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[Names of contributors of articles are set in small capitals. 
printed in the report of a meeting of an association.] 

(A) indicates an abstract of a paper 

Academic Work and the Shop — Their 
Relation and Correlation — William C. 
Holden, 19. 

Art, Manual Training, and Nature Study 
in Education (A) — J. Liberty Tadd, 

Associations — Connecticut State Teach- 
ers' Association, Report of New Haven 
Meeting, 108; Eastern Manual Train- 
ing Association, Report of Cleveland 
Meeting, 38 ; National Educational 
Association, Department of Superin- 
tendence, 168; National Educational 
Association, the Report of Charleston 
Meeting, 45 ; New England Associa- 
tion of Metal-Working Teachers, Re- 
port of Springfield Meeting, F. W. 
Turner, 172; Northern Illinois Teach- 
ers' Association, Moline Meeting, 236; 
Western Drawing Teachers' Associa- 
tion, Report of Rock Island Meeting, 

Bates, R. Charles — Possibilities of Man- 
ual Training for Moral Ends (A), 169. 

Bennett, Charles A. — An Experiment 
in Wood-Turning (111), 155. 

Bibliography of Manual Training, 238. 

Brevities — Boston, 55, 115, 177; Canada, 
56, 118; California, 57, 1 17, 178,245; 
Chicago, 248 ; Connecticut, 242 ; Illi- 
nois, 185, 247; Massachusetts, 115; 
Michigan, 120 ; Minneapolis, 177; 
New York City, 179,242; Ohio, 180; 
Philippine Islands, 246 ; Wisconsin, 

Bryant, George H. — Recognition of 
the Trade Idea in Manual-Training 
Courses of High-School Grade, 200. 

Carley, Ira M. — The Value of the Sloyd 
Idea as a Basis for Educational Manual 
Training (A), 40. 

Clark, Ida Hood — Sewing as Related to 
Manual Training (A), 43. 

Crawshaw, F. D. — Watson's Small En- 
gines and Boilers, 64. 

Daniels, Joseph F. — Library Handi- 
craft at Greeley, Colo. (111.), 89. 

Davis, Walter W. — The Development of 
Muscular Power (A), 43. 

Dean, Arthur D. — An Experiment in 
Teaching Trades at Public Expense, 

Design, Constructive, in Woodwork, II 
(111.) — -William F. Vroom, 25 ; Struc- 
tural, The Relation of Nature Study 
to — James Hall (111.), 85. 

Development of Muscular Power, The, 
(A) — Walter W. Davis, 43. 

Dewey, John — The Place of Manual 
Training in the Elementary Course of 
Study, 193. 

Domestic Science in Chicago, The Prog- 
ress and Aims of — Henry S. Tibbits, 

Editorials — Dr. C. Hanford Henderson, 
123; The High School par excellence, 
251 ; The Manual-Training Teacher's 
Opportunity, 187 ; The Trade-School 
Question, 60 ; Value of Manual Train- 
ing to the University Student (Testi- 
monies from College Presidents), 121. 

Education, The End of (A) — William 
DeWitt Hyde, 109. 

Effect of Moisture on Wood, an Instru- 
ment Capable of Showing the (111.) — 
W. W. Murray, 184. 

Forestry, Lumbering, and Wood, An Out- 
line of Ten Lectures on — John C. 
Miller, 96. 

Forging, The Decorative Side of a Course 
in (111.) — William C. Stimpson, 214. 

Foster, Edwin W. — Leaf-Forms of Our 
Common Broad-Leaved Trees (111.), 
II, 31; III, 100; IV, 163 ; V, 224. 

Frederick, Frank F. — Wilson's Freehand 
Perspective, 126. 

Grammar-School Courses in Manual 
Training, Some Observations on — 
Daniel Upton (A), 41. 

Griffith, George — Cost of Manual Train- 
ing (A), 171. 

Hall, James — The Relation of Nature 
Study to Structural Design (111.), 85. 


Hand-Loom, A — (111.), 247. 

Hand-Work in Education, The Place of 
(A) — Clara I. Mitchell, 234. 

Henderson, C. Hanford — The Man- 
ual-Training Outlook, 65. 

Henderson, Charles R. — The Manual- 
Training School as a Factor in Social 
Progress, I. 

Holden, William C. — Academic Work 
and the Shop. Their Relation and Cor- 
relation, 19. 

Howe, Charles B. — Pupil's Latitude in 
the Choice of Models, 112 ; Treatment 
of Blue Prints, 112. 

Hyde, William DeWitt— The End of 
Education (A), 109. 

Ideals of the Schoolroom, The — CM. 
Woodward, 186. 

Industrial Education, A Study in — 
Albert R. Robinson, 10. 

Industrial Training as a Social Factor — 
Frank A. Manny, 129. 

Kendall, F. W. — Schoolroom Bench 
(111.), 112. 

Keyes, Charles H. — Relation of Manual 
Training to Trade Education (A), 46. 

Kidner, T. B. — Manual Training in 
England, 207. 

Leaf-Forms of Our Common Broad- 
Leaved Trees (111.) — Edwin W. Fos- 
ter, II, 31 ; III, 100 ; IV, 163 ; V, 224. 

Library Handicraft at Greeley, Colo. 
(111.)— Joseph F. Daniels, 89. 

Manny, Frank A. — Industrial Training 
as a Social Factor, 129. 

Manual Training, Bibliography of, 238; 
Cost of (A), George Griffith, 171 ; for 
the Ordinary High School, James H. 
Van Sickle, 76; in the Elementary 
Course of Study, The Place of, John 
Dewey, 193 ; in England, T. B. Kid- 
ner, 207 ; For Grammar Schools (A), 
Harris W. Moore, 108 ; in Normal 
Schools, Lee Russell, 12; Possibilities 
of, for Moral Ends (A), R. Charles 
Bates, 169 ; Relation of, to Trade 
Education (A), Charles H. Keyes, 46; 
Unrealized Possibilities in, Clarence S. 
Moore, 81 ; Value of, to the University 
Student (Testimonies from College 
Presidents), Editorial, 121. 
Manual-Training Outlook, The — C. 

Hanford Henderson, 65. 
Manual-Training School, The, as a Fac- 
tor in Social Progress, Charles R. 
Henderson, I. 

Mason, J. H. — Reid's A Course in 
Mechanical Drawing, 188. 

Miller, John C. — An Outline of Ten 
Lectures on Forestry, Lumbering, and 
Wood, 96. 

Mitchell, Clara I. — Social Occupations 
(A), 233. 

Moore, Clarence S. — Unrealized Pos- 
sibilities in Manual Training, 81. 

Moore, Harris W. — Manual Training 
for Grammar Schools (A), 108. 

Murray, W. W.— An Instrument Capable 
of Showing the Effect of Moisture on 
Wood (111.), 184 ; The Rochester Desk- 
Top, 240. 

Parker, Francis W. — Industrial Training 
(A), 170. 

Queries — Blue Print and Drawing 
Holder, 53; Desk-Top (111.). 240; 
Pupils' Latitude in Choice of Models, 
112, 173; Schoolroom Bench, 112; 
Treatment of Blue Prints, 112. 

Reviews — American Industrial Educa- 
tion — What Shall it Be? 190 ; 
Bartsch's Constructive Work, 63 ; 
Brochure Series of Architectural Illus- 
trations, 127 ; Brunchen's North 
American Forests and Forestry, 64 ; 
Burrage and Bailey's School Sanita- 
tion and Decoration, 63; Davidson's 
History of Education, 188; Ham's 
Mind and Hand, 190; Holme's Course 
of Instruction in Wood-Carving Ac- 
cording to the Japanese Method, 255; 
Lewis' Manual Instruction in France 
and Switzerland, 254 ; Manual-Train- 
ing Number, Teachers College Rec- 
ord, 191 ; Manual-Training Schedule, 
The, New York City, 127; Manual- 
Training Syllabus, New York, 125; 
Parental and Reform Schools, Reports 
on, Chicago, 127; Reid's Course in 
Mechanical Drawing, 188; Selected 
Bibliography of Manual Training, 126 ; 
Trybom's Cardboard Construction, 62 ; 
Watson's Small Engines and Boilers, 
64 ; Wilson's Freehand Perspective, 
126; Wheeler's Woodworking for 
Beginners, 189. 

Robinson, Albert R. — A Study in 
Industrial Education, 10. 

Russell, Lee. — Manual Training in 
Normal Schools, 12. 

Sewing as Related to Manual Training 
(A) — Ida Hood Clark, 43. 

Sisson, E. O. — Davidson's A History of 
Education, 188. 


Social Occupations (A) — Clara I. 
Mitchell, 233. 

Sociological Teaching in Elementary 
Schools (A) — Henry W. Thurston, 

Stimpson, William C. — The Decora- 
tive Side of a Course in Forging (111.), 

Tadd, J. Liberty — Art, Manual Train- 
ing, and Nature Study in Education, 
(A), 38. 

Thurston, Henry W. — Sociological 
Teaching in Elementary Schools (A), 

Tibbitts, Henry S. — The Growing 
Interest in Manual Training and Do- 
mestic Science, 249 ; The Progress 
and Aims of Domestic Science in Chi- 
cago, 138. 

Trade Education, Relation of Manual 
Training to (A) — Charles H. Keyes, 

Trade Idea in Manual-Training Courses 
of High-School Grade, Recognition of 
the — George H. Bryant, 200. 

Trades, An Experiment in Teaching, at 
Public Expense — Arthur D. Dean, 
143 ; Shall They be Taught in Public 
Schools ? Editorial, 60 ; Teaching, in 
Connection with the Public Schools 
(A), Charles F. Warner, 46. 

Turner, F. W. — New England Associa- 
tion of Metal-Working Teachers, Re- 
port of Springfield Meeting, 172. 

Upton, Daniel — Some Observations on 
Grammar-School Courses in Manual 
Training (A), 41. 

Value of the Sloyd Idea, The, as a Basis 
for Educational Manual Training (A) 
— Ira M. Carley, 40. 

Van Deusen, C. S. — Wheeler's Wood- 
working for Beginners, 189. 

Van Sickle, James H. — Manual Train- 
ing for the Ordinary High School, 76. 

Vroom, William F. — Constructive 
Design in Woodwork, II (111.), 25; 
The Eastern Manual Training Associ- 
ation, Report of Cleveland Meeting, 

Warner, Charles F. — Teaching Trades 
in Connection with Public Schools (A), 

Weyh, Robert G., Jr. — Brunchen's North 
American Forests and Forestry, 64. 

Wood-Turning, An Experiment in (111.) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 155. 

Woodward, C. M. — Manual Training 
(A), 171 ; The Ideals of the School- 
room, 186. 

Copyright, 1901, Charles A. Bennett. 


Manual Training Magazine 

OCTOBER, igoo 


Charles R. Henderson, 
Professor of Sociology, University of Chicago. 

Your president has invited me, as an advocate of manual train- 
ing in primary and secondary education, and as a student of sociology, 
to present an argument for manual training from the standpoint of a 
sympathetic and interested layman. I am grateful for this honor and 
opportunity, since cooperation is so important in the furtherance of 
public welfare. 


Social progress may be defined from many points of view, as it 
includes many elements. 

i. First of all may be mentioned new knowledge, especially in the 
highest and most complete form, science. Intellectual mastery of 
wider fields of the knowable, in nature and man, is confined at first to 
the chosen few, the pioneers on the frontier of the world's vision, 
usually specialists in some limited area of investigation. But the spe- 
cialist is not so much possessor as holder in trust for mankind of 
the new-found treasures. Economic gain, riches or income, fame's 
golden invitation, honor's coveted rewards, lure the secret from the dis- 
coverer. And one must hasten to announce his discovery, since a host 
of masters are eagerly searching for the explanation of some mystery 
which baffles the rational nature. Darwin and Wallace, on opposite 
sides of the globe, declare the truth of natural selection in the process 
of evolution in the same year, and only a chance letter of Darwin to 
Asa Gray establishes his priority. If Darwin had failed, Wallace would 

1 Read before the Eastern Manual Training Association, Cleveland, O., June 
30, 1900. 


have enriched the world, and if Wallace had failed, another torchbearer 
was at hand. Science is not poor in genius, in capacity for taking 
pains, in patient and courageous speculation. Any man who is master 
of his own department, who is modest and humble enough to labor 
long at a certain point, may hope to enlarge the borders of science. 
The age of encyclopaedic learning is gone, the age of the cooperator 
is ours. The individual is the world's benefactor only as he consents 
to join his life to the great world's life and accept a narrow sphere 
which is morally grand only as it is part of the tremendous whole. 
Thus social progress means the advance of science by the pioneers on 
behalf of all ages and all humanity. 

2. Hand in hand with science travels the progress of the arts, the 
technical processes and tools by which the forces and materials of 
nature are made to minister to social desires, to satisfy human wants. 
Man must have food to nourish the body, clothing to protect from the 
weather and satisfy sesthetic wants ; houses for shelter, warmth, and 
beauty; furniture to provide comfort and luxury; trains for travel; 
lines of communication ; printing-presses for publication ; and tens of 
thousands of devices to serve the multiplying needs of complex civili- 
zation. Inventions not only gratify human wants, but stimulate them. 
The shop window in which a new form of beauty or a more agreeable 
means of comfort is displayed awakens new wants, and fashion by 
social imitation then takes charge of the process of diffusion. By 
tools, hand-driven or steam-driven, man subdues nature to his uses, 
and invention, skill, and training are essential to making them serv- 

3. The history of the fine arts shows that it is in close and vital 
connection with the useful arts that free art has come to life and 
expression. The savage who acquired skill to shape the handle of a 
stone knife or hammer was on the way to adorn it with pictures of the 
animals he slew for food or copied as symbols of worship. Man must 
dwell within walls which are strong to protect ; but the same training 
which enables him to shape the stone for protection gives him power 
to carve an image. The Italian goldsmiths felt in their fingers, trained 
to exact forms, the inspirations of the Renascence, the rejuvenesence 
of Greek art. It is in the consciousness of power over materials, in 
skill to execute, in ability to make nature a manifestation of mind, that 
art arises. We call the fine arts "free," and in them freedom is felt. 
Gradually with technical training the rude and shapeless block shows 
forth the human form divine ; the arms are no longer fast by the huge 


body ; gesture becomes free, pose graceful, and drapery floats about 
the form as image of the human fancy. Thus another factor of 
social progress enters into history. The human spirit evolves art by 
cooperative actions, by traditions of culture, by lessons improved 
upon, by advance of student beyond his master with help of the 

4. Spiritual insight is a factor in social progress. Under this gen- 
eral designation one may place the contributions of philosophy, reli- 
gion, poetry. The universe is mastered by reason in increasing meas- 
ure : unity is revealed above chaos ; life thrills all particles where the 
former ages saw only " dead matter;" all objects are thought in their 
relations and connections. The spectroscope reveals the likeness of the 
elements in earth and star; the telescope brings more distant systems 
into the swimming field of vision ; and a grander basis is constructed 
for theologies and ethical systems. Speculation works with reality, and 
the poetic spirits delve with artisans in the same wood and iron and 

5. Social progress means improved bodies, brains, and mental 
capacity. It may be questioned, and it is disputed, whether the best 
brains of classic Greece have been surpassed in modern times. There 
are competent men who declare that man reached long ago the limits 
of physical perfection ; that the erect position once attained, no 
improvement there is possible; and that no larger brains can be pro- 
duced without sacrifice of mothers. Admit, for the moment, that the 
race will never go beyond the present in size of brain, in number of 
brain cells, in depth of convolutions, in fineness of nerve texture, there 
still remains the task of bringing up the average to the best. Social 
progress will imply, for a long time to come, by birth, by breeding, and 
by selection, the production of more perfect physical forms and corre- 
sponding capacities to acquire. 

6. Social progress means the socialization of all these elements of 
well-being which have been named. This is at least the democratic- 
ideal, the ethical working hypothesis of our century. 

7. Incidentally, social progress involves the diminution of social 
disease, physical deterioration, pauperism, beggary, vice, and crime. 
The advanced lines of society must drag along with them the camp 
followers, the malingerers, the degraded ; and the more completely the 
number of these can be reduced by education, the more rapid will be 
the march. 



The end of education in relation to social progress. — All experi- 
ence is in some fashion educational. Life itself is a school. But we 
are just now busy with the institutions in which a community expresses 
its will to unfold in larger ways the life of the young community yet 
plastic under the influence of the teacher. The school is the agency 
devised by the experience of mankind for the most speedy, economi- 
cal, and thorough communication of the mental wealth of an age to 
its immediate successors. We ourselves have inherited and enlarged 
the traditions of knowledge, invention, and social organization. The 
school stands for the socialization and transmission of this treasure of 
civilization. The body of the sciences, the amazing improvements in 
technical processes for harnessing nature's matter and forces to the 
train of social prosperity, the literature of the world, the works of 
genius, the images of poets, the inspirations of idealist prophets, are 
given to the teacher for the sake of a growing community. The soul 
of each man looks out at many windows on a world of many aspects 
and voices. No window should be closed, none clouded and 
darkened by neglect or bigotry, not even by the bigotry of specialism 
masking as science, but untrue and unfaithful to its profession. 


The place of manual training in the ministry of social progress 
through education. — Each contribution to the welfare of mankind 
finds its dignity and value in cooperation, never in isolation. That 
which is popularly known as manual training is not a mere trick of the 
hand, something distinct and alien in the system of education. It is 
not a method of training mechanics for a particular craft by which 
bread and butter may be won. It does help that honorable pur- 
pose, but it is more. Perhaps those who affect to despise manual 
training as something fit only for the members of the "laboring class" 
are precisely those who most need its help to make them complete 
men. It can be shown that the educational principles which lie at the 
basis of manual training are essential factors in the unfolding of every 
human being, and also that the methods employed are valuable in 
their contributions to every factor which we have considered as making 
up social progress — new knowledge, industrial mastery of nature, art, 
insight, improved bodies, and full socialization of the spiritual wealth 
of mankind. It is on this basis that we can advocate the introduction 


of the idea into all education, in some measure and at suitable stages 
of individual development. 

i. The educational method which is called manual training is 
capable of adding to the sum of human knowledge ; it is a tool of scien- 
tific discovery; it leads straight into the heart of the secrets of matter 
and force, of natural law. It shapes the instruments of investigation 
and makes them more searching and powerful. This is true of the 
improvements in the material instruments of science, such as micro- 
scopes, telescopes, and the cunning devices employed in the psycho- 
logical laboratory. But it is specially true of the most important 
instrument of all — the human body. He who has from childhood been 
busy making eye reveal to hand, and hand answer to eye, in close and 
honest touch with material reality, gains a power and habit of exact 
observation which is the basis of discovery. 

2. That manual training cultivates technical skill and shortens the 
path to those crafts which master the external world and supply the 
means of culture and comfort, is so patent and generally acknowl- 
edged that bare mention of the argument is sufficient. This argu- 
ment alone would be enough to establish the claim for the universal 
introduction of the method into schools. Common-sense should pre- 
vent the ultra-spiritualist from despising that power to make wealth 
on which all the higher structures of civilization depend. It does not 
speak well for the judgment of idealists who declaim against the use 
of tools and machines at school on the ground that they are "material- 
istic." The poet would soon fall in a heap from his lofty heights, if 
he were not nourished and sustained by the crafts and industries. 
Theologian and musician, your fine lady and your mincing fop, are 
all alike kept breathing in this world because of the useful arts. 

Those familiar with the recent history of industrial processes, from 
cottage loom to huge factory with steam-driven machinery, with rapid 
transformations, swift change from one form of machine to another, 
and consequent necessity for readaptations of workmen to new tasks 
and processes, are seeking to show society that these changes have 
made the apprentice system obsolete as a reliance. The home in a 
manufacturing town is no longer a school of fundamental ideas and 
movements. The highly specialized processes of the factory tend to 
make the man a mere attachment to the machine, and even to the 
miserable fragment of the process which some dignify with the name 
of a "trade." Back of all special processes there are forms of tools, 
simple movements of eye and hand which are to all complex machines 


and processes what the alphabet and the art of reading are to literature, 
the key to all knowledge and all forms of skill. It is manual training alone 
that can once more raise the man above the machine and enable him to 
move at the command of progress in the arts from one occupation to 
another. Manual training is emancipation from serfdom to the par- 
ticular trick taught in an hour and made useless again, often at critical 
times in the career of the workingman, by some slight improvement 
in machine or technique. 

3. Popular prejudice in respect to the art side of manual training 
should be corrected. Perhaps it is safe and honest to go farther at 
this point and suggest that many of the advocates and teachers them- 
selves need to modify and clarify their ideas at this point. If ever art 
is to be a sincere part of community-joy, it must be democratic. Class 
art is snobbery, the glorification of narrow ideals. Only when beauty 
is everywhere is it securely anywhere. Boulevard asstheticism is mere 
bigotry, luxury, and it mistakes expensiveness and exclusiveness for 
beauty. Art without human love is not lovely. 

We must listen to Ruskin and Morris, prophets of a coming age. 
Two doctrines they taught, for which the world is rapidly coming to 
be hospitable; first, the workman must have pleasure in his work; 
secondly, the world must share the pleasure of the workman in the use 
of the product. Here is not time to work out the thought contained 
in these propositions. The technical difficulties are formidable, the 
economic obstacles are still mountain-high. American art is yet too 
much an exotic for us to value it at its true worth. Competitive indus- 
try has most of the field, and it fills our eyes with things cheap and 
often vulgar enough. It is still believed that machines can do all 
things and that hand-making (true manufacture ) is antiquated. It 
is still true that the wage-worker is too poor to buy furniture and 
decoration that are not made very low in price. The vision of Morris 
seems so unreal and impracticable. So we go on beating the world in 
machinery and stealing our models from older countries where art is 
rooted deep, and where workingmen can visit the public galleries where 
the works of great masters inspire. But the case is not desperate. Every 
year we throw more brute work on the machine and take it off man. 
We are not yet in that paradise where disagreeable, dirty, and hurtful 
functions can be carried altogether by unfeeling steel, wood, and glass, 
but every year brings us nearer to the sight of that goal. This liberated 
energy will take the direction of individual creation of forms of beauty 
in endless variety, and men in cottages will be able to take pleasure in 
the things they make and buy. 


It is in the workshop and the manual-training school that art will 
find its votaries. When use has been met, then a higher use will be 
served. You will help the world to feel that a piece of furniture, a 
utensil, a book, a house is useful, not only as it ministers to comfort- 
able sensation, but also to the taste for beauty. 

4. It may be more difficult to justify the argument that the educa- 
tional method which passes under the name of manual training is 
fruitful for spiritual insight. Can social progress be aided up to the 
very heights of worship and faith and hope and love by these dusty 
benches, these grimy tools, these commonplace processes of the school ? 
If not, something is seriously evil in our conception of what manual 
training means. 

The purpose of life must be revealed in life and by living, or it can- 
not be revealed from outside. There was once on this earth One who 
gave eighteen years of a brief life to the carpenter's trade and only 
three more to public prophecy. It was on the basis of a manufacturer's 
craft that the divine life revealed itself. If love of truth is ever to 
become a national instinct and habit, it will be learned by making 
objects of daily use with such accuracy and fineness that the truth is in 
every measurement and line. George Eliot in Adam Bede has 
depicted to us the artisan who sang at his daily work : 

Let all thy converse be sincere, 

Thy conscience as the noon-day clear, 

For God's all-seeing eye surveys 

Thy secret thoughts, thy works, thy ways. 

Modern poetry is written for the people and not merely for the 
courts of kings, and its notes are more noble and pure for their 
democratic feeling. 

If the moral meaning of the universe is woven into things, if the 
ultimate reality is the soul of all reality, then must those who work 
with things come upon the great reality hourly. It is in the hermit's 
closet, in the recluse's cell, that morbid skepticism about reality grows 
like an insane dream. It is the close atmosphere of the solitary which 
stifles the spirit. In the joyous labors which constantly produce beau- 
tiful and honest work we are taught to interpret the law, "My Father 
worketh hitherto and I am working." Sanity and spiritual vigor are 
with those who train themselves to form wood and metal and stone 
into shapes which materialize the spiritual vision, the thought, the 
purpose which first traced the drawing according to eternal laws of 
mathematics and then took shape in things. 


And so the Word had breath and wrought 

With human hands the creed of creeds, 

In loveliness of perfect deeds, 
More strong than all poetic thought. 

5. Manual training actually produces better bodies and brains than 
the routine system of education which makes the pupil a mere listener 
instead of a maker, an active and happy agent of creative impulse and 
power. Into this irritable world, into the cramped and crowded school- 
rooms, has come this new method of instruction which to an adolescent 
boy or girl is a deliverance from nervous strain and a means of exer- 
cise which brings health and sanity and power. Many an adolescent 
is saved from debasing vice, from brooding fancies, from unwholesome 
dreams of day, and wooed to sound and dreamless sleep at early hour 
by the work of the shop. Connect manual training with the move- 
ment for larger schoolhouses, ampler playgrounds, summer vacation 
schools, suitable physical culture in gymnasiums, and you will trans- 
form the stunted children of immigrants into taller, larger, stronger 
men and women, to whom useful toil will be a joy, and social coopera- 
tion be easier than a life of parasitism and brigandage. It is not 
necessary that cities should be the graves of mankind, if sanitary science 
is permitted to give law to councils, and the philosophy of education 
which you represent is accepted intelligently by boards of education. 

6. I wish to make a part of my argument the familiar suggestion 
that manual training aids in socializing education. In many ways ; but 
one in particular I will mention : by retaining boys longer in school. 
The discipline of hand and eye in relation to constructive work is 
appreciated by lads who hate books. They will swallow the bitter 
medicine of history and literature for the sake of two more years of 
tool-practice. It is a notorious fact that our boys escape too early 
from the environment of the school, and they go out at an age when 
the studies which teach social relations have just begun. Thousands 
more will remain to the end of the high-school course if the method of 
teaching comes into line with their own wise instincts, if they can be 
making things, and not merely sit passively until they are stupid and 
fat with stuffing. There will be little need of compulsory school laws, 
enforced by modern beadles in guise of truant officers, if the manual- 
training idea once takes full possession of our public schools. It has 
been found in settlement work that boys will become tired of play 
sooner than of shop-work under a wise and inspiring teacher of manual 
training. It is actually easier to teach them than it is to amuse them. 


7. Crime and pauperism are frightful diseases in modern urban 
life. Education can never take the place of social selection by elimina- 
tion of the incurable and unhelpable defectives, although even with 
defectives segregated from the family life manual occupation is an 
essential part of entertainment and of self-support. But much of crime 
and pauperism is the result of defects in our methods of education. 
Young men steal because their hands have not been trained to useful 
and productice industry. The feeble beg because they are not capable 
of making things that will sell. Skill can generally find a market. 
" The world is full of misfits, and misfits are always cheap." Reforma- 
tories make constructive work the central factor in their system of 
reform for delinquents. But every superintendent of reformatories in 
the country will tell you that he has come too late, at least for the best 
results. The mischief has been done before the act which sent the 
boy to a reform school. When will our honorable boards of education 
save enough time from " political pulls " to give themselves earnestly 
to building up modes of instruction which will save our country from 
the shame and loss and misery of much pauperism and crime ? 

Fellow-teachers, we have gone over the chief factors of social prog- 
ress, one by one ; we have sought to show the relation of education 
and school to social progress ; and we have touched for a moment on 
the service which manual training has rendered, and promises in 
larger measure yet to render, to the cause of human welfare. 


Albert R. Robinson, 
Principal of English High and Manual Training School, Chicago, 111. 

It would be mild pessimism to say that the world moves slowly, 
but when we know that it is nearly half a century since Herbert Spencer 
gave to the world his convincing essay entitled What Knowledge is 
Most Worth, we must add another word to the echo and say: "The 
world moves very slowly." 

The monastic idea of the aim of education still holds its tenacious 
grip on the throat of our programs of study. We proudly disclaim 
that it is the intention of our schools to prepare the student for his 
real life-work and say it is the object of the school to develop the 
mental powers of the child. "Education for culture" and " Educa- 
tion for developing the mind" are favorite catchwords with many who 
are totally unable to define what these phrases mean. 

In this country we have no privileged class which by birth and 
inheritance is able to devote its time solely to culture and mental 
development, but all must join in the active work of some calling the 
pursuit of which demands special preparation. The first great duty 
of the state is to prepare its wards, the people, for citizenship in such 
a way that they will be of the greatest mutual benefit. No one can fill 
this ideal of citizenship unless he has the opportunity and ability to 
earn a competent living. What are our schools doing to put the mass 
of the people on the way to this ideal state ? The work of the ele- 
mentary school as a whole is doing this, but let us examine further in 
regard to the schools of a higher grade. 

The special preparation offered in these schools fits the one receiv- 
ing it for following one of the learned professions, that is, for some 
pursuit not engaged in, or dependent upon, the production of any 
material thing. These professions are the law, medicine, the ministry, 
and teaching. According to the United States census of 1890 those 
engaged in the professions named in the state of Illinois numbered as 
follows : 

Law ---.-.. 5,769 

Medicine - 6,207 

Ministry ------- 5,066 

Teaching ------ 23,612 



This gives a total of 40.654 persons out of a total population of 3,826,- 
351 who are engaged in work for which our schools offer a degree of 

By the school census of the state for the same year there were 
1,690,171 persons in the state under twenty-one, leaving 2,136,180 
who had attained an age when one is supposed to be competent to 
choose and follow some independent occupation. 

From this we find that about 1.9 per cent, of the population have 
been educated for their special work. These figures are in excess of the 
facts in the case, for anyone who has even a moderate acquaintance 
among professional men knows that a large proportion of them have 
taken no course of study beyond the elementary school, except such as 
was offered in the professional school where they received their neces- 
sary professional training. 

There is no intention in this paper to decry education of any kind, 
but it is hoped that the day is at hand when the programs of study in 
our schools will be broadened and enriched, not by the introduction of 
more Latin, more Greek, more mathematics, or more literature, but by 
placing before the students an opportunity to learn the facts and 
forces that go to make up the great work-a-day world. 

More than 98 per cent, is far too large a portion of the people not 
to be materially helped by an institution that is established by the 
people, maintained by their money, and supposedly conducted for 
their benefit. It looks strange that any part of our public-school 
system, which is the one distinctly communistic feature of our govern- 
ment, should be devoted to what looks like class education. 

It is safe to say that, if our schools above the elementary grade 
offered programs of study in which the work of active life was care- 
fully coordinated with study of a purely mental character, many of the 
social problems that now trouble us would soon find a solution. 
Purely industrial schools are no more to be desired than those wholly 
devoted to mental work. Each of these defeats the ends of educa- 
tion, which is to make a full, round, independent manhood. 


Lee Russell, 

Provincial Normal School, Truro, Nova Scotia. 

While manual training, as a means of general as well as special 
education, has developed and spread with rapidity and steadiness 
during the last decade, taking its place in all sorts and all grades of 
schools, it has only recently found a secure footing in normal schools. 
Ten years ago, aside from drawing and clay-modeling, there was but 
little instruction attempted in the subject. The burden of academic 
and professional work was too great, and the value of handicraft too 
little understood to warrant its introduction. 

A notable change has taken place in the last few years, however, 
and there are now few normal schools in the middle and eastern states 
that do not make some attempt at a course in manual training, while 
in not a few the new branch is prominent and well sustained. 

It seems to me that this change has been due to the general popu- 
larity of the subject, or to legislative encouragement, rather than to 
any clear idea of its value in the training of teachers. From an 
examination of the work and courses in a number of normal schools, 
one gathers that the place of manual training is not very well defined. 
In some the work is distinctive, adapted to the age, sex, and aims of 
the pupils, but often it is either a slightly modified form of the high- 
school course, or an adaptation of the practice given to young men in 
polytechnic schools, or exercises in sewing and cooking. 

In a new subject like this, diversity of treatment is a good thing. 
It is only by variation in method, by trial and error, that such a scheme 
of work can be produced as will meet given conditions. Where these 
are not well understood, tentative plans will have to be tried and 
modified again and again, each change bringing more perfect adapta- 
tion. But it seems to me that so great a diversity as exists here is 
hardly compatible with the similarity of conditions which normal 
schools present. 

The average age of pupils at entrance to the normal school is, I 
presume, not far from eighteen years. In the country as a whole 
about three-fourths of these are women ; in the eastern states a much 
larger proportion. 



The attainments of these pupils are, as a rule, somewhat below 
those of the average high-school graduate, though in some states 
graduation from a high school, or its equivalent, is a prerequisite for 
admission. The young women are, and always have been, bound by 
the traditions and limitations of their sex. This is quite right and 
desirable in general, but it is not in the line of the sort of training 
required to make successful teachers under modern conditions. In 
speaking of these limitations I am not finding fault, but am simply 
stating a fact, the result of which is that these young women have 
gained but a narrow experience, and that their acquaintance with their 
environment is superficial. One has only to watch the behavior of 
boys and girls when at large, to see how much that is eagerly seized 
upon by the former, as material for self-education, is quite overlooked 
and disregarded by the latter. These are not conscious, purposeful 
acts on either side ; they appear to be quite instinctive. Boys, as a 
rule, are on the alert for everything that comes in their way ; girls 
only in a limited range of activities and interests. I happened lately 
to watch the flushing out of a street hydrant when the children in the 
street were on their way to school. In four minutes from the start 
eighteen boys were gravely looking on, and four more, who had been 
studying rivers in connection with physical geography, were following 
the stream of water as it ran along the gutter. More than twenty 
girls passed by during the operation, but, so far as could be seen, not 
a single one paid the least attention to it. It was not in their line. 
In the practice-teaching in the model school at Truro we frequently 
have cases where boys, from their wider experience, are able to con- 
found or correct, as to matters of common observation, the pupil- 
teachers from the normal school. 

The young men who attend normal schools, while not subject to 
precisely the same limitations as young women, seem quite as often to 
be bound by the "text-book habit" to the text-book point of view, and 
thus to have lost the inquiring spirit and the observing faculty of 
their earlier youth. 

The subjects upon which most stress is laid in normal schools are 
necessarily those of the curriculum of the common schools of the 
region. The study of methods of teaching these subjects and prac- 
tice in teaching them take up the greater part of the students' time. 
Purely scholastic work in psychology, history of education, and the 
like also receives attention, and in many schools laboratory and field 
work in natural science has a place. In fact, the normal-school course 


uses nearly the same subject-matter as the other schools do, the treat- 
ment and point of view being, of course, different. It will thus be 
seen that, though the training given in normal schools differs essen- 
tially and widely from that of high and grammar schools, yet the 
differences are, in a way, specific rather than generic. On its profes- 
sional side it is distinctive, but in other ways it shows the same defects 
as the other schools do. In breadth of view, variety of interests, 
knowledge of surroundings, keenness and ability in observation, 
power of generalization, resource and enterprise, the normal-school 
graduate may not be so much superior to the high-school graduate as, 
from the nature and importance of her calling, she might and ought 
to be. 

In saying this, no reflection is made upon normal schools and their 
work. I well know the difficulties they have to contend with, and how 
impossible it is for them to give their pupils all they see to be desir- 
able. Many, realizing the lack just pointed out, have invented special 
exercises, and by various ingenious means have tried to remedy these 
defects by broadening influences. 

Another fact to which I wish to call attention has a considerable 
influence in retarding the transformation of high-school graduates 
into effective teachers. It is the wide difference which exists between 
the way a mere student regards a subject and the point of view from 
which the teacher must regard it. A certain college professor has said 
that when he wished really to know a subject, he organized a class and 
began to teach it. In many normal schools there is much scholastic 
work, with its accompanying reviews and examinations. This keeps 
alive the student attitude, and just so far tends to prevent that of the 
teacher from taking its place. 

Where written examination is made the main test of fitness to 
teach, each scrap of knowledge, each subject, and even each teacher 
is regarded and estimated from the examination standpoint, and this 
habit becomes so ingrained as to be almost ineradicable from the 
student's mind. The value of the subject, practically or educationally, 
is lost sight of, its meaning perverted, and its place in the curriculum 
considered solely for its availability in making "marks." Where such 
a system prevails, the normal school is heavily handicapped at the 
outset. The pupil must be " born again," and a true point of view 
substituted for the false one. 

It now remains to be shown how manual training may aid in cor- 
recting these defects. In order that there may be no misunderstanding, 


it should be explained that the term "manual training" is here used 
in its wide sense to include all those operations in the sciences and 
mechanic arts which call for the exercise of manual skill, artistic 
sense, inventive ability, and knowledge of the reactions of one's 
environment. Thus, in a normal-school laboratory, a course in blow- 
pipe analysis, or in general chemistry, may be made the occasion or 
"vehicle" of exercises in manual training. The apparatus and 
methods would be left largely to the pupil, the teacher outlining the 
general method and furnishing only the raw material, so to speak. 
Anything like the complete apparatus found in the laboratory of a 
polytechnic school would be unnecessary, and even out of place. 

For shop-work a great variety of exercises in the working of clay, 
plaster, cardboard, wood, and metals should be given, which would 
train the pupils in the directions indicated and give them that wider 
experience and interest which they need. Further detail need not be 
elaborated here. This must be left to the teacher, and varied to suit 
the needs of each school. Enough has been said to show the general 
scope and aim of the work. 

The average school presents to the young teacher many problems 
more difficult than that of mere instruction. Perhaps it would be 
better to say that before instruction can profitably be given at all, 
more difficult things must have been accomplished. The teacher must 
gain the respect and confidence of the children and of the community. 
She must show herself courageous, truthful, independent, and self- 
respecting, must possess executive ability, be competent to do what 
she undertakes, eager to undertake whatever ought to be done, and, 
above all, interested in all there is to do. These qualities go to make 
up a character which is likely to succeed in any school. Of course, 
other characteristics are desirable or even necessary. The possession 
of these alone would not make a perfect teacher, but most successful 
teachers will be found to have them. 

Manual-training exercises are of a nature to lead the pupil along 
a path of conquest in a new field from one seemingly impossible task 
to another; and, if properly graded, the successful accomplishment of 
each is a certainty. Nothing gives confidence and courage to young 
people like such success. As Emerson says, "every step a goal." 
The ability to use edge tools upon wood, for instance, so as to produce 
accurate and beautiful results, gives a start, a spirit of enterprise, a 
readiness to undertake difficult work of any sort. After two or three 
months of practice in the shop, when pupils have begun to acquire 


some skill and mastery, I notice a distinct improvement in the way 
my classes take hold of other tasks. There is less dependence upon 
the teacher and upon each other, more of the heroic in their attitude, 
and of the quiet determination to do. That this extends to their after- 
work as teachers there is abundant evidence in the numerous applica- 
tions made to me by graduates for advice and aid in starting new lines 
of work in their schools. To some extent the old, hide-bound traditions 
have been broken and the spirit of enterprise and innovation awakened. 

High-school graduates are usually too closely tied to the text-book. 
Where, as in Nova Scotia, there is a prescribed course of study, with 
state examinations to determine advance, devotion to the text-book 
becomes well-nigh complete, and anything outside of it is looked 
upon as something almost unlawful. In manual training, and other 
laboratory work where no use of the text-book is possible, a corrective 
of this is found, and the pupil comes to see that there may be an 
appeal to reason or to experience as a higher authority than even 
" authorized text." 

A person who has had a comprehensive and varied course in 
manual training acquires, as I have tried to show, new and wider 
experience and interests. When such a one goes into a community as 
a teacher, she is likely to take a more active part in the life and work 
of the people, and to have a more intelligent and sympathetic interest 
in their affairs. Nothing can be better for the school than this. It at 
once brings about a corresponding relation between parents and 
teachers, and an intimacy which is of great value in sustaining the 
school. It has also a more subtile and indirect effect upon both sides. 
The teacher, knowing the activities, interests, and peculiarities of the 
community, instinctively adapts her instruction to them, and the 
parents and children, on their part, feeling the teacher's friendly 
attitude, are more ready to aid and uphold her. 

There is yet another way in which manual training may be of 
value to teachers, namely, as useful training to the individual. This 
is usually considered first in such discussions as this ; but it seems to 
me of secondary importance to those already named. All arguments 
which hold good for the use of these exercises anywhere are of equal 
force here. They are so well known and so generally admitted that 
it is unnecessary to consider them in this Magazine. 

It remains to be shown why, with manual training in such vogue 
in schools below the normal school, its introduction into the latter is 
still considered desirable. 


As a matter of fact, very few manual-training courses contemplate 
the giving of such work as is here suggested, to girls ; exercises for 
them consist, and very properly, in cooking, sewing, and other 
domestic occupations. As for the boys, very few who take the courses 
in manual-training high schools attend normal schools at all. The 
college, the polytechnic school, or a trade is their goal. Again, a 
large proportion of normal-school pupils come from the country, and 
few country high schools can or do afford a special course in manual 
training. Moreover, normal schools are special schools, preparing 
pupils for a distinct calling, and their courses in manual training 
should be planned with this in view. Therefore a graduate of a 
manual-training school could pursue with profit a more comprehensive 
and philosophical course in the same subject in a normal school, and 
would gain more from it than if he had not had the previous training. 

There is a utilitarian value in manual training for teachers, which 
is by no means unworthy of notice. In poor and scantily furnished 
country schools it is often a help to the teacher if she can devise and 
make the illustrative appliances she may require. It is always a good 
thing if she be able to direct her pupils in the making of such simple 
apparatus as will assist them in elementary science and nature study. 
Inventive ability and skill in manipulation are required, more or less, 
of every teacher, and manual training, as is well known, tends strongly 
to develop such capacity. 

The course of manual training given in a normal school should 
comprise, under these considerations, a great variety of work in 
many different directions. In addition to shop and laboratory work, 
there are many out-of-door occupations which, though not properly 
coming under the head of manual training, are yet of such a nature as 
to give valuable training in the same direction. 

The experienced teacher will be able to plan such a course from 
these elements as shall give the proper sequence of exercises 
demanded by sound pedagogy and psychology. It may be elastic and 
individual without sacrificing its primary purpose, and to be successful 
it must adapt itself to the peculiar needs of the school and of the 
pupils. In all its work, every encouragement should be given to the 
exercise of those faculties which are little developed by other schools, 
but which are, as I have tried to make plain, so necessary to the 

To realize its full value, manual training should be intimately 
related to all the othc Tk of the school. It should be so woven 


into the fabric of instruction as scarcely to appear as a separate 
subject at all. Like drawing, like the proper use of the mother- 
tongue, like the newer li nature study," manual training or educative 
handwork should pervade or attach itself to ever)' subject where it can 
find a useful place. Such correlation will be the work of years; in 
the meantime the effort should be made to take this branch from its 
present, somewhat isolated position, and to bring it into a closer 
relation to the other subjects of the course of study. 


W ill i am C. Hold e n, 

High School, Lynn, Mass. 

Observation has lead me to believe that in most of our city schools 
the line of demarcation between subjects taught by different teachers 
is unfortunately too prominent, that as schools become more and more 
specialized and responsibility is divided, so the educational growth of 
the pupil becomes irregular, broken, bunchy, instead of affording the 
unifying development which makes the ideal, well-rounded mind. 

Whether this condition is brought about by the exacting require- 
ments of college examinations or by a spirit of rivalry and jealousy 
between teachers seeking preferment as specialists, I will not assume 
to say, though probably both are prominent factors. But the fact 
remains that in the high school with a broad curriculum and an effi- 
cient faculty, there is not sufficient intertwining and correlating between 

Too much is assumed, I am forced to believe, on the reasoning 
faculties of the pupils. The subjects are perhaps excellently taught as 
subjects; the facts are imprinted temporarily at least, and perhaps a 
little technical logic applied. Geometry is taught from this or that 
text-book, each theorem is demonstrated, the axiom, corollary and con- 
versely are stated, and in the atmosphere of the class room geometry 
is said to be understood. Chemistry, physics, and many other subjects 
of our regular high-school curriculum are similarly taught. The 
pupil's knowledge of the subject a year later would be an indistinct 
memory of a note book, a text-book, some features of the laboratory 
or apparatus. I am speaking of the average pupils now, not of the 
brightest. Experiences are single, incomplete ; conclusions are mixed, 
uncertain, if indeed they are reached at all. Every teacher is anxious 
that those of his classes who are going to higher institutions of learn- 
ing shall make as good a showing as possible. They are usually the 
brightest minds in the class and too often the work for the entire class 
is conformed to these brighter ones, so that the rank and file of the 
class is carried over the ground with perhaps a temporary understanding 
of the subject, but with very little practical, applicable knowledge. As 
1900] 19 


I have said, college requirements are so uncompromising in their 
demands, and at the same time so evasive, that when the teacher has 
his work so systematized that he feels he can bring a larger per cent, 
of his pupils to the required standard, the standard goes up, and the 
teacher is again forced to spend most, if not all, of the time at his 
command on cold facts for the benefit of the few, and the applications 
and experiences, which alone give power to knowledge, are perforce 

That the reasoning ability of the pupil is sufficiently developed to 
make profitable application of his knowledge is perhaps in the main 
true, though not always so by any means, but that the pupil will volun- 
tarily make use of his facts and rules and formulas, except he be led 
and stimulated, is certainly most unwarranted presumption. And thus 
it is that many — I think I may say a large part — of our pupils glean 
from some of their studies only a meager, superficial knowledge, 
with perhaps increased power to understand descriptions and proc- 

It is right here, I believe, that manual training comes to the front 
in its strongest and truest light. It is not the function of the free 
public school to teach a trade or a series of trades, but rather to 
broaden the scope of the pupils, to develop an acuteness, an alertness, 
an intimate acquaintance with material things, a readiness to compre- 
hend situations and conditions, to know what to do and how to do it, 
in the emergencies and crises of life. To meet such conditions, and 
that the hand might be able to execute in these emergencies as the 
mind dictates, was manual training introduced into our school sys- 
tem, and while it is obviously our duty as teachers to make our shop 
instruction conform as closely as possible to the usages and customs of 
good shop practice, after all it is mental development more than handi- 
craft that the public school must keep to the front. 

College requirements do not reach our departments as yet, or at 
least, if they do, it is only as a substitute, and the shop, as a function 
of our educational system, must do some of the supplementary work, 
the clinching, if you please, for some of the other departments. And 
I believe that we may profitably, from the standpoint of our pupils, 
which alone ought to guide us in our work, use a part of the shop 
time — already too short with some of us — in the application of some 
of the principles, rules, and formulas which the academic work intro- 
duces. It is true that time thus absorbed reduces the amount, and 
probably the quality, of real shop product, and the instructor who 


does this must suffer from comparison, unless the conditions be fully 
understood. However, the difference in the comprehension and power 
of the pupil, as these rules and principles become real, active factors 
in his life, more than compensates for the difference in handicraft which 
the loss of time has caused. After all, the boy is our product and 
models are only our tools. 

An accurate knowledge of both the quantity and quality of the 
academic work which the pupil or class has accomplished is of great 
importance in selecting the model in logical sequence, and of much 
more importance in presenting it. 

In my own experience woodwork has perhaps received more time 
and thought than metal work. The lesson which I have chosen to 
introduce in this connection is not regarded as an ideal model, and 
much of the technical detail has been omitted, but the correlation of 
the shop-work with the academic work, as illustrative of what may be 
done with almost any models, is what I wish to make most prominent. 

It is a genuine pleasure for the average boy, and one that should 
not be denied him, to explain voluntarily before the class, that all 
matter may be considered to be composed of molecules and atoms ; 
that these molecules have definite positions and relations one to another 
and are retained in these positions by so-called molecular attraction ; 
that the physical form of the mass can be changed only by the appli- 
cation of sufficient energy to overcome molecular attraction, and that 
to change this form of the mass to any desired shape, this energy must 
be exerted intelligently and under proper conditions. The average 
boy will do this reasoning if led on by logical questioning. He has 
made a good recitation in physics. If the facts were ever worth the 
learning, the little time thus spent in reasoning has been well spent, 
and now for an application : 

An ingot of lead is taken, about seven inches long, of irregular 
section, in area about 3^ square inch. The mass is more or less plas- 
tic or malleable, and readily yields under the hammer, the mole- 
cules flowing in the direction of, and in proportion to, the force of the 
blow. This is both explained and shown in demonstration, and the 
pupils are required to form a piece into a retangular prism % of an 
inch square, upsetting. The malleability of the metal makes it pos- 
sible to do very perfect work both in dimension and form and in a 
comparatively short time. The piece is now measured and the volume 
accurately determined. Lead weighs .41 pounds per cubic inch. 
What is its weight ? How long would it be if it were ^ inch square ? 


How long if it were % inch by % inch ? How long if it were {'^ 
inch square ? If half of it were drawn to j 5 6 - inch ? Do it and prove 
your figures. The piece is then carefully divided as to length and 
marked, though not cut ; it is then balanced to ratify measurement, 
and one half is drawn to the required form, making as square a 
shoulder as possible. The test of measurement is carefully applied, 
and while the shoulder is somewhat sloping, indicating that the end 
which is larger in section contains the greater mass and is therefore 
the heavier, balancing as near to the shoulder as possible indicates the 
reverse to be the case. The smaller mass is the heavier by virtue of 
position. A little discussion on the lever is permitted and perhaps a 
problem or two worked. 

Coming thus suddenly upon this application of the balance beam 
gives added interest both to the work in hand and also to their physics, 
and this experience will not soon be forgotten. 

When lead is first worked the surface is bright and shining, but if 
it be put aside for only a little time, it becomes a lusterless, dead, gray 
color. A little explanation of this may be in order, and the action of 
oxygen on other metals, though usually the class beginning in the 
forge room has not commenced the study of chemistry, and the chemi- 
cal affinities of the different metals may be more profitably discussed 
when the pupils themselves are prepared to do the talking. 

I am not prepared to wholly condemn the note book system of 
instruction in the high school, though my own experience in that line 
has not been entirely satisfactory. I think that, if teachers would con- 
scientiously devote the time which they would spend in examining 
note books, and in preparation of lectures and material for them, to 
studying how, when, and where to ask questions and to lead their 
classes in logically reasoning from facts already learned, the results so 
far at least as shop-work is concerned, would be more satisfactory. 

Occasionally subjects may be made of sufficient interest not only to 
cause the pupils to search out some facts, partially learned perhaps, 
from text-books already in their possession or available in the school 
library, but also to pursue the subjects in detail in the public library. 
Whether the particular point of research be of much or little real 
value in itself, the pupil has through it placed himself in a most 
wholesome attitude of study and inquiry, and the teacher has found 
his pupil. 

I believe, however, that this kind of work can be successful only 
when teacher and pupils are in full sympathy and accord, and, unless 


the teacher finds a keen, responsive interest in his class, pressing a 
voluntary discussion becomes the flattest kind of failure. 

I will leave this lesson in lead with the mere statement that we make 
the stereotyped hasp of it. The details are familiar and would be 
wearisome. I am aware that I have displayed more courage than 
judgment in presenting it at all, for the use of lead in the forge room 
was severely criticised at the last meeting of this association in Provi- 
dence. But, considering the place at which it is introduced, the time 
consumed upon the lesson, and the results obtained, I am still unwil- 
ling to discard it. 

The difficulties of pencil and paper work in the average forge room 
are more or less serious, and it is often desirable to hold the class for 
a few minutes in one of the other rooms, where the class may be seated 
and take a part of the discussion before going to the forge room, or 
perhaps for the instructor to perform the operations upon the board 
at the dictation of the class. 

It would be impractical and in extremely poor taste for me to 
set forth a series of models in detail before this association, and 
without reference to accompanying models; I will briefly mention 
some of the subjects which 1 think might profitably be appended to 
our courses in metal work. These, I am sure, we should find closely 
enough related to some of our models to give them added interest 
and to furnish reflective material for the hours of work which nearly 
every lesson demands, as well as to touch some boy in some particu- 
lar point in his individual make-up, so as to enable the instructor 
to get nearer to him and bring out some individual and personal 

Iron — most common commercial ores ? Where found, how mined 
and smelted ? Why is limestone used in smelting ? What is pig 
iron ? Wrought iron ? How made ? Common impurities ? Nor- 
way iron compared with American product. Manufacture of steel, 
processes. Approximate weight of iron per cubic inch. Estimates 
on weights of bars and castings. Determine area of sections by the 
use of coordinate lines, and estimate weight of I-beams and rails. 
Other metals. Common impurities of coal. 

Speeding machines from main shaft. Working out sizes for coun- 
tershaft pulleys. Transmission of power by belt, by gears, by rope. 
Losses in power transmission, how caused ? Slipping of belts, how 
caused, how prevented? Tightness of belts; lacing of belts. Fric 
tion — causes; how prevented? co-efficient of friction. Lubricants; 


vegetable, animal, and mineral oils. Spontaneous combustion — con- 
ditions favoring and otherwise. 

These and many more topics of a similar character, particularly 
lessons and problems involving some mathematical formulas, may be 
given, not for their mechanical value alone, but to present to the 
pupils, while they are yet in touch with the subject, some practical 
applications of algebraic formulas and calculations and the treatment of 

It might not be practical, indeed it might not be possible, to touch 
upon all of these subjects in some schools and in some courses. But, 
according to the equipment, according to the model, and according to 
the preparation and experiences of the instructor, either as technical 
or general information, some of these topics, or such as these, may be 
taken up in the class, carefully studied from the standpoint of the 
academic progress of the class, and developed as much — perhaps 
more — by questioning than by lecture, thus calling into use some of 
their science and mathematics, and leading into new avenues of 

These theories I have long cherished and made of them what I 
believe to be profitable use, especially in woodwork, but last year, as 
the result of an over-crowded physical laboratory, it fell to my lot to 
teach a class in advanced physics so-called, in our manual-training 
rooms. For a full year the class worked on problems in mechanics 
and electricity with little other apparatus than our motor with volt and 
ammeter, and our regular woodworking and machine equipment ; and 
the possibilities and importance of correlating the shop with the 
academic studies grew on me as never before. 

We in Lynn, have not as yet definitely systematized our models, 
and the various lessons for which they may furnish the basis, and in 
doing this some of our present models will doubtless be changed to 
bring about better sequence. But it is a settled conviction with me 
that in our public schools, where the educational value of the work is, 
and ought to be, paramount, much is possible in the way of correlation 
that is not generally being realized. 


William F. Vroom, 
New York. 

In a former article under the above caption some examples of table 
construction were considered in illustration of principles in designing. 
By way of further illustration it is proposed now to offer some brief 
suggestions as to the construction of chairs. 

A chair is "a movable seat for a single person with a frame to 
support the back." Such a structure is the type, Fig. i. Its construc- 
tion needs little explanation, all 

parts being framed together with 
mortise and tenon joints, except 
the seat, which is fastened with 
screws from below. Ancient sculp- 
tures and drawings show that 
chairs of similar construction were 
used in very early times, and ex- 
amples of like design may be seen 
in our leading furniture ware- 
rooms today. For most purposes, 
however, this form is considerably 
modified. The back is usually 
inclined several degrees from the 
perpendicular, which necessitates 
a curve in the uprights forming 
back and legs. Curves are also 
introduced in the contour of the 
back and seat, while the curving 
of the back rails may at once 
render the design more beautiful and the chair more comfortable. If 
the lower rails are to be omitted, the upper ones should be made some- 
what broader, and the legs tapered as in the table. But while details of 
design vary greatly, according to the taste of the designer and the 
special purpose for which the chair is intended, the same principles of 
construction generally obtain. 

The simplest form of armchair, and structurally the best, is made 
by increasing the height of the front legs about eight inches above the 
1900] 25 





seat and adding pieces to form the arms, though this is but one of a 
variety of forms in common use. 

Of upholstered chairs there are many varieties, the more luxurious 
kind showing no woodwork except the legs. In these the back and 

arms are usually of iron. Those 
which show the framework to 
which the upholstering is at- 
tached should be joined in sub- 
stantially the same manner as 
the type, Fig. i. 

A good example of sound 
construction combined with 
graceful design is shown in 
Fig. 2. This is a chair of the 
empire style — a reaction from 
the extravagance and insin- 
cerity of the Louis XV. period. 
The curves of the back uprights 
are not without excuse and do 
not materially weaken the con- 
struction ; the front legs are 
straight, and the rails of the 
seat are broad enough to afford 
the necessary strength. In the 
back the uprights are held 
together by cross-rails firmly 
mortised in with sufficient bearing surface at the shoulders, each piece 
having the grain continuous from end to end. No attempt is made to 
conceal joints, which are indeed more frankly shown than those of any 
ordinary piece of panel-work. In short, all the essential 
features of the type are preserved. The ornamentation 
of this chair is of inlaid work. 

The back of a chair, when not upholstered, affords 
opportunity for great diversity of detail in design — 
diversity enough, one would think, without departing 
from sound constructive principles; yet here, perhaps 
more than anywhere else in the line of furniture design, 
we find the laws of wood construction ignored. Chip- 
pendale and his contemporaries have left us numerous 
examples of chair-backs of elaborate design, most of Fig. 6. 

Fig. 2. 

i goo] 



them of pleasing effect when regarded as mere combinations of lines, 
but few of them tolerable as specimens of woodwork or comfortable as 
supports for the back. The designers seem to have lost sight entirely 

of the principle that ornament should be 
subservient to construction. Examples of 
such backs are given in Figs. 3, 4, and 5. 
Fig. 3 is by Chippendale, and the others 
by English and French designers of about 
the same period. Comparing these with 
Fig. 2, their weakness and untruthfulness 
will be evident. The thought in the 
designer's mind was not primarily to 
frame the chair-back together in a work- 
manlike man- 
ner, but rather 
to make it a 
vehicle for a pretty arrangement of lines, 
a bit of rococo carving, or "the tricky 
manipulation of a ribbon." To this end the 
wood is cut in a manner entirely unsuited 
to its nature, and joints are concealed. 

The cabriole leg (of which Fig. 6 is a 
specimen), so frequently used in combina- 
tion with these backs, is, of course, open 
to the same criticism. 

A type of chair in which the method of 
construction is 

fundamentally different from that of Fig 
1 is shown in Fig. 7. This may be 
regarded as a four-legged stool with a 
back attached, and suggests the evolution 
of the chair. This form of construction 
is obviously adapted only to chairs with 
solid wooden seats, both back-posts and 
legs being tenoned and driven into holes 
in the seat. It has the merit of being 
honest, but lacks the strength of the 
other type. While chairs of the com- 
monest kind are made in this way because of its cheapness, the same 
principle of construction is found in others more or less costly, 

Fig. 5. 



made in various countries and at different periods. A specimen of this 
type is shown in Fig. 8. The seat of such a chair should be not less 
than one and a half inches thick, and made of strong material, the 
grain running from front to back. A cleat tightly fitted in a dove- 
tailed groove across the grain makes the work more permanent. The 

back should be fitted to the seat 
with a double tenon, keyed below, 
and care must be taken to allow 
sufficient material — say one inch 
or more — between the mortise 
and the edge of the seat. The legs 
should be spread outward at an 
angle sufficient to give the chair 
a firm bearing on the floor. 

This chair may be regarded as 
a piece of furniture rather than a 
seat — a sort of conventional chair, 
more to be seen than sat upon — 
for the " frame to support the 
back " is certainly not well adapted 
for that purpose. Whether the 
chair should therefore be con- 
demned as bad art it is not the 
purpose of this treatise to inquire, 
but I will venture to point out 
that there are numerous examples 
of chairs no less conventional than 
this of which the right to exist is 
unquestioned, such, for instance, 
as are used in churches and other 
places where public functions are 
held. But these, of course, must not be placed in contact with inhar- 
monious surroundings. A chair of Gothic design and massive pro- 
portions would be as obvious an absurdity in a private parlor as would 
an invertebrate easy chair in Westminster Abbey. So the reception 
chair of antique design may have its place, even though it is stiff and 

Many of the ecclesiastical chairs referred to are constructed on a 
principle essentially different from either of those already described, 
the sides being formed of solid planks grooved to receive the seat 

Fig. 8. 



Fig. 7. 

in their construction. This is 
because the wood is no longer 
a rigid straight-grained ma- 
terial. Angular forms, straight 
members, and mortise -and- 
tenon joints give place to 
curved outlines, splices, and 
lapped joints secured with 
screws. These chairs are con- 
structed on sound principles, 
are usually graceful and pleas- 
ing in form, and are much 
stronger in proportion to weight 
than a framed chair can possibly 
be made. 

A practical knowledge of 
sound constructive principles 
should enable the designer to 

and cut into some suitable shape 
for the arms. The cross-bar con- 
necting these sides at the top is 
frequently surmounted by a pedi- 
ment, and the back filled in with 
panels appropriately ornamented. 
The space below the seat is some- 
times filled in, and the bottom 
surrounded by a plinth. 

Another form of construction 
\ frequently met with in mediaeval 
furniture is that shown in Fig. 9. 
This must be heavily framed to 
be strong enough for use, and is, 
of course, an extremely bad design 
for wood. 

Chairs of bent wood have come 
into such general use in these days 
that it seems proper to mention 
them here. It will be readily seen 
that the established methods of 
wood joinery find little application 

Fig. 9. 


discriminate between the true and the false, the substantial and the 
flimsy, the dignified and the vulgar. The possibilities of originality 
and beautv of form are boundless without resorting to extravagant 
and unnecessary curves or concealing joints. Let him who would 
design a chair, therefore, work with the right end in view — to con- 
struct in an honest and substantial manner, and as beautifully as 
may be, "a seat - for a single person with a frame to support the back," 
adapted in form and finish to the particular purpose for which it is 
intended, and not a mere form of abstract prettiness, or something 
to be carved, which may be called a chair for want of a better name. 



Edwin W. Foster, 
Manual Training High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The peculiarities of trees which make them friends or strangers to 
boys are generally those of utility from the child standpoint. For 
instance, horse-chestnut, butternut, and hickory are more apt to be 
familiar names to the boy than elm, tulip, or white pine, for reasons too 
obvious to require mention. And again the horse-chestnut will be 
known to the youth owing to the nuts it produces rather than by the 
pyramidal clustersof its flowers. He is more interested in the fact that 
buckeye is used for plow-handles or other farming implements than in 
descriptions of the grace and beauty of the elm. In other words, the 
healthy human boy of twelve or fourteen is more interested in the 
utilitarian than the aesthetic side of trees, as well as of many other sub- 
jects. It is well to keep this keynote in mind in our talks on trees. 
1900] 31 



r/G. / 

He will be interested to know that, although a popular shade-tree 
which nourishes on American soil, the horse-chestnut is not a native, 
but was imported from Europe. 

This is a good time to introduce the subject of compound leaves, 
the horse-chestnut leaf being an excellent example. It also leads up 
naturally to the hickory, black walnut, butternut, and buckeye, all of 
which have com- 
pound leaves 
composed of a 
number of leaf- 
lets, and all with 
distinct charac- 
teristics. The 
hickory needs but 
to be touched 
upon to bring up 
such names as 
shagbark, shell- 
bark, and pignut. 

This is also a 
good time to ex- 
plain the differ- 
ence between 
strength and 

i goo] 



toughness, oak being a good example of the former and hickory of the 
latter. The difficulty of working which precludes this strong and tough 
wood from being used in building operations does not prevent its exten- 
sive use in the making of farming implements and in carriage work. 

The leaf of the hickory may easily 
be distinguished from the buckeye, 
which it somewhat resembles, by the 
fact that the leaflets of the former are 
arranged on opposite sides of a central 
stalk, while in the buckeye they radiate, 



as in the horse-chestnut, from one cen- 
tral point. 

Perhaps no two trees are so difficult 
for the city-bred boy to distinguish as 
the butternut and black walnut. Both 
have compound leaves, the number of 
leaflets, according to Schuyler Mathew, 
varying from nine to seventeen for the 
butternut and from fifteen to twenty-three for the black walnut. A leaf 
having fifteen leaflets, then, might belong to either tree, were there no 
other distinguishing features. The teeth on the black walnut leaflet are 
larger and sharper than on the butternut and lack the fuzzy stem ; yet 
even the nuts, when partly grown, will deceive the novice ; althoug 
the black walnuts, which are about the size and shape of green lemons, 
are more rounded than the butternuts. The unmistakable feature, 
however, is the odor. Having once smelled the crushed leaves of a 
butternut and of a black walnut, a person will thereafter need no other 




r/G. s-. 


The use of black-walnut lumber in cabinet work is well known. 
Some of us can still remember the breezy stories of our western cousins 
of whole cities paved with black walnut. These stories were true, 
many of them, as the central West was 
liberally supplied with fine black-walnut 
timber at the period when cities like 
Des Moines, la., were laid out. The 
streets were, indeed, paved with black- 
walnut blocks stood on end. The stories, 
however, were related at a later period 
when black-walnut furniture was the 
furniture of fashion. This period, too, 
has passed away with the supply of black 
walnut. Enough remains, however, to 
supply us with gun-stocks, for which 
purpose nothing seems better suited. 

Butternut is a lighter wood, but takes 
a good polish and is used to a limited 
extent in cabinet work ; perhaps this 
might be more extensive but for the 

r/G. 6. 


I goo] 



fact that the tree does not furnish either the long or wide planks for 
which the larger and more luxuriant black walnut is noted. 

The subject of compound leaves should not be passed by without 
considering the locusts. '1 he ordinary vellow or bla« k locust pr< --ruts 
as great a contrast 
between the character 
of its foliage and bark 
as can be imagined, 
the former being 
noted for its delicacy, 
the beautiful light 
pea-green of its 
leaves, and the creamy 
white of its fragrant 
flowers, while the 
trunk is covered with 
the roughest of bark 
studded with prickles. 
The tree is not a thing 
of beauty when strip- 
ped of its foliage, but 
its timber is very valu- 
able for exposed 
members, particularly 
those in contact with 
soil, its durability 
taking first rank. 

The clammy locust 
is a close relative of 
the yellow variety, 
with quite similar 
leaves, but in most 
sections rarely grows 
large enough to be HICKORY in winter 

called a tree. It may be distinguished by the sticky gum which 
covers the branchlets, and by the flowers which are pink or pale rose 
in color. It is often cultivated for these beautiful blossoms as a 
Kuvn shrub. 

The honey-locust, another member of the pea family, has been 
characterized by Harriet L. Keeler as a tree whose foliage is that of 




the common locust etherealized, and it might be added that the prickles 
of the latter have been magnified into murderous thorns in the former. 
Surely few stronger contrasts in foliage can be found than when the 
fern-like beauty of the honey-locust is found in proximity with such 
leaves as the American basswood, catalpa, or tulip. 

■0OOAANO_L-Ln& / DU Yellow-wood is a variety of this 

family, but is rarely met with in the 
northern states, except where planted 
by the landscape gardener in our public 
parks or private lawns. The leaf con- 
sists of an odd number of leaflets, from 
seven to eleven, the odd one being at 
the extremity of the stem, its expanded 
balloon-shape being a distinguishing 
feature. Its wood, which is heavy, hard, 
close-grained, and strong, is not very 
well known on account of the compara- 
tively small size of the tree, but it is a 
beautiful, clean-cut, and valuable tree for the lawn. 

No list of trees would be complete which did not include those 
three forest giants, buttonball, tulip, and sweet gum. The various 
names — buttonwood, buttonball, sycamore, and plane tree, as it is called 
in different localities — all suggest that fine American tree which sheds 
its bark as well as its leaves, leaving a ghostly and gaunt monarch of tree 
life which produces an enormous crop of "buttonballs" so well known 
to country boys. The leaves are on a scale with the size of the tree, 
often measuring a foot in length, and being frequently covered on the 
under side with a heavy fungus growth. The wood of the sycamore, 
as it is erroneously called, is valuable for cabinet work, having a beauti- 
ful grain and taking a high polish. 

The sweet-gum tree also produces a crop of "balls" or seed-pods, 
but, although about the same size as the buttonballs, they need never 
be confused, as the gum-balls are covered with somewhat sharp points, 
while the button-balls are comparatively smooth. 

The leaves of the sweet gum, or "liquid amber" — so called from 
the amber-colored gum the tree gives out — remind one of the star 
fish, being five-fingered and decidedly different from any leaf in the 
forest. The tree grows to a height of a hundred and fifty feet, and its 
wood is a handsome brown color with fine and intricate markings. It 

I goo] 



warps excessively, but is valued for wood-turning on account of its soft- 
ness and uniform grain. 

The lumber furnished by the tulip tree, commonly known as " white- 
wood," is less liable to warp than gum-wood and is somewhat harder. 
Just why it should be called "whitewood" is not clear, as it is much 
darker than white pine and of a greenish-yellow color. The leaf of the 

r/G. a 

TULIP or Wj-llTEWOOG. SW£ET GU/y or L /OC//O Aty /3<f7f. 

tulip tree is remarkable for its individuality. It is distinctly four- 
pointed, without any small indentations or teeth, and with a clean-cut 
outline so odd that one often wonders if nature did not use a pair of 
scissors in cutting it out. Each leaf stands out aggressively on a long 
stem, and there is none of the drooping or clustering tendency often 
seen on trees like the elm or maple. The glory of this tree — which 
gives it its name — is the mass of tulip-shaped flowers it bears in the 
spring. These are yellowish-green in color and develop a narrow 
light-brown cone which remains on the tree throughout the winter. 
The tree reaches its greatest development from the Ohio valley south, 
where it is frequently found from five to seven feet in diameter. The 
Indians formerly made their dugout canoes from its trunk, and in some 
sections it is still called canoe-wood. 



The seventh annual meeting of the Eastern Manual Training Association was 
held at the Central High School, Cleveland, O., June 28, 1900. 

The session was opened by the president, Mr. R. Charles Bates, who, after briefly 
expressing his pleasure in seeing the members of the association again assembled for 
the furtherance of their work, introduced Mr. H. C. Muckley, of the Board of Super- 
visors, Cleveland. 


Mr. Muckley extended a hearty welcome to the association on behalf of the pub- 
lic schools of Cleveland. As a supervisor the speaker was interested in the develop- 
ment of the whole child, and he believed that manual training was a most important 
factor in such development. Various conceptions had been entertained as to what 
constituted a complete education. Once the man who had studied languages and 
logic felt that he had no need to know much of the great world. Science was added 
later, and now we had come to realize the value of training the hand. Manual train- 
ing reaches more than the mere muscles. When once the hand is taught, we have 
enlarged that mvstenous something which moves the hand — the mind. Complete 
education is not a narrow thing. Power to do special work comes from having a broad 
foundation. First the man, or woman, then the special work. The public schools 
take special pleasure in welcoming this body of teachers, because in manual training 
we believe we have one of the mightiest allies. 

The next speaker introduced was Mr. J. Liberty Tadd, of the Public Art School, 
Philadelphia, whose subject was 


In opening his address Mr. Tadd laid much emphasis on the importance of train- 
ing the hand in the early years of life. Education concerns not only the mental 
powers, but also the physical and the spiritual. Through the hand we energize the 
brain. The child is possessed of superabundant energy, which should be stored up to 
be discharged in later life. Children should be trained to (1) accurate observation, (2) 
keen perception, (3) sound reasoning, and (4) energetic action. The tendency of our 
public schools is to make our children indisposed to action. We give them too much 
abstract work. 

The nascent periods of a child's life are, first, the play period ; then, the period of 
free movement of the limbs; third, the period of accurate movement; and fourth, the 
emotional period. Most school work fails to take these periods into consideration. 
The speaker here dwelt with much earnestness on the importance of giving the child 
the chance to realize the potentialities of his being. Nothing is of more importance 
to the young than the possession of those powers which may be developed by right 

Mr. Tadd explained that the system now followed in the Public Art School of 
Philadelphia was the result of twenty years' experience. During this time he had 


1 900] A SSOCIA TIONS 3 9 

found the fallacy of ordinary carpentry for young children, and had settled on a sys- 
tem which is now in operation in seven private schools, seven night schools, and one 
Catholic school in Philadelphia, besides many schools in other places. In this system 
facility of hand was regarded as fundamental. Children acquired the power to make 
things stand erect, to make things balance, and to grasp size. In these exercises the 
movements were repeated until they became automatic. The speaker illustrated the 
elementary exercises by drawing circles on the blackboard with a quick, free move- 
ment, going over the circle several times continuously. This was done in both direc- 
tions, first with the right hand, then with the left, and then with both together. Then 
followed an exercise in straight lines, vertical, horizontal, and oblique; then the draw- 
ing of loops in all directions. " Facility, not accuracy," was the motto at this stage 
of the work. Children repeated these free movements until they gained perfect 
dexterity, the lessons never occupying more than five minutes. Examples of original 
work were shown consisting of decorative designs formed by the combination of 
reversed curves, etc. In drawing from nature the same principle obtained — facility 
first, then accuracy. Work in delineation in the Public Art School was given in three 
mediums : on a flat surface, in soft clay, and in tough wood. The facts and forces of 
nature should be taught. The daisy, for instance, was bristling with facts, and chil- 
dren should be able to name them. Mr. Tadd severely condemned the fine work 
sometimes given to children in the kindergarten, characterizing it as dangerous and 
wicked. The larger movements should be taught first, giving free play to the child's 
natural energy and not suppressing it. 

This address was illustrated by a series of very interesting stereopticon views, 
showing classes at work in schools where Mr. Tadd's system was in operation. 

The discussion was opened by Mr. Louis Rohrheimer, of the Cleveland Art 
School, who advocated allowing pupils to copy the old masters. He would also allow 
them sometimes to draw from a sketch book as well as from nature. We should not 
allow a child to be satisfied with his own forms, good or bad. Many poor forms were 
to be seen in our manual-training exhibits. Our schools needed more nature study, 
more free-hand drawing, and more good models. 

Mr. Upton questioned the wisdom of cultivating automatic movement in manual 
training. As soon as a process becomes automatic it loses its chief value. Every 
action should be attended by self-control and inhibition. He had a great respect for the 
cube. It is as good for a bov to know how to make a box as how to decorate it. The 
influence of the water-wheel, the steam engine, etc., is as educational as that of nature . 

Mr. Tadd held that, while the control of the muscles was automatic, the attention 
of the pupil would be concentrated on the work in hand. There was no lack o» 
exercise for the faculties. The dentist knows the value of automatic action, which 
enables him to put his whole thought on his work. Mechanical work should be 
introduced, and is introduced in the Public Art School, in its proper place ; but art 
work is most important in the elementary stage. 


Mr. Arthur V. Craig's paper on this subject, read at the afternoon session, was 
chiefly descriptive of the work carried on in that institution. The average attendance 
of students at Tuskegee is 1,000. Lack of funds is the most serious hindrance to the 
work. The practical character of the work of the industrial classes is indicated by 


the fact that of the forty-five buildings now in use the work on all but three was 
done by students. There are twenty-one divisions in the industrial department, 
representing the most important trades. The twofold value of manual training is 
recognized — its value as a factor in education and also as a preparation for work in 
the industrial department. Mr. Craig spoke enthusiastically of Mr. Washington's great 
work at Tuskegee, which was rapidly developing among the negroes a spirit of order, 
industry, and thrift, and an aspiration to help the race. 


was the title of a paper read by Mr. I. M. Carley, of the Chicago Normal School. 
Mr. Carley pointed out the importance of training the motor activities of the child 
during the nascent period, from the fourth to the fifteenth year. The fundamental 
movements should be trained first, then the finer muscles. The sloyd system seemed 
best calculated to meet the requirements of this early training. Among the benefits 
claimed for this system were the following : cultivation of a right motive ; power of 
concentration; power of inhibition; precise and definite thinking; development of 
touch; development of the aesthetic sense; accuracy; respect for work ; right habits 
of working ; organic skill. The repetition of an exercise till it becomes automatic, 
the speaker believed, should be strictly guarded against. Fixed courses of work do 
not take into consideration the differences of individuals. No course can be devised 
every piece of which appeals to every child. One defect of much of our manual 
training is that there is not enough originality demanded, and the child is not given 
sufficient opportunity to develop his latent powers. 

Professor C. R. Richards, of Columbia University, in discussing this paper, said 
that the element of self-expression seemed to be coming to the front more and more 
as the keynote of manual training. It appeared to be a third stage in the evolution of 
the manual-training movement. First, we had the idea of pure manipulation, then 
purposeful achievement, and now self-expression. Before the child is capable of the 
creation of the whole, including inception, planning of methods, and execution, his 
powers of expression may be drawn out by allowing him some freedom in the selec- 
tion of models, in modifying designs, and in decoration. 


Mr. J. H. Trybom, director of manual training, Detroit, said that his theory of 
manual training, as presented in this paper, was based on the universal law of habit. 
With every mental change there is a change in nerve tissues. Any sequence of 
mental conditions tends to perpetuate itself. It is not the aim of manual training to 
give the child some specific power, but to develop in him useful habits of a general 
nature, as, for example, the habit of logical procedure, of order and neatness, of 
manual activity, the ethical habit, the habit of accuracy and of self-reliance. A 
pupil should never be asked to do what he cannot do well. Continued failure will 
have an injurious effect, while every success will add to the power of succeeding. We 
must emphasize accuracy in manual training and teach the child that only right is right. 

Mr. Bryant agreed with Mr. Trybom as to the results of failure. An old argu- 
ment in favor of the Russian system was that if the pupil failed he did not spoil a 
whole model which might involve several joints. Failures might be prevented by a 
judicious arrangement of the course. 

1 900 ] A SSOCIA TIONS 4 I 

Mr. Trybom held that much depended on the interest of the pupil. Interest 
depends on power, and power is more evident to the pupil if he is making something 
which he can use. In reply to a question Mr. Trybom said he considered children 
capable of using the rule with sufficient accuracy from the fourth year onward. 

Mr. Yroom observed that two distinct phases of manual training, the artistic and 
the mechanical, had been very ably presented by their respective advocates, and he 
saw no real conflict between the two, provided we could agree as to when the latter 
should be begun. Mechanical manipulation and geometrical precision were indis- 
pensable elements in a well-balanced scheme of instruction, but the tendency had 
been to introduce mechanical work too early. Mr. Trybom would introduce it in the 
fourth year, while Mr. Tadd would put it off for some years longer and then give it but a 
small place on the program. It seems to be agreed that free-hand work should come 
first ; the practical question is, Where shall mechanical work be introduced, and what 
ratio shall be maintained between the two through the succeeding grades ? 

Professor Richards thought it a mistake to be too much concerned as to where 
this or that kind of work should come in. Children in the primary grades had worked 
with saws, hammers, etc., making boats, sails, houses, and fences. Manual train- 
ing belonged to the expressive side of school life, and the child should be allowed 
to give expression to his ideas by such means when conditions rendered it practi- 

The proceedings of the second day were opened by the president, who read a 
letter from Mr. Gustaf Larsson, member of the executive committee, expressing his 
regret at being unable to attend the meeting of the association and his continued 
interest in their work. The president then introduced Mr. Daniel Upton, director of 
manual training, Buffalo, whose subject was 


It was the purpose of Mr. Upton's paper to suggest a line of work wherein the 
subject-matter should arise from the experiences of the child's life. This would be 
called the correlative system, to distinguish it from that in general use, which he 
would call the model system, in which every pupil worked out the same series of 

"Observation, reflection or deduction, and expression must be the chain of 
mental operations in order to make knowledge dynamic, and it would seem that the 
fullest benefits from manual training would be obtained through a course which would 
afford the child a natural avenue for the expression of ideas occurring in any of his 
fields of observation." The child who only expresses what others think out and pre- 
sent to him is not being fitted for leadership, or even for independence. Acquisition 
of skill will be proportional to the child's interest in the end to which the operation 
is a means. With reference to the sequence of tools, the speaker believed a tool 
should be introduced, because in the child's life there is a living need of that particu- 
lar tool, and not because he has used some other tool just before it or will use some 
other just after. The instructor should lead the designs into such forms as to 
make them include only such operations as the child is physically capable of 

The model system has many advantages, as being easy of application in large 
classes, securing uniformity of class work, etc., but careful work done under both leads 
to the conclusion that the correlative system yields better results in the development 


of the pupil. Correlation between drawing and manual training is of the highest 
importance. The grade teacher and the manual-training instructor should work 
together and bring the work of all departments into as close relation as possible. As 
an aid to correlation, workshops should be equipped with tools for working clay, 
glass, wire, tin, and leather, besides the wood-working tools. To summarize the con- 
ditions which should exist to make the correlative scheme a success, we should have : 
(i) a school curriculum wherein the arts, constructive and decorative, and science, 
are accorded apart ; (2) schemes of correlation or concentration carried out in all the 
school work, particularly in processes of expression ; (3) teachers of manual training 
who are thoroughly conversant with the regular grade work and who are experts in 
teaching and in wood-work, and versatile in other handicrafts ; (4) grade teachers who 
understand designing, both constructive and ornamental. 

The fact that under the scheme here outlined the speaker had seen creative 
instinct grow strong, inventiveness become active, and the power to go ahead and do 
things become a characteristic of the child, had convinced him that there were in such 
a system particularly beneficial elements which should commend it to the attention of 
thoughtful students of manual training. 

Commenting on Mr. Upton's paper, Mr. Bending called attention to what 
appeared to him a tendency to indorse the principles of Mr. Tadd's system. Both 
had laid much stress upon the value of original work on the part of the pupil. 

Mr. Trybom was of opinion that the two theories were entirely opposite. Mr. 
Tadd would make the exercise automatic and then use it as a means of expression, 
while Mr. Upton would have the boy work out his own ideas, but stop as soon as the 
operation became automatic. 

Mr. Entwistle feared that the idea of originality was being carried too far. A 
child who was familiar with historic forms and principles of design could not originate 
things satisfactorily. Classic art should not be ignored. We should teach principles 
and follow well-tried methods. 

Professor Richards adhered to the view that the aim of manual training was to 
develop power of expression, not to develop skill. Self-expression, therefore, should 
be the dominant note. The basis of Mr. Tadd's theory was automatic control. In 
construction automatic facility is inconceivable. If you could work it out, it would not 
be manual training. 

The president here announced that the executive committee had decided to bring 
the meeting to a close at this session, if possible. 

Mr. A. B. Entwistle, of the Central Manual Training School, Philadelphia, was 
then introduced as the next speaker, the subject of his address being 


By a clear and careful comparison, Mr. Entwistle demonstrated the paramount 
importance of the sense of touch. In learning to ride a bicycle, learning to swim, 
and, in fact, in most of the operations of our everyday life, we are guided by feeling, 
rather than by sight. This points to the importance of training in those lines in 
which the sense of touch is involved. The mechanical operations of the manual-train- 
ing school, drawing lines, gauging, sawing, planing, chiseling, etc., are peculiarly 
adapted to the development of this important sense. The attention of students should 
be directed to the fact that in mechanical work their movements are regulated largely 
by touch. 


At the conclusion of Mr. Entwistle's paper several speakers indorsed the sound- 
ness of the views expressed, one giving an instance of a little girl who, having 
difficulty in learning to gather, had been helped by practising without looking at 
the work. 


Mrs. Ida Hood Clark, of the Manual Training High School, Brooklyn, speaking 
on this subject, strongly defended the right of sewing to a place in the school curricu- 
lum as a branch of manual training. A brief sketch of the history of domestic art in 
education was given. Switzerland leads the world in the number and excellence of 
the schools in which this branch is taught, and much attention is given to the subject 
in France. Italy has established schools for lace-making, and the same industry is being 
cultivated by Mrs. Bell, in Nova Scotia. In this country all that has been done is of 
very recent growth. The tendency has been to treat sewing from the useful and prac 
tical side only, but its value as an educational factor is now becoming more fully 
recognized. Children must be led to think, not only of how to sew, but of what to 
sew. The sewing teacher has a fine opportunity of developing the tastes of the 
pupils in regard to personal and household adornment, for cultivating a feeling for 
form and color, and arousing and developing a truly artistic appreciation of that 
which is suitable and harmonious. In the grades the work should be so arranged as 
to give practice in the more important varieties of hand-sewing, until a reasonable 
degree of proficiency has been obtained. In the high school dressmaking and milli- 
ner)- are taken up. 

Sewing as manual training gives the girls increased dexterity and greater keen- 
ness of observation, a greater development of the nerve centers in the brain, and the 
consequent increase in general intellectual power. Sewing is of great value in the 
formation of character. It is impossible to hide the results of error or carelessness, 
and the girls learn to despise sham and respect honest work. Pupils will also learn 
to appreciate the injustice often done to those employed in making the ready-made gar- 
ments sold in our stores. The sewing teacher has opportunities peculiar to her depart- 
ment, of getting in touch with her pupils and fitting them for the many duties of that 
most important phase of life — the making of the home. 

This interesting paper was followed by a general discussion, in which some dif- 
ferences of opinion were expressed as to the time which sewing should be allowed to 
occupy in the school. One speaker pointed out the danger of girls losing their share 
in general manual training through the intruduction of too much sewing. Work 
involving such fine muscular adjustment should not be given to children from five to 
eight years of age. Others hold that sewing should be taught in the early grades, 
because of its value both as an educational agency and a practical acquirement. 

Dr. Charles R. Henderson, of the University of Chicago, being unable to attend 
the meeting, his paper on "Social Progress" (printed in fuli elsewhere in this issue) 
was read by the president. The concluding paper was that of Professor Walter W. 
Davis, of Iowa College, on 

This paper dealt with the development of muscular and nervous energy as indi- 
cated by a series of scientific experiments carried on by the writer. Motor ability was 
studied in three phases: (i) rapidity, (2) strength, and (3) accuracy of voluntary 


(i) A gain in rapidity of movement resulting from exercise of the right great toe 
accrued in all toes and fingers. This gain must be referred to a common cause — the 
central nervous system. (2) Experiments made for the purpose of determining the 
gain in strength and girth measurement of the biceps from the practice of raising 
a dumbell with the right arm showed the following results: {a) a large gain in 
ability to raise in arm not exercised ; (b) increase of girth in arm not exercised; (c) 
no correspondence between girth gains and flexion gains ; {d) there seemed to be less 
blood in unused arm ; (1?) increase in dynamometric power, almost as much in left 
arm as in right. (3) In a test of the accuracy of voluntary effort the increase was 
found to be 36 per cent, in the unpracticed arm. Experiments show the great 
importance of attention in acts of volition. Fatigue is chiefly central. In learning 
an action that involves fine coordination it is obvious that the pupil executes many 
movements that are entirely unnecessary. The nervous impulse has flowed out into 
wrong channels. Cross education is judged (from carefully arranged experiments 
made by the writer and others) to be due chiefly to the influence of the higher mental 
faculties. Certain conditions indicate the presence of another factor — the physio- 
logical factor. Strong will-power and attention seem to be a hindrance to rapidity of 
tapping, rather than a help. Knack is not a sufficient explanation for certain great 
gains in grip, which seem to be due rather to the physiological development of motor 
nerve centers. 

Professor Davis concludes that : (1) The effects of practice may be transferred, to 
a greater or less degree, from the parts practiced to other parts of the body. This 
transference may result in an increase of muscular tissue in the unpracticed part, or 
only give it greater effectiveness. (2) The factors most prominent in the transfer- 
ence of muscular power, skill, or endurance are, (a) will-power and attention; (6) 
knack (or coordination of mind and muscle); (c) the physiological factor. "What 
should be specially emphasized now is that the central effects of manual training are 
the important effects ; that these central effects involve some of the higher mental 
faculties, such as will-power and attention, coordination, discrimination and choice ; 
and that these faculties, when developed for any particular act, are effective for all 


The president announced that the committee appointed at the last meeting of the 
association to revise the bibliography of manual training had completed its work, 
and that copies of the new bibliography would be distributed without charge to all 
members of the association who had paid their dues. 

Mr. Upton conveyed to the association an invitation from the superintendent of 
education of Buffalo to hold the next annual meeting in that city. The invitation 
was unanimously accepted by vote of the meeting. 

A letter of resignation from Mr. Walter J. Kenyon, secretary of the association, 
was read by Mr. Irons, acting secretary. Mr. Kenyon's resignation was rendered 
necessary by his removal to a new field of labor in the West. 

After the reading of the treasurer's statement, which showed a substantial balance 
on hand, the meeting proceeded to the election of officers for the ensuing year, the 
result being as follows: president, William E. Roberts; vice-president, Frank H. 
Ball; secretary and treasurer, Foster H. Irons; members of Executive Committee — 
Daniel Upton, Charles R. Richards, R. Charles Bates. 


With reference to the exhibit of work, little more need be said than that it bore 
favorable comparison, both in extent and quality, with those of previous years. 
Exhibits are to be seen, not described. That this one was fully appreciated was evi- 
dent from the numbers who filled the rooms where it was arranged. A request was 
received during the meeting that the exhibit should be sent to Charleston to the meet- 
ing of the National Educational Association. This was favorably considered by the 
Executive Committee, and a part of the exhibit was sent. 

W. F. Vroom. 


If the success of a meeting of the National Educational Association is indicated 
by the number of thousands of excursionists who go along with the teachers in order 
to get the benefit of reduced rates, or by the number of manual-training specialists 
present at the meeting, the convention of 1900 could hardly be counted as a success. 
But if quality of program and attendance be taken into consideration, if visiting a 
city of rare historic interest, if being the recipient of delightful hospitality, if local 
interest in the discussions and an opportunity for teachers of one section of the coun- 
try to get the point of view and to study the educational and sociological problems of 
another, are allowed to count, certainly the Charleston meeting was a success. We 
doubt whether there is another city in the country that could furnish a setting more 
appropriate for a meeting of manual-training teachers — certainly not, if it maybe 
taken for granted that they are interested in the artistic handicraft of colonial times. 
Gracefully turned balusters, massive wrought-iron gates, and classical columns are 
everywhere in Charleston. One of our friends in the Art Department said : " I doubt 
if there is another city in this country where you will find as many Corinthian col- 
umns ;" and another said : " Have you seen the charming bit of Italy down here ?" 
referring to East Battery with its sea wall, its grand old colonial mansions with their 
wrought-iron gates and veranda guards. One quickly discovers that at some time in 
the history of Charleston there must have lived and wrought in the town a smith who 
was a master of his art. Even the iron foot-scrapers fastened to the stone doorsteps 
of some of the old forsaken buildings add their convincing testimony. 

It was a new sensation for some of us to go along a narrow street in the evening, 
shut in on both sides by heavy brick walls — perhaps seven feet high — interrupted 
only now and then by heavy wrought-iron gates. Overhanging the walls were live 
oaks, magnolias, and crape myrtle just in bloom, while the tops of palmettoes still 
further revealed the semi-tropical character of the gardens beyond the walls. At the 
gateways or from across the street, one could see the stately colonial mansions with 
broad verandas, two or three stories high on the south and sometimes also on the 
east, fine classical doorways beyond which were broad halls, large square rooms with 
high ceiling and appropriate furnishings. Such mansions of ante-bellum days are 
characteristic of Charleston. Although the high walls surrounding them are extremely 
picturesque, yet, if one remembers the reasons for building them so high, he cannot 
but be glad to see that the fine residences of recent construction have neither the high 
walls in front nor the slave quarters in the rear. 

The first session of the Department of Manual Training was given just the start 
that it needed by the opening address of the president, Supervisor Charles H. Keyes, 


of Hartford, Conn. When Mr. Keyes began there were only thirty-five persons pres- 
ent, and the prospect of an inspiring meeting seemed small, but before he closed his 
address the audience had not only increased to seventy-seven, but had been worked 
up to a point of enthusiasm made manifest by hearty applause given several times. 
Mr. Keyes said in part : 


" From many portions of our country come two demands suggesting the impor 
tance of careful consideration of the relation of manual training to trade education. 
The first is the call for the establishment of public trade schools ; the second, the 
insistence that the public school shall, without sacrificing their general culture aims, 
do something more to prepare for business, vocation, or trade. 

" For years manual-training teachers have urged that their work had no economic 
or utilitarian aims; its purpose was purely educational. They even prayed to be 
delivered from their friends who were fond of announcing the discovery that one of 
the consequences of good manual training was the development of technical skill 
readily turned to use in the trades. No matter how thoroughly educational the main 
purpose and product of such training, there is no denying that an important and 
inseparable consequence is the development of mechanical skill. 

"' The manual-training school of the future must not forget that a portion of its 
pupils will go to the trades. It ought to strive, without sacrificing its purely educa- 
tional aims, so to shape its courses as to prepare in some measure for the trade 

" Fvery trade school should give an initial year or more to manual training in 
order to increase the general power and intelligence of its students. There is no 
more dangerous agency in modern civilization than the demagogue, with ignorant 
labor at his back. He can do little or nothing with the intelligent mechanic or arti- 
san, but no tyranny is so unreasonable as the tyranny of illiterate labor. But this is 
not enough. For, since it is one of the missions of the school to discover the pupil to 
himself, the manual training should help pupils decide whether to try any trade and 
more wisely to decide what one to undertake. 

" To this end we ought to study carefully existing conditions with a view to 
determining how best to bring the manual-training school and the trade school into 
most fruitful cooperation." 

On account of illness Mr. Charles F. Warner, principal of the Mechanic Arts 
High School of Springfield, Mass., was not able to be present to read his paper on 
" Teaching Trades in Connection with the Public Schools." He sent a letter to 
President Keyes, however, from which we quote the following : 

" I suppose it will not be questioned that there is a general feeling throughout 
the country — at least in the foremost educational centers — that, if possible, manual- 
training high schools should do something to meet the growing demand for educa- 
tion in the trades. There certainly can be no doubt about the demand for this teach- 
ing. One needs only to ask his next-door neighbor, if he be a manufacturer, to be 
told that the situation in industrial quarters is alarming and is steadily growing 
worse. The country is flooded with inferior workmen, but the skilled mechanics are 
few in number, comparatively speaking, and are, for the most part, advanced in 
years. They were trained under the apprentice system, which, in this country, is 
practically gone. There are no voung men under training to take their places, and 


the conditions in the industries are such, at present, that there can be no adequate 
provision for supplying the need which was formerly met by the apprentice system. 

" The most difficult question connected with this whole matter is how to connect 
instruction in the trades with the established work of manual-training high schools. 
One who advocates such a connection will probably be stigmatized as a deserter from 
the ranks of true educational manual training. In the earlv davs of these schools we 
used to hear much said by our opponents on this very subject of teaching trades. 
Manual-training schools were then characterized as trade schools and as having no 
business to class themselves among educational forces. But these schools, although 
they have been favored by the general demand for the practical in education, have 
still defended themselves on the highest educational principles, and have won just 
recognition on these grounds. Now are we to recede from this position of educational 
manual training and teach merely trades after all ? This is the question in about the 
form which it will be given by those who are critics of this movement. But it does 
not seem to me that we are necessarily forced upon such a dilemma. It is, to be sure, 
not an easy matter to map out a course in one or more trades which shall correlate 
with the essentials of academic high-school studies after the plan of the ordinary man- 
ual-training high schools, and yet I believe that this may be worked out in time. 
Some increase in the length of school time will have to he assumed, I think, in order 
to get in an amount of practice which is at all comparable with that which was 
formerlv given under the apprentice system; and probably it will be many years 
before we see the teaching of trades carried to the perfection which was possible 
under that system in its best days. But certainly, if boys really wish to learn a trade, 
they must be willing to spend double the amount of time that they would give to 
ordinary school work. 

" 1 cannot go much into details in this letter, but 1 will call your attention to a 
statement of the courses of instruction as outlined for the Mechanic Arts High School of 
Springfield. I refer to special Course B, which approaches as near to a course in the 
trades as we have yet been able to reach in our day school. You will notice that con- 
siderable attention is given throughout that course to the essentials of English, mathe- 
matics, science, and history, and yet an unusual umount of time is allotted to mechanic 
arts practice; and I will add further that, in my judgment, the time given to mechani- 
cal work will need to be largely increased, without infringing upon the academic 
work, in order to give the necessary thoroughness to the teaching required for the 
trades. I see no reason why students of a trade course, at least in the last two years 
of the course, should not work eight hours a day." 

President Keyes called upon Mr. L. A. Buchanan, of Stockton, Cal., to explain 
the plan of the California School of Mechanical Arts, usually known as the Lick 
School. This school is unique in that it combines the manual-training school of sec- 
ondary grade with a trade school. During the first two years the pupils are led to 
discover, in their manual-training course, which trade they wish to learn, and during 
the second two years they are allowed to give special attention to the trade of their 
choice, while at the same time pursuing one or more academic studies. Mr. Buchanan 
recognized in this scheme great advantage over learning a trade in a manufacturing 
establishment after the apprenticeship plan. In the former the purpose at all times 
is to help the pupil ; in the latter, to benefit the manufacturing establishment. 

Mr. B. A. Lenfest, of Waltham, Mass., said that much time is wasted in learning 
trades in shops in New England, and that he believed that the public schools should 


provide the means of learning trades. Such trade teaching should be given, however, 
after the boy has had such preliminary school training as will enable him to make a 
wise choice.' 

By the time President Keyes introduced the second speaker of the afternoon, 
Colonel Francis W. Parker, president of Chicago Institute, the discussion had become 
so general that the meeting took the form of a conference. Colonel Parker's subject 
was " The Character, Content, and Purpose of Manual Training in the Elementary 
Schools." He spoke in his characteristic manner, proclaiming the gospel of the new 
education. Before he closed he declared that in the earlier years of the child's edu- 
cation manual training is more important than reading, writing, or arithmetic. 


He began by relating his experiences in the early years of the Cook County 
Normal School. He told how he became convinced that children should work with 
their hands in school and of the difficulties he had in finding men to teach as he 
wanted teaching done. The Russian system was rejected because it was tyrannical, 
and because it came from a country that was moving away from democracy. He sent 
men to Sweden to study a better system in a country moving toward democracy. 
"The Swedish system involves the making of useful things and is carefully graded — 
a beautiful idea, but not suited to American needs. It makes skill too much of an end 
in education. It is the same as teaching language by beginning with the study of 
grammar. The way to teach a child to saw is to give him something to saw; get him 
to saw for a purpose. The child is a member of society and as such should help to 
the best of his ability. 

" There are an infinite number of things a child may do. He should make 
things in connection with his science work, his geography, his history. The sym- 
pathy of the child with primitive life is very strong. Have him make houses of early 
man, of Indians, Eskimos. He can make looms and designs for fabrics. Then 
there are Greek and Egyptian temples to be made. I count such work as play, but 
it has its place in school. Every school should have a garden There is nothing 
that focuses the work of the school so much as a garden, and there is lots of manual 
training in it. Things should also be made for the home. Manual training is only one 
feature of art. The best you can do is art. Ornament is the emphasis of function." 

Superintendent Van Sickle, of Baltimore, asked : "To what extent do you object 
to a set of models?" To this Colonel Parker replied: "Necessity is the mother of 
everything when the child is given his freedom." "I appreciate," said Mr. Van 
Sickle, "the tendency to enslave the child. Is there an objection to having a series 
of exercises if the child sees the object in each?" "Get the right teacher and all will 
go well," said Colonel Parker. 

Mr. Bennett, of Peoria, 111., spoke in favor of a flexible course of instruction. He 
would allow the individual child much latitude in the choice of models — even 
encouraging him to invent or design some of them for himself, but he believed it to be 
of vital importance that the teacher influence and guide the pupil to such an extent 
that he be not allowed to attempt work which he cannot do well — which he him- 
self would be sure to recognize as poorly done. He advocated the development 
of skill as an educational means in all kinds of manual-training work. Super- 
intendent Van Sickle then asked the question: "Isn't skill an aid to interest?" No 
one answered his question in the negative. 

i goo] A SSOCIA TI.ONS 4 9 

Superintendent Powell, of Washington, spoke in favor of placing greater emphasis 
on the manual-training work in primary grades. He said that most of the manual 
training should be given to the child before he has reached the age of fourteen, and 
that the best time for it was before the age of ten. He also pointed out that the 
greater the variety of work given during the earlier years, the better for the child. 


" High School Courses in Manual Training" was the general subject of the 
second session. The first paper, read by Superintendent J. H. Van Sickle, of Balti- 
more, was full of practical suggestions and contained answers to many present ques- 
tions arising in connection with secondary education. This paper will be printed in 
full in a future number of the Magazine. The second paper was read by Mr. B. A. 
Lenfest, principal of the Manual Training High School, Waltham, Mass. He began 
with a brief review of the beginnings of the manual-training work in this country, 
pointing especially to the work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The 
remainder of the paper has been summarized by him in the following words : 

"There are three later influences tending to modify this work in Boston, though 
the modifications are but slight: First, the kindergarten movement, working along 
the lines of interest; second, the Swedish sloyd system, as Americanized by Mr. 
Larsson, advocating the construction of the useful article as arousing greater inter- 
est ; and third, the aesthetic influence, corresponding with the interest in drawing 
and art instruction in our public schools. Manual-training teachers should be artist- 
artisans ; art and manual-training teachers need to get together and understand each 
other's aims better." 

"Secondary manual training falls into four groups : First, trade schools, with a 
meager amount of liberalizing study, and especially weak in English work. All such 
schools are destined to pass away. Second, the departmental plan, with manual 
training as a part of the old classical high school, and under the direction of the 
classical principal. This plan is the most common, but is also unsatisfactory, and 
destined to pass into a better form. Possibly the third plan will supplant it, that is, 
the separate shop plan with a director of manual training not answerable to the 
classical principal. By this plan, pupils receive manual training in one school and 
do their academic work in another — a scheme open to criticism and falling far short 
of the fourth plan. Fourth, the separate manual-training high school, with a 
director chosen for his knowledge of both manual and academic work, who can give 
a due proportional share of time to all departments of the school. As it has been 
customary to choose academic men to take charge of such schools — men with little 
knowledge of shop processes — it is possible to count on the fingers of one hand 
good manual-training high schools. Finally, the work in mathematics, science, Eng- 
lish, and modern languages needs to be revised and purged from much that the 
requirements for admission to college and technical school demand. Until then the 
best results are but a phantom." 

The discussion that followed made it evident that there was no unanimity of 
opinion on several points brought forward in the papers. Mr. L. A. Buchanan, of 
Stockton, Cal., in opening the discussion, said that he doubted the advisability of 
teaching joinery to girls. This had been advocated by Mr. Van Sickle. In reply, 
President Keyes said that he believed that up to twelve or thirteen years of age it is 
a mistake to consider that there is any difference between the boys and the girls. 


Miss H. F. Gower, of Los Angeles, a teacher of sloyd, was in full accord with the 
statement of President Keyes. Several others, however, seemed to agree with Mr. 

In reply to a statement made by Mr. Lenfest in his paper, Mr. Keyes said that 
he did not see why a high school must have a principal who can go into every depart- 
ment and teach the classes and plan the details of the work, but he did see why 
the manual training would never succeed in a school where the master thought the 
only things of value in the curriculum were language, mathematics, and science. 
Mr. Bennett referred to a seeming tendency in the larger cities of the East — due, no 
doubt, to local conditions — toward independent Latin, English, manual-training, and 
commercial high schools, while the tendency in the West seemed to be toward com- 
bining these elements in schools of a broader and more general character. He 
referred to the courses offered at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, as possibly furnish- 
ing a suggestion to public-school authorities. He thought that, if one of the chief 
functions of the high school is to help pupils to discover themselves, then the school 
with the richer course would better fulfill its purpose as a high school. 


The following officers were elected in the usual manner for the coming year : 
president, Charles A. Bennett, Peoria, 111.; vice president, B. A. Lenfest, Waltham, 
Mass.; secretary, L. A. Buchanan, Stockton, Cal. 

A resolution was passed extending a vote of thanks to the retiring officers ; also 
one to the local committee on manual training. As a result of President Keyes' 
address at the opening session, the following important resolution was adopted : 

" Whereas, Great interest has been manifested in relation of manual training 
to trade instruction ; and, 

"Whereas, It is suggested that trades should be taught at public expense; be 
it therefore 

"Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the president to investigate 
the subject during the coming year, and report at the meeting of the department 
next year." 

The president-elect appointed the committee as follows : Charles H. Keyes, super- 
visor of schools, Hartford, Conn., chairman; J. H. Van Sickle, superintendent of 
schools, Baltimore, Md.; Dr. H. H. Belfield, principal of Manual Training School, 
Chicago, 111.; Charles F. Warner, principal of Mechanic Arts High School, Spring- 
field, Mass.; and George A. Merrill, principal of California School of Mechanical Arts, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

the exhibit. 

The exhibit was not large, but was of good quality. A large proportion of it came 
directly from the Cleveland meeting of the Eastern Manual Training Association. 
It was thoroughly representative of the best kinds of work done in each grade that 
it covered, and was therefore a valuable object-lesson to those who saw it. The 
teachers of the South especially seemed to be interested in it. 

Yonkers, N. Y., sent an excellent display of work done in the primary grades — 
paper-weaving, cane basket-work, constructive work in stiff paper, plaiting raffia, and 
knife-work. Cazenovia Union School, New York, sent sewing from primary grades. 
The State Normal School of Millersville, Pa., sent a course of constructive work in 
paper, cardboard, bent iron, and wood, covering the five upper grades of the 

1 900] ASSOCIATIONS 5 1 

elementary school. Newark, N. J., and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y., took the lead 
in knife-work; Passaic, N. J., showed a course in knife-and saw work. Benchwork for 
elementary schools was shown by Pratt Institute ; Sloyd Training School, Boston ; 
Newark, N. J.; Dayton, O.; and Hoboken, N. J. The two leading exhibits of high- 
chool work were from Pratt Institute and Hartford, Conn. The mechanical drawing 
and machine-tool work gave prominence to the Hartford exhibit, while the work in 
forging, dressmaking, and millinery from Pratt Institute attracted much deserved 
attention. The Porter Military Academy of Charleston was the only southern school 
to send an exhibit. This consisted of work in framing, turning, and mechanical 
drawing. Looking over the exhibit for strikingly new and attractive features, one 
might stop before the cane basket-work from Yonkers, the knife-carving after the 
Japanese method from Pratt Institute, and the pattern-making from Pratt Institute, 
the new feature of the latter being a marked increase in the sizes of the pattern used 
for exercises. For example, the T-pipe joint was about four and one-half inches in 

It is not often the case that so much of the work of a meeting, both in connec- 
tion with the exhibit and the program, is due in so large a measure to one man's 
efforts as was the case this year. To President Keyes should therefore be given an 
unusually large share of the credit. From the time he began to plan his program 
until it was fully carried out he was obliged to meet unusual discouragements, yet from 
beginning to end it was his enthusiasm and skill that made the meeting a success. 

The meeting next year is likely to be held at either Detroit or Cincinnati. The 

decision rests in the hands of the executive committee of the association, which is 

made up as follows : Dr. James M. Green, of New Jersey, president ; O. T. Corson, of 

Ohio, vice president; L. C. Greenlee, of Colorado, treasurer; A. G. Lane, of Illinois, 

chairman of trustees; Dr. W. T. Harris, of District of Columbia; Irwin Shepard, of 

Minnesota, secretary. 







1 & fcSfr ^> 




i i 

:.l ±. 

j |_ 

: . 




i. Which is the best way to treat blue prints to be used by the boys ? "I have 
tried mounting on cardboard, but perhaps somebody has hit upon a better plan." 

2. How much latitude in the choice of models should be left to the teacher ? and 
how much can be safely intrusted to the pupil's own initiative ? 

Wanted, five answers to query No. 2 ; also, five good questions for this depart- 
ment. — Editor. 


The blue-print holder used at Bradley Polytechnic Institute in first- and second- 
year shops is shown in the accompanying drawing. Two mortises to receive the 
frame are made in the bench-top, and similar holes in the shelf at the back of the 
lathes, so that one frame will serve both the bench and the lathe used by the same 

The advantages of this holder are : (i) It is durable, being made of maple. (2) 
Drawings are easily changed. You merely swing the frame holding the drawing to 
its highest position and then unfasten and drop down the back; the drawing falls out. 
Reverse the process, and a new drawing is ready for use. (3) It is conveniently 
swung to any angle to suit the point of view of the one who is studying the drawing. 
You need not stoop ; you merely lift the bottom of the frame. (4) It will hold notes, 
sketches, engravings, blue prints, or drawings of any size up to 8^2 X 12^ inches. 

This frame was designed with the thought in mind that a course in manual 
training should be flexible ; that the series of blue prints mounted on strawboard 
and coated with white shellac belong to a quarter-century of manual-training work 
now past; that the teacher who has his course of models so perfect that he can 
make no improvements in it from year to year has himself stopped growing profes- 
sionally, and his drawings have become a dead language. Moreover, the thought was 
also in mind that a device of this kind, which invites change and variety, would be a 
means of preventing crvstallization in the course of instruction. — Editor. 


East Aurora, III., begins manual training work in its high school this year. 

Manual training work is just beginning in the public schools of Atlanta, Ga. 

Mr. C. H. Oakes, supervisor of manual training in Utica, N. Y., has resigned 
his position in order to go into business. 

Mr. Gustaf Larsson's definition of sloyd: Sloyd is tool work so arranged and 
employed as to stimulate and promote vigorous, intelligent self-activity for a purpose 
which the worker recognizes as good. 
1900] 53 


The State Normal School at Winona, Minn., is about to introduce manual train- 
ing. The St. Paul Dispatch states that the work will begin in both the model school 
and the normal department. It also states that Miss Tupper, of Pratt Institute, has 
been engaged to teach the manual training and the drawing. 

In a recent fire in Bloomington, 111., the Public-School Publishing Co. lost valu- 
able records and its subscription list for School and Home Education. Subscribers to 
that magazine are requested to send to the Public-School Publishing Co. at once their 
names and addresses and the time of expiration of their paid subscriptions as nearly 
as they can remember. 

Charles D. Webster, teacher of manual training in the high school of Bay 
City, Mich., has accepted the appointment of the government to take charge of the 
same department in the government school in Tacoma, Wash. Mr. Webster was 
graduated from the University of Michigan in 1897, and has been teaching in the 
Bay City High School since, with the exception of the time 'spent in Cuba as a mem- 
ber of Company C, Thirty-third Regiment. Mr. Webster was appointed a teacher in 
the government school in Albuquerque, N. M., a year ago, but declined it. — Detroit 
Free Press. 

Mr. R. Charles Bates, president of the Eastern Manual Training Association 
during the past year, has gone to Tome Institute, Port Deposit, Md., to become 
supervisor of the department of manual training. Mr. Bates was the organizer of the 
department of manual training at the Elmira Reformatory, and conducted the same 
for five years. Reports of the reformatory for the years 1896 to 1900 show the 
unique character of the work he did there. Mr. Bates has given much thought to 
sociological problems, and has written several articles that have been widely read. 
" Character- Building at Elmira "' is the subject of an article which appeared in the 
American Journal of Sociology for April, 1898. The last report of the National 
Prison Congress gives his address in full as delivered before that body at Hartford, 
Conn., in September, 1899. This summer Mr. Bates has been doing special work at 
Cornell University. 

Vacation schools are becoming more and more popular. Not only such large, 
crowded cities as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago are giving attention 
to the pupils of their schools during the summer vacation, but the smaller cities and 
towns are doing summer work of the same general character. No fixed plan of work 
has been adopted in such schools, though manual training, drawing, and nature study 
are prominent features of most of them. In the large cities the establishment of 
summer playgrounds for children under competent supervision has become a part of 
the vacation-school movement. The following incomplete list of cities that have had 
vacation-school work during the past summer will suggest how widespread this move- 
ment has become : Boston, Mass.; New York, Rochester, and Buffalo, N.Y.; Baltimore, 
Md.; Philadelphia and Pittsburg, Pa.; Cleveland, O.; Chicago, Rockford, and Wat- 
seka, 111.; Minneapolis, Minn.; St. Louis and Kansas City, Mo.; San Francisco and 
Oakland, Cal. 

Mr. Harris W. Moore, who has been in charge of the Schwab Manual Train- 
ing School in Homestead, Pa., since its opening four years ago, has accepted the 
position of supervisor of manual training in the elementary public schools of Hartford, 
Conn. Mr. Moore is a graduate of Teachers College, New York city, having received 
a diploma in both manual training and art education. Previous to taking his 
pedagogical course he had three years' work in the mechanical engineering course at 

1 900] BREVITIES 55 

the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and practical experience in carpentry ; subse- 
quently he did summer-school work at Harvard and Clark University. Woodworking 
has been taught in some of the schools of Hartford during the past four years, but now 
the instruction in that subject is being extended, and work in mechanical drawing 
added. Eight rooms have already been equipped for woodworking and mechanical 
drawing. One of Mr. Moore's problems will be to bring the work of the elementary 
schools into harmony with the work now being done in the high school under the 
direction of Mr. Charles B. Howe. 

Mr. John J. QuiNN, teacher of mathematics and physics in the high school at 
Warren, Pa., and a graduate of the Rochester Mechanics Institute, has recently 
invented a machine for showing the porosity of wood. Mr. Quinn's invention is 
designed for use in manual-training classes. The machine consists of a strong brass 
cylinder divided into two compartments, the upper of which contains air and the 
lower mercury.' Below these is a cone of mahogany. By turning a screw at the lop 
of the machine the mercury is forced downward by air pressure and through the wood. 
The mercury can be seen issuing in tiny globules through the solid cone of mahogany. 
The experiment shows very plainly the porous condition of any wood, even of such a 
heavy and apparently impenetrable kind as mahogany. Any species of wood may be 
used, but mahogany is the best, as the grain is more even. Below the cone of wood is 
a glass cylinder. By opening the valve and reversing the action of the screw at the 
top the mercury is drawn back again into the upper chamber, so that a single supply 
will last indefinitely. — Rochester (N. Y.) Post and Express. 


Through the generosity of Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw and Mr. Gustaf Larsson, 
principal of the Sloyd Training School, Boston, free instruction for a course of four 
weeks was offered the Cuban male teachers in attendance this season, at the Harvard 
Summer School. Seventy-five applications were received ; but only forty students, 
representing the various provinces of Cuba, in classes of twenty, upon alternate days, 
could be accommodated. A room in the academic department of the Rindge Manual 
Training School, Cambridge, was equipped in an ideal way, as an object-lesson. 
Various courses in sloyd, suitable for children ranging in age from eleven to seventeen 
years, were illustrated by models and charts on exhibition. The instruction consisted 
of short talks upon the educational principles of sloyd, and bench work suitable for 
pupils of twelve years of age. Opportunities were given to visit several vacation sloyd 
schools. Pamphlets and charts upon sloyd, printed in the Spanish language, were 
also provided. Great enthusiasm was shown, and many expressed a desire to continue 
the work when opportunity should be afforded. Three of the students have been 
invited to remain in Boston the coming year, and take the course at the Slovd Training 
School. The tools and benches used in the summer school have been purchased and 
shipped to Matanzas by the authorities of a school in that city. 

The following appointments, as teachers of sloyd, have been made from the class 
of 1900, Sloyd Training School. With few exceptions the remaining members of the 
class of twenty-one students have also secured positions : Miss M. Selby Atwell, Glen- 
wood School for Feeble-Minded, Iowa; Mr. B. C. Chandler, Public Grammar School, 
Detroit, Mich.; Miss Frances E. Daley, Public Grammar School, Braintree, Mass.; 
Miss I. Virginia Lyons, Public Grammar School, Newton, Mass.; Miss Anna O. Munsell, 
American School for Feeble-Minded, Hartford Conn.; Mr. M. W. Murray, Public 
Grammar School, Springfield, Mass.; Miss Mary S. Nichols, Public Grammar School, 


Helena, Mont.; Mr. Chas. W. Paul, City of Boston Parental School, West Roxbury, 
Mass.; Mr. J. C. Tibbets, Liveridge Institute, Mattapan, Mass.; Miss Blanche S. Van 
Auken, Public Grammar School, Brookline, Mass. 

New sloyd schools are under consideration, or are already begun, in the following 
named places : Braintree, Brookline, Haverhill, Reading, Southboro, Winthrop, and 
West Roxbury, in Massachusetts and Westminister, Vt. — Chas. W. Paul. 

As MANY of our readers are aware, manual training is to be given a good start in 
Canadian public schools by the munificence of that friend of education in Canada, 
Sir William Macdonald of Montreal. An experienced teacher and organizer is to be 
provided for each province, and, where necessary, one or two assistants in addition. 
At Brookville, Ont., and P'redericton, N. B., the schools have been opened, and a 
successful summer course for teachers held. For Quebec, Winnipeg, Ottawa, Prince 
Edward's Island, British Columbia, and Northwest Territories, the organizers are on 
their way, or, in some cases have already arrived. 

In Nova Scotia, Truro has been selected as the headquarters of the work, which 
is in charge of Mr. T. B. Kidner, of the City and Guilds of London Institute. Mr. 
Kidner received his technological training in a famous West-of-England institution, the 
Merchant Venturer's Technical College at Bristol, and afterward in London at the 
arts and crafts schools. He was chief instructor in one of the London school board 
centers for some years and was then called to Bristol to introduce manual training 
into the public schools there. His success in that city attracted the notice of Professor 
Robertson, the administrator of the Macdonald fund, and he was in consequence 
engaged for the work in Canada. His assistant, Mr. H. G. Owen, who will shortly 
arrive in Canada, has been for some years in charge of a large center in London. 
The provincial government of Nova Scotia has taken up the matter with a will, and 
has already offered a grant that may amount to six dollars per head for manual train- 
ing and domestic science. In connection with the Macdonald school, a qualifying 
course for teachers has been arranged, lasting six months, and the board of public 
instruction will recognize this as qualifying teachers to earn the grant offered, subject 
of course to their other professional qualifications being satisfactory. 

The Truro school board has decided to inaugurate a teacher's training course in 
domestic science, in connection with their town school for that subject, and in affiliation 
with the Provincial Normal School. 

The organization of manual training in the Province of New Brunswick is making 
good progress under the efficient management of Mr. E. E. MacCready, formerly of 
Newport, R. I., who has begun operations in Fredericton. With a view to giving a 
practical demonstration of the feasibility and the value of manual training a school for 
boys was opened in April, the results of the experiment being highly satisfactory to 
those interested. A summer school for normal students was maintained for five weeks 
in July and August. The manual-training classes for the coming year will include the 
normal-school students, numbering about 300, and all boys in the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth grades in the public schools of the city. Mr. MacCready will be assisted in his 
work by Mr. George M. Morris, formerly of the Boston Mechanic Arts High School. 
The Macdonald fund provides for the maintenance of this work for three years without 
government aid. 

Altogether the indications are most hopeful for the spread of the good work. 

1 900 J BRE VI TIES 5 7 


Important changes have taken place in the manual-training work in San Fran- 
cisco. Mr. Cree T. Work, of Greeley, Colo., has been appointed supervisor of the 
new work in the grammar grades. Mr. Work is a graduate of the State Normal 
School of Indiana, Pa., and from the Sloyd Training School, Boston. During the past 
year he has held the manual-training fellowship at Teachers College, New York city, 
receiving the higher diploma of that college in June. His teaching experience 
covers six years in Pennsylvania and seven in Colorado. Mr. Work arrived in San 
Francisco about the middle of June, and began manual-training work in two centers 
on August 6. Seven rooms have now been equipped for seventh- and eighth-grade 
boys. The work will not be extended to the lower grades this year. The American- 
ized sloyd system will form the basis of the work ; invention, apparatus-making, 
observation of skilled industry, collections of samples, discussions pertaining to mate- 
rials, and correlation with the other subjects in the curriculum will form prominent 
features of the work. Mr. Work has the following assistants: Mr. Everett E. 
Goodell, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, formerly instructor in the mechanical 
department of the State Reform School at Portland, Me., and later instructor in man- 
ual training in the high school of Austin, Tex.; Mr. Archie L. Read, Throop Poly- 
technic Institute, Pasadena, Cal., including normal courses in wood and iron-working; 
Mr. Charles H. Thorpe, State Normal School, Los Angeles, Cal., including special 
courses in manual training, formerly teacher in Whittier, Cal. public schools; Mr. M. 
Doyle, artist in clay-modeling and wood and ivory carving, formerly instructor in 
manual training in the Lincoln and Irving Scott schools of San Francisco; Mr. B. F. 
Simcoe, State Normal School, Missouri, .Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, 
formerly principal of graded schools in Missouri, and later teacher of sloyd and man- 
ual training, San Diego, Cal. 

Sewing and cooking are also being taught in the same centers as the wood- 
working. Miss Kate Whittaker is general supervisor of the cooking. In drawing, 
Miss Dee Beebe, a graduate of Teachers College, New York city, and during the past 
year a teacher at the California School of Mechanical Arts, has been elected super- 
visor of the primary grades. Miss Katherine M. Ball, formerly supervisor for all the 
grades, will now give her entire attention to the grammar grades. 

The Polytechnic High School drops all commercial work and becomes distinctly a 
manual-training high school. Important changes have been made in the building, and 
its equipment has been increased. 

The Wilmerding School of Industrial Arts has made a good start in the building 
trades. Mr. Percy Walker has been elected instructor of bricklaying, and Mr. H. A. 
Wood instructor of plumbing. 

In Stockton Mr. W. S. Rice, of Philadelphia, has been elected to assist Mr. F. H. 
Myer in drawing. Mr. Myer, being relieved of some of the grammar-school work, 
will extend the work in the high school.— George A. Merrill. 

Aside from the work in manual lines already established in the Los Angeles city 
schools, systematic work in cardboard construction will be introduced in the third and 
fourth grades and carried on under a special supervisor. Cookery will be established 
in six additional buildings for the girls of the seventh and eighth grades. Superin- 
tendent Foshay has thus succeeded in introducing manual training in all grades below 
the high school. 


Miss Anna C. Faulding, of the sloyd department, Los Angeles, who was last year 
on a leave of absence, will remain abroad the coming year. She is at present in 
Cassel, Germany. 

Miss Lena Ingraham, formerly supervisor of drawing and manual training at 
Anderson, Ind., will introduce and supervise drawing and manual training in all 
grades of the Lugonia School, Redlands. She will be assisted by Miss Florence 
Fortson. The work will include courses in cardboard, whittling, and sloyd. Miss 
Ingraham has had charge of the manual work in the summer school conducted by 
Manager C. C. Boynton, of the Fisk Teachers' Agency, in Los Angeles. 

The Citrus Union High School will introduce free-hand and mechanical draw- 
ing under Miss Elsie Whitman. It is also probable that cooperative work may be 
carried on, so that sloyd and cardboard construction will be introduced in the schools 
of Claremont, Corina, and Azusa. 

Miss Gertrude Ritchie, of the State University at Berkeley, will introduce and 
supervise manual training and drawing in Santa Monica. Manual training will be 
introduced in the city schools of Alameda this fall. The high school at Pacific Grove 
will this year introduce sloyd into the ninth year of the course. 

Mr. Albert F. Olson, graduate of the sloyd normal department, and A.B. in 
mechanical engineering, Throop Polytechnic Institute, will supervise manual training 
in San Diego. 

At Stanford University drawing from the nude has been abolished. At first the 
men and women were separated in their class work, and lately the final step has 
been taken. 

At Throop Polytechnic Institute Mr. Frank H. Ball, formerly of the Chicago Uni- 
versity, will teach forging. He will have charge of the manual work in the grades, 
and of the wood, iron, and machine shops. Mr. Ball will certainly add great strength 
to the teaching power of the institute. Mr. W. W. Martin will be instructor in the 
wood shop ; Miss Ida Mellish and Miss Nellie Moore will teach in the sloyd depart- 
ment. All are graduates of the institute. Miss Mellish has been pursuing study in 
manual lines in the East this summer. Mr. Robert E. Ford, instructor in machine 
shops, is investigating methods in the East. His position will be occupied until his 
return by Mr. Leslie Heald. Miss F. F. Sterrett, of the art department, who is study- 
ing in Europe, will not return until the holidays. Mr. R. J. Sterrett, her brother, of 
Stanford University, will act in her place until her return. 

Mr. Charles Miller, of the Los Angeles State Normal School, has been conducting 
a summer session in manual training. 

Los Angeles county, through its board of education, has introduced manual train- 
ing into the course of study in the first, second, third, and fourth grades of the county 
schools. To meet the demand on the part of teachers in these grades, a summer ses- 
sion was held at Throop Polytechnic Institute, August 13 to September 7, under the 
direction of Arthur H. Chamberlain. He was assisted by Miss Jane Langley, formerly 
of Hampton Institute ; Mr. A. L. Olson, Mr. W. W. Martin, and Miss Ella V. Dobbs. 
Courses were. offered in elementary manual training for the first and second grades, 
elementary cardboard construction for third and fourth grades, a course in advanced 
cardboard, and one in sloyd. Mr. Chamberlain also offered a course in the theory of 
hand-work and in applied psychology. Some forty teachers from southern California 
xere in attendance. The director has drawn up a course of study in manual training 
to be used in the schools of the countv. — Arthur H. Chamberlain. 


In the January number of the Magazine we called attention to the 
growing interest in manual training, but we did not at that time fore- 
see any such forward movement as has taken place during the past 
few months in certain sections of the country. We were prepared to 
see the growth in New England, where manual training has been 
steadily pushing forward during the past seven years or more ; we 
were also aware of the forces at work in New York state and her 
sister states along the middle Atlantic coast ; we expected to see the 
South come forward in due time as it is now beginning to do, and to 
see moderate growth in the middle West, but we were not prepared 
for the remarkable development which has taken place in Michigan 
and in California. In Michigan but little work had been done in 
manual training up to a year ago. The report of the Commissioner 
of Education for 1897-98 named three cities in Michigan as having 
manual training in their public schools : Ishpeming, Menominee, 
and Muskegon, and in these no work below the seventh grade. 
During the past year at least five important cities have introduced 
manual training. The city of Kalamazoo took the lead in this 
movement. On June 5, 1S99, ner school board voted $4,000 for 
the introduction of manual training. Mr. George S. Waite, formerly 
of Toledo, O., was engaged as supervisor, and on March 6, 1900, 
1,420 pupils, or about half the number in the city, were receiving 
instruction in manual training. This work covered grades from five 
to ten inclusive, and for both boys and girls. In Detroit a compre- 
hensive scheme of manual-training work was begun on January 12, 
under the supervision of Mr. J. H. Try bom, of Boston. East 
Saginaw adopted manual training in March, and has recently 
appointed Mr. Foster H. Irons, of Cleveland, O., as supervisor 
Ann Arbor voted for manual training on May 10, and West Saginaw 
in June. What appears to be such a sudden awakening was, without 
doubt, the result of years of agitation and of thorough study of man- 
ual training in eastern states, yet it is none the less significant. 
Recent developments in California, centering in San Francisco and 
Los Angeles— fully reported in the Brevities column of this and the 
July number of the Magazine— are perhaps even more extraordinary 
1900] 59 


and far-reaching, as they seem to clear the way to a comprehensive and 
effective system of manual training throughout the state. Let the 
good work go on. 

Shall trades be taught in the public schools? This question was 
prominently before the Manual Training Section of the Charleston 
meeting and will come up again next year. We have become so 
accustomed to answering this question in the negative that to do 
otherwise places one in the list of the radicals. As teachers and 
advocates of manual training, we have been, and are still being, par- 
ticularly careful to have it understood that manual training is not trade 
teaching, but that it is an essential and an integral part of a good 
general education. We have been continually pointing out how one- 
sided any education must be that neglects expression through con- 
structive manual activity. Now that this manual training idea has but 
just received general recognition and approval, and is still in need of 
approval in many places, there is danger of misunderstanding and 
confusion when teachers of manual training begin to advocate the teach- 
ing of trades at public expense. There ought not to be, however, and we 
believe there need not be, if all will remember that the difference 
between manual training and the teaching of a mechanical trade is 
similar to that between arithmetic and accountancy, or between nature 
study and the study of medicine. The former is related to the latter, 
but it is not the same thing ; it is more elementary and of infinitely 
wider application. The introduction of manual training into the 
schools certainly does not imply that the teaching of mechanical 
trades must follow any more than the presence of nature study implies 
that the study of medicine should follow it in every public school. 
Moreover, the question of trade education has not sprung up in the 
night in one corner of the educational field ; it reaches far beyond the 
realm of the mechanical trades. It covers a wide area and is a direct 
result of the professional study of economic conditions, and the pre- 
vailing desire on the part of educators to adjust their educational 
svstem to present social needs. To what extent should this adjust- 
ment be made? is the real question. Shall we carry our present 
practice in the matter of specialization and elective studies in the 
secondary schools one step farther and train stenographers, account- 
ants, newspaper reporters, machinists, dressmakers, carpenters, drafts- 
men, designers, milliners, and all of the rest? 

The question of trade education has come up at this time in con- 
nection with manual training for two reasons. First, there is an 

i 9 oo] EDITORIAL 6 1 

increasing demand for practical instruction in the leading mechanical 
trades. It is almost impossible for boys to get such instruction in a 
reasonable length of time in the manufactories, and we have but very 
few — a half-dozen, possibly a dozen — good trade schools in this 
country, and these are nearly all for special classes, and therefore are 
beyond the reach of most boys. American young men find it difficult 
to compete with those who come from the trade schools of Kurope. 
Second, the manual-training high schools are doing more than any 
other agency to relieve this condition. They offer instruction in the 
fundamentals of many trades, though they do not aim to make their 
pupils proficient in any particular one. Such a program does not 
fully meet the demand for trade instruction, but it is a help and it 
suggests the possibility of a modified program that might meet it. 
The question then is, What modifications would be necessary, and 
would these essentially change the present manual-training high 
school program? In other words, can the manual-training high 
school aim and the trade-school aim be satisfied in the same school? 
or are they incompatible? 

It is easy to see that with some modification of the program of 
studies followed in the manual-training high schools, especially allow- 
ing all or nearly all of the shopwork to be done in the direction of a 
single trade selected by the pupil, these schools might become techni- 
cal or trade schools of secondary grade. This would be brought about, 
for the most part, by specialization in shopwork and allied subjects- 
But would this meet the present demand for trade education ? and 
would it not defeat the present aim of the manual-training high 
school? The aim of a trade school we understand to be to make its 
pupils acquainted practically with trade processes and skillful, to teach 
principles underlying such processes, and to give enough general 
education to enable its pupils to become good citizens, this latter 
being very indefinite in amount. The trade school presupposes that 
the pupil has decided that he wishes to earn his living at some trade, 
or some occupation growing out of it, which he has already selected, or 
will select soon after entering the school. The manual-training high 
school, on the other hand, aims to give its pupils a broad, general 
■education without foreordaining them to occupations which they may 
discover later are not suited to them. -It never presupposes that a 
pupil is going to find his life-work in a mechanical industry. It keeps 
the whole field of human effort open until he graduates. It may dis- 
cover his bent and encourage him to follow it, but it closes no doors 


to other occupations, except in so far as allowing electives in 
language work has a tendency in that direction. Now the manual- 
training school fails to meet the demand of the trade school because it 
has set its face against specialization which can, by any possibility, 
predestine its pupils to a few occupations ; and the trade school falls 
short of the manual-training school standard because, by insisting upon 
a much higher degree of specialization, as it must, it cannot possibly cover 
as broad a field in the same time. If this be true the question arises, 
shall we revise our high-school creed ? This question would seem 
to bring us back to the question we asked in the beginning : Shall 
trades be taught in public schools? and to the larger one: What is the 
function of the public school? It is nothing less than this question, 
and its corollaries, with reference to a definite line of specialization 
that is before the committee on relation of manual training to trade 
education that was appointed at the Charleston meeting. This com- 
mittee is likely to discuss the same questions of specialization that have 
recently been discussed by Dr. Hugo Miinsterberg and others. Their 
report is sure to be looked forward to with great interest. The com- 
mittee is made up of men of high standing and broad experience, and 
we may confidently expect to have penetrating light thrown upon this 
now very obscure problem. 


Cardboard Construction. By J. H. Trybom, assisted by Ellen F. O'Connor and 
Abbie E. Wilson. Rockwell & Churchill Press, Boston, 1899 ; 6 X 9 in., pp. 70 ; price, 
$1. — This is by far the most satisfactory book on this subject that we have ever 
seen. It ought to meet with a warm welcome from the regular teachers in the lower, 
grammar grades, who will find it a most helpful manual, and it certainly will be 
appreciated by specialists in manual training. In the introductory chapter the 
author discusses some of the principles underlying a course in manual training for the 
lower grades. The second chapter is given up to " Exercises, Instruments, and 
Material," in which the fundamental tool operations are briefly described, and practical 
suggestions to teachers given. Then follows an outline of six preliminary les- 
sons, and drawings and directions for making seventy-six models which are intended 
to constitute a course of instruction for the fourth and fifth grades. The author evi- 
dently speaks from experience when he says : " For the educational value of the work 
the first few lessons are of the greatest importance. In these the foundation is laid 
for a certain working method, a certain procedure in doing the work. If the teacher 
does not emphasize during these earlier lessons, over and over again, that the pupils 

iqoo] REVIEWS 63 

must work slowly and carefully so as to reach accurate results, the value of the most 
interesting cutting and pasting exercises will be seriously impaired." 

Though the models are drawn and constructed by mechanical means, they are, 
almost without exception, pleasing in proportions and in every way well designed. 
It is noticeable that string or yarn is used in fastening during the first year, paste 
being reserved to the second. With the exception of a few of the earlier ones, all the 
models are intended to be useful to the child. 

Much emphasis is placed on the progression of exercises. In his introductory 
chapter the author says: "The progression of the exercises should be such as to mani- 
fest to the pupil a constantly growing power. We should never at any stage of the 
work ask a pupil to do what he cannot do well. His work in manual training should 
be a line of continuous victories over difficulties gradually increasing, but not sur- 
passing his power at any stage. Continued failure is worse than no attempt at all. 
Success is a greater factor in the educational value of manual training than in any 
other subject." 

The illustrations of the book are excellent. The working drawing of nearly every 
model is accompanied by a perspective sketch which shows how the model will look 
when completed. The directions for making the models are brief and to the point. 

If one were to allow himself to be hypercritical, he would say that the book has 
one fault which is common to many courses at the present time ; it lacks flexibility. 
It is adapted to the average or typical child of specified grade, but its arrangement 
does not indicate that it is in any large degree adapted to individual children. This, 
of course, is a difficult thing to accomplish, and rests largely in the hands of the 
teacher. Nevertheless, we believe that such a book might offer more suggestions to 
the teacher who is working with that ideal before her, and perhaps also might sug- 
gest how the child's inventive faculty can be utilized to some advantage. 

School Sanitation and Decoration. By Severance Burrage and Henry Turner 
Bailey. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston ; 7^ X S% in., PP- xvi + x 9i ; P"ce, #1.50.— In 
this volume is gathered together in readable form the best that has been said during 
the last few years concerning school buildings — their location, construction, sanita- 
tion, decoration, and furnishings. All this is done not merely with reference to the 
large city school, but with reference to the small, one-room country school as well- 
Its mission is to advocate preventive medicine, promoting health and beauty every- 
where in schools. 

The book is most attractively illustrated with explanatory diagrams, plans and 
elevations of buildings, photographs of furniture and decorated interiors, and a large 
number of reproductions of masterpieces of art, suitable for decorative purposes. 
No one should plan a school building before reading the book. However, it is not 
written for architects, but for school officials and school-teachers ; every teacher 
is sure to find in it numerous practical suggestions for everyday use. Read 
once a year, and keep in a convenient place for reference, would be a good rule 
with this book, for it is well that teachers — even the best of them — be reminded 
often of the conditions that make for the health of their pupils ; and surely none of 
us are likely to be sated with practical suggestions that will help us to put more 
of beauty into our schoolrooms and into our school work. 

Constructive Work. By F. Robert Bartsch. Normal School Publishing House, 
Chicago, 111., 1899; 9X8^ in., pp. 100.— This book tells how to make a great many 


useful objects out of paper, cardboard, leatherette, and the like, but it does not 
attempt to arrange the objects into a course of instruction. Each article to be made is 
allowed a separate heading in the book, and under this is given (i) a list of the tools 
used in making the object, (2) the material needed, (3) working directions, and (4) 
the cost of the material on the basis of a class of forty pupils. Many of the more 
difficult articles described suggest some of those in the cardboard course followed at 
Leipzig. The book will be helpful to many teachers, but there is one fault in it 
which seems hardly excusable : in its illustrations it has set a very low standard of 
drawing before the teachers. This is particularly marked in the working drawings 
and the stippled mechanical perspectives. A book for teachers should tend to ele- 
vate, not degrade, standards of workmanship in drawing as well as construction. 

Small Engines and Boilers. By E. P. Watson. D. Van Nastrand Co.; 8 X 5/4 
in., pp. 108; price, #1.25. — The volume gives a careful description of a S l A horse- 
power vertical engine and a \y 2 horse-power horizontal engine, together with a small 
vertical and horizontal boiler. The written matter is supplemented by detail draw- 
ings of all parts. The work will be of greatest service to the amateur mechanic 
in giving directions for machining and assembling parts of small engines. 

F. D. Cranshaw. 

North American Forests and Forestry is the title of a new work from the pen of 
Ernest Bruncken, secretary of the late Wisconsin State Forestry Commission. It is a 
book of 262 pages, 8^x6 in., and is published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York 
city. Price $2. The book is divided into twelve chapters, with such headings as 
"North American Forests," " Forest and Man," " Forest Industries," ''Forests and 
Forestry," " Destruction," etc. The general reader will find in this book much that 
is interesting, as Mr. Bruncken's description and style are superb, but it is the wood- 
working instructor, looking for " class talk " material, who will find it of greatest 
value. The book contains a well arranged index. — Robert G. Weyh,Jr. 

Directions for Surveying and Arranging Hotne and School Grounds. By Warren 
H. Manning. Published by the Author, Boston, Mass! A very suggestive little book 
containing twelve pages amply illustrated. 


Manual Training in Public Schools. By Jas. W. Robertson, Commissioner of 
Agriculture and Dairying for the Dominion of Canada, and in charge of the Mac- 
donald Sloyd School Fund. — This is a revised report of an address given before the 
public' school board of Ottawa, November 2, 1900, in which he announced the gift of 
Sir William Macdonald to the provinces of Canada. The report deals with the pres- 
ent defects in education and shows how manual training is providing a corrective 
for some of them. His review of the conclusions reached in Ireland with reference 
to the introduction of manual training, and of the work now being done in the 
board schools of London, add much of interest to the report. 

The following have been received : 

Manual Training Syllabus. High School Bulletin, No. 9, University of State of 
New York, Albany, N. Y. Price 10 cts. 

Course of Study. Chicago Institute. 

Manual Training. Department Announcement, Teachers College, Columbia 
University, New York, N. Y. 


Manual Training Magazine 

JANUARY, igoi 

C. Hanford Henderson. 

It is a bit dangerous to commit oneself to a given title before 
one's article is actually written, for the mind has a way of taking 
unexpected by-paths. But I see that I am already committed, for Mr. 
Bennett has it all set down in plain black and white — or, to be quite 
accurate, in black and yellow-green. However, I am not sorry, for 
the title is general enough, and it gives such very plain warning that 
the article may be in part reminiscent as well as prospective. 

Some sixteen years ago — that is to say, in 1884 — when I was a very 
junior member of two august scientific societies, the American Asso- 
ciation and the Institute of Mining Engineers, fate or destiny or good 
fortune, or whatever you may choose to call it, decreed that these two 
bodies should meet at the same time in Philadelphia, and, further, 
that it should enter the heads of the local secretaries to arrange a joint 
excursion of learned people to the anthracite coal regions. As the 
British Association had come down in a body from Montreal to visit 
its American cousin, we had a triple alliance of the first order. In 
addition to all this — it was in September — the weather was as hot as 
only Philadelphia knows how to produce it. These conditions con- 
spired to make an out-of-town excursion very popular, and the special 
train which carried all this learning to read the transactions of the 
carboniferous age was as full of people as they were of ideas. There 
were three in my own party, and, American cars being planned for 
couples, I sat alone in the seat back of my friends, leaving a vacant 
place at my side. It happened — I shall now call fate undeniable 
good fortune — that a tall, gray-haired gentleman hunting for a place 
selected this one. I gave my permission without any suspicion that 
the act was momentous. But so it turned out. It was not a man, but 
destiny itself, that sat down beside me, for the stranger proved to be 



Dr. Woodward. As he was alone, I presented him to the ladies of my 
party, and we formed a friendly quartette for the day. I need not say 
that- Dr. Woodward talked about manual training ; for, like some of 
the rest of us, I believe he always talks about it. And he talked so 
well that before the day was spent he had aroused an interest in my 
own mind that afterwards became an enthusiasm and colored the 
activities of succeeding years. I had never heard of manual training 
as a scheme of education ; had not, I think, even seen the two words 
in neighborly association ; but the idea was immensely attractive and 
was bound to carry one along with it. I am indulging in this retro- 
spect partly, I suspect, because I like personally to dwell upon it, but 
mainly because it overwhelms one with a sense of the immense amount 
of history the movement has made in less than a score of years; and 
because it gives me a chance to say, a propos of the present outlook, 
that, had Dr. Woodward and I amused ourselves that hot September 
day in drawing rose-colored sketches of the future of manual training, 
our wildest forecast would have fallen far short of the present reality. 
We could not have foreseen that, with the opening of the new century, 
manual training would have taken such hold upon the public mind 
that it would penetrate to every quarter of the civilized globe, and 
even to India and the Sandwich Islands ; that it would permeate the 
entire fabric of our own public education in America; that the estab- 
lishment of manual-training schools should become in some states a 
compulsion of the law, or that private individuals with fortunes hunt- 
ing for service should vie with one another in founding institutions for 
its extension. We could not have foreseen that the movement would 
demand a magazine of its own, with an editor in Peoria, a press in Chi- 
cago, and contributors literally scattered from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
from the great lakes to the gulf; or even that we ourselves should be 
announced as two rush-lights pointing the way to a brighter day. 

Such a retrospect can hardly be said to make one cautious in pre- 
diction — for manual training has still the impetuosity of youth — but 
it does at least make one conscious that one is here dealing with a 
tremendous force, and it does make one feel the uselessness, not to say 
the impertinence, of trying to speak any longer for the movement as 
a whole. There are as many conceptions of manual training as there 
are minds dealing with it. One can only report the currents which 
one detects in that particular part of the flood which goes sweeping 
through one's own field of vision. And if one mistake an eddy for a 
current — well, it is a risk that one must be willing to run. 


In the first place, then, it must be confessed that the instant growth 
of manual training suggests the mushroom, the rocket, the comet — 
things that spring into being and then as rapidly fade. The crude 
assertion that it has come to stay carries no weight with it. That has 
been said of many another noveltv. It was said of the bicycle, and 
already one sees it perceptibly paling before automobiles, moving 
platforms, and other locomotive eccentricities. Nor is it significant 
that manual training is contagious. Something may happen and we 
may find ourselves immune. Whether manual training is to be an 
abiding force in modern education or not depends entirely upon the 
idea back of it. The term is but a symbol. The form persists, but 
the thing symbolized is as variable as human passion. Manual train- 
ing in America is not yet a quarter of a century old, and already it 
means many things to many minds. Today it means something quite 
different, I venture to say, even to my three friends, Mr. Larsson, Mr. 
Sayre, and Dr. Woodward. They all deal with wood and with tools 
and with boys, but they are not all after the same sort of pudding. In 
fact, I suspect that they have quite dissimilar products in mind. If we 
can make manual training symbolize an educational method by which 
we realize a progressive purpose, a purpose that is essentially an 
expression of the larger self, that is essentially catholic and eternal, 
that is at heart social and human, then manual training will be the 
abiding force that we hoped it might be. We may read in its sudden 
growth the hospitality of the human heart to the things that are abid- 
ing and good. But if — and I wish that Isaiah himself could say it for 
me — but if manual training separates itself from this warm current of 
human and social life, and becomes a mechanical pursuit, an end in 
itself, a mere trick of craftsmanship, then the human life which it 
declined to serve will have done with it, and will leave it quite aside, 
along with other discarded masks and trumpery. 

And so I am not at all dazzled by the tremendous onrush of this 
movement into which I threw the heat of youthful energy. It is still 
on trial, and will always be on trial. It is only one more among many 
human possibilities. It may turn out to be a comet, a seven-days' 
wonder and be gone, or it may prove a new light. 

This sober view of the case seems to me salutary. But it need not 
be discouraging, for affairs have not yet turned, and the future is still 
in our own hands. At the present moment the manual-training world, 
like other intellectual territories, is the battlefield of conflicting ideals, 
and this in a dynamic society is the sign and symbol of vitality. It is 


a part of the flux and flow of things. And this brings me finally to the 
very gist of what I have to say : The persistently good ideal in manual 
training is the persistently good ideal in life as a whole. If the manual - 
training idea fall into the hands of men with a small outlook on life, it 
will go to the wall with the rest of their petty equipment. But if it 
fall into the hands of men in whose being circulates the rich red blood 
of a high purpose, it has an immense service to render the coming 

It is too much to expect in such a composite life as we now have 
in America that there should be the solidarity of purpose that once 
characterized the colonies. We have too many dissimilar elements for 
that. Socially speaking, our several communities and commonwealths 
are at very different stages of evolution. It would be moderate to say 
that between the most evolved and the least evolved there is a gap of 
over a hundred years. And then in the same state, in the same town, 
in the same household even, such tremendous differences are observ- 
able. I am not deploring the fact; I am merely stating it. If America 
stand for anything, it stands for human hospitality. It is the refuge, 
the asylum for those in quest of better things, and this as much today 
as in 1620. It is the theater for a larger activity, and should it ever 
close its doors to these human needs, as we too often hear it urged, it 
would stand before the world a perjured thing ; it would not be the 
America of Emerson and Lincoln and Whitman. But the important 
thing to recognize in this seething, incoherent democracy is that the 
process of education is not the acceptance of the voice of the majority, 
however hospitable one may be to its presence, but it is, to use Mr. 
Davidson's fine phrase, the constant, unwavering endeavor to lift this 
humanity out of its original nature into its ideal nature. The true 
democrat is the one who proclaims that there is a better destiny in 
store for the people than the majority is yet demanding. 

I am writing on the beautiful shores of Lac Leman, and from the 
great south windows of my chateau I look across the waters to Geneva, 
a city whose history, brave as it is, is a constant object-lesson against 
obeying too unquestioningly the popular voice. In this very capital 
of the Reformation the passion for goodness became, in its unchastened, 
unideal manifestation, the practice of evil. It was here that John 
Calvin, reported to be good, the Protestant of Protestants, found it pos- 
sible to seize a quiet visitor, poor Michael Servetus, and burn him at 
the stake, the great council approving, for no larger crime than having 
expressed his own views on the doctrine of the Trinity. Had I been 


the guest, we had differed on many questions, and doubtless the good 
Mr. Calvin would have had me drawn and quartered and then burned, 
along with many others of my friends, who have still, I think, consid- 
erable capacity for serving America and the world. All this was near 
three hundred and fifty years ago, it is true, and in the meantime the 
Zeitgeist has become less directly carnivorous, but one cannot take even 
such a peep into the past and hold with any great degree of assurance 
that the voice of the people is the voice of God. It is quite as likely to 
be the voice of the devil, and we can best defeat him by bearing this 
in mind. 

To declare that the present moment is critical is rather a cheap 
way of soliciting attention. Every moment is critical. To live quietly 
in one house for a score of years does not prevent each day from being 
a crisis, for each day one might have moved out and so met quite a 
different destiny. But nevertheless the present moment does seem a 
particular crisis. Since the days of the Civil War we have been so busy 
exploiting the continent and the workers, so busy getting enormously 
rich, that we have not as a nation been blessed or cursed with any 
special self-consciousness. We have met the day's work and done it. 
But the events of the past three years, the thought that we are really 
a member of the great family of nations, and the still more intoxicat- 
ing thought that we are a very lusty and vigorous member, all this has 
conspired to turn our heads a bit and put us in the position of an elder 
son who comes home from quiet college days to find himself a man 
and the acknowledged heir, a person of power. It is a critical moment. 
We are'the great republic, and we have suddenly become conscious of 
the fact. We have come of age. And the particular crisis is as to 
what use we shall make of our power, this newly recognized power of 
our lusty manhood. To use Mr. Davidson's phrase once more, the 
"original" nature of power is to compel, to conquer, to crush ; it is to 
subdue others and assert the self. But the " ideal " nature of power is 
something quite different from this. It is to serve, to uplift, to 
inspire ; it is to master the self and to rationalize the world. One may 
well hold one's breath when such issues are at stake. 

We must be prepared to witness some display of the original nature 
of power, and we must not be discouraged. It is, for example, rather 
a crude use of power, at the present stage of the human game, in this 
year of grace 19C0, to go about shooting people and blowing them to 
pieces, and then triumphantly waving over their dead bodies either a 
red flag or a flag that is red, white, and blue. The Anglo-Saxon loves 


supremacy, and he has committed grave crimes to attain it, but that is 
not the whole of him. Under his domineering, ungracious shell he 
has still a heart and an instinct for justice, and in the long run it is 
safe to appeal to it. The imperialist party in both England and 
America is beginning to find this out. Not even Mr. Kipling's verses, 
or Mr. Roosevelt's too able advocacy of the strenuous life, or Mr. 
McKinley's gross misuse of the English language can longer blind us 
to the fact that conquest and aggression belong to the original and not 
at all to the ideal nature of power. I take it that the cause of military 
imperialism has been fought and lost. It has well-nigh reduced 
England to the position of a second-rate power, and for the moment 
has caused her people to be cordially disliked, a dislike which is mak- 
ing itself felt in a very sensitive part of the English makeup — in its 
pocketbook. English aggression is making the world-markets chilly 
toward English manufactures, and this is a bread-and-butter matter 
that may not be dismissed with fife and drum. In America the cause 
of military imperialism is far from being dead, but as a political move- 
ment it is fortunately in the hands of trimmers who are already trying 
to cover their retreat with concessions and fine-sounding phrases. 
Doctors want patients, and lawyers want clients, and schoolmasters want 
pupils. It is very natural. So West Point and Annapolis and Wash- 
ington want campaigners, and are carrying into the twentieth century 
their mediaeval chant of the glories of war. But, happily, the people 
do not want anything of the kind. They neither want to pay the bills 
nor to deputize the glory. 

The original nature of power does not spend itself, however, in 
gunpowder alone. That is only the first savage instinct. There are 
other ways of compelling and conquering and crushing. There are 
different ways of subduing others and multitudinous ways of asserting 
the self. , The imperialist spirit is most picturesque when it is military, 
but, falling upon an unappreciative age, it will consent to other embodi- 
ments, to subtler forms, to more hidden aggressions. There are thou- 
sands of people in America who have the wit to reject military 
imperialism, who belong perhaps to anti-imperialistic leagues and the 
like, but who are quite hot for compelling and conquering and crush- 
ing in a commercial way, who are for subduing business rivals and 
asserting the moneyed self. This commercial imperialism is less often 
called in question, even though it be an aggression against the neigh- 
bor, the fellow-citizen, the compatriot, as well as against the foreigner ; 
but I cannot myself stomach it with any better grace, for it is the same 


drunken abuse of power and costs even more human lives. Military 
imperialism is intermittent: it has its breathing spells and its truces. 
Commercial imperialism is incessant. Suppose we do give up our 
possessions in the Philippines, suppose we do restore Cuba to its people, 
suppose we do in all sincerity return to the honorable traditions of 
our fathers, we have not for one moment parted company with imperi- 
alism if we go on trying to enslave the rest of the world commercially, 
if we go on putting mechanical victories ahead of spiritual ones, if we 
go on valuing trade operations above the acquisition of character, if we 
go on striving for material wealth rather than human wealth. The ambi- 
tion to be wealthy is in itself an imperialistic ambition. It is the desire 
to command others and to make them serve us. It can be gratified only 
in the same way that we all go out cf town in summer — that is, ten 
thousand or twenty thousand of us go, and the toiling millions remain 
and swelter. Why should we want to grow wealthy in this individual- 
istic way ? Every nation that has got wealth of this sort has at the 
same time committed suicide. We have no reason to think that we 
should escape the common fate. We have undeniable power. We can 
hardly claim too much for America. And no one, I think, feels this 
more deeply than those who have lived for a time in Europe. We 
have immense material resources — mine and forest and field, nature 
in her most prodigal mood. We have immense social opportunity. 
Suppose we should use this power on its ideal side for gentle human 
service, to uplift and inspire our brother. Suppose, having generous 
food and shelter, we should take advantage of the respite, to master the 
self and to help rationalize the world. It seems to me the gods have 
brought a possible Olympus very near to earth ! 

I have recently been in Paris. I cannot say that I have seen the 
exposition, for it is quite too big a thing to see unless one make a very 
serious business of it ; but my comrade of an afternoon, Professor 
Geddes, pointed out a matter that seemed to me deeply interesting. It 
was this, that the exhibits of the small countries were so much more 
excellent than those of the large ones. We saw nothing so intelligible 
and so altogether charming as the building of little Finland, and after 
that, perhaps, of Norway. By the side of this simplicity and genuine- 
ness, our own exhibits and those of the aggressive nations seemed over- 
burdened, tortured, even vulgar. Standing in that Rue des Nations, 
one is tempted to ask : " Would it be better to have the love of the whole 
world, or to have its trade, or to have its fear ?" And the heart answers 
very quickly: "It were better to have its love." 


We find ourselves, then, in the midst of conflicting ideals, between 
imperialism and Christianity, between the temptation to use power on 
its original, brutal side, and the inspiration to use it on its ideal, 
human side. And manual training has precisely the same outlook. It 
is the agent of a social purpose, and it may be carried out either 
imperialistically or humanly. And I so much insist upon keeping 
this distinction in mind because one is prone to think that, bricks 
being bricks, manual training must be manual training. In reality, as 
I have tried to show, manual training means just what you choose to 
have it mean, and nothing more or less. It has in itself no talismanic 
virtue. It may be used to serve either of two masters. 

To use manual training imperialistically is to use it for material, 
technical ends. It is to displace the older humanistic education by 
something that is not education at all, but a mere utilitarian training, 
a mere trick of craftsmanship. And I entirely sympathize with those 
who protest against this robbery. There is an entirely legitimate 
place for technical training, but it is later in life. At fourteen a boy 
is too young to interrupt the culture process, much too young to 
know what will be the true occupation of his adult life. I have 
seen — and who indeed has not? — the very sad effects of this too 
early specialization. A boy of fourteen is full of fancies, and it is 
perfectly right and wholesome that he should be. The harm comes 
when these fancies are taken too seriously. Let them occupy his 
leisure time. Let him run the whole scale of boyish interests, — let 
him be the naturalist, surveyor, mechanic, electrician, astronomer, 
artist, musician, poet, philosopher. Let him go in for them heart and 
soul, and then, quite as light-heartedly, let him drop them. You make 
a sad mess of it when you hold a boy to an outgrown interest. 
Remember that at an earlier age he very probably wanted to be a cab- 
driver or a motorman, and there are few little boys of a serious turn of 
mind who are not at some time in their lives quite sure that they will 
be missionaries. But meanwhile the process of education, by which 
the lad passes from his original nature of unevolved instinct into the 
richer, more social, more human region of his ideal nature, must suf- 
fer no such waywardness. It must be the steady unfolding and per- 
fecting of the human spirit. And this is not a commercial end. At 
the last it does not neglect the question of homely bread-and-butter 
service, for only when a man is self-supporting can he idealize his 
social relations ; but it does relegate this question to its proper and sec- 
ondary place, remembering the words of a certain teacher, much 


quoted but little followed by the imperialists, who had something very 
effective to say about a man's not living by bread alone. 

To use manual training imperialistically is to neglect this self- 
mastery, this harmonious development of the inner life, this sentiment 
and practice of gentle human service, and to go in for an exterior »-ain, 
a marketable skill with which to compel and conquer, if need be crush, a 
competing world; a skill that may be used for outer subduing and for 
asserting the self. To pursue manual training solely for bread-and- 
butter-and-marmalade ends is to pursue it most unworthily. And the 
product of such training is quite what one might expect. It is crude 
and unlovely. If the man has been done for, we do not care for the 
statistics of his productiveness. And here I would propose a very 
simple test : look into the faces of the boys who attend these utili- 
tarian schools, impertinently so-called, and then into the faces of the 
boys who go to educational schools, and ask yourself quite seriously 
which type you would wish to prevail. Indeed, I will go a step 
farther and ask you to look into the faces of the young men, the very 
best of them, who go to technical schools in place of college, and the 
young men who go first to college, and then to put the same question 
to yourself. 

Manual training may be used to serve power along its original, 
brutal side, and to do it very effectively. It may be made to cover 
trade operations and to convert our American lads into clever artisans, 
artisans who will skillfully produce cheap goods with which to subdue 
the rest of the world commercially, or who will with equal cheerfulness 
produce warships and explosives as the temper of the time may 
demand. But, happily, manual training may also be used to serve 
power along its ideal, human side, and to do it still more effectively. 
When one goes about the business seriously, one may well feel appalled 
at the immense daring of trying to educate a boy, of trying to lead 
him from the restricted world of the primitive instincts into the 
larger world of the intelligent emotions. In the face of such a tre- 
mendous end as this all special schemes of culture must seem very 
partial and inadequate. Such an end cannot be gained by any pov- 
erty of means. The old rhetorical training could not compass it. The 
mediaeval linguistic training could not compass it. Modern science 
teaching cannot do it. Physical culture is not the open sesame. 
Art and music do not hold the key. Neither can manual trainirg 
alone bring about so great a result, and this is a point much to be 
borne in mind by those of us who are its ardent advocates. Education 


is an inner process, a change of heart, a redemption of the spirit, a 
revelation. Whatever may be the ultimate nature of the world and of 
life, we know in our work-a-day world of appearance that the brain 
is the tool of the spirit; that upon the generosity and accu- 
racy of its report of the outer world depends the material of the 
thought-life; that upon the soundness and free working of the tool 
depend the quality and the beauty of the fabric of life that we are 
daily weaving out of this material. The brain is the only part of the 
human organism that is provided with armor. Normally, it receives 
no direct impressions. It is incased, guarded, impenetrable. Besides 
the blood-currents that nourish it the brain has only six channels of 
communication with the outer world — the five organs of sense, of 
seeing, touching, hearing, smelling, and tasting; and the quite distinct 
psychic sense, which one may perhaps best describe as a sensibility to 
mental influence, a sensibility similar to that of iron in the neighbor- 
hood of a magnet, or of a closed conductor in a variable magnetic 
field. It may be that this psychic sensibility, like gravitation and all 
forms of radiant energy, is a phenomenon of the ether, but as yet we 
can affirm very little about it, and we are only beginning to speculate 
seriously upon the possibility of making it the subject of direct edu- 
cation. So much we do know, however, that the brain grows by what 
it feeds upon. Given a plentiful supply of good, rich, red blood, that 
is to say, perfect health and a wealth of sense-impression, especially 
a wealth of quantitative sense-impression, that is to say, well-trained 
senses, and we have the physical basis for a full intellectual life. With- 
out this large quantitative knowledge and developed brain, we live in a 
world of illusions, a guess-world of very imperfect rationality. To culti- 
vate the hand and eye and ear, even the nose and the tongue, is to 
enlarge the material of thought and to develop the tool of thought. If 
we could perceive the universe, we should perceive its essential moral and 
aesthetic nature. The highest work of education is to bring about this 
revelation. By using manual training, that is, quantitative handicraft, 
to develop the human organism, to give it power and judgment and per- 
ception, to bring out the sense of beauty and the impulse to generosity, 
to store up in its very tissue the polished truths of experience, — all this 
is to use power on its ideal, human side, and to lead a boy from the 
world of primitive instincts to the upland of the enlightened emotions. 
To say that manual training stands at the parting of the ways would 
be a tidy expression, but it would hardly be quite the truth, for these 
two ways, the brutal way and the human way, represent the extremes, 


and the real drama takes place on middle ground. The most out-and- 
out imperialist needs a heart to keep the blood pumping through his 
veins and has his moments of human tenderness and aspiration. The 
most thoroughgoing idealist recognizes daily want and knows that 
houses do not spring ready-made out of the ground, or gooseberry 
bushes grow roast beef and overcoats. The wholesome pressure of 
material want confronts us all. No present scheme of life can do away 
with human toil. But the significant thing in our practical handling of 
the problem is as to where we put the emphasis, whether we allow 
things to become themselves the end, or whether we make things min- 
ister to the spirit. Manual training may serve either ideal, the mechan- 
ical or the human, or it may serve any compromise between them. It 
has the same outlook as the social outlook of those who represent it. 
In the hands of small minds, it will be a mere apprentice movement, 
an adjunct of the shop and factory. In the hands of large minds, it 
will be in the deepest sense a culture-process, a psychological operation 
for increasing the social dimensions of mankind. 

What is true at all is true in the extreme, and this method of pass- 
ing at once to the extremes has the merit of making the middle ground 
more intelligible and of disclosing just where one stands oneself. 
It will be a long time, if ever, before we shall pass wholly over to 
either of these extremes, but it is a vital matter as to which tendency 
promises finally to get the upper hand. That the larger outlook will 
ultimately be realized I cannot for a moment doubt, and this not only 
because I am an optimist, by birth and subsequent experience, but also 
for less personal and more convincing reasons. In spite of our imperi- 
alism, in spite of our commercialism, in spite of our fondness for 
keeping away from the heart of things, there are deeper and more sub- 
tle currents at work in the national life ; there are men and women 
who have passed to the higher level of social life and who are passing ; 
there are those who are making the profound discovery that power, 
when used on its ideal, human side, yields infinitely the larger results. 
I do not at all mean that the immediate outlook is entirely encouraging. 
It is far from it. The friends of culture, the friends of power working 
on its ideal, human side, must be prepared for a long time to come 
to witness the triumphs of imperialism, of power working on its 
original brutal side, to witness them and not be discouraged. Evolu- 
tion is a slow process. But one may well have patience, for it is also a 
persistent, irresistible process, and it has infinite time for its purposes. 
Moreover, it has you and me for its conscious and willing agents. 



James H. Van Sickle, 
Superintendent of Schools, Baltimore, Md. 

Ten years ago manual training in the high school was an open 
question, and its desirability still a matter of debate. Now its cost is 
considered as legitimate an item of public expense as that of any of the 
traditional subjects. Some of the questions with regard to high-school 
manual training now are : What shall be taught ? For how long a 
time? How freely shall it be offered (that is, in every school or only 
in special schools)? Shall it extend to the teaching of trades? 

Not only on account of its value in general development is it highly 
desirable that all pupils should have manual training through the ele- 
mentary grades, but, as long as the tendency to differentiate high 
schools prevails, it is also essential to bring all pupils in the elementary 
schools into contact with the greatest possible variety of activities, 
including that which manual training furnishes, so that by the time 
they are ready for the high school they may know in what direction 
their tastes lie. Otherwise the choice will depend upon proximity to 
the school, rather than upon tastes and aptitudes. 

As the means of general development manual training should be 
one of the subjects offered in every high school. Experience proves 
that even classical pupils will gladly devote from two to four periods 
a week to this work in excess of the regular requirements. They are 
the better for it, physically as well as mentally. I have not attempted 
to say what modifications, if any, should be made in courses of well- 
equipped manual-training high schools, but only to show what may be 
done in an ordinary high school. The course here outlined assumes 
that the boys have already had bench-work in wood, and that the girls 
have taken sewing or cooking, or both, but have not had bench-work. 
This they are to take before they begin carving. The course occupies 
not to exceed four periods per week, and should be on the same basis 
as other unprepared subjects. Drawing is not mentioned, as it is pre- 
sumed already to form an important part of the work of the school. 
It must, of course, precede every kind of work mentioned in the outline. 

'Read before the Manual Training Department of the National Educational 
Association, at Charleston, S. C, July, 1900. 




Printing, a subject not given in the outline, might well be included 
on account of its historical value, in addition to the manual element, 
as well as on account of its helpfulness in English. 

The outline is not presented as ideal. There is no reason why 
other lines of work may not be substituted for some of those given. It 
merely sets forth a list that has been used successfully. 





I 1 








I 2 

Turning and pattern-making. 

Turning between two centers. 
Patterns requiring no lathe-work. 

Turning and pattern-making. 

Face-plate turning; chuck-turning 
and mandrel-turning. Patterns 
involving turned work. 

Molding in sand, modeling in clay, 
and casting in plaster. 

Pattern making. 

Cored patterns and other complex 
patterns of lathe. 


Advanced turning and carving. 


Similar to that in the grades. 


Indenting and stamping, and 

Modeling in clay and casting plas- 

Turning and carving. 

Turning between centers. Chip- 
carving and flat carving. 


Girls may not take up third-year 
work unless they have had bench- 

Advanced turning and carving. 

The models made in the course in turning are afterward used in 
pattern-making. This saves much time. It saves an outlay of money 
for lathes and space for the pattern-makers. The pupils make patterns 
for a complete lathe. This involves all the elementary, as well as a 
number of the more difficult, principles of pattern-making. 

In the course of carving no fixed set of models is used. The differ- 
ent kinds of carving are taken up in the following order: indenting 
and stamping, groove-carving, chip-carving, flat carving, low reiief, 
high relief, and carving in the round. Each pupil makes his own 
design. Of course, he has some instruction and sees some examples. 
He then decides, first, what he will make; next, its size and shape; 
then, what parts are to be ornamented. Knowing the size of the space 

'Only those who have taken I, I, may take I, 2. 

2 Turning ornamental work and carving the same. Work of fourth year limited 
to those who have had a year's work in manual training. 


to be ornamented, he proceeds to make the design, and later to work 
it out. 

The casting in plaster is done by the boys by making molds in sand 
from patterns made in the pattern-making course, and by the girls 
from objects modeled in clay. 

In high -school work there need hardly ever be two models alike. 
The course should depend, not upon models, but upon exercises. The 
pupil may make any model he chooses, provided it involves the exer- 
cise which we wish him to learn. 

The idea is not entertained that such a course in manual training 
is equal to that given in manual-training high schools. It furnishes, 
however, an amount that will, together with other subjects studied, 
give a fairly well-balanced development. It does not include work in 
iron with machines. That may well be reserved for the separate 
manual-training high school. It cannot include chipping and filing, 
or forging, without giving more prominence to the subject than its 
importance, merely as a factor in general education, warrants. To do 
more would require more time than can be had in connection with a 
four-year high-school course which includes the ordinary subjects. 
The above amount is gladly taken in excess of regular work. Such 
work can be carried on in a school of 400 or 500 pupils with an equip- 
ment costing not to exceed $2,500. If a city has several high schools, 
the problem is simply one of repetition. If one of these is a manual- 
training high school, it may still continue to serve the purpose for 
which it was established by educating in a more strictly technical way 
those pupils whose tastes lie strongly in that direction. By eliminat- 
ing those pupils not possessing special tastes in technical lines the 
manual-training high school would be able to advance its standard 
and reduce the time usually consumed in such schools by at least a 
year, thus saving the time of the pupil and giving him a more vigorous 
habit of work. The final or fourth year, possibly part of the third, 
might then be devoted to such work as is given in the early years 
of institutes of technology. Then any boy could, in his home city, fit 
himself to enter with advanced credits such an institution, or to enter 
at once upon a remunerative calling. At present we give him a broad 
foundation from which to specialize, but there we leave him. If he can 
get a chance to do just a little more for himself, his services will be in 
demand. I am in favor of this higher work, but the opportunity to 
take it should be based upon manifest aptitude. 

From a social point of view the making of manual training the 


exclusive function of one school, classical education of another, com- 
mercial education of another, etc., is open to criticism. It fosters the 
caste spirit. It is undemocratic. It trains up a generation divided 
into groups less capable than former generations of entering into 
sympathetic relations outside the group. It fosters in those not 
manually trained contempt for labor with the hands. 

The girl who has learned the theory and practice of cooking and 
who can make her own garments will be a better woman, more sympa- 
thetic, more tolerant, because of such knowledge and skill. From a 
social standpoint all should have equal opportunity for manual train- 
ing. The boy who studies Greek and who is going to college has as 
much need physiologically and psychologically of this training as has 
the boy who must early earn his own living, and society is equally 
concerned with both cases. Those not manually trained cannot 
appreciate the thought and skill that enter into the material things 
contributing to our comfort. On the frontier there are no class dis- 
tinctions. It is possible to know one's neighbor. There the cowboy 
and the millionaire are not far apart. To know is to sympathize and 
to appreciate. The Rough Riders had not all the arts and graces of 
social circles, but they knew their leaders. Wood and Roosevelt 
knew and respected them, though in many particulars they had little 
in common. The nearer we get to the centers of population, the 
greater is the distance between man and man. It is greater in Chicago 
than in Denver, greater still in New York, still greater in the crowded 
cities of the Old World. When this barrier between rich and poor 
becomes high, the result is misunderstanding and suffering. When 
people give you up, you feel like giving up too. The rich lose as 
much as the poor. They lose the finer life of sympathy. Personal 
intercourse is at the foundation of all successful charity movements. 
There must be direct contact with problems before there can be any 
solution. The best architects have had carpenter's training. Physi- 
cians must know the work in the hospitals. Theological students are 
now sent to study the slums. 

Present social conditions are aptly illustrated in the following para- 
graph from the pen of Edward Everett Hale : 

A strong and pathetic article in the London Times, some thirty years 
ago, represented a lady of high social rank from one of the fashionable 
squares at the West End of London, as she would appear at the day of judg- 
ment, as it is described in the gospel of Matthew. It depicted her as bravely 
replying to her Judge when he said : " Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of 


the least of these, ye did it not to me." She said to him in reply that he 
was quite mistaken if he thought she had ever seen such people as he 
described. She explained to him that poor people, hungry and thirsty, 
strangers, naked or sick, did not live in the part of London she lived in. She 
explained to him that she neither walked nor drove in the region of the 
Seven Dials or Whitechapel. She told him that the police of London were 
quite too well regulated to permit such people to show themselves as beggars 
in Belgravia or Grosvenor square. And he was quite wrong, she said, if he 
thought she had refused to minister to them, for that the truth was she had 
never seen any of them and had had no such opportunity as he supposed. 

The separation into classes has gone far. The public school should 
not encourage this separation. It should be a unifying force. 


Clarence S. Moore, 
The Hill School, Pottstown, Pa. 

One of our leaders of manual training in this country has said : " It 
is not enough to have fine principles in the superintendent's office and 
a workman in the sloyd room ; we must have our highest principles 
among the shavings." 

In a school in which I once taught, where type-form models had 
been used, I threw away dozens of models that the boys had made and 
left there because they did not want them. In a larger school, 
recently, five bushels of joints that had been carefully made by pains- 
taking students were sent to the furnace because nobody wanted them. 
Of course one need not be surprised at this, because there is no use 
that a child can find for a joint. But other schools have greater sins. 
Sometimes one sees shelves covered with hundreds of pretty models 
that nobody wants, though they were made by loving and careful 
fingers and could once have given great delight in human lives ; 
or in a dark closet will be a box overflowing with similar pretty things 
that never awakened looks of gratitude and pride and love from 
mother's eyes. To me such a closet is a tomb where lie buried pre- 
cious human emotions that might have been and never were. . Here is a 
tiny wooden chair that never gladdened the eyes of a little sick girl ; 
here is a little table that was never held up by its eager maker for a 
loving mother's fond praise; here a pretty tray that never held pens on 
a father's desk to remind him that his boy is growing skillful. This is 
a dainty wheelbarrow, but no rosy, curly-headed boy ever ran with it to 
the aunt who is his playmate and champion, while his breathless haste 
and sparkling eyes give her far more pleasure than the wheelbarrow 
and make the pretty gift ten times more valuable. Do you want that 
little bracket ? Take it. The time has passed when a grandmother 
might have put a vase of flowers on it with a blessing for the little girl 
who made it. On every hand are human .loves that died before they 
were born; and the gray dust enshrouds them all, though they might 
have been clothed with the loveliest incidents of human life. They are 
too pretty to send to the furnace like the joints, and so they are kept 
to give to people who are interested in manual training, 
igoi] 8 i 


But why were the models kept here ? Why did not the children 
have them ? They were kept for an exhibition at the close of school. 
The children may have them now, but very few come for them. Chil- 
dren do not live for yesterday or tomorrow, but for today. Last year's 
work is dead to them ; and so we have this tomb. A superintendent's 
honest desire to interest the public in his schools, a teacher's pride in 
the course of models upon which he has spent years of thought, the 
trustees' wish that the people should see how well they have discharged 
their duties — such excellent motives prompt exhibitions; and yet the 
most excellent plans may work unforeseen evil. And the exhibition 
itself — do many people care for it? Not all the teachers certainly, 
and not an overwhelming proportion of the parents. I go from a half 
religious sense of duty, because I am a teacher. But everything is cut 
and dried, and it bores me. Visitors go, hat and parasol in hand, and, 
picking up a dove-tailed box, exclaim, "So this was all done with a 
knife ! " or, if they have the pleasure of meeting the enthusiastic instruc- 
tor, they are soon talked into a state of respectful helplessness and 
wonder. It seems impossible that any true idea of the work and its 
effect upon the children should be gained by this post-mortem examina- 
tion of dry bones. 

A child's interest in making things and his delight in what he has 
made are facts that give a teacher tremendous power over his activity. 
If you awaken these feelings and develop them, you can do what you 
like with him. Are you a workman or a graduate of a technical 
institution, with your head full of elementary principles and type- 
forms ? You have only to present your abstract models to him in an 
attractive way, and he will seize upon them with such enthusiasm that 
you will know you have touched upon the right educational chord. 
Have you devised a perfect and carefully graded course ? Try it on 
him, and you will meet with splendid success, even if you condemn him 
to four years of cramped knifework in the schoolroom. Do you think 
he should know how wood grows and how tools are made? He will 
industriously collect specimens of wood and carefully learn the con- 
struction and care of every tool. Whatever your aim may be, if you 
have tact, he will fall in with it for the sake of the fascinating shaving 
that curls out of his plane. In this state of affairs, one must not betray 
himself by thinking that a partial aim is sufficient. The highest aim 
alone includes all the others. If the aim be the full development of the 
child's spirit, and if the teacher be worthy, we shall secure the best 
muscular movements ; the best intellectual processes ; the most helpful 


instructions about tools, processes, and materials ; the most intimate 
cooperation with the school life, play life, and home life of the child; 
and the whole range of emotional possibilities. The child is delighted 
to use tools, and we can use his delight to entrap him. Shall we 
make him work on our course and attract interest to our exhibition, 
or shall we arrange a meeting between childhood and the Infinite and 
stand reverently aside with our petty apparatus ? There are mighty 
possibilities to be developed in these little souls. There are judgment, 
skill, inventiveness, accuracy, generosity, self-respect, self-reliance, love, 
and the power to build homes. It is of these that we must think and 
not of our educational machinery. A builder must have good scaffold- 
ing, but if he neglects his work to decorate and perpetuate his scaffold- 
ing, he is a bad builder. Manual training is needed in the schools, we 
hear. I say the world needs love. It is only a passing thought now 
and then in the little worker's mind that what he is making will be 
used by someone he loves. Yet it is for this passing thought that we 
must work. When it comes we do not know, how deep it is we can- 
not learn ; but for this we must erect all our scaffolding. Human life 
has no happier moment than that which a man knows when a dearly 
loved one acknowledges the work that he has done for her. It is the 
glory of manual training that it can secure this happiness to the boys 
and girls. To keep models for an exhibition utterly destroys this pos- 
sibility. Sending them home at the instant of completion makes pos- 
sible the development of the noblest attachments. 

Let us start again. Let us have neither an exhibition nor a course 
of models as an aim — not even as a secondary aim — only today's child 
and his development. We will have a course because, in teaching, we 
must begin with simple things and advance to complex ones ; but let 
us have a course rich in opportunity for choice and invention, and let 
us never regard it as fixed. We will send each model home while it is 
hot, because the supreme moment in human life is when our work of 
devotion is accepted. This is true of human beings from babyhood to 
old age, and neither life nor manual training has any greater gift to 
offer than the opportunity to devote our work to those we love most 
dearly. I repeat this ; is it not worth repeating many times ? In some 
schools the children are told that they cannot have their models 
because the tools and material belong to the school. Is not this a 
chance for the nobler lesson which nature has taught our race ; that 
the truest ownership is founded upon individual exertion ? And we 
will have exhibitions too, twenty or thirty a year in every house where 


children are loved. Nor will the exhibitor be Professor Windbag with 
his tiresome panels, but Alfred and Mabel with their dancing eyes and 
rosy lips. And the visitors will not listen, half bored and half respect- 
ful, but will catch some of the delight that the children feel. But shall 
we have no June exhibition ? Of course we shall. Not one of dry 
bones and dead loves, however, but one of human life and incident. 
We will ask the children to bring back all their models that are not lost 
or given away and to lend them to us, all the dirty and broken ones, 
and we shall learn by their appearance how much they have entered 
into the fabric that mysteriously binds human hearts together and 
builds up human institutions. A complete set returned as clean and 
perfect as when taken away may mean childish selfishness or a collect 
ing instinct, or perhaps a parent's pride in saving the work, and a few 
questions might discover which it is. Different degrees of wear or dirt 
might show different degrees of usefulness. A model, either uniformly 
lost or never used, would show a model that ought to be left out of the 
course, because it has no place in human life. By such an exhibition 
we could learn the real value of our scaffolding, and what lines should 
be followed in changing it to meet the needs of our work. Does it not 
seem that, if we followed such lines, manual training, already a great 
power, would soon become a far greater power for the development of 
children ? 



] A MES II A L I., 

Director of Drawing, Springfield, Mass. 

" To say to the painter that nature is to be taken as she is, is to 

say to the player that he may sit on the piano Nature is very 

rarely right." Thus forcibly does Mr. Whistler put one of the funda- 
mental principles of art. 

If it is true that the painter cannot find his pictures readv-made in 
the landscape before him, surely the designer of ornament should not 
look to nature expecting to find designs ready for his use. Then what 
shall we say of the architect, considering architecture as inclusive of all 
structural design ? Where does she show him the proportion of his 
facade? Where can he learn from her how to fashion a table or a 
chair ? To him nature alone can carry no message. Where in nature 
shall the potter learn of the designing of vases, or the - iron-worker of 
the forms suited to his craft ? 

Nature unaided never plays the part of art instructor. Her treas- 
ure-house must be unlocked with the keys of art before she will assist 
us to learn design. But if we go to nature knowing art, we find in her 
a sympathetic teacher, an inspirer, a whisperer of suggestions of beauty 
without limit, a discourager of the commonplace, a stimulator ot origi- 
nality. But go to her without art's introduction, and she will either 
show you nothing or lead you all astray. 

In all structural design it would seem to be an axiom that the first 
considerations must always be : suiting the form of an object to its use, 
and employing the material used in constructing the object according 
to the material's possibilities and limitations. In modern days both 
these prime considerations are often unheeded. No designer who is 
not thoroughly conversant with all the details of the craft for which he 
makes designs can ever hope to do good work. 

We like to think of the artist-craftsman of the Middle Ages — the 
workers in wood and the workers in iron. As the blacksmith 'prentice 
year by year gained skill in all the secrets of forge and anvil, at last he 
made the iron to blossom forth into beauty ; he became the artist in 
iron like his master. 
1901] Ss 




But now, where can we find as teachers for our manual-training 
schools the artist-craftsmen ? Is it not true that conditions are so far 
changed in our days that the thorough workman in wood or metal is 
seldom an artist ? And so we have to find teachers of craft and teach- 
ers of art. The teacher of art in the manual-training school must at 

least, then, do his best to get at 
an understanding of the crafts. 
The closer his relations with those 
who teach the processes, the bet- 
ter for all. In our present move- 
ment for "art and craft" we must 
knit interests together. The art 
spirit must be all-present in the 
school of manual training. Inter- 
est in the crafts must at all times 
be with and guide the teacher of 

If anywhere, it is in the manual- 
training schools that we can, at 
least in part, revive the artist-craftsman spirit of the older times. 

A freehand drawing course in a manual-training school should 
work toward two ends. First, it should be disciplinary — it should 
train in graphic expression, free, accurate, and graceful. Pupils should 
learn to represent objects in pictorial form adequately, correctly, beauti- 
fully. The value of this side of freehand drawing is largely recog- 
nized even by the most prosaic advocates of things "practical." The 
other end which should be sought is teaching the principles and prac- 
tice of design — of art. 

Mr. Arthur W. Dow has done much toward bringing about a cor- 
rect point of view in this matter of art, demonstrating in his teaching 
the fact that art expression concerns itself primarily with the arrange- 
ment of lines and masses in agreeable relations with each other. 

Dr. Denman Ross, of Cambridge, is having wide influence in bring- 
ing about clear instruction in the principles of pure design. He finds 
that these principles can best be taught by applying them to the 
arrangement of meaningless spots. As taught by Dr. Ross, there are 
three fundamental principles of design : rhythm, or consistency of move- 
ment ; balance, giving rest; and harmony, a suitable and just adapta- 
tion of parts to each other, a well-proportioned arrangement of 

I 9 0l] 



elements into a consistent and pleasing whole. If pupils have been 
taught these principles, then will they find them exemplified in all 
nature, and so will nature study come to have artistic significance. 

Simply as discipline the intelligent drawing of nature's outlines 
has its value, but we are doing far more when we lead the pupils to 
draw natural forms that they may 
study rhythmic growth, balanced *= — v . 

relations of parts, and fine pro- 
portions of parts to whole and to 
each other. 

Study of this kind cannot fail 
to cultivate an appreciation of ^ V^V^I 

the finer qualities of design, for *» sj 

the best designers catch and put into their creations the vital spirit of 
nature. A fine cathedral seems to live! The best furniture is so 
fashioned that its solidity does not rob it of the appearance of elas- 
ticity, and wrought iron without springing growing lines is stupid to 
look upon. The study of pure design — of design in the abstract — 
must be vivified by nature study. 

For such study some forms are especially good, and it is my pur- 
pose to here suggest a few. 

If we look to the plants and flowers to study beautiful curvature, 
rhythmic growth, balance without exact repetition, and a variety of size 

and shape in the parts which make up 
a harmonious whole, we shall find that 
the weeds by the wayside are no less 
fine as designs than the rare exotics 
from the hothouse. 

What an inspiration is the dandelion 
in all its parts ! If we examine a leaf, 
how exquisite are its curves — "immor- 
tal" curves — of far more noble birth 
than any bred of compass. How vari- 
ous these curves! How well related ! 
What well-ordered variety in the lengths 
of points and in the distances between 
them! Now, hold the leaf off a bit and 
see it as a whole. How perfectly the 
two sides balance, and yet there is no' 




part like another. But each detail is so related that with richest 
variety we yet have oneness. Every part seems just what and where 
it should be. That side view of what was once the flower again shows 
us that nature works according to the principles of design, and gives 
us another beautiful form. 

The Japanese artists, of all others, feel the decorative essentials in 
all that they draw, and hence pupils can learn of nature, and of art too, 
by copying their drawings. The shells show finely graded space rela- 
tions, which should suggest a lesson to the designer of the various 

forms to be turned. Too often we see in manual-training schools 
exercises in wood-turning showing artless monotony of spacing, and 
testifying to the barrenness of imagination of those responsible for 

The bat and bird are so full of decorative lines that it seems 
unnecessary to analyze them. 

To a skilled designer the form of the bat might furnish a motive 
for an escutcheon ; or the dandelion flower, with proper modification, 
mio-ht be made into a form suited to a candelabrum. The value of 
nature study for the pupils, however, is not that it gives explicit 
motives for this form or for that, which they may be called upon to 
design. Rather an education of the decorative judgment and feeling 
should be sought. The pupils should see the natural exemplifications 
of the great principles of all creation. Then are they better able to 
solve a problem in structural design, not only in accordance with com- 
mon-sense, providing for strength, commodity, practical fitness, but 
also adding the thought and feeling needed to design a thing of 


J O S E P H F. D A N I ELS, 

Librarian, State Normal School. 

In a library there is a great deal of wear and tear, and it is well to 
keep books in good repair by the stitch-in-time method. It requires 
some laboratory work not as elaborate as that done a bindery, and it 
demands a little, time. 

After four years of pasting and stitching and binding, we found 
that we had covered some ground, had accumulated tools, and a trifle 
of knowledge of the subject; so, with simple faith, we offered a course 
in library handicraft (and library science) in a rather indefinite 
announcement in the catalogue. The laboratory was to occupy about 
ninety minutes a week on the program. The course was made to con- 
form (i) to the ability, life, and environment of the student; (2) to his 
pleasure in the work, as manifested in finish or in ornament, in con- 
versation or in other personal actions ; (3) to conditions over which 
we had no control, such as the time schedule, the curriculum of the 
school, and inadequate equipment; and (4) to my point of view. 

There were twenty-five students for whom we had to provide, and 
we bought three sewing benches, three finishing presses, three sets of 
backing-boards, one good skiving knife, knives and rules for the class, 
a Gaylord mat-cutter, binder's sundries, paper stock, leather, cloth, and 
such materials, to the extent of about $50. 

From the beginning we avoided the idea of the "model" as given 
in sloyd or other manual-training school courses, and to impress this 
condition I offered the very first class-work for sale. The first thing 
made was a portfolio, which was placed on the market at an advance 
on the cost of the materials and a margin for labor. It was quickly 
sold out to the senior class in the history of art, and netted about $30, 
with which we purchased leather and boards for a better port- 
folio, which became the property of the maker and left the class some- 
what ahead in the transaction. We then made our tool-boxes, our 
record-boxes, and our notebooks ; and throughout the course, when 
we needed anything, we made it when we could do so. 

We had been warned by the dealers in paper stock that prices were 
to go up, and the trade journals seemed to think likewise; so we held 
1901] 89 


class council and took advantage of the rising market in immediate 
purchases. In this democratic way I hoped to make the students who. 
were to go out in the world to teach somewhat self-reliant and 
acquainted with responsibility. I have heard so much about stubborn 
school boards who will do nothing for the teachers, that I thought it 
best to make teachers able to do a little without the aid of such per- 
sons. Most teachers confine themselves to tuition and are helpless in 
a schoolroom, unless there be a mechanic near at hand for the simplest 
repairs or odd jobs. I do not presume to discuss the duties of the 
hired teacher in this paper; I am writing of another thing. I will say 
in passing that I think that a teacher is legally bound to do almost 
nothing in a schoolroom beyond recitation work and (in the country) 
building the fires and sweeping out, and that a great many of them are 
lawyers enough to hug their rights with more effort than they put into 
anything else in their lives. 

When we went into the portfolio business, a perplexing question 
arose : there were about ninety students in the school who wanted port- 
folios, and there was neither time nor inclination to begin a manufac- 
tory in the school. I gave permission to the members of the class to 
make portfolios when convenient, subject to inspection; but still we 
did not have enough to go around. Then we agreed to teach as many 
as wished the secret of making good portfolios — " better than you buy 
in the shops." The demand seemed satisfied, and all sorts of port- 
folios came into vogue like Easter bonnets. 

The mounting of pictures a la passepartout, flat, hinged, with bevel 
mat, and in other styles, crept over the school after the portfolio, and 
our laboratory soon became the resort of the amateur craftsman who 
wished to bind a set of Kipling in limp or to repair a family heirloom. 

The ninety minutes a week were faithfully given to the class by the 
instructor; but the question, "Who left the cover off the glue pot?" 
would surely disclose the fact that some student or member of the fac- 
ulty had been doing something in the laboratory out of class hours, 
and soon it had to be open every day and all day long. 

In applied design we had much grief. None of the students knew 
the grammar of ornament even by name, none had done drawing 
before, and the board and T-square were strange, unknown things. We 
had begun with freehand working drawings and sketches of everything 
made. Such work was done in the notebooks, which were diaries 
more than books for the taking of notes. In this way some of the 
rough places in freehand had been made smooth ; but with the 

I go I 



introduction of ornament, and in color, there was trouble — almost a 
stampede. We crawled through title-pages, head and tail pieces and 
borders. A few students liked color and did some original work on 
book-marks and book-jackets ; but for the most part they were glad 
to get through the work in design in the most perfunctory manner. 
This was a disappointment 
to me, for I am very fond 
of the work in color, and 
I thought myself better 
prepared for the teaching 
of design than of any 
other part of the course. 

The skiving knife 
brought out the best work 
of the hand, and but few 
in the class could use the 
tool to any purpose, 
although each attempted 
a slip-case for note-pads. 
The case was made in 
green calf, with slightly 
rounded corners ; a very 
sharp knife and a steady 
hand were the only things 
necessary. We all found 
that much practice is re- 
quired to produce good 
work with the skiving 
knife. At this point in 
the work I showed some clever bindings, in which the leather was 
peeled to the thinness of tissue. This set them all at it again, and there 
was some improvement in the work ; but no salable or passable work 
seemed possible with the skiving knife. All of the slip-cases were poor, 
and some of them were sliced and cut into rags before they were ready 
for the glue pot. We are too far from the best examples of workman- 
ship, and we do not know all of the possibilities of the idea of library 
handicraft ; but we have been at work and ought, slowly, to do better. 

The question of method has been the great problem of the year, 
and in the face of comment I have to say that I think that there is 
something wrong with manual training in this land. Our schools are 

Hooks too badly worn for ordinary repair are re-sewed 
(whipstich — one on) on tapes as shown. A cloth reinforce- 
ment is overstitched at first and last sections. About one 
volume of this work is required of each student. 


too big, or the instructors are too big with having been to Germany 
too long or too often, or in some way too much institutional work is 
done for the moral good of the pupil. If I could tell you just where 
the trouble lies, I should do so and win fame in the bargain. This I 
do know: that children should own their schools in some sort of fee, 
and they should be made to understand it. I said that some teachers 
go to Germany. There is nothing wrong in that ; it is positively good 
for a man to go to Germany or anywhere with an honest desire for the 
good things to be had in education. It cures arrested development 
and ought to broaden a man's mind. But I refer to a desire on the 
part of many instructors and directors to go through with all the cere- 
monials up to the thirty-third degree, in a perfunctory way, in order 
that they may be absolved of further educational work except as it is 
thrust on them in meetings and gabfesls. 

It is not my purpose to give our course in detail, but rather to 
insist that such a course is desirable in normal schools, and to encour- 
age those librarians who wish to expand their sphere of usefulness. 

In the matter of pedagogy it is, perhaps, better to go ahead with 
some intention, good or bad; with some direction, right or wrong, 
than to dally with diverse interests and to stand at educational cross- 
roads reading sign-boards ; for often one cannot read the mass of 
painted and repainted words, one over the other. For better or worse, 
we went ahead to do something with the little knowledge and light at 
command. When we began library handicraft in this school, I felt 
that an educational foundation built of interest, attention, point of 
contact, method of the recitation, culture epochs, localization of the 
cerebral functions, and other known and unknown pedagogical build- 
ing stone discovered and to be discovered, might insure success, what- 
ever the subject-matter; but I was not sure that I could identify the 
blocks or " bed and build " them. Then my point of view was needed 
in the course, as I have indicated at the beginning of this article. 

The point of view needs some explanation and will probably 
account for the fact that a librarian attempted anything beyond library 
science. My father was a mechanic, and after college I was appren- 
ticed to an architect at nothing a week. For this man and the whole 
office I ran errands, ground ink, kept things tidy, and, if good, I was 
allowed to do a little tracing, or to study projections, or Trautwine, in 
order to improve my mind and to be out of the way. My first thought- 
ful acquaintance with school matters came with a new apprentice, a 
graduate of a school of technology. I shall not name the school, but 

I 9 0l] 




1 r i « 


b£fi ■UiiiUiiiUi^ 


this occurred far east of Chicago. The young man made a detail draw- 
ing of a bath tub with copper a quarter of an inch thick (copper was 
good for tubs in those days). He told me that he had never seen a 
bath-tub construction, and 1 soon learned that he had seen very little 
of any real workmanship ; so when we came to the detail of the drip on 
a heavy stone cornice, 
I was not surprised to 
find that the drip was 
left out. He was a 
good boy, though, 
and soon outgrew his 
unfortunate handi- 
cap. He grew to be 
a man and an archi- 
tect, but it was a close 
shave. From him and 
others not unlike him 
I learned that educa- 
tion is like religion : 
it is either practical 
or useless in business. 
Soon after my 
office experience I 

was "called" to teach, and found that I was no stronger than others 
who hope to do great things; but 1 got help from other schools 
and from factories and from workingmen, and I began to learn. Then 
I discovered that there is a science of education, and I thought that I 
had the key to the whole situation — but the key didn't fit. Some 
there are who have keys — pretty trinkets for watch-fob wear — with 
which they are so well pleased that they seek to convince us that 
the fault is in the keyhole, and they would have the whole thing 
adjusted to fit the key. Just as old Omar sighs, they would remold 
it nearer to the heart's desire. I had worked very hard for years 
in the manual-training schools, resident and absent treatment, and 
yet the key would not fit. I had had charge of a school and 
several instructors, who believed that the good God would take care 
of his own and bring us out all right, if we but read the credo 
regularly and observed the doctrine and the rites. We did all of these 
things and added the sacrifices, and we had a pretty good school too, 
but we never found the key. Without argument, I hold that the keys 

After the book is taken from the sewing bench and " rounded " it 
is placed in the finishing press for "backing." Glue, super-head- 
bands, and paper are then laid on the exposed back, and, after drying, 
the book is ready for its case, either cloth or leather. The binder's 
hammer with its peculiar pean is shown in the illustration. 




need filing or should be made from new blanks. All but the key-hold- 
ers seem to think that the key is to be found later in the history of edu- 
cation. I do not know, and, with all your wise looks and clever words, 
I suspect that you do not know. 

That is my point of view and a brief of the training which persuades 

me. It is not strange that in this library 
handicraft I resolved to make it all very 
practical to the point of commercial- 
ism, and that market values as tests of 
workmanship played some part up to 
the point of manufacturing. 
Since we began the work in Greeley, we have 
had a number of persons, school-teachers and 
others, apply for instruction in applied design, 
illuminating, the making of portfolios, binding 
of books, and the making of a few trinkets for 
the drawing-room ; but we have been too busy 
with the library to go beyond the school, and 
we shall have to give over the work altogether, 
unless assistance is given the librarian. I believe 
that the work could be established in independ- 
ence, with a little courage and grit, and that it would succeed. I think 
that it is especially useful in a normal school, because so many teach- 
ers need such training for actual, practical schoolroom use. 

In addition to the course as described we had desk and record 
work, talks on books, and library matters which made up a small taste 
of library science. I have little faith in 
" talks " as I have heard and have given 
them ; they are pedantic and have none of 
the lively interest which attaches to con- 
versation in a small laboratory. They are 
wasters of good time, and, like so many 
things in our great system of education, 
they assist in that process of extracting the 
backbone from the student. 

The difficulty to overcome in the intro- 
duction of library handicraft is the condition of most normal-school 
libraries. The librarian is usually overworked in the larger libraries, 
and occupies a place on the faculty by courtesy only; or the incumbent 
is incompetent in many of the smaller libraries, because anybody can 


do the work, and there is no demand for a better library. The salary 
paid librarians is very small, and is always less than that paid to the 
faculty of the school. This poverty restricts the opportunities of the 
librarian, and the work resolves itself to sweeping the work into a cor- 
ner to the accompaniment of that cheerful ditty: 

Come day, go day; 
God send pay day. 

Alack ! It is the slave blood that gets into us from drudgery, and 
the need of a sustaining philosophy, that hinders all work ; and there is 
too much of the curse in Deuteronomy: "In the morning thou shalt 
say, Would God it were even ! and at even thou shalt say, Would God 
it were morning ! " 

The name "library handicraft" is used to designate this work, 
because it is an adjunct to the library and a great deal of the incentive 
is found in the library. It is centered about the library, and, with any 
other human interest as a center, might preserve the distinctive features 
of this course. It is the intention to avoid the same course for two 
years in succession, and to get at the keynote of every class in the 
work planned. 


John C. Mii.le r, 
English High and Manual Training School, Chicago. 

The outline given below is one prepared for use in the English 
High and Manual Training School of Chicago. In the first year's 
work a series of ten lectures is given to the students on the materials 
used in that year, each lecture being illustrated by the lantern and 
slides dealing with every division of the subject. Notes and sketches 
are taken by students, and an examination is given upon them at the 
end of the term. By this means we believe that the education of our 
students is broadened and carried beyond the limits of that of some 
manual-training schools. No other notes than those given in this out- 
line are found necessary in delivering the lectures when the headings 
given are accompanied by proper slides. 



Meaning of the term. 

Colleges having courses in. 

Associations devoted to. 

In foreign nations; results. 

Results in the United States, with examples. 

United States Department of Forestry. 



Effect on climate, rainfall. 

Propagation as an investment. 

Rate of growth. 

Time and age of cutting. 

Length of life. 

Pruning for lumber. 

Forest covers, wind breaks. 



Classes — exogen, endogen. 
Structure — stem, root, leaf. 




The cell — annual rings, medullary rays. 








Tap roots. 
Root hairs. 
Office of. 



Changes in. 


Cause of. 

Means of. 
Sources of sap. 
Transformations taking place in. 


How trees grow. 

Food materials. 

Conditions of soil, light, moisture. 

Growth in height, thickness, branching. 

Rate of; cubic feet per acre value. 


Water — free, combined. 






Propagation and reproduction. 

Processes of grafting and budding. 

Care of the tree. 

Covers and breaks. 




A lumber camp. 

Cutting with axes — wasteful; saws — advantages. 

Season for cutting. 

Log marks. 

Transportation to mill — ox teams, log trains, railroads, rafting, conveyors. 


A log drive. 
A jam. 
Lost logs. 



Water wheels — old and new. 

Overshot and turbine. 

y aws — pit, circular, inserted tooth, band, gang, resaw. 

Lumber grading. 

Timber, plank, boards, 






Lumber measuring. 
Board rule. 
Steel square. 



Weight reduced. 

Saves transportation charges. 

Durability increased. 

Loss in firing wet wood. 

Increases stiffness. 


The drying kiln. 


Why and how. 

To prevent. 

Remedy for warped boards, etc. 

Structural defects tending toward. 


Quarter and bastard-cut shrinkage. 


Effect in structures. 

To prevent. 

Must be considered in all design. 




Porosity — hardness. 

Elasticity — stiffness. 


Density — weight. 

Grain — straight, cross, curly, birdseye, quarter-sawn. 

Varieties of common woods. 
Peculiarities of each. 
Appearance of leaf, stem, wood. 
Adaptation of each to various uses. 


Defects in lumber — causes and preventives. 
Resin pockets. 
Knots — tight and loose. 
Shakes and wanes. 
Bastard cuts. 
Wind checks. 


Decay and its causes. 





Chemical treatment. 




Edwin W. Foster, 
Manual Training High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

It is the maple family to which we are indebted for the glorious 
coloring of our autumn landscapes, and all true lovers of nature will 
acknowledge the indebtedness to be a large one. It is true that all 
trees play their part in the general color scheme, but for the brilliant 



F/G / 

reds, scarlets, and vermillions of the fall foliage we must look to the 
maples. In this connection it is interesting to note that, although the 
years may differ in the relative brilliancy of their fall colors, the indi- 
vidual trees turn practically the same hues every year, that of two 
maples of the same kind standing side by side differing materially, and 
even individual branches on the same tree being in marked contrast ; 
yet each recurring season those particular branches will take on the 
same relative colors. 

100 Tjanuary 



The teacher, on taking up this subject for the first time, may be 
surprised to find that students often know of only one maple, and that, 
naturally, the sugar maple. It is wise, then, to take this as a starting- 
point. Describe the process of making maple syrup and sugar, explain- 
ing the method of tapping, the handling of the sap in buckets, the 
camp with its vats and pans, and the boiling process. 

As so large a proportion of our people today live in cities, this old 
process and the happy times which accompanied it are completely 

M/m £1. 

r/G 2. 

unknown to the majority of children. They will be interested to know 
whether the tree is killed by this treatment, and also in the quantity of 
sugar produced. A gallon of sap produces three ounces of sugar, and 
as few trees yield more than thirty gallons of sap, the average produc- 
tion of sugar per tree is about five and a half pounds, and sometimes 
even less. The size of these maple groves may be judged from the 
fact that one farm alone in New York state produces five thousand 
pounds of maple sugar a season. 

This leads up to the consideration of the tree itself, which, like all 
broad-leaved trees, has a leaf with characteristics which identify it at 

In fig. i are shown side by side the leaf of the sugar maple and 
that leaf which is most likely to be confounded with it, /. e., the Nor- 
way maple. 




During the summer the color of these two leaves is practically the 
same, and as they are of the same size and general shape, they must be 
examined critically in order to distinguish them. There are perhaps 
no two leaves so nearly alike in the forest, except the pin and scarlet 
oaks. It will be noticed that the points of the sugar maple are blunt, 

decidedly rounded, and fewer in 
number than of the Norway, which 
has sharp points. There is also a 
considerable difference in the tex- 
ture of these two leaves, that of the 
sugar maple being thicker and 
coarser than the delicate thin leaf 
of the Norway. The general habits 
of the trees furnish the final differ- 
ence, the sugar maple growing 
much taller and less compact than 


RVG. 3. 

the Norway, which is planted for the very 
reason that, although a low-growing 
tree, it gives the densest shade of any of 
the deciduous trees. 

Edith Thomas has said : 

South America possesses the milk tree, 
India the bread tree, but it is reserved as 
a sort of climatic paradox for our temperate 
north to furnish the very top of luxury in 
the shape of the sugar tree. A man who could persuade these three staple 
producers to grow on his plantation could henceforth live independent of the 
milkman, the baker, and the grocer. It would be very easy work to gather 
the yield of the two tropical trees, but the sweet of the maple would still have 
to be gained by the sweat of the brow. 

As the lover of trees surveys the list of maples, he cannot help but 
express his admiration and enthusiasm. The one which naturally 



I 9 0l] 



























comes next in the list is the silver, soft, or white maple, as it is vari- 
ously termed. From the ground up to the topmost leaf the whole 
character of this tree suggests the word "thoroughbred." Clean-cut, 
refined, strong, and healthy in every detail, the silver maple, under con- 
ditions at all favorable, is a thing of beauty and might truly be called 
the acme of perfection in tree life. Its name is derived from the fact 
that the under side of the leaf is silvery white. The upper side, being 
dark green, gives a beautiful effect when the wind stirs the foliage, 
which, as a whole, has the grace, and often the drooping effect, of the 
American elm. 

The above conditions are not always realized, however, as it is 
planted extensively in the cities, where horses gnaw the fine bark, smoke 
and soot discolor the leaves, and the caterpillars complete the work 
of destroying its beauty; yet it still lives, because it has great vitality 
and exists, even if it does not thrive, under such demoralizing con- 

A relative of the silver maple, and one which might be mistaken 
for it by the superficial observer, is the red, swamp, or wild maple. It 
is this tree which displays the brightest reds and from which it takes its 
name. Referring to the sketch, it will be seen that the leaf is smaller, 
and three-fingered instead of five-fingered, as in the silver variety. 
The stem of this leaf is also red during the entire season, as if it could 
not wait for autumn. Thoreau, in expressing his enthusiasm over this 
tree, says : " Its virtues, not its sins, are as scarlet." 

In the rows of maples, so common in our towns and cities — out- 
side of New England — one will often find a leaf larger, heavier, and 
coarser than any of the other maples. This variety, like the Norway, 
is an importation from Europe, known as the sycamore maple, the 
name being derived from its resemblance in size and form to the syca- 
more leaf. It is easily identified by its large size, coarseness, the very 
long, thick red stem, and by the fact that its entire edge is finely 
toothed, in which point it differs from all the foregoing varieties. Its 
value as a hardy shade tree is nearly equal to the Norway, and in Europe 
it is frequently planted to the exclusion of other maples. 

Growing in the shade of other trees, and forming considerable of 
the undergrowth of the woods of lower Canada and New England, is 
a small tree known as the striped maple, from the vertical stripes which 
mark its trunk. The New England name for this mountain tree is 
moosewood, from the fact that the bark and small branches are the 
favorite food of the moose. The leaves are larger, or rather have the 




appearance of being larger, than our other maples, from the fact that 
the indentations are slighter than is usual in maple leaves. This leaf 
is also of a very soft and delicate texture, which the moose evidently 
appreciates along with the 
saccharine nature of the 
young shoots and buds. 

One of the most annoy- 
ing things to the amateur 
tree fancier is the intru- 
sion of hybrids or fancy 
varieties into the blooded 
stock, so to speak, of stan- 
dard trees. These mon- 
grels, often very interest- 
ing and meritorious, are 
sometimes the result of 
the nurserymen's skill, 
and at other times are wild 
seedlings. The best motto 
to adopt in case of a dis- 
covery of this kind is "by 
their fruits ye shall know 
them." For instance, we 
find during one of our 
trips to the park or woods 
an odd compound leaf 
slightly resembling the 
ash. Yet it is a maple, 
because its fruit consists 
of clusters of unmistak- 
able maple " keys " or 
seeds. By similar means 

one would decide that a JAPAN MAPLES. 

tree with willow-like /^/G &■ 

leaves, but bearing acorns, was the willow-oak, etc. 

This ash-leaved maple — or box elder, as it is called — is interest- 
ing, not only because it is our only maple having compound leaves, 
but because the forms of the latter vary so greatly. The two sketches 
shown give a good idea of the wide range of form and the peculiar 




North America possesses only nine species of maple, and it is said 
China and Japan have more than thirty. Indeed, it is to the latter 
country, whose forests are largely made up of maples, that we are 

\ 1 ft 

V.*. \ , i W. 

r/G / 


indebted for some of the most dainty and exquisite trees to be found. 
The Japan maples which are planted so extensively on our lawns and in 
our parks exhibit such a variety of form and wealth of color that no 
written description can do them justice. Figs. 6 and 7 will give some 

igoi] LEAF-FORMS 1 07 

idea of their delicacy. The colors, which, of course, cannot be 
shown, range from dark purple to the most delicate combinations of 
white and green. The finest of these dainty leaves bears a stronger 
resemblance to the ostrich feather than to anything in the line of 
tree leaves. 



The fifty-fourth annual convention of the Connecticut State Teachers' Associa- 
tion was held in New Haven, October 19, and was attended by a large number of 
teachers from all parts of the state. The program was one of unusual richness and 
breadth, and included many speakers from outside the state. The convention was 
divided into seven sections, each occupying a different building. The leading 
speaker in the kindergarten section was Dr. Luther H. Gulick, of Pratt Institute, 
Brooklyn, who read a paper on the " Development of the Motor Centers." In the pri- 
mary section Dr. Edward R. Shaw, of New York University, read a paper on " The Inter- 
relation of Subjects of Study," and Superintendent John F. Reigart, of the New York 
Ethical Culture Schools, one on " Correlation of Handwork with Other Subjects of 
the Primary Grades." In the high-school section "The High School or Academy, 
Which?" was discussed by Principal H. P. Warren, of the Albany Academy, and 
"Shall the High-School Teacher Study Pedagogy ?" by Charles S. Chapin, of West- 
field, Mass. Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, of Columbia University, spoke to a large 
audience in the grammar-school section on " Some Evidences of an Education." 
He summed up his address by saying that the essentials to a good education were 
good speaking, good breeding, reflection, efficiency, and power of growth. Before the 
same section Harris W. Moore, of Hartford, read a paper on 


Mr. Moore called attention to the need of manual training in the grammar grades^ 
and pointed to the fact that the growth of manual training in these grades has 
been marked during the past few months in several sections of the country. He 
spoke of certain guiding principles in this work, of its value, and then of methods 
and means. The following paragraphs are quoted : 

" What moral benefit the child has derived from the fact that he has been work- 
ing in a medium that permits of no ambiguity ! He has been able to test his work at 
each stage, and he knows that no words will cover up an untruth worked out in wood. 

" The fostering of his interest in the home life also, and his ability to contribute 
thereto, is eminently worth while, for in our American life are there not already too 
many grave factors working against the home instinct, and do we not need to culti- 
vate it by every proper means ? 

" The child's own interests should be consulted in the arrangement of every 
course, for it is from the standpoint of what is worth while to him that we get our 
strongest hold upon his development. I feel that there is a large field of opportunity 
for manual training, as yet hardly entered upon, in the problem of toys for children. 
How it intensifies the interest of the child if he knows the model he is making will 
'go' when he finishes it! But, alas, oftentimes this interest is so predominant that 
we cannot get him to spend time enough to do good work. To secure the best work- 
manship there should be a constant interest in the process by which ends are 


1 9 o i ] A SSOCIA TIONS 1 g 

achieved, and this interest can generally be developed by calling the pupil's attention 
to the most expeditious way of attaining the end; thus he will come to pay more 
attention to the quality of his work. 

" In the selection of models and courses best adapted to the different grades the 
laws of physical development will guide us. Normal development proceeds from the 
trunk outwardly, through the larger muscles and groups of muscles to those which are 
more accessory. It is only the mature body which is capable of the finest adjustments 
of those marvelous muscles of the hand. And because this is a fundamental law, I 
wish here to advocate a more extensive use of the drawshave in manual-training 
courses. As I think of my boyhood and the tools I chose to use, I can testify to 
the large place which the drawshave occupied in all the work I did. Seldom did I 
care to dress off a piece of wood with a plane, but I was most eager to shape it with 
a drawshave into a boat, windmill, or whatnot. Being on a farm, of course I had 
plenty of material and no instruction, save my own experience. Perhaps it is 
economy in the use of stock which has prevented an extensive use of the drawshave 
in manual-training schools, for the models suited to this tool are necessarily quite large; 
but the fact remains that the bodily movements required in its use are among the most 


In the evening President William DeYVitt Hyde, of Bowdoin College, addressed 
the convention in the United Church. His subject was "The End of Education," and 
was, in part, as follows : 

"The end of education is to know and get what is best in the world, and to give 
our best work in exchange. 

" The four stages of education are elementary, secondary, higher, and profes- 
sional. The end of education is not something which is to be attained only at the con- 
clusion of the fourth stage. It is something which can be attained to a certain degree 
at the end of each stage, and may be attained more completely at the end of the first 
or second than it often is at the end of the third or fourth. There are many bachelors 
of arts and doctors of philosophy who, tested by our definition, are much farther from 
the end of education than many a graduate of the district or grammar school. 

"Each stage of education should be complete in itself. Elementary education 
should be directed exclusively or chiefly to the needs of children who will leave school 
forever at the age of thirteen or fourteen. The great majority of children cannot 
remain in school beyond that age. The problem of elementary education, therefore, 
is to prepare these children, who are to be workingmen and workingwomen, to know 
the best in the world and to get their share of it, and to give their best through their 
work in exchange. Now, what is to be the nature of their work ? It is chiefly the pro- 
duction of material things. Hence, since so much of their life will deal with material 
objects, the manipulation of these objects by hand and eye is one of the first elements 
of training which these children who are to be workers should receive. 

" In the simple agricultural life of our fathers many boys and girls got this train- 
ing on the farm, where there were plenty of chores to do, animals and plants to tend, 
tools to make and mend and use. Next to the farm in educating power comes the 
seashore, with its perpetual battle with fickle and treacherous elements. The increas- 
ing concentration of population in cities is raising up a generation of children who have 


in their home life no means of acquiring the rough discipline with plow and hoe 
against a stubborn soil, or with oar and sail and rudder against a threatening sea. 
The city, cut off from field, forest, stream, and sea, tends to breed a race of mental 
dwarfs and moral cripples. Living in a ready-made world, in which there is little or 
nothing left for them to do, they come to school with flabby minds as well as flabby 
muscles, with undeveloped wills as the counterpart of unused hands. The city has 
its compensation. In many respects the city boy gets the start of his country cousin. 
But in the fundamental quality of getting the most out of life, and giving his best back 
to it, the country boy is at a great advantage. I suppose that is one reason why the 
most successful men in the business and professional life of the cities themselves are 
almost invariably country-born and bred. 

" The problem of the city school is now to stem this tide ; how to put its children 
on a level with their country cousins, and save them from the degeneration which 
threatens them. Now the old curriculum, well enough in its way as a supplement to 
the real training which the farmer's children got in the field and the barn and the shed 
and the shop, is utterly inadequate to do the work required to make the city boy get 
the best there is in the world, and give the best there is in him. For with its reading 
of detached sentences from printed pages, its writing in imitation of the copy, its 
rules of grammar committed to memory, its monotonous reviewing of arithmetic, its 
mechanical memorizing ot the fixed boundaries of geography, and its history recited 
by rote from a single and ultimate text-book, it was as artificial, mechanical, ready- 
made an affair as the uniform tenements and paved streets from which the mass of 
the city children came. 


" The kindergarten has come as the first great gospel of salvation to the city 
child. The kindergarten teaches the child, as nothing else at that stage can, the great 
lesson of how to get the best the world has for him, and to give his own best in return. 
The kindergarten stage, however, must not be unduly prolonged. Its value lies in 
appeal to involuntary attention at a time when involuntary attention is the child's 
whole stock in trade. By the time a child is six or seven at the latest he should be 
well started on the road to voluntary attention to unwelcome tasks. To prolong the 
exclusive kindergarten idea much beyond that age is to weaken and debilitate the 
will and to leave the last stage of the kindergarten product worse than the first. This 
is a mistake to which our public-school system is not addicted ; but it is the cardinal 
defect of a certain class of private schools which cater to the children of the rich. 
When the pampered prodigies produced by the elongated kindergartens enter the 
secondary school, their flabby wills and atrophied mental muscles make a sorry show- 
ing in comparison with the sturdier youth who have half a dozen years or more of 
discipline in doing hard and even disagreeable intellectual work. The best friends of 
the kindergarten are those who limit it strictly to its proper sphere, within which it is 


" The true continuation of the kindergarten is not found in the devices for making 
history and geography amusing, but in manual training, which trains hand and eye to 
delight in doing hard physical work well, and making material objects useful and 
beautiful. Manual training brings out steadiness, persistence, patience, precision, 
thoroughness ; virtues which real book-learning seldom imparts, but on which its excel- 
lence depends. The great majority of school and college graduates who have had 


neither industrial nor artistic training manifest an impatience in the presence of petty- 
obstacles, an irritability at delay and discouragement, a disinclination to the drudgery 
of which every useful life must be full. Manual training, with its severe standards of 
neatness, accuracy, form, and finish, with its progress to more and more obstinate 
material, should follow the kindergarten, and give to the city youth such equivalent as 
it can for chores and jobs, the tasks and risks of the young farmer, hunter, forester, 
and fisherman. It gives dignity to the work which the great majority of these chil- 
dren must do in after-life. Sewing and cooking and household acts for girls are 
equally essential, if they are to grow up into anything better than anaemic, incom- 
petent, superfluous competitors for a bare subsistence in half a dozen overcrowded lines 
of ' genteel ' employment. 


" Physical training and attention to the conditions of physical health are equally 
essential for everybody who expects to get the best out of life. When the struggle 
for existence was chiefly physical, the weaklings were weeded out by the process of 
natural selection. Now that the struggle for existence in our city life, and complex 
industrial system, is chiefly nervous and mental, the physically weak and nervously 
unstable get a chance to survive and propagate their kind. The premium which city 
life puts on a nervous tension and mental smartness tends to a corresponding lowering 
of the physical vigor. Everywhere we go today we find washed up on the shores of 
our tempestuous business and professional life the stranded wrecks of insomnia, 
dyspepsia, heart failure, and nervous prostration, and the countless forms in which out- 
raged nature wreaks her righteous wrath. 

" By simple gymnastic exercises in the schoolroom, and, where it is possible, by a 
gymnasium in connection with the school buildings ; by ample playgrounds, and 
encouragement to play active outdoor games, the school must undo the work of bad 
heredity on the one hand, and forestall as far as possible the strain of competition and 
complexity which business and society will soon impose. For without a sound, strong, 
healthy body one can get but little pleasure out of life, and can contribute but little 
valuable service to the world. 

" In conclusion, as the best expression of what ought to be true of our common 
schools, I commend to you the tribute to John Ruskin which a disciple has placed in 
Westminster Abbey : ' He taught us to hold in loving reverence the poor man and his 
work, the great man and his work, and God and his work.'" 

On the evening of the 18th a banquet was given to President Hadley, of Vale 
University, by the Connecticut schoolmasters. It was attended by about one hunflred 
and twenty-five, and was an event of considerable importance, being the first occasion 
on which representatives of the secondary schools of the state and the Yale authorities 
had met each other officially. It was especially noteworthy because of the frank 
expression of views on both sides as to the relation which should exist between Yale 
and the public high schools. The feeling that Yale should adopt some system of 
equivalence in entrance examination was strongly expressed ; or, in other words, should 
make provision so that a boy who has done four years of satisfactory work in a high 
school could enter Yale, even if he has no training in Greek or Latin. As it is now-, 
one without this training, no matter how far he has gone in other subjects, is absolutely 
cut off from further study at Yale, in both academic and scientific departments. The 
Connecticut school principals asked Yale to accept an equivalent for Greek and LatiD, 


not less troublesome to acquire, but of more value to a boy who is unable for any 
reason to go farther than the high school. President Hadley in reply, while making 
no definite promise, expressed sympathy with this feeling of the principals, saying 
Yale would consider this matter carefully, and intimated that he would take favorable 
action. — Reported. 


i. Which is the best way to treat blue-prints to be used by the boys ? "I have 
tried mounting on cardboard, but perhaps somebody has hit upon a better plan." 

2. How much latitude in the choice of models should be left to the teacher ? and 
how much can be safely intrusted to the pupil's own initiative ? 

5. (a) Ought I to recommend the use of a desk cover or some similar schoolroom 
device in our grammar grades ? (6) If so, what form of desk cover is most satisfactory ? 
(e) What tools should accompany it, and what will such an outfit cost ? 

1. We use heavy paper in making our blue-prints and leave them unmounted. 
In order to support the print and properly display it, we use what are known to the 
trade as " small handy clips," which are hung on hooked rods, the same as supplied 
by the F. E. Reed Co. on its manual-training lathes. We have these rods 
mounted on our lathes and wood-working benches, forge-shop tool-stands, and 
machine-shop tool-stands. The rods and clips are not expensive, do not take up 
much room, are not clumsy or unsightly, do not get broken, and the prints can instantly 
be attached or detached. We keep our prints in filing cabinets, and when they 
become very much soiled, they are simply thrown away and new ones substituted, 
which is not required as often as might be thought. This does away with the expen- 
sive mounting process, and when a model is discarded or changed, it is but little 
trouble or expense to make new prints. It is entirely satisfactory. — Charles B- 

2. A satisfactory answer to this question cannot be given to cover all cases. 
Everything depends upon the particular teacher, the pupils in hand, and many local 
conditions. Some pupils are ready to choose what appears to them the easiest thing 
to make, when they have the capacity for something more difficult; while others are 
inclined to be too ambitious and desire to undertake that which is beyond them. The 
pupil should make the model from which he will derive the most benefit through the 
construction ; if he has an original design, or a cherished model that meets the require- 
ments, it certainly ought to be the one that he is allowed to make. On the other 
hand, it would be a fatal mistake to turn the child loose and allow him to follow the 
dictates of his fancy. In the last analysis each case must be decided upon its merits 
by the good judgment of the teacher. — Charles B. Howe. 

5. (a) The writer would certainly recommend an adequate outfit of suitable 
schoolroom benches and tools for the class that has not access to a manual-training 
school shop. The pupils should stand for their work, so as to escape the cramping 
contingent to working seated. 

(/') That form is the best that most nearly meets the conditions of the school shop. 
The schoolroom bench shown in the photograph is in use in an outlying grammar 







school in Menomonie, Wis., and gives a range of work equivalent to that of any school 
shop in grammar-grade work. The bench is placed on the tops of the chairs or desks 
along the aisle, and is held in place by cleats, so situated that they come next to the 
backs of the chairs. This bench is heavy enough to stay in place without further 
fastening, but not so heavy as to prevent easy removal by the pupils. The material 
of the bench is pine throughout, and the vises are of maple. The vise-screw and nut 
is part of a 12-inch hand-clamp. The drawing shows the construction and dimen- 
sions. When not in use, the bench is hung under the blackboard at the side of the 

room. The tools are kept in trays in a closet. The cost of such a bench is $5 to $8, 
according to finish and material. 

(c) The tools used are the common bench tools of good grade ; there are not so 
great a number as for a larger class, for the pupils are nearer each other and can make 
better use of the tools. The outfit for ten pupils is: four Bailey 15-inch jack planes 
and shooting boards ; four 10-inch back saws, which are used in a slot cut in the cleat 
of the shooting board ; five tack hammers and three light claw hammers (each pupil 
is to own a jack-knife with two blades, to cost about 25 cents) ; ten 2-cent rules; one 
8-inch try square ; one 8-inch gauge; one 8-inch bevel; one bit brace, and ^(-inch 
%-inch, j^-inch, and j^-inch bits; six assorted sizes of brad awls and handles, from 
3^ inch to Y% inch ; one set of six chisels from y% inch to 1 inch ; one gouge of 
1 % -inch radius; one 28-inch rip saw; one oil stone and can; nails, glue and sand- 
paper. Pine and other stock varies from *4 inch to 2 inches, and is delivered planed. 
The grades using the outfit are 5 to 8 inclusive. The time is one hour a week, which 
is placed just before recess or dismission, so the floor may be cleaned. The cost of 
the tools is about $20, making the entire cost for ten pupils not far from $30. — F. W. 


Secretary Shepard has announced that the next summer meeting of the 
National Educational Association will be held in Detroit, Mich. 

M. Gabriel CoMPAYRE, : the distinguished French educator, has said, in speaking 
of the American educational exhibit at the Paris exposition : "If anyone asks me in 
what the Americans, according to their showing at this exhibition, excel, I certainly 
shall reply that it is in manual training, in penmanship, and in drawing." 

The next meeting of the Department of Superintendence of the National Educa- 
tional Association ^will be held in University Hall, Fine Arts Building, Chicago, 
February 26-28. President Arthur T. Hadley, of Yale University, will give the lecture 
on the opening evening. One session will be devoted to manual training and domestic 
economy. The purpose of this session is not to devote the time to theoretical discus- 
sion of these subjects (although that will not be entirely ignored), but to reports of 
what is actually being accomplished, with something of the details of administration 
in carrying on this [work in elementary schools. President Harvey states that he 
expects to have reports of the work being done in Detroit, in Menomonie, Wis., Chi- 
cago, and possibly one'other city. Such a program under such auspices should attract 
to the meeting many of the manual-training supervisors. 


The school board of Springfield, Mass., has recommended to the city government 
that a new manual-training high-school building be erected. This recommendation 
will come up for discussion and action soon after the first of January. 

In a recent letter to the Wisconsin Journal of Education, referring to high-school 
enrollments, Dr. Frank A. Hill, secretary of state board of education in Massachusetts, 
said : " We have in Massachusetts today not a few people who have been led to think 
that 92 per cent, of our school children never enter the high school, when it has been 
proved over and over again that, if the state is taken as a whole, more than 25 per 
cent, of the school children enter the high school and enjoy its advantages, while in 
scores of places among us as high as 50 per cent., and even more, of all the children 
in the public schools reach the high school. Where the high school is fully established 
and ably conducted, the children are now moving into its grades about as freely and 
in about as large numbers relatively as they move into the elementary grade below." 


Cardboard construction has been] regularly introduced, as a part of the course 
of study, into the fourth and fifth grades of some fifteen of the grammar schools. In 
several of these schools, where the sixth grades have not attempted the woodwork, 
an advanced course in cardboard construction is being given. 

The Manual Training Club is conducting a high-class, semi-popular course in 
forestry, trees, and woods. — John C. Brodhead. 

A sensible disposition of the bequest left by Benjamin Franklin to the town of 
Boston seems likely to be made at last. As is well known, Franklin left a sum of 
1901I 115 


monev which was to be invested for a hundred years and the proceeds devoted to 
some educational plan for the benefit of mechanics and artisans. The funds now 
amount to over $500,000 and have been for two years awaiting the development of a 
feasible plan for utilization. It was proposed last winter to expend half the money 
upon a building similar in character to Cooper Union, New York, and to use the 
other half for public baths and gymnasiums. This would, of course, divide and 
scatter the fund and would increase the likelihood of its being of use to political 
factions. Now, however, it has been formally recommended that the entire fund be 
used to defrav the cost of erecting, furnishing, and equipping a building to be known 
as the Franklin Institute. The site is to be donated by the city. The institute is to 
consist of quarters for a branch of the public library, shops, laboratories, and class- 
rooms ; in fact, all facilities for the highest type of industrial education. 

There is no doubt that such an institution will be a fitting tribute to Franklin's 

memory. — School Journal. 


The new manual-training building at Portland, Me., is to be of stone, brick, and 
steel construction, with hard pine and oak finish. It will have five large well-lighted 
rooms, heated and ventilated by the most approved method now in use. Three of the 
rooms will be used for the manual-training classes from the three upper grades of the 
grammar schools. The svstem taught is largely sloyd. The classes receive from one 
hour and twenty minutes to two hours and forty minutes of instruction per week, 
according to the grade, the upper classes claiming more time than the lower ones. The 
two basement rooms will be fitted with wood- and metal-working machinery and tools 
for advanced work. The building is built from funds of the Hon. Joseph Walker 
estate, and will be known as the Walker Manual Training School. — Geo. H. Eabb. 


At the annual meeting of the New York Manual Training Teachers' Association 
the following officers were elected for the ensuing year : president, Mr. Fred. J. 
Foster, P. S. 79 ; vice-president, Mr. Robert G. Weyh, P. S. 154 ; secretary, Mr. George 
F. Stahl, P. S. 155; treasurer, Mr. Harold Peyser, P.S. 77. 

A regular meeting of the association is held on the first Thursday in each month. 
The topics of discussion at the November and December meetings were, respectively, 
"The Application of Educational Principles to the Teaching of Woodwork," and 
'• Industrial Training in its Relation to the School." Papers on these subjects were 
read by Messrs. W. F. Vroom and Harold Peyser. 

Recent appointments to the staff of shopwork instructors in the boroughs of Man- 
hattan and the Bronx are as follows : Mr. J. T. Breitwieser, P. S. 40 ; Mr. G. B. St. 
John, P. S. 34 ; Mr. Charles J. Lagerwall, P. S. 15 ; Mr. D. L. Connelly, P. S. 101 and 


Everv vear marks a distinct advance in the work of the manual-training depart- 
ment at Teachers College. The attendance is larger than ever before, and includes a 
class of students, some of them teachers of experience, whose presence indicates the 
high reputation the college has earned as a training school for teachers in this impor- 
tant field of work. — W. F. Vroom. 

The new building for the Rochester Mechanics Institute, recently given by Mr. 
George Eastman, will, when completed, become the home of the departments of 
industrial and fine arts. The old building will be given up to the manual-training classes- 

iqoi] BREVITIES 117 

The long-looked-for and sadly needed new building for the Brooklyn Manual 
Training High School seems about to materialize. The sketch plans which have been 
submitted call for a building over two hundred feet square and five stories high. The 
Borough Board seems determined that it shall accommodate two thousand students, 
although Principal C. D. Larkins is anxious to limit the number to fifteen hundred. 
The plans provide for a large auditorium to seat the whole body of students, besides 
several smaller lecture-rooms, gymnasium, and all the shops and laboratories necessary 
for a fully equipped manual-training high school. The site is to be on Seventh 
avenue, Park Slope, one of the highest and most attractive sections of the borough. 
— Edwin W. Foster. 


At a dinner given in Pittsburgh to Mr. Andrew Carnegie and the trustees of Car- 
negie Library, on the fifteenth of November, Mr. Carnegie announced that, if the city 
would provide a site for a polytechnic school near the Carnegie Library, he would 
erect a building for such a school and endow it with $1,000,000 in 5 per cent, gold 
bonds. In the course of his speech Mr. Carnegie said: "I believe that a first-class 
technical school, probably as large as that at Worcester, would develop latent talent 
around us to such extent as to surprise the most sanguine. If the city of Pittsburgh will 
furnish a site, which, I hope, will be of ample size for future extensions, I shall be 
delighted to provide the money for such a school, taking care to provide room for addi~ 
tions to the buildings to meet the certain growth of Pittsburgh." 


Aspen, Colo., is awakening to the need for manual training in its public schools 
The Mothers' Club of that city is taking an active and personal interest in the mat- 
ter, and only lack of funds, not lack of interest, prevents some immediate action on 
the part of the school authorities, from introducing manual training in some form. 

The Denver Manual Training High School has an enrollment of 457, about one 
hundred more than last year. Of these 457, 247 are boys and 210 girls. 


The Southern California Teachers' Association held its winter session at Los 
Angeles, December 19 to 22. President Walter A. Edwards, of Throop Polytechnic 
Institute, was chairman of the manual-training section. Following was the program : 

1. "How can material results, obtained in the manual-training room, be utilized 
in the recitation-rooms and the home ? " Frank H.Bali. Discussed by Charles A. 

2. "What has been achieved and what remains to be done in introducing manual 
training into the public schools ? " D. C. Reed. Discussed by Miss Florence Stevenson. 

3. " Observations on the required work in manual training in the schools of Los 
Angeles city and county."' Arthur H. Chamberlain. Discussed by A. L. Hamilton. 

The city and county teachers' associations, meeting at the same time, also gave 
a prominent place on their programs to the discussion of handwork. 

The following appointments of graduates of the normal department of domestic 
science of Throop Polytechnic Institute have been made; Miss Katherine K. Barker 
and Miss Louise Lyde, to teach cooking in Los Angeles ; Miss Lucy Anderson and 
Mrs. Jessica Hazzard, to teach sewing and cooking in the Los Angeles State Normal 


School ; Mrs. Rose Defoe, to teach cooking in the San Francisco schools. Miss May 
Blanford teaches cooking in Los Angeles ; Miss Mary Gower and Mrs. Jessica Hazzard 
are studying in Teachers College, New York. 

Mr. C. C. Boynton, of the Fisk Teachers' Agency, is carrying on classes in 
elementary manual training. Miss Sallie Peabody is the teacher. 

Domestic science is being taken up to a considerable extent by women's clubs 
through the southern portion of the state. 

The new building of Throop Polytechnic Institute is nearly completed, and the 
dedication exercises took place on Founder's Day, December 13. — Arthur H. 

Mr. Everett W. Schwartz, principal of the Wilmerding School of Industrial 
Arts, died November 22. Mr. Schwartz was for several years in charge of the manual- 
training work at Waltham, Mass., from which place he went to California. Earlier he 
was a teacher in the Comins School in Boston, and in the Cook County Normal 
School, Chicago. To many he was known best as the instructor for several years in 
charge of the manual-training work at the Martha's Vineyard Summer Institute. He 
was the author of a book entitled Sloyd, or Educational Manual Training with Paper, 
Cardboard, Wood, and Iron, for the Primary, Grammar, and High Schools, which was 
published in 1893 by the Educational Publishing Co. Mr. Schwartz's death seems 
particularly untimely owing to the fact that he had but just begun a great work at the 
Wilmerding School. 

At the recent election in California the people voted upon an amendment of the 
state constitution exempting from taxation the California School of Mechanical Arts. 
It carried by a significantly overwhelming majority of nearly 40,000. 

The Department of Manual Training and Drawing of the California State Teach- 
ers' Association announced an exhibition of school work for the meeting held in San 
Francisco, December 26-9. 


One of the manual-training schools established through the generosity of Sir 
William Macdonald, of Montreal, was recently opened in Ottawa by Lord and Lady 
Minto. In the course of a felicitous address Lord Minto said : 

"It is with profound pleasure and keen expectation that we welcome to Canada 
and to this noble and useful work in our midst the manual-training teachers who have 
come from Great Britain, and also the United States. They may be assured that those 
of us whose school days are long past will have an interest in the labors as deep, if not 
so evident, as that of the boys in their classes. 

" But, ladies and gentlemen, I would ask you to understand that manual training 
is not intended to teach any trade, or even the elements of any trade, as such. Only 
as the alphabet and the art of reading are necessary to the literature of all pro- 
fessions, so manual training fits a boy to begin his apprenticeship to any trade 
with greater aptitudes and correspondingly better chances to be a skillful, excellent 

" I hope it will be understood that manual training does not aim at preparing the 
pupils to earn their living through manual work, although it does help them in that 
most honorable and laudable purpose after they take up their lifework, whatever it 
may be. Because the boys like it, it helps to keep them longer at school, and thus 
gains for them a more thorough education in other respects also. 

i 9 oi] BREVITIES 119 

" By the end of the present year provision will be made in equipment and 
instructors for training about five thousand boys and several hundred teachers. One 
may truly say that the scheme is one of high statesmanship in its plan, methods, and 

" If I may be allowed to refer to one thing which the Macdonald manual-training 
fund does not provide for, it will be rather to suggest what some likeminded benefactor 
may do for the girls than to imply that Sir William's benefaction is not complete in 

"The fund provides for the training of boys only. Manual training and practical 
instruction for girls in schools are not less important than for boys, though the subjects 
and exercises for girls would naturally be different from those for boys. Such exercises 
are admirably furnished by courses of study and practice under the heading of domestic 
science ; and it augurs well to know that in other countries and in other cities domestic 
science for the girls in the schools has followed close on manual training in woodwork 
for the boys. 

"Her Excellency the Countess of Minto and myself are greatly delighted with the 
keen and thoughtful interest with which the movement to introduce domestic science 
into the schools is already being supported in many quarters. We learn with great 
satisfaction that it is being favorablv considered in and for Ottawa and several other 
places at the present time, and I can assure you that no one is more deeply interested 
in the scheme than Lady Minto herself." 

The Household Economic Association of Canada is conducting a series of 
lectures in each of the following cities and towns : Hamilton, Toronto, Whitby, Peter- 
borough, Ottawa, Montreal, Kingston, and St. Thomas. Four of the lecturers have 
been from the United States : Mrs. Ellen Richards, of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology ; Mrs. Nellie Sawyer Kedzie, of Bradley Polytechnic Institute ; Miss 
Anna Barrows, of the American Kitchen Magazine; and Mrs. Helen Campbell. Mrs. 
Kedzie has just completed a highly successful tour of these places, and is enthusi- 
astic over the prospects for domestic economy in the schools of Canada. 


Senator J. H. Stout, of Menomonie, Wis., the founder of the Stout Manual 
Training School, has again shown his deep interest in education in a most practical 
way. He has signed contracts for the construction of a natatorium and gymnasium 
which when completed will have cost about $60,000. It will be connected with the 
public-school system of Menomonie, and will be located near the high school and the 
manual-training school. The size of the new building will be 99 X 132 feet, three stories 
high. It will be attractive architecturally, though its chief glory will not be its facade, 
but its perfect plan and equipment. To the end that it be as perfectly suited to its use 
as possible, nothing will be spared in time or thought or expense. It is characteristic of 
Mr. Stout's philanthropy that it is manifest not merely in gifts of money, but in constant 
study and broad human sympathy. Such giving is of the highest type. Moreover, it is 
not to one city or one county that such gifts are made. The influence of Senator Stout's 
manual-training school, his traveling libraries, his itinerant art collections, and his 
county training school for teachers has gone far beyond the borders of the state of 
Wisconsin. Studied by hundreds of visitors from all sections of the country, the edu- 
cational work centering in Menomonie is furnishing practical suggestions for communi- 
ties far remote from Dunn county. 


In speaking of manual training at one of the meetings of the Wisconsin State 
Teachers' Association President Charles Kendall Adams, of the State University, said : 
" We have in this state the best manual-training school in the country, and probably the 
best in the world. At the Menomonie school boys and girls are taken from the grammar 
school and high school into the manual-training department for an hour a day without 
in any way detracting from the amount or quality of their lessons in the regular 
program. The testimony is uniform that the pupils all look forward to the hour with 
pleasure, and it is hard to see how anyone can observe what they accomplish without 
perceiving that the hour must be as profitable as pleasarable. The boys are taught the 
arts of working in wood and metal, and the girls are thoroughly drilled in the myste- 
ries of the sewing-room, the kitchen, and the dining-room. Many students become 
very proficient in drawing and the arts of design." 


Superintendent Elson, of Grand Rapids, is to be congratulated on his success 
in securing an appropriation of $5,000 for the introduction of manual training. This 
amount seems small for a city of the size of Grand Rapids, but this is sure to be used 
in such a way that a larger one will follow next year, if needed. The work is to be 
under the direction of Mr. George S. Waite, formerly of Toledo and during the past 
year in charge of the work at Kalamazoo. Mr. Waite will not be allowed to give up 
his work in Kalamazoo, but will spend half of his time in each place. The following 
teachers have been chosen to assist Mr. Waite in Grand Rapids : Maud Fuller, cook- 
ing ; Helena F. Van Duren, sewing ; Nellie E. Wales, sloyd ; Ruth M. Chapin,sloyd ; 
Florence M. Meade, sewing, Work will begin January 2. It will be given to 3,500 
pupils in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades. Later they expect to "expand." 

SOME interesting figures come from Kalamazoo. The total expense of the manual- 
training department of the public schools last year (and last year was its first year in 
Kalamazoo), including equipment, supplies, and teachers, was $3,763.49. Taking the 
average enrollment for the year at 1,400 pupils and the expense on account of material 
$458, the cost per pupil was less than 33 cents. 


Mr. James Milliken, of Decatur, has offered to give $400,000 toward an indus- 
trial school to be under the control of the Presbyterian Church. 


Miss Anna Belden, late of Armour Institute, is now associated with Miss Anna 
Murray in the Chicago Sloyd and Industrial School. Miss Belden is in charge of the 
work in sewing, dressmaking, embroidery, and the study of textiles. 

Mr. Laurens L. Simpson, last year a student assistant in the department of 
manual arts at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, is now teaching manual training and 
mechanical drawing at the South Side Academy. 

Mr. Fritz Reichmann, who during the past year held the highest scholarship in 
physics at the University of Chicago, is now teacher of manual training at the Mor- 
gan Park Academy. Mr. Reichmann taught three years at the University of Texas. 


The Northeast Manual Training School of Philadelphia has made 
an important contribution to the discussion of manual training by pub- 
lishing in its catalogue just issued several testimonies from university 
presidents as to the value of manual training to the young man who 
pursues his education beyond the secondary school. These testimonies 
were elicited by Mr. Julius Stern, a graduate of the Northeast Manual 
Training School and a student in the law department of the University 
of Pennsylvania. They are so timely and carry with them so much 
weight of authority that we reprint them in full : 

From the President of Harvard University. 

Asticou, Me., October 2, 1900. 

Dear Sir : I should like to see some form of manual training made part of the 

education at school of every boy who is to come to college. It not only trains the eye 

and the hand, but develops the habit of accuracy and thoroughness in any kind of 

work. Moreover, it develops the mental faculties of some boys better than books do. 

Sincerely yours, 
(Signed) Charles W. Eliot. 

From the President of the University of Chicago. 

Chicago, October 11, 1900. 
My dear Mr. Stern : Complying with your request, I am glad to say that our 
experience in the schools connected with the University of Chicago leads me to the 
conclusion that manual training in due proportion in the elementary and secondary 
schools gives breadth and power which become an effective means in higher education. 
Nor is this true merely in the case of those who are pursuing courses in engineering ; 
other things being equal, every young man and young woman is the better fitted for 
the higher work of the university for having trained hands, and the power to plan and 
execute which comes through manual training. 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) William R. Harper. 

From the President of the Johns Hopkins University. 

President Daniel C. Oilman, of Johns Hopkins University, refers Mr. Stern to his 
published article on " A Plea for the Training of the Hand," in which he says : 

" Manual training is an essential part of .a good education, whether that education 
is restricted to the common school or carried on to the highest discipline of technical 
schools and universities." 
1901] 121 


From the Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, October 22, 1900. 
Dear Sir : It is to me no matter of surprise that manual training has taken so 
prominent a place in modern education. The increasing use of laboratory methods in 
professional schools is in recognition of the fact that no amount of didactic teaching 
can cover the whole ground in any of the sciences, and that mental concepts must 
have the aid of actual experimentations. If the service of the trained eye and trained 
hand is an essential to the mental grasp of the higher sciences, it cannot but be that 
the training of these organs will be helpful to mental activities of any kind. With a 
proper apportionment of time, I believe that manual training may be made a part of 
the curriculum of any school; and that, so far from hindering, it will actually advance 
the education of the student in other and more abstract directions. 

Sincerely yours, 
(Signed) Chas. C. Harrison. 

From the President of Lehigh University. 

Lehigh University, 
South Bethlehem, Pa., October 9, 1900. 
Dear Sir : Our experience at Lehigh University with the graduates of the 
manual-training schools of Philadelphia and other cities has been most favorable. 
The courses of instruction in these schools is an admirable preparation for engineering 
colleges. It is not merely that the boys have been taught the use of tools ; it is rather 
that their minds have been trained through the medium of the eye and the hand. 
Desirable as it is to teach a boy the elements of handicraft, and useful as this accom- 
plishment may be in after-life, it is an entirely false idea of the purpose of manual- 
training schools to suppose that this is the end aimed at. The education of a boy is 
the more complete and thorough the more avenues that are opened up for his enlight- 
enment, and manual training, when systematically and intelligently carried out, gives 
the boy facts and thoughts which he would fail to get in the class-room. 

(Signed) T. M. Drown. 

From the President of Cornell University. 

Ithaca, N. Y., October 1, 1900. 
Dear Sir: In reply to your letter of September 28 I would say that lam a 
firm believer in an education which trains and develops the whole man. The hand is 
man's best servant, and some modicum of manual training should be included in the 
school training of every child of the present time. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) J. G. Schurman. 

From the President of the University of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor, October 24, 1899. 
Dear Sir : The introduction of manual training into our high schools is rapidly 
and deservedly gaining favor in this part of the country. It is now recognized that it 
has a distinct and positive intellectual and pedagogical value. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) James B. Angell. 

iqoi] EDITORIAL I 23 

From the President of Leland Stanford Junior University. 

Stanford University, Cal., October 9, 1900. 

Dear Sir : I am in receipt of the catalogue of the Northeast Manual Training 
School of Philadelphia, and have examined it with much interest. I have always 
recognized the value of manual-training high schools, in which a good secondary edu- 
cation is given in connection with manual training. Such schools rise above the 
level of mere trade schools, and through their breadth of view, accompanied by prac- 
tical drill, are doing a good work in America. We need more of them. Those 
interested in better education would not have such institutions take the place of the 
classical high school. They should rather develop side by side, and each should be 
equally open to all who can make use of their work. From this it follows that, if each 
is a good preparation for life, each is also a good preparation for college, and that the 
colleges and universities of the United States should recognize this fact in their 
entrance requirements. 

We have a number of graduates from manual-training high schools among our 
students, and we find them fully capable of holding their own with the graduates of 
classical high schools. Very truly yours, 

(Signed) David S. Jordan. 

From the President of the Uniz'ersity of Wisconsin . 

October 10, 1900. 
Dear Sir : I believe that every school which can afford to have a manual-train- 
ing department will be profited by it in every way. The scholarship of the students 
need be in no way interfered with, and an interest will be created which is of sure 
value in after-life. Very respectfully yours, 

(Signed) C. K. Adams, 

From the President of the University of Illinois. 

Champaign, III. 
Dear Sir : Replying to yours of the 27th ult. I will say that I have long been 
of the opinion that our educational work should give much larger recognition to 
industrial or manual training. 

I think this remark applies to all of our work, from the primary to the university. 
I do not think that manual training is incompatible with intellectual development, but, 
on the contrary, that it promotes and supports healthful mental growth. I think it 
contributes to versatility, to contentment, to rational and productive living, and so to 
good citizenship ; and accordingly that it should be recognized and helped on by all 
who have any interests in popular education, and particularly by all who have any share 
in the management of the public educational system of the country. I am, 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) A. S. Draper, 


Dr. C. Hanford Henderson, whose article in this issue so 
fittingly introduces the new century, was one of those " unfortunate" 
youths of two decades or more ago whose education was "neglected." 


He received very little formal instruction before he entered college. 
After graduation from the University of Pennsylvania in the early 
eighties he taught physics in the Central Manual Training School of 
Philadelphia. Later he spent one year at Zurich, where he took the 
degree of Ph.D. On his return to America he became principal of 
the Northeast Manual Training School, Philadelphia, a position which 
he gave up in June, 1896, for the principalship of the Chestnut Hill 
Academy, Chestnut Hill, Pa. After one year, in September, 1897, he 
went to Harvard University, where he took advanced courses and did 
some lecturing. In September, 1898, he became director of the high- 
school department of Pratt Institute. Last June he went to Europe, 
where he is now spending a year in study and travel. Dr. Henderson 
is widely known through his writings. His articles, which have 
appeared from time to time in the Popular Science Monthly and the 
Atlantic Monthly, have won for him a high place among the popular 
writers on education. It is safe to say that he has done more than any 
other man in America during the past decade to put into clear and 
attractive form the claims of manual training to a place in general 

In spite of our efforts to produce a magazine correct in every detail, 
an occasional error has seemed to be inevitable. On p. 42 of the 
October number was a paragraph beginning : " Mr. Entwistle feared 
that the idea of originality was being carried too far. A child who 
was familiar with historic forms and principles of design could not 
originate things satisfactorily." The word " familiar" in the last sen- 
tence should have been " unfamiliar." It was so written by the author 
of the article, Mr. Vroom, and corrected by him in the galley proof, but 
failed to be changed by the printer, and was not noticed in the page 
proof. In a recent letter referring to this error Mr. Entwistle expresses 
the belief that "the more we familiarize ourselves with the best of the 
past, the better able shall we be to create something new." Another 
error in the October number which frustrated the plans of one of our 
most valued patrons was the omission of the full-page advertisement 
of W. C. Toles & Co. This was wholly due to the mistake of a clerk 
in the advertising department. We particularly regret the blunder 
because Mr. Toles signed the first contract for advertising in the maga- 


Manual Training Syllabus. High School Department. University of State of 
New York, Albany. 9^ X i>% inches. Pp. 284 ; paper covers. Price, 10 cents. — This 
valuable booklet contains (1) a chapter on manual training in elementary schools, 
(2) one on manual training in high schools, (3) a bibliography, (4) several outlines of 
courses of study, and working programs for high schools. Sixteen full-page illustra- 
tions add much to the value of the book. 

It is the general impression among teachers, at the present time, that the problems 
of manual training in the secondary school are much nearer a satisfactory solution than 
those in the elementary school, but one basing his judgment on this syllabus alone 
might easily reach the opposite conclusion. This is due to the fact that only one 
scheme of work is presented for the elementary school, and that one most carefully 
wrought out, whereas several schemes are presented for the secondary school, and 
these are given with unequal fullness of detail and accompanied by a variety of illus- 
trations. This is fortunate from one point of view : There is certainly great need of 
something more definite and practical in the way of suggestions for the elementary 
school, and it is equally important that the work of the secondary school be enriched 
and broadened. 

The course for elementary schools, which is that given at the Horace Mann School, 
connected with Teachers College, New York city, is specific, broad, and full of prac- 
tical suggestions. Every teacher of manual training in elementary schools should 
give it careful study. 

For the secondary schools the course in woodworking has many excellent fea- 
tures, but the carving, in the form suggested, seems out of harmony with the rest. 
The course in metalworking, likewise, has many excellent features, but this course 
needs to be unified. The offering of alternate courses in sheet-metal work and bent- 
iron work is not satisfactory. Every boy should do something in each of these lines. 
This whole subject of metalworking for secondary schools is in need of more thought- 
ful attention on the part of teachers of manual training. 

The course in home science, covering as it does work for both boys and girls, is 
something so new in many of its features that one feels the need of asking many 
questions as to its practical operation before reaching any conclusion as to its value in 
the form presented. 

The extensive bibliography on manual training and home science is up to date, 
and a valuable feature of the book. 

The groups of studies are under three heads : liberal, professional, and technical. 
Two or three periods a week in each group are assigned to drawing during the first two 
years. Manual training is found only in two of the technical groups — the manual 
training and the home science, and here in the last two years. This arrangement is 
not satisfactory, even if manual training were in the elementary schools, and certainly 
not if no manual training precedes the high-school course. This concrete work 
1901] 125 


should come earlier. Some way should be found to place the manual training in the 
first two years of the course. It ought to be practicable to require all students, 
whether in technical, liberal, or professional courses, to take manual training during 
their first two years in the high school, if they have not previously taken such work in 
the grammar school. Every boy ought, before he enters the third year of his high- 
school course, to have done the equivalent of two years' work in manual training — 
preferably one in wood and one in metal — of such a character as has been found 
practicable in the two upper grammar and the two lower high-school grades. 

Freehand Perspective, by Victor T. Wilson, of Cornell University- — a sH X? 
inch, 257-page book with 139 illustrations — published at $2.50 by John Wiley & Sons, 
New York, takes its place with Ware's Modern Perspective and Millar's Essentials of 
Perspective as an authoritative work on the subject. Just as the former is the standard 
work with architectural draftsmen, and the latter with artists, so Mr. Wilson's 
treatise will take its place as the standard work on the subject for engineers and 
engineering students. 

" How sweet a thing is perspective," wrote Paolo Uccello, and how many are the 
points of view of those who write upon the subject ! This work is an attempt to 
reconcile the " unnecessary and undesirable antagonism" appearing to exist in the 
minds of most students between the actual drawing of an object and the principles of 
linear perspective. 

After proving the two fundamental laws of perspective — that parallel lines have 
a common vanishing point, and the farther an object recedes from the picture plane 
the smaller it becomes — the author considers the horizon and the vanishing traces of 
other planes, the center of vision, plane of picture, etc., and takes up the measurements 
of lines, treatment of curves, and gives rules for finding measuring points. Practical 
problems and illustrative examples are considered in connection with these demonstra- 
tions. Chapters upon the estimation of the values of plane angles and problems in 
tangent and intersecting planes prepare the student for the phenomena of shadows 
and their perspective treatment. The last chapter — upon perspective sketches from 
working drawings — is particularly valuable, and will prove very suggestive to any 
draftsman, even if he is without the knowledge of descriptive geometry necessary 
to understand the preceding chapters. 

No one should open this book expecting to find a new and easy road to profi 
ciency in drawing — in fact, it would be unfortunate to have a beginner try to learn to 
draw with the mathematics of the subject so clearly before him ; but as a corrective 
to the loose and superficial drawing so common in our public schools the course out- 
lined "for use in manual-training schools and colleges" could not be improved upon. 
— Frank Forrest Frederick, University of Illinois. 

Handrailing Simplified. (Sectorian System.) Edited and revised by Fred T. 
Hodgson. Published by William T. Comstock, 23 Warren street, New York city. 
7K X 5 inches. Pp. 52.— A practical book for stair designers and builders. 


A Selected Bibliography of Manual Training. Prepared by the Eastern Manual 
Training Association. Foster H. Irons, secretary, East Saginaw, Mich. This is 
a revision of the bibliography published in 1898 by the American Manual Training 
Association, and is just what is wanted by everyone who is going to make a thorough 

iqoi] REVIEWS 127 

investigation of manual training, or who needs a handy list for reference now and then. 
While it is not a complete bibliography of the subject, it is of much more value than a 
complete one possibly could be, because many useless and undesirable books have been 
omitted. The work gives evidence of having been done with greatest care bv those 
who are thoroughly acquainted with the whole range of publications on this subject. 
The committee on revision was Charles R. Richards, Gustaf Larsson, and James P. 

The Manual Training Schedule. By Dr. James P. Haney, superviser of manual 
training, New York city. io|^ X 7/i inches. Pp. 56. — In this book are gathered together 
the leaflets furnished the grade teachers for use during the fall term. It gives in con- 
densed form an outline of work in drawing, design, picture study, and constructive 
work in paper and clay for each week ; but it does not include the shopwork. The 
lessons outlined are intended to be suggestive rather than mandatory, and are 
designed to serve as an interpretation of the provisions of the course of study in use in 
New York city. Each leaflet is illustrated. 

Reports on Parental and Reform Schools. By Thomas H. MacQueary and Robert 
M. Smith. Reprint from the Proceedings of the Board of Education of the City of 
Chicago. This report gives a summary of observations made during an extended trip 
East, and conclusions reached with reference to the organization and management of 
the parental school in Chicago. Mr. MacQueary's report gives attention to physical 
culture, discipline, general organization, and maintenance, while Mr. Smith's gives 
special attention to manual training. For all pupils in the lower eight grades of su:h 
a school, Mr. Smith says the "system should breathe the educational rather than the 
technical spirit." He considers it undesirable for a boy to begin too early to learn a 
trade, even in a parental school. " Learning a trade circumscribes, confines, dwarfs." 
In all cases of boys under sixteen years, he says, manual-training should precede trade 
teaching. He especially recommends that gardening form a part of the course in this 
school. Referring to the character of the manual-training work he saw during his 
trip, Mr. Smith says : " I have noticed on all sides an undoubted tendency to substi- 
tute finished articles for abstract exercises, and to make the work more human and 
educational by appealing unceasingly to the good-will and the interest of the workers." 


The Broclmre Series of Architectural Illustrations, published by Bates & Gould 
Co. of Boston, is of inestimable value in a manual-training school. Every teacher 
and pupil who is interested in the history of art, or appreciates the noble or pictur- 
esque in architecture, and refinement and strength in ornament, will find this periodi- 
cal a mine of inspiration and suggestion. Each number is devoted to one subject, as 
"Flamboyant Churches in France," "Italian Renaissance Grilles," "Chippendale 
Chairs," " The Ducal Palace, Venice," and the like. The series up to date has covered 
a wide range of subjects in architecture, furniture, and ornament. Each number con- 
tains one or more short, well-written articles, and several half-tone reproductions from 
excellent photographs. For example, the number on " Italian Wrought Iron " con- 
tains eight illustrations, four of wrought-iron lanterns, beginning with the famous one 
on the Strozzi Palace, and four of wrought-iron torch-bearers. The influence of such 
illustrations of the masterpieces of art and craftsmanship is needed in every school, 
whether it be a manual-training school or one whose distinctive aim is classical. 
The subscription price of the series is 50 cents a year. 


Congratulations are due to the editors and publishers of Art Education on the 
transformation which has taken place in their magazine. It now takes its place 
among the high-class art journals, this essential difference remaining, however, that its 
contents is planned with special reference to the needs of teachers. The change 
in form and general make-up which began with the September issue is in every way a 
marked improvement. The excellence of the work of the engraver and the printer is 
in keeping with the quality of the cover design, furnished each month by Mr. James 
Hall. To appreciate the progress that has been made by this magazine, one has but 
to compare the current number with the first number, issued in October, 1894. Can it 
be that the progress of this journal, which was established at so great personal sacri- 
fice on the part of Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Witter, is an index of the progress that art 
instruction has made in the public schools during the past six years ? 

Public School Reports. 

New Haven, Connecticut. — Superintendent Kendall says of the Boardman 
Manual Training High School : " I earnestly believe that the school in its various 
courses affords a kind of instruction which the secondary schools will offer more gen- 
erally in the future." Principal Mather gives figures showing an increase of 53 per 
cent, in the attendance at the Boardman School last year, and estimates that the cost 
of tuition during the present year will be reduced to $70 per pupil, owing to a further 
increase in the attendance. He points to the fact that his pupils are carrying full col- 
lege preparatory work in the academic branches, in addition to the drawing and 
manual training, and then adds : " I have heard no complaint of overwork, or seen 
evidence of it, among the Boardman boys, and I strongly feel that, on account of the 
clearness of perception, care, and accuracy which go into a properly executed piece of 
handwork or drawing, a boy is better able to understand and make faster progress 
with his books. Apart from this is the immense gain which comes from skill in the 
use of hands and eye, and a knowledge of many of the processes in common use 
about us." 

Moline, Illinois. — In his annual report for 1900 Superintendent William J. Cox 
gives this valuable testimony : " During the past decade manual training has been a 
regular factor in the school work of this city. Its value has been demonstrated in a 
thousand ways, and its popularity is constantly increasing. The growing interest in 
this department is shown by the increasing number of high-school students who are 
now electing the most advanced courses offered in manual training and mechanical 

The following have been received, some of which will be given more extended 
notice in the April number : 

A History of Education. By Thomas Davidson. Charles Scribner's Sons, New 
York. Price, $1 net. 

Mind and Hand. By Charles H. Ham. American Book Co., New York. Price, 

Woodworking for Beginners. By Charles G. Wheeler. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York. Price, #3.50. 

Constructive Work. By Robert M. Smith. A. Flanagan Co., Chicago. Price, $1. 

Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education, Volume I, 1898-99. 

An Historical Sketch. The Mechanics' Institute, Rochester, N. Y., 18S5-1900. 


Manual Training Magazine 

APRIL, igoi 


Frank A. Manny, 
Principal of Workingman's School, New York City. 

In a recent article in the Century, John Burroughs says: "If we 
think birds, we shall see birds wherever we go; if we think arrow- 
heads, as Thoreau did, we shall pick up arrow-heads in every field. 
Some people have an eye for four-leaved clovers ; they see them as 
they walk hastily over the turf for they already have them in their 
eves." It is this view of life and therefore of education as a function 
of life that is reconstructing our schools and putting them upon a 
better basis than they have ever stood upon before. Only when we 
see this clearly are we able to work intelligently and economically in 
industrial education. 

There are two great problems that open out before each human 
being. First, how to get a living and second, how to get the most 
meaning out of life. Often, the first overshadows the second and 
drives it back until it has become to many a half-forgotten dream. If 
industrial training had to do with the first problem alone and gave it 
still greater supremacy, we might well hesitate to forward it, but it is 
only by an adequate answer to the first problem that we are in any 
sense able to grapple with the second. There never was a time when 
there was so much common sense on this matter of the relation of the 
material to the spiritual as now. 

In the olden days when men had struggled out of merely animal 
existence into some realization of the spiritual possibilities of life, 
there was a dim consciousness on their part of the fact that their chil- 
dren need not go through all that they had gone through, and as a result 
there was an attempt in education to furnish children with a ready- 
made experience ; the spiritual attainments of the race if at once incor- 
porated in the minds of the young by means of their memories would 



save them the toil and care of those who lived in the past. They for- 
got then, as the millionaire forgets today, that nature incorporates in 
the young about all that can be assimilated — the new generation has 
enough to care for that comes by heredity and necessary environment 
without furnishing it with a ready-made equipment for the whole of 

In the last century this mistake became obvious and we find Rous- 
seau answering it by attempting to require that Emile do everything 
for himself. Pestalozzi laid stress upon object lessons and furnished 
only material for experience. Both of these were extreme reaction- 
ists. The old systems would give to the child abstract results of 
experience — ready-made and only requiring to be hung up as so 
many pictures in the mind's gallery, fastened to its walls by memory's 
chains. The reformers would give nothing but the stuff from which 
the child must wearily work out all of his own representations and sym- 
bols. Fortunately, there is here as elsewhere truth in both camps and 
the present tendency is to include in education any training that will 
enable one to meet the problems of his social relations with sense and 
success. First-hand experience, and much more of it than we now 
get, is necessary, and, reenforcing and revising it, we must have the 
best results of the experience of others. 

Industrial training to be effective must have both these factors. 
Not only must the children work in shop, kitchen, sewing-room and 
laboratory, but as they get from these occupations serviceable habits, 
they must be given the study of the work of others by the investiga- 
tion of the industries and arts of life. We are ready to consider as 
industrial training the work which the advocates of manual training 
bring to us, but we have not yet given sufficient attention to the mean- 
ing of the work done by such men as Mr. Thurston, of the Chicago 
Normal, in organizing for study typical industries. That is, we are 
more ready to turn over the problem to a special teacher of certain 
matters of technique, than we are to look into the subject we are 
teaching, whether geography, history or mathematics and determine 
its relation to industrial training. The social aspects of a subject are 
not very apparent when but one member of a school faculty is working 
at it. 

The problem, then, of industrial education is to enable the student, 
by means of observation of and participation in the industrial life of 
the day with facility to form for himself a program equal to the emer- 
gencies which are sure to arise in his own industrial relations. This 


is all there is to it, and yet how much of our present school work 
would stand this test ? Before the industrial revolution, the schools 
could afford to spend their time on " that which profiteth not," for, 
while there was that much waste and loss, yet the connection between 
the home and society was direct and the youth could go from one to 
the other with reasonable certainty that the training afforded in the 
first would give him a footing in the second. But the child cannot 
enter at once into the business life of today, neither has mankind done 
so. The shop, the store, the factory, the warehouse, the bank, the 
hotel belong to "grown-up " life. They are the " grown-up " ways of 
getting a living. City life represents the most completely " grown- 
up" stage of the life of the race, and consequent upon its development 
has led to a removal of nearly all making from the home to the dress- 
maker, the baker, the shoemaker, the creamery, the waterworks, and, 
in flat-life, to the janitor. Even now on the farm and in the small 
town there is room in the blacksmith shop and around the new build- 
ing for the boy to loaf and learn the elements of many industrial 
problems, but the city factory has a notice : " No Admittance Except 
on Business," and the new city building is inclosed. Look about us 
and see how many opportunities are there for children to get what you 
and I have scarcely valued in our own development because it came to 
us as free as air. As in economics we are concerned only with that 
which is limited, so there was no need for the school to take account 
of these processes until they should become, as thev have now become, 
no longer free goods. 

These new conditions give to the school of today, in its relations 
to the home and society, something of that held in logic by the middle 
term to the minor and major terms. We are given these two terms, 
home and society, and from their conditipns we must make up a mid- 
dle term which will solve the problem. We are vexed, like the old 
logicians, with the difficulties of the undistributed middle. For this 
reason there is no subject better deserving of study by us as teachers 
than the industrial revolution, and this study, to bring us the most 
benefit, must not stop with the inventions of the past and the changes 
wrought in England by them, but it must lead directly to a study of 
the conditions that are present in our own community as a result of 
this greatest of all revolutions. 

As I have suggested, there are two immediate problems : the first 
is that the opportunities for industrial education at the hands of the 
family and society are no longer free goods and for this reason the 


school must furnish them ; the second is that in furnishing these we 
must remember that any training provided must take account not only 
of the changes of the past, but also of those which are coming ; that is, 
we must recognize our industrial instability. Perhaps the best state- 
ment of this phase of the problem is found in the second volume of 
the American Journal of Sociology in an article by Mrs. Florence Kel- 
ley. I will quote briefly: What is needed in the industrial training of 
today is a "combination of qualities which will enable (the worker) to 
turn with facility from one occupation to another, as each, in turn, is 
supplanted in the course of industrial evolution." The worker needs 
"not so much skill, but facility in acquiring skill and adapting one's 
self to the conditions of a new occupation." 

The effect of the attempts to meet these problems is very evidently 
a tendency to unify school work. We often speak of the branches 
taken up for study in a school. A more careful use of language would 
call them not the "branches" but the "twigs" of study. If, instead 
of taking for granted the numerous traditional lines of school work, 
we would analyze some of the social conditions in which we find our- 
selves placed and trace these back to their elements in order to deter- 
mine what the school should supply to help us meet these conditions, 
there would soon be a change in the school bill-of-fare. 

I have become impatient many times in the past with the oft- 
repeated excuse which pupils, wishing to be allowed to drop a study, 
would bring in, "I do not need this, for I do not expect to become a 
teacher," but the more I have studied the matter the more I have come 
to agree with the judgment of the children and their parents — our 
schools are too largely given over to meeting the supposed needs of 
those who will instruct the next generation. We teach subjects whose 
main justification is that they may be known by those who teach 
after us. Such reasoning in a circle is hardly justifiable. Some 
states, too, provide more opportunities for the training of teachers 
than they do for those who wish to engage in other pursuits. I have 
recently been interested in the case of a young girl who earnestly 
wishes to become a trained nurse, but after careful investigation the 
only opportunity afforded by the state that is within her reach is to 
attend the normal school. There is no question that we need more 
trained teachers, but their training should include some experience 
with other industrial problems than school teaching, and their num- 
ber should not include those who enter the profession because teach- 
ing alone stands an open door. 


Professor Laughlin has recently said {Chautauquan, December '99) : 
"The state, if we wish to use some of 'the social power running to 
waste,' ought to make it as easy for an adult or child of the unskilled 
class to get industrial training as to learn physics or geometry." This 
suggests another line of advancement upon which, here and there, a 
little is accomplished, enough to show at least that the state is awaken- 
ing to its responsibility to a class that, in the case of many of its mem- 
bers, was driven out of the school by unnatural conditions found there, 
or was drawn out by the lack of means of subsistence to keep it there. 
The state is responsible not alone for the training of the children of 
school age, but also for furnishing opportunities for the training of 
those who were compelled at from ten to fifteen to plunge into the 
problems of the street and the factory. The inadequacy of our night 
schools is generally apparent. At one time I made a study of these 
schools in a large city — there was very little given except number and 
language work, and even in the latter I found one young teacher, a 
foreigner of university training, who could read English readily, yet 
compelled to prepare lessons in the book from which he had to teach, 
with the aid of the dictionary. A man who could read our standard 
authors with no difficulty and who could carry on conversation on 
nearly any subject with ease compelled to teach to other foreigners an 
English vocabulary for which he had found no use and for which his 
students would have no use from the standpoint either of industry or 
of literature. 

This great middle term in present-day society, the school, is reach- 
ing out in one direction by means of the kindergarten and in another 
bv means of extension classes, mothers' and parents' meetings, clubs, 
and settlements. The line is lengthening and in places there is 
breadth and even some depth, but the time has come in which there 
are arising superintendents who are " Men of the mighty days and 
equal to those days." (Whitman of Grant.) To them the school is a 
great opportunity to open up to all the doors of industry and art. They 
see that their responsibility is not for a part but for the whole com- 
munity. It is at once objected that the community does not see this 
— that is one of the chief industrial problems that the educational 
forces must meet. We are doing better than we did in our relations 
to the home, we are bringing the parents to the schools, but how many 
of us have seriously tried to bring in the citizens? There is a differ- 
ence between a parent and a citizen. Both are needed in the school. 
It has seemed to me in my public-school work that I had no function 


that was more effective in results in the school than bringing the citi- 
zens into the schools. We can never accomplish what we desire in 
industrial training until we do bring this subject to the focus of con- 
sciousness of business men and women. 

As you have no doubt already seen, I do not find that there is 
any reason for differentiating in a large part of the school life that 
which makes for art from that which makes for industry. Both call 
for participation and for observation. Both are in the kitchen, shop, 
laboratory, and drawing room on one hand, and in museum, store, 
factory, library, and art gallery on the other. The community which 
undertakes to train its members to meet the demands of modern life 
must furnish its teachers with all of these means in some form or 
other. In our effort to get tools into the pupils' hands, we must not 
forget his need for the results of others' tools, brushes and pens. 

It is not necessary to have the most elaborate equipment. I felt 
greatly pleased last fall, when my students attended an exhibit of con- 
structive work made by the children, to have so many who had been 
country- or village-school teachers remark: "Why, there is nothing 
here that we could not have done in our own schools." The best 
results that I ever saw accomplished in industrial lines were in a two- 
room school in a poor country district by a teacher with very little 
money and almost no special training. 

Mr. Bennett's discussion in a recent address of the standard of 
work to be required of pupils is very timely. We must, as someone 
has said: "Exhaust the pupil but not the subject." Very often, how- 
ever, we do not sufficiently regard the child's point of view and con- 
sequently undervalue his product. I am always reminded in this case 
of the scene in "As You Like It" in which Touchstone introduces his 
new-found wife, "An ill-favored thing, but mine own." 

One of the greatest social values of this work comes from the fact 
that it brings back into the child's daily life two important factors, 
now too often missing in school relations. It seems unfortunate that 
two functions of life, which have done so much to bring about our 
present civilization should be the crimes of the schoolroom. I refer 
to communication and mutual aid. In industrial training, either from 
the standpoint of process or of product, these are indispensable. Then, 
too, the great amount of expression by means of written work — I 
dare not call it communication — can be reduced. When a child can 
be tested by a thing made instead of merely by words about it, he can 
accomplish better results in what writing he does do and his teachers 


will have more time to spend vvitli him in forming his style. When 
we learn how to use expeditions, bread-making, carpenter work and 
sewing as means of testing instruction, we shall all be happier and 
our eyes will have a chance to rest. 

There is no danger that the language work will surfer. Recently 
in one of our western cities, a school test was held at the city market. 
The cooks at this place challenged the girls of the cooking school to 
a breakmaking contest. The school girls won. Could you have heard 
some of the interested parties discussing the matter before and after, 
you would have thought that they seldom had a subject which led 
them to make such effective use of language. 

In reading, too, there comes much help from industrial training. 
There is a natural motive for reading on the subject on which the 
pupil is at work. Half of the new vocabulary comes to him in the 
natural process of the work. The coordinations are almost formed, 
and it is easy to complete them. The newspaper is a mine for teacher 
and pupils at work on industrial lines. What, if the student does 
find much that is untrue, will he ever be better situated to learn to 
read the newspaper with discrimination ? Have we not a social respon- 
sibility to him in this matter? The Scientific American, Popular 
Science Monthly, and Engineering Magazine have great attractions dur- 
ing the grammar-school and high-school periods for those interested 
in industry. 

Conversation is directly aided. One of the best results I have seen 
coming from shop and kitchen work has been that here was afforded a 
reasonable home study or occupation. It is a delight to follow this up 
and find the familv circle, instead of being distracted by "new-fangled" 
methods of percentage or grammar, gathered together in the evening 
about a table, all at work on the child's loom or some other form of 
construction to be used in his history or nature-study recitation the 
next day. 

Another serious problem is that which concerns food and its prepa- 
ration. The social consequences of present conditions, from the stand- 
point alike of intemperance and waste, are greater than we dream of. 
It seems to me that right training here in the only social institution 
which we can control is our chief means of advancement. Let alone 
the educational value of cooking, which is very great, the social results 
of a generation to whom this problem has come into consciousness, 
are difficult to estimate. Boys, as well as girls, need this, for it is 
only when both heads of the home understand what this means, that 


reasonable advance will be made. In some schools, as at Brookline, 
during two half-years in the elementary-school course the boys and 
the girls change work. 

While I believe that, in the elementary school at least, the selection 
of industrial work should be made with reference to the individual 
pupil and not on the basis of sex, under existing conditions of equip- 
ment, school programs, prejudice, etc., the sex division must often be 
held to, and, even when individual needs are the first consideration, 
the groups show the sex line to a considerable extent. Much of the 
criticism that is made upon work offered for girls in our public schools 
would be entirely removed if teachers and training schools studied 
more carefully the needs of the homes of their pupils rather than the 
tables of the wealthy. Especially in schools in which these courses 
are required should there be a careful regard for simplicity and 
economy. The economic problems to be met in such work are those 
of average homes rather than of domestic service. The kitchen garden 
work in connection with some of our kindergarten training schools 
has much suggestion for us. In fact, the general home training 
atmosphere of many of these schools while sometimes accompanied by 
somewhat superficial work yet indicates a line of growth too little 
taken into account elsewhere. 

There are many more conditions and consequences which suggest 
themselves but cannot be discussed here. One, however, must not be 
omitted. Every student finds himself in the course of time where the 
matter of recreation is a serious concern to him. The value of some 
handwork to busy members of society leads them to seek this relief, 
but it is soon found that a manual occupation, to be recreation to the 
tired brainworker, should have been learned in other than his busy 
adult days. The doing is a recreation, but the learning proves to be 
another source of mental fatigue. 

After all has been said for the claims of industrial training, society 
offers a serious objection. A man recently read Dr. Dewey's School 
and Society, and when he returned the book to me remarked, "That 
can never be done, for it will cost six times what the schools today 
cost." When, some time ago, -inquiries were sent out from a normal 
school regarding the equipment teachers would find in the district 
schools, one trustee replied, "We don't want teachers trained to use 
apparatus — what we want is teachers who are so trained that they can 
get along without apparatus." I do not believe that it pays to be 
radical or rash in demands — the truth is none of us have learned how 


much can be done with a very little, yet when we contrast the poverty 
of the schools which even some of us attended with the excellent 
equipment found in many schools today, we know that the world has 
moved and therefore the world will move. Our great responsibility to 
society is to help it to come to consciousness of what it really needs. 
Our duty lies, then, in furnishing the training which makes men 
and women ready to form programs as the circumstances of life arise — 
which gives them a stream of images which compel completion. The 
larger school is to take account of the actual conditions of life and 
enable people to meet the necessity of growth in their own lines. 
Workingmen contribute to the lives of thinkers and artists and so 
enrich them — there must be centers which carry back to the working- 
men the results of thought and art. Their children and ours must be 
enabled to follow manual occupations and yet grow. Connections 
must be established between these different processes of life so that 
each is enriched by the others. Without industrial training the child 
cannot enter fully into an appreciation of industrial conditions or 
realize himself as a factor in the world's network of doing for others. 
Changed conditions bring to our generation returns from industry 
which it does not know how to distribute. Only as the workers of all 
classes awaken to the new social consciousness and possess its con- 
science will they be able to live the full lives that our industrial evolu- 
tion demands. To bring this about is the function of the school. 
When its work is well done, the worker of any class, in the midst of 
apparent instability, will 

" Be like the bird, for a moment perched, 
On a frail branch while he sings; 
Though he feels it bend, yet he sings his song, 
For he knows that he has wings." 



Henry S. T ib b its, 
Principal Spry School, Chicago, Illinois. 

The teaching of cooking and sewing, for local reasons called house- 
hold arts, was introduced into the Chicago public schools two and a 
half years ago. A special committee of five members of the Board of 
Education inspected at the Hammond School the teaching of these 
subjects which they had permitted at private expense. Twenty-five 
thousand dollars was appropriated for providing equipment and initiat- 
ing the work for its first year. Of this but $18,500 was used. Equip- 
ments for cooking were placed in eleven schools and one has been 
placed in the new Dewey school. Each of these has been a centre to 
which several neighboring schools have sent the girls of the seventh 
and eighth grades for cooking lessons, one period of an hour and a 
half each week. The number of pupils taught at a centre averages 
450. In other schools not contiguous to cooking centres, eleven 
teachers of sewing have given lessons of an hour and a half each week 
to the girls of the seventh and eighth grades, the teachers being peripa- 

November 1, 1900, 4372 pupils were rceiving instruction in cooking 
and 4853 pupils in sewing, or 9225 out of a total of 13,000 girls of 
those grades. 

Teachers are required to be high school graduates who have taken 
a course in domestic science in some secondary institution. This 
secures an able corps of teachers, several of whom have been called to 
more honorable and lucrative positions in other cities. 

The courses of lessons in both cooking and sewing are eclectic, 
having been arranged by the respective associations of teachers. They 
have been revised and modified as experience dictated. The cooking 
lessons are distinctly a plain food course, lobster salad and charlotte 
russe omitted. Each pupil cooks the prescribed food and either eats 
it or carries it home. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. The 
success or failure of a lesson is immediately apparent. Much effort 

'Read before the Department of Superintendence of the National Educational 
Association in Chicago, February 27, 1901. 

138 ("APRIL 


has been given to securing the principal helpfulness of the lessons of 
the day in the home and a failure is analyzed and perplexities dissolved. 
The grade teachers have often wisely correlated with cooking, physiol- 
ogy, nature study, and some topics of practical arithmetic. 

Instruction in sewing is similarly practical. A study of the nature 
of cloth is succeeded by the various processes of its adaptation to 
clothing. Finally simple garments are made by the pupil fpr her own 
use. The related subjects of invention, growth and manufacture of 
cloth materials, fibers and fabrics, good taste in dressing, shopping, and 
laundering are developed. 

Sociologically considered the church industrial schools have been 
vastly improved upon and placed in the public school, where not simply 
the poor, good girl is taught sewing but every girl in the schoolroom, 
rich or poor, open minded or clam-like. 

The cost of domestic science is $1.81 per pupil per year; the cost 
of manual training is $3.34; the cost of German is $4.86; this is based 
upon the average for the past year. These figures are significant either 
for comparison with other studies or with domestic studies in other 
cities. The salaries of teachers of cooking and sewing in Chicago are 
the same as those of grade teachers, ranging from $500 the first year 
to $900 for the tenth year. Much of the success of the teaching of 
cooking depends, of course, upon the method. It is distinctly a labora- 
tory subject and like all other laboratory work is vastly superior when 
individual equipment is supplied. Hence we have the individual sets 
of dishes and a stove for each pupil. By using small portions, when 
they suffice the expense for material is inconsiderable, even with individ- 
ual instruction. One and one fourth cents per pupil per week is the 
allowance in Chicago. While individual desires will ever increase the 
cost of equipment it is possible and wise to equip for the teaching of 
cooking upon just as accurate and scientific principles and practical 
use at the expense of $150 for a class of 24 as at the rate of $500. 

One of the noblest movements of the present day is that which 
would magnify home. The chair, bright light, and gorgeous embel- 
lishments are a more harmful element to the saloon than its alcohol. 
If the honest arts of the home be made less irksome, because they are 
better understood, and more attractive because they are more artistic 
we shall have come at the root of this matter. The evening meal of 
the factory hand may be more tempting than the lunch counter, and 
the clothing of the family as well as the arrangement and tidiness of 
the living room at home may be as attractive as the gilded home of 


vice. Domestic science may become the most unsuspected and not 
the least efficient enemy of the saloon. 

Instruction in cooking in Chicago is well amplified in its scientific 
relations. The simple biology of yeast and vinegar is developed. A 
careful classification of food values as fats, proteids, carbo-hydrates, 
mineral matter etc., accompanies the study of the composition of the 
human body and its food requisites. The dietetic principles of suitable 
proportions of these food elements is given and the complementary 
nature of certain foods shown. The reasons for the use of hot or cold 
water, the relative merits of boiling or baking, of the raw and cooked 
states, of acid and base ; such scientific data adapted to the age and 
knowledge of pupils enter into cooking lessons and furnish the science 
to enrich the household art. The dealing with material things intro- 
duces elements of accuracy and order not found in the strictly intel- 
lectual subjects. Just as in all forms of manual training, small groups 
of muscles are coordinated and deft manipulations mastered, thus 
realizing complete and extended reactions. 

The useful hints, skilled methods and adept ways acquired by the 
teachers in their special training are imparted in turn .to the pupils and 
as in all education the experience of the race is placed at the disposal 
of the child. The girl, accustomed to black bread and beer for dinner, 
to poorly cooked food wastefully used, learns to prepare palatable 
dishes from economical materials. It is difficult to measure the benef- 
icent practical value of domestic science in these humble homes. It 
is a theme for eloquence and insures permanency to the subject of 
study no matter how much it may be temporarily buffeted about as a 
fad. To the girl of luxury with servants at home whose life may be 
distinctly social, frivolous and gay, domestic science yields an appro- 
priate sense of the importance of the human body, its nourishment and 
clothing, thus introducing a more harmonious and reasonable life. In 
the wealthier school districts of Chicago domestic science has been as 
welcome to the girls as in the districts of humbler homes. 

It has never been seriously charged or believed that domestic sci- 
ence demeans the course of study or is a preparation for domestics. 
We teach cooking and sewing at the age when pupils unconsciously 
learn that honest toil is not disgraceful. Mrs. Richards found in 
Boston that fourth -grade pupils gladly received lessons in scrubbing 
and cleaning which older girls disdained. 

The impotency of the woman who says she cannot sew on a button 
or mend a rent is a disease peculiar to modern urban life. The young 


bridegroom may profess to the wife who forgets to salt her first oat- 
meal that he likes the oatmeal very much better that way, but senti- 
ment does not blossom freely from a ground of indigestion. 

Aside from the general effects of domestic-science training its 
specific effect upon every third or fourth girl of distinctly motor pre- 
dominance is marked and extremely salutary. Every teacher of man- 
ual training, cooking or sewing will bear witness to the aptitude of 
certain otherwise backward pupils in those studies which involve the 
more extended motor reactions. The course of study is thus flexibly 
adapted to the predominant activity of the pupil. 

The teaching of sewing and cooking may be considered again in 
the light of school occupations. While they train hand and eye there 
is ever present a directing mind having in view a distinct end : " I 
made this loaf of bread." "I planned and sewed my own dress." 
The peculiar advantage of cooking and sewing as school occupations is 
that they each parallel practical arts at home. The home is the practice 
department for the lessons of domestic science. No need can be more 
evident than that of food and clothing. It springs from a fundamen- 
tal instinct. Few desires are more strong than to be well fed and 
well clothed. Reason gives as a secondary basis the desire for long 
life and a life of bodily comfort. Theoretically this gives us a most 
substantial basis for interest. Practically it proves a true basis, for 
pupils of cooking and sewing in Chicago never ask to be excused from 
these studies because they dislike them. There is increasing call for the 
introduction of these studies in the schools which do not now have them. 
Despite the disadvantages of being compelled to walk a long distance 
from the home school once a week in variable weather, the girls who 
study cooking are enthusiastic and regular in their attendance, although 
the subject is quasi-optional and no other subject compels such travel. 
The interest is sufficient to overcome all reluctance to preparing 
material and cleaning of utensils. An interest in digestion becomes 
an all-around satisfied interest when the pupil actually cooks and eats 
and comfortably assimilates the food of which she has just been study- 
ing in her physiology. 

Domestic science is an integral part of any scheme of sound cor- 
relation. If the school of the future does not bend all subjects into a 
mechanical circle of correlation it will certainly harmonize subjects, 
multiply interrelations and remove many of the present partitions. It 
will find its basis of interest largely in the occupations. Cooking and 
sewing are occupations closely related to the life of woman. 


The objection to special teachers for special subjects, so-called, 
whether German or Latin, manual training or cooking, singing or 
drawing, is overcome in the face of the diversity of modern life. With 
the great variety of specialists in the medical profession, for example, 
can it be reasonably demanded that there shall be but one kind of 
teacher ? 

A very considerable portion of the business world is occupied in 
supplying the food and clothing for mankind. Hence the relation of 
domestic science to the economics of the world. Scientists inform us 
man does not live as long as he might in comparison with the life of 
animals. The relation of mal-nutrition and indigestion to the harm- 
ful effects of foods and to the shortness of human life is clear. The 
theory may be boldly stated that if man ate wisely appropriate food 
he would live longer and more happily. It is the aim of teachers of 
domestic science to teach and bring into practical use knowledge of 
proper food and the best methods of preparation. 

Domestic science has been styled a fad by a certain portion of the 
public, along with drawing, music, physical culture, manual training, 
and German, and has endured with them the storm and stress period 
in Chicago. One week ago the board of education raised the salaries 
of teachers of Chicago, as one expressed it, "scraping together" all the 
money they could for the teachers. At the same time they scraped 
off two months of the term of domestic science, providing this year for 
only eight months' instruction. The most helpful sign of the progress 
of domestic science in Chicago is the increasing interest of the subject 
among teachers and principals and especially among the pupils. It is 
easy to predict that another generation will take a more generous 
interest and largely increase the teaching of the subject. 


Arthur D. Dean, 
Mechanic Arts High School, Springfield, Mass. 

The object of this paper is to show the need of a school in which 
there is the teaching of trades at public expense, and to outline a 
school which is attempting to put this idea into practice. No one 
will deny that there is a demand for trained mechanics in the United 
States. No nation is so blessed as ours as regards agriculture, com- 
merce, and manufactures. We lead the world in all except commerce; 
we are the wealthiest people in the world, partly for the reason that 
we have an abundance of natural resources, and partly because we had 
as our early settlers men of great vigor and resources. All young 
nations having the great advantage of plenty of raw materials are 
enabled to advance rapidly in special directions. South Africa has her 
gold fields; Australia, her grazing lands; and the United States, her 
coal and iron fields, forests, plains, and immense water-power facilities. 

As a nation increases in wealth and productive ability, its natural 
resources are reduced, and more dependence has to be placed upon an 
economic use of its natural gifts, and especial attention paid to the best 
possible use of means at hand. The older the nation, the more con- 
gested becomes the population of the cities, the more idleness increases, 
the more prisons and asylums are established, and the greater becomes 
the question how these people shall live intelligently and support them- 
selves. The progress of civilization makes it necessary to redouble 
our efforts, if we are to hold our own. No one will question that 
the American youth ought to receive in the public schools the best 
possible preparation for right living. The indolent and criminal 
individuals come from the classes which have never fairly secured an 
industrial hold on the community. The unprecedented growth of 
our population, its rapid concentration into towns and cities, the pro- 
found changes in our social and industrial conditions, and the enor- 
mously increased facilities for intercourse with other nations have laid 
great duties upon the present generation. We are participating in 
world-wide competition, and if the nation is to satisfy its ambitions, 
meet its required privileges, it must be equipped with every resource 
1901I 143 


which education can supply. That we are not indifferent to foreign 
trade is evident from recent developments in politics ; but, much as 
we desire to obtain it, we can never succeed except by sending supe- 
rior articles at low prices and made by skilled workmen. We attempt 
to hold our own markets by high tariff, but articles " made in Germany " 
do creep in and successfully compete with home products. If we are 
to compete with cheaper labor and yet maintain our higher wages and 
better standards of living, we must make this difference of wages good 
by applying a higher order of intelligence to our work and get a 
resulting product which is efficient and cheap. 

The past thirty-five years show great advancement in the education 
of engineers, architects, and designers. It is just as evident that the 
foremen and mechanics in the ranks have not advanced in their work, 
and do not have their former skill. The advancements made in manu- 
facture and use of machinery, improved methods in transacting busi- 
ness, different standards of living, have all tended to bring about a 
most radical change in the character of the work demanded and in the 
ability and intelligence of the workmen. In industry all things are 
becoming new, and a new method for preparing young men for 
their life-work must be initiated with foresight and established with 

There are a number of schools in the United States which train 
men for technical pursuits. Some schools train men primarily along 
the theoretical lines, and some in both theory and practice. There 
is, however, a constant tendency for the lower-grade schools, and 
schools in which shop practice predominates, to become higher tech- 
nical schools by imperceptible advancement. Let me enumerate three 
different types of technical schools in the country, each of which 
attempts to guide a young man into his right career. 

There are, first, the higher technical schools, where engineering 
branches are studied, with more or less work in the shops. The aim 
of these schools is to furnish graduates fitted to carry on engineering 
work, to be draughtsmen, engineers, and designers ; in other words, to 
train men able to direct in the solution of the great engineering prob- 
lems always arising in a new country in overcoming natural conditions, 
and later in overcoming conditions which are the results of civiliza- 
tion. I will not say that there is no demand for such men, but I will 
state that there is a diminishing field for the consulting-engineer 
type because of the aggregation of capital which brings about the 
economics which are the result of large amounts of output. There is 


a lessened demand for highly trained men such as consulting engi- 
neers ; there is more demand for engineers and superintendents who 
have the requisite caliber and competence to have charge of the various 
departments of production, and the greatest demand for artisans who 
have'been systematically trained and taught. 

The technical schools are not as available for the working classes 
as those in Germany, France, and Switzerland. The working classes 
have little to complain regarding education, except that it does not 
have a strong enough or a close enough relation to the industries 
which the working class pursues. The higher technical education 
is bevond the reach of the masses. The practical essentials ought to 
be within their reach. 

Secondly, there are the manual-training high schools, mechanic 
arts high schools, and schools of like character, supported partly or 
wholly at public expense. These schools usually require for entrance 
an elementary training of at least eight years' duration ; and for 
graduation, the successful completion of a course of study covering 
from three to four years. These young men pursue academic work of 
high-school grade, together with about equal time of shopwork and 
drawing. The work they do aims to be educational and practical, and 
these schools send many graduates to colleges and technical schools. 
The graduates of these schools usually become engineers, draughtsmen, 
superintendents of mills, or enter some business requiring technical 
knowledge, as well as executive ability. 

The third class of schools are the industrial art schools, textile 
schools and trade schools, which are usually supported by endowments, 
state aid, private contributions, and paid tuitions. They are usually 
under the supervision of trustees and do not bear a close relation to the 
public schools. Such schools aim to train young men so that they can 
enter the ranks of labor as capable and intelligent artisans ; their pur- 
pose is to give instruction to young men in certain trades, and to enable 
young men already in the trades to improve themselves. These schools 
usually receive applicants of high-school age who have a fair education 
— young men of good promise, clean habits, and earnest purpose. They 
are very popular and have a large number of applicants. Accompany- 
ing the day work is evening work along similar lines for young men 
already in the trade who desire to improve themselves, or young men 
in other lines who think they see an opportunity for advancement by 
learning a trade. 

The technical schools and manual-training schools do not attempt 


to train young men in business methods or to compete with shop prac- 
tice ; they usually produce very fine and exact pieces of work regard- 
less of time and expense. The industrial schools aim to make their 
work very practical and to conform as far as possible with industrial 
life. The men engaged in teaching these trades are usually skilled 
mechanics who have shown especial skill in teaching, and they make 
every effort to teach the quickest, best, and most practical methods. 

Owing to the decadence of the apprenticeship system, few oppor- 
tunities are given to young men to learn a trade in a systematic and 
thorough manner. The result is that skilled laborers who know one 
trade, and who have a general training in mechanical processes, are 
exceedingly few. Trade unions have in the past antagonized the 
aspirations of young men who wish to work at a trade, and yet little 
restraint has been placed on the immigration of Europeans trained in 
skilled labor. If our mechanics are to be men of the highest skill, if 
they are to work intelligently, develop individually as a trade develops, 
they must receive special training for the work. We know that the 
educated and thoughtful worker produces more superior work than the 
uneducated worker. Under the apprenticeship system a young man 
working beside the master-workman was enabled to learn his trade 
because he was a pupil as well as a worker. It is no wonder that a 
young man under these conditions absorbed all the processes of the 
trade, and was able to see the rough materials made into finished prod- 
ucts. Owing to division of labor, the factory is no longer a school 
of instruction, because most operations are carried on in such a way 
that it is difficult to bring to light and emphasize the fundamental 
principles. Without describing all the details of modern methods of 
manufacture, we know that industrial conditions have changed, and we 
know that we must meet these changes. 

The progress of a workman is hampered by the necessity of keep- 
ing him employed in certain restricted lines of work, once he has 
acquired skill, in order that he may do his share toward making the 
factory profitable. The apprenticeship system has gone forever, and 
we must not look back with regret upon what seems the ideal condi- 
tions, but strike out into new ways. It is surely the day of specializa- 
tion, the day of special training for everyone engaged in professional 
life ; and why not a training for what are called the humbler callings 
of life? 

The workingman's best friend is the school system; it does much 
to aid him in assuming the attitude of equality. It will be claimed by 


many that there is an economic danger in educating mechanics ; that 
young men so educated will force other men out ; that the industrial 
field is full ; or, in general, that there is danger of over-education. 
They will claim that to educate a day laborer so that he becomes a 
journeyman plumber, and to advance a journeyman plumber to the 
position of master-plumber, and so on, is simply benefiting some men 
at the expense of depriving others of their occupation. We must 
remember, however, that science is abolishing occupations at the lower 
end of the scale and creating new ones at the top. Where are the 
army of day laborers — the reapers, hod-carriers, men that were doing 
the purely brute part of the labor ? Science is demanding whole 
armies of skilled workmen in the new employments of the last part of 
this century. Consider the new industries which have arisen in the 
past fifty years, requiring men to fill many new occupations, such as 
telegraphers, electricians, railway employes. 

It never happens that laborers on a sewer thrown out of work by 
the introduction of the traveling cranes obtain places as electricians. 
They do not waste their time trying to enter one of the newly created, 
superior callings, but they do creep up in the scale of occupation. 
Intelligent occupations are being provided at the upper end of the 
scale, and the brute-like labor at the other end is being replaced by 
machinery; and undoubtedly in time there will be little left of labor 
that requires an uneducated laborer. 

There is a growing demand on the part of the people that the pub- 
lic schools should fit pupils more effectually for life than they are now 
doing. Although this demand by the people is not recognized in 
many of our educational theories, it remains true that there is an ever- 
increasing feeling among many of our successful business and profes- 
sional men that an educational system that sends its graduates into the 
world without the means of earning a living is lacking in a most vital 
respect. Not a few men are observing that present courses of study 
are arranged for the few who expect to attend college. Our theory 
must broaden to meet the times, and the public school must connect 
more closely with the present conditions of industrial life and with the 
after-life of the pupil. In estimating the value of any subject it is 
necessary to consider whether the training received in school will be 
continued in the duties of after-life. 

Having attempted to show that the industrial standing of a nation 
will be best when the industrial training of the rank and file is best, let 
me point out three ways to enter upon trade teaching. First, by opening 


an evening trade school as a department of the manual-training 
high school, making such addition to its equipment as will make it 
available for trade teaching. This trade department will be composed 
of young men who are willing to utilize their evenings in advancing 
themselves ; young men who are at work during the day at a trade ; 
young men not at a trade who think a change of occupation desirable ; 
and finally of those pupils of a day manual-training high school who 
feel that they would like to work overtime in order to perfect them- 
selves in a chosen trade. If the manual-training high school has 
practical men as teachers, these can be engaged to do this extra work. 
If this is not possible, then the services of intelligent mechanics can be 
secured as teachers. It would be well to have the instructor who is in 
charge of the day work supervise the night work, in order to avoid any 
friction. The Mechanic Arts High School, Springfield, Mass., has 
established an evening trade school, and later on I shall speak of it 
more in detail. 

The second method to proceed in trade teaching is to offer trade 
courses in the curriculum of existing manual-training high schools. 
These courses would have extra shopwork in all the lines of mechanical 
work of each of the four years, with the fourth year devoted almost 
entirely to shop practice in a special line. Such a course would prac- 
tically supplement the manual-training course, which aims to develop 
manual skill as a part of general education, by a course in shopwork, 
which specializes in favor of some one trade, and develops manual skill 
for the purpose of enabling a student to enter upon a specific occupa- 
tion and earn his living. 

After a student has received instruction in mathematics, science, 
English, and other branches of academic work, and has had fifteen 
hours of shop practice and drawing a week, he could easily be prepared 
for a trade in one or two years. The time needed to supplement his 
manual-training course by a course in some special line of shopwork 
depends largely upon the trade he wishes to pursue. Plumbing, tin- 
smithing, steam-fitting, blacksmithing, bricklaying, and painting are 
some of the trades which can be learned in a comparatively short time, 
while tool-making, pattern-making, and the machinists' trade require 
much longer time, as well as a higher degree of skill, in order to perfect 
one's self. The extra shopwork demanded for this course involves 
more or less reduction in the number of hours devoted to academic 
work ; and to carry out the scheme some of the higher academic 
branches must be omitted. 


It is considered necessary that the manual-training high-school 
work precede any trade-school work. Although this is true, it is very 
evident that the boys that need the trade-school work leave the elemen- 
tary school before they reach the high-school grade, and thus they 
miss the manual-training work, to say nothing about missing the 
special trade work. These pupils leave school for several reasons : 
they may be obliged to contribute to their support, or their parents 
see nothing to gain in keeping them in school ; or, finally, they may not 
have the ability to master the academic studies required for admission 
to the manual-training high school. 

This brings me to the third course in trades. This course is for boys 
over fourteen years of age who are found in the various grades of our 
grammar schools and who would like to have a trade. These boys are 
at the most receptive age, and there is no better opportunity to instill 
into their minds those essentials of education that are so much needed. 

It must be remembered that our industrial life gains the majority of 
its recruits from the boys that never graduate from the grammar 
schools, and the meager academic training, combined with lack of 
manual skill, results in much of the poor work and unpleasant labor 
conditions with which many of us are familiar. These boys could be 
given a course in academic work consisting largely of arithmetic, 
English, bookkeeping, and elementary science, combined with manual 
instruction. It would probably be expedient to have the academic 
work for half a school day and leave the remainder free for shopwork. 
The shopwork ought to begin with a course in sloyd a little more 
extensive than the present grammar-school course, and its educational 
value ought to be emphasized. A course in benchwork, taught from 
an educational standpoint, is just as essential a part of elementary 
instruction as " the three R's." Gradually the trade element ought to be 
introduced, and finally the pupil, choosing his trade, would enter upon 
the course of instruction prepared for that trade. Such a course for 
certain grammar-school boys would tempt many, who otherwise would 
leave school and go to work, to remain for a few years longer in the 
hope of ultimately earning higher wages as skilled workmen. 

Large cities would require school buildings especially equipped for 
this work, and located in different parts of the cities, while smaller 
cities could utilize the manual-training school equipment and have the 
academic work done in the regular grammar school. Such a procedure 
would not entail much extra expense, as the pupils attending the 
trade schools would relieve, to a certain extent, the grammar schools. 


A comparison between the present-day method of attempting to 
learn a trade in a shop and the trade-school system I have outlined 
shows clearly the advantages which the latter offers young men. Nowa- 
days a young man can obtain only a very limited knowledge of a trade 
for he has no opportunity for learning except through observation which 
is a poor substitute for the skill acquired working under the direction 
of a master-workman. In a trade school such as I present every 
endeavor is made to advance the student in the trade he is learning; 
and by reason of the care devoted to his instruction, he readily 
comprehends the use of tools and becomes capable of doing work 
valuable to his employers. Furthermore, a young man can quickly 
determine whether he possesses an aptitude for a certain trade, and 
can readily make a change in case he has erred in his selection. 

It remains to be said that no trade school can make a finished 
workman, as it is practically impossible for a city to equip and main- 
tain a trade school which will imitate a first-class shop in all 
respects — a shop that can manufacture all kinds of machinery and 
attempt all lines of industrial and commercial life. It follows, then 
that all graduates would have to serve more or less time in a shop 
before they would become finished workmen. 

Some will say that the teaching of one trade will necessarily involve 
the teaching of all trades, and the question will be asked : Where will 
it all end ? Certainly no city can teach all trades, but they can teach 
the limited number of trades demanded for that city. The city of 
Springfield received calls for teaching four trades, namely, tool 
making, machine-shop practice, plumbing, and pattern-making. Large 
cities like New York, Chicago, and Boston would need to provide 
instruction in several more trades. 

To present the matter more definitely, I will give in some detail 
the experiment tried in Springfield, Mass., of teaching trades at public 
expense. One of the most interesting, satisfactory, and practical 
developments of the Springfield schools in the last few years has been 
in the way of evening schools. The large number attending the even- 
ing high school showed conclusively a strong appreciation on the part 
of the public of the opportunities given for general education. The 
evening drawing school has been very well attended for many years, 
and it only remained to round out the educational facilities to those 
anxious to improve their opportunities by establishing an evening 
school of trades. 

Springfield is most fortunate in having a large number of different 


manufacturing interests which require skilled labor. The United States 
Armory is located here, and this industry requires many skilled men. 

In the fall of 1899 the school committee decided to open evening 
classes in trades in connection with the Mechanic Arts High School, 
and, as a result, classes have been organized in pattern-making, plumb- 
ing, tool-making, and machine-shop practice. The instruction is free 
to residents of the city, a small charge being made for incidentals. 
The school has a machine-shop equipment which will accommodate a 
class of forty in two sections, and about the same number can be 
accommodated in the plumbing classes. The first year there were 
eighty-seven applicants for the tool-making classes and about fifty 
for the plumbing. Twenty-four manufacturing interests were repre- 
sented in these classes. Personal questioning of the men brought 
out several interesting facts. One man said that he had been working 
at a drill for fourteen years and knew nothing of any other machine ; 
another had worked about as long on a shaper ; another had been 
drilling on the same part of rifles for eight years. 

These few illustrations only show that the average shop affords 
little opportunity for a man to learn to operate other machines than 
those to which he has been assigned. The men all agreed that the 
rigid rules of many of our larger factories, the division of labor, the 
piece-work system, all tended to narrow their sphere of activity. The 
so-called ignorance of workmen, the inability they possess readily to 
change their particular line of work when they are thrown out of 
employment, is not due to a want of desire to learn, but to a lack of 
opportunities to improve themselves. 

It may be interesting to note the ages, occupations, and previous 
academic training of the applicants of the first year. The statistics 
regarding ages are valuable because they show that the majority of 
the applicants were young men, unmarried, of responsible age, self- 
supporting, and consequently they offer the best material. The ages 
of the tool-making applicmts were classed under four heads : 

The ages of 10 per cent, of the men range! from 15 to 20 years. 

" " 45 " " " " " 20 to 25 

" " 20 " " " '* " 25 to 30 

" " 25 " " " " " 30 to 40 

In the plumbing classes the ages of the applicants were as follows : 

24 per cent, of the men were from 15 to 20 years of age. 
46 " " " " " 20 to 25 " " 

14 " " " " " 25 to 30 " 

16 " " " " " 30 to 40 " " 


The statistics regarding the occupation of the tool-making appli- 
cants were classed for convenience under six heads, as follows: 7 per 
cent, of the men were laborers, 23 per cent, ordinary mechanics, 55 
per cent, machinists, 7 per cent, clerks, 8 per cent, miscellaneous. 

The occupations of the plumbing applicants were classed as fol- 
lows : 12 per cent, of the men were laborers, 16 per cent, mechanics, 
10 per cent, master-plumbers, 12 per cent, journeymen plumbers, 44 
per cent, helpers, 6 per cent, miscellaneous. 

The statistics of occupation show that the majority of the men were 
endeavoring to improve their skill and broaden their knowledge of 
their chosen trade, and that a few laborers and clerks believed that a 
change of occupation would be desirable for them. The fact that 
master-plumbers chose the course testifies to the high order of the 
instruction. The previous educational training of the classes in tool- 
making was superior to that of the plumbing classes, as shown in the 
following statistics : 


7 per cent, left school in the sixth grade. 

25 " " " " seventh '• 

15 '• " " " eighth " 
18 " " " " ninth " 

35 " " " " high-school grade. 


6 per cent, left school in the sixth grade. 

36 " " " " seventh " 

16 " " " " eighth 

26 " " ■' " ninth " 

16 " " " " high-school grade. 

The figures show that a large percentage of the boys leave school 
at the seventh grade to learn a trade, and consequently they are 
thrown upon their own resources with little elementary training, and I 
surmise that many would have staid in school a few years longer if 
they could have had the opportunity of supplementing their aca- 
demic work by some course in the trades, such as I. have presented. 

It is needless to state that the applicants of all the classes have 
proved to be thoroughly in earnest. The course in tool-making 
requires some previous knowledge of machine work and mechanical 
drawing. The qualifications to enter the plumbing and pattern-mak- 
ing classes are merely proper age and earnestness. The tool-making 


and machine-shop practice class is divided into two sections each of 
which meets two evenings a week for a period of six months. The 
other classes meet -three evenings a week. 

The equipment of the machine shop consists of ten lathes, one 
planer, two shapers, two universal milling machines, two universal 
grinders, one upright drill, one sensitive drill, the necessary benches, 
small tools, etc. In general, the equipment is equal to that of the 
average manual-training high school. The plumbing equipment is 
complete in all respects. This equipment is not expensive, as almost 
every student possesses a kit of tools which he uses at his trade. The 
pattern-making equipment is similar to that of any manual-training 
high school. The instructor in machine-shop practice in the day school, 
having been employed as the designer in charge of experimental work 
for a large manufacturing concern and consequently fully competent 
to devise a course of instruction suited to the needs of the men, has 
been placed in charge of these classes. The school is fortunate in 
securing as assistant instructor one holding a superintendent's position 
in a machine shop where modern methods prevail. The instructor of 
plumbing is well fitted by education and experience to develop the 
department of plumbing. The fact that he is city inspector of plumb- 
ing gives weight and value to the quality of his instruction. The 
school is equally fortunate in having a very superior instructor of 
pattern-making who thoroughly appreciates the nature of a course in 
woodwork required for evening classes. The courses in machine-shop 
practice and tool-making cover three years, while the courses in plumb- 
ing and pattern-making are completed in two years. Certificates of 
proficiency are given at the expiration of each year, and it is probable 
that a diploma will be given at the successful completion of each'course 
of study. 

Each member of the metal-working classes was required to purchase 
the following tools : one scale, one outside spring calipers, one inside 
spring calipers, one pair of dividers and a center gauge. It is also 
suggested that he furnish a micrometer and a square. The course of 
instruction embraces the following exercises: mandrils, chucking drills 
and reamers, lathe centers, V blocks, parallels, milling cutters, cylindri- 
cal gauges, taps and dies, counterbores, punches and dies. The 
advanced work consists of exercises in making special tools— such as 
drill jigs, bench centers, fixtures for taper turning, surface plates, physi- 
cal and electrical apparatus. Special instruction is given in the various 
processes used in hardening and tempering steel. Practical talks on 


the manufacture of iron and steel, modern machine shop methods, file- 
cutting, etc., are given occasionally by men of experience. It is recom- 
mended that all members of these classes join one of the classes in 
mechanical drawing. 

The course in plumbing is divided into two portions : theory of 
plumbing practice and manual instruction. This course has already 
been referred to in a previous issue of this Magazine. The course in 
pattern-making needs no outlining. 

The evening school of trades is apparently very successful in point 
of interest and in the quality of the work done ; and at the present 
time, the third year of its existence, it is demonstrating its value to the 
students and to the public at large. Many articles of value made by 
the students have been added to the permanent equipment of the 

In conclusion, I will state that in the course of instruction as out- 
lined for the Mechanic Arts High School there is a special course 
which approaches a course in trade teaching. This course differs from 
the evening work in that academic instruction is given ; considerable 
attention being paid to the essentials of English, mathematics, science 
and history ; and an unusual amount of time is alloted to mechanic- 
arts practice. It is universally conceded that the time given to 
mechanical work in this course will have to be largely increased, with- 
out infringing upon the academic work, in order to give the necessary 
thoroughness to the teaching required for the trades. It appears that 
the students of a trade course ought to work at least in the last two 
years of that course, eight hours a day. As yet no provision has been 
made for strengthening the course in shopwork in the grammar 
grades and adapting it to the needs of the boys who never reach the 
high school. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

During the past fourteen years nearly every teacher of wood-turning 
in the United States has been paying silent tribute to the excellence of 
the course developed bv Mr. Charles F. White, under the guidance of 
Dr. C. M. Woodward, at the St. Louis Manual Training School. This 
course appeared in 1SS7 in Dr. Woodward's book, The Manual Train- 
ing School, and was the first manual-training course in wood-turning 
published in this country. It immediately took its place as the 
standard course, with which others were compared, and from which 
others were derived. That its influence is so potent today is proof 
of the quality of Mr. White's analysis of the processes of wood- 

Recognizing the value of the St. Louis course, however, does not 
imply any lack of appreciation of the improved courses which have 
been worked out since that was published. We do not overlook the 
course planned by Mr. B. F. Eddy, of Boston, and published in 1S93 
by the State of Massachusetts in a report on manual training and 
industrial education ; nor the one arranged by Mr. George B. Kilbon 
and published in the same report. Neither do we forget the course 
developed later at Pratt Institute under Professor Charles R. Richards. 
These, with many others that might be mentioned, would prove that 
progress has been made in wood-turning courses during the past 
decade, but, beyond the introduction of more useful articles, there have 
been but few notable departures from the course developed by Mr. 
White. Indeed, it is surprising on comparing courses, to see how few 
changes have been made in the forms turned and in the methods of 
appealing to students. But with the application of some of the 
newer ideas coming into the teaching of manual training one may 
reasonably conclude that there will come more vital changes in wood- 
turning courses in the near future. This being the case every new 
departure is of interest. 

The experiment which is described in this article was performed at 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute during the spring of 1900. It is pub- 
lished here, not because it presents conclusive evidence, but because it 
was interesting and profitable to us, and we believe that it may be 
1901! i55 

1 5 6 



Fig. i. 

suggestive to others. The experiment was governed 
by beliefs which may be expressed in the following 
propositions : 

We believe (i) that manual training and freehand 
drawing should be more closely connected than is 
usual in manual-training work; (2) that wood- 
turning may profitably be accompanied by a sys- 
tematic study of the typical forms employed in 
turned objects; (3) that in a much larger degree 
than is usual should the development of feeling 
for proportion and curvature be one of the aims 
in teaching wood-turning ; (4) that there is no better 
time to teach fundamental principles of designing 
for wood-turning than when pupils are pursuing a 
course of tool-work in wood -turning ; (5) that growth 
of power in designing begets interest and stimulates 
to effort, not only in designing, but in turning; (6) 
that it is possible to teach a class in wood-turning 
in accordance with the above propositions without 
departing materially from the fundamentals which, 
in the past, have made wood-turning valuable as a 
manual-training subject; (7) that, if this can be 
done, the educational value of the wood-turning 
will certainly be increased; (8)that such a plan of 
work would offer greater range than usual for indi- 
vidual effort and individual initiative, thus involving 
an approach more nearly to the ideal conditions for 

The conditions under which the experiment was 
performed may be stated as follows : We had a class 
of about sixty boys in first-year woodworking and 
drawing. These came to us in three sections, thus 
allowing three different courses of work to be carried 
on in the same shop by the same teacher under con- 
ditions as nearly identical as is possible with differ- 
ent boys. When the question arose as to the desira- 
bility of making some changes in the course of 
instruction, the teacher of the class, Mr. Clinton S. 
Van Deusen, spent a long evening with me in confer- 
ence. First we enumerated the defects in our course 




Fig. 2. 

as it then existed, and discussed them from various points of view, 
suggesting possible improvements. Next we made an analysis of our 
course in spindle-turning from the point of view of the tool processes 
involved. This we recorded in the form of simple sketches on the 
corner of a sheet of paper. After making one or two changes our 
analysis appeared as 
in Fig. i. This 
modified analysis 
suggested, so far as 
tool manipulation is 
concerned, the ele- 
ments which we 
thought desirable to 
weave into any new 
course or plan of 
work we might 
choose to arrange. 

After further discussion we decided to give our old course without 
change to one section of the class; to another section we would give a 
modified course following the new analysis, and involving less repeti- 
tion in some of the fundamental exercise pieces. In general the 
diameters of these pieces would be increased about 40 per cent. Both 
this and the old course included useful articles in addition to exercise 
pieces. For the third section we decided to arrange work in accord- 
ance with the eight propositions already stated. Each piece turned 
in this section was to be designed by the pupil himself in the time 
allowed for drawing. 

When the class assembled for the first lesson in designing, the 
teacher called the attention of the pupils to several vases, cylindrical 
in form, which were appropriate for holding flowers. The proportions 
of these vases with reference to the shapes of the bunches which might 
properly be placed in them were briefly discussed and each pupil was 
asked to draw the front view of a vase to hold a bunch of narcissus or 
other tall flowers which was suggested by a rough sketch made on the 
blackboard by the teacher. The greatest diameter in the drawings of 
these vases was not to exceed two and five eighths inches, as we wished 
to turn the forms out of three-inch square gum-wood ; pupils were 
encouraged to think of these drawings as scale drawings of the real 
vases they were designing. After the drawings had been completed 
and approved, they were taken to the shop, and each boy turned his 

i 5 8 



Fig. 3. 

first cylinder from his design of a cylindrical vase. Five typical ones 
are shown in Fig. 2. No attempt was made to hollow out the inside, 
making actual vases. 

When the class met for the second lesson in designing, they were 
shown the chart reproduced in Fig. 3. Their attention was called to 
the top line of figures marked A. These represent the front views of 
objects of revolution whose forms are employed in a variety of uten- 
sils. The first three show how changing the principal proportions of 
an object changes its appearance and its usefulness. The others sug- 
gest how to change the character of a form by changing the angle 
between the sides and top. Having observed these facts and seen 
them illustrated in a variety of dis'hes, cups, and the like, in the hands 
of the teacher, each pupil proceeded to design a tumbler. While 
designing it he was to ask himself the questions : Will it tip over too 
easily ? Can it be held easily in the hand and without spilling its 
contents ? Does it look well ? Fig. 4 shows a few of the wooden 
pieces turned from these designs. These, and the same is true of 
each of the other groups of turned pieces shown in illustrations, were 
selected to show the range rather than the quality of the forms pro- 

The third lesson was similar to the second, being to design a 

I 9 0l] 



«B- mm. ' wm 

flowerpot. This gave opportunity for combining cylindrical and 
conical parts in one design, but, as we found, it also gave us a problem 
in turning — working up into a corner — which was a little too diffi- 
cult at this point in the course. 

At the beginning of the fourth lesson the pupil's attention was 
called to the three 
lower lines of figures 
on the chart, Fig. 3, 
and then shown a 
Japanese vase, in form 
consisting of two frus- 
trums of cones base 
to base. To improve 
upon the design of 
this vase with refer- 
ence to proportion 
was the problem 
given. Five typical 
pieces resulting are 
shown in Fig. 4. The 
fifth lesson was to de- 
sign a vase with neck, 
involving only cylin- 
drical and conical 

forms, or merely the latter. The results were fairly satisfactory from 
the viewpoint of tool-manipulation, but otherwise decidedly unsatis- 

In beginning the study of curved forms, Chart No. 2, Fig. 5, was 
shown. From this they saw how it is possible to develop a great 
variety of forms from such objects as the ellipsoid, the ovoid and the 
echinus. They also began to appreciate how slight a modification in 
proportion and curvature is necessary to produce a marked change in 
the character of an object. Each pupil was then asked to select the 
form that he liked best, merely as a pleasing form, and without refer- 
ence to its practical utility. In this, an effort was made to get the pupils 
to feel as well as to see the differences betwixt the various forms repre- 
sented on the chart. Then each pupil was asked to draw on his paper 
a vase without neck or base, of the same general character, but which 
he liked better. In order to help him to verify his choice of propor- 
tions the device shown in Fig. 6 was adopted. A piece of cheap bond 

Fig. 4. 




Fig. 5 

paper, A B, was placed on the drawing as shown. The part of the 
vase under the bond paper was traced on that paper, and then the 
paper moved slowly back and forth in a horizontal direction. It was 
first moved to the right, as to C = , until the vase appeared to be too wide 
to be of pleasing proportions ; then to the left, as to C, until it was too 
narrow. This process was continued, each time narrowing the limits, 
until a point, as C, was decided upon in which position a more satis- 
factory vase was shown than in any other. The pupil then corrected 
his drawing in accordance with this decision. Sometimes a piece of 
sketch paper was used instead of the bond paper, in which case half 
of the vase was drawn on the sketch paper. 

The next lesson was similar, the difference being in the fact that 
each pupil was allowed to add to his vase some simple form of base or 
neck or both if he pleased. The six wooden vase forms shown in Fig. 
7 were turned from the designs of these two lessons, and are fairly 
representative of the work of the whole class. 

The study of concave forms was begun by the teacher making on 
the blackboard a series of sketches of such forms as are shown in Fig. 
8. After a brief discussion of these, in which attention was called to 
the fact that these forms could be produced by using the same curves 
that were used in Fig. 5, a small Japanese vase belonging to this class 
of forms was produced, and each pupil was requested to improve on 




the design of that if possible. Fig. 9 shows four of the resulting 

The study of compound curves began with designing a long-necked 
vase. In connection with this the device shown in Fig. 6 was used to 
assist in determining the n r 
length of the neck. Fig. 
7 suggests the variety of 
forms produced. 

Then followed the 
designing and turning of 
larger vases in which the 
greatest freedom was 
allowed as to choice of 
form. The end of the 
term was so near at hand 
that many of the designs 
for these vases were not 
worked out. A few of 
these large vases were 
finished in color — yel- 
low, ereen, red. Fig. 6. 

D' B B, B, 

The last problem 
was to make a candle- 
stick out of a piece 
of cherry and finish it 
in the natural color. 
This involved design- 
ing, spindle turning, 
face-plate turning, fit- 
ting, and polishing 
in the lathe. In 
preparation for this 
problem a class study 
was made of the prin- 
ciples underlying the 
joining of curves as 
set forth by Henri Mayeux in his book, Decorative Composition. Only 
a very few students had time to complete these candlesticks. 

While this work had been going on in the third section of the 

Fig. 7 - 




class the other two sections had been following the plans decided 
upon at the beginning of the experiment. Our conclusions with refer- 
ence to the work of the three sections were as follows : 

i. That the modified course, made up of models larger in diameter 

and containing fewer immediate 
repetitions of fundamental opera- 
tions, which was given to the 
second section of the class was 
better than the old course which 
was given to the first section. 

2. That, on the whole, the 
plan of work followed in the 
third section was the best of the 
three. In this connection it 
should be stated that at the 
beginning of the experiment the 
teacher of the class was in favor 
of the modified course given to 
the second section. He did not 
believe that the boys of the 
third section would be able to 
use their tools as well at the end 
of the course as would the boys 

Fig. 8. 

of the other two sections- 
At the end of the experi- 
ment, however, he said he 
could see no difference in 
this respect between the 
boys of the second and 
third sections. He also 
stated that the boys of the 
third section had mani- 
fested greater interest in 
their work, and had shown 
a higher appreciation of 

proportion and curvature. In short, they had lost little and gained 
much by following the new plan. If there had been any loss, the 
teacher said, it was in ability to turn curves of short radius, and this 
loss was much more than offset by gains in other directions. 

3. That the results justify us in making an attempt to develop the 
new plan further, connecting it more closely with the social interests 
of the pupils. 

Fig. 9. 




Edwin W . Foster, 
Manual Training High School, Brooklyn, New York. 

One passes the subject of maples with regret, only to discover that 
other families are equally interesting. For instance, who can think of 
New England without its elms ? It would, indeed, be a different 
country. The elm might be said to typify New England character — 
dignified, sturdy, graceful, 'and refined. The habit of the tree, being 
tall with foliage well up, gives the desired shade, yet does not obstruct 
the view, while its grace and stately dignity give an air of comfort and 
distinction to the grounds which it seems to protect. Its wood is 
valuable for certain kinds of work, being tough and strong, but is not 
suitable for cabinet work, being difficult to polish. It is used consider- 
ably for wheel-hubs and in cooperage work. 

Observe the edge of the elm leaf carefully. The teeth not only 
curve gracefully toward the extreme tip of the leaf, but they are them- 
selves toothed, a form known scientifically as "double serrate." The 
1901I 163 

1 64 



texture of the leaf is coarse and extremely 
rough to the touch, in marked contrast to 
the birch family, whose leaves superficially 
it resembles. 

There are nine members of the birch 
family, all of which are beautiful trees, with 
delicate foliage and fine close-grained wood 
which, in most cases, takes a high polish. 
The elm might be called the tree of 
civilization, and the birch its wild cousin ; 
but the wild cousin stands taming very well 
and is worthy of the prominent place gen- 
erally given it in our parks and lawns. If 
the black birch with its aromatic bark is 
not known to a boy, the white or canoe 
birch is sure to be, for it seems to be the 
fate of this beautiful tree to be disfigured 
by every roaming youth who has strength 
enough to tear off strips of its paper-like 

bark. It is a rare thing to find one of these trees which has not been 

touched by the hand of boy. 

The leaf of the black or sugar birch may be distinguished from the 

elm by its smoothness and thinness, by its slightly cordate base, its 

taste, and the fact that it grows in pairs instead of singly. Its edges 


F/G <? 


BLACK B/ftCtf 



I6 5 

are double serrate, but the curve of the teeth is not nearly so pro- 
nounced as in the elm. 

The red birch has a much smaller leaf, of a very different character, 
as shown in the sketch. This species loves the water and reaches its 
greatest development in the swamps of Louisiana and Texas. 

The famous white, paper, 
or canoe birch has a leaf some- 
what broader than the black 
variety, but without the cor- 
date base. Its bark is the 
distinguishing feature and can 
never be mistaken. It comes 
off in layers, and possesses a 
resinous quality which makes 
it impervious to water, a fact 
fully appreciated by the In- 
dians who constructed their 
canoes of it. 

A smaller tree, known as 
the gray or white birch, also 
has a white bark, but it is not 
as perfect as the canoe bark, 
does not peel in layers, and 
has peculiar triangular black 
spots on the trunk beneath 
every limb. It loves barren, 
rocky places, abandoned 
farms, etc., and is sometimes 
called old field birch ; but it 
has a glorious, delicate foliage 
which cannot be duplicated in the forest. Each leaf swings from a 
long slender stem, the general habit is drooping, almost to the weeping 
form, and the aspen-like effect is heightened by every passing breeze 
which gives a shimmering impression as of green fire. The leaf-form 
is very odd : a broad, flat base, and then a long, graceful taper 
out to an unusually fine point, the whole edge being finely double- 

The differences in the leaf-forms of the birch and beech are very 
marked. Both have toothed edges, but in the beech the spaces between 
the teeth are so remarkably shallow that one has to search for them. 

1 66 



The sketch indicates this point better than any written description. 
The edge of the beech leaf is really that of the chestnut in miniature. 
In the European variety common in our parks the indentations have 
practically disappeared, leaving simply a waving effect. The most 
popular variety of this family is undoubtedly the purple or copper 
beech, so called from the beautiful, dark-red foliage now so prominent 

a feature in our landscape 
gardening. There has been 
a common belief for genera- 
tions that the beech is proof 
against lightning, and recent 
scientific experiments would 
seem to verify the statement 
to a marked degree, as beech- 
wood offers considerably 
greater resistance to the elec- 
tric current than oak, pop- 
lar, or willow. The wood is 
hard, strong, and tough, and 
is susceptible of a high 

Closely related to the 
beeches and birches are two 
little trees which have deli- 
cate birch-like foliage and 
wood of great hardness — the 
hornbeam or blue beech, 
and the hop-hornbeam or 

The leaves of these two 
varieties are quite similar, 
that of the ironwood being 
slightly the larger. The 
name "hop-hornbeam" is derived from the fruit, which resembles the 
hop; and the name " ironwood" from the great strength and hardness 
of the wood. Both are slow-growing little trees, and their nature may 
best be understood by a quotation from Harriet L. Keeler's excellent 
work : 

G/?AY /3//?C// 




The Home bound tree is a tough kind of wood that requires so much 
paines in riving as is almost incredible, being the best for to make bolles 
and dishes, not being subject to cracke or leake.— [New England's Prospect.) 



The annual meeting of the Department of Superintendence of the National 
Educational Association was held in Chicago on February 26 to 28. The meeting of 
this department is coming to be one of the great educational gatherings of the year, and 
is attended not only by superintendents of schools and presidents of normal schools, 
but by supervisors and experts in nearly every line of school work. In connection 
with the meeting this year there was a session of the National Herbart Society, 
and on two of the days there was held at The University of Chicago the second 
annual meeting of the Association of American Universities. The unprecedented 
growth of this mid-winter gathering is due largely, no doubt, to the place of meeting. 
In Chicago there is always some new educational thing to see or to talk about, and cer- 
tainly there is no other city in the country that can offer equal accommodations for 
such a meeting. The Fine Arts Building with its University Hall, Studebaker 
Theater, club rooms, and offices ; the Auditorium Hotel with its lobby and spacious 
reception rooms, parlors, banquet halls, and Annex ; all these under one roof, as it 
were, furnish accommodations almost ideal. 

The program began on Tuesday morning at 9:30 with an address by Superin- 
tendent E. G. Cooley, of Chicago, on the "Gospel of Work," and ended on Thursday 
evening with an address by Dr. John Dewey, of The University of Chicago, on " The 
Situation as Regards the Course of Study.'" Among the other names on the program 
were Dean Briggs of Harvard University, Superintendents Soldan, of St. Louis, 
Greenwood, of Kansas City, and Boone, of Cincinnati. 

The Wednesday morning session was entirely given up to manual training and 
domestic science. The first speaker was Mr. J. H. Trybom, who gave a report of the 
work in manual training being done in the public schools of Detroit, Mich. His 
address will be printed in full in a later issue of this Magazine. The second paper 
was presented by Principal Henry S. Tibbitts, of Chicago, and is given in full on 
pages 138 to 142. 


The third paper was a report of the manual training in the public schools of 
Menomonie, Wis., by Superintendent Judson E. Hoyt. The paper began with a his- 
torical sketch of the public schools of Menomonie, a city of 5650 inhabitants, having 
a school enrollment of 1650, of which 148 are in the high school. This introduction 
was followed by an exposition of the school system of the city which has been com- 
pletely renovated during the past ten years since the introduction of manual training. 

'" The school system now consists of a kindergarten system of three kindergartens, 
which, with the primary schools of the city, is under the immediate care of a super- 
visor, who also is head of the kindergarten and primary training school ; of twentv- 
five lower-grades schools; of a high school, which offers four four-year courses, and 
of the manual-training school, which, having, as now conducted, no separate student 
body, belongs to the school system as a whole, and is an aggregation in one building 

168 [APRIL 

iqoi] ASSOCIATIONS 1 69 

of the rooms, appliances, and instructional force for the teaching of the purely 
manual, industrial, and art phases of the manual-training courses, together with the 
special knowledge-matter on which these are based." 

Continuing the speaker said: "To the Hon. James H. Stout, a gentleman of 
large means, philanthropic disposition, and deep interest in all forms of educational 
effort, the city of Menomonie is indebted for its initial prompting, as well as the pro- 
vision of the material means for the introduction of both manual training and the 
kindergarten work into the public schools. We have here an instance of a people 
being led out into a way which they knew not, which they did not choose originally 
for themselves, by the deeper insight, strong purpose, and wise leadership of a single 
public-spirited individual, supported by a liberal use of private funds." 

After describing the equipment of the Stout Manual Training School, Superin- 
tendent Hoyt gave somewhat in detail the plan of the manual-training work pursued 
in the several grades, including the high school. One noticeable feature of this plan 
was the small amount of time per week devoted to manual training. In the high 
school this was three fifty-five-minute periods, with two periods of the same length 
for drawing. The work, however, extended over the entire four years. This plan 
should have been discussed by some present who are following a different plan. 

The fourth paper was read by Mr. R. Charles Bates, of Tome Institute, Port 
Deposit, Md. His subject was 


He had been asked by the president to give some results of his observations on 
the work of the New York State Reformatorv at Elmira, 1 made during the five years 
he was director of manual training in that institution. We quote his two concluding para- 
graphs : "Manual training is not only of value as an educational factor leading to 
self-activity and mental development, but it becomes in the hands of the scientist, one 
conversant with pedagogy, physiology, psychology, and applied mechanics, a potent 
factor for moral ends. It opens up avenues for activities which are in direct conso- 
nance with the laws governing moral expression. All morality is but a harmonious 
adjustment of one's higher self, or nature, with known elements in human character, 
which elements are the vital forces in society that lift it above license, above con- 
spiracy, above abuse. It is that force in human affairs which removes the disposition 
to riotousness, to self-abasement, and puts one in an atmosphere of conscious relation 
to divine law. It is clear to my mind that the presence of manual training in our 
public-school system will have a far-reaching influence upon human activities because 
it gives that delightful balance in mental growth which indicates the wisely educated 
person. For defectives in public institutions it is possible through manual training to 
awaken dormant consciousness of creative force, and further, it brings into use the 
neglected motor areas of the brain through the enforced functioning of their corres- 
ponding muscular agents. 

"I cannot close this paper without reference to that pertinent remark of Ruskin 
made long before the science of teaching was as well understood as at present, it is 
as follows: 'A boy cannot learn to make a straight shaving or drive a fine curve 

'For articles by Mr. Bates on the manual-training work at Elmira, see Popular 
Science Monthly, March, 1 900; Journal of Sociology, April, 1897; also the Elmira 
Reformatory Yearbooks for 1897-8-9 and 1900. 


without learning a multitude of other matters which the life of man could not teach 
him.' " 


After Mr. Bates' paper the remainder of the session was spent in a general discus- 
sion. What follows is from a stenographic report of that discussion. 

Colonel Francis W. Parker, President of Chicago Institute : In 1883 we started 
manual training in the basement of Cook County Normal with rude benches, poor tools 
and a fair teacher. So far as I know it was the first manual-training school in con- 
nection with a normal school. The sloyd had not come to these shores, the kinder- 
garten had been started fourteen years, psychology had not appeared, nor child-study. 
I had a faith that the activities of the child were not duly recognized ; that he was 
intensely active and that he had not enough to work off and develop his energy in the 
right direction. What to do I did not know, but to do something I did know. 

They told us — we got it dogmatically — that the little children should have no 
chance ; manual training had begun in the high school. Things always begin wrong 
end to, and one who reads the history of education can bring that out. We took the 
little six-year-olders in and gave them woodwork — planes and saws — and it was 
perfectly plain and we saw at once that the children were getting their birthright. 
They were dying to do something and we found it out. Blindness to all this consists 
in excursions and results outside the child. When you look at the child you find what 
we mean. We have been trying to get at that and we have just begun. I will not go 
into the details of that, only I never saw a child who did not love manual training, 
and the boys and girls love it alike. I would have the boys learn to cook and to sew 
if that is educative. 

What work shall they do ? Our friend Salomon says logical sequence is an error 
and yet the sloyd is founded upon it. The sloyd has done an immense amount of 
good; I do not know what we should have done without it; but the fundamental ele- 
ment, logical sequence, is a fundamental error in all education. It leaves out the 
child entirely and says he must go through this work perfunctorily. 

In the first place we have learned that the child is full of activity. He wants to 
put his thought into the concrete — every child, rich and poor. It has been a delight 
to watch the children who have been unfortunately rich and neglected, who come into 
the shops. When they find they are to do something themselves, delight seizes their 
souls ; thev are full of activity. 

Dr. John Dewey, the great philosopher of the new education, when I asked 
him years ago, "What would you have a school ?" replied : "Industrial." I agree 
with him heartily. 

Of the many things done in Menomonie, one of the most beautiful is the horti- 
cultural work, the adornment of the homes with flowers and trees. A skillful, 
trained landscape gardener comes. He lectures to the people who come together to 
learn how to beautify their homes, and this artist will go there and advise anyone, 
the highest and the lowest, how to beautify their homes. When education penetrates 
the home and home penetrates the school, move on. 

Superintendent Joseph Carter, Champaign, III. I think the danger just now, after 
this report from Wisconsin, will be that superintendents of schools will think that 
unless they have a rich man to furnish the money, nothing can be done. I have 
been in two very poor (financially) communities, but I have had no trouble in 

1 90 1 ] A SSOCIA TIONS I 7 1 

starting manual-training work. We have sewing for the boys as well as shopwork, 
and we do not have the girls saw. The colonel will say we have gone wrong, 
but there is an educative value in the boys learning to sew. 

Dr. CM. Woodward, Director of Manual Training School, Washington Univer- 
sity, and President of Board of Education, St. Louis, Mo.: I would like to take three or 
four minutes, first of all to express my deep feeling of satisfaction that »he superin- 
tendents' section of the National Educational Association is in the temper it is in 
today. I have talked before this section when the temper was altogether different. I 
talked on manual training at the meeting twelve years ago in Washington, when it 
seemed as if nearly every man there stiffened his back and said : It is all a fad and 
will disappear in five years. It did not disappear, and I am glad that today we all 
have our faces looking one way. It is found to be true that there is a good deal more 
in manual training than learning to be a carpenter or a blacksmith. 

Some reminiscences have been expressed here today. One gentleman, when I 
came into this hall, reminded me that he had heard me lecture in 1878 before the State 
Teachers' Association of Missouri. My first discourse on manual training before the 
National Educational Association was in 1882 at Saratoga, when I showed what the 
St. Louis Manual Training School was doing. But manual training has broadened 
since that time. It has gone out into the lower grades, and now we are giving the 
younger children the essential elementary steps. It is going on in St. Louis in the 
public schools just as I hope it is in the public schools of all communities. 

Those were excellent papers this morning. I should like to ask in regard to sala- 
ries, special teachers, etc. One of the bugbears of manual training all the way through, 
that of expense, has been done away with in the case of domestic science. In St. 
Louis the teacher has fifteen classes a week through the entire school year. She is 
allowed $100 for material. The chemical laboratory methods have gone into the 
cooking room. The idea that you need a panful of material to show a principle which 
may be made evident by a spoonful has been abandoned. Domestic science has taken 
on a systematic, educational method where principles are to be established. I wish to 
assure you also of the tremendous interest that the fathers and mothers take in that 
work. In St. Louis we have a special domestic science room for the colored children. 
They are obliged to pay ten cents for car fare every time they come, yet their attend- 
ance there is more regular and faithful than on anything else. I have this testimony 
from them and from their mothers who come in and see what the children are doing. 
It is having an effect on the colored race that nothing else has. 

It is very easy to start manual training in a community if it is necessary. You 
do not need a millionaire, but you can always find someone to set the ball rolling. 
I found six men and one woman to pay for the expense of fitting up a domestic science 
room and the running expenses for one year. That cost $1,500. That was sufficient to 
equip the room, buy supplies, and pay for a teacher. Then the board of education 
took it up; there was nothing else for them to do. They took it up and established 
three more, and the next year they established three more. So it goes. It is so in 
every community if you only have faith in yourselves, faith in the cause, faith in the 

Superintendent George Griffith, Utica, N. Y.: Perhaps I have a few figures here 
interesting to people of cities of medium size. We are now on the fifth year of our 
manual training. In the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grades it is as 


obligatory as arithmetic, and as a matter of course every pupil takes it. The cost of 
that has been borne entirely by the city. I have here the cost for the last year for the 
2,800 pupils who took it : 

Teaching (five teachers) ------ $4,200 

Supplies -------- 540 

Additional equipment ------ qq 

The total cost for supplies for the year averaged $0.19 per pupil. The total cost 
for supplies, additional equipment, and teachers' salaries for the year was on the 
average $1.73. 

In any city of ordinary wealth and progress it seems to me that it is entirely 
practicable to have manual training without the aid of any public-spirited, wealthy 


The fifth semi-annual meeting of the New England Association of Teachers of 
Metalworking was held at Springfield, Mass., November 31 and December I, 1900. 
The attendance was larger than at any previous meeting, and an air of earnestness 
and appreciation was constantly in evidence. The first day was spent in the shops of 
the United States Armory, and, although weary, the members visited the evening trade 
classes at the Springfield Mechanic Arts High School, where the teaching of trades 
at public expense was closely observed, the earnestness and business-like interest 
receiving favorable comment. 

On the second day, after inspecting the shop equipment, the members of the 
association were warmly welcomed by Mr. Charles F. Warner, the principal of the 
Mechanic Arts High School, in an address which dwelt with considerable detail upon 
the growth and probable future of the trade-class work of the school. Mr. E. R. 
Markham, superintendent of the Waltham Watch Tool Co., spoke in an entertaining 
and prophetic manner on "Handwork in Modern Shop Practice." The advocates of 
the chipping and filing courses were greatly encouraged by the decided stand taken 
by the speaker in favor of more thorough instruction in the use of hand tools. Several 
plans were presented as to the best methods by which to make this laborious and fre- 
quently monotonous work interesting and instructive to the pupils. A series of inter- 
esting models was deemed to be a necessity, and several members suggested novel 
methods of presentation. 

A detailed description of the course in forging at the Rindge Manual Training 
School, Cambridge, Mass., was given by Mr. James G. Telfer, instructor in forging. 
The freehand element, as shown in scrolls and bent work, was prominent in this 
course, and the discussion was particularly upon the admissibility of the use of forms 
or templets in the production of such work. Several members held that such work 
should be produced without artificial aid, while others maintained that, especially 
where curves were to be duplicated, a templet was a necessity. 

After the annual dinner at the Hotel Worthy, Mr. C. A. Davis, of the Department 
of Mechanics, at the Providence, R. I., Manual Training School, presented an inter- 
esting paper on "Notebooks and Shop Accessories." The speaker suggested meth- 
ods for duplicating shop notes, and also presented some specimens from different 
schools, showing that some uniform method could be adopted which would result in 

iqoi] QUERIES 173 

greater value to the pupil, and at the same time be more available for exchange and 

At the business meeting the following officers were elected for the year 1901 : 
President, Frederick W. Turner, Cambridge, Mass.; Vice President, C. Abbott Davis, 
Providence, R. I.; Secretary-Treasurer, Philip Goodrich, Lynn, Mass. Four active 
and four associate members were elected, and the association adjourned, with the 
feeling that the last meeting of the century had been one of great benefit. — F. W. 


2. How much latitude in the choice of models should be left to the teacher ? and 
how much can be safely intrusted to the pupil's own initiative? 

5. (a) Ought I to recommend the use of a desk cover or some similar schoolroom 
device in our grammar grades? (6) If so, what form of desk cover is most satisfactory? 
(c) What tools should accompany it, and what will such an outfit cost? 

2. To see clearly an educational duty of this kind we must at first consider all 
conditions to be ideal — board of trustees, superintendent, room, plant, supplies, num- 
ber and size of classes, character of children, and manual-training teacher. In this 
case the teacher will be supreme in his work. His enthusiasm will make his duties 
part of his very religion, and two elements will fix the character of the models : his 
own experience and the initiative of the children. How far the latter may safely go, 
no one but he may judge, and he must decide this for each child separately. Inven- 
tion, design, and originality of expression among the children will add an interest and 
richness to the work that will surprise both teacher and children. The superintendent 
will inspire, suggest, and encourage, but will refrain from interfering, as though the 
work were sacred; and the trustees will support and approve. A teacher should be 
chosen because of his ability, spirit, cultivation, and general wealth of character. He 
should be paid enough to attract and hold such a man, and then he should be left to 
follow his own soul and should not be required to compromise with anybody, lie 
should be the authority in his own work, and when he does not satisfy he should be 
asked to make room for someone who could satisfy without compromise. A good 
man with a sensitive nature cannot put his soul into his work if the superintendent or 
the head of a department requires him to work out some scheme foreign to the teach- 
er's own training and nature. In this connection it should be remembered Hint a 
manual-training teacher should be occupied primarily with his profession, and sin mid 
never be required to perform the duties of a carpenter. To study the children, keep 
the room in order, review designs, make drawings and models, keep records, and 
devise means of keeping the work alive and securing the highest individual development 
are matters that will require all the time and energy of a conscientious teacher. Whet- 
ting tools, putting up shelves, building furniture, fitting vices, repairing breaks and 
other carpenter work should be done by a carpenter. The teacher can do such things, 
but if he does his own work will suffer, because his whole time is needed by his 
classes. Cheap equipment, cheap teachers, cheap methods that require the teacher to 
do carpenter work and janitor work, are only to be condemned as an injury to educa- 
tion, except where a rare enthusiasm and devotion make them a temporary benefit. 


In an ordinary school, of course, conditions are far from ideal. Pay is small, sup- 
plies scant, equipment inherited from someone who knew little about selecting, classes 
large, room cramped, and work appalling. This can all be overcome heroically by a 
teacher who is left alone ; and I have known of cases in which splendid work has 
been done in spite of such disadvantages, though the teacher often breaks down under 
the strain. But do not add to this an interference that says, "For the sake of uni- 
formity in our schools, or for the sake of my pet fad, you must use these models and 
not those." Is there no art of teaching ? Is no one to be free to do his best ? " How 
much latitude in the choice of models should be left to the teacher?" I answer, if he 
is a teacher, 1 80 degrees; if he is not a teacher, get rid of him at once. How much 
latitude shall we allow the doctor in the choice of medicines, or the gymnast in pre- 
scribing exercises, or the blacksmith in choosing horseshoes, or the astronomer in 
selecting lenses, or Kipling, forsooth, and Michael Angelo and Ericsson and F. Hop- 
kinson Smith, in the pursuit of their professions ? Is the manual-training teacher the 
only one who does not know his own business ? Because the same spellers and read- 
ers are used throughout the city, must the same models be adopted by all teachers and 
a certain wise "latitude" allowed ? I know a wise supervisor who is also a teacher 
and naturally likes his own course best, but he requires nobody to adopt it. His 
teachers were allowed to do as they thought best. They selected their course, and 
their work has been remarkable for richness, beaut)', and originality of conception. 

On the other hand, I have too often seen fine men much depressed by being 
obliged to carry out foreign ideas of superior officers more or less ignorant of the 
actual conditions that obtain in the manual-training room. This has always seemed 
to me a misfortune and sometimes even an impertinence, and it never fails to take the 
teacher's heart out of his work. He does not tell his superior of his difficulty, but he 
lets others know sometimes. Of course, good may come of it. Good often comes to 
us from irksome work that we are forced to do. But this good would come to the 
teacher only, in most cases. The greatest good would come to his work and to the 
children if he were free to put his whole strength into it and to make it an expression 
of his best self : purely, honestly, generously, and wholly his own. 

"A man is relieved and gay when he has put his heart into his work and done 
his best; but what he has said or done otherwise shall give him no peace . . . . " 
— Clarence S. Moore. 


The Western Drawing Teachers' Association will hold its meeting this year at 
Rock Island, 111., on April 23 to 25. The program promises to be one of unusual inter- 
est to teachers of the manual arts. Among the leading speakers are to be Mr. Arthur 
W. Dow, of Pratt Institute, who will lecture on "The Teaching of Art," illustrating 
with blackboard sketch ; and Professor Charles Zueblin, of The University of Chicago, 
who will tell of " William Morris and His Work." On Thursday morning the general 
subject of " Construction in the Grades" will receive attention. The president of the 
association, Miss Clara A. Wilson, of Davenport, says in her preliminary announce- 
ment, "We shall seek further light on the relation of drawing and art to manual train- 

1 90 1 J BRE VI TIES I 7 5 

The next meeting of the Eastern Manual Training Association will be held at the 
Central High School in Buffalo, N. Y., June 27,28, and 29. The executive committee 
are anticipating the largest and most successful meeting in the history of the associa- 
tion. They hope to arrange the strongest program that has yet been presented and 
preparations are being made for an exceptional exhibit of educational manual training 

Mr. William T. Bawden has been commissioned by the executive committee of 
the Eastern Manual Training Association to prepare an exhibit of manual training 
tools, equipment and appliances for the Buffalo meeting. Mr. Bawden wishes this 
exhibit to illustrate the various ways of using blue prints and drawings in the shop, 
specimens of woods and leaves, devices for showing expansion and contraction of 
wood, and porosity of wood, etc. Such an exhibit ought to prove interesting and 
instructive. Teachers who will cooperate in this should address Mr. Bawden at 15 
Sixteenth St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

The officers of the manual-training department of the National Educational 
Association are making large plans for the Detroit meeting, July 8 to 12. In addition 
to the usual two sessions a social gathering is being arranged for which is intended to 
give the teachers of manual training a pleasant hour together and enable them to get 
better acquainted with each other. This social feature is in charge of the local com- 
mittee on manual training, of which Mr. J. H. Trybom is chairman. The department 
is fortunate in having been assigned with four other departments, to the high-school 
building. Here also will be the exhibit, and it is hoped that manual-training work 
will be a prominent feature of it. A new feature in this connection will be special 
facilities for studying the exhibits. Times will be announced when representatives of 
the schools sending the leading manual-training exhibits will be at their exhibits 
to explain them fully and answer questions concerning them. Subjects and speakers 
for the sessions have not been fully determined, but in general it may be said that one 
session will be devoted largely to the report of the committee appointed last year to 
work on the relation of the manual-training high school to trade instruction, and the 
other to manual-training work for the lower grammar and primary grades. Girls' work 
as well as boys' will have a place on the program. 

The summer session at Columbia University, New York City, will begin July 8 
and close August 16. Courses will be given in thirteen departments. In the depart- 
ment of manual training two are announced : manual training for lower grades — 
cordwork, raffia, and reed basketry, paper and cardboard work, bent iron work, and 
elementary woodworking — by Miss W'eiser ; and woodworking for elementary schools 
by Mr. Ekl6f. 

There will be a summer school for teachers at the Mechanics' Institute, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. The courses will consist of work in clay, cardboard, wood, and Venetian 
iron; also mechanical and freehand drawing, if desired. The school will open July 
8, and close August 3. 

The Teachers' Training College of the German Association for Manual Instruc- 
tion at Leipzig announces summer courses in several departments. Besides the usual 
manual-training courses in wood, clay, cardboard, metal, and glass, a two-weeks' 
course in gardening is offered. Particulars can be obtained in this country from Mr. 
F. R. Inman, of the Providence Manual Training High School, Providence, K. I. 


The summer courses at Naas, Sweden, for 1901 are the following: Course No. 
92 from June 12 to July 24; course No. 93 from July 31 to September 10 ; A course 
for the teaching of games will also be held from June 12 to July 24. These courses 
include lectures and discussions on the teaching of sloyd, its educational and historical 
significance, and on the arrangement of such instruction in schools, in addition to 
practical work in the sloyd room. Only teachers who are employed in schools are, as 
a rule, allowed to attend the courses. Instruction, with materials and use of tools, 
gratis. Naas, Flodastatim, Sweden, Otto Salomon, Director. 

The proceedings of the last meeting of the Eastern Manual Training Association 
held in Cleveland, O., June, 1900, have been printed and are ready for distribution. 
They can be secured by sending five cents postage to W. E. Roberts, 190 Euclid Ave., 
Cleveland, O. Back numbers of proceedings may be secured by sending postage to 
Mr. Roberts. There are still a few copies of the revised bibliography of manual train- 
ing which may be secured by those not members of the association at twenty-five 
cents per copy. All of these publications will be sent free of charge to those who 
become members of the association. 

Mrs. Ida H. Clark, supervisor of girls' work in manual training in Saginaw, 
Mich., is reaching out beyond her own city, and being helpful to a wider circle of 
teachers. Her experience in Minneapolis and Denver and her later study in the east 
enable her to be of assistance to others in planning courses in domestic science and 

President Schwab, of the Carnegie steel works, who is now providing for 
instruction in manual training in the Homestead (Pa.) schools, promises a $200, 000 
manual-training school to the people of Homestead, if they will find a way to main- 
tain it. It is needless to say that Homestead is making the endeavor. 

If dates can be arranged, the industrial section of the American Deaf and Dumb 
Teachers' Association desires to hold a joint meeting with the Eastern Manual 
Training Association at Buffalo in June. 

Mr. Daniel Upton, director of manual training in the Buffalo public schools, is 
the secretary of an organization called the Teachers' Pan-Tourist Company which has 
been organized to furnish teachers visiting Buffalo next summer with good accommo- 
dations at reasonable rates. In fact the company is going to make it possible for one 
to live in Buffalo during the Exposition at a very low rate, as prices go at such 
expeditions. The organization has the indorsement of leading educators in Buffalo. 


The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute at Tuskegee has been given the 
funds necessary for the establishment of a model training school. This building is to 
include in addition to the regular class rooms, facilities for a kindergarten and manual 
training for boys and girls. There is to be a small garden where elementary agri- 
culture will be taught. 

Mr. J. W. Carter, the head of the carpentry division, has resigned his position 
at Tuskegee to accept the position as superintendent of the industrial department in 
the Union Theological Seminary at Richmond, Va. 

The new building at Tuskegee, where the trades for the young women will be 
taught, is nearing completion. — Arthur U. Craig. 

iooi] BREVITIES 17/ 


For several years there has been a gradual and steady improvement in the 
industrial work of the primary grades in the Minneapolis schools. Out of the "hi 
busy work, that merely "busied," has been evolved work of such a character as to he- 
accepted and entered on its own merits in the Arts and Crafts Exhibit, recently held 
by a society of artists in Minneapolis. This evolution has been the result of high 
ideals, persistent effort and hearty cooperation of the primary teachers and the super- 
visors of the primary and art departments. The effort has been to make the work truly 
educational from the points of view of both motor and artistic training, and to keep 
it in close touch with the thought-basis of the other work. It is the hope of the super- 
intendent and his assistants that the near future may see establised in our city a sys- 
tematic course in industrial work throughout the eight grades, that shall immediately 
connect with a course in manual training and domestic science in the high schools. 
At present the first three grades are making furniture for doll houses, mats, baskets 
and articles of home use. The principal materials used in making these articles are 
cardboard, raffia and rattan. On simple looms, such as are easily made at home, the 
children are weaving rugs with rags, worsted and carpet yarns; they are knitting on 
knitting needles, and crocheting with large bone needles, but the principal feature of 
the work is weaving in its various forms, and rug, mat, and basket-making. 

The following editorial taken from the Minneapolis Journal, one of its leading 
dallies, is of interest : 

"The Minneapolis public-school department of the Arts and Crafts Exhibit 
abounds in refreshing surprises for those who do not keep closely in touch with the 
many-sided public-school work. The rugs and baskets there shown are graceful in 
form and harmonious in color. Some of these little articles, beautiful in their sim- 
plicity and admirable in their excellent workmanship, were made by children of six 
and seven years, and all the little art-workers are in the lower grades. The children 
who do such work cannot fail to receive valuable and lasting impressions of the first 
principals of art. And such impressions cannot be retained without ennobling and 
elevating consequences. It is encouraging to think that the children of the public 
schools, those of adverse surroundings as well as their more fortunate brothers and 
sisters, are being taught art and good workmanship at the same time that their hands 
are instructed in useful labor. It means a higher grade of citizenship, a richer and 

fuller and more self-satisfactory life for their rising generation." 

J. E. Painter, 

Mr. C. B. McDonald, recently of Lowell, Mass., is on his way to start a manual- 
training school in Oorfa, Turkey. 

Miss Mary E. Pierce, one of the manual-training teachers in the grammar- 
school work, has been selected to make a beginning in the training of manual-training 
teachers at the Boston Normal School. The course is an elective, and has the 
endorsement of the school committee. 

Mr. W. A. ENGLAND, formerly of Haverhill, Mass., has been appointed to a 
position in the grammar-school work here. 

Miss A. V. Phelps, who had charge of all the manual-training in the Milton 
high and grammar schools, died in January, of pneumonia. 

Mr. Walker, of the Sloyd Training School, '01, has accepted a position at the 
Thompson's Island Reform School. 


Miss Anna A. Wahlberg, S. T. S., 'oi, left February 14 for Santiago, Cuba, 
with a full equipment of tools and benches. She is working under the auspices of the 
Cuban Orphan Society, supported by New York people. The government gives the 
use of a building. A kindergarten goes under like circumstances. 

Through the kindness of Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw, three native Cubans are study- 
ing at the Sloyd Training School. All their expenses while in this country are 
defrayed by Mrs. Shaw on the one condition that they teach two years in Cuba, on 
their return home. 

Papers read recently before the Boston Manual Training Club are the following: 
In January, "Screws and Nails," by Mr. Alexander Miller, of East Boston; in February, 
" Veneers and Veneering," by Mr. Edward R. King, of the Howland School, New 
Bedford; and in March, "Methods of Construction," by Mr. George F. Hatch, of 
West Roxbury. 

The Boston school committee has voted $5,000 for summer-school work this 
year. This contemplates the operation of several woodworking rooms. 

During the winter a course of evening lectures on forestry have been given in 
Public Latin School Hall under the auspices of the Boston Manual Training Club. 
They have been as follows: (1) "The Dangers to our Trees and Forests," by Mr. 
J. G. Jack; (2) "Timber, its Growth and Uses," by Mr. J. Woodward Manning; (3) 
"The Winter Aspect of Trees," by Miss Frances C. Prince ; (4) "The Forest and its 
Uses," by Mr. John M. Woods; (5) "School Gardens and Shade Trees," by Mr. J. 
Woodward Manning. 

Through the munificence of Miss Mabel Simpkin and her brother, Yarmouthport 
and South and West Yarmouth are to enjoy the benefits of manual training for at 
least three years. Three rooms have been fitted up with tools and benches. All boys 
from the four upper grades of the grammar schools are receiving instruction. In the 
high school an opportunity to take up the work was offered to all pupils, and it is of 
interest to learn that all of the girls elected to take the manual training. The work is 
under the supervision of Miss Isabel Shore. — John C. Brodhead. 


The Pacific Manual Training Teachers' Association, at its meeting in December, 
elected the following officers : President, Arthur H. Chamberlain, Throop Polytechnic 
Institute; vice president, Miss Caroline E. Harris, Los Angeles; secretary, Miss 
Sallie Peabody, Throop Polytechnic Institute ; treasurer, Miss Ella V. Dodds, Los 

The association held a meeting on February 3, at Throop Polytechnic Institute, 
in two sessions — 10:30 a. m. and 1:30 P. M. Luncheon was served by the normal 
department of domestic science, some sixty members and teachers being present. 

The meeting took the form of a round-table, and vital questions relative to the 
work were discussed. Dr. J. H. Hoove, of the University of Southern California, 
proposed the question, " In what form does the mind conserve power developed by 
manual training ? " The speaker took the ground that power acquired in one direc- 
tion is utilized in that direction only. Professors Charles A. Kunou, of Los Angeles, 
and T. H. Kirk, of Monrovia, crossed swords with the first speaker. 

Looking toward the possible introduction of manual work into the upper four 
grades of the county schools, the relative merits of various courses and processes were 

1 90 1 ] BRE VITIES I 79 

discussed, paper and cardboard whittling and benchwork each coming in for its share 
of approval. 

The association will purchase books and periodicals to form the nucleus for a 
circulating manual-training library. The next meeting will likely be held on the 1st 
of June next. 

The program for the Manual Training Summer School of Throop Polytechnic 
Institute is being prepared. Work along a variety of lines is to be offered. 

The second annual session of the Summer School of Manual Training at Throop 
Polytechnic Institute will convene July 8, and continue four weeks. This year addi- 
tional courses and instructors will be added. Dr. Edwin D. Starbuck, assistant pro- 
fessor of education at Stanford University will offer a course in educational psychology. 
Arthur H. Chamberlain, professor of pedagogy in the institute and director of the 
summer session will give work in the philosophy of manual training, and in study of 
methods and courses. Benchwork, sloyd, paper and cardboard construction, appa- 
ratus making, freehand and mechanical drawing, wood-carving, clay modeling, 
pvrography, and work in elementary processes for primary grades, will be offered. 

The Lugonia District of Redlands has just completed its new manual-training 
hall. One room is fitted with benches and all appliances for toolwork, while the 
other room will be utilized for drawing and the elementary manual-training processes. 
The dedication took place jointly with the commemoration of Washington's birthday, 
on the 2 1st of February. 

The schools of Los Angeles city, Pasadena, and other southern California locali- 
ties are preparing to send exhibits of manual work to the P'an-American Exposition 
at Buffalo. 

At the manual-training and drawing exhibit of the State Teachers' Association, 
held in San Francisco, December 26-29, Throop Polytechnic Institute showed work 
from the normal departments of domestic art and sloyd. A suggestive course in 
paper and cardboard was also shown. — Arthur H. Chamberlain. 


An exhibition of pupils' work was held at the Hebrew Technical Institute of this 
city on February 12 in connection with the annual reception of the Women's Com- 
mittee. Excellent work was shown in all departments — a natural result of the labors 
of an efficient staff of instructors among boys who realize that their daily tasks lead 
directly to the occupation they are to follow when school days are over. Reports 
received from graduates of the institute show that some 70 per cent, are engaged in 
mechanical pursuits. 

The Institute is soon to have its capacity enlarged by the erection of a new build- 
ing, to be called the Lucas A. Steinam Metal Working School, the gift of Mr. Abra- 
ham Steinam in memory of his son. The new school is to occupy the site of the 
building lately used by the Baron de Hirsch School, adjoining the Institute. It will be 
six stories in height, covering a ground space of about 30 by 50 feet. The top floor is 
to be used as a forge-shop and molding-room ; the fifth floor will be devoted to 
mechanical drawing, the fourth to wood-joinery, and the third to wood-turning and 

Mr. Steinam, who has already endowed two rooms in the present building, has 
given for the erection and endowment of the new school. 


Meetings of the New York Manual Training Teachers' Association have been 
held monthly during the winter at Public School No. 30. At the January meeting Mr. 
Edwin W. Foster gave a lecture on " Leaf Forms of Our Common Broad Leaved 
Trees," illustrated by mounted specimens. At the conclusion of the discourse the 
appreciation of the audience was shown by a vote of thanks tendered to the lecturer. 

At the February meeting it was decided, on talking over plans for the future, to 
take up the discussion of methods of work and problems of management. Since all 
active members of the association have the same course to teach, and are working gen- 
erally under the same conditions, such an interchange of views cannot fail to be of 

In the public schools of Manhattan and the Bronx the spring term begins with 
practically the same course laid out for that of the workshops as that of the term just 
ended. In Grade 5B, where knifework is done, the modifications are chiefly in the 
size of stock used, in several models % inch thickness being substituted for Y% inch. 
A few alterations in the design arrangement of models in the succeeding grades tend 
to adapt the work better to the capabilities of the pupils. 

An important feature of the course is the supplementary model made at the end 
of the term after the completion of the regular exercises. A number of models are 
placed before the class as suggestions, and each pupil is allowed to select what he 
would like to make and encouraged to modify the design in accordance with his own 
tastes and requirements. The work is then done under the direction of the instructor, 
the results being in many cases most gratifying. 

Monthly meetings of the corps of shopwork instructors, presided over by the 
supervisor, Dr. James P. Haney, will be held during the term at Public School No. 3. 

The domestic art work carried on in the Horace Mann School, Teachers College, 
under the direction of Mrs. Mary S. Woolman, affords a most interesting study in that 
branch of manual training. The course embraces a variety of operations, including 
cardwork, raffia work, basketry, weaving, sewing, etc. The development of the 
textile industries among primitive races is used as a basis for the sequence of 
thought and work presented to the children. From the study of the sheep, for 
instance, they pass on to the scouring of the wool, carding, spinning, dyeing, and 
weaving, most of the operations being actually performed by the children themselves. 
The most primitive implements are used at first. 

Special attention is given to the development of orginality. The children are led 
to suggest methods of doing things, to make their own designs, and to discover for 
themselves many of the arts and processes in common use. The inventive genius 
thus aroused is often remarkable even among children of six and seven years of age. 

To those who fancy that a course in domestic art consists of a series of set 
exercises in sewing, first with coarse stitches and later of more delicate character and 
in fine material — and there are still many such — a visit to this school would be highly 
educative as well as extremely interesting. 


For all the Ohio items and a few others in this issue we are indebted to Mr. E. A. 
Bending, of Dayton. — Ed. 

Columbus, O., is still with the "silent majority " of the larger cities in regard 
to manual training. Four well-equipped sloyd centres and many kitchens are still 

i9«i] BREVITIES 1 8 1 

idle, and have been since the work was abandoned in 1897. There is a strong senti- 
ment in favor of the work, and its friends are in hopes of its being reestablished in 
the near future. 


At the close of the last school year the Akron board of education voted favor- 
ably on an extension of the manual-training department in both grammar grades and 
high school. As a result three new centres for grade work have been established and 
considerable new equipment and machinery have been added to the high-school 

Sewing in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades, and cooking in the eighth grade 
and high school comprises the work for the girls. All the work is required in the 
grades, but optional in the high school. 

Knifework in the lower grades was discontinued on account of Mrs. Ida Han- 
shalter's resignation and subsequent acceptance of the supervision of sloyd in the 
Pueblo, Col., public schools. 

The newly elected superintendent of instruction, H. V. Hotchkiss, is giving every 
encouragement to the work. With Mr. P. J. Fish in charge of the department, 
and a liberal board, Akron bids fair to be abreast with the larger cities of the state 
in manual-training lines. 


Cincinnati is still without manual training in her public schools, but Superin- 
tendent Boone reports that they are "negotiating and holding conferences in antici- 
pation of making it a part of their regular course." 

The "Technical School," a private manual-training high school, Mr. T. L. 
Feeney, principal, and the House of Refuge, are the only institutions in Cincinnati 
now having manual training as a part of their regular curricula. A project is on foot 
to attach the Technical School to the public schools. 


Under the able management and untiring efforts of Supervisor W. E. Roberts 
the extension of manual training in the elementary grades of Cleveland public schools 
has become the established policy of the public school authorities. 

Two additional buildings are being opened as centres for seventh and eighth 
grade work. One of these buildings was designed and built expressly for manual 
training, and the other, a brick building, has been completely remodeled and adapted 
to the requirement of this work. This makes in all four centres for these grades, 
each centre accommodating about seven hundred pupils — boys and girls. All 
the primary grade pupils receive instruction in manual training, and the work is being 
extended to the fifth and sixth grades as rapidly as teachers can be prepared to take 
up the work. In addition to the above are the Central and West Side Manual Train- 
ing High Schools and the University School, a magnificently equipped private manual- 
training high school. These, with the excellent system in the grades, places Cleveland 
far in the lead of any citv in the state. 


Manual training in the public schools, in the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, and the educational department of the National Cash Register Company's 
plant tends to show that the people of Dayton are cognizant of the educational spirit 
of the day. 


A large, well-equipped central building for manual-training purposes only, accom- 
modates all the grammar grades in the city, and, in addition, classes from the high 
school to a limited number; this, with sewing for the girls of the seventh and eighth 
grades comprises the work of the public schools. The Tadd system of drawing 
modeling, and carving has been introduced into the seventh grade with excellent 
results. Mr. W. C. Vail, a graduate of the University of Illinois, and later from Mr 
Tadd's school, is in charge of this department. 

A well-attended night school is also maintained by the board of education at the 
manual training school, the instruction being confined to mechanical drawing and 

The work of the Y. M. C. A. is confined mostly to evening classes, and is more tech- 
nical in its nature, though there are afternoon classes in sloyd and drawing for the juniors, 
and the night pupils in all branches are advised to take some of the manual features. 
Besides the courses in the common branches and stenography, chemistry, languages, 
and higher mathematics, instruction is given in mechanical, architectural, and free- 
hand drawing and designing, modeling, woodworking, pattern-making, blacksmith- 
ing, and machine-shop practice. The equipment is excellent but quarters crowded, 
notwithstanding the fact that the present building js a fine one and comparatively 
new. A movement is now on foot towards the erection of a $300,000 institute, which 
will embody the present Y. M. C. A. and a large industrial school. It is being 
backed by the leading business men of the city. 

The National Cash Register Co., a concern employing between three and four 
thousand people, and one of the few large manufactories where the interests and the 
social and moral welfare of its employes are considered as its own, has an interesting 
educational department, open to the children of employe's and of the portion of the 
city in which the factory is located. Kindergartens and sloyd are in charge of Miss 
Fouts, of Pratt Institute. The value placed on kindergarten training is voiced in a 
large poster, which reads: "After 1915 we will employ no one who has not had kin- 
dergarten training during their childhood." 

The department of domestic science is in charge of Miss Igler, of Pratt Institute, 
and includes all the various branches. The cooking school is especially well attended 
by young women employed in the factory, the time being allowed them by the com- 
pany. The domestic science department gives a daily lunch to some three or four 
hundred women — employe's — on the same principle that many schools are serving 
lunches. Thev cost but four cents, the girls paying one cent and the company the 
other three cents. The difference in the work after having had a warm lunch makes 
it a paying investment for the company. A visit to the immense plant cannot but 
give the impression that here is one plant in the world that gives its employes some- 
thing besides work and wages. 


One of the most encouraging "signs of the times" is the establishment of 
manual training in the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, in addition to the 
many trades now taught. Courses in benchwork, pattern-making, wood-turning, 
carving, forging, and mechanical drawing are under way or about ready to begin, and 
others to follow. The work is to be established on an educational basis in connection 
with the excellent graded and high-school system of the home, but will also be pre- 
paratory and correlated with the trades, one of which each pupil is supposed to 

igoi] BREVITIES 1 83 

thoroughly learn before leaving the place. An excellent course in domestic science is ■ 
also open for the girls. This innovation — for such it seems to be — is due largely to 
the efforts of General Young, superintendent of the home, who is a former member of 
the board of trustees of the Toledo Manual Training School, and to Professor 
Edwards, superintendent of instruction of the home. 


Manual training in Youngstown is confined to pupils of the Raven High 
School. It is required in the first two years and optional in the third. Instruction is 
given in benchwork, wood-turning, pattern-making, iron machine work, and mechan- 
ical drawing. 

An elaborate course correlated with and leading up to the study of physics has 
been conceived by Professor E. H. Birney, formerly principal of the Akron High 
School, who is in charge of both the manual training and physics departments. Each 
pupil works out, independent of any class or member, a special exercise for the phys- 
ical laboratory. Excellent results are reported. 


The board of education has assumed full charge of the ward school manual-train- 
ing work which the University Manual Training School had introduced into the public 
schools and maintained for the past two years. The entire outfit, consisting of sev- 
eral well-equipped centres, cooking schools, and knifework outfits, all costing in the 
neighborhood of S5,ooo, is now under the control of the board of education. 

The University Manual Training School is no longer, but in its place has come 
the Toledo Polytechnic School, a manual-training high school, with its own corps of 
academic and technical teachers, separate and distinct from the Central High School, 
of which the old school was an adjunct. 

The manner in which Superintendent Virgil G. Curtis, who was called to Toledo 
towards the end of last year, has taken the reins, gives evidence that he intends to 
bring manual training in Toledo to a point which it has never before reached. 

" Four hundred and riftv students are enrolled in the Polytechnic; ei^ht teach- 
ers added." "The Polytechnic Republic has been organized for self-government and 
training in citizenship." "A monthly publication, The Tech, gives opportunity for 
both literary and art departments to exercise their talent." 

Bimonthly illustrated art lectures are given by Miss Mark, the head of the art 
department. "The students are enthusiastic," " teachers satisfied," and "the people 
interested," which all tends to show intensification of the work under the new man- 

Three of the manual teachers in the ward schools received offers from Grand 
Rapids, and are now doing successful work in the grades of that city. They are 
Miss Ruth Chapin. sewing; Miss Nellie Wales, knifework; and Miss Florence Mead, 

Professor Albert Armstrong, who for some years has been connected with the 
Toledo Manual Training School, in charge of the department of modeling and 
carving, has accepted a similar position in Detroit in the University Manual Training 

Miss Georgia Ormond was appointed to fill the vacancy in the Toledo Polytechnic 
School caused by Professor Armstrong's resignation. Miss Ormond has studied in 
this country and abroad, and is well equipped for the work. 




The engraving below illustrates an instrument (ahygroscope) which is used in the 
manual-training classes of the Mechanics Institute at Rochester, N. Y., for the purpose 
of showing the effect of moisture upon wood, or to make clear the meaning of the 
terms "expansion " and "contraction." 

The apparatus 
depends for its oper- 
ation upon the appli- 
cation of water, by 
means of a sponge, 
to both the front and 
back surfaces of pan- 
els A and B. When 
the apparatus is in 
position, the direc- 
tion of the length of 
the fibers in panel A 
is horizontal and that 
of panel B is vertical. 
Therefore panel A 
shows the changes 
which take place 
"across the grain " 
and panel B the ex- 
pansion and contrac- 
tion "with the grain." 
The upper ends of 
the panel are fas- 
tened to the back 
board, and the lower 
ends are free to work up or down in a groove as they contract or expand, and thus act 
upon the indexes, which are connected with the panels by means of a wire. 

Panels A and B are basswood, Y% inch thick, ^]/% inches wide (between beds of 
grooves), and 24^ inches long. 

The frame is constructed of white pine. The stiles are Y 2 inch thick, with a 
groove f\ inch wide and % inch deep. The stiles at the outer edges of the frame 
are I inch wide ; the center stile is \]4. inches wide. 

The back board to which the stiles are fastened is Y% inch thick, and but one 
piece. Openings are made in this back which in width equal the space between the 
stiles on the front. The length of these openings are made % inch shorter than the 
length of panels, in order that there may be a place on the back board to secure the 
top ends of the panels. These open spaces in the back are necessary, for the reason 
that moisture is applied to the backs as well as the faces of the panels. 

A cleat is fastened to the back of the panels at the top end, in order to fill up the 
space between the edge of the groove and the back board. 

The three boards which form panel A are secured at the joints by means of thin, 
narrow strips of basswood, the grain being turned in the same direction as the grain 
of the panel. 

\ .; 


- i> 1 


_ r . 



iqoi] BREVITIES 1 85 

For the purpose of increasing the thickness and adding to the strength of the 
panels at the lower end, a thin piece about if/ inches wide is fastened to the back of 
each panel. 

The curved scales C and D are made of basswood % inch thick and 2 inches 
wide. The radius of the outside curve is 12^ inches, and the center from which it is 
described is the point upon which the index swings, the pivot. 

The arms supporting the curved scales are % inch thick and I l /2 inches wide. 
The vertical distance between the outside edges of these arms is io, 1 ^ inches. From 
top edge of panel to top edge of lower arm it is 27 inches. 

The indexes are fig inches thick and 13 l / 2 inches long. The pivot or point at which 
they are secured to the frame is */>. inch to the right and left of the centers of panels 
A and B respectively. From the pivot to the extreme point of the index it is 12 inches. 
It is % inch from the pivot to the point at which the wire (No. 19 brass), connecting 
the panel with the index, is attached. A loop is formed in the upper end of this wire, 
and it is fastened to the panel by means of a bolt which is about l /% inch in diameter 
and % inch long. The bolt is provided with copper washers. Panel A is susceptible 
to the changes in the atmosphere; therefore it is necessary to cut a vertical slot in the 
panel for the bolt, about s{ inch long, in order that the index may be easily adjusted 
to the zero mark, when the teacher is about to make use of the apparatus. F is a 
shallow pocket for the sponge. 

Fastened to the lower edge of each panel is a wire which is formed so as to project 
over and partly across the face of card E; this enables the operator to register the 
real expansion after water has been applied to both surfaces of the panels. 

W. W. Murray. 

The recent absorption of the Chicago Institute by The University of Chicago is 
an event of first importance in the educational world. This brings to the University 
the $1, 000, 000 gift of Mrs. Emmons Blaine and the entire faculty of the Chicago 
Institute. It also makes possible what has long been desired — a combination of the 
three schools already under University control, the Chicago Manual Training School, 
the South Side Academy, and the University Elementary School. These three with 
the Chicago Institute and the present pedagogical department of the University will 
be brought together in one large building to be erected on the Midway at a cost of 
$325,000. The combined school will be known as "The University School of Edu- 
cation," and the reorganized pedagogical department of the University as the 
" Department of Education." 

In accordance with the instructions of the Illinois State Teachers' Association, 
G. R. Shawhan, county superintendent of Champaign county, is having the second 
year's work in agriculture prepared for the common schools of the state. This work 
is being arranged bv Dean Davenport of the University of Illinois. The course was 
inaugurated last year, and when the matter of continuing it was brought before the 
annual meeting of the teachers, it was the unanimous sense of the body that the work 
should be continued. 

Professor Frank Forrest Frederick, of the University of Illinois, will be 
assisted this year in his summer school work at Macatawa Bay, Mich., by Mr. Charles 
Francis Browne, of Chicago. An attractive program is announced. 


Constructiveness is another great instinctive tendency with which the school- 
room has to contract an alliance. Up to the eighth or ninth year of childhood one 
may say that the child does hardly anything else than handle objects, explore things 
with his hands, doing and undoing, setting up and knocking down, putting together 
and pulling apart; for, from the psychological point of view, construction and 
destruction are two names for the same manual activity. Both signify the production 
of change, and the working of effects, in outward things. The result of all this is 
that intimate familiarity with the physical environment, that acquaintance with the 
properties of material things, which is really the foundation of human consciousness. 
— Dr. William James. 

the ideals of the schoolroom. 

The ideal men and women placed before the minds of children in the school 
room are the poets, the orators, the painters, the soldiers, and the philosophers. The 
more highly cultivated the teacher, the more strongly such ideals are presented and 
impressed. The truth of the above is evident from the birthdays celebrated in school 
by carefully prepared exercises. Consult the published " programs " and you will 
find Longfellow, Lowell, Tennyson, Emerson, Bryant, Lincoln, Webster, etc. Con- 
sult the walls of their schoolrooms, and you will find portraits of painters and the 
older poets, and copies of the old masters. Consult their readers, you will find biog- 
raphies of the same class of people. 

Not only are such ideals constantly held up, but children are made to believe that 
the chief aim of education is to fit boys and girls to become great or at least accom- 
plished along the lines of art or literature. If the teacher can point to a former pupil 
who has become a successful writer or artist, the event is kept in perpetual remem- 

Now there is nothing wrong or unwise or foolish in all this except its exclusive- 
ness. The exploits, the birthdays, the biographies, the triumphs, which are omitted 
show how one-sided, partial, and misleading the present practice is. Where are the 
birthday programs and biographies and portraits of such men as Edison, Bell, George 
and Robert Stephenson, Bessemer, Fulton, Watt, Howe, Faraday, McCormick, Hux- 
ley, Eads, and Ericsson ? It is to these men and others like them that the wonderful 
triumphs of the last century are due. These men have made our modern civilization. 
And yet, all these men started in to wield, not the sword, nor the mightier pen, but 
the still mightier tools with which men have subdued the elements, and reduced the 
forces of nature to be our willing and obedient servants. These men have raised the 
standards of living, have filled our houses with comforts, and loaded our tables with 
plenty. They have covered our shelves with the best books, and hung our walls with 
the most exquisite works of the masters. These men have made it possible for us to 
know and enjoy those other men and women whom I first named, and whose birthdays 
and biographies and portraits we must not omit. 

The high ideals we ought to cherish and to place before our children are legion, 
and education should equally lead up to them all. Let us revise our readers, our birth- 
day programs, and get out an additional series of portraits and historical pictures. Let 
us open the doors into the wonderful workshops of civilization that children may see 
and understand and sympathize with the activities they are all destined to share. 

C. M. Woodward. 


The manual training session of the Department of Superintendence 
was less noteworthy on account of what was said there than on account 
of what was not. Although the papers were good, the significant 
fact about the whole session was, as pointed out by Dr. Woodward, 
that everybody seemed to be headed in the same direction. Indeed, 
there was not enough criticism or opposition of any sort to stimulate a 
healthy discussion. Doubtless this was due in large measure to the 
fact that each paper was a report of what is actually being done or has 
been accomplished. In the face of such data the spirit of opposition 
did not manifest itself if, indeed, it were present. The attitude of the 
audience — an audience that filled nearly every seat in University Hall 
— was that of the open-minded listener — the student; superintend- 
ents had come to learn of ways and means of introducing manual 
training into their schools. 

Such a frame of mind on the part of superintendents is the manual- 
training teacher's opportunity, and it places upon him greater respon- 
sibility. If the manual-training teacher is no 'onger obliged to use 
up his energy as an advocate — he has often been obliged to do that 
in the past — he can double his energy as an organizer. The time has 
come when the teacher who determines the character of the manual- 
training work, designs equipments, and spends public money is, with 
rare exceptions, wholly responsible for the success or failure of the 
manual-training work. Where he once found opposition or indiffer- 
ence he now finds encouragement and cooperation. There is no mis- 
taking the present attitude of a large proportion of the superintendents : 
"We believe in manual training; demonstrate its practicability in our 
schools; reduce its cost; make it a vital factor in our educational 

The attention of the advocates of manual training need not he devoted so much 
to the convictions and prejudices of individuals, or to the conservatism of commu- 
nity, but rather to the reduction of expense in equipping for manual training. — 
A. E. WlNSHIP, in Journal of Education. 

igoi] 187 


A History of Education. By Thomas Davidson. lY 2 X 5 in. Pp.292. Price $1. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. — -This book is a determined effort to see educa- 
tion as a whole — namely, as the author says, conscious evolution. As such it is quite 
in accord, in purpose at least, with the general movement of the day; and in spite of 
faults the book is of great value because it makes a definite advance toward unifica- 
tion of the multifarious and hitherto almost unrelated data of the so-called history of 
education. The basis of unity is, of course, the idea of evolution ; the great steps aie 
these four phases of education : savage, barbarian, civic, hitman. It may be interest- 
ing to suggest the content of the groups : savage is, of course, prehistoric ; barbarian 
includes Asia and Egypt, excepting Moslem education ; civic, Judea, Greece, Rome ; 
human, mediaeval and modern Europe and the Moslem contribution. 

Both thought and feeling are eminently healthy; there is neither chilling skepti- 
cism and pessimism, nor feverish and illogical optimism. The writer possesses, in 
unusual measure, the gift of enthusiasm without fanaticism ; calmly and judicially he 
places men and things in their proper light, dealing to all an even-handed justice, 
often composed indeed, as must often be, of blame and praise. Perhaps the best 
example of this quality is his treatment of the work of Rosseau ; compare especially 
his accurate and logical disposition of Rosseau's doctrine that the child is "by nature 
wholly good," with Compayre's comment, which, instead of correcting, falls into the 
opposite error. 

The book is not for lazy readers ; the style is vigorous and stimulating, with an 
occasional dash of Scottish dogmatism ; but the author has evidently not intended 
it solely as milk for babes ; strong meat is not wanting nor is it always predigested. 
It would be hard to find a more suggestive and discussion-provoking book on the 
subject ; it is therefore just the thing for reading circles that meet and talk. 

In the way of fault-finding, it may be said that the four phases of education, the 
conception of which form the ground plan of the book, are not defined with sufficient 
clearness; their relations to each other are not made sufficiently plain; this is particu- 
larly true of the last two, civic and human. But this is merely a part of the general 
condition ; the book is striking out a new line of thought ; many more efforts will be 
needed to complete the work here well attempted. 

The mechanical make-up of the book is excellent, with one exception : the present 
writer, with no purpose of "reading proof," counted ten typographical errors, not all 
entirely innocuous : e.g., Giordano Brimo for Bruno (p. 179); Cemitic for Semitic 
(p. 45). — E. O. Sisson. 

A Course in Mechanical Drawing. By John S. Reid. Second edition, revised. 
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1900. 6X9X in - P P- l 3%- — Professor Reid is 
instructor in mechanical drawing and design, Sibley College, Cornell University, and 
this work was prepared to meet his requirements in the class room. He recommends 
it for use in teaching the elements of mechanical drawing in technical schools, col- 
leges, high schools and evening drawing schools. 

l88 [APRIL 

igoi] REVIEWS 189 

After an introduction in which he illustrates and describes a complete drawing 
outfit, the author devotes a chapter to each of the following subjects: instruments, 
geometrical drawing, "conventions" (/. e., conventional representations), lettering 
and figuring, orthographic projection. In the last chapter, shades and shadows, 
isometrical drawing, and working drawings are considered. 

Among the useful problems not generally seen in text-books is that shown in Fig. 
48, the rectification of a semi-circumference ; Fig. 68, approximate construction of the 
ellipse : and in Fig. 78, the method of describing the cycloid by the aid of a thin piece 
of transparent celluloid. (The undersigned has employed tracing cloth in the same 
manner.) The statement on page 56 that "draughtsmen have agreed upon con- 
ventional methods to represent many things " cannot be regarded as true if applied to 
the materials represented on page 58. The fact is that there is in this country no 
acknowledged standard for representing by the use of section lines the various mate- 
rials entering into machine construction. The best practice is to name the material 
and section line in the ordinary way. 

The chapter on lettering is timely, for, as the author well observes : "This sub- 
ject has not been given the importance it deserves in connection with mechanical 
drawing." Most of the styles shown are, however, too precise. A few of the 
"catchy" alphabets would be welcome to students who, as a rule, regard the ability 
to letter free-hand more as a "gift" than an acquirement. 

While Professor Reid's book is a good one, it is no better than the best of its 
kind now in use. The claim that the subjects are treated concisely is true ; almost too 
true in the case of the chapter upon working drawings which from its importance 
might well have been more fully considered. The illustrative drawings could also be 
criticised as being rather too difficult of comprehension for the beginner. 

J. H. Mason. 

Woodworking for Beginners. By Charles G. Wheeler. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York. 5 X lYz in. Pp. 551 ; price, $3.50. — A practical book on woodworking 
for amateurs of all ages. Its aim, which is well carried out, is to give thorough and 
specific instruction how to make simple, useful articles. It does not carry the work far in 
any one line, but gives a very practical start in many, and, as the author states, does 
not teach things which will have to unlearned. 

The book is divided into five parts. The first contains the introduction ; a very 
elementary treatment of tools, woods, working-drawings, laying out of work, etc.; 
and also a very practical chapter on the amateur's work -shop and its equipment. I 
think it worthy of note, in this connection, that the author does not advocate a com- 
pletely equipped shop to begin with, but rather a development of the equipment as 
necessity demands. 

The second part treats of articles to be made in the work-shop ; such as toys, 
houses for small animals, implements for sports and athletics, furniture and other mis- 
cellaneous operations. 

Part three deals with simple house building. The author has treated this sub- 
ject in a very pleasing manner by showing how his readers may, by working at simple 
structures first, become able to make very attractive but simple summer cottages. 

The fourth part will find many admirers, especially among the boys, for it 
treats of the making of small boats, ice-boats, and house-boats. 

In the fifth part the author has utilized one hundred and sixty-three pages with a 
very thorough and practical treatise on tools and operations. The matter is arranged 


in alphabetical order, making it very convenient for reference. This part also con- 
tains, an appendix giving a more extensive treatment of woods, working drawings, 
etc., than is given in' part one. 

The book is certainly a very desirable one for those to whom it is addressed, and 
should also be in the library of every manual-training school as a book of reference. 

C. S. Van Deusen. 

Mind and Hand. By Charles H. Ham. American Book Co., New York. 5 X 
7)i in. Price $1.25. On opening this book one is disappointed to find that it is not 
a new book, but the third edition of a book entitled Manual Training, published by 
Harper and Brothers in 1886. In the preface the author explains the change as having 
been made "in response to the common and just criticism of the original title as too 
narrow for the broad treatment of the subject which characterized the text." This is 
doubtless true if the words of the title are given their original meaning, but at the 
present time the term manual training means more than mere hand or muscular train- 
ing ; it has a broader meaning even than is implied in the present title of Mr. Ham's 
book. This change in title is sure to mislead and cause disappointment. 

Otherwise the new book is a great improvement over the old, valuable footnotes 
and statistical matter having been added. The appendix contains fifteen pages of 
tables showing the extent and progress of manual training in the United States. Then 
follows notes on state laws in relation to manual training, and a brief, comprehensive 
review of manual training in foreign countries. Mr. Ham was one of the earliest 
and ablest exponents of manual training in this country, and his influence has been 
widely felt. It was largely on account of an after-dinner speech made by him before 
the Commercial Club that the pioneer school in Chicago, the Chicago Manual Training 
School, was established. The force of his style is no less apparent in his book. It is 
not a dry pedagogical treatise, but the work of a patriotic man of resources and 
literary ability who sees clearly that "one of the intrinsic needs in education is the 
training of the whole being — hand, brain, and soul —through educative work." 

American Industrial Education, What Shall It Be? Preliminary report of a 
committee of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, made at the 
New York meeting, held July, 1900. Reprinted from the annual volume of the 
society's proceedings. Henry S. Jacoby, secretary, Ithaca, New York. Pp. 74, paper 
covers, price 25 cents. This report is of especial value to anyone who is studying the 
trade-school problem and its relation to public schools. It begins by defining indus- 
trial education as "that education which specifically fits one for an industrial vocation 
or profession." It then states the question before the committee as follows : " What, 
in addition to the work that is now done in our primary and secondary schools, is it 
wise for us to attempt to do in schools of various sorts for those young people who 
are looking for employment in our manufacturing industries, or in commercial houses, 
or with great transportation companies, or in those new or more or less original 
adaptations of material means to social ends which are the peculiar problems of the 
engineering profession 1 " 

In answering this question the report pays tribute to the manual-training high 
school, and emphasizes the importance of having manual training and art education 
a part of all public-school education from the kindergarten through the high school. 
It points to the valuable work being done by the state agricultural and mechanical 
colleges, and speaks especially of the Minnesota " agricultural school " as being a 
true secondary-industrial school. The higher engineering colleges are given little 

h,oi| REVIEWS igi 

attention in the report, because they are already so well understood. The most 
important part of the report is that devoted to monotechnic or trade schools. Prob- 
ably the committee feel that they have done little more than stated the conditions of 
the trade-school problem. They will, no doubt, have much more to say on this phase 
of their subject, but their present statement is very suggestive. It may perhaps be 
summarized as follows: (i) The need of trade schools is becoming daily more 
apparent ; (2) the European pattern of trade school is not suited to American needs ; 
(3) in America all schooling should lead primarily to the elevation and development 
of the individual, and only secondarily to a greater material property, (4) every 
American boy should find his career entirely open at the top. Society here is not to 
be stratified horizontally, but rather vertically ; (5) American trade schools should 
teach our boys many things besides the mere manual performance of a trade. 

Not the least interesting part of the book is that devoted to the discussion which 
took place after the report had been presented by the committee. Especially do we 
refer to the discussion of the half-time self-supporting trade school by Mr. M. 1'. 
Higgins; of what constitutes a liberal education, by Professor R. S. Woodward and 
Professor Ayres ; and of the question as to whom is due the credit of starting the first 
work in manual training in this country, by Professors Allen, White, Kent, Lanza, 
and others. 

The committee presenting the report were Professor J. B. Johnson, of Wisconsin ; 
Dr. C. M. Woodward, of St. Louis; Dr. R. H. Thurston, of Cornell; Professor H. T. 
Eddy, of Minnesota; Professor George F. Swain, of Boston; and Professor Edgar 
Marburg, of Philadelphia. 


The January number of the Pratt Institute Monthly contains an instructive article 
on the new art-metal course at Pratt, by Joseph Aranyi. This article describes the 
process of chasing, commonly known as repousse" work, and illustrates it with six 
photographs showing different stages in the process. This number also contains a 
very brief illustrated article on art leather work. 

The Teachers College Record for November is devoted to handwork in the Horace 
Mann School, the model school connected with Teachers College, New York City. 
It contains so much matter valuable to everyone interested in art and construction 
work in the school that any review of it here will give an entirely inadequate impres- 
sion of its contents. We advise our readers to send twenty cents at once to The 
Columbia University Press, New York City, for a copy of this manual-training num- 

It contains (1) an article by Professor Charles R. Richards on "The Function of 
Handwork in the School;" (2) an outline of courses of study in the elementary 
school ; (3) a similar outline of work in the high school ; (4) an article on " The Fine 
Arts," by Professor Alfred V. Churchill; (5) one on "Domestic Art," by Mrs. Mary 
S. Woolman ; (6) one on "Domestic Science,'' by Miss Helen Kinne, and, finally, (7) 
another by Professor Richards on "Some Considerations as to Manual Training 
Method." The whole is admirably illustrated with a large number of photographic 
reproductions of the work of the children in the Horace Mann School. It is easily 
the broadest and most suggestive single volume that has come to the assistance of 
teachers of manual training. 

Professor Richards begins his opening article by defining education and stating 


its aim "in terms of our current philosophy as the development of social efficiency in 
the individual." He then discusses what is implied in this aim and points out that 
"the task of education is to organize instinctive tendencies in human nature into habits 
of social value." "To put forth and express the self in outward form is the first law 
of being." This involves carrying thought and feeling into action. That this action 
should proceed in right directions and be effective in its character is of greatest 
importance ; " that it should serve social ends is evidently a fundamental requirement." 
Self-expression through manual activities is most important in childhood ; then it is 
that the instinct toward material forms of expression is strongest and most significant. 

After discussing self-expression somewhat at length the writer says : " Perhaps the 
greatest practical problem in all this work is that of bringing the worker's own thought 
and feeling into the process in a real and, at the same time, an effective fashion. We 
must keep constantly in mind the truth that to leave out these elements is to leave out 
the pith of the activity — to leave out the life within the form. We may expect to 
find right motive in the work only when the worker realizes that the thing attempted 
is well worth the doing. This by no means implies that the task should be merely 
pleasant or agreeable, nor does it mean that an immediate end must necessarily be 
present in the operation. It does mean, however, that the undertaking must minister 
in some way to the life instinct of the worker. It means that the particular thing 
attempted must bring either added insight or sense of worthy achievement." 

Again he says: "Only when the pupil is given opportunities for determining ends 
and working out means may we hope through manual expression, or indeed through 
any school work, to develop in the highest degree independence of thought and power 
of initiative." 

" Both of these factors are essential in true self-expression, and both are essential 
to the vitality of manual activities in the school. The making of a project planned by 
the teacher may mean much, but the making of a project conceived and planned by 
the pupil means more. Only in this way is the natural cycle of mental activities — 
feeling, thinking, and doing — fully realized and made effective. Only in such terms 
can the full satisfaction and exhilaration of self-achievement be realized." 

The final article in the magazine, as well as the outlines of courses presented, 
indicate the present status of the effort at Teachers College to realize this ideal. In 
certain phases of the work much has been done in that direction; in others much more 
remains for future development. The report is more stimulating on that account. It 
presents an ideal, suggests lines of effort leading in the right direction, and therefore 
is sure to have a salutary effect wherever it goes. It will help toward freedom many 
an earnest teacher who is now bound hand and foot by the shackles of a rigid-course 

The following have been received, some of which will be given more extended 
notice in the July number : 

Furniture Designing and Draughting. By Alvan Crocker Nye. William T. 
Comstock, New York. Price, $2. 

A Course of Instruction in Wood Carving According to the Japanese Method. By 
Charles Holme. The Studio, London. 

Manual Instruction in France and Switzerland. A report to the Court of the 
University of Wales, by William Lewis. Aberystwyth. 

Teachers College Announcement, 1901-2. New York. 


Manual Training Magazine 

JULY, igoi 


John Dewey, 
University of Chicago. 

As A matter of convenience, the studies of the elementary curricu- 
lum may be placed under three heads; this arrangement is also, I 
think, of some philosophic value. We have, first, the studies which 
are not so much studies as active pursuits or occupations — modes of 
activity which appeal to the child for their own sake, and yet lend them- 
selves to educative ends. Secondly, there is the subject-matter which 
gives us the background of social life. I include here both geography 
and history; history as the record of what has made present forms of 
associated life what they are; geography as the statement of the physi- 
cal conditions and theater of man's social activities. At more advanced 
stages of education it may be desirable to specialize these subjects in 
such a way that they lose this direct relationship to social life. But in 
elementary education, of which I am speaking, I conceive that they are 
valuable just in the degree in which they are treated as furnishing 
social background. Thirdly, we have the studies which give the pupil 
command of the forms and methods of intellectual communication 
and inquiry. Such studies as reading, grammar, and the more techni- 
cal modes of arithmetic are the instrumentalities which the race has 
worked out as best adapted to further its distinctively intellectual 
interests. The child's need of command of these, so that, using them 
freely for himself, he can appropriate the intellectual products of civili- 
zation, is so obvious that they constitute the bulk of the traditional 

Looking along the line of these three groups, we see a movement 
away from direct personal and social interest to its indirect and 
remote forms. The first group presents to the child the same sort of 



activities that occupy him directly in his daily life; and re-presents to 
him modes of social occupation with which he is thoroughly familiar 
in his everyday surroundings. The second group is still social, but 
gives us the background rather than the direct reality of associated 
life. The third is social, but rather in its ultimate motives and effects — 
in maintaining the intellectual continuity of civilization — than in itself 
or in any of its more immediate suggestions and associations. 

Manual training, constructive work (or whatever name we may 
care to employ), clearly belongs in the first group and makes up a very 
large part of it. Physical activity, the use of the bodily organs, is 
necessarily a phase of whatever directly occupies and absorbs the child. 
Plays and games obviously come here. So also do a variety of school 
resources that we might not at first sight put under this head : such as 
outdoor excursions, much of the more active observation and experi- 
mental work in nature study, etc. In this experimental work it is 
not so much the objective facts, much less the scientific laws, that con- 
cern the child, as it is the direct manipulation of materials, and the 
application of simple forms of energy to produce interesting results. 
Much of the meaning of art work with little children would also be lost, 
if we eliminated this aspect of the direct output of physical energy in 
realizing ideas. School gardens belong here, too. But it is of the 
manual training, the work with cardboard, wood, bent iron, the cook- 
ing, sewing, weaving, etc., that we have more directly to do. They 
so obviously involve modes of physical activity that the name used to 
designate them, " manual training," has been selected on this basis 
alone. No one any longer doubts the thorough training of hand and 
eye, and (what is of greater importance) of the hand and eye coordina- 
tion, which is gained through these agencies. Recent psychology has 
made it unnecessary any longer to argue the fact that this training of 
hand and eye is also directly and indirectly a training of attention, 
constructive and reproductive imagination, and power of judgment. 
The manual-training movement has been greatly facilitated by its 
happy coincidence with the growing importance attached in psycho- 
logical theory to the motor element. The old emphasis upon the 
strictly intellectual elements, sensations and ideas, has given way to the 
recognition that a motor factor is so closely bound up with the entire 
mental development that the latter cannot be intelligently discussed 
apart from the former. 

I do not propose to repeat these arguments, but rather to assume 
them as both established in themselves and reasonably' familiar to the 


reader, and go on to inquire whether there is not also something pecu- 
liarly appropriate, upon the soctal side, in demanding a considerable 
part in elementary education for this group of activities. 

The idea of formal discipline, of the value of isolated and inde- 
pendent training of the so-called faculties of observation, memory, and 
reasoning, has invaded both physical culture and manual training. 
Here also we have been led to believe that there is a positive inherent 
value in the formal training of hand and eye quite apart from the actual 
content of such training — apart from its social relations and sugges- 
tions. Now, we ought to go deeper than this in our conception of 
the educational position of the constructive activities. We ought to 
see where and how they not only give formal training of hand and 
eye, but lay hold of the entire physical and mental organism ; give 
play to fundamental aptitudes and instincts, and meet fundamental 
organic necessities. It is not enough to recognize that they develop 
hand and eye, and that this development reacts favorably into physical 
and mental development. We should see what social needs they 
spring out of, and what social values, what intellectual and emotional 
nutriment, they bring to the child which cannot be conveyed as well in 
any other way. And to carry the matter to this point, to recognize the 
substantial value of the educative material of which they are vehicles, 
is to connect them with social life; it is to conceive them from the 
standpoint of the social meaning they realize in child life. 1 

The culture-epoch theory in education, and the recapitulation 
theory in biology, have made us familiar with the notion that the 
development of life in the individual corresponds to the development 
of life in the race — that the child achieves, in short years and months, 
that for which life upon the earth has required the slow ages. In 
spite of absurd pedagogical conclusions that have been drawn from 
this doctrine (through overlooking the fact that education is meant to 
accelerate and enrich this recapitulation instead of retarding and pro- 
longing it), no one, I suppose, would deny to it a certain and impor- 
tant element of truth. 

This element of truth, rightly apprehended, has, to my mind, a 
significant bearing upon the question of the place of manual training 
in education. The point is that the child, with his untried powers, 
his paucity of experience, is in much the same attitude toward the 
world and toward life as was early man. That the child should 
recapitulate the exact external conditions, performances, and blunders 

1 See my School and Society, pp. 21-36. 


of primitive man is a ludicrous proposition. That he should assume a 
similar attitude is almost inevitable. The former conception leads to 
the notion that, since the race had to advance out of the errors of an 
animistic interpretation of nature to the truth as made known in 
science, the child must be kept in the mist of a sentimental and myth- 
enwrapped nature study before he can deal in any direct and truthful 
way with things and forces about him. The second conception means 
that it is the business of education to get hold of the essential under- 
lying attitude which the child has in common with primitive man, in 
order to give it such play and expression as to avoid the errors and 
wanderings of his forefathers, and to come to the ends and realities 
toward which, after all, primitive man was struggling. 

However, even admitting that this is the proper educational inter- 
pretation of the doctrine of recapitulation, what has it got to do with 
the place of manual training ? Just this : both primitive man and the 
child are decidedly motor in their activity. Both are interested in 
objects and materials, not from a contemplative or theoretical stand- 
point, but from the standpoint of what can be done with them, and 
what can be got out of them. It needs no argument to show that 
primitive man must have mainly occupied himself with the direct 
problems of life — questions of getting food, fuel, shelter, protection. 
His concerns were the utensils, tools, instrumentalities that secured 
him a constantly improving life. His interest in nature was based 
upon its direct and indispensable relation to his own needs and 
activities. His nature-myths, his conception of natural forces as hos- 
tile and favorable, his interpretation of the events of his daily life, 
grew out of this industrial basis. His modes of associated life, family 
relations, political control, etc., were intimately dependent upon his 
industrial occupations. 

Now, if there is anything at all in the doctrine of recapitulation, 
it indicates the probability, first, that we shall find the child a reser- 
voir of motor energy, urgent for discharge upon his environment ; 
and, second, that this will be likely to take forms akin to that of the 
social occupations through which humanity has maintained and devel- 
oped itself. 1 

In one important respect, however, there is a fundamental differ- 
ence between the child and primitive man. Necessity, the pressure of 

1 In an article upon " The Culture-Epoch Theory," reprinted in the Second 
Herbart Year Book, I have criticised the Herbart theory of making literature the basis 
of the curriculum from this standpoint. 


getting a living, was upon the savage. The child is, or should be, pro- 
tected against economic stress and strain. The expression of energy 
takes in his case a form of play — play which is not amusement, but 
the intrinsic exhibition of inherent powers so as to exercise and develop 
them. Accordingly, while the value of the motor activities of the sav- 
age was found chiefly in the external result — in the game that was 
killed or the fish that was caught — and only incidentally in a gain of 
skill and insight, with the child the exact reverse is the case. With 
him the external result is only a sign, a token ; it is just a proof and 
exhibition to himself of his own capacities. In it he comes to con- 
sciousness of his own impulses. He learns to know them through see- 
ing what they can effect. Hut the primary interest and the ultimate 
value remain in precisely the culture of the powers of action which is 
obtained in and through their being put to effective use. 

If there be any measure of truth in these conceptions, then the 
forms of occupation, constructive work, manual training (whatever 
name be given them), which are employed in the school, must be 
assigned a central position. They, more than any other one study, more 
than reading or geography, story-telling or myth, evoke and direct 
what is most fundamental and vital in the child ; that in which he is 
the heir of all the ages, and through which he recapitulates the prog- 
ress of the race. It was certainly a gain for educational theory and 
practice when appeal to personal and immediate sense-perception dis- 
placed reliance upon symbols and abstract ideas. But, after all, to 
have sensations, to receive impressions through sight or hearing, is not 
the ultimate thing. To do, to perform, to execute, to make, to con- 
trol and direct activity — it is for the sake of such things that perceptions 
and impressions exist. Indeed, to see and to hear is more than to have 
impressions ; to see and to hear is to do, to do in cooperation with 
head, arm, hand, and leg. It must remain part of the imperishable 
renown of Froebel that he first of all educational reformers seized upon 
the primordial significance of this phase of child nature, and insisted 
upon modes of education which should give it outlet. What his exer- 
cises did for the kindergarten, that, and more, constructive and occu- 
pation work of various sorts must do for the elementary school. 

Hence manual training can never take its proper place in the ele- 
mentary curriculum as long as its chief aim is measured either by the 
actual result produced or by the gain in technical skill that comes to 
the producer. These have their place, but this place is not large 
enough to cover the territory to be rightfully assigned. The first 


consideration must be to give play to the deep-lying motor instincts 
and demands of the child ; to enable him to become conscious of his 
powers through the variety of uses to which he can put them ; and thus 
to become aware of their social values. To give play, to give expres- 
sion to his motor instincts, and to do this in such a way that the child 
shall be brought to know the larger aims and processes of living, is the 
problem. The saw, hammer, and plane, the wood and clay, the needle 
and cloth, and the processes by which these are manipulated, are not ends 
in themselves; they are rather agencies through which the child may be 
initiated into the typical problems which require human effort, into the 
laws of human production and achievement, and into the methods by 
which man gains control of nature, and makes good in life his ideals. 
Out of this larger human significance must grow gradually the interest 
in the technical problems and processes of manual training. When the 
interest becomes of the purely technical sort, then of necessity manual 
training no longer occupies a central position ; it belongs upon the 
level where all other forms of special technique are found. 

When manual training is so interpreted, there is a necessary cor- 
relation between it and history and science. Just as man came originally 
to know nature in its variety of forms and forces through the active deal- 
ings which he had with it, through his attempts to modify it to meet 
his needs, so the child who in orderly fashion directs his motor powers 
to recapitulate social industries comes to know typical materials and 
the typical causal forces upon which the outward facts depend. In 
reassuming the motor attitude of the race, he recapitulates also the 
motives which induced the race to study nature and find out its laws. 
He takes the position from which the facts and truths of science are 
most easily accessible, and from which they have the most vital signifi- 
cance. Correlation of manual training with science is likely to be a 
rather external and artificial matter where the manual training itself is 
conducted for technical ends — for ends which lie within itself. But 
when it is treated as a means of organizing the powers of the child in 
social directions, its scope is necessarily broadened to take in salient 
facts of geography, physics, chemistry, botany, mathematics, etc. 

Thus we return to the notion of the three groups of studies with 
which I set out. If I have made myself clear in what I have said, it is 
evident that manual training, properly conceived, is an inevitable and 
indispensable introduction to the studies of the second group, to his- 
tory and geography, as the background of social endeavor. It projects, 
it ramifies, into these inevitably. It only remains for the teacher to 


be alert to these connections and to take advantage of them. It is 
the conception of formal discipline or a merely specific benefit to 
be derived from these studies which limits them to any narrower posi- 
tion. The restriction is due, not to their own nature, but to the failure 
to take a large view of them- — failure to see them in their proper per- 
spective. The connection with the third group of studies, those which 
have to do with the symbols and forms of distinctive intellectual 
advance, is equally important, even if more indirect. In number work 
it cannot even be said to be more indirect. Measurement, the 
application of number to limit form and arrange matters of shape 
and size, is a necessity. The child not only gets expertness in rec- 
ognizing and handling certain number facts and relations, but, what 
is even more important, he gets a ''number sense": he gets to be 
aware of the use and meaning of number; it becomes a reality to him, 
so that there is a vital motive in his own experience for pursuing it 
farther. Doubtless an ingenious and wideawake teacher will find 
natural connections also with the matter of reading and writing, but 
there is no need of forcing matters in this direction. Upon the whole, 
the connection here is indirect. But we may be sure that the training 
of the general intelligence which the child gets, his sense of reality, will 
arouse an interest in these matters. He will feel their necessity, even if 
he does not always have immediate motive for using them supplied by 
the constructive work. These tools of learning have been so integrally 
associated with productive work in the whole progress of humanity that 
the momentum which is secured from the pursuit of the latter will 
surely reflect itself, with increased effect, in devotion to the other. 

If the term "primary" in the phrase "primary education" denotes 
anything more than merely a time element, if it means quality, if it 
means what is fundamental and basic, then the constructive arts and 
manual occupations have a claim to be considered distinguishing and 
characteristic features of primary education. 


George H. Bryant, 
Principal of Townsend Industrial School, Newport, R. I. 

Probably most readers of this Magazine will agree that the manual- 
training high school has a definite and peculiar field in the work of 
the educational world of today. And probably, too, most of these will 
agree that, while it may and possibly should have a share in the prep- 
aration of boys for higher institutions of learning — particularly the 
technical colleges — yet, since the percentage of its students who expect 
to enter those higher institutions is usually small, its chief function is 
the education of boys — and girls too — who are to go out from the high 
school directly into the industrial world. 

Now, the writer wishes to disclaim at the outset any intention of advo- 
cating the conversion of the manual-training high school into the trade 
school, as we usually understand the latter term. However well suited 
the trade school may be for Europe, it does not seem to flourish under 
the industrial conditions of this country. But the American scheme 
of manual training as a component part of common-school education, 
both primary and secondary, is based upon the broad grounds of gen- 
eral education rather than upon the acquirement of a detailed knowl- 
edge of one or more particular trades. There are in every trade too 
many special problems and details, both mechanical and commercial, 
for anv school — even the real trade school — to attempt to teach. Our 
aim is to give our pupils a general knowledge of the industrial arts, 
with the correlated sciences, and mathematics, as well as of English 
and other modern languages. 

But the advantages we claim for manual training are not limited to 
the use the pupil can make of his skill and knowledge of the arts in 
gaining a livelihood. We believe that, whether such use of his skill 
and special knowledge is made in after-life or not, manual training is, 
in itself, of the highest value in general education as a stimulus to men- 
tal effort and development. The best conception of modern manual 
training is, therefore, a training of the mind through the hand as well 
as of the hand through the mind. The two conceptions are really 
inseparable, as has been so well pointed out by Professor Scripture in 
his article in the first number of this Magazine. 

200 [JULY 


But however much or little the latter theory of manual training 
may be accepted in the educational world of today, it is probably a fact 
that a large proportion of our boys and girls who enter our manual- 
training high schools make such a choice, not so much because of the 
advantages for general education (though it often offers the only means 
of escape from the dead languages), as of the apparent necessity exist- 
ing for the pupil to get out into the world within a few years — four or 
less — and begin to earn his own living. Coupled with this prospect is 
usually a taste, more or less strong, in the pupil for some one of the indus- 
trial arts or sciences; or a belief in the mind of the parent that his son 
has, or ought to have, such a taste. Sometimes there is no definite 
recognition on the part of either of such a taste ; but, instead, a feel- 
ing that, as the professions are beyond reach, and in the absence of a 
decided inclination for commerce, the best chance for the boy to suc- 
ceed is in some line of constructive industry; and the manual-training 
school offers a fairly wide field for a choice which may be made later. 
The latter class is usually large. 

This, it seems to me, is about the situation in regard to the average 
manual-training high school. Is it a too utilitarian view to take of this 
modern form of education ? It may appear so to those who feel that 
manual training should have higher aims than the mere preparation to 
earn a living, or to those who forget that all education is a means 
rather than an end. We must not lose sight of the fact that secondary 
manual training, especially where established as a component part of a 
city school system, is, or should be, primarily for the benefit of the 
many whose school days end at that point, and who are then to become 
factors in the industrial life of the community, rather than for the few 
who have the means and ability to prepare for a professional career. 

Now, if it were possible for any considerable number of pupils 
entering upon a regular manual-training course at the junior year to 
come with well-defined ideas as to what particular line of industry they 
wished to follow after their school years are over, it might be possible, 
by a system of electives, or by developing more strongly those features 
of the shopwork or drawing which bear most closely upon such lines 
of industry, to give, at the outset, more thorough practice in those 
lines without sacrificing the scheme of general education. Thus, if a 
boy purposed to become a house-builder, he might choose a more 
extended course in carpentry and joinery, taking the extra time 
required from some line of work less intimately connected with that 
business, as machine-tool work. In his drawing, special bearing 


might be made upon the elementary principles of architecture — per- 
spective, working plans and elevations, and architectural ornament. II 
he expected to enter a machine-manufacturing business, some of his 
joinery and carving might be omitted, and the extra time spent in the 
machine shop, with a corresponding bias in his drawing toward 
machine design and principles of mechanism. 

Fortunately or unfortunately, the number of pupils in the earlier 
years of the regular courses of our high schools — whether English, 
classical, or manual training — who have definite aims regarding a 
future vocation is usually too small to make such a subdivision of 
classes as would be unavoidable under such a scheme necessary or 
desirable. And such an extended system of electives would probably 
complicate to too great an extent the problems of time schedules and 
teaching force. But in the upper grades, as the pupils become older 
and begin to think more seriously of their future life and work, and 
as the number usually becomes less, the writer believes that such 
electives could be allowed with decided advantage in many cases. Of 
course, the foregoing does not apply to pupils preparing for the col- 

Again, in schools where special students, taking partial or short 
courses, are admitted, such elective courses, with special time and 
attention given to a few subjects, are usually both feasible and bene- 
ficial. Such pupils also are usually older and more mature mentally, 
and, in many cases, enter upon such courses with fairly well-defined 
aims for their future. 

Now, a problem often perplexing faces us at this point, viz. : To 
what extent should we encourage these short or partial courses ? 
Should they be considered as a regular feature of the manual-training 
system and provided for in the school curriculum ; or should they be 
discouraged, and allowed only in special cases, and for especially 
urgent reasons ? The usual course, as laid out for the manual-training 
high school, is of four years' duration, and is pretty well filled with a 
good variety of subjects for both mental and manual training. 

We all believe, probably — the writer certainly does — that every 
boy and girl should be kept in school as long as possible, so long as 
progress continues ; and that nothing should be said or done to give 
the idea that the full course is not the best course for every pupil, 
provided he lias the capacity, and the time and means, to pursue it. But it 
is a matter of very general experience, wherever manual-training 
schools are established, especially in the larger towns and cities, and 


among the artisan and laboring populations, that there is a class of 
boys, larger or smaller, often of good mental capacities, who know 
that they must positively go to work by the time they are seventeen or 
eighteen years old, and who finish the grammar grades with this pros- 
pect before them. Most of such boys would be able to make but 
•little use in life of trigonometry or chemistry, while, to a large propor- 
tion of them, the advantages of further training in drawing and one 
or more lines of shopwork would be a positive and great blessing. 
Such work as this, the writer believes, should be included in the 
manual-training field as well as the graduation of the comparatively 
small number who complete the full course. 

The same argument will apply to those entering upon a regular 
course, who later find that they must go to work before the end of the 
four years. Much might be said also in regard to the policy of allow- 
ing pupils of good character and habits of industry, but who have 
repeatedly failed in one or two academic subjects, to drop out of a 
regular into a special course rather than to drop out of school alto- 
gether. Such cases are not at all rare in the average manual-training 
school. But this subject should require a more extended treatment 
than can be given to it in this article. It is understood, of course, 
that entrance upon such special courses should only be allowed under 
certain restrictions as to age, preparation, standing, time, etc., and 
that there should be no lowering of standards in any course or depart- 

In such cases as these, particularly, why may we not relax somewhat 
our attention upon the "educative values" in our shop and drawing 
courses, and place more upon the immediate usefubiessiox the particu- 
lar students under our charge — to the doing of some one line of work 
well rather than in spreading our efforts over a large field with the result 
that the pupil learns to do a little of everything and not much of any- 
thing ? In order, apparently, to avoid dwelling upon any line of work 
sufficiently long to become proficient, which tends seemingly to trade 
education, or in trying to make our full courses fit all classes of pupils, 
we have gone to the other extreme of trying to cover too much ground, 
and have given only a smattering of any one of the constructive arts. We 
cover this considerable extent of ground in the four years at a sacrifice 
of thoroughness. 

Why, for instance, should we insist that a boy entering the school 
in the second year should not be allowed to start at once in the iron 
work because he has not taken the first year's course in joinery and 


carving? or that in drawing he may not take up a course of machine 
designing until he has completed a certain number of plates of geo- 
metrical problems or perspective? We must bear in mind that we are 
not now dealing with boys of grammar-school age, whose comprehen- 
sion of the scope of the work is usually limited to the piece in hand, 
and for whom each piece is a necessary step in the educational scheme 
which is continuous from the beginning to the end of the course. 

It may be remarked, in passing, that this lack of thoroughness is 
usually the ground — whenever it is based upon anything above sheer 
prejudice — for the antagonism of the trades unions and organized 
labor generally which manual training has had to encounter in most 
localities in times past or present. It must be said, however, that this 
antagonism is not commonly shown with a very clear conception of the 
general aims of manual training, and is usally far too sweeping. 

But whatever the plan we follow for our high-school boys, we should 
be certain that our methods are thoroughly up to date and in agree- 
ment with the best and most modern manufacturing processes, both as 
to apparatus and to details of work, so far as the means at our disposal 
will allow. This does not mean that we should attempt to follow all 
the short-cuts and economies for cheap and rapid manufacture, discard- 
ing hand for machine work, which would be making of our boys mere 
mechanical factors in manufacturing processes — a condition we so 
often find and which many deplore in the modern world of manu- 
facture. But it means that each tool used and each exercise or model 
made should be illustrative, in all details, of the tools and operations 
used in the best and most modern methods of constructive industry. 

The theory that a good workman can be developed with poor tools, 
if we use the right teaching methods, was never a sound one from either 
an educational or an industrial standpoint. 

How often in shopwork courses — in carpentry, for instance — do 
we see given as a lesson a joint which not only has no direct bearing 
upon a complete model or construction piece subsequently given, but 
which does not even illustrate modern practice in the art, being sel- 
dom or never used by practical carpenters and builders, or in which 
the mechanical principles of construction are entirely lacking ! Such 
an exercise serves simply as a practice piece for the development of 
accuracy of sight and steadiness of hand — mechanical skill only. This 
faculty is desirable — indeed necessary, particularly for the class of boys 
we have been especially considering; but how much more valuable 
if to this we can add the training of the powers of perception and 


planning which come with the application of the skill to actual and 
constructive problems ! 

Too often in courses do we see also models of fanciful design and 
material made for exhibition purposes only — to catch the eye of the 
admiring layman, but of so little practical value that the pupil himself 
can scarcely comprehend their use. They often have not even the 
merits of a good toy. Such articles illustrate the application of art to 
construction carried to an absurd extreme. 

The progressive teacher must keep in touch with the mechanical 
and industrial world, and acquaint himself with the various changes in 
tools and processes that are constantly taking place, of which knowl- 
edge his pupils should receive the benefit by means of frequent talks 
or lectures, visits with him to industrial establishments, etc. 

No tool or process should be retained in a course after its general 
use in the mechanical world has passed. Such courses, like the shops 
employing the obsolete methods, soon become "back numbers." Such 
an obsolete exercise or process may have a certain "disciplinary value" 
or use as a practice piece : but mere disciplinary exercises, without 
practical application, should have no more place in a school-shop 
course nowadays than in arithmetic or grammar. The same, or suffi- 
cient, discipline can be obtained with infinitely greater mental stimulus 
by a problem having a direct practical bearing. 

Why, for instance, should we make so much of chipping and filing 
in our iron-work courses? Skill in both these operations was exceed- 
ingly useful, even necessary, for the general mechanic of a generation 
ago, when so much of the machinist's work was done by hand. But with 
the advent of the shaper and milling machine, chipping and filing, as 
forming processes, have largely passed away ; and, even as a finishing tool, 
the file has been largely superseded by the surface grinder. Practice 
with those hand tools is necessary and desirable to a certain extent ; their 
use in certain situations can never be dispensed with. But those of 
our boys who go into a modern machine shop or manufactory after 
leaving school are likely to handle the chisel or file very little, except, 
perhaps, for rough work ; and it, therefore, seems hardly necessary or 
desirable thus to spend so much time and energy as is represented in 
this part of some of our machine-shop courses. 

The criticism against our schools, on the part of practical mechanics, 
of lack of thoroughness in any one line is, no doubt, justified to a 
certain extent, at least from the trade point of view. Cannot this 
criticism be done away with, at least in regard to our special students, 


or in cases where the line of work may be specialized, by raising the 
standard of workmanship and by making each exercise or model con- 
form in design and method of construction to the latest and best 
practice ? By thus concentrating our energies on one or two subjects, 
we may be able to insist upon a higher degree of excellence in the 
workmanship, even if repetitions by the pupils are made more 

But it is neither practicable nor desirable, if we keep the best 
educational interests of the pupil in view, that such skill be attained 
in any one operation or process that he could take his place at once as 
a skilled workman on an equal footing with experienced artisans in 
any particular branch of industry. There are, in all special lines of 
manufacturing, too many details to be compassed in a manual-training 
course, even if in only one branch of work. But thoroughness should 
be insisted upon at every step ; the time consumed should be a second- 
ary consideration so long as the pupil is diligent. 

This does not mean, however, that the element of time may be 
neglected if our pupils are to become efficient members of indus- 
trial society. The slow-but-sure workman holds a scarcely better 
position in the race today than the quick-but-careless one. While the 
product with which we should be chiefly concerned is the boy rather 
than the piece, yet the boy should be trained to produce his piece with 
economy both of time and of materials. But accuracy of conception 
and perception ; of measurement, fit, and finish in all details — in a word, 
thoroughness — is the chief lesson to be taught in the manual-training 
school. Celerity and deftness in any particular operation or line of 
work may be acquired by practice in after-life; they are largely 
mechanical accomplishments. But inaccurate or careless habits of 
thought or action, once acquired, are shaken off again with difficulty. 
Our watchword should be efficiency. 


T. B. KlDNER, 

Director of Macdonald Manual Training Fund for Nova Scotia. 

The consideration of the subject of manual training in England 
must of necessity be somewhat retrospective in order to trace its mar- 
velous growth from tiny beginnings to its present great and important 
position in the educational system of that country. That its growth there 
has been marvelous will not, of course, surprise its many and enthusi- 
astic friends on this side of the Atlantic who have themselves been wit- 
nesses of the enormous expansion of ideas on the subject and the 
almost general conversion of educators to a belief in its value in what, 
in the history of education, is an incredibly short time. I propose to 
consider manual training chiefly as it affects the "common " schools of 
England, and, as its official status as a subject of education dates back 
but a brief ten years, it is possible to get a fairly comprehensive survey 
within reasonable limits. 

For many years previously the "carpenter's shop" had been an 
adjunct of the great "public" schools and colleges, and the value of some 
sort of constructional work, though mainly of a recreative and wet-half- 
holiday type, had been recognized. It was, nevertheless, no part of the 
school work, and, indeed, figured in the prospectus often as an "extra," 
and generally was included in the same category as swimming, drill, 
and other gymnastic exercises. No sort of educational progression or 
thought entered into the work, which oftener than not resolved itself 
into the construction of more or less elaborate "cabinets," etc., to be 
carried home triumphantly at the end of the term to admiring parents. 
The precise contribution of the pupils to the workmanship of such 
articles is an unknown quantity, and, in fact, from the nature of them, 
the pupil's own labor and skill bore but little part in their evolution. 
Even that, however, has, I believe, borne its fruits, and, when in after- 
years "my lords of the Council of Education" had under consideration 
the introduction of manual training into the curricula of the com- 
mon schools, who can tell how the memory of the Saturday afternoon 
spent in the carpenter's shop of their school or college may not have 
influenced some of them in favor of putting such training within the 
reach of all? 

iqoi] 207 


It was, perhaps, early in the eighties when the faint murmurings of 
the coming movement began to be coherent. Stray teachers here and 
there had heard of the Naas Training School, and some in curiosity 
had taken one of the short courses at Herr Salomon's now famous 
institution. To the vast majority of teachers and educationists the 
subject was still, however, quite unknown until the issue in 1884 of the 
report of the "Royal Commission on Technical Education " brought it 
prominently before the public. Their inquiry had lasted for some 
three years, and during that time the subject had made great advances 
in European countries. Important confirmation of the value of the 
instruction was also obtained from the United States, and amongst 
other familiar names may be mentioned those of Woodward, Runkle, 
and Ham as giving evidence in support of their contention. Finally 
the commissioners recommended that "proficiency in the use of tools 
for working in wood and iron be paid for as a specific subject" by the 
government department of education, but that " as far as practicable such 
instruction should be given out of school hours," showing that even then 
the real function and meaning of such teaching were not fully appre- 
ciated. In one respect, however, the report had a great influence on 
the future of manual training in England — the importance of combin- 
ing drawing with workshop practice was insisted on. When some six 
years later the first regulations for the carrying on of practical manual 
instruction appeared, this had effect in the proviso that the bench-work 
must invariably be connected with the pupil's own drawings, a rule 
which has remained in force ever since. The immediate results were 
not very apparent ; a few efforts appear to have been made to establish 
it in some sort of way until, in 18S6, at the meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, a paper was read by Sir 
Philip Magnus strongly advocating the claims of manual and practi- 
cal instruction as a subject of school work What was, perhaps, more 
directly useful, he also gave some ideas of its methods and probable 
cost. Sir Philip had been a member of the Royal Commission and 
formed his conceptions of the value of the work from a lengthy tour of 
observation of schools and systems of continental Europe, being 
greatly impressed by what he saw in France especially. He was then 
(and still is) the organizing secretary and practical head of the newly 
formed City and Guilds of London Institute for the advancement of 
technical education, and was well known also as a teacher and lecturer on 
school matters ; hence his paper attracted great attention from educators 
and the public generally. The London School Board, which has always 


been fortunate in having a number of cultured and intelligent men 
in its ranks, took the matter up, and Sir Philip was called in to advise 
them. Of course, the first difficult}' confronting them was the obtain- 
ing of suitable teachers, able to give the necessary instruction, and suffi- 
ciently skilled to undertake the new work. To meet this demand a 
class was started in the Central College of the City and Guilds Insti- 
tute, and several teachers took advantage of it and qualified as 
instructors. In January, 1888, the first lesson was given, six centers 
being opened in various parts of London in connection with the 
schools of the Board. An enormous amount of interest was evinced 
in the experiment, and teachers, school managers, and educationists 
of all sorts gave it their serious and critical attention. Visitors from 
all parts of the kingdom and from abroad came to observe and report 
upon it, and the general consensus of opinion was that the new depar- 
ture was a success beyond the hopes of its most sanguine advocates. 

The various attributes which we are accustomed now to claim for 
manual training (so much so that in speaking or writing of them to 
teachers of it one feels a danger of being so trite as to be common- 
place) were all proved most conclusively to belong to it. More impor- 
tant still, that bugbear, which we have all experienced in introducing 
manual training for the first time into a school system, the fear of its 
interfering with the purely literary studies, proved to be groundless. 

It was not yet plain sailing, however, for, to the intense disappoint- 
ment of its enthusiastic friends, the Department of Education decided 
that such teaching did not come within the scope of the elementary- 
schools act, and therefore that the London School Board could not 
legally expend public moneys on it. At this critical juncture some of 
the wealthy " City Companies," the survivors of the crafts guilds of the 
Middle Ages, came forward and offered to provide for the maintenance 
of the work for another year. The offer was accepted and a committee 
formed to manage, consisting of representatives of the City and 
Guilds Institute, the Companies, and the School Board. By that time 
her majesty's inspectors had become fully convinced of the value and 
utility of the instruction, and, in consequence of their favorable 
reports, the 1890 code of regulations for the management of public 
elementary schools contained rules and conditions under which the 
teaching of woodwork was recognized as a school subject. Some sug- 
gestions were made as to framing courses of instruction, and a proviso 
that the tools must be "those in use in the ordinary handicrafts" 
shows that the Swedish knife started out badly handicapped on its 


educational career in England. On the issue of the code, the subject 
was at once taken up by many large centers of population, and a 
demand arose at once for teachers. Those teachers who had taken a 
qualifying course of work were all too few, and in consequence all 
sorts of men were engaged, some workmen only, with no knowledge 
of the methods of teaching or of child-life, and others with some 
amount of training in the technical schools established all over the 
country some years before, through the efforts of the City and Guilds 
Institute. The character of many of the courses was, in consequence, 
largely of a "technical" or trade nature, and consisted for the most 
part of joints and abstract exercises in various tool manipulations. 
This idea was in many cases fostered by the officials appointed to 
inspect manual training, the drawing inspectors of the Government 
Department of Science and Art. In those days the inspectorate was 
largely recruited from officers of the Royal Engineers, excellent 
draughtsmen, clever and able constructors, but unable from the nature 
of their own training to depart much from the constructional units as 
taught in the government military colleges. Under the pernicious 
system of "payment by results" then in vogue, that is, the payment of 
grants by the government according to the quality of the work done 
by the pupils, the duty of these inspectors was to examine and report 
upon the whole of the drawing in the public elementary schools, and, 
as drawing formed an integral part of manual training, that also was 
put under their jurisdiction. In their hands, the advocates of the 
Swedish system, pure and simple, were hardly dealt with, and although 
here and there men were found honestly attempting to teach on what 
they considered to be the best principles for children, the making of 
"models" or useful articles, their courses of work had to be liberally 
sandwiched with "joints "' to satisfy the demands of the examiners, 
who assessed the value of their work for grant-earning purposes. 

About this time two associations of teachers were formed. One, 
the National Association of Manual Training Teachers, chiefly con- 
sisting of men engaged in teaching the subject under Mr. Barter, of 
the London School Board, together with a few scattered members in 
the rest of the country ; the other, the Slovd Association, formed, for 
the greater part, of men who had taken the Naas course and their 
pupils. This latter was not numerically strong, but, like the National 
Association, had some leading educationists in their ranks. The aim 
of both was to disseminate knowledge of the subject and generally to 
assist in forming public opinion on the matter. They also watched 


all legislation affecting manual training and its kindred subject, "tech- 
nical" or specialized education, and when necessary took action in the 
interests of the work and its teachers. From the first a strong stand 
was made for freedom in drawing up courses; educational principles 
first, no matter what the particular expression of these principles, 
whether " models" or abstract exercises. At first many of the gov- 
ernment inspectors insisted on a set examination at their annual visit, 
but after several years' experience the absurdity was seen of treating 
the children as individuals during the training, and then trying to meas- 
ure each one by the same wire gauge, as it were, at the year's end. 
Gradually the more enlightened of these officials dropped their fixed 
tests and inspected instead of examining the children, noted their intel- 
ligent (or otherwise) work, and came to be regarded by the teachers 
more as friendly advisers than as "policemen" ready to catch them 

In April, 1898, the two great divisions of the English Government 
Educational Council, the Department of Science and Art and the Edu- 
cation Department, were merged into one Board of Education. The 
control of the manual training was vested in four specially selected 
inspectors, and the whole country divided into four districts under 
these gentlemen. The grant was changed from so much (2 d.) per 
lesson to a lump sum of six or seven shillings per annum, accordingly 
as the report was "good" or "excellent." With an experience of 
nearly two years of the working of this, most teachers consider the 
scheme eminently satisfactory. The broadening of the views of the 
inspectorate, from the constant diversity of thought and practice in the 
various schools visited, has had excellent effect, and must have good 
results for the cause of manual work. As mentioned earlier, the 
importance of the drawing being directly connected with the bench - 
work is everywhere insisted on, and, as in the United States, the advo- 
cates of the Swedish system have fallen into line with this. In fact, 
there is a general coming together of all earnest workers and thinkers 
in the matter, and the great points of difference so much insisted on 
by devotees of this or that " system " are slowly, but, I believe, surely, 
disappearing. Professor Robertson, the moving spirit and originator 
of Sir William C. Macdonald's great scheme for introducing manual 
training into Canada, who has observed, perhaps more closely than any 
other man, the workings of the methods of the English schools, declares, 
as the result of his investigations, that he could discover little or no differ- 
ence in the various " systems " in vogue there. In the elementary schools 


the subject is still an optional one, and it is inspiring to note that about 
sixty of the largest towns and school boards have adopted it in their 
schools. In London Board Schools alone bench accommodation is 
found for close on 55,000 children. In England last year the grant 
was paid on nearly 100,000 children. In addition to these, many others 
received the instruction, but were not qualified for the grant, owing to 
their not having attended with sufficient regularity to complete the 
course. In the "Organized Science Schools" claiming government 
aid, manual training in wood or metal has been compulsory for some 
years now. Last year "higher elementary" schools were established 
to bridge the gap between the common schools and the organized 
science schools, and in these it is also compulsory for boys, and some 
form of it for girls. 

In the grades or "standards" of the common schools, below the 
age at which woodwork may be reasonably taken, the adoption of 
hand-work is at present by no means general. Some of the large cities 
have formulated good and comprehensive schemes by which the "occu- 
pations" of the kindergarten are carried on in various advanced forms 
until the woodwork is reached. Chief among those cities must be 
mentioned London, Birmingham, and Leeds. Their schemes of work 
comprise paper-folding and cutting, clay-modeling, wire-bending, brick- 
laying, cardboard modeling, brush and color work, etc.; and these are 
being gradually imitated in other districts. 

By means of exhibitions and conferences much good work has been 
done in this direction, and on all sides the movement is still spreading 
and growing. The outlook seems full of hope, and if those in whose 
hands the future destiny of the movement largely lies be but true to 
their faith and principles, it must tend to the uplifting and bettering 
of our race. 

Some words of a "greeting" of Herr Salomon, sent to the National 
Association of Manual Training Teachers' Conference in London last 
year, will, I think, fitly conclude, and will help to emphasize what, in 
my opinion, is the most hopeful sign in the sky for our work in the 
future, the coming together of apparently diverse methods and of 
seemingly opposing elements. He said : 

The manual-training movement is, like every other similar movement, 
a thing which is composite to a high degree. If, for example, we stand at 
Gravesend and watch the Thames roll its mighty wave along, the immense 
stream appears as a something whole, and as far from being the composite 
stream it really is. For, in reality, it was at the beginning something com- 
paratively unimportant, arising, as it does, from the union of several springs 


in Gloucestershire, if I mistake not. The greatest river of England, which 
has borne and will continue to bear on its bosom the greatest riches of the 
world, is scarcely navigable for the first miles of its course ; but by degrees its 
tributaries carry to it more and more water. It runs onward, becomes broader 
and deeper, receives tributaries from the one side and from the other. It is 
changed from a rivulet to a rill, from a rill to a brook, from a brook to stream, 
from stream to river — to the river Thames — one to all outward appear- 
ance, still it is in reality many. Now, it seems to me that this manual-train- 
ing movement, or whatever we may like to call it, just resembles such a 
mighty stream, which, to the casual glance, may appear a something simple 
and indivisible, but which upon closer examination is found to be as com- 
pound as anything could be. It has, it seems to me, its first cause in the 
desire of the child to be at work — to be executing something. Then it has, 
during its silent course, received the one tributary after the other — the 
national-economical, or such as once again brings to the fore the old-time 
work in the home; the technical, which strives to bring back skill in handi- 
work, which has been lessened not least by machine industry ; the social, 
which elevates bodily labor in popular esteem, and the workman too ; the 
ethical, which strives to lift the moral standpoint by flying idleness, which 
has been called by Comenius "the devil's pillow;" the physiological, which 
endeavors, by means of bodily labor, to realize the ideal of your great country- 
man John Locke — " a sound mind in a sound body ;" the oesthetical, such as 
trains the eye to be able to understand the beautiful in form and execution. 
Thus, while the stream has flowed sometimes beneath precipices, now through 
fruitless marshes, so through grass-grown meadows, and again mid fertile 
plains and smiling parks, it has now, having reached the metropolis of the 
world, become the mighty river of educational art which has taken to itself 
a multitude of different streams, and bears upon its wave a great crowd of 
human thoughts and opinions. For this, too, has ever been my settled opin- 
ion, that, as it is a certainty that the future belongs to youth, so surely ought 
each religious, political, social, and economical question be finally resolved 
as one of education. The one who has had occasion to follow the movement 
which you describe by the name of "manual training," and I by that of 
" pedagogic sloyd," knows that, even if we differ in details more or less 
essential — if you more strongly emphasize one side, and I another, of this 
mighty movement — he knows, I say, that in reality we both strive toward the 
same goal; we struggle and are carried forward to the common estuary — the 
development and improvement of youth, and, with it, of all humanity. 



William C. Stimpso n, 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In writing this series of articles my main object will be to show 
how various typical decorative projects may be worked out by high- 
school students. I will go into detail rather fully, taking up each 
process step by step and illustrating any special tools used in getting 
out the work. This will doubtless prove a very old story to many 
of my brother-teachers ; but if it proves helpful and suggestive to 
some who are not in cities where they can see this class of work done, 
I shall feel that my effort has not been profitless. 

The fundamental operations in forging are very few in number, 
and they may well be taken up in the following order : drawing, 
bending, twisting, shouldering, upsetting, punching, splitting, weld- 
ing, and forming ; and, for decorative work, veining and modeling. 
A good course will contain type pieces of machine forgings, which 
will give practice in these different operations, and the most impor- 
tant ones, such as drawing, bending, welding, and forming, will of 
necessity be introduced several times. Veining and modeling, or 
raising, we shall consider as essentially decorative processes in which 
the boys have possibly had some previous training in their sheet- 
metal work. So, with simpler forms — such as escutcheons — these pro- 
cesses may be taken up after twisting or shouldering, if we wish; but 
the more ornate foliage work should not come until later in the 

The problem now under consideration is to introduce into a course 
as outlined above, at suitable periods, exercises of a distinctly deco- 
rative character, which will embody these fundamental operations. If 
the original course is designed to cover a specified time, judgment 
must be used as to what exersises shall be omitted in order to get in the 
decorative work ; but I believe it is considered by most of the leaders 
of thought in the manual-training field that such an omission is wise. 

The decorative work should follow the course rather closely in the 
beginning, but, as more comprehensive projects are made, they will 
be found to combine so many different operations that their position 

214 [JULY 




in the general course may be shifted more or less as may prove advis- 
able from year to vear. 

Our boys, then, will begin their work in forging with one or two 
practice pieces which will serve mainly to give them their first expe- 
rience in building and keeping the fire, handling the iron and tongs, 
and most of all in striking with the hammer. This will be followed bv 
simple machine forgings, introducing drawing, bending and twisting. 
They will then be prepared to embody these operations in their first 
decorative project. 

STOCK fxj X/3&' 

sketch for blackboard 
Fig. i. 

For this first piece I will take a simple S" scro " Nv 't'> a twist at the 
change of the curves. In presenting this to the class I use the black- 
board (fig. 1) to give necessary dimensions for drawing down and 
laying off the work, and for each boy I mark out a pattern on a small 
pine board from a model scroll which has been set down to a plane 
surface on one side. Where many working patterns are required, this 
plan has proved a great time-saver over others (such as mounted paper 
tracings or curves scratched on slate or sheet iron), for, when made 
indistinct bv use, we simply plane off the surface of the board, 
quickly run our pencil around the model, touch up the ends to make 
them quite definite, and the block is again ready for use. Everyone 
in the class makes this scroll, the stock for the exercise being cut to 
the proper length beforehand. Each student works carefully to get 
the correct over-all length when both ends are drawn down. After 
being carefully laid off — with the prick-punch marks on the edge of 




the iron — the twist is made ; then the scroll is bent up, great care 
being used to get the short curves well formed ; and lastly all of the 
curves are trued up until the boy has worked out the very best 
lines that it is possible for him to produce 
with the practice he has had thus far. One 
cannot say too much in regard to urging the 
boys to judge the scroll by their eye and to 
use the pattern simply for over-all dimen- 
sions; for in this way we can do much to give 
that training in judgment and appreciation 
of beauty which is the aim of all this side of 
the manual work. 

A few boys in each class will always finish 
their exercise much in advance of the others, 
and I allow these boys to begin a larger pro- 
ject upon which to work whenever they find 
themselves ahead of the class (fig. 2). For 
such projects I make one working drawing, 
then trace off full-size details upon heavy 
manila paper, and tack this to a board. The 
boys measure the curves, make their allowance 
for drawing, and cut their own stock. 

Now, as to details of shop practice, let us 
consider in order measurement of scrolls, 
cutting stock, drawing ends, twisting, forming 
the curves, and fastenings. 

There are two convenient methods of 
measuring a scroll — either step off the curve 
with dividers set to a definite small arc and 
keep count of the steps, or measure direct 
with a flexible wire. In general I consider the latter method prefer- 
able. Use a fine annealed 
wire of definite length, 
bend it to fit the curve, 
beginning at the inside or 
eye of the scroll, and, 
where it is desired to stop 
the measurement, bend at 
a sharp right angle. Now, at the figure on a rule corresponding to the 
original length of the wire place the end of the unused portion (fig. 3); 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

I 9 0l] 



the true length of the curve may be read direct from the rule at the 
right-angle bend in the measuring wire. In this way it is unnecessary 
to straighten out the curves of the measuring wire, and the wire can 
in turn be adjusted quickly to all the scrolls of a design. On large 
projects it is well to set down against each separate scroll on the 
drawing a memorandum of its length. 

In cutting the stock the size of the iron and the style of end that 
is to be formed must be considered. With ends simply rounded full 
length is used, but where the ends are tapered or forged in any way 
the stock is cut shorter to allow for the increase in length due to such 

Fig. 4. 

A — Blank not forged. 

B — Blank drawn to straight taper. 

C — Blank flared. 

D — Blank upset, then flared. Stock %" X %" ; same length in each example. 

treatment. For instance, with 3/8 X 343-inch stock we deduct 5 S of an 
inch for each taper. The best way to determine the proper amount to 
deduct is to form the desired end on apiece of scrap stock and note the 
increase in length. The accompanving sketch (fig. 4) illustrates the 
idea of the relation between the blank stock and the forged end. 

The twist is usually a purely decorative feature in any design and 
breaks the monotony of a continuous line by the introduction of a 
series of short parallel elements of a very subtle nature. A twist of two 
inches, like that called for in the exercise before mentioned, can be 
turned cold and give smooth regular lines. The work should be 
gripped in a vise, whose edges are not too new and sharp, close to one 
of the prick-punch marks ; use a wrench or pair of tongs at the other 
punch mark' and give the bar one and one-half turns. If, in doing 
this, the work becomes bent, rest it on a block of wood and straighten 
by blows of a mallet, as the use of the hammer and anvil would mar 
the edges. A high heat will give a close twist suggesting a screw 




Fig. 5. 

thread. I think the most pleasing effect, and that having the greatest 

life, is obtained when the heat is brought up carefully so as to be red 

for about y 2 inch in the middle and black at the punch marks when 

the twist is made. In this way the increasing stiffness of the metal in 

each direction from the middle gives a variety and character to the 

work, which are lacking when the whole length 

J to be twisted is at a uniform temperature. In 

making a long twist the iron should be worked 

cold whenever practicable. An allowance 

must be made for shortening which will occur, 

varying from y& inch to % inch per foot, 

according to the size of the stock. The best 

plan is to allow plenty; make the twist and 

then lay off the desired length. In a case like 

this the aim is to have the twists as uniform 

as possible, and any irregularities may be 

easily adjusted by using a pair of bending 

wrenches, or even two pairs of tongs, to 

shorten or lengthen any particular twist. In truing up large flat or 

square stock it is necessary to heat the part that needs adjusting and 

cool off each side up to the offending curve by pouring water from a 

dipper; then put in or take out the twist, as the case may be. For 

bending a twisted rod grip a piece of hardwood in the vise and use it 

as the horn of the anvil, using a mallet in place of a hammer. 

In bending the scroll three general oper- 
ations are performed: first, forming the eyes ; 
second, bending the longer curves which 
block out the scroll ; and, third, truing up. 
The work is carried through in this order, 
except that the short curves of the eye are 
trued up when first made. In the class 
exercise under consideration the eyes are 
designed especially to be formed partly over 
the point of the horn. In order to get good 
curves in the first step we depend upon the 
varying stiffness of the iron — both from its tapered form and from a 
gradation of the heat, the extreme end being the hottest. This end is 
first given a short curve over the point of the horn, then projected over 
about 2 inches and bent down to an angle of about 45 degrees ; the piece 
is then turned over, rested on the face of the anvil, and with skillful blows 





of the hammer made to roll up to the desired curve (fig. 5). With a 
little practice these steps may be repeated for another length of stock 
in the same heat and a very considerable portion of the scroll formed 
with only the hammer and anvil. Should the eye thus formed be a 
little large, it can be closed evenly all around. To do this rest it on 

the point of the horn, with the body of 
the stock projecting in line with the 
horn and strike carefully on the outside 
of the curve while the end is being 
slowly rolled around as shown in sketch 
(fig. 6). (This result can also be 
obtained in some cases by laying the 
work on the face of the anvil and 
pinching the eye carefully with a pair of flat tongs.) The principle of 
the action described, I take it, is that the impact of the blow at points 
A and B (fig. 6) straightens the short curves slightly and at the same 
time gives greater curvature to the stock between. This principle is 
taken advantage of to true up 
the eye before proceeding far- 
ther with the bending — the 
method being to rest one short 
part in the curve on the point 
of the horn and strike a light 
blow on another similar defect, 
bending the intervening stock. 
Before passing from this step 
I wish to call attention to the 
two forms of bottom tools 
shown in sketch, as they are 
very helpful in forming these 
short curves with the hammer 
(see figs. 7 and 8). Thev do 
service the same as the horn, 
with the advantage that the 
recess allows the end curves 
to be rolled to quite a good size under the working edge of the tool 
without interference. These tools are very simple in construction, and 
one to every four or five boys in a class will prove of great convenience. 
The bending tools possibly warrant a brief description before con- 
sidering their use, which is almost self-evident. Those made to be 

Fig. 8. 




held in the vise or anvil I term bending blocks; those having a handle, 
bending wrenches. Of s.the bending blocks (fig. 9), A and B are 
forged from soft' steel and the slots case-hardened. They are very 
strong and serviceable. Figs. C and D are made by shrinking round 
pins of tool steel into soft steel blocks. In one case this block is 

simply cut from the bar and 
in the other it is forged to fit 
the square hole in the anvil. 
These latter can be very quick- 
ly made, but they are not so 
durable as the forged ones. 

The wrench is also forged 
from soft steel and the head 
case-hardened. The width of 
the slots should be about one 
and one-half times the stock 
to be bent. Of the use of 
the screw-driver point on the 
wrench handle I will speak 
later. There should be at least 
one set — a bending block and 
wrench — for every two boys 
in the class. It would be 
better for each boy to have 
Fig. 9. a set. 

In blocking out 
the scroll this thin 
stock may be bent 
cold, using only the 
bending block. The 
iron is caught be- 
tween the pins and 
bent a little at a time 
by hand. A very low 
heat, however, will 
facilitate matters, in which case the work is held in the tongs and rested 
between the pins of the block, while the curve is worked in little by 
little with the wrench. By these means we get the scroll worked out 
in a general way. 

In the third step we go over the piece carefully, adjusting the curves 





until we get a satisfactory result (fig. 10). This truing up requires 
great patience, and the student must be systematic, first taking out 
the short curves, 1 then improving the long ones. The boys must be 
cautioned against trying to do too much at once, as a slight bend will 
alter the whole curve very materially. And, above all, let me suggest 
again that the boys be urged to work in as free a way as they can, so 
that their scrolls, aside from certain fixed dimensions, will be products 
of their own creation. 



Fig. i i. 

I shall say but little with reference to fastenings used for joining 
scroll work. I use No. 10 round-head rivets for the |-inch stock, with 
^-inch and ^-inch for larger work, my idea being to keep as few 
sizes as possible in stock. In fig. 1 1 I give sketches of rivet blocks 
and sets which I have found convenient in constructing scroll-work 
projects, and these need little explanation. A is made heavy enough 
— about five to eight pounds — to be held by hand, or it may be 
gripped in the vise if convenient. B and C are vise blocks. B is 
gripped with the top shoulders down against the vise jaws and the end 
cup projecting enough to catch the rivet ; or it may be gripped at 
right angles to the jaws when the other holes prove convenient. C is 

1 In this article I shall speak of a true curve — meaning the curve desired ; of a 
short curve — one with a short radius or one having greater curvature than desired 
and of a long curve — one with comparatively long radius or one with not enough 
curvature. I shall use the term " eye " referring to the series of short curves in 
the middle of a volute scroll. 




gripped at right angles to the vise jaws, its projecting foot holding it 
firmly; or it can be held vertically to bring one of the end cups into 
service. D is an offset riveting tool, and E shows the foot of an offset 
cupping tool. These are used for upsetting and finishing rivets in 

Fig. 12. 

places where it is impossible to bend the scroll out of the way to allow 

the use of the hammer itself. 

I use machine screws only where it is very awkward to put a rivet, 

or where it is desirable to have 
the work constructed so that it 
may be taken apart readily. I 
use mainly No. 8-32, No. 10- 
24, and No. 14-20. I have taps 
and dies for these sizes, and 
clearance and tap drills ; the 
latter are kept in a block made 
expressly for them ; they are 
marked distinctly and used only 
in connection with the taps 
and dies. 

For drilling holes I use a 
No. 6 Goodell breast drill, and 
I find that with a sharp twist 
drill and lard oil the boys can 
drill rapidly through stock up 
to -A- inch ; for heavier drill- 

Fig. 13. 

ing the boys use the drill press in the machine shop. 

Another fastening which is very attractive in certain designs is the 
simple band (see fig. 12). This is made of the same stock as the 
scroll work. It is cut to such a length (determined by experiment) 


that the ends will just meet, as at A, fig. 12, or each end is drawn down 
and made to lap, as at B, fig. 12. This latter method looks neater 
when nicely finished, and is the easier of the two for the boys to make. 

The bands can be made by bending over the horn and squaring up 
on the hardy, and may be put on by gripping them cornerwise in the 
vise and closing over with hammer. A few simple tools, however, will 
facilitate matters very much. 

The clip tongs A, fig. 13, are made with one jaw the exact thick- 
ness of the pieces to be clamped by the band. The stock for the band, 
previously prepared, is heated, gripped firmly at the proper distance 
from the end, and the extending length formed over the jaw of the 
tongs, as shown. 

In fastening, the seat-tool B, fig. 13, receives the band, the work 
to be clamped is slipped in, and the ends of the band folded down 
with a hammer. In case the bands do not grip the work firmly enough, 
a seat-tool, C, fig. 13, and a clamping stick, D, fig. 13, will be found 
very useful for tightening them. 




Edwin \V. Foster, 
Manual Training High School, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

It is a difficult matter to decide which is the best season in which 
to study the trees. Perhaps winter is the least interesting time, 
although the trees are far from being uninteresting in winter. It cer- 
tainly is the best period to study the bark, as the light which is 
received at this time of year is less obstructed by foliage shadows, etc. 

The spring must not be neglected, for this is the time of miracles, 
and one may miss some of the most interesting operations in nature. 
Surely we cannot let the summer season go by without continuing our 
observations, as every few days bring a new set of conditions, and 
everything is hurrying toward fruition. While autumn is the great 
harvest season and the vegetable world, like the waning day, ends as 
the sunset in a blaze of glory. 

If, then, one is to become interested in this subject, he must make 
it a part of his daily life, and it will well repay him by making the 

224 [JULY 




world for him one of continual brightness and sympathy, the same 
world which is so often dreary and uninteresting to those who are 
unacquainted with nature. 

The lover of trees is often reminded of the statement that the Cre- 
ator never duplicates his work. Not only are no two leaves on the 
same tree alike, but the great diversity of forms leads him to surmise 
that nature like man is decidedly moody and capricious. For instance, 
on the sassafras tree, which is occasionally found fifty feet high, 


although there are three distinct kinds of leaves, each of these is as 
regular and conventional in shape as an art student could make it. 

On the red mulberry tree, which may be growing side by side with 
the sassafras, no two leaves will be found alike either in shape or size. 
Evidently nature was not in the same mood when she developed the 
mulberry as when she designed the uninteresting three-pointed sassa- 

From this point of view — oddity of leaf-form — two American 
trees stand out prominently, the Kentucky coffee tree and the Hercu- 
les club, angelica tree, or devil's walking-stick, as it is variously called. 
Both of these trees bear double compound leaves, i. c, leaves in which 
the leaflet is itself compound, there being but one other tree in this 
class growing in the United States, viz., the honey locust. 

The Kentucky coffee tree takes its name from the hard black bean 
which it produces. The legend recounts how the pioneers from Vir- 
ginia, pushing through the Appalachian passes into what is now 







1 ■ 





Kentucky, were without many commodities, including coffee, and that 
the fruit of this tree was used as a substitute until genuine coffee could 
be obtained. There are from six to nine of these beans, about the size 
of chestnuts, growing in a lima-bean-shaped pod from six to ten inches 
long. These pods stay on the tree all winter, and, as the tree has a 
very bare and dead appearance after the leaves are off, they are a strik- 


ing feature long remembered. The tree is rather rare in the North, 
except in parks, where it is planted for its oddity, and grows to a height 
of a hundred feet. It is a very interesting member of the pea (locust) 
family, and its leaf, which measures three feet by two feet, is very sym- 
metrical and interesting. 

The doubly compound leaf of the angelica tree is even larger than 
that of the coffee tree, a specimen in the possession of the writer meas- 
uring forty-one inches in length. The tree itself, however, is a mere 
shrub in comparison, rarely reaching over twenty-five feet in height. 
It takes its names, " Hercules club " and " devil's walking-stick," from 
its peculiarly bare and club-like appearance when the foliage has 




disappeared in the fall. As there are no small twigs or branchlets, it 
is a mere stick. The leaf may easily be distinguished from that of the 
coffee tree by the facts that it ends in a single leaflet instead of two and 
by its lack of independent single leaflets near the base of the petiole. 
The fruit consists of large drupe-like clusters of small purple or black 
berries about the size of elderberries. 

A very valuable 
group of trees for both 
shade and timber are 
the basswoods or lin- 
dens. There are several 
varieties, the European 
linden thriving here as 
readily as the native 
varieties. These trees 
may always be distin- 
guished by the leaves, 
which are heart-shaped 
and lopsided, i. e., one 
side from the mid-rib 
being always larger than 
the other, as if two 
leaves of different sizes 
had been joined along 
the center. This is a very common feature among certain classes of trees, 
as, for instance, the elms and hackberry. Another distinguishing fea- 
ture is the bract or seed, as shown in the sketch. This tree is valuable 
from every point of view. Its symmetrical shape, dense shade, fra- 
grant flowers so loved by the bees, and its timber so free from knots 
and valuable in many trades, commend it in every way as a typical 
American tree. 

Another valuable group from as many points of view is the ash 
family. Handsome, tall, cleair-cut boles, fresh healthy green foliage, 
and valuable hardwood timber are words easily spoken or written, but 
one must have a personal acquaintance with individual trees to appre- 
ciate their true significance. The white, red, blue, and black varieties 
have slight differences in foliage, seeds, and general appearance, of 
which our space does not allow an extended description. The wood 
of all is hard, strong, and elastic, and is used extensively in the manu- 
facture of oars, carriages, and agricultural implements. 



i go i 



In the willows and poplars we have two groups, widely different, 
yet possessing valuable features from several viewpoints. It seems to 
the writer that the willows have never been fully appreciated. Their 

f?£o as// 


mobile and softening effect among such stiff and sturdy trees as the 
oaks and tulips is very agreeable when one is looking for diversity in 
the landscape, while as to their having a mournful effect one is 

La/tc-e toothtd A3PErt\ 
strongly inclined to say, '-Look again." They are certainly infinitely 
superior to those maimed and distorted monstrosities of tree life 
known as weeping-beech and its kind. 




We are indebted to the poplars for the spire-like Lombardy, whose 
excessive use has been followed by the natural reaction, with the con- 
sequence that its legitimate use of enhancing and diversifying groups and 
sky-lines has been practically forgotten and the tree is becoming scarce. 
To this group also belong the white poplar, aspen and large- 
toothed aspen, balm of 
Gilead, and cotton-wood. 
The wood of this group 
is of little value except for 
fuel and paper-making, 
but as shade trees two or 
three varieties are valuable 
in the trying conditions of 
city life, and the cotton- 
wood in the past has been 
a Godsend to some por- 
tions of the western prai- 
ries, where it was practi- 
cally the only tree grow- 
MA/OEN fiA/n TtfEE ing wild. The foliage of 
the whole group is remark- 
able for its constant move- 
ment with the slightest 
stirring of air, and this 
is due to the long, slender, flat stem. 

We are indebted to Europe and Asia for some very interesting and 
valuable trees, but none of these surpasses in interest the ghenko or 
maiden-hair tree. It is claimed by scientists to be a survivor of the 
carboniferous age, and the impressions of its leaves are still found in 
coal. Its leaf is fan-shaped with parallel veins — an unusual thing in a 
tree leaf — and it is thick, leathery, and of a beautiful green color. 
There is absolutely nothing in our native trees with which to compare 
either the leaf or the general habit of the tree. The general effect is 
inspiring, as it soon outgrows all its neighbors, every branch reaching 
upward with the central spire twenty feet in advance of all the others. 
The leaves keep quite close to the main branches, and as their form is 
like that of the maiden-hair fern, the effect, particularly by moonlight, 
is one never to be forgotten. We do not know yet how large this tree 
will grow in this climate, but in its original home, China, it is said 
to reach enormous proportions, and, judging by some magnificent 


i 9 oi] LEAF-FORMS 23 1 

specimens in New York and Brooklyn, it bids fair to outgrow most, 
if not all, of our native trees. 

The shopwork teacher is often at a loss, owing to the small amount 
of time at his disposal, to know just what classification to use in his 
talks on trees. The botanical classification is good — in its place — 
but clearly that place is not the manual-training room. It seems to 
the writer that the one adopted by F. Schuyler Mathews is at once the 
simplest and most comprehensive for our purpose. Taking the leaf- 
form as the characteristic feature, we have the five general divisions : 

1. Simple alternate growing leaves. 

2. Simple opposite growing leaves. 

3. Compound alternate growing leaves. 

4. Compound opposite growing leaves. 

5. Evergreen leaves of the pine family. 

The first four classes, comprising the deciduous leaves, are subdi- 
vided into two subclasses each as follows : 

1, Without teeth. 

2. With teeth. 

These two subclasses are again subdivided : 

A, Edge not divided nor cut into. 

B. Edge divided or cut into. 

This gives us the following arrangement : 

I. Simple alternate leaves : 

A. Edge not divided. 

1. Without teeth , 
B. Edge divided. 

( A. Edge not divided. 

2. With teeth \ „ „ , ,. . , , 

( B. Edge divided. 

II. Simple opposite leaves: 

( A. Edge not divided. 

I. Without teeth \ _ _ ° ,. ., , 

( B. Edge divided. 

A. Edge not divided. 

2. With teeth 

B. Edge divided. 

III. Compound alternate leaves : 

1. Without teeth. Leaflets bordering main leaf stem. 

2. With teeth. Leaflets bordering main leaf stem. 

IV. Compound opposite leaves. 

1. With and without teeth. Leaflets bordering main leaf stem. 

2. With teeth. Leaflets radiating. 
V. Evergreen leaves. 



The eighth annual meeting of the Western Drawing Teachers' Association was 
held at Rock Island, 111., April 23, 24, and 25. The officers were very fortunate in 
their selection of speakers for their principal sessions. Mr. Arthur W. Dow, of Pratt 
Institute, gave an illustrated address on "The Teaching of Art" at the opening ses- 
sion on Tuesday morning. In the evening Mr. Charles Francis Brown, of the 
Chicago Art Institute, spoke on " Composition in Landscape." Mr. Brown illustrated 
his lecture with sketches on the blackboard and stereopticon views of paintings by 
eminent artists, to show correct methods of spacing and other elements in landscape 
composition. On Wednesday evening Mr. John Duncan, of Chicago Institute, lately 
from Scotland, gave a most enjoyable art talk. His picturesque and graceful use of 
the English language added not a little to his clear and logical plea for applied art. 
On Thursday evening, at a joint meeting with the Northern Illinois Teachers' Associa- 
tion, Professor Charles Zueblin, of the University of Chicago, spoke on "William 
Morris and His Work " to an audience which nearly filled the First Congregational 
Church of Moline. Professor Zueblin illustrated his lectures with a rare series of col- 
ored lantern slides. 

At the session on Wednesday morning normal training in art was discussed from 
several standpoints : by Miss Wilhelmina Seegmiller, of Indianapolis ; Miss Mary S. 
Morse, of West Superior, Wis.; Miss Annie Lyford, of Moline, 111.; and Mrs. Hannah 
Johnson Carter, of Chicago. The Thursday morning session was devoted to " Con- 
struction in the Grades." Miss Mary C. Scovel, of Oak Park, 111., read the first paper. 
She began by saying that the constructive work in the elementary schools must be 
connected with the life in the community in which the school was located. As that 
life is not exactly the same in all places, the constructive work should not be the 
same. Children should be led to observe and to make use of their observations in 
their constructive work. Miss Scovel gave a detailed account of how a class in Oak 
Park took up the study of buildings — churches and dwelling houses — and furniture. 
She also spoke in favor of bent-iron work, pointing out its close connection with 
drawing and designing. In speaking of methods and standards she said : " It is a 
positive injustice to accept careless work. Constructive drawing should be made the 
basis of making. Drawing and construction combined will force the child to appreci- 
ate the value of accurate, careful work." 

In the discussion which followed, Miss Cushman, of the University Elementary 
School, Chicago, said she was glad to hear Miss Scovel emphasize the need of accu- 
rate work. She felt, however, that inaccuracy is often due to imperfect directions 
given by the teacher. Superintendent Whitney, of Elgin, spoke against so much of 
the pupils' work being left unfinished. Pupils go as far as they can in the given time 
and then throw their work away. This should be avoided. Mr. Kennedy, of La Salle, 
could not agree with Mr. Whitney; he thought that if the pupil had put forth his best 
effort in his work, there was no harm in throwing it aside at the end of the lesson. 

232 [JULY 

i goo] A SSOCIA TIONS 233 

"Shall we ever have anything finished till life is done ?" Mr. Sylvester, of St. Louis, 
agreed with Mr. Kennedy, and emphasized the need of keeping the pupil's ideal high. 
Following the line of thought of the last two speakers, Mr. Dow said : "Too much 
demand for accuracy kills feeling." Then, quoting Ruskin, he said : "The demand 
for perfection is a sign of decadence in art." To still further illustrate his thought Mr. 
Dow told of a Japanese tea-kettle he had once seen. It was made of iron, yet it was 
an object of beauty. It was beautiful in shape and had a slight flower design around 
the top, yet it satisfied all the requirements for use. Things need to be no less useful 
in order to be beautiful. 


The second paper was read by Miss Clara I. Mitchell, teacher of textile fabrics, 
Chicago Institute. Her subject was "Social Occupations." She said in part as 
follows : 

"The old ideal of school as preparation has given way to the new ideal of school 
as society. Society — or community life — is the organization of people for mutual 
helpfulness. Ideal community life is that in which all its individuals act with refer- 
ence to the good of the whole, and in which the good of every individual is considered 
by the whole. 

"Such community life has now become the ideal of education, and it means that 
school shall be organized for the best good of its members; that all its members shall 
grow into citizenship, or work together for the happiness of the whole. The problem 
of the school as an ideal community is to find means for the realization of the possi- 
bilities of the children forming it. 

"As all education is through self-activity, education, to be all-sided, must call into 
play all the activities of the being. Therefore the school must plan an environment 
for the child to which his whole nature will respond — mind, body, and soul. 

"An ideal determines everything which goes into its realization. Our ideal of 
education must be one which calls out and develops all the activities of the being. 
The larger the demand it makes, the greater its reactionary or educative effect. If it 
calls the whole being into action, the whole being will grow through its action. It 
seems clear that the only ideal great enough in its demand to appeal to every power 
of the being is the social ideal. 

" Social life, the life of the community, is the one thing great enough and complete 
enough to engage and set in motion every activity of which the human being is 
capable ; therefore nothing less than the social ideal is sufficient for education. 

" Essentials to carrying on community life are play and work. The individuals of 
the community enter into play from the necessity for exercise — physical, mental, and 
moral — and from the necessity for recreation. The community life calls for work to be 
done as the means of its being carried on. Individuals entering into the work of the 
community do so with intellectual and moral purpose as well as physical activity. In 
play and work both community and individuals are developed, since the good of one 
depends upon, and is identical with, the good of the other, the evolution of the indi- 
vidual and the evolution of the community being one. 

"The questions for education then are : ( 1 ) What work does the community need ? 
(2) What play does the individual need? 

"The child is full of activities. It is his instinct to do things — to create. What 
work shall he do? Without doubt, under our ideal, he must do those things which 
his community needs to have done. 


" Broadly stated, he is to enter into the struggle of the race and take his part in its 
work. This he must do with his own hands and through his own person. As he puts 
himself into the work of the world with all his senses stirring and capabilities aroused, 
he enters into the experiences of the race and begins his study of the problems which 
concern present living and have been a part of the past. 

" In his work in wood he enters into the race-experience of building ; through cook- 
ing, into the food activities of all people ; his work in textiles carries him into man's 
problems of the necessities, comforts, and luxuries in clothing. 

"As a child takes a part in any one of these fundamental occupations, the indus- 
trial relationships of that occupation make appeals to him on every hand. The 
clearness of his imagery in the subject makes all things pertaining to that subject 
clearer to his mind. He has made things and is interested in those things, in other 
people who have made similar things, and also in the processes of their work. So it 
is that through the work of his hands the child enters into life and gets an apprecia- 
tion of its meaning. 


"Hand-work has a preeminent place in the new education, because (i) its product 
may be put to immediate use in the community life ; (2) the processes involved are in 
themselves educative ; (3) the materials, processes, and purposes involved in the work 
are wide in their relationships, and lead the worker out into larger intellectual and 
moral life. 

" We will leave conscious work of philanthropy and reform to the older members 
of the community; let them take as serious view as possible of sociological condi- 
tions — and let the children make aprons and bags and doilies and cushion covers. 
They will joyfully work to fill a need that they can see and appreciate — which comes 
nearly enough within their own experience to make it seem real ; and the joy they 
feel in making baskets for their mothers is really a part of the whole world-spirit of 
altruism or devotion to the good of all people. The love of making things will grow 
into a habit of directed social activity, if the child is encouraged to see and fill the 
simple needs of the people about him. 

" Weaving has been a part of the work of man since the making of the first basket. 
The history of the development of the textile art would be the history of man himself, 
and such an account might be found in the printed volumes. But it is the doing of a 
thing which makes us understand and appreciate those who do or have done the same 
thing. A boy gets a clearer notion of the life of a weaver by weaving one rug than 
he can learn from reading the history of the textile industry. 

" In picking the seeds from a cotton boll he gains a degree of respect for Eli 
Whitney and for his invention. An attempt to design one carpet or many carpets 
fills him with wonder at the culture and taste of the heathen to whom our country 
sends missionaries. By doing the things that are to be done, the child in school 
begins the study of the question of human labor and its rights. Through his own 
bodily sensations he gets some sense of the cost of labor. He learns to estimate the 
work of the world in terms of body and spirit. By translation of his own experience 
he gains the privilege of understanding in a degree the makers of our world. 

" All this he gains through the activity of his own hand and brain working together. 
If we teach all our children in this convincing way, perhaps we shall be able to pre- 
vent another terrible revolution in which the people who work with their hands 
demand intelligent appreciation from those who use the product of that work. The 

i go i J A SSOCIA TIONS 235 

chipping of stone weapons, making of a bow and arrow, cooking over a fire struck 
out of flint, scraping and tanning of hides, building of huts, hunting for edible grains 
and fruits, the making of pots and baskets, smelting of metal, build into the child's 
life the material out of which history is made, so that his own experience teaches him 
something of the meaning of history. 

" Interest in the thing he is making gives the child an interest in the way in which 
other people of the world are doing the same kind of thing. The desire to make his 
basket beautiful leads him to the delighted study of the basket of the Indians, 
Hawaiians, Javanese, and South Americans. Questions in the color arrangement of 
the rug he is weaving drives him with eager questions to the Orient, and the wonders 
of color combination which are as yet so far beyond him. Thus problems arising in 
his own work take him, with necessary vital inquiries, out to all people of all parts of 
the earth. And the answers to those inquiries explain to him the conditions of nature 
and civilization which surround the people whose work he is studying. It is in terms 
of climate, topography, soil, vegetation, situation, and transportation facilities that 
the information comes to him — geographical facts. The knowledge of geography 
gotten in this way gives to the child the true image of the earth as the scene and 
partial explanation of man's activities. 

" But it is not to man only that the child puts his questions. Difficulties in spin- 
ning, in weaving, and in dyeing, in fact in all possible making, drive him straight to 
nature's laboratories. Science can solve many of his problems and teach him secrets 
for which his work waits. Appearing to him as a help in need, nature will become 
to the child that good mother she is so often called, and science will stand in his life 
as the giver of laws, under the operation of which he is able to shape the material of 
the world into the needs of man. 

"Mathematical law is a necessary part of all science and construction — where 
they go, mathematics are needed. The making of things presents to the worker a 
series of mathematical problems, and these must be solved if his work is to be accom- 
plished. How much more eagerly will the student attack those problems which come 
to him through work than he will those that come through the teacher and the 
text-book ! When schools offer occupations which are part of the needed work of the 
world, our students will recognize the social value of the school, and will put into it 
their best efforts. Then school life will be as real as the life in the streets and on the 
farm, and our children will get as good training in applied mathematics and science 
as comes to our news carriers and country boys ; but they will get it under the social 
ideal, not degraded by sordid motives of business life. 

"This life of large activities in the school, the playing of games, working in shops 
and studios, the doing of things that need to be done, the carrying on of the work, 
will surely organize society, and, by employing all the energies of our boys and girls, 
it will make them joyfully creative and cooperative. Work done in this spirit is art. 
Morris says that ' art is the expression by man of his pleasure in labor.' 

" He, again, in speaking of the beautiful things that fill the museums and are the 
delight of artists, asks: 'What are they, these wonderful things?' Just the ordinary 
utensils of daily life made by common people for the use of common people. They 
were made to fill human needs. They had nothing of that strained self-consciousness 
that vitiates so much of our own art production. The joy of the maker could not but 
express itself in forms of beauty. 

"Compared with the art of the Renaissance, our art today is sick and puny. Art 


has been isolated and carried too far from the life of the mass of people. It is a 
by-eddy in the stream of human progress. The great early master worked with a 
religious zeal and from religious motives. We shall have a great art when we live a 
great religion, a religion wide enough to embrace the most advanced thought of our 
time, and directed by moral purpose. This religion is the spirit of helpfulness, the 
desire to serve our day and generation in small things as well as in great. The chil- 
dren making the small things for daily use are working in this spirit and toward the 
religious ideal, and we may have faith that the outcome will be a genuine art. 

" The comparative newness of hand-work in schools has made it thus far a subject 
rather ' tacked on ' to the other subjects of the curriculum, as a luxury rather than a 
necessity in education. This idea of hand-work, however, will pass away, and it 
will be given its proper place in the course of study. As we come to realize the 
significance of our ideal of school as community life, we see the practice of hand-work 
as supplying the needs of the community. When we shall have found some of the 
most obvious needs of the community, we will set to work children and teacher to fill 
those needs. The manual training, cooking, and sewing will not be taught as 
valuable knowledge, but as social occupations. The school will have become a place 
of workshops, studios, gardens, kitchen laboratories, playrooms, in which children 
will be compelled to give their best for the filling of human needs, where they will 
put themselves into the work of the world and feel themselves factors in it." 

The last topic on Thursday morning was : "What Do the Exhibits Show? Their 
Strength ; Their Weak Points." The first speaker, Miss Vandalaine Henkel, of St. 
Louis, praised the color work, and noted the improvement in the construction work. 
She thought the weaving delightful. As weak points she cited the crowding of the 
mounts in some of the exhibits and the lack of proper continuity. Most exhibits 
showed weak as well as strong links in the chain. 

Professor F. F. Frederick, of the University of Illinois, who spoke on the same 
topic, deplored the fact that things were mounted so poorly in some of the exhibits ; 
inaccurate cutting was evident ; glue showed at the cornerg. He feared that there 
was too little mechanical drawing being done. He had observed also that no con- 
nection with the other branches of school work was evident in the exhibit; there was 
nothing but art work. He pointed out a lack of direction, particularly in the work of 
the sixth and seventh grades, and confessed that he was still clinging to the idea, 
old-fashioned perhaps in the estimation of some people, that pupils ought to be 
taught to draw something well. More rigid work would not harm some of the pupils 
whose work was shown. On the whole, however, he considered the exhibit most 
creditable, and a great improvement on the one made two years previous. 

At the business meeting the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
president, Mrs. Jean McW. Miller, of Chicago; vice-president, Miss Abbie Dean, of 
Rock Island; secretary, Miss Adelia E. Denton, of St. Joseph, Mo. 

The next annual meeting will be held in Minneapolis, Minn. 


" The School and Society " was the general subject of the meeting of the Northern 
Illinois Teachers' Association held at Moline, 111., April 25-27. As usual with this 
association, two of the papers were printed in full and distributed before the meeting. 


These were both on "Sociological Teaching in Elementary Schools," the first on 
"The Essentials of Method," by Henrv W. Thurston, of the Chicago Normal School, 
and the second entitled " Some Experiences," bv Kate Starr Kellogg, principal of 
Eewis-Champlin School, Chicago. 

Mr. Thurston began his paper by saying that in the past our feeling has been 
that American schools, of themselves, without making any special effort in the direc- 
tion of sociological teaching, have in them such virtue, such an atmosphere of democ- 
racy and good citizenship, that every child who breathes this air must of necessity 
become a worthy member of society. Of late, however, some of us are beginning to 
fear that such optimism is not always justified by the facts. Too many exceptions are 
constantly forced upon our attention. It is now urged that good citizenship in our 
many-sided democracy is not easy, but difficult, and requires special preparation. 

" Progressively better membership in society must be our aim. 

" Society is made up of societies; therefore, better membership in society must 
be attained through better membership in societies. 

" Society is general, vague, complex, intangible; societies are specific, definite, 
comparatively simple, and concrete. A society is a group of people organized to do 
something — a group of people in harmonious action. For example: a family, a 
baseball team, the pupils and teacher of a room, a literary club, an orchestra, a chorus, 
a business corporation, a labor union, a church, a town, the city, the state, the nation, 
and the industrial system as a whole are at their best societies, each with a special 
membership and each having special functions or things to do. 

" From this point of view it is clear that each pupil in an elementary school is 
already a member of several societies. But his consciousness of membership in some 
is much more vivid than it is in the case of others. At least three groups of societies 
may be made, based upon the pupils' different degrees of consciousness of them : 

"1. Those of which he is least conscious. For example : the town, city, state, 
nation, and industrial society as a whole. 

" 2. Those of which he is partially conscious, but whose deepest meaning he has 
only begun to understand. For example : the family and the school. 

"3. Those of which he is most fully conscious, those which he enters only as a 
result of his own conscious purpose. For example : groups of playmates, social, lite- 
rary, and athletic clubs. 

" But it is only upon this basis of a person's consciousness of membership in a 
particular society that he can be an ideal member of it. 

"In each society of each group just mentioned the individual is an ideal member 
only to the degree that he is habitually sensitive to the actual and ideal functions of 
the society, sympathetically conscious of his unity with the other members, and vol- 
untarily at work with them to the end that the society may perform its ideal functions. 

" Stated specifically, then, the aim of sociological training in the elementary 
school is to help the pupil to grow into conscious cooperation, not with society in 
general, but with those particular moral societies of which he is a member and whose 
functions touch his life at the most points." 

Mr. Thurston believes that the formal study of " civics " during a few months of 
the last year or two of the elementary-school course will prove inadequate to meet 
the needs. Much of the material with which to do the right kind of sociological work 
is already available in our best schools, especially in connection with the life of the 


" Much of the material for doing what has been suggested is already available in 
our best schools, especially in connection with the life of the school, the form of the 
school organization, political, commercial, and industrial geography, arithmetic, and 
history. In most cases, however, this material can be used in such a way as to get 
out of it much more of sociological meaning. It should not be used as isolated, 
formal, objective material, but in connection with the various human needs and 
organizations which produce it. It needs social interpretations." 

Miss Kellogg's paper told of the practical work in "municipal civics" done last 
year in the Lewis-Champlin School. Beginning with the fire department in the pri- 
mary grades, this work covered many such subjects as the "smoke nuisance," disposi- 
tion of garbage and sewage, the drainage canal, and regulations concerning the plant- 
ing and preservation of trees. All this was done, not through lectures by the teachers, 
but by personal investigation and study on the part of the pupils themselves. They 
visited the engine house, they consulted the fire marshal's report, they went to the 
Field Museum to study the history of fire extinguishers. They visited the third ward 
dumps, kodak in hand ; the Bridewell crematory and the Turner reduction plant 
were seen by the seventh-grade pupils while they were studying the disposition of 
garbage. This work did not stop with Chicago ; Colonel Waring's work in New York 
city, for instance, was a subject of special study. 

The discussion of these two papers was opened by Mr. H. A. Weston, of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, who viewed the question from the standpoint of a university expert. 
He believed that sociological training would amount to but little until handbooks or 
text-books were supplied. The teacher cannot be expected to get together her own 
material. District Superintendent Lincoln P. Goodhue, of Chicago, on the contrary, 
who followed in the discussion, emphasized the statement that the pupils should get the 
information needed; the teacher" should be cautioned not to get it for them. He 
would have no text-books except for reference. Miss Zonia Baber, of Chicago Insti- 
tute, believed that the sociological instruction should be based upon social activities. 
" The activities of the world should be the basis of study and not added to it. Sewing, 
weaving, cooking, clay modeling, have been introduced as ' extras,' not as vital ele- 
ments in the course of study. Suppose we make the activities the center ; then we shall 
not have need for all the subjects, yet we shall gain sufficient skill. The country boy 
saws and planes and gets skill of necessity. There is a world-wide difference between 
the country boy's chicken-coop and a sloyd model. The child does not have to be 
urged to sail his boat, to make a kite, but in school we assign lessons." 

At the Aurora meeting in April, 1900, a special committee on bibliography of 
manual training was appointed. Their report was appended to the program of the 
Moline meeting. It was as follows : 

bibliography of manual training. 
Mr. President: 

Your committee have come to appreciate the extreme difficulty of the task set for 
them, namely : to prepare a list of books on manual training, such as are needed by 
the regular teachers of the elementary schools. Although manual training is rapidly 
taking its place in the elementary schools, there are yet very few books on the subject 
intended to supply the needs of such teachers, and of these fewer are worthy of a 
place on a list published by this association. It is possible to find much better work 
being done in schools than can be found described in books. Your committee have 

iqoi] QUERIES 239 

therefore reached the conclusion that they can best serve the association by listing a 
few manuals, each with an explanatory note which will serve as a guide to intending 
purchasers. We regret that on several important lines of manual-training work we 
are unable to recommend anv books which are worth buying. 

As a suggestive outline of work for the several grades we recommend the Novem- 
ber, 1900, number of the Teachers College Record, published by the Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, New York. The price of this manual training number is 20 cents. 

With these explanations we submit the following list: 

Cane Basket Work, by Annie Firth. London : L. Upcott Gill. Price, is. 8d. 
This is a well-illustrated book explaining the elementary processes of basket-making. 

Cardboard Construction, by J. H. Trybom. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill 
Press. Price, $1. A two-years' course fully illustrated, with working drawings and 
sketches. It gives information concerning tools and materials, also working direc- 
tions for each model. 

Manual of Cardboard Modelling, by W. Heaton. London : O. Newman & Co. 
Price, 5s. 6d. The drawing and instructions are clearly arranged, so that a student 
has evervthing necessary before him without cross-references. 

Clay Modeling for Schools, by George S. Haycock. London : O. Newman & Co. 
Price, 2s. This is an extremely useful book. It gives a great amount of practical 
information, and has an appendix " On Teaching the Elements of Geography by 
Modeling in Clay and Soft Sand." 

Household Sewing with Ho?ne Dressmaking, by Bertha Banner. New York : 
Longmans, Green & Co. Price, 90 cents. A helpful illustrated manual. 

Teachers' Handbook of Sloyd, by Otto Salomon. London : George Philip & Son. 
Price, 5s. 6d. This is a thoroughly reliable and practical book. 

Bench Work in Wood, by W. F. M. Goss. Boston : Ginn & Co. Price, 70 cents. 
Part I of this book is a valuable treatise on bench tools. Part II, on bench-work, con- 
tains some good suggestions concerning the use of tools, but the course of instruction 
outlined is of no value for grammar schools. 

Chas. A. Bennett, Chairman. 
H. D. Thompson. 
Robert M. Smith. 


2. How much latitude in the choice of models should be left to the teacher ? and 
how much can be safely intrusted to the pupil's own initiative ? 

5. (a) Ought I to recommend the use of a desk-cover or some similar schoolroom 
device in our grammar grades ? (b) If so, what form of desk-cover is most satisfactory ? 
(c) What tools should accompany it, and what will such an outfit cost ? 


5. (a) In the hands of a resourceful manual-training teacher a well-equipped 
desk-top is a very valuable device, and yet, for the grammar grades, we ought not to 
recommend a desk-top or any other similar device as a substitute for a bench, except 
for such schools as have not the room for benches, or schools that cannot afford the 
usual bench outfit. The bench-work, in these upper grades, is too valuable a factor in 




the mental and physical development of our school children to be set aside for any 
form of a makeshift. 

(b) However, for such schools as cannot have benches there is nothing better 
than a compact desk-top. It should be attractive, easily fastened to the desk, and of 
such a size that each pupil may be able to adjust and fasten it to his desk and return 
it to its case when through work. 

The accompanying engraving represents " The Rochester Desk-Top," which was 

designed for use in the 
grammar grades of such 
schools as cannot afford the 
regular bench equipment. 
This desk-top is constructed 
so as to cover the entire top 
of an ordinary schoolroom 
desk, about sixteen inches 
wide by twenty-four inches 
long. At the back is a re- 
cess which is provided with 
blocks and cleats of various 
shapes to hold the tools in 
place. At the right and 
beneath the top is a drawer 
for drawing instruments, 
sandpaper, and sandpaper 
block. A T-square is held 
in place by means of two rabbeted cleats on the underside of the top. At the left- 
hand end is a hardwood "bench stop," which, when not in use, can be dropped flush 
with the surface, and the desk-top can then be used as a drawing board. 

At the right hand is a shooting-board which is fitted with a guide that prevents 
the plane from tipping and bruising the stop. 

The top is secured to a desk by means of a special clamp, which is simple and 
strong and of such a form that the desk-top can be fastened to a cleated board or an 
ordinary table. 

The desk-top is constructed of white pine ; the shooting-board, stop, and clamp 
are made of cherry. 

For sawing, in a large class, it would be necessary to provide a small table 
equipped with about six back saws and an equal number of bench-liooks and three or 
four saw-boxes. 

(c) The tool equipment consists of the following : a measuring rule, try-square, 
block plane, chisel, knife with two blades, maiking gauge (small), hammer, brad-awl, 
six-inch file, gimlet, and a small iron clamp. Besides the above woodworking tools 
there is the drawing outfit, which consists of two triangies, a T-square, compasses, 
and thumb tacks. 

A single desk-top will cost about $3; one set of tools, about $3. In lots of a 
dozen or more the cost would be less. — W. VV. Murray. 

5. A letter has come from Mr. Frank M. Leavitt, supervisor of manual training in 
Boston, from which we have obtained permission to quote. Mr. Leavitt says he has 


1 90i] 



had but little experience with desk-covers, but the little he has had has led him to feel 
that "even a crudely equipped basement room is better than an attempt to convert a 
schoolroom into a woodworking laboratory." " Such a scheme always contemplates 
the employment of the regular teacher as the instructor, which, some day perhaps, will 
be ideal ; but even then it would seem much better to move a class from one room 
to another than to move in an equipment, light and consequently incomplete as it 
must be." "I am inclined to think," says Mr. Leavitt, " that if manual training is 
really desired in a community, some way 
will be found to simply equip some special 
room for the work. I refer, of course, only 
to woodwork. For cardboard-work little 
is needed beyond scissors, knives, simple 
boards, 14X10 inches, and drawing instru- 

The above answers and the ones pub- 
lished in the January issue suggest addi- 
tional questions. Perhaps it maybe taken 
for granted that a very large majority of 
the teachers of manual training would 
recommend that an extra room be equipped 
with suitable benches and tools for classes 
from the two upper grammar grades — the 
seventh and eighth. If an extra room were 
available — even if it were in a poorly 
lighted basement, and the appropriation for 
its equipment were inadequate — Mr. Leavitt 
would evidently take it in preference to 
desk-tops in the regular schoolroom. 
Probably Mr. Murray and Mr. Kendall would prefer the desk-tops. If such a room 
were not available, what should be done ? Would you use desk-tops or would you 
delay the introduction of manual-training work, turning agitator in the meantime ? 
Or would you introduce some simpler form of hand-work into these grades — a form 
requiring the use of only such tools as the knife, scissors, and pliers, hoping to secure 
the extra room well equipped in the future ? 

But the desk-coverquestion hasjjanother phase. Shall desk-covers be used in grades 
below the seventh? If you were provided with an extra room for your seventh- and 
eighth-grade pupils, would you recommend a desk-cover outfit for the fifth and sixth ? 
If you could not have another extra room for the pupils of these grades, would you try 
to find a time when you could take them to the room equipped for the pupils of the 
seventh and eighth grades ? Or would desk-cover outfits be better ? Or would the 
work you would recommend be so simple in character that no desk-cover would be 
needed, or none other than a piece of marble-cloth or strawboard to prevent scratches 
on the desk ? Perhaps you would choose the latter plan with the addition of a single 
bench or table in the schoolroom, where one or two pupils could work at a time with 
tools to supplement those used at the desks. Possibly you are thinking of placing a 
drop-shelf around the schoolroom under the blackboards which may serve as a long 
bench for manual-training work. Or it may be you have concluded to go back to 



first principles and design new schoolroom furniture which will more fully meet the 
demands of the present day. 

If you are a teacher of manual training in elementary-school work, you must 
have considered some of these questions. You are invited to contribute to this column 
the results of your thought and experience. — Editor. 


Tacoma, Wash., is working to get the National Educational Association conven- 
tion of 1902. St. Louis hopes to get it in 1903. 


Miss Virginia I. Lyons, formerly of Newton, is now instructor in manual 
training at the E Street Manual Training School, South Boston. 

Brookline has voted $100,000 for a new manual-training high school, and ground 
is to be broken at once. It is to front the Cypress street playground, adjoining the 
English High School and the public bath-house. 

The normal department of the Sloyd Training School gave its annual exhibition 
May 24 and 25. As usual, the original work was rich and suggestive. The decided 
novelties were the models offered by the Cuban students, being working models of 
appliances used locally in Cuba.— John C. Brodhead. 

The annex to the Lowell, Mass., high school contains a room 29 X 63 feet for 
forging, another for turning, a third for joinery, and a fourth for machine-tool work. 
A drawing room 24 X 50 feet is in the main building. 

The semi-annual meeting of the New England Association of Teachers of Metal- 
work was held at New Bedford April 6. The two papers on the program were 
"Forge-Shop Equipment," by Edward P. Hutchinson, and "Our Product — the Boy," 
by F. H. Cranston. 

Dr. Eugene Bouton, superintendent of schools in Pittsfield, Mass., has recom- 
mended that manual training and domestic science be introduced into the eighth- 
grade schools in his city. 


Professor Edgar Marburg, of the University of Pennsylvania, gave an 
address before the Hillyer Institute, Hartford, on April 24, which called forth much 
favorable comment. His subject was " The Need of Industrial Education." 

The town of Talland is to have an educational institution of the modern type. 
Mr. Ratcliffe Hicks, a native of the town, proposes to establish a school for youth of 
both sexes and endow it with from $100,000 to $1,000,000. The object of the school 
is reported to be " to give free education of a practical sort in various trades and 
occupations." In this connection engineering, surveying, architecture, bookkeeping, 
and typewriting are mentioned. 


A meeting for the benefit of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute was 
held on March 18 at the Madison Square Garden Concert Hall. Addresses were 

igoi] BREVITIES 243 

given by Morris K. Jesup, chairman of the meeting ; Bishop Potter, Booker T. Wash- 
ington, William H. Baldwin, and others. Paul Lawrence Dunbar, the negro poet, 
read selections from his own works. 

Mr. Jesup dwelt upon the duty and the necessity of fitting the 10,000,000 negroes 
of the South for participation in the rights and duties of citizenship. 

Mr. Baldwin spoke of the grand work which was being done to this end at Tus- 
kegee, and concluded by appealing for funds to carry it on. It was announced that 
$10,000 had been promised on condition that $25,000 more could be obtained within 
thirty days. 

Mr. Washington, who was received with great applause, gave some account of 
the work of the institute and its needs. He appealed for justice to the negroes, who, 
he said, were capable of intellectual and moral progress, and should be judged, not 
by the worst of their race, but rather by the best. 

The concluding address was given by Bishop Potter, who spoke in high terms of 
the character and ability of Booker T. Washington, and urged those present to ren- 
der substantial aid to the work of the institute. 

The interest of the public in this movement was manifested by the numbers who 
sought admission to the meeting. The hall was crowded to its utmost capacity, and 
hundreds were turned away disappointed. 

Teachers College has received a gift of $100,000 for the erection and equip- 
ment of a new building for the Experimental School. The donor's name has not 
been made public. 

This school, which is used in connection with the observation and practice work 
of the college, has been in operation for some three years in an old building in a poor 
district a short distance from the college. It consists of a kindergarten and elemen- 
tary school, with special classes in cooking, sewing, and manual training, the chil- 
dren in attendance being from homes in the vicinity of the school. Tuition is free. 

Competitive designs for the building have been submitted. The one which it is 
thought will be accepted shows a frontage of fifty feet with a height of five stories 
above the basement, the depth being seventy feet, with a basement extension of thirty 

Negotiations are in progress for the purchase of a site, which it is expected will 
be on Lawrence street, not far from the location of the present building. The new 
school will afford special advantages for the study of manual training in a very prac- 
tical way. 

The manual-training work of the schools of Trinity parish of this city was 
exhibited at Trinity Chapel School on May 9, 10, and II. Excellent work was shown 
in all departments. 

An exhibition of the hand-work of the Horace Mann School, College, and 
Experimental School was held at Teachers College May 31, and June I and 3. Col- 
lege students' work in each of the departments of fine arts, domestic art, domestic 
science, and manual training was displayed in the respective laboratories of those 
departments, the exhibit of the Horace Mann School being attractively arranged in 
the spacious kindergarten room and that of the Experimental School in a room 

To attempt a description of such a varied and comprehensive collection would be 
out of the question in the brief space to which this notice must be confined, but it 


may be said that the endeavor to give the widest possible scope to self-expression in 
the individual was evidently the predominating motive of the whole. The fact that 
the scope of self-expression must be limited by the school conditions as well as by a 
due regard for the greatest good of the worker is fully realized. This is clearly set 
forth by Professor Richards in a late number of the Teachers College Record, where 
he says : " It is true .... that the opportunities of introducing such work under 
ordinary school conditions in a thoroughly natural manner above all but the lowest 
grades seem very limited ; " and again : " The problem presented is essentially one 
of proportion and balance between freedom of expression on the one side, and skill 
or mastery of processes on the other. Extreme emphasis on the one side leads inevi- 
tably to a chaos of crude and ill-considered products, while attention restricted to the 
other results in mere drill and formalism." 

The public schools of Manhattan and the Bronx are making a very satisfactory 
showing in the line of drawing and constructive work for the term about to close. 
Much has been said about the practical difficulty of developing originality of thought 
and expression under the conditions which prevail in most city schools, and this diffi- 
culty certainly exists in New York, yet that much may be done with the right spirit 
on the part of the teacher and the right hand at the helm has been clearly demon- 

In the scheme devised by the supervisor, Dr. James P. Haney, for the grammar 
schools provision is made in every grade for original work on the part of the pupil. 
In the first three grades, 4A to 5A inclusive (fourth year and first half of fifth), all 
constructive work is in } aper. A class model is drawn, cut out, and pasted, after 
which a type model of similar form is presented and modifications of the design called 
for. The results obtained in general are such as will gratify the optimist and surprise 
the skeptic. This alternation of class model and individual effort continues through- 
out these grades, all instruction being given by the grade teacher. 

In the last half of the fifth year (Grade 5 B) knife-work is taken up. In this and 
all succeeding grades the drawing is taught by the regular teacher and the tool-work 
by the shop instructor. The original design now, instead of following each regular 
model, comes only at the end of the term after a series of class models has been made, 
being worked out from drawings made under the class teacher. This plan holds 
throughout the remaining grades, covering the sixth and seventh years. In Grade 
A 6, the first in which bench-work is taught, the supplementary model is a bracket 
shelf, which, though designed and executed with all degrees of taste and skill, gener- 
ally calls forth that eager interest in his work which leaves the boy better for having 
done it. No type model is given for the supplementary work in Grade 7 B (last half- 
year), each pupil being expected to make his own selection, and being obliged to 
depend largely on his own resources in carrying out his project. Much excellent 
work, however, is turned out. 

An exhibition of work from the schools of the borough is in preparation. 

Meetings of the Manual Training Teachers' Association are held monthly at 
Public School No. 30. Methods of teaching the course of work now in use in the 
borough have been under discussion for the past three months. The constitution and 
by-laws of the association, very neatly printed, have recently been issued. 

The Ethical Culture Schools, ioq West Fifty-fourth street, were visited 
recently by the shop-work instructors of Manhattan and the Bronx, accompanied by 

i go i J BREVITIES 245 

the supervisor, Dr. Haney. Exhibits of the work of all grades, from the kindergarten 
to the highest grammar grade, were arranged in the class-rooms. These were made 
especially interesting to the visitors by the courtesy of Mr. Frank A. Manny, principal 
of the school, who explained the relation of the hand-work to the work of other 
departments and called attention to many points worthy of special notice. A note- 
worthy departure in kindergarten work was the small work-bench supplied with saw, 
chisel, hammer, and cross-handled bit. Each bench accommodates four children. It 
is held that the use of these " all-hand " tools is better for children of tender years 
than those occupations which call for greater concentration and the use of the finer 

The last room visited, and that no doubt the chief center of interest to the party, 
was the workshop, where the work of the several grades was exhibited and the under- 
lying motives explained by the instructor in charge, Mr. Arthur W. Richards. Since 
we are promised a review of this course of work by Mr. Richards in the Manual 
Training Magazine, nothing further need be said of it here. Having appropriately 
expressed their thanks to the officers of the Ethical Culture Schools for the courtesy 
extended to them, the guests departed, well pleased with their visit. 

A new building for the Ethical Culture Schools is soon to be erected on Central 
Park, West, having a frontage of a whole block between Sixty-third and Sixty-fourth 
streets. The plan and equipment of the school will be thoroughly up to date, ample 
room being provided for workshops, gymnasium, library, and assembly hall, besides 
all the necessary class-rooms and laboratories. Considering that the Ethical Culture 
Schools have been among the pioneers in educational manual training, this mark of 
progress cannot fail to be of interest to all friends of the cause. — W. F. Vroom. 

Dr. M. P. E. Groszmann has moved his school from Comenius Grove, Vareo, 
Va., to "The Pinehurst," a fine old mansion located at the corner of Fort Washington 
avenue and Depot Lane, New York city. This school has been established by Dr. 
Groszmannn "for the benefit of a small number of children whose individual needs 
require physical, mental, and moral treatment by experts." "The work includes 
school gardening, manual training, art instruction, outdoor sports, gymnastics, and as 
much of the usual studies as the pupil is able to master in an intelligent manner." 


A MEETING of the Pacific Manual Training Teachers' Association was held on 
Saturday, June I, at the Sixth Street School, Los Angeles. Miss F. F. Sterrett, of 
Throop Polytechnic Institute, read a paper on the "Plastic Art," giving some valuable 
points drawn from .her experience in this country and Europe. Miss Florence A. 
Stevenson, supervisor of domestic science in Los Angeles, presented some problems 
in cookery, and Mrs. Grace E. Dutton, of Throop Polytechnic Institute, spoke on the 
"Influence of Dress upon Character." The discussions were free and valuable. 

Already the association has secured a number of texts, bearing upon the various 
lines of manual training, to be used in its circulating library. 

The Redlands school district, Principal Fred A. Wagner, has done some good work 
this year in paper and cardboard and at the bench. A supervisor will likely be engaged 
for next year. 

At Santa Barbara Miss Edna A. Rich, principal of the manual-training school, 
has been pushing forward. There is no school in the country where more thoughtful, 


thoroughgoing work, along elementary lines, is done. Investigation shows that a 
large number of former students of the department have passed through the high 
school and are now in the university, or are filling positions of honor and trust. A 
public exhibit of work of the school was held recently, and was received with much 
favorable comment. 

For the first time since drawing was placed upon the list of accredited subjects 
by the state university, the Monrovia schools, Principal T. H. Kirk, have received 
recognition in this subject. Miss Yetta F. Dexter has charge of the drawing depart- 

Charles A. Miller, Los Angeles Normal School ; A. L. Olson, San Diego ; 
and C. A. Kunou, Los Angeles, report a healthy progress in the work. Miss Ella V. 
Dobbs, supervisor of cardboard construction, Los Angeles, has made a thorough suc- 
cess during this, the initial year of the subject there. The drawing is much improved, 
and grade teachers generally are recognizing the value of the paper materials. 

The annual exhibit of work at Throop Polytechnic Institute was held day 
and evening of June 14. Mr. F. H. Ball, director of manual training, was in charge. 

Miss F. F. Sterrett has been made director of the art department, and Mrs. Grace 
E. Dutton, director of the department of domestic economy. The normal depart- 
ments in art, manual training, and domestic economy have been brought together, 
and Mr. A. H. Chamberlain will be principal. 

In addition to the work listed in the announcement of the summer school, courses 
in cooking and sewing will be offered by Mrs. Grace E. Dutton. — Arthur H. 

philippine islands. 

A circular letter received from Dr. Fred W. Atkinson, general superintendent 
of public instruction in the Philippine Islands, contains the following statement of 
qualifications required of teachers going from the United States to the Philippines to 
take positions in schools established by our government : 

" 1. Applicants must be either normal or college graduates. 

" 2. They must have had several years' successful experience in school work and 
be now engaged in teaching. 

" 3. Copies of testimonials and a late photograph should accompany each appli- 

" 4. They must be physically sound and able to withstand a tropical climate, and 
willing to accept whatever location may be assigned them by the general superintend- 
ent of education." 

Most of the teachers wanted are for primary-school work. A majority of them 
will be paid $75 gold per month the year round. 

The act establishing a department of public instruction in the Philippine Islands 
contains a section authorizing the establishment of a trade school in Manila "for the 
instruction of natives of the islands in the useful trades." A school of agriculture is 
to be established in the island of Negros and a normal school in the city of Manila. 
The sum of $25,000 has been authorized for the purpose of organizing and maintain- 
ing the normal school for the year 190 1, $15,000 for the trade school, and a like sum 
for the school of agriculture. Buildings in Manila for the trade and normal schools, 
including equipment, are to cost not more than $400,000. 





The simple and convenient adjustable hand-loom shown in the accompanying 

engraving was invented by Mrs. M. P. Todd, a teacher in one of the Minneapolis 

public schools. It is 9X12 inches and has been designed especially for school use. 

It seems to have appeared at just the right time, when so many teachers desire to 

introduce weaving. It is suited to a great variety of work and is spoken of in high 

terms by those who have used 

it. Mrs. Todd has applied for ^ ","\ " » 

a patent and is just placing the 

loom on the market. ' L_ 

— iwi'ii iB—wal 


L- ' I : 


Oak Park is to start work 
in domestic science next year; 
also Evanston. 

The opening of new rooms 
for the study of domestic 
science at the University of 
Illinois was the occasion of 
a large gathering which had 
come to listen to an address by 
Miss Alice Ravenhill, of Eng- 
land. Miss Ravenhill is in- 
spector of hygiene and domes- 
tic economy under the technical instruction committee of the County Council of the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, who has come to the United States appointed by 
the Board of Education for England and Wales as a special commissioner to study the 
present position of domestic science and hygiene in the curricula of schools and col- 
leges for both sexes, and of various grades and types, in the United States. After the 
public exercises a reception was given in Miss Ravenhill's honor. Among the receiv- 
ing party at this reception were Mrs. Nellie S. Kedzie, of Bradley Polytechnic Insti- 
tute ; Mrs. Alice P.Norton, of Chicago Institute; Miss Caroline L. Hunt, of Lewis 
Institute ; and Miss Isabel Bevier, of the University of Illinois. On the following 
morning a conference was held to discuss the needs of the schools in Illinois with ref- 
erence to the teaching of domestic science. 

During the past winter and spring Mrs. Nellie S. Kedzie, head of the depart- 
ment of domestic economy of Bradley Polytechnic Institute, has been in constant 
demand for lectures and institute work. This work, in which Mrs. Kedzie has been 
so successful, has often taken her beyond the borders of her own state. An increas- 
ingly popular course of ten lectures was given by her at Purdue University. At the 
biennial meeting of the Federation of Women's Clubs of Iowa, held at Council Bluffs, 
she spoke on her favorite theme ; also at a meeting of the Woman's Auxiliary of the 
Manufacturers' Association of Kansas City. This organization is working for better 
food supplies and for the establishment of a school of domestic science to teach young 
housekeepers more about foods. While in Kansas City she spoke to the 1,400 pupils 
of the Manual Training High School gathered in their great assembly hall. One of 
Mrs. Kedzie's most recent audiences was that of the Illinois Congress of Mothers in 


the State Normal School building at Charleston, 111. Such work is bearing fruit in a 
wider interest in the subject of domestic economy and an increasing demand for its 
introduction into public schools. 


At last the English High and Manual Training School has a new building prom- 
ised. A site has been selected on Van Buren street, between Oakley and Irving ave- 
nues, and as soon as the condemnation proceedings are completed building opera- 
tions will begin. It is promised by the members of the board of education that it 
will be the best building of its kind in the country. The sum of $300,000 has been 
set aside for this purpose. 

An extension of high-school manual training has been decided upon at an early 
date. The old Lyman Trumbull School building has been set aside as a manual- 
training high school for the North Side, and it is expected that it will be ready to 
receive students at the opening of school in September. It is to be hoped that this will 
to some extent relieve the present congested condition of the English High and Man- 
ual Training School. 

Mr. Smith, the supervisor of manual training, has been placed in charge of the 
domestic-science departments of the elementary schools. 

The new requirements for teachers of manual training have just come to hand. 
The following copy will be of interest, showing that it is the intention of those in 
authority to place manual training on the same pedagogical basis as the other studies : 

"I. Requirements for admission to examination. — Candidates must be at least 
twenty-two years of age, and will be required to pass a physical examination before a 
certificate is awarded. 

'■ Official credentials must be filed with the superintendent of schools, showing 
that the candidate has had : 

"(1) A training equivalent to the course required for graduation from the Chi- 
cago Normal School, or 

"(2) Four years' successful experience in teaching, or is 

"(3) A college graduate with one year of experience in pedagogical training. 

" II. The examination. — The candidate is required to take an examination in the 
following subjects, the standard for passing being a general average of 75 per cent.: 

"(1) Mathematics. — Arithmetic, algebra, including quadratics, and plane geom- 

"(2) Drawing. — Free-hand and mechanical drawing, including perspective, geo- 
metrical drawing, and the elements of design. (Applicants are requested to bring T- 
square, triangle, drawing board, and drawing tools.) 

"(3) Physical science. — Elements of physics and chemistry. 

"(4) Theory and practice. — Principles and methods in constructive and manual- 
training education. 

"(5) Shop technique. — Woodwork. 

A four-years' course for the manual-training high schools is now being prepared, 
and it is hoped that it will go into operation in September. While this is a four-years' 
course, manual training is made compulsory only three years. The fourth year is left 
to a considerable extent elective, as it is presumed that students who have had three 
years in high school begin to have some thoughts about what they desire to do after 
completing their high-school course and will make their elections looking to that 

igoij BREVITIES 249 

O. McMURRY, who for the past year has been studying in Columbia University, 
has been appointed to take the position of teacher of the pedagogics of manual train- 
ing in the Chicago City Normal School. Thus manual training is gradually taking its 
seat along with the "ologies" and "osophies." 

A short time ago I had a visitor in the person of a university professor who has 
charge of the preparatory academy of a large university, who was looking for infor- 
mation with a view to placing a manual-training outfit in said academy. He had con- 
cluded that there were other things besides the classics that might interest boys and 
thus keep them under the influence of the school longer. — A. R. Robinson. 

Armour Institute has been enriched by a $1,000,000 gift from Mr. J. Ogden 
Armour and his mother, Mrs. P. D. Armour. This makes the total resources of the 
institute about $5,000,000 and enables the trustees to progress in their plans for mak- 
ing it one of the best-equipped engineering schools in the country. The gift is particu- 
larly significant because it indicates that the family will continue to watch over and 
provide for the school so well founded by the late Phillip D. Armour. Mr. J. Ogden 
Amour is quoted as saying : " We regard the institute as something which we, as a 
family, shall continue to assist whenever it needs it. Its work is not all matured by 
any means. As more demands are made upon it and as new methods of mechanical 
work are developed, more money is needed in the school, and from time to time we 
shall see that the work is not being neglected." 

Since the above gift was made public, it has been announced that Mrs. P. D 
Armour has agreed to give an additional $50,000 and a piece of land for a new build- 
ing to be used for shops. The building will probably be two stories high on a lot 1 35 X 
98 feet. It will contain shops for forging, foundry, machine-tool work, pattern-mak- 
ing, and general woodworking. Work on the construction will be commenced at once, 
so as to have the building ready for occupancy by next September. 

Two other important announcements have been made at Armour Institute during 
the past few weeks. Hereafter it is not to be coeducational ; girls are to be excluded 
in the future, but they will be cared for under the same teachers in a new school of 
domestic science and art which secures its equipment through a gift of Mrs. P. D. 
Armour. The new school will be under the patronage of the women's clubs of Chi- 
cago. The other important announcement is that Dr. Gunsaulus has been recalled to 
the presidency of Armour Institute. It seems evident that the Armour family has 
not at any time been willing to give him up entirely to Central Church. 

The new University of Chicago School of Education mentioned in our last issue 
is to occupy a half-block of land bounded by the Midway, Monroe and Kimbark 
avenues. Here will be erected a group of buildings to accommodate the elementary 
school, under Colonel Parker, and the secondary school, under Dr. Dewey. This 
group will be called Scammon Court in honor of J. Young Scammon, a former friend 
and patron of the old Chicago University. This is in consideration of the fact that 
Mrs. Scammon sold the land upon which they will stand to the university at half its 
estimated value. 


Whether these subjects of study have their place in cities of from ten to thirty 
thousand inhabitants is steadily being answered in the affirmative. During the week 
of May 1 the writer lectured on these subjects in the cities of La Crosse and Beloit, 
Wis.; also in Menominee and Howell, Mich. In La Crosse Superintendent John P. 


Bird has a warm professional interest in these occupation studies, and in planning for 
a new high-school building expects to have a woodworking laboratory and rooms 
arranged for the study of household arts ; possibly the seventh and eighth grades of a 
part or the whole of the city of La Crosse may enjoy these privileges. The representa- 
tive business-men, members of the board of education, and prominent members of the 
woman's club expressed an appreciation of the educational advantages of the manual 
studies, which augurs well for the success of Superintendent Bird's plans. At present 
no form of cooking, sewing, or manual training is found in the La Crosse schools. 

The city of Beloit is as fortunate in its educational facilities, from kindergarten 
to college, as it is in the high intellectual character of its population. Superintendent 
F. E. Converse has developed a splendid intellectual system, and now he is anxious to 
add manual training. Under the shadow of Beloit College, that most classic of western 
institutions, the spirit of manual training will doubtless take root. The student body 
of the Beloit high school cooperated with Superintendent Converse in providing for 
the lecture and arousing a general interest among the citizens of Beloit in the subject. 
They hope to avail themselves of unoccupied space in their commodious high-school 
building. The scientific value of the occupation arts of the schoolroom is sometimes 
not as readily recognized as the utilitarian, but in intellectual cities, of which Beloit is 
a type, it must furnish the basis of any scheme of propaganda. The city of Menomonie, 
Wis., has set the pace for a system of industrial manual-art education, and the result 
of Senator Stout's beneficence is felt in many interior western cities. 

Superintendent O. I. Woodley, of Menominee, Mich., has educated the school 
authorities and citizens of Menominee to the appreciation of an all-round balanced 
system of education. He has taken the interesting way of making his own manual- 
training benches and various items of equipment. Sunny rooms in the high school 
are equipped with woodworking benches, lathes, saw, and grindstone. His drawing 
stands are of home plan. He hopes to incorporate domestic science, thus paralleling 
the work for boys with occupation study for girls. 

The village of Howell, Mich., population about 3,000, may be one of the first 
small interior towns of the middle West to take up the special studies for training hand 
and eye. Five hundred people attended the lecture there and gave evidence of great 
interest in the work. The population is of the retired farmer class, such as is common 
in the towns of that size. Taxation will be far more burdensome in a community of this 
size than in places of great vested interests. It will be plucky and evidence of great 
faith in the advanced trend of educational thought for the people of Howell to intro- 
duce manual training and domestic science, but they promise to do it. — H. T. Tibbits. 


We have been reading Gilbert B. Morrison's monograph on 
"School Architecture and Hygiene," 1 and it has suggested a question 
of curriculum. This excellent monograph deals with the various 
types of school buildings from the one-room country schoolhouse to 
the large public-school buildings of our leading cities. The chapter 
on high-school buildings especially attracted our attention. Mr. 
Morrison has developed this part of his subject by selecting a few 
typical buildings, showing their plans and elevations, when possible, 
and adding enough figures to make the whole admirably specific. 
The first of these typical buildings is the Latin and English high 
school of Boston. In describing this the assembly-hall and the theater 
type of lecture-room for science teaching are emphasized. The second 
building is the Cambridge English high school. This represents the 
"physical-science stage in high-school development," the biological 
sciences being still "in the show-cabinet stage, no provision being 
made for working laboratories." Drawing is given a place in the 
building. The third building is the Springfield (Mass.) high school. 
Its many excellencies are noted. Especially does the author point out 
that in this building we find the full development of the science work, 
there being laboratories for the physical, the biological, and the earth 
sciences; also an astronomical observatory. Drawing is given more 
space here, and a lunchroom and other valuable features are added. 
Following this, Mr. Morrison speaks of the rise of manual-training 
schools and their growth and development, and then adds: "Thus 
have the two types of school — the purely academic and the purely 
mechanical — grown, developed, and converged into one correlated 
unit forming the high school par excellence" — the manual-training 
high school. His fourth typical building is his own — the Kansas 
City manual-training high school. This contains the essential features 
of all the other types, and in addition a joinery shop, pattern shop, 
machine shop, molding room, forge shop, a room for domestic science, 
and another for domestic .art. These are conveniently located with 

1 Monograph No. q in series on " Education in the United States," edited by 
Nicholas Murray Butler, published by J. B. Lyon & Co., Albany, N. Y. 
1901] 251 


reference to other rooms. In fact, the entire building is a unit in plan 
and well deserves the reputation it bears of being the finest manual- 
training high-school building in the United States, which means in 
the world. 

But there is one vital question which comes to mind in this con- 
nection, and it is suggested by Mr. Morrison's expression, "the high 
school par excellence." Of course, Mr. Morrison is speaking of the 
present time ; it is our privilege to consider the future also. The 
question is this : Will the manual-training high school of today be 
"the high school par excellence' 1 '' ten years or twenty years hence? Or, 
changing the question a little, will the manual-training high school 
have to be modified to produce the future high school par excellence ? 

In answering this question one recalls the fact that at the present 
time great emphasis is being placed upon the manual-training work of 
the elementary school. Unless signs fail, manual training will find its 
chief place in the elementary school. This means that the manual- 
training work in the upper high-school grades will have to be greatly 
broadened, or it will become more and more technical in character. 
In any case the argument for its introduction and maintenance in 
these upper high-school grades will be in danger of being weakened. 

Looking at the problem from another point of view, manual train- 
ing is not yet in a majority of the high schools, so that practically the 
question in a very large majority of cases will be, How much are we 
justified in providing for in the high school? and not, Can we afford 
to dispense with a part of the manual training in our high school, 
owing to the fact that manual training is now in our elementary 
school ? 

Moreover, at the present time the public manual training high 
school is nearly always in the same city with a public general high 
school in which no manual training is offered. In a few cities there 
are three or four special high schools, besides the manual-training 
high school. Even if it were granted that several such specialized 
high schools constitute an ideal scheme of secondary education for a 
large city (which, in their present form at least, is certainly open to 
question), considerations of cost and economy of operation place such 
a scheme beyond the means of cities of even considerable size, and 
debar it entirely from smaller cities and towns. The practice in 
smaller cities and towns is to build a single large school to accom- 
modate pupils from a wide territory, and we see no other feasible 

iqoi] EDITORIAL 253 

Another force — and a very great one — acting against the special- 
ized high schools is the belief that during the first year or two of the 
high-school course the program of studies should be practically the 
same for all pupils, differentiation into groups taking place only after 
each pupil has tried every one of the fundamental lines of study and 
been given an opportunity to "discover himself." The high school 
of the future must have breadth. 

The manual-training high school of today is in its best manifesta- 
tions, we believe, the high school of greatest breadth, but we believe 
also that the evolution of the high school par excellence is not yet com- 
pleted. We confidently look forward to a type of high school within 
the means of every large town or small city which shall be just as 
broad in fundamental lines of study as is the best manual-training high 
school of today. It will not carry all these lines of study as far as 
does the present manual-training high school, but they will all be there 
in perhaps better balance than they are now in the manual-training high 
school. We confidently look forward to the prevalence of a type of 
high school that will give manual training and drawing as much of a 
representation as it gives to the sciences. We believe each school will 
have a place for woodworking, for metalworking, for domestic art, and 
for drawing, as large as for chemistry, physics, biology, and domestic 
science. We do not, however, believe that very much more should be 
expected in the direction of manual training. When this has been 
done and these have been provided for in accordance with the size and 
wealth of the community, we believe that reasonable demands upon 
the public schools for general secondary education in these directions 
will have been met. 

This means that the high school par excellence in a small city would 
contain two or three laboratories for science, including domestic 
science, a shop for woodworking, with some space for metalworking, 
a room for the domestic arts, and a drawing room. A high school in 
a somewhat larger city would contain an additional shop or two and 
another drawing room, also one or two more laboratories. The high 
school par excellence for a large city would be, not a manual-training 
high school, or a Latin high school, or an English high school, or a 
commercial high school, but a broad general high school covering 
the fundamental lines of instruction in all these, and carrying each as 
far as the conditions make it possible and desirable, but always keep- 
ing a breadth and balance of opportunity which is not possible in a 
school with a meager course of study or in a school that is highly 


specialized. We believe that in such a scheme as this lies the future of 
manual training for a very large majority of our high schools. 

At the session of the Illinois Society for Child-Study held at the 
University of Chicago, May 3, Mr. Fred. W. Smedley, child-study 
specialist of the Chicago public schools, gave the results of his investi- 
gations with reference to ambidexterity. He called attention to the fact 
that a very large percent, of the pupils who stand well in their school 
work are right-handed, and then he stated that his investigations show 
that a surprisingly large per cent, of those who are defective in speech 
are left-handed. In the John Worthy School — which, if not for the 
criminal class, is more nearly that than anything else — the boys more 
nearly approach ambidexterity than in other schools. Mr. Smedley 
reaches the conclusion that unidexterity is the ideal condition, and that 
teaching ambidexterity is teaching contrary to the law of life. He 
believes that teaching ambidexterity is likely to interfere with the child's 
best development. Mr. Smedley has promised to contribute an article 
to the Magazine, giving more in detail the results of his investiga- 



Manual Instruction in France and Switzerland. By William Lewis. Printed at 
Cambrian News Office, Aberystwyth, Wales. 7^ X &,% inches; pp. 50; price 
(through A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago), $1. — Some of our readers will remember 
that in 1893 fi ye women were sent from England to America to study educational 
systems and methods in the United States. These five were principals of secondary 
schools for girls and lecturers on education in colleges for teachers. They were sent 
here by the trustees of the Gilchrist Educational Fund, having been awarded traveling 
scholarships. The results of their investigations were published in four volumes. 

In 1895 the trustees of this same fund established a traveling scholarship in con- 
nection with the University of Wales. The following year it was awarded to William 
Lewis, head master of the intermediate and technical school at Llanelly. The fruits 
of that award are in the volume before us. The book is a clear, compact, and com- 
prehensive report. It is the result of much personal observation and research, and is 
not made up of mere impressions gathered on a three-weeks' tour. It is superior to 
any book or report we have seen on the subject. While the purpose of the book is to 
help to an understanding of the manual-training and trade instruction in the schools 
of France and Switzerland, it also describes the different classes of schools in these 
countries, thus enabling one to understand the place occupied by the manual instruc- 
tion. It also deals with details of methods of instruction. It is illustrated with a few 
line cuts of drawings of exercise pieces, and by eleven full-page half-tones of build- 
ings, equipments, and the work of pupils. 

i 9 oi] REVIEWS 255 

The following is quoted from the chapter on manual instruction in Switzerland : 

" It is only in Switzerland that I have found a just and broad enunciation of what 
I consider manual instruction should be, and I cannot do better than quote here a 
passage from M. Bouvier's pamphlet on the nature and methods of manual instruction 
taught in his school, wherein he takes a broad, practical, and comprehensive view of 
the subject : 

" 'Manual training is not the beginning of apprenticeship; it aims at no special 
calling; it does not even aim absolutely at the dexterity of the hand or the accuracy 
of the eye. These qualities will be the necessary result of an instruction, methodically 
and intelligently given ; they are not the main purpose. Manual training is practical 
instruction, the essential object of which is to assist other branches of instruction, to 
render clear, manifest, and precise the ideas which these latter furnish in enabling 
them to be applied and realized in the construction of objects chosen with this end 
in view. 

"'From this way of looking at manual training the method which should be 
adopted evolves itself. The master has to give less attention to the exactness of the 
execution than to the manner in which the pupil proceeds, and to the ideas which 
direct him in his work. 

" ' Of course, the management of tools will not be neglected. Care must be taken 
that the pupil shall not acquire bad habits, that his position should be correct, that he 
should act with prudence and economy, and that he should calculate the range of his 
movements. But all this is secondary. What is important is that the pupil should 
be convinced that no construction should be executed by accident from a vague and 
indefinite conception, but from a carefully prepared and definite plan : that he should 
understand in what manner the ideas which he has received enter into the work of 
his hands ; in short, that he should accustom himself always to proceed methodically, 
and know how to utilize what he has learned. 

* * * * * # ' * * * * 

"'Such are the intelligent results at which the master ought to aim in his instruction. 
He will give every care to the so-called material construction ; he will demand from 
the pupil what he can reasonably give, but he will not go beyond that. He will not 
forget that manual dexterity is a matter of long practice, and that his business is not 
to teach him to saw or to plane, so much as to learn to put ideas into application and 
to generate the habit of intelligent and reflective work. Besides, if the lessons have 
been given as they should be, if the master has learned to make the most of the 
various resources which an instruction, already very attractive, offers in itself to the 
pupils, it is certain that they, without any compulsion, will bring all their care to the 
execution of the work. They will have pleasure in seeing realized, under a form as 
perfect as possible, the work which their imagination had foreseen and of which their 
intelligence, aided by their knowledge, had prepared the plan.' " 

A Course of Instruction in Wood-Carving According to the Japanese Method. By 
Charles Holme. The Studio, London, England. 7% X SU inches; pp. 106; price 
(through Gustav Stechert, importer, New York), $0.90. — "In Japan the art of wood- 
carving has probably been carried to a greater degree of perfection than in any other 
country in the world. Coincident with the progress of civilization and the develop- 
ment of the arts in the West, the sculpture of marble and stone assumed an importance 
proportionate to the extent to which those materials were employed in architecture. 


The physical characteristics of Japan — the prevalence of earthquakes and earth- 
tremors — which prohibited the use of heavy materials for building purposes, have, at 
the same time, ordained the employment of wood as best adapted to resist these 
seismic disturbances. Cottage and palace, barn and temple, are, therefore, mainly 
constructed of it, and wooden temples exist in Japan, built as far back as the ninth 
and tenth centuries of our era, which are still in sound condition and exhibit in a far 
less degree the ravages of time than do the stone buildings of the same age in Europe. 
Whether wood or stone be the more 'noble ' material does not here concern us ; but 
that wood has been rightly selected for use in Japan there can be no manner of doubt; 
and the result has been to give the wood-carver a position in the arts equivalent to 
that enjoyed by the mason in the West. As much respect is probably paid in Japan 
to the memory of the eminent wood-carver ' Hidari ' Jingoro, whose works may still 
be admired and wondered at in many important buildings in that country, as is 
bestowed in Europe upon the achievements of Phidias, albeit that the essential char- 
acters of the great arts of Japan and Greece are based upon widely differing philoso- 

Thus the author introduces a book that is full of interest to persons who are 
studying the art of decorating wood. The frontispiece and the three other repro- 
ductions of photographs of doors, gateway, frieze, and ceiling decorations in the 
temple of Nikko in Tokio suggest the marvelous perfection to which the wood-carver's 
art has attained in Japan. The main purpose of this book, however, is not to set 
forth the glories of Japanese carved ornament and architectural decoration, but to 
present, somewhat in detail, the elementary parts of the course of instruction in wood- 
carving given at the School of Fine Arts of the University of Tokio, a school estab- 
lished to revive the old-time crafts of Japan. It contains brief descriptions of tools 
and processes, and line cuts of about seventy of the exercise pieces contained in the 
three-years' course of instruction at Tokio. These range from the cutting of a 
straight line lengthwise the grain of a block of wood to modeling fungi, flames, and 
cloud-forms. They are arranged in such perfect sequence, and are so " abstract " 
that certainly no up-to-date manual-training teacher in America would copy them as 
exercise pieces, yet to some teachers and to some pupils these same exercise pieces 
will, no doubt, suggest forms of decoration which may with propriety be applied to 
useful articles. 

The following have been received, some of which will be given more extended 
notice in the October number : 

First Years in Handicraft. By Walter J. Kenyon. The Baker & Taylor Co., 
New York. Price, $1. 

Line and Form. By Walter Crane. George Bell & Sons, London. Price 
(through G. E. Stechert, New York), 53-75- 

Sloyd Bulletin, June, 190 1. Published by the Sloyd Training School, Boston, 

Proceedings of the Eastern Manual Training Association, 1900. Foster H. Irons, 
Saginaw, E. S., Mich., Secretary. 

Address at Laying of the Corner Stone of Cupples Hall No. 1, Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis, Mo. By Dr. Calvin M. Woodward. 

Proceedings of the Department of Superintendence of the National Educational 
Association, 1901. Irwin Shepard, Winona, Minn., Secretary.