, sinuate-toothed, with long straight 
or curved remote acuminate teeth, or entire, with undulate margins, truncate or 
slightly cordate, or wedge-shaped and decurrent on the petioles at the base, thin 
and firm, bright green on the upper surface, paler on the lower, glabrous with 
the exception of a coat of pale pubescence along the midribs and principal veins 



PLATANACE^ 



345 



below, 4'-7' long and broad, or twice as large on vigorous shoots and then frequently 
furnished with dentate basal lobes, with stout yellow midribs and veins ; their petioles 
stout, terete or slightly angled, puberulous; stipules I'-l^' long, entire or sinuate- 
toothed. Flowers: peduncles coated with pale tomentum, bearing 1 and sometimes 
2 heads of flowers. Fruit: heads 1' in diameter, on slender glabrous stems 3'-' in 
length ; akeue about |' long and truncate or obtusely rounded at the apex. 

A tree, occasionally 140-170 high, with a trunk sometimes 10-11 in diameter 
above its abruptly enlarged base, often divided near the ground into several large 
secondary trunks, or rising 70-80, with a straight column-like shaft free of 




branches and with little diminution of diameter, massive spreading limbs forming a 
broad open irregular head sometimes 100 in diameter, their extremities usually erect 
or more or less pendulous, and slender branchlets coated at first like the leaves, peti- 
oles, and stipules with thick pale deciduous tomentum, during their first summer dark 
green and glabrous, marked by minute oblong pale lenticels, becoming dark orange- 
brown and rather lustrous during their first winter and light gray in their second year. 
Winter-buds ^'-|' long. Bark of young trunks and large branches rarely more 
than ^' thick, dark reddish brown, broken into small oblong thick appressed plate- 
like scales, smooth, light gray, and separating higher on the tree into large thin 
scales, in falling exposing large irregular surfaces of the pale yellow, whitish, or 
greenish inner bark, becoming at the base of large trunks 2'-3' thick, dark brown, 
and divided by deep furrows into broad rounded ridges covered by small thin ap- 
pressed scales. Wood the favorite material for tobacco boxes, ox-yokes, and butcher's 
blocks, and now largely used for furniture and the interior finish of houses. 

Distribution. Borders of streams and lakes on rich bottom-lands; southeastern 
New Hampshire, northern Vermont and the northern shores of Lake Ontario, west- 
ward to eastern Nebraska and Kansas, and southward to northern Florida, central 
Alabama and Mississippi, and the valley of the Brazos River, and through Texas to 
the valley of the Devil's River, everywhere common but most abundant and of its 
largest size on the bottom-lands of streams in the basin of the lower Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi rivers. The most massive if not the tallest deciduous-leaved tree of North 
America. 

Rarely planted in the eastern states or in Europe as an ornamental tree. 



346 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

2. Platanus racemosa, Nutt. Sycamore. Plane-tree. 

Leaves 3-5-lobed to below the middle, with acute or acuminate lobes, entire, 
dentate, with remote callous tipped teeth, or occasionally coarsely sinuate-toothed, 




and broad sinuses acute or rounded at the bottom, usually cordate or sometimes 
truncate and wedge-shaped or decurrent on the petioles at the base, thick and firm, 
light green above, paler and more or less thickly coated below with pale pubescence 
most abundant along the midribs and primary veins, 6'-10' long and broad; their 
petioles stout, pubescent, l'-3' long; stipules I'-l^' long, entire or dentate, often per- 
sistent until the spring. Flowers: peduncles hoary-pubescent, bearing usually 4 or 
5 heads of staminate flowers and 2-7 heads of pistillate flowers, a head of the 
staminate flowers occasionally appearing on the pistillate peduncles above the heads 
of fertile flowers. Fruit: heads ^' in diameter, on slender zigzag glabrous or pubes- 
cent stems 6'-9' long; akene acute or rounded at the apex, $' long, tomentose while 
young, becoming glabrous. 

A tree, occasionally 100-120 high, with a trunk sometimes 9 in diameter above 
the broad tapering base, erect and free of branches for half its height, more often 
dividing near the ground into secondary stems erect, inclining, or prostrate for 
20-30 at their base, thick heavy more or less contorted spreading branches form- 
ing an open irregular round-topped head, and brauchlets coated at first with thick 
pale deciduous tomentum, light reddish brown, and marked by numerous small 
lenticels in their first winter, becoming gradually darker in their second and third 
years; usually smaller and generally 70-80 tall, with a trunk 2-4 in diameter. 
Winter-buds nearly \' long. Bark at the base of old trunks 3'-4' thick, dark 
brown, deeply furrowed, with broad rounded ridges separating on the surface into 
thin scales, thinner, smooth, and pale, or almost white higher on the trunk and on the 
branches. 

Distribution. Valley of the lower Sacramento River, California, southward 
through the interior valleys and coast ranges; and on Mount San Pedro Martir in 
Lower California; an inhabitant of the banks of streams; exceedingly common in 
all the valleys of the California coast range from Monterey to the southern borders 
of the state, and ascending the southern slopes of the San Bernardino Mountains to 
elevations of 3000. 



PLATANACE^E 347 

3. Platanus Wrightii, Wats. Sycamore. 

Leaves divided by narrow sinuses to below the middle and sometimes nearly to 
the centre into 3-7 but usually into 3-6 elongated acute lobes entire or dentate, with 
callous-tipped teeth, or occasionally furnished with 1 or 2 lateral lobes, sometimes 
deeply cordate by the downward projection of the lower lobes, or often truncate or 
wedge-shaped at the base, thin and firm in texture, light green and glabrous above, 
covered below with pale pubescence, 6' -8' long and broad, with slender ribs, and 
primary veins connected by conspicuous reticulate veinlets; their petioles stout, gla- 
brous or puberulous, l'-3' long. Flowers : peduncles hoary -tomentose, bearing 14 
heads of flowers. Fruit: heads on slender glabrous stems 6'-8' long, about ' in 
diameter; akenes glabrous, \' long, truncate at the apex. 

A tree, often 60-80 high, with a straight trunk 4-5 in diameter, gradually 
tapering and free of branches for 20-30, or with a trunk divided at the ground 
into 2 or 3 large stems usually more or less reclining and often nearly prostrate for 




15-20, thick contorted branches, the lowest growing almost at right angles to the 
trunk and 50-60 long, the upper usually erect at first, finally spreading into a 
broad open handsome head, and slender branchlets coated at first with thick pale 
tomentum, becoming glabrous or slightly puberulous during their first winter, 
marked by minute scattered lenticels, and light brown tinged with red or ashy gray, 
and gradually darker in their second or third year. Winter-buds hardly more 
than \' long. Bark at the base of the trunk dark, 3'-4' thick, deeply and irregu- 
larly divided into broad ridges, and covered on the surface with small appressed 
scales, thinner and separating into large scales 10-15 above the ground, and gradu- 
ally passing into the smooth much thinner creamy white bark faintly tinged with 
green of the upper branches. 

Distribution. Banks of streams in the mountain canons of southwestern New 
Mexico and southern Arizona; and in Sonora; the largest and one of the most 
abundant of the deciduous-leaved trees on all the mountain ranges of southern 
New Mexico and Arizona, extending from the mouths of cailons up to elevations of 
5000-6000 above the sea. 



348 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



XXI. ROSACEJE. 

Trees or shrubs, with watery juices, terete branchlets, scaly buds, and alter- 
nate leaves (opposite in Lyonothamnus) , with stipules. Flowers perfect ; calyx 
5-lobed ; petals 5 (0 in Cercocarpus), imbricated in the bud, inserted with the 
numerous distinct stamens on the edge of a disk lining the calyx-tube ; anthers 
introrse (extrorse in Vauquelinia), 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally ; 
ovary superior in Lyonothamnus and Heteromeles, often partly superior in 
Amelanchier ; ovules 2 in each cell (1 in Cercocarpus, 4 ^ n Lyonothamnus), 
anatropous. Seeds without albumen (albuminous in Lyonothamnus). A family 
of about ninety genera chiefly confined to the temperate parts of the world 
and producing many of the most valuable fruits, including the apple, pear, 
quince, strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry. Of the six tribes into which 
the genera of the family are grouped, five have arborescent representatives in 
North America. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ARBORESCENT GENERA. 



Tribe 1. SPIR^OIDE^. Fruit a woody capsule. 

Flowers in terminal cymose corymbs ; calyx-lobes persistent ; ovary 5-celled ; ovules 
ascending ; mature carpels adherent below and opening down the back ; albumen ; 
leaves simple. 1. Vauquelinia. 

Flowers in terminal cymose corymbs ; calyx-lobes deciduous ; ovary 2-celled ; ovules 4 in 
each cell, pendulous ; mature carpels opening on the ventral and partly on the dorsal 
suture ; albumen thin ; leaves opposite, simple or pinnately divided. 

2. Lyonothamnus. 

Tribe 2. POMOIDE^:. Fruit a pome composed of the thickened and succulent calyx-tube 
inclosing the papery or bony carpels ; stipules free from the petioles. 
Mature carpels papery. 

Carpels as many as the styles. 

Flowers in simple terminal cymes on short spur-like lateral branchlets; ovary 
3-5-celled ; styles more or less united below ; leaves simple ; winter-buds small. 

3. Malus. 

Flowers in broad compound terminal cymes ; ovary 2-4, usually 3-celled ; styles 
distinct ; fruit subglobose ; leaves unequally pinnate ; winter-buds large. 

4. Sorbus. 

Flowers in large terminal corymbose panicles ; ovary nearly superior, 2-celled ; 

styles distinct ; fruit obovoid. 5. Heteromeles. 

Carpels becoming at maturity twice as many as the styles ; flowers in erect or nod- 

ding racemes ; ovary inferior or partly superior ; styles 2-5, more or less united 

below ; fruit subglobose or pyriform ; leaves simple, deciduous. 

6. Amelanchier. 

Mature carpels bony ; flowers in terminal cymose corymbs ; ovary 1-5-celled ; styles 
distinct ; fruit globose to pyriform ; leaves simple, deciduous. 7. Crataegus. 

Tribe 3. CERCOCARPE.S:. Carpels free from the persistent calyx, becoming akenes. 

Flowers axillary, solitary ; petals ; ovary 1 or rarely 2-celled ; ovule 1 ; fruit tipped 
with the elongated persistent plumose style ; leaves simple, persistent. 

8. Cercocarpus. 

Tribe 4. PRUNOIDKE. Fruit a 1-seeded drupe ; ovary 1-celled ; style terminal ; ovules 
pendulous. 

Flowers in fascicled umbels or racemes ; leaves simple, deciduous or persistent. 

9. Prunus. 



ROSACE^E 



349 



Tribe 5. CHRYSOBALANOIDE.E. Fruit a 1-seeded drupe ; ovary 1-celled ; style lateral, 
ovules ascending 1 . 

Flowers in axillary or terminal cymose panicles ; leaves simple, persistent. 

10. Chrysobalanus. 

1. VAUQUELINIA, Corr. 

Trees or shrubs, with slender terete branchlets, and scaly bark. Leaves alternate 
or rarely opposite, lanceolate, serrate, long-petiolate, reticulate-veined, coriaceous, 
persistent; stipules minute, acute, deciduous. Flowers on slender bibracteolate pedi- 
cels, in compound terminal leafy cymose corymbs; calyx short-turbinate, coriaceous, 
5-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse or acute, erect, persistent; petals 5, orbicular or 
oblong, white, becoming reflexed, persistent; stamens 15-25, inserted in 3 or 4 series, 
equal or semiequal, those of the outer row opposite the petals; filaments subulate, 
exserted, persistent; anthers versatile, extrorse; carpels 5, opposite the sepals, 
inserted on the thickened base of the calyx-tube and united below into a 5-celled 
ovoid tomentose ovary crowned with 5 short spreading styles dilated into capitate 
stigmas; ovules subbasilar, ascending, prolonged at the apex into thin membra- 
naceous wings; raphe ventral; micropyle superior. Fruit a woody ovoid 5-celled 
tomentose capsule inclosed at the base by the remnants of the flower, the mature 
carpels adherent below and at maturity splitting down the back. Seeds 2 in each 
cell, ascending, compressed; testa membranaceous, expanded into a long terminal 
membranaceous wing; embryo filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons flat; radicle 
straight, erect. 

Vauquelinia is confined to the New World and is distributed from Arizona and 
Lower California to southern Mexico. Three species are distinguished; of these one 
inhabits the mountain ranges of southern Arizona. 

The generic name is in honor of the French chemist Louis Nicholas Vauquelin 
(1763-1829). 

1. Vauquelinia Californica, Sarg. 

Leaves narrowly lanceolate, acuminate or rarely rounded at the apex, abruptly 
wedge-shaped or slightly rounded at the base, and remotely serrate, with minute 




glandular teeth, when they unfold puberulous above and densely tomentose below, at 
maturity coriaceous, bright yellow-green and glabrous on the upper and tomentose 



350 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

on the lower surface, 1^-3' long, \'-% wide, with thick conspicuous midribs grooved 
on the upper side, and numerous thin primary veins connected by reticulate veinlets, 
deciduous in spring or early summer; their petioles thick, \'-\' long. Flowers 
appearing in June, ^ in diameter, in hoary-tomentose panicles 2'-3' across; petals 
oblong; inner surface of the disk pilose. Fruit fully grown by the end of August, 
' long, persistent on the branches after opening until the spring of the following 
year; conspicuous from the contrast of the bright red faded petals and the white 
silky pubescence of the calyx and carpels; seed ^y long, and one third as long as 
its wing. 

A tree, 18-20 high, with a slender often hollow trunk 5'-6' in diameter, rigid 
upright contorted branches, and slender branchlets at first bright reddish brown 
and more or less thickly covered with hoary tomentum, becoming light brown or gray 
in their second year and marked by large elevated leaf-scars; or more often a low 
shrub. Bark about ^' thick, dark red-brown, and broken on the surface into small 
square persistent plate-like scales. Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, dark 
rich brown screaked with red, with 14 or 15 layers of annual growth. 

Distribution. Mountain ranges of southern Arizona, Sonora, and Lower Califor- 
nia; arborescent and of its largest size in Arizona on the Santa Catalina Mountains 
at elevations of about 5000 above the sea; on the bottoms and rocky sides of gulches, 
or on grassy slopes. 

2. LYONOTHAMNUS, Gray. 

A tree or shrub, with scaly bark exfoliating in long strips, stout terete pubescent 
ultimately glabrous branchlets, and scaly buds. Leaves opposite, long-petiolate, 
lanceolate, acuminate, rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, entire, finely crenulate- 




serrate or serrulate-lobulate below the middle, or sometimes irregularly pinnately 
parted into 3-8 linear-lanceolate remote lobulate segments, coriaceous, transversely 
many-veined, dark green above, paler and more or less pubescent below, persistent; 
stipules lanceolate, acute, minute, caducous. Flowers on slender pedicels, in broad com- 
pound terminal pubescent cymose corymbs, with minute acute persistent bracts and 
bractlets; calyx-tube hemispherical, with 1-3 bractlets, tomentose on the outer sur- 
face, the lobes nearly triangular, slightly keeled, apiculate, persistent; disk 10-lobed. 






ROSACES 351 

with a slightly thickened margin; petals 5, orbicular, sessile, white; stamens 15, 
inserted in pairs opposite the petals and singly opposite the sepals; filaments subu- 
late, incurved, as long as the petals; anthers oblong, 2-celled, the cells opening 
longitudinally; carpels 2, inserted in the bottom of the calyx-tube, forming a superior 
glandular-hairy ovary; styles 2, spreading; stigmas capitate, truncate; ovules 4 in 
each cell, suspended; micropyle superior; raphe ventral. Fruit of 2 woody ovate 
glandular 4-seeded carpels, dehiscent on the ventral and partly dehiscent on the 
dorsal suture. Seeds ovate-oblong, pointed at the ends; seed-coat light brown, thin 
and membranaceous; hilum orbicular, apical; raphe broad and wing-like; cotyle- 
dons oblong-acuminate, twice as long as the straight radicle directed toward the 
hilum. 

Lyonothamnus is represented by a single species found only on the islands off the 
coast of southern California. 

Lyonothamnus, in honor of its discoverer, William S. Lyon. 

1. Lyonothamnus floiibundus, Gray. Iron-wood. 

Leaves 4'-8' long, ' wide when entire, or 4' wide when pinnately divided, when they 
unfold covered below with hoary deciduous tomentum, at maturity dark green and 
lustrous above and yellow-green, glabrous, or pubescent below, with orange-colored 
midribs. Flowers in June and July, \'~\' in diameter, in clusters varying from 4'-8' 
across. Fruit ripens in August and September, T 8 8 ' long. 

A bushy tree, rarely 30-40 high, with a single straight trunk 8'-10' in diame- 
ter, and slender branches at first pale orange color and coated with deciduous pubes- 
cence, becoming at the end of their first season bright red and lustrous; usually 
shrubby, with several tall stems, or in exposed situations a low bush. Bark ' 
thick, dark red-brown, and composed of numerous thin papery layers, forming after 
exfoliating long loose strips persistent on the stem. Wood heavy, hard, close- 
grained, bright clear red faintly tinged with orange. 

Distribution. Steep slopes of canons in dry rocky soil on the islands of Santa 
Catalina, Santa Cruz, and San Clemente, California; most abundant and of its 
largest size on the northern shores of Santa Cruz; on Santa Catalina much smaller 
and rarely arborescent. 

3. MALUS, Hall. Apple. 

Trees, with scaly bark, slender terete branchlets, small obtuse buds covered by 
imbricated scales, those of the inner ranks accrescent and marking the base of the 
branchlet with conspicuous ring-like scars, and fibrous roots. Leaves involute in the 
bud, simple, often incisely lobed, petiolate, deciduous, the petioles in falling leaving 
narrow horizontal scars marked by the ends of three equidistant fibro-vascular bun- 
dles; stipules free from the petioles, filiform, early deciduous. Flowers in simple 
terminal cymes, with filiform deciduous bracts and bractlets, on short lateral spur- 
like often spinescent branchlets; calyx-tube urn-shaped, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated 
in the bud, acuminate, becoming reflexed, persistent and erect on the fruit or decid- 
uous; petals rounded, contracted below into stalk-like bases, white, pink or rose 
color; stamens usually 20 in 3 series, those of the outer series opposite the petals; 
carpels 3-5, usually 5, alternate with the petals, united into an inferior ovary; styles 
united at the base; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending; raphe dorsal; micropyle infe- 
rior. Fruit a pome with homogeneous flesh, and papery carpels joined at the apex, 
free in the middle; seeds 2, or by abortion 1 in each cell, ovate, acute, erect, without 



352 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

albumen; seed-coat cartilaginous, chestnut-brown, and lustrous; embryo erect ; cotyle- 
dons plano-convex, fleshy; radicle short, inferior. 

Malus is confined to North America, where four species occur, and to southeastern, 
northeastern, and eastern Asia. Of exotic species, Malus Malus, Britt, the Apple- 
tree, of uncertain origin, but probably a native of some of the countries of south- 
western or central Asia, is now widely naturalized in northeastern North America. 
Several of the species of eastern Asia and their hybrids are cultivated for their 
handsome flowers, or for their fruits, the crab apples of the orchard. 

Malus is the classical name of the Apple- tree. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES. 

Calyx-lobes persistent ; fruit depressed-globose, hollowed at the base, leaves convolute in 
the bud. 
Mature leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaves oblong, lanceolate, or oval, acute at the base, crenulate-serrate or nearly 
entire, subcoriaceous. 1. M. ailgustifolia (A, C). 

Leaves ovate, truncate or subcordate at the base. 2. M. coroiiaria (A). 

Mature leaves tomentose below, ovate to oblong, narrow at the base. 

3. M. loensis (A, C). 

Calyx-lobes deciduous ; fruit oblong, full and rounded at the base ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
serrulate, often 3-lobed, conduplicate in the bud. 4. M. rivularis (B, G). 

I. Malus angustifolia, Michx. Crab Apple. 

Leaves lanceolate-oblong, acute or rounded and apiculate at the apex, acute at the 
base, coarsely crenulate-serrate above the middle, or sometimes nearly entire, more 
or less coated when they first appear with pale tomentum below and pilose above, at 
maturity subcoriaceous, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, paler and 




glabrous or nearly so on the lower surface, l^'-3' long, about I'-l^' wide, with slen- 
der midribs and obscure primary veins; their petioles slender, rigid, glabrous or 
puberulous, f'-l' long; stipules rose color, ' long. Flowers 1' in diameter, very 
fragrant, on slender glabrous or hoary-tomentose pedicels I'-l^' long, in few-flow- 
ered clusters; calyx-tube glabrous, pubescent or tomentose, the lobes narrow, acumi- 
nate, with rigid tips, and hoary-tomentose on the inner surface; petals distinct, 



ROSACES 



353 



narrowly obovate, rounded above, undulate and sometimes irregularly dentate at 
the base of the blade, white, pink, or rose color; ovary and the lower part of the 
styles densely hoary-toinentose. Fruit depressed-globose, f'-l' in diameter, pale 
yellow-green, very fragrant when fully ripe, with hard acid flesh. 

A tree, rarely 30 high, with a short trunk 8'-10' in diameter, rigid branches 
forming a broad open head, and young branchlets clothed at first with pale caducous 
pubescence, becoming in their first winter brown slightly tinged with red, and in 
their second year light brown and marked by occasional orange-colored lenticels. 
Winter-buds fa' long, chestnut-brown, slightly pubescent. Bark \'-^' thick, dark 
reddish brown, and divided by deep longitudinal fissures into narrow ridges broken 
on the surface into small persistent plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard, close- 
grained, light brown tinged with red, with thick yellow sapwood; occasionally em- 
ployed for levers, the handles of tools and other small objects. The fruit is used for 
preserves. 

Distribution. Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and southern Delaware, through 
the coast region of the south Atlantic states to the valley of the Chattahoochee 
River, Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the Red River, Louisiana, 
and northward to middle Tennessee; in the Atlantic states in forest glades, usually 
in the neighborhood of streams; in the Gulf states often in the sandy soil of dry 
depressions of the Pine-covered uplands. 

2. Malus coronaria, Mill. Crab Apple. Fragrant Crab. 

Leaves ovate or sometimes almost triangular, usually acute, often truncate or 
subcordate and occasionally acute at the base, incisely serrate, with glandular teeth, 




often 3-lobed, especially on vigorous shoots, when they unfold red-bronze, coated 
below with pale tomentum and pilose above, at maturity membranaceoiis, bright 
green on the upper surface, paler, glabrous or sometimes slightly pilose on the lower 
surface, 3'-4' long, l%'-2% wide, with broad midribs and primary veins, and con- 
spicuous veinlets, turning yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles slender, 
l'-2' long, at first tomentose or pubescent, ultimately glabrous, often glandular 
near the middle, with 2 dark glands; stipules acuminate, \' long. Flowers l^'-2' 
across when expanded, in 5 or 6-flowered umbels, on slender pedicels, very fragrant; 
calyx-tube coated with thick white tomentum, its lobes elongated, acute, ending in 



354 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

rigid subulate points, hoary-tomentose on the inner surface; petals white or rose 
color, obovate, often crenately serrate or undulate at the apex, sometimes irregularly 
and unequally dentate below; ovary and base of the styles hirsute. Fruit on long 
slender stems, I'-l^' in diameter, green when fully grown, yellow-green and some- 
what translucent at maturity, very fragrant and covered with a waxy exudation. 

A tree, 25-30 high, with a trunk 12'-14/ in diameter, dividing 8-10 above 
the ground into several stout spreading branches forming a wide open head, and 
branchlets hoary-tomentose when they first appear, glabrous or slightly pubescent, 
bright red-brown, and marked by occasional small pale lenticels in their first winter, 
and developing in their second year stout, spur-like, somewhat spinescent lateral 
branchlets. "Winter-buds minute, obtuse, with bright red scales scarious and ciliate 
on the dark margins. Bark ' thick, longitudinally fissured, the outer layer sepa- 
rating into long narrow persistent red-brown scales. Wood heavy, close-grained, 
not strong, light red, with yellow sapwood of 18-20 layers of annual growth; used 
for levers, the handles of tools, and many small domestic articles. 

Distributiou. Rich rather moist soil in forest glades, often forming wide thick- 
ets; less commonly on dry limestone hills; valley of the Humber River, Ontario, 
westward along the northern shores of Lake Erie, and southward through western 
New York and Pennsylvania to the District of Columbia, and along the Alleghany 
Mountains to central Alabama, and westward to northern Missouri. 

Often planted as an ornamental tree in the eastern and northern states. 

3. Malus loensis, Britt. Crab Apple. 

Leaves ovate, oval, or oblong, acute or rounded at the apex, usually acute or 
narrowed and rounded at the base, crenately serrate, and on vigorous shoots wedge- 
shaped at the broad base and usually incisely lobed, with acute coarsely serrate 




lobes, when they unfold hoary-tomentose below and nearly glabrous above, and at 
maturity thick and firm, dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, pale yellow- 
green and tomentulose on the lower surface, 3'-4' long, l^'-2^' wide, with slender 
remote primary veins, turning yellow in the autumn before falling; their petioles 
stout, covered at first with hoary tomentum, becoming tomentulose, I'-l^' long. 
Flowers l^'-*2' across when expanded, in few-flowered clusters, on hoary-tomen- 
tose pedicels I'-l-J' long; calyx coated with thick matted snow-white hairs, the 



ROSACES 



355 



acute lobes tomentose on the inner surface; petals white or rose color, obovate; 
ovary and base of the styles hirsute. Fruit l^'-l^' in diameter, greenish yellow, 
fragrant, on stout tomentose or villose stalks I'-l^' long. 

A tree, 20-30 high, with a trunk 1'2'-18' in diameter, stout spreading branches 
forming a wide open head, and branchlets hoary-tomentose when they first appear, 
glabrous or slightly pubescent, bright red-brown and marked by occasional small 
pale lenticels in their first winter, the lateral branchlets usually spiuesceut. Winter- 
buds minute, obtuse, pubescent above the middle. Bark J' thick, covered with long 
narrow persistent red-brown scales. 

Distribution. Minnesota and Wisconsin, Illinois and western Kentucky to east- 
ern Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, the Indian Territory, Louisiana, and Texas; the 
common Crab Apple of the Mississippi basin. 

The Bechtel Crab, a form with large double rose-colored ffowers, is often culti- 
vated in the eastern and central states as an ornament of gardens. Mains Soulardi, 
Britt., the Soulard Crab, with ovate, elliptic, or obovate usually obtuse leaves rugose 
and tomentose on the lower surface, and larger fruit, occurring occasionally from 
Minnesota to eastern Texas, is believed to be a natural hybrid between the common 
Apple-tree and Malus loensis. 

4. Malus rivularis, Roem. Crab Apple. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, wedge-shaped or rounded at the 
base, sharply serrate, with appressed glandular teeth, occasionally obscurely 3-lobed, 
when they unfold pubescent on the lower and puUerulous on the upper surface, at 
maturity thick and firm, dark green and glabrous above, pale and slightly pubescent 




P'Q 279 



below, l'-3' long, \'-l\' wide, with prominent midribs and primary veins and con- 
spicuous reticulate veinlets, before falling in the autumn turning bright orange and 
scarlet; their petioles stout, rigid, pubescent, l'-l^' long; stipules narrowly lanceo- 
late, acute, '-' long. Flowers ' in diameter, on slender pubescent pedicels, in 
short racemose many-flowered cymes; calyx-tube narrowly obconic, glabrous or pu- 
berulous, the acute lobes minutely apiculate, hoary-tomentose on the inner surface, 
deciduous from the mature fruit; petals orbicular to obovate, erose or undulate on 
the margins; styles 2-4, glabrous. Fruit obovate-oblong, '-|' long, yellow-green, 
light yellow flushed with red or sometimes nearly red; flesh thin and dry. 






356 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A tree, 30-40 high, with a trunk 12'-18' in diameter, and slender branchlets 
coated at first with long pale hairs soon deciduous or persistent until the autumn, 
becoming bright red and lustrous, and later dark brown and marked by minute 
remote pale leuticels; often a shrub with numerous slender stems. Winter-buds 
obtuse, T y long, chestnut-brown, the inner scales at maturity lanceolate, usually 
bright red and nearly ^' in length. Bark \' thick, and covered by large thin loose 
light red-brown plate-like scales. Wood heavy, hard, very close, light brown tinged 
with red, with lighter colored sap wood of 2030 layers of annual growth; used 
for mallets, mauls, the handles of tools, and the bearings of machinery. The fruit 
has a pleasant subacid flavor. 

Distribution. Deep rich soil in the neighborhood of streams, often forming 
almost impenetrable thickets of considerable extent; Aleutian Islands southward 
along the coast and islands of Alaska and British Columbia to Sonoma and Plumas 
counties, California; of its largest size in the valleys of Washington and Oregon. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in the eastern states, and in western 
Europe. 

4. SORBUS, L. Mountain Ash. 

Trees or shrubs, with smooth aromatic bark, stout terete branchlets, large buds 
covered by imbricated scales, the inner accrescent and marking the base of the 
branchlet by conspicuous ring-like scars, and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, pinnate 
in the American species, the pinnae conduplicate in the bud, serrate, deciduous; 
stipules free from the petioles, foliaceous. Flowers in broad and terminal leafy 
cymes; calyx-tube urn-shaped, 5-lobed, the lobes imbricated in the bud, persist- 
ent; petals rounded, abruptly narrowed below, white; stamens usually 20 in 3 
series, those of the outer series opposite the petals; carpels 2-5, usually 3; styles 
usually 3, distinct; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending; raphe dprsal; micropyle infe- 
rior. Fruit a small subglobose red or orange-red pome with acid flesh, and papery 
carpels free at the apex. Seeds 2, or by abortion 1, in each cell, ovate, acute, erect; 
seed-coat cartilaginous, chestnut-brown, and lustrous; embryo erect; cotyledons 
plano-convex, flat; radicle short, inferior. 

Sorbus is widely distributed through the northern and elevated regions of the 
northern hemisphere with three or four species in North America of which one is 
arborescent. Of exotic species, Sorbus Aucuparia, L., the European Mountain Ash, 
is often cultivated as an ornamental tree in Canada and the northern states and has 
become sparingly naturalized northward. 

Sorbus is the classical name of the Pear or of the Service-tree. 

1. Sorbus Americana, Marsh. Mountain Ash. 

Leaves 6'-8' long, with slender grooved dark green or red petioles, often with 
tufts of dark hairs at the base of the petiolules, and 13-17 lanceolate acute taper- 
pointed leaflets unequally wedge-shaped or rounded and entire at the base, sharply 
serrate above, with acute often glandular teeth, sessile or short-stalked, or the 
terminal leaflet on a stalk sometimes % long; when they unfold slightly pubescent 
below, at maturity membranaceous, glabrous, dark yellow-green on the upper and 
pale on the under surface, 2'-3' long, '-f wide, with prominent midribs and thin 
veins, turning bright clear yellow before falling in the autumn; stipules broad, nearly 
triangular, variously toothed, caducous. Flowers appearing after the leaves are 
fully grown, ^' in diameter, on short stout pedicels, in flat cymes 3'-4/ across, with 



ROSACES 



357 



acute minute caducous bracts and bractlets; calyx broadly obconic and puberulous, 
with short, nearly triangular lobes tipped with minute glands and about half as long 
as the nearly orbicular creamy white petals. Fruit ^' in diameter, subglobose or 
slightly pyriform, bright red, with thin flesh; seeds pale chestnut color, rounded at 
the apex, acute at the base, about |' long. 

A tree, 20-30 high, with a trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter, spreading 
slender branches forming a narrow round-topped head, and stout branchlets pubes- 
cent at first, soon glabrous, becoming in their first winter brown tinged with red, and 




marked by the large leaf-scars and by oblong pale remote lenticels, and darker in 
their second year, the thin papery outer layer of bark then easily separable from 
the bright green fragrant inner layers; more often a tall or sometimes a low shrub, 
with numerous stems. Winter-buds acute, ^' f' long, with dark vinous red acumi- 
nate scales rounded on the back, more or less pilose, covered with a gummy exuda- 
tion, the inner scales hoary-tomentose in the bud. Bark ^' thick, with a smooth 
light gray surface irregularly broken by small appressed plate-like scales. Wood 
close-grained, light, soft and weak, pale brown, with lighter colored sapwood of 15- 
20 layers of annual growth. The astringent fruit is employed domestically in infu- 
sions and decoctions, and in homo3opathic remedies. 

Distribution. Borders of swamps and rocky hillsides; Newfoundland to Mani- 
toba and southward through the maritime provinces of Canada, Quebec and Ontario, 
the elevated portions of the northeastern United States and the region of the Great 
Lakes to the high mountains of Virginia and North Carolina; probably of its largest 
size on the northern shores of Lakes Huron and Superior; in the United States, except 
in New England, more often a shrub than a tree; on the Alleghany Mountains 
usually low, with narrower leaflets and smaller fruit than northward. Of its various 
forms the most distinct is 

Sorbus Americana, var. decora, Sarg., nov. nom. 
(Pyrus Americana, var. decora, Silva N. Am. xiv. 101.) 

Leaves 4' -6' long, with stout usually red petioles often furnished with tufts of 
dark hairs at the base of the petiolules, and 7-13 oblong-oval to lance-ovate leaflets 



358 



TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 



blunt and rounded, abruptly short-pointed or acuminate at the apex, pubescent below 
as they unfold, at maturity glabrous, dark bluish green on the upper surface and pale 




on the lower surface. Flowers ^' in diameter, in rather narrower clusters, appear- 
ing eight to ten days later than those of the type. Fruit subglobose, bright scarlet, 
often ' in diameter. 

A tree, occasionally 30 high, with a trunk sometimes a foot in diameter, and 
spreading branches forming a round-topped handsome head. 

Distribution. Coast of Labrador to the northern shores of Lake Superior and 
Minnesota, southward to the mountains of northern New Hampshire, Vermont, and 
New York. Distinct in its extreme forms but apparently connected with Sorbus 
Americana by many intermediate forms. 

Often cultivated in Canada and the northeastern states as an ornamental tree, 
especially the var. decora, which is the most beautiful of the Mountain Ashes when 
the large and brilliant fruits cover the branches in autumn and early winter. 

5. HETEROMELES, Roem. 

A tree, with smooth pale aromatic bark, stout terete branchlets pubescent or 
puberulous while young, acute winter-buds covered by loosely imbricated red scales, 
and fibrous roots. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute at the ends, sharply and remotely 
serrate, with rigid glandular teeth, or rarely almost entire, dark green and lustrous 
above, paler below, petiolate, with stout petioles often furnished near the apex with 
1 or 2 slender glandular teeth, feather-veined, with broad midribs and conspicuous 
reticulate veinlets; stipules free from the petioles, subulate, rigid, minute, early de- 
ciduous. Flowers on short stout pedicels, in ample tomentose terminal corymbose 
leafy panicles, their bracts and bractlets acute, minute, usually tipped with small 
glands, caducous; calyx-tube turbinate, tomentose below, glabrate above, the lobes 
short, nearly triangular, spreading, persistent; disk cup-shaped, obscurely sulcate; 
petals flabellate, erose-denticulate or emarginate at the apex, contracted below into 
short broad claws, thick, glabrous, pure white; stamens 10, inserted in 1 row with 
the petals in pairs opposite the calyx-lobes; filaments subulate, incurved; anthers 
oblong-ovate, emarginate, carpels 2, adnate to the calyx-tube, and slightly united 
into a subglobose tomentose nearly superior ovary; styles distinct, slightly spreading, 



ROSACES 359 

enlarged at the apex into broad truncate stigmas; ovules 2 in each cell, ascending; 
raphe dorsal ; micropyle inferior. Fruit obovoid, fleshy, the thickened calyx-tube 
connate to the middle only with the membranaceous carpels coated above with long 
white hairs filling the cavity closed by the infolding of the thickened persistent calyx- 
lobes, their tips erect and crowning the fruit. Seed usually solitary in each cell, 
ovate, obtuse, slightly ridged on the back ; seed-coat membranaceous, slightly punc- 
tate, light brown; hilum orbicular, conspicuous; embryo filling the cavity of the seed; 
cotyledons plano-convex; radicle short, inferior. 

The genus is represented by a single species of western North America. 

The generic name, from eVepos and M^OV, is in reference to its difference from related 
genera. 

1. Heteromeles arbutifolia, Roem. Tollon. Toyon. 

Leaves appearing with the flowers in early summer, 3'-4' long, I'-l^' wide, usu- 
ally persistent during at least two winters; their petioles ^'-f long. Flowers open- 
ing from June to August in clusters 4'-6' across and often more or less hidden by 
young lateral branchlets rising above them. Fruit ripening in November and Decem- 
ber, mealy, astringent, and acid, remaining on the branches until late in the winter. 

A tree, sometimes 30 high, with a straight trunk 12'-18' in diameter, dividing a 




few feet above the ground into many erect branches forming a handsome narrow 
round-topped head, and slender branchlets covered at first with pale pubescence, in 
their first winter dark red and slightly puberulous, ultimately becoming darker and 
glabrous. Winter-buds |' long. Bark '-' thick, light gray, with a generally 
smooth surface roughened by obscure reticulate ridges. Wood very heavy, hard, 
close-grained, dark red-brown, with thin lighter colored sapwood of 7 or 8 layers of 
annual growth. The fruit-covered branches are gathered in large quantities and used 
in California in Christmas decorations. 

Distribution. Usually in the neighborhood of streams or on dry hills and espe- 
cially on their northern slopes and often on steep sea-cliffs ; California coast region 
from Mendocino County to Lower California; most common and of its largest size 
on the islands off the California coast; on the foot hills of the Sierra Nevada and on 
the San Bernardino Mountains up to elevations of 2000 above the sea and usually 



360 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

shrubby ; very abundant and forming groves of considerable extent on the island of 
Santa Catalina. 

Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental plant in California, and rarely in the 
countries of southern Europe. 

6. AMELANCHIER, Med. 

Trees or shrubs, with scaly bark, slender terete branchlets, acute buds, with imbri- 
cated scales, those of the inner rows accrescent and bright-colored, and fibrous roots. 
Leaves alternate, conduplicate in the bud, simple, entire or serrate, penniveined, 
petiolate, deciduous; stipules free from the petioles, linear, elongated, rose color, 
caducous. Flowers in erect or nodding racemes, on slender bibracteolate pedicels 
developed from the axils of lanceolate acuminate pink deciduous bracts; calyx-tube 
campanulate or urceolate, the lobes acute or subulate, recurved, persistent; disk 
green, entire or crenulate, nectariferous; petals white, obovate-oblong, spatulate or 
ligulate, rounded, acute, or truncate at the apex, gradually contracted below into short 
slender claws; stamens usually 20, inserted in 3 rows, those of the outer row opposite 
the petals; filaments subulate, persistent on the fruit; anthers oblong; ovary inferior 
or superior, more or less adnate to the calyx-tube, glabrous or puberulous above, 5- 
celled, each cell incompletely divided by a false partition; styles 2-5, connate below, 
spreading and dilated above into broad truncate stigmas; ovules 2 in each cell, erect; 
micropyle inferior. Fruit globose or pyriform, dark blue, open at the summit, the cav- 
ity surrounded by the lobes of the calyx and the remnants of the filaments; flesh 
sweet, rather juicy; carpels membranaceous, free or connate, glabrous or villous at 
the apex. Seeds 10 or often 5 by the abortion of 1 of the ovules in each cell, ovate- 
elliptical; seed-coat coriaceous, dark chestnut-brown, mucilaginous; embryo filling 
the cavity of the seed; cotyledons plano-convex; radicle inferior. 

Amelanchier is widely distributed through the temperate, northern, and the moun- 
tainous regions of eastern and western North America, and occurs in southern Eu- 
rope, northern Africa, southwestern Asia, central China and in Japan. . Several spe- 
cies, still imperfectly known, occur in North America; of these three are arborescent. 
The fruit of all the species is more or less succulent and edible, and many species are 
cultivated in gardens for the beauty of their early and conspicuous flowers. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN ABORESCENT SPECIES. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, acute or acuminate at the apex, cordate or rounded at the 

base, dark red-brown and pilose when they unfold, soon glabrous. 

1. A. Canadensis (A, C). 
Leaves oblong to elliptical, acute or rounded at the apex, hoary-tomentose below when they 

unfold, becoming glabrous at maturity. 2. A. obovalis (A, C). 

Leaves broadly ovate to orbicular, obtuse or rarely acute, hoary-tomentose below when they 

unfold, becoming glabrous. 3. A. alnifolia (A, B). 

1. Amelanchier Canadensis, T. & G. Shad Bush. Service Berry. 

Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, acute, cordate or rounded at the base, finely serrate, 
with straight incurved rigid subulate teeth, when they unfold dark red-brown and 
pilose, with scattered deciduous white hairs, at maturity thick and firm, glabrous, dark 
green and dull above, pale below, 3'-4' long and I'-l-^' wide, with prominent midribs 
and slender veins, turning bright clear yellow in the autumn before falling; their 
petioles slender, \'-V long. Flowers appearing when the leaves are about one third 



ROSACES 361 

grown on slender pedicels '-!' long, in erect or nodding glabrous racemes 3'-4' long; 
calyx cainpanulate, with lanceolate acute lobes, villous on the inner surface; petals 
strap-shaped or slightly obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, thin, ^' to nearly 1' 
long, \'-\' wide. Fruit ripening in early summer, depressed-globose, '-' broad, 







on elongated slender stems conspicuously marked by the scars of the fallen bractlets, 
bright red when fully grown, becoming dark purple and covered with a glaucous 
bloom when ripe; seeds ^' long, with a dark red-brown opaque coat. 

A tree, sometimes 40-50 high, with a tall trunk 12'-18' in diameter, small 
spreading branches forming a narrow oblong round-topped head, and slender branch- 
lets, at first light green and glabrous or slightly puberulous, dark red marked by 
numerous pale lenticels in their first winter, later becoming dark brown or reddish 
brown. Winter-buds \' long, with pale chestnut-brown ovate apiculate slightly 
pubescent scales, those of the inner ranks becoming lanceolate, acute, bright red above 
the middle, ciliate, with silky hairs, and sometimes V long when fully grown. 
Bark \'-\' thick, pale red-brown, divided by shallow fissures into narrow longitudi- 
nal ridges, and covered by small square persistent scales. Wood heavy, exceedingly 
hard, strong, close-grained, dark brown often tinged with red, with thick lighter 
colored sapwood of 4050 layers of annual growth; occasionally used for the handles 
of tools and other small implements. 

Distribution. Upland woods in rich soil; Newfoundland, through the maritime 
provinces of Canada, and westward along the shores of the Great Lakes, ranging 
southward to northern Florida and westward to Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, east- 
ern Kansas, and southern Arkansas. A form with acuminate leaves cordate or rarely 
rounded at the base and pale-tomentulose below even at maturity (var. tomentula, 
Sarg., nov. war.) is referred provisionally to this species. Vermont (Ferrisburg, C. E. 
Faxon, June, 1881) to Ontario, and to Delaware, central Georgia, Missouri, and 
eastern Louisiana. 

Often cultivated as an ornament of gardens. 

2. Amelanchier obovalis, Ashe. Shad Bush. Service Berry. 

Leaves oblong to broadly elliptical, acute or rounded at the apex, finely serrate, 
with slender incurved teeth except at the rounded or subcordate base, when they 



362 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

unfold villose above and coated below with hoary tomentum, at maturity thin and 
glabrous, dark dull green on the upper surface, paler on the lower surface, l^'-2' 
long, '-!' wide, with slender midribs and primary veins, turning yellow in the 
autumn before falling; their petioles slender, '- f' long. Flowers appearing when 
the leaves are about one third grown, on slender pedicels ' ' long, in erect or nodding 
villose racemes soon becoming glabrous, and l^'-2^' long; calyx campanulate, at 
first tomentose, soon glabrous, with linear acute lobes villose on the inner surface, 
and oblong-obovate petals about ' long and -fa' wide. Fruit ripening early in the 
summer, depressed-globose, about \' in diameter, bright red when fully grown, 
becoming dark purple and covered with a glaucous bloom; seeds ^' long, with a 
dark red-brown opaque coat. 

A tree*, sometimes 25-30 high, with a single stem, erect branches forming a dense 
round-topped head, and slender branchlets covered when they first appear with hoary 
tomentum, soon glabrous, and bright red-brown and marked by numerous minute 
pale lenticels in their first winter, later becoming darker; often with numerous 




spreading stems forming a broad tall bush. "Winter-buds \' long, pale chestnut- 
brown, and pubescent above the middle. Bark \'-\' thick, pale reddish brown and 
scaly, with small persistent scales. 

Distribution. Borders of streams and swamps in low wet soil ; Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick to Ontario, and northward to the valley of the Mackenzie River 
in latitude 65 north, and southward through the northern states and along the 
Alleghany Mountains to Virginia and westward to Minnesota; as a small shrub with 
narrower petals in the coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf states from North 
Carolina to Alabama. 

A large-fruited variety is occasionally planted in the middle west for its juicy 
agreeably subacid fruit. 

3. Amelanchier alnifolia, Nutt. Service Berry. 

Leaves broadly ovate to orbicular, obtuse or rarely acute, rounded or subcordate 
at the base, sharply and coarsely serrate above the middle, with incurved rigid teeth, 
when they unfold floccose-tomentose below and often pilose above, soon becoming 



ROSACES 363 

glabrous and at maturity membranaceous to subcoriaceous, dark green on the upper 
and pale on the lower surface, l'-l^' long and broad, with slender midribs; their peti- 
oles slender, ^' long; stipules linear, acute, red-brown, sometimes 1' long. Flowers 
on short pedicels, in erect villose racemes I'-l^' long, with acute colored bractlets; 




calyx cup-shaped, floccose-tomentose or soon glabrous, with linear acute lobes villose 
on the inner surface; petals narrowly oblong to obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, 
^'-1' long; glabrous. Fruit subglobose, dark blue or almost black, with a glaucous 
bloom, sweet and juicy, \' to nearly 1' in diameter; seeds \' long, with a lustrous red- 
brown coat. 

A tree, occasionally 20 high, with a single straight trunk G'-IO 7 in diameter, and 
slender branches green, glabrous, pilose, with long pale hairs, or pubescent when they 
first appear, in their first winter bright red or plum color, glabrous or rarely puberu- 
lous, and marked by small pale lenticels; more often a shrub, with clustered slender 
stems. Winter-buds acute, \' long, with chestnut-brown glabrous occasionally 
pilose scales, those of the inner ranks becoming ovate, acute, brightly colored, coated 
with pale silky hairs, '-f' long. Bark about \' thick, smooth or slightly fissured, 
and light brown slightly tinged with red. Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, light 
brown. The nutritious pungent fruit is an important article of food with the Indians 
of southwestern America, who gather and dry it in large quantities. 

Distribution. Valley of the Yukon River in about latitude 62 50', southward 
through the coast ranges to northern California, and eastward to Saskatchewan, 
Manitoba, the western shores of Lake Superior, and to northern Michigan; of its 
largest si/e on the islands and rich bottom-lands of the lower Columbia River and on 
small prairies in the neighborhood of Puget Sound. 

7. CRAT-5JGUS. Hawthorn. 

Trees or shrubs, with usually dark scaly bark, rigid terete more or less zigzag 
branchlets marked by oblong mostly pale lenticels, and by small horizontal slightly 
elevated leaf-scars, light green when they first appear, becoming red or orange-brown 
and lustrous or gray, rarely unarmed or armed with stout or slender short or elon- 
gated axillary simple or branched spines generally similar in color to that of the 
branches or trunk on which they grow, often bearing while young linear elongated 



364 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

caducous bracts, and usually producing at their base one or rarely two buds often 
developing the following year into a branch, a leaf, or a cluster of flowers, or some- 
times lengthening into a leafy branch. Winter-buds small, globose or subglobose, 
covered by numerous imbricated scales, the outer rounded and obtuse at the apex, 
bright chestnut-brown and lustrous, the inner accrescent, green or rose color, often 
glandular, soon deciduous. Leaves conduplicate in the bud, simple, generally serrate, 
sometimes 3-nerved, often more or less lobed, especially on vigorous leading branch- 
lets, membranaceous to coriaceous, petiolate, deciduous; stipules often glandular- 
serrate, linear, acuminate, frequently bright-colored, deciduous, or on vigorous 
branchlets often foliaceous, coarsely serrate, usually lunate and stalked and mostly 
persistent until autumn. Flowers pedicellate, in few or many-flowered simple or com- 
pound cymose corymbs terminal on short lateral leafy branchlets, with linear usually 
bright-colored often glandular caducous bracts and bractlets leaving prominent gland- 
like scars, the lower branches of compound corymbs usually from the axils of upper 
leaves; branches of the inflorescence mostly 3-flowered, the central flower opening 
before the others; calyx-tube usually obconic, 5-lobed, the lobes acute or acuminate 
and usually gland-tipped, rarely foliaceous, glandular-serrate or entire, green or red- 
dish toward the apex, reflexed after the flowers open, persistent and often enlarged on 
the fruit, or deciduous ; disk thin or fleshy, entire, lobed or slightly sulcate, concave or 
somewhat convex; petals imbricated in the bud, orbicular, entire or somewhat erose 
or rarely toothed at the apex, white or rarely rose color, spreading, soon deciduous; 
stamens often variable in number in the same species by imperfect development, but 
normally 5 in 1 row and alternate with the petals, or 10 in 5 pairs in 1 row alternate 
with the petals, or 15 in 2 rows, those of the outer row in 5 pairs opposite the sepals 
and alternate with and rather longer than those of the inner row, or 20 in 3 rows, 
those of the inner row shorter and alternate with those of the 2d row, or 25 in 4 
rows, those of the 4th row alternate with those of the 3d row; filaments broad at the 
base, subulate, incurved, often persistent on the fruit; anthers pale yellow to nearly 
white, or pink to light or dark rose color or purple; ovary composed of 1-5 carpels 
inserted in the bottom of the calyx-tube and united with it; styles free, with dilated 
truncate stigmas, persistent on the mature carpels; ovules ascending; raphe dorsal; 
micropyle inferior. Fruit subglobose, ovate, short-oblong or pear-shaped, scarlet, 
orange-colored, red, yellow, blue, or black, generally open and concave at the apex; 
flesh usually dry and mealy; nutlets 1-5; united below, more or less free and slightly 
spreading above the middle, thick-walled, rounded, acute, or acuminate at the apex, 
full and rounded or narrowed at the base, rounded or conspicuously ridged and 
grooved on the back, flattened, or nearly round when only 1, their ventral faces 
plane or plano-convex or penetrated by longitudinal cavities or hollows. Seed solitary 
by abortion, erect, compressed, acute, with a membranaceous light chestnut-brown 
coat; embryo filling the cavity of the seed; cotyledons plano-convex, radicle short, 
inferior. 

Crataegus is most abundant in eastern North America, where it is distributed from 
Newfoundland to the mountains of northern Mexico, and is represented by a large 
number of arborescent and shrubby species. A few species occur in the Rocky 
Mountain and Pacific-coast regions, and in China, Japan, Siberia, central and south- 
western Asia, and in Europe. The genus is still very imperfectly known in North 
America, and in the absence of sufficient information concerning them several ar- 
borescent species are necessarily excluded from the following enumeration. The 
beautiful and abundant flowers and showy fruits make many of the species desirable 






ROSACES 365 

ornaments of parks and gardens, and several are cultivated. Of exotic species, the Old 
World Cratcegus Ozyacantha, L., early introduced into the United States as a hedge 
plant, has now become naturalized in many places in the northeastern and middle 
states. Cratsegus produces heavy hard tough close-grained red-brown heartwood 
and thick lighter colored usually pale sap wood ; useful for the handles of tools, mal- 
lets, and other small articles. 

The number of the stamens, although it differs on the same species within certain 
usually constant limits, and the color of the anthers, which appears to be specifically 
constant with two exceptions, afford the most satisfactory characters for distinguish- 
ing the species in the different groups. 

Cratcegus, from Kpdros, is in reference to the strength of the wood of these trees. 

CONSPECTUS OF THE NATURAL GROUPS OF THE NORTH 
AMERICAN ARBORESCENT SPECIES. 

1. Nutlets without ventral cavities. 

*Veins of the leaves extending to the points of the lobes only. 

-Petioles short, glandless or with occasional minute glands ; leaves obovate to ob- 
long, cuneate at the base. 
*-*Corymbs many-flowered. 

Leaves coriaceous or subcoriaceous, rarely thin, dark green and shining 
above, usually serrate only above the middle, their veins thin except on 
vigorous shoots ; fruit mostly globose to short-oblong, '-!' long, with 
thin bright usually greenish flesh ; nutlets 1-3, thick, usually obtuse 
and rounded at the ends, prominently ridged on the back. 

I. Crus-galli (page 367). 

Leaves membranaceous or subcoriaceous, mostly acute, their veins promi- 
nent ; fruit oblong to globose, often conspicuously punctate, '-!' long; 
flesh dry and mealy ; nutlets 2-5, prominently ridged on the back. 

II. Punctatee (page 388). 

*-* +-* Corymbs few-flowered ; flowers appearing with or before the unfolding of 
the leaves ; stamens 20-25 ; anthers large, dark rose color. 

III. JEsti vales (page 399). 

-* -* Petioles elongated, slender, glandless or with occasional minute glands ; leaves 
membranaceous to subcoriaceous, acute or acuminate at the ends, on one species 
broad at the base; corymbs many-flowered ; fruit subglobose to oblong, '-' 
long. IV. Virides (page 400). 

- - 1 - -'-Petioles elongated, usually slender, glandular only at the apex (in Intricate and 
Bracteatce sparingly glandular throughout). 

-^Leaves mostly broad at the base ; corymbs many-flowered (few-flowered in 
one species of Dilatatce). 

Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, |'-f ' in diameter, red or green, often 
slightly 5-angled, pruinose ; nutlets 5, grooved on the back ; stamens 20 ; 
anthers rose color ; leaves blue-green, subcoriaceous, nearly glabrous. 

V. Pruinosae (page 411). 

Fruit short-oblong to obovate, scarlet, ^'-f long, globose and greenish red 
in one species ; flesh succulent, sometimes juicy ; anthers rose color or 
purple ; leaves membranaceous, at maturity glabrous below. 

VI. Tenuifoliae (page 413). 

Fruit subglobose, oblong or pyriform, crimson, scarlet, or rarely yellow, 
usually about 1' in diameter; flesh thick, succulent, often edible ; nut- 
lets usually 5, occasionally 4, thin, pointed at the ends, mostly obscurely 



366 TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

grooved or ridged on the back ; corymbs tomentose or pubescent ; 
leaves membranaceous to subcoriaceous, broad, rounded or cuneate at 
the base, at maturity usually pubescent or tomentose below. 

VII. Molles (page 422). 

Fruit oblong, scarlet, V~i' long ; flesh succulent ; nutlets 3-5, prominently 
grooved and usually ridged on the back ; corymbs glabrous or tomen- 
tose ; leaves membranaceous or rarely subcoriaceous, oblong, more or 
less acutely lobed ; anthers rose or purple. 

VIII. Flabellatae (page 442). 

Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, crimson or red tinged with green, about 
f ' long, its calyx enlarged and prominent ; nutlets 5, prominently 
ridged on the back ; corymbs rarely few-flowered; stamens 20 ; anthers 
rose color; leaves membranaceous, on vigorous shoots as broad or 
broader than long. IX. Dilatatae (page 455). 

*-*-++Leaves cuneate at the base. 

Corymbs many-flowered ; leaves subcoriaceous ; fruit subglobose, rarely ob- 
long, -'-f ' long ; nutlets 2 or 3, obtuse at the ends, conspicuously ridged on 
the back ; corymbs glabrous or tomentose ; leaves dark green and lustrous 
above. X. Coccineae (page 459). 

Corymbs few-flowered (many-flowered in one species of Bracteatce) ; leaves 
membranaceous. 

Fruit subglobose to oblong, rarely more than -J-' long, greenish or yellow- 
ish ; nutlets 3-5, rounded at the ends, conspicuously ridged on the back ; 
leaves subcoriaceous, yellow-green. XI. Iiitricatae (page 462). 

Fruit subglobose, rarely more than ^' long, red or orange-red ; nutlets 
3-5, slightly grooved on the back ; stamens 20 ; anthers rose color ; 
leaves incisely lobed. XII. Fulcherrimae (page 466). 

Fruit subglobose to short-oblong, -J'-f ' long; nutlets 3-5, narrowed at the 
ends, prominently ridged on the back ; corymbs in one species few- 
flowered, villose ; bracts large and conspicuous ; calyx-lobes f oliaceous ; 
stamens 20 ; anthers yellow ; leaves coriaceous to subcoriaceous, dark 
green and lustrous, their petioles sparingly glandular through their 
whole length. XIII. Bracteatee (page 468). 

--(- -* Petioles, leaves and corymbs conspicuously glandular ; corymbs few-flowered ; 
fruit subglobose to short-oblong or pyriform, ^-'-f ' long, green, orange, or red, 
flesh usually hard and dry ; branchlets conspicuously zigzag. 

XIV. Flavae (page 471). 

**Veins of the leaves extending to the points of the lobes and to the sinuses ; corymbs 
many-flowered ; stamens 20. 

Fruit depressed-globose to oblong, not more than 5-' long, scarlet ; nutlets 2-5, 

obtuse at the ends, prominently ridged on the back ; anthers rose color or 

purple. XV. Microcarpae (page 486). 

Fruit subglobose, $'-$' in diameter, blue or blue-black ; nutlets 3-5, obtuse at 

the ends slightly ridged on the back; leaves dark green and lustrous. 

XVI. Brachyacanthae (page 489). 
2. Nutlets with longitudinal cavities on their ventral faces. 

Fruit pyriform to subglobose or short-oblong, \' \' long, lustrous, orange or 
scarlet ; nutlets 2 or 3, obtuse at the ends, prominently ridged on the back ; 
leaves membranaceous to subcoriaceous, mostly pubescent below. 

XVII. Tomentosae (page 491). 

Fruit short-oblong to subglobose, \' long, black ; nutlets 5, obtuse at the ends, 
obscurely ridged on the back ;