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Full text of "Manual of Westchester county. Past and present. Civil list to date. 1898"

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Westchester County 










Connected with County Journalism Forty-Five Years 


Contatining specially prepared articles relative to the County; matters concerning the County's history; 

orgcuiization of Towns, Villages and Cities; population as shown by the various census 

enumerations, with other statistics and general facts of interest and value. 

Also, containing the portraits and biographies of distinguished men connected with the County's early 
history, as well as of prominent officials of the present time. 

White Plains. N. Y. 

HENRY T. SMITH. Publisher 


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(Continued from page 76, Volume 1.) 

CHAUNCEY MITCHELL DEPEW, statesman, counsellor, 
orator, and man of the world, whose name is known every- 
where, was born in Peekskill, in this county, on April 23, 1834, 
of Huguenot and New England parentage. His father, Isaac 
Depew, a prominent citizen and merchant, was a lineal descend- 
ant of Francois Du Puy, a Huguenot, who fled from France 
during the religious persecutions of the seventeenth century. 

The name Du Puy or De Puy is an ancient one, having been 
prominent as early as the eleventh century. Kaphael Du Puy 
was an officer of rank in 1030 under Conrad II, of the Holy 
Roman Empire, and Hugues Du Puy, his son, distinguished him- 
self in the Crusades. The family was early in France, and its 
history is marked down the centuries by many noted names and 
titles both in Church and State. In the religious upheaval 
that culminated in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew part of 
the family became identified with the Genevan or Calvinistic 
party, which, under the name of Huguenot, became so powerful 
under Henry IV that it was granted freedom of worship in 1598 
by the Edict of Nantes. After the capture of La Rochelle, the 
Huguenot headquarters, by Richelieu in 1628, many of the 
faith, despairing of attaining religious peace at home, migrated 
to England and the Low Countries, and many of them eventually 
to the New World, and some of them settling in New Rochelle, 
in this county. 

Among those who thus left the land of their fathers were 
two brothers, Nicholas and Francois Du Puy, who escaped from 
Paris, tradition says, in 1651, on hearing of their threatened 
arrest, and went into the Netherlands. Some ten years later 
Francois, the younger, sailed for New Amsterdam in the New 
World, where he arrived three or four years before its occupa- 
tion by the English. Francois, who was followed by his brother 
Nicholas a year later, appears first in Breuckelen (Brooklyn), 
where he was married, September 26, 1661, to Geertje Willems, 



daughter of AVillom Jacobs Van Boemm. He was living at 
this time in Buslnvick. cast of Brooklyn, but in 1677 is recorded 
a member of tlie Dutch Church at Flatbush. In 1687 he is at 
Ilaveretraw, now in Kockland County; in 1702 he crossed the 
Hudson river and came into Westchester County, and settled 
on a tract originally purchased from the Indians in 1685, under 
a license from Governor Dongan. Though this tract fell eventu- 
ally within the political limits of the Manor of Cortlandt, 
erected in 1G97. its soil was held in fee by its proprietors, 
from one of whom it was named Ryke's Patent, Ryke being the 
Dutch abbreviation of Richard. Part of this Patent, on which 
the village of Peekskill was founded in 1764, belonged to Fran- 
cois Depew, and the last of his share was given in 1896 by 
Chauncey M. Depew to the village of Peekskill for a public park. 

The surname Du Puy has masqiTcraded in many forms in its 
passage through Dutch into English, and we find it recorded 
as Dupuis. Dupui, Dupuy, Depee, Depuy, DePue, Depu, Depew, 
etc. Francois, grandson of the original Francois, who was 
baptized August 20 1700. in the old Dutch Church of Sleepy 
Hollow at Tarryto\^'n, is generally recorded "Frans De Pew," 
and later the surname takes its present form Depew. Abraham 
Depew, grandson of this Frans, who was baptized at Tarrytown, 
April 5, 1752, married Catherine, daughter of Capt. James 
Cronkite, and became the great grandfather of Chauncey 
Mitchell Depew. He enlisted in 1777 in the Third Regiment 
of the Manor of Cortlandt, commanded by Colonel Pierre Van 
Cortlandt and subsequently, on the election of Col. Van Cort- 
landt as Lieutenant-Governor of this State, by Col. Drake, and 
served until his discharge as a coi*poral in 1780, at the close 
of the war. From liini and from Captain Cronkite, Mr. Depew 
derives his right as a son of the American Revolution. 

Mr. Depew 's New England affiliations are derived from his 
mother, who was born ]\[artha iMitchell, daughter of Chauncey 
Root and Ann (Johnstone) Mitchell. Chauncey Root Mitchell, 
a distinguished lawyer of "Westchester County and afterwards 
of Delaware County, where he was until his death the partner 
of the famous lawyer and statesman, General Erastus Root, 
was noted for a])i]ity a.s an advocate and orator. Ann John- 
stone was the daughter of Judge Robert Johnstone of Putnam 
County, for many years State Senator and Judge. He was a 
large Jandod proprietor, owning Lake Mahopac and much of 
the country around it. ^Mrs. Depew 's grandfather was the 


Rev. Justus Mitchell, a lineal descendant of Major Matthew 
Mitchell, who came to New England in 1633 from Halifax, 
Yorkshire. Rev. Justus Mitchell married Martha Sherman, 
daughter of Rev. Josiah and Martha (Minott) Sherman, and 
niece of Hon. Roger Sherman, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. Martha Sherman was fifth in descent from 
Captain John Sherman, who was born in Dedham, County- 
Essex, England, in 1615, and who married Martha, daughter of 
William and Grace Palmer. 

Mr. Depew's New England ancestry thus includes, besides 
the Mitchells and the Shermans, the blood of the Palmers, Win- 
ships, Wellingtons, Minotts, and Johnstones, all notable families 
in the New World. He is a descendant also of the Reverend 
Charles Chaimcey, first President of Harvard College. His 
mother, from whom were derived many of the characteristics that 
have conduced to his success, was of marked personal beauty, 
varied accomplishments, and social prominence. She died in 1885. 

Peekskill, Mr. Depew's natal place, named after Jan Peek, 
an early Dutch navigator, has now a population of more than 
fifteen thousand. The Depew homestead, a picturesque build- 
ing with a portico supported by Ionic columns, is still in pos- 
session of the family, and Mr. Depew, although his residence 
is in New York city, delights to call this house and Peekskill 
his home. The country around it is replete with historic and 
patriotic associations, especially those connected with the Arnold 
and Andre episode, treated so masterfully in one of his orations 
(referred to in volume 2), and doubtless had its influence in 
forming his character in youth. 

The favorable situation of Peekskill on the east bank of the 
Hudson made it the market for the country back of it as far 
as the Connecticut State line, and the shipping-point of its 
produce to New York, from which it is distant about forty miles. 
The transportation of freight, wholly by the river, was con- 
trolled, almost entirely by Isaac Depew and his brother, both 
energetic farmers and merchants. There were no railroads in 
those days, but the New York and Albany steamboats, of rival 
lines, were always a subject of interest, attracting crowds to 
the bank as they passed up or down the river, often racing. 
Each boat had its partisans, and Vanderbilt and Drew, the prin- 
cipal owners, were popular heroes with the youth of the village, 
among whom young Depew was by no means backward. These 
boats and his father's business led him early to take interest in 


the transportation problem, to which in later years he devoted 
so much time and successful study. 

The boy's fii^st instruction was received from hi.s mother, a 
lady of rare education and culture. He was next put in charge 
of IMrs. Westbj-ook, the wife of an able and well-informed 
clergyman, who had a small school for children under ten. 
Throuirh the training thus received the apt pupil, who was also 
an omnivorous reader, became informed beyond his years on 
the events and political issues of the past and the present, and 
was often able to confound the village oracles who expounded 
their views at the postoffice, grocery, bank or drug store. Re- 
garded as a prodigy, he became a leader among his fellows, who 
looked up to him as one who gave unmistakable promise of 
future brilliancy and usefulness. 

The period between his tenth and eighteenth years was passed 
at the Peekskill Academy, an old-fashioned institution designed 
primarily to prepare boys for a business career, and its stu- 
dents were expected to go out early into the world of work. 
Isaac Depew had placed his son. there in the hope that he would 
join him in his business, but the youth, influenced probably by 
his mother and the instructions of Dr. Westbrook, had visions 
of a more ambitious career. Fortunately these visions were 
aided by the advice of Judge Thomas Nelson, son of the Hon. 
William Nelson, of Peekskill, who remarked to the elder Depew 
one evening: "You ought to send Chauncey to College." This 
was the entering wedge, and the father, after a season of de- 
liberation, concluded to take the judge's advice, though when 
Yale College was suggested, he intei'posed objections. An old- 
fashioned business man and a Jackson Democrat, he had the 
distrust of Yankees characteristic of a "Hudson River Dutch- 
man" and a reader of Irving and Cooper. But the wishes of 
his wife, whose descent from New England progenitors naturally 
turned her preferences in that direction, finally prevailed, and 
Chauncey was sent to Yale. 

He entered college in 1852, and was graduated in 1856, in a 
class that became kno\\Ti as the "Famous Class of 1856," partly 
on account of the general good standing of its members in the 
various professions and especially because it had two repre- 
sentatives on the Bench of United States Supreme Court at 
"Washington, Heniy Billings Brown and David Josiah Brewer. 
In this class, consisting of some one hundred and twenty-five 
men, Depew soon made his mark, ^^^nning his way to the front 


larg-ely through personal attractions, but particularly by his 
gift as a speaker which made him the orator of the class. He 
seldom lost an opportimity to enter into a debate and always 
acquitted himself creditably. His classmates still remember 
with pride his eflfort in the debate between the two societies, 
Linonia and Brothers of Unity, in which he appeared as the 
champion of the former with Wayne IMacVeagh of the Class 
of 1853. 

Depew's personal appearance at this period was striking. 
He was taller than many of his classmates and had sharp well 
chiselled features marked by the prominent aquiline nose still 
characteristic of him. His abundant yellow hair was worn long, 
in the fashion of the time, nearly reaching his shoulders. He 
always dressed well, exhibiting a penchant for elaborately tied 
cravats decorated with the pin of his secret society. 

Depew came to College a Democrat. Like his father and 
other members of the family, he belonged to the conservative 
wing of the party willing to leave the slavery question in abey- 
ance, nicknamed in New York State "Old Himkers" to dis- 
tinguish them from the "Barnburners," or "Free Soil" Demo- 
crats, who were opposed to any further extension of slavery 
into the Territories. There were three Presidential candidates 
in the field in Depew's first year in College, in 1852; Franklin 
Pierce, the nominee of the National Democratic Party, Gen. 
Winfield Scott of the AVhig Party, and John P. Hale of the 
Free Soil Democrats. In the frequent debates on the campus, 
in which the old topics of Tariff, Internal Improvements, and 
National Bank had given place to the more burning questions of 
the day, the Fugitive Slave Law, Personal Liberty Bills, and the 
extension of Slavery, Depew at first upheld the traditional 
politics of his family, but with the trend of events his prin- 
ciples gradually underw^ent a change. In 1853 the famous 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill caused the disintegration of the old parties 
and a formation on new lines in relation to the slavery ques- 
tion. The eloquent discussions of the many phases of these 
questions by the Kev. Dr. Bacon from the pulpit of the Centre 
Church, and of Wendell Phillips, George William Curtis, Wil- 
liam Lloyd Garrison, and other famous anti-slavery orators from 
public platforms in New Haven, aroused in Depew a conscious- 
ness that he was on the wrong side of the great questions of 
the day and finally caused him to repudiate the principles in 
which he had been educated and to cast his lot with the "Anti- 


Nebraska Mon." Wlion early in IS^iG the Anti-Nebraska Men 
adopted the name Kepubliean Party, later characterized by 
Democrats with a contemptuous addition as "Black Republi- 
can," Depew transferred his alle}j:iance to the new party; and 
when, in June, John Charles Fremont, of California, whose ex- 
plorations in the Wi'st had won liiiii tlic title of the "Path- 
finder," was made the Republican standard bearer, Depew en- 
listed and became an enthusiastic supporter. 

Depew had scarcely received his degree when he threw him- 
self heart and soul in the canvass in support of Fremont and 
Dayton, niakintr speeches in their behalf and beginning his 
political career which made him so prominent a figure in every 
succeeding Presidential campaign. As he has himself recorded, 
his defection from parental principles nearly broke his father's 
heart and caused him to shed tears of mortification when his 
son first appeared on a Republican platform in his native village. 

After leaving Yale College Depew entered the law office of 
the Hon. William Nelson as a student, in 1858 was admitted 
to the Bar, and in the following year began in Peekskill the 
practice of his profession, in w'hich he soon demonstrated his 
ability. But his early interest in politics did not desert him 
and seemed for a time destined to interfere seriously with his 
business. In 1858 he was elected a delegate to the Republican 
State Convention, and has been elected to every State Conven- 
tion, with but few exceptions, since; he was one of the four 
Delegates-at-Large from this State to the Republican National 
Conventions of 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904, and a delegate 
in 1908 and 1912. 

In 1860 he took the stump for Lincoln and Hamlin, making 
many speeches in many sections of the country. He was then 
only twenty-six years old, but his skill as an orator, and his 
careful analysis of the great questions at issue showed that his 
ability and judgment were in advance of his years. In 1861 
he was elected a member of the New York Assembly from the 
Third Westchester District, in which the Democrats had usually 
had a good working majority, a high compliment to his personal 
popularity. In this position he exhibited such intelligence, in- 
dustry', and tact, and watched so carefully over the interests of 
his constituents that he was re-elected in 1862 ; at the com- 
mencement of the Legislative Session of 1863 he was named in 
caucus as his party's candidate for speaker. That year the 
Assembly was evenly divided politically; by Mr. Depew with- 


drawing as a candidate, liis party friends voted for the suc- 
cessful candidate who classified himself as an "Independent 
Democrat." Depew acted as Speaker pro tern, during part of 
session, was chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, 
as such leader of the majority on the floor, and received other 
honors unusual for one so young in years and experience. 

In 1863 Mr. Depew was put on the Kepublican State ticket 
as candidate for Secretary of State. In the previous election 
the Democrats had won a signal victory under their standard 
bearer, Horatio Seymour, one of the purest and ablest states- 
men New York has produced, and in order to insure success 
the Republicans were obliged not only to exercise care in the 
selection of candidates but also to put forth their most earnest 
efforts to overcome the prestige of Governor Seymour's popu- 
larity. But Mr. Depew was equal to the occasion. He won 
a notable victory, with a majority of thirty thousand. He 
declined a renomination for this office owing to business interests. 

When Andrew Johnson succeeded to the Presidency on the 
death of President Lincoln, one of his earliest acts was to reward 
Mr. Depew for his services to the party. He made out his 
commission as Collector of the Port of New York, then one of 
the most lucrative gifts within the President's bestowal; but 
before he had sent it to the Senate for confirmation he became 
incensed against Edwin D. Morgan, then United States Senator 
from New York, because he refused to vote to sustain his veto 
of the Civil Rights Bill, and angrily tore up the document. 
Later in President Johnson's administration, William H. 
Seward, then Secretary of State, secured the appointment of 
Mr. Depew as United States Minister to Japan, and it was con- 
firmed by the Senate, but after holding the matter under 
advisement for a month, the position was declined for family 

While thus apparently turning his back on a career that 
offered the most flattering prospects, Mr. Depew felt it his duty 
to withdraw from politics and to devote himself assiduously to 
his chosen profession, the law. This he was enabled to do with 
a greater promise of success than in his earlier days, for the 
experience won in his political career had brought with it a 
confidence in himself and his resources and a matured knowledge 
of men and of affairs that made him the equal of any among 
his contemporaries, even of his superiors in years. About this 
time he attracted the attention of Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose 


success in steamboat iia\'i,tiatioii had won him the popular 
sobriquet of "Coniniodore," and who had already laid founda- 
t\ou of the frreat railway system afterwards known as the " Van- 
derbilt System." ^\v. Depew, who had won the friendship of 
the Commodore's son, AVilliam H. Vanderbilt, was surprised one 
day by an oiTer of a position in the railway service. 

"Politics don't pay, Chauncey," said the Commodore. "The 
business of the future in this country is railroading." 

This settled the question of Mr. Depew 's future and he at 
once accepted the offer and applied himself to the study of 
railroad transportation in which he won so signal a success. 
In 186G he became attorney for the New York and Harlem 
Railroad Company, and in 1869, when this road was consoli- 
dated with the New York Central Railroad with Commodore 
Vanderbilt at its head, ]\Ir. Depew was chosen attorney for the 
new corporation and later a member of its Board of Directors. 
As the Vanderbilt system expanded ]\Ir. Depew 's interests and 
duties increased in a corresponding degree, and in IBTo he was 
appointed General Counsel for the entire system and elected 
a Director in each of the roads of which it was composed. 

In 1872, at the earnest solicitation of Horace Greeley, Mr. 
Depew permitted the use of his name as a candidate for Lieu- 
tenant-Governor on the Liberal Republican or Greeley ticket, 
and shared, as he had probably expected, in the defeat of that 
party. He acted with the Republican party the next year, and 
has acted with that party every year since. 

Two years later he was chosen by the Legislature as a Regent 
of the State University, and also as one of the Commissioners 
to build the State Capitol at Albany. 

In 1881, when the famous quarrel with President Garfield 
was followed by the resignations from the United States Senate 
of Roscoe Conkling and Thomas C. Piatt, Mr. Depew was a 
favorite candidate for the succession to the unexpired term of 
^Ir. Piatt and would probably have won if the assassination of 
President Garfield had not thrilled the nation with horror and 
brought aliout a tennination of the long struggle. In with- 
drawing his name, ]\Ir. Depew issued a statement urging that 
selections be made willioul further conflict and in harmony, that 
"Neither the State nor the party can afford to have New York 
unrepresonted in the National Councils. A great crime has 
plunged the Nation into sorrow, and in the midst of the prayers 
and the tears of the whole people, supplicating for the recovery 


and weeping over the wound of the President, this partisan 
strife should cease." 

Five years later, when his Party controlled a majority of 
the State Legislature, he was the Party choice for the United 
States Senatorship. Many business and professional duties 
obliged him to decline the honor. 

The resignation of William H. Vanderbilt from the presi- 
dency of the New York Central had led meanwhile to a re- 
organization of the company, in which Mr. James H. Rutter was 
made president and Mr. Depew was made second vice-president ; 
in 1885, on the death of President Rutter, Mr. Depew was 
elevated to the presidency, which latter office he held for 
thirteen years, acting also as president over most of the com- 
panies allied to the Vanderbilt system; was also a director in 
twenty-eight additional lines. On his resignation of the presi- 
dency in 1898, he was made chairman of the Board of Directors 
of the entire Vanderbilt system of railroads, a position he still 

In 1888, when Mr. Depew was a Delegate-at-Large from this 
State to the Republican National Convention, he received the 
seventy votes from the State of New York for the Presidency. 
On subsequent ballots the vote was increased. It was at his 
urgent request that his name was withdrawn, and his friends 
supported Benjamin Harrison, who was finally nominated. 
After election Mr. Harrison tendered to Mr. Depew any place 
in his Cabinet except Secretary of State which had been prom- 
ised to Mr. James G. Blaine, but Mr. Depew felt obligated to 

In 1892, at the Republican National Convention, held at 
Minneapolis, when most of the national leaders of the party 
were opposed to the renomination of President Harrison, Mr. 
Depew stood loyal and made many speeches in that city, pre- 
ceding sessions of the Convention, to create opinion favorable 
to Harrison's renomination, and in the Convention he spoke 
most eloquently advocating the renomination. President Har- 
rison attributed his success in the Convention in a great part 
to Mr. Depew. To show his appreciation the President invited 
Mr. Depew to accept the place in his Cabinet of Secretary of 
State, made vacant by the resignation of Mr. Blaine. Again, 
Mr. Depew for business reasons was obliged to decline this new 
and great honor. 

In addition to his railway and political engagements, exacting 


enoug:h to occupy the entire time of a less active man, Mr. 
Depow has numerous social and semi-social duties. He is a 
director of many financial, fiduciary, and other corporations and 
trusts, and a member of societies, too numerous to mention here. 
Amonfr the many may be named the following: In New York, 
the Ilucfuenot Society, the Society of the Cincinnati, the Sons 
of the American Revolution, the Union League, the Metropolitan 
Club, the Century Club, the Holland Society, the New England 
Society, the Colonial Wars Society, Kane Lodge, Masons, and 
33rd degree in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the St. 
Nicholas Society, the American Bar Association, the New York 
Bar Association, the Westchester County Bar Association, the 
Republican Club, the Lotos Club, the Players' Club, the 
Transportation Club, the University Club, the Phi Beta Kappa 
Club, the Psi Upsilon Club, Lafayette Post, New York Chamber 
of Commerce. He was for many years in succession elected 
President of the Yale Alumni Association, declining a re- 
election after a decade of service, and was for twelve years 
a member of the Yale Corporation; for seven successive years, 
too, he was President of the Union League Club, a longer term 
than ever held by any other, and on declining further election 
was made an honorary life member; he is also a prominent 
member of the New York Chamber of Commerce. 

In Washington, D. C, he is a member of the Metropolitan 
Club, the Chevy Chase Club, the Country Club, the Alibi Club, 
and the University Club. 

In 1899 Mr. Depew was elected a United States Senfltor 
representing the State of New York, being the unanimous choice 
of the Republican majority in the Legislature; in 1905 he was 
re-elected. In all he served in the Senate twelve years: ' ''^<» 
end of the last term his Party friends in the Legislature oi 
voted imanimously in favor of giving him a third term, L. 
80 happened that his Party did not have the necessary majo^n.^ 
in the Legislature that year— though the intention was good, 
the votes were lacking, and the honor went to another, of oppo- 
site political faith. Mr. Depew as a candidate for United States 
Senator has received the ballots of the members of his Party 
in the State Legislature more often than any other citizen of 
the United States— namely sixty ballots, one each day for sixty 
days in 1881, and sixty-four during forty-five days in 1911. 

Though burdened with many responsibilities Mr. Depew al- 
ways finds time for rest and recreation. This is not only because 


he displays a phenomenal capacity for the disposal of work, 
but because he so systematizes his labors that one occupation 
is never permitted to interfere with another. His rest and 
recreation are found rather in change of occupation than in the 
repose which most men seek after their labors, and he returns 
from reading and study to weightier cares refreshed and rein- 

Mr. Depew's chief recreation is public speaking. "Speech- 
making is a tonic to me," he has said, "and not an occupa- 
tion of wear and tear. It gets the mind into another channel 
and answers the same purpose as the Greek and Latin transla- 
tion of Mr. Gladstone; as horse-driving did to Commodore Van- 
derbilt, and as cards do to many business men. The difference 
between my recreation and that of other business men is that 
mine is all in public." What would be a subject of anxiety and 
of long and hard labor to most men is but a necessary diversion 
to him. His more important orations and addresses are dic- 
tated to a stenographer and typewritten, though his memory is 
so tenacious that he never uses notes in delivery; but many of 
his after-dinner speeches are extemporaneous, born of the time 
and the occasion, for he has the rare talent of thinking while 
on his feet and is never at a loss for a word or a simile. Some- 
times Mr. Depew has made addresses that were mirth-provoking 
from beginning to end; but oftener he has veiled some serious 
intent behind the mask of raillery; and as often, again, has he 
spoken on questions whose gravity has forced his laughter-loving 
sid» into complete retirement. Mr. Depew has often been called 
one of the best of after-dinner speakers, but such characteriza- 
tion, though eminently true, does him an injustice, for that is 
^' ' c'pliase of his many-sided eloquence. As one writer, 
ing of Mr. Depew, says, ' ' The characteristic of Mr. De- 
■ ^'■f^ speaking is that it does not depend upon verbal jokes 
nor funny stories for its success. It is the true humor which 
grows naturally out of the subject, and is based upon a com- 
mon substratum of common sense." 

No man in the United States, perhaps in all the world, has 
attended so many public dinners as Mr. Depew, that is, where 
speeches were made. In his time he has been at some 8,000 
banquets, as he estimates. Though seventy-nine years of age, 
he is to-day as young and alert as a man half his age; in fact 
more so than many of them. He has formulated his own rules 
for right living and he has written them down. He says: "I 


have seen a flow of champagne suggestive of Niagara, but I 
have never been submerged. One rule I have followed for forty 
years-I pick out of each bill of fare what I would have eaten 
if I had stayed at home. At a very large dinner, I do not take 
the oysters. I merely touch the soup. I skip the fish. I skip 
all dishes upon which the chef has exhausted his art. I eat the 
roast if it is lamb or a fowl, and skip it if it is beef. If there 
is terrapin, I take that, because it is very digestible, and I take 
the game. I do not smoke, and I never drink anything but 
champagne, and a very little of that. The next day everything 
with me— head or vitality— is as usual. 

"There never was a man yet, unless he became dependent 
upon alcohol, whom drink did not dull or deaden. Most of the 
great speakers that I have known never touch anything at din- 
ner. They have told me that their mental processes would not 
work until at least five hours after a meal, unless the digestive 
processes were over. I never was troubled that way. 

"A curious thing about public men going to a dinner to 
deliver an address is the way in which many of them will lose 
a national reputation. I have seen half a dozen of the finest 
reputations in the country go to pieces at a banquet in New 
York because the man spoke too long and did not relieve his 
speech, because he thought it beneath his dignity to give a 
display of humor. I remember two dinnera in New York where 
the principal speakers were men of national reputation, and 
there were six others to come after them also of national repu- 
tation. They emptied the hall and when they closed there were 
very few present except the officers and the band. The other 
speakers had also fled. 

"I have never experimented with strange food. My health 
and longevity are due more than anything else to the fact that 
I have always been very careful what got inside me." 

At dinners in the White House many important public 
measures are decided. 

In an address delivered by him before the Montauk Club of 
Brooklyn, at a dinner given by that club on April 26, 1913, 
in celebration of his seventy-ninth birthday. Senator Depew in 
speaking of goodfellowship at dinners, in part, said: "I have 
met most of the distinguished men and women of my time, in 
this and other countries, and with scarcely an exception the best 
I ever know of them occurred at dinner." 

"Judge Robertson, of ^Yestchester, and I were invited by 


Secretary of State Seward to dine with him in "Washington on 
our way to the Republican National Convention which re- 
nominated President Lincoln. That dinner changed the vice- 
president from Daniel S. Dickinson, of New York, to Andrew 
Johnson, of Tennessee, and made a different chapter in American 
history. ' ' 

Though Mr. Depew has not, until late years, filled any important 
national position, he is probably better known, both at home and 
abroad, than many men of world-wide reputation. With a few 
exceptions, he is the best known American living to-day, and 
his yearly visits to Europe have made his personality familiar 
to almost everybody, from crowned heads to the common people. 
His popularity is owing partly to accessibility, for, unlike most 
prominent men of affairs, he does not hedge himself in with 
impenetrable dignity, but is as ready to welcome the employees 
as the directors of his company ; and partly because of the kind- 
ness of heart that prompts such accessibility and makes him a 
friend of every reporter that comes to him for an "item of 
news. ' ' 

Mr. Depew 's orations and addresses are virtually a history of 
the past half century; and not only a mere record of events, 
but a political, industrial, commercial, educational, and social 
picture of the period in which he has been one of the most con- 
spicuous figures. We must not forget, too, to note that he has 
found time also to edit a series of the greatest orations of the 
world in twenty-four volumes, and a massive work entitled ' ' One 
Hundred Years of American Commerce," a series of articles 
illustrating the progress of the country during the century. 

Mr. Depew received his A. M. in course and in 1887, when 
he delivered the annual address to the Yale Law School, was 
given the honorary degree of LL.D. In the following year he 
was elected a member of the Yale Corporation, a position which 
he held by re-election until 1906. Mr. Depew was elected by the 
Legislature in 1874 Eegent of the University of the State of New 
York and held the position for thirty-four years. He was also 
elected by the Alumni for two terms of six years each a member 
of the Corporation of Yale University. 

It is almost needless to say that in Mr. Depew 's long service 
in the United States Senate he won the praise not only of his 
native State but of the Nation for his ability and his grasp of 
the great questions of the day. He was more successful than 


almost anyone in (mUkt House in ijfettinfi: bills passed relating 
to his State. 

The I^Iontauk Club of Brooklyn has iudulj^^ed in the delightful 
habit of giving a dinner in celebration of Senator Depew's birth- 
day for many years. On Saturday evening, April 23, 1913, the 
club gave its twenty-second annual "Depew Birthday Dinner,'' 
and in reeogiiit ion of the high honor paid him on the seventy- 
ninth anniversary of the day of his birth. Senator Depew, as 
usual, delivered one of his instructive and happy orations. 

As Mr. Depew is still in the plenitude of his powers, phj^si- 
cally. mentally, and intellectually every good citizen will pray 
that he may long be spared, to advance the best interests of 
the Nation and the State, and continue to be "Our Chauncey," 
and an honor to AVestchester, his native County. 

]\Ir. Depew was married in 1871, to Miss Elise Hegeman, 
daughter of William Hegeman, of New York City, who died in 
1892. Of this union there is one son, Chauncey M. Depew, Jr., 
born in 1882. 

Mr. Depew was again married in 1900, to Miss May Palmer, 
daughter of John Palmer, of New York. 

this sketch, is, in the truest sense, "an honored son of West- 
chester County," as many of his admiring friends have desig- 
nated him. He was " of the manor born," as he first saw the 
light of day in the charming locality where he still maintains 
a residence, among long time neighbors who never tire of mani- 
festing their great respect and according him honor in recog- 
nition of an enviable private and public career. It is said of 
l\Ir. Carpenter that he is liberally endowed with the happy 
faculty of making many friends and but few enemies. His 
amiable and conciliating disposition proves a tower of strength 
in enabling him to better serve his fellow-men. Being a man 
of high intelligence, strong and active in mind, positive in 
principle, never hesitating to take a stand for what he considers 
to be right and just, though great influences should attempt 
to sway him, he has earned the respect of all those who know 
him best ; though they may at times disagree with him, not 
being able to see things from his viewpoint, yet they will not 
say he is not acting for the best, in his honest, straightforward 

- > S^^-^^Sj ., 




When serving this County as its representative in the State 
Senate, for several terms, he proved one of the staunchest 
friends and supporters Governor Hughes had, and his vote 
could always be depended upon in the upholding of the Gov- 
ernor's attempted reforms in the direction of good government. 

Governor Hughes voluntarily paid Senator Carpenter a just 
compliment when he said that he was always confident that 
the cause of good government could unfailingly depend for 
support upon Senator Carpenter of Westchester County, who 
needed no prompting or urging to do his duty as he understood 
it, regardless of what other men did; his loyalty to himself and 
regard for upright principles ever guided him aright, along the 
right course. 

That the Governor's appreciation of the character of our 
County's representative in the Senate was shared in general 
by his colleagues in the State Legislature, was proven when 
the Legislature, in 1908, elected him, at the termination of his 
last term in the Senate, a Regent of the University of the State, 
a position of high honor, much coveted. 

The Albany Evening Journal, a representative newspaper 
in northern New York, edited by a Republican leader of the 
State, in speaking of the election as Regent that came to Mr. 
Carpenter as a surprise, said in commending the choice: " The 
Legislature has chosen a man of plain common sense and good 
judgment, and just the kind of material of which the Board 
of Regents should be composed." 

Another influential newspaper, in speaking of the placing in 
nomination of ex-Senator Carpenter and urging the prefer- 
ment, said : ' ' Senator J. Mayhew Wainwright, of Westchester 
County, in well chosen remarks, alluding to his predecessor's 
faithfulness in serving the best interests of the people of the 
State, placed Francis M. Carpenter's name before the joint 
caucus of Republican Senators and Assemblymen, and asked 
that the popular former Senator receive endorsement as the 
caucus' choice for the position of Regent of the University of 
the State of New York, to represent the Ninth Judicial District, 
which is an additional representation in the Board. 

"Assemblyman Frank L. Young, who represents the Third 
Westchester County Assembly District, in which former Senator 
Carpenter resides, delivered a most pleasing address extolling 
the good qualities of the gentleman named, who has not sought 
the office, but is presented in hopes that friends he made while 


a legislator might join iu an effort to honor a man proven 

" Then followed several short addresses made by State Sena- 
tors from all sections of the State, who had been Senator Car- 
penter's co-laborers, each vieiug with the other in endeavor to 
render justice to a man of ' sensitive honor,' as one of them 
termed it." 

The position of Regent, which is an honorary one; was sev- 
eral years held by the late Hon. Whitelaw Reid, who was United 
States Ambassador to Great Britain; St. Clair McKciway, editor 
of the Brooklyn Eagle; Eugene A. Philbin, of New York; Ches- 
ter S. Lord, of Brooklyn, managing editor of the New York 
Sim (just re-elected to succeed himself) ; and others well known 
as being conspicuous in literature, law and similar pursuits 
recommending them as fit guardians over vital interests en- 
trusted to them. 

The office of Regent of the University of the State of New 
York, created in 1784, is as venerable as it is honorable. Men 
most distinguished in the State's history have held the position, 
and the man is yet to be known who would refuse so great an 
honor. Residents of this County who have held this office are : 
Jonathan G. Tompkins, of the first appointed, served until 1808, 
AVashington Irving, the world-wide famous author, elected in 
1835, United States Senator Chauncey M. Depew, elected in 
1877, and Hon. Francis M. Carpenter, elected in 1908. The late 
Regent Whitelaw Reid had a residence in this County. 

"When Mr. Carpenter retired from the State Senate, January 
1, 1908, he had rounded out forty-five years of active public 
official life, a longer term than usually falls to the lot of man, 
and, if life be spared, and he be permitted to serve out the 
twelve-year term of his new office, he will have more than passed 
the half century mark in the civic service. It has been said of 
some public servants who have been a long time prominent in 
the public eye, that it would have been better for their good 
reputations had they retired before they did ; but no such senti- 
ment prevails relative to him who strives to live aright, that 
his living may benefit others as well as himself. 

Before entering upon his long career as a public official, 
Mr. Carpenter was successful in mercantile pursuits and estab- 
lished a reputation for integrity and honesty in dealing; the 
reputation thus founded has been his through all these years. 

In 1862, at the earnest urging of his fellow-townsmen, Mr. 


Carpenter consented to become a candidate for Supervisor in 
the town of New Castle, in which he resided; his election fol- 
lowed. With the exception of two years, he served continu- 
ously in the Board of Supervisors, of which he was many times 
chairman, up to the year 1896 (for thirty-two years), when he 
had to relinquish the office to accept that of County Treasurer, 
which he held for two terms, six years. 

Without his solicitation, he was called upon to accept a nomi- 
nation as candidate for State Senator, in 1903. He was elected 
by a majority surpassing that given for any other candidate 
previously nominated for that office. He served as the County's 
representative in the " Upper House " of the State Legisla- 
ture for five years, and as long as he desired to. His decision 
to retire was regretted by friends of all political parties, espe- 
cially those of his own political faith, who were more than 
willing to give him any office within their gift. 

His unanimous election to so honorable a position as Regent 
of the State University, which followed immediately after his 
retirement from the Senatorship, is an evidence showing in part 
the appreciation in which he is held throughout the State, by 
members of all political parties. 

This, to him an unexpected calling back to public official 
duties, has retained for the State the services of a man who can 
be trusted to serve it faithfully in any capacity. 

Not only as a statesman is Mr. Carpenter known. His fame 
as a leading financier of the County is familiar to us. He is 
an officer, Vice-President or Director, in several banks and 
trust companies scattered about the County. He is the active 
President of the Westchester and Bronx Title Company, and 
largely interested in several thriving realty corporations. 

As executor or administrator of estates he has been com- 
mended by the courts for his judicious management in the 
handling of funds and increasing to an unusual extent the 
amounts due heirs at final accounting. (See page 161, Vol. 1.) 


WILLIAM HOLRKE COCKRAN, lawyer, Congressman, 
oralur, etc., is rightfully claimed by Westchester County, as 
one of its own. 

He was born in Ireland, on February 28, 1854, a son of Martin 
and Harriet K. Cockrau. Was educated in his native country, 
and in France. Came to this country when seventeen years of 
age, in Hie year 1871. 

It is said of him that he obtained his mother's consent to his 
crossing the Atlantic at that early age by representing to her 
that he was going to visit a cousin of his father, Mr. Edward 
^lartin, then Supervisor of Eastchester and President of Mt. 
Vernon village, and that she was induced to give him his fare 
for this purpose as part of his general education. She also sent 
]\Ir. Martin a draft for £20 to pay his return passage. When 
this money for his return passage was handed to young Cockran 
he calmly announced that he never had the slightest intention 
of returning to Ireland, and with that sum — one hundred and 
eighteen dollars according to the then rate of exchange — he 
began life in America. On the day of his arrival, Mr. Martin 
took him out to Mount Vernon, in this County, and that very 
evening he became acquainted with Hon. John Berry, one of 
the leading merchants, and who served the village of Mount 
Vernon thirty-five years as Treasurer, was Supervisor of the 
town of Eastchester and later a Member of Assembly, Mr. 
Berry took a fancy to young Cockran, admiring his quick intelli- 
gence and many good qualities ; the more he came to know the 
youth the greater Mr, Berry's interest in him grew, and recog- 
nizing that he had but few friends in this country, invited the 
young man to come to Mount Vernon and accept employment 
in the Berry dry goods establishment. For a short time he was 
employed in the wholesale establishment of A, T, Stewart. & Co., 
New York city. 

Shortly afterwards Cockran accepted an offer to teach 
in a private academy, a position for which he was particu- 
larly adapted owing to having received a liberal education; 
he next was engaged as principal of the public school 
in Tuckahoe, in the town of Eastchester, While teaching he 
read law, serving the required period for practical experience 
in the Now York city law office of Supreme Court Justice Abra- 
ham B. Tappan, a resident of this county. He was admitted to 
practice at the bar in 1876. Opening offices in ]\Iount Vernon 
he had, from the start, as clients many prominent citizens of 




the county, among them being his staunch friend John Berry, 
and another firm admirer in the person of Daniel C. Hickey, a 
well-known railroad contractor, and at one time Supervisor and 
Democratic State Committeeman. 

Even in his younger days Mr. Cockran's eloquence and logical 
arguments before judge and jury attracted attention of mem- 
bers of the bar as well as of laymen. In 1877 he was unani- 
mously chosen by the Eastchester Town Board as Town Counsel, 
thus being called upon to fill an office previously held by such 
veteran advocates as District-Attorneys William H. Pemberton 
and Pelham L. McClellan and County Judge Silas D. Gifford. 
Mr. Cockran was then but twenty-three years of age, and doubts 
Mr. Cochran was then but twenty-three years of age, and doubts 
were expressed as to his being able to successfully conduct the 
Town's legal business, owing to his lack of experience. The 
success which crowned his endeavors in defence of the Town 
in all legal contests, put to flight all doubts, and called from 
Supervisor David Cromwell, a political opponent, unsolicited 
praise, to the effect that the Town of Eastchester has had many 
able lawyers to fill the responsible position of Town Counsel, 
but none more capable than the young attorney-at-law Cockran. 

Mr. Cockran appeared frequently before Courts held in White 
Plains, our county seat, taking part in important litigation. 
About this time an unusually strong friendship sprang up be- 
tween young Cockran and Martin J. Keogh, of about the same 
age, and like Cockran a struggling young lawyer who had come 
from Ireland to a strange country seeking his fortune. Keogh 
had come to New Rochelle, in this county, in 1875; in 1896 he 
had become a Supreme Court Justice. Cockran likewise had 
become conspicuous in his chosen profession, and has served 
several terms in Congress and made an enviable world-wide repu- 
tation as lawyer and orator. The Cockran-Keogh friendship con- 
tinues, and grows stronger with the years. 

Seeking a wider field of usefulness, and at the suggestion of 
friends, Mr. Cockran decided to open law offices in New York 

In 1882 he received appointment as counsel to the Sheriff, 
from Alexander V. Davidson. When Hugh J. Grant suc- 
ceeded Davidson, Mr. Cockran was reappointed by Sheriff 
Grant. It was then a position much sought after by the legal 
fraternity. Aaron J. Vanderpool had held the office for some 
twenty-eight years before Cockran's appointment. At the ter- 


niiuation of Sheriff Grant's term Mr. Cockran retired from 
active public office holding, finding inducements to devote his 
entire time to private practice of his profession too attractive 
to be ignored. An offer of appointment to the important and 
high salaried office of Corporation Counsel of the City of New 
York did not tempt him. Refusing this office for himself he 
was permitted to name a suitable person for the position; in 
compliance with this he proposed William H. Clark, a rising 
young lawyer associated with him in business. Mr. Clark re- 
ceived the appointment and proved an especially efficient official, 
justifying his friend's confidence in him. 

Though continuing as a recognized power in the Democratic 
organization of New York county, and a close friend of Mayor 
Hugh J. Grant and of Mayor Thomas F. Gilroy, Mr. Cockran 
devoted himself to the practice of his profession, appearing as 
a pleader in most of the prominent litigations of the day, fre- 
quently as a trial lawyer for many of the largest legal firms of 
the country in State and Federal Courts. 

Among the most celebrated of his cases was the appeal of 
Jacob Sharp after he had been convicted of bribing the Board 
of Aldermen, the case of Kemmler, involving the constitution- 
ality of the law providing for execution of criminals convicted 
of capital offenses by electricity. 

He makes a favorable appearance before a Court; he reasons 
logically and possesses great fluency of speech. • Before a jury 
Mr. Cockran is earnest and impressive. In whatever position 
he is placed he retains his dignity, good humor and self-pos- 

- In 1886 ]\Ir. Cockran was first elected as a Eepresentative in 
Congress, from a New York city district, and became a member 
of the Fiftieth Congress, from 1887 to 1889 ; he was immediately 
recognized as a leader on the Democratic side to whom unusual 
deference was paid, considering he was "a new member." Was 
a member of the Commission to revise the judiciary article of 
the Constitution of the State of New York. Was elected to the 
Fifty-second and re-elected to the Fifty-third Congresses, from 
1891 to 1895. 

In the New York State Democratic Legislative caucus held at 
Albany in January, 1893, Mr. Cockran was undoubtedly the 
choice of a majority for election as United States Senator, and 
it was quite possible had members been left free to give ex- 


pression to their choice, and had not yielded to outside influence, 
Mr. Cockran would have been chosen to fill a place for which 
he was fully competent and well equipped. As it was, he received 
many votes in the caucus. His many friends openly resented 
the injustice done Mr. Cockran at this time by influential men 
in the party who were jealous of his rapidly increasing popu- 
larity in State and National politics. 

In 1896 Mr. Cockran opposed the platform adopted by the 
Democratic Convention at Chicago, and voted for McKinley, 
the Republican Presidential candidate, declining to participate 
in the Indianapolis Convention or to support Palmer and Buck- 
ner. Independent Democrats. The great mass meeting he ad- 
dressed in Madison Square was the opening and the chief event 
of that memorable campaign. In November, 1896, at Chick- 
ering Hall, New York city, he addressed the first public meeting 
in favor of intervention by this Government to terminate the 
perpetration of barbarities in Cuba, and in January, 1899, at 
the Academy of Music, New York city, he addressed the first 
public meeting in opposition to the forcible annexation or con- 
quest of the Philippine Islands. In the election of 1900 he sup- 
ported William J. Bryan the Democratic Candidate for Presi- 
dent, on the ground that the result could not in any way affect 
the coinage of the country, owing to the complexion of the Sen- 
ate, while he believed the defeat of the Republican party would 
of its self have sufficed to expel imperialism from our political 

At a special election held February 23, 1904, Mr. Cockran 
was elected to the Fifty-eighth Congress, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of George B. McClellan, elected Mayor 
of New York city, and to the Fifty-ninth Congress, and re- 
elected to the Sixtieth Congress, terms expiring March 3, 1909. 

During his Congressional experience he was ever a recognized 
leader and orator representing the Democratic party, and for a 
greater part of his stay in Congress was admittedly the most 
distinguished orator in either branch of the Nation 's legislature. 

In two National Conventions he was easily the leading figure. 
His speech against the nomination of Cleveland in 1884 raised 
him at once to national prominence. In 1892 he again opposed the 
same candidate in a speech delivered at three in the morning to 
a convention which had been in continuous session for over four- 


teen hours and wliicli had refused to hear any other speaker, 
Avhich is still remembered as one of the most remarkable achieve- 
ments in that foiimi of debate. 

His speech in closing the great debate on repeal of the Sher- 
man Silver Purchase Law in the special session of 1893 ; his 
speech in favor of the Wilson Tariff in 1894, and his subsequent 
address against the proposed income Tax during the regular ses- 
sion, were the most wddely reported of the time. After his 
return to the House in 1904 his speech against executive usur- 
pation, his philippic against the proposed ship subsidy, his 
controversy with Rep. Dalzeal, his address on insurance scan- 
dals, and his speech on the Hepburn railway rate bill were 
notable utterances Avhich are still quoted as examples of 
patriotic eloquence. 

As evidence of Mr. Cockran's continued popularity with 
residents of Westchester County, mention is made of the fact 
that he is called upon at the beginning of every season to deliver 
the opening address at the New Rochelle Forum, attended 
largely by people coming from every section of the county. 

On June 27, 1913, he was orator of the day on program 
arranged for the celebration of the 225th anniversary of the 
founding of New Rochelle by the French Huguenots, refugees 
from La Rochelle, France. 

Mr. Cockran is a member of the following clubs : Metropolitan, 
Meadow Brook, Larchmont Yacht, The Brook, Lambs, Catholic, 
Riding, National Arts, Lotos (New York city) ; Country, Metro- 
politan, Che\^ Chase (Washington, D. C). 

He has his law offices at No. 31 Nassau street. New York city. 

Mr. Cockran's active service in municipal, State and national 
politics is justly appreciated, and constant demands upon him 
for " talks," here, there and everywhere, are more than the 
ordinary mortal man would be physically able to satisfy. Evi- 
dently the people do not tire of listening to his voice. 

As a finished and classical scholar, possessed of natural wit 
and enchanting oratory, he is as well known in prominent Euro- 
pean cities as he is known in this country. 

His running as a candidate for Congress in the First Con- 
gressional district, or Long Island district, in 1912, on the 
National Progressive ticket, was to please his close personal 
friend ex-President Theodore Roosevelt, and without the slightest 
expectation of election. The vote he polled was so flattering 


that the result is regarded by his friends as a victory rather 
than a defeat. 

Biography has a two-fold office. It is a narrative of facts, 
and a teacher of the lessons of life. It shows where and how 
men have made battle with discouragements, and its teachings 
are lamps to guide the feet of those still struggling for success. 
Mr. Cockran's career shows what is possible for a determined 
young man to accomplish in this country, though he be a stranger 
in a strange land. Young Cockran, as he was entering his teens, 
set his face toward the far distant America, and the city of 
New York, as the goal of all his hopes. Discouragements were 
plentiful ; like many of the country youths who go to cities, 
he found it difficult to succeed without friends and influence. 
The subject of our sketch was fortunate in falling into the hands 
of such a good Samaritan as John Berry proved to be and who 
continued Cockran's lifelong friend. The manhood of a boy 
attracts friendship that in many instances proves everlasting. 
Encouragement in the way of a helping hand develops the true 
man in the youth. 

William Bourke Cockran to reach the enviable position he 
to-day holds, to retain and enjoy the esteem of people whose 
esteem is well worth possessing, had to work, and work hard, 
finding, as he did, in his pathway many obstacles which had 
to be overcome. To the unceasing endeavors of an energetic 
Irish lad who possessed little more than determination to win 
and the confidence of youth, is due the very apparent success 
of the subject of this sketch. 

Mr. Cockran modestly says, what he has accomplished is not 
unusual, but w^hat any young man can do, if he sets out deter- 
mined to conquer. 

It has been truly said, that the men whose personal history 
the world needs are not those who, by some successful venture, 
burst suddenly into fortune and fame; nor, indeed, those who, 
by shrewd calculations and spider-like patience, devote life to 
the attainment of wealth. Nor does it need even the history of 
genius, brilliant as may be its story and dazzling its work. The 
first excite to unhealthful ambition, to the planting of the crown 
of life upon a brow of gold. They subordinate the elements 
of a true character which gather to it as its prime necessities 
a regnant fidelity to truth, a fellowship with purity, a sympathy 
with all who struggle, an ambition to brighten life for others. 


The latter has the attraction only of a picture which we may 
admire but cannot imitate. The exceptional nature of genius 
robs it of stimulus. It is beyond reach. Men of genius are 
like " stars who dwell apart." They resemble the stars in their 
coldness, their distance, and their sheen. The true man is to 
be sought for less high. He is to be found where the masses 
of men are, toiling with them, helping them, devising plans 
which touch the springs of human interest, seeking success 
through honor and persistent labor. Such men, haply, are multi- 
plying. The world needs them. To record any such man's 
history is alike a duty and a pleasure. For such a reason we 
write this sketch. 

HELEN MILLER GOULD, philanthropist, eldest daughter 
of Jay and Helen Day (Miller) Gould, was born June 20, 1868, 
in New York city. Since childhood she has been a resident of 
this County a great part of the year, dwelling in the palatial 
residence of her father on the banks of the Hudson river, in 
Irvington, in the town of Greenburgh. This residence now 
belongs to her and is by her maintained as her summer home. 
Her winter residence being at No. 579 Fifth avenue. New 
York city. 

She is one of the most prominent wealthy American women 
of the present age, devoting her life to the promotion of many 
objects intended for the improvement of the condition of her 
fellow creatures. Identified with many benevolent works, she 
has a world-wide enviable reputation. 

She who became world-wide famous as Helen Gould, was 
married on January 22, 1913, to Finley J. Shepard. The 
ceremony taking place at "Lyndhurst," Miss Gould's summer 
home in Irvington, in presence of immediate relatives and inti- 
mate friends only. 

Miss Gould's fortune has been estimated at from $20,000,000 
to $30,000,000. She inherited about $10,000,000 from her father. 
She has conducted her affairs with much shrewdness and good 
judgment, and it has often been said that she has trebled the 
money which came to her. It is estimated that Miss Gould has 
given about $5,000,000 to charitable, religious, education and 
public uses. 


Miss Gould (now Mrs. Shepard) is a women of very decided 
views and absolutely set principles. Among her beliefs is the 
doctrine that persons of wealth owe distinct duties to their 
less fortunate fellow beings. She once set out her ideas in this 

' ' The Christian idea that wealth is a stewardship or trust and 
not to be used for one's personal pleasure alone, but for the 
welfare of others, certainly seems the noblest, and those who 
have more money or broader culture owe a debt to those who 
have had fewer opportunities. And there are so many ways 
one can help. Children, the sick and the aged especially claim 
our attention, and the forms of work for them are numerous. 

"Earnest workers who nobly and lovingly give their lives 
to promote the welfare of others give far more than though they 
had simply made gifts of money, so those who cannot afford 
to give largely need not feel discouraged on that account. After 
all, sympathy and good will may be a greater force than wealth, 
and we can all extend to others a kindly feeling and courteous 
consideration that will make life sweeter and better. 

"Sometimes it seems to me we do not sufficiently realize the 
good that is done by money that is used in the different indus- 
tries in giving employment to great numbers of people under 
the direction of clever men and women, and surely it takes 
more ability, perseverance and time to manage successfully 
such enterprises than merely to make gifts." 


HORACE CJKEELEY, the editor, philosopher, statesman, 
philanthropist, Westchester County's adopted son and worthy- 
citizen. It will doubtless be admitted that no history of West- 
chester County would be complete without mention of this dis- 
tinguished personage, who lived and died in the County. True, 
our County was not his place of birth, but he loved it equally 
as well. His writings referring to his farm home among us, 
to enjoyed hours stolen from a busy life and spent here, and his 
publication as to " What I know about Farming," made not 
only his farm but the modest hamlet of Chappaqua equally as 
well known and rendered it quite famous. His unsparing 
recommendation of the County as a place in which to dwell, 
made others desire to take up a residence here. He ever had 
at heart the best interests of Chappaqua, and was one of the 
organizers and first president of the Village Improvement 
Society. He took a becoming interest in everything that tended 
to benefit and advance the prosperity of his neighbors and make 
surroundings attractive. 

As early as 1850, he decided to become a resident of West- 
chester County, w^hen he joined wnth other New Yorkers in 
forming an Association to purchase land in the town of East- 
chester this county, to organize a village, which village was 
finally named Mount Vernon. In 1858 he conclu'^^lcd to settle in 
Chappaqua, in the town of New Castle, where ho could buy a 
farm desired. 

When twenty years of age and a struggling printer's appren- 
tice, Mr. Greeley arrived in New York city, in 1831 ; he married 
five years later. He remained a resident of the city twenty 
years, when he decided to '' go back to the farm," to change a 
city existence for a country life. In speaking of his deciding 
to make this change, he said: " I had been some twenty years 
a resident of the city, and fifteen the head of a household. Six 
children had been born to me, and four of them had died — 
as I am confident some of them would not so prematurely have 
done had they been born and reared in the country. I had 
earned and bought a small satisfactory house in the very heart 
of the city: but who, if he has any choice, prefers to grow old 
and die at No. 239, unknown to, and uncared for by, the denizens 
of Nos. 237 and 241? For my family's sake, if not for my 
own, a country home was required; so I looked about and found 
one. The choice was substantially directed by my wife, who 
said she insisted on but three requisites— 1. A peerless spring of 


^j'^ ■' - 


pure, soft, living water ; 2. A cascade or babbling brook ; 3. Woods 
largely composed of evergreens. These may seem light matters ; 
yet I was some time in finding them grouped on the same small 
plat, within reasonable distance from the city. I did find them, 
however, in the charming locality known as Chappaqua, in 
nearby Westchester County; and those who object to my taste 
in choosing for my home a rocky, wooded hillside, sloping to 
the north of west, with a bog at its foot, cannot judge 
me fairly, unless they consider the above requirements. My 
land was previously the rugged, mainly wooded, outskirt of 
two adjacent farms, whereof my babbling brook formed the 
boundary. ' ' 

Residents who were his neighbors remember him as a kind 
man; though he may have been considered " singular." He 
was a genius, and this fact may account for his being at times 
misunderstood as to his modes. He had a great heart. The 
poor, the sick, the despised and the unfortunate never appealed 
to him in vain. It used to be said of him, owing to his careless 
way of dressing, that he was ' ' fearfully and wonderfully clad. ' ' 
He was certainly no Beau Brummel, nor was he a " fashion 
plate " dude. What was far better, he was a man of brains. 
The writer remembers him as he used to be seen plodding his 
way along to the railroad station from his Chappaqua home; 
head down, engaged in profound thought, the benefit of which 
many thousands of the readers of his great newspaper received. 

Like Lincoln, Greeley was born in poverty and reared in 
obscurity. Like that other illustrious printer, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, he was self-educated. Everything he acquired intellectually 
came by hard and prodigious efforts. Thought to be not bright 
in early boyhood, he nevertheless persistently pursued knowledge 
until his was a consummate mental mastery. With a thirst for 
knowledge, inherited from his mother, one of his most striking 
characteristics was correctness of spelling, and an everlasting 
desire to associate with those who could not spell. When he 
was ten years old, he had borrowed, read and returned every 
book within seven miles of his father's house. He was not a 
college-bred man, and he used to say. " Of all the homed 
cattle, a college graduate is the worst in a newspaper office." 
His father's family was so poor that a neighbor once found 
them all living upon milk and bread. As a boy he persistently 
dressed in the most awkward country style, and his mother once 
stated that it cost less than three dollars a year to clothe him. 


The habit of dressing awkwardly continued with him to the 
last. Born in poverty and obscurity he faithfully worked at 
whatever came to his hands and never relaxed until things more 
profitable and congenial came into his life. 

When fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to a printer in 
Poultney, Vt., for six months for his board and $40 per annum. 
He learned to set type in one day as well as the average appren- 
tice could in one month. He gave no time to play; he worked 
with a will, and soon became a fair compositor. When copy 
ran out he began to construct news items at the case, and as 
they went into the paper he soon found himself composing edi- 
torial paragraphs, which also -went in. In the five years of his 
apprenticeship he never had a new suit of clothes; he walked 
home, five hundred miles aw^ay, twice in that time to see his 
mother. On one of these trips, when he passed through Sara- 
toga, N. Y., he wrote his first newspaper article, which was pub- 
lished in his newspaper when he returned to work. He was 
twenty years old when he became a journeyman, and then 
worked in the smaller towns of the north, going to New York 
city. He entered New York by a towboat down the Hudson, 
with ten dollars in his pocket, and first stopped at a small lodg- 
ing house at 168 West street, where he was charged two and a 
half dollars a week for his board. The only work he could get 
was to set up an agate edition of a pocket Testament, which all 
other printers refused to work on. He was never a swift com- 
positor, but was assiduous and correct, and made only five 
dollars a week by working fourteen hours each day. He looked 
so much like a block-headed countryman that he w^as discharged 
from the New York Evening Post composing rooms simply on 
that account. He then worked on the Commercial Advertiser, 
and in 1832 he secured a position as compositor on the Spirit 
of the Times, and to keep this place he condescended to change 
his homespun suit of clothes for a five dollar second-hand suit 
he got in Chatham street. He was saving of his small earnings 
and could always lend his fellow-printers money. He had a 
natural repugnance to luxury and wealth. 

His first experience in daily newspaper publishing came in 
1833 ; when he was part owner of a little job printing office, 
there came along a man who professed he had quite a sum of 
money to expend in establishing the first cheap daily newspaper 
to appear in New York; Greeley and his partner contracted to 
print the paper, which was to sell for one cent, probably the 


first paper in the world attempted to be sold at that price. It 
took just three weeks for the paper to die ; for the want of funds. 
The attempt to help out the would-be publisher threw Greeley 
into debt, which hard work on his part was necessary to pay. 

Mr. Greeley was married on July 5, 1836, five years after 
reaching New York, to a school teacher, who was attracted to 
him by reading one of his poems ; and at the marriage ceremony 
he broke a custom of his previous life by wearing socks. 

His next newspaper venture was the starting of a weekly 
publication, " The New-Yorker," which ran along three years 
and succeeded in securing a large circulation, but many of its 
patrons proved too slow in ' ' paying up, ' ' and as Greeley lacked 
necessary capital to keep matters rolling, he had to succumb to 
fate and suspend publication. He said he would have been 
willing to give the right to publish the newspaper away, and 
pay anyone $2,000 cash for relieving him of the burden and 
freeing him of its debts, but there were no takers; and as a 
result, after the suspension, he found himself $7,000 on the 
wrong side of the ledger. After much privation and stinting, 
he succeeded in paying every cent of this debt. He next was 
drawn from his humble printing shop by an invitation to go to 
Albany and edit a Whig campaign newspaper, with offices in 
the latter city and New York. 

Mr. Greeley had succeeded by this time in getting deeply 
interested in politics, on the Whig side ; and had published and 
edited several political campaign newspapers to aid his friends 
in the city and state elections. 

On the tenth of April, 1841— the day on which New York 
city held its great funeral parade and pageant in honor of 
Gen. William H. Harrison, President of the United States, who 
had died six days before — a day of most unseasonable chill and 
sleet and snow— the first number of Mr. Greeley's " New York 
Tribune " was published. 

The New York Tribune, which Mr. Greeley founded, was his 
supreme opportunity. Here he made the editorial anvil ring 
and there he sent his intellectual sparks outward and upward 
in a veritable shower. Other men have owned newspapers in 
America; others have wielded the pen for themselves and 
employed the pens of others for the enrichment of the columns 
of their papers; but only one Horace Greeley ever passed this 
way, and when he departed he carried with him much of the 
glory of his beloved New York Tribune. 


Mr. Greeley held at least one political office, that is known. 

In 1848, he was elected a Representative in Congress from a 
New York city district, to fill a vacancy, the unexpired term 
of throe months, as a Whig. Of this experience he said, in 
18G8 : "I believe it was just 7 a. m. of the 4th of March, 1849— 
the (lay of General Taylor's inauguration— when the two Houses, 
having finished all the inevitable business of the session, were 
adjourned without day, and I walked down to my hotel, free 
thenceforth to mind my own business. I have not since been 
a member, nor held any post under the Federal Government; 
it is not likely that I shall ever again hold one; yet I look back 
upon those three months I spent in Congress as among the 
most profitably employed of any in the course of my life. I saw 
things f z'om a novel point of view ; and if I came away from 
the Capitol no wiser than I went thither, the fault was entirely 
my own." In Congress, as well as elsewhere, Mr. Greeley 
advocated and fought for principles most dear to him. 

He held no other public office, though he was years active 
in National and State politics, and worked loyally to aid 
friends who were constantly seekers after political preferment. 
Thurlow Weed, the acknowledged party " Boss," William H. 
Seward and Greeley were the acknowledged leaders of the Re- 
publican party in this State. Greeley later complained to Seward, 
when the latter was Governor, that Weed and Seward took what 
they wanted in the way of good patronage, State and Nation, 
and forgot him, caring little whether Greeley was clothed or fed 
—no office was offered Greeley. The letter Greeley wrote to 
Governor Seward, in 1854, dissolved the partnership in the firm 
of * ' Seward, AVeed and Greeley, ' ' as the latter intended. When 
it came to nominating a Republican candidate for President in 
1860, Greeley was in the convention as a delegate from Oregon, 
by request of the party in that State. Seward was the choice 
for President of the New York delegation. Greeley favored 
annthor man, Edward Bates of Missouri ; later he supported 
Lincoln and helped nominate him, thus scoring against his 
former associate, Seward. 

He frequently stated that he was not desirous of holding 
public office; but tho fact that office was not tendered him was 
what cut liiiii doi'jily: as it showed base ingratitude on part 
of protended friends whom he had helped to get what they 

Among ritbor tilings commendable, Mr. Greeley was a strong 


champion of temperance, and delivered many lectures upon the 
subject ; he says he first met the lady who later became his wife, 
at the home of a Dr. Sylvester Graham, who first appeared in 
New York city as a lecturer on temperance; and as his wife 
she continued a strong advocate of temperance, and in years of 
extreme poverty kept her house in strict accordance with her 

He was ever proud of the fact that he was born in poverty 
and that he had to earn his own way in life, that he had to 
work hard to make ends meet. On one occasion he wrote: 
"Above all, be neither afraid or ashamed of honest industry; 
and if you catch yourself fancying anything more respectable 
than this, be ashamed of it to the last day of your life. Or, if 
you find yourself shaking more cordially the hand of your cousin, 
the Congressman, than of your uncle, the Blacksmith, as such 
write yourself down as an enemy to the principles of our insti- 
tutions, and a traitor to the dignity of humanity." Nobody 
hated injustice more than he. All his life through he battled 
against those vrho practiced persecution. Tyranny in every 
form was repugnant to him. His voice was ever raised in Free- 
dom's cause, even unto the uttermost corners of the earth. He 
passed out of this world eternally true in heart. 

A lover of his country, when the war was over, he pleaded 
as earnestly for justice to the South as he had patriotically 
labored for the North when the Civil "War was progressing. 
Nothing pleased him more than to learn that his enemy of yes- 
terday had become his friend to-day. He could fight, and for- 
give and forget. Though a reformer by nature, he happily 
avoided the spirit which seeks victory rather than truth. To 
the glory of Horace Greeley it can be truthfully said that he 
never crucified an adversary on the specious theory that he was 
laboring for the public weal. 

In 1872 Horace Greeley became a candidate for election as 
President of the United States. He had for his opponent Gen. 
Ulysses S. Grant. Canvass the Nation over and two men more 
unlike than Greeley and Grant could not be found. Each in 
his own way was a majestic character. Grant, who had served 
one term as President, for various alleged reasons, had antagon- 
ized certain men prominent in his own political party. These 
were opposed to his re-election. The idealists and reformers 
in the Republican party were destined to early discover 
that President Grant was more soldier than statesman. Obscure 


aud unsuccessful iu private life, though marvelously successful 
iu his eight years of military eudeavor, President Grant had 
little taste or aptitude for purely administrative atfairs. 

In the last half of President Grant's tirst term the Republi- 
can opposition to the President took tangible form. In January, 
1872, a mass meeting was held in Jefferson City, Missouri, and 
a call was issued for a national convention of so-called Liberal 
Kepublicaus. This Liberal Kepublican Convention was duly 
held in Cincinnati on May 1st following. From the beginning 
to the end, it was an intense anti-Grant demonstration. The 
delegates came from all over the Union. They represented in 
themselves and their associates at home the patriotic element 
of the Republican party. Scores of statesmen who had taken 
prominent part in the formation and perpetuation of the Repub- 
lican party in its early days joined in the crusade to give their 
political organization a rebirth. 

That Horace Greeley coveted the Presidential nomination of 
the Liberal Republicans is a fixed fact. But he received the 
nomination only after a hard struggle in the convention. Many 
forgot the sacrifices he had made for his party when that party 
was in sore need of supporters. Six ballots were taken by the 
delegates. Charles Francis Adams, of Massachusetts, led on 
the first, third and fourth ballots, while Greeley led on the 
second and fifth. On the sixth ballot, Adams had 324 votes 
and Greeley 332, with 57 votes scattered. Before the result of 
this ballot had been announced, the Greeley delegates raised a 
tremendous cheer on behalf of their favorite, which stampeded 
the convention en masse to Greeley. 

The Democratic National Convention, held in Baltimore, Md., 
on July 9, 1872, decided that it was advisable to endorse the 
candidacy of Mr. Greeley, the Liberal Republican candidate; 
the ballot taken on the question of endorsement being 686 in 
favor, out of a total vote of 732. The platform of the Liberal 
Republican party was also adopted. 

The story of the outcome of that election is told, as far as 
Greeley is concerned, in the one word " defeat." One of the 
classics of American politics to-day is the saying, " Beaten 
worse than Horace Greeley." President Grant's renomination 
was unanimous and his re-election by the people was overwhelm- 
ing: his victory was more than a tidal wave, it was almost a 
flood. Only five States of the Union voted in favor of Greeley. 
It was estimated that for every Republican that voted for 


Greeley, two Democrats voted for Grant, or stayed away from 
the polls. Certain Democrats would not forget the times that 
Greeley had been the bitterest opponent of their party, in his 
editorials and in his speeches, and wished by their votes, or 
their absence from the polls, to show that they did not approve 
of Greeley 's nomination, or endorsement, by Democratic leaders. 

From this defeat Horace Greeley never fully recovered. The 
ingratitude of those he had so loyally served dealt him a blow 
most unkind. This defeat was believed by many of his friends 
to be a cause that hastened his end. 

Success or defeat, let no man despise Horace Greeley. For 
no man's place in American history is surer than his. Greeley's 
services to the people cannot be measured by his vote-getting 
ability. No honors that might be bestowed or withheld in the 
way of public office could add to or take from his splendid 
character. He may not have been what is considered a success- 
ful politician, one who can trim sail to every varying wind; 
probably the fault, if any, lay in his construction, he preferred 
principles to gain, and for principles he was willing to make 
sacrifices. While his ability gave him a National character, his 
gentle, kind nature made him a friend of the humblest. 

Mr. Greeley was born on February 3, 1811, and died at his 
home in Chappaque, November 29, 1872; his death prevente 1 
the Presidential Electors chosen in his favor voting for him 
in the Electoral College. Mrs. Mary Y. C. Greeley died just 
one month before her husband. 

At the time of their death they had two daughters, Ida and 
Gabrielle M. The will of Mary Y. C. Greeley divided her real 
and personal property equally between her two daughters. 
Horace Greeley, in the will probated at White Plains, made a 
similar division of his estate. 

Mr. Greeley's last will, written by himself on two sheets of 
note paper on Nov. 9, 1872, just twenty days before his death, 
devised his entire estate to his daughter Ida Greeley, " one-half 
to be by her used at her own discretion to the education and sup- 
port of her sister, Gabrielle M. Greeley." Objection to the pro- 
bate of the last will was made before the Surrogate on the ground 
that it did great injustice to Gabrielle M. Greeley, and Ida 
Greeley voluntarily agreed to permit the probate of the earlier 
will, thus surrendering one-half of the estate to her sister. 

Ida Greeley, who had married Col. Nicholas Smith, died on 
April 11, 1882, without leaving a will and her estate passed to 


her surviving husband and her three children, Horace, Nixola 
and Ida. of whom the eldest was then five years of age. 

At the time of Ida Greeley's death neither Mr. Greeley's 
estate nor that of his wife had ever been divided. 

Ciabrielle M. Greeley married the Rev. Frank M. Glendennin, 
and with her husband and family resides on part of the old 
farm. On February 3, 1911, the hundredth anniversary of Mr. 
Greeley's birth was celebrated with interesting ceremonies, not 
only in Chappaqua, but also in New York city and in Albany. 

At his old home, in the chamber of the New York Board of 
Aldermen, by members of Typographical Union No. 6, at the 
New York Theater, and by the adjournment of both branches 
of the State Legislature. 

At Chappaqua, the celebration, arranged by the Chappaqua 
Historical Society, was held at the home of Mrs. Gabrielle 
Greeley Glendennin, a daughter, on the Greeley farm. 

Conspicuous among those present were Gen. Stewart L. Wood- 
ford, who traced an intimate picture of his old friend Greeley, 
and General Edwin A. Merritt, now 84 years old, who was Con- 
sul-General to London and Collector of the Port of New York. 
He was probably the oldest living associate of Horace Greeley 
in attendance. James Toole, president of Typographical Union 
No. 6, of Manhattan, headed a delegation of that body. 

Gen. Woodford delivered the principal address, in which he 
in part said: " Mr. Greeley's work is done, but his influence 
will abide while this Nation lives. His work for the slaves, 
clean politics and organized labor wall ever live. His work 
for sound currency no banker can ever forget. His words w^ere 
'the way to resume is to resume.' He was a firm friend of Lin- 
coln, and the latter 's nomination was due to the courage, domi- 
nation and instance of Horace Greeley. One of the greatest 
things Mr. Greeley ever did Avas when he went on the bail bond 
of Jefferson Davis, which, the speaker declared, was a great 
pledge of brotherhood that assured the unity of the Nation. 
To the very end he lived a life that was devoted to charity, to 
brotherhood of man, to labor, to the development of national 
resources and to the strengthening of the national Union. His 
w^as a great life." 

At the printers' celebration in New York city, United States 
Senator Albert J. Beveridge, of Indiana, was the orator. 

It has boon deeidod to erect in Chappaqua a memorial statue 
in honor of ISlr. Greeley, to cost $16,000. 


ALEXANDER HAMILTON is given a place in the annals 
of Westchester County on account of his association with the 
County's early history. 

It was at Peekskill, in this County, in 1777, that he received 
from Gen. Washington his commission as Adjutant-General of 
the Continental Army, an appointment given him as recogni- 
tion of heroic service rendered as aid on the staff of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, a position he had accepted at the urgent 
request of Washington, he acting as Washington's confidential 
secretary, thereby becoming a member of that general's mili- 
tary family and his close friend. 

As a former resident of this County he may be considered 
as of us. When he brought his charming wife to New York 
and settled in that city for the practice of law, he took up his 
residence in the lower section of the county, in what has been 
known as the town of Morrisania, the town being named in 
honor of the family whose sons were most intimate, personal 
and political, friends of Hamilton. It was through a Morris 
that he received, in 1781, an appointment as Receiver of Taxes 
for the State of New York. Though he at first declined this 
office, fearing it might interfere with his professional pursuits, 
the persistency of the Morrises influenced him to accept. To 
Hamilton this appointment was of no little importance, for it 
gave him an opportunity of establishing his reputation for busi- 
ness talent and political ability. The nation, too, was the 
gainer, for Hamilton was thus introduced into public life many 
years before he would have reached notoriety as a statesman 
through the slow course of forensic occupations. 

From the early period and to the present day descendants 
of General Hamilton have been honored residents of West- 
chester County. General Alexander Hamilton, a descendant 
as well as a namesake, who earned his title in the Civil War, 
died in 1908, at his home in Tarrytown, this County, at the 
age of eighty-seven years, a man highly respected for his 
amiability and other good qualities. 

Another link in the chain that connects Gen. Hamilton with 
this County, is the knowledge that he and John Jay together 
edited patriotic literature and were closely allied as the nearest 
confidential friends of General Washington. It was Hamilton 
and Jay who assisted President Washington in the preparation 
of all important State papers. Even when President Wash- 
ington, on retiring from office, had determined to leave behind 


liiin as a legacy the declaration of his principles of action, to 
serve as an example to his successors, this being his farewell 
address, he chose as his advisers Jay and Hamilton. Of the 
service rendered Washington on this occasion, by these two 
men, an early writer, speaking of the farewell address, said: 
"Its conception could only have arisen in the mind of Wash- 
ington himself, yet it would have been less perfect as a com- 
position had it not passed through the hands of Hamilton; 
and even their united efforts might not have exhibited the 
high and delicate finish afforded by the classical pen of Jay." 

Gouverneur Morris, of Morrisania, for whom latter place 
w^as named, who was made assistant national superintendent 
of finance on July 6, 1781, was indebted to Hamilton for many 
valuable suggestions, which were adopted, providing a financial 
policy for the country. It was doubtless his knowledge as to 
the solution of financial problems, that suggested to the Mor- 
rises his fitness for the office he received about this time. 

Shortly before his tragic death, in 1804, General Hamilton 
purchased a tract of land just over the southern border line 
of Westchester County, and within the rural limits of New 
York city, not far from the Hudson river. On this land he 
built his celebrated country-seat, "The Grange." Here the 
soldier and statesman passed the last days of his busy and 
brilliant career, surrounded by his friends, but not entirely 
free from the animosities of political life— enmities that finally 
culminated in the fatal encounter between himself and Aaron 
Burr. The thirteen elm trees planted by General Hamilton 
near his house, to celebrate the thirteen original States of the 
Union, were saved, with the other property, by a Westchester 
County citizen some few years ago. Hon. Orlando Potter, of 
Ossining, paid $140,000 for the ground upon which these noble 
trees stood, purchasing the same from the estate of an owner 
subsequent to General Hamilton. It was the desire of Con- 
gressman Potter that New York city or State or some society 
later possess the property that it might be preserved on account 
of historic associations and out of regard for General Hamilton 
as patriot, statesman and distinguished member of the bar. 

Hamilton was not a native of the United States. He was 
born in the Tslanrl of Nevis, then, as now, a possession of Great 
Britain, on January 11. 1757. His mother was descended from 
a French Hueuenot family (another Westchester County tie) ; 
he was the youngest child. Quite young he came to New York 


to secure an education, entering King's College (afterward 
Columbia, where Jay was also educated), the separate estate 
of his mother providing the means to meet necessary expenses. 

Hamilton arrived in New York at a most interesting epoch. 
A spirit of resistance to the acts of the Parliament of Great 
Britain, which were justly considered as not only contrary to 
national rights, but even to the admitted privileges of the 
Britons, was fast rising to that height at which the colonists 
finally threw off, not only the obnoxious usurpations of the 
legislature, but even their own character of subjects to a king. 
The deep thought he was known to have devoted to the con- 
troversies between the parent country and the colonies led to 
his being urged to address a public meeting in the city of New 
York, This was the first appearance of the youthful student 
(he was then about sixteen years of age) as a public speaker, 
and was made under many disadvantages. His real youth, and 
still more the appearance of it, growing out of his slender figure 
and small stature, must have given him the appearance of a 
boy presuming to mingle in the councils of men. He proved 
a success and his fame began from that date. His able con- 
tributions to newspapers assisted in rousing the people. 

When an appeal to arms was sounded he was one of the 
first to respond, young as he was; in spite of his juvenile 
appearance, he was, after a strict examination, appointed captain 
of the Provincial Company of Artillery. To raise this com- 
pany and equip the recruits, he expended the last remittance 
he received from his mother. In command of this company 
he took a prominent part and distinguished himself at the 
battle of White Plains, in this County, and materially aided 
Washington in gaining the object of his wishes, the safe retreat 
of his army. It was his bravery during this battle that caused 
Washington to take a fancy to the youth, and to ask Hamilton 
to become an aid on his stafi'. It was not without reluctance 
that he relinquished the prospect of promotion in the line of 
the army, to which his distinguished services during the most 
arduous campaign of the Revolution would have entitled him, 
for a place on the staff. His affection for General Washington 
decided him to accept, and this act proved of great profit to 
the Commander-in-Chief, who found Hamilton always loyal 
and faithful, worthy of trust in most troublesome times, when 
Washington found himself hampered by jealous rivals. 

History tells of Hamilton's most remarkable and honorable 


career, as soldier, brilliant and conscientious lawyer and states- 
man. As a soldier he aided Washington in rallying the retreat- 
ing battalions at Monmouth, led the forlorn hope at Yorktown, 
aided m preventing the consummation of Arnold's treachery 
at West Point, and did various other things creditable to a 
soldier fighting for the country's freedom; as a statesman he 
took a directing part in formation of laws successfully estab- 
lishing a new nation, and his cleverness as a financier enabled 
him to suggest a desirable financial policy for adoption by 
Congress; as a lawyer his ability made him a leader of the 
bar in the principal city of the new Republic. Elsewhere in 
this volume Hamilton's connection with the political history 
of this nation is referred to. 

Hamilton was rather below the middle size, and in his youth 
extremely slender. In more mature age his figure assumed a 
degree of fulness, without approaching to corpulency. His eyes 
were blue, and his hair a light brown, although, in the fashion 
of the day, it was always covered with powder. His motions 
were graceful, and the tones of his voice agreeable in the highest 
degree. To these natural requisites he added high powers of 
argument, readiness of expression, and simple elegance of 
thought and diction. He thus, as an orator, is said to have 
been pre-eminent even in a country so prolific in public speak- 
ers. Whether at the bar or in the deliberative assembly, he 
was equally distinguished for his commanding eloquence. Am- 
bitious to no little degree, he sought no offices of honor and 
emolument, nor would have accepted them except as oppor- 
tunities of being useful to his country. He looked for his 
recompense in the consideration of the virtuous and patriotic 
of his fellow citizens, or the more sure gratitude of posterity, 
not in wealth or the pride of elevated rank. With such dis- 
interested views, each call to the public service involved him in 
pecuniary loss, and he gradually contracted a debt of con- 
siderable amount, which remained unpaid at his decease. His 
appointment as Inspector-General in the provisional army 
(which he accepted at Washington's urging after the war), 
interrupted the growth of a lucrative professional business, and, 
at the same time, deprived him of the means of meeting the 
interest on large purchases of land ("The Grange" property) 
whioh he had entered into, in full confidence that his labors 
as a lawyer would enable him to hold it. To prevent the abso- 
lute sacrifice of his landed property, his friends and admirers 


united after his death in a subscription, by which his debts 
were paid, and the proceeds of the estate finally reimbursed 
their advances, but left little or no surplus to his family. 

General Hamilton was married on December 14, 1780, to Miss 
Elizabeth Schuyler, second daughter of General Philip Schuyler, 
a trusted aid and adviser of General Washington ; the marriage 
took place in the Schuyler mansion in Albany, and later they 
went to New York, and, as stated, resided in Morrisania, in 
this County, until they took up their residence at " The 

Of this marriage there were several children. The eldest 
son, Philip, named for his maternal grandfather, was killed in 
a duel, growing out of political agitation in which he defended 
his father; the boy had just reached years of manhood. The 
second son, who had inherited the literary tastes of his father, 
was the author of a very ably written "Life of Alexander 
Hamilton," using valuable data gained from important papers 
left by his father. A son laid the corner-stone of the first 
monument erected in Tarrytown, in 1853, in honor of Andre's 

General Hamilton was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr, in 
July, 1804. At his untimely death all America mourned, but 
the terrible sorrow of his family, to which he was unusually 
devoted, can not be described. 

His wife, the sweetheart of his boyhood, survived her hus- 
band for fifty long, lonesome years. When she died, at the 
age of ninety-seven years, a pleasant, sweet-faced old lady, 
praised for her sunny nature and her quiet humor, a pocket- 
book was found in her possession, containing within a yellow, 
timeworn letter, written on the morning of the duel, and was 
Hamilton's farewell to his "beloved wife." 

The following is a summary of his life: 

When Hamilton began to be active in aid of the struggling 
colonies he was but a school boy, about 16 years of age; a 
year later he became a captain of artillery in the Continental 
army, and then an aid on General Washington's staff; when 
20 years old he held the important office of Adjutant-General 
in the army; at 22, he devised a financial policy which was 
adopted for the nation; at 23, he was married and then fol- 
lowed his appointment as State Receiver of Taxes; at 24, he 
had established an enviable reputation in the legal profession 
in New York city and State ; when 25 years old we find him a 


leader iu Congress, au expounder of the Constitution which 
he helped to frame, and the father of important financial meas- 
ures adopted by Congress; at 26 he began organizing one of 
the political parties of the country ; at the age of 32 he accepts 
President Washington's offer of Secretary of the Treasury of 
the United States, and when 38 he resigned as Secretary of the 
Treasury, to resume the practice of law in New York city; at 
the age of 47 years he met a tragic death. 

That part of the "Hamilton Grange" on which stood the 
thirteen famous "Hamilton Elms"— almost the last of this his- 
toric tract remaining vacant— is soon to be covered with apart- 
ment houses, if present plans are allowed to be carried out. 
Restrictions placed on the property twenty-five years ago, per- 
mitting private dwellings only, expired in November, 1910. 
The sale of this property to apartment house builders is to be 
regretted, as it brings to an end the efforts on the part of 
various patriotic and historical societies to have New York 
city, or New York State, purchase this ground and erect thereon 
some suitable memorial. The old Hamilton house is still stand- 
ing at the rear of St. Luke's Church at Convent Avenue and 
141st Street, and is used by the church as its rectory. It is 
regretted that at Mr. Potter's death the property had to be 
sold, and that it did not fall into possession of a person or 
society, to insure forever its preservance on account of its his- 
toric associations. 

The illustrious subject of this sketch had six worthy sons. 
The eldest named Philip, for his mother's father, was killed 
in a duel, as told in this volume; the second son w'as John 
C, who wrote a history of his father after latter 's de^th; 
the third son was Col. James A., who resided in Dobbs Ferry, 
in this County, and who took part in erecting the first monument 
at Tarrs^town in honor of the captors of Andre ; the fourth son, 
Gen. William, won distinction in the Black Hawk Indian War; 
the fifth son was Alexander; the sixth son, born shortly after 
the death of the eldest son, and not long before his father was 
likewise killed in a duol. was named Phillip; he lived to a good 
old age, dying in Poughkeepsie, when 90 years old; his son Dr. 
Allen McLean Hamilton, of New York city, is a noted specialist. 

Gen. Alexander Hamilton, 3d, who served through the Civil 
Wnr and won his title by distinguished services, a grandson ot 
Gen. Alexander Hamilton, head of the family, and son of the 
second son, John C, died in TarrytoAvn, his home, in 1909, at 


the age of 92 years. The author of this book had the pleasure 
of sailing up the Hudson River in his company on the occasion 
of his 92d birthday celebration. 

John C. L. Hamilton, who resides at Elmsford, in this County, 
is a great-grandson of Gen. Alexander Hamilton, a grandson of 
John C, the second son, and a son of John C. A. Hamilton. 

WASHINGTON IRVING, the diplomat, poet, etc., who re- 
sided and died and was buried in this County, was born in 
the city of New York, on April 3, 1783, a son of and the 
eleventh child, the youngest, of William and Sarah Irving. 
The father a Scotchman, from the Orkney Isles, at the extreme 
north of Scotland; his mother was of a most gentle type, an 
English woman who came from the extreme south of England. 
The Irvings resided in what is now one of the principal down- 
town business districts, at No. 128 William street, between 
John and what is now Fulton, but was then Partition street. 
It was a two-story house, with a garden running down to the 
East River. It had a high, steep roof with gabled windows, 
and the juvenile Washington used to delight in climbing out 
of these in the evening when he was supposed to be in bed, 
creeping along the eaves like a cat and dropping pebbles down 
the chimney of the parlor, where his elders were reading by 
the fire. For Washington— christened, by the way, after George 
Washington, who had entered New York with his army only 
a few months before the boy was born— was a mischievous lad. 
He took much more after his gentle mother than after his stern 

Washington remained at school until he was sixteen years 
old, when he entered a law office, and so began the career that 
made him American Minister to European Courts, author of 
such famous books as the "Sketch Book," "Tales of a Traveler," 
and "The Alhambra," and one of the brightest lights in the 
firmament of American literature. 

He honored Westchester County the many years he spent 
among us, as a resident of Irvington, named in his honor. 

Mr. Irving was appointed United States Minister to Spain 
in 1842. 

He was first spoken of for a position in the diplomatic corps 
of this country in 1831, when Martin Van Buren, of this State, 


was, for a short period, Minister to England. In a letter, dated 
November 25, 1831, which he sent from London to President 
Jackson, ]Mr. Van Buren recommended Mr. Irving in the fol- 
lowing complimentary language: 

"Washington Irving has been staying for some weeks in my 
house, and will, I hope, continue to do so through the winter. 
He leaves for the United States in the spring. An intimate 
acquaintance with him has satisfied me that I was mistaken in 
supposing that his literary occupation had given his mind a 
turn unfavorable to practical business pursuits, and I am not 
sure you did not entertain the same impression. I think it but 
just to correct the error. If an opportunity should present 
itself in which you can employ him as Charge d 'Affaires, I am 
confident you may count with confidence on his faithful dis- 
charge of the duties imposed upon him, and I am quite sure 
that a truer American or a more honest man does not live." 

In spite of this high opinion expressed by Jackson's most 
intimate friend, Washington Irving, the great author, was for- 
gotten by President Jackson, and even by Van Buren too, when 
latter became President and could appoint the man on his 
(Van Buren 's) own recommendation. It was not until both 
these Presidents closed their terms of office that the reward came. 
It was in 1842 when President Tyler appointed him Minister 
to Spain, on the recommendation of Daniel Webster, Secretary 
of State in Tyler's Cabinet. 

Mr. Irving died November 28, 1859, aged 76 years, 7 months 
and 25 days. 

(For biography of Washington Irving, see page 78, volume 1.) 


JOHN JAY was born in New York city, on December 15, 
1745. It was believed by many that he was born in West- 
chester County, owing probably to his connection with the 
County's early history, that his childhood and latter days were 
spent within the County, that two sons had been elected to 
office at the hands of the County 's electors, and that descendants 
continue to reside here. 

He was the eighth son of Peter and Mary (Van Cortlandt) 
Jay. Peter Jay, like his father and grandfather, was a mer- 
chant, and followed his business with such success, that, at the 
age of forty, he was able to retire and live on the proceeds of 
his former industry. At the age of twenty-four Peter Jay 
married Mary Van Cortlandt, a daughter of one of Westchester 
County's oldest families; at the time Mr. Jay decided to pur- 
chase a farm at Rye, in this County, ten children had been 
born to bless their union. John Jay, the subject of this sketch 
was little more than a babe at the time of the family's removal 
to Rye. Jay's ancestors were of the Huguenots driven from 
France. His great-grandfather was a native and resident of 
the city of La Rochelle, for which the city of New Rochelle, in 
this County, was named. 

John Jay even in his childhood displayed some inklings of 
the spirit which was to animate him in after years. His early 
education was principally derived from his mother, who was a 
woman both of talents and information. She also instilled 
into his mind those Christian principles which we find exhibit- 
ing themselves in his future career. At the age of eight he was 
sent to a grammar school in the nearby town of New Rochelle. 
His instructor there was the Rev. Mr. Stoope, a native of 
Switzerland, and pastor of the French Church, in New Rochelle. 
To great learning and fondness for mathematical pursuits the 
good clergyman united absence of mind ; and his pupil suffered 
from the latter almost as much as he gained from the former. 
To the clergyman's wife, who was as miserly as he was care- 
less, the care of his household was committed, and several anec- 
dotes are recorded of the sufferings of young Jay, both as to 
food and treatment. Under the tuition of this singular clergy- 
man young Jay remained three years, and was then placed 
by his father under the care of a private tutor, who prepared 
him for college. The college selected was King's, in New York 
city, now Columbia University, an institution which, as even 
in the early days, boasts of many celebrated men among its 


alumni. On May 15, 1764, when a little over eighteen years of 
age, he graduated from college with his degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. Two weeks later he began the study of law in the office 
of one of the principal law firms in New York city. In 1768 
he was admitted to practice, and soon, by his talents and in- 
dustry, was possessed of a lucrative business. 

Commissioners were at this time appointed by the King to 
determine a disputed boundary-line between the provinces of 
New York and New Jersey. Mr. Jay was named as secretary 
of that commission, and thus commenced his public career as a 
servant of the King to whom he was afterward so long and so 
successfully opposed. 

In the year 1774, Jay, being then twenty-nine years of age, 
was married to Miss Sarah Livingston, daughter of William 
Livingston of New Jersey. Mr. Livingston, the father of the 
bride, had distinguished himself as an ardent and active patriot, 
and became the first Governor of New Jersey after the declara- 
tion of independence. 

Mr. Jay's first office in the service of the patriots, was one 
of a committee appointed by the citizens of New York to corre- 
spond with their fellow colonists on all matters of moment, 
and especially upon the manner of their resistance to the op- 
pression of the mother country. Mr. Jay was appointed a sub- 
committee, whose business was to prepare answers to such com- 
munications as might be received. 

Among the labors of this sub-committee, an answer was 
framed to a letter from the people of Boston. The draught 
of this is supposed to have come from the hands of Jay. It 
is not a little remarkable, as it contains the first proposition 
for the provinces to elect deputies to a general Congress. The 
New York committee, on the 4th of July, 1774, passed resolu- 
tions that their city ought to send delegates to this Congress, 
when and wherever it might be held; they also nominated five 
gentlemen, among whom was Jay, as suitable representatives. 
They were elected; but Jay and two of his colleagues, con- 
ceiving, from the manner of their election, that they were un- 
fairly appointed, refused to serve, unless another election was 
held. Accordingly, a second election took place, and in a more 
formal manner; all who paid taxes voted, and the proceedings 
were countenanced and controlled by the corporation of the 
city. Mr. Jay was elected, and he was one of the representa- 
tives of Westchester County as well as of New York city. The 


situation of a delegate to Congress seems to have been by no 
means considered as one that ought to be coveted, doubtless 
many feared being charged with treason and punished by Eng- 
land, and many counties were not represented (AVestchester 
County was not in this number) in consequence of the diffi- 
culty of finding proper persons who were willing to serve. The 
towns along the Hudson, unable, from these causes, to elect 
members, committed to the New York delegation the right of 
voting and acting for them. 

Congress assembled in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774. 
Mr, Jay took his seat on the first day of the session, and, 
although the youngest member, occupied a prominent place in 
the business of the assembly. One of the first measures of 
the Congress was the passage and recommendation of a strict 
non-importation act, by which the colonists bound themselves 
to use no production of the mother country. This action failing 
of its object. Congress decided to issue an address to the people 
of England, remonstrating against the decrees of the British 
government and asking assistance in bringing about their repeal. 
The preparation of this important paper was entrusted to Jay, 
young though he was. As he presented it, it was adopted by 

New York city made Jay a member of the committee to secure 
the observance of the non-importation agreement. 

When the New York provisional Congress was called to meet 
in New York city, Mr. Jay was a member. 

On May 15, 1775, the general Congress again assembled in 
Philadelphia, and Jay was in his place. He, like others present, 
recognized that time for heroic action had arrived, the battle 
of Lexington seems to have developed fully to them the plans 
of the British government. Congress took measures for the 
enlistment of an American army and the formation of an 
American navy. Washington was appointed commander-in- 
chief on June 15, and soon after other generals were appointed. 
Mr, Jay took prominent part in arranging details ; he suggested 
the name of John Sullivan for appointment as a Brigadier 
General, and the after career of General Sullivan justified this 

Congress appointed Mr. Jay to draw up a call to the inhabi- 
tants of Canada, inviting them to make common cause with 
the united provinces against their common enemy Great Britain. 
This appeal, most ably written, was made in vain. 


Mr. Jay was one of a committee which drew up a paper, 
published iu July, by Congress, as a declaration, "setting forth 
the causes and necessity for taking up arms." In the same 
month. Jay had adopted by Congress a petition signed by mem- 
bers making the last appeal to the King for justice; opposition 
was made to the adoption, but Jay vindicated its adoption on 
the plea that, if no attention was paid to it, and it was ignored 
as h;ul been former petitions, the world would see that there 
was no other course left them; that they were without other 
means of relief, and were driven, almost without their own con- 
sent, to resort to actual hostilities. Mr. Jay, even to the last 
period of his life, was accustomed to refer to this paper, and 
state his conviction that it had great effect in producing unity 
of purpose among his countrymen. As he did in the case of 
appealing to Canada, Mr. Jay drew up the appeal for co-opera- 
tion addressed by Congress to the people of Ireland and Jamaica. 

Mr. Jay had added to his two legislative offices the appoint- 
ment as a colonel of a militia regiment organized to protect 
New York city. 

He was a member of a committee, with Franklin and Jeffer- 
son, to receive overtures of French assistance in the war of the 
Ilevolution. He drew the first draft of the State Constitution. 
When the "Council of Safety" was formed to hold the reins 
of the state government until the election of a governor and 
legislature by the people. Mr. Jay was made a member of 
that council, and was also appointed Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court. This council, which organized in New York city 
and later made its headquarters in White Plains, this County, 
held arbitrary and absolute power, as was necessary on account 
of the times. Wliile the council was in existence the State was 
placed in a most trying situation. The enemy held possession 
of New York in the south, and an invading army from Canada 
entered it from the north; even true men began to despond, 
and those disaffected arrayed themselves in open hostility. 

In the course of events, it was now imperative that a Governor 
of the State be chosen. Mr. Jay was regarded by many as a 
fit occupant for that office, and was desired to present himself 
fis n candidate. He refused the offer on the grounds that he 
could be of more use to the State in the office of Chief Justice 
which ho thon hold; at the same time declaring that he was 
fully sensible that the office of Governor was of great profit 


and honor, but that his patriotism taught him to worli, not 
for his own good, but for that of his country. 

On September 9, 1776, the first term of the Supreme Court 
of the State of New York, under the new Constitution, was 
held in the village of Kingston, Justice Jay presiding. The 
circumstances under which this court was held seem to have 
made a deep impression on his mind. In his charge to the jury, 
he pointed out to them, in glowing colors, the situation that 
they were in, and the, to them, particularly happy and pleas- 
urable fact, that they were the first judicial body assembled 
under a new and free Constitution. 

Mr, Jay was made a member of a committee appointed to 
pass upon all bills introduced in the State Legislature, before 
they were permitted to become laws. 

The only relaxation that his duties permitted were occasional 
visits to his only surviving parent at Fishkill. He had caused 
the removal of his parents from Rye to Fishkill, that they 
might escape annoyance from people unfriendly to the Amer- 
ican cause. 

Mr. Jay resigned the position of Chief Justice to return to 
Congress at the solicitation of the New York legislature, as he 
did not desire to hold both offices at the same time; he was 
convinced he could be of more service to his country in Con- 
gress, performing special duties laid out for him ; of which Con- 
gress he became president. 

History records, and the record is long, the many noble deeds 
performed by Mr. Jay in securing the liberty and establishing 
a government for his country. But few facts have been related 
in this sketch, space prevents the giving of his history in detail 
in this volume. 

In the opening scenes of the Revolution he was fully aware 
of the penalty which would fall, in case of failure, upon the 
leaders of what the British government called a rebellion, yet 
he placed himself foremost in the discussions, and was speedily 
called by his compeers to hold the highest place. In his mis- 
sion to Spain he manifested the same fearlessness and inde- 
pendence, disregarding his instructions from Congress when he 
found that, by obeying them, he would waive advantages which 
the course of that government had secured to the United States. 
The negotiations of the treaty of Paris is a still more marked 
instance of this fearless independence of character. He saw, 


or thought he saw, that the French government desired to 
retain the United States as a vassal nation; and, although un- 
supported for a time by his colleague, he boldly pursued the 
course his sense of right and patriotism dictated. His success 
justified his conduct, and the treaty favored the United States, 
rather than France. 

In the position of Chief Justice of the United States, to 
which he had been appointed by President Washington, he ren- 
dered decisions in accordance with what he knew to be the 
sense of the Constitution, regardless of personal consequences. 
President Washington said of him, "In appointing John Jay 
as Chief Justice, I have not only followed my own inclinations 
but also rendered the highest possible service to the country." 

To accept a mission to Great Britain at the moment he did, 
called for the exercise of qualities similar to those exhibited 
in other official positions. 

He was, in 1795, elected Governor of his native State, and 
served two terms, six years, succeeding George Clinton, who 
had held the office 18 years (and 3 years later, 21 years in 
all), when he was succeeded by his predecessor. While holding 
this office, Jay's bold resistance to what he considered an en- 
croachment on the rights of his office as Governor by the Council 
of Appointment, selecting officers without advising with him, 
was a surprise and shock to members of said Council who 
expected a quiet protest only; he adjourned the Council, which 
could not meet unless he called them together; and although 
the civil offices of eleven counties were then vacant, he resolved 
to abide by his own construction of the Constitution. Under 
the Governor who succeeded him, the legislature put the power 
of appointment in the Council alone; the Constitution of 1821 
gave the power of nomination wholly to the Governor, as Mr. 
Jay contended it should be. 

Relinquishing public office, Mr. Jay sought retirement at 
Bedford, where he had established a home, in his favorite West- 
chester County. Here he could find that peace restful to an 
active man ; he could dwell with pleasure upon the recollections 
of energies well devoted, of talent well applied. In his letters 
to his friends, he states that it was sufficient occupation for 
him to muse upon the past, to prepare for eternity. He now 
conscientiously devoted himself to the duties of a private life; 
he did not permit political dissensions of the day to bother him; 
he improved his paternal acres; he rebuilt the mansion of his 


fathers; he was kind to his dependents, useful to his equals. 
He busied himself with all the little interesting occupations of 
a country life ; he rode round his fields ; he cultivated his farm ; 
he interested himself in county business; he was a promoter 
of a number of county societies for the diffusion of knowledge 
and religion. 

The manner of his life was simple and regular. He rose 
up with or before the sun, and spent the greater portion of 
the day in the open air. The first and greatest affliction in his 
retirement was caused by the death of his wife, which occurred 
soon after he went to Bedford to reside. 

One of his sons, Peter A. Jay, was sent from Westchester 
County as a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention in 
1821; another son, William Jay, served as County Judge of 
Westchester County, in 1820-1-2-3. 

John Jay died at his home, on May 17, 1829, at the age of 
84 years. He was seriously ill two years before and not expected 
to live, but his robust constitution carried him to recovery. 
He was finally seized with palsy while in bed. His strong mind 
remained unimpaired to the last. His remains rest in the local 

The Jay mansion in Bedford is still maintained, and is occu- 
pied by a direct descendant of the first owner. 


DAHIUS OGDEN MILLS, financier and philanthropist, and 
known as such all the Avorld over, was born in Westchester 
County, in the historic town of North Salem, on September 5, 
1825, the fourth son of James and Hannah (Ogden) Mills. 

His father, a sturd}' farmer, was for many years a leading 
citizen in this quiet community; a considerable landowner, 
Postmaster, Justice of the Peace, and engaged in various busi- 
ness enterprises. One of these, during the youth of his son, 
led James i\Iills to the purchase of a hotel and dock property 
in Sing Sing, now Ossining village, whither he removed, and 
where, in 1841, he died. He left a wife (who survived him 
nine years), five sons and one daughter. The Sing Sing in- 
vestments, as well as some others of Mr. Mills's later life, 
did not turn out fortunately, and thus, at the age of sixteen, 
the subject of this sketch was left with no prospects in life 
save what he could make for himself. Old residents often spoke 
of remembering the "Mills boy," who frequently drove hack 
for his father, to and from the railroad station at Sing Sing, 
as being then a lad of more than usual "push." As a boy 
he showed industrious traits, doing willingly what his hands 
foimd to do. Though young, he proved of great assistance to 
his father; the time he had to spare from school was always 
spent usefully. To make an honest penny he stood ready in 
unoccupied hours to work for a neighbor, in the field or driving 
horses, and he was saving of his pennies. 

His father had taken great pains with the education of the 
family, and had, besides, both by precept and example, care- 
fully impressed upon them the principles of sound morality 
and scrupulous integrity as the basis of the only success 
worth having. They were, as they came to school age, 
trained at the North Salem Academy. Later Darius was sent 
to the Mount Pleasant Academy, then the chief educational 
institution of Sing Sing, if not, indeed, of Westchester County. 
Here his tastes w^ere observed to run strongly to mathematics, 
and it was noted that his fancy already inclined to a business 
career. At seventeen he left the Academy and set about the 
■work of supporting himself and making his way in the w^orld. 
He decided to go to New York, "the big city wonderful" in 
the eyes of every lad even in those early days. 

The city then was not more than a provincial town, with 
woods and meadows covering the district north of the City 
Hall; it was filled with a thrifty population that knew little 


l>^ ' \V> 

>^ *■•':,..- 


of the extremes of wealth or poverty. Young Mills secured 
a clerkship in a bank, a position which was not difficult to get 
in those days ; a moderate degree of industry could produce a 
sufficiently comfortable income. 

Here, and in some work relating to the settlement of his 
father's small remaining estate, he w^as occupied for several 
years. By this time he had shown such business capacity and 
steadiness that his cousin (on the mother's side), E. J. Town- 
send, invited him to Buffalo to serve as cashier in the Mer- 
chants' Bank of Erie County, with an arrangement for a one- 
third interest. In 1847, when only twenty-two years old, he 
joined his cousin in Buffalo, assumed at once the duties of 
cashier, and soon seemed to have found his vocation and location 
in life. The new cashier made friends and was liked and trusted, 
and the cousins had what was for those times a good and an in- 
creasingly profitable business. They enjoyed excellent credit, 
both at home and with New York bankers — a circumstance that 
was soon to be of benefit to them in a new and very different 

In the summer of 1848 gold was discovered in California. 
By autumn the gold fever was visibly affecting the Buffalo 
community. It struck also the members of the Mills family 
in New York, and presently two of the brothers, James and 
Edgar, started on a sailing vessel around the Horn for Cali- 
fornia, taking with them a stock of goods, with which they 
purposed to begin business on the Pacific Slope. Still, the 
young Buffalo cashier was little impressed. His temper, though 
bold and resolute, was also essentially conservative; he was 
doing well and was satisfied. In the early winter the news 
from California became still more alluring. One evening he 
and two of his friends, William B. Rochester (then a young 
man of about Mr. Mills's own age, in business with his uncle, 
Israel T. Hatch, and afterward Paymaster General of the 
United States Army), and Joseph Stringham (a considerably 
older man, then in the exchange business, and afterward presi- 
dent of a bank), were in conversation over the reports from 
the diggings. Suddenly Rochester proposed that the three 
should go to California and start in business together. Mr. 
Mills's reply was an early example of that rapidity of decision 
which afterward served him so well in his business career. He 
said at once he would go if the others would, and would be 
ready to start in ten days. They talked late into the night 


over their plaus, and were enthusiastic at the prospect; but 
Rochester had to consult his uncle and Stringham had to see 
whether he could close up his business. Next morning both 
reported difficulties in the way, to which Mr. Mills's prompt 
response was : ' ' Very well ; I am going, and I shall start in 
ten days." 

In ten days he did start, although in the meantime he had 
stood a hard siege from friends and relatives, who remonstrated 
with him for leaving a field where he was doing so well and 
had already made valuable associations. But his cousin and 
partner raised no objections. 

And so Mills, when but twenty-four years of age, started 
late in December, 1848, with a through ticket by way of the 
isthmus, calling for passage on the Pacific side on the first up 
trip of the new steamer California. At Panama he found 
three thousand persons waiting for steamers or for any other 
craft that would take them to San Francisco. The story was 
that every ship entering the Golden Gate was instantly de- 
serted by its crew for the gold diggings, and that thus vessels 
found it impossible to get out of the harbor again. Going up 
and down among the eager, impatient throng stranded in Pan- 
ama, Mr. Mills presently found some people who had come to 
the isthmus from Valparaiso, on their way east from San Fran- 
cisco. Talk with them suggested the idea of chartering several 
ships in South American ports to take passengers to San Fran- 
cisco. He soon enlisted a friend in his scheme, and the enter- 
prise, principally through young Mills's energy, was successful. 
He had to think and act promptly for himself. When he 
arrived in San Francisco he found some acquaintances, heard 
the latest stories from the diggings, abandoned any idea of 
Trashing gold, and laid his plans for a trading expedition 
to Stockton, in the San Joaquin Valley, then the headquarters 
for the business of the southern mines. He took as a partner 
a fellow voyager who was well recommended, bought a small 
sailing craft and stocked it with goods. Part of these he was 
able to buy for cash; the rest were consigned to him by a 
shipowner and trader whom he had met on the journey out, 
and who was influenced in placing his confidence in Mr. Mills 
partly by the young man's credentials, but quite as much by 
his personal bearing. 

At Stockton the cargo of his little craft was sold at prices 
that should have shown a handsome profit, and he made his way 


down the rivers again to San Francisco. Not liking his part- 
ner's business methods, however, he sold out the vessel on his 
return, and so closed the venture, with a small loss. 

He had now found out that Sacramento was a better base 
of supplies for trade with the mines than Stockton, and his 
experience had taught him just what kinds of goods to take. 
In association with two old acquaintances he invested his en- 
tire capital, excepting a trifle for personal expenses, and then 
bought on credit or secured on special consignments enough 
more goods to furnish nearly the entire cargo for a small 
schooner about to sail for Sacramento. The freight bill was 
more than $5,000, due on arrival, and he had not $40 left in 
his pocket. Arriving at Sacramento, he ordered his goods dis- 
charged and asked the captain to make out his bill. Meantime, 
he began selling goods at the landing as they were put off, and 
before the bill was presented he had taken in money enough 
to pay it. 

This venture proved highly profitable, and Mr. Mills at once 
began a regular business in Sacramento, selling general mer- 
chandise, buying gold dust and dealing in exchange on New 
York. In the meantime his brothers James and Edgar had been 
making their way by sail around the Horn. Landing at last 
at Sacramento with their goods, almost the first man they met 
was the successful young merchant and banker whom they 
supposed to be still at work as a bank cashier in Buffalo. 

In accordance with the arrangement made with his cousin 
and partner in Buft'alo before starting, Mr. Mills closed out 
his Sacramento business in November, 1849, and started back 
with about $40,000 as the net profits of his season's work. Of 
course, his future was now determined. He was delighted with 
his experience, pleased with the country and so satisfied with 
its resources and prospects that he was already resolved to 
make it his home. He arrived in Buffalo in December, having 
been absent just about a year, and proceeded to close out his 
interest in the bank. His partner, Townsend, wished still, 
however, to have a half interest in the California business, and 
put in capital to that amount. The two partners busied them- 
selves during the winter in loading a bark and part of a ship 
with goods which they had bought for the Sacramento trade. 
These were dispatched around the Horn as early as possible, 
and in the spring Mr. Mills himself started, by way of the 
isthmus Arrived in Sacramento, he again began dealing in 


general merchandise, grokl dust and exchange. By the autumn 
of 1850 he had disposed of his various cargoes of merchandise 
and had so enlarged the other branches of his business that 
they required all his attention. 

Then began the Bank of D. 0. ]\Iills & Co., which at once 
became— and to this da}^ under the same title, remains— the 
leading bank of Sacramento for the interior. It is the oldest 
bank that has always maintained full credit in the State. Dur- 
ing the following ten years, and years after, Mr. Mills 
was continuously and largely successful, and became kno^vn 
as the leading banker of the State, and, as the saying went, 
"the luckiest." The "luck of D. 0. Mills" was, in fact, al- 
most a proverb, but it was joined with a reputation for unerring 
judgment, rapid decision, great boldness, and an unbending 
integrity. He would have nothing to do with questionable 
schemes, and his word was universally known to be as good as 
his bond. 

In JuJy, 1864, Mr. Mills was elected president of the Bank 
of California, which he was instrumental in organizing. He 
became actively interested in financial institutions too nu- 
merous to mention here, and in various enterprises, such 
as aiding in the building and management of railroads, 
the construction of iron worl«, the development of oil fields 
and lead mines, and the erection of many buildings in San 
Francisco and Sacramento. He became Regent and Treasurer 
of the University of California. Following his resignation of 
these positions, he presented the University with a gift of 
$175,000, to endow a professorship of Moral and Intellectual 


If in definitely transferring his residence for the greater 
part of the year to his native State Mr. Mills withdrew :n a 
measure from active business, it was not by any means to live 
the life of a recluse. The obligation of caring for his large 
fortune, of finding new investments for his surplus income, 
kept him still prominent in the world of affairs. He foimd 
himself constantly interested in the progress and success of 
the enterprises that commanded his confidence and drawn to 
serve on their directorates. A mere enumeration of the cor- 
porations with which he was so associated is sufficient 'o indi- 
cate the wide range of his financial interests. Perhaps the 
most important of the latter enterprises in which Mr. Mills 


took a leading part was the so-called "harnessing of Niagara." 
In spite of his advanced years, he entered with all the enthusi- 
asm of youth upon the herculean task of making the great 
cataract the servant of man, devoting his ripened and undi- 
minished energies to the development of its almost unlimited 
water power. Many banks and other financial institutions and 
enterprises in New York found in him substantial support, and 
in most of the prominent ones he was a director or trustee. 

In New York he cast about him for ways in which he could 
best benefit his fellow men without pauperizing them or im- 
pairing their self-respect. How great his benefactions were 
may never be known from the very manner of their bestowal, 
but some of his philanthropies were on so large a scale that 
despite his efforts they refused to be hid. Such a one was 
his gift to the city of New York of the building for a training 
school for male nurses on the grounds of Bellevue Hospital in 
1888. The essentially practical nature of Mr. Mills's philan- 
thropic impulses was most clearly demonstrated, however, in the 
construction and administration of the three great Mills Hotels 
for homeless men. Two of these buildings have been in success- 
ful operation in New York city for twelve years, justifying 
the erection of the third at Seventh avenue and Thirty-sixth 
street, that city, at a cost of more than $1,500,000, which was 
opened two years ago. Mr. Mills took an intense and practical 
interest in the New York Botanical Garden from its inception, 
contributing $25,000 to the original endowment in 1895, and 
giving smaller sums whenever they were required. Mr. Mills 
was, in an altogether unusual sense, a quiet, well-informed, 
broad-minded man of the world. Fond of the society of men 
whose experience and culture ran in different channels from his 
own, he was not only valued in turn by them as an associate 
in business and public spirited enterprises, but welcomed as 
a friend and companion in more purely social relations. He 
was a member of several prominent societies and took an active 
interest them. 

In his younger days Mr. Mills was a conservative Democrat, 
as his father was before him. With the breaking out of the 
Civil War, however, he supported the Republican candidates 
and afterward generally voted with that party. He was a 
regular attendant, and for many years a vestryman, of St. 
Thomas's Church, and gave liberally to its support and to its 
many charities. 


Mr. IMills was married on September 5, 1854, to Miss Jane 
Templeton Cunningham, daughter of James Cunningham, of 
New York. Mrs. Mills died on April 26, 1888. 

Mr. Mills died January 3, 1910, while on a temporary visit 
to California. His two children, Ogden Mills and Mrs. White- 
law Reid, survive him. His grandchildren are Ogden L. Mills, 
Mrs. Henry Carnegie Phipps, and the Countess of Granard, 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Ogden Mills, and Ogden Mills Reid 
and Mrs. John Ward, children of ]\Ir. and Mrs. Whitelaw Reid. 

Mr. ]\Iills's remains lie in the Mills Mausoleum, in Sleepy 
Hollow Cemetery, North Tarrytown, in this county. 

LEWIS MORRIS who was among the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and prominent among the delegates in 
the Convention, and was a member of the Colonial Assem- 
blies, resided in Westchester County, in Morrisania, the 
town that was named in honor of his family. Mr, Morris 
is credited with being a good farmer, as he was a sterling 
patriot. He died at his home, on January 22, 1798, at the 
age of seventy-two years. The associates of Mr. Morris as 
delegates from the State of New York, who signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence, were Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis 
and William Floyd. Of the total signers only two, Adams and 
Jefferson, became Presidents of the United States. Washington 
and Madison, afterward Presidents, were not members of the 
convention when the Declaration of Independence was signed, 
but were members of the convention which adopted the Con- 

Gen. Morris was in attendance at the meeting of the Colonial 
Congress of the Province of New York at White Plains, July 
9, 1776. 

General Morris was born in the Manor of Morrisania, in 1726, 
a son of Lewis Morris and Catherine Staats Morris. His father 
was Chief Justice, a member of the Colonial Assembly, and 
patriot, highly respected for many good qualities. 

The son graduated from Yale College in 1746. Prior to the 
Revolutionary period he devoted much of his time to the pur- 
suit of agriculture on his estates in Morrisania. At the begin- 
ning of the Revolution he was made a Brigadier-General in the 
Continental Armv. 


A son, Richard Valentine Morris, was a Commodore in the 
United States Navy. 

The Morris family mansion was located near Port Morris, 
overlooking Bronx Kills, built by General Morris in 1781. 

General Morris died at his home January 22, 1798. 

GOUVERNEUR MORRIS was born in Morrisania January 
31, 1752. He was a son of Lewis Morris and his second wife 
Sarah Gouverneur, and a half-brother of General Lewis Morris. 
He was graduated from King's College in 1768. In 1775 he 
was a delegate to the Provincial Congress of New York and a 
member of the Committee of Safety for Westchester County. 
He being a lawyer of eminence he was of valuable assistance 
in all bodies. He was one of the committee which drafted the 
Constitution of the State of New York, adopted in April, 1777. 
He was American Minister to France during the French Revo- 
lution and a member of the Constitutional Convention which 
framed the Constitution of the United States. In 1800 he was 
chosen United States Senator from New York State. He was 
closely associated with Governor DeWitt Clinton in the work 
of constructing the Erie Canal. "Was an intimate friend of 
General Alexander Hamilton, was at his side at his death, and 
delivered his funeral oration. 

Mr. Morris resided in a palatial residence situated in the 
southeast corner of the Manor, near what was later known as 
Port Morris, just east of what is now St. Ann's avenue. The 
house was recently torn down to make room for the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. 

Mr. Morris died at his home on November 5, 1816. 

ROBERT RUTHERFORD MORRIS died at his home in 
New Rochelle, on September 5, 1881. Mr. Morris had passed 
the allotted three score years and ten, having been born in 1808. 
He belonged to the historic Morris family descended from New 
Jersey's first English Governor, Lewis Morris. His father, James 
Morris, was the son of Lewis Morris, who, for signing the Declar- 


ation of Independence, had his manor at Morrisania laid waste 
by British troops, where, thirty-two years later the subject of 
this sketch was born. There, too, was he raised. Gouverneur 
Morris, the statesman of the Revolution, was Robert's relative 
and one of his earliest advisers. It was under the directions of 
Gouverneur that the lad was entered as an apprentice in the 
extensive mercantile house of Peter Harmony & Co., of New 
York, and trained to business habits. But this training did not 
produce any love for labor upon the part of the young man, and 
once free from the shackles of its routine, he never returned to it. 
At an early age he married Hannah Cornell Edgar, the only 
daughter of W. Edgar, and granddaughter of Herman LeRoy, 
who ranked among the first New York merchants of the last 
century. The j\Iorrises were probably the most influential family 
in this country at that time, as they had been for many years, 
and the circumstances of Avhich the young man entered upon his 
career were very favorable. Through his mother he was con- 
nected with the distinguished Van Courtlandt family, and this 
family prestige was supplemented, in no small degree, by his 
marriage in the influential Edgar and Le Roy circles. Wealth 
was his in almost unlimited volume, and it was not strange, 
therefore, that he was averse to a struggle for profits among a 
crowd. After his marriage he lived as a man of fortune, "a 
gentleman of the old school." Genial, whole-souled and honest, 
he gathered friends around him and made few enemies. Char- 
itable to a fault, he refused no man a favor that could be granted. 
]\Ir. ]\Iorris and Daniel Webster were firm friends, in New 
York social circles this intimacy was formed. Both were cor- 
dially received by the Edgars, New Bolds, LeRoys, and other 
fashionable families having their homes near the battery, then 
the aristocratic families of the city. In his second marriage 
Webster followed the footsteps of his friend, and married into 
the Le Roy family, becoming thus still more closely attached to 
Morris. Just before Webster died, he took his heavj^ gold ring 
with its handsome stone and motto, and insisted that iMorris 
should take it, "As Token," he said, "of my gratitude. You 
have been my best friend." Mr. Morris in a similar way, and 
wilh till' like words gave the same ring to his "best friend," 
Walton White Evans. Mr. IMorris in his lifetime treasured this 
ring almost beyond conception. Once a purse-proud individual 
tried to gain it by an offer of $1,000. Mr. Morris calmly replied 
that "$10,000, Sir, wouldn't tempt me." 


HIRAM PAULDING, late Rear-Admiral of the United States 
Navy, was born in town of Cortlandt, this County, on December 
11, 1797, a son of John Paulding, one of the captors of Major 
John Andre, the British officer, as a spy. 

In 1811, when Paulding was fourteen years of age. President 
Madison, in part recognition of the services the lad's father 
had rendered his country, and at the same time assist a bright 
youngster, gave the boy an appointment as a midshipman in 
the navy. 

He served under Decatur and took part in the volunteer 
cruise in the schooner Dolphin in search of the mutineers of 
the whale ship Globe. In 1824 he set out on his mission to 
reach Gen. Simon Bolivar, the Columbian liberator, in camp 
in the Andes, and his own story of this expedition was pub- 
lished in 1834. 

Admiral Paulding was in command of the Brooklyn Navy 
Yard at the time of the construction of the Monitor, and for 
him is claimed the credit of hastening the building of the 
peculiarly constructed (as it was considered at the time) little 
craft that went out and met and conquered in Hampton Roads 
the Rebel terror— the Merrimac. 

The late admiral has been described as "a chivalrous hero 
of the old days, whose official life is interwoven with his Coun- 
try's history, whose home life was a rarely beautiful one and 
whose example is worthy of imitation." 

Since his death, quite recently, one of the new war vessels 
has been named by the Government in his honor. 

His daughter, Rebecca Paulding Meade, is the author of a 
recently published book entitled the "Life of Hiram Paulding, 
Rear Admiral, U. S. N." 

JARED V. PECK, of Rye, who represented the district, in- 
cluding this County, as Assemblyman in 1848, in Congress in 
1853 and 1854, and a Presidential Elector in 1856, was a man 
of strong character and of pronounced views. On one occasion, 
in recent years, a prominent County politician called upon him 
to secure his support for a certain political candidate, and fail- 
ing to get his desire, informed Mr. Peck that he did not under- 
stand him, and asked his grounds for refusal. "Principle, 
sir," replied the brave Congressman. "And some people cannot 
understand why other people do things from principle." 

Mr. Peck died in 1884, at his residence in Rye. 


EDGAR ALLAN POE was not a native of this County, hav- 
ing been born in Boston, Mass., January 19, 1809. 

He came among us in 1846, and became a resident of Ford- 
ham, in the town of West Farms, and the little cottage where he 
and his most amiable wife dwelt still stands as one of the show 
places in that section. In this humble cottage Poe spent some 
of the happiest hours of his singular and eventful life; his time 
of bliss proved short, his devoted wife dying in January, 1847 ; 
^ she lies buried in the church-yard of the Dutch Reformed 
y Church on the Kingsbridge road. 

In the Fordham cottage he wrote "Annabelle Lee," "Eu- 
reka," and "Ulalume." 

He remained a resident of Fordham until June 29, 1849, when 
he went to Baltimore, Md., where he died on October 7, 1849; 
he never recovered from the blow he received by the death of 
his wife. 

The little one and a half story cottage on the Kingsbridge 
road stood until quite recently on the old spot, the grounds 
surrounding it growing beautifully less as the years advanced. 
The humble abode of a distinguished man was being crowded 
out of place, as it were, on all sides, by overtowering modem 
buildings. On June 10, 1913, admirers of the eccentric author 
came to the rescue, and on that day the little cottage was moved 
from its original site and placed on a new foundation prepared 
for it in Poe Park, at One Hundred and Ninety-fourth Street 
and Valentine Avenue, about two blocks from its former posi- 
tion. The Park covers about two blocks, and the cottage, which 
will be restored as nearly as possible to its original condition, 
will stand at the northern end. It has been carefully kept in 

An old landmark standing not far distant from the Poe home, 
and known as the old King's Bridge Tavern, was torn down in 
May, 1913. This "public house" was described jocosely by a 
writer, who said, "here Edgar Allan Poe used to wait for his 
manuscripts to come back from heartless editors in New York." 
For more than one hundred years this inn stood at what is now 
Two Hundred and Twenty-sixth Street and Broadway, and in 
earlier days was a popular resort where men prominent in their 
time would daily assemble. 


MAJOR WILLIAM POPHAM, lawyer and soldier of promi- 
nence, who settled in Scarsdale, in this County, at the close of 
the Revolutionary War, is entitled to a conspicuous place among 
the notables associated with this County's history. 

He was born in Bandon, County Cork, Ireland, on Septem- 
ber 19, 1752. When nine years of age his parents came to the 
United States and became residents of the State of New Jersey. 
He graduated from Princeton College prior to the Revolution. 
Coming from patriotic stock, his parents for sake of principles 
being forced to migrate to Ireland after the restoration of 
Charles II, young Popham, soon after leaving college, enlisted 
in the Continental Army, where he soon became conspicuous 
for bravery displayed on the field, especially during the battle 
of Long Island. In recognition of services he received appoint- 
ment as Captain, and served on the staff of General James 
Clinton, and later on the staff of Baron Steuben, participating 
in the battles of Brandywine and White Plains. His conduct 
in these engagements earned for him promotion to the office of 
Major. Immediately following the war he became a resident 
of Albany where he practiced law and soon gained a position of 
prominence. In Albany he became acquainted with Miss Mary 
Morris, daughter of Chief -Justice Richard Morris, whose family 
estate was in Scarsdale. The Morris House, later the residence 
of Major Popham, and at the present time in the Popham 
family, and known as the Popham Homestead, is over two hun- 
dred years old. In 1787 Major Popham purchased a farm 
adjoining the Morris property and erected on it, facing the 
New York Post Road, a larger dwelling, which house is still 
standing. He resided at his Scarsdale residence until his death, 
in 1846. 

In 1804 he was clerk of the Court of Exchequer, in New 
York, and held that position until the abolition of the Court. 
Until the time of his death he was President-General of the 
Cincinnati of the United States, and President of the New 
York Chapter of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

Major Popham was, on the maternal side, the great grand- 
father of William Popham Piatt, County Judge of this County, 
of the late Lewis C. Piatt, president of the Village of White 
Plains, and of former Deputy County Clerk Benoni Piatt, all 
of White Plains, in this County, their father, Lewis C. Piatt, 
the first elected Surrogate of this County, having married, in 
1853, Miss Laura Sherbrook Popham, granddaughter of Major 


CLARKSON NOTT POTTER, LL.D., a former Representa- 
tive in Congress, representing this County, was long closely- 
identified with the County and its best interests. He became a 
resident of New Rochelle in 1862, dwelling with his family on 
the magnificent estate known as "Nutwood," facing Long Island 
Sound, until the time of his death which occurred, after a brief 
illness, on January 23, 1882. He was a Warden and Vestryman 
of Trinity Episcopal Church, New Rochelle, from 1864 to date 
of his death. He served in Congress four terms. 

Mr. Potter was born on April 25, 1824, in Schenectady, N. Y., 
a son of Alonzo Potter, late Episcopal Bishop of Pennsylvania, 
a nephew of the late Episcopal Bishop Horatio Potter of New 
York, and was a brother of the late Episcopal Bishop Henry C. 
Potter of New York. He was descended from Quaker ancestors 
who settled at Warwick Neck, R, I., in 1640, his grandfather, 
Joseph Potter, having removed thence to Duchess County soon 
after the Revolution, and subsequently represented that county 
in the Legislature. Mr. Potter was graduated from Rensselaer 
Institute as a civil engineer and also at Union College, of which 
his maternal grandfather, Eliphalet Nott, was long president. 
Mr. Potter was for some time a surveyor in Wisconsin, where he 
soon determined to study law— thence removing to New York 
city to commence his studies, and in 1848 he was there admitted 
to the bar. He retired from active professional business in 1859 
to engage in financial enterprises, but when on the breaking out 
of the war, his brother. Gen. Robert B. Potter, who had suc- 
ceeded him in his practice, joined the army, Mr. Potter returned 
to law, appearing in many important cases, among which the 
Legal Tender case will be especially remembered; in 1868 he 
entered the political field. He had in 1848 lent his aid to the 
Free Soil wing of the Democratic party ; in 1868 he was elected 
to the national House of Representatives from the Westchester 
(the Tenth) District as a Democrat, being re-elected he served 
until 1875 ; again was elected and served in 1877-78. He was at 
that time, it may be said, the first person, except General Aaron 
Ward, who had been elected to Congress from this district for 
more than two successive terms. In the first Congress in which 
he sat IMr. Potter served on the committee of Private Land 
Claims, Elections, and Commerce, and in the others on the 
Judiciary Committee, making in all these trusts a high reputa- 
tion as a conscientious, capable and hiborioiLs worker. In 1871 
he proposed and in 1873 he reported from the Judiciary Com- 


mittee a Constitutional amendment limiting the term of the 
President and Vice-President to six years, and providing that 
no person should be eligible for the Presidency who had once 
held that office, but it failed to receive due support (a proposi- 
tion similar to the one now being considered and one originat- 
ing with him). During his third term at Washington, Mr. 
Potter was a member of the Special Committee on Southern 
Affairs whose report (the first in which the Republicans had 
joined with the Democrats in opposing the iniquities of bayonet 
rule in the South) that the Louisiana Returning Board had 
reversed the will of the people as expressed at the polls, created 
so wide and deep a sensation. In 1872 Mr. Potter was a dele- 
gate to the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore. While 
he was in favor of cordially accepting the constitutional amend- 
ments and other changes growing out of the war, he was yet 
opposed to the nomination of Mr. Greeley, because his belief in 
centralization, legislative discretion, protection and subsidies 
were opposed to Democratic views, but after Mr. Greeley was 
nominated he faithfully supported him. In 1876 he was a 
prominent candidate for the Governorship, and but for the sup- 
pression of Governor Seymour's dispatch declining the nomina- 
tion would, it was believed, have been nominated. He canvassed 
the State with his usual vigor, and while he did good work for 
the National and State tickets, carried this, his own Congres- 
sional District— then the Twelfth— by a large majority. In the 
Forty-fifth Congress he served on the Committee on the Revi- 
sion of the Laws Regulating the Counting of the Electoral Votes, 
and was chairman of the well-known ''Potter Committee" 
charged with inquiring into the frauds connected with the 
Presidential Election in 1876. In 1871 Mr. Potter had presided 
over the State Convention which excluded Tweed, and the char- 
acter of his address on that occasion and the fairness and ability 
with which he presided had added much to his reputation. In 
1879 the State Convention which rejected Kelly nominated Mr. 
Potter for the Lieutenant-Governorship, but he was defeated 
by Hoskins, Republican, by 290 votes in a poll exceeding 900,000. 
In June, 1881, he was made the Democratic candidate for the 
United States Senatorship, and in August was elected President 
of the American Bar Association, before which body he delivered 
an able and eloquent eulogy upon the public life and services of 
the late Chief Justice Taney. 


AVIIITELAW REID, though not a native of Westchester 
Comity, is fully entitled to be mentioned in connection with the 
County's history, considering his residence among us, and the 
high regard in which he wa^ held locally. 

Mr. Reid, who died in London, on December 15, 1912, while 
acting as United States Ambassador to Great Britain, was bom 
in Xenia, Ohio, on October 27, 1837, a son of Robert Charlton 
and Marian Whitelaw (Ronalds) Reid. 

Not long after settling in New York in the pursuit of his 
profession, he sought Westchester County in search for a home. 
The magnificent Reid estate, "Ophir Farm," lying partly in the 
town of White Plains and partly in the town of Harrison, 
comprising many hundred acres, has been the "country-seat" 
of the Reid family many years. Mr. Reid, whose genial, demo- 
cratic manners attracted the good will of his neighbors, be- 
came deeply interested in what concerned Westchester County. 
He contributed liberally when called upon to aid laudable ob- 
jects, and local charities had no better friend. A worthy cause 
never appealed to him in vain. He was chosen one of the orig- 
inal board of directors (a first stock owner) of the White Plains 
Bank (now the First National Bank of White Plains), and until 
his going to Europe to assume public office, he never missed a 
meeting of that board. He said then that the attending of 
such meetings, where he could come in close contact with 
his neighbors, afforded him the greatest pleasure. At leave 
taking, prior to departing for Europe, in 1905, he asked that 
a place among the directors might be made for him when he 
returned from his mission abroad, when he intended to make 
his home in Westchester County a permanent one. The di- 
rectors assured him that his place on the board was a life posi- 
tion, and his coming back would be most heartily welcomed. 

Early in his career Mr. Reid entered into political and news- 
paper life, making speeches for the Republican party in the 
Fremont campaign when not twenty years of age, and becoming 
the editor of the Xenia News; soon after he became widely 
known by his letters to the Cincinnati Gazette, signed "Agate." 
He was thus engaged at the opening of the Civil War, his 
letters attracting attention alike from their vigorous style and 
their trustworthy information. He took part in the war as a 
volunteer aide-de-camp to General Morris, and afterwards to 
General Rosecrans in the West Virginia campaign of 1861. 




Later he served as war correspondent with the Army of the 
Cumberland and the Army of the Potomac, and was present 
at the battles of Shiloh and Gettysburg. 

Mr. Reid was librarian of the House of Representatives at 
Washington, 1863-66, at the same time being the Washington 
correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette, of which he had be- 
come one of the proprietors. After the war he made a journey 
through the South, and for some time tried cotton planting 
in Louisiana and Alabama. The results of his observations 
while thus engaged were embodied in a book entitled "After 
the War," published in 1867. He was connected with the New 
York Tribune from 1868. 

In the early Sixties, when he was acting as a newspaper 
correspondent at the national capital, a personal intimacy began 
between Mr. Reid and Horace Greeley, who was equally im- 
pressed by the former's literary attainments, his executive 
ability and his personal character. Mr. Greeley, indeed, at 
an early date urged Mr. Reid to come to New York as a 
member of the staff of the Tribune, or at least to take charge 
of the paper's Washington bureau. The invitation was declined 
for the time, but the two men became, and remained for the 
rest of the elder's life, confidential and affectionate friends. 

In 1868 Mr. Greeley again renewed his invitation to Mr. Reid 
to enter the home office of the Tribune, and this time it 
was accepted. As if conscious of the approaching end of 
his own great career, Mr. Greeley felt the need of selecting 
for his successor a man after his own heart, who would con- 
tinue unimpaired the great journal which he had founded, 
and he discerned that man in Whitelaw Reid. The intimate 
association which then was formed lasted little more than four 

Mr. Reid was quickly advanced to the post of managing 
editor; and when, in 1872, Mr. Greeley accepted the nomina- 
tion for the Presidency, he placed the whole control of the 
paper in Mr. Reid's hands, where it remained until his death. 
After Mr. Greeley's death, Mr. Reid became editor-in-chief and 
principal owner of the Tribune. He published, in 1873, his 
memorial of Greeley, a biographical sketch of his late friend 
and chief. He organized a syndicate which bought control 
of the unfinished linotype for setting type by machinery, 
introduced it first in newspaper composition, and after some 


years' experiment with it organized the Mergenthaler Linotype 
Company, became its first president, and established its shops 
in Brooklyn. 

In 1878 Mr. Reid was elected by the Legislature of New York 
a Regent of the University of the State of New York; he was 
offered the post of minister to Germany by President Hayes 
and President Garfield, declining in both instances, and served 
as American minister to France from 1889 to 1892. Public 
appreciation of his services abroad was expressed in dinners 
by the Chamber of Commerce, the Ohio Society, the Lotos 
Club, and other organizations, on his return home. The Cham- 
ber of Commerce elected him an honorary member, a mark of 
respect which had been bestowed on only fifteen other men 
during the century of the chamber's existence. He was nomi- 
nated for Vice-President of the United States with President 
Harrison by the Republican National Convention of 1892 ; was 
special ambassador of the United States to Queen Victoria's 
Jubilee in 1897; member of the Peace Commission to Paris for 
the negotiation of peace with Spain, securing Porto Rico, Guam, 
and the Philippines, in 1898 ; special ambassador to the corona- 
tion of Edward VII in 1902. In 1904 he was elected Chancellor 
of the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New 
York, for life. In March, 1905, he was appointed Ambassador 
of the United States at the Court of St. James, which position 
he continued to fill until his death. 

Mr. Reid wrote easily and authoritatively on matters of pub- 
lic interest. His publications include : "After the War" (1867) ; 
"Ohio in the War" (1868) ; "Newspaper Tendencies" (1874) ; 
"Town Hall Suggestions" (1881) ; "Some Consequences of the 
Last Treaty of Paris" (1899) ; "How America Faced Its Edu- 
cational Problem" (1906); "Our New Duties" (1899); "Our 
New Interests" (1900); "Problems of Expansion" (1900); 
"The Monroe Doctrine, The Polk Doctrine and Anarchism" 
■ (1903); "The Greatest Fact in Modern History" (1906), etc. 
Mr. R-eid, as editor and proprietor, made the New York 
Tribune a formidable and constructive factor in American 
politics; as Chancellor of the Board of Regents of the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York, as United States Minister to 
France for four years, as one of the negotiators of the peace 
with Spain after our Cuban War, as special ambassador on 
several occasions to Great Britain, as the Republican candidate 
for Vice-President with Benjamin Harrison, 1892, and finally 


as an Ambassador to Great Britain for a longer term than any 
of his predecessors, except Richard Rush, he had become and 
was at the time of his death, one of the best qualified andl 
most useful of public servants. 

The news of his untimely death was received on both sides 
of the Atlantic with profound regret. From the day he arrived 
in London, in June, 1905, until his death, he was among the 
foremost of the men in diplomatic life from whatever country. 
His skill and tact, his wide and varied experience in public 
and political questions, his high character and suavity of man- 
ner enabled him to meet and successfully to treat the successive 
important questions that arose between the two countries. Mr. 
Reid's literary talents were of a high order, and his style 
finished and refined, enabling him to deliver admirable ad- 
dresses in all parts of Great Britain which commanded approval 
and exercised good influences both there and at home. It had 
been evident to his friends for some time that his health had 
been steadily declining, but it was hoped that he would live 
to finish his term with that of the administration of President 
Taft, on which he reflected so much honor and credit abroad. 
The rare event of the death of our Ambassador while in office 
was made the occasion of an interchange of heartfelt con- 
dolences between the two governments. 

The remains of Mr. Reid were brought from England to this 
country in a British war vessel— a special and extraordinary 
courtesy extended by the British Government. 

From his twentieth year, when he purchased and proceeded 
to edit a newspaper in Xenia, Ohio, his native town, Whitelaw 
Reid found the leading interest of his life in public afi'airs. 
From that first venture, down to the day of his death at the 
post of duty as Ambassador to England, the leading activities 
in his life were dedicated to public service. The record of those 
long and well-filled years testifies to the breadth of his char- 
acter, to the range of his gifts. He was resolute and skilled 
in the forthright give and take of politics. In the more deli- 
cate art of diplomacy he was equally steadfast and resourceful. 
To the practice of journalism, with its incessant pressure of 
haste, of issues rising as the hours fly and requiring in the 
editor as swift a habit of mind, he brought both the practical 
readiness of his profession and the scholarly traits of the man 
of letters. Whitelaw Reid was, in fact, a many-sided man, in 
whom diverse qualities were supremely well balanced. But 


what co-ordinated his powers and made their exercise effective 
was a central spring of sane, clearsighted, devoted patriotism. 
He was one of those publicists and statesmen whose labors have 
been governed by solicitude for the welfare of their country. 

In the death of AVhitelaw Reid Westchester County lost a 
type of devoted friendship ; this fact residents fully recognize. 
His kind regard and consideration for his neighbors and for 
all with whom he came in contact, taught them to consider him 
as indeed a friend. 

During a meeting of the Board of Regents of the University 
of the State of New York, held in Albany, February 20, 1913, 
a considerable portion of the proceedings was devoted to the 
memory of Chancellor Whitelaw Reid. Among the Regents 
who delivered brief addresses was Francis M. Carpenter of 
Westchester County, who said in part : 

''M7'. Vice Chancellor— 

"I purpose to speak of the local activities and personal char- 
acteristics of Chancellor Reid which endeared him to his neigh- 
bors and the people of Westchester County, rather than of 
the various activities he gave to the State and nation. For 
many years prior to his appointment as ambassador to Eng- 
land, he owned and occupied a magnificent estate in the town 
of Harrison, near White Plains, the county seat, which he 
called "Ophir Hall." His house was open to his neighbors 
and friends and the freest hospitality extended to all, and 
none came away without being impressed with the intellectual 
culture in that home, shown in paintings of great artists adorn- 
ing the walls and the refined taste in its furnishings. Chan- 
cellor Reid was, in the broadest sense, a public-spirited man. 
His generosity in aid of all struggling institutions in our 
county, his presence and speech on every occasion for the bet- 
terment of his fellow men and the advancement of every good 
cause, his personality and charming manners, evidenced the 
noble man he was. He was closer to the hearts of the people 
of Westchester County because of his efforts, crowned with 
success, to make the Tnhune one of the leading dailies, which 
was the ambition of Horace Greeley, the founder of the New 
York Trihune, so much beloved and honored in this county, 
where he lived and died a martyr to the policies and principles 
he advocated and believed. While Mr. Reid's activities de- 
manded most of his time, he found opportunity for work as 


a master of finance. I recall his election as director of a na- 
tional bank in White Plains and at once he grasped the details 
of its management, and his advice, sought, and given in his 
unostentatious manner, was an inspiration to his fellow mem- 
bers. The broader field of his life work as journalist, politician, 
and diplomat, has been fittingly alluded to by members of this 
Board who were his associates for a longer period of time than 
was my privilege. It was not my good fortune to meet Mr. 
Reid in his official capacity as Chancellor of the University 
until the dedication of the Education Building. His presence 
on that occasion and the prominent position assigned him as 
presiding officer added much to the brilliancy and success of 
the ceremonies. His was a life of great attainments, his death 
a loss to this nation, a loss to the Education Department of 
this State, and his memory worthily honored by this and other 
lands as few men before him." 

(Mr. Carpenter was an associate with Mr. Reid in the Board 
of Directors of the First National Bank of White Plains.) 

Academic degrees were conferred upon Mr. Reid by various 
institutions in America and Europe. From his alma mater, 
Miami University, he received A. B. in 1856, A. M. in 1859, 
and LL. D. in 1890 ; New York University, then known as the 
University of the City of New York, gave him an honorary 
A. M. in 1872, and Dartmouth the same in 1873. Princeton gave 
him LL. D. in 1899, Yale in 1901, Cambridge, England, in 
1902; St. Andrew's, Scotland, in 1905, and Victoria Univer- 
sity, Manchester, England, in 1909. The University of Oxford 
in 1907 gave him D. C. L., the most coveted of its degrees. 

Mr. Reid was married in 1881 to Miss Elizabeth Mills, 
daughter of the capitalist and philanthropist Darius Ogden 
Mills (a native of this county), who bore him two children. 
The elder, Ogden Mills Reid, after being graduated from the 
collegiate and law departments of Yale University and admitted 
to the bar, became associated with the Tnbune, and is now 
president of the corporation, and editor. The younger. Miss 
Jean Reid, was married in 1908 to the Hon. John Hubert Ward, 
a brother of the Earl of Dudley and equerry to King Ed- 
ward YII. 

Mr. Reid died at his official residence, Dorchester House, in 
Park Row, London, at 12 :10 p. m., Sunday, December 15, 1912. 
His remains, brought to this country, and buried in this county, 
repose in North Tarrytown. 


Mr. and Mrs. Reid long maintained three residences in Amer- 
ica. They established their New York home at 451 Madison 
avenue, and their country home at Purchase, near White Plains, 
in this county, on the extensive estate known as "Ophir Farm," 
many years ago the property of Ben Holliday and subsequently 
of the well-known shipbuilder John Roach. Soon after Mr. 
Reid's purchase of it the house was destroyed by fire, and he 
built in its place "Ophir Hall." A third dwelling, for season- 
able occupation, was Camp Wildair, at Paul Smith's, in the 

A sketch of Capt. EBENEZER SMITH, who took a promi- 
nent part at the final trial and execution of Major Andre, may 
be of special interest owing to the number of his descendants 
residing in this County, His son. Rev. David Smith, one of the 
first trustees of Yale College, preached in the Bronxville Re- 
formed Church when he was 91 years of age. Hon. Alfred E. 
Smith, of Bronxville, a former member of the State Legisla- 
ture from this County, and President of the village of Bronx- 
ville, is a great-great-grandson of the patriotic Captain. 

Captain Smith was stationed at West Point at the time Andre 
was brought there, and later was in command of the guard over 
Andre at West Point, and was commander of the guard for the 
day Andre was executed at Tappan. In proof of Gen. Wash- 
ington's confidence in Captain Smith, is told the story of how 
Gen. Washington sent for him and informed him of the impor- 
tant trust to be imposed upon him in the care of Andre, and 
warned the Captain that he (Washington) was fearful lest the 
food or drink which might be ofi^ered him (the Captain) that 
night be drugged, in order to make Andre's escape possible; 
adding, "Treachery is all around me, and I hardly know whom 
to trust, but I know I can trust you— you must mount guard 
over him to-night." To this Capt. Smith promptly replied, 
"My life shall answer for his safety." The Captain did not 
leave Andre that night. Through the lone hours the prisoner 
grew confidential, lamented his fate and asked the Captain to 
intercede for him. In speaking later of that night's experience 
and of the behavior of the prisoner. Captain Smith said, "The 
agony of his mind as he walked the room was most distressing, 
and it seemed to me that his very flesh crawled upon his bones." 
Capt. Smith was an especial favorite with Gen. Washington, at 


whose request the Captain withdrew his offered resignation 
from the army. At the time peace was established in 1783, he 
was one of the oldest men in point of service, having been in the 
army eight years, eight months and nine days. 

After the war he served as a member of the Massachusetts 

SAMUEL JONES TILDEN, was another of Westchester 
County's adopted sons, a resident of whom any county could 
feel justly proud. For many years, and until the hour of his 
death, he resided in Yonkers, occupying ' ' Greystone, ' ' his mag- 
nificent estate, consisting of a palatial residence and many 
highly cultivated broad acres of land, constituting in all one 
of the most attractive show places of the County. 

He became a resident of Yonkers in September, 1879, He died 
August 4, 1886. 

Mr. Tilden held several official positions in this State, but 
never held a federal office. He was never a Representative in 
Congress, or a United States Senator or a cabinet minister; 
yet it may be doubted if any other man since Lincoln exerted 
so great an influence upon national affairs. 

His advance from minor office holding to national leadership 
has been rapid, and unparalleled in our country's history, ex- 
cept by the career of Grover Cleveland, who, unknown to the 
Nation in 1881, was elected President of the United States in 
1884. Tilden had reached the age of 54 years, in 1868, before 
he began to be prominent in national politics, as a reform Demo- 
cratic leader. In 1872, at the head of the Committee of Seventy 
of New York city, a non-partisan committee, he led the fight 
against William M. Tweed. 

Mr. Tilden 's place in American history, as the great polit- 
ical reformer, is secure. He was indeed, "the great American 
reformer." His successful fight against the Tweed ring waa 
the beginning of the great movement to throw off the shackles 
of political corruption which the Civil War riveted upon the 
country. His successful fight against the Canal ring gave a 
new impetus to political reform in nearly every Northern State. 
It was under his leadership that the Democratic party was 
again politically rehabilitated, and the political rehabilitation 
of the Democratic party compelled a moral rehabilitation of 
the Republican party. 


Hon. John Bigelow, the historian, in speaking of Tilden, says : 
"What Tilden did for the city of New York in crushing the 
Tweed ring, what he did for the State in crushing the Canal 
ring, and the declaration of the House of Representatives, in 
1877, that he had been the choice of the people of the United 
States for President, seems to entitle him to the proposed evi- 
dence of national consideration." 

It is possible that historians will always divide on the ques- 
tion of Avhether or not Mr. Tilden was fraudulently deprived 
of the Presidency; but that he was the choice of a large majority 
of the voters at the polls there can be no doubt whatever. 
Neither can there be two opinions as to the great patriotism 
which he exhibited during this tremendous conflict which 
brought the country almost to the edge of another civil war. 
His advising peaceful submission in the face of strong evidence 
that he had been defrauded of what was his just due, proved 
him to be a strong character, a man who would serve country 
rather than self. 

Many men have been great in victory; but Samuel J. Tilden 
belongs to that smaller company who proved themselves great 
in defeat. 

In June, 1910, Congressman Sulzer, of New York, introduced 
in Congress a bill providing for an appropriation of a suitable 
sum to pay for the erection in Washington, D. C, of a statue 
to the memory of Samuel J. Tilden. The latter 's friends alleg- 
ing that it is time Congress accorded him his due recognition 
among the Republic's statesmen of the first rank. 

Mr. Tilden was elected to the State Assembly, from the 18th 
district New York city, in 1872; the serving of one term gave 
him opportunity to study at close range the workings of the 
Tweed political machine and learn the most effective way to 
crush it. His opportunities for doing good were increased when 
he was elected Governor in 1874. In 1876, near the termination 
of his two years term as Governor, he purchased from John T. 
"Waring, of Yonkers, "Greystone," as a place of residence, 
and here Tilden resided when he became a candidate for Presi- 
dent of the United States, and "Greystone" became the meeca 
to which all friends of the Democratic nominee made their way 
previous to election. 

Mr. Tilden was in 1874 elected Governor of this State, defeat- 
ing, by about 50,000 majority. Gen. John A. Dix, candidate for 


re-election, who was first chosen to the office by a majority 
of about 50,000. When he took office, January 1, 1875, Mr. 
Tilden discovered the people overburdened by taxation, in a 
great degree unnecessarily he thought. The direct taxes col- 
lected from the people in the tax levy of 1874 were over $15,- 
000,000. When he had been eighteen months in office, in 1876, 
the tax levy was only $8,000,000. 

The Democratic National Convention, in 1876, to select nomi- 
nees for President and Vice-President, met in St. Louis on 
June 27. Mr. Tilden was nominated on the second ballot, 
receiving 535 votes, out of 738 votes cast for the Presidential 
nominee ; the balance of the vote being scattered in small quan- 
tities among favorite sons. Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana 
^^who was ten years later elected Vice-President), received 60 
votes, and Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (who was later the 
Democratic nominee for President), received 59 votes. 

When Mr. Tilden wrote his letter, in 1880, declining a re- 
nomination to the Presidency, his friends recognized his pur- 
pose, well considered, to never return to public life. Though 
Mr. Tilden 's failing health reinforced the consideration which 
led to his abdication in 1880, the political party with which 
his public life had been identified, and of which he had long 
been the head, experienced unexampled difficulties in trans- 
ferring its allegiance to another leader. As time wore on, the 
determination to renominate Mr. Tilden, regardless of his health 
or his personal inclinations, gathered strength and momentum. 
He alone of all the principal statesmen of his party seemed day 
by day to expand and to assume continually enlarging propor- 
tions in popular estimation. 

Early in the year 1884, as the time for choosing a candidate 
approached, the purpose to nominate Mr. Tilden threatened 
to be irresistible. The Democratic masses entertained the un- 
doubted conviction that his nomination would assure success. 
There was also a wide-spread disposition among Republicans, 
who loved fair play, to give their votes on the first opportunity 
in such a manner as to redress the wrongs of 1876. But the 
idea of a renomination at no time secured any encouragement 
from Mr. Tilden. On June 12, 1884, Mr. Tilden wrote and 
sent to conventions of his political party, in the several States, 
his second letter of declination. Out of twenty-two State con- 
ventions, held previous to the publication of this last named 


letter, twenty instructed their delegates to vote first and always 
for Mr. Tilden, and the other two States declared him to be the 
second choice after the first vote for a favorite son. All these 
States had prepared to assist in having Mr. Tilden nominated 
by the National Convention of his party. The action of these 
conventions was deemed cause for the second letter. 

The Presidential campaign of 1876, instead of ending on the 
first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, as usual, did 
not end until three months later. Each party claimed victory 
at the polls. For a time the situation looked serious. Issues 
were raised that might in other countries have created revolu- 
tion and disruption. But wise counsel prevailed. Governor Til- 
den, who prized the best interests of the nation above personal 
ambition, advised a peaceful solution of difficulties; though the 
result be a great disappointment to his friends, a majority of the 
Nation's electors, that they accept it peacefully and honorably. 

The findings of the Electoral Commission were against Gov- 
ernor Tilden, who lost the Presidency by one vote; yet he had 
the satisfaction of knowing that he had received a majority of 
the popular vote. 

Tilden 's total vote was 4,284,885. Hayes' total vote was 

To Governor Tilden is given the credit of having his friends 
act with moderation and patience, repressing any tendency to- 
ward violence, in a period when excitement was intense. He 
taught the doctrine that the country could not afford to have a 
President inaugurated unless he had been lawfully declared 

In an address made in September, 1877, Governor Tilden, 
referring to the result, said that though the Democratic party 
had lost the Presidency, yet it had been really triumphant, for 
the election itself showed that the pure Democracy taught by 
the great leaders of the past had been accepted once more by a 
majority of the American people. 

There had never been a disputed Presidential election; for 
this reason the situation in 1876 was without precedent. In 
1800 and in 1824 neither of the Presidential candidates had re- 
ceived a majority in the Electoral College, and the Representa- 
tives in Congress, voting by States, had to decide between the 
three candidates who had received the highest vote. But the 
Constitution had made no provision to relieve the situation con- 
fronting the Nation in 1876. 


The VAN CORTLANDTS were worthy mayors of New York. 
Nicholas de Meyer who was Mayor of New York in 1676, like 
many Mayors of recent date, had trouble with his Board of 
Aldermen, composed of three Dutchmen and three Englishmen, 
One of the Dutchmen, Stephen Van Cortlandt, succeeded him 
as Mayor in 1677, and was again elected in 1686. Our interest 
in Mayor Van Cortlandt is due to the fact that he owned an 
immense tract of land in the southern section of Yonkers, in 
this County, and the property has ever been identified with 
the Van Cortlandt family name; even persons of other names 
inheriting the property, or any part of it, had to adopt the 
name of Van Cortlandt, thus the name was kept attached to 
the land. The present Van Cortlandt Park, now belonging to 
New York city, was part of land formerly owned by Stephen 
Van Cortlandt. Jacobus Van Cortlandt, another of this wealthy 
family, was Mayor of New York in 1709, and again in 1719. 
Pierre Van Cortlandt, of Cortlandt Manor, in northern section 
of the County, the sterling patriot of Revolutionary time and 
first Lieutenant-Governor of the State, was related to the Van 
Cortlandts of the southern section of the County and New 
York city. 

PIERRE VAN CORTLANDT was in his time the "favorite 
son of Westchester County. ' ' During the Revolutionary period 
he was closely identified with most of the movements started 
in aid of his struggling countrymen. He was certainly an 
energetic and useful patriot. Was born in 1720, a son of Philip 
Van Cortlandt. 

He was the first Supervisor of the town of Cortlandt, serving 
from 1772 to 1780, and ever proved a faithful official, neglecting 
no local duty, yet he found time to attend when called for the 
cause, to any part of the State. He was conspicuous as a 
member of the several provincial congresses. 

As a Colonel he commanded the Third Westchester Militia 
Regiment and later was advanced to be a General. 

During the Revolution he was prominent in the Committee 
of Public Safety, acting as Vice-President with John Jay as 
President. He started the investigation in hopes of finding the 
guilty American soldiers who set fire to the County Court 
House building in White Plains, on the night of November 5, 


He acted in an advisory capacity after the arrest of Major 

To Mr. Van Cortlandt probably, more than to any other one 
man, excepting perhaps j\lr. Jay, is due the credit of drafting 
the Constitution of this State. He was a man of energy and 
force, whose inHuence was broad. 

AVas Deputy from this County, chosen in 1775, to the Second 
Provincial Congress, and served in the Third and Fourth Con- 

After the formation of the State Constitution, there was 
organized a body to be known as the Council of Public Safety, 
to act as the head of a temporary form of government, to 
serve until the election of a Governor and the installing of a 
Legislature to be elected. This Council was organized on May 
3, 1777, by the election of Mr. Van Cortland as president. 

By Gen. Van Cortlandt 's election, Westchester County was 
(given the distinction of having given to New York State its 
first elected Lieutenant-Governor. He was chosen to fill that 
office in the latter part of 1777, and served under the first Gov- 
ernor, George Clinton. When John Jay, also of this County, 
became the second Governor of the State, succeeding Clinton, 
Mr. Van Cortlandt retired, his term of office having expired, 
and because it would not do to have both the Governor and 
the Lieutenant-Governor from the same county. 

As Governor Clinton was constantly in the field, the Lieut.- 
Governor was the practical head of the State during the Revo- 
lutionary War. 

Gen. Van Cortlandt occupied the family mansion in Van 
Cortlandt Manor, at Croton, in the town of Cortlandt; and 
here Gen. Washington spent many hours in private conference 
vnth leaders of the patriot cause. Gen. Washington ever re- 
ferred to Gen. Van Cortlandt as his most trusted friend 
and ally. 

It was his daughter, Mrs. Cornelia Van Cortlandt Beekman, 
who incidentally contributed to the capture of IMajor Andre, by 
refusing to comply with the request of Joshua H. Smith, when 
he came to the Van Cortlandt Mansion and falsely said he had 
been sent to get a valise belonging to a Continental officer, 
when he knew said valise contained the uniform of an American 
officer, which he wanted to provide a disguise for Andre. But 
for the woman's disbelief in Smith, Andre would have been 
successful in reaching New York, and inside the British lines. 


He held various offices in State and County; was one of the 
first Inspectors of Prisons. 

Descendants of Gen. Van Cortlandt yet reside in the upper 
section of the County and are most worthy citizens. 

At the close of the Revolutionary War General Van Cortlandt 
and his family again occupied the Manor House at Croton-on- 
the-Hudson. He died there May 1, 1814. 

eral Piere Van Cortlandt, was born September 1, 1749. 

He was one of the early volunteers in the Revolutionary War ; 
on June 18, 1775, was commissioned Lieutenant- Colonel of the 
Fourth Battalion New York Infantry ; served on General Wash- 
ington 's staff until November 30, 1776, when he was commis- 
sioned as Colonel of the Second New York Regiment. He par- 
ticipated in the Battle of Saratoga, and was with General AVash- 
ington at Valley Forge. Was a member of the court-martial 
which tried Benedict Arnold, the traitor, in January, 1779. The 
following year he served with General Lafayette's command, 
and his regiment did valiant service in the siege and capture of 
Yorktown, in 1781. In 1783 he was created Brigadier-General 
by act of Congress for his heroic conduct at the Battle of York- 

At the close of the Revolution he was chosen to represent 
Westchester County in the New York State Assembly, in 1789- 
90, and represented the County in the State Senate, 1791-2-3-4, 
and in Congress from 1794 to 1809. 

On his retirement from official position he went to reside 
on his father's estate at Croton, and occupied what was then 
known as the "Ferry House," built about two hundred years 
ago and still standing. General Philip Van Cortlandt had the 
honor of being assigned to accompany his old friend General 
Lafayette during the latter 's tour through the United States in 

He, like his father, was a Supervisor of the town of Cortlandt. 

General Van Cortlandt never married. He died at the Van 
Cortlandt Manor House November 21, 1831, at the age of 
eighty-two years, and was buried in the family burying ground 


AUGUSTUS VAN CORTLANDT, the last private occupant 
of the Van Cortlandt farm in South Yonkers, now the property 
of New York city and know as Van Cortlandt Park, and later 
was resident of Pelham Manor, in this County, where he died 
recently. He was a Justice of the Peace of the town of Yonkers, 
and represented that town in the Board of Supervisors in the 
year 1858 and 1859, and in the latter year was also a member of 
the State Legislature, as an Assemblyman. 

PHILIP VERPLANCK, who represented the Manor of Cort- 
landt in the General Assembly for thirty-four years, from 1734 
to 1768, was head of the family from whom the present Ver- 
plancks in Westchester County descend. 

Verplanck's Point, in the town of Cortlandt, was named in 
his honor. 

DANIEL WEBSTER'S wife, Caroline LeRoy Webster, died 
at the LeRoy House, New Rochelle, on Sunday, February 26, 
1882, in the eighty-fifth year of her age, after an illness of only 
three days. 

Miss LeRoy, daughter of Jacob LeRoy, a wealthy New York 
merchant, Avas in 1829 married to Daniel Webster. She was in 
her youth a beautiful girl of commanding presence, tall, well 
proportioned, intelligent and active. That Webster desired to 
win her was not strange ; that she should be proud to call such a 
giant her husband was but natural. 

In his Washington life the wife of Daniel Webster participated 
to a marked degree. Although self-willed and active, he was 
never so set in his way that her arguments did not have a respect- 
ful hearing, and until his death she was the queen of Washing- 
ton society. A lady of elegant appearance and address, possess- 
ing superior personal charms, tempered with excessive modesty 
and favored with a liberal education and a brilliant mind, Mrs. 
Webster numbered among her guests all the contemporaneous 
statesmen and diplomats of her husband's time. Her receptions 
in Washington were the most elegantly appointed events at the 
national capital. Among the distinguished guests who were 


always welcomed at her residence were Clay, Calhoun, Bulwer, 
Lord Ashburton, Dix, Benton, Mrs. Madison, and all the ladies 
of the diplomatic corps. No lady of her day ever won such 
social distinction with foreign and American statesmen and the 
ladies of the court as ]\Irs. Webster. During her travels in 
Europe a few years after her marriage, she was received by 
nearly all the crowned heads in whose domain she traveled, at 
one tune being the special invited guest of Queen Victoria. 
While in England with her husband she attended, as an honored 
g'uest, the Egiington tournament which created such an excite- 
ment at the time in which it was sought to revive the spear war- 
fare of the ancients. After the death of Daniel Webster, Octo- 
ber 24, 1852, Mrs. Webster, who had been spending her summers 
with her husband at Marshfield, Mass., where he breathed his 
last, came to New York city and occupied a mansion uptown 
until 1872, when she sold out her effects in latter home, and 
came to reside permanently at the LeRoy House, the new 
Rochelle residence of her family built and owned by her relatives. 
The death of her husband w^as a terrible blow to Mrs. 
Webster. She was a devoted wife and had a keen apprehension 
of his superior intellectual qualifications. After his death she 
seemed to desire seclusion with her maid, to whom she often 
remarked that she never expected to meet Mr. Webster's equal, 
and therefore felt as though the world was a void to her. She 
retired early from society, admitting only family relatives and 
a few intimate acquaintances, Mr. Winthrop, of Boston, who 
delivered the oration at the unveiling of the Webster statue in 
Central Park, being one of her principal advisors and visitors. 
With the competence which she had to her own right and the 
income from the annuity given her by the city of Boston, she 
was enabled to live in the modest and comfortable style that 
became the widow of an American statesman. She scarcely 
ever appeared in public, but took a great interest in anything 
pertaining to the revival of the memory of her husband. Al- 
though she received a serious injury, about twenty-five years 
previous to her death, by being thrown from her carriage, which 
at times seemed to obscure her memory of other events, yet she 
would sit for hours and relate incidents of her husband's life. 
Her last appearance in public was at the unveiling of the Web- 
ster statue in 1877, where she occupied a place of honor on the 
platform. She was invited to be present at the centennial cele- 
bration of her husband's birth, but was unable to attend on 


account of her health. She received many letters upon the sub- 
ject from prominent New England families, and the revival of 
the past seemed to make her somewhat low spirited. Under the 
mental strain she fell an easy victim to pneumonia, and quietly 
breathed her last. 

Not long after the death of Mr. AVebster one hundred citizens 
of Boston contributed one thousand dollars each to a fund of 
one hundred thousand dollars, which was invested for Mrs. 
Webster's benefit, and the interest of this she duly received at 
her New Rochelle home. 


1 .•^.» '■; , .- 


Biographical Sketches. 


William Temple Emmet, State 
Superintendent of Insurance, etc., 
was born in New Eochelle, this 
county, on July 28, 1869, a son of 
Eichard Stockton and Catharine 
(Temple) Emmet, and a direct de- 
scendant of the great Irish patriot 
Eobert Emmet. 

He acquired his early education in 
local public schools and then attended 
St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H. 
He graduated from the Columbia 
University Law School in 1891, and 
was admitted to practice law in 

He first practiced in his native 
County, and in May, 1894, formed a 
partnership in New York city. 

His political career began shortly 
after reaching his majority. He 
possessed the faith of his fathers, 
and early enlisted in the ranks of 
Democracy. Almost immediately 
following his twenty-first birthday 
he was chosen to the responsible po- 
sition of Trustee of the village of 
New Eochelle, elected after a spir- 
ited contest in which he defeated the 
strongest candidate the opposition 
could induce to stand for election. 
He served as such Trustee in 1891, 
1892, 1893, 1894. 

His ability as a local legislator 
attracted attention and secured for 
him election as a member of the 
State Constitutional Convention, to 
represent the local Senatorial dis- 
trict, in 1894, when he was but 
twenty-five years of age. 

It is said that he is the youngest 
man yet appointed to fill his present 
important office. 

In 1900 he was appointed by Mayor 
Van Wyck a member of the Board 
of Education of the city of New 

In 1903 he consented to be his 
party's candidate for State Sena- 
tor, in his home district, when it 
was known that the district was 

overwhelmingly Republican and the 
latter political party had deter- 
mined to secure the election regard- 
less of cost. Mr. Emmet made an 
active canvass, and, notwithstand- 
ing the great odds against him, 
polled a vote of which he might be 

In 1904 he was chosen a delegate 
from the Westchester County Con- 
gressional district to the Democratic 
National Convention. He was again 
elected a delegate in 1912, to the 
Democratic National Convention, 
from the city of New York. 

For a considerable period, prior 
to 1912, Mr. Emmet was chairman 
of the New York city branch of the 
New York State Democratic League. 

In 1911 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Dix as a manager of the State 
Training School for Boys, at York- 
town Heights, in this County. 

Governor John A. Dix, on Febru- 
ary 19, 1912, appointed Mr. Emmet 
as State Superintendent of Insur- 
ance. His selection being made 
from a list bearing the names of 
many distinguished citizens repre- 
senting different sections of the 
State. That Mr. Emmet was given 
preferment was a fitting tribute to 
his personal worth, as well as an ap- 
proval of the consistency of his po- 
litical course. 

The business of insurance has 
reached such vast proportions within 
this State and the interests involved 
in its proper conduct are so vital to 
the welfare of our citizens, that the 
placing of it under the controlling 
supervision of the State, as was done 
in 1859, was a matter of public 
policy, the propriety of which can- 
not be well questioned at this time. 
Laws under which it is super- 
vised underwent revision in 1892, 
and at a more recent date were re- 
vised by radical amendments. 

The position of State Superin- 
tendent of Insurance has been held 




by some of the ablest and best 
known men in the State. Mr. Em- 
met has the honor of being the 
only resident of Westchester County 
yet selected to hold this office of 
great responsibility. The State In- 
surance Department, giving employ- 
ment to hundreds of persons, is, at 
the present time, considered one of 
the most important branches of the 
State government. Offices of the 
department are located in Albany 
and in New York city. 

Those who know Superintendent 
Emmet best are confident that his 
discharge of duties will reflect credit 
upon the State and his native 
County, as well as upon himself; 
that the public at large can rely 
upon an intelligent supervision which 
is so essential to the best interests 
of the people of the State. 

Mr. Emmet for several recent 
years practised his profession in 
New York city, where he has offices. 
In practice he became especially fa- 

miliar with laws relating to all 
forms of insurance, which knowl- 
edge is of valuable assistance to 
him in his new official position. He 
has long been ranked as one of the 
foremost young members of the 
legal fraternity in New York city, 
his ability securing for him promi- 
nence. He has been conspicuous in 
many important legal contests re- 
sulting successfully; his utterances 
are precise and distinct and his voice 
pleasant. His attachments are warm 
and his friends numerous, and they 
rejoice at the evidences of his pros- 

Mr. Emmet was married on June 
16, 1896, to Miss Cornelia Zabriskie, 
daughter of Augustus Zabriskie, of 
New York city. There are three 
children, Richard S., Katharine Tem- 
ple, and William Temple, Jr. 

The family resides in South Sa- 
lem, this county, as well as having 
a New York city home. 


\ T- ' 


\ • 


Biographical Sketches. 


Benjamin Irving Taylor, Super- 
visor of town of Harrison, West- 
chester County, Representative-elect 
in Congress, etc., was born December 
21, 1877j in New York city, a son 
and eldest child of Maurice H. and 
Ella M. (Archer) Taylor. Soon af- 
ter his birth his parents returned to 
reside in Rye, this County. 

On the paternal side genealogy 
connects him with the English House 
of Hamilton and with one or more 
personages associated prominently 
with the legal fraternity of early 
English history. John Archer, of 
one of the oldest families of the 
County, an ancestor on his maternal 
side, was granted a charter for the 
Manor of Fordham, in this County, 
when that section was within the 
gift of the British Crown. William 
H. Taylor, his paternal grandfather, 
represented the Common Council of 
the City of New York, sixty years 
ago, when that city purchased a site 
and established Washington Market; 
the ability displayeu in this particu- 
lar transaction in the way of public 
improvement called for public recog- 
nition and he received from the City 
as a gift a full silver service, now 
preserved as a valued family heir- 
loom. Grandfather W. H. Tayloi 
died in Harrison in 1872. His pa- 
ternal grandmother was a descend- 
ant of Godfrey Haines, of Harrison, 
and on his maternal side a descend- 
ant of Stephen Hopkins, the Quaker, 
who signed the Declaration of Inde- 

Mr. Taylor, the subject of this 
sketch, received his early education 
in the public schools of the town of 
Rye, from there, in 1894, he went 
to the New Rochelle High School, 
from which he graduated in 1896. 
He was the first graduate of this 
High School, the number of his di- 
ploma being No. 1. He entered the 


Columbia University Law School, 
from which he graduated in 1899 
with a degree of LL.B. He accepted 
a position in the law otfice of Fred- 
erick W. Sherman, in Port Chester, 
and a year later entered the law of- 
fice of E. A. Scott, New York city. 
In 1901 he started practice on his 
own account in the village of Port 
Chester, town of Rye, where he yet 
has offices and a large and growing 

Mr. Taylor's father and family 
removed from Rye to Harrison in the 
year 1902, and since that time Tay- 
lor, Jr., has made Harrison his place 
of residence. 

In 1905, when only twenty-eight 
years of age, Mr. Taylor accepted 
the Democratic nomination for Su- 
pervisor of the town of Harrison, 
becoming the opponent of one of the 
strongest candidates the Republican 
party could present for that office, 
George T. Burling, now serving this 
County as County Treasurer. Mr. 
Taylor won, proving his great popu- 
larity among those who ought to 
know him best in what had always 
of recent years been known as a 
' ' Republican town. ' ' Two years 
later, in 1907, he was re-elected, and 
again in 1909 and in 1911. 

In the Board of Supervisors he haa 
ever taken an important part in the 
proceedings, a recognized leader in 
all debates, and was ever able to be 
of inestimable service to his town in 
caring for its interests. 

As he has the confidence of mem- 
bers of the Bar, so he has the con- 
fidence of his colleagues in the 
Board of Supervisors, where his 
ability as a lawyer is of valuable 
assistance in the transaction of the 
County's business. 

As a student he was laborious, in- 
defatigable; as a lawyer, scrupu- 
lously faithful to the interests of his 
clients, and untiring in the advo- 
cacy of their claims. He has ae- 



quired with the Bench a high repu- 
tation for candor and frankness as 
■well as legal attainments, and with 
the Bar the character of a fair, 
courteous and gentlemanly practi- 
tioner, whose professional reputation 
is a guaranty against chicanery. 

In his recent election in Novem- 
ber, 1912, as Kepresentative in Con- 
gress, he has the additional honor of 
being the first elected to Congress 
from the new Congressional district, 
the Twenty-fifth, composed of a part 
of Westchester County and the whole 
of Rockland County. In him the 
Democratic party will find a desired 

On his election as Representative 
in Congress, in 1912, Mr. Taylor 
tendered his resignation as Super- 
visor, which the Board of Town Of- 
ficers refused to accept, and passed 
resolutions asking him to withdraw 
such resignation and continue to 

serve the town in the office of Su- 

In announcing House Committees 
Speaker Clark specially honored 
Westchester County, by giving Mr. 
Taylor, a new member, some very 
important assignments. 

Since he has been Supervisor, Mr. 
Taylor has been frequently urged to 
accept nominations for County of- 
fices at the hands of his political 
party, the last being that of Surro- 
gate, in 1912. He preferred to de- 
vote much of his time to legal prac- 
tice. When shown that his party 
needed him at Washington, he con- 
sented to run for Congress. 

Mr. Taylor was married on April 
27, 1907, to Miss Harriet B. Bulk- 
ley, daughter of Josiah W. and Mar- 
garet Bulkley of Rye; of this union 
there are two daughters, Estelle B., 
Dorothy F., and a son, Benjamin 
Irving, Jr. 


Biographical Sketches. 


David Cromwell, a Manager of 
the State Reformatory for Women, 
at Bedford, Supervisor of the town 
of Eastchester in 1877-78-79, County 
Treasurer for twelve years, from 
1879; President of the Village of 
White Plains in 1894, Treasurer of 
Village of White Plains from 
1889 to 1894; President of White 
Plains Building and Loan Associa- 
tion from 1888, President of the 
White Plains Citizen's Association; 
Mas instrumental in the organization 
of the White Plains Bank and be- 
came its first President in 1893, 
this bank later became the present 
First National Bank of White 
Plains, and he retains the Presi- 
dency, was organizer and is Presi- 
dent of the Home Savings Bank 
of White Plains, was an organizer 
of the People's Bank now the 
First National Bank of Mount Ver- 
non and is one of the original di- 
rectors, chairman of Group VI. of 
the Now York State Bankers' Asso- 

ciation, and director or trustee of 
other financial institutions. 

President of the White Plains 
Hospital Association, Trustee of the 
White Plains Public Library, chair- 
man of board of trustees of the 
Presbyterian Church of White 
Plains, and prominently connected 
v.ith various other societies work- 
ing to advance the public good. 
Has been member of the Mason or- 
der for forty years. 

He was born May 25, 1838, a son 
of John and Letitia (Haviland) 
Cromwell. Was married December 
3, 1873, to Miss Fannie Deuel of 
New York. A son and daughter 
were born to them. 

The son, John C. CromAvell, a 
young man of many attainments and 
of great promise, was suddenly 
killed on February 3, 1907, while 
heroically performing his duties as 
a volunteer fireman, at a fire on 
Railroad Avenue, White Plains. 
Two companions perished with him. 

The daughter is the wife of 
Charles D. Horton of White Plains. 

(See Volumes One and Two.) 


The early history of the several Towns in Westchester County 
is more than interesting; but as the subject was quite fully 
treated in volume one, commencing at page 187, lengthy his- 
torical reviews of the Towns will not be attempted in the present 
volume, further than to give, briefly and concisely as possible, 
additional information subsequently obtained. 


(Continued from page 190, Vol. 1.) 

The township of Bedford is nearly a square tract of country 
containing about thirty-six square miles east and north of the 
central portion of Westchester County and about thirty-five 
miles from New York city. It is one of the oldest settled por- 
tions of the State and the oldest town in the County, having 
been created a municipality by council at Hartford in 1681 and 
1682. The northwestern portion bordering on what was form- 
erly Croton River, now New York City Reservoir, is quite hilly 
and rough. The southeastern portion rolling and sandy. It 
was originally a part of Stamford and belonged to the State of 
Connecticut, known in its earliest times as the Hop Ground. 

About the year 1644, an Indian settlement occupied a tract 
south of what is now called The Cliffs. It was surprised by a 
company of soldiers from Greenwich, Connecticut, and prac- 
tically exterminated. 

About 1681, some twenty-four persons from Stamford, Con- 
necticut, established the settlement of Bedford and laid it out 
after a plan of a New England town, with the Green or Square 
in the center, similar to Lexington Green in Massachusetts. 

"Among those that came first, we recognize the familiar 

names of Ambler, Weed, Slawson, Westcott and John Cross, 

after whom Cross River was named, Clark, Bates, Waterbury 

and others, now familiar family names in the town." These 

original settlers brought with them from Connecticut a spirit 

of independence which the English governor found difficult to 




" The principal matter of contention appeared to be, what 
minister should officiate in the church. There was also a strong 
desire shown on the part of the original settlers to remain 
loyal to the State of Connecticut, in the controversy between 
that State and the State of New York as to the boundary line. 
This matter was finally settled, though years later, by com- 
missioners appointed by each State who met at Dover, Dutchess 
County, and established the boundary. From that time on 
the town has been without controversy, a part of the State of 
New York. 

" The townspeople were very much averse to being in the 
same parish and connected with the Church of England Mission 
at Rye to which they were obliged to contribute each year. 

" Even public and social matters at that time were centered 
in church and church controversies. 

The original settlers brought with them from their New 
England homes to Bedford, the old idea of a town meeting at 
which all the town business was transacted. This exceedingly 
democratic institution outlasted colonial governments. Revolu- 
tionary War and the formation of state and federal constitu- 
tion, and continued down to a very recent period. Soon after 
the coming of the first settlers the vicinity of Bedford became 
quite a populous part of the county for that time. 

The Presbyterian Church in Bedford, used as a Court House, 
was destroyed by the British. On June 24, 1779, Tarleton'a 
and Simcoe's Cavalry, of the British forces, came up from 
White Plains, by way of Pine's Bridge, and burned it. The 
Church parsonage, ten days earlier, had met the same fate at 
the hands of a detachment from Verplanck's Point, under 
Lieut.-Col. Robert Abercromby, of the 37th regiment. 

About the year 1786 a court house was established in the town 
(though courts had been previously held in the Presbyterian 
Church), and the town became thereby a half -shire town (that 
is, a town in which the court of records in the county were held 
alternately at Bedford and ^^ite Plains). The trial to deter- 
mine the respective rights of the different branches of the 
Friends' Society was held here. Also a criminal case which at 
that time attracted great attention not only because of the char- 
acter of the men on trial but of the great moral upheaval that 
grew out of it. This was the indictment of Tom Hyre, a cele- 
brated pugilist who had always been considered the greatest 
fighter that ever stood in tb<^ prize-ring, John Morrissey and 


others as accessories to the killing of McCoy in the prize-ring at 
Hastings by one Lilly, This event put an end to public prize 
fights in the State of New York. Also in other trials held here 
was heard the greatest forensic talent at that time, to wit: 
Charles O'Connor, John VanBuren (son of President Martin 
VanBuren), John Voorhis, Samuel E. Lyon, Joseph Warren 
Tompkins and others. 

The County Court House, erected in 1787, still stands; the 
building is now being used as the Bedford To\^^l Hall. 

About 1810, the village of Bedford was one of the most impor- 
tant villages of the County, far outrivalling in that respect 
White Plains. 

During the War of 1812 an incident occurred which at the 
time was but little known, and since then has been almost forgot- 
ten. A feeling based on rumor, having arisen in the city of New 
York that the British contemplated an advance on the city; 
one of the then most prominent and strongest banks in the 
city gathered up its specie reserve, amounting to fifty thousand 
dollars in silver (at that time an enormous sum), and shipped 
same in nailed kegs by trucks to the town of Bedford under 
guard, and secreted it in the cellar of the old Isaac Smith house, 
near Bedford village, where it remained until the alarm was over. 

In the year 1800, John Jay, ex-Governor of the State of New 
York and ex-Chief Justice of the United States, and holder of 
numerous positions of high honor, established a permanent resi- 
dence in the northeast portion of the town near what was then 
called Cantito, on his estate of about six hundred acres. The 
residence he formerly occupied now stands and is owned by 

This distinguished American held some of the high positions 
in the gift of his countrymen. Delegate to the first National 
Congress, also one of the delegates to form the first State Gov- 
ernment for the State of New York, minister plenipotentiary to 
Spain, and with other commissioners negotiated the first treaty 
between the Colonies and Great Britain after the close of the 
Revolutionary War. On his return to the United States, he 
was sent as minister plenipotentiary to the court of St. James 
and negotiated the treaty that still bears his name. On his 
return to the United States he was appointed Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court and was afterward chosen Governor of the 
State of New York in 1801. In 1805 he retired to his estate 


in Bedford, and from that time until his death in 1829, never 
again went to the city of New York. 

On his return to the United States, after negotiating the 
treaty, owing to his being presented at court and kissing the 
queen's hand, he fell into disfavor with the radical Democratic- 
Republican section of the United Colonies. The contention 
being that his previous republicanism had drifted toward 
royalty. He also advocated the form of government proposed 
by Hamilton and was a co-worker with Hamilton in politics. 
He, like Hamilton, having little faith in the capacity of the 
masses of the people to govern themselves, taking directly the 
opposite view of Jefferson. 

A descendant of Governor Jay, namely, his son AVilliam 
Jay, once occupied the bench as County Judge. His grandson, 
John, minister to Vienna under General Grant's administration, 
and his great-grandson, Colonel ^Yilliam Jay, have continually 
occupied the Jay mansion, which is situated in one of the most 
attractive sections of Westchester County. 

County Judge ATilliam Jay, second son of John Jay, was 
born June 16, 1789. He was Judge of Common Pleas in this 
county from 1818 to 1820, in the latter year Governor Daniel 
D. Tompkins (a native of this county) appointed him first 
Judge of this county, in which position he remained until 1842. 
He died at his home in this town, in 1858. 

Judge Robert S. Hart, one of the ablest lawyers of West- 
chester County in his day, resided in Bedford, and was the 
last judge that occupied the bench in the old Court of Common 
Pleas of the County, w^hich was abolished by the Constitution 
of 1848. 

Doctor Seth Shove, in his day the most famous surgeon in the 
County, from the beginning of his practice to his death, resided 
on Cherry Street in this town. 

Judge William H. Robertson also was born, lived and died in 
Bedford, and held many prominent positions: County Judge, 
State Senator, Congressman, Collector of the Port of New 
York, leader of the Republican party in the County, and one 
of its strongest supports in the State. 

General James W. Husted, well known Republican party 
leader, known throughout the State as the " Bald Eagle," Mem- 
ber of Legislature and many times Speaker of the Assembly, 
was born and raised in Bedford. 

Among the oldest families are those who first immigrated to 


the town and laid out the town site, heretofore mentioned. In 
addition to these in the northeast part were the Greens, Dick- 
insons and Powells; in the northwest, Whitlock, Wood, Haines 
and Fowler; in the south portion, Carpenter, Knowlton, Ray- 
mond, Fish, Sutton and Hubbell ; in the southeast portion, Bar- 
rett, Trowbridge and Lounsberry. 

In the year 1807 was organized by the people of Bedford, the 
old Bedford Academy. The building was completed the next 
year and is the same building which is now occupied by the 
Bedford Library. It was opened June 6, 1809. 

Among the first subscribers of the school were ex-Governor 
John Jay, Ebenezer Grant, Benjamin Isaacs, Aaron Read, Jesse 
Holly, Peter Fleming, N. S. Bates and others. Donations were 
frequently made by prominent citizens of the city of New York. 
Among the latter was one Richard Riker at one time District 
Attorney of the city of New York, Member of the Assembly and 
Recorder of the city. 

The Recorder's Court was a court of criminal jurisdiction 
for the city of New York, and while he was Recorder it was said 
of Riker that he would sign his own death warrant if it was 
laid before him; this he did when a joke was finally practiced 
upon him. He occupied the position of Recorder from 1821 
to 1829. Other supporters of the Academy were Pierre E. Van 
"Wyck, who held the office of Recorder and District Attorney 
between the years 1806 and 1812 ; Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, 
Joseph Constant, Peter J. Monroe, a famous lawyer of his day, 
and Gen. James W. Husted, who at one time was an instructor 
in the Academy. Among those who attended the school were Con- 
gressman John McCloskey, and the Reverend Joseph Owen, who 
became a missionary to India and witnessed some of the terrible 
scenes of butchery in the Sepoy insurrection in India; many 
prominent physicians were in part educated at this institution; 
also many prominent lawyers, as Honorable John Jay, grandson 
of the Governor, who was afterwards U. S. Minister to Austria 
under the administration of President Grant, Honorable Chaun- 
eey M. Depew, railroad president and United States Senator, 
Honorable William H. Robertson, Lewis C. Piatt, first elected 
Surrogate of Westchester County, and the late Silas D. Gifford, 
County Judge of Westchester County ; prominent military men 
received a portion of their instruction at the old Bedford Acad- 
emy. Col. Piatt was a scholar here ; he was colonel of a regiment 
in the Civil War at the battle of Gettysburgh, being twenty-seven 


hours under fire and received a sunstroke from which he never 
recovered, Major John L. Knapp was also a student in the Bed- 
ford Academy, and after the close of the Civil AVar was appointed 
Superintendent of the Marine Hospital at Key West, Major 
W. 0. Scribner served in the Civil War and afterward became 
captain, being wounded in the battle of the Wilderness, he was 
assigned to the charge of the Freeman's Bureau of Petersburgh, 
Va. ; Major-General Phillip Kearney entered Bedford Academy 
preparatory to entering Columbia College, with the view of 
becoming a lawyer, but being fascinated with a military life, 
he joined the army. He went abroad to study and report upon 
the French Cavalry tactics, entering the French Army; he 
fought later in Italy, and for meritorious service was decorated 
with the Cross of the Legion of Honor; he was also with the 
U. S. Army in the Mexican War, and lost an arm in liis charge 
in the city of Mexico ; he fought on the side of the Union during 
the Civil War and rose to the rank of Major-General, but was 
killed in the battle of Chantilly, September 1, 1862. 

Among the prominent business men who were students at the 
Bedford Academy we find Benjamin Loder at one time president 
of the Erie Railway Company, William H. Vanderbilt, presi- 
dent of the New York Central Railroad Lines, Francis I. Palmer 
in his day the owner of the Dry Dock and Broadway stage lines 
and president of the Broadway Bank, William Darling, Sur- 
veyor of the Port of New York, James Lounsbery and his two 
sons, James and Richard, merchants and brokers, J. Lee Smith 
at one time president of the St. Nicholas Bank, George Waring, 
ancestor of the celebrated Colonel AVaring who organized the 
street cleaning department of the city of New York. Many 
prominent men were also principals of this institution and many 
teachers in public institutions have received instructions here. 
The late Joseph Barrett, for many years School Commissioner 
in the Third Assembly District and for a long time connected 
with the custom house in New York city, received his youthful 
training at this school. 

The localities within the town are. Mount Kisco (part of the 
village), Katonah, Bedford, Bedford Centre, Bedford Hills, 
Succabom Corners, Cantetoe Corners, Wood's Bridge, Howland 
Lake, part of Byram Lake, Cross River Reservoir. 

About 1846, the Harlem Railroad was laid through the town 
and three new village sites were founded, namely : Mount 
Kisco, Bedford Station and AMiitelockville which is now Kato- 



nah. In the construction of the new Croton Reservoir, the 
village of Katonah wap wiped out and the new village projected 
and built. 

The strictly rural air and country characteristics which once 
prevailed throughout this town have since the coming of later 
facilities of travel, nearly passed away. Many of the wealthy 
and opulent citizens of New York city have established their 
summer residences and country seats over nearly the entire 

The Montefiori Home for Consumptives established here 
is located on a hill to the west of Bedford Hills, and the 
State Reformatory for Women, established a few years ago by 
the State, is located a mile to the east of the village of Bedford 
Hills, suggesting as they do close proximity to the city. The 
condemnation of land by the city of New York for Croton 
"Water purposes for the city of New York has also had much to 
do with changing the social and business atmosphere of old 
Bedford, as well as its property boundaries. 

Notwithstanding all these, some advantages and others 
drawbacks, the town of Bedford still possesses its attractive 
topography and charming native forests, making it an exceed- 
ingly beautiful section of the county. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Edward Percy Barrett, Chairman 
Board of Supervisors, in 1912-L3; Su- 
pervisor of the town of Bedford, was 
born on June 25, 1875, in the town 
of which he is now the official head 
and where he has always resided, the 
third son of Joseph and Emma (Rob- 
ertson) Barrett. 

He received an education in the 
public schools of his native town, 
but is essentially a self-made man. 
He chose the profession of law, and 
after being admitted to practice es- 
tablished offices in White Plains, the 

Mr. Barrett is one of the young- 
est men now serving in the County 
Board of Supervisors, though num- 
bered among the oldest in time of 
service; that he is an acceptable 
representative is proven by his re- 
peated re-election at the hands of 
his townspeople. He is an active 
member of the board — watchful and 

observant of everything that is pass- 
ing, and ready to interpose objec- 
tions or suggest amendments that he 
deems proper. Quick of perception 
he readily discovers defects, and his 
sagacity and good sense as readily 
prompts the remedy. He seldom 
speaks on any subject other than by 
few explanatory remarks, giving his 
views succinctly and with more ad- 
vantage to the public than by the 
delivery of an elaborate speech. 

He was elected Supervisor in 
1905, and has been re-elected every 
two years since, his new term being 
for the years 1912-13; was elected 
Chairman of the Board of Supervis- 
ors in November, 1911. 

To establish the fact that Mr. 
Barrett is a man of affairs, and 
prominent in the business world, 
mention may be made that he is an 
active member of the Katonah Fire 
Department, passed through all 
grades until he became the head; 
is an active official in the Katonah 



Village Improvement Associatiou 
and a conscientious member of the 
Katouah Presbyterian Church. 

President and director of the Ka- 
tonah Lighting Company; President 
and director of the Hoyt Brothers 
Company general-department-store, 
Katonah; secretary and director of 
the Katonah Laud Company; secre- 
tary and director ot the Bedford 
Hills Real Estate Company; secre- 
tary and director of the Central 
Westchester Co. Real Estate Com- 
pany; president, treasurer and di- 
rector of the Carbon-less Paper 
Company or New York; vice-presi- 
dent and treasurer of the Andes- 
Bullion Mining Company of White 
Plains; sole owner and proprietor of 
the Westchester Wood-Working 
Mill of White Plains; secretary and 
director of the Fowler & Sellers 
Hardware Company ot White 
Plains; director of the Reed & 
Clark Real Estate Company of 
White Plains; secretary and treas- 
urer of the Westchester Electric 
Supply Company of White Plains; 
secretary of the Bedford Union 
Cemetery Association of Katonah. 

Mr. Barrett married, on November 
27, 1901, Miss Estelle A. Travis, 
daughter of Byron A. and Margaret 
(Putney) Travis of Katonah. Of 
this union there are two children, 
Douglass L., born December 3, 1902, 
and Katherine E., born May 20, 
1908. The family place of residence 
is in Katonah. 


Joseph Barrett, School Commis- 
sioner, Supervisor and Deputy Col- 
lector of the Port of Mew York, was 
born May 25, 1840, a son of Moses 
St. John and Mary Elizabeth (Nex- 
sen) Barrett, and a grandson of 
Samuel Barrett who was among 
those who settled in the town of 
Bedford in the year 1700. Joseph 
was born in the Barrett homestead 
on the road leading from Bedford 
Station to the Bedford Baptist 
Church. His mother died when he 
was only two years of age. 

He received his education in the 
district school near his home and in 
the Bedford Academy where one of 
his instructors was the late General 
James W. Husted. Here he prepared 
for college; he was graduated from 
LaFayette College, in Easton, Pa., 

in the year 1861. Two of his sons 
have since been graduated from the 
same institution, and all were mem- 
bers of the Delta Kappa Epsilon 
fraternity. He was inclined toward 
a mercantile career, but he was com- 
pelled to heed the call of his fellow 
citizens when the request came that 
he give some of his time to the dis- 
charge of public duties. 

In the Spring of 1866 Mr. Barrett 
accepted appointment to fill the po- 
sition of School Commissioner in the 
Third District of the County; at the 
expiration of the term for which he 
was appointed he was elected to the 
office, and reelected, again serving 
until January 1, 1876 — ten years in 
all. His second son later held this 

He was next elected Supervisor of 
the town of Bedford (an office his 
third son now holds), and this posi- 
tion he held for six terms, from 1879 
to 1885. Quiet and thoughtful, ob- 
serving closely and proving his 
judgment in that way which is of 
all others the wisest, after practical 
waiting for evidence, Supervisor 
Barrett at once became a valuable 
member of the Board of Supervis- 
ors. The writer remembers him as 
one of the board's ablest members 
in a period when the board was com- 
posed of the County's men of dis- 

When Judge William H. Robert- 
son became Collector of the Port of 
New York he appointed, in 1881, 
Mr. Barrett a Deputy Collector. 
Subsequently the latter was ap- 
pointed by Collector Robertson as 
Cashier of the New York Custom 
House, and at the expiration of Col- 
lector Robertson's term, he was 
made Receiving Teller in the Cash- 
ier's office, retaining latter posi- 
tion until he resigned in 1005. 

Governor Odell on April 23, 1901, 
appointed Mr. Barrett one of the 
first Board of Managers of the New 
York State Reformatory for Wo- 
men, at Bedford, and on being re- 
appointed, held the position at the 
time of his death. He served as 
treasurer of the Board of Managers. 
In this position a son succeeds him, 
as manager and treasurer. 

In 1909 Mr. Barrett was ap- 
pointed by Supreme Court Justice 
Keogh a Commissioner in land 
condemnation proceedings relative 


tit. ' 

...r. \ 

■ ■■('''■' 




to the Ashokan aqueduct; this posi- 
tion he held at the time of his death. 

For many years Mr. Barrett was 
identified with the work of the 
Katonah Village Improvement So- 
ciety, serving as its President in re- 
cent years, and contributed largely 
to the success of the New Village 
project when the former village was 
taken by the city of New York in 
connection with the enlargement of 
Croton Lake. 

Soon after the organization of the 
Katonah Presbyterian Church Mr. 
Barrett became identified with it, 
serving its interests faithfully as 
Trustee, Treasurer, Elder and as 
Superintendent of the Sunday 
School for thirty-one years. 

He was a promoter also of the local 
Tree Library and the Choral Club, 
as well as everything that had for 
its object the improvement of condi- 
tions educational, moral or physical, 
within the locality of which he was 
a part. 

Hon. James Wood, his neighbor 
and life-long friend, in speaking of 
Mr. Barrett, says: " No community 
has ever had too many citizens such 
as Joseph Barrett has been, and any 
community that has had one such 
has been "truly fortunate. By his 
death every worthy enterprise has 
lost a sympathizer and a promoter, 
everything that is noble and pure 
and good and that benefits humanity 
has lost a friend and a helper." 

' ' Katonah is better because Jo- 
seph Barrett here had his home; 
the town of Bedford is better be- 
cause he was one of her sons and so 
long took part in her public affairs; 
Westchester County is better because 
he was one of her citizens who by 
the influence of his character made 
the moral tone of her citizenship 
higTier and purer and by his devo- 
tion had her oest interests served 
and promoted. In proportion as have 
been the benefits of his life are now 
the losses sustained by his death. ' ' 

Mr. Barrett was married on Feb- 
ruary 13, 1867, to Miss Emma Rob- 
ertson, daughter of Henry and Hul- 
dah H. Eobertson, his wife being a 
sister of Judge William H. Robert- 
son. Until 1890 they resided in the 
Robertson homestead, near Cantito 
Corners, then removed to Deer Park 
Farm, a half mile east of Katonah, 
where they continued to reside until 

the home in New Katonah was oc- 
cupied in 1898. To them five chil- 
dren were born, four sons and one 
daughter, Henry E., William G., 
Edward Percy, Robert T., and 

The death of Mr. Barrett occurred 
on Sunday afternoon, March 13, 
1910, at Galen Hall, Atlantic City, 
N. J., to which place he had gone, in 
hopes of benefitting his health, ac- 
companied by Mrs. Barrett and Miss 
Elizabeth Barrett. The two last 
named, and his four sons, called has- 
tily on the day previous, were gath- 
ered about his bedside when he 
passed away peacefully, in the seven- 
tieth year of his age. 


Charles Haines, one of the best 
known members of the Westchester 
County Bar, leading lawyer of the 
town of Bedford, with offices in 
White Plaino, the county-seat, was 
born in the town of Bedford, on 
August 9, 1846, a son of Joseph 
and Elizabeth (Powell) Haines. 

His education began in the little 
district school of his native town; 
with this exception he is entirely 
self-taught. He studied law in the 
office of Robert S. Hart, who was 
the last Judge of Common Pleas in 
the County, and began practice in the 
year 1872, being admitted to the 
bar at Poughkeepsie general term in 
that year. 

Though he persists in being a 
bachelor, Mr. Haines is the most 
genial of men, and still maintains 
the family home on Bedford Hills, 
where hospitality is Liberally dis- 

It is said the subject of this 
sketch is a firm believer in women 
enjoying all the rights given them 
by the Constitution, and probably 
a little more; and to this belief, it 
is alleged, is owing his determina- 
tion to remain single, that he be not 
tempted in any way to interfere 
with a woman's rights. He is ad- 
mitted to be the best legal authority 
in the county relative to the prop- 
erty rights of married women. 

Mr. Haines drew the first statute 
adopted by the State Legislature 
installing the present system of 
drawing jurors in Justice Courts. 
His persistent efforts succeeded in 



efifecting a most desired change; the 
substituting of an honest and fair 
system for u mode devoid of any 
system suggestive of fair-dealing. 
The bill providing for the change 
was before five different Legisla- 
tures in this State, in so many 
years, before it was passed j finally 
it was put through by the aid of 
Senator Robertson and Speaker 
Husted of this county. 

He was the first Recording Secre- 
tary of the Westchester County Bar 
Association and later was Vice- 

He is a member of the Bedford 
Farmers' Club, one of the oldest or- 
ganizations of its kind in the United 
States, which was formed in the 
year 1850. His father was one of 
the charter members, and when 
young Haines arrived at the re- 
quired age he also joined the club. 

Mr. Haines is not a political of- 
fice holder. This fact is not at- 
tributed to any disinclination on his 
part, growing out of a belief that 
busy men have no time to devote to 
transacting the public's business; 
on the contrary he subscribes to the 
laudable doctrine that the patriotic 
citizen should hold himself ever 
ready to respond to his country's 
call, be it the demands of peace or 
the summons to war. Though he 
has not yet reached the office-hold- 
er's goal, he has made many races 
for it. The Prohibition Party, yet 
lacking in the county many votes 
necessary to elect, has named Mr. 
Haines for many elective positions, 
including that of Eepresentative in 
Congress, Judge, District-Attorney, 
and lastly for Supervisor of his 
native town. Mr. Haines possesses 
the grit necessary to the proclaim- 
ing of the fact that " I am a Pro- 
hibitionist," and he has the ability 
to set before the people " dry argu- 
ments " that cannot be downed. 
On each occasion of his " running 
for office " he made a good fight, 
proving that failure to land the 
prize was not his fault; was in fact 
the fault of his not receiving enough 
votes, that though the Prohibitionist 
is admitted to be a good sort of a 
man, there is found to be not 
enough of him when the votes are 
counted. Unlike many others in the 
political business, Mr. Haines sticks 
to his party colors, though it may be 

years before he can march to victory 
and find himself in public office by 
aid of his party's vote alone. His 
fight for that reward which loyalty 
to principle gives, will surely profit 
him. Henry Clay once said, " It is 
better to be right than to be Presi- 
dent. ' ' 


Isaac Worthington Turner, former 
Justice of the Peace, former Super- 
visor of the town of Bedford, and 
later President of the village of 
Mount Kisco, was born in Montville, 
Conn., on April 29, 1854, a son of 
Isaac and Lucy Almira (Geer) 
Turner. He was liberally educated 
in the common scnools ot his native 
town, finishing in the Norwich Free 

He began his business career as 
drug clerk in Norwich, Conn. In 
1875 he went to New York city and 
entered the College of Pharmacy 
from which he graduated in 1878; 
was in drug business in Jersey City, 
N. J., from 1880 to 1886. 

In 1886 he became a resident of 
this county, residing in Katonah, in 
the same town he now resides. In 
1891 he became a resident of the vil- 
lage of Mount Kisco, where we now 
find him directing the affairs of the 

His uniform, contagious good na- 
ture and liberality of spirit never 
fails to make friends for him. Good 
judgment and a judicial mind dis- 
played by him, suggested to his 
towns that he be elected a Justice of 
the Peace, and it was not long after 
his settlement in a new home, that, 
in 1892, he was chosen " Presiding 
Judge. ' ' At the termination of his 
term as Justice, he was promoted, in 
1896, to be Supervisor, the head of 
the town government. He served as 
Supervisor of the town of Bedford 
from the spring of 1896 to the fall 
of 1905 — longest individual term in 
the history of the town, approxi- 
mately ten years. His political party 
being Democratic, and he a true ex- 
pounder of the faith, makes his elec- 
tion in so hide-bound a Republican 
town (with a record of never before 
having elected a Democrat), a pro- 
ceeding most remarkable in the 
county's political history. The ex- 
planation is, Mr. 'iurner's personal 


r'l > ■\ ^ 



popularity. He ran recently as the 
Democratic candidate for Member of 
Assembly, in a district overwhelm- 
ingly Eepublican. He was shy of 
only a few votes of winning; since 
then his party friends in the County 
have stood ready to nominate him for 
any county office, believing his in- 
dividual popularity will carry the 
election for him. 

The nomination for Village Presi- 
dent came as the unsolicited action of 
a union caucus, attended by represent- 
atives of all political parties, deter- 
mined to nominate ' * the man for the 
office," a man best calculated to 
bring about certain desired improve- 
ments necessary for the needs of a 
fast growing village; above all, an 
up-to-date sewerage system must be 
provided. With commendable unan- 
imity, the caucus settled upon Mr. 
Turner as the " man for the hour." 
He was nominated and his election 
followed. With characteristic en- 
ergy, President Turner set about per- 
forming the task set for him. He 
proposed that New York City, whicli 
owned lanu running through the vil- 
lage and which was desirous of pro- 
tecting its sources of water supply, 
be requested to act in conjunction 
with the village of Mount Kisco in 
constructing a desirable sewer 
system. To make possiuie such an 
arrangement, an act of the Legis- 
lature was passed (Chap. 428, Laws 
of 1907). The sewer system com- 
plete incurs an expense of $350,000; 
of this amount the village pays 
$100,000, and New York city pays 
the balance, $250,000; the city of 
New York agreeing, further, to 
build the disposal works and acquire 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 

necessary land for the same. As 
might be expected, President Turner 
to bring about needed improvements 
had to overcome obstacles put in his 
way by unprogressive citizens touni 
in every community, so conservative 
and careful as to be painful. His re- 
election and continuance in office 
proved that President Turner's 
course met the sanction of a large 
majority. Even when he attempted 
to resign his office, believing that his 
work was done, the resignation was 
not accepted, and the demand for his 
continuing in a position for which he 
is by intelligence and temperament 
so well adapted, was so strong that 
he had to yield and withdraw the 

Mr. Turner is extensively engaged 
in mercantile business in the city of 
New York. He is treasurer of the 
Carr Chemical Company, treasurer 
of the Mutual Steam Laundry Com- 
pany, and is in the hotel business 
under the firm name of Turner & 

He is a member of several fra- 
ternal and social organizations. 
Prominent in the Masonic Order; is 
a 32d degree Mason, a Knight 
Templar and a member of the Mystic 
Shrine. A member of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows and a 
member of the Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks. Is a member 
of the Democratic Club of New York 
city and a charter member of the 
Palma Club of Jersey City. 

Mr. Turner was married on Decem- 
ber 24, 1884, to Miss Ellie M. Mer- 
ritt, daughter of James F. and Lucy 
A. Merritt, of Katonah, N. Y. There 
were no children to this union. 



{C ontinued from page 193, Vol. 1.) 

This town is one of the principal historic communities in the 
historic County of Westchester. It was organized March 7, 
1788 ; and formed, like the townships of North Salem, Somers, 
Yorktown and a large part of Lewisboro, a portion of the Manor 
of Cortlandt, which Manor, according to actual survey, con- 
tained eighty-three thousand acres. (See description, page 190, 
volume 1.) 

The present population of the town, according to the 1910 
census, is 22,255. It contains two villages, Peekskill, with a 
population of 15,246, and Croton-on-Hudson, with a population 
of 1,806. 

Stephanus Van Cortlandt was the first lord of the Manor of 
Cortlandt. His grandson, Pierre Van Cortlandt, became the 
oldest surviving representative of the Van Cortlandt family in 
America, and the heir at law of the entail. He early took an 
active part against every oppression of the English government 
upon the Colonies. (See biography.) His eldest son, Philip, 
became a Colonel then a General in the patriot army; he was 
a member of the Court that tried Gen. Arnold for improper con- 
duet in Philadelphia while in charge there; he commanded a 
regiment of infantry under Gen. La Fayette. He was in the 
Battle of Yorktown, Va. ; after the war he retired to the Manor 
House at Croton-on-Hudson. Gen. Van Cortlandt represented 
the County in Congress for sixteen years, declining re-election 
in 1811. He accompanied the Marquis La Fayette in his tour 
of the United States in 1824. 

Pierre Van Cortlandt died May 1, 1814 ; his son. Gen. Philip, 
died at the manor house, Croton, on November 21, 1831. 

It was at Peekskill that Aaron Burr was commissioned as 
Colonel in the patriot army. He was assigned to duty in the 
southern section of the County to intercept skirmishers sent out 
from the British forces in New York city. Later he practiced 
law in this County, in courts held at Westchester. 

Gen. Washington for a considerable period had his head- 
quarters in this town, when his army was encamped nearby, not 
far from Verplanck's Point, mentioned frequently in the narra- 
tive relative to the Capture of Andre. 

Jans Peek, for whom Peekskill was named over two hundred 
years ago, was arrested for selling liquors without a license, and 


his wife was heavily fined for selling liquor to the Indians con- 
trary to law, history tells us. 

In the graveyard of old St. Peter's Church, in the suburbs 
of Peekskill, is erected the monument to John Paulding, one of 
the captors of Andre. The inscriptions are : North side— "Here 
repose the mortal remains of John Paulding, who died on the 
18th day of February, 1818, in the 60th year of his age." On 
south side— "The Corporation of the City of New York erected 
this tomb as a memorial sacred to public gratitude." On west 
side— "On the morning of the 23d of September, 1780, accom- 
panied by two young farmers of the County of Westchester 
(whose names will one day be recorded on their own deserved 
monuments), he intercepted the British Spy Andre." 

"Poor himself, he disdained to acquire wealth by the sacrifice 
of his country. Rejecting the temptation of great rewards, he 
conveyed his prisoner to the American camp ; and by this act 
of noble self-denial the treason of Arnold was detected; the 
designs of the enemy baffled. West Point and the American Army 
saved; and these United States, now by the grace of God Free 
and Independent, rescued from most imminent peril." On the 
east side is a representation of the medal presented by Congress 
to each of the three captors. 

The Westchester County Bank, in Peekskill, was organized 
March 31, 1833. The first president was Gen. Pierre Van Cort- 
landt, a son of Lt.-Governor Pierre Van Cortlandt, who was 
succeeded by Isaac Seymour, C. A. G. Depew, Dorlin F. Clapp, 
Cyrus Frost and Cornelius A. Pugsley, the present incumbent. 

Peekskill was engaged in whaling in 1834, when the West- 
chester Whaling Company was incorporated, with lawyer Wil- 
liam Nelson as president. 

In 1849 the first telegraph line was introduced into Peekskill, 
and Alonzo B. Cornell, later Governor of this State, was the 
first operator here. 

The first passenger train (on the Hudson River Railroad) 
reached Peekskill in September, 1847; the station was a build- 
ing 12 X 14, one story high, and stood near where the present 
freight house now stands. 

Gas was first introduced in the village of Peekskill in 1856, 
but the quality was poor. 

The Peekskill Turnpike Company was organized in 1816, and 
is now of the past. 

In 1856 Peekskill suffered from a siege of small-pox. 


On his way to Washington, in 1861, President Abraham 
Lincoln stopped in Peekskill, to greet Congressman William 
Nelson, who served in Congress with Lincoln in 1847-49. Con- 
gressman Nelson lived in the Nelson homestead situated where 
the Municipal Building now stands. Jackson 0. Dykman, later 
Supreme Court Justice, was a law student under Mr. Nelson, 
whose office turned out many lawyers who became prominent. 

Capt. Isaac Depew, of Peekskill, father of Hon. Chauncey M. 
Depew, took apparent pleasure in asserting that he was proud 
to say that he sent only one of his sons to college. 

Edward D. Bassett, at one time Coroner, had been Clerk of 
the village of Peekskill at an annual salary of $50, and Town 
Clerk at same salary; though paralyzed in his right foot and 
left hand, he was well able to perform his duties. 

Hon. Chauncey M. Depew opened a very modest law office in 
1861, over the grocery store of Morris & Henry Depew on the 
main street, Peekskill. 

James P. Sanders, who recently died in Yonkers, the oldest 
member of the County bar, kept a hat store in Peekskill in the 
early sixties; he began the study of law when he was 35 years 
of age ; at the time of his death he had become Past Grand Sire 
of the Sovereign Grand Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., of the United States. 

Stephen D. Horton, former Sheriff, has a collection of local 
and county historical literature of which he is justly proud. 

Peekskill Creek runs through the town and empties in the 
Hudson River. 

Many who became prominent as lawyers studied law in the 
local offices of Edward Wells and of Calvin Frost. 

Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, the famous clergyman, became a 
resident of Peekskill, by purchasing, on May 13, 1859, fifteen 
acres of land on Main street; on which property he erected a 
home to which he gave the name of "Bascobel." He died March 
8, 1887. 

Moses Y. Beach, the founder of the New York Sun, was also 
a resident of Peekskill. 

Peekskill is widely known for its many stove manufactories, 
giving employment to hundreds of people. 

Daniel H. Conklin, a Peekskill boy, was the first regular oper- 
ator at the Peekskill telegraph office, he being taught by Alonzo 
B. Cornell, later Governor of this State; Conklin became a noted 
railroad man, and for several years was Mayor of the city of 
Decatur, 111. 


The Peekskill Savings Bank was organized October 12, 1859 ; 
Thomas Southard was the first president ; he died suddenly after 
serving a few weeks. Sandford R. Knapp, elected secretary in 
1863, is still serving. Chauncey M. Depew was one of the 
original trustees. 

The Peekskill Academy was established October 16, 1838. 

The public water supply came in 1876, and is under charge of 

Enoch Crosby, the patriot " secret agent," learned his trade 
as a " cobbler " in this town. 

David G. Montross, a prominent business man and for twelve 
years Postmaster of Peekskill, died July 1, 1911. He had just 
been re-appointed Postmaster for another term of four years. 

Daniel H. Craig, the founder and agent of the Associated 
Press, was at one time numbered among the residents of Peekskill. 

The State Military Camp is located on what was formerly 
known as the "McCoy Farm," situated about a mile northwest 
of Peekskill. This property was acquired by the State in 1882. 
It is proposed to establish a State Memorial Park at Verplanck's 
Point, in this town, to include the site of Fort La Fayette, the 
remains of the shore battery (of the Revolutionary period), the 
terminal of the old King's Ferry leading up to the Stony Point 
Battlefield State Reservation, Washington's headquarters and 
the camping ground of the allied American and French troops 
in 1782. 

Peekskill, the principal village of this town, has been made 
famous by constant reference being made to it by Hon. Chauncey 
M. Depew, as the place of his birth. The late Gen. James W. 
Husted, the "Bald Eagle of Westchester," also helped to adver- 
tise Peekskill as his home village. 

The Field Library was incorporated April 11, 1887. 

For list of Supervisors serving this town at different periods, 
see general article relative to Supervisors elsewhere in this 

The village of Peekskill was incorporated in 1826 but was 
not organized until 1839; the population in the several years 
has been as follows: In 1845, 3,000; in 1855, 3,538; in 1860, 
3,560; in 1870, 6,560; in 1880, 6,893; in 1890, 9,676; in 1900, 
10,358; in 1902, 12,448; in 1905, 13,200; in 1910, 15,246. The 
first president of the village was Capt. Isaac Requa. 

It is said that Jans Peek, for whom Peekskill is named, was 
a Dutch navigator who undertook to sail up the Hudson on an 


independent voyage of discovery; he lost his bearings and car- 
ried his vessel into the creek (or kill), where he soon ran aground. 
This accident caused him to land about where the village, bearing 
his name, now stands. He gave the kill, which he discovered, 
his own name, and the later residents adopted the name for the 

The village of Croton-on-Hudson was incorporated in 1898; 
the population in 1900 was 1,533 ; in 1902, 1,421 ; in 1905, 1,599 ; 
in 1910, 1,806. Croton is named for an Indian chief, who once 
reigned on this camping ground. 

The population of this Town was, in 1830, 3,840; in 1835, 
3,994; in 1840, 5,592; in 1845, 6,738; in 1850, 7,758; in 1855, 
8,146; in 1860, 10,074; in 1865, 9,393; in 1870, 11,694; in 1875, 
11,908; in 1880, 12,664; in 1890, 15,139 ; in 1892, 14,039; in 1900, 
18,703 ; in 1905, 21,029 ; in 1910, 22,255. 

State Militaiy Camp of Instruction opened July 1, 1882. 
Peekskill Municipal Building opened June 17, 1898. First 
trolley line in Peekskill started June 4, 1899. Depew Opera 
House was destroyed by fire January 29, 1900. 

Dr. Alexander D. Dunbar was born in 1846 ; came to Peeks- 
kill in 1866 immediately after graduating from college; is pres- 
ent local superintendent of schools. 

The Masonic order has a large membership in this town, 
organization of Cortlandt Lodge dates back many years. 

In July, 1912, Leverett F. Crumb of Peekskill, was appointed 
District Deputy Grand Master of the Twelfth Masonic District, 
by the Grand Master of Masons of the State of New York. 

Calvin Frost, many years resident of this town and recognized 
head of legal profession of the county, was born in Somers, this 
county, on June 21, 1823, and died on July 22, 1895. 

Edward T^^ells, resident of Peekskill, leading lawyer, District- 
Attorney of this county, 1851 to 1858, was born December 2, 
1818; died in 1896. 

Owen Tristram Coffin, Supervisor in 1859 and Surrogate of 
this county from 1871 to 1895, was born July 17, 1815; died 
July 21, 1899. 

Eugene Beauharnais Travis, prominent lawyer of county, was 
bom September 22, 1844 ; died November 13, 1908. 

David Wiley Travis, lawyer. Member of Assembly, Supervisor, 
Police Justice, etc., was born January 15, 1824 ; died October 4, 

William II. Briggs, who served as Postmaster, Justice of the 


Peace and as Sheriff in 1844-45-46, was born on February 14, 
1794; died August 12, 1880. 

Verplanck's Point was named in honor of Philip Verplanek, 
the owner of Verplanck's Patent, where he lived as a patron. 

Many streets in the village of Peekskill were given the name 
of a prominent resident of the long ago and of a more recent 
date. Nathaniel Brown, one of the first settlers, was not only 
honored himself but his children also had streets named in their 
honor; Captain Pomart of the Revolutionary war period, Isaac 
Hadden, and Hon. William Nelson, Congressman, State Senator 
and the County's leading lawyer, were likewise favored; Abra- 
ham Depew, grandfather of Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, as well 
as the latter. Gen. Seth Pomery, killed in the Revolutionary 
War and who lies buried in a local cemetery, John Paulding, 
one of the three captors of Andre, and Rev. Charles Nassau were 
not forgotten when it came to naming local thoroughfares; 
several streets bear the name of former Village Trustees, viz., 
Reuben R. Finch, Philetus Raymond and Robert S. Armstrong; 
Frederick W, Requa, who was president of the village in 1839, 
St. John Constant who was Sheriff in 1808-9-11-12 and Super- 
visor of the town in 1833, Col. Tal. P. Shaffner, John Simpson, 
Jacob R. Decatur, James Diven, Harrison W. Smith, David D. 
Smith, Ward B. Howard, Lent Post, Samuel Field, John Sloat, 
Jeremiah Mabie, Calvin Frost a leading lawyer of the county, 
Gen. James W. Husted, Thomas Southard and John C. Fremont 
are also kept in memory by having Peekskill streets and avenues 
bear their names as marks of that respect which the present 
generation has for them. 

The very charming " breathing place " in the village of 
Peekskill known as Depew Park, consisting of several acres, was 
presented to the village by Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, United 
States Senator, on May 29, 1901. Before that date the village 
was not able to boast of a public park. 

Part of the land so presented is of interest in connection with 
the early history of the town. It was acquired by license dated 
March 6, 1864, from Thomas Dongan, then Colonial Governor of 
the Province of New York, granting leave to purchase from the 
Indians. Mr. Depew 's great-grandfather who purchased under 
this license, raised a company for the Westchester Regiment of 
the Continental Army and with it served during the Revolu- 
tionary War. The expense of recruiting and equipping the 
company forced him to mortgage the property, and this mort- 


gage was foreclosed in 1794. The continuous chain of title was 
thus interrupted for three years, but in 1797 the fann was re- 
purchased by Hon. C. M. Depew's grandfather, Abraham 
Depew, and has remained in the Depew family's possession 
since. Hon. C. M. Depew purchased the interests of other heirs, 
and on gaining full possession presented this with other adja- 
cent land to the village for a public park. 

At a special meeting of the Peekskill Board of Village Trus- 
tees, held on the evening of May 29, 1901, Mr. Depew appeared 
and presented the deed of said property. The deed was accepted 
on behalf of the village, the resolution to accept being adopted 
by a rising vote of the Trustees. 

Senator Depew then addressed the Board as follows : 

" I am very much obliged to you, gentlemen, and this is 
a very pleasant evening to me. With many of the gentlemen 
here, especially that venerable old man there (Mr. Free) I was a 
boy, and I always took the deepest interest in this village in which 
I was born, and in which my relatives are buried, and where I 
expect, when the time comes, I will' be buried myself ; but I am 
doing my best to postpone that to the last possible day. 

" I felt that I owed something to the village from the fact 
that for the past twenty-five years I have been making speeches 
all over this country, and in many cases on the other side of the 
ocean, and in many of those speeches introducing anecdotes 
which, in order to make them more interesting, I located them in 
the place where I was bom. The result is that Peekskill has be- 
come widely known as a place where things are happening which 
are of human interest, and possessed of considerable humor. 

" Two years ago I was in London and going down Piccadilly 
I came to a news stand in front of the city's great picture 
gallerj'— the Royal Academy. In London, for those of you who 
have not been there, I will say that the news stands are all on 
the street, and the newsboy, or keeper of the stand, takes a 
blank sheet of a newspaper which has not been printed, but 
which has the heading of the difiFerent newspapers, and then he 
charcoals under the headlines what is in the newspaper. And 
as I was passing by this stand I saw charcoaled under the head 
of their leading paper, " What Happens in Peekskill." 
(Laughter.) I made up my mind I must have that paper at 
least, and so bought the paper and stood right in the street to 
see what happened in Peekskill since I left ; and the head-line 
was this : Somebody over here had gathered from my speeches 


as published in the newspapers and in the volumes of my ad- 
dresses, etc., a lot of stories that I had narrated as having oc- 
curred here on the Baptist minister, and the Methodist minister, 
and the Presbyterian minister, and the hotel-keeper, and the 
other old friends of mine whom I had known all my life, and one 
of them I remember especially to be Colonel Williams of the Eagle 
Hotel ; and this heading said that Chauncey Depew, who was 
well-known in England, was born in a village about forty miles 
from New York, on the Hudson, called Peekskill, inhabitated 
by a singularly odd and original people, and he is never tired of 
telling what has happened among these folk with whom he has 
passed his life. So I do not think that the village has suffered 
any from those little idiosyncracies and eccentricities that I have 
narrated at different times in regard to it. 

" But to show how the local flavor will seem to strike people as 
having actually occurred, I was making a speech in a distant 
part of the State, and proceeded to tell a story, and not know- 
ing what else to do — this was a good many years ago— I fas- 
tened it on the minister of one of the denominations here; and 
when the meeting adjourned, a clergyman upon the platform— 
and every clergyman in the town was on the platform while I 
was making the address— came up to me, and said, " I am pastor 
here of a church of the same denomination as that clergyman 
about whom you told that story ; I know him very well, and have 
known him for years, and I want to say that we don't think 
much of him in our church." (Laughter.) 

' ' I remember about twenty years ago in telling a story while 
making a speech the night before election, as I have been in the 
habit of doing for a great many years, up here in the public 
square in front of the Eagle Hotel, and I told a story that hap- 
pened at a boarding house on Division street, I gave the name 
and location of the house on that street and then mentioned 
an old Peekskill name— Gordineer, I think— who kept the house. 
Of course, I didn't know that any boarding-house had been on 
Division street, nor did I know any Gordineer who ever kept a 
boarding-house ; but that was immaterial. When I got through 
with that, an old friend of mine, a molder in the foundry whom 
I have known from boyhood, played marbles with and rode down 
hill with on the same sled, a hundred times, jumped up and 
said, " Chauncey, I boarded at that house." (Laughter.) 

' ' My earliest recollections of these woods now given for a 
Park, you remember that my grandfather farmed it over there 


when we were boys, don't you? (turning to Mr. Free) and 1 
used to think the only event in life which was all that I aspired 
to at that early date, was to be the proprietor of a farm where 
I could have cows like those which I used to drive home from 
those woods. I have reached here now away in the sixties, and 
I don't own those cows yet. (Laughter.) 

" It was in these woods when I was about twelve years of 
age that I smoked my first cigar. I can go to the tree now and 
point it out, and I never pass it without a qualm. I didn't go to 
school that afternoon. I remained in the woods. First I 
thought I was going to die and then for the next hour or two 
I hoped I would. And it was a habit I pursued surreptitiously 
for a number of years, and then pursued it again as an occupa- 
tion of considerable moment and taking a great deal of time for 
a number of years, and then gave it up entirely. 

" This old house (the Municipal Building, former home and 
law office of Congressman William Nelson), you know I studied 
law here with AVilliam Nelson, and Mr. Nelson's family lived 
in this house while I was a student, and his daughter and girl 
friends were here most of the time. The good old lawyer Nelson 
used to wonder why it was that I didn't get on more rapidly in 
the pursuit of the profession which he had adorned so many 
years, and in which I was to succeed him, possibly, if I displayed 
sufficient talent. The reason was, this house with those girls was 
in close proximity with that office, and I remember very well that 
his daughter, a most charming woman, like all the Nelsons, very 
hospitable, whenever in the family economy there was some crea- 
tion in the culinary department of the family, which was more 
appetizing and a little better for the taste and for the olfac- 
tories, and in every way, lasting longer while it was going down, 
and all that; whenever anything like that had been produced, 
a plate of it always appeared from the rear door of the office, and 
in the front, if the old gentleman wasn't there. 

" Well, my friends, when ai man has gone out into the world 
and has been knocked around it a good deal, had many experi- 
ences, many ups and downs, plenty of misfortunes and plenty 
of good fortune, and in the general average is very well satisfied 
with the result, believing that the misfortunes were sent for his 
experience, though they might have been expensive, and the 
sorrows were sent for his own good and that all the rest is clear 
gain and pure assets, and he looks back over his life as to what 


he loved best and to what he owes most, and from what he gets 
the greatest satisfaction and the greatest inspiration, to continue 
on performing as he may his duties and his allotted part in the 
world ; if my experience amounts to anything, it is that he keeps 
constantly recurring to the place where he was born ; constantly 
going back to the old scenes which are connected with child- 
hood; constantly recalling his mother, especially, beyond all 
others, and his father, and then the boys who were boys with 
him and what has become of them and what they have done, 
and what has become of their children and what they have done ; 
and then the greatest satisfaction, if he has a day off or a little 
leisure, is to come back to the old place and go through the old 
streets, and visit the old haunts, and go to the old school house, 
and about, to put himself in contact as a boy again with those 
scenes which make him renew his youth, and to keep forever 
green and fresh the feelings without which, unless they are kept 
green and fresh, a man had better die. 

" Gentlemen, I am very glad to have met you; I hope I will 
meet you oftener in the future, and I bid you good-night." 
(Hearty applause.) 

The population of Cortlandt Manor in 1712 is given as 91, 
and of Ryck's Point (Peekskill), in same year, as 32. 

Peel^kill in 1830, three years after its incorporation as a 
village, had a population of 1,130. In 1870 the village popu- 
lation had increased to 6,560. 

The population of the town of Cortlandt in 1840 was 5,592 ; 
in 1845, 6,738; in 1850, 7,758; in 1855, 8,468; in 1860, 10,074; 
in 1865, 9,393 ; in 1870, 11,695. The apparent decrease in 1865 
is attributed to loss the town suffered by the Civil War. 

The Seventy-fifth anniversary of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Peekskill was celebrated on June 25, 1902, Hon. 
Chauncey M. Depew being the orator. 

The author of this book is greatly indebted to former Sheriff 
Stephen D. Horton of this town, for valuable historical data 
relating to town and vicinity. 

Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, in speaking of his native place, 
said, "Peekskill is a representative New York town. It is not 
an Illinois institution nor a Nebraska institution; it is not a 
New England institution, but it is a typical, old-fashioned 
Knickerbocker Dutch institution. Peekskill for the first hun- 


dred and twenty-five or thirty years of its existence, repre- 
sented the society described by Washington Irving in his 
veracious chronicle of the early history of New York. It was 
births, it was marriages, it was deaths, it was people who lived 
comfortably and had enough and to spare of the material things 
of this world ; who were roystering blades in their youth, com- 
fortable merchants and farmers in middle life, and smoked the 
pipe of peace in good old age; but there was not, in that hun- 
dred and fifty years, aught that constitutes real growth, or real 
history, or real reputation of a place like this. 

"Then came the roar and the thunders of the Revolutionary 
War, and this sleepy old town was awakened instantly from 
its sleep of nearly a century and a half, by being placed, on 
the one hand, on the border of the neutral ground, and on the 
other hand as the outpost of the patriot forces at West Point. 
Here became the headquarters of Gen. Washington, in the old 
house which stood, when I was a boy, at the head of Main street ; 
here Washington passed many a day and many a night. And 
here is the spot, tradition tells us, where Aaron Burr, when a 
very young man, paid first those attentions to a Peekskill belle 
which afterwards made him the terror of the women of America. 
Here Alexander Hamilton learned the arts of war, and musing 
in that great mind of his, in that old head upon young shoulders, 
in the picturesque halls of this most beautiful spot on earth, 
he devised that spirit of government which to-day crystallizes 
into the government of the Republic of the United States." 

"I was sitting one night at dinner beside Governor Oglesby, 
of Illinois," continued Mr. Depew, "when the Governor asked, 
'Where were you born?' 'In Peekskill.' 'Said he, 'Where's 
that?' 'Where was your father bom?' 'In Peekskill.' 'And 
your grandfather?' 'In Peekskill.' 'And your great-grand- 
father?' 'In Peekskill.' 'And your great-great-grandfather?' 
'In Peekskill.' Said he 'I don't believe a word of it. There 
isn't such a case in the State of Illinois.' " 

Early in 1913 the Board of Trustees by resolution instructed 
Village President Nelson to appoint a committee to draft a bill 
providing a City Charter for Peekskill, to report said bill to 
Board of Village Trustees for presentation to the State Legis- 
lature of 1914. Under this resolution the following Committee 
was named : James W. Husted, Isaac H. Smith, Cornelius A. 
Pugsley, Edward F. Hill, Franklin Couch and Edward E. 


t .',f. ' 

> ^ 



Biographical Sketches. 


Thomas Nelson, distinguished jur- 
ist, the fourth child and fourth son 
of the late William and Cornelia 
Mandeville Hardman Nelson, was 
born in Peekskill, this county, on 
January 23, 1819. 

At the early age of ten years he 
became a student in the North Salem 
Academy (this county) where he 
prosecuted his studies for several 
years. He attended the Red Hook 
Academy in Dutchess County, N. Y., 
where he qualified for admission to 
Williams College of Williamstown, 
Mass., which institution he entered 
in the year 1834 at the age of fifteen 
years. In the year 1836, Williams 
College conferred upon him the de- 
gree of A.B. He waK an apt student 
in all branches. He gave special de- 
votion to the mastery of the classics, 
the taste for which remained with 
him to his death. 

He was a member of the Sigma 
Phi Fraternity and was its presid- 
ing officer at the semi-centennial of 
the Alpha of Massachusetts held in 
the year 1884. 

In the year 1836 he commenced 
the study of the law with Henry B. 
Cowles, Esq., a practicing attorney 
and counsellor at law with a lucra- 
tive practice in the city of New 
York. While pursuing his studies, 
as a mental deviation and recreation 
he attended the class of lectures on 
Anatomy in the Medical College in 
Barclay Street, New York city. He 
also studied and mastered the French 
language under the tutelage of the 
famous Prof. Parmentier of the Uni- 
versity of New York. 

In the following year he returned 
to Peekskill, and completed the study 
of the law in the office of his vener- 
able father, at which time the latter 
was the District-Attorney of the 
counties of Westchester, Eockland 
and Putnam. 

At the age of twenty-one years 
and in the month of January, 1840, 
he was admitted to practice as an 
attorney and counsellor at law at a 
term of the Supreme Court, held in 
Albany, N. Y. He then became his 
father's partner in the practice of 
his profession. The firm was the 
moBt renowned in their section of the 

country and they enjoyed one of the 
largest and most successful practices. 
In the year 1842 he traveled in 
the European countries, especially in 
the countries of England, France, 
Italy and Switzerland, in which 
places he sought and saw the his- 
torical and literary places. On his 
return he resumed the practice of 
his profession with his father. 

On January 9, 1851, at the age of 
32 years, he was specially honored 
by President Millard Fillmore, giv- 
ing him the appointment to the high 
office of Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court for the Territory of 
Oregon. His mode of travel was by 
way of the Isthmus of Panama to the 
Pacific Coast and after a tedious 
journey and considerable pioneering 
he arrived in Oregon, where he stayed 
and discharged his duties to the ut- 
most satisfaction of the Federal Gov- 
ernment and the Oregonians, until 
the early part of 1854, when he re- 
turned to Peekskill, the place of his 
nativity. He established himself in 
the city of New York and practiced 
his profession as a member of the 
bar with great credit and success for 
a period of over half a century. 

Thomas Nelson was not a politi- 
cian, but he was partial to the Whig 
party, and on its dissolution he be- 
came a staunch Republican. After 
a great deal of persuasion, in the 
year 1858, he and Lucien Birdseye, 
Esq., were nominated as the Repub- 
lican candidates for Justices of the 
Supreme Court, for the Second Dis- 
trict. He was defeated by a narrow 

In the year 1860 he was honored 
with the Republican nomination to 
represent the Congressional District 
composed at that time of the coun- 
ties of Westchester and Eockland, 
which district was one of the Demo- 
cratic strongholds. He failed of elec- 
tion, although running considerably 
ahead of the National ticket. 

During the Civil War, he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Morgan of this 
State, a member of the War Com- 
mittee for the counties of West- 
chester, Putnam and Rockland, and 
faithfully f^nd conscientiously dis- 
charged his duties as such member 
until peace was declared. 
In the year 1867 he was a trustea 



of the Hartwiek Theological Semin- 
ary. In the year 1869 he was one 
of the trustees of Williams College, 
and after his term of office repeat- 
edly declined re-election. 

He was a director of the West- 
chester County National Bank of 
Peekskill from the year 1849 to the 
date of his death, with the excep- 
tion of the period when he dis- 
charged his judicial duties in the 
Territory of Oregon. For one-half 
a century to the date of his death he 
was one of the trustees of the Peeks- 
kill Military Academy, in which in- 
stitution he took extraordinary in- 

On the 4th day of June, 1844, he 
was married by the Eev. David M. 
Halliday to Cornelia L. Seymour, the 
second child and only daughter of 
David and Zanina Eanney Seymour. 
There were born to them David S., 
George P., Zanina and Thomas Nel- 
son, Jr., all of whom passed away 
before Mr. Nelson's demise with the 
exception of Thomas Nelson, Jr., 
who is still living. 

Thomas Nelson, who was famil- 
iarly known as "Judge Nelson," 
was a magnificent specimen of phys- 
ical and mental health and vigor, 
which admirably fitted him for his 
life's work. 

He was a man of great determina- 
tion and mental force. He was very 
fair and just and thoroughly con- 
scientious in his dealings, and took 
as much interest in his clients' af- 
fairs as he did in his own. He was 
dignified, his manners very pleasant 
and attractive, and was affable and 
approachable at all times. His liter- 
ary attainments were beyond the or- 
dinary. He was a lover of good 
books, and especially loved the great 
poets. His memory for poetry was 
marvelous. He could recite page 
after page without making an error. 
He was unquestionably a great phil- 
osopher, a iiatural thinker, and exer- 
cised remarkable reasoning powers. 
He had a large and attractive vo- 
cabulary and expressed his thoughts 
in a clear a"d convincing way. He 
loved his fellow creatures, if in high 
or low standing. He was untiring 
in his labors. He believed in con- 
tinued activity and regarded vaca- 
tion and iocreation in a sense pecu- 
liar to himself, insomuch that he be- 
lieved that vacation consisted of a 

change of labor only. He was very 
witty and enjoyed a good story and 
could tell a good one himself. He 
was very thrifty and economical and 
took good care of his earthly posses- 
sions. He was a great admirer of 
his home. He loved his wife and 

He died after a ripe old age on 
July 26, 1907, in Peekskill, and his 
remains are interred in the Peeks- 
kill Cemetery. 


Thomas Nelson, Jr., lawyer, manu- 
facturer. President of the Village 
of Peekskill, etc., the fourth, young- 
est and only surviving child of the 
late Judge Thomas Nelson and Cor- 
nelia L. Seymour Nelson, was born 
in the village of Peekskill on July 
18, 1860. At this writing, his mother 
is still living. 

Mr. Nelson as a small boy attended 
the old Howard Street School in 
District No. 8. He afterward at- 
tended the Searles School, and sub- 
sequently became a pupil in the 
Peekskill Military Academy. He 
entered Williams College, Williams- 
town, Mass., as a student in the fall 
of 1879, and graduated with the 
class of 1883. 

He is a member of the Williams 
College 41umni Association and a 
staunch member of the Sigma Phi 

After graduation, Mr. Nelson, in 
the society of several bosom college 
friends, extensively toured the con- 
tinent. On his return he became a 
partner in the firm of V. W. Mc- 
Farlane & Co., of Chicago, 111., who 
were members of the Chicago Board 
of Trade. After four years of suc- 
cessful business, the firm by mutual 
consent, dissolved. 

He then entered the law offices of 
his venerable father, who had a 
suite of offices in the Bryant Build- 
ing, 55 Liberty Street, New York 
city, and in the building previous to 
the Bryant Building, for a period 
of over sixty years. 

Mr. Nelson took a course in the 
Columbia Law School and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1889. 

For several years he practiced law 
in conjunction with his father. 
While practicing his profession, he 
became interested in manufacturing, 




and from that time on he devoted 
himself to commercial pursuits. 

Mr. Nelson is the secretary and 
one of the directors of the Eobin- 
son-Eoders Company, of Newark, N. 
J., the largest feather, down and 
mattress concern in the United 
States. He is a director of the 
Westchester County National Bank, 
the said directorship being in the 
Nelson family from the time of his 
grandfather, Hon. William Nelson, 
one of ihe original incorporators 
and a director, to the present time. 
He is also a trustee of the Peeks- 
kill Military Academy, and a trus- 
tee of the Sigma Phi Corporation of 
Massachusetts. He is a director of 
the Mohegan Granite Company and 
the president and director of the 
Jones-Thomas Company of New 

Mr. Nelson is a Republican in poli- 
tics. He was practically born one; 
but he has the faculty of discrimin- 
ating in favor of a good Democrat 
in preference to a poor Eepublican. 

Mr. Nelson held the position of 
Park Commissioner in the city of 
New Brunswick, N. J., for a long 
period. After his father's death, he 
removed from New Brunswick, N. J., 
to Peekskili. He became interested 
in the political and social conditions 
of the village of Peekskili. 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

On March 7, 1911, Mr. Nelson was 
overwhelmingly elected to the un- 
sought for and unsolicited position 
of the Presidency of the village of 
Peekskili, in which position he is 
serving the community at this writ- 
ing, having been re-elected in 1913. 

Mr. Nelson is a member of the 
University Club of New York; the 
Union Club of New Brunswick, N. J. ; 
the Middlesex Golf Club of New 
Brunswick, N. J.; the Prospect Gun 
Club of Freeport, Long Island, of 
which club, at its last meeting held 
in January, 1912, Mr. Nelson was 
unanimously elected its president. 
Mr. Nelson became a member of the 
Cortland Hook and Ladder Company 
No. 1 of Peekskili on October 15, 
1909. He is a member of the Lin- 
coln Society of Peekskili, and an 
honorary member of the Harris Light 
Cavalry Survivors Association. He 
is a member of the Economic Club, 
and the founder of the Forest Eang- 
ers of Peekskili. He is a Mason, 
being a member of Cortlandt Lodge, 
No. 34. 

On March 3, 1885, Mr. Nelson was 
married to Cornelia L. Lesley, the 
daughter of Alexander and Mary 
Stevenson Lesley, of New York, by 
the Eev. Alfred Beach, of St. Peter's 
Church, New York city. They have 
no children. 

residents see elsewhere in this book, 



{Continued from page 195, Vol. 1.) 

This town has been reduced much in territory during the last 
twenty years. Originally it was one of the important towns 
of the County, and in its earlier days enjoyed the distinction of 
being " the Court town," where terms of Court of Sessions 
were held. Able men like John Pinkney, John Drake, Jeremiah 
Fowler, William Chatterton (also local magistrate), Stephen 
Ward, Jesse Lyon, P. L. McClellan (later District Attorney), 
W. H. Pemberton (later County Judge), Darius Lyon (later 
Sheriff), Elias Dusenbury, David Cromwell (later County Treas- 
urer), David Quackenbush, John Berry (later Assemblyman) 
and Herbert D. Lent, have held the office of Supervisor. 

The town's first loss of territory occurred when the Legisla- 
ture, by act passed March 12, 1892, took from it the village of 
Mount Vernon and made the latter a city. The second, 
when by act of the State Legislature a considerable portion of 
the town, known as the villages of Eastchester and of Wakefield 
was, in 1895, annexed to the city of New York. 

The first settlement in this town appears to have been com- 
menced near the Indian path (subsequently known as the 
Westchester path or Kingsbridge road), leading to the wading 
place, cir. 1664, at a spot called Hutchinson's. "There is 
where the house stood at the meadows and uplands to the 
Hutchinson's river." (Extracts from Pell's grant.) 

In 1666 it was by royal charter enacted, " That the planta- 
tion shall continue and retain ye name of Eastchester, by which 
name and style it shall be forever hereafter distinguished and 
knoMTi, " etc. 

Jonathan Ward, son of Hon. Stephen Ward, was Surrogate 
of this county from 1828 to 1840. 

The town's Revolutionary history is very interesting; its close 
proximity to the British lines made it at times very unpleasant 
for patriotic Americans who were to a certain degree at the 
mercy of Tories. 

On the Eastchester green, close to the old St. Paul's Church, 
is where the local militiamen met on drill days, and where 
citizens from miles around would meet on "election days," and 
take days in deciding an election according to the old way of 
doing things. 


The town has within its borders two thriving villages: 
Bronxville, incorporated in 1898, and Tuekahoe, incorporated 
in 1902. 

The usual rivalry between adjoining communities resulted in 
1868 in a strife to secure village incorporation. In this year 
residents of Bronxville decided upon taking action to bring about 
the incorporation of that locality as a village, under the general 
village law. Residents of Tuekahoe, learning of the purpose 
of their neighbors, hastily secured 28 signers to a petition for 
the incorporation of Tuekahoe; in their description of the terri- 
tory to be included in the incorporation, a part of Bronxville, 
or the section that Bronxville wanted in its own village, was 
described; but they wanted only so much of Bronxville, it was 
claimed, as would leave the Tuekahoe people dominant. The 
Tuekahoe people got to the Supervisor with their petition first, 
with Bronxville people a close second. Supervisor Lent was 
the man who was to act the part of Solomon the wise. It was 
hard for him, as he resided in the Tuekahoe district, yet was he 
not the Supervisor for the whole town? He carefully adjusted 
the scales of justice and considered both propositions. He 
finally decided that inasmuch as the Tuekahoe proposition cami 
to him first and included a large part of the territory embraced 
in the Bronxville proposition, he would not give a hearing on 
the latter. The Bronxvilleites took exceptions to this ruling, 
and went to the court; the court ordered the Supervisor to 
give such hearings. Objections were filed to both propositions 
and after hearings the Supervisor decided in favor of Tuekahoe 
and against Bronxville. Interest did not abate. Alfred E. 
Smith, attorney for the Bronxville people, appealed to the 
County Court, and both decisions were reversed, the Court 
holding that the Tuekahoe adherents had obtained but 24 of the 
necessary 25 freeholders to sign their petition, and that the 
Bronxville people had complied in all respects with the statute. 
This put the question to a vote for or against incorporation in 
Bronxville, and a majority voted in the affirmative. 

Four years later residents of Tuekahoe took the decided step 
for themselves. 

The village of Bronxville, as well as the river Bronx and the 
Borough of the Bronx, is named in honor of the Dutch Bronck 
family, the head of which, Jonas Bronck, owned much land in 
the lower section of Westchester County, which came into his 
and the family's possession through grant, in 1667, from the 


Dutch West India Company and by purchase from the Indians. 
Part of the land was sold to Philip Morris in 1687, and became 
known as the Manor of Morrisania. In later years the name 
is spelt with a final x, substituted for the last two letters in the 
original, retaining the sound if not the spelling. 

Bronxville has an assessed valuation of $3,944,820. The 
village budget, including school tax, for 1911, was $59,173 and 
the tax rate $15 per $1,000. Has three churches, the Eeformed, 
65 years old; Christ Episcopal Church, 15 years old, and 
Roman Catholic, 5 years of age. There is one saloon. Fine 
library and hospital. The Hotel Gramatan, open all the year, 
can entertain 225 guests. Brantwood Hall for girls and Blake 
School for boys, prepare for the colleges. The German Lutheran 
College has a spacious campus and large new buildings. Within 
close reach of New York by many trains a day. There is no 
acreage for sale, the last having been sold for about $4,300 per 
acre in 1909. Practically all land is highly restricted. 

Bronxville, in 1890, had a population of 579; in 1902, 611; 
in 1905, 994; in 1910, 1,863. 

Tuckahoe ' ' derives its name from a plant formerly gathered 
in the vicinity by the Indians, the tubers of which were used for 
food." The plant is the common jack-in-the-pulpit, wake-robin 
or Indian turnip, of which Capt. John Smith in his " General 
History of Virginia ' ' says : ' ' The chief e root they have for 
food is called Tockawhough. It groweth like a flagge in 
marishes. In one day a savage will gather sufficient for a 
weeke. These roots are much of the greatnesse and taste of 
potatoes. Raw it is no better than poyson and being roasted, ex- 
cept it be tender and the heat abated, or sliced and dryed in the 
sunne mixed with sorrel and meale or such like, it will prickle 
and torment the throate extreamely, and yet in sommer they use 
this ordinarily for bread." 

The village, which has several manufactories, employing many 
people, and a wideawake business place, situated on the 
Harlem Railroad, is the " town seat," where is maintained 
offices of the several town officials. Tuckahoe was for a long 
time noted for the excellent marble stone it produced, and which 
was in great demand for use in the construction of promi- 
nent public buildings, such as the new Capitol building at 
Albany, etc. 

The population of Tuckahoe in 1902, 1,111; in 1905, 1,580; 


in 1910, 2,722, and it is a prosperous business and growing 

Stephen Ward, of Eastchester, was conspicuous as one of 
Westchester County's heroic band in the days of the American 
Revolution, of men who by their example held their neighbors 
on the right side in that conflict. He served as Representative 
from this County in the first and second Provincial Congresses, 
held in New York city, from May, 1775, to May, 1776 ; he was 
Member of the State Assembly in 1778, and a State Senator from 
1778 to 1823 ; he was Supervisor of his town from 1772 to 1783, 
1787 to 1793, and again in 1826-27-28. He was County Judge 
from 1784 to 1791. He was chosen in 1792 as a Presidential 

Judge Ward resided on the old White Plains road, or Post 
road, near what is now known as Bronxville, in 1770, in a 
spacious mansion, where friends of the patriot cause were fre- 
quently entertained. This mansion was destroyed by the British, 
while Mr. Ward was absent attending to public duties, in 1778. 
The English soldiers carried off the siding, the doors, the window 
casings, sash and blinds, and pretty nearly everything else mov- 
able, taking them to Kings Bridge to be used in constructing 
barracks for British soldiers. 

On the site of the Ward house was erected a residence that 
became the home of County Judge Silas D. Gifford, and later 
the home of Henry Fulling ; the second building still stands. 

What is now known as Bronxville was known in 1837 (the 
date the Harlem Railroad was constructed to White Plains) 
as "Underhill's Road," named for Laurence Underbill, one of 
Eastchester 's largest property owners. At first the place had 
no railroad station or post-office, and trains were stopped only 
on signal of flagman. The name Bronxville was given the 
place in 1852, 

In 1845 the place had risen to the dignity of a railroad sta- 
tion, Alfred E Smith, a local manufacturer, representing resi- 
dents, journeyed to Washington, D. C, and succeeded in con- 
vincing President Polk that "Underbill's Road" was of suffi- 
cient importance to have a fourth-class postmaster. When Mr. 
Smith arrived at home, bearing a commission as postmaster for 
Lancaster Underbill, the "little Yankee" station agent, he was 
welcomed by a turning out of the population, headed by the 
''local band." Mr. Underbill was a faithful officer, and con- 
tinued as postmaster forty-eight years, through the terms of 



fourteen Presidents of the United States. Besides being post- 
master, Mr. Underbill was station agent, freight agent, express 
agent, tax collector and it is believed held other offices. A Post 
Office Inspector told this story of the kind old man: "One day 
my duties called me to the Bronxville station to inspect the 
local post office; I found no one in the office, though the office 
door stood invitingly open ; I waited about for the postmaster 
to return ; I had been told that) he was outside doing his chores, 
and looking after his various duties; while I stood waiting, 
I saw a boy approach, go into the post office, deliberately take 
down from their cases the different letters, pick out what he 
wanted, put the rest back, and then pass out. When the post- 
master finally appeared, I told him of the boy incident and 
asked if it was customary for people to come in and help them- 
selves. When he ascertained why I was there, the old man 
appeared very much embarrassed, and blurted out, 'By gosh, 
I told that boy what I would do to him if I caught him doing 
that same thing again.' The veteran postmaster then began 
sprinkling the floor wuth water preparatory to sweeping out; 
so far as he was concerned the incident was closed ; yet the Gov- 
ernment never had any trouble with that office during the many 
years Underbill was postmaster." 

Biographical Sketches. 


Arthur William Lawrence, Com- 
missioner, first Vice-President West- 
chester County Chamber of Com- 
merce, etc., was born October 14, 
1875, in Montreal, Canada, a son of 
William Van Duser and Sarah 
(Bates) Lawrence. 

When Mr. Lawrence was quite 
young his parents removed to New 
York city; in 1890 his father came 
to Bronxville and purchased what 
was known as the James Prescott 
farm, consisting of eighty-six acres. 

Speaking of this purchase, the 
elder Mr. Lawrence says : ' ' One day 
in the autumn of 1890, a friend of 
mine came to me, in New York city, 
and said he was at that time living 
in Westchester County at a place 
called Bronxville, and that there was 
an old farm up there which was to 
be sold and he wished that I would 
come up and look at it, for if T did 
he thought I might buy it. The 
suggestion caused me to smile, for 

like many New Yorkers I was well 
acquainted with the golden West, the 
wilds of Canada, and the usual tour- 
ist haunts of Europe, but really, up 
to that moment, had never heard of 
Bronxville, and knew but little of 
this rocky waste called Westchester 
County. However, I consented to go 
up and see it, and the following day, 
in company with my urgent friend, 
I started to discover, like Columbus, 
this new land called Bronxville. I 
arrived. At 'the station' of the 
railroad I was confronted by the lit- 
tle old 'tumble-down' wooden farm 
house, belonging to one Lancaster 
Underhill, which had been from time 
immemorial used as post-office, ex- 
press office, railroad ticket office and 
baggage room as well as a dwelling 
for Mr. LTnderhill and his family. 
He was then an old white-haired little 
man, and performed his various du- 
ties according to his strength and in- 
clinations, sometimes with celerity 


-.3 '^t. 





and at others with no great dispatch 
or hurried manner. Mr. Underhill 
was said even then to be the oldest 
Postmaster in the United States, and 
commanded the respect of his neigh- 
bors and friends for his faithful per- 
formances of duties at his advanced 

"Bronx\'ille was, as I saw it on 
my arrival in 1890, altogether a deso- 
late forsaken place, and at first sight 
was not at all pleasing. I reached 
the farm property; all the buildings 
thereon had been so long neglected 
that they, like the railroad station, 
the roads, the trees and everything 
else about the place were a sorry 
sight to behold, and I left quite satis- 
fied that I wanted nothing to do with 
this real estate speculation, for it 
was that, and that only, which had 
taken me to Bronxville. The thought 
that I might buy the farm, and for- 
get it for a few years and hope 
that time would raise the value, was 
the only thought I had in connection 
with it. 

"My friends, however, came again 
and again to see me and urged me 
to purchase the place, declaring that 
they would like homes out there them- 
selves, which I thought very queer 
of them and wondered if they were 
perfectly sane. But the price asked 
being only $500 per acre, we con- 
cluded that we would buy it at a ven- 
ture. It was bought. It was then 
that our troubles began; it was a 
discouraging outlook to start in to 
correct the conditions that had 
brought this naturally beautiful 
property dovra to a state of absolute 
abandonment; where and how to be- 
gin, if to begin at all, was the ques- 
tion. After much profound thought, 
plans were perfected. The work of 
transformation began, and it was 
real work too. As I got into it I 
began to enjoy this work that brought 
me near to nature, in the woods and 
fields. My friends suggested that I 
build three cottages which they prom- 
ised would rent or that they would 
reside in them themselves, and this 
I undertook to do, but even then had 
no idea of turning this desolate 
property into a suburban park. This 
idea, however, was gradually taking 
root, and these early improvements 
went on though I didn't know what 
I was really getting into." 

Great changes have taken place 

since the old, dilapidated farm prop- 
erty went under transformation, and 
on its site appeared the charming 
residential Lawrence Park; since the 
first series of Lawrence Park houses 
were erected in 1892, which no one 
wanted to purchase at that time, 
over one hundred and twenty-five fine 
villas and over twenty apartments are 
now occupied, and this has been ac- 
complished without any paid news- 
paper advertising; without even of- 
fering a free railroad ticket, or free 
lunch, or extra commissions to brok- 
ers to hurry up and sell a single lot. 
Houses which sold in 189.5 for $8,.500 
could not be bought to-day for three 
times that amount. The Park is re- 
stricted, and only certain kinds of 
business enterprises can be conducted 
inside of "New Bronrville. " To 
the Lawrence family this delightful 
locality is indebted for the Lawrence 
Hospital, erected at great expense, 
and the Village Hall, given to the 
village in conjunction with Mr. Frank 
E. Chambers. Within the Park ia 
located one of the best-kept hotels to 
be found in this or any other country, 
the widely known "Hotel Grama- 
tan, ' ' owned entirely by the Law- 
rence family. The Lawrence Park 
Country Club, with its up-to-date 
club house, is also well known; the 
riding club, golf and tennis clubs and 
out-door sports and open-air life the 
year round, add to the attractions of 
Lawrence Park. 

In short, this ideal park, which 
bears the name of one entitled to 
credit for doing what he could to add 
to the attractiveness of our County's 
natural beauties, has given Bronx- 
ville a State-wide reputation, of be- 
ing one of the show places of the 

What Bronxville is to-day — the 
Manor Beautiful — is due greatly to 
the energetic endeavor of Arthur W. 
Lawrence, the subject of this sketch, 
who is the vice-president of the Law- 
rence Park Eealty Company, who has 
been his father's able right-hand man, 
and is to-day the active man-of- 
affairs. Mr. Lawrence, Jr., is also 
president of the Hotel Gramatan 
Company and president of the Davis 
& Lawrence Company of New York 

Notwithstanding the fact that Mr. 
Lawrence, Jr., has private business 
interests that keep him constantly 



hustling, he does find a few moments 
of relaxation, moments that are not 
idle but are given in hopes of aiding 
and advancing the interests of his 
fellows in other parts of the County 
He was one of the organizers of the 
Westchester County Chamber of Com- 
merce, is at present vice-president of 
that body and chairman of its water 
supply committee, a committee that 
is endeavoring to devise a way to pro- 
vide the County with water to meet 
the needs of its residents. In a bill 
introduced in the State Legislature 
of 1912, to create a commission au- 
thorized to take action in endeavor 
to provide an ample water supply for 
Westchester County, Mr. Lawrence 
was named as one of the three com- 
missioners provided for; unfortun- 
ately, the bill was vetoed by the Gov- 
ernor of the State. 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

Mr. Lawrence has served on a 
Commission, appointed by a Supreme- 
Court Justice, in condemnation pro- 
ceedings, to appraise lands taken by 
the City of New York for reservoirs 
in which to store water taken from 

He is a member of the Union 
League Club, of the Lawrence Park 
Country Club, of the Eepublican 
Club of New York city, and was until 
recently Eepublican County Commit- 
teeman at large. 

He is a graduate of Yale Univer- 
sity, of the class of 1897. 

Mr. Lawrence was married on Oc- 
tober 25, 1903, to Miss Virginia 
Heppe, of Philadelphia. Their chil- 
dren are, William Van Duser Law- 
rence, 2d, aged 7 years, and Chris- 
topher Lawrence, aged 2 years. 

residents see elsewhere in this book, 



{Continued from page 199, Vol. 1.) 

At the present time this town has the distinction of being the 
largest, as to area and population, of the towns in the County. 
The census of 1910 credits it with a population of 23,193. 

Within the town limits is contained the villages of Tarrytown, 
Irvington, Dobbs Ferry, Hastings, Ardsley, Elmsford and a 
part of the village of White Plains,* and the localities of East- 
view, Hartsdale, East Irvington and Glendale. 

In every section of the town may be found ' ' historic ground, ' ' 
and history tells us that the town's people were ever patriots. 
It is to the credit of the town that Arnold did not succeed in 
completing the details of his plotting with Andre at Dobbs 
Ferry, as was his first intention; as it is to the town's credit 
that Andre was captured at Tarrytown and that three honest 
yeomen of the vicinity made the capture. 

The name of Paulding, that of one of the captors, was a 
familiar one in that locality; the first Supervisor elected in the 
town, in 1778, was Joseph Paulding. 

The Paulding family had long been residents of this town. 
As early as 1712 we find traces of them. William Paulding, 
who was Mayor of New York city, was of the same family to 
which John Paulding belonged. Residents who were acquainted 
with the latter Paulding repelled the charge that Paulding acted 
from other motives than patriotism when he assisted in the 
arrest of Major Andre in Tarrytown. They asserted that Pauld- 
ing proved his loyalty for the patriotic cause when it is con- 
sidered that he was twice a prisoner in the hands of the British, 
yet at Tarrytown he is found, soon after his escape from a New 
York prison, wearing, for the want of a better one, the coat of 
a German Jdger, given him in New York by a stranger who 
took compassion upon his needs. The close of the war found 
him an inmate of a British prison. 

In his narrative relating to the capture of Andr6, Williams, 
one of the captors, says : ' ' We were about allowing him to 
pass, and he was reining his horse into the road, when Paulding 
exclaimed in an undertone, ' D— m him! I don't like his looks.* 
That ended it." 

For description of villages in the town, see page 199, Vol. 1. 


Many of the veterans of the Revolutionary War lived and 
died in this town. 

The Reed Tavern, more recently the Landrane House, at East 
Tarrj^town, where Andre was taken after his capture, is still 

One of the most interesting historical events, in this historical 
town, was the erection, through efforts of local residents, of 
the first monument, in Tarrytown, on the site of the capture, 
to the honor of the three men captors of Andre, on July 4, 1853. 
The ceremonies were most imposing. The preceding parade, of 
military and civic organizations, was large and in keeping. 
Capt. Jacob Storms acted as grand marshal. The corner-stone 
of this monument was laid by Col. James A. Hamilton, a resi- 
dent of Dobbs Ferry, in this town, and son of Gen. Alexander 
Hamilton, Gen. Washington's trusted friend and first Secretary 
of the United States Treasury. Gov. Horatio Seymour pre- 
sided, and Hon. Henry J. Raymond, of New York city, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor and famous orator, delivered the address. 

The committee of a^rrangements was composed of Dr. James 
W. Scribner (later president of the village of Tarrytown), 
Amos R. Clark, N. Holmes Odell (later Assemblyman, County 
Treasurer and Congressman), Allen Newman, William F. Van 
Wart and Bela S. Squires. 

To perpetuate and keep in order this monument, a Monument 
Association was organized later in Tarrytown ; the incorporators 
were Amos R. Clark, N. Holmes Odell, James S. Millard, Jacob 
B. Odell, S. P. Swartwout, Samuel Requa, H. E. Paulding and 
W. T. Lockwood ; Mr. Clark was chosen president ; J. B. Odell, 
vice-president; Mr. Millard, treasurer, and Mr. Lockwood, sec- 
retary. This association arrainged for the centennial celebra- 
tion held on September 23, 1883, when a new and the present 
monument was erected on the same site and in place of the 
first one. 

The story of Andre and his captors is told in Volume 2 of 
this work. 

At Dobb's Ferry Gen. Washington established his headquar- 
ters early in the summer of 1781. Washington's diary informs 
us that on July 4, that year, AVashington " marched and took 
a position a little to the left of Dobb's Ferry, a^nd marked a 
camp for the French army on the left. ' ' On July 6 the French 
army formed " the junction with the American army on the 
ground marked out." Washington's object in taking the posi- 


tion near Dobb's Ferry, on the Hudson River, was to be pre- 
pared to make an attack on New York city. For a period of 
forty days Washington had his headquarters at Dobb's Ferry. 
Washington Irving, later referring to the locations of the two 
armies at Dobb's Ferry, says: " The French encampment 
made a gallant display along the Greenburgh hills. Some of 
the officers took a pride in decorating their tents and forming 
little gardens in the vicinity." Upon the suspension of hos- 
tilities, May 3, 1783, Gen. Washington, Governor Clinton of 
New York State and Gen. Sir Guy Tarlton (the British Com- 
mander) and their respective suites, met here. 

In 1776 the British army, after the battle of White Plains, 
encamped on the hill near the residence of Jonathan Odell, 
Dobb's Ferry. 

Chatterton Hill, in northeast corner of the town, near White 
Plains, was the scene of battle between the American and British 
forces in 1776. 

Like other localities in the lower sections of the County during 
the Revolution, this town was " the scene of action," and the 
taking place of a '' skirmish " was a matter of frequent occur- 
rence, between British or Hessians aind American troops. 

In the cemetery of the old Presbyterian Church, at Elmsford, 
is erected, over the resting place of his remains, a monument to 
the memory of Isaac Van Wart, one of the three captors of 
Major Andre. Van Wart was an officer in this church and 
acted as chorister up to the time of his death. The monument 
was raised June 11, 1829, with imposing ceremonies, parade of 
military headed by Gen. Philip Van Cortlandt and surviving 
officers of the Continental Army. Gen. Aaron Ward, of Sing 
Sing, was orator of the day. 

Just north of Dobbs Ferry we come to "Sunnyside," in Irv- 
ing-'on, the former home of Washington Irving. As a promi- 
nent writer described it—" There is scarcely a building or 
place more replete with interest in America than the cottage 
of Washington Irving, near Tarrytown. * * * With char- 
acteristic taste, Mr. Irving has chosen this spot— the haunt 
of his early days, since rendered classic ground by his elegant 
pen— and made it his permanent residence." Over the porch 
is the following inscription: " Erected Anno 1650, rebuilt by 
Washington Irving, Anno 1835." The property descended to 
relatives and heirs of Irving. This spot will be ever dear to 
the tourist; here is the weave of the romances of Irving in 


which we find the delightful Ichabod Crane and Brom Van 
Brunt, Ichabod 's rival for the heart and hand of Katrina Van 

Miss Catherine A. Irving, a niece of Washington Irving, who 
formerly lived with her uncle at Sunnyside, died on October 
2, 1911, at the age of ninety-three years. She was buried near 
her uncle in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery. 

Mr. Irving 's property was left to his nephews and nieces. 
By the recent death of a nephew, Alexander Duer Irving, and 
the filing of his will by another nephew, Louis Dupont Irving, 
we learn that •Sunnyside," to remain in the family, is valued 
at $75,000. . " 

The earliest entry relating to town officers occurs in the old 
town and manor book, entitled, " the town and manor of Phil- 
ipsburgh for to keep the town redesitors, 1742." 

Population of several villages and localities is shown under 
head of Census, in Volume 2. 

The Westchester County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society, which has its fair grounds in this town, was organized 
in 1852, and was prosperous until 1872; was reorganized in 

Among the noted citizens who have been residents of this town 
at different periods are Washington Irving, Admiral David G. 
Farragut, Cyrus W. Field, Alexander C. Orr, William E. Dodge, 
Jay Gould and " Mark Twain " (Clements). 

The present Supervisor of the town is Charles D. Millard, 
of Tajrrj^own. 

The 1912 assessment roll of this town is the largest roll ever 
compiled by the Town Assessors. The total assessed value of the 
town is placed at $43,354,634, an increase of over $2,000,000 over 
the assessment of 1911. This is said to prove that this town is the 
wealthiest town, in proportion to population, in the United States ; 
it pays about fifteen per cent, of the County taxes. 

The largest taxpayer in the town is Mrs. Helen Miller Gould 
Shcpard, who is assessed $2,000,000 for both real and personal 

Hon. Arthur S. Tompkins, Supreme Court Justice, and recog- 
nized ablest criminal jurist in the State, spent his early days as 
a resident of Tarrytown. Here he was a law student. 

Cyrus West Field, though not born in our County, did much 
for it. Was born on November 30, 1819, in Stockbridge, Mass. 
In 1852, after he had secured most justly an enviable reputa- 


tion, he came to this County and settled near Dobbs Ferry, in 
the town of Greenburgh. 

As founder of the Atlantic Cable he became world-wide 

The result of his persistent efforts, in face of all obstacles, 
brought forth the general verdict, "It is an achievement most 
wonderful of civilization, entitling its author to a distinguished 
rank among public benefactors." 

New York city's elevated railroad system is another result of 
persistent endeavor on the part of Mr, Field. 

He founded what is now known as the beautiful village of 
**Ardsley," the name Ardsley being that of a town in Yorkshire, 
England, where the Fields family originated. 

That Ardsley might appear as one of the most attractive resi- 
dential spots along the Hudson River, Mr. Field expended 
much money in its development; many costly residences were 
erected and beautiful streets were constructed at his expense, 
and nothing that would add to the attractiveness of the place 
was left undone. 

Here his home was, and here he died on July 12, 1892, 

Robert Hoe, the inventor and founder of the firm of R. Hoe 
& Co., famous manufacturers of printing presses for all the 
world, came to this country from Lancaster, England, in 1803, 
when he was but nineteen years of age. He came to this County, 
and in North Salem became acquainted with Rachel Smith, the 
attractive daughter of Matthew Smith, of that town. In 1805, 
Hoe, then only a struggling machinist, was married to Miss 
Smith, who, as after events proved, was a thrifty woman and 
a great help-mate to her inventive genius husband. When the 
house of R. Hoe & Co. was well established and had become 
known in many parts of the globe, Mr. Hoe, the senior partner, 
in 1833, died. 

Richard March Hoe, the son, who became the firm's head, 
was born on September 12, 1812. He inherited his father's 
inventive skill and did much to make the firm even more famous 
at home and abroad. The several wonderful printing presses 
bearing the name of " Hoe " are the creatures of his inventive 

In 1876 he purchased an estate of sixteen acres, a ''farm 
adjacent to the city," in West Farms, near what is now known 



as Hunt's Point. This estate was called " Brightside, " and 
here he spent as many hours as he could take from his busy life, 
here he gave what attention he could to the raising of fancy 

Mr. Hoe died on June 7, 1886. 

Robert Hoe, son of Robert Hoe, who resided at Tarrytown, 
and grandson of the founder of the firm of R. Hoe & Co., born 
March 10, 1839, became the head of the house of R. Hoe & Co. ; 
invented many improvements on the printing press; became 
possessor of one of the finest libraries in the world. He had a 
summer home at Lake Waccabuc, in this County. He died in 

VisitorsJn hundreds make yearly pilgrimage to "Sunnyside," 
the home of the late Washington Irving, in this town. Travers- 
ing along Broadway the visitor comes to Sunnyside Lane, which 
he enters and goes west in the direction of the Hudson River. 
Several trim properties lie along this lane. You may know 
when you reach "Sunnyside" by the sign that forbids you to 
enter. This sign cannot prevent your looking, and you may 
see the road that leads up to the house, and some of the gables. 
At the entrance to the place the lane turns and winds prettily 
to the railroad tracks along the banks of the Hudson River. 
It is only a short walk to the right from the exit of the lane 
to the sparse hedge in front of Sunnyside. You may see there 
all you wish of the legend-teller's home. Apart from its fa- 
miliar rambling contour, the charms of sixty years ago have 
been pretty well smudged by smoke and dust from the railroad. 
If you were permitted to enter the house of many gables, you 
could expect to find the interior now nearly as it was in the 
time that Irving dwelt there. His relatives endeavored to keep 
the interior as it was when he lived. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Charles Dunsmore Millard, lawyer. 
Supervisor, former Town Clerk, etc., 
was born December 1, 1873, in 
Tarrytown (where he yet resides), a 
son of .Tames S. and Elizabeth A. 
(Purdy) Millard. 

Was educated in local public 
schools, Phillips Academy at An- 
dover, Mass., and graduated with 
special honors from Brown Univer- 
Bity; deciding on becoming a lawyer. 

he graduated from the New York 
Law School. 

His father and his elder brother, 
now Surrogate, had become lawyers, 
so he ■••oncluded the best thing for 
him to do was to become a lawyer, 
too, to make it appear, as he said, 
that law ran in the family. 

After serving as Town Clerk sev- 
eral terms, and until he go? so popu- 
lar that everybody wanted him to 
hold the job and no one would ap- 



f:';T TC 


1 . .n '.'' ? '' 



pear as a candidate against him, he 
turned his attention towaru the of- 
fice of Supervisor, at the urgent so- 
licitation of citizens generally re- 
gardless of politics. Democrats of 
his town say that no person would 
take Charlie to be a Eepublican, and 
it is not his fault if he is, therefore 
they do not hold it against him, and 
will vote for him notwithstanding. 
Probably this fact accounts for his 
being reelected without opposition to 
the important office of Supervisor of 
the largest and wealthiest town in 
the county. 

He was Town Clerk in 1899 and 
until 1907, when he became Super- 

He was hrst elected Supervisor in 
the year 1907, and has continued in 
that office ever since, his new term 
being for 1912-13. 

It IS generally understood in case 
the Eepublicans are in majority that 
he is to be chosen Chairman of the 
Board of Supervisors in the year 
1912, by common consent, as he is 
to-day among the most popular of 

He is one of the most faithful 
members, always at his post looking 
after the interests of his town. He 
has held in recent years the respon- 
sible position of Chairman of the 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

Committee on Kepairs and Supplies 
and also served on the Judiciary 
Committee. Is Counsel to the vil- 
lage of Hastings and Counsel for 
several large private corporations. 

Personally Mr. Millard is a gentle- 
man of fine appearance, open and 
courteous manners, and most gener- 
ous impulses — a man of ability, ex- 
perience in the world, and strong 
common sense. 

He is a member of Solomon Lodge, 
F. and A. M. of Irving Chapter, 
Westchester Commandery, Mecca 
Temple, of White Plains Lodge of 
Elks, of the Eepublican Club of New 
York City, of the Tarrytown Ly- 
ceum, of the Tarrytown Yacht Club, 
of the Knoolwood Country Club, of 
the Brown University Club, New 
York City, of various College Clubs, 
of Society of Medical Jurisprudence, 
of Phillips Andover Club, New York 
City, of the Mohegan Club of 
Dobbs Ferry, of Conqueror Hook 
and La'dder Company of Tarrytown. 

Mr. Millard was married July 15, 
1902, to Miss Ethel Lee Williams, 
daughter of Philip H. and Margaret 
Lee Williams of New York City. To 
tills union one child was born, 
Charles Dunsmore Millard, Jr., who 
died March, 1909, aged 2 years 3 

residents see elsewhere in this book, 



(Continued from page 206, Vol. 1.) 

Prior to 1702 this town formed a part of the town of Rye, 
but was organized as a separate township on March 7, 1788. 

The name given it was in honor of John Harrison, who pur- 
chased the present township from the Indians on February 1, 
1695. The name first given the town was "Purchase," referring 
to Harrison's purchase; it was also called " Harrison's Pre- 

The authorities of Rye township fought hard to prevent the 
taking of territory from that town to form Harrison's township. 
But political influence was too strong against Rye, and the 
organization of the new township was authorized. 

The Thomas family was among the most prominent of the 
early families of the town; John Thomas was High Sheriff of 
Westchester County in 1778, in fact was the last High Sheriff 
before, and the first appointed after the war. His brother, 
Major-General Thomas Thomas, did good service for his country 
on the patriot side in the Revolutionary War, and later was a 
member of the State Legislature. 

The Field family were also among the early settlers of Harri- 
son ; as late as 1841 we find Thomas C. Field serving as Super- 
visor, to the year 1847. 

Harrison township is inhabited by many Quakers. The first 
Friends' Meeting House was erected here in 1727, upon land 
given for that purpose by Anthony Field, "who had removed 
hither two years before from Flushing, Long Island, and who 
owned the adjoining farm." This seems to have been the 
favorite settlement of the Friends. They were shamefully 
persecuted in Connecticut and Massachusetts; from there 
driven to Rhode Island, from whence they had to fly to Long 
Island. Even there they could find no rest, for the Governor 
of New York issued an order forbidding them to worship even 
in a barn. So they crossed by way of the ferry to Rye, and 
settled principally in Harrison; here they were hemmed in by 
their old enemies, the Dutch on the Hudson River, and the unfor- 
giving and intolerant Puritans on the East. They thus extended 
up this narrow strip of country, and the family names of the 
€rst settlers can be traced for over one hundred miles north. 


It was to the Friends' Meeting House, in Purchase, that the 
wounded soldiers were brought, immediately after the Battle 
of White Plains, on October 28, 1776, and laid out on the floor 
or lower seats. It was probably for the double purpose of pro- 
tecting the wounded, and securing the communications of the 
army at White Plains ; in that direction General Samuel Holden 
Parson had a post near the head of Rye Pond, October 29, 1776. 
The Friends' Meeting House was used as such hospital until 
October 8, 1778. 

It is stated that considerable numbers of British troops entered 
White Plains by way of Purchase at time of the Battle of 
White Plains. 

The first elected Supervisor, on April 2, 1776, was Samuel 
Haviland; as late as 1887, a descendant, Charles C. Haviland, 
held this office. The second Supervisor elected was Isaiah May- 
nard, in 1783 ; those following will be found in the list pub- 
lished elsewhere in this volume, under title " Supervisors of the 
Several Towns." 

The present Supervisor is Benjamin Irving Taylor, elected to 
serve until 1914. He was elected as Representative in Congress 
in 1912, for a term of two years. 

On the west side of Purchase street and near its junction with 
the White Plains road, is situated the "Ophir Farm," once the 
property of Benjamin Halladay, now belonging to the estate 
of the late Whitelaw Reid, owner of the New York Tribune and 
United States Minister to England. 

Among the old family names we find the Andersons, the Wil- 
lets, the Haights, the Burlings, the Havilands, the Motts, the 
Clapps, the Carpenters, the Hunts, the Grays, the Millers, the 
Halsteads the Tylers, the Cromwells, the Purdys, the Merritts, 
the Palmers, the Hoppers, the Dusenburys, the Parks, the Wood- 
wards, and the Hortons. 

Within a short distance of Purchase lies Rye Pond, a beauti- 
ful sheet of water covering over two hundred and ten acres of 
ground. Rye Pond has an outlet on the west which passes into 
the little pond of the same name, and from thence into the Bronx 
River; in fact Rye Pond is the principal source of the Bronx. 

In August, 1911, Rye Lake received the greater portion of 
the fish taken from Kensico Lake, the transfer being necessary 
owing to the fact that New York City, having acquired the latter 
lake to aid its water supply, was about to drain it of all waters, 


to permit the construction of a great reservoir covering the site 
of the lake and thousands of acres of land adjoining. 

The town has no incorporated villages. 

The population of the Town in 1830 was 1,085 ; in 1835, 1,016 ; 
in 1840, 1,139 ; in 1845, 1,039 ; in 1850, 1,262 ; in 1855, 1,271 ; in 
1860, 1,885; in 1865, 1,653; in 1870, 1,601; in 1875, 1.508; in 
1880, 1,612; in 1890, 1,485; in 1892, 1,444; in 1900, 2,048; in 
1905, 2,922 ; in 1910, 1,127. 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 


{Contiivued from page 208, Vol. 1.) 

Was organized as the Town of Salem on March 7, 1788 ; name 
was changed to South Salem on April 6, 1806 ; on February 13, 
1840, the name was again changed to Lewisboro, this time in 
honor of a public-spirited citizen who agreed, in 1840, to give 
$10,000 to establish a fund to aid in the maintenance of the local 
public schools. 

The town has no incorporated villages ; the prominent locali- 
ties in this Township are Goldens Bridge, Cross River, Lake 
Waecabuc, Lewisboro, Vista and South Salem. 

Cross River, dignified by the appellation of "an important 
settlement" in this town, was originally known by the Indian 
name of Poppeneghek. The name the locality now bears was 
in justice given to honor the memory of John Cross, a sturdy 
and heroic pioneer, who did much toward the developing of this 
particular section of the County. 

Sections of this town are prominently mentioned in history of 
the American Revolution ; Major Andre became acquainted with 
it in course of his experiences preceding and after his capture. 
It Avas here that Andre wrote the letter to Gen. Washington, 
after his capture, explaining who he was. 

Lewisboro, like other towns in the County, formerly belonged 
to the Province of Connecticut. 

A list of the persons holding the office of Supervisor in this 
town will be found elsewhere in volumes 1 and 2, under title of 
" Supervisors of the Several Towns." 


The population of this township in the year 1830 was 1,537 
in 1835, 1,470; in 1840; 1,619; in 1845; 1,514; in 1850, 1,608 
in 1855, 1,775; in 1860, 1,885; in 1865, 1,653; in 1870, 1,601 
in 1875, 1,508; in 1880, 1,612; in 1890, 1,417; in 1892, 1,369 
in 1900, 1,311; in 1905, 1,542; in 1910, 1,127. 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 


(Contimied from page 212, Vol. 1.) 

The first inhabitants of this town, like those of other nearby lo- 
calities, were Indians. The Indians were known as the Siwanoys, 
a tribe of the Mohican Indians, presided over by Sachems Wappa- 
quewam and Mahataham. From the Indians the land, now 
known as Mamaroneck, was purchased by John Richbell, the date 
of his acquiring the title is given as September 23, 1661. The 
price paid for the land has never been figured in dollars and 
cents; the consideration accepted by the unsophisticated red 
men is said to be the following useful articles: "Twenty-two 
coats, one hundred fathom of wampum, twelve shirts, ten pair 
of stockings, twenty hands of powder, twelve bars of lead, two 
fire-locks, fifteen hoes, fifteen hatchets, three kettles." (As 
shown by records on file in the Secretary of State's office in 
Albany. ) 

John Richbell (his name is also spelled Rissebel) was a mer- 
chant in Charlestown, Mass., prior to 1648. Subsequently he 
engaged in trade in the Islands of Barbadoes and St. Christo- 
pher. In 1660 he purchased from the Indians that section of 
Long Island now known as Oyster Bay and Lloyd's Neck. 
Here he remained until 1664, while he was completing the pur- 
chase of what is now Mamaroneck. Richbell was an Englishman, 
and in his purchases represented many of his countrymen de- 
siring lands for settlement. 

The name "Mamaroneck" is of Indian origin, which inter- 
preted means: "The place where the fresh water falls into 
the salt," derived doubtless from the fact that the fresh water 
of the Mamaroneck River runs into the salt water of Long 
Island Sound. 


The town was organized under the general act in 1788. It 
was formerly a part of the Manor of Scarsdale. The first 
recorded town election was held on April 2, 1697. 

Of the names associated with this town as its early inhabi- 
tants, one of the most conspicuous is that of Caleb Heathcote, 
who was Mayor of New York city in 1711. He was specially 
active in creating public improvements, grading streets in that 
city from Maiden Lane up to the "Common," where is now 
Chambers Street (certainly not now very far up town). 

The Township contains two incorporated villages. Larchmont 
was incorporated as a village in 1891. According to the last 
census, in 1910, it has a population of 1,958. It is a charming 
residential locality, situated directly on Long Island Sound; 
here we find the Larchmont Yacht Club, the Horseshoe Harbor 
Yacht Club and other societies of aquatic and land sports. 

The village of Mamaroneck was incorporated in the year 1895, 
and is formed of part of the town of Mamaroneck and part of 
the adjacent town of Rye— Rye Neck. This village has a popu- 
lation, according to the census of 1910, of 5,699. 

On Orienta Point, within the town, and lying upon Long 
Island Sound, are handsome villas of prominent New York city 
business men. 

The population of the township was given in 1790 as 452; 
in 1800 as 503 ; in 1810 as 496 ; in 1814 as 797 ; in 1820 as 878 ; 
in 1825 as 1,032; in 1830 as 838; in 1835 as 882; in 1840 as 
1,416 ; in 1845 as 780 ; in 1850 as 928 ; in 1855 as 1,068 ; in 1860 
as 1,351 ; in 1865 as 1,392 ; in 1870 as 1,484 ; in 1875 as 1,425 ; 
in 1880 as 1,863; in 1890 as 2,385; in 1892 as 2,470; in 1900 as 
3,849 ; in 1905 as 5,655 ; in 1910 as 5,602. 

The list of persons who served the Township as Supervisors, 
from time to time, will be found in Volumes 1 and 3, under title 
of "Supervisors of the Several Towns." 

James Fenimore Cooper, novelist, whose biographical sketch 
is printed in the first volume (page 71) was born September 
15, 1789 ; at the age of thirteen he entered Yale College owing 
to his special brightness ; he was expelled from College ; went to 
sea; after three years he was appointed midshipman in the 
United States Navy; retired from the Navy in 1808. In Janu- 
ary, 1811, he was married to Miss Susan Augusta DeLancey, 
daughter of John Peter DeLancey, of Mamaroneck, in this 
County. At that period, and later, the DeLancey family was 
one of the most prominent and highly respected in the County. 


■* •*<»» 

) ■ 



For ten years or more Mr. Cooper devoted a great part of 
his time to farming in Mamaroneck, yet he had time to write and 
provide for the instruction and entertainment of his fellows. 
Here, in 1820, he wrote his first book, titled " Precaution." 
It was "on the farm," at Mamaroneck he wrote "The Spy" 
from facts related to him by Jolm Jay concerning the services 
of Enoch Crosby as "Secret Agent" retained by the Committee 
of Public Safety presided over by John Jay." 

Mr. Cooper resided in the County until 1826, when he visited 
England, remaining seven years, returning to reside in Coopers- 
tnwn, where he died September 14, 1851. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Dr. Aaron J. Mixsell was born in 
the city of New York in the year 
1840, and was one of the bravest of 
the brave men who took part in our 
Civil War. He was a member of the 
famous Seventh Eegiment of New 
York city when the war broke out 
and subsequently became a Lieuten- 

He remained in the army for four 
years, and at one time was on the 
staff of Major-General Thomas. 

When the war was over he took up 
the study of medicine and graduated 
from Bellevue in the year 1871. 

He began the practice of his pro- 
fession at Mamaroneck in the year 
1872, and remained there until the 
year of his death — 1896. 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

During the years 1893 to 1896 he 
was one of the Coroners of West- 
chester County. 

Dr. Mixsell became one of the best 
known physicians in the eastern part 
of Westchester County, and was re- 
markably successful in his practice. 

He was a genial, generous, kind- 
hearted man, who brought sunshine 
into the rooms of the sick and suf- 

Dr. Mixsell married Miss Lucinda 
Worden in 1875. She died in 1883. 
He married Miss Emily Hoyt, of 
Stamford, Connecticut, in 1887. 

He left only one child surviving 
him, his daughter Cynthia, who was 
married June 4, 1912, to Mr. Carl 

residents see elsewhere in this book. 



(Continued from page 215, Yol. 1.) 

This township was erected March 7, 1788, and organized May 
20, 1845. The township originally comprised all that part of 
the Manor of Philipsburgh lying north of Greenburgh. In 1843 
the town was divided to permit the formation of the town of 

In the early days, in the Revolutionary War period, this 
locality furnished its full quota of patriots, and the town is 
mentioned frequently in the story relative to the capture of 
Major Andre. 

Many old residents remember Mrs. Cornelia (Van Cortlandt) 
Beekman, wife of Gerald G. Beekman, who died at her home in 
Beekmantown (now North Tarrytown) when she had reached 
the ripe age of ninety, possessed of all her mental faculties, and 
who was credited with indirectly causing Major Andre's capture. 

Mrs. Beekman was fond of relating the story, how Major 
*' Andre, after being brought across the river from Smith 's house, 
was by Smith brought to the vicinity of the home of her father, 
Hon. Pierre Van Cortlandt, at the Van Cortlandt Mansion, in 
Croton; Andre waited while Smith visited the mansion where 
resided Mr. and Mrs. Beelmian, and endeavored by dishonest 
means to obtain a uniform of an officer of the Continental 
Army, that Andre might wear it to ensure his successful escape 
to New York. 

In relating the story, Mrs. Beekman said that Capt. John 
Webb, younger brother of Col. Samuel B. Webb, came to the 
mansion about September 7 (1780), bringing with him a valise 
containing considerable specie and his new Continental uniform, 
and left it with her, with the special admonition not to give it 
to any one without a written order from himself or his brother. 
Later in the day Capt. Webb dined at a public house in Peeks- 
kill, and in speaking to some acquaintances, among whom was 
Joshua H. Smith, W^ebb mentioned the call he had made in 
the morning upon the Beekmans, and the object of the visit. 
Later Smith recalled this conversation, and determined to make 
the information imparted serve in aiding his treachery. On 
September 22d Smith appeared at the Van Cortlandt Mansion, 
and asked Mr. Beekman for the valise, saying Capt. Webb had 
sent him for it; Mr. Beekman called a servant and was in the 
act of sending for and delivering the valise, not doubting Smith's 


honesty, when Mrs. Beekman came into the room; the object of 
Smith's call being explained to her, she asked Smith if he had 
a written order signed by Webb, necessary to get the valise, 
according to directions given at time valise was left with 
them. Smith, desperate in his purpose, was ready with a lie; 
he promptly asserted that the order was spoken of, but Capt. 
Webb had not time to write an order; Webb mentioned that 
in case he sent a messenger other than himself he would have 
to send a written order, but as the Beekmans knew Smith so 
well they would not hesitate to give him the valise and contents. 
Mrs. Beekman was suspicious and had her doubts as to Smith; 
nothing short of a written order, as stipulated by Capt. Webb, 
would satisfy her, therefore she positively refused to give up 
to any one other than the Captain himself, or the Colonel, his 
brother, Capt. Webb's property, without a properly written 
order. And this she told the visitor most emphatically; the 
latter, angered by the refusal and evident lack of confidence: in 
him, left without the valise. 

Had Smith obtained Webb's uniform for Andre to wear the 
latter 's escape would have been sure. 

Why Mrs. Beekman was not called to testify at Smith's trial 
has not been explained; the testimony that she might give 
would have hanged Smith, as such proved Smith was acquainted 
with Andre's true character, and knowing him to be a spy, was 
aiding him to escape. 

It is stated that Gen. Washington, when he learned of Mrs. 
Beekman 's act in relation to the valise, thanked her. 

It is stated that the buttons on the coat worn by Paulding 
at the time of Andre's capture, and which deceived Andre into 
believing Paulding belonged to the British, were cut off and 
presented Mrs. Beekman as a reward for the part she played in 
the capture. These buttons were long preserved at the Van 
Cortlandt mansion in Croton. 

The Beekmans lived many years after the Revolution in 
Beekmantown, named in their honor. The old spacious brick 
house, where they lived and died, still stands on Beekman Ave- 
nue, North Tarrytown (formerly Beekman town), and is ever 
an object of great interest to sightseers. 

It was at the home of Sylvanus Brundage, Pleasantville (the 
house now occupied by a grandson, AVilliam H. Brundage), that 
Andre stopped to water his horse on his way to New York, just 
previous to his capture at Tarrytown. Later, while part of the 


way between Rossell's (now Mekeel's) Corners (Pleasantville) 
and Unionville, in this town, Andre stopped at the home of 
Staats Hammond, a miller. Hammond was a patriot soldier, 
a sergeant in the First Westchester Militia, and was home on a 
prolonged furlough, having been seriously wounded in one of 
his legs in a skirmish with a British detachment near Sing 
Sing on July 17, 1779 ; he was still confined to his bed suffering 
from the unhealed wound when Andre rode up to the house and 
asked for a drink of water, speaking to two of Hammond's chil- 
dren, David aged fourteen years and Sally aged twelve years; 
Sally filled a cup with water and handed it up to him as he 
sat on his horse; David held the horse's bridle, and, boy like, 
commented on the horse's good qualities, remarking that he 
guessed the horse had been sleeping out of doors, in an open 
field, as its mane was full of burrs ; Andre thanked Sally for the 
excellent water and gave her a silver sixpence, which she kept 
many years after. Of David, Andre asked the distance to Tarry- 
town, and as to the possibility of his meeting any of the patriotic 
American soldiers at or near Young's tavern, about a mile 
further south. When the boy in answer told him that a party 
of scouts was at the tavern, Andre decided to reach Tarrytown 
from another direction. David Hammond, in 1847, wrote his 
recollections of his meeting with Andre. In speaking of his 
father's opinion of Andre, the son said: "Through the win- 
dow father had a glimpse of the rider, and afterwards expressed 
distrust of him on account of his being muffled to the chin 
in his cloak." 

Within an hour after his visit to Hammond's, Andre was 

In the capture of Andre the Romer family of Pleasantville 
figured to some degree. James Romer, a son, was one of the 
scouts organized to combat the cowboys, and as such scout was 
a companion of Paulding, Williams and Van Wart on that 
eventful day. (Romer being a cousin of Paulding, as was Van 
Wart.) It is said of Romer that when Lt.-Col. Jameson, at his 
headquarters, decided to forward the captured Andre and his 
papers to Gen. Arnold, Romer, who was present with his com- 
panions, expressed the belief that Andre was a British officer 
and that he had entered the American lines as a spy, and urged, 
as best he could, he being only a private soldier, that Andre be 
not sent to Arnold, and against Arnold being notified of Andre's 


It was to the house of Jacob Romer, father of James, that 
the young scouts went early Saturday morning and had break- 
fast, and there it was that Mrs. Romer put up a dinner for all, 
in a commodious basket. The Romer house, now destroyed, 
stood close to where the present reservoir, of the New York 
city water supply, is located, a short distance from the Tarry- 
town station of the New York and Putnam Railroad division. 

It was to the Romer house that the eight young scouts 
returned later in the day, after the capture of Andre by three 
of their number, and they were on their way to the nearest 
American military post. Paulding preceded the others to the 
home of his uncle, and cautioned Mrs. Romer by saying: "Be 
careful, Aunt Fanny, of what you say, I believe we have cap- 
tured as a spy a British officer, and the boys are bringing him 
here." The boys arrived, complaining of being very hungry, 
knowing that Aunt Fanny's weakness was her ever readiness 
to bountifully feed all who came to her door in need of food. 
Some of the party happened to remember that Mrs. Romer had 
given them an ample supply of dinner in a basket, and in the 
excitement of the day they had forgotten to eat. John Romer, 
the youngest son, aged sixteen years ^he lived to be ninety-one 
years old), volunteered to go after the basket, which he found, 
near where the scouts were stationed, with all contents safe. 
It is said that Andre requested to be excused when asked to 
eat, he was not as hungry as the others in the party. 

Mekeel's Corners, Pleasantville, mentioned frequently in the 
story relating to Major Andre's capture, was named in honor 
of Lieutenant John Mekeel of the Third Westchester Militia, in 
the patriot army. 

The township contains the villages of North Tarrytown, Pleas- 
antville, Briar Cliff Manor, and Hillside, formerly Sherman 
Park, and the localities known as Sleepy Hollow, Hawthorne 
(formerly Unionville) East View, Neperan, Pocantico Hills, and 
Tarrytown Heights and Philipse Manor. 

North Tarrytown, formerly Beekmantown, is a prosperous, 
up-to-date village, with a present population (1910) of 5,421. 
It is a manufacturing center, its many industries giving em- 
ployment to hundreds of persons. 

Pleasantville is an enterprising village, and is justly proud 
of its new bank with its large amount of deposits, as well as it 
is of its many other evidences of progress. Many New York 
city business men find it a delightful residential place all the 


year aroiiml. The population, as given by the last census, is 

Briar Clift' Manor village is a cluster of charming residences, 
of New York city men principally. It is famous for automo- 
bile races held there at stated periods; part of this village lies 
in the town of Ossining. The census of 1910 gives the total 
population of the village as 950. 

Herein is Sleepy Hollow, made famous by the writings of 
AVashington Irving, whose remains lie in the nearby Sleepy 
Hollow Cemetery. The Sleepy Hollow and adjacent territory 
favored in legend and history, for every acre of the region 
roundabouts is freighted with memories of the men and things 
of long ago. Here are the undulating roads and the vales and 
valleys over which galloped the "Headless Horseman." Here 
stood the tulip tree whose leaves, had they tongues, could have 
told the tragic story of Major Andre. Looking off from its shores 
is Tappan Zee, as the ancient navigators— they were Dutch — 
called that part of the river. It is in the heart of that rich 
Westchester Colony which has sprung up within the last decade, 
or since motoring made it possible and pleasant for men doing 
business in New York city to live in the country without both- 
ering about train schedules. How Washington Irving would 
have loved to see them peopling his Sleepy Hollow skies like 
creatures of the mysteries he loved so well. 

Philipse Manor, a revival of an old name at one time belong- 
ing to the whole section from Yonkers to Ossining, inclusive, 
was given to a recently formed settlement in this town border- 
ing upon the Hudson River, which is composed of many costly 
private residences, homes principally of New York city business 
men. This Manor's name is similar to that of the family from 
which Chief Justice John Jay took his wife. 

Admiral John Lorimer Worden, U. S. N., who commanded 
the Monitor in her celebrated victory over the Merrimac in 
Hampton Eoads, during the Civil AVar, was born in this town 
(that portion now Ossining) on March 12, 1818, son of an old 
Westchester County family. He died October 18, 1897. 

The population of this town, according to different census 
enumerations, was, in 1830, 4,932; in 1835, 5,757; in 1840, 
7,308: in 1845, 2,962; in 1850, 3,323; in 1855, 3,677; in 1860, 
4,517; in 1865, 4,389; in 1870, 5,210; in 1875, 5,411; in 1880, 
5,450; in 1890, 5,844; in 1892, 5,870; in 1900, 8,698; in 1905, 
9,728; in 1910, 11,863. 




Biographical Sketches. 


Charles DeWitt Hoyt, Deputy 
County Eegister, President of the 
Village of Pleasantville, President 
of the Board of Education, etc., was 
born in Pleasantville, town of 
Mount Pleasant, on November 27, 
1872, a son of Charles Henry and 
Eliza M. (Wild) Hoyt. 

He was educated in the public 
schools of his native town, and on 
leaving school entered upon a mer- 
cantile career. 

Being a man of affairs, he took 
part in having his home locality 
incorporated as a village in the year 
1897; two years later he was elected 
a Trustee of the Village, serving in 
such position during 1900 and 1901. 
In 1910 and 1911 he was President 
of the Village by election at the 

In 1905 he was elected a School 
Trustee of District No. 9, town of 
Mount Pleasant, and served through 
the following five years, being most 
of that time president of the Board 
of Trustees. 

On the election of Edward B. 
Kear as County Eegister, in 1908, 
he was tendered the position of 
Deputy County Eegister, which he 
accepted, holding such office three 
years, when he was reappointed on 
reelection of Eegister Kear. On the 
death of Eegister Kear, in 1911, 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

his friends strongly urged him for 
nomination as Eegister to fill the 
vacancy, but the nomination did not 
come to his locality. On Eegister 
Isaac H. Smith taking office, Janu- 
ary 1, 1912, Deputy Hoyt was asked 
to accept a reappointment to the 
office he had so ably filled four years. 

In the fall of 1911, Mr. Hoyt was 
the Eepublican nominee for Super- 
visor for the town of Mount Pleas- 
ant. Though he polled more than 
his party's normal vote he could not 
overcome the usual Democratic vote 
cast in that town, and as a conse- 
quence met defeat anticipated. 

He is a member of the Eepublican 
Town Committee and of the Eepubli- 
can County Committee and a recog- 
nized party leader in his town. Is 
a member of Pleasantville Lodge, 
No. 886, F. and A. M., and one of 
the charter members of the Lodge; 
is a member of Home Lodge, No. 
720, I. O. Odd Fellows, and one of 
the first members of Pioneer Engine 
Company, No. 1^ organized in 1894, 
being now an exempt fireman. Is 
a trustee of the Central Methodist 
Church of Pleasantville. 

Mr. Hoyt was married on June 23^ 
1898, to Miss Lillian I. Willis, 
daughter of Wilfred S. and Mary 
Archer (Guion) Willis, of Pleasant- 
ville. Of this union there are no 

residents see elsewhere in this book, 



(Continued froju page 215, Vol. 1.) 

Mount Vernon, called the " City of Homes," touching New 
York city on the south and east, Yonkers on the west and the 
town of Pelham on the north, was formerly, before it was made 
a city in 1892, a considerable portion of the town of Eastches- 
ter. In the latter year residents voted on the question, "Shall 
Mount Vernon, a locality of homes, be annexed to New York 
city, or shall it be incorporated as a city by iteelf ?" The vote 
was overwhelmingly in opposition to the New York city propo- 
sition, and was by a big majority, about two to one, in favor 
of Mount Vernon incorporating as a city. Accordingly the 
city incorporation followed. 

Mount Vernon was incorporated as a village in 1853, when 
the place w^as credited with a population of 1,370. 

The organizers of the village were members of "The Home 
Industrial Association, No. 1, of New York City," who had, 
on October 16, 1850, decided to purchase three hundred and 
seventy-five acres of land in the town of Eastchester, land 
which was subsequently included within the limits of the village 
of Mount Vernon. Horace Greeley and John Stevens (later 
a local Justice of the Peace), were nominated for purchasing 
agent of the Association; the latter was chosen; the first check 
in payment for the land, amounting to $3,400, was dated Novem- 
ber 1, 1850. 

"The Home Industrial Association No. 1," was composed of 
deep-thinking, hard-headed, men of industry; small merchants 
and mechanics mostly. John Stevens, who became one of the 
town of Eastchester 's most influential citizens, lived in the large 
family mansion, yet standing, on Fourth street, between South 
5th and 6th avenues, ]\Iount Vernon. His death occurred there 
a few years ago, he living to a ripe old age. At the time of the 
organization of this association, Mr. Stevens kept a little tailor 
shop in New York city, on Hudson street, between Morton and 
Barrow streets. 

In this shop it was the custom of the sturdy men of toil, 
residing in the neighborhood, to assemble nightly and discuss 
topics of the day. Stevens was a recognized leader and in 
most things his was the master spirit directing. He has been 


credited with having originated the idea of organi2dng this 
association with ultimate purpose of buying land in a nearby 
country locality and the establishing of homes for families 
desiring freedom not found in a pentup city. Horace Greeley 
promptly approved of the idea and made valuable suggestions 
in the way of formulation and improvement. Even in that 
early day, Mr. Greeley's opinions were valued highly, and when 
he endorsed this proposition many outside of the little tailor 
shop group manifested anxiety to enroll as members of the 

The plan adopted by the society was, that each member con- 
tribute one dollar per week, for seventy-six weeks, the total to 
be expended in purchasing the desired land, in the town of 
Eastchester, Westchester County; this land, so purchased, to 
be divided into plots of 100 x 104 feet, and each member of the 
association who had paid in full the sum of seventy-six dollars 
was entitled to take part in the distribution and each receive 
one plot. 

As is quite usual among men, and was even in that early 
day, there was rivalry as to who would be recognized as leader 
in the association. Horace Greeley and John Stevens had their 
friends, firm in desire to have their favorite win the leadership. 
The contest came over the choice of "Purchasing Agent." 
Stevens by only a few votes won over Greeley. 

In recent times old Squire Stevens would recall those first 
days of the association in telling of the strife for controlling 
influence, friendly but most earnest, between his friends and 
the friends of Mr. Greeley. 

"On one occasion," said Mr. Stevens, "I feared Mr. Greeley 
would rob me of what popularity I possessed. The question 
as to the plan of laying out the land and distribution was 
before the association. Mr. Greeley suggested that a part of the 
land, one or more acres, be set apart as a 'Common,' for the 
general use and enjoyment of members and their families ; that 
the plots assigned be arranged so as to face the 'Common' on 
all sides. This idea readily found acceptance with a majority, 
and it looked to me as if the Greeley plan would be adopted; 
if so, I knew that I would be discomforted, undermined as it 
were, and Greeley's star would outshine mine. I determined 
that quick action on my part was necessary to continue me 
right with my adherents. Accordingly, after Mr. Greeley had 
finished elaborating upon his plan, I arose and addressed the 


meeting, and in substance said, 'Gentlemen, I heartily agree 
with Mr. Greeley's plan, so intelligently set forth before you, 
the "Common" is a grand idea, but I would go further and 
provide in detail the use to which the said "Common" should 
be put. I suggest that the land of the "Common" be cultivated, 
that wheat, rye, oats, hay, and all kinds of garden truck, espe- 
cially soup vegetables, be grown there; in the centre of the 
"Common" let a house be built, and in this house erect a large 
kettle, holding say two hundred or more gallons, and in this 
kettle make the best kind of vegetable soup each week; a man 
to make such soup to be employed continuously ; a part of the 
duty of said man will be to fill up with soup the cans, pails or 
other vessels brought to him by our good housewives, as fre- 
quently as desired.' The absurdity of my proposition created 
general merriment, the defeat of Greeley's plan, and the latter 's 
undoing. There was no 'Common,' there was no soup house. 
Mr. Greeley, philosopher as he ever was, took it all kindly and 
was ever a helping member of the association." 

To decide upon a name for the new village was found 
to be a difficult task; various names were suggested, such 
as Columbia, Fleetwood, Rising Sun, Stevensville, Jefferson, 
Thousandville, Palestine, New Washington, Monticello, Wash- 
ington, Lafayette, Little New York, Linden, Olive Branch, 
New Amsterdam, Enterprise, Homesville, Industria, Youngfield, 
and Industry. Finally the name Monticello was adopted, on 
November 1, 1850; this name was shortly after changed to 
Monticello City. On November 12, 1850, members of the Asso- 
ciation visited their new purchase, and on that day Horace 
Greeley delivered an address complimenting them upon the step 
they had taken and commending the wisdom displayed in choos- 
ing the site for the proposed settlement. On January 10, 1851, 
the name of the locality was changed to Mount Vernon, the 
change being necessary to avoid postal difficulties. The elec- 
tion to decide for or against village incorporation was held 
December 3, 1853, the polling place being in a store on the 
comer of Third Avenue and Third Street. The vote was 
eighty-two in favor of the proposition to fifty-two against. The 
first village election was held March 7, 1854. The village trus- 
tees elected were, Stephen Bogart, John B. Brennan, Joseph S. 
Gregory, M. D., Thomas Jones and William Saxton. The Board 
of Trustees elected Dr. Gregory president of the village; after 


serving four months he resigned, when Thomas Jones was 
elected to succeed him. 

The later presidents appointed by the Board of Village Trus- 
tees were as follows: Cornelius A. Cooper, 1855; Richard 
Atkinson, 1856-57-60-62 ; George L. Baxter, 1858 ; John B. Bren- 
nan, 1859 ; John Stevens, 1861. Presidents were elected by the 
people for a term of one year, commencing 1863, and were as 
follows: David Quackinbush, 1863-64; William H. Pemberton, 
1865-66-67-68; Edward Martin, 1869. An amendment to the 
village charter, passed in 1870, made the presidential term two 
years. Under this amended charter the following Presidents 
were elected : Edward Martin, 1870-72 ; Azro Fowler, 1873-74 ; 
George R. Crawford, 1875-76; David Quackinbush, 1877-78; 
Henry Huss, 1879-80; John Van Santvoord, 1881-82; William 
J. Collins, 1883-84; Jared Sandford, 1885-86-87-88-89-90-91-92, 
Sandford holding over and serving for a time as Mayor. 

In 1869 residents of West Mount Vernon and of Central 
Mount Vernon voted to incorporate as one village; after nine 
years, in 1878, the electors of this village voted to dissolve as a 
village and that the locality be consolidated with the village 
of Mount Vernon. 

The City of Mount Vernon was chartered by a special act 
of the State Legislature, passed March 12, 1892. 

The following named persons have served this city as Mayor: 
Edward F. Brush, M. D., 1892-93 ; Edson Lewis, 1894-95 ; Edwin 
W. Fiske, 1896-97-98-99, 1900-1-2-3; Edward F. Brush, M. D., 
1904-5; Benjamin Howe, 1908-9; Edwin W. Fiske, 1910-11- 

The city has a large and most efficient police force ; it has an 
up-to-date fire department, equipped with all modern apparatus ; 
the new and handsome fire houses compare with any in the State ; 
its graded schools and numerous desirable school buildings are 
a credit to the city; its sewer system is the best; its w^ater 
supply has not been much to boast of, as it was controlled by 
private enterprise ; now that the city has decided to own its own 
plant and get all water needed there is hope that future water 
famines will be averted. 

In 1911 a bill was passed in the State Legislature to enable 
Mount Vernon to provide a public water supply. 

An act passed the Legislature, and became a law April 27, 
1911, amending the city charter so as to provide for the appoint- 


ment of city officers by the Mayor, without confirmation by 
the Common Council. This is considered the better way to 
make appointments to local office, as it places the undivided 
responsibility of administration directly upon the Mayor, and 
the people can hold him accountable for the acts of his agents. 
The city is in easy access of New York city, by means of 
three railroads and two trolley car lines, as it is connected by 
cities and towns in the County by similar modes of transpor- 

In Eastchester town's history Mount Vernon figures promi- 

Joseph Rodman Drake, M. D., famous poet, was born August 7, 
1795, on the Drake farm in Eastchester, now a part of the city 
of Mount Vernon. His ancestor Samuel Drake, was one of the 
first ten proprietors who settled the town of Eastchester in 1664. 
Drake, whose excellent poems are popular even at this day, 
died at the early age of 25 years, on September 21, 1820. He 
lies buried at Hunt's Point, near West Farms. 

Mount Vernon's postmaster in 1850 was Stephen Bogart, one 
of the first village trustees. In the early sixties, during the Civil 
War period, the postmaster of Mount Vernon was James S. 
Van Court, and he was followed by Jackson Hart, and then 
came Andrew Bridgeman, who is at present Supervisor of the 
Third Ward. 

A State Militia Company, one of the finest in the State, is long 
established in this city. 

Mount Vernon is known as the " City of Homes. ' ' 

It is proposed that the city shall soon have a City Hall of its 
own, in which to house under one roof all city officials. At 
present the "City Hall" is leased property belonging to a 
private individual. 

It has a public park, the "Hartley Park," named in honor 
of the man who gave the land to the city. 

The Martha Wilson Home for Aged Women was established 
in this city October 19, 1891, by Martha Wilson and her sister; 
the twentieth anniversary was celebrated in 1911, at the home. 

The population of the city of Mount Vernon, according lo 
the census of 1910, is 30,919 ; in 1900 it was 21,228, and in 1905 
it was 25,006. As a village, the population in 1880 was 4,586 ; 
in 1890 it was 10,830, and had more than doubled in ten years. 

Prior to 1850 the hamlet, afterward Moimt Vernon, had but 
few settlers, for the official census of 1850 credits the whole 


town of Eastchester with but 1,659 ; in 1845 the town had 
1,369; in 1840, 1,502; and in 1835 the town's inhabitants num- 
bered 1,168. 

For the early history of this city and vicinity, see sketch of 
the historic town of Eastchester, published elsewhere in this 

The electors of the city of Mount Vernon have voted in favor- 
of a commission form of government. To accomplish this a bill 
was introduced in the State Legislature of 1911; this bill pro- 
vided for a Council of five, and a system of recalling elective 
officials and a referendum for all members if the voters desire to 
pass upon them. The bill failed to pass that Legislature. 

Mount Vernon has provided two County Judges ; two District 
Attorneys, one assistant District Attorney; one Sheriff; one 
Register and one Deputy Register; one County Clerk and one 
Deputy County Clerk; one Deputy County Treasurer; four 
School Commissioners; two County Superintendents of the 
Poor, and four Coroners. 

The Bronx River, a narrow stream, which is the dividing line 
between this city and Yonkers, was at one time a river of some 
importance, and afforded fine water power to several manu- 
facturing plants constructed along its shores. Yet it was not 
a river of such magnitude as a high official in England thought 
it, when he questioned the judgment of British officers in com- 
mand of the navy at New York in 1776. This official in Eng- 
land, assisting in directing affairs in America, saw the Bronx 
River mentioned on a map, and wanted to know why at the 
Battle of White Plains the British fleet did not sail up that 
river and assist the land forces. In fact the river was not 
navigable any distance; to-day it is but a shallow creek. 

The old Hunt's bridge over the Bronx River, and across the 
border line between the two cities had to be removed in the early 
part of 1911, January and February, to permit the laying of 
new and elevated tracks for the Harlem Branch of the New 
York Central Railroad, in compliance with the law, to do away 
with track on street crossing at the point from which Yonkers 
Avenue extends westward through Yonkers and Mount Vernon 
Avenue, eastward across Mount Vernon. 

On account of Revolutionary War history associated with this 
bridge, attempts to remove it were resisted vigorously by resi- 
dents in the immediate vicinity, and spirited hand to hand 



encounters between citizens and railroad employees were fre- 
quent. Only the strong arm of the law, appealed to by the 
railroad officials, and the stealing of a march upon the citizens 
who were put on guard and who had relaxed their vigilance for 
one night only, gained the battle for the railroad and brought 
destruction to the bridge. 

Hunt's Bridge, named in honor of a prominent family resid- 
ing nearby in the early days, was built several years before the 
beginning of the Revolutionary War, and was one of the con- 
necting links that joined New York city with the upper part 
of "Westchester County and southern New England, and before 
the battle of AVhite Plains bore the tattered and discouraged 
Continental soldiers under General Washington on their way 
to their winter encampment at White Plains. Over it, also, the 
British army later marched. All these historical facts were 
dear to the people, who prized the old bridge for the service 
it had rendered. But the railroad people, they — anyway, should 
sentiment get mixed up with business? 

Biographical Sketches. 


Edwin W. Fiske, now serving his 
sixth term as Mayor of Mount Ver- 
non, a longer period than any of his 
predecessors, was bom in Shamokin, 
Pa., on July 17, 1861, a son of 
Samuel and Amanda (Stoddart) 
Fiske. The family is of English 
descent, the Fiskes having first set- 
tled in Massachusetts; while on his 
mother's side, the Stoddarts of Stod- 
dartsville have lived in Pennsylvania 
for several generations; further he 
is a descendant of Eevolutionary an- 
cestry, of men who fought in the 
patriotic cause. The subject of this 
sketch, who was born in war times, 
has likewise fought for the patri- 
otic cause in more recent periods, 
and even his friends the enemy ad- 
mit he is a good fair fighter. 

While his ability as a successful 
political leader is generally recog- 
nized, his cleverness as a business 
man is prominently pronounced. 
His business training was most 
thorough. He received his education 
in the public schools of Harrisburg, 
Pa. At an early age he entered the 
Pennsylvania Steel Company's 
works, at Steelton, Pa., for the pur- 

pose of learning the Bessemer pro- 
cess of steel making. Four years of 
steady application gave him a thor- 
ough grasp of the subject. He then 
joined the Harrisburg Foundry and 
Machine Works, where he put in 
three years learning the machinists' 
trade. This practical experience, 
gained at first hand^ was of great 
assistance to Mr. Fiske in all his 
commercial enterprises in which he 
subsequently engaged. 

In 1884 he became a resident of 
New York city, where he entered the 
steam and hot water heating busi- 
ness. Eight years later, in 1892, he 
established the Fiske Heating & 
Plumbing Company in Mount Ver- 
non, with a branch in Yonkers. This 
concern continued in business until 
1902, when Mr. Fiske became inter- 
ested in real estate. Tackling the 
subject in its broader aspects he 
made a specialty of real estate ap- 
praisement and expert witness on 
same, and was soon recognized as 
one of the leading authorities in this 
line. Since 1905 he has been em- 
ployed as appraisal commissioner 
and expert witness on property taken 
by the City of New York for the 
Croton and Catskill water supply 


■K t- ' 



systems. He also appraises property 
for lawyers and for banks and for 
and against railroad corporations. 
As head of the Edwin W, Fiske 
Eealty Company with offices at 14 
Depot Place, Mt. Vernon, he has 
made a record as an able man of 

Mr. Fiske came to Mount Vernon 
to reside in 1887. Had not long 
been a resident of this county when 
we found him a political factor, and 
the ' ' Young Men in Politics ' ' never 
had a more energetic representa- 
tive. His genial ways and good- 
natured disposition appealed to even 
opponents. His hustling activities 
attracted attention and the old party 
leaders were compelled to sit-up and 
take notice. He was elected chair- 
man of the Eepublican General Com- 
mittee, to which position he was re- 
elected several times. Many of the 
young men who assisted then in his 
advancement are his friends to-day. 
whenever he appears as a candidate 
for office, even though they be Ee- 
publican organization men. This is 
one reason accounting for his suc- 
cess at the polls. 

In 1889 he was elected a Village 
Trustee to represent the Second 
Ward (where he now resides) of 
Mount Vernon. His removal from 
the ward in 1890 required him to 
relinquish this office. In 1890 he 
was the Eepublican nominee for 
President of the Village against 
Jared Sandford; though defeated, 
he made a better showing than any 
previous Eepublican candidate in 
that strongly Democratic locality. 
He thus early demonstrated his abil- 
ity as a vote getter. It was evident 
that had his party adherents given 
him united support he would have 
been successful, considering that he 
had a strong Democratic following 
among young men of the opposing 
party. His treatment on this occa- 
sion no doubt influenced him to lis- 
ten to the urging of friends to 
"come over" and unite with a po- 
litical party more in harmony with 
his political views. Immediately he 
took in the Democratic party a place 
almost as prominent as that occu- 
pied by him in the Eepublican party. 
As the Democratic candidate in 1893 
he was elected Alderman of the 
Second Ward to which he had re- 
turned. In 1894 he was the Demo- 

cratic candidate for Mayor against 
the strongest candidate the Eepub- 
licans could produce; the election 
was so close that the Courts had to 
be called upon to decide. After 
several months' delay the Courts 
rendered a decision to the effect that 
Mr. Fiske had been defeated by one 
vote. The latter remained an Al- 
derman and was elected President 
of the Common Council and Acting 
Mayor. In 1896 he was again the 
Democratic nominee for Mayor, and 
was elected by a majority of 505. 
In the years 1898, 1900 and 1902 he 
was re-elected to succeed himself. 
Eemarkable from the fact that 
Mount Vernon is a Eepublican city 
on general issues, anywhere from 
500 to 1,100. 

The Mayoralty fight in 1902 was 
specially spirited between two spe- 
cially active men, Dr. Edward F. 
Brush, who had been the city's first 
Mayor and was exceedingly popular, 
and Mr. Fiske, whose running quali- 
ties had before been tested. The 
result was a personal triumph for 
Mr. Fiske, he being the only nominee 
on the Democratic ticket elected. 
This goes to prove what has here 
been said, even men belonging to the 
"Eepublican Organization" who 
were his friends in the earlier days, 
never desert Mr. Fiske when he is a 
candidate for office. Leaders of the 
said "organization" admit the sit- 
uation, though they may deplore it. 

In 1909 Mr. Fiske was again the 
Democratic candidate for Mayor. 
This proved to be a peculiar elec- 
tion; there was, beside the Eepub- 
lican candidate, an independent 
Democratic candidate for the office. 
The Eepublieans calculated that the 
"Popular Fiske" would meet his 
Waterloo this time sure; that the 
Independent Democrat would draw 
off enough Democratic votes to elect 
the Eepublican; the Independent did 
do remarkably in the way of vote 
getting, but he received most of his 
votes from the Eepublieans; as us- 
ual, Mr. Fiske was re-elected by a 
big majority. In 1911 the Eepubli- 
can party brought forth its strong- 
est giant to combat the opposing 
enemy; Mr. Fiske 's opponent was 
ex-Alderman Taylor of the Fifth 
Ward, a most excellent man and one 
justly popular. The Eepublieans 
worked as they never had worked 



before, but it was of no use, Mr. 
Fiske -was again re-elected by a ma- 
jority fully as large as before. 

At this lATiting it is quite appar- 
ent that the people of Mount Ver- 
non, irrespective of politics, want 
Mr. Fiske for Mayor, as long as he 
is willing to serve them in that ca- 

A bill which passed the State Leg- 
islature in 1911 gave the Mayor of 
Mount Vernon authority to appoint 
officials under him without consent 
or confirmation of the Aldermen. 
True to this confidence placed in 
him, Mayor Fiske has selected men 
for the several city official positions 
who have given greatest satisfaction 
to citizens generally. To the May- 
or's credit it ought to be mentioned 
that at no time in the eleven years 
he has held the office of Mayor has 
there ever been a public scandal 
connected with his administration, or 
even the suspicion of one; a most 
gratifying record to him and his 
friends, surely. 

Mayor Fiske is a life member 
Mason, Knight Templar, Mecca 
Shrine, B. P. O. Elks No. 1, N. Y. 
City; he is also affiliated with the 
Siwanoy Country Club of Mount 
Vernon, and the City Club of Yon- 
kers. He has always taken an in- 
terest^ in the National Guards, S. N. 
Y., in which organization he has 
been an officer for eleven years and 
since 1905 has been Quartermaster, 
with the rank of Captain in the 10th 

He was one of the organizers of 
Steamer Engine Company No. 3 of 
the Mount Vernon Fire Department, 
became its foreman, and served as 
such until 1893 when he was elected 
Chief Engineer of the Department. 
To him largely is due the present 
efficiency of the Department. 

Mayor Fiske was married June 7, 
1892, to Miss Annie E. Smith, 
daughter of Henry C. and Annie 
Smith, of Mount Vernon. Or this 
union there are four children, two 
boys and two girls. 


Joseph Simeon Wood, instructor, a 
leading lawyer of the County, former 
public official, and one of the most 
prominent citizens of the city of 
Mount Vernon, M-as born in the city 

of New York, on June 13, 1843, a 
son of Joseph and Mary (Broad- 
meadow) Wood. 

For several generations, his an- 
cestors lived on Staten Island. His 
grandmother on his father's side was 
Gertrude Mersereau. She was a 
daughter of Paul Mersereau, who, 
with his four brothers, Joshua, 
Jacob, John and Cornelius, did yeo- 
man service for the cause of Liberty 
in the American Eevolution. There 
is no record of any other family 
which furnished five brothers to the 
patriot cause. These brothers were 
the grandchildren of Joshua Merse- 
reau, who was one of a company of 
French Huguenots, who fled from 
France about 1688, shortly after the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
and settled on Staten Island. 

Mr. Wood's grandfather, on his 
mother's side, was Simeon Broad- 
meadow, an eminent civil and 
mechanical engineer, who came to 
this country from England in 1828, 
and was naturalized by a special act 
of the Congress of the United States, 
in the same year. 

Mr. Wood was educated in the 
public schools of the city of New 
York, and graduated from the New 
York Free Academy, now the College 
of the City of New York, in 1861, 
with high honors. 

For a short time, he was tutor 
of the higher mathematics in the 
Cooper Union of New York city; 
and in December, 1862, when only 
nineteen years of age, became the 
superintendent of that famous insti- 
tution. That position he resigned on 
January 1st, 1865, to become the 
superintendent of the public schools 
of Mount Vernon. 

With this beautiful and prosperous 
suburb of the city of New York, he 
has ever since been identified. 

In 1869, he purchased the Chroni- 
cle, a newspaper published in Mount 
Vernon, and for twenty-four years, 
was its editor and proprietor. 

Through its advocacy of reforms 
and improvements, and its exposure 
of corruption and rascality in pub- 
lic office, this newspaper exerted a 
very wide influence, and became a 
great power for good government 
throughout Westchester County. 

Under Mr. Wood's superintend- 
ence, the public schools of Mount 
Vernon became noted for their ex- 



cellence, and many of their graduates 
took high honors in the colleges to 
which they were admitted. 

In 1882, Mr. Wood and Mr. John 
Mullaly, who was one of the editors 
of the New York Herald, organized 
the movement for the creation of the 
magnificent system of parks in the 
Borough of Bronx. For several 
years the struggle for the creation 
of these great parks was maintained, 
even against the bitter opposition of 
such men as Mayor Grace and ex- 
Mayor Hewitt. 

Mr. Wood was most of all, inter- 
ested in Pelham Bay Park, which 
would not have been made a part of 
the system but for his insistence and 
grim determination. 

The other members of the com- 
mittee who drew up the original bill, 
which was submitted to the legisla- 
ture, were afraid that an attempt to 
create a great park outside the limits 
of the city of New York would cause 
the defeat of the whole project, es- 
pecially as that park would be al- 
most as large as the Bronx and Van 
Courtlandt parks combined. 

They were, however, induced 
through Mr. Wood's persistence and 
persuasion, to include it in the bill, 
and it is now an established fact. 

As it is twice as large as the Cen- 
tral Park, and has over twelve miles 
of water front on Long Island 
Sound, Pelham Bay and the Hutchin- 
son Eiver, it bids fair to become not 
only the grandest park of New York 
city, but of the world. 

In 1876 Mr. Wood resigned the 
superintendency of the public schools 
of Mount Vernon, and was gradu- 
ated from the Columbia Law School. 

One of his fellow graduates was 
the Hon. Isaac N. Mills, with whom 
he immediately formed a co-partner- 
ship for the practice of law in West- 
chester County, their office being in 
Mount Vernon. 

This co-partnership lasted for six 
years, and shortly thereafter, Mr. 
Mills became the County Judge of 
Westchester County, and is now a 
Justice of the Supreme Court. 

In 1878 Mr. Wood was elected 
School Commissioner of the First 
School Commissioner District of 
Westchester County and held that 
office for three years. 

In 1893, he sold the Chronicle, 

and has since devoted himself to his 
law practice. 

In 1879, he was married to Miss 
Susy E. Mixsell, who, during the 
years 1909, 1910 and 1911, was the 
Eegent of the Daughters of the 
American Eevolution, for the State 
of New York. 

Four children were the issue of 
this marriage, two sons and two 
daughters, of whom one son, Fletcher 
H. Wood, and one daughter, 
Josephine Wood, are living. 

His eldest son, Sydney M. Wood, 
graduated from Yale University in 
1900 with high honors, and from the 
New York Law School in 1903. He 
at once entered into partnership 
with his father in the practice of 
law, and bade fair to become one of 
the most distinguished lawyers of 
Westchester County, After a severe 
and prolonged attack of pneumonia, 
he was seized with tuberculosis, and 
died at Ashville, North Carolina, on 
the first day of February 1909 in 
the twenty-ninth year of his age. 
This son Sydney married, in 1905, 
Miss Clara Barton Jacobs, who sur- 
vives him, as does a son, Joseph 
Broadmeadow Wood, aged five years. 

Mr. Wood senior was the Presi- 
dent of the Westchester County Bar 
Association for two terms. He was 
also the President of the Board of 
Education of the city of Mount 
Vernon for four years. During his 
administration many marked im- 
provements in the school system were 
established, especially the creation 
of a Commercial High School. A 
Trades High School, which he also 
advocated, has since been created. 

Mr. Wood has also been the presi- 
dent of the City College Club and 
the Board of Trade of the city of 
Mount Vernon. 

He is a member of the New York 
Athlethic Club, the Manhattan Chess 
Club, the Transportation Club, the 
City College Club, the City Club of 
Mount Vernon, the Westchester 
County Chamber of Commerce, the 
Mount Vernon Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Civic League of West- 
chester County and a number of 
other social and civic organizations. 

Mr. Wood has laid out and de- 
veloped three beautiful sections of 
the city of Mount Vernon, to wit: 



Villa Park, Veruon Wood and Dar- 

He has always taken an active part 
in public aflfairs, believing it to be 
his duty as a good citizen to do so, 
and has given a considerable por- 
tion of his time to securing addi- 
tional and better transportation 
facilities between Mount Vernon 
and New York city, realizing that 
the prosperity of the former rested 
primarily on this essential. 


Mrs. Susy E. Wood (Mrs. J. S. 
Wood), was born in the city of New 
York on the 23d day of July, 1858. 

Her father, Aaron Mixsell, was a 
piano manufacturer. Her mother, 
Cynthia J. Mixsell, was a daughter 
of Aaron Burr Jackson, whose father, 
Joseph Jackson, Jr., was a brave 
soldier in the American Army during 
the Eevolution. 

His father, Joseph Jackson, was 
one of the few men who signed the 
Association List directly following 
the Battle of Lexington. These sign- 
ers pledged their property and lives 
for their country. His wife was 
Sarah Burr, daughter of John Burr 
and Mary Ward — Mary Ward was 
the daughter of Andrew Ward, one 
of the founders of the city of Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

In 1866 her father moved from 
New York city to Mount Vernon in 
Westchester County. Mrs. Wood has 
never changed her place of residence 
since that date. 

June 11, 1879, she was married to 
Mr. Joseph S. Wood, who was then, 
and is now, one of the most distin- 
guished citizens of Mount Vernon. 

Her brother. Dr. Aaron J. Mixsell, 
was, for many years, one of the most 
prominent physicians in. the eastern 
part of Westchester County. 

She has had four children, Sydney 
M. Wood, Gertrude Wood, Fletcher 
H. Wood and .Josephine Wood. 

Her son, Sydney, died February 1, 
1909, and her daughter, Gertrude, 
November 12, 1891. 

Sydney graduated from Yale Uni- 
versity in 1900 with high honors, 
when he was nineteen years old. He 
was admitted to the Bar in New 
York State in 1903, and bade fair to 

become one of the most eminent 
members of the legal profession in 
Westchester County. 

Mrs. Wood has always taken a 
deep interest in every movement in 
the city of Mount Vernon for the 
advancement of the welfare of its 
people. She has always regarded the 
public schools as of the highest im- 
})ortanee, and has frequently been a 
welcome visitor therein. 

No cause is to her more sacred 
than that of Patriotism ; and she 
never fails, when the opportunity pre- 
sents itself, of arousing in the breasts 
of both young and old the Love of 
our country, and of picturing the 
Blessings of Liberty. 

For three years she was the Ee- 
gent of the Bronx Chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion in Mount Vernon, and from 1909 
to 1912 was honored for three suc- 
cessive terms as the New York State 
Eegent of that body of distinguished 
women. During that period she did 
splendid work in adding new chap- 
ters to the organization and in mak- 
ing the Spirit of Patriotism a great 
power for good. 

Mrs. Wood has been the vice-presi- 
dent of the Women's Club of Mount 
Vernon, one of the most influential 
bodies of women in Westchester 

She has been for many years, and 
is now, a member of the Rubinstein 
Club and the Saint Cecilia Club in 
New York city. 

She is a member of the Holland 
Dames, and the Daughters of the 
Empire State. 

Mrs. Wood is one of the leaders 
of society in the City of Mount Ver- 
non, and is a most charming hostess. 

Her home is a center of culture, 
where lovers of art, music and litera- 
ture delight to assemble. 

Mrs. Wood is also an active mem- 
ber and a worker in Trinity Parish 
of the Episcopal Church in the city 
of Mount Vernon, particularly in 
those branches of religious work 
which bring her in touch with the 
young women of the Church. 

She is a member of the National 
Committee of the Anti-SuflPragists of 
which Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge is Presi- 
dent, believing thoroughly in the 
rights of women but not in getting 
those rights through the Ballot. 




Francis Augustus Stratton, is a 
conspicuous representative of the 
business men in this county, and, 
we might add, of the men of affairs 
who take an interest in politics of 
the day without desire to hold public 
office, men who do not shirk the 
responsibilities of good citizenship. 

This book which endeavors to 
present the life stories, in condensed 
form, of many of the citizens of 
this county who are now, or have 
been, at the front of its activities, 
and whose achievements are matters 
of current interest; relates to such 
men as Mr. Stratton. 

He was born at Little Valley, 
Cattaraugue County, N. Y., a son 
of Lorenzo and Sophia J. (Hill) 

His family is of English origin, 
he being a direct descendant of 
Resolve White who came to Ameri- 
ca in the Mayflower. His ancestors 
took part in the Revolutionary War, 
and were, most of them, noted as 
prominent and patriotic citizens. 
His father was also a native of New 
York State, while his mother was 
a daughter of Henry Hill, American 
Consul to Brazil during President 
Madison's term of office, and her 
grandfather Samuel Russel, was the 
first postmaster of Buffalo, N. Y. 

The subject of this sketch became 
a resident of Westchester County in 
the year 1899, taking up his abode 
in Mount Vernon, where he yet 

He soon became prominent in 
activities for the development and 
success of the county. One of his 
most notable achievements was the 
placing upon a sound commercial, 
economical and satisfactory basis 
the lighting business of the entire 
county of Westchester. His cor- 
porations supply this County and a 
part of New York City with gas and 
electricity. He has built and is now 
engaged in building electric rail- 
roads through the County. He has 
also been a successful real estate 
operator; and, recently, was instru- 
mental in forming land companies 
in the northern part of the County, 
with a view to forwarding the 
development of this section. 

Through a tract of 200 acres of 
land, owned by him in the city of 

New Rochelle, he gave a right of 
way to the New York, Westchester 
and Boston Railroad. It was on this 
property that the railroad company 
has established the station of 
' ' Quaker Ridge, ' ' which is destined 
to become a flourishing settlement. 
In the development of this promis- 
ing residential section Mr. Stratton 
has associated with him many of the 
best known real estate experts in the 

Mr. Stratton is now president and 
a director of the Westchester Light- 
ing Company, of the Northern West- 
chester Lighting Company, and the 
Peekskill Lighting and Railroad 
Company. He is also a director of 
the Putnam and Westchester Trac- 
tion Company, of the Mount Ver- 
non Trust Company, of the Quaker 
Ridge Improvement Company, of the 
Craigdale Realty Company, etc. 

He finds his recreation in yachting 
and other out-of-door sports. Is a 
member of the New Rochelle Yacht 
Club; the Wykagyl Country Club, of 
the Lotos, the Lawyers' and the 
Transportation Clubs of New York 

In politics he is a staunch Republi- 
can; he is a member of the Republi- 
can Club of New York City, is a 
member of the Republican City Com- 
mittee, of Mount Vernon, and is a 
member of the Westchester County 
Republican Committee. In March, 
1912, he was elected unanimously aa 
chairman of the Mount Vernon Re- 
publican City Committee, to succeed 
County Clerk Frank M. Buck, who 
urged Mr. Stratton 's selection. The 
new chairman's Republican fellow 
townsmen are anticipating that 
" something will be doing, sure," if 
the " new Leader " takes hold of 
his new job with the same active 
spirit invoked when he tackles pri- 
vate business propositions. 

In part recognition of valuable 
services rendered in all localities, a 
dinner was given him in 1903. 
Prominent men of the County, repre- 
senting all branches of commerce 
and professions, were there to do 
him honor. The mayors of the three 
cities accompanied by other munici- 
pal officers of towns and villages 
vied wath each other in bearing 
testimony as to how their localities 
had been well served by the guest of 
the evening. During the banquet Mr. 



Stratton was the recipient of an ap- 
propriate gift that would ever re- 
mind him of the sincere regard in 
which he is held. 

One of his pleasing reflections is 
that he is an honorary member of 
the " Fourth Estate." Is associ- 
ated with the Press Club of New 
York City and with the " Journal- 
istic Combine " in Westchester 
County. Even Democratic editors 
are willing to overlook his " politi- 
cal weakness," on the ground that 
he is " an all-round goodfellow," 
and say, " despite your politics, we 
love you still." Annually he gave 
an outing to members of the press, 
which always, to the hard-worked 
quill-driver, proved a dispensation of 
mercy, with a considerable mixture 
of a " bully-good time thrown in." 
With him the Westchester news- 
paper men explored the subway tun- 
nell before its opening to the public; 
with him, and at his expense, the 
County journalists, in company with 
municipal officers and other promi- 
nent men of the County, were en- 
abled to witness the International 
Yacht Race in 1903; to satisfy the 
vanity of the newspaper men, and 
because it was his custom, Mr. Strat- 
ton on this occasion gave to each 
guest a handsome piece of jewelry 
as a souvenir of the occasion. In 
return for this new evidence of 
generosity, the guests unanimously 
nominated and elected Mr. Stratton 
an " Admiral," because he knew 
just what to do when out at sea. 

Affable and pleasing in address, 
unpretentious and unostentatious in 
his demeanor, yet with a quiet dig- 
nity and force of character that 
never fail to win the place his merits 
claim, Mr. Stratton is generally and 
deservedly popular. The important 
trusts which have been committed to 
his charge, and the eminent position 
which he now holds justifies the 
statement made at the beginning of 
this sketch. 

Mr. Stratton was inarriod in 1883, 
to Miss Annie Wilder, daughter of 
General .John T. Wilder, a Federal 
Officer in the Civil War, then a resi- 
dent of Chattanooga, Tenn. Gen. 
Wilder is alive at this writing, aged 
82 years. 

There is one son. Wilder Lorenzo 
Stratton, aged 26 years. 


John Henry Cordes, Comptroller 
of the City of Mount Vernon, 
former Supervisor, former City As- 
sessor, former City Fire Commis- 
sioner, etc., was born on June 30, 
1861, in Morrisania, in this county, 
of German parentage, a son of 
Christopher and Elizabeth Cordes. 
His parents became residents of 
Mount Vernon in 1872, when he was 
eleven years of age. 

He was educated in public 
schools of Morrisania and Mount 

As a real estate and insurance 
broker he has a long established 
business, as remunerative as it is 

He has for years been an active 
figure in public affairs, performing 
the duties associated with good citi- 

Shortly after reaching his ma- 
jority he took interest in politics, 
becoming a member of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

In 1892 he was made a City As- 
sessor, and held this office until he 
was elected a Supervisor to repre- 
sent the Fourth Ward. The office 
of Supervisor he held from 1904 to 
1912, having been elected in 1911 
as City Comptroller to serve until 
November 20, 1913. 

In 1909 he was appointed a City 
Fire Commissioner, and served the 
full term. 

In 1907 Mr. Cordes was the Demo- 
cratic nominee for Mayor, his popu- 
larity forcing his nomination. It 
proved to be not a Democratic year, 
and although he polled a surpris- 
ingly large vote, under great disad- 
vantages, he failed of election. In 
1909 he received a citizens' nomina- 
tion for the same office; again his 
vote was large but not enough to 
elect. In 1911 he was the Demo- 
cratic nominee for City Comptroller, 
and was successful. 

He has filled the office of City 
Comptrollor so acceptably that a re- 
election can be had for the asking. 
His friends, however, contend that 
he should be Mayor. 

He was never defeated for the 
office of Supervisor. 

He is a member of the Firemen's 
Benevolent Fund Association, organ- 
ized in 1891. was a charter member 



(Mrs. Joseph S. Wood) 









and its president twelve years; of 
the Mount Vernon Lodge, No. 195, 
I. O. O. F.; of the Guiding Star 
Encampment, No. 83, I. O. O. F.; 
of Washington Engine Co. No. 1, 
now Chemical Engine Co., serving in 
all offices and as foreman four 
years; of Exempt Firemen's Asso- 
ciation of Mount Vernon; of Mount 
Vernon Lodge No. 842, P. B. 0. E.; 
charter member of Mount Vernon 
Turn Verein; of Mount Vernon 
Quartette Club; of Mount Vernon 
Council No. 2019, Royal Arcanum; 
charter member of local council 
Woodmen of the World, and mem- 
ber of other fraternal and social 

Mr. Cordes was married on Octo- 
ber 4, 1887, to Miss Clara A. O'Mal- 
ley, daughter of D. O'Malley of 
Pelham. Of this union there are 
three children. Amy B., John H., 
Jr., and Arthur V. Several years 
following the death of his wife, Mr. 
Cordes was again married, on Octo- 
ber 6, 1903, to Miss Caroline M. 
Eampert, daughter of Albert Eam- 
pert of Mount Vernon. Of the sec- 
ond marriage there are two children, 
Herbert A. and Edgar W. 


William Archer, former Alderman 
of the City of Mount Vernon, treas- 
urer of the Eepublican County Com- 
mittee, etc., was born in Ireland and 
came to this country about forty-five 
years ago, when a young man, pos- 
sessed of little money, but well 
equipped with energy, perseverance 
and a determination to succeed. 

He landed in New York in com- 
pany with a young friend, also from 
Ireland, John Dawson. Between 
these men friendship has been pure 
and everlasting. In early days they 
entered into a partnership that ex- 
ists even unto this day. Both Archer 
and Dawson worked as laborers in 
New York city, and when, after a 
few years, they had saved a little 
money, they started the partnership 
which created a large contracting 

They both became residents of 
Mount Vernon about thirty years 
ago, became interested in public 
affairs and contributed largely to 
Mount Vernon's development as a 
"City of Homes." 

Mr. Archer was elected an Alder- 

man to represent the Fifth Ward 
and subsequently was unanimously 
chosen as Alderman from the same 
ward to fill a vacancy; he was twice 
the unsuccessful nominee of the Re- 
publican party for Mayor. He has 
been treasurer of the Eepublican 
County Committee for nearly fifteen 

In 1911 the Eepublican State 
Convention nominated Mr. Archer 
for State Treasurer. This year 
proved to be an unprofitable one for 
Republican nominees, as that particu- 
lar political party suffered from loss 
of blood owing to the cutting off 
and running away of a large num- 
ber of former Republican faithfuls 
who joined the recently created Bull 
Moose political party. Like others 
worthy on the State ticket, Mr. 
Archer was defeated, though he lea 
all candidates in the voting in his 
own county. 

The subject of this sketch does not 
make politics a business; he con- 
siders it as a diversion, a relaxation 
from business. 

His business is construction of 
large buildings. His firm has its 
offices in New York city. The firm 
built the Criminal Court Building, 
the Park Row Buildings, the Hol- 
land House, the Tower Building, and 
several churches, in New York city, 
and other equally large buildings in 
other sections. 

Mr. Archer invested largely m 
Mount Vernon real estate, and de- 
veloped Corcoran Manor, where he 

He is a director in the First Na- 
tional Bank of Mount Vernon and 
ii interested in other financial insti- 
tutions, is a trustee of the Chester 
Hill Methodist Church, and is a 
member of several societies, frater- 
nal and social. 


William Childs Clark, Transfer 
Tax Appraiser of the State of New 
York for the county of Westchester 
and Justice of the Peace of the 
city of Mount Vernon, was born in 
Laytons, Sussex County, N. J., on 
July 26, 1880, a son of William and 
Margaret (Roe) Clark. He was edu- 
cated in the Newton, N. J., High 
School, the Centenary Collegiate In- 
stitute and the New York Law- 
School. He established a residence 



in the city of Mount Vernon, this 
County, iu the year IS97. For a 
brief period he was employed in the 
County Clerk's office, in White 
Plaius, when he was appointed to a 
clerkship in connection with the 
State Senate at Albany. This latter 
position he filled acceptably for four 

On being admitted to practice at 
the bar, he opened an office in Mount 
Vernon. In 1906 he was elected a 
Justice of the Peace on the Eepubli- 
can ticket as a representative of 
young men interested in politics, of 
which there is a great number and 
of strong influence in that city; 
Mr. Clark was but twenty-six years 
of age when privileged to assume 
the title of " Judge." 

Personally, Judge Clark is ex- 
tremely popular with all who know 
him, and, it is said, his affable man- 
ners are irresistible, so much so that 
even the older politicians succumb 
and readily do what he requires of 
them, becoming his adherents as 
loyal as are the young men of the 
party who acknowledge him as a 

His appointment by the State 
Comptroller to the much coveted po- 
sition of Transfer Tax Appraiser, in 
1908, was a great honor for so young 
a man. His being given the prefer- 
ence for this office over many ap- 
plicants from all parts of the County, 
vras a high compliment bestowed. 

The assurances of many prominent 
citizens of the County, that Mr. 
Clark would " make good," was 
sufficient to influence the State 
Comptroller. To convince the Comp- 
troller that he had made no mistake 
in placing him, to redeem the prom- 
ises of friends made in his behalf, 
Mr. Clark is doing his utmost, and so 
far has proven his fitness by the in- 
telligent discharge of the duties of 
his office. 

Mr. Clark was married on Decem- 
ber 20, 1903, to Miss Kathryn A. 
Eeap, daughter of John and Ella 
(Murray) Reap, of Scranton, Pa. 
Three children, two boys and a girl, 
are the result of this union. 

Josoph Henry Esser, former Special 
Deputy Attorney-General, former As- 
sistant Corporation Counsel of city 
of Mount Vernon, was born on No- 

vember 29, 1879, in the city of New 
York, a son of Henry and Augusta 
(Hinkel) Esser. His father was a 
Trustee of the village of Mount 
Vernon, County Superintendent of 
the Poor six years, and Treasurer of 
the city of Mount Vernon. 

The son was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Mount Vernon, to 
which place the family moved in 
1884; in the Halsey Collegiate 
School, New York City, and in 
ColumlDia University, graduating in 
1901, with the degree oi Bachelor of 
Arts, and graduated from the Law 
School of Columbia University in 
1903 with degree L. G. B. He 
opened a law office in city of Mount 
Vernon, where he is at present lo- 

In 1903 he was appointed Assia^ 
tant Corporation Counsel of hia 
home city. The State Attorney- 
General, in 1909, appointed Mr. Es- 
ser a Special Deputy Attorney-Gen- 
eral in charge of election cases in 
Westchester County, a position he 
yet holds. 

Mr. Esser is a member of Hia- 
watha Lodge, No. 434, F. and A. M., 
is a member of the B. P. Order of 
Elks, a member of the Larchmont 
Yacht Club, a member of the Re- 
publican L;lub of New i^ork City, 
and a member of the Republican 
City Committee or Mount Vernon. 

He was married on June 5, 1907, 
to Miss Lena Boice, daughter of 
Zodac P. Boice (Sheriff of Ulster 
County), and Delia Boice, of Kings- 
ton, N. Y. Of this union there is 
one child, Marion Augusta, born 
March 11, 1908. 


Robert Mason, Assistant Clerk of 
the County Board of Supervisors, 
former Assistant Postmaster at 
Mount Vernon, etc., was born on 
February 9, 1864, in the Ninth Ward 
of the City of New York, a son of 
Robert and Mary (May) Mason. 

He was educated in the public 
schools of native city, graduating 
from Grammar School No. 3. 

He became a resident of this 
county in the year 1891, locating in 
the city of Mount Vernon. 

For several years he engaged 
largely in the sale of real estate in 
Mount Vernon and vicinity, being 



associated -with the firm of McClel- 
lin & Hodge. 

In 1898, on the appointment of 
David O. Williams as Postmaster of 
Mount Vernon, the position of 
Assistant-Postmaster was tendered to 
Mr. Mason and was accepted. In this 
position Mr. Mason proved most effi- 
cient; owing to the illness of the 
Postmaster the whole responsibility 
of the management of the office fell 
upon the Assistant Postmaster. The 
Postal authorities at Washington 
took occasion to commend him high- 
ly for unusual abilities displayed in 
discharge of duties. This position 
he held thirteen years, from August 
1, 1898 to September 15, 1911. re- 
tiring on the latter date to accept 
election by the Board of Supervisors 
as Assistant Clerk of that body. 

Mr. Mason was a member of the 
Eepublican Committee of the city 
of Mount Vernon, of the Republican 
County Committee, of the Eepubli- 
can Club of New York City, of the 
Mount Vernon Council of Royal 
Arcanum, and of other organizations. 

He was married on April 8, 1900, 
to Miss Ella E. Scardefield, daughter 
of John and Mary Scardefield, of 
New York city. Of this marriage 
there are five children, Harold 
Fletcher, aged 19 years; Walter 
Roosevelt, aged 13 years; Ruth Bea- 
trice, aged 10 years; Muriel Vio- 
letta, aged 4 years; and Ella May, 
aged 4 months. 


John Albert Zimmermann, lawyer, 
former Alderman, etc., was born on 
November 21, 1876, in the city of 
New York, a son of Frederick and 
Katherine (Lynn) Zimmermann. 

When he was six years of age his 
parents removed from New York 
city to Stamford, Conn., where his 
father engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness; ten years later, in 1892, the 
family removed to Mount Vernon, 
this county, where the head of the 
family is yet engaged in business. 

Mr. Zimmermann was educated in 
the Stamford public schools gradu- 
ating from the High School of that 
city. Arriving in Mount Vernon he 
decided on the study of law as his 
life work, and to adopt the legal 

profession. The very year of his 
arrival found him entered as a stu- 
dent in the law office of Appell & 
Tompkins, of which law firm City 
Judge George Appell was the senior 
partner, he continued with this firm 
until 1906, when the firm name was 
changed to Appell & McKinnell; in 
1909 he was with Johnson & Mills, 
lawyers, and in 1910 was associated 
with J. H. Esser, and at present 
time is in business for himself. 

Quite naturally for an active man, 
such as Mr. Zimmermann is, he 
takes kindly to politics, with pro- 
nounced leanings toward the Repub- 
lican party. He has been for a con- 
siderable period a member of the 
Mount Vernon Republican General 
Committee and of the Republican 
County Committee, and is a member 
of the Republican Club of New 
York city. 

He was chosen an Alderman, to 
represent the Fourth Ward, during 
the years 1907-08-09-10. He was 
especially active in the Common 
Council, being a member of impor- 
tant committees of that body. As 
the head of the committee on legis- 
lation he was instrumental in hav- 
ing laws enacted to greatly benefit 
Mount Vernon. He was unceasing 
in endeavors to secure for his city 
an adequate supply of pure and 
wholesome water; that Mount Ver- 
non own and control its water sup- 
ply and not continue to be the only 
asset of an insolvent private incor- 
poration that had attempted for 
years to give water to that city and 
as a result had frequently left citi- 
zens in sore distress for want of the 

He is a member of the local lodge 
of the B. P. O. Elks. 

In 1910 Mr. Zimmermann was ap- 
pointed by Supreme Court Jnstlco 
Tompkins as a Commissioner of Ap- 
praisal in condemnation proceedings 
ir, the taking of land in aid of the 
New York city water supply, and 
appointed subsequently on other 
commissions to condemn lands to be 
used for public purposes. 

Mr. Zimmermann was married on 
July 14, 1893, to Miss Edna Walton 
Rowlandson, daughter of Oscar and 
Charlotte Hopping Rowlandson, of 
Mount Vernon. No children. 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



{Continued from page 223, Vol. 1.) 

What is now known as the township of New Castle was 
formerly a part of the town of North Castle, and earlier was 
included as a part of the Manor of Scarsdale. The town was 
formed March 18, 1791. It was called by the Indians Shappa- 
qua or Chappaqua ; the latter name is still retained by a locality 
in the southern section of the town. The name New Castle 
is believed to have been given on account of an Indian palisaded 
fort or castle that stood in the vicinity. 

The town's population (continued from page 223, volume 1) 
was in 1900, 2,401; in 1905 it was 2,956. The last Federal 
census, 1910, gives the population as 3,573. 

Mount Kisco village, Chappaqua and Millwood lie within the 
township limits, and have steadily grown in population and in 
commercial importance during the past ten years. 

Public improvements have rapidly advanced; the public 
schools are up-to-date and of the best grade. The value of 
property has increased surprisingly, and in many localities real 
estate has advanced in value more than double. This is 
accounted for by the demand for residential sites in desirable 
sections that abound in all directions. Retired millionaires and 
wealthy New York business men have acquired large estates 
and built palatial residences here, within easy access of New 
York. The increased railroad facilities makes this town attrac- 
tive to New York business men who desire a country seat within 
a short distance of the city. 

Mount Kisco is in all respects a prosperous village, possess- 
ing enterprise among its residents that does not satisfy wifh 
else than the very best in the way of modern improvements. 
Good schools, an excellent supply of pure water and a thor- 
ough sewer system, modern lighting appliances, an efficient police 
force and a well equipped fire department, are some of the 
things provided to make the village homelike and a desirable 
place to reside in. Its public institutions, banks and numer- 
ous business establishments give the place that appearance of 
life and activity that is encouraging and profitable. 

This village was incorporated in 1875. In 1880 it had a popu- 
lation of 728 ; in 1890 it had increased to 1,095; in 1900 to 1,346; 


in 1902 to 1,535; in 1905 to 1,830. The last Federal census, 
of 1910, shows a population of 1,536 lying in this town and 1,266 
contained in that section lying in town of Bedford. 

Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley, a notable figure in the 
Navy of the United States, the hero of Santiago, who was a 
summer resident of Mount Kisco, where his daughter, Mrs. R. 
M. Stuart-Wortley resides, dropped dead in a public street of 
New York city, on October 2, 1911 ; death was attributed to 
cerebral hemorrhage. 

Chappaqua, though an unincorporated village, is, for various 
reasons, quite important, and worthy to be on the map, and 
entitled to a place in history. In 1880 it boasted of a popula- 
tion, official, of 330; ten years later, the 1890 census gave it 
credit for 733. The census of 1910 did still better. It was 
occupied by Indians, and settled by Quakers. 

Chappaqua is known as a "seat of learning," where is located 
a co-educational institute of some distinction, and as the place 
where resided, for many years, the late Horace Greeley, the 
editor, statesman and philanthropist. It was early settled by 
the Quakers, and the habits of this peaceful people still pre- 
vail to some extent. After the battle of White Plains the 
Friends' Meeting House here was used for a time as a hospital 
for the heroic American wounded. 

The Chappaqua Mountain Institute was founded in the year 
1869, by the Society of Friends. Its alumni numbers among 
its membership many who have become prominent men and 
women, in all walks of life. 

In the early eighties this town was quite famous for its 
''peach brandy," manufactured in considerable quantities here. 
The early Quakers likewise had an enviable reputation on 
account of the superiority of the eider made by them. 

Horace Greeley, acting with a few other enterprising resi- 
dents, was instrumental in organizing the Chappaqua Village 
Improvement Society, some fifty years ago, and he served as 
the society's first president. During his term of office much 
was done to make the old Quaker settlement attractive. 

In speaking of Chappaqua, and describing its location, Horace 
Greeley, in 1868, said, it is "Nine miles above White Plains, 
and thirty-five N. N. E. of our (New York) City Hall, on the 
Harlem Railroad, nearly abreast of the village of Sing Sing, 
and six miles east of it; just after entering the township of 
New Castle, crosses a quite small, though pretty constant, mill- 


stream, named by the Indians Chappaqua, which is said to have 
meant falling or babbling water, and which, here running to the 
southeast, soon takes a southwesterly turn, recrosses under the 
railroad, and finds its way into the Hudson River, through the 
Sawmill or Nepperhan Creek at Yonkers. A highway, lead- 
ing westward to Sing Sing, crosses the railroad just north of 
the upper crossing of the brook, and gives us, some twenty rods 
from the northwest corner of my farm, a station and a post- 
office, which, with our modest village of twenty or thirty houses, 
take their name from our mill-stream. Chappaqua is not a 
very liquid trisyllable, but there is comfort in the fact that it 
is neither Clinton, nor Washington, nor Middletow^n, nor any of 
the trite appellations which have been so often reapplied, that 
half the letters intended for one of them are likely to bring 
up at some other, (How can a rational creature be so thought- 
less as to date his letter merely 'Greenfield,' or 'Jackson,' or 
'Springfield,' and imagine that the stranger he addresses can 
possibly guess w^hither to mail the answer?) My brook has its 
source in wooded, granite hills, on the east southeast, and comes 
tinkling or brawling thence to be lost in the Chappaqua, a few 
rods south of the road to Pleasantville, which forms my south- 
western boundary. As to springs, there are not less than a 
dozen, which no drouth exhausts, breaking out along the foot 
of my hill, or at the base of a higher ridge which forms its crest." 

When he first went to Chappaqua, to reside on his ' ' charming 
farm, ' ' Mr. Greeley met a friend who kindly remarked : ' ' You 
will be sick of living in the country wathin two years, and your 
place will be advertised for sale." To which Greeley quickly 
responded: "Then the sheriff's name will be at the foot of the 
advertisement." His continuing to reside there so many years 
proves that he never tired of the place. He endeavored to spend 
Saturdays and all the spare time he could get upon it; but his 
wife spent most of each year there, and did so ever after the 
place was bought. As Mr. Greeley once said: "The bare idea 
of exchanging our place for any other has never suggested itself 
either to my wife nor to myself. AVith a first-rate stone or brick 
house to shut out the cold, I doubt if either of us would, of 
choice, live elsewhere, even in winter." 

Mr. Greeley, who made Chappaqua famous, owing to his long 
residence there, w^as a great admirer of Supervisor Francis M. 
Carpenter, and it was his custom to come up from New York 


early in the spring, every year, so as to be at hand on "town 
meeting day" and vote to retain Mr. Carpenter in office. 

The dwelling in which Mr. Greeley lived was destroyed by 
fire after his death. 

Under the auspices of the Chappaqua Historical Society the 
hundredth anniversary of Mr. Greeley's birth was celebrated 
on February 3, 1911, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Gabriel 
Greeley Glendennin, on the Greeley farm. Prominent persons 
from all sections of the Union were present. 

A memorial statue in honor of Mr. Greeley, to cost $16,000, 
is to be erected upon a site on the west side of the Chappaqua 
Railroad station. 

During the life of Mr. Greeley the title to the farm was held 
in the name of Mrs. Greeley. After her death, and the death 
of her husband later, the farm was subdivided and a great part 
sold off in parcels. It was deemed best to so sell it in plots as 
the farm, as farm land, had little value, other than that given 
it as having been the place of residence of a notable man. The 
local Episcopal Church, the Harlem Railroad Station, the tele- 
phone building, several stores and dwellings are on the farm, 
now considered as a business section of Chappaqua. 

Localities in this town are Mount Kisco (part of the village), 
Chappaqua, Tompkin's Corners and Millwood. 

The town's population in 1830 was 1,336; in 1835, 1,406; in 
1840, 1,529; in 1845, 1,495; in 1850, 1,800; in 1855, 1,702; in 
1860, 1,817; in 1865, 1,879; in 1870, 2,152; in 1875, 2,242; in 
1880, 2,297; in 1890, 2,110; in 1892, 2,187; in 1900, 2,401; in 
1905, 2,956; in 1910, 3,573. 

Horace Greeley bought land in Chappaqua in 1858, and went 
to reside on his farm there in 1859. He virtually "grew up 
with the place. ' ' He was a conscientious member of the ' ' barrel 
brigade" that assembled in the general store of Levi Hunt, at 
one time the only store in Chappaqua. Levi was credited with 
boasting that his store contained anything mortal man, or 
woman, needed; from a needle to a hay -press. To put Levi to 
a test, a number of wags one day made a bet that they could 
name something that Hunt's store did not contain; one of their 
number was delegated to wait upon Hunt. "Mr. Hunt," said 
the delegate, "I want to buy a pulpit; do you keep them?" 
"Well, my friend, I will see if I can accommodate thee," replied 
the Quaker store-keeper, "the demand for pulpits is not very 



great around here, therefore I do not keep a great supply." 
He took his customers to a nearby store-house, and there he 
displayed a pulpit, that he said he could sell. Uncle Levi proved 
himself equal to the occasion. A short time before a lot of 
church furnishings, benches and pulpit, had been sold at auc- 
tion in the neighborhood, and the thrifty Hunt had become their 
purchaser, and was therefore ready to supply a demand. Mr. 
Greeley in some of his writings refers to this countiy general 
store; to the peculiarities of its honest proprietor, and to the 
entertaining meetings held in the store, discussing the topics of 
the day, as he and others sat perched upon their respective bar- 
rels, reserved for them, and each taking part in the debates. 
The local farmers took delight in asking Mr. Greeley questions 
as to what he knew about farming, and particularly how soon 
he hoped to fill "the bottomless pit," as a swamp on his farm 
was known to be. Much of the farm is retained by his daughter 

Col. Nicholas Smith, who had served in the Confederate and 
in the Union Army, at different periods, married Mr. Greeley's 
eldest daughter Ida. Several children survive them. Col. Smith 
was a candidate for Congress on the Greenback ticket in the 
local district in 1878-9, and was defeated. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Harvey Brown Green, former Su- 
pervisor of the town of New Castle, 
Clerk of the Board of Supervisors 
of Westchester County, was born on 
November 28, 1862, in the Town 
of Somers, in this County, a son of 
Hachaliah and Huldah (Freden- 
burgh) Green. His ancestors are 
said to have lived to a good old age, 
his maternal grandmother died quite 
recently, in 1910, at the age of 98 

He had the advantage of a sub- 
stantial education and then entered 
commercial life, holding responsible 
positions with H. H. & T. W. Fowl- 
er, merchants, at Purdy Station and 
later with Hoyt Brothers, merchants, 
at Katonah, where he received hia 
first political training under the late 
Hon. Wm. H. Eobertson. 

He is a man of more than ordin- 
ary ability and especially painstak- 

ing in all that he undertakes; as an 
accountant he is well known and his 
cleverness in this respect enables 
him to fill to general satisfaction the 
difficult position of Clerk to the 
Board of Supervisors of so large a 
county as Westchester. This posi- 
tion with its various and intricate 
duties requires a man of special 
talents and fitness. It can be read- 
ily understood how valuable an in- 
telligent and experienced clerk can 
be to the average citizen, as well as 
to the Supervisors, seeking informa- 
tion, when we consider the actual 
routine of " the Supervisor busi- 
ness." That Mr. Green has proven 
to be the right man in the right 
place, is shown when we consider th© 
years he has been kept in this office. 
Mr. Green was elected Supervisor 
of the Town of New Castle and 
served in such office in the years 
1899 and 1900; the next year, in 
1901, he accepted appointment as 




Assistant Clerk of the Board of 
Supervisors, under Edwin E. Hop- 
kins; in this capacity he served three 
years, until 1904, when he was 
elected Clerk of the Board to suc- 
ceed Mr. Hopkins, who retired on 
account of ill health. 

He served as Clerk through the 
year 1904, in 1905 the political com- 
plexion of the Board changed and 
Mr. Green retired from the Clerk- 
ship to make room for James J. 
Fleming, Democrat. But the Super- 
visors were not to lose the services 
of so valuable a man as was Mr. 
Green; the new Court House Build- 
ing Committee, though Democratic 
by a good majority, elected him as 
Secretary to the committee, in this 
latter position he served until 1908, 
when he was again elected Clerk of 
the Board of Supervisors, a position 
he has held through the years of 
1904, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911 and has 
been re-elected for the year 1912. 

Mr. Green was married on Novem- 
ber 28, 1889 to Miss Phebe Carpen- 
ter, daughter of James and Eliza 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

Jane Carpenter of Chappaqua. Of 
this union there are seven children, 
five daughters and two sons — Hazel, 
Jane, Euth, Charles, James and 
Elizabeth and Martha, twins. The 
family home is at Chappaqua, in 
the Town of New Castle. 

Mr. Green by affiliation is a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends and 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees 
of the Friends Society at Chappa- 
qua. He has always been a Eepubli- 
can and is at the present time 
Chairman of the Eepublican Town 
Committee of New Castle, a member 
of the Eepublican County Committee 
and member of the 4th Assembly 
District Committee of "Westchester 

Mr. Green is a member of Kisco 
Lodge No. 708 F. & A. M., West- 
chester Lodge, BJnights Templars, 
Buckingham Chapter Eoyal Arch 
Masons, and is a member of Mecca 
Shrine. He is also a member of 
Horace Greeley Lodge, No. 69, 
I. O. O. F., and of White Plains 
Lodge, B. P. O. E. 

residents see elsewhere in this book. 


(Continued from page 224, Vol. 1.) 

The New Rochelle township was formed March 7, 1788, A 
part of the town was incorporated as a village, by act of the 
Legislature, passed December 7, 1857. On March 24, 1899, the 
State Legislature passed an act incorporating the whole town 
as a city. The city is yet young, but for one of its years it 
has a remarkable growth. In 1890, when a village, the popu- 
lation was 9,057; in 1900, at the commencement as a city, it 
was 14,720 ; in 1905 it was 20,479, showing a steady and regular 
advance. The official figures given by the census of 1910 show 
a still greater growth, the enumeration amounted to 28,867, and 
it is claimed that these last figures represent 300 less than the 
true total. 

It is known as ' ' The City of Parks, ' ' a name doubtless derived 
from the fact that it has, probably, more private and public 
parks than any other city of its size in the State. The palatial 
private residences add to the charm of a naturally beautiful 


The very name New Rochelle tells the story of the city's 
origin. That its best known settlers were Huguenots, who 
hailed from La Rochelle, France; Huguenots who suffered 
unnumbered persecutions, to escape which they came to America ; 
many settling in this particular section of Westchester County, 
choosing this most charming site for homes, on the shores of 
Long Island Sound. This new place of abode they named New 
Rochelle, in honor of the French seaport town of La Rochelle, 
from which they came. It was intended as a high honor which 
these French exiles, and refugees for conscience sake, sought to 
confer upon this locality when they called it New Rochelle. 

Following the Indians, the Dutch claimed to be the original 
settlers, and doubtless considered the locality but a small, insig- 
nificant suburb of Vredeland. As to what the Dutch did per- 
form toward civilizing this section there is no evidence. More 
than likely they thought nothing about it, more than to con- 
sider it one of their possessions. True, the Dutch were very 
indignant when they learned that an Englishman, named Thomas 
Pell, had come down from Connecticut and settled himself near 
Vredeland, in Westchester. They sent Pell a notice to vacate 
immediately, and not intrude upon lands long before bought 
and paid for by the Dutch. But Pell, who had established him- 
self in Pelham and had gone extensively into the real estate 
business there, and later opened the first real estate office in 
New Rochelle (where he now has so many imitators), could not 
be frightened off. Although he was threatened with dispossess 
proceedings and something more severe. Pell held on, relying 
upon a grant he had received by purchase from the Indians. 
Although the Dutch succeeded in annoying Pell considerably, 
they were not able to dislodge him ; Pell finally secured peace- 
ful possession under English rule. 

Of the Manor of Pelham, of which what is now known as 
New Rochelle was a part, John Pell, a descendant of Thomas 
Pell, sold to Jacob Leisler, in 1689, and Leisler sold to the Hugue- 
nots, in 1690, six thousand and one hundred acres. Pell sold 
tlie six thousand acres, and threw in one hundred acres extra 
for a French Church. 

Residents of New Rochelle, especially the older ones, entertain 
a kindly feeling for Jacob Leisler, consider him a good man who 
was influenced by noble principles, that he was unjustly accused 
and killed in the name of the law. Gabriel IMinville, who was 
appointed Mayor of New York City in 1684, was responsible 


for the execution for treason of Jacob Leisler and his son-in-law, 
Jacob ]\Iillborne, the only persons ever executed for that crime 
in the Province of the State of New York. Peter Delanoy, also 
accused of treason (in alleged aiding the French), as an asso- 
ciate of Leisler was acquitted, and to express dissatisfaction with 
the act of Mayor Minville, Delanoy was chosen Mayor of the 
city, almost immediately. 

In 1911 celebrations in honor of the memory of Leisler were 
held in New York city. 

According to Pell's grant, the price demanded was sixteen 
hundred and seventy-five pounds and twenty-five shillings ster- 
ling, current silver money of this province, to him in hand paid 
and secured, etc. A further stipulation, in way of payment 
for land so transferred, was that the purchaser in possession 
should, "for ever, yield and pay unto the said John Pell, his 
heirs and assigns, lords of the said Manor of Pelham, to the 
assignees, of him or them, or their or either of them, as an 
acknowledgment to the lords of the said manor, one fat calf on 
every four and twentieth day of June, yearly and every year 
forever if demanded." 

In 1909 the officials of the City of New Rochelle, when cele- 
brating the city's tenth anniversary, suggested carrying out 
that clause of the Pell Grant requiring the payment of one fat 
calf. The Mayor succeeded in getting in communication with 
George Hamilton Pell, a descendant of the original Pell, and 
notifying him that the City, prompted by the celebrating spirit 
of the time, might be willing to present on the approaching 
24th day of June, to an heir of Lord Pell, the aforesaid fat 
calf. In the same spirit in which the offer was made the said 
Pell agreed to accept payment, and all make merry over the 
eating; that he would be glad to receive the City's representa- 
tives as well as the said calf, and the fatted calf would be killed 
in celebration of the meeting. 

A legal objection prevented relative Pell, the city officials and 
the calf meeting as proposed. 

The tenth anniversary of the City's incorporation was duly 
celebrated on April 26, 1909, by public ceremonies, under direc- 
tion of City officials, assisted by a large committee of leading 
citizens. In the parade local firemen, military and civic societies 
were largely represented. A banquet in the evening followed. 

In May, 1909, the two hundredth anniversary of Trinity 


Episcopal Cliurcli, of this city, was extensively observed by 
public religious and civic exercises. 

The old Tom Paine cottage was removed in 1909 from its 
original site, about half a mile from North Avenue, on the old 
See farm, to the entrance of Paine 's Heights residential park 
on North Avenue ; on July 1-1, 1910, it was formally opened as 
a museum and as the headquarters of the Huguenot Association 
of New Kochelle. 

June 12, 1909, was "Huguenot Day" in this city. On that 
day thousands of residents, assisted by many visitors from 
abroad, celebrated the two hundred and twenty-first anniversary 
of the landing of the Huguenots who settled in New Rochelle 
in 1688. A principal feature of the day's program was a great 
water pageant at Echo Bay; the arrival of the Huguenots and 
their reception by the native Indians was enacted in costume, 
residents being assigned parts, taking place at Bonnefoi Point, 
the scene of the original landing. A vessel, constructed to 
resemble the caravel "La Rochelle," which landed the Hugue- 
nots in New Rochelle harbor in 1688, came duly to port as did 
its predecessor years ago, and men, women and children, dressed 
in imitation of the early settlers, came from the vessel and landed 
as it is presumed their foreparents did. The characters of 
Huguenots and Indians were taken by prominent residents, cos- 
tumed for their several parts. The celebration was a marked 
success in all respects. 

The old French names brought here by the early settlers, and 
in late years frequently heard, as borne by many prominent 
residents, are fast passing away. 

In August, 1911, residents of this city sent a gold-lined silver 
loving cup, costing $500, paid for by popular subscription, as a 
gift, in evidence of good will, to the people of La Rochelle, 
France, to be presented to the latter on the occasion of the dedi- 
cation, in the French city, of a monument to the memory of 
former Mayor Jean Guiton, on October 8, 1911. Henry M. 
Lester and Charles Pryer, members of the New Rochelle Hugue- 
not Society, visited La Rochelle as a committee to take the cup 
and make the presentation. On the date last named the Munici- 
pal Council of La Rochelle received the delegates from this city 
who presented the cup to the Mayor. In return the Mayor pre- 
sented to the visitors, for the City of New Rochelle, a bronze 
reproduction of the statue of Jean Guiton, to be unveiled at 
La Rochelle on October 22. 


The first public school houses, three in number, were built in 

In 1764 two residents declined to serve as Tax Collector ; evi- 
dently they thought the collecting of taxes distasteful to others 
as well as themselves. 

A monument to the memory of Thomas Paine, who lived and 
died here, stands on North Avenue, at entrance to his former 
place of residence. 

The first Town Hall was built on corner of Main and Mechanic 
streets, in 1828, with money, $1,550, left to the Town by will of 
William Henderson. This old building was removed, from 
original site, to Lawton Street where it now stands. The build- 
ing of the second Town Hall was authorized by act of the Legis- 
lature in 1870. The present City Hall is the second Town Hall 
rebuilt in 1899-1900, at a cost of over $20,000. 

The first meeting of Village Trustees was held January 21, 
1853; Albert Smith, M. D., was first village president. 

The first attempt, in 1898, to make New Rochelle a city failed ; 
the bill passed the Legislature, but Gov. Black withheld his 

Fort Slocum, located on David's Island, on Long Island Sound, 
is within the limits of this city, as is Glen Island, a summer 
picnic park. David's Island was sold to the United States 
government in 1868 for military purposes. Glen Island, nearby, 
was purchased by John H. Starin, and while he lived the island 
was used as family picnic grounds open to the public. 

New Rochelle 's graded schools and its many up-to-date school 
buildings compare favorably with any in the State. 

Its police department is efficient and its members a fine body 
of men. Its fire department consists of five hundred willing 
volunteers and all modern equipment ; the fire houses are brick 
buildings with modern conveniences— it is a part paid depart- 

Its public water system has ever proven satisfactory. Its 
sewerage is of the best. 

The well kept city parks on Long Island Sound shore front 
are fully appreciated, even by out-of-town people, who in the 
summer daily visit them in hundreds. The bathing facilities 
are unexcelled. 

The New Rochelle Yacht Club, the Huguenot Yacht Club, the 
New Rochelle Rowing Club, and similar clubs have their club 


houses on the shore front, either on Echo Bay or Neptune Bay. 
The local branch of State Naval Militia is a fine body of men. 

New Rochelle has, in time, boasted of eight banking institu- 
tions ; five commercial banks and three savings banks. The first, 
the Bank of New Rochelle, an individual bank, was organized in 
1844, and was owned by D. Sayre of New Rochelle. The next 
organized was the New Rochelle Savings Bank in 1865 ; some 
time after the failure of this bank, Adrian Iselin, of New 
Rochelle, a private banker in New York, opened here a branch 
to receive deposits for savings; in 1881, when Mr. Iselin estab- 
lished this branch there was no regular savings bank in the place, 
and he decided there should be some way contrived to encourage 
the saving of money. Owing to his advanced years and his 
inability to give further personal attention to the New Rochelle 
branch, the same was closed July 1, 1902. In 1909 the People's 
Savings Bank was organized. The second commercial bank, to 
be known as the Bank of New Rochelle, was organized in 1888, 
and steadily flourished; this bank became the New Rochelle 
Trust Company in 1907, and continues to be one of the reliable 
financial institutions of the County and State. The third com- 
mercial bank was The City Bank, organized in 1899, and was a 
success from the very start; in 1902 it changed from a State 
Bank to a National Bank, taking the title of The National City 
Bank. In 1910 two commercial banks, in addition, were organ- 
ized under extremely favorable conditions; the first being the 
North Avenue Bank, and the second being the Huguenot Trust 
Company, also located on North Avenue. 

The city's advantages as a manufacturing place is being 
rapidly taken advantage of. Its many industries give employ- 
ment to large numbers of residents, men and women. 

The mayors of this city have been, M. J. Dillon, from 1899 
to 1902 ; Henry C. Clarke, from 1902 to 1908 ; George G. Ray- 
mand, 1908 to 1910 ; Harry C. Colwell, 1910 to 1912 ; Frederick 
H. Waldorf, 1912 to 1914. 

For names of Supervisors in town and city, since organization, 
see list of "Supervisors of the Several Towns," published in 
volumes 1 and 2. 

The town's population, according to the several census enu- 
merations, has been as follows, in the years given : In 1830, 
1,274; in 1835, 1,261; in 1840, 1,816; in 1845, 1,977; in 1850, 
2,548 ; in 1855, 3,101 ; in 1860, 3,519 ; in 1865, 3,968 ; in 1870, 


3,915; in 1875, 4,678; in 1880, 5,276; in 1890, 9,057; in 1902, 
9,990; in 1900, as a city, 14,720; in 1905, 20,006; in 1910, 28,867. 

Commencing May 13, 1912, a week was devoted to the celebra- 
tion of the Centennial of the reorganization and admission of 
the First Presbyterian Church of the city into the Presbyterian 
denomination of America. 

New Rochelle was settled in 1688. In 1692 the first French 
church was built, which was burned down in 1723. In 1709, 
because of the difficulty in obtaining the services of French 
preachers, all but two members of the congregation conformed 
to the Church of England, the outgrowth of which is the present 
Trinity Church. The two that did not conform gathered later 
French settlers and in 1723 they erected another church, under 
the name of the "Reformed Protestant Congregation of New 
Rochelle." This church decayed and was torn down in 1783. 

About 1784 the congregation became allied with the Presby- 
terian Church, and on February 23, 1808, incorporated under 
the title of "French Church of New Rochelle." A reorganiza- 
tion under a committee appointed by the Presbytery of New 
York took place on May 30, 1812, and a building was raised 
and dedicated in 1815 on land fronting on Huguenot street, 
which was the gift of George Pelor. The present church was 
erected of native bowlders in 1860. Beneath the tower is the 
doorstep of the old Reformed French Church. 

The Huguenot Association of New Rochelle is in possession of 
the original deed of the 6,000 acres of land delivered by John 
Pell, Lord of the Manor of Pelham, and Rachel, his wife, to Jacob 
Leisler, then acting Governor of the province of New York, who 
in turn sold it to the Huguenot refugees. This deed was found on 
January 23, 1912, by William D. Bonnett, of North avenue, New 
Rochelle, in a secret compartment of an old desk bequeathed to 
him by his grandfather. The document is in an excellent state of 
preservation, after 225 years. The deed, which is on a large sheet 
of parchment, bears the signature of John Pell, the mark of his 
wife and the names of five witnesses. As payment for the land, 
Mr. Leisler, according to this deed, gave "one thousand six hun- 
dred and seventy-five pounds, and agrees to give to John Pell, his 
heirs or assigns, one fat calf on every four and twentieth day of 
June yearly and every year forever (if demanded)." The deed 
bears date "the twentieth day of September, in the first year of the 
reign of our sovereign Lord and Lady, William and Mary, King 


and Queen of England, and in the year of our Lord one thousand 
six hundred and eighty-nine." 

Through the exertions of members of Huguenot Chapter, 
Daiighters of the Revolution, there was erected on North Ave- 
nue, this city, on June 25, 1913, a colossal statue of Jacob 

The Two Hundred and Twenty-fifth (225th) Anniversary of 
the founding of the town of New Rochelle by French Hugue- 
nots, was observed in June, 1913, as a most extraordinary event 
worthy of elaborate celebration by citizens of the city of New 
Rochelle and other sections of the County who attended in 
thousands to make the event a success. Not only was the cele- 
bration of local interest, but Huguenot descendants dwelling in 
all parts of the United States found opportunity to be present. 
Officials representing La Rochelle, France, the Huguenot "home 
city, ' ' were the most honored guests, invitations having been ex- 
tended by officials of the city of New Rochelle to the Mayor 
and Council of La Rochelle. Others among the distinguished 
invited guests were the Ambassador from France to the United 
States, and the French Consul-General at New York city, the 
President of the United States and members of his Cabinet, 
the Governor of the State of New York, Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress, members of the State Legislature, and 
city officials from all sections of the State, 

The celebration lasted one week, beginning June 22 and end- 
ing June 28, 1913. On the first day, Sunday, services in the 
local churches; on the second day, a general reception of guests 
and citizens in the City Hall; automobile trips around the city 
for guests ; evening reception at High School building ; on third 
day, military, firemen's and civic parade; on fourth day. Hugue- 
not Association reception— unveiling of the Jacob Leisler Monu- 
ment—in the evening public banquet; on fifth day, entertain- 
ment of guests by sail on Long Island Sound— parade of School 
Children; on sixth day, reception for guests and residents at 
homes of private citizens during day; on seventh day, the cele- 
bration ended with a Grand Water Pageant, representing the 
landing of the Huguenots at Bonnefoi Point (New Rochelle) 
in 1688; day fireworks and music in parks; in the evening, 
illumination of Echo Bay Harbor, music, fireworks, and Water 


■^•~v, ^B 








Biographical Sketches. 


Harry E. Colwell, Mayor of New 
Eochelle, etc., was born on May 23, 
1871, in Amity, Orange County, New 
York, a son of Robert Carpenter and 
Ida (Waterbury) Colwell. 

In 1893 the subject of this sketch 
became a resident of New Rochelle. 
He received his education in the 
public school of his native town and 
Goldthwaites Preparatory School in 
Goshen, N. Y. 

When seventeen years of age he ac- 
cepted a position in a clothing store 
in Deckertown, now Sussex, N. J., 
receiving one dollar per week and 
board. In 1890, three years later, 
he went to Goshen, N. Y., and en- 
tered the office of a prominent real 
estate broker; remained here three 
years; after becoming familiar with 
what he considered his life work, he 
decided on seeking a new and wider 
business field; he located in New 
Rochelle, as a partner of Cortlandt 
I. Davids, an old established real 
estate broker, and representative of 
one of the town's oldest families, 
and at that time Town Receiver of 

In 1894 the partnership was dis- 
solved, Mr. Colwell deciding to carry 
on real estate and insurance busi- 
ness on his own account. He soon 
also became widely known as a suc- 
cessful auctioneer, and the only 
prominent one in the town. 

Genial manners and courteous 
treatment of all with whom he came 
in contact, made him one of the 
most popular men about town as 
well as one of the most successful. 
He became generally respected and 
deservedly influential. He was fre- 
quently offered nomination for pub- 
lic office when nominations were 
equivalent to election ; these he de- 
clined, preferring to devote his time 
to his private business. 

At the organization of the local 
Board of Trade prior to 1898, Mr. 
Colwell was chosen secretary, Hon. 
John Q. Underhill being elected first 
president. This Board of Trade as- 
sisted materially in securing for the 
town of New Rochelle a city charter. 
Mr. Colwell served four years as 
president of the Board of Trade and 

until the Board was merged into the 
present Merchants' Exchange. 

As the head of the Board of Trade 
he proved untiring in his efforts to 
obtain desired public improvements 
and to better civic conditions. 

He not only advocated better 
treatment of commuters by the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad Company, but he, after a 
strong fight, succeeded in bringing 
about needed reforms. Better tran- 
sit facilities, cleaner and better 
lighted ears and better service gen- 
erally on both branches of said rail- 
road. He was at the head of the 
fight against what was considered 
unjust treatment of local railroad 
commuters owing to said railroad 
company increasing to an unreason- 
able amount yearly commutation 

He was one of the leaders advocat- 
ing the building of the present New 
York, Westchester and Boston rail- 
road running through our city. 

To his efforts is largely credited 
the securing from the United States 
Government of an appropriation to 
clear away rocks and deepen the 
channel in Echo Bay. 

To contribute to the natural 
beauty of his city, he helped to 
secure the planting of trees along 
many streets and highways, work 
done under direction of the Board 
of Trade. 

In politics Mr. Colwell is a Repub- 
lican; was for several years treas- 
urer of the Republican Campaign 
Committee and is a member of the 
New Rochelle Republican Club. 

His political party friends, after 
great urging, succeeded in 1909 to 
get Mr. Colwell to accept their nomi- 
nation for Mayor of New Rochelle. 
On October 7, that year, he was 
named as the party candidate; in 
November following he was elected 
by a large majority to succeed a 
worthy Democrat. 

As Mayor he proved most popular 
as he was most conscientious in 
Vv'hat he undertook to do. He en- 
deavored to promote the welfare of 
his constituents, regardless of politi- 
cal party affiliation. The city's 
best interests were his. He re- 



taincd in place faithful minor 
officials, persons efficient and com- 
petent appealed to him more than 
did mere political servitude. He was 
a man of action, a man who did the 
riglit thinjr at the right time — not 
an official of loud professions only. 
To him is due largely the bringing 
of the question ot railroad commu- 
tation rates before the State Public 
Service Commission. 

His administration of city affairs 
was wholly satisfactory, as is ad- 
mitted even by political opponents. 
No scandal mars his public career. 
Public streets were made attrac- 
tive, public parks beautified, an up- 
to-date sewerage system provided, 
public works generally improved, 
and taxpayers were given worth for 
their money under Mayor Colwell's 

Failure to give Mayor Colwell a 
re-election, in 1911, was, as has been 
admitted, a mistake ; to rectify which 
a citizen's nomination and other en- 
dorsements were offered him, and by 
Mm declined, in 1913. His private 
business required all his time. 

In 1907 he was a prime mover in 
organizing the "Westchester County 
Fire Insurance Exchange and was 
for a time president of that asso- 

In all local and county movements 
to promote the public welfare Mr. 
Colwell is enlisted, proving, as we 
have said, that he is a man of high 
character, who does things. 

He is in business in the same office 
in New Rochelle occupied by him 
for the past twenty years. He is a 
director in the New Rochelle Trust 
Company and in the North Avenue 

Is a member of the Huguenot So- 
ciety of New Rochelle, of the West- 
chester County Chamber of Com- 
merce, of the New Rochelle Yacht 
Club, of the Merchants' Exchange, 
of the Presbyterian Church Men's 
Club, of the Royal Arcanum and of 
the Republican Club of New Ro- 

Mr. Colwell was married February 
13, 189.5, to Miss Katherine Duer 
Coleman, daughter of Rnswell C. and 
Sarah _W. Coleman of Goshen, N. Y. 
Of this union there are three chil- 
dren: Robert C, aged 17 years; 
Harry E., Jr., age 16 years, and 
Sarah K., age 10 years. 


William Bradford Greeley, lawyer, 
President of the Board of Educa- 
tion, Chairman of the Republican 
City Committee, city of New 
Rochelle, was born on November 1, 
1859, in Nashua, N. H., a son of the 
Rev. Edward Hanford Greeley, D. D., 
and Louise Maria (Ware) Greeley, 

His father was pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church in Nashua, N. 
H., in 1859, then in Methuen, Mass., 
and later in Haverhill, N. H., becom- 
ing Secretary of the N. H. Home 
Missionary Society in 1874 and mov- 
ing to Concord, N. H., where he died 
in 1890. 

Under the careful supervision of 
his father, son William was pre- 
pared for college. He graduated 
from Dartmouth College, in 1881. 
He taught one year in Kimball Un- 
ion Academy, Meriden, N. H., and 
was principal of a grammar school 
in Woburn, Mass., for two years. 

In 1884, by examination, he ob- 
tained appointment as an Examiner 
in the United States Patent Office 
in Washington, D. C. This position 
he held from 1884 to 1889, gaining 
much valuable experience to be found 
later useful in his chosen profession. 

He devoted his spare time to the 
study of law and graduated from 
the Columbian University Law 
School, Washington, in 1887 and was 
admitted to practice in the District 
of Columbia. In 1889 he came to 
New York; the following year he 
was admitted, in the Second Judicial 
District, New York, to practice at 
the bar. 

He is, at present writing, a mem- 
ber of the legal firm of Redding & 
Greeley, a partnership formed in 
1895, with offices in New York City, 
their specialty being law pertaining 
to patents and one in which they 
have earned a high reputation. 

Mr. Greeley became a resident of 
New Rochelle in September, 1892. 
He rapidly made friends in his new 
home; courteous in manner, with an 
agreeable appearance and pleasing 
address, he is calculated by nature 
to make and hold friends. He is 
a cultivated scholar, and a close 
and logical lawyer. 

He was first appointed a member 
of the local Board of Education in 
1902, one of the first appointments 



made by Mayor Clarke; this posi- 
tion he still holds, and with ten 
years of service as a director of pub- 
lic education, he is senior member of 
the board as well as its president, 
to which latter office he was elected 
in 1911. 

Shortly after his coming to reside 
in New Eochfelle he enrolled himself 
in the ranks of the Eepublican party, 
and was soon chosen a member of 
the New Eochelle Republican City 
Committee. In 1907 he was elected 
as chairman of this committee, a 
position in which he was enabled to 
bring into play the highest order of 
administrative abilities. He contin- 
ued as such chairman until 1911. He 
was again elected chairman in 1912. 

In 1907 he was appointed by a 
Justice of the Supreme Court as a 
Commissioner of Appraisal in con- 
demnation proceeding to fix value of 
land acquired by the City of New 
York, to aid in securing an addition- 
al supply of water for that city. 

He was chosen a Vestryman of 
Trinity Episcopal Church, New Eo- 
chelle, in 1904; a position he yet 
holds, being Clerk of the Vestry. 

He is one of the governors of the 
New Hampshire Society, a member 
of the Camp-Fire Club of America, 
of the American Bar Association, of 
the New York State Bar Association, 
of the Bar Association of New York 
City, of the Westchester County Bar 
Association, of the New York County 
Lawyers' Association, of the New 
York Eepublican Club, of the New 
Eochelle Eepublican Club, of the 
Engineers' Club of New York City, 
of the American History Club of 
New Eochelle, of the Men's Club 
of the First Presbyterian Church, 
New Eochelle, of the Huguenot 
Yacht Club and of the Wykagyl 
Country Club of New Eochelle. 

Mr. Greeley was maried on April 
15, 1891, to Miss Sarah Noble Bur- 
leigh, daughter of George "William 
and Hannah Louise (Bryant) Bur- 
leigh, of Somersworth, N. H. There 
are three children, two sons, ages 
sixteen and fourteen years, and a 
daughter aged twelve years. Mrs. 
Greeley died at her home in New 
Eochelle on October 2, 1910. 


Michael James Tierney, lawyer, 
former Police Justice, lormer Vil- 
lage Corporation Counsel, former 
City Corporation Counsel, Commis- 
sioner, etc., was born, where he has 
always continued to reside, in New 
Eochelle, on January 16, 1864, a son 
of Patrick and Mary (Hennessy) 

He became possessed of a good 
education by the aid of private 
tutors and up-to-date public schools 
of which his native town was justly 
proud. He has never ceased to be 
a student; after leaving school he 
could be found devoting his spare 
time to the higher branches of study 
and the accumulation of general 

At an early age he entered as a 
student the law offices of Martin J. 
Keogh, now Supreme Court Justice, 
who even at that time had taken a 
prominent rank in his profession. 
His employer was not long in recog- 
nizing the abilities of young Tier- 
ney, and he soon became Mr. 
Keogh 's managing clerk in the New 
Eochelle office. 

The first political office Mr. Tier- 
ney held was that of a Town Auditor, 
and this position came to him soon 
after he was entitled to vote as 
an elector. Closely following this 
came his election as Police Justice 
of the village of New Eochelle, mak- 
ing him the youngest man ever hold- 
ing this important position. As a 
Police Magistrate he served eight 
years, until he found that the de- 
mands of his profession required his 
relinquishing the discharge of pub- 
lic functions. 

He was admitted to the bar in 
1885, and remained with Mr. Keogh 
until 1895, when the latter went 
upon the bench. In the year 1895 
Mr. Tierney swung out his shingle 
and embarked in business on his own 
account, and it is said that from the 
start he attained success far beyond 
the expectations of his most san- 
guine well-wisher. 

His popularity as a citizen and as 
a lawyer is responsible for his be- 
ing next called to the position of 
Corporation Counsel to the village 
of New Eochelle; in this capacity he 
served eight years, and this long 
period of holding is evidence that he 
discharged his duties acceptably. 



On the incorporation of New Eo- 
chelle as a city Mr. Tierney was 
chosen its first corporation Counsel, 
and a great part of the intricate 
work necessary to properly and 
legally launch a city devolved upon 
him. Again in 1908 the office came 
to him unsolicited. The total num- 
ber of years he has served as New 
Eochelle's official legal adviser is 
five, with fair prospects of serving 
more years, if he be so inclined. 

Frequently he is named by Courts 
to serve at head of Commissions to 
consider important matters, involv- 
ing large sums of money. 

He was elected Vice-President of 
the Westchester County Bar Associa- 
tion in 1912. 

It is no unkind reflection upon 
other distinguished members of the 
profession to say that to-day Mr, 
Tierney is admitted to be the lead- 
ing member of the bar in his native 
city; and has no superiors, and few 
equals in the county. As a trial law- 
yer he has earned an enviable repu- 
tation. His success recorded in 
cases conducted in many sections of 
this Judicial District, as well as in 
different portions of the State, has 
attracted attention and created an 
unceasing demand for his services. 
Very frequently he is found in the 
Supreme Court, and in the higher 
Courts, pleading as trial lawyer the 
cases of other lawyers. His popular- 
ity with jurors is marked; his man- 
ner of conducting a case shows that 
he has his case well in hand, that 
he has come fully prepared by study 
of every feature; his graphic and 
pleasing description seldom fails to 
enable a juror to see things through 
the eyes of the pleader. No litiga- 
tion of importance takes place in his 
home city without introducing Mr. 
Tierney as counsel, on one side or 
the other. 

In speaking of Mr. Tierney we 
give no unjust praise, but strive 
only to give credit due. Permit us 
to speak generally, and say that the 
subject of our sketch belongs to that 
class of self-made men who, under 
our liberal institutions, form the 
most substantial portion of the com- 
munity. Without the advantage 
of wealth or influence in early life, 
they work their way slowly but 
surely to positions of competence 
and distinction. Such men are en- 

titled to commendation and never 
fail, in the end, of being appre- 
ciated by their fellow citizens. 

Mr. Tierney is a member of the 
Westchester County Bar Associa- 
tion; and being fond of aquatic 
sports, and owning a yacht on which 
his few idle hours are spent, he is 
a member of the New Rochelle 
Yacht Club, as well as a member 
of the New Eochelle Eowing Club; 
is a charter member of the local 
lodge of Elks. 

He was married on November 27, 
1888, to Miss Katherine Brady, 
daughter of William and Mary 
(Gaffney) Brady, of New Eochelle. 
Of this union there are living eight 
children, Martin J., aged 21 years; 
Marie, aged 19 years; Katherine 
H., Eleanor E., Marguerite, Jerome, 
Eaphael and Beatrice. 


John Holden, lawyer, president of 
the Board of Trustees Public Li- 
brary, City of New Eochelle, etc., 
was born on March 30, 1862, in Clif- 
ton, Staten Island, N. Y., a son of 
Isaac and Esther (Stead) Holden, 

His parents became residents of 
Bridgeport, Conn., when he was 
quite young. He attended the public 
schools of that city and graduated 
from the Bridgeport High School. 
Entered Yale College and graduated 
therefrom in 1884. He spent the 
next two years in California in busi- 
ness and journalism and continued 
newspaper work up to and for some 
time after his admission to the Bar. 

The profession of the law, which 
in our country has such fascination 
for all men who study, and out of 
their study learn to reflect and rea- 
son, had its attractions for young 
Holden, as he found real life coming 
out before him, and he devoted him- 
self to it. He attended the Colum- 
bia Law School and was admitted 
to practice in 1888. 

He entered the law offices of Gray 
& Davenport in New York city in 

He began practice on his own ac- 
count in 1888. At present he has 
law offices at No. 141 Broadway, 
New York city. 

^Ir. Holden became a resident of 
New Eochelle in the year 1894. Be- 
ing a man of recognized ability, in 



various directions, he early became 
interested in affairs concerning his 
residential town, and became known 
in political circles, in which he has 
since occupied a foremost position. 
Though applying himself assiduously 
to the duties of his profession, he 
has found time to bestow on literary 
and political subjects, and is the au- 
thor of several interesting papers 
treating on important topics. 

His election as president of the 
Public Library Board placed him in 
a position suiting his tastes and 
gave to the office a man well fitted 
to fill it. During his administration 
as such officer many desired reforms 
have been inaugurated, better adapt- 
ing the Library to the service of the 

He is a member of the New Eng- 
land Society, of the New York Bar 
Association, of the Westchester 
County Bar Association, of the Yale 
Club, and of the Huguenot Yacht 
Club, of New Eochelle. 

Mr. Holden was married on No- 
vember 22, 1892, to Miss Florence 
Heywood, daughter of Eev. William 
S. and Abbie (Ballou) Heywood, of 
Sterling, Mass. There are two chil- 
dren, son and daughter, Heywood 
and Constance. 


William A. Moore, former Assist- 
ant District-Attorney, former State 
Transfer Tax Counsel, etc., was born 
in Eutland, Jefferson County, New 
York, on July 5th, 1873, and is the 
son of George A. and Cornelia E. 
(Dunlap) Moore, both of whom were 
born in the same town. His father 's 
family had moved into Northern New 
York from Massachusetts in the first 
decade of the 19th century, driving 
their team up through the State of 
Vermont across the northern part of 
New York into the Black Eiver 
Valley. His mother's people were of 
Scotch Irish descent. His father was 
a farmer and his early school years 
were spent at the country district 
school from which he later went to 
the High School in the neighboring 
city of Watertown, New York, where 
he graduated as salutatorian of his 
class in 1890. The next year he 
spent in teaching in a district school 
and later took up newspaper work, 

serving upon the staff of the Water- 
town Herald; this work was for the 
purpose of procuring money for his 
college course. He entered Yale Col- 
lege the following year and gradu- 
ated in the Class of 1895. He paid 
the expenses of his college course 
by teaching and newspaper work. 
After graduation from College he 
again took up work as a teacher 
until 1896 when he received an ap- 
pointment as a University scholar at 
Columbia University. The succeed- 
ing year was spent in the study of 
political science at that institution, 
from which he received the degree of 
M. A. in 1897. The following year 
he began the study of law at the 
New York Law School from which 
he received the degree of LL.B. in 
1899 and was admitted to the New 
York Bar in June of that year. As 
is customary with most young men 
in New York he began a clerkship 
with a firm of attorneys, later en- 
tering the office of Guthrie, Cravath 
& Henderson, where his clerkship 
ended in 1901 by his removal to 
New Eochelle where the firm of Dun- 
lap & Moore was organized in that 
year. The following year the firm 
opened an office in New York, tak- 
ing a third partner, Mr. Joseph E. 
Swan, who had been a classmate of 
Mr. Moore at college. 

In 1904 he was appointed Assist- 
ant District Attorney of Westchester 
County by J. Addison Young, who 
was at that time District Attorney 
of the County. Previous to this time 
the work of the office had been car- 
ried on by the District Attorney and 
one assistant, but the rapid growth 
and development of the county 
brought with it a tremendous in- 
crease in the criminal business in the 
District Attorney's office requiring 
further assistance. Mr. Moore was 
the first to hold the position of Sec- 
ond Assistant District Attorney, 
which position he held until the 
term of Mr. Young expired at the 
end of 1907. During this period he 
represented the State in the prosecu- 
tion of a large number of important 
criminal cases, Westchester County 
securing a series of convictions in 
pool room cases which were af- 
firmed by the Court of Appeals and 
were the first actual adjudications 
secured in this State of the Percy 
Gray racing bill. 



Mr. Moore also prosecuted with 
marked success the cases growing out 
of the movemeut in Peekskill in 
1906 for the civic improvement of 
that prosperous community and re- 
ceived the generous commendation of 
the citizens of Peekskill for his work. 

After retiring from the District 
Attorney's office in 1907, he became 
a member of the firm of Eedding, 
Greeley & Austin, 38 Park Eow, New 
York city, who were engaged in the 
practice of both patent and general 

During this time he served upon 
three successive charter commissions 
for the City of New Kochelle, mak- 
ing a comprehensive study of muni- 
cipal government. He prepared the 
original draft from which was 
derived the present charter of that 
City, considered a model charter for 
third class cities. 

On January 1, 1911, both Mr. 
Moore and his former partner, Mr. 
Swan, who also had become a mem- 
ber of the firm of Redding, Greeley 
& Austin, withdrew and formed the 
partnership of Swan & Moore, with 
offices at 29 Liberty Street, New 
York city. 

During the years 1910 and 1911 
Mr. Moore represented the State 
Comptroller as attorney in transfer 
tax proceedings, in Westchester 
County, and established a record 
for the prompt disposition of all 
questions which arose in those pro- 
ceedings. He established the custom 
of having regular office days in the 
Surrogate's office at White Plains 
and also at his office in New York, 
where matters in charge of _ New 
York attorneys received attention. 

He is a member of the Association 
of The Bar of the City of New 
York; Westchester County Bar As- 
sociation; the Republican Club of 
New York; the Republican Club of 
New Rochelle; the Yale Alumni As- 
sociation; the American Society of 
International Law; the Huguenot 
Yacht Club and the Underwriters' 

Mr. Moore was married on July 
30, 1903, to Miss Lois Cooper, 
daughter of Charles Howell and 
Anna Churchill Cooper, of Water- 
town, N. Y. Two children bless this 
union, both sons: William Cooper 
Moore, aged six years, and Anson 
Moore, who was born in 1912. 


Samuel Foster Swinburne, City 
Judge, former Justice of the Peace, 
former Police Justice, etc., was 
born October 16, 1868, at Natick, 
Mass., a son of Samuel and Sarah 
J. (McCracken) Swinburne. 

He was educated in the schools of 
his native town and graduated from 
Harvard College in 1890. 

He became a resident of New Ro- 
chelle in the year 1891; opening 
law offices here, where he was not 
long in establishing a prosperous 
business, principally relating to the 
closing of estates and appearances 
in the Surrogate's Court, though hia 
law practice is general; his success 
r.s a practitioner was marked and 
continuous. He is justly rated 
among the leading lawyers of the 

He has always devoted himself so 
closely to his profession as to pre- 
vent all thought of political prefer- 
ment until 1894 when he accepted the 
office of Justice of the Peace, serv- 
ing out the term but declined re- 
election on the ground that demands 
of his profession required his un- 
divided attention. He has on several 
occasions declined the offer of a 
nomination from his political party 
for the office of Mayor. He yielded 
in 1909 to become a candidate for 
Police Justice, and again in 1911 to 
be a candidate for the new office 
of City Judge, because such official 
positions were in line with his pro- 

The unprecedented majority he re- 
ceived for the City Judgeship may 
be considered as strong evidence of 
his popularity, especially at an elec- 
tion when the opposing political 
party elected by large majorities the 
Mayor, Comptroller and a majority 
of the members of the Common Coun- 

Judge Swinburne is a member of 
the New York State Bar Association, 
and of Bar Association of city of 
New York, is a Past Master of 
Hugenot Lodge, F. and A. M., of 
New Rochelle, a member of Mount 
Vernon Council Bethlehem Com- 
mandery Knight Templar, of Mystic 
Shrine, served as District Deputy 
Grand INTaster, 12th Masonic District 
in 1909-10; was the first elected Ex- 



alted Euler of the New Eochelle 
Lodge of Elks, No. 756, organized in 
1902; a member of the Independent 
Order of Foresters and a member of 
the Junior Order of American 

Judge Swinburne is married to 

Miss Emma R. Strain, daughter of 
P. H. and Margaret Strain, of New 

He has three children, Alcester, 
aged sixteen years; Edith, aged 


years, and Ruth, aged six 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 


(Continued from page 234, Vol. 1.) 

The census of 1910 gives this town a population of 1,522. The 
town was organized March 7, 1788. 

The "North Castle of the Revolution" is of special historic 
interest, owing to scenes of strife enacted in the locality during 
the Revolutionary period. 

The ' ' Heights of North Castle ' ' is where General Washington 
and his small but determined army camped after the battle of 
White Plains. 

In the southern section of the town, near the North White 
Plains railroad station, stands the old building that Gen. Wash- 
ington occupied as his headquarters, from October 23 to Novem- 
ber 9, 1776, at the time of the Battle of White Plains; overlook- 
ing these headquarters is "Castle Heights," upon which can 
yet be seen the breastworks, about four feet high, which the 
patriot soldiers threw up ; a little further east, is the building 
which Gen. La Fayette occupied as his headquarters, at the 
foot of ' ' Mount Misery. ' ' * On this elevation also can yet be 
seen the breastworks behind which the patriot soldiers laid in 
wait for the coming enemy. When the writer visited them, in 
the fall of 1912, both buildings were in excellent state of preser- 
vation, and to a great degree in original condition. 

In the story relating to Major Andre's capture localities in 
this town figure conspicuously. 

In the eventful month of September, 1780, Col. Elisha Shel- 
don, in command of the Second Dragoons, of the patriotic forces, 
was stationed at Sands' Mills (later known as Armonk), and 
the next in command, Lieutenant-Colonel Ebenezer Jameson, 

* The patriot soldiers who suffered great privations gave this high ground 
the name now applied to it. 


had his headquarters at the Robbins house, Kensico. The Sec- 
ond Dragoous is described as having been considered ' ' one of the 
finest," as it was supplied with arms and accoutrements bought 
in France, and was in part mounted. It guarded the lower 
section of the County, bordering on "neutral land," subject to 
periodical invasions and depredations by the enemy; by the 
skirmishing squads sent out by the British in New York city, 
and by " Cowboys," or " Skinners." 

It w^as to this town that Major Andre was brought after his 
capture at Tarrytown. His captors decided that he be taken 
forthwith to the nearest American military post, and deliv- 
ered up to the officer in command. The John Robbins' house, 
at Robbin's Mills (more recently Kensico), was being used as 
the headquarters of Lt.-Col. Jameson ; this being the nearest 
post, to this place Andre was brought, accompanied by Pauld- 
ing, Williams, Van Wart and their five companions. The Rob- 
bins' house was a small frame building, of the style of architec- 
ture in vogue in those days, situated on land acquired in 1896 
by the City of New York as part of the reservoir watershed; 
the house was destroyed about two years later. In Washington 
Irving 's "Life of Washington," is told the pathetic story how 
when Andre and his captors arrived at the Robbins' house the 
family was at dinner, that Andre was asked to "sit by" and 
become one of their number in partaking of the humble meal. 
His reply was, in his most polite manner, ' ' Oh, madam, it is all 
very good, but indeed I cannot eat. ' ' Irving added that it was 
a very elderly lady who told him of this incident, saying that 
she was a young girl at the time and one of the company seated 
about the dinner table, and even in later years when recalling 
the scene she had difficulty in restraining her tears. 

As Lt.-Col. Jameson was not found at the Robbins' house, the 
captors and the captured journeyed on six miles distant to 
Sands' Mills (later known as Armonk), the principal head- 
quarters of Colonel Sheldon, in whose stead Lt.-Col. Jameson 
was acting, the Colonel being absent. 

Williams (one of the captors), in his narrative given later, 
says : "We kept to the by-ways, and went as quickly and silently 
as we could. He (Andre) suffered much in mind, as was appar- 
ent from his great dejection, but he acted like a gentleman, can- 
didly and politely, and never once attempted to escape." 

Sands' Mills (known as Mile Square, and later as Araionk) 
was a small hamlet, possessed of a saw-mill, the Sands' resi- 
dence, and little else. 


The facts relating to Jameson's mistake in attempting to send 
the captured Andre and his papers to Arnold, to the subsequent 
recall of Andre, and to the unfortunate neglect to recall also 
the papers, is told elsewhere in the story relating to Andre's 

The guard under Lieutenant Allen sent to convey Andre to 
Arnold did not include any of his captors, it was composed of 
Connecticut militia. It is stated that when Allen received the 
communication ordering him to bring Andre back to Col. Shel- 
don's headquarters, his men, composing the guard, were almost 
mutinous on being told they would have to return with Andre, 
and Andre encouraged them, making it difficult for Allen to 
compel them to return. 

The order sent to Allen directed that he take his prisoner to 
Capt. Jeronemus Hoogland, of Second Dragoons, at Lower 
Salem (known as South Salem, now as Lewisboro) ; but instead 
(for some unexplained reason) of going to Lower Salem, Andre 
was taken back to headquarters at Sands' Mills, arriving at 
about 9 A. M., on Sunday, September 24. From latter place 
Andre was sent to Lower Salem. This was after Major Tall- 
madge had met Andre for the first time, and from appearances 
generally judged him to be a British soldier, prevailed upon 
Jameson to send the prisoner to Col. Sheldon, then at Lower 
Salem. Under escort of the valiant Major and a squad Andre 
was marched to Lower Salem. Paulding, Williams and Van 
Wart, who happened at Sands' Mills headquarters, accompanied 
the party part of the way. Andre, on arriving at the latter place 
was taken to the house of 'Squire John Gilbert, in Lower Salem, 
under an escort of twenty dragoons, mounted, commanded by 
]\Iajor Tallmadge. The route was by Coman's Hill, Bedford 
Village and Cross River to Lower Salem. 

At the present time the ownership of most of this historic 
land has passed to New York City, to be used in endeavor to give 
that fast growing municipality a sufficient water supply. 

On the site of Kensico Lake, in this township, and covering 
in addition thousands of acres of land adjoining, acquired by 
the City of New York to aid its water supply, is to be built one 
of the largest reservoirs in the country, if not in the world. 

The water of this lake were drawn off and the fish therein 
carefully removed and transferred to nearby Rye Lake and 
Grassy Sprain Lake, in August, 1911. 

There are no incorporated villages in this town. The several 


principal localities are named as Valhalla, Armonk, Banksville, 
Byram Lake, Wampus Lake, Kensico Reservoir, part of Rye 
Lake, I\Iianus River and Byram River. 

The population of the town has been as follows: In 1830, 


in 1835, 1,789; in 1840, 2,058; in 1845, 2,010; in 1850, 

in 1855, 2,415; in 1860, 2,487; in 1865, 2,198; in 1870, 

in 1875, 1,961; in 1880, 1,818; in 1890, 1,475; in 1892, 
in 1900, 1,471; in 1905, 1,483; in 1910, 1,522. 

For biograpliieal sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 


(Continued from page 235, Vol. 1.) 

Like other towns in the upper section of the County, Salem, 
Lower or South Salem, and North Salem, have prominent men- 
tion in the story relating to the capture of Major Andre in the 
Revolutionary period. It was to Col. Sheldon's headquarters, 
in Lower Salem, that Andre was brought, after his capture, and 
was there at the time Gen. Washington ordered his removal to 
West Point. Andre arrived at 'Squire John Gilbert's house in 
the morning, at about 8 o'clock. The Gilbert house stood on 
the west side of the road leading north from Lower Salem, 
between where more recently stood the residences of Mrs. Abby 
Hoyt and John I. Bouton. The Gilbert house, standing on 
land recently acquired by New York City, is, like many other 
buildings, a thing of the past. 

It was in the Gilbert house that Andre wrote his first and 
celebrated letter of appeal to Gen. Washington, in endeavor to 
state his position, under date of September 24, 1780. 

Lieutenant Joshua King (later a General), of Sheldon's com- 
mand, was among those who received Andre on his arrival, and 
in whose charge he was put. In speaking of the prisoner later. 
Lieutenant King said: 

"He (Andre) looked somewhat like a reduced gentleman. 
His small-clothes were nankeen, with handsome white-top rid- 
ing boots— in fact his undress military clothes. His coat was 
purple, with gold lace, worn somewhat threadbare, with a small- 
brimmed tarnished beaver on his head. He wore his hair in a 
queue, with long black beard (probably a beard of several days' 


growth, being unable to get a shave on the road), and his clothes 
were somewhat soiled by dust and mud. In this garb I took 
charge of him. After breakfast, at which he ate very sparingly, 
my barber came in to attend to my needs, after so doing I 
requested the barber to submit Andre to the same operation, 
which he did. When the ribbon was taken from his hair, I 
observed the hair full of powder; this circumstance, with others 
that occurred, induced me to believe that I had no ordinary 
person in charge. He requested permission to take the bed 
while his shirt and smallclothes might be washed. I told him 
that was needless, for a shirt was at his service, which he 
accepted. "VVe were close pent-up in a bedroom, with a vidette 
at the door and window. There was a spacious yard before the 
door, which he desired he might be permitted to walk in with 
me. I accordingly disposed of my guard in such a manner as 
to prevent an escape. While walking together, he observed 
he must make a confidant of somebody, and he knew not a more 
proper person than myself, as I had appeared to befriend a 
stranger in distress. After settling the point between us, he 
told me who he was, and gave me a short account of himself 
from the time he was taken a prisoner at St. John's, in 1775." 

Andre was confined in the Gilbert house while waiting orders 
from Gen. Washington, as to what was to be done with the 

At about midnight of the 25th day of September, a messenger 
from Gen. Washington arrived at the Salem headquarters, and 
delivered the expected order to Lt.-Col. Jameson. The order 
was as follows: 


Robinson House, 7 p. m., 

25th September, 1780. 

"Sir: — I wish every precaution and attention to be paid to 
prevent his (Andre's) escape. He will without doubt make it 
if possible ; and in order that he may not have it in his power, 
you will send him under care of such a party and so many 
officers as to protect him from the least opportunity of doing it. 

"That he may be less liable to be recaptured by the enemy, 
who will no doubt make every effort to regain him, he had 
better be conducted to this place by some upper road, rather 
than by the route of Crompond. I would not wish Andre to 
be treated with insult; but he does not appear to stand upon 


the footing of a common prisoner of war; and therefore he is 
not entitled to the usual indulgence which they receive, and 
is to be most closely and narrowly watched." 

In accordance with this order a strong guard was organized 
to escort the prisoner to West Point and before Gen. Washing- 
ton. A company of one hundred mounted dragoons, under 
direction of four officers, conuuanded by the intelligent and 
energetic Major Tallmadge, started with the prisoner at an 
hour when it was raining very hard, so anxious were his keepers 
to have Andre in a place of safety, picked out by the Com- 

From the Salem headquarters the troops rode north and west 
over Long Pond Mountain, west of Lake Waccabuc to the 
church at North Salem. (Andre riding the same horse that had 
been of such service through all his trouble.) Just as North 
Salem was reached, a courier from Gen. Washington overtook 
Major Tallmadge and his companions; the courier was the 
bearer of an order for a change of route, for fear of encounter- 
ing the enemy on the old and much travelled road. The new 
route taken led past the property owned and occupied, in 1890, 
by Isaac H. Purdy (father of former Supervisor Isaac Purdy), 
a locality now known as Purdy 's Station, named for the Purdy 
family; thence to Croton Falls and by the old road to Lake 
Mahopac and Eed Mills, now Mahopac Falls (taken recently 
by New York city), through Jefferson Valley, to Scrub Oak, 
and by the old road to Oregon, thence to Van Cortlandtville 
and the Danbury tavern, over Gallows Hill (named so because 
an English spy was executed there), on the Albany Post Road, 
passing through Continentalville (in town of Cortlandt). A 
short distance beyond the school house they took the road lead- 
ing west toward the river to the Beverly Robinson house. They 
had traveled continuously and all night. The next day, by 
Gen. Washington's order, Andre was conveyed to Tappan. 

David AVilliams, one of the captors of Andre, removed from 
South Salem to Livingstonville, Schoharie County, N. Y., where 
he died, leaving a widow and seven children, four sons and three 

Darius Ogden Mills, one of the most widely known financiers 
and philanthropists in the United States, was born in this town, 
of humble parentage, on September 5, 1825; he began at the 
bottom of the ladder, and through his own exertions he became 
famous; was a pioneer of California. His daughter was wife 


- 7 ■ ■ 



of the late United States Ambassador to Great Britain. He 
died at his winter home in Millbrae, Cal., Januaiy 3, 1910. His 
fortune was estimated at $60,000,000. 

The localities in the town are Purdy's Station, Croton Falls, 
Salem Centre, Titieus Reservoir. 

The population of the town, according to the numerous census 
enumerations taken, has been as follows: In 1830, 1,276; in 
1835, 1,178; in 1840, 1,161; in 1845, 1,228; in 1850, 1,335; in 
1855, 1,528; in 1860, 1,497; in 1865, 1,522; in 1870, 1,754; in 
1875, 1,583; in 1880, 1,693; in 1890, 1,730; in 1892, 1,939; in 
1900, 1,133; in 1905, 1,169; in 1910, 1,258. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Isaac Purdy, former Supervisor of 
the town of North Salem, Commis- 
sioner, State Farming School for 
Boys, etc. was born November 3, 
1853, at Purdy's Station in that 
town. He is a son of Isaac 
Hart Purdy and Mary Willis 
(Lyon) Purdy. His father, who 
died in 1891, held the office of 
Supervisor of North Salem in 1846 
to 1850 and 1856 and 1857. Isaac 
Purdy, his grandfather, served as 
the town's Supervisor in 1823 to 
1829. Previous to this, Ebenezer 
Purdy, a relative, held the office of 
Supervisor in 1788 to 1790, when the 
town was known as Upper Salem, 
and during the change of name to 
North Salem, he again held the 
office, in 1799 to 1801, and his son, 
Ebenezer Purdy, Jr., held it in 1817 
to 1823, when Isaac Purdy, grand- 
father of the present Isaac Purdy, 
succeeded him. 

Surely, tne subject of this sketch 
inherited necessary ability to prop- 
erly discharge the responsible duties 
of a Supervisor, and, as we know, to 
fill any other official position he will 

"When he was chosen Supervisor as 
a Democrat he had a particular dis- 
tinction bestowed upon him, as his 
selection broke a long line of Repub- 
lican Supervisors who had in re- 
cent years served the town, which 
had become a safe " Republican 
territory." To Mr. Purdy's per- 
sonal popularity was due the change 
in political sentiment. 

He was first chosen Supervisor in 
1896 and reelected in 1898. At the 

time of his being elected in 1896 he 
was serving as a School District 
Trustee. His holding the latter of- 
fice and being a member of a School 
Board receiving moneys from the 
Supervisor, was considered as a bar 
to his serving as Supervisor. The 
question in dispute was finally car- 
ried to the Courts. He served as 
Supervisor in the years 1896-7, but 
was debarred from acting at the 
opening of the session of the Board 
of Supervisors for 1897-8, by a de- 
cision of the Courts, to the effect 
that holding the School Trusteeship 
made him ineligible for election as 
Supervisor. After he resigned the 
School Trusteeship, the Board of 
Town Officers, then composed en- 
tirely of Republicans, unanimously 
voted to appoint him as Supervisor 
to fill the vacancy created by act of 
the Court. His reelection later ap- 
proved this appointment as he re- 
ceived the largest majority ever 
given a Democrat in that town. 

In 1910 he was urged to accept 
the Democratic nomination for 
State Senators; leaders of his party 
believing his personal popularity 
would insure his election. This 
preferment he declined, as he had 
before declined nominations for 
County office, Member of Assembly, 

On October 16, 1911, Mr. Purdy 
was appointed by Gov. Dix as a 
manager of the State Training 
School for Boys. 

Mr. Purdy has held many posi- 
tions of private as well as public 
trust. He is a director in the First 
National Bank of White Plains, a 



director in the Mount Kisco Na- 
tional Bank, as well as an oflScial in 
other financial institutions. He has 
been the trusted officer in the suc- 
cessful settlement of many estates, 
and has otherwise served acceptably 
his fellows. 

He is a bachelor, forlorn. He re- 
sides on part of the estate inherited 
from his fathers; a considerable 
portion of this family estate has 
been taken by New York City for 
purposes of increasing the city's 
water supply. Previous to this, Mr. 
Purdy's father donated a good sized 
tract of land to the Harlem Railroaa 
Company to encourage the building 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

of a railroad station in that local- 
ity; in appreciation of this gift, the 
Eailroad Company namecl the sta- 
tion ' ' Purdy, ' ' in honor of the 

It was near this Purdy estate in 
what was then known as Upper 
Salem, that the American squadron 
halted on its way to West Point to 
deliver Major Andr6, as a prisoner, 
after his capture at Tarrytown. At 
the Purdy House a Courier from 
Gen. Washington met officers in 
command of the squadron with or- 
ders to change route of travel to 
prevent Andre's rescue by prowling 
detachments of the enemy, 
residents see elsewhere in this book, 


{Continued from page 235, Vol. 1.) 

This town was separately organized May 2, 1845, Laws of 
1845, also Laws of 1846, Chap. 30 sec. 265. The laws of 1845 
gave the name as Ossinsing, the laws of 1846 changed name to 
Ossining, as it is at present. 

The name is Indian, in Chippeway denotes ''a stone," and 
Ossineen "stones." Ossin-ing, the proper Indian orthography 
of the word, variously written Sin-Sing, Sing Sing, Sin Sinck 
and Sink Sink, is derived from ossin (a stone) and ing (a 
place) or "stone upon stone." At a very early date Ossin-ing 
constituted a part of the possessions of a powerful Mohegan 
tribe called the Sint Sings, from these the old village took its 

This town, prior to 1846, formed a part of the township of 
Mount Pleasant, and like neighboring localities was originally 
included within the honour and fee of Philipsburgh. 

The lands were bought from the Indians in the usual way of 
the period, in exchange for so many old coats, shirts, stockings, 
blankets, kitchen utensils, knives, guns, tobacco, rum, etc. 

The localities in the town are the charming residential sec- 
tion known as Scarborough and Sparta; the ancient boundary 
line of 1684, which divided the two Colonies of New York and 
Connecticut passed a short distance south of Sparta. 

The two villages are Ossining and Briar Cliff Manor. 


In 1776, some days previous and subsequent to the memor- 
able battle of White Plains, British war vessels lay in the Hud- 
son River opposite Sing Sing. 

A memorial to Enoch Crosby the secret agent of the Commit- 
tee of Public Safety is erected in the old Presbyterian Church 
Cemetery in Ossining. 

Among the prominent people who have been local residents 
may be mentioned Ma j. -Gen. Aaron Ward, Gov. John T. Hoff- 
man, Philip Van Wyck, Congressman Orlando B. Potter, Gen. 
E. A. McAlpin, Francis Larkin, and others. 

The principal village of the town is Ossining, named same as 
the town. This village was incorporated as early as 1813, and 
afterwards amended in 1837, the oldest village in the County; 
the name under which it was incorporated was Sing Sing, but 
this name was changed recently, because the latter name was 
judged objectionable owing to its being associated with the 
State Prison located within the village limits. A special act 
of the State Legislature permitted the taking on of the new 
name, and the leaving of the old name with the prison. A 
strong effort is being made for the removal of the prison from 
this town to another and more secluded section of the State. 
The transforming of the village into a city by extending the 
boundary lines has been suggested, but nothing has been effected 
in that direction. The last census, that of 1910, gives the vil- 
lage a population of 11,480. 

The site of the present village is supposed to occupy partly 
the ground on which stood the ancient Indian settlement of 
Sint Sinck, more than two hundred years since. The existence 
of Indian habitations upon this particular spot is amply proved 
by the vast number of Indian implements found in the neigh- 
borhood. The Dutch gave the name Sin Sing. The first vil- 
lage election was held first Tuesday in May, 1813. 

Briar Cliff Manor, incorporated as village in 1902, lies partly 
in this town, and partly in the town of Mount Pleasant. 

For nearly half a century the Sing Sing Camp-Meeting 
grounds, situated on the hills just outside of the limits of the 
village of Ossining, have been vigorously maintained by mem- 
bers of the New York Methodist Church Conference, aided by 
Methodists generally. 

In and about 1820 mining operations were carried on to a 
considerable extent near Sing Sing; gold, silver, iron, copper, 


etc., was, it is believed, found in small quantities. Because 
Sing Sing was celebrated for its marble quarries, is attributed 
the decision to build a State Prison here. The several large 
prison buildings, the warden's house, and several ranges of 
work-shops were constructed from materials found on the State's 
farm here. The prison was formerly known as the Mount 
Pleasant State Prison, and later the name was changed to Sing 
Sing State Prison. In 1828 prisoners were first removed from the 
old State Prison in New York city to the new Mount Pleasant 
State Prison. 

The village of Ossining has good schools and handsome school 
buildings; good sewer system; an ample water supply and an 
efficient fire department; churches of all denominations; is a 
manufacturing place ; has several daily and weekly newspapers ; 
gas and electric lighting and street trolley lines, and in all 
respects is up to date. Has Yacht Clubs and Naval Militia. 

Many handsome residences are to be seen located on the 
beautiful high lands of this charmingly situated town. 

The population of the town is given by the census of 1910 
as 12,828. The town's population, according to the census 
of 1865 was 6,213; in 1875 was 8,533; in 1880 was 8,769; in 
1890 was 10,058 ; in 1892 was 8,814 ; in 1900 was 10,895 ; in 1905 
was 10,316. (For population of earlier years, see volume 1.) 

In Scarborough, within this town, is found the home club 
house of the Sleepy Hollow Country Club, reputed to be the 
wealthiest country club in the world, and its officers represent 
billions. This club occupies "Woodlea," the residence and 
grounds of the late Elliott F. Shepard, whose wife was a Van- 
derbilt. The residence cost one million dollars; the cost of 
furnishing the house and laying out of the grounds, and of 
I)uilding the expensive stables are not included in this expendi- 
ture. Mr. Shepard never lived to see "Woodlea" completed. 
The architecture of this great home building is the Italian 
Eenaissance style. Nearly every foot of the grounds, thirty 
acres, commands a sweeping view of the stately flow of the 
Hudson River. The club is having laid out what is destined 
to be one of the finest inland golf courses in this country, and 
it lies in the territory where once Irving 's "headless horseman" 
galloped at the mystic hour of midnight. The annual expense 
of conducting this club is $75,000. The membership is limited 
to 1,000; the annual dues are $100. 




Dr. George J. Fisher, of Sing Sing village, served as Chair- 
man of the State Medical Society. 

Herbert G. Squires, who was United States Minister to Cuba, 
1902 to 1906, and United States Minister to Panama from 1906 
to 1910, died at the age of 51 years, in London, Eng., on Octo- 
ber 19, 1911. His wife, who was Miss Hattie AVoodcock, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Woodcock of this town, and a daughter survive him. 

Walter W. Law, the founder of Brier Cliff Manor, is one of 
the most prominent residents of that charming village. 

V. Everitt Macy, of the Standard Oil Company, has a farm 
of one hundred acres in the village of Ossining. 

Frank Vanderlip, a former Deputy Secretary of the Treas- 
ury at Washington, now a bank president in New York city, is a 
resident of Scarborough, as are James Stillman and James Spier, 
bank presidents of New York city, and H. Walter Webb, rail- 
road financier, son-in-law of Vanderbilt. 

William Rockefeller, of the Standard Oil Company, owns 
farms aggregating 1,100 acres in this town and Mount Pleasant, 
and one of the finest dwellings along the Hudson River. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Gilbert Mead Todd who ably 
served the village of Sing Sing as 
Trustee for six years, and the town 
of Ossining as Supervisor for fifteen 
years, a longer period than any of his 
predecessors or successers served, was 
born in the town of Lewisboro, this 
county, on November 7, 1833, a son 
of Stephen and Eliza (Baker) Todd. 
The origin of his family dates back 
to the early English Settlers. 

He became a resident of the town 
of Ossining in 1835. He was edu- 
cated in Mount Pleasant Academy 
and in the Peekskill Academy. 

As a business man he was a suc- 
cess, driving his business with energy 
and exercising careful judgment in 
its direction. A gentleman of ster- 
ling probity of character, respected 
for his many public virtues by all. 
A public spirited citizen to whom 
Ossining is deeply indebted for much 
of its present prosperity. 

His first election to public office 
was in 1879 when he was chosen a 
member of the Board of Village 

Trustees, composed of men of ster- 
ling character, noted for thrift, 
liberality and enterprise. He served 
in this office six years; retiring in 
1885 to accept the office of Super- 
visor of the town of Ossining. As 
Supervisor he served to the end of 
1901, fifteen years. 

He retired from the office of 
Supervisor because be considered his 
private business required his undi- 
vided attention. For several years 
he had been reelected to this office 
at the head of town affairs at times 
when the opposing political party 
has succeeded in electing all of its 
town candidates excepting the 
Supervisor. This great mark of re- 
spect was fully appreciated by Mr. 
Todd. It was evident that members 
of all political parties were unani- 
mous in the desire to retain in 
public service a man so fully capa- 
ble, and as long as he was willing to 
serve he could be reelected, again 
and again. On announcing his in- 
tention of retiring from public office 
holding he was strongly urged to 



reconsider. In answer he stated he 
did not desire to monopolize the 
honor, and though the office of 
Supervisor was most congenial, he 
felt he ought to retire, after having 
more than his share of opportuity, 
that so desirable a position and the 
honored distinction of serving so ap- 
preciative a constituency, as that 
of the electors of his home town, 
should be bestowed upon another. 
Reluctantly his declination was 

Mr. Todd ever exercised great in- 
fluence in the Board of Supervisors 
and was considered one of its ablest 
members. His well-known integrity 
and strong character, and long ex- 
perience as a County legislator won 
for his opinions great weight, and, 
owing to this, he was able to be of 
substantial service to his town in 
various ways. His genial qualities 
and phenomenal good nature made 
him friends with all. 

Seven years after his retirement 
from the office of Supervisor, on 
October 7, 1908, Mr. Todd died at 
his home in Ossining — and his native 
county, as well as his town, mourned 
his passing away. 

On the announcement of his death 
in the Board of Supervisors, that 
Board adopted the following: 

"Whereas, Almighty God in His 
infinite wisdom has called to his 
Heavenly rest Gilbert M. Todd, who 
departed this life at his home in 
the village of Ossining, on the 7th 
day of October, 1908, and 

"Whereas, Gilbert M. Todd was 
an honored citizen of the town of 
Ossining and the county of West- 
chester all his life, and represented 
the village of Ossining in its Board 
of Trustees and the town of Ossin- 
ing as its Supervisor for many years, 

' ' Whereas, his services in public 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

office were valuable to his constitu- 
ents and honorable to him; his whole 
career standing as an example of 
high and efficient service and faith- 
ful devotion to the interests of all 
the people, therefore be it 

"Resolved, That a committee be 
appointed to draw suitable resolu- 
tions to mark the death of Gilbert 
M. Todd." 

On receipt of handsomely en- 
grossed resolutions of condolence, 
Mr. Todd's family sent the follow- 
ing to the Board of Supervisors: 

"Mrs. Gilbert M. Todd and fam- 
ily desire to express their warmest 
thanks and appreciation for the 
superb tribute to Mr. Todd's mem- 
ory, presented by the Board of 
Supervisors of Westchester county, 
through their committee. The evi- 
dences of esteem in which Mr. Todd 
was held by his associates in the 
Board, and the sympathy extended 
to them, will ever be a source of 
comfort and consolation to his fam- 
ily who can testify that Mr. Todd 
asked no greater reward for his ut- 
most effort than the respect and 
confidence of his fellow members and 
the community which for so many 
years he served." 

Mr. Todd also served his village 
as a Water Commissioner; he be- 
came a member of the Sing Sing 
fire department in 1856; was vice- 
commodore of the Sing Sing Yacht 
Club; was for many years vice-presi- 
dent of the Sing Sing Savings Bank, 
a trustee of the Mount Pleasant 
Academy, senior warden of St. 
Paul's Episcopal Church, a trustee 
of Dale Cemetery, and in other ways 
was interested in local affairs up 
to the hour of his death. 

Mr. Todd was married in January, 
daughter of William Hull of Ossin- 
ing. Wife and daughters, Alice B. 
and C. Louise survive him. 

residents see elsewhere in this book, 



(Continued from page 238, Vol. 1.) 

Pelham was formed as a township March 7, 1788. The name, 
conferred upon the town by the Pells, is said to be derived 
from the lordship of Pelham, Herefordshire, England. 

Pelham, as the original manor, including New Rochelle, em- 
braced nine thousand, one hundred and sixty -six acres; six 
thousand, one hundred acres of these were sold to make New 
Rochelle township, by Thomas Pell. The word Pelham itself 
is of Saxon origin, and composed of the two words Pel 
(remote) and ham (mansion). The former being the ancient 
surname of the manorial proprietors, doubtless affords a good 
reason for its adoption in connection with the last. 

Is situated on Long Island Sound, on the line of the Harlem 
Branch of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, 
about fifteen miles from New York city. 

The population of the town as shown by various census enu- 
merations has been as follows: In 1830, 334; in 1835, 255; in 
1840, 789; in 1845, 486; in 1850, 577; in 1855, 833; in 1860, 
1,025; in 1865, 1,043; in 1870, 1,790; in 1875, 1,538; in 1880, 
2,540; in 1890, 3,941; in 1892, 2,696; in 1900, 1,571; in 1905, 
1,841. A part of the town, City Island and a nearby section, 
were annexed to the city of New York, by act of the Legisla- 
ture, chapter 934, Laws of 1895, which accounts for the falling 
off in population between the census of 1892 and the census of 
1900. The last Federal census, that of 1910, gives the town's 
population as 2,998. 

The township contains three incorporated villages, viz. : Pel- 
ham Manor, incorporated in 1891 ; Pelham, incorporated in 
1896, and North Pelham, incorporated in 1896. The village of 
Pelham Manor had in 1898 a population of 436 ; in 1902, 594 ; 
in 1905, 638 ; in 1910, the last census, 852. The village of Pel- 
ham 's population in 1898 was 142 (and when incorporated the 
smallest village in the State) ; in 1900 the population had in- 
creased to 303 ; in 1902 it was 368 ; in 1905, 349. In 1910, the 
last Federal census, it was 681. 

The village of North Pelham had in 1898 a population of 
627; in 1900, 684; in 1902, 693; in 1905, 850. The census of 
1910 places the village's population at 1,311. 

City Island, formerly in this town, now a part of the city 


of New York (annexed by act of the Legislature June 6, 1895), 
was originally the proposed site of a great city, to rival in 
importance the city of New York. In the latter part of the 
seventies, Benjamin Palmer, a man of moderate means, who 
resided in South Yonkers, near Kingsbridge, conceived the idea 
of creating a city, facing Long Island Sound, that would equal 
in number of population and grandeur the big, growing city 
on the south. He selected as the site the island near the south- 
east end of Westchester County, in the Manor of Pelham, now 
known as City Island. The project made no greater progress 
than the giving of the name "City" to the island. Mr. Palm- 
er's funds soon gave out, and, being unable to raise the neces- 
sary amount of money, he had to abandon his purpose; in fact 
he impoverished himself to such an extent that, in 1800, friends 
found it necessary to raise funds to provide for his actual needs 
and in his old age to keep him from becoming a public charge. 

Pelham Manor was one of two oldest Manors in the County; 
the other being the Manor of Fordham, adjoining in the south- 
ern section. The seal of James as King of England authenti- 
cated the manor grant and patent of Pelham, and the name 
and seal of James as Duke of York was attached to the grant 
and patent of the Manor of Fordham. 

The Hutchinson's River, a boundary line of this town, was 
named in honor of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, who was the leading 
spirit in a colony of sixteen persons which settled in the vicinity 
of Pelham Neck, and who was, with several of her friends, mur- 
dered by Indians. 

A sketch of Mrs. Hutchinson, a most remarkable character, 
cannot prove else than interesting to the general reader, there- 
fore it is here given as follows: 

Anne Hutchinson, a Notable Woman.— There is, probably, 
no more interesting character connected with the early history 
of Westchester County than Anne Hutchinson; who, in the 
beginning of 1642, was the leading spirit in a colony of sixteen 
persons which settled in the vicinity of Pelham Neck, in what 
is now known as Pelham Manor, in the town of Pelham, in this 
County. The Hutchinson's (formerly known by the Indian 
name of Aqueanouncke) River, which separates the town of 
Pelham from the city of Mount Vernon and part of the old 
town of Eastchester, named in her honor, and a tongue of land 
known as "Anne's Hook," likewise named for her, remain as 
her only memorials. 

Mrs. Anne Hutchinson was, in all respects, a strong character, 


and demands a place in the annals of Westchester County. If 
ever a person suffered and died for praiseworthy principles, it 
was she. 

For the benefit of the "progressive women" of the present 
day, permit the remark to be made here, that she was the first 
American club woman, and is stated to be the founder of the 
first Women's Club in America. 

In Boston she organized the women in her attempts to bring 
about certain reforms in Church and State, and the women, it 
is said to their credit, stood steadfast and true, but their loyalty 
did not shield from persecution this heroic woman. 

Mrs. Hutchinson was born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1590. 
When she was forty-four years of age, in September, 1634, she, 
with her husband and family, came to Boston, where they 
resided several years, and as long as they were able to with- 
stand unjust persecution. To enjoy liberty of thought and 
action, which she was given to understand could be freely exer- 
cised in the newly settled country to which her oppressed coun- 
try people were flocking, she came to Boston, as has been said, 
to find her expectations grievously shattered. 

Persecuted nigh unto death on account of her religious beliefs 
and her unwillingness to sacrifice principles for personal gain, 
she was compelled to leave Boston, after standing up in public 
places and defying her persecutors, while hurling unanswerable 
truths at her biased judges. Leaving Boston she and her family 
became residents of the State of Rhode Island, where they were 
welcomed by Roger Williams and other patriots ; their residence 
in Rhode Island was broken up in 1642, by the death of her 
husband, William Hutchinson. Then with the remaining mem- 
bers of her family, Mrs. Hutchinson sought refuge still further 
from the influence of the hostile Bostonians, and made her 
home in the outskirts of the Manhattan Colony, among the 
Dutch, in what is now known as Pelham Manor, settling along 
side of a stream of water now known as Hutchinson's River, 
named for her. 

Mrs. Hutchinson was not left long to enjoy the quiet of this 
conservative Dutch settlement, when a savage Indian war broke 
out. In August, 1643, the Indians set upon the settlement and 
in the dead of night slew her and all her family, except one child 
who was taken captive. 

It was a sad ending of a brave, brilliant woman, one of the 
most distinguished of the dames of Colonial days. She stands 
out as one of the most notable and picturesque figures on the 


first pages of American history— an intellectual force, when 
intellectuality was esteemed the prerogative of the magistrate 
and the minister. A woman who could not be frightened into 
aji abandonment of her faith ; a woman who had more wit, more 
daring and more real independence than the clergy and rulers 
of the State. Her life may be regarded as a prophecy of that 
liberty for which America has stood for generations. 

The town in this County now called Eastchester was originally 
known as Hutchinsons, named in honor of Anne Hutchinson. 

Pelham was long distinguished as "Manor of Anne Hoock's 
Neck." Mrs. Hutchinson was cut off before she could complete 
the purchase and obtain patent. 

In recalling the trials and persecutions she suffered, it is satis- 
faction to find that time brought its own revenge; and that a 
descendant of the woman whom Massachusetts cast out, a 
Hutchinson, became the ruler of that Colony, as the last royal 

The population of the township, as shown by various census 
enumerations, has been as follows: In 1830, 334; in 1835, 255; 
in 1840, 789 ; in 1845, 486 ; in 1850, 577 ; in 1855, 833 ; in 1860, 
1,025; in 1865, 1,043; in 1870, 1,790; in 1875, 1,538; in 1880, 
2,540; in 1890, 3,941; in 1892, 2,696; in 1900, 1,571; in 1905, 
1,841; in 1910, 2,998. 

The decrease in population, as shown in the census of 1900, 
is accounted for by the fact that a large section of the town 
was annexed to New York city in 1895, by act of the State 

The original grant of Pelham Manor from the Indians, to 
Thomas Pell, is dated November 14, 1654, and conveyed 9,166 
acres, bounded as follows: 

"Embracing all that territory bounded on the east by a 
stream called Stony Brook, or river, runs eight English miles 
into the woods; thence west to Bronck's River to a certain bend 
in the said river; thence by marked trees south until it reaches 
the tidewaters of the Sound which lieth between Long Island 
and the mainland, together with all the Islands in the Sound, 
&c., &c., &c. 

Signed by the Sachem, Ann Hook, and five chiefs." 

This town has been described as "one of the garden spots 
in the beautiful county of Westchester." Lying close to the 
boundary line dividing the town and New York city (that city 
having recently annexed a part of the town), many prominent 
city business men have been attracted to it as a desirable place 



I '-■ 



for all-year-round homes. Many costly residences have been 
erected here and the whole town has been laid out as one 
beautiful park. To the development of the town as an ideal 
refined residential locality, much credit is due Hon. Benjamin 
L. Fairchild, former Representative in Congress, and present 
resident. He was one of the first to discover possibilities in 
the way of public improvements to make surroundings attrac, 
tive, and knowing what to do, went about doing it, with that 
determination and energy for which he is well known. The re- 
sult of his labors, aided by others, is evident everywhere. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Edgar Charles Beecroft, lawyer, 
Supervisor, Counsel to the Bronx 
Sewer Commission, Corporation 
Counsel, former Justice of the Peace, 
etc., was born in Oak Park, 111., on 
February 16, 1876, a son of John E. 
and Elizabeth Beecroft. 

He graduated at Trinity College 
(Hartford, Conn.) and at the New 
York Law School. 

He was admitted to practice at the 
bar in 1899, and early took a promi- 
nent place in the profession. His ad- 
vance was steady and honorable. A 
studious analysis of all the rules and 
practices of law, a knowledge of the 
very best productions of distin- 
guished jurists, enables him to re- 
tain the honorable position he holds 
in the legal fraternity. 

The chief characteristics of Mr. 
Beecroft, as an official as well as a 
lawyer, are his great industry and 
his unbending integrity. In personal 
appearance he is commanding; his 
features wear the stamp of intellect; 
he is cool and self-possessed under 
every circumstance, and never finds 
himself in a situation for which he 
has not adequate resources. 

When he was three years of age 
his parents came to this State, set- 
tling in Pelham. He has since re- 
sided in that town, his present abode 
being in Pelham Manor. 

Mr. Beecroft has acted with the 
Democratic party, and has always 
been a conspicuous and able de- 
fender of the principles it was es- 
tablished to maintain. His influence 
in his own town added to his per- 
sonal popularity has resulted in his 
repeated election to public office, 
when the town was normally largely 

Eepublican; he is certainly appre- 
ciated where he is best known. 

He served as a Justice of the 
Peace for eight years, from 1901 to 
1909; while holding the position of 
Justice he was, in 1907, elected 
Supervisor of the town of Pelham, 
holding both offices until 1909. In 
1909 he was re-elected Supervisor, 
and again re-elected in 1911, notwith- 
standing a strong opposition deter- 
mined if possible to defeat him by 
the usual Eepublican majority given 
at a general election. The re-elec- 
tion of Supervisor Beecroft proves 
that the people can be trusted when 
it comes to approving the acts of a 
faithful official. 

In 1910 at the urgent request of 
leaders of his party he consented to 
accept the Democratic nomination 
for District-Attorney, when there 
was not the slightest possibility of 
success, so great was the opposition 
party's majority in the county. His 
loyalty to the principles of his 
party justified his making a sacri- 
fice. As was expected, he was de- 
feated; yet he had the satisfaction 
of knowing that the number of votes 
he received far exceeded that given 
any other nominee of the party for 
that office in recent years. 

He was chosen Corporation Coun- 
sel of the Village of North Pelham 
in March, 1911, and he still retains 
the position. 

On the reorganization of the 
Bronx Valley Sewer Commission, 
under special act of the State Legis- 
lature, by Commissioners appointed 
by Governor Dix, in 1911, Mr. Bee- 
croft was unanimously chosen to hold 
the highly responsible position of 
Counsel to the Commission. 



He is counsel to the Pelham 
Board of Sewage Disposal Works. 

He is a member of the York Lodge, 
F. and A. M., and of the Alpha 
Delta Phi Fraternity. 

Mr. Beecroft was married July 2, 
1904, to Miss Grace L. Lowry, 
daughter of Clarence and Ida (Havi- 
land) Lowry, of New York city. 
They have two children, John Robert, 
aged six years, and Lavinia, aged 
live months. 


Frederick Hobbes Allen, a former 
President of the village of Pelham 
Manor, Corporation Counsel, Chair- 
man of the Democratic County Com- 
mittee, etc. 

His parents were Hon. Elisha 
Hunt Allen and Mary Harrold 
(Hobbes) Allen, and his birth-place, 
Honolulu, where his father was 
Chief Justice and Chancellor. He 
is a descendant of the puritan fa- 
thers, in an unbroken line from a 
member of Cromwell's famous 
"Ironsides," Edward Allen who 
settled in Northfield, Mass., in 1685. 
The property then acquired by him 
has been in the family up to tlie 
present day. 

He was graduated from Harvard 
University with the degree of A. B. 
in 1880 and three years later re- 
ceived the degree of LL. B., in 
course, also the degree of A. M. 

At this period, 1882, he became 
secretary to the Hawaiian legation 
at Washington, D. C, over which 
his father then presided as 
Hawaiian Minister and held the fur- 
ther distinction of Dean of the Dip- 
lomatic Corps. Upon his father's 
death the following year he was ap- 
pointed Charge d' Affaires. Mr. 
Allen's association with representa- 
tive men in Washington life gave 
him a taste for matters of State 
and politics and an experience which 
became useful to him later. 

Leaving W^ashington in 1884, Mr. 
Allen came to New York and en- 
tered the law office of Holmes & 
Adams. He was admitted to the 
bar during the same year and be- 
came managing clerk for Messrs. 
Miller, Peckham & Dickson. A few 
years later he became associated 
"with Col. Hugh I. Cole, with offices 

For biographical sketches of other 
and in volumes one and two. 

at 59 Wall Street and in 1896 
formed the firm of Adams & Allen. 
This partnership continued until the 
death of Mr. Adams in 1900, after 
which a new firm was formed known 
as Allen & Cammann, and which stiU 

Soon after arriving in New Y'ork 
he came to Pelham Manor to reside, 
and there soon became interested in 
local affairs. It is a testimony to 
his good work in the town's behalf 
that he was first chosen Corporation 
Counsel of Pelham Manor which 
position he held three years; and 
then President of that village, the 
only Democrat ever elected to latter 

In 1904 Mr. Allen was chosen 
chairman of the Democratic County 
Committee of Westchester County, 
which position he held until the fall 
of 1911, when he voluntarily retired. 
His ability, as an organizer and 
manager has been further recog- 
nized in his appointment to be a 
member of the Executive Committee 
of the Democratic State Committee 
for New York State, a position high 
in the councils of the party. 

Mr. Allen was married June 30, 
1892, to Adele Livingston Stevens. 
Six children have been born, Fred- 
erick Stevens, Mary Dorothy Adele, 
Barbara Frances Gallatin, joau 
Livingston, Julian Broome Livltigs- 
ton and Priscilla Alden Sampson. 
The family home, Bolton Priory, is 
beautifully situated at Pelham 
Manor, one of New York's exclusive 

It is one of the historical spots 
of that section for here lived Anne 
Hutchins, who was killed by Indians 
in 1643. 

Mr. Allen's social affiliations in- 
clude the Union Club, the Knicker- 
bocker, the City Club, New York 
Athletic Club, and the Westchester 
Country Club, of which he is presi- 
dent; is a member of the patriotic 
society of the Colonial Wars and the 
Song of the Revolution. 

Possessing recognized ability in 
his profession and an enviable posi- 
tion in the Democratic organiza- 
tion of his County and State, of 
which he was a delegate to the Den- 
ver convention of 1908, Mr. Allen 
has ably maintained the dignity and 
traditions of his worthy ancestor. 

residents see elsewhere in this book. 



(Continued from page 240, Vol. 1.) 

This township was organized on March 7, 1788. It is bounded 
north and east by the town of Lewisboro, southeast by the 
State of Connecticut, and west by the towns of Bedford and 
North Castle, 

Poundridge was originally included in the Indian grant of 
Toquams, made to John Turner, of Quinnipiacke or New Haven, 
on July 1, 1640. Besides Poundridge this sale also embraced 
the greater part of the town of Bedford, in this County, and 
the townships of Stamford, Darien, New Canaan and Green- 
wich in Connecticut. Until the final arrangement of the 
boundary lines in 1731, Stamford extended over the greater 
part of the present town. By this final settlement of boundary 
line, confirmed May 14, 1730, Poundridge was transferred from 
Connecticut to the Province of New York. 

The town was, in 1760, called "Old Pound" in town records. 
In church matters Poundridge, prior to 1775, constituted one 
of the precincts of Rye. In 1816 Episcopal services were per- 
formed here. The Methodist Episcopal Church was first incor- 
porated in 1822. 

Of the prominent families connected with the town's history 
mention should be made of the Lockwoods, as several members 
thereof held high official positions in the County ; John Fancher, 
who held office in 1750; William Fancher, son of the John 
Fancher, was a judge of the Court of Common Pleas in this 
County and a captain of the Minute Men during the Revolu- 
tionary War ; Joseph Ambler ; Major Samuel Lewis, who resided 
here in 1777; James Searles, Nathan Slawson, and others. 

During the Revolutionary War residents of Poundridge were 
loyal to the patriot cause. A sub-committee of the White Plains 
Committee of Public Safety had its headquarters here. 

Major Ebenezer Lockwood, of this town, and head of the 
family of that name so prominent in Westchester County, and 
which in later years gave many men to hold County ofificial 
positions, was a most ardent and vigorous patriot, for whose 
head forty guineas had been offered by the British commanding 
General in New York. He lived to become County Judge, serv- 
ing from 1791 to 1794, was custodian of County moneys, and 


served many terms in tlie Provincial Congress and the State 
Legislature, and was otherwise honored. 

During the Revolutionary War period skirmishes were fre- 
quent between the American troops and British troops in the 
local streets. 

Surely Poundridge was "in the midst of the conflict" in the 
days of the Revolution. 

David Williams, one of the captors of Andre at Tarrytown, 
and to whom we owe a minute description of the capture, stated 
in his defense of the charge that he and his companions were 
" Cowboys" or "Skinners," gives the particulars about these 
bands, of which the American Army officers in upper West- 
chester County, and even Gen. Washington himself, were appre- 
hensive. He says "Cowboys" had raided Poundridge (the east- 
most town in the County, lying next to Connecticut), and that 
they were led by a noted Tory. While this band was raiding 
the cattle on a farm belonging to a man named Palmer, in 
Poundridge, at midnight, driving off his live stock. Palmer had 
run out in his nightshirt in hopes of saving his property, when 
the ruffians killed him. It was to avenge Palmer's murder that 
Williams joined the men who had started out, on September 
22, 1780, with the object of capturing Cowboys and other similar 

Poundridge 's general surface is uneven, and much of it stony ; 
in the northern portion of the town is a steep and lofty ridge 
of mountains called the "Stoney Hills," which runs principally 
in a northeast direction far the space of three or four miles. 
The climate is pronounced as "delightful." The population in 
1910 was 725. For population in other years, see volume 1. 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



(Continued from page 242, Vol. 1.) 

The township of Rye formerly included the present towns of 
Harrison and White Plains, and was separately organized March 
27, 1788. 

It is situated directly in the southeast angle of Westchester 
County, bordering Long Island Sound; bounded on the east 
(directly adjoining) by the State of Connecticut and the By ram 
River; on the south by Long Island Sound, and on the west 
and north by the townships of Harrison and North Castle. 

The town's name is derived, as one writer puts it, "from old 
Rye," meaning, doubtless, Rye in the County of Sussex, Eng- 
land. As a fact, the inhabitants of Rye are a staid, temperate 

Peningoe, Peninggoe, or Piningoe, the Indian name of Rye, 
is apparently derived from Ponus, the title of the aboriginal 
proprietor of this territory, A. D. 1640. Ponus was one of 
the ruling sagamores of the Rippowams (Stamford) in 1640. 

Indians inhabited the territory thickly, even dwelling numer- 
ously on Manussing, or Mennewies Island, off of Rye Neck. 

As was the custom, the Indians sold to the Dutch West India 
Company, w-ho obtained a grant of lands extending from Nor- 
walk. Conn., to the North River, on April 19, 1640. This doubt- 
less accounts for Rye belonging to the Province of Connecticut. 

The successors of the Dutch Company, in 1660, of the town- 
ship of Rye were Peter Disbrow, John Coe and Thomas Stud- 
well, who were residents of nearby Greenwich, Conn. 

When the lands, now comprising the township of Harrison, 
were purchased by John Harrison and were taken from the 
town of Rye, a strong and general protest went forth from Rye 
residents, who used every endeavor to prevent the taking. In 
his history of Rye, in which he resided, the Rev. Charles W. 
Baird, in speaking of this loss of territory, says: "By this 
summary measure, the people of Rye were despoiled of a most 
important part of their rightful possessions. It was a loss felt 
by each proprietor, for each had an interest in the undivided 
lands, to the distribution of which he looked forward as a pro- 
vision for his children. The only show of reason for this act 
of spoliation was in the fact that the inhabitants of Rye were 


as yet without a patent for their lands under the government of 
New York. In 1G85 Governor Dongan had issued a proclama- 
tion to the inhabitants of Rye and Bedford (also in this County) 
requiring them to appear before him and prove their title to 
the lands upon which they were seated. This summons, it 
appears, had not been obeyed. The sympathies of the people 
were with the Colony (Connecticut) from which they came, 
and to which they yet hoped permanently to belong. Their 
rights, besides, had been amply recognized by Connecticut, and 
they doubtless saw no propriety in the requirement to obtain 
a patent from New York. 

The protests and pleas of Rye residents proved unavailing; 
the Governor and Council of New York turned a deaf ear, and 
the lands were granted to Harrison. The indignant people of 
Rye "revolted" back to the Colony of Connecticut, their first 
love. In 1700, by the King's order, they returned to New York, 
probably satisfied with being close upon if not in Connecticut. 

The early history of this township is specially and par- 
ticularly interesting. Our space permits of only a passing 

In 1692, by an act of the Assembly of New York, Rye was 
erected into a market town, that was entitled to the extraordi- 
nary privilege of holding and keeping a yearly fair, on the 
second Tuesday in October, to last four days, "for selling of 
all country produce and other effects whatsoever," but Rye 
did not exercise the privilege until 1771. 

Courts of Sessions were held in Rye during the Colonial 

A ferry was established between the town and Oyster Bay, 
Long Island, in 1739, and was called the "Rye Ferry." It 
ran sixty years or more. 

The early records of the Board of Supervisors state that the 
Board's first meeting was held in the school house in Rye, on 
Tuesday, October 6, 1772. 

The General Court, in October, 1669, announced that it was 
"informed that the people of Rye are yet destitute of an 
orthodox minister." At the present time there are numerous 
churches of all denominations, and the town is noted for its 
many costly church edifices. 

The residents of this town, on January 3, 1910. celebrated 
the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the purchase of the 


town of Rye from the Dutch Company by Disbrow, Coe and 

Manussing, or Mennewies Island, about a mile in length, 
which lies east of what was known as Poningoe Neck, and sep- 
arated from it only by a narrow channel, w^as purchased from 
the Indians on June 29, 1660, the price paid by Messrs. Dis- 
brow, Coe and Studwell being "eight cotes and seven shirts, 
fifteen fathom of wampone, which is in full satisfaction for 
the parcel of land mentioned." This bill of sale is signed by 
thirteen Indian chiefs in authority. In recent years this island 
has belonged to private owners. In October, 1911, part of 
the property then belonging to the Cornell family was sold for 
$150,000, to be used for club house, etc. Evidently there is 
some difference between the purchase and the selling price. 
The island has been owned, at different times, by the Van 
Rensselaer, Cromwell, Erving and Cornell families. 

General John Dix, a former Governor of this State, was for 
a considerable period a resident of this town. 

Pine Island (Milton Point) at this date said to be valued at 
more than $1,000,000, is reported to have been purchased, in 
early days, when the price was a cow. 

It may appear unbelievable, the assertion that Pine Island, 
one of the finest pieces of shore property along Long Island 
Sound, and in the town of Rye, once sold for a very common 
domestic animal, but the story, astonishing as it may appear, 
is vouched for by old residents of this town. As the narrative 
runs, all that section of Milton Point was originally owned by 
a man named Brown. He held the property for some time, 
and finally sold it to "Uncle" Gideon Reynolds. In speaking 
of this real estate transaction, an old resident recently said: 
"I often heard Gideon tell how he came to buy Pine Island; 
he had secured all the property from Brown clean dow'n to the 
Clubhouse, w^hen Brown said to him, 'Gideon, you have got all 
the farm now, and I think you ought to have the island, too ! ' 
To this Gideon replied, 'no, I have got about all the property 
I want.' Brown evidently wanted him to buy the island pretty 
bad, so he offered to sell the whole island for a farrow cow 
owned by Gideon. A bargain was struck. The said cow changed 
hands. Brown took the cow, Gideon took the island." "Yes," 
added our informant, "that was a good day's work for Gideon, 
if he had the island to sell now it would be valued at 20,000 
farrow cows, worth $50 a piece." 


Names of prominent families, settlers in the town, are even 
prominent at this late date, and include those of Disbrows, Stud- 
wells, Goes, Merritts, Browns, Budds, Aliens, Odells, Fowlers, 
Hortons, Knapps, Sherwoods, Lyons, Purdys, Boyds, Kniffens, 
Travis', Brushs, Smiths, Banks, Ogdens, Parks, Peeks, Ander- 
sons, Vails, Hiatts, Millers, Mills, Johnsons, Wrights, Stevens, 
Slaters, Beattes, Jenkins, Bishops, Bloomers, Carpenters, Brun- 
diges, Havilands, Dusenberrys, Van Rensselaer, Cromwell, 
Lounsburys, Haights, Baileys, Meads, Johnsons, Parkers. 

Within the township there are two thriving villages and a 
part of another prosperous village: Port Chester, in- 
corporated in 1868; has a population, in 1910, of 12,809; Rye, 
incorporated in 1904; has a population, in 1910, of 3,964; part 
(Rye Neck) of the village of Mamaroneck, incorporated in 
1895; has a population, in 1910, of 2,285. 

The whole town's population in 1910 was 19,652 (for popula- 
tion of earlier years, see volume one). 

Port Chester, one of the most thriving villages in the County, 
a manufacturing center and an up-to-date business community, 
managed by "live people," was known as "Saw Pit" from 
April 23, 1823, to March 11, 1837 ; on latter date the name Port 
Chester was adopted. 

Among those w^ho have served as President of the Village of 
Port Chester, of more recent date, and are yet alive, are John 
W. McCarthy, Norton J. Sands, M. D., and the present incum- 
bent, William Ryan, who is a former Member of Assembly and 
former Congressman. 

Port Chester has furnished more Sheriffs to the County than 
any other locality, and all have proven the "right man in the 
right place." 

The Port Chester Library and Reading Room was founded 
by Jared V. Peck in 1776. 

Addison Johnson, who was Supervisor of this town from 1892 
to 1895, served later as Sheriff', and as Agent and Warden of 
Sing Sing Prison. An efficient public servant in all positions. 

It has two banks of deposit and an old established Savings 
Bank; all as solid as the Rock of Gibraltar. 

Here is manufactured and distributed many of the stoves, of 
all kinds, made in this country. 

The New York. New Haven and Hartford Railroad passes 
through this village; Ihe station of this road now stands where 
was once the head of Adee Street, and doubtless recalls to resi- 


dents the exciting incident which occurred in 1872, when Stephen 
A. Marshall was president of the village. The railroad com- 
pany attempted to close the upper end of Adee Street to elimi- 
nate street crossing tracks; to do this the company ran heavily 
freighted cars to that locality and securely blocked the cross- 
ing. The village authorities, headed by President Marshall, 
accepted the evident challenge to war and began rallying the 
people to action against the railroad invasion; the church bells 
were soon engaged in ringing a fire alarm; people in droves hur- 
ried to the Adee Street railroad crossing, and on being directed 
as to the service required gave willing hands to pushing back 
the freight cars, specially heavy though they were. After this 
experience the railroad officials did not undertake again to "steal 
a march" upon "the unsuspecting public," but acquired the 
property in legal form. 

Among the principal industries of the thriving village of 
Port Chester, the Port Chester Transportation Company holds 
a conspicuous place. This company has for years run a fleet 
of vessels carrying freight between the village and New York 
city; to-day steam freight boats of this line, replacing sailing 
sloops, make daily communication to and from the big city, and 
are admitted to be among the finest fast-sailing boats that ply 
upon Long Island Sound. 

The newest of these steamboats is named "Port Chester," in 
honor of the home port. On occasion of the boat's first trip 
from New York, direct from the ship-builder's yard, on Sep- 
tember 28, 1907, the local merchants and tradespeople, as a 
whole, presented, accompanied by appropriate ceremonies, a 
"stand of colors and eagle for the pilot house," in the name 
of the people whose homes and whose interests are centered about 
Port Chester — people who appreciated as a compliment the giv- 
ing of the name "Port Chester" to the handsome craft. 

In accepting the gift and accompanying resolutions, Captain 
Edwin F. Studwell, president of the Transportation Company, 
in part said: 

"It will be fifty years this fall since Captain Nelson Stud- 
well, my uncle, first came to this village, at the request of Cap- 
tain Thomas Bird, to run the sloop 'James H. Holdane' (in 
place of the sloop 'Sarah Adee,' which had been wrecked a 
short time before), until he could find a suitable boat for him 
to buy to run on the same route. Captain Bird was so well 


pleased with the lioldane' and Capt. Nell, that he never looked 
for another boat, or at least he never bought one. 

"In 1870 Captain Bird died, and I, having shipped on the 
'Holdane' :March 7, 1860, and having been captain of the boat 
for several years, succeeded to the business, and have been in 
charge to the present time. 

"Captain Nelson Studwell, David P. Ferris and myself built 
the first 'Port Chester' in 1879, and during that year we organ- 
ized a stock company with David P. Ferris as president. Nelson 
Studwell, vice-president, Edwin F. Studwell, secretary and 
treasurer, with Andrew Ferris and William H. Ferris, directors. 
"In 1886 w^e built the 'Glenville,' with the intention of run- 
ning the two boats, but after a trial of two years we found we 
were ahead of the times, as we could not make the two boats 
pay ; we therefore sold the ' Port Chester, ' lengthened the ' Glen- 
ville,' and have run but one boat since. The company recently 
decided that the time had really arrived when we should have 
another up-to-date steam propelling boat plying between this 
village and New York city, to give to our patrons the proper ser- 
vice which is due them, as our village is rapidly growing and 
we want to keep up with the times ; so after much thought we 
decided to build a boat and this is the result. 

' ' This boat was built under the supervision of my son, Edwin 
A. Studwell, Superintendent of the Company." 

The village has an excellent fire department, equipped with 
most modern apparatus ; the fire houses are fine brick and stone 
structures well located in different sections. 

Former Sheriff James S. Merritt is Chief Engineer of the 
Fire Department for 1912-13. 

Its excellent public graded schools and spacious buildings are 
numerous and well adapted to the needs of a growing com- 

The village of Rye, as well as Port Chester, contains many 
handsome residential places and the homes of many New York 
business men. 

State Laws of 1907, Chap. 711, and of 1908, Chap. 408, pro- 
vide for the acquiring of certain lands for a public park in the 
town of Rye, laying out, constructing and maintaining a public 
park. These lands include property lying on the shores of Long 
Island Sound, such as the well-known Rye Beach and adjacent 
bathing beaches. 








Biographical Sketches. 


Joseph Haight, Supervisor of the 
town of Rye, former Town Clerk, 
etc., was born just over the county 
border line, in Greenwich, Conn., on 
September 16, 1859, a son of Joseph 
and Adeline (Rich) Haight. 

He was educated in the schools 
of his native town and in the Fort 
Edward Institute, Fort Edward, 
N. Y. 

He became a resident of Port 
Chester, in the town of Rye, his pres- 
ent place of abode, in 1876. 

Entering upon a business career 
he filled the responsible position of 
Assistant Superintendent of the ex- 
tensive bolt manufactory of Russell, 
Birdsall & Ward, which position he 
retained seven years from 1886. He 
resigned his place with this company 
in 1893 to engage in business on his 
own account, in which he was suc- 
cessful. At the present writing he 
is president of the Port Chester 
Hygeia lee Company, and is Treas- 
urer of the Rye Realty Company. 

He was elected Clerk of the Town 
of Rye in 1905, receiving an unpre- 
cedented majority, and served in 
this office during the years 1906- 

In the fall of 1909 he was pro- 
moted to the office of Supervisor, 
again by a large majority. Ag 
Supervisor he served during 1910-11, 
and was re-elected Supervisor in 
1911, for the years 1912-13. 

His career as a County legislator 
has been quiet and unpretending; but 
the industry, ability and success with 
which he has discharged his duties 
to constituents and the county has 
not failed to establish his reputa- 
tion as a safe legislator, fully cap- 
able of successfully filling still 
higher and more important positions 
at the hands of his fellow citizens. 

He has ever taken a prominent 
part in the proceedings of the Board 
of Supervisors, and has exercised 
much influence in enacting county 
legislation. He has held prominent 
place on most important commit- 
tees; he is now serving his third 
year as chairman of one of the lead- 
ing committees, that on Good Roads. 
Being a man of systematic habits 
and a believer in what is worth 
doing is worth doing well, he has 

introduced many changes in manage- 
ment of details that great good has 
resulted in conducting duties of his 
committees. For several years he 
has been also a member of the 
active committee on Repairs and 

In addition to his duties as Super- 
visor he is chairman of the Rye Park 
Commission, and as such has been 
influential in perfecting plans to 
meet the ideas of his fellow towns- 
men who consider this Long Island 
Sound front pleasure park as one of 
the town's greatest accessions. 

Mr. Haight was married on June 
5, 1901, to Miss Susan M. Marshall, 
daughter of Joseph H. Marshall, of 
Port Chester. Of this union there 
is one son, Joseph Walton Marshall 
Haight, aged eight years. 


Edwin Francis Studwell, former 
Supervisor of the town of Rye, 
former Chief Engineer of the Port 
Chester Fire Department, etc., was 
born in Greenwich, Conn, (not far 
from his present place of abode in 
Port Chester, this County), on April 
8, 1843, a son of George 0. and Jo- 
hanna (Buckhout) Studwell. 

He attended school in the city of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., receiving a good, 
practical education that fitted him 
for a successful business career. 

"Captain Ed," as he is univer- 
sally known, has a wide acquaintance 
among the citizens of the County, 
and among the ' ' river tradesmen ' ' 
he has been popular from the day 
he first trod the deck of his sailing 
craft, plying between the local port 
and the big city. He served " be- 
fore the mast ' ' in all capacities, 
reaching the position he now holds 
as president and principal owner of 
the Port Chester Transportation 
Company. The title of captain he 
earned as active commander of 
" ships of the line." 

All rural communities possess one 
or more men to whom neighbors feel 
free to go for advice on all kinds 
of subjects, pains or ailments, real 
or imaginary troubles. This advice 
is expected to be given free gratis, 
for nothing, as a father would give 
to his children. For years Captain 
Studwell has held this enviable posi- 



tion, as ' ' adviser for the public 

The Captain is a man of com- 
manding presence; tall, •well propor- 
tioned and is one who would attract 
attention in any assembly of men. 
Of great energy, sagacity and perse- 
verance, in whose sterling integrity 
not only his immediate neighbors in 
the village of Port Chester and the 
town of Kye, but the people of the 
County have perfect confidence. 

Several years ago Capt. Studwell 
was chosen chief of the local Fire 
Department, a position that as a 
rule is entrusted to one of the local- 
ities most leading citizens. No man 
was ever better titted for the 
" job," in every respect; wherever 
Chief Studwell went and appeared 
at the head of Port Chester's most 
excellent department, he was recog- 
nized as " the ideal Chief." For 
four years he held this position, fill- 
ing it to the improvement or the ser- 
vice and to general satisfaction. 

He relinquished the oflSce of Su- 
pervisor in November, 1909, after 
serving the town eight years. In 
the Board of Supervisors he was 
one of its most prominent and use- 
ful members, serving at the head of 
at least two principal committees, 
and the County's business was never 
performed in a more business-like 
manner. As a legislator he was ever 
prompt, industrious and watchful of 
the interests of his constituency. 
He does not claim to be an orator, 
but his " talks " to his colleagues in 
the Board possessed so much good 
sense and logic that close attention 
was always given and the accom- 
panying advice heeded. 

He was foremost among those citi- 
zens who conceived the idea that the 
attractive water front and popular 
beach known as Oakland Beach, in 
the village of Rye, should belong to 
the town of Rye, and be laid out as 
a public park. He supported earn- 
estly the bill before the State Legis- 
lature providing for such a park. On 
the bill becoming a law he, as Su- 
pervisor, with all his might entered 
into the work of securing the de- 
sired result, and before he retired 
from nftice the beautiful public park 
was assured. It is with just fdeas- 
ure he can remomber the part ho had 
in securing to his town this valuable 

It is in a great part due to the 
persistent efforts of Capt Studwell 
that an appropriation was secured 
from the United States Government 
for the improvement of Port Chester 
Harbor. Thirty years ago the first 
appropriation was secured. Since 
that time several appropriations ag- 
gregating many thousands of dollars 
each were obtained. Now the chan- 
nel is 100 feet wide and 10 feet 

For a number of years Capt. 
Studwell has been vice-president of 
the long established Port Chester 
Savings Bank. 

He is a member of the local coun- 
cil of Royal Arcanum. 

Was married on January 29, 1868, 
to Miss Mary Anna Ferris, daughter 
of John and Mary (Huested) Ferris. 
Of this union there are the following 
children, Nettie, Edwin A., Nelson 
F., Mabel E., Chester A., and Lester 
W., all grown. 


Charles Edwin Lounsbury, Village 
Trustee and present Member of the 
Board of Education, former Chief 
of the Port Chester Fire Depart- 
ment, and a "man of affairs" gen- 
erally, is a native of this County. 
He was born on October 21, 1860, 
cot far from where he now resides m 
the village of Port Chester, the fourth 
and youngest son of one of the lead- 
ing families of the town, his parents 
being John William and Jane A. 
(Redfield) Lounsbury. His educa- 
tion is one of the good common 
school sort, built on what his father 
would designate as " a horse-sense 
foundation. ' ' On expressing a pre- 
ference for a business career, he en- 
tered his father's large grocery 
store as a clerk, where he received 
that thorough practical education 
which has proven of so much benefit 
to him in these later days. 

The youthful Lounsbury early 
gave evidence of the qualities es- 
sential to the making of a man of 
affairs, and wise heads predicted 
that he would prove a creditable suc- 
cessor of a worthy sire. The care- 
ful consideration given to matters 
submitted to him. his conservatism 
and other characteristic traits be- 
spoke a coming merchant who 
would justly earn an enviable posi- 



tion in the mercantile world. His 
present standing among his asso- 
ciates justifies this prediction. 

It is not only his mercantile posi- 
tion that commends him; though yet 
a comparatively young man we find 
him taking a leading part in the 
civic life of the community. For 
six years, beginning with 1900, he 
ably served as a Trustee of the vil- 
lage, assisting materially in per- 
fecting needed public improvements, 
many of which he suggested. He 
was again elected a Village Trustee 
in April, 1911. Since 1901 he has 
been a member of the local Board of 
Education, and it is owing greatly 
to his efforts that Port Chester has 
at this time some of the best graded 
schools in the State. 

His association with volunteer fire- 
men, his untiring endeavors to pro- 
mote the efficiency of the brave 
** fire-fighters," and make the local 
fire department an ideal one, has 
earned for him the distinction of 
having a local fire engine company 
named in his honor; the " C. E. 
Lounsbury Hose Company " is one 
of the most thriving firemanic or- 
ganizations in the County. He be- 
gan running with the " machine " 
when little more than a lad. He en- 
tered into the discharge of his du- 
ties here energetically and with a 
vim usual for him to display in all 
his undertakings. His popularity 
advanced him through all grades un- 
til he reached the command of Re- 
liance Fire Engine Company; from 
the foremanship he graduated to 
Assistant-Chief Engineer, and up to 
Chief Engineer, at the head of the 
Fire Department in 1908, to be un- 
animously re-elected Chief in 1910, 
serving until succeeded by James S. 

His father was the first Chief En- 
gineer of the local Fire Department, 
at its organization; it is but fitting 
that his son should hold the same 
position to-day. No one could fill 
the position better than did the first 
Chief, and the son is giving satis- 
faction equal to that given by the 
father. The late Chief is a mem- 
ber of the local Firemen's Benevolent 
Association ; a member of the State 
Volunteer Firemen's Association and 
a member of the National Fire 
Chief's Association. 

At an early age Mr. Lounsbury 

achieved a reputation as a financier, 
and a business man of superior qual- 
ities. At the death of his father he 
was promptly chosen to take the lat- 
ter 's place as a director of the local 
First National Bank, and later he 
took his father's place at the head 
of a long established and prosperous 
grocery business in Port Chester, 
which position he at present holds. 

Mr, Lounsbury is prominent in 
fraternal orders, principally the Ma- 
sonic; he is a member of Mamaro 
Lodge, No. 653, F. and A, M., a 
member of Armor Chapter, a mem- 
ber of Bethlehem Commandery, 
Mount Vernon and of other 
branches of the order; is a member 
of Lodge No. 863, of the order of 
Elks. He is chairman of the Repub- 
lican Town Committee and repre- 
sents his village on the Republican 
County Committee, a position long 
held by his father, a recognized 
leader of his party in the county. 

The subject of this sketch was 
married on November 12, 1884, to 
Miss Ida Gertrude Ritch, daughter 
of William M. and Elizabeth Ritch, 
of Greenwich, Conn. Of this union 
there are two children, sturdy sons; 
Walter Edwin, now aged twenty- 
three years, and Frederick Norton, 
aged nineteen years. 


John W. Lounsbury, a former Su- 
pervisor of the town of Rye, a 
former President of the village of 
Port Chester, merchant, financier, 
etc., was born April 29, 1825, a son 
of Edward and Nancy (Peek) 
Lounsbury. His early life was spent 
on his father's farm in Flushing, L. 
I., where he was born, and he was 
only privileged to attend school dur- 
ing the winter months. His educa- 
tion was obtained principally in the 
School of Experience. At the age 
of fourteen he entered upon his mer- 
cantile career as a " get-around- 
quick ' ' boy " in a grocery store in 
New York city; being a bright lad, 
endowed with what he termed good 
horse-sense, he soon acquired much 
useful knowledge. In 1842 he left 
the big city and settled in Port Ches- 
ter, when that place was but a strug- 
gling hamlet. As " a pioneer," with 
required hustling qualities, young 
Lounsbury soon proved himself to 



be the right man in the right place. 
He took hold with a will and in- 
spired others to do their best in the 
development of Port Chester. He 
was thrifty and saved his money. He 
became a blacksmith's apprentice 
anil later, after mastering the trade, 
bought out his employer. Making 
enough money, he embarked in the 
general grocery business. His effi- 
cient business ability, his standing fi- 
nancially and general popularity soon 
suggested him for political prefer- 
ment; he was elected Supervisor of 
the town of Eye in 1861; held the 
office of Village Trustee three years 
and then was elected Village Presi- 
dent; he was one of the original 
trustees of the Port Chester Library 
and Free Beading Room; a director 
and Vice-President of the Port Ches- 
ter First A'ational Bank, a trustee of 
the local Savings Bank, a director of 
the Mount Vernon Peoples' (now 
National) Bank, a director of the 
New Rochelle City Bank, a director 
of the Westchester Fire Insurance 
Company, a director of the White 
Plains, Tarrytown and Mamaroneck 
Electric Railway, and was connected 
with other financial institutions. 
He was at the time of his death, 
which occurred May 18, 1905, one of 
the largest individual real estate 
owners in the town of Rye. A local 
park was named in his honor re- 

In politics he was a power, a poli- 
tician of the old school, and exer- 
cised considerable influence in the 
councils or his party. He was a 
member of the County Republican 
Executive Committee and an inti- 
mate and political friend of Judge 
William H. Robertson. In his town 
he was the master mind, cool, calcu- 
lating and resourceful. His busi- 
ness ability fitted him for leadership 
among men. The present recognized 
county loader of the Repilblican 
party, William L. Ward, as a young 
man profited by the teachings of 
Mr. Lounsbury under whom he was 
a lieutenant; former Sheriffs Addi- 
son Johnson and James S. Merritt 
also started in polities under 
" Boss " Lounsbury. The latter did 
not make politics a business, only a 
pastime, to aid ambitious friends. 
He was eenorous and men can re- 
membor the " helpine; hand " he 
eare. pven outside of politics. He 

was well informed on general sub- 
jects, and amply equipped to occupy 
the position forced upon him, of ad- 
viser to his fellow-citizens who 
needed guidance in matters of every- 
day life; this advice he gave with- 
out charge, though " hearings " on 
occasions took much of his valuable 

His death was a great loss to the 
community. The children surviving 
him are Daniel M., Herbert S., and 
Charles E. One son, George R., 
died in 1888, aged 37 years. 

(See page 14(5, volume 1.) 


John Eraser Mills, a former pub- 
lic official of prominence, filling with 
distinction many positions of trust 
in the town of Rye and a business 
man of more than ordinary abil- 
ity, was born in Jersey City, N. J., 
on October 8, 1843, a son of Ben- 
jamin and Jane (Fraser) Mills and 
grandson of John Mills, who fought 
in the Revolutionary War. He was 
educated in the Andover-Phillips 
Academy of Andover, Mass. 

When quite young Mr. Mills came 
to Port Chester, in this County, 
and accepted a position with the 
Abendroth Brothers Company, a firm 
then in its infancy. The sterling 
qualities of the boy, his honest labor 
and manifest intention of making 
himself useful to his employers, rap- 
idly earned advancement for him; 
step by step he progressed, until he 
became superintendent of the com- 
pany's great business and later be- 
came vice-president and general 
manager of the concern. At the 
time of his death, on December 5, 
IftOl, he was president of the com- 

The energy displayed by Mr. Mills 
in dispatching business was once de- 
scribed by a friend as being of the 
" one-hundred-horse-power sort." 
He was capable of doing in one day 
as much work as three ordinary men, 
with little friction and surprising 
smoothness. He certainly was a 
" hustler." His knowledge of the 
business, which he had gained by 
actual service as an apprentice in 
every department, fitted him to di- 
rect men and get the best results 
from systematized labor. To un- 



tiring energy and close application 
to business on part oi Mr. Mills 
was due greatly the success attained, 
and yet held, by the Abendroth 
Brothers Company. In the business 
world he was highly respected; for 
his sterling qualities, his upright- 
ness and his being a stickler for do- 
ing things ' ' open and above board, ' ' 
and because it was right so to do. 
He was tirm for what he considered 
just, and ever ready to assist where 
his assistance was needed. 

Not only as a successful business 
man was he known. He believed 
that good citizenship required some 
sacrifice of time, though ever so 
valuable, for the public good. Na- 
turally he was sought after when his 
fellow townsmen needed a proper 
person to fill a specially important 
position of public trust; he consid- 
ered every otfice connected with the 
public service a public trust. Though 
he might truly have pleaded, as an 
excuse, that his every moment was 
fully occupied, that he had no time 
to give owing to exacting business 
demands, yet he consented without 
unnecessary protest to accept posi- 
tions of usefulness rather than those 
to which was connected remunerative 

Writing a sketch of Mr. Mills Is 
like writing a history of Port Ches- 
ter, so closely identified was he with 
events in the village's history. 

He came to Port Chester when 
aged 19 years, was with Abendroth 
Brothers; for a time was in real es- 
tate and insurance business; pub- 
lished the first local newspaper; in 
his oflfice in 1865 the first meeting 
was held to organize the Port Ches- 
ter Savings Bank, W. P. Abendroth 
was elected first President and Mr. 
Mills first cashier; six months later 
Mr. Mills returned to Abendroth 
Brothers as Superintendent; in 1881 
he was elected Secretary of the Sav- 
ings Bank, which position he held 
until elected President of the bank 
shortly following the death of W. 
P. Abendroth; was a trustee of the 
Athletic Association of Port Ches- 

ter; was a Mason of high degree; 
belonged to local Lodge F. and A. 
M.; was a Hoyal Arch Mason and a 
Knight Templar; was one of the 
organizers of the Piremen's Benevo- 
lent Fund Association and a trustee 
at time of death; one of the 
first trustees of the Port Chester 
Library and Free Heading Room, or- 
ganized to manage gift of Hon. 
dared V. Peck; was a Royal Ar- 
canumite; was a member of Harry 
Howard Hook and Ladder Company 
thirty years; vice-president of Port 
Chester Water Company; member of 
Iron Founders' Association of the 
U. S. ; of Hospital Association; 
vestry man and senior warden of St. 
Peter's Episcopal Church. 

Mr. Mills was married, on August 
4, 1865, to Miss Maria Fraser Aben- 
droth (who died in 1899), daughter 
of William P. Abendroth (head of 
the firm of Abendroth Brothers), 
and Anna Maria Fraser Abendroth. 
Of this union there are four stalwart 
sons, grown to useful manhood, viz.: 
William A., John F., Benjamin and 
Frank M, John F. succeeded his 
father as president of the Aben- 
droth Brothers corporation now 
grown to even greater proportions 
than ever anticipated by the highest 
hopes of its founders. The last 
named John F. Jr., died suddenly of 
pneumonia on April 9, 1912. 

John F. Mills, Jr., was born April 
28, 1870, in Port Chester, where he 
ever after resided. He was a worthy 
son of a noble sire. 

Was educated in the Port Chester 
public schools, graduated from the 
High School in Class of 1888. 

He was a member of the Masonic 
Order and of its several branches, 
a member of Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, etc. 

Was married on December 10, 
1895, to Miss Lillian Wilcox, daugh- 
ter of Josiah N. and Henrietta 
(Lyon) Wilcox, of Port Chester. 
Of this union there were two chil- 
dren, John F., 3d, and Josephine 
Wilcox. Wife and children survive 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



{Continued from page 246, Vol. 1.) 

The town of Scarsdale was originally a part of the Manor of 
Scarsdale, which Manor in the early date included not only 
Scarsdale, but also other nearby towns. 

Col. Caleb Heathcote was first Lord of the Manor. (See page 
246, volume 1.) The name given to the Manor interpreted 
means the rocky-valley; "Scars" being the Saxon for rocky 
crags and "dale" signifies valley. The Manor of Scarsdale 
originally embraced the present towns of Scarsdale, White 
Plains, Mamaroneck and parts of North Castle and Harrison, 
It was named after Scarsdale, in the county of Derby, England, 
where Col. Heathcote was born and w^here for many generations 
his forebears had been prominent. He received the Manor 
Grant from William the Third, which bore the date of March 
21, 1701. 

Colonel Heathcote was born March 6, 1665 ; he arrived in New 
York in 1692. He was Judge of this County from 1695 to 1721 ; 
was a Colonel of the County Militia ; first Mayor of the Bor- 
ough of Westchester, a Councillor and Surveyor-General of 
the Province ; Commander of the Colony forces, and Mayor of 
New York for three years. 

Col. Heathcote was Mayor of New York commencing 1711, 
and from all accounts proved to be one of the most useful of 
the thirty Mayors that city had had up to that period. An his- 
torical reference to him says : "He was active in public improve- 
ments, grading the streets of the city from Maiden lane up to 
the 'Common,' where is now Chambers street." He became 
Mayor by appointment from the Governor of the Province. 

Col. Heathcote held the office of Receiver-General of the Cus- 
toms for all North America from 1705 to the date of his death, 
in 1721. 

The estates passed down from one descendant to another. At 
the present time but a small portion, if any, of the estates 
remain in possession of the descendants of Col. Caleb Heathcote. 

Daniel D. Tompkins,* the fourth Governor of this State and 
later Vice-President of the United States, was born in this 
town, the seventh son of Jonathan G. Tompkins who served as 

• A biographical sketch of Daniel D. Tompkins, who died June 11, 
1825, aged 51 years, will be found in Volume 1. 

Citizensof-^TownofSicar5dall I 



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a member of the State Convention which met in White Plains, 
approved the Declaration of Independence, and adopted the 
first Constitution of the State ; was town Supervisor ; was a 
member of the State Legislature during the Revolutionary War 
period ; was Judge of the County from 1794 to 1797, and later a 
Regent of the State University; he died shortly after his son 
was inaugurated Vice-President. 

The Westchester County Historical Society was instrumental 
in having, in 1898, a tablet erected in this town to mark the 
birthplace of Daniel D. Tompkins, on land now belonging to 
Charles Butler. 

Caleb Tompkins, also of this tovm, and a relative, held the 
office of Judge of the County from 1807 to 1820, and again 
from 1823 to 1846, forty years in all. He was clerk of the 
Board of Supervisors in 1807. 

Robert Palmer, of this town, served as the second elected 
County Treasurer, from 1852 to 1855. 

Benjamin Nieoll, of this town, was County Clerk from 1746 
to 1760. 

This township has been favored by having three of its citizens 
elected Chairman of the County Board of Supervisors ; Richard 
M. Popham in 1828, Richard Palmer in 1843 and Chauncey T. 
Secor in 1893, 1897, 1898, and 1905. 

Many of the Supervisors during the Town's history held that 
office for many years ; William Barker, who later became Sheriff, 
was Supervisor eleven years; Jonathan G. Tompkins, father of 
Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, held it for thirteen years ; Caleb 
Tompkins, who was Judge of County forty years, held it eleven 
years, and was also Clerk of the Board of Supervisors; Richard 
M. Popham held it six years and was Chairman of Board one 
year; Richard Palmer held it thirteen years, and was Chairman 
of Board one year; Francis Secor, father of the recent Super- 
visor, held the office twenty-six years; the late Chauncey T. 
Secor, who retired in 1912, served twenty-eight years, and was 
Chairman of the Board four years. (See Autobiography.) 

At a public meeting of the citizens of Scarsdale, held in the 
School House, on the evening of January 16, 1912, it was 
decided to present a testimonial to ex-Supervisor Chauncey 
T. Secor, giving expression of public appreciation of services 
well performed as Supervisor of the town during the past 
twenty-eight years. The following is a fac-simile of the testi- 
monial presented: 


Tcstinioiiial uroscnled to chaunecy Tompkins Secor by The Citizens 
of The Town of !Sears(hile, including members of all political parties, 
recognizing the Fidelity, Honesty, and Ability with which their fellow- 
townsman, ("hauncey Tompkins Secor has performed his duties as Super- 
visor of the Town of Scarsdale and desiring not only to show their ap- 
preciation of such satisfactory performance of a public trust, but also 
to approve the principle that public servants who demonstrate their 
fitness for office should be commended, whatever their party affiliations 
niav be, join in the presentation of this testimonial. 

Vvith brief intervals from the time of the Eevolutionary War the 
Supervisorship of the Town of Scarsdale has been held by members of 
his ancestral lines. His Great Grandfather, Jonathan G. Tompkins, hav- 
ing been the first Supervisor of the Town and his Father, Francis Secor, 
having been Supervisor for twenty-five years prior to the election of 
Chauncey Tompkins Secor in the year eighteen humlred and eighty-three. 
As a mark of our appreciation for his twenty-eight years of continuous 
faithful public services, his personal integrity, his high sense of honorable 
dealing, his commendable devotion to the interest of the Town of 
Scarsdale, and his creditable and conspicuous services impartially ren- 
dered to the people of Westchester County. 

We consider it a pleasure as well as a duty in meeting assembled to 
publicly acknowledge his praiseworthy record and subscribe to the senti- 
ments expressed by this testimonial. 

Subscribed this twelfth day of January in the year one thousand nine 
hundred and twelve. 



Citizens of the Town of Scarsdale. 


Within a few recent years movements in real estate in this 
town have been very active. Many handsome residential parks 
have been laid out and many costly homes have been erected. 
Fine roads have been constructed, and the general development 
of the town is marked. 

]\rany business men of New York have come to this delight- 
ful suburb to establish homes. 

The present population of the town is (in 1910) 1,300. 

According to previous census enumerations the town had a 
population in 1830 of 317 ; in 1835, 326 ; in 1840. 225 ; in 1845, 
341; in 1850, 342; in 1855, 445; in 1860. 548; in 1865, 557; in 
1870, 517; in 1875, 529; in 1880, 614; in 1890, 683; in 1892, 594; 
in 1900, 885; in 1905, 1,018. 




Biographical Sketches. 


Chauncey Tompkins Secor, former 
Justice of the Peace and former 
Supervisor of the town of Scarsdale, 
former Chairman of the Board of 
Supervisors, Chairman of the Build- 
ing Committee of the new County 
Court House, etc., was born in the 
town of Rye, while his mother (a 
resident of Scarsdale) was on a visit 
to her parents, on December 28, 1844, 
a son and only child of Francis and 
Sarah A. (Lyon) Secor, of Scarsdale. 

The name of the Secor family has 
been variously spelled Sicard, Secord 
and Secor. 

In 1690, Ambroise Sicard, who 
was a French Huguenot, came to 
this country, and settled in this 
county. He married Jennie Perron, 
and the first entry upon the records 
of the Huguenot Church in New 
York city (now the French Church 
Due St. Esprit) is that of the 
baptism of a daughter of Ambroise 
Sicard, the exile. Five children 
were named in his will, as follows: 
Ambroise, Daniel, Jacques or James, 
Marie, wife of Guillaune Landrian, 
and Silvie, wife of Francis Co- 

Ambroise Sicard settled with his 
sons at New Rochelle, this county, 
and on the 9th of February, 1692, 
purchased one hundred and nine 
acres of land in New Rochelle, from 
on Guillaume Le Count, for which 
he paid thirty-eight pistoles and 
eight shillings, current money of 
New York, equal to about one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars in gold. 

It is from the second son, Daniel, 
that Francis Secor descended. How 
many children Daniel had is not 
certain. James, his son, born in 
1700 married Mary A. Arvon in 
1724 and had seven sons and three 
daughters. Their fourth child, 
Francis, was born in 1732. He pur- 
chased the homestead at Scarsdale 
(now owned by heirs of Chauncey T. 
Secor) in 1775, the original deed of 
which is still in possession of the 

He married Sarah Horton in 
1761, and had three sons and five 
daughters. His oldest son, Caleb, 
born in 1763, married Anna Tomp- 
kins, daughter of Jonathan G. 

Tompkins and sister of Daniel D. 
Tompkins, Governor of State of 
New York, and later Vice-President 
of the United States. 

He had one son and three 

The son Francis (father of 
Chauncey Tompkins Secor) was the 
oldest child and was born June 5th, 
1810. He spent his early life upon 
the farm, from which, as a result 
of his labors, he accumulated a con- 
siderable property. 

He was a man of fixed and un- 
swerving principle, quick to decide, 
and ever ready to perform any labor 
to which his conscience pointed him 
as a duty. 

In 1849 he was elected Supervisor 
of the town of Scarsdale, and the 
office remained in his hands for 
twenty-five years. 

For thirty years he was an active 
and consistent member of the Pres- 
byterian Church of White Plains, 
and the confidence of his brethren 
in his integrity was manifested by 
their election of him to the elder- 

His death took place at his home, 
May 8th, 1885. 

He was connected with all the 
laudable enterprises of Scarsdale 
and was lamented by a large circle 
of acquaintances and friends. 

Chauncey Tompkins Secor, the 
subject of this sketch, was the son 
and only child of the last named 
Francis and was a great-grandson 
of Jonathan G. Tompkins, who was 
one of the original Regents of this 
State, serving until he resigned in 
1808, who also served as the first 
elected Supervisor of the town of 
Scarsdale, from 1783 to 1794, then 
resigning to accept the position of 
County Judge, an appointive office. 
The next Tompkins of whom we 
have record as having served in the 
office of Supervisor of Scarsdale was 
Caleb Tompkins, in the years 1798 
to 1808, and again in 1822. The 
first of the Secor ancestors men- 
tioned as having held the office of 
Supervisor, is James Secor, a son of 
a Secor who had become a tenant of 
the Heathcote family, who owned 
most of the old manor of Scarsdale; 
James Secor married a daughter of 
Jonathan G. Tompkins, and thereby 



became grandfather of Chauncey T. 
Secor; grandfather Sccor served as 
Supervisor from 1808 to 1812, when 
he was succeeded liy lOnoch Tomp- 
kins, of the same family of tnat 
name, which, as the history of the 
town sliows, gave Scarsdale many 
able men to serve it as Supervisors, 
besides giving to the State a Gov- 
ernor, in 1807, and the Nation a 
Vice-President, in 1817-21, in the 
person of Daniel D. Tompkins, who 
was a brother of Chauncey T. Secor's 

The office of Supervisor from the 
year 1822 to 1847 was held by others 
than immediate members of the 
Tompkins family; in 1847 Jonathan 
G. Tompkins was again elected and 
served two years; then, in the year 
1849, Francis Secor, father of the 
subject of this sketch was elected 
Supervisor; he served during the 
years 1849, 1851, 1853 to 1862, 
1863 to 1867, 1868 to 1879. 

For many years Chauncey T. 
Secor, the subject of this sketch, 
served as Justice of the Peace. 

Four years later the son suc- 
ceeded the father as Supervisor, 
Chauncey T. Secor being elected in 
the year 1883, and served continu- 
ously until 1912. Four times he 
was elected Chairman of the Board 
of Supervisors, in the years 1893-4, 
1897-8, 1898-9, 1905-6. 

His happy and genial traits of 
character, his patience and cheerful- 
ness, the utter lack of worry and 
fretfulness in his disposition, as 
well as his calm and equable tem- 
perament made him a most popular 
and successful presiding officer over 
that important body. 

At the termination of his last, 
term, his last term because he de- 
clined to serve longer, he and his 
ancestors had served the town of 
Scarsdale, as Supervisor, for about 
one hundred years, and the service 
had been as faithful and honest as 
it had been long. 

Prior to his final retirement, 
Chaimcey T. Secor frequently ex- 
pressed a desire to relinquish office 
liolfling and to make way for a new 
man; he thought it but just that 
opportunity he civen to another to 
fill an ofTicp thnt hnd been held by 
men so di-itinirui«hod in their time 
as tho-e in that township. Hi< ox- 
pressed purpose to withdraw and be 

no longer a candidate for the office 
of Supervisor, found answer in his 
being made the unanimous nominee 
of all political parties and in his 
unanimous re-election. 

He was one of the most punctual 
members at sessions of the Board 
of Supervisors, every day found him 
in his seat, which he modestly 
selected at the rear of the hall. He 
ever attended carefully to business 
under consideration, and in the in- 
terest of his town, as well as of 
the county at large, he questioned 
with judgment e.xpenditures of pub- 
lic monies and ever urged economy 
where economy served best interests. 
His straight-forward manner, his 
close attention to business and his 
constant endeavors to enhance the 
thrift of the county, won for him 
the confidence and respect of all 
who knew him. This confidence 
suggested his appointment as chair- 
man of the Supervisors committee 
designated to spend several hundred 
thousands of dollars in constructing 
recent additions to the County Court 
House in White Plains. His being 
at the head of so important a com- 
mittee was considered sufficient 
guarantee of satisfaction as to work 
performed. When this work of 
construction was completed, and 
accepted with thanks by the Board 
of Super\'isors, Supervisor Secor ex- 
pressed himself as being content and 
willing to relinquish to one of the 
many able men of his town the office 
held so long by himself and rela- 
tives. To his retirement he could 
not get unanimous consent; his 
constituents knew him for a man of 
deeds rather than words — a man of 
work rather than of theories — a 
man of facts and not of fancies; 
alive to the public interests, indus- 
trious in advancing them, and free 
from suspicion. In face of this, it 
is not strange that his retirement 
from the service of his native town 
was generally regretted. 

The Board of Supervisors, on De- 
cember 27, 1911, passed preambles 
and resolutions, to wit : Whereas, 
Chauncey T. Secor saw fit to refuse 
a rennmination to the office of Su- 
pervisor, and his term therefore will 
expire on the thirty-first day of De- 
cember, 1911; and, whereas, this 
Boanl recognizes the valued service 
rerdered to the Town of Scarsdale 



and County of Westchester through 
these many years, and realizes the 
loss of an honest and efficient pub- 
lic official in his retirement, there- 
fore be it 

Eesolved, that to Chauneey T. Se- 
sor, who has served twenty-eight 
years as Supervisor of the Town of 
Scarsdale, this Board desires to 
convey an expression of its sincere 
appreciation and regard for the hon- 
est, efficient and untiring service 
that he has rendered as a member 
of this Board, and particularly for 
the fairness, courtesy, ability, and 
wise counsel as a chairman of this 

On the evening of January 16, 
1912, an unusual and notable 
gathering of citizens of the township 
of Scarsdale took place in the local 
school house, the purpose being to 
present a testimonial from an appre- 
ciating constituency to the retiring 
Supervisor, Chauneey T. Secor — the 
testimonial being in the shape of 
handsomely engrossed resolutions, 
expressing in well chosen words the 
gratitude of every resident appre- 
ciating the long term of public 
service of their respected townsman. 
This testimonial expressing popular 
feeling, was paid for by subscrip- 
tions raised of one dollar each — no 
sum greater than that amount being 
accepted, that all residents might 
be included in the giving and be 
priWleged to take part in the good- 
will expression. 

This gift, which came as a great 
surprise to Mr. Secor, was cherished 
as one of his greatest possessions, 
and will ever be prized by his 

Members of the Scarsdale Town 
Board passed resolutions expressing 
regret for his retirement and this 

testimonial handsomely engrossed 
was also presented to Mr. Secor. 
This Board also decided to hang a 
portrait of Mr. Secor in the Town 

Supervisor Secor was a Democrat 
of the old school, and was ever true 
to the principles of his party. 
Happy over the success of his party 
in 1912, he attended, with his whole 
family, the inauguration of Wood- 
row Wilson as President and 
Thomas R. Marshall as Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States, at Wash- 
ington, on March 4, 1913. 

Supervisor Secor was educated at 
the Alexander Institute, in WTiite 
Plains, after which he engaged 
actively in farming. On September 
2, 1896, he was married to Miss 
Henrietta Fish, daughter of William 
H. and Catherine (Sutton) Fish, of 
Scarsdale, known to each other from 
early childhood. Of this union 
there are five children now living, 
namely: Frances, Chauneey T., Jr., 
Catherine Henrietta, Herbert Lyon 
and William Watson. 

Mr. Secor died suddenly on March 
12, 1913, after a brief illness. The 
announcement of his death came as 
a great shock to his many friends 
in all parts of the county who had 
not heard of his being ill. The 
Board of Supervisors took appro- 
priate action on learning of his 
death, attended the funeral in a 
body, and presented to the family 
pertinent resolutions handsomely 

At the time of his death, and 
since organization of the corpora- 
tion, Mr. Secor was a director of 
the Citizens' Bank, of White Plains. 

Of recent date Mr. Secor and 
family were residents of White 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



{Continued from page 247, Vol. 1.) 

The town of Somers is situated in the northern part of 
the County of Westchester, and is bounded on the north by 
Putnam County, easterly and southerly side by Croton River, 
and on the west by Yorktown. It was formerly a part of the 
allotment to Stephanus Van Cortlandt of Cortlandt ]\Ianor. The 
town was organized under the laws of the State of New York 
in 1788, and named Stephenstown in honor of Stephen Van 
Cortlandt, the principal proprietor. The town's population in 
1910 was 1,228. 

The town is well adapted to agriculture. Its rolling, sandy 
and clay ridge being diversified by numerous fertile valleys; 
Croton River valley being on the east and southern part; and 
Museoot River and Plum Brook cutting through the central 
and western parts of the town, making it a well-watered town. 

The town contains a number of small unincorporated villages, 
notably,— Somers Town Plain, AYest Somers, Somers Centre and 
Baldwin Place. 

One of the first country banks in the County was established 
here in 1829, having a capital of $111,000, namely, the old 
"Farmers & Drovers National Bank," which passed out of 
existence only a few years ago. The notes of this bank were 
always redeemed at par. 

Somers Town Plain and vicinity was in the early days 
quite a cattle market; through it were driven great droves of 
cattle on their way to the city of New York. ]\Iuch trading was 
done here between the drovers and the surrounding farmers in 
cattle and sheep. As many as five thousand head of cattle in 
one season passed through this village in such droves. 

Much of the old characteristics of Somers Town still prevails 
there. Recently, however, a Catholic Protectory has established 
itself at Somers Centre, which was formerly Teeds' Corners, 
and the name since then has been changed to Lincolndale. 

The growth and prosperity of the town, as well as the pro- 
prietorship of most of it, has been brought about and vested in 
the old families, noticeably of which are, the Baileys, Crains, 
Greens, Browns, Finches, Todds, Tompkins, Teeds, Whitlocks, 
Bedells, Nelsons, Barretts, Sejinours, Carpenters and Hallocks. 


The town was, during all the early struggles of the countr)% 
neutral ground, and no general historical event took place 
within its limits. 

Enoch Crosby, the famous American spy, of Revolutionary 
times, came here to get his wife ; he married a Bailey, and the 
last of her mortal remains rest now in the local Bailey family 
burial plot. 

In 1808, the name of the town was changed to that of Somers 
in honor of the American patriot, Captain Somers. 

The captain was a young, brave and dashing officer in the 
United States Navy attached to the squadron that was engaged 
in warfare on the Turkish fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, that 
was at least fostering piratical expeditions from north of 

After a severe encounter between the United States Squadron 
and the Turkish fleet off Tripoli, the Turkish armament with- 
drew in the harbor of Tripoli, and no effort on the part of the 
American commanders would entice them to renew the struggle. 
That evening a vessel was filled with combustibles, and explo- 
sives, and Captain Somers and a few picked men, including 
Lieutenant Wadsworth, volunteered to navigate it across the 
mole to the midst of the Turkish fleet, and then set fire to the 
train and escape in the vessel's boat as best they could. They 
were accompanied by the United States fleet as far as was deemed 
practicable, then unaccompanied, the few fated souls started out 
on their doomed journey. The vessel passed from sight and 
hearing of the American War vessels, and shortly after crossing 
the bar, the Turkish battery opened fire, presumably on the vessel ; 
in a few moments there occurred a terrific explosion that lit up 
the heavens and caused a bright glare over the sea for miles; 
then all was darkness. The war vessels remained at their posts 
on watch for the possible return of the brave men, and con- 
tinued their vigil long after daylight, even to the middle of the 
next day, hoping for a possible return. But these young heroes 
were never again heard of, though they will ever be to memory 

In the year 1815 Hachalias Bailey brought to Somers Town 
Plain the first elephant '(Old Bet) that was imported to America. 
This event was the nucleus of the American show business. 
Here annually was housed in the winter time the then famous 
menagerie known as ''The June, Angevine Van Amburgh and 
Titus Polvtechnic Institute." 


William Bailey, of Somers, gives us facts relative to the 
" introduction, of the first living elephant," by a member of the 
Bailey family, some of whom have in recent years become great 
show people. 

In 1815, Hachalias Bailey, then keeper of the "Old Bull Head 
Hotel," at 23d Street and 3d Avenue, New York city, heard of 
the incoming of an African elephant. To advertise his business 
somewhat, he purchased it and had it driven along the highways 
after dark to Somerg Town Plain, where she was first exhibited 
in a barn. Afterward, she was driven about the County and 
exhibited in barns near villages. (Her itinerancy always being 
at night.) So successful was the enterprise, that her owner 
determined to show her through the State of Connecticut. The 
people of that State, learning of its intended visit, became much 
excited over the sacrilegious display of shows in their midst, 
determined to prevent such a profane proceeding. A few pious 
enthusiastic objectors, to emphasize their opposition, armed them- 
selves with muskets and secreted themselves in an old mill situ- 
ated a few miles within the State, and awaited the coming of 
the offending yet innocent elephant. On the elephant's reaching 
the front of the mill a signal was given and there followed the 
fatal firings into the body of the poor creature, bringing her to 
the groimd, where she died in great agony in an hour or two. 

About the year 1820, was built the then famous Elephant 
Hotel at Somers Town Plain, which contains a spacious ball- 
room, and which during its continuance as a public house down 
to a recent period, was the scene of annual social events patron- 
ized by the best people of upper Westchester County. On the 
village "Green" about the year 1825, a granite monument was 
erected which is still standing surmounted hy a miniature ele- 
phant commemorating the death of "Old Bet." 

Somers Town Plain received its severest blow when, in 1825, 
it wa.s visited by cholera, and nearly one-half of the people were 
swept, away by its ravages. 

One evening in the summer of that year, on the arrival of the 
stage from Danbury, a passenger was found to be seriously ill. 
In the course of an hour or two it was discovered that he had 
Asiatic cholera. He was immediately quarantined in a vacant 
house in the village, and in a day or two died with this dreaded 
disease, which at that time assumed the most malignant form. 

The bedding on which the man died was burned in the yard 
back of the house. The smoke from the fire slowly drifted up 



I AC' '• 

F .»*.*' 

rri 1. i? 



the main street of the village and entered the open doors and 
windows of houses. A few, on the smoke's approach, closed their 
windows and doors, they alone escaped. All the others were 
taken with the disease and died. 

One of the pathetic instances connected with this terrible visi- 
tation was the fact that a man by the name of Barrett acted as 
nurse for every stricken person, also as undertaker and grave 
digger, and the next morning after he had buried the last victim, 
he called to a neighbor, at four o'clock in the morning, and told 
him he too was attacked by the disease, and at ten o'clock the 
same morning he died, alone and unattended. 

Localities in this town are Somers, Somers Centre or Lincoln- 
dale, Mahopac, Baldwin Place, Muscoot Reservoir and West 

The population of the to\^Ti is given as 1,997 in 1830 ; in 1835, 
1,900; in 1840, 2,082; in 1845, 1,761; in 1850, 1,722; in 1855, 
1,744; in 1860, 2,012; in 1865, 1,695; in 1870, 1,721; in 1875, 
1,631; in 1880, 1,630; in 1890, 1,897; in 1892, 1,743; in 1900, 
1,338; in 1905, 1,175; in 1910, 1,228. 

Biographical Sketches. 


George Turner, Supervisor of the 
Town of Somers, former Justice of 
the Peace, etc., was born in the town 
he now represents in the county 
Legislature, at Somers Center, on 
January 10, 1874, a son of Augustus 
and Julia (Teed) Turner. 

He was educated in private schools 
and in the Chappaqua Mountain In- 
stitute. He spent many of his best 
days on his father's farm, and to- 
day he is proud to say he is a 

His present place of residence is 
Lincolndale, formerly Somers Centre. 

At an early age he began taking 
an active interest in polities, attach- 
ing himself to the Democratic party. 
When only twenty-four years of age 
he was elected a Justice of the 

Peace of his town, and when his 
term of office had expired he was re- 
elected, serving from 1898 to 1907, 
In 1907 he was elected Supervisor, 
and was re-elected Supervisor in 
1909, and again in 1911 to serve until 
1914. He is one of the youngest 
members in the County Board of 
Supervisors and one of its most use- 
ful members, always on the alert to 
serve the best interests of his town. 

Mr. Turner is of the most genial 
nature, which tends to make him 
popular with his associates. He be- 
longs to several associations, both 
fraternal and social, among them 
being the Peekskill Lodge of Elks, 
No. 744, the National Democratic 
Club of New York city, and the 
Westchester Chamber of Commerce, 
the Bedford Farmer's Club. 

Mr. Turner is unmarried. 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



(Continued from page 249, I'oi. 1.) 

This township was formed in 1725, by act of the General 
Assembly, when it was known as the White Plains Precinct. 
The land upon which it is founded was purchased from the 
Indians, in 1683, over which the Chief Orawaupum ruled. The 
precinct of AVhite Plains was originally a part of the town of 
Rye and belonged to the manor of Scarsdale. It was created a 
town on March 7, 1788. 

In 1759, by act of the General Assembly, White Plains was 
made the "Shire Town" of the County, and it has remained 
the County-seat ever since. 

This town holds a prominent place in the County's history— 
it was ever in the midst of "a scene of strife" during the Revo- 
lutionary War period. 

In the spring of 1775, when news came of the battles of Lex- 
ington and Concord, the whole town was aroused, and people 
took sides, for or against the King. The indignant patriotic 
citizens assembled at Oakley's tavern, opposite the Court House, 
for the purpose of giving expression to their feelings. Col. 
Lewis Morris presided over the meeting. The more conserva- 
tive citizens, who did not want to appear disloyal, gathered at 
Capt. Hatfield's tavern, not far distant. At the patriots' meet- 
ing strong resolutions were adopted denouncing the course 
Parliament had pursued in opposing the English subjects in 
America; advocated immediate separation and armed revolu- 
tion, and appointed deputies to meet the deputies from other 
counties at New York, to elect delegates to the first Continental 
Congress, to convene in Philadelphia. The second gathering at 
Hatfield's tavern adopted a protest against warlike action on 
part of their neighbors, and adjourned singing, "God Save 
Great George, our King." 

In this way White Plains, in fact the whole County, was com- 
mitted to the patriotic cause in the Revolution. 

Here was established the headquarters of the Committee of 
Public Safety, over which John Jay and Pierre Van Cortlandt 

Battle Hill, or Chatterton Hill, where the Battle of White 
Plains was fought on October 28, 1776, is in the village of 
White Plains. 


In this town the State was given birth, after the Declara- 
tion of Independence had been publicly read and pub- 
lished broadcast, "with beat of drum at White Plains," as 
directed by Congress. Members attending the Convention, to 
assist in the State's formation, came on horseback, led by Pierre 
Van Cortlandt, of this County, its president. ' ' The members on 
horseback were called to order and business began." 

At the time of Major Andre's capture the command of the 
traitor Arnold extended to and included this town. 

The first Masonic Lodge holding meetings in the town met 
here in latter part of 1799 ; when Huguenot Lodge, No. 49, of 
New Rochelle, was privileged to meet here on stated dates. 
Meetings were held at the home of Joseph Hatfield. Local 
Masonic ceremonies were held at the Court House on February 
22, 1800, to pay honor to the memory of General Washington, 
recently President, who had just died. 

The Harlem Railroad, running to White Plains, was completed 
on October 26, 1837, a single track road. In 1903 the road was 
double tracked as far as Mount Kisco, and in 1905 double tracks 
were laid from the latter place to Brewsters. 

The town's population shows remarkable growth; from one 
census enumeration to the next, the population had doubled. 
For statement of population of town prior to 1910, see volume 1, 
page 249. 

The town's population in 1910 was 15,045; the population of 
White Plains village (including a portion of the town of Green- 
burgh), 15,949. The latter is claimed to be the largest village 
in the State, and the town is credited with having some of the 
finest and most costly private residences. 

The first State Road (No. 1) in this County, built from 
White Plains village to Kensico Lake, in North Castle, and 
beyond, sixteen miles long, was constructed in 1901. 

The estate of the late Whitelaw Reid, United States Ambas- 
sador to Great Britain, consisting of 750 acres, lies partly in 
this town and partly in town of Harrison. 

White Plains has many newspapers, which is evidence of the 
intelligence of its people:— T^e Eastern State Journal, the West- 
chester News, the Westchester County Reporter (weekly and 
daily), the Argus (weekly and daily), and the Daily Record— 
all good, up-to-date journals. 

The organization of local Military Company L, of the 10th 
Regiment (49th Separate Company) was completed in 1907; 


the date it was nmstored in being May 28 of that year. The 
membership then being 64. Ralph M. Glover was captain; 
Hiram D. Rogers, first lieutenant, and Frederick W. Cobb, 
second lieutenant. 

The village of White Plains contains the Court House and 
other County buildings, Bloomingdale Asylum, and various well- 
known incorporated institutions. 

The late Supreme Court Justice Jackson 0. Dykman, of this 
town, was the author of special magazine article entitled "The 
Last Twelve Days of Major Andre," published in 1889. 

Lewis C. Piatt Sr., of this town, was the first Surrogate of the 
County, and served nine years as Supervisor of White Plains, 
and belonged to a family noted for its loyalty to the 
American cause in the Revolutionary War period; Jonathan 
Piatt, a relative, was a member of the Committee of Public 
Safety, other relatives were officers in the patriot army. His 
sons' relatives, on maternal as well as paternal side, were offi- 
cers in the American Army, and representatives on both sides 
were members of the guard placed over Major Andre just 
before his execution. 

To Supervisor Ffarrington M. Thompson's influence is in a 
great part due the credit for the County's purchasing the site 
of the old Court House, on Broadway, the birthplace of the 
State, that it might be preserved to the State on account of its 
historic associations. Mr. Thompson was re-elected as Super- 
visor November 7, 1911, by the unprecedented majority of 507. 
The town gave nearly 400 majority to Republican candidates 
other than Supervisor. 

The local police force is an efficient one, organized on modern 

This township contains but one incorporated village— White 
Plains, incorporated in 1866, by special act of the State Legis- 

In 1909 an unsuccessful attempt was made to secure from the 
Legislature a city charter for AVhite Plains. 

Under original charter, the people elected the Village Presi- 
dent ; later, by amendment, the Board of Village Trustees was 
empowered to elect a person to act as President of the village, 
also to elect a Village Assessor, a Village Treasurer, a Collector 
of Taxes, a Police Justice, a Corporation Counsel, a Village 
Engineer, a Supi^rintendent of Highways, Police Commissioners, 
a Building Inspector and a Superintendent of Fire Alarm. 


Under amendments to the village charter, passed by the Legis- 
lature in 1911 and signed by Gov. Dix July 21, the power to 
choose certain village officials is taken from the Village Trustees, 
and bestowed upon the people, who wnll elect a President, a 
Treasurer, a Police Justice, an Assessor, a Collector of Taxes and 
Assessments and one Village Trustee for each ward, to be 
chosen at a charter election, the first on November 21, 1911. Vil- 
lage President, so elected, is empowered to name a Corporation 
Counsel, Police Commissioners, a Village Engineer, a Superin- 
tendent of Highways, a Building Inspector, and a Superintend- 
ent of Fire Alarm. 

Another amendment to the charter, passed in 1911, takes 
from the Village Trustees power to appoint Fire Commissioners 
from among their own number, and requires them to select three 
Fire Commissioners who are not Village Trustees. On the pass- 
age of this act so amended, Robert C. Brorom, a former Chief 
of the Fire Department, Frederick W. Cobb, a former Village 
Trustee, and George K. Cox, were appointed Fire Commission- 
ers. They organized August 15, 1911, with Mr. Bromm chair- 
man; Mr. Cox, secretary and Mr. Cobb, treasurer. 

That section of the town of White Plains now known as the 
village of White Plains, had a population of about 900 in the 
year 1845. 

The youngest brother of Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, George 
Washington Tompkins, w^as father of the late Joseph Warren 
Tompkins, a prominent lawyer of the town. 

As early as 1845 residents began an agitation for the or- 
ganization of a local Fire Department, but nothing further was 
accomplished than the organization of a " hand-bucket brigade, ' ' 
when necessity demanded; in December, 1851, an especially big 
fire on what is now known as South Broadway, proved the need 
of regular fire engines ; the burning of the "Orawaupum House," 
February 17, 1854, woke the people up, and one fire engine 
was bought; another large fire, on April 12, 1861, stirred the 
people to action, and on May 12, 1861, Union Hook and Lad- 
der Company No. 1, was organized. The organization of Hope 
Engine Company followed soon after; to-day White Plains has 
one of the best fire departments in the State, composed of 
several companies — and in its membership includes its best 
citizens. Owing to trouble with Village Trustees Hope Com- 
pany members disbanded July 30, 1874; for some reason Union 



Company disbanded in May, 1876. In October, 1883, the fire 
department was reorganized. 

AVhite Plains has had its share of disastrous fires, destroying 
thousands of dollars worth of property. The most recent was 
the one on February 3, 1907, that of the Meade building on 
Railroad avenue, at which John C. Cromwell, Caleb F. Under- 
hill and Charles E. Cooley, local firemen, lost their lives while 
in performance of duties; and later, in 1911, when fire de- 
stroyed nearly a block of stores and dwellings in the business 
section on East Side, opposite the Harlem Railroad station, and 
when several firemen were severely injured. 

The White Plains Hospital was established in 1893. In 1909 
it was housed in its present handsome new building. 

This towm has handsomely laid out broad streets, either paved 
or macadamized. 

Ffarrington M. Thompson was re-elected Supervisor on No- 
vember 7, 1911, for another term, which expires January 1, 
1913, He has served in this office since 1902. At the termina- 
tion of his new term he will have served a longer period in this 
position than any of his predecessors. That he has been elected 
for so many terms is an especially high honor. 

Biographical Sketches. 


Ffarrington M. Thompson, lawyer, 
Supervisor of the town oit White 
Plains, Former School Commissioner 
of the Second School Commissioner 
District, and former Justice of the 
Peace, was born in Cold Spring, 
Putnam County, N. Y., on April 14, 
1865, a son of Joseph and Selina H. 
(Glover) Thompson. Two years 
after his birth his parents removed 
to "White Plains, where he has re- 
sided ever since. 

He is a graduate of the excellent 
White Plains High School, and ever 
increasing interest in the public 
school system of the State led to his 
selection as a School Commissioner 
in 1893, and his continuance in this 
office until 1896. He still maintains 
his affection for the local district 
schools, as is manifest by his fre- 
quent offering of gold medals to in- 
spire present pupils to higher pro- 

Mr. Thompson began his public 
career when in his youth he served 

as Assistant Postmaster of White 
Plains, entering this position almost 
immediately after graduating from 
school; in this office he served seven 
years. Next we find him occupying 
the responsible office of Village 
Clerk of White Plains, serving sev- 
eral years, and on his retirement being 
commended for his efficiency by spec- 
ial resolutions adopted by the Board 
of Village Trustees. Following this 
he became School Commissioner, and 
then, from 1896 to 1903, he credit- 
ably filled the office of Justice of 
the Peace and Police Justice, the 
latter offices he resigned on being 
chosen Supervisor, to fill a vacancy 
caused by the death of William S. 
Sterling (who died April 14, on Mr. 
Thompson's birthday, 1903). In the 
fall of 1903, Mr. Thompson was the 
nominee of the Democratic party for 
the office of Supervisor; notwith- 
standing the fact that the town had 
proven repeatedly for many years 
that it was Republican, politically, 
by a good stiff majority, Mr. Thomp- 

'-^ ?ovX 





eon's popularity carried him to vic- 
tory, as it has done for each suc- 
ceeding two years ever since. Of re- 
cent years "White Plains has, at gen- 
eral elections, given between four 
and five hundred majority to Repub- 
lican candidates, but from under this 
overwhelming majority Mr. Thomp- 
son, Democrat, has come up with 
his usual smile, a victor, with a score 
of at least three hundred, which af- 
fords ample proof that the people 
of his town, regardless of political 
party affiliation want him for their 
Supervisor, believing him to be safe 
and sane. 

At the Town election held Novem- 
ber 7, 1911, Mr. Thompson repeated 
his unprecedented success of being 
elected Supervisor as a Democrat in 
a Eepublican Town, receiving 507 
majority, when Republican candi- 
dates, other than for Supervisor, were 
elected by about 400 majority. His 
new term is for 1912-13. 

For several years Mr. Thompson 
was associated with Judge William 
Popham Piatt in the practice of law; 
in 1902 after Mr. Piatt had been 
elected County Judge, this partner- 
ship was dissolved, and Mr. Thomp- 
son established business on his own 
account in White Plains, where he 
now has a very extensive and lucra- 
tive practice. His specialty in the 
law being probate, real estate and 
the settling of estates, in which 
branches of the law and practice he 
is recognized as an authority. 

As Supervisor Mr. Thompson has 
taken the initiative in the forma- 
tion of legislation benefiting his 
Town and the County at large. He 
strongly advocated the construction 
of the Bronx Parkway to run through 
the County connecting with New 
York city, and destined to add much 
to the value of real property in the 
County. The success of the project 
to secure the property in White 
Plains, formerly the site ot the old 
Court House, in which was adopted 
the first Constitution of the State, 
and hold it in the name of the State 
and County, was due principally to 
his efforts, and that there is now 
erected on this property one of the 
handsomest armories in the State, 
housing one of the finest militia 
companies, is also due to his per- 
sistent efforts. 

Mr. Thompson is a Mason of 

prominence, a member of White 
Plains Lodge, No. 473, F. and A. 
M., in which he has held high of- 
fices, beginning at the lowest; he 
was made Knight of Bethlehem 
Commandery of Mount Vernon, No. 
53, and member of Irving Chapter 
of Royal Arch Masons, of Tarry- 
town, and is now a member of Cru- 
sader Commandery of White Plains, 
and of White Plains Chapter of 
Royal Arch Masons, of White Plains, 
is a member of the Mason's Veter- 
an's Association, and is a thirty- 
second degree Mason of the New 
York Consistory and a Noble of 
the Mystic Shrine. 

Is an Elk, a member of the 
White Plains Lodge, B. P. 0. E,, a 
member of the Westchester County 
Society for the Prevention of Cru- 
elty to Children, an honorary mem- 
ber of the Eastside Hose Company 
of White Plains, and a member of 
the National Democratic Club and 
has long been identified with the 
Democratic organization of White 

Mr. Thompson is not married. 


Lewis Canfield Piatt, had the dis- 
tinction of being the first President 
of the Village of White Plains, 
elected direct by the people in re- 
cent years; was former President of 
the Board of Water Commissioners, 
former Town Clerk, and former Clerk 
in Surrogate's Court, etc. 

He was born on September 20, 
1862, in White Plains (where he has 
always resided), a son of Judge 
Lewis Canfield and Laura (Sher- 
brook Popham) Piatt. He came of 
good American revolutionary stock; 
relatives on both his paternal and 
maternal sides took important parts 
aiding the patriots in the struggle 
for American independence. He is 
a direct descendant of Jonathan 
Piatt of North Castle, who served 
his town as Supervisor in 1777, was 
a member of the Provincial Congress 
in trying times, in 1776 and 1777, 
was a member of the Convention held 
in White Plains which created 
the State of New York, and was alec 
a member of the Committee of 
Safety, a body of men for whose cap- 
ture a price had been offered by the 
British General. 

The subject of this sketch was edu- 



cateil ill public and private schools 
of his native town. He began the 
stuilv of law in the oflBce of his 

His father was the first elected 
Surrogate of this county, and from 
the fourth elected Surrogate, Owen 
T. Coffin, Mr. Piatt, Jr., received his 
first political position, that of re- 
cord clerk in the Surrogate's Court; 
this position he held from August 
7, 1887, to March 1, 1896, serving 
the last two months under Surrogate 
Silkman. Mr. Piatt resigned to de- 
vote his time to the practice of law, 
having been admitted to the bar on 
December 11, 1894. 

When only twenty-four years of 
age, in 1886, he was elected Chief 
Engineer of the White Plains Village 
Fire Department, serving during the 
years 1886-87. 

At the spring town election in 1898 
he was elected Town Clerk, which 
office he held several years. 

He next was elected a Water Com- 
missioner of the Village of White 
Plains, in 1902. He was elected 
president of the Board of Water 
Commissioners and continued as such 
officer until his retirement in 1910. 
The important part he took in suc- 
cessful endeavors to supply residents 
with pure and wholesome water was 
appreciated by his fellow citizens, 
as was shown when he was a candi- 
date for the Village Presidency. 

The first election held under the 
village charter, amended in 1911, 
permitting the electors of the village 
to vote direct for village officials, 
took place on November 21, 1911. 
This, on account of the large number 
of officials to be chosen, proved to be 
a most exciting election. Both po- 
litical parties made good nomina- 
tions, and all candidates were will- 
ing to be judged on their merits. 
The village had been carried by sev- 
eral hundred majority for Eepublican 
town candidates, excepting the Su- 
pervisor. Two weeks later the whole 
Democratic village ticket, headed by 
Mr. Piatt, candidate for President, 
was elected by good-sized majorities; 
Mr. Piatt won by 301, over John T. 
Eehill, who hail ably served twenty 
years as a Village Trustee. 

As a lawyer Mr. Piatt has a large 
practice, principally pertaining to 
Surrogates Courts, settlements of es- 
tates, etc. 

Besides being a member of the 
local Fire Department, he is a 
member of White Plains Lodge, No. 
473, F. and A. M., of White Plains 
Lodge of Elks, and of other frater- 
nal and social organizations. 

Mr. Piatt was married on June 
15, 1892, to Miss Fannie A. Arm- 
bruster, daughter of John and Eliza- 
beth Armbruster, of White Plains. 

President Piatt died, after a brief 
illness, at his home, on February 22, 
1913. His unexpected death came 
as a great shock to citizens gener- 
ally, who were anticipating his ac- 
cepting a re-election to the Village 
Presidency, a position he had filled 
so acceptably. 


John James Brown, former Presi- 
dent of the village of White Plains, 
Bronx Valley Sewer Commissioner, 
etc., was born on October 1, 1854, in 
the city of Newburgh, N. Y., a son 
of James and Mary J. (Miller) 
Brown. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of his native city and at 
the Newburgh Free Academy. 

He became a resident of this 
County in 1892, when he came to 
dwell in the village of White Plains. 

He w^as elected a member of the 
local Board of Education and served 
two terms. During the same period 
he served as a Water Commissioner 
of the village of White Plains, re- 
signing both official positions to ac- 
cept the Village Presidency. 

Was first elected Village Presi- 
dent, to succeed Samuel C. Miller, 
by the Board of Village Trustees in 
1900, and has been re-elected con- 
tinuously, excepting one year, 1909, 
up to and including 1911. 

Tn 1903 Gov. Odell appointed Mr. 
Brown as Commissioner of United 
States Funds, for Westchester 
County; this position he still retains. 

He was named a member of the 
Bronx Valley Sewer Commission in 
the act passed by the State Legis- 
lature in 1905, authorizing the con- 
struction of said sewer. 

By appointment of Supreme 
Court Justice Keogh, INfr. Brown was 
a Commissioner in Ashokan Aque- 
duct land condemnation proceedings. 

He has been for eleven years secre- 
tary of the Westchester Republican 
County Committee. 



Notwithstanding the demands of 
public business, for which he is es- 
pecially adapted, he takes plenty of 
time to attend to vast private in- 
terests which give opportunity to 
display business ability. He is gen- 
eral manager for the States of New 
York, Connecticut, Massachusetts 
and Ehode Island for the Keeley 
Institute. Was a director of the 
County Trust Company in White 
Plains, and is interested in other 
similar institutions. 

Has long been prominent in the 
Masonic order, is a member of 
White Plains Lodge, F. and A. M. ; 
a member of the Eepublican Club 
of New York city, of the Trans- 
portation Club of New York citj, 
of the Larchmont Yacht Club, and 
of the White Plains Club. 

Mr. Brown was married on Aug- 
ust 3, 1905, to Mrs. Eay Russell 
Rockwell, daughter of the late Jacob 
Voorhis, Jr., of New York city, for- 
merly Commodore of the New York 
Yacht Club. 


Ebenezer Hurd Pray Squire, a 
practicing lawyer, Village Trustee, 
acting President of the Village, a 
former Justice of the Peace, etc., of 
the town of White Plains, was born 
in the city of New York, on Novem- 
ber 13, 1861, a son of Alfred Louis 
and Mary Aims (Pray) Squire. 

WTien Mr. Squire was eight years 
of age his parents removed to White 
Plains auu took up their residence 
in the commodious stone house at 
the junction of Broadway and West- 
chester avenue, belonging to young 
Squire's maternal grandfather, 
Ebenezer H. Pray. The property 
surrounding the Pray mansion con- 
sisted of twenty acres of choice land 
in the most desirable residential lo- 
cality, which is now cut up into city 
lots on which have been built beauti- 
ful private residences; the owner of 
the mansion and land thus contrib- 
uting his share to the rapid de- 
velopment of the charming village. 
The population of White Plains in 
1869 was a little more than 3,000. 

The subject of this sketch was 
educated in the Alexander ^lilitary 
Institute. White Plains, preparatory 
to his entry into Columbia College, 
frovn which he was graduated with 

a degree or A. B., and later gradu- 
ating from the Columbia Law 
School with the degree of LL. B. 

He served his clerkship in the law 
office of Close & Robertson, where so 
many Westchester County lawyers 
secured their first instruction. He 
was admitted to practice in 1885. 

He served as a Justice of the 
Peace from January 1, 1904, to 
January 1, 1908. Although a Demo- 
crat he was elected by a large plu- 
rality in the town of White Plains, 
which was at that time Republican 
by about 250. He is secretary of 
Board of Health of the village of 
White Plains. 

On November 21, 1911, he was 
elected Village Trustee by a majority 
of 87, in a ward that had invariably 
elected Republicans to this office. 

On the death of President Piatt, 
Trustee Squire was unanimously 
chosen Acting Village President. 

In 1898, when his country called 
for volunteers to serve during the 
Spanish-American War, Mr. Squire 
forsook all things else and enlisted 
in the United States Navy as an 
" Ordinary Seaman." He, at the 
time war was aeclared, was a mem- 
ber of the New York State Naval 
Militia, and received leave of ab- 
sence to serve in the U. S. Navy. 
He served his term of enlistment, to 
the end of the war, and for merit- 
orious service was promoted to 
"Able Seaman." He is justly 
proud of his record in the Navy, and 
he deserves credit for being willing 
to serve his country in any capacity, 
even if it is not in an office bedecked 
with gold braid. He served ten 
years in the New York State Naval 
Militia before and after the Spanish 
War, and held the rank of " Gun 

When he became a candidate for 
public office his neighbors remem- 
bered the patriotic service he had 

Mr. Squire is a member of the 
Westchester County Bar Association, 
of the Society Medical Jurispu- 
dence, secretary of the Westchester 
County Historical Society, a mem- 
ber of the Columbia College Alumni 
Association, of the society of the 
Early Eighties Columbia University, 
Delta Tau Delta; a member of the 
sociefy of United Spanish War 
Veterpps. of the Columbia Unlver- 



Bity Club, of the White Plains Club, 
of the New York Association for the 
Improvement of the condition of the 
Poor, of the Society for Prevention 
of Cruelty to Children, of the So- 
ciety for Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, one of the governors of the 
^Tiite Plains Hospital, and a mem- 
ber of the B. P. O. Elks. 

Mr. Squire marriea Miss Theodora 
M. Schmid, eldest daughter of Dr. 
H. Ernest Schmid, a prominent physi- 
cian of White Plains and Westchester 
County, October 26, 1910. 


Henry Kobertson Barrett, former 
Corporation Counsel of White Plains, 
was born in the tovrn of Bedford, this 
County, on August 19, 1869, a son 
of Joseph and Emma H. (Robert- 
eon) Barrett. His early education 
was obtained in the district schools 
of his native town and in the Bed- 
ford Academy, and in the Blair 
Academy, Blairtown, N. J.; he then 
entered LaFayette College, Easton, 
Pa., from which he graduated. 

He chose law as his profession, 
and began his studies with the lead- 
ing law tirm of the County, Close & 
Robertson, in White Plains; the last 
named partner in the tirm being his 
uncle, Hon. William H. Robertson, 
who bad been County Judge and had 
held various other local. County, 
State and Federal oificcs, and was 
one of the most distinguished citi- 
zens of the County. 

On graduating with his degree, 
Mr. Barrett became managing 
clerk in the office where he had 
served as student. Shortly after the 
death of the senior member of the 
firm, which occurred in 1894, Mr. 
Barrett took the place of Mr. Close 
and became associated in business 
with his uncle, under the firm name 
of Robertson & Barrett. This part- 
nership continuing until the death 
of Judge Kobertson, on December 6, 
1898. Later ^[r. Barrett formed a 
partnership with ^I. S. Buckbee, who 
also had studied law with .Judge Rob- 
ertson, and the firm becnme known as 
that of Barrett & Buckbee, as it is 
at this writing, with offices in 
White Plains. 

The new firm virtually continuing 
the law practice of C'lope & Robert- 
son, which began in 1853, and from 
its first year to the date of its dis- 

solution, did an extensive business; 
clients coming from all directions, 
from New York city, and from the 
various sections of the County and 
State, \oung men desiring to be- 
come lawyers considered it an honor 
and suflficient compensation to be 
permitted to be connected with Close 
& Robertson's office as a student. 
There are many successful lawyers 
of the present period, not of the 
County alone, who allude with pride 
to the time when they as young men 
were students, like Mr. Barrett, 
under tuition in the office of active 
practice conducted by two such ami- 
able legal gentlemen. 

"A good student usually makes a 
good lawyer," it has been said. 
Mr. Barrett had the reputation of 
being an industrious student. As a 
lawyer, and successor of the old firm, 
he has been able to retain all that 
remains of the old business, and be- 
sides has added among numerous 
new clients many who are descend- 
ants of those who in the long-ago 
considered Close & Robertson as their 
" family barristers." 

When quite a young man, and we 
might say naturally, on account of 
associations among men of affairs, 
politics and public life appealed to 
Mr. Barrett. \Mien he reached the 
voting age he connected himself with 
the Republican party of which his 
uncle was the acknowledged leader 
;n the County. He served on the Re- 
publican Committee of the town of 
Bedford in 1898, and up to 1901, and 
for the same length of time was a 
r.iember of the Republican County 
Committee. When he removed to 
White Plains, in 1900, in response to 
requests of party friends, he be- 
came a member of the Republican 
Committee of the town of White 
Plains and a member of the County 
Committee representing that town. 
He is a personal as well as a po- 
litical friend of Hon. William L. 
Ward, the present Republican leader 
of Westchester County, who, recog- 
nizes his ability and being desirous 
of profiting by his knowledge of poli- 
tics, jiast and present, is ever ready 
to consider Mr. Barrett as an ad- 
visor as well as a friend. 

Besides being Corporation Coun- 
sel, to which position he was elected 
in the early part of 1910. Mr. Bar- 
rett is counsel to the Countv Treas- 












I , •• ^ * • V 





'., '.'■ ■: .1 7' r m: 



urer, a position held by him thirteen 
years; is counsel to the Sheriif, serv- 
ing his ninth year; is counsel to the 
Good Roads Proceedings, and luis 
been for five years; is counsel tor 
the Citizens 'Bank of White Plains; 
is counsel for the Kensico Cemetery 
Association, and legal representative 
of other corporations, realty and fin- 
ancial. He has been appointed by 
Courts as referee in matters involv- 
ing large sums of money, and has 
been associated as counsel with some 
noted litigations. He retired as Cor- 
poration Counsel January 1, 1912. 

He is director in the Citizens' 
Bank, in the Lawyers' Westchester 
Title Company, in the Westchester 
County Chamber of Commerce, in 
the Kensico Cemetery Associatici., 
and has been a trustee in the White 
Plains Home Savings Bank eight 

He is a member of the Delta 
Kappa Epsilon Fraternity, and mem- 
ber of the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks, White Plains Lodge, 
No. 535. 

Mr. Barrett was married on De- 
cember 30, 1900, to Miss Anna 
Parker, daughter of Benajah and 
Deborah Parker of Kingstow^n, In- 
diana. Five children blessed this 
union, viz. : Henry R., Emily, lone, 
Donald and Dorothy. 


Frederick B. Van Kleeck, Jr., 
Corporation Counsel of the Village 
of White Plains, etc., was born in 
White Plains on August 31, 1871, a 
son of Rev. Frederick B. Van 
Kleeck, D. D., and Estelle M. (Ham- 
ilton) Van Kleeck. 

His father comes from good Hol- 
land stock, his ancestry settling in 
New York city and on Long Island 
prior to 1700; his mother's people 
resided principally in Maryland. 

His father is rector of Grace 
Episcopal Church, White Plains, a 
position he has held for forty-two 
years; he recently resigned as Arch- 
deacon of the Archdeaconry of 
Westchester, comprising the counties 
of Westchester, Rockland and Put- 
nam, after a service in the latter 
oflSce of twenty-five years. 

Mr. Van Kleeck, Jr., the subject 
of this sketch, was educated at Trin- 

ity School at Tivoli on the Hudson, 
at Columbia Law School and at the 
New York Law School. 

He began the practice of law in 
1893, opening offices in his native 
town. His experience as a general 
practitioner, and his serving as 
Special Counsel of the City of New 
York in condemnation proceedings, 
particularly adapt him to fill the 
position of Corporation Counsel of 
the Village of WTiite Plains, to 
which office he was appointed on 
January 1, 1912. 

He was appointed under the 
amended village charter, which per- 
mits the President of the Village to 
select the official legal advisor. 
Prior to the passage of laws amend- 
ing the village charter, by the Legis- 
lature of 1911, the Village Trustees 
chose the Corporation Counsel. Mr. 
Van Kleeck was at one time con- 
nected with the office of Harry T. 
Dykman, who was formerly Corpora- 
tion Counsel of the Village. 

Mr. Van Kleeck is a veteran of the 
Spanish-American War. He served 
in the 12th New York Volunteer In- 
fantry, enlisting as a private and 
coming home as a commissioned offi- 
cer, promoted for efficient service in 
the field. 

He is Past Master of the White 
Plains Lodge, F. and A. M,, No. 
473; is a member of the West- 
chester County Bar Association, a 
director in the Westchester County 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Children, a member of the execu- 
tive committee of the Democratic 
County Committee, president of the 
White Plains Democratic Club, and 
a member of the White Plains Club. 

Mr. Van Kleeck was married on 
March 30, 1901, to Miss Alice 
Penner, daughter of William H. 
Penner of Little Falls, N. Y. Of 
this union there are three children, 
Alice Hamilton, aged eight years; 
Frederick B., Ill, aged five years, 
and Susan Julia Mayer, aged three 


Henry Ernest Schmid was born in 
Thuringia, Province of Saxony of the 
Kingdom of Prussia on May 1, 1834. 
His parents were both natives of the 
Kingdom of Saxony. His father, 
like many of his relatives, was a 
publisher. He intended his son for 



the same career and gave him a first- 
class education for that purpose. He 
was first taught by private tutor at 
home, then he entered the Latin Col- 
lege (Lateinische Schule) which was 
a part of the great institution called 
Franke 's Waisenhaus, in the city of 
Halle, whose university has always 
been made famous by scores of dis- 
tinguished names. He then began a 
higher literary course but his father 
in publishing a weekly paper unfor- 
tunately incurred the censure of the 
government and by this was changed 
the whole tenor of the son's life, 
who then came to this country in 
18.53. Soon after went to Virginia 
where he became engaged as teacher 
in the public schools. Being situated 
near Winchester and having a pre- 
dilection for medicine he began the 
study of medicine at the ' ' surgical 
school" then existing there — after 
which he attended the medical de- 
partment of the University of Vir- 
ginia at Charlottesville, and finally 
graduated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in Philadelphia. He then 
passed examination for entrance in 
the navy but never entered there, 
having concluded to go to Japan as 
a medical missionary. He resided at 
Nagasaki till 1862 where he estab- 
lished a small hospital in a Biiddliist 
temple and had a large practice 
amongst the natives. His health fail- 
ing he accepted the invitation of the 
commander of an English surveying 
fleet to go with him through the 
inland sea as interpreter and later 
on to accompany him on his voyage 
home to England through Corea, 
Northern China, Java and Sumatra. 
He made extensive tours in Southern 
Africa, the ship having narrowly 
escaped destruction by a typhoon, 
which forced going to Simons Bay 
in South Africa for repairs. After 
this he visited St. Helena — the 
Azores and landed at Portsmouth, 
England. He returned to America 
and began practice of medicine at 
"V\Tiite Plains where he lives the 
7>resent time. While in .Japan he 
made collections of snakes for the 
Smithsonian Institution in Washing- 

He was made a member of the 
Amorican Oriental Society and of the 
American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. He became a 
member of many New York societiea. 

He was president of the board of 
education for 30 years, of the board 
of health for many years, of the Free 
rublie Library he is still president, 
and of the Westchester Historical 
Society. He is member of the West- 
chester County Miedieal of the State 
Medical, of the American Medical 
Association, of the Psychological So- 
ciety, of the Medical Jurisprudence 
Society, he is a trustee of the New 
York Society for Widows and Or- 
phans of Medical Men, he is chief 
of the White Plains Hospital, con- 
sultant to the county branch of the 
New York Orthopedical Hospital. 
He started St. Vincent's Retreat for 
the Insane at Harrison and was solo 
physician for a number of years, and 
is still the consultant. He is attend- 
ant to Caroline Rest at Hartsdale 
and Presbyterian Rest at White 

He has always been an independent 
Democrat. He is a Mason, a mem- 
ber of the Episcopal church, has 
been married twice, first wife a 
daughter of Eugene L. Preud'homme 
and his present wife a daughter of 
Edward G. Sutherland who owneil the 
Eastern State Journal and was active 
in political life. He has three 
daughters, the oldest of whom is 
married to Mr. E. P. H. Squire the 
present President of the village. 


Benoni Piatt, former Clerk to the 
Surrogate's Court, former Deputy 
County Clerk, etc., was born in the 
town of Scarsdale, this county, on 
August 22, 1857, a son of Judge 
Lewis Canfield and Laura (Sher- 
brook Popham) Piatt. He is elder 
brother of County Judge William 
Popham Piatt and of Hon. Lewis C. 
Piatt, President of the village of 
White Plains. 

His ancestors were of the sturdy 
stock which produced men of charac- 
ter and force. They were very con- 
spicuously identified with the early 
history of this nation. Relatives, on 
both his paternal and his maternal 
sides, served during the Revolution; 
from a private in the ranks to of- 
ficers in command. 

Wlien he was one year old his 
parents removed from Scarsdale to 
the adjoining town of White Plains, 
and the latter place has been his 
place of residence since. 



He is a graduate of the excellent 
public schools of White Plaius. 

Even before arriving at the re- 
quired age of a native born elector, 
he took active interest in public af- 
fairs, and became a leader among 
young men. Possessing open and 
courteous manners, and most gener- 
ous impulses — a man of ability and 
strong common sense, his irreproach- 
able character and searching insight 
into human nature, his willingness 
to extend a courteous greeting to 
all, whether in exalted or humble 
station, in his intercourse with his 
fellow citizens, insured for him en- 
viable popularity and made friends 
for him everywhere. 

His father was the first elected 
Surrogate of this county and a Dem- 
ocrat; quite naturally, the son, like 
father, took kindly to politics, 
though disinclined to accept nomi- 
nation for election to public office. 
In fact, it was only on the persist- 
ent urging of Surrogate Coffin, a 
close friend of the young man's 
father, that the subject of this 
sketch consented to accept, in 1881, 
a clerkship in the Surrogate's office. 
In those days the work of that of- 
fice was not divided among so many 
clerks as now, as there was not so 
much to do, but the one clerk, then 
serving in many capacities, had his 
time fully occupied attending to 
important duties. That young Piatt 
performed his various duties well 
and fully was openly attested by the 
Surrogate. With Surrogate CoflBji 
he remained until 1895, when the 
Surrogate retired from office after 
serving twenty-four years. On John 
M. Digney becoming County Clerk, 
in 1886, he offered the position of 
Deputy County Clerk to Mr. Piatt, 
and the latter accepted, holding the 
office ten years and until Leverett 
F. Crumb, a Republican, succeeded 
Mr. Digney. 

Next, Mr. Piatt, capable and ex- 
perienced, became manager of the 
Westchester County Branch of the 
Lawvers' Title Company of New 

Some years ago Mr. Piatt heeded 
the call, "Back to the Farm," and 
became possessed of one of the 
finest farms in the county, and de- 
voted what time he could spare from 
public duties to the occupation of 
"a gentleman farmer." As a raiser 

of prize stock he became well 
known, and his ability as an expert 
judge of high grade horses and cat- 
tle was unquestioned. 

During recent years he has fre- 
quently served as a member of com- 
missions appointed by the State Su- 
preme Court in land condemnation 
proceedings, notably on commissions 
appointed to fix value of various 
properties taken to extend the New 
York city water supply. His ex- 
perience, acquired in connection with 
laud values during discharge of pub- 
lic and private duties, for many 
years, fully equipped him for ser- 
vice on these commissions, and, ow- 
ing to experience, his services were 
in demand as an official appraiser. 

He is a member of various socie- 
ties, prominent among them being 
the Odd Fellows, a member of 
Guiding Star Encampment of Mount 
Vernon, and Hebron Lodge No. 229, 
of White Plains, and of the Benevo- 
lent and Protective Order of Elks. 

Mr. Piatt was married on April 
15, 1903, to Miss Carrie Elizabeth, 
daughter of Harvey Handon and 
Harriett Putney Hoffman, of Bel- 
mont, N. Y. 


Frank Joseph Lamb, lawyer, Police 
Justice, former Town Clerk, etc., was 
born July 21, 1877, in White Plains, 
a son of Michael and Mary (Don- 
nelly) Lamb. 

His education was obtained at the 
common school; he made better use 
of his advantages than many others 
who have had better facilities for 
acquiring a good education. During 
his boyhood he was studious and re- 
served, reading much of literature 
that is wholesome and lasting, being 
far in advance of most boys of his 
age. The profession of law at- 
tracted him and to that he turned 
on leaving the district school ; in 
1903 he graduated from the New 
York Law School, and was imme- 
diately admitted to practice, open- 
ing a law office on his own account 
at the County-seat. 

In 19u5 he was elected Town Clerk 
of the town of ^Vhite Plains, in a 
year when but few candidates on his 
party ticket proved successful. To 
this position he was re-elected, and 
in all served four years, declining a 



re-election, believing that his in- 
creasing law jiractico should be given 
his umlivided attention. He is one 
of the youngest members of tne 
County bar, and an orator of ac- 
knowledged ability. 

He was chosen Police Justice, the 
first elected direct by the people, by 
the great majority of 756, on No- 
vember 21, 19il. 

He is a member of White Plains 
Lodge, No, 532, B. P. O. Elks, a 
member of the White Plains Club, 
member of the \^Tiite Plains Council, 
Knights of Columbus, a member 
of the Heptasophs Society of Medi- 
cal Jurisprudence, a member of 
the Westchester County Bar Asso- 
ciation, and a member of the local 
Owl Bowling Club. 

Mr. Lamb was married on May 8, 
1907, to Miss Marguerite A. Bleakie 
of Boston, Mass. Two children have 
been born to them : Francis B., born 
March 1, 1908, and Margaret, born 
April 20, 1909. 

They reside on Miller place. White 


Charles Louis Prigge, Treasurer of 
the Village of White Plains, Bank 
Cashier, etc., was born in WTiite 
Plains, in this county, on October 
18, 1877, a son of John C. L. and 
Louise (Fenkhouse) Prigge. 

He was educated in the public 
schools of his native town; he was 
a studious lad and ambitious to 
earn the good will of those older 
than himself. 

He secured employment in a bank, 
his best recommendation being his 
known integrity which w-as accepted 
as a guarantee that he would dis- 
charge his duties faithfully and hon- 

From the humblest place he arose 
to the position of bank cashier; this 
position he now holds in the First 
National Bank of White Plains a 
leading financial institution of the 

Though " not of the political 
faith," ^fr. Prigge was chosen by 
the Republican majority in the Board 
of Village Trustees, in 1909, as Vil- 
lage Treasurer. Of the high esti- 
mate in which his character is held 
as a citizen and a man by those who 
know him best, no stronger assur- 
ance could be given than this vote. 

In the village election, held in 
November, 1911, when the Village 
Treasurer, in accordance with the 
amended village charter, was chosen 
direct by vote of the people, Mr. 
Prigge was placed in nomination for 
Village Treasurer by the Democratic 
party, to run against a popular op- 
ponent. His election was secured by 
several hundred majority. His large 
majority was attributed in part to 
the desire that the office be not made 
a partisan one, many Republicans 
maintaining that his name should 
have been placed also upon the Re- 
publican ticket. 

His term of office commenced 
January 1, 1912, to end January 1, 

Mr. Prigge is a prominent member 
of the Masonic order and is con- 
nected with its several branches; be- 
longs to the local lodge F. and A. 
M., to various lodges in New York 
city, is a Knight Templar, a Shriner, 
etc., besides having reached the ex- 
alted rank of 32d degree Mason. Has 
been a member of the local Fire 
Department twelve years; connected 
with Union Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany; is a Royal Arcanumite, and 
member of other organizations, fra- 
ternal and social. 

Mr. Prigge was married on June 
3, 1903, to Miss Mabel Taylor, 
daughter of Moses W. and Jane 
(Gibson) Taylor, of Unionville, this 
county. Of this marriage there are 
three children, Charles Russell, bom 
1904; Jean Gibson, born 1907, and 
Alan Taylor, born -1909, 


William Piorson Fiero, lawyer, 
State Senator, former First Assistant 
United States Attorney, etc., was 
born in Catskill, N. Y., in 1848. 

He is son of Joshua Fiero, who 
served two terms as Member of As- 
sembly and then, in 1860, was elected 
a State Senator in the same district 
(the Catskill district, then the 10th) 
now represented by his son, and be- 
came President pro tem of the Sen- 
ate. The present Senator Fiero 'a 
maternal grandfather, William Pier- 
son, was a relative of Abraham Pier- 
son, the first President of Yale Col- 
lege, and was a Member of Assem- 
bly from Greene County in 1840. 

Senator Fiero was admitted to the 



Bar at Albany in 1870, and has con- 
tinuously practiced his profession 
forty years in State and National 
Courts, with offices in New York 
city and White Plains. 

The only public office he ever held, 
previous to this one, was that of First 
Assistant United States Attorney in 
New York city, from 1878 to 1883; 
and during that time he represented 
the United States in many promi- 
nent jury trials and in appeals in 
the United States Supreme Court in 
many important and precedent es- 
tablishing cases. He prepared and 
procured the enactment of amend- 
ments to the navigation laws for the 
better protection of life and property 
in the waters of the Unitel States; 
the act establishing a National 
prison, and several of the most im- 
portant amendments to the Internal 
Bevenue statutes. 

Senator Fiero has a wide reputa- 
tion as a pleasing public speaker, 
and for the past thirty-five years has 
made political speeches during State 
and National campaigns in this and 
other States; after the re-election of 
President Cleveland, in 1892, he de- 
clined the offer of a United States 

He became a resident of White 
Plains in the year 1890, and dwelt in 
residence he owned, situated on the 
site of former County Court House, 
in which the State Convention met, 
in 1776, and adopted the first State 
Constitution, and created the State 
of New York. Here Mr. Fiero and 
family resided until 1908, when the 
County of Westchester bought the 
property to preserve it on account 
of its historic value. 

In the fall of 1904 he was nomi- 
nated for District Attorney of West- 
chester County; he polled a large 
vote, leading other candidates on the 
ticket, but failed of election in a 
strong Eepublican County. 

He was the orator in "Home 
Week" exercises in his native county 
of Greene, held at Catskill, in 1910. 

In the same year he was asked to 
accept the Democratic nomination for 
State Senator, to represent the 27th 
Senate District, composed of the 
counties of Ulster and Greene. He 
was elected by a handsome majority, 
in a district that had previously been 
strongly Eepublican. 

Senator Fiero in getting desired 

legislation aided Westchester County 

He died quite unexpectedly, on 
October 28, 1912, and was buried 
from the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
Ernest Carpenter, in White Plains. 
He is survived by his widow, twu 
sons and three daughters. 


Ealph Murray Glover, Mortgage 
Tax Deputy for Westchester County, 
and Captain 49th Separate Company, 
N, G., N. Y., was born on February 
7, 1863, in the city of New York, a 
son of Charles S. and Sarah C. 
(Hendrick) Glover, representatives 
of old Westchester County families. 

He was educated in the public 
schools of New York city and 
trained for a commercial life. When 
he was quite young his parents be- 
came residents of Mount Vernon, in 
this County. After being engaged 
many years at business in New York 
city. Captain Glover accepted a posi- 
tion as a deputy in the Westchester 
County Eegister's office, removing 
with his family to White Plains, the 
County-seat. In 1909 he was ap- 
pointed by Edward B. Kear, County 
Eegister, to his present official posi- 
tion, as Mortgage-Tax Deputy in the 
Eegister's office. 

At the time the Spanish-American 
War was declared, in 1898, Mr. 
Glover had been several years a mem- 
ber of the Eleventh Separate Com- 
pany, National Guard, State of New 
York, and on enlisting for the war 
was mustered in as First Lieutenant 
of Company " K," 202nd INew York 
Vol. Infty. His regiment was the 
first American regiment to enter the 
city of Havana, Cuba. During his 
service in this war period he was 
appointed Provost-Marshal for the 
city of Athens, Ga., and later was 
appointed Overseer of the Poor for 
the Province of Puia Del Eio, Cuba, 
where he gave to the starving 
Cubans, in the name of the United 
States Government, over 600,000 ra- 
tions. He was mustered out of the 
service, with his regiment, at Savan- 
nah, Ga., at the termination of his 

When it was decided to organize 
the sturdy young men of the County- 
seat into a State Militia company 
Governor Hughes decided upon Lien- 



tenant Glover as a proper person to 
command the new company; the lat- 
ter 's excellent military record in 
tluencing the choice. The new Com- 
pany became known as the 49th Sep- 
arate Comjjany. 

To Captain Glover's untiring ef- 
forts, to a great degree, is due the 
fact that White Plains has to-day 
one of the best drilled Militia Com- 
panies in the State. 

Captain Glover enlisted as a pri- 
vate in the eleventh Separate Com- 
pany, N. G., N. Y., at Mount Ver- 
non, in 188i!, and has advanced in 
every grade up to his present posi- 
tion as Captain. 

He has been many years an active 
Mason, being a member of White 
Plains Lodge, F. and A. M., and is 
a member of the association of Span- 
ish-American War Veterans. 

Captain Glover was married on 
December 17, 1888, to Miss Jennie 
S. Bennett, daughter of Judge John 
A. and Jennie Bennett of New York 
city. Of this union there is one son, 
Ealph M. Glover, Jr., aged twenty 


Freeman Hancock Merritt, Post- 
master, White Plains, was born on 
December 21, 1862, at Greenwich, 
Conn., a son of John 0. Merritt. His 
grandfather on his father's side was 
William Merritt, of English descent; 
his grandmother on his father's 
side was Jane Ann Hancock, a des- 
cendant of the Holland Dutch fam- 
ily of V^on Torn; his grandfather on 
his mother's side was William 
Parker, who with his family were 
among the first settlers of the town 
of Rye, and he a successful New 
York city business man of the old 
days; his grandmother on his 
mother's side was Deborah Havi- 
land, of a family equally prominent 
among the old settlers of the town 
of Rye. 

When Mr. Merritt was quite young 
his parents removed to Port Ches- 
ter, in this County, whore they yet 
reside. He attended jmblic school, 
was a private pupil of the late Pro- 
fessor George W. Smith (at one 
period a School Commissioner of the 
County), and later attended a mili- 
tary academy. 

In deciding upon a business career, 

he chose tnat lollowed by his 
father, that of a general contractor, 
entering upon his work at an early 
age, shortly after leaving school, and 
this he has followed up to the pres- 
ent time. Many pieces of private 
and public work are monuments tes- 
tifying to his business capacity and 
ability. All sections of the County 
produce samples of his handiwork as 
a builder, many of the finest and 
most costly buildings being of his 
construction. Fully ninety per cent, 
of all the troiiy roadbeds in the 
County were laid by him as were 
miles upon miles of macadam roads; 
in most every County of the State he 
has built State roads; in cities and 
towns of the County he has built 
sewers and made other public im- 
provements, in every instance scor- 
ing success that has made his firm 
a State-wide enviable reputation. 

As a successful business man he 
is known, rather than as a politician. 

By appointment received from 
President Roosevelt, he became Post- 
master of White Plains on January 
1, 1907, serving until 1911. 

Mr. Merritt married on April 14, 
1887, Miss Jeannie Wilson, of Port 


John N. Heeney, former Superin- 
tendent of the White Plains Water 
Department, Contracting Engineer, 
etc., was born in Verplanck's 
Point, this county, in 1874, a son of 
John and Margaret Heeney. 

He was educated in public and 
private schools. He came to White 
Plains to reside in the year 1893. 

He was appointed Superintendent 
of the White Plains Water Depart- 
ment in 1901, a position which he 
was particularly adapted to fill, 
owing to education and experience. 
This position he held until 1911, 
when he resigned to go into private 
business, as a contracting engineer, 
making water supply and sewage dis- 
Tiosal a specialty; he is considered to 
rank with the foremost in his profes- 

Mr. Heeney was marrieil March 9, 
1909, to Frances E. Steeves of New 
York city. 

He is member of a number of so- 
cieties including the White Plains 
Lodge of Elks. 




John Roberts Bushong, lawyer, 
Village Trustee, President pro tem 
of the Village of White Plains, etc., 
was born on May 24, 1877, in Read- 
ing, Penn., a son of Jacob and Lillie 
(Roberts) Bushong. 

The name Bushong was originally 
the old Huguenot French (Alsace 
Loraine) name of Beauchamp, abbre- 
viated for the sake of convenience, 
his father's ancestors coming from 
France by way of England, settled 
in Shenandoah Valley and then came 
up to Lancaster County and from 
there to Berks, together with other 
exiles, of which number many found 
an abiding place at New Rochelle, 
in this County. His father was 
a Democrat and prominent banker 
of Reading, Pa., serving twenty-five 
years as president oi the Select 
Council, and was chairman of its 
first Water Board. 

In 1908 he was the Democratic 
candidate for Member of Assembly 
in a hopelessly Republican district, 
and was defeated by George W. 
Mead by 2,800; he made so good a 
showing at the polls that his party 
nominated him again in 1909, again 
he was defeated by John Ambrose 
Gardwin by 1,265, but not downcast. 
He is a firm believer in persistency, 
that success comes to him who keeps 
' ' Pegging away ' ' in the right direc- 
tion. He was unsuccessful in run- 
ning for School Director in 1910; he 
tried for election as Village Trustee 
in 1910 against a candidate that had 
never been defeated; he succeeded in 
cutting down his opponent 's ma- 
jority to 25. He noted one thing 
that gave him encouragement to try 
again, and that was that every time 
he ran for office, and got better ac- 
quainted, his vote was larger; he 
knew that if he kept on gaining ne 
would surely get there some time. 
In 1911 victory came; he carried the 
hide-bound Republican third ward 
by 72 majority and became a Vil- 
lage Trustee. On the organization 
of the Board of Village Trustees in 
January, 1912, he was elected presi- 
dent pro tem, and during President 
Piatt's absence from the village he 
was Acting President. 

Mr. Bushong is a member of 
White Plains Lodge, No. 473, F. and 
A. M., of White Plains Lodge of 
Elks, No. 535, of the White Plains 
Club, of the Yale Club of New York 
city, of the Westchester Bar Associa- 
tion, Chamber of Commerce of West- 
chester County, etc. 

Owing to ill health and his re- 
moval from the village, Mr. Bushong 
resigned his Trusteeship in January, 


James J. Shaw, former President 
of the White Plains Board of Edu- 
cation, Secretary Bronx Valley Sewer 
Commission, former Record Clerk in 
County Clerk's office, former Chief 
Clerk to the Sheriff and former 
Town Clerk of the town of White 
Plains, was born on June 7, 1862, 
in White Plains, a son of James J. 
and Margaret (Trainor) Shaw. 

His education began in the public 
schools of Dobbs Ferry, where his 
parents went to live; he ended his 
scholastic career at Manhattan Col- 
lege, New York city, graduating with 
special honor. He later returned to 
White Plains, where he resides. 

Under County Clerk John M. Dig- 
ney, Mr. Shaw served as Record 
Clerk in the County Clerk's office, 
from 1887 to 1889, resigning this po- 
sition to accept the Chief Clerkship 
to the Sheriff, appointed by Sheriff 
Frank G. Schirmer; in this latter 
office he served until January 1, 
1893. He next became an official 
searcher in the County Register's of- 
fice. In 1899 he was elected 'iown 
Clerk of the town of White Plains, 
by an unprecedented majority given 
for that office; in this official posi- 
tion he served several terms, com- 
mencing 1900 and ending 1905, re- 
tiring to accept a highly responsible 
position with the Westchester and 
Bronx Title and Mortgage Guaranty 
Company, as Superintendent of Plant 

.Mr. Shaw was married on April 
24. 1887, to Miss Katherine L. 
Grace, daughter of William and 
Hannah Grace, of Tarrytown. Of 
this union there are two children. 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



This city, according to population, ranks in size as the fifth 
in the State. 

It is the largest of the three cities in Westchester County, lies 
adjacent on the south to the city of New York, and on the east 
joins the city of Mount Vernon. Its residents boast of Yonkers 
as being " next to the largest city in the United States," mean- 
ing, of course, New York as the largest city, yet citizens of 
adjaicent Mount Vernon will persist in professing to believe that 
their city is alluded to, and they accordingly feel complimented, 
and aire almost persuaded to forget the rivalry existing between 
the two largest AVestchester County cities. 

The census of 1910 credits Yonkers with a population of 
79,803, showing an increase in population of 39,972 in ten years. 
Its rapid growth promises soon to make it the fourth largest city 
in the State. 

The most wonderful and least to be explained transformation 
seems to have taken place within fifty years after settlement. 
That was of the Indian name of Yonkers villa^ge, from Nap- 
peckamack to Nepperhaem. The intermediate stages are entirely 
missing, and can only be guessed at. But no sooner had the 
Dutch fastened the latter name upon the place than the cor- 
ruption of it, in turn, began. It was for one man Neperha, and 
for another Nippierha. To some it was Neppiran, to others 
Nepran and Nepperan, and Governor Dongaai, combining several 
of these in one, calls it Nippirhan. In one conveyance we find 
the present spelling, Nepperhan, " or Napoekamack." Or at 
least so it is recorded in Mrs. " Geesie " Lewis's deed to old 
Mr. " Phillipps " in the now somewhat remote year of 1686. 
Verily, there was a great vairiety of spelling in those days. 

Lemuel Wells, who owned a great part of Yonkers, 320 acres 
of good farm land located in what is now the center of the 
city's business section, died well advanced in years, in February, 
1842, without issue. His wife, Eliza H., survived him. He 
had four brothers, Elisha, Levi, Plorace and Jared. One of 
the prominent streets of Yonkers, running from Broadway to 
the Hudson River, is nfiniod for him. When he died the estate 
was sold by t]ip Chancellor. 

The first residents of Yonkers were few in number, but they 
were enterprising. 


At this period the town, including Riverdale, Kingsbridge, 
Mosholu and Spuyten Duyvil, had about 5,000 inhabitants, and 
the conditions were rural. 

Main Street was a block long, running from Broadway west. 
Wells Avenue ran a block from Broadway west, to Mr. Wells' 
blacksmith shop, where he made a specialty of shoeing oxen. 
Dock Street was the only one open to the Hudson River. 

The Getty House, the principal hotel, was erected in 1851 
by Robert P. Getty, facing Getty Square, and still stands. The 
hotel was run by maaay managers, one of them being the late 
William H. Doty, many years City Clerk, and recently, at the 
time of his death, president of the First National Bank. In 
this hotel, in the early period, was the only public assembly 
hall (the Lyceum) for many years. 

The first volunteer fire engine company, " Protection," was 
organized in 1852, preceding but ai short time Hope Hook and 
Ladder and Lady Washington Engine Company. 

Passengers on the Hudson River Railroad from Yonkers were 
landed in Chamber Street, New York city; fare from Yonkers 
was twenty-five cents each way. 

There were in the early fifties five churches in the village. 

The burning of the steamboat Henry Clay, off Yonkers, 
occurred in 1852. Many persons perished, and their charred 
remains were found strewn all along the shore south of where 
Vark Street now is. 

The first newspaper published in the town was the Yonkers 
Herald, established in 1852; later came the Yonkers Examiner, 
published by Mathew F. Rowe, which name after wae changed 
to The Statesman; the Daily Statesman succeeded, and was 
owned by John W. Oliver and others ; The Statesman is still an 
able and influential newspaper, conducted by Edward Oliver, 
son of John W. Oliver, who died February 9, 1908, in the 93d 
year of his age. Mr. Rowe resides in Ossining. 

James Norwell, a veteran newspaperman, recently published 
his recollections of events since his coming to Yonkers in 1852, 
in which he says: " I learned the type-setting trade when a 
boy. In 1852 I came to Yonkers and for a time was employed 
on the Yonkers Herald, which was then started by Thomas 

" The first newspaper printed and published in Yonkers was 
the Herald. It was a four-page sheet and was printed on a 
hand press. It was issued every Saturday morning at two 


cents a copy. Thomas Smith was the editor and proprietor. 
He was a man of forcible character. He was many times 
elected a Justice of the Peace, and became a political power 
and wielded considerable influence. In fact he was the ' boss.' 
He was a leading spirit in the Board of Education, was one of 
the organizers of the Fire Department, being a member of 
Protection Engine, etc., etc. He was elected as a member of 
the Board of Village Trustees, and held the office for some 

The first daily newspaper was sta^rted in this city in 1864, 
called the Yonkers Daily Herald, by Thomas Smith, editor and 

The first directory of the city, in 1858, was published also 
by Mr. Smith. 

To-day, Yonkers has three daily newspapers, and most excel- 
lent ones they are, the Statesman, the Yonkers Herald and the 
Daily Neivs. The Yonkers Gazette, that succeeded the weekly 
edition of the first Yonkers Hearld, is still published by Mr. Dan. 

Hat manufacturing was, in the early fifties, the mainstay 
of the town, giving employment to a greater portion of its 
inhabitants. Three of the town's most active citizens, Anson 
Baldwin, Ethan Flagg and John T. Waring, were at the head 
of this industry, and the Yonkers factories were the best knowTi 
hat manufactories in this country, if not in the world. 

The first horse car line was organized in 1858 and ran from 
Getty Square to North and South Yonkers, the fare either way 
being five cents. The whole outfit was crude; wooden rails 
capped with bands of iron were used. The venture did not 
prove a paying one, and therefore did not last long. 

The local Common Council, on February 8, 1886, granted the 
first franchise to operate trolley cars in Yonkers, and the first 
electric cars were run on the Riverdale Avenue line. 

Yonkers had at one time a lady Postmistress, Mrs. Esther A. 
Bashford, widow of former Postmaster, in 1850. The post- 
office was on lower Dock Street. 

Bailey Hobbs, who was Town Assessor and later City Treas- 
urer, came to Yonkers January 2, 1840, when, as he often said, 
all of Yonkers was owned by one man— Lemuel Wells. Mr. 
Hobbs died in 1911, in the 93rd year of his age, at the time of 
his death he was not only the oldest man in Yonkers, in length 
of life, but also in length of residence here. 


Town elections were held in the spring, each year, at one 
polling place, not far from Getty Square, or on Dock Street, 
near the river. The candidate who could afford to hire carry- 
alls to bring voters in from the rural districts was the one pretty 
sure to win out in the election. 

Warburton Avenue, now one of the principal residential 
streets, was named in honor of William Warburton Scrugham, 
a resident of the town, and the first resident of the County to 
be elected to the Supreme Court bench. 

Yonkers was incorporated as a village on April 12, 1855, as 
the result of persistent efforts on part of progressive residents, 
among whom were William Radford, James C. Bell, Robert P. 
Getty, Thomas Smith, W. W. Woodworth, John T. Waring and 
others. Mr. Radford was the first village President, and was 
succeeded in their turn by Mr. Woodworth, Mr. Getty, Mr. 
Waring and Mr. Bell, etc. 

When the Wells estate, embracing all Yonkers in fact, was 
sold, Mr. Ludlow bought a large portion of the southern section 
of the estate (now known as Ludlow in Yonkers), and Edward 
F. Shonnard secured many acres in the northern section. 
Both Mr. Ludlow and Mr. Shonnard opposed incorporation; 
therefore the village boundaries were confined to the section 
between the Ludlow and Shonnard properties. 

Presidents of the Village of Yonkers served in the following 
order : William Radford, 1855-6 ; AVilliam W. Woodworth, 1857- 
58; Robert P. Getty, 1859; Thomas F. Morris, 1860; John T. 
Waring, 1861-62 ; Everett Clapp, 1863-64 ; James C. Bell, 1865- 
66 ; Justus Lawrence, 1867-68 ; Isaac H. Knox, 1869-70 ; Robert 
P. Getty, 1871 to June, 1872, date of Yonkers becoming a city. 

The term of office of all village officials expired the first 
Tuesday after the first city election, in 1872. 

Robert P. Getty, who besides being Village President, was 
City Treasurer at the time of his death on March 28, 1902. He 
was born May 1, 1811. 

Yonkers promptly fulfilled all obligations growing out of 
demands made upon it by the Civil War. More than was 
required was furnished of its able-bodied men as volunteers. 

In 1866 the local police system was changed, from " the town 
constable sort," to a uniformed metropolitan police force. The 
new order of things began August 10, 1866. As Westchester 
County was a part, with New York city, of the metropolitan 
police district, an application, approved by the Westchester 


County Board of Supervisors, caused the required number of 
experienced New York police officers to be assigned to Yonkers. 
Later the New York policemen were withdrawn, and new police- 
men were appointed to fill their places, continuing a most efficient 
police system. 

We remember when Benjamin Starr was Chief and the whole 
local police force, and when, later, Daniel Blauvelt commanded 
the first "uniformed force" (four men), with headquarters at 
No. 3 Main street. 

The city of Yonkers was erected from the town of Yonkers 
(excepting a section in the southern portion known as Kings- 
bridge, embracing Mosholu and South Yonkers) by an act of 
the State Legislature, passed June 1, 1872. 

That section of the town known as Kingsbridge, and imme- 
diate vicinity, whose residents objected to being made a part 
of the new city of Yonkers, w^as created a town by itself on 
December 12, 1872, by act of the Board of Supervisors. Later, 
by act of the Legislature, Laws of 1873, Kingsbridge, including 
Mosholu and South Yonkers, was annexed to New York city. 

The first election for city officers in Yonkers was held, as the 
act provided, on the third Tuesday after the approval of the 
act by the Governor. At present city officers are chosen at fall 
elections, every two years. 

The first meeting of the Common Council of the new city 
was held on June 25, 1872, and organized by electing Ethan 
Flagg president, to preside in the absence of Mayor Courter. 
Members of this Council were : First Ward, John Brennan and 
Eli Seger, Democrats; Second Ward, Albert Keeler and William 
Macfarlane, Republicans; Third Ward, Ethan Flagg and Hyatt 
L. Garrison, Republicans; Fourth Ward, Henry R. Hicks and 
Zeb. H. Brower, Republicans. The Council was Republican, 
with a Democratic Mayor. Quite naturally Democratic nomi- 
nations were not confirmed, as the Mayor found when he named 
Henry T. Smith for City Clerk and followed with naming other 
Democrats for positions. William H. Doty, a most efficient 
officer, was made clerk, and continued in the position he held 
under the village government. Of members of this Common 
Council only Henry R. Hicks is still living. 

The city water system was ajdopted in 1873; in Ju]y, 1876, 
the first water was turned on from a hydrant in Getty Square. 

The following named persons have held the office of Mayor, 
in the years here given: 



James C. Courier (D.), from June, 1872, to April, 1874; 
Joseph Hasten (D.), 1874-75; William A. Gibson (R), 1876-77; 
Joseph Masten (D.), 1878-79; Norton P. Otis (R.), 1880-81; 
Dr. Samuel Swift (D.), 1882-83; William G. Stahlnecker (D.), 
1884-85; J. Harvey Bell (D.), 1886-87-88-89; James Millard 
(R.), 1890-91 ; James Weller (R.), 1892-93; John G. Peene (R.), 
1894 to December 1, 1897 (the Laws of 1895 made terms ter- 
minate Dee. 1); L. Sutherland (R.), 1897 to Dec. 1, 1902; 
Michael J. Walsh (D.), 1902 to Dec. 1, 1904; John E. Andrus 
(R.), 1904 to Dec. 1, 1906; John Coyne (D.), 1906 to January 
1, 1908 (time of termination of office again changed, owing to 
Yonkers becoming a second-class city) ; Dr. N. A. Warren (R.), 
1908-09; James T. Lennon (D.), 1910-11-12-13. 

The population of the town of Yonkers was in 1830, 1,761 
in 1835, 1,879; in 1840, 2,968; in 1845, 2,517; in 1850, 4,160; in 
1855, 7,554; in 1860, 11,848; in 1865, 12,756; in 1870, 18,357 
as a city in 1875, 17,232 ; in 1880, 18,892 ; in 1890, 32,033 ; in 
1892, 31,419; in 1900, 47,930; in 1905, 61,716; in 1910, 79,803 

The population of Yonkers, since its incorporation as a city 
by wards has been as follows: 

First Ward, in 1875, 4,475; in 1880, 5,149; in 1890, 8,422 
in 1892, 7,543 ; in 1900, 6,008 ; in 1905, 6,878 ; in 1910, 8,268. 

Second Ward, in 1875, 6,230 ; in 1880, 6,917 ; in 1890, 12,351 
in 1892, 13,266 ; in 1900, 5,802 ; in 1905, 6,643 ; in 1910, 6,596. 

Third Ward, in 1875, 5,587 ; in 1880, 5,953 ; in 1890, 10,146 
in 1892, 9,173 ; in 1900, 4,678 ; in 1905, 6,426 ; in 1910, 6,730. 

Fourth Ward, in 1875, 940 ; in 1880, 873 ; in 1890, 1,114 ; in 
1892, 1,249; in 1900, 7,832; in 1905, 9,999; in 1910, 11,037. 

Fifth Ward, in 1900, 11,542 ; in 1905, 16,371 ; in 1910, 12,272. 

Sixth Ward, in 1900, 8,345 ; in 1905, 10,318 ; in 1910, 12,568. 

Seventh Ward, in 1900, 3,724; in 1905, 4,779; in 1910, 9,939. 

Eighth W^ard, in 1910, 3,661. 

Ninth Ward, in 1910, 5,138. 

Tenth Ward, in 1910, 3,594. 

Land valuations have increased according to its growth in 
the last ten years. In 1901 the assessed valuation, real and 
personal estate, was $45,571,064 ; in 1902, $48,519,593 ; in 1903, 
$50,294,072 ; in 1904, $50,907,888 ; in 1905, $53,732,961 ; in 1906, 
$68,468,599 ; in 1907, $71,201,661 ; in 1908, $73,393,808 ; in 1909, 
$72,972,089; in 1910, $81,338,959. 

The city, in 1911, had within its limits property valued at 
$11,000,000 exempt from taxation. 


In proof that it is a progressive and up-to-date city, mention 
may be made of the fact that it has one hundred and thirty milea 
of improved streets, about one hundred of which are paved 
either with sheet asphalt, granite blocks or vitrified bricks, etc. 

It has five miles of deep water front; 36 miles of trolley rail- 
road ; 19 railroad stations ; 271 passenger trains daily ; two rail- 
roads, the New York Central and Hudson River, and the Put- 
nam Division Railroad, pass through the city. 

The city's police department is composed of a chief, 3 cap- 
tains, 13 lieutenants, 15 sergeants, and 120 patrolmen. The city 
is divided into three precincts and one sub-station. 

Has a paid fire department, comprised of 13 fire companies, 
auto fire engines, motor fire apparatus, 120 men, and 10 fire 

Its public schools are of the best; in the Department of Public 
Education there are 21 schools and 370 teachers; nearly 16,000 
pupils are enrolled. The parochial schools have an enrollment 
of more than 4,000. 

Hais one of the handsomest City Halls in the State, just com- 
pleted, at a cost of $500,000. 

The Hospitals, six in number, are most modernly equipped. 

The local Post Office gives employment to 75 letter-carriers 
and 21 clerks. 

Churches, of all denominations, to the number of 61. 

Has five public parks and playgrounds. Has three public 
baths. Has one hundred fraternal societies. 

Large Library building contains thousands of volumes of 
useful knowledge. 

As a manufacturing city it is widely known. Has the largest 
carpet works in the world; the largest elevator works in the 
world: the largest hat factory in the world; the largest sugar 
refineries, with a daily output of eleven thousand barrels; a 
laiTge cooperage plant and extensive wire works, and many other 

One of the most prominent of many historic landmarks in 
this County is the building in the city of Yonkers known as 
Manor Hall, formerly known, in the early period, as the Philipse 
Manor House,* and occupied during the American Revolution 

* It hag been claimed that this building was erected in the year 1682, but 
members of the Yonkers Historical Society dispute this, and say it waa 
erected at a later date, in 172f); that it was constructed by English, not 
Dutch; that the charter bestowing land ownership was not obtained until 
after the earlier date. 


by Mr. Frederick Philipse (owner of the manor) and family, 
and where General Washington was ever a welcome guest. The 
association of Washington with this place adds materially to 
general interest, influencing patriotic citizens in these later years 
to inaugurate a movement having for its purpose the purchase 
atnd maintenance of building and grounds as a reminder of the 
historic past. The Manor House was occupied as a private resi- 
dence until the year 1868, when it was purchased by the village 
of Yonkers (from James C. Bell, at the instigation of Village 
Trustee Thomas Smith) and converted into a Village Hall, for 
the housing of the different local officials. 

At the time of proposed purchase by the village of the old 
Manor House, much opposition developed ; it being claimed that 
the expense w^as unnecessary, as there was no need for such 
a large building for village purposes. Public spirited citizens 
insisted and the purchase was made. Time gave approval of 
this action. 

During necessary alterations to fit it for purposes intended, 
hidden closets in the building and underground passage-ways, 
from the house to the Hudson River, were discovered. In the 
period when occupants of dwellings lived in fear of attack from 
roving bands of Indians it was deemed necessary to construct 
underground passage-ways as a means of escape to the river, 
in case of attack. The hidden closets were receptacles of valu- 
ables put out of the way of those inclined to periodical inva- 
sions and depredations. 

Since Yonkers became a city the Manor House continued 
to be used as a municipal building. In 1908 the city authori- 
ties yielded to the petitions of the Historical Society and agreed 
to sell the property that it might pass into the custody of the 
State for preservation as an historical relic. The new City 
Hall was not a fact until 1911. The restoration of Manor Hall 
to its former genuine Colonial style will be completed as soon as 
possible, and when all is done the building, exterior and interior, 
is expected to look as it did when it was first built. 

The price which the city agreed to accept for the property 
was $50,000, much less than its real value, as was admitted ; the 
reduction being charged to worthy patriotism. 

The $50,000 necessary to secure forever the preservation of 
Manor Hall was given as a free gift by Mrs. Eva Smith Cochran, 
in 1908. The donor never lived to see the Manor House formally 
taken possession of by those to whom she presented it. Mrs. 


Cochran, who was known as Yonkers' great benefactress, owing 
to her many charities and philanthropic works, ever reserved 
and unostentatious, died February 3, 1909. 

The principal city officiaLs in 1911-12-13 were James 'i\ Len- 
non, oMayor; Thomas F. Curran, Corporation Counsel; ]\Iax Co- 
hen, Deputy; Joseph F. O'Brien, City Clerk, John T. Geary and 
Emil J. Craft, Deputies; Joseph H. Beall, City Judge; Joseph 
Miller, Comptroller, James D. Mclntyre, Deputy; Gideon H. 
Peck, City Treasurer, Ethelbert B. Embree, Deputy; James J. 
Fleming, Commissioner of Public Safety, Deputy, George C. 
Kearns ; John A. Brady, Commissioner of Public Works ; 
Samuel L. Cooper,* City Engineer; Tax Receiver, Charles E. 
Hartshorn, Jr.; Health Officer, Dr. William S. Coons ; Super- 
intendent of Water Works, Edward L. Peene; Board of 
Assessors, Robert H. Neville, John J. Loehr, Daniel W. Car- 
roll and Frederick D. Breithack, William H. Fisher, Clerk; 
Daniel Woltf, Chief of Police, William H. Lent, Hugh D. 
Brady and George Cooley, Captains; James J. Mulcahey, Chief 
of Fire Department; Alfred Fox, Commissioner of Charities; 
William H. Rubien, President Civil Service Commission ; J. Sim* 
Bartley, Building Inspector; William R. Stuart, Bernard E. 
Reardon, Oswald W. Potter and Jacob Wolff, Justices of the 

The public school sj^stem of Yonkers is one of the best in the 
State. In the city there are twenty-one school buildings, built 
according to advanced ideas of school-house construction ; and 
property valued at more than $2,000,000. Completed in 1911, 
is a Trades School, the gift of the late Ervdn Saunders who 
was educated in the Yonkers public schools and who realized 
considerable wealth as a Yonkers manufacturer. The school is 
a memorial to his father, the late David Saunders. 

John Hobbs, who later became a Superintendent of Schools 
and a member of the Yonkers Board of School Trustees, was 
the first known teacher of public school in Yonkers. In 1832 
he taught in the little school house, a one-stoiy building, on 
the east side of Broadway, just north of the corner of Ashburton 
Avenue. Mr. Hobbs lived many years at the corner of Ash- 
burton and Palisades Avenue, where he died. 

The school house on the ]\Iile Square Road is where the chil- 
dren of the early fifties were in the habit of attending. Among 

Comniissioner Cooper died in 1913. 


its pupils were the late Mayor John G. Peene and many others 
who later became prominent citizens. 

The school over which JMr. Hobbs presided thirteen years was 
removed to a street, nearer the center of the village, which was 
given the name of School Street for its principal building ; this 
school house grew to fair proportions and for years was the 
village's educational mainstay. The boys of long ago will recall 
Moses B. Patterson, commonly called " Billy," who was the 
principal of this school many years, and his worthy wife, who 
was in charge of the girls' department. The writer's memory 
goes back to those days when he had " the time of his life," 
but he did not know it then. How apt in our youth we are to 
neglect the opportunities before us. This school came to 
be known later as No. 2, 

In 1862 was opened a new public school house on Ashburton 
Avenue, between "Warburton Avenue and Broadway, and for 
a time there was considerable rivalry between the pupils of 
No. 2 and No. 6 as the new school was called. The latter 
school later became known as the John W. Mason school, named 
in honor of the first president of the Board of Education Dis- 
trict No. 6. Thomas Smith, editor and proprietor of the 
Yonkers Herald, was at the head of the Board of Education in 
District No. 2. 

At that period the town was divided into six school districts, 
each having a school house. It lost one district when the 
southern section was annexed to New York. 

In 1881 the schools were consolidated and came under the 
direction of one Board of Education, of which Duncan Smith 
was elected president. John A. Nichols was first Superin- 
tendent of schools, serving one year; Andrew J. Rickoff came 
next and served little over a year; Charles E. Gorton was 
appointed to the position on November 1, 1883, and still con- 
tinues as Superintendent, giving entire satisfaction. In 1912-13 
Charles Philip Easton is President of the Board of Education, 
and John F. Brennan Vice-President ; positions held by them 
continuously several years. 

Miss Helen Ring, a teacher in Public School No. 6 left Yon- 
kers in 1893 and went to Colorado for the benefit of her health. 
Later she married and her name became Mrs. Helen Ring Rob- 
inson. In 'June, 1913, she visited Yonkers, when she was a 
State Senator of Colorado, the only woman Senator in this 


The Palisade Boat Club, the Yonkers Yacht Club, the Yonkers 
Canoe Club and the Yonkers Corinthian Yacht Club have homes 
along the water front in this city. 

Social and club life is at all times active; many organizations 
in the city contributing their share toward " driving dull care 
away," as there are also many societies devoted to more serious 

How many remember, when Manor Hall grounds extended 
to the Hudson River? When the first steam railroad train 
stopped at Yonkers? When Nepperhan Creek was a majestic 
river, and heavy freighted sloops sailed along the same, the 
railroad drawbridge opening to let them in? When the popular 
meeting place of residents Sunday afternoons was the steam- 
boat dock, foot of Main Street, and remember "Billy" Oakley 
who rang the bell? When a freshet, like a flood, carried away 
the Broadway bridge and the Factory Street bridge, which 
spanned the Nepperhan River? When Radford Hall was con- 
sidered a theatre, the only one in town, and Mr. Darby, "the 
candy man" (we won't say "Darby's ghost"), ran regular 
negro minstrel shows there? When the local militia company 
"went to war" (30 days), in 1861, and was given duty in Fort 
McHenry, near Baltimore, Md. ? When Lillinthal's tobacco fac- 
tory building, at junction of Dock and Nepperhan Streets, was 
used as a barracks for out-of-town soldiers in 1860? When in 
the same period troops were lodged on "Chicken Island?" 
When the bedstead factory building foot of Vark Street, was 
also a soldiers' barracks? When the present Waring 's Hat 
Manufactory building, on Vark Street, was the "Star Armory," 
in which was manufactured guns, etc., for the U. S. Army dur- 
ing the Civil War? When "Bob" Buckley was the first man- 
ager of the Getty House? When the "Lyceum," on Mechanic 
Street, was the only public hall for society functions? When 
the Town Pump in Getty Square was the public water supply? 
When Captain Garrison, Sr., ran sloops between Yonkers and 
New York city? When the local police force consisted of one 
Chief and a patrolman? When "Valentine's Lane" was "way 
out of town?" When the Yonkers Debating Society developed 
local orators ? When North Broadway ran along on the shore of 
the Nepperhan River, before the building of Wheeler's row, and 
a mountain of solid rock lined the east side of that street? 
When, in the year 1856, the date of the organization of the 
Republican party, and John C. Fremont ran for President, the 


only election polling place in town was in the Franklin House, 
on lower Dock Street? When the village hall was on Factory 
Street (now Palisade Avenue), in building now used as a fire 
engine house? 

When the Reformed Church was started in the second story 
of a frame building on south corner of Broadway and Main 
Street? When the St. John's Episcopal Church, the pioneer 
church edifice, was a small, modest structure, when Rev. Dr. 
A. B. Carter was rector? When St. Mary's Church, an unas- 
suming edifice on St. Mary's Street, had Rev. Father Lynch for 
pastor? It was then the only Catholic Church in the town? 

When an opportunity was had to use Dr. DeWitt C. Kel- 
linger's liniment, good for all ailments, made right in the town? 
When Dr. Kellinger ran a stage line between New York and 

When the hotels in town were the Getty House, the Franklin 
House, the Denslow House, opposite the railroad station, the 
Mansion House on South Broadway, and the Broadway House, 
on Broadway near Main Street, and later, when the Sherman 
House was at No. 8 Main Street? When the post-office was in 
Post's store, corner of Broadway and Main Street, and later was 
on South Broadway in the "Nesbitt Row," and then was at No. 
8 Main Street? When the office of the Yonkers Herald, the 
first newspaper in town, was at No. 2 North Broadway, near 
corner of Main Street, and later at No. 3 Main Street, in the first 
brick building erected on that street? When the first police 
headquarters was established on Main Street? (Dr. D. C. Kel- 
linger 's *' Mansion House," erected in 1833, was torn down in 
first part of April, 1912.) 

When the annual masquerade ball of Lady Washington En- 
gine Company was the prominent local society function? 

When Devoe's saw-mill was located where Peene's wharf now 
is, at the foot of Dock street? When, in 1852, people passed lo 
and fro across the Hudson River on the ice, with teams and 
afoot? When the only semblance to a dock was near what is 
now Glen wood, and at foot of Valentine's Lane. 

Residents of Yonkers had financial interest in the first ele- 
vated railroad built in New York city, an endless-chain road, run- 
ning between Vestry and Watt streets. A venture that failed, 
and proved disastrous to investors. 

The Mozart Regiment of New York city, which was quartered 
in the Lillinthal tobacco factory building, between Dock and 


Nepperhan streets, used as a soldiers' barracks, left Yonkers for 
the seat of war on July -i, 1861. 

The old "Mansion House," later known as "Arlington Inn," 
on South Broadway, was torn down in April, 1912. The build- 
ing was erected by Dr. DeWitt C. Kellenger, manufacturer of 
a well known liniment that bore his name. At the time the 
Doctor was the owner of a stage line running between New York 
and Albany, and the Mansion House was the first stopping place 
on the northward journey. The stages were discontinued in 
1840. For many years the hotel was continued up to the time of 
the Doctor's death. At one period the Doctor conducted the 
first theatre in Yonkers, established in an annex of the hotel on 
the south side. After the Doctor's death the property passed 
into the hands of R. N. Judson, of Bridgeport, Conn., whose 
heirs owned it recently. 

The property in South Yonkers, now known as Van Cort- 
landt Park and adjacent property, had been held by the Van 
Cortlandt family since 1669. Acquired by a colonial grant 
received by the Van Cortlandts from the English crown. 

The Yonkers Fire Department was organized in 1853, a calam- 
itous fire in May of that year, which destroyed property to 
a large amount, having shown the necessity of such an 

Of the churches existing in 1860, St. John's Episcopal was 
organized in 1753; the Methodist Episcopal, in 1828; the Re- 
formed in 1842; St. Mary's Catholic, in 1848; the Mount Olivet 
(later Warburton Avenue) Baptist, in 1849; the Presbyterian, 
in 1852 ; the Unitarian, in 1853 ; the Westminster Presbyterian, 
in 1858; the St. Paul Episcopal, in 1858; the Methodist Con- 
gregational, in 1858. 

District-Attorney Francis A. Winslow was elected chairman 
of the Yonkers Republican City Committee on March 11, 191 :J. 

President Wilson, on June 21, 1913, nominated to the Senate 
Thomas E. Ewing, Jr., of Yonkers, to be Commissioner of 
Patents, and latter was sworn into office on August 15, following. 

This city has a strong company of New York State National 



Biographical Sketches. 


Thomas Smith was Editor, Judge, 
President of Board of Education, 
Deputy Collector of Port of New 
York, Village Trustee, President of 
Board of Health, Police Commis- 
sioner, ir'resident Fire Department 
Association and held various other 
public positions. 

Became a resident of Yonkers in 
1852, and immediately started the 
first newspaper there, the Yonkers 
Herald. He also published the first 
Directory of the town, in 1860, and 
the first daily newspaper m 1864. 

Through his newspaper he urged 
the incorporation of Yonkers as a 
village, and was one of the com- 
mittee appointed to arrange for in- 
corporation effected in 1855. 

On the establishment of the Union 
Free School District, he was chosen 
one of the fijst Trustees, and later 
became president of the Board of 

To secure for the town a proper 
fire department the Firemen's Asso- 
ciation was organized in 1855, when 
Mr. Smith was elected the Associa- 
tion's first president. 

In 1857 he was appointed Deputy 
Collector of the Port of New York, 
under Collector Augustus Schell, and 
held that office until 1861, when his 
political party went out of power. 

In 1860 he was a delegate to the 
Democratic National Convention, 
held at Charleston, S. C. For nearly 
twenty years he was a regular at- 
tendant as delegate to losal ana 
State Conventions. 

At the Democratic State Conven- 
tion, held in Syracuse, in 1862, he 
declined the nomination for Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, saying that he held 
enough offices in his own County to 
take up all the time he could spare 
from his newspaper business and 
other interests. 

While a Village Trustee, and 
through the influence of his news- 
paper he advocated the purchase of 
Manor Hall, to preserve it for its 
historic value and for use as a Vil- 
lage Hall. The building was then 
occupied as a private residence by 
Judge "William W. Woodworth and 
family. Many persons were opposed 
to the purchase, claiming that it was 
an unnecessary extravagance. Fin- 

ally the purchase was agreed upon, 
and Mr. Smith was appointed a com- 
mittee to complete negotiations. 
Time has proven how judicious this 
purchase was. 

He held the office of Justice of the 
Peace and Police Justice for sixteen 
years, the two offices being com- 

Also ser%-ed as president of the 
Town Health Board, as a Police 
Commissioner, and in several other 
public official positions. 

He was closely identified with 
local and county public affairs; a 
recognized power, owing to his abil- 
ity as an editor and an orator, from 
1852 to time of his death. 

(See biography in volume one, 
page 262.) 

He was born in 1816, a son of 
James and Mary Smith, in New York 
City; of Scotch descent. Married 
Miss Amanda Smith, a daughter of 
Caleb L. Smith, M. D., and not re- 
lated; of this union there were thir- 
teen children, of whom six survive: 
James H., Henry T., Augustine, 
Amelia, Belle, and Lillie. Emma 
A., who followed Henry T., died 
January 1, 1913, aged 58 years. 

Mr. Smith died in August, 1874. 


John Brennan, former Alderman 
of Yonkers, etc., was born in 
Ireland, in September, 1823, and 
came to this country in 1852; for a 
time he resided in New York city, 
and later went to Boston to reside, 
coming to Yonkers in March, 1868. 

He had not resided long in Yonkers 
before his ability as a conservative 
business man was recognized. He 
gained the confidence and respect of 
his neighbors not by outward show 
or by proclaiming his good qualities 
from the house-tops, for he was a 
silent man; the minding of his own 
business well, attracted attention to 

When Yonkers became a city, in 
1872, Mr. Brennan was elected one 
of the first Aldermen, from the First 
Ward, and was one of only two 
Democratic Aldermen elected in the 
city, though the Mayor elected was 
a Democrat. 

Mr. Brennan later held an impor- 
tant position in the Department of 



Public Works in the city of Yonkers. 

He was a member of several socie- 
ties and fraternal organizations. 

He died at his home on Riverdale 
avenue, Yonkers, on April 25, 1903. 

Two children survive him, John F. 
Brennan, lawj-er, and Emma M. 
Brennan, teacher in public schools; 
both reside in Yonkers. Another 
daughter, Mary L., who married 
Joseph F. Daly, the well known law- 
yer of Yonkers, died in 1902, hus- 
band and wife dying on the same 
day, within a few minutes of each 

Joseph Russell Daly, a grandson, 
aged 25 years, died December 4, 
1911. , 


James Thomas Lennon, Mayor of 
Yonkers, former Receiver of Taxes, 
City Comptroller, etc., was born in 
Yonkers on April 6, 1869, a son of 
John and Ellen (Kiely) Lennon. 

He was educated in the public 
schools of his native city, and re- 
ceived more particularly a business 
training. On leaving school he se- 
cured employment in a local drug es- 
tablishment; here he was soon able 
to master the science of drugs sufl&- 
ciently to be considered a safe com- 
pounder. He graduated from the 
School of Pharmacy and later be- 
came the proprietor of one of the 
principal drug stores in the city. 

Like many other bright men, Mr. 
Lennon took kindly to politics when 
he was quite young; but not in a 
way to get prescriptions mixed ; he 
considered business first and enjoyed 
the game of politics as a relaxation 
in off hours. It is quite singular 
that the three young men who to- 
gether served their apprenticeship 
in that particular drug establish- 
ment, all later became prominent in 
politics — two were Coroners of the 
county and Mr. Lennon went from 
one grade to another in city offices 
until he reached the high rung as 
Mayor of his native city. 

He has been several times a can- 
didate for office before the people, 
and he has the distinction of never 
hrving been defeated for an elective 
office. He never ran for office out- 
side of his home city; he prefers to 
remain where he is known best, con- 
fident that creditable public service 

will be duly appreciated and amply 
rewarded by his neighbors, of all 

Mayor Lennon has always stood 
high with the Democratic party, of 
which he has been an active and in- 
fluential member, ever since he was 
a voter as may be inferred by the 
expressions of confidence he has re- 
ceived in the way of nominations for 
important positions. For many 
years he has been chairman of the 
Democratic General Committee of 

Mr. Lennon served as Receiver of 
Taxes in 1902-3, and again in 1906- 

In 1907 he was the only Demo- 
cratic nominee on the city general 
ticket elected, when he was chosen 
by a decisive majority as City Comp- 
troller; he served in this position 
during the years 1908-9. As Comp- 
troller he introduced many needed 
reforms and became known as "the 
watch-dog of city monies. ' ' 

His faithful services in latter of- 
fice suggested his nomination and 
election as Mayor in 1909. He 
served through the years 1910 and 

He is always found promptly at 
his post in the discharge of his offi- 
cial duties, and is singularly efficient 
in the dispatch of public business. 
He is not a public speaker, but he 
is an ideal listener, preferring 
others to do the talking while he 
thinks. i^riends compare his dis- 
position to that of the late Presi- 
dent Grant — though he does not have 
the smoking habit so pronounced. 
He never puts on any airs of as- 
sumed dignity, but is sociable, pleas- 
sant, setting all who approach him 
at the most perfect ease. 

In the prompt, intelligent and sat- 
isfactory discharge of the duties of 
Mayor, he has displayed his marked 
executive talent. Under his adminis- 
tration numerous reforms and im- 
provements have been inaugurated 
until the business matters of the 
city have been reduced to the same 
thorough system which ever char- 
acterizes the prudent management of 
private affairs. 

In 1911 Mayor Lennon was a can- 
didate for re-election against the 
strongest candidate the opposition 
could put up. Lennon won. 

In April, 1912, he was chosen by 



the Democratic State Convention as 
a delegate to the Democratic Nation- 
al Convention, to be held in Balti- 
more, Md. 

Mayor Lennon is a member of 
various fraternal and social organiza- 
tions: the City Club, the Elks, 
Knights of Columbus, Catholic 
Benevolent Legion, Foresters, Royal 
Arcanum, Eed Men, Loyal Order of 

Mayor Lennon was married on 
September 28, 1893, to Miss Wini- 
fred E. Butler, daughter of Edward 
Butler of Yonkers. To them was 
born nine children; all are living; 
viz.: Helen, 17 years old; James, 15 
years; Winifred, 13 years; Marion, 
10 years; Agnes, eight years; 
Frances, six years; Albert, five 
years; Irene, three years, and Ed- 
mund, aged 14 months. 

The Mayor is ever referring with 
just pride to his large brood of 
youngsters, and remarks that they 
all turn out to help him when he 
runs for ofl&ce. President Roosevelt 
congratulated the Mayor upon his 
fine showing, remarking that it 
might come to pass that "the family 
vote" would secure him any office, 
without making appeal to outsiders. 

In 1909 Mr. Lennon 's opponent 
for Mayoralty was a bachelor; is 
it strange that Mr. Lennon won? 
In 1911 his opponent could not show 
so large a family following; again 
Lennon won. 


John Francis Brennan, lawyer, 
Vice-President State Bar Associa- 
tion, former President Westchester 
County Bar Association, Vice-Presi- 
dent of Board of Education, Com- 
missioner, Bar Examiner, etc., was 
born in the city of New York, on 
December 3, 1853, a son of John and 
Margaret (Russell) Brennan. When 
he was but an infant Mr. Brennan 's 
parents removed to Yonkers, whre he 
has continued to reside. His father 
was ever active in the early develop- 
ment of Yonkers, and when it be- 
came a city he was one of the first 
elected Alderman, representing the 
first ward. Like the father, the son 
was destined to become a useful citi- 

John, Jr., received his preparatory 

education in the public schools of 
Yonkers, and graduated with special 
honors from Manhattan College. 

As a lad John was ambitious; this 
fact being recognized, his father, a 
plain man possessed of uncommon 
good sense, agreed that the boy be 
allowed to foUoAV his own inclina- 
tions relative to choosing a trade or 
a proiession; accordingly John de- 
cided to become a lawyer. He dili- 
gently devoted his time to study, to 
the accumulation or general knowl- 
edge, and particularly that pertain- 
ing to law. A good student fre- 
quently makes a good lawyer, it has 
been said. in this particular in- 
stance the saying has proven true, 
the good student has made good as a 
lawyer, as people who know John 
will agree. 

;\[r. Brennan was admitted to prac- 
tice at the bar in May, 1877, before 
Justice Barnard, sitting in Pough- 
keepsie, and almost immediately took 
a prominent rank in his profession. 

Politically speaking, Mr. Brennan 
is a Democrat, and he is proud of it. 
His extensive law practice, occupy- 
ing his time fully, prevents his ac- 
tive participation in politics, other 
than as an advisor. As evidence of 
his readiness to assist his party in 
times of emergency, instances may 
be referred to; two are here recalled, 
in a year when sure defeat looked 
the party in the face, Mr. Brennan 's 
name was put upon the Democratic 
ticket as the candidate for District- 
Attorney. Though defeated his run- 
ning had the good effect of adver- 
tising his good qualities, admitted 
to surpass the bad, ana of proving 
to him that he is popular with the 
people, as he ran in advance of his 
ticket generally. Again, his good 
nature was imposed upon, when in 
1907 he was made to accept the 
Democratic nomination for Justice 
of the Supreme Court in the recently 
created Ninth Judicial District, 
which, it was generally estimated at 
the time, would give a normal Re- 
publican majority of about 15,000. 
Though defeated, after running 
ahead of his ticket, the election 
justly afforded Mr. Brennan con- 
siderable satisfaction, especially as 
he had the opportunity of learning 
what his immediate neighbors think 
of him as a man and as a citizen; 
in his home city of Yonkers, which 



gave majorities to other Republican 
candidates, Mr. Breuuan, DLinocrat, 
received a majority of several thou- 
sand, and the largest majority ever 
given a candidate for public office in 
that city. 

In 1892 Mr. Brennan was ap- 
pointed by the Supreme Court as u, 
Bar Examiner, which responsible po- 
sition he held several years. 

He was appointed a member of the 
Board of Education, city of Yon- 
kers, in 1892, and at this time con- 
tinues to hold this office, finishing 
his nineteenth year as a Supervisor 
of Public Instruction. He is Vice- 
President of the Board. 

He served as President of the 
Westchester County Bar Association 
in the years 1905 and 1906; two 
years, the full time any member can 
serve, according to ' ' the unwritten 

Is one of the original trustees of 
the County ijaw Library, appointed 
by Governor Hughes. 

He was elected Vice-President of 
the New York State Bar Association 
in 1910. 

He has served for some time and 
is now the President of the Yonkers 
Public Library. 

He has acted frequently as Com- 
missioner or Referee, in important 
matters, by appointment of the Su- 
preme Court. 

Is senior member of the law firm 
of Brennan &. Curran of Yonkers. 

Is a member of several organiza- 
tions, fraternal ana social; as many 
as can be properly attended by a 
very busy man. For recreation he 
makes yearly trips to Europe, where 
he spends about two months during 
the summer vacation season, between 
Court terms. 

Mr. Brennan was married on April 
24, 1889, to Miss Madge Tiernan, 
daughter of Hugh Tiernan, of Dobbs 
Ferry, N. Y. There are no children. 


James Monroe Hunt, former 
Corporation Counsel of Yonkers, for- 
mer T'ounscl to the Board of Super- 
visors, former Counsel to the Bronx 
Valley Sewer Commission, etc., was 
born in Clarence, Erie County, N. 
Y., on April 6, 1858, a son of Rev. 

Harrison P. and Caroline (Holmes) 
Hunt. (See biography, page 260, 
vol. 1.) 

Mr. Hunt s legal practice has been 
extensive and varied, and, in some 
way, in recent years he has been con- 
nected with much of the important 
litigation in the County. 

In 1896 he was counsel for Emmet 
in the contest before the Courts, be- 
tween Emmet and Ennis, for the Re- 
publican nomination for Member of 
Assembly, mentioned elsewhere in 
this volume. His energetic work in 
conducting the several proceedings, 
getting a decision from a Supreme 
Court Justice, two decisions from the 
Appellate Division and one from the 
Court of Appeals, all in one week, 
led Supreme Court Justice Keogh to 
later remark to him, ' ' Mr. Hunt, if 
you hear people boast about speed 
in legal procedure, you can fold your 
arms, and say, I beat that, for your 
record in that case (the Emmet-En- 
nis), can never be equalled." 

When the City of Yonkers became 
a city of the second class, and the 
then City Administration decided 
that, under the law governing, each 
Ward was entitled to but one Alder- 
man, and one of the two from each 
Ward then serving must retire from 
office, Mr. Hunt was retained on be- 
half of the Aldermen that were to 
be ousted. The contest was carried 
up to the Court of Appeals, and re- 
sulted in a victory for Mr. Hunt. 

In 1907 Mr. Hunt was attorney 
for the plaintiff in the case of Duell 
against the Comptroller of the State 
of New York; this case grew out of 
the attempt of State Comptroller 
Martin J. Glynn to appoint .John J. 
Sullivan, of Yonkers, as Transfer 
Tax Clerk in the office of the Surro- 
gate in this County, without first re- 
ceiving a recommendation of the Sur- 
rogate, as it was contended the law 
required. Surrogate Millard had 
recommended to the Comptroller the 
appointment of William C. Duell, of 
Tarrytown, as such Clerk; this re- 
commendation was ignored; then Mr. 
Hunt, as attorney, was called in. 
The case was carried to the Court of 
Appeals, and that Court decided, in 
accordance with Mr. Hunt's conten- 
tion, that the State Comptroller 
must appoint such Clerk only on 
recommendation of the Surrogate of 
Westchester County. Mr. Sullivan 


'^'-'^ .Jj'j', 









retired, and Mr. Duell is the present 
Transfer Tax Clerk. 

In the year 1910, when the City 
Administration of Yonkers decided 
that Chief of Police Daniel Wolff 
was holding his office illegally, rela- 
tive to the manner of his appoint- 
ment, and the Chief in accordance 
with such decision, retired from of- 
fice, Mr. Hunt was retained to se- 
cure his reinstatement. After a hard 
fought battle, through the Courts, 
Mr. Hunt won, and the present Chief 
of Police in that city is Mr. Wolff. 

Mr. Hunt was Counsel for former 
Mayor Leslie Sutherland, who had 
just retired from the office of 
County Clerk, in the proceedings 
brought by the Comptroller of the 
State to recover from Mr. Suther- 
land the sum of $60,000 claimed to 
be over charges collected by Suther- 
land while he was County Clerk; a 
8um it was claimed Sutherland was 
not entitled to, and which the State 
Comptroller was endeavoring to re- 
cover. The case is still being con- 
sidered by the Courts. 

Mr. Hunt was especially honored 
in being selected to take the lead- 
ing part, on the opposing side in 
the famous debate, which took place 
in the Yonkers armory in May, 1911, 
on the question of annexing Yonkers 
to New Y^ork city; a bill was then 
pending in the State Legislature to 
effect this annexation. Mr. Hunt 
had for his opponent the well known 
New York city lawyer, Samuel Un- 
termyer, who was also a prominent 
resident of Yonkers. Both lawyers 
justly renowned for their brilliancy 
in oratory, were at their best, and 
the debate proved a great treat for 
those present in the crowded assem- 
bly hall. Former Mayor J. Harvey 
Bell presided. 

In 1905 Mr. Hunt received the un- 
solicited appointment as Counsel to 
the Bronx Valley Sewer Commission, 
to which he gave his undivided at- 
tention, to the expense of other legal 
practice. His task as such Counsel 
was no easy one; the act creating 
the Bronx Valley Sewer Commission 
was bitterly contested upon the 
ground that it was unconstitutional 
ar.d in view of the fact that no 
sewer had ever been constructed in 
the State of New York through dif- 
ferent municipalities, the questions 
raised in regard to the constitution- 

ality of the act were not only im- 
portant but presented new questions 
of law never before passed upon by 
the Courts of this State. 

Upon Mr. Hunt fell the burden of 
the contest in supporting the consti- 
tutionality of the original act. He 
succeeded in obtaining from Judge 
Keogh a decision that the act was 
constitutional and obtained a unani- 
mous decision of the Appellate Di- 
vision affirming Judge J\.eogh's de- 
cision and finally secured the unan- 
imous decision of the Court of Ap- 
peals sustaining the constitutionality 
of the act. 

Mr. Hunt is a member of the 
State Bar Association, of the New 
York City Bar Association and of 
the Westchester County Bar Associa- 
tion; a member of the St. Andrews 
Golf Club, the oldest golf club in 
America; a member of the New York 
Republican «^lub; a member of the 
Alpha Delta Phi Club; of the Bear 
Lake Fish and Game Club of Can- 
ada, with which club he has gone 
hunting every season for the past 
twelve years; is a member of the 
Finance Committee of the Board of 
American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety, and a Trustee of the Warbur- 
ton Avenue Baptist Church of Yon- 


Thomas Francis Curran, lawyer, 
Corporation Attorney of Yonkers, 
Commissioner, etc., was born on No- 
vember 24, 1876, in Yonkers, a son 
of Patrick and Margaret (McGrath) 

Mr. Curran, though yet a young 
man, holds a most responsible posi- 
tion in the public service. That he 
has held it several years is testi- 
mony sufficient that he has proven an 
efficient public servant. When he 
was first appointed as legal counsel 
of Yonkers, with its 70,000 inhabi- 
tants, he had just passed his twenty- 
ninth birthday, and had the distinc- 
tion of being one of the youngest 
(and he was claimed to be the 
youngest) men ever holding such po- 
sition in this State. 

Mr. Curran may truly be termed a 
self-made man, having, by his own 
energy and perseverance, worked his 
way to the present prominent posi- 
tion he occupies in the legal frater- 
nity, without the advantage of a col- 



legiate eJueation, which many of our 
public meu have had. He had a good 
common school education, and 
though " he went to work early," 
he did not forget that education was 
an important essential to a person's 
success. He has by close application 
and untiring energy fitted himself 
for the duties that present them- 
selves, far better than most men 
upon whom a small fortune has been 
spent in academical training. Few 
men ever started to fight life's bat- 
tles at an earlier age, and few have 
achieved the same success within 
such a short period. 

He began the study of law with 
John F, Brennan, in Yonkers, the 
able lawyer, with whom he is now as- 
sociated in partnership, under the 
firm name of Brennan dfc Curran. 

Mr. Curran was in 1895 admitted 
to practice. He found plenty of 
clients awaiting him in his native 
town. As his business increased he 
found numbered in his list clients 
representing all sections of the 
County, and even from the greater 
city adjoining. 

Few men are more popular than 
" Tom " Curran; in the profession 
or out of it, he is ever the plain, 
everyday citizen; " plain as Dick's 
hat-band, with no frills." 

Mr. Curran is a good general de- 
bater, and though not gifted with 
that plethora of language which 
characterizes many of our public 
men, yet he is possessed of those 
more essential qualities of a prac- 
tical and successful lawyer — a clear 
and attractive manner of presenting 
a question, concise and logical 
method of exposition, quickness of 
perception, both as to his own po- 
sition and opportunities, as well as 
those of his opponents. 

Soon after he became of age Mr. 
Curren commenced taking an active 
part in politics, more as an adviser 
than as an office-seeker ; his legal 
business not permitting of indulg- 
ence in side issues such as political 
office-holding. He affiliated, then as 
now, with the Democratic }iarty, and 
from the beginning has been a leader 
of the young Democracy. His 
congenial nature and firmness in 
friendship makes him a favorite with 
all, the old as well as the young, of 
all political creeds. 

Tt was not until lOOfi that he 

could be prevailed upon to accept 
jjublic office, and then only he con- 
sented because the position was with- 
in his chosen profession; in the year 
named, Mayor Coyne took office, and 
requested his intimate friend to aid 
his administration by serving as 
City Attorney; this important office 
was held by Mr. Curran two years, 
until a successor of Mayor Coyne 
was elected. In 1910, when Mayor 
Lennon was elected the city's chief 
magistrate, he announced immedi- 
ately that he had not decided upon 
whom he should name as members 
of his cabinet, excepting that Mr. 
Curran had agreed to again serve the 
city as its Corporation Counsel. It, 
apparently has come to be an ac- 
cepted fact in Yonkers, no matter 
who is elected by the Democrats for 
Mayor, " Tom " Curran has to be 
the city's law officer, if he will ac- 
cept the job. He is a safe advisor; 
probably that accounts for it. 

On the re-election of Mayor Len- 
non, which took place on November 
7, 1911, Mr. Curran was continued as 
Corporation Attoruev, to serve until 

Mr. Curran has declined his 
party's nomination for Mayor, say- 
ing that such would take him outside 
his " line of trade." 

Mr. Curran has served on numer- 
ous Commissions appointed by the 
Supreme Court Justices and has 
acted as referee by Court appoint- 
ment times too numerous to men- 

His practice includes both civil 
and commercial cases. 

While City Attorney he defended, 
on behalf of the City, a noted case 
involving the dredging in front of 
the private property along the 
Hudson River in front of the city. 
In this case Mr. Curran was success- 
ful through all the Courts, saving' 
Yonkers City millions of dollars. 

He is a member of the local lodge 
of Elks, of the Hibernians and of 
the Eed Men. 

Mr. Curran on August .5, 1904, 
married Miss Elizabeth Lavelle of 
Yonkers. There are no children. The 
family residence is in Yonkers. 


Gideon Hopkins Peck, City Treas- 
urer of y^onkers, former Fire Com- 
missioner, etc., was born in Yonkers, 



on November 7, 1861, a son of Sid- 
ney Starr and Anna (Hopkins) 

He was educated in the excellent 
graded public schools of his native 

His father was for many years a 
leading citizen and merchant in 
lonkers, and the sou, succeeding to 
his father's business, today holds 
a place equally prominent. From 
the time young Peck assumed charge 
as proprietor, the business has stead- 
ily increased and kept in pace with 
the growth of the prosperous manu- 
facturing city. Mr. Peck, the subject 
of this sketch, has won by his cour- 
tesy and fair dealing the confidence 
of his townsmen, who esteem him for 
his personal worth and capabilities. 
Throughout his life he has adhered 
strictly to the principles of honor 
and comity that mark the true gen- 
tleman, and has aimed to live for the 
good of those about him rather than 
for self-aggrandizement. His genial 
warmth has won for him many 
friends, and has made him popular 
outside of his own political party. 
His neighbors and friends have 
borne frequent witness to the ster- 
ling probity of his character by sev- 
eral elections to the all important 
position of financial officer of a large 
city. In nominating him for City 
Treasurer, in electing him to be a 
watchdog over the City's monies, 
was an exhibition of public confi- 
dence in that old Eoman integrity 
and the rugged far-seeing intellect 
of the successful business man. 

Mr. Peck was elected City Treas- 
urer in 1907, and served his first 

term during the years 1908-9; re- 
elected in 1909, he is serving a term 
ending December 31, 1911, with a 
fair prospect of retaining the office 
as long as he is so inclined. He is 
a business man, rather than a poli- 
tician, in the general understanding 
of ihe word. As the position of 
financial agent of the city is not a 
political one, the elector in selecting 
a man to fill the office of City Treas- 
urer is not always influenced by poli- 
tical considerations; an honest man 
may be a politician, and many are, 
but at all times the man who is en- 
trusted with charge of the people's 
money must be a man of well estab- 
lished integrity, whose politics are a 
matter of minor consideration with 
the thoughtful men who vote. 

Mr. Peck was re-elected City Treas- 
urer in November, 1911, to serve 
during the years 1912-13. 

The only other public office held 
by Mr. Peck was that of Fire Com- 
missioner of the city of \onkers, to 
which position he was appointed by 
Mayor Millward, in 1890, and in 
which he served two and a half 
years, when he resigned. 

Mr. Peck is a Mason, a member of 
Nepperhan Lodge, F. and A. M., of 
Yonkers, is a member ol the local 
Council of the Eoyal Arcanum, and 
a member of the First Presbyterian 
Church of ionkers. 

He was married on October 22, 
1884, to Miss Ella J. Pereival, 
daughter of William and Sarah 
(Kniffin) Pereival, of Yonkers. Of 
this union there are two children, 
Pereival Starr Peck, age 26, and 
Gladys Anna Peck, age 19. 

For biographical sketches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



{Continued from page 265, Vol. 1.) 

This town, like others, originally was a part of the Manor 
of Cortlandt, purchased from the Indians by Stephanas Van 
Cortlandt, in 1683. 

The town first possessed the Mohegan name of "Appamagh- 

The Indians known to have been the early dwellers in this 
and adjoining towns were the Kitchewonks, of the Mohegan 
tribe, that gave to the nearby beautiful lakes its name. The 
Lakes Mohegan, most charming streams of water, and sur- 
rounding enchanting scenery, are most attractive. 

During the Revolutionary War period this town was the 
center of warlike activity, and is frequently mentioned in the 
narrative relating to the capture of Major Andre published in 
this volume. Its people were ever patriotic, and in "the times 
that tried men's souls" they rendered every assistance possible 
to aid the American cause. 

The several localities in the town are, Yorktown, Yorktown 
Heights, Pine Bridge, Jefferson Valley, Mohegan, Kitchanan, 
Huntersville, Shrub Oak, Croton Dam, Mohansic Lake, Osceola 
Lake, Mohegan Lake; a part of Croton Reservoir lies in this 

The town is the largest as to acreage in the County, having 
23,620 acres. 

Its high hills add to the natural beauty of scenery. Bald 
Mountain is 688 feet high. 

The great dam of the old Croton Aqueduct is situated in the 
southeast corner of the town. 

The last census enumeration, that of 1910, credits the town 
with a population of 3,020. At one period this town possessed 
a population in advance of many towns in the County. In 1820, 
its population exceeded that of Yonkers by 436— Yonkers to-day 
has a population of 79,803. The census of 1820 credits thia 
town with five slaves. 

In 1830 the town's population was 2,141; in 1835, 2,212; in 
1840, 2,819; in 1845, 2,278; in 1850, 2,273; in 1855, 2,346; in 
1860, 2,231; in 1865, 2,559; in 1870, 2,625; in 1875, 2,610; in 
1880, 2,481 ; in 1890, 2,378 ; in 1892, 2,241 ; in 1900, 2,421 ; in 
1905, 2.294; in 1910, 3,020. 


The beautiful country land in this section is being rapidly 
acquired for use as gentlemen 's country seats, and already many 
charming villas have been laid out upon the sightly hills here- 

Pierre Van Cortlandt, who was most active on the patriot side 
during the Revolution, was first Supervisor and served fifteen 
years; Elijah Lee, who was Supervisor from 1789 to 1792, and 
1804-5 was an Assemblyman and County Judge ;Ebenezer White, 
Jr., was Supervisor, Assemblyman and Surrogate ; Henry White 
was Surrogate from 1815 to 1819; Robert P. Lee, of this town, 
was the first District- Attorney chosen for the County; Joseph 
Lee was County Clerk from 1684 to 1688, and 1691 to 1698; 
David D. Webbers, Sherift', from 1829 to 1832; Benjamin D. 
Miller was Supervisor in 1848-49, 1858-59-60-63, and Sheriff 
from 1850 to 1853 ; Samuel Tompkins w^as a Justice of Sessions 
in 1858-59, Walter H. Jones held this office in 1892 and Edward 
B. Kear in 1895-96 ; Thomas Tompkins was Supervisor in 1814 
to 1822 and 1823 to 1826, and was chairman of the Board of 
Supervisors in 1820, 1823-4-5; William James Horton was Su- 
pervisor six years ; Edward B. Kear held the office of Supervisor 
from 1896 to 1907, when he resigned on being elected County 

The town suffered a serious loss w'hen its former Supervisor 
Edward B. Kear died, August 31, 1911. He had held the office 
of Town Clerk, Justice of the Peace, Justice of Sessions, Super- 
visor and County Register. He was a worthy citizen, of the 
kind whose place it is difficult to fill. 

Mr. Kear held the office of Supervisor thirteen years, one of 
the longest periods any Supervisor held it. While he was in 
office the town was classified as a Republican town, after his 
retirement Democrats were able to elect the Supervisor, and a 
Democrat is now in that position at the head of town affairs. 

The town has no indebtedness, which is evidence that its 
affairs are conducted properly and businesslike. 

A list of Supervisors who served the town from time to time 
will be found commenced in volume 1 and continued elsewhere 
in this volume. 

In this town is located a State Training School for boys, and 
the Mohansie State Hospital; both on Yorktown Heights. 

For bio£?raphical ske^-ches of other residents see elsewhere in this book, 
and in volumes one and two. 



Report of the Commissioners concerning the boundary between 
New York (in Westchester County) and Connecticut. 

" By virtue of his Majesties Commission wee have heard the 
Differences aboutt the bounds of the Pattents granted to his 
Roy all highnesse the Ducke oft' Yorke and his Majesties CoUony 
off Conetticot and having deliberatlly considered all the reasons 
alledged by Mr. Allyn Serr Mr Gold Mr Richards and Cap't 
Winthrop appointed by the assembly held at hartfort the 13th 
day off Octob'r 1664, to accompany John Winthrop Esq'r (the 
governor of his ^Majesties Collony off Conneticot) to New Yorke 
and by Mr. Howell and Cap't Young off Long Island, why the 
s'd Long Island should be under the government off Connecticot 
which one to Long here to be recited. 

" Wee doe declare and order that the Southern bounds off 
his Maj'ies Collony off Connecticot is the sea and that Long 
Island is to be under the government of his Royall highnesse 
the Ducke of Yorke as is Exprest by plain words in the s'd 
pattents respectively And also by virtue of his Maj'ies Com- 
mission and the Consent of both Govern 'rs and the Gen't above 
named wee also order and declare that the Creeke or River called 
Mamarownack w'h is Reported to be about twelve miles to the 
East of Westchester. And a line Drawn from the East point 
or side when the fresh water falls into the salt at high water 
marke. North north wes to the Line of the Machatuchets, Be 
the westerne bounds off the said Colony of Conecticot and all 
plantations Lying westward off that Creeke and Line soe 
Drawne to be under his Royall highnesse governm't and all 
Plantations Lying Eastward off that Creeke and Line to be 
under the governm't of Conecticot." 

When inaugurated as President of the United States, Wood- 
row Wilson kissed the same Bible used when he was inaugu- 
rated as Governor of the State of New Jersey, when taking the 
oath of office. He kissed the sacred volume on a page, turned 
to at random, his lips touching upon the 119th Psalm, 41st and 
48th verses, inclusive. 



{Continued from page 62, Voluvie 1.) 

The Supervisor, except in cities, is required by law to 
receive and pay out all moneys raised for defraying town 
charges, except what is raised for the support of highways and 
bridges, which is under the control of Highway Commissioners, 
and he is required to prepare and file with the Town Clerk 
annually a full and complete statement of the financial affairs 
of the town. He must keep a just and true account of his 
receipts and expenditures and account for all moneys so received 
by him. Supervisors representing Towns and Supervisors rep- 
resenting City Wards are required to attend all meetings of the 
County Board, of which they are members. 

The original Town law provided that Supervisors and other 
Town officers shall be elected annually. The laws of 1893, 
chapter 344, amended the original law by providing that Super- 
visors and Town Clerks shall hold office for two years. By laws 
of 1897, chapter 481, Boards of Supervisors were empowered to 
pass laws in their respective counties providing for biennial 
town meetings. Laws of 1898, chapter 363, provides that 
Supervisors, Town Clerks, Assessors, Commissioners of High- 
ways, Collectors, Overseers of the Poor, Constables and Inspec- 
tors of Elections, when elected shall hold their respective offices 
for two years, and authorizes the Board of Supervisors of 
each county to provide for the holding of town meetings at the 
time of the general elections. Laws of 1899, chapter 145, pro- 
vides that Towns may change date of holding town meetings, 
and fixes two years as term of town officers. Laws of 1900, 
chapter 688, provides that the act of the Board of Supervisors 
of the County of Westchester, in fixing the time for holding 
the next biennial town meetings in said county on the first 
Tuesday after the first Monday in November in the year 1901, 
and every alternate year thereafter, is hereby legalized, ratified 
and confirmed, and the town meetings to be held in the year 
1901 shall be held only on that day. 

The State Legislature, Laws of 1902, Chap. 342, fixed the 
meeting day of the Board of Supervisors on the first Monday 
in each and every calendar month, and at such other times as 



the Board of Supervisors may fix by resolution. The same act 
provides for the salary of the Supervisors; each Supervisor 
shall receive as compensation for his services as a member of 
the Board of County Canvassers and as a Supervisor a stated 
salary of not less than $350, nor more than $600 per annum, 
to be fixed by the Board and paid in equal monthly installments, 
on the last day of each month, by the County Treasurer. No 
Supervisor shall receive any other or greater sum for his ser- 
vices, except fees now allowed by law for copying or extending 
the assessment rolls and except for such services as may be by 
law a town charge. The act further provides, such salaries 
should commence with the first day of June, 1902. (The law 
giving them choice as to amount of salary they would accept, 
the Supervisors in their wisdom chose to take $600 per annum.) 

A special act of the State Legislature, passed in 1909, fixes 
the salary of a Supervisor of Westchester County at $1,000 per 
annum, providing the fees of said Supervisors, received from 
various sources, does not reach a pres.cribed amount. Under this 
new law Supervisors from City Wards and the smaller Towns 
will receive the increase of salary after January 1, 1912. 

Besides amount fixed as salary, each Supervisor is entitled to 
receive mileage at rate of 8 cents a mile for each mile actually 
traveled in going from his place of residence to place of meet- 
ing, once in each month; expenses actually incurred by any 
Supervisor under authority and direction of said Board of 
Supervisors outside the limits of White Plains, the place where 
meetings of the Board are held, may be allowed and paid. 

Laws of 1903, Chap. 483, empowers the Board of Supervisors 
to appoint, in addition to a clerk, one or two deputy clerks, to 
serve during pleasure of Board, and to fix compensation of each 
such appointee. 

The Board of Supervisors is empowered by law to establish 
and define boundary lines between toAvns of the county. 

The State Legislature, by special act. Laws of 1900, Chap. 
688, ratified the act of the Board of Supervisors fixing the time 
of the biennial tovm meetings. 

Westchester County raises $60,000 annually to pay to the 
State Comptroller for Supreme Court salaries. 

The Laws of 1901, Chap. 87, permits towns to make appro- 
priation for the purpose of defraying expense of proper observ- 
ance of ^Memorial Day by members of the Grand Army of the 


The Board of Supervisors, September 13, 1909, appropriated 
$2,500 to properly represent the County of Westchester at the 
Hudson-Fulton celebration. 

The State Constitution provides that there shall be in each 
county of this State, except in a county wholly included in a 
city, a Board of Supervisors, to be composed of such members 
and elected in such manner and for such period as is or may 
be provided by law. In a city which includes an entire county, 
or two or more entire counties, the powers and duties of a 
Board of Supervisors may be devolved upon the municipal 
assembly, common council, board ci aldermen or other legisla- 
tive body of the city. 

The Legislature shall, by general laws, confer upon the Boards 
of Supervisors of the several counties of the State such further 
powers of local legislation and administration as the Legislature 
may, from time to time, deem expedient. 

The Legislature shall not, nor shall the common council of any 
city, nor any Board of Supervisors, grant any extra compensa- 
tion to any public officer, servant, agent or contractor. 

Following a census enumeration and after the State Legisla- 
ture shall have made an apportionment of the number of mem- 
bers of the Assembly to which each county is entitled, the 
Board of Supervisors shall meet and prescribe, and divide such 
counties into Assembly districts as nearly equal in number of 
inhabitants, excluding aliens, as may be, of convenient and con- 
tiguous territory in as compact form as practicable, each of 
which shall be wholly within a Senate district formed under 
the same apportionment, equal to the number of members of 
Assembly to which such county shall be entitled, and shall cause 
to be filed in the office of the Secretary of State and of the Clerk 
of such county, a description of such districts, specifying the 
number of each district and of the inhabitants thereof, exclud- 
ing aliens, according to the last preceding enumeration; and 
such apportionment and districts shall remain unaltered until 
another enumeration shall be made. 

Following are the names of Supervisors representing the sev- 
eral cities and towns of Westchester County, and the years in 
%hieh they served as such Supervisors in the County Board; 
also, names of Chairmen, Clerks and other officials elected, from 
time to time, by the several Boards of Supervisors :* 

*For names of Supervisors in earlier years, see Volume 1. 



■5 -p T\ TJt pv O T\ 

Isaac W. Turner, 1896-7-8-9, 1900- 

Edward V. Barrett, 1905-6-7-8-9- 

10-11-12-13, present incumbent. 


James H. Haight, 1899, 1900-1-2. 
S. Fletcher Allen, 1903-4-5-6-7-8-9- 
10-11-12-13, present incumbent. 


Herbert D. Lent, 1899, 1900. 
William D. Granger, M. D., 1901-2. 
Henry C. Merritt, 1903-4-5-6-7-8-9- 
10-11-12-13, present incumbent. 


George C. Menzies, 1899, 1900.** 
Alexander McClelland, 1901-2-3-4- 

Charles D. Millard, 1907-8-9-10-11- 
12-13, present incumbent. 


George T. Gray, 1899, 1900-1-2, 
George T. Burling, 1903-4. 
Benjamin Irving Taylor, 1905-6-7- 
8-9-10-11-12-13, present incum- 
bent (elected to Congress, 

Lewisboro (formerly Salem). 

James F. Lawrence, 1893-4-5-6-7- 

8-9-1900-1-2. (Died in 1909.) 
George W. Mead, 1903-4-5-6-7-8. 

(Eesigned, 1909, on election to 

William C. Hull (appointed in place 

of Mead), 1909; elected for 

term of 1910-11-12-13, present 



Charles M. Baxter, 1899, 1900. 
Frank Hardy, 1901-2. 
John H. McArdle, 1903-4-5-6-7-8-9- 
10-11-12-13, present incumbent. 

Mount Pleasant. 

Charles M. Lane, 1894 to 1900. 
(Died, while Sheriff, in 1909.) 

John J. Sinnott, 1901-2-3-4-5-6-7-8- 
9-10-11-12-13, present incum- 

Mount Vernon. 
First Ward. 

Harry J. Robinson, 1897-8. 

(Accidentally killed, falling 

from a scaffold, July 3, 1911.) 

Edward W. Storms, 1899, 1900- 

William H. Bard, 1903-4. 

John B. Cortright, 1905-6 (ap- 
pointed County Election 

Louis Elrodt, 1907-8-9-10-11-12- 
13, present incumbent. 
Second Ward. 

Stephen Van Tassell, 1899, 1900- 

Duncan C. Campbell, 1903-4. 

H. Eugene Smith, M. D., 1905-6- 
7-8-9-10-11-12-13, present in- 

Third Ward. 

Charles C. Bigelow, 1899, 1900- 

Charles H. Weiss, 1903-4. 
Benjamin Howe, 1905-6. (Later 

elected Mayor.) 
John S. Lyons, 1907-8-9-10-11. 
Andrew Bridgeman, 1912-13, 

present incumbent. 
Fourth Ward. 

Albert S. Jenks, 1899, 1900-1-2-3. 
John H. Cordes, 1904-5-6-7-8-9- 

Clarence Farrington, 1912-13, 

present incumbent. 
Fifth Ward. 

Edgar K. Brown, 1899- 1900-1- 

James K. Fuller, 1907-8-9-10-11- 

12-13, present incumbent. 

Mount Vernon Supervisors take of- 
fice at the first meeting of the Board 
of Supervisors in the month of June 
after their election. 

New Castle. 

Harvey B. Green, 1899, 1900 

(later elected Clerk of Board). 
John W. Bowron, 1901-2-3-4-5-6-7- 

8-9-10, resigned April 8, 1911. 
Howard E. Washburn, appointed 

April 8, 1911, to fill vacancy. 

Elected for 1912-13. 

New Rochelle. 

Michael J. Dillon, 1898. (Mayor 
in 1899.) 
First Ward. 

William E. Moore, 1899, 1900 to 

April, 1904. 
Adam Kistinger, April, 1904, to 

April, 1906. 
John F. New, April, 1906, to 

April, 1908. 
Frank A. Raymond, April, 1908, 
to April, 1910. 
Henry A. Anthes, April, 1910-11. 
Edward Carson, 1912-13, present 

Died September 8, 1912, aged 55 years. 



Second Ward. 

G. H. Crawford, April, 1899, to 
April, 1902. 

William U. Wheeler, April, 1902, 
to April, 1904. 

Henry Scherp, April, 1904, to 
April, 1905. (Eesigned to ac- 
cept other office. Later elected 
Sheriff, died October 9, 1911.) 

William F. Hoffkins (appointed 
in place of Scherp), 1905, to 
April, 1907. 

Walter M. Bermingham, April, 
1907, to April, 1910. 

William F. Hoffkins, April, 1910- 
11-12-13, present incumbent. 

Third Ward. 

Jacob E. Wilkins, April, 1899, to 
1900, when he resigned on ac- 
count of ill health ; died in 

Frank J. Holler, appointed in the 
place of Wilkins, qualified Dec. 
24, 1900, and served until 
April, 1902. 

George E. Leviness, April, 1902; 
resigned during year to accept 
other office. 

Fred. L. Merritt, appointed in 
place of Leviness; served to 
April, 1903, when he began 
serving term for which he was 
elected, 1903 to 1905, and has 
been continuously re-elected ; 
is incumbent in 1913. 
Fourth Wai-d. 

Peter Doern, April, 1899, to 
April, 1902. 

Frank Breucher, April, 1902, to 
April, 1906. 

William H. Boardingham, April, 
1906, to April, 1908. (Died 
in 1908.) 

Frank Breucher, April, 1908-9- 
10-11-12-13, present incumbent. 

Supervisors in New Eochelle take 
office April 1, after general election. 

North Castle. 

Joseph B. See, 1899-1900. (Later 
appointed Under Sheriff and 
elected County Treasurer.) 

A. Smith Hopkins, 1901-2-3-4-5-6. 
(Elected County Superintendent 
of Poor; died April 23, 1908.) 

Charles McDonald, 1907-8-9-10-11- 
12-13, present incumbent. 

North Salem. 

Isaac Purdy, 1899, 1900. 

Frank S. Eeynolds, 1901-2-3-4-5-6- 
7-8-9-10-11-12-13, present incum- 


Gilbert M. Todd, 1899, 1900. 

Eobert T. Dennis, 1901-2-3-4. 

T. George Barnes, 1905-6-7-8. 

Jasper W. Travis, 1909-10-11; re- 
elected to serve during 1912-13; 
died June 16, 1912. 

John F. Jenkins, appointed to 
serve out Travis' term. 


John M. Shinn, 1899, 1900-1-2-3-4. 
Louis C. Young, 1905-6. 
Edgar C. Beecroft, 1907-8-9-10-11- 
12-13, present incumbent. 


George I. Euscoe, 1893, continu- 
ously to and including 1913, 
present incumbent. 


Charles Eldridge, 1899, 1900. 
Edwin F. Studwell, 1901-2-3-4-5-6- 

Joseph Haight, 1910-11-12-13, 

present incumbent. 


Chauncey T. Secor,* 1883, con- 
tinuously and including 1911. 
Alexander M. Crane, 1912-13, 
present incumbent. 


James P. Teed, 1899, 1900. 
Samuel M. Lounsbury, 1901-2-3-4- 

5-6. (Died May 22, 1910.) 
George Turner, 1907-8-9-10-11-12- 

13, present incumbent. 

White Plains. 

William S. Sterling, 1899, 1900-1-2. 
Ffarrington M. Thompson, 1903-4- 
5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13, present in- 


First Ward. 

J. Frank Curran, 1899, 1900-1- 

George Engle, 1905-6-7-8-9-10- 

11-12-13, present incumbent. 

Second Ward. 

Hall B. Waring, 1899, 1900. 

Died March 12, 1913. 



John I. Pruvn. 1901-2. 

John W. Wiieaton, 1903-4. 

Henry Koster, 1905-6. 

Alfred lies, part of 1907; re- 
signed on being elected Coro- 

William Welsh, appointed, served 
out lies' term. 

Arthur Barrett, 1910-11-12-13, 
present incumbent. 

Third Ward. 

Edward W. Forsrth, 1S96, con- 
tinuouslv to and including 
1913, present incumbent. 

Fourth Wai-d. 

Thomas A. Browne, 1S99, 1900- 

Harry Haines, 1903-4. (Later 

an Assemblyman.) 
Edwin J. Goodhart, 1905-6. 
John J. Stahl, 1907-S-9-10-11-12- 

13, present incumbent. 

Fifth Ward. 

Edward J. Earl, 1S99, 1900. 
Otto Olsen, 1901-2. 
Alfred M. Krug, 1903-4. 
James L. Hares. 1905-6. 
Arthur Maudlin, 1907-8-9-10-11. 
Thomas J. O'Brien, 1912-13, 
present inctimbent. 

Sixth Ward. 

Patrick Whalen, 1899, 1900-2-3-4. 
John F. Cody, 1905-6-7-8. (Died 

while in office, in Nov., 1908.) 
Michael J. Eeagan, appointed in 

place of Cody, 1909. 

Michael J. Nolan, 1910-11-12-13, 
present incumbent. 

Seventh Ward. 

Walter B. Dixon, 1S99, 1900-1- 

John Wise, 1905-6. 
James G. Andrews, 1907-8-9- 

William Dunn, 1912-13, present 


Under a new reapportionment, in 
1907, the Sth, 9th and 10th Wards 
were created by division of original 

Eighth Ward. 

Alfred M. Bailey, 1908-9-10-11- 
12-13, present incumbent. 

yinth Ward. 

P. F. Cullinan. 190S-9. 
Frederick Marshall, 1910-11. 
Benjamin Fitz Ijibbon, 1912-13, 

present incumbent. 

Tenth Ward. 

E. U. Eernolds, 1908-9. 
Michael J. Molloy, 1910-11-12- 
13, present incumbent. 


Edward B. Kear, 1899, 1900-1-2-3- 
4-5-6-7. (Elected County Kegis- 
ter; died August 31, 1911.) 

Wellington Lounsburv, 1908-9-10- 

James X. Strang, 1912-13, present 


{Continued from page 64, Volume 1.) 

Following are the names of Supervisors who have been 
elected and served as Chairmen of the Board of Supervisors 
of this County, and the names of Clerks, Assistant Clerks and 
other officers of the same body, from time to time : 


Charles M. Lane. Mount Pleasant, 1899, 1900. (Died 1909.) 
John M. Shinn, Pelham, 1901. 
Frank Hardy, ^Mamaroneck, 1902. 
Edgar K. Brown, Mount Vernon, 1903-4. 
Chauncey T. Secor, Scarsdale, 1893, 1897, 1898, 1905. (Died 

John J. Sinnott, Mount Pleasant, 1906-7. 
Edward A. Forsyth, Yonkers, 1908-9-10-11. 
Edward Percy Barrett, Bedford, 1912-13. 

:manual and civil list. 259 


Edwin R. Hopkins, North Castle, 1899, 1900-1-2-3. 
Harvey B. Green, Chappaqua, 1904. 
James J. Fleming, Yonkers, 1905-6-7. 
Harvey B. Green, Chappaqua, 1908-9-10-11-12-13. 


Harvey B. Green, Chappaqua, 1901-2-3. 

John H. Bangs, New Rochelle, 1904. (Died August 29, 1910.) 

Clinton T. Taylor, :\Iount Yernou, 1905-6. 

David S. Murden, Peekskill, 1907-8-9-10. 

Robert Mason, :\Iount Vernon. 1910-11-12-13. 


George A. Thompson, White Plains, 1899, 1900-1-2-3-4. 
Harry R. Koster, Yonkers, 1905-6-7-8-9; 1910-11-12-13, as 
Page and Assistant Librarian. 


(Advisor to the Board of Supervisors.) 

Edward Hughes, Yonkers, 1907-8. 

Charles A. Van Auken, New Rochelle, 1909-10-11-12-13. 

Note. — Biographies of Members of the Board of Supervisors, Chairmen 
and Clerks, are published under head "Towns in the Countv. " 


The Cabinet of President Wilson, announced by him on 
March 5, 1913, was composed as follows: "William Jennings 
Bryan, of Nebraska, as Secretary of State; William Gibbs 
McAdoo, of New York, as Secretary- of the Treasury; Lindley 
Murray Garrison, of New Jersey, as Secretary of War; James 
Clark McReynolds. of Tennessee, as Attorney-General; Albert 
Sidney Burleson, of Texas, as Postmaster-General; Josephus 
Daniels, of North Carolina, as Secretary of the Navy; Franklin 
Knight Lane, of California, as Secretary of the Interior : David 
Franklin Houston, of Missouri, as Secretary of Agriculture; 
William Cox Redfield, of New York, as Secretary- of Commerce ; 
William Bauchop AVilson, of Pennsylvania, as Secretary of 
Labor. The act of Congress creating a Department of Labor 
and providing for a Secretary' of Labor in the Cabinet was 
passed in March. 1913, and the signing of the bill was one of 
the last official acts of President Taft. 



Sleepy Hollow and the Headless-Horseman's Bridge, familiar 
to the readers of Washington Irving 's story, are situated in the 
town of Mount Pleasant. 

As we read Irving 's story fancy may have led us to hear 
the clatter of horse's hoofs as the headless horseman rode over 
an old-style wooden bridge; the allusion will be spoiled when 
one beholds the present Headless-Horseman's Bridge. The 
march of progress and up-to-date ideas has eliminated the old 
bridge structure that Irving made famous. The wealth that 
summer's itself beyond Sleepy Hollow believes in an up-to-date 
approach to its domain. It has not sponged out the legendary 
name, but a tablet in bronze informs the wayfarer that the 
existing bridge owes its being to the estate owners beyond the 
creek. Nothing survives of the span that Irving immortalized. 
The wild ride such as he described would be impossible over 
granite arches and modern brick pavement. As at many other 
places famous in legend, one must carry an active imagination 
along with a proper sense of things as they are. 

But even wealth has not despoiled Sleepy Hollow of its rare 
natural setting, nor has it yet touched some of the artificial 
adjuncts that impart romantic flavor to the scene. The old 
Sleepy Hollow Dutch Church remains, surrounded by all its 
historic interest. No rude hand can disturb Sleepy Hollow 
Cemetery, abreast of which Ichabod Crane first saw his un- 
canny pursuer. Across the field stands the Manor House, its 
exterior looking much as it did when Frederick Philipse took 
Catherine Van Cortlandt there more than two hundred years 
ago. The inclosing hills are beautiful in their forest growth. 
It is a lazy, droning spot, and a visitor in the right spirit may 
ignore the invasion of the modern. 

Sleepy Hollow Cemetery is, as may be said, divided into two 
divisions, the old and the new; the original part, near the 
church, and an extension up the hill. Old residents are laid 
in the old graveyard and their descendants lay at rest in the 
new section. Irving is buried near the upper end of the old 
section, with his younger relatives through several generations, 
to the number of about thirty. A plain, unpretentious marble 
slab marks the place where the remains of Irving were laid, the 
present being the third slab erected; vandals carried away for- 


mer slabs in chips as souvenirs; an iron fence was recently- 
erected to protect the grave. 

The old church is frequently opened on Sundays in summer 
for afternoon services, under charge of the pastor of the First 
Reformed Church of Tarrytown, Members of many of the old 
families residing in and about Sleepy Hollow have been buried 
from this church. The interior of the church is as it was 200 
years ago, when it was built by Frederick Philipse and his 
wealthy wife. 


(Continued from page 320, Vol. 2.) 

The proposed Bronx Parkway, which is to extend from Bronx 
Park, in New York city, through Westchester County, running 
north, to the proposed new Kensico Dam at Valhalla, in the 
town of North Castle, it is estimated, will be of great value to 
our county, benefiting all that section through which its route 
is laid, since it will beautify all the waste and unsightly land 
along the Bronx River. 

The Parkw^ay will be fifteen miles long, and will connect New 
York city's park system in Bronx Borough with the city's 
watershed in Westchester County. It was undertaken by New 
York city and Westchester County as the best means of relief 
from intolerable pollution of the Bronx River. 

Following the Bronx River and the Harlem division of the 
New York Central Railroad, the Parkway will extend from the 
northerly end of Bronx Park through Williamsbridge, Wood- 
lawn, Mount Vernon, Bronxville, Tuckahoe, Scarsdale, White 
Plains and the town of North Castle to the new Kensico Reser- 
voir, one of the largest in the world. The terminal will be at 
the ten million dollar dam now under construction by New 
York city. The country at this point in Westchester County 
has many natural charms, which will be enhanced by a water 
garden of one thousand fountains to aerate the water brought 
down by the Catskill Aqueduct. 

The cost of constructing this Parkway is to be borne by New 
York city and Westchester County ; the county paying a minor 
portion. There are 1,130 acres divided into 1,200 parcels, in 
the fifteen miles of the proposed parkway. It is estimated the 
entire cost to the city of New York will be about $4,000,000. 


This is the estimated amount for acquiring the total reservation 
at the present time (1913), including a substantial sum for the 
protection of existing park features, planting and replanting 
of denuded districts, straightening the river for flood regula- 
tion and the sanitary measures required against pollution. 

Members of the Bronx Park Commission, it is said, will en- 
deavor to make a record for economy in the purchase of the 
lands for this public use. A large number of substantial dona- 
tions of lands have been obtained, largely, it is said, because 
large property owners are willing to give to aid a project cal- 
culated to improve and make more valuable all abutting prop- 
erty. These will be the first lands taken over by the Commis- 
sion. The next step will be to acquire lands on which options 
have been obtained at less than present market value. There 
are more than one hundred and fifty acres in this class. 

Where agreements cannot be reached by direct negotiations, 
the lands will ultimately be condemned, but it is the announced 
intention of the Commission to delay such condemnation pro- 
ceedings for several years, so that those who sell at a fair figure 
can realize much more quickly on their lands than by holding 
out for an excessive speculative price. 

The construction of this Parkway is authorized by Act of the 
State Legislature, Laws of 1907, Chapter 594. 


In Volume two, in the specially prepared narrative relating 
to the treachery of Benedict Arnold and the capture of his 
aiding conspirator, Major Andre, mention has been particularly 
made of Peggy Shippen, the pretty eighteen-year-old daughter 
of a prominent Philadelphia Tory, whom Gen. Arnold courted, 
and whom it has been said, influenced him to incline in favor 
of Tories, and, Anally, to turn traitor to the cause he had sworn 
to serve. 

The love story of Arnold and Peggy Shippen is full of interest 
even in its tragic ending. 

When Arnold took command of the Continental Army in 
Philadelphia, crippled with honorable wounds in the service of 
his country, and reputed to be a man of courage, it is not strange 
that he should have won the heart of the beautiful and fascinat- 
ing Miss Shippen, who was just past eighteen years of age, and 
less than half the age of Arnold. 

It was not long after his arrival in the "City of Brotherly 
Love" that Arnold was declared a suitor for the hand of Miss 
Shippen. On the twenty-fifth of September, 1778, he made to 
her a formal declaration of his love and offer of his hand. In 
part this letter was as follows: 

' ' Dear Madam : — Twenty times have I taken up my pen to 
write to you, and as often has my trembling hand refused to 
obey the dictates of my heart — a heart which though calm and 
serene amidst the clashing of arms and all the din and horrors 
of war — trembles with diffidence and the fear of giving offense 
when it attempts to address you on a subject so important to 
its happiness. Dear madam, your charms have lighted up a 
flame in my bosom which can never be extinguished; your 
heavenly image is too deeply impressed ever to be effaced. 

"My passion is not founded on personal charms only:that 
sweetness of disposition and goodness of heart, that sentiment 
and sensibility which so strongly mark the character of the 
lovely Miss P. Shippen, renders her amiable beyond expression, 
and will ever retain the heart she has once captivated. On you 
alone my happiness depends, and will you doom me to languish 
in despair? Do you feel no pity in your bosom for the man 
who would die to make you happy? Dear Peggy, suffer that 



heavenly bosom to expand with a sensation more soft and more 
tender than friendship. 

* * * "Whatever my fate may be, my most ardent wish is 
for your happiness, and my latest breath will be to implore the 
blessing of Heaven on the idol and only wish of my soul. Adieu, 
dear Madam, and believe me unalterably, your sincere admirer 
and devoted humble servant, B. Arnold." 

It appears that his ardent passion was soon reciprocated, for 
on the eighth of February, 1779, he writes to her with the 
fervor of an accepted lover: — 

"My Dearest Life: — Never did I so ardently long to see or 
hear fom you as at this instant. I am all impatience and anx- 
ious to know how you do; six days' absence, without hearing 
from my dear Peggy, is intolerable. Heavens! what must I 
have suffered had I continued my journey — the loss of happi- 
ness for a few dirty acres ! I daily discover so much baseness 
and ingratitude among mankind that I almost blush at being of 
the same species, and could quit the stage without regret were 
it not for some gentle, generous souls like my dear Peggy, who 
still retain the lively impression of their Maker's image, and 
who, with smiles of benignity and goodness make all happy 
around them. 

"The day after tomorrow I leave here and hope to be made 
happy by your smiles on Friday evening. Till then all nature 
smiles in vain; for you alone heard, felt and seen, possess my 
every thought, fill every sense and pant in every vein. 

"Clarkson will send an express to meet me in Bristol; make 
me happy by one line, to tell you are so. ]\Iy prayers and 
best wishes attend my dear Peggy. Adieu ! and Ijelieve me, sin- 
cerely and affectionately thine^ B. Arnold." 

On the twenty-second of March, 1779, General Arnold, in 
anticipation of his marriage, purchased the fine old country seat 
called Mount Pleasant, situated on the east bank of the Schuyl- 
kill, and made a settlement of the estate on himself for life, 
"remainder to his wife and children." Two weeks thereafter 
General Arnold and Peggy Shippen were married at the resi- 
dence of her father, a fine substantial mansion on the west side 
of Fourth street. 

The story' of Arnold's treason, the capture of Major Andre 
at TarrytoAvn, in this county (as told in Volume 2, page 175), 
the flight of Arnold to Europe, is all told in history. After the 
Revolution Arnold lived in England, where his last years were 
embittered by remorse. He died in London, June 14, 1801. Mrs. 
Arnold died in the same city three years later, aged forty-four. 


The autumn of 1776 has been described as among "the dark 
days" for the patriot army, as in fact the American heroes had 
many such days. 

On October 28, in that year, occurred the Battle of White 
Plains, which has been described "as a contest of arms it takes 
no rank among the great battles of history, but its bearings in 
the future of the American Nation were of the utmost impor- 

The War of the Revolution began with the "Battle of Lex- 
ington in April, 1775, and a year later the British government 
found the Americans as defiant and determined. The English 
Parliament had appropriated £1,000,000 to carry on the war of 
conquest; skilled Hessian soldiers had been hired from Ger- 
many to swell the British ranks. The intention was to concen- 
trate a large British army in New York city, take possession of 
the Hudson River and thus cut oft: connection between New 
England and other Colonies. In August, 1776, the British 
landed a large army on Staten Island, with intention of mov- 
ing on New York city. Gen. Washington, with a force num- 
bering 14,000, was entrenched on Brooklyn Heights, for the 
protection of the city. A few days later the British landed at 
Gravesend Bay, south of Brooklyn; then followed the Battle 
of Long Island, in which the patriot army suffered defeat and 
great loss. During the night Gen. Washington succeeded in 
getting his scattered troops together on Harlem Heights. The 
British under Gen. Howe took possession of New^ York city, and 
a large body of troops was sent out, under Gen. Howe, in hopes 
of intercepting Gen. Washington, exterminating, with one blow, 
the patriot army and ending the war. Gen. Howe and his forces 
landed at Throgg's Neck, in this County. Gen. Washington, 
correctly interpreting Howe's purpose, sent a detachment to 
Throgg's Neck to cheek hini; this last move had the effect of 
holding Gen. Howe at latter place for five days, giving Gen, 
Washington time to move his army in the direction of White 
Plains, as he, by this time, realized that he would have to leave 
New York city in possession of the enemy. Leaving Fort Wash- 



ington, on the Hudson River, with a garrison of 3,000 men, Gen. 
Washington, at the head of the remainder of his army, hurried 
along over King's Bridge, over Valentine's Hill, Yonkers, 
through j\Iiles Square, and on to what was afterward known as 
Mount Vernon, crossed Hunt's Bridge, spanning the Bronx 
River, and marched along the east bank of the Bronx River 
to White Plains, where the stores had already been concen- 
trated; the army arrived on October 21, and camped on high 
ground north of the village; their lines extending from the 
Bronx River over Dusenbury's Hill, across Broadway and east- 
ward to the rocky hills at Horton's Pond, now St. Mary's Lake. 
Here, within the next two days, breastworks were thrown up. 
Gen. Lee arrived from the South with troops sufficient to increase 
Gen. Washington's army to 25,000; but one-half of these were 
sick or otherwise unfit for service; the remaining number were 
raw recruits, farmers' boys, undisciplined, mostly un-uniformed, 
ragged, ill-fed and disheartened, and hundreds, their terms of 
enlistment having expired, were daily leaving the ranks and 
going home. The situation must have been extremely painful to 
Gen. Washington, who in every way possible endeavored to rally 
his men to renewed efforts and prepare for the battle that was 
sure at hand. 

The British Gen. Howe, realizing that Gen. Washington had 
out-witted him, withdrew his forces from Throgg's Neck and 
landed them at Pelham, further up in the County. Here he 
mustered an army of 15,000 veteran troops, well-disciplined and 
well fed, and decided to follow Gen. Washington and his army, 
and carry out his avowed purpose of extermination. The Brit- 
ishers marched through New Roehelle, up the Post road and into 
Scarsdale, where the patriot army pickets were met and driven 
in ; the British lines were spread eastward over the Plains from 
the Bronx to the Mamaroneck River. It is said that a detach- 
ment of British troops entered White Plains by way of Pur- 
chase, separating from main force at New Roehelle. 

Gen. Washington assigned five regiments with some artillery, 
under command of Gen. MacDougal, to hold Chatterton Hill 
(now in village of White Plains and in town of Greenburgh). 

Gen. Howe, the British commander, sent a strong force, con- 
sisting of English and Hessian troops, to dislodge the patriots on 
Chatterton Hill ; these troops crossed the Bronx at the ford, sup- 
posed to be near where the village disposal works are now located, 
and marched along Mill Lane, covered by the fire of the British 


cannon located on the plateau on the east side of the Bronx ; sud- 
denly facing to the left, in a long line, they rushed up the steep 
and rugged hill in the face of a fierce and deadly fire from the 
summit. The trained British soldiers pushed on in their charge 
regardless of results, that their comrades were falling fast under 
the raking fire of the patriots; it appeared as if the latter had 
won the day, when two regiments of Hessian troops appeared 
over the brow of the hill from the west and opened a merciless 
cross-fire on the American defenders of the hill. The tide was 
turned by overwhelming numbers of the enemy; the Americans, 
to prevent a further loss of men, beat a hasty, though orderly, 
retreat down the hill, across the bridge and up to Gen. AVash- 
ington's camp on Dusenbury's Hill, leaving Chatterton Hill in 
possession of the enemy. The battle was short, but decisive. 
The loss of the Americans was not over one hundred ; the British 
loss was three times that number. 

Had the British General followed up his advantage, and car- 
ried out his purpose of annihilation, history might have a dif- 
ferent story to tell to-day relative to the result of the American 
war for Independence. 

Instead of continuing the attack, Gen. Howe rested in camp 
three days waiting for troops he had ordered from New Rochelle 
and New York. 

Gen. Washington retreated with his troops to the heights of 
North Castle,* a few miles north of White Plains; here breast- 
works were thrown up, and the soldiers settled down as if in- 
tending to remain there all winter. 

Gen. Howe decided not to molest Gen. Washington and his 
army in their impregnable position on the North Castle high 
hills, believing success doubtful even after a long winter 
siege; therefore Howe moved his army to Dobbs Ferry and 
thence by the river road towards New York city. On his way 
Howe was able to capture Fort Washington, owing to the treach- 
ery of an officer of the garrison, and make prisoners of the 3,000 
officers and men Gen. Washington had left there on his way to 
White Plains. 

On November 9, 1776, Gen. Washington and the main body of 
his army broke camp in North Castle and marched across the 
County and into New Jersey. Gen. Lee, with a detachment of 
several thousand troops, remained in North Castle for two weeks, 
to look after Howe in case he should decide to come back. 

*See account under title "Town of North Castle. 


The night following the departure of the British army from 
White Plains a number of Massachusetts Militia became hilarious 
and to celebrate the departure of the British, set fire to the 
County Court House, the Presbyterian Church and many pri- 
vate dwellings and stores in the village of White Plains. (See 
page 33, volume 1.) 

The flag carried by the patriot army during the Battle of 
White Plains was that known as " the battle flag of White 
Plains," and bore the "Liberty Cap," together with the sword 
and staft' and the words of Patrick Henry, "Liberty or Death." 

The stars and stripes as the national flag was not adopted 
until June 14, 1777. 

The Battle of White Plains taught the cautious Washington 
the advantages his enemy possessed in organization, arms and 
discipline. These were difficulties to be mastered by his own 
vigilance and care. Drawing ofl:' his troops to the heights, in 
and around North Castle, he had bidden defiance to the attacks 
of the royal army, and Sir William Howe fell back to the enjoy- 
ment of his barren conquest — a deserted city. Never afterward 
did the opposing armies make the trial of strength within the 
limits of Westchester County. 

The 135th anniversary of the Battle of White Plains was 
observed on October 28 (known as Battle Day), 1911, with a 
patriotic celebration, during which an American flag was un- 
furled from a tall pole at the top of Chatterton Hill. Arrange- 
ments perfected by the White Plains Chapter of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution provided for a parade of the 
militia, war veterans, civic societies, school children, etc., ad- 
dresses and vocal and instrumental music. It was estimated 
that fully five thousand people attended the ceremonies. 

Mrs. Joseph S. Wood, of Mount Vernon, State Regent, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, made the address of greeting 
to the assembled people. 

Former Village President Frederick S. Barnum, of White 
Plains, delivered the oration. 



The Committee of Safety for the State had its headquarters 
in White Plains, this County, at the commencement of the 
American Revolution. John Jay, of Bedford, who later held 
many official positions, Pierre Van Cortlandt, of Croton 
Landing, who later was the first Lieutenant-Governor of 
the State, in 1777, and other residents of Westchester 
County, who became prominent by other evidences of patriotism 
during the trying times of the Revolution, were members of 
this Committee on whose heads the British Government had 
placed a price. This Committee held sessions in White Plains 
as long as it was deemed advisable; later meetings were held 
at Fishkill Landing and at other points along the Hudson River 
and the Committee was ever active until the closing hours of 
the struggle for American Independence. The country was full 
of Tories operating secretly against the loyal Americans, and 
the Committee of Safety found it desirable to get the fullest 
information regarding Tory movements. The question as to 
how best to get this information proved difficult of solution. 
A secret agent who could mingle with Tory settlements, become 
a part of same, and become possessed of secrets as to contem- 
plated action in support of the King's army by said Tories, and 
later contrive to escape and bring the valuable news to the Com- 
mittee of Safety, was the sort of man much needed at this time. 

In the fall of 1776 such a person presented himself, as if in 
answer to the sincere prayers of members of the Committee. 
This was Enoch Crosby, a young man twenty-six years of age, 
six feet in height, slender in build. He was a shoemaker who 
had recently finished his time as a shoemaker's apprentice. 
While working at the cobbler's bench he heard his Country's 
call for volunteers to join the American Army then in the field ; 
inspired even then by particularly strong patriotism that char- 
acterized and influenced him all through his career, he laid 
down his implements of trade and hastened to tender his ser- 
vices as an American soldier. He had served in Canada under 
Generals Schuyler and Montgomery. In September, 1776, Crosby 



decided that he wanted to lead the strenuous life of a soldier, 
that he desired to be engaged in the thickest of the fray, where 
he could make a record that would prove everlasting and long 
remembered. With this intention he started on a journey of 
many miles ; from Connecticut, where he was temporarily resid- 
ing, through AVestchester County to Peekskill, near which place 
he learned the American Army lay. As his youth had been 
spent in the vicinity of Peekskill, he was familiar with the 
country in the neighborhood, as he was with the upper part of 
the County generally. In his travels, as night overtook him, 
he was compelled to seek lodging at farm houses en route; at 
such times, in conversation with farmers and members of their 
families, he became acquainted with the prevailing sentiment 
relative, to the war; many of the families with whom he 
lodged manifested strong Tory affiliation, and many were the 
invitations he received to tarry and attend secret Tory gather- 
ings for the formation of military companies to enlist in aid 
of the King. At first his determination to push on and join 
the American Army up the river influenced him to leave these 
Tory localities, but his meeting on all sides what his patriotic 
nature condemned as rank disloyalty on the part of certain of 
his countrymen had the effect of changing his entire course as 
to his duty in the desire to aid his struggling countrymen. He 
believed he saw a way by which information, forced upon him 
by Tories he met along the roadside, might be made valuable if 
turned to account in benefiting the cause for which he was will- 
ing to give his life. He considered the risks he would encounter, 
and realized that the penalty for failure would be the loss of his 
life; yet he did not falter in his determination to act when his 
duty was made plain. From this time on he accepted readily 
requests extended to attend meetings held by Tories to devise 
ways and means for the enlistment and equipment of soldiers 
to fight for the King and against their more patriotic neighbors. 

Soon Crosby learned that, though single handed in an extra 
hazardous undertaking, he could accomplish more to encourage 
and aid his fellow-patriots than he would have done had he 
persisted in his first intention of joining the American Army 
iccated up the river. 

The Committee of Safety, in session at White Plains, was not 
long left in ignorance as to Crosby and the value he might 
prove if his services could be secured and directed by the Com- 
mittee. Accordingly, Crosby was asked to meet with the Com- 


mittee in White Plains. After thanking him for services ren- 
dered, the Committee assured him that he had not only won 
their confidence but also the high regard of every true Ameri- 
can familiar with loyal aid rendered in his honest and sincere 
manner. It was explained to Crosby that more drastic measures 
had to be employed to defeat attempts of Tories in their move- 
ments to prevent enlistments in the American Army and in 
devious ways to contribute to the success of the King. 

Crosby explained to the Committee his intention of going into 
the army. It was at the Committee's earnest urging that Crosby 
consented to adopt the role of spy, instead of going into the 
army. It was not necessary to explain to him that his choice 
was an extremely dangerous service. Crosby fully realized it; 
he was full of patriotic valor and he did not hesitate to accept 
the proposition of the Committee; in return for services he 
might render in his country's behalf he merely stipulated that 
if he fell doing his duty, full justice should be done his memory. 
This the Com.mittee gladly promised. 

How well Enoch Crosby proved himself worthy of the con- 
fidence reposed in him, history tells us. How he mingled with 
Tories, became possessed of their secrets unfolded at midnight, 
out-of-the-way places of meeting, how he led bands of Conti- 
nental soldiers to such places and captured whole companies of 
Tories ; how he was mainly instrumental in driving from locali- 
ties along the Hudson River, through Westchester and Putnam 
Counties, residents known to be Tories and others secretly in 
sympathy with the British Army. His life in these trouble- 
some days was certainly an eventful one. His mission was a 
secret one; that he was the trusted agent of the Committee of 
Safety was supposed to be known only to members of the Com- 
mittee. He had many narrow escapes, and frequently he had 
a realizing impression that his life was at stake. When he fell 
into the hands of the Continental forces and believed to be a 
British spy to pay the sentence by death, the Committee had to 
secretly exert influence to have his life spared and secure his 
liberty; when arrested by the British as an American spy, and 
judged to die, as on one occasion or more, he contrived to escape 
and return to his chosen work of attendance on Tories in the 
interest of the American cause. Owing to the fact that he had 
to represent himself as being in sympathy with the invading 
British to curry favor with Tories, and the necessity of his 
being seen frequently in close intimacy with Tories, naturally 


led the uninformed to believe that he was himself a Tory, there- 
fore his arrest by Continental troops is not surprising. His 
getting mixed up with the " lower party," as the British troops 
in New York city and vicinity were known to be, might also be 

Enoch Crosby did not fail in what he undertook to do for 
his country; though he did not fall, the Committee of Safety 
endeavored, with all its power, that full justice be done his 
memory. Fellow-patriots were made to know him and love him, 
for what he did, when and where his services were most needed. 

After the Revolution Enoch Crosby, and his brother Benja- 
min, purchased from the Commissioners of Forfeiture a farm 
of 256 acres in the village of Southeast, where he resided during 
the remainder of his life. He was happily married to a widow, 
resident of Somers in this County. For many years he was a 
Justice of the Peace, was one of the Associate Judges of Common 
Pleas in 1812-13, and Supervisor of Southeast during these years. 
He died June 26, 1835, at the age of 85 years, 5 months and 21 

Enoch Crosby was born in Harwich, Mass., a son of Thomas 
and Elizabeth Crosby, on January 4, 1750. When Crosby was 
three years old his parents removed to Putnam County and 
settled in a locality not far from the Westchester County line. 
When sixteen years of age Enoch left home to depend upon his 
own ability; his parents' limited means prohibited their giving 
him much assistance to help him on his way. That determina- 
tion and grit, that stood him well in after years, were his prin- 
cipal resources now. He became an apprentice to a shoemaker 
in Peekskill and completed this service when he became 21 years 
of age; shortly after this he left the bench for the life of a 

His remains are interred in the local cemetery in Southeast 
township, over which has been erected a tombstone suitably 

Enoch Crosby is generally believed to have been the original 
of " Harvey Birch," the hero of James Fenimore Cooper's 
famous novel, " The Spy;" the scenes of that story being laid 
in Westch-?ster County. 

Cooper tells how his hero, Harvey Birch, "near the close of 
the year 1780. as a solitary traveler, was seen pursuing his way 
throuG'b oD'^ of the numerous little valleys of Westchester." 
The Cnnnty op Chester, at that period, after the British had 


obtained possession of New York, became common ground, in 
which both parties continued to act for the remainder of the 
war of the Revolution. As Cooper truthfully asserts, " a large 
proportion of its inhabitants, either restrained by their attach- 
ments or influenced by their fears, affected a neutrality they 
did not feel. The lower towns of the county were, of course, 
more particularly under the dominion of the crown, while the 
upper towns, finding a security from the vicinity of the Con- 
tinental troops, were bold in asserting their revolutionary opin- 
ions and their right to govern themselves. Great numbers, how- 
ever, wore masks, which even to this day (in 1822 the year in 
which Cooper wrote his book) had not been thrown aside; and 
many an individual has gone to the tomb, stigmatized as a foe 
to the rights of his countrymen, while, in secret, he has been 
the useful agent of the leaders of the Revolution; and, on the 
other hand, could the hidden repositories of divers flaming 
patriots have been opened to the light of day, royal protectiona 
would have been discovered concealed under piles of British 
gold." Both Washington and Sir Henry Clinton had an 
unusual number of secret agents scattered throughout West- 
chester County; during the war that partook so much of a 
domestic character, and in which the contending parties were 
people of the same blood and language, it could scarcely be 

It is generally accepted as a fact that Enoch Crosby was the 
man referred to by the member of the Committee of Safety 
who related to Mr. Cooper the story used as the foundation of 
the latter 's novel and the creation of the character " Harvey 
Birch." Though Mr. Cooper distinctly states that his inform- 
ant did not mention the name of his agent, from more recent 
information is gained the knowledge identifying Harvey Birch 
as Enoch Crosby, and John Jay as the member of the Com- 
mittee of Safety who related Crosby's story to Mr. Cooper. 
At the date of Mr. Jay's death, Mr. Crosby was still alive, 
residing not many miles distant from the residence of Mr. 
Jay in Westchester County. Had Mr. Jay, in his latter days, 
thought it advisable, he could have brought the author Cooper 
and ex-Secret Agent Crosby together. 

It is understood that Mr. Cooper refers to John Jay in the 
introduction of his book, " The Spy," when he says: " Many 
years since, the writer of this volume was at the residence of 
an illustrious man, who had been employed in various situa- 


tions of high trust during the darkest days of the American 
Revolution." It is known that both Jay and Cooper were 
residents of AVestchester County at the time " The Spy " waa 
written (in 1822), and for several years after. 

It is quite evident that it was Mr. Jay who gave Mr. Cooper 
the facts relative to the employment of Crosby as a secret agent, 
of a secret committee named by Congress, to counteract the 
influence of Tories in endeavors to " raise various corps of 
provincial troops, to be banded with those from Europe, to 
reduce the young republic to subjection." " Of this Com- 
mittee," says Mr. Cooper, " Mr. , the narrator of the 

anecdote, was chairman." As Mr. Jay was chairman of that 
committee, it proves, quite conclusively, that Mr. Cooper secured 
facts for his story from the distinguished Mr. Jay. Again, 
Mr. Cooper refers to his informant in this wise: '* In the 

year Mr. was named to high and honorable 

employment at a European Court. (In 1794 Mr. Jay was 
appointed Minister to England.) Before vacating his seat in 
Congress (Mr. Jay was member of the first Congress and con- 
tinued in Congress until there was a demand for his patriotic 
services in other fields) he reported to that body an outline of 
the circumstances related, necessarily suppressing the name of 
his agent, and demanding an appropriation in behalf of a man 
who had been of so much use, at so great risk. A suitable sum 
was voted, and its delivery was confided to the chairman (Mr. 

Jay) of the Secret Committee. Mr. took the necessary 

means to summon his agent to a personal interview. (It is 
understood that Crosby was at that time located on a farm not 
far distant.) They met in a wood at midnight. Here Mr. 
complimented his companion on his fidelity and adroit- 
ness; explained the necessity of their communications being 
closed; and finally tendered the money. The other drew back 
and declined receiving it. ' The country has need of all its 
means, ' he said ; ' as for myself, I can work, or gain a liveli- 
hood in various ways.' Persuasion was useless, for patriotism 
was uppermost in the heart of this remarkable individual; and 

Mr. departed, bearing with him the gold he had brought 

and a deep respect for the man who had so long hazarded his 
life, unrequited, for the cause they served in common. The 
writer is under an impression that at a later day the agent of 
Mr. consented to receive a remuneration for what he 


had done; but it was not until his country was entirely in a 
condition to bestow it." 

In fact, Mr. Crosby was on several occasions questioned as 
to his being the origin of Mr. Cooper's story, and as to he being 
the " spy " alluded to, and Mr. Crosby never made denial. 

Mr. Crosby's son, Dr. Edward Crosby, resided in Somertown 
Plain many years, removed to Mount Kisco in 1876, where he 
died in 1886. 

Mrs. Flora Adams Darling, founder of the Daughters of the 
Revolution and also the Daughters of the American Revolution, 
who died recently, was the widow of the Confederate gen- 
eral, Edward Irving Darling, and a sister of John Quincy 
Adams, of New York. In 1864, when her husband was dying 
in the South, she started to him under a safe conduct issued 
by General Banks. She was arrested by the Federal military 
authorities, regardless of her credentials, and her personal prop- 
erty confiscated. Congress later awarded her $5,682 for her 

Recently, in a Congressional debate, the question was raised 
when and where the Civil War closed. Lee surrendered at 
Spottsylvania Court-House April 9, 1865; Johnston at Durham 
Station, N. C, April 26; Taylor at Citronelle, Ala., May 6; 
while the battle of Palmito Ranch, in Texas, was fought May 13, 
the Confederates winning the victory. As a matter of conven- 
ience the Government decided that the war closed June 1, 1865, 
while the Supreme Court, as appeared by citations in the debate, 
has assigned different dates to mark the legal termination of 
the war. It is really said to have closed at different times in 
different States. By an act passed in March, 1867, Congress, 
for certain purposes it had then in mind, even decided that the 
war ended officially on August 20, 1866. 

As to the place where the last gun was fired, that distinction 
appears to belong to Texas. Representative Sheppard of that 
State pointed out that the battle of Palmito Ranch was fought 
on the spot where nineteen years earlier Gen. Taylor with 2,000 


American troops defeated a Mexican army of 6,000 under Arista, 
at Palo Alto, the opening conflict of the Mexican war. 

Although the coincidence that the opening battle of the 
Mexican War and the closing encounter of the Civil War were 
fought on the same spot has no significance, the fact in itself is 
memorable, and in time, as Mr. Sheppard suggests, may be 
commemorated by a suitable monument. 

This County has three Militia Companies, N. Y. S. N. G. at 
Yonkers, Mount Vernon and White Plains, and two State Naval 
Militia organizations, at New Rochelle and Ossining. 


March 12, 1888, was the date on which the Great Blizzard 
visited this section of the globe— an event unique in the weather 
history of New York. 

Railroad commuters residing in this county and doing busi- 
ness in New York were kept days from their homes. Horse 
cars were the rule then in New York city, the cable road in 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth street being the only exception. 
The elevated trains were drawn by the bobtailed steam engines 
whose smoke and noise are still remembered as nuisances patheti- 
cally long endured. These means of transit yielded quickly to 
the advance of the heavy snow, under command of the fierce 
wind, and walking became the order of the day for anybody 
who was forced to get anywhere, even then through tunnels 
made in the deep snow. 

Supplies were shut ofi' as if by a military cordon. Food 
prices soared. Babies cried in vain for milk. Condensed milk 
took the place of fresh dairy product in ordinary combinations 
from oyster stew to eafe-au-lait. The schools closed or suffered 
a decimated attendance. Among the sights of the time, briefly 
witnessed, were dogs and people crossing the East River on the 
ice. The weather siege had its effect on the death-roll too, and 
Roscoe Conkling's name was among those finally on the list of 
the blizzard's dead. 

New York city has had, including Mayor Gaynor, in 1911, 
seventy-nine different Mayors in its history. 



The Presidential ejection which stands prominent fis the 
most momentous in the history of our Nation was the four- 
cornered fight in 1860. 

Then we had as candidates for President, Douglas, Democrat ; 
Lincoln, Republican; Breckinridge, Democrat, and Bell, Inde- 
pendent, the latter the candidate of newly organized Constitu- 
tional Union party. 

With the heretofore victorious Democratic party split into 
two factions, each determined to outdo the other, and an inde- 
pendent party nominee in the field, the friends of Abraham 
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, were quite confident of 
success. Yet the latter realized that the unexpected might hap- 
pen, as it frequently does. 

There was a possibility in that campaign that the opposition 
to Lincoln could poll enough electoral votes to prevent him 
from getting a majority, and a hope that the election thus 
would be thrown into the House of Representatives. It was 
figured that in a House election the best Lincoln could do 
would be to get the votes of fifteen States, while Breckinridge 
could expect twelve States. The other States would probably 
go to Douglas first and then to Breckinridge, giving the latter 
the Presidency; or, failing that, Lane, the Vice-Presidential 
candidate on the Breckinridge ticket, in the mean time would 
be elected Vice-President by the Senate and would succeed to 
the Presidency. 

But the situation feared by the friends of Lincoln did not 
present itself. The result of the election proved quite positive 
in favor of a change in the political affairs of the Nation. Lin- 
coln, according to the returns, had secured a necessary majority 
of the electoral vote, although receiving only two-fifths of the 
popular vote. There was a fusion of the anti-Lincoln tickets 
in the States of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, but 
this fusion availed little as to the result. 

The division in the National Democratic party, it is explained, 
came about in this way: The National nominating convention 
of the party was regularly called to meet in Charleston, S. C. 



(Judge Thomas Smith, of Yonkers, attended as a delegate, 
representing the Congressional district of which Westchester 
County was a part.) 

Douglas went to the Convention with a majority of the dele- 
gates in his favor; but California and Oregon voting with the 
South gave the anti-Douglas forces control of the committees, 
and the Convention soon came to a disagreement over the word- 
ing of the platform. The Douglas men wanted a platform 
similar to the one adopted by the Convention nominating 
Buchanan four years previous. Those in opposition to Douglas, 
being in majority on the platform committee, reported a plat- 
form pronouncing slaves property, and gave a citizen the right 
to take them wherever he would. About fifty bolted the Con- 
vention, the anti-Douglas platform was adopted; the Conven- 
tion, unable to agree on candidates to be nominated, had to 
agree to an adjournment — it was decided to meet several weeks 
later in Baltimore, Md., the more conservative hoping that when 
they again met an amicable settlement of differences would be 
brought about and the destruction of the party avoided. 

The reassembling of the Convention in Baltimore found little 
apparent change in the sentiment of the delegates. When the 
Southern delegates discovered that the Douglas men were likely 
to control the Convention and carry off the prizes, the South- 
erners promptly withdrew. The Convention proceeded to busi- 
ness and gave Douglas the regular party nomination. The bolt- 
ing Convention chose John C. Breckinridge, Vice-President 
under Buchanan, as its nominee for President, and the bolters 
from the Charleston Convention endorsed the nomination of 
Breckinridge, at a Convention held in Richmond, Va. 

To his credit it should be said that Douglas regretted very 
much the happenings that promised to disrupt his party. He 
sent a letter to the Baltimore Convention saying that if he stood 
in the way of harmony his name should be removed from con- 
sideration. When this letter was suppressed by overzealous 
friends, he sent a telegram containing same declarations, to the 
chairman of the New York State delegation, but the telegram 
shared a fate similar to that of the letter, and Douglas was 
nominated. In a speech on the stump he said that if he had 
received the unanimous nomination of his party on the platform 
adopted by the party four years before, Lincoln would have 
secured no other electoral votes than those of Massachusetts and 


Later, Bell, the Constitutional Union candidate for President, 
suggested that Douglas, Breckinridge and himself withdraw as 
candidates and concentrate on one man to oppose Lincoln, 
Breckinridge expressed a willingness to agree to such an arrange- 
ment, but Douglas declared that matters had gone too far for 
him to withdraw, since he believed that his withdrawal would 
mean that many of his supporters would rally to the aid of 


The salary of the President of the United States is $75,000 
per annum, with a special allowance of $25,000 per annum 
for traveling expenses. The salary of a Vice-President is 
$12,000 per annum. The salary of a cabinet officer is $12,000 
per annum. 

The Court of Common Pleas of New York, which had been 
in existence for two hundred years, was merged by the new 
Constitution into the Supreme Court on January 1, 1896. 

The name of Pope Pius X is Giuseppe Sarto (Joseph Taylor, 
in English). 

In resigning the Governorship of New Jersey on the eve of 
his inauguration as President of the United States, Gov. Wilson 
made a speech to the Legislature in which occurred these words, 
foreshadowing the spirit which is now guiding his Administra- 

' ' The rarest thing in public life is courage, and the man who 
has courage is marked for distinction; the man who has it not 
is marked for extinction and deserves submersion. The people 
of this country are going to be served by conscience and not 
by expediency." 

Of all the stately Colonial houses that once were the pride 
of New York only two survive, the Roger Morris house, com- 
monly known as the Jumel Mansion, and the Van Cortlandt 


house in Van Cortlandt Park. These have been preserved to 
us after many struggles, and we ought to value them as a 
heritage from the golden days of our fathers, and as interesting 
examples of domestic architecture. The question is, how much 
longer, in this era of progress, will these buildings be per- 
mitted to stand? 

AVilliam Gaston Hamilton, son of John Church Hamilton, 
and grandson of General Alexander Hamilton, first United 
States Secretary of the Treasury, born September 15, 1832, 
died at his home in New York city on January 23, 1913. 

The Interstate Commerce bill passed Congress and was en- 
acted into law in 1887, and gave life to the then latent powers 
of the Constitution over commerce between States. The law 
was at first considered a novelty, but much of the political and 
industrial history of the United States for almost a generation 
has been influenced by it. 

An act of the State Legislature, passed April 30, 1900, Chap. 
699, enabled the United States Government to purchase from 
New York city a part of Hart's Island located in Westchester 
County, the said land to be used for the purpose of the erec- 
tion of a light house or light houses, and a fog signal station. 

South Carolina in convention, on December 20, 1860, adopted 
the ordinance of secession. It is said that this convention was 
mostly composed of gray-headed men; the youngest being over 
thirty years of age. 

Mrs. Gore, wife of the blind Senator Thomas P. Gore, from 
Oklahoma, graduated from a law school so as to help her has- 
band. He collaborates with her on his speeches, and when he 
wants to memorize a fine oration, she reads it to him until he 
knows it by heart. 


By Hon. Chauncey M, Depew.* 

In 1864 the late Judge Robertson of AA^estchester and myself 
went to the National Republican Convention at Baltimore (which 
was to nominate President Lincoln for the second term), by way 
of AVashington, in order to consult with Secretary of State 
AVilliam H. Seward, our State leader. AVe dined with Mr. 
Seward, and after dinner he told us that it had been thought 
Avise by the National leaders of the party in renominating 
President Lincoln, to drop Vice-President Hannibal Hamlin, 
who was a straight Republican, and nominate a AVar Demo- 
crat in his stead. There had been a general agreement upon 
Daniel S. Dickinson of New York for the place. Mr. Seward 
said that he could not speak for the President, nor would the 
President take any position, but for himself he was opposed 
to the nomination of Dickinson. In his own contests, covering 
many years, with Mr. Dickinson as the leader of the opposi- 
tion, he had found him the most bitter of partisans and very 
narrow. He believed that if by any accident the President 
was removed and Dickinson should become President it 
would be most unfortunate for the country. He thought 
that the Unionists in the Border States who had risked every- 
thing for the Union should receive the conspicuous recognition 
of a nomination for the Vice-Presidency. He said that Andrew 
Johnson of Tennessee had risked more, done more and evinced 
more high courage and patriotism than anyone under those 
perilous conditions. He thought that the nomination of Andrew 
Johnson for Vice-President would be most helpful in the Border 
States. Judge Robertson and I started for Baltimore with this 
mission. It was a delicate one because we could not quote 
Mr. Seward, nor speak with authority for the Administration. 
We, however, did our best with the Seward men among the 
delegations who had supported him so loyally for President 
four years before. The controversy became so acute that by 

* Written by Senator Depew expressly for this book. The story is now 
told for the first time. 



general consent the matter was left to the New York delega- 
tion. There was a hot discussion in that delegation which lasted 
xuitil nearly daylight, when, on a vote, Andrew Johnson was 
declared to be its choice by one majority. This verdict was 
accepted by the Convention, and Andrew Johnson became Presi- 
dent of the United States. 



The principal objection Seward had to the nomination of 
Dickinson, was that he feared that in case Dickmson, here- 
tofore a staunch Democrat, was elected Vice-President, and by 
chance Lincoln died, Dickinson would become President, and 
then show he was more of a Democrat than he was a Republi- 
can. Johnson, Democrat, was nominated and elected Vice- 
President; Lincoln died; Johnson proved to be first a Demo- 
crat; the Republican leaders sought to drive him from office 
by impeachment; a few Republican senatorial votes saved him. 

John B. Henderson, who died in Washington recently, was 
the last to survive of the seven Republican Senators who voted 
against the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. 

The vote of the Senate was 35 to 19, or one short of the 
two-thirds necessary to convict. Had one of the seven who 
stood by their convictions yielded to the entreaties of their 
associates and their constituents, President Johnson would have 
been removed from office, Benjamin F. Wade would have be- 
come President, and the whole course of history would have 
been changed. 

It was nearly thirty years ago that Blaine wrote that "the 
sober reflection of later years has persuaded many who favored 
impeachment that it was not justifiable on the charges made, 
and that its success would have resulted in greater injury to 
free institutions than Andrew Johnson in his utmost endeavor 
was able to inflict." 

The seven RepiTblicans who voted ''not guilty" at the close 
of the most notable trial in our history were Fessenden, of 
Maine; Fowler, of Tennessee; Grimes, of Iowa; Henderson, of 
Missouri; Ross, of Kansas; Trumbull, of Illinois, and Van Win- 
kle, of West Virginia. 



This County contributed many men, equal to if not more than 
its quota, to serve in the United States Volunteer Army during 
the Civil War. Many a regiment organized in various sections 
of this State included in its ranks patriotic men hailing from 
the ever patriotic County of Westchester. 

Of the regiments in which our County had many represen- 
tatives mention is here made of only a few. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fifth New York Volunteer In- 
fantry, later the Sixth New York Heavy Artillery ; the Second 
New York Volunteer Cavalry (Harris Light) ; the Seventeenth 
New York Volunteer Infantry (Westchester Chasseurs) ; the 
Fifth New York Volunteer Infantry (Duryea's Zouaves) ; the 
Ninth New York Volunteer Infantry (Hawkins' Zouaves) ; the 
One hundred and Sixty-eighth Volunteers ; the Fifth New York 
Veteran Infantry; the Second Heavy Artillery; the Second 
Mounted Rifles; and the 3d, the 12th, the 13th, N. Y. S. M., 
the 22d, the 27th, the 38th, the 39th, the 42d, the 47th, the 
71st, the 79th, the 91st, the 106th, the 124th, the 133d, the 
139th, the 143d, the 145th, the 155th, the 170th and the Mozart 
Regiment, New York State Volunteer Infantry, the last named 
regiment (composed principally of men enlisted from New 
York city), was quartered in Yonkers and left latter place for 
the seat of war. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fifth New York Volunteer In- 
fantry, later the Sixth New York Heavy Artillery, was gen- 
erally recognized as a Westchester County regiment, as a con- 
siderable majority of its members had enlisted from this county, 
though many men were recruited for the regiment also in the 
counties of Rockland and Putnam. 

On August 14, 1862, the Governor of the State of New York 
authorized Colonel Lewis G. Morris, of Morrisania (this county), 
to raise a regiment of infantry within the Tenth Congressional 
district, composed of the counties of Westchester, Rockland 
and Putnam. 

The work of organizing such regiment was entrusted to Wil- 



liam H. Morris, of Morrisania, who later became its Colonel, 
assisted by J. Howard Kitehing, of Peekskill, who became its 
Lieutenant-Colonel. The other officers of the regiment were, 
James A. Robinson, Major; Charles H. Leonard, Adjutant; 
Frederick Tompkins, Quartermaster; Jared D. Wood, Surgeon; 
Robert Rae and Ryekman D. Bogart, Assistant Surgeons; Rev. 
Henry W. Sculler, Chaplain. 

The headquarters of the new regiment was in Yonkers. 

On April 2, 1863, Colonel Morris, belonging to a Westchester 
County family of fighting men, was promoted to Brigadier- 
General, and on April 11, following, Lieutenant-Colonel Kitehing 
was advanced to the head of the regiment as Colonel. 

When given the position of Colonel, to succeed Morris, Kiteh- 
ing was but twenty-five years of age. His popularity with his 
men was pronounced and deserved. He died in Yonkers, Janu- 
ary 16, 1865, from the effects of wounds received at the battle 
of Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864. A Grand Army Post 
in Yonkers, known as No. 60, organized in 1868, is named in 
his honor. 

When the command was changed into a heavy artillery regi- 
ment, on October 6, 1862, it was made into three battalions of 
four companies, each battalion commanded by a major. 

To succeed Ijieutenant-Colonel Kitehing, Capt. Ralph E. 
Prime (of Yonkers), of the Fifth New York Volunteers (Dur- 
yea's Zouaves), was appointed on January 12, 1863. This latter 
appointment, made by the Governor, was not approved by the 
rank and file, who preferred that a selection be made from 
officers of the regiment ; Capt. Prime deemed it wise to resign, 
which he did on March 19, 1863. Major Edmund R. Travis 
was chosen to fill the vacant position of Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The original 135th Regiment left this State on September 5, 
1862. Its first assigned duty was in defense of Baltimore, Md., 
and was quartered near Fort McHenry. Here it remained for 
a time to permit thorough drill of the raw recimits in the 
manual of arms and also in the handling of heavy ordinance. 
The location of the camp was next changed to Maryland Heights, 
near Harper's Ferry, Va. The last named locality proved a 
most unhealthy one, where typhoid fever became epidemic; no 
time was lost in breaking camp and getting off to a more 
healthy zone. 

Members of the regiment proved to be fighters and always 
ready for action— brave and efficient soldiers, creditable to the 


sections of the State from which they came. Through their 
term of enlistment they saw much active service. 

The local Sixth Artillery Regiment suffered quite severely 
in the battle of Cedar Creek. It had one officer and eleven 
enlisted men killed, three officers and eleven men mortally 
wounded (one of the number being Col. Kitching), two officers 
and fifty men wounded that recovered therefrom and sixteen 
enlisted men missing, the majority of whom died while prison- 
ers of war. 

In the early part of December, 1864, the Sixth Artillery left 
the Shenandoah Valley and joined the besieging forces near 
Petersburgh. On April 2, 1865, it joined in the assault on 
Petersburgh, and on the afternoon of that day entered the 
evacuated city. 

The regiment was mustered out of service on April 24, 1865. 

Likewise, Westchester County was largely represented in the 
United States Navy during the Civil War. 


The Election Laws of the State of New York provide a way 
for filling vacancies in County Offices, by death or otherwise. 
Provision for such a contingency as the death of a Sheriff, as 
occurred in this County on October 9, 1911, is made in Section 
292 of the Election Laws, part of the Consolidated Laws oi 
the State of New York, which reads : 

" A vacancy occurring before October 15 of any year in any 
office authorized to be filled at a general election, shall be filled 
at the general election held next thereafter^ unless otherwise 
provided by the Constitution, or unless previously filled at a 
special election." 

The State Constitution provides that " the Governor may 
appoint to fill vacancies in office; no person appointed to fill a 
vacancy shall hold his office by virtue of such appointment 
longer than the commencement of the political year next suc- 
ceeding the first annual election after the happening of the 

The Constitution also provides that the political year shall 
begin on the first day of January. 


(Continued from page 260, volume 2. ) 

One Hundred and thirty-sixth Session — 1913 — Tracey P. 
Madden of Yonkers, Verne M. Bovie of New Rochelle, Wilson R. 
Yard of Pleasant ville and Mortimer C. O'Brien of White Plains. 

Biographical Sketches 


Verne Morgan Bovie, Member of 
Assembly representing the Second 
District of Westchester Coimty, was 
born on March 10, 1877, in Gallipolis, 
Ohio, a son of Frederick M. and 
Lucy Vernon (Alexander) Bovie. 

He was educated in public schools 
and at Marietta College, graduating 
from latter college in Class of 1898, 
ealutatorian of the class, receiving 
honors in history and political sci- 
ence. Elected member of Phi Beta 
Kappa; manager of baseball and 
football teams, playing on both. 
Editor-in-Chief of College paper. 
President of Phi Gamma Literary 
Society, and President of local chap- 
ter of Delta Upsilon Fraternity. 
Left College upon breaking out of 
Spanish War to recruit a company 
of volunteers at Gallipolis, of which 
he was elected Captain, and served 
at head of Company " C," 7th 
Ohio U. S. Volunteer Infantry 
throughout the war, returning from 
the field to graduate. Attended Co- 
lumbia University Law School and 
New York Law School. Graduated 
from the latter in 1902, in which 
year he was admitted to the New 
York Bar. He then became a resi- 
dent of New Rochelle, in this County. 

He has since 1902 practiced his 
profession in New York city, with 
branch office in New Rochelle. Is 
president of Gradiiates' Club of 
Now York city; Vice-President of 
the National Fraternity Delta Up- 

At the general election held in No- 
vember, 1912, he was elected a Mem- 
ber of Assembly to represent the 

second district of Westchester 

His career as representative of 
this County in the State Legislature 
of 1913 is both a credit to his con- 
stituents and to himself. His course 
was dictated by a sincere desire to 
represent the real sentiment of the 
people of his district and of the 
County and uphold the honor of 
what he conceived to be the real 
principles of the Democratic party 
to which he belongs. 

Mr. Bovie's record in the Assembly 
is an enviable one. His vote was re- 
corded on the right side of every 
proposition, serving the best inter- 
ests of the people. He voted in favor 
of an honest Statewide Primary 
Law, to enact which his political 
party stood committed; he voted 
against impeaching Governor Sulzer, 
acts that made him many friends 
outside his political party. 

He stands conspicuous among the 
Legislative delegation from West- 
chester County as one independent 
and strong enough, indifferent alike 
to threats and flattery ,to repel out- 
side political influence, tempting him 
to serve a questionable purpose by 
promise of future reward. 

His ability as a speaker is recog- 
nized: in argument he is logical, 
forcible and convincing; his future 
career promises to be most brilliant 
as a lawyer and as a public servant, 
where integrity and faithfulness is 

in 191.S he was urged for the 
■NTnyorality nomination in New 

Mr. Bovie is married to Miss Mary 
Tinker, of New York city. They 
have one son, Henry Tinker Bovie. 



r^nsl iC llh?'r.M^ 



(Continued from page 145, Vol. 2.) 
William A. Sawyer, of Port Chester, from 1913, now acting, 


(Continued from page 105, Vol. 1.) 

The County Treasurer must receive and hold, subject to the 
orders of Courts or proper County officers, all moneys belong- 
ing to the County or held as trust funds, bail moneys and fines. 

The County funds are derived from taxation, from fees paid 
by litigants in the Courts of the County and from fines imposed 
upon persons who have violated the laws, and from authorized 
sale of bonds. 

He is required to keep accurate accounts showing all moneys, 
revenues and funds received by him, specifying each kind of 
funds authorized by law. 

He must countersign all orders for the disbursement of the 
County money, and is required to report to the County Board 
of Supervisors, every three months, the condition of the funds 
of the County. 

The term of office is three years. The salary is $10,000 per 
annum, fixed by the Board of Supervisors in 1907. The salary 
of the Deputj' County Treasurer is $3,000 per annum; Clerk, 
$1,500 per annum; Stenographer, $500 per annum. 

The following named persons were elected and served as 
County Treasurers, in this County, in the years here mentioned : 

Francis M. Carpenter, Moimt Kisco, 1897-8-9-1900-1-2. 

Joseph B. See, North Castle, 1903-4-5-6-7-8. 

George T. Burling, White Plains, 1909-10-11; reelected in 
1911, for another term. 


Samuel C. Miller, White Plains, 1897-8-9-1900-1-2. 

Leonard E. Teed, White Plains, 1903 to date, now acting. 

Zopher Carpenter, Mount Kisco, Clerk, 1902 to date, now 

Josephine M. Sutton, White Plains, Stenographer, appointed 
in 1910. 




(Continued from page 106, Vol. 1.) 

The County Clerk has the custody of records, books and 
papers of the County. Is the keeper of the seal of the County, 
which must be used by him in numerous cases where he is 
required by law to authenticate his acts by the use of an official 
seal. He is to keep an accurate record of all official bonds filed 
in his office, and details relating to same. He is required to 
give to persons demanding the same, and paying the lawful 
fee therefor, a copy of any record, paper or account in his office. 
He must also perform such other duties as may be required of 
him by law. 

The term of office is three years. The salary is $10,000 per 
annum, fixed by the Board of Supervisors. 

State Laws of 1909, chap. 318, changes the mode of com- 
pensating a County Clerk in this County, as such law author- 
izes the Board of Supervisors of the County of Westchester to 
declare on January 1, 1911, the office of County Clerk of such 
County a salaried office, and to fix and determine the amount 
of the compensation and regulating the management of such 
County Clerk's office; and fix salaries of deputy clerks. Salary 
not to be changed during term; Clerk to perform all services 
heretofore performed by occupant of such office and moneys 
collected as fees to be turned over and to belong to the County. 
The said County Clerk and his deputies are to give bonds to 
the County to insure faithful discharge of duties. 

Under a recent decision of the Court of Appeals, County 
Clerks have power to appoint clerks to Supreme and County 

The Governor may remove from office a County Clerk, as he 
can a Sheriff, District- Attorney, Register or other County officer, 
within the term for which he has been elected; giving to such 
officer a copy of the charges against him, and an opportunity 
of being heard in his defense. No person appointed to fill a 
vacancy shall hold his office by virtue of such appointment 
longer than the commencement of the political year (January 1) 
next succeeding the first annual election after the happening 
of the vacancy. 

Though no law prevents, unless it is an *' unwritten law " 
of political party organization, of recent years no person has 


held, in this County, this office for more than two terms, six 

Under special acts of the Legislature the County Clerk of 
this County provided printed official ballots and stationery for 
elections, designated newspapers in which election notices and 
names of candidates to be voted for, and the official canvass of 
votes cast were published; since 1908 the work of printing 
ballots and designating newspapers has been looked after by 
the County Commissioners of Elections. 

In addition to the list published (in volume one), the posi- 
tion of County Clerk has been filled by the following named 
persons in the years here given : 

John M. Digney, 1886 to 1896. 

Leverett F. Crumb, Peekskill, 1896-7-8-9-1900-1. 

L. Sutherland, Yonkers, 1902-3-4-5-6-7. 

Frank M. Buck, Mount Vernon, 1908-9-10, and re-elected in 
1910, for years 1911-12-13. 


Robert Coward, Port Chester, 1897, up to the time of his 
accidental death, February 15, 1906. 

Charles Hepenstal, of Yonkers, appointed February 19, 1906, 
to succeed Mr. Coward, is now acting. 

Charles J. F. Decker, Frank Montross and Charles E. Long, 
Supreme Court Clerks. 

The attaches of the County Clerk's office, 1911, appointed in 
accordance with the law making the office of County Clerk a 
salaried one, are as follows: Walter Y. Paulding, Mount Ver- 
non, second deputy; George W. Elrodt, Mount Vernon, third 
deputy; Harold H. Bailie, Port Chester, Certificate Clerk; Les- 
ter A. Conkling, of Peekskill, Bookkeeper and General Clerk; 
Charles A. Marshall, Port Chester, Document and General 
Clerk; Margaret M. Magee, Mount Vernon, Stenographer and 


(Continued from page 104, Vol. 1.) 

The District-Attorney is the prosecuting officer of the County. 
He is elected by the people and holds office for the term of 
three years. 

He is principally concerned with the prosecution of criminal 


offenders against the law, but he also performs many other 
duties imposed upon him by various statutes of the State. 

The ofdce is of great importance, and the incumbent is required 
to be possessed of ability and energy in order to meet the 
demands of his official position. Westchester County has been 
specially fortunate in being able to get most prominent mem- 
bers of the bar to serve as District- Attorney and as assistants 
to the District-Attorney. 

Subsequent to 1846, District- Attorneys have been elected by 
the people in each county of this State. The office was created 
in this State on April 4, 1801, and a certain number was appor- 
tioned to districts composed of several counties. An act of the 
State Legislature, passed in 1818, made each county a district, 
to possess each a District-Attorney, solely its own. Until their 
election by the people was provided for, in 1846, District- Attor- 
neys in this State were appointed by Courts of Sessions in each 

The Legislature can not extend term of office of District- 
Attorney while he is in office. (People, ex rel. Eldred, vs. 
Palmer, 21 App. Div. 101.) 

The Governor may remove a District-Attorney on proven 
charges, after a hearing. 

The Board of Supervisors, by an act of the State Legislature, 
of April 14, 1852, is authorized to make the office of District- 
Attorney a salaried one, and fix the salary thereof, but the 
salary can not be changed while the incumbent is in office. 

State Laws of 1906, chap 319, empowers the District- Attorney 
of Westchester County to appoint two assistants, to be called 
first and second Assistant District-Attorneys. Salaries of said 
officials to be fixed by the Westchester County Board of 

The salary of the District-Attorney in this County, fixed 
by the Board of Supervisors in 1910, is $8,500 per annum. The 
salary of an Assistant District- Attorney $3,500 per annum; 
of Clerk, $1,500 per annum. 

Following are the names and addresses of persons holding this 
office, in this County, and the years they served, from 1896 to 
and including 1913: 

George C. Andrews, Tarrytown, 1896-7-8-9-1900-1. 

J. Addison Young, New Rochelle, 1902-3-4-5-6-7. 

Francis A. Winslow, Yonkers, 1908-9-10; re-elected in 1910, 
for years 1911-12-13. 



Frederick E. Weeks, White Plains, from 1896 to 1907. 

Frederick E. AVeeks, first assistant, from 1907 to date. 
William A. Moore, New Rochelle, second assistant, from April 
27, 1906, to January 1, 1908. 

Lee P. Davis, Yonkers, second assistant, from 1908 to date. 


Frank E. Clarke, White Plains, February 6, 1908, to 1910. 
John Wheatley, Yonkers, 1910, now acting. 
For names of others who have held official positions in the 
District-Attorney's office, prior to 1896, see page 104, Volume 1. 


{Continued from page 110, Vol. 1.) 

The Sheriff is one of the most important executive officers 
of the County. The office of Sheriff originated in England 
and is of great antiquity. By some authorities the office of 
Sheriff is said to have been created by King Alfred, but others 
are of the opinion that the office is of still greater antiquity and 
that it existed in the time of early Romans. 

It is the duty of a Sheriff to execute the orders of the Court 
in civil as well as in criminal actions. 

In case of riot or the unlawful assemblage of persons within 
the county, it is the duty of the Sheriff to enforce and maintain 
the law, and to this end he has the right to call upon any and 
all able-bodied citizens in the county to assist him. Thus he 
and his deputies perform the duties in the county which are 
delegated to police officers in cities. 

Relative to the office of Sheriff, the State Constitution 
says: " Sheriffs shall be chosen by the electors of the respec- 
tive counties, once in every three years and as often as vacancies 
shall happen. Sheriffs shall hold no other office and be ineli- 
gible for the next term after the termination of their offices. 
They may be required by law to renew their security, from 
time to time ; and in default of giving such new security, their 
offices shall be deemed vacant. But the county shall never be 
made responsible for acts of the Sheriff. (The act making 


counties liable for damages by mobs and riots does not conflict 
witb this.) The Governor may remove any officer within the 
term for which he shall have been elected, on charges proven. 
(One elected to fill a vacancy serves for a full term of three 
years, as the Courts have decided.) 

Sheriffs have been elected by the people of this State since 
the year 1846 ; prior to that period they were appointed by 
the Governor of the State. The duties of a Sheriff are similar 
in all counties of the State. They are justly termed the strong 
arm of the Courts in enforcing law and order. 

In former years Sheriff's of Westchester County were com- 
pensated for their services by fees received from the County 
and in civil cases in which fees were paid by private parties. 
He was required to pay, out of such fees, for all assistance 
employed by him in the discharge of his official duties. Court 
Officers, appointed by the Sheriff, to be in attendance on the 
several Courts (Supreme and County Courts) held within the 
County, were a charge on Westchester County, and were paid 
at the rate of two dollars per day. 

By act of the Legislature, Chap. 687, Laws of 1894, the office 
of Sheriff', in AVestchester County, became a salaried one; the 
salary to be fixed by the Board of Supervisors at a sum not to 
exceed $10,000 per annum, payable monthly; in addition he is 
permitted to retain the Sheriff' 's fees and perquisites in all civil 
cases in which the same are to be paid by private parties. By 
this act, also, the Sheriff was permitted to employ a Clerk at 
an annual salary of $1,200 ; a Jailor at an annual salary of 
$1,200; a day and night Watchman at $600 per annum each; 
a Cook and other servant, together, $500. These officials to be 
hereafter paid by the County, in monthly installments. In 
addition to his salary, the Sheriff is permitted to charge the 
County with, and be entitled to, his actual fee or other dis- 
bursements for travel, lodging and food incurred while attend- 
ing to the transportation of juvenile delinquents and any other 
person whom he is required by law to transport, where the cost 
of such transportation is by law a County charge. 

The act of 1894, relating to the Sheriff of Westchester, was 
amended by act of the Legislature in the following year, Chap. 
420, Laws of 1895. This act benefits the occupant of the Sher- 
iff's office, by lessening the drain on his salary and private fee 
account, by causing the County to share in the office expense 
account. By this act it was provided that the County pay 
salaries of certain employees of the Sheriff, as follows: a Clerk 


at $1,200 per annum; a Jailor at $1,200 per annum; a Deputy 
Sheriff at $1,500 per annum; a Day Watchman at $600 per 
annum ; a Night Watchman at $600 per annum ; a Cook at $500 
per annum. 

Then next followed an act of the Legislature, which became 
a law, authorizing the Sheriff to appoint in place of the two 
dollars a day Court Officers, number unlimited, nine uniformed 
Court Officers who would devote their entire time to the dis- 
charge of their duties ; it being deemed necessary to have a regu- 
lar force of Court officers always on duty, especially as there are 
quite frequently at the County-seat as many as three Supreme 
Courts and a County Court in session on the same days. 

The office of Under Sheriff was from the date of its origin, 
in 1847, to the year 1900, but an honorary one, with no desig- 
nated duties, and was bestowed by newly elected Sheriffs upon 
cherished friends, personal or political, whom it was desired 
particularly to honor. These Under Sheriffs were given neither 
salary nor fee. Some of Westchester County's most distin- 
guished citizens have held, and were proud to hold, this office. 
Fortunately, none were called upon to fill the higher office 
owing to vacancy caused by death of the Sheriff. 

The Legislature in 1899 passed an act (Chap. 310, Laws of 
1899) which in a considerable degree reconstructed the work- 
ings of the Westchester County Sheriff's office. The Under 
Sheriff was made the head of the staff and put on the active list 
of those assisting the Sheriff' in the discharge of his duties and 
is the recognized director in the absence of the Sheriff. The 
act further provides for a Counsel at $1,500 per annum; a 
Clerk at $1,200; a Jailor at $1,200 per annum; an Assistant 
Jailor at $900 per annum ; three Deputy Sheriffs at $1,500 each 
per annum; a Day Watchman at Jail at $900; a Night Watch- 
man at Jail at $900 per annum; a Cook at Jail at $500 per 
annum, which sums shall be paid in monthly installments by 
the County Treasurer. 

By further enactment of the Legislature, in 1905, the Sheriff 
is authorized to employ an Assistant Clerk at a salary of $1,200 
per annum. 

In 1910, the Board of Supervisors fixed salaries of officials 
connected with the Sheriff' 's office as follows, per annum: 
Sheriff, $10,000; Under Sheriff, $2,500; three Deputy Sheriffs 
at $1,800 each; Counsel to Sheriff, $2,000; Clerk to Sheriff, 
$1,500; Assistant Clerk, $1,200; Court Officers at $1,200 each; 
Warden to County Jail, $1,500; Assistant Warden, $1,000; 


Physician to Jail, $400 ; Day and Night Watchmen at Jail, $1,000 
each; Matron to Jail, $600; Cook and other servant, $600; 
Night Watchman at Court House, $900; Janitor and assistants 
at Court House, $4,000; Chief Engineer, Court House, $1,500. 

The following named residents acted, in years given, as 
Sheriffs of this County. The term of the office is three years, 
and under the Constitutional law a Sheriff cannot be elected 
to succeed himself. The recently adopted rule not to elect the 
same person twice to this office, in this County, is not one pre- 
scribed by law. An eligible person can be elected as Sheriff 
as often as the people desire to elect him, provided he is not 
elected to immediately succeed himself, for two or more suc- 
cessive terms: 

Addison Johnson, Port Chester, 1895 to 1898. 

William V. Molloy, New Rochelle, 1898-9-1900. 

Samuel C. Miller, White Plains, 1901-2-3. 

James S. Merritt, of Port Chester, 1904-5-6. 

Charles M. Lane, Pleasantville, 1907-8 to April 23, 1909. 
Sheriff Lane died April 23, 1909 ; Under Sheriff Henry Scherp 
acted as Sheriff until January 1, 1910. 

Henry Scherp, New Rochelle, 1910 (died October 9, 1911). 

William J. Doyle, Katonah, 1912, for full term. 


The following named persons were duly appointed by the 
several Sheriffs of the County to serve in the capacity of Under 
Sheriff', terms commencing on the dates given, and for a term 
of three years: 

John McNally, Ossining, 1898. 

Joseph B. See, North Castle, 1901. 

Charles M. Lane, Pleasantville, 1904. 

Henry Scherp, New Rochelle, 1907. 

William J. Doyle, of Bedford, 1910 to 1912. 

Ulrich Wiesendanger, Yonkers, 1912, now acting. 

Officials connected with the Sheriff' 's office in 1913, other than 
those heretofore named, are as follows: 

Counsel, Henry R. Barrett. 
Deputy Sheriff", Charles E. Nossitter. 
Deputy Sheriff', William F. Wagner. 
Deputy Sheriff, Charles Lent. 



{Continued from page 107, Vol. 1.) 

The duties of this office is explained in its title— to register 
deeds. Prior to 1858 the duties of Register were performed 
by the County Clerk in this County, as is now done in all 
counties of the State, excepting three, New York, Kings and 

A law enacted by the Legislature, taking effect on April 16, 
1858, created the office of Register of Deeds for Westchester 

Laws of 1904, Chap 465, directed the Register of the County 
of Westchester to prepare and certify copies of all instruments 
and maps affecting the title to real estate formerly in West- 
chester County but now within the county of New York, and 
transmit same to the Register of the county of New York; for 
this service the county of New York paid the Register of West- 
chester County. 

The term of office is three years. The Register is com- 
pensated by fees received. Following is given the names and 
addresses of persons who have held the position, together with 
the years in which they served, from 1896 to and including 

Thomas R. Hodge, Mount Vernon, 1896-7-8-9-1900-1.* 

William G. Barrett, Katonah, 1902-3-4-5-6-7. 

Edward B. Kear, Yorktown Heights, 1908-9-10, re-elected in 
1910. (Died August 31, 1911.) 

James F. Martin, Peekskill, from September 29, 1911, to 
January 1, 1912; appointed by Governor Dix to fill vacancy 
caused by death of Mr. Kear. 

Isaac H. Smith, Peekskill, elected in 1911 for the full term. 

Charles D. Hoyt, Pleasantville, Deputy Register. 
Ralph M. Glover, Mortgage Tax Deputy. 

Note.— William J. Graney, who was Eegister from 1893 to 1896, died 
May 26, 1913. 

Died October 9, 1908, aged 65 years. 


{Continued from page 111, Vol. 1.) 

Superintendents of the Poor were, previous to 1846, appointed ; 
after that year they were elected. The present salary attached 
to the office is $5,000 per annum, as fixed in 1911 by Board of 

The office has been held by the following named persons since 

Henry Esser, of Mount Vernon, served from 1895 to 1898, 
when he was re-elected for a term of three years to December 31, 
1901 ; he died while in office in April, 1901. 

Charles M. Lane, resigned as Supervisor of town of Mt. 
Pleasant and was appointed Superintendent to fill vacancy, 
serving until 1902. 

Edward B. Long, of White Plains, 1902-3-4-5-6-7. 

A. Smith Hopkins, of North Castle, 1908; died suddenly 
April 23, 1908. 

William C. Lawrence, of Ardsley, was appointed to fill the 
vacancy until 1909 ; in 1908 he was elected to serve out balance 
of the term until 1911 ; in 1910 he was re-elected to serve from 
1911 to 1914. 


(Continued from page 116, Vol. 1.) 

The office of Coroner is classified with that of Sheriff, Justice 
of the Peace and Constables connected with the government 
of early English counties after which county governments in 
this country pattern, and the duties of the office of Coroner 
are the same now as they were in the earlier period. In primi- 
tive days a County Court, composed of eight Justices of the 
Peace, appointed by the Governor, had among its duties, in 
addition to its judicial functions, the construction and care of 
bridges and highways and the appointment of certain county 
officials including Coroners. Since 1847 Coroners have been 
elected by the people in this State. 

It is the duty of a Coroner to investigate and report upon all 
cases of death from unexplained causes, where there is reason 
to believe that a crime has been committed or a serious acci- 
dent has occurred. 

The Coroner also performs some of the duties of the Sheriff 


in executing the processes of Courts of law. In case a suit is 
brought against the Sheriff, it is the duty of the Coroner to 
serve the summons notifying the Sheriff to appear in Court 
and answer the charges against him, because it would be mani- 
festly absurd to require the Sheriff' to summon himself. 

The term of office of a Coroner is three years. The salary 
in this County, recently fixed, is $2,000 per annum and actual 

The following named persons have held the office, in the 
years mentioned, from 1894: 

Aaron J. Mixsell, M. D., Mamaroneck, 1892-3-4. 

Charles A. Miles, M. D., Yonkers, 1894-5-6-7-8-9. 

Archibald T. Banning, M. D., Mount Vernon, 1894-5-6-7-8-9- 

Charles E. Birch, M. D., White Plains, 1895-6-7-8-9-1900. 

Charles S. Apgar, Peekskill, to fill vacancy and full term, 
Sept. 6, 1895, to 1899. 

Perley H. Mason, M. D., Peekskill, 1899-1900-1-2-3. 

John A. Schafmeister, M. D., Ossining, 1899-1900-1-2-3-4. 

Frank E. Russell, M. D., Tarrytown, 1901-2-3-4-5-6. 

Albert Van Houten, Yonkers, 1903-4-5. 

Ulrich Wiesendager, Yonkers, 1903-4-5-6-7-8. 

John L. Silleek, Peekskill, 1905-6-7-8-9-10. 

Philip S. Van Patten, M. D., Mount Vernon, 1906-7-8. 

Amos 0. Squires, M. D., Ossining, 1907-8-9-10-11-12. 

Alfred H. lies, Yonkers, 1909-10-11 ; reelected in 1911. 

Hilmer B. Boedecker, Mount Vernon, 1909-10-11 (died April 
5, 1911). 

James H. Brennan, M. D., New Roehelle, appointed to fill 
vacancy May 11, 1911, to serve to December 31, 1911. 

William H. Livingston, New Roehelle, elected in 1911. 

James P. Dunn, Yonkers, elected in 1912. 

Note. — John Mathews, of New Roehelle, who was a Coroner in 1889, 
died on September 4, 1911. 

(Continued from page 117, Vol. 1.) 

By an act of the State Legislature, passed April 17, 1843, 
the office of County Superintendent of Common Schools was 
created, to be appointed by the Board of Supervisors. Samuel 


L. Holmes, of Bedford, and John Hobbs, of Yonkers, were duly- 
appointed and they served in 1843 to March 13, 1847, at which 
date the office was abolished. 


(Continued from page 120, Vol. 1.) 

The following list gives names of persons elected to the office 
in the several districts and the years in which they served: 


Walter T. Allerton, Mount Vernon, 1893 to 1900. 
John C. Rockwell, Port Chester, 1900 to 1911, when the office 
was abolished. 


Ffarrington M. Thompson, White Plains, 1894 to 1897. 
J. G. Miller, Sing Sing, 1897 to 1900. 
Bertha E. H. Barbert,* of Hastings, 1900-1-2. 
Charles H. Cheney, of White Plains, 1903 and to 1911. 


William G. Barrett,t of Bedford, 1895 to 1902. 
George H. Covey, of Bedford, 1902 to 1911. 

By Laws of 1910 the office of School Commissioner was abol- 
ished, and instead the office of Superintendent of Schools was 
created. In the early days Superintendents supervised the 
schools in this County. 


Pursuant to section 381 of the Education Law, as amended 
by Chapter 607, Laws of 1910, Supervisors of the Towns of the 
County and the School Commissioners of said County met on 
April 18, 1911, and divided the County into four school super- 
visory districts, as follows: 

District No. 1, to bo composed of the Towns of White Plains, 
Harrison, Rye, Mamaroneck, Scarsdale, Eastchester and Pel- 

* The only woman elected to this oflSce in this County, 
t Resigned on being elected County Register. 


ham. District No. 2, to be composed of the Towns of Green- 
burgh, Mount Pleasant and North Castle. District No. 3, to be 
composed of the Towns of Ossining, New Castle, Bedford, Lewis- 
boro and Poundridge. District No. 4, to be composed of Cort- 
landt, Yorktown, Somers and North Salem. 

Under the Laws of 1910, each town comprised in a district 
elects two school directors, the directors from these several towns 
meet in their respective districts and select a proper person to 
act as Superintendent of Schools in that district. 

In accordance with this law the directors in the Second Dis- 
trict met on August 15, 1911, and elected Charles H. Cheney, 
of White Plains, as such School Superintendent. 

In the Third District, the directors met on August 15, 1911, 
and elected George A. Covey, of Bedford, as School Superin- 

On same date, the directors of the Fourth District met 
and elected Robert D. Knapp, of Croton Falls, as School 

In the First District the election was delayed until Septem- 
ber 7, 1911, owing to a spirited contest for the place. Samuel 
J. Preston, of Mamaroneck, was elected School Superintendent. 


State Laws of 1907, Chap. 280, provides that the Board of 
Supervisors of any county may appoint a County Attorney 
who shall be removable at its pleasure. The term of office of a 
County Attorney so appointed shall be two years, unless sooner 
removed, and his salary shall be fixed by the Board of Super- 
visors and be a County charge. The Board of Supervisors may, 
by local law, prescribe the duties of the County Attorney, 
which duties may include the sessions of town boards, and 
town officials when not in conflict with the interests of the 

He prepares all legal documents necessary to be executed by 
the officers of the Board of Supervisors, and advises all com- 
mittees of the Board requiring legal information. He also 
represents the Board in all litigation in which the Board may 
be involved. 


The Board of Supervisors has fixed the salary of the present 
County Attorney at $3,000 per annum, payable in monthly 

Following are names and addresses of persons holding this 
office, and the years they served, from date of creation of 

Frederick Hughes, Yonkers, from June, 1907, to December, 

Charles E. Van Auken, New Rochelle, from December, 1908; 
present incumbent. 


{Continued from page 118, Vol. 1.) 

Is appointed at joint meeting of the County Judge, the 
County Treasurer, the District- Attorney and the Sheriff. The 
term of office is for three years. The Deputy is appointed by 
the Commissioner. 

The State Legislature, Laws of 1904, Chap. 161, fixed the 
compensation to be paid to jurors in this County at the rate 
of three dollars per day, while serving as jurors, and mileage 
at the rate of five cents for each mile necessarily traveled by 
him in going to and returning from the place where the court 
is held, once in each calendar week during the term. This act 
took effect September 1, 1904. 

The present salary of the Commissioner of Jurors is $2,500 
per annum; salary of Deputy Commissioner, $1,400. 

The office of Commissioner of Jurors, created in 1892, by) 
special act of the Legislature, has been held by— 

I. Howard Kinch, from 1892 to 1897. 

John Sells, from 1897 to date. 


George W. Burlington, 1892 to 1894 (died August 22, 1910). 

Harold Kinch, 1894 to 1897. 

John J. Mahaney, 1897 to 1901 (dead). 

Joseph Hudson, 1901 to 1909. 

Paul M. Cables, 1909, now acting. 




These positions are filled by appointment of the Board of 

The salary is $2,500 per year, with an allowance for expenses 
of $1,500 per annum. 

The position has been filled by the following named persons : 

George R. Byrne, of White Plains, 1902 to 1906. 

Eberhard J. Wulff, of Tarrytown, from 1906, present incum- 


This officer is appointed by the Board of Supervisors, and 
holds office during the pleasure of the Board. 
The position has been held by- 
James F. Moen, of Yonkers, appointed 1910, present incum- 


The Board of Supervisors passed an act, in June, 1910, 
creating the office of Superintendent of County Buildings. This 
officer is to have supervision of buildings, attend to repairs, 
etc. The salary was fixed at $2,000 per annum, payable monthly. 
This office is held subject to the pleasure of the Board of Super- 

Benjamin F. Wild, of White Plains, received the appoint- 
ment June 7, 1910. 


The Laws of 1899, Chap 152, relates to the use of bicycles 
on sidepaths, for licensing bicycles, provides for the appoint- 
ment of Sidepath Commissioners, and provides for the con- 
struction, maintenance, regulation, preservation and shading 
of sidepaths; authorizes the County Judge to appoint Com- 
missioners upon petition of fifty resident wheelmen, said Com- 
missioners to hold office five years, from January 1, after 


In August, 1899, the following named persons were appointed 
Commissioners from this County: 

William P. Maynard, of White Plains; William Porter Allen, 
of Rye; S. Olin Washburn, of Ossining; Stephen H. Sarles, of 
Mount Kisco; John Walker, of Pleasantville ; George H. Mairs, 
of Irvington, and Edward F. Hill, of Peekskill. 

A part of the duty of the Commissioners was to collect money 
by subscriptions to pay expenses incurred. The Commissioners 
to serve without salary or fees. 

No successors of above named Commissioners were appointed. 
A new Highway Law repealed act under which such Commis- 
sioners were designated. 


(Continued from page 87, Vol. 2.) 

At the general election held November 4, 1912, the electors 
of the two Congressional districts, of which Westchester County 
is a part, chose the following named as representatives in the 
Electoral College: 

In the Twenty-fourth District, composed of the Southern 
Section of Westchester County and portion of the Borough of 
the Bronx, John D. Jones, of the Bronx, Democrat. 

In the Twenty-fifth District, composed of Westchester County, 
except that portion lying within the city of Yonkers, the city 
of Mount Vernon, the town of Eastchester and the town of 
Pelham (in the Twenty-fourth District), and the whole of the 
county of Rockland, Gouverneur Morris Carnochan, of New City, 
Rockland County, Democrat. 

These Congressional Districts were organized under the State 
Apportionment, passed by the Legislature September 30, 1911. 


(Continued from page 312, Vol. 2.) 

Commissioners of Elections in the County of Westchester, 
provided for in Election Laws passed by the State Legislature 
of 1911, and de.signated by the County Board of Supervisors, 
are John B. Cortright of Mount Vernon and George S. Bailey 
of Port Chester. The latter was appointed to serve from Au- 
gust 1, 1913, to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of William 
J. Wallen. 

r> - 

/>7i. "'■■'- 




Former Surrogate of County. 

A meeting in memory of Theodore Hannibal Silkman, former 
Surrogate of Westchester County (who died August 22, 1910), 
held in County Court Chambers at the County Court House, 
in White Plains, on Friday, November 18, 1910, at 2 o'clock 
p. M., was well attended by citizens from all sections of the 
County, many being members of the bar who held the late Sur- 
rogate in high esteem; the County Bar Association was largely 
represented, Mr. Silkman having served the Association as 
president for two terms, was one of the original members 
and contributed much toward securing success for the Asso- 
ciation. His upright course as a Judge made for him many 

This meeting was arranged by a committee of lawyers, Messrs. 
Jerome A. Peck, Joseph S. Wood and Henry C. Henderson, 
appointed by the Supreme Court and the Surrogate's Court. 

Supreme Court Justice Martin J. Keogh presided, and opened 
the proceedings with a few pertinent remarks as to the object 
of the gathering; on the right of the presiding Justice sat 
Supreme Court Justice Arthur S. Tompkins and County Judge 
William P. Piatt, on his left, Supreme Court Justice Isaac N. 
Mills and Surrogate Frank V. ^lillard. 

Addresses were delivered by Justice Tompkins, Joseph S. Wood 
of Mount Vernon, Surrogate Millard, Charles Philip Easton 
president of the Board of Education of Yonkers, Henry C. 
Henderson of White Plains, and others. 

The invocation was given by Archdeacon Frederick B. Van 
Kleeck, of White Plains. 

Mr. Jerome A. Peck, Chairman of the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, spoke as follows : 

" The committee appointed by Mr. Justice Tompkins and Mr. 
Surrogate Millard to arrange a memorial service for our late 
friend Theodore H. Silkman, acting upon the suggestion of the 
Court, have asked you to set aside a part of one day in your busy 
lives, to pay tribute and respect to him who so lately moved 
among us in the full vigor of manhood. 



"As was said by the Court upon the occasion when a minute 
was made of the decease of our late brother, his character and 
prominence as a member of the profession, and as Surrogate of 
the County for so many years, make it meet that proper respect 
should be shown his memory; and it is pleasing to have this 
meeting so well attended by members of the Bench, and so 
many of the leading members of the Bar in Westchester County. 

"Others who have been prevented from attending the meet- 
ing by reason of their judicial duties or unavoidable professional 
engagements, have expressed to the committee their regret that 
they could not be with us; and all have spoken in unmeasured 
terms of endearment and praise of him whose memory we have 
met to-day to honor." 

Impressive remarks by Mr. Henry C. Henderson, an intimate 
friend, followed. He spoke from the fullness of his heart, as 
a friend should speak of a friend. Mr. Philip Charles Easton, 
another close friend, invited by the presiding justice, in well 
chosen words, bore testimony of the high regard in which the 
late jurist was held by members of the bar and by others, who 
knew him best. 

Joseph S. Wood, a former president of the County Bar Asso- 
ciation, spoke in these words: 

"In this checkered life of ours, there is a time to mourn and 
a time to rejoice— to mourn for what we have lost, and to rejoice 
in what we have won. In these exercises of to-day, in commem- 
oration of the life and services of Theodore H. Silkman, we have 
caiLse for much sorrow, and great rejoicing. 

"We mourn for the loss of a dear, whole-souled, abiding 
friend, one concerning whose position there was never a doubt 
or shadow of turning. 

"When he took you by the hand, and you gazed into his clear, 
penetrating eyes, and saw the genial, warm, wistful, half melan- 
choly smile which played around the corners of his mouth, you 
knew that you stood in the presence of a man, to whom you could 
cntriLst your life, your fortune and your honor. 

"He seemed ever to keep in view the advice of Polonius to 

his son Laertes: 

'The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 
Grapple them tn tliy soul with hooks of steel.' 

' ' It was in such bonds he held us in close friendship and sym- 
pathy : and we mourn to-day, because those bonds have been 
sundered by that Almight}^ Power by which all ties are broken. 


"We mourn for the loss of one of the ablest members of the 
Westchester County Bar, a man who reflected high honor on our 

"He was not a brilliant orator, who carried men off their feet 
with a torrent of eloquence ; he made no effort whatever to sway- 
men 's minds by appealing to their passions, their hates, their 
prejudices or their fears. 

"He appealed to their reason. His mind was essentially a 
logical one. He was patient, deliberate, studious, painstaking; 
and when the time for trial came, he was always thoroughly pre- 
pared. Therein lay the secret of his success. 

"As a la"wyer he was more than learned in the law. He was 
the embodiment of its ethics. He was one of the old school, 
who never forgot that the law is a profession, and that the first 
requisite of a lawyer is to be a gentleman. 

"He had a profound contempt for the pettifogger, for the 
man who strove to win by subtle and devious technicalities. 

"He was always courteous to his adversaries, and sought to 
win his cases on their merits. 

"He lived up to the traditions of the Bar of Westchester 
County ; traditions which it is our solemn duty to keep inviolate, 
and to hand down, in all their vigor and purity, to our successors. 

"If you seek for the secret of the success of Yale, Harvard, 
Princeton, Oxford and Cambridge, you will find it in their 

"Each has an atmosphere of its own, hallowed by the mem- 
ories of generations. 

* ' And so it is with these walls, wherewith we are now enclosed. 
They are the photographic plates and the phonographic records, 
in which the features, forms, gestures, voices and manners 
of a line of distinguished jurists and lawyers are indelibly 

"I never enter this court-room without seeing, in my mind's 
eye, Judge Barnard or Judge Dykman sitting where Your 
Honors now sit, dispensing justice with firmness, gentleness, 
wisdom and mercy. 

"And here at the Bar, stood the genial good-tempered Judge 
Robertson, the rugged, sturdy, honest, fearless Frank Larkin, 
the able, persuasive Calvin Frost, the incisive, self-poised, learned 
Odle Close, and a score more like them, at whose feet Your 
Honors and I sat, and by whom we were inspired, with the 


noblest traditions of our profession and the highest standards 
of legal ethics. 

"It is the glory of the AVestchester County Bar, that the 
standards, ethics, and traditions these forefathers preserved, 
from John Jay of the Town of Bedford, the presiding Justice 
of the Supreme Court, to Theodore H. Silkman, Surrogate of 
our County, have been handed down as a precious heritage to 
the men we delight to call Your Honors. 

"When we use those words, let us always do so reverently 
and with a full sense of their meaning. Let them never be 
uttered flippantly, perfunctorily or as a matter of indifference. 

"I have called Theodore H. Silkman Your Honor many times 
as he sat on the Bench and I stood at the Bar. 

"It is a source of pride and joy to recall the fact that I 
meant those words should apply to the man, as well as to the 
position he held. 

"We mourn not for what Judge Silkman did, but for what 
he would have done had not Death brought him to an untimely 
end, in the prime of life, the ripening of his manhood, the fru- 
ition of his wisdom and experience. We mourn not for the 
actualities, but for the potentialities. 

' ' His record for twelve years as the Surrogate of Westchester 
County, succeeding, as he did, one of the ablest, most conscien- 
tious, delightful and successful of all the surrogates New York 
State ever had, is a triumph of which every one of the West- 
chester Bar is proud, and the memory of which will ever keep 
the name of Theodore H. Silkman as a priceless treasure to his 
family and descendants. In this we rejoice greatly. It is in 
his unfinished work we grieve. 

"We mourn the loss of one who bade fair to become an emi- 
nent jurist. 

"There are thousands of successful lawyers at the Bar, but 
there are few who have the qualifications to make a successful 

"I am sure my brethren at this Bar unite with me in saying, 
that Theodore H. Silkman possessed in an eminent degree, quali- 
ties which fitted him to be a judge. He was patient, suave, 
courteous, and commanding, without being overbearing. He 
was always ready to listen, and then ready to decide. He knew 
how to separate the chaff from the wheat, to eliminate the non- 
essentials from the essentials. 


"He had an almost intuitive sense for reaching the pith of 
the case, and applying to it the correct theory of law. 

"It was for such qualities of mind that we regarded him as 
fit for still higher duties than those with which the people of 
Westchester County had honored him. It is because we have 
lost a man fitted with such qualifications that we mourn. 

"We mourn the loss not only of a dear friend, an honored 
lawyer, a distinguished jurist, but a public-spirited citizen. 

"He was always ready with his name, his tongue, his pen 
and purse, to advocate the rights of the people, and to espouse 
the cause of those who had to fight against odds. 

"He was a friend of the poor, the down-trodden and the 
oppressed, as my brother Easton, who was very close to him in 
this line of work, has attested to-day; and none mourn his loss 
more than those in poverty and distress, to whom he was a 
very present help in the hour of trouble. 

' ' I have said that this is a time to rejoice as well as to mourn. 

"There is much more in the life of Theodore H. Silkman, in 
addition to what I have said, which should cause us to rejoice. 

"First of all, that he has done more than any other man to 
make the Bar of AVestchester County a brotherhood. He was 
not only the president of the Westchester County Bar Associa- 
tion for two years, but one of its moving spirits for many years. 

' ' In it, through it, and out of it, he sought to establish a good- 
fellowship, an intimacy, a brotherhood among us. 

"How well he succeeded, these memorial services abundantly 

"By reason of this better acquaintance, of this knowing one 
another, we are not only brought more closely together, but are 
led to deal with one another on a higher plane, in a more liberal 
and generous manner. We are a club, not an exchange. There 
is more of the spirit of knighthood in our encounters, and less 
that of the broker. 

"We rejoice in his career as a lawyer, we rejoice in his career 
as a surrogate, we rejoice in his career as the President of the 
Westchester County Bar Association, and we rejoice in his career 
as a public-spirited citizen and a benefactor. 

"We rejoice in his memory as a jurist, as a lawyer, as a 
philanthropist and as a friend. 

' ' Take him for all in all, he was a man. ' ' 

The principal address, by Supreme Court Justice Tompkins, 
was as follows: 


"As oui' friends one by one are called out from the ranks 

of the living to join the innumerable throng that moves on 

through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, the truth is brought 

home to us with startling force * that in the midst of life we 

are in death,' Verily, ' We spend our years as a tale that is 


'Like a swift fleeting meteor, a fast flying cloud, 
A flash of the lightning, a dash of the wave, 
Man passeth from life to his rest in the grave. ' 

"And in the face of this unfathomable mystery— death— this 
relentless enemy of life, man stands mute and helpless. And 
the mystery of it all is only intensified and deepened when it 
claims for its victim one at the meridian of life, and one 
apparently at the very zenith of a successful and prosperous 
career, with mental faculties undimmed and seemingly with 
capacity and opportunities for many years of useful service. 
No, we cannot solve or penetrate the mystery of the death of 
Theodore H. Silkman, at the age of fifty-three years, just at 
a time when he and his loved ones were reaping and enjoying 
the abundant fruits of his industry, integrity and affection — 
nor need we solve it, or attempt to, nor should we grieve and 
lament over it, but rather give thanks for what he was and did, 
and with submission and reverence bow to the decree of Him in 
whose sacred keeping are the issues of life and death, knowing 
that ' He doeth all things well ' and that ' the judgments of 
the Lord are true and righteous altogether.' 

" We are here, lawyers and judges, to pay a tribute of 
respect to the memory of one who was a good citizen, an hon- 
ored professional associate, a delightful companion and to some 
of us an intimate friend, and to testify our appreciation of his 
friendship and the high esteem in which he was held as a 
lawyer and judge, as a neighbor and friend, and it is most 
fitting that we should pause in our work to do honor to one 
who in his career at the Bar brought honor to our profession 
and whose judicial work, covering a period of twelve years in 
this County, inspired confidence in, and respect for, our courts. 

" The temptation and the tendency of such an occasion as 
this is to indulge in extravagant eulogy, and to describe a cata- 
logue of virtues that the most intimate friend of the decedent 
would hardly recognize, and that is not a very bad trait of 
human nature either. It is far better for us to praise than to 


condemn the dead. And if we look sharply we shall find some 
good to speak of— something worthy of emulation in every life; 
but that tendency to exaggerate has not been followed in the 
addresses of this afternoon. They have all been well within 
the limits of fact and truth, and what little I may say will be 
confined to what I know from observation of and contact with 
our late friend Judge Silkman. 

' * For fifteen years it was my very great privilege to know him, 
and during a part of that time to know him well and inti- 
mately, and to have and enjoy his esteem and confidence, but 
it would not be proper here to speak of those intimate personal 
relations that were a pleasure and joy to me while he lived, and 
will be a precious memory in the years to come. 

" The simple truth concerning Judge Silkman is that as a 
man he was genial, cordial, gentle, cheerful and manly, irradi- 
ating the spirit of kindness and brotherly love, and we shall 
miss his cordiality, his true simplicity, his unfailing gentleness 
and his glorious optimism. 

" As a member of the Bar in the practice of his profession 
he manifested those qualities of mind and heart that make the 
practice of the law a joy and delight and bring honor to our 
profession. He was honest with his client, fair and courteous 
in his treatment of his adversary, unselfish and generous in his 
dealings with his associates, and always exhibiting toward the 
court that candor and frankness that compel respect and 

" It was as a Judge that he was best known. As Surrogate 
he did his best work. The records of the Surrogate's Court of 
this County from 1895 to 1907 speak and will ever speak, of his 
fidelity as a public servant; of his capacity for hard work; his 
learning and ability as a lawyer, and his fairness and impar- 
tiality as a judge, and the law reports containing the decisions 
rendered by him during these twelve years bear testimony to 
the patience, fairness, ability and efficiency with which he filled 
and discharged the duties of one of the most difficult and 
important positions in our judicial system. Such, in brief, 
was Judge Silkman as we knew him as a man, a lawyer and 
a judge. 

" There have been more brilliant men and stronger men and 
more spectacular men, but I have never known a kinder, truer 
and nobler one or one who was more faithful to all the tasks 
of life than was Theodore H. Silkman. The eloquent addresses 



to which we have listened and these simple words of mine are 
designed to serve as a tribute to his memory and it is proper 
that we should so speak, but after all said and done the fact 
remains that he reared his own monument, honored and per- 
petuated his own name and wrote his own epitaph, by his 
own life and works and influence as every man must do, and 
all that those who remain behind can do is to pay a tribute of 
respect and honor to the memory of the dead, and the most 
sensible method of honoring our dead is to imitate their virtues. 

" We shall best honor them, not by scattering flowers that 
wither in a day over their resting places, not by extravagant 
eulogy and fulsome praise, not even by chiselling their names 
and deeds in marble and granite ; no, we shall honor our revered 
dead most when we gather up from their lives lessons for our 
own inspiration and guidance, and incorporate into own own 
characters the qualities and virtues that adorned and beautified 
their lives. 

' ' We shall not see his face again nor hear his voice nor touch 
his hand, but his memory will abide, and the good influence of 
his life and of his gentle manners and the warmth and glow 
of the friendships that have been severed by his death— these 
will all abide, and the world will be better and richer and life 
will be sweeter and more wholesome because he lived and loved 
and wrought." 

Surrogate Frank V. Millard spoke most feelingly of his prede- 
cessor. Ending with " no surrogate in the State of New York 
was held in higher esteem than Surrogate Silkman, whose deci- 
sions were sustained by the highest court of the State." 

Hon. J. Addison Young, president of the County Bar Associa- 
tion, moved that the resolutions adopted be made part of the 
Court's record and that an engrossed copy of same be sent to the 
late Surrogate Silkman 's family. 

Justice Keogh directed that this be done. 

Biographical Sketches. 

Theodore Hannibal Silkman, for- 
mer Surrogate, Police Commissioner, 
etc., was born in the city of New 
York, on March 25, 1858, only son 
of James Baily and Harriet Van 
Cortlandt (Crosby) Silkman. He 
early became a resident of the County 
and was ever a valued citizen. 
An interesting biography giving 

details of Mr. Silkman 's useful life 
will be found on page 159, of Vol- 
ume 1. 

Mr. Silkman was second President 
of the "Westchester County Bar As- 

He served as Surrogate of this 
County from 1895 to 1907, twelve 
years, the specified two terms. 

He held many important public 



offices in the city of Yonkers, and 
was ever foremost in public affairs. 

After his retirement from the Sur- 
rogateship members of the County 
Bar combined and had painted in 
oil a full-sized portrait of Judge 
SUkman which they presented to the 
County, through Joseph S. Wood, 
who was president of the County Bar 
Association; the address of accept- 
ance was made by John J. Sinnott, 
Chairman of the Board of Super- 

The bill which passed the State 
Legislature creating the Ninth Judi- 
cial District was drafted by Judge 

Though urged by many friends to 
become a candidate for the office of 
Supreme Court Justice, at the first 
election in the new Judicial district, 
he declined to do so, and returned to 
active practice of the law, having his 
offices in New York city. 

His practice became large and he 
had to labor hard to keep up with 
demands for his services. In many 

cases of conspicuous importance he 
appeared as attorney, and he took a 
position at the bar equal to his high 
attainments as a lawyer. 

His legal labors proved so arduous 
that the strain began to tell upon 
him and his friends, fearing for his 
health, advised a rest, and the tak- 
ing of time to build himself up; but 
faithfulness to clients was his first 
consideration, and he kept at work; 
at last he went to his home in Yon- 
kers an ill man; he had overtaxed 
his strength; he rallied by spells and 
then the end came on August 22, 
1910, on the fourth day after his 
return home; ptomaine poisoning was 
given as the cause of death. 

Proceedings of the meeting held 
in memory of Judge Silkman, under 
auspices of the Bar Association and 
a committee appointed by the Su- 
preme Court and the Surrogate's 
Court, will be found printed else- 
where, under proper title, in this 


The proposal that the membership of the United States Su- 
preme Court be changed from nine to eleven involves no start- 
ling innovation. The legal number has varied at various periods 
in the country's history. 

The Constitution of the United States merely provides that 
*'the judicial power of the United States shall be vested in 
one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress 
may from time to time ordain and establish." The first Su- 
preme Court, appointed by "Washington in 1789 in accordance 
with an act of the First Congress, consisted of a Chief Justice 
and five Associate Justices, of whom four should make a 
quorum. Since then the legal membership of the court has 
ranged from six to ten, as Congress saw fit to provide. At 
present it is nine, not because of any constitutional requirement 
but by statutory provision. 

In the beginning there was little need for a large court. In 
the first year of Chief Justice Marshall's term only ten cases 
were filed. A century later, in 1901, 383 cases were filed. 


What experience has most thoroughly demonstrated is the 
necessity of an uneven number of Justices, a fact that Wash- 
ington and his contemporaries did not realize. Neither could 
they foresee the place the court was to occupy in the coming 
years in the Government of the United States. 


(Continued from page 162, volume 2) 

Governor Sulzer, January 21, 1913, appointed Frank V. Mil- 
lard as Trustee of the Supreme Court Library, to succeed him- 
self; William A. Sawyer of Port Chester, Surrogate of the 
County, as a Trustee of the Supreme Court Library, to succeed 
J. Addison Young, of New Rochelle, whose term of office had 
expired ; and ex-County Clerk John M. Digney, of White Plains, 
as Trustee of the Supreme Court Library, to succeed David H. 
Hunt, of White Plains, who was appointed as librarian of this 

The Supreme Court Library at AMiite Plains is one of the 
few libraries of that character open to the general public. It 
has all the advantages of a library of the Appellate division 
because all the cases and printed points used in all appeals 
are furnished this library where they are bound under the 
direction of the librarian. The indices to these volumes are 
very valuable as affording a key to briefs made t>y eminent 


It has been officially determined, to settle disputes, that the 
Civil War ended in 1866, though claimed to have closed June 1, 
1865. It is really said to have closed at different times in dif- 
ferent States. By an act passed in March, 1867, Congress, for 
certain purposes it had in mind, even decided that the war ended 
officially on August 20, 1866. 




A public celebration of the completion of the Croton Aqueduct 
took place October 14, 1842, in New York City and Westchester 

In the year 1793 Dr. Joseph Brown proposed to supply the 
City of New York with water, by bringing the river Bronx to 
Harlem in an open canal, raising it to the required height by 
steam and conducting it to the city in a six-inch pipe. Propo- 
sitions were subsequently made by William Weston and others 
with reference to the same source. The Croton, in Westchester 
County, was first recommended in the year 1832 by Col. DeWitt 
Clinton. In 1833 the State Legislature authorized surveys. In 
1834 a permanent board of Water Commissioners was organized. 
In 1835, on February 18, the Commission reported recommend- 
ing the work of construction. On March 4, 1835, the proposed 
plan was adopted by the New York City Common Council. On 
April 13, 1835, the citizens decided by a distinct vote that the 
work should be constructed; May 7, following, the Commis- 
sioners were directed to proceed. Water was introduced July 
4, 1842. 

The Croton Aqueduct in 1842, at time of its completion, was 
described as follows: ''The Aqueduct commences at the Croton 
River, five miles from the Hudson, in Westchester County. 
The dam is 250 feet long, 70 feet wide at bottom, and 7 at 
top ; height 40 feet ; built of stone and cement. It sets the river 
back 5 miles, covering 400 acres, and holds five hundred millions 
of gallons. From the dam the Aqueduct proceeds, sometimes 
tunneling through solid rock, crossing valleys by embankments, 
and brooks by culverts, until it reaches Harlem River, a dis- 
tance of thirty-three miles. It is built of stone, brick and 
cement, arched over and under, 6 feet, 9 inches wide at bottom, 
7 feet, 5 inches at top of side walls, and 8 feet 5 inches high. 
It will discharge in twenty-four hours sixty millions of gallons, 
descent thirteen and one-quarter inches per mile. It will cross 



the Harlem River on a maguiticent bridge of stone, 1,450 feet 
long, with fourteen piers, eight of 80 feet span and seven of 
50 feet span. From high tide to soffit of arch 100 feet, to top 
of bridge 114 feet, cost about nine hundred thousand dollars. 
Water is for the present conducted across in an iron pipe laid 
as an inverted syphon. The Manhattan Valley at Harlem is 
passed by two inverted syphons of cast iron three feet in 
diameter, descending 105 feet below the grade line, two and 
a half miles from termination of Aqueduct of Masonry, it 
passes Clendening Valley, with arches, over streets and side- 
wallvs, about ten feet high. The Receiving Reservoir is at 
86th street, New York city, thirty-eight miles from the dam, 
it covers thirty-five acres and contains one hundred and fifty 
millions of gallons. The water is conveyed to the Distributing 
Reservoir on Murrays Hill, 40th street, New York city, in iron 
pipes. It is forty-one miles from the dam, covers four acres, 
built of stone and cement, height forty-three feet above the 
street, resembling a spacious castle or fort. It holds twenty 
millions of gallons. From this reservoir iron pipes are laid, 
underground, through the city. Water will rise in any part 
114 feet above tide, nearly as high as the clock of the City 
Hall. Over one hundred and ten miles of pipes are already laid. 
The whole cost will be about Twelve Millions of Dollars. ' ' 


In August, 1913, it is expected, the great Catskill reservoir 
will be flooded, and a new water supply will be provided for 
New York city; water passing through mains laid almost the 
entire length of Westchester County. 

One of the greatest reservoir in the world is the one at 
Ashokan, which is so soon to go into commission. The daily 
supply of New York city— 500,000,000 gallons— could be drawn 
from it without causing anybody to notice it. 

The authorization to begin the Catskill water reservoir con- 
struction was given in 1907, and the work progressed rapidly. 
The main reservoir, fourteen miles from Kingston, is now prac- 
tically completed, as is the great aqueduct which is to convey 
water to New York. The tunnel under the Hudson river has 
been completed. A large portion of the great water tunnel 
under New York city hundreds of feet below the surface, cut 
in rock, is completed as far south as Union Square, in May, 1913. 


The water which is to course through these tunnels is to be 
gathered from the Esopus Creek watershed, which drains into 
the great Ashokan Reservoir. Using the four drainage areas 
in the new water system for New York designed to supplement 
that of the Croton, in Westchester County, it is estimated that 
even in the driest kind of weather 770,000,000 gallons of water 
a day can be easily dispensed to the city, more than 127 miles 

It is estimated that from the reservoir at the foothills of the 
Catskills it will take the water three days to reach Staten Island, 
in Greater New York, to which it is the intention to convey 
water through a continuation of the tunnel. The journey of 
the water to the Borough of Richmond involves a passage under 
the Hudson river, under mountains and deep below the sur- 
face of busy Manhattan and then under the Narrows. 

It is estimated that the cost of the Ashokan Reservoir, includ- 
ing the expense of relocating highways and paying for eleven 
miles of railroad track, is nearly $18,000,000. If all the water 
which this great repository can hold were turned over New 
York it would cover the city under twenty-eight feet of flood. 
The whole area of the reservoir is about equal to that of New 
York city from the Battery to 116th street. Around the reser- 
voir highways are being graded. It is estimated that the 
capacity of Ashokan Reservoir is 132,000,000 gallons, resting 
upon 8,180 acres. This volume of water is held in place by 
dams and dikes. The main dam, a structure of reinforced con- 
crete and rubble, is 4,650 feet in length, or nearly a mile; 220 
feet in height, 190 feet thick at its base and 23 feet at its top. 
The maximum length of the great reservoir is three miles and 
its average width one mile. 

There is a natural basin at the point where the reservoir is 
built, but in order to complete the work 2.960,000 cubic yards 
of earth and rock were excavated, 8,069,000 cubic yards of 
embankment set and 984,000 cubic yards of masonry laid. The 
City has so far bought 1,187,000 barrels of cement to use in 
the concrete construction. On an average 3,000 men a day 
have been employed on this gigantic task. 

Sixty-four miles of highways were discontinued and forty 
miles more were built. One of the last big tasks of the enter- 
prise was the removal of eleven miles of tracks of the Ulster 
and Delaware Railroad, which was diverted in order to give 
room for the reservoir. The railroad had to build new tracks 


around the reservoir. Up to the last, however, it was permitted 
to send its trains through a gap in the walls. 

All inhabitants of eight villages and many farms had to 
evacuate by May 1, 1913, and go their way to other abodes, to 
make room for the main feeder of the great aqueduct system 
by which the big metropolis is to be provided with necessary 

According to reports submitted in March, 1913, the total cost 
of the Catskill Aqueduct system was $184,000,000. 

To give New York city an additional and adequate supply of 
water, many millions of dollars are being spent. The new sup- 
ply is to be obtained from the Catskills, ninety-six miles away; 
carried under the Hudson river, through tunnels down along 
the east bank of the river, stored mostly in Westchester County 
and distributed in the greater city through a mighty aque- 
duct—running through the heart of the city. 

The proposed aqueduct will be IJi/o miles long and 14 feet 
in diameter. 

It Avill run through solid rock through the heart of the city 
and at an average depth of 400 feet below the surface of the 

At some points the depth below the street will be 600 feet. 

The aqueduct is to run from Hillview reservoir, Yonkers, 
under Jerome avenue, under the Harlem river opposite Dyck- 
man street, under Amsterdam and Eighth avenues to One Hun- 
dred and Tenth street, diagonally under Central Park to Fifty- 
ninth street and Sixth avenue, under Sixth avenue to Broadway, 
under Broadway to Union Square, under the square and Fourth 
avenue to the Bowery, to Canal street, to East river, and under 
the river and Flatbush avenue extension to Willoughby street, 

It is estimated that the aqueduct will add about $25,000,000 
to the cost of the Catskill water system. 

The extra supply of water which New York city expects to 
get from the Catskills is to be carried through a tunnel bored 
through Bull Mountain (or Mount Touris) and an aqueduct 
under the Hudson River, estimated to be constructed about 
eleven hundred feet below the surface of the river, crossing from 
the west to the east side at a point just south of Cornwall, on 
the west side, and runninir to a point about 2,000 feet north of 
Cold Spring, in Putnam County, on the east side; the river here 
is knrnvu as the Narrows, and is the deepest point, about 400 


feet in depth. The preliminary surveys for the work have been 
made. The proposed aqueduct is to be constructed through 
Putnam and Westchester Counties. The distributing plant 
passes in this County through the towns of Cortlandt, York- 
town, New Castle, Mount Pleasant and then into North Castle 
and the Kensico Reservoir, which is to be the main receiving 
reservoir. The second principal reservoir will be at Hillview, 
in Yonkers. 


At a joint session of the United States Senate and House of 
Eepresentatives, held February 12, 1913, Woodrow Wilson, of 
New Jersey, and Thomas R. INIarshall, of Indiana, were declared 
elected President and Vice-President of the United States. At 
a joint session of the Senate and House the electoral votes of 
the several States were counted and the choice of the people 
announced. The official vote, as announced, was divided as 
follows: Wilson and Marshall had received 435 electoral votes, 
Roosevelt and Johnson 88, and Taft and Butler 8. 

The mode of electing a President and Vice-President of these 
United States has been characterized as "a dangerous farce." 

Prior to the date fixed for Congress to act in announcing the 
names of those elected, since the popular election held in 
November, 1912, it has been known that Wilson and Marshall 
were duly elected and they have been treated as President and 
Vice-President-elect. According to existing law bearing upon 
the subject, neither was entitled to the distinction. Neither 
had been elected. Neither had any constitutional right to 
assume his election. No one of the 15,034,800 men who went to 
the polls in November had voted for them or the other Presi- 
dential tickets. Constitutionally speaking, the men actually 
elected in November as Presidential electors were not bound to 
vote for any of these tickets. Constitutionally they were bound 
to exercise their judgment regardless of these tickets. 

How these chosen electors actually voted was not officially 
known until February 12, 1913. Their votes, cast in the several 
States early in January, 1913, were kept under seal in the care 
of messengers and in the vaults of Congress, until February 12. 
Some of them were miscarried and arrived later than the legal 
time. Others might have been lost. Others might have been 


tampered with or tangled up iu legal snarls whose fine points 
are temptingly challenged by a process so indirect and circuitous. 

As a matter of form the ceremonial in Congress was im- 
pressive. As a matter fact, is it not as solemn a farce as ever 
appealed to the humor of a great Nation. 

AVhat think you, is it not time to end this quadrennial comedy 
so fraught with the possibilities of tragedy as at times past 
it has proved to be. This should be the last time the antiquated 
and dangerously cumbersome machinery of the Electoral Col- 
lege be used to pound and rattle out an election of President 
and Vice-President of these United States. 


Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, the day 
after his inauguration, in 1913, found it necessary to issue the 
following statement: 

"The President regrets that he is obliged to announce that 
he deems it his duty to decline to see applicants for office in 
person, except when he himself invites the interview. It is his 
purpose and desire to devote his attention very earnestly and 
very constantly to the business of the government and the 
large questions of policy affecting the whole nation; and he 
knows from his experience as Governor of New Jersey— where 
it fell to him to make innumerable appointments— that the 
greater part both of his time and of his energy will be spent in 
personal interviews with candidates unless he sets an invariable 
rule in the matter. It is his intention to deal with appoint- 
ments through the heads of the several executive departments." 

Every American citizen is a sovereign, and holding office is 
one of the perquisites of sovereignty. Hence the siege of the 
President of the United States who has patronage to bestow. 

Yet it is easy to overestimate the patronage troubles of a 
Chief Executive, especially a Chief Executive who has no ambi- 
tion to construct a pei-sonal political machine. The country 
does not take the Federal office-holder so seriously as it once 
did. No newly-elected President would now be likely to suffer 
the fate of Taylor, who was practically killed by the pres.sure 
of patronage. Nor would it now be possible even for a Conk- 
ling to disrupt a great party over the Collectorship of the Port 


of New York, as when William H. Robertson, of this County, 
was appointed Collector. Nor would a Lincoln be obliged to 
divert his mind from civil war to the postmasterships. 

A President who can make himself a leader of the American 
people has little to fear from disappointed politicians. The 
Presidents Avho have had the most trouble with patronage are 
those who were made with patronage or who relied upon patron- 
age to carry out their policies. 

President Wilson, otherwise all right, may not meet the ex- 
pectations of the office-seekers. No President ever did. Jeffer- 
son was forced to write one of his matchless letters on the 
subject. The elder Harrison was hurried to his death by 
importunity. The easy-going Garfield was murdered by a dis- 
appointed applicant. How shall this craze for position be 
mitigated ? 

Exclusive of the army and navy and the laborers at Panama, 
the Government service embraces 391,000 persons. No doubt 
somebody wants to displace every one of them. Is it possible 
to imagine a President of the United States newly in olHce 
attempting in a week or a month to meet and to pass upon 
the claims of all these aspirants'? Is it even conceivable that 
he could do so with the assistance of every member of his Cabi- 
net and every member of Congress? 

The new President takes refuge behind the Civil Service 
laAvs, behind the tenure-of-office law and behind his high sense 
of duty, but most of all behind his ideas of right and decency 
and order. Everything in this world is relative, especially in 
high places. The greater must not be sacrificed for the less. 
Details must not destroy essentials. The interests of indi- 
viduals must not be pleaded as against the general welfare. 


The Cabinet selected by President Washington in 1789 com- 
prised Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State, Alexander Ham- 
ilton as Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Knox as Secretary of 
War, Samuel Osgood as Postmaster-General and Edmund Ran- 
dolph as Attorney General. The first Secretaiy of the Navy 
was named in 1801 under President Jefferson ; the first Secre- 
tary of the Interior in 1849 under President Taylor; the first 


Secretary of Agriculture in 1889 under President Cleveland. 
The Department of Commerce and Labor was created during 
President Roosevelt's first administration, in 1903, bringing the 
Cabinet up to nine members. In 1913, at the extreme end of 
President Taft's administration, the Department of Labor was 
created, ami it was President Wilson's duty to appoint the 
first Secretary of Labor, the tenth member of the President's 


The Executive branch of the LTnited States Government, at 
the head of which is the President, known as the Chief Execu- 
tive, is divided into nine divisions, called the Department of 
State, Treasury, AVar, Xavy, Post Office, Justice, Interior, Agri- 
culture and Commerce and Labor. The Constitution mentions 
executive departments in only a few instances, but these allu- 
sions show that the framers of that instrument contemplated 
the creation of these departments as necessity might require. 
The heads of these several departments constitute the Presi- 
dent's Cabinet. This is an advisory body, which holds regular 
meetings to give the President information concerning the sev- 
eral departments and to recommend the methods to be em- 
ployed in dealing with the numerous questions constantly arising 
in the governmental affairs of our wealthy and populous nation. 
The existence of the President's Cabinet is due rather to cus- 
tom and necessity than to any provision of the Constitution or 
any law of Congress. "While all of the offices held by members 
of the Cabinet have been created by laws of Congress, these 
laws make no provision for the association of the heads of the 
departments as a Cabinet. Therefore, as a body, the Cabinet has 
no powers and duties except to advise and assist the President. 

The power of appointing to office is vested by the Constitu- 
tion in the President, unless Congress provides for their appoint- 
ment by the heads of the departments. History tells ns that in 
the early days of the Republic civil officers who were honest and 
competent retained their positions through successive adminis- 
trations, but even then the temptation to fill the offices with 
political friends caused some of the early Presidents to swerve 
from the strict line of duty. As an example, we are told that 
President John Adams spent the last hours of his term of office 


in making appointments to important public positions, in order 
to forestall the action of Mr. Jefferson, who was to succeed him 
as President within a few hours. So zealous was Adams to com- 
plete the work that when the clock struck the hour which ended 
his term of office he was still at his desk, signing commissions 
as rapidly as they could be placed before him. When Andrew 
Jackson became President, in 1828, we are told he at once re- 
moved a large number of clerks and subordinate officers and 
appointed in their places persons belonging to his own political 
party ; and with a zeal (;qually as strenuous his example has been 
faithfully imitated as far as possible by nearly every President 
who has succeeded him. The excuse was in former days as it is 
to-day, probably; which is, " to the victor belongs the spoils," 
and, " an active politician is worthy of his hire." 

After many years of discussion and agitation. Congress, in 
1883, enacted the Civil Service Law, which requires that certain 
minor appointments to public office shall be based upon merit 
alone and that they shall not be distributed as rewards for 
political services. Whether or not this last command is observed 
to the letter of the law, at this present day, is an open question. 
There are said to be many ways by which a law can be avoided, 
and probably this Civil Service Law is not an exception. Civil 
Service Commissioners receive their appointments from officials 
elected by a political party and are interested in the success of 
their particular political organization. As a general rule. Civil 
Service Commissioners, especially in municipalities, go out of 
office with the power which appointed them, and new Commis- 
sioners, representing other politics, succeed them. This mode 
of proceeding doubtless gives color to the belief that preference 
is given, when possible, to political friends of the party then 
in power. 



The State of New York, politically speakinj]:, has swung from 
one side to the other with almost the regularity of a pendulum 
in its general elections. The results show the oscillation since 

Republican. Democratic. 

1872-President 53,524 1874-Governor 50,317 

1879-Governor 42,727 1876-President 32,818 

1880— President 21,033 1882— Governor 192,854 

1883 -Secretary State. 18,583 1884-President 1,047 

1888— President 13,002 1888- Governor 19,171 

1893— Secretary State. 24,484 1889- Secretary State. 20,527 

1894— Governor 156,108 1891— Governor 47,937 

1896-President 268,469 1892-President 45,518 

1898- Governor 17,868 1897- Judge 60,889 

1900— President 143,551 1906— All State Officers except 

1902— Governor 9,752 Governor. 

1904-President 175,552 

1906— Governor 75,734 

1907— Appeals Judges (only State Officers) union candidates. 

1908— President 202,602 1910- Governor 67,401 

1912— President, Governor and 
all State Officers. 

In 1912 the vote cast for Presidential Electors in the State, 
was as follows: 

Democratic, 655,475; Republican, 455,428; National Pro- 
gressive, 390,021 ; Socialist, 63,381 ; Prohibition, 19,427 ; Social- 
ist Labor, 4,251. 

For Governor, in the State, in 1912, the vote was divided 
as follows : Democratic, 649,559 ; Republican, 444,105 ; National 
Progressive and Independence League (united on one candidate), 
393,183 ; Socialist, 56,917 ; Prohibition, 18,990 ; Socialist Labor, 
4,461 ; Blank, 40,644 ; Void, 3,792. 


The vote cast in Westchester County at the General Election 
held on November 4, 1912, was divided as follows: 

For Electors:— Democratic, 21,160; Republican, 15,838; 
National Progressive, 15,051; Socialist, 1,345; Prohibition, 291; 
Socialist Labor, 74. 


For Governor:— Democratic, 20,196; Republican, 15,116; 
National Progressive and Independent League (united on Gov- 
ernor), 14,639; Socialist, 1,195; Prohibition, 287; Socialist 
Labor, 93. 

For Representative in Congress:— Twenty-fourth district— 
Westchester County, Democratic, 8,845 ; Republican, 5,788 ; 
National Progressive, 6,092. Borough of Bronx, Democratic, 
8,959 ; Republican, 2,431 ; National Progressive, 6,464. 

For Representative in Congress, — Twenty-fifth district— 
Westchester County, Democratic, 11,865 ; Republican, 10,178 ; 
National Progressive, 6,571; Independent League (endorsed 
Democratic candidate), 256. Rockland County, Democratic, 
4,005; Republican, 2,344; National Progressive, 1,988; Inde- 
pendent League (endorsed Democratic candidate), 42. 

For State Senator: — Democratic, 20,123; Republican, 16,155; 
National Progressive, 12,654; Socialist, 1,249; Prohibition, 304. 

For Member of Assembly: — First district — Democratic, 5,995; 
Republican, 3,611 ; National Progressive, 3.606. 

For Member of Assembly : — Second district— Democratic, 
5,330 ; Republican, 3,935 ; National Progressive, 3,878. 

For Member of Assembly: — Third district — Democratic, 
5,130 ; Republican, 4,797 ; National Progressive, 2,490. 

For Member of Assembly: — Fourth district — Democratic, 
4,323 ; Republican, 4,005 ; National Progressive, 2,302. 

For Surrogate:— Democratic, 20,189; Republican, 17,351; 
National Progressive, 12,329; Socialist, 1,250. 

For Coroner: — Democratic, 20,195; Republican, 16,658; Na- 
tional Progressive, 12,547; Socialist, 1,254; Prohibition, 312. 


Residents of New York, generally, have no idea how vast and 
valuable are the lands belonging to the State and devoted to' the 
people's use as Public Parks. 

No State east of Colorado owns anything comparing with 
them in beauty; in extent they are worthy to be named with 
the new Federal Reservations in the West, spoken of so highly. 

Beginning in the south, and lying west of the shores of this 
County, the State owns a half interest in the Palisade Park, 
whose floral, bird and animal life so near a great city are remark- 
able. Here, where the stars show clear long before sunset, and 


where springs and streams flow unseen by river passengers sailing 
on the majestic Hudson River, "the American Rhine," populous 
"tent cities" every summer show that the Park is appreciated. 

This park, known as the "Palisades Interstate Park," is owned 
jointly by the State of New York and by the State of New 
Jersey, and is under control of ten commissioners, five appointed 
by the Governor of New York and five appointed by the Gov- 
ernor of New Jersey. 

Further north, along the Hudson River, is reached the Catskill 
State Park, Avhieh runs almost to the southern fringe of the Adi- 
rondack Park. ]\Iost of these lands were acquired by purchase. 

It is proposed to establish another State Park, which will lie 
between the Palisade Park and the Catskill Park, converting 
the 10,000 acres of land at Arden, situated in Rockland and 
Orange Counties, presented to the State, for park purposes, by 
]\Irs. Edward H. Harriman, widow of the noted railroad mil- 
lionaire. Mrs. Harriman accompanied the land with a gift of 
$1,000,000 with which to purchase additional property lying- 
between the original grant and the river. In her letter to Gov- 
ernor Hughes, dated December 15, 1909, informing him of her 
proposed gift, Mrs. Harriman states that she makes these gifts 
in conformity to the wishes of her late husband, and suggested 
that the Palisade Park Commission have jurisdiction over the 
new park. 

At the commencement of the year 1910, the president of the 
Palisade Park Commission announced that subscriptions of 
$1,625,000 had been subscribed by sixteen wealthy men of New 
York city and vicinity to assist in the extension of Palisade 
Park from its present limits at Piermont northward as far as 
Newburgh, so that the magnificent scenery of the Hudson River 
might be preserved. 


YoNKERS — At different periods written Younkers, Younckers, 

Jonkers, and Yonkers ; is derived from the Dutch ' ' Jonker, ' ' 

or "Jonkheer, " meaning in that language the "young 

gentleman," a common appellation for the heir of a Dutch 

Mount Vernon— For the home of General Washington, 
New Rochelle— Named for La Rochelle, France, from which 

came the Huguenots who settled in this town. 
White Plains— Suggested by the former spontaneous growth 

of white balsam on these plains. 
Bedford— From tow^n of similar name, Bedfordshire, England. 
CoRTLANDT— In honor of family of Van Cortlandts, first grantees 

from the Indians. 
Greenburgh — Dutch origin, Gein (grain) burgh (borough or 

town), to be known as the grain town. 
Eastchester— Like the county, for Chester, England. 
Harrison --In honor of John Harrison, who purchased the land, 

on which the town was erected, from the Indians. 
Lewisboro— For John Lewis, a liberal contributor to establish 

a fund to aid in the maintenance of the town's public 

Mam aroneck— Originally known as Merrinack— Of Indian 

origin ; interpreted means, ' ' The place where the fresh 

water falls into the salt." 
Mount Pleasant— Derived from its pleasant location upon high 

New Castle— From an Indian palisade fort or castle that stood 

on site of town. 
North Castt^e- From same. 
"North Salem — English origin. 
OssiNiNG— From Ossin (a stone) and ing (a place), or "stone 

-upon stone. " 
iPelham — In honor of Thomas Pell, who purchased from the 

Indians, in 1654, the land on which the town was erected. 



PouNDRiDGE— From the ancient " Indian Pound," which stood 

at the foot of a " high ridge." 
Rye— For Rye, County Sussex, England. 
SoMERS— In honor of Lieutenant Richard Somers, famous for 

bravery displayed in the Tripolitan War, in 1804. 
ScARSD ALE— This towu acquired its name from the Heathcote 

family, who originally came from Scarsdale, Derbyshire, 

YORKTOWN— For York, England, and the name of the town 

was formerly "York." 
Peekskill— or Peek 's-kill— The name was given by the Dutch, 

in honor of Jans Peek, one of the early navigators who first 

erected a habitation in this locality, 
Croton— For an Indian Chief. 
Tarrytov^n— Originally known as Tarwetown, from the Dutch 

word tarwe (wheat), " the wheat town," probably so called 

from the abundant culture of that grain in this locality. 

The town was settled by the Dutch in 1680. 
DoBBS Ferry — Derived its name from the ancient family of 

Dobs (represented by Jeremiah Dobs former proprietor of 

the ferry), who were the early ferrymen. 
Irvington— In honor of Washington Irving, who lived and died 

Hastings— For a town on the southeast coast of England. 
Ardsley— English origin. 

Elmsford— formerly Hall's Corners— Suggested by the abund- 
ance of elms growing in the locality. 
Sing Sing— now known as the village of Ossining— Derived 

its name from a Mohegan tribe of Indians called Sint Sings. 
Mount Kisco— Indian name for village by a brook and hill. 
Katonah— Name of an Indian Chief wdiose tribe owned the land 

in this locality. 
Bronxville— For James Bronck, an original and large land 

owner in this locality, commencing with 1637. 
TucKAHOE— An Indian name, meaning bread. 
Hartsdale— For the Hart family, early settlers. 
Hawthorne — formerly Unionville — In honor of Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, an American author. 
Purdy's Station— In honor of Isaac H. Purdy and present 

family of that name, o-umers of the land on w^hich the place 

was built. 


Ceoton Falls— Derived from a series of falling rapids in the 

Croton River. 
Valhalla — formerly Kensico — An Indian name, meaning 

Purchase— The name by which the town of Harrison was first 

knowTi was " The Purchase," undoubtedly relating to the 

purchase of the land from the Indians. A hamlet within 

the town of Harrison retains the name. 
Pleasantville — Meaning a pleasant village. 
Chappaqua— From the abundant growth of laurel found here, 

which the Indians called " Chappaqua." 
Golden 's Bridge— For Golden, the original owner of the land 

in this locality. 
Wakefield— Name of a village in Goldsmith's " Vicar of 
y Wakefield." 

WiLLiAMSBRiDGE— In honor of John Williams who bought the 

land from the Indians. 
Chatterton Hill — Named in honor of a family of that name, 

who bought the property and settled there in 1736. 




* ' Columbus, ' ' said a Chicago antiquary, ' ' got a salaiy of $320 
a year— less than $1 a day. His Captains got $180 a year each. 
His crew got $2.25 a month. 

"To equip the expedition that discovered America cost $2,800. 
The total cost of discovering America was $7,200." 

Clarkson Nott Potter, of New Rochelle, when a Representa- 
tive in Congress from the Westchester County district, in 1871, 
was the first to suggest that the official terms of the President 
and the Vice-President of the United States be limited to six 
years. He succeeded in getting the Judiciary Committee of 
the House to report a proposed Constitutional amendment fixing 
such limit, but said report failed to get favorable action. 


This river, which appeared on the map of early days, and 
incited an official in England to inquire why the British fleet 
did not sail up the Bronx River and attack White Plains during 
the Battle of White Plains, is a narrow stream measuring any- 
where from twelve to twenty feet wide, and shallow in most 

The river rises to the east of Chappaqua ; Wampus Lake being 
its practical source. 

It runs through the towns of New Castle, North Castle, White 
Plains, Scarsdale, Eastchester, IMount Vernon, Wakefield, Wil- 
liamsbridge, West Farms, in the Borough of the Bronx, and 
empties into Long Island Sound. At its southern end the river 
is widest and deepest, permitting ladened vessels to pass a dis- 
tance up the stream. 

Washington Irving was given the undisputed title of "Father 
of American Literature." 


*Al8o 3ee Volumes 1 and 2 

A "Market Town," 194 
*Andre, Caijture of, 99, 119, 120, 132, 
173, 174, 176, 215, 216, 250, 262 

Allen, Frederick H., 190 
*Andrus, John E., 235 
.Anne'.s Hook, 186 

Anthes, Henry A., 256 
*Archer, William, 151 
*Ardsley, Village of, 119, 123 

Armonk, 174, 176 
*Arnold and Peggy Shippen, 263 
*Assemblymen, 323 
.Assemblymen, Vote for, 323 
Ashokan Reservoir, 314 


Bailey, George S., 302 

Bailey's First Great Show, 211, 212 

Bald Mountain, 250 
*Barrett, Edward Percy, 93, 256, 258 
*Barrett, Henry R., 222, 294 
*Barrett Joseph, 94 
*Barrett, William G., 295, 298 
*Battle of White Plains, 121, 127, 
143, 173, 178, 214, 265 

" Battle Flag of White Plains," 268 
*Bedford, Town of 50, 87, 175, 256, 

Bedford Academy, 91 
*Bedford Court House, 88, 89 
Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 100 
*Beecroft, Edgar C, 189, 257 
Beekman, Mrs. Cornelia Van Cort- 

landt, 132 
Bell, James C, 233, 237 
Berry, John, 20, 112 
Big Blizzard, 1888, 276 
Bovie, Verne M., 286 
Brennan, John, 234, 244 
*Brennan, John F., 240, 245 
Bridgeman, Andrew, 142, 256 

*Brier Cliff Manor, 136, 181 

Breucher, Frank, 257 
*Briggs, William H., 102 

Bronck, Jonas, 113 
*Bronx Parkway, 261 
*Bronx River, 143, 261, 286 
*Bronxville, Village of, 113 
*Brown, John J., 220 

Brundage Family, 132 
*Buck, Frank M., 289 
*BurIing, George T., 287 
Bushong, John R., 229 

Burning of Steamboat Henry Clay 

Burnt the Court House, 88 
*Burr, Aaron, 98, 108 

Byram River, 176 
*Byrne, George R., 301 

Cabinet, President's, 259, 319, 320 

*Captors of Andre, 99, 119, 132, 173, 
174, 215, 216, 250, 262 

^Carpenter, Francis M., 16, 70, 156, 

*Carpenter Zopher, 287 

Calf, part payment, 161 

Carried the House Away, 115 

Carson, Edward, 256 
*Chappaqua, 28, 154, 327 

Chatterton Hill, 121, 327 

Cholera in Early Days, 212, 213 

" City of Homes," 138 
*City Island, 185, 186 

" City of Parks," 159 
*Civil War, 234, 242, 275, 277, 312 
*CIark, William C, 151 
*Clarke, Frank E., 291 

Cockran, William Bourke, 20 
*Coffin, Owen T., 102 

Colony Boundaiy Line, 252 

Colwell, Harry E., 167 




•Commissioners of Jurors, 300 

Committoe and Enoch Crosby, 2G'J 
♦Committee of Public Safety, 48, 78, 

191, 214, 216, 209 
•Congress, Members of, 20, 85, 323 
•Cooper James Fenimore, 130, 272, 
Cordes, John H., 151, 260 
•Cornell, Gov. Alonzo B., 99, 100 
•Coroners, 296 

•Cortlandt, Manor of, 4, 98, 107, 210 
•Cortlandt, Town of, 98, 256, 317, 

♦Cortright, John B., 256, 302 
County Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society, 122 
County Attorney, 299 
•County Bar Association, 303, 307 
•County Courts, 88, 194 
•County Court Houses, 88, 216, 208 
County Engineer and Superinten- 
dent of Highways, 301 
County Election, 322 
•County Register, 295 
County Sealer of Weights and 

Measures, 301 
County Soldiers in Civil War, 281 
•County Treasurers, 287 
Cow was the Price, 195 
*" Cowboys " and " Skinners," 174, 

•Cromwell, David, 21, 112 
•Crosby, Enoch, 101, 131, 178, 211, 
Cross River, 87, 128, 175 
•Croton Aqueduct, 250, 313 
Croton Dam, 250 
•Croton Falls, 179, 327 
•Croton-on-Hudson, 98, 102, 132, 326 

Croton Reservoir, 250 
•Crumb, Leverett F., 102, 289 
Curran, Thomas F., 238, 248 

Darling, William, 92 
•Davis, Lee P., 291 
♦Decker, Charles J. F., 289 
•Depew, Chauncey M., 3, 18, 91, 100, 

10.3, 108, 281 
♦Depew, Isaac, 3, 100 

Depew, Park, 103 
*Dcputy County Oliicers, 287, 289, 
291, 294, 295 

Dickinson vs. Johnson, 15, 281 
•Digney, John M., 289, 312 
♦District Attorneys, 289 

Di;x, Gen. John A., 195 
*Dobbs Ferry, 119, 120, 121, 326 
*Doyle, William J., 294 
•Drake, Joseph Rodman, M. D., 142 

Dunn, James P., 297 
*Dykman, Jackson 0., 100, 216 


•Eastchester, Town of, 112, 256, 325 
•Eastchester Green, 112 
•Eastview, 13o 

Electing a President, 317 

Election Bureau, 302 

Election in County, 1912, 322 
^Electors, Presidential, 301 

Elephant the Whole Show, 211, 212 
•Elmsford, Village of, 119, 326 
*Emmet, William Temple, 83 

Esser, Joseph H., 152 

Ewing, Thomas E., Jr., 243 


•Fairchild, Benjamin L., 189 

Farmers' and Drovers' National 

Bank, 210 
*Farragut, Admiral David G., 122 

Field, Cyrus W\, 122 

Field Family, 126 

Fiero, William P., 226 

Filling Vacancy in Office, 285 
•Fire Departments, 217, 231, 236, 242 

First Elevated Railroad, 242 
•Fiske. Edward W., 141, 144 

Fleming, James J., 238, 259 

Fort Slocum, 163 

Four Cornered Presidential Fight, 

Frost, Calvin, 102 


Getty, Robert P., 231. 233 
•Gifford, Silas D., 115 
i Glover, Ralph M., 216, 227, 295 



Golden's Bridge, 128, 327 
Gould, Helen M., 20, 122 
Governor of the State, 204 
Governor, Vote for, 322 
Great Ashokan Reservoir, 314 
Greeley Family, 28, 35, 36, 157 

*Greele'y, Horace, 10, 28, 67, 138, 
139, 155 
Greeley, William B., 168 
Green, Harvey B., 158, 256, 259 

*Greenburgh, Town of, 119, 256, 325 


Haight, Joseph, 199, 257 
*Haines, Charles, 95 
♦Hamilton, Alexander, 37, 90, 108, 
Hamilton Family, 42, 280 
♦Hamilton, James A., 42, 120 
Hammond Family, 134 
Harlem Railroad, 92, 115 
Harrison, John, 126 
♦Harrison, Town of, 126, 256, 325 
♦Hart, Robert S., 90 
Hartsdale, 119, 326 
Hart's Island, 280 
♦Hastings, Village of, 119, 326 
Haviland Family, 127 
Hawthorne, 135, 326 
Headless-Horseman's Bridge, 260 
♦Heathcote, Caleb, 130, 204 
Heeney, John N., 228 
y ^Hepenstal, Charles, 289 
/ ♦Hiekey, Daniel C, 21 

Hid Money in this County, 89 
Hobbs, Bailey, 233 
Hoe, Robert, 123, 124 
♦Hodge, Thomas R., 295 
Hoffkins, William F., 257 
Holden, John, 170 
"Home Industrial Association," 138 
♦Horton, Stephen D., 100, 107 
How Johnson was Substituted, 281 
How Many Remember?, 240 
Hudson River Railroad, 231 
♦Husted, Harvey, 

♦Husted, James W., 90, 91, 101, 103 
♦Husted, James W., Jr., 108 
Huguenot Anniversary, 161, 162, 
165, 166 

♦Huguenot Settlers, 3, 45, 101, 162, 
165, 166 

Hunt's Bridge, 143, 266 
♦Hunt, David H., 312 
♦Hunt, James M., 246 

Hunt, Levi, 157 

Hutchinson, Anne, 186 

Hutchinson River, 186 

Hoyt, Charles D., 137 

Incidents Change Course of His- 
tory, 281 
Indian Massacre, 186 
Initial Show Business, 211, 212 
Irving Family, 122 
♦Irving, Washington, 18, 108, 121, 

122, 124, 174, 260, 286 
♦Irvington, Village of, 119, 326 
♦Items of Interest, 259, 275, 279, 
280, 286, 312 

♦Johnson, Addison, 196, 202, 294 
Johnson vs. Dickinson, 15, 281 
Jay Family, 51, 89, 90 

♦Jay, John, 45, 89, 91, 131, 136, 
269, 274 

♦Justices U. S. Supreme Court, 311 


♦Katonah, 93, 326 

♦Kear, Edward B., 251, 258, 295 

Kearney, Gen. Phillip, 92 
♦Kensico, 174 
♦Kensico Lake, 175, 215, 317 

Kensico Reservoir, 175, 317 
♦Keogh, Martin J., 303 

King's Bridge, 62, 115, 234 
♦Kitching, Col. J. Howard, 284 

LaFayette, General, 79, 173 

Lamb, Frank J., 225 
♦Lane, Charles M., 256, 258, 294, 296 
♦Larchmont, Village of, 130 
♦Larkin, Francis, 181 
♦Law Library, County, 312 

Law, Walter W., 183 



Lawrence, Arthur \V., 116 
♦Lawrence, William C, 296 
♦Leisler, Jacob, ICO, 161, 165, 166 

Lennon, James T., 235, 238, 248 

LeRoy Family, GO, 80, 81 
*Lewisboro, Town of, 128, 175, 256, 

Livingston, William H., 297 

Lockwood Family, 191 

Lodges, 102, 215 
♦Lord Pell, 161, 165, 185 
*Lounsbury, John W., 201 

Lounsbury, Charles E., 200 


*Mamaroneck, Town of, 129, 196, 

256, 325 
*Mamaroneck, Village of, 130, 196 
♦Manor Hall,.Yonkers, 237 

" Manor of Anne Hoock's Neck," 
♦Manor of Pelham, 160, 165, 185, 

Manor of Scarsdale, 154, 204, 214 

Manussing Island, 195 

"Mark T^vain " (Clements), 122 
♦Martin, James F., 295 

Mason, Robert, 152, 259 

Masonic, 102, 215 
♦McAlpin, Gen. Edwin A., 181 

Mekeel, Lieut. John. 135 

Merritt, Freeman H., 228 

Merritt, Fred. L., 257 
♦Merritt, James S., 198, 202, 294 
♦Meyer, William J., M. D. (volume 

♦Militia. X. Y. S. N. G., 142, 215, 
243, 276 

Militia, State Naval, 164, 182, 276 

Mills, Darius Ogden, 52, 71, 178 

Mills, John F., 202 

Mills, John F., Jr.. 203 

Millard, Charles D., 124 
•Millard, Frank V., 312 
♦Miller, Samuel C, 294 

Mixsell, Aaroi. J., M. D., 131, 297 

Mohansic Lake, 250 

Mohegan Lake, 250 
•Moore, William A., 171, 291 

Montross, David G., 101 
•Montross, Frank, 289 
♦Morschauser, Joseph, Supreme 

Court Justice (volume 2) 
♦Morris, Gouverneur, 59 . 
♦Morris, Lewis, 58, 215 
♦Morris, Lewis G., 284 

Morris, Robert Rutherford, 59 

Morris, William li., 284 
♦Mount Kisco, 154, 215, 326 
•Mount Pleasant, Town of, 132, 180, 

317, 325 
*]\Iount Vernon, Town and City, 138, 
230, 256, 266, 325 

"Mount Misery," 173 


Naval Militia, State, 164, 182, 276 
Nelson, Thomas, 6, 109 
Nelson, Thomas, Jr., 110 
♦Nelson, William, 6, 8, 99, 100, 103, 

♦New Castle, Town of, 154, 256, 317, 

♦Newspapers, County, 215, 231, 232 
♦New Rochelle, Town and City, 45, 

159, 256, 266, 325 
♦New York Water Supply, 313 
Nolan, Dan, 232 
♦North Castle, Town of, 173, 257, 

267, 317 
♦North Pelham, 185 
♦North Salem, To\vii of, 52, 123, I'l, 
257, 325 
North Tarrytown, 132, 133, 135, 328 


Of Many Occupations, 116 

Old and New Sources of Water 
Supply, 313 

Oldest Postmaster, 115 

Oliver, John W., 231 

" One Fat Calf," 161 

Orienta Point, 130 

Original Deed, Pell to Leisler, 165 

Origin of Names, Towns, Villages 
and Cities, 325 

Osceola Lake, 250 
•Ossining. Town of, 180, 257, 325 
♦Ossining, Village of, 52, 180, 276 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V^^ "^^^^^1 







^^^^^^^BT^K, ^ ^^ 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^o. - _^^ jAk ^ 







*Paine, Thomas, 162, 163 

Palmer, Francis I., 92 

Patriots Assembled, 214 

Paulding, Admiral Hiram, 61 

Paulding Family, 119 
•Paulding, John, 61, 99, 119, 133, 
134, 174, 175 

Peck, Gideon H., 249 
*Peck, Jared V., 61, 196 

Peek, Jans, 98 

Peekskill Academy, 6 
•Peekskill, Village of, 5, 98, 99, 270, 

*Pelham Manor, 160, 165, 185, 186 
*Pelham, Town of, 185, 257, 325 
*Pelham, Village of, 185 
*Pelham, Village of North, 185 
*Pell, Thomas, 160, 188 
•Pell, John, 160, 165 

PhiUpse Manor, 136, 237, 260 

Pine Island, 195 

*Platt, Lems C, Sr., 63, 91, 216 
*Platt, Benoni, 63, 224 
*Platt, Lewis C, Jr., 62, 219 
•Piatt, William P., 62, 303 
•Pleasantville, Village ot, 134, 135, 

Pocantico Hills, 135 

Poe, Edgar Allan, 62 

Political Patronage, 318 

Popham, Major William, 63 
•Population, see Towns 
•Port Chester, Village of, 196, 197 
*Potter, Clarkson N., 64, 286 

Potter, Orlando B., 38, 181 
r *'iPoundridge, Town of, 191, 257, 326 

Presidential Election 1860, 277 
•Presidential Electors, 301 

Prigge, Charles L., 226 
•Pugsley, Cornelius A., 99, 108 
•Purchase, 126, 127, 327 
•Purdy, Isaac, 179 
*Purdy, Isaac H., 178 
•Purdy Station, 179, 326 


Quakers, 127, 155 

Quick Action Period, 115 


Railroad, a first horse car, 232 
•Raymond, Henry J., 120 

Recalling the Past, 240 

Reed Tavern, 120 
•Register, County, 295 
•Reid, Whitelaw, 18, 58, 66, 127, 216 
•Representatives in Congress, 20, 85j 

•Rhodes, Bradford, 206 
•Robertson, William H., 14, 90, 91, 

Robinson, Senator Helen Ring, 240 
•Romer Family, 134 

Rowe, Mathew F., 231 

Rye Ferry, 194 
•Rye, Town of, 45, 126, 193, 194, 

214, 257 
•Rye Lake, 175, 176 
•Rye, Village of, 195, 198 

Saunders, Ervin, 238 
Sawyer, William A., 287, 312 
Scarborough, 180, 182 
•Scarsdale, Manor of, 154, 204, 214 
•Scarsdale, Town of, 204, 257, 326 
Schley, Admiral Winfield Scott, 155 
Schmid, Henry Ernest, M. D., 223 
•School Commissioners, 298 
•Secor, Chauncey T., 205, 206, 207, 

257, 258 
•Secor, Francis, 205, 207 

Secor Testimonials, 205, 206, 208 
•See, Joseph B., 257, 287, 294 
•Served as County Officials, 287 
•Seymour, Gov. Horatio, 120 
•Sheriffs, 196, 291 
Showing the Elephant, 211, 212 
Sidepath Commissioners, 301 
•Silkman, Theodore H., 303, 310 
•Sing Sing, 178 
•Sleepy Hollow, 135, 136, 260 

Sleepy Hollow Church, 260, 261 
•Smith, Alfred E., 113, 115 
•Smith, Capt. Ebenezer, 72 
•Smith, Henry T., 1, 2, 235, 328 
•Smith, Isaac H., 108, 295 



♦Smith, Thomas, 232, 234, 239, 243, 

Soldiers in «, ivil War, 283 

Somers, Captain, 211 
*Somers, Town of, 210, 257, 326 

South Salem, 175 

Spuyten Duyvil, 231 

Squire, Ebenezer H. P., 221, 224 
♦State's Birthplace, 215 

State Election Results, 322 
*State Institutions, 92, 251 

State Military Camp, 101 

State Officers, 83 

State Parks, 323 

State Senator, Vote for, 323 
*State Superintendent of Insurance, 

♦Stevens, John, 138, 139, 141 

Stratton, Francis A., 148 

Studwell, Edwin F., 197, 198, 199 

"Sunnyside," 121, 122, 124 

Superintendent of County Build- 
ings, 301 
♦Superintendents oi Poor, 296 
♦Superintendents of Schools, 298 
♦Supervisors of County, 194 
♦Supreme Court, 311 
♦Supreme Court Library, 312 
♦Surrogates, 287 

Swinburne, Samuel F., 172 

♦Tappan, Abraham B., 20 
♦Tarrj-town, Village of, 119, 120, 133, 

Taylor, Benjamin I., 85 
♦Teed, Leonard E., 287 
Thomas Family, 126 
♦Thompson Ffarrington M., 210, 218, 

257, 298 
♦Tilden, Samuel J., 73 
♦Tiernoy, Michael J., 169 
To Rival New York City, 185, 186 
♦Todd, Gilbert M., 183, 257 
♦Tompkins, Arthur S., 122, 303, 307, 

♦Tompkins, Daniel D.. 90. 204, 205, 

207, 217 
♦Tompkins, Jonathan G., 18, 204, 205 
♦Tompkins, Joseph Warren, 89, 217 

♦Towns in County, 87 

Travis, David W., 102 

Travis, Eugene B., 102 
♦Tuckahoe, Village of, 113, 114, 326 

Turner, George, 213, 257 
♦Turner, Isaac W., 96, 256 


♦Underbill, John Q., 167 
♦UnderhiU, Lancaster, 115 
♦United States Courts, 311 
United States Executive — Cabinet — 

Appointments, 320 
United States President's Cabinet, 

Valhalla, 176, 327 
*Van Cortlandt Family, 77 

Van Cortlandt, Augustus, 80 
♦Van Cortlandt, Lt. Gov. Pierre, 77, 

99, 132, 214, 215, 251 
♦Van Cortlandt, Gen. Philip, 79, 98, 

♦Van Cortlandt, Stephenus, 98, 210 

Vanderbilt, William H., 10, 11, 92 

Van Kleeck, Frederick B., Jr., 223 
♦Van Wart, Isaac, 121, 134 

Vice-President of United States, 204 

Verplanck, Philip, 79 
♦Verplanck's Point, 98, 103 


Waketield, 327 

Wampus Lake, 176 
♦Ward, Stephen, 115 
♦Ward, Gen. Aaron, 121 
♦Ward, William L., 202 
♦Washington's Headquarters, 98, 120, 
173, 237 

Webb, Capt. John, 132 

Webster, Daniel, 60, 79 

Webster, Mrs. Daniel LeRoy, 79 
♦Weeks, Frederick E., 291 

Wells, Edward, 102 

Wells, Lemuel, 230 
♦Westchester County, 

What will Happen Cannot Always 
be Foretold, 282 



*White Plains, Battle of, 121, 127, 

143, 173, 178, 214, 265 
*White Plains, Town of, 47, 71, 88, 

214, 257, 265, 269, 276, 325 
*White Plains, Village of, 119, 215, 

*Wiesendanger, Ulricli, 294, 297 
*Williams, David, 134, 174, 178, 192 

Williamsbridge, 327 
*Winslow, Francis A., 243, 290 
*Wood, Joseph S., 146, 303, 304 
Wood, Susy E. (Mrs. J. S.), 147, 

*Worden, Admiral John Lorimer, 136 

Yacht Clubs, 130, 163, 182, 240 
*Yonkers, Town and City, 73, 138, 

230, 257, 283, 315, 325 
♦Yonkers Manor Hall, 237, 238 
*Yorktown Heights, 250, 251 
*Yorktown, Town of, 250, 258, 317, 

* Young, Frank L., 17 
*Young, J. Addison, 290, 310, 312 

Zimmermann, J. Albert, 153