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Full text of "Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species"

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



MANUAL. 




OF 



)NCHOLOGY; 



' STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

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VOL. VIII. 



XATK IDJ; C^ALYITIM:!!)^:, TruiMTKUJixE, VE 

C.ECID.K, EL'UMID.E, Tl'lMU ).\ I L1J I ).K 
PYHAMIDEUJlhE. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by tlic Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COH. IOTH a RACF STS. 

1880. 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
DAVIS 



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7:M ^ 7:i S.ANSOM ST., Pn i I.ADKI.IMIIA. 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



FAMILY NATIGID7E. 

Shell subglobular, spiral, or paucispiral, with or without 
epidermis, the margin of the aperture entire. Operculum absent, 
or present and paucispiral or concentric, corneous or calcareous. 

Animal with voluminous foot, often incapable of entirely 
withdrawing into its shell; eyes at the base of the tentacles, 
often subcutaneous ; shell often partially or entirely covered 
by the mantle. Dentition 3'1 '3. 

The Naticidre have been monographed by 

Reeve, Conch. Iconica : Natica, 143 sp., 1855. Sigaretus, 26 
sp., 1864. Yanikoro, 24 sp., 1875. 

Philippi, in Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet, 1852 : Natica, 190 
species. 

Weinkauff, in Kiister : Sigaretus, 3t species, 1883. 

Sowerby, in Thesaurus Conchyliorum : Sigaretus, 28 sp., 1882. 
Yanikoro, 24 sp., 1884. Natica, 144 sp., 1883. 

Recluz, in Chenu's Illustrations Conchyliologiques, etc. 

The present work admits about 225 recent species belonging 
to the family ; many of those recognized by previous mono- 
graphers being considered synonyms : besides these there are 
many unfigured and undetermined forms. 

Subfamily I. Naticinde. 

Shell turbinate, subglobose or auriform, the spire usuall}' 
short; aperture entire, without canal or sinus, the outer lip 
sharp, not reflected or margined, the columellar lip callous, more 
or less reflected over the umbilicus. Operculum calcareous or 
corneous, paucispiral (PI. 1, figs. 12-14). 



4 NATICIDJ3. 

Animal with small tentacles, which are lanceolate, wide apart, 
connected by a veil; eyes absent, or placed under the skin, 
behind the tentacles ; foot much produced in front, where it is 
furnished with a fold (propodium) covering the head and anterior 
margin of the shell ; operculigerous lobe very ample, partially 
enveloping the shell ; mantle enclosed. Jaws corneous, waved or 
tessellated, subtrigonal (PL 1, fig. 3). Central tooth of the 
radula trapezoidal, generally tricuspidate, lateral teeth with a 
central large and smaller cusps, inner marginals simple or bifid, 
outer marginals simple (PL 1, figs. 4-6). 

The animals of Naticidae, characterized by the cephalic disk 
forming the propodium, are completely retractile within the 
shell in the typical Natica, but not retractile in Sigaretus and 
Mamilla. In some species of Neverita, the posterior margin of 
the propodium forms on the left side a sort of fleshy siphon ; the 
operculigerous lobe, which encircles the shell sometimes has a 
sinus on the right side, probably for the introduction of water 
into the branchial cavity. 

The Natica (PL 7, fig. 43) is an active animal, carnivorous and 
very predaceous, living in sandy places, where it hides under the 
surface and burrows for bivalves. These it pierces with its 
tongue, boring a round hole, generally near the beaks, where 
the shell of the victim is thinnest. The eyes, hidden by the 
propodium, and subcutaneous, are generally not perceptible, but 
can be distinguished in the group Amaura. 

The Nidus (PL 7, figs. 44, 45) is unlike that of any other 
mollusk in form and composition, being built up largely of 
the sand of the sea-bottom, agglutinated into a strap, forming 
part of a circle, and provided on one side with a constriction or 
rim ; the walls contain the eggs, arranged in quincunx order. 

Subfamily II. Lamellar iinse. 

Shell thin, sigaretiform, more or less internal, generally pauci- 
spiral, sometimes reduced to a non-spiral auriform lamina; spire 
short, few-whorled, lateral ; aperture oval, entire, large. No 
operculum. 

The animal (PL 1, figs. 18, 19) has not the cephalic disk of 
Natica. The mantle gradually grows over the shell until the 
latter becomes, in some of the genera, completely internal ; eyes 



NATICIDjE. 

on prominences at the base of the tentacles. Dentition, PI. 1, 
fig. 9. 

The Lamellariime are carnivorous, living upon Hydrozoa, 
Alcyonaria and compound Ascidise. The eggs are deposited in 
the midst of colonies of the latter. The first embryonic shell 
is nantiloid, with spiral ridges ; the second is more simple, 
resembling a Carinaria; these shells are united at their margins 
by a thin membrane. The pelagic larval forms have received 
the names of Brownia, Echinospira, Calcarella and JasoniUa. 
See Manual, ii, t. 8, f. 103-105 ; Structural and Syst. Conch., i, 

130, t. 20, f. 51. 

Subfamil} 7 III. Vanikoridas. 

Shell external, white, with sometimes a velvet}' epidermis, 
usually striated, costate or decussated ; nmbilicated, without a 
trace of callus. Operculum thin, corneous, non-spiral. 

Animal with a long snout, tentacles flattened, much dilated in 
the middle, narrow above ; e}-es sessile at their external base ; 
mantle margin simple ; foot profoundly bipartite, a narrow, 
truncated, elongated propodium and a larger, rounded or sub- 
({iiadrangular, operculigerous metapodium ; a large epipodial 
veil on each side of the foot ; branchia a single row of triangular 
leaflets, partly free. Jaws flattened; radnla short and wide, 
having, according to Gray, two series of teeth (?). 

Synopsis of Genera. 

I. Naticinse. 

Genus NATICA, Adanson, 1757. 

Shell oval globular, porcellanous, solid, generally smooth, 
covered by a fine epidermis, which is transparent, and generally 
not very persistent ; umbilicated, or umbilicus more or less 
filled with callus ; aperture semilunar, vertical, the outer lip 
simple. Operculum large, semilunar, paucispiral, corneous or 
calcareous. 

Animal with large cephalic lobe, truncated in front, subquad- 
r angular. 

Subgenus NATICA (sensu stricto). 

Shell smooth, solid, brightly colored in bands, spots, stripes, 
etc. Operculum calcareous (PI. 1, figs. 12, 13). N. canrena, 
Linn. 



NATICID^E. 

The species are numerous ; mostly inhabitants of warm seas, 
in all quarters of the globe. The genus first appeared in the 
Jurassic formation. The fossil forms are remarkable for the 
persistence of their colors. Nacca^ Risso, is a synonym. 

Section STIGMAULAX, Morch, 1852. 

Whorls cancellated or grooved. N. cancellata, Lam. 

Subgenus NEVERITA, Risso, 1826. 

Shell large, depressed orbicular, spire conical or flattened ; 
umbilicus open, or partly filled by a tongue-shaped callous process 
(funiculum) of the columella. Operculum corneous. Dentition, 
PI. 1, fig. 6. N. duplicata, Say. 

The shell of Neverita is usually larger sized, sombre colored, 
and not so solid as that of Natica. The group inhabits mostly 
temperate waters. 

Section NEVERITA (typical). 

Umbilicus partly filled by a tongue-shaped callous process of 
the columella. 

Section LUNATIA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell subglobose, large, umbilicus open, without funiculum. 
Almost insensibty connects with Neverita. Operculum, PI. 1, 
fig. 14. N. heros, Say. 

Section PAYREAUDAUTIA, Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and Dolll'us, 
1883. 

Umbilicus furnished with two funicular plications ; shell small, 
variegated. N. intricata^ Donovan. 

Appears to connect with the typical group which it resembles 
in coloration, but distinguished by its umbilicus and operculum. 

Section MAMMA, Klein, 1753. 

Shell oval or- suboval, solid, smooth, usually unicolored, white 
or yellowish ; aperture semilunar, inner lip oblique, callous, the 
callus extending into and more or less completely filling the 
umbilicus. N. uber, Val. 

Polinices, Montf., 1810, Mamillaria, Swains., 1840, Naticina, 
Guilding, 1834, and Naticella, Guilding, 1840, are synonyms. 

Section CEPATIA, Gray, 1840. 

Shell rotelliform ; umbilicus closed by a large callosity, a 
pliciform lamella on the upper part of the columellar lip. Fossil 
only. N. cepacea, Lam. Eocene. 



NATICID.E. 7 

Velainia, Munier-Chalmas, 1884, is a synonym. 

Section MAMILLA, Schum., 1817. 

Shell oval conic, rather thin, the whorls oblique, rapidly 
enlarging ; white or fasciated with brown ; mouth oblong, inner 
lip narrow, reflected, usually brown or blackish ; umbilicus not 
funiculated. N. maura. Lam. 

The synonyms are Naticaria, Swainson, 1840, and Ruma 
(Chemn.), H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Subgenus AMPULLINA, ~Lsun. fide Defrancc, 1821. 

Umbilicus without funiculum, sometimes open, sometimes 
closed by a callosity ; columellar margin usually convex, the 
umbilical region limited by a spiral ridge. 

Globularia, Swainson, is a synonym. 

Only one living species belongs in this group ; the rest are 
tertiary fossils. 

Section AMPULLINA (sensu stricto). 

Spire short, aperture large. N. sigaretina, Lam. Eocene, 
Paris (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 66). 

Ampullinopsis, Conrad, may perhaps be placed here. Globu- 
laria, Swains., is also a synonym. 

Section AMAURELLTNA, Bayle, 1885. 

Spire scalariform, elongated, sharp ; umbilicus with a narrow 
false funiculum. N. spirata, Lam. 

Section MEGATYLOTUS, Fischer, 1885. 

Callosity of the umbilical region very large, limited by a 
semicircular groove, distant from the columella. N. crassatina, 
Lam. Lower Miocene. 

Section CERNINA, Gray, 1840. 

Subglobose, polished, bright colored; aperture large; umbili- 
cal region entirely covered by a convex callosity, not limited by 
a groove ; columellar margin convex. N.fluciuata, Sowb., the 
sole living species of this subgenus. 

Anomphala, Jonas, is a synonym. 

Subgenus EUSPIRA, Agassiz, 1837. 

Spire more or less elevated, suture canaliculated ; whorls few, 
angulated or carinated ; umbilical fissure little marked or hidden. 
N. canaliculate, Morris and Lye., Oolite, England. (Struct, and 
Syst. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 84). 



8 NATICID^E. 

Subgenus A MAURA, Moller, 1842. 

Shell oval, smooth, thin, imperforate, covered by an epidermis ; 
aperture oblong, columella short, simple. 

Animal with small, compact foot, the right lobe profoundly 
sinuated ; eyes subcutaneous, but visible. 

A boreal group, commencing with Jurassic fossils, and con- 
taining a few living species. N. Candida, Moller. 

Section ACRYBTA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Shell globular, spire very short; columellar margin incurved, 
columella twisted ; lip fragile. N. flava, Gould. 

Bulbus, Brown, 1839, is a synonym. 

Section AMAUROPSIS, Morch, 1857. 

Suture canaliculated. N. canaliculata, Gould. 

Section PSEUDAMAURA, Fischer, 1885. 

Shell more solid, longitudinally ribbed. N. bulbiformis, Sowb., 
fossil. 

Section PTYCHOSTOMA, Laube, 1866. 

Shell imperforate, oval; spire large, elevated, sharp ; aperture 
oval, angular posteriorly ; columella straight ; the margin arcu- 
ated ; lip sinuated near the suture ; growth lines sinuous. N. 
Pleurotomoides, Wissman. Triassic. 

? Subgenus AMAURELLA, A. Adams, 1867. 

Shell small, imperforate, white, shining, apex submamillary, 
aperture acuminately ovate ; lip arcuate', simple, a little thickened. 

It is very doubtful where in the system these little shells 
should be placed. The t} r pe species was originally described as 
a Macrocheilus, but it was subsequently said to have greater 
affinities with Amaura. 

Subgenus NATICOPSIS, M'Coy. 

Shell imperforate ; inner lip very thick, spreading. Operculum 
shelly. N. Phillipsii, M'Coy. Carboniferous, Gt. Brit. (Struct. 
and Syst. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 67). 

Neritomopsis, Waagen, 1880, is a synonym. 

Section ISONEMA, Meek. 7. humilis. Meek. Devonian, Ohio 
(S. and S. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 71). 

Section TRACHYDOMIA, Meek and Worthen, 1866. 

Surface covered by small regularly disposed tubercles. 

N. nodosa, M. and W. Carboniferous, Illinois. 



NATICID^E. 9 

Subgenus GYRO DBS, Conrad, 1860. 

Shell depressed globose ; aperture generally angular or nar- 
rowly rounded below ; inner lip thin ; umbilicus wide, docp, 
without callosity, bounded by a revolving carina which is some- 
times crenate, with occasionally a second small revolving ridge 
within ; whorls shouldered above, the angle generally wrinkled 
or crenate. 

Cretaceous, United States, India. N. alveata, Conr. (S. and S. 
Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 70). 

Subgenus TYCIIONIA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Shell somewhat depressed, globose, smooth; spire short, 
obtuse, suture linear ; last whorl very large, depressed at the 
base; aperture semilunar ; lip thin; colnmella thickened by a 
callosity which is limited by a shallow oblique groove ; no 
umbilicus. 

N. Omaliana, de Koninck. Carboniferous, Belgium. 

y Subgenus PLATYOSTOMA, Conrad. 

Shell subglobose ; spire short ; aperture very large, suborbicu- 
lar, dilated ; labrum joining the body-whorl at right-angles to the 
axis of the shell. 

P. Niagarensis, Hall. Niagara group, New York (S. and S. 
Conch , t. Ixiv, f. 74). 

Section STROPHOSTYLUS, Hall. 

Shell subglobose, spire small, body-whorl large, ventricose ; 
outer lip thin, sometimes slightly expanded ; columella twisted 
or spirally grooved within, not reflected; umbilicus none. P. 
subobtusa, Hall. Lower Helderberg, N. York (S. and S. Conch., 
t. Ixiv, f. 75). 

Differs in its twisted or grooved columella. 

Section ORIOSTOMA, Munier-Chalmas, 1876. 

Umbilicus moderate, circumscribed by a carina ; whorls some- 
times partially free. P. Barrandei, Mun.-Chalm. Devonian. 

The relations of this group with Natica are somewhat obscure, 
as are also those of the typical form with those designated here 
as sections. As in many other cases with the older fossil forms 
we can only be guided by rather remote general resemblances. 



Tylostoma, Sharpe, is considered a member of the group by 



10 NATICID^E. 

some conchologists ; I have placed it in Tornatellidse (See Struct, 
and Syst. Conch., ii, 357). 

Genus RUMELLA, Bourguignat, 1885. 

Shell small, obliquely oval, polished, spire short, of few whorls ; 
last whorl with a large umbilical depression, limited by a basal 
angle, and covered by a strong rounded callus ; lip simple. Opcr- 
culum unknown. 

Lake Tanganika, Central Africa. 

The species are said to resemble the group Mamilla in minia- 
ture; their position cannot be positively ascertained until we 
become acquainted with the animal and operculum. 

Genus SIGARJETUS, Lamarck, 1799. 

Shell depressed ear-shaped, with minute spire and very large 
aperture, externally with revolving striae; color usually white, 
sometimes invested with a thin corneous epidermis. Operculum 
minute, horny, paucispiral (PL 1, fig. 15). 

Animal with large mantle partly or entirely covering the shell 
into which it is not able to withdraw entirely. Dentition. 
Central tooth of the radula shorter than the lateral cusps (PI. 1, 
fig. 7). 

Sigaretus inhabits warm seas, on muddy sand-flats ; it is slug- 
gish and very timid, moving slowly; when crawling they con- 
stantly explore the surrounding surface with the produced fore- 
lobe of the foot, which is also used in burrowing. 

Living species are rather numerous; fossil, it commences in 
the Cretaceous. Catinus (Klein, 1753), H. and A. Adams; 
Lupia, Conrad ; Stomatia, Hill ; Cryptostoma, Blainv., 1818, and 
Eaynevallia, Ponzi, are synonyms. 

Section SIGARETUS (sensu stricto). 

Shell depressed orbicular, convex above, mouth rounded ; 
umbilicus none or covered by a reflection of the inner lip ; spire 
short, oblique. 

Section EUNATICINA, Fischer. 1885. 

Shell umbilicated, oval oblong, thin, ventricose ; spire sharp ; 
inner lip straight, thin anteriorly, with a median callus. S. 
papilla, Gin el. 

It is Naticina, Gray, 1840 (not Guilding, 1834). Lacunaria, 



N ATIC1V1E. 1 1 

Conrad, was referred here by me in Structural and Syst. Conch.; 
its species having been described as Naticse ; it is now placed in 
Lacunidse. 

Section AMPLOSTOMA, Stoliczka, 1868. 

Subovate, thin, spire short; whorls few, the last large, ventri- 
cose, produced in front, widely excavated at base ; aperture 
elongatel}* ovate, subangulated, pillar lip smooth, outer lip 
dilated and expanded at the margin ; surface nearly smooth. 
S. auriformis, Stol., Cretaceous, So. India (S. & S. Conch., t. 
Ixiv, f. 85). 

The characters are exceedingly close to those of the last 
section. Lysis, Gabb., 1864, which I consider a member of the 
subfamily Purpurinfe, of Muricida*, has been referred to this 
neighborhood by Dr. Fischer. 

Subfamily II. Lamellar Unas. 
Genus LAMELLARIA, Montagu, 1815. 

Shell internal, ear-shaped, thin, pellucid ; spire lateral, very 
small; aperture large, patulous, both lips regularly arcuated; 
axis imperforate. No operculum. 

Animal much larger than the shell, which is entirely concealed 
beneath the dorsal shield ; shield thick, verrucose, notched in 
front; foot elongated, truncated in front, acuminated behind; 
eyes at the outer bases of the tentacles. Dentition I'M, the 
central tooth subtrigonal, with the free margin denticulated and 
base incurved ; laterals large, the summit lanceolate, the margins 
denticulate, no marginals (PL 1, fig. 9). 

There are a few living species, and two species in the Miocene. 
Interesting particulars of the habits of Lamellaria will be found 
in Structural and Systematic Concholog}-, ii, 209. 

The synonymy includes Marsenia, Leach, 1847 ; Coriocella, 
Blainv-., 1824; Chelinotus, Swains.. 1840; CryptoceUa, H. A: A. 
Adams, 1853; Ermsea, Gray, 1857; Cryptothyra, Menke, 1830. 
Coriocella and Gryptocella have been considered subgenera, but 
have no important characters ; the former was founded upon an 
individual accidentally deprived of its shell. The fry, also, 
have received several generic names (p. 5). 



12 NATICnXffi. 

Subgenus MARSENINA, Gray, 1850. 

Shell auriform, similar to Lamellaria. 

Animal (PL 1, fig. 20) with shield only partially covering the 
shell, open in the middle, the anterior margin deeply incised a 
little to the left of the middle, and again incised at the middle 
of the right margin. Dentition, PL 1, fig. 10. Boreal Seas. 
L. prodita, Loven. Colobocephalux, Sars, is a synonym. 

Genus ONCIDIOPSIS (Beck), Bergh, 1853. 

Shell internal, membranous, flexible, slipper-shaped, nut spiral, 
oblong, obtuse at the extremities. 

Animal (PL 1, fig. 21) completely enveloping the shell ; dorsal 
shield verrucose, thick, margin entire ; foot elongated, lanceo- 
late, exceeding the shield at either extremity ; tentacles cylin- 
drical, with eyes at their exterior bases. Dentition as in Velutina 
(PL 1, fig. 11). Boreal Seas. 0. glacialis, Sars. 

? Genus CALEDONIELLA, Souverbie, 1869. 

Shell heliciform, imperforate, oval, orbicular, thin, invested by 
a thin epidermis which extends beyond the lip ; spire much 
depressed, sublateral ; whorls few, rapidly increasing ; aperture 
oblique, rather large, the extremities of the simple lip united by 
a callus extending widely upon the whorl. Animal unknown. 

C. Montrouzieri, Souverb. New Caledonia. 

Genus VELUTINA, Fleming, 1822. 

Shell thin, mostly external, calcareous, auriform, paucispiral, 
invested *by a velvety epidermis ; spire lateral, suture well im- 
pressed ; aperture large, rounded, the lip thin, the columellar 
lip a little reflected. No operculum. 

Animal with large oblong foot; margin of mantle developed, 
and more or less reflected over the edge of the shell ; head 
broad ; tentacles subulate, blunt, far apart, with eyes on prom- 
inences at their outer bases. 

Dentition, 2-1-1-1-2, the central tooth subquadrangular, multi- 
cuspid, the central cusps ve^r long and sharp ; lateral teeth 
multicuspid, marginals narrow, with a few obsolete denticles on 
the margin (PL 1, fig. 8). 



NATTCTD^E. 13 

The Velutinas resemble the pulmoniferous genus Otina, but 
are strictty marine. Sometimes they are met with far out at 
sea, but usually live among stones near low-tide. Boreal. V. 
Isevigata, Pennant. 

? Catinella, Stache, is a synonym. 

Section LIMNERIA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Spire more elevated, peristome not continuous, columella 
subcanaliculate. F. undata, Brown. 

Morvillia, Gray, 1857, is a synonym. 

Section YELUTELLA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell in most part covered by the mantle, very thin, flexible, 
with short spire ; peristome continuous, thickened. F. Jlexilis, 
Montg. 

Section LEPTONOTIS, Conrad, 1866. 

Margin of the aperture remarkably expanded, surpassing the 
spire. F. expansa, Whitfield. Eocene. Alabama. 

The shell is minute, and may be embryonic. 



SCLEVOGYRA, Whitfield, 1877. Struc. and Syst. Conch., iii, 350. 
LYOSOMA, White, 1883. Struc. and Syst. Conch., iii, 350. 

These two fossil groups, of doubtful relationships, may 
possibly be members of the Naticidae. 

Subfamily III. Vanikoridse. 
Genus VANIKORO, Quoy and Gaimard, 1832. 

Shell subglobose, external, white, with a velvety epidermis, 
surface striate, costate or decussate, umbilicated, without a trace 
of callus in the umbilicus ; spire not produced; aperture semi- 
lunar, outer lip simple. 

Animal described in the subfamily. Operculum thin, corneous, 
with apical nucleus, not spiral (PI. 1, figs. 16, 17). 

A few species are found about corals in warm seas ; fossil, 
commences with secondary strata. 

About equally well-known under the later and perhaps more 
acceptable name of Narica, Recluz, 1841. Leucotis, Swainson, 
1840, and Merria, Gray, 1842, are also synonyms. 

Section YANIKOROPSIS, Meek, 1876. 

Shell subglobose. thick, body-whorl large, spire low ; imper- 



14 NATICA. 

forate ; outer lip simple, beveled, inner lip closely folded upon and 
adhering to the columella and bod} T -whorl, very little thickened, 
smooth ; surface with distinct revolving lines and furrows, 
developing on the body-whorl strong oblique grooves parallel to 
the growth lines. F. Tuomeyana, Meek and Worthen. Creta- 
ceous ; Upper Missouri River (S. and S. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 87). 

Section NATICODON, Ryckholt. 

Shell like Vanikoro, but inner lip usually thickened, and 
always provided with some kind of a tooth , columella either 
slightly hollowed out or solid ; surface smooth, or ornamented 
with various spiral or transverse striae. F. spirata, Sowb. 
Carboniferous, Europe (S. and S. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 76). 

This group forms a connecting-link between Vanikoro and Neri- 
topsis ; the former having the columellar lip smooth, the latter 
insinuated in the middle, or provided with two strong teeth, 
while Naticodon has only one tooth ; as regards the thickness of 
the shell, this transition seems equally to hold good. 

Section NATIRIA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Shell globose, spire short, suture profound, axis perforated ; 
surface longitudinally plicate, with intermediate parallel stria 1 , 
and slight spiral striee ; columellar margin slightly thickened ; 
aperture nearly circular, peristome continuous. Carboniferous- 
Trias. F. lirata, Phillips. 

Subfamily Naticinse-. 



Genus NATICA, Adanson, 1757. 
Subgenus NATICA (sensu stricto). 

N. MTLLEPUNCTATA, Lam. PI. 2, figs. 22, 23, 24, 25. 

Yellowish white, closely painted with small light chestnut 
spots, umbilical region and interior of aperture light brown ; 
umbilicus with a central entering ridge. Length, l'5-2 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Linnaeus classed this among the varieties of his N. canrena. 
It is a variable species in its color markings, thus acquiring 
several synonyms. Among those of the typical .color-variety are 
N.punctata, Karsten, and N. stercus-muscarum, Gmel. (juvenile). 
Monterosato has named a var. minor. 



NATICA. 15 

Yar. MACULATA, Desh. PI. 2, fig. 24. 

The spots larger, less sharply defined, often interruptedly con- 
fluent, with three interrupted bands of larger spots or macula- 
tions. 

Appears to connect closely with the type form, but has been 
separated as a distinct species of late years by several concholo- 
gists on account of differences in the lingual dentition. I retain 
the name by which the species is well known instead of the prior 
one of N. hebraea, Martyn which has scarcely obtained currency. 
Other synonyms are N. trifasciata (Recluz), Adams ; N. aspersa, 
Menke ; N. cruentata, Payr. 

Monterosato has named as color-varieties, fusca, immaculata, 
and rarimaculata. The latter appears to me to connect with the 
next species. 

Var. SANGUINOLENTA, Brusina. PI. 2, fig. 25. 

The punctations coalescing into undulating longitudinal flam- 
mules. 

X. FULMINEA, Gmelin. PL 2, figs 26, 27. 

Shell solid, somewhat tumid and plicately striated next the 
suture ; umbilicated, but the umbilicus partly covered by an 
overgrowing callous deposit on the upper part of the columellar 
lip, which finally becomes A^ery thick ; whitish, with longitudinal 
undulating or zigzag chestnut markings, sometimes partly broken 
up into spots ; often peppered with minute spots between the 
larger markings ; occasionally the zigzag lines break up into 
three revolving series. Length, 1-1'75 inches. 

West Coast of Africa. 

The synonymy includes N. cruentata and N. arachnoidea, 
Gmel.; ? N. pardalis, Phil.; N. Ufasciata (Recluz), Reeve; N. 
punctata, Swainson ; N. Senegalensis, Recluz (fig. 28) has been 
placed here by Reeve and Sowerby ; the figure has the markings 
of fulminea, but appears to possess a more conical spire; it is 
probably distinct. 

N. ADANSONI, Phil. PL 2, fig. 30. 

Small, solid, yellowish maculated and spotted with chestnut, 
upper and lower portions of body-whorl free from spots, or 



10 NATICA. 

nearly so ; umbilicus completely filled by the callus of the inner 
lip. Length, 15 mill. 

W. Africa. 

The shell figured by Reeve under this name (fig. 29) is M. 
distinct species = N.fanel, Adanson. 

N. FULGURANS, Recluz. PL 7, fig. 29 ; PL 2, fig. 28; PL 7, fig. 29. 

Yellowish white, with purplish brown angulately flexuous 
streaks, often running together ; aperture white ; umbilicus 
partly filled by a rather large, convex, rounded central callus. 

Length, 25 mill. 

Senegal. 

Diifers from N. Adansoni in the partly excavated umbilicus, 
from N. fulminea in its more conical spire, and less tumid 
shoulder of the body-whorl. N. Senegalensis, Recluz (fig. 28) 
appears to be a synonym. 

N. BOURGUIGNATI, Recluz. PL 2, fig. 31. 

Somewhat thick, with well-impressed suture ; umbilicus small, 
contracted above by the lip callus and with an entering line 
white-flamed longitudinally or punctate with dark chestnut. 

Length, 14-15 mill. 

Madagascar. 

Reeve unites this with the preceding species ; if so, it is .1 
strongly marked minor variety. 

N. ZEBRA, Lam. PL 2, fig. 32. 

Whitish, densely longitudinally painted with narrow, sharply 
zigzag chestnut streaks. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 
N. PELLTS-TIGRINA, Chemn. PL 2, fig. 33. 

Whitish, densely spotted with purplish chestnut, a little plicate 
at the suture. Diam. 22 mill. 

Australia. 
N. variolaria, Recluz, is a synonym. 

N. MACULOSA, Lam. PL 3, fig. 35. 

Spire more elevated than in the last species, umbilicus nar- 
rower, maculations obsolete towards the base of the body-whorl 
and sometimes near the suture also. Diam. 18 mill. 

i,, Jajxtn, Philippines^ Java, el P. 



NATICA. 17 

It is very doubtful whether this is really distinct from the 
preceding species. N. Javanica, Lam., is a synonym. 

N. FANEL, Adanson. PI. 2, fig. 29. 

Widely umbilicated, with a re-entering callous central ridge, 
the umbilicus bounded by a sharp angle ; whorls flattened next 
the suture ; punctate with chestnut, some of the punctations con- 
fluent into maculations, which are either irregular or form two 
or three interrupted revolving series. 

Senegal. 

Reeve changed the above barbarous specific name to Adan- 
soni already used by Philippi. I cannot consent to re-baptize 
the species ; better a bad than an unstable name. 

N. LYNX, Phil. PL 2, fig. 34. 

Rather thick, smooth, whitish, with light chestnut spots, 
umbilicus very narrow, nearly filled by the fimiculate callus. 

Height 6-66, diam. 5*33 mill. 

Mangalore, India. 

Closely resembles the preceding species in form and coloring; 
distinguished by its much smaller size and narrow umbilicus. 

N. IMPERFORATA, Gray. PL 3, fig. 36 ; PL 7, figs. 27, 28. 

Solid, with a heavy white callus quite closing the umbilicus, 
whorls a little constricted below the suture, where they are 
shortly chestnut-flamed, everywhere else densely minutely punc- 
tate with chestnut, with obsolete light revolving bands. 

Diam. 1 inch. 

Gape of Good Hope, West Africa (Marrat). 

N. genuaims, Reeve (figs. 27, 28), is a younger and more per- 
fect state of this species, with the narrow pale bands more 
distinct and bearing dark spots or sagittate markings. 

N. FLORIDA, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 37. 

Umbilicated, umbilicus brown stained, with a central entering 
ridge ; whitish, with close chestnut punctations and two faint 
light purplish bands, sometimes obsolete. Length, 22 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
N. PULICARIS, Phil. PL 3, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell umbilicated, smooth, polished, a little flattened beneath 
the suture ; columella callous above ; whitish, closely sprinkled 
2 



18 NATTCA. 

with fine orange dots, with large oblique blotches on the upper 
part of the body-whorl (appearing also on the spire), and narrow 
revolving bands of the same color on the middle and lower part. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

The above is the description of N. tincturata^ Reeve, which, 
in the Index to the " Iconica," is said to be a synonym of the 
smaller, obscurely figured N. pulicaris. 

N. CINCTA, Ilecluz. PL 3, fig. 40. 

Shell white covered by numerous chestnut punctations, with 
four narrow white bands spotted with brown. Length, It mill. 

Malabar. 

I am not acquainted with this species which appears to me 
to be nearly related to the preceding. It is omitted from the 
monographs of Philippi, Reeve and Soworby. 

N. VIOLACEA, Sowb. PI. 3, fig. 41. 

Thick, smooth, polished ; white, tessellated with obliquely 
square orange-brown spots, arranged in revolving series, some- 
times promiscuously interrupted or broken up into hieroglyphic 
markings; columella with a heavy violet-colored callous deposit, 
covering the upper portion of the umbilicus. Height, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Viti Islands. 

This is N. rhodostoma, Phil. 

N. FABELLA, Jousseaume. PL 3, fig. 42. 

Ovately conoidal, solid ; yellowish with minute chestnut dots 
and a sutural series of maculations ; aperture white within, 
bifasciate with chestnut maculations, the margin minutety chest- 
nut dotted ; umbilicus narrow, largely covered by the thick 
brownish columellar callus. Length, 13 mill. 

Jlab. unknown. 

Appears to be very closely related to N. lynx, Phil. 

N. TECTA, Adanson. PL 3, fig. 43. 

Ovately conoidal, solid, smooth, shining; yellowish, with 
short longitudinal chestnut lines at the suture, the rest of the 
surface minutely punctate with chestnut ; umbilicus covered by 
the white columellar callus. Height, 18 mill. 

Guinea,. 



NATICA. 19 

N. SAGRAIANA, d'Orb. PL 3, figs. 44-46. 

Whitish, with light chestnut, narrow zigzag lines, interrupted 
by a white band on the periphery ; columellar callus chestnut or 
violaceous, nearly covering the umbilicus. Length, 5-7*5 inches. 
West Indies, Madeira, W. Africa, 

Mediterranean Sea. 

N.fulminea, Risso, name preoccupied by Gmelin for another 
species; ? N. flammulata, Requien ; N. pulchella, Pfeiffer (fig. 
46) ; N. nivea, Anton ; N. Jamaicensis, C. B. Adams; N.fdosa, 
Phil. (fig. 45), described as lineolata, preoccupied by Desha3 r es 
for a fossil species, are synonyms. 

N. VENUSTULA, Phil. PI. 3, figs. 47-49. 

Shell shining, white with sparse chestnut lineations, somewhat 
zigzag, interrupted by a white band at the suture and a broader 
one on the periphery ; columellar callus white, filling the umbili- 
cus except a narrow chink. Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The lines are not so close as in the last species, the sutural 
area is without them, the callus is uncolored and more nearly 
fills the umbilicus ; still, I doubt its distinctness. N. Bayani, 
Jouss. (fig. 49), is apparently a synonym. 

N. TRAILLII, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 50. 

Rather solid, somewhat depressed globose, umbilicus large, 
partly filled lay the brownish columellar callus ; whitish, painted 
throughout with waved oblique dark chestnut lines. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Malacca. 

More depressed than N. Sagraiana, the lineations wider apart, 
not interrupted by any peripheral band, etc. 

N. MOZAICA, Sowb. PL 3, figs. 51, 52. 

Ovate, whitish with four series of ovate, obliquely quadrate 
chestnut markings ; columellar callus wide, white, covering the 
umbilicus. Length, 15 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

The form and callus remind one of the smaller species of 
Neritina. 



20 NATICA. 

N. CIIINENSIS, Lara. PL. 3, figs. 53, 54. 

Umbilicus wide, nearly filled by a wide central entering white 
callus, leaving a semicircular groove terminating in a narrow 
deep perforation above ; white, with obliquely subquadrate 
chocolate-colored spots, arranged in four or usually five revolving 
series, the second and fourth series often conspicuously larger'. 

Length, 1 inch. 

China, Singapore, Philippines, Viti Islands. 
This is jV. onca, Bolten, of Adams' Genera, and N. Aimei, 
Joiisseaume (fig. 54). 

N. FORSKALII, Chemn. PI. 3, fig. 55. 

Openly perspectively umbilicated, plicately striate next the 
suture ; white, longitudinally strigate with chestnut, the striga- 
tions interrupted, forming two narrow white bands, base 1111- 

colored. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Mauritius. 

Has been considered by some conchologists a var. of N. rufa, 
Born, but the latter is unicolored, interrupted by bands and at 
the base, and the umbilicus has a distinct entering ridgo. 

N. MAHEENSIS, Dufo. PI. 3, fig. 56. 

Strongty plicately wrinkled next the suture ; umbilicus half 
filled with a strong white central entering callus; whitish, with 
two broad bands of oblique chestnut blotches. Length, 28 mill. 

Seychelles Is. 
N. RAYNOLDIANA, Eecluz. PL 3, fig. 51. 

Rather thick, smooth, umbilicus partly covered on the upper 
part by the white columellar callus ; orange-fulvous, sometimes 
unicolored, more frequently more or less covered by chocolate 
reticulations, often with an irregular band-like interruption on 
the periphery. Length, 1 inch. 

Ceylon, Singapore, Viti Is. 

Sowerby's figure is of a shape not characteristic of this species, 
the spire being too elevated. 

N. CANRENA, Linn. PL 4, figs. 58-61. 

LTmbilicus largely filled with a white entering callus, leaving 
a semicircular rimation ; chestnut-brown, with yellowish brown 
revolving zones, and longitudinal xigzng brown streaks, becom- 



NATICA. 21 

ing darker and much more prominent upon the pale bands, base 

white. 

West Indies, Central America, Florida. 

The young of this species has been described under the 
name of N. proxima, C. B. Ad. (fig. 59). N. lemniscata, Phil, 
(fig. 60), and N. affinis, Busch (fig. 61), appear to me to be 
merely }'oung, faded-out examples of this species, although the 
first has been identified somewhat doubtfully with a West African 
shell (Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., iii, 244). Another synonym is N. 
pennata, Schroter. 

N. ALA-PAPILIONIS (Cliemii. in part), Auct. PI. 4, figs. 62-61. 

Slightly flattened at the suture, umbilicus large, with a central 
entering callous ridge; fleshy fawn-colored, with three or four 
subequidistant narrow white zones filleted with chocolate, the 
interspaces of the first and second and of the third and fourth 
zones usually darker colored. Length, 25-35 mill. 

China, Philippines, Australia, Seychelles, Zanzibar, 

Guaymas and Cape St. Lucas, W. Coast of Mexico. 

The above remarkable distribution is fully confirmed by speci- 
mens before me. The West Coast shells are known under the 
name of N. zonaria, Lam., but Carpenter acknowledges their 
identity. N. crenata, Recluz (fig. 63), N. articulata, Phil. (fig. 
(54), and N. tseniata, Menke, are S}*nonyms. 

Var. BRODERIPIANA, Recluz. Figs. 65-67. 

Whorls longitudinally plicately .grooved ; orange-fawn color, 
with three white bands articulated with chestnut. 

West Columbia, Mazatlan. 

X. Taslei, Reel. (fig. 66), and N. iostoma, Menke (fig. 67), are 
synonyms of this variety. The latter has been differently 
identified, with N. marochiensis, Gmel., but Philippi's figure of 
the original t}'pe sets this question at rest. 

X. PICTA, Recluz. PI. 4, figs. 68, 69. 

Umbilicated, the umbilicus mostly filled by a white entering 
callus, smooth; orange fawn-colored, white at the suture and 
base, covered with longitudinal short zigzag chestnut lines, and 
two or three subequidistant narrow or broader white bands 
sagittately marked with chestnut ; the spaces between these 



22 NAT1CA. 

bands sometimes plain orange-fawn, or Indistinctly or less dis- 
tinetly marked with the zigzag lines. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, So. Australia, N. Caledonia. 

N. elegans and N. euzona, Recluz, and N. decora, Phil., are 
synonyms. 

N. ZELANDICA, Quoy. PI. 4, fig. 70. 

Smooth, umbilicus with a central white entering callus ; yel- 
lowish fawn-colored, with five white bands painted with chestnut- 
colored arrow-headed markings, and a similarly colored wider 
sutural band. Length, 22 mill. 

New Zealand. 
N. CATENATA, Philippi. PL 4, figs. 71-73. 

Wrinkled-plicate around the suture, umbilicus large, with a 
central entering callus, below which it is wide but shallow, whorls 
more obliquely flattened than in the preceding species, brown 
fawn-color, white around the base, with three prominent narrow 
white bands painted with sagittate chestnut markings; an indis- 
tinct additional band often appearing between the second and 
third; interior violaceous white. Length, 18 mill. 

Panama to Cape St. Lucas, L. Gal. 

Allied to N.Zelandica on the one side and to N.marochiensis 
on the other. Reeve and Sowerby have confounded it with the 
latter and made it a Mediterranean species ; Reeve's figure 92 a, 
however, represents the species correctly. N. depressa, Gray, 
= N. Grayi, Phil. (fig. 73), is a synonym. Gray's name was 
preoccupied by Sowerby for a fossil species. 

N. MAROCHIENSIS. Gmelin. PL 5, figs. 74-96 ; PL 7, fig. 36 ; PL 

8, fig. 49. 

Slightly plicate at the suture, umbilicus largely filled by an 
entering white callus ; color variable, grayish, yellowish gray, 
yellowish brown, or reddish brown, with about four bands of 
arrow-head markings, often running together or more or less 
obscured. Length, -75-1-5 inches. 

W. Africa, W. Indies, Panama to Mazatlan, Society 

and Philippine Islands, Australia, etc. 

An exceedingly variable species, with very extended distribu- 
tion. It is not the N. marochiensis , of Lamarck, which is 
Mediterranean, where the present species does not occur. It is 



NATICA. 23 

equally well known as N. maroccana, Chemn. The typical 
condition of the species is represented by figs. 74, 75. This 
form inhabits W. Africa, West Indies, Panama, Pol} T nesia, etc. 
N. Cayennensis (fig. 80), N. sagittifera (fig. 36), and N. Sou- 
leyetiana (fig. 81), of Recluz, N. undulata, Pease MS., and 
probably N. Manceli, Jouss. (fig. 82), and N. undata, Phil. (fig. 
88), are synonyms. Very probably N. Gualteriana, Petit (PL 
8, fig. 49), belongs here ; it resembles N. tessellata, Phil., quoted, 
below. 

Yar. LUBIDA, Phil. Figs. 76, 77, 79, 83, 84. 

Yellowish green or whitish, the bands obscure, with faint 
chestnut lines crossing them instead of the sagittate markings, 
suture plicate. 

N. tessellata (fig. 79) and N. hebraea, Phil., include specimens 
with the color lines more distinctly marked. Occurs mainly in 
Central Polynesia, Sandwich Islands, etc., but also in West 
Indies and W. Africa. 

N.plicatula, Nuttall MS., is a synonym, but the figure given 
by Reeve does not represent it, but more probably N. sordida, 
Phil. N. Maheensis, Dufo, which I have described on p. 20, 
may possibly be a large aberrant form of this variety. N. 
limacina (fig. 83) and N. Marchei (fig. 84), Jouss., belong here. 

Vtir. LIVIDA, Pfeiiier. Figs. 85-87, 89-92. 

Plicate at the suture ; whitish or yellowish white, often with 
a broad band of ash-color or brown, almost covering the body- 
whorl, sometimes indistinctly doubly banded ; interior of aper- 
ture more or less tinted with chestnut or chocolate, the columellar 
callus chocolate-colored. 

West Indies to Brazil. 

Closety allied to the preceding variety, but distinguished by 
its colored callus ; it is also usually smaller. N. nifilabris, 
Reeve (fig. 86), N. lacernula. Orb. (fig. 87), N. Jamaicensis, 
(fig. 89), N. gracilis, Sowb. (fig. 90), and N. nigrescens, C. B. Ad., 
are synonyms. N. Menkeana, Phil. (figs. 91, 92), is referred 
here by Morch ; it can scarcely be determined with confidence. 

Tar, UNIFASCIATA, Lam. Fig. 93. 

Yellowish brown, chocolate or olivaceous, whitish towards the 



24 NAT1CA. 

base, with a more or less distinct narrow yellowish white band 
on the upper part of the whorls ; interior chocolate tinged, 
callus white. 

Panama, etc. 

Large sized like the Var. Chemnitzii, into which it passes. N. 
mustelina, Swains., may be a water-worn specimen of this variety ; 
it has not been recognized as a species. 

Var. CHEMNITZII, Pfr. Figs. 94-96. 

Grayish blue or grayish yellow, with four or live rather indis- 
tinct bands of sagittate markings either light chocolate or 
whitish, often connected by lightning-like whitish longitudinal 
streaks ; interior dark chocolate, banded. Large sized. 

Panama to Mazatlan and W. Africa. 

N. Pritchardi, Forbes (fig. 94), is a synonym of this variety, 
as is also possibly N. Cernica, Jouss. (fig. 96), from Mauritius. 

N. INSECTA, Jousseaume. PI. 6, figs. 98, 99. 

Shell thick, solid ; whitish, with a central yellow band, and a 
few longitudinal flexuous chestnut stripes above and below it ; 
umbilicus with a slight central entering callus. Length, 8 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

Possibly a variety of the preceding species. 

N. LINEOZONA, Jousseaume. PI. 5, fig. 97; PI. f>, figs. 100, 1. 

Umbilicus open, with a small entering callus ; white, with four 
equidistant spiral chestnut lines, and longitudinal chestnut 
flammules extending from the suture to the second revolving 
line, interrupted between the second and third, and again 
extending from third to fourth. Length, 9 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

N. Gaidei, Souverbie (fig. 100), and N. notata, Sowb. (fig. 1), 
are synonyms. 

N. LOCELLUS, Reeve. PI. 6, fig. 2, enlarged. 

Livid flesh-tinged, fulvous brown, .obscurely filleted and 
stained ; columella thinly callous ; umbilicus partly filled. 

Habitat unknown. 
Is possibly a variety of N. marochiensis, Gmel. 

N. ASELLUS, Reeve. PI. 6, figs. 3, 4, considerably enlarged. 
Whorls faintly plicately striated at the suture, columella 



NATICA. 25 

covered by a broad callosity ; whitish, with two broad chocolate 

bands and a row of spots between them. 

Australia. 
X. DILLWYNI, Payr. PL 6, figs. 5, 8 ; PI. 5, fig. 78. 

Yellowish or fawn-white, with white bands bearing obscure 
arrow-head markings of light chestnut ; umbilical region whitish, 

partly filled by a callus. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The original figure (fig. 8) represents an obscurely colored 
state of this species. N. avellana, Phil. (fig. 78) is a nut-brown 
variety, the bands obsolete. The late Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys 
considered N. proximo, C. B. Ad., a synonym. 

X. AREOLATA, Recluz. PI. 6, fig. 23. 

Shell rather thin, polished ; yellowish brown, with lighter 
zigzag markings ; umbilicus with a large white entering callus. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, Viti Is. 

X. ABBBEVIATA, Sowb. PI. 6, figS. 6, 7. 

Livid, bifasciately maculated, white-banded and slightly 
wrinkled at the suture ; umbilicus closed by the callus ; aperture 

chestnut Avithin. Length, 12 mill. 

? Mediterranean Sea. 

Possibly a form of one of the well-known European species ; 
only known to me by Sowerby's figures. 

X. MARMORATA, H. Adams. PI. 6, fig. 9. 

Whitish, marbled with chestnut and somewhat fiammulate at 
the suture, a lighter marbled band on the periphery ; umbilicus 
partly reduced by the superior callus; columellar callus and 
interior tinged with chestnut. Length, 16 mill. 

Canary Islands, Mediterranean. 

It is N. Pretoi, Hidalgo. 

X. VITTATA, Gmelin. PL 6, figs. 10-12. 

Yellowish brown, vittate with chestnut, or laciniated ; umbili- 
cus with a central entering ridge. Length, 20 mill. 

Morocco, Algiers, So. Coast of Spain. 

N. textilis, Reeve (fig. 12), and N. intricatoides, Hidalgo, are 
synonyms. 



26 NATICA. 

N. FORATA, Reeve. PL 6, fig. 22. 

Shell depressed globose, resembling a Turbo ; umbilicus large, 
with flattened walls forming an angle with the base of the shell, 
and with a central thread-like entering-ridge ; aperture semicir- 
cular, the inner lip straight and mostly detached, bounding the 
umbilicus ; yellowish white, reticulated and spotted in revolving 
series with orange-brown. Length, 15 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
N. LTMPIDA, E. A. Smith. PL 6, fig. 24. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, whitish, gloss3 r , opaque white at 
the suture ; umbilicus rather narrow, without any internal ridge. 

Length, 8 mill. Torres Straits, Australia. 

No operculnm obtained. Is probably a young shell, and cer- 
tainly possesses no characters to entitle it to description as a 
new species. 

N. ANTONI, Phil. PL 6, fig. 25. 

Smooth, plicatulate at the suture ; olivaceous brown, with two 
spiral series of brown dots, whitish towards the base ; umbilicus 
entirely filled with callus. Length, 14 mill. 

Loo Choo Islands (Phil.); Mouth of Macusi Riv., 

E.Africa (Smith). 

Mr. Smith remarks that a young specimen had a pale band 
between the two series of dots which become obsolete in the 
adult. 

N. COLLIEI, Recluz. PL 7, figs. 34, 30-33. 

Obsoletely plicate at the suture ; yellowish, with oblique, 
squarish chestnut markings in four spiral series, the two middle 
series sometimes confluent ; umbilicus with a central rounded 
entering callus. Length, 19 mill. Australia, Japan. 

N. concinna, Dunker (figs. 30, 31) and N. bicincta, Schrenck 
(figs. 32, 33) are only color-varieties of this species. 

N. RUBROMACULATA, Smith. PL 7, fig. 35. 

With a band of chestnut-colored maculations above, and 
another near the base, the spots connected by longitudinal 
flexuous lines ; margin of aperture maculate within ; umbilicus 
narrow, with entering callus. Length, 17 mill. 

Whydali, W. Africa. 



NATICA. 27 

X. VARIABILIS, Kecluz. PL 7, fig. 57. 

Smooth, shining, rather solid ; yellowish white, covered with a 
fine network of chestnut color, with a row of maculations near 
the base, and an opaque white band overlaid with the reticula- 
tions at the suture ; columellar callus tinged with deep chestnut, 
and nearly filling the umbilicus. Length, 22 mill. 

Hab. unknown (Reeve); W. Africa (Marrat). 

Seems to be nearly related to N. imperforata, Gray. 

X. PAVIMENTUM, Rccluz. PL 7, figs. 38, 39. 

Yellowish white, with orange-brown flexuous markings or 
spots, interrupted on the periphery by a broad light-bluish 
band, on the middle of which is a spiral series of orange-brown 
squarish spots ; columella filled with callus. Length, 10 mill. 

Philippines, Amboina. 

N. Cailliaudi, Recluz (fig. 39) is a mere variety of this species. 

X. PYGM.EA, Phil. PL 7, fig. 40. 

Whitish, covered by small chestnut-colored punctations, with 
three obscure bands; umbilicus narrow, open. Length, 10 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
X. DILECTA, Gould. PL 7, fig. 41. 

Covered with a russet-colored epidermis, under which the 
shell is ivory-white, reticulated with a very minute network of 
rusty brown or fawn-color, leaving occasional white patches, and 
with a series of chestnut-colored blotches, revolving on all the 
whorls, near the suture; callus tinged with chestnut-brown, 
nearly filling: the umbilicus. Length, 16 mill. 

? Mouth of the Rio Negro, Patagonia. 

X. ADAMSIANA, Dunker. PL 8, fig. 46. 

Olivaceous brown, with two lighter bauds covered with longi- 
tudinal flexuous chestnut markings; umbilicus with central 
entering callus ; suture slightly plicate ; interior of aperture 
chestnut colored with two pale bands. Length, 23 mill. 

Japan. 
X. MOQUINIANA, Recluz. PL 8, figs. 47, 48. 

Rather thin ; yellowish brown, with three series of chestnut 
maculations, running together in adult specimens, with connect- 



28 NATICA. 

ing longitudinal stripes ; callus slight, partly covering the umbil- 
icus from above. Length, 16 mill. 

Hob. unknown, 

M, Recluz is of opinion that the operculum will prove to be 
corneous. 

N. LIMBATA, d'Orb. PL 8, fig. 50. 

Thin, smooth, reddish or light purplish, white around the base, 
and white lined at the suture; umbilicus narrow. 

Length, 16 mill. 

Bay of San Bias and Mouth of Rio Negro, Patagonia. 

I am not acquainted with either this or the following species. 

N. ISABELLEANA, d'Orb. PL 8, fig. 51. 

Reddish brown, smooth, thin ; umbilicus narrow. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Maldonado, Uruguay. 

Philippi remarks that the specimen figured and described by 
d'Orbigny is probably worn and has lost some of its markings, 
as he had seen a Brazilian shell, with four bands, and longitu- 
dinal flames which might well be referred to this species. 

N. COLLARTA, Lam. PL 8, figs. 54, 52, 53, 49. 

Whitish, with irregular, interrupted chestnut streaks, not 
extending to the base, slightly flattened at the suture, and milk- 
white, bearing fewer, larger sagittate chestnut markings ; umbili- 
cus with somewhat inferior entering callus ; interior tinged with 
chestnut. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

W. Africa. 

N. labrella, Lam.; N. Gambiae, Recluz (fig. 53), an old thick- 
ened example ; and N. obstructa, Menke (fig. 49 bis) a faded 
specimen, are synonyms. One of the figures of labrella given 
by Philippi in Kiister (fig. 52) also represents an individual 
denuded of color markings. 

N. ELEN.E, Recluz. PL 8, figs. 55, 56. 

Depressed, inflated, spire small, suture well impressed, closely 
plicately ridged above and below between the growth grooves, 
the middle of the body-whorl with incised growth lines only ; 
umbilicus very large, with an inferior entering callus ; whitish, 



NATICA. 29 

densely lineated with chestnut, the markings dislocated in three 
spiral series. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Panama. 

Closely allied to the next species in general pattern of coloring 
only. 

N. Haneti, Recluz (fig. 56), and JV. excavata. Carp., are 
synonyms. 

N. LINEATA, Lam. PL 8, fig. 57. 

Shell smooth, rather largely umbilicated, with inferior entering 
callus ; white, flexuously lineated with chestnut, except at the 
base. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Singapore, Philippines. 
N. BURTASENSTS, Recluz. PI. 8, fig. 58. 

Whorls somewhat slanting above, convex below, smooth, 
polished ; bluish white ; with longitudinal flexuous chestnut 
li neat ions ; deeply umbilicated ; columella with a broadly re- 
flected deep red columellar callosity. Length, 18 mill. 

Isle of Burias, Philippines. 
N. GRACTLIS, Recluz. PI. 8, fig. 59. 

Whorls more convex and spire more produced than in pre- 
ceding species ; whitish, with crowded oblique longitudinal linea- 
tions ; umbilicus reniform, with a median entering callus. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Philippines. 
N. VITELLUS, Linn. PI. 8, fig. 60. 

Whorls slightly plicate at the suture ; orange-brown, obscurely 
lighter banded, with an upper and a lower series of large white 
or yellowish spots ; umbilicus deep, partly circumscribed by a 
superior callus. Length, 1-25-1*75 inches. 

Philippines, Singapore. 
N. ZONALIS, Recluz. PL 8, fig. 61. 

Shell covered by a very thin brownish epidermis, beneath 
which it is whitish, with two bands of longitudinal, sometimes 
confluent chestnut lines ; umbilicus with inferior entering callus. 

Length, 17 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
N. RUFA, Born. PL 9, figs. 62, 63. 

Excavately umbilicated, with central entering callus, and 
overhanging superior callus ; upper and middle portion of 



30 NATICA. 

whorls chestnut-color, with a narrow white sutural band, a white 
peripheral band, and the lower part of the body-whorl also white. 

Length, 1*5 inches. Hong Kong, Singapore, Mauritius. 

It is N.fasciata, Martyn, N. leucozonias, Grael. 

Var. SPADICEA, Gmelin. Fig. G3. 

The coloring lighter and more diffused, often varying in 
intensity in obsolete bands and spiral lines, the sutural white 
band wider. 
Yar. FORSKALI, Chemn. 

On p. 20 I have treated this as a distinct species ; it has been 
regarded by some conchologists as a variet} r of N. rufa in which 
the coloring is interrupted by the growth-lines causing it to 
form longitudinal oblique stripes instead of being diffused over 
the entire surface. It is very possible that it has been correctly 
placed here. 

N. HELVACEA, Lam. PI. 9, fig. 64. 

Whorls somewhat slanting above, then more convex ; umbili- 
cus deep, contracted above by the callus ; a diffused white band 
at the suture, then a broad diluted chestnut band extending to 
below the periphery, base white ; on the chestnut space, at the 
periphery is a narrow white band, above it generally another, 
obsolete. Length, 1-5 inches. Singapore. 

Perhaps only a variety of the preceding species, which it 
decidedly resembles in coloration, differing mainly in the 
sloping conical form, and narrower umbilicus with the entering 
callus barely indicated. It is usually called N.. globosa, Chemn., 
but this is only a portion of the descriptive phrase used by that 
author to designate the species. It is N. spadicea, var. ft, of 
Dillw., and N. pallens, Phil. 

N. CLAUSA, Brod. and Sowb. PL 9, figs. 65, 67-69, 73. 

Shell globose, whitish or yellowish white, spire often tinged 
livid, umbilicus entirely covered and closed by a callus. 
Length, 1*25-2 inches. 

Arctic Seas circumboreal, N. Japan, Alaska, 

Melville Isl, Greenland to Massachusetts, 

Arctic Europe, Off Coast of Portugal 

(nearly 1000 fms.). 



NATICA. 31 

The late Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys identified this with N. affinis, 
Grael. Mr. Verrill in reviewing Dr. Jeffrey's paper (Am. Jour. 
Sci., 3 ser., v, 472), dissents from this consolidation, because 
Nerita affinis, Gmel., is described as having a nacreous interior, 
as inhabiting New Zealand, and is placed in the umbilicated 
section of the genus. An inspection of the S}~st. Nat. of Gmelin 
shows that in the last particular only is Verrill correct, no 
silvery interior is mentioned, the habitat is said to be northern 
seas and a reference is made to the Zool. Danica, prodr. of 
Miiller. Still, the uncertainty of an unfigured species, insuf- 
ficiently described, and the fact that it is, whether correctly or 
not, placed among umbilicated species, forbid the use of the 
name a-ffmin for the species. 

The synonyms are N. consolidates, Couth, (fig. 67), a southern 
and smaller form, occurring as far southward as Massachusetts ; 
N. septentrionalis, Beck (fig. 69), Greenland; probably N. russa, 
Gould, Arctic Ocean ; N. operculata, Jeffreys (fig. 73), Japan. 

N. occlusa, S. Wood, a Crag fossil of England, has been 
referred to this species ; I think it distinct, as the spire is much 
more elevated and the whorls more convex. 

Var. VITTATA, Jeffreys. 

Spire more elevated, body-whorl with two purplish bands, one 
of them showing on the penultimate whorl. 

Greenland. 

This will perhaps prove distinct ; I should think it, from the 
description, more nearly allied to the fossil N. occlusa. 

Var. IANTHOSTOMA, Desh. Fig. 68; PL 19, fig. 89. 

Yellowish brown, irregularly white zoned, apex blackish; 
interior purplish. Length, 2 inches. 

Kamtscliatka, Northern Japan. 
N. IMPERVIA, Phil. PI. 9, fig. 60. 

Oval, with spire very short, rather solid, white, umbilicus 
completely filled with callus. Length, 10 mill. 

Straits of Magellan. 
N. PUSILLA, Say. PI. 21, fig. 6. 

Cinereous, or yellowish white, with sometimes one or two 
obsolete bands ; columella callous nearly closing the umbilicus, 



32 NATICA. 

and only leaving an arcuated linear opening; operculum cal- 
careous. Length, 6 mill. 

Southern Coast of the United Stales; 

Buzzard's Bay, 3 to 8 fms. (Stimpson). 
This is not N. pusilla of Reeve's " Iconica." 

Section STIGMAULAX, Morch, 1852. 
N. SULCATA, Born. PI. 9, fig. 75. 

Largely umbilicated, partly filled by an inferior entering 
callus ; cancellated by revolving and longitudinal close grooves, 
often pitted at their crossings ; white, sometimes banded and 
mottled with fulvous orange. Length, 20 mill. 

West Indict. 

The revolving grooves are sometimes very faint, in other 
specimens as strong as the longitudinal ones. Other names for 
the species are N. cancellata, Gmelin, N. rugosa, Chemn., N. 
costata, Menke. 

N. SEMISULCATA, Gray. PI. 9, fig. 14. 

Deeply and rather widely umbilicated, umbilicus bounded by 
an angle, suture excavated, whorls slantingly flattened above ; 
polished white, encircled superiorly by five or six linear 
grooves. Length, 14 mill. 

West Indies. 

Is possibly a Mamma. I do not know the operculum. 

Subgenus NEVERITA, Kisso, 1820. 
Section NEVERITA (typical). 

N. AMPLA, Phil. PL 10, figs. 81-83, 85, 86 ; PL 11, figs. 91-93 ; 
PL 12, fig. 6. 

Depressed globose, indistinctly spirally engraved, a little 
depressed below the suture ; umbilicus very wide, spirally striate, 
and usually two- or three-ridged, umbilical callus transversely 
deeply grooved in the middle, reflected over the upper portion 
of the umbilicus, rather small ; color light flesh or yellowish 
brown, earlier whorls often livid, interior and callus light choco- 
late. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, China, Japan, Australia, Mauritius. 

The numerous species here united have received from Sowerby 



NATICA. 33 

and others the name of N. didyma, Bolten (fig. 81), an author 
scarcely quotable ; N. vesicalis, Phil. (fig. 92), has also been 
used in this connection; but N. ampla has priority of position, 
although published at the same time as N. vesicalis. Other 
synonyms are: N. robusta, Dkr., N. Lamarckiana (fig. 86), N. 
Chemnitzii (fig. 82), JV. Petiveriana (fig. 91), and N. intermedia 
of Recluz ; N. problematica, Reeve (fig. 93) ; N. papyracea, 
Busch (fig. 85) ; N. bicolor, Schrenck, not Phil. ; N. incisa, Dkr., 
and perhaps N. glaucina, Lam., not Linn. 

X. BICOLOR, Phil. PL 11, fig. 94. 

Depressed orbicular, smooth, yellowish brown above, whitish 
beneath ; umbilicus spirally striate, and few ridged, callus small, 
bipartite, chocolate-color ; aperture dark chocolate above, whitish 
inferiorly. Length, 28 mill. 

Chinese Sea, Japan. 

Perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. 

X. INCBI, Phil. PI. 10, figs. 81-90 ; PL 11, fig. 95. 

Yellowish-, brownish-, or livid-white, chocolate, etc. ; depressed 
orbicular ; umbilicus entirely filled with a button-like callus, the 
rounded margin of which is sometimes deeply grooved ; aperture 
white, or tinged with chocolate. Length, 1-1 '25 inches. 

Southern Coast of Australia. 

The synonyms are N. Baconi (fig. 95), and N. fibula (fig. 89) 
of Reeve, and N. clavata, Sowb. (fig. 90). 

X. JOSEPHINE, Risso. PL 10, fig. 84; PL il, fig. 96. 

Depressed globose, widely umbilicated, but the umbilicus 
mostly filled by the flattened callus ; glaucous or yellowish brown 
above, usually lighter or whitish beneath, aperture chocolate- 
colored, white inferiorly. Length, 1 inch. 

Southern Europe. 

It is N. glaucina of Reeve and other authors (fig. 96), not of 
Linnaeus or Lamarck ; N. olla, Desh. ; N. Pliilippiana, Recluz 
(fig. 84) ; N. albumen, Scacchi, etc. 

X. DUPLICATA, Say. PL 12, figs. 3-5 ; PL 13, fig. 10. 

More or less conically globose, obsoletely spirally engraved, 
and obliquely longitudinally striated, often with a slightly 



34 NATICA. 

depressed area beneath the suture ; umbilicus wide, spirally 
striate, nearly filled by a wide, somewhat overhanging callus, 
which is often rugose or obsoletely pitted ; gray, yellowish 
brown, livid, etc., callus and interior of aperture chocolate. 

Length, 3 inches. 

New England to Florida, Gulf Shores of the United Stales, etc. 

The species figured by Reeve under this name is Lunatia 
heros, Say ; Sowerb}^ has also confounded the two species. N. 
Delessertiana, Recluz, combines the typical form with that 
described by Gould as N. fossata (fig. 4). The latter is scarcely 
entitled to even varietal rank ; it is distinguished by the umbili- 
cus being more decidedly striate and bounded by an acute ridge, 
but these features common, perhaps predominant in Florida 
specimens, seem to shade away with the more northern distribu- 
tion. N. Gampeachiensis, Recluz (fig. 10), and N. Texasiana, 
Phil. (fig. 5), are synonyms. The bowl-shaped sandy nidimental 
ribbon is a common and very curious sea-shore object ; it is very 
clitferent in form and structure from the capsules of other gastro- 
pod genera. 

N. RECLUZIANA, Desh. PL 12, fig. 1. 

Shell solid, conically globose, columella strongly callous from 
the superior function of the outer lip, nearly filling the umbilicus ; 
fawn-color, or yellowish brown, lighter or whitish below, interior 
chocolate, callus usually white. Length, 3 inches. 

California, N. W. Coast of Mc.i'ico. 

The figure is more than usually conical, the general form being 
somewhat more conical than in N. duplicata. 

N. GLAUCA, Humboldt. PL 11, figs. 97, 98. 

Shell very much depressed, rugosely striate, concavely exca- 
vated beneath, the umbilicus partly overhung by a thin, tongue- 
like callus; whitish, or yellowish, broadly chestnut banded 
above, callus and interior chestnut-color. 

L. 1-25, diam. 2-25 inches. 

Acapulco to Panama. 

It is N. Bonplandi, Yal. and N. patula, Sowb. The latter 
name should perhaps have priority were it not preoccupied for a 
fossil species. 



NATICA. 35 

*** 

N. LARVATA, Canefri. PL 23, fig. 64. 

Smooth, very minutely decussately striate, subplicate at the 
suture ; bluish white, with two indistinct chestnut bands ; umbil- 
icus entirely filled by a heavy white columellar callus ; aperture 
chestnut-colored. Length, 18 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

The operculum has not been observed, and the systematic 
position of the species is uncertain. " 

Section LUNATIA, Gray, 1841. 
N. LEWISII, Gould. PL 13, figs. 11, 12 ; PL 9, fig. 70. 

Conical globose, obsoletely spirally striate, yellowish white or 
brownish white ; whorls obliquely sloping above with, in old 
specimens, an obtuse angle on the shoulder, defined by a slight 
concave constriction above and below it ; interior chocolate- 
white ; umbilicus narrow and deep, with a tongue-shaped, chocolate- 
tinged callus extended partly over it from above. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

California Oregon, etc., Japan. 

The largest species of the genus. Small specimens are regu- 
larly rounded on the upper portion of the w r horls ; it is only with 
advancing age that the constriction gradually becomes more 
apparent. The species is generally known as N. herculea, Mid- 
dendorff, but that name was published two years subsequently. 
N. Reiniana, Dunker (fig. 12), a Japanese species, is surely a 
synonym ; and N. algida, Gould (fig. 70) is the young. 

N. HEROS, Say. PL 13, figs. 13, 1(5 ; PL 14, figs. 19, 20. 

Yellowish, or brownish white, with obsolete waved minute 
spiral striae, interior flesh-color, columella only slightly callously 
thickened, flesh-color, scarcely contracting the narrow, deep 
umbilicus. Length, 3-4-5 inches. 

Maine to New Jersey. 

N. heros is a northern species, gradually replaced southwards 
by N. duplicata. The latter has been confounded with it by 
British authors. Like N. duplicata, it preys extensively on 
other mollusks ; on the Xew Jerse} r coast Mactra solidissima is 
its usual victim, being grasped in the voluminous foot of the 



36 NATICA. 

Natica, whilst the tongue bores a circular hole through the shell 
near its beak. The egg-case, like that of N. duplicata, is a com- 
mon sea-shore object. 

N. triseriata, Say (fig. 16) is a color-variety of the young of 
this species ; it has three spiral series of oblique, short chestnut 
streaks, under an olive-gray epidermis. In this state the species 
resembles some of the typical Naticas in coloration. As the 
shell grows larger the markings become more obscure, so that it 
is rare to find a specimen an inch in diameter in which any trace 
of them remains. In other young specimens there are never 
any markings at any stage of growth. N. ampullaria, Lam., 
referred by authors to several species, really appears to belong to 
this ; but there seems to be no good reason for reviving it at this 
late day. N. pomum, Phil. (fig. 20) appears to be a sj'nonym ; 
its locality is unknown. 

N. PAPYRACEA, Sowb. PL 13, fig. 14. 

Shell thin, globose, yellowish white, obscurel}- two-banded, 
umbilicus narrow, interior of aperture and columella flesh-color. 

Length, 1*4 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 

Said to resemble the European Helix pomum. It is probably 
the young of one of the preceding species perhaps of N. Lewisii. 

N. LEVICULA, Verrill. PI. 13, fig. 17. 

Shell thin and light, globose, with deeply impressed sutures, 
columellar lip nearly vertical, very slightly callously expanded 
above, so as to encroach somewhat on the narrow umbilicus. 

Length, 40 mill. 

Maine, Massachusetts ; deep water. 

Much thinner, with more rounded whorls and different colu- 
mella than N. heros. It is very rare, and has only been obtained 
during recent years by dredging. 

N. GLOBOSA, Jeffreys. PI. 14, fig. 34. 

Globular, thin and fragile, semitransparent, glossy, whitish, 
suture rather deep, umbilicus narrow. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Morocco and Cape Verd Is. (Talisman Exped., 1192-1980 fms.). 

I introduce this little species here, because of its remarkably 
suggestive resemblance to the preceding one, of which it may 
possibly be the young. 



NAT1CA. 37 

X. PATAGONICA, Phil. PI. 14, fig. 24 ; PL 21, fig. 12. 

Shell globose, solid, smooth, white, suture profound, umbilicus 
narrow. Length, 1'4 inches. 

Straits of Magellan. 

N. globosa, King (unfigured), from the same locality, appears 
to agree in description, except that it is said to be thin. Per- 
haps X. Magellanica, Phil. (fig. 12), may also be referred here. 

X. ATROCYANEA, Phil. PL 14, fig. 21. 

Ovately globose, rather thin, bluish or bluish-white, with a 
white band at the suture, and white also at the base ; umbilicus 
narrow ; interior and columclla chocolate-colored. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

Straits of Magellan. 

X. FORTUNEI, Reeve. PL 14, figs. 22, 23 ; PL 9, fig. 72 ; PL 21, 
fig. 9, 

Conically globose, with elevated spire and well-marked suture, 
umbilicus narrow, slightly contracted by callus above ; yellowish 
white to brownish, interior tinged with chocolate. 

Length, 42 mill. 

China. 

Reeve's example was a young one (fig. 22), and resembles 
Xatica tennis, Philippi (not Recluz), so closely (fig. 9), that I 
am inclined to consider that shell also identical ; although it is 
said to be as thin as paper, whilst Fortunei is of medium thick- 
ness. The name tenuis was used at an earlier date by Recluz. 
Perhaps N. gilva, Phil. (fig. 72), is identical ; if so, the name will 
take precedence. 

X. PALLIDA, Brod. and Sowb. PL 14, figs. 27, 20, 28 ; PL 13, fig. 
15; PL 9, figs. 76-78. 

Ovately globose, narrowly umbilicated, smooth, dirty white 
under a yellowish brown thin epidermis. Length, 28 mill 

Arctic Seas circumboreal ; Maine, Massachusetts. 

N. borealis, Gray (fig. 76) ; N. alba, Loven ; N.pusilla, Gould, 
Forbes and Hanley (not Say) (fig. 78) ; N. Grcenlandica, Beck 
(fig. 35) ; N. lactea, Loven ; N. fo/Z&osa, Reeve, (fig. 77), probably 
N. Beverlii, Leach ; N. Gouldii, Phil. (fig. 15) ; N. suturalis, 
Gray (fig. 28); N. livida, Laskey ; N. caurina, Gould (fig. 26), 
are synonyms. 



38 NATICA. 

N. SORDIDA, Phil. PI. 12, figs. 99, 100. 

Solid, striate longitudinally, reddish brown or orange-brown, 
or yellowish white, white at the base ; umbilicus narrow, open, 
spirally striate, usually reddish brown as well as the callus ; 
interior of aperture whitish or tinged with brown. 

Length, I/I inches. 

England to Mediterranean, rare. 

With this must be united N. Brocchiana, Phil., N. fusca, of 
Weinkauff, not Blainville the latter being a somewhat doubtful 
spetfies, N. Inevida, Laskey, and N. plicatula, Reeve (fig. 100). 

N. COMPACTA, Jeffreys. PI. 14, fig. 31. 

Globular, thick, opaque, somewhat glossy, with a few micro- 
scopical spiral striae ; light yellowish brown ; suture wide, slightly 
channeled ; inner lip thickened, closing the umbilicus, but not by 
a pad. Length, 9 mill. 

Atlantic, 0. (" Porcupine " and " Lightning " Expeditions). 

The young have the umbilicus open. 

N. SUBPLICATA, Jeffreys. PI. 14, fig. 32. 

Globular, rather thick, opaque, glossy, slightly wrinkled 
striate at the suture ; ivory -white ; suture rather deep ; umbilicus 
narrow. Length, 10 mill. 

Bay of Biscay, Off Cape Verd Is. (370-1192 fms.). 

N. ANGULATA, Jeffreys. PI. 14, fig. :}:}. 

This is an embryo only, and should not have been described. 
Length, 1-25 mill. 

Atlantic, Mediterranean (" Porcupine " Exped.). 

N. TENUIS, Recluz. PL 14, fig. 25. 

Thin, dirty white, smooth, spire elevated, suture well impressed, 
columellar callus thin, reducing the umbilicus to a rimate open- 
ing. Length, 1 inch. 

Valparaiso. 
N. JMMACULATA, Totteu. PI. 12, fig. 7. 

Conically ovate, the extremities rather pointed, milk-white, 
under a thin greenish yellow epidermis ; umbilicus narrow ; 
inner lip with white callus. Length, 8 mill. 

New England, Nova Scotia, etc., to Greenland. 

With this I unite N. nana, Moller, a species described from 
Greenland. 



NATICA. 39 

N. PISIFORMIS, Recluz. PI. 12, fig. 8. 

Narrowly umbilicated, white, columella with a white callus 
above ; rather solid, whorls somewhat flattened above. 

Length, 5-6 mill. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 

I know nothing of this species. 

N. NUCULA, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 9 ; PL 9, fig. 80. 

Subglobose, body-whorl obliquely flattened or subconstricted 
around the middle ; columella with a broad, button-like callosity 
completely covering the umbilicus; dull yellowish white, livid at 
the apex. 

New Ireland. 

The figure is said to be "considerably magnified," but no 
dimensions are given. 

X. OHTUSA, Jeffreys. PL 9, fig. 79. 

Conically globose, rather thick, opaque and glossy, whitish, 
inner lip callous, completely covering the umbilicus. 

Length, 7 '5 mill. 

N. Atlantic Ocean. 

Closely resembling N. immacidata, Totten in form, but dis- 
tinguished by its closed umbilicus. 

X. SOLUTA, Gould. PL 9, fig. 71. 

Shell small, thin, globular, whorls slightly tabulated above, 
suture channeled ; umbilicus deep, narrow, columella somewhat 
callous above ; color whitish. Length, 13 mill. 

? Southern Coast of South America. 

The locality is very doubtful. It does not appear to differ 
much from N.pallida, Brod. and Sowb., and P. P. Carpenter is 
probably correct in referring it to that species. 

N. MONTAGUI, Forbes. PL 14, fig. 30. 

Yellowish or rufous white, smooth, suture narrowly channeled, 
umbilicus moderate, with a nearly obsolete entering callus. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Iceland, England, Norway. 

It is N. rufa, Montagu ; N. helicina, Saguenza (in part); N. 
albula, Marshall, and N. squalida and N. rutila of Macgillivray. 



40 NATICA. 

N. NOTABILIS, Jeffreys. PL 13, fig. 18. 

Somewhat pointed at the extremities, thick, smooth, opaque, 
rather glossy ; yellowish white, with three equidistant bands on 
the body-whorl, composed of oblique, close, reddish brown 
streaks ; umbilicus contracted by a thick but small chestnut- 
blotched pad, so as to form a concentric groove.' 

Length, 10 mill. 

Ojf Say res, Portugal. 

Like N. triseriata in coloring, but the whorls are not so 
ventricose, spire more pointed, and umbilicus different; it 
differs also from N. niacilenta in shape, consistency, color and 
umbilicus. 

N. MACILENTA, Phil. PI. 6, figS. 11-19. 

Shell conic-ovate, smooth, spire rather elevated, openly um- 

bilicated ; yellowish white, four-banded with oblique chestnut 

streaks, columellar callus' chestnut-tinged. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Mediterranean, Atlantic Coast of Spain and N. Africa. 

N.pulchella, Risso, is probably the same species, and N. Rizzae, 
Phil. (fig. 19), is a slight color-variety. It is very doubtful 
whether this species is distinct from N. Guillemini, Payr., 
differing only in its smaller size and more oval shape. 

N. GUTLLEMINT, Payr. PL 6, figs. 16, 14, 26. 

Narrowly umbilicated, conicalLy globose ; purplish white, 
marbled or obscurely five-banded with chestnut blotches, which 
are more distinct and irregular around the suture, columellar 
callus tinged with chestnut. Length, 18-22 mill. 

Southern Europe, Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

N. marmorata, Risso, and N. maroccana, Salis, are synonyms. 
See remarks under preceding species. N. Franciscana, Recluz 
(fig. 26), is a variety. 

N. ALDERI, Forbes. PL 6, figs. 13, 15. 

Obliquely rounded above, subglobose ; whitish, usually with 
five bands of chestnut-colored markings, the three lower ones 
sagittate ; umbilicus open, narrow, the columellar callus chestnut- 
tinted, slightly impinging above. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Northern Europe to Mediterranean Sea. 

This is N. nitida, Forbes and Hanley (fig. 15), not Donovan, 



NATICA. 41 

N. marochiensis, Phil., not Chemnitz ; perhaps N. glaucina, 
Linn., in part, A 7 , macilenta, Reeve (fig. 13), not Phil., and N. 
lactea, Marshall, N. intermedia, Phil., N. Poliana, Chiaje, etc. 

N. CATENA, DaCosta. PL 7, figs. 42-45. 

Shell yellowish brown, with a single band of very short flexu- 
ous chestnut markings or spots at the suture ; umbilicus open, 
rather narrow, partly restricted above ~hy the callus. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Europe. 

Better known under the later name of N. monilifera, Lam. ; 
but it is doubtful whether this species has been properly identi- 
fied ; it is certainly the N. monilifera of most authors. 

The animal is yellowish or drab, with a purplish tinge on the 
upper part, and faintly lineated with brown. The fry are 
globular, orange-colored and umbilicated ; they assume the 
purplish brown markings after they are excluded from the 
leathery band (fig. 44). 

According to Bouchard-Chan tereaux the sexual coition lasts 
many hours. The spawn-envelope consists of a great number 
of rounded cells, each containing from 12 to 15 fry, which 
emerge in succession at an interval of two or three clays after at 
least two months of foetal life. The eggs are laid usually in 
March and April, and the young are produced in May or June. 
" When just taken, in vigor, and immersed in sea-water, it is 
scarcely possible to contemplate a more beautiful and interesting 
object, with its shell rising as a globular pyramid from its 
immense circular disk, elegantly marked with fine dark lines on 
clear drab ground." CLARK. 

It is N. canrena, Maton and Rackett, N. castanea, Lam., N. 
Nicolii, Forbes, N. helicina, Brocchi, N. glaucina, Fleming and 
Pennant. N. ampullaria, Lam., has been referred to this 
species, but the figure of it given by Delessert is more like N. 
heros, Say. The brown variety called castanea by Lamarck, has 
since been rechristened Var. Leckenbyi, Marshall. 

N. LARGILLIERTI, Recluz. PI. 14, fig. 29. 

Yellowish brown, rather smooth, inflated, umbilicus narrow, 
reduced to a mere slit by the reflected callus. 

Length, 32-45 mill. Newfoundland. 



42 NATICA. 

Believed to have been obtained from the stomach of codfish. 
If the original figure is correct, this species appears to have 
escaped all other collectors. 

Section PAYRAUDEAUTIA, Bucq., Dautz. & Dollf., 1883. 
N. INTRICATA, Donovan. PL 6, figs. 20, 21. 

Largely excavated umbilicated, with two funicular ridges ; 
purple-white, with five or six white bands bearing angular or 
sagittate chestnut markings, interior chocolate-tinged. 
Length, 15-22 mill. 

Azores j Southern Europe, Mediterranean Sea. 
N. fasciata, Risso, N. grisea, Requien, N. Valenciennesii, 
Payr., are synonyms. 

Section MAMMA, Klein, 1753. 
N. DEIODOSA, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 36. 

Depressed ovate, spire minute, body-whorl flattened beneath, 
the umbilicus filled by a heavy white callus ; whorls smooth, 
striate, pale straw-color. Length, 1 % 75 inches. 

Australia. 
Differs in form and umbilicus from N. aurantia, Lam. 

N. AURANTIA, Lam. PI. 15, figs. 39-41, 37. 

Thick, ponderous, body-whorl comically sloping above and a 
little constricted in old specimens ; orange-brown; callus heavy, 
ivory-white, in adults usually entirely filling the umbilicus. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Singapore, Moluccas, Philippines, Australia, N. Caledonia. 

Yar. MITTREI, Hombr. and Jacq. (fig. 37), is a specimen in which 
the umbilicus is not entirely filled by callus ; A', cifrina, 
Phil. (fig. 41), appears to be a similar form. 

Var. STRAMINEA, Recluz. Fig. 40. 

Color straw-yellow, varying to yellowish white. 

N. POWTSIANA, Recluz. PI. 15, fig. 42 ; PL 19, fig. 92 ; PL 20, 

figs. 99, 100. 

Openly obliquely umbilicated, columellar lip with a heavy 
white callus overhanging a central broad entering funiculum ; 
whitish or yellowish white, usually overlaid on the body-whorl, 



NATICA. 43 

except near the suture and at the base with orange-brown, the 
latter sometimes evanescent in places, or obscurely banded. 

Length, 1-75-2-25 inches. 

China, Moluccas. 

X. Cumingiana, Recluz (fig. 99), and ? X. poZfc'ttm, Reclaz, and 
N. Draparnaudi, Recluz (fig. 100), are synonyms. N. eff'usa, 
Swains, (fig. 92), is probably a pale-colored variety. 

X. RAVIDA, Souleyet. PL 15, fig. 38. 

Deeply perspective!}- umbilicated, globose, very solid, body- 
whorl slightly obliquely flattened above ; white, covered with 
a thin, rough, horny j'ellowish epidermis, columellar callus very 
strong, white. Length, 28 mill. 

Payta, Peru (Souleyet) ; St. Elena, W. Columbia (Cuming). 

X. ORIENTALIS, Gmelin. PL 20, figs. 1, 2. 

Widely globose, plicate at the deep suture; umbilicus broad, 
with a white central entering callus, aperture produced below ; 
orange-brown, vaiying to yellowish white. 

Length, 1-5-1-75 inches. 

Singapore. 

It is JN r . eburnea, Desh., X. subfulva, Chemn. 

X. MAMILLAHIS, Lam. PL 18, fig. 74. 

Conic ovate, deeply umbilicated, with a broad entering callus, 
flesh-brown or orange-brown, base and columellar callus white. 
Length, 2 inches. 

West Indies, Caribbean coasts of Central and South 

America, Baliia, Brazil. 

It is ^T. brunnea, Linck,and -N. Balnensis, Recluz. N. pallium 
of the latter author (p. 42), which I have made a doubtful syno- 
nym of N. Pou'lisiana, may belong here ; it closely resembles 
the present species, but the locality differs widety. 

X. OTIS, Brod. and Sowb. PL 17, figs. 72, 70, 71; PL 19, fig. 91; 

PL 12, fig. 2. 

Conic ovate, yellowish white or light mouse-color, with a yel- 
lowish or orange band at the suture; umbilicus open, chestnut- 
brown, together with the central entering callus ; interior of 
aperture chestnut-color. Length, 1-1-75 inches. 

Gallapagos Is. to Cape St. Lucas, L. Cal. 



44 NATICA. 

N. Gallapagosa (fig. 71); N. perspicua (fig. 91); -V. Salango- 
ensis (fig. 70) of Recluz, and V&r.fusca, Carpenter (fig. 2), are 
synonyms. 

N. BIFASCTATA, Gray. PI. 18, fig. 75. 

Light fawn-brown, white next the suture and around the um- 
bilicus, with two narrow white bands ; umbilicus narrow, chestnut- 
brown, partly covered above with the brown-tinged columellar 
callus; interior light flesh- or chocolate-brown, showing the bands. 

Length, 1'25-1*75 inches. 

Acapulco, Guaymaa, Gape St. Lucas, L. Calif. 

N. SUFFUSA, Reeve. PI. 19, fig. 87. 

Conic ovate, solid, smooth, transparent white, here and there 
opaque, tinged with violet towards the apex ; columellar callosity 
violet, nearty covering the umbilicus. Length, 12 mill. 

New Ireland. 

Is probably a variety only of N. mamilla ; but I have not 
seen the species. 

N. CONICA, Lam. PL 18, figs. 76, 77. 

Elongated conical-ovate, a little compressed and whitish or 
orange-tinted at the suture ; balance gf shell fulvous ash-color, 
fading to white at the base ; columellar callus heavy, almost 
filling the umbilicus which, with the callus, is more or less 
tinged with chestnut-color. Length, r25-l*75 inches. 

So. Australia. 

N. ustulata, Sowb. (fig. 77) appears to be only a slight variety. 

N. PYRAMIS, Keeve. PI. 17, fig. 68. 

Solid, conical ovate, whitish or yellowish-white ; columellar 
callus thick, white, partl} r covering the narrow umbilicus. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Australia. 

I think this will prove to be an uncolored form of the pre- 
ceding species. 

N. PLUMBEA, Lam. PL 18, figs. 78, 79 ; PL 19, fig. 88. 

Conically ovate, rather solid, growth striae ruguse at the suture ; 
leaden gray, lighter or orange-banded at the suture ; umbilicus 



NATICA. 45 

moderate and, with the columellar callus tinted with orange- 
brown; interior chestnut-colored. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Australia, New Zealand. 

The form is less conical, the color deeper, the umbilicus more 
open than in N. conica. 

N. microstoma, Quoy (fig. 79), is probably a synonym, and N. 
sordida, Swainson, certainly is. I figure a form called by Gray 
N. sordida, var. globosa (fig. 88). 

N. LEUCOPEUEA, Reeve. PI. 18, figs. 82, 80. 

Differs from N.plumbea only in its more globose form, and more 
open umbilicus ; coloring similar. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Australia. 

Probably only a variety of N. plumbea. N. Strangei, Reeve 
(fig. 80), appears to be identical. 

N. MELASTOMA, Swainson. PL 18, fig. 81 ; PI. 19, fig. 90 ; PI. 21, 
fig. 8. 

Obliquely ovate, slightly concave at the suture ; olivaceous, 
with a whitish sutural space bearing an indistinct darker band ; 
umbilicus widely excavated, and filled up with a heavy chestnut- 
colored callus; interior chocolate brown. Length, 1 '25 inches. 

Australia. 

Partakes of the characters of Neverita, and appears to be 
somewhat closely related to N. Incei, Reeve, belonging to that 
group. N. sanguinolenta, Desh. (fig. '8), is a synonym. 

N. DUNKERI, Phil. PL 21, fig. 7. 

Rather solid, smooth, yellowish gray, light-banded at the 
suture, and with indistinct darker bands on the last whorl ; 
umbilical region defined by an angle, umbilicus completely filled 
by the white columellar callus. Length, 17 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This species is placed here because Philippi compares it with 
N. melastoma ; I cannot see any resemblance between the two. 
N. Dunkeri has not been recognized by subsequent authors. 

N. SOLIDA, Blainv. PL 20, fig. 98. 

Thick, smooth, fulvous or chestnut-brown, with a rather broad 
lighter band at the suture, and another below the periphery ; 



46 NATICA. 

columellar callus chocolate-colored, broadly reflected, nearly 
covering the similarly colored narrow umbilicus. 

Length, 30 mill. 

Singapore, Philippines. 

The synonyms are N. lupinus, Desh.; N. melanostoma, var. of 
Gmelin, and N. cinnamomea, Menke. 

N. INTEMERATA, Phil. PL 18, fig. 83 ; PI. 19, fig. 93. 

White, deeply mnbilicated with a central obtuse entering 

callus. Length, 1'5 inches. 

Mazatlan. 

N. alabaster, Reeve (fig. 93), is identical. Carpenter thinks it 
a variety of N. uber, Val.; this is not unlikely, but if so, it estab- 
lishes a range of variation in form, umbilicus and callus, which 
may reduce the white Mammas to a single species. 

N. CANDIDISSIMA, Le Guillou. PI. 16, fig. 49 ; PL 19, fig. 95. 

Globosely neritoid, very solid, whorls polished, ivory-white; 
callus broad, slightly entering the rather wide umbilicus. 

Length, 33 mill. 

Moluccas, North Australia. 

Is N. Jukesii, Reeve (fig. 95) == N. candidissima, Recluz. 

N. PIIYTELEPHAS, Reeve. PL 19, fig. 97. 

Globosely ovate, with sharp spire and linear suture ; white, 
under a very thin horny white epidermis showing indistinct 
revolving lines ; umbilicus compressed, with a slight central 
entering callus, the columellar callus above often obsoletely 
divided by spiral depressions. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Australia. 

Perhaps not distinct from N. candidissima. 

N. UNIMACULATA, Reeve. PL 19, fig. 96. 

Pyriform ovate, compressly umbilicated ; white, under a very 
thin horny white epidermis ; columellar callus white, with a 
central projection entering the umbilicus, and chestnut-spotted 
on the face. Length, 1-25-1 "5 inches. 

Panama, Mazatlan. 
N". ZOOLOGICA, Jousseaume. PL 20, fig. 3. 

Somewhat inflated, solid, white ; angulated around the widely 
open umbilicus ; columellar callus rather narrow, chestnut tinged 
below. Length, 57 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 



NATICA. 47 

Related by its coloring with the preceding species, from which 
it differs in form and in its much wider umbilicus. 

N. CASTA, Phil. PI. 17, fig. 63. 

Whorls obliquely flattened above, angulated around the rather 
wide umbilicus ; columellar callus moderate, entering the um- 
bilicus ; white. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 

Distinguished from the other species of the group by the wide 
umbilicus and sloping form of the body-whorl. 

N. ALBUMEN, Linn. PI. 20, fig. 5. 

Obliquely depressed, orange-brown ; umbilicus very wide, 
bordered b} r an angle, white, with a strong central entering 
callus. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Singapore, Moluccas, Philippines. 

X. COLUMNARIS, Rccluz. PI. 20, fig, 4. 

Widely globose, pure white, polished, base strongly angulated 
around the very large umbilicus, which bears a slight spiral 
ridge and is more or less filled by a strong, broad central enter- 
ing callus. Length, 1/5-2 inches. 

Philippines, Mauritius. 

It is N. pes-elephantis, Chemn., and probably N. funiculata, 
Reel. 

N. DUBIA, Recluz. PL 1C, fig. 50 ; PL 17, fig. 67 ; PL 18, fig. 73 ; 
PL 19, fig. 94. 

Thick, with small spire and but slightly marked suture; white 
under a slight yellowish white epidermis ; umbilicus narrow, 
bounded by an almost cord-like angle, in the adult nearly filled 
by an entering callus, at which place the columellar lip often is 
cut into one or two mamillary callous deposits. 

Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Chili, Peru. 

N. Atacamensis, Phil. (fig. 94), N. amiculata, Phil. (fig. 73), 
and N. rapulum, Reeve (fig. 67), are S3'nonyms. 

N. CORA, d'Orb. PL 19, fig. 86 ; PL 16, fig. 58 ; PL 19, fig. 84. 

Shell thick, conical ovate, body-whorl obliquely flattened 
above ; umbilicus narrow and deep, bounded by a ridge, partly 



48 NATICA. 

contracted by the broad, thick callus ; white, under a thin 
yellowish white epidermis. Length, 18 mill. 

W. Coast of South America. 

A species of no marked character ; perhaps not distinct from 
N. uber, Val. N. elongata, Troschel (fig. 84) appears to be 
identical. 

N. UBER, Val. PL IT, figs. 61, 66. 

Shell white, polished, under an extremely deciduous thin 
epidermis, columella densely enameled, usually covering the 
upper part of the narrow, deep umbilicus. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Peru, Panama, Mazatlan. 

Carpenter wrote of this shell : " The extreme forms of this 
species are so dissimilar as to have warranted their separation. 
An examination of some hundreds of specimens, however, 
shows that there is no consistency in the types. The shell is 
either thin or heavy ; snbglobular or very transverse ; with the 
umbilicus quite open, or reduced by the callosity to a mere 
chink ; the callus varying greatly in shape and intensity. The 
callosity projects considerably beyond the aperture, leaving a 
sutural groove. Umbilicus more or less slightly spiral." 

Carpenter includes N. uberina of Adams' Genera, N. ovum, 
Menke, and N. rapulum, Reeve ; also, somewhat doubtfully, N. 
alabaster, Reeve which I have described separately. To this 
list is to be added N. virginea, Recluz (fig. 66), and possibly 
several of the species from western South America dubia, 
Recluz, cora, d'Orb., etc. Finally, I can distinguish forms of 
N. uber from the Polynesian and East Indian N. mamilla in no 
way except by habitat. 

N. PINAMENSIS, Recluz. PL 17, fig. 60. 

Compressed on the sides into a quadrangularly ovate form ; 
white, under a deciduous horn-colored epidermis ; umbilicus 
narrow, nearly filled by the columellar callus. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Panama. 

The peculiar form described above appears to be characteristic 
of the species. 



NAT 1C A. 49 

N. LACTEA, Guilcling. PL 16, figs. 54-57, 59, 52 ; PI. 15, fig. 45 ; 
PL 17, fig. 62; PL 19, fig. 85. 

Ovate, body-whorl a little slopingly flattened above, white, 
usually clothed with a thin yellowish epidermis ; umbilicus 
moderate, partly filled with an entering callus which is often 
in distinguish ably joined to the callus above. Length, 1 inch. 

West Indies, Canary Islands, Brazil, Cape Horn. 

The form appears to be moderately constant, and the epidermis 
is more persistent than in the other species ; otherwise than in 
the latter particular it is undistinguishable from N. uber, of the 
Pacific Coast of X. America. 

The synonymy includes N. Caribaea, Phil. (fig. 56) ; N. nitida, 
Donovan ; N. uberina, d'Orb. (fig. 57) ; N. Pfeifferi, Phil. (fig. 
45) = N. pes-elephantis, Pfr., not Chemn. ; N. porcellana, d'Orb. 
(fig. 55), from the Canary Islands; N. puella, Phil. (fig. 85), an 
elongated variety, very like the N. corn,, of West Coast of So. 
America ; N. puerilis, Gould (fig. 59), from the same region as 
N. porcellana and N. Philippiana, Xyst (fig. 62) = N. acuta, 
Phil., preoccupied. 

Yar. OCHROSTOMA, Recluz. Fig. 52. 

Aperture and columellar callus light ochraceous. 

N. MAMILLA, Linn. PL 16, figs. 46, 48; PL 15, fig. 43; PL 17, 

figs. 65, 69. 

Conically ovate, smooth, white, shining, body-whorl slopingly 
flattened above ; columellar callus very thick, entirely covering 
the umbilicus. Length, 1 '5-2*5 inches. 

East Indies, Philippines, N. Caledonia, 

Central Polynesia, etc. 

The synonymy includes N. pyriformis (fig. 48) and N. inter- 
media, of Recluz ; N. virginea (fig. 69), and N. vestalis (fig. 43) 
of Philippi, and N. alveata, Troschel (fig. 65), said to have been 
collected on the Peruvian coast. 

X. ALBULA, Recluz. PL 16, fig. 47. 

Depressly globose, subventricose, whorls somewhat squarely 
convex, polished, obsoletely grooved-striated, white ; columella 
densely callous, filling the umbilicus. Length, 2 inches. 

Philippines. 

Perhaps only a variety of N. mamilla, Linn. 
4 



50 NATICA. 

N. FLEMINGIANA, Recluz. PI. 16, figs. 51, 53 ; PL 15, fig. 44. 

Conically ovate, white, with a dense callosity almost covering 
the umbilicus. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

China, Philippines, Australia, Viti Islands, etc. 

Only distinguished from N. mamilla by its umbilicus, and 
probably a form of that species. N. Vavaosi, Le Guillou (fig. 
44), and N. galactites, Phil. (fig. 53), are synonyms. 

N. GLABELLA, Reeve. PI. 21, figs. 10, 11. 

Narrowly deeply umbilicated, subfusiformly oblong, rather 
s*olid ; columella with a broadly reflected callosity above ; trans- 
parent white, flesh-tinged, callosit}^ flesh-colored. Length, 13 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Reeve figures this as a reversed species, but does not so describe 
it; Sowerby's figure is dextral. 

Section MAMILLA, Schum., 1817. 
N. MELANOSTOMA, Gmel. PI. 21, figs. 13-18 ; PI. 22, fig. 21. 

Smooth, polished, with obsolete engraved spiral lines; llcsli- 
white, obscurely banded with light flesh-brown, columella and 
umbilicus chocolate-colored. Length, l'5-2 inches. 

East Indies, Philippines, Western Polynesia, 

Mauritius, Madagascar. 

The above diagnosis will define the species in a restricted 
sense ; the variations of form and coloring are numerous, and it 
would be easy to include most of the other species as varieties 
at the most. 

N. opaca, Recluz is a synonym. 

Yar. ZANZEBARTCA, Recluz. Fig. 15. 

Shell a little more quadrangular in shape than the type, the 
striae more strongly impressed, the brown bands broken up into 
series of irregular longitudinal markings. 

Yar. MELANOSTOMOIDES, Quoy. Figs. 16, 21. 

Founded on thin, young specimens, with the bands broken up 
into chestnut spots, frequently becoming obsolete. Washed-out 
specimens of this form are N. Sebse, Souleyet (fig. 16). Very 
probably the unfigured N. bicincta, Recluz, is also an example of 
this variety. * 



NATICA. 51 

Var. FIBROSA, Souleyct. Fig. It. 

The spiral bands distinct. 
Var. SUCCINEOIDES, Reeve. Fig. 18. 

Shell white, without markings, columelhi and umbilicus 
chocolate-colored. 

N. SIMMS, Dcsh. PI 21, figs. 19, 20. 

Flesh-white, marbled with fawn-colored or light olivaceous 
rather obscure markings, with three or four revolving series of 
short irregular chestnut streaks and spots ; umbilicus and colu- 
niella chocolate-colored. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Philippines, New Zealand, Viti Islands. 

Embraces N. simioides, Recluz, of Reeve, and probably N. 
Samarensis, Recluz both of them unfigured. N. Bernardii, 
Recluz (fig. 20), appears to be a slight color- variety. Its habitat 
is " ? Gulf of Mexico," doubtless an error. 

X. FJLOSA, Sowb. PI. 22, fig. 22. 

Shell decussated by rather rugose growth-lines, and very close 
fine waved revolving striae ; whitish, obscurely wide-banded with 
faded chestnut, columella and umbilicus chocolate-colored. 

Length, 1*5 inches. Australia. 

Very like N. melanostoma in form and coloring, but has not 
the polished surface of the latter species, and is immediately 
recognized by the very close thread-like revolving striae. 

N. PRIAMUS, Recluz. PI. 22, fig. 23. 

Thin, inflated, polished, pale chestnut- or fawn-color, with two 
spiral series of small chestnut spots ; callus thin, but filling the 
umbilicus, chocolate-colored. Length, T5 inches. 

Moluccas. 
X. MAURA, Brng. PI. 22, fig. 24. 

Polished, chestnut- to chocolate-colored, obliquely strigate with 
darker color ; columella and umbilicus chocolate-colored ; aper- 
ture brownish white. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

Philippines. 
E. MACROSTOMA, Phil. PI. 22, fig. 25. 

Globosely swollen, polished; white, here and there strigate 

with chestnut, and with two bands of chestnut spots and streaks. 

Length, 1*5 inches. Habitat unknown. 



52 NATICA. 

N. UMBILICATA, Quoy. PL 22, fig. 26. 

Shell thin, inflated, largely, obliquely, excavately urn bi Heated, 
obscurely decussately striated ; subtranspurent white with zigzag 
longitudinal light chestnut markings, often interrupted to make 
spiral series. Length, '75 inch. 

So. Australia. 

N. globosa, Tenison-Woods is a synonym. 

N. MACROTREMA, Ad. and Reeve. PL 22, fig. 27. 

Smooth, thin, very largely excavately umbilicated ; greenish 
white. Length, 1 inch. 

Borneo. 

Perhaps a faded condition of the preceding species. 

Subgenus AMPULLINA, Lam., Defrance, 1821. 
N. FLUCTUATA, Sowb. PL 22, fig. 28. 

Obliquely globose, rather thin, polished ; light fawn-color, 
obscurely darker banded, overlaid with zigzag white streaks ; 
columella white, densely callous, bordered with chestnut, com- 
pletely overlaying the umbilicus; interior whitish, interruptedly 
banded with light chestnut. Length, 2-2-5 inches. 

Philippines. 

It is N. imperforata, Jay. . 

Subgenus AMAURA, Moller, 1842. 

N. CANDIDA, Moller. PL 22, fig. 29. 

Thin, imperforate, bulimiform, with considerably elevated 
spire ; white, under a thin epidermis. Length, 12 mill. 

Greenland. 
Section ACRYBIA, H. & A. Adams, 1853. 

N. FLAVA, Gould. PL 22, fig. 30. 

Shell thin, subglobose ; aperture large, columella sinuous, a 
little dilated above, umbilicus none ; white, under a thin straw- 
colored epidermis. Length, 1 inch. 

Maine, Newfoundland, northwards ; 

Finmark, Nova Zembla. 
N, aperta, Loven, and N. Smithii^ Brown, are identical. 



NATICA. 53 

Section AMAUROPSIS, Morch, 1851. 
X. HELICOIDES, Johnson. PL 22, fig. 31. 

Thin, with channeled suture ; umbilicus a narrow line ; chalk} r 
white, covered with a light yellowish brown epidermis. 
Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Newfoundland, Arctic Oeean, Norway, Siberia. 
It is N. canaliculata, Gould, N.fragilis, Leach, N. cornea, 
Moller, and perhaps N. Islandica, Gmelin. 

N. PURPUREA, Dall. PI. 22, fig. 32. 

Suture channeled, umbilicus a mere chink or closed, inner lip 
with a thin callus ; whorls 4, inflated, with fine revolving grooves ; 
purplish brown, under a yellowish epidermis. Length, 1 inch. 

Alaska. 

Differs from the preceding species in sculpture and color, and 
is usually more globose. 

N. GLOBULUS, Angas. PL 22, fig. 33. 

Rimate, rather thin, shining; orange horn-color, much paler 
on the last whorl towards the aperture ; two narrow concentric 
raised keels on the subapical whorl ; nearly smooth, a few 
microscopical spiral stride here and there crossing the growth- 
lines ; columella slightly thickened and expanded over the um- 
bilicus. Length, 5 mill. 

Holdfast Bay, So. Australia. 

The pertinence of this species to Amauropsis is very ques- 
tionable. 

Subgenus AMAURELLA, A. Ad., 1867. 

The species, three in number, are unfigured : N. Japonica, 
N. glabrata and N. semistriata, A. Ad. 

Japan. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

X. RUSSA (Arctic Ocean) and N. SEVERA (Japan), of Gould. 

N. PHILIPPINENSIS (Philippines), N. ATRYPA ( W. of Gape York, 
S. W. of Papua), X. PSEUSTES (Fiji Islands), X. SUTURALIS 
(Kerguelen IsL), X. RAD i AT A (Bermuda), X. AMPHIALA (E. N. 
E.from N. Zealand), X. LEPTALEA ( West Indies). X. XANTHA 



54 RUMELLA. 

(near Kerguelen 7s/.), N. PRASINA (Kerguelen 7s/.), N. FAR- 
TILIS (Kerguelen 7s/.), N. APORA (Off Arm Islands), N. AM- 
PHIALA (= N. VITREA, Hutton, N. Zealand), all of Watson. 

N. AUSTRALIS and N. VITREA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

N. PARVULA, Tapparone-Canefri. Paj$ua. 

N. NUCAHIVENSIS, Jarclin. Marquesas. 

N. GRISEA, N. SCULPTA and N. PERSCALPTA, Martens. 

Kerguelen's Isl. 

N. MALABARICA (Malabar), N. TOURNEFORTI (Seychelles), N. 
PUNCTICULATA and N". ALEXANDRIA (Hab.?), of Recluz, 

N. UNDATA and N. PUTAMEN, Meuschen (Adams' Genera). 

y. ALBA, Potiez et Mich. Hob. ? 

.N. STRIATA, Anton. Hab. ? 

N. FRINGILLA, Dall. West Indies. 

N. APERTA, Sowb. Hab. ? 

N. PARVULA (Borneo), and N. SANDALINA (Sandalwood Say), of 
Le Gnillou. 

N. AFFINIS, Graelin. Northern Seas. 

N. QUADRIFASCIATA, Gray. Hab. ? 

N. RHODOCHEILA (New Caledonia), and N. MORCHI (Australia) of 
Ads. and Reeve. 

N. OBTURATA, Phil. Magellan's Strait. 

N. SEMIPELLUCIDA, N. FABA, N. CAFFRA, X. OBLIQUATA, Marrat. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

N. SERTATA and N. SAGITTATA, Menke. Australia. 

N. NANA, N.GLOBOSA, N. TASMANiCA, Tenisoii-Woods. Tasmania. 
N. BEDDOMEI, Johnston (N. POLITA, Tenison- Woods in part). 

Tasmania. 
N. SUBCOSTATA, Tenisoii-Woods. Australia. 

Genus RUMELLA, Bourguignat, 1885. 

According to Bourguignat, the Naticidas are added to the 
remarkable assemblage of marine forms inhabiting Lake Tanga- 
nika in Central Africa. No figures of the shells have been 
published, nor are the animal and operculnm known. Two 
species have been described 

R. GIRAUDI and R. MILNE-EDWARDSIANA, Bourg. L. Tanganika. 



SIGARETUS. 55 

Genus SIGARETUS, Lam., It 99. 
Typical Species. 

S. CONCAVUS, Lamarck. PL 23, figs. 36, 37 ; PL 22, fig. 34. 

Fawn-colored, with thin white columellar callus reflected over 
the umbilicus ; interior chestnut-brown. Diam. 1*5-2 inches. 

Peru, Chili . San Pedro, California. 

I have before me a specimen collected living at the latter 
locality by Mrs. A. E. Bush. The synonyms are S. maximus, 
Phil. ; S. cymba, Menke ; S. Grayi, Desh ; S. neritoides, Recluz, 
non Linn. ; ? S. latifasciatus, Reeve, not Ads. and Reeve ; S. 
haliotoideus, Reeve, not Linn (fig. 34). According to Dunker, 
this species occurs also on the West Coast of Africa. 

S. NERITOIDEUS, Linn. PL 22, figs. 35, 38-40. 

Less globose than the preceding species, and showing less of 
the body-whorl below. Diam. 1*25-1 '75 inches. 

East Indies. 

S. latifasciatus, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 38) ; S. Javanicus, Gray 
(fig. 39) ; S. insculptus, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 40), and S. Leachii, 
Phil., are synonyms. 

S. JAPONICUS, Lischke. PL 23, figs. 44-46. 

Convex, spire somewhat prominent, solid, with slight spiral 
striae, scarcely undulated, the interstices alternating broader 
and narrower, whitish. Diam. 21 mill. 

Japan. 

Differs a little in form from the preceding species, of which it 
may be only a variety, or even a synonym. 

S. L^EVIGATUS, Lam. PI. 24, figs. 47-51. 

Convex, thin, translucent white, sometimes obsoletely fasciate 
with chestnut, very finely undulately striate, almost smooth. 

Diam. 1-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Java, Australia. 

The synonyms are S. Australis, Hanley (fig. 50), S. zonalis, 
Quoy (fig. 57). 

S. CUVIERIANUS, Recluz. PL 24, figs. 55, 56. 

Depressed ovate, spire small, rather prominent, spirally corded 
throughout; white, spire flesh-colored. Diam. 28 mill. 

Philippines, 



5G SIGARETUS. 

S. EXIMIUS, Reeve. PI. 24, figs. 52-54. 

Convex, thin, oblique, opaque white, whorls densely spirally 
corded. Diam. 15-20 mill. 

Malacca, Australia. 

S. argenteus, Reeve (fig. 54), from Australia, appears to be 
identical. 

S. MARTINIANUS, Phil. PL 23, figs. 41-43. 

Convexly curved, rather solid, whorls slightly concavel}' 
impressed round the suture, spirally wave-striated, growth-lines 
somewhat rugose; chestnut-brown, vary ing in intensity and some- 
times obsoletely banded, under a thin yellowish brown epidermis? 
becoming whitish on the base, interior chestnut-tinted. 

Diam. 1'5 inches. 

West Indies. 

This is S. zonatus, d'Orb., S. m.aculatus, S. Fetiti, S. Listeri, 
and very probably S. unifasciatus (fig. 43), of Recluz. 

S. MACULATUS, Say. PI. 24. figs. 5t, 58. 

Globosely depressed, finely spirally striated ; yellowish white, 
yellowish chestnut at the suture, and bearing on the body-whorl 
two spiral series of spots or maculations. Diam. 1*25 inches. 

Florida. 

In the young shell, as described and figured by Say (fig. 58) 
the maculations are more distinct and regular than in the adult. 
The species is still a rare one in collections ; it may eventually 
prove to be only a variety of the preceding one. 

S. BIFASCIATUS, Recluz PL 24, figs. 59, GO. 

Flatly depressed, finely undulately waved-striated ; whitish 
under a yellowish epidermis, with two interrupted bands or series 
of maculations of chestnut-brown color. Diam., 17*5 mill. 

Guinea, W. Africa. 

S. Menkeanus, Dunker, is a synonym. Distinguished at once 
from the foregoing species by its dorsal flattening. 

S. SINUATUS, Recluz. PL 24, figs. 62, 63. 

Auriform, convex, thin, pellucid, white, undulately striate. 
Diam., 29 mill. Red Sea. 



SIGARETUS. 57 

S. PERSPECTIVE, Say. PL 24, figs. 61, 64. 

More or less flatly convex, white under a light yellowish epi- 
dermis, dorsally covered with slightly waved spiral striae, base 
flattened. Diam., 1'5 inches. 

New Jersey (rare), North Carolina to West Indies. 

Say has compared his species with S. Leachii, Blainv., and 
several authors have identified it with that species ; but the latter 
is really indeterminable, and has accordingly been variously 
interpreted. The synonymy easily includes the following: S. 
depressus, Phil., a West Indian species ; S. Antillarum, Recluz, 
perhaps S. halioitoideus of Lamarck and some other authors (not 
Linnaeus), and Cryptostoma Carolinum of Cuvier. The prob- 
lematical S. LeacMi, Blainv., may possibly be here referred. 

S. DEBILTS, Gould. PL 24, fig. 65. 

Flatly convex, spirall}- striate above, smooth below, a little 
depressed round the suture ; white, more or less stained with 
rusty yellow. Diam., 28 mill. 

Lower California. 

I cannot detect any difference in the shell between this species 
and S. perspectivus. 

S. PHTLIPPII, Weinkauff. PL 24, figs. 66-68. 

Shell small, white, spirally slightly lindulately striate. 

Diam., 18 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

This is S. haliotoideus, Philippi, not Linnaeus, and bears several 
additional names in its fossil condition, if these fossil forms 
really are the same species. Some authors have identified the 
Linnaean S. haliotoideus as this species, but it is indeterminable. 
It would be difficult to point out any good distinctive characters 
between this and the preceding and following species. 

S. INCISUS, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 69 ; PL 25, figs. 70-72. 

Dorsally flatly depressed, strongly spirally striated, striae 
slightly undulated ; white. Diam., 1-1*5 inches. 

Straits of Malacca, Japan. 

Differs from S. perspectivus in locality only ; a comparison of 
the characters of the voluminous soft-parts of these animals will 
be necessary in order to definitely decide upon the validity of 



58 StGARETUS. 

the species. S. undulatus, Lischke (figs. 70-72) appears to me 
to be very similar. 

S. DELESSERTI, Recluz. PL 25, figs. 73, 74. 

Plano-convex, thin, pellucid, yellowish chestnut, somewhat 
zoned, interior chestnut-colored. Diam., 32 mill. 

Philippines. 

Dr. Weinkauff refers to this species a shell with a well-defined 
chestnut-band (fig. 74); he thinks it scarcely distinguishable from 
S. laevigatus, Lam. 

S. PLANULATUS, Recluz. PI. 25, figs. 75-77. 

Much flattened on the dorsal side, white, under a veiy thin 
yellowish epidermis, smooth, or with obsolete or very slight 
spiral striae. Diam., 1 '25-1 '5 inches. 

Zanzibar, Philippines, Australia. 

Distinguished by its smooth flattened surface. It is S. plan '/x, 
Phil., S. Gualterianus, Recluz, S. lacteus, Recluz (fig. 77), S. 
Indica, Gray. 

Section EUNATICINA, Fischer, 1885. 

S. PAPILLA, Gmelin. PI. 25, figs. 78, 79, 87, 88. 

Whitish, under a yellowish epidermis, moderately umbilicatcd, 
spirally engraved. Length, 33 mill. 

Tranquebar, Moluccas, Japan, Philippines. 

It is S. costulatus, Quoy and Gaimard, S. acuminatns, Ad. and 
Reeve. The following appear to me to be only varieties : S. 
coarctatus, Reeve (fig. 79), S. nitidus, Reeve (fig. 87), S. acumin- 
atus, Ads. and Reeve (fig. 88). 

S. TUMESCENS, Reeve. PI. 25, fig. 82. 

Rather thin, ventricose, body-whorl not slopingly flattened. 
Length, 1 inch. 

IIab. unknown. 
Probably only a variety of the preceding species. 

S. OBLONGUS, Reeve. PI. 25, fig. 83. 

Resembles S. papilla in form, but the sculpture instead of 
incised linear grooves, consists of numerous raised threads. 

Length, 30 mill. 

Ifab. unknown, 
Yery doubtfully distinct from S. papilla. 



SIGARETUS. 59 

S. PELLUCIDUS, Reeve. PL 25, fig. 84. 

Rather solid, deeply umbilicated, transparent white, spirally 
linearly incised, grooves stronger next the. suture. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Malacca. 
S. MAMILLABIS, Linn. PI. 25, figs. 85, 86. 

Umbilicated, rather thick, white, spirally remotely sulcate, 
suture channeled. Length, 1 inch. 

Seychelles, Madagascar ? 

S. LINNEANUS, Recluz. PL 25, figs. 89, 90. 

Umbilicated, thin, white, narrowly regularly spirally grooved, 
pellucid. Length, 22 mill. 

Sunda Islands, Philippines. 

S. Lamarckianus, Recluz (fig. 90), and probably S. cancellatus, 
Swains, (not described), are synonyms. 

S. FIBULA, Reeve. PL 25, fig. 91. 

Rather solid, umbilicated, white, whorls slopingly flattened 
above, then gibbose, smooth, or obliquely minutely striate. 
Length, 14 mill. 

Singapore. 

Probably an immature shell, perhaps of mamillari*. 

S. PICTUS, Reeve. PL 25, fig. 92. 

Rather thin, deeply umbilicated, smooth, shining, white, with 
obscure revolving bands of short, longitudinal chestnut mark- 
ings. Length, 1 inch. 

Adelaide, So. Australia. 



Un figured and Undetermined Species. 

S. SOUVERBIEI, Folin. This is merely an embryonic shell, 3'5 

mill, diameter. It is useless to reproduce the figure. 

S. CAROLINUS, Dufo. Seychelles Is. 

S. HELTCOIDES, Guillou. Amboina. 

S. AUSTRALIS, D unker. Australia. 

S. LUCIDUS, Gould. North China. 

S. FILTCATUS, Mighels. Zanzibar. 



60 LAMELLARIA. 

Subfamily IT. Lamellariidse. 
Genus LAMELLARIA, Montagu, 1815. 

The monographic and anatomical study of this group of shells, 
by Bergh (Mem. Acad. Copenhagen, v, ser. iii, 1853), may be 
consulted with advantage by the student. 

L. LATENS, Miiller. PL 26, figs. 93-95, 98. 

Shell thin, white, semipellucid, smooth, shining. 
Length, 12 mill. 

Norway, Great Britain. 

The animal has a depressed mantle, a little convex over the 
shell , rather smooth, sparsely spotted with brown , densely radiately 
striate below. Sigaretus Stromii, Sars, is a synonym, and I 
think that L, tentaculata (Montagu), Forbes, and Hanley (fig. 
98), also belongs here, as well as L. stomatella, Risso. 

L. PERSPICUA, Linn. PL 26, figs. 96, 97, 99. 

Shell haliotiform, polished, outer lip somewhat contracted 
above. Length, 16 mill. 

Europe. 

Animal lemon-colored with oval clear specks or else tessellated 
with milk-white, or reddish brown with irregular yellow dots ; 
mantle with large tubercles, each surrounded by a border of flake- 
white, and having a small dark central speck. 

Yar. LATA. Fig. 99. 

Shell smaller, broader, more compressed, but not flattened nor 
contracted in front. This variet}^ says Dr. Jeffreys, may possibly 
equal the preceding species. 

The male and female differ somewhat, and have been separated 
as distinct species. The synonymy includes also L. ampul! ace.a, 
Maravigna ; L. haliotoidea, Miiller, etc. (not Linn.) ; L. Morelli, 
Chiaje ; L. Kindelmaniana, Mich. ; L. producta, Leach ; L.com- 
planata, Leach ; L. convexa, Bouchard ; L. Audouini, Cantr. ; 
L. zonifera, Bergh (fig. 99) ; L. neritoidea, L. Adansonii, and 
L.flava, Chiaje. 

For a description of the habits of this mollusk see " Structural 
and Systematic Conchology," ii, 208. 



LAMELLARIA. 61 

L. PELLUCIDA, Verrill. PI. 26, fig. 100. 

Shell ovate, with oblique spire, delicate, transparent, smooth ; 
aperture broad, ovate, not showing the interior of the spire 
except from an endwise view. Length, 12-16 mill. 

Martha's Vineyard, Mass.; off Delaware Bay, 86-208 fms. 

Animal yellowish brown, mottled with darker, broad elliptical, 
swollen, without tubercles on the back. 

Var. GOULDII, Verrill. 

Shell a little shorter, broader, with the spire lower, the apex 
less elevated, and suture less impressed ; last whorl more ventri- 
cose, and the outer lip and aperture more broadly rounded. 
Mantle shorter, broader and higher, with more or less numerous 
low verrucas on the dorsal surface ; pale yellow or yellowish 
white, more or less blotched or speckled with brown, flake-white 
and yellow. Prof. Yen-ill thinks that part of the differences in 
the soft parts arise from contraction in alcohol ; some specimens 
are intermediate. 
L. TENUIS, Jeffreys. PI. 26, figs. 1, 2. 

Thin, fragile, semitransparent, glossy, white, microscopically 
spirally striate, base with a small but distinct umbilicus. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

St. 16, Atlantic 0. (Porcupine Expedition). 

This 3'oung shell is scarcely a Lamellaria ; at least, I know of 
no other species having an umbilicus. 

L. ANTARCTICA, Couthouy. PI. 26, figs. 3,4. 

Shell not observed. Animal with back reticulated on an 
orange-brown surface, the reticulating lines bordered with white 
dots, and the intervals covered with larger ones of bright yellow; 
under side of mantle rose-color, narrowly margined with dark 
red ; foot lemon-color, paler towards the middle. 

Length, 1'6 inches. 

Orange Harbor, Patagonia. 
L. PR^TENUIS, Couthouy. PI. 26, fig. 5. 

Back of animal greenish ochraceous, longitudinally wrinkled, 
with a short cinereous pubescence ; under side of mantle and 
foot light brownish yellow. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Shell not observed. 

Orange Harbor, Patagonia. 



62 LAMELLARIA. 

L. PATAGONICA, Smith. PI. 26, figs, 6-8. 

Shell large, very fragile, transparent hyaline, with a slight 
milky cloudiness, showing very fine growth-striae ; whorls 3J, 
suture deep. Diam., 1 inch. Mantle dirty yellow, with lines 
and blotches of light vandyke brown, the under surface around 
the foot marked with light-colored striae. 

Patagonia. 

Is possibly identical with L. Antarctica, Couth. 

Section CHELYNOTUS, Swains. 

L. TONGANA, Quoy and Gaimard. PL 26, fig. 11 ; PI. 27, figs. 
14-16, 18. 

Shell shining white, pellucid, margin brown. Length, 28 mill. 

Animal with a thick mantle, tuberculate, the tubercles large, 
subhexagonal, black, anteriorly produced and bifid ; foot narrow, 
brownish. Length, 85 mill. 

Tonga Tabou. 

This and several following species belong to a section charac- 
terized by the produced anterior portion of the mantle and 
narrower foot. Very probably L. Berghi is a synonym of the 
present species, or of the next one ; Coriocella nigra of Blain- 
ville (fig. 16) is also perhaps identical, but cannot be made out 
with certainty. L. Cuvieri, Bergh (fig. 18), appears to be an 
individual contracted in alcohol. 

L. MAURITIANA, Bergh. PL 27, fig. 17. 

Shell elevated, yellowish white, pellucid, smooth, with distinct 
incremental striae. Length, 1 inch. 

Mauritius. 
L. BERGHI, Desh. PL 26, figs. 9, 10. 

White, pellucid, striate ; open below, showing the whorls. 
Length, 16 mill. 

Mauritius. 

In the specimens before me the margin of the aperture is 
narrowly tinted with brown. 

L. ISABELLINA, Bergh. PL 26, fig. 19. 

Undescribed. The figure represents an oval, flat, white- 
margined species, the back light purplish with white spots. 

Length, 10 mill. 

? Philippines. 

Shell not figured. 



LAMELLAETA. 63 

L. GEMMA, Bergh. PL 26, fig. 20. 

Undescribed. Violaceous, covered with small white specks, 
the middle of the back, and a few, mostly marginal, spots red- 
dish. Length, 21 mill. 

? Philippines. 

Shell not figured. 

L. STEARNSII, Pall. PI. 26, figs. 12, 13. 

White, suborbicular, depressed, whorls three, columella sharp, 
thin, widely arcuated, showing the apex from below; spire 
hardly elevated, suture distinct; aperture very effuse, rounded ; 
exterior marked by growth-lines, crossed by microscopic revolv- 
ing stride. Length, 6*5-8 mill. 

Monterey, Gal. 

Mr. Dall described a var. orbiculata, which proves to be only 
sexually distinct ; the differences being such as mark the sexes 
in the British species. 

L. DIEGOENSIS, Dall. PL 26, figs. 21, 22. 

Malleate, polished, white, translucent, orbicular, with deep 
suture, volutions to apex visible from below. Length, 16 mill. 

S. Diego, Gal. 

Less calcareous, and more globosely elevated than the pre- 
ceding form, as well as larger, and malleated, with no trace of 
spiral striae. 

L. SEMPERI, Bergh. PL 26, fig. 23. 

Undescribed. From the figure it appears to be black, with 
strong warty reticulations on the back, and anterior, and pos- 
terior wrinkled processes on either side. Shell not figured. 

Length, 3 inches. 

? Philippines. 

Unfigured Species of Lamellaria. 

L. (CORIOCELLA) PUNCTATA, Stimpson. Japan. 

L. (CORIOCELLA) TUBEROSA, Stimpson. China. 

L SPIROLINEATA, Monterosato. Mediterranean Sea. 

L. KLECIACHI, Brusina. Mediterranean Sea. 

L. RANGII, Bergh. West Indies. 
L. INDICA, Leach (L. OPHIONE, Gray). S. Australia, New Zealand. 

L. TRANSLUCIDA, Blainv. Hob. unknown. 



64 ONCIDIOPSIS. 

Subgenus MARSENINA, Gray, 1850. 
L. RHOMBICA, Dall. PI. 26, figs. 24, 25. 

Pure white, subrhomboidal, moderately elevated, whorls 3 ; 
columella thickened, stout, with a groove behind the callus ; 
whorl appressed against and slightly flattened below the suture ; 
spire very small, not elevated ; aperture subquadrate, outer lip 
very much produced above and below, suture deep ; surface 
smooth. Length, 12 mill. 

Monterey, Cal. 

Animal bluish translucent, white, the mantle only partially 
covering the shell. Untigured. 

L. GLABRA, Couthouy. PL 26, figs. 26-28. 

Thin, pellucid, white, smooth and shining, whorls two, the first 
a mere nucleus, the aperture oval, very large. Length, 12 mill. 

New England to Greenland, Norway. 

It is L. halioloidea, Gould, not Linn.; L. micrompliala, Bergh, 
(figs. 27, 28). 

L. GRCENLANDICA, Holier. PL 26, figs. 29, 30. 

Obliquely elevated, whorls 2, the last very large, whitish, 
shining. Length, 8 mill. 

Greenland, Norway. 
L. PRODITA, Loven. PL 27, figs. 31, 32. 

More obliquely elevated than the preceding species, with 
deeper suture, but perhaps only a variety of it. 

Maine to Greenland. 
L. AMPLA, Verrill. PL 27, figs. 33, 34. 

Inflated, subglobular, the spire not elevated. 

Eastport, Maine. 

Genus ONCIDIOPSIS (Beck), Bergh, 1853. 

0. GLACIALIS, Sars. PL 26, figs. 35, 36. 

Shell thin, hyaline, slipper-shaped, flexible. Length, 16 mill. 
Animal with a long, narrow foot ; the mantle subverrucose, ash- 
colored, maculated with brown. 

Norway, 



NATICIDvE. 



PLATE 1. 




PLATE 2. 




ATICID^E. 



PLATE 3. 




56 



57 



NATICID^E. 



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PLATE 5. 




95 



89 



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PLATE 6. 










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PLATE 7. 



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NATICID^E. 



PLATE 8. 




PLATE 9. 




NATICID^E. 



PLATE 10. 














88 










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PLATE 11. 




NATICID^E. 




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PLATE 13. 



f 










NATICIDJE. 



PLATE 14. 




32 



35 



31 



34- 



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PLATE 15. 




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PLATE 16. 




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PLATE 17. 





68 













66 



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I 




62 



69 




67 



72 



NATICID^E. 



PLATE 18. 




76 







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82 






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96 



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CALEDONIELLA, VELUT1NA. 

O. GRCENLANDICA, Bergh. PL 27, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell thin, flexible, subcorneous, with coarse irregular growth- 
lines. 

Animal with verrucose mantle, color not described. 

Greenland. 
Possibly = the foregoing species. 

0. CARNEA, Kroyer. PL 27, fig. 39. 

Shell more elongated than in the preceding species, with a 
short wing-like production on the left side. 
Animal with high, rounded mantle, verrucose. 

Greenland. 
0. recondita, Kroyer, is the juvenile of this species. 

? Genus CALEDONIELLA, Souverbie, 1869. 

The animal has not been observed ; it is therefore somewhat 
doubtful whether the genus really belongs in the Naticidae. 

C. MONTROUZIERI, Souverb. PL 27, fig. 40. 

Imperforate, heliciform, depressed, thin, fragile, fiiiety striate, 
the striae somewhat pliciform at the suture, translucent, white, 
under a very thin shining yellowish epidermis ; whorls 3 to 3^, 
suture narrowly channeled and margined ; extremities of the lip 
joined by a parietal callus. Diam., 7 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Genus VELUTINA, Fleming, 1822. 
Y. L^VIGATA, Pennant. PL 27, figs. 41-44, 48, 59. 

Shell thin, translucent, whitish, or usually light pink, with 
nujnerous fine revolving stria? crossing the minute growth-lines ; 
epidermis thin, transparent horn-color, somewhat tufted on the 
revolving striae ; whorls 3J, suture deeply impressed. 
Length, 16 mill. 

Northern United States to Greenland, Northern 

Europe, Kamtschatka. 

Often credited to Linnaeus, but his Helix Isevigata may be 

regarded as a lost species. It is Bulla velutina, Miiller, V. halio- 

loidea, Fab. ; V. capuloidea, Blainv. ; V. striata, Macgill ; V. rupi- 

cola, Conr.; V. Mulleri, Desh. (figs. 44, 48), the latter a large 

5 



66 VELUTINA. 

variety from Kamtschatka. F. solida, ^artens (fig. 59), is founded 
on a large, pink specimen, denuded of epidermis. 

The animal is said to discharge a very copious, tenaceous 
clear white slime, which is frothy, and perhaps serves the 
Yelutina for concealment. 

Y. LANIGERA, Moller. PI. 28, figs. 51, 52. 

Very thin and fragile, smoothish, incremental striae slight ; 
epidermis yellowish brown, shortly, densely pubescent. 
Length, 13 mill. 

Greenland, Finmark. 

V. PROLONG AT A, Cpr. 

Pink, under a smooth, thin, yellowish epidermis, the growth- 
lines crossed by very fine slight spiral impressed striae ; whorls 
3j, the last very large, suture deeply impressed ; aperture long 
oval, junction of columellar and outer lip somewhat angulated. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Vancouver's Isl. 

Unfigured. My specimen is in too imperfect a condition for 
illustration. 

Section LIMNERIA, H. & A. Adams, 1883. 

Y. ZONATA, Gould. PI. 28, figs. 53, 54. 

Thin, with sharp minute growth-striae ; whitish, with several 
faint chestnut-colored revolving zones, under a yery thin 
smoothish epidermis ; whorls less than three, spire minute, 
suture deeply impressed ; columella flattened, with shallow 
channel behind. Length, 11 mill. 

New England, northwards ; 

Arctic Seas of both continents. 

An arctic specimen measuring 21 mill, has been called var. 
grandis by Mr. E. A. Smith. Sars has described a var. expansa 
(fig. 53). It is F. canaliculata, Beck. Sometimes the zones are 
absent. F. zonata has sometimes been placed erroneously in 
the pulmoniferous genus Otina, the shell of which, although 
much smaller, resembles it. 



VANIKORO. 67 

Section YELUTELLA, Gray, 1847. 
V. PLICATILIS, Miiller. PI. 28, figs. 55-57. 

Nearly membranous, translucent, with obscure spiral striae and 
irregular growth-lines ; 3 7 ellowish or yellowish brown ; whorls 2^, 
ventricose in fresh, but compressed (from collapse) in dried 
specimens, suture deep; epidermis tough, but readily separated 
into slight fibrous plaits. Length, *5 inch. 

The animal is bright orange color, sometimes speckled with 
yellow. 

Northern Europe, Greenland. 

Is Bulla flexilis, Montagu. V. coriacea, Pallas, may be only a 
large variety. 

Y. CORIACEA, Pallas. PL 27, figs. 49, 50. 

Membranaceous, corneous, subpellucid, rugosely striate ; 
whorls 2-|, the last very large, expanded. 

Kurile Islands. 
Y. CRYPTOSPIRA, Middendorff. PL 27, figs. 45-47. 

Shell narrower, more elongated than V. ldevigata,ihe columellar 
Up forming an angle with the outer lip below ; coriaceous, or with 
a very slight calcareous deposit. Length, 10 mill. 

Ochotsk Sea, Alaska, etc. 

Undetermined and Unfigured Species. 

Y. BERNARDI, Martens (PL 28, fig. 58). Nab. unknown. 

Y. PUSIO, A. Ad. Straits of Corea. 

Y. SIGARETIFORMIS, Potiez. (A young Natica ?) Australia. 

Y. SITKENSIS, A. Ad. Sitka. 

Y. STYLIFERA, Fleming = Sty lifer Turtoni. 

Y. MARGARITACEA, Duclos. Australia. 

Subfamily III. YANIKORIN^E. 
Genus YANIKORO, Quoy and Gaimard, 1832. 
Y. CANCELLATA, Lam. PL 29, figs. 60, 61. 

Broadly patulate, rather thick, cancellated with oblique rather 
lamellar ribs and thin spiral ridges ; epidermis yellowish brown. 
Diam. 1 inch. 

Isl. of Vanilcoro, 



68 VANIKORO. 

V. Quoyi, Recluz, is a synonym. Many of the following 
" species " are probably only slight and unstable modifications 
of this form. 

Y. GrUERiNiANA, Recluz. PI. 29, fig. 62. 

Ribs stronger than in the preceding species, the spiral ridges 
seen in their interstices ; umbilicus much wider. Diam. 15 mill. 

Philippines. 
Y. RUGATA, A. Ad. PI. 29, fig. 63. 

Spire elevated, whorls rather strongly plaited, the deep inter- 
stices spirally ridged, umbilicus moderate. Diam. 10 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
Y. CIDARIS, Recluz. PI. 29, fig. 64. 

Rather thin, clathrate with nearly equal longitudinal and spiral 
sculpture, umbilicus narrow, almost closed. Diam. 22 mill. 

Philippines. 

Ribs not so strong as in V. cancellata, spire somewhat more 
elevated. 

Y. LTGATA, Recluz. PI. 29, figs. 65-72. 

Rather thin, longitudinal sculpture low oblique folds, becom- 
ing obsolete, spiral sculpture thread-like ; umbilicus moderate. 

Diam. 1 inch. 

Philippines, Paumotus. 

A little more elevated than F. cidaris, with larger umbilicus. 
F. Petitiana (fig. 66), F. helicoides (fig. 68), and F. plicata, Recluz 
(fig. 67), appear to me to be very slight modifications of the 
type form, principally in the oblique ribtets being somewhat 
more or less prominent; whilst in F. Deshayesiana (fig. 69), 
F. Blainmlliana (fig. 71), and F. Spuleyetiana (fig. 70), of Re- 
cluz the growth sculpture is obsolete or faint. Of this form 
F. delicata, Pease (fig. 72), appears to me to be the young; it 
comes from the Paumotus. 

Y. CLATHRATA, Recluz. PI. 29, figs. 73-77, 83. 

Rather thick, cancellating sculpture subequal, umbilicus mod- 
erate. Diam. 10 mill. 

Hob. Polynesia, Australia, I. Bourbon. 

Nothing but the smaller size appears to distinguish this from 
forms of the last species. N. granulosa, Recluz (fig. 74); F. 
semiplicata, Pease (fig. 75); F. Gumingiana, Reel. (fig. 76), and 



VANIKORO. . 69 

V. disparilis, Desh. (fig. 83), are synonyms. N. Sigaretiformis, 
Potiez, has been considered synonymous ; it is really unrecog- 
nizable. I add as a synonym V. granifera, Pease (fig. 77), from 
Ins. Jarvis. The granular appearance of the original figure 
(copied by me) is an exaggeration, and does not agree with the 
types before me. 

Y. SULCATA, d'Orb. PL 29, figs. 78, 79. 

Revolving riblets most prominent, but rendered somewhat 
granular by the crossing of the growth sculpture ; umbilicus 
moderate. Diam. 9 mill. 

West Indies. 

Only distinguished from forms of the last species by locality. 
I figure a very young shell, in which the spiral ribs are much 
more prominent than they remain in the later whorls. V. anomala, 
Adams (unfigured), is probabty the same. 

Y. STRIATA, d'Orb. PI. 29, figs. 80, 81. 

Rather thin, with fine spiral raised lines ; umbilicus moderate. 
Diam. 8 mill. 

Cuba. 

Probably only a variety of F. sulcata. 

V. lamellosa, d'Orb (fig. 81), is probably the young of this 
species, and F. oxychone and F. Vitrinseformis, Morch (un- 
figured), synonyms. 

Y. ROSEA, Recluz. PI. 29, fig. 82. 

Cancellated, pink; umbilicus widely open. Diam. 5 mill. 

Is evidently a juvenile shell. 

Moluccas. 
Y. ELATA, Sowb. PL 29, fig. 84. 

Elevated, thin, very finely decussated, umbilicus narrow. 
Diam. 9, alt. 10 mill. 

China Sea. 
Y. ACUTA, Recluz. PL 29, figs. 85, 86. 

Thin, white, subpellucid, very delicately sculptured, the spiral 
lines the most prominent ; spire acute, umbilicus wide, aperture 
somewhat obliquely produced. Diam. 7-10 mill. 

Lord Hood?* Is., Cape Natal, Moluccas. 

The above rather incongruous localities are given by Recluz ; 
Morch adds West Indies in considering the species a synonym 



70 VANIKORO. 

of V. lamellosa, d'Orb. I do not think it adult. V. imbricata, 
Pease (fig. 86), appears to be a younger state of the same species. 

N. RECLUZIANA, Ad. and Angas. PI. 29, fig. 87. 

Elevated, acuminated, spire cancellated, last whorl almost 
smooth, umbilical channel moderate, long. 

Diam. 9, alt. 10'5 mill. 

N. So. Wales. 
V. SOLIDA, Sowb. PI. 29, fig. 88. 

Solid, globose, upper whorls cancellated, rounded, last whorl 
finely spirally and concentrically striated, columella tortuous, 
umbilical channel long and narrow. Diam. 9, alt. 11 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
Y. SEMTSOLUTA, Sowb. PI. 29, fig. 89. 

Sculptured spirally with beaded ribs and concentrically with 
thin striae, canal elongated, rather broad. Diam. 6, alt. 10 mill. 

East Indies. 
The lips are so produced as scarcely to touch the body-whorl. 

Y. ORBIGNYANA, Recluz. PI. 29, figs. 90-92. 

Shell deeply and broadly cancellated with strong distant spiral 
ribs and concentric ridges ; umbilicus narrow, deep. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Is V. Quoyi, Adams, not Recluz, and V. Gaimardi, Adams 
(fig. 91), V. tricarinata, Recluz (fig. 92), and V. Gumingiana of 
Reeve and Sowerby, not Recluz. 

Y. DISTANS, Recluz. PI. 29, fig. 93. 

With distant longitudinal lamellae, and closer spiral striae in 
the interstices ; umbilicus broad, semilunar. Alt. 6 mill. 

Philippines. 
Y. FOVEOLATA, Montr. PL 29, fig. 95. 

Strongly ribbed, crossed by thinner but prominent spiral 
sculpture ; umbilicus very narrow. L. 5 mill., diam. 4 mill. 

New Caledonia' 
Y. CUVIERIANA, Recluz. PL 29, fig. 94. 

Rather patulous, thin, very finely decussatety sculptured, last 
whorl obliquely flattened, umbilicus broad. Diam. 10 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 



VANIKORO. 7 1 

Unfigured or Undetermined Species. 
Y. TUBEROSISSIMA, Montagu. 

Y. GLABRISSIMA, BrOWQ = GLABERRINA, ReduZ. 

The above two species erroneously introduced into the British 
catalogues are probably young West Indian shells, but indeter- 
minable ; the latter probably a Neritina. 

Y. MAURITIUS, Kecluz. A mere embryo. Mauritius. 

V: OVOIDEA, Gould. = Isapis. 

Y. MONTROUZIERI, Souverb. New Caledonia. 

Y. APERTA, Carp. (Diam. 7*5 mill.) Gape St. Lucas, L. Gal 



Appendix to Natica. 

The following species are described, but not figured, by Roche- 
brune, in Bull. Soc. Philom., Paris, 102-104, 1884-5. The last 
is from Cape Horn, the others from Sta. Cruz, Patagonia. 

N. LEBRUNI, N. COUTEAUDI, N. OMOIA, N. SECUNDA, N. PATENT. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

NATICID^. 



Abbreviata (Natica), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 100, f. 157, 

158, 25 

Acrybia, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll.,i, 207, 1853, 8, 52 
Acuminata (Naticina)), Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. Samarang, 

54, t. 13, f. 8. = S. papilla, Gmelin. 
Acuminatus (Sigaretus), Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. Samarang, 

p. 54, pi. xiii, f. 8. = S. papilla, Gmelin, . . .58 
Acuta (Yanikoro), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 47, 1844; Guerin's 

Mag., 61, 1845, . . . 69 

Acuta (Natica), Phil. Arch. f. Natg., 1845, i, p. 65. 

= N. Philippiana, Nyst. Bull. Ac. Roy. Bruxelles, xii, pt. 

2, p. 153, 49 

Adansoni (Natica), Phil. Menke, Zeitschr., 1848, 155, . 15 
Adamsiana (Natica), Dkr. Mai. Blatter, vi, 231, 1860, . 27 
Adansoni (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 83. 

= N. fanel, Adanson. 
Adansonii (Lamellaria), Chiaje. Mem., t. 47, f. 3, 4. 

= L. perspicua, Linn. ....... 60 

Adspersa (Natica), Menke. Synops., 40. 

= N. maculata, Desh. . . . . . . .15 

Affinis (Natica), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3675, . . 31, 54 
Affmis (Natica), Phil. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 1843, p. 117, 

Abbild., i, 13, f. 2, 3. = N. canrena, Linn. 
Aimei (Natica), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., 181, 1884, t. 

4, f. 10. = N. Chinensis, Lam 20 

Alabaster (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 33. 

= N. intemerata. Phil. Reeve. Corrections, . . 46, 48 
Ala-papilionis (Natica), Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, p. 257, fgs. 

1868 to 1871, 21 

Alba (Natica), Loven. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 1843, p. 118. 

= N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb 37 

Alba (Natica), Potiez et Mich. Gall, des Moll., i, p. 289, . 54 
Albula (Natica), Marshall. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, xvi, 393. 

= Yar. N. Montagui, Forbes, 39 

Albula (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., ii, p. 194, 1851, 49 

(72) 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 73 



I'ANK. 



Albumen (Natica), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, xii, 1252, . . 47 
Albumen (Natica), Scaechi. Cat., p. 17. 

= 1ST. Josephinae, Risso, 33 

Alderi (Natica), Forbes. Malacol. Monens., p. 34, . . 40 
Alexandrine (Natica), Recluz. Sowb., Thes. Index, . . 54 
Algida (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., iii, 73, 

1848. = N. Lewisii, Gould, . . . . ' . .35 
Alveata (Natica), Troschel. Arch. f. Natg., 1852, p. 159, 

t. v, f. 3. = N. mam ilia, Linn 49 

Amaura, Holler. Index Moll. Groenl., 7, 1842, . 8, 52 

Amaurella, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1867, . . . 8, 53 

Amaurellina, Bayle. 1885, 7 

Amauropsis, Morch. Rink's Greenland, 1857, . 8, 53 

Americana (Natica), Recluz. Sowb., Thes. Index. 

?=N. Alderi, Forbes. 
Amiculata (Mamma), Phil. Menke, Zeitschr., 1848, 155. 

= N. dubia, Recluz, ........ 47 

Amphiala (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc.,xv, 261, 1881. 

= N. vitrea, Hutton, Cat. Mar. Moll., 21, 1873, . . 54 
Ampla (Neverita), Phil. Menke, Zeitschr., 1848, 156, 32, 33 
Ampla (Marsenina), Yerrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 374, 

1880, . 64 

Amplostoma, Stoliczka. Pal. India, ii, 312, 1868, . . 11 
Ampullacea (Vitrina), Maravigna. 

= Lamellaria perspicua, Linn .60 

Ampullina, Lamarck, teste Defrance. Diet. Sc. Nat., xx, 

446, 1821, 7, 41, 52 

Ampullinopsis, Conrad. Smn. Eocene Check List, 20, 1866, 

= Ampullina, Lam. ........ 7 

Ampullaria (Natica), Lam. An. s. Vert., xviii, p. 633. 

? = N. heros, Say, . . . . . . . .36 
Andouini (Lamellaria), Cantr. Nouv. Mem. Acad. Brux., 

xiii, 1840. = L. perspicua, Linn 60 

Angulata (Natica), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 32, 1885, . . 38 
Anomala (Narica), C. B. Adams. Contrib. Conch., 109. 

? = Y. sulcata, d'Orb. 
Anomphala, Jonas (? inedit.). Herrmanns Ind. Gen. Malac., 

i, 61, 1846. = Cernina, Gray, 7 

Antarcticus (Sigaretus), Couthouy MSS. Gould, Wilkes 

Exped., p. 216, f. 259. = Lamellaria. . . .61, 62 
Antillarum (Sigaretus), Reel. Jour, de Conch., 1851, p. 

185. = S. perspectivus, Say, 57 

Antoni (Natica), Phil. Zeit. f. Malakz., 1851, p. 48 ; E. A. 

Smith, Zool. Proc., 720, 1877, .26 

Aperta (Natica), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., pt. 39, p. 84, 1883, 54 
Aperta (Lunatia), Loven. Oefv. Kong. Yet. Akad. Forhand. 

= N. flava, Gld 52 



74 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



I'AI.K. 



Aperta (Yanikoro), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. H., xiii, 476, 1864, 71 
Apora (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 265, . . 54 
Arachnoidea (Nerita), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3674. 

= Natica fulminea, Gmelin, ...... 15 

Areolata (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 206, . 25 
Argenteus (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. v, f. 25, 

1864 56 

Articulata (Natica), Phil. Kiister's Conch. Cab., 119. 

= N. ala papilionis, Chemn. ...... 21 

Asellus (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 136, 1855, . . 24 

Atacamensis (Natica), Philippi. Reise durch Atacama., p. 

186, pi. vii, f. 20, 1860. = N. dubia, Recluz, ... 47 
Atrocyanea (Lunatia), Phil. Arch. f. Nat., 1845, p. 64, . 37 
Atrypa (Natica), Watson.. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 254, 53. 
Aurantia (Natica), Lam. An. s. Yert. (Desh. Ed.), viii, 

p. 632, .... ... .42 

Australis (Sigaretus), Hanley. Young Conchologist's Book 

of Species, frontispiece. = S. laevigatus, Lam. . . 55 
Australis (Lunatia), Hutton. Jour, de Conch., 1878, p. 23. 

Proc. N. Zeal. Inst., x, 295, ...... 54 

Australis (Sigaretus), Dkr. Malak. Blatter, xviii, 151, 1871, 59 
Avellana (Natica), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 75, t. 11, 

f. 14. =N. Dillwyni, Payr, 25 

Baconi (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 37, 1855. 

= N. Incei, Phil. . . . .33 

Bahiensis (Ruma), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 399, 1850. 

= N. mamillaris, Lam. . . . . . . .43 

Bayani (Natica), Jousseaume. Rev. and Mag. de Zool., 

1874, p. 20, pi. ii, f. 5-6. = N. venustula, Phil. . . 19 
Beddomei (Natica), Johnston. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

221, 1884, 54 

Berghi (Lamellaria), Desh. Moll, de Reunion, p. 77, pi. 9, 

f. 18-20, 62 

Bernard! (Yelutina), Martens. Archiv Naturg. 149, 1858, 67 
Bernardii (Ruma), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., ii, 197, pi. 5, 

f. 1., 1851. == N. Simise, Desh., var 51 

Beverlii (Natica), Leach. Thorns. Ann. Philos., 1819. 

= N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb. . .37 

Bicincta (Ruma), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 395, 1850. 

1= N. melanostoina, Gmel., var. . . . . .50 

Bicincta (Natica), Schrenck. Bull. Ak. Imp. St. Ptrsbg., 

t. v, p. 513. = N. Colliei, Recluz 26 

Bicolor (Natica), Schrenck. Nordjap. Moll., 378 (not Phil.). 

= N. ampla, Phil. . . 33 

Bicolor (Neverita), Phil. Zeitsch. f. Malac., v, 1848, p. 156, 33 
Bifasciata (Natica), Gray. Graft', Cuv. An. Kingd., pi. 1, f. 2, 44 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 75 

PAOK. 

Bifasciata (Natica), Recluz. Reeve, Icon. Sp., 62. 

= N. fulminea, Gmel. . , . . 15 

Bifasciatus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1851, p. 

190, pi. 6, f. 3-4, 56 

Blainvilleana (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 141, 1843; 

Guerin's Mag., 53, 1845. = V. ligata, Recluz, . . 68 
Bonplandi (Natica), Yal. Obs., p. 264, t. 37, f. 3. 

= N. glauca, Humboldt, ....... 34 

Borealis (Natica), Gray. Zool., Beechey's Yoy., 136. 

= N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb. 37 

Bourguignati (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iii, 170, 

pi. vii, f. 8, 1852, 16 

Brocchiana (Natica), Phil. Kiister's Conch. Cab., t. 8, f. 

2,1852. = N. sordida, Phil 38 

Broderipiana (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1847, p. 

205. = N. ala-papilionis, var. . . . , . .21 
Brownia, d'Orbigny. Sagra's Cuba, 1841. 

= Lamellaria, Montg. 
Brunnea (Natica), Linck. Rost., 1807, p. 140. 

= N. mamillaris, Lara. . . . . . .43 

Bulbosa (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 119, 1855. 

= N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb 37 

Bulbus, Brown. Proc. Geol. Soc., iii, 119, 1839. 

= Acrybia, Ads 8 

Buriasensis (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 212, 29 

Caffra (Natica), Marrat. Quart. Jour. Conch., i, 204, . 54 
Cailiaudi (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 392, pi. 13, 

f. 9. = N. pavimentum, Recluz, var., . . . . 27 
Calcarella, Souleyet. Jour, de Conch., i. 246, 1850. 

= Brownia, d'Orb. 

Caledoniella, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 421, 1869, . .12 
Caledoniella, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 1869, 421; 

1870,71, 65 

Canrena (Natica), Linn. Mus. Ulr., p. 674, . . 5, 20 
Canrena (Natica \ var., Dillwyn. Desc. Cat. 

= N. Chinensis, Lam. 
Canrena (Nerita), Mat. and Rack, p. 223, No. 1. 

= Natica catena, Da Costa. 
Campeachiensis (Natica), Recluz. MSS. Reeve, Conch. Ic., 

1, 1855. = N. duplicate, Say, 34 

Canaliculata (Natica), Gould. Sillim. Jour., xxxviii, 197. 

= N. Helicoides, Johnston, 8, 53 

Canaliculata (Yelutina), Beck. = Y. zonata, Gould, . 66 

Cancellata (Natica), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3670. 

= N. sulcata, Born 32 



76 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PA( J E. 

Cancellata (Narica), Lam. An. sans Vert., t. vi, 2e part, 

p. 208, ' ... 67 

Cancellata (Naticaria). Swains. Treatise on Malac., p. 346, 

f. 107. = Sigaretus Linneanus, Recluz, . . . .59 
Candida (Amaura), Moll. Grcenl. Moll., p. 7, . . 8, 52 
Candidissima (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1851, p. 87. 

= N. Jukesii, Reeve, ....... 46 

Candidissima (Natica), Le Guillou. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., 

1842, p. 105, 46 

Capuloidea (Velutina), Blainv. Malac., p. 469, pi. 42, f. 4. 

= V. laevigata, Pennant, ....... 65 

Caribgea (Natica), Phil. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1851, p. 234. 

= N. lactea. Guild .49 

Carnea (Onchidiopsis), Kroyer. Amtl. Ber., 115, 1847, . 65 
Carolinum (Cryptostoma), Cuvier. Regn. anim., Edit. 2, 

iii, 91. ? = Sigaretus perspectivus, Say. 
Carolinus (Sigaretus), Dufo. Ann. Sc. Nat., Oct., 1840, 

p. 201, 59 

Casta (Mamma), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 117, t. 17, f. 1, 

1852, . . 47 

Castanea (Natica), Lam. An. sans Vert. (edit. Deshayes), 

viii, 643. = Natica catena, Da Costa, . . *. 41 

Catena (Nerita), Da Costa. Brit. Conch., 83, t. 5, f. 7, . 41 
Catenata (Natica), Phil. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 233, . 22 
Catinella, Stache. Jahrb. Geol. Reichs., xxvii, 313, 1877. 

? = Velutina, Fleming, 13 

Catinus (Klein?), H. and A. Adams, i, 212, 1853. 

= Sigaretus, Lam. . . . . . . . .10 

Caurina (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, 

239, 1847. = N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb. . . 37 

Cayennensis (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1850, i, p. 

383, pi. xiv, f. 6. = N. marochiensis, Gmel. . . 23 

Cepatia, Gray. Synops. Brit. Mus., 1840, . . 6 

Cernica (Natica), Jousseaume. Rev. and Mag. de Zool., 

1874, p. 19, pi. ii, f. 13, 14. 

? = N. marochiensis, var. Chemnitzii, . . . .24 
Cernina, Gray. Synops. Brit. Mus., 1840, .... 7 
Chelinotus, Swainson. Malacol., 234, 355, 1840. 

= Lamellaria, Montg. . . . . . . .11 

Chemnitzii (Natica), Pfr. Registr., p. 8. 

= N. marochiensis, Gmel. var. . ... 24 

Chemnitzii (Natica), Recluz, MSS. Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 

7, 1855. = N. ampla, Phil. 

Chinensis (Natica), Lam. An. s. Vert., viii, p. 644, . . 20 
Cidaris (Vanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 137, 1843; Rev. 

Zool., 5, 1844 ; Guerin's Mag., 20, 1845, . . . . fi8 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 77 

I 1 \i . !'. 

Cincta (Natica^, Recluz. Jour, de Conch. ,i, p. 384, pi. xiv, 

f. 7, 1850, . . 18 

Cinnamomea (Natica), Synopsis, 47, 1830. 

= N. solida, Blainv 46 

Citrina (Natica), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 49, 1851. 

? = N. aurantia, Lam. ....... 42 

Clathrata (Yanikoro), Recluz. Guerin's Mag., 42, 1845, . 68 
Clausa (Natica), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 360, 30 
Clavata (Natica), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 167, 1883. 

== N. Incei, Phil . .33 

Coarctatus (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon , xv, pi. iv, 

f. 17, 1864. = S. papilla, Gmel. var. . . . .58 
Collaria (Natica). Lam. An. s. Vert., viii, p. 638, . . 28 
Colliei. (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 206, . 26 
Colobocephalus, M. Sars. Nyt. Mag. Natur., 168, 1870. 

? = Marsenina, . . . . . . . . .12 

Colpodaspis, M. Sars. Nyt. Mag. v Natur., xvii, 186. 

= Lamellaria. 
Columnaris (Natica), Recluz. Petit. Jour, de Conch., i,394, 

1850, 47 

Compacta (Natica), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 33, 1885, . . 38 
Complanata (Lamellaria), Leach. = L. perspicua, Linn. . 60 
Concavus (Sigaretus), Lam. Anim. sans Vert , vol. 9, p. 10, 55 
Concinna (Natica;, Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, 1860, p. 232 ; Moll. 

Japon., p. 14, pi. ii, f. 21. = N. colliei, Reel. . . .26 
Conica (Natica), Lam. An. s. Vert. (Desh. Ed.), viii, p. 632, 44 
Consolidata (Natica), Couth. Bos. Jour., v. 2, pi. 3. f. 14. 

= N. clausa, Brod. and Sowb 31 

Convexa (Lamellaria), Bouchard. Cat. Moll. Boulonn, 149. 

= L. perspicu.-i, Linn. ....... 60 

Cora (Natica), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., pi. 78, f. 10, 11, 47, 49 
Coriacea (Velutina), Pallas. Nov. Act. Acad. Petrop., ii, 

237, 1788,. 67 

Coriocella, Blainville. Diet. Sc. Nat., xxxii, 259, 1824. 

= Lamellaria, Montg. . . . . . . 11, 62 

Cornea (Natica), Moll. Ind. Moll. Groenl., p. 7. 

= N. helicoides, Johnston, ...... 53 

Costata (Natica), Menke. Malst. Cat., 1828, p. 12. 

= N. sulcata, Born 32 

Costulata (Natica), Quoy and Gaim, Voy. Astrl., p. 235, 

pi. 66, f. 20, 21. = Sigaretus papilla, Gmel. . . .58 
Couteaudi (Natica), Mab*. et Rochbr. Bull. Soc. Philom., 

p. 102, 1854-5, . . .... 71 

Crenata (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1853, p. 320, 

pi. 7, f. 4, 5. = N. ala-papilionis, Chemn. . . .21 
Crosseana (Natica), Kleciach. Weinkaun , Conch. Mittelm., 

ii, 257. = Fossarus. 



78 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Cruentata (Natica), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3673. 

= N. fulminea, Gmel. . . , . . 15 

Cruentata (Natica), Payr. Moll. Corse, 118. 

= N. maculata, Desh. ....... 15 

Cumingiana (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 139, 1843; 

Guerin's Mag., 27, 1845. = Y. clathrata, Recluz. . . 68 
Cumingiana (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

210. = N. Powisiana, Recluz 43 

Cuvieri (Lamellaria), Bergh. Mem. Acad. Copenh., 344, 

1853. = L. Tongana, Quoy, 62 

Cuveriana (Yanikoro), Recluz. Guerin's Mag., 63, 1845, . 70 
Cuverianus (Sigaretus), Recluz. 111. Conch. Sig., p. 18, pi. 

iii, f. 2, A to L, 55 

Cymba (Sigaretus), Menke. Syn. Meth. Moll., p. 88. 

= S. concavus, Lam. ....... 55 

Cymba (Sigaretus), var., Dunk. Guinea inf., 32, t. 5, f. 20-22. 

"= S. concavus, Lam. 
Cryptocella, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

= Lamellaria, Montg. . . . . . . .11 

Cryptospira (Yelutina), Middend. Malac. Rossica, ii, 100 a ; 

Siberian Yoy., p. 216, pi. xxv, f. 8-10, .... 67 
Cryptothyra, Menke. Synops. edit., ii, 87, 1830. 

= Lamellaria, Montg. . . . . . . .11 

Cryptostoma, Blainville. Bull. Soc. Philotn., No. 120, 1818. 

= Sigaretus, Lara. . . . . . . . .10 

Debilis (Sigaretus), Gould. Bost. Proc., vi, 375, 1852, . 57 
Decora (Natica), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. Natica, 118. 

= N. picta, Recluz 22 

Deiodosa (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 35, 1855, . . 42 
Delesserti (Sigaretus), Recluz. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 3, f. 8, 58 
Delessertiana (Natica), Recluz. Chenu, Illust. Conch., iii, 

t. 4, f. 5, 6. N. duplicata, Say, 34 

Delicata (Narica), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 282, 1807. 

= Y. ligata, Recluz. . 68 

Depressa (Natica), Gray. Zool., Beechey's Yoy., p. 136, 

pi. 36, f. 2, 1839. = N. Grayi, Phil 22 

Depressa (Lamellaria), Ball. MSS., 1866. 

= L. Stearnsii, Dall. 
Depressus (Sigaretus), Phil. Neuer oder wenig gekannte 

Conchl., bd. 1, p. 2, t. 1, f. 3. = S. perspectivus, Say, . 57 
Deshayesiana (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 138, 1843; 

Rev. Zool., 7, 1844; Guerin's Mag., 48, 1845. 

= Y. ligata, Recluz 68 

Didyma (Neverita), Bolten. Phil., Chenu, 111. Conch., 

pi. 3, f. 4. = Natica ampla, Phil 33 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 79 

PAGE. 

Diegoensis (Lamellaria), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 

538, t. 24, f. 1-3, 1885, 63 

Dilecta(Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H.,iii, 73, 1848, 27 
Dillwyni (Natica), Payr. Moll. Corse, pi. v, f. 28, . . 25 
Disparilis (Vanikoro), Desh. Moll. Reunion, 77, t. 9, f. 15, 

17, 1863. = Y. clathrata, Recluz 69 

Distans (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 140, 1843 ; Rev. 

Zool., 7, 1844 ; Guerin's Mag., 45, 1845, . . . .70 
Draparnaudi (Natica), Recluz. Petit Jour. Con., ii, p. 198, 

pi. 5, f. 11, 1851. = N. Powisiana, Recluz. . . .43 
Dubia (Xatica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 209, 47, 48 
Dunkeri (Xatica), Phil. Zeitschr. f. Mnlakz., 1851, 44, . 45 
Duplicata (Natica), Say. Jour. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, p. 

247, ... 6, 33 

Eburnea (Natica), Desb. Lam., An. sans Yert., viii, 646. 

= N. orientalis, Gmel 43 

Echinospira, Krohn. Archiv Naturg., xix, 1853. 

= Brownia, d'Orb. 
Effusa (Natica), Swains. Zool. 111., pi. 104. 

= ? N. Powisiana, Recluz. . . ... 43 

Elata (Yanikoro), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 23, 1875, 69 
Elegans (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p. 381, pi. 

14, f. 4. = N. picta, Recluz 22 

Elena? (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 205, . 28 
Elongata (Natica), Troschel. Arch. f. Nat. g., 1852, p. 158, 

pi. v, f. 2. = N. cora, d'Orb 48 

Ermaea, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1857. = Lamellaria, Montg.. 1 1 
Eunaticina, 'Fischer. Manuel de Conch., 768, 1885, . 10, 58 
Euspira (Agassiz, 1837), Morris and Lycett. Moll. Gt. 

Ool., i, 1850, .... . 7 

Euzona (Natica , Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 204 ; . 

Jour, de Conch., ii, p. 381, pi. xiv, f. 3, 1850. 

= N. picta, Recluz, 22 

Excavata (Natica), Carpt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 165. 

= N. Elenae, Reel 29 

Eximius (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. v, f. 22, 1864, 56 
Expansa (Moro. zonata, var.), Sars. Moll. Norv.. 147, 1878, 66 

Fava (Natica), Marrat. Quart. Jour. Conch., i, 205, . . 54 
Fabella (Natica), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., 183, t. 4, 

f. 11,1884, . .18 

Fanel (Natica), Adanson. Coq. de Senegal, pi. 13, f. 3, 16, 17 

Fartilis (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 264, . 54 
Fasciata (Natica), Martyn. Univ. Conch., pi. 110. 

= N. rufa, Born, 30 



80 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Fasciata (Necca). Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 149, 

1826. = Natica Dillwynii, Payr. 
Fibrosa (Ruma), Soul. Yoy. Bonite, p. 581, pi. 35, fs. 8-10. 

= Natica melanostoma, Gmel., Yar. . . . . .51 

Fibula (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic. sp. 130, 1855. 

= N. Incei, Phil., juv 33 

Fibula (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. v, f. 26, 1864, 59 
Filicatus (Sigaretus), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 22, 

1845, 59 

Filosa (Natica), Phil. Neueo Conch., ii, t. ii, f. 4, p. 8. 

= N. Sagraiana, d'Orb 19 

Filosa (Natica), Sowb. MSS. Reev., Conch. Ic., 72, 1855, . 51 
Flammulata (Natica), Requien. Cat. Moll. Corse. 

?= N. Sagraiana, d'Orb 19 

Flava (Lamellaria), Chiaje. Mem., v, t. 77, f. 10. 

= L. perspicua, Linn. ....... 60 

Flava (Natica), Gould. Silliman's Jour., xxxviii, p. 196, 8, 52 
Flemingiana (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

209, 50 

Flexilis (Bulla), Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl. 

= Yelutina plicatilis, Miiller, 13, 67 

Florida (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 64, 1855, . . .17 
Fluctuata (Natica), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. xii, . 7, 53 
Forata (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 129, 1855, . 26 

Forskalii (Natica), Cheran. Conch. Cab., xi, pi. 197, f. 

1901,1902, 20 

Fortune! (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 123, 1855; Jour. 

de Conch., 1863, p. 262, pi. ix, f. 5, 37 

Fossata (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 263, 1847, 

= N. duplicata, Say, ........ 34 

Foveolata (Narica), Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., vi, 

138, 1866, . ........ 70 

Fragilis (Natica), Leach. = N. helicoides, Johnst. . . 53 
Franciscana (Natioa), Recluz MSS. Reeve, Conch. Ic., sp. 

127, 1855. = N. Guillemini, Payr .40 

Fringilla (Natica), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 93, 54 
Fulgurans (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 206, 16 
Fulminea (Natica). Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 149, 

1826. = N. Sagraiana, d'Orb 19 

Fulminea (Natica), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3672, . .15 

Funiculata (Mamma), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 400, 

1850; ii, 201, 1851. = N. columnaris, Recluz, . . 47 
Fusca (Natica), Weink. Medit. Conch., ii, 251. 

= N. sordida, Phil, 38 

Fusca (Natica), Carpenter. Rept. Brit. Assoc., 523, 624, 

1863. = N. otis, Brod. and Sowb 44 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 81 

PAGK. 

Fusca (Natica), de Blainville. Faune Fran9, t. 14, f. 1, 1 a. 

= N. maculata, Desh. 
Fuscata (Natica), Humph. Cat., 21, 1797. 

= N. mamillaris, Lam. 

Gaidei (Natica), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 1874, 196, pi. 

vii, f. 7 ; 1875, 292, pi. xiii, f. 8. = N. lineozona, Jouss. 24 
Gaimardi (Yanikoro), A. Ad. Conch. Icon., sp. 9, 1875. 

= Y. Orbigniana, Recluz, . 70 

Galactites (Natica), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 47, 1851. 

= N. Flemingiana, Recluz, ...... 50 

Gallapagosa (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

213. = N. otis, Brod. and Sowb 44 

Gambise (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 207, 

= N. collaria, Lam. ........ 28 

Gemma (Marsenia), Bgh. Semper's Reisen im Arch. Phil., 

Bd. ii, t. xli, f. 7, . . ' .-63 

Genuanus (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 121, 1855; 

Marrat, Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 243. 

= N. imperforata, Gray, . . . . . . .17 

Geraudi (Rtimella), Bourg. Notice Prodr. Tanganika, 90, 

1885, 54 

Gilva (Natica), Phil. Menke's Zeitsch., 48, 1851. 

? = N. Fortunei, Reeve, 37 

Glabella (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 124, 1855, . . 50 
Glaberrima (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 136, 1843. 

==N. Neritina . . .71 

Glabra (Lamellaria), Couthouy. Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., ii, 

90, pi. 3, f. 16, 1838, 64 

Glabrata (Amaurella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1867, . 53 
Glabrissima (Yanikoro), Brown. Wern. Mem., ii, 532, t. 

24, f. 12. = Y. glaberrima, Recluz, . . . . 71 

Glacialis(Onchidiopsis),M. Sars. Sars, Faun. Moll. Norv. 153, 64 
Glauca (Natica), Humboldt. Desh., An. s. Yert., viii, p. 651, 34 
Glaucina (Natica), Reeve, etc., not Linn, nor Lamarck. 

= N. Josephinse, Risso, . 33 

Glaucina (Natica), Lam. (non Linn.). = N. ampla, Phil. . 33 
Glaucina (Natica), Linn. Faun. Suecc., edit., 533. 

? = N. Alder i, Forbes 41 

Globosa( Natica), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 33, 1885, . . 36 
Globosa (Lunatia), King. Zool. Jour., v, p. 344. 

= N. Patagonica, Phil 37 

Globosa (Natica), Chemn. Conch. Cat., v, p. 267, pi. 188, f. 

1896, 1897. = N. helvacea, Lam 30 

Globosa (Ruma), T. Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1875, 

149. = R. umbilicata, Quoy. Petterd, Jour, of Conch., 

ii, 353, 52, 54 

6 



82 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PACtfi 

Globulus (Amauropsis), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1880, p. 

416, pi. xl, f. 5, 53 

Globularia, Swainson, Malacol., 345, 1840. 

= Ampullina, Lam 7 

Gouldii (Natica), Phil. Menke, Zeit., 1845, 77. 

= N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb 37 

Gouldii (Lamellaria pellucida, var.), Verrill. Trans. Conn. 

Acad., v, 518, 61 

Gracilis (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 387, pi. xiv, 

f. 11, 1850, 29 

Gracilis (Natica), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 102, f. 156. 

= N. marochiensis, var. livida, 23 

Granifera (Narica), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 78, 1869. 

= Y. clathrata, Recluz, . . . . . . .69 

Granulosa (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 140, 1843; Rev. 

Zool., 6, 1844 ; Guerin's Mag., 32, 1845. 

= Y. clathrata, Recluz, ....... 68 

Grayi (Sigaretus), Desh. Lam. Anim. sans Yert., ix, p. 12. 

= S. concavus, Lam. ....... 55 

Grayi (Natica), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 74. 

= N. catenata, Phil. ........ 22 

Grisea (Natica), Martens. Sitzber. Gesellschaft, Nat. Fr. 

Berlin, 1878, 24, 54 

Grisea (Natica), Requien. Coq. de Corse, 61. 

= N. intricata, Donov 42 

Groenlandica (Lamellaria), Moller. Index, Moll. Groenl. p. 

10, 1842, 64 

Grcenlandica (Natica), Beck. Moll. Ind. Mol. Groenl., p. 7. 

= N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb 37 

Grdnlandica (Onchidiopsis), Bergh. Mem. Acad. Copenh., 

346, 1853, 65 

Gualteriana (Natica), Petit. Jour. Conch., i, p. 396, 1850. 

? = N. marochiensis, Gmel. 23 

Gualterianus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Mart. Conch., i, pi. 16, f. 

152. = S. planulatus, Recluz, . . . . .58 

Gueriniana (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 139, 1843; 

Rev. Zool., 7, 1844; Guerin's Mag., 43, 1845, . . .68 
Guillemini (Natica), Payr. Cat. Moll. Corse, pi. v, fs. 25-26, 40 
Gyrodes, Conrad. Jour. Phila. Acad., iv, 289, 1860, , . 9 

Haliotoidea (Helix), Miiller. Zool. Dan. Prodr., 240. 

= Lamellaria perspicua, Linn. 60 

Haliotoidea (Yelutina), 0. F. Fabr. Fauna Groenl., 390, 

1780. = Y. laevigata, Pennant. 65 

Haliotideus (Sigaretus), Phil. En. Moll. Sic., i, p. 165, ii, 

p. 142. = S. Philippii, Weink ; Kiister, p. 23, . . 57 
ILiliotoidcus (Sigaretns), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., x, 775, . 57 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 83 

PAGE. 

Haliotoideus (Sigaretus), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

= S. concavus, Lam., 55 

Haliotoideus (Sigaretus), Gould. Invert. Mass., 1st Edit., 

244. = Lamellaria glabra, Couth 64 

Haneti (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Concb., i, 1850, 389, pi. 

13, f. 6, 7. = N. Elense, Recluz, , . 29 

Hebrsea (Natica), Philippi. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 73, t. 11, 

f. 10. = N. marochiensis, var. lurida, . . . .23 
Hebrsea (Natica), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 109, 1769-1784. 

= N. maculata, Desh. ....... 15 

Helicina (Nerita), Brocchi. Conch, foss. subap., ii, 297, t. 1, 

f. 10. = Natica catena, Da Costa, 41 

Helicina (Natica), Seguenza. Notizie, succincte intorno, 

p. 17, 22 part. = N. Montagui, Forbes, . . . .39 

Helicoides (Natica), Johnston. Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Ber- 
wick on Tweed, 1835, ....... 53 

Helicoides (Vanikoro), Guillou. Rev. Zool., 105, 1842. 

= N. ligata, Recluz, . 68 

Helicoideus (Sigaretus), Guillou. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 1842, 

p. 105, 59 

Helvacea (Natica), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., No. 14, . . 30 
Herculea (Natica), Middend. Malac. Rossica, ii, p. 96, 1849. 

= N. Lewisii, Gould, ....... 35 

Heros (Natica), Say. Jour. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila., ii, p. 248. 

6, 34, 35 

Imbricata (Vanikoro), Pease. Zool. Proc., 435, 1860. 

? = Acuta, Recluz, 70 

Immaculata (Natica), Totten. Silliman Jour., xxviii, p. 

351, f. 6, . . ' . . . , . . . 38, 39 
Imperforata (Natica), Jay. Cat. 2d Ed., p. 87, pi. iv, f. 10. 

= N. fluctuata, Sowb. Jay., 3d Edit., 117, ... 52 
Imperforata (Natica), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 135, pi. 

37,f.l, . . 17, 27 

Impervia (Natica), Phil. Arch. f. Nat., 1845, p. 65, . . 31 
Incei (Natica), Phil. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 233, . . 33 
Incisa (Natica), Dkr. Kiister, Conch. Cab., p. 81, pi. 12, f. 8. 

= N. ampla, Phil ... 33 

Incisus (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. iii, f. 11, vol. 

xv, 1864, ... 57 

Indica (Lamellaria), Leach. Angas, Zool. Proc., 199, 1867, 63 
Indica (Sigaretus), Gray. Spicilegia, Zool., No. 5. 

= S. planulatus, Recluz, ....... 58 

Insculptus (Sigaretus), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

pi. xiii, f. 10. = S. neritoideus, Linn 55 

Insecta (Natica), Jousseaume. Rev. de Zool., 1874, 24, 

t. ii, f. 1,2, 24 



84 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

I'AI.K. 

Intemerata (Natica), Phil. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 233, 46 
Intermedia (Neverita), Recluz. Chenu, 111. Conch., in, 

Natica, t. 2, f. 3. = N. mamilla, Linn 49 

Intermedia (Natica), Phil. Enum. Moll. SiciL, i, 163, t. 9, 

f. 11, 1836. = N. Alderi, Forbes 41 

Intermedia (Natica), Recluz (non Phil.). Reeve, Icon., sp. 

21. = N. ampla, Phil 33 

Intricata (Natica), Donovan. British Shells, v, pi. 167, 6, 42 
Intricatoides (Natica), Hidalgo. Moll Esp., t. 20 6, f. 12, 

13 ; t. 20 c, f. 10, 11. = N. vittata, Gmelin, . . .25 
lostoma (Natica), Mke. Zeitschr., 1847', p. 178. 

= N. ala-papilionis, var. Broderipiana, . . . .21 
Isabellina (Marsenia), Bgh. Semper's Yoy. Phil. Bd. ii, pi. 

xli, f. 8, . ; 62 

Isabelleana (Natica), d'Orb. Yoy. Am. Mer. pi. 76, fs. 12-13, 28 
Islandica (Natica), Gmelin. = N. Helicoides, Johnston, . 53 
Isonema, Meek and Worthen. Phila. Proc., 251, 1865, . 8 

Jamaicensis (Natica), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 111. 

= N. marochiensis, Gmel. var. livida, . . . .23 
Jamaicensis (Natica), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., iii, 1850. 

= N. Sagraiana, Orb. . . . . . . .19 

Janthostoma (Natica), Desh. Guer. Mag. de Zool., 1841, 

pi. 45 = N. clausa, Br. et Sowb. var. 

Japonica(Amaurella),A.Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 407, 1860, 53 
Japonicus (Sigaretus), Lischke. Malakl. Blatter, xix, 104, 55 
Jasonilla, Macdonald. Ann. Nat. Hist., xvi, 206, 1855. 

= Brownia, d'Orb. 
Javanica (Natica), Lam. An. s. Vert., v, 8, p. 644. 

= N. maculosa, Lam. . . . . . . .17 

Javanicus (Sigaretus), Gray. Griffith's Cuv. Anim. Kingd., 

pi. 41,f.l. = S. neritoides, Linn. . . . . .55 

Josephines (Natica), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 149, 

f. 43, . . . . . 33 

Jukesii (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 84, 1855. 

= N. candidissima, Le Guillou, ..... 46 

Kleciachi (Lamellaria), Brusina. Contr. Fauna. Moll. 

Dalm., p. 35, 63 

Kindelanina (Lamellaria), Mich. Bui. Soc. Nat. Hist. Bord., 

t. 2, p. 119, 1828. = L. perspicua, Liinn. . . 60 

Labrella (Natica), Lam. An. sans Vert., v, S, p. 644. 

= N. collaria, Lam. ........ 28 

Lacernula (Natica), d'Orb. Cuba, 1842, 2, p. 35, t. 17, f. 

23-25. = N. marochiensis, Gmel., var. livida, . . 23 
Lactea (Natica), Guild. Linn. Trans., t. vi, p. 29, . .49 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 85 



Lactea (Natica), Marshall. Ann. Mag. X. -H., 1815, xvi, 

393. = var. X. Alderi, Forbes, 41 

Lactea (Xatica), Loven. Phil., Abb and Beschr. Xat., p. 

16, t. 1, f. 13. = X. pallida, Brod. and Sowb. . . .37 
Lactea (Sigaretus), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1851, p. 186, 

pi. 6, f. 1-2. = S. planulatus, Recluz. . . 58 

Lacuna (Xatica), Montg. = Lacuna puteolus, Turton. 
Lacunaria, Conrad. Smn. Eocene Check List, p. 12, 1866. 

= Lacunidae, ......... 6 

Laevida (Xatica), Laskey. = X. sordida, Phil. . . .38 

Lajvigata (Velutina), Pennant. But. Zool., iv, 140, 1877, . 65 
Laevigatus (Sigaretus), Lam. An. s. vert., vi, 2d part, 

p. 208, . . ... .55 

Lamarckiana (Xatica), Recluz. MSS. Reeve, Conch. Ic., 6, 

1855. = X. ampla, Phil 33 

Lamarkianus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Chenu, 111. Conch., 7, 

t. 1, f. 5 (not t. 3, f. 2 == Delesserti). = S. Linneanus, 

Recluz, .......... 59 

Lamarckianus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Chenu, 111. Conch., pi. 

3, f. 2. = S. Cuvierianus, Recluz. Chenu, p. 18. 
Lamellaria, Montagu (pars). Trans. Linn. Soc., xi, 1815, 11, 60 
Lamellosa (Yanikoro), d'Orbigny. Moll. Cuba, t. 17, f. 

32-34. ?= Y. striata, d'Orb 69, 70 

Lanigera (Yelutina), M oiler. Moll. Groenlandiae, p. 10, 

1842, 66 

Largillierti (Xatica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1852, p. 

408, pi. xii,f. 1, 41 

Larina, A. Adams. = Paludinidae. 

Larvata (Xeverita), Tapp. Can. Yoy. Magenta, 34, t. 1, f. v, 35 
Latens (Lamellaria), Mull. Prodr. Zool. Dan., 242, . . 60 
Latifasciatus (Sigaretus), Reeve (noil Ad. and R.). Couch. 

Icon., sp. 9. ? = S. concavus, Lam. . . . .55 

Latifasciatus (Sigaretus), Ad. and Reeve. Moll. Yoy. 

Samar., p. 55, pi. 13, f. 11. = S. neritoides, Linn. . . 55 
Leachii (Sigaretus), Phil. Abb. Conch., pi. l,f. 3. 

= S. neritoideus, Linn. ....... 55 

Leachii (Sigaretus), De Blainville. Man. de Mai., t. 42, f. 3, 57 
Lebruni (Xatica), Mabille et Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Philom., 

p. 102, 1884-5, . . ... 71 

Leckenbyi (Natica), Marshall. Ann. Mag. X. H., xvi, 393, 

1875. = var. X. catena, Da Costa, . . . . .41 
Lemniscata (Xatica), Phil. Kiister, Xatica, 122, t. 17, f. 9. 

= N. canrena, Linn., juv., ...... 21 

Leptalea (Xatica), Watson. Jour. Jjinn. Soc., xv, 261, . 53 
Leptonotis, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., ii, 76, 18G6, . . 13 
Leucophaea (Xatica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 51, 1855, . 45 
Leucotis, Swainson. Malacol., 346, 1840. = Xarica, Reel. 13 



86 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAQJE. 

Leucozonias (Nerita), Gen. Syst. Nat., 3672. 

= Natica rufa, Born. ....... 30 

Levicula (Lunatia), Yerrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., Hi, p. 

371, 3fi 

Lewisii (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 239, 

1847, ...... .... 35 

Li^ata (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 138, 1843; Rev. 

Zool., 5, 1844; Guerin's Mag., 22, 1845, .... 68 
Limacina (Natica), Jousseaume. Rev. Zool., 1874, i, p. 14, 

pi. 2, f. 7-8. = N. marochiensis, var. lurida, . . .23 
Limbata (Natica), d'Orb. Yoy. Am. Mer., pi. 57, f. 7-9, . 28 
Limneria, H. and A. Adams, i, 200, 1853, . . . 13, 66 
Limpida (Natica), E. A. Smith. Zool. Alert, 57, t. 5, f. L, 

1884, * ... 26 

Lineata (Natica), Lam. An. s. Yert. (Desh. Ed.), viii, p. 640, 29 
Linneanus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Chenu, 111. Conch., iii, pi. 

l,f. 4, 59 

Lineolata (Natica), Phil. Menke, Zeit. f. Mai., 1844, p. 107. 

= N. filosa, Phil. 
Lineozona (Natica), Jouss. Mag. de Zool., 22, t. 11, f. 3, 4, 

1874, . . 24 

Listeri (Sigaretus), Recluz. Chenu, Conch. 111., pi. 2, f. 2. 

= S. Martinianus, var. ? Reeve, . . . . .56 
Litterata (Ruma), Souleyet. Adams, Genera, i, 210. 

= N. melanostoma, Gm., var. melanostomoides. 
Livida (Natica), Pfr. Archiv fur Naturg., vi, 1840, p. 254, . 23 
Livida (Lunatia), Lask. = N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb. 37 
Locellus (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 134, 1855, . . 24 
Lucidus (Sigaretus), Gould. Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., viii, 

p. 14, 59 

Lunatia, Gray. Zool. Proc., 149, 1847, . . . 6,35 
Lupia, Conrad. Smn. Eocene Check List, 15, 1866. 

= Sigaretus, Lam. .....'... 10 

Lupinus (Natica), Desh. An. sans Yert., v, 8, p. 648. 

== N. solida, Blainv 46 

Lurida (Natica), Phil. Kiist., Conch. Cab., 79. 

= N. marochiensis, Gm., var. ...... 23 

Lynx (Natica), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 46, 1851, . ... 17 

Lysis, Gabb. Palseont. Calif., i, 138, 11 

Macilenta (Natica), Phil.. Abb. und Besch. Conch., ii, pi. 

24, f. 14, .40 

Macilenta (Natica), Reeve (non Phil.). Conch. Icon., f. 133, 

1855. = N. Alderi, Forbes, .... .41 

Macrotrema (Ruma), Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. Samarang, p. 

54, pi. xiii, f. 9, .52 

Macrostoma (Natica), Phil. Kuster, Natica, 55, 1852, . . 51 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 87 

r.\<; K. 

Maculata (Natica), Desh. Anim. s. Yert., viii, p. 645. 

= N. millepunctata, Lam., Yar. 15 

Maculatus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Monogr., t. 2, f. 1-2. 

= S. Martinianus, Phil .56 

Maculatus (Sigaretus), Say. Am. Conch., pi. 25, p. 176, . 56 
Maculosa (Natica), Lam. An. s. Yert. (Desh. Ed.), viii, p. 

641, 16 

Magellanica (Natica), Phil. Yoy. Astral, et Zelee, v. 64. 

? = N. Patagonica, Phil 37 

Maheensis (Natica), Dufo. Am. Sc. Nat., 1840, p. 193, . 20 
Malabarica (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p. 393, 

1850, . . 54 

Mamilla (Natica), Linn. Syst. Nat., Ed. xii, 1252, . . 49 
Mamilla, Schumacher. Essai nouv. gen. 190, 1817, . 7, 50 
Mamillaria, Swains. Malacol., 345, 1840. = Mamma, Klein, 6 
Mamillaris (Sigaretus), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1246, 59 
Mamillaris (Natica), Lam. An. s. Yert. Desh., ed. viii, p. 

628 ; Morch. Mai. Blatt., 24, p. 59. 

= N. fuscata, Humph. ....... 43 

Mamma, Klein (Ostrac, 1753). H. and A. Adams, Genera i, 

210, 1853. = Polinices, Montf. 
Manceli (Natica), Jousseaume. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1874, 

15, t. ii, f. 11, 12. ? = N. marochiensis, Gmel. . . 23 
Marchei (Natica), Jousseaume. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1874, 

p. 17, t. ii, f. 9, 10. = X. marochiensis, var. lurida, . 23 
Margaritacea (Natica), Duclos. Potiez et Mich., Gal. des 

Moll., i, 292 . . 67 

Marmorata (Natica), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid.,iv, 147, 

1826. = N. Guillemini, Payr 40 

Marmorata (Natica), H. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1869, p. 274, 

pi. xix, f. 8, 25 

Maroccana (Nerita), Salis. Reisen Neap., 379, 1793. 

= N. Guillemini, Payr 40 

Marbccana (Nerita), Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, 270, . . 23 
Marochiensis (Natica), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, 256. 

= N. Alderi, Forbes, 41 

Marochiensis (Natica), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3673, No. 15, 22 
Marsenia, Leach. Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., xx, 1847. 

= Lamellaria, Montg 11 

Marsenina, Gray. Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, 76, 1850, . 12, 64 
Martinianus (Sigaretus), Phil. Abbild. und Besch. Conch., 

i, p. 144; Morch., Mai. Blatter, xxiv, pi. 25. . . . 56 
Maura (Natica), Brug. Enc. Mesh., pi. 453, f. 4 a, 6, . . 51 
Mauritise (Yanikoro), Recluz. Guerin's Mag., 19, 1845, . 71 
Mauritiana (Lamellaria), Bergh. Marseniaderne, p. 103, 

pi. 5,6, f. 2, 62 



88 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Maximus (Sigaretus), Phil. Neuer Conch., t. 1, f. 1. 

= S. concavus, Lam. ....... 55 

Megatilotus, Fischer. Manuel de Conch., 766, 1885, . . 7 
Melanostoma (Nerita), var., Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3674. 

= Natica solida, Blainv. ....... 46 

Melanostoma (Natica), Gmelin. Syst. Nat.,xiii ed., p. 3674, 50 
Melanostoma (Natica), var. 6, Lam. An. sans Vert. 

= N. maura, Brug. 
Melanostomoides (Natica), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astr. 

ii, p. 229, pi. f)6, f. 4-8. = N. melanostoma, Gmel., var. 50 
Melastoma (Natica), Swains. Zool. Illust., ii, t. 79, . . 45 
Menkeana (Natica), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 15, f. 8. 

? = N. marochiensis, Gmel., var. livida, . . . .23 
Menkeanus (Sigaretus), Dkr. Moll. Guineensia, p. 33. 

= S. bifasciatus, Recluz, 56 

Merria, Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 137, 1842. 

= Narica, Recluz, ........ 13 

Micromphala (Marsenia), Bgh. Vid. Meddel. Nat. For., p. 

121,1857. = M. glabra, Couth 64 

Microstoma (Natica), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astr., ii, 232, 

t. 66, f. 9. = N. plumbea, Lam 45 

Millepunctata (Natica), Lam. An. s. Vert., vi, 199, . . 14 
Milne-Edwardsia (Rumella). Bourg. Notice Prodr. Tanga- 

nika, 91, 1885, 54 

Mittrei (Natica), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. and Zel., 

v. 65. = N. aurantia, Lam. ...... 42 

Moerchi (Amauropsis), Ad. and Ang. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1863, p. 423, . . 54 

Monilifera (Natica), Lam. An. s. Vert. (Desh. Ed.), viii, 

638. = N. catena, Da Costa, 41 

Montagui (Natica), Forbes. Malac. MonensiSj p. 32, . . 39 
Montrouzieri (Caledoniella), Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 

1869,421; 1870, 71, 12, 65 

Montrouzieri (Vanikoro), Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 136, 

1879, . 71 

Moquiniana (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1853, p. 

154, t. v, f. 9, 10, 27 

Morelli (Lamellaria), Chiaje. Mem., v, t. 62, f. 1-4. 

= L. perspicua, Linn. ....... 60 

Morvillia, Gray. Guide Moll. Brit. Mus., 45, 1857. 

= Limneria, Ads 13 

Mozaica (Natica), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 107, f. 133, 134, 19 
Mulleri (Velutina), Desh. Mag. de Zool., Moll., pi. 28, 

= V. laevigata, Pennant, ....... 65 

Mustelina (Natica), Swains. Zool. 111., pi. 79. 

? = N. marochiensis, Gmel., var. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 89 



Nacca, Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 148, 182G. 

= Natica, Adanson, ........ 6 

Nana (Natica), T.-Woods. Pro. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1875, 149 ; 

32, 1877, 54 

Nana (Lunatia), Moll. Groenl. Moll., p. 7. 

= N. immaculata, Totten, ...... 38 

Narica, Reclnz. in d'Orbigny. Moll. Cuba, ii, 39, 1841, . 13 
Natica, Adanson. Hist. Nat. Seneg., 172. 1757, . . 5, 14 
Naticaria, Swainson. Man. Malacol., 346,- 1840. 

= Mamilla, Sclmm. ........ 7 

Naticaria, H. and A. Adams (not Swainson), Genera i, 208, 

.1853. 
Naticella (pars), Minister. Beitr. z. Petref., iv, 1841. 

= Natiria, de Koninck. 
Naticella, Guilding. Swainson, Maiacol., 345, 1840. 

= Mamma, Klein, 6 

Naticina, Guilding. Trans. Linn. Soc., xvii, 31, 1834. 

= Mamma, Klein. 
Naticina, Gray (not Guilding, 1834). Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840. 

= Eunaticina, Fischer, . . . . . . .10 

Naticodon, Ryckholt. Mel. Paleont., 1852, ... 14 

Naticopsis, M'Coy. Garb. Foss. Ireland, 33, 1844, . . 8 

Natiria, de Koninck, 1881, .14 

Neritoidea (Lamellaria\ Cliiaje. Mem., iii, 215, 226, 1828. 

= L. perspicua, Linn. ....... 60 

Neritoideus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Monogr. Chenu 111. Conch., 

t. 1, f. 7 ; t. 2, f. 2, 3. = S. coneavus, Lam. . . .55 
Neritoideus (Sigaretus), Linn. Syst. Nat. 12th Ed., p. 1250, 55 
Neritomopsis, Waagen, 1880. = Naticopsis, M'Coy, . 8 

Neverita, Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 149, 1826, 6, 32 
Nicolii (Natica), Forbes. = N. catena, . . . .41 
Nigra (Lamellaria), Blainville. Manuel de Malac., p. 466, 

pi. 42, f. 1. ? = L. Mauritian a, Bergh. 
Nigrescens (Natica), Ad. Coutr. Conch., p. 112. 

N. marochiensis, var. livida, . . . . .23 
Nitida (Natica), Donovan. Brit. Shells, iv, pi. 144. 

= N. lactea, Guild 49 

Nitida (Natica), Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Moll., iii, 330, 

= N. Alderi, Forbes, ....... 40 

Nitidus (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. iv, f. 20, 1864. 

= S. papilla, Gmel., var. ....... 58 

Nivea (Natica , Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 30, No. 1174. 

= N. Sagraiana, Orb. . . . . . . .19 

Notabilis (Natica), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 31, 1885, . . 40 
Notata (Natica), Sowb. Thes. Conch , sp. 44, f. 168. 

= N. lineozona, Jouss 24 



90 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

I'ACJK. 

Nucahivensis (Natica), Jardin. Mem. de Cherbourg, vi, 

p. 193, 54 

Nucula (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 140, 1855, . 39 

Obliquata (Natica), Marrat. Quart. Jour. Conch., i, 243, . 54 
Oblongus (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. iv, f. 21,1<S64, 58 
Obstructa (Natica), Menke. Zeitschr. f. Malakoz, 1849, p. 36, 

= N. collaria, Lam 28 

Obturata (Natica), Phil- Mai. Blatter, iii, p. 165, 1857, . 54 
Obtusa (Natica), Jeffreys. Zool Proc., 33, 1885, . . 39 
Occlusa (Natica), S. V. Wood. Mong. Crag Moll., p. 146, 

t. xii, f. 4 a, 6, 1848; Suppl. 76, t. 4, f. 11, 1872. 

? = N. clausa, Brod. and Sowb 31 

Ochrostoma (Mamma), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p. -391, 

pi. xiii, f. 10, 1850. = N. lactea, Guild, var. . .49 

Olla (Natica), Desh. Expd. a Moree, p. 157, No. 218. 

= N. Josephinae, Risso. 
Omoia (Natica), Mabille et Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Philom., 

103, 1884-5, 71 

Onca (Natica), Bolt. H. and A. Adams, Genera i, 206. 

= N. Chinensis, Lam 20 

Oncidiopsis (Beck), Bergh. Act. Soc. Dan., iii, 1853, . 12 
Opaca (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., ii, p. 199, 1851. 

= N. melanostoma, Gmelin, ...... 50 

Operculata (Natica), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 34, t. 4,f. 7, 1885. 

? = N. clausa, Brod. and Sowb 31 

Ophione (Lamellaria), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1847, p. 169. 

= L. Indica, Leach, Hutton ; Jour, de Conch., 23, 1878. 
Orbiculata (Lamellaria), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 122, 

1871 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii. 539. = L. Stearnsii, Dall. 63 
Orbignyana (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc. 140, 1843; 

Rev. Zool., 6, 1844. Guerin's Mag. 30, 1845, ... 70 
Orientalis (Natica), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3673, . . 43 
Oriostoma, Munier-Chalmas. Jour, de Conch., 103, 1876, . 9 
Otis (Natica), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., v, 4, p. 372, . 43 
Ovoidea (Narica), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 44, . . . 71 
Ovum (Natica), Menke. Zeitschr. f. Malakz., 1850, p. l(')5. 

= N. uber, Val 48 

Oxychone (Vanikoro), Morch. MaL Blatt., xxiv, 94, 1877. 

? = Y. striata, d'Orb 69 

Pallens (Natica), Phil. Zeit. MaL, 157, 1848. 

= N. helvacea, Lam 30 

Pallida (Natica), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., v, 4, p. 372, 37 
Pallidula (Natica), Brown. Conch. Great Britain. 

= Lacuna pallidula, Da Costa. 



INDEX AND SYNONYiMY. 91 



Pallium (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p, 397, 1850. 

= N. Powisiana, Recluz 43 

Panamaensis (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 208, 48 
Papilla (Sigaretus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3675, No. 20, 10, 58 
Papyracea (Natica), Sovvb. (not Buscli). Thes. Conch., sp. 

18, f. 149, 1883, . 36 

Papyracea (Neverita), Busch. Philippi, Abbild., ii, 45, t. 2, 

f. 14. = N. ampla, Phil 33 

Pardalis (Natica), Phil. Zeitschr. f. Malakz , 1851, 46. 

? = N. fulminea, Gmel 15 

Parvula (Natica), Guillou. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 1842, p. 105, 54 
Parvula (Neverita), Tapp. Can. Ann. Museo Civico. 

Genoa, viii, 325, 54 

Patagonica (Lunatia), Phil. Arch. f. Nat., 1845, p. 65, . 37 
Patagonica (Lamellaria), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, 

p. 32, pi. iv, f. 9 a b, 62 

Patula (Natica), Sowb. Zool. Jour., i, p. 60, pi. 5. 

= N. glauca, Humboldt, . . . . . . .34 

Pavimentum (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 208. 
Payeni (Natica), Mab. et Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Philom., p. 

104,1884-5,71, ........ 27 

Pavraudeautia, Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf. Moll. Rouss., 149, 

1883, 6, 42 

Pellis-Tigrina (Natica), Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, p. 265, ])1. 

187, f. 1892-93, 16 

Pellucida (Lamellaria), Yerrill. Am. Jour. Sc., 3d Ser., 

xx, 395, 1880, 61 

Pellucidus (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. v, f. 23, 

1864, 59 

Pennata (Natica), Schroter. Register, 1788, p. 72. 

= N. canrena, Linn. ........ 21 

Perscalpta (Natica), Martens. Sitz -ber. Berlin, 1878, p. 25, 54 
Perspectivus (Sigaretus), Say. Am. Conch., pi. 25, p. 175, 57 
Perspicua (Natica), Recluz. Petit. Jour, de Conch., i, p. 

379, pi. 14, f. 1-2, 1850. = N. otis, Brod. and Sowb. . 44 
Perspicua (Lamellaria), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1250, 1767, . 60 
Pes-Elephantis (Natica), Pfr. Wiegm. Arch., 1840, i, p. 

254, 289, non Ch. = N. lactea, Guild, .... 49 
Pes-Elephantis (Natica), Chem. Conch, v, 5, pi. 186, f. 

1922-3. = N. columnaris, Recluz, , . . 47 

Petitii (Sigaretus), Reel. Chenu., 111. Conch., pi. 2, f. 1. 

= S. Martinianus, var., Reeve, ...... 56 

Petitiana (Vanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 138, 1843; 

Guerin's Mag., 24, 1845. = Y. ligata, Recluz, . . 68 
Petiveriana (Natica), Recluz MSS. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

sp. 17, 1855. = N. ampla, Phil 33 



92 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Pfeifferi ( Natica), Phil. Mke. Zeitsch., 1851, p. 45. 

= N. lactea, Guild, 49 

Philippii (Sigaretus), Weinkauff. Conch. Cabinet von Mart. 

and Chemn., 23, t. 5, f. 1-3, 1883, 57 

Philippiana (Natica), Nyst. Bull. Ac. Roy. Bruxelles, xii, 

pt. ii, p. 153. = N. lactea, Guild, . 49 

Philippiana (Natica), Recluz MSS. Reeve, Con. Ic., 45, 

1885. = N. Josephinae, Risso, 33 

Philippinensis (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc.,xv, 252, 53 
Phytelephas (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 42, 1855, . 4i 
Picta (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 204, . 21 
Pictus (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. v, f. 24, 1864, 59 
Pisiformis (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 213, 39 
Planus (Sigaretus), Phil. Neuer oder wenig gekannter 

Conch., i, t. 1, f. 7. = S. planulatus, Recluz, . . .58 
Planulatus (Sigaretus), Recluz. 111. Conch. Sig., p. 21, pi. 

3, f. 4, 58 

Platyostoma, Conrad. Jour. Phila. Acad., viii, 275, 1842, . 9 
Platyostomella, Etheridge. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 

163, 1879-80. = S. G. of Platyostoma, .... 9 
Plicata (Vanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., i, 39, 1843 ; Rev. 

Zool., 7, 1844; Guerin's Mag., 40, 1845. 

= Y. ligata, Recluz, 68 

Plicatilis (Velutina), Miiller. Zool. Dau. prodr., 1776, . 67 
Plicatula (Natica), Reeve (not Nuttall). Conch. Icon., f. 

107,1855. = N. sordida, Phil. . . . . .38 

Plicatula (Natica), Nuttall. Jay's Cat. Shells, p. 68. 

= N. marochiensis, var. lurida, 23 

Plumbea (Natica), Lam. An. s. Vert. (Desh. Ed.), viii, p. 

632, .44 

Poliana (Natica), Chiaje. Scacchi, Catal., p. 16. 

= N. Alderi, Forbes, 41 

Polinices, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 210, 1810. 

= Mamma, Klein, ........ 6 

Polita (Natica), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1875; 32, 1877, 54 

Pomum (Natica?), Phil. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 234. 

? = N. heros, Say, 36 

Porcellanea (Natica), d'Orb. Moll. lies Canaries, p. 84, 

pi. 6, f. 27, 28. = N. lactea, Guild, .... 49 

Powisiana (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 210, 42 
Pnfitenuis (Sigaretus), Couthouy MS. Gould, Wilkes. 

Exp., p. 217, f. 260. = Lamellaria, 61 

Prasina (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 263, . 54 
Priamus (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 213, . 51 
Prietoi (Natica), Hidalgo. Moll. Esp. Lam., 20 6, f. 2, 3. 

= N. marrnorata, Ad. ....... 25 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 93 

PAOK, 

Pritcbardi (Natica), Forbes. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1852, 

x, p. 307. = N. marocbiensis, var. Cbemnitzii, Pfr. . 24 
Problematica (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 21, 1855. 

= N. arapla, Phil . .33 

Prodita (Marsenia), Loven. Ofvers., 1847 ; Index, 1846, 12,64 
Producta (Lamellaria). Leach. Syn. Brit. Moll. Ann. Mag., 

1847. = L. perspicua, Linn. ...... 60 

Prolongata (Velutina), Cpr. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, xv, 

p. 32, 66 

Proxima (Natica), C. B. Ad. Conch. Contr., p. 111. 

= N. canrena, Linn., juv 21, 25 

Pseudomaura, Fischer. Manuel de Conch., 767, 1885, . 8 
Pseustes (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 255, . 53 
Ptychostoma, Laube. Sitzb. Wien. Akad., liii, St. Cassian., 

p.' 3, 1866, 8 

Puella (Natica), Phil. Kiister, Natica, Taf. x, f. 7. 

= N. lactea, Guild, 49 

Puerilis (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H , vii, p. 44. 

= N. lactea, Guild, .49 

Puerilis (Natica). Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 43, . 53 
Pulchella (Natica), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 148, 

t. 4, f. 42. = N. macilenta, Phil. 
Pulchella (Natica), Pfr. Arch. f. Nat. G., 1840, p. 254. 

= N. Sagraiana, d'Orb . . 19 

Pulicaris (Natica), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., p. 90, t. 13, 

f. 9, . . . . . . . . 17, 18 

Punctata (Natica), Swainson. Zool. 111., t. 104. 

= N. fulminea, Gmel. ....... 15 

Punctata (Nerita), Karsten. Recluz, Jour, de Conch., 14, 

1864. = Natica millepunctata, Lam 14 

Punctata (Coriocella), Stimpson. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., vii, 378, .63 

Puncticulata (Lunatia), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p. 391, 

1850, . . 54 

Purpurea (Amauropsis), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 124, 

pi. 15, f. 16, 53 

Pusilla (Colpodaspis), M. Sars. Nyt Mag. for Naturvk., 17, 

p. 182, pi. 11, f. 1-6. = Cyprsea Europea, juv. 
Pusilla (Natica), Say. Jour. Ac. N. Sc. Phila., ii, p. 257, . 31 
Pusilla (Natica), Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Moll. 

= N. pallida, Brod. and Sowb 37 

Pusio (Velutina), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., v, 

1860, p. 411, 67 

Putamen (Ruma), Meusch. Adams' Genera, i, 210, . . 54 
Pygmaea (Natica), Phil. Abbild. neuer Conch., i, 17, t. 1, 

f. 12, 27 

Pyramis (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 93, 1855, . . 44 



94 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Pyriformis (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 211, 
= N. mammilla, L. . . . . . . . .49 

Quadrifasciata (Natica), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Yoy., p. 137, 54 
Quoyi (Vanikoro), Recluz. Zool. Proc., 137, 1843. 

= Y. cancellata, Lam 67 

Quoyiana (Yanikoro), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 175, 1853. 

= Y. Gaimardi, A. Ad. ... . 70 

Radiata (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 258, . 53 
Rangii (Lamellaria), Bergh. Mgr., p. 94, No. 8, 1853, . 63 
Rapulum (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 47, 1855. 

= N. dubia, Recluz, 47, 48 

Ravida (Natica; , Souleyet. Yoy. de la Bonite, p. 582, pi. 

35, fs. 12-15, . . . 43 

Raynoldiana (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 212, 20 
Raynevallia, Ponzi. = Sigaretus, Lam. . . . .10 
Recluziana (Yanikoro), Ad. and Ang. Zool. Proc. 424, 1863, 70 
Recluziana (Natica), Desh. Mag. de Zool., 1841 ; Moll., pi. 

37, .34 

Recondita (Onchidiopsis), Kroyer. Ampt. Ber., 115, 1847. 

? = 0. carnea, Kroyer, juv. ...... 65 

Reiniana (Natica), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 71, 1877. 

= N. Lewisii, Gould, ... ... 35 

Rhodocheila (Ruma), Adams and Angas. Zool. Proc., 423, 

1863, 54 

Rhodostoma (Natica), Phil. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., 1843, p. 

117. = N. violacea, Sowh. . . . . .18 

Rhombica (Lamellaria), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 

122, 1871 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 539, 1885, . . 64 
Rizzse (Natica), Phil. Zeits. fiir Mai., 1844, p. 108. 

= N. macilenta, Phil,, var. ...... 40 

Robinsonia, Nevill. = Larina, A. Ad., Paludinidse. 
Robusta (Natica), Dkr. Mai. Blatter, vi, p. 232. 

= N. ampla, Phil 33 

Rosea (Yanikoro), Recluz. Zool, Proc., 140, 1843; Rev. 

Zool., 6, 1844; Guerin's Mag., 36, 1845, . . .69 

Rubro-maculata (Natica), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, 

p. 733, 26 

Rufa (Natica), Born. Mus., 398, t. 17, f. 3, 4, . . . 29 
Rufa (Nerita), Montagu (non Born). Suppl., p. 150, t. 30, 

f. 3. = Natica Montagui, Forbes 39 

Rufilabris (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 103, 1855. 

= N. marochiensis, var. livida, ...... 23 

Rugata (Yanikoro), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 174, 1853, . 68 
Rugosa (Stigmaulax), Chemn. Conch. Cab.,v, 270. 

= Natica sulcata, Bour. . : . . . . .32 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 95 

Ruma, Chemn. H. and A. Adams' Genera, i, 209, 1853. 

= Mamilla, Schum. ........ 7 

Ruinella, Bourguignat. Notice Prodr. Tanganika, 89, 

1885, 10, 54 

Rupicola (Velutina), Conrad. Jour. Acad. Phila., vi, 266, 

t. 11, f. 17, 18. = Y. laevigata, Pennant, . ... 65 
Russa (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii. 43. 

= N. clausa, Brod. and Sowb. ...... 31 

Russa (Natica), Gould. Proc. Boste Soc. N. H., vii, 43, . 53 
Rutila (Natica), Macgillivray. Moll. Aberdeen, p. 126. 

= N. Montagui, Forbes, .... . . 39 

Sagittata (Natica), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl., 10, 1843, . 54 
Sagittifera (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iii, p. 168, 

pi. viii, f. 4, 5, 1852. N. marochiensis, Gmel. . . .23 
Sagraiana (Natica), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 34, pi. 18, f. 20 

and 22, 19 

Salangoensis (Mamma), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

211. = N. otis, Brod. and Sowb 44 

Samarensis (Ruma), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 214. 

= N. Simiae, Desh 51 

Sandalina (Natica), Guillou. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 1842, 

p. 105, 54 

Sanguinolenta (Natica), Desh. Guer. Mag. de Zool., 1841, 

p. 46. = N. melastoma, Swains. . . . . .45 

Sanguinolenta (Natica), Brusina. Verh. Zool. Bot. Yer., xv, 

19. = N. millepunctata, Lam., var. . . . .15 

Scsevogyra, Whitfield. Ann. Rep. Wisconsin, 1877, . . 13 
Sculpta (Najica), Martens. Sitz.-ber. Berlin, 1878, p. 24, . 54 
Sebae (Natica), Souleyet. Voy. de la Bonite, p. 579, pi. 35, 

f. 6, 7. = N. melanostoma, Gmel., var. . . . .50 
Secunda (Natica), Mab. et Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Philom., p. 

104, 1884-5, . 71 

Semipellucida (Naticina), Marr. Quart. Jour. Conch., i, 

243, 54 

Semiplicata (Vanikoro), Pease. Zool. Proc., 435, 1860. 

= V. clathrata, Recluz, . 68 

Semisoluta (Yanikoro), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 

24, 70 

Semistriata (Amaurella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1867. . 53 
Semisulcata (Natica), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Yoy., p. 137, 32 
Semperii (Chelyonotus), Bgh. Semper's Voyage to Philip- 
pines, Bd. ii, pi. xli, f. 9, . 68 

Senegalensis (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p. 382, 

pi. xiv, f. 5. = N. fulgurans, Reel, .... 15, 16 
Septentrionalis (Natica), Beck. Cat. Moll. Grcenl., 7. 

= N. clausa, Brod. et Sowb 31 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Sertata (Natica), Menke. Moll. Novae Holland!, p. 10, 

1843, ........... 54 

Severa (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 43, . 53 
Sigaretus, Lam. Prodr., 77, 1799, . .10, 55 

Sigaretiformis (Velutina), Beck. Potiez and Mich., Gall. 

Moll., i, p. 508, pi. xxxv, f. 21, 22, ... .67 

Sigaretiformis (Yanikoro), Potiez and Mich. Gal. des Moll., 

t. 39, f. 21, 22. ? = Y. clathrata, Recluz, . . .09 
Simise (Natica), Desh. An^s. Yert., viii, p. 552, . . 51 

Simioides (Natica), Recluz. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 76. 

= N. simise, Desh ...... 51 

Sinensis (Natica), Lam. Moebius, Mauritius, 275. 

== N. Chinensis, Lam. ....... 14 

Sinuatus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1851, p. 189, 

pi. 6, fs. 12-14, ......... 56 

Sitkensis (Yelutina), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 283, 67 
Smithii (Natica), Brown. N. flava, Gould, . . .52 
Solida (Yanikoro), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 20, 1875, 70 
Solida (Yelutina), Martens. Arch. f. Naturgeschichte, 1858, 

i, 150. Y. Isevigata, Penn., var. . . . . .65 

Solida (Natica), Blainville. Malacologie, pi. 36, f. 8, . . 45 
Soluta (Natica), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., iii, 73, 1848, 39 
Sordida (Natica), Phil. Enum, Moll. Sicil., ii, 139, 1844, . 38 
Sordida (Natica), Swains., var. globosa. Gray, Zool. Beechcy's 

Yoy.,pl. 37, f. 5. = N. plumbea, Lam. . . .45 

Sordida (Natica), Swainson. Zool. 111., ii, t. 79. 

= N. plumbea, Lam. ....... 45 

Souleyetiana (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 385, pi. 

xiv, f. 8. = N. marochiensis, Gmel. . . . .23 
Souleyetiana (Yanikoro), Recluz. Guerin's Mag., 67, 1845. 

= Y. ligata, Recluz, ....... 68 

Souverbiei (Sigaretus), Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, p. 68, 

pi. vi, f. 8, 9, ... ... 59 

Spadicea (Natica), var /9, Dill. Desc. Cat. 

= N. helvacea, Lam. ....... 30 

Spadicea (Natica), Gmelin. Syst Nat., 13th Ed. 

= N. rufa, Born., var ........ 30 

Spirolineata (Lamellaria), Monterosato. Test. Nuovi Sicilia, 63 
Squalida (Natica), Macgillivray. Moll. Aberd., 126. 

= N. Montagui, Forbes, ....... 39 

Stercus-muscarum (Natica), Gmel. S3 7 st. Nat., 3673, juv. 

= N. raillepunctata, Lam. ...... 14 

Stearnsii (Lamellaria), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 122, 

1871, ... ........ 63 

Stigmaulax, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 133, 1852, . . 6 

Stomatia, Hill. Hist. Anim., 119, 1752. = Sigaretus, Lam. 10 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 97 

PAGE. 

Stomatella (Lamellaria), Risso. Hist. Nat., iv, 252, 1826. 

= L. latens, Miiller, ........ 60 

Straminea (Mamma), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., ii, 201, 1851. 

= N. aurantia, Lam., var. . . . . .42 

Strange! (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 81, 1855. 

= N. leucophaea, Reeve, ....... 45 

Striata (Xatiea), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 31, No. 1203, . 54 
Striata (Vanikoro), d'Orbigny. Moll. Cuba, t. 17, f. 29, 31, 69 
Striata (Yelutina), Macgillivray, Moll. Aberd., 160, 1844. 

= Y. laevigata, Pennant, ....... 65 

Strdmii (Sigaretus), Sars. Beskr. og Lagtt., 67, 1835. 

= Lamellaria latens, Miill. ...... 60 

Strophostylus, Hall. Pal. N. Y., iii, 303, 1859, ... 9 
Stylifera (Yelutina), Flem. = Stilifer Turtoni, Brad., . 67 
Subcostata (Natica), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 

S. W., ii, 263, 54 

Subfulva (Natica), Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, 268. 

= N. orientalis, Gmelin, ....... 43 

Subplicata (Natica), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 32, 1885, . . 38 
Succineoides (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 73, 1855. 

= N. melanostoma, Gmel., var. 51 

Suffusa (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 139, 1855, . . 44 
Sulcata (Natica), Born. Test. Mus. Caes. Yindobonensis, 

pi. 17, f. 5, 6, 32 

Sulcata (Yanikoro), d'Orbigny. Moll. Cuba, 39, t. 17, 

f. 26-28, 1842, . 69 

Suturalis (Natica), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Yo}^.,pl. 37, f. 4. 

= N. pallida. Brod. and Sowb. . . ' . . .37 
Suturalis (Natica), Watson. Jonr. Linn. Soc., xv, 257, . 53 

Tseniata (Natica), Menke. Cat. 46, 1830. 

= N. ala papilionis, Chemn. . . . . . . 21 

Taslei (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., 1853, p. 43, pi. 2, 

f. 12, 14. = N. Broderipiana, Recluz, . . .21 

Tasmanica (Natica), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1875, 148; 32, 1877, 54 

Tecta (Natica), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 31, No. 1183, . 18 
Tentaculata (Lamellaria), Montagu. Linn. Trans., xi, 179, 

1811. = L. perspicua, Linn. 
Tenuis (Natica), Phil. Bolster's Conch. Cab., 97, 1852. 

= N. Fortune!, Reeve, . . . . , . .37 
Tenuis (Lunatia), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p. 388, pi. 

xii, f. 7, . 38 

Tenuis (Lamellaria), Jeffreys. Proc. Zool Soc., 45, 1885, . 61 
Tessellata (Natica), Phil. Menke, Zeitschr., 1848, p. 158. 

= N. marochiensis, var. lurida, . . . . .23 
7 



98 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Texasiana, Phil. Zeitschr., 1848, p. 158. 

= Natica duplicata, Say, ....... 34 

Textilis (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 115, 1855. 

= N. vittata, Gmelin, .25 

Tincturata (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 63, 1855. 

= N. pulicaris, Phil. ... .18 

Tongana (Lirnellaria), Quoy and Gainm. Voy. Astrol., ii, 

p. 217, t. 66 bis, f. 4-8, . . 62 

Tonganus, var. (Sigaretus), Quoy and Gaim. Yoy. Astrol., 

ii, 219, pi. 66, bis, f. 9. = Lamellaria Mauritiana, Bergh. 
Tournefortii (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 396, 

1850, . 54 

Trachydomia, Meek and Worthen, 1866, . . . . 8 
Traillii (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 137, 1855, . 19 
Translucida (Lamellaria), Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat., xlix, 111, 63 
Tricarinata (Vanikoro), Recluz. Sowb., Thes. Conch., v, 

pi. 482, f. 24, 1884. '= V. Orbignyana, var. . .71 

Trifasciata (Natica), Recluz. Adams' Genera, i, 206. 

= N. maculata, Desh 15 

Tuberosa (Coriocella), Stimpson. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc., 

vii, 378. 
Tuberosissima (Yanikoro), Montagu. Test. Brit., 150, t. 

29, f. 5, . . 71 

Tumescens (Sigaretus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xv, pi. iv, f. 

18,1864, 58 

Tychonia, de Koninck, 1881, 9 

Tylostoma, Sharpe. Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc., v, 376, 1849, . 9 

Uber (Natica), Val. in Obs. Geol. Humboldt, 1833, ii, p. 

266, 6,46, 48 

Uberina (Natica), d 'Orb. Cuba, ii, p. 31, t. 17, f. 19. 

= N. lactea, Guild, . . .... . .49 

Uberina (Mamma), Yalenc. Mem. Geol. Humboldt ; Recluz, 

Zool. Proc., 210, 1843. = N. uber, Yal 48 

Umbilicata (Natica), Quoy. Yoy. Ast., ii, p. 234, pi. 66, 

fs. 22-23, 52 

Undata (Natica), Phil. Archiv fiir Naturg., 160, 1852. 

= N. marochiensis, Gmel. ...... 23 

Undata (Natica), Meusch. Adams' Genera, i, 206, . . 54 
Undata (Morvillia), Brown. = Yelutina zonata, Gould, . 13 
Undulata (Natica), Pse. MSS. Zool. Proc., 516, 1865; Am. 

Jour. Conch., iii, 232. = N. marochiensis, Gmel. 
Undulatus (Sigaretus) Lischke. Malakl. Blatter, xix, 103. 

= S. incisus, Reeve. 
Unifasciata (Natica), Lam. An. s. Yert. (Desh. Ed.), viii, 

640. = N. marochiensis, Gm. ...... 23 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 99 

PAGK. 

Unifasciatus (Sigaretus), Recluz. Chemn., 111. Conch., pi. 

3, f. 1. = S. Martinianus, Phil 56 

Unimaculata (Natica), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 85, 1855, . 46 
Ustulata (Natica), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 112, 1883. 

= N. conica, Lam. ........ 44 

Yalenciennesii (Natica), Payr. Cat. Moll. Corse, pi. 5, 

f. 23, 24. = N. intricata, Don. 42 

Yanikoro, Quoy and Gaimard. Zool. Yoy. Astrol.,' ii, 239, 

1832. = Narica, Reclnz. , 13, 61 

Yanikoropsis, Meek. Invert. Foss. Upper Mo., 1876, . 13 
Yariabilis (Natica), Recluz MSS. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

sp. 104, 1855; Marrat, Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 243, . . 27 
Yarigera, d'Orbigny. Pal. Fran9. Jur., ii, 29, 1850. 

= Tylostoma, Sharpe. 
Yariolaria (Natica), Recluz. Reeve, Natica, No. 55. 

= N. pellis tigrina, Chera. . . . . 16 

Yavaosi (Natica), Le G-uillou, MSS. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

sp. 99, 1855. = N. Flemingiana, Recluz, . . .50 
Yelainia, Munier-Chalmas, 1884. = Cepatia, Gray, . . 7 
Yelutella, Gray. Zool. Proc., 156, 1"847, . . . .67 
Yelutina (Bulla), Mtiller. Zool. Dan., t. 101, f. 1-4. 

= Yelutina laevigata, Pennant, . . . . .65 
Yelutina, Fleming. Hist. Brit. Anim., 296, 1828, . 12, 65 
Yenustula (Natica), Phil. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851, p. 48, . . 19 
Yesicalis (Natica), Phil. Zeit. Mai. 159, 1848. 

= N. ampla, Phil 33 

Yestalis (Natica), Phil. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1851, p. 234. 

= N. mamillaria, Linn. ....... 49 

Yirginea (Natica), Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 81, 1852. 

= N. mamilla, Linn. ....... 49 

Yirginea (Mamma), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, p. 388, pi. 

xii, f. 6, 1850. = N. uber, Yal. . . ... .48 

Yiolacea (Natica), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. xi, . . 18 
Yitellus (Natica), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1252, . . 29 
Yitrea (Natica), Hutton. Cat. Marine Moll. N. Zeal., p. 21, 54 
Yitrinagformis (Yanikoro), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 93, 

1877. ? = Y. striata, d'Orb 69 

Yittata (Natica), Gmjelin. Syst. Nat., sp. 3674, ... 25 
Yittata (Natica), Jeff. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, xix, 318. 

= N. clausa, Br. and Sowb., var 31 

Xantha (Natica), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 262, . 53 

Zanzibarica (Natica), Recluz. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

213. = N. melanostoma, Gmel., var. . . . .50 
Zebra (Natica), Lam. An. s. Yert. (Desh. Ed.),viii,p. 643, 16 



100 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Zelandica (Natica), Quoy and Gaim. Yoy. Astr., ii, p. 237, 

pi. 66, fs. 11 and 12, . . . . ' . . .22 

Zoologica (Mamma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., i, 

272, pi. v, f. 6, 1872, .46 

Zonalis (Natica), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, 386, pi. xiv, 

f. 9, 10, 1850, 29 

Zonalis (Sigaretus), Quoy and Gaim. Yoy. Astrol., vol. ii, 

p. 221, pi. 66 bis, f. 1-3. = S. laevigatus, Lam. . . 55 
Zonaria (Natica), Lam. An. sans Yert. (Edit. Desk.), viii, 

643. = N. ala-papilionis, Chem 21 

Zonata (Yelutina), Gould. Invert. Mass., p. 242, f. 160; 

E. A. Smith, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xx, 137, 1877. . . 66 
Zonatus (Sigaretus), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 38. . . 56 
Zonifera (Lamellaria), Bergh. Mem. Acad. Copenhagen, 335, 

1853. = L. perspicua, Linn. 



FAMILY CALYPTRMIDM. 

Shell limpet-like, with a more or less spiral apex, interior 
simple or parti}- occupied by a shelly process, variously shaped, 
to which the adductor muscles are attached. 

Animal with a distinct head and lengthened muzzle ; eyes near 
the external base of the tentacles ; only one branchial plume is 
developed. 

The bonnet-limpets are found adhering to stones and shells ; 
most of them appear never to quit the spot on which they first 
settle, as the margins of their shells become adapted to the 
irregularities of the surface beneath, whilst some wear away the 
space beneath their foot, and others secrete a shelly base. The 
form and color of the shell both depend somewhat upon the situ- 
ation in which it grows ; those found on the inside of the mouth 
of dead shells are generally flat or even concave above and 
white ; those attached to the outside of shells are convex and 
colored. The animal is supposed to feed on sea-weed and ani- 
malcules ; and an individual kept alive in a glass by Professor 
Forbes, ate a small nudibranch (Goniodoris),its fellow prisoner. 
Both Calyptraea and Pileopsis sometimes cover and hatch their 
spawn under the forepart of the foot. The inner process or shelf 
of the shell forms a support for the viscera. The branchia of 
this family is composed of narrow, rigid filaments, and Gray has 
created for this type the division Plocamobranchia. 

Subfamily Calyptrseinse. 

Muzzle slit at its extremity ; tentacles subulate, carrying eyes 
near their base ; foot short, rounded oval ; the single branchia 
finely and deeply pectinated ; adductor muscle horse-shoe shaped 
or oval ; jaws rudimentary ; radula with a subquadrangular 
middle tooth, the margin pectinated, the central cusp longer; 
lateral teeth with denticulate margins ; marginals narrow, curved, 
denticulate (plain in Capulus). 

Shell conic, patelliform, the summit more or less spiral; 

(101) 



102 

interior polished, porcellanous, simple or chambered by a dia- 
phragm or variously shaped process, supporting the viscera ; 
peristome entire. No operculum or attached base. 

Subfamily Eipponycinse. 

Animal without foot, properly so-called ; adductor muscle 
fixed to the interior of the shell above, and below either to the 
substratum excavated in the surface of the body on which the 
mollusk is attached, or to a ventral calcareous opercular-like 
piece which completely closes the aperture ; inferior surface of 
the body encircled by a sort of ventral mantle with papillary 
margins, resembling the dorsal mantle and morphologically cor- 
responding to the epipodium ; muzzle long, deeply incised and 
terminated by two lateral lobes ; tentacles long, subulate, the 
eyes sessile towards their base ; a spatuliform growth below the 
neck ; radula as in Calyptrseinae, the marginal teeth denticulated. 

Shell conical, peristome simple, with or without an internal 
process attached at the apex, but an opercular piece normally 
forms the base to the shell and is soldered to the surface of the 
body on which it lives attached. The embryonic Hipponyx has 
a spiral shell. 

These gastropods have so aberrant an appearance that they 
have been classed as Rudistes (Sowerby), and Brachiopoda 
(Morris), the opercular piece being taken for a ventral valve. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

L CALYPTRJEIN.E. 

Genus CRUCIBULUM, Schum., 1817. 

Differs from Calyptrsea (described below), in having an in- 
ternal cup-shaped lamina, the margin of which is entire, and 
which is attached on one side to the inner wall of the shell. 
Temperate and tropical seas. 

Dentition, PL 30, fig. 2. 

The synonyms are Trelania, Catillina, and Neleta, Gra} r , 
1867 ; Dispotsea, Say, 1826, and Calypeopsis, Lesson, 1830. 

Section BICATILLUS, Swainson, 1840. 

Cup open and reduced to a curved lamina, adhering for its 
entire length. Indian Ocean. Fossil in the miocene of Aqui- 



103 

taine. The development of the cup appears to be arrested in 
this group ; but I am inclined to believe that this is not always 
the case. 

Genus CALYPTR^EA, Lam., 1799. 

Shell conical, trochiform, with central, spiral apex, aperture 
basal, circular, entire ; interior furnished with a spiral diaphragm, 
the columellar margin of which is twisted, forming a false 
umbilicus, free margin convex. 

The animal (PL 30, fig. 7) has a short head, the muzzle bilobed, 
tentacles rather short, cylindrical, with the eyes on tubercles 
at their exterior base ; foot short, rounded, obtuse behind, angu- 
lar in front. 

Dentition, PI. 30, fig. 3. 

The recent species are tropical and subtropical in their distri- 
bution ; fossil, the genus first appears in the lower Cretaceous. 
Galerus, Humphrey, 1797, and Mitella, Leach, are synonyms. 

Subgenus GALEROPSIS, Conrad. 
Spire more elevated. G. excentricus, Gabb. Eocene. 

Subgenus INFUNDIBULUM, Montfort, 1810. 

Summit central, whorls plicate, axis imperforate. 

Tropical and subtropical. Found in the tertiary of the United 
States and West Indies. Trochita, Schum., 1817, Trochatella, 
Lesson, 1830, and Clypeola, Gray, 1867, are synonyms. 

Subgenus SIGAPATELLA, Lesson, 1830. 

Shell oval with lateral apex, interior plate with submarginal 
axis, the free margin concave. Haliotoidea, Swains., 1840, and 
Trochella, Gray, 1867, are synonyms. 

Genus CREPIDULA, Lam., 1799. 

Shell oval, limpet-like, with a posterior, generally lateral spiral 
apex ; interior with a lamina or shelf, covering the posterior half 
of the aperture. 

Animal with head depressed, laterally dilated, muzzle short, 
bilobed, tentacles short, subulate ; foot short, subtruncate in 
front, rounded behind. 

Dentition, PI. 30, fig. 4. 



104 CALYPTJUEIDjE. 

Adhering to shells or stones, and modifying the form and 
surface of their shells in accordance with the inequalities 
of their place of attachment ; thus, the same species will be 
convex if on the outside of a Natica, concave if on its inte- 
rior wall, ribbed in either direction, according to its attachment 
on the exterior of a Pecten, etc.; others again are attached in 
groups one over another on each others' shell. 

The distribution is world-wide ; the individual species have a 
wide range, which, added to their great variability, as in 
attached shells generally, has caused an enormous specific 
synonymy. Generically, the synonyms include Sandalium, 
Schum., 1817, Crypta, Humphrey, 1797, Tylacus and Lyro- 
scapha, Conrad, Crepipatella, Lesson, 1830, Proscenula, Perry, 
1811. 

The following sections are founded on characters of little 
importance or stability : 

Section GARNOTIA, Gray, 1867. 

Apex median, posterior, detached and distant from the 
peritreme. 

Section CRYPTA (Gray, in part, 1867), Fischer, 1885. 

Surface spinose. 

Section IANACUS, Morch, 1852. 

Shell depressed or concave above, apex posterior, but 
slightly lateral. 

Section SIPHOPATELLA, Lesson, 1830. 

Lamina produced in front, its columellar margin subtubular. 
Ergsea, H. and A. Adams, 1854, and Noicia, Gray, 1867, are 
synonyms. 

Section SPIROCRYPTA, Gabb, 1864. 

Summit of shell posterior, lateral, submarginal, spiral ; 
internal plate attached to the margin on the lower or outer 
side, curving upwards and inwards, and uniting with the oppo- 
site side at a considerable distance. The plate is subspiral, 
thus approaching Infundibulum and Galerus. C. pileum, 
Gabb (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 78). 

Cretaceous of California. 



CALYPTR^ID^J. 105 

[Genus GALERICULUS, Seeley. 

This genus has two distinct septa, the larger one originating 
below the incurved apex, the smaller one at the base. Only the 
cast is as yet known ; the shell has the form of a Helcion, but 
its upper surface has not been observed. G. altus, Seeley 
(S. and S. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 79). Cretaceous.] 

Genus CAPULUS, Montfort, 1810. 

Shell conical, provided with epidermis, apex posterior and 
directed to the right, more or less spirally curved ; aperture 
basal, the lip continuous, no interior process, the horseshoe- 
shaped muscular impression on the inner wall. 

Animal with lengthened rostrum ; tentacles subulate, with 
the eyes on bulgings at their outer bases ; mantle margin 
fringed ; foot suborbicular, simple ; gill-plume placed obliquely 
across the mantle-cavity, the elongate linear laminae partly 
exposed. Central tooth of the radula trapezoidal, the reflected 
margin triangular, having a long sharp median and very fine 
lateral cusps, laterals multicuspidate, marginals simple (PI. 30, 
fig. 5). 

The few species inhabit the seas of Europe, the East and 
West Indies, Western America, etc. Fossil, the genus com- 
menced with the Silurian, and about twenty species are known. 

These animals are said to feed on the seaweed that grows 
around them, and on small marine organisms. They appear to 
have but limited locomotion, being usually adherent and modi- 
fying the margin of the aperture of the shell according to the 
surface on which they live. Sometimes they wear away the 
surface beneath their foot, forming shallow excavations, or they 
secrete an imperfect shelly base by means of that organ. The 
egg-cases are membranous and are attached in a tuft at the 
front of the foot under the neck. 

PileopsiSj Lam., 1812, and Actita, Fischer de Waldheim, are 
synonyms. 

Section CAPULACM^A, M. Sars. 

Shell thin, patelliform, with thin epidermis; apex not spiral, 
somewhat inclined to the right and posteriorly. Boreal Seas. 
Piliscus, Love'n, 1859, and Pilidium, Midd., not Forbes, are 
synonyms. 



106 

Section BROCCHTA, Bronn, 1827. 

Irregularly conical, apex slightly spiral, directed to the left ; 
left margin with a profound sinus, its posterior half folded. 
Tertiary, 2 sp. C. sinuosa, Bronn (S. and S. Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 
80). A single living species is mentioned but not described as 
G. reductus, Desh., Isle of Bourbon. 

Section THYCA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 

Shell conical, longitudinally grooved, transparent, slightly 
curved. Indian Ocean, a single species on Asteria. 

Subgenus METOPTOMA, Phillips, 1836. 

Shell depressed, conical, elliptical, truncated behind, apex not 
spiral, posterior, slightly inclined posteriorly. Carboniferous, 
Europe, United States. C. Solaris, Kon. (S. and S. Conch., t. 
Ixxxiv, f. 52). 

In the above-named work I included this among the sections 
of Patella, which it resembles exteriorly ; the muscular im- 
pression is like that of Capulus. Tryblidium, Lindstrdm, 
1880, is a synonym. 

[Subgenus SPIRICELLA, Rang., 1828. 

Shell flattened, elongated, with a sinistrally situated apex, 
and a corresponding cavity in the interior ; muscular impression 
very indistinct. 

C. unguiculus, Rang. (S. and S. Conch., t. Ixv, f. 96, 97). 
Miocene, France. 

The relations of this group are obscure ; it may belong near 
Umbrella.] 

Genus AMATHINA, Gray, 1842. 

Shell depressed, oblong ; apex posterior, not spiral, with 
three strong ribs radiating from it to the anterior margin which 
is produced into three points. 

Animal with elongated head, the eyes sessile on the margin 
behind the short tentacles ; mantle margin entire, a tentacular 
median filament at the hind part. Indian Ocean. 

Genus PLATYCERAS, Conrad, 1840. 

Shell depressed subglobose, subovoid or obliquety subconical ; 
spire small ; volutions few, sometimes free and sometimes con- 



C ALYPTILEID^. 1 7 

tiguous, without columella ; aperture more or less expanded, 
often campanulate, and sometimes with the lip reflexed ; peris- 
tome entire or sinuous. Surface striated or cancellated, often 
spirally ridged or plicate, and sometimes strongly lamellose 
transversely, nodose or spiniferous. 

There are fifty fossil species, Silurian to Carboniferous. 
United States, Europe. P. ventricosum, Conr. (S. and S. Conch., 
t. Ixiv, f. 81, 82). As Platyceras was parasitic on crinoids and 
other marine organisms, the shells are very frequently deformed. 
The subglobose species resemble the Velutinse, but there is 
every degree of variation in form between these and non-spiral 
shells. From among these the following groups have been 
rather arbitrarily separated. / Acroculia, Phillips, 1841, is a 
synonym ; in the opinion of some naturalists, Conrad's name 
(being preoccupied in insecta) should yield to this. 

Section ORTHONYCHIA, Hall, 1843. 

Body of the shell straight or curving, gradually diminishing 
above, arched or in some degree spiral at the apex, with the 
last volution or more quite free. P. spirale, Hall (S. and S. 
Conch., t. Ixiv, f. 83). 

Section IGOCERAS, Hall, 1859. 

Shell cancellated and often plicate. P. pileatum, Conr. Si- 
lurian, U. S. 

Section EXOGYROCERAS, Meek and Worthen, 1868. 

Shell sinistrally spiral, with rudimentary columella. P. 
r ever sum , Hall. 

[Genus DIAPHOROSTOMA, Fischer, 1885. 

Under this new name, Dr. Fischer includes Platyostoma, 
Conrad (not Klein, etc.), and its section Strophostylus in this 
subfamily. I have placed it in Naticidse, p. 9.] 

[ADDISONIA, Dall, 1882. 

Dr. Fischer has included this patelliform genus here on 
account of its lingual dentition, and the existence of a male 
copulatory organ ; for both conchological and anatomical reasons 
I prefer to retain it near Fissurella.] 



108 

II. H1PPONYCINJE. 
Genus HIPPONYX, Defrance, 1819. 

Shell thick, obliquely conical, non-spiral, apex somewhat pos- 
terior and directed backwards, surface rugose or longitudinally 
grooved or cancellated ; muscular impression horse-shoe shaped ; 
base of attachment (opercular piece) when present, thick. 

Animal oval or suborbicular, conical or depressed ; foot very 
thin, a little thickened towards the margins ; head globose, sepa- 
rated from the body by a neck-like constriction ; eyes upon 
swellings of the tentacles. 

Dentition, PL 30, fig. 6. 

Distribution : Warm seas. Fossil : Cretaceous, Eocene. U. S., 
Europe. 

The synonyms are Cochlolepas, Klein, 1753; Krebsia, Morch., 
and Amallhea. Schum., 1817. 

The same species will either excavate a cavity to which it 
adheres, or secrete a testaceous support. The section Amalthea 
was formed for certain species which were supposed to differ 
from Hipponyx in not secreting a shelly base, but forming 
instead a cavity in the surface of shells. . . 

Genus MITRULARIA, Schum., 1817. 

Shell conical, more or less irregular with a subcentral, sub- 
posterior, subspiral apex ; interior with a central, half cup-shaped 
lamina, open in front, free on the sides, attached at the apex ; 
basal plate thickened. 

Animal with broad muzzle, tentacles lanceolate, with eyes 
externally near their base, the neck lobed on either side. 

Inhabits temperate and tropical seas, distribution world-wide. 
The synonymy includes Cemoria, Risso ; Mitrella, Trochilina, 
Trelania and Poculina, Gray, 1807; Lithedaphus, Owen, and 
Calyptraea, Lam., 1801, not 1799. Lamarck at the later date 
adopted for his type a species belonging to the present group to 
which it has since been generally applied, whilst the name of 
Galerus, Humphrey, has been the received designation for the 
Calyptraea, Lam., of 1799. I follow Dr. Fischer in correcting 
this matter, and like him displace the earlier but ill-founded 
name of Humphrey for the latter. 



C ALYPTR^ID-ffi. 109 

[Genus HARTTIA, Walcott, 1884. 

A cast indicating a patelliform shell within which extends a 
low broad ridge, originating at one end and supports a broad, 
subcordate shield-like expansion covering most of the other end. 
H. Matthewi, Walcott (PI. 30, fig. 1), Cambrian, St. John, N. B. 
A group of doubtful affinities.] 



The following extracts from a lecture by P. P. Carpenter, 
delivered under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, and 
printed in its Annual Report for 1859, scarcely require apology 
for their introduction here, in view of their intrinsic interest. 
Carpenter and Dr. Gray agree in making large reductions from 
the number of published species, although, as a matter of course, 
they differ somewhat in detail. 

" The Calyptrseids (' slipper ' and ' cup-and-saucer ' limpets) 
found on the Spondylus valves are the most beautiful and varied 
that are known in any part of the world. The shells are large 
a.nd thin, delicately furrowed and as it were engine-turned, with a 
profusion of tubercles, which sometimes rise up into long hollow 
spines. The colors vary from white to a rich black-brown, or 
are variously mottled with sienna, while the shape may be either 
an elevated cone or a widely spreading disk. Sometimes the same 
individual will begin with one form and sculpture-pattern, and 
suddenly change to another ; others again seem to develop per- 
manent and widely differing varieties. Occasionally a starved or 
diseased Mazatlanian will present the aspect whicli is normal on 
the colder shores of South America ; exchanging its thin texture 
and delicate sculpture for a coarse, solid, and nearly smooth 
shell. So far the views lately propounded with such ability by 
the celebrated author of the ' Yoyage of the Beagle ' meet with 
sufficient confirmation ; and yet amid all its changes, there is a 
habit of growth, hard to describe and yet easily recognized by 
the practiced eye, which not only unites the most aberrant forms, 
but at once separates them from neighboring species found on 
the same coast and appearing very similar to the common ob- 
server. The ordinary plan of only preserving in collections a 
few picked specimens displaying marked peculiarities, is by no 
means favorable to the elimination of truth in reference to spe- 



110 CALYPTR^ID^l. 

cific variation. These extreme forms are very naturally described 
as distinct species, the intermediate connecting links not passing 
before the view of the naturalist. On showing to a distinguished 
author a carefully eliminated suite of Mazatlan specimens con- 
necting the smooth, thin, flat Grepidula squama, Brod., with 
the coarse, arched, laminated G. Lessonii, passing through the 
forms G. nivea, C. B. Ad., and C. striolata, Mke., he complained 
that I had ' kept all the puzzling shells.' In the very useful work 
of Messrs. H. and A. Adams, on the ' Genera of Recent Mol- 
lusca,' these forms appear under different subgenera. It is not 
fair to blame authors for these mistakes, which naturally result 
from the imperfection of the material on which they work. 
But the prevalence of such errors should lead us to embrace 
every opportunity of studying large numbers of specimens, both 
from the same and different localities. Patience, accuracy, and 
honesty may thus render as valuable service to science as bril- 
liant genius, and may supply the materials from which some 
master-mind may hereafter develop the most important generali- 
zations. 

" Those who describe species from minute differences founded 
on individual specimens, might do well to study the plates ap- 
pended to the ' B. A. Report on the West Coast Mollusca.' 
Take e. g. the Grucibulum spinosum, pi. 9. The shell is at first 
spiral, like a snail. It then surrounds its entire margin with a 
rim, which is the first beginning of what in the adult becomes 
the ' saucer ' or outside shell ; that is the hardened skins of the 
animal's body (for the shells are not to be regarded as a house, 
constructed for the animal to live in, but as an integral part of 
the animal itself, like the feathers of birds or our own nails and 
hair). At the same time it raises a slight lamina from the labi- 
um or ' pillar-lip ' which ultimately becomes the ' cup.' At first, 
however, it is like the ' deck ' in the Slipper limpets, from some 
species of which it can scarcely be then distinguished. The 
Crepidulse, however, continue their deck in a horizontal direc- 
tion, while the Crucibulum turns the edges upwards at a more 
or less obtuse angle. Gradually during the progress of adoles- 
cence, this angle becomes right and then acute, the outer shell 
meanwhile taking various forms, round, oblong, or irregular, 
according to the nature of the surface to which it has chosen to 



CALYPTR^EID^E. Ill 

adhere. Often this immature state is continued to a late period ; 
if permanent it would belong to the subgenus Dispotaea (Sa}^), 
of Messrs. Adams. But normally the sides of the cup close in, 
while its body becomes greatly swollen in front. This cup now 
assumes the form which is alwa}*s characteristic of the species 
under every modification of external growth ; being well rounded 
in C. imbricatum, angular at the side in C. spinosum, and with 
the sides flattened against each other in (7. radiatum. In C. 
rude, the adolescent stage is very soon completed and the cup 
is permanently detached from the side of the shell, forming a 
veritable ' cup and saucer,' one too after the fashion so prevalent 
in America, where the cup-handle has never been formed. It is 
a remarkable fact in geographical distribution, that the forms 
intricatum and rude, which are typical in the west tropical 
fauna of Central America, reappear but very sparingly on the 
Caribbean shores ; while C. spinosum, which is far more common, 
more variable and more widely distributed being found (under 
various names) from California to Chili has not yet been dis- 
covered on the eatern side. 

" Again, the C. radiatum, which is the most delicately formed 
of the whole group, confines itself to the equatorial western 
seas, not having been found further north than the Panama dis- 
trict. An extremely remarkable specimen of C. spinosum was 
dredged by Mr. Cuming in comparatively deep water. The net 
brought up a large stone with a small hole in it, on looking 
down which Mr. Cuming perceived a number of spines, as 
though a sea-urchin was lodging there. A blow of the hammer 
discovered the existence of a large cavity within, communica- 
ting with the external world only through this narrow opening. 
In the hollow of this cavity lay the limpet, turned as it were 
nearly inside out. The creature had gone to live there when 
3 r onng, and being of sedentary habits, it had not occurred to 
him that he might be imprisoned for life by his own corpulence, 
else he would probably have made his escape before he had 
grown too large. As it was, he grew larger and larger, and as 
the walls of his prison rose up round him on every side, he was 
obliged to flatten out his shell till it became a plate, instead of a 
cone. At the same time, his body protruding into the hollow, 
the cup protruded along with it till it stood considerably 



112 OALYPTIUEID^B. 

beyond the shell, of which it was normally an inside partition. 
Thus our Calyptneid was fixed as immovably as any Pholas, but 
with this difference in their condition : that the Pholas, being 
designed for that kind of life, is not troubled with useless heads 
and eyes, and, moreover, is furnished with two long pipes to 
convey the water to and from the mouth and gills ; while the 
Crucibulum had eyes simply to stare at the wall in the dark, 
feelers to push the stone, and a long ribbon tongue, armed with 
hundreds of teeth, to rasp the water. And while encumbered 
with these unnecessary appendages he had not the benefit of 
water-pipes, to bring what alone this lock-jawed subject had to 
feed upon. For this want, however, the economy of the animal 
provided a remedy. The C. spinosum in its normal growth is 
either spinose or not ; the flatter forms being almost always 
smooth. The spires are developed from prolongations of the 
mantle (or thin shell-bearing skin of the animal), which appear 
at irregular intervals, though in regular pattern. Sometimes 
the whole shell is covered with crowded prickles C. hispidum, 
Brod.), sometimes a few long spines appear at the edge on one 
side of the otherwise smooth shell. Sometimes the spines are 
few, large and hollow (C. tubiferum, Less.), each of the outer 
row communicating through a hole within the inner margin, 
which is afterwards filled up. Our prisoner worked for his 
living by constructing very large, long and open spine-pipes, 
which, instead of standing up at right angles to the shell, were 
directed back towards the narrow opening in the stone. It 
would appear that by this means the animal was simply supplied 
with nourishment, for the shell was above the ordinary size. 

" The most common Calyptraeid on the backs of our Spon- 
dylus valves, however, was Grepidula aculeata, Gmel. It was 
first described from West Indian specimens, which are generally 
dead and worn in collections, and afterwards re-described from 
fine West Coast shells, as C. hysirix and C. echinus, Brod. 
The stunted northern form was named C. Californica by 
Nuttall. 

" Perfect specimens brought by Mr. Dyson from Honduras 
correspond so exactly with those from Mazatlan that it is hardly 
possible to resist the impression that they are identical. Speci- 
mens from South Africa, from Sydney (Australia) and from the 



CALYPTR^ID^E. 1 1 3 

Pacific Islands, also present no marks of specific distinction. 
It appears to be one of the ubiquitous species, of which several 
are found in various genera, and some are known to have existed 
far back in time. 

" The Crepidula not only undergoes the changes of form from 
nearly flat to deeply arched, but from obese to elongated, which 
every observer of the common slipper-limpet of the Atlantic 
(C.fornicata, abundant from the icy shores of the St. Lawrence 
to the tropical waters of the Gulf of Mexico) knows to prevail 
in that species ; but in sculpture it may either be crowded with 
short spines (C. echinus, Brod.), or have a few radiating lines 
of longer spines with nodulous interstices (C. hystrix, Brod.), 
or be covered with an irregular mass of spiny knobs (normal 
state), or lose the spines altogether in roughened striae (smooth- 
water form), or even become almost destitute of sculpture, like 
some northern specimens of the stunted variety (C. Calif ornica, 
Nuttall). Through all these changes it is recognized by its 
spiral stomattelloid growth exemplifying a section of the genus, 
the extreme forms of which approach Trochita ; and by its 
beautifully waved deck-margin, which resembles a / -^A_-^. The 
pointed centre, as the shell increases in size, generally leaves a 
characteristic line on the surface of the deck, passing up to the 
vertex. But often the point is rounded off, and even degener- 
ates into a broad wave. In one specimen co-ordinate with this 
degenerac}', a sharp angle was abnormally formed on one of the 
sides, so as to give the margin the aspect of a brace turned the 
wrong way, thus v Y~^ ; a very good specific distinction, if no 
intermediate specimens had been found. A series of deck- 
margins belonging to this and the following species, will be 
found represented on plate 8 of the British Association Report, 
Fig. 1, f. 3, g. The best means of distinguishing the species of 
slipper-limpets from each other was found to be the shape of the 
nuclear portion and the mode of growth of the very young shell. 
Whatever be the abnormal character of the adult, it did not 
appear that the offspring had a tendency to the same degeneracy, 
but rather to the resumption of the normal type. In the case of 
local varieties, the peculiarities are reproduced, because they 
depend on circumstances which affect all alike. But in such cases 
as those under consideration, where the extremes and all the 
8 



114 CALYPTR^EID^E. 

intermediate forms of variation are found in the same locality, 
the changes depending on the accidents of individuals, it is not 
yet proved that the idiosyncrasies are transmitted. In fact, the 
frequent instances in which the individual itself changes its 
form and sculpture at different periods of its life, is against 
such a hypothesis. 

" It is a fact worth noticing that while some species of shells 
are extremely variable, others, inhabiting the same localities, are 
very constant in their characters. These are seldom widely 
diffused, and are often rare in individuals. A few young speci- 
mens of such species were found among the slipper-limpets on 
the spondyli ; but the bulk of the specimens belonged either to 
C. aculeata, which, as we have seen, is a somewhat ubiquitous 
species, or to G. nivea, which, under many shapes and many 
names, spreads over the principal parts of the Pacific coast of 
America, representing there the very distinct C. fornicata of the 
Atlantic. Two extreme forms were described by Broderip, from 
Mr. Cuming's collection ; the one, C. squama, thin, flat, and 
smooth; the other, C. Lessonii, solid, often arched, and covered 
with concentric laminae. These sometimes appear at regular 
intervals, and seem to be the normal and unique sculpture of the 
shell. It appears, however, that (7. squama (which is the calm- 
water form), if exposed to rougher influences, arches its back, 
adds layer after layer of porcellanous matter, hiding the color 
rays, and leaving the margin like the edge of a quire of paper. 
Now, if co-ordinate with this laying on of extra coats, the crea- 
ture advances forward, turning up the previous portion, the form 
Lessonii is produced ; in general very roughly and irregularly, 
which is the C. striolata of Menke, but sometimes very delicately, 
with fine sculpture between the laminae as described by Brod. It 
is common to find shells living for some time as squama, and 
suddenly plunging into the Lessonii types, with one or two 
strong laminae. Every stage of intermediate form was found 
among the Mazatlan shells. The degraded specimens of the 
Chilian seas form a part of the G. protea of d'Orbigny a 
convenient receptacle, as the type specimens in the British 
Museum show, for the dead and puzzling shells which the 
author did not know where else to place. The ordinary condi- 
tion, intermediate between the extremes first described, is C. 



ALYPTR^ID^J. 115 

nivea of C. B. Adams. As it is the normal state, the usual rules 
of priority have been set aside, and C. nivea taken for the name 
of the species, leaving squama and Lessonii for the principal 
varieties. The White Slipper is known under all forms (when 
in good condition), by its shaggy, light-green skin, and by the 
very peculiar character of the nuclear whirls. These are 
remarkably small, though the shell is large, standing out from 
the surface, of a reddish tinge, and crowded with regular trans- 
verse ribs. The characters have been observed in specimens of 
all the forms, although the influences which produce Lessonii 
drawing the shell away from the vertex, generally lead to its 
abrasion. Sometimes the White Slipper goes to live, when 
young, into the empty burrow of a boring mussel. In these 
cases, as soon as it has grown to the width of its cave, it is 
obliged to develop itself longitudinally, at the same time turning 
up its sides in the vain attempt to get more room. The corres- 
ponding slipper limpet of the California coast appears to have a 
special fancy for this mode of life, as most of the specimens 
sent have assumed the form now described. It was first found 
by Mr. Nuttall, and distributed by him a C. exuviata. It was so 
published in Dr. Jay's catalogue. Dr. Gould, however, figured 
and described it as C. explanata. It had been previously figured 
by Valenciennes, in the Voyage de la Venus, as C. perforans, 
that author supposing that it had made the burrow in which it 
was found. The designation representing an untruth, it must 
yield to the latest name, which alone is accompanied by a de- 
scription. A very singular groove, not found in the Mazatlan 
specimens, appears in all the specimens of G. explanata, and 
gives name to the shell. It is, however, a mere accident of 
growth, differing in every individual, and often not appearing 
till the animal approaches maturity. A specimen in situ, in the 
Smithsonian Institution, fortunately reveals the cause of this 
unique appearance. The creature goes to live in at the outer or 
pipe-end of the burrow of a bivalve, which remains at the other 
end after the animal has perished. The growth of the shell is 
normal till it has attained the breadth of the pipe, be that greater 
or less. It then increases down the pipe, the vertex of the shell 
being always turned towards the outer end. There is no groove 
at this period of its growth, and when the vertex is rubbed off 



1 1 6 

(as it generally is in elongated specimens), it can hardl}* be dis- 
tinguished from similar specimens of the White Slipper. But 
as soon as it has reached the bottom of the pipe, where the 
dead bivalve (generally a Petricola, a creature with rather short 
siphons), still remains undecomposed, it suddenly encounters an 
unexpected obstacle. It wedges itself under this (to it) mighty 
globe, and turns its delicate mantle, exuding the shelly skin up 
the sides of the cavity, but in vain. There is nothing for it but 
to retrace its steps, and back out. As it does so, every new 
portion formed under the arched bivalve repeats the previous 
concave impression, and the grooved slipper is the result. The 
sharp instrument of the explanation of one author, and the 
" perforation " of the other, is nothing but the little rounded 
u clam " tightty wedged at the bottom of its burrow ; and the 
same slipper-limpet freely developed under unconstrained influ- 
ences, is probably the C. navicelloides of Nuttall, to ascertain 
the characters of which we are still in want of perfect specimens. 
, " To return to the W.hite Slipper on the back of our Thorn 
Oyster. Among the young shells which appear to the naked 
eye to be the young G. nivea, were some which under the micro- 
scope displayed a much larger but smooth and imbedded nuclear 
portion. On comparing these with similarly situated specimens 
from the west coast of Africa and from other places, I found 
them exactly identical. They probabty belong to the C. ungui- 
formis of Lamarck. Now, it so happens that Prof. C. B. Adams, 
who in general described every shell of Atlantic types as a new 
species, if found on the Pacific coast, in this one instance felt 
constrained to adopt the Lamarckian name for the unguiform 
Slippers of Panama. It is not certain that in this one instance 
he was correct. Some of the specimens he distributed under 
the name are undoubtedly compressed and inverted forms of his 
own C. nivea ; for every species may take the form of ungui- 
formis when grown inside of a dead spiral shell, especially with 
a dead hermit crab pressing against it. But there seems suffi- 
cient evidence to believe that while each coast has its special 
species of slipper-limpets, each one of which assumes protean 
changes, there is in this one species which has been scattered, it 
may be in dead shells, and on ballast, round the world, and to 
be distinguished from all neighboring species by the peculiar 



CRUCIBULUM. lit 

character of the nuclear whorls. It is too much the custom 
among collectors, and even among naturalists, to examine and 
preserve only well-conditioned adult specimens. More may 
often be learned from deformed and ' ugly ' shells ; and espe- 
cially from series in all ages of development." PHILIP. C. 
CARPENTER. 

In preparing the following pages I have made use princi- 
pally of: 

W. J. Broderip. Descriptions of some new Species of Calyp- 
traeidse. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, I, 3 colored plates. 1835. 

This is almost a monograph of the family. 

Lovell A. Reeve. Conchologia Iconica. Monographs of 
Calyptrsea, Crepidula, Crucibulum, Trochita. 1858. 

G. B. Sowerby. Thesaurus Conchy liorum. Monograph of 
the family Calyptraeidse. 1883. 

J. E. Gray. Notes on the specimens of Calyptrseidae in Mr. 
Cuming's Collection. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1867. 



Genus CRUCIBULUM, Schum., 181Y. 

C. SCUTELLATUM, Gray. PL 31 , figs. 13-24 ; PI. 32, figs. 25-38 ; 
PI. 33, figs. 39-43. 

Shell solid, chestnut-brown or pale, with brown rays, polished 
and often darker colored within, rudely radiately ribbed, 
coarsely latticed by concentric ribs, or smoother and closely 
radiately striated. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

West Coast of America from Chili to Mazatlan. 

Varies greatly in sculpture, height, etc., giving rise to many 
synonyms. The type form has been described as C. imbricatum, 
Brod. (fig. IT), and the synonymy embraces C. corrugatumj 
Carp. (figs. 18, 19), C. rugosum, Lesson, C. dentatum, Menke, 
C. costata, Menke, C. Cumingii, Carp., C. extinctorium, Sowb., 
C. rude, Brod., C. gemmaceea, Val., C. pectinatum, Carp. (fig. 
24), C. umbrella, Desh. (fig. 20) depressed specimens, and 
C. planata, Morch. C. concameratum, Reeve (figs. 21, 22), and 
C. serratum, Brod. (fig. 23), are young shells. 



118 CRUCIBULUM. 

Yar. QUIRIQUINA, Lesson. PI. 32, figs. 30, 31. 

Finely radiately costulate, or smooth. Mutations of this 
form have been called C. trigonale, Ads. and Reeve (fig. 25), C. 
ferrugineum, Reeve (fig. 26), C. lignaria, Brod. (figs. 27, 28), 
C. tenue, Brod. (fig. 29) and C. spectrum, Reeve (figs. 30, 31). 

Yar. AURICULATUM (Chemn.), Auct. PI. 32, figs. 34, 35. 

Whitish or light brown, brown-speckled or unicolored, de- 
pressed, rugosely irregularly radiately ribbed. 

West Indies. 

It can scarcely, except by locality, be distinguished from flat 
specimens from the West Coast, yet the flatter rude form is 
predominant in the West Indies, whilst in the former localities 
it is exceptional. The s} r nonymy includes C. Cuvieri, Desh., 
C.planatum, Schumn., C. Caribbeense, Carp. 

Yar. VIOLACEUM, Carpenter. PI. 32, figs. 36, 37. 

Ribbed and colored like the preceding species, interior light 
violaceous or violaceous brown. -, 

Yar. TUBIFERUM, Lesson. PI. 32, figs. 32, 33, 38 ; PI. 33, figs. 
39-43. 

Closely radiately striated, distantly radiately costulate, the 
riblets prickly with short or long tubular hollow processes. 

West Coast of America, Chili to California. 

Typical specimens of this form might readily be distinguished 
as a species, but the intermediates connect it with var. quiriqui- 
num. It is better known under the later name of C. spinosum, 
Sowb. (fig. 38). Other synonyms are G. cinereum, Reeve (fig. 
39), C. hispida, Brod. (fig. 42), C. Peziza, Gray, var. compresso- 
conicum, Carp., C. maculatum, Brod. (fig. 43), and G. striatum, 
Brod., not Say (= C. auritum, Reeve, figs. 32, 33), the last two 
variations connecting with the smooth or finely striate variety. 

C. STRIATUM, Say. PI. 33, figs. 44, 45. 

Aperture orbicular, apex usually rather high, beaked, 
surface radiately striate, cup broadly open, attached fully one- 
third of its circumference ; brownish white, brownish within. 

New England to New Jersey. 

The type of the section Dispotaea, Say, which has no claim to 
be separated from the main group. 



CALYPTILEA. 119 

C. RADIATUM, Brod. PI. 33, figs. 52, 53. 

Conically orbicular, whitish rayed with dark chestnut without 
and within, radiately striated and very closely finely ridged ; 
internal appendage cup-shaped, produced, concavely compressed 
on one side. 

Bay of Caraccas. 

Broderip describes the cup as " pressed in on one side, adher- 
ing to the shell not only by its apex, but also by a lateral seain, 
which scarcely reaches to the rim of the cup." A doubtful species. 

Section BICATILLUS, Swainson, 1840. 
C. EXTINCTORIUM, Lam. PL 33, figs 46-51. 

Thin, shining, smoothish, apex elevated and twisted; brownish 
white, more or less rayed or spotted with chestnut ; interior 
appendage small, cornucopia-shaped. 

Malacca, Singapore, Mauritius. 

It is C. Isevigatum of Chenu, C. morbidum, Reeve (figs. 48, 49), 
and G. lividum, Reeve (figs. 50, 51), a brown variety. 

C. VERRUCOSUM. Reeve. PI. 33, figs. 54, 55. 

Shell orbicular, conical in the middle, top central, somewhat 
mamiiiary, yellowish cream-color, rather opaque, more or less 
rayed and spotted with chestnut, surface interruptedly laterally 
wrinkled ; cup small, cornucopia-shaped. 

Yucatan (Norman). 

Described without locality, which is supplied from specimens 
in Mus. Philad. Acad. 

C. MAMMULA, Rochebrune. (Unfigured.) Senegambia. 

Genus CALYPTRJBA, Lamarck, 1799. 
C. SINENSIS, Linn. PI. 34, figs. 56, 57 ; PI. 30, fig. 7. 

Orbicular, thin, smooth or finely scaled, shining within; white 
or yellowish white. 

Europe. 

Dr. Jeffreys writes : "It would seem that this mollusk seldom, 
if ever, leaves its place of abode. I found some at Sark, living 
attached to small pebbles, each pebble having scarcely a broader 
surface than the circumference of the shell, which closely fitted 
the sinuosities of the stone. Both shell and pebble were en- 



120 CALYPTR^EA. 

crusted by nmllipore, and had the same appearance. The mark 
of adhesion is glossy, but does not show any excavation. Ac- 
cording to Andouin and Milne-Edwards the female hatches her 
eggs, and keeps the fry between her foot and the foreign body 
to which she adheres ; her patelloid shell thus serves not only to 
cover and protect herself, but is also a shield for her offspring. 
The eggs are yellow, and inclosed in membranous capsules, which 
are flattened, transparent, and filled with an albuminous matter. 
These little sacs are from six to ten in number, connected one 
with another by a pedicle, and arranged like the petals of a rose ; 
each capsule contains ten to twelve eggs. The fry resembles 
that of Velutina Isevigata in shape and sculpture ; and the ani- 
mal at this stage of growth has large ciliated neck-lobes, as in 
other Gastropoda." Brit. Conch., iii, 275. 

It is C. vulgaris, Phil. ; C. squama, Desh. ; G. mamma, Sie- 
maschko ; C. laevigata, Lam. ; G. muricata, Costa; C.spinulosa, 
Chemn.; C. albida, Donov. ; C. succinea, Risso; C. Polii, Scacchi ; 
C. spirata, Nardo ; G. carinaria, Bon., besides a number of fossil 
synon3 r ms. 

C. SUBREFLEXA, Carpenter. PI. 34, figs. 58, 59. 

Reddish brown, aculeately radiately striated ; internal appen- 
dage lateral, appressly effused. 

Gulf of California. 
C. PELLUCIDA, Reeve. PI. 34, figs. 60, 61. 

Depressed orbicular, pellucid, finely concentrically striated; 
livid white ; internal appendage rather depressly septum-shaped. 

Philippine Islands. 
C. CONICA, Brod. PL 34, figs. 62, 63. 

Rather thin, concentrically striated ; yellowish white, radi- 
ately subtessellatety marked with chestnut, interior bluish white 
with the markings chestnut-violaceous ; internal appendage 
diaphanous, thin, effused. 

West Columbia to Acapulco. 
C. MAMILLARIS, Brod. PL 34, figs. 64-75, 78-81. 

Rather thin, smooth, with growth-lines ; whitish, becoming 
purplish or brownish purple on the spire, the mamillary apex 
brownish ; interior light brownish or violaceous. 

Valparaiso, Panama, Mazatlan, Sta. Barbara, Gal. 

'Payta to Guayaquil (d'Orbigny). 



OALYPTR^EA. 121 

The synonymy includes G. regularis and C. aspersa (figs. 80, 
81), C. B. Ad., G. Lamarckii, Menke, C. lorica, Brod. (Gray), 
C.fastigiata, Gould v figs. 66, 67), from Puget Sound, C. solida, 
Reeve (tigs. 68, 69), C. lichen, Brod. figs. 70, 71), C. unguis, 
Brod. (figs. 72, 73), a distorted young specimen, and C. poculum, 
Reeve (figs. 74, 75) = C.fusca, Carp., both young specimens. 

C. clypeolum, Reeve (figs. 78, 79) = G. Magellanica, Gray, 
said to come from Straits of Magellan may be added, 

C. CANDEANA, d'Orb. PL 34, figs. 76, 77, 82, 83. 

Small, rounded, thin, spire elevated, growth-lines rugose, 
sometimes obsoletely finely radiately striated, white. 

West Indies. 

It is C. occidentalism Gray, and C. Chinensis, Guilding. G. 
lamellosa, A. Ad. (figs. 82, 83), does not appear to have any 
distinctive character. 

Unfigured Species. 

C. PARVULA, D unker. West Indies. 

C. CONTORTA, Carp. California. 

C. DECIPIENS. Phil. Sts. Magellan. 

C. SELLA, Menke. Hob. unknown. 

C. VESTITA, Phil. Hob. unknown. 

C. SPINIFERA, Gray. Kurrachee. 

C. RADIATA and C. RADIOLA, Desh. Hab. unknown. 

C. ARIETINA, Rochebrune. Sqnegambia. 

Subgenus INFUNDIBULUM, Montfort, 1810. 
C. RADIANS, Lam. PL 35, figs. 84-88. 

Orbicular, depressed, or elevated radiately subnodulously 
ribbed ; whitish or yellowish white, under a yellowish brown 
fibrous epidermis, interior white, more or less stained with 
chocolate, the septum white. Diam. 2-3 inches. 

Peru, Chili. 

The synonyms are C. Peruviana, Desh., C. concamerata, 
Mart., C. costellata, Phil., C. Trochiformis, GmeL, C. Trochoides, 
Dillw., C. Araucana, Lesson, C. sordida, Brod. (fig. 86), a 
young shell, C. spirata, Forbes (fig. 87), a darker colored 
specimen, said to come from the Gulf of California, but the 
habitat has not been confirmed, although probable, and C. corru- 



122 CALYPTR^A. 

gata, Reeve (fig. 88). A specimen of this species was collected 
(dead) at the island of Inagua, Bahamas, by Dr. J. J. Brown, 
and is in the museum of the Philadelphia Academy. 

C. INTERMEDIA, .d'Orb. PI. 35, figs. 89, 90. 

Orbicular, thin, whitish, longitudinally costate, inner margin 
of the lamina reflected over the blade. 

Peru. 

I know nothing of this shell, said to be rare. Is it an 
aberrant young G. radians ? 

Unfigured Species. 

C. SCUTUM, Lesson (C. TENUIS, Gray said to be a syn.). 

N. Zealand. 

C. VENTRICOSA, Carp. (= C. RADIANS?) Mazatlan. 

,C. PHLYCTIPHERA, Rochebrune. Senegambia. 

Subgenus SIGAPATELLA, Lesson, 1830. 
C. PILEOLUS, d'Orb. PL 35, figs. 91, 100. 

Thin, smooth, with revolving distant riblets, thin, diaphanous, 
white. 

Patagonia, Falkland Is. 
C. HELICOIDEA, Sowb. PI. 35, figs. 92, 93. 

Whorls oblique, divaricately costate, orange-brown. 

Hob. unknown. 
C. LATERALIS, Sowb. PI. 35, figs. 94, 95. 

Divaricately rugosely ribbed, whitish stained and radiated 
with chestnut. 

Hob. unknown. 
C. CALYPTR^IFORMLS, Lam. PI. 35, figs. 96-99. 

White or yellowish white, marked by growth-lines, spire often 
light violaceous, covered 03^ a thin fibrous yellowish epidermis, 
interior white, more or less stained or blotched with violet. 

Australia, New Zealand, IViti Is., etc. 

Lamarck described this species as a Trochus, and Deshayes in 
removing it to the genus Calyptrsea, changed the specific name 
to Lamarckii. I have thought it best to restore the original 
name, although rather objectionable. In no case could Deshayes' 
name be used, for the next in priority is Sowerby's equally 
objectionable C. comma-notata ; then follow C. Novse-Zelandise, 



CREPIDULA. 123 

Lesson, G. tomentosa (figs. 96-98), and C. maculata (fig. 99) of 
Quoy. It is also C. Chinensis of Chenu, not Linn. 

Genus CREPIDULA, Lam., 1799. 

The slipper-limpets are quite as variable as either of the pre- 
ceding groups, and the definitive arrangement of the species 
will require continued observation of the growth of shells from 
the same brood under diverse conditions. I take the species as 
conventionally recognized, although fully aware of some facts 
which, at least, militate strongly against the retention of some 
of them. As in most attached genera the form and sculpture 
are influenced by the surface of attachment ; thus a species flat 
and suborbicular when attached to a similar surface will become 
high and compressed if growing on the spire of a narrow- 
whorled shell. 

G. unguiformis, Lam., is generally found on the inside of 
large univalve shells, such as Naticas, Fulgurs, etc., and has the 
upper surface concave, and the color white ; and Gray thought 
that the same species became G. fornicata, Gmel., convex, with 
radiating chestnut spots, when attached externally ; but ungui- 
formis whilst appearing to prefer the interior station, yet is 
sometimes found on the outside of shells, still preserving .its 
white color and long shape, but becoming somewhat convex. 

The admitted cosmopolitan distribution of G. unguiformis 
points to a large geographical range in the other species ; yet 
the protected station usually chosen by that species is probably 
conducive to its spread and acclimation. 

Gray writes (Zool. Proc., 737, 1867): "Messrs. H. and A. 
Adams formed the genus lanacus for the white flat specimens of 
this genus. All the specimens of the different species that take 
up their residence in the inside of the shell assume this form 
and color. It has been suggested that, instead of being depend- 
ent on the accident of locality, their living in such places is a 
habit peculiar to the species, and a proof that they are of a dis- 
tinct kind. This theory is set at rest by the fact that some 
specimens of the shell show the two states ; that is to say, an 
animal growing on the outside of a shell has moved to the inside, 
and an animal that commenced life on the inside of a shell has 



124 CREPIDULA. 

moved to the outside. In the first case the apex of the shell is 
convex and brown, and the circumference white and flat; in the 
other the apex is flat and white, and the circumference brown 
and convex. I have seen one specimen in which the animal has 
moved twice, and the shell has a brown tip and margin and a 
white flat intermediate space." 

I have seen many thousands of specimens of the American C. 
fornicata and C. unguiformis, but never noticed any showing 
the change above recorded. 

The spinous ribbing of C. aculeata is very probably not a spe- 
cific character, yet it occurs in connection with a general facies 
which is easily recognizable as specific, although not readily 
definable. 

C. FORNICATA, Linn. PL 36, figs. 1-8. 

Smooth, whitish or pink white, with radiating irregular chest- 
nut lines often broken up into spots, interior more or less stained 
with brown or violaceous. Length, 2 inches. 

East Coast of United States from Maine to Florida; 

West Indies, Brazil, etc. 

I figure a ribbed specimen (fig. 2). The synonymy includes 
C. gibbosa, Defrance ; C. nautarum (Humph. ),Morch ; C. Riisei, 
Dunker; C. maculosa, Conrad; C. depressa, Sa} r , has been 
referred to C. unguiformis, Lam., but specimens presented* to 
the Philada. Academy by Mrs. Say are young fornicata. C. 
protea, d'Orb., includes this species and C. unguiformis, and is 
said to extend from West Indies to Patagonia. I am somewhat 
in doubt as to the West Coast distribution of this species as 
assumed by Dr. Gray. Most of the Pacific forms which that 
naturalist has associated with C. fornicata appear to me dis- 
tinguishable by perhaps slight, but sufficiently recognizable 
characteristics; C. arenata, Brod. (figs. 4, 5), however, said to 
occur at St. Elena, West Columbia, where it was obtained by 
Cuming, appears to be absolutely identical, and C. Patagonica, 
d'Orb. (figs. 6, 7), differs only in being more rounded in outline 
(in the figure) than the usual form of fornicata. G. Aplysioides, 
Reeve (fig. 8), from Rio Janeiro, may be added. The shell 
which Reeve has figured under the name of C. nautiloidea, -Les- 
son, also appears to be referable here. 



CREPIDULA. 125 

C. GLAUCA, Say. PL 36, fig. 9. 

Rather flat, with a sharp pointed apex, yellowish brown with 
radiating rows of chestnut spots, interior dark chestnut brown, 
more or less mottled or spotted, septum white, diaphanous. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Long Island Sound to North Carolina. 

The darker color and smaller size distinguish this from 
the preceding species, but I am not at all sure that it is more 
than a varietal state of the young shell. Reeve's figure probably 
represents a colorless C.fornicata. 

C. CONVEXA, Say. PI. 36, fig. 10. 

Convex, with somewhat trigonal outline, high back and ob- 
liquely beaked apex ; whitish or glaucous radiately lined with 
chestnut spots, with sometimes larger nebulous chestnut-purple 
markings. Length, '75 inch. 

Nova Scotia to Florida. 

The form of this species is due to its attachment on the crus- 
tacean Eupagurus longicarpus and the gastropod Ilianassa 
obsoleta. The preceding species has been supposed identical 
with this, and simply modified by attachment to broad flat sur- 
faces ; this may be so, yet the present is a smoother, lighter-colored 
heavier shell. Its identity with C. fornicata is not improbable. 
C. navicula (Bunker), Morchja West Indian form, insufficiently 
described, and unfigured, is probably a synonym. 

C. ADSPERSA, Dunker. PL 36, figs. 11,12. 

Ovate, more or less convex, rugulose 1 , white with chestnut 
spots, epidermis olivaceous. Length, 1 inch. 

Benguela. 

Possibly a form of the last species. 

C. LENTIGINOSA, Sowb. PL 36, figs. 13, 14. 

Yellowish chestnut-colored, with purple chestnut radiating 
series of spots. Length, 1 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Perhaps identical with C. convexa, Say, and the last species. 

C. CAPENSIS, Quoy. PL 36, figs. 15, 16. 

Suborbicular, flattened, radiately, obsoletely striated, chestnut- 
brown, brighter colored within. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 



126 CREPTDULA. 

This species differs in form from the last as C. glauca does 
from C. convexa. 

C. PORCELLANA, Linn. PI. 37, fig. 22. 

Apex slightly beaked, whitish, maculated and divaricately 
stained with purplish chestnut spots. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Senegal ; Indian Ocean ? 

It is very doubtful whether this is distinct from C. fornicata ; 
a sharper apex and divaricating color-lines appear to be its chief 
points of difference. 

C. MOULINSI, Michaud. PI. 36, fig. 17. 

Oval, depressed, smooth or slightly rugose, chestnut-brown. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Is C. fornicata, Phil., and C. gibbosa, Desh. Dr. Jeffreys and 
other good authorities consider this to = C. fornicata. 

C. LESSONIT, Brod. PI. 36, figs. 18-21 ; PI. 37, figs. 22-25. 

Rather flat, concentrically laminarly frilled, frequently ra- 
diately costulate, white, sometimes radiately lineated with chest- 
nut. Length, 1 inch. 

West Coast of Central America to Monterey, Cat. 

C. fimbriata, Reeve (figs. 20, 21), said to come from " Van- 
couver's Straits," C. squama, Brod. (fig. 23), C. nivea, C. B. Ad., 
C. striolata, Menke, and probably C. namcelloides and C. 
exuviata, Nutt., C. explanata, Gould (figs. 24, 25), and C. per- 
forans, Val., are sjmonyms. C. explanata has the form of G. 
unguiformis, but Carpenter places it here. 

Carpenter (Mazat. Cat., 281), describing this species under 
Prof. C. B. Adams' name of C. nivea, writes as follows con- 
cerning it : 

; ' This creature, when flat and finely grown, is the C. squama 
of Broderip. The same shell, when coarsely grown, more convex 
and without brown stripes, is C. nivea, C. B. Ad. When the 
layers of which it is composed, instead of lying regularly one 
over the other, are slightly prominent, it becomes C. striolata, 
Menke. When they are drawn forwards and project it becomes 
C. Lessonii, Brod. The name of Prof. Adams is retained, in 
preference to the prior ones of Broderip and Menke, as repre- 
senting the normal condition of the shell. 



CfcEPIDULA. 127 

u In the squama stage it appears as a very thin, flat shell ; with 
the vertex generally lustrous brown, sometimes white ; from this 
radiate a greater or less number of brown lines, sometimes more 
or less broken into dots, gradually losing themselves in the 
white texture of the shell, sometimes reappearing at the margin, 
sometimes altogether absent. Yery rarety a rich lustrous brown 
is developed inside, shading into a sea-weed green. The shell is 
covered with a copious yellowish green epidermis, which lies in 
a fringe round the sharp margin. In its ordinary state, the 
texture has a tendency to run into layers. The epidermis does 
the same, the layers being in shreds and very copious." 

C.. DORSATA, Brod. PL 37, figs. 26-30 ; PI. 38, fig. 41. 

Thin, wide, irregularly longitudinally corrugated or rudely 
ribbed, or smoothish, whitish or yellowish, sometimes violaceous 
within ; septum bilobed. Length, *75 inch. 

Mazatlan to California. 

So distorted is this species in some instances that the apex is 
somewhat distant from the margin, and the attachment of the 
septum is lateral, so that it was described as a Calyptnea. 

C. bilobata, Gray (figs. 26, 27), is a smooth, chestnut-rayed 
form of this species; C. lingulata, Gould, is described from a 
worn specimen of it. C.foliacea (fig. 28), and C. strigata (figs. 
29, 30), Brod., referred by Carpenter to the next species, appear 
to me more likely to belong here, if they are not C. aculeata, 
Gmel. 

C. DILATATA, Lam. PL 37, figs. 31-34 ; PL 38, fig. 42. 

Oval, broad, rather thick, smooth, but with distinct growth- 
lines ; whitish, under a yellowish brown, thin epidermis, interior 
white, but the margin usually stained or radiately lineated with 
chestnut ; apex much curved to the side of the shell. 

Length, l'5-2'5 inches. 

Western Coast of America from Patagonia to Alaska ; 

Kamtschatka. 

Distinguished by its rugose growth, inflated form, interior 
marginal coloring. The synonymy is very large : C. depressa, 
Desh., C. Peruviana, Lam., C. patula, Desh., C. Adolphsei, 
Lesson, C. nautiloides, Lesson, C. pallida, Brod. (fig. 32), C. 
arcuata (Brod.), Orb., C. princeps, Conr., C.preerupta, Conrad, 



128 CREPIDULA. 

C. grandis, Midd. (fig. 33), C. minuta, Midd. (fig. 42), and G. 
nummaria, Gould (fig. 34), the latter from the interior of shells, 
hence flattened. It appears to me that nummaria might as well 
be referred to C. Lessoni as here, and that C. explanata, which 
is placed in the synonymy of G. Lessoni, could also be equally 
well placed here ; further, these flat, interior-growing specimens 
of Crepidula from the West Coast have about as much right to 
a distinctive place as has C. unguiformis. 

C. MONOXYLA, Lesson. PL 37, figs. 35, 36. 

Whitish, elongated, contorted, high-convex. 

Length, 1-25-1 '5 inches. New Zealand. 

This species does not appear to have any special character- 
istics ; a G. unguiformis growing on the outside of a narrow 
shell would be apt to take on the same form. C. contorta, Quoy 
(figured), and C. profunda, Hutton, are synonyms. 

C. ONYX, Sowb. PI. 37, figs. 37, 38; PL 38, figs. 43-50; PL 
39, fig. 59. 

Rather thick, rugose, smooth or rarely radiately costellate, 
chestnut or chocolate-colored within and without, sometimes 
obscurely chestnut-rayed, the septum usually white. 

Length, 1*5-2 inches. Panama to California. 

Carpenter, in his Mazatlan Catalogue, endeavors to distin- 
guish G. rugosa, Nuttall (fig. 37), from this species; the latter 
having a shaggy epidermis, whilst that of rugosa, though some- 
what lamellar, is glossy, never shaggy. The numerous speci- 
mens before me, from many localities, do not seem to establish 
this distinction, and probably the shaggy epidermis is the 
result of rough water. I suspect that G. adunca, Sowb., with 
its sharp ele'vated beak, although placed from this character in 
a distinct section, will prove to be an onyx growing upon more 
restricted surfaces. 

The synonymy will include G. hepatica (fig. 38), perhaps of 
Deshayes, at any rate, of C. B. Adams ; but whether the C. 
hepatica so identified by Krauss, or his var. complanata (fig. 45), 
from the Cape of Good Hope, are identical, remains doubtful : 
I can see no difference, judging from the figures. G.immersa, 
Angas (figs. 46, 47), from Australia, also appears the same. To 



NATICID^E. 



PLATE 21 




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NATICIDyG. 



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ISTATICIE^E. 



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56 





PLATE 25. 



% 

72 





88 



87 



79 



83 



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NATICID^E. 



PLATE 26. 








NATICID^E. 



PLATE 27. 




NATICIDJE. 



PLATE 28. 




55 56 



NATICIE^E. 



PLATE 29 



4-6 




87 



89 



CALYPTR^EID^E. TURRITELLIDyE. 



PLATE 3O 






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CALYPTFUEID^E. 



PLATE 31 









23 





1 












21 



PLATE 32 






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CREPIDULA. 

these are to be added G. amygdalus, Yal., C. Ccri[/n\:- 

Ad. (juvenile), C. marginalis, Brod. (figs. 48, 49), C. lirata, 

Reeve (fig. 50), and perhaps C. Sitchana, Midd. (fig. 59). 

Section GARNOTIA, Gray, 1867. 

C. ADUNCA, Sowb. PI. 38, figs. 51-55; PI. 37, figs. 39, 40; 
PI. 39, fig. 60. 

Usually rather high, compressed on the sides, or subtriangular 
with a sharp hooked beak distant from the margin, smoothish, 
chestnut-brown, under a light yellowish brown epidermis, with 
sometimes indistinct ra\ r s, more or less broken up into spots, 
interior also chestnut color. Length, 1 inch. 

Panama Sts. of Fuca. 

A very common West Coast form, the distinctive character 
of which may result mainly from its attachment ; the coloring 
does not differ from G. onyx. The synonyms are G. solida, 
Hinds (fig. 52), C. roxtriformis, Gould (figs. 53, 53 a), G. 
uncata, Menke, G. fissurata, Sowb. (fig. 60), and G. rostrata, C. 

B. Ad. C. excavata, Brod. (figs. 54, 55), is a large form, a 
variety of which has been named fusco-punctata by Morch. C. 
incur ua, Brod. (figs. 39, 40), is normally radiately ribbed, but 
intermediates occur between it and the smooth typical form. 

Section CRYPTA (Gray), Fischer, 1885. 

C. ACULEATA, Gmel. PI. 39, figs. 61-65. 

Oval, moderately convex, apex lateral, spiral, surface covered 
with radiating prickly or spinose ridges; whitish, yellowish or 
brownish, often chestnut-rayed, interior often splotched or 
rayed with chocolate, septum white. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 
Florida to Patagonia, and West Coast, of America 

northwards to Southern California, Sandwich 

Islands, Japan, Australia, Mauritius, India, etc. 
A cosmopolitan species, varying in the development of the 
spines, and with a considerable s\'iionymy : C. echinus (fig. 63) 
and C. hystrix (fig. 64), of Broderip, C. Galifornica, Nuttall, 
MS., C. costata, Menke (fig. 65). C. strigata and C. foliacea, 
Brod., which I have referred to the synonymy of G. dorsata, 
may possibly belong here. 
9 



130 CREP1DULA. 

Section IANACUS, Morch, 1852. 
C. UNGUIFORMJS, Lam. PL 39, figs. 66-68. 

Narrow, upper surface, usually flat or concave, with apex 
direct and marginal, somewhat lamellar, milk white, interior 
highly polished, the septum convex. Length, 1 inch. 
Nova Scotia to Texas, West Indies, Mediterranean Sea, 

Peru, Panama to California. Australia, 

New Zealand, Singapore, etc. 

It is Patella crepidula, Linn., C. Italica, Defrance, C. calceo- 
lina, Defrance, C. Deshayesii, Folin (figs. 67, 68), C.plana, Say, 
C. sinuosa, Turton, G. Candida, Risso. Some authors have 
contended that the European G. unguiformis is a different 
species from our G. plana ; the comparison of large suites of 
both will demonstrate their identity to any one. 

Section SIPHOPATELLA, Lesson, 1830. 

C. WALSHII, Hermannson. PI. 38, figs. 56-58. 

Transverse, concave, white, beak lateral, internal appendage 
oblique, inflected at the outer side. Width, 1*25 inches. 

Ceylon, Singapore, China Sea, Japan. 

It is C. plana, Ads. and Reeve, tfot Say, C- scabies, Reeve 
(fig. 58). 

C. CHINENSIS, Gray. PL 39, figs. 69-U. 

Spiral, with one and a half or two whorls, pale brown or 
whitish, internal plate thin with a lateral fold. 

China. 

Possibl} 7 identical with the preceding species and presenting 
a more free growth of it. It is the type of Gray's group 
Noicia. 

, Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

C. CALYPTILEIFORMIS, Desh. Peru. 

C. NERITOIDES, Recluz. = Genus Latia. 

C. SUBSPIRATA, Blainv. Hob. unknown. 

C. RUGULOSA, Dunker. Cape Good Hope. 

C. NAVICELLA, Lesson. Hab. unknown. 

C. CHILIENSIS, Lesson. Chili. 



CAPULUS. 131 

C. LAMELLOSA, A. Ad. Japan. 

C. COSTULATA, Dunker. Hob. unknown. 

C. LINEOLATA, Desh. Southern Seas. 

C. STRIGILLATA, D anker. Hab. unknown. 

C. EXCISA, Phil. Ins. Mergui. 

C. ATRA, Phil. Hab. unknown. 

C. GOREENSIS, Desh. Senegal. 
C. HOLURTIIII, Perry. 

C. TEGULICIA, Rochebrune. Senegambia. 

Genus CAPULUS, Montfort, 1810. 

C. HUNOARICUS, Linn. PI. 39, figs. 72-74. 

Shell cornucopia-shaped with recurved apex, rather thin, 
finely irregularly ribbed, disappearing towards the margin, 
growth-lines conspicuous, irregular, undulating the surface of 
the shell ; yellowish white to dull reddish brown, under a thin 
yellowish brown epidermis, which is easily detached and seldom 
remains on the upper part, interior white or pinkish. 

Diam. l'5-2 inches. 

Europe ; off Martlia's Vineyard^ Mass., 69 and 458 fms. 

In British waters it is found in from 7 to 85 fathoms, attached 
to rocks and large shells, especially frequenting o} T ster and 
scallop beds. It is a common tertiary fossil. 

The synon}'mns are C. Ungaricus, Lam., Pileopsis militaris, 
Linn, (juv.), G. unguis, Sowb., C. dispar, Michelotti, Protomedea 
ornata, Costa. 

C. UNGARICOIDES, d'Orb. PL 40, figs. 82, 83. 

Rather depressed, very thin, fragile, summit lateral and spiral ; 
surface of the shell entirely smooth, but the epidermis has 
some radiating raised lines ; rosy white with a few reddish rays. 

Diam. 15-22 mill. Payta, Peru. 

C. INTORTUS, Lam. PI. 39, figs. 75, 70. 

Thin, very obliquely spiral, finely longitudinally rugosely 
'costulate, somewhat obsoletely decussated by the growth- 
sculpture ; aperture rounded ; white, the epidermis yellowish 
brown, hairy. Length, 17 mill. 

Florida, West Indies. Paumotus, Philippines, Mauritius. 



132 CAPULUS. 

A species having a wide distribution in warm seas. It is 
? G. militarise Wood, C. incurvus, Gmel., G. liberatus, Pease 
(fig. 76). 

C. BADIUS, Danker. PI. 39, figs. 17, 78. 

Laterally compressed, obsoletely radiately costulate, orange- 
brown. Length, 15- mill. 

Japan. 
Has somewhat the aspect of a Hipponyx. 

C. SAGITTIFER, Gould. PL 39, figs. 79, 80. 

Smooth, thin, translucent white, with minute arrowhead- 
shaped markings of more opaque white, arranged in quincunx 
order. Diam. 6 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
C. VIOLACEUS, Angas. PI. 39, fig. 81. 

Laterally compressed, radiately striated, apex free, inclined 
to the right ; internally with a very narrow rib, rounded at the 
edge, situated in the cavity of the shell and extending on either 
side nearly to the interior of the aperture ; interior violaceous. 

Length, 16 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Described from a single specimen. 

Section CAPULACM^EA, M. Sars. 

C. RADTATUS, Sars. PI. 40, figs. 84-87. 

Thin, transparent, radiately. striate or smooth except growth- 
lines, whitish or yellowish, faintly strigate with darker color, 
under a thin yellowish epidermis, base rounded, apex small, 
inclined. Length, 22 mill. 

Circumboreal : Sea of Ochotsk, Alaska, Davids Strait, 

Norway, Spitzbergen, Japan. 

The synonymns are Pilidium commodum, Midd. (figs. 86, 87), 
Piliscus probus, Loven, Capulus dilatatus (figs. 84, 85), and 
C. depressuSj A. Adams. 

ALLERYA KREBSIT, Morch, and PROPILIDIUM TENUE, Jeffreys, 
both referred to this group, are members of the family 
SIPHON ARIIDJS. 



AMATHINA. 133 

Section THYCA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. 
C. ASTERICOLA, Ads. and Reeve. PL 40, fig. 88. 

High-conical, sculptured with fine close-set radiating riblets ; 
white ; margin crenulated. Alt. 6 mill. 

Sooloo Sea, on the tubercle of a star-fish. 

Unfigured and doubtful species of Capulus. 

C. (THYCA) ELEGANS, Tapp. Canefri (unfigured). Papuan Mands. 
C. CYTHER^EA, Lesson (unfigured). Tahiti. 

C. PALEACEA, Menke (unfigured). Hab. unknown. 

C. JAPONICUS, A. Adams (unfigured). Japan. 

C. GARXOTII, Payr. = Gadinia. 

C. SHREEVEI, Conrad. = Hinge process of Pholas costata, Linn. 

Genus AMATHINA, Gray, 1842. 

A. TRICOSTATA, Gmel. PL 40, figs. 89, 90. 

White, apex posterior but not marginal, recurved, with distant 
radiating low striae posteriorly and three strong anterior ridges, 
diverging and causing a projection of the margin. 

Length, 1 inch. East Indies, Japan. 

Patella tricarinata, Linn., to which this is referred by H. and 
A. Adams, is an entirely different shell. 

A. NOBILTS, A. Ad. PL 40, fig. 91. 

Shell shaped like Capulus, solid, white ; apex median, acute, 
involute, turned to the right; strongly bicarinated, posterior 
margin dilated. Length, 25 mill. 

Saghalien Inland, Japan. 

A. ANGUSTATA, Souverbie. PL 40, fig. 92. 

Elongated, narrow, a little twisted, apex recurved, spiral ; with 
three or four anteriorly directed strong carinations, the rest of 
the surface with slighter radiating carinae. Length, 12 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 

A. TRIGONA, Sowb. (unfigured). Friendly Islands. 

A. BICARINATA, Pease (unfigured). Sandwich Islands. 

Judging from the descriptions, these two species are closely 
allied, perhaps identical. 



134 mproNYX. 

Subfamily Hipponycinae. 
Genus HIPPONYX, Defrance, 1819. 

Sowerb}', in the first volume of his Thesaurus, has monographed 
this genus, consisting then of five species, as a bivalve mollusk 
in connection with Crania and Thecidium, mistaking the occa- 
sionally formed calcareous base for an attached valve. 

H. ANTIQUATUS, Linn. PI. 40, figs. 93-99. 

White, apex posterior, concentrically rudely, closely laminated, 
more or less distinctly radiately striated ; epidermis pilose. 
Length, *75 inch. 

Florida, West Indies, Senegal, Polynesia, 

California, Panama, Peru', Australia. 

The synonyms are H. mitrula, Gmel.; H. Panamensis, C. B. 
Ad.; H.foliaceus, Quoy (fig. 98), and H. Cfozmas/brwm, Rochbr. 
(fig. 99). 

H. SERRATUS, Carpenter. PL 40, fig. 100. 

Differs from H. antiquatus in the character of the base of the 
shell (margin of aperture), which is broad and flat, made up of 
very numerous close-set lamellae, deeply serrated into large, 
scarcely rounded lobes ; the interstices are filled with epidermis, 
in irregular ribband-like shreds. Length. 1 inch. 

Mazatlan. 

Living attached to each other or to other shells. H. foli- 
aceus, Menke (not Qnoy and Gaimard), is probiibly a 



H. SUBRUFUS, Lam. PI. 40, fig. 1. 

Shell orange or orange-red, decussated by radiating and con- 
centric close striae. Length, '5 inch. 

West Indies, Peru, Panama. 

H. cernuus, Gmel., is probably identical. 

H. tuberculatus, Carp., is similarly colored, with subcentral 
apex, close radiating ribs and concentrically tubercnlate, base 
thick, lamellate. Length, *5 inch. 

Morch refers it here doubtfully. H. trigonus,Gmel., is said to 
be flatter than subrufus, with stronger radiating sulci, and to 
this Morch doubtfully refers H. barbatus, var. cosfaUahts of Car- 
penter; it is perhaps only a variety of subrufus. 



HIPPONYX.' 135 



H. BARBATUS, Sowb. PL 40, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell depressed, apex suberect, subposterior, whitish, concen- 
trically and rat! lately striated, with a pilose brownish epidermis, 
aperture margin smooth. Length, *75 inch. 

Mazallan, Galapagos Is., Polynesia, Japan, 

Cape Good Hope. 

It is H. australis, Menke, not Lam. H. pilosus, Desh. (fig. 3), 
appears to be the same, and has priority, but the species is gen- 
erally known as H. barbatus. 

H. GRAYANUS, Menke. PI. 40, figs. 4, 5. 

Apex subcentral, ribs fewer, coarser and more nodulous than 
in H. barbatus, with softer, shorter, fewer and more irregular 
hairs, base flat but verj r broad, rather rounded at the inner 
margin, cren a ted at the outer, with numerous lamellae, undulated 
but not serrated. Length, *75 inch. 

Galapagos, Panama, Mazatlan, Sandwich Islands. 

Described as H. radiatus, Gray, a name preoccupied by Quoy 
and Gaimard, and by Desha3 T es, the latter for a fossil species. I 
doubt its distinctness from H. barbatus. 

H. CRANIOIDES, Carp. PL 40, figs. 6, 7. 

Rounded, convexly planate, the apex subcentral, radiately 
striate, concentrically laminate. Length, '85 inch. 

Vancouver' ' Island. 

H. lumens, Carp. (fig. 7\ is a somewhat higher form, less 
worn by attrition, but having the essential characters of the 
above ; it is reported from Sta. Barbara and S. Pedro, Cal. 
Neither species has very good claims to recognition as distinct. 

H. RADIATUS, Quoy and Gaimard. PL 41, fig. 8. 

Shell radiateh" broadly costate, apex snbmedian. Dimensions 
and habitat unknown. 

This species was found on a Pterocera chiragra, consequently 
is probably Polynesian. The figure is no doubt magnified, but 
the dimensions are not given. It appears to me not unlike H. 
auslralis, Quoy. 



136 HIPPONYX. 

H. AUSTRALIS, Quoy. PI. 41, figs. 9-15. 

Rather thin, with broad flat radiating ribs and narrow inter- 
stices, concentric sculpture rather faint or obsolete, apex erect, 
subposterior ; whitish, or the interstices of the ribs sometimes 
orange-brown, interior usually stained with orange-brown. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Australia, New Guinea, N. Zealand, Mauritius, 

Viii Is., Japan. 

II. acutnz, Quoy (figs. 12, 13), H. suturalis, Quoy (figs. 14, 15), 
H., cornucopias, Hutton, H. orientalis, Dufo, are synonyms. It 
is possibly AmaUhea conica, Sch'um. a name which would 
have priority if its identity could be fully established ; another 
older name which possibly belongs to this species is Patella 
cassida, Dillw. 

H. IMBRICATUS, Gould. PI. 41, figs. 16, 17. 

Apex subcentral, surface rayed with forty to fifty ribs, which 
are trellised by concentric growth-lines, yellowish white, chestnut- 
color stains the interior. Length, 12 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 
H. CRYSTALLINUS, Gould. PI. 41, figs. 18, 19. 

White, ctiystalline, apex marginal, recurved, radiately ribbed, 
ribs somewhat undulated by the growth-lines, aperture margin 
thick behind, thin anteriorly. Length, 12 mill. Nab. unknown. 

Described as a Capulus. 

H. GRANULATUS, A. Adams. PL 41, figs. 20, 32. 

Shell Capuliform, with compressed sides and posterior, declined 
apex; reddish brown, with white granules disposed in radiating 
series, and subflexuous concentric lines, reddish brown within. 

Length, 16 mill. 

West Coast of Africa. 

Was found attached to the spine of a Cidaris, and reproduces 
its granulations ; probably on a larger smooth surface the species 
would be very different in form and ornamentation. 

H. DANIELT, Crosse. PI. 41, figs. 21, 22. 

Apex posterior, sharp; carmine, rest of surface brownish, radi- 
ately striate, interior chestnut-colored, more or less varied with 
carmine towards the apex. Length, 22 mill. 

New Caledonia. 



MITRULARIA. 137 

The oblique undulating ribs of the original figures, reproduced 
by me, are not of specific importance, resulting from a similarly 
sculptured surface of attachment ; they do not exist on other 
specimens. The species is mainly characterized by its attenu- 
ated apex, thinness and color. 

H. TICAONICUS, Sowb. PI. 41, figs. 23, 24. 

Suborbicular, with the apex posterior and recurved, closely 
radiately striate, whitish, under a pale fulvous hairy epidermis. 
Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines. 
I doubt its distinctness from H. subrufus, Sowb. 



H. RUGULOSUS, Dunker (unfigured). Samoan Is. 

H. PLANATUS, Carpenter (unfigured). Mazatlan. 

H. EFFODIENS, Carpenter (unfigured). West Indies. 

H. MINOR, Garrett (unfigured). Sandwich Islands. 

Genus MITRULARIA, Sehum., 1817. ' 

M. EQUESTRIS, Linn. PI. 41, figs. 25-32 ; PL 42, figs. 33-56 ; PI. 

43, figs. 57-67, 70. 

Nearly orbicular or irregular, rather solid, varying to papy- 
raceous, rudely convex ; whitish, or more or less stained with 
light yellowish ; radiately closely minutely ridged, or striated, 
outer edge of base often closely crenulated. Basal plate con- 
cave, platter-shaped, with puckered edge. Diam. 1-25 inches. 
China Sea, Philippines, Indian Ocean, 

Prince's IsL, W. Africa, W. Indies, 

W. Coast of Central America, Galapagos Is. 
I have interpreted this species in accordance with general 
usage, the Linnean species being indeterminable. The synonomy 
includes: ? M. Dillwynii, Gray, M. umbo, Reeve (fig. 27), M. 
Neptunii, Dillw., var. costata, Morch, M. scutulum, Reeve (figs. 
28, 29), M. stella, Reeve (fig. 31), M. cepacea, Brod. (fig. 30), 
M. varia, Brod. (fig. 35), M. Layardii, Reeve (fig. 33), M. 
Adamsi, Reeve (fig. 36) = M. depressa, Ad. and Reeve, not 
Lamarck (fossil sp.), M. alveolata, A. Ad. (fig. 34), M. Vani- 
korensis, Quoy (fig. 38), M. cancellata, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 37), 



138 M1TRULARTA. 

M. Roissyi, Dufo, Lithedaplius longirostria, Owen, M. dormitoria, 
Reeve (fig. 60), M. ossea, Reeve (fig. 39), H. Hipponiciformis, 
Reeve (figs. 40, 41), M. cyathella, Reeve (fig. 42), M. bulla, 
Reeve (tig. 43), M. slultorum, Reeve (fig. 44), M. Tongana, Quoy 
(figs. 45, 46), M. pileopsis, Quoy (figs. 47, 48), M. chlorina, 
Gould (figs. 49-51), M. radiosa, Gould (fig. 52). These forms 
represent a great variety in shape and sculpture, and it is not 
wonderful that, with the ideas prevalent among conchologists a 
quarter of a century ago, they were described as distinct 
species. I have, for convenience, separated a series of irregu- 
larly corrugated forms as a variety, but they really connect 
insensibly with the type. 

Tar. TORTILIS, Reeve. Figs. 53-59, G1-6T. 

Surface irregularly corrugated and folded, the folds longi- 
tudinal, oblique or concentric, sometimes taking every direction, 
and so thick as to obscure the radiating stria 1 . 

West Indies , Philippines. 

This form is very usual, especially in West Indian specimens. 
M. diaphana (fig. 54), Reeve, M. Martiniana, Reeve (fig. 55), 
M. uncinata, Reeve (fig. 5'7), M.papyracea, A. Ad. (figs. 58, 59), 
M. cornea, Reeve (figs. 61, 62), M. cicatricosa, Reeve (fig. 56), 
M. saccharimeta, Reeve ffig. 63), M. Balanoides, Reeve (fig. 64), 
M. porosa. Reeve (figs. 65, 66), and M. fibulata, Reeve (fig. 67), 
are all synonyms. 

Tar. ACULEATA, Reeve. Fig. 70. 

Radiately striate and scaled, or short spinose. 

Honduras. 

M. tubifera, Gray (un figured), from the same locality, is doubt- 
less a synonym. 

M. CORRUGATA, Brod. PI. 43, figs. 68, 69. 

Suborbicular, apex subcentral, rugosely radiately ribbed and 
striated, ribs scaly towards the margin ; whitish, or light }-ellow- 
ish brown. Diam. 40 mill. 

Guacomayo, Central America. 

Found by Cuming, under stones at 14 fms. A beautiful form, 
but perhaps not specifically distinct from M. equestris. 



MITRULARIA. 139 

M. TECTUM-SiNENSE, Lam. PL 43, figs. 11-74. 

Whitish, racliately striated or nearly smooth, with concentric 
lamellre, free at the edges. Diam. 1 inch. 

Philippines. 

The well-known " Chinaman's hat/' M. scabies, Reeve (fig. 74), 
is a synonym, and connects with varieties of M. equestris. 



M. RUGULOSA, Dunkcr (unfigured). Swain's Isl. 

M. LACTUCACEA, Rocliebrune (unfigured). Senegambia. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Aberrans (Calyptraea), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, 330. 

= Anomia. 
Acrocnlia, Phillips. Palseoz. Foss., 1841. 

= Platyceras, Conrad, . . . . . . .107 

Actita, Fischer de Waldheim. Advers. ZooL, iii, 1825. 

= Capulus, Montf. . . . . . . . .105 

Aculeata (Calyptrsea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, fig. 31 a, 6, 

1858. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn., var. . . . 138 
Aculeata (Patella), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3693, . 112, 127, 129 
Acuta (Crepidula), H. C. Lea. Am .Jour. Sci., 1 ser. xlii, 

108, t. 1, f. 4. = C. convexa, Say. 
Acntus (Hipponyx), Quoy. Toy. de 1'Astr., iii, pi. 72, 35, 

36. = H. australis, Quoy, 136 

Adamsii (Calyptrsea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 7, 1858. 
= Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . . . .137 

Addisonia, Dull., 1882, 107 

Adolphan (Crepidula), Lesson. Toy. de la Coq., ii. 391. 

= C. dilatata (Crepidula), Lam. . . . . .127 

Adspersa (Crepidula), D linker. Mollusca Guineensis, 34, 

1853, . . 125 

Adunca (Calyptrsea), Sowb. Tank. Cat., app. 7, No. 82^, 

1825, 128, 129 

Albida (Patella), Donovan. Brit. Shells, iv, t. 129. 

= Calypt. Sinensis, Linn. 120 



140 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Allerya, Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 100, 1877. 

= Williamia (Siphonariidae), 132 

Alveolata (Calyptrsea), A. Ad., MS. Reeve, Icon., vol. xi, 

sp. 8, 1858. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . 137 
Amalthea, Sebum. Essai nouv. Syst., 181, 1817. 

= Hipponyx, Defrance, 108 

Amathina, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 63, 90, 1842, . 106, 133 

Amygclalus (Crepidula), Valenciennes. Voy. Venus, pi. 15. 

= 0. onyx, Sowb 129 

Angustata (Amathina), Souverbie. J. de Conch., p. 43, 

1875; p. 72, t. 1, f. 6, 1877, . . 133 

Antiquatus (Hipponyx), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1259, 134 
Aplysioides (Crepidula), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 19. 

= C. fornicata, Linn. ....... 124 

Araucana (Calyptraea), Lesson. Zool. de la Coq., ii, part 1, 

No. 156, 1830; Gueriu's Mag., 1831, t. 14. 

= Cal. radians, Lara. . . . . . . .121 

Arcuata (Crepidula), Brod. Brit. Mus. Cat., xxvii, So. 

Am., 49. = Crep. arenata, Brod. 
Arcuata (Crepidula), " Brod.," Orb., Gray. Brit. Mus. Cat., 

xxvii, 49. = C. dilatata, Lara. ' 127 

Arenata (Crepidula), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. xxix, 7. 

= fornicata (Crepidula), Linn. ..... 124 

Arietinus (Galerus), Rochebrune. Bull. Soc. Philom., 180, 

1882-3, . ..121 

Aspersa (Trochita), C. B. Ad. Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist.,v, 

443, 1852, .... 121 

Astericola (Pileopsis), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, 69, 

pi. xi, f. 1, 1848, 133 

Atra (Crepidula), Phil. Menke's Zeitsch., 68, 1851, . . 131 
Auriculata (Patella), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 336, pi. clx. 

= scu tell a turn, Gray, var. . . . . . . .118 

Auritum (Crucibulum), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 17, 1859. 

= C. scutellatum, Gray, var. . . . . . 1 118 

Australis (Hipponyx), JVIenke. Zeit., 180, 1847. 

= barbatus (Hipponyx), Sowb. ..... 135 

Australis (Hipponyx), Quov. Voy. de 1'Astr., iii, pi. 72, 

25-34, . . 136 

Badius (Capulus), Dkr. Moll. Mar. Japan, 124, t. 13, f. 

15-17, 1882, 132 

Balanoides (Calyptnea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 21, 

1858. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn., var. . . . 138 
Barbatus (Hipponyx), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 5, 1835, .135 
Bicarinata (Amathina), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860,399, 133 
Bicatillus, Swains. Malac, 354, 1840, . . .102,119 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 141 

PA^E. 

Bilobata (Crepidula), Gray. Zool. Proc., 745, 1861, . .127 
Brocchia, Bronn. Zeit. Min., ii, 538, 1827, . . . .106 
Broderipii (Crucibulura imbricatum, var.), Carp. Zool. 

Proc., 168, 1856. = scutellatum (Crucibulnm), Gray. 
Bulla (Calyptraea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi,sp. 4, 1858. 

= Mitruiaria equestris, Liim. ...... 138 

Calceolina (Crepidula), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, 26. 

= C. unguiformis, Lam l:jO 

Californica (Cr.ypta), Nutt MSS. 

= C. aculeata, Gmel 112, 113, 129 

Calypeopsis, Lesson. Zool. Vo3'."Coquille, 1830. 

= Crucibulum, Scluim 102 

Calyptraea, Lam. Syst. an., 70, 1801. 

= MitrnlaVia, Sebum 108 

Calyptraea, Lamarck. Prodr., 1799, . . . 103, 108, 119 
Calyptraeiformis (Calyptraa), Lam. Anim. sans vt., vii, 12, 122 
Calyptrseiformia (Crepidula), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, 27, No. 

12, .... ...... 130 

Cancellata (Calyptraea), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Sainarang, 

70, pi. ii, lior. 4. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . 137 
Candeanum (Calyptraea), d'Orb. Cuba., p. 190, . . .121 
Candida (Crepidula), Risso. Hist. Nat. Ear. Merid., iv, 

255,1826. = C. unguiformis, Lam 130 

Capensis (Crepidula), Quoy. Toy. de 1'Astr., iii, 424, t. 72, 

f.-13, 14, >...' 125 

Capulacmaea, M. Sars, 105, 132 

Capulus, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 54, 1810, . .105,131 
Caribbeense (Crucibulum Cumingii, var.), Carp. Zool. 

Proc., 167, 1856. = C. scutellatum, Gray, var. . . 118 
C.irinaria (Patella), Bonanni. = Calyptraea Sinensis, Linn. 120 
Cassida (Patella-), Dillwyn. Desc. Cat., 1032, 1815. 

? = Hipponyx australis, Quoy, 136 

Catillina, Gray. Zool. Proc., 744, 1867 102 

Cemoria, Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 258, 1S26. 

= Mitrularia, Schum 108 

Cepacea (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. 27, fig. 

4, 1835. = Tectum-sinense (Calyptraea), Gray, . . 137 
Cerithicola (Crepidula), C. B. Ad.. Panama Shells, 225. 

= C. anyx, Sowb 129 

Cernua (Patella), Gm. Syst. Nat., p. 3715, No. 120. 

= Hipponyx subrufus, Lam. . . . . . .134 

Chamaeformis (Amalthea), Rochebrune. Bull. Soc. Philom., 

1881-2, p. 29 ; Nouv. Archives Mas., 2d ser., iv, 273. 

= H. antiqnatus, Linn 134 

Chiliensis (Crepidula), Lesson. Yoy. Coq., ii, 394, . . 130 



142 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PA OK. 

Chinensis (Galerus), Chenu. Man., f. 2350-2351. 

= C. Calyptrseiformis, Lam 123 

Chinensis (Calyptrsea), Guild. Swains. Treatise, 233, f. 42, 

1840. = C. Candeana, d'Orb. . 121 

Chinensis (Patella), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1257. 

= C. sinensis, Linn. 

Chinensis (Noicia), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, 740, . 130 
Chlorina (Calyptrsea). Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,ii, 1G1, 

1846. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. .... 138 
Cicatricosa (Calyptraea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 3, 

1858. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn., var. . . . 138 
Cinerea (Calyptraea), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842. 

= Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, var 118 

Clypeola, Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 735, 1867. 

= Infundibnlum, Montf. 103 

Clypeolum (Trochita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 14, 

1859. = Magellanica (Clypeolum), . . . .121 
Cochlolepas, Klein. Ostrac., 119, 1753. 

= Hipponyx, Defrance, 108 

Comma-notata (Calyptrsea), Sowb. Tank. Cat., app. 7, No. 

821,1825. = C. Calyptraeiformis, Lam. . . 122 

Commodum (Pilidium), Midd. Siberische Reise., ii, 214, 

1851. = Capulus radiatus, Sars, . . . . 132 

Com plan ata, var. (Crepidula), Krauss Sudafr. Moll., 09. 

= hepatica (Crepidula), Desh. 128 

Compresso-conicum (Crucibulum spinosum, var.), Carp. 

Zool. Proc., 167, 1856. = C. scutellatum, Gray, var. .118 
Concamerata (Lepas), Martini. Conch., i, 152. 

= C. radians, Lam. ........ 121 

Concameratum (Crucibulum), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 

23,1859. = C. scutellatum, Gray, var 117 

Conica (Calyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, t. 28, f. 6, 120 
Conica (Amalthea), Schum. Essai nouv. gen., 181, t. 21, f. 

4, 1817, 136 

Contorta (Crepidula), Quoy. Voy. de 1'Astr., iii, pi. 72, f. 

15,16. = monoxyla (Crepidula), Lesson, . . . 128 
Contorta (Crepidula), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 35, 1851. 

= C. onyx, Sowb. 

Contortus (Galerus), Cpr. Proc. Cal. Soc., iii, 215, . 121 

Convexa (Crepidula), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

ii, 227, .125 

Cornea (Calyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. 27, f. 5. 

= M. equestris, Linn., var. ...... 138 

Cornucopias (Hipponyx), Button. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal.; 

Jour, de Conch., xxvi, 30. = H. australis, Quoy and Gaim. 136 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 143 

PAGE. 

Corrugata (Calyptraea). Broil. Trans. Zool. Soc , i, pi. 27, 

fig. 2, 1835, "..... .... 138 

Corrugata (Trochita), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 9, 

1859. = Calyptnea radians, Lam 122 

Corruoatum (Crucibulum), Carpenter. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1856,204. = scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray, . .lit 
Costata (Crucibulum), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vii, 70. 

= C. scutellatum, Gray, ....... 117 

Costata (Calyptnea, var.}, Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 100. 

== Mitrularia equestris, Linn 137 

Costata (Crepidula), Desh., Lain. Anim. sans vt., vii, 644. 

= C. aculeata, Gmel .129 

Costellata (Calyptnea), Phil. Archiv. fiir Xaturg., 1845,62. 

= C. radians, Lam. . . . . . . . .121 

Costellatus (llipponyx), var., Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., 4, 

1856. == H. subrufus. Lam 134 

Costulata (Crepidula), Dkr. Menke, Zeitsch., 100, 1851, . 131 
Cranioides (llipponyx), Carp. Ann. Mag. X. Hist., 3 ser., 

xiv, 1864 135 

Crepidula, Lamarck. Proclr., 1799 103,123 

Crepidula (Patella), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1257. 

= unguiformis (Crepidula), Lam 130 

Crepipatella, Lesson. Illust. Zool., t. 42, 1830. 

= Crepidula, Lam 104 

Crucibulum, Sebum. Essai nouv. syst., 182, 1817, .102,117 
Crvpta, Humphrey. Mus. Callon, 17 ( J7. 

= Crepidula, Lam . 104, 129 

Crystallinus (Hipponyx), Gould. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 

Hist.,ii, 161, 1846, 136 

Cumingii (Crucibulum imbricatum), var., Carp. Zool. 

Proc., 167, 1856. = C. scutellatum, Gray. . . .117 
Cuvieri (Calyptrsea), Desh. Regne Animal, pi. 48, f. 4. 

= Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, var. .... 118 
Cyathella (Calyptrsea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 29, 

1858. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . ... 138 

Cythersea (Pileopsis), Lesson. Vov. Coq., ii, pt. i, 387, 

1830, " 133 

Danieli (Hipponyx), Crosse. Rev. Zool., 81, 161, 1858; 

Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iii, 205 ; 3 ser., ii, 22, . . . 136 
Decipiens (Calyptrsea), Ph. Archiv. fiir Naturg., 1845, 61, 121 
Dentatum (Crucibulum), Menke. Zeitsch., 1847. 

= scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray, .... 117 

Depressa (Crepidula), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, 26. 

= C. clilatata, Lam 127 



144 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAOB. 

Depressa (Calyptrsea), Ad. and Reeve (not of Lamarck). 

Moll. Voy. Samarang, 70, pi. xi, f. 2 a, b. 

Mitrularia Adamsii, Rve 137 

Depressa (Crepidula), Say. Jour. Pliilad. Acad., ii, 225. 

= C. forniciita, Say, 124 

Depressus (Capulus), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., 1801, 138. 

= C. radiatus, Sars 132 

Deshayesii (Crepidula), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, 29, 1867. 

= C. unguiformis, Lam. . . . . . . .130 

Diaphana (Calyptraea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 23, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn., var. . . . . .138 

Diaphorostoma, Fischer. Man. de Conch, 756, 1885. 

= Platyostoma, Com*. . . . . . . .107 

Dilatata (Crepidula), Lam. Anim. sans Vert, Edit. Desh. 

vii, 644, 127 

Dilatatus (Capulus), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Dec., 1860, 422. 

= C. radiatus, Sars 132 

Dillwynii (Calyptraea), Gray. 1825, Brit. Mus., Cat. xxvii, 

48. = M. equestris, Linn. . .... 137 

Dispar (Pileopsis), Michelotti. Foss. Mioc. It. Sept., 136, 

t. 5, f. 1, 2. = Capulus Hungaricus, Linn. . . .131 
Dispotaea, Say. Jour. Pliilad. Acad., iv, 131, 1824. 

= Crucibulum, Sebum. 
Dormitoria (Calyptraea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 5, 

1858. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . .137 
Dorsata (Calyptraea), Brod, Trans. Zool. Soc., i, t. 28, f. 

10, 1835, 127, 129 

Echinus (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, 203, t. 29, 

f. 1. = Crep. aculeata, Ginel 112, 129 

Effodiens (Hipponyx), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 5, 137 
Elegans (Capulus), Tapp.-Can. Museo Civico Genoa, ix, 286, 133 
Equestris (Mitrularia), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit , xii, 1257, . 137 
Ergaea, H. and A. Adams. Genera i, 370, 1854. 

= Siphopatella, Lesson, 104 

Excavata (Crypta), Brod. Pro. Zool. Soc., 46, 1834. 

= C. adunca, Sowb 129 

Excisa (Crepidula), Phil. Menke, Zeitsch., 24, 1849, . 131 

Exogyroceras, Meek and Worthen, 1868, .... 107 
Expfanata (Crepidula), Gould. Cal. and Mex. Shells, 4, t. 

14, f. 7. ? = C. Lessonii, Brod 115,126 

Extinctorium (Calyptraea), Lam. Anim. sans Vt., vii, 622. 118 
Extinctorium (Crucibulum), Sowb. (non Lam.). Gen., f. 3. 

= scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray, . . . 117 

Exuviata (Crypta), Nutt. MS. Gray, Zool. Proc., 738, 1867. 

= C. Lessonii, Brod. 115, 126 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 145 

PAGE. 

Faetigiata (Calyptrsea), Gould. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 

Hist., ii, 161. = C. mamillaris, Brod 121 

Ferruo-ineum (Crucibulum), Reeve. Conch. Icon.,xi, sp. 5. 

1858. = scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray,. . . .118 
Fibtilata (Calyptni*a), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 11, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn 138 

Fimbriata (Crepidula), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 11, 1859. 

= Lessoni (Crepidula), Brod. ...... 126 

Fissurata (Crepidula), Sowb. Tlies. Conch., sp. 10, 1883. 

= C. adunca, Sowb 129 

Foliacea (Caliptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, t. 28, f. 9, 

1835. ? = Crep. dorsata, Brod 127, 129 

Foliaceus (Hipponyx), Menke. Zeit., 1851, 30 (non Quoy. 

and G.). = H. serratus, Carp. . . . . -134 

Foliaceus (Hipponyx), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 72, f. 41-45. - 

= H. antiquatus, Linn. . . . . . . 134 

Fornicata (Crepidula), Phillippi. Moll. Sicil., i, 119, 1836. 

= C. Moulinsii, Mich 113,126 

Fornicata (Patella), Linn. 'Syst. Nat. 1257, . . .124 
Fusca (Trochita), Carp. Thes. Conch. Index. 

= Calyptnea mamillaris, Brod. ..... 121 

Fusco-punctata (Crepidula excavata, var.), Murch. Mai. 

Bla'tt., vii, 74. = C. adunca, Sowb. . . . .129 

Galericulus, Seele} r . Ann. Mag. N. Hist., Scr. iii, vii, 292, 
1861, ' 105 

Galeropsis, Conrad (not Hupe), ...... 103 

Galerus, Humphrey, 1707. = Calyptrrea, Lam. 

Garnotia, Gray. Zool. Proc., 739/1867, . . 104,129 

Garnotii (Pileopsis), Payraudeau. Cat. 94, pi. 8, figs. 3, 4. 

= Gadinia, .133 

Gemmacea (Calyptnva), var. Valenciennes. Voy. Venus., 

xv. = scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray, . . .117 

Gibbosa (Crepidula), Def. Diet. Nat. Sci.,xi, 397, No. 2. 

= C. fornicala, Linn 124 

Gibbosa (Crepidula), Desli. Ann. sans Vert, Edit, ii, vii, 

647. = C. Moulinsii, Mich. 126 

Glauca (Crepidula), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, 125 
Goreensis (Crepidula), Desh. Lam. Anim. sans Vt., vii, 645, 131 
Grandis (Crepidula), Midd. Malaco. Rossica, 101. 

= C. dilatata, Lam 128 

Granulatus (Capulus), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 176, 1853, 

t. 20, f. 3, . 136 

Grayanus (Hipponyx), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 115, 1853, . 135 
10 



146 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PA as. 
Haliotidea, Swains. Malac., 354, 1840. 

= Sigapatella, Lesson, ....... 103 

Harttia, Walcott. Bull. tJ. S. Geol. Survey, No. 10, 18, 1884, 109 
Helicoidea (Trochita), Sowb. Thes. Conch., xxxix, sp. 19, 

1*83, 122 

Hepatica (Crepidula), Desh. Enc. Meth, ii, 26, No. 7. 

? = C. onyx, Sowb 128 

Hipponiciformis (Calyptrsea), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 

26, 1858. = C. equestris, Linn 138 

Hipponyx, Defrance. Bull v des Sc., 9, 1819, . . 108, 134 
Hispida (Calyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, xxvii, f. 

10, 1835. = Cruc. scutellatum, Gray, var. . . 112, 118 
Holurthii (Crepidula), Parry. Thes. Conch. Index, . .131 
Hungaricus (Capulus), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1259, . 131 
Hystrix (Calyptnea), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 39, 1834. 

= Crep. aculeata, Gmel. 112, 113, 129 

lanacus, Morch. Yoldi Cat., i, 146, 1852, . . . 104, 130 
Igoceras, Hall, 1859, . ...... 107 

Imbricata (Hipponyx), Gould. Proc. Boston Soc. Nut. 

Hist., ii, 161, .... . .136 

Imbricatnm (Crucibulurn), Brod. Zool. Jour., i, t. 27, f. 7. 

== scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray, . . . Ill, 117 

Immersa (Crepidula), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc. ,57, 1865. 

= C. rugosa, Nutt 128 

Immersa (Crepidula), Ad. and Reeve. Sowerlty, Thes. 

Conch. = C. porcellana, Linn. 
Incurva (Patella), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3715. 

= C. intortus, Lam. 
Incurva (Crypta), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 40. 

= C. adunca, Sowb ... 129 

Incurvata (Crepidula), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Journ., iv, 

370. = Incurva (Crypta), Brod. 

Infundibulum, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 166, 1810, . . 103 
Intermedia (Calyptrsea), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. mer., 463, t. 

59, f. 4-6, 122 

Intortus (Capulus), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vi, pt. 2, 

18, 1822, 131 

Intusconcamerata (Lepas), Martini. Conch. Cab. 

= Calypt. radians, Lam. 
Italica (Crepidula), Defr. Diet. Sc. Nat., xi, 397. 

= unguiformis (Crepidula), Lam. ..... 130 

Japonicus (Capulus), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 138, 
1861, . ' . 133 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 147 

PAGE. 

Krebsia, Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 97, 1877. 

= Hipponyx, Defrance, . . . . . . .108 

Krebsii (Filiscus), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 100, 1877. 

= Williamia, Monts. (Siphonariidae), . . . .132 

Lactucacea (Calyptrjva), Rochebrune. Bull. Soc. Philom., 

179, 1882-3, . . 139 

Laevigata (Calyptraea), Chenu. Man., f. 2337. 

= C. extinctorium, Lara. . . . . . . .119 

Laevigata (Calyptraea), Lam. Aniin. sans vt., vii, 623. 

= C. Sinensis (Calyptraea), Linn 120 

Lamarckii (Calyptraea), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 186, 1847. 

= C. mamillaris, Brod. ....... 121 

Lamarckii (Calyptraea), Desh. Lamarck, Anim. sans vt., 

vii, 627, 1836. = C. Calyptneiformis (Trochita), Lam. 
Lamellosa (Crepidula), (Crypta), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 297, 

1862, 131 

Lamellosa (Trochita), A. Ad. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., sp. 

16,1883. == Cal. Candianum, Orb 121 

Lateralis (Trochita), Sowb. Thes. Conch., xxxix, sp. 9, 

1883, 122 

Layardii (Calyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 28, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn 137 

Lentiginosa (Crepidula), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 18, 1883, 125 
Lessonii (Crepidula), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc. ,i, 204, t. 29, 

f. 5, 18JJ5, ... ... . 126, 128 

Li be rat us (Capulus), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 284, pi. 

24, f. 2, 1867. == C. intortus. Lam. . . . . .132 

Lichen (Caiyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. xxviii, 

f. 4, 1835. = C. mamillaris, Brod 121 

Lignaria (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. xxvii, 

f. 8, 1835. = Scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray, . .118 
Lineolata (Crepidula), Desh. p]nc. Meth., ii, No. 4. 
Lingulata (Crepidula), Gould. Otia. Conch. 

= C. dorsata, Brod 127, 131 

Lirata (Crepidula), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 30, 1859. 

= C. onyx, Sowb 129 

Lithedaplius, Owen. Zool. Proc., 147, 1842. 

= Mitrularia, Schum. 108 

Lividum (Crucibulum), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 25, 1859. 

= C. extinctorium, Lam. . . . . . . .119 

Longirostris (Lithedaplius), Owen. 

- Mitrularia equestris, Linn 137 

Lorica (Calyptraea), Brod. Brit. Mus. Cat., xxvii; Gray 

(Orb., So. Am.), p. 47. = mamillaris (Calyptraea), Brod. 121 
Lyroscapha, Conrad. = Crepidula, Lam 104 



148 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGB. 

Maculata (Catyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. xxvii, 

4. = Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, var. . , .118 
Maculata (Trochita), Quoy. Yoy. de 1'Astr., iii, 422, pi. 72, 

f. 6, 9, 1834. = C. Calyptmeii'ormis, Lam. . . .123 
Maculosa (Crypta), Conr. Proc. Pliilad. Acad., 26, 1846. 

= Crep. fornicata, Linn. . . . . . . .124 

Magellanica (Clypeolum), Gray. Zool. Proc., 735, 1867. 

= C. mamillaris, Brod 121 

Mamillaris (Calyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi 

xxviii, 5, 1835, .... . .120 

Mamma (Calyptraea), Siemaschko. Bulletin des Natur. de 

Moscou, 1847, 122. = C. Sinensis, Linn. . . .120 
Mammula (Dispotoea), Rocbebrune. Bull. Soc. Philom., 

179, 1882-3, 119 

Marginalis (Crypta), Brod. Zool. Trans., i, 205, t. 29, f. 9, 

1835. = C. onyx, Sowb 129 

Martiniana (Calyptnea),Rve. Conch. Icon.,xi, sp. 13, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn., var. ..... 138 

Metoptoma, Phillips. Geol. Yorksh., ii, 223, 1836, . .106 
Militaris (Pileopsis), Linn. Mantissa, 552. 

= Capulus Hungaricus, Linn., juv. . . . . . 131 

Militaris (Patella), Wood. Ind. Test., 1825. 

?= Capulus intortus, Lam. . . . . . .132 

Minor (Hipponyx), Garrett. Cal. Proc., vol. i, 103, . . 137 
Minuta (Crepidula), Mid'd. Malacp. Rossica, 101. 

= C. dilatata, Lam 128 

Mitella, Leach. = Calyptrrea, Lam. 

Mitrella, Gray. Zool. Proc., 740, 1867. = Mitrularia, Sehum. 108 

Mitrula (Patella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3708. 

;= Hipponyx antiquatus, Linn. . . . . .134 

Mitrularia, Schum. Essai nouv. Syst., 183, 1817, . 108, 137 
Monoxyla (Calyptrsea), Lesson. Yoy. Coq., ii, pt. i, 391, 

1830 ... 128 

Morbidum (Crucibulum), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi,sp. 24, 1859. 

= C. extinctorium, Lam. . . . . . . .119 

Moulinsii (Crepidula), Mich. Bull. Soc. Linn. Brod., iii, 265. 

= Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 680, 1882, 126 

Muricata (Patella), Costa, Cat., 124. 

= C. Sinensis (Calyptnea), Linn. . . . . .120 

Nautarum (Crypta), Humph. Cat., 9, Morch, Mai. Blatt. 

xxiv, 103, 1877. = C. fornicata, Linn 124 

Nautiloides (Crepidula), Lesson MSS. 111. de Zool., pi. 42. 

= C.dilatata (Crepidula), Lam. = C. fornicata, Linn. 124, 127 
Navicella (Crepidula), Less. Yoy. Coq., ii, pt. i, 388, . 130 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 149 

PAGE. 

Navicelloides (Crepidula), Nutt Jay's Cat. of Shells, No. 

3035. ? = C. Lessonii, Brod 116, 126 

Navicula (Crypta), Dkr. MSS. Morch, Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 

105,1877. ? = C. convexa, Say 125 

Neleta, Gray. Zool. Proc., 743, 1867. 

= Crucibulum, Schum. ....... 102 

Neptunii (Calyptrsea), Dill. Descrip. Cat, 1017, 1885. 

= C. equestris, Linn. .137 

Neritoides (Crepidula), Recluz. Jour. de. Conch., 205, pi. 

6, f. 16, 19, 1851. = Latia, Ibid., iii, 260, 1852, . . 130 
Xivea (Crepidula), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, 234, 1852, 1 15, 126 
Nobilis (Amathina), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 312, 1867. 
Novae-Zelandise (Calyptraea), Lesson. Voy. Coq., ii, 395, 

1830. == C. Calyptrseitbrmis, Lam 122 

Noicia, Gray. Zool. Proc, 740, 1867. 

= Siphopatella, Lesson. ...... 104, 130 

Nuramaria (Crepidula), Gould. Bost. Proc. Otia. Conch. 15. 

= C. dilatata, Lam 128 

Occidentals (Trochita), Gray. Fig. Moll. An., 1 850, iv, p. 84. 

= Calyptraea Candiana. d'Orb. . . . . . .121 
Onyx (Crepidula), Sowb. Gen, of Shells, No. 23, f. 2,. . 128 
Ori'entalis (Hipponyx). Duf'o. Ann. Sci. Nat, 1840, 207. 

- H. australis, Quoy, 136 

Ornata (Protomedt-a), Costa^ p. 74, t. xi, f. 6 a, 6, c, Ann. 

Mag. Nat Hist., 4th Ser., xii, 251. 

= Capulus Hungaricus, Linn. . . . . . .131 

Orthonychia, Hall. Geol. N. Y., iv, 171, 1843, . . .107 
Osculans (Crepidula), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat, 1852. 

= Scutellina. 
Ossea fCalyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 19, 185S. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . . . .138 

Paleacea (Pileopsis), Menke. Synopsis, p. 89, . . . 133 
Pallida (Crepidula), Brod. Trans, Zool. iSoc.,i, 204, pi. 29, 

f. 3, 1835. = C. dilatata, Lam 127 

Panamensis (Ilipponyx), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, 218. 

_ Antiquatns (Hipponyx), Linn 134 

Papyracea (Calyptraea), A. Ad. MS. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

sp. 6, 1858. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . 138 
Parvulus (Galerus). Dkr. Jahrb. Mai. Ges., 1875, p. 244, . 121 
Patagonica (Crepidula), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. mer., 464, pi. 

58, 1, 2, 3. ? = C. fornicata, Linn .124 

Patula (Crepidula), Desh. Encyc. Meth., ii, 27. 

== C. dilatata, Lam 127 



150 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAQB. 

Pectinatum (Crucibulum), Carpenter. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, 

168. = C. scutellatum, Gray, lit 

Pellucida (Calyptrsea), Rve. Trochita, f. 2, 1859, . . 120 
Perforans (Calyptraea), Val. Toy. Venus, t. 24, f. 9, 1846. 

= Crepidula Lessonii, Brod. ..... 115, 126 

Peruviana (Calyptrsea), Desh. Encyc. Meth., ii, HO, 1830. 

= Radians (Trochita), Lam .121 

Peruviana (Crepidula), Lam. Anim. sans Vert. edit. Desh., 

vii, 644. = C. dilatata, Lam 127 

Phlyctiphera (Trochita), Rochebrune; Bull. Soc. Philom., 

179, 1882-3, 122 

Pileolus (Calyptrea), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. mer., 463, t. 78, 

f. 5, 6, .... . . 122 

Pileopsis (Calyptraea), Quoy. Voy. de 1'Astr., iii, pi. 72, 

figs. 19, 20. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . 138 
Pileopsis, Lam. Extr. d'un Cours., 1812. 

= Capulus, Montfort, . . . . - . .105 

Pileus (Trochita), Lam. Deless. Icon., t. 34, f. 2. 

= Calyptraea radians, Lam. 
Pilidium, Midd. (not Forbes). Beitr. Mai. Ross., ii, 1849. 

= Capulacmaaa, Sars, . . . . . . .105 

Piliscus, Loven. Ofv. K. vet. Ak., 1859. 

= Capulacmaea, M. Sars. . . . . . . .105 

Pilosus (Pileopsis), Desh. Guerin's Mag. de Zool., pi. 9, 

1831. = H. barbatus, Sowb. . . ... 135 

Plana (Calyptraea), Ad. and Reeve*. Voy. Samarang, pi. xi, 

f. 3. ="C. Walshii, Hermannson, . . . .130 

Plana (Crepidula), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, 

226. = C. unguiformis, Lam ' . . 130 

Planata (Crucibulum imbricatum, var.), Mb'rch. Mai. 

Blatt., vii, 76. = C. scutellatum, Gray, . . .117 
Planatum (Crucibulum), Schum. Essai nov. syst. 

= C. scutellatum, Gray, var. . . . . . .118 

Planatus (Hipponyx), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 298, 1857, . . 137 
Platyceras, Conrad. Rep. Geol. N. Y., 1840, . . .106 
Poculina, Gray. Zool. Proc., 742, 1867. 

= Mitrularia, Schum. ..... .108 

Poculum (Trochita), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 1, 1859. 

= Calypt. mamillaris, Brod 121 

Polii (Calyptraaa), Scacchi. Cat. = C. Sinensis. Linn. . 120 
Porcellana (Patella), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1257. . 126 
Porosa (Catyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 20, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . . . .138 

PrsBrupta (Crepidula), Conrad. U. S. Expl. Exped., x, 727, 

19, 9, 9 a. == C. dilatata, Lam 127 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 151 



Peziza (Calyptraea), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 10. 

= Cruc. scutellatum, Gray, var. . . . . .118 

Princeps (Crypta), Conrad. Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, 82. 

= C. dilatata, Lam 127 

Probus (Piliscus), Loven, 1851. 

= Capulus radiatus, Sars. ...... 132 

Profunda (Crepidula), Hutton. Cat. Tert. Moll. N. Zeal., 

14,1873. = C. monoxyla, Lesson, 128 

Proscenula, Perry. Conch., 1^11. = Crepidula, Lam. . 104 
Protea (Crepidula), d'Orb. (in part). Vo} r . de 1'Amer. Mer., 

465; Voy. Cuba, ii, 192. = C. fornicata, Linn. . 114, 124 
Protea (Crepidula), d'Orb. (in part). Voy. Cuba, 11, 192, 

t. 24, f. 30, 31 ; Toy. Amer. Merid., 465. 

= C. unguiformis, Lam. 

Quinquina (Calyptraea), Lesson. Voy. de la Coq., 397, No. 
157, 1830, . ' . 118 

Radians (Trochita), Lam. Anira. sans Vert., vii, 11, . . 121 
Radiata (Calyptraea), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, 17, No. 3, 1830, 121 
Radiatum (Crucibulum), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. 

xxvii, f. 6, 1835, Ill, 118 

Radiatum (Pilidium), Sars. Reise Lofoten, 64, 1850. 

Jeffreys, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser., xix, 321, 1877, . . 132 
Radiatus (Hipponyx), Quoy et Gaimard. Vo} r . Uranie, 

454, t. 69, f. 1-5, .'.... . 135 

Radiatus (Hipponyx), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 5, 1835. 

= H. Grayanus, Menke. . . . . . . .135 

Radiola (Calyptraea), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, 173, 1830, . 121 
Radiosa (Calyptraea), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

ii, 160. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn 138 

Reclucta (Pileopsis), (Brocchia), Desh. Cat. Moll. He 

Reunion, page 51, 183, .106 

Regularis (Trochita), C. B. Ad. Panam. Shells, 224. 

= Mamillaris (Trochita), Brod 121 

Riisei (Crepidula), Dkr. Menke, Z Jtsch., 189, 1852. 

= C. fornicata, Linn. . . . . . . .124 

Roissyi (Calyptraea), Dufo. Ann. Sci. Nat., Oct. 1841, f. 

206. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . .137 

Rostrata (Crepidula), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, 235. 

= C. adunca, Sowb. ........ Ii9 

Rostriformis (Crepidula), Gould. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 

Hist., ii, 160. = C. adunca, Sowb. . . . 129 

Rudis (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc.,'i, 196. 

= Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, . . . . .117 
Rugul'osa (Crepidula), Dunker. Menke, Zeitsch., 108, 1846, 130 



152 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Kugulosa (Amalthea), Danker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 151, 1871, 137 

Rugulosa (Calyptraea), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 150, 1871, 139 
Rugosa (Crepidula), Nutt. Jay's Cat. of Shells, 41 ; Zool. 

Proc., 1856. = C. onyx, Sowb 128 

Rugosura (Crucibulum), Tar., Lesson. Guer. Mag., pi. ii. 

= Scutellatum (Crucibulum), Gray, . . . . 117 

Sacchari-meta (Calyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 15, 

1858. = C. equestris, Linn., var 138 

Sagittifer (Oapultis), Gould. Wilkes' Exp., 383, 1852, . 132 
Sandalium, Schum. Essai nouv. syst., 183, 1817. 

= Crepidula, Lam. ........ 104 

Scabies (Calyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 16, 1858. 

= Mitrularia tectum-sinense, Lam 139 

Scabies (Crepidula), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 18, 1859. 

= C. Walshii, Herm 130 

Scutellata (Patella), Gray in Wood. Ind., Test. Supp., pi. 

viii, 4, 127 

Scutum (Calyptrsea), Lesson. Yoy. Coq., ii, pt. 1395, 1830, 122 
Scutulum (Calyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 30, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . . . .137 

Sella (Calyptraea), Mke. Synopsis, 89, .... 121 

Serrata (Calyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. xxviii, 

f. 1. = Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, . . . .117 
Serratus (Hipponyx), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 21)6, . . . 134 
Shreevei (Capulus), Conrad. A. J. C., v, 105, pi. 13, f. 3, . 133 
Sigapatella, Lesson. Zool. Voy. Coquille, 1830, . . 103, 122 
Sinensis (Calyptraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, xii, 1257, . 119 
Sinuosa (Crepidula), Turton. Zool. Jour., ii, 364, t. 13, f. 5, 

= C. unguiformis, Lam 130 

Siphopatella, Lesson. Zool. Voy. Coquille, 1830, . 104, 130 
Sitchana (Crepidula), Midd. Mai. Rossica, pt. ii, 100, t. 11, 

f. 3-5. ? = C. onyx, Sowb .129 

Solida (Crepidula), Hinds. Yoy. Sulphur., 53, pi. 16, f. 7, 8. 

= C. adunca, Sowb 129 

Solida (Trochita), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 10, 1859. 

= C. mamillaris, Brod. 
Sordida (Calyptrsea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc. i, pi. xxviii, 2. 

= C. radians, Lam. . . . . . . . .121 

Spectrum (Crucibulum), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 13, 

1859. = C. scutellatum, Gray, var., .... 118 
Spinifera (Mitrella), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, 741, . 121 
Spinosa (Calyptrsea), Sowb. Gen. of Shells, f. 4, 7. 

= Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, var. . .110, 111, 118 
Spinulosa (Trochita), Chemn. 

= C. sinensis (Trochita), Linn. . . . . 120 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 153 

PAGE. 

Spirata (Calyptraea), Nardo. = C. Sinensis, Linn. . . 120 
Spirata (Calyptraea), Forbes. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1850, 271. 

= C. radians, Lam 121 

Spiricella, Rang. Bull. Soc. Linn., Brod., ii, 226, 1883, . 106 
Spirocrypta, Gabb. Pal. Catif. i, 137, 1864, . . .104 
Squama (Crypta), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, 205, 1839. 

= Crepidula Lessonii, Brod 110,126 

Squama (Calyptnta), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, 176, No. 17. 

= C. Sinensis, Linn. . . . . . . .120 

Stella (Calyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 24, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn. ...... 137 

Striata (Calyptraea), Brod. (not of Say). Trans. Geol. Soc., 

i, pi. xxviii,-6. = Cruc. scutellatum, Gray. var. 
Striata (Calyptraea), Brod. (not S:iy). Zool. Proc., 38, 1834. 

= C. scutellatum, Gra} 7 , var. . . . . . .118 

Striatum (Crucibulum), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

v, 216,1826, 118 

Strigata (Crepidula), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. 28. f. 

12. = C. dorsata, Brod 127,129 

Strigillata (Crepidula), Dkr. Mi-nke Zeit., iii, 1853, . .131 
Striolata (Crepidula), Menke. Zeit. fiir Malac., 1851, 35. 

= C. Lessonii, Brod 110, 126 

Stultorum ( Calyptnea), Rve. Conch. Icon.,xi, sp. 12, 1858. 

= Mitrularia equestris, Linn. ...... 138 

Subreflexa (Calyptraea), Carp. Zool. Proc., 233, 1855, . 120 
Subrufus (Hipponyx), Lam. Auim. sans Vert., vi, p .18, . 134 
Subspirata (Crepidula), Blainv. Malac., pi. 48, bis. f. 7, . 130 
Succinea (Calyptraea), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. merid. 

= C. Sinensis, Linn. . . . . . . . .120 

Suturalis ( Hipponyx), Q.uoy. Voy. de TAstr., iii, 440, pi. 72, 

figs. 39, 40. =*H. australis, Quoy, 136 

Tectum-sinense (Calyptrsea), Lain. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 

624, . 139 

Tegulieia (Crypt.v, Rochebruue. Bull. Soc. Philom., 180, 

1882-3, \ 131 

Tenue (Propilidium), Jeff. MSS. Monts. Bull. Soc. Mol. 

Ital., vi, C)6. = Siphonariidju, ...... 132 

Tennis (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. xxvii, . 

f. 9. = Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, var. . . .118 
Tennis (Trochita), Gray. P. Z. S., 1867,735 ; Hutton, Jour. 

de Conch., xxvi, 30. = C. scutum, Lesson, . . .122 
Tennis (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, 199, t. 27, 

f. 9. = Cruc. scutellatum, Gray, var. 

Thyca, H. and A. Adams. Genera I, 372, 1854, . . 106, 133 
Ticaonicus (Tlipponyx), Sowb. Thes., 370, . . .137 



154 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Tongana (Calyptrsea), Quoy. Toy. de 1'Astr., iii, pi. 72, figs. 

17, 18. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. .... 138 
Tomcntosa (Trochita), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 71. 

= Calyptraeformis (Trochita), Lam. . . . .123 

Tortilis (Calyptraea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 2, 1858. 

= C. equestris, Linn. var. . . . . . .138 

Trelania, Gray. Zool. Proc., 744, 1867. 

= Mitrularia, Schum. . . . . . . .102 

Trelania, Gray. Zool. Proc., 742, 1867. 

= Crucibulum, Schum 108 

Triearinata (Amathinn), Linn. Syst. Nat, Edit, xii, 1259, 

= A. tricostata, Gmelin, ....... 133 

Tricostata (Ainathina), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., Edit, xiii, 3698, 133 
Trigona (Amathina), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, 251, . 133 
Trigonalis (Calyptrsea), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang., 70, 

pi. ix, 7 a, 6. = Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, var. . 118 
Trigonus (Hipponyx), Gm. Syst. Nat., 3714, 

? = H subrufus, Lam. . . . . . . .134 

Trochatella, Lesson. Voy. Coquille, 1830. 

= Infundibulum, Montf. 103 

Trochella, Gray. Zool. Proc., 735, 1807. 

= Sigapatella, Lesson, 103 

Trochiformis (Patella), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

= Cal. radians, Lam. . . . . . . .121 

Trochilina, Gray. Zool. Proc., 741, 1867. 

= Mitrularia, Schum 108 

Trochoides (Patella), Dillwyn. Cat., ii, 1018. 

= Calypt. radians, Lam. . . . . . . .121 

Trochita, Schum. Essai nouv. syst., 184, 1817. 

= Infundibulum, Montf. . . . . . .103 

Tuberculatus (Hipponyx), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 4, 

1856, 134 

Tubifera (Calyptrsea), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1807, p. 748. 

= Mitrularia equestris, var. aculeata, . . . 138 

Tubifera (Catyptraea), Lesson. Voy. Coquille,ii, pt. 1, 391, 

1830. = (Crucibulum), scutellatum, , Gray, var. . 112, 118 
Tubiferum (Crucibulum), Say. Gray, in Zool. Proc., 746, 

1867. = C. scutellatum, Gray, var. 
lumens (Hipponyx), Carpenter. Ann. and Mag., 3d ser., 

xv, 180, 1865 135 

Tylacus, Conrad. = Crepidula, Lam. . . . 104 

Tryblidium, Lindstrom. 1880. = Metoptoma, Phillips, . 106 

Uncata (Crepidula), Menke. Zeitschrift fiir Malac , 1847, 
184. = C. adunca, Sowb . 129 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 155 

PAGK. 

Ungarica (Pileopsis), Lam. Anim. s. Vt.,vii, 609. 

= Capulus Hungaricus, Linn. . . . . . .131 

Ungaricoides (Pileopsis), cTOrb. Toy. Amer. Merid., 457, 

pi. 78, fig. 4, .131 

Unguis (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. xxviii, 

f. 3. = C. mamillaris, Brod. 
Unguis (Patella), Sowb. Min. Conch., 88, t. 139, f. 7, 8. 

= Capulus Hungaricus, Linn. ...... 131 

Un<niiformis (Crepidula), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 

642, 116, 123, 130 

Umbrella (Calyptrrea), Desh. Enc. Meth., ii, 173, No. 8. 

= Crucibulum scutellatum, Gray, var. . . . , 117 
Umbo (Calyptrcea), live. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 33, 1858. 

' = Mitrularia equestris, Linn, 137 

Uncinata (Calyptnea), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 17, 1858. 

= M. equestris, Linn., var 138 

Vanikorensis (Calyptra?a), Quoy. Voy. de 1'Astr., iii, pi. 

72, figs. 21-23. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . 137 

^Varia (Calyptraea), Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i, pi. 27, fig. 3, 

1835. = Mitrularia equestris, Linn. . . . 137 

Ventricosa (Trochita), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 264. 

? = C. radians, Lam. 122 

Verrucosum (Crucibulum), Rve. Conch. Icon., xi, sp. 19, 

1850, 118 

Vestita (Calyptraea), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 65, 1851, . . 121 

Violaceum (Crucibulum), Carpenter. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1856,167. = C. scutellatum, Gray 118 

Violaceus (Capulus), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, 114, 

t. 13, f. 23, 132 

Vulgaris (Calyptnea), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic., ii, 93. 

== C. Sinensis, Linn .120 

Walshii (Crepidula), Hermanson. Reeve, Icon., xi, sp. 17, 
1859. = Walshii (Crepidula), Hermann, . . .130 



FAMILY XENOPHORID^E. 

Shell depressed or conical, trochiform, with carinated periph- 
ery, not nacreous, soldering shells, stones, etc., to its upper sur- 
face. Operculum large, horny, subannular,'with lateral dextral 
nucleus, muscular impression sinistral, semilunar, extending the 
whole length. 

Animal with long, annulate d muzzle, elongated, subulate ten- 
tacles, with sessile eyes at their external base ; foot small, used 
for jumping, not walking, with the anterior portion expanded, 
posteriorly tapering; gill long, composed of narrow laminae and 
filaments. Dentition, 2-M'l'2; the central tooth subtrigonal, 
multicuspid, laterals large, subtriangular, the margin reflected 
and multicuspid, the marginals very narrow and long, arcuated 
(PL 30, fig. 8). 

These mollusks scramble along like the Strombs ; they extend 
and fix the front dilated part of the foot, and draw the posterior 
portion up to it, jerking the shell forwards at every movement ; 
this mode of progression is adapte.d to the nature of the surface 
on which they move, which is usually composed of the debris 
of dead shells. The shell resembles a Trochus, but the texture 
is not nacreous. The peculiarity of this tribe is the habit of 
agglutinating foreign bodies to the upper surface of the shell, 
which is carried to such an extent in some instances as to con- 
ceal the volutions and give the structure the appearance of a 
small pile of fragments of stones and shells. That this imitation 
of its surroundings is protective in its nature, there can be no 
doubt ; but in some of the species the protection is not apparent, 
the agglutinating process being restricted within narrow bounds, 
or sometimes not developed, and when exhibited is confined to 
a single row of small bivalves or stones on the suture or periph- 
ery, arranged with a degree of regularity as to size, and occur- 
rence indicating the existence of choice or artistic taste on the 
part of the mollusk. Of the shells attached, single valves of 
lamellibranchs are preferred, probably because they give more 

(150) 



157 

'surface for their weight than univalves, and as the back affords 
the best surface for attachment, the interior of these is turned 
lip and free, thus making the whole mass particularly uninviting 
to any creature disposed to essay the destruction of the structure 
with a view to molluscous food. The near relatives of the 
Xenophoridre, the Yermelids, are as well protected by soldering 
their shells to the surface of large bodies, but other groups not 
very distant appear to have no dependence but on their shefl. 

Genus XEXOPIIORA, Fischer de Waldheim, 1807. 

Shell conical, trochi form, upper surface carrying shells, stones 
and madrepores, irregularly arranged, so as sometimes to almost 
completely disguise the surface; imperforate or narrowly rimate ; 
lower face of peripheral cnrina striate and granular. 

Tropical Seas. 

PAors,Montfort, 1810, and P*ew(/o^orws,Meek,are synonyms. 



Section TUGURIUM, Fischer, 1880. 

Shell umbilicated, only agglutinating in the neighborhood of 
the suture, margin of the last whorl prolonged, thin, blade like, 
smootl^ below ; operculum trigonal or trapezoidal. 

Section ONTJSTUS, H. and A. Adams, 18") 1. 

Shell conical, depressed, widely and profoundly umbilicated, 
periphery spinose at intervals, suture, towards the apex only, 
more or less ornamented with small stones or shells agglutinated 
to the surface. Tropical Seas. 

Humphrey first used the faulty generic name (being an adjec- 
tive), in 1797, but the justifiable exclusion of this author's genera 
does not prevent its use in connection with the recognizable 
definition of H. and A. Adams; hence I see no absolute neces- 
sity for adopting instead Haliphsebus, Fischer, 1880. 

Subgenus ENDOPTYGMA, Gabb, 1877. 

Shell umbilicated, agglutinating, the basal margin having one 
or two internal spiral plications, which have left their imprint on 
the cast from which the group is described. 

E. UMBILTCATVJM, Tuomey. Cretaceous of Alabama. 



158 XENOPHOBIA. 

Genus EUTROCHUS, Whitfield, 1682. 

Conical above, flat or concave beneath, broadly deeply umbili- 
cated ; aperture very oblique, periphery strongly carinated or 
expanded ; surface ornamentation unlike above and below. Dif- 
fers from the umbilicated forms of Trochidae in not forming a 
columella, and from Risella in being umbilicated. 

E. CONCAVA, Hall. Carboniferous, Illinois, Indiana. 

Genus AUTODETUS, Lindstrom, 1884. 

Shell small, widely conical, sinistral, attached by its truncated 
apex to foreign bodies, axis imperforate, suture not perceptible 
externally. A. calyptratus, Schrenck, Silurian of Gotland. An 
aberrant form placed in this family by Lindstrom. -The apical 
fixation resembles that of certain Vermetidre, but the shell may 
be a tubiculate Annelid. Antic alyptr sea, Quenstedt, 1884, is a 
synonym. 

Genus CLISOSPIRA, Billings, 18G5. 

This curious form from the Silurian of Canada, which I have 
placed, with some doubt, in Trochidae, is with equal doubt 
referred here by Fischer. It is trochiform, with reticulated 
surface ; there is some evidence that towards the apex it is 
spirally coiled, but the cavity occupied by the body of tlie 
animal appears to be straight and central, with an aperture 
expanding trumpet-like all around. 



The Xenophoridae have been monographed by Reeve, in Con- 
chologia Iconica ; by Philippi, in Kuster's Conchylien Cabinet, 
and more recently b}' Dr. Fischer, in Kiener's Coquilles vivantes. 
They first appeared possibly in the Silurian, more probably in 
the Devonian, and have not been numerous at any period of the 
geological history. 



XENOPI10RA. 159 

Genus XEXOPHORA, Fischer, 1807. 

X. CALCULIFERA, Reeve. PI. 44, figs. 75, 76. 

Light yellowish brown, whorls convex, obliquely subgranu- 
larly undukitely striate, suture and periphery agglutinating, the 
periphery undulated ; base widely urabilicated, closely radiately 
striated, the stride continued obliquely across the peripheral 
blade and there becoming corrugated or granose, middle of base 
with revolving grooves. Diaui. 2'5 inches. 

China. 

X. Sinentis, Phil., is believed to be identical, and should per- 
haps be preferred, its date being earlier. 

X. SOLARIOIDES, Reeve. PI. 44, fig. 77. 

Widely .umbilicated, yellowish white, obliquely rugosely 
striated, copiously agglutinating; base radiately arcuately cos- 
tulate, spirally granularly lirate, somewhat obliquely costulate 
at the periphery, umbilical area infundibuliform, subangular. 

Diam. 20 mill. 

Philippines. 

Yen' like X. calculi/era, but much smaller, and distinguished 
by its more profuse crop of foreign bodies. 

X. CORRUGATA, Reeve. PL 45, tigs. 81, 82. 

Stoutly conical, diagonally wrinkled and corrugated, suture 
and periphery closely agglutinating fragments of shells ; base 
with curved radiating granose striae, and a few revolving 
grooves, imperforate. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Japan. 

X. CAPERATA, Phil. PL 44, figs. 78, 80 ; PL 45, fig. 83. 

Obliquely perforate, light yellowish brown, suture and per- 
iphery agglutinating, surface obliquely striate ; base lamellarly 
striate and concentrically lirate, some of the lirae strong, ele- 
vated, becoming smaller and denser on the peripheral margin. 

Diam., 1'5 inches. 

E. Africa ; Pondicherry. 

Smaller, thinner, with less dilated periphery than the last 
species ; distinguished also by its basal sculpture and half-open 
umbilicus. 



160 XENOPHORA. 

X. AUSTRALIS, Souverbie. PL 47, figs. 94, 95. 

Perforate, elevated conical, light yellowish brown, obliquely 
subflexuously corrugated above, profusely agglutinating; base 
subconvex around the umbilicus and spirally silicate, subconcave 
and intricately rugate towards the margin, decussated by radia- 
ting striae, becoming subnodulous near the umbilicus. 

Diam., 1 inch. 

New Caledonia. 
X. CEREA, Reeve. PL 45, fig. 84. 

Perforate, yellowish white, nearly smooth, profusely aggluti- 
nating ; base slightly concave, very minutely spirally and con- 
centrically striate. Diam. 25 mill. 

Philippines* 
X. PALLIDULA Reeve. PL 44, fig. 79. 

Imperforate, yellowish white, obliquely striate, profusely 
agglutinating; base subplane, thinly arcuatel} T radiately striate, 
very minutely crispate. Diam. 2'5 inches. 

Japan. 

X. CRISPA, Konig. PL 45, fig. 85 ; PL 4G, fig. 88. 

Umbilicated, rather thin, whitish or light yellowish brown, 
obliquely rugate, and profusely agglutinating at the suture and 
periphery; base concentrically closely lirate, lime about eight in 
number, granular, the vicinity of the periphery obliquely sub- 
radiate and granular; columellar callosity hiding a small part 
of the umbilicus, which is profound, lanu'llarly plicate. 

Diam. 34 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The operculum is thin, with unilateral lines ; the earlier 
whorls of the shell are smooth. First described under the 
above name as an Italian tertiary fossil; as a living species, 
Tiber! called it X. Mediterranea. 

X. SENEGALENSIS, Fischer. PL 45, figs. 86, 87. 

Umbilicated, conical, rather solid, whitish, earlier whorls 
smooth, subsequent ones with irregular, crispate, oblique strite 
and impressed lines, agglutinating at suture and periphery ; 
base a little concave, concentrically granosety lirate, the lira? 5 
or 6 in number, the lirae of the peripheral carina oblique, 



XENOPHORA. 161 

crowded, more minutely granular ; umbilicus slightly impinged 
on by the columellar callus, striate within. Diam. 16 mill. 

West Coast of Africa. 

Differs from the preceding species in having fewer basal 
costulations, with stronger granules upon them ; differs also in 
its subrhomboidal, thin, corneous operculum having the striae a 
little angular in the middle. It is X. caper ata, Petit (non 
Phil.), and X. crispa, Martens (non Konig). 

X. CONCHYLIOPHOEUS, Born. PL 46, fig. 89. 

Light brown, rugosely obliquely striated, profusely agglu- 
tinating large shells, stones, etc., so as almost to conceal the 
upper surface, face concave, imperforate in the adult, with 
strong, crowded, curved growth-lines, and nearly obsolete con- 
centric low narrow ridges. Diam. 2 inches. 

West Indies. 

It is X. trochiformis, Bjrn, A", agglutinans, Lam., X. onustus, 
Reeve, X. meandrina, X. vulcania, X. Iricostata, and A'. Isevi- 
gata, Fischer de Waldh., etc. 



X. ROBUSTA, Verrill (unfigured). La Paz, L. Calif. 

X. DIGITATA, Martens (unfigured;. West Africa. 

X. CAVELIERT, Rochebrune (unfigured). Senegambia. 

Section TUGURIUM, Fischer, 1880. 
X. EXUTA, Reeve. PI. 46, figs. 90, 91. 

Suture and periphery undulated, upper surface occasionally 
agglutinating at the suture near the apex, but usually free from 
foreign bodies, oblique^ 7 undulately striated and grooved ; under 
surface shining, smooth, surrounded by a border of several close, 
rugose revolving striae, umbilical funnel closety striated ; yel- 
lowish or orange-brown, lighter colored beneath. 

Diam. 2*75 inches. 

China. 
X. INDICA, Gmelin. PI. 46, figs. 92, 93. 

Finely obliquely striated, yellowish brown, under surface 

smooth, lighter colored, in fresh specimens surrounded by a 

brown band, but without the marginal spiral striae of the last 

species, umbilical funnel striated, periphery blade-like, only 

11 



162 XENOPHORA. 

irregularly slightly undulated on its edge ; agglutinating only 
at or near the apex. Diani. 2 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 
X. Wagneri, Phil., is a synonym. 

X. HELVACEA, Phil. PI. 47, fig. 96. 

Differs from the preceding species in the umbilicus, which has 
convex sides and is not defined by an angle. 
Diam. 3 inches. 

Madagascar. 
Its distinctness from X. Indica is problematical. 

X. CARIBJEA, Petit. PL 47, figs. 97, 98. 

Thin, pale yellowish brown, white beneath, occasionally 
agglutinating on its irregularly undulating periphery ; upper 
surface obliquely, slightly undulatingly striate ; lower surface 
radiately finely striate, shining, with concentric obsolete grooves, 
bordered by a strong revolving rounded rib, beyond which is 
the smooth shining peripheral blade. Diam. 2'5 inches. 

Itsle of Marie Galante, West ladies. 

X. LAMBERTT, Souverbie. PL 47, figs. 99, 100. 

Umbilicus partly covered, its walls convex, not defined by an 
angle; base subconvex, strongly spirally sulcate, the peripheral 
blade smooth ; upper surface obliquely undulately striate, 
agglutinating at the suture, but not at the periphery ; light yel- 
lowish brown. Diam. 2 inches. 

New Caledonia. 

Section ONUSTUS, H. and A. Ad., 1854. 

X. SOLARIS, Linn. PL 49, figs. 1, 2. 

Upper whorls with a few small agglutinating pebbles and 
shells at the suture, then fringed with regular distant hollow 
spines on the periphery, surface obliquely granularly striate, 
radiately, granularly ridged below ; light yellowish brown. 

Diam. 78 mill. 

Malacca, Singapore. 



FAMILY VERMETID.E. 

Shell tubular, septate within, attached or free; sometimes 
regularly spiral when young, alwaj^s becoming irregular in the 
adult growth ; aperture rounded, usually entire, sometimes fis- 
sured. Operculum corneous, annular, sometimes spiral, rarely 
absent. 

Animal vermiform, elongated, with short snout and distant 
short tentacles, bearing eyes at their outer bases ; foot small ; a 
single elongated branchia, no copulatory organ ; two corneous 
jaws; dentition (PL 30, fig. 9). 

These aberrant mollusks were separated by Cuvier in 1830, as 
an order under the name of Tubulibranchiata, corresponding 
with Tubispira, Desh., 1830, and Protopoda, Gray, 1837. A more 
extensive acquaintance with the modifications of the breathing 
organs in mollusks has tended to diminish the importance which 
Cuvier attached to them. 

These animals, generally attached upon shells, or coral, or 
living in sponges, often gregarious in large colonies, although 
without copulatory organs are unisexual, oviparous or viviparous. 
The eggs are often attached to the tube itself. The embryos 
(PI. 48, fig. G) are furnished with a spiral shell and the young are 
often perforating. 

Like most attached shells the Yermetids are exceedingly irreg- 
ular in growth, sculpture and coloring, often reproducing the 
surface upon which they are fixed. The species are therefore 
very difficult to identify satisfactorily, particularly as in many 
specinens the parts wherein reside the characteristic marks, the 
mouth, the operculum, etc., are wanting. The difficulty is enhanced 
bj r the great resemblance of some of the forms to annelids of the 
genus Serpula from which they may be distinguished by the 
spiral nuclear shell, and interior septa of the tube. The tube 
of Serpula is composed of two calcareous layers, that of Yer- 
metidse of three. As to the lamellae occurring within the tube, 
on the columellar or parietal wall, they are often wanting, perhaps 

(163) 



164 VERMETIDuE. 

absorbed away by the animal, like the teeth of Pupa, and although 
they are made subgeneric and sectional characters, they may be 
present or missing in the same species, and are consequently of 
inferior taxonomic importance. 

Prof. 0. A. L. Morch made a special study of the Vermetklae, 
and to his papers in the Journal de Conchyliologie, and particu- 
lar^ in the Zool. Proceedings, London, 18GO-1862, we are in- 
debted for the only scientific arrangement of them. Unfortunately 
this author has endeavored to name and describe every slight 
variation, and has thus amassed a large collection of forms, 
varieties and species, subgenera and genera, the study of which 
is even more perplexing than that of the specimens themselves. 
His genera are here reduced to subgenera, his subgenera to sec- 
tions. Illustrations may be found in the folio volume of Chenu, 
in Reeve's " Iconica " and Sowerby's " Thesaurus," but these 
respective monographs are only partial in their scope, the two 
latter being confined to Siliquaria, and leave much to be desired 
on the score of completeness. 

Dr. Leon Vaillant (Researches on Lamarck's species of the 
Tubispirata in Nouv. Arch, du Museum, vii, 1871), thus classifies 
the Yermetidse : 

A. Operculum wanting or rudimentary. 

1. Genus SERPULORBIS, Sassi. 

Operculum \ n 

(.rudimentary. S. G. BIVONIA. 

B. Operculum present and perfect. 

a. Shell smooth within. 

2. Genus SIPHONIUM, Gray. 

r Concave, with (plain. S. G. SIPHONIUM. 

margins Ispinose. S. G. STEPHOPOMA. 

Operculum \ Formed of (non eroding. S. G. VERMICULUS. 

stacked up < eroding the body to which 
Uamellse. Shell ( is attached. S. G. SPIROGLYPHUS. 



VERMETID^E. 165 

b. Shell wiih. interior plications or lamellae. 

3. Genus YERMETUS, Adanson. 

With a single columellar plication. S. G. YERMETUS. 
With parietal lamellae. S. G. PETALOCONCHUS. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Genus YERMETUS, Adanson, 1757. 

Animal having two pedal filaments, much longer than and 
situated in front and below the cephalic tentacles. 

Shell tubular, free or fixed, sometimes regularly spiral when 
young, but becoming irregularly protracted or contorted when 
adult, with interior septa; aperture circular ; operculum usually 
present, corneous, annular, circular, exteriorly concave. 

Inhabits temperate and tropical seas. Fossil, secondary and 
tertiary. 

Subgenus YERMETUS (sensu stricto). 

Shell spirally twisted, attached, surface often decussated, 
columella bearing one to three longitudinal lamellae. Operculum 
very small, concave, scarcely spiral. 

Section YERMETUS (typical). 

Laminae on the parietal wall. 
Section PETALOCONCHUS, Lea, 1843. 

Shell with two internal ridges running spirally along the colu- 
mella, becoming obsolete towards the apex and aperture. Mostly 
fossil. 

Y. SCULPTURATUS, Lea. Tertiary. U. S. (S. and S. Conch., t, 67, 
f. 76). 

Section MACROPHRAGMA, Carp., 1857. 

Internal laminae towards the middle of the columella ; superior 
lamina sharp, angulately deflexed, externally bicarinate. 

Operculum small, very thin, corneous, smooth, subplanate, 
scarcely spiral. 

Section ALETES, Carpenter, 1857. 

Whorls larger than in preceding section, columella with a very 



166 VERMEIID^. 

faint median thread-like line ; color usually yellowish brown, the 
early whorls chestnut. 

Operculum concave externally, with 5-6 spiral laminae, the 
last abrupt; interiorly convex, shining, with irregular spiral 
lirse; muscular area irregular, opaque. 

Subgenus BIVONIA, Gray, 1842. 

Shell affixed, mostly spiral, with spiral, interruptedly nodu- 
lose lirse and a median elevated line; aperture contracted, 
circular, columella without ridges. Operculum small, rudimen- 
tary. . 

When these shells are not perfect, without the aperture 
margin, they are difficult to distinguish from Spiroglyphus. 
Dofania, Morch, 1860 (in part), is a synonym. 

Subgenus SPIROGLYPHUS, Daudin, 1800. 

Animal excavating a groove on the surface of shells or stones, 
covering it over with shelly material, and thus forming a 
tubular planorbiform case. Considered by some naturalists an 
annulose animal allied to Serpula, but of this there is no proof. 
When first hatched, the shell is spiral and regular, consisting of 
one and a half whorls; it soon attaches itself, the channel it 
excavates being at first shallow, afterwards deeper ; color bright 
purple to nearly black. The operculum is large, thick, convex 
exteriorly, with strong concentric laminre, plane interiorly, con- 
centrically lirate, with central mamilla, and narrowly elevated 
margin. 

Stoa, Serres, 1855, is in part a synonym. 

Subgenus THYLACODES, Guettard, 1774. 

Shell adherent, frequently solitary, tubular, irregularly twisted, 
with 3-5 longitudinal nodulous lirge, aperture rounded, colu- 
mella not plicate, but frequently partitioned internally perpen- 
dicularly to the axis. No operculum, or minute when present. 

Dofania, Morch, 1860 (in part), is a synonym ; others are 
Serpulorbis, Sassi, 1827 (a name frequently used for the genus), 
Serpulus, Montf., 1810, and Serpuloides, Gray, 1850. The sub- 
genera Cladopoda, Gray, 1840, Tetrancrnia, Morch, 1850, 



VERMETID^B. 167 

Hatina, Gray, 1847, and Lementina, Risso, 1826, are founded on 
differences of form in the mollusk, mostly as represented by 
published figures, and allowing that these are correct, their 
value is probably no more than specific. These characters will 
be referred to in the descriptions of the species. 

Subgenus SIPHONIUM (Brown, 1756), Morch, 1859. 

Shell adherent, irregularly twisted, carinated, without internal 
armature. Operculum large, smooth, circular, concave exter- 
nally, convex interiorly, the scar of attachment central, with 
rugose concentric striae, and plain margin. 

M. Rougemont has observed at Naples that S. maximum 
emits from its mouth a thin veil-like plaited substance, which 
entangles small natatory animals and is subsequently with- 
drawn (Bull. Soc. Neuch., xii, 94). 

Stoa, Serres, 1855 (in part), is a synonym, according to the 

text. 

Subgenus STEPHOPOMA, Morch, 1860. 

Adult shell adherent, spiral, solitary or clustered ; aperture 
slightly inflexed above, very obsoletely effused below, without 
internal lamellae. Operculum slightly concave, arctispiral, fur- 
nished with long divergent multifid setae. Recent and fossil. 

The shells are generally very small, and usually so tender as 
to be very rarely found fossil in a good state of preservation. 
Difficult to distinguish from Vermiculus. 

Subgenus BURTINELLA, Morch, 1861. 

Young shell adherent, the adult free, thick, widely conically 
elevated, trochiform or planorboid, usually sinistral, rarely clex- 
tral, last whorl protracted, more or less prolonged, tubular 
within, angular exteriorly, aperture circular, not contracted. 
Fossil only, 15 species. Oolitic, Cretaceous, Tertiarj- ; Europe, 
India. 
B. CONCAVA, Stol. (Struc. and Syst. Conch., t. 67, f. 69, 70). 

Subgenus TUBULOSTIUM, Stoliczka, 1868. 

Shell planorboid to broadly conical, aperture contracted, pro- 
longed in a tube. 4 sp. Jurassic, Europe; Cretaceous, India ; 
Tertiary, United States. 



168 



Subgenus VERMICULARIA, Lam., 1799. 

Shell free, in its early stage regularly coiled like a Turritella ; 
subsequently uncoiled, the tube variously twisted or more or 
less straight and prolonged. Operculum size of the aperture. 
Carboniferous living. Tropical and subtropical. 

There is apparently no other distinction between the shells of 
Vermicularia and Burtinella, except that the latter are coiled 
in a broad, largely umbilicated cone ; Tubulostium has a con- 
tracted aperture. Often called Vermiculus, Lister. 

(ienus SILIQUARIA, Brug., 1789. 

Animal with rudimentary pedal tentacles ; mantle slit along 
the branchial cavity. 

Shell tubular, at first spiral, afterwards protracted and irregu- 
lar ; tube with a longitudinal fissure, which is sometimes simple, 
sometimes formed by a series of perforations ; often both varieties 
exist in the same specimen ; aperture circular, without internal 
septa or lamella?. Operculum corneous, subcylindrical or 
conoidal, formed of a spirally rolled band, with ciliated margin; 
axis of the cone filled up internally by a series of spiral radiat- 
ing cells (PI. 48, figs. 9, 10). Mediterranean Sea, W. Africa, 
Tropical Pacific Ocean. 

Fossil, 20 Sp. Tertiary, one species from the upper creta- 
ceous. The typical species, as well as several others, occur 
imbedded in sponges. 

TenagoduSj Gueltard, 1774, is the same, but the genus is much 
better known under its later name. 

Fischer proposes the following divisions, based on distinctions 
in the branchial slit. 

Section SILIQUARIA (xevsu stricto). 

Slit continuous, open. 
Section PYXIPOMA, Morch, 1860. 

Slit closed by a lamella, but not filled up outside, open near 
the mouth. 

Section AGATHIRSES, Moiitfort, 1810. 

Slit composed of numerous isolated holes. 



VERMETUS. 169 

As all three kinds of slit may exist in different parts of a 
single specimen, the above classification has but little to recom- 
mend it ; and yet in a rough way the distinctions of the slit 
hold good. 

About a dozen species have been recognized 03- Morch, 
Sowerby and Reeve. The monographs of the Thesaurus Con- 
chyl. and Conchologia Icon, are essentially the same ; an earlier 
one is contained in Chenu's Illust. Conchyliologiques. 

The recent species are tropical and subtropical in distribution. 
They live on rocks and corals ; the restricted group Siliquaria 
inhabits sponges. 

Genus CRYPTOBIA, Desh., 1863. 

Proposed for a perforation in polyps, sometimes lined by a 
shelly plate, sometimes without it ; spire regular, of 5 or 6 
whorls, in the middle of the polyp ; the following whorls are 
unrolled ; on one of the walls is found a series of fissures, which 
traverse the polyp. C. Michilini, Desh., Isle of Bourbon. These 
perforations are filled by parasitic sipunculi, which may have 
destroyed in some cases the shell of the mollusk. 



Genus VERMETUS. Adanson, 1757. 
Subgenus VERMETUS (sensu stricto). 

Typical. 
V. ADANSONII, Daudin. PI. 49, figs. 20, 21 ; PI. 48, fig. 12. 

Shell graceful of 5-12 whorls, loosely or more or less closely 
coiled, and terminating in a rather straight tube about an inch 
in length when adult, strongly striated by 6 to 12 raised longi- 
tudinal ridges or lines, sometimes chagreened ; dark brown, be- 
coming ash color in dead shells. Operculum very thin, with two 
small concentric grooves, about half the diameter of the aper- 
ture. 

Senegal. 
It is Vermetus lumbricalis, Roissy, not Linn. 

Var. LAMARCKII, Morch (fig. 21). 

Does not appear to possess any immutable distinctive charac- 
ter ; the tube is said to be thin towards the mouth, the attach- 



170 VERMETUS. 

ment is by the apex, the surface is sometimes transversely and 
not longitudinally sculptured. 

Yar. CARPENTERI, Morch. 

Is founded upon the presence and form of the interior lamellae 
as shown in section by the figure. Carpenter described it as 
Petaloconchus renisectus (fig. 12). 

Y. VARIANS, d'Orb. n. 49, figs. 22, 23; PI. 48, fig. 11. 

Irregularly convoluted, longitudinally rugosely costate or 
smooth, violaceous brown. 

Brazil to West Indies, W. coast of Florida. 

The varieties described by Morch need only to be named and 
figured here ; they are scarcely of sufficient importance to justify 
separate headings and descriptions. They are : 

Var. CARPENTERI (fig. 11), West Indies; var. OCGLUSA, Morch, 
West Indies; var. MONILE, Morch, Honduras; var. IRREGU- 
LARIS, d'Orb. ; var. ELECTRINA, Morch; var. BAUIA, Morch; 
var. CANDIDISSIMA, Morch; var. PERLATA, Morch ; and var. 
COSTATA, Morch ; all from the West Indies. As to var. 
IRREGULARIS, Morcli quotes the text of d'Orbigny's Cuba, 
but writes, " I am nearly sure that the group figured is a 
SpiroglyphuS) perhaps mixed with a Vermetus.' 1 ' 1 

V. CONICUS, Dillw. PL 49, fig. 24. 

Flexuose, spiral at base, tube rather thick, brownish white, the 
spiral portion irregularly wound, about 8 whorls. 

West Indies. 

The sculpture varies as in the preceding species, it usually 
consists of longitudinal striae ; the tube is much larger than in 
V. varians, and also differs in its light color. It is V. lumbri- 
calis, ft. of Gmelin. Morch has vars. PERSONATA, GORPIALTS (decus- 
satus, Lam. non GmeL), PROBOSCIS, RETIFERA. 

V. RENISECTUS (Carp.), Morch. PL 49, figs. 25, 26. 

Brownish ash-color, attached, spirally contorted, lightly longi- 
tudinally lirate, the interstices rather smooth, especially towards 
the aperture, incremental striae rugose, regular, somewhat gran- 
ulated in intersecting the longitudinal lime. Interior with two 



VERMETUS. 171 

flattened laminae ; one on either side of the columella, and a dis- 
tinct line on the middle of the columella. 

Philippines. 
This is V. renisectus, Carp., in part. Morch describes vars. 

GORDIALIS, ASPERULA, ASPERELLA, WOODWARDII, Carp., EBENEA, 
PICEA, INDENTATA, MONILIFERA. 

Y. CONTORTUS, Carpenter. PI. 49, fig. 27. 

Laterally attached, chestnut-color, rather thin, irregular^ con- 
torted, first whorls spiral, usually in contact, the last protracted, 
closely longitudinally lirate, decussated by incremental lines, the 
intersections very obsoletely nodulose ; interior without lamella, 
but with 3-5 spiral lime on the columella. 

Mazatlan and Gulf of California. 

Morch adds vars. REPENS, FAVOSA, CONTORTULA, INDENTATA and 

CORRODENS. 

Y. NERINOIDES, Carp. PL 49, figs. 28, 29 ; PI. 48, fig. 13. 

Closely agglomerated, irregularly spirally twisted, orange- 
colored, almost everywhere superficially ashy ; whorls separate, 
yet approximating, line somewhat compressed, very obsoletely 
nodosely contracted, interstices rather wide, with close incre- 
mental striae; internal lamella (fig. 13) large, modifying the inte- 
rior as in a section of Nerin&a. 

A u sir alia. 
Y. OCTOSECTUS, Carp. PL 48. fig. 14. 

Solitary, laterally affixed, whitish, irregularly spirally twisted, 
longitudinal lira? rather remote, reticulated by closer, rugose 
incremental lines, with distant transverse orange lines; interior 
laminae prominent, lateral, the exterior part of the chamber small 
in the first and large in the last whorl, columellar line acute. 

So. Africa? Bed Sea. 

" T have seen specimens with and without internal laminae 
attached on the same shell. One specimen shows on the outer 
wall a sharp keel pointing to the slit between the laminae, which 
I have never elsewhere seen so well developed. According to 
Carpenter, it differs from the following species in the absence of 
the ' remarkable ' structure at the base, and in the comparatively 
small size of the outer chamber ; the former character is prob- 
ably quite accidental, and the latter is not constant in one and 



172 VERMETUS. 

the same species. The variety (below) is still more like the F. 
oereus, which perhaps will itself prove to be merely a variety 
when more specimens have been compared." MORCH. 

Yar. DILATATA, Morch. Whorls a little flattened, suture 
depressed, dilated, the strong tran verse rugae approximating. 
This variety is from the Red Sea, to which locality the type also 
probably belongs. 

V. CEREUS, Carp. PI. 48, fig. 15. 

Solitary, attached, orange-color, with depressed whitish 
sutures, the attached side with a series of nodules which, writes 
Morch, are the impressions of a coral. There is no sculpture, 
the specimen appearing as though it had been attacked by acid. 
It is a large species, the penultimate whorl having a diameter of 
6-7 mill., the aperture of 4-75 mill. Lateral interior lamellae 
about central. 

Philippines. 

Morch has Vars. GYMNOGASTRA and TENUIS. 

Y. CARINATUS. Quoy. PI. 49, fig. 30. 

Widely irregularly coiled, carinated, somewhat triangular, 
transversely striated, yellowish ash-color, aperture rounded 
within. 

Isl. Guam. 

" I have seen forms which I regard as intermediate between 
F. octosectus, Carp., and F. cereus. Carp., approaching to this." 
MORCH. 

Y. LILACINUS, Morch. PI. 49, fig. 31. 

Aggregated, subcylindrical, spirally twisted, purplish, whorls 
contiguous with dilated white suture, longitudinal lirae obsolete, 
remote, incremental rugae generally remote, stronger towards 
the aperture, last whorl slightly protracted ; parietal laminae 
very short (broken?), approximating to the columella, median 

columellar lira somewhat acute. 

Zanzibar. 
Section PETALOCONCHUS, Lea, 1843. 

Y. SUBCANCELLATUS, Bivona. PL 49, fig. 32. 

Solitary, or more rarely gregarious, reclining, almost entirely 
affixed, irregularly spiral, with the whorls in contact, brownish, 
surface subcancellated by longitudinal and transverse strife, the 



VERMETUS. 173 

anterior extremity free. Operculum plain, thin. Animal dark 
P ur P le - Southern Europe. 

It is Serpula ylunwrata, of Linn., 12th Edit., but not of 10th 
Edit., and V. intortus^ Weink. " I have examined five or six 
groups without finding- any internal laminae, as Sowerby and 
Moore appear to have done. In a comparatively few specimens 
I have found a distinct medial lira on the coluraella." MORCH. 
This author describes vars. OCCLUSA, SUTURALIS and SGOLO- 

PENDRINA. 

V. VERMICELLA, Lam. PL 49, fig.' 33. 

Yellowish, filiform, narrow, transversely rugose, fiexuous, 
without longitudinal sculpture, conglomerated into a dense mass. 

W. Africa. 

It is V. glomeratus, Daudin, V. Lispe (Adanson), Deshayes. 
Morch describes a var. FILARIS. 

Y. ANELLUM, Morch. PI. 49, fig. 3i. 

Shell sinistral, spirorbiform, white, spire attixed, umbilicus 
open, whorls few, with transverse close ribs. Diameter of shell 
about 2 to 3-5 mill. 

Todan Santos Bay, L. California (on Haliotis}. 

Very like a Spirorbis in shape, and " perhaps will prove to be 
the t} r pe of a new genus." MORCH. 

Section MACROPHRAGMA, Carpenter, 1857. 
Y. MAOROPHRAGMA, Carp. PI. 48, fig. 1C. 

Shell small, chestnut-colored, laterally attached, often eroding, 
spirally twisted, first whorls flattened, contiguous, the last 
loosely contorted, with close longitudinal lirae and incremental 
striae ; interior armature (see figure). 

San Diego, Cal., L. CaL, Mazatlan, Realejo. 

" V. contortus, Carp., is perhaps the adult stage of this species, 
which again possibly may be a form of Aletes centiquadrus." 
MORCH. 

Y. COCHLIDIUM, Carpenter. PL 48, fig. 17. 

Distinguished from the preceding species by its internal 
laminae ; the shell is of a lighter color and larger growth. 

Australia ; var. from Tahiti. 



174 VERMETUS. 

Y. FLAVESCENS, Carp. PI. 48, fig. 18. 

" Shell externally closely allied to V. subcancellatus, from 
which it is principally known by the smaller size and stronger 
sculpture. Internally it most resembles V. cochlidium, from 
which it may be distinguished by the absence of keels on the 
upper lamina through a large part of the length ; and by the 
general absence of the third plait, which, when it appears, is 
like another fold of the lower lamina in the same direction." 
MOIICH. 

Sicily. 
Section ALETES, Carpenter, 1857. 

" The operculum seems to me only different from that of 
Vermetus in size, in consequence of the larger calibre of the 
shell. The variety of Vermetus conicus, Dillw., would be 
referable to this group, if I had not seen one and the same 
specimen successively in the different whorls change from 
Vermetus (Petaloconchus) to Thylacodes, and ultimately to 
Aletes." MOBGH. Yet Morch himself admits these subdivisions 
and the distinction of species by small differences in the 
internal shell. 

Y. CENTIQUADBUS, Yaleuc. PI. 49, fig. 35; PL 50, figs. 36-40. 

Laterally attached, spirally twisted, earlier whorls rather 
narrow, rapidly increasing, the last wide, spread out and com- 
pressed at the margin ; light yellowish brown, with obscure 
narrow lines, earlier whorls dark brown, the interstices of the 
lirse impressed punctate. 

Panama to Gulf of California. 

" The first whorls are of a dark brown color and strongly 
sculptured with longitudinal liroe and transverse ruga? exceed- 
ingly like V. contortus, Carp., which I suppose to be only a form 
of this shell, judging from analogy with V. conicux, Dillw. The 
columella shows one exceedingly feeble median lira, scarce^ to 
be seen except in a very favorable light, and two very conspicu- 
ous lateral lirae which seem to answer to the laminae in V. 
macrophragma, but they must perhaps be more properly re- 
garded as the margins of a thin layer covering all the interior 
of the whorls, except the larger median part of the columella, 
which shows a slight difference in color." Animal violaceous, 



VERMETUS. 175 

deepest on the back, more bluish and lighter towards the- mar- 
gins of the foot. MORCH. 

It is V. effusus, Val. (fig. 36), V. angulatus, Rouss. (fig. 37). 

Yar. PANAMENSIS, Rouss. (fig. 35). = Var. maxima, Morch. 
Differs in its smoo'.h surface and deep transverse furrows. 

Var. PERONII, Val. (fig. 38). Without impressed punctations. 

Var. SIPHONATA, Morch (fig. 39). = V. Peronii, Rouss., non 
Val. Subcyliiulrical, spirally twisted, vertically attached, 
suture dilated, with close, very obsolete nodulous line, the 
interstices impressed punctate. Diam. apert, 5'5 mill. 
Puntarenas. 

Var. TULTPA, Rouss. (fig. 40). Laterally attached, irregularly 
spirally twisted ; whorls oblique, smooth or ver} r obsoletely 
sculptured on the later whorls, variegated violaceous and 
white. 

Var. BMDGESII, Morch (unfigured). Very like the last, but the 
color is mostly obliterated and the last whorl is partly free 
and erect. 

V. Rouss^i, Vaillant. PI. 51, fig. 43. 

Earlier whorls spirally twisted, afterwards lengthened, undu- 
lated, longitudinally lirate, line fading towards the aperture, 
cancellate towards the base, which is flattened. 

Timor. 

The figures of Chenu's Illust. Conch, represent two species. 
One of these is selected by Morch as best answering the original 
description of V. sipho, Lam., and I have copied it ; the other 
appears to be a V. polyphragma, Sassi. Vaillant, from an exam- 
ination of specimens in the Paris Museum, thinks that neither of 
these figures represents the type, and he therefore describes the 
sipho of Rousseau and Morch, as V. Rousssei, Vaillant. I may 
add that none of the figures cited by Lamarck himself agree 
with his description. 

Unfigured Species of Vermetus. 

V. BALANi-TiiNTiNNABULi, Morch, and Var. CRYSTALLINA, Morch. 

Philippines. 
V. PACHYLASMA, Morch. (Possibly a fossil.) ? Guinea. 



176 VERMETUS. 

Subgeuus BIVONTA, Gray, 1842. 
V. TRIQUETRA, Bivona. PI. 50, figs. 41, 42. 

Solitary or gregarious, subtriangular, a little depressed, orbicu- 
larly or turbinately twisted, transversely flexuoscly rugose, 
anterior portion of the shell when free, becoming cylindrical, 
but if remaining attached, continuing subtriangular; whitish or 
brownish. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
V. contortuplicatus, Var., A. Scaechi, is a synonym. 

Var. PINNICOLA, Morch. Irregularly spiral, with three crcnulated 
longitudinal lines. It is V. granulatus, Graven., not Fabr., 
and perhaps V. rupestris, Risso. 

Tar. SPIRORBIS, Morch. Solitary, white, cretaceous, spirorbiform , 
with a crenulated dorsal carina, and one or two arcuate 
varices in the penultimate whorl. 

Var. ALETES, Morch. Laterally affixed, whorls flattened, ob- 
liquely declined ; dorsal carina compressed, crenulated, 
approximating the umbilicus ; incremental striae membran- 
aceous, obsoletely undulated in the umbilical region. 

Vars. SERPULINA, EXPANSA and AMPLIATA, Morch. 

Yar. FASCICULARIS, Morch (fig. 42). Shells aggregating, base 
spiral, anteriorly upright, rounded. '-Forms a transition to 
the next species, from which perhaps it does not differ. 

Y. SEMISURRECTUS, Bivona. PI. 51, fig. 44. 

Solitary, cylindrical, white, apex contorted, rugose, adnale, 
anteriorly the tube is free, flexuose, longitudinally striate or 
almost smooth. Mediterranean Sea. 

V. SEQUENSIANUS, Avadas and Benoit. PI. 51, fig. 45. 

Irregularly spirally twisted and attached below, finally becom- 
ing erect;, whorls at first angulated, rugosely longitudinally 
striate, and with stong incremental striae, the free portion be- 
coming cylindrical and smooth, rather fragile, gregarious. 

Sicily. 
Y. QUOYI, H. and A. Adams. PI. 51, fig. 46. 

Solitary, loosely contorted, rather thin, livid white, brown 
clouded, attached at the end, last whorl long, flexuous, with 



VERMETUS. 177 

obsolete longitudinal lirae, and still more obsolete intermediate 
striae, incremental striae membranaceous ; aperture circular, diam. 
about 4 mill. Philippines. 

Shell very like the preceding. 

Morch adds vars. LTLACINA, PLANORBOIDES, LAQUEARIS, RUGOSO- 

SQUAMOSA, STRIGATA,PAPILLOSA, CORALLIOPIIILA, TRIQUETRA, GRAN- 
IFERA,FULGURATA,PUNCTATA, VARTEGATA, FLOS-LACTIS. According 

to Yaillant Lamarck's V. eruca, from examination of the speci- 
men, is the same and should have priority. 

V. GOREENSIS, Gmelin. PL 51, fig. 47. 

Conglomerated, rounded, cancellated, yellowish, corneous 
within, with close longitudinal elevated striae. L. of tube 8-9 
inches, diam. 6-8 mill. Operculum so small as to be hardly 
perceptible, not over a quarter of a millimetre in diameter. 

W. Africa. 

I ' figured Species. 

Y. EXSERTA, Dall. West Indies. 

Y. CONSTRICTOR, Morch. Australia. 

Y. SUTILTS, and vars. MAJOR and TRIQUETRA, Morch. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

Y. IONICA, Danillo and Sandri. Dalmatia. 

Y. GREGARTA, Monts. Sicily. 

Y. PANORMITANUS, Gregorio. Sicily. 

Y. COMPACTA, Carp. Vancouver's Island. 

Subgenus SPIROGLYPHUS, Daudin, 1800. 

Y. SPIRULIFORMIS, De Serres. PI. 51, figs. 48, 49. 

Spiruliform, brownish or ash colored, or white, sometimes fas- 
ciated, the last whorl detached but continuing spiral, smooth or 
with growth-striae. Diam. 1 inch. 

Zanzibar, Philippines, Red Sea. 

Morch describes vars. SCAPHITOIDES, VORTEX, LEMNISCATA, SPI- 

RALIS, SOLIDISSIMA, TMMERSA (fig. 49), ERYTHR^ENSIS, DTSCULUS. 

Y. AMMONITIFORMIS, De Serres. PL 52, fig. 54. 

Planorbiform, last whorl closely wound like the others, with 
strong incremental striae. Diam. 20 mill. 

Indian Ocean, on Perna isognomon. 
12 



178 VERMETUS. 

Y. SPIRORBIS, Sowb. PI. 51, fig. 50. 

Planorbiform, white, smootkish, whorls not in contact. 

? Cape of Good Hope. 
V. ANNULATUS, Daudin. PI. 51, figs. 51, 52. 

Irregularly spiral, transversely lamellate. 

West Indies, on Shells. 

Var. CORRODENS, d'Orb. (fig. 51). Having a peripheral carination, 
forming a tooth-like projection at the mouth. This is var. 
dentifera of Mb'rch. 

Var. IRREGULARIS, d'Orb. (fig. 52). Brownish black, irregularly 
contorted, transversely rugosely plicate. This is var. glome- 
rata, Morch. 

Yar. TROCHICOLA, Morch (unfigured). 

Y. GLOMERATUS, Bivona. PL 51, fig. 53 ; PI. 52, figs. 55-58. 

Conglomerated, tubes cylindrical or subangulated, contorted, 
transversely undulately rugose. Mediterranean Sea. 

Morch has vars. CRUSTANS and TUBULOSA = ANNULATA, Lam. 
(fig. 58). 

V. cristatus, Biondi, is the young of this species. Yaillant 
remarks that Daudin's species is smaller than V. annulatus, Lam., 
and corrodes the surface upon which it is attached ; as Daudin has 
priority he proposes for the Lamarckian species V. annularium. 

Monterosato has substituted the name petrsea, because of Ser- 
pula glomerata, Linn.; he adds a var. minor. 

Embryonal whorls smooth, projecting in the centre of the shell, 
and not unlike a very small Amnicola. Has more regular whorls 
and wants the tooth-like process of the carina in the aperture of 
V. annulatus. 

Doubtful and Unfgured Species. 

SERPULA COSTALIS and S. iNFUNDiBULUM,of Chenu's Illust. Conch. 
Y. ALBIDUS, Carp. Mazatlan. 

Y. STiiAMONiT^;. Morch. ? Guinea. 

Y. ANGULIFERA, Monts. Tripoli. 

Y. PLANORBIS, Dkr. PL 52, fig. 59. 

Planorbiform, somewhat solid, white, carinated, transversely 
sublamellate, whorls in contact. 

Japan, slightly immersed in the surface of 

Vermetus imbricatu*, Dkr. 



VEEMETUS. 179 

Subgenus THYLACODES, Guettard, 1774. 
V. POLYPHRAGMA, Sassi. PL 52", figs. 60-62. 

Solitary, irregularly twisted, commencing irregularly spiral, 
with dilated suture, afterwards rounded, longitudinally finely 
striate, the striae often alternately smaller, frequently granose, 
sometimes with three or four strong line, remote nodules and 
intervening brownish pu notations ; color usually whitish or 
yellowish white. Aperture, 14 mill. wide. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The synonyms are V. arenaria, Lam., in part., Serpula intes- 
tina, Salis, Dentalium intestiniforme, Linn., teste Hanley, V. 
gigas, Gray, in part. 

Yar. ALETES, Morch (fig. 62). Laterally attached, almost regu- 
larly spiral ; last whorl somewhat protracted. It is V. 
lineolata, Gravenh. 

Yar. AMPLA, Morch. Loosely contorted, rather thin, whorls 
scarcely contiguous, the last rather short, solute, with approxi- 
mating small longitudinal lira? decussated by incremented 
stria?, interstices lightly punctate ; last whorl with two or 
three interrupted lira? above, elongately nodulose ; whitish, 
or yellowish white, first whorls light violaceous. 

Malta. 

Y. DENTIFERUS, Lam. PI. 52, fig. 63. 

Large, subsolitary or often conglomerated, irregularly twisted 
at first, with rugose growth-stride, fine longitudinal lines, and 
frequently two or three longitudinal riblets bearing distant 
tubercles. 

Indian Ocean, Australia. 

Mu'rch describes a var. REPENS. The following species is 
probabty only a variety, and both might be referred to V. poly- 
phragma. The Lamarckian examples appear to include several 
species, according to M. Yaillant ; I give the form as restricted 
by Morch. 

Y. NoV^E-HOLLANDIiE, RoilSS. PI. 53, fig. 64. 

Shells agglomerated, inferiorly contorted, then protracted, 



180 VERMETUS. 

with numerous subdentate longitudinal costellse, and intervening 
striae; brownish. Probably identical with the foregoing species. 

Australia. 

Described by Morch under the name of F. sulcatus, Lam., 
but one of the three types of that species is a fossil and different, 
the other two appear to be V. sipho, Lam. 

Y. MASTER, Deshayes. PI. 53, fig. 65. 

Large and thick, irregularly spiral, not elevated, with about 
twenty longitudinal grooves ; grayish, yellowish brown or flesh- 
color, corneous within. Length, 1 foot, diam. 16-18 mill. 

Cape Verde Is. 

Le Masier, of Adanson. It is also F. sipho (Lam. in part), 
Blainv., and F. arenarius, Daudin. 

Y. BRAZILIENSIS, Rousseau. PI. 53, fig. 66. 

Large, solitary, at first spiral, last whorl protected, lightly 
curved, erect, with slight distant spiral line. 

Diam. apert. 30 mill. Brazil. 

Y. ATRA, Rousseau. PL 53, fig. 67. 

Usually solitary, thick, spirally twisted, laterally attached, 
last whorl protracted, rounded, the affixed ones with expanded 
sides ; surface with close growth-Hues, and distant longitudinal 
lirulae ; black or very dark brown. Diam. of aperture, about 20 
mill. 

Philippines, New Caledonia, East Indies. 

This is Serpula colubrina, Bolten, F. fuscata, Humphr., ? F. 
ochrea, Gmel. Morch adds vars. ALBINA, brown and blackish, 
mixed with white towards the aperture, VIOLACEO-FUSCA, L^VI- 
USCULA, and AGGLOMERATA. 

Y. IMBRICATUS, Dunker. PI. 53, fig. 68. 

Rather solid, laterally attached, anterior^ sometimes free and 
erect, light brownish, with longitudinal, snbimbricated costulse. 

Japan. 
Y. NOHOSO-RUGOSUS, Lischke. PI. 53, figs. 69, 70. 

Whitish, yellowish or violaceous brown, somewhat solid, irreg- 
ularly twisted, anteriorly shortly erect, flat and attached below, 
obsoletely carinate and nodosely transversely wrinkled above, 
becoming smoother towards the aperture. Japan. 



VERMETUS. 181 

V. DECUSSATUS, {Jmelin. PI. 53, figs. 71, 72. 

Rather solid, variously twisted, solitary, laterally attached ; 
whorls rounded, sometimes contiguous at the commencement, 
with longitudinal lirae and intermediate striae, decussated by 
incremental stria? ; yellowish white, variegated and clouded by 

light brown. 

West Indies. 

Morch describes vars. TENUIS, INTERMEDIA, L^EVIGATA, with 
smooth whorls, represented in part by V. PORITES, Rouss. (fig. 
72), all from West Indies; and vars. PHILIPPINENSIS and BADIA, 
from the Philippine Islands. 

V. SQUAMIGERUS, Carp. PL 54, figs. 73, 74. 

Yellowish white, usually conglomerated, loosely twisted, 
becoming erect, closely longitudinally costate, with intermediate 
raised lines, scaly decussated, the erect anterior portion marked 
by rugose incremental striae only. 

Southern California, Lower California. 

Yar. PENNATA, Morch (fig. 74). 

Solitary, laterally attached, longitudinal lirae rather distant, 
compressed, nodosely serrated, alternately smaller, the inter- 
stices striate ; whitish, or yellowish, with angulated (pennate) 
incremental striae, which are occasionally chestnut-colored. 

California. 

This is F. margaritarum, of Val. (Voy. Venus), in part. 

V. MICHAUDII, Rouss. PL 54, fig. 75. 

Yellowish white, laterally attached, longitudinally closely 
striate, with distant annular ribs. 

Nab. unknown. 
V. PORITES Rousseau. PL 54, fig. 76. 

Thin, laterally attached, very lightly longitudinally striated; 
incremental striae very close, obsolete, with regular, remote 
incremental sulci, the interstices slightly convex; yellowish 
white, darker within. 

Hob. unknown, on a coral. 
Y. LONGIFILIS, Morch. PL 54, fig. 77. 

Reclining, laterally attached, loosely twisted, variegated with 
yellow and light brown, longitudinally lirulate, with three or 



182 VERMETUS. 

four stronger, remote line, aperture transversely oval, bluish 
within. Australia. 

This is the type and only species of the subgenus Tetr anemia, 
Morch, which is described as having very long pedal filaments, 
subulate, and not retractile, with an intermediate mamilla ; the 
mesopodium small, elongated, with two posterior short filaments. 

F. dentiferus, Quoy, not Lamarck, is a synonym. 

V. INOPERTUS, Riippell. PI. 54, fig. 78. 

Olivaceous, rather thick, twisted. Animal with conical 
rostrum ; tentacles short, thick, proceeding from a heart-shaped 
dorsal process ; no pedal filaments, metapodium large, cylin- 
drical, truncate, penis subulate. Red Sea. 

It is V. operculatus, Gray, and (according to Issel) F. eruca, 
Lam. 



V. GRANDIS, Gray. PI. 54, fig. 79. 

Clouded, yellowish brown, contorted, laterally affixed, longi- 
tudinally striate, flattened on the base, convex above, where there 
are two or three more prominent rugose ridge-like striae, aper- 
ture round, violaceous. 

Australia. 

This is the type of the subgenus Cladopoda, Gray, and the 
following species are included therein by Morch. The diagnosis 
is: Operculum none; foot elongate, front end simple, hinder 
extremity oblong, clavate or subtruncate. 

It is F. arenarius. Lam., of Quoy and Gaimard. Morch adds 
a Var. OXYGONA. 

V. ELEGANS, Quoy and Gaimard. PI. 54, fig. 80. 

Animal cinereous, the tentacles, head and foot maculated and 
spotted with red. Shell and habitat unknown. 

V. ZELANDICUS, Gray. PL 54, fig. 81. 

Animal with yellowish head, brown and red-spotted in front, 
foot 3'ellowish, spotted with red, mantle widely margined with 
orange-red. Shell contorted, having no characters of importance. 

New Zealand. 

Possibly identical with the preceding species. It is F. -Novse- 
Zelandise of Gray. 



VERMETUS. 183 

. Doubtful^and Unfigured Species of Thylacodes. 
Y. CUVJERI, Risso (PL 48, fig. 19). Southern Europe. 

This unrecognized species is the type of the subgenus Lemcn- 
tina, Risso, distinguished by the remarkably radiated metapo- 
dium. Dr. Gray regarded it as " probably only a badly described 
and figured Serpuloides arenarius. n 

Y. ORYZATA, and var. ANNULATUS, Morch. Panama. 

Y. RUMPHII, Blainv. (V. protensa, Dillw., V. vormium, Petiv.). 

Nab. unknown. 

Y. PROTENSUS, Gmel. Hab.' unknown. 

Y. SCABER, Gravenhorst. Hab. unknown. 

Y. NATALENSIS, Morch. So. Africa. 

Y. ERUCIFORMIS, and vars. ERYTHROSCLERA and LUMBRICELLA, 

Morch. California. 

Y. RIISET, and vars. MUHLENPFORDET, and LIMACELLA, Morch. 

West Indies. 
Y. TURONIUS, Rouss. Definitely ascertained to be a fossil. See 

Yaillant, Nouv. Arch, du Mus., 193, 1871. 

Y. ANNULUS, Rouss. Hab. unknown. 

Y. SELECTUS, Monts. and vars. ARBOREA and RAMOSA. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Y. MELANOSTOMUS, Morch. Zanzibar. 

Y. SIP HO, Lam. Timor. 

Y. LAMARCKII, Yaillant. Australia. 

Subgenus SIPHONIUM (Browne. 1756), Morch, 1859. 
Y. LITUELLA, Morch. PI. 54, fig. 82. 

Variously twisted, often openly spiral, laterally attached and 
deeply immersed, with a median carina or rib above, which is 
more or less nodulous, and close, rugose incremental lines ; color 
whitish or ash, often obsoletely brown clouded, early whorls 
chestnut colored. California, on Haliotis, etc. 

It is V. ammoniformis, Serres. 

Y. AFRUM, Gmel. PL 54, fig. 83. 

Yery solid, white, corroding and attached lateralh-, spiral, 
becoming thinner towards the aperture, with a superior rib and 
obsolete longitudinal striae, distant incremental sulci, and close 
arcuate incremental striae. Gaboon, W..Africa, on Chama. 

It is " Le Datin " of Adanson, 



184 VERMETUS. 

Y. POLITUS, Daudin. PL 54, figs. 84-86. 

Paucispiral, openly wound, like a hunting-horn ; whorls two, 
rapidly enlarging to the rounded aperture, laterally attached 
and corroding, white, smooth, with somewhat distant annular 
constrictions. 

Indian Ocean, etc. On Tridacna and Serpula. 

V. perforans, Serres, is a synonym. 

Y. NEBULOSUS, Dillw. PL 54, figs. 87, 88. 

Young shell planorbiform, corroding, chestnut-color to white, 
slightly spirally lirulate ; afterwards contorted, variegated with 
light brown and white, lirae rugose, with three squamiferous 
lirse above ; finally becoming free, with rugose simulations and 
sulcations, and longitudinal sculpture obsolete. 

West Indies. 

Morch describes Yars. SERRATA, ACULEATA, TURBOIDES = Ser- 
pula bicarinata, Sowb. (fig. 88), IMBRICATA = Serpula dentifera, 

Sowb., PLANORBOIDES, RUGOSA, ANAULAX, FISSURATA. 

Y. MARGARITARUM, Yal. (in part). PL 55, fig. 92. 

Large, spirally lirulate, with more distant nodose ribs, 
chestnut-brown to yellowish. 

Panama Mazatlan. 
Y. MAXIMUS, Sowb. PL 55, figs. 89, 90. 

Large, irregularly twisted, rather smooth, annularly rugose, 
dorsal carina becoming spinose anteriorly ; often deeply im- 
bedded in coral ; diam. of aperture 1 inch. The young shell is 
subtriangular, with dorsal carina. 

Java Polynesia. 

Morch describes several varieties; among them he names 

SCANDENS, MEGACENTRO, PR^ELONGA, BTANGULAR1S. 



Undetermined and Unfigured Species. 

Y. CARINIFERUS, Gray. New Zealand. 

Y. LAMELLOSUS, Hutton. New Zealand. 

Y. SUBGRANOSUS, Morch, with Yars. CARTNATA, COST ALE, and 

TRIQUETRA. JEast Indies. 

Y. LURIDUS, Morch. Society Islands. 



VERMETUS. 185 

Y. G^EDAROPI, Morch ( V. turboides, Chieregh.). 

? Spain on Spondylus. 

Y. PICTUS, Morch, and Yar. TURBOIDES. East Indies. 

Y. TEXTUM, Morch, and Vars. SCAPTOIDES and UNGUICULATA. 

Philippines. 
Y. SUBCRENATUS, Lam. East Indies, Philippines. 

Yars. SQUAMULOSA, BIFUNICULARIS, CRISTATA, SUBDECUSSATA, and 

SPINOSA, Morch. 

Y. DACOST.E, Morch (PI. 55, fig. 91). Hab. unknown. 

Y. PLATYPUS, Morch. Sandwich Is. 

Y. TEREDULA, Morch. ? Morocco. 

Y. LEUCOZONIAS, Morch. W. Africa. 

Y. MEGAMASTUM, Morch (PI. 55, fig. 93), and Yar. IMBRICATUS, 

Carp. California. 

? Y. ADAMSII, Morch. ? Borneo, Japan. 

Y. PLICARIA, Lam. Australia. 

Subgcnus STEPHOPOMA, Morch, 1860. 

Y. ROSEUS, Quoy and Gaimard. PI. 55, fig. 94. 

Shell small, spirally twisted, cylindrical, rugose, rose-colored. 
Operculum round, brownish, multispira bearing a large number 
of divergent multifid corneous hairs. 

New Zealand. 
Y. PENNATUS, Morch. PI. 55, figs. 95, 96. 

Solitary, spirally angulately twisted, with* open umbilicus; 
whorls obsoletely quadrangular or pentagonal, closely longitu- 
dinally lirulate, incremental striae irregular; white, brownish or 
variegated. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

Morch describes a var. bispinosa, distinguished by a different 
form in the bristles of the operculum, when viewed under a lens. 



Un figured Species. 

Y. SENTICOSUS, Morch. Hab. unknown. 

Y. TRICUSPIS, Morch. Australis. 

Y. LYNGBYANUS, Morch. Denmark. 



186 VEBMETUS. 

Subgenus VERMICULARIA, Lam., 1799. 

The animal is thus described by Stimpson : 

" Mantle fringed at its margin with short filaments ; foot very 
short and broad, dilated into rounded auricles anteriorly ; muz- 
zle broad, not cleft; tentacula short, conical, with eyes at their 
exterior base ; an elevated ridge runs along the back, becomes 
flattened into a membrane at the head, and passes round under 
the right tentacle, forming a kind of canal, near which is the 
anus; its color is light brown, with patches and spots of black. 
Viviparous. The young shell is helicoid and reversed. Oper- 
culum corneous, black and hard on the inner, and lamellated on 
the outer surface ; it is surrounded by a thin, membranous, 
flexible portion, about one-fourth its diameter ; thus it is enabled 
to close its shell perfectly at the aperture, and yet to retreat far 
into the narrower whorls." 

V. TORTUOSUS, Solander. PI. 55, fig. 97 ; PI. 56, fig. 1. 

Loosely twisted, whorls flattened or slightly concave on the 
exterior, smooth, rectangular above and below, margined by a 
rib, spire short, conical. 

Philippines. 

V. costalis, Rouss., is a synonym. It is doubtful whether this 
species is distinct from V. lumbricalis ; yet Morch has described 
vars. unicostalis (fig. 97) and nidificans. 

V. LUMBRICALIS, Linn. PL 55, fig. 98. 

Yellowish chestnut color ; whorls rounded with or without one 
or two exterior carinae, sometimes with two slight inferior carinae, 

smooth or longitudinally striae. 

Philippines, East Indies. 

This is the well-known type of the family Vermetidae. It is 
very doubtful whether it should be restricted to oriental speci- 
mens, as no permanent differential characters appear to charac- 
terize the forms from other localities which have received distinct 
names, as for instance, that of the Atlantic coast of the United 
States and West Indies. Morch has described vars. DIAPHANA, 
CORNEA, AMPLIATA, RUGULOSA and TERES (= Indicus, Rouss. in 
part). 



VERMETUS. 187 

Y. SPIRATUS, Phil. PL 55, figs. 99, 100. 

Shell chestnut-colored, varying to light yellowish ash, more or 
less longitudinally striated and carinated. 

Atlantic Coast of the UnitedStaf.es, West Indies, 

Gulf of Mexico. 

Var. MELANOSCLERA, Morch. Shell solid, chestnut-colored, with 
dark transverse 1 striae, obtusely quadrangular, exteriorly 
angulated in the middle, the angle lighter colored, longitu- 
dinally lirulate, interior sides strongly lirate. 

Vera Cruz. 

Var. QUADRANGULARIS, Moich (= quadrangular, Phil.). Reddish 

brown. 

Yucatan. 

Var. BICARINATUS, Morch. This is the ordinary West Indian and 
Florida type as figured above. Dall. describes a V. lumbri- 
calis, var. nigricans, growing in large patches, almost form- 
ing reefs on the West Coast of Florida. He can scarcely 
refer to this form ; more probably it is V. varians, d'Orb. 
This is V. lumbricalis, d'Orb., V. Knorri, Desh. 

Var. RADICULA, Stimpson (fig. 100). Yellowish ash-color, with 
several unequal strong ridges, sometimes spotted with chest- 
nut, and intermediate fine lirulse. United States, Mass, to 
Fla. 
This is V. lumbricalis of Gould, and var. cinerea of Morch. 

Vars. UNGULINA, SCALARTS and TERES are also given by Morch. 

V. DIMORPHUS, Morch. PI. 5G, fig. 2. 

Solid, spirally twisted, variegated ash-color and cinnamon; 
whorls loose, laterally connate and affixed, longitudinally closely 
stimulate, with three unequal remote exterior lirre, upper side 
with a plane surface destitute of sculpture. 

Philippines. 

Morch adds a var. LITUINA. 

V. PELLUCIDUS, Brod. and Sowb. PI. 56, figs. 3-6, 9, 10. 

Pellucid, longitudinally striate, carinate towards the apex. 

West Coast of Central and South America. 



188 SILIQUARIA. 

Yar. PLANOBOIDES, Moreh, fig. 9. Rather thin, irregularly plan- 
orbiform, laterally aflixed, beautifully densely longitudinally 
striated and flatly lirate, spire turretelloid. It is Serpula 
regularis, Chenu. 

Yar. CBASSA, Morch, fig. 10. Lira? prominent, shell irregularly 
twisted. Animal greenish maculated and reticulated with 
white, tentacles long, subulate, interruptedly lineated ; pro- 
boscis short, rounded. This is Serpula Panamensis, Chenu. 

Yar. EBURNEUS, Reeve (fig. 6). Shell white, thick, loosely whorled, 
with distant, subobsolete longitudinal sculpture. = Yar. 
volubilis, Morch. 
There are also vars. LAQUEARIS, CINNAMOMINA, PICTA, TIGRINA, 

CASTANEA, DISCIFER and SUBGRANOSA of Morch. 

Y. EFFUSUS, Yal. in part (PL 56, fig. 7). Hab. unknown. 

Y. TURRITELLA, Rouss. (PL 56, fig. 8). Hab. unknown. 

Y. SOLARINUS, Morch (unfigured). Philippines. 

Y. RASTRUM, Morch (unfigured). Hab. unknown. 

Genus SILIQUARIA, Brug., 1789. 
Section SILIQUARIA (sensu stricto). 
S. PONDEROSA, Morch. PL 57, fig. 11. 

Yellowish white, very thick, large ; whorls broadly convoluted, 
apex obtuse, outer half of whorls much thickened by a deeply 
transversely fissured layer, slit continuous below, margined above 
by waved dentate lamellae, in the earlier whorls usually articu- 
lated, thin, filled within by shelly matter. 

Australia. 
S. SENEGALENSIS, Recluz. PL 57, fig. 12. 

Heavy, upper portion of spire-whorls a little convex, plane or 
excavated, closely radiately undulate-sulcate, closely volute, 
forming a narrow umbilicus, externally transversely deeply fis- 
sured, slit open, slightly undulate-dentate ; pink or pale fulvous. 

Senegal. 

This is S. incisa of Morch, not Chemnitz. 

Yar. ROSEA, Morch. Deep rose-color, apex whitish, umbilicus 
pervious. 



SILIQUARIA. 189 

Yar. LINEATA, Morch. Whitish, whorls with close longitudinal 
light orange-colored lines below. 

S. ENCAUSTICA, Morch. PI. 57, fig. 13. 

Small, thick, rugose, irregularly pyramidal, pointed, tube small, 
umbilical region covered by an enameled callus, thickened, 
roughly wrinkled and transversely fissured on the peripheral 
side; slit closed in the upper whorls, then articulated, finally 
open, continuous. 

Ceylon. 

Described from a single specimen in the Cumingian collection. 

S. TROCHLEARIS, Morch. PI. 57, fig. 14. 

Rather thin, umbilicus narrow, pervious ; whorls 6, at first 
close, then dissolute, plane above and below, transversely 
densely rugosely fissured, longitudinally very obsoletely striate 
and sulcate, with yellowish spiral lines, slit undulately dentate. 

Philippines. 
S. OBTUSA, Schum. PL 57, figs. 15, 16. 

Shell elongated, whorls large, spirally rather finely li rated, 
smoother on the umbilical face, thickened on the outside and 
transversely fissured; spiral slit simple, frequently closed 
towards the apex. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

It is S. anguina, of Phil., Sowb., etc., but not of Linnaeus. 
There are Yars. ROSEA, Montr., and COST^E, Cantraine. 

Section AGATHIRSES, Montfort, 1810. 

S. AUSTRALIS, Quoy and Gaimard. PI. 58, fig. 20 ; PL 57, fig. 17. 
Shell large, thick, apex pyramidal, tube finely longitudinally 
striated on the inner side, thick, rugose and transversely fissured 
on the outer side, slit represented by round holes, gaping open 
near the aperture. 

Australia. 

Morch describes Yars. SCALARIFORMIS, MULTILIRATA and 
T^ENIATA (fig. 17). 

S. REENTZII, Morch. 

Graceful, obsoletely longitudinally lirulate, rust color, whitish 
towards the aperture, with a chestnut line below the slit. First 
described as Yar. ferruginea of S. Australis. 



190 SILIQUARIA. 

S. TOSTUS, Morch. PL 57, fig. 18. 

Small, rust color, darker brown at the apex ; tube narrow, 
rather smooth, spire suborbicular ; fissure articulated, bordered 
by a dentate line on either side. 

Ceylon. 

Differs (insufficiently) from the next species in the elliptical, 
distant pores, the slit being bordered by a narrow elevated 
undulated line on both sicUes ; so that except in the last whorl, 
the slit seems situated on the top of a feeble carina. 

S. CUMINGII, Morch. PL 57, fig. 19 ; PL 58, fig. 21. 

Whorls 5, the first scalariform, angulated behind, the angle 
evanescent in the last whorl, granularly lirate below, line distant, 
the interstices with intervening lirulse, externally transversely 
lightly fissured, the fissures evanescent in last whorl, umbilical 
region longitudinally undulately striate, decussated by sigmoid, 
distant radiating sulci ; slit at first closed, afterwards with open 
round holes, which finally coalesce into a denticulated open slit. 

Philippines, Japan. 

Morch describes Yars. RUDIS, CONIFER, PLATYOMPHALA, LUM- 

BRTCALIS, L^VILIRATA, JAPONICA. 

S. BERNARDII, Morch. PL 58, fig. 22. 

White, clouded with fawn color, thin, elongated, narrowly 
and loosely twisted, irregularly pjTamidal towards the apex ; 
tube narrow, crenulately striated, slit band roundly articulated. 

Australia. 
S. ANGUINA, Linn. PL 58, figs. 23-25. 

Shell rather thick, broadly irregularly twisted, distantly 
spirally ridged, ridges sharply squamose or spined ; tube gener- 
ally very slowly increasing ; spiral fissure very narrow, partly 
consisting of oblong perforations, partly continuous and dentate 
by the coalescence of these ; white, yellowish or purplish, some- 
times two colors on the same specimen. 

Moluccas, Ceylon. 

The synonyms are S. muricata, Born., S. volvox, I)illw.,-$. 
ruber, Schum., S. sulcata, Gray, S. polygona, Blainv., S. Dunkeri, 
Morch, S. squamata, Blainv. (fig. 25). In the latter form the 
slit is simple and open, although otherwise the features are those 
of anguina. This is not an error in the representation of the 



CRYPTOBIA. 191 

shell, for similar specimens are before me, besides intermediates. 
These sections of Siliquaria, I repeat, are founded on evanescent 
characters, and should be accepted with reserve. 

Section PYXIPOMA, Morch, 1860. 

S. LACTEA, Lam. PI. 58, fig. 20. 

Narrow, smoothish, pellucid, white, obsoletely brown-tinted, 
rarely striated, apical whorls slightly pyramidal, fissure articu- 
lated, partly closed by an internal lamina near the apex. 

Australia, China, East Indies. 

Gregarious, forming conglomerated masses. 

T. TAHEITENSIS, Morch. PI. 58, fig. 2T. 

Rather thick, smooth, fulvous, longitudinally lirulate, cancel- 
lated between the ridges, slit narrow, right margin thichkened. 

Tahiti. 

Shell much larger than the preceding, with stronger lirse, the 
interstices cancellated, slit coarctate. The only figure of the 
species is from a fragment in the British Museum. 

S. WELDII, Tenison-Woods. PL 58, fig. 28. 

Graceful, smooth or very lightly longitudinally striated, 
whitish, yellowish, or very light rosy, first three whorls with the 
slit filled below, afterwards it is open. 

So. Australia, Tasmania. 

Undetermined or Unfigured Species of Siliquaria. 

S. COST^E, Cantraine. Mediterranean Sea. 

S. GLABRA, Risso (= the above ?). Mediterranean. 

S. MOBII, Morch. Manilla. 

S. GIGAS, Lesson. Moluccas. 

S. PAPILLOSA, Rees. Hab. unknown. 

S. SPIRALIS, Risso (? = S. obtusa, Schum.). Mediterranean. 

S. ANGUILL^E, Morch. West Indies. 

S. MODESTA, Dall. West Indies. 

Genus CRYPTOBIA, Desh., 1863. 

The two species, MICHELINI and HETEROPSAMMARIUM, are not 
described or figured. Isl. Reunion. 



FAMILY TURRITELLIDM. 

Animal with a short broad rostrum ; long, subulate, diverging 
tentacles, the eyes slightly prominent at their external base ; 
mantle margin fringed, slightly plicate or channeled in front and 
on the right side ; branchial plume single, very long ; foot very 
short, truncate in front, attenuated and obtuse behind, grooved 
beneath, operculigerous lobe simple. 

The lingual dentition varies in the number of margined teeth ; 
thus for T. acicula, the marginals are suppressed, and. the for- 
mula is 0-1-1-1-0 (PI. 59, fig. 30); for T. ungulina, 2-1-1-1-2, 
(PI. 30, fig. 11), and for T. triplicata 3-1-1-1-3 (PI. 59, fig. 29). 
T. lactea, representing the group Mesalia, has the marginal teeth 
with smooth edges, formula 2-1-1-1-2 (PL 30, fig. 12). 

Shell spiral, not umbilicated, spire very long, of numerous 
whorls, with revolving striae or carinations, and curved growth- 
striae ; mouth obliquely oval or subquadrangular, usually entire, 
lip not thickened. Operculum multispiral. 

The genus Eglisia, Gray, 1840, included by man 3^ conchologists 
in this family, belongs apparently to the Scalariidae. Yon 
Maltzan has recently described a genus Smithia, 1883, which is 
said to have a multispiral operculum, and is placed by him in 
Turritellidae, yet in the scalariform whorls, depressed superior 
portion, etc., it appears to be simply an exaggeration of the char- 
acters of Eglisia ; and it is connected with that group by Fischer. 

The Turritellidae have been monographed by : 

Kiener. Coquilles vivantes. 34 species. 

Reeve. Conchologia Iconica. 68 species. 1849. 

Boury has monographed the genus Mathilda, in Journal de 
Conchyliologie, 1883. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus TURRITELLA, Lam., 1799. 

Shell pyramidal, the numerous whorls spirally striated or 
ridged, crossed by arcuated growth-lines, spire very long, aper- 
ture oval or subquadrangular, entire, lip thin. Operculum with 
fimbriated margin. 

(192) 



CALYPTR^EID^E. 



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TURRITELLID^E. 

About a hundred species are known, inhabiting all seas, but 
principally tropical and subtropical. The fossils number about 
four hundred species ; the genus commenced in the trias. 

The genus Proto, Defrance, 1824, is probaj% founded on a 
young Turritella : Proto of authors (Protoma, Baird) is different. 

Section I. TURRITELLA (restricted). 

Whorls rounded, spiral!} 7 striate, unicolored, aperture rounded. 
Section II. HAUSTATOR, Montfort, 1810. 

Whorls flattened, mouth subquadrangular, outer lip sinuous ; 
usually undulatingly strigate with chestnut-color. 

Section III. TORCULA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell turriculated, usually white or horn-colored with faint 
strigations of chestnut-color ; whorls subangular, with a median 
excavation ; aperture subquadrangular, the outer lip with a slight 
median sinus. 

Section IY. ZARTA, Gray, 1841. 

Shell turriculated, without color markings ; whorls carinated ; 
aperture subquadrangular, outer lip simple. 

Section Y. TURRITELLOPSIS, Sars, 1878. 

Shell like Turritella, the whorls of the spire grooved across ; 
aperture oval. The radula is without marginal teeth. Inhabits 
boreal seas. Tachyrhynchus, Morch., 1868, separated from 
Mesalia by a slight difference in the operculum, is a synonym. 
I do not adopt it instead of Turritellopsis because the real dif- 
ferences of radula, size and habitat are not mentioned. 

Subgenus MESALIA, Gray, 1842. 

Shell turritelliform, the last whorl rounded; aperture oval, 
slightly produced in front into a rudimentary channel, lip sharp, 
arcuated, slightly sinuous behind, columella flattened, a little 
twisted at the base. Operculum with fewer whorls than in Tur- 
ritella, the nucleus central. Lateral and marginal teeth of the 
radula with smooth edges. 

West Africa ; fossil in the Eocene. 
13 



194 Tt T RRlTELLID.. 



Subgenus ARCOTIA, Stoliczka, 1868. 

Turreted, elongated, spirally striate, the incremental lines 
straight, not curved ; columella excavated, aperture angulatety 
rounded, subeffuse anteriorly. 

Jurassic and Cretaceous of India. T. INDICA, Stol. (S. and S. 
Conch., t. 67, f. 64). 

Subgenus LITHOTROCHUS, Conrad. 

Shell having the appearance of an elongated Trochus ; spire 
obtuse, the whorls numerous, transversely grooved, last whorl 
carinated, smaller than the spire; there is a thickened sutural 
band, with very numerous growth-striae ; aperture subtetragonal, 
entire. 

Lias of Chili. T. HUMBOLDTII, Buch (S. and S. Conch, t. 67, 
f. 66). 

Genus PROTOMA, Baird, 1870. 

Shell turreted, with flattened whorls, aperture oval, narrowly 
channeled and excised in front, with a basal swelling and a 
fascicle around the excision, lip sinuous behind. Operculum 
circular, corneous, multispiral. 

A single recent species is known, from West Africa. 

This is the genus Proto, of authors, not Defrance, represented 
in the Miocene of Europe. 

? Genus GLAUCOXIA, Geibel, 1852. 

Shell turriculated, conical, sometimes pupiform, the whorls 
less numerous than in Turritella, and crossed by costulations ; 
outer lip notched or sinuated by an impressed furrow which 
winds round the last whorl ; aperture rounded, continuous ; colu- 
mella usually distinctly umbilicated. There are about 30 creta- 
ceous species, Europe, India and America. Omphalia, Zekeli, 
1852 (not Omphalius, Phil.), and Gassiope, Coquand, 1866, are 
synonyms. 

Usually considered a member of this family, but is remarkably 
allied to Melanatria. 



tfURRITELLA. 195 

Genus MATHILDA, Semper, 1865. 

Shell turriculated, rather solid, apex heterostrophe, abruptly 
turned from left to right ; whorls in the typical species trans- 
versely cingulated and reticulated, longitudinally striated ; aper- 
ture entire, subrotund, base sometimes subeffuse ; lip acute, 
columella smooth. Operculum corneous, rather solid, multi- 
spiral, the external face concave, nucleus central. 

Animal with very long thread-like, divergent tentacles, with 
rather large e^yes on prominences upon their exterior side, about 
a quarter of their length from the base ; foot large, cut out in 
front, obtuse behind ; operculigerous lobe having a row of cilia 
in constant movement. 

Seas of Europe, China, Australia, Strait of Magellan. 

There are about thirt^y tertiary and a few secondary species. 

" Mathilda," writes Dr. Fischer, " has the shell of Turritella, 
with the heterostrophe embryonic whorls of Pyramidella ; the 
exterior form of the animal, the position of the eyes, and the 
structure of the operculum, relate it to the former." On the 
other hand, Monterosato finds in it affinities with Solarium, and 
Jeffreys places it in the Pyramidellidre. The radula is. unfortu- 
nately unknown. 

Subgenus GEQANIA, Jeffreys, 1884. 

Shell small, conic, reticulated, imperforate, the nucleus glob- 
ular and twisted, not spiral and not sinistral. G. PINGUIS, Jeffr. 

Coast of Portugal (abyssal). 

Differs from Mathilda in its short spire and non- heterostrophe 
apex. 

Genus TURRITELLA, Lam., 1799. 

Section TURRITELLA (typical). 
T. TEREBRA, Linn. PL 59, figs. 32, 33. 

Whorls convex, each with about 6 revolving ridges and inter- 
mediate close strias, suture deep ; yellowish brown to chestnut- 
color. Length, 5-8 inches. 

Singapore, Java, Philippines. 

T. Archimedis, Dillw} 7 n, is a synonym, and T. spectrum, Reeve 
(tig. 33), is at most a variety, developing more numerous ridges. 



196 TURRITELLA. 

T. BACILLUM, Kiener. PI. 59, figs. 34, 35 ; PI. GO, fig. 42. 

Whorls somewhat flattened in the middle, but with deep 
suture, with about 6 revolving ridges and fine intermediate 
striae ; light yellowish ash to chestnut-color, the ridges on the 
larger whorls often marked -by darker lines. Length, 4-5 inches. 

Ceylon, China. 

This is possibly only a variety of T. terebra, the essential differ- 
ence being that its whorls are somewhat flattened in the middle. 

T. cerea, Reeve (fig. 35) is a synonym. In the darker colored 
specimens, called T. crocea, by Kiener (fig. 42), there is often a 
more or less defined lighter colored sutural band. 

T. UNGULTNA, Linn. PL 60, fig. 43. 

Whorls about fifteen, convex, rather smooth, with about ten 
low ridge-like striae, the interstices superficially striulate ; chest- 
rut-color, becoming dark chocolate towards the aperture. 

Length, 3 inches. 

T.fuscata, Lam., is a synonym. West Africa. 

T. NIVEA, Gray. PL 60, fig. 44. 

Whorls about 20, convex, a little slopingly flattened around 
the upper part, encircled by seven to ten low ridges and inter- 
mediate striae. Length, 3 '5 inches. 

East Coast of Africa. 

I have some doubt about the correctness of the locality 
assigned for this species, and think it very probable that it will 
prove to be a colorless variety of T. ungulina. Jn one of the 
specimens before me the spire is chestnut-tinted. 

T. COMMUNIS, Risso. PL 60, figs. 45, 46. 

Whorls about 15, convex or somewhat flattened, the last some- 
times with an obtuse angle below, with spiral slight ridges and 
intermediate striae, often several of the ridges stronger ; yellow- 
ish brown to rusty chestnut color, often variegated in irregular 
longitudinal stripes, interior of aperture usually purplish tinged. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Europe, 

The nomenclature of this species is somewhat involved. It is 



TIRRITELLA. 197 

T. terebra of Linn. Faun. Suec., but not of the Systema, and 
some conchologists prefer this name ; it is more frequent^ known, 
however, as T. cornea, Lam., although its identification is not 
beyond question. Other synonyms are T. ungulina, Loven, etc. 
(not Linn.), T. Linnsei, Deshayes, and T. imbricosoluta, Gregorio, 
the latter described as a variety. 

T. CAPENSIS, Krauss. PI. 60, fig. 47. 

Whorls about 15, rounded, brownish, white-clouded, with 
irregular obtuse revolving lines and deep suture, base a little 
angulated, aperture light brownish. Length, 28 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
T. TRIPLICATA, Studer. PI. 60, figs. 48-50. 

Whorls 15, with deep suture, spirally striated, three-ribbed, 
ribs flattened, the middle one the largest, the upper one smallest, 
duplicate, and sometimes obsolete towards the apex ; whitish, 
variegated and flamed with chestnut, sometimes all chestnut. 
Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea; West Africa ; 

Canary 7s., Coast of Spain. 
Includes T. incrassata, Sowb., T. tricarinata, Brocchi. 

Var. TURBONA, Monts. Fig. 50. 

Shell larger, bicarinate. Near Civita Vecchia. 

T. FASCIALIS, Menke. PI. 59, figs. 36, 37. 

Very slender; whorls about 18, convex, four-ridged, suture 
deeply impressed ; yellowish, chestnut banded at the suture. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Japan, China Sea. 

Menke described his species without locality; the shell which 
Reeve has figured for it is said, on the authority of Cuming, to 
have been dredged in " Bay of Montija, Central America (in 
coarse sand at the depth of seven fathoms)." That this habitat 
is an error can scarcely be doubted ; not only has the locality 
failed to yield additional specimens, but Mr. A. Adams has 
recognized in the figure a Japanese species of which the unfigured 
T. gracillima, Gould, of Japan, likewise, is a synonym. My 
type specimens of the latter confirm this. T. bicolor, Ad. and 
Reeve (fig. 37), is another synonym. 



198 TURR1TELLA. 

T. CINGULIFERA, Sowb. PL 59, figs. 38-41. 

Slender, with about twelve whorls, contracted beneath the 
deep suture, then rounded, with a number of thin, elevated 
spiral strise ; whitish to yellowish brown, chestnut banded next 
the suture, sometimes with undulating transverse chestnut lines 
or a central chestnut band made up of two or three close parallel 
lines on the last whorl. Length, '75 inch. 

Australia. 

The t} r pe is lighter colored than usual ; T. fragilis, Kiener 
(fig. 39), better represents the ordinary appearance of the species, 
whilst T< fusco-cincta Petit (fig. 40) is a variety with different 
development of the ridging, and T. parva, Angas (fig. 41), is a 
juvenile. 

Section HAUSTATOR, Montfort, 1810. 

T. GONIOSTOMA, Yal. PL 60, figs. 51, 52 ; PL 61, figs. 53-57. 

Whorls 18 to 20, flattened in the middle, with fine spiral striae, . 
and sometimes a few more prominent ridges ; when the latter 
are present they usually define the flattened area above and 
below, with occasionally some intermediate ridges upon the 
area, and a number of stronger ridges on the base of the body- 
whorl; ridges sometimes irregularly nodulous; first whorls of 
the spire unicarinate in the middle; whitish, thickly marbled, 
speckled and irregularly strigate with chestnut or chocolate- 
color. Length, 4-6 inches. 

Payta, Peru to Mazatlan. 

The synonyms include T. Broderipiana, d'Orb. (fig. 53), and 
T. Californica, Brod. (teste d'Orb.) ; T. marmorata, Kiener (fig. 
54); T. lentiginosa, Reeve (fig. 55) ; T. punctata, Kiener (fig. 
56), and T. Banksii, Reeve (fig. 57), a juvenile. This list com- 
prises shells nearly smooth, and those with strong revolving 
ridges, also both slim and stout specimens, and shows a varia- 
bility which, if common to other species of the genus, would 
largely reduce their number. The specimens before me fully 
suffice to make out the synonymy as I have given it. 

T. VARIEGATA, Linn. PL 01, fig. 58 : PL 62, figs. 63, 64. 

Whorls 15 or 16, the first few carinated in the middle, the rest 
flattened, swollen above the suture, with four or five distant 



TURRITELLA. 199 

obsoletely granulated ridges, and intermediate fine striae ; whitish, 
boldly longitudinally clouded and strigated with chocolate-color. 

Length, 2'5-4 inches. 

West Indies. 

The difference between this and the preceding species is mainly 
locality, yet the clouded painting is usually of a bolder pattern. 
The T. goniostoma and all its varieties might be united with this 
without injury to science. 

This is T. lerebra, Donovan; T. marmorata, Chemn., perhaps 
T. meta, Reeve (fig. 63), and T. imbricata, Linn., figured by 
Reeve as var. elongata (fig. 64). 

T. TIGRINA, Kiener. PI. 62, figs. 65, 66. 

Whorls 18-20, rather narrow, flatly sloping, swollen below and 
obtusely angulated, encircled by eight to ten riblets and inter- 
vening close striae, suture deep ; whitish, longitudinally irregu- 
larly strigate with dark chestnut or chocolate-color. 

Length, 3-4*5 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

The more scalariform whorls and more definite obliquely 
longitudinal painting distinguish this from the preceding species ; 
the upper whorls, also, have no central carina. T. Cumingii, 
Reeve (fig. 66), is a synonym. 

T. ROSEA, Quoy. PI. 62, figs. 67, 68 ; PI. 61, fig. 59. 

Whorls about 15, flat, the last sharply angled around the 
base, the angle defined by a rib, above which is another rib ; 
encircled by rather close, raised striae, finer on the base; yel- 
lowish, marbled with chestnut, the raised striae usually darker 
chestnut. Length, 2-2'5 inches. New Zealand. 

T. lineolata, Kiener (fig. 68), is described from a light colored 
or faded specimen. The coloring of none of the specimens 
before me justifies Quoy's specific name. I think that T. Han- 
leyana. Reeve (fig. 59), will prove to be a young specimen of 
this species. 

T. SANGUINEA, Reeve. PI. 62, fig. 61). 

Whorls 18-20, slopingly convex to an angle above the deep 
suture, spirally grooved, witli wider, flat-topped ridges; whitish 
variegated on the ridges with transverse oblong chestnut-colored 
markings. Length, 2-3 inches. Gulf of California. 



200 TURRITELLA. 

T. DECLIVIS, Ad. and Reeve. PL 62, fig. 70. 

Whorls about 18, flatly slanting to an angle above the suture, 
nearly smooth, very finely undulately striated, plicate in the 
middle, towards the apex ; yellowish white, stained with livid 
brown, the earlier whorls spotted with brown in a row beneath 
the suture. Length, 2 inches. 

China Sea. 
T. SINUATA, Reeve. PI. 61, fig. GO. 

Whorls 14, flattened, finely spirally ridged and striated, lip 
deeply sinuous ; light fulvous, with a red-dotted white zone 
beneath the suture. Length, -65 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 
T. CINGULATA, Sowb. PI. 62, fig. 71. 

Whorls about 17, convexly flattened, spirally strongly three- 
ribbed, often with alternate smaller riblets, ribs usually gran- 
osely crenulated, suture deep ; whitish, the ribs very dark 
chocolate or nearly black, aperture numerously chocolate banded. 

T. tricarinata, King, is a synonym. Chili. 

T. COLUMNARTS, Kiener. PL 63, fig. 76. 

Whorls about 30, narrow, the earlier ones showing two 
approximate keels in the middle, the rest rather flattened and 
about ten-ridged, the ridges obsoletely granulated, with inter- 
mediate fine striae, suture excavated ; yellowish white, with light 
chestnut-colored waved longitudinal streaks. Length, 4 inches. 

Ceylon. 
T. LEUCOSTOMA, Yal. PL 62, fig. 72. 

Whorls about 20, very narrow, contracted around the exca- 
vated suture, flattened, spirally about 6-ridged, the ridges narrow, 
rather distant, granose, the interstices very finely striated ; 
whitish, faintly longitudinally clouded with light chestnut, ridges 
chestnut-spotted. Length, 3 inches. 

West Coast of Central America. 

T. COOPERI, Carp. PL 61, fig. 61. 

Whorls about 17, slopingly flattened, excavated at the suture, 
two-ridged and finely striated spirally, the last whorl doubly 
ridged below, with a single ridge above ; yellowish, longitu- 
dinally flamed with chestnut or chocolate. Length, T75 inches. 

Southern California. 



TURRITEI.LA. 201 

T. RTJBESCENS, Reeve. PI. 61, fig. 62. 

Acuminately turreted ; whorls 13, spirally closely ridged and 
striated, the first few whorls keeled in the middle, keel quickly 
vanishing; light red. Length, -65 inch. 

Bay of Montija, West Columbia. 

All the whorls are somewhat prominent in the middle, occupied 
by the keel in the first few whorls. 

The above is Reeve's description of a young shell which does 
not appear to possess any special characteristics ; it will possibly 
prove identical with one of the larger species from the same 
region. 

T. FLAMMULATA, Kiciier. PI. 62, fig. 73. 

Whorls 18, the earlier ones two-ridged, the rest convex, seven- 
ribbed, the middle ribs broader; fulvous white, stained with rose, 
clotted and clouded with chestnut, base rose color. 

Length, 2 75 inches. 

West Africa. 
T. TORULOSA, Kiener. PL 62, fig. 74. 

Whorls 15, flatly convex, the earlier ones two-ridged, after- 
wards becoming four-ridged, ridges obsoletely granulated, two 
lower ones alwa3 T s the most prominent, interstices closely spirally 
striate ; light yellowish white dotted and longitudinally flamed 
with light chestnut. Length, 3 inches. 

? Bed Sea. 
Is possibly a mere variety of the following species. 

T. TRISULCATA, Lam. PL 63, fig. 75. 

Whorls about 18, conspicuously three-ribbed, the intermediate 
grooves hollowed, striated ; whitish, violaceous towards the apex, 
sparsely longitudinally flamed with chestnut. 

Length, 2-5 inches. 

Red Sea. 
T. RADULA, Kiener. PL 63, fig. 77. 

Whorls about 22, doubly ridged above and below, the wide 
intermediate space concave, striated, ridges, except the lowest, 
rather obsoletely granose, last whorl sometimes lamellated ; 
light brownish, spotted, strigated and flamed with chestnut. 

Length, 2'75 inches. 

Bay of Guayaquil. 



202 TURRITELLA. 

T. NODULOSA, King. PI. 63, figs. 78-80. 

Whorls 14 or 15, nodulously lidged, a central ridge usually 
stronger, making an angulation, concave and striate in the mid- 
dle ; light yellowish brown, longitudinally chestnut-flamed be- 
tween the nodules Length, 2 inches. 

Gulf of Dulce, Central America. 

Perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. T. papillosa, 
Kiener (fig. 80), is a synonym. 

T. AQUILA, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 63, fig. 81. 

Whorls 14-15, concavely sloping around the upper part, then 
somewhat obscurely broadly two-ribbed, conspicuously engraved 
throughout with grooved striae, last whorl neatly ridged and 
striated beneath ; swarthy brown, obliquely spotted and 
streaked with reddish chestnut. Length, 1-6 inches. 

Nagasaki Bay, Japan. 

" The painting of this species has rather a dotted appearance 
from its being everywhere cut through by the striate grooves." 
REEVE. 

C. BICINGULATA, Lam. PI. 63, fig. 82. 

Whorls about 18, each bearing two strong, rounded, nodulous 
ribs, separated by a narrow, concave groove, which is closely 
striated, base concentrically ridged ; yellowish or purplish 
white, thickly covered witli purple-chestnut longitudinal flames, 
aperture maculated purplish. Length, 2'5-3 inches. 

Cape Verd Is. 

It is T. biangulata, Blsiinv. 

T. MACULATA, Reeve. PL 63, fig. 83. 

Differs from the preceding species in the keels of the earlier 
whorls being comparatively obsolete, the base of the shell more 
concave, and marked by numerous colored linear striae, which 
are continued over the whole shell. There is none of the bold 
blotchy painting which distinguishes T. bicingulata, but the 
upper margin of the whorls has a row of irregular chestnut 
spots immediately beneath the suture. Length, 2*75 inches. 

China Sea. 



TURRITELLA. 203 

T. KNYSNAENSIS, Krauss. PI. 63, fig. 84. 

Whorls 17, convex, with profound suture, with two approxi- 
mate central keels (three on last whorl), and narrower spiral 
lines ; whitish marbled and longitudinally strigate with chestnut. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
T. ANNULATA, Kieiier. PI. 63, fig. 85. 

Whorls 20, sloping above, then two-keeled with a narrow 
intervening sulcus, closely striate, the stria3 above and below 
the keels stronger than in the sulcus; yellowish white, 
obscurely longitudinally flamed with light chestnut. 

Length, 2'75 inches 

West Africa. 
T. GUNNII, Reeve. PL 63, figs. 86, 87. 

Whorls 18, flattened, irregular^ inconspicuously ridged and 
striated, suture excavated ; whitish, with chestnut-colored waved 
flames, aperture light purplish. Length, 2 inches. 

Tasmania, Australia. 
Yar. TASMAXICA, Reeve. Fig. SI. 

Whorls 15, rather flattened, ridged at the lower edge, encir- 
cled with two ridges and intermediate striae above, interstices 
very closely decussated with minute oblique raised striae. 

T. INCISA, Reeve. PI. 63, fig. 88. 

Whorls 12, flatly convex, concavely angled at the base, spi- 
rally very closely marked with engraved striae ; ash-brown. 

Length, -75 inch. 

Sydney. Australia. 
T. INFRACONSTRICTA, Smith. PI. 63, fig. 89. 

Whorls about 20, convexly flattened, with excavated suture, 
finely lirated and two-ridged ; brownish white, minutely dotted 
with chocolate-color on the line. Length, 2 inches. 

Andaman Is. 
T. HASTULA, Reeve. PI. 64, fig. 03. 

Whorls 22-23, slender, flatly convex, concentrically plicately 
w r rinkled, last whorl swollen at the base, with the wrinkles 
obsolete, all the whorls spirally impressly striated, the inter- 
mediate ridges being obsoletely granulated ; ash-white, arcuately 
streaked and variegated with purple-brown. Length, 2*25 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 



204 TURRITELLA. 

T. VITTULATA, Adams and Reeve. PL 63, figs. 00, 91. 

Whorls 12, flatly convex, with deep suture, spirally sharply 
six-ridged and striated, the interstices showing oblique longitu- 
dinal striae, ridges thin, the two lower ones more prominent; 
yellowish white to light brown, irregularly interruptedly stained 
with chestnut. Length, '75 inch. 

China Sea. 

T. canaliculata, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 91), is a bleached speci- 
men of this species. 

T. MULTILIRATA, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 64, fig. 91. 

Shell delicate, translucent, whorls contracted round the upper 
part, gently slanting below, channeled round the lower part, spi- 
rally many-ridged, ridges very finely granulated ; pellucid, white. 

Length, 1 inch. 

China Sea. 

Although described as white, the original figure is decidedly 
colored a light violaceous brown. 

T. FASTIGIATA, Ad. and Reeve. PL 63, fig. 92. 

Whorls 18-20, narrow, convex, contracted above, slanting, then 
rounded, very finely ridged and striated, two-keeled towards the 
apex ; variegated with pale violet and white, and oblique brown- 
ish streaks, ridges dotted or articulated with light brown. 

Length, 1'75 inches. 

China Sea. 
T. CONGELATA, Ad. and Reeve. PL>64, fig. 94. 

Whorls 16, convexly flattened, smooth, obscurely three-ridged, 
ridges narrow, distant ; translucent white. Length, *75 inch. 

China Sea. 
T. PAGODA, Reeve. PL 64, fig. 95. 

Whorls 14-15, slantingly flattened, spirally sharply ridged, 
conspicuously encircled with a single sharp rib below, paired on 
the body-whorl, first few whorls two-ribbed; whitish, obscurely 
flamed with light fulvous. Length, - 8 inch. New Zealand. 

T. CANDIDA, Reeve. PL 64, fig. 96. 

Whorls 18, spirally ridged, at first two-keeled around the upper 
part, concave in the middle, then with a single keel, two last- 
whorls four-keeled, suture excavated ; white, without markings. 

Length, 2 inches. Hab. unknown. 



TURRITELLA, 205 

T. DECIPIENS, Monts. PI. G4, fig. 3. 

Whorls about 10, convexly flattened, the suture slightly 
marked, with crowded revolving lines, the earlier whorls carinate 
in the middle, afterwards becoming indistinct, the middle line a 
little more prominent than the others, base concave, defined by 
a sharp angle ; light yellowish brown to chestnut-brown, with 
fine flexuous chestnut stripes and spots. Length, 1 inch. 

Gabes, Tunis. 
It is T, subangulata, Auct., not Brocchi. 

T. ALBA, H. Adams. PI. 64, fig. 4. 

Turreted, thin, white; whorls 12, carinated in the middle, the 
last whorl bicarinate, with a broad intervening flattened space, 
a little concave, everywhere spirally striate. Length, 14 mill. 

Bed Sea. 
Apparent!}' a young shell. 

Section TORCULA, Gray, 1847. 
T. EXOLETA, Linn. PL 64, figs. 98-1. 

Whorls 16 or It, rudely ridged above and below, the broad 
intermediate space concavely excavated, and sometimes crossed 
by thin lamellae, lower rib of body-whorl double ; margin of the 
aperture sinuated in the middle ; yellowish white, obscurely 
longitudinally flamed with light chestnut, more conspicuous on 
the ridges. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

West Indies. 

The longitudinal septae are frequently wanting. It is T. tor- 
cularis, Born, and T. obsoleta, Gmel. I regard T. cochlea, Reeve 
(fig. 100), as a specimen accidentally less closely coiled than 
usual, so that the paired lower ribs are exhibited on several of the 
whorls. T. excavata, Sowb. (fig. 1), said to come from Agulhas 
Bank, So. Africa, is also a synonym. 

T. MONILTFERA, Adams and Reeve. PI. 64, fig. 5. 

Whorls 15, stout, with upper and lower moderate ridges and 
a slightty concave wide middle space, lower carina doubled in 
the body-whorl; pinkish white, upper ridge with chestnut spots. 

Length, 1-25 inches. e 

China Sea. 



206 

T. CLATHRATA, Kiener. PI. 64, figs. 2, 16. 

Whorls 18, narrow, flattened, smooth, strongly two-keeled, 
with intermediate sulcus, and sloping concave surface to the 
suture above ; fulvous, obscurely marked with spots or stripes of 
chestnut, keels paler. Length T75 inches. 

Australia. 

With this species I unite T. constricta, Reeve (fig. 16). 

T. CONCAVA, Martens. PI. 64, fig. 6. 

Whorls about 10, alabaster white, obliquely striulate, the first 
two whorls smooth, the rest bicarinate, the carinae indistinct, the 
lower one at the suture, base concave, margin of aperture deeply 
sinuated. Length, 16 mill. 

Mauritius. 
T. CARINIFERA, Lam. PL 64, fig. 7. 

Whorls 15, stout, turreted, slanting on the upper part, then 
encircled by two stout carinre, with an intermediate shallow 
sulcus, everywhere finely, undulately, spirally striate ; white, 
sometimes with a violaceous tint. Length, 3'75 inches. 

? Cape of Good Hope. 

T. GEMMATA, Reeve. PI. 64, fig. 8. 

Whorls about 15, with two granulated approximate ridges 
next the suture, and a single plain ridge at the base, concave in 
the middle; white, faintly stained here and there with light 
orange brown. Length,! '5 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 
T. HOOKERI, Reeve. PL 64, fig. 9. 

Whorls 15, rather thin, with two sharp, remote keels and 
slightly concave interval, lower keel doubled on the body whorl ; 
translucent white. Length, 22 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
T. ACUTA, Tenison-Woods. PL 64, fig. 10. 

Whorls 12, narrow, flat, the earlier ones smooth, then encircled 
by a couple of slight ridges, and smaller elevated lines, the sur- 
face between the ridges slightly concave ; yellowish white, 

obscurely marked with chestnut. Length, 28 mill. 

Tasmania. 
Figured from a specimen. 



TURRtTELLA. 207 

Section ZARIA, Gray, 1847. 
T. DUPLICATA, Linn. PL 65, figs. 20-22. 

Whorls about 16, stout, ponderous, the first few with several 
subequal keels, afterwards first one keel and then a pair of them 
are developed more strongly, whilst the others become faint or 
obsolete, everywhere closely spirally striate ; fulvous cream color, 
becoming light chestnut towards the apex. Length, 5-6 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 

T.replicata and T. acutangula, Linn. (fig. 21), are synonyms. 
In the latter the second prominent keel is not developed. 

Var. ATTENUATA, Reeve. Fig. 22. 

Reeve attempts to distinguish this from T. acutangula by the 
want of the single prominent keel, but the variations between 
these forms are infinite, so that attenuata can barely stand as a 
variety. T. acutangula, Desh., not Linn., is a variety. 

T. FERRUGINEA, Reeve. PI. 64, fig. 11. 

Whorls 16, convex, finely spirally ridged, first whorls two- 
keeled, keels gradually fading, the lower whorls becoming 
obtusely subangulated below the middle; whitish, longitudinally 
undulately strigate with chestnut. Length, 3*75 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 
T. AUSTRALIS, Lam. PL 65, fig. 23. 

Whorls about 12, with deep suture, encircled by a prominent 
central nodulous carina, and a less prominent subnodulous one 
below the suture, spirally striate ; yellowish brown, brown banded 
on the base. Length, 1 inch. Australia, Tasmania. 

T. granulifera, Woods, is a synonym. 

Section TuRRiTELLorsis, Sars, 1878. 

T. ACICULA, Stimpson. PL 64, fig. 12. 

Small, turreted, subulate, thin, white ; whorls 10, verj 7 convex, 
longitudinally striate and spirally ribbed; aperture rounded, 
effuse anteriorly, peristome acute. Length, 5 mill. 

Cape Cod, northwards ; Norway to Sitka. 

Distinguished from the young of T. erosa by its much more 
convex whorls and prominent ribs. T. tenuisculpta , Carp., is a 
synonym. 



208 TuRRIfELLA. 

T. EROSA, Couth. PL 64, figs. 13, 14. 

Whorls 9-11, rather flat, sloping towards the suture, with from 
three to live narrow revolving grooves, apex generally eroded; 
yellowish brown. Length, 12'5 mill. 

Massachusetts to Greenland, Alaska. 

T. polaris, Beck, and T. Eschrichtii, Midd. (fig. 14), are syn- 
on3 r ms. In the Arctic regions the species attains double the 
above dimensions. 

T. RETICULATA, Mighels and Adams. PL 64, figs. 15, 19; PL 
65, figs. 24-26. 

More slender than the preceding form ; whorls 11-12, rounded, 
with three to five spiral striae, and longitudinal folds ; yellowish 
brown. Length, 17 mill. 

Maine to Greenland, Alaska. 

T. costulata, Mighels and Adams (fig. 24), M. lactea, Mdller 
(fig. 25), T. lacteola, Carp., and T. erosa, var. costata, Aurivil- 
lius-(fig. 26), are synonyms. The latter author appears to con- 
sider the present species identical with T. erosa: as Arctic 
shells are very variable, this may be the case ; yet I can readily 
distinguish the two species among the numerous specimens 
before me. 

Yar. DECLIVIS, Aurivillius. Fig. 19. 

Shell without sculpture, Length, 27'5 mill. 



Unfigured, Undetermined and Spurious Species. 

T. RUNCINATA, T. ACCISA, T. CARLOTT^E, T. CORDISMEI, T. LAMEL- 

LOSA, Watson. S. E. Australia. 

T. ADMIRABILIS, Watson. Admiralty Islands. 

T. DELICIOSA, Watson. N. Australia. 

T. AUSTRINA, Watson. Kerguelen Isl. 

T. PHILIPPENSIS, Watson. Pt. Philip, Australia. 

T. AREOLATA, Stimpson. =Turbonilla. 

T. PUSILLA, Jeffreys. Not a Turritella. 

T. YUCATANUM, Dall. Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 

T. FULMINATA, T. viTTATA, Button. New Zealand. 

T. SOPHI^E, Brazier ( T. incisa, Woods, not Reeve). 

Pt. Jackson, Australia. 
T. AURBOCINCTA, Martens. Friendly Islands. 



TURRITELLA. 209 

T. SUBSQUAMOSA, D linker. Bass Strait, Australia. 

T. DURA, Morch. Realejo, Centr. Am. 

T. GRANOSA, Quoy. Not a Turritella. 

T. CERITHIUM, Quoy. = Cerithium. 

T. YIRQINIANA, Lam. (?) Virginia. 

T. TRICINGULATA, Anton., T. NIVEA, Anton. No locality. 

T. SPINA, Crosse and Fischer. Australia. 

T. TUNCTICULATA, Sowb. Agulhas Bank, So. Africa. 

T. IMPRESSA, Say, T. BISUTURALIS, Say. =0dostomia. 

T. NEBULOSA, Kiener. Not a Turritella. 

T. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

T. CONCAVA, Say, T. ALTERNATA, Say. =Terebra. 

T. ^QUALIS, Say. =Turbonilla. 

T. TRICINCTA, Hutton. Described as a tertiary fossil, but is also 
living. T. symmetrica, Hutton and T. rosea, Mantell (not 
Quoy), are synonyms. N. Zealand. 

Subgenus MESALTA, Gray, 1842. 

T. BREVIALIS, Lam. PL 65, figs. 2T-29. 

Whorls 15, convex, five-ridged, the upper one often forming a 
sutural margin, lower ones frequently faint, interstices finely 
closely striated ; aperture a little effuse below ; white, ash-color 
or brownish olivaceous, aperture often violaceous. 

Length, 2-2 - 5 inches. 

Northern and Western Africa. 

The synonymy includes T. mesal, Deshayes ; T. sulcata, Gray ; 
T. suturalis, Forbes. 

T. VARIA, Kiener. PL 65, figs. 30, 31. 

Whorls 12, convex, about five-ridged ; yellowish white to violet 
ash-color, interior brownish. Length, 1 inch. 

West Africa, Cuba. 

T. Garibaea, d'Orb. (fig. 31), from the latter locality, appears 
to be identical ; it remains to ascertain whether this species is 
really distinct, or only a small variety of T. brevialis. 

T. MELANOIDES, Reeve. PL 65, fig. 32. 

Whorls 10, slightly concave at the upper part, obliquely longi- 
tudinally plicately ribbed, decussated with numerous spiral striae 
14 



210 MATHILDA. 

and distant ridges, suture impressed ; whitish, sparsely dotted 
with chestnut. Length, 1-65 inches. 

Hob. unknown. 
T. OPALINA, Adams and Reeve. PI. 65, fig. 33. 

Whorls 12, rounded, stout, a little constricted above to a 
sutural fasciole, smooth, very minutely striate ; yellowish white, 
with light chestnut curved longitudinal stripes. Length, 1 inch. 

China Sea. 

Unfigured Species of Mesalia. 

T. PLICATA, A. Ad. Teneriffe. 

T. DECUSSATA, A. Ad. Philippines. 

T. FREYTAGI, Maltzan. W. Africa. 

Genus PROTOMA, Baird, 1870. 

P. KNOCKERI, Baird. PI. 65, figs. 34, 35. 

Elongate subulate, transversely, narrowly closely sulcate ; 
whorls 16, flattened, with well-impressed suture, base of shell 
with a spiral fasciole ending in a deep incision of the base of the 
aperture; white or brown. Length, 2*5 inches. 

Whydah, W. Coast of Africa. 

Genus MATHILDA, Semper, 1865. 
M. ELEGANTISSIMA, Costa. PL 65, fig. 36 ; PI. 64, figs. 17,18. 

Whorls 9, turreted, with rounded spiral ribs more or less 
granulated by longitudinal lines, suture narrowly channeled ; 
brownish. Diam. 11 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

M. cochlseformis (fig. 36), M. granolirata (fig. 17), and M. 
retusa (fig. 18), Costa, and M.funicalata, Tiberi, are synonyms. 

M. ELEGANTULA, Angas. PI. 65, fig. 37. 

Whorls 14, thin, translucent, nearly flat, whitish, each with 
three rounded spiral ribs, the one next the suture smallest, 
between the ribs finely longitudinally striate, striae raised and 
very thin, base of last whorl smooth and flattened ; nuclear whorl 

sinistral. Length, 11 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 



MATHILDA. 211 

M. QUADRiciNCTA, Brocchi. PL 65, fig. 38. 

Whorls carinated, turreted, convex, encircled by four narrow 
crenulated spiral ridges, the interstices longitudinally striate. 

Mediterranean. 

Described from an Italian tertiary fossil. Eglisia Macandrese, 
H. Adams, is a synonym. 

M. SINENSIS, Fischer. PL 65, fig. 19. 

Whorls 11, elongated turreted, rather thick, embryonal ones 
smooth, the others turriculate, subcarinate, cancellate, with deep 
suture, traversed by four spiral ribs, the interstices longitudi- 
nally costate ; yellowish. Length, 6 mill. 

Isle of Chusan, China Sea. 

Unfigured Species. 

M. TROCHLEA, Morch. St. Thomas, W. I. 

M. MAGELLANICA, Fischer. Sts. Magellan. 

M. CORONATA, Monts. Mediterranean. 

Subgenus GEGANIA, Jeffreys, 1884. 
M. PINGUIS, Jeffreys. Unfigured. Coast of Portugal. 



FAMILY CMGID&. 

Shell tubular, with a spiral plane nucleus which is caducous 
or persistent, then becoming cylindrical, curved, terminating in 
a simple, circular aperture, the posterior portion of the tube 
usually divided by one or more septa (PL 66, figs. 47-51). 
Operculum horny, multispiral, margin sometimes firabriated. 
There are usually three stages of growth in the shell of Cyecum : 
first, the spiral or nuclear, soon lost by truncation, the end of 
the remaining tube closed by a septum ; second, the adolescent 
stage, a curved tube, also lost subsequently ; and, third, the 
adult tube, of similar curved shape, and again closed behind by 
a septum (PL 66, fig. '39). In Strebloceras the three stages of 
growth are persistent and the septa consequently absent. 

Animal with a long flat rostrum ; tentacles cylindrical, with 
sessile eyes at their outer base ; mantle thick, fleshy, circular, 
closely embracing the neck ; a single branchial plume ; foot 
short, narrow, truncated in front, attenuated and obtuse behind. 
Dentition 2-1-2 ? 

These minute mollusks have some points of resemblance with 
the Vermetidae, but are alwa} r s free and the foot is without the 
anterior tentacular projections which distinguish that family. 
The animal is not at all shy, and crawls with considerable vivacity. 
The Caecidae, on account of their minuteness, have been neg- 
lected by collectors and students. No complete illustrated 
monograph of the family exists. P. P. Carpenter was the first 
naturalist to study them, and we are indebted to him for some 
of the subdivisions of the family at present recognized, as well 
as for others which must be relegated to the synonymy. Unfor- 
tunately the obvious distinctions of sculpture, often so charac- 
teristic of species and higher groups, have not the s} r stematic 
importance here which Carpenter supposed them to have ; the 
Marquis de Folin, the latest monographer of the group, having 
shown that the same species will sometimes vary from a smooth 
to a ribbed surface. For this reason, and also because most of 
the species have not been figured, our knowledge of them 

(212) 



213 

remains very incomplete and unsatisfactory. About two hun- 
dred nominal species have been described, and they appear to 
inhabit temperate and warm seas, throughout the world, but are 
absent in cold waters. Some tertiary species have been 
discovered. 

Two of the principal works in which the Marquis de Folin 
has described new species, namely, u Les Fonds de la Mer," and 
"Annales Soc. Linn. Maine et Loire," xi, are unfortunately inac- 
cessible to me. The former publication is particularly import- 
ant for its illustrations. The Librarian of the Philadelphia 
Academy has made several unsuccessful attempts to secure this 
work through the Academy's agents in Europe, and I am reluc- 
tantly compelled to do without it ; my monograph is therefore 
necessarily very imperfect. On the other hand, I am able to 
give illustrations of a number of species of Carpenter and C. B. 
Adams hitherto unfigured. 

Genus CAECUM, Fleming, 1817. 

This is the only genus; the diagnosis consequently corres- 
ponds with that of the family. Odontina, Zborzewsky, 1834; 
Odcmtidium, Phil., 1836; Cornuoides, Brown, 1827; Brochus, 
Brown, 1829; Cdecalium, Macgillivray ; Corniculina, Minister ; 
Dentaliopsis, Clarke; Brochina, Gray, 1857, are synonyms. 

Costa has described the spiral portion only of the tube of a 
Caecum, probably Caecum trachea, under the name of Spiro- 
lidium Mediterraneum ; but he included a second species in his 
genus, which appears to be a Parastrophia. 

The septum of the various species has a prominence upon the 
external face, which is directed backwards and presents consid- 
erable variation in form. 

Subgenus C^CUM, sensu stricto. 

Shell commencing with two or three whorls, planorboid (PL 
66, figs. 41, 42), which are subsequently lost by truncation, and 
the posterior extremity of the adult curved tube closed by a 
diaphragm. 

Brochina, Gray, was founded on a single specimen, insuffi- 
ciently characterized by its convex opercnlum. 



214 

Carpenter established the sections Elephanlulum, Anellum 
and Fartulum, but De Folin rejects these, because they are not 
in harmony with all the forms included in them and are insuffi- 
cient to meet the present demands of science ; he proposes 
instead : 

Section I. LEVIA. Shells smooth. 

Section II. ANNULATA. Shells annulated. 

Section III. COSTULATA. Shells ribbed longitudinally. 

Section IV. QUADRILATA. Shells cancellated. 

Section Y. ARMATA. Shells spinose. 

Subgenus MEIOCERAS, Carpenter, 1858. 

Young shell loosely spiral, not in one plane (PI. 66, fig. 43); 
the adult truncate behind, something like a cow's-horn, some- 
what inflated, smooth, aperture oblique ; operculum externally 
concave, 

Most of the species occur on the east coast of America between 
Florida and Rio de la Plata. 

Subgenus STREBLOCERAS, Carpenter, 1858. 

Shell not decollated and without septa, the permanent spiral 
nucleus lying in a plane obliquely perpendicular to the adult 
tube (PI. 66, figs. 44, 45). Mostly fossil. 

Subgenus WATSONIA, de Folin, 1879. 

Nucleus caducous, tube scarcely curved, conical, aperture 
round, very oblique, encircled by a strong rib. 

Subgenus PARASTROPHIA, de Folin. 1869. 

Shell tubular, with a scarcely spiral and entirely posterior 
pointed nucleus, the embryonic shell only having disappeared, 
anterior part of tube inflated (PI. 66, f. 46). 

Moreletia, de Folin, 1868 (not Gray, 1855), and Spirolidium 
Costa (in part), are synonyms. 

The feature of this group is the persistence of the second or 
adolescent stage of growth, in the adult typical Caecum always 
lost by truncation. The posterior end is septate, but pointed. 



O&CUM. 215 

Genus CAECUM, Fleming, 1817. 
Section I. Levia. 

C. L^VE, C. B. Ad. PL 66, fig. 52. 

Shell rather obese, short, smooth, shining, subdiaphanous, 
tinged with brown, slightly contracted in front, the aperture 
oblique ; operculum concave. Length, '07 inch. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

Folin has described vars. subornatum and cylindrica. The 
figure is from a specimen identified by P. P. Carpenter. 

C. FARCTMEN, Cpr. PI. 66, fig. 53. 

Like C. Ixve, but whitish, aperture less contracted, more slen- 
der, septum submucronate ; operculum with a spiral marginal 
rib. Length, *064 inch. Mazatlan. 

C. VITREUM, Cpr. PL 66, fig. 54. 

Subelongate, vitreous, shining, a little tumid towards the 
oblique aperture, septum prominent, mucronate. 

Length, -073--107 inch. Teneriffe ; Mediterranean Sea. 

G. Sardinianum,o\in, and (7.<5^a&ri/7n,McAndrew,aresynonyms. 

Var. CLARKTI, Carp. PL 66, fig. 55. 

Shell smaller, straighter, septum ungulate, apex more obtuse. 

Teneriffe. 
C. DEXTROVERSUM, Carp. PL 66, fig. 56. 

Narrow, rather elongated, thin, septum tumid, submamillated, 
operculum concave. Length, *092 inch. Mazatlan. 

The specimen figured is a junior. 

Yar. ANTILLARUM, Carp. 

A single young specimen was found in W. Indian sponge, not 
presenting any characters by which it can be separated from C. 
dextroversum. Why should it be designated by a varietal name ? 

C. GLABRUM, Mont. PL 66, fig. 57. 

Shell narrow, thin, smooth, subdiaphanous, aperture not con- 
tracted, nor tumid, white, septum without appendage. 

Length, -68 inch. Atlantic Coast of Europe. 

The operculum is externally convex, constituting it the type 
of Gray's group Brochina. The synonyms include Dentalium 
minutum, Linn. ; Brochus laevis, Brown ; Cornuoides minor, 
Brown (juvenile); Odontidium levissimum, Cantr. ; Brochus 
arcuatus, Brown ; Vermiculum incur vatum, Mont. 



216 CAECUM. 

C. AURICULATUM, cle Folin. PL 66, fig. 58. 

Shell thin, hyaline, cylindrical, a little curved, white, septum 
with rounded projection, mouth encircled by a rib. 

Length, '075 inch. Mediterranean Sea. 

This is C. drier eghinianum, Brusina, and perhaps Odontidium 
glabrum, Cantr. 

C. GLABRIFORMTS, Carp. 

Like C. glabrum, but the septum more tumidly mamillate, 
nearly hemispherical. Length, '073 inch. 

Mazatlan ; San Diego, Gal. 
The shell is said not to differ from C. glabrum. 

C. ACHIRONA, de Folin. PI. 66, fig. 59. 

Rather solid, yellowish, shining, transversely very minutely 
striated, towards the aperture a little inflated and whitish, aper- 
ture a little oblique, subcontracted below, septum large, mamil- 
lated, subungulate. Operculum slightly convex, doubly margined. 

Length, *1 inch. Bahia, Brazil. 

C. SOMERI, de Folin. PI. 66, fig. 60. 

Elongated, conical, smooth, whitish, almost opaque, aperture 
not contracted nor oblique, septum projecting, mamillate at the 
apex. Length, *095 inch. 

Pernambuco, Brazil. 
Unfigured Species, and those of which the Figures are 

inaccessible to me. 

C. CORNEUM, Dkr. Brazil. 

C. ORCUTTI, Dall. San Diego, California. 

C. DECURTATA, Monts. Sicily. 

C. PARVULUM, C. MTNUTUM, C. IMPERFECTUM. C. VALIDUM, C. COM- 

PLANATUM, C. MASSILTENSE, C. MODESTUM, C. CARMENENSE 
(I. Carmen), C. CUCCINA (Vera Cruz), C. ORIENTALS (7. 
Rhodes), C. VERACRUZ ANUM (Mexico), C. STRIGOSUM (Rio. 
Janeiro), C. BIMAMILLATUM (La Guayra), C.CIRCUMVOLUTUM 
(Aspinwall), C. SUBFLAVUM (Cape York, Australia), C. suc- 
CINEUM (Cape York, Australia), all of de Folin. 

C.coRRUGATULUM,C.REVERSUM,and C. TERES, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

C. SUBQUADRATUM, Carp. Port Elizabeth. 

C. BIMARGINATUM, Carp. Singapore. 

C. ARMORICUM, Folin. Gulf of Gascony. 

C. INCOMPTA, Monterosato ( C. glabrum, Brusina). Mediterranean. 



OECUM. 217 

Section II. Annulata. 
C. SUBIMPRESSUM, Carp. PI. 66, fig. 61. 

Rather solid, the annulations rounded, with subimpressed 
interstices, septum mucronate, mucro small, obtuse, dorsal; 
operculum concave. Length, '115 inches. 

Mazatlan to Cape St. Lucas, L. C. 

C. FLORIDANUM, Stimpson. PI. 66, fig. 62. 

Arcuate, solid, white, shining, with about 32 acute, elevated 
annulations and much wider interstices, aperture a little oblique, 
not contracted, septum obtusely mucronate, mucro dorsal. 

Florida. 
C. PULCHELLUM, Stimpson. PI. 66, fig. 63. 

Somewhat solid, light brownish, adolescent stage graceful, 
with distant few annulations, adult with about 25 rounded annu- 
lations and more or less equal interstices, septum mamillate ; 
operculum concave, with about 8 whorls. Length, '1 inch. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
C. FIRMATUM, C. B. Ad. PI. 67, fig. 66. 

Stout, young shell smooth, adult with 23-33 annulations, the 
earlier ones more acute, then becoming subquadrate, interstices 
also subquadrate, narrow, septum subangulate, the projection 
short. Length, ! inch. 

Panama, Mazatlan, Todas Santos Bay, L. C. 

With this are to be united, according to Carpenter, G. ebur- 
neum, C. diminutum (jun.), C. pygmseum and C. monstrosum 
(both adolescent), of C. B. Adams. 

C. QUADRATUM, Carp. PI. 67, fig. 67. 

Short, solid, with 12-20 quadrate annulations, and deep quad- 
rate interstices, aperture subcontracted, septum mucronate, the 
mucro small, narrow, subdextral. Length, -072 inch. Mazatlan. 

Var. COMPACTUM, Carp. PI. 67, fig. 68. 

Annulations large, planate, interstices small or evanescent. 

C. ELEGANTISSIMUM, Carp. PI. 67, fig. 69. 

Diaphanous, vitreous, shining, white, aperture slightly .con- 
tracted and oblique, young shell smooth, adolescent and adult 
with 14 to 18 distant acute lirae, the interstices very elegantly 
arcuate ; septum submucronate and subungulate, the small apex 
obtuse. Length, 1 inch. Teneriffe. 



218 (LECUM. 

Var. SEARLES-WOODII, Carp. 

Rings closer (about 24 in the young shell), scarcely sharp and 
often obsolete, growth scarcely tapering, very slender, septum 
ungulate, turned somewhat to the right. 

C. UNDATUM, Carp. PI. 67, fig. 70. 

Short, obese, young shell smooth, adult with 10-15 acute 
annulations and undulating concave interstices, contracted at 
each extremity, septum ungulate, with prominent, acute, elon- 
gate apex; operculum concave, with about 15 whorls. * 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

The adolescent stage is 'C. paruum, C. B. Ad. Folin has 
described Yars. contraria and cornea. 

C. RYSSOTITUM, Folin. PI. 66, fig. 64. 

White, very shining, transversely obsoletely annulated, be- 
coming more distinct on the concave side near the aperture, 
aperture oblique, much contracted above, septum submamillate, 
submucronate. Operculum ? Length, *09 inch. 

Went Indies, Venezuela, Brazil. 

C. PARADOXUM, Folin. PI. 67, fig. 78. 

Shell arcuate, subtranslucent, yellowish white, grayish or 
corneous, smooth, with three prominent distant rounded annu- 
lations near the apex, and wider interspaces, septum large, with 
bead-like projection. Length, -066 inch. 

Pearl Islands, Panama. 

C. SUBANNULATUM. de Folin. PL 67, fig. 72. 

Hyaline, slightly arcuated, very finely numerously annulated, 
the septum convex, hardly projecting, aperture encircled b} T a 
prominent rib. Length, '066 inch. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. 

C. CREBRICINCTUM, Carp. PL 67, fig. 71. 

Rather large, solid, reddish brown, with darker longitudinal 
rays, often obsolete, with about 80 close, rounded, low annula- 
tions, without interstices ; septum subungulate, submucronate. 

Length, -14 inch. 

Monterey, San Diego and Sf.a. Barbara, Cal. 



219 

C. CALIFORNICUM, Dall. PL 66, fig. 65. 

Small, rather narrow, whitish or brownish, with 34-38, close 
acute annulations, and subconcave interstices, septum subungu- 
late, apex obtuse, not elevated. Length, '09 inch. 

San Diego and Catalina Isl, California. 

This is C. Cooperi of Carpenter, not Sanderson Smith. 

C. TRACHEA, Montagu. PL 67, fig. 77. 

Solid, brownish corneous, young shell smooth, adult with 
40-50 close annulations, the interstices small, very minutely 
longitudinally striulate, septum subangulate, submucronate, 
apex somewhat to the right, obtuse, more or less elevated ; 
operculum scarcely concave, with spiral elevated lines and about 
15 whorls. Length, *128 inch. England to Mediterranean Sea. 

It is Dentalium imperforatam, Mont.; Greseis rugulosa, Can- 
traine ; Brochus trachiformis, and striatus, Brown ; Gornuoides 
major, Brown; Odontidium rugulosum, Phil, (in part); C.obsole- 
tum, Carp, (unfigured), is described as a variety. 

C. MAGNUM, Stearns. PL 67, fig. 83. 

Very finely, closely annularly striate, septum with sharp narrow 
ungulate apex, yellowish brown. Length, *2 inch. 

San Diego, Gal. 

On the label of this specimen it is said to = G. glabriformis, 
Carp. The latter is described as a much smaller species, one- 
third the length of the present, smooth, with hemispherical 

mucro. 

Undetermined Species, 

including those of which the figures are inaccessible to me. 

C. ELONGATUM, C. CLATHRATUM, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

C. GRACILE, Carp. Japan. 

C. REGULARE, Carp. West Indies, Singapore. 

C. GURGULIO, Carp. West Indies. 

C. GRACILE, Gould (name used by Carpenter). China Sea. 

C. MICROCYCLOS and C. ATTENUATUM (Cape York, Australia)', 
C. TORQUATUM and C. LTNEICINCTUM ( West Indies)-, C. ELEGANS 
and Vars. RUBELLA and FLEXUOSA, C. SUPERBUM, C. OCCULTUM, 
C. STRANGULATUM and Var. ACUTA, C. VENUSTUM, C. ERUCA- 

TUM, C. T^lNIATUM, C. AGONIATUM, C. BIPARTITUM, C. IMPAR- 

TITUM and Var. BICOLOR, C. SEMICINCTUM and Var. SUBACUTA, 
and C. EXILE (Tongatabou), all of de Folin. 



220 CAECUM. 

Section III. Costulata. 

C. CLAVA, de Folin. PL 67, fig. 86. 

Shining, with subacutely rounded longitudinal costulations, 
becoming stronger towards the aperture, and evanescent annular 
striae, inflated towards the aperture, aperture contracted, nar- 
rowly margined, septum mucronate, prominent, apex obtuse. 

Length, '08 inch. 

Guadeloupe , W. I. 
C. BREVE, de Folin. PL 67, fig. 88. 

Very short, cylindrical, slightly bent, subpellucid, white, with 
fine longitudinal line, and equal interspaces and a few annular 
striae towards the aperture, aperture encircled 03^ a tumid rib, 
not contracted ; septum mamillate, subungulate, with dextral 
apex. Length, *05 inch. 

Jamaica. 

Undetermined Species. 

C. SUBSPIRALE, ABNORMALE, TNSCULPTUM, OBTUSUM, Carpenter. 

Mazatlan. 

C. PLICATUM, Carpenter, W. Indies. 

C. POLLTCARE, Carpenter. Teneriffe. 

C. LAQUEATUM, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

C. SEMITRACHEA, Brusina. Mediterranean. 

C. CRYSTALLINUM (Honolulu), C. STRIATUM, C. MIRABfLE, Folin. 

Section IV. Quadrilata. 

C. ANNULATUM, Brown. PL 67, fig. 76. 

Elongated, solid, with 20-30 rounded annulations, larger and 
more distant towards the mouth, and rather close longitudinal 
lirse, septum with a dextral finger-like mucro. Young shell with 
more acute annulations, the longitudinal sculpture obsolete. 

Length, '122 inch. 

Europe, West Indies, Aden. 

The more characteristic name of reticulatum was given to the 
adolescent form by Brown. It is Orthocera trachea of Fleming. 

C. INSTGNE, Folin. PL 67, fig. 87. 

Elongated, subdiaphanous, shining, brownish, with wide flatly 
rounded annulations and narrow interstices, longitudinally striate 



OXCUM. 221 

over the ann illations ; aperture oblique, margined by a rib; 
septum mucronate, mucro dextral, sharp pointed. 
Length, '125 inch. 

Jamaica. 
C. CORONATUM, Folin. PI. 67, fig. 80. 

Yellowish gray, with wide, flatly rounded ann illations and 
minute interstices, decussated by prominent, distant rounded 
longitudinal costae, with rather wide interstices, aperture bordered 
by a tubercular rib; septum mucronate, mucro dextral, sharp 
pointed. Length, '08 inch. 

Jamaica. 
C. IRREGULARE, Folin. PI. 67, fig. 82. 

Yellowish or grayish, with wide flattened annulations, becom- 
ing higher and more convex towards the aperture, interstices 
narrow, and longitudinally striate ; septum mucronate, the mucro 
dextral, finger-like. Length, -16 inch. 

Bahia, Brazil. 
C. PHRONIUM, Folin. PI. 67, fig. 79. 

Shell well-curved, with numerous rounded annulations, and 
narrow interstices, decussated by longitudinal distant narrow 
sulci; mucro spinose. Length, -13 inch. 

Haiti. 
C. COOPERT, Smith. PI. 67, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell with about 24, somewhat rounded longitudinal ribs, 
crossed by numerous annulations, which are less marked towards 
the middle, white ; septum mucronate, with the apex inclining to 
the left, when looking at the back of the shell ; operculum con- 
cave. Length, -13 inch. 

New England, Long Island Sound. 

Because of C. CoopeH, Carpenter, Dr. Cooper changed the 
name of this species to C. Smithii and Prof. Verrill to C. costa- 
tum, but as Smith's species was published before Carpenter's, 
both these names fall into the synonymy. It is a pity that such 
a little shell should be burthcned with such a large synonymy 
and for which there is no excuse. The desire to rush into print 
is so overmastering that no one is deterred by such a slight 
obstacle as being unable to refer to the literature of his subject. 
The figure given by Yen-ill represents the adolescent stage of 
sculpture, with less numerous ribs (fig. 85). 



222 

Undetermined Species. 

C. LTRATOCINCTUM and C. HEPTAGONUM, Carp. Mazatlan. 

Of the latter species Folin lias described vars. hexagonum and 
octogonum. 

C. IMBRICATUM, Carp. West Indies. 

C. INFIMUM (Aspinwall), C. MIRIFICUM, C. UNCINATUM, Folin. 

Section V. Armata. 
C. SPINOSUM, Folin. (Description and figure inaccessible to me). 

Undetermined Species of Caecum. 

I am unable to refer the following species to their appropriate 
sections : 

C. TRIORNATUM, C. ABBREVIATUM, C. 1NSTRUCTUM, C. CONTRACTUM, 

C. VESTITUM, of de Folin. 

C. FASCIATUM, and var. INTAMINATA, de Folin. Mediterranean. 
C. SYRIACUM, de Folin. Tripoli, in Syria. 

C. VITREUM, and var. SUBORNATA, C. INCLINATUM, C. MARGINATUM, 

de Folin. Cape Verde Is. 

C. VICINUM, C. CRASSUM, C. SENEGAMBiANUM, Folin. W. Africa. 
C. FORMULOSUM, and vars. DECUSSATUM, MARMORATUM and SUL- 

CATUM, de Folin. Bahamas. 

C. SEPIMENTUM, de Folin. Sandwich Is. 

C. SEPIMENTUM, var. ARCUATUM, de Folin. Tahiti. 

C. INFLATUM, C. VARIEGATUM, and var. MINIMA, de Folin. 

Hong Kong. 
C. CHINENSE, de Folin. China, Australia. 

Subgenus MEIOCERAS, Carpenter, 1858. 
C. NITIDUM, Stimpson. PI. 67, fig. 73. 

Shell smooth, shining, whitish or light brown, inflated in the 
middle, contracted towards the aperture, aperture oblique, sep- 
tum submucronate, the mucro convexly rounded ; operculum 
concave, 5-whorled. Length, -088 mill. 

Florida, West Indies. 

Carpenter describes a species under the name of nitidum, 
Bean MS., which appears to be identical. 



CAECUM. 223 

C. CORNUCOPIA, Carpenter. PI. 67, fig. 75. 

Like the preceding, but smaller and less inflated, being sub- 
cylindrical ; mucro very acute. Length, '064--09 inch. 

West Indies, in sponge of commerce. 

C. CORNUBOVIS, Carpenter. PI. 67, fig. 74. 

Shell like the preceding, but the septum subangulate, with 
narrow, submucronate apex; operculum about 12-whorled, with 
an exterior strong spiral lamina. Length, '067-'082 inch. 

West Indies, 

Unfigured Species. 

C. SUBINFLEXUM (Bahamas), C. FJSCHERI and C. IMIKLIS ( Vera 

Cruz and Carmen), C. CUBITATUM, C. TENERUM, C. Coxi, 

C. UNDULOSUM, C. CROSSEI, C. DESHAYESIT, C. MORELETI, C. 

BITUMIDUM, C. CARPENTERI and C. TUMIDISSIMUM, all of de 

. Folin. 

Subgenus STREBLOCERAS, Carpenter, 1858. 

C. SUBANNULATUM, de Folin. Honolulu. 

This is the only recent species of the group, and it is unfigured. 

Subgenus WATSONIA, de Folin, 1879. 

C. ELEGANS, de Folin. Cape York, Australia. 

The only species, and unfigured. 

Subgenus PARASTROPHIA, de Folin, 1869. 

C. FOLINI, Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf. PI. 67, fig. 81. 

Shell elongated, rather narrow, thin, subopaque, white ; 
nucleus smooth, oblique, afterwards finely annulated, the annu- 
lations microscopically decussated. Length, '085 inch. 

Mediterranean. 

Spirolidium Mediterraneum, Costa, is identified with this 
species by Monterosato. 

Undetermined Species. 

C. ASTURIANA, de Folin. Atlantic Coast of Spain. 

C. CHALLENGERI, de Folin. Cape York, Australia. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



XENOPHORID.E, VERMETIDJE, TURRITELLID.E, 



PAGE. 

Abbreviatum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 222 
Abnormale (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 316; 

Zool. Proc., 420, 1858, .220 

Accisa (Turritella), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc , p. 220, 1880, 208 
Achirona (Brochina), de Folin. Jour, de Conch., p. 57, 1867, 216 
Acicula (Mesalia), Stirnp. Shells of N. Eng , p. 35, t. 1, f. 

5, 1851 ; Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 118, . . .207 
Aculeata (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 162, 1861, . . . .184 

Acuta (Turritella), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas- 
mania, p. 143, 1875, .... . 206 
Acuta (Caecum strangulatum, var.), de Folin. Les Me"lea- 

grin., p. 44. 1867, . . .219 

Acutangula (Turritella), Desh. Anim. s. Vert., ix, p. 259. 

= T. attenuata, Rve, 207 

Acutanoula (Turritella), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit. X, 766. 

= T. duplicata, Linn. . . .... 207 

Adamsii (Siphonium?) Morch. Gray, Figs, of Moll., t. 

88, f. 1, . 185 

Adansonii (Vermetus), Daudin. Recueil, i>. 35, 1800, . 169 
Admirabilis (Turritella), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., p. 227, 

1880, .208 

^Equalis (Turritella), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., v, 

p. 208, 1826, 209 

Afrum (Siphonium), Gm. Syst. Nat., p 3745, No. 23, . 183 
Agathirses, Montf. Conch. Syst., i, 398, 1808. 

= s. g. of Siliquaria, Brug 169, 189 

Agglomerata (Thylaeodes colubrinn, var.), Morch. Zool. 

^Proc,p. 72, 1862, ... . . 180 

Agglutinans (Trochus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 14. 

Xenophora conchyliophorus, Born. . . . .161 
Agoniatum ( Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 42, 1867, 219 
Alba (Turritella), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 9, 1872, . . 205 
Albina (Vermetus subcancellatus, var.), Monts. II. Nat. 

Sicil., iv, p. 61, 1 172 

(224) 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 225 

PACK. 

Albidus (Yermetus), Carp. Mazat. Cat., p. 307, 1857, . 178 
Albina (Thylacodes coluhrina, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 72, 1862, .180 

Aletes (Thylacodes polyphragma, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 66, 1862, 179 

Aletes (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 63, 1862, 17C> 
Aletes (Bivonia triquetra, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 55, 

1862, 176 

Aletes, Carp. Mazat. Cat., p. 301, 1857. 

= S. G. of Yermetus, Adanson, . . 165, 174 

Alternata (Turritella), Say. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

ii, p. 243. = Terebra, 209 

Ammonitiformis (Spiroglyphus), De Serres. Ann. Sc. Nat., 

iv, 1855, 240, . . . . . . . . .177 

Ammonitiformis (Stoa), M. de Serres. Ann. des Sci., 1. c. 

p., 242. = Siphonium lituella, Morch, .... 183 
Ampla (.Thylacodes polyphragma, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 67, 1862, .179 

Ampliata (Bivonia triquetra, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

56, 1862, .... 176 

Ampliata (Vermiculus Inmbricalis, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 172, 1861, . ..... 186 

Anatilax (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 163. 1861, 184 

Anellum, Carp. Mazat. Cat., 319, 1857; Zool. Proc., 423, 

1858, ... 214 

Anellum (Yermetus), Mj'rch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 359, . 173 
Anguillrtj (Tenagodus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 

410, 191 

Anguina (Siliquaria), Blainv. Man., t. 1, f. 11. 

= Tenagodus Cutningii, Morch. 
Anguina (Siliquaria), Sowb. Genera. 

= Tenagodus obtusus, Schum. ...... 189 

An^uinus (Tenagodus), Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr., 701, Xo. 

431, 1758, . 190 

Angulatus (Yermetus), Rouss. Chenu. Illus. Conch., t. 5, 

f. 2. = Y. centiquadrus, Yalenc. . . . . .175 

Angulifera (Bivonia), Monts. Enum. e Sin., p. 29 ; 111. 

Nat. Sicil.,iv, 61, ...... . 178 

Annularium (Yermetus), Yaillant. Nouv. Arch, du Mus., 

190,1871. = S. annulatus, Daudin, ... 178 

Annulata (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Yiv., p. 20, t. 13, 

f. 1, 203, 214, 217 

Annulatus (Brochus), Brown. Recent Conch. Great Brit., 

1827, 220 

15 



226 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Annulatus (Thylacodes oryzata var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 78, 1862, Panama, . . . . . , ..183 
Annulatus (Serpulus), Lam. Hist., v, p. 364, No. 10, 1818. 

= Spiroglyphus glomeratus, Daudin, var. tubulosa, Morch, 1 78 
Annulatus (Spiroglyphus), Daudin. Recueil do Mem., p. 50, 

1800, . ......... 178 

Annulus (Yermetus), Rousseau. Chenn, Illus. Conch., t. 1, 

f. 8, - . .183 

Anticalyptnea, Quenstedt, 1884. = Autodetus, Lindst., . 158 
Antillarum (Caecum dextroversum, var.), Carp. Zool. Proc , 

433, 1858, 215 

Antiquarius (Trochus), Meusch. Gev., p. 453, 1787. 

= Xenophora conchyliophorus, Born. 

Aquila (Turritella), Ad. and Rve. Yoy. Samarang, . .202 
Arborea(Lemintinaselecta, var.),Monts. II. Nat. Sicil. iv,63, 183 
Archimedis (Turritella), Dillw. Desc. Cat., ii, 871, 

= Terebra, Linn 195 

Arcotia, Stoliczka, 194 

Arcuatum (Caecum sepimentum, var.), de Folin. Les Fonds 

de la Mer, i, p. 84, Tahiti, . ... . .222 

Arcuatus (Brochus), Brown. Recent Conch. Great Brit., 

1827. = 0. glabrum, Mont 215 

Arenaria (Septaria), Lam., vi, p. 32. 

= Thylacodes polyphragma, Sassi, 179 

Arenarius (Yermetus), Daudin, p. 35, 1800. 

= Th}dacodes Masier, Desh 180 

Arenarius (Yermetus), " Lamck." Qnoy, Toy. de 1'Astr., 

p. 289, pi. 67, f. 8-10. = Cladopoda grandis, Gray, . 182 
Areolata (Turritella), Stimpson. Shells N. Eng., 35, 1851. 

= Turbinella, . . .208 

Armoricum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, viii, p. 

148, t. 23, f. 4, 5, 1869. = Brochina incompta, Mont. . 216 
Asperella (Yermetus renisectus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 347,1861, . . .171 

Asperula (Yermetus reuisectus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 347,1861, ' . . . .171 

Asturiana (Parastrophia), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 

218, t. 29, f. 7, .223 

Attenuata (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 4, 1849. 

= T. duplicata, Linn., var. ...... 207 

Attenuatum (Caecum), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 809, 1879, 219 
Atra (Yermetus), Rousseau. Chenu, 111., t. 5, f. 5, . 180 

Aureocincta (Turritella), Martens. Sitz., Berlin, p. 107, 1882, 208 
Auriculatum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . .216 
Australis (Xenophora), Souv. Journ. de Conch., xviii, 423, 

1870, 160 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 227 

PAGE. 

Australis (Siliquaria), Quoy. Voy. Astrolabe, . . . 189 
Austrina (Turritella), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., p. 224, 

1880, 208 

Australis (Turritella), Lam. Anim. s. vert., ix, 258, . . 207 
Autodetus, Lindstrom, 1884, 158 

Bacillum (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Viv., p. 5, t. 4, f. 1, 196 
Badia (Vermetus varians, var.), Morcli. Zool. Proc., 340, 

1861, . .170 

Badia (Thylacodes decussatus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 76, 1862 ' 181 

Balani-Tintinnabuli, Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 359, 1861, 175 
Banksii (Turritella), Gray. MSS. Brit. Mus., Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., sp. 15, 1849. = T. goniostoma, Val. . . .198 
Bernard!! (Tenagodus), Morch. Journ. de Conch., 1860, p. 

368, 190 

Biangulata (Turritella), De Blainv. = T. bicingulata, Lam. 202 
Biangularis (Vermetus maximus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

168, 1861, 184 

Bicarinata (Vermiculus spiratus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 174, 1861, . ... 187 

Bicarinatus (Vermetus), Sowb. Man., f. 4. 

= Siphonium nebulosum, Dillw. . . . . .184 

Bicarinatus (Vermetus), Desh. Anim. s. vert., ix, 67, 1843, 

= V. lumbricalis, Linn. 

Bicingulata (Turritella), Lam. Anim. s. vert., ix, 256, . 202 
Bicolor (Caecum impartitum, var.), de Folin. Les Melea- 

grin., p. 41,1867, 219 

Bicolor (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 47, 

== T. fascialis, Menke, 1848, .197 

Bif'unicularis (Siponium subcrenatum, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 158, 1861, 185 

Bimamillatum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, t. 8, 

f. 6, 7 ; Jour. Linn. Soc., x, 26 1. Laguayra, . . . 216 
Bimarginatura (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 431, 1858, . 216 
Bipartitum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . .219 
Bispinosum (Stephopoma), Morch. Mai. Bliitt., p. 78, No. 

72,1860. = S. pennatum, Morch, . . .185 

Bisuturalis (Turritella), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

ii, 256. = Odostomia, 209 

Bitumidum (Meioceras), de Folin. Ann. Soc. Linn. Maine 

et Loire, xi, 1869, 223 

Bivonia, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 62, 90, 1842 ; Mrs. Gray's 

Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, 82, 1850, . . . 164, 166, 176 

Bivonia, Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1847, p. 156 (not 1842). 

= Spiroglyphus, Daudin. 



228 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAG. 

Brasiliensis (Vermetus), Rousseau. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 

t. 5,f. 5, 180 

Breve (Caecum), cle Folin. Journ. de Conch., p. 53, 1867, . 220 
Brevialis (Turritella), Lam. Anim. s. vert., ix, p. 256, . 209 
Bridgesii (Vcrmetuscentiquadrus var.), Morch. Zool, Proc., 

p. 363, 1861, 175 

Brochina, Gray. Guide Moll , p. 101, 1857. 

= Caecum, Elem. . 213, 215 

Brochus, Brown. Recent Conch. Great Britain, iii, 1827. 

= Ciecum, Fleming, ....... 213 

Broderipiana (Turritella), d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., p. 388. 

= T. goniostoma, Val. . . . . . . .198 

Burtinella, Morch. Zool. Proc., 147, 1861, . . . . 167 

Caecalium, Macgillivray. = Caecum, Fleming, . . . 213 
Cnecum, Fleming. Encycl. Edinb., t. 7, p. 67, 1817, . 213, 215 
Calculifera (Phorus), Kve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 162, 1842, . 159 
Californica (Turritella), Brod. Orb., Voy. Amer., 388. 

= T. goniostoma, Val. . . . . .198 

Californicum (Caecum), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 

541, . 219 

Campulotus, Guett. Mem. iii, p. 94, 1774. 

= Vermetus, Adanson. 
Canaliculata (Turritella), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, 

p. 49, 1848. = T. vitulata, Ad. and Reeve, . . .204 
Candida (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 38, 1849, . 204 
Candidissima (Vermetus varians, d'Orb , var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 340, 1861, . 170 

Capensis (Turritella), Krauss. Siidafrik. Moll., p. 106, t. 6, 

f. 8, . . . 197 

Caperata (Xenophora), Phil, (not Petit). Zeits. fur Malak., 

1851, 159 

Caperata (Xenophora), Petit (not Phil.). Journ. de Conch., 

v, 249, pi. x, f. 3-5, 1856. = X. Senegalensis, Fischer, .161 
Caribaea (Xenophora), Petit. Journ. de Conch., v, 248, pi. 

x, f. 1, 2, 1856, 162 

Caribaea (Mesalia), d'Orb. Cuba., ii, No. 190, t. 10, f. 21. 

= T. varia, Kiener, var 209 

Carinata(Siphoniurnsubgranosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 165, 1861, 184 

Carinatus (Vermetus), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. de PAstr., p. 

298, t. 67, f. 25, 26, 172 

Carinifera (Turritella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, p. 258, . 206 
Cariniferum (Siphonium), Gray. Dieff. New Zeal., p. 242, 

1843, . . , .184 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 229 

PAGE. 

Carlottae (Turritella), Watson. Linn. Soc. Journ., xv, p. 

222, 1880, .... 208 

Carmenense (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 216 
Carpenter! (Vermetus varians, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

339, 1851, . .170 

Carpenter! (Yermetus Adansonii, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

337, 1861, 170 

Carpenter! (Meioceras), de Folin. Ann. Soc. Linn., Maine 

et Loire, 1869 .223 

Castanea (Vermiculus pellnciclus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 179, 1861, 188 

Cavelieri (Xenophora), Rochbr. Bull. Soc. Philorn., 178, 

1883, . 161 

Cellularia, Schmidt. Moll. Cat. Mus. Gotha, p. 70, 1833. 

= Thylacodes, Gtiett. 
Centiquadrus (Aletes), var. imbricatus. Carp. Cat., p. 302. 

= Siphonium megamastum, var. centiquadra, Morch, . 173 
Centiquadrus (Yermetus), Yal. Yoy. Venus, t. 11, f . 1 a ; 

Jour, de Conch. ,2, v, 37, . ..... 174 

Cerea (Xenophora), Rve. Conch. Icon. (Phorus), fig. 9, 

1843, .160 

Cerea (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 25, 1849. 

= T. bacillum, Kiener, . . . . . . .196 

Cereus (Petaloconchus), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 316, f. 7, 

1856 172 

Cerithium (Turritella), Quoy. Voy. de 1'Astr., t. 55, f. 27, 

28. = Cerithium, 209 

Challenger! (Parastrophia), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 806, 

1879, . . . 223 

Chiereghiniana (Brochina), Brusina. Journ. de Conch., p. 

248, 1869. = B. auriculatum, de Folin, .... 216 
Chinense (Caecum), de Folin. Les Fonds de la Mer, i, p. 

80, t. 9, f. 3,4, .222 

Cinerea (Yermicnlus spiratus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

164,1861. = Y. spiratus, var. radicula, .... 187 
Cingulata (Turritella), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 13, . 200 
Cingulitera (Turritella), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 14, . 198 
Cinnamomina (Vermiculus pellucidus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 177, 1861, 188 

Circumvolutum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, t. 8, 

f. 3 ; Jour. Linn. Soc., x, i62, 216 

Cladopoda, Gray. Fig. of Moll., p. 83, 1850. 

= S. G. of Thylacodes, Guett 166 

Clarkii (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 432, 1858. 

= C. vitreum, Carp., var. . . . . . . .215 

Clathrata (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Yiv.,p. 38, 1. 14, f. 1, 206 



230 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGB. 

Clathratula (Turritella), Wood. Crag Moll., 1848. 

= T. erosa, Couth. 
Clathratura (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazat. Shells, p. 322 ; Zool. 

Proc., 428, 1858, . . . . . . ' . . .219 
Clava (Caecum), de Folin. Journ. de Conch., p. 54, 1867, . 220 
Clisospira, Billings. Paleoz. Fossils, 1865, . . . .158 
Cochlea (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 29, 1849. 

= T. exoleta, Linn 205 

Cochleaeformis (Mathilda), Brugnone. Misc. Malac., p. 5, 

f. 1, 1873, . 210 

Cochlidium (Petaloconchus), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 314, 

f. 2, 1856, 173 

Colubrina (Serpula),Bolten. Verz., p. 50, No. 884, 1798. 

= Vermetus atra, Rouss. . . . . . . .180 

Columnaris (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq.Viv., p. 10, t. 7, f. 1 , 200 
Communis (Turritella), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 

106, . ' . 19G 

Compacta (Bivonia), Carp. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, xiv, 

p. 427, 1864, . . . . . .177 

Compactum (Caecum quadratum, var.), Carp. Zool. Proc., 

p. 428, 1858, ... 217 

Complanatum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin.,p. 41 ,1867, 216 
Concava (Turritella), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., v, 

p. 207,1826, 209 

Concava (Turritella), Martens. Mobius Mauritius, p. 283, 

1880, 206 

Conchyliophorus (Trochus), Born. Index Mus. Cses, 333, 161 
Congelata (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

47, 1848, ..... ... 204 

Conicus (Vermetus), Dillwyn, ii, p. 1078, 1815, . .170 

Conifer (var. of Siliquaria Cumingii), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

404, 1860, 190 

Constricta (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., pi. x, sp. 16, 

1849, . .206 

Constrictor (Bivonia), Mo'rch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 63, 1*62, 177 
Contortula (Vermetus contortus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 345, 1861, 171 

Contortuplicatus (Vermetus), var. b. Scacchi, Cat. p. 18. 

= Dofania gregaria, Monts 176 

Contortus (Vermetus), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 305, No. 355, 

1857, 171-173 

Contracturn (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 222 
Contraria (Caecum undatum, var.), de Folin. Fonds de la 

Mer, viii, 1869, . . ... 218 

Contrarius (Spiroglyphus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 329, 1861. 

= S. spiruliformis, de Serres. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 231 

PAGE. 

Cooperi (Turritella), Carp. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 216, . . 200 
Cooperi (Caecum), Smith. Ann. N. Y. Lyceum, vii, p. 154, 

1862, ix, 393, f. 3, 221 

Cooperi (Caecum), Carp, (not Smith, 1862), Supp. Brit. Assoc. 

Rep., p. 655, 1864; Proc. Cal. Acad., iii, 216, 1866. 

= C. Californicum, Dall 219 

Coralliophila (Bivoma Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

60, 1862, 177 

Corallophora (Astraea), Bolt. Cat. p. 56. 

= Xenophora conchyliophorus, Born. 
Cordismei (Turritella), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., p. 224, 

.1880, 208 

Cornea (Yermiculus lumbricalis, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 172,1861, . 186 

Cornea (Turritella), Lam. Kiener, Iconog. t. 13, f. 3. 

= T. communis, Risso. ....... 197 

Cornea (Caecum undatum, var.),de Folin. Les Meleagrin.,p. 

41, 1867, . . . . ' . . . . . .218 

Corneum (Caecum), Dkr. Jalirb. Mai. Gesell., ii, p. 244, 216 
Corniculina, Minister, Beitr., Geogn. Tirols, 118, 119, 1841. 

= Caecum, Fleming, ........ 213 

Cornubovis (Meioceras), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 439, 1858, . 223 
Cornucopia? (Meioceras^, Carp Zool. Proc., p. 439, 1858, 223 
Cornuoides, Brown. Recent. Conch. Great Brit., 1827. 

= Caecum, Fleming, 213 

Coronata, Monts. Poche Note Conch. Medit., 12, 1875, . 211 
Coronatum (Caecum), de Folin. Journ. de Conch., p. 50, 

1867, . 221 

Corrodens (Vermetus contortus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 346,1861, 171 

Corrodens (Spiroglyphus), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 235, t. 18, f. 1, 3. 

S. annulatus, Daudin, var. . . . . . .178 

Corrugatus (Phorus), Rve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 163, 1842, . 159 
CoiTiigulatum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazat. Shells, p. 327; 

Zool. Proc., 433,1858, 216 

Costae (Tenagodus), Cantr. Bull. Acad. Brux., 1836, p. 31. 

= Siliquaria anguina, Linn. ...... 189 

Costre (Siliquaria), Cantr. Bull. Acad. Brux., 21, 1836; 

Morch. Zool. Proc., 413, 1860, 191 

Costale (Siphonium), Lam. Hist., v, p. 366, No. 23, 1818. 

= S. subgranosum, Morch. ...... 184 

Costalis (Serpula), Lam. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 10, f. 11, 178 
Costalis ( Vermetus), Rouss. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 3, f. 1. 

= Vermiculus tortuosus, Solander, ..... 186 
Costata (Turritella erosa, var.), Aurivillius. Yega Exped., 

p. 322, 1885. = T. reticulata, Migh. and Ad. . . 208 



232 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGB. 

Costata (Yermetus varians, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 341, 

1861, 170 

Costatum (Caecum), Yerrill. Am. Journ. Sci., 3d Ser., iii, 

p. 283, t. 6, f. 6, 1872. = C. Cooperi, Smith, . . .221 
Costulata (Turritella), Mighels and Adams. Bost. Journ. 

Nat. Hist, iv, 50, 1842. = T. reticulata, M. and A. 208-214 
Coxi (Meioceras), de Folin. Ann. Soc. Linn., Maine et 

Loire, xi, 1869, . . . .223 

Crassa (Yermiculus pellucid us, var.\ Morch. Zool. Proe., 

p. 178, 1861, .... ... 188 

Crassum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 222 

Crebricinctum (Caecum), Carp. Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

iii, p. 215, . ... 218 

Crispa (Xenophora), Martens. Jahrb. der Dcutsch. Mai. 

Ges.,p. 238, pi. ix,f. 1, 1876. = = X. Senegalensis, Fischer, 161 
Crispa (Xenophora), Konig. Bronn, Italiens Tertiiir- 

Gebilde, 62, 1831, 160 

Cristata (Siphonium subcrenatum, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 158, 1861, . . 185 

Cristatus (Vermetus),Biondi. Atti dell'Accademia Gioenia 

1859, p. 120, f 5. = Y. glomeratus, Bivona, . . .178 
Crocea (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Yiv., p. 24, t. 11, f. 

2. = T. bacillum, Kiener, 196 

Crossei (Meioceras), de Folin. Ann. Soc. Linn., Maine et 

Loire, xi, 1869, 223 

Crustans (Spiroglyphus glomeratus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 333, 1861, . . . . . . . .178 
Cryptobia, Deshayes. Jour, de Conch., xi, 396, 1863, . 169, 191 
Crystallina (Yermetus balani-tintinnabuli, var.), Morch. 

Zool. Proc., p. 359, 1861, 175 

Crystallinum (Caecum), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 812, 

1879, .... .'220 

Cubitatum (Meioceras), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 223 
Cuccina (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 216 
Cumingii (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 13, 1849, 

= T. tigrina Kiener, .... . 199 

Cumingii (Siliquaria), Morch. .Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, 

p. 403, . . 190 

Cuvieri (Lementina), Risso. Hist. Nat. Europe. Mer., iv, 

p. 114, t. 2, f. 16, 18, 1826 183 

Cylindrella (Tenagodus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 410, 1860. 
Cylindrica (Caecum leve var.), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., 

p. 39, 1867, . 215 

Da Costae (Spiroglyphus), Morch. Humph, and Da Costa, 
Conch., xi, f. 15,' 185 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 233 

PAOB. 

Decipiens (Turritella), Monts. Enum. e Sinon., p. 29, . 205 
Declivis (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

48, 1848, 200 

Declivis (Turritella erosa. var.). Aurivilliiis. Vega Exped , 

p. 324. = T. reticulata, Mighels, var 208 

Decurtata (Broehina), Monts. II Nat. Sicil., iv, p. 23, 1884, 216 
Decussata (Mesalia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 279, 1851, . 210 
Decussatum (Caecum formulosum, var.), de Folin. Funds 

de la Mer, viii, p. 124, 222 

Decussatus (Vermetus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3745, Xo. 

21, 17l x 181 

Decussatus (Vermetus), Lain. Anim. s. Yert , v, p. 363, 

No. 7 (non Gmel.) = Y. conicus, Dillwyn, var. gordialis. 
Deliciosa (Turritella), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., p. 226, 

1880, 208 

Dendropoma, Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1861, p. 153. 

= Sect, of Siphonium. 
Dentaliopsis, Clarke MS. Gray. Zool. Proc., 203, 1847. 

= Crecum, Fleming, ....... 213 

Dentifera (Vermetus), Quoy. Voy. de 1'Astr., p. 291, t. 67, 

f. 27,28. = Thylacodes lono-ifilis, Morch, . . .182 
Dentifera (Spiroplyphua annulatus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 331, 1861, . 178 

Dentiferus (Yermetus), Sovvb. Gen., f. 6. 

= Siphonium nebulosum, Dillw. ..... 184 

Dentiferus (Thylacodes), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., v, 367, . 179 
Deshayesi (Meioceras), de Folin. Ann. Soc. Linn. Maine 

et Loire, xi, 1869, . . 223 

Dextroversum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazat. Shells, p. 328, 215 
Diaphana (Vermiculus lumbricalis, var), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 171, 1861, 186 

Digitata (Xenophora), Martens. Sitz-Berich. Berlin, 135, 

1878, .... 161 

Dilatata (Yermetus octosectus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 351, 1861, , 172 

Diminutum (Caecum), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 161, 310. 

= C. firmatum, C. B. Ad. . . ... . .217 

Dimorphus (Yermiculus), Morch. Proc Zool. Soc., p. 176, 

1861, 187 

Discifer (Yermiculus pellucidus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 180, 1861, 188 

Disculus (Spiroglyphus Spirnliformis, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 329, 1861, 177 

Dofania, Morch. J. de C., 2d, iv, 34, 1860. 

= Thylacodes and Bivonia, in part, . . , .166 



234 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Dunkeri (var. of Tenagodus polygonus, Blv.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 403, 1860, . 190 

Pnplicata (Turritella), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, xii, 1239, . 207 
Dura (Turritella), Moroh. Mal.'Blatt., vii, 78, . . . 209 

Ebenea (Vermetus renisectus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 349,1801, 171 

EburiK'iim (Caecum), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 161, 311. 

= C. firmatum, C. B. Ad 217 

Eburneus (Vermetus), live. Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 152, f. 2. 

= Vermiculus pellucidus, Brod. and Sowb., var. . .188 
Echinata (Serpula), Gmel. Syst. Nat. 

= Siliquaria anguina, Linn. 
Effusus (Vermetus), Yal. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 5, f. 4, 4 a. 

= V. centiquadrus, Val 175, 188 

Eglisia, Gray. Synops. Brit. Mus., 1840. = Scalariidae. 
Electrina (Vermetus varians, d'Orb., var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 340, 1861, 170 

Elegans (Watsonia), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 808, 1879, . 223 
Eleu'ans (Cladopoda), Quoy and Gaim. L. c. p. 293, pi. 

07, f. 11-12, 1833, 182 

Elegans (Ciecum),de Folin. Les Melt'agrin,p. 45, 1807, 219, 323 
Elegantissima (Mathilda), Costa. Microd. Medit., . . 210 
Elegantissimum (Caecum), Cpr. Me Andrew's Rep. Moll., 

N. E. Atl. Brit. Assoc., p. 149, 1856 ; Zool. Proc., 429, 

1858, 217 

Elegantula (Mathilda), An gas. Zool. Proc., p. 15, 1871, . 210 
Elephantulura, Carp. Zool. Proc., p 419, 1858. 

= Caecum, Flem. 
Elongata Turritella variegata, var.), Reeve. Conch. Icon., 

sp. 19, 1849 199 

Elongatum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 319; 

Zool. Proc.. 424, 1858, 219 

Encausticus (Tenagodus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 408, I860, . 189 
Endoptygma, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad. for 1876, 302, 

1877," 157 

Erosa (Turritella), Couth. Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., ii, t. 

3, f. 1, 208 

Eruca (Vermetus^, Lamarck. Anim. sans vert., 2d edit., v, 

p. 634, 177 

Eruca (Vermetus), Lam. Anim. sans vert.,-ed. 2, v, p 634. 

= Serpulorbis inopertus, Riippel, . . . . .182 
Erucatum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Melengrin., p. 42, 1867, 219 
Eruciformis (Thylacodes), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1862, 

p. 70, . . 183 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 235 

PAGE. 

Erythraeensis (Spiroglyphus Spiruliformis, var.), Morch. 

Zool. Proc., p. 329, 1861, 177 

Erytlirosclera (Thylacodes ernciformis, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 70, I860, 183 

Eschrichtii (Turritella), Midd. Malac. Rossioa, t. xi, f. 1,2. 

= T. erosa, Couth 208 

Eutrochus, Whitfield. 1882, 158 

Excavata (Turritella), Sovvb. Zool. Proc., p. 252, 1870. 

= T. exoleta, Linn 205 

Exile (Caecum), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 811, 1879, . .219 
Exoleta (Turritella), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, x, No. 561 ; 

Edit, xii, No. 644, . ... . 05 

Expansa (Bivonia triquctra, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc. p. 

56, 1862, ... 176 

Exserta (Bivonia), Dull. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 39, 

1881, .177 

Exuta (Phorus), Rve. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 162, 1842, . 161 

Farcimen (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Maznt. Shells, p. 326, . 215 
Fartulum, Carp. Mazat. Cat., 425, 1858. 

= Caecum, Fleming. 

Fascialis (Turritella)', Menke. Synopsis, p. 83, 1828, . . 197, 
Fasciatum (Caecum), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 66, t. 1, 

f. 2, 3, ... .... 222 

Fascicularis (Bivonia triquetra, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 56, 1862 ' 176 

Fastigiata (Turritella), Ad. and live. Voy. Samarang, p. 

48, 1848, . . 204 

Favosa (Yermetus contortus, var.), Morch, Zool. Proc., p. 

345, 1861, .171 

Ferruginea (var of Tenagodus australis,Quoy), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 407, 1860. = S. Reentzii, Morch/. . . .189 
Ferruginea (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 32, 1849, . 207 
Filaris (Vermetus vermicella, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

357, 1861, 173 

Firmatum (Caecum), C. B Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 161, 311, . ^17 
Fischeri (Meioceras), de Folin. Fonds de Mer, 18, f. 3, 4, 223 
Fissurata (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 163. 1861, 184 

Flammulata (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq.Viv.,p. 7,t. 5,f. 1, 201 
Flavescens ( Petaloconchus), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 

314, f. 3, 1856, .174 

Flexuosa (Caecum elegans, var.), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., 
^ p. 45, 1867, . . . . 219 

Flo rid an urn (Caecum), Stimp. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

1851, 217 



236 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Flos-lactis (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

62, 1862, .... m 

Folini (Parastrophia), B. D. D. Moll. Mar. Roussillon, p. 

283, t. f. 5, 1884, . ...... 223 

Formulosum (Caecum), do Folin. Fonds do la Mer, viii, 

p. 124, 222 

Fragilis (Turritella), Kiener. Iconog., 34, t. 8, f. 3. 

= T. cingulifera, Sowb 198 

Freytagi (Mesalia), von Maltzan. Nachrichts. der Deutsch. 

Malak. Gesell., May, 1884, p. 68, 210 

Fulgurata (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

61, 1862, 177 

Fulminata (Turritella), Hutton. Cat. Marine Moll. N. Zeal., 

p. 29, 1873, .... . 208 

Funiculata (Mathilda), Tiberi. A nidus and Benoit. Moll. 

Sicil.,313. '= M. elegantissimn, Costa, . . . .210 
Fuscata (Turritella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 255. 

= T. ungulina, Linn. . . . . . . .196 

Fuscata (Serpula), Humplir. Wood., Suppl., t. 8, f. 3, 1 828. 

= Vermetus atra, Rouss, . . . . . . .180 

Fusco-cincta (Turritella}, Petit. Jour, de Concli., p. 368, 

t. 11, f. 3, 1853. = T. cingulifera. Sowb. . . .198 

I 

Gsederopi (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 163, 
1861, 185 

Geo-ania, Jeffreys. 1884 . . .195 

Geinmata (Turritella), Rve. Concli. Icon., sp. 28, 1849, . 200 
Gigas (Sipboniura), A. and G. Cbenn, 111. Conch., t. 5, f. 

6, 6 a, . 184 

Gigas (Serpuloides), Gray. Figs, of Moll , i, t. 58, f. 6, 1850. 

= V. polypbragrna, Sassi, . . . . . .179 

Gigas (Siliquaria), Lesson. Voy. de la Coq..,ii, pt. i, p. 409, 191 
Glabra (Tenagodus), Risso. Hist., iv, p. 1 15, . . .191 
Glabriformis (Brocbina), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 437, 1858, . 216 
Glabrum (Dentalium), Montagu. Test. Brit., ii, p. 497, 

1803, ' 215 

Glabrum (Caecum), Brusina (not Mont.). 

= Brocbina incompta, Monts. . . . . , .216 
Glabrum (Odontidium), Cantraine, ..... 216 
Glabrum (Ceecum), McAndr. Geogr. Distr. Test., 1854. 

= C. vitreum, Carp 215 

Glauconia, Giebel, 1852, ... .194 

Glomerata (Spiroglyphus annulatus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 331, 1861, .... . 178 

Glomerata (Serpula), Linn. Syst. Nat., xii, p. 1266. 

= Vermetus subcancellatus, Bivon. . . . . .173 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 237 



Gloraerata ( Yermicnlaria), Gravenh. Tergest., p. 60, in part. 

= Thylacodes decussatns, Gra., var. tennis, Morch. 
Glomeratns (Y^ermetns) Bivona. Xuovi Genera, 12, . .178 
Glorneratns (Yermetns), Daudin. Rec. 35. 

= Y. vermicella, Lam. . . . . . . .173 

Glomeratns (Yerrnetus), Ronss. Chenu, IIlus. Conch., t. 2, 

f. 2. = Y. reniseetns (Carp.), Morch. 
Goniostoma (Tnrritella), Val. Yoy. Humboldt et Bon- 

pland, ii, p. 275, 198 

Gordialis (Vermetus renisectns, var.), M'irch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 346, 1861, 171 

Gordialis (Yermetns conicns, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

342, 1861 170 

Goreensis (Yermetns), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3745, . . 177 
Graeile (Csecnm), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 429, 1858, . .219 
Gracile (Caecum). Gld. Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat Hist, vii, 407, 219 
Gracillima (Ttirritella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

vii, p. 386, 1861 ; A. Adams, Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist., 107, 

1875. = T. fascialis, Menke, . . . . . .197 

Grandis (Cladopoda), Gray. Fig. of Moll., iv, p. 83, pi. 56, 

f. 9, 182 

Granifera (Bivonia Qnovi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 61, 

1862, : . 177 

Granosa (Tnrritella), Quoy. Yoy. del'Astr.,iii,t. 55, f. 29,30, 209 
Granolirata (Mathilda), Brugnone, Misc. Malac., p. 6, f. 2, 

1873. = M. elegantissima, 0. G. Costa, . . . .210 
Grannlata (Yermicnlaria ), Gravenh. Tergestina, p. 65, Xo. 

5, 1831. = Bivonia triquetra, Bivon., var. pinnicola, . 176 
Grannlifera (Tnrritella), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, p. 143, 1875. = T. Anstralis, Lam. . . 207 
Gregaria (Dofania), Monts. En. e Sin., p. 28 ; II. Xat. Sicil., 

iv, 62, . 177 

Gunnii (Tnrritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 45, 1849, . 203 

Gnrgnlio (Ctecnm), Carp. Zool. Proc., p 426,1858, . . 219 
Gymnogastra (Yermetns ccrens, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 351,1861, . . 172 

Halipluebus, Fischer. Kiener. Trochidae, 450, 1880, . .157 
Hanleyana (Tnrritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 36, 1849. 

= T. rosea, Quoy 199 

Hastula (Tnrritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 31, 1849, . 203 
Hatina, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 62, 90, 1842; 62, 1844, . 167 
Hanstator, Mtf. Conch. Syst., ii, 182, 1810, . . 193, 198 
Helvacea (Xenophora), Ph. Zeit. fiir Malak., 1851, . .162 
Heptagonum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 319 ; 

Zool. Proc., 422, 1858, 222 



238 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Heteropsammarium (Cryptobia), Dcsh. Moll. Reunion, p. 

68, 1863, . . . 191 

Hexagonum (Caecum heptagonum, var.), de Folin. Les 

Meleagrin., p. 46,1807, . . . ' . . .222 

Hookeri (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 61, 1848, . 206 

Imbricata (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc , 

p. 163, 1831, . . 184 

Imbricata (Turritella), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, No. 640. 

= T. variegata, var. elongata, Linn. . . . .199 

Imbricatum (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc.. p. 422, 1858, 185, 222 
Imbricatus (Thylacodes), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., p. 240, No. 59, 

I860, ... 180 

Imbricosoluta (Turritella communis, var.), De Greg. Bull. 

Soc. Mai. Ital.,x, p. 118 197 

Imiklis (Meioceras), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 189, t. 26, 

f. 5, 6, . 223 

Immersa (Spiroglyphus Spiruliformis, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 328, 1861. 177 

Impartitum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 41, 1867, 219 
Imperfectum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleaorin,, p. 40, 1867, 216 
Imperforatum (Dentalium), Montagu. Brit. Shells, 496. 

= C. trachea, Mont. .219 

Impressa (Turritella), Say. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

ii, p. 244. = Odostomia 209 

Incisa (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 65, 1849, . . 203 
Incisa (Turritella), Tenison-Woods (non Rve.). Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N. S. W., ii, p. 262, 1877. = T. Sophias, Bra/. 
Incisns (Tenagodus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 408, 1860. 

. = T. Senegalensis, Recluz, 188 

Inclinatum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, viii, p. 

142, t. 22, f. 1,2, 1869, . . . . . . .222 

Incompta (Brochina), Monts. II Nat. Sicil., iv, p. 23, 1884, 216 
Incurvatum (Yermiculum), Mont. Test. Br., p. 518, 

C. glabrum, Mont . .215 

Indentata (Vermetus contortus, var.), Carp. Morch. Mai. 

Blatt., 77, 1860, ... . .171 

Indentata (Vermetus renisectus var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 349, 1861, 171 

Indica (Xenophora), Grael. Syst. Nat., 3575, . . 161 

Indicus (Vermetus), Rouss. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 5, f. 2 a. 

= Vermiculus lumbricalis, Linn. var. teres, Morch, . . 186 
Infimum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, t. 8, f. 2, . 222 
Inflatum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, viii, p. 121, 

t. 15, f. 5, 6, 1869, 222 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 239 

PAGB. 

Infraconstricta (Turritella), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 

817, 1878, . . 203 

Infundibulum (Serpula), Chenu. Illus. Conch., t. 10, f. 12, . 178 
Incrassata (Turritella), Sowb. Min. Conch. Great Brit., i, 

p. Ill, t. 51, f. 6, 1812. = T. triplicata, Studer, . .197 
Inopertus (Serpulus), Riippell. Atlas Africa, t. 11, f. 3, . 182 
Insculptnm (Ctecnm), Carp. Cat. Mazatlan shells, p. 315, 

Zool. Proc., 420, 1858, 220 

Insigne (Caecum), de Folin. Journ. de Conch., p. 52, 1867, 220 
Instructum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 222 
Intaminata (Crecum fasciatum, var.), Monts. Nat. Sicii., iv, 

24, . 222 

Intermedia (Thylacodes decussatns, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 75, 1862, 181 

Intestina (Serpula), Salis-Marschlius. Reise, p. 358, 1793, 

= Thylacodes poly phragma, Sassi, 179 

Intestiniforme (Dentalium), Linn, 1759. Hanley, Ms. of Mus. 

Ulric., 49. = Thylacodes polyphragma, Sassi, . .179 
Intortus (Yermetus), Weinkaulf (non Lamarck). Conch. 

Medit., 328. = V. subcancellatus, Bivona, . . .173 
lonica (Bivonia), Danillo and Sandri. Elengo, ii, 65, . 177 
Irregulare (Cfficum), de Folin. Journ. de Conch., p. 47, 1867, 221 
Irregularis (Vermetus), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 235. 

= Vermetus varians, d'Orb, var. irregularis, Morch, . 170 
Irregularis (Yermetus), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 17, f. 16, but 

scarcely desc. = Spiroglyphus annulatus, Daud, var. . 178 

Japonica (var. of Tenagodus Cumingii), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 405, 1860 190 

Juvenilis (Yermetus renisectus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 348, 1861, . . . 170 

Knocked (Protoma), Baird. Zool. Proc., p. 60, 1870, . 210 
Knorri (Yermetus), Desh. An. s. Yert., ix, 68, 1843. 

= Yermiculus spiratus, Phil. var. bicarinata, Morch, . 187 
Knysnaensis (Turritella), Krauss. Sudafrik. Moll., p. 106, t. 
6, f. 9, 1848, .203 

Lacquearis (Yermiculus pellucid us, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 177, 1861. 
Lactea (Mesalia), Mo'ller. Index Moll. Gnjenlandire, p. 9. 

= T. reticulata, Migh. and Adams, 208 

Lactea (Siliquaria), Lam. Hist., v, p. 338, No. 5, 1818, . 191 
Lacteola (Mesalia), Cpr. Suppl. Rep. Brit. As., p. 655, 

1864. = T. reticulata, Migh. and Adams, . . . 208 
Lseve (Caecum), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 162, 311, . 215 



240 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Laeve-lirata (var. of Tenagodus Oumiftgii), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 405, 1860, ........ 190 

Laevigata (Thylacodes decussatus, var.), M<irch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 75, 1862, . . . 181 

Laevigata (Xenophora), Fischer. Mus. Demidoff, pp. 213- 

214,1807. = X. couchyliophorus, Born, . .161 

Lsvvis (Brochus), Brown. Recent Conch. Great Brit., 1827. 

= C. glabrum, Mont. ....... 215 

Laeviuscula (Thylacodes colnbrina, var.), M'irch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 73, 1862, . . . . . . . .180 

Laraarckii (Serpnlorbis), Yaillant. Nouv. Archiv. du Mus., 

1871, p. 199, . 183 

Lamarckii (Vermetus Adansonii, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

337, 1861 ...... .... 169 

Lambert! (Xenophora), Souv. Jour, de Conch., xix, 334, 

1871; xx, 54, 1872, .... . 162 

Lamellosa (Turritella), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., p. 229, 

1880, ........ . 208 

Lamellosum (Siphonium), Button. Cat. Moll. N. Zeal., p. 

30; Manual, 85, ........ 184 

Lapidifera (Astraea), Bolt. Cat., p. 56. 

= Xenophora conchyliophorus, Born. 
Lacquearis (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

59, 1862, . ...... 177, 188 

Laqueatum (Caecum), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 162, 311 ; 

Carp. Zool. Proc., 420, 1858, . . 219 

? Lementina, Risso. Hist. Nat. Europe Mer., p. 114, 182C>. 

= S. G. Thylacodes, Guett, ...... 167 

Lemniscata ( Spiroglyphus spiruliformis, var. ), Morch. 

Zool. Proc., p. 328, 1861, ..... .177 

Lentiginosa (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 9, 1849. 

= T. goniostoma, Val ........ 198 

Leucostoma (Turritella), Val. Voy. Humboldt et Bon- 

pland, ii, p. 275, . . . ..... 200 

Leucozonias (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 155, 

1861, . ..... ... 185 

Levissimum (Odontidium), Cantr. Bull. Brux., ix, p. 2, 

1842. = C. glabrum, Mont ....... 215 

Liratocinctum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 

317; Zool. Proc., 421, 1858, ... . 222 

Ligar (Turritella), Desh. Anim. s. Vert., ix, p. 261. 

= T. fiammulata, Kien. 
Lilacina (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 59, 

1862, ....... . .176 

Lilacinus (Vermetus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 352, 

1861, .......... 172, 177 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 241 

PAGE. 

Limacella (Th} r lacodes Riisei, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 69, 1862, .... . . .183 

Lineata (var. of Tenagoclus incisus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

408, 1860, . . , . . . . . . .189 

Lineicinctum (Caecum), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 808, 1879,- 219 
Lineolata (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Viv., p. 25, t. 5, 

f. 2. = T. rosea, Quoy, . . . . . . .199 

Lineolata (Vermicularia), Gravenh. Tergest., p. 57, No. 3. 

= Thylacodes polyphragma, Sassi, var. Aletes, Morch. 
N Linnei (Turritella), Desh. = T. communis, Risso, . .197 
Lispe (Vermetus), Desh. Anim. s. Vert., 2d Edit., ix, 65. 

= V. ver micella, Lam. . . . . . . .173 

Longifilis (Thylacodes), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 79,1862, 181 
Lithophorus (Trochus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, pi. 172, f. 

1688-1690. = Xenophora conch3 T liophorus, Born. 
Lithotrochus, Conrad, . . . . . . . .194 

Lituella (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 154,1861, 183 
Lituina (Vermiculus dimorphus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 177, 1861, . . -. 187 

Lumbricalis (var. of Tenagodus Cumingii), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 405, 1860 190 

Lumbricalis (Vermetus), Gould. Report Mass., p. 287. 

= Vermiculus. spiratus, Phil., var. radicula, Stimp. . 187 

Lumbricalis (Vermiculus), d'Orb. Hist. Nat. Cuba, p. 234. 

= V. spiratus, Phil., var. bicarinata, Morch, . . . 187 
Lumbricalis (Serpula), B. Gm. S} r st. Nat., p. 3742. 

= Vermetus conicus, Dillw. . . . . . .170 

Lumbricalis (Vermetus), Lam. Hist. An. sans Vert., vi, 

pt. 2, 225. = V. Adansonii, Daudin, var. 
Lumbricalis (Vermetus), Roissy (non Linn.). Hist. Moll., 

v, p. 399, t. 56, f. 1. = V. Adansonii, Daudin, . .169 
Lumbricalis (Vermiculus), Linn. Syst. Nat., x, 787, 1758, 186 
Lumbricella (Thylacodes eruciformis, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 70, 1862, 183 

Luridum (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 164, 1861, 184 
Lyngbyanua (Vermetus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 83, 

1862; Mall. Blatt., xviii, 128, 185 

Macandrese (Eglisia), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 753, 1865. 

= Turritella quadricarinata, Brocchi. 
Macrophragma (Vermetus), Carp. Mazat. Cat., p. 309, No. 

359, 1857, ....... . 173 

Macrophragma, Carp. Mazat. Cat., p. 308, 1757. 

= S. G. of Vermetus, Adans., 1 60, 173 

Macrophragma (Petaloconchus), Carp. Mazat. Cat., p. 309, 

f. 1, .173 

10 



242 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PACK. 

Maculata (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 33, 1849, . 202 
Magellanica (Mathilda), Fischer. Man. de Conch., p. 172, 

1881, . . . 211 

Magnum (Caecum), Stearns, ... ... 219 

Major (Bivonia sutilis, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 58, 1862, 177 
Major (Cornuoides), Brown. Recent Conch. Great Brit., 

1827. = C. trachea, Mont., young, . . . .219 

Margaritarum (Yermetus), Val. Voy. Venus, t. 11, f. 2 

(larger fig.), . . 181 

Margaritarum (Siphonium), Val. Voy. Venus, pi. 11, f. 2. 

Thylacodes squamigerus, Carp., var. pennuta, Morch., . 184 
Marginatum (Csecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, viii, 

143, t. 22, f. 3, 4, 1869, . . 222 

Marmorata (Turritella), Kiener. Icon. Coq. Viv., p. 23, t. 

8, f. 4. = T. goniostoma, Val 198 

Marmorata (Turritella), Ch., iv, p. 259, f. 1422. 

= T. variegata, Linn. . . . . . . .199 

Marmoratum (Csecum formulosum, var.), de Folin. Fonds 

de -la Mer, viii, p. 124, 222 

Masier (Vermetus), Desh. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 65, 1843, . 180 
Massiliense (Ca3cum), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 216 

Mathilda, Semper. Jour, de Conch., xiii, 330, 1865, . 195, 210 
Maxima (Vermetus centiquadrus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 362, 1861, . . . . . . . .175 

Maximum (Siphonium), Sowb. Tank. Cat., p. 23, 1825, .184 
Maximus (Ouustus), Humphr. Cat., p. 28. 

= Xenophora conchyliophorus, Born. 
Meandrina (Xenophora), Fischer. Mas. DemidolT, p. 213- 

214,1807. X. conchyliophorus, Born, . . .161 

Mediterranea (Xenophora), Tiberi. Jour, de Conch., xi, p. 

157, pi. vi, f. 1, 1863. = X. crispa, Konig, . . .160 
Mediterraneum (Spirolidium), Costa. Microdoride Medi- 

terr., p. 66, t. xi, f. 4, 1861. ? = C. Folini, B. D. D. 213, 223 
Megacentro (Siphonium maximum, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc.. p, 168, 1861, . . 184 

Megamastum (Siphonium), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 153, 1861, 185 
Meioceras, Carpenter. Zool. Proc., p. 438, 1858. 

= S. G. of Caecum, Flem 214, 222 

Melanioides (Mesalia), live. Conch. Icon., sp. 3, 1849, . 209 
Melanosclera (Vermiculus spiratus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 174, 1861, . ...... 187 

Melanostomus (Thylacodes), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 

99, 1865, .183 

Mesal (Turritella), Desh. Anim. s. vert., ix, p. 261. 

= T. brevialis, Lam. 209 

Mesalia, Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840, . . . 193, 209 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 243 

PA^E. 

Meta (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 34, 1849. 

= T. variegata, Linn., var 199 

Michaudii (Thylacodes), Rouss. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 2, 

f. 5, 181 

Michelini (Cryptobia), Desh. Moll. He Reunion, pp. 65-67, 

1863, , 191 

Microcyclos (Caecum), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 811, 1879, 219 
Minima (Caecum variegatum, var.), de Folin. Fonds de la 

Mer, viii, p. 120, t. 15, . . . . . . 222 

Minor (Cornuoides), Brown. Recent Conch. Great Brit., 

1827. = C. glabrum, young, 215 

Minor (Vermetus subcancellatus, var.), Monts. II Xat. 

Sicil.,iv, p. 61, . . ... 172 

Minutum (Dentalium), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed.xii, p. 1264. 

= C. glabrum, Mont. . . . . . . .215 

Minutum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p 40, 1807, . 216 
Mirabile (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 45, 1867, . 220 
Mirificum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 47, 1867, . 222 
Mobii (Tenagodus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1865, p. 98, . 191 
Modesta (Siliquaria), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 39. 
Modestum (Caecum), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . . 216 
Monile (Vermetus varians, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 339, 

1861, ... . .170 

Monilifera (Vermetus renisectus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 349,1861, 171 

Monilifera (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

p. 48, 1848, .205 

Monstrosum (Caecum), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 162, 311. 

= C. firmatum, C. B. Ad . .217 

Moreleti (Meioceras), de Folin. Ann. Soc. Linn. Maine et 

Loire, xi, 1869, . . . . . ... 223 

Moreletia, de Folin. In les Fonds de la Mer, i, p. 120. 

= Parastrophia, de Folin. 
Morchia, Mayer. Jour, de Conch., viii, 309, Aug. 1860 (non 

A. Adams, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., Apr., 1860). 

= Burtinella, Morch. 
Muhlenpfoidti (Thylacodes Riisei, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 69, 1862, ' .183 

Multilirata (var. of Tenagodus Australis, Quoy), Morch. 

Zool. Proc., 406, 1860, . . 189 

Multilirata (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

p. 47, 1848, 204 

Muricata (Siliquaria), Born. Test. Caes. Vindobon, 446. 

= S. anguina, Linn. ........ 190 

Mutabile (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, viii, 1869. 



244 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PACK. 

Natalensis (Thylacodes), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 70, 

1862, 183 

Nebulosa(Turritella),Kien. Icon. Coq. Viv.,p. 33, 1. 14, f. 2, 209 
Nebulosum (Siphonium)', Dillw. II, p. 1076, No. 19, . . 184 
Nerinaeoides (Petaloconchus), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 

316, f. 6, 1856, 171 

Nidificans (Vermiculus tortuosus,var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 1'70, 1861, ... 186 

Nigricans (Vermetus lumbricalis, var.), Dall. Proc. Nat. 

Mus., vi, p. 334. = Y. varians, d'Orb. 

Nitidura Caecum), Stimp. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., iv, 112, 222 
Nitidum (Meioceras), Bean. Carpenter, Zool. Proc., 438, 

1858, . . . . . . . . . .222 

Nivea (Turritella), Anton. Yerzeich. der Conch., p. 61, . 209 
Nivea (Turritella), Gray, MSS. Brit. Mus. ; Reeve, Conch. 

Icon.,sp. 44, 1849, . . 196 

Nodoso-rugosus (Yermetus), Lischkc. Mai. Blatt., xvi, 

p. 106, .180 

Nodulosa (Turritella), King. Zool. Journ., v,p,347,No. 56, 202 
Novae-Hollandiae (Yermetus), Rousseau-. Chenu, 111. Conch., 

t. 1, f. 4 a. = Thylacodes sulcatus, Lam. . . .179 
Novae-Zelandiae (Yermetus), Gray. Fig. of Moll., ii, p. 28, 

t. 56, f. 6. = Cladopoda Zelandica, Q. and G. . .182 

Obsoletum (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 426, 1858. 

= C. trachea, var. . . . . . . . .219 

Obsoletus (Turbo), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3612. 

= T. Exoleta, Linn. .... ... 205 

Obtusum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazat. Shells, p. 317 ; Zool. 

Proc., 421, 1858, 220 

Obtusus (Tenagodus), Schum. Essai, p. 262, 1817, . . 189 
Occlusa (Yermetus varians, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc , 339, 

1861, ... 170 

Occlusa (Yermetus subcancellatus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 356, 1861 173 

Occultum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin, p. 44, 1867, 219 
Ochrea (Serpula), Gmelin. Syst. Nat, 3744. 

?== Yermetus atra, Rouss. 180 

Octagonum (Caecum heptagonum, var.), de Folin. Les 

Meleagrin., p. 46, 1867, . . 222 

Octosectus (Petaloconchus), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 317, 

f. 8, 1856, 171 

Odontina, Zborzewski. = Caecum, Fleming, 1834, . .213 
Odontidium, Phil. = Caecum, Fleming, 1836, . . . 213 
Opalina (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. Samarang, p. 

48, 1848, 210 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 245 



Operculatus (Serpulorbis\ Gray. Zool. Proc., 156, 1847. 

= V. inopertus, Riippell, 182 

Onustus, Humphrey. Mus. Calonn., 1197 ; H. and A. Adams, 

Genera, 1,362, 1854, 157,162 

Onustus (Phorus), Rve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 160. 1842. 

= X. conch yliophorus, Born 161 

Oi-cutti (Caecum), Dfcll. Proc. U. S.Nat. Mus., viii,541, 1885, 216 
Orientals (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, vi, vii, p. 

107, t. 11, f. 5, 6, 216 

Oryzata (Thylacodes), Morch. Pro. Zool. Soc, p. 78, 1862, 183 
Oxygona (Thylacodes grandes, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 81, 1862, 182 

Pachylasma (Yermetus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 354, 

1861, . 175 

Pagoda (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 60, 1848, . 204 
Pallidulus (Phorus), Rve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 162, 1842, . 160 
Panamensis (Vermetus), Rouss. Ohenu, Illus. Conch., t. 5, 

f. la, 6. = Y. centiquadrus, Val., var. . . . 175 

Panamensis (Serpula), Chenu. 111. Conch., t. 10, f. 5. 

= V. pellucidus, var. crassa, 188 

Panamensis (Serpula), Chenu. Illus. Conch., t. 10, f. 5. 

=Vermiculus pellucidus, Brod. & Sowb., var. crassa, Morch. 
Panormitanus (Vermetus), De Greg. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., 

x, p. 119, 1884, ... 177 

Papillosa (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 60, 

1862, 177 

Papillosa (Turritella), Kien. Coq. Viv., t. 14, f. 3. 

= T. nodulosa, King, 202 

Papillosa (Siliquaria), Rees, Encyc. Chenu, Illus. Conch., 

t. 2, f. 16, . 191 

Paradoxum (Caecum), de Folin. Jour, de Conch., p. 48, 1867, 218 
Parastrophia, de Folin. In les Fonds de la Mer, i, p. 174, 

1869; Jour, de Conch., 203, 1877. 

= S. G. of Caecum, Flem 214,223 

Parva (Torcula), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 174, t. 26, f. 17, 

1877. T. cinguififera, Sowb. 
Parvum (Caecum), C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 163, 311. 

= C. undatum, Cpr 218 

Parvulum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 40, 1867, 216 
Pellucidus (Vermiculus), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, 

p. 369, ........ .187 

Penicillus, Grew. Mus. regal., p. 132 (non Rondelet). 

= Yermicularia, Lam. 
Pennata (Thylacodes squamigerus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 76. 1862, . . . . . . . .181 



246 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

FAOE. 

Permatum (Stephopoma), Morch. Jour, de Conch., p. 43, 

1860, 185 

Perforans (Stoa), M. de Serres. Ann. des Sci., v, p. 241, t. 

8, f. 3-6, 1855. = Siphonium politura, Daudin, . . 184 
Perlata (Yermetus varians, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

341, 1861, . .170 

Peronii (Vermetns), Rouss. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 4, f. 6. 

= Y. centiquadrns, Yal., var 175 

Personata (Yermetus conicus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 341,1861, 170 

Petaloconchus, Lea. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., 1843, t. 9, p. 

229. = S. G, of Yermetus, Adanson, . . . 165,172 
Petrsea (Bivonia), Monterosato. II Nat. Siciliano, iv, p. 

61. = B. glomerata, Bivona. 
Philippinensis (Thylacodes decussatus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 75, 1862, . . ... 181 

Philippensis (Turritella), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., p. 

223, 1880, 208 

Phorus, De Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 158, 1810. 

= Xenophora, Fischer, 157 

Pkronimum (Caecum), de Folio. Jour, de Conch., p. 44, 

1867, .221 

Picea (Yermetus renisectus, var.), Morck. Zool. Proc., p. 

349, 1861, 171 

Picta (Yermiculus pellucidus, var.), Morck. Zool. Proc., p. 

178, 1861, 188 

Pictum (Siphonium), Morck. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 161, . 185 

Pinguis (Gegania), Jeffreys. 211, 1861. 

Pinnicola (Bivonia triquetra, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

55, 1862. 

Planorbis (Spiroglyphus\ Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 240, 1860, 178 
Planorboides (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 59, 1862, . . 177 

Planorboides (Yermiculus pellucidus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 177, 1861, 188 

Planorboides (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 163, 1861. 
Platyomphala (var. of Tenagodus Cumingii), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 405, 1860, 190 

Platypus (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 157, 

1861, 185 

Plicaria (Serpula), Lam. Anim. sans Yert., Y, p. 619, No. 5, 185 
Plicata (Mesalia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 123, 1855, . .210 
Plicaturn (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 421, 1858, . . 2^0 
Polaris (Turritella), Beck. Moller, Tnd. Moll. Groenl., 1842. 

= T. erosa, Couth. 208 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 247 

PAOB. 

Pollicare (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 432, 1858, . . 220 
Politus (Spiroglyphus), Daudin. Recueil, p. 49, 1801, .184 
Pol} T gonus (Tenagodus), Blainv. Diet., xlix, p. 213, 1827. 

= S. anguina, Linn. ........ 190 

Polyphragma (Vermetus), Sassi. Jour. Ligur. Sc., v, 482, 

1827, 175, 179 

Ponderosus (Tenagodus), Morck. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, 

p. 409, 188 

Porites (Thylacodes), Ronss. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 2, f. 

3, a, 6, c. ' (Not figs. d,e), 181 

Porites (Vermetns), Rousseau (in part). Chenu, 111. Conch., 

t. f. 3, d, e. V. decussatus, Gmel., var. Isevigata. 
Pntlonga (Siphonium maximum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 169, 1861, 184 

Proboscis (Vermetus conicus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

343, 1861, 170 

Protensa (Serpula), Dillw. II, p. 1085, No. 38, (not Gniel.). 

= Thylacodes Rumphii, Gmel. . . ... . . 183 

Protensus (Thylacodes), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3744, No. 20, 183 
Proto, Defrance. Diet. sc. Nat. pi., 1825 ; xliii, 410, 1826. 

= Turritella, Lam. 

Protoma, Baird. Zool. Proc., p. 59, 1870, . . .194,210 
Pseudophorus, Meek. = Xenophora, Fischer, . . . 157 
Pulchellum (Caecum), Stimp. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 

1851, ..... 217 

Punctata (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 62, 

1862, 177 

Punctata (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Viv., p. 19, t. 11, 

f. 3. = T. goniostoma, Val 1 98 

Puncticulata (Turritella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 253, 1870, 209 
Pusilla (Turritella), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xvii, p. 184, 1856, .208 

Pygmaeum (Caecum^, C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, pp. 163, 311. 

=.C. firmatum, C. B. Ad. . .... 217 

Pyxipoma, Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 409. 

= S. G. of Siliquaria, Brug 168, 191 

Quadricarinata (Mathilda), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. subap., 

375, 1814, 211 

Quadrangularis (Vermiculus spiratus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 174, 1861, . . . . . . . 187 

Quadrangulus (Vermiculus), Phil. Mke. Zeitsch, p. 17, No. 

77,1848. =V. spiratus, Phil., var. quadrangularis, Morch, 187 
Quadratnm (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazat. Shells, p. 322, 

Zool. Proo., 428,1858 217 

Quoyi (Bivonia), H. and A. Ad. Gen., p. 359, t. 39, f. 3 a, . 176 



248 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Radicula (Vermiculus), Stimp. Shells of N. England, p. 38, 

= V. spiratns, Phil., var. . . . . . . .187 

Radula (Turritella), Kien. Icon Coq. Viv., p. 13, t. 2, f. 1, 201 
Ramosa, (Lemcntina selecta, var.), Monts. II Nat. 

Siciliano, iv, p. 63, 183 

Rastrum (Vermiculus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 180, 1861, 188 
Reentzii (Tenagodus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., 98, 1865. . 189 
Regulare (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 428. 1858, . ' . 219 
Regularis (Serpula), Chenu. 111. Conch., t. 10, f. 14. 

= V; planorboides, Morch, ...... 188 

Renisectus (Petaloconchus), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 315, 

f. 5, 1856. = Vermetus Adansonii, Daudin, var. Carpen- 
ter, Morch, . 170 

Renisectus (Vermetus), Carp. Var. Zool. Proc., 315, 1856, 

Morch. Zool. Proc., 346, 1861, 170,171 

Repens, (Vermetus contortus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 344,1861, . .171 

Repens, (Thylacod'es dentiferus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 68, 1862. 
Replicata (Turritella), Linn. Syst. Nat. edit., xii, 1239. 

= T. duplicata, Linn, 207 

Reticulata (Turritella), Migh. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv, 

p. 50, t. 4, f. 19, 1843, . . .208 

Reticulatus (Brochus), Brown. Recent Conch. Great Brit. 

1827. = Caecum annulatum, Brown, .... 220 
Retifera (Vermetus conicus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

343, 1861, .... ... .170 

Retusa (Mathilda), Brugnone. Misc. Malac., p. 6, f. 3, 

= M. elegantissima, Costa, 210 

Reversum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazat. Shells, p. 329, . 216 
Riisei (Thylacodes), Morch. Zool. Proc., 69, 1862, . .183 
Robusta (Xenophora), Verrill. Am. Journ. Sci., xlix, 226, 

1870, . .161 

Rosea (var. of Tenagodus incisus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

409, 1860, 188 

Rosea (var. of Siltquaria anguina), Linn. Monterosato, 

Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital.,v, 224 189 

Rosea (Turritella \ Quoy. Voy. del'Astr.,iii,t. 55, f. 24-26, 199 
Rosea (Turritella), Mantell (not Quoy). Quar. Journ. Geol. 

Soc., vi, t. 28, f. 16. = T. tricincta, Button, . . .209 
Rosens (Stephopoma), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. cle 1'Astr., p. 

300, t. (17, f. 20-24, 185 

Rousssei (Vermetus;, Vaillant. Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, 

1871, p. 197, .... . . 175 

Rubella (Caecum elegans, var.), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., 

p. 45, 1867, . ' . . . . / . 219 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 249 

PAGE. 

Ruber (Tenagodus), Schum. Essai, p. 2G2, 1817. 

= T. anguina, Linn. . . . . . . . .190 

Rubescens (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 63, 1849, . 201 
Rudis (var. of Tenagodas Cumingii), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

404, 1860, .-.--. . . .190 

Rugoso (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 1(53,1861, . .184 

Rugoso-squamosa (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 60, 1862, 177 

Rugulosa (Creseis), Cantraine, p. 32. 

= Caecum trachea, Mont. . . . . . . .219 

Rugulosa (Vermiculus lumbricalis, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 173, 1861, 186 

Rugulosum (Odontidiuui), Phil. Moll. Sic., i, p. 102, t. 6, 

f. 20. = Caecum trachea, Mont. . . . . .219 

Rumphii (Thylacodes), Blainv., 1828, 183 

Runcinata (Turritella), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., p. 217, 208 
Rupestris (Serpula), Risso. Eur. Mer., p. 204, No. 25. 

= Bivonia triquetra, Bivon, var. pinnicola, . . .176 
Ryssotitum (Caecum), de Folin. Jour, de Conch., p. 46, 1867, 218 

Sangninea (Turritella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 27, 1849. 

= T. goniostoma, Val 199 

Sardinianum (Ca3cum), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 231, 

t. 19, f. 11, 12, 1869. = C. vitreum, Carp. . . . 215 
Scaber (Thylacodes), Gravenh. Tergest., p. 55, No. 2, 1831. 

Hab. unknown, . . . . . . . . .183 

Scalariformis (var. of Tenagodus Australis, Quoy),. Morch. 

Zool. Proc., 406, 1860, 189 

Scahiris QTermiculas spiratus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

174, ISfil 187 

Scandens ( Siphonium maximum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 167,1861 184 

Scaphitella (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 160, 

1861. 
Scaphitoides (Siphonium textum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc , 

p. 159,1861, .185 

Scaphitoides (Spiroglyphus Spiruliformis, var.), Morch. 

Zool. Proc., p. 327, 1861, 177 

Scnlopendrina ( Yermetus subcancellatus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., 35(5, 1861, .... ... 173 

Searles-Woodii (Caecum), Cpr.-McAndr. Rep. Moll. N. E. 

Atl. ? = C. elegantissimum, Carp., var. .... 218 
Selecta (Lemintina), Monts. Enum. e Sin., p. 281, 1878.; 

11 Nat. Sicil., iv, 63, 183 

Semicinctum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 42, 1867, 219 



250 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Semi-surrectus (Vermetus), Bivon. Nouv. Gen., p. 10, t. 2, 

f. 3, 1832, 176 

Semitrachea (Caecum), Brus. MS. Monts Na,t. Sicil., iv, 24, 220 
Senegalensis (Siliquaria), Recluz. Morch., Zool. Proc.. 408, 

18KO, . 188 

Senegalensis (Xenophora), Fischer. Journ. de Conch., xxi, 

123, 1873, . 1GO 

Senegambianum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, W. 

Africa, 222 

Senticosum (Stephopoma), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc.,p. 150, 

1861, . ' 185 

Sepimentum (Caacum), de Folin. Les Fonds de la Mer, i, 

p. 84, pi. 6,f. 7, . . . . . . . . 222 

Sequenzianus (Vermetus), Aradas and Benoit. Conch. Sicil., 

p. 151, 1870, . .... 176 

Serpulina (Bivonia triquetra, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

56, 1862, 176 

Serpuloides, Gray. Fig. of Moll., iv, p. 83, 1850. 

= Thylacodes, Guett. . 166 

Serpulorbis, Sassi. Journ. Ligur. Genes, T, 482, 1827. 

= Thylacodes, Guett, 164, 166 

Serpulus, Montf. Conch. Syst, p, 22, 1810. 

= Thylacodes, Guett, 166 

Serrata (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 162, 1861, 184 

Siliquaria, Brugniere. Encyc. Meth., i, p. xv, 1789, . 168, 188 
Siliquarius, Montf. Conch. S3 7 st., ii, 38, 1810. 

= S. G. of Siliquaria, Brug. 
Sinensis (Mathilda), Fischer. Jonrn. de Conch., p. 304, t. 9, 

f. 3, 1867, . . .211 

Sinensis (Xenophora), Ph. Funfter Jahresber. des Ver. 

Natur. Kassel, 8, 1841. = Onustus calculifera, Rve. . 159 
Sinuata (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 62, 1849, . 200 
Sipho (Vermetus), Rousseau. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 4, f. 3, 

upper; Morch, Zool. Proc., 364, 1861. 

= V. Roussaei, Vaillant. - 

Sipho (Vermetus), Lam. Anim. s. vert., v, 367, 175, 180, 183 
Sipho (Vermetus), " Lam." Blainv., Diet. Sci., 1828. 

= Thylacodes Masier, Desh. . . . . . .180 

Siphonata (Vermetus centiquadrus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 363, 1861 175 

Siphonium, Gray. Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, 82, . .164,183 
Siphonium, " Browne." Morch, Jour, de Conch., vii, 353. 

= Siphonium, Grajr. . . . . . . . .167 

Smithii (Caecum), Cooper. Proc. A. N. S., 154, 1872. 

= Caecum Cooperi, Smith, ...... 221 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 251 



Smithia, von Maltzan. Nachrichts. der Deutsch. Malak. 

Gesell., p. 97, July, 1883, . .192 

Solarinus (Vermiculus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., 171, 

1861, . . . . ' 188 

Solarioides (Xenophora), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 8, 1843, . 159 
Solaris (Xenophora), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1229, . 162 
Solaris (Trochus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., v, 127. 

= X. Indica/Gmelin. 
Solidissima (Spiroglyphus Spiruliformis,var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 328, 1861, . . ... 177 

Soluta (Vermetus subcancellatus, var.), Monts. II Nat. 

Siciliano, p. 61, .... .... 172 

Soraeri (Brochina,) de Folin. Journ. de Conch., p. 56, 1867, 216 
Sophise (Turritclla), Braz. Proc. Linn. Sinn. Soc. N. S. W., 

viii,p. 227, 1883, 208 

Spectrum (Turritella), Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 40, 1849. 

= T. terebra, Linn., var. . . . . . . .195 

Spina (Turritella), Crosse and Fisch. Journ. de Conch., 

p. 347, 1864 .209 

Spinosa (Siphonium subcrenatum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 159, 1861, . .... 185 

Spinosum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, ii, p. 84, 

t. 3, f. 1, . . 222 

Spiralis (Tenagodus),Risso. Hist., p. 115, No. 277, 1826, .191 
Spiralis (Spiroglyphus Spiruliformis, var. ), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 328, 1861, 177 

Spiratus (Vermiculus), Phil. Archiv fiir Naturg.,244, 1835, 187 
Spiroglyphus, Daudin. Recueil, p. 39, 1800, 164, 166, 170, 177 
Spirorbis (Serpula) /9, Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3740. 

= Spiroglyphus Spiruliformis, De Serres, var. immersa, 

Morch. 
Spirorbis (Bivonia triqnetra, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

55, 1862, 176 

Spirorbis (Spiroglyphus), Sowb. Man., f. 8, . . . 178 
Spiruliformis (Spiroglyphus , De Serres. Ann. des Sci., iv, 

p. 241, t. 8c,f. 1, 1855, '. .... 177 

Squamata (Siliquaria), Blainv. Diet, des Sci. Nat., t. 49, f. 

213. = S. anguina, Linn .190 

Squamigerus (Vermetus), Carp. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 226, 

1865, 181 

Squamosa (Turritella), Borson. = T. qnadricarinata. 
Squamulosa i Siphonium subcrenatum, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 157, 1861, 185 

Stephopoma, Moerch. Journ.de Conch., 1860, p. 42, 164, 167,185 
Stramonitffi (Spiroglyphus), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 330, 

1861, 178 



252 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAQB. 

Strangulatum (Caecum"), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 44, 

1867, .219 

Strebloceras, Carpenter. Zool. Proc., p. 440, 1858. 

= S. G. of Caecum, Flem 214, 223 

Stoa, M. de Serres. Annales des Sciences Nat., iv, p. 238, 

1855. = Siphonium, Gray, and Spiroglyphus, Dauclin,166, 167 
Striatum ^Caecum), Folin. Fonds der la Mer, i, 49, 170, t. 

5, f. 3, 220 

Striatus (Brochus), Brown. Recent Conch. Great Brit., 

1827. = Caecum trachea, Mont 219 

Strigata (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc. p. 60, 

1862, ... .177 

Strigosum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, t. 8, f. 5, 

Journ. Linn. Soc., x, 261, ....... 215 

Suave (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds cle la Mer, viii, 1869. 
Subacuta (Caecum semicinctum, var.), de Folin. Les 

Meleagrin., p. 42,1867, . . .219 

Subangulata (Turritella), Monts. (not Brocc.) 

= T. decipiens, Monts. . . . . . . . 205 

Subannulatuin (Strebloceras), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 807, 

1879, .... 223 

Subannulatum (Brochina), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 

230, t. 39, f. 9, 10, 1869, 218 

Subcancellatus (Vermetus), Bivon. Cat. 12, . . . 172 
Subcrenatum (Siphonium), Lam. Anim. S. Vert., v,p. 370, 

1818, . 185 

Subdecussata (Siphonium subcrenatum, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 158, 1861, 185 

Subflavum (Caecum), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 810, 1879, . 216 
Subgranosa (Vermiculus pellucidus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 180, 1861, . . .188 

Subgranosum (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 

165, 1861, .184 

Subimpressum (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 

320, Zool. Proc., 424, 1858, ... . 217 

Subinflexum (Meioceras). de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 

165, t. 23, f. 8, . .223 

Subornata (Caecum vitrea, var.), de Folin. Fonds dela Mer, 

viii, p. 142, 1869, 222 

Subornatum (Caecum laeve, var.), de Folin. Fonds de la 

Mer, 1869, 215 

Subquadratum (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 433, 1858, 216 
Subspirale (Caecum), Carp. Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 315, 

Zool. Proc., 419, 18f>8 . .220 

Subsquamosa (Turritella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 152, . 209 
Succineum (Caecum), de Folin. Zool. Proc., p. 810, 1879, . 216 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 253 

PAGE. 

Sulcata (Caecum) formulosum, var., de Folin. Fonds de la 

Mer, viii, p. 1H4, 1869, . . 222 

Sulcata (Siliquaria), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1847. 

= Tenagodus aiigiiinus, Linn. ...... 190 

Sulcatus (Thvlacodes), Lam. Anim. S. Yert., v, p. 367, 

No. 22, 1818, 180 

Sulcatus (Mesalia), Gray. Syn. Brit. Mus., 1842. 

= M. brevialis, Lam. ........ 209 

Sutilis (Bivonia), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 58, 1862, . 177 
Superbum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 44, 1867, 219 
Suturalis (Mesalia), Forbes. Rep. J2g. Inv., p. 189, 1843. 

= T. brevialis, Lam 173,209 

Suturalis (Yermetus subcancellatus, var), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 356, 1861, ... .... 172 

Symmetrica (Turritella), Hutton. Cat. Marine Moll. X. 

Zeal., p. 30. = T. tricincta, Hutton, . . 209 

Syriacum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, viii, p. 

114, t. 11, f. 7,8,1869, .222 

Tteniata (var. of Tenagodus Australia, Quoy), Morch. 

Zool. Proc., 406, 1860, 189 

Tamiatum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 43, 1867, 219 
Tachyrhynchus, Morch. Am. Jour. Conch , iv, 46, 1868. 

= Turritellopsis, Sars 193 

Tahitensis (Tenagodus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 410, 1860, .191 
Tasmanica (Turritella), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, p. 140, 1876, . . . . . . . .209 

Tasmanica (Turritella). Rve. Conch. Icon., sp. 42, 1849, . 203 
Tenagodus, Guett. Mem., 1774, p. 128. 

= Siliquaria, Brug. 
Tenerum (Meioceras), de Folin. Ann. Soc. Linn. Maine 

et Loire, xi, 1869, .... ... 223 

Tennis (Thylacodes decussatus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 85, 1862, 181 

Tenuis (Vermetus cereus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 352, 

1861, 172 

Tenuisculpta (Turritella), Cpr. Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

hi, p. 216, 1865. = T. acicula, Stimp 207 

Terebra (Turritella). Don. Brit. Shells, t. 22, f. 2, dext. 

= T. variegata, Linn 199 

Terebra (Turritella), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1239, . 195 
Terebra (Turritella), Linn. Fauna Succica, 2171. 

= T. commimis, Risso 197 

Tereduln (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 155,1861, 185 
Teres (Caecum), Carp. Zool. Proc., 434, 1858, . . .216 



254 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Teres (Ycrraiculus spiratus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

175, 1861. 
Teres (Vermiculus him brie alia, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 173, 1861, . ... . 186, 187 

Tetranemia, Morch. Jour, de Conch., 1858, p. 353. 

= S. G. of Thylacodes, Guett 166 

Tex turn (Siphonium), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 159, 1861, 185 
Thylacodes, Guettard. Mem., iii, 143, 152, 1774, . .179 
Thylacodes, Morch. Jour, de Conch., p. 48, i860. 

= Sect, of Vermetus, Adans 1G4 

Tigrina (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Yiv., p. 29, t. 4, f. 2, 199 
Tigrina (Vermiculus pcllucidus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 179, 1861, . . . . . . ... .188 

Torcula, Gray. Zool. Proc., 155, 1847, . . . .193 

Torcularis (Turbo), Born. Mas., 358, t. 13, f. 8. 

= Turritella exolota. Linn 205 

Torquatum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, t. 8, f. 

2,3; Jour. Linn. Soc., x, 262 219 

Tortuosus (Vermiculus), Solander. Portland Catal.,p. 184, 

No. 3939 186 

Torulosa (Turritella), Kien. Icon. Coq. Viv., p. 18, t. 6, f. 3, 201 
Tostus (Tenagodus), Morch. Proc Zool. Soc., p. 405, 1860, 190 
Trachea (Dentalium), Montagu. Test. Brit., ii, p. 497, t. 14, 

f. 10, . . . 219 

Trachea (Orthocera), Flem. Hist. Brit. An., p. 237, 1828. 

= Caecum annulatum. Brown, ...... 220 

Trachiformis (Brochus), Brown. Recent Conch. Great 

Brit., p. 124, t. 50, f. 10, 1827. = Caecum trachea, Mont., 219 
Tricarinata (Turritella), Brocchi. = T. triplicata. Studer., 197 
Tricarinata (Turritella), King. Zool. Jour., v, 346. 

= T. cingulata, Sowb . . 200 

Tricincta (Turritella), Button. Cat. Tert. Moll. N. Zeal., 

13, 1873, 209 

Tricingulata (Turritella), Anton. Verzeich. der Conch. ,p. 61 , 209 
Tiicostata ((Xenophora), Fischer. Mus. Demidoff, p. 213- 

214,1807. = X. conchyliophorus, Born. . . . 161 
Tricuspe (Stephopoma), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 150, 

1861, . . .185 

Triornatum (Caecum \ de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 222 
Triplicata (Turritella), Studer. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 190, 

1836, . . .197 

Triqueter (Yermetus), var. C. Bivona, Nouv. genre do 

Moll., p. 11, 1832. = Dofania gregaria, Monts. 
Triquetra (Vermetus), Morch. Zool. Proc., 165, 1861. 

= V. subgnmosus, Morch, var. . . . . .184 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 255 

PAGE. 

Triquetra (Bivonia), Bivona. Nuov. Gen., 11, 1832, . . 176 
Triquetra ^Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 61, 

1862, ... 176 

Triquetra (Bivonia sutilis, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 58, 

1862, ... 177 

Trisuleata (Turritella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, p. 256, , 201 
Trochicola (Spiroglyphua annulatus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 332, 1861, .... ... 178 

Trochiformis (Xenophora), Born. Index Mus. Cses., 355. 

= X. conchy liophor us, Born. ...... 161 

TYochlea (Mathilda), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, 165, 1875, . 211 
Trochlearis (Tenagod us), Morch. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 

408, 189 

Tubulosa (Spiroglyplms gloraeratus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 334, 1861, 178 

Tubulostium. Stoliczka. Pal. Ind., 237, 1868, . . .167 
Tuo-uri urn, Fischer. Kiener's Trochidae, 450, 1880, . 157, 161 
Tulipa (Vermetus centiquadrus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 363,1861, . 175 

Tumidissimum (Meioceras), de Folin. Annales Soc. Linn., 

Maine et Loire, xi, 1869 223 

Turboides (Siphonium nebulosum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 162,1861 184 

Turboides (Serpula), Chieregh. Venez., 1847. 

= Siphonium gaederopi, Morch. 
Turboides (Siphonium pictum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 161,1861, . 185 

Turbona (Turritella), Monts. Ann. del Mus. de Geneva, ix, 

p.. 420, 1877, . 197 

Turonius (Thylacodes), Rouss. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 4, 

f. 44, .183 

Turritella, Lamarck. Prodr., 74, 1799, . 192,193,195 

Turritella (Vermetus), Rouss. Chenu, Illus. Conch., t. 14, 

f- 3, . . . . . . . . . . .188 

Turritellopsis, Sars. Moll. Reg. Arct. Nouv., 186, 1878, -. 193 
Tulaxodes, Guett. Mem. iii, pp. 143-152, 1774. 

= Thylacodes, Guett. 

Uncinatum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 47, 1867, 222 
Undatum (Caecum), Carp. Rep., t. 9, f. 1.; Zool. Proc., 430, 

1858, . 213 

Undulosum (Meioceras), de Folin. Annales Soc. Linn., 

Maine et Loire, xi, 1869, 223 

Unguiculata (Siphonium textum, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 

p. 160,1861, 185 



256 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAOB. 

Ungulina (Vermiculus spiratus, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., 
p. 174, 1861, . . . 187 

Ungulina (Turritella), Loven. Ind. Moll. Skand, 153. 

= T. comraunis, Risso, . . . . . . .197 

Ungulina (Turritel'a), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th Edit., p. 1240, 19G 

Unicostalis (Vermiculus tortuosus, var.), Morch. Zool. 
Proc., p. 170, 1861, . 186 

Validum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 40, 1867, . 216 
Taria (Turritella), Kien. Spec. Nr., 34, t. 2, f. 3, . . 209 
Varians (Vermetus),d'0rb. Voy. Amer. Mer. pi. 54, f. 7-10, 170 
Variegata (Bivonia Quoyi, var.), Morch. Zool. Proc., p. 

62/1862 177 

Tariegata (Turritella), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12 ed.. p. 1240, . 198 
Variegatum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, viii, p. 

120, 1869, t. 15, f. 3, 4, 222 

Venustum (Caecum), de Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 43, 1867, 219 
Veracruzanum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . 216 
Yermetus, Gray. Gould, Adams, Stimpson, Carpenter (non 

Adanson). = Vermiculariu. Lam. ..... 165 

Vermetus, Ad;mson. Hist. Sen., 161, 1757, . .165,169 
Yermicella (Yermetus), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., v, 3C5, 1818, 173 
Vermicularia, Lam. Prodr., 1799; Syst., 1801, . . 168, 186 
Vermiculus, Lister. Hist. Conch., t. 548, 1688, . . .164 

= Vermiculus, Lam. . . . . . . .164 

Yermium (Tubulus), Petiv. Gazophyl. Amb., t. 21, f. 18. 

= Thylacodes Rumphii, Blainv 183 

Yestitum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . 222 
Yicinum (Caecum), de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, . . . 222 
Yiolaceo-t'usca (Thylacodes colubrina, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 72, 1862, . . . 180 

Yirginiana (Turritella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., iii, p. 259, . 220 
Vitreum (Caecum), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 142, . . 222 
Yitreum (Caecum), Carp. McAndr., Rep. Moll. N. E. Atl , 

Br. Assoc., 1856, . . 215 

Yittata (Turritella), Hutton. Cat. Marine Moll N. Zeal., 

p. 29, 1873, . . . 208 

Yittulata (Turritella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

48, 1848, ... 204 

Yolubilis (Vermiculus pellucidus, var.), Morch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 178, 1861 . .188 

Yolvox (Serpula), Dillw., p. 1079, No. 26. 

= Tenagodus anguinus, Linn. . . . . .190 

Vortex (Spiroglyphus Spiruliformis, var.), Mcirch. Zool. 

Proc., p. 327, 1861, 177 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 257 

PAGE. 

Yulcanica (Xenophora), Fischer. Mus. Demidoff, p. 213- 
214, 1807. = X. conchyliophorus, Born. . . .161 

Wagneri (Xenophora), Ph. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 345. 

= X. Indicus, Gmelin 162 

Watsonia, Folin. Zool. Proc., 807, 1879. 

= S. G. of Caecum, Flem 214, 223 

Weldii (Tenagodus), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Soc. Tasmania, 

1875, p. 144, 191 

Woodwardi (Yermetus renisectus, var.), Carp. Proc. Zool. 

Soc., p. 316, 1856, 171 

Xenophora, Fischer. Museum Demidoff, iii, p. 213, 1807, 

157,159 

Yucatecanum (Turritella), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
ix, p. 93, . .... 208 

Zaria, Gray. Zool. Proc., 155, 1847, .... 193, 207 
Zelandica (Cladopoda, Yermetus), Q. and G. Yoy. de 
1'Astr., p. 293, t. 67, f. 16-17, 182 



17 



FAMILY EULIMID^. 

Animal with slender, subulate tentacles and eyes sessile at 
their outer bases, proboscis retractile, invaginate, when extended 
very long, mouth without jaw or radula ; foot elongated, pro- 
duced in front, mantle with anterior rudimentary siphonal fold. 

Shell small, generally elongated, subulate or turriculated, 
shining, polished, with spire usually curved or distorted; aper- 
ture oval, pyriform, entire, with simple lip, the columellar margin 
more or less thickened. Operculum corneous, paucispiral, some- 
times absent. 

This family, together with the Turbinellidae and Pyramidellidse 
which follow it in the present volume of monographs, constitutes 
the division Gymnoglossa of Gray, including proboscidit'erous 
mollusks having no radula ; the Solariidne and Cancellariidge, also 
originally included therein, have radulae and are otherwise related 
more closely to different groups. 

But little is known of the animals of these little shells ; it is 
not certain, but probable that the sexes are separated. They 
creep with the foot much in advance of the head, which is usu- 
ally concealed within the aperture of the shell, the tentacles only 
protruding. They are more or less parasitic on sea-urchins, 
holothurians, etc. The small size of the shells, absence of color 
in most of the groups, and of sculpture, make the discrimination 
of species somewhat difficult. 

The Eulimidse have been monographed by Arthur Adams, 
Thes. Conchyliorum, ii, 793-805. G. B. Sowerby, Reeve's Con- 
chologia Iconica, xv, 78 species, 1866. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus EULIMA, Risso, 1826. 

Shell imperforate, subulate, many-whorled, polished, porcel- 
lanous, spire usually curved or twisted to one side, bearing on 
one side only, a series of varices forming ribs internally and 
marking the position of successive mouths, apex acute ; aperture 
oval, entire, pointed above, rounded below, the lip simple, a little 

(258) 



259 

thickened, columellar margin reflected. Operculum corneous, 
paucispiral, the nucleus near the inner lip. 

Animal with subulate tentacles, approaching at the base, e}^es 
large, nearly sessile, foot truncated in front, mentum bilobed, 
opercular lobe winged on each side, branchial plume single. 

Over fifty species have been described, from tropical and 
temperate seas. The genus appeared earty in the secondary and 
became abundant in forms during the Tertiary period. 

The foot of Eulima secretes a mucous filament which assists 
to sustain it in the water. The parasitism of several species has 
been observed. E. distorta lives in the interior of Holothuria 
intestinalis upon the coast of Norway; several species have 
been captured in the intestines of Holothurians at the Philippine 
Islands, and one of them insinuates itself so deepty in the integu- 
ments of the Holothuria that only the summit of its spire remains 
exposed ; at New Caledonia they have been observed attached 
to Asterise. 

The synonyms are Pasithea, Lea (in part), 1833, and Balds, 
Leach, 1847. Monterosato has proposed two sections Vitreolina 
and Acicularia, for some of the Mediterranean species. The 
first contains the small vitreous species without internal varices, 
with curved spire and slightly obtuse apex ; the second has the 
apex acute, the shell white, the internal varices occasional. 

Subgenus SUBULARIA, Monterosato, 1884. 

Shell subulately turriculated ; whorls a little flattened on the 
side, smooth, polished, often ornamented with spiral colored 
bands, a succession of slight varices on each side of the spire, 
not always apparent ; aperture oblong, narrow, entire ; inner lip 
thickened, a little sinuous in the middle, outer lip sharp, flexuous. 

I reluctant!}' use the above name in preference to the better 
known one of Leiostraca, H. and A. Adams, 1853, on account of 
Liostracus, Albers, 1850. 

Section HALIELLA, Monterosato, 1878. Animal blind. 

Subgenus BACULA, H. and A. Adams, 1863. 
Differs from Eulima in having spiral striae, and the columella 
twisted back so as to form an acute angle at the base of the 
aperture. Arcuella, Nevill, 1874, is a synonym. 



260 

Subgenus APICALTA, A. Adams, 1862. 

Shell solid, spire twisted with decidedly mucronated apex, 
aperture oblong. 

Subgenus MUCRONALIA, A. Adams, 1862. 

Shell subulate, straight, often colored, pupoidal, with mu- 
cronate apex ; aperture oval-oblong. 

The distinction between this group and Apicalia is a very 
slight one. 

Subgenus SELMA, A. Adams, 1864. 

Shell oblong-ovate, subdiaphanous ; spire short ; last whorl 
large ; aperture elongately ovate ; columella arcuate, obliquely 
subplicate. 

Subgenus STYLIFERINA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell oval-conic, diaphanous, thin, smooth ; whorls numerous ; 
apex mucronate, nucleus sinistral ; aperture subquadrangular. 
Parasitic on Asteria and Ophiura. 

Subgenus LAMBERTIA, Souverbie, 1869. 

Shell pu pi form, white, very smooth, polished ; spire mucro- 
nate, cylindrical, the summit mamillated ; whorls few ; aperture 
semilunar, peristome continuous ; the outer lip sharp, the inner 
lip a little reflected at the base, columella slightly twisted. 
Operculum unknown. 

Subgenus AMAURELLA, A. Adams, 1867. 

Shell small, oval, imperforate, white*, shining, summit mamil- 
lated ; lip and columella thick. 

Resembles Macrocheilus in miniature, and is, perhaps, more 
nearly related to Stylifer. 

Subgenus EULIMOPSIS, Brugnone, 1880. 

A fossil group ; the base concentrically striate, whorls scarcely 
convex, suture distinct, aperture subrhomboidal, lip sinuous, 
columella twisted, base subchanneled. 

E. CARMEL.E, Brugn. Pliocene, Sicily. (Struct, and Syst. 
Conch., ii, t. 68, f. 84.) 

Subgenus IOPSIS, Gabb., 1873. 

Shell very small, smooth, polished, spire elevated, suture 
nearly obsolete, columella slightly twisted, forming an imperfect 



EULIMID^E. 261 

basal channel. E. FUSIFORMIS, Gabb. Tertiary, West Indies. 
(Struct, and Syst. Conch., ii, t. 68, f. 86.) 

Genus SCALENOSTOMA, Desh., 1863. 

Im perforate, turriculated, surface not enameled, suture mar- 
gined ; whorls numerous, the last with carinated periphery ; 
aperture subtrigonal, entire, a little arcuated, columella simple, 
rectilinear, forming an angle at its junction with the lip, lip 
obliquely, deeply notched near the suture. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

Subgenus SUBEULIMA, Souverbie, 1875. 

Shell much twisted, not enameled, whorls margined at the 
suture and with a series of varices on the right side, as in 
Eulima,\&st whorl with carinated periphery, but the lip without 
superior sinus. 

New Caledonia. 
Genus NISO, Risso, 1826. 

Shell deeply umbilicated, turriculated, many whorled, polished, 
apex acute ; w r horls slightly convex, the last with angulated 
periphery, aperture angulated above and below. Operculum as 
in Eulima. 

China, Philippines, W. America. 

Bonellia, Desh., 1838, and Janella, Grat., 1838, are S3 T non} T ms. 

Section VOLUSIA, A. Adams, 18G1. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed. 
Section PAL^ONISO, Gemmellaro, 1878. 

Shell thicker, more dilated at the base, more pupoidal in form, 
lip with a slight posterior sinus. Secondary. N. pupoides, 
Gemm. Lias. 

Genus HOPLOPTERON, Fischer, 1876. 

Shell very small, imperforate, elongate-turreted, shining, with 
obtuse summit ; suture linear ; whorls continuous, the earlier 
ones smooth, rather flattened, the others bearing on each side a 
long, triangular, wing-like varix ; aperture rounded oval, entire, 
lip simple, sharp. 

China. 

The minuteness of this shell and its bizarre appearance suggest 
that it is embryonic. It is only T15 mill. long. 



262 EULIMHXE. 

Genus STYLIFER, Broderip, 1832. 

Imperforate, hyaline, thin, ovoid or elongated, smooth, pol- 
ished ; whorls numerous, apex very sharp, sometimes bent, 
nucleus sinistral, last whorl globular; aperture suboval, inner 
lip smooth, arcuated, outer lip slightly sinuous, thin, simple. No 
operculum. 

Body ciliated ; tentacles slender, subulate, with eyes sessile at 
their outer bases ; mantle reflected upon and more or less sur- 
rounding the shell, forming a siphonal lobe on the right side ; 
foot linguiform, narrow, tubular in front, where it extends much 
beyond the head, attenuated behind, with a median groove below ; 
verge sharp, elongated, resembling a tentacle. 

About twenty species are known from warm seas. 

Stylina, Fleming, 1828 (Gray), is a synonym. 

Stylifer is commensal or parasitic in its habits, occurring on 
Echinoderms ; some are found in the teguments of Asteriae, 
others on the upper face of the shells of Echini, between the 
spines, and generally near the anal opening ; S. Orbignyanus 
lodges itself in a spine of Cidaris, which becomes deformed in 
growth, forming an interior cell containing a pair of Sty lifers 
and some young ones, the cell having a small mouth on either 
side ; other species are obtained from Holothurians, Comatulae, 
etc. 

The species mentioned above, inhabiting the spines of Cidaris, 
appears to be viviparous, but S. Turtoni, on the contrary, is 
oviparous. Those which live upon the external surface of their 
host are probably commensal rather than truly parasitic. 

How does the S. Orbignyanus obtain nourishment? 

Subgenus CYTHNIA, Carpenter, 1864. 

Imbedded in star fishes like Stylifer , from which it is distin- 
guished by its normal nuclear whorls, and thin concentric oper- 
culum. W. Coast of N. America. 

Subgenus PLICIFER, H. Adams, 1868. 

Imperforate, ovately subulate, not shining ; spire styliform, 
nucleus sinistral, columella plicate ; lip flexuous, sinuate behind, 
aperture entire in front. Found on coral, at Ceylon ; the shell 
resembles Leptoconchus in texture. 



263 

[Genus ENTOCONCHA, J. Miiller, 1852. 

Shell obovate, smooth ; spire short, very obtuse, apex not 
elevated, whorls rapidly increasing ; aperture transverse, semi- 
lunar, angulated above, rounded below, width almost equaling 
the height, margins disunited, the columellar margin straight. 
Operculum non-spiral. E. MIRABILIS, Miiller. 

Found parasitic in Sinapta digitata, one of the Holothuriidae, 
at Trieste. A larval mollusk, sometimes referred to the present 
group, but now placed, doubtfully, with the Nudibranchiata]. 

Genus EUCHRYSALIS, Laube, 1866. 

Small, thin, pupoid, attenuated at its extremities; whorls 
numerous, short, smooth, suture shallow ; aperture long, narrow, 
the lip sharp and thin, columella terminated by an indication of 
a siphon. Silurian Cretaceous; Europe, India. 

Subgenus MITCHELLTA, de Koninck, 1877. 
Shell elongated, cylindrical-conic, many whorled ; aperture 
long, extremely narrow, sinuous, attenuated at its extremities, 
rostrated and prolonged but not canaliculated in front ; peris- 
tome continuous, the lips subparallel, outer lip reflected ; surface 
spirally striated. Devonian, Australia. The type is sinistral. 

Genus MACROCHEILUS, Phillips, 1841. 

Shell thick, imperforate, ventricose, aperture effuse below, 
outer lip thin, columella callous, slightly tortuous and plicate in 
front. 

Devonian Carboniferous. M. SCHLOTHEIMII, d'Arch. (Struct, 
and Syst. Conch., t. 68, f. 91). 

The synonym}' includes Polyphemopsis, Portlock ; Plectostylus, 
Conrad ; Macrochilina and Duncania, Bayle, 1879. 

Subgenus PASITHEA, Lea (Restricted), 1833. , 

Spire short, last whorl ventricose. Rather more slender and 
cylindrical than the typical Macrocheilus. M. CLAIBORNENSIS, 
Lea. Eocene ; Alabama. 

Genus BOURGUETIA, Desh., 1871. 

Shell large, turreted ; spire long, pointed ; whorls convex, spi- 
rally striated or grooved, last whorl large ; mouth oval, angular 
behind, widened and rounded below. B. STRiATA,Sowb., Jurassic. 



264 EULIMID.E. 

Genus LOXONEMA, Phillips, 1841. 

Shell elongated, many-whorled ; aperture simple, attenuated 
above, effused below, with a sigmoidal edge to the outer lip ; 
spire interiorly septate. 

Like many other palaeozoic genera, the bad condition of many 
of the species and the variation in form and sculpture render it 
difficult to place it properly in a systematic work ; some of the 
species might go into Turbonillidae, others appear closely allied 
to Chemnitzia, and might even be synonymous with it. Michelia, 
Romer, and Holopella, Sandberger (in part), are synonyms. 
L. COSTATUM, Sandb. (Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 68, f. 97). 

Genus STROBEUS, de Koninck, 1881. 

Shell small, smooth, spire sharp, of 5-7 convex whorls ; mouth 
long-oval, outer lip sharp, inner lip callous, with an anterior fold. 
Dist. 3 sp. Carboniferous, Belgium. 

Genus ORTHONEMA, Meek and Worthen, 1861. 

Shell elongate, many-whorled, with revolving carinse, crossed 
by nearly straight growth-lines ; aperture angular above, slightly 
effuse below, lip simple, nearly straight; axis imperforate. 

Devonian and Carboniferous, United States. 

Allied to Loxonema, but has distinct revolving carinae, and 
wants the sigmoid outer lip of that genus. 

Genus RIGAUXIA, Cossmann, 1885. 

Shell narrowly elongated, nearly cylindrical, spirally striate; 
aperture rounded in front, lip a little sinuous above, inner lip 
thickened behind and separated from the columella in front by 
a groove. Fossil, Bathonian. 

Genus CL1MACINA, Gemmellaro, 1878. 
Shell imperforate, many-whorled, elongated, very finely longi- 
tudinally striated ; aperture oval, rounded in front, lip simple. 
C. CATHERINE, Gemm. Lias. 

Genus SUBULITES, Conrad, 1842. 

Shell fusiform, spire 'produced ; volutions convex, the last 
large ; columella bent and truncated at the base, where it is 
separated from the outer lip by a notch as in Achatina ; outer 



EULLMID^E. 265 

lip very slightly notched near the upper end ; surface of shell 
smooth. Palaeozoic 4 , United States. 

Buhmella,of Hall (not Pfeiffer) ; 5aZw0rpfca,Whitfield,1882, 
and Polyphemopsis, Portlock (in part), are synonyms. 

Genus FUSISPIRA, Hall, 1872. 

This Silurian group, which I have placed in Buccinidae, may 
possibly belong here. 
F. VENTRICOSA, Hall (Struct, and Syst. Conch., ii, 141 , t. 51, f. 50). 

Genus CHEMNITZIA, d'Orb., 1850. 

Shell comparatively large, elongate conical ; spire many- 
whorled, the last rather large, somewhat produced below ; aper- 
ture ovate, somewhat effuse at base, peristome not continuous, 
outer lip sharp, sinuous at or above the middle, columella smooth, 
imperforate ; surface longitudinally striate or costate, sometimes 
decussated, rarely nodular. Secondary and Tertiary. C. CON- 
DENSATA, Desh. (Struct, and Syst. Conch., ii, t. 68, f. 96). 

The recent shells known as Chemnitzia,and which were origi- 
nally included by d'Orbigny in his diagnosis of 1839, are referred 
to Turbonilla, Risso ; they are smaller, ribbed, and do not possess 
the broad posterior lip-sinus of the fossil group. 

Section CHEMNITZIA (restricted). 

Shell lengthened, with cross ribs ; mouth oval, rounded or 
angular in front; spire straight or slightly curved, somewhat 
callous ; outer lip sharp. 
Section RHABDOCONCHA, Gemellaro, 1878. 

Whorls striate or ribbed longitudinally, sometimes punctate 
or tuberculate. 
Section PSEUDOMELANIA, Pictet et Campiche, 1862. 

Shell elongated, thick; whorls smooth, with fine curved growth- 
lines ; mouth rounded or angular in front ; spire straight or 
slightly curved. 
Section OONIA, Gemellaro, 1878. 

Shell egg-shaped, smooth, with growth-lines ; last whorl large ; 
mouth oval, rounded in front; spire slightly curved. 

Section MICROSCHIZA, Gemellaro, 1878. 

Shell usually with cross ribs; narrowly perforate; whorls 



266 EULIMA. 

sharp, mostly scalar! form ; mouth oval, rounded in front ; inner 
lip and spire callously thickened. 

Section BAYANIA, Munies-Chalmas, 1877. 

Shell elongated, spire sharp, earlier whorls reticulated, the 
last generally smooth, or feebly sculptured, basal lip subsinuous. 
About twenty Eocene and Miocene species. 



Genus EULIMA, Risso, 1826. 
Section EULIMA (sensu stricto). 
E. GRANDIS, A. Ad. PL 68, fig. 89. 

Solid, opaque; whorls 15, rather flat, with lateral continuous 
varices, last whorl angulated on the periphery. Length, 40 mill. 

Island of Burias, Philippines. 
E. MARTINII, A. Ad. PI. 68, fig. 90. 

Whorls numerous, flattened, with varices obliquely impressed, 
obliquely continuous to the apex, last whorl rather angular on 
the periphery. Length, 35 mill. 

China Sea; Singapore. 
Reeve gives St. Helena as locality, which requires confirmation. 

E. CANDIDA, Marrat. PL 68, figs. 91, 92. 

Whorls numerous, short, somewhat rounded, the varices im- 
pressed forming a continuous oblique line not reaching the apex. 

Length, 44 mill. 

Formosa. 

A stouter species than the preceding, with shorter whorls, not 
angulated on the periphery ; the varix-line does not extend to 
the apex. 

E. MAJOR, Sowb. PL 68, figs. 93, 94. 

Spire more or less curved to the right, often with a sutural 
band, very highly polished, white, sometimes blotched or clouded 
with chestnut or bluish chocolate, varix-line impressed, contin- 
uous. Length, 37 mill. 

Tahiti, Sandwich Is., Mauritius. 

E. arcuata, Sowb. (fig. 94), is a much curved specimen ; inter- 
mediate degrees of curvature are before me. Phasianella inflexa, 
Blainv., is possibly this species. 



EUL1MA. 267 

E. FLEXUOSA, A. Ad. PI. 68, fig. 95. 

Whorls 15, flattened, with a semitransparent sutural line, the 
last whorl rounded, aperture broadly oval, outer lip flexuously 

produced in the middle. Length, 31 mill. 

Hab.? 

Very close to the preceding species, but the aperture is more 
rounded, and the spire is slightly curved to the left above. 

E. PICTA, Sowb. PL 68, fig. 98. 

Solid, pyramidal; whorls 11, slightly convex, those near the 
apex white, the last very obtusely angular, painted above the 
angle with an obscure interrupted rose-colored band. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown 
E. CUMINGII, A. Ad. PL 68, fig. 96. 

Whorls 13, a little rounded, spire nearly straight, varices 
irregular, impressed, here and there not apparent. 
Length, 35 mill. 

Sandwich, Lord Hood's and Viti Inlands. 

E. TEINOSTOMA, A. Ad. PL 68, fig. 97. 

Spire straight; whorls 12, rather flat, with an impressed line 
beneath the suture, somewhat pellucid, last whorl rounded, 
aperture narrow. Length, 1 inch. 

Viti Is. on coral reefs. 

Too close to the preceding species ; appears to be narrower. 

E. LACTEA, A. Ad. PL 68, fig. 99. 

Opaque, solid, nearly straight; whorls rather flat, the last 
subangulate on the periphery, varices impressed, continuous. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Philippines. 
E. BREVIS, Sowb. PL 68, figs. 1. 2. 

Short; whorls convex, spire acuminated, the apex a little 
turned to the left, hyaline, whitish or pale fawn color. 

Length, 9-19 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on shells of the Pearl Oyster; Isle Annaa. 

I am unable to separate E. labiosa, Sowb. (fig. 2), from this 
species. 



268 EUL1MA. 

E. PORCELLANA, A. Ad. PI. 68, figs. 100, 15. 

White, opaque, solid, long, narrowly subcylindrical, apex 
slightly curved ; whorls flat, the periphery snbangulated, varices 
irregular, conspicuous. Length, 1 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 
E. ACUTA, A. Ad. PI. 68, fig. 3. 

Subulate, white, opaque, nearly straight ; whorls flat, body- 
whorl long, not angulated, aperture oblong, rather turned back- 
wards in front, outer lip thin, not much curved. Length, 1 inch. 

Isl. of Luzon, Philippines. 

Figured in Conch. Icon, as acuta, Sowb., but that is a much 
smaller species, from W. Coast of Central America, and referred 
to Leiostraca, by Carpenter. 

E. SOLIDA, Sowb. PI. 68, figs. 5, 4. 

Solid, subulate, curved, distorted, white, suture margined, 
last whorl swollen, somewhat produced obliquely, spire at- 
tenuated. Length, 10 mill. 

Paumotus, Viti 7k, Sandwich Is. 

E. inflexa, Pease (fig. 4) is a synonym. 

E. PUSILLA, Sowb. PI. 68, figs. 6, 7. 

Solid, subcylindrical, acuminated, narrow, white; whorls rather 
flat, the last oblong, aperture narrow. Length, 10 mill. 

Viti Is., tit. Helena? 

I have from two respectable sources Sty lifer acicula, Gould, 
under this name, and as that species has the same outline, it is 
difficult to decide which is the proper identification of pusilla. 
In making my selection, as above, I am compelled to make E. 
exilis, Pease (fig. 7), a synonym. 

E. VENUSTA, Pease. PI. 68, fig. 8. 

Rather solid, vitreous, ashy white, elongate, subulate, very 
narrow, spire very slightly twisted; whorls 9-10, flatly convex, 

distinctly margined at the suture. Length, 6 mill. 

Tahiti. 

Occurs associated with Stylifer acicula, Gld., but is smaller, 
more solid and slender, the spire more curved. 



EULIMA. 269 

E. RETRORSA, Sowb. PI. 68, fig. 9. 

Solid, white, tinged with pale fawn color above, narrow, the 
apex recurved ; whorls flat, rather straight, aperture small, oval- 
oblong, outer lip thickened, nearly straight. Length, 11 mill. 

Tahiti. 

Differs from E. pusilla only in the slightly recurved apex. 

E. AUGUR, Angas. PL 68, fig. 10. 

Rather narrow, white, opaque, solid, apex very slightly curved 
to the left ; whorls 10, rather flattened, suture margined, periphery 
rounded. Length, 12 mill. 

St. Vincent's Gulf, So. Australia. 
E. PROXIMA, Sowb. PI. 68, fig. 11. 

Solid, white, opaque, arched backwards; whorls 11, flat, the 
last obscurely angular, suture faintly margined. Length, 15 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
E. ARTICULATA, Sowb. PI. 68, fig. 12. 

Acuminately pyramidal, white, articulated and marbled with 
chestnut ; whorls rather rounded, varices somewhat prominent ; 
outer lip thickened. Length, 23 mill. 

Australia. 

Scarcely looks like an Eulima, but the varices indicate its 
position here. 

E. TENISON, Tryon. PL 68, fig. 16. 

Obtusely turreted, slightly curved, translucid, whitish ; whorls 
7, flattened above, penultimate rounded, last subinflated, aperture 
pyriform, the outer lip thin, produced, inner lip reflected. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Tasmania. 

The name is substituted for E. micans, Tenison-Woods, pre- 
occupied by Carpenter. 

E. CONOIDALIS, Sowb. PI. 68, fig. 17. 

Shell pyramidal, rather broad below, solid, white, opaque; 
whorls flat, periphery angulated, varices irregular. 
Length, 16 mill. 

Sandwich Is. (Sowerby); Singapore (S. Archer!) 



270 EULIMA. 

E. POLYGYRA, A. Ad. PI. 68, fig. 18. 

Pyramidal, straight, narrow, angular at the base, white, 
opaque ; whorls numerous, short, flat, aperture obliquel}' diamond 
shaped, small, produced at base. Length, 10 mill. 

Isl. Mindanao, Philippines. 
E. CONICA, Sowb. PL 68, fig. 19. 

Small, white, solid, pyramidal, rather straight; whorls short, 
flat, the last angulated, apex sharp, suture distinct, aperture 
obliquely subquadrangular, outer lip thick, columella rather tor- 
tuous. Length, 5 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Differs from the preceding species in the lower part of the 
aperture being acuminated ; it is also more solid, and the whorls 
are not quite so short. 

E. MODICELLA, A. Ad. PL 68, fig. 20. 

White, semipellucid ; whorls 11, flattened, varices continuous, 
last whorl slightly angulated in the middle ; aperture oval, outer 
lip anterior^ produced. Length, 6 mill. 

Isl. Zebu, Philippines. 

Appears to be too closely allied to E. retrorsa, Sowb. 

E. OPACA, Sowb. PL 68, fig. 13. 

Rather straight, subulate, white, opaque, solid ; whorls a little 
convex, the last oval; aperture ovate, outer lip thick, nearly 
straight. Length, 12 mill. 

Sandwich Islands (Sowerby). 

Somewhat stouter than E. pusilla, Sowb. 

E. PYRAMIDALIS, A. Ad. PL 68, fig. 14. 

Shell rather short and stout, nearly straight, white, subpellu- 
cid ; whorls 10, scarcely convex, the last rounded ; aperture 
small, rather rounded, laterally produced, outer lip thin, pro- 
duced below the middle. Length, 9 mill. 

/. Capul, Philippines (Ginning!); Singapore (S. Archer!) 

E. CUSPIDATA, Reeve. PL 68, fig. 22. 

Subulate, subventricose, spire straight, apex acuminated ; 
whorls a little convex, the last oval, varices inconspicuous. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Isl. Zebu, Philippines. 



EULIMA. 271 

E. TORTUOSA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 68, fig. 23. 

Shell solid, white, narrow, tortuous in the middle and at the 
apex; whorls rather flat, obliquely varicose, aperture small, oval. 

Length, 20 mill. 

China Sea. 
E. SOLIDULA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 68, lig. 21. 

Abbreviately turreted (apex lost), somewhat solid, tortuous, 
varicose; whorls 9-10, convex ; aperture small ; white. 

Length, 9 mill. 

China Sea. 
E. NITIDULA, A. Ad. PI. 68, fig. 24. 

Shell white, opaque, rather ventricose, straight ; whorls 10-11, 
somewhat convex, the last not angulate ; aperture oval, outer 
lip slightly curved inwards above. Length, 9 mill. 

Singapore. 

Mistaking this name for nitida, which is preoccupied, Sowerby 
changed it to E. Adamsi. 

E. SUBANGULATA, Sowb. PI. 68, fig. 27. 

Pyramidal, thin, banded here and there with pale yellowish 
brown blotches ; whorls flat, the last slightly angulated. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 

Closely allied to E. hastata, Sowb., from west coast of Central 
America, but narrower. 

E. ACUFORMIS, Nevill. PI, 68, fig. 28. 

Very narrowly elongated, sharp pointed, flexuous, solid, white ; 
whorls IT, cylindrical, varices obliquely continuous, last whorl 
rounded. Length, 10 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 
E. ROBUSTA, A. Ad. PI. 68, fig. 25. 

Pyramidally subulate, flexuous, apex recurved ; whorls a little 
convex, the last large, oblique, rounded at the base, suture mar- 
gined ; aperture ovate, produced, inner lip thickened above, 
outer lip arcuate ; white, semiopaque. Length, 4'5 mill, 

Japan. 

Figured from an author's specimen in the museum of the 
Philadelphia Academj T . 



272 EULIMA. 

E. MUNDULA, A. Ad. PI. 68, fig. 26. 

Subulate, twisted, spire laterally curved; whorls 9, a little 
convex, the last large, oblique at base ; aperture ovate, produced ; 
inner lip thickened, outer lip arcuate, scarcely inflexed ; white, 
subopaque. Length, 3 mill. 

Japan. 

Figured from an author's type. 

E. MICANS, Carp. PI. 69, figs. 29, 30. 

Straight, white, semipellucid, shining; whorls flattened, the 
last oblong oval ; aperture narrowly oval, outer lip somewhat 
straight and scarcely thickened. Length, 9 mill. 

San Diego, Gal. 

I think that E. Elodia, Folin (fig. 30), from pearl oysters, 
West Coast of Central America, is synoitymous. The figure is 
greatly magnified. 

E. GRACILLIMA, Sowb. PL 69, fig. 31. 

Very narrow, tortuous, solid, opaque, shining ; whorls numer- 
ous, the last oblong, aperture narrow, laterally produced, outer 
lip rather thick, straight. Length, 12 mill. 

Guatemala. 
E. PARVA, Sowb. PI. 69, figs. 32, 33. 

Very minute, white, rather pellucid, arched in the middle; 
apex distorted, last whorl ovate, aperture oval. Length, 3 mill. 

Mazatlan. 

E. adamantina, Folin (fig. 33), from Meleagrinse, West Coast 
of Central America, is a species only 2 ; 5 mill, long and of similar 
form ; it is very probably identical. 

E. SUBROSTRATA, Sowb. PI. 69, fig. 34. 

Small, white, narrow, tapering, near the apex arched and 
attenuated ; whorls few, the last oblong and slightly angular ; 
aperture oblong, acuminated beneath, columella rather straight, 
outer lip thin. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
E. GIBBA, Folin. PI. 69, fig. 35. 

Yentricose, spire acuminating and much curved, the apex 
somewhat obtuse, cr3 T stalline, very shining ; whorls 9, somewhat 
convex, the last large, tumidly inflated. Length, 3 mill. 

W. Coast of Gentr. America, on Meleagrina. 



EULIMA. 273 

E. OPALINA, Folin. PL 69, fig. 31. 

Bather pyramidal, straight, opaque, opaline, streaked with 
chestnut, spire subacute ; whorls 10, slowly increasing, a little 
convex, the last obtusely angulated in the middle, base contracted, 
aperture subquadrangularly oblique. Length, 3*5 mill. 

W. Coast Central America, on Meleagrina. 

E. PROCA, Folin. PL 69, fig. 38. 

Elongate acuminate, whitish, blotched and triangularly clouded 
with flesh-color, especially below the sutural band ; whorls 10-11, 
somewhat rounded, body-whorl rather long. Length, 3'3 mill. 
W. Coast Central America, on Meleagrina. 

E. HASTATA, Sowb. PL 69, fig. 39. 

Rather straight, pyramidal ; whorls somewhat flattened, the 
last with angulated periphery ; rosy, brownish above the middle. 

Length, 22 mill. 

St. Elena , W. Coast of Central America. 

E. OLEACEA, Kurtz and Stimpson. PL 69, fig. 36. 

Subulate, solid, straight or but slightly curved ; whorls 12, 
flattened, closely coiled, suture inconspicuous ; white, the spire- 
whorls marked in a banded manner with pale brown. 

Length, 6-25 mill. 

New England North Carolina. 

Animal white, hyaline, its eyes visible through the shell. 

E. CONOIDEA, Kurtz and Stimpson. PL 69, fig. 40. 

Conic lanceolate, white, with 13 flat whorls, the last subangu- 
Lite, aperture rhomboidal. Length, 9 mill. 

North Carolina to Florida. 

Figured from a specimen which is believed to be correctly 
identified. 

E. JAMAICENSIS, C. B. Ad. PL 69, fig. 41. 

Whorls about 10, a little convex, spire nearly straight, suture 
well marked, body-whorl long, rounded, aperture rather narrow. 

Length, 6 mill. 

West Indies. 
E. SUBCARINATA, cl'Orb. PL 69, fig. 44. 

Pyramidal ; whorls 8, flat, last one obtusely carinated, suture 
narrowly margined. Length, 3'5 mill. West Indies. 

18 



274 EULIMA. 

E. IOTA, C. B. Ad. PI. 69, fig. 42. 

Yery small, conical, white ; whorls few, flat, the last wide and 
angulated on the periphery ; apex acuminated and a little curved ; 
aperture subrhomboidal ; outer lip sharp; columella perpendicu- 
lar. Length, 2 mill. 

Jamaica. 

Evidently a young shell. 

E. INTERMEDIA, Cantraine. PI. 69, fig. 43. 

Rather solid, very smooth, semipellucid, white tinged with 
light chestnut, narrow ; whorls 13, flattened ; spire subulate ; 
apex acute ; body-whorl long, a little tumid, about one-third the 
length of the shell; aperture narrow. Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Norway to Mediterranean, Canary Is., N. England to Florida. 

Is E. nitida^ Phil, (not Lamarck.) 

E. POLITA, Linn. PL 69, figs. 45, 46. 

Pyramidal, acuminated, straight, or a little curved, solid, 
opaque, very shining, white, more or less tinged with fawn or flesh 
color; whorls about 10, a little convex, nearly flat, narrow, last 
whorl obsoletely angulated ; aperture small, rather narrow. 

Length, 17 mill. 

Europe. 

It is Melania Bosci, Payr. ; E. anglica, Sowb. ; E. elegantissima 
and E. glaberrima, Risso ; Melania Gervillei, Collard ; Turbo 
j Donovan. 



Var. INFLEXA, Monts. 
Spire slightly curved. 

Var BREVIS, Requien. Fig. 46. 

Shorter, more conical, periphery obtusely angulated. 

? E. Petitiana, Brusina and E. minor, Monts., are synonyms. 

E. INCURVA, Renieri. PI. 69, figs. 48, 47, 51. 

Thin, diaphanous; spire aciculate, composed of 10 nearly flat 
whorls ; flexuous, body-whorl long, attenuated below. 

Length, 2-8 mill. 

Europe. 

The following are synonyms : E. distorta, Phil., et auct., non 
Defrance (which is a fossil of the Paris basin, and a different 



EULTMA. . 275 

species), E. Philippii,Weirik. (not Rayn. and Ponzi), E. curvata, 
Chiereg., E. sinuosa, Scacchi. 

Yar. GRACILTS, Forbes and Hanby. Fig. 47. 

Larger and scarce^ curved. England. 

Monterosato has added vars., ore-rotundato, ore-angusto, devi- 
ans and exilis, the latter subsequently made a species under the 
name of antiflexa (fig. 51). The figure, which is cited with 
doubt by Monterosato, is from Sars, and purports to represent 
E. distorta. 

E. CURVA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, figs. 49, 50. 

Spire elevated, composed of 8 or 9 strongly curved, slightly 
convex whorls, suture superficial ; hyaline white, translucent. 

Length, 3'4 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
Yar. ELONGATA, B. D. and D. Fig. 50. 

More elongated, the last whorls narrower. 

E. COMPACTILIS, Monts. PI. 69, fig. 52. 

Slender, rather thick, semitransparent, whitish ; whorls 7, the 
last one half the total length, suture inconspicuous, aperture 
narrow. Length, 3*75 mill. 

Bay of Biscay to Azores, Mediterranean. 

It is E. obtusa, Jeffreys (figured). 

E. STALIOI, Brusina. PL 69, fig. 53. 

Slightly curved ; whorls 9, flattened, compact, apex rather 
obtuse, body-whorl rounded, aperture small, oblique. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Dalmatia to Madeira. 

E. Petitiana, Brusina, which I have made a synonym of E. 
polita, var. brevis, is referred to this species by Jeffreys. 

E. ABBREVIATA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, fig. 56. 

Conical, thin, semitransparent, glossy, minutely striate, ivory 
white, three apical whorls light brown, apex rather blunt ; whorls 
7, a little convex, the last long, rounded ; outer lip straight. 

Length, 3'75 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean (Porcupine Exped.). 



276 EULIMA. 

E. PYRIFORMIS, Brugnone. PL 69, fig. 54. 

Pyriform ; whorls 9, slightly convex, apex rather acute, body- 
whorl obtusely subangulated, large, outer lip nearly straight, 
white, apical whorls sometimes brown-tinted. Length, 6 mill. 

Bay of Biscay to West Coast of Africa, Mediterranean. 

Some specimens are more or less curved. Described as a 
fossil. According to Dr. Jeffreys E. chaunax and perhaps E. 
hians of Watson are synonyms. The characters are the swollen 
shape of the last whorl, the remarkably flexuous character of 
the outer lip, and acuminated apex. 

Var. BIZONATA, with two narrow chestnut bands, one below the 
suture the other at the periphery, both showing on the spire- 
whorls. 

E. FUSCO-APICATA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, fig. 55. 

Slender, thin, transparent, very glossy, microscopically striate, 
periphery sometimes slightly keeled, vitreous, the apical whorls 
chestnut brown; whorls 9-11, narrow, rather convex, outer lip 
remarkably flexuous. Length, 5 mill. 

Bay of Biscay to Cape Verd Is. 
E. JEFFREYSII, Tryon. PI. 69, fig. 59. 

Very slender, thick, transparent, very glossy, periphery more 
or less distinctly keeled, apex obtuse, glassy white; whorls 8, 
compact and flattened, the last about two-fifths the total length ; 
mouth rather small. Length, 5 mill. 

Bay of Biscay to W. Coast of Africa, Azores. 

Described by Jeffreys as E. solida, a name preoccupied by 
Sowerby. 

E. SUBUMBILICATA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, fig. 57. 

Short conical, solid, apex obtuse, nearly opaque, white, 
periphery obtusely angular ; whorls 5, compressed and somewhat 
rounded, the last two-thirds the total length ; umbilicus shallow, 
with a small perforation behind the pillar. Length, 1-25 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean. 

Probably a young shell. 

E. MINUTA, Jeffreys. PL 69, fig. 60. 

Club-shaped, thin, semitransparent and glossy, whitish, per- 
iphery rounded, apex blunt; whorls 5-6, the last about half the 



EULIMA. 277 

total length ; mouth oval, pointed above, outer lip somewhat 

thickened. Length, 2 mill. 

Strait of Messina ; Morocco. 

E. GLABRA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, fig. 61. 

Awl-shaped, solid, semitransparent, polished, whitish, tinged 
with brownish yellow, apex blunt, periphery rounded ; whorls 8, 
flatly convex, the last half the total length. Length, 3'75 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa. 
E. ACUTALTS, Jeffreys. PI. 69, fig. 62. 

Thin, semitransparent, periphery keeled, white, apex sharp; 
whorls slightly convex ; aperture a little pointed below. 

Length, 1'25 mill. 

Mediterranean. 
E. PERMINIMA, Jeffreys. PI. 69, fig. 63. 

Slender, rather solid, semitransparent, white, slightly tinged 
with yellowish brown on the body-whorl, apex bluntly pointed ; 
whorls 6-7, compressed and compact. Length, T25 mill. 

Zetland, Mediterranean. 
E. GENTILOMIANA, Issel. PL 69, fig. 64. 

Subulate, very slightly curved, white; whorls 11, flattened, 
suture margined, peripher} 7 rounded, apex acute. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Red Sea. 
E. PAIVENSIS, Watson. PL 69, fig. 58. 

Solid, whorls 7-8 ; a little rounded, suture slightly margined ; 
transparent white, obsoletely stained with rust color, forming 
indistinct bands. Length, 4 mill. 

Madeira. 
E. DENTIENS, D unker. PL 70, fig. 1. 

Thick, white, very shining ; whorls 6-7, a little convex, the last 
half the total length ; lip thickened, dilated, obsoletely minutely 
tridentate within, at the base. Length, 8 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

E. AFFINIS, E. CONICA, E. GRACiLis, E. ARCUATA, C. B. Adams. 

Jamaica. 

E. NUTANS, E. EBURNEA, Muhlfeldt. West Indies. 

E. BREVIUSCULA. D unker. Brazil. 



278 EULIMA. 

E. COMPACTA, E. THEESITES, Carpenter. California. 

E. FUSCOSTRIQATA, Carpenter. Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 
E. BERYLLINA, E. NANA, E.ciONELLA, Monterosato. Mediterranean. 
E. MICROSTOMA, Brusina. Mediterranean. 

E. CARNEOLA, Gould. Japan. 

E. ACICULATA, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

E. CHYD.EA, E. CYL1NDRATA, E. GOMPHUS, E. HYALINA. 

E. PSILA, E. FASCIATA, E. CHASCANON, Watson. West Indies. 

E. EPHAMILLA, E. oxyLATA (Philippines), E. ACANTHYLLIS (Sand- 
wich Islands), E. ACERRIMA (Cape York, Australia), E. SA- 
RissA(Per?mwmco),E.LATiPES ( Torres Straits), E. FAMELICA 
(Azores), E. CHYTA (Ascension Island), E. CAMPYLA (Cape 
York, Australia), E. FALLAX (Viti Is.),}&. AMELIA (between 
Marion and Prince Edward Is.), E. HEBES (Pernambuco), 
E. DISSIMILTS (Port Jackson, Australia), ''ft. EURYCHAD A. (Cape 
York. Australia), all of Watson (Challenger Exped. Shells). 

E. ANGULATA, E. ACICULARIS, E. CHRYSALL1DA, E. CLAVULA, E. 

CURVATA, E. DENTALTOPSIS, E. DEBILIS, E. EBURNEA, E. FLEXA, 

E. GTBBOSULA, E. INDEFLEXA, E. ODONTOIDEA, E. PINGUICULA, 
E. PANDATA, E. RECLINATA, E. SUBULA, E. SCITULA, E. SEMI- 
TORTA, E. STENOSTOMA, E. STYLATA, E. VALIDA, all of A. 

Adams. Japan. 

E. PETTERDI, E. LEGRANDI, Beddome. Tasmania. 

E. MARGINATA, E. APHELES, E. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. 

Tasmania. ' 

E. CHATHAMENSIS, Hutton. = Eissoa variegata, Angas. 
E. NITENS, E. AMABILIS, Brazier. Torres Sts., N. Australia. 

E. AURANTIA, E. VITREA, Petterd. Tasmania. 

E. INCERTA, E. DUBIA, Anton. Hob. unknown 

E. BIPARTITA, Moroh. Sonsonate, Central Ama. 

E. GUILDINGII, A. Ad. West Indies. 

E. ACLIS, A. Ad. . Singapore. 

E. INCERTA, d'Orb. Cuba. 

Subgenus SUBULARIA, Monts., 1884. 

E. VARIANS, Sowb. PI. TO, figs. 65-67. 

Narrow, thin, pale fawn color, broadly brown banded, or with 
two narrow bands, or entirely brown. Length, 10-12 mill. 

Xipixapi, Central America. 



EULIMA. 279 

E. RUTILA, Carpenter. PI. 70, fig. 68. 

Thin, glassy s narrow, apex attenuated ; whorls 10, irregularly 

banded and blotched with pale red. Length, 7 mill. 

California. 
E. ELEGANTISSIMA, Folin. PI. 70, fig. 69. 

Pellucid, very shining ; whitish, with two pale chestnut, nar- 
row, distant bands and oblique chestnut strigations ; whorls 10, 
rather convex ; lip brown tinted. Length, 5 mill. 

W. Coast of Central Ama. 
E. BIVITTATA, H. and A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 70. 

Attenuated, pale with two linear approximate chestnut bands 
in the middle, showing on the spire whorls. Length, 10 mill. 

Sooloo Sea. 

Described by Adams and Reeve as E. bilineata, preoccupied 
by Alder. 
E. SUBULATA, Donovan. PL 70, fig. 71. 

Narrow, rather thin, semitransparent, j-ellowish white, with 
three pairs of narrow chestnut bands on the body-whorl, and 
two pairs on the spire whorls, sometimes each pair coalescing 

into a single wider band. Length, 12-16 mill. 

England to Mediterranean. 

It is Strombiformis glaber, Dacosta ; E. fasciata, Renieri ; 
E. trifasciata, Adams ; E. flavocincta, Megerle ; E. Cambes^e- 
desiij Payr.; E. Donovani, Forbes ; E. lineata, Sowb. 
Yar. PALLIDULA, Jeffreys. 

Bands of a paler color, and more or less interrupted. 

E. BILINEATA, Alder. PI. 70, figs. 72-74. 

Like the preceding species, but usually smaller ; with a single 
pair of bands in the middle, and sometimes an obscure band just 
below the suture ; upper whorls with a pair or occasionally a 
single band ; some specimens have a tawny streak or blotch at 

the base. Length, 8 mill. 

Norway to Mediterranean Sea. 

Scarcely more than a variety of E. subulata. 
E. BIFASCIATA, d'Orb. PL 70, fig. 75. 

Acicular, spire sharp pointed; whorls about 12, white, with 
two distant narrow chestnut bands, visible on the spire. 

Length, 6 mill. Cuba. 



280 EULIMA. 

E. FULVOCINCTA, C. B. Adams. PI. 70, fig. 76. 

Whorls few, subventricose ; whitish, with two interrupted 
chestnut bands. Length, 4 mill. 

Jamaica. 
E. VINCTA, A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 77. 

Subfusiform, thin, pale, with two narrow chestnut lines on the 
middle ; whorls a little convex, apex sharp pointed. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 

The species figured as E. vincta in the Conch. Icon, has no 
authority appended, but as the description corresponds, I sup- 
pose it to be this species. 

E. SAMOENSIS, Crosse. PL 70, fig. 78. 

Highly polished, pellucid white, with obscure, interrupted 
chestnut lineate maculations, and occasional chestnut-tinted 
varices ; whorls 10-11, somewhat flattened, margin of aperture 
chestnut. Length, 9 mill. 

S a moan Is. 

This may be a highly colored state of E. acicula, Gould. 

E. UNILINEATA, Adams and Reeve. PI. 70, fig. 79. 

Thin, white, with a single narrow peripheral chestnut line, 
appearing on the spire. Length, 12 mill. 

Sooloo Sea. 
E. METCALFEI, A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 83. 

Whorls very few, the last large, oval, subpellucid, white, orna- 
mented with an interrupted chestnut band, and undulating 
oblique lines. Length, 11 mill. 

Sandwich Is. (W. II. Pease). 
E. RECTA, C. B. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 81. 

Semipellucid, white, with a very pale rosy tinge; whorls few, 
straight, the last oval, ventricose. Length, 10 mill. 

Panama. 
E. ACUTA, Sowb. PI. 70, fig. 82. 

Elongate, subcylindrical, dull white; whorls 12, rather flat- 
tened ; aperture narrow. Length, 8 mill. 

Bay of Montija, W. Coast of Central Am. 
The apex is rather obtuse than acute. 



EULIMA. 281 

E. NIVEA, A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 84. 

White, semipellucid ; whorls a little convex, suture margined, 
columella subtortuous and thin. Length, 7 mill. 

Japan. 
E. PURA, A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 85. 

White, pellucid ; whorls numerous, short, straight, suture mar- 
gined ; aperture narrow, columella rather tortuous. 

Length, 7*5 mill. Japan. 

Narrower than the preceding species. 

E. PAUXILLUS, A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 80. 

White, pellucid ; whorls short, rather flattened, suture margined, 
aperture short, columella tortuous. Length, 6 mill. 

Japan. 

Judging by the figures, this species ought to be united to 
the preceding. E. clara,A. Ad. (unfigured) is made a synonym 
by Sowerby. 

E. MARINE, A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 87. 

Whitish, opaque, subcylindrical ; whorls short, rather straight, 
suture distinct, apex obtuse, columella long, rather straight. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Japan. 
E. MANZONIANA, Issel. PL 70, fig. 88. 

Subulate, smooth, very shining, white, apex acute ; whorls 8, 
planulate, the last attenuated at the base; aperture small, 
narrow. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. 
E ACUTISSIMA, Sowerby. PI. 70, figs. 89, 90. 

Pellucid, white, very thin, acuminated; whorls 8, slightly 
convex, the last large ; aperture narrow, columella long, rather 
straight. Length, 9 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

I consider E. Lesbia, Angas (fig. 90), a synonym. 

E. PEASEI, Tryon. PI. 70, fig. 91. 

Small, white, pellucid, short, somewhat arched and depressed 
in the middle ; whorls few, suture margined ; aperture expanded 
below. Length, 4-5 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Appears from the figure to be more like a true Eulima. 



282 EULIMA. 

Described by Pease as E. distorta, a name preoccupied by 
Defrance. 

E. ACICULA, Gould. PI. 70, figs. 92-95. 

Transparent white, blotched and obsoletely margined at the 
suture with pale fawn color, highly polished ; whorls short, 
rather straight, numerous. Length, 8-9 mill. 

Fiji and Sandwich Is. 

Described as a Stylifer, and may possibly belong to that 
genus. The synonyms are E. aciculata, Sowb. (fig. 93), E. 
pyramidal, Sowb. (fig. 94), and E. vitrea, A. Ad. (fig. 95). 

E. ATTENUATA, Sowb. PL TO, fig. 97. 

Elongated, subcylindrical, narrow, semipellucid, white, faintly 
banded at the suture; whorls 13, flat, the last oblong, apex 
mucronate ; aperture narrow, outer lip produced in the middle, 
subemarginated beneath, columella oblique. Length, 13 mill. 

Viti Is. 

Probably only a large form of the preceding species. 

E. HEMPHILLII, Dall. PL 70, fig. 96. 

Slender, subulate, brilliantly polished ; whorls 9-10, flattened, 
suture inconspicuous ; dark chocolate brown to blackish, with a 
lighter stripe at the suture. Length, 3 mill. 

Cedar Keys, Fla. 

A beautiful little species, remarkably colored. 

Section HALIELLA, Monts., 1878. 
E. STENOSTOMA, Jeffreys. PL 70 fig. 80. 

Thin, white, semipellucid ; whorls very slightly convex, the 
last subangulated in the middle, aperture narrow, columella 
long, vertical. Length, 6-5 mill. 

Norway Mediterranean. 

Unfigured Species of Leiostraca. 

E. CLAVELLA, E. NIXA, E. NITIDA, E. LANCEATA, E. LEACHII, E. 
LABIATA, E. TURGIDULA, E. TANTILLA, E. LEPIDA, E. SPICULUM, 

E. ARIEL, E. TITANIA, E. OBERON, E. CONSTANTIA, E. CASTA, 

E, LENTIGINOSA, E. HASTATA, E. SUBULINA, E. MlRANDA, E. 



EULIMA. 283 

METULINA, E. PISTILLUM, E. CRYSTALLINA, E. PUSILLA, E. 
PYGM^EA, E. PUSIO, E. EXIGUA, E. NANA, E. PUMILA, E- 
PICTURATA, E. CONSPURCATA, E. BIZONA, E. CIRCUMCINCTA, 
E. BIFASCIALTS, E. T^ENIATA, E. BALTEATA, E. GRACILENTA, 
E. CINCTELLA, E. CINGENDA, E. INTERRUPTA, E. TANTILLA, E. 
CRASSULA, E. INQUINATA, E. SC1TULA, E. SPRETA, E. HUM1L1S, 

all of A. Adams. Japan. 

E. MONTROUZIERI, Souverbie. N. Caledonia. 

E. JEFFREYSIANA, Brusina. Adriatic Sea. 

E. OXYCHINA, Folin. (Desc. and Fig. not accessible 

to me.) West Indies. 

Subgenus BACULA, H. and A. Adams, 1863. 
E. MIRIFICA, Nevill. PI. 70. fig. 98. 

White, shining; whorls 15, very narrow,, tortuous, closely, 
minutely, spirally striated ; columella bent backwards below ; 
aperture striate within. Length, 8 mill. 

Ceylon. 

E. STRIATA, H. and A. Adams (unfigured). China Sea. 

Subgenus APICALTA, A. Adams, 1862. 

The distinctions between Apicalia and Mncronalia are slight. 
The type species of the present group is unfortunately unfigured, 
and the two additional species appear to me rather to belong to 
Mucronalia, the spire being straight. 

E. HOLDSWORTHT, A. Ad. PI. TO, fig. 99. 

Thin, polished, ashy white, light brownish towards the apex, 
suture distinct, with a subpellucid, narrow margin; whorls 10, 
convex, apex styliform. Length, 6 mill. 

Ceylon. 
E. GUNTHERT, Angas. PI. 70, fig. 100. 

Thin, subpellucid, shining, horn colored; whorls 7, narrowly 
shouldered below the suture, the last large, inflated, scarcely 
angulated at the periphery, apical whorls wanting. 

Length, 14 mill. 

New South Wales. 

E. GIBBA, A. Ad. (unfigured). Japan. 



284 EULIMA. 

Subgenus MUCRONALTA, A. Ad., 1862. 
E. GRACILIS, Pease. PI. 70, fig. 4. 

Solid, polished, shining, white; whorls 7, convex, with deep 
suture. Length, 4 mill. 

Tahiti. 
Resembles somewhat in form Apicalia Guntheri, Angas. 

E. NITIDULA, Pease. PL 70, fig. 2. 

Solid, shining ; whorls well rounded, stained with brown, apex 
white, mucronate, aperture small, columella short, rather twisted. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 
E. SUBPELLUCIDA, Pease. PL 70, fig. 3. 

Short, ventricose, thin, lower part of body-whorl semitrans- 
parent; whorls few, spire straight, suture narrowly margined, 
last whorl obscurely angulated on the periphery, varices few, 
indistinct. Length, 20 mill. 

Tahiti. 

In this species the columella is somewhat drawn back below, 
making the aperture a little oblique; the tenuity of the body- 
whorl below the angle is the most distinguishing feature. 

E. MUCRONATA, Sowb. PL 70, fig. 5. 

Cylindrical, pellucid, narrow, with seven flat whorls and three 
additional apical ones which are suddenly contracted, mucronate, 
suture margined, aperture narrow, columella oblique, slightly 

tortuous. Length, 10 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
E. SANDWICHENSIS, Sowb. PL 70, fig. 21. 

Yentricose, thin, white, opaque ; whorls few, convex, the last * 
rounded, opaque below. Length, 16 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 
E. OBESULA, A. Ad. PL 70, fig. 6. 

Yentricose, rather transparent, tinged with pale rose-color ; 
whorls few, convex, rapidly increasing. Length, 9 mill. 

Ins. Boholj Philippines. 
E. ROSEA, Pease. PL 70, fig. 7. 

Conical, solid, rosy-brown ; whorls 7, rounded ; aperture rather 

round. Length, 5 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 
More conical in shape than E. nitidula. 



EULIMA. 285 

E. FULVESCENS, A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 11. 

Small, hyaline, light brown, ventiicose ; whorls few, rounded ; 
apex mucronate; aperture a little laterally produced. 

Length, 4-5 mill. 

Ins. Labuan. 
E. CALEDONICA, Morelet. PI. 70, fig. 10. 

Shining, smooth, polished, rather solid, whitish, more or less 
stained with light fawn-color ; whorls 7-8, slightly convex, a 
little curved, suture submargined, apex sharply nmcronate. 

Length, 6 mill. 

New Caledonia, Viti Is. 

E. obesula is larger, with more rounded ivhorls ; E. rosea and 
E. fulvescens have more convex whorls and the spire is straight. 

E. SURVENTRICOSA, Sowb. PL 70, fig. 13. 

White, 'short, rather solid, oval ; whorls few, inflated ; aperture 
oval, short, outer lip thin. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
E. MINDOROENSIS, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 70, fig. 8. 

Whitish, thin, short, ventricose ; whorls few, inflated, the last 
large, oval, aperture rather oval, columella slightly tortuous. 
Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 

It has been extensively distributed from the Yiti Islands under 
the name of E. brevicula, Dunker. I do not know whether this 
name has been published. 

E. BICINCTA, E. EXILIS, E. LACTEA, E. SUBULA, all of A. Adams. 

Japan. 

Subgenus SELMA, A. Ad., 1864. 
E. SUCCINIOLA, A. Ad. 

Elongately oval, thin, rimate, subdiaphanous, corneous, tinged 
with chestnut-color, spire short ; whorls 3J, scarcely convex, the 
last large ; aperture oblong ; inner lip chestnut-stained, with a 
spiral, chestnut-colored plica, outer lip simple. 

Japan. 

This, the only species, is unfigurecl. No dimensions are given. 



286 EULIMA. 

Subgenus STYLIFERINA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Adams writes concerning this group : 

The genus Entoconcha of J. Miiller, which is parasitic on 
Sinapta, also has " the columellar margin straight;" but the 
form is described as being very different from Styliferina^ there 
being almost no spire, and the aperture being transverse and 
semilunar. I have never seen a specimen of Entoconcha, which 
is also said to be operculate. My shells were, unfortunately, in 
the case of both the species, dredged dead, though perfect. I 
examined dozens of the blue Asterinse that came up with them, 
but found no parasite, nor was I more fortunate with Spatangi 
or Clypeasteres. 

In describing E. callosa, Mr. Adams places the group in Litio- 
pidse ; Dr. Fischer and myself have continued to regard it as a 
member of the present family. 

E. ORTHOCHILA, E. GONOCHiLA, A. Adams (unfigured). Japan. 
E. CALLOSA, A. Adams (unfigured). Gulf of Suez. 

E. TURRITA, Carpenter (unfigured). California. 

Subgenus LAMBERTIA, Souverbie, 180 9. 
E. MONTROUZIERI, Souverbie. Pi. 70, fig. 15. 

Pupiform, thin, very smooth, polished, translucent, white, with 
very numerous milk-white lineolations ; whorls 5, convex, rapidly 
enlarging, apex short, styliform, mamillary. Length, 10 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Described from a single specimen. 

Subgenus AMAURELLA, A. Adams, 1867. 
E. JAPONICA, A. Adams. PI. 70, fig. 16. 

Rather solid, globose, short, spire produced, attenuated, 
acuminated, last whorl globose, aperture rather short, acuminated 
below, columella tortuous, rather solid. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Japan. 
E. GLABRATA, A. Ad. PL 70, fig. 12. 

Small, white, polished, spire with few whorls, the last one 
elongated, columella rather straight. Length, 11 mill. 

Japan. 



NISO. 287 

E. SEMISTRIATA,- A. Ad. PI. 70, fig. 17. 

White, partially very finely spirally striated; whorls 4, the 
last ovate, oblong. Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 

Subgenus SCALENOSTOMA, Desh., 18G3. 
E. CARINATA, Desh. PI. 70, fig. 14. 

White ; whorls 11, the earlier ones a little convex, subsequently 
planulate, the periphery carinate, base convex. Length, 13 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 
E. APICULATA, Souverbie. PI. 70, fig. 18. 

White, translucent; whorls 13, rather convex, the last only 
showing a strong peripheral carina. Length, 7*5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
E, RANGII, Folin. PI. 70, fig. 20. 

Yellowish; whorls 12, smooth, peripher}- carinate. 
Length, 2'7 mill. 

Panama. 

E. DESHAYESII, A. Ad. (unfigured). Gulf of Suez. 

Subgenus SUBEULIMA, Souverb., 1875. 
E. LAMBERTI, Souverb. PI. 70, fig. 19. 

Shell much curved, consisting of twelve whorls, with carinated 
periphery, the upper whorls with fine spiral striae, soiled white. 

Length, 19 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

On the right side are varices as in the curved species of 
Eulima; in fact this appears to be simply a Scalenostoma with 
curved spire. 

Genus NISO, Risso, 1826. 
N. SPLENDIDULA, Sowb. PI. 71, fig. 24. 

Solid, smooth, whitish purple, interruptedly brown-banded on 
the periphery, above and below the suture, and surrounding the 
umbilicus ; whorls numerous, suture and varices impressed and 
edged with brown. Length, 1'5 inches. 

S. Elena^ W. Co. of Central America. 



288 NISO. 

N. MARMORATA, Sowb. PL 71, fig. 21. 

Solid, whitish tessellately marbled with chestnut; whorls 
rather convex, the last rounded. Length, 23 mill. 

Philippine Islands. 
N. INTERRUPTA, Sowb. PI. 71, figs. 22, 23. 

Whitish, shining, with linear chestnut truncated spots at the 
varices, sometimes obsolete ; whorls numerous, the last with 
angular periphery. Length, 19 mill. 

West Coast of Central America (Cuming). 

Dunker includes it in his Japanese list (Moll. Mar. Jap., 89). 

N. BRUNNEA, Sowb. PL 71, fig. 25. 

Solid, chocolate brown ; whorls convex, the last slightly angu- 
lar on the periphery, and paler on the angle, umbilicus small. 

Length, 17 mill. 

Isl. of Hanan, China Sea. 
N. GONIOSTOMA, A. Ad PL 71, fig. 26. 

Solid, pale fawn-color, with a wide light chestnut-colored 
band; whorls numerous, short. Length, 20 mill. 

Isl. of Burias, Philippines. 
N. TEREBELLUM, Chemn. PL 71, fig. 27. 

Solid, fawn-color, paler at the suture and around the umbilicus ; 
whorls numerous, short, a little convex, umbilicus surrounded 
by a keel. Length, 23 mill. 

Nicobar. 
N. CANDIDULA, A. Ad. PL 71, fig. 28. 

Solid, white ; whorls short, rather convex, umbilicus moderate, 
columella arched. Length, 23 mill. 

Philippines. 
N. SANDWICHENSIS, Sowb. PL 71, fig. 29. 

White, solid, last whorl broad, angular ; umbilicus small, round, 
aperture acute below. Length, 8 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 
N. JEGLEES, Bush. PL 71, fig. 39. 

Thin, semitransparent, smooth, shining; whorls 12, suture 
indistinctly defined by a dark chestnut line ; above and below 
this there is an indefinite band of yellowish white, becoming 
gradually yellowish, light brownish or purple-brown towards the 
middle of the whorls, periphery angulated, umbilicus margined 



289 

by a chestnut line, margin of aperture also chestnut-colored, at 
irregular intervals the whorls are somewhat obliquely crossed 
by chestnut lines. Length, 7'5 mill. 

Cape Hatter as, North Carolina. 



N. TRILINEATA, Morch (unfigured). Guinea. 

N. OBTUSA, Anton (unfigured). Hob. unknown. 

Section VOLUSIA, A. Ad., 1861. 

N. IMBRICATA Sowb. PI. 71, fig. 31. 

Whitish, longitudinally striated and lineated with red ; whorls 
concave above the periphery which is subangular. 

Length, 19 mill. 

St. Elena, W. Coast of Central America. 

Genus HOPLOPTEROX, Fischer, 1876. 
H. TERQUEMI, Fischer. PI. 71, figs. 33-35. 

Minute, thin, white, translucent, shining ; whorls 7, the first 
four smooth, minutely flexuously striated, the others developing 
a long wing on either side. Length, 1*15 mill. 

China Sea. 

A section of this singular shell shows it to be similar to 
Eulima as to its interior. The figures represent different stages 
of growth. 

Genus STYLIFER, Brod., 1832. 

S. STIMPSONIT, Verrill. PI. 71, fig. 37. 

White, swollen, spire short, rapidly enlarging ; whorls 4-5, the 
last very large, smooth, a slightly impressed revolving line just 
below the suture. Length, 3'75 mill. 
George" 1 ** Bank, Block Island, off Coast of New Jersey, on Echini. 

S. TURTONI, Brod. PL 71, figs. 32, 36. 

Subglobose, spire small, acuminated, produced ; whorls angular 
above, the last very large ; outer lip very sinuous. 
Length, 4-5 mill. 

Northern Europe to Canary Is., on Echini. 
This species is found near the anal opening of its host, and 
Dr. Jeffreys was therefore of opinion that it derived its nourish- 
19 



290 STYLIFER. 

ment from the excrement of the urchin, and that its suctorial 
proboscis, and the absence of a radula or jaw supports this view. 
It is Phasianella stylifera, Turton, S. astericola, Brown, and 
S. globosuSj Johnston. 

S. ASTERICOLA, Brod. PI. 71, fig. 38. 

Ovate globose, spire short, acuminated ; whorls few, the apical 
ones minute, lip sinuousty produced above. Length, 10*5 mill. 

Galapagos IsL, on Asterias helianthus. 

S. Broderipii, Adams, is a synonym. 

S. OVOIDEUS, H. and A. Adams. PI. 71, fig. 39. 

Subglobose, spire moderately produced ; whorls convex, the 
apical ones very minute; aperture pyriform, outer lip slightly 
compressed above, sinuously produced. Length, 11 mill. 

Borneo, on an Asterias. 

This is S. astericola, Ad. and Reeve, not Brod., but I really 
can see no valid differences between this and the two preceding 
species. 
S. ORBIGNYANUS, Hupe. PL 71, fig. 40. 

Short, ovate, inflated, pellucid, very shining, yellowish white ; 
whorls 7, well-rounded, with deep suture. Length, 6 mill. 

Australia. 

Found imbedded in the deformed spire of Cidaris imperialis. 

S. DUBIA, Baird. PI. 71, fig. 41. 

Shell globose, spire produced, pyramidal, acuminated, apical ; 
whorls attenuated. Length, 6'5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
S. MITTREI, Petit. PI. 71, fig. 42. 

Very smooth, pellucid, yellowish white ; whorls 7-8, rounded, 
suture profound. Length, 11-5 mill. 

Indian Seas (Mittre.), Polynesia (Pease). 

I have received from Mr. Pease, under his MS. name of Muqro- 
nalia tumida, a shell which I refer to this species. 

S. EBURNEUS, Desh. PL 71, fig. 43. 

Ivor3 7 -white, very shining, polished; whorls 9, the first two 
cylindrical, the others very convex, with deep linear sutures. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 



STYLIFER. 291 

S. APICULATUS, Souverbie. PI. 71, fig. 44. 

Thin, very shining, translucent, subh3 T aline white, apex milky : 
whorls 10, very convex, with deep sutures, the five superior ones 
slowly increasing, the others rapidly, thinly subobliquely striu- 
late. Length, 11'5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
S. BRAZIERI, Angas. PL 71, fig. 47. 

Smooth, pellucid, white, polished; whorls 6, flattened just 
below the suture, which is finely, callously margined, apex 
styliform. Length, 4 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

S. CUMINGIANUS, Adams. PI. 71, figs. 48, 46. 

Spire acuminated, apex styliform ; whorls numerous, the last 
inflated ; aperture short, the columella rather straight. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

S. PYRAMTDALIS, Reeve (fig. 46), figured but not described, and 
no locality given, appears to be very similar. Deshayes 
ascribes to it a shell from the Isle of Bourbon. 

S. SUBULATUS, Brod. & Sowb. PI. 71, figs. 49, 50. 

Whorls 9-10, the superior ones st\'liform, afterwards rounded, 
suture linear, lightly impressed. Length, 15*5 mill. 

West Indies. 

S. bulbiformis, Sowb. (fig. 50), is probably a synonym. 

S. SPECIOSUS, H. Ad. PI. 71, fig. 57. 

Hyaline, spire attenuated and styliform above and somewhat 
twisted, lower whorls inflated, somewhat straight-sided ; aperture 
short, columella rather straight. Length, 16 mill. 

Mauritius. 
S. BARRONT, A. Ad. PI. 71, fig. 51. 

White, shining, semipellucid, apex mucronate ; whorls 7, con- 
stricted, angulated above, longitudinally obliquely striated. 
Length, 6'5 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
Found on a tropical asterias ; evidently deformed. 

S. EXARATUS, A. Ad. PI. 71, fig. 52. 

White, shining, semipellucid ; whorls a little convex, trans- 
versely sulcate, longitudinally lightly striate, suture impressed, 



292 STYLIFEK. 

apex mucronate; aperture subeffuse at base, the lip sinuous, the 
margin thickened and expanded. Length, 19 mill. 

Philippines. 
S. CORALLINUS, Chemn. PI. 71, fig. 45. 

White, subulate, very smooth, thin, pellucid ; whorls about 12. 
Length, 16 mill. 

West Indies. 
S. SUBANQULATUS, A. Ad. PI. 71, fig. 53. 

White, shining, seinipellucid, apex mucronate, twisted ; whorls 
numerous, a little convex, with transverse elevated lines, the 
last with subangulate periphery. Length, 18 mill. 

West Indies. 

Morch describes a var. abbreviata. 

S. THOMASIJE, Sowb. PI. 71, fig. 58. 

Attenuated and suddenly contracted towards the apex, last 
whorl obtusely angular; aperture obliquely subquadrate,colum- 
ella rather straight, acuminated below. Length, 21 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. 

S. ATTENUATUS, Sowb. PI. 71, fig. 55. 

Yery narrow; whorls numerous, the last one subangular on 
the periphery, apex a little twisted. Length, 16 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. 
S. PAULUCCIJE, Fischer. PI. 71, fig. 54. 

White, smooth, shining, semipellucid ; whorls 11-12, the em- 
bryonal ones laterally deflexed, the others subrotund, suture 
lightly impressed. Length, 10 mill. 

Red Sea. 
S. DEFORMIS, Pease. PI. 71, fig. 56. 

Thin, smooth, shining, pellucid, white, indistinctly longitudi- 
nally striated; whorls 6-10, convex, suture narrowly margined, 
last whorl swollen. Length, 12 mill. 

Paumotus. 

Pease writes : " scarcely two specimens agree in shape," a 
lesson to the species makers. 

S. FASTIGIATUS, A. Ad. PL 71, fig. 59. 

Slightly perforated, spire acuminated, apex attenuated and 
obliquely bent; whorls numerous, rather convex, the last large, 
round, aperture narrow. Length, 19 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 



STYLIFER. 293 

S. SOLIDUS, A. Ad. PL 71, fig. 60. 

Subulate, rather solid, opaque ; whorls numerous, the apical 
small, tortuous ; aperture rather short, acuminated below. 

Length, 12'5 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

S. TASMANICUS, Tenison-Woods. PI. 71, fig. 61. 

Milky-white, pellucid, smooth, shining; whorls 7, convex, 
suture impressed. Length, 4 mill. 

Tasmania. 
Figured from a specimen. Is it not rather an Eulima? 



Un figured Species. 

S. CURTA, Yerrill. Off Martha's Vineyard, 410 fms. 

S. BRYCHINA, Watson. So. Atlantic. 

S. COMATULICOLA, Graff. Mediterranean. 

S. LODDER^E and S. ROBUSTUS, Petterd. Tasmania. 

S. ROBUSTUS, Pease. Sandwich Is. 

Subgenus CYTHNIA, Carp., 1864. 

S. ASTERTAPHILA, Carp, (unfigured). Cape St. Lucas, L. Gal. 
S. TUMENS, Carp, (unfigured). Mazatlan. 

S. ALBIDA, Carp. Southern California. 

Subgenus PLICIFER, H. Adams, 1868. 



S NEVJLLI, H. Adams. PL 71, fig. 62. 

Thin, semiopaque, whitish, suture distinct; whorls 6J, styli- 
form at the apex, the rest irregularly flexuosely striate and 
spirally lirate ; columella callous, spirally plicate ; lip profoundly 
sinuated behind. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Ceylon. 



FAMILY PYRAMIDELLIDM. 

Shell turriculated, composed of nuraerous whorls, with long 
spire, the apex heterostrophe ; aperture entire, the outer lip 
generally sharp, the columella with one or several plications. 
Operculum corneous, paucispiral, with excentric nucleus, the 
columellar margin sinuated. 

Animal with flattened, ear-shaped tentacles channeled outside 
towards their extremity, connate at the base; eyes sessile, 
immersed at the icner sides of the base ; proboscis long, retrac- 
tile, coming from an orifice situated immediately below the base 
of the tentacles ; veil distinct, elongated, entire or divided in 
front reaching to the anterior margin of the foot ; foot truncated 
or sinused in front, extending far beyond the head, attenuated 
behind. Probably carnivorous, but the lingual teeth are want- 
ing, or rudimentary. 

No zoological characters of importance separate this family 
from the Turbonillidse ; the distinction is mainly one of conve- 
nience, the present group containing those shells, usually larger, 
having two or more columellar plications (only one in Syrnola), 
the Turbonillidse being composed of minute shells having a single 
small plication, or without any. 

The heterostrophe and turned-over summit of the spire is one 
of the most remarkable features of the shell, a character found 
in few o'ther families of mollusks. In the animal the presence of 
a mentum or veil is also a curious feature. It is developed below 
the mouth, and may be derived from the conjunction of buccal 
tentacles, or perhaps represents the propodium, as in Natica. 
The genus Pyramidella and its subgroups contain all the living 
species of the family, and a few fossils, cretaceous and tertiary ; 
the other genera are exclusively fossil. " The Pyramidellidse 
present subjects of much interest to the students of extinct 
mollusca ; numerous forms, bearing all the aspect of being mem- 
bers of this family occur. . . . Many of them are gigantic 
compared with existing species, and the group, as a whole, may 

(294) 



PYRAMIDELLID.E. 295 

be regarded rather as appertaining to past ages than the present 
epoch." FOBBES. 

Pyramidella and Obeliscus have been monographed by : 

Kiener, Coquilles vivantes, 6 species. 

Arthur Adams in Sowerby's Thesaurus Conchyliorum, ii, 53 
species. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., xv, 45 species, 1862. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus PYRAMIDELLA, Lam., 1799. 

Shell turriculated, of many whorls, longitudinally ribbed or 
smooth ; aperture semioval, entire, rounded in front, the columella 
straight, with anterior strong plications, outer lip sharp, often 
plicate within. 

Inhabits tropical seas. Fossil, cretaceous and tertiary. 

Subgenus PYRAMIDELLA (sensu stricto). 

Shell smooth typically with perforated axis. P. DOLABRATA, 
Linnaeus. 

Obeliscus (Humphrey, 1797), Morch, 1852, is a synonym. 

Section LONCH^EUS, Morch, 1874. 

Shell imperforate, last whorl with a median sulcus. P. 
PUNCTATA, Chemn. 

Section TRIPTYCHUS, Morch, 1874. 

Shell subulate, spirally paucilirate, aperture lirate within, sub- 
sinuated in front, columella triplicate. P. NIVEA, Morch. 

Section AMOURA, de Folin, 1873. 

Shell subcylindrical, elongated, with feeble longitudinal ribs 
and two spiral cords ; last whorl concentrically striated at the 
base ; columella biplicate. P. ANGULIFERA, Folin. 

Section TIBERIA, Jeffreys, 1875. 

Shell very small, umbilicatcd, columella biplicate. P. NITIDULA, 
A. Ad. 

Subgenus OTO PLEURA, Fischer, 1885. 

Shell oval, turriculated, pupiform, with longitudinal ribs; 
aperture oval, siibchanneled at the base of the columella ; coin- 



29G PYRAMIDELLID^E. 

mella with several plications, lip thickened, often expanded. P. 
AURIS-CATI, Chemn. 

This is the restricted Pyramidella of H. and A. Adams and 
most of their successors ; the smooth shells which Lamarck 
designated by that name, being generally known as Obeliscus. 
The erroneous application of these names has become so well- 
established that I confess I follow Dr. Fisher with some reluc- 
tance in his correction of the errors. 

Subgenus SYRNOLA, A. Adams, 18G9. 

Shell small, subulate, polished ; whorls flattened, suture well 
marked ; columelia with a single plication, outer lip simple. 

The Syrnolae are small, slender Pyramidellids, with a single 
columellar plait. P. GRACILLINA, A. Ad. 

Section AGATHA, A. Ad., 1860. 

Shell oval acuminated ; spiral plication very strong. P. AUS- 
TRALIS, Angas. 

Section AMATHIS, A. Adams, 1861. 

Aperture dilated, rounded in front, acute behind. Possibly- 
synonymous with Agatha. P. VJRGO, A. Ad. 

Section OSCILLA, A. Adams, 1867. 

Shell solid, ovate or pyramidally turreted, imperforate; whorls 
strongly spirally lirate ; aperture oval or subquadrate, with a 
strong, transverse, median parietal plication. P. ANNULATA, A. 
Ad. 

Section ORINA, A. Adams, 1870. 

Shell conoidal, profoundly umbilicated ; whorls flattened, 
smooth ; aperture subquadrangular, with a single columellar fold. 
0. PINGUICULA, A. Ad. 

Section ELUSA, A. Adams, 1861. 

Shell subulate, tnrreted ; whorls longitudinally plicate ; aper- 
ture ovate, columelia with a single plait, outer lip lirate within. 

P. SUBULATA, P. TERES, A. Ad. 

The above groups are all founded on Japanese species, mostly 
unfigured ; the characters appear to be unimportant. 



PYRAMIDELLIDjE. 297 

Subgenus CHRYSALLIDA, Carpenter, 1857. 

Shell small, pupiform, generally cancellated; peristome con- 
tinuous, edge of lip simple, columella profoundly but distinctly 
plaited ; operculum (in the typical species) radiately corrugated. 
West Coast of America, Japan, West Indies. P. COMMUNIS, C. B. 
Ad. 

This group might be equally well placed in Odostomia. 

Section MORMULA, A. Ad., 1863. 

Subulately turreted, rissoid, solid, thick, longitudinally plicate ; 
aperture large, columella spirally tortuous, lip thickened within, 
margin acute. P. RTSSOINA, P. ACLTS, A. Ad. 

Lancea, Pease, 1867, is a synonym. 

Section STYLOPTYGMA, A. Ad., 1860. 

Shell pupiform, subpellucid ; whorls a little convex, with 
transverse grooves; aperture Bubquad rang alar, lip dilated, colu- 
mella obliquely plicate above. P. STYLINA, A. Adams. 

Subgenus ACT^EOPYRAMIS, Fischer, 1885. 

Shell elongate, imperforate, subconical ; whorls numerous, with 
spiral striae, sometimes cancellated; aperture oval-elongated, 
rounded in front ; columella with a strong spiral fold. P. STRIATA, 
Gray. 

The name is substituted for Monoptygma, Gray, 1840, preoc- 
cupied by Lea, 1833. These shells recall the genus Actaeon by 
their form and sculpture, and may possibly include some of the 
small groups Myonia, Kleinella and Leucotina of A. Adams, now 
arranged with that genus. 

Section MUMIOLA, A. Adams, 1863. 

Shell thin, elongate or ovate; whorls convex, cancellate or 
granulose; aperture ovate, the lip-margin regularly arcuate. P. 
SPIRATA, A. Adams. Philippines. 

Section CARELTOPSIS. Morch, 1874. 

Shell turriculated, having the form of Garelia Cumingii. P. 
STYLTFORMIS, Morch. West Indies. 



298 IYRAMIDELLTD^E. 

Genus SYRNOLOPSIS, E. A. Smith, 1880. 

Shell subulate, smooth, imperforate ; aperture broadly sinuated 
at the base, outer lip sinuous, slightly thickened, furnished far 
within with one or two prominent lirae, columella with a distinct 
plait. Operculum unknown. S. LACUSTRIS, Smith. Lake Tanga- 
nyika, E. Africa (fresh water). 

The systematic position of this group is very uncertain : being 
lacustrine, Dr. Fischer has included it with doubt in the Hydro- 
biinse, but the characters of the shell (the apex is eroded) ap- 
pear to me to be closer to the present family. 

* * * 
Genus XERIXJ2A, Defrance, 1825. , 

Shell elongated, many-whorled, nearly cylindrical; aperture 
channeled and produced in front, with plications within the outer 
lip and on the columella. About 150 species, Jurassic and Creta- 
ceous. N. TRINODOSA, d'Orb., Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 68, f. 
10; N. TRACHEA, Desh., Ibid. t. 68, f. 13. 

Section NERIN^EA (sensu stricto). 

Folds simple, two or three on the columella, one or two within 
the outer lip ; axis solid or perforated. 

Section NERINELLA, Sharpe, 1850. 

Columella solid, folds simple, one on the outer lip, and one or 
none on the columella. 

Section TROCHALIA, Sharpe, 1850. 

Columella perforated, with one fold, outer wall simple, or 
thickened, or with one simple fold. 

Section PTYGMATTS, Sharpe, 1850. 

Columella solid or perforated, usually with three folds ; outer 
wall with one to three folds, some of them complicated in form. 

Subgenus HALLOYSIA, Briart and Cornet, 1878. 
Shell elongated, turriculated ; whorls numerous, axis widely 
umbilicated ; aperture rounded or subquadrangular, columella 
biplicate. 

N. BiPLiCATA, Br. et Corn. Struct, and Syst. Conch., t. 68, f. 14. 
L. Eocene of Mons, Belgium. 



PYR AMI BELLA. 299 

Subgenus CRYPTOPLOCUS, Pictet and Campiche, 1854. 

Shell like Nerinsea, but without columellar or labral plaits; 
there is one plication on the posterior face of the aperture (as in 
some Cerithiums) ; aperture rounded in front, without channel ; 
axis umbilicatecl or imperforate ; 7 species, Jurassic and Cre- 
taceous. Europe. 
N. MONILIFERA, d'Orb. 

Subgenus APTYXIS, Zittel, 1873. 

Shell turreted, nearly cylindrical, imperforate; whorls numer- 
ous, not embracing; aperture lengthened subquadrangular, 
without plications, the columella with a fold-like thickening. 

The synonyms are Paclujstylus, Gemmellaro, 1878, and Aptyxi- 
ella, Fischer, 1885. The latter name was given because of 
Aptyxis, Troschel, 1868 which, however, is a synon} T m. 
A. SEXCOSTATA, d'Orb. Jurassic. 

? Genus SOLENISCUS, Meek and Worthen, 1860. 

Shell fusiform, smooth, body -whorl contracted below into a 
distinct canal, columella with a single oblique plait. 
S. TYPICUS, Meek. Carboniferous, Illinois. 

Genus PTRAM1DELLA, Lam., 1799. 

Typical Group. 
P. VENTRICOSA, Guerin. PI. 72, figs. 63-65. 

Slightly striated longitudinally, the last whorl ventricose ; 
yellowish white with irregular light chestnut undulating longi- 
tudinal stripes, more or less intensified into revolving bands ; 
columella triplicate. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Viti Islands, Vanikoro, Singapore. 

Besides the type, I figure a white variet}^. P. scitula, A. Ad. 
(fig. 65), is only a younger state of this species. 

P. CINCTA, Reeve. PL 72, fig. 66. 

Smooth, white, with a broad central chestnut zone, appearing 
on the spire whorls; columella triplicate, perforation narrow. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Philippines. 



300 PYRAMIDELLA. 

P. FASTIGIUM, A. Ad. PI. 72, fig. 67. 

White, polished, narrowly umbilicated, last whorl large, obso- 
letely angulated on the periphery ; columella triplicate, outer lip 
strongly plicate within. Length, 18 mill. 

Isl. of Bohol, Philippines. 
P. PERFORATA, A. Ad. PI. 72,' fig. 68. 

Widely and deeply umbilicated, white, polished, with a spiral 
pale chestnut band ; whorls flattened, the last large, subangulate 
on the periphery. Length, 16 mill. 

St. John's, W. I. 
P. BALTEATA, A. Ad. PI. 72, fig. 69. 

Umbilicated, white, shining, with a chestnut band, the whorls 
flattened, the last one subangulated on the periphery, columella 
biplicate. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Isl. Mindanao, Philippines. 
P. PUSTLLA, A. Ad. PL 72, fig. 70. 

White, perforate, apex obtuse ; whorls rather flattened, suture 
deep, last whorl subangulate ; columella biplicate. 

Length, 4'5 mill. 

Luzon, Philippines. 
P. DOLABRATA, Linn. PI. 72, figs. 71-74. 

Umbilicated, smooth, white, with three or four narrow chest- 
nut spiral lines on the body, and two on the spire-whorls ; outer 
lip often lirate within. Length, 1-1-4 inches. 

West Indies. 

Strombus columella, Meusch., is a synonym. 

Yar. SUBDOLABRATUS, Morch. 

Shell thin, shortly conical, last whorl inflated, lip without 
ridges. Runs into the type form. 

Wed Indies. 
Var. TEREBELLUM, Mull. Fig. 73. 

Whorls somewhat less convex, bands a little wider and choco- 
late colored. 

Sandwich Islands, Viti Is., Mauritius, Red Sea. 

Usually known under the name of the next variety, with 
which it is probably synonymous. 

Var. TEREBELLOIDES, A. Ad. Fig. 74. 

More slender than the last variety, columella with two instead 
of three plicae ; whorls with two or three slim chestnut lines. 

Length, 1 inch. Polynesia. 



PYRAMIDELLA. 301 

P. PULCHELLA, A. Ad. PI. 72, fig. 75. 

Shell polished, 3 f ellowish white, with a sutural chocolate band, 
appearing on the periphery of the last whorl ; columella with 
two plications. 

Red Sea, Japan. 

Described as having a single plication on the columella, which 
would place it in Syrnola, but a second plica is more or less 
developed. 

Section LONCILEUS, Morch, 1874. 

P. ACUS, Gmel. PL 72, figs. 76-78. 

Polished, white, with dark chestnut or chocolate spots, usually 
arranged in three revolving series on the spire whorls and five 
series on the bod}"; columella three-plaited, the upper plait largest, 
lip sometimes lirate within. Length, 1-25-2 in. 

Polynesia, Mauritius, Red Sea. 

It is P. punctata (Chemn.), Morch ; P. guttata, Link, and 
P. maculosa, Lam. The peripheral groove becomes in this, as in 
most of the other species of the section, either obsolete or 
indicated by a slight angle. 

P. SULCATA, A. Ad. PI. 72, figs. 79-83. 

White, nebulously longitudinally strigate with pale orange- 
chestnut, frequently breaking up into revolving series of dots ; 
aperture channeled at the aperture, columella three-plicate. 

Length, 1-1*5 in. 

Sandwich Is., Philippines, Australia, Mauritius, Red Sea. 

Adams has used for this species a MS. name given it by 
Nuttall ; P. tessellata, A. Ad. (fig. 80), is founded on a 3 r ounger 
slimmer individual ; P. monilix, A. Ad. (fig. 81), represents a 
faded specimen of the same form and age, and P. teres, A. Ad. 
(fig. 82), is from a still younger, faded specimen. All these 
forms, and the intermediates, are represented in the series before 
me. I am inclined to place here also, P. Pratii, Bernardi (fig. 
83), a specimen from unknown locality, having the characters of 
coloration and basal sinus of P. sulcata, but with a deeper per- 
ipheral groove and angle than usual. 

P. TURRITA, A. Ad. PI. 72, fig. 84, 85. 

Fulvous, obsoletely maculated with a deeper tint ; whorls 



302 PYRAMIDELLA. 

flattened, suture deep, crenulated, frequently whitish, last whorl 
with a distinct median sulcus, aperture produced in front. 

Length, 22 mill. North Australia, New Caledonia. 

The shell which is figured in the Thesaurus Conchyliorum as 
P. gracilis, Brocchi (fig. 85), appears to be very similar to this 
species ; the true P. gracilis is a Turbonilla and = T. lactea, 
Linn. Issel identifies a Red Sea species with the figure of 
gracilis in Kiener, but recognizes the distinction of that figure 
from Brocchi's species, and calls it P. Kieneri. 

P. CHEMNITZIANA, A. Ad. PI. 72, fig. 86. 

Narrowly elongated, white ; whorls numerous, rather flattened, 
with angle at the suture, and on periphery of last whorl, aperture 
small, columella two-plaited. Length, 9 mill. 

Viti Is. 
P. GARRETTII, Tryon. PI. 72, fig. 87. 

Whorls flattened, yellowish, with chestnut colored nebulous 
longitudinal strigations, suture channeled, last whorl with a per- 
ipheral sulcus ; columella three-plicate, the upper fold very 
strong, lower ones approximate and more oblique. 

Length, 15 mill. Viti Islands (Garrett). 

P. CONICA, C. B. Adams. PI. 72, figs. 88, 89.' 

Whorls flattened, with deep channeled suture, which is some- 
times slightly crenulated, periphery also channeled ; fulvous, 
faintly banded with darker color ; aperture produced below, 
columella triplicate. Length, 13-15 mill. 

Florida, Panama, Mazatlan, Cape St. Lucas, San Diego, Cal. 

Described from Panama; P. uarieguta, Carp., from Cape St. 
Lucas, etc., also answers to the description perfectly. I have 
received the same species from Sarasota Bay, Fla., under the 
erroneous name of P. tessellata, Ads. It was dredged there in two 
fms. water by Mr. Henry Hemphill. 

P. Jiastata, A. Ad. (fig 89), from St. Elena, W. Columbia, is 
another synonym; it is included by Morch in his West Indian 
catalogue as a synonym of P. Candida, Meuschen. 

V 

P. CANALICULATA, Sowb. PL 73, fig. 90. 

Whorls flattened, yellowish, banded and spotted with chestnut, 
with fine longitudinal white raised strigations, appearing like low 



FYRAM1DELLA. 303 

rounded riblets, with occasional darker macnlations, especially 
on the base, suture and periphery channeled ; aperture channeled 
at the base, columella straight, three plaited. Length, 15 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 
P. ACHATES, Gould. PI. 73, fig. 91. 

Shell pupiforin, with obtuse apex and elongated aperture ; 
light fulvous, with pale chestnut maculations in revolving series ; 
suture and periphery channeled ; columella triplicate. 

Length, 12 mill. 

W. Coast of Mexico. 

P. clavuluSj A. Ad., is a synonym. 

P. JUCUNDA, Angas. PI. 73, fig. 92. 

Smooth, shining, white, with two chestnut bands on each 
whorl, three on the body-whorl, suture impressed; "columella 
with a prominent twisted Ibid encircling the pillar." 

Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

According to the description this would be a Syrnola, but the 
figure shows two columellar folds. , 

P. PAUMOTEXSIS, Tryon. PI. 73, fig. 93. 

Shell thin, smooth, hyaline, white, upper whorls suddenly taper- 
ing to an acute apex, base slighty produced; whorls 9, convex, 
suture margined ; columella slightly callous, with two oblique 
plaits, the lower one most conspicuous, the upper smaller and 
deep-seated. Length, 10 mill. 

Paumotus and Society Islands. 

The form of the spire and position of the plicae indicate for 
this species a distinct section of the genus. It much resembles 
Agatha Australis, Angas, in the lower plication. Described as 
P. hyalina, Garrett ; I have changed the name on account of P. 
hyalina, Dunker. 

Unfigured Species of Pyramidella and Lonchxus. 

P. VITREA, A. Ad. (Described as a Syrnola, but afterwards made 
an Obeliscus = Pyramidella). Japan. 

P. TRIFASCTATA and P. EBURNEA, A. Ad. Japan. 

P. SOLIDA, Sowerby. Tranquebar. 

P. TASMANICA, Petterd. Tasmania. 



304 PYRAMIDELLA. 

P. ROSEA, Huttou. New Zealand. 

P. MINUTA, Phil. Red Sea. 

P. SUTURALTS, Maltzan. Ins. Goree, W. Africa. 

P. FLORIDANUS, Morch. West Indies. 

P. BICOLOR, Menke. California. 

Section TRIPTYCHUS, Morch, 1874. 
P. NIVEA, Morch. PL 73, fig. 1. 

White, slender; whorls flattened, each with three spiral ribs, 
the two upper ones nodulous, body-whorl with two plain ribs below 
the nodulous ones, and three revolving ridges below the periphery, 
forming columellar folds ; aperture produced below. 

Length, 8'5 mill. 

Key West,Fla.; West Indies. 

P. vincta, Dall, is a synonym. The shell is scarcely a Pyra- 
midella the sculpture and plications are different. 

Section AMOURA, de Folin, 1873. 
P. ANGULIFERA, de Folin. (Description inaccessible to me.) 

Section TJBERIA, Jeffreys, 1875. 
P. NITIDULA, A. Adams. PL 73, fig. 96. 

Deeply umbilicated, small, white, often banded, smooth ; 
whorls few, rather flat, suture impressed, columella two-plaited. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Japan, Mediterranean Sea, Cape Verd Is., West Indies. 

These localities are all abundantly confirmed. Dr. Jeffreys 
writes : " 1 have carefully compared my i Porcupine ' and Medi- 
terranean specimens with those from Japan and Corea, which I 
received from the late Mr. Arthur Adams and my friend Capt. 
St. John, and I cannot detect the slightest difference between 
any of them in shape, colored band, umbilicus or dentition of 
the pillar" (Zool. Proc., 364, 1884). Dr. Jeffreys considers the 
following synonymous : 

P. MINUSCULA, Monts.; P. MEDITERRANEA, Monts. ; P. SUBFAR- 
CINATA and P. TitfCTA, Watson; P. L^EVIUSCULA, Jeffreys (not S. 
Wood); P. EXILIS (var.), Jeffreys. 



PYRAMIDELLA. 305 

Subgenus OTOPLEURA, Fischer, 1885. 
P. AURIS-CATI, Chemn. PL 73, fig. 95. 

Smooth, white, longitudinally ribbed, ribs ending in nodules 
at the sutures, with spiral rows of chestnut spots, interstices of 
the ribs spirally striated. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Philippines, Mauritius. 
The synonyms are P. spiralis, Wood, P. plicata, Lam. 

P. NODICINCTA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 100. 

White, with spiral rows of chestnut spots ; whorls angulated 
above, with longitudinal ribs produced into nodules at the angles ; 
lower part of body-whorl pitted, forming a sort of network be- 
tween the pits. Length, *75-l inch. Philippines. 

I think this will prove to be a variety of the foregoing species. 

P. MITRALIS, A. Ad. PI. 73, figs. 94, 97, 2, 3. 

Whitish, clouded and indistinctly banded with pale brown; 

whorls rather convex, longitudinall}' ribbed, slightly angulated 

at the suture, interstices spirally striated. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Philippines, Taheiti ; Mauritius, Red Sea. 

P. PROPINQUA, A. Ad. (fig. 97), P. VARIEGATA, A. Ad. (fig. 3), 
and P. MAGNiFiCA, Ads. and Reeve (fig. 2), appear to be syno- 
nyms. 
P. GLANS, Reeve. PL 73, fig. 98. 

White, with a narrow chocolate band above and below the 
suture, the lower half of the body-whorl chocolate colored, longi- 
tudinally closely ribbed, the interstices spirally striated. 

Length, 12 mill. Philippines. 

Possibly only a variety of the foregoing species. 

P. NITIDA, A. Ad. PL 73, fig. 99. 

Oral, shining, white, sometimes marbled with pale chestnut; 
longitudinally flatly ribbed, interstices pitted. Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Philippines, Viti Is. 
P. CORRUGATA, Lam. PL 73, fig. 4. 

White, with small sparse 3*ellow spots near the suture, longi- 
tudinally plicate, the interstices spirally striated; columella 

three-plaited. Length, 23 mill. 

Isle of France (Coll. Lamarck). 

A doubtful species ; looks like a fossil. 
20 



306 PYRAMIDELLA. 

Subgenus SYRNOLA, A. Adams, I860. 
P. ELEGANS, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 7. 

Subperforate, longitudinally and spirally striate, apex very 
acute ; fulvous, with a chestnut line on the periphery and suture; 
suture channeled ; whorls flat, periphery obtusely angulated. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Singapore. 
P. BRUNNEA, A. Ad. PL 73, figs. 9, 8. 

Solid, narrow, yellowish brown; whorls 15, flatly convex, 
aperture ribbed within. Length, 15 mill. 

Japan. 

This species is figured twice in the Conch. Iconica, first under 
the above name, and again as P. fulva, Sowb. (fig. 8), with 
brunnea, A. Ad., as a synonym ; Mr. Sowerby being under the 
impression that his figures represent different species, and that 
Mr. Adams had described them both as brunnea, whereas the 
latter only described brunnea once. 

P. ATTENUATA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 5. 

Slender, whitish, shining, finely spirally striated ; whorls flat- 
tened, suture profound. Length, 1T5 mill. 

Ins. Bohol, Philippines. 
P. ADAMSI, Tryon. PI. 73, fig. C. 

Subulate, polished, smooth, orange-brown ; whorls numerous, 
flatly convex, suture deep; lip lirate within. Length, 10'5 mill. 

Ins. Bohol, Philippines. 

For Obeliscus aclis, A. Ad. Preoccupied by himself in section 
Mormula. 

P. ACTCULATA, A. Ad. PI. 73, figs. 10, 11. 

Slender, fulvous white ; whorls numerous, convex, flattened in 
the middle, longitudinally substriate, suture deep. 

Length, 12'5 mill. 

Ins. Cagayan, Philippines (Cuming); Viti Is. (Garrett). 

Described as an Obeliscus, and afterw.ards placed in Syrnola. 
Sowerby, who includes both in his Pyramidella, apparently 
supposes them to be distinct species, and changes the name of 
the one to P. denticulata (fig. 11). If his much enlarged figure 
is accurate, this is probably a distinct species. 



PYRAMIDELLA. 307 

P. CROCATA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 12. 

Solid, smooth, yellowish brown; whorls rather flat, suture 
impressed, periphery rounded. Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 
P. GRACILLIMA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 13. 

Slender, yellowish white ; whorls flat, the last obtusely angular 
at the periphery. Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 
P. CINCTELLA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 14. 

Smooth, white, with a chestnut line at the periphery and above 
the suture; whorls 9, sloping^, flatly convex. Length, 10 mill. 

Japan. 

P. STRIATULA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 15. 

Whitish, subpellucid ; whorls 8, slopingly convex, spirally 
striated ; aperture lirate within. Length, 6 mill. 

Viti Is. 
P. ORNATA, Gould. PI. 73, fig. 16. 

Narrowly cylindrical? smooth ; yellowish white, with a chest- 
nut line on the periphery and above the suture ; whorls numerous, 
convex. Length, 6 mill. Coral Sea. 

According to Sowerby S. columnella, A. Ad. (unfigured), is a 
S} 7 nonym. 

P. CYLINDRELLA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 17. 

Narrowly subcylindrical, whitish, with a chestnut line on the 
periphery, appearing above the suture on the spire ; whorls 
numerous, rather flat, a little swollen near the impressed suture. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 
P. PUPINA, A. Ad. PI. 73, fig. 19. 

Smooth, white, with a spiral chestnut peripheral line, showing 
above the suture ; whorls 9, flatly convex, suture impressed ; 
aperture a little expanded in front. Length, 5 mill. Japan. 

A little wider than P. cylindrella. 

P. MODICA, A. Ad. PL 73, fig. 20. 

Xarrowly cylindrical, obtuse, white with pale bands and a 
chestnut line above the suture ; whorls 9, flattened, suture 
impressed. Length, 4 mill. Japan. 

Appears to be more narrow than P. cylindrella. 



308 PYRAMIDELLA. 

P. SEROTINA, A. Ad. . PL 73, fig. 21. 

Narrowly subcylindrical, white, with a chestnut line above the 
suture and on the x periphery ; whorls 7, the last long, suture 
well-impressed ; plication far back. Length 3'5 mill. 

Japan. 
P. MINUTA, H. Adams. PL 73, fig. 22. 

Subulate, tumid in the middle, rather solid, polished ; whitish, 
with a chestnut line above the suture and at the periphery ; 
suture impressed; whorls 10, flattened; columellar plication 
conspicuous, transverse. Length, 4 mill. 

Orotava, Tenerijfe. 

Appears precisely like P. serotina, except that the plica is 
stronger. 

P. SUBULINA, A. Ad. PL 73, fig. 23. 

Tapering, pointed, smooth, whitish with a chestnut line above 
the suture and at the periphery ; whorls numerous, slopingly, 
flatly convex. Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 
P. SMITHII, Try on. PL 73, fig. 18. 

Narrowly elongated, polished, white ; whorls 11, plano-convex, 
with a diaphanous band below the suture; columella with a 
small plait. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

Described by Mr. E. A. Smith as S. gracillima, preoccupied 
by A. Adams. 

P. TINCTA, Angas. PL 73, fig. 24. 

Rather solid, smooth, shining, whitish, irregularly banded and 
marked with brown; whorls 10^, flatly convex, suture deep; 
columellar plait rather prominent. Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
P. SOLIDULA, Dkr. PI, 73, fig. 26. 

Rather solid, yellowish white ; whorls 7, somewhat flattened ; 
lip lirate within, columella short with a strong plica. 

Length, 5 mill. Japan. 

Yar. FASCIATA, Jickeli. 

Upper whorls with a single chestnut line, two lines on the 
penultimate and three on the body whorl. 

Red Sea. 



PYRAMIDELLA. 309 

P. HYALINA, Dkr. PL 73, fig. 25. 

Whitish, hyaline, smooth, polished ; whorls somewhat convex, 
suture deep; lip quadrilirate within, columella uniplicate and 
sinuate above. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Japan. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Syrnolx. 

P. BUXEA, Gould. Japan. 

P. BIFASCIATA, Woods. Tasmania. 

P. BIZONALIS, P. D^EDALA, P. LATEA, P. MERA, P. PISTILLUM, 

P. TERETIUSCULA, all of A. Adams. Japan. 

P. SUBULA, Gould. China Sea. 

P. LUCIDA, A. Ad, Eed Sea. 

P. TENUISCULPTA, Lischke (figure inaccessible to me). Japan. 

Section AGATHA, A. Ad., 1860. 
P. AUSTRALIS, Angas. PI. 74, fig. 27. 

Acuminately ovate, rather thin, opaque, whitish ; whorls 8, 
slightly convex, suture a little channeled ; columella with a strong 
spiral plait. Length, 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Section AMATHIS, A. Ad., 1861. 
P. VIRGO, A. Adams (unfigured). Korea Strait; 46 fms. 

The following species are added by Mr. Adams, all of them 
unfigured and from Japan : 

P. PRODUCTA (Odostomia) and P. PELLUCIDA, P. EBURNEA and 
P. CONCINNA, described as Menestho. 

Section OSCILLA, A. Ad., 1867. 
P. ANNULATA, A. Adams. PI. 74, fig. 28. 

Whitish 4 whorls numerous, flattened, spirally ribbed, the 
interstices longitudinally striated ; columella with a single 
posterior plication, lip subcrenulated, interior lirate. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Philippines; Singapore; Japan. 



310 PYRAMIDELLA. 

P. LIGATA, Angas. PI. 74, fig. 29. 

Rather thin, rosy-white, spiral ribs prominent; whorls 6; 
outer lip simple, columella with a small transverse plait. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Botany Bay, Australia. 

Unfigured Species. 

P. L1RATA, P. SULCATA, P. CINGULATA, P. C1RCINATA, all of 

A. Adams. Japan. 

P. ZIZIPHINA, P. EXARATA, Carp. Mdzatlan. 

Section ORINA, A. Ad., 1870. 

P. piNGuicuLA, A. Ad. (unfigured). Gulf of Suez. 

P. PYRAMIDALIS (Syrnola), A. Ad. (unfigured). Japan. 

Section ELUSA, A. Ad., 1861. 
P. SUBULATA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 30. 

Umbilicated, apex mucronate, smooth, pellucid, whitish, some- 
what shining; whorls plano-convex, strongly longitudinally 
costate, interstices punctate; columella uni plicate in the middle, 
aperture produced and subchanneled below. Length, 9'5 mill. 

Philippines; Japan; Bed Sea. 

P. GRACILIS, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 31. 

Whitish, shining, with a chestnut line above the suture, and 
on the periphery of the last whorl; whorls flattened, distantly 
longitudinally costate, interstices smooth. Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines; Japan; Bed Sea. 

P. RUPPELLT, Jickeli. PL 74, fig. 32. 

Subrimate, rather solid, white, a little shining, longitudinally 
elegantly plicate, lightly impressly spirally striate ; whorls 11, 
planulate, scarcely submargined above ; lip slightly sinuate 
above, columella callously thickened. Length, 12 mill. 

Bed Sea. 
P. METULA, A. Ad. PL 74, fig. 33. 

Whitish, apex a little obtuse; whorls 10, planulate, closely 
regularly longitudinally ribbed, the interstices spirally striate ; 
lip and columella thickened, the latter with a median plica. 

Length, 13 mill. Philippines. 



PYRAMIDELLA. 311 

P. KREBSII, Morch. PL 75, fig. 13. 

Yellowish or brownish, shining, closely costate, and spirally 
punctate in the interspaces, the costse becoming broader at the 
suture, and evanescent on the last whorl, suture with a wide ash- 
colored band; aperture Clausiliform, constricted above, inner 
lip thick, the columellar plication oblique, wide. 

St. Thomas, W. I. 
Yar. PINGUIS, Morch. 

Shell more solid, with more strongly marked costse. 

P. ELEGANS, d'Orb. PL 76, fig. 14. 

Thin, white, longitudinally costate ; whorls 9, subscalariform, 
angularly convex and spirally striate below, suture crenate, 
columella uniplicate. Length, 3 - 5 mill. 

Cuba. 



Unfigured Species of Section Elusa. 

P. CASTANEA, P. BADIA, P. STRIGULATA, P. CINNAMOMEA, P. TERES, 

all of A. Adams. Japan. 

P. ERYTIIROSCLERA, Morch. St. Thomas, W. I. 

Subgenus CHRYSALLIDA, Carp., 1857. 

All the typical species, with one exception, occur on the west 
coast of Mexico, Panama, and in the seas of Japan ; they have 
been described by Carpenter, C. B. Adams and Arthur Adams, 
and none of them are figured. 

C. TELESCOPIUM, C. REIGENI, C. ANGUSTA, C. CREBRISTRIATA, 
C. EFFUSA, C. FASCIATA, C. INDENTATA, C. OVULUM, all of 

Carpenter. Mazatlan, etc. 

C. PUMILA, Carpenter. California. 

C. MARGINATA, C. COMMUNIS, C. PAUPERCULA, C. B. Adams. 

Panama. 
C. CURTINA, Gould. So. Carolina. 

C. FILOCINCTA, C. ERUCELLA, C. RUFOLTNEATA, C. GALBULA, 
C. METULA, C. PLICATA, C. GEMMA, C. COSTELLATA, C. MUN- 
DULA, C. TENUICULA, C. INCONSPICUA, C. TEREBRA, C. NANA, 
C. MUMTA, C. MUNDA, C. ALVEATA, C. CONSOBRINA, C. CON- 

SIMILIS, C. PUPULA, all of A. Adams. Japan. 



312 PYRAMIDELLA. 

Section MORMULA, A. Adams, 1863. 
P. ACLTS, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 34. 

White, shining; whorls 8, somewhat flattened, longitudinally 
plicate, the interstices smooth ; lip dilated, columella somewhat 
thickened. Length, 7 mill. Philippines. 

P. ELONGATA, Pease. PI. 74, fig. 35. 

Longitudinally closely ribbed, spirally striate ; whorls 14, 
convex, with a simple varix on each whorl, suture well impressed ; 
columella twisted below, lip widely varicose on its outer edge, 
strongly lirate within. Length, 19 mill. 

Paumotus (Pease); Viti Is. (Garrett). 

P. GRANDIS, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 74, fig. 36. 

Longitudinally costate, the last whorl smooth below, white. 
Length, 15 mill. Eastern Seas. 

P. VARTCOSA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 35 a. 

Light-brownish, with pale chestnut bands ; whorls flattened, 
varicose, closely longitudinally costate, crossed by spiral lirae, 
the interstices with spiral raised lines. Length, 1 inch. 

Eastern Seas. 
P. CORNELLIANA, Newcomb. PL 74, fig. 37. 

Solid, white, shining, lightly longitudinally costate, and spirally 
striate ; whorls 8, rounded, the 4th and 7tk with an obscure varix ; 
lip thickened, indistinctly bilabiate. Length, 10 mill. 

Honolulu, Sandwich Is. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

P. AMBIGUA, Gould. = Rissoina. 

P. EGREGIA, A. Adams. Philippines. 

P. MACANDR^EA, A. Adams. Gulf of Suez. 

P. RISSOINA, A. Adams. Japan. 

Section STYLOPTYGMA, A. Ad., 1860. 
P. TYPICA, Tryon. PI. 74, fig. 38. 

White, shining, subpellucid, spirally striate ; whorls flattened, 
the last with a central sulcus, apex suddenly acuminated ; colu- 
mella posterior^ 7 uniplicate. Length, 8 mill. 

Ins. Bohol, Philippines. 
The name is substituted for P. stylina, A. Ad., preoccupied. 



PYRAMIDELLA. 313 

P. AURANTIACA, Angas. PI. 74, fig. 40. 

Rather thin, shining, fulvous orange, with a pale hand at the 
suture, darker on the lower whorls, fading into white towards 
the apex ; whorls 8, finely transversely striated ; lip-fold very 
small, rudimentar} T . Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Un figured Species. 
P. CLAUSILIFORMIS, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

P. PUPIFORME, P. SUBULTFORME, P. CEREUM, P. GIBBUM, P. LAR- 

VULA, all of A. Adams. Japan. 

P. LENDIX, A. Adams. Japan, Gulf of Suez. 

P. NIVEA, A. Adams. Gulf of Suez. 

Subgenus ACT.EOPYRAMIS, Fischer, 1885. 
P. STRIATA, Gray. PI. 14, fig. 39. 

Solid, olivaceous, deeply, distantly, spirally sulcate ; aperture 
white. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 
P. FULVA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 42. 

Slender, solid, fulvous, spirally sulcate; whorls flattened, 
suture deep ; aperture brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 
P. GRANULATA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 43. 

White, solid ; whorls rather flat, gradate, longitudinally cor- 
rugately plicate, spirally, deeply, distantly grooved ; columellar 
fold prominent. Length, 6 mill. 

Philippines. 
P. LAUTA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 44. 

Thin, somewhat pellucid, whitish ; whorls flattened, longitudi- 
nally striated, spirally, distantly grooved. Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines. 
P. AM(ENA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 41. 

Thin, rather pellucid, white, substriated longitudinally, spirally 
distantly sulcated, interstices elegantly punctate. 
Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 



314 



PYRAMIDELLA. 



P. CASTA, A. Ad. PL 74, fig. 45. 

White, thin, semipellucid ; whorls rather convex, spirally 
rather closely grooved, interstices beautifully striated ; c>jlumella 
oblique, somewhat tortuous. Length, 11 mill. 

China Sea. 
P. SPECIOSA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 46. 

White, thin, semipellucid; whorls 8, rather convex, with 
elevated spiral ridges, the interstices longitudinally striated ; 
columella nearly straight, with an oblique faint plication. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 
P. STYLINA, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 47. 

White, subpellucid, middle whorls somewhat enlarged, a little 
flattened, thinly spirally striated, substriated longitudinally. 

Length, 8'5 mill. 

Philippines. 
P. SUTURALIS, A. Ad. PI. 74, fig. 48. 

Subumbilicated, white, shining, subdiaphanous ; whorls 7, 
flattened, suture channeled, spirally sulcate, last whorl subsolute, 
with w r hite articulated bands ; columellar plication evanescent. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Philippines. 

P. CONCINNA, A. Ad. PL 74, fig. 50. v 

Grayish white; whorls 6, rather flattened, spirally grooved, 
interstices microscopically crenulated ; columellar plait oblique, 
somewhat obsolete, lip lirate within. Length, 9 mill. * 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 
P. PURA, A. Ad. PL 74, fig. 49. 

Rather solid, white ; whorls somewhat convex, spirally grooved, 
intermediate line smooth, grooves longitudinally striated. 

Length, 9 mill. 

New Zealand. 
P. PUNCTURATA, E. A. Smith. PL 78, fig. 52 a. 

Subpellucid, brownish white ; whorls 4, spirally punctatc- 
sulcate ; columella obliquely twisted. Length, 5 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

Unjlgured Species. 

P. EXIMIUM, Lischke (figure inaccessible to me). Japan. 

P. CLATHRATULA, Morch. St. Thomas, W. I. 



SYRNOLOPSIS. 315 

P. (XELATA, P. SULCIFERA, P. PUNCTIGERA, P. METULA, P. VITTATA, 

all of A. Adams. Japan. 

P. TENELLA, A. Adams. Philippines. 

P. PUNCTICULATA, P. siNUATA, Gould. China Seas. 

P. ACUMINATA, Gould. Japan. 

Section MUMIOLA, A. Ad., 1863. 
P. SPIRATA, A. Ad. PI. 74, figs. 52-54. 

White, under a yellowish or brownish epidermis, longitudi- 
nally plicate, transversely grooved, suture channeled; whorls 8, 
gradate ; columella with an oblique fold. Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines. 
P. CINCTA, Carpenter. PI. 74, fig. 51. 

White; whorls somewhat rounded, with deep suture, spirally 
costate, decussated by longitudinal riblets, most apparent near 
the suture. Length, 3 mill. 

Southern California. 

Figured from a specimen. 



Unfigured Species. 

P. TESSELLATA. P. RETicosA, A. Adams. Japan. 

P. OVATA, P. ROTUNDATA, P. OBLONGA, P. NODOSA, all of Carpenter. 

Mazatlan. 

Section CARELIOPSIS, Morch, 1874. 
P. STYLIFORMIS, Morch. (Unfigured.) West Indies. 

Genus SYRXOLOPSIS, E. A. Smith, 1880. 
S. LACUSTRIS, Smith. PI. 74, figs. 55, 56. 

Smooth, glossy, imperforate, yellowish horn-color, banded 
with white beneath the suture ; whorls 12, flattened, finely 
striated by flexuous growth-lines, sometimes showing traces of 
spiral stria? ; columella strongly plaited above ; outer lip with 

one or two lamellae, far within. 

Lake Tanganyika, E. Africa. 

Bourguignat, who describes (but without figures) several new 
species, divides them into two groups, the first having two 



3l6 SYRNOLOPSIS. 

lamellae, the second a single one. In consequence of this divi- 
sion, the above species is placed among those having two 
lamellie, and the figure of it given by Mr. Crosse (fig. 56) is 
made a new species under the name of S. Grandidieri, because 
of having only one lamella. I do not believe the distinction 
wilt hold good, as these plicae are either developed or entirely 
absent in the same species in Pyramidellidse. 



Unfigured Species. 

S. HAMYANA, S. ANCEYANA, S. GIRAUDT, S. MINUTA, all of 
Bourguignat. Lake Tanganyika. 



FAMILY TURBONILLID^E. 

Shell minute, white, slender, elongated, many-whorled, usually 
longitudinally or spirally sculptured ; columella without plica- 
tions or with a single small fold ; apex sinistral. 

Animal as in Pyramidellida?. Operculum corneous, pauci- 
spiral. 

The species are very small, and mostly more slender than in 
Pyramidellidae ; they are numerous, and have been separated 
into a number of inferior groups, which are, for the most part, 
poorly defined so that their classification is difficult and uncer- 
tain. As most of these groups are founded on European 
species, I have not, as a rule, included any extra-limital forms, 
preferring for my purposes a geographical division of the 
species. Hitherto the species have neither been monographed 
nor catalogued. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Genus TURBOXILLA, Risso, 1826. 

Shell slender, elongated, many whorled, generally costulate, 
apex sinistral, columella vertical, not plicate. Operculum horny, 
subspiral,the columellar margin entire, face with a spiral groove. 

Animal with wide tentacles, mentum elongated, flattened, 
usually bilobed in front; foot large, anteriorly auriculated. 

Comprises a great number of small, graceful, usually white 
shells ; distribution universal. Fossil, tertiary. The synonyms 
are Chemnitzia, d'Orb., 1839, not 1850; Pyrgiscus, Philippi, 
1841 ; Orthostelis, Aradas. 

Section TRAGULA, Monts., 1884. 

Sculpture fenestrate ; spire elevated, acute, apex twisted; 
whorls scalariform ; columella without fold or tooth. T. 

FENESTRATA, Forbes. 

Section TRABECULA, Monts., 1884. 

Whorls rounded, longitudinally lamellose ; aperture semicir- 
cular, with an exterior rib ; no apparent spiral sculpture ; apex 

(317) 



318 TURBONILLTD^E. 

retrorse ; columella without fold or tooth. T. JEFFREYSIANA, 
Seguenza. 

Section PYRGISCULUS, Monts., 1884. 

Whorls scalariform, lamellarly ribbed, peculiarly spirally 
sculptured ; aperture tetragonal, no columellar tooth. T. SCA- 
LARIS, Phil. 

Section PYRGOLIDIUM, Monts., 1884. 

Rather stout, with one or more intercostal nodes in the centre 
of each whorl ; no columellar fold; apex inclined to the right. 
T. ROSEA, Monts. 

Section PYRGOSTELTS, Monts., 1884. 

With longitudinal ribs, crossed by spiral striae, forming pit- 
tings ; color fulvous or banded ; columella with a re-entering 
fold. T. RUFA, Phil. 

Section PYRGOSTYLUS, Monts., 1884. 

Shell varicose, the columella dentate. T. STRIATULA, Linn. 

Subgenus DUNKERIA, Carpenter, 1851. 

Whorls rounded, cancellated. T. PAUCILTRATA, Carp. 
Section CINGULINA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell turriculated, subulate; whorls numerous, spirally ribbed, 
the interstices striate, aperture oblong, entire in front, columella 
straight, simple, lip sharp, arcuate. C. CIRCINATA, A. Ad. ; 
Salassia, de Folin, 1870, is a synonym. 

Genus LIA, de Folin, 1872. 

Shell oval conic, spire whorls decussated, lip undulated by the 
spiral sculpture which appears on the colamella, simulating 
two plications. L. DECORATA, Folin. 

A doubtful group, possibly described from a young specimen. 

Genus MURCHISON1ELLA, Morch, 1875. 

Shell small, elongate, thin, pellucid, many-whorled, the apex 
heterostrophe ; lip profoundly sinuous; whorls subangular on 
the periphery, and having two spiral lines which define a sort 



TURBONILLID^l. 319 

of sinus-band. M. SPECTRUM, Morch. West Indies. A fossil 
form from the Parisian eocene is referred to the genus. 

Genus YANESIA, A. Adams, 1861. 

Shell melaniform, decussated by longitudinal and spiral 
ridges, subperforate, thin ; whorls very little rounded ; aperture 
oval, rounded in front, entire, lip sharp. Y. TRTFASCIATA, A. 
Ad. China. 

Resembles a Melania. but is a true marine shell ; the character 
of the apex and the animal are unknown, and the classification 
is provisional. 

Genus EULIMELLA, Forbes, 1846. 

Shell elongated, turriculate, solid, smooth, polished; whorls 
numerous, apex sinistral ; aperture subquadrangular, lip not 
continuous, columella straight, without plications. 

Animal with short tentacles ; mentum lobed in front ; anterior 
extremity of foot truncated. 

Section BAUDONIA, Bay an, 1873. 

Shell aciculate, very long; whorls numerous, convex; aper- 
ture small, subquadrangular, columella a little sinuous. Recent 
and fossil. E. GRACILIS, Desh. Eocene of Paris basin. The 
synonyms are Aciculina, Desh., 1862; Rapliium, Bayan, 1873; 
Aniso.cycla, Monts., 1880. 

This section may well be merged in the typical group. 

Section OCEANIDA, Folin, 1870. 

Shell conical, elongated. E. GRADUATA, Folin. West Indies. 
I know nothing of this section. 

Section LIOSTOMTA, 0. Sars, 1878. 

Shell relatively shorter, resembling Odostomia, subperforate ; 
aperture oval. L. CLAVULA, Loven. 

Section MICROBELISCUS, Sandberger, 1874. 

Shell cylindrically subulate ; whorls but slightly convex ; 
aperture rounded oval, columella arcuate. E. INASPECTA, Fuchs. 
L. Pliocene, Hungary. 

Section STYLOPSIS, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell subulate, opaque, smooth, not polished ; whorls flattened, 



320 TURBONILLID^;. 

suture well-impressed ; aperture subquadrangular, columella 
straight, simple, lip subangular in front. E. TYPICA, A. Adams. 
Corea. 

Subgenus MENESTIIO, Moller, 1842. 

Shell turriculated, with spiral striae, or decussated ; aperture 
oval. M. ALBULA, Fabr. Boreal Seas. 

Pyramis, of Couthouy, 1839 (non Schumacker, 1817), is a 
synonym. 

Genus ODOSTOMIA, Fleming, 1828. 

Shell small, perforate, oval, conoidal or turriculated ; colu- 
mella with a feeble, oblique, more or less marked tooth ; aper- 
ture oval or subrhornboidal, peristome not continuous. Oper- 
culum horny, lamellar, subimbricated, with a median spiral 
groove, inner margin indented. 

Animal elongated, the head large and robust, bearing two 
conical tentacles, with e3 r es at their bases, foot depressed, trun- 
cated in front; mentum anteriorly bilobed. 

Very minute, usually smooth shells, having the habit of 
Rissoae, and, like them, sometimes found in bracfkish water. 
The species are numerous, of universal distribution, from low- 
water to 40 fathoms. Fossil, eocene. 0. PLICATA, Montagu. 
Europe. 

The synonyms are Odontostoma, Turton, 1829 ; Odontostomia, 
Jeffreys, 1837. 

The sections will only be used for the division of the Euro- 
pean species on which they were founded ; those of other 
localities will be described simply as Odostomire. 

Section ODOSTOMIA, sensu stricto. 

Whorls smooth; lip not grooved within, columellar tooth 
well marked. 0. PLICATA, Mont. 

Braclujslomia, Monts., 1884, is a synon3*m. 

Section MEGASTOMIA, Monts., 1884. 

Shell smooth ; aperture large, lip finely grooved within. 0. 
CONSPICUA, Alder. 

Section ONDINA, Folin, 1870. 

Shell oval, thin; whorls smooth or spirally striated, colu- 
mellar tooth obsolete. 0. OBLIQUA, Alder. 



TURBONILLHXE. 321 

Generally known as Auriculina, Gray, 1847, a name pre- 
occupied by Grateloup, 1838. 

Section DOLIELLA, Monts., 1880. 

Shell Doliiform, smooth, apex immersed; peristome con- 
tinuous ; columellar tooth feeble. 0. NITENS, Jeffreys. 

Section AURISTOMTA, Monts., 1884. 

Shell smooth, aperture large, auriculate. 0. ERJAVECIANA, 
Brusina. 

Section EVA LEA, A. Adams, 1860. 

Shell ventricose, spiralty ornamented ; columella plicate. 
0. ELEGANS, A. Adams. Odetta, Folin, 1870, is a synonym. 

Section POLYSPIRELLA, Carpenter, 1861. 

Whorls with spiral ribs, the interstices thinly clathrate, colu- 
mella scarcely folded. 0. TRACHEALIS, Gould. 

Section PYRGULINA, A. Adams, 1863. 

Conoidal, longitudinally ribbed, crossed by spiral striae, colu- 
mella feebly plicate. 0. DECUSSATA, Montagu. The S3'nonyms 
are Parthenia, Lowe (in part) ; Ncemia, Folin, 1870 ; Parthenina, 
Buc., Dautz. et Dollf., 1883. 

Section ODOSTOMIELLA, Buc., Dautz., Dollf., 1883. 

Shell pupoidal, longitudinally ribbed ; columella plicate. 
0. DOLIOLUM, Phil. 

Section ELODIA, Folin, 1870. 

Shell conical, longitudinally ribbed ; columella plicate. 0. HOR- 
TENSI^E, Nansouty. 

Section SPIROCLIMAX, Mb'rch, 1874. 

Shell subcylindrical ; whorls scalariform ; aperture somewhat 
ear-shaped, lip sigmoid ; columella scarcely plicate. 0. SCALARIS, 
Mo'rch. 

Section MIRALDA, A. Ad., 1863. 

Solid, ovate or elongated; whorls flat, plicate posteriorly, 
spirally lirate anteriorly ; lip subangulate behind, margin crenate. 
0. DIADEMA, A. Ad. Several Japanese species. 



322 TURBONILLA. 

Genus TURBONILLA, Kisso, 1826. 
I. European and West African Species. 

Typical. 
T. LACTEA, Linn. PL 74, fig. 57 ; PI. 75, fig. 77. 

White, rather solid, opaque, glossy, strongly longitudinally 
ribbed, ribs terminating below the periphery of the last whorl ; 
whorls 12, moderately enlarging, slightly convex; columella 
usually without fold. Length, 8 - 5 mill. 

Europe. 

It is T. elegantissima, Macg. ; T. acuta, Donovan ; T. alba, 
Penn. ; T. plicatula, Risso ; T. turritella, Scacchi, and T. gra- 
cilis, Desh. 

Yar. CAMPANELL^S, Phil. Fig. 77. 

Whorls more flattened, costue more oblique. 

Sicily. 
T. elegantissima, var. similis, Monts., is a sj'iionym. 

T. SINUOSA, Jeffreys. PL 75, fig. 84. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, glossy, closely longitudinally 
flexuousty ribbed, ribs fading out at the periphery of last whorl, 
white ; whorls 8, flattened ; columellar tooth slight but distinct. 

Length, 4-3 mill. 

Mediterranean, W. Coast of Africa. 

T. ACUTICOSTATA, Jeffreys. PL 75, fig. 85. 

Rather thick, opaque, glossy, with longitudinal ribs and wider 
interspaces, ribs terminated at the periphery of the last whorl 
by a spiral, thread-like line; whorls 9, rather convex; columella 
without tooth. Length. 3 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
T. MAGNIFICA, Seguenza. PL 75, fig. 96. 

White or pinkish white, often beautifully iridescent ; whorls 
11-12, somewhat flattened, rounded at the impressed suture, 
longitudinally ribbed, ribs curved, low and rounded ; columella 
not dentate. Length, 12 mill. 

New England, Azores, Bay of Biscay. 

First described as a Sicilian tertiary fossil, but found living 
by the " Travaillieur " and " Talisman " expeditions. Mr. Yer- 



TURBONILLA. 323 

rill described it as T. formosa, which being preoccupied by Dr. 
Jeffreys, he subsequently changed to T. Bushiana. 

T. PUSILLA, Philippi. PL '75, fig. 79. 

Whorls 9, flattened, with about 16 oblique ribs, spirally 
striate. Length, 3 mill. 

Sicily, Vigo Bay. 
T. GRADATA, Monts. PI. 75, fig. 82. 

Rather solid, cylindrical ; whorls 9, longitudinally ribbed, 
with wider interspaces; aperture subquadrangular. 

Length, 4'6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Described as a variety of T. lactea, Linn. Jeffreys considers 
it a variety of T. pusilla, Phil. T. limitum, Folin, is said to be 
a synonym.' 

T. INNOVATA, Monts. PI. 75, fig. 76. 

Differs from T. pusilla, Phil., in its larger size, straighter ribs 
and absence of spiral sculpture. Jeffreys described it in his 
British Conchology under the name of T. pusilla, but subse- 
quently doubted its identity with that species, and Monterosato 
separated it as above. Length, 6'8 mill. 

England to Mediterranean Sea. 

T. DELICATA, Monts. PI. 75, fig. 81. 

More slender than T. lactea, white, shining; whorls 10, flat- 
tened, closely longitudinally plicate, interstices smooth. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Ireland to Mediterranean. 

The name is substituted for T. gracilis, Phil., non Brocchi. 

T. MICANS, Monts. PI. 75, fig 83. 

Thin, semitransparent, very glossy ; whorls 7, flattened, with 
from 18-20 long, sharp, curved longitudinal ribs and equal, 
smooth interstices. Length, 3 mill. 

Gulf of Marseilles ; off West Coast of Africa. 

This is T. attenuata, Jeffreys, not Odostomia (Eulimtlla) at- 
tenuata, Monts. 

T. FULGIDULA, Jeffreys. PI. 75, figs. 86, 87. 

Rather solid, subcylindrical, nearly transparent, lustrous ; 
whorls 7, flattened, ribs 15 or 16, narrower than the interspaces, 



324 TTJRBONILLA. 

both crossed by numerous microscopic spiral striae, ribs fading 
out at the periphery of the last whorl. Length, 2 mill. 

Atlantic Ocean. 
T. COMPRESSA, Jeffreys. PI. 75, fig. 88. 

Cylindrical, a little compressed in the middle of each whorl, 
thick, semitransparent, glossy ; whorls 11, with about 25 longi- 
tudinal ribs and subequal interspaces ; color white, a young 
specimen having a broad, obscure chestnut-colored band. 

Length, 6*25 mill. Mediterranean, Azores, Cape Verd Is. 

T. PAUCISTRIATA, Jeffreys. PL 75, fig. 90. 

Rather thick, semitransparent, lustrous ; whorls 9, flatly con- 
vex, with about 20 straight, slight, irregular longitudinal ribs, 
fading out on the body-whorl. Length, 6-8 mill. 

Mediterranean ; W. Coast of Africa ; 

Culebra, Danish West Indies. 

Dr. Jeffreys was somewhat doubtful of the distinctness of this 
shell from T. compressa. 

T. SEMICOSTATA, Jeffreys. PI. 75, fig. 89. 

Rather thick, semitransparent, glossy ; whorls 9, flattened in 
the middle, with a few slight longitudinal ribs, sometimes cover- 
ing the upper whorls only, but in most disposed irregularly over 
the shell ; in one specimen the whole surface is microscopically 
spirally striated. Length, 3'75 mill. 

Cape Breton, Gulf of Gascony. 

T. MACANDRE^E, H. Adams. PL 74, fig. 59. 

Solid, whitish or light fulvous ; whorls 16, slopingly flattened, 
with numerous rounded ribs, fading at the periphery, and equal 
smooth interspaces. Length, 18-24 mill. Vigo. 

Described by Mr. Adams as T. speciosa, preoccupied. 

T. OBLIQUATA, Phil. PL 75, fig. 80. 

Hyaline; whorls 9, convex, with about 14 oblique small ribs 
and much wider, smooth interspaces. Length, 3 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Unfigured Species. 

T. ACUTISSIMA, Monts. Mediterranean. 

T. ROSEA, T. MULLERI, T. SENEGALENSis, Maltzan. 

In s. Goree, W. Africa. 



TURBONILLA. 325 

Section TRAGULA, Monts., 1884. 
T. FENESTRATA, Forbes. PI. 74, figs. 58, 60, 61. 

Rather solid, almost opaque, gloss3 r ; whorls 8-9, shelving, 
with about twenty longitudinal ribs, crossed by fine spiral lines, 
ribs terminating at the periphery where there are two strong 
spiral ridges, appearing on the spire-whorls, white or yellowish 

white. Length, 3'75 mill. 

Europe. 
It is T. Weinkauffi, Dunker (fig. 61). 

T. JEFFREYSIANA, Seguenza (unfigured). Mediterranean. 

It is T. clathrata, var. Jeffreysiana, Monts. 

Section PYRGISCULUS, Monts., 1884. 

T. SOALARIS, Phil. PL 75, fig. 78 ; PL 74, fig. 65. 

Shell moderate^ solid, opaque, rather glossy; whorls 9, nar- 
rowly shouldered, pale yellowish or cream-color, with frequently 
two or three faint tawny bands on the last whorl ; longitudinally 
ribbed, with wider interspaces, not reaching the base of the body- 
whoii, interspaces spirally striate, the striae often arranged in 

pairs. Length, 6'25 mill. 

Europe. 
T. RUFESCENS, Forbes. PL 74, figs. 62-64. 

Whorls convex, flexuously ribbed, with subequal, spirally 
striate interspaces; yellowish brown, with two or three chestnut 

bands. Length, 6'25 mill. 

Europe. 

Dr. Jeffreys considered this a variety of T. scalar is ^ Phil. He 
also places here T. indistincta, Fleming. 

T. FORMOSA, Jeffreys. PL 74, fig. 66. 

Narrowly elongated ; whorls 13, narrowly shouldered, making 
a channeled suture, with straight longitudinal ribs and somewhat 
wider interspaces, which are spirally costulate, a peripheral ridge 
terminates the longitudinal ribs on the body-whorl. 

Length, 8 mill. 

? Shellness, Kent, England. 

Dr. Jeffreys suspects that this shell is exotic. 



326 TURBONILLA. 

T. INDISTINCTA, Montagu. PI. 74, figs. 73, 74. 

Whorls 8, rounded, with deep suture, white, flexuously costate, 
with fine spiral stria) in the interstices. Length, 4 mill. 

Europe, Canary Is. 

The synonyms are T. areolata, Rayneval ; T. Julide, de Folin ; 
T. nanodea, Monts. ; T. curvicostata, S. Wood ; fiissoa -BaUise, 
Thompson ; T. speciosa, Bean. 

Section PYRGOLIDIUM, Monts., 1884. 
T. ROSEA, Monts. 

Shell rosy ; whorls flattened with straight narrow ribs, becoming 
evanescent at the periphery of the last whorl, interspaces much 
wider, with two spiral series of nodules. Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
It is T. intemodulosa of Monterosato, not Searles Wood. 



T. CALAMELT, Jousseaume (unfigured). Algiers. 

Closely allied to, and perhaps = T. rosea. 

Section PYRGOSTELIS, Monts., 1884. 
T. RUFA, Phil. PI. 74, figs. 68-70 ; PI. 75, fig. 91. 

Moderately solid, opaque, glossy, with 20-30 longitudinal, 
narrow and shallow ribs, evanescent at the periphery, the inter- 
stices crossed and base encircled by rather broad impressed 
lines ; pale fawn-colored or tawn} r , frequently with a narrow 
chestnut band above the periphery. Length, 8'75 mill. 

Europe. 

T. crenata, Lowe ; T. scalarioides, Kisso ; T. simillimus, 
Mont. Dr. Jeffreys (Zool. Proc., 356, 1884) thought T. inter- 
rupta, Totten, identical and that it ought to be adopted, being 
a prior name ; he also thought T. 7?aM6imt, Yerrill and Smith, 
the same. 
Yar. FULVOCINCTA, Thompson. Figs. 69-70. 

Shell thinner, more slender, base narrower, whorls not so 
much compressed, band always present and more conspicuous. 
Var. DENSECOSTATA, Phil. Fig. 91. 

Whorls 9, very slightly convex, with numerous smooth, 
straight longitudinal ribs, wider than the interstices. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Yar. exigua, Monts., is a synonym. 



TURBONILLA. 327 

T. COSTIFERA, E. A. Smith. PL 75, fig. 92. 

Light fulvous ; whorls 8, rather flattened, longitudinally cos- 
tate, the interstices finely spirally striate, with a diaphanous 
band below the suture; colurnella uniplicate. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

T. SPECTABILIS, Monts. (unfigured). Mediterranean. 

T. CLATHRATA, Jeffreys. PI. 74, figs. 71, 72. 

Shell solid, opaque, shining; whorls 7, convex, with about 20 
strong flexuous longitudinal ribs, extending to the base of the 
body-whorl, with equal interstices, which are crossed by^two 
strong spiral interrupted riblets (three on the last whorl) ; color 
whitish or pale reddish brown ; columella without tooth. 

Length, 4 mill. Great Britain. 

T. SIGMOIDEA, Monts. PI. 75, figs. 93, 94. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, glossy; whorls 8, flattened, 
with about 25 very flexuous oblique ribs, the wider interstices 
spirally striate. Length, 3'75 mill. Algiers, Palermo. 

T. FLEXUOSA, Jeffreys. PI. 75, fig. 95. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, glossy; whorls 5, flattened, 
with 15-20 sharp, flexuous longitudinal ribs, abrupt or sub- 
nodose at the suture, almost disappearing at the periphery 
where they are crossed by a few spiral striae. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Section PYRGOSTYLUS, Monts., 1884. 
T. STRIATULA, Linn. PI. 74, fig. 75. 

Shell tilin, pale brown, with three darker bands, closely longi- 
tudinally ribbed, with much narrower interspaces, both crossed 
by distant spiral stria?, of which there are four on the spire- 
whorls ; whorls (normal) 9, rounded, with well impressed suture. 

Length, 9 mill. Mediterranean. 

The synonyms include T. striolata, Weink. ; T. varicosa, 
Forbes ; T. potamoides, Cantraine ; T. pallida, Phil. 

T. CANDIDA, T. RUGOSA, Folin. Wo>t Africa. 

The work in which these are described and figured is not 
accessible. 



328 TUEBONILLA. 

II. Species of East Coast of the United States and West Indies. 

T. EMERTONI, Yen-ill. PL 75, fig. 6. 

White, lustrous; whorls 11, not very oblique, broadly 
rounded, a little flattened on the sides, suture strongly im- 
pressed ; surface with slight, rather indistinct and irregular 
longitudinal furrows, which are often absent. 

Length, 4'8 mill. 

Martha's Vineyard. 

Smaller than T. nivea, Stirap., with a larger nucleus and less 
distinctly ribbed. 

T. NIVEA, Stimpson. PI. 75, fig. 11. 

White, shining; whorls 11, flattened, longitudinally straightly 
ribbed ; the interstices smooth, nucleus small, prominently 
upturned. Length, 7 mill. 

Maine, nortJi wards. 

T. RATHBUNT, Verrill and Smith. PI. 75, fig. 5. 

White; whorls 12, rather convex, suture impressed; whorls 
rather flattened, crossed by about 30, smooth, even, longitudinal 
ribs, intervals as wide, showing eight or ten spiral stria;. 

Length, 13 mill. 

New England, deep water. 

Dr. Jeffreys considered this to = T. rufa, Phil., of Europe. 

T. ELEGANS, Verrill. PL 75, fig. 8. 

Light } T ellowish ; whorls 10 or more, well-rounded, not dis- 
tinctly flattened, with rather deep suture ; surface lustrous, with 
numerous rounded longitudinal ribs, narrower than the concave 
interspaces, fading out below the middle of the last whorl, and 
with numerous revolving grooves, interrupted by the costaa, but 
continuous on the lower part of the body-whorl ; sometimes 
there is a darker band on the middle of the last whorls and the 
revolving striae are darker. 

Narragansett Bay, Vineyard Sound, Long Island Sound. 

T. AEEOLAT A, Verrill. PL 75, fig. 9. 

Whorls 8 or 10, moderate^ convex, somewhat flattened in the 
middle, crossed by about 25 longitudinal ribs, the interstices 
with rather conspicuous impressed spiral lines, dividing them 



TURBONILLA. 329 

into pretty regular, small, squarish pits; body-whorl subangu- 
lated below the middle, the base only marked by fine spiral striae. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Long Inland Sound, Vineyard Sound. 

T. COSTULATA, Verrill. PI. 75, fig. JO. 

Translucent, glossy white, faintly banded with pale brown ; 
whorls 6 or more (besides a large apical whorl), flattened, but 
slightly convex, with about 20 longitudinal ribs and narrower, 
deep interspaces, the latter crossed by close microscopic revolving 
striae, which are continued below the subangulated periphery, 
the costre vanishing; bands two on the body, one on the spire- 
whorls. Length, 4 mill. 

Long Island Sound, Vineyard Sound. 

T. INTERRUPTA, Totteil. PI. 75, fig. 7. 

Whorls* 10, almost flat, crossed by 20 to 30 obtuse ribs, the 
interstices with about 14 subequal revolving lines arranged in 
pairs, often confounded in one ; ribs obsolete below, where the 
revolving lines are uninterrupted ; the whorls are slightly 
shouldered, making the suture distinct ; whitish brown or amber- 
colored. Length, 6'25 mill. 

Mass, to N. Carolina. 

Very probably identical with T. rufa, Phil., of Europe, over 
which it has priority of publication. 

T. TEXTILTS, Kurtz. PI. 75, fig. 12. 

Whorls 6 or 7, shouldered, with close, prominent, smooth, 
longitudinal ribs, the interspaces crossed by impressed revolving 
lines ; white, waxy or chalky. Length, 3 mill. 

So. Carolina. 

Un figured Species. 

T. SPIRATA, Kurtz and Stimpson. No. Carolina. 

T. EQUALIS, Say. Vineyard Sound; Southern Coast. 

T. STRICTA, T. GRANDIS, Yerrill. Long Island Sound. 

T. PERLEPIDA, Verrill. Chesapeake Bay. 

T. VIRIDARIA, and vars. VIRGA and PUNICEA, Dull. 

Cedar Keys, Fla. 



330 TURBONILLA. 

T. ORNATA, d'Orb. PI. 76, fig. 15. 

Thin, white, closely longitudinally ribbed and spirally striate; 
whorls 10, slightly convex, suture deep, crenulated. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Cuba. 

According to Morch, Ghemnitzia latior, C. B. Ad., is a 
synonym. 

T. MODESTA, d'Orb. PI. 76, fig. 17. 

Thin, white, longitudinally ribbed, ribs terminating at a spiral 
ridge below the periphery of the body-whorl, base smooth, suture 
deep; whorls G, moderately convex. Length, 2 mill. 

Cuba. 
T. PULCHELLA, d'Orb. PI. 76, fig. 18. 

Thin, white, longitudinally costate, the costje terminating ori 
the body-whorl at a spiral ridge, below which the surface is 
smooth; whorls 12, moderately convex. Length, 7-8 'mill. 

West Indies. 

Morch considers T. levis, C. B. Ad. (unfigured\ a probable 
variety. 

T. PUSILLA, C. B. Ad. PI. 76, fig. 19. 

White, with about 12 strong longitudinal ribs terminating 
about the periphery of the last whorl ; whorls 10-11, besides the 
nucleus, moderately convex, with well impressed suture. 

Length, 3*3 mill. 

Jamaica, St. Thomas. 
T. TURRTS, d'Orb. PI. 76, fig. 20. 

Thin, white, longitudinally costate, terminating in a peripheral 
line, below which the base is spirally striate; whorls 14, suture 
impressed. Length, 7 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I.; Rio, Brazil 

T. SUBSTRIATA, C. B. Adams. PL 76, fig. 21. 

White, wax-colored next the suture; whorls 8, flattened, with 
22 to 24 longitudinal ribs, and very numerous, scarcely per- 
ceptible spiral striae in the interspaces and on the lower part of 
the body-whorl ; on the middle of the whorls is a spiral series of 
shallow, intercostal pits, suture distinct. Length, 2'75 mill. 

Jamaica, St. Thomas. 

Morch remarks : " If d'Orbigny possibly has overlooked the 



TUEBONILLA. 331 

minute spiral stria?, this species is perhaps the same as the 
preceding." 

T. AMERICANA, d'Orb. PL 76, fig. 16. 

Thin, white, coarsely longitudinally costate, with intercostal 
spiral striaj ; whorls 9, convex, with a small deep-seated colu- 
mellar plication. Length, 3 mill. 

Rio Janeiro, Brazil to San Bias, Patagonia. 

The figure does not show the plication, which must be small 
and obscure. 

T. PUNCTA, C. B. Adams. PL 76, fig. 1. 

White; whorls 10-11, besides the nucleus, scarcely convex, 
with distinct suture ; white, with about 26-30 rather prominent 
longitudinal ribs, not produced below the periphery of the last 
whorl, and numerous crowded intercostal striae, one of which , 
stria; a little above the middle of the whorls and another along 
the suture are wide and deep, resembling spiral series of 

punctures. Length, 5-5 mill. 

Jamaica, St. Thomas. 

T. SUBULATA, C. B. Adams. PL 76, fig. 23. 

White, or pale brownish white, with two spiral bands of pale 
wax-color, and a third on the lower part of the body-whorl; 
whorls 10, rather convex, with well impressed suture, with 28-30 
slender prominent longitudinal ribs, not quite obsolete below the 
periphery, and very fine spiral stria3 between the costae and 
anteriorly, the one next the suture larger. Length, 4'25 mill. 

Jamaica, St. Thomas. 

T. FLAVOCINCTA, C. B. Adams. PL 76, fig. 24. 

White, with a broad yellowish brown sutural band; whorls 
8-9, besides the nucleus, slightly convex below the middle, a 
little shouldered, with distinct suture ; with about 28 rgunded, 
slender ribs, becoming obsolete anteriorly, and very minute 
spiral striae intercostal and anterior. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Jamaica, St. Thomas, Guadeloupe. 

T. FASCIATA, d'Orb. PL 76, fig. 25. 

Thin, white, with a broad chestnut subcentral band; whorls 
9, gradate, with deep suture; longitudinally costate, the ribs 



332 TURBONILLA. 

terminating at the periphery, with intercostal spiral strife con- 
tinued and becoming stronger on the base. Length, 3 mill. 

Rio Janerio, Brazil ; San Bias, Patagonia. 

T PUPOIDES, d'Orb. PI. 76, fig. 26. 

Shell strong, white or yellowish brown ; whorls 8, flat, with 
strong, subcontinuous costa?, suture margined, base spirally 
striate. Length, 3 mill. 

Cuba, St. Thomas. 

Differs from the preceding species by its margined suture, 
stronger and more distant ribs and spiral striae only anteriorly. 

T. RIISET, Morch. PL 76, fig. 27. 

Thick, orange colored, with two darker bands, one above the 
suture, the other median ; with about 40 costre, and very finely 
spirally striate ; columella with an indistinct plication. 

Length, 3*5 mill. 

St. Thomas. 

Figured from the type. 

T. DUBIA, d'Orb. PL 76, fig. 28. 

Thin, whitish or fulvous with a white band, whorls 10, 
longitudinally undulately plicate, the wider interstices spirally 
striate, base without costae but the spiral sculpture stronger. 

Length, 4 mill. 

West Indies, Rio Janeiro. 

Un figured Species. 

T. RETICULATA, T. MULTICOSTATA, T. OBEL1SCUS, T. EXILIS, of C. 

B. Adams. Jamaica. 

T. TURRITELLA, Pfr. Cuba. 



III. Species of the Pacific Coast of America. 

T. CORA, d'Orb. PL 76, fig. 29. 

Strong, whitish ; whorls 8, flattened, with well impressed 
suture, strongly, longitudinally costate to the base, interstices 
wider spirally impressed striate, three of the striae (four on the 
body-whorl) more conspicuous. Length, 5 mill. 

Near Payta, Peru. 



TURBONILLA. 333 

T. FESTIVA, Folin. PL 76, fig. 30. 

Whitish, suhdiaphanous, with a few, very distant longitudinal 
costa?, extending to the base, the very much wider interspaces 
spirally striate ; whorls 7, suture profound. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Panama. 
T. TENUICULA, Gould. PL 76, fig. 3 i. 

Rather solid, shining, wax-} r ellow, a little dusky below the 
suture; whorls 10, flat, slightly shouldered above, with about 
20 straight, longitudinal ribs, the summits of which are cut by 
numerous fine revolving striae, deeper in the interstices, which 
extend over the base of the shell, the ribs terminating about the 
periphery ; revolving striae showing through the aperture. 

Length, 7'5 mill. 

Southern California. 
T. SUBCUSPIDATA, Carp. PI. 76, fig. 33. 

Differs from the preceding in being more distantly ribbed, 
with broader interspaces, closer and deeper spiral sculpture, the 
tops of the ribs elegantly muricated with projecting, curved 
lines between ; the suture more deeply impressed. 

Length, 6 mill. 

S. Diego, Gal. 

Perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. 

T. TORQUATA, Gould. PL 76, fig. 34, 32. 

Solid, white ; whorls 8, a little convex, with about 16 oblique, 
flexuous longitudinal ribs, not extending to the base, periphery 
subangulate, no spiral sculpture, base smooth. Length, 5 mill. 

Sta. Barbara, Gal. 

T. Vancouver ensis, Baird, is a synonj'm. 

Yar. STYLINA, Carp. (fig. 32), is a narrower form than the type ; 
T. gracillima, Gabb, is a synonym of it ; T. Gabbiana, 
Cooper, another. 

Unfigured Species. 

T. LORDI, E. A. Smith. Vancouver's Island. 

T. VIRGO, T. CREBRIFILATA, T. CCELATA, T. AURANTIA, T. CHOCO- 

LATA, T. TRIDENTATA, all of Carpenter. California. 

T. TENU1LIRATA, T. MURICATA, T. G1BBOSA, T. PROLONGATA, T. 

C.B.ADAMSI, T. GRACILLIMA, T. FLAVESCENS, T. TEREBRALIS, 
T. TJNIFASCIATA, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 



334 TtRUONlLLA. 

T. GRACILTOR, T. PANAMENSIS, T. SIMILIS, T. STRIOSA, T. TURRITA, 

T. ACUMINATA, C. B. Adams. Panama. 

T. ACULEUS, T. AFFINIS (T. undata, Carp., a syn.), C. B. Adams. 

Panama and Mazatlan. 

T. CINCTELLA, T. CRATICULATA, T. SUBULA, Morch. 

W. Co. Centr. Am. 

IV. Polynesian and Australian Species. 
T. HOFMANI, Angas. PI. 76, figs. 41, 42. 

Rather thin, white, shining ; whorls 13, slightly convex, lon- 
gitudinally broadly ribbed, interstices narrow, smooth, ribs 
abruptly ceasing at the periphery of the last whorl. 

Length, 10 mill. Port Jackson, Australia; Tasmania. 

Described as T. nitida, Angas, a name preoccupied by A. 
Adams. T. Marise, Tenison-Woods (fig. 42), from Tasmania, 
appears to be identical. 

T. FESTIVA, Angas. PL 76, fig. 45. 

Semipellucid, white, with a narrow chestnut band on the 
middle of the whorls, two bands on the body-whorl ; whorls 8, 
rather convex, finely longitudinally plicate, the interstices 
microscopically spirally striate, suture deep, last whorl smooth 
at the base. Length, 4 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
T. FUSCA, A. Ads. PI. 76, figs. 46, 47. - 

Whorls 8, very narrow, rounded, with deeply impressed suture ; 
yellowish or brownish, with a central darker band, two bands 
on the body-whorl, closely longitudinally plicate, the ribs 
becoming obsolete towards the base. Length, 6 mill. 

Australia, Tasmania, Japan. 

In the darker-colored specimens the bands are obscure ; in 
the lighter-colored, they are distinct ( T. bifasciata, A. Adams 
(fig. 47). The form is narrower, more cylindrical, longer than 
T. f estiva, but may be only a variety of it. 

T. MACLEAYANA, Tenison-Woods. PI. 76, fig. 44. 

Narrowly cylindrical, thin, translucent, white ; whorls 12, 
flatly convex, with deep suture, longitudinally ribbed, ribs ter- 
minating at the periphery, interstices and base smooth. 

Length, 9 mill. Tasmania. 



TURBONILLA. . 335 

T. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. PI. 76, fig. 40. 

Solid, white; whorls 8, convex, suture impressed, with strong, 
somewhat oblique rounded ribs, terminating at the periphery, 
the narrower intercostal spaces and base smooth. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Kin<fs Isl. Bass Straits, Tasmania. 



Un figured Species. 

T. XEOZELANDICA, Hntton. New Zealand. 

T. BEPDOMEI, Petterd. Tasmania. 

T. CIRCUMDATA, Gould. Sydney Harbor, Australia. 

T. IOTA, Gould. Hab. unknown. 

T. ACICULARIS, T. CONCINNA, T. BoHOLENSis, A. Ad. Philippines. 
T. CORNEA, A. Ad. Eastern Seas. 

T. BICARINATA, T. POLYZONATA, T. BiTTiFORMis, Carpenter. 

Philippines. 
T. DECUSSATA, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 



V. Japanese and Chinese 
T. PHILIPPIANA, Dunker. PI. 76, fig. 37. 

Rather thick, whitish ; whorls plano-convex, slightty angulated 
above, strongly longitudinally plicate, plicae straight, fading out 
at the periphery, interstices and base thinly striate, the base 
stronger. Length, 9 mill. 

Japan . 
T. VARICOSA, Dunker. PI. 76, fig. 38. 

Whorls 13-14, closety longitudinally costate, here and there 
varicose, terminated on the bod3^-whorl by a peripheral spiral 
line, decussated by spiral striae, base thinly spirally lirate. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Japan. 
T. MULTIGYRATA, Dunker. PI. 76, fig. 43. 

Pellucid, white ; whorls 17-18, convex, with deep suture, 
covered throughout with wide oblique, curved costie. 

Length, 16-17 mill. _ Japan. 

Unfigured Species. 

T. COMPTA, T. ALBELLA, T. SCITULA, T. TEREBRA, T. CERINA, T. 
CANDIDA, T. DEBILIS, T. METULINA, T. SPECIOSA, T. SCALIOLA, 



336 TURBONILLA. 

T. BICINCTA, T. MUNDA, T. CINCTA, T. FRAGILTS, T. SCULPTILIS, 
T. COMMODA, T. N1TIDA, T. MONOCYCLA, T. MODICA, T. VENUS- 
TULA, T. EXIMIA, T. PERFECTA, T. MACiLENTA, all of A. Adams. 

Japan. 

T. RUBROFUSCA, T. CuMiNGii, Carpenter. China Sea. 

T. OELATA, T. ORNATA, Gould. Hong Kong. 

VI. Indian Ocean Species. 
T. VELATNI, Tryon. PI. 75, fig. 99. 

White ; whorls 8, shouldered, longitudinally straiglitly plicate, 
the wider interspaces with slight spiral impressed striae. 

Length, 3'25 mill. Id. of St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

Described by Velain as T. scalaris, preoccupied by Philippi. 

T. DISCULUS, Velain. PL 75, fig. 97. 

White ; whorls 9, rather flattened, with fine, close longitudinal 
ribs, terminating at the periphery of the body-whorl. 

Length, 3 mill. Id. of St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

T. PERONII, Velain. PL 75, fig. 98. 

Grayish white, thin, with 7 convex whorls, with irregular 
longitudinal riblets, becoming more or less evanescent about the 
middle of the whorls. Length, 2'75 mill. 

Isl. of St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 
T. TENUICOSTA, Issel. PL 75, fig. 4. 

White, a little shining; whorls 6J, a little convex, suture 
margined, thinly, obliquely, longitudinally plicate, plicae fading 
out on the last whorl, interstices much wider. 

Length, 2'25 mill. Eed Sea. 

T. SOLIDULA, Issel. PL 75, fig. 3. 

Yellowish white, a little shining, obliquely longitudinally 
plicate, interstices much wider, suture not margined ; whorls 
8-9, somewhat convex, plications extending over the last whorl. 

Length, 3 mill. Eed Sea. 

T. CRYSTALLTNULA, Issel. PL 75, fig. 1. 

White, pellucid, shining, fragile, with thread-like longitudinal 
oblique plications extending over all the whorls, and much wider 
smooth interspaces; whorls 9-10, convex. Length, 2 mill. 

Eed Sea. 



TURBONILLA. 33 7 

T. NITIDISSIMA, Issel. PI. 75, fig. 2. 

White, translucid, very shining, rather strongly distantly 
longitudinally plicate, and no spiral lines; whorls 9-10, a little 
convex, with well-impressed suture, the ribs evanescent on lower 
part of body-whorl ; aperture a little obliquely channeled below. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea. 
T. VENUSTA, Issel. PL 75, fig. 100. 

White, a little shining, with numerous, vertical costse ; whorls 
8-9, somewhat convex, with impressed suture, last whorl suban- 

gulated, and without costse below. Length, 3'25 mill. 

Eed Sea. 
T. CHRYSOZONA, Martens. PI. 76, fig. 48. 

Densely cancellated, white, with a single narrow orange band 
on the upper whorls, two on the middle ones, three on the last; 
whorls 12-13, convex, occasional!}^ varicose, last whorl subangu- 
late ; coluraella slightly plicate at the base, where the aperture 
is a little channeled. Length, 15 mill. 

Mauritius. 
T. LACTEA, Krauss. ?L 76, fig. 49. 

Solid, white, closely, obliquely, obtusely plicate, with equal 
smooth interstices; whorls 10-12, slightly convex, lower half 

of body-whorl smooth. Length, 3*5 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Unfigured Species. 
T. TRACHEALIS, T. OBELiscus, Gould. Simon's Bay, So. Africa. 

T. LIRATA, T. DECUSSATA, T. TRIL1NEATA, A. Ad. Ceylon. 

T. WOOD-MASONT, T. VITTATA, T. T2ENIATA, T. SUBEMARGINATA, 

T. MICROCHEILOS, T. 1NTUSLIRATA, T. CORPULENTA and var. 
MINIMA, all of Folin. (Desc. and figures inaccessible to me.) 

Andaman Is. 

Subgenus DUNKERTA, Carp., 1857. 

T. CANCELLATA, d'Orb. PL 76, fig. 50. 

Thin, corneous, spirally ribbed, with equal interspaces, ribs 
decussated into granules by longitudinal sulcations ; whorls 5, 

suture channeled. Length, 2 mill. 

Cuba. 

22 



338 TUEBONILLA. 

T. LAMINATA, Carp. PI. 76, fig. 51. 

Whorls 8 (besides 2 nuclear ones), convex, with deep suture; 
longitudinally and spirally ribbed, the interstices of the decus- 
sations appearing pitted, on the last whorl the longitudinal sculp- 
ture becomes evanescent below the periphery ; yellowish or 
fulvous, more or less distinctly narrowly fasciate with lighter 
color on the spire, bifasciate on the body-whorl. 

Length, 6'25 mill. 

San Diego, Sta. Barbara, Cal 

Unfigured Species. 

T. INTERMEDIA, T. SUBANGULATA, T. CANCELLATA, T. PAUCIL1RATA, 

of Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

T. MAJOR, C. B. Adams.- Panama. 

T. GEMMULOSA, C. B. Adams. West Indies. 

T. SUTURALIS, Gould. So. Carolina. 

T. LATELIRATA, Folin. Andaman Is. 

T. FASCIATA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

Section CINGULINA, A. Adams, I860. 

T. SPINA, Crosse and Fischer. PI. 76, figs. 52, 53. 

Whorls numerous, flattened, with scarcely distinct suture, 
encircled by three spiral ribs, four on the body-whorl, the lower 
part of which is smooth, white. Length, 9 mill. 

Gulf of St. Vincent, Australia. 

I think T. Brazieri, Angas (fig. 53), will prove synonymous: 
it is from Port Jackson, Australia. 

T. CINGULATA, Dunker. PI. 76, fig. 35. 

Whorls numerous, scarcely convex, suture distinct, with three 
revolving ribs on the spire-whorl, seven on the body, intersticess 
striate, white. Length, 10 mill. 

Japan. 
T. TEREBRA, Dunker PL 76, fig. 36. 

White, shining; whorls 12, scarcely convex, those of the spire 
with three revolving ribs, body-whorl with eight ribs, the lower 
ones smaller. Length, 8 mill. 

Japan. 



LIA, MURCHISONIELLA, VANESIA. 339 

E. ISSELI, Tryon. PL 76, fig. 64. 

A little sliming, translucent, white, spirally cingulated, inter- 
stices longitudinally striated ; whorls 9, the last with 4 cingula- 

tions, base smooth. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Described by Issel as Eulimella cingulata, the specific name 
preoccupied in Cingulina by Dunker. 

Unfigured Species. 

T. CIRCINATA, A. Adams. Japan. 

T. AUSTRALI s, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

T. CARINATA, Folin. (Paper inaccessible to me.) 

Genus LIA, de Folin, 1872. 

L. DECORATA, Folin. I am not able to consult the description 
of this species. 

Genus MURCHISONIELLA, Morch, 1875. 
M. SPECTRUM, Morch (unfigured). St. Thomas, W. I. 

Genus VANESIA, A. Adams, 1861. 
V. TRIFASCIATA, Y. SULCATINA, A. Adams (unfigured). Manchuria. 

Genus EULIMELLA, Forbes, 1846. 

I. European Species. 
E. SCILL.E, Scacchi. PI. 76, figs. 63, 56. 

White, rather solid, polished ; whorls 11-12, flatly convex, the 

last subangulated on the periphery. Length, 9 mill. 

Europe. 

E. crassula, Jeffreys, and E. Macandrei, Forbes (fig. 56), are 
synonyms. 

E. COMPACTILIS, Jeffreys. PI. 76, fig. 58. 

Shell thinner, much smaller, not so strongly keeled. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

Boreal and Arctic Europe. 

E. superflua, Monts. (Mediterranean), is possibly a synonym, 
according to Jeffreys ; it has not been figured. 



340 EULIMELLA. 

E. ACICULA, Phil. PI. 76, figs. 59-61, 54, 62. 

Rather thin, seraitransparent, polished, glassy white in live, 
milk-white in dead specimens ; whorls 8-9, narrow, flattened, 
periphery scarcely angnlated. Length, 4'33 mill. 

Europe. 

Monterosato has changed the name to E. commutata on 
account of Auricula acicula, Lam., a fossil species which is a 
very doubtful Eulimella. 

Yar. TURRIS, Forbes. 

Shell of nearly equal breadth throughout, with rather convex 
whorls. 

Var. VENTRICOSA, Forbes. 

Shell thinner, with tumid whorls and deeper suture. 

E. gracilis, Jeffreys; E. turritellata, Requien, and E. affinis, 
Phil. (fig. 62), are synonyms. Monterosato, who considers ven- 
tricosa a distinct species, has-described a var. minima (unfignred). 

Var. OBELISCUS, Jeffreys. PI. 76, fig. 54. 

Shell smaller and narrower, with more compact whorls. 

E. STRIATULA, Jeffreys. PI. 76, fig. 55. 

Yery slender ; whorls 8-9, flattened, suture distinct ; white 
with distinct spiral striae. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Spezid) Italy. 
E. NITIDISSIMA, Mtg. PI. 77, fig. 79. 

Yery thin, transparent, lustrous; whorls 7 (besides the nucleus), 
convex, finely spirally striate, white. Length, 2-5 mill. 

Europe. 
E. CRASSA, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 81. 

Thick, opaque, glossy, smooth, white ; whorls 8-10 (?), flat- 
tened, suture slight; lip thick, with 8-10 spiral striae within, 
columella with a strong spiral tooth. 

Length (a fragment only), 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

This species has the mouth of an Odostomia, but the form of 
the shell and want of sculpture together constitute an Eulimella 
as to external appearance. 



EULIMELLA. 341 

E. PR^LONGA, Jeffrej^s. PL 77, fig. 72. 

Thin, semitransparent, very glossy, white ; whorls 10, flattened, 
suture slight ; columella with a small, tooth-like thickening. 
Length, 6'75 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, West Coast of Africa. 

Another problematical species as to its generic position ; the 
tooth, however, is not nearly so distinct as in the last. It might 
almost rank as a colorless variety of E. unifasciata, Forbes (see 
American species). 

Unfigured Species. 

E. ANGUSTA, and Yar. PERANGUSTA, Monts. Mediterranean Sea. 
E. CINGULATA, Requien. Corsica. 

E. POINTELI, Folin (desc. and figure inaccessible). 

Port Said, Egypt. 

E. nitidissima, var. pura, Monterosato, is a synonj-m. It was 
found at St. Vito. 

E. MACILENTA, Monterosato. Mediterranean. 

Name substituted for Odostomia debilis, Monts., not Pease. 
E. FOLINT, Fischer. (Probably exotic.) France. 

II. Oriental Species. 
E. ARABICA, Issel. PI. 76, fig. 57. 

Shining, very minutely decussated, translucent, whitish, with 
narrow yellowish bands ; whorls 12-13, flattened, the suture 
impressed, margined. Length, 5 mill. 

Bed Sea. 
E. PHILTPPIANA, Dunker. PL 77, fig. 75. 

White, subpellucid, very smooth and shining; whorls 9, 
flattened. Length, 11 mill. 

Japan. 

Unfigured Species. 

E OPACA, E. VITREA, E. HYALiNA, A. Adams. Japan. 

E. CYLINDROPSTS, E. iNFUNDiBULATA, Folin. Andaman Is. 



342 EULIMELLA. 

III. American Species. 

E. UNTFASCIATA, Forbes. PI. 77, fig. 73 ; PL 76, fig. 05. 

Smooth, polished, white, with a median, narrow, light chestnut 
band; whorls 11, flattened. Length, 6 mill. 

New England, Azores, Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean. 

This is Eulimella Smithii, Verrill (fig. 65). The columellar 
tooth is inconspicuous, and the form of the shell places it in 
Eulimella rather than Odostomia. 

E. POLITA, Verrill. PI. 77, fig. 67. 

Whorls 12, well rounded, smooth and glossy. Length, 8 mill. 

Eastport, Maine. 
Appears to be closely allied to E. ventricosa, Forbes. 

E. LUCID A, Verrill. PI. 77, fig. 68. 

Whorls 11, flattened, smooth, polished, with very indistinct 
growth-lines, suture distinct, but scarcely at all impressed, trans- 
lucent pinkish white. Length, 8 mill. 

New England (2033 fathoms). 
E. CHARISSA, Verrill. PI. 77, fig. 69. 

Small and delicate ; whorls 11, very slender, translucent white. 

Length, 5'6 mill. 

New England (2033 fathoms). 

Smaller, with much more slender spire and smaller apical 
whorl than the last ; there are also more whorls in the same 
length, they are somewhat more convex and the suture more 
impressed. 

E. NTTIDA, Verrill. PI. 77, fig. 70. 

Smooth, polished, rather large for the genus, moderately 
elongated, with a tall, regularly tapering spire of more than 
eight moderately convex whorls (apex broken), separated by a 
well-defined, somewhat impressed, rather oblique suture. 

Length (broken), 6'5 mill. 

New England (2033 fathoms). 

Most like E. lucida, but the whorls are more convex, the 
suture more oblique and more 'impressed, the body-whorl longer, 
more produced anteriorly, the aperture narrower, more elongated, 
and effuse in front. 



EULIMELLA. 343 

E. LISSA, Yerrill. PI. 77, fig. 71. 

Small, white, polished; whorls 8, flattened, smooth, suture 
distinct. Length, 6 mill. 

Off Cape Hatteras, N. C. (142 fms.) 

Remarkable for the small size of the apical whorl and for its 
pupiform outline. 

E. ENGONIA, Bush. 

White, lustrous; whorls 7^, flattened, distinctly chamfered 
above the channeled suture, body-whorl distinctly angulated at 
the periphery, where there is a prominent rounded thread 
there are also numerous indistinct, unequal striae only visible 
under a microscope; columella with a small distinct fold, not 
seen in a front view. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Gape HatteraSj and Beaufort, N. G. 

Described as an Odostomia, and placed here with some doubt 
on account of the long slender shell. 

Yar. TERES, Bush. PI. 77, fig. 82. 

More slender, with flatter whorls, with a distinct impressed 
spiral line just below the angle. 

E. ALBA, Calkins. PI. 76, fig. 66. 

Small, white, shining, pellucid; whorls 12-13, smooth, flat, 
suture lightly impressed. Length, 75 mill. 

Cedar Keys, Florida. 
E. SIMPLEX, d'Orb. PL 77, fig. 74. 

Shell thin, white, finely spirally striate ; whorls 7, slightly 
convex, with a shallow channel next above the suture. 

Length, 2*3 mill. Jamaica. 

Unfigured Species. 

E. OBSOLETA, Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

$. PELLUCENS, E. OPALINA, A. Adams. Japan. 

Section OCEANIDA, Folin, 1870. 
E. GRADUATA, Folin. (Desc. not accessible). West Indies. 



344 EULIMELLA. 

Section LIOSTOMIA, Sars, 1878. 

E. CLAVULA, Loven. PI. 77, fig. 76. 

Thin, transparent, polishec],, microscopically longitudinally 
striated, white ; whorls 4-5, rather convex, suture slightly 
margined ; umbilicus very small and narrow, but distinct; colu- 
mella with a barely discernable tooth or fold. Length, 2 mill. 

Europe. 

E. pistillus and E.pistiUiformis, Brugnone, and E. Brugnoni, 
Monts., are synonyms. 

E. EBURNEA, Stimpson. PI. 77, fig. 78. 

White, shining, smooth ; whorls 4, rather convex, subangu- 
lated at the suture ; aperture ovate-elliptic, peristome thin, sim- 
ple, acute, effuse anteriorly ; umbilicus narrow. 

Length, 4'5 mill. 

New England. 

E. ELECTA, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 77. 

Thin, nearly transparent, gloss3 r . with microscopical growth- 
lines ; whorls 4, rather swollen, with deep suture; umbilicus 
small and narrow; columella with a superior, small, sunken 
tooth. Length, 2 mill. 

Between the Hebrides and Faroe Is (516 fms.). 

Section STYLOPSIS, A. Ad., I860. 

E. TYPICA and E. SULCATA, A. Ad. (Unfigured). Japan. 

E. RUFOFASCIATA, E. A. Smith (Unfigured) Japan. 

Subgenus MENESTHO, Moller, 1842. 

E. ALBULA, Moller. PI. 77, fig. 80. 

Corpulent, white; whorls slightly convex, with numerous 
spiral lines. Length, 5 mill. 

Labrador to Greenland. 

This is not the E. albula of most American authors which = 
the next species. 



EULIMELLA. 345 

E. STRIATULA, Coutliouy. PL 77, fig. 87. 

Narrow, thick, whitish ; whorls 7-9, flatly convex, with distinct 
suture, with growth-lines, sometimes varicose, and 12-15 fine, 
regular revolving strise. Length, 15 mill. 

Massachusetts, northwards. 

Is E. albula, Gould, Tryon, etc., not of Loven. 

E. SULCATA, Yen-ill. PI. 77, fig. 86. 

Whorls 4, convex, with deep suture, white, spirally, numer- 
ously striate, umbilicus very narrow. Length, 3 mill. 

New England (115,365 fms). 

E. BRUNERT, Yerrill (Unfigured). Off Newport, R. I. (487 fms). 

E. HUMBOLDTT, Risso. PI. 77, figs. 83-85. 

Whorls 5, and nucleus, rather solid, stout, a little convex, with 
deep suture, with numerous spiral riblets decussated by longitu- 
dinal striae ; columella with a strong superior plication ; white. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

The synonyms are E. lactea. Midland ; E. clathrata, Phil. ; E. 
turriculata, Calcara ; E. Kuzmici, Brusina ; E. subventricosa, 
Phil., and E. brevis, Requien, the two last given as varieties. 

Yar. TUBERCULATA, Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf. Fig. 85. 
Sculpture stronger, forming a granulated surface. 

Yar. SULCATA, Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf. Fig. 84. 

Spirally sulcate, the longitudinal sculpture deficient. 



Unfigured and Doubtful Species. 

E. BULINEA, Lowe. 

Mediterranean Sea, Canary and Madeiran Islands. 
The S3 T nonyms are E. dissimilis, Tiberi ; E. striata, Brocchi ; 
E. elongata, Phil. ; E. Humboldti, var. elongata, Requien. 

E. CRATICULATA, Renier. Mediterranean. 

E. EXARATA, A. Ad. Japan. 



346 ODOSTOMIA. 

Genus ODOSTOMIA, Fleming, 1828. 

I. European. 
The sections are only used for the European species. 

Section ODOSTOMIA, sensu stricto. 

0. PLTCATA, Mont. PI. 77, fig. 88. 

Thin, transparent, polished, with microscopic spiral stride, 
very pale yellowish white or white, darker at the suture ; whorls 
5-6, suture moderate ; umbilicus none, or a narrow chink in full- 
grown specimens ; columellar tooth small, but distinct. 

Length, 2*5 mill. 

Europe. 

It is 0. elongata, Phil., 0. bulimoides, Scacchi. 

0. PALLIDA, Mont. PL 77, fig. 89. 

Rather solid, nearly opaque, somewhat gloss}^ with microscopic 
spiral striae, milk-white or yellowish white; whorls 6-7, some- 
what convex, rapidly enlarging, suture moderate, distinct ; um- 
bilical chink very narrow or none ; tooth strong. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Europe. 

0. Novegradensis, Brusina, 0. Eulimoides, Hanley (figured), 
are synonyms. Jeffreys cites : 

Yar. CRASSA, Thompson. 

Smaller and thicker; some of the spiral stria? confluent, form- 
ing elevated ridges. 

Yar. NOTATA, Jeffreys. 

Whorls more convex, spiral striae more conspicuous. 
Yar. ANGUSTA, Jeffreys. 

Thinner and more slender. 

0. SUBLONGA, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 90. 

Rather thick, semitransparent, glossy, ivorj'-white ; whorls 
4-5, the last obsoletely angulated on the periphery ; tooth minute, 
but distinct. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Bay of Biscay, Cape Verd /s., Mediterranean Sea. 



ODOSTOMTA. 34 7 

0. INSCULPTA, Mont. PI. 77, fig. 91. 

Thin, semitransparent,gloss} T ,with distinct spiral incised lines, 
with inconspicuous longitudinal striae near the suture, white ; 
whorls 6, each narrowly, thickly rimmed just below the suture, 
which is slightly channeled ; umbilicus narrow ; tooth incon- 
spicuous but always present. Length, 3 - 75 mill. 

Northern Europe. 

It is 0. obliqua, Loven. 

0. UMBILICARIS, Malm. PL 77, fig. 92. 

Shell thin, transparent, very glossy, white ; whorls 5-6, with 
deep suture; umbilicus very distinct, but small; tooth small, 
but prominent. Length, 25 mill. 

Northern Europe. 

Owing to the transparency of the whorls, the periphery of 
each appears like a narrow band round the top of the suc- 
ceeding one. 

0. MICHAELIS, Brugnone. PI. 77, fig. 93. 

Oblong ovate, smooth, shining; whorls 6, slightly convex, 
columella strongly uniplicate. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
0. RISSOIDES, Hanley. PI. 77, figs. 94-96. 

Thin, transparent, glossy, with microscopical growth-lines 
and spiral stria?, pale yellowish white, or whitish ; whorls 5, 
convex, rapidly enlarging, suture rather deep, in fresh speci- 
mens with a darker band ; umbilicus usually none, or a mere 
chink or indentation ; tooth small and partly concealed. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Europe. 
Yar. ALBA, Jeffreys. 

Thinner, spire produced, suture deeper and more oblique, 
umbilical chink very distinct. 

Yar. NITIDA, Alder. Fig. 95. 

Whorls more ventricose and umbilicus distinct. 

Yar. GLABRATA, Forbes and Hanley. Fig. 96. 

Nearly oblong, nucleus of spire exposed and mamillary, 
suture deep. 



348 ODOSTOMIA. 

Yar. DUBIA, Jeffreys. 

Oval, more solid, body-whorl longer, umbilical chink distinct, 
tooth stronger. 

Yar. EXILIS, Jeffreys. 

Smaller and more slender; spire elongated, suture slight. 

0. LUKISI, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 97. 

Solid, opaque, glossy, sculpture only very slight, almost 
microscopical scratch-like longitudinal striae, ivory-white ; whorls 
5-6, convex, the penultimate a little projecting ; umbilicus small, 
but distinct ; tooth small and prominent. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Great Britain. 
0. UNIDENTATA, Mont. PI. 77, figs, 98, 100. 

Solid, almost opaque, glossy, with a more or less distinct 
peripheral angle, visible also at the base of the upper whorls, sculp- 
ture slight, microscopical, close-set spiral stride, white ; whorls 6 
(besides the nucleus), flattened, suture narrow, distinct ; um- 
bilicus none, although there is sometimes a small chink ; tooth 
long and prominent. Length, 5 mill. 

Iceland, Europe, West Africa, Canaries, Madeira, Pernambuco. 

0. Monterosati, Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf. (fig. 100), is a young 
shell of this species according to Dr. Jeffrej's ; who mentions a 
var. elata, with more elongated spire and narrower base. 

O. TURRITA, Hanley. PI. 77, fig. 99. 

Solid, semitransparent, glossy, microscopically spirally striate, 
periphery obtusely keeled ; yellowish white or whitish, with a 
dark border below the suture; whorls 5-6 (besides the nucleus), 
suture narrow but distinct; umbilicus none; tooth small, not 
prominent. Length, 3 mill. 

Europe, Teneriffe, Madeira, Pernambuco. 

0. turriculata, Monts. and var. nana, Jeffreys, are enumerated 
as varieties by Dr. Jeffreys. 

0. ACUTA, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 1. 

Shell rather solid, but semitransparent and lustrous, with 
microscopic close spiral striae, and still more minute, flexuous, 
crowded growth-lines, whitish with a tinge of flesh-color ; whorls 



ODOSTOMIA. 349 

6. besides the embryonic ones, periphery obtusely keeled ; umbil- 
icus conspicuous though small ; tooth strong and prominent. 

Europe, Canary 7s., Teneriffe. 
The outer lip is occasionally striate within. 

Yar. UMBILICATA, Alder. 

Larger, stronger, white, with a broad base and usually wider 
and deeper umbilicus ; peripheral keel obscure. 

0. ALBELLA, Loven. PI. 77, fig. 3. 

Thin, semitransparent, dull yellowish white ; whorls 5-6, suture 
narrow, incised, narrowly banded below; imperforate, or some- 
times a narrow chink; tooth small, retired, nearly hidden behind 
the pillar. Length, 2'75 mill. 

Europe. 

0. SULCIFERA, Smith. PI. 77, fig. 4. 

White, polished ; whorls 5, subplane, indistinctly longitudi- 
nally striate, with a sutural pellucid zone, and a linear sulcus on 
the periphery ; columella lightly dentate. Length, 5 mill. 

Whydah, West Africa. 



0. FALLAX, Monts. (Unfigured). Mediterranean. 

Section MEGASTOMIA, Monts., 1884. 

0. CONSPICUA, Alder. PL 77, fig. 5. 

Shell solid, opaque, glossy, with microscopic spiral and longi- 
tudinal striae; pale cream color, varying to chocolate, and 
more or less stained with madder ; whorls 8 (besides 2 embryonic), 
periphery obtusely angulated, the angle showing at the base of 
the spire whorls; umbilicus extremely small, almost covered; 
tooth strong, conspicuous, outer lip grooved within. 

Length, 8'75 mill. 

Europe. 

0. CONOIDEA, Brocchi. PL 77, fig. 6. 

Solid, white, polished, with microscopic growth-lines, periphery 
more or less distinctly keeled or angulated, with an impressed 
spiral line ; whorls 8, nearly flat ; umbilicus small, deep ; tooth 



350 ODOSTOMIA. 

strong, prominent, interior of lip ridged, terminating in small 
tubercles within the mouth. Length, 6'25 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonyms include 0. polita, Bivona ; 0. Nayli, Brusina ; 
0. sicula, Phil. ; 0. monodon, Requien ; 0. plica, Cantraine. 

O. TENUIS, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 2. 

Rather thin, nearly transparent, glossy, no sculpture except 
microscopic growth-lines ; whorls 6 ; im perforate ; tooth small 
but conspicuous, interior of lip with half a dozen short grooves 
or striae. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Brittany, Tunis. 

Section ONDINA, Folin, 1870. 
0. OBLIQUA, Adler. PL 77, figs. 10-12. 

Yery thin, transparent, glossy, with fine, close spiral striae, 
becoming coarser on the base, whitish ; whorls 5, suture deep 
and oblique; outer lip flexuous, retreating, sinuated above, 
smooth within, tooth only a slight obscure fold ; umbilicus none, 
or a very small chink. Length, 5 mill. 

Europe. 

0. exilissima, Brusina, is a probable synonym. 

Var. WAERENI, Thompson. Figs. 11, 12. 

Smaller, with the basal striae more distinct, and the umbilicus 
more developed. 

0. Galvagni, Aradas, is a S3 - nonym. 

0. DIAPHANA, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 9. 

Very thin, nearly transparent, lustrous, with microscopic 
growth-lines, whitish ; whorls 5, suture narrow, oblique ; outer lip 
flexuous, deeply sinuous above, tooth obsolete; umbilicus devel- 
oped in the adult only, insignificant. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Europe. 
0. ELEGANS, Monts. PL 77, fig. 13. 

Pellucid, white, decussated Ity microscopic striae; whorls 7, 
convex, suture submargined ; columella obliquely uniplicate. 
Length, 4 mill. 

Sicily. 
It is 0. mtrea, Brusina, not A. Ad. ; 0. neglecta, Tiberi, not 



ODOSTOMIA. 351 

A. Adams; 0. striata, Folin. Monterosato enumerates vars. 
simplex, exigua and concinna, Monts., and vixornata, Folin. 



Un figured Species. 
(Including those of which the descriptions are not accessible). 

0. MODIOLA, 0. DILUCIDA, Monts. Mediterranean. 

0. MESSANENSIS, 0. GRANATA, 0. SEMIORNATA, Folin. Both con- 
sidered by Mts. synon3 r ms of 0. exilissima, Brusina, which 
Jeffre} T s unites with 0. obliqua, Alder. 

0. SCANDENS, Brusina (0. obliqua, Mts., not Alder). 

Mediterranean. 

0. SULCATA, 0. BILIRATA, Folin. West Africa. 

Section DOLIELLA, Monts., 1880. 

0. NITENS, Jeffreys. PL 77, fig. 15. 

Thin, semitransparent, very glossy, with microscopic growth- 
lines, white ; whorls 3, besides the nucleus, suture very narrow, 
slightly excavated, margined by the overlapping of the whorls; 
umbilicus none; tooth represented by a broad, but not conspic- 
uous, fold. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Jeffreys refers 0. Erjaveciana, Brusina, to this species, but 
Monterosato considers the two species very different. 

0. DOLTOLIFORMIS, Jeffreys. PL 78, fig. 26. 

Rather thin, transparent, somewhat glossy, with about 20 
remote and somewhat wavy spiral striae, almost perceptible by 
the naked eye, and numerous microscopic growth-lines, whitish 
or yellowish white ; whorls 3, besides the nucleus, slopingly 
convex, suture channeled ; outer lip abruptly incurved on 
the periphery, tooth strong and conspicuous; umbilicus a 
small chink. Length, 1'85 mill. 

Europe. 

0. valida, Folin, is a synonym. 



352 ODOSTOMIA. 

Section AURISTOMIA, Monts., 1884. 

0. BULIMULUS, Brugnone. PI. 77, fig. 14. 

Shell thin, smooth, shining; whorls 6, slightly convex ; aper- 
ture long and rather narrow, with a plicate tooth above. 

Length, 5 mill. Mediterranean. 

0. bulimoides, Brugn., is a synonym. 



Un figured Species. 

0. ERJAVECIANA, Brusina (Syns. 0. turriculata, Monts., and 

0. retardata, Tiber! ). Mediterranean. 

O. FUSULUS, Monts. Mediterranean. 

O. MYOSOTIS, Brugnone. Mediterranean. 

Section PYRGULINA, A. Ad., 1863. 
O. DECUSSATA, Mont. PL 77, fig. 7. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, somewhat glossy, with 20-25 
flexuous longitudinal ribs and finer, thread-like spiral stria?, 
whitish ; whorls 4, besides the nucleus, convex, suture deep and 
channeled ; umbilicus slight, forming a narrow chink ; tooth 
very retired and inconspicuous, consisting of a narrow oblique 
fold. Length, 3 mill. 

Europe. 

It is Helix arenaria, Maton and Rackelt. 

0. EXIMFA, Jeffreys. PI. 77, fig. 8. 

Rather solid, semitransparent, glossy, with fine curved 
longitudinal ribs, which do not reach the base, these, or more 
frequently their interstices are crossed by three spiral striae or 
finer ribs on the middle of the body-whorl, giving the shell a 
partially cancellated appearance, the next whorls have two or 
three similar striae near the base; whorls 4-5, very convex, 
almost tumid, suture very deep ; umbilicus extremely narrow 
but distinct ; tooth minute, somewhat retired and obscure. 

Length, 1-5 mill. Boreal Europe. 

0. Barleei, Clark, is a synonym. 



ODOSTOMIA. 353 

0. INTERSTINCTA, Mont. PL 77, figs. 16, IT ; PI. 78, fig. 21. 

Rather solid, semi transparent, glossy, with numerous strong, 
slightly curved longitudinal ribs, broader than the interstices, 
ending at two or three rows of obscure spiral striae just below 
the periphery, forming punctures in the interstices, the upper 
whorls similarly marked just above the suture, base generally 
smooth, color white ; whorls 5-6, compressly convex, shelving 
abruptly towards the suture, each with a thickend rim round the 
top, suture narrow, but deeply excavated ; outer lip flexuous, 
slightly sinuated above ; umbilicus none, or a narrow chink in 
old specimens ; tooth short and retired, but strong. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Europe, Canary 7s., Madeira. 
Yar. TEREBELLUM, Phil. Fig. 17. 

Much larger, with elongated spire, ribs more oblique, espe- 
cial^ on the body-whorl, tooth prominent. 

0. Moulinsiana, Fischer (figured), appears to be equivalent 
to this. 

Yar. SUTURALIS, Phil. Fig. 21. 

Smaller, narrower and more cylindrical than the type, costae 
very fine and well curved. 

0. striata, Phil, (figured), is a synonym. 

Yar. GRACILIS, Phil. 

Shining, longitudinally obliquely ribbed, with a single spiral 
line on the upper whorls, two on the body-whorl; whorls 5, 
suture well impressed. A minute, rather doubtful shell, 
variously interpreted ; the following species has been referred 
to it. 0. ambigua, Weinkauff, is identical. 

0. EMACTATA, Brusina. PL 78, fig. 22. 

Shell narrow, cylindrical, having 5 convex whorls besides the 
embryonic one, with strong longitudinal ribs and subequal inter- 
spaces, periphery marked by a spiral thread, below which, on 
the body-whorl, the ribs become evanescent ; tooth minute. 
Length, 2-1 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

It is 0. pygmsea, Brus., not Grateloup ; 0. Silvestri, Arad. 
23 



354 OBOSTOMIA. 

0. MONOZONA, Brusina. PL 78, fig. 18. 

Whorls 4, convex, longitudinally ribbed, with wider intervals, 
ribs disappearing gradually towards the base of the last whorl, 
a few spiral striae on the interstices about the middle of the 
last whorl; white; tooth small. Length, 2 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
0. INTERMIXTA, Monts. PI. 78, figs. 19, 20. 

Whorls 4, besides the embryonic, slightly rounded, with 
strong longitudinal ribs, nearly straight, and fewer in number 
than in 0. interstincta , a spiral thread near the suture, and on 
the periphery of the last whorl, tooth minute. 

Mediterranean. 

It is 0. Jeffrey si, Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf., not Koch and 
Weichman, the latter a miocene species of earlier description. 

Tar. FLEXTCOSTA, Bucq., Dautz. Dollf. Fig. 20. 

More elongated than the type, the ribs flexuous. 
0. PENCHYNATI, Bucq., Dautz. Dollf. PI. 78, fig. 25. 

Closely related to 0. inter stincta and 0. intermixta, but dis- 
tinguished by its short pupoidal form and turriculated whorls. 

Length, T6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
0. ABBREVIATA, Monts. PI. 78, fig. 23. 

Solid, opaque, gloss3 r , with about a dozen strong sharp longi- 
tudinal ribs, terminating abruptly at the bluntly angulated per- 
iphery ; white ; whorls 4, besides the nucleus, suture shallow ; 
tooth small, indistinct; umbilicus none. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Described by Jeffreys as 0. brevicula, preoccupied by Monte- 
rosato. 

0. SPIRALIS, Mont. PI. 78, fig. 52. 

Rather solid, semitransparent, glossy, with about 30 straight 
or slightly curved ribs, broader than the interstices, terminated 
at the angulated periphery by a series of spiral basal striae, 
which are often closely punctured; whorls 5-6, flatly convex, 
shelving towards the suture which is narrow and deep; outer lip 
sinuous above; umbilicus a rather prominent chink; tooth very 
short, blunt and obscure. Length, 3 mill. 

Europe. 



ODOSTOMIA. 355 

0. TURBONILLOIDES, Brusina. PI. 78, fig. 24. 

Shell smaller than the preceding species, the whorls more 
flattened, ribs straighter, equaling the interstices, basal spiral 
striae stronger. Length, 1-6 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

0. BREVICULA, Monts., 0. AMOENA, Monts. (0. venusta, Mts., a 
synonym), 0. XARDOI, Brusina (all unfigured). 

Mediterranean. 

Section ODOSTOMIELLA, Bucq., Dautz. Dollf. 1883. 

0. DOLIOLUM, Phil. PI. 78, figs. 27, 28, 30. 

Solid, with smooth, longitudinal, rounded ribs without 
intervals; whorls 4, besides the nucleus, convex, with well im- 
pressed suture ; yellowish, with two narrow spiral brown lines, 
three on the body-whorl, tooth moderate. Length, 2-2 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

The synonyms are 0. regularis, Folin ; 0. tricincta, Jeffreys 
(fig. 30); 0. bicincta, Tiberi ; 0. unicincta, B. D. D., the last re- 
ferring to variations in the banding; and 0. cylindrica, B. D. D. 
(fig. 28), and elongata, Monts., both described as more narrowly 
elongated forms. 

Section ELODFA, Folin, 1870. 
0. HORTENSI^E, Nansouty^ Desc. inaccessible to me. 

Section MIRALDA, A. Ad., 1863. 

0. EXCAVATA, Phil. PI. 78, fig. 31. 

Solid, opaque, rather gloss}-, with prominent spiral ridges, of 
which there are three on the main part of the body-whorl, and 
two slighter ones at the base, and two ridges on the spire whorls, 
crossed obliquely by sharp longitudinal ribs, extending to the 
base, the intersections with the spiral sculpture appearing nodu- 
lous, white ; whorls 6, suture broad and very deep ; tooth small 
and remote; umbilicus narrow but distinct. Length, 3*75 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonyms are 0. trinodosa, Ba3 r neval ; 0. turrita, Metcalfe ; 
0. Deshayesiana, Recluz ; 0. Harveyi, Thompson. 



356 ODOSTOMIA. 

0. CANALTCULATA, Phil. PI. 78, fig. 20. 

Shell with three series of granulations on the upper whorls, 
six on the body-whorl; whorls flattened, suture deeply chan- 
neled. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

0. intermedia, Brusina, is a synonym. This species scarcely 
differs from the ipreceding. 

II. Species of East Coast of United States, and West Indies. 

0. IMPRESS!, Say. PL 78, figs. 33, 34. 

Thick, opaque; whorls 7, flat, with deep suture, body-whorl 
with 15 revolving lines, the upper ones more distant, about four 
lines on the next whorl, the number of lines diminishing on the 
upper whorls ; tooth distinct. Length, 5 mill. 

New England to Florida. 

0. insculpta, DeKay, is a synonym. 

Var, GRANATINA, Dall. Fig. 34. 

Posterior ribs strongly nodulous. Cedar Keys, Fla. 

0. TRIFIDA, Totten. PI. 78, figs. 36, 37. 

Smooth, glossy; whorls 8, with about 6 impressed revolving 
lines, the one above and two next below the suture wider and 
more distinct, ten or twelve very minute lines at the base of the 
body-whorl ; fold sharp, oblique ; color ivory or soiled white. 

Length, 5 mill. 

New England, New York. 

0. MARGINATA, Cailliaud (fig. 37), appears to be a specimen of 
this shell, accidentally carried to French shores. 

0. PRODUCTA, C. B. Adams. PI. 78, fig. 43. 

Whorls 8, flatly convex, white, under a light brown epidermis, 
smooth, columella flexuously plicate. Length, 5 mill. 

Massachusetts. 
0. FUSCA, C. B. Adams. PL 78, fig. 41. 

Whorls 6, rather flat, suture strongly impressed, with an im- 
pressed line below it, smooth, white under a shining brown 
epidermis ; fold remote, occasionally double, and sometimes 
obsolete. Length, 6 mill. 

New England to Florida. 



ODOSTOMIA. 357 

0. DEALBATA, Stimpson. PI. 78, fig. 40. 

White, smooth, pellucid ; whorls 6, rather convex, fold incon- 
spicuous. Length, 4 mill. 

Massachusetts. 
0. MODESTA, Stimpson. PI. 78, fig. 39. 

White, smooth; whorls 4, flattened, periphery obtusely angu- 
lated, suture impressed ; columellar fold small, oblique. 

Length, 3'5 mill. 

St. George's Banks. 
0. SEMINUDA, Adams. PI. 78, fig. 35. 

Whorls 7, convex, those of the spire and upper half of the 
body longitudinally plicate, crossed by three spiral lines, giving 
a granulated appearance, the folds terminate at the periphery, 
below it on the body-whorl are four spiral striae; suture distinct, 
indistinctly margined ; pillar fold inconspicuous; glossy white, 
translucent. Length, 3'75 mill. 

New England to Florida. 
0. BISUTURALIS, Say. PI. 78, fig. 38. 

Smooth, epidermis light brownish; whorls 5-6, with an im- 
pressed revolving line below the suture, periphery obtusely 
angulated. Length, 5 mill. 

New England. 

Jaminea exigua, Couth., and Rissoa rupestris, Forbes, are 
synonyms. 

0. CEDROSA, Ball. PI. 78, fig. 42. 

Whitish, thin, seven whorls, reticulated by longitudinal plica- 
tions and narrower interspaces and revolving striae, at the per- 
iphery the plications cease, but the spiral sculpture is continued 
to the base, but fainter and closer, suture submargined by a 
deeper line ; white ; fold obsolete or very faint ; no umbilicus. 

Length, 5 - 5 mill. 

Cedar Keys, Fla., on mud flats. 

0. L^VJGATA, d'Orb. Pi. 78, fig. 44. 

Thin, oblong, whitish, smooth, shining; whorls 6, slightly 
convex, suture opaquely margined, columella with a very slight 
fold. Length, 4 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. Indies. 



358 ODOSTOMIA. 

Unfiyured and doubtful Specie*. 

0. DISPARILIS, 0. TORNATA, Yerrill. New England. 

0. ACUTIDENS, Dall. Florida. 

0. CORTICARIA, Say. Pupa. 

0. SOLTDULA, 0. CANALICULATA, 0. OVUL01DES, 

0. (MIRALDA) BABYLONICA, all of C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

0. (SPIROCLIMAX) SCALARIS, Morch. St. Thomas, W. I. 

O. TORCULA, Morch. St., Thomas,- W. I. 

0. CUBENSIS and 0. PUSILLA, Pfr. Cuba. 

III. Species of West Coast of North America. 

0. INFLATA, Carp. PI. 78, fig. 45. 

Thin, light ashy, under an ash-colored epidermis ; whorls 4, 
besides the nucleus, rapidly increasing, suture impressed, very 
minutely, closely spirally striated ; no umbilicus; tooth trans- 
verse, acute. Length, 6'5 mill. 

California. 

0. Sitkensis, Ball. MS., is doubtfully referred to this species. 

O. MUCIFORMIS, Carp. PL 78, fig. 46. 

Compact, smooth, solid, white; whorls o, besides the nucleus, 
subplanate, margins excavated, base lengthened, not umbilicated ; 
lip solid, tooth obtuse, transverse. Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Neeah Bay. 
0. SATURA, Carp. PL 78, fig. 48. 

Solid, smooth, white; whorls 5, besides the nucleus, convex, 
with impressed suture, base rounded, subumbilicated, lip scarcely 
sinuated ; plica strong, transverse. Length, 7 mill. 

Neeah Bay. 

Yars. GOULDI and PUPIFORMIS are indicated by Carpenter. 

0. STRAMINEA, Carp. PL 78, fig. 47. 

Like an elate 0. satura, but much more elate, not inflated, 
epidermis light 3'ellowish, without strite. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Lower California. 

Un figured Species. 

O. GRAVIDA, Gould. California. 

0. BERINGII, Dall. Alaska. 



ODOSTOMIA. 359 

0. VALLATA, 0. TENUIS, 0. SUBSULCATA, 0. MAMILLATA, 0. LAM- 

ELLATA, of Carpenter. Mazatlan. 

0. AVELLANA, Carp. Vancouver Id. 

Section EVALEA, A. Ad., 1860. 
0. TENUISCULPTA, Carp. PI. 78, fig. 49. 

Whitish, thin, diaphanous ; whorls 3, besides the nucleus, 
with impressed suture, with rather wide spiral sulcations, three 
on the upper whorls and upper part of body-whorl, six subobso- 
lete on the lower part of body-whorl; tooth acute, small. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

Neeah Bay. 

Unfigured Species. 

0. ^EQUISCULPTA and 0. DELICATULA, Carp. Cape St. Lucas, L. Cat. 
0. SUBLIRULATA, Carp. Mazatlan. 

Section TYRGULINA, A. Ad., 1863. 

Un figured Species. 

P. ZIZIPHINA, P. PHOTIS, P. CONVEXA, P. LACUNATA, P. ARMATA 
and P. SCALARIFORMIS, Carp. Mazatlan. 

P. NOTABILIS (Syns. P. turrita, C. B. Ad., P. quinquecincta, 
Carp.), and P. TEREBELLUM (Syn. P. exarata, Carp.), of C. 
B. Adams. Panama and Mazatlan. 

P. CLATHRATULA, C. B. Ad. Panama. 

IV. Polynesian Species. 

0. INTEHSTRIATA, Souverbie. PI. 78, figs. 51, 50. 

Thin, subpellucid, somewhat glossy, cinereous ; whorls 7, longi- 
tudinally ribbed, the interstices with close spiral striae', columella 
with a stout fold. Length, 4 mill. 

New Caledonia, Samoa and Viti Is. 

The last two localities are for 0. densecostata, Garrett (fig. 
50), which that gentleman, in a letter to me, acknowledges to be 
a synonym. 



360 ODOSTOMIA. 

0. AMANDA, Garrett. PL 18, fig. 52. 

Rather thin, subpellucid, somewhat shining, cinereous, longi- 
tudinally ribbed, constricted below the suture, forming a row of 
granules, interstices of equal width and spirally impressly striated ; 
whorls 7, convex, suture deep and crenulated ; tooth obsolete. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Viti Is. 
0. PULCHRA, Garrett. PI. 79, fig. 53. 

Thin, slightly shining, remotely longitudinal^ ribbed, with 
wider, closely spirally ridged interstices ; whorls 7, convex, nar- 
rowly shouldered above ; white; plait small, oblique. 

Length, 4 '5 mill. 

Viti Is. 
0. SULCATA, Garrett. PI. 79, fig. 54. 

Rather solid, subpellucid, shining, white ; whorls about 12, 
longitudinally grooved, with narrower interstices, gradually dis- 
appearing on the back of the body-whorl, suture deep ; plait 
stout, callous. Length, 8*5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. OBELTSCUS, Garrett. PI. 79, fig. 55. - 

Shell thin, hyaline, white, decussated by microscopical longi- 
tudinal lines and spiral impressed striae ; whorls 10, suture linear, 
margined ; plait rather small. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. VITREA, Garrett. PI. 79, fig. 56. 

Thin, vitreous, pellucid, smooth, shining; whorls 11, suture 
linear, rather widely margined ; aperture with revolving lamellae 
within, fold stout; umbilicus with a small fissure. 

Length, 7'5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. EXILIS, Garrett. PI. 79, fig. 57. 

Fragile, pellucid, shining, white, finely longitudinally striated; 
whorls 6-8, convex, suture well impressed ; columellar fold 
small. Length, 4 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. DENSESTRIATA, Garrett. PL 79, fig. 58. 

Thin, pellucid, shining, white ; whorls 11, flatly convex.closelj', 
finely spirally striated, crossed by more delicate growth-lines, 
suture impressed; plait rather small. Length, 9 mill. 

Viti Islands. 



ODOSTOMIA. 361 

0. ORYZA, Garrett. PL 79, fig. 59. 

Thin, smooth, glossy, white ; whorls 7, flatly convex, suture 
faintly impressed, broadly margined ; columella concave, slightly 
callous, with a rather small plait. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. CRYSTALLINA, Garrett. PL 79, fig. 60. 

Rather thick, subpellucid, smooth, shining white, decussated 
by microscopic striae ; whorls 11-12, nearly flat, suture impressed ; 
columella arched, callous, with stout plait. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. LUTEA, Garrett. PL 79, fig. 61. 

Smooth, shining, luteous } r ellow ; whorls 9-10, flatly convex, 
the last obsoletely subangulated on the periphery, suture im- 
pressed and margined ; a slight umbilical fissure ; plait distinct. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Viti Islands ; New Caledonia. 

The last locality is for 0. rufula, Souverbie. The description 
does not mention a sutural margin in that species, but it is in- 
distinctly shown in the figure. 

0. UNILINEATA, Garrett. PL 79, fig. 62. 

Smooth, shining, subpellucid, white, with a yellowish brown 
line just above the suture; whorls about 11, convex, with deep 
suture ; aperture lirate within, fold prominent. 

Length, 10'5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. CUSPIDATA, Garrett. PL 79, fig. 63. 

Smooth, shining, creamy white, with a microscopical articulate 
darker line on the middle of the whorls ; whorls 13-15, convex, 
the last showing growth-lines, suture deep; aperture lirate with- 
in, slightly expanded at the base; columella callous, fold stout ; 
umbilicus fissured. Length, 11 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
0. ACICULINA, Souverbie. PL 79, fig. 64. 

Smooth, subpellucid, white, with two orange-brown revolving 
lines, sometimes coalescing into a single broader band ; whorls 
11, longitudinally, minutely, impressly striate, suture impressed, 
sometimes spirally substriated on the base, varicose around the 
umbilicus; columella with an ascending plica. Length, 8 mill. 

New Caledonia 



362 ODOSTOMIA. 

0. BULIMOIDES, Souverbie. PI. 79, fig. 69. 

Rather solid, corneous white, longitudinally subobliquely 
striated ; whorls 9, slightly convex, with impressed suture ; 
plait distinct. Length, 6 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
0. PUP^EFORMIS, Souverbie. PI. 79, figs. 65, 66. 

White, longitudinally costate, the equal interstices spirally 
impressed striate ; whorls 9, slightly convex, suture rather deep ; 
columella strongly plicate. Length, 5*5 mill. 

New Caledonia ; New South Wales. 

0. Kreffli, Angas (fig. 66), is a S3*nonym. 



0. L-fflvis, Angas. PI. 79, fig. 67. 

Thin, subdiaphanous, shining, white; whorls 7, a little 
rounded, suture channeled ; fold strongly developed. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
0. ANGASI, Tryon. PI. 79, fig. 68. 

Rather thin, smooth, shining, white; whorls 6, flattened, 
suture impressed ; columellar fold strong. Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
Described by Angas as 0. lactea, preoccupied by D linker. 

0. (PARTHENIA) PASCOET, Angas. PI. 79, fig. 70. 

Rather thin, rimate, pale yellowish brown ; whorls 7, longitu- 
dinally rather closely plicate, plicae evanescent on the basal 
portion of the last whorl, transversely finely striated ; whorls 8, 
somewhat convex, suture well impressed ; columellar plait 
moderate. Length, 8 mill. 

Port Jackson , Australia. 

0. YJNCENTINA, Tryon. PI. 79, fig. 72. 

Moderately thin, white, regularly longitudinally ribbed, the 
interstices crossed by very fine hair-like striae ; whorls 7-J, slightly 
convex, contracted at the suture, suture profound ; columellar 
plait strong. Length, 5 mill. 

St. Vincent's Gulf, Australia. 

The specific name is substituted for 0. (Parthenia) yracilis, 
Angas, not Pease. 



ODOSTOMIA. 363 

0. SIMPLEX, Angas. PI. 79, fig. 71. 

Rather solid, smooth, whitish ; whorls 7 J, rather flat, a little 
angulatecl at the suture ; aperture 1 irate within, plait sharp, 

transverse. Length, 4 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
0. STIUATA, Pease. PI. 79, fig. 73 

Subpellucid, whitish, spire sometimes stained yellowish or 
brownish, finely spirally striated ; whorls 7, planely convex, 
slightly angulate at the well-impressed suture ; fold distinct. 

Length, 5-5 mill. 

Paumotus. 
0. POLITA, Pease. PI. 79, fig. 74. 

Smooth, glabrous, whitish or yellowish ; whorls 8, nearly 
plane, suture slightly impressed; columella callous, fold well- 
developed. Length, 6 mill. 

Tahiti. 
0. RUBRA, Pease. PI. 79, fig. 75. 

Longitudinally striated, and indistinctly so spirally, light rose 
color; whorls 9-10, plane, suture margined; columella slightly 

callous, fold small. Length, 10 mill. 

Paumotus. 
0. ROSACEA, Pease. PI 79, fig. 76. 

Solid, smooth, shining, rosy, paler at the base; whorls 5, 
plano-convex, suture obsoletely margined, with a row of obsolete 

light spots. Length, 7 mill. 

Paumotus. 
0. GRACILIS, Pease. PI. 79, fig. 77. 

Thin, elongated, finely spirally striated ; whorls 6, flatly convex, 

acutely angulatecl at the suture. Length, 4 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 
0. DEBILTS, Pease. PL 79, fig. 79. 

Rather thick, longitudinally striated, and very minutely so 
spirally ; whorls 9, flat, acutely angulatecl at the suture, periphery 
obtusely angulatecl ; white, spire rosy. Length, 9 mill. 

Rowland's Isl. 



Undetermined Species. 

0. OBTUSA, Gould. Bonin Islands. 

0. BULLULA, Gould. Loo Choo. 



364 ODOSTOMIA. 

Y. Asiatic Species. 
0. FASCIATA, D anker. PL 79, fig. 81. 

Very smooth, shining, white, with a thin band ; whorls 8, flat, 
with incised suture ; plait distinct ; columella barely rimate. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Japan. 
0. LACTEA, Bunker. PI. 79, fig. 80. 

Rather solid, white, shining; whorls 8, flattened, with deep 
suture; fold conspicuous. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Japan. 
0. COSTULATA, Bunker. PI. 79, fig. 83. 

Longitudinally costate, whitish ; whorls 8, a little convex, 
suture distinct; plica oblique, strong. Length, 5 mill. 

Japan. 
0. CARINATA, A. Ad. PI. 79, fig. 82. 

Imperforate, thin, smooth, whitish ; whorls 6, the upper ones 
unicarinated. The body bi-carinated, shouldered ; plica distinct. 
Length, 3 mill. 

Persian Gulf. 
Probably a monstrosity. 

0. CLYSMATJCA, Issel. PI. 79, fig. 84. 

Imperforate, solid, white, a little shining, transversely costu- 
late ; whorls 5J, a little convex, suture margined, upper whorls 
longitudinally plicate, the last at the suture only ; plait small. 

Length, 2 mill. 

Red Sea. 
0. DECORATA, Phil. PI. 79, fig. 85. 

Longitudinally plicated, the wider interstices spirally striated, 
plicae continuing to the base; whorls 6, slightly convex, with 
well-impressed suture ; plait small. Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea. 

0. CRATICULATA, Issel. PI. 79, fig. 86. 

Imperforate, yellowish white, solid, a little shining; longitu- 
dinally plicate, plicae stopping at the periphery of the last whorl, 
spirally costulate throughout ; whorls G^-, flatly convex, suture 
profound; tooth small; umbilical region excavated. 

Length, 3 mill. 

Red Sea. 



ODOSTOMIA. 365 

0. SUEZIENSIS, Isscl. PL 79, fig. 87. 

Yellowish white, translucent, somewhat solid, smooth ; whorls 
6, rapidly increasing ; suture lightly impressed, brown margined ; 

tooth small. Length, 4 mill. 

Red Sea. 
0. SOLIDULA, Philippi. PI. 79, fig. 88. 

Subim perforate, white, smooth, shining ; whorls 6 ; suture 

deep ; lip striate within. 

Red Sea. 
Issel's figure shows indistinct spiral striae. 

Un figured Species. 

0. SUTURALTS, 0. SUBULATA, 0. ERYTHR^A, O. DOLIARTS, all of 

Philippi. Red Sea. 

0. V1RIDESCENS, 0. PHYSOIDES, 0. LIRATA, 0. PUNCTICULATA, Goilld. 

China Sea. 

0. SUBPLANATA, 0. PLANATA, Gould. Hong Kong. 

0. SCALARINA, 0. SOLUTA, Gould. LOO CJlOO. 

0. SUBDIAPHANA, 0. ACHATINELLA, 0. PRUINOSA, 0. NEGLECTA, 
0. CANA, 0. NIVEA, 0. GONIOSTOMA, 0. OVOIDEA, 0. SUBANGU- 
LATA, 0. VITREA, 0. PYGM^EA, 0. NANA, 0. JAPONICA, O. VEN- 
TRICOSA, 0. OBESULA, 0. PUPA, 0. TENERA, 0. SCALINA, 0. 
ELATA, 0. HYALINA, 0. OBLONGA, 0. (AURICULTNA) OVAL1S, 

0. (AURICULTNA) GRAYI, O. (EVALEA) PYRAMIS, O. (EVA- 
LEA) ARCUATA, 0. (EVALEA) ELEGANS, 0. (MlRALDA) DIA- 

DEMA, 0. (MlRALDA) GEMMA, 0. (MlRALDA) MARIELLA, 0. 
(PARTHENIA) CCELATA, 0. (PARTH.) CASTA, 0. (PARTH.) 
MINNA, 0. (PARTH.) BRENDA, 0. (PARTH.) ELEGANTULA, O. 
(PARTH.) PYGMYEA, 0. (PARTH.) PULCHELLA, O. (PARTH.) 
COXCINNA, 0. (PARTH.) MIRANDA, 0. (PARTH.) PURA, 0. 
(PARTH.) CKELATA, 0. (PARTH.) BELLULA, 0. (PARTH.) FENES- 
TRATA, 0. (PYRGULINA) DECUSSATA, 0. (PYRG.) TANTILLA, 
O. (PARTH.) SIMRATA, 0. (PARTH.) LITTORALIS, O. (PARTH.) 
PUNCT1GERA, 0. (CflRYSALLIDA) SEM1PLTCATA, 0. (PARTH.) 
PAGODULA, 0. (PARTH.) PUSIO, 0. (PARTH.) FOVEOLATA, 0. 
(PARTH.) COSTELLATA, all of A. Adams. Japan. 

0. VITR^EA, 0. ELLIPSOIDEA, 0. CANALICULATA, 0. MEGACHEILOS, 

G. ACUTELIRATA, 0. FALLAX, 0. NfiviLLi, Folin. (Descrip- 
tions are inaccessible to me.) Andaman Isl. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

EULIMIDJD, PYRAMIDELLID.E, TUKBONILLID^E. 



PAGE. 

Abbreviata (Eulima), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 370, 1884, . 275 
Abbreviata (Odostomia), Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 

88, 1884, 354 

Abbreviata (St} T lifer subangulatus, var.), Morch. Mai. 

Blatt., xxii, p. 183, 1875, . . . . . . .292 

A can thy His (Eulima), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvii, 118, 278 
Acerrima (Eulima), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvii, 118, 278 
Achates (Pyramidella), Gld. Otia Conch., 186, 1852, . 303 

Achatinella (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d 

ser., vi, 417, 1860, 3^5 

Acicula (Eulimellaj, Philippi. Ennm. Moll. Sic., i, p. 158, 

t. 9, f. 6, 1836, . 340 

Acicula (Leiostraca), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 84, 1849, 282, 208 
Acicularia, Monterosato. Noraencl. Conch. Medit., 102, 

1884, . 259 

Acicularis (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 182, 1853, 335 
Acicularis (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

125, 1861, 278 

Aciculata (Eulima), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 438, 1860, . . 278 
Aciculata (Eulima), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 36 (not Pease). 

= E. acicula, Gould, 282 

Aciculata (Syrnola), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

808, t. 171,' f. 21, 1855, 306 

Aciculina, Desh. (not H. and A. Ad.), 1853. 

= Baudonia, Bayan, 1864, 319 

Aciculina (Odostomia), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., xiii, 

p. 150, 1865, 3C>1 

Aclis (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 277, 1851, . . 278 
Aclis (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . . . 306 
Aclis (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

816, t. 172, f. 16, 17, 1855 297,312 

Actaeopyramis, Fischer. Man. de Conch., 787, 1885, . 297, 313 
Acuformis (Eulima), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. Asiatic Soc. 

Bengal, p. 98, 1875, . . . ' 271 

Aculeus (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 164, 1852, . 334 

(3G6) 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 367 

PAGE. 

Acuminata (? Chrysallida), C. B. Ad. Panama Sh., No. 220, 
1852, ...... 334 

Acuminata (Monoptygma), Old. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 406, 

1861 ' 315 

Acus (Obeliscus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3451, . . . 301 
Acuta (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 276, 1851, . . 268 
Acuta (Leiostraca), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 8, 1834, ' . . 280 
Acuta (Odostomia), Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d 

scr., ii, p. 338 348 

Acutalis (Eulima), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xi, 

p. 397, t. 16, f. 5, 1883. 

Acutelirata (Odostomia), Folin. Moll. Andam., 365, . 277 

Acuticostata (Odostomia), Jeffr. Zool. Proc.. p. 359, 1884, 322 
Acutidens (Odostomia), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 

p. 331, 1883, 358 

Acutissima (Leiostraca), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 

10, 1866, 28L 

Acutissima (Turbonilla), Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 

92, 1884 324 

Acutus (Turbo), Donov. Brit. Shells. 

= Turbonilla lactea, Linn. ...... 322 

Adamantina (Eulima), Folin. Les Meleagrinicoles, p. 62, 

t. 6,f. 2, 1867, 272 

Adamsii (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,sp. 38, 1866. 

= E. nitidula, A. Ad 271 

Adamsi (Pyramidella), Trvon, 306 

.Eii-lees (Nisso), Bush. Rep. U. S. Fish Comm.. p. 83, 1883- 

1885, ........... 288 

^Equisculptis (Odostomia), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xiv, p. 46, 1864 359 

Aflinis (Chemnitzia),C.B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 165, 1852 ; Carp., 

Zool. Proc., 339, 1863 334 

Aflinis (Eulima), C. B. Ad. Contrib., p. 110, 1850, . . 277 
Affinis (Eulima), Phil. Ennm. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 135, 1844. 

= E. acicula, Phil., var 340 

Agatha, A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., vi,422, 1860, 296, .309 
Alba (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 2d ser., ii, 

337 ; 3d ser., iii, t. 3, f/20. = 0. Rissoides, Hanley,var. 347 
Alba (Odostomia), Calkins. Cat. Shells of Florida, p. 239, 

t. 8,f. 1, 2 343 

Albella (Odostomia), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 19, . 349 
Albella (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

vii, 297, 1861, 335 

Albida (Cythnia), Carp. Snppl. Kept., 657, 1864, . . 293 
Albula (Menestho), Gould (not Moller). Invert. Mass., 1842. 

= M. striatula, Couth 345 



368 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PA OK. 

Albula (Menestho), Moller. Inrl. Moll. Groenl., 1842 ; Bush., 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,vi,p. 242, t. 9, f. 11, . . .344 
Albus (Turbo), Pennant. Brit. Zool. 

= Odostomia lactea, Linn. ...... 322 

Albus (Turbo), Donovan. Brit. Shells, v, 177. 

= Eulima polita, Linn. ....... 274 

Alveata (Clnysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 45, 

1861 311 

Amabilis (Eulima), Braz. Linn. Soc., N. S. W., i, p. 285, 

1876, . . 278 

Amanda (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

p. 225, t. 3, f. 43, 1873, 360 

Amathis, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., viii, 303, 1861, 296, 309 
Amaurella, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1867, . . . 260, 286 
Ambigua (Pyramidella). Gld. Otia. Conch., p. 60, 1846. 

= Rissoina, Gld., Otia. Conch., p. 245, . . . .312 
Ambigua (Turbonilla), Weink. Conch. Mittelm., ii, 216, 

1868. = Odostomia Interstincta, Monts. . . . 358 
Amblia (Eulima), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvii, 127, . 278 
Americana (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Amer. Merid. p. 397, t. 53, 

f. 17-19 331 

Amcena (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . . 313 
Amoena (Odostomia), Monts. Enum. e Sinon., p. 34,. . 355 

Amaura, de Folin. 1873, 295, 304 

Anceyana (S3 r rnolopsis),Bourg. Notice Prodr. Tanganika, 

20, 1885, 316 

Angasi (Odostomia), Tryon, 362 

Anglica (Eulima), Sowb. Conch. Illust., fig. 8. 

= E, polita, Linn 274 

Angulata (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

127, 1861, 278 

Angusta (Chrysallida), Carp. Ann. Mag., xiv, 47, 1864, .311 
Angusta (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

iii, t. 3, f. 18. = 0. pallida, Mont., var 346 

Angusta (Odostomia), Monts. Conch. Medit., 13, . . 341 
Anisocycla, Monts. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., vi, p. 72, 1880. 

= Baudonia, Bay an 319 

Annulatus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, 

p. 812, t. 171, f. 26, 1855. = Oscilla, A. Ad. . . .309 
Antiflexa (Eulima), Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 101, 

1884. = E. incurva, var. exilis 275 

Apheles (Eulima), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

p. 41, 1878, . . .278 

Apicalia,A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., ix, 295, 1862, . 260, 283 
Apiculatum (Scalenostoma), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch., 

p. 383, 1876; p. 77, 1877, 287 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Apiculatus (Stylifer), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch, p. 238, 

t. 9, f. 6, 1862 201 

Aptyxiella, Fischer. Manuel de Conch., 689, 1885, . . 299 
Aptyxis, Zittel, 1873. Handb. Pal., i, pt. 2, 247, . . 299 

Arabica (Eulimella), Issel. Mare Rosso, p. 182, t. 2, f. 5, 

1X69 341 

Arcuata (Eulima), C. B. Ad. Contrib., p. 110, 1850, . . 277 
Arcuata (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,sp. 14, 1866. 

= E. major, Sowb. ........ 266 

Arcuata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. X. Hist., 3d ser., 

vi, 22, 1860 365 

Arcuella, G. and H. Nevill. Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 

p. 26, 1874, . . . ' .. 259 

Arenaria (Helix). Maton and Rachett. 

= Odostomia decussata, Mont. . . . . . 352 

Areolata (Chemnitzia), Rayneval. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 354, 

1884. = Odostomia indistincta, Mont 326 

Areolata (Turbonilla), Yerrill. Rep. U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, i, p. 659, 1874, ... ... .328 

Ariel (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, 

p. 239, 1861, 282 

Armata (Parthenia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 415, 1857, . . 359 
Articulata (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 8, 1834, . . 269 
Asteriaphila (Stylina), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xiii, 

p. 478, 1864, 293 

Astericola (Stylifer), A. Ad. Yoy. Samarang, p. 46, t. 17, 

f. 5, 1850. "= S. cvoidea, H. and A. Ad 290 

Astericola (Stylifer), Brod. Zool. Proc., p. 60, 1832, . . 290 
Astericola (Stylifer), Brown. 111. Conch. Gt. Brit., 133, 1844. 

== S. Turtoiii, Brod 290 

Attenuata (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Eulima, 

sp. 46, 1866, .282 

Attenuata (Odostomia), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 360, 1884. 

= Turbonilla micans, Monts. ...... 323 

Attenuata (Stylifer), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 11, 1878, . 292 
Attenuates (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, 

p. 811, t. 171, f. 22, 1855 306 

Augur (Eulima), Angas. Zool. Pr*oc., p. 56, 1865, . . 269 
Aurantia (Chemnitzia), Carp. Jour, de Conch., xii, 147, 

1865 333 

Aurantia (Eulimn), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., iv, p. 144, 

1884, 278 

Aurantiaca(Styloptygma), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 112,1867, 313 
Auriculina, Gray (not Grat., 1838). Proc. Zool. Soc., 1847, 

= Ondina, Monts 321 

Auristomia, Monts. H Nat. Sicil, p. 201, 1885, . . 321, 35<2 

24 



370 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Australis (Agatha), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 15, t. 1, f. 9, 
1871, 303, 309 

Australis (Cingulina), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Ro}'. Soc., 
Tasmania, p. 14, 1875, 339 

Avellana (Odostomia), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 
xix, 1864, . . .359 

Babylonia (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., p. 6, 1846, 358 
Bacula, H. and A. Adams. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, 1863, 259, 283 
Badia (Elusa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 237, 1802, . .311 
Balcis, Leach MS. Gray, Zool. Proc., 1847. = Eulima, Risso. 259 
Ballire (Turbonilla), Thompson. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iv, 

15-1. = T. indistincta, Mont., . 326 

Balteata(Leiostraca),A.Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 89, 1864, 283 
Balteatus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

809, t. 171,f. 25, 1855, 300 

Barleei (Chemnitzia), Clark. Ann. Nat. Hist., vii, 129, 1851. 

= Odostomia eximia, Jeffreys, ..... 352 

Barronii (Stylifer), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 137, 1854, . 291 

Baudonia, Bayan, 1873, 319 

Bayania, Munier-Chalmas, 1877, 206 

Beddomei (Chemnitzia), Petterd. Journ. of Conch , iv, p. 

136, 1884, . 335 

Bellula (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

3 ser., vi, 415, 1860, 365 

Bering! (Odostomia), Dall. Amer. Journ. Conch., vii, p. 

117, 1872 ..... 358 

Beryllina (Eulima), Monts. Jour, de Conch., 151, 1878, . 278 
Bicarinata (Chemnitzia), Cpr. Zool. Proc., p. 171, 1856, . 335 
Bicincta (Mucronalia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

v, p. 301, 1860, 285 

Bicincta (Odostomia doliolum, var.), Tiberi. Journ. de 

Conch., p. 62, 1868, 3f>5 

Bicincta (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 419, 1860, . ;53<i 
Bicolor (Pyramidella), Mke. Mai. Blatt., i, p. 28, 1854, . 3u4 
Bifascialis (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 

88, 1864, . 283 

Bifasciata (Eulima), d'Orb. Cuba, i, p. 216, 1853, . .279 
Bifasciata (Syrnola), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc., 

Tasmania, p. 13, 1875, ... ... 309 

Bifasciata (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

3 ser., vii, 297, 1861, 334 

Bilineata (Eulima), Ad. and Rve. Yoy. Samarang, p. 52, t. 

11, f. 24. = Leiostraca bivittata, H. and A. Ad. . . 279 
Bilineata (Leiostraca), Alder. Moll, of Northumb. and 

Durham, 279 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 371 

PAGE. 

Bilirata (Jaminea), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, t. 29, f. 3, . 351 
Bipartita (Eulima), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 120, 1860, . 278 
Bisnturalis (Odostomia), Say. Jour. Philada. Acad., ii, 244, 

1821, 357 

Bittiformis (Chemnitzia), Cpr. Zool. Proc., p. 171, 1856, . 335 
Bivittata (Leiostraca), H. and A. Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 

p. 239, 279 

Bizona (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 88, 

1864 283 

Bizonalis (Syrnola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, 

p. 334, 1860, 309 

Bizonata (Eulima piriformis, var.), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 

369, 1884, 276 

Boholensis (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 180, 1853, 335 
Bonellia, Desli. (not Rolando), Lain. Anim. sans Vert., viii, 

p. 449. = Niso, Risso, 261 

Boscii (Melania), Payr. Moll, de Corse., p. 112, t. 5, f. 15, 

16,1826. = Eulima polita, Linn -274 

Bourguetia, Desh., 1871, 263 

Braciiystomia, Monts. II Nat. Sicil., p. 200, 1885. 

= Odostomia, Fleming, 320 

Brazieri (Cincrulina), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 35, 1877, . 338 
Brazieri (Sty lifer), Angus. Zool. Proc., p. 173, 1877, . 291 
Brenda (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

478, 1860 365 

Brevicula (Eulima), Bunker, 285 

Brevicula (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xi, p. 397, t. 16, f. 4, 1883. = O. abbreviata, Monts. . 354 
Brevicula (Odostomia), Monts. Enuin. e Sin., 33, 1878, . 355 
B rev-is (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 7, 1834, . . . 267 
Brevis (Eulima), Requien. Coq. de Corse., p. 58, 1848. 

= E. polita, Linn., var. . . . . . . 274 

Brevis (Odostomia Hum bold ti, var.), Requien. Coq. Cors , 

p. 59, 1848 . . .345 

Breviuscula (Eulima), Dkr. Juhrbuch. Deutsch. Mai. Gesell., 

p. 242,1875 277 

Broderipii (Stylifer), Adams. = S. astericola, Brod. . 290 
Brugnoni (Odostomia), Monts. Jour, de Conch., p. 266, 

1874. = 0. clavula, Lovdn, 344 

Bruneri (Menestho), Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 539, 

1882, 345 

Brunnea (Niso), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 7, 1834, . . .288 
Brunnea (S.yrnola), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 810, 

t. 171, f. 35, 1855, 306 

Brvchius (Stylifer), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc.,xvii,p. 130, 

1883, 293 



372 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Bulbiformis (Stylifer), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 18, 1878. 

= S. subulatus, Brod. and Sowb. ..... 291 

Bulimella, Hall. Trans. Albany Inst., iv, 29, 1858. 

= Subulites, Conr ......... 25 

Bulimoides (Odostomia), Brugnone. Misc. Malac., 8, f. 10, 

1873. = 0. bulimulus, Brugn ...... 352 

Bulimoides (Odostomia), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch., xiii, 

p. 151,1865, ......... 362 

Bulimorpha. Whitfield, 1882. = Subulites, Conrad,. . 2(;5 
Bulimulus (Odostomia), Brugnone. Monts , Jour, de Conch., 

268, 1874, . . . . ...... 352 

Bnlimus (Eulima), Scacchi. = Odostomia plicata, Mont. 346 
Bulinea (Menestho), Lowe. Zool. Proc., p. 40, 1840, . . 345 
Bullula (Odostomia), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 404, 1861, . 363 
Bushiana (Odostomia), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 537 ; 

Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 357, 1884. = 0. magnifica, Seguenza, 323 
Buxea (Syrnola), Gld. Otia Conch., p. 147, . . . 309 

Caclata (Chemnitzia), Carp. Ann. Mag., 3 ser., xv, 399, 1865, 333 
Caelata (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p 303, 18iil, * . ..'... 315 

Gaelata (Parthenia), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 4, 1863, 365 
Caelata (Turbonilla), Gld. Bost. Proc.. vii, p. 406, 1861, . 336 
Calameli (Chemnitzia), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., i, p. 

273, 1880, .......... 326 

Caledonica (Eulima), Morelet. Journ. de Conch., p. 342, t. 

12, f. 1, la, 1881, ........ 285 

Callosa (Styliferina), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., vi, p. 124, 

1870, ........... 286 

Cambessedesii (Melania), Payr. Moll, de Corse, p. 107, t. 

5, f. 11,12. = Eulima subulata, Donovan, . . . 279 
Campanell0e (Melania), Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, 156, 1836. 

= Turbinella lactea, Linn., var ...... 322 

Campyla (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 

121', 1883, . . ........ 278 

Cana (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., vi, 

417, 1860, ....... ... 365 

Canaliculata (Odostomia), C. B. Ad. Contr. p. 109, 1850, . 358 
Canaliculata (Odostomia), Folin. Moll. Isles Andaman, . 365 
Canaliculata (Pyramidella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 720, 1873, 302 
Canaliculata (Rissoa), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 223, 1844, . 356 
Cancellata (Dunkeria), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 435, 1857, . 338 
Cancellata (Dunkeria), i'Orb. Cuba, p. 225, t. 17,f. 1-3, 1853, 337 
Candida (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 181, 1853, . 335 
Candida (Eulima), Marrat. Proc. Liverpool Philos. Soc., 

p. 339, 1880 ; Smith, Journ. of Conch., iv, 282, . . 266 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 373 

PAGE. 

Candida (Turbonilla), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 207, t. 

28, f. 13, 327 

Candidula (Niso), A. Ad. Sowcrb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 802, 

1855, . . . . . . . . . . 288 

Candidas (Obeliscus), Meusch. Morch, Mai. BUitt., xxii, 

158. =P. conica, C. B. Ad 302 

Careliopsis, Morch. Mai. Blatt., 1874, . . . 297, 315 

Carinata (Odostomia), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., p. 206, t. 23, 

f. 4, 1873, 364 

Carinata (Salassia), Folin, 1870. = Cingulina, . , 339 
Carinatum (Scalenostoma), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 58, 

t. 7, f. 26, 27, 1863, 287 

Carneola (Eulima), Gould. Bost. Proc., p. 404, 1860, . 278 

Casta (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 301, 1861, 314 
Casta (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, 

p. 240, 1861, 282 

Casta (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . . 365 
Castanea (El usa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 237, 1862, . . 311 
C.B.Adamsi (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 427, 1857, . 333 
Cedrosa (Odostomia), Dall. Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., vi, p. 

331, 1883, 357 

Cereum (Styloptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 236, 1862, 313 
Cerina (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., vii, 

297,1861, ... .335 

Charissa (Eulimella), Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

193, t. 32, f. 4, 4 a, 46, 1884, .342 

Chascanon (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 

114, 1883, . .278 

Chatliamensis (Eulima), Hutton. Cat. N. Zeal. Moll., 73. 

= Rissoa variegata, Angas, . . . . . .278 

Chaunax (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 114, 

1883. = E. piriformis, Brugn 276 

Chemnitzia, d'Orb. Pal. Fran^, 1850, . . . .265 

Chemnitzia, d'Orb., 1839 (not 1850), Hist. Nat. lies Canaries. 

= Turbonilla, Risso,' 317 

Chemnitziana (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

sp. 34 302 

Chocolata (Chemnitzia), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 220, 1866, 333 
Chrysallida, Carp. Mazat. Cat., 416, 1857, . . . 297, 311 
Chrysallida (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p.* 127, 1861, 278 

Chrysozona (Chemnitzia), Martens. Mobius, Mauritius, p. 

301, t. 20, f. 21, 1880, .337 

Chydsea (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 124, 

1883, 278 

Chyta (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc.,xvii,p. 121, 1883, 278 



374 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

FAOE. 

Cincta (Chrysallida), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 220, 1866, . 315 
Cincta (Pyramidella), Rve. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 198, 1842, 299 
Cincta (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 419, 1860, . 336 
Cinctella (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 89, 

1864, 288 

Cinctella (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., vi, p"; 333, 1860, SOT 

Cinctella (Turbonilla), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 119, 1860, 334 
Cingenda (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 89, 

1864, . . 283 

Cingulata (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 1861. = Oscilla, 310 

Cingulata (Eulimella), Issel. Conch. Mare Rosso, 182, 

1869. = T. Isseli, Try on, 339 

Cingulata (Eulima), Requien. Cat. Moll. Corse, 58, . .341 
Cingulata (Turbonilla), Dkr. Mai. Blalt., vi, p. 239, 1860, 338 
Cingulina, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 414, 1860, 318, 338 
Cinnamomea (Elusa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 237, 1862, .311 
Cionella (Eulima), Monts. Jour, de Conch., 154, 1878, . 2T8 
Circinata (Cingulina), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p. 414, 1860, 318, 339 

Circinata (Oscilla), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 311, 186T, . 310 
Circum'cincta (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc.. vii, p. 

88, 1864, .283 

Circumdata (Chemnitzia), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 40T, 1861, 335 
Clara (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

129, 1861. = E. pauxillus, A. Ad. . ... 281 

Clathrata (Chemnitzia), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist.,ii, p. 245, 1848, .'.... . 32T 

Clathrata (Odostomia), Monts. (not Jeffr.). Notizie Conch. 

Med., 41, 1872, var. Jeffreysiana. = Turbonilla Jeffrey s- 

iana, Seguenza, ......... 325 

Clathrata (Tornatella), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, 166, 

1836. = Menestho Humboldti, Risso, . . . . 345 
Clathratula (Chrysallida), C. B. Ad. Panama Sh., 165, 

311, 1852, . . 359 

Clathratula (Monoptygma), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 169, 

1875, . . . 314 

Clansilliformis (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 426, 185T, 313 
Clavella (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag.. Nat. Hist., 

p. 129, 1861, . .282 

Clavula (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

125, 1861, 278 

Clavula (Odostomia), LoveVi. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 18, . 344 
Clavulus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

811, t. 171, f. 33, 1855. = P. Achates, Gould, . . 303 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 375 

PAGE. 

Climacina, Gemmellaro. Giorn. Sci. Nat. Palermo, xiii, 

126, 1878, 264 

Clysmatica (Oclostomia), Issel. Savigny, Descript. de 

1'Egypte Coq., t. 3, f. 36, , . . . . . 364 

Columella (Strombus), Meusch. Mus. Gevers.,p. 490, 1787. 

= Obeliscus dolabratus, Linn. ...... 300 

Columnella (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 235, 1862. 

= Pyramidella ornata, Gld 307 

Comatulicola (Stylifer), Graff. Zeitsch. Wissenscb. Zool., 

v, supplement, p. 124, 1875, 293 

Commoda (Turbonilla),' A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 419, 1860, . 336 
Commimis (Cbrysallida), C. B. Ad. Panam. Sh., 166, 312, 

1852, - 297, 311 

Commutata (Eulimella), Monts. Nat. Sicil., 203, 1885; 

Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 98. = E. acicula, Phil. . . 340 
Compacta (Eulima), Carp. Proc. Calif. Acad. Nat. Sci., iii, 

p. 221, 1866 278 

Compactilis (Eulima), Monts. Nuova Rivista, 35, . . 275 
Compactilis (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch. , iv, 169, 

1867, 339 

Compressa (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 360, 1884, 324 
Compta (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3 ser., 

vii, 298, 1861, 335 

Concinna (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 181, 1853, . 335 
Conoinna (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

479, 1860, .' . .314 

Concinna (Menestho), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860. 

= Amathis, 309 

Concinna (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., iii, 

p. 819, t. 172, f. 34, 1855, 365 

Concinna (Odostomia elegans, var.), Monts. II Nat. Sicil., 

p. 202, 1885, .351 

Conica (Eulima), C. B. Ad. Contrib., p. 110, 1850, . . 277 
Conica (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 44, 1866, 270 
Conica (Pyramidella), C. B. Ad. Cat. Panama Shells, 200, 

1852, 302 

Conoidea (Eulima), Kurtz and Stimpson. Bost. Proc., iv, 

115, 1851, 273 

Conoidea (Odostomia), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subapp., ii, 

p. 659, t. 16, f. 2, 349 

Conoidalis (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 22, 

1865, 269 

Consimilis (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Annals and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 44, 1861, 311 

Consobrina (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

44, 1861, 311 



376 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Conspicua (Odostomia), Alder. Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field 

Club, i, 359, 320, 349 

Conspurcata (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, 

87, 1864, 283 

Constant! a (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

viii, 240, 1861, 282 

Convexa (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 424, 1857, . 359 
Cora (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 398, t. 76, f. 

7-9, . .332 

Corallina (Stylifera), Chemnitz, xi, f. 2084-2085, 1795, . 2<)2 
Cornea (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 181, 1853, . 335 
Corneliana (Proto), Newc. Amer. Journ. Conch., v, p. 

164, t. 17, f. 6, 1870, 312 

Corpulenta (Turbonilla), Folin. Moll. Andaman., 1879, . 337 
Corrugata (Pyramidella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ed. Desh., 

iv, p. 56, 305 

Corticaria (Odostomia), Say. N. E., i, 2d ed., t. 4. f. 5, A. 

C., 1816. = Pupa, 358 

Costellata (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 302, 

1861, . . 311 

Costellata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., 

vii, 42, 1861, 3C5 

Costifera (Turbinella), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc,, p. 735, 

. 1871, 327 

Costulata (Odostomia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 233, I860,. 364 
Costulata (Turbonilla), Terrill. Rep. U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, i, p. 658, 1874, .329 

Crassa (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 350, 1884, . 340 
Crassa (Odostomia), Thompson. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 

315. = 0. pallida, Mont., var. . . . 346 

Crassula (Enlima), Jeffreys. Malac. Conch. Mag., 34. 

= Eulimella Scillse, Scacchi, . . .339 

Crassula (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 90, 

1864, 283 

Craticulata (Odostomia), Issel. Mar. Rosso, 180, 1869, . 364 
Craticulata (Odostomia), Renier. Brusina, Jour, de Conch., 

238, 1869, . . .... 345 

Craticulata (Turbonilla), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 119, 

1860 334 

Crebrifilata (Chemnitzia), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d 

ser., xv, 380, 1865, . . 333 

Crebristriata (Chrysallida), Carp. Zool. Proc., p. 170, 

1856, 311 

Crenata (Parthenia), Lowe. = Chemnitzia rufa, Phil. . 326 
Crocata (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Reeve's Conch. Icon., sp. 

36, 1865, 307 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 377 

PAfJE. 

Cryptoplocus, Pictet and Campiche. Mater. Pal. Suisse, 

257, 1854, ........ .299 

Crystallina (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 

86, 1864, 283 

Crystallina (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. A cad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

p. 226, t. 3, f. 49, 1873, 361 

Cr3 7 stallinula (Turbonilla), Issel. Mai. Mar. Rosso, p. 176, 

t. 1, f. 18, 1869, . 336 

Cubensis (Tornatellina), Pfr. Shuttleworth, Ann. N. Y. 

Lye., vi, 73. = Odostomia, 358 

Cumingii (Chemnitzia), Carp. Zool. Proc., 170, 1856, . 336 
Cumingii (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 277, 1851, . 267 
Cumingiana (Styliier), Adams MS. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

sp. 5, . 291 

Curta (St3 T lifer), Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 535, 

1882, 293 

Curtina (Chrysallida), Gould. Bost. Proc.. viii, 280, 1862, 311 
Curva (Enlima), Jeffreys MS. Monts., Jour, de Conch., 269, 

1874, 275 

Curvata (Eulima), A Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 125, 

1861 . . .278 

Curvatus (Turbo), Chiereg. MS. = E. incurva, Ren. . . 275 
Curvicostata (Turbonilla), S. Wood. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., 

xiv, 151. = T. indistincta, Mont 326 

Cuspidata (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 276, 1851, . 270 
Cuspid ata (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

p. 228, t. 3, f. 54, 1873, . 361 

Cylindrata (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 

125, 1883, 278 

Cylindrella (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 234. 1862, 307 
Cylindrica (Mumiola doliolum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rous- 

sitlon, 168, . . 355 

Cylindropsis (Eulimella), Folin. Moll. Andaman, 1879, . 341 
Cvthnia, Carpenter. Ann. Mag N. Hist., 3 ser., xiii, 312, 

1864, 262, 293 

Daedala (Syrnola), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 235, 1862, . . 309 
Dealbata (Chemnitzia), Stimp. Bost. Proc., iv,p. 114, 1851, 357 
Debilis (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

127, 1861 278 

Debilis (Odostomia), Monts (notofPse.). tfuova Rivista, 

p. 34, 1875. = A.nisoc3"cla macilenta, Monts. . . . 341 
Debilis (Odostomia), Pse. Amer. Jouru. Conch., iii,p. 292, 

t. 24, f. 21, 1867, 363 

Debilis (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 420, 1860, . 335 
Decorata (Lia), Folin, 1872, . . . ' . . . 318, 339 



378 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAOE. 

Decorata (Odostomia), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malac., p. 29, 1849, 364 
Decussata (Odostornia), Mont. Test. Br., ii, p. 322, t. 12, 

f. 4, . . 321, 352 

Decussata (Pyrgulina), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 5, 

1863, 337 

Decussata (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

18(-;1, 365 

Decussata (Turbonilla), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 438, 1860, . 335 
Deformis (Stylifer), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 293, 

t. 24, f. 23, 1867, 202 

Delicata (Odostomia), Monts. Journ. de Conch., p. 267, 

1874; Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 359, 1884, . . . 323 

Delicatula (Odostomia), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xiv, p. 47, 1864, . . 359 

Densecosta (Chemnitzia), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 

137, t. 24, f. 9 326 

Densecostata (Odostomia), Garrett. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

Phila., p. 223, t. 3, f. 42, 1873. = 0. interstriata, Souverb. 359 
Densestriata (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

Phila., p. 224, t. 3, f. 44, 1873, 3';0 

Dentaliopsis (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p. 127, 1861, . . . 278 

Denticulata (Pyramidella), Sowb. Reeve, Icon., sp. 39, 

1865, . 306 

Dentiens (Eulima), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 152, 1871, . 277 
Deshayesiana (Rissoa), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 105, 1843. 

= Odost. excavata, Phil. . . .... 355 

Deshayesii (Scalenostoma), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., vi, p. 128, 1870, .... . 287 

Devians (Eulima incurva, var.). Monts. Nuova Riv., p. 35, 275 
Diadema (Miralda), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 1860, 321, 365 
Diaphana (Odostomia), Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. Nat Hist., 2d 

ser , ii, p. 341, . . 350 

Dilucida (Odostomia), Monts. En. e Sin., p. 32 ; Nat. Sicil., 

202, 1885, . 351 

Dbculus (Turbonilla), Yclain. Comptes Rend us, Juillet, 

1876, . . 336 

Disparilis (Odostomia), Yerrill. Proc. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

196, 1884 358 

Dissimilis (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 

128, 1883, 278 

Dissimilis (Menestho), Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., p. 62, 1868. 

= M. bulinea, Lowe, . . . . . . . .345 

Distorta (Leiostraca), Pease. Zool. Proc. p. 438, 1860, .282 
Distorta (Melania), Phil, (not Defr.). Enum. Moll. Sicil., 

i, p. 158, t. 9, f. 10, 1836. = Eulima incurva, Renieri. . 274 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 379 

PAGE. 

Dolabratus (Trochus), Linn. Grael., Syst. Nat., p. 3585, 

No. 113. = Pyramidella, Lam. ... .295,300 
Doliaris (Odostomia), Phil. Zeitsch. fiir Malac.,p. 29, 1849, 365 

Doliella, Monts., 1880, 321,365 

Dolioliforinis (Odostomia), Jeffre3 r s. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 

2d ser.,ii, 342, 351 

Doliolum (Rissoa), Ph. Moll. Sicil., ii, p. 132, t. 23, f. 19, 

1844, 321, 355 

Donovani (Melania), Forbes. Malac. Monensis, p. 15, 1838. 

= Leiostraea subulata, Mont 279 

Dubia (Chemnitzia), cVOrb. Cuba, p. 226, t. xvii, f. 4, 6, 1853, 332 
Dubia (Eulima), Anton. Verzeich. cler Conch., p. 62, 1839, 278 
Dubia (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 
' ii, 338. = 0. Rissoides, Hanley, var. .... 348 
Dubia (Stylifer),Baird MSS. Brit. Mus. Conch. Icon.,sp. 8, 290 
Duncania, Bayle. Jour, de Conch., xxvii, 1879. 

= Macrocheilns, Phillips, . ' . . . . 263 

Dunkeria, Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 434, 1857, . .318,337 

Eburnea (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 127, 

1861, 278 

Eburnea (Eulima), Meg. v. Miihl. Schrift. Berl. Ntf. Freunde, 

p. 216, t. 9, f. 7, 1829, 277 

Eburnea (Liostomia), Stimpson. Bost. Proc., iv, 14, 1851, 344 
Eburnea (Menestho), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860. = Amathis. 309 
Eburneus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 232, 1802, . 303 
Eburneus (Sty lifer), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 57, t. 7, f. 25, 

1863, 290 

Effusa (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 422, 1857, . .311 
Egregia (Mormula), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 2,1863, 312 
Elata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 3d ser.,vi, 20, 1860, 365 
Electa (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 394, 1883, . 344 
Elesrans (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 223, t. 16, f. 25-27, 

1853, . 311 

Elegans (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

vi, 22, 1860, 321, 365 

Elegans (Odostomia), Monts. Test. Nuovi Mar. Sicil., 12, 

f. 6, 1869, 350 

Elegans (Syrnola), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p 808, 

t. 171, f. 19, 1855, 306 

Elegans (Turbonilla), Verrill. Amer. Journ. Sci., iii, p. 210, 

t. 6, f. 4, 1872, . .328 

Eleo-antissima (Eulima), Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 65, t. 6, 

f. 5, 1867, 279 

Elegantissima (Eulima), Risso (non Mont.). Europ. Merid., 

p. 123. = E. polita, Linn 274 



380 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Elegantissima (Eulima), Macg. Moll. Aberd., 141. 

= Tnrbonilla lactea, Linn. ...... 322 

Elegantnla (ChrysMlida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

478, 1860, 365 

Ellipsoidea (Odostomia), Folin. Moll. Isles Andaman, . 365 
Elodia, Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 1870, .. . .321, 355 
Elodia (Eulima), Folin. Les Meleagrin , p. 66, t. 6, f. 6, 1867. 

? = E. micans, Carp . . 272, 355 

Elongata (Chemnitzia Humboldti, var.), Rcquien. Coq. 

Corse. = E. bulinea, Lowe, ...... 345 

Elongata (Eulima curva, var), B. D. D. Moll. Mar. du 

Roussillon, p. 192, t. 21, f. 15 275 

Elongata (Menestho) Phil. Bronn's Jahrb., 292, 1837. 

= Menestho bulinea, Lowe, ...... 345 

Elongata (Mumiola doliolum, var.), Monts. II. Nat. Sci., 

p. 84, 18S5, . . . . . . . . .355 

Elongata (Rissoa), Phil. Moll Sic., t. 10, f. 16. 

= Odostomia plicata, Mont. ...... 346 

Elongata (Turbonilla), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 

293, t. 24, f. 22, 1867 312 

Elusa, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 237, 1862, . . . 296, 310 
Emaciata (Odostomia), Brusina. Contrib. Moll. Dalm., 69, 

1865, 352 

Emertoni (Turbonilla), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 

536, t. 58, f. 14, 14 a, 1882, 328 

Engonia (Odostumia), Bush. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

466, 1885, . . ... 343 

Entoconcha, Miiller. Ueber Synopta digitata und ueber die 

Erzeugung von Schnecken in Holothurien, 1852, . . 263 
Ephamilla (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 

116, 1883, .271 

Eqnalis (Turritella), Say. Proc. Phila. Acad., v, p. 208, 

1826. = Turbonilla, Verrill, . . . . ' . .329 
Erjaveciana (Odostomia), Brus. Journ. de Conch., p. 241, 

1869, . ...... 321, 351, 322 

Erucella (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 3, 

1861, 311 

Erythrgea (Odostomia), Ph. Zeitsch. fiir Malac., p. 28, 1849, 365 
Erythrosclera (Chemnitzia), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 

160, 1875, . . .311 

Euchrysalis, Laube, 1866, . 263 

Eulima, Risso. Hist. Nat. de 1'Europe Merid., iv, p. 123, 

1826, 258, 266 

Eulimella, Forbes. Ann. Nat. Hist., xiv, 412, 1846, . 319, 339 
Eulimoides (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xx, 17, 1847. = 0. conoidea, Brocchi. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 381 

PAGE. 

Eulimoicles (Odostomia), Hanley. Zool. Proc., p. 18, 1844, 346 
Eulimopsis, Brugnone, 1880, . .260 

Eurychada (Eulima), Watson. Jour. Linn.'Soc., xvii, p. 

129, 1883, 278 

Evalea,A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. llist.,vi, 22, 41 7, 18HO, 321, 359 
Exarata (Menestho , A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

303, 1861, . 345 

Exarata (Oscilla), Carp. Mazat Cat., 415, 1857, . . 310 
Exarata (Parthenia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 415, 1857. 

= Cinirula (Parthenia) terebellum, C. B. Ad., . . . 359 
Exarata (Stylifera), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 122, 1855, . . 291 
Excavata (Odostomia), Ph. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 154, 

t. 10, f. 6, 355 

Exigua (Jaminea), Couth. Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., ii, 92, 

1838. = Odostomia hisuturalis. Say, .... 357 
Exigna . (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc.,vii, p. 87, 1864, 283 
Exio-ua (Odostomia elegans, var.), Monts. Nuova Rivista, 

p. 31, . . . 351 

Exigua (Odostomia rufa, var.), Monts. En. e Sin., p. 34, 

1878. = Chemnitzia densecostata, Ph 326 

Exilis (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 74. 1852, . . 332 
Exilis (Eulima), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 242, 1862. 

= E. pusilla, Sowb . . .268 

Exilis (Eulima incurva, var ). Monts. Enum. e Sinon., p. 35, ii75 
Exilis (Mucronaiia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,ix, 

p. 295, 1862, . . ... 285 

Exilis (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 

223, t. 3,f. 43, 1873, . . 360 

Exilis (Odostomia Rissoides, var.), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., 

iv, 123, 348 

Exilis (Pyramidella nitidula, var.), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 

363, 1884, . .304 

Exilissima (Odostomia), Brus. Contr. Moll. Dalmatia, p. 

35,1866. = 0. obliqna, Alder, . . . .350,351 
Eximia (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

new ser., iv, p. 299, . .352 

Eximia (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 418, 1860, . 336 
Eximium (Monoptygma), Lischke. Mai. Blatt.,xix, p. 103, 

1872 ; Jap. Meeres Conch., iii, 59, t. 3, f. 4-6, . . .314 

Fallax (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc. xvii, p. 123, 

1883 .278 

Fallax (Odostomia), Monts. Nuova Rivista, p. 31, . . 349 
Fallax (Parthenia), Folin. Moll. Isles Andaman, 1879, . 365 
Farnelica (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 121, 
1883, 278 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Fasciata (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Amcr. Merid, p. 496, t. 76, 

f. 4-6, . . 331 

Fasciata (Chrysallida), Cnrp. Mazat. Cat. 423, 1857, . .311 
Fasciata (Dunkeria), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, 7-14, 1875, ... ... 338 

Fasciata (Eulima), Renieri. Tavol. Alfub., p. 4, 1804. 

= E. subulata, Donovan, . . . . . . .279 

Fasciata (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc.,xvii,p. 113, 

1883, 278 

Fasciata (Odostomia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt. vi, p. 234, 1860, . 304 
Fasciata (Syrnola solidula, var.), Jick. Jahrb. liir Malac., 

ix, p. 367', 1882, 309 

Fastigiata (Stylifer), A. Ad. MS. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 16, 2 ( .)2 
Fastigium (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch, ii, p. 

809, t. 171, f. 8, 1855, 300 

Fenestrata (Chemnitzia), Forbes and Jeffreys. Ann. and 

Mag. Nat. Hist., ii, p. 345, 1848, . 317, 325 

Fenestrata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. "Nat. llist., 

vi, 415, 18C>0, 365 

Festiva (Turbonilla), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 35, 1877, . 334 
Festiva (Turbonilla), Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 49, t. 5, 

f. 4-6, 1867, ... 333 

Filocincta (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 

2, 1863, 311 

Flavescens (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 432, 1857, . 333 
Flavocincta (Cliemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 74, 1852, . 321 
Flavocincta (Eulima), Meg. v. Miihl. Verhand. Berl. Gesell., 

i, p. 216, t. 2, f. 6 a, b, 1824. = E. subulata, Donov. . 279 
Flexa (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 126, 

1801, 278 

Flexicosta (Odostomia Jffreysi, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Mar. 

Rouss., Fasc. 4, p. 170, t. 20, f. 10, . . . . 354 

Flexuosa (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool Proc., p. 277, 1851, . 267 
Flexuosa (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Rep. Brit. Assoc., p. 112, 

1873, 327 

Floridanus (Obeliscus), Morch. Mai. B!att.,xxii,p. 158,1875, 304 
Folini (Eulimella), Fisch. Berchon's Fonds de la Mer, i, 

p. 149, t. 22, f. 8, .... . . 341 

Formosa f Chemnitzia), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

ii, p. 347, 1848, 323, 325 

Formosa (Turbonilla), Yerrill and Smith. Amer. Journ. 

Sci., xx, p. 392, 1880. = T. Bnshiana, Yerrill. 
Foveolata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1860, 365 

Fragilis (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 419, 1800, . 336 
Fulgidula (Odostomia), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 359, 1884, . 323 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 383 

PAGE. 

Fulva (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . . 313 
Fulva (Pyramidella), Sowb. Reeve's Conch. Icon.,sp. 42, 

1865. = Syrnola brunnea, A. Ad. . . . . . 30G 

Fulvesceus (Eulima), A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 40, 

I860, 285 

Fulvo-cincta { Leio^traca), C. B. Ad. Shells of Jamaica, . 280 
Fulvo-cincta (Turriteila), Thompson. Ann. Mag., v, 98, . 326 
Fusca (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 181, 1853, . . 33 1 
Fusca (Odostomia), C. B. Ad. Bost. Jour. X. Hist., ii,282, 356 
Fnsco-apicata (EulimH), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 369, 1884, 276 
Fusco-strigata (Eulima), Carp. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xiv, p. 47, 1864, 273 

Fusispira, Hall. 24th N. Y. Report, 229, 1872, . . . 2 5 
Fusulus (Odostomia), Mons. Jour, de Conch., 306, 1878, . 352 

Gabbiana (Chemnitzia), Cooper. = C. torquata, var. stylina, 333 
Galbula (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 3, 

1863, . . 311 

Galvagni (Rissoa), Aradas. = Odostomia Warrenii, Thomp. 350 

Garrettii (Pyramidella), Tryon, 302 

Gemma (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 302, 

1861, 311 

Gemma (Miralda). A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1861, 365 
Gemmulosa (Dunkeiia), C. B. Ad. Morch, Mai. Bliitt., xxii, 

168 338 

Gentilomiana (Eulima), Iseel. Mar. Rosso, 183, 1869, .277 
Gervillfi (Melania), Collard des Cherres. Catal. Finistiere, 

p. 42, 1830. = p]ulima polita, Linn 274 

Gibba (Apicalia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., ix, 295, 

1862, 283 

Gibba (Eulima), Folin. Les Meleagrin., p. 64, t. 6,f. 4, 1867, 272 
Gibbosa (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 430, 1857, . . 333 
Gibbosula (Eulima), A Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, 

p. 239,1861, 278 

Gibbum (Styloptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 236, 1862, 313 
Giraudi (Syrnolopsis), Bourg. Notice Prodr. Tanganika, 

20, 1885,' . 316 

Glaber (Eulima), Da Costa. Brit. Conch., 117, 1779. 

= E, subulata, Donovan, ....... 279 

Glabra (Eulima), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 367, 1884, . . 277 
Glaberrima (Eulima), Risso. Europ. Merid , p. 124, 1826. 

= E. polita, Linn 274 

Glabrata (Amaurella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1867, . 286 
Glabrata (Odostomia), Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Moll., iii, 

283. = O. Rissoides, Hanley, var. . " . . . .347 
Glans (Pyramidella), Rve. Zool. Proc., p. 198, 1842, . . 305 



384 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Globosus (Stylifer), Johnston. Proc. Berw. Club, 1,275, 

1841. = S. Turtoni, Brod 290 

Gomphus (Eulima), Watson. Juurn. Linn Soc., xvii, p. 125, 

1883 ' .'278 

Goniochila (Stylif'erina), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 

3 ser., vi, 335, 1860, . 280 

Goniostonia (Niso), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 801, 

1855, 288 

Goniostonia (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d 

ser., vi, 416, 1860, . . . . t . . . . 365 
Gouldi (Odostomia), Carp. 2d Brit. Assoc. Kept., 144, 

1864. = 0. satura, var 358 

Gracilenta (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 

89, 1864, 283 

Gracilenta (Odostomia interstincta, var.), Monts. Conch. 

Mcdit., 12. 

Gracilior (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat ,167, 1852, 334 
Gracilis (Chemnitzia), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 137, 1844. 

= Odostomia delicata, Monterosato, .... 323 
Gracilis (Eulima), C. B. Ad. Contrib., p. 110, 1850, . 277 
Gracilis (Eulima), Jeffr. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, 2 ser., ii, 330, 

1848. = Eulimella acicula, Sc. var. .... 340 

Gracilis (Eulima incurva, var.), Forbes and Hanley. B. M., 

iii, p. 233, t. 92, f. 6, . 275 

Gracilis (Mucronalia), Pse. Am. Journ. Conch., iii, p. "295, 

t. 24, f. 27, 1867, 284 

Gracilis (Odostomia), Pse. Am. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 292, 

t. 24, f. 20, 1867, ' 363 

Gracilis (Odostomia), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 128, t, 23, f. 13, 

1844. = 0. interstincta, var. ...... 353 

Gracilis (Tarthenia), Angas. Zool. Proc.,p 862, t. 54, f. 9, 

1878. = O. Yincentina, Tryon, ..... 362 

Gracilis (Pyramidella), A. Ad. 310 

Gracilis (Pyramidella), Brocc. Adams, in Thes. Conch. 

Obeliscus, p. 807. = ? P. turrita, A. Ad. . . .302 
Gracilis (Turritella), Desh. Exp. Moree, 147. 

= Turbonilla lactea, Linn. 322 

Gracillima (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 431, 1857, . 333 
Gracilliina (Eulima), Sowb. Rve., Conch. Icon., sp. 32, 

1865 . . .272 

Gracillima (Obeliscus), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 734, 

1871. = S. Smithii, Tryon, 308 

Gracillima (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., v, p. 405, 1860, . . 296, 307 

Gracillima (Turbonilla), Gabb. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 186, 

1866. = C. torquata, Gld., var. stylina, .... 3:}3 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 385 

PAGE. 

Gradata (Turbonilla), Monts. Enum. Syn. 33, 1878, Bucq. 

Dautz. Dollf. Moll. Rouss., 180, 1883, . . . .323 

Gracluata (Oceanida), Folin, 1870, .... 319, 343 

Granata (Odostomia), Folin, ...... 351 

Granatina (Odostomia impressa, var.), Dall. Proc. Nat. 

Mus., vi, 831, 1884, 356 

Grand idieria (Syrnolopsis), Bourg. Notice Prodr. Tan- 

ganika, 18, 1885, . 316 

Grandis (Chemnitzia), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

52, t. 11, f. 17, . . . , 312 

Grandis (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 276, 1851, . . 266 
Grandis (Turbonilla), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

427, 1885, 329 

Granulata (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, .313 
Gravida (Odostornia), Gould. Bost. Proc., vi, 376, 1852, . 358 
Grayi (Auriculina), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 3 ser., v, 407, 1860 ; 

vii, 43, 1861 305 

Guentheri (Apicalia), Anoras. Zool. Proc., p. 35, 1877, 283, 284 
Guildingii (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 277, 1851, . 278 
Guttata (Plotia), Link. Mus. Bost. 

= Pyramidella acus, Linn. ...... 301 

Haliella, Monterosato. Ennm. e Sinon, 35, 1878, . 259, 282 

Halloysia, Briart and Cornet, 1878, 298 

Hamyana (Syrnolopsis), Bourg. Notice Prodr. Tanjanika, 

17, 1885, . 316 

Harve3 r i (Rissoa), Thompson. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 1 ser., 

v, 97, 1840. = Odost. excavate, Phil 355 

Hastata (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 7, 1834, . . 271, 273 
Hastata (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 85, 1864, 282 
Hastatus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

811, t. 171, f. 24, 1855. ' = P. conica, C. B. Ad, . . 302 
Hebes (Eulirna), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 127, 

1883, . "... 278 

Hemphillii (Eulima), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, p. 

330, 1883, 282 

Hians (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 115, 

1883. ? = E. piriformis, Brugn 276 

Hofmani (Turbonilla), Angas. Zool. Proc., 183, 1877, . 334 
Holdsworthi (Apicalia', A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 585, 1874, 283 
Holopella Sandberger (in part ). = Loxonema, Phillips, . 264 
Hoplopteron, Fischer. Journ. de Conch., xxiv, p. 232, 

1876, 261, 289 

Hortensipe (Odostomia), Nan sou ty, . . . .321, 355 
Humboldti (Menestlio), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 
'394, 1826, 345 

25 



386 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Hnmilis (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 90, 

1864, 283 

Hyalina (Eulima), Watson. Jonrn. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 126, 

'1883, 278 

Hyalina (Enlimella), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vii, 47, 1861, . 341 
H'yalina (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag.,3 ser., vi, 20, 1860, 365 
Hyalina (Pyramidella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt, vi, p. 233, 1860, 309 
Hyalina ( Pyramidella), Garrett. Proc. Phila. Acad., p. 228, 
t. 3, f. 56, 1873, 303 

Imbricata (Niso), Sowb. Zool. Proc., i, 1834, . . .289 
Impressa (Odostomia), Say. Jour. Phila. Acad., ii, 244, 

1822 356 

Incerta (Eulima), Anton. Yerzeich. der Conch., p. 62, 1839, 278 
Inccrta (Eulima), d'Orb. Cuba, i, p. 218, 1853, . . .278 
Inconspicua (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 301 , 

1861, 311 

Incurva (Eulima), Renieri. Tavol. Alfab., p. 4, 1804, . 274 
Indeflexa (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p. 1-28, 1861 278 

Indentata (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat , 425, 1857, . 311 
ludistincta (Chemnitzia). Mont. Test. Br. Supp., p. 129, . 326 
Indistineta (Turritella), Flem. Brit. Anim., p. 304. 

= Chemnitzia rufeseens, Forbes. . . . . 325 

Inflata (O lostomia), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 1865, . 358 
Inflexa (Eulima), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 294, 

18H7. = K. solida, Sowb 268 

Inflexa (Eulima polita, var.), Monts. Enum. e Sinon, 35, 

1878, 274 

Inflexa (Phasianella), Blainv. Man. Mai., t. 35, f. 5, 1825. 

? = Eulima mnjor, Sowb. 

Inf'undibulata (Eulimella), Folin. Moll. Andaman, 1879, . 341 
Innovata (Turbonilla), Monts. Nomenc. Conch. Medit., 92, 

1884, . . . . . .... 323 

Inquinata (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 90, 

1864, 283 

Insculpta (Odostomia), DeKay. Moll. N. Y., 115. 

= O. impressa, Say, 356 

Insculpta (Odostomia), Mont. Test. Brit. Suppl., p. 129, . 347 
Intermedia (Dunkeria), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 435, 1857, . 338 
Intermedia (Eulima), Cantraine. Diagn. Moll. Bull. Ac. 

Brux., p. 14, 1835, . 274 

Intermedia (Odostomia), Brns. Journ. de Conch., p. 237, 

1869. = Miralda camiliculata, Phil 356 

Intermixta (Odostomia), Monts. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 

87, 1884, 354 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 387 

PAGE. 

Internodula (Odostomia), not of S. Wood. Monts., Jour. 

de Conch., 39, 1877. = Turbonilla rosea, Monts. . . 326 
Interrupta (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 89, 

1864, 283 

Interrupta (Xiso), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 7, 1834, . . 288 

Interrupta (Turritella), Totten. Am. Jour. Sci., 1st ser ., 

xxviii, f. 7, 326, 329 

Interstincta (Odostomia), Mont. Test. Br., ii, p. 324, t. 12, 

f. 10, 353 

Interstriata (Odostomia), Souv. Journ. de Conch., xiv, 

p. 255, 1866, 359 

Intus-lirata (Turbonilla), Folin. Moll. Isles Andaman. . 337 
lopsis, Gabb. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc., xv, 227, 1873, . 260 
Iota (Chemnitzia), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 406, 1861, . 335 
Iota (Eulima), C. B. Ad. Shells of Jamaica, . . .274 
Isselli (Turbonilla), Tryon 339 

Janella, Grat. (not Gray). Conch. Foss. Adour., 14, 1838. 

= Niso, Risso 261 

Jamaicensis (Eulima), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., p. 6, 1845, . 273 
Japonica (Amaurella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1867, . 286 
Japonica (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

vi, 21, 1860, .365 

Jeffreysiana (Leiostraca), Brusina. Jour, de Conch., p. 

245*, 1869, .... 283 

Jeffreysiana (Turbonilla), Seguenza. Monts., Notiz. Conch. 

Med., 41, 1872; Nuova Rivista, 32, . . . .318,325 

Jeffrey si (Eulima), Tryon, . 276 

Jeffreys! (Odostomia), B. D. D. Moll. Mar. Rouss. Fasc., 

4, p. 170, t. 20, f. 10, 1883. = O. intermixta, Monts. . 354 
Jucunda (Pyramidella), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 173, 1877, 303 
Juliae (Truncatella), Folin. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 354, 1884. 

= Odostomia indistincta, Mont.* 326 

Kieneri (P3 T ramidella), Issel. Mai. del Mar. Rosso., p. 174, 
1869. ? = P. turrita, A. Ad 302 

Krebsii (Chemnitzia), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 159,1875, 311 

Kreffti (Odostomia), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 1867. 

= 0. pupiformis, Souverb. ...... 362 

Kuzmici (Turbonilla), Brusina, MS. 
= Odostomia Humboldti, Risso. 

Labiata (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
p. 129,1861, 282 

Labiosa (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 7, 1834. 

= E. brevis, Sowb 267 



388 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Lactea (Chemnitzia), Krauss. Sudafrik. Moll., p. 88, t. 5, f. 

23, 1848, , . . .337 

Lactea (Eulima), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 799, 

1855, 267 

Lactea (Mucronalia), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc.,vii,p. 91, 1864, 285 
Lactea (Odostomia), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 1867. 

= 0. Angasi, Tryon, 362 

Lactea (Odostomia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 234, 1860, . 364 
Lactea (Odostomia), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1238, . . 322, 323 
Lactea (Syrnola), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 234, 1862, . . 309 
Lactea (Tornatella), Midland. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord., iii, 

271,1829. = Menestho Humboldtii, Risso, . . .345 
Lacnnata (Parthenia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 414, 1857, . . 359 
Lacnstris (Syrnolopsis), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 4, f. 6, 

1881. = S. Grandidiera, Bourg. 

Lacustris (Syrnolopsis), Smith. Zool. Proc.. 288, 1881 , 298, 315 
Lsevigata (Odostomia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 227, t. 17, f. 7-9, . 357 
Lsevis (Odostomia), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 18;i7, . 362 
Lseviuscula (Pyramidella), Jeffreys (not S. Wood). Ann. 

and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 15, 1870. == P. nitidula, A. Ad., 304 
Lambertia, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch.. 420, 1869, . 260, 286 
Lamberti (Subeulima), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., p. 296, 

1875, . . 287 

Lamellata (Odostomia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 411, 1857, . 359 
Laminata (Dunkeria), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

xv, 182, 1865, . 338 

Lanceata (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p. 128,1861, 282 

Lancea, Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 293, 1867, . . 297 
Larvula (Styloptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 236, 1862, 313 
Latelirata (Dunkeria), Folin. Moll. Andaman, 1879, . . 338 
Latior (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contrib., p. 72, 1852. 

= C. ornata, d'Orb 330 

Latipes (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 120, 

1883, 278 

Lauta (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . . 313 
Leachii (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

128, 1861 282 

Legrandi (Eulima), Beddome. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 168, 

1882, 278 

Leiostraca, H. and A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., xv, 1856, 259 
Lendix (Styloptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 236, 1862, . 313 
Lentiginosa (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

viii, p. 240, 1861, ... . .282 

Lepida (Leiostraca), A, Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 85, 

1864, 282 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 389 

PAGE. 

Lesbia (Leiostraca), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 16, 1871, . 281 
Levis (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 70, 1852; Morch, 

Mai. Blatt., xxii, 161. ? = C. pulchella, d'Orb., var. . 330 
Lia, de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 1872, . . . .318 
Ligatus (Oscilla), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 173,1877, . . 310 
Limitura (Turbonilla), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 267, 1871, 

? = T. crraclata, Monts 323 

Lineata (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 8, 1834, . . .279 
Liostomia,0. Sars. Moll. Keg. A ret. Norveg., 205, 1878, 319, 344 
Livata (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 181, 1853, . 337 
Lirata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

418, 1860, 310 

Lirata (Odostoma), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, f. 404, 1861, . 365 
Lissa (Eulimella), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 195, 

t. 32, f. 6, 1884, ... 343 

Littoralis (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

3d ser., vii, 42, 1861, . .365 

Lodderae (Stylifcr), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., iv, 1884, . 293 
Lonchaeus, Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 158, 1875, . 295, 301 
Lordii (Chemnitzia), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., vi, p. 288, 1880, 333 

Loxonema, Phillips. Palaeoz. Fossils, 98, 1841, . . . 2fi4 
Lucida (Eulimella), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 192, 

t. 32, f. 3, 3 a, 1884, . . .... 342 

Lucida (Syrnola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 

125, 1870, 309 

Lukisi (Odostomia), Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d 

ser., iii, p. 112, t. 2, f. 10, . . . 348 

Lutea (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 

226, t. 3, f. 50, 1873, 361 

Macandrese (Turbonilla), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 793, 1870, 324 
Macandraea (Mormnla), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., 4th ser., 

vi. p. 127, . . 312 

Macilenta (Anisocycla), Monts. Journ. de Conch., p. 318, 

1878, . . 341 

Macilenta (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 418, 1860, 336 

Macleayana (Turbonilla), Ten ison- Woods. .... 334 

Macrochilina, Bay le, 1879. = Macrochilus, Phillips, . 263 

Maculosa (Pyramidella), Lam. Enc. Meth., t. 452, f. 1, ab. 

= P. acus, Gmel 301 

Macrocheilus, Phillips. Palaeoz. Fossils. 103, 1841, . . 263 
Magnifica (Odostomia), Seguenza. Formazione tertiare 

nella Provincia di Reggio, p. 264, t. 16, f. 25, 1879, . . 322 
Magnifica (Pyramidella), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

53, t. 10, f. 1, 1850. = P. mitralis, A. Ad. . . . 305 



390 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Major (Dunkeria), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 167, 1852, . . 338 
Major (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 7, 1834, . . .266 
Mamillata (Odostomia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 41.2, 1857, . 359 
Manzoniana (Eulima), Issel. Mar Rosso., p. 184, t. 2, f. 6, 

1869, 281 

Marginata (Chrysallida), C. B. Ad. Panama Sh., No. 226, 

1852, .... 311 

Marginata (Eulima), Tenison-Wood. Roy. Soc., Tasmania, 

p. 41,1878, ..,.-. . 278 

Marginata (Odostoma), Cailliaud. Cat. ties Moll., p. 172, t. 

4, f. 1-4, 1865. = O. Trifida, Totten 356 

Marias (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

viii,p. 240, 1861, . ... .281 

Mariella (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3 

ser., vi, 415, 1860, 3C5 

Marise (Turbonilla), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Hoy. Soc., 

Tasmania, p, 144, 1875. = T. nitida, Angas. ' . . 334 
Marmorata (Niso), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 7, 1834, . .288 

Martini! (Eulima), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch, ii, p. 795, 

1855, '. . 266 

McAndraBi (Eulima), Forbes. Ann. Nat. Hist, xiv, 412. 

= Eulirnella Scillse, Scacchi. ... . 339 

Mediterranea (Pyramidella), Monts. Enum. e Sinon.. p. 31. 

= P. nitidula, A. Ad 304 

Megacheilos (Noemia), Folin. Moll. Andaman. . . . 365 
Megastomia, Monts. Conch. Medit., 94, 1884, . . 320, 349 
Menestho (Mdller), Ind. Moll. Grcenl., 10, 1842, . 320, 344 
Mera (Syrnola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, p. 

334,1860, 309 

Messanensis (Odostomia), Grana f a. Descrip. etc., Naples, 

p. 13, 1877. = O. exilussima, Brus. . . 351 

Metcalfei (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

802, 1855, . .280 

Metal* (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 478, 1860, 311 
Metula(Monopt3'gma),A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 295. 1861, 315 
Metula (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 224, 1851, . 310 
Metulina (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 85, 

1864, . . 283 

Metulina (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 421, 1860, . 335 
Micans (Eulima),. Carp. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 33, 1865, 272 
Micans (Eulima), Tenison-Wood. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 

144, 1875. = E. Tenisoni, Tryon 269 

Micans (Odostomia), Monts. Nuova Rivista, p. 33, 1875, . 323 
Michaelis (Odostomia), Brugnone. Misc. Malac., ii, p. 24, 

f. 33, 1876, .... 347 

Michelia, Romer. = Loxonema, Phillips, .... 264 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 391 

PAGB. 

Microbeliscns, Sandberger, 1874, 319 

Mierocheilos (Turbonilla), Folin. Moll. Tsles Andaman, . 337 
Microschiza, Gemmellaro. Giorn. Sc. Nat. Palermo, xiii, 

135, 1878, . 265 

Microstoma (Eulima), Brasilia. Jour, de Conch., p. 243, 

1869, . . 278 

Mindoroensis (Leiostraca), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

52, t. ll,f. 25, . . . . . . .285 

Minima (Odostomia ventricosa, var.), Monts. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital., vi. p. 73, 1880, .... ... 340 

Minima (Turbonillacorpulenta,var.), Folin. Moll. Andaman, 

1879 .337 

Minna (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

478, 1860, ... 365 

Minor (Eulima polita, var.), Monts. Enum. e Sinon., 1878. 

= E. brevis, Requien, 274 

Minuscula (Pyramidella), Monts. Nat. Conch. Medit., 

p. 40. == P. nitidula, A. Ad .304 

Minuta (Eulimn), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 370, 1884, . 276 
Minuta (Pyramidella), Ph. Zcitsch. fiir Maine., p. 32, 1849, 304 
Minuta (Syrnola), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 274, t. 19, f. 10, 

1869, 308 

Minuta (Syrnolopsis), Bourg. Notice Prodr. Tanganika, 21, 

1885, ....... ... 316 

Mitchell ia, de Koninck. Rech. Foss. Pal. Nouv. Galles de 

Sud, 1377 263 

Mittrei (Sty lifer), Petit. Journ. de Conch., ii, p. 27, t. 2, f. 

8, 9, 1851, 290 

Mirabilis (Entoconcha), Miiller. Tiber Synapta digitata, etc., 

1852, 263 

Miralda, A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 3, 1863, . 321, 355 
Miranda (Chr3'sallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 301, 

1861 365 

Miranda (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 85, 

1864, 282 

Mirifica (Eulima), G. and H. Nevill. Journ. Asiatic. Soc. 

Bengal, p. 2B, 1874, .283 

Mitralis (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 177, 1853, . 305 
Modesta (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 222, t. 16, f. 22-24, 

1853, 330 

Modesta (O.lostomia), Stimpson. Proc. Bost. Soc., iv, 16, 357 
Modica (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Reeve's Conch. Icon., sp. 

41, 1865, 307 

Modica (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, 

420, 1860, 336 

Modicella (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 276, 1851, . 270 



392 t INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Modiola (Odostornia), Monts. II Nat. Sicil., p. 203, 1885, 351 
Monilis (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 806, 

t. 171, f. 12, 1855, 301 

Monocycla (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 418, 1800. 

= T. pagodnla, A. Ad 336 

Monodon (Eulima), Requien. Moll. Corse. 

= 0. conoidea, Brocchi, ....... 350 

Monoptj^gma, Gray. Sowerby, Manual, 66, 1839. 

= Actseopyramis, Fischer, ...... 207 

Monozona (Odostomia), Brus. Jour, de Conch., p. 240, 1809, 354 
Monterosati (Odostomia), B. D. D. Moll. Mar. Roussilon, 

167; Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 346, 1884. 

= 0. unidentata, Mont. ....... 348 

Montrouzieri (Leiostraca), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., p. 

365, 1872, 283 

Montrouzieri (Lambertia), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 

420,1869; 73, 1870, 286 

Mormula, A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 1, 1863, . 297, 312 
Moulinsinna (Odostomia), Fiscli. Jour, de Conch., xii, p. 

70,1864. = O. interstincta, var 353 

Muciformis (Odostomia), Carp. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xv, 

1865, .... 358 

Mucronalia, A. Ad. Ann. arid Mag. Nat. Hist., v, p. 301, 

1860 200, 284 

Mucronata (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icor.,sp. 42, 1866, 284 
Miilleri (Turbonilla), Maltzan. Nachrichtsblatt, xvii, p. 27, 324 
Multicostata (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 74, 1852, . 332 
Multigyrata (Turbonilla), Dkr. Index Moll. Maria Japon., 

p. 79, t. 13, f. 18, 19, 20, .... . 335 

Mumia (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

45, 1861, 311 

Mumiola, A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 5, 1863, . 297, 315 
Munda (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

45, 1861, . 311 

Munda (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 420, 1860, . 336 
Mundula (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

302, 1861, . 311 

Mundula (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

125, 1861, .... 272 

Murchisoniella, Morch. Mai. Blatt., 184, 1875, . . 318, 339 
Muricata (Chemnitzia^ Carp. Mazat. Cat , 428, 1857, . 333 
Myosotis (Odostomia), Brugnone. Monts. Nomencl. Conch. 

Mcdit., 96, 1884, 352 

Nagli (Odostomia), Brus. Conch. Dalm., 20. 

= 0. conoidea, Brocchi, ....... 350 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 393 

PAGB. 

Xana (Chrvsallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mao-. y a t. Hist., 45, 

1861, 311 

Xana (Eulima). Monts. Xuova Rivista, 75, 1875; Jour.de 

Conch., 153, 1878, 278 

Xana (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc.. vii, p. 87, 1864, 283 
X;uia (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. AJair. X. Hist., 3d ser., vi, 

21, I860 " 365 

Xana (Odostomia turrita, var.), Jeffr. Zool Proc. ,346, 1884, 348 
Xanodea (Odostomia), Monts. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 354, 

1884. = 0. indistiiu-ta, Mont, "... .326 

Xardoi (Odostomia), Brus. Journ. de Conch., p. 241, 18^9, 355 
Xi'iilecta (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. X. Hist., 3d ser., 

vi, 417, 1860, 365 

Xeglecta (Odostomia), Tiberi. Journ. de Conch., p. 67, t. 

5, f. 2,1868. = O. elegans, Monts 350 

Neozelanica (Turbonilla), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll., Xew 

Zeal., p. 22, 1873, 335 

Xerinoea, Deirance. Bull. Univ. go., 1825, . . . .298 
Nerinella, Sharpe. Quar. Jour. Gi-ol. Soc., vi, 101, 1850, . 298 

Xevilli (Odostomia), Folin, 365 

Xevilli (Plicifer), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 292, 1868, . . 293 
Xiso, Risso. Hist. Xat. Kur. Merid., iv, p. 218, 1826, . 261, 287 
Xitens (Eulima), Braz. Linn. Soc., X. S. W., i, p. 285, 1876, 278 
Xitens (Odostomia), Jeffr. Ann. and Mag. Xat. Hist., p. 79, 

I.s70 321, 351 

Xitida (Eulima), A. Ad. Sowb. in Reeve, Icon., f. 33, 1866, 

= E. nitidula, A. Ad. 
Xitida (Eulima, Melania), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 134, 1844. 

= E. intermedia, Cantr. . . ... . . .274 

Xitida (Eulimella), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad.,vi, p. 194, 

t. 32, f. 5, 1884 .342 

Xitida (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Xat. Hist , p. 

129, 1861 282 

Xitida (Odostomia). Alder. Ann. Mag. X. Hist., xiii, 326. 

= 0. Rissoides, Han ley, var 347 

Xitida (Pyramidella), A.* Ad. Zool. Proc.. p. 178, 1853, . 305 
Xitida (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 419, 1860, . 336 
Xitida (Turbonilla), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 1867. 

= T. Hofmani, Angas, . . . ' . . . .334 
Xitidissima i Anisocycla), Mtg. Test. Brit., ii, 299, . . 340 
Xitidissima (Eulima), Macgillivray. Mont. Test. Brit., t. 

12, f. 1. = Truncatella Montagui, Lowe. 
Xitidissima (Turbonilla), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso., p. 177, 

t. 1, f. 19, 1869, . . .337 

Nitidula (Eulima), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii p. 796, 

1855, 271 



394 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGB. 

Nitidula (Eulima), Pease. Zool. Proc., 437, 1860, . . 284 
Nitidula (Pyramidella), A. Ad. (Syrnola). Ann. and Mag. 

Nat. Hist', vi, p. 335, 1860, .... .295,304 
Nivea (Cherrmitzia), Stimp. Bost Proc., iv, p. 1 14, 1851, . 328 
Nivea (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

129, 1861, 281 

Nivea (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 3d 

ser., vi, 416, 1860, 365 

Nivea (Styloptigma), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., 4th ser., vi, 

p. 125, 313 

Niveus (Obeliscus), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 159, 1875, 

295, 304 
Nixa (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

128, 1861, ... 282 

Nodicincta (Pyramidella\ A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, 

p. 813, t. 172, f. 5, 1855, 305 

Nodosa (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 417, 1857, . . 315 
No3mia, Folin. Fonds de la Mer. 

= Pvrgulina, A. Ad.,1870, 321 

Notabilis (Rissoa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., No. 249, 1852 ; 

Cap., Zool. Proc., 1863. = Parthenia 359 

Notata (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 2d 

ser., ii, 336. = O. pallida, Mont., var 346 

Novegradensis (Odostomia), Brus. = 0. pallida, Mont. . 346 
Nntans (Eulima), Meg. v. Miihl. Morch, Mai. Bliitt., xxii, 

182, 1875, . 277 

Obeliscus (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 72, 1852, . 332 
Obeliscus (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

p. 226, t. 3, f. 51, 1871, ... ... 360 

Obeliscus (Odostomin), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat Hist., 

3d ser., i, p. 46, t. 2, f. 5. = Eulimella acicula, Phil., var. 340 
Obeliscus (Humph., 1797), Morch. Yoldi, Cat., 1852. 

= Pyramidella, Lam. ....... 295 

Obeliscus (Turbonilla), Old, Bost. Proc., vii. p. 406, 1801, 337 
Oberon (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

viii, p. 240, 1861, 282 

Obesula (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 276, 1851, . . 284 
Obesula (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

vi, 21, 1860, . 265 

Obliqua (Odostomia), Alder. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xiii, 

327, 320, 350, 351 

Obliqua (Odostomia), Monts. (not Alder). En. e Sinon., 

p. 32. = O. scandens, Brus. . . . . . .351 

Obliqua (Turbinella), Loven. 

= Odostomia insculpta, Mont. ...... 347 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 395 



PAGE. 

Obliquata (Chemnitzia), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil.,ii, p. 137, 

t. 24, f. 10, 324 

Oblonga (Chrysnllida), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 418, 1857, .315 
Oblonga (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 3d ser., vi, 20, 

i860, 305 

Obsoleta (Eulimella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 436, 1857, . .343 
Obtusa (Bonellia), Anton. Verzeich. der Conch., p. 62, 

1839, 289 

Obtusa (Eulima), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 370, 1884. 

= E. compactilis, Monts. ....... 275 

Obtusa (Odostomia), Old. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 405, 1861, . 363 
Oceanida, Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 1*70, . . .319, 343 
Odetta, Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 1870. 

= Evalea, A. Ad., 1860 321 

Odontoidea (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p. 127, 1801, . .278 

Odontostoma, Turton. Conch., 1*29. 

= Odostomia, Fleming 3_0 

Odontostomia, Jeffreys. Mai. and Conch. Mag ,ii, 34, 1839, 

Odostomia, Fleming, ...*... 320 
Odostomia, Fleming. Brit. Anim., 97, 310, 1828, . 320, 346 
Odostomiella, Bucq., Dautz., Dollf. Moll. Kouss., 167, 1883, 

321, 355 
Oleacea (Eulima), Kurtz and Stimpson. Bost. Proc., iv, 

115, 1851, 273 

Ondina, Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 1870, . . .320,350 
Onychina (Eulima), Folin. Fouds de la Mer, p. 22, t. 3, 

f. 1, 1867, 282 

Oonia,Gemmellaro. Giorn. Sc. Nat. Palermo, xiii, 135, 1878, 265 
Opaca (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 30, 1865, 270 
Opaca (Eulimella), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vii, 47, 1861, 341 
Opalina (Eulima), Folin. Les Mele x agrin.,p. 67, t. 6,f. 7, 1867, 273 
Opalina (Eulimella), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vii, 46, 18K1, 343 
Orbignyanus (Stylifer), Hupe. Guerin's Mag., p. 124, 1860, 290 
Ore-angusto (Eulima incurva, var.), Monts. Enum. e Sinon., 

p. 35, .... 275 

Ore-rotundato (Eulima incurva, var.), Monts. Enum. e 

Sinon., p. 35, 275 

Orina, A. Ad. Ann. Mas. N. Hist., 4 ser., vi, 126, 1870, 296, 310 
Ornata (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 221, t. 16, f. 18-21, 

1853, 330 

Ornata (Pyramidella). Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 403,1861, 307 
Ornata (Turbonilla), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 406, 1861, . 336 
Orthochila (Styliferina), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 

4 ser., vi, 335, 1860, 286 

Orthonema, Meek and Worthen. Proc. Philad. Acad., 1861, 264 



396 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Orthostelis Aradas, 1841. Sunto di 4 Mem. Mai., 5. 

== Turbonilla, Risso 317 

Orvza (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliihi., p. 

224, t. 3, f. 45, 1873, 360 

Oscilla, A. Arl. Zool. Proc., p. 310. 1807, . . . 296, 309 
Otopleura, Fiacher. Manuel de Conch., 787, 1885, . 295, 305 
Ovalis (Auriculina), A. Ad. Ann. Mug. X. Hist., 3 ser., vii, 

42, 1861, 365 

Oval a (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat , 417, 1857, . . 315 
Ovoidea (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., 

vi, 416, 1860 365 

Ovoidea (Stylif'er , H. and A. Ad. Genera of Recent Moll., 

i, p. 239, t. 25, f. 4, 1858, 290 

Ovuloides (Odostomia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 109, 1850, . 358 
Ovulum (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat , 423, 1857, . 311 

Oxytata (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc.,xvii,p. 117, 

1883, 278 

Pachystylus, Gemmellaro. Giorn. Sc. Nat. Econ., Palermo, 

xiii, 161, 1878, 299 

Pao-odnla (Parthenia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., 

vi, 415, 1860, 365 

Paivensis (Eulima), Watson. Zool. Proc., p. 364, 1873, . 277 
Palffioniso, Gemmellaro. Giorn. Sc. Nat., Palermo, xiii, 122, 

1878, 261 

Pallida (Chemnitzia), Phil. Ennm. Moll. Sidl., ii, p. 136, i, 

p. 157, t. 9, f. 8. = Odostomia striatula, Linn. . . 327 
Pallida (Odostomia), Mont. Test. Br., ii, p. 325, t. 21. f. 4, 346 
Pallidnla (Eulima subulata, var. \ Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 

365, 1884, 279 

Panamensis (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat , 167, 1852, 334 
Pandata (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag., Nat. Hist., p. 

125, 1861, 278 

Parthenia, Lowe (in part). Zool. Proc., 39, 1840. 

== Pyrgulina, A. Ad. 321 

Parthenina, Bncq., Dautz., Dollf. Moll. Rouss., 168, 1883. 

= Pyrgnlina, A. Ad 321 

Parva (Eulima), 'Sowb. Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 41, 1866, 272 
Pascoei (Odostomia), Antzas. Zool. Proc., p. 112, 1867, . 3(12 
Pasithea, Lea. Contrib. Geol., 103, 207, 18 J3. 

= Eulima, Risso 259 

Paucilirata (Dnnkeria), Carp. Maznt. Cat., 434, 1857, 318, 338 
Paucistriata (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 361,1884, 324 
Paulucciae (Stylifer), Fisch. Journ. de Conch., p. 102, t. 7, 

f. 3, 1864, .292 

Paumotensis (Pyramidella), Tryon 303 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 397 

PAGE. 

Panpercula (Chrysallida), Ad. Panama Shells (Cerithium), 

No. 203, 1852/Carp. Zool. Proc., 850, 1863, . . .311 
Pauxillus (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 129, 

1861 281 

Peasei (Euliraa), Tryon 281 

Pellucene (Eulimella), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vii, 46, 

1861 . . .343 

Pellucirla (Menestho\ A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 1860. =Amathis. 309 
Penchynati (Odostomia), Bucq., Dautz., Doll. Moll. Rouss., 

J71,'t.-20, f. 11, 1883, 354 

Perangusta (Odostomia angusta, var.), Monts. Nuova 

Ri vista, p. 34, . . . 341 

Perfecta (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Ma?., vi, 418, I860, . 336 
Perforatus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sovb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

810, t. 171, f. 9, 1855, . . .... 300 

Perlepida (Turbonilla), Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

427, 18s5, 329 

Perminima (Eulima), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xi, p. 398, t. 16,f. 5, 1883, . . . . ' . . .277 
Peroni (Turbonilla), Yelain. Comptes Rendus, Juillet, 1876, 336 
Pctitiana (Eulima), Brusina. Journ. de Conch., p. 243, 

1869. = E. polita, Linn., var. brevis, Requien. . 274, 275 
Petterdi (Eulima), Beddome. Roy. Soc., Tasmania, p. 168, 

18.-52 278 

Philippiana (Eulimella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 226, 1860, 341 

Philippiana (Turbonilla), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 239. 1860, 335 
Philippii (Eulima), Weink. (not Rayn. and Ponzp. Conch. 

des Mittelm., p. 228, 1868. = E. incurva, Renieri, . 275 

Photis (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat. 425, 1-57, . . 359 

Physoides (Odostomia), Old. Bost. Proc., vii, p.. 405, 1861, 365 

Picta (Eulima), Sovvb. Thes. Conch., sp. 45, 1866, . . 267 
Picturata (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 81, 

1864, 283 

Pinguicula (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist , p. 

125, 1861, 278 

Pinguicula (Orina), A. Ad. Ann. and Ma?., 4 ser., vi, 126, 

1870, . ' . 296, 310 

Pinguis (Obeliscus Krebsii, var.), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, 

p. 159,1875 311 

Pinformis (Eulima), Brugnone. Misc. Malac., i, p. 7, f. 5, 

1873 ' 276 

Pistilliformis (Odostomia), Brugnone. Misc. Malac., p. 24, 

1876. = 0. clavula, Love'n 344 

Pistillum (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 86, 

1864, 283 

Pistillum (Syrnola), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 234, 1862, . 309 



398 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Pistillus (Odostomia), Brugnone. Misc. Malac , p. 9, f. 13, 

1873. = 0. clavulus, Loven ..... '. .344 
Plantata (Odostomia), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 404, 1861, . 3C5 
Plectostylus, Conrad. Jour. Pliilad. Acad. 

= Macrocheilus, Phillips, ....... 263 

Plica (Rissoa), Cantr. Conch. Medit. 

= Odostomia conoidea, Brocchi. ..... 350 

Plicata (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 478, 

1860, . ". . ........ 311 

Plicata (Odostomia), Hanley. Brit. Mar. Conch., 35. 

= O. conoidea, Brocchi. 

Plicata (Odostomia), Mont. Test. Br., ii, p. 325, t. 21, f. 2, 346 
Plicata (Pyramidella), Lam. Enc. Meth., t. 452, f. 3. 

= P. auris-cati, Chemn. ....... 305 

Plicatula (Turbonilla), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 

1826. = Odostomia lactea, Linn ...... 322 

Plicifer, H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 292, 1868, . . .262,293 
Pointeli (Anisocvcla), Folin. Fonda de la Mer, 100, 1867, 

t. 11, f. 4, . ......... 3+1 

Polita (Eulima), Linn. Syat. Nat. Ed., xii, p. 1241, . . 274 
Polita ( Eulimella), Verrill. Am. Journ. Sci., iii, pp. 210, 

282, t. 6, f. 5, 1872, ...... . .342 

Polita (Odostomia), Bivona. Effem. Sci., 4, 1832, t. 1. f. 7 ; 

t. 2, f. 11. = 0. conoidea, Brocchi, . . . . . 350 
Polita (Odostomia), Pse. Am. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 291, t. 

24, f. 17, ....... . . . 363 

Polygyra (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 277, 1851, . 270 
Polyphemopsis, Portlock. Geol. Londond., 446, 1843. 

= Macrocheilus, Phillips, ...... 263, 265 

Polyspirella, Cpr. Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 407, 1861, . 321 

Polyzonata (Chemnitzia), Cpr. Zool. Proc., p. 170, 1856, . 335 
Porcellana (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 276, 1851, . 268 
Potamoides (Turritella), Cantr. Mai. Med., t. 6, p. 25. 

= Odostomia striatula, Linn. ...... 327 

Prselonga (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Zool Proc., p. 340, 1884, 341 
Prattii (Pyramidella), Bernard!. Journ. de Conch., p. 386, 

t. 13, f. 1, 1859, ? = P. sulcata A. Ad ..... 301 
Proca (Eulima), Folin. Les. Meleagrinicoles, p. 62, t. 6, f. 

3, 1867, ...... . .273 

Producta (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 3d Ser., 

vi, 416, 1860. = Amathis, ...... 309 

Producta (Odostomia), C. B. Ad. Bost. Jour. N. Hist, iii, 

t. 3, f. 8, .......... 356 

Prolongata (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 429, 1857, . 333 
Propinqua (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 177, 1853. 

= P. mitralis, A. Ad ..... . . .305 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 399 

PAGE. 

Proxima (Eulima), Sowerby. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 48, 

1846, .... . . .269 

Pruinosa f Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 3d Ser., 

vi, 417, 1860, . .365 

Pseudoinelania Pictet and Campiche. Stol. Sitzb. Wien 

Akad., Hi, 1862, 265 

Psila (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p 112, 

1883, 278 

Ptygnmtis, Sharpe. Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc., vi, 101, 1850, . 298 
Pulchella (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 220 t. 16, f. 14-17, 

1853, ... 330 

Pulchella (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

478, 1860, 302, 1861, 365 

Pulchella (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch , iii, p. 

808, t. 171, f 20, 1855 301 

Pulchra (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

p. 225, t. 3, f. 48, 1873, 360 

Purnila (Chrysallida), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 219, 1866, . 311 
Pumila (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 87, 

1864, 283 

Punc-ta (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 72, 1852. . . 331 
PimctHta (Pyramidella), Chemn. Conch, t. 4, f. 1493, 1494. 

= Peacus, Gmel 295, 301 

Puncticulata (Monoptygma), Gould. Bost. Proc , 406, 1861, 315 
Pimcticulata (Odostomia), Gld. Bost Proc., vii, p. 405, 

1861, .365 

Punctigera (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 

296, 1861, . .-. . . . . . . . .315 

Punctigera (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

3 ser. vi, 415, 1860, 365 

Puncturata (Monoptygma), E. A. Smith. Zooi. Proc., p. 

734, 1871, ..'.... ... 314 

Punicea (Turbonilla viridaria, Var.), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. vi, p. 332, 1883,. . . .329 

Pupa (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 Ser. vi, 

21,1860, . 365 

Pupaeformis (Odostomia), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch., 

xiii, p. 152, 1865 ; xxiii, 291, 1875, . .362 

Pupi forme (Styloptygma), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist, v, p. 411, 1860, .... .313 

Pupiformis (Odostomia satura, var.), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. 

N. Hist., xv, 1865, .... .358 

Pupina (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

vi, p. 334, 1860, 307 

Pupoidea (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 224, t. 16, f. 32-36, 

1853, 332 



400 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Pupula (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ,44, 
1861, 311 

Ptira (Anisocyclanitidissima, var.), Monts. Jour, de Conch., 

268,1874. = A. Pointeli, Polin, ... . . .341 

Pura (Chr3 r sallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 40, 

1861, 365 

Pura (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 129, 

1861 281 

Pura (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch. , H, p. 820, 

t, 172, f. 33, 1855, 314 

Pusilla (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contrib., p. 74, 1852, . 3:U) 
Pusilla (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 7, 1834, . . .268 
Pusilla (Leiostraea), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 86, 

1864, .283 

Pusilla (Odostomia), L. Pfr. Archiv fiir Natur., i, 1840, . 358 
Pusilla (Odostomia), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil , ii, p. 224, t. 

28, f. 21, 1844; Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 358, 1884, . . 323 
Pusilla (Turbonilla), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 167 (not 

Phil.). = T. innovata, Monts. 
Pusillus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 809, 

t. 171,f. 7, 1855, 300 

Pusio (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 45, 1861. 

= Parthenia, 3H5 

Pusio (Leiostraea), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 86, 1864, 283 
Pygmsea (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

44, 1861 365 

Pygmaea (Leiostraea), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 86, 

1864, . . 283 

Pygmaea (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., 

vi, 21, 1860, 365 

Pygmaea (Turbonilla), Brus. Conch. Dalmat., 22, 1864. 

= Odostomia emaciata, Brus. ...... 353 

Pyramidalis (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 277, 1851, . 270 
Pyramidalis (Leiostraea), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 

13, 1866 2<2 

Pyramidalis (Stylifer), live. Elements of Conch., i, p. 129, 

t. 12, f. 56, 291 

Pyramidalis (Syrnola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

\i, p. 334,1860, ... ..'... 310 

Pyramidella, H. and A. Adams, etc. (not Lamarck). 

= Otopleura, Fischer. 

Pyramidella, Lam., Prodr., 1799, 295, 299 

Pyramis, Couthouy. Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist.,ii, 101, 1839. 

== Menestho, Moller 320 

Pyramis (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., 
"vi, 22, I860, . ' . . . . ' . . . .365 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 401 

PAGB. 

Pyrgisculus, Monts. II Nat. Sicil., p. 82, 1885. 

= Tnrbonilla, 318, 325 

Pyririscus, Ph., 1840. Weisfm., Arcliiv., i, 50. 

= Turbonilla, Risao, 1826, ...... 317 

Pyrgolidium, Monts. Conch. Medit., 89, 1884, . . 318, 326 
Pyrjrostelis Monts. II Nat. Sicil., p. 82, 1885, . . 318, 326 
Pyrgostylus, Monts. II Nat. Sicil., p. 83, 1885, . . 318, 327 
Pynrulina, A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc.. vii, p. 4, 1863. ,321, 352, 359 
Pyriformis (Eulima), Brngnone. Misc. Malacol. . .276 

Quinquecincta (Parthenia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 414, 1857. 
= P. notabilis, C. B. Ad 359 

Rangii (Scalenostoma), Polin. Meleagrinicoles, 61, 1867, . 287 
Rnphium, Bayaii. = Baudonia, Bayan, 1873, . . .319 
Rathbuni (Turbinella), Yerrilland Smith. Amer. Jour. Sci., 

xx, p. 392, 1880, 326, 328 

Reclinata (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

126, 1861, 278 

Recta (Leiostraca), C. B. Ad. Shells of Panama, p. 199, . 280 
Reii'ularis (Odostomia), Folin. Ponds de la Mer, p. 267, 

1867. = O. doliolum, Ph 355 

Reigeni (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat Cat., 422, 1857, . .311 
Retardate (Odostomia), Tiberi, MS. Monts. Nat. Sicil., 

201, 1885. = 0. Erjaveciana, Brus. 
Reticosa (Mumiola), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 5, 

1863, 315 

Reticulate (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 75, 1852, . 332 
Retrorsa (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 31, 

1*65, 269 

Rhabdoconcha, Gemmellaro. Giorn. Ac. Sci, Palermo, xiii, 

1878, .265 

Ri<zauxia, Cossmann. Mem. Soc. Geol. Fr., 3 ser.,iii, 1885, 264 
Riisei (Chemnitzia), Morch. Mai. Bliitt., xxii, p. 165, 1875, 332 
Rissoides (Odostomia), Han ley. Zool. Proc., p. 18, 1844, . 347 
Rissoina (Mormula), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 1, 

18-.3, 297, 312 

Robusta (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

125, 1861 271 

Robusta (Slylifer), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., iv, p. 140, . 293 
Robustns (Stylifer), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 437, 1860 . . 293 
Rosacea (Odostomia), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 

292, t. 24, f. 19, 1867, 363 

Rosea (Eulima), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 437, 1860, . . 284 

Rosea (Turbonilla), Maltzan. Nachrichtsblatt, xvii, p. 28, 324 
Rosea (Turbonilla), Monts. Euum. Sin., 34, 1878, . . 326 



402 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Roseus (Obeliscus), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. New. Zeal., 

p. 22, 1873, 304 

Rotunclata (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 418, 1857, . 315 
Rubra (Odostomia), Pse. Amer. Journ. Conch., iii, p. 291, 

t. 24/f. 18, 1867, 303 

Rubrofusca (Chemnitzia), Cpr. Zool. Proc., p. 171, 1856, . 336 
Rufa (Chemnitzia), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 158, t. 9, 

f. 7, 318, 326, 328, 329 

Rufescens (Chemnitzia), Forbes. Brit. Moll., iii, 253, . 325 
Rufo-fasciata (Stylopsis), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag., 

xvi, p. 103, 1875, .... . 344 

Rufolineata (Chrysallida), A. Ad., Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, 

p. 3, 1863, 311 

Rufula (Odostomia), Souverbie. Journ. de Conch., p. 290, 

t. 13, f. 7, 1875. = 0. lutea, Garrett, . . . .361 
Rugosa (Turbonilla), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 208, t. 29, 

f 5, 327 

Rupestris (Rissoa), Forbes. Ann. Nat. Hist., ii, 107. 

= Odostomia bisuturalis, Say, 357 

Riippelli (Elusa), Jick. Jahrb. fur Malac., ix, p. 367, 1882, 310 
Rutila (Eulima), Carp. Proc. Calif. Acad. Nat. Sci., iii, p. 

222, 1866, ..... .... 279 

Salassia, de Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 1870. 

= Cingulina, A. Ad. 318 

Samoensis(Leiostraca),Crosse. Journ.de Conch., p. 300,1867, 280 
Sandvichensis (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 21, 

1865, 284 

Sandvichensis (Niso), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Niso, sp. 

1, 1866, . . . . 288 

Sarissa (Eulima), Watson. Journ. Linn. Soc., xvii, p. 119, 

1883, . . . .278 

Satura (Odostomia), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 1865, 358 
Scalariformis (Parthenia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 413, 1857, . 359 
Scalarina (Odostomia), Gld. Bost Proc., vii, p. 405, 18(51, . 365 
Scalarioides (Turritella), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. p. 

107, f. 41, 1826. = Chemnitzia rufa, Ph. . . 236 

Scalaris (Chemnitzia), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil , i, p. 157. t. 

9, f. 9, .... . . 318,325 

Scalaris (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Yar. rufescens. 

=Cheranitzia rufescens, Forbes. 
Scalaris (Spiroclimax), Morch. Mai. Blat., xxii, p. 168, 

1875, . 321, 358 

Scalaris (Turbonilla), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exper.. vii., 

p. 110, t. 3, f. 7, 1877. = T. Velaini, Tryon, . .' . 336 
Scalenostoma, Desh. Journ. de Conch., x, 396, 1863,. 261, 287 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 403 

PAGE. 

Scalina (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 3 ser., vi, 20, 1860, 365 
St-aliola (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 420, J860, . 335 
Scandens (Odostomia), Brus. MS. Monts., Nat. Sicil., 202, 

1885, . . . . ' . ... . .351 

Scillre (Odostomia), Scacc. Notiz. int. alle. Conch., p. 51, t. 2, 

f. 2, 339 

Scitula (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 128, 

1861, 278 

Scitula (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii. p. 90, 1864, 283 
Scitula (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., 

^ vii, 297, 1861, 335 

Scitulus (Obelise us), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

810, t. 171, f. 23, 1855. = B. ventricosa, Guerin. 
Soulptilis (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag , vi, 419, I860. 336 
Selma, A. Adams. Jour. Linn. Soc., 91, 1864, . .260,285 
Semicostata (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 361, 1884, 324 
Seminuda (Odostomia) Adams. Bost. Jour., ii, 280, . 357 
Semiornata (Odostomia), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, p. 48, t. 

2, f. 1, 1873. = 0. exilissima, Brus. . . . .351 
Semiplieata (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 478, 

I860, 365 

Semistriata (Amaurella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 311, 1867, . 287 
Semitorta (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

126, 1861, ... 278 

Senegalensis (Turbonilla), Maltzan. Nachrichtblatt, xviii, 

p. 27, 324 

Serotina (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 234, 

1862, 308 

Sicula (Odostomia), Ph. Zeitsch. fur Malac., p. 88, 1852. 

= 0. conoidea, Brocchi, . . . . . . . 350 

Sigmoidea (Odostomia), Monts. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., vi. 

p. 71, 1880, .327 

Silvestri (Odostomia), Arad. et Benoit. Conch, viv. mar. 

Sic., 219, t. 4, f. 7, 1870, = 0. emaciata, Brus. . . 353 
Similis (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat , 168, 1852, . 334 
Similis (Turbonilla elegantissima, var.), Monts. En. e Sin., 

p. 33. = T. Campanulas, Ph 322 

Simillimus (Turbo), Mont. Jeffrys, Brit. Conch., iv, 164. 

= Chemnitzia rufa, Phil. . ". 326 

Simplex (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 224, t. 16, f. 28-31, 

1853 343 

Simplex (Odostomia), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 15, t. 1, f. 10, 

^1871, 363 

Simplex (Odostomia elegans, var.), Monts. Nuova Rivista, 

p. 31, 351 

Sinuata (Monoptygma), Gld. Bost. Proc., p. 406, 1861, . 315 



404 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGB. 

Sinuosa (Eulima), Scacchi. Cat. 15, 1836. 

= E. incurva, Ren. ........ 275 

Sinuosa (Odostoinia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc ., p. 358, 18S4, . 322 
Sitkensis (Odostomia), Ball. MS. Rep. Canad. Snrv., 2037, 

1878-79. = ?0. inflata, Carp 358 

Smithii (Eulimella), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 

380, 1880; Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 351, 1884. 

= E. unifasciata, Forbes. ....... 

Smithii (Syrnola), Tryon 308 

Solcniscus, Meek and Worthen. Proc. Philad. Acad., 1860, 299 
Solida (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 18, 1865, 268 
Solida (Pyrarnidella), Sowb. Tank. Cat., App., p. 12, . 303 
Solida (Stylifer), A. Ad. MS. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 6, 293 
Solidula (Eulima), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 53, 

t. 11, f. 27 271 

Solidula (Odostomia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 110, 1850, . 358 
Solidula (Odostomia), Ph. Zeitsch fur Malac., p. 29, 1849, 365 
Solidula (Pyramidella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 233, 1860, 308 
Solidula (Turbonilla), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 176, t. 1, 

f. 17, 1869, 336 

Soluta (Odostomia), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 405, 1861, . 365 
Speciosa (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . .314 
Speciosa (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Anim. Mag., vi, 420, 1860, 335 
Speciosa (Turbonilla), Bean. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iv, 151. 

= T. indistincta, Mont .326 

Speciosa (Turbonilla), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 274, t. 19, f. 

11, 1869. = T. Macandrese, H. Adams. 

Speciosus (Stylifer), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 289, 1868, . 291 
Spectabilis (Turbonilla), Monts. Nomenc. Conch. Medit., 

90, 1884, . . ... 327 

Spectrum (Murchisoniella), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, 184, 

1875, .... . 339 

Spiculum (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p. 129, 1861, 
Spina ( Cingulina), Crosse and Fischer. Jour.de Conch., 

p. 347, 1864 (p. 44, t. 3, f. 13, 14, 1865), . .' . .338 
Spiralis (Odostomia), Mont. Test. Br., ii, p. 323, t. 12, f. 9, 354 
Spiralis (Odostomia), Monts. (not Montagu). 

= 0. turbonilloides. 

Spiralis (Pyramidella), Wood. = P. auris-cati, Chemn. . 305 
Spirata (Chemnitzia), Kurtz and Stimpson. Bost. Proc., 

iv, 115, 1851, ... 329 

Spirata (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . 297, 315 
Spirata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

3d ser., vi, 414, 1860, 365 

Spiroclimax, Morch. Mai. Blatt., 168, 1874, . . .321 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 405 

PAGE. 

Splendidula (Niso), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 6, 1834, . . 287 

Spreta (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 90, 1864, 283 
Stalioli (Eulima), Brusina. Jour, de Conch., p. 242, 1869; 

Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 368, 1884, . . 275 

Stenostoma (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

p. 126, 1861, 278 

Stenostoma (Leiostraca), Jeffre} r s. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 3d ser.,H, p. 128, t. 5, f.7, . . 282 

Stimpsonii (Stylifer), Verrill. Amer. Jour. Sci., new ser., 

iii, p. 283, 1872, 289 

Straminea (Odostomia), Carp. Jour, de Conch., xiii, p. 

146, 1865, 358 

Striata (Bacula), H. and A. Adams. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xi, 18, 1863, 283 

Striata (Monoptygma), Gray. Thes. Conch., ii, 1816, . 313 
Striata (Ncemia), Folin. Ponds de la Mer, 1871. 

= Odostomia elegans, Monts. . . . . . .351 

Striata (Odostomia), Phil. Moll. SiciL, i, 154, t. 10, f. 8, 

1836. = 0. interstincta, var. siituralis, .... 353 
Striata (Odostomia), Pse. Amer. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 291, 

t. 24, f. 16, 1867, 363 

Striatula (Eulimella), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,xvii, 

p. 186, 1856, 340 

Striatula (Menestho), Couthouy. Bost. Jour. N. Hist., ii. 

101, 1839, . .345 

Striatula (Odostomia), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1238, . 318, 327 
Striatula (Syrnola), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 812, 

t. 171, f. 29, 1855, 307 

Striatus (Turbo), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. subapp., t. 6, f. 7, 

1814. = Menestho bulinea, Lowe, ..... 345 
Stricta (Turbonilla), Verrill. Rep. TJ. S. Fish Commission, 

i, p. 659, 1874, 329 

Strigulata (Elusa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 237, 1862, . 311 

Striolata (Odostomia), Alder. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., iii, 267. = 0. turrita, Hanley, var. 
Striolata (Turbonilla), Weink., ii, p. 210. 

= Odostomia Striatula, Linn. ...... 327 

Striosa (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 169, 1852, . 334 
Strobeus, de Koninck, 1881, . ... . 264 

Stylata (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 126, 

1861, . 278 

Stylifer, Brod. Zool. Proc., 60, 1832, .... 262, 289 
Stylifera (Phasianella), Turton. Zool. Journ., Oct., 1825. 

= Stylifer Turtoni, Brod. . . . ' . . . 290 

Styliferina, A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vi, 335, 1860. 

260, 286 



406 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Styliformis (Careliopsis), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. Ifi9, 

1875, 297, 315 

Stylina (Cheranitzia torguata, var.), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. 

Hist., 3 ser., xv, 185, 1865, 333 

Stylina, Fleming, 1828. = Stylifer, Brod. , . . 262 

Stylina (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . .314 
Stylinus (Obeliscns), A. Ad. Sowb., Zool. Proc., 224, 1851. 

= Styloptvgma typica, Tryon, . . . .297,312 

Stylopsis, A.' Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., v, 406, 1860, . 319, 344 
Styloptvgma, A. Ad. Zool. Proc.. p. 235, 1862, . 297, 312 

SubaDgulata (Pimkeria), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 434, 1857, . 338 
Subangulata (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 8, 1834, . .271 
Subangulata (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 

ser., vi, 416, 1860, 365 

Subangulata (Stylifer), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 122, 1855, . 292 
Subcarinata (Eulima), , d'Orb. Cuba, p. 217, t. 16, f. 4-6, . 273 
Subcuspidata (Chemnitzia), Cpr. Calif. Proc., iii, p. 220, 

1866, 333 

Subdiaphana (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. X. Hist., 3 

ser., vi, 417, I860, . .365 

Subdolabratus (Obeliscus dolabratus, var.), Morch. Mai. 

Blatt., xxii, p. 157, ... ... 300 

Subemarginata (Chemnitzia), Folin. Moll. Andaman., 1879, 337 
Subeulima, Souverbie. Journ. de Conch., p. 296, 1875, 261, 287 

Subfarcinata (Pyramidella), Watson, 304 

Sublirulata (Odostomia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 410, 1857, . 359 
Sublonga (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., 345, 1884, . 346 
Subpellucida (Eulima), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 515, 1865, . 284 
Subplanata (Odostomia), Gld. Bost Proc., vii, p. 404, 1861, 365 
Subrostrata (Eulima), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 43, 

1866, . 272 

Substriata (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Cantr., p. 73, 1852. 

= Morch, Mai. Blatt,, xxii, 162, 330 

Subsulcata (Odostomia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 411, 1857, . 359 
Subula (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann and Mag. Nat Hist., viii, p. 

239, 1861, . . . . . , . . . .278 
Snbula (Mucronalia), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 91, 

1864, \ . 285 

Subula (Syrnola), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 403, 1861, . 309 

Subula (Turbonilla), Morch. Mai. Bliitt., vi, p. 120, 1860, . 334 
Subularia, Monterosato. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 103, 

1884, 259, 278 

Subulata (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Contr., p. 74, 1852, . 331 
Subulata (Eulima), Donovan. Brit. Shells, v, t. 172, . . 279 
Subulata (Odostomia). Ph. Zeitsch fur Malac., p. 30, 1860, 365 
Subulata (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 177, 1853, 310 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 407 

PAGE. 

Subulatus (Stylifer), Brod. Zool. Proc., p. 61, 1832, . . 291 
Subuliforme (Styloptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 236, 

1862, 313 

Subulina (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 85, 

18K4, . . 282 

Subulina (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 234, 1862, 308 
Subulites, Conrad. Emmons' Geol. Kept., N. Y., 392, 1842, 264 
Subumbilicata (Eulima), Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., p. 370, 1884, 276 
Subventricosa (Chemnitzia Humboldti, var.), Phil. Moll. 

Sic., ii, p. 137, 1844, 345 

Subventricosa (Leiostraca), Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,sp. 

18, 1866, . . . .285 

Succiniola (Selraa), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 91, 1864, 285 
Suezienzis (Odostomia), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso., p. 178, t. 

2, f. 1, 1869 365 

Sufarcinatus (Obeliscus), Watson. 

= Pyramidella nitidula, A. Ad. 
Sulcata (Menestho Humboldti, var.), B. D. D. Moll. 

Rouss., 195, 1883, 345 

Sulcata (Menestho), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 

380, 18SO, 345 

Sulcata (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philada., 

p. 224, t. 3, f. 46,1873, 360 

Sulcata (Ondina), Polin. Fonds de le Mer, t. 29, f. 1, . 351 
Sulcata (Oscilla), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 417, 

1860, 310 

Sulcata (Pyramidella), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

807, t. 171, f. 34, 1855, 301 

Sulcata (Pyramidella), Nutt. Jay's Cat. of Shells, p. 68. 

= P. sulcata, A. Ad. 
Sulcata (Stylopsis), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 

241, 1861, . .344 

Sulcatina (Yanesia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, 

p. 307, 1861, 339 

Sulcifera (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, 296, 

1861, . 315 

Sulcifera (Odostomia), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 735, 

1871, .349 

Superflua (Odostoma), Monts. Enum. e Sinon, p. 34. 

? = Eulimella compactilis, Jeffreys, ..... 339 
Suturalis (Dunkeria), Gould. Bost. Proc., viii, 280, 1862, . 338 
Suturalis (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1851, . . 314 
Suturalis (Obeliscus), Maltzan. Nachrichtsblatt, xvii, p. 26, 304 
Suturalis (Odostomia), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 129, 1844, . 353 
Suturalis (Odostomia), Phil. Zeit. Mai, 30, 1849, . . 365 
Syrnola, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 233, 1862, . . . 296, 306 



408 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Syrnolopsis, E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 5 ser., vi, 
426, 1880, 298, 315 

Tseniata (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 88, 

1864 283 

Tjvniatii (Turbonilla), Folin. Moll., Isles Andaman, . . 337 
Tjvniatum (Styloptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 235, 1802. 
Tantilla (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 89, 

18r,4, . . 282 

Tantilla (Pyrgulina), A. Ad. Jonrn. Linn. Soc., vii. p. 5, 

1803, . 3G5 

Tasmanica (Eulima), Tenison-Wood. Roy. Soc., Tasmania, 

p. 29, 1875 278 

Tasmanica (Obeliscus), Pettercl. Journ. of Conch., iv, p. 

140, 1884 303 

Tasmanica (Stylifer), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc., N. S. W., 

p. 152, 1870, . 293 

Tasmanica (Turbonilla), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc., 

Tasmania, p. 145, 1875, 335 

Telescopinm (Chrysallida), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 419, 1857, . 311 
Teinostoma (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 276, 1851, .207 
Tenella (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 224, 1851, .315 
Tenera (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., 3 ser., vi, 21, 1860, 3C5 

Tenisoni (Enlima), Tryon. 209 

Tennicosta (Tnrbonilla), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso., p. 174. 

t. 1. f. 10, 1869, .336 

Tenuicula(Chemnitzia), Gould. Shellsof Calif., 10, t. 14,f.l5, 333 
Tenuicnla (Chrysallida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 302, 

1861, . 311 

Tennilirata (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 433, 1857, . 333 
Tennis (Odostomia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 412, 1857, . . 359 
Tennis (Odostomia), Jeffr. Zool. Proc., p. 347, 1884, . . 350 
Tenniscnlpta (Odostomia), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 

1805, . . . . . . . . . .359 

Tenuiscnlpta (Syrnola), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., xix, p. 102 ; 

Jap. Mar. Conch., iii, 58, t. 3, f. 7, 8, 1872, . . .309 
Terebella (Helix). Miili. Hist. Verm., ii, p. 123. 

= Pyramidella dolabrata, Linn., var. 
Terebelloides (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., ii, 

p. 808, t. 171, f. 18, 1855. = Pyramidella dolabrata, 

Linn., var 300 

Terebellum (Chemnitzin), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 138, 1844, 

= interstincta, Mont., var. . . . . . 353 

Terebellum (Niso), Chemn. Conch., x, 1. 105, f. 1592, 1593, 288 
Terebellum (Obeliscus), Milll. Term., p. 123, No. 319. 

= 0. dolabratus, Linn., var. ...... 300 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 409 

PAGE. 

Terebellnra (Parthema), C. B.Ad. Panama Cat., No. 254, 

1852. Carp., Zool. Proe.. 1863, 359 

Terebra (Chrysaliida), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 45, 

18(>l, . . . .311 

Tereura (Turbinella), A. Ad. Ann. Mag.. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

vii, 297, 18(51, 335 

Terebra (Turbinella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 239, 1800, . 338 
Terebralis (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 432, 1857, . 333 
Teres (Elusa), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vii, p. 

297, 1861, 296, 311 

Teres (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb.. Thes. Conch., ii, p. 807, t. 

171, V. 31, 32, 1855. = P. sulcata, A. Ad. . . .301 
Teres (Odostomia en<ronia, var.), Bush. Trans. Conn. 

Acad., vi, p. 467, t. 45, f. 9, 1885, 343 

Teretiuscula (Syrnola), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

vi, p. 334, 1860, .... ... 309 

Terquemi (Hoplopteron), Fischer. Journ. de Conch., xxiv, 

p. 234, 1876, . .... 289 

Tessellata (Mumiola), A. Ad. Journ. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 6, 

1863, 315 

Tessellatus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

808, t. 171, f. 16, 1855. = P. sulcata, Adams, . . 301 
Textilis (Chemnitzia), Kurtz. Cat. Mar. Shells, 8, 1860, . 329 
Thersites (Eulima), Carp. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xv, 

p. 396, 1865, 278 

Thomassiae (Sty lifer), Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 15, 1878, . 2.92 
Tiberia, Jeffreys MS. Monts. Atti Ace. Palermo, 5, 31, 

1875, 295, 304 

Tincta (Syrnola), Angas. Zool. Proc., p. 15, t. 1, f. 11, 

1871, .- .308 

Tinctus, Watson. = Pyramidella nitidula, A. Ad. . . 304 
Titania (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, p. 

240, 1861, 282 

Torcula (Odostomia), Morch. Journ. de Conch., p. 372, 

1876 358 

Tornata (Odostomia), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 

196, 1884, . 358 

Torquata (Chemnitzia), Gould. Desc. Shells of Calif., ii, t. 

14, f. 16, 333 

Tortuosa (Eulima), Ad. and Rve. Toy. Samarang, p. 53, 

t. 12, f. 26 .271 

Trabeeula, Monteroeato. Conch. Medit., 86, 1884, . .317 
Trachealis (Chemnitzia), Gld. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 407, 1861 , 321 
Tragula, Monterosato. Conch. Medit., 86, 1884,. . 317, 325 
Tricincta (Odostomia), Jeffreys. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xvii, p. ^.85, t. 2, f. 12, 13, 1856. = 0. doliolum, Ph. . 355 



410 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Tridentata (Chemnitzia), Cpr. Journ. de' Conch., xiii, p. 

147, 1865, .... 333 

Trifasciata (Leiostraca), H. Adams. Trans. Linn. Soc., v, 

t. i, f. 13, 14, 1805, 279 

Trii'asciata (Vanesia), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

viii, p. 242, 18,51, 339 

Trifasciatus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 332, 1862, 303 
Trifida (Odostoraia), Totten. Am. Jour. Sci., xxvi, 368, . 356 
Trilineata (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 180, 1853, 337 
Trilincata (Niso), Morch. Jour, de Conch., p. 129, 1872, . 2^9 
Trinodosa (Rissoa), Rayneval e Ponzi. Jelfre}^, Zool. 

Proc., 352, 1884. == Odostomia excavata, Phil. . . 355 
Triptychus, Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxii, p. 158, 1875, . 295, 304 
Trochalia, Sharpe. Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc.,vi, 101, 1850, . 298 
Tuberculata (Menestho Humboldtii, var.), B. D. D. Moll. 

Rouss., 195, 1883, . . . . . . . . 345 

Tumens (Cythnia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 363, 1856, . . 293 
Tumida (Mucronalia), Pease MS. Sty lifer Mittrei, Petit, 290 
Turbonilla (Leach), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merkl., iv, 1 826, 

317, 322 
Tnrbonilloides (Odostomia), Brus. Jour, de Conch., p. 240, 

1869, 355 

Turgidula (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Ann. and Mas:. Nat. Hist., 

p. 128, 1861, . 282 

Turriculata (Odostomia), Monts. Test. Nuovi di Sicil., p. 

11, f. 5, 1869. = 0. Erjaveciana, Brus. 
Turriculata (Odostomia), Monts. Test. Nuovi Mar. Sicil., 

p. 11, f. 5. =0. turrita, Hanley, var 348 

Turriculata (Rissoa), Calc. Monog. Glaus, e Bal., 50, 1839. 

= Menestho Humboldtii, Risso, 345 

Turris (Chemnitzia), d'Orb. Cuba, p. 219, t. 16, f. 10-13; 

Amer. Merid., No. 290, ....... 330 

Turris (Eulimella), Forbes. Brit. Assoc. Report, 188, 1843. 

= E. acicnla, Phil., var 340 

Turrita (Chemnitzia), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 169, 1852, . 334 
Turrita (Cingula), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat,, No. 255, 1852; 

Carp., Zool. Proc., 1863. = Parthenia notabilis, Ad. . 359 
Turrita (Odostomia), Hanley. Zool. Proc., p. 18, 1844, . 348 
Turrita (Odost.), Metcalfe. Thorpe, Index Brit. Mar. 

Conch., 44, 1844. = Odost. excavata, Phil. . . .355 
Turrita (Styliferina), Cpr. Proc. Cal. Soc.,iii, p. 219, 1868, 286 
Turritella (Chemnitzia), Pfr. A. Ad., Zool. Proc., 180, 1853, 332 
Turritella (Rissoa). Sc. Cat. Reg. Neap., p. 15, f. 24, 

= Turbonilla lactea, Linn. 322 

Turritellata (Eulima), Requien. Coq. de Corse, p. 58, 1848. 

= Eulimella ventricosa, Forbes, ..... 340 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 411 

PAGE. 

Turritus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 

807, t. 171, f. 17, 1855, 301 

Turtoni (Stylifer), Brocl. Zool. Proc., p. 61, 1832, . . 289 
Tvpica (Stylopsis), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 406, I860, 

320, 344 

Tvpica (Styloptygma), Tryon, 312 

Umbilicaris (Odostomia), Malm. Goetheborg K. vel Verb., 

viii, p. 128, t. 2, f. 10, 347 

Umbilicata ( Odostomia), Alder. Trans. Tj'nesiele Nat. Club, 

i, 359. = O. acuta, Jeffreys, var 349 

Undata (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., No. 531, 1857. 

= C. afflnis, C. B. Ad. . . . . . . .334 

Unicincta (Odostomia doliolum, var.), B. D. D. Moll. Rous- 

sillon, 168 355 

Unidens (Eulima), Req. Moll. Corse. 

= Odostomia plicata, Mont. 

Unidentata (Odostomia), Mont. Test. Brit., ii,p. 324, . 348 
Unifasciata (Chemnitzia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 433, 1857, . 333 
Unifasciata (Odostomia), Forbes. Rep. A eg. Inv., p. 188; 

Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 351, 1884, . . .342 

Unilineata (Leiostraca), Ad. and Rve. Voy. Samarang^ 

p. 52, t. 11, f. 53, 280 

Unilineata (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

p. 227, t. 3, f. 53, 1873, 361 

Valida (Eulima), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 127, 

1861, 278 

Yalida (Noernia), Folin. Fonds de la Mer, 63, t. 2, f. 6, 

1872. = Odostomia dolioliformis, Jeff. . . . .351 
Vallata (Odostomia), Carp. Mazat, Cat., 411, 1857, . . 359 
Vancouverensis (Chemnitzia), Baird. Zool. Proc., 67, t. 1, 

f. 3, 1863. ='C. torquata, Gld. 
Yanesia, A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, p. 242, 1861. 

319, 339 

Varians (Eulima), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 8, 1834, . . .278 
Varicosa (Chemnitzia), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 181, t. 20, 

f, 15, 1853, 312 

Varicosa (Parthenia), Forbes. Rep. ./Eg. Invert., 136, 1844. 

= Odostomia striatula. Linn. ...... 327 

Yaricosa (Turbonilla), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 239, 1860, . 335 
Yariegata (Pyramidella, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 178, 

1853, .305 

Yariegatus (Obeliscus), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xiv, p. 46, 1864. = P. conica, C. B. Ad 302 

Yelaini (Turbonilla;, Tryon, ., .... 336 



412 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Yentricosa (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., 

vi, 21, 1860, 365 

Ventricosa (Odostomia, Forbes. Rep. JEg. Inv., p. 188, 

1843; Jeffreys, Zool. Prbc., 363, 1884. 

(?) = Bulimella acicula, Phil, var 340 

Ventricosa (Pyramidella), Guerin. Mag. de Zool., t. 2, 

1830, .299 

Yenusta (Eulima), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 294, 

1867, 268 

Yenusta (Odostomia), Monts. Atti Acad. Palermo, p. 33, 

1875. = 0. ainoena, Monts. 

Yenusta (Turbonilla), Issel. Mar Rosso, 175, 1869, . . 337 
Yenustula (Turbonilla), A. Ad. Ann. Mag., vi, 418, 1860, 336 

Vincentina (Odostomia), Tr> on, 362 

Yincta (Leiostraca), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, p. 88, 

1864, 280 

Yincta (Pyramidella), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., vi, p. 

330, 1883. = P. nivea, Morch. . . . . 304 

Vinia (Turbonilla viridaria, var.), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Ivlus., vi, p. 332, 1883, . . 329 

Virgo (Agatha), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., vi, 

422, 1860, 296, 309 

Virgo (Chemnitzia), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser.,xv, 

185, 1865 333 

Viridaria (Turbonilla), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, p. 

332, 1883, 329 

Viridescens (Odostomia), Old. Bost. Proc., vii, p. 405, 

1861, 365 

Vitiensis (Turbonilla), Garrett MSS. Godefroy Shells. 

= T. elongata, Pease. 

Vitrea (Eulima), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. p. 277, 1851, . . 282 
Vitrea (Eulima), Petterd. Journ. of Conch., iv, p. 136, 

1884, .278 

Vitrea (Eulimella), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., vii, 47, 

1861, 341 

Vitrea (Odostomia), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

vi, 416, 1860. . . . 365 

Vitrea (Odostomia), Brus. (not of A. Adams). Contr. Moll. 

Dalmatia, p. 12, f. 6, 1866. = 0. elegans, Monts. . . 350 
Vitrea (Odostomia), Folin. Moll. Isles Andaman, . . 365 
Vitrea (Odostomia), Garr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 

227, t. 3, f. 52, 1873, 360 

Vitreolina, Monterosato. Nomencl. Conch. Medit., 100, 

18&4, 259 

Vitreus (Obeliscus), A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., vi, 

p. 335, 1860, 303 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 413 

PAflE. 

Yittata (Monoptygma), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 295, 
1861, . 315 

Vittata (TurbonilhO, Folin. Moll. Isles Andaman, . . 337 

Yix-ornata (Odostomia elegans, var), Folin. Fonds de la 
Mer, 1871, 351 

Yolusia, A. Ad. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., viii, p. 306, 
1861, 261, 289, 350 

Warrenii (Odostomia), Thompson. = 0. obliqua, Alder, . 350 
Wehikauffi (Torbonilla), Dunker. Jour, de Conch., 343, t. 

13 f. 9, 1862; xi, 335, 1863. == T. fenestrata, Forbes, . 325 
Wood-Masoni (Turbonilla), Folin. Moll. Isles Andaman, . 337 

Ziziphina (Oseilla), Carp. Mazat. Cut., 416, 1857, . . 310 
Ziziphina (Parthenia), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 416, 1857, . . 359 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



PLATE 1. 
[GURU. PAOK. 

1-3. Natica stercus-muscarum, Gmel. Jaws. Troschel, 
Gebiss Schiieck., i, t. 14, f. 11. Front, back and 
side views, ........ 4 

4. Natica lineata, Lam. Dentition. Ibid., i, t. 14, f. 10, 4 

5. Natica millepunctata, Lam. Dentition. Ibid., i, t. 14, 

f. 13, 4 

<>. Natica duplicate, Say. Dentition. Ibid., i, t. 15, f. 9, 4 

7. Sigaretus laevigatus, Lam. Dentition. Ibid., i, t. 15, 

f. 13, . 10 

8. Yelutina laevigata, Lam. Dentition. Ibid., i, t. 14, f. 2, 12 

9. Lamellaria producta, Leach. Dentition. Fischer's 

Manual, viii, f. 528, ... ... 12 

10. Marsenina prodita, Gray. Dentition. Troschel, Gebiss, 

i, t. 15, f. 18, 12 

11. Oncidiopsis Groenlandica, Bergh. Dentition. Ibid., 

i,t. 15, f. 17, . . 12 

12. 13. Natica millepunctata. Operculnm. Specimen, . 5 
14. Natica heros, Say. Operculum. Specimen, . . 5 



414 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

15. Sigaretus laevigatus, Soul. Operculum. Fischer's 

Manual, pt. viii, f. 535, . . . . . .10 

16,17. Naricacancellata,Chemn. Operculum. Ibid.,f.526, 13 

18, 19. Laraellaria latens, Miill. Ibid., f. 530, . . . 12 

20. Marsenina prodita, Gray (Loven). Ibid., f. 531, . . 12 

21. Oncidiopsis glacialis, Sara. Ibid., f. 532 a, . . .12 

PLATE 2. 

22. Natica raillepimctata, Lam. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

A,f. 3, . . .14 

23. Natica millepunctata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

266, 11 

24. Natica maculata, Desh. (= millepunctata, var.). Ibid., 

f. 186, 14 

25. Natica hebrsea, Mart. (= millepunctata, var. sangui- 

nolenta). Moll. Espagn., t. 20, f. 8, . . " . 14 

26. 27. Natica fulminea, Ginelin. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

61,62, 15 

28. Natica Senegalensis, Recluz. (== fulgurans, Recluz.). 

Jour, de Conch., i, t. 14, f. 5, 16 

29. Natica Adansonii (N. fanel, Adans.). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon.,f. 83, 6, . . . . . . . .17 

30. Natica Adansonii, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 15, f. 6, 15 

31. Natica Bourguignati, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 

7,f. 8, \ 16 

32. Natica zebra, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 53 6, . 16 

33. Natica pellis-tigrina, Chemn. Thes. Conch., f. 83, . 16 

34. Natica lynx, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 19, f. 7, . 17 

PLATE 3. 

35. Natica maculosa, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 57, . 16 

36. Natica imperforata, Sowb. Reeve, Ibid., f. 77 6, . 17 

37. Natica florida, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 90, . 17 

38. Natica tincturata, Reeve (= pulicaris). Conch. Icon., 

f. 63, 17 

39. Natica pulicaris, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 13, f. 9, 17 

40. Natica cincta, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, t. 14, f. 7, . 18 

41. Natica violacea, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 656, . 18 

42. Natica fabella, Jousseaume. Bull, Soc. Zool. Fr., t. 4, 

f. 11, 1884, 18 

43. Natica tecta, Anton. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 16, f. 10, 18 

44. Natica Sagraiana, d'Orb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 1 11 a, 19 

45. Natica filosa, Phil. (= Sagraiana). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab.,t, 11, f. 9, 19 

46. Natica pulchella, Pfr. (= Sagraiana). Ibid., 1. 19, f. 13, 19 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 415 

F1GUKB. PACK. 

47, 48. Natica vcnustula, Phil. Reeve. Conch. Icon., 

f. 138a&, . . . . '. . . .19 

49. Natica Bayani, Jouss. (= venustula). Guerin's Mag., 

t. 2, f. 5, 1874 ' . . . .19 

50. Natica Trailing Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 137 a, . . 19 

51. 52. Natica Mozaica, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 133, 134, 19 

53. Natica Chinensis, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 82 a, 20 

54. Natica Aimei, Jouss. (== Chinensis). Bull. Soc. Zool. 

Fr., t. 4, f. 10, 1884, 20 

55. Natica Forskalii, Chemn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 596, 20 
5<>. Natica Maheense, Dufo. Reeve, Ibid., f. 58 c, . . 20 

57. Natica Raynoldiana, Recluz. Reeve, Ibid., f. 5G 6, . 20 

PLATE 4. 

58. Natica canrena, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 14 6, . 20 

59. Natica proxima, Ad. (= canrena). Ibid., f. 126 c, . 20 

60. Natica lemniscata, Phil. (= canrt-na). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 17, f. 9 20 

61. Natica affinis, Busch. (= canrena). Ibid., t. 13, f. 3, . 20 

62. Natica alapapilionis, Chemn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 60 a, 21 

63. Natica crenata,Recl. (=alapapilionis) Jour, de Conch., 

iv,t. 7, f.5, 21 

64. Natica articulata, Phil. (= alapapilionis). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 17, f. 4, . . , . . . 21 

65. Natica Broderipiana, Reel. (= alapapilionis). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 66 a, . . . . .21 

66. Natica Taslei, Reel. (= Broderipiana). Jour, de Conch., 

iv, t. 2, f. 12, 21 

67. Natica iostoma, Menke (= Broderipiana). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 17, f. 5, . . . . . . 21 

68. 69. Natica picta, Recluz. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 67 c 6, 21 

70. Natica Zelandica, Quoy. Reeve, Ibid., f. 90 a, . . 22 

71. Natica catenata, Phil. Reeve, Ibid., f. 92 a, . . 22 

72. Natica catenata, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1. 18, f. 11, 22 

73. Natica Grayi, Phil. Ibid., t. 11, f. 13, . . . . 22 

PLATE 5. 

74. Natica inarochiensis, Gmel. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 52, 22 

75. Natica marochiensis, Ginel. Sowb., Thes., Conch., 

f. 151, 22 

76. Natica lurida, Phil. (= marochiensis). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 12, f. 4, . . . . ' . . . .22 

77. Natica hebraea, Phil. (= inarochiensis, var.). Ibid., 

t. 11, f. 10, 22 



416 EEFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

78. Natica avellana, Phil. (= Dillwyni, Payr.). Ibid., t. 

11, f. 14, 25 

79. Natica tessellata, Phil. (= raarochiensis, var.). Ibid., 

t. 7, f. 7, . . 22 

80. Natica Cayennensis, Reel. (= marochiensis, var.). 

Jour, de* Conch., i, t. 14, f. 6, 22 

81. Natica Souleyetiana, Reel. (= marochiensis, var.). 

Ibid., t. 14, f. 8, . . .... 22 

82. Natica Mao cell i, Jonss. (= marochiensis, var.). Guer- 

in's Mag., t. 2, f. 11, 1874, 22 

83. Natica limacina, Jouss. (= marochiensis, var.). Ibid., 

t. 2,f. 7, 1874, 22 

84. Natica Marchii, Jouss. (== marochiensis, var.). Ibid., 

t. 2, f. 9, 1874 22 

85. Natica livida, Pfr. (= marochiensis, var.). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 11, f. 16, 22 

86. Natica rufilabris, Reeve (= marochiensis, var.). Conch. 

Icon.,f. 1036, 22 

87. Natica lacernula, Orb. (= marochiensis, var.). Moll. 

Cuba, t. 17, f. 23, 22 

88. Natica undata, Phil. (= marochiensis, var.). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 11, f. 12, 22 

89. Natica Jamaicensis, Ad. (= marochiensis, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 110 . .22 

90. Natica gracilis, Sowb. (= marochiensis, var.). Ibid., 

f. 15(5, 22 

91,92. Natica Menkeana, Phil. (= marochiensis, var.). 

Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 15, f. 8, . . . .22 

93. Natica unifasciata, Lam. (= marochiensis, var.). 

Conch. Icon., f. 496 22 

94. Natica Pritchardi, Forbes (= marochiensis, var.). 

Zool. Proc,, ? t. 1 1 , f. 2 6, . . . . . .22 

95. Natica Chemnitzii, Pfr. (= marochiensis, var.). Speci- 

men 22 

96. Natica Cernica, Jouss. (= marochiensis, var.). Guer- 

in's Mag., t. 2, f. 13, 1*74, 22 

97. Natica lineozona, Jouss. Ibid., t. 2, f. 3, 1874, . . 24 

PLATE 6. 

98. 99. Natica insecta, Jouss. Guerin's Mag., t. 2, f. 1, 2, 

1874, . ....... 24 

100. Natica Gaidei, Souverb. (= lineozona). Jour, de 

Conch., t. 7,f. 7, 1874, 24 

1. Natic-a notata, Sowb. (= lineozona). Thes. Conch., 

f. 168, 24 

2. Natica locellus, Reeve (Magnified). Conch. Icon., f. 134, 24 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 41 7 

FEGUKE. PAGE. 

3, 4. Natica asellus, Reeve (Magnified). Ibid.,f. 136 a, 6, 24 

5. Natica Dillwyni, Payr. Thes. Conch., f. 166, . . 25 

6, 7. Natica abbreviata, Sowb. Ibid., f. 157, 158, . . 25 

8. Natica Dillwyni, Payr. Moll. Corse, t. 5, f. 27, . . 25 

9. Natica marraorata, Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 8, 1869, . 25 
10, 11. Natica vittata, Gmelin. Thes. Conch., f. 116, 115, 25 

12. Natica textilis, Reeve (= vittata). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 1156, 25 

13. Natica macilenta, Reeve (= Alderi, Forbes). Ibid., f. 

1336, . 40 

14. Natica nitida (= Guillemini). Ibid., f. 106 6, . . 40 

15. Natica nitida, Forbes (= Guillemini}. Forbes and 

Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 100, f. 3, . . . .40 

16. Natica Guillemini, Payr. Moll. Corse, t. 5, f. 25, . 40 

17. 18. Natica macilenta, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1. 10, 

f. 10, 11, 40 

19. Natica Rizzae, Phil. (= macilenta). Ibid., t. 15, f. 7, . 40 

20, 21. Natica intricata, Donovan. Conch. Icon., f. 97 c,a, 42 

22. Natica forata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 129 a, . . . . 26 

23. Natica areolata, Recluz. Kiister, Conch. Cab.,t. 11, f. 2, 25 

24. Natica limpida, E. A. Smith. Zool. Alert, t. 5, f. L, 26 

25. Natica Antoni, Phil. Kiister, Conch.-Cab., t. 19, f. 18, 26 

26. Natica Franciscana, Reeve (= Guillemini). Conch. 

Icon., f. 127 6, 40 

PLATE 7. 

27. 28. Natica genuanus, Reeve (= imperforata). Gray, 

Conch. Icon., f. 121 a, c, It 

29. Natica fulgurans, Recluz. Ibid., f. 100 6, ... 16 

30, 31. Natica concinna,Dunker. Moll. Mar. Jap., t. 2, f. 21, 26 
32, 33. Natica bicincta, Schrenck. Moll. Amurl., t. 17, 

f. 2, 3, . 26 

34. Natica Collei, Recluz. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 1126, 26 

35. Natica rubromaculata, Smith. Thes. Conch., f. 124, . 26 

36. Natica sagittifera, Recluz (= marochiensisj. Jour, de 

Conch.', iii, t. 8, f. 5, 22 

37. Natica variabilis, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 104 a, . 27 

38. Natica pavimentum, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 132, . 27 

39. Natica Cailliaudi, Recluz (= pavimentum). Jour, de 

Conch., i, t. 13, f. 9, 27 

40. Natica pygmgea, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1. 13. f. 12, 27 

41. Natica dilecta, Gould. Moll. Wilke.s' Exped., f. 255, . 27 

42. Natica monilifera, Lam. (= catena). Conch. Icon., f. 

50 a, 41 

43. Natica monilifera, Lam. (= catena). Forbes and Han- 

ley, Brit. Moll., t. PP, f. 6, . . . . .41 
27 



418 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

44, 45. Natica monilifera, Egg Case and Eggs. Forbes and 

Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. PP, f. 7 a, 6, . . . .41 

PLATE 8. 

46. Natica Adamsiana, Dunker. Moll. Mar. Japon., t. 13, 

f. 5, 27 

47, 48. Natica Moquiana, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iv, t. 

5,f. 9, 10, . . . ' 27 

49. Natica Gualteriana, Petit. Conch. Icon., f. 114, . . 27 
49 bis. Natica obstricta, Menke. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

17, f. 6, 28 

50. Natica limbata, d'Orb. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 7, f. 1, 28 

51. Natica Isabelliana, d'Orb. Ibid., t. 7, f. 2, . . .28 

52. Natica labrella, Lam. (= collaria, Lam.). Ibid., t. 11, 

f. 17, 28 

53. Natica Gambise, Recluz (= collaria, Lam.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 105, 28 

54. Natica collaria, Lam. Ibid., f. 87 0, . . . 28 

55. Natica Elenase, Recluz. Ibid., f. 94 a, . . . 28 

56. Natica Haneti, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, t. 13, f. 7, 28 

57. Natica lineata, Lam. Conch. Icon., f. 24, . . .29 

58. Natica Buriasensis, Recluz. Ibid., f. 128, . .29 

59. Natica gracilis. Recluz. Jonr. de Conch. ,i, t. 14, f. 11, 29 

60. Natica vitellus, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 39 6, . . 29 

61. Natica zonalis, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, t. 14, f. 9, 29 

PLATE 9. 

62. Natica rufa, Born. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 70 a, . 29 

63. Natica spadicea, Gmel. ( rufa, var.). Ibid., f. 9 a, . 29 

64. Natica globosa, Chemn. (= helvacea, Lam.). Ibid., f. 

466, . . .30 

65. Natica clausa, Brod. and Sowb. Specimen, . . 30 

66. Natica impervia, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 13, f. 11, 31 

67. Natica consolidata, Couth. (= clausa). Bost. Jour., ii, 

t. 3, f. 14, 30 

68. Natica ianthostoma, Desh. (= clausa). Guerin's Mag., 

t. 45, 1841, . . . . . . . .30 

69. Natica septentrionalis, Beck (= clausa). Thes. Conch., 

f. 67, 30 

70. Natica algida, Gould. (= Lewisii, Gould). Moll. 

Wilkes Exped., f. 256, 35 

71. Natica soluta, Gould. Ibid., f. 257, . , . .39 

72. Natica o-Uva, Phil. (= Fortunei, Reeve). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 19, f. 11, 37 

73. Natica operculata, Jeffreys (= N. clausa, B. and S.). 

Zool. Proc., t. 4, f. 7, 1885, 30 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 419 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

74. Natica semisulcata, Gray. Conch. Icon., f. 116 a, 32 



75. Natica sulcata, Born. Ibid., f. 95 6, 

76. Natica borealis, Gray (= pallida, B. and S.). Ibid. 

f. 120, 

77. Natica bulbosa, Reeve (= pallida, B. and S.). Ibid. 

f. 119, 

78. Natica pusilla, Gld. (= pallida, B. and S.). Ibid., f 

1176, 

79. Natica obtusa, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t, 4, f. 6, 1885, 

80. Natica nucula, Reeve, f. Conch. Icon., f. 140, . 



32 



37 

37 

37 
39 
39 



PLATE 10. 

81. Natica didyma, Bolt. (= ampla, Phil.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 14, 32 

82. Natica Chemnitzii, Recluz. (= ampla). Conch. Icon., 

f. 7 a, 32 

83. Natica incisa, Dkr. (= ampla). Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 12, f. 8, . . 32 

84. Natica Philippiana, Reel. (Josephinoe, Risso). Conch. 

Icon. f. 45 a, 33 

85. Natica papyracea, Busch (= ampla). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab.,t. 13, f. 4, . 32 

86. Natica Lamarckiana, Recluz. (= ampla). Conch. Icon., 

f. 6 6, 32 

87. Natica Incei, Phil. Ibid., f. 896, . . .33 

88. Natica Incei, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 101, rv . . 33 

89. Natica fibula, Reeve (= Incei). Conch. Icon., f. 130 6, 33 

90. Natica clavata, Sowb. (= Incei). Thes. Conch., f. 167, 33 

PLATE 11. 

91. Natica Petiveriana, Recluz. (= ampla). Conch. Icon., 

f. 17 a, .... . $2 

92. Natica vesicalis, Phil. (= ampla, Phil.). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 6, f. 1, . . .'. , . .32 

93. Natica problematica, Reeve (= ampla). Conch. Icon., 

f. 21 a, 32 

94. Natica bicolor, Phil. ^Kiister, Conch. Cat., t. 6, f. 4, . 33 

95. Natica Baconi, Reeve (== Incei, Phil.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 37 a, 33 

96. Natica glaucina, Reeve (=Josepliinse, Risso). Ibid., f. 8, 33 

97. 98. Natica glauca, Humboldt. Ibid., f. 5 6, a, . . 34 

PLATE 12. 

99. Natica sordida, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 98, . . . 38 
100. Natica plicatula, Reeve (= sordida). Conch. Icon., f. 

107, 38 



420 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. Natica Recluziana, Desh. Thes. Conch., f. 6, . . 34 

2. Natica fusca, Carp. (= otis, B. and S .). Ibid., f. 104, 43 

3. Natica duplicata, Say. Tryon, Am. Mar. Conch., t. 10, 

f. 101, . . > 33 

4. Natica fossata, Gould (= duplicata). Specimen, . 33 

5. Natica Texasiana, Phil. (= duplicata). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab.,t. 12, f. 10, ....... 33 

6. Natica ampla, Phil. Ibid., t. 6, f. 2, . . . .32 

7. Natica imrnaculata, Totten. Invert. Mass., p. 344, . 38 

8. Natica pisiformis, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 135, . . 39 

9. Natica nucula, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 145, . . 39 

PLATE 13. 

10. Natica Campeachiensis, Recluz (= duplicata). Thes. 

Conch., f. 7, . 33 

11. Natica herculea, Midd. (=Lewisii. Gould). Ibid., f. 3, 35 

12. Natica Reiniana, Dkr. (=Lewisii). Moll. Mar. Japon., 

t. 4, f. 15, . . . . . . . . 35 

13. Natica heros, Say. Tryon, Am. Mar. Conch., t. 10, f. 

99, . . . 35 

14. Natica papyracea, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 149, . .36 

15. Natica Gouldi, Phil. (= pallida, B. and S ). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 13, f. 8, 37 

16. Natica triseriata, Say (= heros, Say). Conch. Icon., f. 

1096, 35 

17. Natica levicula, Yerrill. Trans. Conn. A cad., vi, t. 29, 

f. 3, 36 

18. Natica notabilis, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc.,t. 4, f. 1, 1885, 40 

PLATE 14. 

19. Natica heros, Say. Thes. Conch., f. 8, . . .35 

20. Natica pomum, Phil. (= heros). Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 18, f. 9, . 35 

21. Natica atrocyanea, Phil. Ibid., t. 8, f. 7, . . . 37 

22. Natica Fortuuei, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 123, . . 37 

23. Natica Fortunei, Reeve. Jour, de Conch. ,t. 9, f. 5, 1863, 37 

24. Natica Patagonica, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 8, f. 6, 37 

25. Natica tennis, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., i, t. 12. f. 7, . 38 

26. Natica caurina, Gould (= pallida). Moll. Wilkes' 

Exped., f. 254, . . . . . . .37 

27. Natica pallida, Brod. and Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 137, 37 

28. Natica suturalis, Gray (= pallida). Zool. Beechey's 

Yoy.,t. 37, f. 4, 37 

29. Natica Largillierti, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 

12, f. 1, . . . 41 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 421 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

30. Natica Montagui, Forbes. Thes. Conch., f. .141, . . 31 

31. Natica compacts, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc.,t. 4, f. 5, 1885, 38 

32. Natica subplicata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 4, f. 2, 1885, . 38 

33. Natica angulata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 4, f. 3, 1885, . . 38 

34. Natica globosa, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 4, f. 4, 1885, . . 36 

35. Natica Groenlandica, Beck. Thes. Conch., f. 140, . 37 

PLATE 15. 

36. Natica deiodosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 35 a, . . 42 

37. Natica Mittrei, Hombr. (== aurantia, Lam.). Voy. 

Astrol. et Zel., t. 16, f. 33, . . . , .42 

38. Natica ravida, Souleyet. Conch. Icon., f. 68 a, . . 43 

39. Natica aurantia, Lara. Ibid., f. 20, .... 42 

40. Natica aurantia, var. straminea, Recluz. Ibid., f. 32, . 42 

41. Natica citrina, Phil. (= aurantia). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 19, f. 17 42 

42. Natica Powisiana, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 22 6, . 42 

43. Natica vestalis, Phil. (== mamilla, Linn.). Ibid., f. 386, 49 

44. Natica Vavaosi, Guillou (= Fleraingiana, Reel.). Ibid., 

f. 99 a, 50 

45. Natica Pfeifferi, Phil. (= lactea, Guild.), Kiister. 

Conch. Cab., t. 19, f. 12, 49 

PLATE 16. 

46. Natica mamilla, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 29, . . 49 

47. Natica albula, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 23 6, . . 49 

48. Natica pyritbrmis, Recluz. (= mamilla). Ibid., f. 16, 49 

49. Natica candidissima, Le Guillou. Ibid., f. 28, . . 46 
5fl. Natica dubia, Recluz. Ibid., f. 41, .... 47 

51. Natica Flemingiana, Recluz. Ibid., f. 80, . . 50 

52. Natica ochrostoma. Recluz. (= lactea, var.). Jour. 

de Conch., i, t. 13, f. 10, 49 

53. Natica galactites, Phil. (= Flemingiana). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab.,t. 19, f. 10 . 50 

54. Natica lactea, Guild. Ibid., t. 10, f. 2, . . . . 49 

55. Natica porcellana,- Orb. (= lactea). "Conch. Icon., 

f. 102 a, . . . .;,.'. . . .49 

56. Natica Caribaea, Phil. (= lactea). ,Ibid., f. 118, . . 49 

57. Natica uberina, Orb. (= lactea). Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 10, f. 6, . . . . ' . . . . .49 

58. Natica uberina (== cora, Orb.). Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 19, f. 16 4T 

59. Natica puerilis, Gould (= lactea). Thes. Conch., f. 

132, . 49 



422 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE IT. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

60. Natica Panamensis, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 11 6, . 48 

61. Natica uber, Yal. Ibid., f. 54, 48 

62. Natica Philippiana, Nyst (= lactea). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 10, f. 5, . . . -. . . .49 

63. Natica casta, Phil. Ibid., t. 17, f. 1, .... 47 

64. Natica larvata, Canefri. Voy. Magenta, t. 1, f. 5, . 35 

65. Natica alveata, Trosch. (= mamilla, Linn.). Archiv 

Naturg., t. 5, f. 3, 1852, 49 

66. Natica virginea, Reel. (= uber, Yal.). Jour, de Conch., 

i, t. 12, f. 6, 48 

67. Natica rapulum, Reeve (= dubia, Reel.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 47,. , 47 

68. Natica pyramis, Reeve. Ibid , f. 93 a, . . . . 44 

69. Natica virginea, Phil. (= mamilla, Linn.). Ku'ster, 

Conch. Cab., t. 12, f. 7, 49 

70. Natica Salnngoensis, Recluz (= otis). Ibid., 1. 18, f. 13, 43 

71. Natica Gallopagosa, Recluz (= otis). Conch. Icon., 

f. 86 6, 43 

72. Natica otis, Brod. and Sowb. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

9, f. 4, -43 

PLATE 18. 

73. Natica amiculata, Phil. (== dubia, Reel.). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 14, f. 4, 47 

74. Natica mamillaris, Lam. Conch. Icon , f. 29 a, . . 43 

75. Natica bifasciata, Gray. Ibid., f. 40, . . . .44 

76. Natica conica, Lam. Ibid. , f . 486, . . . .44 

77. Natica ustulata, Sowb. (= conica). Thes. Conch , 

f. 112. . . . . . . . . .44 

78. Natica plumbea, Lam. Conch. Icon., f. 34 ft, . . 44 

79. Natica microstoma, Quoy (= plumbea). Kiiste*r, Conch. 

Cab., t. 19, f. 14, 44 

80. Natica Strangei, Reeve (= leucophoea). Conch. Icon., 

f. 816, ... . .... 45 

81. Natica melastoma, Swains. Thes. Conch., f. 100, . 45 

82. Natica leucophcea, Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 51 6, . . 45 

83. Natica intemerata, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1. 18, f. 10, 46 

PLATE 19. 

84. Natica elongata, Troschel (= cora). Archiv Naturg , 

t. 5, f. 2 a, 1852, . . . 47 

85. Natica puella, Phil. (= lactea, Guild ). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 10, f. 7, 49 

86. Natica cora, d'Orb. Conch. Icon., f. 1226, ... 47 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 423 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

87. Natica suffusa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 139, . . . .44 

88. Natica sordida, var. globosa (= plumbea). Zool. 

Beeehey's Voy., t. 37, f. 5, ..... 44 

89. Natica ianthostoma, Desh. (See pi. 9, f. 68). Guerin's 

Mag., t. 45,1841, ....... 30 

90. Natica melastoma, Swains. Conch. Icon., f. 78, . 45 



( .)1. Natica perspicua, Recluz (= otis). Ibid.,f. 12, 

92. Natica effusa, Swains. (= Powisiana). Thes. Conch. 

f. 82, ......... 

93. Natica alabaster, Reeve (= intemerata). Conch Icon. 

f. 33 6, . . . ..... 

( ,4. Natica Atacamensis, Phil. (= dubia). Reise Atacama 
t. 7,f. 20, . . . ..... 

95. Natica Jukesii, Reeve (= candidissima). Conch. Icon. 

f. 846, ........ 

96. Natica uni maculate, Reeve. Ibid. , f . 85 a, 



43 
42 



46 



47 



46 

46 



97. Natica phytelephas, Reeve. Ibid., f. 42 a, . . .46 

PLATE 20. 

98. Natica solida, Blainv. Conch. Icon., f. 71 6, . . 45 

99. Natica Cumingiana, Recluz (= Powisiana). Ibid., 

f. 13 a, ....... 42 

100. Natica Draparnaudi, Recluz (= Powisiana). Ibid., 

f. 446, . . . . ..... 42 

1. Natica orientalis, Gmelin. Ibid., f. 69 d, . .43 

2. Natica orientalis, Gmelin. Thes. Conch., f. 66, . . 43 

3. Natica zoologica, Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., i, t. 5, 

f. 16, .......... 46 

4. Natica columnaris, Recluz. Thes. Conch., f. 37, . . 47 

5. Natica albumen, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 316, . . 47 

PLATE 21. 

6. Natica pusilla, Say. Gould, Invert. Mass., 2d edit., 

f. 613, ......... 31 

7. Natica D linker!, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 1. 19, f. 19, 45 

8. Xatica sanguinolentn, Desh. (= melostoma). Guerin's 

Magazine, t. 46, 1841, ..... -.45 

9. Natica tennis, Phil. (= Fortune!, Reeve). Kiister's 

Conch. Cab., t. 14, f . 3 ....... 37 

10. Natica glabella. Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 124 6, 50 

11. Natica glabella, Reeve. Tlies. Conch., f. 159, . . 50 

12. Natica Masrellanica, Phil. (= Patagonia, Phil.). Toy. 

Astrol. and Zelee. t. 16, f. 28 ...... 37 

13. Natica melanostoma, Gmel. Kiister, Conch. Cab.,t. A, 

f. 1, ...... . . . .50 



424 REPEEENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAOW. 

14. Natica melanostoma, Gmel. Thes. Conch., f. 72, . 50 

15. Natica Zanzebarica, Reel. (= melanostoma, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 73, 50 

16. Natica Sebre, Soul. (= melanostoma, var.). Ibid. , f . 79, 50 

17. Natica fibrosa, Soul. (= melanostoma, var.). Voy. 

Bonite, t. 35, f. 9, 50 

18. Natica succineoides, Reeve. (= melanostoma, var.). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 736, 50 

19. Natica Sirnine, Desh. (= melanostoma, var.). Ibid., 

f. 76, . . 51 

20. Natica Bernardii, Reel. (=== melanostoma, var.). Jour. 

de Conch., ii, t. 5, f. 1, 51 

PLATE 22. 

21. Natica melanostomoides, Quoy (= melanostoma, var.). 

Reeve, Icon., sp. 101, ...... 50 

22. Natica filosa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 74, . . .51 

23. Natica Priamus, Recluz. Ibid., f. 23, . . . .51 

24. Natica maura, Brug. Reeve, Icon , sp. 25 , . .51 

25. Natica macrostoma, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 9.f. 1, 51 

26. Natica umbilicata, Quoy. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 108 6, 52 

27. Natica macrotrema, Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

t. 13, f. 9, . .52 

28. Natica fluctuata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 17, . .52 

29. Natica Candida, Moller. Adams' Genera, t. 22, f. 9, . 52 

30. Natica flava, Gould. Gould, Invert, Mass., 2d cd , f. 616, 52 

31. Natica helicoides, Johnson. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

1446, . . 53 

32. Natica purpurea, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch. ,vii,t. 15, f. 16, 53 

33. Natica globulus, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 40, f. 5, 1880, 53 

34. Sigaretus haliotoides, Reeve (== concavus 1 ). Conch. 

Icon., f. 4 a, . . . . . . .55 

35. Sigaretus neritoides, Linn. Ibid., f. 5 6, . . .55 

PLATE 23. 

36. Sigaretus concavus, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 3 a, 55 

37. Sigaretus concavus, Lam. Chenu, 111. Conch., iii, f.il, 55 

38. Si^aretus latifasciatus, Ad. and Reeve (= neritoides). 

Voy. Samarang, t. 13, f. 11, 55 

39. Sigaretus Javanicus, Gray (= neritoides). Conch. 

Icon., f. 8 a, 55 

40. Sigaretus insculptus, Ad. and Reeve (= neritoides). 

Voy. Samarang, t. 13, f. 10, 55 

41. Natica Martinianus, Phil. Conch. Icon., f. 2 a, . . 56 

42. Natica Martinianus, Phil. Thes. Conch., f. 28, . . 56 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 425 

'IGURE. PAGE. 

43. Sigaretus unifasciatus,Kecl. Chenu,Ill. Conch., f. 1 a, 56 
44-46. Sigaretus Japonicus, Lischke. Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 7, f. 7-9, 55 

PLATE 24. 

47. Sigaretus laevigatus, Lam. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 2, 

f. 3, 55 

48, 49. Sigaretus laevigatus, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. I a, 6, 55 

50. Sigaretus australis, ILmley (hevigatus). Ibid., f. 15 a, 55 

51. Sigaretus zonalis, Q.uoy (= laevigatus). Ibid., f. 66, . 55 

52. 53. Sigaretus eximius. Reeve. Ibid., f. 22 a, 6, . .56 

54. Sigaretus argenteus, Reeve (= eximius). Ibid. ,f. 25 a, 56 

55, 56. Sigaretus Cuvierianus, Recluz. Reeve, Icon., f. 

126,0, 55 

57. Sigaretus macnlatus, Say. Thes. Conch., f. 2, . . 56 

58. Sigaretus maculatus, 8:13*. Am. Conch., t. 25, . . 56 

59. 60. Sisraretus bilasciatus, Reel. Jour, de Conch., ii, t. 

6, f. 4, 3, 56 

61. Sigaretus perspectives, S&y. Thes. Conch., f. 24, . 57 

62, 63. Sigaretus sinuatus, Recluz. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 8, f. 7, 9, . . . . . . .56 

64. Sigaretus perspectives, Say. Conch. Icon., f. 16, . 57 

65. Sigaretus debilis, Gould. Specimen, . . . .57 
66-1 8. Sigaretus- Philippii, Weinkauff. Kuster, Conch. 

Cab., t, 5, f. 1-3, 57 

69. Sigaretus incisus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 11, . .57 

PLATE 25. 

70-72. Sigaretus undulatus, Lischke (= incisus). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab, t. 7, f. 10-12, 57 

73. Sigaretus Delesserti, Recluz. 111. Conch., iii, f. 8 a, . 58 

74. Sigaretus Delesserti, Recluz. Kuster, Conch. Cab., t. 

4, f. 6 58 

75. 76. Sigaretus planulatus, Recluz. Conch. Icon.,f. 7 tf, 6, 58 

77. Sigaretus lacteus, Recluz (= planulatus). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 8, f. 1, . . . . .58 

78. Sigaretus papilla, Gmel. Conch. Icon., f. 19 a, . .. 58 

79. Sigaretus coarctatus, Reeve (= papilla, Gmel.). Ibid., 

f. 176 58 

82. Sigaretus tumescens, Reeve. Ibid., f. 18 6, . . . 58 

53. Sigaretus oblongus, Reeve. Ibid., f. 21 6, . . . 58 
84. Sigaretus petlucidus, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 23 6, . 59 
85,86. Sigaretus mamillaris. Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 41,42, 59 
87. Sigaretus nitidus, Reeve (= papilla). Ibid., f. 35, . 58 



426 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

88. Sigaretus acuminatus, Ads. and Reeve (= papilla.). 

Ibid., f. 43 58 

89. Sigaretus Linneanus, Recluz. Chenu, 111. Conch., iii, 

"f. 4 a, . 59 

90. Sigaretus Lamarckianus, Rccluz (= Linneanus). Ibid., 

f. 5a, 59 

91. Sigaretus fibula, Reeve. Tbes. Conch., f. 39, . . 59 

92. Sigaretus pictus, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 24 a, . . 59 

PLATE 26. 

93-95. Lamellaria latens, Mull. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 12, 

f. 4, 60 

96, 97. Lamellaria perspicua, Linn. Forbes and Hanlev, 

t. 99, f. 8, 9, 60 

98. Lamellaria tentaculata, F. and H. (= latens). Ibid., 

t. 99, f. 10, 60 

99. Lamellaria zonifera, Bergh (= perspicua, var.). Mem. 

Copenh., 5 ser., iii, t. 5, f. 8, . . . .60 

100. Lamellaria pellucida, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 

t. 58. f. 5, . 61 

1, 2. Lamellaria tennis, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 5, 

1885, 61 

3, 4. Lamellaria Antarctica, Couthouy. Wilkes' Expl. 

Exped., f. 259 a, 6, . . . ' . . .61 

5. Lamellaria pnetenuis, Couthouy. Ibid., f. 260, . . 61 
6-8. Lamellaria Patagonica, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 4, f. 9, 

1881, 62 

9, 10. Lamellaria Berghi, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 9, f. 

19,20, 62 

11. Lamellaria Tongana, Quoy. Yoy. Astrol.,t.66,bis,f. 5, 62 

PLATE 27. 

12, 13. Lamellaria Stearnsi, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 

t. 15, f. 2, 6, 63 

14, 15. Lamellaria Tongana, Quoy. Yoy. Astrol., t. 66, 

bis, f. 7, 8, .62 

16. Lamellaria nigra, Blainv. Blainv. Malacol., t. 42, f. 1, 62 

17. Lamellaria Mauritiana, Bergh. Yoy. Astrol., t. 66, 

bis, f. 9, 62 

18. Lamellaria Cuvieri, Bergh (= Tongana). Cuvier, 

Anim. Kingd., 2d Edit., iii, t. 14, f. 4, . .62 

19. Lamellaria isabellina, Bergh. Semper's Philipp., t. 41, 

f. 8, . .62 

20. Lamellaria gemma, Bergh. Ibid., t. 41, f. 7, . . 63 

21. 22. Lamellaria Diegoensis, Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

viii, t. 24, f. 2, 3, 63 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 427 

FIGURE. PAOK. 

23. Lainellaria Semper!, Bergh. Semper's Philipp.,t. 41, f. 9, 63 
2-4, 25 Lamellaria rhombica, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 

t. 15, f. 4, 5, 64 

26. Lamellnria glabra, Couthouy. Gould, Invert. Mag., 

2d Edit., f. 607, 64 

27. Lamellaria micromphala, Bergh. Mem. Copcnh.,5 ser., 

iii, t. 4, f. 3, 64 

28. Lamelluria micfomphala, Bergh. Sars., Moll. Norv., 

t. 21. f. 10 a, . 64 

29. 30. Lamellaria 'Groenlandica, Moller. Ibid., t. 21, f. 11, 64 

PLATE 28. 

31, 32. Lamellaria prodita, Loven. Trans. Conn. A cad., 

v, t. 42, f. 2, 64 

33, 34. Lamellaria ampla, Yerrill. Ibid., t. 42. f. 3, . .64 

35, 36. Oncidiopsis glacialis, JSars. Sars, Moll. Norv., 1. 12, 

f. 6, 64 

37, 38. Oneidiopsis Grcenlamlica, Bergh. Mem. Copenh., 

5 ser., iii, t. 2, f. 2, 5, 65 

39. Oneidiopsis carnea, Kroyer. Ibid., t. 3, f. 3, . . 65 

40. Caledoniella Montrouzieri, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 

t. 9, f. 4, 1870, . 65 

41-43. Yelutina Irevigata, Pennant. Forbes and Hanley, 

t. 99, f. 4,5; t. 00, f. 7, ...... 65 

44, 48. Velutina Miilleri. Desh. (= laevigata). Gnerin's 

Mag., t. 28, 1841, ' 67 

45-47. Velutina cryptospira, Midd. Middendorff's Reise, 

t. 25, f. 8-10, < 67 

49. 50. Velutina coriacea, Pallas. Nov. Act. Acacl. Petrop., 

11, t. 7,f. 32, 33, 67 

51,52. Velutina lanigera, Moller. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 

12, f. 3, 66 

53. Velutina expansa. Sars (= zonata). Ibid , t. 21, f. 6, 66 

54. Velutina zonata, Gould. Gould, Invert. Mass.. 2d ed., 

f. 606, .... . ... 66 

55-57. Velutina flexilis, Mont. (= plicatilis), Forbes and 

Hanley, t. 99, f. 6, 7 ; t. 00, f. 6 6, . ' . . . 67 

58. Velutina Bernardii, Martens. Archly fiir Naturg , t. 

4, f. 3, 1858, 67 

59. Velutina solida, Martens (= Isevigata). Ibid., t. 4, f. 2, 

1858, 65 

PLATE 29. 

60. Vanikoro cancellata, Lam. Voy. Astrol., t. 66 bis, f. 20, 68 

61. Vanikoro cancellata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 1 6, . . 68 

62. Vanikoro Gueriniana, Recluz. Ibid., f. 2, . . .68 



428 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIOTTRB. PAGE. 

63. Vunikoro rugata, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 8 6, . . . .68 

64. Vanikoro cidaris, Reclnz. Conch. Icon., f. 4, . . 68 

65. Vanikoro liorata, Rccluz. Ibid., f . 6 68 

66. Vanikoro Petitiana, Rccluz. (=lis;ata). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 5, C8 

67. Vanikoro plicata, Reel. (= liorata,). Ibid., f. 3, . . 68 

68. Vanikoro helicoides, Reel. (= ligata). Thes. Conch., 

f. '20, 68 

69. Vanikoro Desha} r esiana, Reel. (=ligata). Reeve. Icon., 

f. 12, . .08 

70. Vanikoro Souleyetiana, Reel. (== ligata). Ibid., f. 11, 68 

71. Vanikoro BlainVillinna, Reel. ( ligata). Guerin's 

Mag., t. 131, f. 2, 1845, ... . 68 

72. Vanikoro delicata, Pease (= ligata). Am. Jour. 

Conch., Hi, t. 23, f. 25, . . . . . . 68 

73. Vanikoro clathrata, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 14, . 68 

74. Vanikoro gran ulosa, Reel. (= clathrata). Reeve, f. 16, 68 

75. Vanikoro semiplicata, Pease (= clathrata). Thes. 

Conch., f. 5, . . ' . . . .68 

76. Vanikoro Cumingiana, Reel. (= clathrata). Guerin's 

Mag., t. 124, f. 1, 1845, G8 

77. Vanikoro granifera, Pease (= clathrata). Am. Jour. 

Conch., v, t. 8, f. 13 68 

78,79. Vanikoro sulcata,d'0rb. Moll. Cuba, t. 17, f. 26, 28, 69 

80. Vanikoro striata, d'Orb. Ibid., t. 17, f. 29, . . . 69 

81. Vanikoro lamellosa, d'Orb. (= striata). Ibid., t. 17, 

f. 32 69 

82. Vanikoro rosea, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 15, . . 69 

84. Vanikoro elata, Sowb. Ibid., f. 23 69 

83. Vanikoro disparilis, Desh. (= clathrata). Conch. He 

Reunion, ......... 68 

85. Vanikoro acuta, Recluz. Thes. Conch., f. 12, . . 69 

86. Vanikoro imbricata, Pease (= acuta). Ibid., f. 11, . 69 

87. Vanikoro Recluziana, Ads. and Angas. Ibid., f. 2, . 70 

88. Vanikoro solida, Sowb. Ibid.,f. 1 70 

89. Vanikoro sernisoluta, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 246, 70 

90. Vanikoro Orbignyana, Ricluz. Guerin's Mag., t. 124, 

f. 2, 1845, . ' . . 70 

91. Vanikoro Gaimardi, Ads. (= Orbignyana). Conch. 

Icon., f. 9,. . 70 

92. Vanikoro tricarinata, Reel. (= Orbignyana). Thes. 

Conch., f. 24, . . . . . " . . .70 

93. Vanikoro distans, Recluz. Conch. Icon., f. 13 6, . 70 

94. Vanikoro Cuvieriana, Recluz. Thes. Conch., f. 23, . 70 

95. Vanikoro foveolata, Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., 

vi, t. 6, f. 6, .70 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 429 



PLATE 30. 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. Harttia Matthewi, Walcott. Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., 

x, t. l,f, 3, . 109 

2. Crucibulum peziza, Gray. Dentition. Troschel, Gebiss 

Schneck., i, t. 13, f. 5, 102 

3. Calyptnea Chinensis, Dentition. Ibid., t. 13, f. 7, . 103 

4. Crepidula fornicata, Linn., Dentition. Ibid., t. 13, f. 9, 103 

5. Capulus Hungaricus, Linn., Dentition. Ibid., t. 13, f. 14, 105 

6. Hipponyxconicus, Schom., Dentition. Ibid., t. 13, f. 15, 108 

7. Calyptraea Chinensis, Linn. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. BB, f. 8, 103, . . . . * . .119 

8. Xenophora trochiformis, Born. Troschel, Gebiss der 

Schnecken, i, t. IB, f. 7, 156 

9. Yermetus gigas, Qtioy. Ibid , t. 13, f. 4, . . 163 

10. Vermetus gigas. Part of jaw. Ibid., t. 13, f. 2, . .163 

11. Turritella ungulina, Linn. Ibid., t. 12, f. 11, . .192 

12. Turritella lactea, Miller. Ibid., t. 12, f. 13, . . 192 

PLATE 31. 

13-16. Crucibulum scutellatum,Gray. Sowb. Thes. Conch., 

t. 447, f. 1-4, .... ... 117 

17. Crucibulum imbricatum,Brod. (=scutellatum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 9a, 117 

18,19. Crucibulum corrugatum, Carp. ( scutellatura). 

Thes Conch., t. 448, f. 33, 36, 117 

20. Crucibulum umbrella, Desh. (= scutellatum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 0, . 117 

21,22. Crucibulum concameratum, Rve. (= scutellatum). 

Ibid.,f. 23, .117 

23. Crucibulum serratum, Brod. (= scutellatum). Trans. 

Zool. Soc.,i, t. 28, f. 1, 117 

24. Crucibulum pectinatum, Carp. (= scutellatum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 11 6, 117 

PLATE 32. 

25. Crucibulum trigonale, Ad. and Rve. (= scutellatum, 

var.). Conch. Icon., f. 36, 117 

26. Crucibulum ferrugineum, Reeve (= scutellatum). Ibid., 

f. 5a, 117 

27. 28. Crucibulum lignaria. Brod. (= scutellatum). Trans. 

Zool. Soc., i, t. 27, f. 8, . . 117 

29. Crucibulum tenue, Brod. (= scutellatum). Ibid., t. 

27, f. 9, 117 



430 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

30, 31. Cruel bulum spectrum, Rve. (= scutellatum). Thes. 

Conch., t. 448, f. 19, 20, 117 

32, 33. Crucibulum auritum, Rve. (= tubiferum, Less.). 

Conch. Icon., f. 17 a, 6, ...... 117 

34, 35. Crucibulum auriculatum, Chemn. Ibid., f. 15, a, 6, 117 
36, 37. Crucibulum violaceum, Carp. (=scutellatum). Ibid., 

f. 12 o, 6, 117 

38. Crucibulum spinosum, Sowb. (= tubiferum). Ibid., f. 

lOrf, 117 

PLATE 33. 

39. Crucibulum cinereum, Reeve (= tubiferum). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 10 g,. . . . . . .117 

40. 41. Crucibulum spinosum, Sowb. (= tubiferum). Trans. 

Zool. Soc., i, t. 28, f. 8, 117 

42. Crucibulum hispida, Brod. (= tubiferum). Ibid., t. 

27, f. 10, . . . . . . . ' . 117 

43. Crucibulum maculatum, Brod. (= tubiferum). Ibid., 

t. 27, f. 11, 117 

44. 45. Crucibulum striatum, Say. Thes. Conch., t. 449, 

f. 39, 40, 118 

46, 47. Crucibulum extinctorium, Lam. Ibid., t. 449, f. 55, 

58, .... 119 

48, 49. Crucibulnm morbidum, Reeve (= extinctorium). 

Conch. Icon., f. 24, 119 

50, 51. Crucibulum lividum, Rve. (= extinctorium). Ibid., 

f. 25, 119 

52, 53. Crucibulum radiatum, Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., t. 

27, f. 6, 119 

54,55. Crucibulum verrucosum, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 19, 119 

PLATE 34. 

56, 57. Calyptnca Sinensis, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 5, .119 
58,59. Calyptrsea subreflexa, Carp. Ibid., f. 17, . . 120 
60, 61. Calyptraaa pellucida, Reeve. Ibid., f. 2, . .120 
62, 63. Calyptrsea conica, Brod. Ibid., f. 13 a, b, . .120 
64, 65. Calyptraea mamillaris, Brod. Ibid., f. 12 a, 5, . 120 
66, 67. Calyptraea fastigiata, Gld. (= mamillaris). Moll. 

Wilkes'Expl. Exped., f. 484, 120 

68, 69. Calyptrsea solida, Reeve) = mamillaris). Conch. 

Icon., f. 10, 120 

70,71. Calyptrsea lichen, Brod. (= mamillaris). Trans. 

Zool'. Soc., i, t. 28, f. 4, 120 

73, 73. Calyptrsea unguis, Brod. (= mamillaris). Ibid., t. 

28, f. 3, 120 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 431 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

74, 75. Calyptrsea poculum, Rve. (= mamillaris). Conch. 

Icon., f. 1, 120 

76, 77. Calyptnea Candeana, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 24, f. 

27,28, ... 121 

78,79. Calyptraeaclypeoluin,Rve. (= mamillaris). Conch. 

Icon., f. 14, 120 

80,81. Calyptraea aspersa, Ads. (= mamillaris). Ibid., f. 4, 120 
82, 83. Calyptraea lamellosa, A. Ad. (= Candeana;. Thes. 

Conch., t, 449, f. 41, .. . . . .121 

PLATE 35. 

84, 85. Infundibulum radians, Lam. Thes. Conch., t. 451, 

f. 95, 96, 121 

86. Infundibulum sordida, Brod. (= radians). Trans. 

Zool. Soc., i, t. 28, f. 2 121 

87. Infundibulum spirata, Forbes (= radians). Thes. 

Conch., t. 451, f. 97, 121 

88. Infundibulum corrugata, Rve. (= radians). Conch., 

Icon.,f. 96, 121 

89. 90. Infundibulum intermedia, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. 

Merid., t. 59, f. 5, 6, 122 

91, 100. Infundibulum pileolus, d'Orb. Ibid.,t. 78, f. 6, . 122 

92, 93. Infundibulum helicoidea, Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 

449, f. 53, 54, 122 

94, 95. Infundibulum lateralis, Sowb. Ibid., t. 450, f. 

93, 94 .122 

96, 97, 98. Infundibulum tomentosa, Quoy (= calyptrae- 

formis). Yoy. Astrol., t. 72, f. 1, 2, 3, . . . 122 
99. Infundibulum maculata, Quoy (Calyptraeformis). Ibid., 

t. 72, f. 7, .122 

PLATE 36. 

1. Crepidula fornicata, Linn. Specimen, . . .124 

2. Crepidula fornicata, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 15 a, . 124 

3. Crepidula fornicata, Linn. Thes. Conch., t. 452, f. 118, 124 

4. 5. Crepidula arenata, Brod. (= fornicata). Trans. 

Zool. Soc., i, t. 29, f. 8, 124 

6, 7. Crepidula Patagonica, d'Orb. (= fornicata). Voy. 

Amer. Merid., t. 58, f. I, 3, . . . ' . .124 

8. Crepidula Aplysioides, Rve. (= fornicata). Conch. 

Icon., f. 19, 124 

9. Crepidula glauca, Say. Am. Mar. Conch., t. 12, f. 189, 125 

10. Crepidula convexa, Say. Ibid., f. 188, . . .125 

11, 12. Crepidula adspersa, Bunker. Moll. Guinea, t. 5, f. 

16, 28, 125 



432 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. 
13, 14. Crepidula lentiginosa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 453, 

f. 130, 125 

15, 16. Crepidula Capensis, Qnoy. Yoy. Astrol., t. 72, f. 

13, 14, 125 

17. Crepidula Moulinsii. Michaud. Bull. Linn. Soc. Bord.-, 

iii, t. 1, f. 9, . 126 

18, 19. Crepidula Lessoni, Brod. Conch. Icon., f. 16, . 1-26 
20, 21. Crepidula timbriata, live (= Lessoni). lbid.,f. 11, 126 

PLATE 37. 

22. Crepidula porcellana, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 2 a, . 126 

23. Crepidula squama, Brod. (= Lessoni). Ibid., f. 5, . 126 

24. 25. Crepidula explanata, Old. (Lessoni). Mex. Shells, 

t. 14, f. 7, 126 

26, 27. Crepidula bilobata, Gray (= dorsuta). Conch. 

Icon., f. 29, . . 127 

28. Crepidula foliacea, Brod. (= dorsata). Trans. Zool. 

Soc., i, t. 28, f. 9, 127 

29, 30. Crepidula strigata, Brod. (= dorsata). Ibid., t. 

28, f. 12, . . . . . . . . . 127 

31. Crepidula dilatata,, Lam. Conch. Icon., f. 3 a, . \. 127 

32. Crepidula pallida, Brod. (=dilatata). Conch. Icon.,f. 26, 127 

33. Crepidula grandis, Middendorff (== dilatata). Mai. 

Ross., t. 11, f. 8, . 127 

34. Crepidula nummaria, Gld. (= dilatata). Moll. Wilkes' 

Exped., f. 480, 127 

35. 36. Crepidula contorta, Quoy (= monoxyla). Yoy. 

Astrol., t. 72, f. 15, 16, 128 

37. Crepidula rugosa, Nutt. ( onyx, Sowb.) Conch. 

Icon., f. 106, . . . * 128 

38. Crepidula hepatica, Desh. (= onyx). Ibid., f. 23, . 128 

39. 40. Crepidula incurva, Brod. (=adunca, Sowb.). Trans. 

Zool. Soc.,i,t. 29, f. 6, 129 

PLATE 38. 

41. Crepidula dorsata, Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc., i,t. 28, f. 10, 127 

42. Crepidula minuta, Midd. (= dilatata). Mai. Boss., t. 

11, f. 6, 127 

43. 44. Crepidula onyx, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 9, . . 128 

45. Crepidula complanata, Krauss. (=onyx). Sudaf. Moll., 

t. 4, f. 12, 128 

46, 47. Crepidula immersa, Angas (== onyx). Zool. Proc., 

t. 2, f. 12, 1865, 128 

48, 49. Crepidula marginalia, Brod. (= onyx). Trans. 

Zool. Soc., i, t. 29, f. 9, . . . ' . . .128 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 433 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

50. Crepidula lirata, Reeve (= onyx). Conch. Icon.,f. 30, 128 

51. Crepidula adunca, Sowb. Ibid., f.. 12, . . .129 

52. Crepidula solida, Hinds (= adunca). Voy. Sulphur., 

t. 16, f. 8 . . .129 

53. 53 a. Crepidula rostriformis, Gld. (= adunca). Wilkes' 

Exped. Moll., f. 482, . . .129 

54. 55. Crepidula excavata, Brod. (= adunca). Conch. 

Icon., f. 4, 129 

56, 57. Crepidula Walshii, Hermannson. Ibid., f. 17, . 130 

58. Crepidula scabies, Rve. (= Walshii). Ibid., f. 18, . 130 

PLATE 39. 

59. Crepidula Sitchana, Midd. (== onyx). Mai. Ross., t. 

11, f. 3, 128 

60. Crepidula fissurata, Sowb. (= adunca). Thes. Conch., 

f. 151, 129 

61. 62. Crepidula aculeata, Gmel. Conch. Icon., f. 22 a, 6, 129 

63. Crepidula echinus, Brod. (= aculeata). Trans. Zool. 

Soc., i, t. 29, f. 1, 129 

64. Crepidula hystrix, Brod. (= aculeata). Ibid., t. 29, f. 2, 129 

65. Crepidula costata,Mke.(==aculeata). Conch. Icon.,f. 21. 129 

66. Crepidula unguiforinis, Lam. Thes. Conch., t. 453, 

f. 140, .130 

67. 68. Crepidula Deshayesii, Folin (= unguiformis). M- 

leagrinicoles, t. 4, f. 9, 10, 130 

69, 70, 71. Crepidula Chinensis, Gray. Thes. Conch., t. 

453, f. 152, 153, 130 

72-74. Capulus Hungaricus, Linn. Forbes and Hanley, 

Brit. Moll., t. 60, f. 1, 2 ; t. oc, f. 5, . . . . 131 

75. Capulus intortus, Lam. Moll. Cuba, t. 24, f. 22, . 131 

76. Capulus liberatus, Pease (= intortus). Am." Jour. 

Conch., iii, t. 24, f. 2, 131 

77. 78. Capulus badius, Dunker. Moll. Maris Japon., 1. 13, 

f. 16, 17, 132 

79, 80. Capulus sagittifer, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., 

f. 486 132 

81. Capulus violaceus,Angas. Zool. Proc.,t. 13, f. 23, 1867, 132 

PLATE 40. 

82, 83. Capulus Ungaricoides, d'Orb. Voy Amer. merid., 

t. 78, f. 4, 131 

84, 85. Capulus dilatatus, A. Ad. (== radiatus). Moll. Mar. 

Japon., t. 12, f. 13, 14, 132 

86, 87. Capulus commodum, Midd. (= radiatus). Reise, 

t. 17, f. 4, 5, 132 

28 



434 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

88. Capulus astericola, Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. Samarang, 

t. 11, f. 1, . .133 

89, 90. Araathina tricarinata, Gmel. Adams' Genera, t. 41, 

f. 2, i 133 

91. Amathina nobilis, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1. 19, f. 27, 1867, 133 

92. Amathina angustata, Souv-erbie. Jour, de Conch., 1. 1, 

f. 6, 1877,' 133 

93. 94. Hipponyx antiquatus, Linn. Fischer's Manuel, 

f. 519, 134 

95, 96. Hipponyx antiquatus, Linn. Adams' Genera, t. 41, 

f. 3, . . . v 134 

97. Hipponyx antiquatus, Linn. Specimen, 

98. Hipponyx foliaceus, Quoy (= antiquatus). Yoy. Astrol., 

t. 72,' f. 42, J34 

99. Hipponyx Chamaeformis, Rocheb. (= antiquatus). 

Nouv. Arch. Mus., 2d ser., iv, t. 18, f. 11, . . 134 
100. Hipponyx serratus, Carp. Specimen, .... 134 

1. Hipponyx subrufus, Lam. Thes. Conch., t. 73, f. 22, . 134 

2. Hipponyx barbatus, Sowb, Ibid., t. 73, f. 26, . . 135 

3. Hipponyx pilosus,Desh. (= barbatus). Guerin's Mag., 

t. 9, 1831, -.135 

4. 5. Hipponyx radiatus, Gray (= Grayanus, Mke.). 

Thes. Conch., i, t. 73, f. 24, 25, . . . . 135 

6. Hipponyx Cranioides, Carp. Specimen, . . .135 

7. Hipponyx tumens, Carp. (= Cranioides). Specimen, 135 



PLATE 41. 

8. Hipponyx radiatus, Quoy and Gaimard. Yoy. Uranie 

t. 69, f. 4, ' 

9-11. Hipponyx Australis, Quoy. Yoy. Astrol., t. 72 

f. 25, 27, 33, . 

12, 13. Hipponyx acutus, Quoy (= Australis). Ibid. ,t. 72 

f. 36, 37, . . . . 
14, 15. Hipponyx suturalis, Quoy (= Australis). Ibid. 

t. 72, f. 39, 40, .. . * . 

16, 17. Hipponyx imbricatus, Gould. Moll. Wilkes'Exped. 

f. 490, 

18, 19. Hipponyx crystallinus, Gould. Ibid., f. 489, 

20. Hipponyx granulatus, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t 20, f. 3 

1853, . 

21, 22. Hipponyx Danieli, Crosse. Guerin's Mag., t. 3, f. 2 

1858, 

23, 24. Hipponyx Ticaonicus, Sowb. Thes. Conch. ,i, t. 73 
f. 28, 29, 



135 



136 
136 
136 

136 
136 



136 



136 
136 



25, 26. Mitrularia equestris, Linn. Thes. Conch., t. 445, 

f. 1, 2 137 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 435 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

27. Mitrularia umbo, Reeve (= equestris). Conch. Icon., 

f. 33, 137 

28,29. Mitrularia scutulum, Rve. (=equestris). Ibid. , f . 30, 137 

30. Mitrularia cepacea, Brod. (= equestris). Ibid., f. 14, . 137 

31. Mitrularia stella, Reeve (= equestris). Ibid., f. 24, . 137 
32? Mitrularia granulata, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 3, 

1853, 136 

PLATE 42. 

33. Mitrularia Layardi, Rve. (= equestris). Conch. Icon., 

f. 28, 137 

34. Mitrularia alveolata, A. Ad. (= equestris). Ibid., f. 8, 137 

35. Mitrularia varia, Brod. (== equestris). Ibid., f. 250, . 137 

36. Mitrularia Adamsi, Rve. (== equestris). Ibid., f. 7 a, . 137 

37. Mitrularia cancellata, Ad. and Reeve (= equestris). 

Ibid., f. 27 a, . . . . . / 137 

38. Mitrularia \ r anikorensis, Quoy (= equestris). Ibid., 

f. 32 6, . . / 137 

39. Mitrularia ossea, Reeve (= equestris). Ibid., f. 19 6, . 137 
,40, 41. Mitrularia Hipponiciformis, Reeve (= equestris). 

Ibid., f. 26 a, b, . . 137 

42. Mitrularia cyathella, Rve. (= equestris). Ibid., f. 29 a, 137 

43. Mitrularia bulla, Rve. (= equestris). Ibid!, f. 4 c, . 137 

44. Mitrularia stultorum, Rve. (= equestris). Ibid.,f. 12 a, 137 

45. 46.' Mitrularia Ton^ana, Quoy (= equestris). Voy. 

Astrol., t. 72. f. 17, 18, . . . . . 137 

47, 48. Mitrularia Pileopsis, Quoy (= equestris). Ibid., 

t, 72, f. 19, 20, . . . ... . . . 137 

49-51. Mitrularia chlorina, Gould (= equestris). Moll. 

Wilkes' Exped., f. 487, 137 

52. Mitrularia radiosa, Gould (= equestris). Ibid., f. 488 6, 137 

53. Mitrularia tortilis, Rve. (= equestris). Conch. Icon., 

f. 2 6, . . . 137 

54. Mitrularia diaphana, Rve. (== equestris). Ibid., f. 23 a, 137 

55. Mitrularia Martiniana, Rve. (= equestris). Ibid., f. 13 a, 137 

56. Mitrularia cicatricosa, Rve. (= equestris). Ibid.,f. 3 a, 137 

PLATE 43. 

57. Mitrularia uncinata, Rve. (= equestris). Conch. Icon., 

f. 17 a, . . . 137 

58. 59. Mitrularia papyracea, A. Ad. (= equestris). Ibid., 

f. 6 a 6, .137 

60. Mitrularia dormitoria, Rve. (= equestris). Ibid., f. 5 6, 137 
61,62. Mitrularia cornea, Rve. (= equestris). Ibid., f. 22 a, 6, 137 
63. Mitrularia sacchariineta, Reeve (= equestris). Ibid., 

f. 15 a, 137 



436 REFERENCE To PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

64. Mitrulariabalanoides,Rve. (= equestris). Ibid., f. 21 6, 137 

65, 66. Mitrularia porosa, Reeve (= equestris). Ibid., f. 

20 a, 6, 1ST 

67. Mitrularia fibulata, Reeve (== equestris). Conch. Icon., 

f. lla,6, 137 

68, 69. Mitrularia corrugata, Brod. Ibid., f. 18 a, 6, . . 138 

70. Mitrularia aculeata, Reeve (= equestris). Ibid. ,f. 31 a, 137 

71, 72, 73. Mitrularia tectum-Sinense, Lam. Thes. Conch., 

t. 446, f. 30, 33, 34, 139 

74. Mitrularia scabies, Reeve (= tecturn-Sinense). Conch. 

Icon., f. 166, 139 

XENOPHORIDJE. 
PLATE 44. 

75, 76. Xenophora calculifera, Reeve. Kiener, Trochus, 

t. 7,f. 1, 159 

77. Xenophora solaroides, Reeve. Kiister, Xenoph., t. 47 



f. 6, 

78. Xenophora caperata, Phil. Kiener, Trochus, t. 79, f. 1 

79. Xenophora pallidula, Reeve. Ibid., t. 54, 



159 
159 
160 

80. Xenophora caperata, Phil. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., i 

t. 10, f. 5, 159 

PLATE 45. 

81, 82. Xenophora corrugata, Reeve. Kiener, I. 8; Reeve, 

Icon., f. 6, 159 

83. Xenophora caperata, Phil. Kiener, Iconog., t. 79, f. 1, 159 

84. Xenophora cerea, Reeve. Kiister, Trochus, t. 48, f. 3, 160 

85. Xenophora Mediterranea, Tiberi (= crispa, Konig). 

Kiener, Trochus, t. 66, f. 1 160 

86. 87. Xenophora Senegalensis, Fischer. Ibid., t. 65, f. 2, 160 



PLATE 46. 

88. Xenophora Mediterranea, Tiberi. Kiener, Trochus 

t. 66, f. 1, . 

89. Xenophora onustus, Rve. (== conchyliophorus). Reeve 

Phorus, f. 3 a, . 

90. 91. Xenophora exuta, Reeve. Kiener, Trochus, t. 22 

f. 1. 



100 



161 

161 



92, 93. Xenophora Indica, Gmel. Ibid., t. 9, f. 1, . . 161 

PLATE 47. 

94, 95. Xenophora Australis, Sowb. Kiener, Trochus, t. 66, 

f. 2, 160 

96. Xenophora helvacea, Phil. Ibid., t. 53, '. . .162 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 437 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

97, 98. Xenopbora Caribaea, Petit. Ibid., t. 65, f. 1, .162 

99, 100. Xenophora Lamberti, Souverbie. Ibid., t. 44, f. 1, 162 

1, 2. Xenophora Solaris, Linn. Reeve, Phorus, f. 5 a, 6, 162 

VERMETIDJE. 

PLATE 48. 

5. Vermetus gigas, Quoy. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 67, f. 13, . 163 

6. Verinetus triqueter, Bivona. Embryo. S, velum; 

br., branchiae ; e, eye ; f, cephalic tentacle ; p, an- 
terior portion of foot (Lacaze-Duthiers). Fischer's 
Manuel, pt. viii, p. 690, f. 460, . . t . . .163 

7. Vermetus triqueter, Bivona. Animal: m, columellar 

muscle ; t, cephalic tentacle ; t p, pedal tentacles ; 
op, operculum ; o, ova-capsules, attached in the 
interior of the shell (Lacaze-Duthiers). Fischer's 
Manuel, pt. viii, 691, f. 461, 163 

8. Vermetus maxim us, Sowb. Operculum. Ibid., viii, 

692, f. 463, . . 163 

9. 10. Siliquaria Bernardii, Morel. Operculum, enlarged. 

Ibid., viii, 693, f. 464, 1G3 

11. Vermetus varians, Orb., var. Carpenteri. Section, 

showing internal lamellae. Zool. Proc., 317, f. 4, 
1856, . . 170 

12. Vermetus renisectus, Carp. (= Adansoni). Ibid., f. 5, 169 

13. Vermetus Nerinoides, Carp. Ibid., f. 6, . . .171 

14. Vermetus octosectus, Carp. Ibid., f. 8, . . .171 

15. Verinetus cereus, Carp. Ibid., f. 7, .... 172 

16. Vermetus macrophracrma, Carp. Ibid , f. 1, . .173 

17. Vermetus cochlidium, Carp. Ibid., f. 2, . . . 173 

18. Vermetus flavescens, Carp. Ibid., f. 3, . . . 174 

19. Vermetus Cuvieri, Risso. Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. 

Merid.,iv, f. 16, 183 

PLATE 49. 

20. Vermetus lumbricalis, Roissy (= Adansonii). Cheuu, 

Illust. Conch., i, t. 5, f. 1, 169 

21. Vermetus lumbricalis, Roissy (= Lamarckii, Morck). 

Ibid., t. 5, f. 1 c, 169 

22. 23. Vermetus varians, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., t. 

54, f. 7, 8, 170 

24. Vermetus conicus, Dillw. Gualtieri, t. 10, f. Z, . .170 
25,26. Vermetus glomeratus (== renisectus, Morch). Chenu, 

Illust. Conch., t. 2, f. 2 a, c?, 170 

27. Vermetus contortns, Carp. Specimen, . . .171 



438 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PIOTTRK. PAGE. 

28, 29. Yermetus Nerinoides, Carp. Ads. Genera, t. 137, 

f. 10, HI 

30. Yermetus carinatus, Quoy. Yoy. Astrolabe, t. 67, f. 

24, 26, 172 

31. Yermetus lilacinus, Morch. Humphrey and Da Costa, 

t. 11, f. 17, . 172 

32. Yermetus subcancellatus, Bivona. Chiaje, Test. Sicil., 

t. 57, f. 18, 172 

33. Yermetus Lispe, Adans. (=vermicella, Linn.). Adan- 

son, Hist. Nat. Senegal, t. 11, f. 2, . . . .173 

34. Yermetus anellum, Morch. Specimen, . . .173 

35. Yermetus Panamensis, Rouss. (= centiquadrus). Chenu, 

Illust. Conch., t. 5, f. 1 6, 174 

PLATE 50. 

36. Yermetus effusus, Yal. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 5, f. 4, 1 74 

37. Yermetus angulatus, Rouss. Ibid., t. 5, f. 2, . .174 

38. Yermetus Peronii, Yal. (= centiquadrus). Yo}\Yenus 



t. 11, f. 3, . 

39. Yermetus siphonata, Morch (= centiquadrus). Chenu 

Illust. Conch., t. 4, f. 6, 

40. Yermetus tulipa, Rouss. (= centiquadrus). Ibid., t. 1 

f.2, ' . . 

41. Yermetus triquetra, Bivona. Moll. Sicil., i, t. 9, f. 21 

42. Yermetus fascicularis,Mch. (= triquetra). Ibid.,i.t. 9 



f. 22, . 



174 



174 

174 

176 



176 



PLATE 51. 



43. Yermetus sipho, Lam. (= Rousseau, Yaill.). Chenu, 

Illust. Conch., t. 4, f. 3, upper, . .175 

44. Yermetus semisurrectus, Bivona. Phil., Moll. Sicil., i, 

t. 9, f. 19, 176 

45. Yermetus Seguenzianus, Aradas. Aradas and Benoit., 

Moll. Sicil., t. 3, f. 6, 176 

46. Yermetus Quoyi, H. and A. Ad. Adams 1 Genera, t. 39, 

f. 3 a, 176 

47. Yermetus Dofan, Adans. (= Goreensis). Adanson, 

Moll. Senegal, t. 11, f. 3, 177 

48. Yermetus Spiruliformis, De Serres. Ann. Sc. Nat., iv, 

t. 8, f. 1, 1855, . . .177 

49. Yermetus immersa, Morch. Chemnitz, Conch. Cab., ix, 

t. 116, f. 999, .177 

50. Yermetus spirorbis, Sowb. Sowerby, Manual, t. 1, f. 8, 178 

51. Yermetus corrodens, Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 18, f. 2, .178 

52. Yermetus irregularis, Orb. Ibid., t. 17, f. 16, . .178 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 439 

IGTTRK. PAGE. 

53. Yermetus glomeratus, Bivona. Philippi, Moll. Sicil., i, 

t. 9, f. 23, 178 

PLATE 52. 

54. Vermetus Ammonitiformis, Serres. Ann. Sci. Nat., iv, 

t. 8, f. 2, 1855, .... ... 177 

55-57. Yermetus glomeratus, Bivona. Adams' Genera, 

t. 39, f. 1 178 

58. Yermetus annulatus, Lam. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 

t. 2, f. 1, 178 

59. Yermetus planorbis, Dunker. Moll. Japon., t. 2, f. 16, 178 

60. Yermetus polyphragma, Sassi. Chiaje, Test. Sicil., iii, 

t. 57, f. 1, 179 

61. Yermetus gigas, Gray. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 4, f. 5, 179 

62. Yermetus aletes, Men. Moll. Sicil., i, t. 9, f. 18, . .179 

63. Yermetus dentiferus, Lam. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 

t. 4,f. 1, . 179 

PLATE 53. 

64. Yermetus Novae-Hollandise, Rouss. Chenu, Illust. 

Conch., t. l,f. 4, 179 

65. Yermetus masier, Desh. Adanson, Hist. Nat. Seneg., 

t. 11, f. 5 180 

66. Yermetus Brasiliensis, Rousseau. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 

t. 5, f. 5, . . 180 

67. Yermetus atra, Rousseau. Ibid., t. 5, f. 3, . . .180 

68. Yermetus imbricatus, Dunker. Moll. Japon. ,t. 2,f. 18, 180 

69. 70. Yermetus nodoso-rugosus, Lischke. Jap. Meeres 

Conch., i, t. 5, f. 1, 4, 180 

71. Yermetus decussatus, Gmelin. Humphrey and Da 

Costa, t. 10, f. 15, 181 

72. Yermetus poritis, Rouss. (= decussatus). Chenu, 

Illust. Conch., t. 2, f. 3, 181 

PLATE 54. 

73. Yermetus squamigerus, Carp. Specimen, . . .181 

74. Yermetus margaritarum, Yal. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 

t 4, f. 2 181 

75. Yermetus Michaudi, Rouss. Ibid., t. 2, f. 5, . . 181 

76. Yermetus poritis, Rouss. Ibid., t. 2, f. 3 c, . . 181 

77. Yermetus dentiferus, Quoy (=longifilis). Yoy. Astrol., 

t. 67, f. 27, . . 181 

78. Yermetus inopertus, Ruppell. Ruppell's Yoy., t. 11, 

f. 3 a, .182 

79. Yermetus arenarius, Quoy. Yoy. Astrol., t. 67, f. 8, . 182 



440 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

80. Vermetus elegans, Quoy. Ibid., t. 67, f. 11, . .182 

81. Yermetus Zelandicus, Gray. Ibid., t. 67, f. 17, . .182 

82. Yermetus lituella, Morch. Specimen, .... 183 

83. Vermetus Datin, Adans. (= afrum, Gmel.). Adanson, 

Hist. Nat. Seneg., t. 11, f. 46, 183 

84-86. Vermetus perforans, Serres (= politus). Ann. Sci. 

Nat., iv, t. 8, f. 3, 4, 6, 1855 184 

87. Vermetus nebulosus, Dillw. Specimen, . . .184 

88. Vermetus bicarinatus, Sowb. Sowb. Man., f. 4, . .184 

PLATE 55. 

89. 90. Vermetus gigas (= maximus, Sowb.). Chenu, 

Illust. Conch./t. 5, f. 6, 184 

91. Vermetus Dacostse, Morch. Humphreys, Conch., t, 1 1 , 

f. 15, .... ... 185 

92. Vermetus margaritarum, Val. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 

t. 4, f. 2, . . . . . .184 

93. Vermetus megamastum, Morch. Zool. Proc., t. 25, f. 

12, 1861, .185 

94. Vermetus roseus, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 67, f. 20, . 185 

95. 96. Vermetus pennatus, Morch. Zool. Proc., t. 25, f. 3, 

4, 1861, .... . -185 

97. Vermetus costalis, Rouss. (= tortuosus). Chenu, 

Illust. Conch., t. 3, f. 1 a, 186 

98. Vermetus Indicus, Rouss. (= lumbricalis). Ibid.,t. 3, 

f. 26, . 186 

99. Vermetus spiratus, Phil. Archiv Naturg., t. 7, f. 1 6, 

1836, . . . .187 

100. Vermetus radicula, Stimpson (= spiratus). Specimen, 187 

PLATE 56. 

1.. Vermetus nnicostalis, Morch (= tortuosus). Chenu, 

Illust. Conch., t. 3, f. 1, . . . .186 

2. Vermetus dimorphus, Morch. Humphrey, Conch., t. 

10, f. 6, . . . . 187 

3-5. Vermetus pellucidus, Br. et Sowb. Zool. Proc.,t. 25, 

f. 17, 18,20, 1861, ... . .187 

6. Vermetus eburneus, Reeve. Conch. Syst., ii,t. 152, f. 2, 187 

7. Vermetus effusus, Val. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 5, f. 4 a, 188 

8. Vermetus turritella, Rouss. Ibid., t. 5, f. 3, . .188 

9. Vermetus regularis, Chenu (= pellucidus). Ibid., Ser- 

pula, t. 10, f. 4, . 187 

10. Vermetus Panamensis, Chenu (= pellucidus). Ibid., 

Serpula, t. 10, f. 5, 187 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 441 

PLATE 57. 

PAGE. 

11. Siliquaria ponderosa, Morch. Conch. Icon., f. 3, .188 

12. Siliquaria Senegalensis, Recluz. Ibid., f. 8, . . 188 

13. Siliquaria encaustica, Morch. Ibid., f. 10, . . .189 

14. Siliquaria troehlearis, Morch. Tlies. Conch., t. 481, f. 

14, . . 189 

15. 16. Siliquaria obtusa, Schum. Ibid., t. 480. f. 4, 3, . Is9 

17. Siliquaria tseniata, Morch. (= Australis). Adams, 

Genera, t. 39, f. 5 a, 189 

18. Siliquaria tostus, Morch. Conch. Icon., f. 11, . . 190 

19. Siliquaria Cumingii, Morch. Ibid., f. 26, . . .190 

PLATE 58. 

20. Siliquaria Australis, Quoy. Conch. Icon., f. 6, . .189 

21. Siliquaria Cumingii, Morch. Ibid., f. 2, . . .190 

22. Siliquaria Bernardii, Morch. Ibid., f. 9, . . .190 

23. 24. Siliquaria anguina, Linn. Ibid., f. 7, . . .190 

25. Siliquaria squamata, Blninv. (= anguina). Clienu, 

Illust. Conch., t. 2, f. 12, J90 

26. Siliquaria lactea, Lam. Conch. Icon., f. 5 a, . . 191 

27. Siliquaria Taheitensis, Morch. Ibid., f. 13, . . .191 

28. Siliquaria Weldii, Woods. Specimen, . . . .191 

TURR1TELLID.E. 
PLATE 59. 

29. Turritella triplicata, Studer. Dentition. Troschel, 

Gebiss,i,t. 12, f. 12, 192 

30. Turritella acicula, Stimpson. Dentition. Sars, Moll. 

Norw., t. 7,f. 2c?, .192 

31. Turritella communis, Risso. Operculum. Fischer, 

Manuel, 694, f. 466, .192 

32. Turritella terebra, Linn. Kiener, Coq. viv., t. 3, f. 1, 195 

33. Turritella spectrum, live. (= terebra). Conch. Icon., 

f. 40 195 

34. Turritella bacillum, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 4, f. 1, . 196 

35. Turritella cerea, Reeve (= bacillum). Conch. Icon., 

f. 25, 196 

36. Turriteila fascialis, Menke. Ibid., f. 47, . . .197 
o7. Turritella bicolor, Ad. and Rve. (= fascialis;. Ibid., 

f. 56 197 

38. Turritella cmgulifera, Sowb. Ibid., f. 64, . . .198 

39. Turritella fragilis, Kr. (== cingulifera). Kiener, Coq. 

viv., t. 8, f. 3, 198 

40. Turritella fuscocincta, Petit (= cingulifera). Joim de 

Conch., iv, t. 11, f. 3, 198 



442 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



41. Turritella parva, Angas (= cingulifera). Zool. Proc., 

t. 26, f. 17, 1877, 198 

PLATE 60. 

42 Turritella crocea, Kiener (= bacillum). Conch. Icon., 

f. 26, 196 

43. Turritella ungulina, Linn. Ibid., f. 1,. . . . 1% 

44. Turritella nivea, Gray. Ibid., f. 44 196 

45. Turritella cornea, Lam. (= communis, Risso). Ibid., 

f. 35, 196 

46. Turritella cornea, Lam. (= communis, llisso). Kiener, 

Coq. Yiv.,t. 13, f. 3, 196 

47. Turritella Capensis, Kranss. Sudaf. Moll., t. 6, f. 8, .197 
48,49. Turritella triplicata, Studer. Conch. Icon., f. 43 a, 6, 197 

50. Turritella turbona, Monts. (= triplicata). Ann. Mus. 

Genoa, ix, 420, ... .... 197 

51, 52. Turritella goniostoma, Val. Conch. Icon., f. 10 a, 6, 198 

PLATE 61. 

53. Turritella Broderipiana, Orb. Conch. Icon., f. 6 6, .198 

54. Turritella marmorata, Kr. (= goniostoma). Kiener. 

Coq. Viv.,t. 8, f. 1, . . . . . .198 

55. Turritella lentiginosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 9, . 198 

56. Turritella punctata, Kiener. Ibid., f. 39 6, . . .198 

57. Turritella Banksii, Reeve. Ibid., f. 15, . . .198 

58. Turritella variegata, Linn. Ibid., f. 19, . . .198 

59. Turritella Hanleyana, Reeve (= rosea). Ibid., f. 36, 199 

60. Turritella sinuata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 62, ... 200 

61. Turritella Cooperi, Carp. Specimen, .... 200 

62. Turritella rubescens, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 63, . 201 

PLATE 62. 

63. Turritella nieta, Reeve (= variegata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 34, 198 

64. Turritella variegata, Linn., var. elongata, Rve. Ibid., 

t. 9, f. 196, . ... .198 

65. Turritella tigrina, Kiener. Kiener, Monog., t. 4, f. 2, 199 

66. Turritella Cumingii, Reeve (= tigrina). Conch. Icon., 

f. 13 199 

67. Turritella rosea, Quoy. Ibid., f. 41, . . . .199 

68. Turritella lineolata, Kiener (= rosea). Kiener, Iconog., 

t. 5, f. 2, 199 

69. Turritella sanguinea, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 27, . 199 

70. Turritella declivis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 52, ... 200 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 443 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

71. Turritella cingulata, Sowb. Ibid., f. 23, . . .200 

72. Turritella leucostoma, Yal. Ibid., f. 5, . . .200 

73. Turritella flammulata, Kiener. Ibid., f. 24, . . 201 

74. Turritella torulosa, Kiener. Ibid., f. 21, . . .201 

PLATE 63. 

75. Turritella trisulcata, Lara. Conch. Icon., f. 17, . . 201 
7(5. Turritella columnuris, Kiener. Ibid., f. 14, . . . 200 

77. Turritella ra'dula, Kiener. Ibid., f. 30, . . .201 

78, 79. Turritella noclulosii, King-. Ibid., f. 11, a, b, . . 202 

80. Turritella papillosa, Kr. (= nodulosa). Kiener, 

Coq. Yiv., t. H, f. 3, 202 

81. Turritella aquila, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 46, 202 

82. Turritella bicingulata, Lam. Ibid., f. 20, . . . 202 
8:*. Turritella maculate, Reeve. Ibid., f. 33, . . .202 

84. Turritella Knysnaenis, Krauss. Sudaf. Moll.,t. 6, f. 9, 203 

85. Turritella annulate, Kiener. Coq. Yiv., t. 13, f. 1, . 203 

86. Turritella Gunnii, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 45, . . 203 

87. Turritella Tasmanica, Reeve (= Gunnii, var.). Ibid., 

f. 42, . . . . 203 

88. Turritella incisa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 65 203 

89. Turritella infraconstricta, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 50, 

f. 20, 1878, 203 

90. Turritella vittulata, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icor., 

f. 58, 204 

91. Turritella canaliculate, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 57, . 204 

92. Turritella fastigiata, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 48, . 204 

PLATE 64. 

93. Turritella hastula, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 31, . .203 

94. Turritella congelata. Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 59, . 204 

95. Turritella pagoda, Reeve. Ibid., f. 60, ... 204 

96. Turritella Candida, Reeve. Ibid., f. 38, ... 204 

97. Turritella multilirata, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 54, . 204 

98. 99. Turritella exoleta, Linn. Kiener, Coq. Yiv., t. 

7, f. 2, .205 

100. Turritella cochlea, Reeve (= exoleta). Conch. Icon., 

f. 29, .205 

1. Turritella excavata, Sowb. (= exoleta). Zool. Proc., 

t. 21, f. 3,1870, 205 

2. Turritella clathrata, Kiener. Conch. Icon., f. 37, . 206 

3. Turritella decipiens, Monts. Specimen, . . . 205 

4. Turritella alba, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., t. 3, f. 3, 1872, 205 

5. Turritella monilifera, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icon., 

f. 50, 205 



444 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

6. Turritella concava, Martens. Moebius' Mauritius Moll., 

t. 20, f. 19, 206 

7. Turritella carinifera, Lam. Conch. Icon., f. 12 a, . 206 

8. Turritella gemmata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 28, . . 206 

9. Turritella Hookeri, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 01, . . 206 

10. Turritella acuta, Tenison- Woods. Specimen, . . 206 

11. Turritella ferruginea, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 32, . 207 

12. Turritella acicula, Stimpson. Am. Mar. Conch., t. 11, 

f. 133, 207 

13. Turritella erosa, Couth. Ibid., f. 130, . . . .208 

14. Turritella Eschrichti, Midd. (= erosa). Mai. Ross , ii, 

t. 11, f. 2, 208 

15. Turritella reticulata, Mighels and Ads. Am. M:ir. 

Conch., t. 11, f. 131, 208 

16. Turritella constrict a, Reeve (= clathrata). Conch. 

Icon.,t. x, f. 16, . . . . . . 206 

17. Mathilda granolira, Costa (= elegantissima). Misc. 

Malacol., f. 2, 210 

18. Mathilda retusa, Costa. Ibid., f. 13 210 

19. Turritella declivis, Aurivillius. Vega Exped., t. 12, 

f. 9, 208 

PLATE 65. 

19. Mathilda Sinensis, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., t. 9, f. 3, 

1867,. ... 211 

20. Turritella duplicate, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 1, . 207 

21. Turritella acutangula, Linn. (= duplicata). Ibid., t. 

2,f. 2 a, . .207 

22. Turritella attenuata, Rve. (= duplicata, var.) Conch. 

Icon., f. 4, 207 

23. Turritella australis, Lam. Kiener, Iconog, t. 4, f. 3, . 207 

24. Turritella costulata, Mighels. Am. Mar. Conch., t. 11, 

f. 132, 208 

25. Turritella lactea, Moller. Reeve, Mesalia, f . 1 , . .208 

26. Turritella costata (erosa, var.), Aurivillius. YegaExp., 

t. 12, f. 8, .208 

27. 28. Turritella brevialis, Lam. Reeve, Mesalia, f. 2 a, 6, 209 

29. Turritella brevialis, Lam. Reeve, Turritella, f, 16 a, . 209 

30. Turritella varia, Kiener. Kiener, Iconog., t. 2, f. 3, . 209 

31. Turritella Cariboea, Orb. (= varia). Hist. Nat. Cuba, 

t. 10, f. 21, .... . 209 

32. Turritella Melanoides, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Mesalia, 

f. 3, 209 

33. Turritella opalina, Ads. and Rve. Reeve, Turritella, 

f. 51, 210 

34. 35. Protoma Knockeri, Baird. Zool. Proc., 59, 1870, . 210 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 445 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

36. Mathilda cochlaeformis, Costa. Brugnone, Misc. Mai., 

f. 1 210 

37. Mathilda elegantula, Angas. Zool Proc.. t. l,f. 8, 1871, 210 

38. Mathilda quadricincta, Brocchi. Conch. Foss. subap., 

ii, t. 7, f. 6, 211 

C M C I D ^E. 
PLATE 66. 

39. Shell of Caecum, much enlarged. Fischer, Man. de 

Conch., p. 698! 

a, spiral nucleus ; 6, first septum ; c, second septum ; 
d, aperture, , .212 

40. Animal of Caecum. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 

KK, f. 1, 212 

41. 42. Nucleus of Caecum. Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 1 a, 

16, 1877, 213 

43. Nucleus of Meioceras. Ibid., t. 5, f. 2, 1877, . . 214 

44, 45. Nucleus of Strebloceras. Ibid., t. 5, f. 3, 1877, . 214 
46. Nucleus of Parastmphia. Ibid., t. 5, f. 4, 1877, . . 214 
47-51. Different forms of the septum. Ibid., t. 4, figs. 13, 

17,21,23,25, 212 

52. Caecum laeve, C. B. ^d. Specimen, . . . .215 

53. Caecum farcimen, Cpr. Specimen, .... 215 

54. Caecum vitreum, Cpr. Specimen, . . . .215 

55. Caecum Clarkii, Cpr. (== vitreum, var.). Specimen, . 215 
50. Caecum dextroversum, Cpr. Specimen, . . .215 
57. Caecum glabrum, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll.,t. 69, f. 5 215 

53. Caecum auriculatum, Folin. B. D. and D.,Moll. Rous- 

silon, 232, 216 

59. Caecum Achironia, Folin. Jour, de Conch., t. 3, f. 1, 

1867 216 

60. Caecum Someri, Folin. Ibid., t. 3, f. 2, 1867, . .216 

61. Caecum subimpressum, Cpr. Specimen, . . .217 

62. Caecum Floridanum, Stimpson. Specimen, . .217 

63. Caecum pulchellum, Stimpson. Tryon, Am. Mar. 

Conch., t. ll,f. 135, 217 

64. Caecum rhysotitum, Folin. Jour, de Conch., t. 2, f. 6, 

ISiiT, 218 

65. Caecum Cooperi, Carp. (= Californicum, Dall). Speci- 

men, . . .219 

PLATE 67. 

66. Caecum firmatum, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . . .217 

67. Caecum quadratum, Cpr, Specimen, .... 217 



446 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

68. Caecum compactum, Cpr. (= quadratum, var.). Speci- 

men, 217 

69. Caecum elegantissimum, Carp. Specimen, . . .217 

70. Caecum undatum, Carp. Specimen, . . . .218 

71. Caecum crebricinctum, Carp. Specimen, . . . 218 

72. Caecum subannulatum, Folin. B. D. D., Moll. Rous- 

silon, p. 231, . . . . . . .218 

73. Caecum nitidum, Stimpson. Specimen, . . . 222 

74. Caecum cornubovis, Carp. Specimen, .... 223 

75. Caecum cornucopias, Carp. Specimen, .... 223 

76. Caecum annulatum, Brown. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. 88, f. 7, ... . 220 

77. Caecum trachea, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., 

t. 69, f. 4, . .219 

78. Caecum paradoxum, Folin. Jour, de Conch., t. 2, f. 7, 

1867, 218 

79. Caecum phronium, Folin. Jour, de Conch., t. 3, f. 4, 

1867, 221 

80. Caecum coronatum, Folin. Ibid., t. 2, f. 5, 1867, . 221 

81. Caecum Folini, Bucq., Dautz., Dollf. Moll. Roussilon, 

p. 233, . . . . .223 

82. Caecum irregulare, Folin. Jour, de Conch., t. 3, f. 6, 

1867, ... 221 

83. Caecum magnum, Stearns. Specimen, . . .219 

84. Caecum Cooperi, Smith. Ann. N. Y. Lye., ix, 394, . 221 

85. Caecum costatum, Verrill (== Cooperi). Am. Jour. 

Science, 3 ser., iii, t. 6, f. 6 221 

86. Caecum clava, Folin. Jour, de Conch , t. 3, f. 3, 1867, 220 

87. Caecum insigne, Folin. Ibid., t. 2, f. 4, 1867, . . 220 

88. Caecum breve, Folin. Ibid., t. 3. f. 5, 1867, . . 220 

ETJLIMIDJG. 

PLATE 68. 

89. Eulima grandis. A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 4, . 266 

90. Eulima Martini, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 6, . . . . 266 

91. 92. Eulima Candida, Marratt. Proc. Lit. Phil. Soc. 

Liverpool, xxxiv, 339, . ... 266 

93. Eulima major, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 5, . 266 

94. Eulima arcuata, Sowb. (= major). Ibid., f. 14, . . 266 

95. Eulima flexuosa, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 169, f. 22, . 267 

96. Eulima Cumingii, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon. Eulima, sp. 8, 267 

97. Eulima teinostoma, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 3, . . . 267 

98. Eulima picta, Sowb. Ibid., f. 45, .... 267 

99. Eulima lactea, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 2, . . . . 267 
100, 15. Eulima porcellana, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 11, . . 268 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 447 

FIGURE. . PAGE. 

1. Eulima brevis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 27, . . . . 267 

2. Eulima labiosa, Sowb. (= brevis). Ibid., f. 10, . . 267 

3. Eulima acuta, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 15, . . . .268 

4. Eulima inflexa, Pse. (= solida). Am. Jour. Conch., 

iii,t. 24, f. 26, 268 

5. Eulima solida, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 18, . 268 

6. Eulima pusilla, Sowb. Ibid., f. 25, . . 268 

7. Eulima exilis, Pse. (= pusilla). Am. Journ. Conch., 

iii,t. 24, f. 25, . ... . . . . 268 

8. Eulima venusta, Pease. Ibid., iii, t. 24, f. 24, . . 268 

9. Eulima retrorsa, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 31, . 269 

10. Eulima augur, Angas. Ibid., f. 47, . . . 269 

11. Eulima proxima, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 48, . 269 

12. Eulima articulata, Sowb. Ibid., f. 1, . . . .269 

13. Eulima opaca, Sowb. Ibid., f. 30, . . . .270 

14. Eulima pyramidalis, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 23, . . .270 

16. Eulima micans, Woods (= Tenisoni, Tryon). Speci- 

men, 269 

17. Eulima conoidalis, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 22, 269 

18. Eulima polygyra, A. Ad. Ibid.,f. 24, . . . .270 

19. Eulima conica, Sowb. Ibid., f. 44, . . . .270 

20. Eulima modicella, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 169, f. 27, 270 

21. Eulima solidula, Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, t. 

ll,f. 27, 271 

22. Eulima cuspidata, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. loon., f. 17, 270 

23. Eulima tortuosa, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 12, . .271 

24. Eulima Adamsi, Sowb. (= nitidula, A. Ad.). Ibid., 

sp. 38, 271 

25. Eulima robusta, A. Ad. Specimen, .... 271 

26. Eulima mundula, A. Ad. Specimen, .... 272 

27. Eulima subangulata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 13, 271 

28. Eulima acuformis, Nevill. Jour. Bengal, xliv,t. 8, f. I, 271 

PLATE 69. 

29. Eulima micans, Carp. Reeve, Conr-h. Icon., sp. 33, . 272 

30. Eulima elodia, Folin (= micans). Meleagrinicoles, t. 

6, f. 6, 272 

31. Eulima gracillima, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 32, . . 272 

32. Eulima parva, Sowb. Ibid., f. 41, . . 272 

33. Eulima adamantina, Folin (= parva). Meleagrini- 

coles, t. 6, f. 2, . . . . . . .272 

34. Eulima subrostrata, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 43, . . 272 

35. Eulima gibba, Folin. Meleagrinicoles, t. 6, f. 4, . . 272 

36. Eulima oleacea, Kurtz and Stimp. Tryon, Am. Mar. 

Conch., t. 10, f. 124, ... ... 273 

37. Eulima opalina, Folin. Meleagrin., t. 6, f. 7, . . 273 



448 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

38. Eulima proca, Folin. Ibid., t. 6, f. 3, * . . .273 

39. Eulima hastata, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 9, . . . 273 

40. Eulima conoidea, Kurtz and Stimpson. Specimen, . 273 

41. Eulima Jamaicensis, Adams. Specimen, . . . 273 

42. Eulima iota, C. B. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 34, . 274 

43. Eulima intermedia, Cantraine. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., 

t. 77, f. 4, . 274 

44. Eulima subcarinata, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f. 5, . 273 

45. Eulima polita, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 1(5, . . . 274 

46. Eulima brevis, Requien (= polita, var.). Moll. Rouss., 

t. 21, f. 16, 274 

47. Eulima gracilis (= incurva, Ren. var.), Forbes and 

Hanley. Brit- Moll., t. 92, f. 6, . . . . 274 

48. Eulima distorta, Phil. (= incurva). Ibid., t. 92, f. 4, . 274 

49. Eulima curva, Jeffreys. B.D.D. Moll. Rouss. ,t. 21, f. 13, 275 

50. Eulima elongata, B. I). D. (== curva, var.). Ibid., t. 21, 

f. 15, . .275 

51. Eulima distorta, Phil. (= incurva, var.). Sars., Moll. 

Nov., t. ll,f. 23, 274 

52.- Eulima obtusa, Jeffreys (=compactilis, Monts.). Zool. 

Proc., 1884. t. 28, f. 10, 275 

53. Eulima stalioli, Brusina. Jeffreys, Ibid., t. 28, f. 3, . 275 

54. Eulima pyriformis, Brugnone. Jeffreys, Ibid., t. 28, f. 6, 276 

55. Eulima fuscoapicata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 28, f. 5, . . 276 

56. Eulima abbreviata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 28, f. 7, . . 275 

57. Eulima subumbilicata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 28, f. 8, . 276 

58. Eulima Paivensis, Watson. *Zool. Proc., t. 36, f. 29, 

1873, 277 

59. Eulima solida, Jeffreys (= Jeffreysii, Tryon). Zool. 

Proc., t. 28, f. 4, 1884. . .' . , . .276 

60. Eulima minuta, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 28, f. 9, 1884, . . 276 

61. Eulima glabra, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 28, f. 2, 1884, . . 277 

62. Eulima acutalis, Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1. 16, 

f. 5, 1883, . . .277 

63. Eulima perminima, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 16, f. 6, 1883, . 277 

64. Eulima Gentilomiana, Issel. Coq. Egypte, t. 3, f. 32, . 277 

PLATE 70. 

65-67. Eulima varians, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

Leiostr., f. 1, 278 

68. Eulima rutila, Carp. Reeve, Ibid., f. 37, . . . 279 

69. Eulima elegantissima, Folin. Meleagrm., t. 6,f. 5, . 279 

70. Eulima bivittata, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. Leiostr., f. 6, . 279 

71. Eulima subulata, Donov. Forbes and Hanley, Brit., 

Conch., t. 92, f. 7, .279 

72-74. Eulima bilineata, Alder. Ibid., t. 92, f. 10, . . 279 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 449 



75. Eulima bifasciata, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f. 2, . 279 

76. Eulima fulvocincta, C. B. Ad. Conch. Icon., Leiostr., 

f. 8, 280 

77. Eulima vincta, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 20, . . . .280 

78. Euliina Samoensis, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 11, f. 3, 

1867, 280 

79. Eulima rmilineata, Ads. and Rve. Conch. Icon. Leios- 

traca, f. 4, 280 

80. Eulima stenostoma, Jeffreys. Ibid., f. 14, . . . 282 

81. Eulima recta, C. B. Adams. Ibid., f. 3, . . . 280 

82. Eulima acuta, Sowb. Ibid., f. 7, 280 

83. Eulima Metcalfei, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 5, . . . . 280 

84. Eulima nivea, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 16, . . . . 281 

85. Eulima pura, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 17, .... 281 

86. Eulima pauxillus, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 19, ' . . .281 

87. Eulima Mariss, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 21, . . . .281 

88. Eulima Manzoniana, Issel. Conch. Mar Rosso, t. 2, f. 6, 281 

89. Eulima acutissirna, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Leiostraca, 

f. 10, 281 

90. Eulima Lesbia, Angas (= acutissima). Zool. Proc., 

t. l,f. 14, 1871, 281 

91. Eulima distorta, Pease (= Peasei, Tn*on). Conch. 

Icon. Leiostraca, f. 15, . . . . . . 281 

92. Eulima acicula, Gould. Ibid., f. 11, . . . .282 

93. Eulima aciculata, Sowb. (= acicula, Gld.). Iconica, 

Eulima, f. 36, 282 

94. Eulima pyramidalis, Sowb. ( acicula). Conch. Icon. 

Leiostr., f. 13, . . . ^ . . . .282 

95. Eulima vitrea, A. Ad. (= acicula). Iconica, Eulima, 

f. 19, 282 

96. Eulima Hemphilli, Ball. Specimen, .... 282 

97. Eulima attenuata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Eulima, f. 46, . 282 

98. Eulima mirifica, Nevill. Jour. Bengal, xliii, t. 1, f. 10, 283 

99. Eulima Holdsworthi, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 69, f. 1 a, 

1874, 283 

100. Eulima Giintheri, Angas. Ibid., t. 5, f. 6, 1877, . . 283 

1. Eulima dentiens, Bunker. Specimen, . . . .277 

2. Eulima nitidula, Pease. Conch. Icon. Eulima, f. 35, . 284 

3. Eulima subpellucida, Pease. Ibid., f. 20, . . .284 

4. Eulima gracilis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii,t. 24, f. 27, 284 

5. Eulima mucronata, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 42, . . 284 

6. Eulima obesula, A. Ad. Conch. Icon., f. 28, . . 284 

7. Eulima rosea, Pease. Conch. Icon. Eulima, f. 39, . 284 

8. Eulima Mindoroensis, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icon. 

Leiost., f. 12, 285 

9. Eulima Sandvichensis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 21, . . . 284 

29 



450 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

10. Eulima Caledonica, Morelet. Jour, de Conch., 1. 12, f. 1, 

1881, . 285 

11. Eulima fulvescens, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. Eulima, f. 11, 285 

12. Eulima glabrata, A. Ad. Conch. Icon. Leiostr., f. 19, 286 

13. Eulima subventricosa, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Leiostr., 

f. 18, . 285 

14. Eulima carinata, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 7, f. 26, . 287 

15. Eulima Montrouzieri, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., t. 

9,f. 5, 1870, 286 

16. Eulima Japonica, A. Ad. Conch. Icon., f. 9, . . 286 

17. Eulima semistriata, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 20, . . 287 

18. Eulima apiculata, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., t. 1, f. 

5, 1877, 287 

19. Eulima Lamberti, Souverbie. Ibid., t. 13, f. 2, 1876, . 287 

20. Eulima Rangii, Folin. Meleagrin, t. 6., f. 1, . . 287 

PLATE 71. 

21. Niso marmorata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Niso, f. 5, . 288 

22. 23. Niso interrupta, Sowb. Ibid., f. 8, . . . 288 

24. Niso splendidula, Sowb. Ibid., f. 7, . . . . 287 

25. Niso brunnea, Sowb. Ibid., f. 9, 288 

26. Niso goniostoma, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 2, . . . . 288 

27. Niso terebellum, Chemn. Ibid., f. 4, . . . .288 

28. Niso cahdidula, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 6, . . . . 288 

29. Niso Sandvichensis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 1, . . .288 

30. Niso ^Eglees, Bush. Trans. Conn. Acad.,vi, t. 45, f. 10, 288 

31. Niso imbricata, Sowb. Conch. Icon. Niso, f. 3, . . 289 

32. Stylifer Turtoni, Bfod. Conch. Icon. Stylifer, f. 1, . 289 
33-35. Hoplopteron Terquemi, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 

t. 9, f. 1, 6, 7, 1876, 289 

36. Stylifer Turtoni, Brod. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Conch., t. 00, f. 5, 289, . . ... 289 

37. Stylifer Stimpsonii, Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 

585, 289 

38. Stylifer astericola, Brod. Conch. Icon. Stylifer, f. 3, 290 

39. Stylifer ovoideus, H. and A. Ad. Ibid., f. 2, . . 290 

40. Stylifer Orbign}^ana, Hupd. Guerin's Magazine, t. 10, 

f. 1 o, 1860, 290 

41. Stylifer rlubia, Baird. Conch. Icon. Stylifer, f. 8, . 290 

42. Stylifer Mittrei, Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, t. 2, f. 8, . 290 

43. Stylifer eburneus, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 7, f. 25, . 290 

44. Stylifer apiculatus, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 3d 

ser., ii,t. 9, f. 6, 291 

45. Stylifer corallinus, Chemn. Conch. Icon. Stylifer, f. 12, 292 

46. Stylifer pyramidalis, Reeve (= Cumingianus). Ele- 

ments Conch., i, t. 12, f. 56, 291 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 451 

fJGURB. PAGE. 

47. Stylifer Brazieri, Angas. Zool. Proc.,t. 26, f. 12, 1877, 291 

48. Stylifer Curaingianus, Adams. Conch. Icon., f. 5, . 291 

49. Stylifer subulatus, Brod. and Sowb. Conch. Icon., 

Stylifer, f. 17, 291 

50. Stylifer bulbiformis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 18, ... 291 

51. Stylifer Barroni, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 7, . . . . 291 

52. Stylifer exaratus, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 14, . . . . 291 

53. Stylifer subangulatus, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 13, . . . 292 

54. Stylifer Pauluccise, Fischer. Journ. de Conch., 3 ser., 

*iv, t. 7, f. 3, . 292 

55. Stylifer attenuatus, Sowb. Conch. Icon., sp. 11, . 292 

56. Stylifer deformis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 24, 

f. 23, 292 

57. Stylifer speciosus, H. Ad. Conch. Icon., f. 10, . . 291 

58. Stylifer Thomasiae, Sowb. Ibid., f. 15-, ... 292 

59. Stylifer fastigiatus, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 16, . . . 292 

60. Stylifer solidus, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 6, . . . 293 

61. Stylifer Tasmanicus, Woods. Specimen, . . . 293 

62. Stylifer Nevilli, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., t. 28, f. 16, 

1868, 293 

PYRAMIDELLIDJE. 
PLATE 72. 

63. 64. Pyramidella ventricosa, Guerin. Thes. Conch., t. 

171, f. 13,15, 299 

65. Pyramidella scitula, A. Ad. (= ventricosa). Ibid., t. 

171, f. 23, 299 

66. Pyramidella cincta, Reeve. Ibid., t. 171, f. 11, . . 299 

67. Pyramidella fastigium, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 8, . 300 

68. Pyramidella perforata, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 9, . 300 

69. Pyramidella balteata, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 25, . 300 

70. Pyramidella pusilla, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 7, . . 300 

71. 72. Pyramidella dolabrata, Linn. Ibid., 1. 171, f. 2, 3, . 300 

73. Pyramidella terebellum, Mull. (= dolabrata, var.). 

Ibid., t. 171, f. 5, ....... 300 

74. Pyramidella terebelloides, A. Ad. (= dolabrata, var.). 

Ibid., 171, f. 18, 300 

75. Pyramidella pulchella, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 20, . 301 

76. Pyramidella punctata, Chemn. (== acus). Yoy. Astrol., 

t. 67, f. 1, . . 301 

77. 78. Pyramidella punctata, Chemn. ( acus, Gmel.). 

Thes. Conch., t. 171, f. 14, 27, 301 

79. Pyramidella sulcata, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 34, . . 301 

80. Pyramidella tessellata, A. Ad. (= sulcata). Ibid., t. 

171, f. 16, 301 



452 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAQB. 

81. Pyramidella monilis, A. Ad. (= sulcata). Ibid., t. 

171, f. 12, .301 

82. Pyramidella teres, A. Ad. (= sulcata). Ibid., t. 171, 

f. 31, . 301 

83. Pyramidella Prattii, Bernard! (= sulcata). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser.,iii, t. 13, f. 1, 301 

84. Pyramidella turrita, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 171, f. 17, 301 

85. Pyramidella gracilis, Brocchi (= turrita). Ibid., t. 

171, f. 4, 301 

86. Pyramidella Chemnitziana, A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 34 302 

87. Pyramidella (jarrettii, Try on. Specimen, . . . 302 

88. Pyramidella conica, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . . . 302 

89. Pyramidella hastata, A. Ad. (= conica). Conch. 

Icon., f. 26, - 302 

PLATE 73. 

90. Pyramidella canaliculata, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 59, f. 

7, 1873, 302 

91. Pyramidella clavulus, A. Ad. (= Achates, Gld.). Thes. 

Conch., t. 171,f. 33, 303 

92. Pvramidella jucunda, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 10, 

fc !877, 303 

93. Pyramidella hyalina, Garrett (= Paumotensis, Tryon). 

Proc. Phila. Acad., t. 3, f. 56, 1873, . . . .303 

94. Pyramidella mitralis, A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 20 305 

95. Pyramidella auris-cati, Chemn. Reeve. Ibid., f. 21, . 305 

96. Pyramidella nitidula, A. Ad. Reeve, Ibid., f. 35, . 304 

97. Pyramidella propinqua, A. Ad. (= mitralis), Ibid., 

f. 22, 305 

98. Pyramidella glans, Reeve. Ibid., f. 18, ... 305 

99. Pyramidella nitida, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 17, . . .305 
100. Pyramidella nodicincta, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 19, . .305 

1. Pyramidella vincta, Dall. (= nivea, Morch). Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, t. 10, f. 7, 304 

2. Pyramidella magnifica, Ads. and Reeve. Yoy. Sama- 

rang, t. 10, f. 1, . 305 

3. Pyramidella variegata, A. Ad. (= mitralis). Conch. 

Icon., f. 23, 305 

4. Pyramidella corrugata, Lam. Thes. Conch., t. 172, f. 4, 305 

5. Pyramidella attenuata, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 22, . 306 

6. Pyramidella aclis, A. Ad. (= Adamsi, Tryon). Ibid., 

t. 171, f. 30, 306 

7. Pyramidella elegans, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 19, . 306 

8. Pyramidella fulva, Sowb, Conch. Icon., f. 42, . . 306 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 453 



9/ Pyramidella brunnea, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 171, f. 35, 306 

10. Pyramidella aciculata, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 171, f. 21, .306 

11. Pyramidella denticulata, Sowb. (= aciculata). Conch. 

Icon., f. 39, 306 

12. Pyramidella crocata, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 36, . . .307 

13. Pyramidella gracillhna, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 44, . .307 

14. Pyramidella cinctella, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 45, . . .307 

15. Pyramidella striatula, A. Ad. Tlies. Conch., t. 171, 

f. 29, .307 

16. Pyramidella ornata, Gould. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 30, 307 

17. Pyramidella cylindrella, A. Ad. Reeve, Ibid., f. 37, . 307 

18. Pyramidella gracillima, Smith (= Sniithii, Try on). 

Zool. Proc., t. 75, f. 17, 1871, 308 

19. Pyramidella pupina, A. Ad. Conch. Icon., f. 40, . 307 

20. Pyramidella modica, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 41, . . .307 

21. Pyramidella scrotina, A. Ad. Ibid., f. 43, . . . 308 

22. Pyramidella minuta, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., t. 19, 

f. 10, 1869, 308 

23. Pyramidella subulina, A. Ad. Conch. Icon., f. 38, . 308 

24. Pyramidella tincta, Angas. Zool Proc., t. l,f. 11,1871, 308 

25. Pyramidella hyalina, Danker. Moll. Jap., t. 1, f. 9, . 309 

26. Pyramidella solidula, Danker. Ibid., t. 1, f. 5, . . 308 

PLATE 74. 

27. Pyramidella australis, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 1, f. 9, 

1871, 309 

28. Pyramidella annulata, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 171, 

f. 26, 3.09 

29. Pyramidella ligata,An<r aS Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 11,1877, 310 

30. Pyramidella subulata, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 172, f. 13, 310 

31. Pyramidella gracilis, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f. 14, . 310 

32. Pyramidella Riippelli, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., xi, 

252, . 310 

33. Pyramidella metula, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 172, f. 12, 310 

34. Pyramidella aclis, A. Ad. Ibid , t. 172, f. 17, . . 312 

35. Pyramidella elongata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 

t 24, f. 22, 312 

35 a. Pvramidella varicosa, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 181, t. 20, 

f. 15, 1853, 312 

36. Pyramidella grandis, Ads. and Reeve. Yoy. Samarang., 

t. 11, f. 17, ... ... 312 

37. Pyramidella Conieiliana, Neweomb. Am. Jour. Conch., 

v,t. 17, f. 6, .312 

38. Pyramidella stylina, A. Ad. (= typica, Tryon). Thes., 

t. 171,f. 28, 312 

39. Pyramidella striata, Gray. Thes. Conch., t. 172, f. 18, 313 



454 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

40. Pyramidella aurantiaca, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 13, f. 

14, 1867, 313 

41. Pyramidella amoena, A. Ad. Thes. Concli.,t. 172, f. 21, 313 

42. Pyramidella fulva, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f. 23, . .313 

43. Pyramidella granulata, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f 19, . 313 

44. Pyramidella lauta, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f. 20, . .313 

45. Pyramidella casta, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f. 22, . . 314 

46. Pyramidella speciosa, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f. 25, .314 

47. Pyramidella stylina, A. Ad. Ibid , t. 172, f. 30, . .314 

48. Pyramidella suturalis, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f. 32, .314 

49. Pyramidella pura, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 172, f. 33, 314 

50. Pyramidella concinna, A. Ad. Ibid., t. 172, f. 34, . 314 

51. Pyramidella cincta, Carp. Specimen, .... 315 
52-54. Pyramidella spirata, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., t. 172, 

f. 26, 28, . 315 

55. Syrnolopsis lacustris, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 33, f 21, 

1881, 315 

56. Syrnolopsis lacustris, Smith. Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 

t. 4,f. 6, 1881, 315 

TURBONILLIDJE. 

57. Turbonilla elegantissima, Macg. (= lactea, Linn.) 

Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll. t. 93, f. 1, . . 322 

58. 60. Turbonilla fenestrata, Forbes. Ibid., t. 93, f. 6. . 325 

59. Turbonilla speciosa, Adams (==. Macandrese). Zool. 

Proc., t. 19, f. 11, 1869, 324 

61. Turbonilla Weinkauffi, Dunker. Jour, de Conch. ,3 ser., 

ii, t. 13, f. 9, . . 325 

62-64. Turbonilla rufescens, Forbes. Forbes and Hanley, 

Brit. Moll, t. 94, f. 1 ; t. FF, f. 6, . . . ' . 325 

65. Turbonilla scalaris, Phil. Ibid.,t. 94, f. 5, . . . 325 

66. Turbonilla foriuosa, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 93, f. 5, . . 325 

67. Turbonilla internodulosa, Monts. Jour, de Conch., 

t. 3,f. 1, 1877. 

68. Turbonilla rufa, Phil. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., 

t. 93, f. 3, . . 326 

69. 70. Turbonilla rufa, var. (= fulvocincta). Ibid., t. 93, 

f. 4, 326 

71, 72. Turbonilla clathrata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 94, f. 4, . 327 
73, 74. Turbonilla inclistincta, Monts. Ibid., t. 94, f. 2, . 326 

75. Turbonilla Potamoides,Cantraine(=striatula). Conch. 

Medit., t. 6, f. 25, . 327 

PLATE 75. 

76. Turbonilla pusilla (r^innovata). Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., 

v, 76, f. 4, 323 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 455 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

77. Turbonilla Campanellae, Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, t. 9, f. 5, 322 

78. Turbonilla scalaris, Phil. B. D. D. Moll. Rouss.,t. 21, 

f. 4, 325 

79. Turbonilla pusilla, Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 28, f. 21, . 323 

80. Turbonilla obliquata, Phil. Ibid., t. 24, f. 10, . . 324 

81. Turbonilla gracilis (= delicata). Ibid., t. 24, f. 11, . 323 

82. Turbonilla gradata, Monts. B. D. D. Moll. Rouss., 

t. 21, f. 12, 323 

83. Turbonilla attenuata, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 27, f. 4, 

1884, 323 

84. Turbonilla sinuosa, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 27, f. 1, 1884, . 322 

85. Turbonilla acuticostata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 27, f. 2, 1884, 322 

86. 87. Turbonilla fulgidula, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 27, f. 3, 1884, 323 

88. Turbonilla compressa, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 27, f. 5, 1884, 324 

89. Turbonilla semicostata, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 27, f. 

7, 1884, .324 

90. Turbonilla paucistriata, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 27, f. 6, 1884, 324 

91. Turbonilla densecostata, Phil. B. D. D., Moll. Rouss., 

t. 21, f. 11 326 

92. Turbonilla costifera, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 75, f. 28, 

1871, 327 

93. 94. Turbonilla sigmoidea, Monts. Ibid., t. 26, f. 9, 1884, 327 

95. Turbonilla flexuosa, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 26, f. 10, 1884, 327 

96. Turbonilla Bushiana,Verriil (= magnifica, Seg.;. Trans. 

Conn. Acad., v, t. 58, f. 16, . . . ' . . 322 

97. Turbonilla disculus, Velain. Archiv Zool. Exp., vi, t. 

3, f. 8, 336 

98. Turbonilla Peronii, Velain. Ibid., vi, t. 3, f. 9, . . 336 

99. Turbonilla scalaris, Velain (=Velaini, Try on). Ibid., 

vi, t. 3, f. 7 336 

100. Turbonilla venusta, Issel. Savigny, Coq. Egypte, t. 3, 

f. 34, . 337 

1. Turbonilla crystallina, Issel. Mar. Rosso, t. 1, f. 18, . 336 

2. Turbonilla nitidissiraa, Issel. Ibid., t. 1, f. 19, . . 337 

3. Turbonilla solidula, Issel. Ibid., t. 1, f. 17, . . 336 

4. Turbonilla tenuicostata, Issel. Ibid., t. 1, f. 16, . . 336 

5. Turbonilla Rathbuni, Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. 

Acad., v, t. 58, f. 15 328 

6. Turbonilla Emertoni, Verrill. Ibid., v, t. 58, f. 14, . 328 

7. Turbonilla interrupta, Totten. Am. Jour. Sci., 1 ser., 

xxviii, f. 7, 329 

8. Turbonilla elegans, Verrill. Rept. Fish Com., i, t. 

24, f. 155, . .328 

9. Turbonilla areolata, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, 

t, 32, f. 13, . 328 

10. Turbonilla costulata, Verrill. Ibid., vi, t. 32, f. 12, . 329 



456 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAOB. 

11. Turbonilla nivea, Stimpson. Gould, Invert., Mass., f. 

602 328 

12. Turbonilla textilis, Kurtz. Specimen, . . . 829 

13. Pyramidella Krebsii, Morch. Specimen, . . . 3ll 

PLATE 76. 

14. Pyramidella elegans, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f. 26, . 311 

15. Turbonilla ornata, d'Orb. Ibid., t. 16, f. 19, . . 330 

16. Turbonilla Americana, d'Orb. Toy. Amer. Merid., t. 

83, f. 17, . . 331 

17. Turbonilla modesta, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f. 23, .330 

18. Turbonilla pulchella, d'Orb. Ibid., t. 16, f. 15, . . 330 
' 19. Turbonilla pusilla, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . . .330 

20. Turbonilla turns, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f. 11, . 330 

21. Turbonilla substriata, C. B. Adams. Specimen, . . 330 

22. Turbonilla puncta, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . . . 331 

23. Turbonilla subulata, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . . .331 

24. Turbonilla flavocincta, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . .331 

25. Turbonilla fasciata, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., t. 

76, f. 4, 331 

26. Turbonilla pupoides. d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f. 33, . 332 

27. Turbonilla Riisei, Morch. Specimen, .... 332 

28. Turbonilla dubia, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba,t. 17, f. 4, . . 332 

29. Turbonilla cora, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., t. 76, f. 8, 332 

30. Turbonilla festiva, Folin. Meleagrin., t. 5, f. 4, . . 333 

31. Turbonilla tenuicula, Gould. Specimen, . . . 333 

32. Turbonilla stylina, Carp. Specimen, .... 333 

33. Turbonilla subcuspidata, Carp. Specimen, . . 333 

34. Turbonilla torquata, var. stylina. Specimen, . . 333 

35. Turbonilla cingulata. Dkr. Moll. Jap., t. 1, f. 10, . 338 

36. Turbonilla terebra, Dkr. Moll. Jap., t. 1, f. 6, . . 33S 

37. Turbonilla Philippiana, Dkr. Moll. Jap., t. 1, f. 12, . 335 

38. Turbonilla varicosa, Dkr. Moll. Jap., t. 2, f. 5, . . 335 

40. Turbonilla Tasmanica, Wood. Specimen, . . . 335 

41. Turbonilla nitida, Angas (= Hofmani). Zool. Proc., 

t. 13, f. 9,1867, . 334 

42. Turbonilla Mariae, Woods (== Hofmani). Specimen, . 334 

43. Turbonilla multigyrata, Dunker. Moll. Mar. Jap., t. 

13. f. 18, . . . 335 

44. Turbonilla Macleayana, Woods. Specimen, . . 334 

45. Turbonilla festiva,' Angas. Zool. Proc.,t. 5, f. 4, 1877, 334 

46. Turbonilla fusca, A. Ad. Specimen, .... 334 

47. Turbonilla bi fasciata, A. Ad. (= fusca). Specimen, . 334 

48. Turbonilla chrysozona, Martens. Mobius' Mauritius, 

t. 20, f. 21, 337 

49. Turbonilla lactea, Krauss. Sudafr. Moll., t. 5, f. 23, . 337 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 457 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

50. Turbonilla cancellata, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 17, f. 1, . 387 

51. Turbonilla laminata, Carp. Specimen, . . . 338 

52. Turbonilla spina,Crosse and Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 

t. 3, f. 13, 1865, 338 

53. Turbonilla Brazieri, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 5, 

1877 338 

54. Eulimella obeliscus, Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d 

ser., i, t. 2, f. 5, . . . . . . 340 

55. Eulimella striatula, Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 

xvii, t. 2, f. 15, 1856, 340 

56. Eulimella Macandrei (= Scilhe). Forbes and Hanley, 

Brit. Moll., t. FF, f. 7 339 

57. Eulimella Arabica, Issel. Mar Rosso, t. 2, f. 5, . . 341 

58. Eulimella compactilis, Jeffreys. Moll. Norv., t. 22, 

f. 15 339 

59. 61. Eulimella acicula, Phil. Forbes and Hanley, t. 98, 

f. 10, 9, .340 

60. Eulimella acicula, Phil. Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, t. 9, f. 6, 

1836, 340 

f 2. Eulimella affinis, Phil. Forbes and Hanley, t. 98, f. 7, 340 

63. Eulimella Scillae, Scacchi. Ibid., t. 98, f. 6, . . 339 

64. Eulimella cingulata, Issel. Savisjny, Desc. Egypte, t. 

3, f. 25 339 

65. Eulimella Smithii, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 

58, f. 13, 342 

66. Eulimella alba, Calkins. Shells of Florida, t. 8, f. 3, . 343 

PLATE 77. 

67. Eulimella polita, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 538, 342 

68. Eulimella lucida, Verrill.' Ibid., vi, t. 32, f. 3, . . 342 

69. Eulimella charissa, Verrill. Ibid., vi, t. 32, f. 4, . . 342 

70. Eulimella nitida, Verrill. Ibid., vi, t. 32, f. 5, . . 342 

71. Eulimella lissa, Verrill. Ibid., vi, t. 32, f. 6, . . 343 

72. Eulimella prajlonga, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 6, 

1884 ' 341 

73. Eulimt-lla unifasciata, Forbes. Ibid., t. 26, f. 8, 1884, 342 

74. Eulimella simplex, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 16, f, 29, . 343 

75. Eulimella Philippii, Dunker. Moll. Japan, t. 2, f. 8, . 341 

76. Eulimella clavula. Loven. Moll. Norv., t. 11, f. 13, . 344 

77. Eulimella electa, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc. t. 44, f. 3, 1883, 344 

78. Eulimella eburnea, Stimpson. Am. Mar. Conch., t. 

11, f. 164, 344 

79. Eulimella nitidissima, Mtg. Forbes and Hanley, t. 

90, f. 6, 340 

80. Eulimella albula, Moller. Proc. Nat. Mus., vi, t. 9, f. 4, 344 

81. Eulimella crassa, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 7, 1884, 340 



458 EEFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

82. Eulimella teres, Bush Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, t. 

45, f. 9, .433 

83. Eulimella Humboldti, Risso. Moll. Roussillon, t. 21, 

f. 21, 345 

84. Eulimella sulcata (=Humboldti,var.). Ibid., 1. 21, f. 21, 345 

85. Eulimella tuberculata (= Humboldti, var.;. Ibid., t. 

21, f. 19, . . . 345 

86. Eulimella sulcata, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 

58, f. J7, 345 

87. Eulimella albula, Auct. (= striatula). Gould's Invert. 

Mass., p. 333, . 345 

88. Odostomia plicata, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. 98, f. 1, 346 

89. Odostomia Eulimoides, Hanley (= pallida). Ibid., t. 

95, f. 2, . . 346 

90. Odostomia sublonga, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc.,t. 26, f. 3, 

1884, 346 

91. Odostomia insculpta, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, 

t. 96, f. 6, 347 

92. Odostomia umbilicaris, Malm. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., 

t. 73, f. 7 347 

93. Odostomia Michaelis, Brugnone. Misc., ii, t. l,f. 33, 347 

94. Odostomia Rissoides, Hanley. Forbes and Hanlej', t. 

96, f. 4, 347 

95. Odostomia nitida, Alder. Ibid., t. 94, f 6, . . . 347 

96. Odostomia glabrata, Forbes and Hanley. Biit. Moll., 

t. 98, f. 3, , 347 

97. Odostomia Lukisi, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., t. 73, f. 2, . 348 

98. Odostomia unidentata, Mont. Forbes and Hanlt'3 r , t. 

95, f. 7, 348 

99. Odostomia turrita, Hanley. Forbes and Hanley, 

t. 95, f. 8, 348 

100. Odostomia Monterosati, B. D. D. Moll. Roussillon, 

t. 19, f. 15, 348 

1. Odostomia acuta, Jeffreys. Brit Conch. , t. 73, f. 8, . 348 

2. Odostomia tenuis, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 4, 

1884, 350 

3. Odostomia albella, Loven. Forbes and Hanley, t. 

96, f. 5, 349 

4. Odostomia sulcifera, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 75, f. 19, 

1871, 349 

5. Odostomia conspicua, Alder. Forbes and Hanley, 

t. 95, f. 6, . . 349 

6. Odostomia conoidea, Brocchi. Ibid., t. 95, f. 4, . . 349 

7. Odostomia decussata, Mont. Ibid., t. 97, f. 6, . . 352 

8. Odostomia eximia, Jeffreys. Ibid., t. 90, f. 1, . . 352 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 459 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

9. Odostomia diaphana, Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., t. 74, f. 5, 350 

10. Odostomia obliqua, Alder. Forbes and Han)ey,t. 96, f. 1, 350 

11. Odostomia Wavreni, Thompson. Ibid., t. 96, f. 2, . 3-^0 

12. Odostomia Warreni, Thompson. Ibid., t. 96, f. 3, . 350 

13. Odostomia neglecta, Tiberi. Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 2, 

1868, 350 

14 Odostomia bulimoides, Brngnone. Misc., i, f. 10, . 352 
15. Odostomia nitens, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc.,t. 26, f. 5, 1884, 351 
1(>. Odostomia inttrstincta, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, t. 

97, f. 1, 363 

17. Odostomia Moulinsiana, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., t. 

6, f. 9, 1865, 353 

PLATE 78. 

18. Odostomia monozona, Brusina. B. D. D., Moll. Rous- 

sillon, t. 20, f. 13 354 

19. Odostomia Jeffreysii, B. D. D. Ibid,, t. 20, f. 9, . . 354 

20. Odostomia flexicosta, B. D. D. Ibid., t. 20, f. 10, . 354 

21. Odostomia striata, Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, t. 10, f. 8, . 353 

22. Odostomia emaciata, Brusina. Moll. Roussillon, t. 20, 

f. 6, 353 

23. Odostomia brevicula, Jeffre3's. Ann. Mag. X. Hist., 

t. 16, f. 4, 1883, 354 

24. Odostomia turbonilloides, Brusina. B. D. D., Moll. 

Roussillon, t. 20, f. 4, 355 

25. Odostomia Penchynnti, B. D. D. Ibid., t. 20, f. 11, . 354 

26. Odostomia doliiformis, Jeffreys. Forbes and Hanley, 

Brit. Moll., t. 97, f. 5, ." 351 

27. Odostomia doliolum, Phil. B. D. D., Moll. Roussillon, 

t. 19, f. 20, 355 

28. Odostomia doliolum, var. cylindrica, B. D. D. Ibid., 

t. 19, f. 21, 355 

29. Odostomia canaliculata, Phil. Moll. Sicil. ,ii,t. 28, f. 19, 356 

30. Odostomia tricincta, Jellreys. Ann. Mag. N. Hist, xvii, 

t. 2, f. 13, 1856, . 355 

31. Odostomia excavata, Phil. B. D. D., Moll. Roussillon, 

t. 19, f. 17, . 355 

32. Odostomia spiralis, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll., t. 97, f. 2, . ... 354 

33. Odostomia impressa, Say. Tryon's Am. Mar. Conch., 

t. 10, f. 121, . . 356 

34. Odostomia granatina, Dall. Specimen, . . . 356 

35. Odostomia semiuuda, Ads. Tryon's Am. Mar. Conch., 

t. 10, f. 120, 357 

36. Odostomia trifida, Totten. Ibid., t. 10, f. 119, . . 356 

37. Odostomia marginata, Cailliaud. Cat. Moll., t. 3, f. 3, 356 



460 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



38. Odostomia bisuturalis, Say. Tryon's Am. Mar. Conch., 

t. 10, f. 118, . . 357 

39. Odostomia modesta, Stimpson. Ibid., t. 10, f. 117, . 357 

40. Odostomia dealbata, Stimpson. Ibid., t. 10, f. 116, . 357 

41. Odostomia fnsca, Ads. Ibid., t. 10, f. 115, . . . 356 

42. Odostomia cedrosa, Dall. Proc. Nat. Mus., vi, t. 10, 

f. 11, 357 

43. Odostomia producta, Ads. Tryon's Am. Mar. Conch., 

t. 10, f. 114, . . 356 

44. Odostomia Isevigata. d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 17, f. 7, . 357 

45. Odostomia inflata, Carp. Specimen, .... 358 

46. Odostomia mucitormis, Carp. Specimen, . . . 358 

47. Odostomia straminea, Carp. Specimen, . . . 358 

48. Odostomia satura, Carp. Specimen, .... 358 

49. Odostomia tenuisculpta, Carp., var. incisa. Specimen, 359 

50. Odostoma densecostata, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., 

t. 3, f. 42, 1873, 359 

51. Odostomia interstriata, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., t. 

9, f. 6, 1866, 359 

52. Odostomia arnanda, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 

3, f. 47, 1873, .... ... 360 

52 a. Odostomia puncturata, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 75, f. 

10, 1871, ...... . 314 

PLATE 79. 

53. Odostomia pulchra, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad, t. 3, 

f. 48, 1873, 360 

54. Odostomia sulcata, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, f. 46, . . 360 

55. Odostomia obeliscus, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, f. 51, . . 3(50 

56. Odostomia vitrea, Garrett. Ibid , t. 3, f. 52, . . 360 

57. Odostomia exilis, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, f. 43, . 360 

58. Odostomia densestriata, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3. f. 44, . 3(>0 

59. Odostomia oryza, Garrett. Id id., t. 3, f. 45, . . 361 

60. Odostomia crystallina, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, f. 49, . 361 

61. Odostomia lutea, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, f. 50, . .361 

62. Odostomia unilineata, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, f. 53, . 361 

63. Odostomia cuspidata, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, 54, . .361 

64. Odostomia aciculina, Souverb. Journ. de Conch., t. 5, 

f. 2, 1865, 361 

65. Odostomia pupseformis, Souverb. Ibid., t. 5, f. 4, 1865, 3C2 

66. Odostomia KrefTti, A ng-as. Zool. Proc., t, 13, f. 13,1867, 362 

67. Odostomia laevis, Angas. Ibid., t. 13, f. 10, 1867, . 362 

68. Odostomia lactea, Angas (= Angasi, Tryon). Ibid., 

t. 13, f. 11, 1867, 362 

69. Odostomia bulimoides, Souverb. Journ. de Conch., t, 

5, f. 3, 1865, 362 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 461 

'IGtTRE. PAGE. 

70. Odostomia Pascoei, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 13, f. 12, 

1807, 362 

71. Odostomia simplex, Angas. Ibid., t. 1, f. 10, 1871, .363 

72. Odostomia gracilis, Angas (= Vincentina, Tryon). 

Ibid., t. 54, f. 9, 1878, . .... 362 

73. Odostomia striata, Pease. Am. Journ. Conch , iii, t. 

24, f. 16, 363 

74. Odostomia polita, Pease. IJrid., iii, t. 24, f. 17, . . 363 

75. Odostomia r libra, Pease. Ibid., iii, t. 24, f. 18, . . 363 

76. Odostomia rosacea, Pease. Ibid., iii, t. 24, f. 19, . . 363 

77. Odostomia gracilis, Pease. Ibid., iii, t. 24, f. 20, . 363 

78. Odostomia Tasmanica, Woods. Specimen. 

79. Odostomia debilis, Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., iii, t. 

24, f. 21, 3fi3 

80. Odostomia lactea, Dunker. Moll. Japon., t. 2, f. 4, . 364 

81. Odostomia fasciata, Dunker. Ibid., t. 2, f. 2, . 364 

82. Odostomia carinata, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 23, f. 4, 

1873, .... 364 

83. Odostomia costulata, Dunker. Moll. Japon., t. 2, f. 15, 364 

84. Odostomia clysmatica, Issel. Savignv Desc. Egypte, 

t. 3, f. 36, ". . . . 364 

85. Odostomia decorata, Phil. Ibid., t. 3, f. 38, . . 364 

86. Odostomia craticulata, Issel. Ibid., t. 3, f. 39, . . 364 

87. Odostomia Sueziensis, Issel. Conch. Mar. Rosso., t. 2, 

f. 1, 365 

88. Odostomia solidula, Phil. Ibid., t. 2, f. 2, . . . 365 



XENOPHORID^C 



PLATE 46 




90 





93 



XENOPHORID^E 



PLATE 47 




97 






96 







98 








94 V 



95 








100 



PLATE 48 




PLATE 49 




VERMETIDyE. 



PLATE 5O 






VERMETID^E. 



PLATE 51 




VERMETIDyE. 



PLATE 52 




VERMETID^e. 



PLATE 53 








67 



VERMETIDyE. 



PLATE 54 








VERMETID^E. 



PLATE 55 




VERMETID^E. 



PLATE 56 




VERMETID^E. 



PLATE 57 




VERMETID^G. 



PLATE 58 




TURRITELLID^. 



PLATE 59 





32 




40 4-1 



TURRITELLID^E. 



PLATE 6O 




PLATE 61 




60 



TTJRRITELLIDyE. 



PLATE 62 




TURRITELLID^E. 



PLATE 63 




TURRITELJLID^E. 



PLATE 64 




PLATE 65 




2b 27 30 



PL-ATE 66 




OECID^E. 



PLATE 67 




lULIMID^E. 



PLATE 68 




23 



PLATE 69 




59 60 



63 



Cl 



64 



EULIMID^E. 



PLATE 7O 



I! 1- 1 1! I! 




18 19 20 



EULIMID>e. 



PLATE 71 




55 61 



PYRAMIDELOD^E 



PLATE 72 




S3 



PYRAMIDEULID^E. 



PLATE 73 




PYRAMIDELLIDvE. TURBONILLID>E. PLATE 74 



52 53 54 55 




TURBONILLID^E. 



PLATE 75 



1 i; 1 




10 



TURBONILLID^:. 



PLATE 76 




TURBONILLID^:. 



PLATE 77 




TURBONILLID^C. 



PLATE 78 




18 




23 



21 



19 




i m 




20 




24 25 






29 26 




30 




27 28 



31 



32 



35 




34 33 



36 




39 




4-0 




38 



37 



43 45 






42 



46 47 




44- 







48 



52 ? 51 



50 49 



TURBONILLlDvC. 



PLATE 79 




X 



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