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V O L U M E V 



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[Names of contributors of articles are set in small capitals. (A) indicates an abstract of a paper 
printed in the report of a meeting of an association. (E) an editorial.] 

Apprenticeship System not Dead, The 
(A) — L. D. Burlingame, 31. 

Associations — Chicago Sloyd Associa- 
tion, 217; Eastern Manual Training 
Association, 47; Illinois Manual Arts 
Association, 160; National Educational 
Association, 24; School Crafts Club of 
New York City, 112, 212; Western 
Drawing and Manual Training Asso- 
ciation, 219; Wisconsin Teachers' As- 
sociation, 164. 

Balliet, Thomas M. — The Organization 
of Trade Schools, 1. 

Bawden, William T. — Barnard's Tools 
and Machines, 67; James' How to 
Make Indian and Other Baskets, 122; 
The Illinois Manual Arts Association; 
160; Tinsley's Practical and Artistic 
Basketry, 176. 

Benchwork for Girls — Caroline E. Har- 

. ris, 227. 

Bennett, Charles A. — Beauchamp's Me- 
tallic Ornaments of the New York In- 
dians, 232; Brown's The Making of our 
Middle Schools, 123; Counting Board, 
119; Designing Book-racks, 173; Ha- 
ney's Yearbook: Council of Super- 
visors of the Manual Arts, 1903, 179; 
lies' Little Masterpieces of Science, 
124; Jack's Wood-Carving, Design and 
Workmanship, 231; Milwaukee Meet- 
ing (E), 158; National Educational 
Association (E), 1 5S; Report of Boston 
Meeting of the National Educational 
Association, 24; State Supervision Sug- 
gested (A), 164; The Grade Teacher 
(E), 205; The Trade-School Question 
(E), 22; Who Ought to Support the 
Trade-Schools? (A), 35; Wisconsin 
Teachers' Meeting, 164. 

Bennett, Clara Emily — Pettingill's Toil- 
ers of the Home, 179. 

Brevities — Boston, 62; Canada, 61; Chi- 
cago, 63; Illinois, 63; Michigan, 62; 
New York City, 62; Tennessee, 64. 

Boone, Cheshire Lowton — The Tech- 
nique of Form Study in Clay (111.), 
187; Successive Steps in the Study and 
Teaching of an Industry (A), 114. 

Brown, E. E. — Manual Training in Sec- 
ondary Schools (A), 50. 

Burlingame, L. D. — The Apprenticeship 
System not Dead (A), 31. 

Camp of the Shuh-shuh-gah, The (111.) — 
Edwin Victor Lawrence, 197. 

Chamberlain, Arthur Henry — Bald- 
win's Industrial-Social Education, 121; 
Manual, Trade and Technical Educa- 
tion (A), 25; Opportunities and Limita- 
tions of Paper and Cardboard in the 
School, 76; The Educational Trade 
School (A), 30. 

Clay, The Technique of Form Study in 
(111.) — Cheshire Lowton Boone, 187. 

Constructive Design (E) — Charles F. 
Warner, 155. 

Cost of Hand Training — C. E. Vawter, 


Counting Board — Charles A. Bennett, 

Current Items — Clinton S. Van Deusen, 

1 15, 167, 221. 

Danish Sloyd System and its Founder, 
The — J. H. Trybom, 137. 

Day, Laura G. — When Shall we Teach 
Domestic Economy? (A), 165. 

Designing Book-racks — Charles A. Ben- 
nett, 173. 

Domestic Economy, When Shall we 

Teach (A)— Laura G. Day, 165. 
Educational Trade School, The (A) — 

Arthur H. Chamberlain, 30. 
Elementary Manual Training other than 

Wood Work (A)— E. D. Hoyt, 4S. 
Elementary Manual Training, Some 

Problems of (A)— Oscar L. McMurray, 



Exhibition, The School (E)— James P. 
Haney, 210. 

Exhibits at Boston, The — Harris W. 
Moore, 57. 

Field of the Manual Arts. Review of the 
— William Noyes, 181. 

Forging, Suggestive Outline for a High- 
school Course in— William C. Stim- 
son. 226. 

Foster, Frank K. — Trade Schools and 
Workingmen's Organizations (A), 38. 

Furniture in Miniature, Mission (111.) — 
Eli Pickwick, Jr., 133. 

Grade Teacher, The (E) — Charles A. 
Bennett, 205. 

Griffith, Ira S. — Leather Work in the 
Grades (111.), 192. 

Half -Time Schools (A)— Milton P. Hig- 
gins, 29. 

Hand-work for High -school Girls, Sug- 
gested Course in — Abby L. Marlatt, 

Haney, James P. — A Question of Pro- 
duct and Producer (E), 20; Is there to 
be an Industrio-Technical Association? 
(E), 154; On the Study of Design (E), 
1 10; Poore's Pictorial Composition and 
the Critical Judgment of Pictures, 231; 
Professional Study of the Arts (A), 
112; Sturgis' How to Judge Architec- 
ture, 230; The Deadly Friends of Man- 
ual Training, 69; The Life More than 
Meat (E), 206; The Mosely Commis- 
sion's Report (E), 20S; The School 
Exhibition (E), 210; The Second In- 
ternational Drawing Congress, 157; 
The "Special" Class (E), 109; White's 
How to Make Bead Work, 230. 

Harris, Caroline E. — Benchwork for 
Girls, 227. 

Higgins, Milton P. — Half-Time Schools 
(A), 29; The Demand for Trade 
Schools (A), 27. 

High-School Benchwork, An Experiment 
in (111.)— William E. Roberts, S9. 

Hill, Frank Alpine (E) — Charles F. War- 
ner, 105. 

Hoyt, E. D. — Elementary Manual Train- 
ing other than Wood Work (A), 48. 

Hubbard, Samuel F. — Trade Schools and 
Workingmen's Organizations (A), 39. 

Industrio-Technical Association, Is there 
to be an (E) — James P. Haney, 154. 

International Drawing Congress, The 
Second (E) — James P. Haney, 157. 

Jett, C. C. — Giesci ke's Mechanical Draw- 
ing, Part 1, 1 78. 

KENYON, WALTER I. — Manual Training 
in California, 201. 

Langley, Elizabeth Euphrosyne — 
Manual Training in the Elementary 
Si hool, t 1. 

Lawrence, Edwin Victor — The Camp 
of the Shuh-shuh-gah (111.), 197. 

Leake, Albert II. — Manual Training 
in Canada. 141. 

Leather Work in the Crades (111.) — Ira 
S. Griffith, 192. 

Life More than Meat, The (E) — James 
P. Haney, 206. 

Manual Arts Studio, A (111.)— M. W. 
Murray, 84. 

Manual. Trade and Technical Education 
(A) — Arthur H. Chamberlain, 23. 

Manual Training (A) — William Hawley 
Smith, 160; in California — Walter J. 
Kenyon, 201; in Canada — Albert H. 
Leake, 141; The Deadly Friends of — 
James P. Haney, 69; The Educational 
Bearings of (A) — James P. Munroe, 54; 
in the Elementary School — Elizabeth 
Euphrosyne Langley, 11; in Secondary 
Schools (A) — E. E. Brown, 50; Schools, 
The Relation of, to the Community 
(A) — George F. Weston, 51. 

Manual-Training High School, Mathe- 
matics in — Charles F. Warner, 125. 

Manual Training School, The New Build- 
ing of the Chicago — James Gamble 
Rogers, 147. 

Marlatt, Abby L. — Suggested Course in 
Hand-work for High-school Girls, 229. 

Mason, J. H. — Wilson's Freehand Let- 
tering. 177. 

McMurray, Oscar L. — Some Problems of 
Elementary Manual Training (A), 163. 

Milwaukee Meeting (E) — Charles A. Ben- 
nett, 15S. 

Moore, Harris W. — The Exhibits at Bos- 
ton, 57; Hemenway's How to Make 
School Gardens, 67. 

Mosely Commission's Report, The (E) — 
James P. Haney, 208. 

Munroe, James P. — The Educational 
Bearings of Manual Training (A), 54. 

Mcrray, M. W.— A Manual Arts Studio 
(111.), 84. . . 

National Educational Association — 
Charles A. Bennett, 24; Success of 
the Boston Meeting (E) — Charles F. 
Warner, 19. 


Noyes, William — A Review of the 
Field of the Manual Arts, 1S1. 

Organization of Trade Schools, The (A) 
— Arthur L. Williston, 34. 

Paper and Cardboard in the School, Op- 
portunities and Limitations of — Arthur 
H. Chamberlain, 76. 

Pickwick, Jr., Eli — Mission Furniture 
in Miniature, 133. 

Product and Producer, A Question of (E) 
— James P. Haney, 20. 

Professional Study of the Arts (A) — 
James P. Planey, 112. 

Pryor, Emily M. — Chicago Sloyd Asso- 
ciation, 217. 

Reigert, John F. — Dopp's The Tree 
Dwellers, 177. 

Reviews —■- Baldwin's Industrial-Social 
Education, 121; Barnard's Tools and 
Machines, 67; Beauchamp's Metallic 
Ornaments of the New York Indians, 
232; Brown's The Making of our Mid- 
dle Schools, 123; Chase's The Art of 
Pattern Making, 123; Dopp's The Tree 
Dwellers, 177; Giesecke's Mechanical 
Drawing, Part 1, 178; Haney's Year- 
book: Council of Supervisors of the 
Manual Arts, 1903, 179; Hemenway's 
How to Make School Gardens, 67; 
Home and Scobey's Stories of Great 
Artists, 124; lies' Little Masterpieces 
of Science, 124; Jack's Wood-Carving, 
Design and Workmanship, 231; James' 
How to Make Indian and Other 
Baskets, 122; Larsson's Sloyd, 68; 
Morse's Chip Carving, 68; Pettingill's 
Toilers of the Home, 179; Poore's Pic- 
torial Composition and the Critical 
Judgment of Pictures, 231; Sturgis' 
Plow to Judge Architecture, 230; Tal- 
bot's Samuel Chapman Armstrong, 
176; Tinsley's Practical and Artistic 
Basketry, 176; Vandervoort's Modern 
Machine Shop Tools, 66; White's How 
to Make Bead Work, 230; Wilson's 
Freehand Lettering, 177. 

Roberts, M.Emma — Western Drawing 
and Manual Training Association, 219. 

Roberts, William E. — An Experiment 
in High-School Benchwork (111.), 89. 

Rogers, James Gamble — The New 
Building of the Chicago Manual Train- 
ing School, 147. 

Sanford, Frank G.— Sheet-Metal Work 
in the Grades (HI.), 93. 

Sayward, William H. — The Attitude 
of Trades Unions Toward Trade 
Schools; 6. 

Sheet-Metal Work in the Grades (111.)— 
Frank G. Sanford, 93. 

Smith, William Hawley — Manual Train- 
ing (A), 160. 

Snow, Bonnie E. — The Exhibit at the 
Western Drawing and Manual Train- 
ing Association, 220. 

"Special" Class, The (E) — James P. 
Haney, 109. 

State Supervision Suggested (A) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 164. 

Stimson, William C. — Suggestive Out- 
line for High-school Course in Forg 
ing, 226. 

Study of Design, On the (E) — James P. 
Haney, no. 

Study and Teaching of an Industry, Suc- 
cessive Steps in the (A) — Cheshire L. 
Boone, 114. 

Sweet, Allan K. — Vandervoort's Modern 
Machine Shop Tools, 66. 

Trade Schools, The Demand for (A) — 
Milton P. Higgins, 27; The Organiza- 
tion of — Thomas M. Balliet, 1; Who 
Ought to Support the (A) — Charles A. 
Bennett, 35; and Workingmen's Or- 
ganizations (A) — Frank K. Foster, 38; 
and Workingmen's Organizations (A) 
— Samuel F. Hubbard, 39. 

Trade-School Question, The (E) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 22. 

Trades Unions, The Attitude of, Toward 
Trade Schools — William PI. Sayward, 

Trybom, J. H. — The Danish Sloyd Sys- 
tem and its Founder, 137. 

Van Deusen, Clinton S. — Chase's The 
Art of Pattern Making, 123; Current 
Items, 1 15, 167, 221. 

Vawter, C. E. — Cost of Hand Training, 

Vroom, William F. — Report of Eastern 
Manual Training Association, 47; The 
School Crafts Club of New York City, 
112; 212. 

Warner, Charles F. — Constructive 
Design (E), 155; Frank Alpine Hill 
(E), 105; Mathematics in the Manual- 
Training High School, 125; Success of 
Boston Meeting of the National Edu- 
cational Association (E), 19. 

Weston, George F. — The Relation of 
Manual Training Schools to the Com- 
munity (A), 51. 

Williston, Arthur L. — The Organization 
of Trade Schools (A), 34. 

Women as Teachers of Manual Training 
(E) — Charles F. Warner, 23. 

Copyright, 1904, Charles A. Bennett 


Manual Training Magazine 

OCTOBER, i go 3 


Thomas M. Bai.lif. t, 
Superintendent of Public Schools, Springfield, Mass. 

Over 30,000 students are enrolled to-day in the evening classes of 
the Young Men's Christian Association, and several hundred thousand 
in correspondence schools, receiving instruction in technical subjects. 
These facts, together with others like them which might be cited, empha- 
size strongly the great need of trade schools, and of technical schools of 
a lower grade than engineering schools. We must not be prejudiced 
against trade schools as a part of the public school system because they 
emphasize the utilitarian element in education. Our forefathers, who 
founded the public school system, were altogether utilitarian. Their 
motive for establishing high schools was to fit young men for colleges 
which would prepare them for the ministry. They established elemen- 
tary schools for the children of the masses, to teach them " to read, 
write and cast accounts." Their aim throughout was utilitarian. If, 
in their day, there had existed the need for trade schools, which exists 
at the present time, their first thought would have been to provide for 
such schools, and to give children an education which would prepare 
them to earn their living after leaving school. Indeed, we must revise 
our ideas of educational values. The educational value of any subject 
must be determined, not only by what it does for the pupil while in 
school, but also by what it contributes to his future development all his 
life. A study may have a high educational value while it is being pur- 
sued, but if it is completely dropped when school days are over, and does 
not connect very directly with anything in practical life, it may have less 
educational value than the learning of a trade which is pursued through 

'Read before the Department of Manual Training of the National Educational 
Association in Boston, July 7, 1903. 


life. The school ought to begin a development which is afterward con- 
tinued by the environments, in order that the process of education may 
be a continuous one. To teach a man a trade, by which he may earn 
all his life a dollar or two dollars a day more than he otherwise might 
have earned, is to put his whole life and that of his family on a higher 
plane than it would otherwise have been. It means more of the ameni- 
ties of life for his family; it means pictures, and music and education, as 
well as social opportunity and social position. 

How may trade schools be organized under the industrial conditions 
existing in this country ? First : Our manual training high schools 
should be converted into technical high schools. We have enough tech- 
nical schools of college rank for present needs, whose function is to train 
engineers. There is a great need, however, of technical schools of high- 
school grade, whose function should be to train foremen and superin- 
tendents of shops, and, in short, that whole group of men who come 
between the engineer and the mechanic, and whose duty it is to direct 
the work of the latter under the general superintendence of the former. 
Such men must virtually know the trade of the men whom they are to 
supervise, and they cannot receive the necessary shop training in a 
higher technical school to make them sufficiently expert. Furthermore, 
these technical high schools should have one four years' course in 
manual training, solely for educational purposes. Possibly students may 
also be allowed to specialize in certain lines of shopwork, to enable them 
to learn the principles of the machinist's trade, and become experts in 
one of its branches. This latter is a question of which no one can, as 
yet, speak dogmatically, and it may be ultimately found inadvisable to 
teach even the trade requiring the highest skill in a manual-training 
high school. 

Second : There ought to be organized in the shops of every well 
equipped manual-training high school, evening classes in trades, consist- 
ing largely of men already engaged at their trade, either as apprentices 
or as journeymen. The function of such evening schools should be, in 
the main, to make more efficient men who already know their trade in 
part, and to broaden their mechanical training. Such schools would 
meet with the approval of manufacturers, because they would train their 
men to do a higher quality of work ; they would be approved by the 
workmen, because they would enable them to get promotions and in- 
creased wages ; they would, furthermore, be approved by the labor 
unions, because they would accomplish all this without adding materially 
to the supply of labor in the labor market. 


Third : Our evening drafting classes should be re-organized. At 
present there is usually only one such school in a city, and the class is 
taught by a professional teacher of drafting, or by a draftsman employed 
in the daytime in some manufacturing establishment. While such a 
teacher is able to teach the elements of mechanical drawing very suc- 
cessfully, he is not competent to teach its applications to more than one 
of the various trades. What is needed is an organization of the evening 
drawing classes in such a way that (1) all students may take a common 
course in the elements of mechanical drawing, to lay the foundation for 
specialization ; (2) that for specialized instruction men may be grouped 
in classes, according to their trades ; (3) that they may be given a 
teacher of drafting who knows the trade and can show its application to 
the details of the trade. This is the plan on which the so-called trade 
classes and trade schools of Germany are organized. There is very 
little in these schools of shopwork that requires machinery. There is 
shopwork in the schools for saddlers, tailors, etc., but only in rare cases 
in those for mechanics. Men work at their trade in the daytime and re- 
ceive technical instruction in drawing and other subjects in the evening 
classes. We could double the attendance in our evening drafting 
schools, I feel sure, by organizing them on this plan. 

Fourth: We ought to organize evening classes in mathematics for 
men engaged in the mechanical trades, grouping them in classes accord- 
ing to their trades, and giving each class a teacher who not only knows 
mathematics but also knows the trade of the men whom he is instructing, 
and can apply his instruction to that trade. Such classes can easily be 
organized in any of our evening high schools, and it is entirely feasible 
to organize them in connection with evening trade schools conducted in 
the shops of manual-training high schools. 

Fifth: We ought to organize, in like manner, evening classes in 
applied physics, grouping the men again in such a way that those of the 
same trade, or closely related trades, are put together in classes by 
themselves, and are taught by a teacher who can teach not only physics 
but also its applications to the trade. 

Sixth: We ought to organize similar classes in chemistry, in which, 
besides teaching the rudiments of chemistry as a basis for specialized 
instruction, its various applications to the manufacturing industries should 
be taught. 

Seventh: We ought to organize classes in electricity, where students 
may receive not only theoretical instruction, but also have an opportunity 
to do laboratory work, and fit themselves for practical work as electricians. 


Eighth: There is great need of a trade school for boys fourteen years 
old and over, who are not prepared to enter a high school, and are obliged 
to learn a trade or to leave school and engage in some kind of gainful 
occupation. Statistics show that a large majority of men engaged in the 
woodworking and ironworking trades have never attended a high school. 
Quite a fair per cent, of them have never completed a grammar-school 
course. These statistics prove that there is need of a trade school of 
lower rank than a high school. Such a school ought to take boys at the 
end of the sixth or seventh year of the elementary-school course, after they 
have reached the age of fourteen, and keep them three or four years, as 
may be necessary, requiring them to do as much academic work, both of 
grammar and high-school grade, as they can cany. No trade school for 
boys of this age should ever be established which does not require 
academic work. 

All the instruction to mature men, who are already engaged at their 
trades, should be highly specialized, for in this way, alone, can it be made to 
appeal strongly to their interest. Such men come to an evening school for 
the purpose of gaining the ability to do something which will be of commer- 
cial value to them, and not, as a rule, for instruction which will only broaden, 
in a general way, their education. They may be able to run one machine, 
or two machines, in a shop in which they are engaged, and come to the 
trade school to learn how to run another; but they come to learn to run 
this other machine with sufficient skill to do work with it which shall 
have a commercial value. In order to secure attendance and interest at 
an evening school of any kind, where attendance is not compulsory, it is 
necessary to teach the student that particular thing which brought him 
to the school. 

While in the case of men already engaged at their trade, a high degree 
of specialization must be allowed, the reverse is true of a trade school in 
which young boys are to learn a trade. Such boys ought to be given, in 
the first place, a broad course in manual training, making them familiar 
with mechanical principles and with mechanical processes of various 
kinds; in short, with the underlying principles and processes of a number 
of specific trades. They should be required to study mechanics, physics 
and mathematics, and the applications of these to the mechanical trades, 
with all the thoroughness of which they are capable. In other words, be- 
fore they are allowed to specialize minutely, they should be given the 
broadest training possible in their case. The one thing which the American 
mechanic needs, and fortunately possesses, is versatility. With the rapid 
changes in trades, and the rapid displacement of one piece of machinery 


and one process of manufacturing by another, the ability to adapt him- 
self readily to these changes is absolutely necessary to the mechanic. 

Ninth: Individual schools should be organized for girls. Cooking 
and sewing should be taught in the elementary day schools; and courses 
in domestic sciences, millinery, and dress making should be organized in 
our day high schools. There should be organized in some one high 
school in every city, a commercial course, in which girls, as well as boys, 
may fit themselves for gainful occupation. In addition to these, there 
should be provided evening classes in cooking, dress making, milliner}-, 
bookkeeping, and stenography and type writing for young women who 
are employed in the daytime and are unable to attend a day school. 


William H. Sayward, 
Secretary of the Master Builders' Association, Boston, Mass. 

Trades unions, as a rule, are opposed to the trade-school idea; and 
a summing up of their reasons for this attitude may be expressed as a 
fear of the creation of too large a supply of workmen through the oper- 
ation of such schools. Many other reasons, more or less superficial, are 
given, but the real underlying objection is that unrestricted training in 
the trades will flood the market, which, it is claimed, is already over- 

While, therefore, speaking in a broad sense, trades unions do not 
look with favor upon the trade school per sc, one cannot fail to notice 
evidences of great and increasing interest among workmen at large, as 
well as in their organizations, in that application of the trade-school idea 
which gives opportunity for development in their chosen trade to those 
who have thrown in their lot with the actual workers, and propose to 
earn a living in their company. 

Another reason given, why trade schools are not a benefit, is that 
" employers no longer desire the thoroughly-trained all-round man, but 
want only the specialist," therefore a trade school, which can at best 
teach a young man to perform the general operations or manipulations 
of a trade only fairly well, is of little real value to him, for he is not fitted 
to compete with the specialist in any department of that trade. 

In some of the minor trades, such as cigar-making, the objection to 
trade schools is most strenuous on the ground that the training in such 
schools has a tendency to increase child-labor. 

Then there is always the jealousy, which I think trades unions un- 
consciously foster, which expresses itself in the belief that trade and 
technical schools are designed to help the rich, and not the poor, — to 
provide opportunity for young men of means, who intend to go into 
manufacturing, or to conduct some business, to secure a technical train- 
ing in and command of the elemental movements of a trade, rather than 
to help young men who intend to become real workmen. 

1 Address before the Manual Training Department of the National Educational 
Association, Boston, July 7, 1903. 



It is necessary here to call attention to the fact that this discussion 
does not relate to the technical, or manual training school, in any respect, 
but to the trade school proper, the school which purposes so to teach a 
trade that the student will be fitted to industrially use the trade. The 
instruction in such schools is made available to a large extent in the 
evening, so that young men at work during the day may take advantage 
of this opportunity. 

There are many schools of combined academic and practical char- 
acter, known as manual training and technical schools, in this country, 
both private and public, and to these there is no expressed objection by 
trades unions, but there are few trade schools pure and simple, and to 
these, unions, as a rule, are at present strenuously opposed. The idea 
and purpose in these schools is to turn out finished mechanics, as far as 
knowledge of the science and practice of the trades is concerned, it be- 
ing usually frankly admitted that the graduates will not be commercially 
equal to skilled workmen in point of speed of execution, or adaptability, 
until they have had sufficient experience with real work to give them 
these qualities. In practice, however, it turns out that the graduates of 
these schools have attained fully enough science, and just enough prac- 
tice, to fix methods and principles sufficiently to enable them to pass 
current as skilled workmen, particularly when there is great demand, 
and they therefore seek and obtain the going rate of wages as readily as 
men who have worked for years at the trade. In these schools of ours 
there is no attempt, I believe, to restrict the opportunity to those who 
have chosen a special trade as their vocation, nor to make them dis- 
tinctly continuation schools, or schools for developing in theory as well 
as technique, those already entered as apprentices, and thus devoted to 
the trade. 

The demonstration is narrowed down to this, — that when trade 
schools limit themselves to improving the theoretical, technical and prac- 
tical knowledge and skill of those who are already entered upon a trade, 
the trades unions seem to approve, and, in many cases, to participate in 
conducting them. Here, then, seems to be very clearly marked the 
point at which friction begins to diminish. The next step should be to 
determine whether this point is well taken by the unions, and, therefore, 
whether they should be supported in it. 

It will be readily admitted that any schools for the higher vocations, 
or professions, which pretend to turn out, at graduation, the completely 
qualified practitioner, assume too much, and whether there be any organ- 
ized opposition to this assumption, or any concerted disclaimer set up 


or not, it still remains true that the graduate is not so received, and he 
is practically compelled to pass through quite an extended season of 
severe experience before he is accepted at full value, — "going rate of 
wages" — by the community in which he attempts to practice. It appar- 
ently needs no union to produce this effect. 

When, however, we consider the mechanical planes of occupation, 
commonly classed as laborious, we find that the public does not set up, 
either instinctively, or with definite purpose, any such test, and, there- 
fore, organizations in these vocations have addressed themselves to the 
protection of their class from indiscriminate competition. 

These organizations have very good grounds for their assertion that 
trade schools tend to demoralize the trades when managed on the "wide 
open plan," that is, free to any one who wishes to attend, regardless of 
whether he is committed to a trade or not, and with no control or super- 
vision set up, within or without, to prevent him from departing from the 
school, either at close of the course, or at any time, and, with a smatter- 
ing of skill and knowledge, pass himself off as a full-fledged practitioner. 
This possibility, which, as I have already indicated, has, in practice, de- 
veloped into a probability, is certainly not to be looked upon with com- 
placency, even by the intelligent, though unaffected observer ; therefore 
it is not to be wondered at that those most affected should demur, and 
somewhat strenuously criticise the source from which the possibility 

They may well claim that if the learned professions, such as the med- 
ical and legal, and sometimes others, are safeguarded with greatest care, 
that in the skilled trades there should be some method of control which 
will at least guarantee that insufficiently trained workmen shall not be 
given full standing, and full wages, simply because they have passed 
through, or, perhaps only partially through, the courses of a school. But, 
while this attitude is natural and wholly defensible when viewed from the 
standpoint of reason and of experience, it is not at all reasonable or wise 
to condemn the trade school itself, for I think it can be conclusively 
shown that upon schools of this character the trades, as such, must de- 
pend for their own preservation ; therefore, the effort should not be to 
destroy the trade school, or blindly oppose it, but to modify its methods 
and utilize it as the only available means to regulate and control the out- 
put of workmen, which is really the point at issue as far as trades unions 
are concerned, and to protect the community as well against the un- 
trained and inexperienced, for under existing conditions, for some of 
which the trades unions themselves are to a considerable extent respons- 


ible, the public is in some danger of losing altogether the all-round arti- 
san, the mechanic skilled and interested in his calling. 

It behooves the trades unions, as custodians of the interests of the 
workmen in trades, to look more deeply into the function of the trade 
school, and to consider more carefully how much the interests they have 
in charge depend upon the existence and operation of these schools, and 
it behooves employers to concern themselves more effectively, to the end 
that they may reap the benefits which surely come through wise adminis- 
tration of the trade schools. It is evident that there are some weak- 
nesses in trade schools as at present developed. I am inclined to think 
that one of these is indicated in the somewhat crude objections made by 
trade unions. I am convinced that there should be a comprehensive 
and effective system established, utilizing the trade school idea, which 
shall supplant completely the present unsatisfactory condition of floating 
off on the market an unfinished product, which, if it ever becomes fin- 
ished, becomes so in spite of conditions rather than by virtue of or pur- 
pose in them. I do not believe for a moment that our privately estab- 
lished trade schools were ever intended or expected by their founders to 
produce too large a supply of mechanics, and thus flood the market, or 
to incite young men to half perfect themselves, and then deceive the 
public, but the function and purpose of the schools were distinctly ex- 
pressed and intended to be to furnish as systematic and favorable a 
method of instruction and training as possible to fill a void created by 
the decay of an old system, which, while sufficient in its day and gener- 
ation, had vanished, never to return. This function and purpose, to my 
mind, are more emphatically evidenced year by year, and as this instruc- 
tion and training can best proceed in conjunction with practice in real 
work, in which employer and workmen are engaged, I believe that the 
most complete method of operating that function and realizing that pur- 
pose lies, as I conceive it does in all matters affecting labor, in a more 
complete co-operation between organizations of employers and organiza- 
tions of workmen. 

The policy of this co-operation should be to create good workmen, 
the best, most skillful, the most complete, and then to have the unions com- 
posed of these, and these only} By a policy of this nature, which could only 
be carried out by a joining of hands of employers and workmen in the 
management and direction of trade schools, with this end in view, the 
unions would be relieved of the most telling criticisms now used against 
them, and their reason for being would be more firmly established. By 

1 Italics by the editor. 


this measure the unions would be strengthened by " recognition" in the 
best sense, inasmuch as they would become the gauge and standard of 
excellence, and instead of coercion being necessary, as now, to keep the 
organizations up to that efficiency which numbers are felt to indicate, 
membership would be eagerly sought, because desired as a sign of selec- 
tion, and as a safeguard against being herded together, as now, in one 
mass of good, bad, or indifferent. The " non-union" man would then be 
the inefficient, the unreliable, the dishonest, the quarrelsome, the dis- 
turber, the dissolute, and the generally unworthy, and non-union he 
would have to remain until he should so reform as to make himself de- 
sirable. Then would there be the true line of demarkation between 
union and non-union, a natural and proper one, not the artificial and 
dangerous one that now exists. Unions would then be accepted by all 
as the clearing-house for workmen, as a sure source of supply of trust- 
worthy, efficient and skilled workmen, and not as now, an aggregation of 
anything and everything that will simply swell an army, the leaders of 
which assert that " labor is a force militant," and that " as such its vic- 
tories are to be achieved." Until this dispensation, labor has been sup- 
posed to be of the essence of peace, and not war, and it has not been 
until the forces of labor, as demonstrated through cheaply conceived, un- 
restrained, or poorly administered organizations, have been diverted 
from their true channel, that the world has witnessed the commission of 
acts under the impulse of this force, which have been unworthy of 
humanity, and which have roused the self-respecting in all our commun- 
ities to most determined resistance. 

It is my belief that the trade school, properly utilized as suggested, 
supplemented by further intelligent co-operation of real employers and 
real workmen, in all affairs of mutual concern, may be one of the great- 
est conservators of safety. But these agencies for good must not be left 
to dilletante exploitation, nor to the equal danger of the general usage. 
Let employers and workmen engage in this service with the glad serious- 
ness of conviction, and hope will succeed despair in all these relations. 

In conclusion I would state that in my opinion the trade school does 
not offer a privilege which any one should be permitted to enjoy without 
judicious supervision and control. It is an opportunity which should be 
chiefly available for those who determine upon a trade as their life-work, 
and have a reasonable degree of fitness for it. In other words, the trade 
school should be considered a training field for actual workers, and its 
operation should be reasonably restricted and controlled, to the end that 
its graduates may have definite standing, and the community as a whole 
be protected against partially perfected workmen. 


Elizabeth Euphrosyne Langley, 

Associate in Manual Training, School of Education, 

University of Chicago. 

The topic announced for my paper is " Manual Training in the Ele- 
mentary School," but I desire to limit what I have to say to hand-work in 
wood, and to put my chief emphasis on the work below the sixth grade. 
I choose this phase of the general theme because I can find few schools 
where elementary wood-work is given fair trial. It is either not put in 
until after the fifth grade, or it is given to each grade but once in two 
weeks, or it is made an isolated subject, or the classes are too large to 
handle, or the equipment is entirely inadequate. Those who plan courses 
of study have yet to realize that if elementary manual training is to bring 
in large returns in the development of the child, it must be rightly 
equipped and managed. And may I be allowed to make the prefatory 
statement that whatever I have to say about manual training applies as 
well to girls as to boys. I have yet to find the place, from the first to the 
eighth grade, where the kind of work, or the kind of interest, would 
justify the separation of the sexes. 

What I have to say of theory will be incidental. My chief argu- 
ments will be the statement of actual results in schools where the theory 
is tested. In order to have concrete instances, I shall use especially the 

i Abstract of paper read before the Department of Manual Training of the Na- 
tional Educational Association, Boston, July 9, 1903. 

1903] 11 


work now being done in the School of Education, of the University of 

The problems that confront the elementary manual training teacher 
have to do with the choice of articles to be made, and the methods to be 
employed. Both of these are conditioned by the ideal towards which the 
teacher works. Back of all problems, and determining their solution, is 
the idea that manual training should not be an isolated subject, not 
merely " something different," the chief purpose of which is to relieve 
the strain of other work, but that it should be closely interknit with the 
general school life, a part of the method of self-expression. The concep- 
tion of manual training as thus bound up with the life of the school, must 
largely determine the answer of the manual-training teacher to al im- 
portant questions. 

The question that meets the teacher at the outset is, what articles 
shall the children be allowed to make ? Our answer is, that each child 
should, with certain limitations, be allowed to make that which he wishes 
to make. That is, the child, in so far as he is able and eager, suggests 
what he wishes to make. This choice is, if possible, accepted, and the 
plan is worked out in conference with his teacher. But if, considering 
the child's age, strength, and skill, the choice is an unsuitable one, and 
must be rejected, the rejection is not autocratic. That, too, is the result 
of conference with the child, so that, while working under guidance, he 
has yet the consciousness of working along lines of his own choice. The 
first grade chose, for instance, this year, to make play-houses. The 
second grade made bird-houses, seed-boxes, and flower-boxes. The third 
grade co-operated in the making of a large chicken-house. The fourth 
grade made as their co-operative work a train of freight cars, with road- 
bed and ties. Both of these grades have done individual work of many 
sorts, including such articles as fern-stands, tabouret, foot-stools, picture- 
frames, book-cases and small tables. The fifth and sixth grades have 
made furniture of the colonial type, including corner cupboards with glass 
doors, book shelves, etc. They are also making other individual articles, 
such as an eight-foot scow, for use on the lagoons, a child's chair, wall- 
cabinets, etc. These grades are also doing simple relief carving. The 
seventh-grade children are making boats, not large boats for actual use, 
but miniature models to represent the boats of various countries and of 
various periods, such as a Viking boat, a Chinese boat of state, a Vene- 
tian gondola, and various sorts of American boats, from the raft to the 
house-boat and yacht. The eighth grade has made oak folding screens, 
oak book-cases, an oak couch, tabouretes in cherry and mahogany, and 


other similar articles, while their community work is an eighty-foot arbor, 
for the school garden. 

From this rapid illustrative summary of articles actually made, it is 
at once apparent that we have paid no attention to a logical sequence of 
models, as in the sloyd system, according to which all children make the 
same articles in the same order. No one trained under Herr Salomon 
can fail to see the value and beauty of that system with its definite and 
orderly progression of difficulties, and its comprehensive and clever in- 
troduction of wood-working tools, and I would advise any teacher to take 
it, especially if he wishes to depart from it in the interests of correlation, 
or the child's individuality. But experience convinces me that with 
young children the idea of "logical sequence," as that phrase is ordinar- 
ily interpreted, must be thrown to the winds. In other words, logical 
sequence bases on subject matter should give way to the natural, and, 
therefore, truly logical development of the individual. The more, and 
definite, and orderly, and comprehensive the knowledge of the teacher, 
the better, for such knowledge gives him a point of view, gives backbone 
to his work, saves him from irrational adaptations ; but the child must be 
left free to find himself, and to express himself. As Colonel Parker says, 
" It is only when we get into the child's own motive that we have the 
true, logical scheme." 

The governing principle in the choice of articles to be made must be, 
then, the interests of the child, but much of the work done centers natur- 
ally about the general work of the grade at the time. The play-houses 
of the first grade grew directly out of the fact that all work of the grade 
centered about domestic life. Eskimo huts in clay, and Indian wigwams 
in raffia and twigs, led the way naturally to the more elaborate life of 
civilized man as expressed by the wooden house. The interest in the 
house and the life it represents has really come to dominate the hand- 
work of the grade. The work in weaving has resolved itself into the 
making of rugs for the floors, the art work has contributed wall-papers, 
designed and painted by the children, while the study of color has been 
given a great impetus by the painting of the outsides of the houses, and 
portions of the interior, and some ambitious children have even levied 
on the clay-modeling department for chimneys and fire-places. The 
latest work of the grade is in the making of simple wooden furniture for 
the houses. The hen-house of the third grade was the apparently im- 
perative outcome of the decision of the grade to adopt a hen. The cars 
of the fourth grade, and the boats of the seventh grade, were the natural 
expressions of an interest aroused by a study of transportation. The 


colonial furniture was a choice of the fifth and sixth grades after they 
had become interested in the life of the colonial period, and after visits 
to large furniture shops, where they were able to compare furniture of 
different periods and styles. The choice of individual articles is made 
for personal reasons. It will be seen that in these cases, and they are 
but typical, the controlling principle of choice is the interest of the child, 
but guided and developed by the work of the grade. 

It frequently happens that the children wish to do co-operative work. 
Such work is of all sorts, from the simple union of two or three children 
on the same article, to the combination of the whole grade in the carrying 
out of some community project. When work of this latter sort is under- 
taken with so much enthusiasm that the children willingly lay aside their 
individual plans for the larger class idea, it has distinct educative value. 
For instance, in the making of the chicken house each child had the 
responsible feeling that if the edifice was to do credit to the grade, the 
boards must match and so conform to the plans and measurements agreed 
upon. Each board was marked with the name of the maker, and as he 
nailed it into place, whether rough or uneven, or well squared and per- 
fect, it stood as his contribution to the public weal and received praise or 
blame according to the critical judgment of that public. There was thus 
being developed in the child as distinct a sense of civic responsibility, as 
distinct a recognition that his work must stand or fall in fair competition 
with the work of his fellows, as would ever come to him in later life. It 
is a help in managing community work if some of the more able boys 
or girls are appointed captains of industry with supervision of special 
portions of the work and special groups of workers, and it certainly is a 
great advantage to the child who is thus given the opportunity of putting 
his superior ability at the service of less skillful companions or of the 
commanity at large. Responsibility educates, and just so far as a child 
can take responsibility for himself or for others, is he becoming a 
capable being. A further result of community work is a kind of intelli- 
gible and justifiable civic pride. No railway magnate can look upon his 
network of roads with a greater satisfaction than is experienced by the 
children of the fourth grade as they survey their thirty feet of track and 
the six cars that make up their system of " University of Chicago fast 
freight ". Such work also gives a grade a standing with other grades. 
They are recognized as capable of planinng and carrying on works of 
public utility. Considerations of such weight as these in the develop- 
ment of the child should overbalance any difficulty or perplexity on the 
part of the teacher in managing the work. 


One result of allowing the work to follow the desires of the child has 
been that a surprisingly large number of the articles made have not been 
for individual ownership. For instance, the third grade made paper 
knives enough for the first and second grades and sent them as valentines ; 
the cup-racks, knife-boxes and plate-racks needed by the grades for the 
lunches are often made by one grade and presented to another. Through- 
out the school little conveniences of various sorts are made, now by one 
grade, now by another. The boats of the seventh grade were made with 
the distinct purpose of presenting them to the school museum. Nearly 
every child finds great delight and a steady incentive to the best work of 
which he is capable if he has the happy consciousness of " making a 
present" for someone. The most original and inventive, the most 
joyous, eager and intent work of the year is that known as Christmas 
work. The child is putting his best efforts into the expression of some 
idea clearly his own, and the stimulus of his activity is the happiness he 
will bring to some one he loves. All these elements are wholesome. 
The old way of teaching a child by pouring knowledge in upon him, the 
old way of making him happy by giving him presents, are unsound 
psychologically in comparison to what is accomplished by this Christmas 
work. Joyous self-expression, a spontaneous altruism, these are natural 
and permanent springs of happiness that any elder person might covet. 
Certainly the child, radiant with his own thought, absolutely electric in 
his energy, brim full of the joy of giving, is worlds removed from the 
child who through false ideas of education has been converted into what 
Carlyle calls a " passive bucket to be pumped into ". 

In the matter of technical skill, the advance from the simple use of 
the simplest tools in the first grade to the really excellent work of the 
eighth grade has been a long step, but the point to be insisted upon here 
is the way in which this ability to do difficult and even elaborate work 
has been gained. There has been no prescribed progression of tools to 
be used ; no prescribed order of difficulty to be met ; there has been no 
emphasis on technical skill as such, and no work done merely for the 
sake of acquiring such skill. And yet, it has come to pass that the most 
ingenious and orderly system devised by the manual training teacher for 
the sake of securing technique has been outdone in its own field by the 
unclassified, unlabelled, and apparently unordered process of develop- 
ment achieved by the child in the pursuit of his own plans. How does 
this come about ? He achieves technique, not because he seeks tech- 
nique or realizes its value even, but because of his eagerness to express 
in the best fashion the ideas he has in his mind. His enthusiasm for 


anything he has to make begets patience, perseverence, carefulness and 
attention to instruction, and these qualities in turn beget technique. He 
has never sawed to a line for the sake of sawing ; he has never planed 
for the sake of planing ; he has never chiselled for the sake of chisel- 
ling joints, but he has performed all these operations in making his 
chosen articles. He has gained technique incidentally, as it were. He 
has co-ordinated hand and brain, he has bent his muscle to the service 
of his will, but almost unconsciously and in the interests of the article 
he has made. 

By the fifth, or even the fourth grade, there is recognition of fine 
workmanship and finish. The fifth grade lad who, when remonstrated 
with for using his father's best linen handkerchiefs in which to wrap his 
fern-stand, said, " You can get more handkerchiefs, but you can't get 
another fern-stand like this ! " was typical. And every especially good 
piece of work receives hearty, even affectionate appreciation from the 

The emphasis put by instructors in secondary schools on the educa- 
tive value of the process per sc may be the only sound principle for 
manual training in secondary schools, but in the elementary schools 
such emphasis would be fatal. Formal routine and discipline in manual 
training cannot be advantageously applied to young children. With 
regard to the attitude of the elementary manual training teacher towards 
technique, I have, then, two settled articles of belief. First, elementary 
manual training can never be approached from the point of view of 
technique, and can never be based on the value of processes as such. 
But, secondly, the elementary manual training approached from the 
point of view of individual interest can, and indeed will, result in a tech- 
nique of surprising excellence. The work is not in any sense forced or 
unnatural. The excellence of technique comes through the joyous 
energy of the children ; their gay competition ; their affection for the 
work, and their pride in doing it well. 

May I say a word as to the equipment of the manual training room 
and of the manual training teacher ? That tools and benches should be 
of the best quality; that floors should be of wood, not cement; that 
racks for lumber should be safe and convenient ; that locker space 
should be ample; that the room should be dry and light — all this, per- 
haps, goes without saying. There should be, also, small movable plat- 
forms that fit under the benches and of varying heights, so that the 
benches may be properly adjusted to the height of the pupils. The 
room should not be small and mussy and shop-like, but should be inspir- 


ing and beautiful in various inexpensive ways. There should be floor 
space enough to keep on hand various suggestive completed articles. 
There should be wall space enoughfor samples of wood, finished and un- 
finished, and for pictures of trees. The room should, indeed, be both work- 
shop and studio, with a happy combination of the artisan and art elements. 

In regard to the manual training teacher, I object to the grade 
teacher minus technical skill, and even more, to the artisan minus 
culture. It has often been said that all sorts of hand work should theo- 
retically be taught by each grade teacher to her own grade, in order 
that the relation of the subject may be kept more perfectly in mind. 
But her hands are already full. Probably the idea of perfect fusion of 
the different parts of a child's work can be more effectively accom- 
plished by having the special teachers identify themselves with the 
interests of each grade. The mere artisan, the easily available, inex- 
pensive man, clever with his hands, but ignorant of the other work of 
the school, incapable as teacher or guide, or companion of the children 
outside of his specialty, is absolutely out of his place in the manual 
training room. He could be justified only on the unjustifiable basis that 
the proper aim of manual training is to teach a trade. But if the true 
conception of manual training does not put the emphasis on manual, but 
on training, then it is clear that the manual training teacher should have 
an admirable equipment of culture and scholarship as well as technical 
knowledge in his own line. 

To sum up, I have tried to say that manual training should be put 
into the elementary grades ; that it should be thoroughly co-ordinated 
with the other work of the grades ; that it should be carried with a flexi- 
bility of system which would allow the child's individuality free play ; 
that technique should be attained, but that technique and finished pro- 
ducts should not be the ultimate objects of the work ; and that the best 
results can be obtained only when schools have adequate equipment, full 
time, and competent teachers. 

Now I recognize that I have been presenting the possibilities of the 
work when done under advantageous conditions, and I know that I shall 
be met with the criticism that what I advocate is not practicable in 
public schools. I admit this, and I know that any teacher in public 
schools would be compelled to modify what I have said according to 
his restricted conditions. But if manual training teachers have ideals, 
and refuse to accept present conditions as final, we may hope that the 
opportunities now offered in only a few private schools may be more 
nearly reached in all schools. 


Four volumes of the Manual Training Magazine have been com- 
pleted, and with this number we begin volume five. At this time we wish 
to thank our subscribers and friends for their thoughtful co-operation, their 
helpful suggestions and their hearty words of approval. We hope all 
these will be given to us as freely in the future as in they have been in 
the past. We realize that the ideal magazine we have had in mind is yet 
far beyond anything we have produced ; we appreciate the fact that if the 
Magazine is to approach more nearly to our ideal, we must have not 
merely the passive approval, but the active assistance of more of those 
who are most vitally interested in the development and progress of manual 
training in its broadest and highest educational significance. As indicat- 
ing a most important step toward this end, it gives us genuine satisfaction 
to be able to announce that the following gentlemen have consented to 
become associate editors of the Magazine : Mr. Charles R. Richards, 
professor of manual training, Teachers College, Columbia University, 
New York ; Dr. James P. Haney, director of manual training in the public 
schools of New York City ; and Mr. Charles F. Warner, principal of the 
Mechanic Arts High School, Springfiield, Massachusetts. As is well 
known to eveiy reader of this Magazine, each is a recognized leader 
and an able writer. Together they stand for what is broadest and best 
in manual training work. The immediate result of this increase in the 
editorial staff is seen in a more prominent place and better form for 
editorial writings. 

Another step of some importance is the formation of the department of 
" Current Items " out of the " Brevities." This will begin in the January 
number, and will be taken in charge by Mr. Clinton S. Van Duesen, of 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute. This change need not affect the character 
of the news items published, but it will group them together and insure 
to them the special attention they need. Still another change, and one 
that will be welcomed by the readers of this number may be found in 
the printer's work. The entire text of the Magazine is printed from 
new type purchased especially for the purpose. 

Charles A. Bennett 


1903] EDITORIAL 19 

One of the most noticeable features of the recent great convention of 
the National Educational Association in Boston was the prominence given 
to the meetings of the Manual Training department, including its two joint 
sessions with other departments. This unusual program was made possible 
by a combination of several favoring conditions. In the first place, there 
is a wide, intelligent interest in the subject of manual training and indus- 
trial education in Boston and neighboring cities. Massachusetts is the 
only state which requires by law that manual training shall be maintained 
in all its public schools. Chapter 42 of the Revised Laws of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts contains the following: 

Sec 9. 1 Every city and town containing twenty thousand inhabitants or more, 
shall maintain the teaching of manual training as a part of both its elementary and its 
high school system. 

Sec. io 2 A town may establish and maintain one or more industrial schools, 
and the school committe shall employ the teachers, prescribe the arts, trades and 
occupations to be taught therein, and have the general control and management thereof; 
but it shall not expend for any such school an amount exceeding the appropriation 
specifically made therefor, nor compel the pupil to study any trade, art or occupation 
without the consent of his parent or guardian. Attendance upon such school shall 
not take the place of attendance upon public schools required by law. 

In the second place, the great leaders in the organization of the con- 
vention did not fail to appreciate the growing importance of the manual 
and the vocational elements in the public-school systems of this country. 
President Eliot has never neglected the interests of manual training in his 
progressive and comprehensive educational teachings, and the Manual 
Training department, as did all the other departments, obtained early in 
the year, suggestions from him upon the preparation of its program which 
were of great value. The local committee assigned to this department the 
largest and most central of the churches offered for the use of the con- 

But probably nothing contributed more to the success of the manual- 
training programs, and to the success of all others as well, than the pre- 
liminary meeting of the department presidents, held in Boston, the first 
week in January — an innovation due to the prompt, direct, and business- 
like policy of President Eliot. Here were discussed various provisional 
programs, topics and speakers, and suggestions were exchanged as to the 
best plan to be followed in the arrangement, both of separate and joint 

'Manual training, 1894, 471, 189S, 496, §4. 
^Industrial schools, 1S72, 86, P. S. 44, §8. 


programs, and the methods to be employed in conducting the meetings. 
Having determined thus early, a consistent policy to be adopted by all 
departments, and having established most cordial understandings with 
one another and with the president, the work of organizing the largest 
meetings in the history of the National Educational Association was under- 
taken with promptness and enthusiasm. It was, indeed, an inspiration 
to work under the leadership of President Eliot. 

Charles F. Warner. 

It is generally agreed that the late meeting of the National Educational 
Association was one of the best in its histoiy. As the sessions of the 
Eastern Manual Training Association were also held in Boston during the 
same week, unusual opportunity was given to compare the professional 
excellence of the papers presented to that association, and the Art and 
Manual Training section of the N. E. A. with those offered to the audiences 
of the other section meetings. 

The comparison was encouraging. Among the many papers which 
dealt with the arts of construction and design, there were, as always, one 
or two oratorical " efforts, " one or two long and prosy screeds, and one 
or two which showed, by their construction, that the ink of their hasty 
writing was scarcely dry. But other sections saw essays hasty and essays 
prosy, while over-long papers will alway be read, despite time limits, sits 
there no chairman with a good gavel, a strong arm and a New England 

The three programs referred to were encouraging, in that they showed 
on the part of so many of the speakers an increasing professional pride, 
an added determination to contribute to the literature of the craft — not 
another sermon or panegeric on the arts, but rather a careful study of some 
phase of their development, organization or teaching. Upon the necessity 
for unification of the different arts, there was surprising unanimity. 
Arts for arts' sake had scarce an advocate, while nearly every speaker 
emphasized the fact that the different subjects of drawing, construction 
and design should be jointly presented to the little child, that their mutual 
relationship might, by him, be clearly grasped. The constructive element 
was brought well to the fore and actual making of things demanded, that 
their planning and decoration might have adequate realization. 

This note was sounded by many speakers, in many keys. If there 
was anything lacking, it was the word of warning which should be given 
to those on the point of abandoning old practices to be on with new. 

1903] EDITORIAL 21 

Many signs point to the fact that such warning is needed, and that teachers 
about to reorganize their work along joint constructive and decorative 
lines, should understand that no wholesale introduction of " making ", and 
no uniform method of presentation throughout the grades will result in the 
success for which they hope. 

The problem for the supervising teacher is the differentiation of the 
material which the different arts have to offer to the child at each stage 
of his growth. One is not to direct the class instructor, in the curt phrase 
of Carlyle, to " produce something, even though it be but the infinitesimal 
fraction of a product." Both process and product must be suited to the 
producer, and the producer, when a little child, is an individual changing 
each year, each month, almost each day. 

Between the stages of such growth from infancy to adolescence, the 
teacher must distinguish. For each, the arts have a distinct contribution. 
The advanced pupil will follow with interest, work in the crafts, but to the 
primary child, construction is distinctly for the pleasure of making. The 
latter will follow with avidity, a culture-epoch plan or any other plan, so 
long as it gives him a chance to gratify motor longings. He will follow the 
most mechanical of courses, rather than not make anything, but will, by his 
enthusiasm, show his infinite preference for a plan which affords him oppor- 
tunity freely to express himself — to take some simple process and turn it 
to personal ends, in a personal manner. 

The teacher who fails to grasp the fact that the arts are media of ex- 
pression for the little child, inevitably turns them into automatic channels. 
Materials and exercises are presented which require for their development 
much more of patience than of skill. Raffia or yarn is woven, patches are 
darned, and endless seams are made — all of surpassing excellence. The 
fact, however, is overlooked, that in the performance of these prodigies by 
the little child, his fingers, after the first few rounds, gain no additional 
dexterity, while only too often his blinking eyes see in the indifferent light 
of the class room, an additional weight placed upon the beam that tilts 
them myopic-wards. 

The arts to the primary teacher should, first of all, present themselves 
as developmental agents, through which the child by virtue of his inherent 
desires, can be schooled to habits of independence and personal initiative. 
They are not to be used or thought of as mechanical drills — forms of 
muscle training merely, which seek through constant repetition of difficult 
co-ordinations, to establish perfection of automatic performance. Such 
perfecting of fine movements runs counter to physiological teaching. Its 
development at the expense of individual expression means that the mental 


activity which governs the latter must suffer the atrophy of disuse. The 
arts, as all other subjects, must be taught for the child's sake. Beauty of 
product must never be allowed to serve as an excuse for manual or men- 
tal mechanism of procedure. James P. Haney. 


Any thoughtful person, listening to the discussion of the trade-school 
question in the Manual Training department at the Boston meeting, must 
have left the convention with a clearer conception than ever before of the 
real problem. Certain important facts must have stood out prominetly 
in his mind, which might be summarized as follows : 

First : The term " trade school " is used very loosely. Some speakers 
use it as covering technical and continuation schools, in which the instruc- 
tion consists largely in science, mathematics and drawing, while others 
confine it to schools in which instruction is expected to produce journey- 
man mechanics. This ambiguity is unfortunate and leads to misunder- 
standing. It would seem that the majority do not apply the term "trade 
school " to an institution without shop equipment, giving instruction in 
applied science, mathematics and drawing. Most continuation schools are 
not, therefore, trade schools in the more common use of the term. 

Second : There is a growing demand for skilled labor, owing to the 
fact that the factory system has modified, weakened, and in many cases 
uprooted the apprenticeship system, so that the supply of young workmen 
in many trades is not equal to the demand. Machinery has not reduced 
the demand for skilled workmen ; it has merely modified it. 

Third : Both the employers and the labor unions are looking more and 
more to schools of one kind or another to furnish the skilled workmen of 
the future. 

Fourth : It is not yet clear how these schools shall be provided and 
controlled, but it is significant that neither the manufacturers nor the repre- 
sentatives of organized labor who appeared on the program, would require 
trade schools to be supported at public expense. Mr. Higgins believed 
trade schools could be managed properly only by manufacturers, while 
Mr. Sayward suggested that they be provided by manufacturers and labor 
unions working together. It was the agressive educator only, who wished 
to step forward and supply the demand for trade schools at public expense- 
It is evident that the question is a many-sided one. Teachers of manual 
training can afford to be conservative in their attitude and action. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

1 903] EDITOR I A L 23 


The question of the increase of women teachers in the public schools, 
although by no means a new question, seems recently to have received 
considerable notice in the public press. Some writers have been content 
to state the causes of this increase, others have called for reform, declar- 
ing that the schools are being "over-feminized", and still others have 
lamented the condition as one beyond repair, on the ground that the pro- 
fession of teaching, so far as the public schools are concerned, has become 
to such an extent a woman's profession, that the question of reversing or 
even checking the tendency is no longer a practical subject for discussion. 

This is not the place to enter into the discussion of the general question; 
but whatever may be the conflict between present practice or tendency 
and pedagogical theory concerning this matter, as regards schools in 
general, there has been little or at least much less occasion for difference 
of opinion or of practice in elementary or secondary manual-training 
schools. In this department of education it has generally been 
recognized that men have their peculiar field and women theirs. 
The increasing importance which is now being given to the voca- 
tional element in these schools will make the need for the masculine 
element in certain places, and the feminine in certain other places even 
more apparent. If, for example, a boy is to take lessons in woodwork or 
ironwork, not merely for the educational effect upon him, but also with 
the object of acquiring, as thoroughly as possible, a knowledge of the 
technical processes employed in the same or similar constructive work 
in the industries, he ought to take those lessons of a man who knows these 
processes as a man only can know them. In hand-tool and machine-tool 
work for boys, a man teacher is the natural one. Woman's peculiar field 
is in the occupations of the home. If, according to modern views of 
education, we are to begin the activities of life in school, it evidently 
follows that the proper function of the school mistress, and the natural 
school activity for the girl pupil in manual training, should be very 
largely confined to the household arts. Furthermore, boys dislike to take 
lessons in bench work from a woman as naturally as girls would ridicule 
the idea of taking sewing lessons from a man. It must be acknowledged, 
however, that a teacher may be strong enough to overcome such natural 
dislikes, but it must also be acknowledged that such teachers are rare 

Charles F. Warner. 



The Boston meeting of the National Educational Association, July 
6-1 o, was one to be remembered a lifetime. There was a registration of 
over thirty-two thousand people, and an intellectual and social feast 
never before approached in all the brilliant history of the Association. 
This feast was not merely one of rich programs of set speeches, though 
these were more numerous than ever before, but it included concerts and 
receptions, and excursions to many of the points of historic interest 
which cluster about Boston. Particularly to be commended was the 
schedule of hours of meetings, which gave the mornings to department 
meetings, the afternoons to excursions and receptions, and the evenings 
to concerts and general sessions. The attendance was so much larger 
than had been expected that nearly every meeting-room was crowded to 
overflowing. Hundreds of people were turned away even from some of 
the department meetings, and in at least one case an overflow meeting 
was held, all papers of that session being reread in another room. It 
was estimated that two thousand teachers attended one of the manual 
training sessions. When compared with the very few hundreds at pre- 
vious meetings, this number was indeed remarkable. 

Another striking feature of the convention was the gracious dignity, 
masterly repose and rare tact of the presiding officer, President Charles 
W. Eliot, of Harvard University. His administration of the affairs of 
the Association from beginning to end was a striking illustration of 
a man elevating and dignifying an office, not the office elevating the 
man. To see President Eliot preside at a great meeting of teachers, and 
to feel the power of his diction, is to make one glad to be a member of 
the same profession. His scholarly address on " The New Definition of 
the Cultivated Man," at the first general session in Mechanics Hall, was 
a fine example of his eloquence, and perfectly fit the occasion, the place, 
and the man. In this he contrasted the old-time gentleman and his 
qualities with the characteristics of the man of refinement and culture 
of to-day. 


1 903] A SSOCIA TIO.\ \S 2 5 

One of the general sessions was devoted to 


We are much indebted to Professor Arthur H. Chamberlain for the 
following report of that session : 

Not the least interesting and valuable of the general sessions of the convention, 
was the meeting held in Mechanics Hall on Tuesday evening, July 7th. President 
Charles W. Eliot presided, the speakers being Calvin M. Woodward, dean of the 
School of Engineering of Washington University, St. Louis; Thos. M. Balliet, 
superintendent of schools, Springfield, Mass., and Henry S. Pritchett, president of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Professor Robert H. Thurston, of Cor- 
nell University, although scheduled to speak, did not appear. 

A large audience gave an enthusiastic greeting to President Eliot when he arose 
to announce the general topic for the evening. Dr. Woodward, the first speaker, 
said that our present industrial and social conditions demand a broader secondary- 
school curriculum. To " knowing " must be added " doing," if the boy is to be fully 
educated. The engineers or mechanics of to-day may be as truly cultured as the 
man trained in the classics only. 

The schemes of secondary and higher education have been planned, said the 
speaker, not with a view to the needs of the majority, but of the minority. The 
coming secondary school must enable the boy to discover the world and to find 
himself. A single course of study cannot do this. The establishment of manual- 
training high schools has in some instances doubled the attendance, and hence has 
been the means of increasing the attendance at higher technical and engineering 
colleges. A new set of pupils, too, is reached, and the lesson taught that education 
and skill dignify and adorn every occupation. 

In introducing Superintendent Balliet, President Eliot drew attention to the fact 
that the first speaker had outlined the necessity for a change in policy and method 
of present day secondary education. The teaching of trades in the public schools 
President Eliot characterized as a step further in the present discussion. 

Superintendent Balliet spoke from his experience. He dwelt upon the increas- 
ingly prominent place the economic and industrial forces play in the civilization of 
to-day. It is to education we must look for our adjustment to present day condi- 
tions, and to fit the individual to his new environment. The highly organized con- 
dition of nations was spoken of, and the extent and policy of the industrial and trade 
schools of Europe dwelt upon. 

Springfield, the speaker said, had made an experiment in teaching trades at 
public expense. An evening trade school was organized in the manual-training high 
school shops some four years ago. The major portion of the students are either 
apprentices or journeymen in the various trades, and these, rather than non-trades- 
men, are given the preference. Mechanical drawing, mechanics, applied mathe- 
matics, electricity, and the machine, plumbing, wood-turning and pattern-making 
trades are taught. Many different trades were represented by the three hundred and 
eleven students enrolled the present year. Residents of the city are given free tuition. 

Superintendent Balliet believes such a school may be organized in the shops of 
any up-to-date manual-training high school. 


Before presenting President Pritchett, of the Institute of Technology, President 
Eliot reminded those present that many western universities had for years given in- 
struction gratuitously in various professional schools. The plan proposed for teach- 
ing trades at public expense was, he said, simply another phase of the same problem. 

President Pritchett was warmly received. He had for his topic " The Part of 
the Manual-Training High School in American Education." He characterized the 
philosophy of education as being little changed from that of two thousand years ago, 
and we are still trying to realize the thought of Aristotle, when he said: "What is 
education, and how are we to educate, either with a view to perfect training or to the 
best life ? " 

The speaker claimed that the manual-training high school contributes more to 
the culture side of life than to the trade or industry phase of our existence ; its ends 
are pedagogic, rather than craftwise. This state of affairs the speaker deprecated in 
some measure. The correspondence schools, with their many students, furnish to us 
an idea of what the manual-training high school could do if utilized to the fullest 

A plea was made for the introduction of drawing, both mechanical and free 
hand, into the curricula of all high schools. More has been claimed for the manual- 
training high school, however, than it can hope to fulfill. The standards of scholar- 
ship, too, have been here reduced, owing to the introduction of many subjects to be 
taught in a comparatively short time. The average boy, graduate of such a school, 
is inclined to rate his limited knowledge of shopwork as of "greater value than all 
the rest." 

President Pritchett does not believe the knowledge gained in the manual-train- 
ing room of more value than that received from contact with the natural life of the 
farm for example. Neither does he believe in the popular interpretation placed upon 
the phrase, "send the whole boy to school." "It has no significance," he says, "with 
respect to a manual-training school which it does not have with respect to any other 
well conducted school." 

The speaker questioned the advisability of using the manual-training high school 
as an institution preparatory to the training of the engineer. He further stated that 
his own experience went to show that the graduates of city high schools are better 
prepared along the lines of general scholarship than are those of private high schools 
or of manual-training high schools. It will thus be seen that President Pritchett has 
clearly in mind the service the manual-training high school has rendered, not only, 
but he also recognizes its limitations. Such a school, he thinks, will not meet the de- 
mands of every boy. "In a word," said the speaker, "the study of the manual-train- 
ing school suggests, as well as the study of any other American school, that those 
who have to do to-day with American education must turn their eyes, not so much 
toward the making of new schools for fitting men for college, as in providing simple 
and effective schools which may reach those who never go to college ; and that, so 
far as pedagogic methods are concerned, it is not to a multiplication of such methods 
which we should look, but rather turn our faces and the faces of the American 
people toward simplicity, sincerity and thoroughness in education. 

The papers and discussions were a real contribution to the cause of education. 
Such a meeting, such speakers, and such richness of thought and experience, should 
prove an inspiration to the teachers of the land, and will undoubtedly lead to more 
thoughtful study, open-minded discussion and intelligent experiment and application. 


The sessions of the Department of Manual Training, held in the 
Old South Church, Copley Square, were remarkable in many ways. The 
attendance was very large at each session, sometimes more than filling 
all the seats in that large auditorium, thus indicating a wide interest in 
the subjects discussed ; and one of the sessions, that on trade education, 
was especially marked by the many points of view of the speakers and 
the clarifying effect it produced in the minds of many in the audience. 
It was a timely contribution to educational discussion, and the credit for 
bringing it about belongs to the president of the department, Principal 
Charles F. Warner of the Mechanic Arts High School, Springfield' 
Mass. Mr. Warner received many congratulations. 

The trade-school session opened at 9:30 on Tuesday morning. The 
first sub-topic was 


This was discussed from the manufacturer's point of view by Milton 
P. Higgins, formerly superintendent of the Washburn Shops of the Wor- 
cester Polytechnic Institute, and now president of the Norton Emery 
Wheel Co., of Worcester, Mass. ; also by L. D. Burlingame, chief 
draftsman for the Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co., of Providence, 
R. I. ; and from the educator's point of view by Professor Arthur H. 
Chamberlain, of Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, California. 

Mr. Higgins opened his address by stating that, contrary to the 
hastily-formed opinions of many, the requirements upon the workmen 
have greatly increased in recent years. The introduction of modern 
methods of manufacture have not lowered the demand for skill, but have 
raised it. The mechanic must have superior training, and Mr. Higgins 
said that it is pretty generally agreed that manufacturers must look to 
schools for their future skilled workmen. 

The specific needs (on our part) regarding the education and qualifications of 
workmen are as follows : First, last and always, we are looking for effective, produc- 
tive, profitable skill. The manufacturer will employ the skillful man at good pay, even 
if he be untidy, coarse, ignorant, profane and drunk on Sundays. I make this ex- 
treme statement to show, at the start, that any trade-school system, any education for 
the trades, in order to meet the reasonable needs and demands of the manufacturer, 
must make skill the central part of the enterprise. The educational system must 
start from the shop, and all other elements of the school must radiate from the shop, 
because the power and success of the pupil's life is to depend upon his shop knowl- 
edge and dexterity. The engineering college, the university, and the technical school 
may, for obvious reasons, be a school with a shop attachment, — but not so with the 
future trade school. That must be a shop with a school attachment. The system 
of education for the trades, to ever meet the needs of the manufacturer, must make 
skill first. 


Mr. Higgins then reviewed the various types of American schools 
giving industrial training, in order to determine their degree of success 
or failure from the manufacturer's point of view. He considered first 
manual training in the public schools, next technical schools, then 
engineering colleges, and, finally, trade schools. 

Regarding manual training in the public schools, we find that we really never 
had any good grounds for our expectations, — we find that all this outlay for shops 
and equipment is not intended to make workmen, or fit boys for the industries, or to 
develop useful skill, but simply to lay a "broad foundation for a better manhood," 
and possibly to help the boy who has not succeeded in the regular school " to find 
himself"; but these schools make no pretensions at helping the boy to do something 
with himself after he has found himself (poor boy ! ) ; and, furthermore, it is found 
that manual training in the public schools does not lead any greater number of boys 
to follow or seek a life of mechanical industry. 

In the technical schools of the type' of Pratt Institute, Mr. Higgins 
found more ground for hope. The manufacturers are able to fill many 
positions to their entire satisfaction, with graduates of these schools, yet 
their greatest need is not met by these schools. " The best sort of 
skilled workmen are not likely to come from these institutions until the 
methods of teaching skill are made more effective by making the me- 
chanical practice a larger proportion of the course, the course somewhat 
lengthened, and the shop practice more real and thorough." 

Concerning the engineering college, Mr. Higgins said that there is a 
difference in the methods and character of the shop practice, but even 
the schools doing the best shopwork could not be expected to furnish 
skilled workmen. " These schools are doing a higher work, but it is not 
a whit more important." 

Referring to trade schools, Mr. Higgins said in part: 

The schools represented by the New York Trade School and the Williamson 
Trade School are a forcible demonstration or indication of what is possible in educa- 
tion for the trades. At the New York Trade School the aim is intensely direct 
toward the attainment of working skill in the shortest possible course, and there is 
no attempt made for general education outside of lectures and the directions pertain- 
ing to the work in hand, and to a statement of those special principles directly 
underlying the skill which is being taught. The Williamson Free School of Me- 
chanical Trades is not open to this objection, for the time in a four years' course is 
generaousy divided (about half and half) between work and study. 

From a manufacturer's point of view, the organization of this school is nearly 
ideal, with one exception, and the results are, indeed, all that could be expected. 
The exception is, the unreal character of the shopwork. A thoughtful person visit- 
ing this school is most forcibly impressed with the enormous loss to the students and 
the financial loss to the institution when two hundred strong, energetic, interested 
young men are required to work metal and other good materials into excellent parts 


of useful machines simply as practice, and to see the results of their painstaking, 
skillful labor either put into glass show cases or thrown into the sciap heap. So 
long as the endowment meets the financial loss, the school goes on, but cannot be 
enlarged by funds that might otherwise be utilized. However, the financial loss is 
not so serious, but the loss to the student, as compared with working upon real 
machinery and so getting the experience of four years, as well as better skill, is certainly 
very great, and this is a loss that I am confident can be remedied. 


Mr. Higgins' only objection to the textile schools that have been 
established in the east, was on the ground that they give an education 
that is extremely specialized and narrow. He would have a boy get a 
general education while learning his trade, and would not expect him to 
begin to learn his trade until he was 'fitted for the high school. During 
the high-school period of four years, the boy would work in a real manu- 
facturing shop, half of his time, and spend the other half in a department 
of the high school especially planned to meet his needs. 

Though the manufacturer cares but little for anything in the workman 
beyond the skill to produce, we have come to understand that we cannot 
have the skill of the order and grade we require unless science and mental 
discipline is the basis of the skill and accompaniment of it; a modified high-school 
education is needed by the skilled mechanic. We have every reason to be satisfied 
with the work of the public schools, so long as they adhere to teaching such science 
and knowledge as is properly taught by books and otherwise in our schoolrooms, and, 
as there is evident willingness on the part of school boards to meet the needs of the 
industrial portions of communities, can we not expect them to make a half-time course, 
where one-half of the class can be in the schoolroom one-half of the hours in the 
week, while the other half of the class is at work in a shop ? As for the shop instruction, 
since we give the highest credit to teachers and educators for the great work they 
accomplish in the high calling of teaching and giving mental training in all that 
pertains to the schoolroom, we do the school teacher no dishonor when we propose 
to delegate the shopwork to specialists. Do not let us ask a school teacher to teach 
trades, or a mechanic to teach school; if we do, both will continue to fail. In order 
to provide for successful shop instruction, we must have a real shop; the object may 
be solely educational, but the shop must be a productive shop. A real shop, in the 
hands of shop men, of manufacturers, is not difficult; but in the hands of teachers it 
is a burden, and something to be feared. Real, productive shops for teaching trades, 
and the hearty co-operation of the public school, will give us thoroughly skilled men 
with minds somewhat trained and disclipined in a four years' course. 

The shop for instructing the half-time school pupils must be at present, owned 
and conducted- as a private enterprise, incorporated as an educational institution with 
the avowed purpose of teaching certain trades in a real, productive, commercial shop, 
where mechanics of known skill and ability, for imparting skill and understanding 
regarding shopwork, are employed to make salable products with the aid of the 
students; and with the sole purpose and aim of producing a class of mechanics of the 
highest skill pertaining to the mechanic arts. 



Professor Chamberlain followed Mr. Higgins with a valuable paper, 
presenting the trade-school problem as it appears to a student of educa- 
tional theory and practice. He began by pointing out that ideals are 
changing with reference to education, and especially in its relation to 
industry. It has been considered almost heretical to think of trade teach- 
ing, as existing side by side with so-called educational work. Education, 
for the most part has had no real, vital or instrinsic connection with life, 
and trade instruction, on the other hand, while being very practical, has 
been too narrow. What is needed is a broad, general training before 
specialization begins. 

The trade school is to my mind essential, and its numbers should increase, but just 
as we must, if you please, industrialize hand work in schools, so we must educationalize 
the trade school. What I mean to say is this : The demand for trade schools carries 
with it the demand for a certain content in curricula for such schools, brought about 
in part by our intricate and intensive industrial system, specialized as it now is. The 
work must be educationalized by injecting into it the thought element, to a greater 
extent than has formerly been the case. As in dealing with traditional subjects, 
thought without action brings partial results only, so in the trade school, action, 
mechanical work, dissociated from the thought side is uneducational, and in that sense, 
not the best trade teaching. In a trade-school graduate is demanded, more and more, 
one who can perform his particular service not only, but one who can plan and initiate 
as well; who can through wise leadership guide others to successfully perform 
alloted tasks. 

Mr. Chamberlain then considered briefly, American trade schools as 
they are today. He knew of less than ten such schools, and these con- 
tained less than 2000 boys. The vast army who fail to find in the common 
school that which is satisfying, or, at least, not in sufficient quantity or 
intensity to hold them, and no school of trade or mechanical practice open- 
ing to them, turn to the street. Even if they do find a way to pick up the 
elements of a trade by working in shops, they become only partially 
capable of following the explicit directions laid clown for them. 

The manual-training school graduate, on the other hand, while possessed of less 
skill than the boy of the trade, has back of his knowledge of practical things, some- 
thing of the theory underlying it all, and can more readily modify his work to meet 
present requirements. He can also lay out, suggest, create, initiate new lines of 
action, which is the crying need of the time. Neither of these two classes of youth, 
however, seems to fit exactly the conditions as they are found to exist, or to fulfill 
the demands made upon them. They are too often misfits. 

Mr. Chamberlain called attention to the work of the continuation 
schools of Germany, which have proven so valuable to mechanics. The 
work in these schools is of a somewhat general character, and for the most 

1 903] A SSO CIA no XS 3 1 

part, of a theoretical nature. The results obtained in these German 
schools point clearly to a strengthening of trade-school work on the 
academic side. 

At this point Mr. Chamberlain referred to what he called the " edu- 
cational trade school." " I believe it is practicable, and that the time is 
upon us when the educational trade school is to come and contribute 
toward the working out of our educational problem, and that this school, 
while teaching to those who so desire a trade, will at the same time 
place within the boys' grasp an appreciation for and ability to deal with 
the most important and essential elements with which life has to do." 


These two papers were discussed by Mr. Burlingame. He spoke 
more favorably of the manual-training schools than did Mr. Higgins, and 
emphasized the value of the evening trade and continuation schools. 
He approved of the half-time school, but considered it " no simple task 
to cariy- through such a plan to success." Mr. Burlingame said further: 

I feel we shall go away from this convention with a mistaken idea, if we go 
thinking the apprenticeship system is dead. 

Two impartial investigations, to learn the facts regarding this matter, have been 
made within a few years. One by the editor of the "American Machinist," 1 and one 
last year by Mr. E. H. Parks, for " Cassier's Magazine." 2 These included reports 
from several hundred machine-tool, engine and electrical machinery builders in this 
country, and show from seventy to eighty per cent, taking apprentices; about fifty per 
cent, of these being regularly indentured by a written agreement. In connection with 
the investigations, leading manufacturers expressed themselves as strongly in favor 
of and dependent upon such a system. 

The late Mr. Lucian Sharpe wrote at the time of the first investigation regarding 
the system at Brown and Sharpe's as follows: 

'• From the ranks of our apprentices have been selected from time to time, those 
that have taken the most important parts in the management of our shop. In fact, 
we really do not know how we could get along without the help of our bovs. Thev 
have learned our method of doing work, and are especially interested in the welfare 
of the business as well" * * * * '-While technical schools and manual-training 
schools are of great importance, it seems to us that nothing can take the place of a 
boy's being indentured to some first-class concern that will take an interest in him, 
and see that he faithfully fulfills a well-defined term of agreement to which he shall 
pledge himself. There is no system in vogue, and none that has been suggested that 
would take the place, in our works at least, of the apprenticeship system. " 

Mr. Parks says, in his investigation just referred to, speaking of the technical and 
trade schools, that " they have in a measure attempted to supply the lack of 
skilled workmen ; but the results, while excellent, in many ways do not bring out a class 

'American Machinist, Dec. 24, 1S96. 
-Machine Shop Number, Nov., 1902. 


of men with the training and experience needed, so that at the present time it seems 
as if there was but one way to fill this want, aud that, by returning to the old appren- 
ticeship system, as nearly as it can be done in a large factory. " 

This statement by Mr. Parks will, no doubt, appeal to Mr. Higgins as an additional 
argument for the adoption of his plan. 

At the works of the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., even, though the work is special- 
ized to a great extent, the boys have a varied experience in the four years of their 
apprenticeship, which includes lathe-work, drilling, milling, assembling, screw-cutting, 
scraping, planing and general work. A large number of these boys study evenings, 
devoting the time to drawing and mathematics. 

The drafting room apprentices at the same works have six months of real shop, 
work included in their time of service; that is, in cases where they have not already 
had shop practice. 

The conclusion we must draw from these facts is, that the apprenticeship system 
is alive today, and must be reckoned with in any discussion of the trade-school question. 

I have often been consulted by young men, or their parents, as to what training 
would best fit for a mechanical life. I have usually recommended one of three 
courses, which one, depending on the circumstances. 

There will be a fourth from which to choose when the school shop proposed by 
Mr. Higgins is in operation. 

Let us consider each plan and its advantages. A boy leaving grammar school 
wants to fit himself for a mechanical life. His circumstances are such that he must 
be able to earn a living as soon as possible. 

As a first plan, let us advise him to continue in school, taking an optional or 
manual-training course in the high school, fitting him as far as possible for his future 
chosen work; let him leave school at seventeen or eightenn, and serve a regular 
apprenticeship in a machine shop. This boy can support himself after he is eighteen, 
and can earn good pay after he is twenty-one. 

Second: Let us advise that he start in the shop at once after leaving the grammar 
school — this conditional, on his being well grown and somewhat mature for his age. 
On completion of his apprenticeship, he leaves work and goes back to school for two 
years, say to a school of the Pratt-Institute type. His earning power has been about 
the same as in the first case, but his school work has been of a greater value to him 
because he has known better what he needed to learn. It is the exception, however, 
for a boy who has once earned money at regular employment to return to school, so 
that discretion is required in recommending this plan. 

Third: The boy serves an apprenticeship and goes to an evening school. By 
this extra application in evening work, he reaches about the same earning power as 
the others, but in a shorter time, and has been earning something ever since leaving 
the grammar school. 

The fourth plan would be the prospective trade school and shop. This also, 
would give the higher earning power at an early age, as in the last plan. There 
would, however, have been only two years of shopwork, with correspondingly less 
skill, but the school instruction would have been more thorough than would be possible 
in evening work. 

The boy on leaving school has to win his way with his employer from the be gin - 
ing; while the boy already several years in the shop may have won the esteem and 
confidence of his employer, so as to be directly in the line of promotion. 

1 903] A SSO CIA TIOJVS 3 3 

The thought has been emphasized, in the previous papers, that modern conditions 
demand a higher degree of skill than was formerly required. This can be attained 
only by long training. In the drafting department a preliminary training is usually 
required before applicants are accepted as apprentices. We do not pretend to teach 
the rudiments of drafting; such teaching is legitimately school work, and thanks to 
our modern schools, is now well provided for. 

It may be that if the standard of skill in the shop is to be raised, it will be by 
requiring a special school training preparatory to the service of a shop appren- 

It would seem, at first thought, that a school course in drafting might be ar- 
ranged that would bean equivalent of real work. That this has not been done to 
any great extent, leads me to reason that in schools for trades where costly ma- 
chines and equipments are required and the materials used are expensive, it would 
be still more difficult to so conduct the work that students would attain much prac- 
tical skill. 

An objection to many graduates of our schools is, that they have a mistaken 
idea of their value. Many of them make good men after they have had experience, 
but they handicap themselves when, on leaving school, they are unwilling to start 
at the foundation, they thinking that in school they have already climbed high on the 
ladder of experience. The responsibility for this misconception may lie sometimes 
at the door of the teacher. It is perhaps natural that he should magnify the import- 
ance of his work. In fact, it may often seem to him necessary to do so in order to 
inspire the student to do his work well. 

Other graduates have no aptitude for the work. It is hard for the foreman to 
dash the hopes of a young man, who has struggled through several years of study to 
fit himself for a line of work, by telling him he is on the wrong track and is not 
adapted to the work chosen. It has to be done repeatedly. The efficient instructor 
would have done it years before ; indeed, one of the purposes of the trade and tech- 
nical schools should be to determine the direction of the student's abilities, and to 
guide him into such employment as will make his services of the greatest value to 
himself and the community. 

Educators have said that we are prejudiced against students. Why should we 
be ? What we want is efficient, skillful help. As a simple matter of business, we 
take it where we can find it, and, as Mr. Higgins says, it is hard to find. 

Most of the successful mechanical men of my acquaintance, that have come up 
from the shop, have obtained valuable help from some form of technical or trade 
education, in most cases from evening-school work, and still depend for reference on 
text books prepared for these schools. 

In conclusion, I would say that the function of the trade school should be to 
extend the work of the manual-training school by a training in the skillful use of 
tools and in the operating of machines ; teaching the underlying principles in such a 
manner as to fit the student for advancement as a skilled workman ; or to fill the 
position of foreman, or designer, if his natural abilities be in either of these direc- 
tions. Its office should be to give a preliminary and auxiliary training, short- 
ening the time and increasing the value of an apprenticeship ; also to help those 
that have missed early opportunities or that have the ambition and determination 
to excel. 


The second sub-topic on the Tuesday program was 


Discussion of this from the standpoint of a school superintendent was 
opened by Superintendent Thomas M. Balliet, of Springfield, Mass., whose 
address is printed in full on pages i to 5. Professor Arthur L. Williston, of 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y., discussed it from the standpoint of the 
director of a trade school. Mr. Williston pointed out that less than one- 
third of all the children who enter the schools in the United States ever 
graduate from the grammar school or its equivalent. He believed that 
the common schools have failed to accomplish what the nation has 
expected of them, and that popular education should be extended so as to 
give further aid to the vast number of individuals who do not get beyond 
the most elementary grades. More direct practical training would do 
this. Mr. Williston then said: 

To have a system of popular education in the United States effectively reach the 
great mass of wage earners, we need to organize at least four types of schools to sup- 
plement the existing schools. 

(1.) Day Trade Schools of a very practical character, where young men to whom 
another year, or perhaps two, of school is possible, can acquire technical skill and 
efficiency in any one of a very large variety of trades, giving them immediate help in 
securing profitable employment, and so grounding them in the principles underlying 
their work that they may hope soon to become intelligent and skilled mechanics. 

Such schools may not aim to graduate finished mechanics, but they can turn out 
advanced apprentices, trained in method, understanding the relation between cause 
and effect and the simple principles of science as applied to their work, full of ambi- 
tion, and skilled enough to make them sought by employers. In the short time 
available, what type of education could hope to do more ? 

(2.) Elementary Day Technical Schools — for those who can spend the necessary 
two or three years after completing the elementary schools — to teach the applica- 
tions of science and art to all manner of industries. 

The Lowell Textile School is an example of this type of school. It is well 
known that the truths and methods of modern science are immensely helpful to the 
leaders in the industrial world, but it has also been demonstrated that, if taught 
aright, they are no less helpful to the man in the ranks. These two types of schools 
will have a very large enrollment from those who otherwise could receive no further 

(3.) Evening Trade Schools for those to whom further education during the day 
is out of the question — and the number of these will always remain very large, — to 
give them the practical skill necessary to enable them to become skilled mechanics 
and intelligent workers in the large number of trades in which they are employed 
during the day. 

The course of instruction in these schools should embrace even a wider group 
of trades than the day trade schools. They should include not only the usual build- 


ing and manufacturing trades, but also such trades as that of the tailor, the uphols- 
terer, the lithographer, the engineer, the watch repairer, and many others besides. 

(4.) Evening Technical Schools for young men of greater intellectual capacity 
than those included under No. 3, who are employed as skilled workmen, draughts- 
men, clerks, and the like, and wish opportunity to study in those technical subjects 
which will help to broaden them in their various lines of work and give them instruc- 
tion in those branches of applied science or art which are directly related to their 
several callings. 

The practical advantage that would be derived from having trade and technical 
schools, with day and evening classes generally established throughout the land, 
would be almost beyond calculation, but their educational benefit in the develop- 
ment of intelligence, manhood and good citizenship would, in my judgment, be still 
greater. The demand for such schools is unquestionable, and at present in most 
places the only way in which this demand can be satisfied is through correspondence 
schools, which to-day enroll more students than all the colleges and professional 
normal schools in the United States combined. The large majority of these are 
mechanics and laborers, and to me it is a sad reflection of our national system of 
education that the earnest pleading for knowledge on the part of the wage earners of 
the land has become a profitable field for business enterprise. 

With reference to the attitude of organized labor toward trade schools, 
Mr. Williston said : 

Some persons fear the attitude of organized labor towards these schools, but my 
experience leads me to have confidence in its support. All unions of skilled labor 
desire to restrict admission to their ranks. And they are wise and right in wishing 
to make this restriction as rigid as they can. Every professional organization does 
the same. No lawyer can practice in this state until he has passed a difficult examin- 
ation at the bar, and no engineer can obtain any business until he has finished a severe 
course of training, or completed an apprenticeship of practical experience even more 
difficult. The members of the unions realize that their power and their safety comes 
from having the gap between skilled labor and the unskilled, just as wide as possible, 
and any agency that will help to widen this gap by making skilled labor more effective 
and efficient, they will welcome, for they understand that with them, just as much as 
with the doctors, or lawyers, or engineers, the only lasting and effective restriction is 
that of education and ability. They will oppose any school that seeks to turn out 
large numbers of half-trained men, who will tend to lower their standard of average 
ability and capacity — and rightly; but I think we can safely trust the good judgment 
of the American workman to see in the school that helps to lift and uphold the 
standard of his trade, the most potent aid and ally that has been offered him. 


The discussion was continued by Professor Charles A. Bennett, of 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Illinois, who believed in consider- 
ing the obstacles in the way of establishing trade schools, as well as the 
end to be attained. He said in part : 


There is unquestionably a demand for trade schools, but it is not clear who ought 
to provide them. Will the manufacturer? will the trade unions? Shall they be main- 
tained by private endowment ? or shall they become a part of the public school system? 

A few have been established already by private endowment. If the demand grows 
more urgent I believe the manufacturers are likely to combine for the maintenance 
of such schools. In my estimation the trade unions are making a great mistake in 
not coming forward and establishing trade schools. A few trade organizations already 
do something in this direction. I am expecting there will soon arise some far-sighted 
leader among the unionists who will point out the great advantage of union control 
of such schools, and will start a wide-spread, but carefully regulated movement for 
trade instruction of the immediately practical sort. I now refer to training in trade 
processes and methods, not to work in applied science and mathematics such as is 
given in continuation schools. But the most vital question is, Shall the public schools 
of our cities and towns give this trade instruction ? Some of the obstacles in the way 
of such a plan are the following: 

1. Trade instruction of the kind in question seems to be opposed to the traditions 
of our American free-school system. It has been the aim of our public schools to 
give the general education needed by every man ; and, with rare exceptions, no sub- 
ject has been allowed in the curriculum unless it furnished a contribution to the 
general education of every boy and girl. In other words, each subject must have in 
it a large proportion of educative elements, substantially as valuable to one person 
as to another. On the other hand, the highly specialized knowledge or the "tricks" 
of any trade have not been considered a reasonable part of public instruction 
— certainly below the university. 

2. It is contrary to the spirit of our public schools to allow a high degree of 
specialization at an early period in school life. In the words of another, "every boy's 
education must remain open at the top." He must ever be in line for something 
higher in education. I can conceive that it would be possible to retain this feature 
in a trade school, but it does not exist in some of the trade schools of the present 
day. Each pupil in an American public school should have the opportunity, so far 
as the school can control that opportunity, to receive the highest general education 
the public schools can give. No impassible barriers shall be thrown in his way. 

3. Trade schools, if established at public expense, may produce a surplus of 
workmen in one line of activity at the expense of another. This is what the trades 
unions fear. They fear that such schools would not be regulated to fit their ideas of 
adjusting supply to demand. In a given locality the demand for tradesmen fluctuates 
more or less. It would be difficult to keep the supply from the school in harmony 
with the demand. The public school, as now constituted, does not have to consider 
this question. 

4. There is danger of favoring one class in the commuuity at the expense of 
another. The manufacturer of machinery wants a school for the machine trades. 
If this be established, the builders will want a similar school for the building trades. 
Then the clay workers, and the textile industries, and the jewelers, and the barbers, 
and all the rest will want a school, or will have a " bone to pick " with their neighbors 
who have a school. The wire-pulling in school boards at the present time is not to 
be compared with what might take place if a half-dozen trades were clamoring for 
their rights and privileges. 


5. The cost of such schools would be an important factor, and would render it 
impossible to have a school for each of the many different trades in a city of moderate 

All these obstacles I see in the way of establishing municipal trade schools sup- 
ported by public funds. I do not say that it is impossible to overcome these obstacles, 
but I do say they are serious obstacles that must be considered. Many of these 
would be more easily removed, though not different in principle, if the trade schools 
were to be maintained at the expense of the state, and distributed through the state 
where most needed. 

I come from an institution w T here a pure trade school is flourishing. At Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute, we have a school of Horology that is well equipped and is doing 
good work. There w r e train watchmakers, jewelers, engravers and opticians, who are 
in demand all over the country. It is particularly significant, it seems to me, that 
this school pays nearly all its expenses from the income from tuitions. The 
demand for skill in the jewelry business is so great, that young men in large numbers 
find it profitable to come to us and pay a high rate of tuition for instruction. Many 
students cannot afford to follow the course through continiously, and so they come for 
a few months, which gives them a start in their trade ; later they return to take up 
a special branch, as engraving or optics, devoting their entire time to one or two 
subjects. Often they return a third time, each time going away with increased skill 
of the most practical kind, which means, in turn, increased salary. 

I recognize the need of trade instruction, but I believe that as a rule it should not 
be supplied by our public schools. In this connection I wish to express my belief in the 
ability of the manual training work to do all in this direction that should be expected 
of the public schools. Manual-training schools are doing much more to relieve the 
demand for trade schools than many persons are willing to admit. Most gratifying 
testimonies have come from leading manufacturers. And the manual-training schools 
are doing this without departing from the fundamental principles of our public-school 
system. Let such schools be multiplied, and let them get into closer and closer touch 
with local industries, and I believe they will meet the legitimate demand for indus- 
trial training so far as the public schools are concerned. 

Mr. Arthur A. Hamerschlag, consulting engineer of the New York 
Trade School, gave in outline the plan and results of the system of in- 
struction in the New York Trade School, founded in 1881 by Colonel 
Richard Auchmuty. This school was established to provide a sub- 
stitute for the declining apprenticeship system, and gives direct, prac- 
tical preparation for the leading building trades. " The record of its 
more than six thousand graduates, whose homes are in every state in 
the union, and are occupying positions of trust and responsibility, are 
sufficient evidence of the wide-spread demand and the urgent need for 
a concerted movement on the part of the educational fraternity in 
support of trade education." Mr. Hamerschlag deplored the un- 
friendly attitude toward the school often manifested by some of the 
labor unions. 


The third sub-topic of the morning was : 


The first address was given by Mr. William H. Sayward, secretary 
of the National Association of Builders, Boston, Mass. This address 
appears on pages 6 to 10. The discussion of Mr. Sayward's paper 
was opened by Mr. Frank K. Foster, editor of The Liberator, who was 
followed by Mr. Samuel F. Hubbard, superintendent of North End 
Union, Boston. 

Mr. Foster agreed with most of the statements made by Mr. Say- 
ward, but he did not believe it to be true that thoughtful trade union- 
ists are opposed to the trade school idea. 

Opposed, with good reason, to certain specific incidentals of trade-school man- 
agement and practice they unquestionably are, but the records of the trade-union 
movement of America may be thoroughly searched in vain for any declaration of 
opposition to the trade-school idea. 

The trade unionist is not so blind as to fail to realize that knowledge is power. 
His contention is not against the man who knows, or with the institution which 
teaches greater knowledge; it is solely against the individual who, through gross 
ignorance or selfish malice, lends himself to the breaking down of that defense, 
erected laboriously and painfully, by associated labor against the forces in the indus- 
trial world which make for the lower levels of living. 

The present attitude of trade unionists as to trade schools has an analogy in 
their attitude toward the introduction of labor-saving machinery, once so bitterly 
opposed by them. 

Now, no up-to-date labor organization attempts to prevent the extension of 
machine work. Its endeavor — as in the case of my own trade, the typographical — 
is directed towards securing for the machine workman a portion, at least, of the 
benefits accruing from the cheaper processes of production, and in this it is in a 
degree successful. 

The union recognizes the inevitable. It knows that the introduction of a ma- 
chine which performs the work of several hand craftsmen causes distress for a time, 
during the transition period, the period of industrial adjustment, to many individuals 
who have had their trade capital abolished by new methods. 

In like manner the trade union is willing to make the most of trade instruction 
when the instruction is honest and competent and not a mere recruiting-station for 
the forces which tend to neutralize the uplifting work of the union. 

Trade unionists, as a class, are in a waiting and receptive mood as to the devel- 
opment of trade schools. They codemn certain concrete results of numbers of these 
institutions, their irresponsibility and their evil effects upon the welfare of the crafts, 
but I am certain that they are more than willing to lend their co-operation in making 
trade schools useful and responsible adjuncts to industrial life. 

The discussion was closed by Mr. Hubbard, who spoke in part as 
follows : 


The situation, briefly stated, is this : We who are outside the trades believe 
that workmen require the training of trade schools to properly fit them for their 
vocations. The workmen, individually and collectively, don't agree with us. To 
me, the attitude of trades unions toward trade schools is one of hope rather than of 
discouragement. The mere fact that trade schools are opposed by those whom they 
are designed to benefit is no new experience. Most reforms, whether of theology, 
education, politics, or what not, have had their strenuous opponents, but when once 
their adoption becomes general, the marvel is that there was ever any opposition to 
them. Trade schools, as has been shown, have been bitterly opposed and are still 
condemned by trade organizations, but that opposition no longer presents an un- 
wavering front. We see workmen uniting w T ith their employers in establishing and 
maintaining (in Europe) schools for the instruction of young craftsmen. True, this 
attitude on the part of trade organizations is as yet sporadic and not epidemic. 
Nevertheless it is, I am confident, an earnest of what is to be universal. The 
problem before us is to remove whatever opposition still exists ; to bring workmen 
and employer into cordial and hearty co-operation in this question, and to make the 
trade school what it is designed to be — a help and a service in the lives of workmen 
and in the welfare of the community. 

I have no doubt that some of the early promoters of the trade-school idea, in 
their attitude on this question, invited the antagonism of labor organinations. I find 
myself in entire sympathy with their opposition to trade schools that are run " wude 
open," admitting whomsoever applies. Trade schools, like the Williamson of Penn- 
sylvania or the Lick School of San Francisco, which have a four years' course, day 
work, which give thorough instruction in the theory and practice of a trade, as well 
as instruction in academic branches, and whose graduates are received into the trades 
as junior workmen, to get the necessary practical insight, do not need to place the 
same limitation upon their applicants as do the evening trade schools. 

I am of the opinion that all evening trade schools should be limited to those 
already engaged in the trades. My reasons are : 

1. There should be no doubt in the mind of the boy that the trade chosen is 
the one he intends to follow through life. The best assurance of such decision is 
that he is already in the trade. 

2. The boy so committed has an eye single to the purpose in view, and he will 
work to achieve it. 

3. He has a chance during the day to observe in actual practice, and possibly 
to apply, the principles taught in the school; and being in the atmosphere of his 
trade all day, he more readily comprehends the work of the school. 

4. Being in the trade, he does not have to look for a job on leaving school, 
which otherwise he would be obliged to do, with most discouraging results. 

5. The union of shop and school eliminates from the mind of the pupil any 
extravagant notion of his value, preserves the traditions of the trade, and each is 
helpful to the other. 

The work of the school should be in keeping with the best practices of the 
trade. To insure this, each trade taught should have a board of supervisors, com- 
posed of the best men in the trade, both of employers and of workmen. The 
standard of the work should be so high that a diploma from the school would be to 
the holder a patent of nobility among his fellow workmen. Existing trade schools, 
however, find it exceedingly difficult to maintain anything like the standard which 


they deem necessary, because there is no standard set, except such as they may arbi- 
trarily make for themselves. This arbitrary standard has no hold upon the pupil 
who chooses to disregard it. It is of value only to the pupil who is ambitious to 
perfect himself in his chosen trade. 

The trade school cannot be held responsible for that numerous class who leave 
the school long before they have completed the required work and go out into the 
world of labor only half equipped to meet the requirements of their trades. This 
responsibility rests upon the trade organizations. Let them set a standard of admis- 
sion into their ranks, and, be it ever so high, the trade schools will be the first to 
welcome it. 

It is absurd to suppose that trade schools which have been or ever will be started 
by those outside of the ranks of labor will ever overstock the labor market. These 
experimental stations will continue to do their work of developing and refining the 
processes of trade training until such time as organizations of employers and of 
workmen shall realize their value, and reach out the glad hand to possess them and 
say : " This is our work ; henceforth we will do it." When that day shall come, the 
National Educational Association will not be discussing " The Attitude of Trades 
Unions Toward Trade Schools." 


The second session of the Manual Training Department was a joint 
one with the Department of Art Education. The first paper of this ses- 
sion was on " Craftsmanship in Education," and was presented by Prin- 
cipal Leslie W. Miller, of the School of Industrial Art of the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum, Philadelphia. The speaker said that the adoption of 
craftsmanship as a part of general education, while implying almost a 
reversal of the old ideals, is really the most important educational reform 
that has taken place in recent years. " The triumph of the main prin- 
ciple involved is already assured, and it only remains to discuss methods 
and applications." 

What is needed is not only the multiplication of manual-training schools, which 
are doing a splendid work, as far as they go, already, and the very general extension 
of provision for this kind of instruction to schools in lower grades, but the establish- 
ment of schools of professional grades in metal work, ceramics, woodwork, textiles, etc., 
which shall set high standards of production and attainment, which, indirectly by 
example and directly by the training of teachers, shall react on the lower and more 
general education, and promote a degree of industrial efficiency which is sadly lack- 
ing at the present day. 

Mr. Miller prefers the term "professional school" to that of "trade 
school," because it leaves open, in a sense that the other does not, " some 
rather important questions of immediate function and ultimate aim." 
Speaking from the art standpoint, Mr. Miller said : 

The foundations of taste are laid in respect for material and appreciation of 
function ; style is the dignity with which genuineness carries itself. It must be 





inherent in things as part of their very structure; it cannot be assumed like a mark, or 
stuck on like veneer. Abiding interest in things, then, is not to any great extent a mat- 
ter of superficial ornamentation, and one of the worst mistakes which we have made in 
our efforts to make art instruction universal has been the exaggerated importance 
which has sometimes been given to purely decorative design, considered as surface 
ornament alone ; and as something, therefore, which might be effectively studied 
without reference either to the object to which it was to be applied or to the methods 
or materials in which it was to be expressed. 

Mr. Laurin H. Martin, of the Massachusetts Normal Art School, 
who led the discussion, agreed with Mr. Miller, and added the statement 
that no designer can think intelligently unless he has had actual work 
with different materials as a part of his training. He would have more 
handicraft work done in art schools. 

Mr. Walter S. Goodnough, director of art and manual training in the 
public schools of Brooklyn, N. Y., pointed out that "the craftsman of 
old was an artist, and artists were frequently craftsmen." The medieval 
towns and the art museums of Europe reveal the fact that the art spirit 
pervaded the work of earlier times more than that of to-day. Mr. Good- 
nough believed that the trend of events indicates that art will again per- 
meate industry ; hence the daily life and surroundings of the people. 
He found reasons for encouragement in the recent development in our 
larger cities. The great need of the hour, so far as the schools are con- 
cerned, is that the art teachers and the manual training teachers bring 
their two lines of work together. 

Professor Alfred V. Churchill, of Teachers' College, New York City, 
emphasized this same point, when, in his paper on "Art Instruction as 
Related to Manual Work," he said: "The time has come when art and 
manual training must join hands." 

Art and manual training have approached a common problem from widely different 
standpoints. Co-operation is seen to be a necessity. Before we can co-operate intelli- 
gently the art teacher must, for his part, understand the typical ideas of structure and 
material ; he must know how things are made and put together. A few months' work 
in a shop will teach him more about function and material, than talking the rest of his 
life. At the same time I feel that there is crying need for competent exposition from 
the teachers' standpoint in this field. Its literature is very deficient. 

On the other hand, the teacher of manual training must understand that there 
are certain definite qualities, which invariably appear in anythiny which has formal 
beauty; that these qualities rest on a basis of principles which can be taught; and 
that, until they are taught, the work will continue to affect the trained observer like 
an ungrammatical sentence. Here again is a crying need for competent exposi- 
tion. Those who could write on this subject have a duty to perform to their fellow 




Mr. James F. Hopkins, director of drawing in the public schools of 
Boston, who opened the discussion of Professor Churchill's paper, em- 
phasized again the importance of thoughtful co-operation between teach- 
ers of art and teachers of manual training, and said that there must be 
a mastering of construction and materials on the part of the art teachers, 
and an understanding of principles of design on the part of the teachers 
of manual training. 


i. From Oriental sills. 
2 and 3. Original designs. 

4. From Oriental rug. 

5. Original design. 

6. From Oriental rug. 

Mr. Fred. H. Daniels, supervisor of drawing, Springfield, Mass., said 
that " at present a rare teacher is he who understands artistic construc- 
tive design, and can carry out the design in wood or metal to the satis- 
faction of art and manual training critics." Manual training teachers 
should seek help from the art teachers, and the art teachers should work 
in the manual training shops — after this has been done the pupils can 
be properly taught. Mr. Daniels pointed out that the real difficulty with 
the pupils is that " through inexperience they have no definite construc- 
tive-design concepts." The necessity for illustrative material in teach- 
ing constructive design is very great. This material should include : 
First: A stereopticon with lantern slides, showing (a ) constructive de- 
sign in nature and its relation to the art of man ; (b) good arts-and-crafts 
products of ancient and modern times. Second: Objects, good in de- 
sign. Third: Printed illustrations selected from magazines, cata- 
logues, etc. 




The last number of the program was an illustrated talk on " Indian 
Basketry," by Mr. George Wharton James, of Pasadena, California. It 
was instructive, bright and refreshing — a fitting close to a long session. 


The third session of the department was a joint session with the In- 
dian and Elementary Departments. The first paper was by Miss Eliza- 
beth E. Langley, of the School of Education, University of Chicago, an 
abstract of which is printed on pages n to 17. 

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•'The Boy and His Handicraft" was the subject of a paper by Mr. 
George H. Bryant, of Newport, R. I. This paper looked toward the en- 
couragement of handicraft work in the home. Outside of rural com- 
munities there is little to employ a boy's energies when he is not in 
school. Handicraft may supply this need. Teachers may help boys in 
their home work by consulting with them or having them report their 
home work, giving them encouragement and practical suggestions. The 
correlation of home and school work in handicraft may be developed 
very profitably to themselves and the household. They enjoy such 
work. It is play to them. 

The discussion of the two papers was opened by Mr. Frank M. 
Leavitt, supervisor of manual training in Boston. He thought that it 
was hardly possible to carry out the ideal scheme outlined by Miss 
Langley under present conditions in large cities. Sometimes the kind 
of work proposed by Mr. Bryant, too, " is denied the manual training 
teacher by force of circumstances." But even with the more or less re- 
stricted course of study, the large classes, the small rooms, and insuffi- 
cient time, Mr. Leavitt believed there is opportunity for a wider applica- 
tion of the manual training principles. This is found in the encourage- 
ment of the " individual initiative" of the pupils. 

I confidently believe that here is to be found the most promising opportunity for 
the immediate improvement of our work, without throwing absolutely to the winds 




that which we have again and again seen to produce excellent educational results. I 
mean the carefully planned course of study. Miss Langley has said, that the teacher 
who wishes to depart from the orderly progression of the sloyd should have himself 
the systematic knowledge and training which that course affords. It is equally true 
that where the work must be entrusted, as is often the case, to teachers of limited 
technical training and of little experience, the results will be excellent in direct pro- 
portion to the care and definiteness with which the course has been arranged. Only 
let it be clearly understood, that the course is to be considered merely as a point of 
departure, and that it may be easily set aside, when something more vital can be 



We are to make practical suggestions. What is more practical than that we, who 
are manual training teachers should go back to our work, no matter how restricted by 
rule and regulation, resolved that we shall modify our methods, even if following a 
prescribed course, so as to secure for our pupils a larger opportunity for self expression. 

It seems to me that Miss Langely's paper is best summed up in her own state- 
ment, " Responsibility educates." Let us see to it that we as teachers do not take all 
the responsibility and consequently receive all the education. 

The one thing most necessary — I had almost said the only thing necessary to 
enable a teacher to carry out Mr. Bryant's suggestions is, that he shall secure to the 
pupil a sense of personal achievement. The rest is mere detail. President Eliot said 
recently, " That is the best motive in all education — the joy in achievement." I have 
seen class work which made me wonder how the teacher could achieve such results. 
But let us not forget that it is the pupil who must achieve — not the teacher. 

With the thoughts contained in the two papers, and represented by the two words 
"responsibility" and "achievement" clearly in mind, we cannot fail to widen our 
horizon and to secure for our pupils a larger development. 




Superintendent Carroll G. Pearse, of Omaha, agreed with Mr. Leavitt 
both as to the value of a carefully planned course of study and the desir- 
ability of encouraging individual initiative. He believed that the child's 
initiative could be encouraged in connection with a carefully graded 
series of "exercises or undertakings." 

Miss Abby L. Marlatt, of Providence, pre- 
sented a forceful argument favoring hand work 
for high-school girls. Miss Marlatt said that 
" girls, more than boys, are handicapped through 
changed social conditions, which do not admit 
of the old home training in the industries. 
The present school training must remedy the 
wrong if the educated women of the future 
are to understand the coming industrial con- 


This was the title of a paper by James P. 
Haney, M. D., director of manual training, New 
York City. He believed the term " manual 
training" to be narrow and insufficient. 
Present conditions call for a term with broader 


In little more than a decade an entire change has taken place in the educational 
situation. Genetic psychology has placed the child before us in a clear and scientific 
light. Increased knowledge of the child's physiological and mental development 
has taught us that motor and mental sides must develop together; that constructive 
agencies are the natural forms through which he grows, and that through constructive 
training he gains consciousness of his environment and learns the significance of his 
social relationships. 

This change of ideas has markedly affected the curriculum and has placed motor 
training as an essential element in general education. The process of development 
in the grades is being reversed, and we may now observe the ideas of the kinder- 
garten extending upward through the school. Manual-training ideas have thus been 
much affected thereby. The necessity for greater unity among the related branches 
has become apparent. We are thinking ourselves away from manual training as any 
special practice toward the view that looks upon it as a "principle" or "mode" of 
education. The name, however, has been identified with formal practice. As a name 
it is narrow and insufficient. A better term would be one recognizing requirements 
aesthetic as well as constructive. Manual training must become training in the 
manual arts. As such, the different branches should not be taught that technical 
ends may be emphasized. The desire for beauty should enter and be seen as an 
instinct of the race. 


The discussion was opened by Miss Lillie Collamore Smith, of 
Brookline, Mass., who pointed out the value of having the altruistic spirit 
manifested in school, and how this can be fostered in work in domestic 
science. Continuing the discussion, Superintendent Calvin M. Kendall, 
of Indianapolis, spoke of the practical results. It improves conditions 
in the homes, and raises the standard of home life ; it adds interest to 
the other studies in the school ; it tends to keep boys in school longer. 

One of the most enjoyable features of the convention to teachers of 
manual training and kindred subjects, was a reception given at Sim- 
mons' Hall, on Tuesday afternoon, under the joint auspices of the Bos- 
ton Manual Training Club, The B. and S. Club, the Boston Sewing 
Teachers' Association, the Lake Placid Conference on Home Econ- 
omics, and the New England Association of Teachers of Metal Work- 
ing. Here one could meet the officers of the Eastern Manual Training 
Association and the Manual Training Department of the National Edu- 
cational Association, as well as the leaders of manual training work in 
New England. 

At the business meeting held on Tuesday the following department 
officers were elected for the coming year : President, Arthur H. Cham- 
berlain, Pasadena, Calif.; vice-president, Charles L. Kirchner, New 
Haven, Conn.; secretary, Frank M. Leavitt, Boston. The president of 
the entire association for the coming year is John W. Cook, president of 
the state normal school at De Kalb. 111. It is hoped by many that the 
next convention will be held in St. Louis during the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition. Charles A. Bennett. 


The tenth annual meeting of the Eastern Manual Training Association was held 
at the Prince School, Boston, Mass., July 6th and 7th, 1903. The meeting was opened 
by the president, Mr. Geo. H. Bryant, who expressed the hope that the action of the 
executive committee in bringing the Association once more to the east would meet 
with the approval of the members, as it had already received the generous co-operation 
of the school authorities of the city. 

The first speaker introduced was Mr. Maurice P. White, of the Board of Super- 
visors of Public Schools, who delivered an address of welcome to the Association. 
After a brief reference to some of the beneficial results of manual training and its 
growth in this country, Mr. White quoted some remark on the subject by Sir James 
Crichton-Browne, who attributes much of the awkwardness, bashfulness, irresolution, 
etc., which we so often meet with, to deficient or misdirected muscular training, and 
holds that proper training of the muscles is conductive to breadth of mind, as well as 
breadth of shoulders. The speaker welcomed the Association in behalf of the School 
Committee, who had made liberal appropriations for the support of manual training ; 
in behalf of the Superintendent, whose zeal in the cause of manual training had never 


wavered during the past twenty years ; in behalf of the teachers, who have heartily 
supported the work ; and in behalf of the boys, who have received so much benefit 
from it. 


A paper on this subject was presented by Mr. E. D. Hoyt, Principal of the First 
Ward Manual Training School, Allegheny, Pa. Manual training, he said, had become 
a factor in the education of the masses. We were once satisfied to know that it 
reacted upon the intellect, but are now coming to understand that we should look for 
a corresponding development of the feelings and the will. That there is a scale of 
values in manual training is evident when, by a change of occupation, we see careless, 
troublesome boys become thoughtful and earnest. " The conviction is growing upon 
me," said Mr. Hoyt, "that the essential purpose of elementary manual training is to 
offer to the pupil the incentive to will strongly. This end is gained by putting within 
his reach the means through which to accomplish that which he greatly desires. And 
the power to will strongly finds it fruitage mentally in attention and morally in self- 

It was the object of the speaker to give suggestions which would be practical 
under ordinary conditions. Through the first four years boys and girls should have 
the same kind of work, having two to four lessons, of thirty or forty minutes, per 
week. The following suggestions were given for the distribution of work. 

la. (First half of the first year). Sewing on perforated cards with colored yarns ; 
making book-marks, box covers, mottoes, etc. 

lb. Raffia braiding and sewing, producing such articles as mats, bags, hats and 
bonnets. Colors should be introduced, giving opportunity for the exercise of individ- 
ual taste. 

Ila. Basketary, introducing raffia and reed weaving. Colors used. 

lib. Hand-loom weaving and cord-tying. Rugs may be made varying in size, 
proportion and color; also hammocks, nets etc. 

Ilia. Paper cutting, folding and mounting. This helps the development of geo- 
metrical ideas. Instruction given by dictation. Children are trained in attentive 
listening, careful interpretation and neat manipulation. But little of such instruction 
should be given at first. 

Illb. Carboard construction. Mechanical drawing should be introduced here. 
Geometrical forms used in the construction of boxes, etc. 

IVa. Mechanical drawing, including geometrical figures and working drawings. 
These may be used for Venetian iron work and work in thin wood in the following 

IVb. Clay cutting and modeling. A few lessons might be given to cutting 
geometric solids and household utensils in low relief. Permanency should be given 
to modeled work by firing or casting in plaster. 

Mr. Hoyt would give sewing to girls in the fifth and sixth years and cooking in the 
seventh and in VIII a, and in VIII b, the making of garments with sewing machine. 
In the fifth year and thereafter, boys should work in a separate room. Their occupations 
might be distributed as follows: V a, wire bending, shaping lead, riveting tin, etc. 
V b, Venetian iron and sheet metal work. Time should also be found for making 
bridges of common type. Work in thin wood might be taken up in the sixth year 
joinery in the seventh and wood turning in the eighth. Scroll sawing with the velocipede 


type of saw has proved very successful and seems an ideal form of manual training. 
Mr. Hoyt said in conclusion, " Elementary manual training seeks to so utilize and direct 
the natural impulses and activities of the children that they may become con- 
scious of their own power as reflected by their handiwork. Normally this consciousness 
of power makes for well-being and character." 

In discussing this paper, Mr. H. W. Hetzel agreed with Mr. Hoyt that manual 
training should be regarded as a process or method in general education rather than 
a detached subject. The interest of the pupil should be maintained by providing 
work which appears to him worth the doing. This can better be done by using 
various materials and processes. Mr. Hetzel had observed that in the Venetian iron 
work in most of our courses the structural element seemed to have been forgotten in 
the attempt to make beautiful scrolls. Lead, copper and other sheet metals might 
be used with advantage by boys from twelve to fifteen years of age. A boy feels 
that the work he sees mechanics doing is something worthy of imitation. 

Mr. M. W. Murray expressed approval of the scheme outlined by Mr. Hoyt. 
He had observed the work of two classes, one working with cardboard and the 
other making baskets, etc., with reed and raffia. In the latter the work proved much 
more interesting to the children, and the articles produced were useful. In any line 
of work the things made by the pupil should be something really fit for use. Much 
of the work done in cardboard would fail to stand this test, and the same might be 
said of bent iron work. 

Professor A. H. Chamberlain also approved of a variety of materials and pro- 
cesses in manual training. He would place clay modeling lower in the grades — say 
in the second or third. As for drawing, it should be given in the first grade or in the 
kindergarten. The formal side of the work should be kept in the background. The 
important thing is to make the work of vital interest to the child. 

Mr. Hoyt would not have the impression prevail that he disapproved of drawing 
before the fourth grade. He had spoken only of mechanical drawing. 

Mr. C. B. Connelley defended the introduction of what is known as Venetian iron 
work in the lower grades. When properly taught, the children get training in me- 
chanical construction as well as in making beautiful forms. In Pittsburg and vicinity 
this work had been very successful. 

Mr. A. U. Craig thought the material used in manual training might be deter- 
mined to some extent by the home life of the pupils. Wood had been used too 
much to the exclusion of other materials. 

A forcible paper by Dr. James P. Haney, on "The Deadly friend of Manual 
Training," which was read here, will appear in full in the January number of this 

Professor C. R. Richards heartily concurred in the views set forth in this address. 
He feared that there were still those among manual training workers who believe 
that all has been done. We should rather feel that the process of development is 
still going on. The time has come when we should think of what we are doing 
rather than the way we are doing it. In planning our courses we should select 
things which are significant in this world of industry. Book-binding was suggested, 
for example, as better than so much paper and cardboard work. 

Mr. Paul Kreutzpointner drew attention to the triple function of manual train- 
ing — pedagogical, economical, and psychological. Pedagogically, it should harmon- 
ize the various phases of mind development with all the faculties of the hand, the 


eye and the brain. Economically, it should be in harmony with our developing in- 
dustries. Psychologically, it should strengthen the feeling of responsibility, promote 
co-operation, and help to counteract the tendency of our highly organized industries 
to keep the mind activities of the people in a rut. Mr. Kreutzpointner thought that 
teachers had not been sufficiently taught to stand on their own feet, and that, there- 
fore, too much supervision was required. He held that more attention should be 
given to construction and less to art, and also that the necessity still exists of fight- 
ing against the utilitarian tendency. 

The afternoon session was opened with an address by Dr. E. E. Brown, of the 
University of California, on 


In this paper the author deals with the relation of the culture idea to the voca- 
tional purpose in manual training. In the seventeenth century William Penn pro- 
posed to have the children of Pennsylvania learn trades. Similar ideas appeared 
from time to time after the colonies became independent. Between 1820 and 1840 
there flourished the manual labor schools, formed after the type established by Fell- 
enberg in Switzerland. Of these schools Dr. Brown said: "Much stress was laid on 
the very simple and definite purpose of enabling students to pay their own way by 
work in the shop or field. But back of this was a fine sentiment which sought to 
maintain some sacred marriage-relation between work-a-day employment and the 
higher life." The later movement of this class, known as " manual training," had its 
beginning in the decade in which our Centennial Exhibition was held, since which 
time its progress has been variable but continuous. The early advocates of manual 
training grounded their case solely upon the educational, or " cultural," value of the 
work, but now it appears that school men generally have come to a more adequate 
appreciation of the significance of vocational training. The American people have 
stood for liberal culture in the schools, and with the demand for such culture comes 
the further demand that the things a man does shall be better done. Are we not, 
then, almost ready to say that training for character and intelligence must eventuate 
in training for specific function or fail of its fruition ? There has been a sharp dis- 
tinction between the work of the secondary school or college and that of the profes- 
sional school, and no less between the training a boy receives in the grammar or high 
school and that which he must have in preparation for a trade. In either case a 
remedy seems possible through provision for transitional divisions of the complete 
course of study. Manual-training high schools partake in a measure of this transi- 
tional character. 

In summing up, Dr. Brown said : " We should consider any man's schooling 
incomplete until it includes an adequate amount of both general and vocational 
training; that these two should be distinct in character, and each as perfect as pos- 
sible of its kind; that the two should be intimately bound together, possibly by some 
connecting or overlapping course of a transitional character, in order that each may 
reinforce the other, and that the learner may not suffer from a disjointed course of 

Mr. Geo. F. Weston, Principal of the Providence Manual Training High School, 
followed with a paper on 



Mr. Weston believed it to be the duty of the state in its compulsory education 
laws, to provide such courses as will bring the greatest contentment and prosperity to 
the community. The happiest people are the industrious people. In our large cities 
there are few opportunities for boys and girls to learn the meaning of industry unless 
the school of mechanic arts opens the way. Activity is the natural condition of child 
life. This is first a natural expression of growth. Later it will find scope only in play 
or acts of lawlessness if not guided and directed by some such means as the manual- 
training school. No more wholesome athmosphere can prevade a community than 
the spirit of pride exhibited by a boy in showing the results of his labors to parents 
and friends. After summing up the characteristics of good citizenship the speaker 
continued, "Theoretically, then, the manual-training school comes nearer being the 
people's school than that of any other type, inasmuch as all the elements of good 
citizenship are included in it." 

A recent bulletin issued by the commissioner of education was quoted, showing 
that the graduates of manual-training schools are eagerly sought to fill places of 
responsibility and trust. Brown & Sharpe, who set the standard for the world on fine 
measuring tools, give credit of from six months to eighteen months to manual-train- 
ing graduates. " These favors", said Mr. Weston, " are granted to graduates of manual- 
training schools, not because they have learned certain phases of wood or iron work, 
but because they have learned to follow directions with care and good judgment, and 
to work persistently towards a given end." 

The fact that the percentage of pupils leaving without completing the course is 
greater in the manual-training high school than in the classical school, would appear 
to the disadvantage of the former, but it was explained that many enter the manual- 
training school who, had this opportunity not been open to them, would not have gone 
to school at all, and are making the most of their time while looking for an opportunity 
to go to work. 

Mr. Weston would not have the trades taught in the school. He says, " We are 
building much more broadly if we so equip our boys that they can find their way 
into any line of our versatile American life, or into higher institutions of learning, 
either technical or professional." With regard to the education of girls, he says, " I 
believe it (the manual-training course) to be the best possible for the majority of 
girls. * * * One of the most important factors in a community is the cultured, 
scientific housewife. * * * Whatever the community owes the school for its 
training of boys, it owes quite as much for the training offered to girls." As a social 
force, the manual-training school was commended as tending to close the breach 
between an aristocracy of education on the one hand and a plebeian order of labor 
on the other. 

Mr. H. E. Cushman, Treasurer of the Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co., who 
was scheduled to speak on 


submitted several letters from manufacturers of whom he had taken pains to make 
inquiries on the subject. A communication from Mr. C. F. Lawton, superintendent 
of the Gorham Mfg. Co. works, dealt with the question at some length. He alluded 
to the difficulty of manufacturers and professional men understanding each other. 
Experience indicated that a boy should begin his life work at the age of sixteen or 


seventeen. If before this he can absorb any artistic knowledge or manual training, 
it is so much to his advantage. " The difficulty with the manual-training schools is," 
says Mr. Lawton, i'that they take the most valuable period, possibly from the 
fifteenth to the nineteenth year, and teach the boy a conglomeration which amounts 
to little more than a smattering of knowledge." The Gorham Co. had not been 
successful with manual-training school boys as apprentices at the trade (silver- 
smith's), but had found them good in positions " demanding executive ability, tact 
and slight commercial knowledge." 

Mr. R. A. Jenckes, superintendent of the General Fire Extinguisher Co., re- 
ported the six young men in their employ, who were graduates of manual-training 
schools, as the most satisfactory of any draftsmen they had employed. He believed 
their training had made them worth from 25 to 50 per cent, more than they would 
otherwise have been. They had not, however, been sufficiently trained in spelling 
and writing to meet ordinary business requirements. 

Another letter reported that manual-training school graduates had given good 
satisfaction. The instruction they had received in manual work seemed to be supe- 
rior to that in the regular school branches. 

The B. F. Sturtevant Co., of Boston, reported having had considerable experi- 
ence with manual-training school graduates. They had found them, as a rule, far 
better equipped than the average boy, for taking up the work. 

Mr. H. R. Towne, of the Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., expressed a high opinion of 
the usefulness of the manual-training schools, which go far towards supplying the 
deficiency created by the decline of the apprenticeship system. Such schools should 
receive the hearty support of the people. 

The testimony of the Belcher & Loomis Hardware Co., of Providence, was 
favorable to manual-training graduates as salesmen. They had had no experience 
with the boys in mechanical work. It is their practice to give them preference over 
other applicants of equal natural ability. 

The experience of the Morse Twist Drill Co. had been so limited in the employ- 
ment of graduates of manual-training schools that Mr. Cushman had nothing to add 
to the testimony of the writers quoted, but he would make a few practical sugges- 
tions. First, the young man leaving school should be taught that he is about to 
begin his course in the school of experience, and he cannot begin at the top. Then 
he should endeavor to find out just what line of work he is best fitted for and bend 
his energies to that. He should also observe a becoming deference to older me- 
chanics. This, besides being the only right way from an ethical point of view, will 
generally be found the better policy. 

Mr. C. F. Warner being unable to be present for this discussion, the president 
called upon Professor Schwamb, of the Massachusetts Institue of Technology, to 
speak on the subject. 

Professor Schwamb referred to the charge of inadequate training which had been 
noticed in some of the letters read by Mr. Cushman. At the Institute of Technology 
it had been the practice to excuse graduates of manual-training high schools from all 
work in the mechanical laboratories without examination, but it was found at the close 
of the course that these students were not generally as well fitted as others, and the 
practice was discontinued. High-school students were not as well developed, and 
could not be expected to learn as much in a given time, as Institute students. The 

1903] . ASSOCIATIONS 53 

speaker thought that the work of the high school might be improved by teaching 
students the common-sense method of getting results with the least expenditure of 
of time and labor. 

Miss Alice S. Hunter, of the Public Industrial Art School, Philadelphia, desired 
to say something for the 85 per cent, of school children who never reached the high 
school. It is during the grammar-school age that they are most in need of manual 
training. Miss Hunter defined manual training as "skill and dexterity of the hands 
under the control of the mind." 

Mr. F. B. Ferson of the Chicago Manual Training School, agreed with Professor 
Schwamb as to the deficiencies of high-school students. He had found difficulty in 
getting teachers properly fitted for the work. He had also found students from public 
schools all over the country who appeared to have lacked proper instruction in the 
ordinary school subjects. The speaker deplored the fact that the requirements of the 
higher schools were becoming year by year more rigid. He hoped the Association 
would use its influence to reduce them. 

The president here announced that, in response to an invitation from the Society 
for the Promotion of Engineering Education, a committee of the Association had 
been appointed to take part in the consideration of 


Professor C. R. Richards, for the committee appointed to consider this question, 
submitted a report embracing the following recommendations : That the definition 
be constructed upon a three-year basis ; that the minimum in each of the three branches 
— wood working, forging and machine work — be approximately one hundred and 
twenty periods, assuming that a period represent not less than forty minutes ; that 
mechanical drawing be given credit as a part of this requirement and that its title be 
Shop Practice and Mechanical Drawing. The report continues : 

In accordance with these considerations we propose the following definition : 
In order to present shop practice and mechanical drawing as a college entrance 
subject, the applicant must have devoted at least five hundred and forty periods to 
such work in a secondary school. This amount should represent at least one hundred 
and twenty periods in each of the three following groups. The remaining time may 
be represented by further work in these groups or in mechanical drawing. 
First: Woodwork. 

(a) Joinery : — Systematic practice in use of the principal carpenter's tools. 
{b) Turning and Pattern Making : — Plain and ornamental turning in hard and 
soft woods. Making of typical patterns. 
Second: Forging. 

Elementary processes of working iron and steel ; tool dressing, hardening, tem- 
pering, annealing and case hardening. 
Third: Machine Work. 

(a) Benchwork : — Practice in clipping and filing cast and wrought iron and 

(/') Machine Tool Work: — Practice in typical operations on engine lathe, 
drill press, planer, shaper and milling machine. 

( C. R. Richards. 
(Signed) } W. E. Roberts. 
( C. H. Morse. 


Professor C. A. Bennett suggested that, though this report fully covered the 
matter which the committee was appointed to consider, it might not have been out 
of place to offer some suggestions with regard to advance credits. The report still 
leaves us in some uncertainty as to just what credit our students would get at the 
various institutions. The Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education 
should put clearly before the preparatory schools just what ought to be a proper 
entrance credit subject and what a proper advance-credit subject. 

Professor Richards, in reply, said that, while Mr. Bennett's point was certainly 
of interest to all engaged in manual-training high school work, it seemed to relate 
entirely to the attitude of the college or engineering school, and was beyond the 
scope of the inquiry for which the committee was appointed. 

On motion, the report was accepted. 

The president opened the second day's proceedings by introducing Mr. James P. 
Munroe, who would present a paper on 


Mr. Munroe said he desired to speak particularly of the bearing of manual training 
upon co-ordination, creativeness, culture and character. It is now generally con- 
ceded that co-ordination of the physical, mental and spiritual powers is at the basis 
of all real education, and this co-ordination cannot be complete so long as that side 
of the physical, mental and spiritual nature, which can be reached only by manual 
training, is left out of account. Every manual process which requires co-operation of 
mind and muscle is an important step forward in that general co-ordination which is 
the main end of all human education. 

Of higher utility is the power of manual training to bring out individuality, to 
awaken a desire for learning, and to stimulate the will. Literary creation was the 
only avenue afforded to pupils in the old courses of study to develop their origin- 
ality, taking the form of "compositions" in the school and Latin verse in the college. 
" In both," said Mr. Munroe, " the creative element was about as genuine as in the 
conversation of a garrulous parrot." In manual training, however, we simply employ 
the natural instinct of a child to use his hands. The most pressing question is how 
to save the child's individuality — how to keep him from becoming a mere cog in the 
social machine. The first step in this direction should be to secure smaller classes 
with good teachers, but a second step is to infuse into the programs much manual 
training of many kinds. 

Manual training bears an important relation to culture. He whose hands as 
well as his memory and judgment have been trained, and who has had some experience 
of what the industrial processes involve, is a broader, more liberal, more all-round 
man than the one who has simply delved into literature, philosophy and abstract 
ethics. "Culture, in the modern understanding of it, is the science and art of living 
wisely and nobly with and for one's fellow men." 

Manual training has also an important bearing upon character. The transforma- 
tion of material into shapes originated in the mind of the worker tends greatly to 
strengthen the will, and a well-formed character is one in which all thoughts, motives 
and actions are under the control of a well-balanced will. 

In order to fulfill its function in co-ordination, manual training should be continuous 
from the kindergarten to the university ; to rightly stimulate creativeness it should deal 
with things useful and beautiful ; to fulfill its culture function, it must be in touch with 

1903] associatioxs 55 

the pupil's life interests, immediate and remote; to have a good influence upon char- 
acter, it must stick to honesty and truth. 

As one who could survey the educational field from the outside, Mr. Munroe 
pointed out a lack of continuity and puipose in manual training in the years between 
the kindergarten and the secondary school. "In this," said he, "is neither cohesion 
of plan nor co-ordination of result." He also advised the representatives of manual 
training to stop apologizing and, if necessary, come out and fight. " Being practically 
masters of the educational field, why longer maintain the fiction of academic useless- 
ness, why longer declare that manual training intends to be only disciplinary, not 
economically serviceable ? " In conclusion, the speaker declared that manual training 
has a fight to wage against sham and hypocrisy of all kinds ; against " the absurd 
distinction between the arts called useful and the arts called fine," and urged the 
importance of employing only broadly educated and thoroughly trained teachers. 

The discussion of this paper was opened by Miss Hunter, who declared that Mr. 
Munroe had touched the vital point when he said that manual training should be con- 
tinuous from the kindergarten to the high school. Miss Hunter feared that a majority 
of those present were chiefly interested in high schools, but she wished again to plead 
for the eighty-five per cent, who never reached the high school. We should give these 
children something that will develop their natural powers of observation, of action, of 
reasoning, of judgment — that will make them skillful, industrious and observant of 
the beautiful things around them. 


Mr. L. D. Burlingame, of the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., in a paper on this sub- 
ject, described the draftsman as an interpreter. First, he is the interpreter to the shop ; 
secondly, the interpreter of the shop, and thirdly, the recorder for the shop. In the 
old days the inventor stood over the pattern maker and had the pattern worked out 
by the cut-and-fit method. Now the draftsman comes in as interpreter, giving the 
smallest details for the guidance of the machinist. It is difficult to make the inform- 
ation on a drawing so clear that no one can misunderstand it. The multiplication of 
lines and figures often tends to cause mistakes, rather than to prevent them. The 
value to the draftsmen of some practical work in the machine shop is recognized in 
the Brown & Sharpe Co's. works, where apprentice draftsmen spend a part of their 
time at the machines. The machinist is also benefited by a knowledge of drafting 
and mathematics. Mr. Burlingame concluded by saying that he would not advocate 
making the manual-training course in drawing a mere apprenticeship for the drafting 
room, but he believed it should lay the foundation upon which the best practical work 
might be built. 

This paper was discussed by Mr. W. C. Holden, of Hartford, who spoke of the 
difficulty, in planning a high-school course, of getting in all the different lines of study 
and giving sufficient time to each. All who were interested in high schools should 
work towards uniformity of practice in this matter. The advantage of giving such 
practical training to mechanical-drawing students as has been outlined in Mr. Burlin- 
games's paper was evident, but was utterly impossible in the time at commaud. 

Professor L. F. Rondinella, of the Central Manual Training School, Philadelphia, 
spoke of the importance of mechanical drawing as being the connecting link between 
mechanics and mathematics on the one side, and the constructive laboratories on the 
other. The schools afford a good opportunity of making the drawing department the 


interpreter for the shop and of the shop. The third relationship however, that of 
recorder of shop data, would find little application in the work of the school. Teachers 
should be familiar with shop processes and impress upon their students the ways in 
which several related branches of work may help or hinder each other. 

Miss Katherine B. Camp read a paper on " Some Social and Scientific Values of 
Domestic Science," which is reserved for publication in full. 

Miss Irene McDermott, to whom the discussion of Miss Camp's paper had been 
assigned, desired to yield the time to two members of the Lake Placid Conference 
— Mrs. Lincoln and Miss Marlatt. 

Mrs. Lincoln related several incidents in her experience, showing the practical 
benefits derived from instruction in cooking and other household occupations, and the 
widespread need of such instruction. Former students had expressed their apprecia- 
tion of the value of the lessons they had received. One had taken the position of 
matron in a hospital, and afterwards that of steward, in order to get practical experi- 
ence which would be of service in teaching. The spirit of this student was contrasted 
with that of some whose only ambition is to get the diploma. 

Miss Marlatt spoke of the application of science to domestic occupations. 
Teachers of chemistry and kindred sciences might make more of their opportunities 
of applying science to everyday affairs. The making of yeast, for example, is an inter- 
esting problem in chemistry, and it should be of interest to boys as well as girls. 
There is a broad field for the application of the social science and the ethical science, 
as well as those included under the terms physics, chemistry and biology. 

Referring to Miss Camps's discussion of the social value of domestic science in 
the school, Mr. H. S. Tibbits held that the work cannot be carried through the differ- 
ent grades under the same conditions. The class teacher may do all the work in the 
lower grades, but it becomes necessary somewhere to employ a special teacher. 
Below the seventh grade is the period of the play activities. Then it is suitable that 
boys and girls should participate in the same kind of work. After that, specialization 
seems quite legitimate. The arts most likely to be followed in actual life are the ones 
which should receive the first consideration. 


The secretary-treasurer reported that the proceedings of the Association at the 
meeting of 1902 had not been printed owing to an accident, resulting in the loss 
of much of the material, but that some of the more important papers would be incor- 
porated with the proceedings of the current year. 

In order to carry out the work of the Association satisfactorily more money was 
needed. The balance in the treasury would be materially augmented if members 
who were in arrears would meet their obligations. On motion the report was adopted. 

Pursuant to notice given at the previous session, Mr. W. F. Vroom moved an 
amendment to the constitution providing for the expiration of membership with each 
fiscal year, and renewal of the same by payment of the annual fee. The motion was 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected as follows: President, Louis Rouillion; 
Vice President, F. M. Leavitt; Secretary and Treasurer, C. B. Connelley. Members 
of Executive Committee : Dr. Jas. P. Haney, Miss Katherine B. Camp, Geo. H. 




Philadelphia was suggested by Mr. Hetzel as the next place of meeting. On 
motion the matter was referred to the executive committee. 

Before the final adjournment the meeting passed a unanimous vote of thanks to 
the local committee for their very efficient labors in providing for the convenience and 
entertainment of the Association. 

William F. Vroom. 



If photographs are to be used exclusively for the exhibits of the Eastern Manual 
Training Association, as they were at Boston for the first time, it is to be hoped that 
our schools will respond more generally to this method. Less than a dozen localities 
were represented. Of these, the work at Springfield and Cleveland showed successful 
attempts on the part of pupils, in modifying the design of given models. The work 
of Teachers College maintained the high standing it long since achieved. A prominent 
feature of this work was the study of mechanical appliances in the world of industry; 
e. g., a pile-driver, a steam shovel, a railroad bridge, car, and car derrick. The work 
in forging and sheet-metal, of the second and third high-school years as applied to 
lanterns, lamp shades, candlesticks, and irons, and like useful articles was especially 
interesting. The study of primitive life and occupations was illustrated in the work at 
Springfield, the Maryland State Normal School No. Two, and at Teachers College. 

The excellent carving and cabinet work of certain volunteer classes at Jamaica 
Plain, suggests that the public is awakening to the fact that its school equipment can 
be still more efficiently used in ministering to the needs of other than regular day pupils 




The manual training work of the Boston schools was thorougly displayed on three 
floors of the Rice School. Clay modeling, paper construction, sewing, gardening, and 
woodwork were represented. Some of the simple decorative borders in cross-stitch, 
shown in the sewing exhibit, deserve mention, especially when compared with ornaments 
bought at a store and sewed on. What could be more appropriate decoration for a 
little girl's white apron than a neat hem above which is a conventional border of blue 
or white stitches ? Though the fundamental course in woodwork is sloyd, the larger 
part of the exhibit consisted of projects. Both in wood and paper, inventional work was 
strongly encouraged, but in going through the exhibit one somestimes felt that a dis- 
cordant note had been struck in the decoration of the models. 


In the exhibition of art work from the Boston schools, found in the Public Latin 
School, were several commendable pieces of craft work. Among these were some 
textile ornaments and pillow fronts done by ninth-grade pupils, also some head work 
done by pupils of one of the lower grades. One of the high schools showed some 
unusually good pieces of colored pyrography work on wood and leather. 

In the Rogers Building, the Indian Department of the N. E. A. had an extensive 
exhibit representing two hundred and fifty schools. This ranged from crude primary 
work to the skilled industrial work of Carlyle and Haskell — from their own native 
occupations to the latest courses in manual training. The former class of work was 
by far the more interesting, and one is gratified by the assurance that it is supplanting 
the latter. 

A promising feature in the exhibit of the Massachusetts Normal Art School 
was the handiwork in leather and copper. Here were beautiful things actually wrought, 
not merely designed. 

There were several other small exhibits scattered about the city. Among these 
was the Mary Lowell Stone home economics exhibit, at Simmons Hall, under the 
auspices of the Lake Placid Conference. If all the exhibits could have been in one 
central building they would have become a notable feature of the great convention. 

Harris W. Moore. 






8;lSf Utl**:**' 



Manual training is now given entrance credit by the College of Liberal Arts of 
Northwestern University. It can be substituted for physics, chemistry, botany or 

At the commencement exercises of Washington University last June, the honor- 
ary degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon Mr. Gilbert B. Morrison, principal 
of the Kansas City Manual Training High School. Washington University has 
given only eleven honorary degrees during its existence ; a great honor is thus con- 
ferred on Mr. Morrison. 

Mr. W. H. Murray has collected a large amount of data from schools in differ- 
ent parts of the country concerning the amount of time devoted to manual training 
in grades below the high school. As might be expected, there is great variation. He 
finds that the average number of hours per week in all grades in the cities and towns 
from which he received reports is 6.91. 

August Ahrens has returned to his former position in the State Normal School 
at Millersville, Pa. Since he left Millersville he has spent a year at Harvard Univer- 
sity. _, 

Mr. Clarence A. Chandler, for several years superintendent of the Wash- 
burn shops, connected with the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, has resigned his 
position to engage in the manufacture of cotton-oil machinery. His place has been 
filled by the appointment of Mr. W. W. Bird, a graduate of the Institute in the class 
of '87. During Mr. Chandler's administration a large and admirably equipped mod- 
ern foundry has been added to the shop facilities of the Institute. 


Charles B. Howe, formerly supervisor of manual training at Hartford, Conn., 
who has been studying at Cornell University the past year, has accepted a position with 
the Deane Steam Pump Co. of Holyoke, Mass. By this action a valuable man has 
left the manual-training fraternity. 

Joseph Pulitzer has given $2,000,000 to establish a school of journalism at 
Columbia University. A new building to cost #500,000 will be erected, and an ad- 
visory board will be nominated by the donor. — The School Journal. 

A new manual-training department has been established in connection with the 
public schools of Racine, Wisconsin, and there is much interest in the work and a 
bright outlook. Twenty-five hundred dollars was appropriated for the purpose, and 
a building formerly used for a ward school has been fitted up for the work of both 
boys and girls. Pupils from the seventh and eight grades of the nine ward schools 
take the work ; also classes from the high school in which a manual-training course 
has been established. Mr. E. H. Wilmarth, lately of the Stout Manual Training 
School of Menomonie, Wis., has charge of the woodworking and drawing, and Miss 
Florence D. Barber, of the Iowa State Agricultural College, has charge of the domes- 
tic science work. 

Frank H. Ball has been appointed director of industrial training in Porto 
Rico. This ought to be a very fortunate appointment, for Mr. Ball has had a broad 
experience and part of it has been in the South. He began his shop experience in 
the foundry of the Crompton Loom Works, Worcester, Mass., where he began to 
serve his time as an apprentice. Before the full time agreed upon for his appretice- 
ship had expired, he was made foreman of the foundry. This did not satisfy him, 
and he studied at the Ringe Manual Training School in Cambridge. Since then he 
has taught at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute ; Teachers College, New York ; 
the Laboratory School in Chicago; Togualoo University, Mississippi, and the Throop 
Polytechnic Institute in California. He has been a close observer of social condi- 
ditions wherever he has lived, and has been particularly successful in dealing with 
street boys in New York City and in Chicago, where he was for a time a resident 
worker at Hull House. Mr. Ball's many friends will wish him a very large measure 
of success in his new work. 

The first manual-training school was opened in Altoona, Pa., September 22d, 
with 355 pupils — 135 from the high school and 220 from the grammar schools. In 
the high school, where manual training, is an elective study, 135 out of 142 elected 
the manual training; it is compulsory in the grammar grades. E. E. Karlson, a 
graduate of the Naas school in Sweden, is in charge of the new school. Mr. Karlson 
came to Altoona from New Britain. Three kindergartens, also, have just been 
opened in Altoona. 

The Earl of Rosebery has written to the chairman of the London County 
Council submitting a plan for the establishment of a great institution for advanced 
scientific and technical education, at a cost of #1,500,000. Lord Rosebery asks for 
an annual grant of $150,000 for the maintenance of the institution, and the whole 
scheme depends on securing this. In his letter submitting the proposition Lord 
Rosebery says : '•' It is short of scandalous that our ambitious youths should be 
obliged to resort to the United States and Germany for technical training." He 




points out that English industries are suffering in consequence of the neglect of this 
important branch of education in the United Kingdom. — School Journal. 

Under the stimulating leadership of Superintendent Frank R. Page, at Water- 
town, Mass., Mr. Harris W. Moore is developing a new line of manual-training work 
for the elementary schools. During the past year in the upper grades it has taken 
the form of cages for school pets — chickens, toads, and squirrels being in the list. 

The accompanying cut repre- 
sents one of six squirrel cages 
made by seventh-grade boys 
for primary-grade rooms. It is 
about 4% feet long. The lower 
part is lined with sheet-metal. 

The manual training senti- 
ment seems to be taking a vig- 
orous hold on the people of 
Canada, at least in certain of 
the provinces. Provisional 
regulations recently sent out 
by the educational department 
of Ontario require that plans 
for every building or room to 
be used for manual training be 
submitted to the minister of 
education for approval ; and also announces very liberal grants to schools maintain- 
ing a manual-training department. 

In the province of Nova Scotia the rapid spread of manual training has been 
most gratifying. The first manual-training school in the Dominion of Canada was 
established in this province and now liberal grants are offered by the department of 
education to schools desirous of establishing manual-training departments in the pub- 
lic schools. A gratifying feature of the government's aid has been that the needs of 
girls have been recognized and equal encouragement has been offered for the estab- 
lishment of " mechanic science " for boys and " domestic science " for girls. 

Mr. T. B. Kidner. recently appointed supervisor of manual training, has been hold- 
ing a summer school in cardboard-cutting, modeling, woodwork, etc., at Truro, N. S. 

In the province of New Brunswick, Mr. E. E. MacCready has recently been ap- 
pointed supervisor of manual training, and three courses of manual training have been 
provided at the normal school for the improvement of teachers of rural schools. The 
traveling fare of teachers and a yearly grant of $50 is paid, provided they afterwards 
actually teach manual training along with the usual subjects of the school course. Ar- 
rangements are made also to provide substitute teachers for the schools while the 
regular teachers are taking the work. 




Henry Turner Bailey has resigned his position as state supervisor of drawing in 
Massachusetts in order to give his full time to lecturing and writing for the School Arts 
Book, of which he now becomes sole editor. He is succeeded in the state work by 
his associate, Walter Sargent. 

The annual meeting of the Sloyd Training School Alumni Association was held 
at the Farm School, Thompson's Island, in Boston Harbor, July 8th. Addresses were 
given by Charles H. Bradley, Professor John M. Tyler and Gustaf Larsson. The 
number of teachers graduated at the Sloyd Training School up to the present time is 224. 
They are at work in 23 different states; 139 are in Massachusetts, and 30 in Boston. 


Important changes have taken place at the Hackley Manual Training School 
during the past month. Principal E. P. Chapin resigned to accept the principalship 
of the Louisville manual-training high school and he is succeeded by Mr. Edward A. 
Bending, of Dayton, Ohio. Mr. J. H. Hibler, an instructor in woodworking, has gone 
to Honolulu to teach in a government sphool. His place is taken by Mr. J. S. 
Stewart, of Dayton. The other new teachers this year are Miss Anna Cooley from 
Teachers College, domestic art ; Miss Grace Byington from Pratt Institute, domestic 
science; and Mr. M. H. Mount of Chicago, mechanical drawing. 

Mr. Bending is a graduate in mechanical engineering from the University of 
Florida. In 1896 he organized the manual-training work in Akron, Ohio, where he 
remained two years. During the past five years he has been developing the work in 
Dayton, Ohio. 


Last year's class in the Department of Manual Training at Teachers College 
was an exceptional, one both in numbers and in quality. They are now scattered to 
all sections of the country and are sure to exert a wide influence. Among the mem- 
bers who have returned to their former positions are Arthur H. Chamberlain, of 
Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, Calif.; Frederick B. Abbott, of the State 
Normal School, Emporia, Kansas; James J. Doster, of the State Normal School, 
Troy, Alabama; Annie Linton, of the State Normal School, Athens, Ga.; Mary F. 
Wickliffe, of the Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C, and O'Nora Ennis, who also 
returns to a position in the South. Charles H. Bailey takes charge of the manual- 
training work at the James Millikin University. Decatur, 111., and William T. Bawden 
takes a similar position at the Illinois State Normal University at Normal. Charles 
O. Atwater goes to seventh-and-eighth-grade work in Indianapolis; Leonard W- 
Wahlstrom to the Ethical Culture School, New York City; Walter A. Cleveland to 
Montclair, N. J., as director of manual training; George L. Lewis to the high school, 
Syracuse, N. Y.; Ray L. Southworth to seventh-and-eighth-grade work in Minne- 
apolis, and Browne K. Thacker to a private school in Lake Forest, 111. Ernest B. 
Kent, who has just received the degree of Ph. IX, Egbert E. MacNary, Florence M. 
Marshall and Amanda Stoltzfus are retained at Teachers College for work in the 
Speyer and Horace Mann schools. Julia M. Raines will teach in the State Normal 
School at Greensboro, S. C, and Marie H. Perley takes a similar position at Mt. 
Pleasant, Michigan. Frances H. Consalus goes to Long Branch, N. J.; Cora D. 
Fairchild to Seattle, Wash., and Litchfield Colton to the John B. Stetson University, 
De Land, Florida. 

1903] BREVITIES 63 

The summer classes in manual training at Teachers College were large this year. 
Miss Weiser had sixty-eight in lower-grade work. They represented twenty-two dif- 
ferent stales, including Canada and Porto Rico. Fifteen of the class were men. Mr. 
Noyes had twenty-eight in seventh-and-eighth-grade woodworking and Mr. Weick 
had seventeen in woodworking for high schools. 

The officers of the School Craft Club for the coming year are: President, 
Charles R. Richards; vice-president, James Hall; secretary, George F. Stahl ; treas- 
urer, Walter M. Mohr; committee on program, Robert G. Weyh, Jr., William H. 
Noyes and Arthur L. Williston; committee on admissions, Edward D. Griswold. 
Frank H. Collins and Victor I. Shinn; committee on entertainment, Arthur W. 
Richards and Albert W. Garritt. 

It has been practically decided that the exhibit of the New York board of educa- 
tion at the St. Louis exposition next year will be mainly devoted to the summer school 
work. Ten thousand dollars has been placed at the disposal of the board for the 
preparation of the exhibit, and by devoting the larger part of this sum to one branch 
of the work of the board it will be possible to present a more complete exhibit. 


Ira S. Griffith has become the teacher of manual training in the elementary 
schools of Oak Park. Mr. Griffith has been a public school teacher and a foreman 
carpenter, and at the time of his appointment at Oak Park, he was professor of math- 
ematics at Eureka College, Eureka, 111. His special preparation for work in manual 
training was received last year at Bradley Polytechnic Institute. 

Mr. F. D. Crawshaw has resigned his position of Instructor in the Manual Arts 
Department of Bradley Polytechnic Institute to accept the position of principal of the 
Franklin school in Peoria, where he is now developing manual work in the various 
grades. The position vacated by Mr. Crawshaw has been filled by Mr. C. C. Jett, 
who has had practical experience as draftsman with the Cincinnati Machine Tool Co. 
and the Newport News Ship Building Co., and has had teaching experience in the 
University of Minnesota. 


The Chicago school board voted recently to increase the salaries of teachers of 
manual training and household arts. Many of the teachers will receive an increase of 
two hundred dollars a year. 

The position left vacant by the death, last year, of Mr. Gabriel Bamberger, the 
superintendent of the Jewish Training School at 199 West 12th Place, Chicago, has 
been filled by the appointment of Principal Orris J. Milliken, of the Harrison school in 
the same city. The school is maintained by the Jewish Training School Society of 
Chicago, mainly for the benefit of the Russian refugee's settlement, in the heart of 
which it is located. The new superintendent has had extensive experience in teach- 
ing and executive work, and is especially fitted for this new position on account of his 
sympathy for and his desire to help the children of the poorer classes. 

The new Richard T. Crane manual training school of Chicago, which opened this 
fall, for the first time, is one of the finest public schools in the city. It is located at Oakley 
Boulevard and Van Buren street, and cost in the neighborhood of 5*450,000 all told. 
In addition to the regular day work, evening classes in manual training and domestic 


science are to be carried on in this building for the benefit of both regular students 
who may wish to do evening work in these subjects, and teacheres who may wish to 
prepare themselves for teaching these branches in the elementary schools of the city. 


The second session of the Summer School of the South was held at the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee at Knoxville, June 23 to July 31. 

While the greater part of the enrollment was made up of teachers from the 
southern states, there were represented thirty-nine states, India, and the Dominion of 
Canada in the total enrollment of two thousand one hundred and fifty. 

The school this session offered instruction in thirty-three general subjects requir- 
ing a faculty of ninety-five members. Seven courses were offered in manual training, 
as follows : paper folding and cardboard, knife-work, basketry, clay modeling, weav. 
ing, sewing, and woodwork. The classes were well attended and the enrollment in 
each was necessarily limited to prevent overcrowding. 

The courses in drawing should be mentioned in this report since the drawing and 
manual-training courses were closely connected and were regarded as a manual-arts 
course by the respective instructors, who were organized as one faculty for the pro- 
motion of the manual arts in the school. Courses were given for the primary, the 
intermediate and the grammar grades, also one in art applications and one in methods 
in drawing and art. 

Students taking either drawing or manual training were encouraged to take the 
other as a companion subject. By such organization they were able to take their 
work in constructive design to the art classes for suggestive decorative design, and to 
study constructive design from the decorative and artistic side, as well as from the 
structural standpoint. 

The total enrollment of the manual arts classes was eight hundred and sixty-nine. 
Besides this, there were eighty-two students enrolled in the courses in domestic science 
and in mechanical drawing. 

The department of manual training in the Nashville public schools began the 
third year of its work with the opening of schools, September 21. 

Miss Amy F. Phillips, formerly of Springfield, Mass., and later of the Boston 
schools, is now instructor of domestic science in Nashville. Besides domestic science 
and woodwork taught at centers, the various other forms of manual training are given 
throughout the eight grammar grades, with mechanical drawing and sewing in the high 

The organization of the department is as follows: F. M. M. Richardson, director ; 
Elizabeth Chase Randall, supervisor of domestic science and domestic art ; F. W. 
Milbourn, instructor of woodwork; Amy F. Phillips, instructor of domestic science; 
A. C. Webb, supervisor of primary manual training and drawing. 

Knoxville city schools will continue the work in manual training along the lines 
of last year. In addition to the present equipment, one new center for woodwork will 
will be opened in the North Knoxville school and will be in charge of the principal, 
Mr. J. R. Lowry. The center in the Girl's High School building will also be in charge 
of the principal of the building, Mr. W. T. White. 

1903] BREVITIES 65 

Hamilton County introduced manual training in its suburban schools this year. 
These schools are reached by the various surburban lines running into Chattanooga, 
and it is expected to have manual training in all schools in the county as opportunity 
may be afforded. The work is under the supervision of Miss Emily G. Hughes, 
formerly of the Jackson City schools. 

State Supt. Mynders provided instructors in manual training for five of the 
nine state institutes held this past summer. 

Superintendent Mynders introduced manual training in the Jackson City schools 
when superintendent there, and is now opening the way for its introduction into all 
the public schools in the state. 

F. M. M. Richardson, 

Dr. Maxwell, superintendent of schools in New York City, has made the 
following statement concerning the position of the board of superintendents with 
reference to the course of study: "We believe that the content subjects of the 
course — those that represent our intellectual inheritance in literature, in science, in 
art, in institutions, and in morals — are by far the most important, and they rightfully 
demand the largest share of the time and attention of both pupil and teacher. We 
believe, also, that when, as in reading, arithmetic, writing, and manual training, there 
are mechanical exercises which require to become automatic to enable the pupil to 
handle the content subjects with efficiency, these mechanical exercises should receive 
sufficient time and attention for their mastery. 

"And, lastly, we believe that mechanical matters should not receive anymore 
time and attention than are necessary for the purpose in view, but should, after they 
have ceased to be a stumbling block in the way of the pupil, be taught incidentally in 
connection with the content subjects. 

" Cooking will be given to girls and shopwork to boys during the last two years 
of the course. In the lowest grades it is our intention that boys as well as girls shall 
take work in cord, raffia, and the coarse sewing with which the work in household art 


Modem Machine Shop Tools. By W. H. Vandervoort. Norman W. Henley & 
Co., New York, 1903; S vo.; pp. 555; 673 illustrations; price $4.00. — Modern 
Machine Shop Tools contains in one volume what the student or apprentice most 
needs to know about the standard hand and machine tools used in the machine 
shops of today. The matter is logically and conveniently arranged, and well bal- 
anced. The method is first to describe the form or mechanism of a tool, with hints 
concerning its manufacture, and then to explain its operation, with examples of the 
work for which it is suited. 

The strictly hand tools — chisels, files and scrapers — are first considered, then 
standards of measure and the various measuring and testing tools, making the first 
seven chapters of the book. Chapters on drills, reamers, taps and dies, drill and tap 
holders and mandrels follow — all good except the first, which is greatly impaired by 
poor cuts. 

About half of the book is devoted to machine tools. Besides the descriptions 
of the machines themselves and their fixtures, the chapters devoted to their use, par- 
ticularly in the case of lathes, planers and milling machines, constitute a systematic 
treatise on each kind of work. Minute details are avoided and a clear, comprehensive 
outline of all the usual operations is given. The forms of forged lathe tools shown 
are not of the best, and the discussion of the action of these tools, and also of drills, 
is rather meagre. The author may have had less experience in the use of hand tools 
and the direct operation of machines than with problems in mechanism, in describing 
which he is at his best. Nevertheless, his breadth of view is a great advantage, and 
in such chapters as those on filing and lathe work there is plenty of evidence that he 
has handled the subject at close range, and the expert workman will find little to 
criticise, and nothing fundamental overlooked. It is usless to try to put into words 
many things which we wish to teach, but which can be learned only through the 
student's handling the tools himself. 

Six chapters on topics related to the construction and use of machinery round 
out the book, one on gearing being a very complete outline of common forms, with- 
out discussion. 

The style throughout is clear and very concise. The author knows when to 
stop. His direct and fearless short cuts reach a climax when he explains that " a 
left-hand screw is one that enters its nut by turning it counter clockwise." 

The most serious fault in the work lies in the cuts, the miscellaneous character 
of which unjustly makes the book appear like a mosaic from trade catalogs. At 
one extreme is a fine cut of a milling machine dividing head, at the other an impos- 
sible belt laced with a patent lacing, or a reamer with left-hand teeth. The drawing 
is often poor, and reference letters are sometimes badly placed or omitted, well-nigh 
ruining otherwise excellent descriptions. 


1903] REVIEWS 67 

Nothing as comprehensive and concise has been published in one volume on 
machine shop tools and processes. It will be convenient and suggestive to in- 
structors, and offers to the student or apprentice a good general view of the subject 
for a moderate amount of study. 

Mechanic Arts High School, Allan K. Sweet. 

Boston, Mass. 

How to Make School Gardens. A manual for teachers and pupils. By H. D- 
Hemenway, director of Hartford School of Horticulture. Doubleday, Page & Co., N. 
Y. 5X7% m - PP- I0 7> price $1.00 — A timely book well made; illustrated with ten 
half-tones and sixteen wood cuts. The claim of the author that the individual school 
garden is one of the best cures for stealing, furnishes a strong argument in favor of 
such work. 

The seven chapters treat of such topics as: laying out a garden ; tilling and fer- 
tilizing; greenhouse work; root-grafting and budding. The longest chapter gives 
specific directions for a course of twenty-one lessons in gardening. These abrubtly 
end with preparation for " the exhibit." Seemingly other lessons on harvesting should 
be added. In connection with the later lessons, the grains and eight common weeds 
are briefly described. The same objection applies to this as to all books giving 
courses in school work ; they are applicable nowhere completely, and the information 
given is not readily available. Though the author states that the greenhouse work, 
including root-grafting and budding, can be done in an ordinary school, this portion of 
the book will be less used by teachers than by home gardeners. The bibliography 
given in the last chapter clearly show r s, by its catalogue chiefly of reports and articles, 
the need of such books as this, giving inspiration and help to those waiting to take up 
this belated phase of school work. 

Supervisor of School Gardens and Harris W. Moore. 

Teacher of Manual Training. 
Watertown, Mass. 

Tools and Machines. By Charles Barnard. Silver, Burdett and Company, New 
York, N.Y., 1903. 5X7% m - PP- io 4, illustrated. Manual training teachers will find 
in this book an analysis of the action of the most important tools and machines. 
The construction and use of the various tools are discussed. Certain typical tools 
that are clearly traceable to prehistoric forms are taken up and the different steps in 
the process of bringing the same to the present state of perfection are set forth with 
much interesting historical matter. For example, the evolution of the pile-driver, the 
steam hammer, the drop-forging hammer, and the pneumatic hammer from the hand 
hammer, and the modern tool from the ancient stone hammer or club. 

The first chapter is introductory and definitive; then are taken up in order the 
following: The Hammer; The Power Hammers; The Knife; The Chisel; Edge Tools; 
The Great Cutters; The Saw and the Saw Mill; The Borers; The Abraders and 
Grinders ; Woman's Ancient Tools ; and a closing chapter. A complete index renders 
the contents of the book accessible. 

This is not a technical treatise, but interesting and profitable reading for 
grammar and high-school pupils. 

Illinois State Normal University, William T. Bawden. 

Normal. Illinois. 


Chip Carving. Being the third book of the " How to do it " series. By T. Ver- 
nette Morse. Art Craft Supply Co., Chicago, 1903. 6% X 4% i n -i PP- 2 3> price in 
paper cover, 25 cts. — A very disappointing piece of book-making. 

Sloyd. By Gustaf Larsson. Sloyd Training School, Boston. 914 X 6 in.; pp. 
75 -f- i° pages of illustrations and 2 tables; paper covers. — This book consists of 
nine papers that have been written by Mr. Larsson during the past twelve years. 
Most, if not all, of these have been published before, but collected and printed to- 
gether they become more valuable. " It is hoped," says Mr. Larsson in his preface, 
" that this little publication may help to convince teachers and other promoters of 
education that the principles of sloyd are broad and universal, and that as an effect- 
ive educational agent it deserves a place in our schools." As America's leading 
representative of the sloyd system of manual training, Mr. Larsson has taken an im- 
portant part in the development that has been going on during the past fifteen years 
and more, and his book, which is distributed free of charge, is a valuable addition to 
the library of any teacher of manual training. 

The following have been received : 

The Stout Training Schools. An illustrated circular of information concerning 
the schools for the preparation of teachers of manual training and domestic science. 
The Board of Education, Menomonie, Wisconsin. 

Girls' Industrial College Bulletin. August, 1903. Course of study of the Girl's 
Industrial College of Texas, located at Denton. This number contains an address on 
" Industrial Education for Texas" delivered before the State Farmers' Congress by 
President, Cree T. Work. 

Manual Arts Bulletin. A department prospectus for 1903-1904. State Normal 
School, Athens, Ga. 5%X5 m -> PP- 2 7- 

Industrial-Social Education. By William A. Baldwin, principal of the State 
Normal School, Hyannis, Mass., assisted by Mrs. Baldwin and members of the 
Normal School faculty. Introduction by Henry Turner Bailey. Milton Bradley 
Company, Springfield, Mass., 1903. 9V2X7% in., pp. 147; price $1.50. Reserved 
for later notice. 

How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. By George Wharton James, author of 
Indian Basketry. Henry Malkan, New York, 1903. 9%X^% in., pp. 136; price $1, 
uet. Reserved for later notice. 

Report of United States Commissioner of Education, igoi, Vol. I. By Dr. William 
T. Harris, commissioner. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 6X9 m -> 
pp. 1 216. — Like its predecessors, this report contains a vast amount of information 
on timely topics in education. Among others we notice " American Industrial Edu- 
cation : What Shall It Be?" being a preliminary report of a committee of the 
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education made July, 1900; "Higher 
Commercial Education; " " The Carnegie Institution ; " and several chapters dealing 
with education in the South. 

The Making of our Middle Schools. By Elmer Ellsw r orth Brown. Published by 
Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1903. sVtXS 1 /^ in.; pp. 547-f-xiii; price, $3. 
Reserved for later notice. 


Manual Training Magazine 

JANUARY, igo 4 


James Parton Haney, M. D., 
Director Manual Training, New York City. 

The modern philosophy of education has happily abandoned that 
unconscious attitude which acted so to hamper the thought which pre- 
ceded it — that attitude which viewed the child as one acting and think- 
ing as an adult acts and thinks — as being, in fact, an adult on a smaller 
scale — a little man. In the light of his physical and mental develop- 
ment the child is now seen to be a constantly changing organism, by no 
means adult-like in its phases. His education is realized as a process 
as much designed to socialize as to individualize him — a process de- 
vised to give to him knowledge of what he is, what his relations are with 
the world about him, and what he must do to prosper them. The pro- 
cess of leading him from the natural world of primitive instincts to the 
larger world of intelligent emotions, is seen to make for that which we 
call culture. During such a journey the child develops aesthetic needs 
which must be satisfied, and as he physically unfolds while on the road, 
makes it plain that his perception, memory and judgment grow keen and 
accurate in the measure in which they are required to accomplish ends 
which bring motor activities into play. 

The study of race development makes us also aware of a growing in- 
dustrial consciousness. In the case of the child, any knowledge of the 
constructive life of his people must first arise through personal exper- 
ience ; must come, in other words, through motor channels. Construct- 
ive activity serves to familiarize him with the work-a-day world, and thus 
leads him to an understanding of the social life about him. It offers its 
aid in socializing the educational process by making the school more a 

•Address before the Eastern Manual Training Association, Boston, July 6, 1903. 



reflection of the world without. Constructive practices may thus be 
said to determine the way in which the child makes the things he studies 
a part of himself. They serve as agents of apperception. 

Dependent upon these changes in the philosophy of education, we 
are witnessing, at the present time, radical changes in the elementary 
school. It is coming to be viewed more as a vital process, than as a 
disciplinary or drilling agent ; more as an instrument which at different 
periods of the child's growth recognizes in him distinct forms of insight 
and acquisition, and offers to him opportunity for the development of 
such powers. Its curriculum is being broadened, and more directly 
related to the phases of the child's growth ; a more intimate connection 
is being established between the different branches, and throughout the 
country there is a wide-spread introduction of various forms of motor 

Advocates of manual training hail this development of their subject 
as a result of the wisdom and force with which they have conducted its 
propaganda. They are prone in consequence to indulge in not a little 
self-congratulation, revealing a satisfaction in the fact that a principle 
has been fully grasped. As indicated, however, this rise of the arts has 
been by virtue of a force quite independent of the specialist. The edu- 
cational forces which have lent their weight to the economic demand 
that the child who is to live a constructive life be trained to see con- 
structively, have come from psychologist and physiologist, rather than 
from the teacher in the class-room. In conjunction the former have 
placed the child before us, not as a fixed organism, but as one passing 
through constant yet regular developmental changes — an organism with 
fundamental motor instincts which require outlet through various chan- 
nels, in analysis, construction and decoration. Their teaching has 
brought to us the realization that upon the child's interest depends his 
attention and retention, and that mental growth cannot take place in its 
fulness unless there is offered abundant opportunity for the play of those 
instincts of which interest is born. 

The arts thus considered appear not as the result of a propaganda, 
but as a response to a definite demand for motor training — a demand not 
made on behalf of any specific or particular practice, but as a require- 
ment that at each stage of the child's development, opportunity for motor 
expression, appropriate to that stage, be opened to him. This demand is 
for such expression as a necessary mode of training, as " a principle" 
rather than "a practice," as a means to an end, not as an end in itself. 
Not distinguishing, in the larger sense, between the different forms of 


expression, it interprets the terms " motor training" to mean training in 
the arts generally, contemplating them as co-ordinate agents closely re- 
lated to the other branches of the curriculum. 

In the light of these statements the unsatisfactory nature of much of 
what has been common practice stands revealed. Separate courses and 
separate exercises have in the past widely prevailed. Each of the dif- 
ferent arts has been regarded as an end in itself, and each has been 
sharply segregated from its congeners and from the other branches of 
the curriculum. It has, moreover, come to be realized that in his prac- 
tice the child must play more of a part, the teacher less. Only through 
opportunity for individual planning and execution can the purpose and 
relation of various steps become visible to the pupil ; only thus can the 
highest benefit be realized from such " mode " of training, and things 
and processes be seen " whole." 

The older practice of the arts followed a formal creed, one which was 
content to see the different subjects apart and unrelated, one which em- 
ployed but few materials and countenanced exercises far afield from the 
child's world. The present demands a revision of such creed, a recast- 
ing of its articles of faith in the light of a broader philosophy, a unifica- 
tion of the " special branches," and a restatement of their scope and value 
as educational agents. 

First, in such a creed might well appear an affirmation that the arts 
are one — are subjects of a common end and aim — are forms of prac- 
tice, not drills, — are to be regarded as a " principle " of education, not 
as a division of a specialized curriculum. Second, and as a consequence, 
that they should appear in every grade from the very lowest, and should 
in their development preserve to as great an extent as possible the free 
constructive spirit of the kindergarten ; that they should be made to 
serve as center and start point in the elementary curriculum, leading the 
child through immediate interests to immediate surroundings ; that they 
should illustrate in manner suitable to his comprehension how the world 
has grown and is constructively growing, or, to use the terms already 
employed, that they should serve to " socialize " him. 

Further, such creed would place insistence upon the fact that for the 
little child the arts must be conceived as means of expression, while to 
his older brothers and sisters is left their practice in the domestic field or 
in the crafts. It would demand that they develop naturally in response 
to class-room needs, that they avoid automatism, require personal initia- 
tive of the teacher, and in their practice place the emphasis on the pro- 
ducer, not on the product — on the child, not on the process. 


In addition, such creed would require that the things made have the 
attributes of permanency and value, that there be always a real motive 
behind and a real product before, and that the problems presented be 
chosen with a view to carrying the arts into the child's world outside the 
school, that the school and home may see an additional bond established 
between them. 

The general tenets of some such expression of belief should be form- 
ulated and well conned by every teacher of the arts. Each instructor should, 
in addition, be conversant with the history of the special branches and the 
nature and action of the forces which have affected their teaching. It 
must, however, be confessed that at present there are many who take 
small interest in such history, while the canons of their belief show the 
rigidity of long established practice. In the courses of study put forth 
by these teachers, the arts stand special and apart, their separate exer- 
cises illustrating that tendency which has been aptly termed " a persistent 
gravity toward form instead of content " — a tendency noted by Butler in 
the case of certain kindergartners who would make " static, definite and 
permanent the forms of procedure, kinds of material and methods of de- 
velopment of their subject matter." 

The specific causes of such arrest of development are to be found in 
a neglect of those principles which have already been outlined. It will 
be noted that in such outline, decided emphasis was placed upon three 
points : First, that the arts be regarded as joint agents aiming at the 
development of the child through natural instincts ; second, that they be 
not confined to any special process or the refinements of procedure, but 
give through many processes familiarity with environment and the con- 
structive point of view ; and third, that in response to real needs they 
develop naturally, conserving the spirit of independence and initiative on 
the part of both teacher and child. 

As the trangressor of the first of these injunctions we find the 
Specialist, the teacher who cannot see the different arts as a joint force 
in the curriculum. Brought up in some single form of work, whether 
drawing, construction or design, such a one sees his specialty loom large 
in the field, stands so close to it that its shadow envelopes him and per- 
mits him to view the child only through the haze of its requirements. 
His outline of work reflects little or nothing of the general curriculum. 
He labors as a stranger in a strange land. Among other instructors he 
comes and goes as one with them but not of them; the class teacher 
to him is only as one to be taught, never as one from whom to learn. To 
him, success means keeping his subject intact, and to this end he labors, 


striving by still more highly specializing it, to magnify its importance. 
His plea is for that, as essential, whose very form shows how foreign it 
is to the system in which it stands. 

Second, we find the Technician, he who cannot perceive the arts as a 
"mode" in education, but who regards them as disciplinary agents, as 
developers only of skill of hand. With him ends take precedence over 
means; the work quite obscures the worker. Whether in the case of 
professional sempstress or of journeyman-teacher, the difficutly is the same. 
It is illustrated by one, who, professing any branch, makes it plain in his 
teaching that he cares more about the perfection of the exercise produced, 
than about the legitimacy of the means he employs to secure such per- 
fection. The Technician is a drill master. Automatism has no terrors 
for him. Each exercise, joint or seam is made over until the higher 
centers cease to interfere and passively govern the familiar movement of the 
tool, while the mind wanders off in interesting rumination or dully waits 
the next command. With the Technician the manual crowds out the 
mental, skill is sought at the expense of development, industrial canons 
replace educational precepts. 

As the exemplar of order, we see the Ritualist — he to whom is foreign the 
idea of free development and personal initiative. Standing as the chief 
exponent of the " logical sequence of exercises " his course is drawn along 
some single narrow line, and in place of giving knowledge and inspiration 
to the class teacher, offers only a series of exercises rigid as a Median 
Law. The Ritualist poses as the advocate of system, but his eye scaled 
by the letter, fails to see the pulsation of the spirit which rises in the 
mutual interest of teacher and pupil, which comes of knowledge of simple 
processes, and seeks expression in individual .effort and independent 
experiment. Local needs appeal but in academic fashion, to such a one. 
To him, it is of more moment that his work in practice preserve its beauty 
of arrangement, than that it be quickened by some actual necessity for 
the forms made. For him no happy possibilities of blossom and fruit are 
seen to rest deeply rooted in local interests. 

Others might be named who traverse articles of the creed — but those 
indicated are among the chief offenders. As types they are not confined 
to either sex or any special practice, their initials may be found upon 
many courses of study, their trail be seen in many class-rooms. Multiform, 
they may not infrequently be observed apart from one another, while now, 
and again, they appear as a composite — a trinity of evils. 

Standing as representatives of the arts, and as illustrations of what 
their practice means, such advocates do serious damage. They awaken 


criticism both within and without the school, they hinder the development 
of their subjects, and leave them open to attacks on-the part of those who 
see in them only the expensive experiments of doctrinaires and faddists. 
They antagonize class teachers who would be their best aids, and keep 
isolated in the curriculum, elements which should go to form its very 
bone and sinew. In short, such teachers charged with the development 
of the arts, stand as mischief-making friends, advocates who hinder, rather 
than help. 

The general cause of difficulty is not far to seek. It exists in the 
inadequacy of the training of those upon whose shoulders rests so serious 
a burden. Theirs is a many-sided subject developing faster than they 
can themselves. Many have prepared to practice but one art, and fail 
in such a one-sided preparation to realize their limited point of view or 
the force of the demand that they make all three arts their own. 

The correction of the difficulty is possible only through broader study 
on the part of those who elect to become teachers of drawing, construc- 
tion and design. The plea for these subjects is that they are part of the 
general education of the child. Their teachers must then make them- 
selves familiar with the general principles of education. The spirit of 
the arts clothes itself in very varying forms. Not only must the different 
subjects themselves be known, but the significance of their aesthetic 
principles and their educational bearing on the other subjects of the 
curriculum must be studied, that they may be led along many different 
lines of development connected with the language work, nature study 
and number work of the early years of the child's life. Racial history 
and the development of the child must also be known to the teacher of 
the arts, but above all he must be familiar with the philosophy of the 

The one thing which to-day the arts most need on the part of their 
teachers is a higher scholarship, a deeper sense of professional dignity, 
a comprehension of the fact that they are teachers of fundamental and 
essential principles, not of special subjects. To such teachers there 
must come a conviction of the importance of thorough preparation, a 
willingness to lead the professional life, a constant seeking for problems, 
the solution of which will help in the development of the general educa- 
tional scheme. 

As students, such teachers must be continually bringing the resources 
of their study to a focus in the classroom. There are many questions 
touching their work, the answers to which would be of educational sig- 
nificance. What, for instance, is the child's sense of beauty ? What his 


general attitude toward constructive work ? Upon what do his interests 
in the arts depend ? What are the relations of his play and constructive 
instincts ? How does his color sense develop ? Has the culture-epoch 
theory a rational basis in construction ? Outside of technical skill, what 
tests can be applied to prove the development of the pupil through the 
arts ? These problems and a score of others suggest themselves at once. 
They cannot be answered off-hand, nor are personal opinions valuable. 
To be properly responded to, careful comparative study and experiment 
would have to be made. Such study, in the case of individual problems, 
each teacher of the arts should be prepared to make, that he may lend 
his aid in their solution. Each should set himself some definite work 
during the year, and submit it when complete for the benefit of his 
fellows. This is the professional spirit, and for such spirit the teacher, 
as an individual and as a member of an association like this one, should 
stand. Every society of teachers of the arts should aim to raise the 
professional standards of the matter contributed to their meetings. 
Their yearly reports should be epitomes of the best work of their mem- 
bers. Instead of the general and often desultory discussions engaged 
in at such meetings, it wound seem as if the work of each society would 
be distinctly furthered by specific debate upon the outlines of work to be 
undertaken by its members in the year to come — a debate reviewing the 
limitations of the moment and outlining the means which should be un- 
dertaken to extend them. 

With such an attitude — such determination to stand not as special- 
ists with separate studies to develop, but as students of elementary edu- 
cation — the teachers of the arts might claim admission to educational 
councils. Impressed with the spirit of individualism, which is the spirit 
of the new creed, they would, as the representatives of a great faculty, 
be well prepared to justify the claim that the arts are "the great con- 
servators of individualism " in the elementary curriculum. 


Arthur Henry Chamberlain, 
Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, California. 

Let me say at the beginning that it is not presumed that the matter 
presented in this paper is new. A somewhat intensive study of the 
problem as outlined, however, has given the writer a point of view 
which, if a biassed one, renders him at the same time unwilling to make 
off-hand suggestions. In a previous article 1 I tried to point out some of 
the present-day tendencies in the teaching of handwork, and shall enter- 
tain the hope that the present paper may be interpreted in the light of 
the article referred to. 

The study of relative values, as applied to the various materials and 
processes in manual training and to school subjects generally, is occupy- 
ing such an increasingly prominent place that I find it demands deep 
thought and broad experience and experiment to discuss adequately our 
present problem. However, it is just such discussion that shall help, at 
least, to determine the relative values. 

In laying out the limitations and opportunities of paper and card- 
board construction, we must have an eye, not merely to the prac- 
tices in common vogue, but to such additional processes as would be 
considered rational. To this end permit me to preface this paper with a 
statement regarding the genesis and development, as school helps, of the 
materials we are discussing. 

One of two somewhat distinct movements from which our present- 
day practices have sprung had a beginning nearly as far back as the 
inception of the handwork idea. In Germany, in France, in Sweden, 
paper materials have been quite widely used in the schools. Taking the 
German schools as illustrating best these practices, we find that the 
objects made classified themselves mainly under two heads : first, such 
objects as assisted in the illustrating of mechanical or physical principles, 
and second, the making of type-forms, developed in some instances in 
such manner as to lend themselves to the mathematical work and serve 
also as drawing lessons, involving not only the constructional drawing, 

• Manual Training Magazine, Vol. IV, p. 61. 



but representation or freehand sketching, when the object was com- 
pleted. Finally, out of this latter type-form work developed the idea of 
producing useful articles from the cardboard stuffs. The type objects 
referred to took the form of cubes, cylinders, cones, pyramids, many- 
sided polygons, and the like. 

The other movement, namely, the kindergarten practice, has been 
such that work with paper has, since the time of Froebel, had a place in 
the lower school. Here such processes have been carried on as folding 
to produce flat, geometrical forms ; cutting of paper, both geometrical 
and free ; pasting of forms folded or cut so as to produce units or run- 
ning designs, as borders and the like. The weaving of paper into mats, 
the making of chains and various other fancy, decorative forms, have, 
from time to time, occupied no small place with the work of many 

It is, then, these two thoughts which have given impetus and direc- 
tion to the paper and cardboard study in our schools to-day. From the 
type-form idea and following down through the so-called German courses, 
we have only recently attempted work of a modified and simplified char- 
acter, dealing chiefly with lighter-weight materials than formerly. As 
opportunity in no small degree grows out of necessity, we shall find at 
the bottom the same argument for giving cardboard work as we shall for 
placing wood, metal or other material before the child. Specifically 
speaking, the opportunities vary from grade to grade, or with the devel- 
opment of the pupils. 

Paper in whatever form is easily obtainable and comparatively cheap. 
The matter of expense plays no inconsiderable part in our consideration 
of the subject, especially in some instances where the work is being in- 
troduced. This fact is clearly appreciated when the public - school 
problem with its thousands of pupils is under discussion. From the 
standpoint of expense, then, paper offers some attractions. If properly 
handled, there is very little waste. Again, these materials are compara- 
tively easy of manipulation. With young pupils such weights may be 
used as shall not tax their physical abilities, while with older students 
materials offering much greater resistance may be utilized. 

Paper and cardboard are capable of being put to a variety of uses in the 
making of useful articles. Some of these have already been indicated. 
In addition, pupils may produce such objects as letter holders, picture 
frames, boxes and trays, napkin rings, book covers, whole or partial 
pieces of apparatus, or, in the lower grades, dwellings, furniture, uten- 
sils, implements, and the like can be made. This last statement serves 


to point out the possibilities of illustrative material in the primary school. 
The character of paper and cardboard renders it clean and tidy, and 
hence applicable for use in any school-room or at home. It may be 
manipulated, also, in a greater or less degree, by any grade teacher. 

In the use of these materials the graphic art has a strong place. Ob- 
jects must be thought out, planned and designed, thus bringing in the 
constructional side of drawing as well as the free sketching. Through 
the study of form, of ornamental design, a feeling for the artistic is de- 
veloped. Color blending and harmony, so essential and attractive to 
young pupils, is largely assisted through the selection and arrangement 
of materials. 

On the other hand, the limitations of the work are many and varied. 
The materials in question, owing to their very nature, are circumscribed 
in their usefulness as school helps. While a large variety of objects can 
be made, these are produced at the expense of reducing the number of 
exercises or manipulations to a minimum. No great number or differ- 
entiation of processes of construction is possible. This must of neces- 
sity be so, owing to the small number and the character of the tools 
used. Not that it is essential in handwork to have a vast array of tools 
for use, but limiting work in this direction has its drawbacks. It must, 
of course, be realized that the fact of the tools being few and simple, 
offers some advantages in favor of the work. 

Certain processes, demanding considerable difficulty in manipulation, 
afford at the same time little opportunity for the development of physical 
power. Indeed, we find many processes attempted by young pupils 
much more diffiult of accomplishment than those being performed at the 
woodworking bench in the higher grades. So, too, there is danger of 
attempting processes where the actual manipulation or construction can 
be easily accomplished, but the designing of the thing — the drawing 
and development of the object — cannot be fully understood. In many 
instances too much repetition is likely to result from the work, this of 
course owing to the nature of the material and to the character of the 
tools used. 

In the first and second grades the folding, cutting and pasting, should 
as formerly have a place, but to my mind a less important one. Weaving 
with paper need not be so prominent since we have other and more natural 
media for this purpose. Folding of flat forms to produce geometrical 
shapes — square, oblong, etc., cutting and pasting of designs ; color blend- 
ing ; free cutting from manila or detail papers of forms such as animals, 
natural objects, fruits, dolls' clothing, pictures, and the like ; cutting, fold- 


ing, and pasting to produce play or doll houses, furniture — chairs, tables, 
cradle ; making of envelopes, valentines, boxes, tags for labels ; these are 
some of the ways in which the work may be carried on in the lower grades. 

In the second year more difficult pieces of furniture can be con- 
structed from heavy manila paper, and light-weight cover stock may in 
some cases be used to produce special individual projects for use at home 
or at school — wall pockets, cornucopias, clock-faces, note-paper covers, 
calendar backs, seed envelopes, weather charts and flags, wind gauges, etc. 
It will be seen then that the field offered in these grades is mainly that 
of illustration or representation, such processes being given attention as 
will assist in the social phases of the child's existence. 

The opportunities are greater and the limitations are less when deal- 
ing with third and fourth grades, than elsewhere in school, perhaps. Here 
we have an extended field for the making of typical objects of beauty and 
of use. The pupils can deal with the more substantial cover papers and the 
light-weight bristol boards or tag stocks, while the age and ability of the boys 
and girls here represented would,for the most part prohibit them from engag- 
ing in some of the more heroic hand-work processes. In these grades, also, 
the work may be illustrative when opportunity offers ; house construction, 
parts of utensils, small apparatus and machines for nature study, and in 
schools where a somewhat varied equipment is found, a variety of objects 
may be made. Cutting, mounting and filing of pictures for class use. 
trays for specimens, boxes for the pupils' belongings at home and at 
school, picture frames of various forms and decoration, napkin rings, cal- 
endar backs and supports, memorandum and program cards, portfolios 
for school exercises, envelopes, note book covers, handkerchief cases, etc., 
etc., these are some of the multiplicity of objects that offer themselves 
and afford almost endless variety in design. Here there is a constant 
opportunity for the study of color-blending in the selection of material; 
for representation through drawings ; for appreciation of the artistic in 
form and proportion, and in the conservation of material. 

In grades above the fourth, the work may be an advance upon that 
already spoken of. In addition, heavier cover and bristol stocks and rice, 
straw, and pulp boards of various weights can be introduced. The rice 
or straw boards are perhaps better suited to some work than is the pulp 
board, as they do not soil readily. If, however, the surface of the stock 
is to be covered, the pulp board is best, as paste is easily absorbed into 
it. These materials are quite substantial, many objects constructed from 
them serving their purpose as fully as though made from wood. Here 
again, simple and cheap apparatus to connect with the natural-science 


work and mathematics can be designed and made. Useful and artistic 
objects if presenting a dull and uninteresting surface, may be covered 
with lithograph, embossed, or fancy paper, and a finished effect produced. 
In the selection of these papers, which are of a variety of designs, a con- 
siderable degree of taste is developed. Heavier and more serviceable 
articles, some of them of the same nature as those made in previous 
grades may be mentioned — picture and mirror frames ; boxes with hinged 
covers and permanent fastenings, for paper and envelopes, gloves, etc., 
note and text book covers ; bill, letter and picture files, scrap books, card 
cases, portfolios for drawings, written exercises, and photographs. This 
work will lead on to elementary book-binding which I shall not touch 
upon here. 

In summing up the points covered let me say that we must consider 
relative values not only, when thinking of the limitations of this work, but 
of the particular conditions surrounding the individual school. Much of 
the work that might be suggested in paper and cardboard could well be 
omitted if equipment for other forms of work were available. Pupils, 
however, enjoy the subject, and boys and girls alike are deeply interested 
where it has the proper handling. 

I have not touched upon the methods of fastening, as much latitude is 
possible here, adding greatly to the value. Pasting by means of laps, etc.; 
sewing with thread or yarn; punching holes with an awl, or with a punch, 
and using such materials for tying as flosses, rope linens, cord, such as 
is obtained in drug stores, silks, ribbon, braid ; fastening by means of slits 
and tongues; these are some of the methods that may be employed. 

There is considerable diversity of opinion as to what materials are 
best suited to the work in any particular grade ; the use of paste in the 
lower grades ; what tools are necessary for heavy work ; where triangle, 
knife and scissors should be handled ; these, and many additional ques- 
tions touching equipment, methods, and cost, are constantly arising. A 
brief word on these points may be of some value. 

Folding or cover papers, or other materials purchased locally at re- 
tail from the stationer, will, of course, cost much more than when pro- 
cured direct from the wholesaler or manufacturer. Royal Melton, 
Roman, or Princess cover papers, or others of like character, may be 
had in quantities at i cent to 2 cents per sheet. The bristol board, in 
all colors, may be had at about the same price. In the upper grades, 
where a heavy board is to be used, the pulp board is preferable to the 
rice, or straw, or other heavy boards, if the surface is to be covered, as 
the pulp board, being more porous and less tightly pressed than the 


others, absorbs the paste more readily. This stock comes in sizes 
22x28 inches, and frequently larger. It should be ordered by number — 
40, 50, 60, 70, 80, etc. — the number in each instance indicating the 
number of sheets to the 100 pounds; 60 answers for purposes where 
a medium weight is necessary, while 50 and 80 serve well for heavy and 
light work respectively. 

When convenient, hot glue is excellent for heavy work. Flake glue, 
broken fine and placed in a glue-pot with a little water, may be prepared, 
and kept over a gas jet or bunsen burner, ready for use. If this is im- 
practicable, paste will be found to answer all purposes. 

'Library paste, or photo-mounter, in jars or bottles, in handy form, 
may be procured. This paste comes in tubes of small and large size. 
Paste made from flour is much cheaper, and quite as good if not superior 
to that on the market. Mix a quantity of flour (sifted) with sufficient 
cold water to mold nicely ; see that no lumps remain. This may be 
done by running the paste through the hand. Place upon the stove and 
pour in boiling water, stirring at the same time. When the paste is of 
the proper consistency (it should be quite thin, as it thickens in cooling) 
remove the mixture without allowing it to boil. Add a few drops oil of 
cloves, to give a pleasant odor. To prevent the paste from spoiling add 
one grain bichloride of mercury — mercurie chloride (Hg. CI. 2). Stir 
well. Hg. CI. 2 is a poison, hence care should be exercised when stir- 
ring in. When mixed, however, there is not sufficient strength for dan- 
ger. The paste may be kept nicely in the small glass jars, with screwed 
tops, that are purchased with library paste. Each pupil should be pro- 
vided with a jar, and the covers should be on when the paste is not in 
use. The small brushes that come with the library paste are very cheap 
and handy. They should be kept in water when not in actual use. In 
lieu of brushes, splinters of wood will answer the purpose for small 
work. When pasting, a cloth should be used only to keep the hands 
tidy. Never use a cloth for tamping down the work. This method only 
serves to spread any soiled spots which may appear. Place a news- 
paper over the work and run the hand over this to smooth any wrinkles. 
Always use newspaper upon desk when pasting. 

While paste can be used with the smallest children, it is probably 
wise to delay its use somewhat until the pupil has learned something of 
how to manipulate his material, and he will then soil and destroy com- 
paratively little. 

'See the writers' manual on "Suggestive Work in Paper and Cardboard Con- 


In the lower grades, say up to and including the first half of the 
fourth grade, the scissors should be used for cutting. In these grades 
also a 1 2-inch rule, with bevel and brass edge should be in the hands of 
each pupil. The brass edge rule will also answer for the work in upper 
grades where heavy material is used, affording a straight edge for knife 
cuts. From the third grade up it is well to have several 5-inch or 6-inch 
triangles at the disposal of each class. If one triangle only is purchased, 
perhaps it is best to have the 45 "-90°, as the right angle is not only 
frequently brought into play, but the 45 ° angle as well, as the bi-section 
of the right angle is easily understood. 

For work in heavy papers one knife for two pupils will be sufficient. 
Some form of knife with short, stout blade, similar to the Henckels 
Solingen made for this purpose, is best. Pieces of sheet zinc, say 12x18 
inches, with corners rounded, will cost about 15 cents each. These offer 
a good cutting surface, and when the steel of the blade is of good qual- 
ity, do not readily dull the knife. A conductor's punch, for general use, 
will cost 25 cents. In the upper grades eyelets may sometimes be used, 
and a suitable punch and eyelet set and box of eyelets will cost $1.00. 
Bone folders (similar to bone letter openers), are useful in sharpening up 
edges and in pasting. 

Five-inch scissors of good quality are desirable. The cut should 
begin near the joint, and be long, extending to within a short distance 
of the point. A cut the entire length of the blade will leave a torn place 
or notch. Short, jerky cuts lead to poor results. In scoring, or cutting 
half through the material, either scissors or knife may be used, the latter 
being preferable. In soft, pliable material a scratch only is necessary. 
When dealing with bristol board, the cut must be made of sufficient 
depth to allow of folding without roughing the paper back from the 
edge. The paper should be folded away from the cut. 

A T-square is probably not necessary in this work. As it is desir- 
able to have the work as free and as meaningful as possible, the me- 
chanical side should not be pushed unduly. 

Economy in both time and expense will result from the purchase of a 
card cutter, such as is used by stationers and printers. The prices 
range according to size. A cutter with 12 or 14-inch blade or larger 
would be preferable. A frame for holding scissors or knives, so they 
may be carried readily from room to room, or school to school, is made 
from 3-inch stock (white pine or poplar), 8x12 inches. Holes hored 
to admit scissors or knife points, and a handle of leather or metal com- 
pletes the arrangement. A suitable desk cover (where zinc is not used), 


is made of 14-inch wood, 10 x 18 inches. A second piece, )4xi^xi8 
inches, is fastened under the front edge of the cover as a cleat, and 
helps to keep the cover in place on the desk. 1 

My strongest conviction is that paper and cardboard have much of 
value in schools where as yet no permanent place is given hand-work ; 
it serves as a wedge for the admission of more extensive things. Its 
cheapness and simplicity are coupled with the fact that the regular grade 
teacher may, with a little definite instruction, so acquaint herself with the 
necessary processes, as to formulate her own ideas. From the real, vital, 
social side of our problem we find opportunities throughout the grades, 
for illustration and connection, in the study of peoples, customs, and the 
like ; occupations, industries, manufacture, the arts, trade, etc. Finally, 
in this as in all else the opportunities and limitations are determined 
largely by the manner in which the work is carried on. Proper teaching 
here as elsewhere is a determining factor. A broad outlook and a right 
presentation will lead to unknown possibilities, while narrow or careless 
teaching tends to reduce the value and intensity of the work. 

'Valuable suggestions on the tools and equipment have been given bv Miss E. A. 
Howland, of Greenfield, Mass., Normal School. 


M. W. Murray, 
Supervisor of Manual Training, Springfield, Mass. 

It is pretty generally admitted in theory, if not carried out in practice, 
that exercises as such, should be eliminated from the manual-training 
work of the lower grades, but when a class first comes to the manual- 
training room, it is necessary to give the pupils simple exercises to teach 
the use of the different tools. These exercises may be given in the form 
of useful models, so graded that one leads to another a little more difficult, 
until the pupil finds that he can use several different tools and is able to 
recognize in a new piece of work, exercises or operations which he has 
performed before. 

In addition, it is well to show pieces of work which are excellent in 
workmanship and design, though far beyond the pupils' powers of execu- 
tion at, the time, for they can be led to see the application of what they 
are doing to something larger and will get the inspiration which comes 
from seeing a thing well done. In this way, principles rather than models 
can be taught, and it will tend to make boys independent thinkers and 

A great many boys wish to make some particular thing which is either 
something large and beyond their powers, or something which requires 
preparatory planning and drawing. In the first case, they should be led 
to see that they are not ready to make what they desire, but that they 
may make it as soon as they are able. Poor work, when recognized as 
such, is as unsatisfactory to the boys as to the teacher. In the other case, 
they should be led to work up what they may have in mind with the aid 
of pictures, descriptions and illustrations, until fully prepared to begin the 

It is hard to do this kind of work in the ordinary manual-training 
room, first on account of the noise. In a place where we as teachers, can 
do but little original thinking and planning, we should not expect it of our 
boys. Second, very few manual-training rooms have a place where books 
can be kept and illustrations put up on the walls for study. One way of 
overcoming this difficulty is to ask the boys to plan at home what they 
may be interested to make and to bring it in for help and approval. A 
better way is to have a place where a boy can go to find a helpful book or 



illustration, where he can sit down to think the matter over and confer 
with his teacher. 

A room of this kind is hard to find in connection with a manual- 
training room, and will be, so long as this department continues to be 
stowed away in the lightest corner of a basement. In our school, we felt 
the need of a room of this kind, and the problem was solved in the man- 
ual-training and drawing departments. 

Adjoining the manual-training room was another of equal size which 
had only a concrete floor, and was not directly connected with the manual- 
training room. The boys decided that it would be a good plan, since the 
floor of the first room was so poor that it was difficult to keep the benches 
down, to cut a door-way through the partition, lay a floor over the con- 
crete, and move the benches into that room. After having discovered 
how door-ways are cased, they went to the mill and ordered the casing 
for the new door, cut the door-way and cased it. 

The next thing was to figure the number of feet of joist and flooring 
needed and to give the order. Then came the laying of the floor, which 
involved the proper spacing and leveling of the joists before putting on 
the boards. This work was all done out of school hours, nights after 
school and Saturdays. About three months were required for this work 
and during this time, the boys learned how to lay a floor and some of them 
discovered what good, hard work is. 

In the mean time, the ninth-grade pupils decided upon the best place 
for a reading room, as they called it, in the old manual-training room. 
They selected the best lighted corner with windows on adjacent sides, and 
having drawn it to a scale on the blackboard in the drawing room, they 
began to discuss the question of furnishing it. They came to the con- 
clusion that if it was to be a reading-room, they would need a bookcase, 
a table, and two or three chairs. Then came the question of the kind of 
bookcase, where it should be placed, the kind of table and its dimensions, 
and the style of chair, a simple one that the boys could make which would 
go well with their bookcase and table. They found the distance that the 
chair seat should be from the floor by having average-size boys sit in dif- 
ferent chairs. Then the table had to be of a certain height if these chairs 
were to be used with it. 

The boys and girls in the drawing classes of each of the ninth grades, 
took a piece of furniture to design. They sent for furniture catalogs and 
and made sketches of different pieces seen in the stores. They had to 
consult the manual-training teacher about the kind of joints to be made 
and where to put them. After making sketches and getting the propor- 





tions, they drew one or two of these pieces on the blackboard, full size, 
to be sure that they were right, and then made their working drawings. 
When this was done, they chose the best one from each class to be made. 

The eighth-grade pupils were, at the same time, making drawings for 
a large screen which would shut one side of the corner from the rest of 
the room. They worked out the color scheme and found that if the walls 
were to be used for pictures and clippings, green burlap would be better 
than the dirty plaster wall. Then came the painting of the sheathing to 
harmonize with the burlap, and the staining of the furniture a color 
which would be in keeping with the rest of the room. 

In the mean time, the boys in the manual-training classes were doing 
their best work so that they might be chosen to work on a piece of furniture 
when the drawings came from the studio. When the drawings were fin- 
ished, the manual-training teacher called for volunteers to make the furni- 
ture. Every boy in the four ninth-grade classes who thought that he 
could be of service, volunteered. Two for the bookcase, two for the table, 
and one for each chair were chosen. These boys were the best workers 





and all of them had tools and benches at home where they could do the 
same kind of work that they were doing in school. 

They took all of their regular time for the last half of the year and in 
addition worked about as much more out of school hours. They were 
fully as interested in this work as in any other and could not use too much 
time or care to have things right when finished. 

Two of the chairs were not finished that school year, and the boys 
came back from the high school to finish them, which shows that they were 
really interested in the work and that the altruistic spirit was cultivated 
to a high degree. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the city library is just across the street 
from this school, and that the boys can get almost any book for an indef- 
inite time for school use, we find our reading-room with our own reference 
books and periodicals invaluable. There are several which the manual- 
training teacher wishes to own. These are kept in the room for the use 
of the boys, a large percentage of whom are interested in electricity. 
The boys watch for the new numbers of " Amateur Work " and similar 
papers to find something new which they can make at home. One of our 


boys, during the last year, built a model electric railway, third-rail system, 
making the different parts in school and putting them together at home. 
He succeeded in getting this to work, much to the amazement of some 
of the boys in his neighborhood. Another boy was interested in steam 
engines and during his two years in the school, built three, one of which 
he fitted up to run a model launch. 

A room of this kind does a great deal to develop the different outside 
interests of the boys and the manual-training teacher very often finds that 
he can learn from the boys, if he will. 


William E. Roberts, 
Supervisor of Manual Training, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The accompanying photographs are illustrations of some tangible re- 
sults of a conservative experiment with bench-work classes of first-year 
high-school grade. The experiment was a protest against the sawing- 
planing-chiseling-exercise courses in woodwork which have dominated our 
high-school manual training so many years. It was intended also to 
reach farther than the thought of the sloyd course of logically arranged 
exercises embodied in a definite series of finished models to be worked 
out by each individual pupil. 

On the other hand the experiment was very far from an abandonment 
of all method. It was the purpose to adopt suggestions from both the 
exercise and model methods, with the higher thought of developing 
originality and initiative on the part of the pupil. If there were any 
general principles upon which the experiment was based, they were these: 

First : That there should be no exercise work pure and simple. 

Second : That all of the work should have in it the elements of 
beauty — in construction, in proportion and in decoration. 

1904] 89 


Third: That the pupils should be trained to take the initiative in 
every way possible : that the work should be arranged to meet their in- 
dividual needs, and that they should put into it as much as possible of 
their own thought, in design, construction and decoration. 

The problem was not an easy one to solve. It seemed clear, and so 
proved, that the ideal could only be reached by gradually ascending steps. 
They naturally arranged themselves, as the work advanced, somewhat 
as follows : 

First: Until some skill had been acquired by the pupils it was neces- 
sary to choose very simple models and to have all make the same pieces. 
This was still in accordance with the sloyd idea, for an ehort was made 
to have all the models, however simple, useful and of character in design. 

Second: Gradually the pupils were led to take the initiative by select- 
ing as a class one of several models presented, all making the same model. 

Third : Later by changing the proportions and dimensions of the 
given model to better meet the pupils' individual needs. 

Fourth : Still later by selecting from several models presented the 
one that the pupil as an individual particularly wished to make. 

Fifth : The pupil was then led to design a given model, with sug- 
gestions from the teacher. 

Sixth : Finally the pupil was led to the point where he could choose, 
design and construct successfully his own model. 

Some important things were noticed as a result of the experiment: 
Greater mental activity and originality were required and developed on the 
part of both teacher and pupils ; an unusual interest in the work was shown 
by both teacher and pupils ; self reliance and initiative were developed in 
a remarkable degree, and the standards of workmanship were much 
superior to any attained under the exercise method. 

None of the simple models used in the beginning of the course are 
shown in the photographs. Numbers one and two are photographs of 
various models made during the year. Number three shows the elabor- 
ation of a given problem, the book rack, by the pupils. Three methods 
of construction were here suggested, but more than a dozen different con- 
structions were developed by the classes of about eighty pupils. Number 
four illustrates the development of the picture-frame problem, involving 
the mitre joint. Here the problem was one of adaptation, as well as con- 
struction, the picture itself forming the basis for a study in mounting, 
framing and decoration which would be in harmony with the pupil's 
choice of subject. Number five illustrates another treatment of the picture- 
frame problem, involving the study of line and form. 


9 2 




Frank G. Sanford. 

I approach this subject with caution, for it has been so interesting 
to me, and was so successful with my boys that there is danger of my 
saying so much in its praise as to cause the impression that I would give 
it undue weight in the manual-training course. Perhaps it is best simply 
to tell something of what the boys of Oak Park and myself, with the help 
of Superintendent Hatch, worked out in this line last year. 

The work, experimental in some ways, was planned from the esthetic 
viewpoint of home decoration, based, of course, upon good construction, 
and was inspired somewhat by the courses conducted under Mr. Hugo 
Froehlich at Pratt Institute. We had a regular woodworking-shop equip- 
ment, to which we added enough to make the following equipment for 
metalwork : 

(a) Individual equipment. 

A block of hard wood 12 in. x 3 in. x 4 in. 

A block of soft wood 12 in. x 9 in. x 2 in. 

A small block of steel approximately 3 in. x 4 in. x ^ in. (This may often be 

gotten from the scraps of some foundry at a low price.) 
A pair of tinners' small shears. 
A small nail set, used for a rivet punch. 
A small rivet set. 
A hard-wood mallet with head about 3 inches long, one end being turned to a 

A medium size half-round file. 
A medium weight ball-pein hammer. 
A pair of flat-nose pliers. 
A pair of round-nose pliers. 
A small screw-driver. 
A sheet of carbon paper. 

(<$>) General equipment. 

A roll of soft sheet brass, gauge 23, 12 inches wide; cost at wholesale from 

18 to 20 cents a pound. 
Some sheets of soft copper, gauge 23; cost at wholesale 20 to 25 cents a 

10 medium-size rat-tail files. 
5 wood rasps, medium size. 
5 pairs of large metal shears. 
12 gross round-head ?4-inch screws. 
A supply of 6, 10 and 20-penny wire nails, emery paper, and some scraps of 

soft wood. 

1904] 93 




As will be seen, a number of the tools may be used in regular wood- 

We usually spent one full period of two hours upon our drawing be- 
fore working in the metal, each boy composing his own design whenever 
f<3 i this was possible. Every shop equip- 

ment, of course, contains a complete 
drawing outfit, consisting of board, 
T-square, triangle, rule, eraser, com- 
passes and thumb tacks. 

One of the most successful pieces 
made by my boys was a brass sconce, 
or candle bracket. As the method of 
work followed in this piece may be 
applied in a number of pieces, I will 
give the development of this lesson in 

The class was shown a completed sconce, not to serve as a model, 
but to illustrate the use of the object. The first thing in order was a 
discussion of this use. This developed a little historic talk on the Col- 
onial period when sconces were used for lighting, and brought the work 
in touch with the study of American history. 
Next we must consider structural necessities. 



sary , 

What parts are neces- 
Every boy must clearly understand that the element of beauty, 

the ornament, is secondary and dependent upon utility or good construc- 
tion. We found that in a sconce the following parts are necessary : 
First: A back, to protect the wall from the heat and smoke and to form a 
support. This back piece must have a reflector, Fig. i, (a), which should 
be smooth so that it may be polished. Second: A bracket, (Ji), to support 
the candle. Third: A cup, (V), to hold the candle, and a saucer to catch 
the drippings. Fourth: A hole, (d), to hang it up by. Now these parts 
must be there in the relation shown in Fig. i, however much we may 
change their shape and proportion. 

But, boys, what does this sconce lack ? We have all that use re- 
quires, but we want something else. Does it not lack design, beauty ? 
We must then make a design for our sconce. In the centre of your 
paper draw the diagram, Fig. 2, observing the exact measurements, and 
leaving at least an inch margin all around, as shown. Draw the vertical 
diameter A B. Now this 8 in. x 1 1 in. rectangle is the limiting size of 
your sconce. You may make it narrower, if you like, for one candle, 
but it would be well not to make it shorter. 




Next we want our outside line — the outer edge of the sconce ; so 
we will design this in one-half of our space. This design will be wide 
enough for two candles. You must remember that this metal is to be 
cut with shears so we cannot have any deep curves or sharp points 


sticking out on our design. Keep the curves convex, or only slightly 
concave, Fig. 3. 

Next we must plan the reflector and candle holder. Of course they 
should be in good proportion to each other, and to the margin ; we must 


consider all of these together. So we will plan one-half of our reflector 
as in Fig. 4, and outline the place where our bracket is to be attached to 
the sconce. It is necessary to draw only half of our design, as you will 
see, and it is not necessary to draw the cup and saucer, as these are 
made in another piece. Now compare Fig. 4 with Fig. 1, and it will be 
seen that we have all the essentials, at least on one side, and we have 

9 6 





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added design. We are almost ready to consider the decoration, but first 
let us put a border inside the outer edge, as shown in Fig. 4. For orna- 
menting the sconce I put three motives on the board : a tulip, a pea- 
cock and a dragon, allowing each boy to choose one of these or any 
other appropriate form. Only in a few cases did I allow boys to copy 
my design outright — only where a boy had really tried to originate one 
and failed. 

Most of the boys preferred the dragon, so we had a little talk about 
dragons in mythology ; there was Bellerophon and the chimerae and 
St. George and the dragon ; then the dragon as the national emblem of 
China, and prehistoric beasts that might be good dragons. We consid- 
ered how useful a dragon is in ornament because you can take such 
liberties with him ; you can add heads, tails, wings or claws at pleasure, 
and so make him fit very nicely into almost any space. Of course the 
boys are interested in making their dragon fit well — that is, in compos- 
ing. This also gives us a chance to talk of the difference between 
pictorial and decorative work — how in the latter things don't have to 
be natural, but we can borrow and re-arrange all sorts of strange beasts 
so long as they fit well ornamentally. We will suppose the dragon nicely 
arranged in one side of our design, Fig. 5. We must avoid very small 
spaces and not attempt to put in scales or features, because they would 




be too difficult to finish. And we must understand that a designer uses 
a clear, distinct line ; that in this way his drawing is different from that 
of our artist who tries for a sketchy, free, atmospheric line. Keep the 
boys on this drawing as long as possible. 

Fkj.U. Fl VT 




• A 



— * 



EbCE. of METAu 

When this is done as well as possible, take off your paper, fold it 
exactly double on line A B, with the drawing inside, and with a hard, 
smooth surface like a file handle ; transfer your outline from one side to 
the other by rubbing on the back. This, of course, will give you a per- 
fectly symmetrical design. Now see that your curves join smoothly. 
With pencil put in a dark tone on those parts where your background 
is to be stamped, leaving the lower part, where your bracket is to be 
riveted, perfectly clear. 

Plan your background to fit nicely and in good proportion to the 
design. Cut your sheet carefully on lines marked heavily in Fig. 6, that 
is, on your 8x 11-inch line, leaving flap at the top, as shown. We are 
now ready for our metal. The brass should be cut to 9x12 inches ; it 
is best to buy it in 12-inch rolls. This should be cut by the teacher be- 
fore class, exactly to size, and each piece flattened by laying it upon a 
smooth, hard-wood block, and striking it with the broad side of another 
block. If you allow the boys to do this the din will be frightful. Draw 
a pencil line 5^ inch from the edge of the metal all around ; mark holes 
on this line, as indicated in Fig. 7. These are for screwing the plate to 
our soft-wood block. If you use fewer screws than this your metal will 
not be held firmly. Lay your metal on one side of your hard-wood 
block, and punch holes with the nail set and hammer. Before screwing 

9 8 



\ ^ 

the metal to the block it is well to round off the sharp corners a little. 
In putting in the screws work from the middle holes outward, as A, B, 
C, D, E, F, etc., for if you begin by screwing down the corners the 
chances are that your metal will not lie flat in the middle, and will vibrate 
under the tool. Press the metal flat between each screw head as you go. 

It is better not to clean your brass be- 
fore transferring your design, as the dirt- 
roughened surface takes the lines better 
than a smooth surface. Fit your drawing, 
as trimmed in Fig. 8, in the center of your 
metal sheet. If you have followed directions 
ions, it will come well within the screw heads. 
The flap at the top will be long enough to 
fold over the end of your block, and you can 
attach it with three thumb tacks, as shown 
in Fig. 8. This leaves three sides of your 
paper free, and you may slip a piece of car- 
bon paper under it and transfer your design 
t > -^ ....m... by going over the lines with a hard pencil. 

But as the hand rubs over this you are 
likely to erase it, so we shall scratch in our lines with a small metal 
tool, made by filing a wire nail to a conical point. Do this by set- 
ting your nail in the vise between two chips of soft wood, to avoid scar- 
ring the vise, and file down with the flat side of your half-round file. 
Holding the tool close to the point, scratch in your lines upon 
the brass. Now we must make two more tools from nails. 
Take a 6-penny nail, and file the end, as shown in Fig. 9, mak- 
ing a small, square stamp on the end of your nail ; this should 
be quite small, as the effect will be better if a small stamp is 
used. Smooth this with emery paper, so as to get rid of any 
cutting edges. Take a 20-penny wire nail, file and finish it to 
correspond with Fig. 10 — what we might call a screw-driver 
edge. Be careful and not get a sharp edge that might cut 
through your metal. Take your stamp, and, holding it as in- 
dicated in Fig. 1 1 , go over your background carefully, getting a regular 
stamped surface of even depth, but not too deep. Do not attempt to 
get a smooth surface, because a great deal of the interest in the result 
depends upon the contrast of rough background with smooth, embossed 
parts. Work up carefully to your lines. A pupil should not be allowed 
to leave his work until this is carefully done. 








Now you can take your second nail tool, and, using it as a chaser, 
set in the edges of your design where they seem to need accenting, being 
careful not to go too deep. As you proceed with the stamping your de- 
sign raises in a smooth, embossed surface. We do not wish for a heavy 
relief, and, remember, that in this cold-metal work only a low relief is 

Heavy repousse, or embossing, must be done with fre- 
quent annealing or heating of the metal, and this is outside 
of our present consideration. For heavy or detailed chasing 
and repousse a bed of pitch is used, but the soft wood is 
good enough for our purpose. 

When the stamping is completed remove the screws and 
trim your brass with the shears on the outer line of design, 
Fig. 3. Now, if a student has indulged in deep curves and 
a convex outline, his sins will find him out — he will have 
trouble in getting the shears around the small curves. As 
a rule, use the small shears for this purpose, because, the 
blade being short, you can turn the curves more easily ; moreover, 
always cut near the joint rather than the point of your shears. You will 
find when your cutting is done that the sconce is considerably warped 
owing to the stretching of one side of your metal, caused by the stamp- 
ing. Resting it face downward upon tbe smooth side of your hard-wood 
block, tap it with the mallet (not 
the hammer) on the stamped 
parts, and it will gradually flat- 
ten. Of course, if you strike too 
hard you are likely to beat out 
your design, but a light stroke 
will not endanger this, Fig. 12. 
Avoid striking the smooth parts, 
especially the reflector. The fol- 
lowing rule should always be ob- 
served in cold-metal work: Never, 
when possible to avoid it, strike 
your metal with metal, or upon 
metal ; use the mallet and wood block and so keep your sheet soft as 
long as possible. Of course, in rivetting, the hammer and metal block 
are necessary. Now file your edges with the half-round file, using the 
flat side for convex curves, the round side for concave curves. Finish 
smooth with emery paper. 



In planning and cutting out the candle holder and drip saucer, we 
have to consider several things : First: Are we to have one or two 
candles ? If one, of course the holder will come in the middle of the 
Pi <j. H-. reflector; if two, plan accordingly. (See 

Fig. 13.) Second: The size of the cup 
or holder. Third: The depth and width 
of the saucer to catch the drippings. This 
should be at least two inches in diameter. 
Plan your bracket in the following 
manner : On a small sheet of paper fold 
a vertical line, and cross it with a horizontal, as A, B, C and D, Fig. 14. 
We are to draw one-half only, as shown in Fig. 14. The curve below 


your horizontal is planned for 
the space left at lower part of 
your back piece, Fig. 13, (a). 
It need not occupy the whole 
space, but should be in good 
proportion. It's width will 
depend upon whether it is 
for one or for two candles- 
Above CD, which represents 
the bend of your bracket (see 
side view, Fig. i),draw a space 
1 }4, inches wide, as shown in 
Fig. 14. Fold paper double 








on line AB, and cut out your pattern, 
around this on your brass, and cut out. 

For your saucer, cut a circle 2 inches in 
diameter for each candle. But these must be 
hollowed to catch the tallow, and it is done 
easiest in the following manner : Set the hard- 
wood block on end in the vise ; take your ham- 
mer and with the ball strike the end of your 
block until you have formed a smooth hollow, 
as shown in Fig. 15, (a). Holding your circle 
of metal over this, beat it into the hollow with round end of your mallet, 
as shown in Fig. 15, (//), until you have formed an even saucer. The 
edges may be raised by tapping them on the inside with the hammer, 
as shown in Fig. 16, resting the metal on the flat end of your block. 
Cut out brass for the holder like Fig. 17, and, according to measure- 




ments, one for each candle. Now carefully smooth the edges of all 
your pieces until the finger can be passed around without catching, and 
we are ready for the punching and riveting. I would advise the use of 
small copper rivets as being the easiest to handle. 

Our punching of rivet holes is 
done upon the flat side of a hard- 
wood block, with the nail set (used as 
a rivet punch) and hammer. In the 
base of your bracket punch three 
holes, as indicated in Fig. 13, (a), 
each a little larger than the diameter 
of the rivet. The punching will raise 
a slight edge, which you may ham- 
mer down upon the metal block. This 
J^ will make your hole a little small, per- 
haps, but it can be twisted out with 
the punch. Punch all holes in your 
saucers, holders, and bracket piece, but not in the back of the sconce. 
Riveting is done with the hammer upon the metal block. Set your 
rivet through both pieces, as shown in Fig. 18, (a) ; put the rivet set over 
the end, and tap it down with the hammer to close your pieces together, 




\l J 


Fig. 18, (d). With the flat end of your hammer tap the rivet down 
squarely, spreading it as shown in Fig. 18, (/). If it is not struck, or up- 
set squarely, the result will be like Fig. 18, (//). Note that the rivet is not 
hammered down even with the surface of your metal, but as in Fig. 18, (/). 
Finish by tapping the edges with ball of hammer, to obtain a rounded 
head, Fig. 18, (e). Let the boys practice riveting upon some scraps, and 
after a little they will be able to do this neatly. 

Rivet your candle-holder and saucer to the shelf with one rivet be- 
fore forming up the holder. The rivet should be hammered from above, 



as shown in Fig. 19. With your square-nose pliars first, and then your 
round-nose ones, bend the holder to fit your candle, as shown in Fig. 17. 
Last, rivet your bracket to the back of the sconce, marking, punching, 
and riveting one at a time, so as to insure a perfect fit. 

Fie, i*. 


It would be well to polish all of your pieces before they are riveted. 
Any good brass polish will do for this. 

In the sconce we have had practice in original design, pattern-mak- 
ing, metal-cutting and filing, stamping and forming, riveting and tool- 
making. By the method used in forming our saucers, a small tray can 
be made, the edges previously stamped with designs. Such a problem 
as a perforated lamp-shade, or lantern, can be worked out, the main dif- 
ference being that you perforate the metal upon the block instead of 
merely stamping it. I am sure that, with the knowledge obtained from 
making the sconce, many things will suggest themselves to the teacher, 
as they do to the boys. 

In Oak Park our boys voluntarily did much of the stamping upon 
their sconces at home, and were so much interested that it was difficult 
for me to get my lunch eaten before they were clamoring for admittance 
in the afternoon. 

The cost of the work need not be great. Our boys paid the whole- 
sale price for their materials by weight, and the highest price charged 
was twenty cents for a copper box. 

This work might well be put in the eighth, ninth, or high-school 
grades, either as a one-year course, or as optional work to relieve the 
monotony of woodwork, which in some schools seems overdone. Or it 
might be held out as a special inducement to those who work faithfully 




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biTTo L^ttP shade 


For A MtRRoR 





in wood. There is a field for corelating with chemistry in the high 
school, in experiments with acid and heat, thus coloring the metal. I 
believe the work has great possibilities, and I know it was a success in 
Oak Park. 



Frank By the death of Frank A. Hill, Secretary of the Massachusetts 
H -?. ,ne Board of Education, on the 12th of September last, the teaching 
profession lost one of its most distinguished representatives, and 
one of the staunchest supporters of manual training and other educa- 
tional reforms. For many years Mr. Hill has been a recognized leader 
in educational work in Massachusetts, both in a literary and in an execu- 
tive capacity'. As a writer, a public lecturer, and a speaker before edu- 
cational bodies he has been much sought, not only in his own state, but 
throughout the country. He has served several teachers' associations in 
the office of president, always with rare spirit and dignity. During the 
later years of his life his official duties have been many and varied. He 
was ex officio one of the commissioners of the Massachusetts School Fund, a 
trustee of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, a trustee of the State Agri- 
cultural College, and member of the corporation of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, which office he also held by election. He was a 
member of the Schools' Examination Board appointed by Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1893. He served two years as president of the Massachusetts 
Schoolmasters' Club, and for one year was president of the Cambridge 
Club, an association of one hundred of the leading citizens of the uni- 

1904] 105 


versity city where he made his home for the last seventeen years of his 

Mr. Hill belonged to that class of men justly honored in America, 
who, from small beginnings, have risen to make a marked impression upon 
their day and generation by strictly professional work. Born Oct. 12, 
1841, in Biddeford, Maine, he was the son of Joseph F. and Nancy (Hill) 
Hill, a lineal descendant of Peter Hill, who came from Plymouth, England, 
in 1633, and settled on Cape Elizabeth, near Portland. He was admitted ' 
to Bowdoin College at the age of sixteen, and earned his way through by 
teaching during the long vacations. Notwithstanding this handicap, he 
took a high place in the social life of the college. He was an active 
member of the debating club, editor of the Bowdoin Bugle, curator of the 
Natural History Society, and class-day prophet. He was graduated at the 
age of twenty, with the honor of delivering a commencement oration and of 
election to the Phi Beta Kappa Society. In 1894 his alma mater conferred 
upon him the degree of Litt. D. After graduation he continued the work 
of teaching for a time as principal of the Limington (Me.) Academy, and 
later of Biddeford (Me.) high school, where he had fitted for college. In 
1864 he decided to take up the study of law, but after two years' experi- 
ence in a law office he decided that his life work should be teaching. 
For the next five years he was principal of the Milford (Mass.) high school, 
and for sixteen years following he was head of the high school in Chelsea. 
It was in these positions that he won his high reputation as an inspiring 
and thorough teacher, and as an exceptionally efficient school manager. 
In 1886 he was elected head master of the new English HighSchool in 
Cambridge. He organized this school with 350 pupils, and saw the num- 
ber doubled in seven years. He took a large part in planning the interior 
arrangement of the new building which was erected for this school in 
1 89 1, and many features of design, for which he was responsible, have 
been widely copied all over the country. It was in connection with this 
school that he became associated with manual-training school work through 
the organization of the Rindge Manual Training School, founded and for 
ten years supported by Frederick H. Rindge for the boys of the English 
High School who elected the manual-training school course. When 
Boston decided to organize its Mechanic Arts High School in 1893, 
Mr. Hill was naturally chosen its first head master. Though he held this 
position but one year, his rare abilities as an organizer are easily discern- 
ible in this school at the present day. In May, 1894, he entered upon 
the duties of the high position which he held at the time of his death — 
that of Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. No better 

1904] EDITORIAL 107 

comment can be made upon the importance of the work of Mr. Hill during 
the nine years of his secretaryship than to give the brief summary by years 
of educational legislation during his adminstration, which appeared in 
the Springfield Republican September 13 : 

In 1895. — The acts authorizing towns to pay the tuition in academies of children 
in towns where there is no high school, provided the board of education approved the 
academy ; the act forbidding the display of any foreign flag upon any public building 
or public school-house; the act requiring school committees to furnish public schools 
with national flags ; the act to require towns to pay the tuition of children attending 
school outside of the town in which they reside. 

In 1896. — The grant of $4,000 a year for 40 free scholarships in the Mass. Insti- 
tute of Technology; the act to change the law regarding the election of school commit- 
tees ; the requirement that petitions for the incorporation of an educational institution 
with power to grant degrees shall be duly advertised ; the act that $2 per week may be 
paid to public school teachers in small towns from the state treasury in addition to 
the salaries paid by the towns, provided that the total was not above $10 per week. 

In 1897.— The act to enlarge the power of taking land for school-houses; the 
act to enlarge the number of small towns which could take advantage of the law- 
giving $2 per week extra to public school teachers. 

In 1898. — The act to permit the temporary release of children from truant 
schools; the act to prevent children under 15 years of age from appearing in public 
performances ; the act to permit unions of towns for the employment of school super- 
intendents; the act to permit division of the state scholarships at the Institute of 
Technology and the Worcester Polytechnic Institute ; the act to forbid any child 
under 14 years of age from working in any factory or store; the act to strengthen the 
truancy law ; the act to revise the law relative to the election of school committees 
in towns. 

In 1899. — The act to establish 40 free scholarships at the Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute; the act to permit the temporary release of children under sentence of 
truancy ; the act to authorize the establishment of summer vacation schools ; the act 
to permit city councils and town meetings to take land for public school-houses, 
libraries and engine-houses. 

In 1900. — The act to change the form of returns made by school committees to 
the State Board of Education ; the act that the fare of public school children on 
street railways shall not be over half the regular fare ; the act to permit the reduction 
of the length of the school year to 28 weeks in towns of less tban $200,000 valuation ; 
the act to make compulsory upon every city and town in the state the law for super- 
intendence of public schools. 

In 1901. — The extension from October to November of the time for filing school 
returns ; a grant of $14,000 for extra compensation of teachers in small towns ; repeal 
of the law allowing selectmen to take land for school-houses ; the law to put the 
accounts of truant schools under the supervision of the controller of county accounts. 
In 1902. — The act to strengthen the law against work by minors in factories; 
another grant of $14,000 for extra pay for teachers in small towns; reimbursement 
from the state treasury of towns which have paid to other towns high-school tuition 
for pupils ; the creation of a commission to consider the broad question of the sup- 
port of public schools. 


In 1903. — The act to change the distribution of the income of the state school 
fund in order to give larger help to small towns (the measure which has taken the 
place of the proposition for a mill tax.) The act providing for the transportation of 
children living upon islands ; the act to permit girl school offenders under 1 2 years of 
age to be put into the custody of the State Board of Charity. 

Secretary Hill believed in giving a full education at public expense 
to all the children of the state, and earnestly advocated this policy in 
many public addresses. It was largely due to his efforts that the benefits 
of high-school education were placed within the reach of the children 
living in the smaller towns, through a generous allowance from the state 
funds. His address upon the question, " Is the High School a Just 
Charge upon the Public Purse ? " has been recognized as among the 
ablest defenses of the Massachusetts system of secondary education. He 
believed in the professional training of teachers and favored the employ- 
ment by all school committees of educational experts as superintendents. 
This policy was made effective by an extension of the law requiring em- 
ployment of school superintendents until it included every town in the 
state. He was intensely devoted to the policy of giving the privileges of 
the public schools equally to all classes, regardless of race, color, or 
social condition ; and he insisted upon making all the schools the best 
that liberal support and professional skill could accomplish. 

In his personal qualities, Mr. Hill combined to a rare degree the 
charm of a fine presence and a gentle manner, with force of character and 
exactness of mental attitude. He was characterized by the thoroughness 
of his habits of work, by a prompt sympathy in the trials of others and a 
reticence about his own, by absolute disinterestedness, by his faithfulness 
in little things as well as in the larger duties, by his invariable courtesy 
and frankness, and by a tactfulness that was not divorced from truthful- 
ness. He recognized the best in his pupils and in all those who were 
associated with him in teaching. It was often said of him that he never 
spoke ill of anybody. This generosity of feeling seldom failed to call 
forth its natural response in others, so that he easily commanded the 
respect and loyalty of his pupils and of his fellow teachers. One who 
knew him well speaks of his private life as " happy and beautiful, full of 
self-sacrifice for his family, and of answering affection and comfort." 

C. F. W. 

The practice of but one form of motor training will lead to an arrest of 
motor development. 

1904] EDITORIAL 1 09 

The Public school practice is slowly coming to recognize that the 

"Special backward child cannot and should not be taught in a class 

with his brighter brother. A sorry fallacy has in the past 

essayed to prove that the dullard may be wakened to energy by contact 

with his more active mates. In reality the demonstration has only 

served to show that the progress of both bright and slow is retarded. 

The boy of deficient development is a drag upon his neighbors and 

when brought to a curriculum unsuited to his comprehension stumbles 

through its mazes bored and hopeless, or careless of the consequences, 

escapes as a truant into the open. The attempt to force the dullard to 

keep the pace with normal children serves but to produce untoward 

results. Such results every friend of the elementary school should lend 

his aid to prevent. 

Abroad, in many cities, school conditions have long since dictated 
the segregation of the deficient child, and his systematic training in 
classes and schools organized and equipped for special instruction. The 
time cannot be far distant when every large school throughout our own 
country will see the establishment of the " special" class. 

For the teacher of the Arts this class should have a peculiar interest. 
The training of the dull child must proceed largely along the lines of sense 
perception. Many such children learn more with their hands than with 
their heads ; manual training is for them the open door to mental train- 
ing. There is no teacher of a " special " class but can tell of pupils to 
whom there never had come the inspiring flush of success, the pride and 
conscious knowledge of power, until their hands had fashioned and 
completed some constructed form. 

Constructive work is, for the dullard, more than a manual drill; in its 
orderly processes it is a moral drill — it is a mental and physical stimu- 
lus. It gives knowledge which such a pupil can never draw from books, 
gives inspiration which can never rise for him in routine class-work. In 
the words of Dr. Wey it offers that " general mental quickening " of which 
the dull boy stands so much in need. 

It should be understood that no elaborate equipment is needed for 
the " special " class. An ordinary classroom with three or four work- 
benches will suffice. Few and simple tools are necessary, while for cur- 
riculum one must have a " course " elastic in every particular. So 
organized, with a dozen or so pupils giving at least a third of their time 
to manual work, the " special" class will not fail to establish its value as 
a boy-saver. Trained teachers are an advantage, but as a foundation to 
training there must be a deep and sympathetic interest in the work itself. 


Trained teachers are not now numerous, but the supply will equal the de- 
mand once it is realized that it is far wiser, and in the long run far less 
expensive, to maintain the "special" class than to maintain the costly and 
elaborate machinery necessary to reclaim and discipline the boy driven 
forth by the school to dubious courses because, implastic clay, he would 
not take the mould. — J. P. H. 

Problems in construction should not be offered as imitations of self activ- 
ity but as real exercises, dealing with real things — there should be real 
7tiotives behind and real outcome ahead. 

On the We hear much of the relation of art and manual training, 
u . y ° though less as to just what this relation includes. Analyzed, 
the " art " reveals itself as the art of design, having for its laws 
those fundamental principles which are at the basis of all well con- 
structed forms. Yet of these simple principles how many teachers of 
construction are ignorant! Good workmanship these teacher knows — firm 
joints, trued edges and square faces, but the laws of balance, rhythm and 
harmony — the "consistencies," as Ross terms them, of attraction, move- 
ment and character are to them as a book sealed ; Salomon and Goetze, 
Ricks and Barter are familiar names, but Day and Jackson, Crane and 
Dow bring no sense of recognition. 

The reason for this is not far to seek. The constructive work of our 
school shops rose in the teaching of the sloyder and in the practice of 
the technical institute. In both of the parent systems the model was 
presented to the pupil ready-made. The business of the latter was to 
duplicate it — neatly, accurately, mechanically. Individuality was not 
sought for ; technical excellence was the aim. 

The spirit of an educational philosophy preaching personal initiative, 
has" slowly but surely altered the earlier practice. The " original " 
model has taken the place of the sloyd exercise and the practice joint. 
Coincident with the introduction of the completed " project ", there has 
of necessity appeared the demand that construction be not taught apart 
from design. The project must be planned before being built — "planned" 
means designed. 

The significance of this change each teacher of constructive work 
will do well to consider. More and more is it coming to be seen that 
the pupil should make no desultory study of various constructive pro- 

1904] EDITORIAL in 

cesses but should see his lessons in drawing, construction and decora- 
tion brought to a common focus in a model which when completed, rep- 
resents a form which he has thought out, drawn and made in accordance 
with the principles of sound construction and good taste. Ignorance of 
the laws of line and mass, of beauty of form, propriety of material and 
suitability to purpose cannot but hinder the development of constructive 
work. Every teacher of constructive work should be a student of design. 
— /. P. H. 


Beauty taught apart from use is not taught. 

One of our editorial staff, Professor Charles R. Richards, is now on 
a journey through the Orient. He sailed from New York early in De- 
cember, bound for Naples. His itinerary calls for a week in Cairo, 
nearly a month in Bombay and cities in adjacent territory, another month 
in passing on through Calcutta, Rangoon, Singapore and Hong Kong, 
reaching Shanghai early in April. The next three months are to be 
spent in China and Japan. The return trip is by way of Hawaii and 
San Francisco. He expects to arrive in New York about the first of 
September. The purpose of the journey is recreation and pleasure 
combined with a study of the arts and industries of India and Japan. 

C. A. B. 

No nature lesson as such, can compare in interest with an hour among 
the birds and dowers — no practice lesson as such, can compare with the mak- 
ing of a needed thing. 



The School Crafts Club of New York City held its first meeting of the season 
at the Hotel St. Andrews on November 13th, with a good attendance. Eight new 
members were elected. Routine work having been disposed of, the program of the 
evening was opened by W. H. Noyes, chairman of the session. 

Mr. Noyes called attention to the revival of workmanship now in progress. 
Following the invention of the printing press, the literary arts had risen in import- 
ance, while handwork, having largely given place to machine work, had sunk into 
comparative obscurity. We were now beginning to realize that not all culture is to 
be found in letters — that culture is the expression of power, and that the transform, 
ation of materials in many lines of art and industry contributes a very important part 
towards all-round culture. Hence the revival. We should therefore, as teachers, 
recognize the value of the professional study of the arts. Upon this subject a paper 
would now be presented to the meeting by Dr. James P. Haney. 


Modern psychology, modern pedagogy and economics have given a tremendous 
impetus to the study of those forms of activity which look to the mental and physical 
development of the child, to the revelation to him of his environment, and to his 
preparation as an actor in the world's work. In response to these demands a com- 
plex system of training has developed. This aims to give mental training in observ- 
ation and judgment, physical training in expression, moral training in restraint and 
order, aesthetic training in the laws of taste. It is designed to give some knowledge 
of the social growth, a survey of the world's work in simple form, and an insight into 
the part each worker in the world must play. Further, it seeks to offer to the child 
some knowledge of the primary principles of construction, some skill in elementary 
technique, and some practice in the application of the laws of design. 

The general aims of the system are thus, in a broad way, seen to be parallel and 
a part of the general interests, ends and aims of all education. The subject matter 
which lends to such aims we denominate " the arts," including under the general title 
all those motor and aesthetic studies which are embraced under the general headings 
of drawing, construction and design. 

To get a proper sense of perspective of a form, one must stand off from it. To 
properly realize the relations of a subject, one must stand aside and view it from 
without. Those who deal with some special branch of the arts are for the most part 
too close to see their subject in its relations, and far too near to see the arts as a 
whole. They cannot sense the significance of the threefold pressure which is active 
to the development of their specialty. The scope of the arts is hidden by the details 
of special problems, obscured by a haze of technique, dwarfed by smaller but more 
immediate interests. 



The professional study of the arts is in its infancy. The subject is comparatively 
young, its literature scanty and unscientific, its students for the most part of limited 
and special training and scarcely cognizant of the forces which are restating the 
fundamental principles of the arts. As a result, these teachers have yet to reach 
positions of importance in the educational world. Limited in the outlook and phil- 
osophy, they are classed as specialists and technicians, scarcely as educators. 

Two patent reasons thus stand forth demanding professional study. One, the 
fact that it will raise the standards of the teaching class, will destroy their insularity) 
give them power in council, lead them to a broader and fuller scholarship ; the other, 
that it will add to knowledge of the arts, aid in their propaganda aad assist in the 
erection of the general educational fabric. 

The range of such study is indicated by what has been already said. It covers 
the philosophy, history and practice of the arts — their relations psychological, peda- 
gogical and economic. All of these aspects must be touched upon by one who would 
be aprofesional student of the subject — by one who would lead the professional life. 

What makes up such a life? First, a cultivation of the professional attitude — 
a proper pride in one's work, not evidenced by strut or boast, but by a willingness to 
labor to uphold its dignity. To such a life broad study of the different phases of 
one's profession adds. Research work, original investigation adds. A comprehensive 
knowledge of its literature adds, as does a willingness to work and work hard that 
one may contribute to that literature. 

Every teacher of the arts should be a student of the arts. Every student should 
set himself some problem each year, the solution of which will serve to increase the 
world's knowledge of the subject. Immense is the gain to the man himself — a 
widened interest, deeper sympathy, a keener insight. Advantage accrues to him 
from the very fact that he remains a student — -one of open mind. Dr. Butler offers 
as five evidences of the educated man, power of expression in language, a high moral 
standard, power of insight and reflection, power of growth, and power of efficiency. 
Each of these is distinctly fostered and furthered by professional study. " High 
efficiency is," in his phrase, "primarily an intellectual affair." 

The subject and time demand professional study of the arts. It is the business 
of all engaged in their teaching to aid. Every society like this should assist by de- 
manding high standards in papers presented for consideration. Programs should be 
thoroughly considered and prepared well in advance, that all contributions may be 
clean-cut, clear, incisive chapters, worthy of permanent place in professional literature. 

Education is largely a labor of love. Its highest reward is altruistic and subjec- 
tive — a deep sense of satisfaction in the knowledge that aid has been given to 
others. To those who have given themselves to the teacher's life, the deepest gratifi- 
cation after any effort is in the realization that they have offered their best. To offer 
one's best one must remain a student. 

Professor Charles R. Richards commended the movement for a broader study of 
the arts by the teaching profession. The teaching of handwork in the school had 
been shaped on the one hand by the psychological influence, which emphasizes 
method, and on the other by the economic influence, which gives greater prominence 
to subject matter. The tendency has been to think too much of hoiu to do it and too 
little of what to do. The scope of professional study should include the whole field 
of arts and industries. 



A paper on this subject was read by Cheshire L. Boone, who strongly favored 
the pursuit of one or two industries throughout the school course as against the plan 
of taking up several lines of work in succession, each being dropped when another is 
begun. We cannot teach all industries, but may choose a few of those in most 
general use, adding, when practicable, one which is characteristic of the community. 
In following the successive steps of an industry a certain standard of excellence must 
be demanded, but an intelligent understanding of the whole subject is of first import- 
ance. In teaching architectural construction we should begin in the primary school 
with lessons on primitive dwellings, and gradually trace the development of the art 
through its successive stages to the buildings of the present day. Pupils should be 
taught to plan in three dimensions, regarding a house as a whole, and not thinking 
of floor plan and elevation as unrelated. Parallel with all constructive work should 
go progressive teaching of design. All designs should be for a definite purpose. 
Pupils should not work from blue-prints and never work out any original designs. 
In the last year large projects should be undertaken, thus putting to the test the 
knowledge and skill gained throughout previous years. Technique should be used 
to help the pupil express his own ideas. He must think in design and construction 
as well as in arithmetic or grammar. 

Among the suggestions offered by Mr. Boone as to various lines of work which 
might be introduced in the school were the following: Building in metal and clay; 
work in concrete, plaster and staff; vessels in clay or metal; articles of sheet metal, 
soldered and riveted; projects illustrating machinery for the transmission of power and 
transportation. In illustration of the progressive teaching of an industry, the succes- 
sive steps in claywork were given as follows : (a) in the early school years, simple 
objects and vessels of original design ; (b) the making of the article permanent by 
firing ; (c) historic ornament or ceramics ; (d) use of the potter's wheel ; {e) use of 
the kiln, making of the kiln by puplis ; (f) different kinds of ware. Projects of orna- 
mental work in staff for the high school were also suggested. The speaker believed 
that if industry were treated in this more thorough way more lasting results would 
be obtained, and the relation of the arts of construction and design to the curriculum 
would be more harmonious. 

The exhibition of work, which is an important feature of these meetings, was on 
this occasion extremely interesting and varied, being composed chiefly of articles 
made by members of the club. James Hall showed a box and chalice of silver which 
he had made during the summer under the direction of Alexander Fisher, of Ken- 
sington, London. Some unique examples of weaving on a Swedish loom were 
exhibited by Victor I. Shinn. Besides samples, showing a variety of patterns in colors 
and overshot work, there were some very pretty light fabrics suitable for curtains, etc. 
W. M. Mohr gave a graphic description of the process of making pottery, illustrating 
his remarks by specimens of his own work in original and varied designs. These were 
made under the instruction of men who were masters of the trade. A short talk on 
sheet metalwork and enameling was given by Laurin H. Martin, instructor in metalwork 
in the Boston Normal Art School. The use of the steel hammer rather than the horn 
mallet was recommended, a flat-faced hammer being used to finish. Three princi- 
pal processes of enameling were explained — one (Champlave) in which the surface of 
the metal is cut away and the spaces filled with enamel ; another in which spots are 

1904] CURREXT ITEMS 115 

depressed with the hammer and similarly filled, and another in which the enamel is laid 
on the surface. A number of beautiful specimens of this work were shown, consisting 
of boxes, buckles, trays, pictures, etc. Stanley A. Gage showed some very neat work 
in bookbinding including limp cloth covers and board covers in cloth and leather — a 
line of work which in its simpler forms could be done with few tools and little practice 
and yet is capable of developing a high degree of skill and artistic taste. Some fine 
examples of wood-carving by A. W. Garritt were prominent among the other articles 
displayed. An animated discussion of the exhibition at one end of the room and the 
refreshments at the other brought this very pleasant and profitable meeting to a close. 

William F. Vroom. 


Clinton S. Van Deusen. 

The next meeting of the National Educational Association is to be held at St. 
Louis, in 1904. The dates for the meeting are not yet determined. A meeting of 
the Department Presidents is to be held in St. Louis about January 1, to formulate 
plans for the convention programs. 

A somewhat remarkable innovation at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology this year is the new school for Doctors of Engineering. This degree, which 
has never before been given by an American institution, except honoris causa, w r ill 
henceforth be given to students who have qualified themselves in any of the various 
departments of engineering research ; and it is expected that the Eng. D. will hence- 
forth take rank with the Ph. D. of the classical universities. No student will be 
graduated in this work who has not given proof of some actual contribution to the 
solution of a specific, industrial, commercial, or municipal problem. In other words, 
the Doctor of Engineering will be a man who has done special research work for the 
benefit of humanity. — The School Journal '. 

Karl von Rydingsvard, the well-known wood-carver and teacher, received 
pupils last summer at his studio in Brunswick, Maine. One of the fifteen pupils 
who were there writes enthusiastically of the spirit of Mr. von Rydingsvard's studio 
and of the beauties of the Maine coast. 

A letter from Professor J. F. Hudson, of Hartley University College, South- 
ampton, England, calls attention to the Rooper Memorial Fund. This fund is being 
raised to perpetuate the memory of the late T. G. Rooper, who for twenty-two years 
held the office of His Majesty's Inspector of Schools, first in the Bradford district, 
and later in the Isle of Wight. Mr. Rooper's excellent work made him well known 
throughout England, and his influence extended to other countries. The fund, 
to which teachers everywhere are invited to contribute, will probably be used to 
found a scholarship to be known as the " Thomas Godolphin Rooper Scholarship." 

Prof. Calvin M. Woodward, of Washington University, has been elected 
president of the St. Louis Board of Education. This is the second time Dr. Wood- 
ward has been honored in this way. It was thought desirable to have a man in this 


position during the Fair who is very closely associated with educational work, and 
such a man has surely been selected. 

Dr. Gilbert B. Morrison, principal of the Manual Training High School. 
Kansas City, Mo., has been elected principal of the new McKinley High School in 
S . Louis. This school will be opened on the first of February. This is a fortunate 
appointment for St. Louis. Mr. Morrison takes with him an enviable record of 
remarkable success under difficult conditions. 

The Moseley Commission, a party of twenty-five educationists, recently came 
over from England to study the American public-school system. After a brief trip 
through the eastern states, they separated into several parties, each visiting a different 
portion of the country. They have now completed their work, aad a report of their 
impressions would no doubt prove of great interest to educational people. 

Dr. Robert H. Thurston, director of Sibley College of Engineering at Cornell 
University, died suddenly October 25th as he was awaiting guests at dinner on his 
sixty-fourth • birthday. His influence as engineer, teacher and author extended even 
beyond this country, and his death is a serious loss to Cornell. 

The vacancy caused by the death of Dr. Thurston has been filled temporarily by 
appointing Prof. W. F. Durand as acting director. Prof. Durand has been the prin- 
cipal of the graduate school of marine engineering and naval architecture at Sibley 
College for a number of years. 

The Morris Society, formed in Chicago last spring, has for its president Dr. Ed- 
mund J. James, president of Northwestern University, and for its secretary Professor 
Oscar L. Triggs, of the University of Chicago. The general program of the organi- 
zation is as follows: (/) To engage in publication; (2) to conduct an educational 
movement ; (j) to maintain club-rooms and establish a Morris library and museum ; 
(4) to promote the founding of workshops and schools of design. 

The National Educational Association is trying the experiment of publishing 
reprints of departmental reports. The secretary of the association states that the 
manual-training department reprint reporting the Boston meeting includes " all the 
papers presented at the joint sessions, making a pamphlet of about seventy-five 
pages " ; he adds that it is probably the most valuable department reprint which he 
has on his list. These will be supplied to single addresses at ten cents a copy by 
mail ; or in orders of ten or more copies to one address by prepaid express at a 
reasonable discount. Send to Dr. Irwin Shepard, secretary, Winona, Minn. 

The committee appointed to select a president for the Carnegie Technical 
Schools of Pittsburg, has reported in favor of Arthur Arton Hamerschlag, of New 
York. The salary will be $8,000 a year. Mr. Hamerschlag is a native of Nebraska 
and has taken special courses in physics aud mining at Columbia University. — The 
Sch ool Journal. 

Frank H. Ball, supervisor of industrial schools in Porto Rico, reports a favor- 
able beginning of his work. His problems are much different from those of a super- 
visor of manual training here. In addition to directing work in manual training, he 
is encouraging the development of several industries. One of these is the making of 
jellies from native fruits; another involves the use of a native fibre. 

1904] CURREXT ITEMS 117 


A little more than two years ago, when manual training was introduced in the 
schools of Rochester, N. Y., each school (thirty-four) was provided with a large cab- 
inet, fitted with desk-trays and tools for elementary work of the lower grades, the first 
to the sixth grade, inclusive. These desk-trays have a new and unique device for 
holding the drawing paper to the top of the tray while the pupil is drawing, which, 
when the paper is removed, leaves the top free from cleats and clamps usually found 
on the older forms of desk trays. 

For the pupils of the upper grades five centrally located schools were equipped 
and used as " centers " for the boys from neighboring schools. Each year since the 
work was introduced two or more schools have been provided with outfits, so that to- 
day there are fourteen schools furnished with benches and bench-tools. This plan of 
equipping one or two schools each year will be continued until every school is pro- 
vided with an outfit suited to its needs. These outfits are the best to be had, and 
there is one interesting feature of which Rochester teachers are proud, and of 
which but few cities can boast; that is, each manual-training room is above the base- 
ment and on the first floor; in finish, light and location these rooms are equal to any 
in the school buildings. 

Four years ago the Rochester board of education was taken out of politics by 
changing the number of school commissioners from twenty to five, and then electing 
four of the best people obtainable as commissioners; one of the five members of the 
board has worked alone in opposing the progressive majority. The present board of 
education receives no more money for school purposes than the old board, which did 
little but provide deficits. Still the new board has erected new buildings, added man- 
ual-training equipment, increased the salaries of all the teachers in the schools, given 
the city of Rochester a " new education", and each fiscal year is closed with a surplus. 

During the recent municipal election the " new education " was the most import- 
ant issue. The candidates that stood for progress were elected by large pluralities. 
The minority commissioner mentioned above was a candidate for re-election ; he re- 
ceived the fewest votes of any man on his ticket. Beginning with 1904, Rochester 
will have an "ideal board of education." W. W. Murray. 


The Decatur College and Industrial School of The James Millikin University, the 
new institution which was opened last September, at Decatur, 111., is offering a four- 
years' course in manual training which embraces work in joinery, wood-turning, pattern- 
making, foundry practice, forging and machine shop-work. 

The woodworking department is equipped with twenty-four benches and full com- 
pletement of bench tools; twenty-four lathes, together with power saw _ s and other 
necessary machinery. Instruction was begun in this department at the opening of 
the year, and about one hundred and fifty students are enrolled in the manual-train- 
ing classes. 

The forge shop with eighteen down-draft forges and the machine shop with a 
comprehensive equipment of hand and machine tools will both be in operation during 
the second term of the year, while the foundry and the special pattern shop will be 
fitted up as soon as required. 

The manual-training work is organized primarily as a preparation for the schools 
of engineering of the College proper, and two years of shopwork are required for en- 


trance to the engineering courses. By far the larger number of students enrolled in 
the manual-training courses are preparing for the engineering professions, or to occupy 
positions as mechanics, but others are encouraged to take this work as part of a gen- 
eral education, and due credit will be given in both the arts and science courses to 
those who elect manual training. 

A class composed of sixteen teachers from the public schools of the city has also 
been formed, and is taking up a special line of work particularly adapted to the needs 
of its members as teachers in the various grades and in the high school. This class 
was organized largely in anticipation of a movement which is on foot to introduce 
manual training into the public schools of Decatur. 

It is proposed to offer a normal course for the training of manual-training teachers 
beginning September, 1904, particulars of which will appear in the University publi- 
cations later in the year. This course will include instruction in both the technique 
and theory of manual training, and at the same time provide opportunities for practice 
teaching on the part of the students, and for the special study of manual-training 
problems, that its graduates may be thoroughly prepared to take positions as teachers 
and supervisors of manual training. Charles H. Bailey. 


Two scholarships have been founded at Teachers College for students of the 
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. The present holders of them have been 
teaching at Tuskegee and will return there after leaving Teachers College. 

The contract for what will probably be the largest school building in this country 
and perhaps in the world was recently approved by the board of education. This 
school will be known as school No. 62, and will be located on Hester street. The 
building will be six stories high, will have a seating capacity of 4500 pupils and will 
be in charge of a corps of 124 teachers and two principals. It will be a thorougly 
modern school building, and the site and building will cost over a million dollars. 

Miss Amanda Stolzfus has given up her work in the Speyer School and has 
gone to Knoxville, Tennessee, to take charge of the manual-training work in the model 
school connected with the University of Tennessee. 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute has decided to open a summer school of 
manual training for teachers. Seven courses in tool work will be given in 1904, cover- 
ing processes suitable for primary, grammar, and high-school grades. To these will 
be added a course in " History and Organization of Manual Training," which will deal 
with principles, methods, courses and equipments. 

On October 12th, a company of teachers interested in manual arts in education, 
met to discuss the formation of a club. As an outcome of the meeting a club, called 
the School Crafts Club, is now well organized, two very interesting meetings having 
been held. Chas. A. Bennett has been elected president and Miss Maud C. Olmstead 
secretary and treasurer. The object of the club is to stimulate an interest in manual 
arts in the community and to provide another means of mutual benefit to club members 
through the discussion of their work. The club is to hold six meetings during the 
year, these meetings to be held at the homes of the different members. 


I am a great stickler for higher education, but I want to tell you this: The 
opportunities of to-day are better than ever for boys to get a practical education — an 
industrial education — and I would rather my own boy grew up able to build a great 
bridge like the Brooklyn bridge than to receive the highest honor the people could 
bestow upon him. — Grover Cleveland. 

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Many a teacher has found great difficulty in deciding upon a first model for his 
course in benchwork in wood. The counting board shown in the accompanying 
illustration has been used for a first model during the past three years at Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute. It was designed by Clinton S. Van Deusen, to include laying 
out, sawing and boring, but not planing, the stock being given to the student planed 
to width and thickness but not cut to length. It was suggested to Mr. Van Deusen 




by the counting device he used to see on a threshing machine when he was a boy in 
New York state. It was used to keep track of the number of bushels of grain 
threshed out. A similar device is used at the present time in one of the cooper 
shops in Peoria for counting barrels. 

The right-hand row of holes (ten in number), is the units column; the middle 
row is the tens ; and the left the hundreds. It will be seen, therefore, that this board 
is capable of keeping count up to 999. The board and pins may be made of pine. 
The pins are made round by driving them through a dowel plate. Each is driven 
through twice — first through a hole the same size as bit with which the holes in the 
wooden block are bored, and then through one enough smaller to make the pin move 
easily in the holes. The dowel plate is made by drilling holes of proper size through 
a piece of steel 4 X M X % m - 

If this model was to be placed later in the course, it might be made of gum 
wood or poplar and have its ends modified as suggested in the sketch. 


In a recent address, Capt. C. E. Vawter of the Miller Manual Labor School at 
Richmond, Va., gave some pertinent figures as regards the cost of hand training. 

" The cost of the kindergarten," he said, ■' is the teacher who can teach four or 
five classes per day. The equipment in the kindergarten need not exceed ten cents 
per pupil a year." 

The manual training in the four lower grades should be taught in the regular 
schoolroom by the regular teacher at an average cost not exceeding one dollar per 
pupil a year, even if the equipment lasts only one year. This should include clay model- 
ing, paper construction, cardboard work, drawing, designing, whittling, sewing, 
weaving, basketry, and water-color work. 

The cost of thirty pupils can be formulated as follows : 


Construction in Paper $ 8.70 $ 8.00 $ 16.70 

Construction in Pasteboard *3-&5 2 -°° 15.65 

Clay Work 1.80 1.80 3.60 

Basketry and Weaving 3.00 4.20 7.20 

School of Whittling 90.00 6.00 96.00 

Benchwork 330-80 37-4° 368.20 

Exercises might be carried on in the fifth grade in some of the above, and have 
it include the designing and making of models. 

The regular teacher can do all this work in the lower grades. The higher 
grades will include the school of whittling and the benchwork, and will require a 
special teacher, who can give instruction in cither of the departments to 600 pupils, 
if one lesson of ninety minutes is given a week, and to 300, if two lessons of ninety 
minutes are given each week. This would cost per pupil $0.66 for 300 pupils and 
$1.33 per pupil for 600. 

The regular teachers can teach all the drawing with an equipment costing on an 
average of one dollar per pupil, and fifty cents a year for material. The equipment 
will last for several years, while the material is estimated for only one year. — School 


Industrial-Social Education. By William A. Baldwin. Milton Bradley Co., 
Springfield, Mass., 1903; 9 X / 2 X7 in -> PP- J 47 : illustrated; price, $1.50. This book by 
Mr. Baldwin is a real contribution to educational literature in general and to the man- 
ual and industrial sides of school work in particular. The main thought contained in 
the book finds a ready response in many minds, but as yet very little has been written 
on the subject, and hardly at all has it been carried into practical effect. 

The volume does not set forth courses of study but deals with the problems that 
have presented themselves at the Hyannis, Mass., State Normal School; with sugges- 
tions as to possibilities in the various hand-work processes. The author, while real- 
izing fully the industrial significance of the time, sees clearly the demands of society 
and the place of the child as a social being. A description and history of the new 
movement at Hyannis is set forth, and the author shows how the work has been made 
to correlate with the other subjects in the training school that is carried on in connec- 
tion with the Normal school. It is believed that the needs and demands of the child 
should, in large measure, determine the contents of the curriculum; that education 
should be of such a nature that what is learned will run parallel with the needs of later 
life ; that its school should be thought of in connection with and not as apart from the 
home and future life of the individuual. 

That activity must grow out of the life of the child, the writer has no doubt. 
Hence the child should present the problems and the teacher should stand ready to 
assist and direct. The kinds of work should be many and varied and no fixed course 
is to be prescribed. " We believe, " says Mr. Baldwin, " that no outline should be 
duplicated in two different places, or in two different years. Such duplication leads to 
formal teaching and spiritual death. We prefer to keep the flexibility and adaptabil- 
ity of life, even if the external results are crude and unfinished. The motto of the 
school is, ' a live child in a live school.' " 

Three propositions are laid down by Mr. Baldwin : 

First: The attitude of the child should be carefully considered. 

Second : The kind of work should be adapted to the environment of the child 
and connect the school life with that of the home and the community. 

Third: Manual training and physical training should furnish the center or basis 
for the school and home life of the child. 

Much of the present school work is purposeless, says the writer. Adherance to 
system is to be deplored. In this respect the trade school is characterized as being 
more truly educational than is manual training in the regular school. 

In addition to the chapters setting forth the value and necessity of an industrial- 
social view of education, much practical advice and suggestion is made by various 
teachers of the Hyannis school, all having united in the educational experiment. 
School gardens, play-house occupations, weaving at the loom and with raffia; sewing; 
baskets and other objects made of raffia; splints, and rattan; making of hammocks, 
etc.: these are lines of work given some attention, and the illustrations add much to 

1904] 121 


these chapters. The suggestions on garden work are especially helpful, and the 
schemes for correlation are rational. A chapter on vacation schools closes the book. 
A delightful introduction has been contributed by Henry Turner Bailey, who has 
watched the work at Hyannis and speaks in strong terms of the results thus far 

"Industrial-Social Education " may offer little that is new as to kinds or pro- 
cesses of work for the school. The book may be, as the author suggests, " like the 
work, fragmentary and lacking in artistic finish," but withal it sets forth in a straight- 
forward manner the point of view with which, more and more, we are finding a deeper 
sympathy. A thorough student of Colonel Parker and of Doctor Dewey, Mr. Baldwin 
seeks to show that content rather than form should characterize our school work ; 
that the child is a social being and that the larger society of school, home, and active 
life can best be perfected by carrying to the child in school that which is best suited 
to his development. 

Throop Polytechnic Institute, Arthur Henry Chamberlain. 

Pasadena, California. 

Hozu to Make Indian and Other Baskets. By George Wharton James. Henry 
Malkan, i William Street, New York City, 1903. 6%X9% m -! PP- I 3D> 22 ° 
illustrations; cloth; price $1.00, net, postage 10 cents. — Intended as a practical 
manual of basketry, this work brings together in one volume for the use of the 
student a large amount of material upon this subject. No attempt is made to pre- 
sent courses in basket making but rather the handling of materials and the methods 
of making the various kinds of baskets. For convenience in discussion, the various 
processes in basketry are classified as follows : The Mat Weave, The Plait or Braid, 
The Net, The Coil Weave, The Web Weave, and Insertion and Borders ; and 
a brief chapter is devoted to each. Other chapter headings are : The Choice and 
Preparation of Materials, Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets and Dyes. 

The author states in the introduction : " For material for these pages I have 
ransacked everything I could find ; " and in fact much matter is introduced bodily 
from various sources. 

Prominent in the book are a number of illustrations of beautiful specimens of 
Indian basketry and of the handiwork of the Deerfield (Massachusetts) colony of 
basket makers. Side by side with these, in some instances, are given photographs of 
baskets representing the work of Teachers College students. Mr. James' visit to 
Teachers College occured in the fall of 1902, too early in the school year to obtain a 
representative exhibit of the work done there ; hence, the unsatisfactory impression 
produced by these photographs. The discerning reader, however, will not fail to note 
the incongruity of illustrating in too close proximity " raffia bound picture frames " 
made of cardboard and the highly finished product of the Deerfield shops. 

It should be stated that this work is a reprint of the January 1903, (vol. 1. no. 1 ) 
number of " The Basket ", issued quarterly by the Basket Fraternity, Pasadena, 
California; price for this number in paper, 75 cents. The same is also now included 
in the latest edition of Mr. James' larger work " Indian Basketry " ; cloth, 8 vo., 
price $2.50 net, postage 25 cents. 

Illinois State Normal University, William T- Bawden. 

Normal, Illinois. 

1904] REVIEWS 123 

The Making of our Middle Schools. By Elmer Ellsworth Brown. Longmans, 
Green & Co., New York, 1903; S^X^ 1 -! in. I PP- 547+XIII ; price, $3.00. — This 
book begins with an account of the Latin grammar schools of Old England, shows how 
they influenced early colonial schools in this country, and then traces the develop- 
ment of the two distinct types of our schools for secondary education — the academy 
and the high school. School administration, state systems, and special movements 
also are considered. The book closes with two chapters on recent tendencies, one 
on school life and studies and another on the present outlook. Although the author 
modestly and perhaps wisely refrains from dignifying his book with the title of 
history, it is in many respects the best history of American education. It is at once 
scholarly and agreeable to read; it points out causes and vital relation that throw 
light upon many of our problems of today. 

Many paragraphs of special interest might be pointed out. In the chapter on 
the grammar schools of Old England, for instance, one learns that Leach, a sixteenth- 
century writer on education, argued for Latin in the schools because of the number 
of occupations in which Latin was needed. Latin was employed not only in 
diplomacy and the learned professions but a merchant, or the bailiff of a manor, 
wanted it for his accounts ; every town clerk or guild clerk wanted it for his minute 
book. Columbus had to study for his voyages in Latin ; the general had to study 
tactics in it. The architect, the musician, even-one who was neither a mere soldier nor 
a mere handicraftsman, wanted not a smattering of grammar, but a living acquaintance 
with the tongue, as a spoken as well as a written language. How much this 
sounds like the arguments used today in favor of any subject that is looking for 
wider recognition in the schools ! 

Again, in the same chapter another writer of the same period is quoted who 
points out the value of a general education. In reply to the statement that the 
lower classes should be trained only for their calling in life he says: " it may be 
seasonable to interpose, whether there be not a general as well as a particular call- 
ing. All * * * * ly under some duty towards God and man. * * * * 
That any nation can be too universally learn'd in the law of well-being, would be 
* * * * hard to be conceived." This is an early suggestion of the system of 
general education that has become the cornerstone of the American Republic. 

These paragraphs merely suggest the fact that a great amount of thorough re- 
search work had to be done by the author before writing this valuable book. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

The Art of Pattern Making. By I. McKim Chase. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York, 1903 ; 5X7% m -; PP- VI + -54- 2I 5 figures ; price, $2.50. — A technical treatise 
on pattern-making, dealing with numerous examples for green-sand, dry-sand and 
loam moulding. Some of the first chapters discuss the equipment and management 
of a modern pattern shop. Following this, several complicated problems, such 
as the making of patterns for marine engines, gun-mount pedistals, screw propellers 
etc., are explained in detail. In the closing chapters of the book many useful rules 
and tables are given that would be of value to the practical pattern maker. 

The book is in no sense a text book and its place in schools will be as a refer- 
ence book for advanced courses in pattern-making. 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute, C. S. Van Dei sen. 

Peoria. Illinois. 


Little Masterpieces of Science. Six volumes edited by George lies ; Doubleday, 
Page & Co., New York, 1903; 4 1 / 4X° 1 /2 in. pp. about 175 per volume; $ .75 net, per 
set $4.50, net. 

Vol. I. — The skies and the Earth — Richard A. Proctor, Simon Newcomb, Charles 
Young, George lies, Sir Charles Lyell, Nathaniel S. Shaler, Thomas Huxley. 

Vol. II. — Invention and Discovery — Benjamin Franklin, Michael Faraday, Joseph 
Henry, Alexander Bell, Count Rumford, George Stephenson. 

Vol. III. The Naturalist as Interpreter and Seer — Charles Darwin, Alfred R. 
Wallace, Leland Howard. 

Vol. IV. Explorers — Justin Winsor, Lewis and Clarke, Zebulon Pike, Charles 
Wilkes, Clarence King, John Powell. 

Vol. V. Health and Healing — Sir James Paget, Sir J. R. Bennett, P. Geddes, 
J. Arthur Thomson, T. M. Prudden, G. M. Sternberg, Robson Roose, B. W. Richard- 
son, Buel P. Colton, J. S. Billings. 

Vol. VI. Mind — John Fiske, James Sully, Francis Galton, W. H. Hudson, O. 
W. Holmes, Henry Maudsley, Wm. B. Carpenter. 

This is just such a series of books as every general reader needs in his library. 
Indeed, many specialists in science do not possess a library covering the classics of such 
a wide range of subjects. The material has been carefully selected so as to present the 
stories of the greatest triumphs of invention, discovery and exploration as told by the 
men who made them. This gives a first-hand quality to each chapter which is most 
satisfactory. The editor is an enthusiastic student of science and an able writer. 
The books are printed on a high grade of paper with good margins and simple head- 
ings ; each volume contains a portrait frontispiece. They are compact, convenient 
and inviting. 

Charles A. Bennett. 

Stories of Great Artists. By Olive Browne Home and Katherine Lois Scobey. 
The American Book Company, New York, 1903. 7 X 5 in -> PP- I 57- Illustrated. 
This is one of the attractive school readers of the year. As stated by its authors, the 
aim of the book is aesthetic and ethical rather than utilitarian. It is intended to 
supply a hitherto unfilled need of reading supplementary to picture study in the third 
and fourth grades. In simple language the authors have presented the masters of 
the brush surrounded by the glamour of tradition. The book contains twenty-nine 
illustrations, selected from the works of Raphael, Michael Angelo, Rembrandt, Rey- 
nolds, Carrot, Millet, Landseer, and Rosa Bonheur. It is to be hoped that the little 
book will accomplish its worthy purpose. This is equivalent to the wish that it may 
always fall into the hands of wise teachers. 

The following have been received: 

The Tree Dwellers. By Katharine Elizabeth Dopp. Rand, McNally & Co., 
Chicago, 1903. 6X7% in.; pp. 158. — Reserved for later notice. 

Year-Book; Council of Supervisors of the Manual Arts, 1903. James P. Haney, 
Secretary, Park Avenue and 59th Street, New York. 7X 10 m -! PP- 158-I-12 fornotes; 
price, $3.00. — Reserved for later notice. 

Wood-Carving Design and Workmanship. By George Jack, with drawings by 
the author and 16 collotype plates; No. Ill in "The Artistic Crafts Series of 
Technical Handbooks", edited by W. R. Lethaby. D. Appleton and Co., New York, 
IQ °3- 5X7% m -'> PP- 3 11 ! price, $1.40 net. Reserved for later notice. 


Manual Training Magazine 

APRIL, 1 go 4. 


Charles F. Warner, 

HE ultimate effect of the manual-training movement upon 
the secondary school system of the United States is not 
yet clearly indicated. In this, as in all educational re- 
forms in this country, there is lack of uniformity of effort. 
Wide variations may be observed in the organization, the 
policy, and the product of all schools ; but probably in 
none are these variations more evident than in those in which the manual 
element is recognized. This is what should be expected at the present 
stage in the developement of this reform. Though there may be sub- 
stantial agreement on some points, the courses of instruction in manual- 
training schools are still somewhat experimental as regards both the nature 
of the subjects taught and the relations of each to the general scheme. 
The manual-training idea, however, is universally acknowledged to be an 
element of vital importance in the modern public school. Professor 
James, the psychologist, says, " The most colossal improvement which 
recent years have seen in secondary education is the introduction of the 
manual-training school." As a governing principle in education the 
practical element has come to stay ; but concerning some very important 
matters of detail — such questions, for example, as, what subjects of 
study are most profitable ; what kinds of mechanical work are most val- 
uable ; and what features of both should be emphasized — there is such 
a lack of agreement in opinion and practice that we shall probably wait 
many years yet to see realized in our high schools a complete and con- 
sistent combination of the best ideals of the new education. Experiment, 
discussion and criticism must go on. That is the way Americans make 

I2 5 


progress in education as well as in other things. Our faith in democratic 
institutions compels us to believe that ultimate improvement will come 
in the public school system as the result of this great variety of educa- 
tional experimenting, this endless discussion and searching criticism. 

But the very effort to improve sometimes over-reaches itself. It has 
led to an over-estimation of the value of certain lines of work, to an 
under-valuation of others, and to a neglect, sometimes, of the most 
natural means for enlarging the educational output. It is the object of 
this paper to point out one of these dangers and a way of obviating it. 

The manual-training high school has come, for the most part, in 
response to a natural demand for a modification of our secondary 
schools, which should bring them into touch with the life of the present 
day. To what extent the methods and processes of modern industries 
should be taught in these schools is at present a somewhat unsettled 
question ; but it is generally agreed that there is no place in our system 
of secondary education for trade schools, certainly not for the kind 
usually called by that name. The aim of the new high school should be 
educationally broad, though practical. Such an aim removes at once 
the possibility of thorough special training in these schools along limited 
mechanical lines such as a boy might expect to get if he went directly 
from the elementary schools into the shops. On the point of trade train- 
ing in a strictly mechanical sense, it must be admitted that the manual- 
training school boy is, and must remain, distinctly inferior to his shop- 
•trained brother. Is it not, therefore, most natural to inquire what points 
of superiority over the shop apprentice he can be expected to derive 
from his school training which may justify the large expenditure of time 
and money which are being made on his account ? 

To make the question more pointed, suppose two young men of equal 
ability, one with four years of good shop training, the other a gradviate 
of a four years' course in a manual-training high school, are employed 
by a just and discriminating shop superintendent. What ought their 
employer to expect of these two young men ? Obviously, he will expect 
the one who has served a four years' apprenticeship in a good shop 
to have a practical knowledge of the machines and tools of his trade, 
or of those required in some department of it, and to know how to 
use this knowledge with a certain efficiency and skill. He will hardly 
expect him to know anything else, or at least not require of him further 
knowledge. He may expect him to read intelligently the working draw- 
ings placed in his hands, but he will not look for much knowledge of the 
principles of design, nor will he expect of him any facility in mathe- 

1 904] MA THE MA TICS 1 2 7 

matics, excepting such as is absolutely essential to the intelligent opera- 
tion of the machines and tools he is to make use of. Now, if we turn to 
the other young man, it is equally obvious that his employer will not ex- 
pect him to know any trade, or any portion of a trade, well enough to 
enter into competition at once with the shop-trained apprentice and keep 
pace with him in the same class of work. Three things, however, he 
will expect of him — first, that he will be able quickly to overcome his 
deficiencies of technical training in the same line as that followed by his 
rival ; second, that he could do the same thing in several lines of work, 
if called upon to do so, and thus soon outclass the shop apprentice in 
the range of his accomplishments ; and, third, and most important of all, 
he will expect him to show evidence of having been furnished with a 
certain training in the scientific and mathematical principles which 
underlie the trade which he is to follow, and to have some knowledge of 
the principles of design as applied to the machines and tools he is to 
use, as well as to the constructive work he will be called upon to do in 
the practice of his calling. If he has this latter knowledge and training, 
it is evident that a wise superintendent will mark out for him a much 
broader range of work which, other things being equal, will soon enable 
him to rise above his associates who have had merely shop training, to 
become in due time a foreman or even a superintendent. Such a result 
should be expected of the four years of work in the manual-training high 
school, so far as it concerns those boys who are destined for employment 
in the manufacturing industries. To what extent is this expectation 
realized ? In how many of our manual-training high schools is there 
practical recognition of the full significance of the comparison which has 
just been outlined ? 

In these schools the boys will invariably be grouped into three 
classes : first, those who are preparing for higher training in colleges or 
schools of technology and engineering ; second, those who are looking 
forward to a mechanical trade, with more or less of a definite purpose ; 
and, third, those who have formed no definite plans as to the future, 
but have elected the manual-training high school course because it 
appeals to their interest, especially on account of the scientific and tech- 
nical work offered, and seems to furnish, at the same time, all the essen- 
tials of the education given in the best of the older high schools. With 
the boys who are preparing for higher technical and scientific training, 
we are not concerned in this discussion. Their course is marked out 
for them by the admission requirements of the schools of college grade, 
which must assume the responsibility for their professional training. 


But with the second class of boys — those who wish to become skilled 
mechanics or to engage in the mechanical industries in some capacity — 
we are deeply concerned ; and for the third class — those mechanically 
inclined, but having less definite purposes for the future — we may find 
scarcely less cause for modifying our plan of teaching. Taken together, 
these two classes of boys constitute those for whose education and 
training, primarily, the manual-training schools came into existence. 
That it has held their interest and met their needs in large measure is 
not to be questioned. Nor can it be doubted that some important needs 
have been overlooked, some opportunities missed. In fact, it is justly 
charged against the schools that, notwithstanding all they have done, 
they have, generally speaking, perpetrated the one great fault that they 
were supposed to be able to correct, namely, the inability oi the average 
boy to apply his elementary training in arithemetic and his knowledge 
of algebra and geometry to the practical problems of the shops and the 
laboratories. This is the universal complaint of the teachers of science, 
of drawing, and of all departments of the mechanic arts. The same 
deficiency is recognized outside the schools. A remark of the president 
of one of the trades union federations is to the point. Speaking of 
manual-training schools, he said : " Since they teach the boys how to do 
nothing in particular, they do no harm." We must infer that, in his opin- 
ion, they would be doing harm if they taught boys to do something in 
particular — that is, if they gave their young students such a grasp upon 
the real problems of the industries, that at graduation they are found to 
be in quick demand in the labor market, thus threatening the stability of 
the unions. But this is the distorted view of the paid promoter of labor 
trusts. American citizens, whether members of the trades unions or not, 
wish their sons to have the best that the schools can give, and they will 
welcome any effort to give greater effectiveness to the work of the manual- 
training schools, as well as to the work of all others. How to secure 
this greater effectiveness, especially how to teach the manual-training 
school boy to make prompt and efficient use of the instruction which he 
receives in the various mathematical studies, is at present a serious mat- 
ter of inquiry among many whose business it is to direct and improve 
the work of these schools. 

One cause of the failure of manual-training schools to reach that 
degree of efficiency in teaching the applications of mathematics that was 
expected of them may be found in the fact that, in planning the courses 
of study for these schools, little or no change was made in the method of 
presenting mathematical subjects. The same kind of books were intro- 

1 904] MA THE MA TICS 129 

duced as were used in the older schools — books written almost entirely 
from the point of view of the teacher of pure mathematics, with little 
reference to the concrete problems of life, and having no reference what- 
ever to the actual problems of the drawing room or the shop. In the 
classroom work the mathematical departments of these schools have 
generally failed to make use of the rich opportunities afforded by the 
shops and science laboratories to fix a knowledge of mathematical prin- 
ciples by concrete illustration and practice. 

In defence of this method it may be said that teaching by concrete 
example is not the duty of the teacher of mathematics — that this should 
be done by the instructors in shop practice and by the science teachers. 
To this objection the teachers of shopwork and of science will at once 
reply that when they attempt to do this they find their pupils lamentably 
weak in the knowledge of mathematical principles and in the art of com- 
putation. As a matter of fact, it is no more the fault of one department 
than of the other, that there is such an acknowledged lack of power to do 
the ordinary sums of arithmetic or algebra, or to apply the principles of 
geometry in ordinary practical problems. So far as manual-training 
school boys are concerned, pure and applied mathematics are one and 
the same thing ; or, in other words, it is the duty of every teacher con- 
cerned to see that the individual pupil thoroughly understands the under- 
lying principles of whatever work he is doing whenever he meets with 
difficulties. Nothing is gained by pushing the responsibility back upon 
associate teachers in other departments or by complaining of defects in 
elementary preparation. A moment's reflection will reveal the fallacy of 
such a course, for it might start with the college or university professor 
and apply equally well all along the line down to the kindergarten. At 
all events, the secondary teacher in any department does not escape 
blame under such a system, if he allows pupils coming to him with im- 
portant deficiencies to pass on to higher departments without thorough 
correction and repair. Evidently the thing for every teacher to do is to 
blame no one below and put his own teaching so far as possible beyond 
the danger of just criticism from other departments, whether above him 
or not ; and certainly the best time for young pupils to make up deficien- 
cies and repair foundations is when they are brought face to face with 
the practical necessity for it. 

Another cause of the failure of manual-training school pupils to meet 
practical mathematical requirements may be found in the temptation 
which naturally comes to these schools to endeavor to substitute mere 
mechanical training: for book work or for studies which do not at once 


appeal to lazy, indifferent, or backward boys. There is acknowledged 
need for special courses to meet fairly the special conditions referred to ; 
but it is a misconception of all the requirements of the case to suppose 
that mere shop practice without the mastery of the underlying mathe- 
matical and scientific principles will prove successful in the long run. 
What we need to do is to keep laying and re-laying the foundations in 
the class rooms, in the shops, and in the laboratories for four years or 
more if necessary, making use of such concrete illustrations as are 
afforded by practical exercises to enforce an understanding of principles 
and an appreciation of the necessity of understanding them. It may be 
wise to cast aside in some cases the old-time algebras and geometries 
which, as such, are often incomprehensible to boys ; but there must be 
substituted for them not practical work stripped so far as possible of all 
reference to mathematics, but rather practical work which is distinctly 
planned to make up for the lack of mathematical study of the usual 
classroom form. If the manual-training schools do their full duty they 
will see to it that those of their pupils who do not readily grasp mathe- 
matical ideas when presented in their usual form, whether from a distaste 
for study or from apparent inability, shall, nevertheless, lay all necessary 
mathematical foundations in some other way. Taught mathematics in 
some way they must be, if, as has already been pointed out, the manual- 
training school graduates of this class are to derive from their four years 
of school work any marked advantage. 

The practical necessity of special attention to mathematical require- 
ments, especially in schools in which technical and scientific instruction 
is a distinctive feature, may not be fully met by such improvements as 
are possible in the usual methods of teaching mathematics. A special 
department of applied mathematics may be required. In fact, such a 
method of meeting this need is now being tried with every promise of 
success. It has been the practice of the Mechanic Arts High School of 
Springfield for the past two years, not only to enrich the regular work in 
mathematics by concrete illustrations drawn from the exercises of the 
shops and the science laboratories, but also to offer a two years' 
course in applied mathematics. The junior and senior years have been 
selected for this work, and the teachers have been men who have had 
several years of valuable experience in modern shop and drawing-room 
practice. For such work it is necessary to have men who combine 
teaching ability with expert knowledge and experience. In this course 
care has been taken to thoroughly revise the early foundations by reviews 
in arithmetic, algebra, and geometry, with special reference to practical 

1 904] MA THE MA TICS 1 3 1 

applications. Common and decimal fractions, square and cube root, 
fundamental algebraic formulas, and other essential subjects, have been 
taken up again and all the common principles of arithmetical calculation 
have been enforced by classroom practice. This has given an excellent 
opportunity to patch up defects in the earlier training, to supply deficien- 
cies, to employ the reasoning faculty as it never had been employed be- 
fore, and to see the relations between the various branches of elementary 
mathematics. To this has been added a study of simple trigometrical 
functions as related to the right triangle only. The constant aim has 
been to enforce such principles only as are certain to be called into 
frequent use, and to cultivate accuracy in the calculations based upon 
these principles. 

The course has also included a review of the important principles of 
physics and mechanics. The fundamental principles of energy and its 
transfer, of work and its applications in the mechanical powers, have re- 
ceived full discussion and have been enforced by practical problems. 
There has been much practice in the calculation of power, making use 
of the common unit, the horse power, and giving due attention to the 
corrections necessary to apply in practice. Calculations upon the strength 
of materials have been made. These have been based upon the com- 
position, upon the method of manufacture, and upon actual tests in shop 
practice. The principles of pneumatics and hydraulics have been re- 
viewed in the study of modern machines involving these principles. The 
design, construction and operation of steam power plants have received 
attention, also the transmission of power by ropes, cables, belts, chains 
and shafting, and the mechanical principles connected with the genera- 
tion and transmission of power by dynamos and motors. All this work 
has involved the study and description of a great variety of machines 
used in the shops, both for woodwork and for metalwork. 

Another important division of the work has been the calculations re- 
quired for specific operations called for in the shop exercises — such as 
those required for exercises in screw-cutting, taper-turning, boring, and 
those involved in determining cutting speed and feeds, in finding the 
weight of stock required for the various exercises, in determining the 
size and character of tools needed, in the production of square and hex- 
agonal shapes from round stock — and many other problems of like 
nature. The variety and range of work that it has been found possible 
to accomplish, in advance as well as in review, has exceeded the highest 
expectations of the originators of the plan. A large number of tech- 
nical books has been used for reference, for no single text-book can be 


found covering this field. The teacher's note-book has formulated the 
details of daily instruction. The students have manifested an encour- 
aging interest in all features of this work. It has cost them not a large 
expenditure of time and no sacrifice of work in other important depart- 
ments. The time required for the work in applied mathematics has been 
taken from their extra allowance for shop practice. This has been fully 
made up in the increased efficiency of all the regular mechanical work. 
No feature of the work of the school affords greater present satisfaction 
or greater promise for the future. 

Eli Pickwick, Jr. 

N alert teacher of manual training is anxious to encourage 
every indication of desire on the part of any pupil to 
think for himself, to do individual work. Occasionally a 
pupil comes brimming with interest and enthusiasm over 
some scheme of construction that he wants to work out 
to serve a purpose that seems to him to be pre-eminently fitting and 
good. The outworking of such a project, under the guidance of his 
teacher, should result in just the best kind of individual thinking and 
doing. The teachers' problem is to get the class, or at least a great per 
cent, of the class, aroused and enthused to such a pitch that individual 
work will be the rule rather than the exception. Once the vantage 
ground of a great, an absorbing interest is gained, there is no work of 
brain and hand that is not cheerfully, enthusiastically undertaken in the 
consumation of the desired end. 

In the following experiment the stimuli to interest were at least novel, 
and the interest manifestly genuine, leading in a straightforward way to 
good individual work. 

A month or more before Christmas, just as the stores were setting in 
array promises of the coming holiday, a group of poorly-clad little folk, 
gazing longingly at the wonders displayed, suggested the thought that we 
might contribute toward the sum total of Christmas cheer if the children 
in our manual-training classes could make suitable gifts for children less 
fortunately circumstanced than themselves. Here was something worth 
the doing if the right arrangements could be made. Permission was 
readily granted by our superintendent of schools to use part of our 
materials and energies for the object desired. 

We next found some sixty children about whom we were able to 
gather sufficient information to make our gifts personal. These children 
were in our own schools, in hospitals, and in orphan homes. Only volun- 
teers were allowed to do the work. The responses were most gratifying. 
Whole classes wanted to help. We made handkerchief and necktie 
boxes, game of ring toss, wagons, wheelbarrows, sleds, Christinas picture 
mounts and frames, jumping jacks, and doll furniture. The construction 
of the toy furniture, which made up a large proportion of our gifts, lent 

1904] 133 


itself in an admirable way to the solution of the problem of getting from 
a class individual thought and work, all related to a common scheme. 
The class was made up of sixth-grade boys, averaging twelve years 
of age, coming from good homes, familiar with the simple straight-line 
"mission" style of furniture. The first problem presented was the mak- 
ing of a set of dining-room furniture, consisting of a table and four chairs. 
The material furnished was butternut, in strips y± inch and y% inch 

square, and pieces % x 5^x5^ inches. Butternut was used because 
it has an interesting grain, has a charming natural color, looks well when 
finished with linseed oil, and is soft enough to admit of fastening with 
wire brads, even at the hands of boys of above age. Beside a common 
whittling equipment this class had access to small mitre boxes and back 

The first thing to be considered was the problem of design. In the 
case of the table the limit of size of top was fixed at a 5-inch square, 
this being the width of the wood furnished. Comparing this top with a 
common dining-room table 4 feet square, the scale of the furniture was 
readily determined as 1^ inches to the foot. Next was developed the 
height of table top from the floor, resulting in the class deciding to make 
the legs 3 inches long. In a similar way the length of the rails was 
determined. By comparing the relative height of a table top and a chair 
seat the first dimensions of the chair was obtained, and from that by 
scale the other parts. 

A point brought out by one member of the class, that a high post at 
the back of the chair would interfere with service at the table, resulted 


in the chair backs being made relatively low. After the class study the 
work of making tables and chairs was divided among the pupils, each 
making one or more objects. 

The dining-room sets looked so very fine when finished that enthus- 
iasm ran high, and opportunity was ripe for a further venture. A sug- 
gestion that a library or living-room set be made was at once adopted. 
After talking over the problem in a general way, and deciding on the 

pieces of furniture that would naturally go to make up such a set, each 
boy was given the task of designing and building some one special piece, 
the teacher acting as consultant to all. Each pupil was encouraged to 
get as much information as possible on the object assigned to him before 
beginning his design. This entailed a study of furniture at home, visits 
to the furniture and department store where furniture of the " mission " 
type might be seen, and the making of dimension sketches, and translat- 
ing them into the language of the scale they were to use. 

The table, after proper observation and study, was made with an ob- 
long rather than a square top, the legs being tied together with rails near 
the floor in a very characteristic fashion. The chairs took on an air of 
less rigidity and more comfort — becoming to a chair for the living room — 
by using a leather seat and back, the leather being fastened to the frames 
with small brass escutcheon pins. 

At first the problem of the Morris chair was not mentioned, but when 
the other work was well under way, and the spirit in it was of the best, 
two or three boys asked if they might not try it. Consent was given, 
and very creditable Morris chairs resulted, with their hinged backs regu- 


lated to the proper inclination by a tiny strip or rod fitted to notches in 
the arms, in approved style. The girls contributed the .reversible 
cushions for Morris chair and settee, and also the pillows for the couch. 
The couch involved the sawing, at an agle other than 90 degrees, to make 
the head. A failure in the first instance sufficed to show the necessity 
for very careful measuring and accurate cutting, and pointed the way to 
final success. The stool was brought to the class as a surprise contribu- 
tion, it having been made at home by a pupil who had saved bits of wood 
and leather too small to be of use in the other articles. 

Another class of the same grade took up the problem of the doll's 
bedroom furniture and furnishings, resulting in some very excellent in- 
dividual work. Beginning with the crib, or bedstead, making a class 
study of it, assuming one dimension, and from it getting the scale by 
comparison, the work advanced in a way very similar to that already 
described. The individual problems of chair, rocking chair, chiffonier, 
bureau and wash stand followed in order after the crib, the last three 
pieces being worked out in thin wood with the knife, the parts glued or 
bradded as in our regular six-grade work. In this class the girls as well 
as the boys became intensely interested, and contributed many sewn 
articles to the furnishings of the bedroom, among them mattresses, bol- 
sters, pillows, sheets and slips. They even went to the extent of buying 
a doll to fit the crib, and made for it a complete outfit of clothing. 

The beautiful thing about the whole matter was the spontaneous offer 
of service on the part of the pupils, who were manifestly made as happy 
in their labor for others as were the recipients of their gifts. Of the 
abiding joy of the latter it is needless to write. 


J. H. Trybom, 
Director of Manual Training, Detroit, Mich. 

E hear a great deal about the Swedish sloyd system and 
the Leipzig system of manual training, but to my knowl- 
edge there has been very little said or written in this 
country about Herr Aksel Mikkelsen and his work in 
Copenhagen. His system of manual training, neverthe- 
less, is well worth a careful investigation by all manual-training teachers. 
A refreshing originality pervades all his work, and, although we may not 
agree with him in all particulars, we may get a good many valuable sug- 
gestions from a careful study of his methods. 

A consideration of the social, economic, and educational conditions 
which have influenced Herr Mikkelsen in the forming of his ideas on 
manual training might be interesting and instructive in itself. His theories 
differ decidely from the Swedish and the German interpretations of the 
methods and even the aims of manual training. Space will not permit, 
however, more than a brief consideration of a few of the distinguishing 
features of the Danish sloyd system. 

In Denmark manual training was made a discipline in school by the 
Education Act of 1814. But this law was never put into operation, and 
manual training is not yet a part of the curriculum of the elementary 
school ; although, supported by private contributions and parliamentary 
grants, the subject is taught in the schools of a great many towns and 
country districts. Manual training is likely to be generally taught soon, 
as there is now an act before the Parliament which is intended to make 
instruction in this branch obligatory in all schools. 

Herr Mikkelsen opened his first manual-training school for children 
in 1883 in a small country town, in which he was in charge of a technical 
school. In 1885 he established the first sloyd school in Copenhagen, and 
the same year sloyd was introduced in a Copenhagen grammar school. 
About this time the Danish Sloyd Association was founded, with the aim of 
having sloyd introduced in the public schools, and providing for the training 
of efficient teachers. This Association has given its hearty support to Herr 
Mikkelsen's school. He also receives a government grant. 

I had the privilege of visiting Herr Mikkelsen's training school in 
Copenhagen last summer. After reaching the building I had no difficulty 

i9 4] T 37 


in finding the busy workroom in which eighty teachers, mostly men, were 
manipulating the saws and planes. There was another room on the 
second floor in which about fifty others were similarly employed. All of 
these students were Danish teachers with the exception of a few from 
Germany. Woodwork is the only branch taught. 

Herr Mikkelsen's system of manual training has three distinguishing 
features: first, the great stress laid on the physical development of the 
pupil; second, the "working in time," that is, the practice of having the 
movements with a tool executed by all the pupils simultaneously upon a 
word of command; third, the grouping of the same exercise involving 
the use of the same tool. 

I know of no manual-training teacher who has spent so much time 
and effort as Herr Mikkelsen in demonstrating the physical advantages 
of manual training. In order to attract attention to the great importance 
of correct positions, Herr Mikkelsen has published a series of diagrams 
illustrating the normal working positions and the more common habitual 
abnormal positions. He has also of late published some skeleton dia- 
grams showing even more forcibly the necessity of attending to this phase 
of the subject. " The object of these normal positions," to quote Herr 
Mikkelsen's own words, " is in the first place to counteract forcibly the 
tendency to become round shouldered, so common with school children, 
and to give the body health, erectness, and beauty. In the second place, 
it is expected that it may be possible through the working positions as- 
sumed in school to affect the positions later in life of the adult at his work, 
the healthy advantageous positions having become habitual. In other 
words, this emphasis laid on working positions is an attempt to turn to 
account the gymnastic possibilities ; that is, to make the producing activ- 
ity of the body a means of developing the body physically." 

Two fundamental positions, he says, may be assumed. Position No. i , 
especially suitable to all light work executed by means of the arms, as in 
sawing and whittling, is absolutely symmetric : a firm standing position 
feet about twelve inches apart, both heels the same distance from the 
bench, toes pointing obliquely outward (similiar to step stride position in 
gymnastics), the back straight, the shoulders pulled backward, the head 
erect and the chest forward. The bend necessary for work is obtained 
by a regular bending at the hips. Most work is to be done in this in- 
clined position. Position No. 2, used only for heavy sawing and planing, 
is similiar to our ordinary position in planing. Position No. 1, he says, 
has every physiological advantage and is preferred whenever it can be 


used ; position No. 2 is adopted only when, requiring more force, the 
work necessitates a wider movement of the body. 

Another innovation in the same line is "Alternate Work," that is equal 
exercise of both hands. I call this an innovation not in the sense that it 
is a new or original idea with Herr Mikkelsen, but I believe he is the 
only one who systematically applies it. In all heavier work, such as saw- 
ing and heavy planing the left hand is used by preference, whereas in the 
lighter exercises, as in whittling, light planing, finishing, etc., requiring 
accuracy and control rather than force, the right hand is preferred. 

Another application of the physical-culture idea is seen in the method 
of teaching the different exercises. The first use of the saw, for instance, 
is directed by the teacher at a word of command for each movement ; that 
is, the teacher will say "one," and all the pupils will push the saws 
through the wood; at "two " the saws will all be drawn back, etc. Herr 
Mikkelsen says : " The working in time if used under the direction of an 
able teacher, has proved an excellent means of uniting the element of an 
exercise into a rhythmic unity. Working in time is used when practising 
sawing, planing, chiseling and filing. From a technical point of view the 
process has stood its test in these exercises, the manipulation of the tool 
and the work having been greatly improved. The training in good posi- 
tions is rendered much easier by working in time, the pupils, adults and 
children alike, value it highly, and it is an excellent means of discipline. 
The working in time is used within rather restricted limits only while a 
tool is more or less unfamiliar, and then for a few minutes at a time only." 

Another characteristic feature of Danish sloyd is the grouping of the 
exercises involving the use of the same tool. In Herr Mikkelsen's 
course of study for children, covering three years, four hours a week, the 
tools are introduced as follows: First year: The first half, exercises 
with the saw (and no other cutting tool is used during this time); then, 
for one-half month the knife is taken up, and during the rest of the year 
the plane is added to the list. Second year: First half, planing; then 
use of spoke-shave and turning-saw. Third year: The chisel, file, sand- 
paper, etc. 

Herr Mikkelsen believes in concentrating the attention of the pupils 
during a considerable period on the use of a single tool. He does not 
believe that variety of tools is conducive to a greater interest nor to a 
better training. His series of models that may be made with the saw 
alone is very interesting. It includes over a hundred different models, 
such as ladders, flowerstands, footstools, settees, chairs, etc. These 


models demonstrate the principles of making these articles, so that the 
pupils may construct them of a practical size out of school. 

Here is a suggestion worthy of our consideration. Our methods are 
such as to preclude the producing of models with such simple means. 
Moreover, our elaborate and varied equipment accustoms a boy to de- 
pend on a large number of tools, and regard them as indispensible. 
Where a Danish boy at his home would attack a common piece of kind- 
ling wood and construct a variety of articles out of it with the assistance 
of a saw and hammer and brads, our American boy is usually deprived 
of these valuable occupations, because he does not think that he has the 
requisite tools and the right material at his disposal. Herr Mikkelsen 
introduces, as we notice, new tools at considerable intervals, thus mak- 
ing the pupils familiar with the different uses of each one before any ex- 
ercises with another tool are attempted. The models are not sand- 
papered at all during the first and second years. 

The significant feature of Herr Mikkelsen's work is, as we have seen, 
his careful attention to the physical development of his pupils by means 
of correct working positions. His diagrams on that subject, compiled 
with the assistance of medical experts, are the most complete ever pub- 
lished. This suggests one of the insufficiencies of our own manual- 
training schools, and American students would do well to investigate his 
practices. His whole system has been influenced by this idea, and his 
methods adapted to realize this end. He has undoubtedly carried this 
point to what appears to us as an extreme, but it furnishes for this very 
reason, perhaps, a very interesting and suggestive field of study. 


Albert H. Leake, 
Inspector of Technical Education, Ontario. 

>ITHIN the past ten years many changes have come over 
the educational outlook, but the greatest of all has been 
the trend towards the practical. The old and time-hon- 
ored idea that education consists of the mere gathering 
of facts, the massing of knowledge, is dying; the more 
rational view that the school should touch life at as many points as pos- 
sible — that school life should be a type in miniature of that larger and 
fuller life to be lived by the adult — is beginning to be believed. The 
recognition of this re-discovered purpose of all educational effort gave 
birth to the manual-training movement in Canada. The honor of bring- 
ing these ideas within the region of practical experience belongs 
to Dr. Robertson, Dominion Commissioner of Agriculture. It is a 
strange and suggestive coincidence that the man who has done most for 
manual training in Sweden, and perhaps in the world, and the man who 
has made it a possibility in Canada should both have received their pre- 
liminary training in the direction of agriculture. There may be some- 
thing in the study of nature and her problems, which leads to a broader 
and more comprehensive outlook on the affairs of practical life, and gives 
the capacity to see more clearly the vital needs of humanity. 

During Dr. Robertson's frequent visits to England and the United 
States, he noticed the prevailing trend, saw manual training in operation, 
and returned convinced of the good results that would accrue to the 
children of Canada, if the subject and its methods were introduced. 

In his work, for the improvement of agriculture, he had learned that 
the best way to introduce any reform was to show the proposed changes 
in practical operation ; he never made a speech without being prepared 
with a plan by which he could show the feasibility of the course he was 
advocating. As a first step he determined to set aside a portion of his 
income each year towards the establishing and maintenance of a manual- 
training school in Ottawa, and hoped, by persuading several of his friends 
to follow the same course, to show the people of that city and the mem- 
bers of the Legislature what manual training was, and what it was capa- 
ble of doing. Seeking friends to aid him, he approached Sir William 

1904] 141 

z 4 2 



Macdonald, and so eloquently and forcibly did he present his case that 
Sir William at once agreed to give a sum sufficient to equip and main- 
tain one such school in every province for a period of three years. The 
name under which the movement was inaugurated was the " Macdonald 

■■ff B 


Sloyd-School Fund," the Doctor being of the opinion that sloyd as set 
forth at Naas offered the most rational basis on which to found a system 
to fit the conditions in Canada. 1 

The term "sloyd" for some reason or other, perhaps its foreign ap- 
pearance, failed to become popular. The new subject was constantly 
referred to as manual training, and it was decided to change the name 
while keeping to the original conception of the form that the work should 
take. Such was the comparatively modest plan at the commencement 
of the movement, but it was soon found that the demand for schools of 
this kind was so great that considerable enlargement of the plan became 

'The word system as applied to this subject has become of ill repute, and is only 
used because for the present no better can be found. Many of the so-called systems 
have so much " system " that there is little room left for manual training. 


necessary. There are now over forty centers in the Dominion, the equip- 
ment and maintenance of which were originally supplied entirely from 
this fund. 

Sir William M acdonald is best known to the outside world as a manu- 
facturer of tobacco ; to a few he is known on account of his princely 
gifts to McGill University, Montreal. For over forty years he has been 
a resident of Montreal, and has given largely of his time, thought and 
wealth to the advancement of education in Canada, and his gifts have 
always been bestowed with the greatest judgment. 

When the manual-training work was started under the MacUonald 
fund, teachers capable of introducing the new subject were not to be 
found within the limits of Canada ; they were necessarily brought from 
abroad, the expenses in even- case being borne by the fund. A director 
was appointed for each province, and he was held responsible for the 
general organization and the course of work within his territory. I am 
thankful to say that up to the present time we have not imported the 
battle of the "systems." We are prepared to recognize that every system 
has been devised with one end in view — the greatest educational good 
to the child — and when all have the same goal it seems to be the great- 
est folly to fight over the road by which we travel to reach it. The 
points on which we agree are immeasurably greater, and of more im- 
portance than those on which we differ ; the former should be accen- 
tuated and not the latter. 

The "center system" is the one that has been generally adopted, 
though it always has had many disadvantages. In some of the larger 
towns it is coming to be recognized that the best way of carrying on the 
work is by establishing a room for manual training in connection with 
each school. Whether the time will ever come when the grade teacher 
will be competent to teach manual training with his other subjects is 
difficult to say, but in my opinion it is a consummation devoutly to be 

In the vast majority of cases the centers are almost ideal in charac- 
ter, and in one or two instances where rather unsuitable rooms were the 
only ones available, no expense was spared to make them efficient. In 
many places outside of Canada but little attention is paid to the general 
appearance of the manual-training room, and the typical room has been 
as unlovely and barn-like a place as it could be made. Here we have 
proceeded on somewhat different lines. We believe, and believe strongly, 
that the influence of the place in which a boy works leaves its impress 
on both the character of the boy and the quality of his work, and in con- 


formity with this idea we have sought to make our rooms bright and 
attractive, devoting special attention to their decoration, though every- 
thing that has not a direct bearing on the work has been rigidly ex- 
cluded. Specimens of timber, sections of trees, examples of work, and 
photographs have been liberally supplied. The actual course of models 
being taken is displayed by means of large drawings around the room 
These are very effectively and economically prepared with white chalk 
on ordinary wall-paper. Every kind of tool in use has been taken apart, 
and the separated parts mounted and properly named. It is surprising 
what an effect illustrations of this kind have in stimulating a healthy 
curiosity in the minds of the boys. 

Soon after the work was started it was felt that a great hindrance to 
its future development was the dearth of teachers, and steps were taken 
to supply this deficiency. It was decided to establish training schools 
in two provinces in order to equip Canadian teachers. The educational 
authorities offered every inducement to teachers to take a course lasting 
for a period of six months, those in Ontario being offered a bonus of 
$120.00, with tuition and materials free of cost. Our experience has 
forced us to the conclusion that six months is not sufficient even though, 
as is the case, only qualified teachers are taken. Manual training, on 
its introduction, at any rate, stands or falls according to the character of 
its representatives. Realizing this, every applicant was interviewed be- 
fore a final selection was made. By this means a number of good men 
were obtained, several of them being university graduates. Summer 
courses, also, have been held in most of the provinces. In these spec- 
ial attention has been paid to acquiring information about trees at first 
hand, lectures by experts having been delivered in the woods. Every 
chief center in the Dominion is provided with a small but comprehen- 
sive library, consisting of about fifty books, dealing with the subject 
from all points of view. 

Besides the work of organization in the various provinces, it has been 
part of the duty of each superintendent to stimulate public interest by 
attending conventions of teachers, and addressing various school boards 
seeking information on the subject. The demand for services in this 
connection has been very great. Much pioneer work has been done, 
too, by the publication of pamphlets, and the press has been of the 
greatest assistance. 

Manual training and household science have been put into every 
normal school in the Dominion, so the time is not far distant when every 
teacher trained in such schools will have as part of his or her regular 



J 45 

equipment the ability to intelligently conduct classes in these subjects. 
The schools have been fitted in the best possible manner, efficiency 
being the only consideration. The centers are equipped for twenty or 
forty pupils (two teachers), though one large center was fitted for sixty. 
This was rendered necessary in Ottawa, owing to the large teachers' classes 
that had to be handled, but it is an experiment that will not be repeated. 

Before the inauguration of the 
manual-training schools proper, Sir 
William Macdonald had given $10,- 
000 to provide prizes for boys and 
girls in a seed-grain competition 
carried on in accordance with the 
recommendations of the royal com- 
mission. The progressive-agricul- 
ture branch of the fund has great 
possibilities of usefulness before it. 
Over 2,000 boys and girls have en- 
tered the competition, and there is 
no saying to what heights its edu- 
cational influence may grow. 

The work under the fund is not 
the only manual training that is 
carried on in the Dominion. Many 
educational authorities, inspired by 
the success of these schools, have 
established this form of instruction 
on their own account, and in a number of instances have erected buildings 
in which manual training and household science are being carried on 
under the same roof. In these cases liberal aid is given by the provin- 
cial governments. The object for which these schools were established 
has been accomplished, and every town in which they are located will 
take them over and carry on the work at public expense as part of the 
general educational system. 

The next efforts of the fund will be directed towards the improve- 
ment of education in the rural schools. The plan proposed is a compre- 
hensive one and may conveniently be divided into four parts as follows : 

First. To give object-lessons of improvements in education through the con- 
solidation of five, six, or more rural schools into one central graded school, with a 
school garden and manual-training and household-science rooms as part of its equip- 
ment. It is proposed to offer financial assistance to one locality in each province. 



Second. To show the value of school gardens and nature studies in individual 
rural schools as part of a general education. This will be commenced by means of a 
traveling instructor, who will spend a half-day a week with the children and teacher 
at each school of a group for a term of three years, or until a considerable number 
of suitably trained and qualified teachers are available to carry on such work them- 
selves in rural schools. One group of ten, or fewer, schools in each province will be 
aided in this way. 

Third. To assist in providing short courses of instruction for teachers of rural 
schools who desire to qualify themselves in these newer subjects and methods of 
education. A large building has been presented to the province of Ontario at the 
Agricultural College at Guelph for this purpose. 

Fourth. To assist in providing courses of instruction and training in household 
science for young women from country homes, in order that they may have oppor- 
tunities for acquiring practical and advanced education not less suitable to them 
than the present courses at the Ontario Agricultural College are beneficial to young 
men. In carrying out this, a hall of residence will be erected to accommodate not 
.ess than one hundred teacher-students. 

Such are the plans and projects of the Macdonald Manual Training 
Fund, under the direction of Dr. Robertson. Only the barest outline 
of them has been possible within the limits of this short article, and 
I shall not attempt to say to whom the greater honor belongs — to the 
man who by his ability to plan, power to overcome obstacles, and energy 
to direct, or to the man who by his generosity and wisdom in spending 
his wealth makes it possible to bring those plans within the realms of 
the practical. 


James Gamble Rogers 

Many readers of this Magazine will be glad to learn that the Chicago Manual 
Training School has moved into a building which contains a series of shops and 
drawing rooms unsurpassed by any school of secondary grade in America. Below 
we present a brief descriptive article by the architect of the building. We are es- 
pecially glad to present his statement because the architect has given unusual con- 
sideration to the school side of the problem before him. 

For the benefit of any of our readers who may not know the history of this 
school we give the following outline : 

The Chicago Manual Training School was founded by the Commercial Club of 
Chicago. Its history may be said to date from the regular monthly meeting of the 
Club held March 23, 1882, when the necessary funds were subscribed and a commit- 
tee appointed to propose a plan of organization. As the result of the work of this 
committee the Chicago Manual Training School Association, composed exclusively 
of members of the Commercial Club, was incorporated under the laws of the State of 
Illinois, April 19, 1883, and the control of the school was vested in a board of trus- 
tees elected by the Association. The lot on Michigan Avenue on which the original 

1904] 147 


building stands was purchased March 28, 1883; the corner-stone was laid September 
24, 1883, and the regular school exercises began February 4, 1884. The first class 
was graduated June 24, 1886. This school was the first independent manual training 
school in the United States, the St. Louis school having been established in connection 
with Washington University. 

Through twenty years the Chicago School has made an enviable record under 
the directorship of Dr. H. H. Belfield. The breadth and high educational standing 
of manual-training high schools generally throughout the United States today is due 
in a very large degree to the wise precedents established during the pioneer years by 
Dr. Belfield, whose classical training and experience as a public high-school principal 
prevented him from allowing the new school to become a mere trade school. This 
school has demonstrated over and over again that a manual-training high school may 
be a strong college preparatory school as well as a superior training school for a life 
of usefulness. 

On May 25, 1897. the Chicago Manual Training School became a part of the 
University of Chicago, and in the spring of 1901 when the Chicago Institute became 
the School of Education, the University announced the intention of removing the 
Manual Training School to the grounds of the University. The corner-stone of its 
new building was laid June 17, 1903. The school has now been combined with the 
South Side Academy forming The University High School of The School of Edu- 
cation and Dr. Belfield is the senior dean of the combined school. — Editor. 

'N DETERMINING the plan which should be adopted for 
' the Chicago Manual Training School, it was necessary to 
consider not only the needs of this one school, but also 
its relation and co-ordination with the other buildings of 
the group being constrmcted for the several schools, which, 
taken together, are called the School of Education. It was necessary to 
enter into such considerations as direct and easy access from one to the 
other, the amount of ground area to be given to each department, and 
the grouping of the buildings so as to form a harmonious combination. 
Communication from one department to another should be simple 
and easily understood at a glance, for one entering the building for the 
first time has not memory to guide him with reference to what is not 
within the range of vision. This means simple and straight lines in a 
plan. It also means broad and light corridors, for classes are dismissed 
usually at the same time, and the corridors and stairs become at once 
occupied by the students. For these reasons the halls of the Manual 
Training School were made wide and were lined up with those of the 
other buildings of the School of Education. 

The position of the manual-training school at the north end of the 
grounds devoted to this group of buildings was necessitated on the 
one hand by the Assembly Hall and Gymnasium, which it was necessary 









J5 1 

to locate centrally, and on the other hand by the fact that in this way the 
noise from the shops would be less evident in the class rooms of the 
Secondary School which is to stand between the present buildings on the 
Midway and the Manual Training School. 

Several schemes for arranging the shops were considered. The sys- 
tem of stacking them one over the other in pairs, seemed at first to offer 

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many advantages. In this arrangement the forge and foundry were on 
the ground floor, metalwork and machine shops on the second, and wood- 
working and pattern shops on the third, while drawing and domestic 
science were placed in a different building in order to avoid the vibration 
from the machinery. 

The faults of this scheme were, first, that although it was easy to pass 
from the pattern to the woodworking shop, it was difficult to reach the 
foundry, and intercommunication between most of the shops was not easy. 
Secondly, in order to receive from wall windows enough light for the 
students to work comfortably at a bench or forge near the middle of the 
shop, it was necessary to diminish the width between outside walls, mak- 
ing a very narrow and undesirable form for the room. Thirdly, the sup- 
ports in the lower floors would necessarily be a hindrance in the shops. 

For these reasons and because of the advantages offered by the saw- 
tooth system of sky-lights, the one-story system was adopted. These 
skylights have been very popular in France for many years, some of the 


old factories having been constructed in this way. They are made with 
the north slope steeper than the angle made by the sun's rays with the 
ground in the summer, and the south slope non-transparent. In this way 
the light falling on the benches below them is the much-desired north 
light. The windows in the walls at the north, in giving a view of the 
trees and ground, make a more cheerful room than would be the case if 
surrounded by four blank walls — the objection usually raised against 
sky-light lighting. 

The first objection to the stack system was easily solved by adopting 
the one-story scheme, as with it it is possible to truck on the same level 
from one shop to another, either directly or along the wide corridor. 
The third objection to the stack system, namely that of the numerous 
columns necessary, was obviated, there being no heavy loads to carry on 
the girders. 

I have thus far spoken only of the general arrangement. Besides 
this, are to be noticed the smaller rooms adjoining the shops and meet- 
ing their various needs. 

On the ground floor beginning with the west wing, is the machine 
shop, with separate washroom accommodations, store and tool room and 
office. Next to this and communicating with it is the forge room. Each 
forge is provided with down-draft connection, which conducts the gases 
by means of flues under the floor to the chimney, which carries them 
high enough to prevent their entering at upper windows. Adjoining the 
forge room are the stock room, office and washrooms. Then follow in 
succession the foundry, woodworking room and pattern shop with their 
dependencies. A pattern storage room opens into the foundry. Between 
the woodworking room and pattern shop, and opening into each with 
wide openings, is the cutting room and lumber storage space. 

The east wing contains no machinery. On the ground floor is a 
large lecture room fbr the accommodation of the Manual Training School 
students. Adjoining this are the offices of administration with rest room. 
In this same wing on the second and third floors are the mechanical and 
freehand drawing rooms. The absence of machinery in this part insures 
them from vibration. 

In the second story of the west wing is the metalworking room and 
above this is the temporary quarters of the domestic science department. 

The wide corridor running east and west into which the shops open, 
is lined with buff brick, and, being well lighted from above, is intended 
to contain cases for exhibiting the work of the students. 

The walls of shops are lined to a height of seven feet with brown 


enameled brick and above with a smooth yellow brick, forming a good 
surface for diffusing the light. 

The basement under the forge room, foundry and pattern shop,*is 
not excavated. Heavy walls and piers carry the floors and form foun- 
dations for the equipment above where necessary. The basement con- 
tains stock rooms, coke and coal storage convenient to a lift to the floor 
of the foundry, ashes depository for forge room, fan room, shavings 
depository for the woodworking room, receiving room for lumber, and 
lumber storage space. The remainder of the basement is devoted to 
heating apparatus and store rooms. 

Outside of the building is an underground oil room, connecting with 
lift under foundry. 

The buildings are fire proof and of substantial construction. The 
architecture is simple and corresponds with the architecture of the rest 
of the group of which this forms a part. 


Is l" er ® Those who follow the development of the arts, can scarcely 

Industrio- fail to be struck by the changes which are taking place in 

Technical ^e aims and scope of the various professional organizations 
Associa- . 

toin? which represent them. The Western Drawing Teachers' As- 

sociation has become the Drawing and Manual Training Association, 
while the Eastern Art Teachers' Association, at its recent meeting in 
Baltimore, exhibited much work in construction and applied design. 

Such actions are as straws indicating the direction and force of the 
wind which is now setting steadily toward a union of the interests of draw- 
ing and manual training. The manual arts, as such, are coming to be rec- 
ognized in the elementary curriculum as developmental subjects — essen- 
tials, not specialties. Above the elementary school we see their differ- 
entiation and specialization in industrial and technical courses. 

Which of these two interests — elementary or advanced — the exist- 
ing manual training associations will elect to represent, they must in the 
not far distant future decide. 

The line of clevage in programs and in membership is already 
marked. The elementary-school people have their problems, and the 
technical and industrial-school people theirs, but the two sets of prob- 
lems differ in essence, and it is scarcely to be expected that teachers of 
one class can have more than an academic interest in the proceedings of 
those in the other. 

It might, indeed, be urged that a division of the manual-training as- 
sociations into elementary and advanced sections might solve the diffi- 
culty. In all probability such a division would serve, were it not for 
the fact that owing to the close relations of construction and design in 
elementary teaching, the associations which represent the arts in the ele- 
mentary schools can scarce but come to include the very workers who 
would otherwise form the elementary sections of the manual-training 

Under the circumstances it might seem wise if the manual-training 
associations were to confine their work to technical and industrial ques- 
tions. They would then have a field to themselves. Technical educa- 
tion in this country is bound to develop mightly, and as yet, industrial 


1904] EDITORIAL 155 

training is in its infancy. The near future must see a great develop- 
ment of both of these subjects. Such growth associations of the nature 
indicated could do much to promote. That they would profit by the 
concentration of their activities and by the focusing of their interests 
there is good ground to believe. The future will demand a more inten- 
sive study of all phases of industrio-technical education. There is no 
more important service which any association can do than to organize 
and direct this study and present its results in definite and permanent 
form. — H. 

It is possible to dissolve the Arts in the elementary course of study — to 
relate them so that they appear nowhere as special subjects, but in a dozen 
places as essential elements. The more skilful the teacher, the more perfect 
the solution. 

Constructive What progress is being made in constructive design in 
manual-training high schools ? In the writer's opinion 
the importance of this matter cannot be overestimated. Most manual- 
training school teachers, however, while admitting the high educational 
value of design in the abstract, do not think it practicable to give much 
attention to it. Some say it is too difficult for boys of the high-school 
age; others claim that a systematic effort to introduce constructive de- 
sign into a general course would require a disproportionate amount of 
time; and still others base objections on the assumption that, if design 
is taught at all, it must be taught, in most schools, by teachers of draw- 
ing who know scarcely more than their pupils about the principles of 

There would be some weight in these objections if by constructive 
design as applied to manual-training high-school work were meant a 
thorough and systematic application of this principal to all or even the 
larger part of the mechanical work in such schools. No teacher of any 
practical experience would contend for such an impossible scheme. It 
is recognized that much of the work of every department must be prac- 
tice work upon exercises devised by the teacher to give instruction in 
the principles involved in the work of that department. It would be 
practically impossible either to have the pupil design all or even a large 
part of his own work or to require him to design much of the work to be 
done by other pupils. But is this fact, self-evident though it may be, any 
justification for the contention of many manual-training teachers that 


there is no place in the manual-training school for any work in con- 
structive design on the part of the pupil ? 

Many of the difficulties of the case disappear when the idea of 
teaching design through the pupil's original effort is considered by itself, 
as a matter of paramount importance, and limited to one or to a few 
simple and unique exercises, set apart for this purpose. The aim should 
be not to cultivate facility in design, but to develop fundamental ideas of 
the relations existing between work at the drawing table and work at 
the bench, the forge or lathe; to awaken the sense of proportion and 
balance; to suggest the fitness of form, size, weight and material to the 
requirements of the case in hand; and to impress the necessity of 
scrupulous attention to details in making the final or working drawings. 
If manual training in general means more than mere mechanical prac- 
tice — if there is any value in encouraging thought about any exercise 
with a view to discovering reasons for the processes involved and thus 
unfolding to the pupil's mind the design of the one who planned the 
exercise — there is certainly still greater value for the pupil in thinking 
out a practical problem or plan of his own, i. e., in original design. 

It is natural for most boys, in their earlier conceptions, to aim much 
higher than either their constructive ability or the time at their disposal 
will warrant. This probably explains the failure of many attempts to 
teach constructive design. In order to insure success it is necessary to 
suggest designs of extreme simplicity and to insist upon their being 
properly worked out. In giving this work its proper place in the man- 
ual-training course, wise and conservative direction is needed. There is 
danger of striving for the impossible both in kind and in amount. The 
regular course of practical instruction must not be interfered with. A 
proper guarding of this point often results in setting apart the work in 
design for the brighter boys of the school. But this is not surrendering 
the main proposition, that there should be consistent effort made in 
every complete manual-training course to bind together the work of the 
drawing room and the shop, and all other departments which have any 
correlation, by designing and planning a reasonable number of construc- 
tive exercises.. — IV. 

The first business of the art teacher is not to teach art, nor is it the first 
business of the shop teacher to teach shopwork ; art teachers and shopmen 
exist to teach children. It is well to remember this. 

1904] EDITORIAL 157 

The Second The second " International Congress for the Development 

International - . , , . , ~ . „ . , , , . 

Drawing of the teaching of Drawing" is to be held at Berne, 

Congress Switzerland, during the first week in August, 1904. A 

program of breadth and range is contemplated. There is 
to be a general and an educational division. The general division is 
" to examine the results, in different countries, of the resolutions adopted 
by the preceding Congress, and to study the ways and means of assuring 
the existence of the permanent international committee." The educa- 
tional division is, in its general section, to study the social value of 
drawing and methods of drawing instruction, while in its special section 
it will examine drawing in its professional, technical and artistic aspects. 

This Congress, in its general aspects, is only a small part of a large 
movement which, the world over, is making for the union of similar 
interests. Various of the professions have long since felt the necessity 
of international association, but it has remained for teachers of drawing 
to feel this need and to take steps to meet it. Upon the depth of this 
feeling the future success of the international association must depend. 
Three or four general societies of drawing teachers already exist in this 
country. With an international association as a stimulus these societies 
may be in a position to raise their standards of professional work. The 
Congress certainly should aid in making clear the points of view of draw- 
ing teachers from different countries; it should enlarge these views and 
should create a mutual interest and sympathy among the teachers who 
hold them. It should cause professional problems to be studied — intel- 
ligently studied — and should put results into accessible form that they 
might be of service to the profession at large. 

That a congress of this description can have but a moderate growth 
in its early years must stand to reason. The diversities of language, 
marked in all international gatherings, will in the case of the coming 
meeting be emphasized. Few drawing teachers are polyglots, and the 
effort to catch a new point of view in an unfamiliar tongue will try the 
patience of. many listeners. Unfortunate, also, will be found the fact 
that few members can come to the congress prepared by training to 
study in scientific fashion the problems there presented. Drawing 
schools and studios do not produce the scientific attitude. The con- 
gress, therefore, if it is to make its transactions of value, must be under 
the burden of training its members, as well as gathering them together 
and reporting them. Whether this can be successfully done remains to 
be seen. Certainly everyone interested in the development of drawing 


as an essential element in education should welcome and support the 

The first meeting of the Congress was held in Paris during the 
exposition of 1900. It is to be regretted that the second could not have 
been held this year at St. Louis. If the signs of activity in various 
quarters offer any reasonable criteria as to the extent of the educational 
features of the coming exposition, the drawing congress would have 
found much suggestive material in the cosmopolitan showing there to be 
made. For the great majority of drawing teachers in the United States 
the center of interest this year will be found in the great fair, and the 
work and study of the large but inorganized drawing congress which will 
gather on the banks of the Mississippi will not be less important or far- 
reaching than that of the body which is to meet in the republic of the 
Alps.. — H. 


Light and crime may go together. Some of the darkest deeds done i?i the 
name of art have been perpetrated with a glowing pyrographic point. 

Milwaukee Every teacher of the manual arts within reasonable distance 
ought to attend the Milwaukee meeting of the Western Draw- 
ing Teachers' Association. Last year the Association voted to change 
its name so as to include manual training and this year a new constitu- 
tion will be presented for adoption. It is believed that under this new 
constitution • the Association will be the greatest single force in the West 
for the unification of manual training and art education and will be 
stronger and more influential, even, than it has been in the past. The 
invitation of the drawing teachers is most cordial and we believe the 
teachers of manual training will respond with heartiness. The time is 
surely ripe for such an organization as is contemplated. The executive 
committee ha"s in preparation a most attractive program, a preliminary 
draft of which we print in another column. — B. 

Culture means many points of view. 

N. E. A. The president of the manual-training department of the National 
Educational Association is making the best of a rare oppor- 
tunity by planning to use the educational exhibits of the Louisiana Pur- 

'9°4] EDITORIAL I59 

chase Exposition as the basis for a large part of his program, and by 
inviting the leading representatives of foreign countries to take part in 
that program. Already he has announced that Dr. Alwin Pabst of 
Leipsic, the noted German leader, will speak at the first session 
Other distinguished foreigners will probably be announced soon Our 
department president is evidently following the timely advice of President 
Eliot in his report of the Boston meeting when he said that " every 
writer should be urged to deal with actual experience, difficulties en- 
countered, and results achieved, rather than with theories or general- 
ities. * * * Interest in the meetings can best be assured by 
procuring the active participation on the program of teachers who have 
a wide reputation, or who have obtained in their own fields unusual 
results. A few papers on educational theory are desirable; but these 
should make but a small part of the total program of a convention."—^. 

No small interest attaches to the plan of the Council of Supervisors 
of each year putting into printed form the results of studies made by 
its members. A procedure common enough among many other pro- 
fessional bodies, it has remained to be proven that an association of 
supervisors of the arts could carry through to successful issue the publi- 
cation of a year book involving an annual expenditure of some hundreds 
of dollars. That this has been successfully done is a cause for congrat- 
ulation. The council, now in its fourth year, would appear to be firmly 
upon its feet. Its book is a dignified publication, the articles of which 
represent not mere lucubrations of persons playing at authorship, but 
the serious studies of earnest teachers working for the good of the craft. 
As an organization which does something, the council has valid claims 
to consideration. It stands for deeper professional study and for more 
searching professional criticism. It is an organization striving to raise 
still higher professional standards. 



A notable event in the history of manual training in Illinois occurred at Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, on Friday and Saturday, February 19-20, when a per- 
manent organization of the manual-training workers of the state was effected. After 
consultation with the leading men in various parts of the state the invitation to a 
"Conference on Manual Training" was sent out by Bradley Institute. The general 
plan of the conference included: inspection of the shops and studios of the Institute, 
which were open to visitors all day on Friday ; in the evening a dinner, followed by 
addresses and discussion of plans; on Saturday morning a session for business and 
organization, followed by a brief program with discussions. 

The opportunity to visit such a school as Bradley Institute was embraced by a 
goodly number of the visiting teachers, and Mr. Bennett and his corps of assistants 
were kept busy most of the first day showing them through the buildings. In each 
section of the department of manual arts was a representative display of work that 
was at once instructive and full of new suggestions. 

At six o'clock Friday evening the guests began to assemble on the third floor of 
the main building where they were received by Dr. Burgess, acting director of 
Bradley Institute, and Professor Bennett, head of the department of manual arts, 
and an hour was spent in exchanging ideas and extending acquaintance. Shortly 
before seven the doors of the dining room were thrown open and the members of the 
conference, thirty-two in number, were seated about a large table which was arranged 
in the form of an open square. Souvenir menu cards were provided by the drawing 
department, while an elegant dinner was served by the young ladies of the depart- 
ment of domestic economy, who demonstrated beyond a peradventure the 
thoroughly practical and efficient manner in which this department is conducted. 

After the banquet Dr. Burgess, before introducing the speakers of the evening, 
extended to the visiting teachers and supervisors of manual training a most cordial 
welcome on behalf of Bradley Institute, and expressed his confidence that this event 
was to be the starting point of a movement of much significance to education in 

Oliver J. Bailey, president of the board of trustees of Bradley Institute, and 
Newton C. Dougherty, superintendent of the Peoria public schools, made brief 
addresses welcoming the convention to the Institute and to the city, and predicting 
great things as the outcome of the projected deliberations. 


The principal address of the evening was delivered by William Hawley Smith, 
who responded to the toast: " Manual Training." On account of ill health Mr 
Smith has had to cancel all lecture engagements this season, but his personal interest 
in manual training induced him to accept the invitation to the conference, a sacrifice 
much appreciated by all who were fortunate enough to hear him. He said in part: 

160 [APRIL 

1 904] ASSOC I A TIONS 1 6 1 

" I have always taken a special interest in manual training and in my travels up 
and down the country I have taken pains to investigate what is being done. I have 
settled in my own mind that the one fundamental thing that must forever obtain in 
education is that every move, every act, must ultimate in the formation of character. 
If it does not lead to this end, it is not worth while. 

" What do I mean by character? If the fundamental principal in a man's life is 
regard for truth — regard for God's law — that is character. Now, it seems to me that 
manual training has in it more of the essential thing that among the masses of the 
people is to develop character than is generally realized. You young men especially 
have before you a grand future in the development of this new education. 

" Why was it we whipped Spain so easily in the late war? They had better 
ships than we, better guns and better paraphernalia in many ways; but when it came 
to shooting — to doing things — they could't do it and our folks could, and that's what 
made the difference. 

" You manual training people have got some hard things to go up against; it 
may be worth while just to touch on some of them. The first problem is to 
find the man; how are you going to make good men? The supply of competent 
teachers is not sufficient to meet the rapidly growing demand, which is for men who 
are strong on both the practical and theoretical sides. 

" In the second place, the equipment of a school like this, a source of strength, 
is also a source of danger. A student prepares himself for work here surrounded by 
all this magnificent equipment; then you send him out to Chenoa or some other 
small place where he starts in with the idea that he needs the whole outfit. Some- 
body has said: 'Any fool can use tools, but it takes genius to do things without 
conveniences.' It will be worth your while to look up the fine work Superintendent 
Stableton is doing down there at Bloomington this winter with the minimum of 
expense and equipment. 

" In the third place, it is a mistake to say that all boys should take manual train- 
ing. There are boys who have no business to take manual training to amount to 
anything at all. We talk about the educational values of the different studies; but 
the fundamental thing, as I see it, is to study the child and find out what is in him. 

" There is a great temptation to crowd things along too fast; in undertaking a 
great many things we don't do anything well enough. 

"Another thing that needs your attention is the development of the idea of the 
dignity of labor. You will find here prejudice to overcome; there are people who 
want to get a living without working. We say with Walt Whitman: 'Ah! little thinks 
the laborer how close his work is holding him to God.' Labor is a noble thing." 

Mr. Smith was listened to with close attention and as he finished his address 
was greeted with continued applause. A quartet consisting of Messrs. Dille, Hiatt, 
Beecher and Anderson, principals of Peoria schools, presented several selections 
during the evening which were heartily received. 


The evening closed with a discussion of the questions incident to the formation 
of a state organization. Dr. Burgess introduced Mr. Bennett who took charge of this 
discussion. In a few words Mr. Bennett related the story of the growth of the idea 
of which this conference was the fruition. One of the things that brought matters 
to a head just at this time was the coming into the state of a number of new men to 


whom, as one of the older workers, the speaker wished to extend a cordial welcome. 
Mr. Bennett then called upon a number of those present for expression of opinion 
and suggestions. Presson W. Thomson, director of manual training, Peoria High 
School, was introduced as one of the leaders in the present movement and the one 
directly responsible for the suggestion of a state organization. After outlining 
briefly the advantages of the proposed plan Mr. Thomson made a motion that the 
conference proceed to effect a permanent organization and that the chair appoint a 
committee on constitution and a committee on nominations to report on Saturday 
morning, Mr. Bennett to be the chairman of the nominating committee. This 
motion was later seconded by Mr. G. H. Bridge, Galesburg Public Schools. 

Continuing the discussion, the following men were introduced and spoke, all 
favoring organization: L. A. Hatch, DeKalb Normal School; I. S. Griffith, Oak 
Park; C. H. Bailey, James Millikin University, Decatur; L. R. Abbott. Moline; A. H. 
Hiatt, Peoria Public Schools; Professor Frank Forrest Frederick, University of Illi- 
nois, Champaign; A. C. Bloodgood, Aurora; H. G. Hatch, Rockford; E. H. Sheldon, 
Evanston; C. W. Kent, Rock Island; A. P. Laughlin, LaGrange; W. T. Bawden, 

Fred. I). Crawshaw, Peoria Public Schools, as temporary secretary, read extracts 
from letters sent to the meeting by the following persons who were unable to be 
present: Dr. H. H. Belfield, dean of University High School, Chicago; A. R. Rob- 
inson, Crane Manual Training High School, Chicago; P. M. Chamberlain, Lewis In- 
stitute, Chicago; Henry S. Tibbitts, principal John Spry School, Chicago; Superin- 
tendent O. J. Milliken, Jewish Manual Training Schccl, Chicago; Iia M. Carley, 
Francis Parker School, Chicago; Grant Beebe, Chicago High School; Douglas Don- 
aldson, Joliet High School; George W. Webber, Quincy High School. 

Robert M. Smith, Chicago Public Schools, and Oscar L. McMurry, Chicago 
Normal School, were unable to attend the banquet, but arrived in time for the Sat- 
urday morning session. 

The whole question of organization was fully discussed and various plans con- 
sidered, everything indicating that the time was ripe for action. Chief among the 
features demanded were: an independent state organization designed for conference, 
mutual assistance and professional advancement; and membership open to educators 
directly interested in manual training and the applied arts. 

Mr. Thomson's motion was then put and carried unanimously and the committees 
named by the chair as follows: On constitution — Thomson, Peoria, chairman; 
Bailey, Decatur; Hatch, DeKalb; Kent, Rock Island; Laughlin, LaGrange. On 
nominations — Bennett, Peoria, chairman; Sheldon, Evanston; Anderson, Peoria. 

The quartet led the singing of "Illinois" and the conference adjourned 
at i i:oo p. m. 

At 9:40 o'clock Saturday morning the conference was called to order in the 
assembly room of Bradley Institute with Mr. Thomson in the chair. After discus- 
sion and amendment the report of the committee on constitution was adopted. 
The provisions of the constitution relating to the purpose of the association and 
membership may be of general interest. 

" The purpose of the organization shall be the advancement of manual arts in 
public education, and the cultivation of professional spirit among its members." 

" The association shall consist of those who sign the constitution as charter 
members, and such others as shall be elected to membership on nomination of the 


executive committee. Candidates for membership shall be elected by ballot at the 
annual meeting of the association. Negative votes amounting to one-fourth of those 
cast shall reject a candidate, but any person so rejected may be proposed again after 
the lapse of one year. Candidates must apply in writing to the secretary, and are 
voted upon after being favorably reported by the executive committee." 

The report of the nominating committee was amended and the following officers 
elected for the ensuing year: President, Charles A. Bennett, Peoria; vice-president, 
Ira S. Griffith, director of manual training, Oak Park; secretary-treasurer, William' 
T. Bawden, director of manual training, State Normal University, Normal. 

At the morning session two educational topics were considered. Oscar L. 
McMurray, Chicago Normal School, addressed the conference on 


The speaker confined his attention more especially to the problem of the relation of 
the grade teachers to manual training. « Handwork is now making its way into the 
grades. The grade teacher is the controlling influence in the education of' the child 
during the formative period from the first to the eighth grades. Our work for the 
next few years must be largely with the grade teachers; in fact, the work of the 
director should be divided between the children and the teachers. We started in 
Chicago a line of constructive work for the city teachers, taking up problems in 
cardboard, bent iron and clay. We have found a shortage of teachers to cany on 
this work. Poor work comes largely from inability to clearly image ideas; most of 
these teachers are weak in making sketches. Manual-training teachers who are pri- 
marily interested in high-school work can help in this field by working with the 
teachers in the grades. The influence of such work would be felt when the children 
get up to the high school, so that it would be well worth while even from the point 
of view of the high-school teacher's own work." 

Discussion of this topic was opened by Mr. Bawden, Normal, who called atten- 
tion to the fact that as a general thing grade teachers are willing and anxious to take 
hold of the work and make something out of it. By encouraging this interest and 
providing the necessary assistance and feasible suggestions the influence of manual 
training may be multiplied by as many times as the grade teachers outnumber the 
special teachers. Furthermore, it is not difficult for the grade teacher to master the 
processes that it is desired to employ. 

G. H. Bridge, director of manual training, Galesburg High School, read an 
interesting paper on " Manual Training in the High School." The paper dealt 
chiefly with the introduction and growth of manual training in Galesburg. The 
superintendent and principal of the high school were quoted to the effect that man- 
ual training has done more than anything else to increase high school attendance. 
Greater interest on the part of pupils in their school work, longer continuance in 
school, increase in proportion of those going on to higher education, increase in 
public and especially parental interest in school affairs, were declared to be results 
directly attributable to manual training. 

In opening the discussion of this paper Charles H. Bailey, Millikin University, 
suggested that we must not lose sight of the content value of manual training 
work. Education by the state must lead to efficient citizenship; to be a good citizen 
one must be self-supporting. This idea has been neglected in our schemes of educa- 
tion which do not prepare our children to make a rational choice of life work nor 


provide a fund of information that would be of value in the pursuit of the chosen 

Both the address and the paper were followed by animated discussion indicative 
of a lively interest in the questions under consideration. In each case the discus- 
sions were closed by the chair with members on the floor. After transaction of 
necessary business the association adjourned at 12:55 P. M. 

Altogether it was a most satisfactory meeting and, we believe, one that surely 
means much for the future of manual training in Illinois. 

Besides those already named, the following teachers and supervisors of manual 
training attended the conference and participated in its deliberations, W. H. 
Varnum, director of fine art, James Millikin University, Decatur; L. H. Burch, 
Macomb State Normal; A. G. Pippitt, Abingdon; W. C. Vail, LaSalle; L. I. Brower, 
Elgin; J. C. Scullin, Peoria; C. S. VanDeuzen, W. F. Raymond, C. C. Jett, E. V. 
Lawrence, Bradley Institute. 

State Normal University William T. Bawden. 

Normal, Illinois. 


The fifty-first annual meeting of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association was held 
in Milwaukee, December 28 to 31. The gathering was a large one, and the program 
extensive, consisting of general sessions, and more than a dozen department meet- 
ings. Among the latter was numbered that of the Manual Training and Domestic 
Science section. 

" Manual Training in the Elementary Schools : Present Needs, and How to Meet 
Them," was the title of the first paper presented at this sectional meeting. It was 
read by Charles A. Bennett, of Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, 111. The first 
need mentioned was a broader conception of the manual-training movement ; the 
second, such a degree of flexibility of organization and method as will allow of more 
perfect adaptation to local conditions and individual aptitudes ; the third, adequate 
supervision ; the fourth, a better understanding of the possibilities of manual training 
at small cost ; and the fifth, the more general training of teachers in the manual arts. 
Referring to the third need the speaker said : 

state supervision suggested. 
" Perhaps the greatest present need of all is adequate supervision. There are, I 
suppose, hundreds of teachers and principals of schools in the state of Wisconsin, or 
any of her sister states, who would be glad to introduce some form of manual train- 
ing if they only knew what to attempt and just how to go about it. Often these 
teachers are in small towns where the conditions for such work are favorable, and 
the chief need is for suggestions from an expert who is known to have the approval 
of the school authorities. I believe that a state like Wisconsin can well afford to 
employ such a man, and pay him a good salary, and give him one or two assistants 
if necessary to help just such teachers in different parts of the state, and to work in 
the interests of greater efficiency wherever the work is attempted. He would not 
need to force his services upon anyone, but go only where he is wanted. Sometimes 
he would gather together a group of teachers and give them specific instruction in 
some form of handwork for a week or more ; at other times he would help individ- 
uals. The right kind of a man would soon be in such demand that he would have 


many more requests for help than he could possibly satisfy. Such a man would have 
to be more than a mere teacher of manual training or a routine supervisor ; he would 
have to be a keen observer of local conditions, and possess the power to inspire, and 
please, and help. He should be an expert in drawing as well as in the various lines 
of construction, and should know something of agriculture. He should have also an 
unfailing store of refined originality to give quality to his work. Not only would he 
visit different parts of the state and offer help, but he would prepare outlines, reports 
and handbooks, which the state would print and distribute. 

" It is likely that there would be obstacles in the way of carrying out such a plan 
of supervision. Perhaps it is not practicable in Wisconsin — that I do not know — 
but I believe that if it were once started it would spread through all the central states. 
It is not essentially a new plan. The state of Massachusetts has employed a super- 
visor of drawing of this kind for many years. He has been known officially as the 
'Agent of the State Board of Education for the Promotion of Industrial Drawing.' 
Under his inspiring leadership the state of Massachusetts has long led all the other 
states of the Union in instruction in drawing. Why should not Wisconsin or Illinois 
lead in this greater subject of manual training by adopting the same means? I say 
greater subject because it necessarily carries with it the drawing, at least the indus- 
trial drawing. It is certain that some more adequate means of supervision is needed 
and for years to come it cannot generally be provided by the city and county super- 

The second paper was on " Domestic Economy : Its Place in the Education of 
Our Girls," and was presented by Miss Laura G. Day, of the Stout Manual Training 
School, Menomonie, Wis. Miss Day pointed out that to be trained in domestic 
economy means the possession of a wide range of scientific knowledge of great value 
if applied in the home. Domestic economy has to do with the elevation of the home 
life of the people; it aims "to produce clear-minded, self-reliant women — women of 
character, mental ability and poise, and, above all else, women who are able to apply 
good common sense to the circumstances of every-day life." 


" The answer to this question would seem to be, the earlier the better. When 
we look at child life we see how largely the early years are given to the expression of 
self through the work of the hand and to the gaining of experience in the same way 
We must look further, too, and discover the strong domestic instinct that seems to 
be a part of every normal child. The little girl with her doll, her house, and her 
miniature family life is easily led into the study of the real family life, and never loses 
that early interest. She finds the easiest expression of self in the things that are of 
the most interest to her. If, on the other hand, domestic economy is introduced 
later in life, the inertia that is always the result of a lost interest must be overcome, 
and there is a consequent loss of force and time. Small children with habits un- 
formed, unfagged interest and enthusiasm, respond eagerly to any line of work that 
has a meaning to them outside the school walls, and that makes of school life some- 
thing real and tangible. 

" In the introduction of domestic economy, as in many other lines of work, there 
is the tendency to let ' self-expression,' that bugbear to the over-worked teacher, run 
riot. And here, as in many other places in our system of school work, is a place for 
the administration of the saving grace of common sense. That the child has a right 


to the development of all his God-given faculties no one will deny. That he has 
the right to the indiscriminate use of these faculties in the working out of his own 
sweet will, must be denied by any one who has studied the unfolding of the human 
mind, watched the gradual development of judgment through experience. 

" That a child should do a certain thing at a certain time because it is best that 
she should do so is a wholesome exercise in self-control. That she should do it right 
is right. There is mental discipline in it. That all individuality and self-expression 
should be systematized out of the work means a loss of interest, a loss of force, and, 
in this instance, a loss in the vital relations between school and home. A school- 
born interest carried into the home re-acts upon the school, and while the aim of the 
teacher should always be the disciplining effect upon the mind, the eye, and the hand 
of the child, she must never allow this to interfere with or to detract from the incen- 
tives of the pupil, which is the finished product of her hands. 


"To this end let me make a plea for the adjustable course of study — the course 
of study that does not lay down hard and fast rules for all pupils, regardless of the 
needs and temperaments of the individuals that make up the body of pupils. In this 
work as in no other we are dealing in an intimate way with the evolution of human 
life and the home ideal. Here is given all of the opportunity to study the individ- 
uality of the pupil, and to establish friendly relations between home and school that 
is ever given to a teacher in the public-school work. 

" By an adjustable course of study I do not mean a course that has no definite 
sequence or logical progression. I do not mean a course that like infinity has its 
"beginning everywhere and its ending nowhere." Too much of our special work is 
done on his plan. 

" I do mean a course that is based upon certain fundamental principles, and hav- 
ing a certain logical sequence of mental and physical development. There should 
be certain exercises for the development of certain faculties of the child, with, under- 
lying all, the purpose to have her think clearly, logically, and to a puipose about 
whatever the work in hand may be." 

After a discussion, in which L. L. Summers, J. H. Mason, Mrs. Ida Hood Clark 
and others took part, the session was closed by the chairman, Superintendent L. D. 
Harvey, of Menomonie, with an earnest plea for a more definite formulation of all 
manual-training work for the benefit of the grade teachers and teachers in the coun- 
try schools. Flexibility has its place, but what is needed at the present time in Wis- 
consin is something definite as a foundation to build upon. — C. A. B. 


Clinten S. VanDeusen. 

It is expected that Dr. Alvin Pabst, director of Teachers' Training College, 
I.eipsic, will visit America in May and June, for the purpose of studying the methods 
and equipments for manual training in American schools. He hopes to visit the 
schools of all the principal cities in the east and middle west, also to inspect the 
educational exhibit at St. Louis. Dr. Pabst is one of the foremost leaders in the 
manual-training movement in Germany, has written extensively in its behalf, and is 
editor of its organ Die Blatter fur Knabenhandarbett. At the death of Dr. Goetze, 
the pioneer organizer of manual training in the public schools in Germany, Dr. Pabst 
was appointed director of the college for teachers in Leipsic. 

" The Second International Congress for the Development of the Teaching of 
Drawing" will be opened the first week in August, 1904, at Berne, Switzerland. At 
the first of these international congresses, held in Paris in 1900, there were represent- 
atives of nearly all civilized countries. The officials of the coming congress are pre- 
paring a program covering many phases of the subject, and are making all necessary 
local arrangements. In connection with the congress an exhibition will be held. 
The secretary of the congress is C. Schlaeffer, professor at the Art and Trade School 
in Friburg. 

The Teachers' Training College of the German Association for Manual In- 
struction, has issued an attractive announcement of its summer courses for 1904. 
This is the school at Leipsic of which Dr. Pabst is director. Courses are to be given 
in cardboard work, benchwork, wood-carving, modeling, metalwork, apparatus con- 
struction, and glass-working. A descriptive circular can be obtained from the editor 
of this magazine, or from F. R. Inman. Manual-Training High School, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

The eleventh annual meeting of the Western Drawing Teachers' Association 
will be held in Milwaukee, May 10 to 13. The president of the association, Miss M. 
Emma Roberts, of Minneapolis, is doing everything possible to make the meeting a 
success. Miss Eunice Bannister, of Peoria, chairman of the executive committee, 
announces the following preliminary program : 

Stereopticon Talk on Milwaukee — R. B. Watrous, president of Citizens' Busi- 
ness League, Milwaukee. 

Lecture — "Art in Machine-made Things" (illustrated) — John Quincy Adams* 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Paper and Chalk Talk — "Art in Manual Training" — Hugo Froehlich, New 
York, N. Y. Discussed by R. A. Kissack, St. Louis, Mo. 

Lecture — "Evolution of Art" — Ernest E. Fennollosa, New York, N. Y. 

Paper — "Design as Applied to Furniture" — Gustav Stickley, editor of The 
Craftsman, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Paper — " Manual Training in the Graded Schools" — 

1904] 167 


Information concerning the exhibits can be obtained by addressing Miss Emilia 
M. Goldsworthy, 141 2 Belief ontaine street, Indianapolis, Ind. 

The National Educational Association will meet in St. Louis, June 28 to July 1. 
Professor Arthur H. Chamberlain, the president of the department of manual train- 
ing, announces the following preliminary program : 

First Session : 

General Topic — Elementary Manual Training. 

" The Constructive Idea in the Elementary School " — Dean W. S. Jackman, 

School of Education, University of Chicago. 
" The Place of the Arts in Training for Teaching " — 
" Manual Training in Germany as Exemplified in the German Exhibit " — Dr. Al- 

vin Pabst, director Leipsic Manual Training College, Leipsic, Germany. 
Reports on Work as Shown by Exhibits — 

{a) From Teachers' College, New York city, Miss Mary B. Hyde, depart- 
ment of Manual Training, Teachers' College. 

(b) From Indianapolis, Ind., city schools, 

(c) From Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Charles A. Bennett. 

Second Session : 

" The Manual Training High School vs. Optional Work in the Regular School," 

Charles B. Gilbert, New York city, educational editor D. Appleton & Co. 
" What May be Done in the County Schools ?" Hon. Alfred Bayliss, Illinois 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
Progress in the South, as shown by exhibits. 
Business — Reports of committees ; election of officers. 

The committee of the N. E. A. on " Industrial Education in Rural Schools," ap- 
pointed at the Boston meeting, of which Supt. L. D. Harvey, of Menomonie, Wis., is 
chairman, is hard at work, and has determined to give the subject assigned to them 
a careful and systematic investigation. The plan of the committee is to take up the 
subject of agricultural instruction in both elementary and secondary schools for rural 
communities. They find that the field is so large and the conditions so varied in 
different parts of the country that they will probably make a preliminary report at 
the St. Louis meeting, and postpone the completion of the final report until a year 

Luther W. Turner will again have charge of the classes in basketry and wood- 
work at the Martha's Vineyard Summer Institute. The former will include reed 
baskets, plain and colored, willow baskets in split and whole willow, and Indian bas- 
kets with coils of reed and raffia. Suggestions will also be given in regard to the 
artistic possibilities both in form and color. The course in woodwork is intended 
for those whose experience is limited in the use of tools. It consists in careful in- 
struction in the use of tools, and suggestions as to artistic possibilities in proportion 
of parts, and grains of woods. 

Mrs. Ida Hood Clark, recently in charge of the manual training work at 
Ashville, N. C, has been appointed supervisor of manual training for Milwaukee, 
Wis., and a start has been made in manual training in the grades. 




The Summer School of the South will hold its third annual session at the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville, June 28 to August 5. Last summer 2100 students 
attended this school and a large per cent, of these took one or more of the eighteen 
courses offered in manual training, drawing, and domestic arts. The manual training 
courses for this year include paper-folding, cardboard work, elementary and advanced 
knifework, clay-modeling, basketry, weaving ; shopwork in wood, bent iron, and brass. 
Native materials will be used as much as possible, and all work will be done with a 
view to the needs of the teachers in the schools of the southern states. Considerable 
attention will be given to the principles of aesthetics and their application to manual 
training and decoration. 


As most of my boys have lots of wood to carry in this weather they have taken 
great interest in making carriers as illustrated above. These have turned out to be 
very practical, and in addition have furnished an opportunity to give much thought 
to design, also skill in construction. The saw-buck shows what can be done 
with a sharp ax and an auger. Minnesota has five normal schools, in two of which 
there is no manual training. Two others have some form of industrial work, while 
St. Cloud has a vigorous department three years old, which has always been very 
popular, both with the students and with those in authority. The aim has been to 
make the work closely connected not only with the life of the child in the home but 
also with his work in the schoolroom. As yet only a few towns around us have 
manual training, but inquiries are coming in and interest is awakening, showing that 
the seed is taking root. Geo. G. Greene. 

State Normal, St. Cloud, Minn. 


The Ethical Culture School, New York City, entered its new building January 
6, and is now well equipped for carrying on its work. It is not the intention of this 
school to furnish preliminary preparation for teaching manual training, but is rather 
a school for advanced work and investigation by those who have had preparation 
and experience in teaching. In the normal department are two students sent by the 
Mexican government with a view to their introducing and directing manual training 
in the schools of that country on their return. 

Dr. C. M. Woodward, of St. Louis, will have a model manual-training school in 
operation at the St. Louis Exposition. 

St. George's School, Newport, R. I., has added freehand and mechanical 
drawing to their course in woodwork. It is in charge of Arthur Ray. 

Considerable interest both on the part of pupils and the public is being devel- 
oped in manual training in Weymouth (Mass.) Under the leadership of Supt. Elmer 
Sherman, and by means of private donations, the work has been introduced in one 
center in South Weymouth, where a room has been equipped with sixteen benches. 
Here four classes of seventh, eighth and ninth grade boys now receive instruction 
one day each week from Harris W. Moore, of Watertown. An entertainment for 
the benefit of the work is already planned and later an exhibition of models will be 
made. In another section of the town the Y. M. C. A. has equipped a joinery room. 

Fall River, Mass., will soon have one of the finest textile schools in the United 
States. The school has been desired for some time. 


An addition to the Providence Manual Training High School is contemplated, 
which will double the present floor space. The school was one of the earliest estab- 
lished, and has grown in numbers until it is now necessary to seat pupils in the 
assembly hall, and also to seat a large body of girls in the nearby classical high 
school. The building was one of the first built especially for manual training pur- 
poses, and was generously equipped with the best of machinery and tools for a three - 
years' course for boys. So many girls applied for admission, however, that from the 
beginning there have been teachers and courses especially for girls. These will be 
much better provided for in the addition. Since 1898 the course has been one of 
four years, from nine to three o'clock, except Saturdays. It has combined the high 
school course with four years of drawing, and the usual manual courses for boys and 
girls. There have been no elective courses. Recent additions to the manual courses 
have been weaving, pottery and sheet-metal work in iron, tin, copper and silver. The 
school will make an exhibit at St. Louis. 

An art league has been formed in Providence for art study and work. A course 
in pottery work has been given in the Froebel School. 

The Rhode Island School of Design has recently added a new building in 
which a fine outfit for instruction in textile design and weaving has been installed. It 
contains also a large assembly hall. Other courses have been able to expand through 
the increased room, especially the courses in drawing, painting and decorative design. 
The Saturday classes for children and the classes for public-school teachers are very 
successful. A course in die-sinking and hub-cutting has been one of the features of 
the present winter; also a jeweler's course in metalwork. 

1904] CURRENT ITEMS 171 

The Newsboys' Club has taken wood-work this winter. 

The Y. M. C. A. has given courses in mechanical and freehand drawing, elec- 
trical work, sign-painting, bookkeeping, woodwork and other subjects. 

Mr. Leonard Campbell, principal of Bridgham Grammar School, is introduc- 
ing cooking for the girls and some woodwork for the boys. Mr. Campbell was form- 
erly second assistant at the Manual-Training High School. — F. R. Inman. 

L. H. Burch, formerly an assistant to Oscar L. McMurry at the Chicago Normal 
School, is now at the head of the manual-training work of the Macomb Normal 

The University of Illinois will hold its sixth annual exhibit of public-school work 
in drawing May 12 to 14. This exhibition will include all classes and varieties of 
drawing executed in the public schools, and the sending of even so small an exhibit 
as a single mount, from a school, is encouraged. Especially good examples of work 
are awarded honorable mention by a competent committee. It is thought by the 
University that the return of these commended drawings to the schools will serve as 
a stimulus to the students and thus improve the quality of future work. 

Foster H. Irons, of Superior, Wis., will give the following summer courses 
this year at the University of Illinois : (a) Theory of manual training ; (b) practical 
work of the elementary school ; (c) practical work of the secondary school. 

Harvey G. Hatch, from the Woonsocket, R. I., Sloyd School, is now in charge 
of the manual-training work at Rockford. 

In the recent budget for 1904 passed by the Chicago board of education, ten new- 
kindergartens, five new manual-training and three new household-art centers are 
provided for. 

Manual training and domestic science have been introduced in the schools of 
Elgin this year. A room for the manual-training work was equipped by Chas. H. 
Hulburd, president of the Elgin National Watch Co., and the equipment for domestic 
science was supplied by the Woman's Club of the city. The school board provides 
for the teachers and running expenses of both departments. 

In the eighth grade one lesson a week in mechanical drawing and woodwork is 
given to the boys, and one in sewing or cooking to the girls. In the high school 
considerable freedom is allowed in substituting these subjects for others in the gen- 
eral groups. Two groups entitled " Mechanical " and " Household Economy " are 
provided in which considerable time is allotted to the subjects. Lyle I. Brower, for- 
merly of Rockford, 111., has charge of the woodwork and mechanical drawing. 


On February 15 the class in theory and practice of manual training, at 
Teachers College, made a visit to the Ethical Culture School to observe the work 
and methods there, and improved the opportunity to inspect the new building and 
its laboratories. The manual-training shops naturally claimed the most attention. 
The class vas impressed at every point by the careful economy of space and thought- 
ful arrangement of details. In the wood-turning room, size 22 X 36 feet, there are 


disposed twelve benches, twelve lathes, a circular saw, a band saw and a planer. As 
an illustration of the economy of space, it was noted that the planer was raised 
so that boards passing through could extend over the tops of the benches, and the 
circular saw was placed opposite the door so that long boards could project into 
the hall. At the other end of the building are the forge and moulding room, the 
machine shop, the general woodworking room and the office and demonstration room. 
An ingenious device here is a revolving blackboard set in the wall between the 
demonstration room and the woodworking room, so that the same drawing can be 
shown in either room by simply revolving the board. Set into the demonstration 
bench, and under the removable top, is a porcelain tank, directly supplied with water, 
where experiments w T ith boats, water wheels, etc., can be tried. One room is also 
used as a manual-training office, library and conference room. The woodworking 
room is equipped with twenty benches, a long metalworking bench, lockers for 
160 pupils, and supply and tool cases. The side vices are of the long, upright, 
automatically-adjusting kind. The equipment throughout seems to be very thorough 
and reflects great credit on its designer. William Noyes. 


The manual-training schools opened their third year with substantial additions 
to the enrollment. The McKinley school reported 400 boys and 131 girls. The 
school is in need of increased accommodations; eight rooms outside the building are 
now occupied, with the half-day plan in operation for the first-year class. Otherwise 
everything is in a very satisfactory condition. Our certificate is recognized by all the 
engineering schools to which we have applied for the privilege and, in entrance ex- 
aminations elsewhere, our students have made creditable showing. There is a good 
demand for our graduates for desirable positions. In military drill and in athletics 
we are in direct competition with the older high schools of the city; one of our com- 
panies won the competitive drill last May against seven other companies and this 
year the captain of that prize company was appointed colonel of the high school 
cadet regiment. Another of our students was appointed lieutenant-colonel. Both 
appointments were in accordance with a competitive examination, open to all high 
schools, and based on scholarship and military fitness. Last season our baseball 
team won the inter-high-school championship, and recently our football team accom- 
plished a similar feat. No boy can participate in athletics unless he is in good 
standing in his school work and his deportment record is clear. 

The above facts are cited as of interest to those who watch the development of 
this kind of school. It may also be of interest to give the proportion of students in 
the various courses: In the college and normal-school preparatory course there are 
266; in the four-year course which does not prepare for college there are 139; in the 
two-year course, 126. Of the fourteen who completed the latter course, last June, 
eight returned for another year or two. 

The Armstrong school is also crowded and the purchase of additional ground is 
now being urged upon Congress so that this school may also be enlarged. The out- 
look for the future of this school (which is for colored pupils) is encouragingly 
bright. It has already made a place for itself. The preponderance in the number 
of girls is an interesting fact; there are 148 boys and 228 girls enrolled this year. 

J. A. Chamberlain. 


If an artisan takes a son for adoption and teaches him his handicraft, one may 
not bring claim for him. — The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylonia (about 2250 
B. C), the most ancient of ail codes. 



" I can easier teach twenty what were good to be done, than to be one of twenty 
to follow mine own teaching." — Shakespeare. 

It is easier to tell twenty teachers how to teach design than to be one of the twenty 
to teach a boy to design a good book-rack. 

Of course there is a difference in boys, but the boy I have in mind is taking 
woodworking and mechanical drawing this year for the first time. He has never 
received much instruction in freehand drawing, or if he has, it didn't reach the 
ignition point for he has no power to express ideas by means of it. Proportion, 
balance, symmetry, stability, unity, as applied in design, are new words to him. His 
mind is not stocked with beautiful forms. 

But he likes woodworking; drawing '-goes well enough," and he is open to sug- 
gestions. If you tell him to design a book-rack he feels as I used to when the 
teacher told me to write a 200-word composition on spring; I knew absolutely 
nothing about spring. But if you show him a book -rack and discuss it a while you 
will set him to thinking about book -racks, and in the course of time he will find that 
he has some ideas of his own. You tell him that it must be strong; for that reason 
the ends must be set into the base and perhaps braced. The sides of the end pieces 
must not be deeply cut or the wood is likely to split off either in the making or 

1604] 173 




afterward. You suggest that the ends be proportioned like a book. You tell him 
the rack not only must be strong but it must look strong and stable. On this 
account you suggest that the sides of the end pieces taper upward like the walls of 
an Egyptian pylon. When a simple, interesting outline has been produced you sug- 
gest that the end be bound with a strip of darker color just as doors and windows 
are bound with casings. To make it still more pleasing the surface may be divided 
by bands of the darker color; an initial may furnish just the spot that is needed to 
make the design satisfactory. In some such way as this the boy who has had no 
direct preparation for designing may be stimulated to get and express ideas that are 

In the above illustration, A represents the type form of rack end which was 
shown to a class; the others were made by members of the class with occasional 
individual suggestions from the teacher. The background of J and A' and the upper 
part of // were depressed about an eighth of an inch in depth and the figures slightly 
modeled. — C. A. B. 




Line. Reel 


Manual-training work was started this year in the Franklin school, Peoria, in 
connection with the regular grammar-school subjects. Work has been earned on in 
the regular school rooms in all grades up to the seventh. The board of education 
fitted up a wood-working room in the basement for seventh and eighth-grade boys 
who now receive instruction in woodworking twice a week during periods of forty- 
five minutes each. A course of study was planned in which every boy was to make 
four objects which were to be used in the manual-training work of the grades below 
the seventh, viz: a bead loom, a desk board for clay-modeling, a rug loom, and a 
hammock loom. After the completion of this course each boy planned and con- 
structed pieces for himself. The accompanying drawings represent three of these 
original projects which may be of interest to readers of this Magazine. — F D. 


Samuel Chapman Armstrong. A biographical study. By Edith Armstrong 
Talbot; Doubleday, Page & Company, New York, N. Y., 1904; 5X7 hi., pp. 301; 

In this book is writtten the life of General Armstrong, founder of Hampdon, 
and a leader in that small band who a generation ago first began a serious attempt 
to solve the problem of educating the black man. 

The earlier chapters of the volume are largely made up of letters of the young 
Hawaiian, of his life as a Williams College man of the class of '62, and as captain, 
major and colonel of volunteers in the years from '62 to '65. 

To the reader these letters are chiefly of interest in revealing the forces which 
shaped the character and fixed the ideals of one who, to quote his own words, de- 
termined at the war's close "to stick to the darkies while there is anything to be done 
for them." Everything indeed was at that time still to do, and it was to Gen. Arm- 
strong's foresight and indominable perseverence that there came into existence at the 
dissolution of the Freedman's bureau the school at Hampdon which has since helped 
so much, both directly and indirectly, in the problem of the negro's education. 

The solution of this problem, as Armstrong saw it, lay in furthering that truth 
now so insisted upon by teachers of the manual arts — that constructive work, 
manual work, is of greatest value as a developmental agent, as a self-revealing agent, 
as a former of character, and as a social instrument which teaches the worker what 
his place is in the world and what he must do to fill it. In the words of Booker T. 
Washington — himself a product of Hampdon Institute — "Armstrong was anxious 
to give to the colored people an idea of the dignity, the beauty and civilizing 
power of intelligent labor with the hand. It was his object to lift labor out of 
drudgery and toil by putting thought and skill into it, and to prove to the southern 
white man that an educated skilled negro workman was of more value to the com- 
munity than an ignorant shiftless one." 

As one of the first to see the immense social and economic value of industrial 
education, Gen. Armstrong's name must always stand in an enviable position. To 
those who, today, laboring at and one or other phases of the same great problem, find 
themselves hesitant and discouraged at the ignorance, indifference or opposition that 
they encounter, his life, with its clear aim, its unswerving and untiring devotion, will 
be found a source of inspiration. — H. 

Practical and Artistic Basketry. By Mrs. Laura Rollins Tinsley. E. L. Kellogg 
and Company, 61 East Ninth Street, New York City, 1904; 5%X7/-£ in -! PP- J 43> 
112 illustrations; cloth; price, $100 net, postage 10 cents. — After describing the var- 
ious materials, native and imported, that are used in basketry, about 25 pages are 
devoted to work with round reeds or rattan; then comes a brief chapter on the uses of 
the native willow. The next two chapters deal with articles made of raffia and general 
directions for preparing and handling raffia. About 50 pages treat of various stitches 

176 [APRIL 



or weaves for baskets made on coils of different materials. Chapter XXI gives the 
author's opinions as to the processes suitable for the various grades of the school 
and after a few hints on the dying of materials the book closes with a chapter on 
cord work. 

While this book contains some things that will be familiar to the reader of other 
works on basketry, it also contains some things that have not been seen elsewhere, 
and much that will make it of value to the grade teacher. The book confines itself 
to the treatment of processes and projects that are available for school use, and the 
matter is presented in such form as to be intelligible and usable. The exceptions to 
this occur in Figs. iS and 19, which were inverted in the printing, and in the state- 
ment on page 52 [" The twigs of the willow may be cut at any time after they have 
stopped growing, which is some time in August "], which is practically in conflict 
with another statement on page 53 ["The best time to cut the willows is in the spring, 
just as the sap begins to flow freely.'] 

The book is to be commended for clear drawings and excellent half-tones, both 
of which are abundant. 

Illinois State Normal University, William T. Bawden 

Normal, Illinois. 

The Tree Dwellers. By Katharine Elizabeth Dopp. Rand, McNally & Co., 
Chicago, 1903; 6X7% in-> PP- 15 s - In a series of school readers, of which "The 
Tree Dwellers " is first, Miss Dopp is preparing for use in the lower grades the 
material suggested in her " Place of Industries in Elementary Education." The aim 
of the author is to find in the industrial and social evolution of the race a basis for 
correlating and organizing the activities of the school. The task undertaken in the 
first book is of exceptional difficulty — to reconstruct the life of the primitive tree- 
dwellers and their environment in such a manner as to afford the best educational 
material for the modern child. It would be too much to claim that the difficulty has 
been solved, that the natural curriculum has at last been found. It is not evident 
that the best beginnings are so remote, that occupations can be based upon such 
slender connections with life, that nature study should be imaginary rather than real, 
or that myth and classic stories are to be replaced by reading that is not literature. 

Professor of Pedagogy, John F. Reigart. 

University of Cincinnati. 

Freehand Lettering. Being a treatise on plain lettering from the practical stand- 
point, for use in engineering schools and colleges. By Victor T. Wilson. John 
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1903; 6X9 in.; pp. 125; 23 full-page plates; cloth, Si. 
Contents: Chap. I. — The Construction of Roman and Gothic Letters. Chap. II. — 
Spacing. Chap. III. — The Use of the Pen, and Offhand Lettering. Chap. IV. — 
Design of Lines and of Titles. Chap. V. — Lettering for Various Technical Purposes, 
Including Photo-reproduction. Chap. VI. — The Design of Lettering. Chap. VII. — 
Mechanical Aids to Lettering. 

The appearance of this work is another evidence of the increasing importance 
attached to the ability to rapidly letter in styles whose chief characteristic is sim- 
plicity. We had already a number of excellent manuals upon this subject, the care- 
ful study of any one of which will, with due practice, enable the earnest student to 
become proficient, but in none of these, as far as we are aware, is the fact brought 
out so clearly and forcibly as in Mr. Wilson's book that acceptable lettering is. after 


all, merely a matter of "judgment of values " and "an intelligent sense of propor- 
tion," combined with "a measurable knowledge of free-hand drawing." 

The author asserts that " fundamentally, good lettering will be good design," 
and cautions the student against falling into the error of regarding the plates as 
copies which, if carefully reproduced, will be all that is necessary to give proficiency. 
He does not mean by this that the student should not give close attention to the 
forms and proportions of letters, and have these well in mind when lettering, but he 
does mean that a slavish adherence to rules under " the misconception that lettering 
is a form of mechanical drawing," and "that the various letter forms, and the spaces 
between them, can be figured out by measurement," will only produce unsatisfactory 

Variations in the height and width of the different letters, and how the effect of 
"stability" in a letter is produced, are treated at some length. We are shown that 
even the variations vary, and that any attempt to closely figure out such variations 
will only result " in spoiling the spontaneity of design." 

In his excellent chapter upon " Spacing," Mr. Wilson maintains that this latter 
is also a problem in design ; that the proper distance apart of words, and particularly 
of letters in words, cannot be more than approximately determined by rules, and is 
best obtained by the eye without mechanical aids. 

In spite of the emphasis laid upon freehand work, the last chapter of the book 
is devoted to mechanical aids in lettering, for the purpose of assisting those who find 
themselves, through lack of experience or skill of hand, compelled to resort to me 
chanical treatment. 

The plates are very good, the first four in particular, in which are analyzed the 
proportions of the modern Roman and Gothic letters, both capitals and lower-case, 
and in a form that appeals easily and quickly to the eye. 

Manual-training teachers of high school drawing can well afford to add t^iis book 
to their collection, even though they might regard it as possibly too advanced for 
their classes. A perusal of it would give any instructor fresh insight into a most use- 
ful and interesting subject. 

Stout Training Schools, J. H. Mason. 

Menomonie, Wis. 

Mechanical Drawing, Part 1. By E. F. Giesecke, Professor of Drawing, 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, of Texas. Published by the author at College 
Station, Texas, 1903 ; 6%X9% hi.; pp. 79. — The author of this elementary text book 
gives the beginner a description of the instruments and materials commonly found in 
a drafting room, together with instructions for their use. The work taken up is 
divided as follows : 

Exercises involving use of ruling pen and triangles ; Free-hand and Ruled 
Lettering ; Geometrical Problems ; Geographical Arithmetic (Plotting of Curves) ; 
Scales, Borders, and Meridians; Plane Curves; Projections; Intersections and 
Developments ; Axonometry. 

In the arrangement of the text a plate and its corresponding descriptive matter 
are placed on opposite pages, enabling the student to have both before him at the 
same time. The description and directions for each plate are complete. The value 
of the book would be increased if printed on a better quality of paper. 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute, C. C. Jett. 

Peoria, Illinois. 

1903] REVIEWS 179 

Year-Book: Council of Supervisors of the Manual Arts, IQ03. James Hall, presi- 
dent; James P. Haney, secretary, 500 Park avenue, New York, N. Y.; 7X 10 m -'< PP- 
151 -f- 12 for notes -f- 12 plates; price, $3. — A year ago we suggested the possibility 
that the Council's Year-Book would soon be looked upon as the best annual sum- 
mary of the thought and experience of the year in manual arts. The present volume 
has fully justified our suggestion. The value of the publication lies in the fact that 
the articles are the result of months of research, and, in many cases, years of experi- 
ence, and are specific. Rhapsodies on art education and manual-training are no 
longer needed ; we want something tangible, definite, suggestive, and that is what the 
Council is providing. 

The volume opens with a paper on "Supervision of the Manual Arts," by James 
P. Haney. The sub-title is "Some Notes on Principles and Practice-" It is a care- 
fully worked-out analysis of the problem of supervision in a large city, and is full of 
practical suggestions. " Graphic Expression in Childhood " is the title of the most 
valuable paper we have ever seen on illustrative drawing. It is written by Julia 
Cecelia Cremins, and is illustrated with forty-eight drawings by children. Henry T. 
Bailey contributes a paper on "State Supervision of Drawing," which compares the 
monarchical and democratic systems of supervision, and gives a summary of the 
status of instruction in drawing in the United States in 1903. "The High School 
Drawing Course," by Harold H. Brown, is something unique, and in such specific 
form as to provoke profitable thought. Other articles of interest and value are 
on "Applied Art in the High School," by Mabel E. Stock; "The Meaning and Aim 
of Art in Education," by Alfred Vance Churchill ; "Psychology of Drawing in Pri- 
mary and Grammar Grades," by Frederic L. Burnham; "The Principles of Design," 
by Ernest A. Batchelder ; and "The Year's Progress in the Manual Arts,"by Louisa 
Pierce. The closing paper, " Upon Teaching Design," by the president of the Coun- 
cil, contains many statements which are especially significant to manual-training 
teachers. We quote : 

"Craft is still considered one thing and art another. It is necessary to get back 
of this idea. The art and craft are one. The art begins with the first thought. The 
decoration is but the last touch of refinement, sometimes needed, often unnecessary. 
• Applied art' or 'applied design' is a misnomer. Design when right is not an after- 
thought. It is like the flower of a plant. Many plants have no flowers, and yet are 
completely satisfying to look upon. So it is with many objects." 

Charles A. Bennett. 

Toilers of the Home. By Lillian Pettengill. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, 
1903; 8X5% i n -> PP- 397> price, $1.50, net. — This book is the record of the experi- 
ences of a college woman who goes into domestic service to investigate the conditions 
under which servants work, and to get their point of view. When she began she was 
without skill in housework, and for that reason her observations covered a wider 
range. During the one year in service she lived in five homes and under widely 
different conditions. Her portrayal of the different characters she met as employers 
and fellow-servants gives interest and color to the book. 

Although few of her conclusions are new, they are based on personal observa- 
tions. She finds a great social gulf fixed between the servant and her mistress, which 
causes much of the unrest in homes and keeps many girls from doing domestic work. 
The isolation of the servant, the long hours, lack of chance to rise, and the fact that 


there is nothing to look forward to, are some of the drawbacks of such a life. Miss 
Pettengill believes that servant girls should live apart from their mistresses and 
should have a standing in society of their own choosing; and that they should be 
allowed some independence of action — not having every act dictated by the mistress. 
She found that the incompetency of the mistresses was the cause of many of the 
troubles among the girls. One of the leavens at work at the present time is the 
influence of the domestic-science schools in training the daughters of the home in the 
science and art of homemaking. Women trained in these schools look upon manual 
labor as dignified, not degrading. 

Clara Emily Bennett. 
New Publications : 

Three new publications have come to our desk during the present quarter. The 
Sloyd Record is a sixteen-page quarterly published in Boston by the Sloyd Training 
School Alumni Association. It is edited by Gustaf Larsson with the co-operation of 
six members of the Alumni Association. Its purpose is to give brief accounts of 
the principles, practice and growth of sloyd. The January issue defines sloyd, gives 
general principles, a report of the second meeting of the Sloyd Training School 
Alumni Association, and an address by Mr. Larsson on " Sloyd and Conditions for its 
Healthy Growth" ; also alumni news items and a page of " models invented by students 
at the Sloyd Training School." 

The second is The Patternmaker, an attractive trade journal published by The 
Iron and Steel Press Co. of Cleveland, Ohio. This no doubt will find its way into 
many manual-training school libraries for the use of the advanced students in wood- 

The third is Articraft, an illustrated magazine which purports to be a "pro- 
gressive, pocket-sized periodical pertaining to practical art, philosophy, psychology 
and pedagogy, published monthly at Palisades, New York." If the first issue is 
typical we cannot see what real demand this magazine will supply. 

It is with sincere regret that we learn that the Society of Arts and Crafts of 
Boston has found it necessary to announce that the publication of Handicraft will be 
discontinued. Though their little magazine has failed to pay expenses, it has made 
a contribution to the literature of Arts and Crafts which has been much appreciated 
by thoughtful readers, and its good influence will not cease when we fail to receive 
new numbers. Many of the best things that have been written on the Arts and Crafts 
during the past two years have been presented to the public through its columns. 

The following have been received: 

The Forest and Its Uses. By John M. Woods (practical lumberman.) Boston 
Manual Training Club; 5^X7% m -\ PP- 3 2 5 price in paper, 10 cents; John C. 
Brodhead, 48 Holbrook street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. This monograph describes out 
common woods, their sources, uses, and processes of finding, felling and distributing. 

Western Dratving Teacher's Association. Tenth Annual Report, igoj. Mary E. 
Chamberlain, secretary, Saginaw, Mich.; 6X9 x /4 in.; pp. 106. 


Manual Training Magazine 

JULY, 1904 


W I L L I A M N O Y E S , 

Teachers College, New York. 

WO large changes have taken place in the educational 
world since the manual arts assumed an important place 
as a school subject. The first of these changes is the 
advent of the new psychology on account of which the 
whole justification of the manual arts as a school subject 
has had to be shifted. The other is the relation of the manual arts 
themselves to the curriculum. 


Along in the eighties when the manual arts began to find strong ad- 
vocates and opponents, the so-called faculty psychology had full posses- 
sion of the field. The mind, so it was believed, was possessed with 
various powers or faculties, such as observation, reflection, memory, 
reasoning, accuracy, carefulness, and so on. The object of education 
was said to be the training of these faculties, the assumption being that 
each could be trained independently of others. Nature study was hailed 
as a valuable aid to the training of " the observation." History was 
considered a fine cultivator of " the memory." Mathematics stimulated 
" the reasoning power." Language study contributed to the power of 
expression, and the defenders of natural science claimed that it should 
fill the whole field and train all the powers. 

This being the point of view when manual training, so-called, came 
forward with its claims, it had little difficulty in justifying itself. Indeed 
it claimed distinctive merit as a faculty trainer. Was it the faculty of 
observation that needed culture? Behold, manual training cultivated it. 



Was the memory deficient? A boy must remember in order to accom- 
plish his manual-training task, and hence manual training was valuable. 
Another urgent claim lay in its value as cultivating carefulness, accu- 
racy, neatness, etc., and the assumption was that in having to be neat 
and accurate and careful in woodwork was tantamount to being neat and 
accurate and careful in everything. And most of all, manual training 
was esteemed for its training of the will. But since then psychologists 
have abandoned this point of view, and the "'faculty psychology" is 
utterly discredited. 

We cannot properly speak of the memory, the observation, the care- 
fulness, the neatness, the accuracy of a person. One person has one 
sort of observation, another person another sort; one person may have a 
good memory for some things and a poor memory for other things. 
Accuracy may be characteristic of certain functions or work but not of 
others. Teaching a person to be accurate in one process does not 
insure accuracy in everything. Hence, just when manual training 
thought itself most secure as a means of formal discipline, the underpin- 
ing of its justification was completely knocked out. 

Now, what does the new psychology offer in place of this old faculty 
psychology, as a pedagogical foundation for the manual arts? For our 
present purpose three points may be mentioned. 

i. That education is largely a matter of acquiring useful and valu- 
able habits. Because to be able to finish a board accurately does not 
insure accuracy in everything, yet so far as it goes it is valuable, and 
such power means the acquisition of a certain amount of self-control, 
and of certain definite muscular and nervous habits. It adds to the fund 
of experience, by the possession of which a boy can extricate himself 
from new difficulties as they arise. So far forth he is not an uneducated 
man who, as Prof. James says, is " nonplussed by all but the most 
habitual situations." ' 

2. Perhaps the greatest contribution of psychology to the present 
justification of the manual arts is in its recognition of the importance of 
motor activity, as conditioning all mental effort. So important does this 
now appear that even receptive powers are seen to depend upon it. 
The child cannot get adequate impressions except as he expresses him- 
self. The child may express himself in various ways, through music, 
through language, oral or written, or through someone of the manual arts. 
These manual arts, in our day coming to be recognized as of genuine 
service in education, thus find additional justification from psychology 

1 Talks to Teachers, pp. 29. 


as a means of motor training. Indeed, motor training forms such an 
important part of the value of the manual arts that the proposal has 
been made that the unsatisfactory term, manual training, be supplanted 
by motor training. 

3. Furthermore, the new psychology recognizes the importance 
that interest must have in any educational scheme, not at all in the sense 
that the child should be permitted to do what he pleases, but on this 
ground: that unless a child has intrinsic pleasure in what he is doing, it 
is hardly of value to him. 

There is no question that the first effect of recognizing the import- 
ance of the child's interest was to go to an extreme. Considering his 
interests amounted to indulging his notions. The fault of this attitude 
lay in the failure to recognize the fact that a child's interests are not 
fixed but moving, shifting, progressing. To cultivate these fleeting pur- 
poses and interests just as they stand is no better than to train certain 
supposititious "faculties." But as soon as it was recognized that these 
interests are but attitudes towards new and enlarging experiences then it 
is not only possible but necessary to take large account of them. Pro- 
fessor Dewey says: J " Any power whether of child or adult, is indulged 
when it is taken on its given and present level in consciousness. Its 
genuine meaning is in the propulsion it affords toward a higher level. 
It is just something to do with. Appealing to the interest upon the 
present plane means excitation; it means playing with a power so as con- 
tinually to stir it up without directing it toward definite achievement." 

But when interest is used as means to an end, and that end is, e. g., 
some large subject like human industries, then we are standing on firm 
psychological ground. Think for a moment of children's plays. These 
plays are the supreme expression of their interests, and they are largely 
crude reproductions of social occupations, this for good psychological 
reasons, too. The great social occupations grow out of man's funda- 
mental relations to the world in which he lives. His interests are the 
results of his inherent and acquired instincts in providing for his wants, 
material and spiritual. These show themselves forth in childhood in 
plays which are small, imitative, faulty make-believes of the great occu- 
pations, and in adulthood in the instinct of workmanship and joy of labor. 

Only one step, then, is necessary to put the manual arts on a sound 
psychological foundation, viz., to make its subject matter correspond to 
the great growing instincts and interests of childhood as they cluster 
around human occupations and industries. 

'The Child and the Curriculum, p. 21. 


The manual arts no longer need justification as " faculty trainers," 
for they constitute the field par excellence, where the child's interests may 
grow into habits of social value. 


This brings us quite directly to the second great change, the relation 
of the manual arts to the curriculum. Once manual training, like other 
school subjects, was content to stand on its own feet, and claim its dues 
as an unrelated method of training. It appealed with vast assurance to 
its actual results in arousing interest and energy in boys hitherto indif- 
ferent. Professor Scripture takes great pains to show its value to boys 
in reformatories on this ground. Their standing in all subjects improves 
when they begin manual training. Manual-training advocates also laid 
special claim to its practical value. All of this is good so far as it goes; 
but the point here is, that all this justification vested on its value inde- 
pendent of its relation to other studies. Here, too, a great change is 
taking place. 

Manual training, by contributing to the vitality of the general cur- 
riculum, is finding its own greatest life and usefulness. This change is 
taking place in various ways. 

1. First and most simply by various forms of so-called correlation, 
especially in the lower grades where there is no sharp line to be drawn 
between different studies, where history runs into geography and 
geography into nature study and nature study into number work, 
and number work into constructive work. It is often hard to draw the 
line between what are manual arts and what are not. An easy line may 
perhaps be indicated by the distinction that where the materials used 
give resistance and hence take time, special time, that is the the field of 
the manual arts. 

2. But the manual arts are not merely methods of training. In 
reality they are becoming an accessory method of study and their subject 
matter is identical with that of the rest of the curriculum, that is, some- 
thing of social value in the development of the child. They are pos- 
itively concerned with subject matter. As to what this subject matter 
is the present tendency appears to be along two general lines: art and 

( a ) Once even the art teacher flocked off by herself as well as the 
manual-training teacher by himself. Now there are many evidences that 
these two are working in closer and closer harmony. The drawing teacher 
is giving place to the design teacher, and the manual-training teacher is no 


longer content with the useful model; it must also be a beautiful model. 
In some schools " the carpenter shop " has already become " the studio," 
and the art work and constructive work are designed and carried out 
under the direction of the same persons, while the drawing has more 
and more reference to particular applications. Applied art begins to 
obtain its due recognition. And so, from this point of view, the subject 
matter of the manual arts has become the design and production of 
beautiful things. 

(b ) But there is still another field into which we are only just 
entering, that of industry. At the time when we are recognizing that 
geography means the study of the world as the home of man's activities 
and especially of his industries, that history is really an account of his 
industrial evolution, that science chiefly contributes to the further 
development of industry; in short, that industry is the substructure of 
society, so handwork is coming to be an actual partaking in typical and 
representative industries. Beginning with the most primitive industries 
not because they are primitive, but because they furnish simple avenues 
of approach to the more difficult, and at the same time correspond to 
stages in the child's own development, we go on step by step till the 
boy is capable of appreciating modern industry. So important have 
industrial processes become in our modern life that no man can properly 
be called an educated man today who does not appreciate these pro- 
cesses. But an appreciation of industry is best attained by participation 
in some of its processes. Here, however, stands a great difficulty in 
that the subject matter of the manual arts is simply overwhelming in 
its magnitude, so overwhelming that only typical forms can be selected 
for school use. When industrial processes were simpler, while industry 
was in the domestic stage, or even in the town stage, almost every one 
without formal institutional preparation, had some part in industry and 
knew something of its processes. Today, in order that the young may 
have an opportunity to appreciate it, it must be reduced to its simplest 
terms, and there made so representative that it can be comprehended 
in its relation to the whole; e. g., the modern child should know what 
prime movers are and at least in part construct them, or lacking that, 
take simple machines apart and assemble them. He needs to under- 
stand mechanical elements, not in any theoretical way, but by practical 
application. Then there is the great field of machines for transmitting 
power. There is the field of transportation and its relation to commerce. 
There are the extractive industries, the building industry, our facilities 
for communication. All of these are becoming the field of manual arts, 


and their introduction into the curriculum constitutes one of the most 
momentous of changes in the educational world. The manual arts 
always will be as they have been, an opportunity for the acquirement of 
manual skill, but simply that they will not be. They constitute far more 
than a method of training. Their field is the appreciation of modern art 
and industry as functions of modern social life. 

These, then, are the two great changes that appear in a review of 
the field of manual arts: 

i. Their deeper justification by the new psychology in emphasizing 
the importance of motor activity and in seizing upon the interest of the 
child for the determination of method. 

2. Their enlargement from a method of training in a narrow field 
to the appreciation of modern art and industry. Their individual value 
is enhanced and their social meaning becomes prominent. 


Cheshire L o w t o n K u o n e . 

Montclair, N. T. 

T IS a matter of some importance that teachers of the fine 
and industrial arts should perfect their knowledge to the 
point where technique is recognized as an ally and not a 
tyrant. Some ability and much hard work will give to any 
one certain skill in the manipulation of paint, wood or 
3 clay, but a perfect understanding of what this manipula- 
^■BBOil txon means, and why one works in one way rather than 
another, paves the way for right use of material. This 
adequate use of material for right purposes has been given as a defini- 
tion of art. 

Since in the primary school, clay, color, wood, raffia and textiles are 
used as direct means of expression, each idea of construction or form 
should be expressed in its proper medium and manner. In the primary 
school a large proportion of conceptions of solid things should be 
expressed in a solid medium rather than on paper. Such study gives to 
older pupils a clearer insight into the spirit of craftsmanship, and an 
appreciation for those treasures of art and industry that have been 
treated as befits their use and character. 

Of the various media suitable for use in expression work in the ele- 
mentary school, one only, clay, will be treated in this article. 


Clay, because of its structure, is quite plastic. It takes the slightest 
impression and is more easily worked than wax. This plasticity can be 
better taken advantage of by the fingers than by means of tools. The 
latter should only be employed as supplementary instruments for picking 
out details in the sketch. Clay, which adapts itself so readily to any 
shape, serves admirably to express that large class of solid things — 
fruits, vegetables, animals, people, pottery, etc., with which children are 

The clay form, whether, fruit, animal or figure, should be built up to 
the required size, piece by piece. It is really a problem in construction 
wherein one begins at the bottom by working bits of clay together to 
form a tile of proper shape and thickness. Upon this tile is built the 

1904] 1S7 


design in relief, or the sketch in the round. Wood, stone and metal are 
carved, superfluous material being cut away to leave the design ; model- 
ing is the opposite process. 

This constructive way of working must be rigidly adhered to, else 
modeling becomes haphazard and uncertain. Clay, being so soft and 
impressionable, is easily pushed or squeezed out of shape as well as into 
shape. A bit of work, a small figure, for instance, is built up in the 
same general way that one would sketch it on paper, save that the lines 
of construction are observed from all sides instead of one. The import- 
ant masses are first secured, following the main lines of the figure, by 
building with bits of clay to the right size. In the illustration (Fig. i) 
there is a certain action in the figure which must be emphasized. To 
get this, the body of the sketch is built up first, the position of knees 
and shoulders indicated and the arm resting on the ground given its 
proper position. 

The proportions being right, the structural basis of the sketch is 
never disturbed. A careless pressure here or there would tend to 
throw the whole thing out of plumb and destroy its unity. Hence, 
insistence is to be placed upon a proper way of working — upon a de- 
mand that the model be " constructed " and not pinched into shape. 
If the model to be made is an animal it has certain proportions that 
must be determined. The proportions settled, the clay sketch is then 
built up, piece by piece, to the shape of the model as the pupil sees it 
from his point of view. Then the model (a stuffed specimen or cast) 
should be turned around to show another side and again worked upon, 
that his work and the model which he studies may correspond in form 
as they do in position. If children will thus continue to work and to 
build up their sketches very much as one builds up a snow man, piece 
by piece, the modeling lesson then becomes of true disciplinary and 
educational value. 

The refinements of form and variations in surface are seen but im- 
perfectly, even by persons of mature years ; and with children the sense 
of touch aids in rectifying the judgment of the eyes. The fingers hav- 
ing once felt and handled a given surface, its variations in modeling are 
more clear. For this reason the model should be near at hand, that 
the pupil may touch it if possible. Form is seen better when at some 
time it has been felt. The pupil acquires increased ability to judge 
form and size by feeling it — general characteristics as well as mere de- 
tail. Even the geometric solids, if used, are to be modeled in the way 
indicated. A cube made by tapping a bit of clay upon the table or desk 




is quite perfect as far as form goes, but the pupil has in such work 
learned less of what " cube " means than if he had made the form en- 
tirely with his fingers and actually felt the smooth faces as well as seen 
them. Many objects, such as animals, vegetables, do not stand out dis- 
tinctly as wholes, as units, because the pupil sees details, the little 
things, fur, small spots of color and unevenesses of surface. These 
things are not important but they catch the eye and confuse the appear- 
ance of the thing as a whole. Judgment through the fingers tends to 



correct this. Though one can feel details and small changes in surface, 
these are not so emphatic as when seen. The model should be placed 
where it may be handled ; if an animal, the first lessons at least should 
be from some pet that can be played with and handled. 

The way in which bits of clay are worked together has much to do 
with the result. They should be thoroughly welded together by work- 
ing each succeeding piece out to a rather thin layer, that the sketch 
when finished shall be solid all through. Clay in drying shrinks a good 
deal and pieces carelessly put together will later fall apart. 

This solidity is absolutely necessary to pieces that are to be tired. 


Every material is manipulated in accordance with the properties of 
that material. Out of this necessary manipulation grows technique. It 
is the suitable, adequate use of material that makes the result artistic- 

1. The first lesson of the year in modeling the figure. 
2. Model posed during two periods of forty minutes each. 


The fact that one can represent light, fanciful and ephemeral incidents 
in clay or make realistic roses on pottery does not justify such use. More 
than this, there are a number of proper uses for clay in the industrial world 
that for educational purposes would not be profitable in theclass room. 

Clay may be pressed and moulded in various shapes that pieces 
may be reproduced rapidly and economically ; it can be used in liquid 
form and cast like molten metal. All of which is right enough but such 
applications have a meaning only for mature pupils. One occasionally 
sees pupils in the primary grades pressing leaves into soft clay to obtain 
outlines which are later filled in. Other pupils may be seen cutting 
forms from clay with a knife or sharp wooden tool : or covering fruit and 
vegetable forms with moist clay, cutting the whole in halves, and filling 
these simple molds with plaster to make casts. This is interesting and 
ingenious, but do such exercises make the most of the material ? Is not 
such work merely an apology for what might be done in the study of form ? 

In low relief modeling, the figures, animals, etc., are one plane. In 
such work perspective is not to be attempted. The model form must be 
reduced to essentials, with just that action in the figures, and those acces- 
sories, that are needed to tell the story. Many animals and figures may 
not be made in the round since clay legs would not support the heavy 
body. Either sticks or wires may be used as internal supports, or the 
model be made in simple relief. In relief modeling a narrow shelf is 
built out from the bottom of the tile to represent the ground upon which 
figures may stand. It is never desirable at first to show tecture, such as 
fur, cloth, leather, etc. The skill necessary to do this comes naturally 
as pupils acquire more skill in judging form. In fact detail may be 
quite ignored just as in drawing from the pose; the head is treated as a 
mass, and the eyes, nose, mouth and ears left to take care of themselves. 

These suggestions may help to correct some of the errors due to 
ignorance of the possibilities and limitations of the natural. As require- 
ments they are exacting as are those of any other medium. 

In its possibilities, clay work includes (a) the modeling of units of 
relief ornament, which with older pupils may take the form of systematic 
study of classical sculptured decoration; (b) vegetables and fruit forms 
which serve admirably for early lessons, to fix in mind the appearances 
of solid objects; (c) animals and figures, which are the subject matter 
for most illustrations of story and incident; (d) architectural forms, typical 
buildings and kinds of shelter; (c) pottery bowls, dishes and receptacles 
common to primitive people and in modern use, together with as much 
study of the ceramic industry, terra cotta, tiles, fire proofing materials, 
etc., as possible. 

1 904J 



The process of firing clay products, the construction of a small kiln 
and incidental operations may be handled by boys in the fifth grade at 
least. Some information might be given relative to the history of pottery, 
and what was done in historic and pre-historic times with clay products. 

Here a word may be said about the connection that naturally exists 
between geography, history and industry. In communities other than 
cities, geography may be taken up early in school and very soon the 

t#* t • 


study of the crude material that man used for food, utensils, shelter, 
transportation, etc., is touched upon. Primitive peoples used the ma- 
terials at hand in the best way to fulfill their several needs. 

Pottery, its historic significance, its production in many forms, clue to 
the kind of natural material, fuel, etc.. is one of the industries that result 
from geographical conditions. 

In many sections of the country there are natural clay beds to fur- 
nish material of good enough quality and purity to illustrate industrial 
methods. One fourth-grade class in the schools of Montclair is building 
a kiln on the school grounds and has brought to the modeling room a 
quantity of clay from the vicinity. These local clays vary much and 
fire to different tones of color and it is quite possible to use some of 
them merely as a decoration upon bowls or jars made of other clay. 

Pottery alone with the processes incident thereto — how it is made, 
the potter's wheel, decoration of ware, burning it, etc., is a subject which 
cannot be treated at this time. As a subject aside from its industrial 
bearing, it offers a number of problems in design that can be carried to 
completion, resulting in objects that are of definite utility. 


Ira S . Griffith. 
Director of Manual Training, Oak Park, 111. 

N EFFORT will be made in this paper to state some of 
the advantages and limitations of leather work for boys 
of grades seven and eight, and to explain somewhat in 
detail two of the representative processes. Leather is 
a common material in the commercial world. The uses 
to which it may be put are various. For a boy to become familiar with 
its properties is no small advantage. 

Many schools are without any kind of manual training because of 
the cost of equipment. Very satisfactory work can be done in leather 
with an equipment costing not to exceed one dollar a pupil. The opera- 
tions are simple, requiring but little practice to give satisfactory returns. 
The regular teacher with a little experience can give instruction as well 
as the specialist. The articles which can be made of leather are closely 
connected with the home life of the pupil. Another advantage not to 
be overlooked is the readiness with which it lends itself in the applica- 
tion of design. 

On the other hand, there are certain limitations which will prohibit 
leather work from supplanting to any great extent the benchwork in 
wood. In the first place, it is gentle work. That is, it does not require 
in any great degree the exercise of the muscles of the body ; such, for 
instance, as are brought into use in sawing and planing. It is arm, 
hand and finger work. No boy of grammar-school age wants to be kept 
long at gentle work, nor should he be. As in sheet metal work, there is 
a great amount of repetition of simple operations, which requires the 
closest attention. This tends, as one boy expressed it, to make the work 
" painfully monotonous " after the novelty has worn off. 

Among the things which the Oak Park boys made was a bill-book. 
As this illustrates one of the methods employed I shall describe the 
manner of making it. 

The first thing necessary is a pattern. A drawing board, T square 
and triangle are convenient, though not absolutely necessary in making 
this. Place a sheet of ordinary drawing paper upon this board and 

192 [JULY 



[ 93 

make a drawing as in Fig i. The dimension lines, however, should 
be omitted. 

In the space marked (A) is to be placed the design which shall 
appear on the front of the book. For a symmetrical design such as 
Fig i, the lines ab and cd should be drawn so as to divide the space 
into four equal parts. Then with a rather soft pencil draw one-quarter 
of the design. Fold the paper carefully along ab and trace another 
quarter by rubbing with a chisel handle the back of the quarter just 

drawn. Now fold along cd and trace the remaining half. If the same 
design is to appear on the back, fold along ef and trace. Go over the 
whole design with a pencil so as to make it distinct. Experience has 
shown that well spaced simple designs, such as grammar-school boys 
can make, are as effective as any. Care must be taken that plenty of 
unstamped surface shall appear. If necessary stamp in the design and 
leave the background; though, in general, the background should be 
stamped. In order that the design may be easily placed in position on 
the leather it is advisable to trim off the surplus paper. 

Provide each boy with a modeling tool (Fig 3), a nail set with a 
hollow point, and a light hammer or mallet. All that is needed to com- 
plete the individual equipment is something smooth and hard upon 
which to work. Marble or heavy glass will do. We used a sheet of 
brass screwed on a block of wood, as in sheet-metal work. Wood will 
not do very well, as it absorbs the moisture from the leather and is not 
hard enough. A pan of water and several sponges will serve the entire 


The leather should be cut about a quarter of an inch larger all 
around than the pattern. It is better for the instructor to do this as the 
skins are of irregular shape, and a little planning will save much leather. 
A chip-carving knife and a straight-edge are needed for this. 


Take the piece of leather and with the sponge and water moisten it 
on the back — the rough side. It is difficult to say just how much to 
moisten, as some pieces take more water than others. In general, a few 
times across with the sponge will answer. If the leather then does not 
take the impression of the tool, moisten again slightly until it does. It 
has been given too much water when dark spots begin to appear on the 
face side and should be allowed to dry some before being worked. The 
leather should be kept moist while being worked. 

Place the leather upon the prepared metal with the smooth side up. 
The next step is to get the design traced upon the leather. It is quite 
possible to devise a way of fastening the design and leather together upon 
the block, but not without some loss of material. As it was difficult for 
one boy to hold his design in place and trace, I permitted the boys to 
work in pairs, one holding while the other traced, and vice versa. 

All straight lines of the pattern, including the outer edges, should be 
traced with the V-shaped point of the modeling tool (Fig. 3), aided by a 
straight edge. Care should be taken to make sharp corners and not to 
cut the leather. While the tracing is done over the pattern, the pattern 
need not be injured if the work is carefully done. The design can be 
traced over with a lead pencil, as the paper keeps the pencil from dis- 
coloring the leather. 

1 904I 


J 95 

Remove the design and go over again, using the V-shaped point of 
the modeling tool, aided by a straight-edge, for the straight lines, and the 
remaining point held so as to make as narrow a line as possible for the 

With the hollow-pointed nail set and hammer stamp in the back- 
ground, being careful not to strike hard enough to cut the leather. If 
necessary put the nail set on the stone to take off the sharpness of the 
edge. Special tools can be bought for this work, but the nail set answers 
very well. 

After the stamping has been finished go over the lines again so as to 
make the design " stand out." 

Now cut along the lines which were traced from the lines gh and 
ran (Fig. i), and fold along the lines traced from ij, ef and kl (Fig. i ), 
tapping lightly with the hammer to flatten the fold. 

Sew along the ends and cut off the surplus leather and the book is 
ready for use. In all cutting a chip carving knife and straight edge serve 
best. The boys took their books home and sewed them on the sewing 
machine. The leather, though thick, is soft. 

The manner of procedure in making the card case is the same as that 
of the bill-book, except the background is not stamped, but is lowered 
by means of the round ends of the modeling tools. (Figs. 2 and 3). 



These ends are of various sizes and suggest the uses to which they are 
to be put. Leather, like wood, has grain, and if you find the surface 
roughing up, as you try to press it clown, rub in the other direction. 

Many things which can be made will suggest themselves to you. The 
boys found no end of things they wanted to make. Small mats, stamp 
books, plaster cases, covers for note books, bags, belts, magazine covers 
and portfolios can be made. Many boys made coin purses of the scraps 




which were left, also name tags, and several made watch fobs to replace 
worn out silk ones. 

Where boys have pyrography outfits very satisfactory results can be 
obtained by using sheep instead of calf skin. Sheep skin is much 
cheaper but cannot, however, be treated as described above. 

A word of caution is necessary. All kinds of calf skin will not model. 
Some colors work better than others. The safest way is to order of 
those who make a business of supplying this trade. 





IftulWlO "•> /W 

fti. » 



Edwin Victor Lawrence, 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute. 

INE dollars and for what? A rack, a locker, one-thousand- 
and-one rules and the privilege of locking the door after 
you in the house of the Quinebequin Canoe Club." So 
spake the prophet; and agreeing we bewailed our fate, 
when suddenly a brilliant idea flashed almost simultan- 

eously through our minds. 

•Why not gather together two or three 


more of us and build with the aggregate amount?*' 

No sooner said than done; so a cold raw nineteenth of April found 
us, tools in hand, ready on a rocky wooded promontory by the upper 
reaches of the winding Charles, the Quinebequin of the good old Bay 
State. And oh, the task we had getting our lumber there! — via the wheel- 
barrow route to the freight, thence by portage over hill and through wood 
to the river, and then — well, load 50 or 100 
feet of lumber and a couple or so bunches of 
shingles, saying nothing of yourself and of 
course "the pup," into a sixteen-foot canoe,' 
then proceed to enjoy it. Try it. 

Our land sloped up from the water's edge about three feet in twenty, 
and as we were to have our floor just three inches above the highest 
flood mark, we dug into the hillside making a level place 20x20 feet, 
using the dirt to fill in our wharf. We placed large rocks at the corners 

1904] 197 



of the main part, or canoe storage, which was 20x20 feet, and of the ell 
in the rear, a living room 10x10 feet. Midway of the rear wall, placed 
so as to give warmth to all the room, we excavated for our fire place. 

The corner posts were 4X4-inch car stakes 6-foot long, mortised into 
a 4X4-inch sill and carrying a 2-4-inch header or plate. At the ends of 
the main part the plate extended two feet outside the wall, receiving, with 
two false plates midway and braced, the rafters, thus making an eave 
closet that proved itself most useful for the storage of "duffle." The 
B upper two feet of the rafters were 

cut away and thence replaced 
on top, being held apart by a 
horizontal piece, thus giving with 
the overhanging shingle a pro- 
tected ventilator. (See drawing.) 
The ell was framed in a simple 
way, save that the upper ends of 
the rafters were supported by a 
header which, in turn, was sup- 
ported by hemlock posts, In 
order to give strength and a nail- 
ing surface for the vertical board- 
ing, a 2X4-inch belt was carried 
entirely around the building three feet up, excepting across the front, 
where was the big door. The sides and ends were boarded vertically 
with matched spruce. The roof was shingled over "furrin" and paper. 




A little dormer window, just for a lookout, was placed on one side 
and with its wooden shutter added greatly to the quaintness. The little 
service door was hung on 
big iron hinges (presented 
by our artist and sworn to 
be at least 150 years old). 
The entire front of the 
main building below the 
plate was a door, hung at 
the top with large iron 
butts, counter - weighted, 
and when lifted up served 
as a roof to our piazza. 

From the front of our 
house extended two old 

and weather-beaten stringers supported by willow posts, forming the 
framework for a pergola over which run wild grape, hop and woodbine. 
Our fireplace was built of round, moss-covered field stones, with a mantel 
projecting well forward. Old Father Time had painted well those rocks, 
and from a picturesque point of view it was an unqualified success; but 
it took three rebuildings to make it so it would not smoke. The chimney 
was of 6-inch Akron tile with an outer shell of cobbles over which 
clambered woodbine and clematis. 

•■ 'h~-. 

-is- ° "ii 


The folding canoe racks were made of two 3-foot pieces of gas-pipe, 
a tee, a triangular oaken block, and a metal clip combined into a sup- 
port that was durable and simple, easily swung around and capable of 
being removed at will. 



A word about the cost, and I must put it in round numbers. The 
land was leased; the lot had no boundaries and we roamed at will. The 
price was $5 per year and the owner says he cheated us. The building 
(less the fireplace) cost about $45, the fireplace $3, and it took five men, 
three boys and a dog a week to build it. 

One might judge from the sketches that the fittings were confined to 
one camp stool and a cot bed, but this is not so. There were rustic 
chairs galore, rugs all about, cushions of every hue, paintings of camp 
life on the walls, paddles, oais, trophies, and in all our little house is a 
palace not to be despised; and should any tired "manual arter" happen 
along he will always find the latch string out. 

Manual training 


$ Cities and towns 

in which some forrri 
of manual trainincy 
has been introduced. 

S oo 



Cities and towns 
"in which no courses 


have a.s yet been 





s -.v 

\ / 







^ • 


,, "'v>-.,.ft„ 

• • 



PEAKING generally, the manual-training investment of 
California compares very favorably with that of the best 
sections of the east. For the purpose of the more readily 
visualizing the situation, the accompanying map has been 
prepared. From this map it is to be seen that all of the 
educational progress, guaged by the manual-training 
standard, has taken place in the southern half of the state, with Stock- 
ton as the northern limit. South of the latitude of Stockton, the city 
without a manual-training course is exceptional. North of that line the 
state map is an absolute blank so far as munual training is concerned. 
San Jose and Sacramento are the only large cities in the whole state 
that have made no move toward joining the majority. There is an 
unofficial rumor that Sacramento is preparing to get ready to begin to 
consider the matter. If this impulse should bear fruit, San Jose will 
stand alone as a monument to other days. Berkeley has been agitating 
the manual-training question for some years and is now on the eve of 
'Excerpt from a report presented to the Council of Education of California. 

1904] 201 


joining the general movement. Oakland has long had an effective man- 
ual-training high school, and Alemada has a very prettily developed 
elementary scheme compassing the whole eight grades. San Francisco, 
besides seven sloyd centres, a cooking department and a polytechnic 
high schools, has two excellent industrial schools, endowed and affiliated 
with the state university. Stockton has a manual-training school of 
grammar grade temporarily out of operation. Fresno has for several 
years had sloyd classes for her seventh .and eighth grades. Bakersfield 
and Tulare both introduced the work last year. Bakersfield carries a 
special teacher for woodwork and drawing. Tulare has woodwork from 
the seventh to the tenth grades, devoting eighty minutes to the lesson. 
San Luis Obispo is the seat of a state polytechnic school which, while it 
has a definite leaning toward agricultural interests, is enough of a tech- 
cal institution to figure prominently among the manual-training schools 
of the state. Los Angeles has well-developed courses in sloyd, sewing, 
cooking, and a variety of primary work. Steps have already been taken 
to establish a manual-training high school. San Diego, as early as 1891 
had installed wood sloyd for her sixth, seventh and eighth grades and 
later added cardboard and raffia work in the primary. Many of the 
smaller cities and towns in Los Angeles and adjacent counties have in- 
vested in some form of manual training. Redlands devotes an hour a 
week to sloyd and sewing in grades five to eight, and has also some 
primary work in cardboard. Santa Ana allows no minutes weekly to 
sewing and cooking in grades six to nine, but no report is made of what 
the boys are doing, Pasadena has no manual-training courses of her 
own, but she has her Throop Polytechnic Institute which, with its 
elementary, normal and secondary departments, constitutes one of the 
important manual-training factors of the state. Riverside, Covina and 
Oxnard have courses in primary manual training and the course of study 
for Los Angeles county calls for this work in all the rural schools of the 

The plant now in operation in Santa Barbara is probably not 
excelled by any of its class in the United States. As in so many cases 
elsewhere the work in Santa Barbara was begun as a private philan- 
thropy and later turned over to the city school department. Miss Anna 
Blake founded the school which bears her name, in 1 891, and maintained 
it until 1899. Her death occurring at that time, the school passed by 
deed to the city, although four years previously it had become a regular 
part of the city school system. $4,200 is raised annually by special tax. 
Out of this sum the entire running expenses of the school are met, in- 


eluding the salaries of three teachers and a janitor, and the working 
supplies of 750 pupils. 

This plant was the first grammar-school manual-training establish- 
ment on the Pacific coast. The present organization includes equipments 
for sloyd, cooking, sewing, wood-carving, primary cardboard work, and 
an art room. During the first years of the undertaking the classes were 
conducted after the regular school hours, but gradually the work was 
merged into the regular school-day program. The working period is 
one hour and a half. 

The sewing and sloyd begin with the fourth grade and the sloyd 
continues to the high school. In the eighth grade cooking displaces 
sewing and the period is of two hours' duration. The equipment 
throughout is complete but very simple and well kept. 
The models belong to the pupils who make them. The work is com- 
pulsory, although such a term seems a misnomer as applied to manual 
training, for the children are never voluntarily absent, and the average 
attendance is much higher than in the grade schools. When the school 
was established the townspeople were at first indifferent, then surprised, 
then interested, and now in hearty sympathy. The same may be said 
of the teachers. 

We have overlooked Pacific Grove, which has a course of woodwork 
for the ninth grade. In Sausalito and Sunol experiments are being car- 
ried on in primary manual training. 

Of the normal schools of the state, all have manual-training courses. 
The Los Angeles school carries sewing, domestic science, sloyd and 
primary work. The San Jose school reports sewing, sloyd and primary 
work. The school in San Francisco has courses in sewing, sloyd and 
illustrative construction, in the service of the nature study and other 
departments. The Chico and San Diego schools have courses in pri- 
mary and cardboard work. This inventory of our local manual-training 
enterprises does not appear trivial when we reflect that thirteen years 
ago the study was unknown to any schools of this state. North of the 
parallel of 38 ° there are a round dozen communities, headed by Sacra- 
mento, that should be heard from on this subject. 

A manual-training roll-call for the Uuited States, corresponding to 
the one we have just given for California, would create the impression 
that little remained to be done. We have to remember, however, that 
in the generality of cases manual training is a decoratian on the course 
of study, rather than an organic and pervasive factor in it. We must 
not rest content with ornamenting our school reports with professionally 


phrased rhapsodies on the value of manual training and then follow 
these up with admissions of a most dismally fragmentary installation of 
the work. If manual training is a good thing it should be established in 
a whole-hearted and effective way, that permeates the school department 
throughout, reaching both sexes and every pupil just as insistently as 
does our instruction in number and language. Santa Barbara and 
Alameda have shown that this can be done, and apparently they have 
shown also that it is a good thing to do. 

The subject of English, for example, would cut a curious figure in 
our school reports if candor compelled us to state that it was taught 
only in two grades, selected somewhat at random, and given in only a 
portion of our schools and possibly to only one sex. Yet this is the 
present status of manual training, even in those localities where it has 
given most employment to the job printer. It is not the present purpose 
to urge the extention of the program time allowed for manual training, 
nor a material increase of the present expenditures upon it ; but rather 
the speedy application of this training to every school and every grade 
and every pupil wherever it has been tested and proven its usefulness. 


Acting on the invitation of the Council, the committee offer the 
following recommendations: 

i . That a portion of the state school funds be directed toward the 
establishment of manual training in communities voting to introduce the 

2. That county superintendents and boards of education systematic- 
ally encourage some simple form of manual training in the rural schools. 

3. That manual-training courses be established in any training 
schools directed by the education departments of the universities. 

4. That a special effort be made to more effectively establish man- 
ual training in all primary and grammar grades. 

Walter J. Kenyon, 
Ednah A. Rich, 
George A. Merrill, 
Walter A. Tenny, 
Edwin R. Snyder, 



The The manual-training problem in the elementary- school involves 

Teacher three factors that seem to be fundamental: the course of in- 
struction, the pupil, and the teacher. In past years there has 
been a tendency to give too much consideration to the first of these to 
the neglect of the other two. This came about very naturally because 
in the infancy of manual-training work we received some of our most 
valuable suggestions from the highly organized courses, or systems, used 
in foreign countries. But we are discovering that these rigid courses do 
not give the best results. Flexible courses are now taking the place of 
rigid ones, and individual initiative on the part of the pupil is being 
encouraged. Yet in all this development we seem to have clung to the 
idea that we must have rigid progressive series in the kinds of handwork 
taught from grade to grade. We continue striving for an ideal manual- 
training course throughout the elementary school which shall consist of 
specified industries, as pottery and weaving, in the first grade, and cer- 
tain others in the second grade, and so on until we have gone through 
the list of grades and have exhausted our list of industries. Is not much 
of this energy of planning misdirected ? Is not the supervisor making a 
mistake when he puts great emphasis upon the order of the industries 
taken up ? Is it essential to a graded system ? Is there not a deeper 
question to answer first ? Any one of these industries involves simple 
and complex processes — easy and more difficult work. Weaving is 
both simple enough for the first-grade child and complex enough 
for the high-school pupil; likewise pottery and needlework, bookbind- 
ing and metalwork. Does the supervisor's knowledge of the pliability 
and resistance of the materials, or the adaptability of the materials to 
illustrate the story of Hiawatha, or the development of primitive indus- 
tries, make his judgment infallible ? Is there not another factor in his 
problem ? Shall not the teacher's fitness to direct the work effectively 
be considered as well as the ability of the child to do the work, and the 
relation of such work to some philosophical scheme of studies ? Shall 
not adjustments be made on the teacher's account ? 

The course which is ideal in theory is never ideal in operation unless 
the teachers give ideal instruction. We all know that the best-planned 

1904] 205 


scheme of work may prove a failure in the hands of poor teachers. 
Few grade teachers at the present time have received instruction which 
enables them to teach even the elements of all the industries suitable for 
elementary schools, and misfits are the rule among the grade teachers if 
the supervisor tries to put his course into operation all at once. It is 
true, however, or it ought to be, that every teacher can do some form of 
handwork tolerably well; she is likely to know the elements of at least 
one or two handicrafts, and would be interested in developing her skill 
in these or in learning others provided she were to be allowed some 
choice in the matter and could receive encouragement and a reasonable 
number of helpful suggestions from someone competent to give them. 
Some teachers detest claywork; others like it. Some have no patience 
for the accuracy essential in cardboard work, but delight in the free 
curves of bent iron. Why not let the taste and fitness of the teacher 
have some weight in the selection of the industries to be taught ? Why 
not encourage her to think and plan and take the initiative in solving 
her own individual problems; for each room has its own. When the 
work is presented to the pupils with intelligence and enthusiasm and 
adjusted to their individual abilities, it matters little which industry is 
taken up first and which second, which third and which fourth, or if 
several are taken up together. The order is relatively unimportant, 
especially in the lower grades, so far as the development in the handwork 
itself is concerned. The enthusiasm and the manual skill of the teacher, 
on the other hand, are very large elements in the success of the manual 
arts in any school. A supervisor, or principal, or superintendent who 
would attain the highest success in directing work in manual training 
will do well to take into serious consideration the qualifications of his 
teachers, and be willing to make reasonable adjustments rather than fret 
them by insisting that they try to teach subjects for which they are not 
adapted either by temperament or experience. — B. 

The good supervisor is a promoter of professional labor — he makes two 
study where one studied before. 

Constructive criticism is harder to give than a Destructive criticism, but 
it's worth more. Doctors say any fool can cut a leg off, but it takes a sur- 
geon to save it. 

!9°4] EDITORIAL 207 

Moreth Man ' WG are assured ' was made to mourn. Be this as it 

Meat ma y> ^ is q u 'te certain that into the lives of the most cheer- 

ful there come cerulean moments. Teachers all, of high 
and low degree, are bound to see " gray " days, their ceaseless round of 
patience-taxing duties cannot but know hours of despondency. To such 
hours the specialist is no stranger. Indeed, more often than to other 
teachers his work may appear fiat and unprofitable. As a supervisor 
going from school to school, or as a teacher of some art or craft in a 
single building, the bigness of the problem is constantly borne in upon 
him — how indeed can one teach so many? 

Representing a subject related to the curriculum loosely, if at all, the 
specialist experiences all of the latent resistance which protects the body 
politic against the outsider, the skeptical attitude which doubts the value 
of the special subjects or the unconcealed hostility which fiouts them. 
Nor is the convincing of the skeptical grade teacher or the training of 
the many pupils all that gives pause. Often there are those in authority 
who must be led to see the value and necessity of the specialty — trus- 
tees must be trained and an apathetic public interested. Forgetful, 
however, of the fact that primarily he exists to do this very educational 
work, the specialist not infrequently may be brought to ponder unhappily 
the query, "To what end — who cares"? 

Many indeed care, though they cannot all be known to one another. 
To "the cause" many have been called, and many also chosen. It must 
be remembered, however, that it is a cause, and that the success of the 
ndividual must be sought in its advance, and not in any sm all and per- 
sonal way. Of all the things to be dreaded by the specialist, the 
development within himself of a spirit of indifference, is most to be 
feared. Resiliency is what counts — the power of coming up under 
pressure, of gaining new strength from rebuff. 

Those who would have aid. will find it in the lives of men who have 
lived and striven for a principle, who have given themselves up to their 
fellows and have labored serenely, cheerfully and steadily at some 
Sisyphian task, who have lived that life which is -the" life — that life sung 
by Kipling in the grave measures of Mc Andrews' hymn — the Life of 
Service. — H. 

Technical knotuledge inculcated without conscious power to direct it to 
useful ends, is valueless. 


The Mosely Visitors from afar have from time to time held up the 

Reprt SSIOn ' S mirror > and when thus offered we have hastened to 
gaze at our reflection, possessed of a double curiosity to 
see how we appear to others, and to learn the commentary which such 
appearance has evoked. Sometimes the image, as in the Sketches of 
Dickens, has roused our complaint that the glass was unfairly held, 
sometimes the reflecting metal has been so convex that in the hands of a 
Max O'Rell it has but served to provoke good humored laughter, while 
when borne by a Brice its surface has revealed our lights and shades 
so truly, that students the country over have welcomed the insight 
it gave into the American commonwealth. But these visitors observed 
as individuals. In the report of the Mosely Commission we have not 
one point of view but many, not one judgment but the opinions of a 
score of specialists, not a reflection of the whole field of American 
society but a definite examination of a single phase of our social activity 
that some answer might be made to the question as to " how far educa- 
tion in the United States is responsible for industrial progress." 

The Commission itself was composed of some twenty-six gentlemen 
connected with various educational interests in Great Britain and Ireland. 
Some came from local Boards of Education, some from professional 
schools or university chairs. All were the guests of Mr. Alfred Mosely, 
a gentleman of independent means, whose attention has been turned to 
the educational needs of his country, and who was anxious that the pas- 
sage by parliament, of the recent Education Act, should be followed by a 
scrutiny of the educational system of the United States. Such study, 
embodied in the form of a report, it was believed would act to mold pub- 
lic opinion and help direct the steps to be taken in the development of 
the Act's provisions. 

Previously to the organization of the Educational Commission, Mr. 
Mosely had gathered together a similar body known as the Industrial 
Commission, whose business it had been to answer the question as to 
" How it is that the United States can afford to pay half a dollar in 
wages when we pay a shilling, and yet compete with us in the markets 
of the world ? " The Educational Commission on the other hand was 
to examine specifically into: "The development of individuality in the 
primary schools ; " " The social and intellectual effects of the wide dis- 
tribution of secondary education ; " " The effect of specific instruction 
in business methods and applied science;" and "The present state of 
opinion as to the value of professional and technical instruction of uni- 
versity rank designed with especial reference to the tasks of business life." 



The notes of the twenty-six investigators are now embodied in a stout 
volume of just four hundred pages. They review the machinery of our 
schools and school systems in a score of States. A brief -Joint report " 
opens the volume. The fact that the Commission came to seek the good 
and not to criticise short-comings accounts for the tenor of this state- 
ment which, beyond a question as to the wisdom of placing our elemen- 
tary education so largely in feminine hands, presents our schools in a 
light which may justly cause us pride. 

It is to the commentaries made upon our teaching of hand work that 
we would call particular attention. The important part which motor 
education is coming to play in the development of individuality elicits 
the Commission's strong commendation. Every member whose steps 
took him into elementary class-rooms did not fail to inquire into this 
training. For the most part the individual reports are highly favorable, 
though occasionally— as indeed was to be expected— individual members 
differ widely in their points of view. It is significant, however, that all 
of those who visited the school directed by Prof. Dewey came away 
impressed with the Value of a course of study which makes constructive 
teaching a co-ordinate part of the general scheme of instruction— which 
regards the manual arts as central and not as external elements hanging 
to the skirts of the curriculum. 

To analyze the report in detail is here, not possible. It must, how- 
ever be noted that it stands as one of the most important of recent 
contributions to the literature of the Arts. Xo student of their develop- 
ment should forego its careful perusal. It presents our present 
educational situation as seen through the eyes of shrewd school-men and 
kindly critics. It touches gently our National failings in the way of 
superficial and show work, yet makes plain and emphatic our positive 
belief in the value of manual education. To the school Superintendent 
or Supervisor, anxious to carry conviction to the minds of some still 
reluctant School Board, it offers an invaluable argument. 

Needless to say this report will be read by thousands of our English 
cousins desirous of improving their schools. Its study will scarcely be 
less earnest by educators in this country. In the light of the suggestions 
to be read between its lines it may well be regretted that no similar 
commission is to be sent from this country to England and the Continent, 
to study and make plain to the school trustees of our great cities our 
need of free evening art and continuation schools. In the development 
of these that we are as yet to seek. To their general establishment we 
must come in the not far distant future. Intelligent study of what 


has been done abroad would aid not a little to their immediate organi- 


The teaching of the arts aids in quickening the industrial consciousness of 
the race. 

The School The end of the school year offers to many teachers of the 
Exhibition arts an opportunity to place on exhibition the results of their 
term's work. No wise instructor fails to take advantage of such chance, 
realizing that in an exhibition he has a most valuable means of making 
plain the meaning of his subject. To a few shortsighted persons a dis- 
play of this kind is looked upon as a school luxury — an expression of the 
desire to "show off." The rightly conceived and well arranged exhibi- 
tion is rather, however, to be regarded as a school necessity — as a 
means of showing school standards, of educating the public and of mak- 
ing friends for the work. 

The good exhibition is not one which has been "fixed." Time 
was when uniformity in the exhibits was a desideratum. Individuality 
was at a discount. Originality was suppressed. Now at moments the 
pendulum may be seen to swing as far in the opposite direction and cer- 
tain art teachers may he found showing specimens of work in water 
color and the like which are but curiously striking examples of chance 
success in a slippery medium. Such happy unintended hits are not 
criteria of success or standards of excellence. Artists call them "flukes." 
The exhibition of flukes betrays a lack both of insight and honesty on 
the part of the exhibitor. 

The good exhibition is rather one which shows processes, which 
shows the natural progress of the pupils from the earlier years to the 
later, which shows the co-ordination of the different arts of drawing, con- 
struction and design and which makes plain the manner in which the 
subject matter of the course of study has had its different elements woven 
together into one common whole. Perfection of process in the school 
exhibition is not to be expected and is to be regarded with suspicion 
when found. It's a very militaire system which will produce fifty per- 
fect copies. One seeing such results may be sure that little thinking, on 
the part of the pupils, went into the work. Yet to look at some school 
exhibitions one might imagine that small pupils never made mistakes. 
The pupil's individuality is in all the arts significant and important. 
Let it be seen. Let each make plain how he planned his work, how he 

1904] EDITORIAL 211 

related it to his social interests, how he studied out its difficulties and 
how at last he surmounted them. It has happened more than once at a 
big exhibition that a little table covered with home work has been, with 
all its manifest short-comings in technique, by far the most interesting 
thing displayed. — h. 


Taste is artistic judgment gotton through repeated discrimination. 

It may be a little difficult to say just what constitutes that complex 
we hear spoken of as the "American System" of manual training, but it 
may be safely premised that a better opportunity to see it could scarcely 
be offered than that presented in the educational exhibit of the St. Louis 
Exposition. Those anxious to understand the broad details of practice 
which have come to form the " System,"' and anxious also to comprehend 
the influences which have shaped and are shaping its development, will 
at the great Fair find the explanations writ large. 

Narrow margins, crowded make-up and indifferent press-work have 
for years been characteristic of the reports of our Art and Manual Train- 
ing Associations. The well-edited and well-printed transactions of the 
Eastern Art Teachers Association for 1903 mark, it is hoped, the change 
of the tide. It will be fortunate if the rise of the latter is rapid that the 
near future may see the proceedings of each of the associations issued 
as seemly and attractive contributions to the literature of the craft. 

Earlv in July one of our editorial staff. Dr. James P. Haney. will 
start on a tour through Spain. The first week in August he expects to 
go to Berne to attend the International Drawing Congress. He will 
return to New York about the middle of September. 

Professor Richards is still in the Orient, and when last heard from 
stated that he was having the opportunity of his life. 

The aphorisms in the editorial columns of the past three issues have 
been written by Dr. Haney. 



A regular meeting of the School Crafts Club was held at the St. Andrews Hotel 
on January 15th. James Hall, chairman of the evening, opened the proceedings by 
calling attention to the exhibition of work, asking Walter M. Mohr to give some de- 
scription of his contribution. 

Mr. Mohr showed several articles in sheet metal which he had made under the 
instruction of Laurin H. Martin, of the Boston Normal Art School. These included 
bowls of hammered copper; an oblong box of silver of artistic design, with hinged lid 
and soldered joints, and some fine examples of repousse work. 

An assortment of toys — chairs, tables, sleds, jumping-] acks, etc., — exhibited by 
Eli Pickwick, were made by children of the public schools of Newark as Christmas 
gifts for poor children. 

A boat of good design and excellent workmanship was contributed to the exhi- 
bition by Edward D. Griswold, who read a most interesting description of the collec- 
tion of materials and prosecution of the work written by the maker, a Greek lad 
about fourteen yeras of age. The work was done at the boy's home. 

Dr. E. B. Kent showed a model of a stationary engine which he had made with 
a view to determining whether such a project might be undertaken by boys in school. 
It was believed to be within the powers of 8th or 9th grade pupils. 

"A Review of the Field of Manual Arts as a School Subject," was the caption of 
a paper presented by William Noyes, which will be found printed in full on pages 181 
to 186. 

Speaking on this subject Dr. Jas. P. Haney said that Mr. Noyes had expressed 
ideas which he ( Dr. Haney ) believed to be essential in our teaching. It was unfor- 
tunately true, however, that these ideas were not yet generally recognized by teachers, 
while many who saw the truth more or less clearly failed to find a way to carry it into 
effect. Reform makes its way slowly. Many teachers are not well advised regard- 
ing the later educational philosophy. The social idea in education is accepted by but 
a limited number. It has yet to be generally accepted by committees on courses of 
study. All should help in the realization of the better way which Mr. Noyes has 
pointed out. One may see in the elementary school of Chicago University, and in 
the normal school at Hyannis, institutions which are developing courses which hold 
up clearly before them the social ideal. 

Arthur W. Richards spoke on " Some Factors determining Kinds of Work for 
School Purposes." The first problem to be confronted in taking up the work of 
teaching in the manual arts Mr. Richards believed to be a danger that the teacher be 
submerged by the pressure of current interests, such as the crafts movement, psycho- 
logical, anthropological or socialogical interests, or by his own special interests. This 
throws the responsibility upon the teacher or supervisor of viewing all such interests 
in their relation to the whole scheme of education, and recognizing the particular 

212 [JULY 


bearing they have upon it; also, of finding their place in the life and development of 
the child. 

This responsibility of the teacher suggests some factors determining the kinds of 
work which are suitable for the school. First, we need the kinds of work conserv- 
ing permanent and substantial, rather than changing and personal interests — for ex- 
ample, there is danger of the undue neglect of simple straight work finished in colors 
suitable to wood, in which there are so many practical, esthetic and moral lessons. It 
is difficult to see the equivalent of such work, as a basis for either art or construction, 
in those exercises in which line and color are applied indiscriminately to sofa pil- 
lows and book shelves. Secondly, we should adopt occupations expressing the 
various interests of handwork, as work for the home, industrial work, applied physics 
and mechanics, and work in the esthetic field. Each of these contributes something 
towards a feeling of appreciation for the work and progress of the world. Thirdly, 
we must recognize the demand for different kinds of work at different ages of the 
pupil. The question is worthy of consideration as to whether there are not nascent 
periods in the different lines of interest, as, for example, we know there is a period 
when the interest in dynamics is especially prominent, though we may not know its 
bounds ; so there is a period when the art, or home, or other interests are especially 
marked, so that certain things could be much more effectually done during that 
period than at any other time. The value of the work to the pupil lies in that special 
interest which differentiates it from mere perfunctory work done because he is told to 
do it. This is what we should endeavor to find out and. put in practice in our school 

In discussing this paper Dr. Kent said that the statements made by Mr. Rich- 
ards were in harmony with that made by President Butler — that the work should 
start from the child and lead to society. The question as to what things most appeal 
to the child is not easy to answer. The interests and ability of the pupil must be 
considered first, then the social value of the work. A special study of home work 
made by the speaker, indicated that making boats appealed most strongly to boys 13 
to 14 years of age, more than half of the work observed being in that line. On the 
social value side the boat is equally good, as one-half the transportation of commodi- 
ties is carried on by water. Some practicable model equally typical of land trans- 
portation would be a valuable addition to the subject-matter of the workshop. 

Mr. Noyes thought we should get at the lines of work which were of permanent 
interest — the basic industries from which our modern industries have been developed. 
The primary object of all work is to provide for the necessities of life. Hence the 
instinct of workmanship. The horse works not because of the oats he is to get to- 
night, but because of the oats he had this morning. So man works not primarily for 
pay, but because he takes pleasure in work. The problem before us is to find out the 
typical industries and follow them up to date. 

Mr. Hall regarded the arts and crafts movement as an indication that we are be- 
ginning to recognize in the primitive arts the stepping-stones which lead us to the 
appreciation of beauty in more modern forms. Through the study of the develop- 
ment of the arts we may learn to see beauty in many things which take their form 
and character largely from the necessities of modern society. The streets of a densely 
populated city, for example, may be made beautiful. 

W. A. Cleveland spoke of methods of teaching something of modern industry. 
The experiment had been made in Montclair of imitating factory methods by divid- 


ing boys into groups, each group having its own foreman. Articles useful in the 
school were made in this way. 

Victor I. Shinn supported the proposition that children's work should be in the 
line of their interests. Children are interested in the things around them, particularly 
things that are associated with the home. The speaker here gave an interesting ac- 
count of the unconscious manual training he had received in his early days — making 
steam engines, cannon, electrical apparatus, etc. Growth is due to the reaction of 
surroundings. Children respond to the things of sense ; as maturity comes we respond 
to ideals and are influenced by others. Mr. Shinn's high school pupils were taught 
first to draw plans and elevations of houses in the mechanical-drawing room, while 
in the freehand room they made designs for trim, etc. The student should be taught 
to appreciate simplicity and honesty in design, to understand just what the material 
he is using will allow him to do, and to consider what will best serve the purpose he 
has in view. 

Harold Brown, speaking of the teaching of color in connection with design in 
the high school, exhibited a chart illustrating the principles of rythm, balance and 
harmony in color. These principles are constantly exemplified in nature. In mak- 
ing colored designs pupils would gladly make use of such a chart rather than work at 
random. Mr. Brown strongly advocated the attempt to analyze beauty — not leave 
it to the old art school idea that it is only in the air, and purely a matter of feeling 

The Club held its third stated meeting of the year at Hotel St. Andrew, March 
i i, 1904. In the absence of the chairman of the session, Robert G. Weyh, who had 
been unavoidably delayed, the program of the evening was opened by the vice 
president. The exhibition of school work came first in order. 

Some specimens of children's work from the public schools of Montclair were 
shown by Walter A. Cleveland. In the second year looms were made of plain 
pieces of board with brads driven in the ends. Bags were made on these by carry- 
ing both warp and woof continuously around the board. Primitive looms made of 
twigs tied together at the ends were also used. In the third year basket weaving 
and paper work were taken up. Some baskets were made of grass gathered by the 
children. The fourth year was occupied chiefly with clay work which had been 
shown at a previous meeting. Boys in the fifth year made match scratchers, carts, 
etc., while the girls made collars embroidered in colors, sewing bags and other simi- 
lar articles. 

A. W. Garritt showed some bowls of hammered copper made under the instruc- 
tion of Walter M. Mohr; also several models for public school classes. One of 
these, for seventh year boys, was a sconce of wood ornamented with hammered 
brass. A very ingenious waste basket, designed for the eighth grade consisted of a 
wooden framework lined with burlap, the three uprights being secured to the bot- 
tom with mortise and tenon joints and decorated with incised carving. 

Some very interesting examples of elementary carving were exhibited by Karl 
von Rydingsvard, who was present as a guest of the club. This work, which was 
done by normal and high school students at the Ethical Culture School, consisted 
chiefly of trays of varying size and shape. Mr. Rydingsvard regretted that manual 
training people seemed so little disposed to favor carving in the schools. The work, 
he said, is attended with a minimum of danger from cuts, etc., and could be carried 
on with very few and simple tools. Carving is a natural and appropriate form of 

1 904] ASSO CIA T/0. \ r S 2 1 5 

wood decoration. Carved ornaments are not made to hang on the walls. Before 
we make decorations we must have something to decorate. The trays shown were 
not outlined first — the piece of wood was cut hollow to form a tray, then the de- 
sign was made and carved, the outline taking the form of the decorative design. 

The first address on the program was that by William F. Vroom, on " The Re- 
lation of the Artistic to the Mechanical in the Manual Arts," (An abstract of this 
address will be printed in a later issue.) 

Mr. Noyes agreed with the writer of the paper in the contention that the fine 
arts could never have come to perfection without the mechanical basis. This is a 
mechanical age. The advance in the constructive arts has been enormous. We 
admire the works of art produced in the middle ages and are apt to think that a cer- 
tain antagonism exists between these and the mechanical work of the present day. 
The apparent antithesis between the mechanical and the artistic is largely due to the 
fact that esthetic development has not kept pace with mechanical development. Our 
ideas of beauty are becoming modified. Ruskin thought a railroad ugly, but many 
modern artists are coming to realize that such a product of mechanical skill may not 
be lacking in a beauty of its own. 

Hugo Froelich held that while mechanical work is valuable as discipline, art 
work is of greater value in developing the individuality of the worker. A boy thinks 
in terms of art. He can take a rough piece of wood, and, by putting his own thought 
and feeling into it, make it a priceless gem. The mechanical is necessary as a founda- 
tion, for we, cannot get away from the constructive, and that generally includes the 
mechanical. This trains a boy in correct habits ; art makes him himself. 

Mr. Hall took the ground that the mechanical is necessary to the artistic — the 
two cannot be separated. While the artist is working towards his ideal his work is 
largely mechanical ; it is only at the moment when it takes form and begins to express 
his ideal that the artistic element prevails. 

Replying to a question by Geo. F. Buxton, Mr. Vroom explained that it was not 
claimed that training in certain moral habits was the only, nor the chief, benefit of 
manual training. There was nothing in the paper intended to controvert the theory 
that its value lay chiefly in the development of the mind through motor activity, its 
effective appeal to the child's interests and his introduction through it to the indus- 
trial world. 

The evening's program being completed, W. E. Stimpson introduced a proposal 
that the club make occasional visits to factories for the purpose of getting more in 
touch with the real work of the industrial world. New York has a large number of 
factories of various kinds, and the privilege of seeing many of them could probably 
be easily obtained by the club. 

Mr. Richards suggested using the club as an influence to get permission for visits 
by individual members, who might, perhaps, take groups of boys with them. 

Dr. Haney said that in this movement we were touching the vital question of the 
industrial education of the people. He believed the time was coming when a boy 
could find a place in the high school where his education might be carried along on 
technical lines. Many boys who now leave school at an early age would willingly 
remain if a course of elementary industrial instruction were offered. He was heartily 
in favor of taking action on Mr. Stimpson's suggestion. 

After several other members had expressed views favorable to the plan a motion 
was passed authorizing the chair to appoint a committee to. lake the matter in hand- 


The last meeting of the Club for the season was held at the Ethical Cul- 
ture School, 63d street and Central Park West, on Friday evening, May 13. An 
interesting feature of this meeting was the inspection of the new building by mem- 
bers of the Club under the courteous direction of the principal, Mr. Frank A. 

At the business meeting the following officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: President, Chas. R. Richards ; Vice President, Wm. H. Noyes; Secretary, 
Geo. F. Stahl ; Treasurer, Walter M. Mohr. Committee on Program, the President 
and Vice President, Hugo Froelich, James Hall and Eli Pickwick, Jr. Committee 
on Admissions, Louis Rouillion, Wm. A. Worth and Frank N. Pierce. Committee 
on Entertainment, Albert W. Garritt and Chas. C. Sleffel. 

Arthur W. Richards, for the committee appointed at the last meeting to con- 
sider the matter of visiting workshops, submitted a report covering the following 
points : Such visits should be of value to members of the club as giving an oppor- 
tunity for the study of industrial practice, affording new ideas as to the possibilities 
of school work and promoting a better understanding between industrial and school 
workers. There are arts and crafts shops and manufacturing shops. The interest 
of members of the club in the former is obvious, as to the others we need to know 
what they are doing to satisfy the demands of the public and how they are doing 
it. It was recommended that visits be arranged to take place on the morning of 
the third Saturday in each month, and that a standing committee be appointed to 
select places of interest and carry out the necessary negotiations for such visits ; 
also that a catalogue of workshops be sent out with each meeting announcement. 
A list of metalworking and other factories was appended to this report. 

Frank N. Pierce exhibited some specimens of knifevvork made by normal stu- 
dents of Pratt Institute. These included pin balls, picture frames, match boxes, 
larger boxes, etc. The articles were finely finished with various colored stains and 
wax polish, the work being suitable for fifth or sixth grade pupils. It was claimed 
for this line of work that it may be done in the regular class room, that it gives 
skill in handling the knife and some knowledge of the nature of wood. Basswood 
J'4-inch thick is the heaviest stock used. 

Some fine work in sheet metal, from the Brooklyn Manual Training High 
School, was shown by Victor I. Shinn. There were fob ornaments, scarf pins, hat 
buckles, napkin rings, etc., made of silver, brass and copper. Most of the work was 
done after school hours by a Crafts Club consisting of boys thirteen to fifteen years 
of age. 

An address on " The Possibilities in Kinematics as a part of High School 
Mechanical Drawing," by Louis Rouillion, having been omitted from the March 
program owing to Mr. Rouillion's illness, was presented at this meeting. A series 
of drawings made by fourth year high school students was shown, embracing gradu- 
ated exercises in this line of work. Methods of plotting curves were introduced by 
means of gear problems, the ordinary gear wheels being followed by elliptical, heli- 
cal, annular and bevel gears and, most difficult of all, the worm wheel. Problems 
in changing motion by means of cam movements, the principle generally underlying 
the construction of automatic machinery, were then introduced. These began with 
the simple heart cam and proceeded, increasing in complexity, until extremely intri- 
cate pieces of mechanism were evolved. The work was given in the form of prob- 
lems and proved to be so fascinating that complaints were made that boys were sit- 

1 904] A SSO CIA 77 O. \ S 2 1 7 

ting up late at night and neglecting their other work studying cams. Some students, 
after plotting on paper an arrangement of cams which would produce the move- 
ment of a pencil in writing their initials, made the machine to prove the correctness 
of their work. One had constructed an extremely clever piece of mechanism, which 
would write his name in full. Many boys, through their work in Kinematics at 
school, had proved their aptitude, or perhaps developed an aptitude for planning 
mechanical devices, and had subsequently taken important positions as designers of 
machinery or some kindred line of work. 

A paper relating to " Physics in the Workshop" was read by Robert W. Burn- 
ham, who took the ground that the workshop offers excellent opportunities for a prac- 
tical application of the theories of physics. The two departments ought to be mutually 
helpful. It is often difficult to get a piece of apparatus correctly made by a skilled 
mechanic, while it might be done by the pupil himself under the intelligent guidance 
of the workshop instructor. Boys might be trained to repair apparatus, thereby 
gaining skill and knowledge of principles while helping the Physics teacher. Fre- 
quently improvements might be made in existing apparatus, or something might be 
devised for new experiments which could not be bought from the dealers. Much 
benefit would accrue to the pupil in the appreciation of accuracy in mechanical 
work and in experimental operations. Care and thoroughness will take on 
a new meaning. One problem worked out in concrete form in the shop 
will do more to develop a boy's reasoning powers than hours of theoretical teaching 
in the class-room. In conclusion Mr. Burnham cited numerous instances of the cor- 
relation of physics and shop work which had aroused a deeper interest in physics on 
the part of the pupils, while affording them the benefits of manual training, and had 
proved in every way satisfactory. 

Arthur L. Williston, chairman of the evening, expressed approval of the plan 
of correlating physics and workshop practice. Some very fine specimens of appa- 
ratus were exhibited as a practical illustration of the co-operation of the two depart- 
ments at Pratt Institute. 

Refreshments were served, as usual, at the conclusion of the evening's program. 

William F. Vroom. 


The annual meeting of the Chicago Sloyd School Association was held April 
16, 1904, at the Chicago Sloyd School, 39 State Street, Chicago. Interesting reports 
came from members of the Association teaching outside the city, and preparation of 
work for the St. Louis Exposition was the theme of most of them. 

Miss Ericson, of the Industrial School at San Juan, Porto Rico, told of the 
encouraging growth of manual training in that Island. Dr. Lindsay, commissioner 
of education, is actively interested in its extension, and during the last year appro- 
priations have been made for the support of the industrial schools. Frank H. Ball, 
of Worcester, Mass., has been made supervisor of manual training on the Island, 
and two new industrial schools at Ponce and Arecibo were opened during the winter. 
To the two schools already established have been added new departments and equip- 
ment. Miss Ericson's sloyd classes are large, and with the older pupils stress is laid 
on inlaying and the making of light furniture. The native woods are numerous and 
beautiful and are now for the first time obtainable for shopwork. Miss Ericson 
says, "The people of Porto Rico possess particular taste in doing fine, dainty work, 


and they display therein a wonderful patience. This is evident in the inlaid work of 
our pupils, who delight in the joining of the smallest pieces of rich-colored woods, 
trying to bring out effects and to match well the colors." The girls of these indus- 
trial schools are taught drawn work by native teachers, and there are cooking depart- 
ments where they learn the best methods of preparing native fruits and vegetables. 

The industrial schools of Porto Rico will have a large exhibit at St. Louis. 

Miss Lagergren reported the work of the State Institution for the blind at 
Jacksonville, 111. She says that totally blind boys do better work than those who 
can see a little, for these latter depend too much on the little sight they have. She 
gives one instance of a number of boys, some blind and others with more or less 
sight, each of whom made a section of a screen ; a totally blind boy did the best 
work. Miss Logergren will have four blind pupils at work in the Educational Build- 
ding at St. Louis during June. 

In the sloyd department of the Illinois School for the Deaf, at Jacksonville, a 
graded course of models is followed, though opportunity is given for individual 
designing. The boys often design such articles as can be used in their games — sling- 
shots, kites, sleds, baseball bats, etc. The models made are taken by the children 
to their homes at the end of the school year. Miss Eaton speaks of the difficulty 
many of these deaf boys have in using measurements, and in remembering the names 
of tools. 

Trinity Church Settlement, at Buffalo, N. Y., has seven sloyd classes each week 
under the direction of Miss Edna Bryan. During the early part of the year a course 
of models is followed, but by spring the boys who have been regular in attendance 
are ready to originate their pieces of work. A number of needs of the settlement 
have been supplied in these classes — a newspaper box, flower sticks and looms for 
the kindergarten. There is a class in basket weaving for girls. 

Miss Estelle Dalby, supervisor of manual training in the city schools of Hun- 
tington, Ind., sent an outline of the course used in that city. There are no kinder, 
gartens, so the first-grade weaving is necessarily simple. Sewing is the handwork of 
the third and fourth grades, together with clay modeling, paper folding and cutting, 
which have place in all the primary grades. In the fifth grade mechanical drawing 
and cardboard modeling are used, and in the sixth basket weaving. The classes of boys 
and girls are divided in seventh and eighth grades, the girls sewing and the boys doing 
bench work. 

The manual arts department of the public schools of Fairbury, 111., is under the 
direction of Miss Margaret Paisley. Boys of the last three grammar grades and of 
the high school do woodwork. The pupils make their individual designs in the art 
classes and work them out in wood in the shop, which has been well equipped by 
Mrs. Walton of Fairbury. In the lower grades clay modeling, paper cutting and 
basket making are taught. 

Informal reports, often interrupted by questions and discussion, were made by 
teachers present at the meeting. 

Miss Butler, of the School of Education of the University of Chicago, told of the 
work she had recently seen in New York. At Pratt Institute there is being worked 
out a most interesting course, based on the history of the industries of mankind. 
Pratt Institute aims to give its normal students a thorough technical training, and 
then leaves the individual student to make his own application in teaching. At the 
Teacher's College a knowledge of materials is gained and ability to handle them, and 

1 904] A SSO CIA TIO. \ S 2 1 9 

while there the teacher must adapt it to pedagogical ends. In the Ethical Culture 
school constructive work illustrates the regular grade work. 

Miss Anna Murray, principal of the Chicago Sloyd school, told of the public 
schools of Stockholm, Sweden, as she saw them last spring. Knitting and sewing are 
the sloyd of the lower grades for both boys and girls, but later the classes are divided 
and the girls continue to sew, while the boys have cardboard modeling, then wood, 
then iron work. Miss Murray had with her some fine drawings made by pupils of 
high-school age at the Technical school of Stockholm. Among them were a number 
of studies from nature and their application to design, in ink and water color. They 
were all beautifully executed. This technical school is a trade school supported by 
the state and has many departments. 

The meeting closed with an interesting account of a visit to the sales rooms 
and factory of the Stickley shops near Syracuse, N. Y., by Miss Langley of the 
School of Education. Emily M. Pryor, Secretary. 


The eleventh annual meeting of the Western Drawing Teachers' Association 
was held in Milwaukee, Wis., May 10th to 13th. This was the last meeting under 
that name, as the Association will hereafter be known as the Western Drawing and 
Manual Training Association. 

The first session was held in the assembly room of the Seventh District school 
on Tuesday afternoon and was most delightfully opened with singing by the school 
children. The music rendered at the opening of each session added very greatly to 
the program prepared by the Association. The strong chorus of 250 boys' voices was 
most enthusiastically received ; also one of a hundred fifth-grade children. These 
choruses were led by Mrs. Frances Clark, supervisor of music in the Milwaukee 
public schools. Addresses of welcome were given by Superintendent C. G. Pearse 
and President McKenny of the Normal school. Both speakers were very happy in 
their remarks and made the visitors feel very much at home. Following the few words 
of greeting by the president of the Association an illustrated talk on Milwaukee was 
given by R. B. Watrous, secretary of the Citizens' Business League. The views 
shown and the statistics given proved conclusively that beer is not the chief business 
interest of the city — which it claims to have made famous. 

The evening lecture by John Quincy Adams, of Philadelphia, was greatly appre- 
ciated by an audience which filled the Grand Avenue Congregational Church. His 
subject was : 


and was a strong plea against crediting the machine with all that is ugly in present- 
day furniture. " The trouble is with the designers who think in terms of tools rather 
than in terms of machinery. It would be impossible to supply the market with hand- 
made furniture, so, as the machine has come to stay, it would be better to make 
designs which recognize its limitations. Beauty is a matter of proportion and struc- 
tural line and these can be carried out by machinery as well as by hand. It is the 
brain of the designer which supplies the art. There is danger of the pendulum 
swinging too far in this return to ' hand-made ' things and leading us to make by hand 
what could be better done by machinery." Mr. Adams is in full sympathy with the 


manual-training movement and his words of warning were received in the same 
friendly spirit in which they were given. His lecture was fully illustrated by slides 
showing pictures taken in the various furniture stores of Philadelphia and the houses 
of Darmstadt Colony, Germany. 

Both Mr. Froehlich's talk on "Art in Manual Training " and Mr. Fenollosa's on 
the " Structural Basis of Art " accented strongly the same fundamental principles of 
simplicity in design and attention to structural lines. Mr. Froehlich made his talk 
most practical and helpful by means of blackboard sketches and articles of handicraft 
selected from the work on exhibition. Mr. Fenollosa's lecture was illustrated with a 
comprehensive selection of lantern slides, carrying his subject from the simplest 
design of the art student to the masterpieces of the Old World. 

Mr. Kissack, of St. Louis, gave an interesting paper on manual training from the 
art standpoint, and William T. Bawden, of Normal, 111., an exhaustive plan for manual 
training in graded schools. Mrs. Ida Hood Clark, supervisor of manual training in 
the Milwaukee public schools, spoke on elementary manual training. 

The program for Friday's session was not given as published as several of the 
speakers were unable to be present. Mrs. Perkins' place on the program was taken 
by Mrs. Wynne, of Chicago, who gave a most witty and interesting talk on arts and 
crafts as carried out at Deerfield, Mass. Mrs. Wynne is president of the Ueerfield 
association, and no one who has heard her talk and come under the influence of her 
delightful enthusiasm will wonder at the success of that village industry. 

The business meeting was held on Thursday morning and was chiefly devoted to 
the new constitution. Besides the change of name the following important points 
were decided : All officers shall be elected for a two-year term, the election of presi- 
dent and treasurer to alternate with that of vice-president, secretary and auditor. 
The annual membership fee shall be two dollars with an addional fee of one dollar 
for those who have the traveling exhibit. 

The next meeting will be held in Chicago at the invitation of the Art Institute 
and Armour Institute. 

The election of officers for 1904-5 resulted as follows: President, Miss Lucy 
Silke, of Chicago; vice-president, Charles A. Bennett, Bradley Polytechnic Institute, 
Peoria, 111.; secretary, Miss Chamberlain, Saginaw. Mich.; treasurer, Miss Annette 
Wales, Milwaukee; auditor, J. E. Painter, Minneapolis. 

Two very delightful receptions were tendered the Association, one at the Plank- 
inton Hotel on Wednesday evening by the citizens of Milwaukee, the other an after- 
noon tea at Milwaukee-Downer College with Miss Sabin as hostess. Both were 
largely attended and thoroughly enjoyed. — M. E. R. 


The usual exhibit of pupil's work in drawing were made from about twenty- 
five cities and towns. The fact that so many schools had prepared extensive exhibits 
for the St. Louis Fair reduced the number of towns represented somewhat, although 
numerically their places were nearly filled by several towns never before represented 
in the exhibits. The presence of these new exhibits is evidence that interest in the 
Association and its work is steadily growing. We missed the old faces, but we were 
glad to welcome the new. 

The influence of the traveling exhibit was plainly seen in much of the work dis- 
played. A decided improvement over former years was shown in the mounting of 

1 9°4] ASSO CIA TIONS 2 2 1 

the work; it was better classified, better labelled, and, in the majority of cases, not so 
many exercises were crowded on a mount, although in the preparation of exhibits the 
tendency to think of the number of exercises shown, rather than the best appearance 
of a few exercises, is still evident. This is another indication that the principles of 
design in their broadest application do not yet sufficiently influence general art work 
along all lines. 

Observational or representative work predominated very largely, as it should, in 
the work of elementary schools. The subjects represented were, in general, land- 
scape, plant form, figure and animal, still-life and design. The work seemed to be 
done with freedom, spontaneity, and freshness, showing a delightful spirit of joy in 
the work. This and the attitude of the thousands of visitors who looked at the work 
with keenest interest are most hopeful and encouraging signs for popular education 
in art. With so much interest displayed by children, teachers and the supporters of 
the public-school system, the great work must go on until better methods of teaching 
and a clearer understanding of the great and fundamental art principles have affected 
not only the work of the schools, but the attitude of the American people toward art 
and its relation to humanity. j^ g 


Clinton S. VanDeusen. 

Recent newspaper items state that the widow of Simon G. Reed, a pioneer and 
capitalist of Portland, Ore., who died recently provided in her will for the founding 
of an institution in Portland to be known as Reed Institute. The Institute is to 
combine instruction in fine arts, sciences and manual training, and is to be conducted 
with special regard to the needs of young men and women compelled to earn their 
own living. 

Dr. John Dewey, head of the department of philosophy in Chicago university, 
has been elected professor of philosophy in Columbia university. We congratu- 
late Columbia. 

The new Carnegie Technical school for Pittsburg will be interesting to manual 
training workers. Director Hammerschlag is now hard at work giving lectures and 
interviews so that the public may know of its plan and scope. A lecture course is 
being prepared which will include able speakers in all the different subjects or 
courses of the new school. 

Walter G. Wesson has resigned his position as director of Manual Training 
in the schools of Worcester, Mass., to take effect at the close of this school year. 
He has accepted a position with his brother, J. E. Wesson, a shoe manufacturer. 

The following comes from San Francisco under date of June 7th; "Manual 
training is slowly but surely making headway on the Pacific Coast. The instructors 
in manual training in San Francisco are to receive a raise of #200, which is a step in 
the right direction. The outlook over the entire Coast is bright and promising." 

The trustees of Pratt Institute have announced that their high-school depart- 
ment will be discontinued at the close of the next school year. Now that public 
manual-training high schools are assured in both New York and Brooklyn, the origi- 
nal purpose of the high-school department has been accomplished. 


Albert W. Smith has been appointed director of Sibley College at Cornell 
university to succeed Dr. Thurston, who died last October. Mr. Smith is at present 
head of the engineering department at Stanford university and is a man of wide 
experience both in educational and engineering work. 

E. J. Bending, principal of the manual-training department of the Michigan 
State School for the Deaf, died recently at Dele van, Mich. He was the father of 
E. A. Bending, principal of the Hackley Manual Training School at Muskegon, Mich. 

Detroit, Mich., is one of the progressive cities in manual-training work. There 
are, at present, twenty special teachers of the different branches of manual training 
and fourteen manual-training centers. The men teachers in this line of work have 
formed a Manual - Training Teachers' Club for the study and discussion of topics 
relating to the subject. Homer T. Lane has been elected its president and Wm. 
A. Sargent secretary-treasurer. 

A notable feature of the recent graduating exercises of the evening schools of 
Boston was the showing made by the two hundred adult pupils in millinery, dress, 
making, woodworking, printing and embroidery. 

J. R. Sparks, superintendent of the Havana, 111., schools, has succeeded the 
past year in making a good start in manual training and domestic science work. 
The former has been under the direction of D. W. McLemore and the latter of Miss 
Retta Bowman. A fairly good equipment has been secured and things looked quite 
promising until a recent school election. An element opposed to progress in school 
matters succeeding in this election and it is possible that they may cause the manual 
work to wait a year or two for the progressive people to wake up. 

Supt. Calom Moon of South Bend, Ind„ states that they are giving cooking 
to both boys and girls in the 7th and Sth grades with interest and good results on the 
part of the boys as well as the girls. 

Plans are being discussed for the merging of Harvard Scientific school and the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. If some satisfactory arrangement can be 
devised it will do away with the duplication of buildings, equipment and teaching 
force which now exists. 

Alabama has established ten high schools intended for boys and girls from the 
farms. The courses in these schools will include the study of agriculture and 
industrial subjects. It is claimed that the work of the city high school leads away 
from farm and home life, and these schools are established in the hope of over- 
coming this tendency. 

A college of domestic science is to be established at the University of Chicago 
with Dean Marian Talbot at its head. The courses will include cooking and the 
study of the science of food stuffs. It is intended that the work shall include, besides 
actual cooking, domestic engineering, including house sanitation, public hygiene, the 
chemistry of foods, and other phases of sanitary science. — School Journal. 

The University of Wisconsin has just opened a department of domestic science. 
The legislature appropriated $15,000 for the new department and a kitchen and 
laboratory have been equipped. Miss Caroline L. Hunt is in charge of the work. 
The course includes scientific and practical study and preparation of foods, house 
sanitation, decoration and management, and domestic physiology. — The School 

iqo4] CURRENT ITEMS 223 

The work of making the furniture for the Minnesota state building at the 
St. Louis fair was divided about equally between the high schools of Minneapolis 
and the Mechanic Arts High School of St. Paul. Such pieces as chairs, tables, 
settles, lounges, screens, jardiniere stands, foot stools, etc., were made. 

Geo. S. Waite, supervisor of manual training in the public schools of Kala- 
mazoo. Mich., has been elected director of manual training for the new Western 
State Normal. The buildings for this school are now being erected at Kalamazoo, 
and it is proposed by Principal Waldo to make a strong feature of the manual train- 
ing and rural work. A start is being made in the work by holding a summer school 
in the city school buildings. 

A summer school of art and manual training is announced by Throop Poly- 
technic Institute of Pasedena, Cal., to open Aug. 8th, and continue four weeks. 
Arthur H. Chamberlain is director of the school and he with four others compose 
the faculty. Eight courses are offered and the outline indicates that the field of art 
and manual training will be well covered. 

The teachers of manual training, domestic science and art in Allegheny, Pa., 
hold regular monthly meetings with their supervisor, C. B. Connelley, as chairman. 
In these meetings, lectures are given and discussions held, to the advantage of 
pupils and teachers. 

The "'committee on original effort" of the Chicago Principals' Association are 
preparing a report calling for more work with the hands. They have been inquiring 
into the original effort on the part of pupils for some time. The following principles 
are to be the basis of the findings: 

The average newsboy is smarter than the average schoolboy. 

The country boy of twelve years has a better practical knowledge than the city 
boy of the same age. 

The teaching of the principles of plumbing, constructing houses and street cars 
is better for obtaining original effort on the part of pupils than delving in books. — 
The School Weekly. 

Ax INTERESTING experiment for stimulating and developing the inventive genius 
of the pupils is being tried in the Manual Training School of Newburg, N. V. It is 
known as the Caldwell plan, and consists in the offering of prizes ranging from two 
to ten dollars for the best original suggestion or invention presented during the 
school year. The suggestion or invention must be novel and original and the sole 
production of the one presenting it. It may be an improvement on anything made 
in the school or the tools used, any improvement in managing the class or doing the 
work, or in fact anything that pertains to public-school education. The suggestions 
or inventions are submitted in writing or by means of drawings. Impartial decisions 
are provided for by a committee on awards. 


During the winter a number of men interested in the school arts have met on 
Saturdays at Public School 77, for practice in sheet-metal work under the direction 
of Walter M. Mohr. Good progress has been made. Mr. Mohr has a very complete 
equipment of tools and shop appliances for this work, an enameling furnace having 
been added lately. The articles made include bowls, buckles, brooches, trays, 
boxes, paper cutters, etc. In the making of these the operations of shaping, 
sawing, filing, soldering, engraving and enameling are involved. 


At the April conference of the workshop instructors of Manhattan and the 
Bronx the subject of communal exercises for the eighth-year grades was discussed. 
A number of models were exhibited, consisting chiefly of apparatus for experiments 
in physics. 

The vital points of the discussion might be briefly summarized as follows: (i.) 
To be successful the work should be thoroughly planned well in advance, so that 
the necessary drawings and material be ready. (2.) The work assigned should be 
adapted to the ability of the particular boy who is to execute it. (3.) The instructor 
should not spread his labors over too wide a range of subjects in any one section, 
but might profitably confine his efforts to working out various forms of the same 
model in each class; for example, one class might make different forms of water 
wheels, another different varieties of scales and so on. 

In Public School 166 the two class rooms of the 8 B grade have been provided 
with telegraph keys and sounders, made by the boys in the workshop. A committee 
consisting of two boys from each class of this grade strung the wire to connect the 
instruments. Only one wire was used, the circuit being completed by the use of a 
ground connection. During the science lesson messages pass back and forth between 
the two rooms, several of the boys having trained themselves to send and receive by 
the Morse code. 

At Public School 77 experiments have been made in working sheet copper and 
brass, employing the better workers among the " holdovers " in the different sections- 
The work has been received with great enthusiasm on the part of the boys and the 
results are highly satisfactory. The charactor of work includes shaping, sawing, 
filing and repousse, and the particular objects include a bowl, tray, letter opener, 
candle sconce and fern dish. 


The Allan Manual Training School, a department of the Austin public schools, 
has just closed its eighth year which has been the largest and most successful of any 
in the history of the school. More than 225 children have been enrolled during the 
year and the results of the work in the seventh and eighth grades, especially, have 
been very gratifying. Two changes in the faculty occurred during the year, Mr. 
Hanszen resigned in September to accept a position in the Dallas public schools, 
and Mr. Curtis resigned in October to accept a position in the Sherman public 
schools. Mr. Anderson of the St. Louis Manual Training School and Mr. Blackburn 
a graduate of the Allan Manual Training School were elected to fill the vacancies. 
The school has grown so large that there is urgent need of a larger building. The 
prospects at present are very bright for a new building in which there will be ample 
room for a complete department of sewing, cooking, etc., for the girls. 

Mr. Hunsdon, director of the Allan Manual Training School again has charge of 
the manual training in the summer school of the University of Texas. 

The following towns have taken advantage of the offer made by the state to 
help them introduce manual training into the schools of Texas: Austin, Belton, 
Divine, Dallas, Ft. Worth, Sherman. Waxahachie, San Antonio, Itasca and Taylor. 
The people of Texas are beginning to realize the value of the work so that it is only 
a question of time until all the large towns will have some phase of the work in the 
schools. _n. S. Hunsdon. 



•• They (the Commission) have also been impressed with the spirit which animates 
both teachers and pupils, and by the manner in which the two classes co-operate in 
the schools and colleges. Willingness, if not overwhelming desire, to learn seems to 
characterize the scholars, and teachers seem to be possessed of but one wish — that 
of helping the pupil in every possible way. The absence of class prejudices and of 
any 'religious difficulty' seems most materially to facilitate the work of the schools." 

The important part which manual training is beginning to assume in the schools 
struck them forcibly. Such work appears to be in many ways of high value as an 
educational discipline, especially in developing handiness and alertness, and in famil- 
iarizing the scholars with constructive processes. — From the "Joint Report." 

"Manual training is practiced in many of the schools, and in some of the high 
schools the equipment for this purpose is very complete, and the training excellent. 
In fact one is impressed on every hand with the practical character of the training 
in the State and city schools generally." — From the report by Arthur Anderton. 

"All the people of the classes enumerated above (manufacturers, practical engi- 
neers, etc.) whom I met were unanimous on two points — there was not one dissenting 
voice. Everywhere I was told : An engineering apprentice in a factory should be a 
college-trained man; an engineering professor in a college should be actively engaged 
in the practice of his profession." — From the report of Prof. W. E. Ayrton. 

"I have seen the German evening school system and the American evening school 
system, and neither is comparable with ours in quantity or quality. German and 
American educationists have a very high opinion of our British evening schools, but 
they look upon them as trade schools — institutions for the training of highly skilled 
operatives. Such is not a wholly correct view." — From the report of Robert Blair. 

••In Chicago, however, I found at the training college presided over by Dr. 
Dewey at the University, a genuine attempt being made to carry the theory into 
practice. They begin with the kindergarten for the babies and the manual training 
is afterwards continued right through from the first to the eighth in a practical way. 
* * * Broadly speaking, therefore, it may be said that this school carries out 
the idea of manual training throughout. — From report of A. J. Shepheard. 

" The fact most suggestive for everybody who visits the United States is the 
extraordinary interest the whole population, from highest to lowest, and richest to 
poorest, takes in education, not on the question of who is to collect the money to be 
applied for its upkeep or what the particular views on church government of the 
teachers may be, but on the question of how to turn out the most capable and adap- 
table young men and women, and how to train the best teachers for this purpose. 
Everybody among the adult population of the country, born within it, is a politician, 
and the chief point in his political creed, whether he belongs to the one party or the 
other, is to obtain for the people the very best education which it is possible to 
procure," — From report of Thomas Barclay. 

1904] 225 









Vg-in. square from %-in. round. 

Flaring or tapering scroll 

l^-in. octagon from ^4 -in. round. 


•"ij-in. round from 3 4-in. round. 

Bending and 

3 ' 8 '-in. round ring, 2^-in. diam. 

S scroll. 


1 4-in. staple. 

C scroll. 


Double shoulder exercise : 

Gib and cotter. 

Bracket hook. 

Meat hook. 

Gate hook. 


Reins for tongs, 

%-in. round to jjjj-in. square. 


Largely decorative : 

Back-ground pieces. 


Forge shop dipper. 

Key-hole escutcheons. 


%-in.x^-in. Flat ring, 3 in. diam. 

" " Collar. 

Strands for handles or lamp 

Chain ring. 



Many other details. 

L welt. 


T welt. 

Straight welt. 

Punching and 

Y split. 

Base for lamps or candle- 


Camp fork. 
Right-angle split. 

sticks, etc. 


Corner brace. 

Leaf on handle. 

Handle for dipper. 
Chain hook. 

Ball ends. 

Clothes hook. 

Forged handle. 



Prick punch. Scraper. 
Cold chisel.. Hammer. 
Lathe tool. Forge tools. 
Tempering exercise : 

Arranged by William C. Stimpson, 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1 9 04] BREVITIES 227 


American girls have the same educational advantages as boys with one exception: 
They don't have the same manual training. In schools where benchwork is taught, 
the training is given to boys but denied to girls. This is unjust. It is unwise. If 
boys are given benchwork, girls should be given benchwork. The sexes are not 
divided in the public schools on any other subject. If benchwork is educational for 
all boys it is educational for all girls, just as arithmetic is educational for both sexes. 

The giving of cooking and sewing in lieu of benchwork is not sufficient. Sewing 
and cooking are good, but the training should be given to both sexes. If these two 
subjects are educational for all girls, they are educational for all boys. The need of 
improving the home life should call for no sex division. The boy as well as the girl 
makes the home. The cooking and sewing would have been sufficient for the girl of 
fifty years ago. 

The girl of today needs the home training, but with it she needs the training 
of eye and muscle and the breadth of view that her brother gets. 

Today the work of the world is interchangeable. Who can say this is woman's 
work, that is man's work ? Each is having a larger freedom in choice of work. Look 
at the host of men cooks. There are men dressmakers, men milliners, men house 
decorators. There are women lawyers, women factory owners, women street-car man- 
agers. Our public schools are for the traiuing of all men and all women. 

Manual training people are not consistent. Why should girls be given work in 
thin wood in the fifth grade and be denied thick wood in the sixth grade? Why 
should girls be taught the use of the knife in the fifth grade, and be denied the use 
of the chisel in the sixth grade? Or is there something about the words bench- 
work, "which should not be mentioned before ladies," as Mr. Wegg says. 

It isn't because girls haven't the strength. I have taught girls in the same 
classes with boys, working at the bench, in thick wood. They were equal to 
the work. 

It isn't because girls haven't the ability to learn. Manual-training teachers 
know that boys have to learn how to use tools. Boys have no divine right in ability 
to drive nails. Haven't you known families where the boy had no mechanical 
ability? The girl was the handy one. The girl needs this manual training just as 
her brother needs it ; to be able to do more, see more and enjoy more. 

Here is a case; This winter a mother came to the principal of a building, and 
said she could do nothing with her daughter, that the girl ought to have been a 
boy. She did nothing but make boxes and coops. The child sat by, too miserable to 
look up. The principal showed the mother that the girl had ability with her 
hands, that if she kept on at school she could become a manual-training teacher- 
The child found a friend and now meets the principal with a smile, feeling that she 
is good for something. 

Fifty years ago most people thought a high-school education useless for girls, 
unless possibly they were to become teachers. Now it is difficult to realize that 
such an absurd notion ever existed. Girls should have this benchwork. The 
breadth of life that has come to you and me through this training, shall be theirs if 
you say it may. 

Los Angeles, California. Caroline E. Harris. 





Weaving: 75 hours. 
Study of different weaves ; use hand loom ; and 

make a usable article. 
Original design in raffia basket. 
Raffia hat from original design. 

Sewing: 200 hours. 

Hand and machine-made articles of clothing. 
Wash dress designed and made. 

Millinery : 25 hours. 

Bows ; wire raffia hat and trim according to orig- 
inal design. 

Freehand sketching. 

Design; simple study of form; 
ornament and color. 

Design for basket and hat. 

Working drawings applied to 

Design for wash dress. 

Design in color for trimmed 
raffia hat. 


Work in Wood : 75 hours. 
Elementary carpentry and joinery. 
Making useful articles to serve as basis for de- 
sign in wood-.arving. 

Modeling : 75 hours. 

Study of ornament, using clay as medium. 

Wood-carving: 150 hours. 
Simple design carved in wood. 

Working drawings. 

Historic ornament. 

Still life. 

Charcoal drawing from casts. 


Dressmaking: 150 hours. 

Drafting, cutting, fitting and finishing a lined 
dress from original design. 

Millinery : 50 hours. 

Make, place folds on, and trim a winter hat. 

Advanced Clay Work: 150 hours. 
Plaster casts from models made. 
Pottery work, using wheel and using casts. 
Ornamented pottery. 

Sketching from model. 

Study of line and form in de- 
signing dress. 

Study of color in application 
to dress. 

Design hat to suit face and 

Design in pottery ; form, color, 

l 9°3l 


2 -9 


Elect 'ivcs: Two, 150 hours each. 
Advanced woodwork. 
Advanced work in pottery. 

Metalwork — hammered copper, enamelled cop- 
per, using simple forms and designs. 
Tooled leather — book covers; bookbinding. 

Each product must be design- 
ed in the art work before it 
is put into concrete form in 
manual department. 

By Abbv L. Marlatt, 

Manual Training High School. 

Providence, K. I. 

Yrz — ^ 


r> ft 

W V (l 

Candle: Stick 


How to Make Bead Work. By Mary White. Doubleday, Page & Co., New- 
York, N. Y., 1904; 5X7/^ m - ' PP- x 4 2 ! illustrated; net, #1.00. 

The author of this book is already well known to elementary teachers through 
her various books on basketry. The present volume will also attract the attention 
of instructors anxious to find another occupation which will relate to the studies of 
primitive life and offer opportunities for original work in an inexpensive medium. 
With the needs of the classroom in mind the author has prepared a separate chapter 
on beadwork for children and has illustrated the several exercises that are particu- 
larly suited to school practice. A simple and very inexpensive form of bead-loom is 
also described in detail. 

The earlier pages of the book are given over to a description of the materials 
used and the processes of stringing and plain weaving. Interesting examples are also 
shown of " diagonal weaving with a loom," a practice which has come down to us 
from the gray mist of early Egyptian history. There follow other chapters describing 
work on canvas, and the primitive bead work of the East and of our Sioux and 
Navajo Indians. The book throughout is copiously illustrated by dozens of line 
engravings and a number of half-tone plates. — //. 

How to Judge Architecture. By Russell Sturgis, A. M., Ph. D. The Baker & 
Taylor Co., New York, N. Y., 1903; 6J^X9/1j m - i PP- 221 ! S4 illustrations; net, 

It is now some years ago since Prof. Van Dyke offered his small volume on 
" How to Judge of a Picture." A few other authors have since ventured into this 
field — astonishingly few when one considers the favorable reception which greeted 
the first comer. It has remained for Prof. Sturgis to render an equal service to the 
student of art by placing before him a lucid exposition of those things in architecture, 
which make for beauty of composition and for elegance of proportion. 

Following the thought suggested by his sub-title of "A Popular Guide to the 
Appreciation of Buildings," the author offers no rules for the consideration of 
structural details, but chooses rather to lead his reader from the consideration of 
early Greek temples through the development of medieval architecture and the 
revival of the classic to those structures which he classes under chapter headings 
of " imitative " and " Original designs of the nineteenth century." His aim in this 
method of approach he defines as an effort " to help the reader to acquire, little by 
little such an independent knowledge of the essential characteristics of good build- 
ings, and also such a sense of the possible difference of opinion concerning essentials 
that he will always enjoy the sight, the memory or the study of a noble structure 
without due anxiety as to whether he is right or wrong." 

As an omnipresent form of art, uniting in itself both the structural and the 
decorative, architecture offers one of the most suggestive and desirable of subjects 
for the cultivation of discriminative artistic judgment. To the many who yearly seek 
the well-traveled paths which lead to Athens, Rome and Florence, Prof. Sturgis' 

23O [JULY 

i Q 04l REVIEWS 231 

volume with its four score of illustrations offers valuable aid; its more important 
lessons are, however, for the far greater number who, at home and within the 
boundaries of their native cities, may be led to consider more carefully those elements 
in the structures surrounding them, which go to make for artistic dignity and pros- 
perity. As a people we have been not a little criticized for our shortcomings in 
matters of taste. The volume in question is to be welcomed as a noteworthy contri- 
bution to that, as yet, far too limited list of books which, coming from the hands of 
competent authorities, act to raise the standards of popular judgment in matters 
concerning excellence in art. — H. 

Pictorial Composition and the Critical Judgment of Pictures. By Henry R. 
Poore; The Baker & Taylor Co., New York, N. Y., 1903; 6^X9/^ m -! PP- -77! 
80 illustrations; net, $1.50. 

A second edition of Mr. Poore's treatise on Pictorial Composition called for 
within a year, is evidence of the widespread desire for information upon the topic so 
long ignored of the art schools. For years it was the complaint of students of 
painting that after they had perfected their technique they were at a loss to know 
how to go about the evolution of a picture. Of late the demand for such informa- 
tion has been met by the establishment in various schools of courses in composition 
and by the appearance of one or two texts upon the subject. Mr. Poore's volume is 
such a text-book, and is devoted in large measure to an analysis of those things 
which make for good pictorial arrangement. In other chapters of the work he treats 
of the "Aesthetics of Composition" and "The Critical Judgment of Pictures." 

The first division, by far the longer, will be found by the student the most help- 
ful. In his analysis, the fact that the writer is a painter, writing about the practice of 
his art, makes his suggestions apt and instructive. For the very reason, however, 
that he is a painter and not by profession either a writer or a critic, his exposition is 
less illuminating when it deals with questions of aesthetics and criticism. 

To the student of painting or of design, to the photographer and to that large, 
and ever growing, class of persons interested in pictures, this volume will be of 
service in revealing those harmonies of arrangement of light and of form which 
distinguish every fine composition. It will also aid in giving the reader something 
of the painter's point of view. Such knowledge cannot but be helpful to all those 
who are anxious that their appreciation of pictures shall be a reasoning appreciation. 


Wood- Carving, Design vnd Workmanship. By George Jack. No. Ill of "The 
Artistic Crafts" series of technical hand-books, edited by W. R. Lethaby; D. Apple- 
ton & Company, New York, 1903; 5X7M m -i PP- 3 11 ' including 15 full-page collotype 
plates ; 'net, $1.40. 

It is difficult to find a satisfying book on wood-carving because the carver's art 
is so subtle that it cannot be completely analyzed and set forth on printed pages. 
There are, however, technical processes incident to the art, and fundamental consid- 
erations of design which may be expounded. Such an exposition with reference to 
English wood-carving is the volume before us, and it is rich in practical suggestions 
for anyone who wishes to produce carved ornament in the spirit of the Gothic. 

But it is more than this for it considers wood-carving in the light of the Arts 
and Crafts movement. It insists that the designer and the carver must be one and 
the same person, for the design cannot rightly be considered completed until the 
carving is finished. 


The author also points out that the art of wood-carving is not merely a matter 
of technical skill, but that it must fulfill an intellectual function, " as an interpreter 
of the dreams and fancies of imagination." These two considerations are wrought 
into the entire book. 

Like the previous books of the series, " Bookbinding," by Douglass Cockerell, 
and "Silverwork and Jewelry," by H. Wilson, this volume is an attractive piece of 
book-making. It is well printed, bound in a pleasing manner, and the text is illus- 
trated with numerous pen drawings. — B. 

Metallic Ornaments of the New York Indians. By William M. Beauchamp. 
Bulletin 73 of the New York State Museum. University of the State of New York. 
Albany, 1903. S 3 4/ 9 in.; pp. 120; 37 plates; paper cover, price 30 cents. 

This is a valuable addition to the series of archeological papers written by Dr. 
Beauchamp. The plates are especially interesting to teachers of design. One is 
surprised at the degree of refinement in the designs made by aboriginal Americans. 

— B. 

Drawing and Manual Training in the Elementary and Secondary Schools. The 
Manual Arts Booklet No. 1, edited and published by C. S. Hammock, Director of 
Manual Arts, Northern State Normal and Industrial School, Aberdeen, S. D. 7 /To 
in.; pp. 54, illustrated; price, 25 cents. 

This is the first of a series to be published occasionally to help in building up 
work in the manual arts. It contains articles by Prof. John Dewey, Dr. C. M. Wood- 
ward, Mrs. Hannah J. Carter, J. H. Trybom, J. F. Brumbaugh, A. C. Newell, C. A. 
Bennett and the editor. With Mr. Hammock's energy behind it this publication is 
sure to do much for the Northwest. — B. 

Report of the Commissioner of Education for Porto Rico, Dr. Samuel M. Lind- 
say, to the Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 5%X9 in.; pp.270; 27 
plates; paper covers. 

This report contains the special report on plans for the organization of indus- 
trial schools in Porto Rico, which was prepared by Arthur D. Dean, of Springfield, 
Mass., after visiting the island as expert agent of the Department of Education. 

The Stout Training Schools, Menomonie, Wisconsin, L. D. Harvey, Supt. This 
contains a detailed outline of the courses in manual training from the kindergarten 
through the high schools as taught in the Menominie schools. It is worth keeping 
for reference and comparison. 

The following have been received : 

An illustrated announcement of courses in the Department of Art and Design 
at the University of Illinois. 

Constitution of the Illinois Manual Arts Association, William T. Bawden, Sec- 
retary, Normal, Illinois. 

Girls' Industrial College Bulletin, Denton, Texas. 

Circular of the California School of Mechanical Arts, San Francisco. 

The First Annual Report of the Manhattan Trade School for Girls, 233 West 
Fourteenth Street, New York City. 

Public school reports containing chapters on manual training have been received 
from Watertown, Mass., Oak Park, III, Springfield, Mass.