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Full text of "Maori-English tutor and vade mecum"

AMD 



HENRY IVL STOWELL (EASE 




SBXSTCBintCB,, WKiUHOnnff Ik B^KSBC?, K.35, 5 



WHITCOMBE AND TOfVIBS LIMITED 






* 




MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



AND 



VADE MECUM 

BY 

HENEY M. STOWELL (HARE HONGI) 




CHRISTCHUHCH, WELLINGTON AND DUNEDIN, N.Z. ; 
MELBOURNE AND LONDON : 

WHITCOMBE AND TOMBS LIMITED 



Stack 
Annex 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 



As there are already available several hand-books on 
the Maori language, including grammars and 
vocabularies, it may seem surprising to some that 
another should now be added to the list. It cannot 
however be denied by scholars, that the efforts of 
previous writers are not altogether adequate to the 
scientific study of the subject. This remark is not 
intended to depreciate the merits of other works, but 
is assigned as a reason for the present production. The 
mischievous effect due to the exclusion from the Maori 
alphabet of wh, has now been rectified. Its omission in 
the past has been entirely due to a capricious estimate 
of the sounds of Maori. The evils resulting therefrom 
are abundantly evident in the mutilated forms of such, 
place-names as Whanganui, Whangaehu, Whakatu, 
Whakatipu, and many others. The same capricious 
estimate has induced more than one writer to declare 
that: "A has a slender sound as in cab, kapiti, and 
a broad sound as in tall, mama. 1 ' Neither of these 
sounds being proper to Maori, both examples are wrong 
and their teaching pernicious. 

To the writer who urges that the tense of Maori is 
unsatisfactory, the mode of comparison freaky, and the 
want of a verb substantive very marked, this work gives 
a complete answer. 

The classification of the pronoun into singular and 
plural, as hitherto obtaining, has been set aside; and the 
more regular form of singular, dual and triplial 

iii A3 



iv AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

substituted in accordance with the requirements of the 
tongue. 

The aim of the Author has been to present a succession 
of genuine examples of Maori, beginning with the 
simplest expressions and passing along by gradual 
stages to the most complex; to show the real simplicity 
of the tongue, its scope, and at the same time its purity ; 
which can be better illustrated by one example than by 
many words. 

In English we would say : Having mused awhile with 
the object of stirring up the fountain of speech, the 
speaker rises, and with his honeyed tongue and well 
modulated voice begins an oration. Then is heard the 
expressive whisper, the full tones of animated vigour, 
and those more tender and pathetic, the apt quotation, 
pointed illustration and old-time proverb. From the 
nature of his discourse it would almost seem that he had 
conversed with the gods of the sky, and that they had 
revealed to him the original plan of the creation of the 
world, and its evolution from darkness to light, when 
the history of man begins. The rapt attention of the 
listeners gives silent testimony to their appreciation of 
his eloquence. 

Here, it will be observed, the noun "speech" is not 
repeated in the subsequent clauses, but is represented 
by various substitutes the English language being so 
largely made up from borrowed sources. 

In Maori we would say : Kua rapupuku ra nga 
mahara o te Kai-korero ki a ko, a, kua tu ake. Titku 
tonu mai ai ko td te arero pdrekareka, o te reo maeneene, 
paparonaki, a, kua timata rawa taana whai-korero. Ka 
rangona i konei fe main a te korero-kdmnhumuJiu, a te 
korero-ivahanui, a te korero-whakamihi. Whakahuahua 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE v 

noa hi td terd kupii-ichakarite, ko toona aronga o te 
hanga nei o if kupu-korero, o te korero-whakatau-d-ki 
o mua mai. And i nd te dhuatanga o taana tdtai- 
korero kita korerorero-tahi tonu rdtou ko ngd atua o te 
rangi, a, i kauwhautia tonutia mai e end ki d ia 
te ritenga o te oroko-ivhaihangangatanga o te Ao-turoa 
nei, ara, te ko-toi-nuku, te ko-t&i-rangi, mai and o te 
kunengatanga mai i te hmapountanga tde noa ki te 
Ao-mdrama nei, d, timata iho ki kond te korero mo te 
hanga nei mo te tangata. Ata whakarongo mdrire ai te 
taringa tangata, ko tdau tohu e te korero-wahakore, te 
u'hakamate atu ki tend hanga ki te tino-korero, me ka 
rangona atu. 

Here, it will be observed, the noun is repeated in all 
of the subsequent clauses or phrases relating to the 
particular idea ; which, while exhibiting the structural 
simplicity of the tongue, demonstrates its purity. Here 
you have no borrowing from fortuitous sources, but a 
tongue at once comprehensive, ample in all required 
processes, and proudly self-reliant. 

No special reference is made to sub-dialectic variation. 
Throughout the length and breadth of New Zealand the 
differences are so very slight, never of the least difficulty 
to the ordinary native, that they may by courtesy alone 
be referred to as sub-dialects. A few examples may be 
shown of the most noticeable : 

Mao, rdo, tdo; for, mdua, rdua, tdua. 

Whenei, for penei. Teneki, for tenei. Tipuna for 
tupuna. 

Mdtau for mdtou. Tdtau for tdtou. Rdtau for rdtou. 

Hai for hei. Kai for kei. Hoi for liei. Taina for 
teina. 



vi AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

Mahau and mohou for mdau and moou. Awau for 
ahau. 

Kiahore, kdore and kukore, for kcihore, ekore and kua 
kore. 

The South Island natives consistently substitute a k 
for fl#, as rafci, for rangi; takata for tangata, etc. ; whilst 
those of the Bay of Plenty use n for ng, as : tanata, for 
tangata, hana for hanga, etc. There are very feeble 
indications of pronouncing whenua as fenua; and also 
the substitution of a peculiar click for the letter h, as 
a'i for afti. However trivial, those are the most pro- 
nounced forms of difference and cannot be classed as 
dialects. 

For dialects of the Maori tongue we must pass to the 
consideration of the speech in use at the different island- 
centres of Polynesia. These occur within a triangle 
running from New Zealand and the Chatham Islands in 
a straight line to Easter Island, thence in a straight line 
to the Sandwich Islands, thence straight back to New 
Zealand. In this triangle we find the Chatham Island 
dialect, the Tongan dialect, the Niuean dialect, the 
Rarotongan dialect, the Samoan, Tahitian, Marquesan, 
Mangarevan, Easter Island (nearly pure Maori), and 
Hawaikian. 

The islanders in the above-defined region all speak 
a dialect of Maori, and an examination will demonstrate 
(with the leave of etymologists) that the Maori is the 
most pure, the least affected by corruption or phonetic 
decay. 

It is hoped that the present work will be found to 
facilitate the appreciation of this view. By adopting 
Maori as a standard and by discussing those of proved 
philological affinity as so many dialects, much sound 



AUTHOB'S PREFACE vii 

progress may be made along the lines of enquiry as to 
the original forms of speech. 

For the rest, whatever shortcomings may be found 
either in the matter or manner of the present work, it 
has at least the distinct merit of teaching what it is 
proper to learn. Nothing is herein laid down which 
will require to be unlearned. If a thorough grounding 
in the sounds, elements, and principles of a tongue can 
be gained without the assistance of an oral teacher, 
those of Maori should be acquired by a proper and 
painstaking study of what is here presented. 

The work contains, in a very large degree, the know- 
ledge proceeding from life-long and assiduous study 
under the most favourable conditions. It is the result 
of three years close labour, and it is now placed before 
an indulgent public with all the confidence to which 
the genuineness of its mission may entitle it. 

HENRY M. STOWELL, 

(Hare Hongi), 
Wellington, New Zealand, 1911. 



ERRATA. 

Page 8 Fourth line from bottom, for Kai pai ai a la read 

Kia pai ai a la. 
Page 89 Fifth line from bottom, for Whakamakia read ' ' Not 

used. ' ' 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Author 's Preface . . . . . . . . . . iii 

Diagram . . . . . . . . . . xii 

CHAPTEE I. 

Alphabetical Tables and Vowel Sounds . . . . 1 

On Diphthongs . . . . . . . . . . 6 

CHAPTEE II. 

On Whaka; Kia ai; Aliei; Pit; Tonu; Eaica, Wlmka- 
haraham, Tino; Ke; Me; E; Tu; Kaua kei; Kai; 

Ano and Hoki; A ; Koa . . . . . . 6 

On the Prepositions . . . . . . 14 

CHAPTEE in. 

On Direction and Directive Particles . . . . 17 

On the Mode of Comparison . . . . 19 

On the Senses . . . . . . . . 19 

On Voice and Speech . . . . . . 20 

On Enumeration . . . . . . . . 22 

On Measurements . . . . . . 30 

CHAPTEE IV. 

On the Articles . . . . . . . . 31 

On the Noun and Gender . . . . . . 33 

CHAPTEE V. 

On the Pronouns . . . . . . . . 36 

Personal Pronouns . . . . . . 36 

Possessive Pronouns . . . . . . 37 

Kelative Pronouns . . . . . . 43 

Interrogative Pronouns . . . . 43 

Demonstrative Pronouns . . . . 45 

Distributive Pronouns . . . . 46 

Indefinite Pronouns . . . . . . 47 

On Adjectives and Adverbs . . . . 48 

On the Verb Substantive ko . . . . 49 

CHAPTEE VI. 

On the Verb, Mood and Tense . . . . . . 51 

Present tense . . . . . . 52 



X CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Past tense . . . . . . . . 53 

Perfect tense . . . . . . . . 55 

Past perfect tense . . . . . . 55 

Future tense . . . . . . . . 56 

Dual tense . . . . . . . . 57 

Emphatic forms . . . . . . . . 58 

Passive and jussive forms . . . . . . 60 

CHAPTER VII. 

On the regular use of tense-signs in sentence construction 61 

Ka not a tense-sign . . . . . . 64 

On the Negative . . . . . . . . 65 

On Antonyms . . . . . . . . 67 

CHAPTER VIII. 

On the Grammar . . . . . . . . 75 

On I was, I had been, I have been, I have become . . 77 

CHAPTER IX. 

On Verbs and their Terminals . . . . 78 

On Verbal Prefixes .. .. .. ..81 

List of Verbs . . . . . . . . 83 

CHAPTER X. 

On colour . . . . . . . . . . 105 

On insects and reptiles . . . . . . . . 109 

On fish . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 

On trees and plants . . . . . . Ill 

On birds . . . . . . . . - . . . 116 

CHAPTER XI. 

On proper names . . . . 118 

On place names . . . . . . 120 

On Maori aphorisms . . . . . . . 126 

On selected phrases . . . - . 132 

On fables .. .. ..135 

CHAPTER XII. 

On the Tohunga .. . . . . . . . . 137 

Parts of the human body . . . . . . 138 

On the bone system . . . . 140 

Ailments and diseases . . . . . . 141 

On sport, pastime, drill . . . . . . . - 143 

Law of tapu . . . . . . . . 144 

On the Koropatu . . . . . . 146 



CONTENTS xi 

PASK 

On Ariki .. .. . . 147 

On mantles and garments . . . . . . . . 149 

On weapons, axes. etc. . . . . . . 150 

On Maori houses . . . . . . . . . . 151 

CHAPTER XTTI. 

On the term Kura . . . . . . . . . . 153 

Philosophic lament . . . . . . . . 154 

Maori flute music . . . . . . . . . . 157 

Names of Maori songs, chants, etc. . . . . 158 

Maori love ditties . . . . . . . . 159 

Epic poem (Tvraukawa) . . . . . . . . 161 

Epic poem, translation . . . . . . . . 165 

CHAPTEE XIV. 

On marriage customs and land rights . . . . 172 

Fixity of land tenure . . . . . . . . 174 

Hereditary tenure .. .. .. .. ..181 

Land tenure in its relation to marriage customs . . 182 

Kinship and marriage connexions . . . . . . 187 

Plural marriages . . . . . . . . . . 190 

CHAPTEE XV. 

On time . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3 

Sun, Moon, Stars, Planets, Constellations . . . . 195 

Maori lunar Calendar . . . . . . 195 

Stars ruling Months . . . . . . . . 196 

Months by numbers . . . . . . 196 

Seasons . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 

Winds . . . . . . . . 197 

The Planets . . . . . . . . 198 

Milky Way. constellations . . . . . . . . 200 

Sun, summer, the sky . . . . . . . . 206 

Moon, night, star-groups . . . . . . . . 208 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Whang a, T atari, Taihoa .. .. .. ..212 

Tabloid Translations . . . . . . 213 

CHAPTEE XVII. 

Verbalised phrases, childhood, manhood, old age . . 222 

Rhyming slang . . . . . . . . . . 228 

Maori hymn to Creator . . . . . . . . 229 

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . 232 



DIAGRAM 

Illustrating a fundamental principle of Maori. 

BY THE AUTHOR. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR. 



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6 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

ON DIPHTHONGS. 

As it is imperative to give to each vowel, no matter 
what its position in a word may be. its one true measure 
of sound, there are no diphthongs or digraphs in this 
tongue. A few examples are here given of those vowel- 
combinations which are sometimes wrongly regarded 

as diphthongs. _ 

Arj. 

This combination is correctly sounded in speaking the 
English Ah else. Each of these letters receives the long 
sound in every case in which the two appear together in 
the above order. . T 

The long sound is fully heard in the English word 
eye, also in ay of the sailors: Ay, ay, Sir. The short 
sound is heard in igh of such words as right, might, etc. 

AO. 

The long sound is heard in the English Ah oasis. 
When occurring in the order here given the short sound 
never applies. 

-A.U . 

The long sound is heard in the English word rowdy, 
the short sound in the English word out. 

EL 

The long sound is heard in such words as neigh, 
reign, and the short sound in the word eight. 

OU. 

The long sound is distinctly heard in the English 
word foe. 

Such words as the following are compound: 
Mata-dra, wakeful. Iri-iri, to christen. 

Haere -ere, to ramble about Oma-oma, to run to and fro. 
Unu-unu, to undo, untie. Utu-utu, to dip up water. 
Ako-ako, to instruct. Ihi-ihi, to twitch (as 

nerves). 



CHAPTER II. 



ON WHAKA. 

Whaka is a word of two syllables and one of the most 
important in the language. In many instances it 
corresponds to the English prefix &e-, thus : before, 
whakamua: behind, ivhakamuri; besmudge, whakapoke, 
etc. W'haka, which always has the short vowel-sounds, 
is a causative prefix, causatives being formed by 
prefixing it to verbs, adjectives, and nouns, thus : 

Tika, straight, correct, whakatika, to straighten, to 
correct. 

Hoki, return; whakdhoki, to send back. 

Kata, laugh; whakakata, to cause laughter. 

Taka, fall; ivhakataka, to cause to fall. 

Pai, good; ivhakapai, to make good. 

Tangata, man; ichakatangata, to make a man of, to 
act as a man. 

ON KIAAI. 

These are particles of very extensive use, kia being 
used to denote a wish or proposition : 

Kia atawhai ki tou tamaiti, be kind to thy child. 

Ko taaku hialiia tenei, kia whakaakona koe my desire 
is this, that you be taught. 

Kia haere taua ki te onel Shall you-and-I go to the 
sands ? 

Kia is a sign of the jussive tense let-it-be : 

Kia mdrama, let it be light. 

Ki a has the meaning of unto : 

Haere mai ki a au, come hither unto me. 

Haere atu ki a ia, go thither unto him. 

7 



8 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Including as it does the negative prefix un- ki a is 
largely infinitive: 

Taihoa e hoe, ki a tde mai era, defer the paddling until 
the others arrive. 

Ki a kite rd and au i d ia, until I actually see him. 

Ai (verb auxiliary), may, possible to be, contingent: 

Ko wai i hua ai, ko wai i tohu ai? Who would deem 
it possible, who prepare for such a contingency? 

Md tend anake ka whakade ai au, upon that (under- 
standing) alone will I consent. 

He wehi noon-a i oma atu ai, it was probably fear 
which caused him to run off. 

Na toona mate i kore ai a ia e kai, it is probably his 
illness which causes him to abstain from food. 

He papal no ngd kai i reka ai, it is probably due to 
its excellence, that the food is so relished. 

He koakoanga ngdkau i kata ai a ia, it is probably a 
rejoicing heart which causes him to laugh. 

Ai, then, propounds a cause or advances a reason. 
Ai is perhaps an abbreviation of Ahei: 

E ahei, it is possible : e kore e ahei, it is impossible. 

When associated in a sentence the words Kia ai 
convey the meaning: in order to effect the desired 
object : 

Omakia, kia pahure ai tdtou; run, in order that 
we may escape. 

Hohorotia, Ma wawe ai tdtou te tde hasten, in order 
that we may the sooner arrive. 

Kai pai ai a Ia; in order that he may approve. 

Utaina he wahie, kia ka tonu ai te ahi; put on some 
firewood, so that the fire may continue to burn. 

Me Hahde te whiu o te patu, kia mate ai to tangata: 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 9 

you must use the weapon with a drawing stroke, in 
order that you may kill your man. 

Kia idea ai te hdpai; in order to make the lifting 
practicable. 

ON PU. 

Pu connotes the essence or core of a thing, and is used 
to denote exactitude: 

Bite pu, precisely similar: Tika pu, absolutely 
straight or correct. 

[straight, or directly towards. 
Poka pu J 

Wdenga pu, the exact centre. 

Ko te waka pu tenei, this is the actual canoe. 

Ko ia pu tend, that is it undoubtedly. 

Ka mamde pu koe i a Au, I shall most assuredly hurt 
you. 

Erangi pu a la i a koe, of you two he is certainly the 
best-informed, cleverest or strongest (as the case may 
be). 

ON TONU. 

Tonu connotes precision, intensity, eontinuancy : 

Ko ia tonu, certainly, exactly so, the very person or 
thing. 

Ko taana mahi tonu tend, that is his constant 
occupation. 

He karanga tonu td tend, that one is continually 
calling. 

He tangi tonu td tenei, this one is incessantly crying. 

He pai tonu tdau ki d Ahau, thou art ever good unto 
me. 

Kdati tonu to korero, cease thy speaking instantly. 



10 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

E kore tonu Au e whakade, I positively will not 
consent. 

Mdro tonu, perfectly rigid. 

ON RAW A, WHAKAHARAHARA, AND TINO. 

These terms are largely used in expressing degrees 
of size, quality, quantity, intensity, etc. : 

Rawa, very. 

Whakaharahara, unusually, exceedingly, excessively. 

Tino, intensely, superlatively. 

Pai rawa, very good. Tika rawa, very just. 

Pai whakaharahara, exceedingly good. 

Tino pai, most superior. 

He waka pai rawa tenei, this is a very good canoe. 

He waka pai whakaharahara tend, that is an exceed- 
ingly good canoe. 

Ko tdau and i a te waka tino pai, but yours is the 
most superior canoe. 

Ko te rdkau nui rawa nei tenei, this then is the 
very large tree. 

Ko te rdkau nui whakaharahara na tend, that then is 
the exceedingly large tree. 

Ko te rdkau tino nui ra terd, yonder then is the largest 
of large trees. 

ON KE. 

Ke connotes variation, difference, contrariety : 

He tangata ke tenei, this is quite a different person. 

He mea ke tend, that is quite another matter. 

Pai ke, better. Kino ke, worse. 

Poto ke, shorter. Roa ke, longer. 

Pai ke tenei i tena, this is much better than that. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 11 

Nui ke tend i terd, that is much larger than the other. 

Mohio ke a la i a Au, he knows much more than I do. 

E ha ke tena, that is not it. 

Ke sets apart, tu ke, tu ke ; and separates, taka ke. 

Ke refers to a point of time already past : 

Kua oti ke, previously finished. 

Kua ri.ro ke, had already gone. 

It also refers to the future, a ke nei, and ' ' Onward for 
ever" would be expressed by "A ke, A ke, A ke tonit 
atu." 



ME. 

At the head of a sentence me is used as an imperative 
and has the sense of the word must: 

Me mahi koe, you must work. Me hdere koe, you 
must go. 

Me tatari koe, you must wait. Me korero koe, you 
must speak. 

It is also a copulative conjunction, as : Te waka me 
ngd hoe, the canoe and the paddles. 

ON E. 

E Tai, E- hdere mai ki dhau, O Tai, do come unto 
me. In that brief sentence we have the aggregated 
functions of the term E, which are : 

1. The sign of the vocative case, 0. 

2. The sign of the future indicative. 

3. The verb auxiliary, to do; imp., did, past part., 
done ; pres., doing. 

We may here consider it under this latter head : 
Me pend E Au, I must do so. 
Me pend E koe, you must do so. 
Me pend E la, he must do so. 



12 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

/ pendtia E Au, I did it so. 
/ pendtia E koe, you did it so. 

Te pendtanga E a/icm, my doing so, my having done so. 
Te pendtanga E koe, your doing so, your having done 
so. 

E pend ana Au, I am doing so. 

Negatively : 

Kaua E pend, do not so. 

E kore Au E pend, I shall not do so. 

For other examples in E, see E ANA. 

ON TV. 

Tu connotes anything strange, singular, peculiar, 
extraordinary : 

Tenei tu tangata, this extraordinary man. 

Tend tu tikanga, that peculiar method, rule, or style. 

ON KAUAKEI. 

These terms are frequently associated in a sentence 
and belong to the dehortative-imperative class, con- 
veying the sense of do not lest: 

Kaua e piki rdkau, kei taka iho koe, do not climb 
trees, lest you fall down. 

Kaua koe e tahu ahi, kei wera te w'hare, do not you 
light a fire, lest the house burn. 

Kaua e tohe, kei raru ko koe, do not persist, lest you 
yourself suffer. 

ON KAI. 

Kai is a term used as a prefix, to indicate the agent : 
Kai-Ta, practitioner. "Koi-torotoro, scout. 
Kai-whakadko, one who teaches. Kai-w<n, one who 
entreats. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 13 

Kai-pupuru, one who holds. K&i-tuku, one who 
liberates. 

K&i-whakawd, a judge. K&i-whakaora, a preserver 
(of life). 

Ksi-tlaki, a caretaker, guardian. "Kai-titiro, an 
inspector. 

ON ANO AND HOKI. 

These terms have reference to some other person, 
place, or matter, as: Yet again: once more still: still 
another : too : again, also : 

Ko koe ano hold tetahi i reira, you, too, were also 
there. 

Ko koe ano tetahi, still, you were one (of them). 

Ko koe hold tetahi, you were also one (of them). 

A e noho mai nei ano a la, and he still dwells there. 

Kahore ano Au nei i parangia, I have not yet 
slumbered. 

Korerotia mai ano e koe, you relate it once again. 

He tangata ano a aku i kite ai, I saw some people too. 

He tangata ano tenei, this is yet another individual. 

E tika ana ano tend, that is yet another correct (view). 

Maana ake ano, for himself and none other. 

Mdaku ano taaku, mine is for myself (and none 
other) . 

Mdana atu ano, for himself absolutely and for no other. 

Kdhore ano Au i rongo noa, I have not yet heard. 

ON A. 

A speaks of the manner, means, process : 
Mahi-3,-ringa, by means of hand, handicraft. 
Hdere-a,-wdewde, proceed by means of feet, walk. 
Kite-b-kanohi, by means of the eye, actual observation. 
Whakadro-a,-tangato, thoughts altogether human. 



14 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Korero-a,-ngutu, spoken by lip. 

Mahi-&-rangatira, act as a nobleman. 

Tu-&-rangatira, appearance, manners, speech, of a 
nobleman. 

Tu-a,-rangi, of heavenly form. Tu-&-ware, of base 
form. 

Toro-Srwaka, visit by means of a canoe. 

Toro-a,-nuku. Toro-a,-rangi. 

ON KOA. 

Koa implies entreaty: 

Hoatu koa ki a la, give it to him, do. 

Tukua atu koa ahau ki uta, do suffer me to get ashore. 

Tend koa, kia kite ahau, do permit me to see it. 

Kimihia mai koa taaku tammti, do search for my 
child (I implore you). 

Ki a Au koa to wrika, grant me (the use of) thy 
canoe, do. 

E hara koa i tenet, this is not it, surely (if I may be 
allowed to express an opinion). 

ON THE PREPOSITIONS. 

RUNGA, up, upon, the top : 
Ki runga ki te puke, up on to the hill. 
Ko runga ko te puke, to be upon the hill. 
Kei runga kei te puke, is upon the hill. 
Hei runga hei te puke, for to be upon the hill. 
I runga i te puke, was upon the hill. 
To runga 5 te puke, that of the hill-top. 
runga o te puke, those of the hill-top. 
No runga no te puke, from upon the hill. 
Mo runga mo te puke, for upon the hill. 
Ko runga o te puke, the top of the hill is. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 15 

A rung a o te puke, the top of the hill. 

Ma runga nid te puke, go, pass along over the hill. 

RARO, beneath, the bottom, down : 
Ki raro ki te rdkau, to the bottom of the tree. 
Ko raro ko te rdkau, to be below the tree. 
Kei raro kei te rdkau, is beneath the tree. 
Hei raro hei te rdkau, for beneath the tree. 
I raro i te rdkau, was under the tree. 
To raro o te rdkau, that of the bottom of the tree. 
raro o te rdkau, those of the bottom of the tree. 
No raro no te rdkau, from beneath the tree. 
Mo raro mo te rdkau, for beneath the tree. 
Ko raro o te rdkau, the bottom of the tree is. 
A raro 6 te rdkau, the bottom of the tree. 
Ma raro md te rdkau, go (pass along) under the tree. 

ROTO, in, into, within : 
Ki roto ki te Whare, into the house. 
Ko roto ko te Whare, to be within the house. 
Kei roto kei te Wltare, is within the house. 
Hei roto hei te Whare, for within the house. 
/ roto i te Whare, was within the house. 
To roto o te Whare. that of within the house. 
roto o te Whare, those of within the house. 
No roto no te Whare, from within the house. 
Mo roto mo te Whare, for within the house. 
Ko roto o te Whare, the inside of the house is. 
A roto o te Whare, the inside of the house. 
Md roto md te Whare, go (pass along) through the 
house. 

WAHO, out. outside, without : 
Ki waho ki te Marde, out to the courtyard. 
Ko waho ko te Marde, to be outside on the courtyard. 



16 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Kei walio kei te Marde, is out at the courtyard. 
Hci waho hei te Marde, for to be out at the courtyard. 
I waho i te Marde, was out at the courtyard. 
To waho 6 te Marde, that of out at the courtyard. 
waho o te Marde, those of out at the courtyard. 
No ivaho no te Marde, from out of the court} r ard. 
Mo waho mo te Marde, for out at the courtyard. 
Ko waho o te Marde, outside the courtyard is. 
A waho o te Marde, outside the courtyard. 
Md waho md te Marde, pass along out by way of the 
courtyard. 



CHAPTER III. 



ON DIRECTION AND DIRECTIVE PARTICLES. 

(Hdere is a verb of motion, meaning to proceed.) 

Eunga, up, South. 

Hdere mai, come hither. 

Mai, hitherward. 

Nau mai- \ 

Ahu mai- \ come towards, 

Anga mai- approach. 

Whanomai- I 

Koke mai, stride hither. 

Hdere mai ki d ahau, come 

unto me. 

Neke mai, move hither. 
Ho-mai, give hither. 
Tahuri mai, turn hither. 
Mauria mai, bring hither. 
Akiria mai- 1 
Epaina mai- least hither. 
Opehia mai J 
Tlkina mai, come fetch. 
Karanga mai, call (us) to 

you. 

Hoki mai, return hither. 
Heke mai, descend hither. 
Kake mai, ascend hither. 
Kau mai, wade hither. 
Tomo mai, enter hither. 
Ko mai- 1 
Tahaki mai- xnear side. 
Tua mai 
Td-wdahi mai, this side 

(river). 

Ko ke noa mai, much nearer 
Whiti mai, cross hither. 



Raro, down, North. 

Hdere atu, go hence. 

Atu, thitherward. 

Nau atu- \ 

Ahu atu- go towards, 

Anga atu- approach. 

Whano atu- ) 

Koke atu, stride hence. 

Hdere atu ki d ia, go unto 

him. 

Neke atu, move hence. 
Ho-atu, give hence. 
Tahuri atu, turn hence. 
Mauria atu, convey hence. 
Akiria atu- 1 
Epaina atu- feast hence. 
Opehia atu- J 
Tlkina atu, go fetch. 
Karanga atu, call (them) 

to us. 

Hoki atu, return hence. 
Heke atu, descend hence. 
Kake atu, ascend hence. 
Kau atu, wade hence. 
Tomo atu, enter hence. 
Ko atu- 1 

Tahaki atu- xfar side. 
Tua atu- 
Td-u'dahi atu, the other 

side (river). 

Ko ke noa au,much farther 
Whiti atu, cross hence. 

17 C 



18 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Tde mai, arrive hither. 
Poka pu mai 1 come direct 
Heipu mai- \ hither. 
Poka tata mai-] 
Whakangau mai, impel 

hither. 
Tlkei mai, step up hither. 

Puta mai, appear hither. 
Anganui mai. \ 
Aronui mai- \ to face 
Hdngai mai- hither. 
Taurite mai- ) 
Hohoro mai, hasten hither. 
Kokiri mai, dash hither. 
Moiri mai, hanging towards 

(us). 

Ake, upwards. 
Hdere ake- \ come 
AJiu ake- ) upwards. 
Neke ake, move upwards. 
Hoki ake, return upwards. 

Piki ake, mount, climb up. 
Kake ake, ascend. 
Tu ake, stand up. 
Totoro ake, reach upward. 
Pehia ake, press upward. 
Whdia ake, follow upwards. 

Ringihia ake, pour upward. 

Tikina ake, fetch upward. 
Opehia ake, cast upward. 
Toia ake, haul upward 

(canoe). 
Kumea ake, pull upward 

(rope). 

Tirohia ake, seek upward. 
Ahua ake, incline (it) up. 



Tde atu, arrive thither. 

Poka pu atu |go direct 

Heipu atu \ thither. 

Poka tata atu J 

Whakangau atu, impel 
hence. 

Hlkei atu, step down 
thither. 

Puta atu, appear hence. 

Anganui atu- \ 

Aronui atu- to face 

Hdngai atu- hence. 

Taurite atu- ! 

Hohoro atu, hasten hence. 

Tdkiri atu, dash hence. 

Tdiri atu, hanging away 

(from us). 
Iho-, downwards. 

Hdere iho \ come 

Ahu iho- j down wards. 

Neke iho, move downwards. 

Hoki iho, return down- 
wards. 

Heke iho, dismount, descend 

Heke iho t descend. 

Tu iho, stand down. 

Totoro iho, reach downward 

Pehia iho, press downward. 

Whdia iho, follow down- 
ward. 

Rangihia iho, empty down- 
ward. 

Tikina iho, fetch downward. 

Opehia iho, cast downward. 

Toia iho, haul downward 
(canoe). 

Kumea iho, pull downward 
(rope). 

Tirohia i/io,seek downward. 

Ahua iho, incline (it"! down. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 19 

Werohia ake, thrust up (at Werohia iho, thrust down 

it). (at it). 

As a directive particle whaka has the sense of 
towards : 

Whakarunga, upwards. Whakararo, downwards. 

Whakatmia, forwards. Whakamuri, backwards. 

Whaka te ihu, towards the Whaka te kei, towards the 

bow. stern. 

Tahuri, capsize, as a canoe. 
Hurirapa, upside down, as a cart. 
Whakahurapa, to tip, as a tip-dray. 

Note the sense of these directive particles in the next 
exercise. 

ON THE MODE OF COMPARISON. 

POSITIVE. COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

Pai, good. Pai ake, better. Tino pai, best. 

Kino., bad. Kino ke, worse. Tino kino, worst. 

Hi, little. Iti iho, less. Tino iti, least. 

Tawhiti, far. Tawhiti atu, farther. Tino tawhiti, farthest. 
Raro, low. Raro iho, lower. To raro, lowest. 

Mua, fore. Mua atu, former. To mua, foremost. 
Muri, hind. Muri atu, hinder. To muri, hindmost. 
Rung a, high. Rimga ake, higher. To runga, highest. 
Poto, short. Poto iho, shorter. Tino poto, shortest. 
Roa, long. Roa ke, longer. Tino roa, longest. 

Ahua pai kau ake, very little better. 

It is quite proper to use the terms "tino roa" or 
"tino poto," to express the sense of "too long" or "too 
short. ' ' 

Under the superlative, it may be that "To" is an 
abbreviated form of "Tino." 

ON THE SENSES. 

Rongo, to hear. Whakarongo, to listen. Rongo 
hlrearea, to hear indistinctly. 

Kite, to see. Titiro, to look. Kimi, to seek. Hure, to 
search for (under something). Mdtakitaki, to gaze, 



20 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

view. Matadra, to be wakeful. Tirotiro, to examine. 
Titiro matatau, to stare. Wheiro, to perceive indis- 
tinctly. 

Hongi, to smell. Whakamono, to scent. Whengu- 
whengu, to sniff. Ngongoro, to snore. 

Pa, to touch. Whdwhd, to feel. 

Whakamotau to taste. (Note, kahore he hd o te kai 
nei, this food has no flavour.) 

ON VOICE AND SPEECH. 

(Arero, the tongue: Reo, the voice (also dialect); 
Korero, to speak. Ko is the verb substantive. To speak, 
is equivalent to "to be. ' ' Ko-rero is evidently composed 
of the verb, Ko, and the name for the tongue, arero.} 

Ko, silent speech (as a prayer). Korero, to speak. 
Kopana, to speak (as an oracle). Korerorero, to discuss. 
Kl, to state. Kauwhau, to recite. Whakahua, pronounce. 
Tatau, to count. Whai-korero, to orate. Whakade, to 
assent. Whakapai, to approve. Whakahe, to dissent, dis- 
count. Whakatika, to endorse, justify. Whakakdhore, to 
deny, reject. Whakarite, to compare. WJiak-akino, dis- 
parage. Whango, hoarse. Koroki, to advise. Whakarlroi, 
to distort. Whakapau korero, exhaustively discuss. 
Whakapiiaki, to utter. Whakamdrama, enlighten, 
explain. Pdnui, announce. Waiata, sing. Amuamu, 
grumble. Hamumu, murmur. Haivata, mutter. 
Hautete, jabber. Atete, oppose. Komuhumuhu, 
revile secretly. Tohe, persist, Whakamohio, inform. 
Whakamahara, remind. Tautohe, argue. Hdmama, 
bawl. Ui, enquire. Pdtai, ask. Tono, demand. Inoi, 
entreat. Karakia, recitation of religious ritual. 
Whakadko, teach, instruct. Tohutohu, show, direct. 
Whakahau, order. Whakatupato, caution. Whakaivd, 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 21 

arraign. Parare, yell. Moenanu, talk asleep. Korero 
hanihani, offensive personal remarks about an absent 
one. Kohete, strongly disapproving. Whakateka, the 
lie direct. Whakapeau, divert at an angle. Tautoko, 
support, endorse. Whakapehapeha, brag. Whakaputa, 
boast. Whakakihi, incite. Whakamoemiti, praise. Whaka- 
mdrie, pacify. Whakatoi, impudent. Wana, beg. Nuka, 
deceive. Whakapohehe, confuse, bewilder. Whiriwhiri, 
choose. Iriiri, christen. Tohi, baptise, anoint. Mihi, greet 
affectionately. Whakawai, to tempt, beguile. WJiakapati- 
pati, entice. Whakaene, cajole. Whakapono, believe. 
Whakahlhl, vain pride. Hianga, pretend. Korero 
tipoka, speak irregularly. Whakapeka, doubt. Whaka- 
manamana, extol, exalt. Poroporo-d-ki, make dying 
speech. Kotamutamu, whisper. Whakatakoto tikanga, 
lay down rules or proposals. Whakatakariri, express 
annoyance. Whakakaitoa. "serve him right." Whakaiti, 
belittle. Ngcmgare, to quarrel. Taunu, to revile. 
Whakap&e, to blame, accuse. Aro, incline towards. 
Hori, beside the truth. Whakawahi, anoint. Whakapde- 
teka, falsely accuse. Whakaweti, threaten. Taki, 
challenge. Papepape, stammer. Kanga, curse. Whaka- 
dtn, tell. Tito, compose, invent. Whakahoki kupu, 
reply. Karanga, call. Whaka-o, "halloo." Tdtai, to 
recount methodically (such as genealogy). Hangareka, 
jest. Korero whakangdoko, to tickle, amuse. Karanga- 
td, remain silent when called. Whakahohd, express 
weariness of discussion. Korero tara, speak fables. 
Korero tohunga, speak wisely. Whakakorero, induce to 
speak. Whatawhditi, narrowing (the discussion). 
Whakanui, enlarge, amplify. Whakawhiti, transfer. 
Uapare, divert from one's self. Kapetau, express 
resolution. Kolta-u, indicate future fame, for one's self. 



22 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Whakamdtau, hazard. Whakataihoa, defer. Wahangu, 
wahakuku, silent, dumb, (as a squid or mussel). 

ON ENUMERATION. 

The student already (see alphabetical tables) under- 
stands the mode of enumeration in the lower numbers. 
He may now proceed in the higher numbers (using the 
prefix the sense requires) as follows : 
Ka tekau md-iwa, that makes ten and nine . . 19 

Kd rua ngd tekau, that makes the two tens . . 20 

Ed rua tekau md iwa, that makes two tens and nine 29 
Kd toru ngd tekau, that makes the three tens . . 30 
Kd toru tekau md iwa, that makes three tens and 

nine .. .. .. ,.39 

Kd whd ngd tekau, that makes the four tens . . 40 
Kd wM tekau md iwa, that makes four tens and 

nine . . . . . . 49 

Kd rima ngd tekau, that makes the five tens . . 50 
Kd rima tekau md iwa, that makes five tens and nine 59 
Kd ono ngd tekau, that makes the six tens . . 60 

Kd one tekau md iwa, that makes six tens and nine 69 
Kd whitu ngd tekau, that makes the seven tens . . 70 
Kd whitu tekau md iwa, that makes seven tens 

and nine . . . . . . 79 

Kd waru ngd tekau, that makes the eight tens . . 80 
Kd waru tekau md iwa, that makes eight tens and 

nine . . . . . . . . 89 

Kd iwa ngd tekau, that makes the nine tens . . 90 
Kd*wa tekau md iwa, that makes nine tens and nine 99 
Kd kotahi te rau, that makes the one hundred . . 100 
Ka kotahi te rau md tahi, makes the one hundred 

and one . . . . . . . ... 101 

Ka kotaki te rau, ka kotahi tekau, makes the one 

hundred and ten 110 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 23 

Ka kotahi te rail, ka iwa tekau ma iwa, that makes 

the one hundred, the nine tens and nine . . 199 
Kd rua nga ran, that makes the two hundreds . . 200 
With the difference of the new number only, the same 
process is repeated and we reach : 
Ka iwa nga ran, ka iwa nga tekau ma iwa, that 
makes the nine hundreds, the nine tens and 
nine .. .. .. ..999 

Ka kotahi te mano, that makes the one thousand . . 1000 

He Mano, a thousand. 
Ka kotahi te Mano, ka rima nga rau, makes the one 

thousand and the five hundreds . . . . 1500 

Ka kotahi te mano, ka iwa nga rau, ka iwa tekau 
ma iwa, that makes the one thousand, the nine 
hundreds, the nine tens and nine . . . . 1999 

Kd rua nga Mano, that makes the tw y o thousands 2000 
So we may go on to ten thousand, fifty thousand, one 
hundred thousand, nine hundred thousand, and so reach 
the 
He Mano tuarea a thousand thousands. 

Tua-rea, has the force of multiplying a large number 
by itself. 

Here we pause, because it is not certain that the 
Maori had a term to indicate a million ; if he had, in all 
probability it was the term "Ngea," the exact meaning 
of which is now lost. 

When the earlier Maori dealt with large numbers, he 
invariably concluded with: "Kd Ngea, kd Ngea, ka 
Ngea." This in all probability meant millions, and 
millions, and millions. There we must leave it. 
The following are common expressions: 
Ka Mano tini, making many thousands. 
Ka tua Mano tini. beyond many thousands. 
Ka Mano tini icliaioio, making innumerable thousands. 



2-i MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

ON TEKAU. 

Tekau, ten, or te-kau, the ten. This ancient and 
common term for ten is interesting, because it is not 
definitely known whether tekau exactly expresses ten, 
or, whether te is merely the definite article singular 
making the true meaning of te-kau the ten. It may be 
that this is so because a reference to the foregoing Table 
shows that the Maori was very careful to use an article 
before any round number : 

Kd rua nga tekau, that makes the two tens. 

Ka kotahi te rau, that makes the one hundred. 

Ka kotahi te ma-no, that makes the one thousand. 

He mano, a thousand. (He, indefinite article.) 

Ka rua nga mano, that makes the two thousands. 
(Nga, pi. of def. art). 

But, although it is quite proper to say kotahi tekau, 
one ten, or, the one ten perhaps, it is equally proper 
to say Kd rua nga tekau, that makes the two tens. 
It is so again in the question Kd hia nga tekau, how 
many are the tens ? In these cases nga the plural article 
apparently ignores the presence of te as the definite 
article. There we may now leave it. 

ON NGAHURU. 

The Maori had a distinct name for each month of the 
year. What is of present interest is the fact that the 
universal names for the seasons are : 

Hotoke, or, Makariri, Winter. 

Malniru, or, Koanga. Spring. 

Rauniati, Summer. 

Ngahuru, (lit. the tenth month) Autumn, harvest 
time. 

Now, nga-huni is known to mean "the fullness of 
harvest"; so that, unlike our apparently doubtful te 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 25 

in te-kau, we know that the nga of nga-huru is really the 
plural of the definite article. In treating of the number 
(not names) of the months, nga-huru is the tenth, 
because it was in the tenth month (March, the Maori 
year commences in June) that the main harvest was 
stored; hence the saying: Ngahuru kai pdenga, or, the 
storing of the food-crops (for winter use) . Now, Bongo 
is the recognised Lord of the abundance of Harvest, and 
when food-crops were planted, and again when the crops 
were harvested, appropriate rituals were used in honour 
of Rongo. In these rituals whenever the number ten, 
or tenth occurred, the term nga-huru was used, and not 
te-kau, this latter being, very properly, considered too 
common. The same thing occurs in the ritualistic 
observances to Tdivhaki, because Tdwhaki is a Sun-god. 
So that in his count of the months the Maori referred 
to the tenth as ngahuru, to the eleventh as ngahuru- 
taitahi, and to the twelfth as ngahuru-tairua. 

In this way, during the course of time, ngahuru came 
to be associated generally with the number ten, and 
its use becoming freer it was frequently (wrongly) sub- 
stituted for the commoner term te-kau. Here we have 
what appears to be the true origin and meaning of the 
term ngahuru, and also in a particular sense, its wrong 
application in ordinary enumeration: E kore e kna te 
kai tuku ki a Tdwhaki, ki te kupu nei "Tekau," engari 
"Ngahuru"; (a tenth portion of) food offered up to 
Tau'haki is not spoken of by the ordinary term "tekau," 
but (in the special term) "ngahuru." (A.H.M. VoL 
I. P. 49.) 

ON TOKO AND HOKO. 

These terms are allied in their use, the one apparently 
being an outcome of the other. As numeral prefixes 



26 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

they apply to persons only, answering the question: 
How many persons are there. The difference is that 
Toko is prefixed to the lesser numbers including nine, 
after which Hoko, which multiplies by ten times, is 
introduced, thus: 

Toko-tahi, one person. Toko-rua two persons. 

Toko-toru, three persons Toko-wha, four persons. 
Toko-rima, five persons Toko-ono, six persons 

Toko-whitu, seven persons Toko-waru, eight persons. 
Toko-iwa, nine persons. 

Hoko-tahi, ten times one person . . . . 10 

Hoko-rua, ten times two persons . . . . 20 

Hoko-toru, ten times three persons . . . . 30 

Hoko-wM, ten times four persons . . . . 40 

Hoko-rima, ten times five persons . . . . 50 

Hoko-ono, ten times six persons . . . . 60 

Hoko-whitu, ten times seven persons . . . . 70 

Hokowhitu, or, seventy was, for many excellent 
reasons, the favourite number forming a raiding, or 
surprise party, or ope-taua. In the first place any 
fighting tribe could raise this number, all of whom would 
naturally obey the instructions of their one leader, or 
chief. (For it was with the Maori as with the Scottish 
tribes, any combined movement requiring the united 
strength of several tribes was apt to be spoiled by the 
presence of too many proud chiefs.) In the next place 
a company of seventy could embark in a single canoe 
and proceed quickly up or down a river, or by sea, as 
the case might be. Proceeding by canoe was preferable 
to proceeding by land, if only for the fact that, with 
an alert and active people such as the Maori, no party 
of men could pass over the country without making the 
fact prematurely known. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 27 

The true war-party or taua consisted of not less than 
one hundred and forty men, expressed in the term 
"lloko-whitu topu," or, seven times ten, doubled 
whakatopu, to add two such numbers together. Such 
a number could proceed, fully equipped, in two canoes, 
and their two leaders usually worked together in 
harmony. But we are treating of numeration. 

As we have seen, toko does duty only up to nine and 
hoko accounts for even tens. Any number occurring 
between the tens might be either particularly expressed 
as: Hokorua ma-toru, equal to twice ten and an added 
three; or Hokorua me te tuma, equal to twice ten and a 
few over, a form which conveys that there are over 
twenty but not nearly thirty. 

ON TAKI. 

Taki indicates numeration one by one, or section after 
section, with the peculiar distinction that there is a 
marked interval between : 
Taki-tahi, one after one, one after the other. 
Taki-rua, two after two Taki-toru, three after three 
Taki-wkd, four after four Taki-rima, five after five. 
Taki-ono, six after six Taki-ivhitu, seven after 

seven. 
Taki-waru, eight after eight Taki-iiva, nine after nine. 

Tdtaki tekau, ten after ten. (Note the change in 
this.) 

As topu indicates uniting, taki indicates disuniting. 
Although taki-toru means three after three, it by no 
means implies regularity or order. Taki may be used 
for instance, in reference either to persons or to things, 
but it would be quite wrong to speak of a company 
marching along in fours, as marching taki-whd. It is 
wrong only because there is order and regularity in, 



28 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

and very little space between, each party of four so 
marching. When a Maori says: I kaere takiwha atu, 
he means that they went off four after four (with quite 
an interval between each). Again, when a Maori says: 
Ka hore he tangata o te kainga nei, kua t&ki-haere 
katoa; he means, there is nobody left in this village, 
they have all gone off, in various parties, and at different 
times. This is the sense in which the term taki is to be 
understood. 

ON TOPU. 

Whereas taki as a numeral prefix indicates distribu- 
tion at irregular intervals, topu, as a numeral affix, 
indicates doubling, or putting together. In the lesser 
numbers pu is used, topu being understood: 
Tahi-pu, one-doubled. Rua-pii, two-doubled. 

Toru-pu, three-doubled. Whd-pu, four-doubled 

Rima-pu, five-doubled. Ono-pu, six-doubled. 

Whitu-pu, seven-doubled. Waru-pu, eight-doubled 
Iwa-pu, nine-doubled. 

Tekau-topu, ten-doubled. (Note the change.) 

Perhaps, twice one are two, twice two are four, etc., 
expresses this form of numeration. 

E rua tekau topu, twenty-doubled: twice twenty. 

E torn tekau topu, thirty doubled: twice thirty. 

Kotalii rau topu, one hundred doubled : twice one 
hundred ; one hundred twice told. 

The true meaning of all this is that there are two 
equal but separate lots put together; for instance, one 
hundred men from one tribe and one hundred men from 
another tribe, join forces. If one tribe raised two 
hundred of a war-party, that number would not be 
termed, kotahi ran topu, because it could not be classed 
as two separate lots brought together. A Maori would 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 29 

say of that, simply : E rua 6 mdua ran, there were two 
hundred of us (of ourselves). If he wished to express 
it in another form, he would say : E rua o mdua ran taki- 
tahi, there were two hundred of us counting them one 
by one (selected from among ourselves). 

Topu is frequently associated with hoko in a mode of 
very briefly denoting higher numbers. Hoko- wKitu 
topu, or. seven-tens doubled, is a very handy form of 
expressing one hundred and forty, which would other- 
wise demand: Kotalii ran e who, ngd tekau, or worse 
still : Kotalii te ran e wtid atu ngd tekau. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Tdnga, the noun of circumstance is used as a numeral 
prefix to indicate how many times a thing is, or has 
been, done: 

Tanga-tfa/zi, once done: tanga-nta, twice done, etc. 

In counting the points of a game, the prefix papa is 
used, perhaps because the win itself is termed papa : 

Pa,pa,-tahi, one point: papa-nta, two points, etc. Eai, 
too, signifies point. 

The deuce and trey of playing cards are termed the 
ro-rua, and ro-toru. 

A peculiar form of abbreviation is found in md-tahi 
and md-rua. In enumeration ma means and, the plain 
meaning of md-tahi therefore is a /id-one. It is known 
that something should precede "and," and that some- 
thing is understood to be ten. Md-tahi thus represents 
ten and-one. or, eleven. A Maori in speaking of the 
eleventh month says: Te Ma-tahi o te tau, i.e., the (ten) 
and-one (month) of the year. 

Tatau, to count, numerate. 

Whdkahui, or. huihui, to add; addition. 

Hui-rua, to pair, to put two together. 



30 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Tango, or, patu, to take away; subtract. 

Although poro expresses one-half of anything, there 
does not now appear to be a term for indicating one- 
sixth, one-third, or, one-tenth. It would require to be 
put in so many words: 

E ono katoa ngd wehewehenga, kotahi te wehenga / 
a An; there were six (equal) divisions made, of which I 
received one division ; equal to one-sixth. Kotahi o roto 
o te ono, one out of the six: one-sixth. 

Whaka-kotahi, to unify, combine, make into one. 

Whaka-tekau, to make into ten. To pile in tens. 

Te-whaka-tekau, the tenth one, the made-up ten. 

Ngd whaka-tekau, the made-up tens. 

"la Po, i te Po Tuatahi, tde noa ki te Po tua-Ngakuru, 
ki te Ran, ki te Mano." (Ancient Maori.) 

ON MEASUREMENTS. 

Tdtai, to measure. 

Kotahi wkdnuitanga ringa, one hand width including 
thumb, six-inches approximately. 

He whatianga ringa te wkanui, an arm-bend in width, 
from elbow to finger-tip, equal to eighteen inches. 

E rua whatianga ringa te whdnui, two arm-bends, 
equal to three feet. 

Kotahi Mdaro te roa, one extension (both arms) the 
length, one fathom, or, equal to six feet. 

Kotahi kumi te roa, one ten-fathoms the length, equal 
to sixty feet. 

Poro-whd, four-sided, full square. 

Taha-toru, three-sided, triangular. 

Wehenga-rua, an equal division into halves. 

Taha-rua, two-sided. 

Porowhita, circle, round. 

Wewehe, to separate. 

Wdwdahi, to cut or divide off. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ON THE ARTICLES. 

(Note, in Maori it is the article which is pluralised and 
not the noun.) 

The indefinite article is he as, he whare, a house. 

The definite article is te ; as, te whare, the house. 

The plural article is ngd ; as, nga whare, the houses. 

In Maori the words tenei and tend, or, this and that, 
are certainly made up by means of prefixing the definite 
article. Note how the plural occurs in such words as : 

Te-nei -tangata, this man E-nei tdngata, these men. 

Te-nd tangata, that man. E-nd tdngata, those men. 

Te-rd tangata, the other E-rd tangata, the other 

man. men. 

Taua tangata, the man re- Aua tangata, the men 
ferred to. referred to 

Te-tahi tangata, the one (particular) man: a certain 
individual. 

E-tahi tdngata, some particular men: certain 
individuals. 

Ko wai Ma end, who are those persons? 

The following are the principal uses of the indefinite 
article : 
He tangata, a man. 
He tdngata some men. 
He tangata end, those are men. 
He wahine nei etahi, some were women. 
He tangata pokanoa koe, you are an interfering man. 



32 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

He ngdrara pea, it is an insect, perhaps. 

He rongo hou tenei, this is new tidings. 

I rongo Au he hake taua tangata, I heard that the 
man referred to was a hunchback. 

He kiore pea te mea e korerotia na e koe, that of 
which you speak may have been a rat. 

He mea kite i reira, the things were found there. 

He tahi, it is one : there is one. 

Te, as the definite article singular is unaccented. A 
curious use of it occurs when used in negation; here it 
is highly accented: 

Te kitea e Au, I could not find (it) . 

Heaha koe te haere ai, why did you not go? 

Ko te take tend te whakaae ai Au, that is the reason 
why I would not assent. 

The articles are used with each substantive in a sen- 
tence : 

Te whenua me nga tangata, the land and the men. 

Na te ua i pai ai te tupu, the rain improves the 
growth. 

He mahi atawhai, he mahi tika hoki, it is a kind act, it 
is also a just act. 

With few exceptions, such as "Waikato," the articles 
are prefixed to tribal names: 

Nga-puhi : Nga-rauru : Nga-i-tawake : Nga-ti-maru : 
Te Rarawa : Te Uri-6-hua, Te-tini 6 Toi, etc. 

The common form, conventionally written, Ngati, is 
merely an abbreviation of Ngd-tini, or the numbers of: 
it is a courteous way of referring to a tribe, that is, 
it speaks of them as being numerous, whether they are 
so or not. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 33 

ON THE NOUN AND GENDER. 

MALE. FEMALE. 

Tdne, masculine. Hine, feminine. 

Hanga tangata, mankind. Hanga wahine, womankind. 

Tama-tdne, male child. Tama-wahine, fomale child. 

Tangata, man. Wahin-e, woman. 

Tdne, male, husband. Wahine, female, wife. 

Tahu, husband, spouse. Makau, wife. 

Matua, Papa, Hdkoro, Whdea, Hdkui, mother. 

father. 

Matua-keke, uncle. Whdea-keke, aunt. 

Tupuna, heinga, grand- Tupuna-wahine, grand- 

father. mother. 

Tupuna, ancestors. Tupuna, ancestresses. 

Hungawai,hungarei, father- Hungawai-wahine, mother- 
in-law, in-law. 
Hundonga, son-in-law. Hundonga-wahine, daugh- 
ter- in-la .v. 
Tama, tama-tdne, son. Tamdhine, tama-wahine, 

daughter. 

Tdokete, brother-in-law; one married to a man's 
sister. 

Tdokete, sister-in-law; one married to a woman's 
brother. 

Hoa-hoa-tdne, men married to sisters. Hoa-hoa- 
wahine, women married to brothers. 

Au-tdne, brother of a woman's husband. 
Au-wdhine, sister of a man's wife. 
Irdmutu, nephew, or, niece; the children of a man's 
sister. 

Iramutu, nephew, or niece; the children of a woman's 
brother. 

(NOTE. Brothers referring to their brothers' children, 
call them tamariki, not irdmutu ; sisters speaking of 
their sisters' children, call them tamariki, and not 
irdmutu.} 

D 



34 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



MALE. 

Mokopuna, grandson. 

Tungdne, brother of a 

female. 
Tuakana, elder brother of 

a male. 
Teina, younger brother of 

a male. 

Tuakana keke, cousin senior 
Teina keke, cousin junior. 
Kau-mdtua, elders. 
Matua-whdngai, foster 

father. 

Tamaiti whangai 1 adopted 
Tamaiti taurima ] son. 



FEMALE. 

Mokopuna-wahine, grand- 
daughter. 
Tuahine, sister of a male. 

Tuakana, elder sister of a 

female. 
Teina, younger sister of a 

female. 

Tuakana keke, cousin senior 
Teina keke, cousin junior. 
Kuia, elders. 
Whdea-whdngai, foster 

mother. 

Tamdhine whang ail ad' 'ptd. 
Tamdhine taurima \ d 'ghter 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Muanga, first-born. 

Potiki, pet. 

Whdeereere, wife, bearing 

children. 
Whare-tangata, connexions 

by marriage. 

Pouaru, widower, or widow 
Manene, one who does not 

belong to the tribe or 

country. 
Tau-iwi, foreigner. 

Tai-tama, a youth. 
Tai-ohinga, youthful vigour 

Puhi, a virgin. 
Moe-wahine, married to a 

wife. 

Rangatira, a nobleman. 
Ware, tutud pononga, 

herehere, taurekareka, 

servant, slave. 



Muringa, last born. 

Poriro, bastard. 

Pakoko, pukupd, childless 

wife. 
Huatahi, first conceived. 

Pani, an orphan. 



Tangata whenua, abo- 
riginals. 

Tai-tamdhine, a maid. 

Tai-kaumdtua, verging to 
old age. 

Taka-kau, unmarried, free. 

Moe-tdne, married to a 
husband. 

Tamariki, children. 

Tamaiti, child. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



35 



Kai-pdoe, a vagrant, one 
who eats at one place 
and another. 

Tira matakitaki hdere, 
pleasure party, tourists. 

Mdhanga, twins. 

Whanau, a family. 

Ariki, supreme tribal head. 

Tohunga, one skilled ; 
adept, initiate, philo- 
sopher, sage. 

Wairua, a spirit of a rela- 
tive. 

Kahurangi, turehu, patu- 
paiarehe, a fairy-like 
people. 

Tau,whai-a-ipo, ipo, a loved 
one of either sex: te 
tau o te ate. 

Kahuhura, one treasured 
(male). 

Korakorako, an albino. 

Whdnau, family. Hapii, tribe. Iwi, aggregation of 

kindred tribes. Tinana, body. Wairua, spirit. Mauri, 

soul. 



Tau-tahi, an only child. 
Whanaunga, a relative. 
Uri, descendants. 



Eehua, ghost, spirit of an 
unknown person. 



Mdreikura, 
female. 



a cherished 



CHAPTER V. 

ON THE PRONOUNS. 

TABLE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

(In three specific numbers thero are four persons in 

Maori.) 

SINGULAR. 

Au, I. Koe, thou. la, he or she. la, it. 

Ahau, myself. A koe, A la, himself, herself. A 

thyself. ia, itself. 

Ko Au, I am, it is I Ko koe, thou art, it is 

thou, etc. 

DUAL. 

Tdua, thou and I : first and second persons. 
Mdua, he (or she) and I : first and third persons. 
Korua, you two: second and third persons. 
Rdua, they two: third and fourth persons. 
(Based on the term for the number two, that is rua.) 

TRIPLIAL. 

Tdtou, you and I : first second and third persons: 

Mdtou, they and I : first, third and fourth persons. 

Koutou, you three: second, third and fourth persons. 

Rdtou, they three: third, fourth and one other person. 

Multitudinous, matou katoa, all of us. Rdtou katoa, 
all of them. (Based on the term for the number three 
that is, toru.} 

The student's attention is directed to the similarity 
of terms in the relative dual and triplial; the triplial 
includes the consonant t. 

36 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 37 

MODE OF SALUTATION. 

Singular, (to the male) Tend koe e hoa, e mara, e pa, 
e id, e koro, etc. 

Singular, (to the female) Tend koe e kui, e whde, e 
ko, e hine, etc. 

Dual, Tend konia e hoa md, e mara md, e pa md, e 
koro md, etc. 

Dual, (to females) Tend korua e kui md, e whde md 
e ko md, e hine md. 

Triplial, Tend koutou e hoa md, e mara md, e pa md., 
e koro md. 

Triplial, (to females) Tend koutou e kui md, e whde 
md, e hine md. 

Kia ora koe, health unto thee, life unto thee, etc. 

"Koutou" is pronounced as the English words 
"coat-toe," without repeating the letter t. 

TABLE OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 
SINGULAR. 

Ndaku, nooku; tdaku, tooku: of, or, from me, my, 
mine. 

Ndau, noou; tdau, toou: of, or, from thee, thy, thine. 

Ndana, noona ; tdana, toona : of, or, from his, or hers. 

Ndana, noona; tdana, toona: of, or, from its. 
EXAMPLES : 

(Singular), tdaku waka, my canoe. Tdau waka, thy 
canoe. 

(Plural), Aku waka, my canoes. A Au waka, thy 
canoes. 

DUAL. 

Nd or no:} .-...,,.. A 

_ \taua, jointly belonging to us-two: first and 

1 a, or to , 

second. 



38 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Td, or to maua, jointly belonging to us-two : first and 
third. 

Td, or to korua, jointly belonging to you-two: second 
and third. 

Td, or to rdua, jointly belonging to those-two: third 
and fourth. 
EXAMPLES : 

(Singular), td tdua waka, our joint canoe, the canoe 
of us two. 

(Plural), a tdua waka, our joint canoes, the canoes 
of us two. 

(As before (see Articles) by the omission of the 
initial letter #, the plural sense is given.) 

Nd or no:-} TRIPLIAL. 

Td, or to j tdtou; (lit: that of) of or belonging to 

us-three (including person addressed). 

Td, or to mdtou; of or belonging to us-three 
(excluding person addressed). 

Td or to koutou : of or belonging to you-three. 

Td, or to rdtou ; of or belonging to the-three of them. 
EXAMPLES : 

(Singular), td tdtou waka, our canoe. 

(Plural), A tdtou waka, our canoes. 

(If more than three are intended the number should 
be stated, thus, td tdtou tokorima, of or belonging to 
the five of us. If there is a large number, then the word 
katoa should be used, td tdtou katoa, of or belonging 
to all of us.) 

Particular attention is directed to the different sense 
conveyed by using the vowel o, in the place of the vowel 
o. has an exclusive, d a general sense: Nooku tenet 
kdinga, this home is my own. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 39 

Ndaku tenei Jcdinga, this is my home (that is to say, 
I have a personal interest in it) . 

So that speaking in a general sense we use the form 
o, speaking in an exclusive sense we use the form o. 

There are other modifications which, while not inter- 
fering with the rule just laid down, go to show that a is 
largely used in the active sense, and o in the passive 
sense : 

Te hinganga a Ngdpuhi, the felling of Ngapuhi, 
(Ngapuhi slew) . 

Te hinganga o Ngdpuhi, the falling of Ngapuhi, 
(Ngapuhi were slain). 

He ki mdaku, a statement for me (to make). 

He Tel nooku, a statement for me (i.e., about me), 
(affecting me personally). 

Ma taaku ivaha, for my vocal-organs (to declare). 

Mo tooku walia, for my palate (for my own food). 

Ndana ake tdana he, his difficulty is of his own 
seeking (yet it affects others). 

Noona ake toona he, his difficulty is a matter entirely 
of his own. 

He patu mdaku, a weapon for me (to use against 
others) . 

He patu mooku, a weapon for me, (to be used against 
me). 

He aha a Au, what have you got generally? 

He aha o Au, what do you actually possess? 

PAST POSSESSIVE. 

(NOTE. i, sign of past tense.) 
Singular. 

7 d Au, I had ] te waka, the canoe, 

7 d koe, thou hadst I or 

7 d la, he (or she) had \ngd ivaka, the canoes 

7 d la, it had J 



40 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Dual. 

7 a tdua, you and I had }te wdka, the canoe, 

7 a mdua, he (or she) and I had I or 

I a korua, you two had \ngd wdka, the canoes 

/ a rdua, they two had J 

Triplial. 
7 a tdtou, we three (including 1 

you) had \te waka, the canoe, 

7 a mdtou, we three (excluding I or 

you) had \ngd waka, the canoes 

7 a koutou, you three had 
7 a rdtou, they three had J 

7 a teat e wafca, who had the canoe? 

PRESENT POSSESSIVE. 
(Kei, at, literally signifies contact.) 
Singular : 

Singular. 
Kei d Au, I have 
Kei d koe, thou hast 
Kei a 7 a, he (or she) has 
Kei d la, it has 

Dual. 

Kei a tdua, you and I have 
Kei a mdua, he (or she) and I \ te waka, the canoe, 

have 

Kei a korua, you two have 
Kei a rdua, they two have 

Triplial. 

Kei a tdtau,vfe three (including 
you) have 



te waka, the canoe, 

or 
ngd waka, the canoes 



or 



ngd waka, the canoes 



Kei a mdtou, we three (exclud- 



ing you) have 
Kei a koutou, you three have 
Kei a rdtou, they three have 

Kei d wai te waka, who has the canoe! 



te waka, the canoe, 



or 



ngd waka, the canoes 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



41 



te waka, the canoe, 

or 
ngd waka, the canoes 



FUTURE PROSPECTIVE POSSESSIVE. 
(To add to what one already possesses, is the idea.) 

Singular. 

Mdaku, mooku, for me, for mine 1 te waka, the canoe, 
Mdau, moon, for thee, for thine I or 

Mdana, moona, for his, for hers \ngd waka, the canoes 
Mdana, moona, for its J 

Dual. 

Md or mo tdua, for you and me 
Md or mo mdua, for him (or 

her) and me 

Md or mo korua, for you two 
Md or mo rdua, for the two of 

them 

Triplial. 
Md or mo tdtou, for us three 

(including you) 
Md or mo mdtou, for us three 

(excluding you) 

Md or mo koutou, for you three 
Md or mo rdtou, for the three 

of them. 

Md wai te waka, for whom is the canoe? 
We see that possessive pronouns have as prefix, nd or 
MO-, td or to; md or mo. It follows then, as a matter 
of course, that the balance of the term, nd-aku, to-oku, or 
md-ana, is largely the pronoun itself. This fact is 
apparently overlooked by the majority of writers, gram- 
marians and dictionary -makers, for they invariably write 
these terms in the following way, naku, toku, mana, etc. 
This should not be, for it completely alters the sense, as 
the following examples clearly show: 



te waka, the canoe, 

or 
ngd waka, the canoes 



INCORRECT FORMS. 

Kia mana mai. 
He kai man. 
Ko au i taka ilio. 
Keihea auf 



CORRECT FORMS. 

Kia mdana mai. 
He kai mdau. 
Ko d Au i taka iho. 
Keihea d Auf 



42 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

INCOREECT FORMS. CORRECT FORMS. 

He Pu maku Tie Pu mddku. 

Kia mau ai te tikanga. Kia mdau ai te tikanga. 

Hei mahi maku tamariki Hei mahi mdaku tamariki. 

Hoatu ana. Hoatu 6 ana. 

Kei au te wai. Kei a au te wai. 

Ko au anake. Ko 5 Au anake. 

Now, each of the examples in the first column is what 
the French term a clause of "squinting construction," 
i.e., looking two ways at once. I translate the first two 
literally : 

Kia mana mai, let it be confirmed: which is not the 
meaning that the writer intends to convey. 

He kai mau, some carried food: again, not the writer's 
meaning. 

On the other hand, each of the examples given in the 
second column conveys but the one definite meaning: 

Kia mdana mai, let it be for him (to decide) : He kai 
mdau, some food for you: meanings which the 
examples in first column are intended to but do not 
explicitly convey. 

All of which impresses the fact that combinations of 
certain letters and sounds, have certain well-defined 
meanings, which teachers and students alike should 
accurately master. If a vowel be deleted from ' ' do not, ' ' 
it becomes ' ' don 't " ; it is merely a question of grammar 
and orthography. 

Kl, to. 
(To grant or allow ; to solicit as a loan.) 

Ki Ahau to waka, let me have (the loan of) your canoe. 

Ki a mdua to waka, let us-two have (the loan of) 
your canoe. 

Ki a mdtou to waka, let us-three have (the loan of) 
your canoe. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 43 

Ki a wai te waka, to whom is the canoe to be taken 
(lent) ? 

A person asking for anything right out will use the 
full sign of the possessive case thus: Mdaku to waka, 
give me your canoe (absolutely). 

SOME FORMS OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

Te turoro moona nei te rongoa, the invalid for whom 
the medicine is intended. 

Te tamaiti i taka iho nei i te rdkau, the boy who fell 
down from the tree. 

Ko koe te tangata i he ai Au, thou art the man who 
caused me to err. 

Te tangata noona nei te whare, the man who owns the 
house. 

Ko tehea rdnei te tangata, am doubtful which is the 
man. 

Te tangata i d la nei taaku waka, the man who had my 
canoe. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

(Uses of Ko, the verb substantive.) 
The interrogative pronouns are wai, aha, and whea or 
hea. 

Ko wai Au, who am I? 

Ko wai hoe, who art thou? 

Ko wai la, who is he (she, or it) ? 

Ko wai md end, who are those persons? 

Nd wai tend, whose is that ? 

Md wai tend, for whom is that? 

I d wai tenei, who had this ? 

Ko wai tdau e Tci na, of whom do you speak? 

Hei d wai tenei, who is to have this ? 

Ko wai hei hua, who is to know positively? 



44 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Ko wai hei maharatanga mdau, whom have you to 
consider? 

Ko wai rd tenei, who ever is this? 

Ko wai kei konei, who is here? 

Ko wai toou ingoa, what (literally, who) is your name? 

Ko wai hei tohutohu i a koe, who is to dictate to you ? 

Aha, what. 

He aha tdau, what have you got (there) ? 

I ahatia koe, what happened to you ? 

He aha i rere-ke ai tenei, what has caused the 
alteration in this? 

/ aha a la ki d koe, what did he unto you ? 

Md tend kd aha ai, what difference will that make ? 

/ aha koe, what did you? Kd aha koe, what will you 
do? 

He aha oti, what else is it ? He aha tend, what is that ? 

He aha taana mate, what is his ailment? 

He aha koe i hdere ai, what induced you to go? 

E aha ana koe, what are you doing? 

Kd aha ko ia, what about it ? 

He aha tenei tangata, what is this man? 

Kei aha, lest what: equal to whyl 

He aha ia, what is it ? 

Whea, where. 
E hdere ana koe ko-whed } 

E ahu ana koe ko-whea [ where are you S m S to ? 
/ w hea koe, where were you ? 
/ hdere mai koe i whea } 

I ahu mai koe i whea j where did you come f rom 7 
/ md-whea mai koe, by which way did you come ? 
I haere mai koe ina whea } 

N6na-wheakoeitideremai\ when dld y U C0me hither? 
ai 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 45 

A whea hoe hoki ai, when will you go back ? 

Ed tika koe md-whea, by which way will you 0? 

Ko te-whea, toou kdinga, which is your home? (where 
do you live) ? 

Kei whea to hoa, where is your companion ? 

No whea mai to hoa, where is your companion from ? 

Hei whea te Hui e korerotia nei, where is the proposed 
meeting to be held? 

Pe whea te roa e noho huihui ai rdtou, how long will 
they remain assembled? 

Ko e-whea kdinga i pahure i te waipuke, which 
villages escaped the flood? 

I-na-whea, when (past) ? A-whea, when (future) ? 
Mo-whea, wherefor? Te-hea, which? P 'e-whea, how? 
No-whea, where of? (No-whea is also used in the sense 
of, what authority have you for saying so ? ) 

(Note te-whea which? (singular) e-whea, which? 
(plural) 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

These have been already indicated in the "Articles," 
but a knowledge of elegant Maori requires some further 
consideration of them (see diagram p. x.) : 

Simple. Fuller. Exhaustive. 

Au nei Ko Au nei Ko Au nei tenei : I : it is I ; 

this is I. 
Koe na Ko koe na Ko koe na tend : thou : 'tis 

thou; etc. 

la ra Ko la ra Ko la ra terd : he (or she) , etc. 

Konei nei Kona na Kord rd : here, there, yonder. 

7 a nei I a na I a ra: it is this. It is that. 

It is the other. 
Penei, such as this. Pend, such as that. Perd, such as 

the other. 



46 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

A close study of the foregoing enables a just apprecia- 
tion of such nice sentences as : 

Ngd manu e rerere nei. 

Ngd mea kua kitea nei. 

Te tamaiti i taka iho nei. 

Te tangata i hdere atu nei. 

Keiwhea rd te kurl e kimihia kautia nei? 

Ngd rdkau e tu mai na. 

Tend pea Te Earawa te kori mai na. 

Te tangata i riri mai ra. 

He mahi kino terd e mahia mai ra. 

Terd te tangata ra te hdere mai ra; etc. 

A change of position of the article te and its fellow 
nei materially alters the sense in such phrases as : 

No mdtou tenei kdinga, this home is our own. 

No mdtou te kdinga nei, this home is (one of) our own. 

No mdtou nei te kdinga, the home is ours (and not 
theirs) . 

A phrase is amplified from simple to elegant in this 
way: 

Pororere te kaki, snapped the neck. 

Pororere iho te kaki. 

Pororere tonu iho te kaki. 

Pororere tonu iho nei te kaki. 

DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 

The pronoun of the neuter gender, ia, also signifies 
each : 

la hapu, each tribe. la rangi, each day. la tangata, 
each man. Tahi, each one. 

1 kite tahi Au i a ratou, I saw each one of them. 

No rdua-tahi tenei, this belongs to each one of those 
two. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 47 

Rd-tahi ka hdere ano a la, each alternate day he again 
goes. 

/ kite taki-tahi Au i a korua, I saw each of you two 
separately. 

Rdtou takMahi, each one of them. 

Rdtou tahi, every one of them. 

Te-tahi, literally the one, is used in speaking of either 

Te-tahi 6 korua, either of you-two. 

E kore Au e whiwhi ki te-tahi 5 end, I shall not secure 
either of those. 

The addition of the negative, kdhore, conveys the sense 
of neither: 

Kahore tetahi o mdua i noho, neither of us two stayed. 

In making a distribution the word rato is used: 

Kua rato katoa rdtou, each and every one of them has- 
been served. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

Kotahi anake i hdere, only one went. 

Kaua tetahi e tohungia, let none be spared. 

A wai tangata, any man. 

Eo etahi 6 rdtou i pahure, some of them escaped. 

He torutoru nei mdtou, there are but a few of us. 

He tokomaha rdtou, there are many of them. 

Tdtakitahi nei and koutou, there are few of you, 
individually. 

Ko mdtou katoa tenei, this is all of us. 

Tenei tu tangata, such a man as this. 

He tangata pena koe, such a man art thou. 

Kua mate ngdtahi rdua, they-two have both died. 

Ko tetahi tangata tau-hou i reira, a certain stranger 
was there. 

Ko terd te mea i mate, the other is the one who died. 



48 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOE 

Rd and tetahi 6 ratou, there is still another of them. 

He tang at a noa-iho tend, that man is nothing (a 
nobody) . 

He tangata whai-tikanga tenei, this man is something 
(a somebody). 

Aha koa ko wai, no matter whom, anybody. 

Kdhore kau he tangata o konei, there are none (no 
men) here. 

Kotahi kau te tangata i kite ai Au, I saw but one man, 
.alone. 

ON ADJECTIVES. 

An adjective is a word used with a noun to limit the 
.application. Adjectives are of three kinds: 

1. Of quality, as : he tangata pai, a good man. 

2. Of quantity, as: tekau ngd kuri, ten dogs. 

3. Of distribution, as: Te tangata nei, this man. Te 
awa, na, that river. Te puke ra, yonder hill. 

ON ADVERBS. 

An adverb is a word used to modify the meaning of 
& verb: 

Marama ana taana kerero, he speaks distinctly: his 
.speaking is clear. 

He whare nui rawa tenei, this is a very large house. 

Pai whakaharahara nei taana tuhituhi, his writing is 
exceedingly good. 

Of time : Nei, now. 7 reira, thereupon, then. / mua 
ake nei, lately. Kotahi ra, once. Taro ake, soon. 
Tdtakitahi, seldom. Ahea, when. 

Of place: Nei, here. Reira, there. Whea, where. 
Nowhea, whence. Tu-ke, apart. Ngdtahi, together. 
Runga ake, above. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 49 

Of manner: Nanahu, wisely. Pai, well. Atahanga, 
gently. Whai-whakdaronga, prudently. 

Of degree : Nui, much. Iti, little. Ano, only. Pend, 
so. Tini, abundant. Erangi, rather. Rawa, very. 
Hedi, enough. Kdati, that will do. Ehia, how many? 
Maha, ample. 

Cause and effect: Kei aha, why? Mo te aha, where- 
f or ? No reira, therefore. 

Certainty and uncertainty: Pono tonu, truly. Koia 
tonu, certainly. Pea, perhaps. Eapea, presumably. 
Eanei, or not. Aua, doubtful. Hore, no, not. 

ON *KO, To be, state of being, (ko-re, not to be). 

(See reo, voice. Arero, tongue. Ko-rero, to speak. 

To speak is synonymous with To be.) 

Ko, am art, is; first, second and third person of the 
verb substantive. 

Ko, are ; plural of the verb substantive. 

Ko (past tense) was, e.g., ko wai i reira, who was 
there? Ko Au, I was. Ko Au taua tamaiti, I was the 
said boy. 

la, fourth person. 

Ai, verb auxiliary; may, possible to be. 

Kia, to let be, let there be. 

Kua, been. 

Ko ia, so be it; be it so; so it is: largely used in 
expressing reality, in assenting to actual facts. 

The following shows the usages and the literal sense 
of Ko: 

Ko wai tend, who is that? Ko Au, it is I. 

Ko koe, d, ko wai koe, 'tis thou, and whom art thou? 

*See Appendix, p. 244. 



50 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

K6 Au ra, ko Rangi, I am Rangi, to be sure. 

K6 wai rawa ra la, who ever can it be (sotto voce) ? 

Ko Rangi aha koe, what Rangi are you ? 

K6 Rangikura, tama a Te Tai, I am Rangikura, son of 
Te Tai. 

Ko whea koe, where are you going to ? Ko te Tdheke 
Au, I am going to the Taheke. 

Ko wai he hoa moou, who is to be your companion ? 

Ko koe, you are, etc. 

We have already seen that it is proper to use ko as a 
prefix to the numeration of persons ; ko is so used also as 
a prefix to proper names and pronouns: 

Ko Rangi, ko Rongo, ko Tane, etc. 

Ko matou tahi i hdere, we went together. 



CHAPTER VI. 



ON THE VERB, MOOD AND TENSE. 

A verb is a word that asserts something about a subject. 
Verbs are of two classes (a) transitive, and (6) 
intransitive : 

(a) Patua ana e Tai te Kurl, Tai struck the dog. Here 
Tai is the subject, Patua the action, and Kurl the object. 

(&) Kei te moe a Hine, Hine sleeps. Kei te kaukau 
rdtou, they bathe. 

TENSES. 

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary hitherto 
advanced (see Maunsell's grammar), the tenses in 
Maori are absolutely clear, and their signs unmis- 
takable. 

E is the sign of the future, Ana is the sign of the past ; 
united, they represent the connecting link between the 
past and the future by becoming the sign of present- 
progressive action : 

Taka ana Au, I fell. Mamde ana Au, I was hurt. 
Tangi ana Au, I wept. 

E taka ana Au, I am falling. E tangi ana Au, I am 
weeping. 

E taka Au, I shall fall. E tangi Au, I shall weep. 

The sign of the perfect tense, kua, is equally clear : 

Kua riro rdtou, they have now gone. 

Kua hoki mai rdtou, they have now returned. 

Kua whakade Au, I have now consented. 

Kua oti, it is now finished. 

Kua mate a la, he is now dead. 

51 



52 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

(Ko, the verb substantive, is the universal indicator 
of persons, places, and things.) 

Singular. 

Ko Au, I am Ko koe, thou art 

Ko la, he (or she) is Ko la, it is. 

Dual. 
Ko tdua, thou and I are. Ko mdua, he (or she) and 

I are. 
Ko korua, you two are. Ko rdua, they two are. 

Triplial. 

Ko tdtou, you and I are. Ko mdtau, they and I are. 
Ko koutou, you are. Ko rdtou, they are. 

EXAMPLES : 

Ko te whare tend o Nuku, this is the house of Nuku. 

Ko taana tamaiti tend, that is his child. 

Ko 6 ona whanaunga ena, those are his relatives. 

Ko taana kupu tenei, this is his word. 

A Maori does not say: I am blind. He says: I am a 
blind man; or, Ko Au he tangata matapo. 

ACTUAL FORM OP PRESENT TENSE. 

EIRI ANGER. 

E riri ana a Pou, Pou is angering. 
E riria ana a Pou, Pou is being angered at. 
E riria ana e Pou, being angered at by Pou. 

Singular. 

E riri ana Au, I am angering. 
E riri ana koe, thou art angering. 
E riri ana a la, he (or she) is angering. 
E riri ana la, it is angering. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 53 

Dual. 

E riri ana taua, you and I are angering. 
E riri ana maua, he or she and I are angering. 
E riri ana korua, you two are angering. 
E riri ana raua, they two are angering. 

Triplial. 

E riri ana tatou, you and I (3) are angering. 

E riri ana mdtou, they and I (3) are angering. 

E riri ana koutou, you (3) are angering. 

E riri ana rdtou, they (3) are angering. 

The multitudinous is expressed by the word katoa, 
which signifies all. Thtis, E riri ana koutou katoa, ye are 
all angering. 

In the foregoing examples of present progressive action 
it will be noticed that the verb, riri to anger, is situated 
between the twin signs E ana. It will be further 
noticed that those twin-signs correspond to the English 
terminal, ing, as in angering. That is a rule. 

ON THE PAST TENSE. 
Riri ana, angered; did anger. 

Singular. 

Riri ana a Au, I angered. 
Riri ana a koe, thou didst anger. 
Riri ana a la, he (or she) angered. 
Riri ana a la, it did anger. 

Dual. 

Riri ana tdua, thou and I angered. 
Riri ana maua, he (or she) and I angered. 
Riri ana korua, you two angered. 
Riri ana raua, they two angered. 



54 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Triplial. 

Biri ana tdtou, you and I angered. 
Riri ana mdtou, they and I angered. 
Riri ana koutou, you three angered. 
Riri ana rdtou, they three angered. 
Multitudinous, Riri ana koutou katoa, ye all angered. 
Ana thus corresponds to the English word did, or the 
terminal ed. 

I, a sign of Past Tense. 

There is a strong tendency in Maori to give the time of 
an action at the beginning of the sentence. In the fore- 
going examples of past tense it is necessary to place the 
verb and not the tense sign at the head of the sentence. 
By using the letter i as a tense sign, the Maori is able to 
give the time of the action first : 

Singular. 

I riri Au, I angered. 
7 riri koe, you angered. 
I riri a la, he (or she) angered. 
I riri a la, it angered. 

Dual. 

7 riri tdua, you and I angered. 
I riri mdua, he (or she) and I angered. 
I riri korua, you two angered. 
I riri rdua, they two angered. 

Triplial. 

I riri tatou, you and I angered. 
1 riri mdtou, they and I angered. 
7 riri koutou, you three angered. 
7 riri rdtou, they three angered. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 55 

ON THE PERFECT TENSE. 

Kua, the sign of the perfect tense, denotes an action 
that has just been completed: Kua tuhituhi Au, I have 
now written. 

Singular. 

Kua riri Au, I have now angered. 
Kua riri koe, you have now angered. 
Kua riri a la, he (or she) has now angered. 
Kua riri la, it has now angered. 

Dual. 

Kua riri taua, you and I have now angered. 
Kua riri maua, he (or she) and I have now angered. 
Kua riri korua, you two have now angered. 
Kua riri rdua, they two have now angered. 

Triplial. 

Kua riri tdtou, you and I have now angered. 
Kua riri matou, they and I have now angered. 
Kua riri koutou, you three have now angered. 
Kua riri rdtou, they three have now angered. 
Multitudinous: Kua riri koutou katoa, you have now 
all angered. 

ON THE PAST PERFECT TENSE. 

The past perfect tense denotes an action that was 
completed at a specified time now past. It is indicated 
by ke associated with kua, the sign of perfect tense. 

Singular. 

Kua riri ke Au, I had already angered. 
Kua riri ke koe, thou hadst already angered. 
Kua riri ke a la, he (or she) had already angered. 
Kua riri ke ia, it had already angered. 



56 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Dual. 

Kua riri ke taua, you and I had already angered. 
Kua riri ke maua, he (or she) and I had already 
angered. 

Kua riri ke korua, you two had already angered. 
Kua riri ke raua, they two had already angered. 

Triplial. 

Kua riri ke tatou, you and I had already angered. 
Kua riri ke mdtou, they and I had already angered. 
Kua riri ke koutou, you three had already angered. 
Kua riri ke rdtou, they three had already angered. 
Multitudinous: Kua riri ke koutou katoa, ye had all 
previously angered. 

Kua riria ketia e ahau, had already been angered 
at by me. 
NOTE: Riri, expressed anger. 

Puku-riri, unexpressed anger. 
Rlriri, to quarrel. 

ON THE FUTURE TENSE. 

E is the sign of future tense : E tuhituhi Au, I shall 
write. 

Singular. 

E riri Au, I shall anger. 
E riri koe, thou wilt anger. 
E riri a la, he (or she) will anger. 
E riri a la, it will anger. 
(E kore koe e riri, thou wilt not anger.) 

Dual. 

E riri tdua, you and I shall anger. 
E riri maua, he (or she) and I shall anger. 
E riri korua, you two will anger. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 57 

E riri rdua, they two will anger. 
(E kore korua e riri ki a la, you two will not anger 
unto him.) 

Triplial. 

E riri tdtou, we three (including you) will anger. 

E riri mdtou, we three (excluding you) will anger. 

E riri koutou, you three shall anger. 

E riri rdtou, they three shall anger. 

(E kore koutou e riri ki a Au, you three will not anger 
unto me.) 

When intended to refer to personal action or intention 
the future sense is very commonly expressed by "Ko te," 
being the verb substantive and definite article singular : 

Ko te riri pu korua ki a Au, you two will certainly 
anger unto me. 

Ko te whakdde pu a la, he will most assuredly consent. 

Ko te hdere atu mdua ki reira, we two intend to go 
there. 

Ko te para Au i taaku wderenga, I intend to clear my 
(new) cultivation-ground. 

Ko te aha koef, what are you about to do? 

Ko te hdere mai pea rdua kia kite i d koe, they two 
will probably come along to see you. 

DUAL TENSE. 

In compound sentences, two tense signs frequently 
occur. The second is sometimes merely a repetition of 
the first, as: 

I kite Au i d la i taana tdenga mai : I saw him on his 
arrival. 

Korero mai ana a la, d, hdere atu ana : he spoke to us 
and then went away. 



58 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Sometimes the second presents a complete change of 
tense, as: 

I kite Au i a la e noho ana i te taha o te ara : I saw 
him, (he is) sitting (relatively present tense) at the side 
of the road. 

Or: 

I a Au i haere atu nei e noho ana a la i te taha o te ara : 
When I went along, he (is) sitting at the side of the 
road. 

The time of the action is past (i), but the speaker 
makes it relatively present by introducing e-ana, the 
twin-signs of present progressive action. In such cases it 
serves the purposes of clarity to place the true time of the 
action (i) at the head of the sentence, as shown here. The 
following form is to be avoided : - 

E noho ana a la i te taha o te ara, i a Au i hdere atu 
nei: he (is) sitting at the side of the road, when I went 
along. 

Again : 

I a Au ka tde atu nei, kua riro katoa atu rdtou ki 
tdtahi: when I arrived (past) there, they had already 
(literally have now, perfect) all gone to the coast. Here 
the use of kua (the sign of the perfect tense) , diverts the 
action from past to the relatively perfect. 

With these examples before him, the student may 
intelligently proceed to work out similar forms of dual 
tense. 

EMPHATIC FORM OF THE ACTIVE VOICE. 

Singular. 

E riri ana and Au, koe, or, la : 
I do anger, thou dost, he, she, or it doth anger. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 59 

Dual. 

E riri ana and Tdua, Mdua, Kdrua, or, Rdua : 
You and I, he (or, she) and I, you two, they two (it- 
anger. 

Triplial. 

E riri ana and Tdtou, Mdtou, Kdutou, Rdtou : 
We three, us three, you three, they three do anger. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Mehemea e riri ana and Au : If I do anger. 
Ahakoa i riri and Au: Although I did anger. 

Imperative Mood. 

Me riri koe, kdrua, kdutou: you, you-two, you-thre.?, 
must anger. 

Negative Forms. 

Kd hore kau d dku nei riri : I have no anger : I do n;;t 
anger. 

Kihai Au nei i riri : I did not anger. 

Prohibitive Forms. 

Kaua koe na e riri: do not you anger. 
Kei riri koe na: (I advise) you not to anger. 

Interrogative Forms. 
E riri ana koia koe : do you truly anger ? 
E riri ana rdnei koe : do you actually anger or not ? 
7 riri koia koe : did you truly anger ? 
/ riri rdnei koe : did you anger or not ? 

Miscellaneous Forms. 

And ki dhau e riri ana koe: it seems to me, thou art 
angering. 

7 te mea e riri ana koe : as thou art angering. 
7 mea Au i riri koe : I felt that thou didst anger. 
No te mea i riri koe : because thou didst anger. 



60 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

7 d koe e riri ana : whilst thou wert angering. 

I te mea kua riri koe : as you have now angered. 

Ki te mea e riri a la ; should he anger. 

Tend and pea i riri a la : perchance he did anger. 

Kd hore nei and koe i riri noa : why, you have not yet 
angered. 

Nd reira ahau i riri ai : therefore did I anger. 

Ko te take tonu tend 6 taaku riri: that is the precise 
cause of my anger. 

Nd wai, d, kd riri Au : and eventually I became angry. 

Kd kawe nei, d, riri ana a au : and it continued until at 
last I angered. 

E tde mai Au, kd riri koe : whene 'er I arrive, you anger. 

I hua Au e, e kore koe e riri : I had the impression that 
you would not anger. 

Ko Au kia tde wawe mai, kd riri ai koe : I am to arrive 
before you may anger. 

/ pohehe Au e, e kore a la e riri : I was under the mis- 
conception that he would not anger. 

Ko Au kia mate, ka klia ai koe "he tangata" : I am to 
be dead, then you may be declared to be " a man. ' ' 

Passive Forms. 

Past : 7 rlria ahau e rdua : I was rebuked by those two 
(by the two of them). 

Perfect: Kua rlria ahau e rdua: they-two have now 
rebuked me. 

Present : E rlria ana Au e rdua : I am being rebuked 
by the-two of them. 

Future: Ko te riria au e la: I shall be rebuked by 
him. 

Jussive Tense. 

Kia Mdrama : let it be light. 

Kia tika : let it be just. 



CHAPTER VII. 



HEGULAR USE OF TENSE-SIGNS IN SENTENCE 
CONSTRUCTION. 

Assuming that sufficient examples have now been 
given as aids to the formation of simple sentences, 
examples in compound sentences may now be considered. 

In speaking, naturally enough, different modes are 
employed in the arrangement of the parts of a compound 
sentence. The method here presented is, owing to its 
clearness, that usually adopted by the best Native 
-speakers. 

In order to admit a full, if rapid, employment of the 
various tenses, we may assume that some person (or 
persons) has been, is, or, will be asked, to go to some 
place to fetch some article. 

Having assumed this it is further necessary to premise 
that the consent of such person is an essential. That 
consent (or, refusal) is made to rule the sentence, the 
several parts of which proceed in the following order : 

(a) The Tense. 

(6) Declaration and person concerned. 

(c) Locality of the object to be brought. 

(d) The verb, as, TiTci^-to fetch. 

(e) The object itself, as, Waka canoe. 

The exercise is set out in the first person singular. By 
the substitution in its place of any other person (or, 
number of persons) , the whole of the personal pronouns 
may be used ; or, any noun or proper name, as required. 
It is to be observed that the concluding clause may be 



62 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

used with any one of the introductory clauses. In 
speaking the rising inflection is used prior to the close 
of a long sentence : 

PAST PERFECT. 

Kua ichakade ke Au kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te 
tiki i te waka. 

I have long since consented to go along to the lake to 
Iftrh the canoe. 

PAST. 

I whakade pea Au kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te tiki i 
te waka. 

I perhaps did consent to go along to the lake, to fetch 
the canoe. 

/ whakade Au kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te tiki i te 
waka. 

I did consent to go along to the lake, to fetch the 
canoe. 

PERFECT. 

Kua whakade pea Au kia hdere atu ki te Roto, ki te 
tiki i te waka. 

I perhaps have now consented to go to the lake, to 
fetch the canoe. 

Kua whakade Au kia haere ki te Roto ki te tiki i te 
waka. 

I have now consented to go to the lake, to fetch the 
canoe. 

PRESENT. 

E pai ana Au ki te whakade kia haere ki te Roto, ki te 
tiki i te waka. 

I am willing to consent to go to the lake, to fetch the 
canoe. 

E whakade ana Au kia haere ki te Roto, ki te tiki i te 
waka. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 63 

I am consenting to go to the lake, to fetch the canoe. 
Future : 

E whakade pea Au kia haere atu ki te Roto, ki te 
whakahoki i te waka. 

I may consent to go along to the lake, to return the 
canoe. 

E whakade Au kia, etc. (add concluding clause as 
before). 

I will consent to, etc. 

E whakadro ana Au ki te whakade kia, 

I am inclining to consent to, 

Terd ake pea Au e whakade kia, 



I will probably eventually consent to,- 
Terd ake Au e whakade kia 

I will eventually consent to, 

Terd pea e kore Au e whakade kia,~ 



It may be that I will decline to consent to,- 

E kore Au e whakade kia, 

I will not consent to, 

E kore rawa nei Au e whakade kia,- 



Verily, I will absolutely decline to consent to,- 

Imperative : 

Me whakade koe kia, 

You must consent to, 
Kaua koe e whakade kia, 



Do not you consent to, 
Kei whakade koe kia, 



(I warn) you not to consent to,- 
Optative : 

Kia whakade ahau ki te, 

To make me consent to, 

Kia whakade ai ahau ki te, 



In order to induce me to consent to,- 



64 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Subjunctive : 

Mehemea ka whakade Au kia, 

If I then consent to, 

Mehemea e kore Au e whakade kia, 

Should I not consent to, 

Narrative forms: 

Whakade ana Au kia, 

I agreed to, 

Klhai Au i whakade kia hdere atu ki te Awa, ki te 
kaukau i te wai. 

I did not consent to go along to the river, to bathe in 
the water. 

The incident may be commented on, thus: 

Whakade ana hoki rdua kia, 

So they-two consented to, 



He aha rawa te take i whakade al a la kia, 

Whatever cause induced him to consent to, 

He alia rd te take i kore ai korua e whakade kia,- 



What possible reason is there that you-two did not 

consent to, 

He aha koia te take e whakade ai mdua kia, 

What is the reason that can be offered to induce us-two 

to consent to, 

Ka, not a tense sign. 

So extensive is the use of the particle ka, that scholars, 
such as Williams and Maunsell, have been deceived into 
regarding it as a true tense sign. That it is not so may be 
demonstrated in a momentary consideration of the 
simplest sentence, such as : 

Ka kite Au. 

Here no amount of erudition is equal to a discovery of 
the tense, therefore, time of the action ; because ka does 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 65 

not indicate that. Observe the change with the introduc- 
tion of a true tense-sign : 

Kite ana Au ) . 
77-, ; 1 saw 

1 Kite au 

E kite ana Au, I see. 

Kua kite Au, I have now seen. 

E kite Au } T 

v , 7 ., - 1 shall see. 

Ko te kite Au 

Ka can be intelligibly used only : 
(a) When the tense is clearly set out in the same 
sentence 

Ka kite Au apopo, I shall see to-morrow. 

(6) When the time is clearly understood, 

E haere ana koe ki Kaikohet are you going to 
Kaikohe ? 

Ae, yes. 

Ka haere hoki Au, then I will go too. 

In those forms it is used merely as a colloquial substi- 
tute for tense, the tense being otherwise made clear; and 
it may be rendered by then, or, now. 

(c) Where tense is unnecessary it may be rendered by 
this is, or. that is : 

Kd^pai, that is good ; kd kino, that is bad; kd tika, that 
is right ; kd lie, that is wrong; kd reka, that is sweet; 
kd kau'a, that is bitter ; kd hore, that is not so, etc. 

ON THE NEGATIVE. 

We have just been considering various uses of the 
particle kd. It is usually prefixed to hore and kore. 
common expressions of negation and dissent kd hore. 
In the Waikato and along the greater part of the East 
Coast (North Island) kd hore has come to be used to 
express almost every conceivable form of negative; so 



66 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

much so that the aspirate has been entirely worn off. and 
kaore is now heard most painfully free. It is, therefore, 
necessary to place before the student such other forms as 
are proper to the language : 

Kd hore : no, not so. Ka here noa iho : nothing of the 
kind. 

Hore rawa: verily no. Kore rawa: not so, verily. 

Hore kau he tangata i reira: there was nobody there. 

Ka kore i tend, hei tetahi: if not that, try some other. 

Ka kore nei a la i kl mai : he did not tell me. 

Klhai i roa : 'twas not long. 

Klhai Au i whakaae : I did not assent. 

Klhai ano ("/.-/ano") i whakaae noa: has not yet 
assented. 

Ed kore a la e kl mai: if he does not tell (you) . 

E kore Au e whakaae : I will not assent. 

He mea noa tend : that is a matter of no consequence. 

Kaua koe e whakaae : do not you assent. 

Ka hori tend: that (statement) is incorrect. 

Ka tito tend: that (statement) is an invention. 

Ka teka tend: that (statement) is false. 

Kd 'he tend : that (statement) is wrong. 

Kei whakaae koe : you had better not assent. 

E hara i tena: that is not it. 

E hara i a Au : it is not mine. 

These examples suffice to show that kihai largely 
indicates the past ; ka hore, the present ; and e kore the 
future. 

A peculiar use in negation is given to the definite 
article, te; here it is strongly accented: 

Te rongo te tamaiti nei: this child will not obey. 

No reira An te hdere atu ai : therefore I would not go. 

He aha koe i te korero ai : why did you not speak, or, 
say so ? 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



67 



ON ANTONYMS OR EXTREMES. 



A. 



Ad, light of day. 

Ata, morning. 

Ara, road, path, way. 

A, to drive. 

Ahuahua, to resemble. 

Aitud, unfortunate, bad 

omen. 

Anewa, weak, listless. 
Apiti, side by side. 
Apiapi, close together. 
Apo, mean, grasping. 

Apuapu, crammed, stuffed. 
Aral, to screen, block. 

Arita, eager, keen. 
Aroha, pity, love, sorrow. 
Am, to chase. 
Atadhua, pretty. 
Aica, river, channel. 

Angi-hait, gentle zephyr. 
Awliitu, regret. 
Aukati, to prevent. 



Po, darkness of night. 
Ahiahi, evening. 
Ara-kore, roadless, pathless. 
Arahi, arataki, to lead. 
Rereke, not to resemble. 
Waimarie, fortunate, good 

omen. 

Ua-ua, strenuous. 
Tirara, scattered. 
W&hewehe, separated. 
Marere, free, generous, 

liberal. 

Korokoro, loose. 
Whakawdtea, to free of 

obstruction. 

Akuto, slow, backward. 
Tukino, show resentment. 
Whakataki, to meet. 
Kinokino, ugly, ill-favoured 
Awaken, a dug ditch or 

drain. 

Awhd, gale, storm. 
Koa, rejoice over. 
Awhina, to assist. 



E. 

Eke, to get upon, mount. Heke, get down from, dis- 
mount. 

Ene, to flatter. Hanihani, to disparage, 

speak ill of. 

Eti, shrink, show timidity. Mdia, fearless, bold. 

Ewa, extol, exalt. T-aunu, to revile. 

I. 

Ikeike, high. Pdpaku, low. 

Inaki, press, crowd to- Taiwehe, separate and free, 
gether. 



68 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Inoi, to entreat. Tono, to demand. 

loio, hard, stiff. Ngdwari, soft, yielding. 

Iro, submissive. Turi, unsubmissive. 

Iti, little. Nui, rahi, large. 

Iwi, bone, tribe. Kikokiko, flesh. 

O. 

0, provision for journey. 0-kore, without provision. 

Okooko, carry in arms. Pikau,waha, carry on back. 

Omaki, move swiftly. Ata-haere, go slowly. 

Onge, scarce. Tini, plentiful. 

Ora, alive and well. Mate, dead. 

Oreore, very dry. Tere, very watery. 

Oru, boggy. Hard, firm. 

Ola, green, uncooked. Mdda, ripe, cooked. 

Whakaoti, to finish. Timata, to begin. 

Ouou, torutoru, few. Afaha, many. 

U. 

U, firm (as a post) . Tungdngd, loose (as a post) 

Ua, rain. p a ki, rainless, fine after 

rain. 

Uaki, open (as a door). Tutaki, shut (as a door). 

Uho, heart (of a tree). Taitea, sap (of a tree). 

Ukauka, preserved, sound. Pirau, rotted. 
Ukupapa, all dealt with. Toenga, residue (undealt 

with). 

Umaraha, widely extended. Whaiti, in narrow compass. 
Umiki, awhio, go around. Poka-pu, go direct, short 

line. 

Unu, undo, untie. Here, to tie. 

Unuora, dearest in life. Maud-hara, object of 

hatred. 

TJnga. to invite. A, to drive away. 

Uri, descendant. Tupuna, ancestor. 

Uru, to associate one's self Puta-ki-ivaho, disassociate 

one's self. 

Uru-kehu, light-haired. Uru-pango, dark-haired. 

Utu, payment, price. Utu-kore, paymentless. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



69 



Uwha, female (of animals). Tourawhi, male (of 

animals). 
Uwhi, to cover over. Huke, uncover, expose. 



Ha. 



lid, tasty. 

Baku, disinter. 

Haka, song and dance. 

Hakahaka, short in height. 

Hakari, a feast. 

Hdkerekere, downcast. 

Hakiki, unkind, overbear- 
ing. 

Hakune, careful, deliberate. 

Hang a, make, build up. 

Hdpai, lift up. 

Hara, guilt. 

Haumaruru, languid. 

Haunga, odour, smell. 

Hauora, revived. 

Haupu, place in a heap. 

He, wrong. 

Whakahe, mislead, put 
wrong. 

Hika, to inflame. 

Hiwi, ridge of a hill. 

Hohonu, deep. 

Hohoni, graze surface. 

Hono, to join. 

Huna, to conceal. 



Hd-kore, tasteless. 
Nehu, inter, bury. 
Tangi, song of lament. 
Teitei, tall in height. 
Kai-kore, without food. 
Harihari, elevated, glad. 
Atawhai, kind, gentle. 

Hikaka, careless, rash. 
Tukituki, break down. 
Tuku-iho, let down. 
Hara-kore, guiltless. 
Whai-ngoi, energetic. 
Haunga-kore, odourless. 
He mo, faint. 
Akirikiri, to scatter. 
Tika, right. 
Whakatika, put right. 

Tinei, extinguish. 
Hdpua, depression. 
Pdpaku, shallow. 
Ngoto, enter deeply. 
Unu, disjoin. 
Whakakite, to disclose. 



Ka. 

Kaitoa, expressing pleasure Pouri, dejection, gloom. 



Kakama, nimble, sprightly. 
Kapi, covered. 
Kakara, scent. 
Karanga, to call. 
Karawa, mother (other 
than human). 



Puhoi, sluggish. 
Tuwhera, uncovered. 
Piro, stench. 
Noho-puku, remain silent. 



70 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Kati, shut, closed. 
Kata, to laugh. 
Katau, right (side). 
Kateatea, not close. 
Kdweka, ridge of a hill. 
Kawiu, shrunk. 
Ke, unlike. 
Keokeo, peak of a hill. 

Keulteu, motionless. 
Kewha, irresolute. 
Ki, full. 
Whakaklkl, to instigate. 

Kikini, to pinch, nip. 

Kino, bad. 

Koangiangi, cool. 

Rde, forehead. 

Kohi, to collect. 

Kohure, to dig up. 

Kokeke, winding (as river) 

Kokiri, dart forward. 

Koma, pale. 

Kokomo, thrust in (as peg) 

Konene, outcast. 

Konewa, dream-song. 

Konewha, drowsiness. 

Konihi, avoiding observa- 
tion. 

Kongehe, feeble. 

Kopiko, backwards and 
forwards. 

Kokopi, double-in. 

Kopuke, make hillocks. 

Kora, particle. 

Koraha, open country. 

Korapa, alarm. 

Korara, disperse. 



Puare, open. 

Tangi, to cry. 

Maid, left (side). 

Pipiri, close. 

Rdordo, valley. 

Kowhera, open extended. 

A-riterite, to resemble, alike 

Horua, steep circular de- 
pression. 

Koni, to move. 

Kaikd, eager. 

Takoto-kau, empty. 

Peehi, to suppress (bad- 
ness) . 

Mirimiri, to smooth, fondle. 

Pai, good. 

Werawera, warm. 

Kohamo, back of head. 

Rui, to scatter. 

Tanu, to bury down. 

Kotika, straight (as river). 

Tdkiri, dart backward. 

Pilpango, darkish. 

Unuhi, pull out (as peg). 

Tangata-wlienua, man of 
the soil. 

Waiata, conscious song. 

Mata-dra, wakefulness. 

Aro-nui, courting observa- 
tion. 

Ngoi, strength. 

Tltika, straight on. 

Whakatika, straighten. 
Koniarua, make holes. 
Kauika, heap. 
Ngahere, bush country. 
Noho-mdrie, at ease. 
Hmliui, assemble. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



71 



Kolia, promise. 

Koran, having purpose. 

Koiua, respect. 
Koicde, to divide. 
Koirhane, to bend. 
Kuene, to urge on. 
Kuiki, to desire. 
Kunitete, to exchange. 



Korongata, unfulfilled 
promise. 

Koroit-kore, having no pur- 
pose. 

Tan nu, revile. 

Kopiri, to stick together. 

WJiakatika, to straighten. 

WJiakaware, to delay. 

WhakaparahaJco, desireless. 

Hoatu-noa, give without 
return. 



Ma. 



Ma, white. 
Maeneene, smooth. 
Malta, many. 
Mahara, to remember. 
Main, to work. 
Maliuru, contented ease. 
Makariri, cold, winter. 
Mdkona, food-satisfied. 
Mama, not heavy. 
Mamdo, distant. 
Whakahau, to animate. 
Manawareka, pleasing. 
Matareka, fondness. 
Mate, death. 
Matika, rise up. 
Matoro, woo, court. 
Maiinga, mountain. 
Ma mde, pain. 
Meko, to withhold. 
Moana, ocean. 
Moe, to sleep. 
MoMo, to know. 
Molm, to smoulder. 
Mua, before. 
Milrere, clever, knowing. 
Miikd, wild. 



Maiigii, pango, black. 
Mdtaratam, rough, prickly. 
Torutorii, few. 
Wareware, to forget. 
Mdngere, to idle. 
MdiJii, uneasy. 
Raumafo, summer. 
Hiakai, food-hunger. 
TaimaJia, heavy. 
Tata, near. 

Mdroli iroli i, dispirited. 
Matctharehare, offensive. 
Matakaii'a, dislike. 
Ora, life. 
Takoto, lie down. 
WJiakarere, desert. 
Mania, plain. 
Nauru, eased of pain. 
Hoatu, to give. 
Tuawhenua, land, country 
Ara-ake, to wake. 
MoJiio-kore, not to know. 
Kd, to be afire. 
Muri, behind. 
Kuware, unknowing. 
Ear at a, tame. 



72 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Na. 



Nanea, copious. 
Whakanano, discredit. 
Noa, free of restriction. 



Haiti, scarce. 
Whakatika, credit. 
Tapu, ceremonially 
stricted. 



re- 



Pa. 



Pdkani, quarrelsome. 
Pana, expel. 

Pakaru, to break, smash. 
Papatahi, flat (of land). 
M drama, clear (as speech) 

Pariratanga, intermittent. 
Puad, dawn. 

Puea, emerge from water. 
Puhi, a virgin free. 
Puwaha, mouth of river. 



Maliaki, good tempered. 
Unga, invite. 
Whai-hanga, to mend. 
Pukepuke, hilly (of land). 
Papipapi, confused (as 

speech). 

Piimau, continuous. 
Ahiahi-po, dusk. 
Tore-mi, sink into water. 
Taumau, one betrothed. 
Mdtdpuna, fount, or source 



Ra. 



Ed, the sun, day. 
Rangi, the sky. 
Ropi, to close. 
Rukaruka, indefinite. 
Ruru, sheltered from wind. 
Riri, to express anger. 



Po, the night. 

Papa, the earth. 

Uaki, to open. 

Tonu, definite. 

Ran, windy. 

Riri-puku, unexpressed anger. 



Ta. 



Tdawhitdawhi,to hang back 
Tdepa, to hang down. 
Tdhapa, an acute angle. 
Whakatahe, clear from ob- 
struction 

Tahitahi, to scrape. 
Tdhoata, pumice stone. 
Tdhoro, cause to collapse. 
Tahora, open country. 
Tai-u, high tide. 



Rere-mua, to dash forward. 
Whakatare, to hang up. 
Tdpou, perfectly straight. 
Kati, to obstruct. 

Tlhore, to peel off. 
One-papa, sandstone. 
Hang a, to upbuild. 
Ngahere, bush country. 
Tai-pdkoa, low tide. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



73 



Tai-whanake, h a 1 f -t i d e 

(rising) 

Tai-heke, descent. 
Taihoa, by and bye. 
Tdiri, sun at eve. 
Taitama, youth. 
Taitea, whitewood, sap. 
Takare, eager to get on. 

Takatu, quite ready. 

Takawiri, twisted (as a 
tree). 

Take, root, cause. 

Takuhe, contented, secure. 

Takutai, sea-coast. 

Tdmuimui, to crowd upon. 

Tdpiri, add to. 

Tapore, bend, sag, faint. 

Tarapi, delicate, fastidious. 

Tararau, loud confused 
noise. 

Taraweti, hostile. 

Tareliu, unaware. 

Taruna, marriage connec 
tions. 

Tdtahi, wide apart. 

Tdtai, to measure, enu- 
merate. 

Tdtere, unsettled. 

Tau, year. 

Tatau, door. 

Taumua, be in front. 
Taumdro, obstinate. 
Tauhdti, stranger. 
Taupuru, cloudy sky. 
Taurangi, incomplete. 
Tauwhena, dwarfish. 
Tdwhiri, wave good-bye. 
Tloro, jar on the ear. 



Tai-pd, half -tide (falling). 

Tai-piki, ascent. 
A-kua-nei, presently. 
Moiri, sun at morn. 
Taitamdhine, maiden. 
Taiiho, hardwood, heart. 
Takaware, languid indif- 
ference. 

Takaware, delaying. 
Akoako, straight grained. 

Take-kore, without cause. 
Hiwa, alert, apprehensive. 
Tua-whenua, inland. 
Papahoro, to scatter from. 
Tango, take from. 
Tawharu, curved. 
Kai-lioro, coarse, gluttonous. 
Tangi, sound. 

Mdhaki, friendly. 
Mohio, aware. 
Whanaunga, blood rela- 
tions. 

Pipiri, close together. 
Whakarite, to compare. 

Pumau, settled. 
Marama, moon, month. 
Kuwalia, an opening (as 

doorway) . 

Tauhiku, be in the rear. 
Taungdwari, yielding. 
Taunga, intimate. 
Ao-rangi, clear sky. 
Taurite, complete. 
Tokoroa, tall and slight. 
Powhiri, wave welcome. 
Paparonaki, please the ear. 



74 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Tipatipa, ill-founded. 
Tipoka, dig and expose. 
Tiwhana, curved. 
Tohatoha, to distribute. 
Tomo, to enter. 
Au-ripo, noisy current. 
Touwha, swell. 
Tuao, transient. 
Tohunga, wise. 
Tuahangata, hero of a tale. 

Tuhea, overgrown with 

scrub. 

Tuwhiti, to banish. 
Tuku, to let go. 
Tuoi, without fat. 
Tupere, to ejaculate. 
Tupono, by chance. 
Turuki, to supplement. 
Tutanga, a portion. 
Tutahu, to favour. 

Tuwuharoa, yawn. 



Taketake, well-founded. 
Tapuke, dig and cover. 
Plpiko, bent. 
Kohikohi, to collect. 
Pwto, to withdraAV. 
Au-torino, flowing smoothly 
Kokohu, sink in. 
Tuturu, fixed. 
Hauwarea, foolish. 
Tua-wahine, heroine of a 

tale. 
Wdtea, clear. 

Unga, to invite. 
Hopu, to seize. 
Momona, fatty. 
Wafeawgrw, remain silent. 
Kokohanga, by design. 
Tinana, without addition. 
Tinana, the whole. 
Whakaparahako, to reject 

with scorn. 
Kokopi, compress lips. 



Wain-gahia, easy. 
Warea, busy. 
Wawata, secret longing. 
, of two minds, 
disgusting. 



Wa. 



Uaua, difficult. 
Takakau, at leisure. 
Hiahia, expressed desire. 
Whakaaro, fixed opinion. 
Parekareka, delightful. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



ON THE GRAMMAR. 

The grammatical or idiomatical structure largely 
illustrates that : 

1. Noun and substantive precede the adjective 

He tangata pai, a man good. 

He tikanga kino rawa, a rule bad very. 

2. Number is indicated by a change of article 

Te Moana. the ocean. 
Ngd Tai, the tides. 

3. The possessive pronoun precedes the noun 

Taakn mokopuna, my grandchild. 
Taana whakaaro ki a Te Hau, his consideration 
towards Te Hau. 

4. The verb follows the article or tense-sign and 
precedes the noun or substantive 

Te korero 6 tenei tangata, the talk of this man. 
I tancji tf tamaiti, did cry the child. 

5. The time is indicated by a tense-sign, which, e ana 
excepted, invariably precedes the- verb. 

Kiliai au i rongo, not I did hear. 
h'na. taka ilio te tamaiti, has now fallen down the 
child. 

6. The passive (see list of verbs) is formed by a verbal 
suffix 

Kata, to laugh. 
Kataina, laughed over. 

75 



76 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

7. Continuity or repetition of action is indicated by 
partial or whole re-duplication 

Oma, to run. 

Omaoma, a sequence of runs. 

8. The whole of the vowels are used in enumeration 
and each as a numerical prefix has its peculiar value. 
(See alphabetical tables.) 

9. There are four persons and three numbers (table 
of personal pronouns). 

10. The mode of comparison (see page 16) is clear 
and precise. 

11. In tense, the jussive, "let it be," is included 

Kia mdrama, let it be clear. 
Kia tika, let it be just. 

12. Causation is effected by a prefix, whaka 

Taka, to fall. 

Whakataka, to cause to fall. 

13. The letter a is commonly used as a personal article 
or prefix to proper names and pronouns 

A Titore, namely Titore. 

Kia tde mai a ia, when he arrives. 

14. An article precedes each substantive in a sentence 

Te waka me nga hoe, the canoe and the paddles. 

15. The imperative mood is indicated by me, must, 
preceding the simple form of the verb 

Me ui e koe, you must enquire ; 
or by using the verb at the head of the sentence 
Haere atu ki a ia, go unto him. 
Tikina atu he wahie, go fetch some firewood. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 77 

On "I was," "I had been." 
Was 

Ko au taua tamaiti, I was the boy referred to. 

Ko au tetahi i hdere, I was one of those who went. 

Ko au i reira, I was there. 

Ko au te mea i whara, it was I who was hurt. 
I had been 

/ tae ano au ki reira i mua } I had been there 

/ reira au i mua ai j formerly. 

Kua roa au e takoto mate ana, ka tae mai ra a ia, 
I had been long lying ill when he arrived. 

I have been 

Kua tae ke mai au ki konei, I have been here for 

some time. 

Kua tae au ki reira, I have been there. 
Kua mdmingatia au, I have been duped. 
Kua patua au, I have been beaten. 

I have become 

Kua turorotia au, I have become an invalid. 

I shall be 

Ko reira au, I shall be there. 



CHAPTER IX. 



ON VERBS AND TERMINALS. 

A verb has four clearly defined forms or gradations. 
First the simple form as tuku, to let go ; next the passive 
form with the terminal syllable a, as tukua, a form which 
is usually used before the fact, thus :"Kaua e tukua, e koe 
te Kurl no," ; or, "do not you let that dog go"; next the 
passive form with the terminal syllable na, a form which 
is usually used after the fact, as: He aha i tukima, ai e 
koe te Kuri na ? or " what did you let that dog go for ? ' ' 
and finally the verb with its verbal-noun terminal nga, as 
tukunga, a form which indicates the act or fact of the 
letting go; for this terminal, nga, corresponds to the 
English terminal, ing (as go, going) : "/ kite An i taana 
tukunga i te Kuri"; or, "I saw his letting go of the 
dog." 

EXAMPLES. 

Verb. 

Koko, to scoop. 

Kuru, to pommel, brmse.Kurua. 
Toro, to visit. 
Hoko, to exchange. 
Puru, to stop, plug. 
Toko, to pole. 
Akoako, to instruct. 
Tatari, to await. 
Tapa, to name. 
Kuku, to nip. 
Heke, to descend. 
Jleru, to comb. 
Here, to tie. 



Future. 


Past. Perfect. 


Kokoa. 


Kokon-a. Koko nga. 


'.Kurua. 


Kuruna. Kuril nga. 


Toroa. 


Torona. Toronga. 


Hokoa. 


Hokona. Hokonga. 


Puma. 


Piimua. Puru nga. 


Tokoa. 


Tokona. Tokonga. 


Akoakoa. 


Akoakona. Akoakonga 


Taria. 


Tdrina. Taringa. 


Tapaia. 


Tapaina. Tapanga. 


Kukua. 


Kukuna. Kukunga. 


Hekea. 


Hekena. Hekenga. 


Herua. 


Heruna. Herunga. 


Herea. 


Herena. Herenga. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



79 



Verb. 

Wete, to untie. 
Horo, to swallow. 
Tdtaku, to repeat. 
TaJni, to kindle. 
Toino, to enter. 
Hopu, to catch. 
Kata, to laugh. 
Taki, to recount. 
Whao, to stow. 
TA--i. to fetch. 
Titan, to smash. 
Hltoko, to hop. 



Future. Past. Perfect. 

Wetea. Wetena. Wetenga. 

Horoa. Horona. Horonga. 

Tatakua. Tdtakuna. Tdtakunga 

Talma. Tahuna. Tahunga. 

Tomoa. Tomona. Tomonga. 

Hopua. Hopuna. Hopunga. 

Kataia. Kataina. Katanga. 

Takia. Takina. Taking a. 

Wit ada. Whdona. Whdonga. 

Tikia. Tikina. Tlkinga. 

Tit aria. Titarina. Tearing a. 
Httokoa. 



HUokona. Hltokonga. 

There is, however, a particular class of verbs to which 
this terminal na does not appear to apply"; other terminal 
forms being substituted. These are verbs in which the 
consonant n finds a place. Tanu, to bury, for instance, 
becomes tomonia, not tan-unA ; similarly, tono, to send, 
does not become tonona,; neither does whana, to kick, 
become whancma,. This fact appears to have led to the 
introduction of a variety of terminal forms, as we shall 
presently see. This again appears to have led to a 
reduction to three of the four clearly denned verbal 
gradations shown in the foregoing list. These forms 
apparently govern (in addition to the class of verbs in 
which n occurs) adverbs, adjectives, and a number of 
causative verbs. 

Of the variety of terminals under notice, the following 

are the principal: 



Verb. 

Aliuru, warm. 
Ana, I know not. 



First 
Terminal 



Final 
Terminal 



a, becomes nga 
Alntrua. Ahurunga. 

tia tang a 

Anatia. Auatanga. 



80 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb. 



First 
terminal. 



Final 
terminal. 



no, ranga 

Mdtauria. Mdtauranga. 

ngia ,, nga. 

Wehingla. W eking a. 

mia manga 

Tanumia. Tanumanga 

hia hanga 

Tangihia. Tangihanga. 

kia ., kanga 

Motokia. Motokanga. 

kina kanga 

Tuakina. Tuakanga. 

ia nga 

Aia. Anga. 

whia wlianga. 

Whdowhia. Whddwhanga. 

With such a variety of terminals at hand, the speaker 
has a wide choice; but, having chosen the form of his 
first terminal he is bound to use its corresponding final 
terminal. As we have just seen the equations are: 
a nga-, ngia nga; ria ranga; tia tanga; and kia 
kanga. A speaker, then, in using for example the causa- 
tive verb whakaatu, (or, to cause to know) having, as he 
proceeds, used a first terminal, must use its corresponding 
final terminal, as follows : 



Mdtau, learn. 
Wehi, fear. 
Tanu, to bury, inter. 
Tangi, to weep. 
Moto, a punch. 
Tua, to fell (as a tree) 
A, to drive. 
Whawhdo, to cram. 



Whakaatu. 
Whakaatu. 
Whakaatu. 
Whakaatu. 
Whakaatu. 
Whakaatu. 



Whakadtua. 

Whakadtungia. 

Whakadturia. 

Whakadtutia. 

Whakadtukia. 

Whakadtuhia. 



To that rule there is no exception 
the proverbial slip of the tongue. 



Whakadtunga. 

Whakadtunga. 

Whakadturanga. 

Whakadtutanga. 

Whakadtiikanga. 

Whakadtuhanga. 

unless that made by 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 81 

By the process of gradation portions are omitted from 
such verbs and so on as are partially or wholly redupli- 
cated. Thus : 

Tatari, to await, becomes Tdria and Tdringa. 

Whawhdo, to cram, becomes Whdowhia and 
Whdowhanga. 

Katdkata, to laugh, becomes Kataina and Katanga. 

Whanawhana, to kick, becomes Whanaia and 
Whananga. 

Tatau, to count, becomes tdua and Tauanga. 

Titiro, to look, becomes Tirohia and Tirohanga. 

Kaukau, to bathe, becomes Kauria and Kauranga', 
and so on. 

The verb and its accompanying adjective must always 
agree in terminal form, as: 

Korero pai, good talk. 

Korerotia paitia. 

Korerotanga paitanga. 

Although the final sound of a in the above forms 
invariably indicates the passive, the sound of e is 
occasionally used instead of it : 

Ho, to pout, becomes Hoine and Hoinenga. 

Ad, to dawn, becomes Adine and Adinenga. 

Pad, to crush, becomes Pdoike and Pdoikenga. 

Koru, to sink dying, becomes Korue and Koruenga. 

Having so far dealt with verbal suffixes, two verbal 
prefixes, Kau and Tai, may now be noticed. The chief 
function of these appears to be to modify the sense ; tita 
same may be said of taka when used as a verbal prefix : 

Amo, to shoulder (as a heavy piece of wood). 

Kau-amo, to shoulder (as four persons shouldering 
along an invalid between two poles: the load, being 
distributed, is comparatively light. 



82 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Tuku, to let go. 

Kau-tuku, to let go gradually (as to "pay-out" a line, 
nautically) . 

Heke, to descend. 

Tai-heke, to descend slowly or gradually. 

Hard, hard. 

Tai-maro, moderately hard. 

Kaha, strong. 

Tai-kaha, moderately strong. 

Tangata, man. 

Tai-tangata, a young man scarcely matured. 

Horo, swift, speedy. 

Taka-horo, hurriedly (a stout person or an invalid 
may hurry along without attaining much speed). 

Ware, delay. 

Taka-ware, to hesitate. 

Tdpui, a collection. 

Taka-tdpui, inseparable ("hoa taka-tapiui," an in- 
separable friend) . 

There are other interesting prefixes, the functions of 
which the student may ascertain for himself; for 
instance the prefix au as: 

Mihi, to greet (as one person greeting another). 

Au-mihi, to greet (the united greetings of a number 
of persons to a distinguished visitor or visitors) . 

Taia, to injure, cast down, or destroy a person. 

Au-taia, to injure, cast down, or destroy many persons. 
( Said of a criminal, or an evil such as drinking, gambling 
and so on.) 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

LIST OF VERBS. 



83 





Passive or 




Verb active. 


Imperat ive. 


Verbal noun. 




A. 




A, to drive off 


Aia 


Anga 


Ahu, to mould 


Ahua 


Ahungu 


Whakadhua, to form 


Whal'dahuc.'.ii 


WJiakaahuatanga 


Ai, (possible to be), act 


Aitid 


Ait an g a 


of coition 






Aki, to dash against 


Akina 


Akinga 


Ako, to instruct 


Akona 


Akonga 


A mo, to shoulder 


Amohia 


Amohanga 


Anau, sway to and fro 


Anaua 


Anaunga 


A nga, move towards 


Angaia 


Anganga 


Whakaangi, fly, as a kite 


Whakaangin 


Whakaanginga 


Apiti, to place together 


Apitia 


Apitinga 


Apo, appropriate, grab 


Apohia 


Apohanga 


Arahi, to conduct 


Arahina 


Arahanga 


Arolia, to love, compas- 


Arohatia 


Arohatanga 


sionate 


K 




Aral, prevent 


Araia 


Arainga \ 


Arau, entangle 


Arautia 


Arautanga 


Whakadri, to display 


Whakadria 


Whakaarinr/a 


Aro, confront 


Aroa 


Aronga 


Arohi, inspect 


AroJiirohia 


Arohirohint/d 


Aropiri, attached 


Aropiria 


Aropiringii 


Aru, to chase 


Aru mid 


Aiumanga 


Ataicliai, tend kindly 


Ataichditia 


Atawhaitdnga 


Whakadtu, to inform 


Whakddturia 


Wh akadt it ra nga 


Auru, to free 


Aurulid 


Aurutanga 


Aweke, misrepresent 


Awekea 


An-ekenga 


Awhi, embrace 


A whitia 


Awhitanga 


Au'hina, support 


Awhinatia 


Aichinatanga 




E. 




E, to do 


Engia 


Eanga 


Whakaea, repay, avenge 


Whakaeaina 


Whakoeanga 


Eho, to clarify 


Ehoa 


Ehonga 


Ehu, make turbid 


Ehtio 


Ehu nga 


Eke, mount, embark 


Ekea 


I'kenga 


Ekoa, to append 


Ekoaia 


Ekoa nga 


Ene, to cajole 


Enea 


Enenga 


Whakaeo, to disable 


Whakaeo'j 


Whakaeoni/d 


Epa, pelt, cast 


Epaina 


Epanga 


Ete, urge along 


Etea 


Etenga 


Ewa, enlarge, exalt 


Ewaina 


Eivanga 



84 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 



Passive or 
Imperative. 



Verbal noun. 



Ihiihi, nerve twitch IhiiMa I'hiihinga 

ITci, consume wholesale ITcia Ixinga 

Inoi, entreat Inoia Inoinga 

Inu, to drink Inutnia Inumanga 

Whakairi, hang up Whakairm Whakairinga 

Iriiri, to christen Iriiria I r tiring a 

Iro, cause pain Iroa Ironga 

Whakairo, to carve Whakairoa Whakaironga 

Whakaita, to restrain, JVfiakaitain Whakaitanga 
repress 

O. 

Whakao, call upon loudly Whakaoria l'/hakauranga 

OTia, affectionately greet Ohaina Ohanga 

Owhiti, caution Owhitia Oiuliitinga 

Omoomo, tend sick Omoomoa Omoomonga 

Oni, act of coition Onia Oninga 

Ore, to bore into Orea Orenga 

Oretd, exterminate Oretaia Oreianga 

Oka, to stab Okaina Gkanga 

Oke, struggle Okea OTcenga 



U. 



Whdkau, make firm 

Uliu, to wail 

Umere, to chant together 

Una, to bless, sanctify 

Undhi, scale fish 

TJTcul, wipe clean 

Ukupara, smudge 

Umiki, completely tra- 
verse 

Vnga, invite 

Unu, undo, untie 

Upane, place in ranks 

Uru, to unite 

Urungi, to steer 

Uta, to place as cargo 

Utu, to pay 

WhaTcautu, repay, as a 
loan 

JJtuutu, draw up, as 
water 



Whakauria 


K'hakaiiranga 


Uhua 


Vliunga 


Umerea 


Umerenga 


Unaia 


Unanga 


Unahia 


U nohing a 


Ukuia 


Vkuinga 


Ukuparaia 


Vlcuparanga 


Umikia 


Umikinga 


Ungatia 


Ungatanga 


Unuliia 


Unuhanga 


Upanea 


Upanenga 


TJrua 


Vrunga 


Urungiiia 


Urungitanga 


Utaina 


Viang a 


Utua 


Utunga 


Whakautua 


Whakautunga 



Utuhia 



Utuhanga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 



Eahd, seek for 
Whakahd, breathe, inhale 
Haehde, slash, cut into 

strips 

Hdere, to proceed 
Hatiau, cut down 
Eahu, to disinter 
Haka, sing and dance 
Uaku, find fault with 
Hakune, profoundly study 
Uamama, bawl 
Hamu, gather leavings 
Hanga, make, build 
Hanihani, disparage 
Hangarau, befool 
Hangareka, jest with 
Had, enclose as in a net 
Whakahapa, deprive 
Bapai, to lift up 
JJaparu, inconsiderate 
Hara, crime, guilt 
Ilarau, grope for 
Hari, to carry along 
Hard, dress flax fibre 
Jldtepe, cut off, exter- 
minate 
JJau'hake, dig up root 

crops 

F.aukoti, interrupt, in- 
tercept 

Whakahau, inspirit, ani- 
mate 

Whakahauora > to reprieve 
Whakahawea, despise 
W hakake, to wrong, 

mislead 

Hei, to wear on neck 
Here, tie, fasten 
Whakahere, to sacrifice 
Heru, comb hair 
Hihi, to hiss 
Hialiia, long for, wish for 
Hiakai, food-desire 
IJiainu, drink-desire 
Eiamoe, sleep-desire 
Hianga, impose upon 



Passive or 




Imperative. 


Verbal noun 


HA. 




Hahariu 


Haharanga 


Whakaltangia 


Whakahdnga 


Haehaea 


Raehaenga 


Haerea 


Hderenga 


Hahauria 


Hahauranga 


Hahua 


liahunga 


Hakaina 


JIdkanga 


Eakua 


Hakunga 


Hakunea 


llakunenga 


Hdmamatia 


Hdmamatanya 


Hamua 


Hamunga 


Hangaia 


Hanganga 


Hanihania 


[Janihaninga 


Hangarautia 


Hangarautanga 


Hangarekatia 


Hangarekatang:i 


Hada 


Hdonga 


Wlidkahapaina 


Whakahapanga 


Hdpaia 


Uapainga 


JIaparua 


Hdparunga 


Harangia 


Haranga 


Haraua 


Haraunga 


Haria 


Haringa 


Haroa 


Haronga 


Hatepea 


fldtepenga 


Haiihakea 


Rauliakenga 


Haukotia 


Haukotinga 


Whakahaua 


Whakcihaunga 


Whakahauoratia 


Whakahauoranga 


Wli akahdweatia 


Whakahaweatangc, 


.Whakahengia 


Whakahenga 


Heia 


Ueinga 


Herea 


Herenga 


Whakaherea 


Whakaherenga 


Herua 


B'erunga 


Hihitia 


Hihitanga 


Hiahiatia 


Jliahiatanga 


Hiakaitia 


liakaitanga 


Hiaimitia 


Fliainutanga 


Hiamoetia 


lfamoetanga 


Hiangatia 


Riangatanga 



36 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Hiangongo, pine for 
Hika, to rub together 
Hikaikai, to writhe 
HiJci, carry about (as a 

baby) 

Hlnana, to glare at 
Hinga, to fall prone 
Uipa, to interspace 
Rlpolci, cover over 
Hiwi, heave up a great 

weight 

Hirihiri, reliable 
Hoe, to paddle 
Hoka, to spread apart 
Rdkehoke, lose patience 
HoTco, exchange, barter 
Bono, join, unite, splice 
Hopu, detect, capture 
Kora, spread out 
Hori, slit, slip aside 
WhaTcalioro, demolish 
Hohoro, to hasten 
Horomi, to swallow 
Eoroi, to wash 
Jloiu, to sigh 
Holiou, bind make peace 
Huhu, value 
Whakahou, renew 
Hua, to lever 
Huaranga, transplant 
Hulce, dig, or grub up 
Eume, to taper off 
Humene, fold, or tuck 

together 

Huna, to conceal 
Euhunu, singe, char 
llura, uncover, expose 
Sure, search underneath 
Euri, turn around, roll 
Uuri Tco-aro, turn inside 

out 
Huri Ico-tua, turn back 

to front 
Huri-polci, turn upside 

down 
Huti, pluck, or Tug off 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Hiangongotia 
Hikaina 
Elkaikaitia 
Hikitia 

Hlnanatia 

Hingaia 

Hipaia 

nipoTcina 

Hiwia 

Hirihiria 

Hoea 

HoTcaia 

Tlokehdkea. 

JJoTcona 

Jlonoa 

Eopukia 

Horahia 

Horia 

WhaJcaJioroa 

Hohorotia 

Horomia 

Eoroia 

JJotua 

Hohoutia 

Huhua 

Whakahoutia 

Huakina 

Euarangatia 

Hukea 

Eumea 

Eiimenea 

Hunaia 

Huhunua 

Hurahia 

Hurea 

Eurihia 

Hnri Tcoarotia 

Euri Tcotuatia 

TTuripokinn 

TJvlia 



Verbal noun. 

Hiangongotanga 
Ilikanga 
UlTcailcaitanga 
HiJcitanga 

Hinanatanga 

Hinganga 

Eipanga 

EtpoTcinga 

Hiwinga 

Eirihiringa 

Eoenga 

Hokanga 

Hokelwlcenga 

Eolconga 

Bononga 

Hopvkanga 

Horalianga 

Jloringa 

Wlinlfdhoronfic 

Holwutanga 

Horomanga 

Horoinga 

Eotunga 

EoJioutanga 

EuJiuanga 

Wliakahoiltanga 

Euakanga 

lluarangatanga 

HuTcenga 

Eumenga 

Eiimenenga 

Ifunanga 

Hvlnmunga 

HuraJianga 

Hurenga 

Eiirihanga 

Hun Tcoarotanga 

llurilcotuatanga 

TluripoTcinga 

lluiinga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



87 



Verb active. 



Kdewa, wander aimlessly 
Wliakakaha, to strengthen 
ILawhaki, forcibly carry 

off 

KakaTin, to dress, clothe 
Kahupapa, bridge across 
Kai, to eat 
Kaikd, too hurriedly 
Kaid, to rob 
Kaiponu, stingy 
Kakama, nimble 
Kanga, to curse 
Kapetau, resolute 
Kape, omit, thrust aside 
Whakalcapi, close, shut in 
Kapo, snatch, catch 
Kapuranga, by handfuls 
Karalcia, recite rituals 
Karanga, call, welcome 
Karapiti, fasten side by 

side 

Karat iti, peg down 
KarawMu, whirl, swirl 
Whdkarekare, swirl (as 

liquid) 
Karo, ward off, parry 

Karure, spin, twist, twirl 

fcata, to laugh 

Kdtea, to whiten 

Katete, lengthen by 
joining 

Kati, close up, block 

Kato. top off, pluck 

Kdtoitoi, to respond 

TLau, to wade 

Kauhoe, to swim 

Kaukau, to bathe 

Kaupare, parry, avert 

Kawe, bring, or take 
along 

Keri, to dig 

Ketu, turn over ("earth) 

Whalcakl, to fill 

Whakakikl, to instigate 

Kihi, to click the tongue 



Passive or 




Imperative. 


Verbal nouu. 


KA. 




Kaewaitia 


Kdcivatanga 


Whalcakahangia 


Whakakahanga 


Kdwlwkina 


Kdwhakinga 


Kdkahuria 


Kakahuranga 


KaJiupaparia 


Kahupaparanga 


Kaingia 


Kainga 


Kaikdtia 


Kaikatanga 


Kaidtia 


Kaidtanga 


Kaiponua 


Kaipormnga 


Kakamatia 


TLakamatanga 


Kangaia 


Kanganga 


Kapetaua 


Kapetaunga 


Kapea 


Eapenga 


WJiakalcapia 


Whdkalcapinga 


Kapoa 


Kaponga 


Kapurangatia 


Kapurangatanga 


"Karakiatia 


Ji arakiatanga 


Karangatia 


Karangatanga 


Karapitia 


Karapititanga 


Karatitia 


Karatitinga 


Karawhiun 


KarawMunga 


Whakarekarea 


Wliakarekarenga 


Karoo. 


Karonga 


Karurea 


Karurenga 


Kataina 


Katanga 


Kdteatia 


Kdteatanga 


Katetea 


Katetenga 


Ratio, 


Katinga 


Katohia 


Ratohanga 


Kdtoitola 


Katoitoinga 


Kauria 


Kaunga 


Kauhoea 


Kauhoenga 


Kaulcauria 


Kaukauranga 


Kauparea 


Kauparenga 


Kawea 


Kaicenga 


Keria 


Keringa 


Ketua 


Ketunga 


Whakaklia 


Whakciklnga 


Whakalcilcia 


WhaTcakiklnga 


Kihia 


Kihinga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 
Wliakakihi, urge on (as 

a dog) 

Kini, to pinch, nip 
Eimi, to seek 
Eimokimo, to blink 
Whakakino, spoil 
7T6, silently to invoke 
Kohari, to mash 
Kohere, to pound 
KoM, gather, collect 
KohuTcolm, curse loud 

and long 

Kohure, take from inside 
Kohuru, to murder 
Whakakoi, to sharpen 
Koihiihi, writhe in terror 
Edingo, to yearn for 
KoTciri, to dart forth 
Eoko, to scoop 
Kome, move jaws with 

lips closed 
KoTcomo, to insert 
Komuru, to rub off 
Konatunatu, to mix well 
Eoni, to move sT'ghtly 
Konihi, to steal about, 

sneak 

Konumi, to fold double 
Kopae, to border 
Eopaki, envelope, enwrap 
Kopare, to shade eyes 
Eoparu, to crush 
J5.0pere,to loosen a spring 
Kopi, shut tight (as lips) 
Kopiro, to ' ' duck ' ' 

(under water) 
Kopiupiu, to wave, fan 
Rdrangaranga, to ache 
Korari, to twist off 
Whakakore, to discard 
Koreto, to drop tears 
Korikori, to wriggle, 

!ii ove 

Koriti, wary 
Koronga, to long for 
WJidkdhoro, to cast off 
Koroiroi, trifle with, 

neglect 



Passive or 




Imperative. 


Verbal noun. 


TF^afcafcifeto 


IVliakakihinga 


Kinitia 


Einitanga 


Kimihia 


Eimihanga 


Kimokimoa 


Eimokimonga 


Whakakinoa 


Whakakinonga 


Koea 


Eonga 


KoTiaria 


Eoharinga 


Koherea 


Eohcrenga 


KoMa 


EoMnga 


Kohukohuo 


Kohukohunga 


Kohurea 


Kohurenga 


Kohurua 


Eohurunga 


Whakakoia 


Whakakoinga 


Koihiihia 


Edihiihinga 


Koingotia 


Edingotanga 


Kokiria 


Eokiringa 


Kokoa 


Eokonga 


Komea 


Eomenga 


Komotia 


Eomotanga 


Komurua 


Komurunga 


Eonatunatua 


E onatunatunga 


Konia 


Ironing a 


Konihia 


Eonihinga 


Eonumia 


Eonuminga 


Eopaea 


Eopacnga 


Eopakina 


Eopakinga 


Eoparea 


Eoparenga 


Koparua 


Edparunga 


Eoperea 


Eopercnga 


Kopia 


Kopinga 


Kopiroa 


Eopironga 


Eopiupiua 


Kopiupiunga 


Eorangarangatia 


Eorangarangatanga 


Eoraria 


Koraringa 


Whakakorea 


Whakakorenga 


Eoretoia 


Eorctonga 


Eorikoria 


KoriTcoringa 


Koritia 


Koritinga 


Eorongatia 


Korongatanga 


Whakahoroa 


Whakah oronga 


Eoroiroia 


Koroiroinga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



89 



Verb active. 

Korokl, well advise 
Koromaki, suppress feel- 
ings 

Korongata, mere promise 
Koropiko, bow down 
Korori, stir about 
Korou, to purpose 
Korowlriti, spring, jerk 

off 

Wliakakorua, hollow out 
~Ei.ru, sink (as into 

grave) 

Kotamu, move lips 
Koti, to cut 
Kotiti, stray, diverge 
Kotua, respect, esteem 
Kotuhi, write, draw 
Kotui, to lace, sew 
howde, divide 
Kowhdki, tear off, pluck 
Kdwhiri,to select, choose 
Kdw~hiuw~hiu, to fan 
Ku, to block, bar, eclipse 
Kuliu, thrust in, conceal 
Kuihi, whisper 
KuiTca, express a wish 
Kulca, clog, encumber 
Kuku, nip, draw together 
Eumanu, to cherish 

foster 

Kume, to pull 
Kupapa, stoop down 
Kupe, enclose, enmesh 
hilraruraru, busy, per- 
plexed 

Kuru, smite with fist 
Kurutete, to exchange 
Kuti, draw tightly 

together 
Knwata, anxious love 



Whdkama, shame 
MiinJia, gratification 
ffhaJcamafiana , to vrarm 
Maliara, to reflect 
Maliea, free, at leisure 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Korokltia 
Koramakina 

Korongatatia 

Koropikoa 

Kororia 

Koroua 

Korowhitia 

Whakakoruatia 
Korue 

Kotamua 

Kotia 

Kotitia 

Kotuatia 

Kotuhia 

Kotuia 

Kdwdea 

Kowhakina 

Kowhiria 

Kowlmiwhiua 

Kungia 

Kuhua 

Kilihitia 

Kuikatia 

Kukatia 

Kukua 

Kumanua 

Kumea 
Kupapatia 
Kupea 
Kurarurarua 

Kurua 

Kurutetea 

Kutia 

Kuwatatia 

MA. 

Whdkamakia 

MaaTiatia 

Whakamahanatia 

Maharatia 

Mdheatia 



Verbal nouii. 

Korokltanga 
Koromakinga 

Korongatanga 

Eoropikonga 

Kororinga 

Korounga 

KorowMtinga 

Whakakoruatanga 
Roruenga 

Eotamunga 

Kotinga 

Kotitinga 

Rotuatanga 

Kotuhinga 

Kotuinga 

Kowaenga 

Kowhakinga 

Kowhiringa 

B. owhiuwhiunga 

Kunga 

Kuhunga 

Kuihitanga 

Kuikatanga 

Kukatanga 

Kukunga 

Kumanunga 

Kumenga 
Kupapatanga 
Kupenga 
Kurarurarunga 

Eurunga 

Kurutetenga 

Jfutinga 

Kuwatatanga 



Whakamakanga 

Alaahatanga 

Whakamahanatanga 

Zlaharatanga 

Mdheatanga 



90 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Mulii, to work, act 
MahimaM, to copulate 
Mdhia, sound, resound 
Maliue, omit, leave, 

abandon 
Malmru, assure, gratify, 

relieve 

Maia, brave, fearless, bold 
Maihi, anxious, uneasy 
Mdiki, to remove 
Maimoa, show regard, 

attention 

Maioha, greet lovingly 
Maire, sing at eve 
Makamaka, propound 

riddles 

Makaroa, perceive dimly 
Makatikati, as stinging 
Makenu, to trace, track 
Maki, to inconvenience 
Makowha, to expand 
Makutu, magically 
Ma-kuware, unknowingly 
Whakamamde, to give 

pain 

Alamaku, square with axe 
Mdminga, play tricks 

upon 
Whakamana, authorise, 

empower 
Manadkl, regard, give 

effect to 

Mandheeu, cheerful, hope- 
ful 

Manako, to trust 
Mamma, to make dumb 

signs 

Manana-ki, sign convey- 
ing word 

ManauJiea, reluctant 
Manawanui, endure with 

fortitude 
Manawa-pa, cling to, 

prize 
JManaiva-reka, elated, 

delighted 
Mania, ear-tingle, teeth 

on edge 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Mahia 
Mahimalna 
Mahiaiia 
Mahuetia 

Mahurutia 

Mdiatia 
Mdihia 
Mdikia 
Maimoatia 

Maioliaiia 

Mairea 

MakamaTcatia 

Makarotia 

Mdkatikatia 

Makenua 

Makina 

Makowhatia 

Makuturia 

MdkuwareUa 

Whakamam aetia 

Mamakutia 
Mdmingatia 

Whakamanaia 

Manadkltia 

Manahaua 

Manakotia 
Marian atia 

Mananakitia 

Manemheatw 

Manawanuitia 

Manawapdtia 

Manawarekatia 

Maniatia 



Verbal noun. 

Maliinga 
Mahimahinga 
Mahiatanga 
Mahuetanga 

Ilahurutanga 

Maiatanga 
Mfiihinga 
Mdikinga 
Haimoatanga 

Maihoatanga 

Maireanga 

Makamakatanga 

Makarotanga 

Makaiikatinga 

Makenmtaa 

Makinga 

Makoichatanga 

Makuturanga 

Mfikuwaretanga 

Wliakamamdetanga 

Mamakutanga 
Mdmingatanga 

WJiakamananga 

Maitadkitanga 

ManaJiaunga 

Manakotanga 
Mdnanatanga 

Mananakitanga 

Mdiiftnlieatanga 
Matuncanuitanga 

Manaicapdtanga 

Manawarekatanga 

Maniatanga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



91 



Verb active. 
Manowai, slaughter 

wholesale 

Maninohea, disgust 
Mdngere, lazy, idle 
Mapu, to sigh 
Whakmdrama, to en- 
lighten 

Maranga, to rise 
Marara, to scatter 
Mare, to cough 
Marere, to drop, to die 
M are wa, to raise on high 
Whakamarie, to appease 
Maringi, spill 
Hariri, tranquillise 
Maaro, headstrong 
Whakamdaro, to stiffen 
Maroliirolii, over-exerted, 

weary 

Mataara, wakeful 
Matahanahana, to blush 
HatahareTiare, to offend 

disappoint 
itdtai, to importune 
Matakana, to distrust 
Matakawa, disrelish, dis- 
like 

Matakeke, to loathe 
Matakitaki, to view 
Mataku, to fear, dread 
Matanga, to be experi- 
enced 

Whakamatad, to cool off 
Matareka, fondness 
Matau, to learn 
Whaka mate, put to death 
Matenui, adore 
Matihei, to sneeze 
Matika, to rise up, stand 
Mau, take and carry 
tfaumau, to waste 
Wlwkamau, strive to 

attain 

Idea, to say, do, act 
Meke. strike with fist 
Meko, to withhold 
Wliakamene, to as&emble 
Memenge, to smile 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Manowaitla 

Maninoheatia 
Mangeretia 
Mapua 
Whakamaramatia 

Marangatia 

Mararatia 

Marea 

Mareretia 

Marewatia 

Whakamarietia 

Maringitia 

Mdriritia 

Mdarotia 

Whakamaarotia 

Mardhirohia 



Verbal noun. 
Manowaitanga 

Maninoheatanga 

Mangeretanga 

Mapunga 

WTi a kamaramatanga 

Marangatanga 

Mararatanga 

Marenga 

Mareretanga 

Marewatanga 

Whakamarietanga 

Maringitanga 

Mariritanga 

Mdarotanga 

Wl\ akamaarotanga 

MuroMroMnga 



Mataaratia Mataaratanga 

Matahanahnnatia Matahanahanatanfja 
Mataharea Mataharenga 



Mataia 

Matakanatia 

Matakawatia 

MatakeJcetia 
Mdtakitakina 
Matakuria 
Matangatia 



Matainga 

Matakanatanga 

Matakawatanga 

Ma ta keketanga 
Mdiakitakinga 
Matakuranga 
Matangatanga 



WhakamatadtaotiaWhakamatddtaotanga 

Matarekatia Matarekatanga 

Mdtauria Mdtauranga 

Whakamatea Whakamatenga 

Matenuitia Matenuitanga 

Matiheia Matiheinga 

Matikatia Matikatanga 

Mauria Maxranga 

Maumauria Maitmauranga 

Whakamaua Whakamaunga 



Meatia 

Mekea 

Mekoa 

Whakamenea 

Memengetia 



Meatanga 

Mekenga 

Mekonga 

Whakamenenga 

Memengetanga 



92 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Miharo, admire, wonder 
Mihi, greet sorrowfully 
Atimi, urinate 
Minamina, long for, 

crave 

M iramira, to be emphatic 
Afirimiri, stroke, pet, 

fondle 

Miro, to spin, twist 
Miti, to lick 
Moo, sway from side to 

side 

Whakamoa,lay in a heap 
Moata, to rise early 
Afoeroa, to sleep late 
Moe, sleep, sleep with, 

marry 
Whakamoe, cause to 

marry or sleep 
Moehewa, to dream 
Moenanu, talk in one's 



Moe-titiro, sleep open- 
eyed 

Mohio. to know, recog- 
nise 

Whakamohio, to acquaint 
Whakatnoho, to steal 

upon 

Whakamokd, to muzzle 
Mo-mi, to suck, kiss 
Honaroa, to loiter 
Monimoni, to consume 
&ono, to caulk, plug 
Jfomono, use charms, 

spells 

Moremore, to make bare 
Mono-Tel, to expel, de- 
denounce 

Morearea, to be wearied 
Whakamomori, to des- 
pair, suicide 
Morikarika, disgust 
Moteatea, scrupulous 
Whakamotl, exterminate 
MotoJie, irrepressible 
Motu, sever, cut off, 
escape 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Mlharotia 
Mihia 
Mimia 
Minaminatia 

Miramirali* 
Mirimiria 

Miroa 

Mitimitia 

Moaia 

Whakamokatia 
Moaiatia 
Moeroatia 
Moea 

Whakamoea 

Moehewatia 
Moenanutid 

Moetitirotia 
MoTiiotia 

Whakamohiotia 
Whakamolioa 

Whakamdkdtia 

Momia 

Monaroatia 

Monimonin 

Monoa 

Momonoa 

Moremore-i 
MonoTnia 

Moreareatia 
Whakamomoritia 

Mdrikarikatia 

Moteateatia 

Whakamotltia 

Motohea 

Motuhia 



Verbal noun. 

Miharotanga 



Miminga 
Minaminatanga 

Mir amir at any a 
Mirimiringa 

Mironga 

Mitimilinga 

Moanga 

Whakamoatanga 
Moatatanga 
Mocroatanga 
Moenga 

Whakamoenga 

Moehewatanga 
Moenanutanga 

Moetitirotanga 
Mohiotanga 

Whakamohiotango 
Whakamohonga 

Whakamokatantja 

Mominga 

Monaroatanga 

Monimoninga 

Mononga 

Momononga 

Moremorenga 
MonoMnga 

Moreareatanga 
Whakamomoritanga 

Aforikarikatanga 

Moteateatanga 

WhakamotitanQa 

Motohenga 

Motuhanga 



.MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb activ. 

ttuhu, force aloug 
Muimui, infest, swarm 

upon 

MuTcw,to wipe, or rub off 
Muna, tell in confidence 
Muru, legally despoil 
WhaTcamutu,io terminate 



WTiakana, to satisfy, 

gratify 

Whalcanano, to discredit 
Nanu, complain of loss 
Nando, to seize and 

handle 

hanati, squeeze, throttle 
NeJiu, to bury, inter 
Nelce, to move 
Ninihi, steal quietly by 
fi/iu, to divine by lot 
WhaTcanoa, cancel, dis- 
regard 

Whakanoi, to place aloft 
NonoTce, struggle, pommel 
None, consume by waste 
Nukarau, series of de- 
ceptions 

Nunumi, steal off and 
vanish 

Pa, to touch, affect 
Whakapa, prevent con- 
ception 

Paia, repel, shut off 
Papae, to border 
Whakapae, blame, accuse 
Pahdo, to enclose, shut in 
I'aheTce, to slip, slide 
Pdheno, to slip off, 

escape 

Pahi, to slap, thrash 
Whakapaho, to soar 
Pahua, take by sheer 

force 

Pahure, escape by flight 
Whakapai, to favour, 
approve 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Muhua 
Muimuia 

MuTcua 
Munaia 
Murua 
Whakamutua 

NA. 

Whalcanatia 

Whakananoa 

Nanua 

Nandotia 

Nanatia 

Nehua 

Nelcea 

Ninihia 

Niua 

WhaJcanoatia 

WJialcanoin 
NonoJcea 
Nonea 
Nukarautia 

Nunumia 

PA. 

Ptingia 
Whaleapdngia 

Paiatia 

Papaetia 

Whalcapatti 

Pahdoa 

Pahekea 

Pahenotia 

Pdhitia 

Whakapahoa 

Pahuatia 

PaJiuretia 
WhaTcapaia 



Verbal noun. 

Muhunga 
Muimuinga 




Whakananonga 

Nanunga 

Nandotanga 

Nanatinga 

Nehunga 

NeTcenga 

Ninihinga 

Niunga 

Whakan oatanga 

Whakanoinga 
NonoTcenga 
Nonenga 
NuJcarautanga 

Nunuminga 



Pdnga 
Whakapanga 

Paiatanga 

Papdetanga 

Whakapaenga 

Pahdonga 

Pahekenga 

Fdhenotanga 

Pahitanga 

V/Jiakapahonga 

Pahuatanga 

Pdhuretanga 
Whdkapainga 



94 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Pdihi, to flinch 
Paikeike, raise by adding 

to 
Whakapakari, assert 

one's self 

Pakaru, to break, smash 
Whakapake, to overawe 
PapaJci, pat, clap, slap 
Pdkiki, repeatedly ques- 
tion 

Fakiri, show teeth, grin 
Pakiwaha, to brag, boast 
Wliakapakoko, make an 

image 

Parii, to paint or smear 
Pana, expel, banish 
Panelce, move endwise 
Panga, to throw, cast 
Panoni, to change 
Fad, crush, break through 
Pdoro, to reverberate 
Pdoi, pound, mash 
WJiakapapa, place in 
layers, recite gene- 
alogies 

Paparua, to double 
Para, clear of under- 
growth 

Parau, false, invention 
Papare, ward off, parry 
Parore, to weaken 
Pataritari, to divert, 

amuse 

Patato, to jingle, rattle 
Patt, to squirt 
Patoto, knock at a door 
Whalcapau, expend, ex- 
haust 

Pauhu, defer, adjourn 
Pawera, premonition 
Pawhara, split open (as 

a fish) 
Whakapeau, diverge, 

"side-track" 
Pepeha, wittily boast 
Peehi, to oppress, press 
Pei, turn off, banish 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Pdihia 
Pdikeikea 



Verbal noun. 

Pdihinga 
Pdikeikenga 



Whakapakoritia Whakapakaritanga 



Pakarua 
Whakapakctia 
Papakia 
Pdkikitia 

Pakiria 

Pakiwahatia 

Whakapakokotia 

Pania 

Panaia 

Panekea 

pangaia 

Panonia 

Pada 

Paorotia 

Pdoitia 

Whakapaparia 



Faparuatia 
Para 

Parautia 
Paparetia 
Paroretia 
Pdtaritaria 

Patatotia 
Patia 
Patototia 
Whakapaua 

Pauhua 

Paweratia 

Pawharatia 



Pdkarunga 
Whakapaketanga 
Papakinga 
Fdklkltanga 

Pakiringa 

Pakiwahatanga 

Whakapakokotanga 

Paninga 

Pananga 

Panekenga 

Panganga 

Pnnoninga 

Pdonga 

Pdorotanga 

Fdoitanga 

Whakapaparanga 



Paparuatanga 
Paranga 

Parautanga 
Faparetanga 
Paroretanga 
Pdtaritaringa 

Patatotanga 
Patmga 
Pdtototanga 
Whakapaunga 

Pduhunga 

Pdweratanga 

Pdwharatanga 



Whakapeautia Whakapeautanga 



PepeJiatia 

PeeMa 

Peia 



Pepehatanga 

Peehinga 

Peinga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



95 



Verb active. 

Whakapelca, to dispute. 

doubt 

Peo, to beg 

Tie, desire for, call for 
Pikau, carry on the back 
Pinono, to beg 
Pioi, brandish (as a 

weapon) 

Ptrangi, daily ^ant 
Piri, adhere or cleave to 
Piu, to cast (as a dart) 
Piwari, to beautify 
Popo, to crowd upon 
Poliane, commit sodomy 
Whakapohehe, to con- 
fuse, mislead 
Pohutu, to splash 
Poipoi, whirl aloft 
Pokepoke, to admix a 

solid 

Poke, to soil, taint 
Poker ehu, unwittingly err 
Poki, to cover over 
Whakapono, rely upon, 

believe in 
Popono, to covet 
Porae, to anoint the 

brow 

Porahu, put out of place 
Porangi, flurried, de- 
mented 
Whakaporepore, specially 

favour 

Porearea, modest, timor- 
ous 

Porewarewa, act foolishly 
Poro, cut to two lengths 
Poro-a-lm, parting in- 
structions 

Pororaru, to thwart 
Pororua, double-dealing 
Potde, use as hat for 

head 

Potatu, impatient 
TFhakapoto, to shorten 
POM, implant, erect, set 

up 
Poiiri, downcast 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Whakapekaina 

Peoa 

Fiea 

Pikauria 

Pinonoa 

Pioia 

Plrangitia 

Piria 

Piua 

Piivaria 

Poporia 

Pohanea 

Whakapohehetia 

Pohutua 

Poipoia 

Pokepokea 

Pokea 
Pokerehua 
Pokia 
Wliakaponoa 

Poponoa 
Pdrdea 

Porahuo 

Pdranf/itia 

Whakaporeporea 
Poreareatia 

Porewarewatia 

Poroa 

Poroakttta 

Pororarua 

Pororuatia 

Potaea 

Potatua 

WJiakapotoa 

Poua 

Ponritia 



Verbal noun. 
Whakapekanga 

Pconga 

Pienga 

Pikauranga 

Plnononga 

Pioinga 

Pi,rangitanga 

Piringa 

Hung a 

Tiwaringa 

Poporanga 

Pohananga 

WhakapoheJietanga 

Polmtunga 
Poipoinga 
Pokepokenga 

Pokenga 
1'okerehunga 
Pokinga 
Whakapononga 

Popononga 
Poraenga 

Porahunga 
Porangitanga 

Wliakaporeporenga 
Poreareatanga 

Poreivarewatanga 

Poronga 

Porodkitanga 

Fororarunga 

Pororuatanga 

Potaenga 

Potatunga 

Whakapotonga 

Pounga 

Pouritanga 



96 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Whdkapoururu, frown, 

scowl 

PowJiiri, wave a welcome 
PuJiaehae, envy, jealous}' 
Wliakapumau, fix, assure, 

confirm 

Punarua, wed two wives 
Pure, to cleanse, purify 
Puremu, commit adultery 
Pupuru, to hold, detain 
Turn, to pad or plug 
Putiki, to bind 



Rahiri, cordially receive 

guests 

Eahurdhu, meddle with 
J2a/iwo,take advantage of 
Edhui, to conserve 
Eanga, to arrange 

orderly 
Rangirua, broken rhythm 

or time 

Rane, to amplify 
Rapi, to clutch 
Rapu, to search for 
Rapurapu, try to solve 
Rard, to roar 
Eauwiri, to interlace 
Whakarawa,to latch, bolt 
Whakarawe, to supply 
Eehe, weakness of age 
Eei, to dash forward 
Whakarere, discard, 

abandon 

Whakarereke, to alter 
Eeti, to noose, lassoo 
Whdkarewa, to melt, to 

float 

Whakaririka, to annoy 
Firingi, to pour out 
Eipiripi, to split open, 

rip 

Eirio, diminish, subside 
Whakarlroi, to distort, 

pervert 
Whakaroa, lengthen, 

delay 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Whakapoururutia 

PowTiiria 

Puhdehdea 

Whakapiiinautia 

Punaruatia 

Purea 

Puremutia 

Purutia 

Purua 

Putikia 

BA. 
Edhiria 

Edhurahua 
Eahuatia 
Rahuia 
Eangaia 

Eangiruatia 

Eanea 

Rapid 

Eapua 

Eapurapua 

Rardtia 

Rauwiria 

WhaTcarawaia 

Whakarawea 

Rehea 

Reia 

Whakarerea 

WhakarereJeetia 

Retia 

WhaTcarewaia 

Whakaririkatia 

Ringihia 

Ripiripia 

Ririoa 
Whakarlroia 

Whakaronina 



Verbal noun. 
Whakapoururutanga 

Poiuhiringa 

Puhdehdenga 

Whakapumautanga 

Punaruatanga 

Purenga 

Puremutanga 

Purutanga 

Purunga 

Putikinga 

RdMringa 

Eahurahunga 
Eahuatanga 
Eahuinga 
Eanganga 

Eangiruatanga 

Eanenga 

Rapinga 

Eapunga 

Eapurapunga 

Earatanga 

Eauiviringa 

Whakarawanga 

Whakarawenga 

P.ehenga 

Reinga 

Whakarerenga 

Whakarereketanga 

Eetinga 

Whakarewanga 

Whakaririkatangz 

Eingihanga 

Eipiripinfja 

Ririonga 
Whakarlroinga 

Whakaroanga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



97 



Verb active. 

Kobe, to bound 
Eokohanga, happen upon, 

encounter 

Rona, to offer np, sacri- 
fice 

Eongoa, to doctor 
Sore, to snare, entrap 
Eotu, compel sleep 
Borou, reach by artificial 

means 

Eiiaki, to vomit 
Whakaruhi, to enervate 
Bui, to scatter as seed 
Euke, throw away as 

worthless 

Buna, to reduce, degrade 
Eunanga, discuss in 

council 
Eutu, swayed by emotion 



Ta, practise (as an art) 
la, to print, paint, spin 
TawTie, to go all around 
'Idea, to accomplish, 

succeed 
Whakataetae, contend 

with 

Whakatdtaha, to avoid 
Tahae, steal, rob 
Tahapa. to pass at an 

angle 

Tahei, to crease, wrinkle 
Tahere, to noose, snare 
Tahi, to clear away, 

sweep 

Tahu, to kindle 
Tai, to consecrate 
Toiamiki, to stray, 

wander 

Taiapu, to assail 
Taiari, to demolish 
Taiki, to weave, .interlace 
Taipara, select (as a 

target) 

Taiaroa, to memorialise 
Tai-hoa, performance of 

rites 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Eohea 
Bokohangatia 

Eonaia 



Verbal noun. 



Eonanga 



Eongoatia 
Eorea 
Eotua 
Eoroua 


Eongoatanga 
Eorenga 
Eotunga 
Eorounga 


Euakina 
Wliakaruhia 
Euia 
Eukea 


Eilakanga 
WhakaruJiinga 
Euinga 
Bukenga 


Eunaia 
Eunangatiii 


Eunanga 
Eunangatanga 



Eutua 

TA. 
Tangia 
Taia 
Tawhea 
Taeatia 



Eutunga 



Tonga 
Tdinga 
TawJienga 
laeatanga 



Whakataetaea Whakataetaenga 



WhakatataJiatia 

TaMetia 

Tahapatia 

Taheitia 
Taherea 
Tahia 

Tahua 

Taia 

Taiamikia 

Taiapua 
Taiaria 
Taikitia 
Taiparatia 

Taiaroatia 
Taihoatia 



Whakatatahanga 

Tdhaetanga 

Tahapanga 

Taheitanga 

TaJierenga 

Tahinga 

Tahunga 
Taianga 
Taiamikinga 

Taiapunga 
Taiaringa 
Taikitanga 
Taiparatanga 

Taiaroatanga 
Taihoatanga 



98 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Taiuru, to lean 
Takahi, trample upon 
Taka-he, do wrong, go 

wrong 

Takai, to roll up, enwrap 
Takapau, to free from 

iapu 

Takapui, to accompany 
T&kare, show eagerness 
-Takatu, prepared to start 
Takawiniwini, to scroll 
Takeke, to mesh a net 
Takitaki, to challenge 
Taki, to recount 
Tdkiri, withdraw sud- 
denly 

Takwnga, claim as just 
Tcimaki, to start involun- 
tarily 

Tame, smack one's lips 
Taami, to repress 
Tamoe, cook all night 
Tamumu, to buzz, hum 
Tane, nauseating 
Tangi, to mourn, lament 
Whakatangi, to make 

music 
Tad, cook food in earth 

oven 

Tapa, to re-name, sur- 
name 

Tapahi, to cut or chop 
Tapapa, to stoop or 

crouch 

Whakatapeha, to mis- 
apply 

Tapena, to insult 
Tapiri, to add to 
Tdpoi, to explore, tra- 
verse 

Tapoko, to enter 
Tapore, to be dismayed 
Tapu, inviolate, sacred 
Whakatapu, to sanctify 
Tapuhi, to tend, succour. 

nurse 
Tapiti, to lay together 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Taiurwa 
Takahia 
Takahetia 

Takaia 
Takapana 

Takapuia 

Takarea 

Takatutia 

Takawwwmia 

Takekea 

Takilakiti'i 

Takina 

Takiria 

Takungatia 
Tamakia 

Tamea 

Taamia 

Tamoea 

Tamumua 

Tanea 

Tangihia 

Whakatanffihia 

Taona 
Tapaina 

TapaMa 
Tapapatia 



Verbal noun. 

Taiurunga 
Takahanga 
Takalietanga 

Takainga 
Takapaunga 

Takapuinga 

Takarenga 

Takatiitanga 

Takau'inln'iningi 

Takekenga 

Takitakinga 

Takinga 

Takiringa 

Takunf/ciinnga 
Tamakinga 

Tamenga 

Taaminga 

Tamoenga 

Tamumunga 

Tanenga 

Tangihanga 

Whakatangihanga 

Taonga 
Tapanga 

Tapahanga 
Tapapatanga 



Whakatapehatia Whakatapehatanga 



Tapenaiia 
Tapiria 
Tapoia 


Tapenatanga 
Tdpiringa 
Tdpoinga 


Tapokoria 
Taporetia 
Tapua 
Whakatapua 
Tapuhia 


Tapokoranga 
Taporetanga 
Tnpunga 
Whakatapunga 
Tapuhinga 



Tapuia 



Tapuinga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



99 



Verb active. 

Whakatara, to provoke 
larai, fashion with axe 
Whakatare, to h^ng up 
Whakatari, stir to action 
Tatari, to await 
Tarona, to hang by the 

neck 
Tatai, to trace (as 

ancestry) 

Tatua, to gird the loins 
Tau, to settle, cease 

motion 

Tatau, to count, enu- 
merate 

Tauhiuhi, to sprinkle 
Whakatawaiki, enunciate 

a maxim 

Taumau, to betroth 
Taundha, to bespoak 
Taunu, to taunt, revile 
Taupiri, inseparably 

joined 

Taupuhi, betroth a virgin 
Taupuru, to choke, block 

up 
laurangi, to promise, 

pledge 
laurima, take by hand, 

foster 

TautawTii, to assist 
Tautapa, to name as 

antagonist 
Tautiti, to stick in 
Tawae, to separate 
Tawai, to jeer, scoff at 
Tdwari, to contest 
Taweke, to exhaust 
Tawhai, to rival, excel 
Tdwhiri,to wave farewell 
Tdwhiuwhiu, to whirl 

around 

Whakatete, to oppose 
Whakateki, to hang 

beyond reach 
WJiakateko, to carve (as 

an image) 

Whakatepe, do system- 
atically 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Whalcataraina 

Taraia 

Wliakatarea 

Whakataria 

Taria 

Taronatia 

Tataia 

Tatuatia 
Tattria 

Tauia 

Tauhiuhia 
WhaTcatawaikia 

Taumautla 
Taunahatia 
Taunntia 
Taupiria 

Taupitliia 
Taupu rua 

Taurangia 
Taurimatia 

Tautdwhia 
Tautapatia 

Tautitia 

Tdwdea 

Tdwaia 

Tdwaria 

Taivckea 

Tdwliaia 

Tdwhiria 

TdwMuwhiua 

WJiakatetea 
Whakatekia 

Whakatekoa 
Whakatepea 



Verbal noun. 

Whakataranga 

Tarainga 

Whakatarenga 

Whakataringa 

Tdringa 

Tdronatanga 

Tdtainga 

' Cituatanga 
Taunga 

Tauanga 

TauMuMnga 
Whakatawaikinga 

Taumautanga 
Taunahatunga 
Taunutanga 
Taupiringa 

Taupuhinga 
Toupurunga 

Tauranginga 
Taurimatanga 

Tautdwhinga 
Tautapatanga 

Tautitinga 

Tdwdenga 

Tawainga 

Tdwaringa 

Tawekenga 

Tdwhainga 

Tdwhiringa 

Tawhiuwhiunga 

Whakatetenga 
Whakatekinga 

Whakatekonga 
Whakatepenga 



100 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Whakatere, to launch on 

water 
Tia, stick in (as a 

feather in the hair) 
Titi, stick in (as a peg 

or nail) 

Tlaki, tend, guard 
Tlehu, to make lurbid 
Tihe, matihe , to sneeze 
Tlheru, to bale out 
Tlhoi, to expand centre 
Tihore, to peel, bark 
Wlialcatika, to arise, to 

correct 
Tlkaro, gouge or scoop 

out 
Whalcatilci, deprive (as 

of food) 
Tiko, to evacuate 

bowels 

Timata, begin 
Timo, to peck 
Tinei, extinguish, sup- 
press 

Tinihanga, trick, device 
Tipi, skim, pare (as 

weeds) 

Tipoka, to unesrth 
Tlrdha, place out of 

plumb 
Tiri, to plant singly, 

transplant 

Tltama, to act between 
Tiwai, ordinary, natural 
Toto, to haul, tow along 
Toetoe, to split into 

strips 
Whakatoe, to reserve, set 

aside 

Totika, direct 
Toha, to serve round 
Tohe, insist, persist 
ToM, to baptise with 

sprinkling 
Tohipu, to be exact, 

specific 
Tohu, to show, preserve 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Whakaterea 

Tiaina 

Titia 

Tlakina 

Tlehua 

Tiheia 

Tlherua 

Tlhoia 

Tlhorea 

Whakatikaina 

TlkaroJiia 
Whakatikia 



the Tikona 



Timataria 

Timoa 

Tineia 

Tinihangatia 
Tipia 

Tipokaina 
Tirdhatia 

Tiria 

Titamatia 
Tlwaia 
Tola 
Toetoea 

Whakatoea 

Totikaina 
Tohaina 
Toliea 
ToMa 

ToMpuria 
Tohungia 



Verbal noun. 
Whakaterenga 

Tiainga 
Tilinga 

Tiakanga 

Tlehunga 

Tiheinga 

Tiherunga 

Tihoinga 

Tihorenga 

Whakatikanga 

Tlkarohanga 

Whakatikinga 

Tikonga 

Timataranga 

Timonga 

Tineinga 

Tinihangatanga 
Tipinga 

Tlpokanga 
Tlrahatanga 

T-iringa 

Tttamatanga 
Tiwainga 
Toanga 
Toetoenga 



Totikanga 
Tohanga 
Tohenga 
Tohinga 

Tohipuranga 
Tohuranga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



101 



Verb active. 

Toko, to pole 
Tokomauri, to enamour 
Tomo, to enter 
Tono, to solicit, send 
Tongi, to nibble at 
Tonu, to perfect 
Tope, to cut away or 

hew down 

Toro, to visit, stretch out 
WhdkatoroiiTca, to muse 
Ton, to kindle, dip in 

liquid 

Tua, to fell (as a tree) 
Tuaki, to disembowel 
Tuha, to spit 
Tuhatuha, to apportion 
T'ahituhi, to write, 

delineate 

Tiihono, to join together 
Tui, to sew or lace 
TuTce, nudge with elbow 
Tuki, to ram or butt 
Tukituki, to pommel or 

smash 

Tukino, to ill use 
Tuku, release, cede, 

transfer 
Tumanako, await in hope 

and trust 

Tunganga, to loosen 
Tungehe, to be overawed 
Tungou, to nod as sign 
Tunguru, to lose influ- 
ence 

Tuohu, to stoop or bow 
Tupato, to be cautious, 

prudent 

Tupe, check mystic power 
Tupono, to chance upon 
Whakatupu, to cultivate, 

rear 

Tupua, to cause dread 
TuraJci, to throw or 

knock down 
Turama, lighten with 

torch 
Turi, stubborn, obstinate 



Passive or 




Imperative. 


Verbal noun. 


ToTcona 


Tokonga 


ToJcomauritia 


Tokomauritanga 


Tomolcia 


Tomolcanga 


Tonoa 


Tononga 


Tongia 


Tonginga 


Tonua 


Tonunga 


Topea 


Topenga 



Torona Toronga 

Whakatoroukatia WJiakatoroukatanga 
Toua Tounga 



Tuaina 
Tuakina 
Tuhaina 
Tuliatuhaina 
TuhituTiia 


Tuanga 
Tilakanga 
Tuhanga 
TuhatuJianga 
TuhituMnga 


Tilhonoa 
Tula 
Tukea 
Tukia 
Tukitukina 


Tuhononga 
Tuinga '"* 
Tukenga 
Tukinga 
Tukitukinga 


Tukinotia 
Tukua 


Tukinotanga 
Tukunga * 



Titmanakohia 

Tunganga tin 
Tungehea 
Tungoutia 
Tungvrua 

TuoJiva 
Tupctloria 

Tupea 

Tuponoa 

Whakatupuria 

Tupuatia 
Turakina 

Turamatia 
Turingia 



Tumanakohanga 

Tungangatanga 
Tungehenga 
Tungoutanga 
Tungurunga 

Tuohunga 
Tupatoranga 

Tupenga 

Tupononga 

Whakatupuranga 

Tupuatanga 
Turakanga 

Tfiramatanga 
Turin ga 



102 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Whakatuturu, to fix, 

confirm 
Ttitaki, to shut off, to 

meet 

Whakatuwhera, to open 
Tutara, to gossip 

WJiakawd, to arraign 

Waere, to make way 
proclaim 

Waha, to carry on back 

Waivdahi, to divide, por- 
tion out 

WJiakawahi, anoint, con- 
secrate 

Whakawai, to entice, 
beguile 

Waia, be tired ct' 

Waiata, to chant or sing 

Waiho, to leav-3 

Waikauere, omit ancient 
custom 

Waimarie, lucky, meek, 
contented 

Wairangi, deranged 

WaireTca, to enjoy 

Wana, to study (as a 
problem) 

Wananga, recite chrono- 
logically 

Wani, to brush, lightly 
skim 

WeTie, to divide or sepa- 
rate 

WhaTcawehi, frighten, 
terrify 

Wero, pierce, stab 

Wewete, to loosen, untie 

Wiri, tremble or shudder 



Whakangd, to inhale, 

breathe 

NgdeJie, to rustle 
Ngaeke, to tend, rear 
Ngaeki, yielding to touch 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Whakatiitiirutia 
Ttltakina 

Whakatuwheratia 
Tutaratia 

WA. 

Whakawakia 
Waerea 

Waliangia 
Wawaahia 

Whakawahia 
Whakawaia 

Waiatia 
Waiatatia 
Waihotia 
Waikauerea 

Waimarietia 

Wairangilia 

Wairekatia 

Wanaia 

Wanangatia 
Wania 
Wehea 
Whakawehia 

Werohia 

Wetekina 

Winia 

NGA. 
Whakangatia 

Ngaehea 
Ngdekea 
Ngdekia 



Verbal noun. 
Whakatuturutanga 

Tutakanga 

Whakatu ich erata nga 
Tutaratanga 

Whakawakanga 
Waerenga 

Wahanga 
Wdwdhanga 

Wli akawaMnga 
Whakawainga 

Waidtanga 
Waiatatanga 
Wailwtanga 
Waikauerenga 

Waimarietanga 

Wairangitanga 

Wairekatanga 

Wananga 

Wanangatanga 
Waninga 
Wehenga 
Whakawehinga 

Werohanga 
Wetekanga 
Wininga 

Whakangdtanga 

NgdeTienga 
Ngdekenga 
Ngdekinga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



103 



active. 

Sgaere, to quake (as a 

bog) 
NgaMe, rip or burst 

open 
Tl hakangaliau, divert 

amuse 
Whakana, to satisfy or 

gratify 
Whakangakau, io brood 

over 
Ngdkait-kore, faint- 

hearted 

y ff&kau-nui, stout- 
hearted 

Ngaki, to work, operate 
hgatata, to rattle (as 

bones) 

Ngateri, to vibrate 
Ngata, to gratify 
Ngatete, to creak 
Ngait, to bite, chew, 

gnaw 
Ngaueue, to shake, 

quake 

Ngawhi f to suffer penalty 
Ngongoro, to gurgle, 

snore 

N gun guru, to grunt 
Whawlia, feel for, grope 
WTiai, to follow 
Whakaangi, to fly (as a 

kite) 

Whawhai, to fight 
Whawhai, to be ia haste 
TFTzawTioia, destroy by 

magic 
Whai-a-ipo, to woo, 

follow up 
WhaSHonffa, to build, 

construct 
Wliakawhaiti, abridge, 

compress 

Wltawhaki, to pluck 
Wharuilco, to steal, rob 
Whano, to verge towards 
Wlmnga, to await 
Whangai, to feed or 

nourish 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Ngaerea 

Ngahaetia 

Whakangaliautia 

Whakanatia 

Whakangakautia 

Ngakaukorea 

N gakauniiitia 

Ngakia 
Ngatatatia 

Ngateria 
Ngataria 
Ngatetetia 
Ngaua 

Ngaueiietia 



Ngongorotia 

Ngungurutia ' 
WhmcMtia 
Whaia 
Whakaangia 

Whaivliaitia 

WJidwhaia 

Whaiwhaiatia 

Whaiaipotia 

Whaihangatia 

WhakatvMititia 

Whawhakia 

Whanakotia 

Whanoa 

Whangatia 

WJiangaitia 



Verbal noun. 
Ngcierenga 

NgaJifietanga 

Whakangahautanga 

Whakanatanga 

Whakangakautanga 

Ngakaukorenga 

Ngakaunuitanga 

Ng alcing a 
Ngatatatanga 

Ngateringa 
Ngatanga 
Ngatetenga 
Ngaunga 

Ngaueuetanga 

Ngawhinga 
Ngongorotanga 

Ngungurutanga 
Whawhatanga 
Whdinga 
Whakaanginga 

Whaiohaitanga 

Whmvhainga 

Whaiwhaiatanga 

Whaiaipotanga 

WJiaihangatanga 

Whakawhaitinga 

Wlnawhakinga 

Whanakotanga 

Whanonga 

Whanganga 

Whangaitanga 



104 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Verb active. 

Whawhao, to stow in 
Whakarawe, to provide, 

furnish 
Whakarauora, save from 

death 

Whariki, to carpet 
Whawhati, to break off, 

snap 

Whatu, to weave finely 
Whakawhere,to conciliate 
Whakawhiwhi, to pro- 
vide, supply 
Whio, to whistle 
Whiri, to plait, twist 
Whakawhirinaki, to rely 

upon 

Whiti, to cross 
Whitiki, to gird (as the 

loins) 
Whiriwhiri, to select, 

choose 

Whiu, to whip 
Whakangaio, to pretend 



Passive or 
Imperative. 

Whawhdotia 
Whalcarawea 



Verbal noun. 

Whaifhaotanga 
Whakarawenga 



Whakarauoratia Whakarauoratanga 



Wharikitia 
Whawhatiia 

Whatua 

Whakawherea 

Whakawhiivhia 

Whioa 
Whiria 
Whakaivhirinakitia 

Whitia 
Whltikitia 

Whiriwhiria 

Whiua 
Whakangaiotia 



Wharikitanga 
Whaichatinga 

Whatunga 
Whakakwherenga 
Wha ka ivh iwhingn 

Whionga 
Whiringa 
Whakawhirinakitanga 

Whit in ga 
Wlritikiktanga 

WhiriwJriringa 

Wliiunga 
Whakanf/aiotanga 



NOTE. Some of the foregoing verbs require the prefix whaka, 
as they are of a causative nature. 



CHAPTER X. 

ON COLOUR. 
SHADES, HUES, TINTS, STAINS, ETC. 

Para is the term most generally employed to denote 
colour : 

Kd hou te para ki te rakau, nd ko ia te nd e puta na te 
tde: The colour (ing) matter enters into the wood and 
produces that stained appearance, or d} r e. 

Ko te para na te na e whakaputa na i ngd pudwai me 
nga hiia 6 te rakau : That is the colour which appears in 
the flowers and the fruit of the trees. 

See also "lie para kokowai," an ochre colour. 
"JV^rt-para," resin from which the colouring matter for 
tattooing was prepared. 

The seven chief colours are thus expressed: 

Parawhero, red. Parakaraka, orange. 

Parokowhai, yellow. Parakdkdriki, green. 

Parauri, blue. Tuduri, indigo. 
Tudpokere, violet. 

Speaking of the hair of the head the first syllable 
"pa" is used: 

P^-wliero, red hair, red head. P&-tito, scabby head. 

PB.-hore, barehead. Pa-Hra, baldhead. 

PH-keha, turnip (coloured) head, clear and white, or 
pale. 

P&pango, black-headed, Widgeon bird. 

Pa/taw, beard. Pa-fcwro, red-headed as the Pukeko 
bird, or Swamp-hen. 

105 



106 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Kakano or kano also denotes colour: 

And i no, kei te kakano o te pdua, even as the 
beautiful varying colours of the pdua shell (HaUotis) . 

He pounamu kakano rua, a bi-coloured greenstone. 

He aha te kano o td-ou kuri, what is the colour of thy 
dog? 

(See also kakano, fruit or berries, coloured.) 

Ahua, appearance, includes form and colour. 

Ahua /i i/a, driaria, resemblance. 

Kawiti, hue, hues : 

Kei te kawiti o te Pdua, the pdua shell whose many 
hues confess, 

Ano i na ko Kahukura tonu, the varied colours of the 
Rainbow's dress. 

Kaka, fibre or grain of wood. 

Parapara, coloured. Parahua, many-coloured. 

Paratea, light colour, clear. Parauri, deep colour, blue. 

Parariki, rusty colour. Parawera, burnt colour. 

Paramanawa, colour one loves. 

Parangunu, roasted colour. Parawhenua, earth colour. 

Parahoro, water discoloured by a landslip. 

Para, coloured with pimples or blotches (of the skin). 

Adtea, clear atmosphere of day; transparent, bright 
world, space. 

Aduri, day or light blue. ' 

Pduri, night or deep blue. 

Pouriuri, twilight blue. 

Mdanauri, blue ocean. 

Adrangi, sky world ; light and intelligence. Divine. 

Pdrangi, lower world ; darkness and non-intellectual. 

Adtea, Manakotea 



.- the Magellan clouds. 
Ao-un, manakoun \ 

Taidd, force of light, life, intelligence, construction. 
Taipd, force of darkness, death, destruction, oblivion. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 107 

WHITE. 

Ma tonu, perfectly white. Ma, white. 
Mdrikoriko, to glitter. 
Ko ma, pale grey, light coloured. 

Md kotingtinqo } 

'.spotted white, as animals. 

Purepure ma 

Md tuawhero, white inclined to reddish, pink. 

Md whakahekeheke, striped white. 

Md manangu, darkish white. 

Waikurakura, rusty grey. 

Ahua md, white appearance. 

Kirilea, kahurangi, fair, or clear-skinned. 

Hina or mdhinafrina, grey-haired. 

Hurukehu, light-coloured hair. 

Mdrama, clear; transparent as Ad Mdrama. 

BLACK. 

Pango tonu, ma,ngu tonu, perfectly black. 
Pdngo, mangu, black. 

Mangumangu, black for blacking with, ink; a negro. 
Parauri, blue black, of the complexion. 
Whero-mamangu, bay, dark red. 
Pouri, dark blue. Po kapua, dark clouds. 
Hinau, permanent black dye extracted from the bark 
of the Hinau tree (Elceocarpus dentatus}. 

RED. 

Whero tonu, tino whero, intensely red. 
Whero, red. Whero tangike, peculiar red. 
Kurawhero, choice red. Whewhero, reddish. 
Koivhero, pale red. Piiwhero, pink. 
Whero mamangu, dark red. Wheriko, glittering. 
Kura, choice colour, scarlet (see under kura}. 
Pdkurakura, choice crimson (see under kura). 



108 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Ngangana, bright shiny red. 

Parakaraka, orange. (This colour is seen in the 
Karaka, Poroporo, Kawakawa and Kohia berries.) 
YELLOW. 

Parakowhai, a rich yellow dye obtained from the bark 
of the Kowhai tree (Sophora t et rapt era} . 

Karamu, yellow (obtained from the bark of Karamu 
tree). 

Whanariki, sulphurous yellow. 

BLUE. 

Uri, blue. (See Aduri, po uri, moana uri, etc.) 
(The colour that is seen in the feathers of the Pukeko, 
Kotaretare, and other birds.) 

GREEN. 

Kakariki, green. (Name of green parrot and green 
lizard.) 
Pounamu, greenstone (also used for green). 

PURPLE. 

Pokere, purple. (Seen in the purple kumara, taro, 
and in the flesh of the tawa, taraire and kohutuhutu 
berries.) 

Tuapokere, violet. (Seen most particularly in the 
flowers of the koromiko or veronica.) 

BROWN. 

Parapararau, colour of autumn leaves; brown. 
Paratanekaha, brown, from bark of Tdnekaha tree. 

INDIGO. 
Tiiauri, blue black or black blue ; indigo. 

DYE. 
Tde, dye. See parawetd and tutae. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



109 



FADED. 

Hdtea, faded. Kud hdtea te tde, the dye has now 
faded. 

In addition to the foregoing, there are innumerable 
terms for varieties and modifications of colours and tints 
Kura-whero, choice red; kura-pango, choice black, etc. 

INSECTS AND REPTILES. 



Ikawhenua 

Ngdrara-huarau, a mam- 
moth reptile with feet. 
Ngdrara, insect and small 

reptilia. 
Tiiatara, N.Z. iguana, 

mammoth N.Z. lizard. 
Kuri or pero, dog. 
Popokorua, ant. 
Matuhitiwhiti, grasshopper 
Ngata, slug. 
Titiwaiora, K a p o w a i, 

dragon fly. 
Ngaro, common fly. 
Pepe, butterfly. 
Hauwaha, caterpillar. 
Awheto, Hotete, large 

caterpillar. 

Hawato 1 vegetable 
Awhato \ caterpillar. 
Wen J 

Pungdwerewere, spider 
Kararehe, animal (plural. 

kirehe}. 

Tdtarakihi, locust. 
Pupu-rangi, snail. 
Eango-tarnumu, pair 11, 

humming fly. 
Purelmreliu, moth. 
Piliareinga, cricket. 
Katipo, venomous spider. 

N.Z. 



Amphibian. 

Mumutawa, ladybird. 

Wetd, N.Z. tree cricket. 

Mokomoko, pdpd, lizard. 

Rd-mantis, jackstraw. 

Tunga, soft wood grub. 

Kihikihi, chrysalis. 

Tiingoungou, larva, grub. 

Namu and Ndende, sandfly. 

Riha, nits. 

Toke, worm. 

Purdtoke, glow worm. 

Kiori ti: kiore ~] death 
tangiwairuru \ watch 

Tdkititri } beetle. 

Neinei, midge. 

Kiitukiitu, iro, maggots. 

Pokopoko, frog, 

Pokopoko, N.Z. frog (?). 
Pokokere (?), Pangoke- 
reia ( Whakatohea] . 

Pekapeka, bat. 

Wen, centipede. 

Kdkariki, green lizard. 

JliiJni, grub. 

Mokoroa, hard wood grub. 

Kekererit, black bug, cock- 
roach. 

Wderoa, mosquito. 

Kutu, louse. 

Tuiau, keha, flea. 

Kiore, rat. 



110 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



FISH. 



Ika ngohi, fish. 

Ed, hdkari, /ma, eggs, 
spawn, roe. 

Rdngai ika, shoal of fish. 

Tutara kauika, ocean hosts. 

Te ivehenga kauika, whale 
family. 

Kdhui-moana, denizens of 
the ocean (collectively).. 

Pardoa, sperm whale. 

Kekeno, seal. 

Takapane. 

Tuatini, blue shark. 

Mako-taniwha, tiger shark 
(found off Mayor Island) 

Mango-pare, hammer- 
headed shark. 

Urerua, strong and bold 
shark, with double penis. 

Kapeta, dog fish. 

Tupoupou, upokorua, por- 
poise. 

Pakake, sea lion, also 
whale. 

Tohoraha or Tohord, whale 

Mango, shark. 

Ptoke, young dog fish. 

Pdea, sword fish. 

Warehenga, 'haku, kingfish. 

Whdpuku, mammoth cod- 
fish ( groper) . 

Whai, Pdkaurua, (also 
manumanu), stingray, 
skate. 

Tuoro, monster eel; or 
Taniwha. 

Wheke, cuttle fish. 

Para, hiku, frost fish. 

Ran, ling. 



Ngii, devil fish, squid. 

Kopiiwaitotara, porcupine 
fish. 

Kloretoropuku, kioreta- 
whiti, sea horse. 

Kanae, mullet. 

Pdkmkiri, blue cod. 

Mararl, butter fish. 

Pdtiki, flat fish. 

Upokororo, grayling. 

Korowhdwhd, anchovy. 

Makuwhiti, koheru,herrmg 

Mdomdo, "Ditrema vio- 
lacea." 

Kahawai, N.Z. salmon. 

Tdmure, schnapper. 

Kohi, hokahoka, trumpeter. 

Warehou, sea bream. 

Papaki, large-headed fish, 
unfit for food, bad smell. 

Tarakihi. 

Kina, "echinus," sea egg. 

Pdua, mutton fish. 

Pdpaka, crab. 

Kumukumu, gurnard. 

Reperepe, nautilus. 

Kuku, kutai, mussel. 

Piipu, periwinkle. 

Inanga, whitebait. 

Ngoiro, conger eel. 

Whairepo, mammoth sting- 
ray. 

Nohu, ape fish ( ?). 

Koura, crayfish. 

Manga, barracouta. 

Reperepe, nautilus, ele- 
phant fish (see Koro- 
pepe}. 

Maroro, flying fish. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



111 



PakuraUura, red mullet. 

Moihi, smelt. 

Parore, bream, black perch 

Hake, sole. 

Takihi, ihe, takeke, garfish. 

Kourarangi, shrimp. 

Aua, sprat. 

Tawatawa, ature, mackerel. 

Kuparu, johndory. 

Maratea, red schnapper. 

Araara, trevalli, yellow tail 

Moki, "Latris eiliaris." 

Hanu, turtle. 

Toheroa, mammoth shell 

fish. 
Ngakiki, mutton fish 

variety. 
Tio, oyster. 
Porohe, small variety 

mussel. 
Pipi, cockle. 
Kopuputai, sponge. 
Rimu, kelp, seaweed. 
Tuna-heke, eel (fat). 
Tuna, common eel. 



P ilia r a u, puhikorokoro, 
boneless eel, lamprey 
(similar to Tuere) (from 
salt to fresh water). 

Papanoko, "Te ika huna a 
Tdne," red fins, fresh- 
water. 

Kokopu, trout. 

Kewai, crayfish. 

Pahuhu, spotties. 

Tuere, blind eel (from 
fresh to salt water). 

Karawaka, silver-bellies. 

Kdkahi, freshwater shell 
fish. 

Matau, fishhook. 

Aho, line. 

Hi, to angle. 

Kalio, fishing rod. 

Mata, tara, barb, point. 

Maunu, bait. 

Huti ika, to catch fish, 
catching. 

Ron, with hook attached to 
the rod. 



Kdkano, seed. 
Whakapihi, shoots. 
Ko timu, stump. 
Tupu, a plant. 
Tinana, trunk, barrel. 
Ran, leaves. 
Pua, bud. 
Hua, fruit. 

Tamore } , , 
,. - trunk. 

linana i 

Kduru, head. 
Manga, peka, branch. 
Hono, fork. 



RAKAU TREES. 

Kauri, ' ' Agathis aus- 

tralis." 

Rimu, red pine. 
Rdtd, ' ' Inland Metroside- 

ros." 

Puriri, ''Vitex littoralis." 
Mai, ''Podocarpus spi- 

cata" (?) 

Manuka, mammoth teatree. 
Pihi, sprout. 
Pakiaka, Paiaka. root. 
Putake, base. 
Tata, stalk. 



112 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Mahuri, plants. 

Koare, Kauri sapling. 

Ptiawai, blossom. 

Maoa, ripe. 

Mata. unripe. 

Kotimu, stump. 

Kaka, grain. 

Pona, Puku, knob. 

T 6 1 a r a, " Podoearpus 

totara." 

Kahikatea, white pine. 
Pohutukawa, ' ' Coast Met- 

rosideros. ' ' 
Maire, ' ' Soulatum Cun- 

ninghami. ' ' 
Matal, "Podoearpus 

speciata." 

Kahikdtoa, tea tree scrub. 
Akerautangi, "Dodonea 

viscosa." 
Eewarewa, ' ' K n i g h t i a 

excelsis. ' ' 
Miro. 

Tltoki, Alectryon (pro- 
duces black dye). 
Tdwhiri, Pittosporum (?). 
Kowhai, (produces yellow 

dye). 

Kohekohe, cedar. 
Aide, "Papyrifera." 
Towai, "Weinmannia race- 

mosa. " 

Mdnawa, mangrove. 
Parapara (Pisonia), a bird 

and insect killer. 
Tarata, Pittosporum. 
Matipou, red birch. 
Tdtaka, silver leaf birch. 
Pukapuka, wliar angi, 
rangiora, mammoth leaf. 



Patea, Patate. 

Horopito, ' ' Drimys axil- 
laris." 

Kaikomako, fire tree (bot. 
' Pennant ia corymbosa') 

Ramarama, myrtle. 

Popokonuiahura, P ik i- 
arero, clematis. 

Tl kumu, Southern. 

Karamu, Coprosma. 

Tol "Cordyline indivisa. " 

Koran, tree fern. 

Koliutuliutu, N.Z. fuchsia. 

Ti, cabbage tree. 

To harakeke, Korari, flax 
stalk. 

Aka, climber, vine. 

Pananehu, greens. 

Keha, a kind of turnip. 

Mokimoki, scented fern. 

Pokue tororaro, wild con- 
volvulus. 

Taramea, a very fragrant 
smelling prickly plant. 

Toatoa |"Phyllocladus 

Tdnekaha] trichomanoides ' : 

Pukatea, Laurelia. 

Tawa, "Nesodaphnetawa." 

Whlnau, ' ' Elaeocarpus clen- 
tatus." 

Mangedo. 

Kawakawa, "Piper excel- 
sum." 

Ngaio. 

Karaka, also koroire. 

Taupata. 

Tawdi, black birch. 

T a r a i r e, " Nesodaphne 

taraire." 
Horoweka, lancewood. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



113 



Aka torotoro, creepers, 

climbers. 

Tl Pore (Northern). 
Mdnore, white wood. 
N%kau, N.Z. Palm. 
Kokihi, N.Z. Spinach. 
Harakeke, flax plant. 
Koromiko, veronica. 
Kawariki, a plant. 
Puka, broad, green, smooth, 

shiny leaf, mistletoe. 



Kdretu, scented grass. 
Taro, ' ' Arum esculentum. ' ' 
Rape, large variety. 
Korinorino, mottled woods. 
Wdo nui a Tdne, great 

forest of Tane. 
Te manu huna a Tdne, the 

extinct bird of Tane. 

Refers to the extinction 

of the Moa, "Dinornis." 



" is the tutelary deity of the forest. Lesser 
tutelary deities are : 

Hani, of the totara (Te Taukai, of the Rimu. 

rakau a Hani). Hukuao, of Koromiko. 

Rurutangiakau, of Maire. Puwhakahoro, of Akerau- 
Kurateahuru, of Horopito. tangi. 

Taiiho, uho, heart. Taitea, sap. 

"He riri ano td te taua ulio; lie riri ano id te taua 
para": "The strength of the heart is greater than that 
of the sap." Or, "The actions of a Chieftain are far 
superior to those of a plebeian." 



Hine kotau ariki, pet term 

for the tender scroll of 

budding fern. 
Whau, olive, "Entelea." 
Parataichiti (fern) "Ma- 

rattia salicina." 
Toetoe, giant grass. 
Tl tawhiti, cordyline. 
Kawariki, a plant. 
Keha, nanl, wild turnip. 
Kowhai ngutu kaka, Kaka 

beak or red kowhai. 
Runa, dock. 

Rengarenga, h'ly plant. 
Piihd, Rauriki, thistle. 



Kiekie, "Freycinetia bank- 

sii." 
WItarawhara, " A s t e 1 i a 

banksii." 

Pouwaka, Avater lily. 
Tdtaramoa, bramble. 
Karedo, supplejack. 
Tl Eouka, 

Raukawa, scented plant. 
Tamtaru, weeds. 
Koheriki, a plant. 
Rahurahu, common fern. 
Wdoriki. 
Mauku, smaller varieties 

of pretty bush ferns. 



114 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

"E koa c nga mauku o roto o te Motu, ka mate a 

Maruwehea. ' ' 
"Rejoice ye ferns within the wood, Maruwehea is 

dead." 

A very fragrant and lasting scent was prepared from 
the crushed leaves of the mokimoki fern, and the karetu 
flowering grass mixed with the gum (ware) of the Tarata, 
and steeped in oil procured from Titoki berries. hinu 
topitopi. In little scent bags these were worn around 
the neck, hei wliakakakara, and were much prized. Oft- 
times have mothers sung of their infants, and lovers of 
each other: 

Taaku hei piripiri my piripiri circlet (scented moss). 
Taaku Jiei mokimoki my mokimoki circlet (scented 

fern). 

Taaku hei tawhiri my tawhiri necklet (fragrant gum). 
Taaku kati taramea my taramea, pricklet (scented 

plant). 
Saying : 

"I rongo ano a au, he patunga mokimoki te wai o 

Punakitau. ' ' 

To A LOVED ONE. 

To uru i piua ki te wai o te Kakahi : 
To kiri mirimiri ki te hinu Taramea, 
Ripo ana te kakara, e 

Thy hair laved with the waters of purification : 
Thy skin anointed with the oil of Taramea, 
Whose rippling perfume 

In connection with their marriage services, the 
Chatham Islanders, having first recited the antiquity 
and sacredness of the principle of joining in matri- 
monial alliance, sang to the young couple (Pol. Journal, 
vol. vi., p. 146) : 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 115 

No Puriri, no Huatapu te urunga nei 
Matiketike te urunga nei, marangaranga te urunga nei, 
E tapu: e kura. 

No Karetu, no Taramea te urunga nei, 

Matiketike te urunga nei, marangaranga te urunga 

nei, 

& tapu: e kura. 

No Piripiri, no Pirinoa te urunga nei, 

Matiketike te urunga nei. marangaranga te urunga 

nei. ,-, , 

E tapu : e kura. 

No Mokimoki, no Pat ere, te urunga nei, 
Matiketike te urunga nei, marangaranga te urunga nei. 
E tapw: e kura. 

TRANSLATION. 
Of strong Puriri, of vigorous Huatapu is this 

alliance, 

Be fruitful this alliance, be prosperous this alliance, 
Be sacred: be treasured. 

Of perfumed Karetu, of fragrant Taramea, is this 

alliance, 

Be fruitful this alliance, be thriving this alliance. 
Be sacred: be treasured. 

Of odorous Piripiri, of aromatic Pirinoa is this 

alliance, 

Be fruitful this alliance, be prosperous this alliance. 
Be sacred: be treasured. 

Of sweet scented Mokimoki, or spicy Patere, is this 

alliance, 
For bearing upward this alliance, for weaving 

together this alliance. 

Be sacred: be treasured. 



116 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Some of the trees and plants mentioned in this old- 
time marriage ritual are peculiar to New Zealand ; they 
do not grow at the Chathams. But the Chatham Island 
lily now grows freely in New Zealand. 

Rdkau ivhakarde, evergreen trees. 

Rake, uru, or puia, grove (Rake Mahoe). 

Pukohu kakara, scented moss. 

Motu Ngdherehere, isolated tree clump. 

Ngahere, wood, bush, forest. 

Tumu, clump of large trees. 

Koraha, open fern land. 

Huaranga, to transplant. 

Tin, to plant at regular intervals. 

(NOTE. The Taupata and Tarata survive blizzards.) 

BIRDS MANU. 



Moa, "Dinornis." 
Hokioi, a mythical bird 

(? eagle). 
Kdhoperoa, Kawekawed, 

long-tailed cuckoo. 
Kdahu, hawk. 
Kdrewarewa-tara, bush 

hawk. 
Kdkdkura, crimson and 

white parrot. 
Kdkdriki, green parrot. 
Kokorimako, bell bird. 
Huia, "Heteralocha acuti- 

rostris." 

Weka, wood hen. 
Par era, grey duck. 
Whiorau, blue duck. 
Matapo, or Tete, teal. 
Kokako, wattled crow. 
Koitdreke, or koreke, quail. 
Puweto, swamp rail. 



Pdtaitai, striped rail. 

Koukou, or ruru, owl. 

Purourou, lark. 

Toutouwai, Totoara, robin. 

Tlwaiwaka or Plrakaraka, 
fantail. 

Miromiro, pied tit. 

Klkltori, a bird (extinct ?) 

Puauau, bush wren. 

Matuhi, green wren. 

Tuturiwhalu, plover. 

Tltlpounamu, or pihipihi, 
rifleman. 

Tleke, Jackbird, saddle- 
back. 

Takahea, "Notornis man- 
telli." 

Kiwi, "Apteryx." 

Piplwharauroa, shining 
cuckoo. 

Kdeaea, sparrow hawk. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



117 



Kdkd, brown parrot. 
Kdkdtarapo, night parrot. 
Ked, mountain parrot. 
Till, parson bird. 
Kukupa, wood pigeon. 
Pukeko or Pdkura, swamp 

hen. 
Putangitangi, p a r a d is e 

duck. 

Tarawhatu, brown duck. 
Pdpango, widgeon. 
Kotuku, white heron. 
Toitoi, creeper. 
Mohopereru, rail. 



Kotaretarc, kingfisher. 
Kawau, shag. 
Plhoihoi, ground lark. 
Upokotea, canary head. 
Kiroriro, gray warbler, 

tomtit. 

Tdmoioio, a bird (extinct?) 
Matuku, bittern. 
Mdtdtd, swamp wren. 
Whiorangi, blight bird (a 

new comer). 
Hihi, stitch bird. 
Piopio, thrush. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Manu tuduru, a "rara 
avis. ' ' 

Manu tute, leader of a 
flock. 

Hurumanu, the smaller 
feathers. 

Awe manu,ihe white breast 
feathers with skin at- 
tached. 



Hua manu, the eggs. 
Ahere manu, bird noose. 
Mdhanga, a snare. 
Pokai manu, flock of birds. 
Manu mokai, decoy bird. 
Houmanu, or piki, the 
larger feathers, plumes. 
Pi manu, the young. 
Tdhere manu, bird spear. 



SEA BIRDS. 



Huianui, or, Toroa, alba- 
tross. 

Toroapango, dark alba- 
tross. 

Taranui, giant tern. 

Matuku moana, sea bittern. 

Kuia, brown gull. 

Kiiaka, godwit. 

Korord, penguin (blue). 

Torea, oyster catcher. 

Tuturiwhatu, dottrel. 

Kdruhiruhi, pied shag. 

Amokura, frigate bird. 

(K, Gould's petrel. 

Pdrerarera, sandpiper. 



Hdkoakoa, seahawk. 

Takupu, gannet. 

Tara, tern. 

Karoro, gull. 

Tarapunga, mackerel gull. 

Taiko, black petrel. 

U'poko tiwha, or Tdwhaki, 

crested penguin. 
Pohowera, banded dottrel. 
Kawau, cormorant. 
Aroarotea, white-breasted 

shag. 

Titl, mutton bird. 
Tutumata, stilt. 
Weweia, dabchick. 



CHAPTER XI. 



PROPER NAMES. 

Tama nui te ra, illustrious son (of) the day; ruler 
of day; sungod; emblem of light, life (not to be con- 
founded with Te Manu-i-te-ra, a comet). 

Hine nui te po, illustrious daughter (of) the night, 
ruler of night, moon goddess, emblem of darkness, death. 

Tamahine, son and daughter, son of daughter. 

As Tama represents the son. or male, so Hine repre- 
sents the daughter, or female. These terms therefore 
enter very largely into the scheme of Maori proper names, 
thus : 

Tamarangi. Hinerangi, of the sky, Heaven. 

Tamaao, Hineao, of the light of the world. 

Tamaarangi, Hinearangi, heavenly, divine. 

Tamakura, Hinekura, precious wisdom, divine. 

Tainaata, Hineata, of the morning. 

Tamapo, Hinepo, of the night. 

Tamatea. Hinetea, fair. 

Tamarua, Hinerua, duality. 

Tamarau, Hinerau. universality. 

Tamarapa, Hinerapa, to cling. 

Tamaahu, Hineahu, of industry. 

Tamaharangi, Hineharangi. of the breath of heavenly 
life. 

Tamatai. Hinetai, of natural forces. 

Tamahau. Hinehau, of the winds. 

Tamakapua, Hinekapua, of the clouds. 

Tamawai, Hinewai, of the waters. 

118 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 119 

Tamamoana, Hinemoana, of the ocean. 

Tamawera, Hinewera, of heat. 

Tamaahi, Hineahi, of fire. 

Tamaru, Hineru, of earthquake and volcano. 

Tamamanu, Hinemanu, of birds. 

Tamaika, Hineika, of fish. Merman, mermaid. 

Tamamoa, Hinemoa, of the moa, Dinornis. 

Tamarei. Hinerei, of treasure. 

Tamatiri, Hinetiri, of the plantation. 

Tamauri. Hineuri, of descent, darkness. 

Tamarepe, Hinerepe, of the Nautilus. 

Tamahiri, Hinehiri, of cycles. 

Tamawhiti, Hinewhiti, of the crossing. 

(Hinewai-maori. Hinewaitai.) 

And so on through the realms of universal phenomena 
and abstract conception. These terms (tama and hine) 
may also be attached to verbs, adjectives, or nouns that 
serve to illustrate natural or particular requirements, 
conditions, or incidents. 

Rangi. the apparent source of light and life furnishes 
expressive terms: 

Rangimarama. of clearness. Rangihaeata, of the dawn. 
Rangiora. of life. Rangituhi, of delineation. 

Mapuhiarangi, purity of heaven. 

The articles are also employed thus: 

Te Hau. Nga Hau, the wind, the winds. 

Te Moana, Nga Moana, the ocean, the oceans. 

Te Ua. Nga Ua, the rain, the rains. 

Te Tihi, Nga Tihi, the height, the heights, the pinnacle. 

Te Puhi. Nga Puhi, the plume, the plumes, the virgins. 

Te ITuka, Nga Huka, the frost, frosts. 

Te Waka, Nga Waka, the canoe, the canoes. 

To Toa. Nga Toa, the hero, the heroes. 



120 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Te Whare, Nga Whare, the house, the houses. 

Te Maunga, Nga Maunga, the mountain, the mountains. 

Te Rua, Nga Rua, the pit, the pits. 

The article is also used to illustrate individual charac- 
teristics or peculiarities : 

Te Hake, the hunchback; Te Haua, the cripple; Te 
Whito, the dwarf ; and these in many cases supersede 
such person's true name. 

Nga iwi, Nga-Puhi, Nga-I- te Rangi, Nga-ti-Rangi, 
compared with Te tini o Uetahi, Te tini o Tonga nui, 
Te tini uri-o-Hua, Ko (te) tini o te Aawhe-tu-uri, 
Te uri-Taniwha, Nga Tini uri, Tangata, sufficiently show 
the various forms of the tribal prefix, conventionally 
written, "Ngati." This suffixed ti is a contraction 
of tini numbers, numerous. A-ti-Puhi, A-ti-Awa, and 
A-ti-Hau is another form of contraction. Ngati must 
not, therefore, be confounded with tiri (descendant) ; it 
is an abbreviation of nga tini. 

ON PLACE NAMES. 
"By lake, stream, shore, wood, or mountain." 

Tairea, high spring tides. 

Tidal waves. 
Nehutai, sea spray. 
Taihua, high prolific tide. 
Taipakupaku, low tides." 

Kohutai, sea foam. Muritai ) 

T^ i\r Vsea breeze 

Karetai, sea surface. Muriwai } 

Karewai, water surface. 

Taiharuru, sounding sea. Taiauru, westerly sea. 

Ngataitangirua, ' the sea's 

duet. 
Taingarue, sea billows. Taiapua, embraced by the 

sea. 

Huatai, sea froth. Tirotiromoana, ocean view. 

M5anataiari. dashing ocean Tangaroa, the Sea God. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



121 



Te Amai, sea swell, quiet. 
Tai Tonga, South sea. 
Waitangi, wailing waters. 

Waiouru. 

Waingongoro, gurgling 

waters. 

Waimarie, peaceful waters. 
Waiwhakaiho. 
Waimatomato, cool placid 

waters. 

Waipapa, vale of waters. 
Wai tai, tidal water. 

brackish water. 
Waimakariri, cold waters. 
Te Awarere, the flowing 

stream. 
Awatere, fast flowing 

stream, or river. 
Puamoeawa, sleeping river 

blossom. 

Waimarama, clear waters. 
Waimate, dead (i.e., slug- 
gish) waters. 

Waituhi, pencilled waters. 
Ngaruawaahia, the parting 

(of waters) (see context). 
Ngawaiwaahia, the parting 

waters. 

Hau-mihi-ata, "incense- 
breathing morn." 
Manu tai, sea bird. 
Waimatuhirangi. w r aters 

pencilled by the sky. 
Waiwhakata, water mirror. 

water of reflection. 
Waikowhai, waters of the 

laburnum. 
Waipunab.au, fount of 

water and air. 



Tai Tokerau, North sea. 
Te Akau, the surf. 
Wairipori'po, rippling 

waters. 
Wai-6-ngana. 



Wai Maori, fresh water. 



Waiwera, hot waters. 



Wairarapa, glist'n'g waters. 
Wairere, flowing waters. 

Waimarino, calm peaceful 
waters. 



122 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Waitara, water flowing 

from mountain peak. 
Mangarua, twin branch. 
Te Huinga wai, the joining 

waters. 
Wai-nui-6-mata, waters of 

great weeping, of thy 

great tear drops. 
Waitemata, the obsidian 

water. 
"Waiarangi, heavenly 

waters. 
Ruawaahia, split in two. 

Roto, lake. 
Rotomahana, warm lake. 

Rotoiti, narrow lake. 
Waikare, water surface. 
Rotokino, bad lake. 

Puia ,Waiariki, hot spring. 

geyser. 
Whakarewarewa, melter, 

dissolver. 
Taupo, gloom, shrouded. 

dark, shadowed. 
Pukaki, scrofulous neck. 
Te Kapo, the lightning. 
Manowai, extermination. 
Whakatipu, to cultivate, to 

add increase. 
Manawa-pouri, sad or 

gloomy heart. 
Te Anau, move to and fro 

(as lake reeds in a 

breeze) . 

Waiharoto, lakelets. 
Horowhenua. earth swal- 

lower, earth sink, earth 

slide. 



Ngawaipurua, 
the waters. 



meeting of 



Waipounamu, greenstone 
water. 



Wahanga, bursting (ap- 
plied to Mt. Tarawera). 

Haroto, lakelet. 

Rotorua, crater, or twin 
lake. 

Rotokare, surface lake. 

Rotoehu, turbid lake. 

Rotoma, white lake (white 
sandy shore and bottom) 

Tarawera, hot peak (fiery 
mount) . 



Hau, Thy winds. 



Waikawa, waters of bitter- 
ness. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



123 



Waitomo, water entrance 
(caves). 

Puna, fount, spring. 

Puwaha, W a h a p u, K o- 
pounga, mouth, empty- 
ing into sea. 

Omapere, to cut off, re- 
move. (Antagonistic to 
life.) 

Ruapehu, to spout, explo- 
sive crater, blow hole, 
belching crater. 

Naki. peak. 

Taranaki. violent peak. 

Pihanga, vent, ventilator. 

Tongariro, the remote 
South. 

Ruahine. old lady. 

Kaimanawa, heart eating. 

Hikurangi. tail (last) of 
the day; sunset on high 
mountain. 

Tutamoi, standing to sink. 

Maunganui, great mount. 

Houhora, spreading in- 
terior. 

Te rerenga wairua, the 
spirit's flight (place). 
Cape Maria. 

Ohaupo, ye winds of the 
night. 

Raumanuka, tea tree leaf. 

Pua Tarata, tarata blos- 



Kauru, head, source. 



Tararua, twin peak, two, 

or, double peak. 
Rimutaka, fallen rimu. 
Putauaki 



Tautoro, burning height. 
Te Reinga, the plunging to 
Spirit land. 



Paparata, rata vale. 

Raukumara, kumara leaf. 
Tongatapu, sacred south. 



som. 
Meremere. morning star. Kapuarere, fleeting cloud. 

Venus. 
Ohinemuri. thy dear ones 

remaining behind. i 

Ngahau-tangirua, the 

wind's duet. 



124 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



O hauhau, ye gentle winds. 
Ruarangi, twin skies 

(open). 

Aiorangi, calm heaven. 
Heretaunga, held at 

anchor. 
Whanga, bay harbour, 

haven, refuge. 
Pukerua, twin hills. 
Whangarei, steady, 

charge ! 
Papamoa, moa dale. 

Motutere, drift island. 
Motutapu, sacred island. 
Whakaari, to display. 

Aorangi, sky light, sky 
world. 

Aotea, clear, light, atmos- 
phere. 

Aoteanuku, clear light on 
earth, clear earth world. 

Aomarama, light clear 
world. 

Aotearangi, clear, light of 
heaven, etc. 

Whakaahunuku, e a r t fa- 
ward, earthly. 

Whakaahurangi, heaven- 
ward, heavenly. 

Aoaanuku, earth world, 
light. 

Ao, atmosphere, atmos- 
pheric light. 
'Awhionuku, earth circle. 

Rongo-nuku-o-Papa, heard 
of the moving earth. 

Rongo-nuku-o-Rangi, heard 
of the moving heaven. 



kura, of precious wisdom 
Ruanuku, twin earths 

(open). 

Aionuku, calm earth. 
Tauranga, anchorage, 

moorage. 



Puketapu, sacred hill. 

Pukemoa, moa hill (Tara- 
naki). 

Ruataniwha, den of a 
monster. 

Moturoa, long island. 

Motukaraka, karaka island. 

Hauturu, wind rest, perch, 
spot. 

Aonuku, earth light, at- 
mosphere. 



Aoaorangi. sky world, 
light. 



Awhiorangi, sky circle. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



125 



Papa-tu-a-nuku, the steadily moving earth. 

Orangi Kaupapa, Thy heaven's basis. Floor of 
heaven. 

Tapuimkau, collection of Nikau. 

Matemateaonge, extreme solicitude, lonely despair. 

According to tradition, a building called Kai-Miru- 
miru, a Marae called Tarawa-i-nuku, a Whata called 
Paeahua, and a grave yard called Arakari, were buried 
on the site of Mount Taranaki, in the days of Tahurangi. 



SOME INCORRECT 

Incorrect. 
Ohora, harbour. 

Rangounou, bay. 
Mongonui, harbour. 

Remuera (station). 
Papatoitoi, village station. 

Eltham, station. 

Ngaire, village station. 
Wanganui, town and river. 

Wangaehu, river. 
Kaiwarra, station. 
Ngahauranga, station. 
Petone, village station. 

Waiwetu, village stream. 
Karori, cemetery. 

Ohiro. 



PLACE NAMES. 

Correct. 

Houhora, spreading in- 
terior. 

Rangaunu, moving shoals. 

Mangonui, great shark 
(fish). 

Remuwera, burnt heel. 

Papatoetoe, toetoe meadow. 
(Arundo conspicua). 

Hora-porera. spread gar- 
ment. 

Ngaere, quivering morass. 

Whanganui, great haven, 
bay. 

Whangaehu, turbid 

(water) haven. 

Kai Wharawhara, Whara- 
whara food, Astelia. 

Nga-uranga (waka), 
(canoe) landings. 

Pito-one, sands 'end, strand 
end. 

Waiwhetu, Star water. 

Ka Rore, then trapped (of 
Ngati-kahungunu) . 

0-whiro, night preceding 
new moon. 



126 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Poneke, Wellington City. 
Terawhiti, cape. 
Wakatu, Nelson. 
Kaiapoi, fortress. 



Tinakori, road. Tina kore, dinnerless roacU 

("Tina" corruption of 
dinner) . 

Po Neke (alleged corrup- 
tion of Port Nicholson). 
Te ra-whiti, the sun cross- 
ing point. 
Whakatu, to erect, to set 

up. 
Kai-apo-hia. food greedy 

(Beware). 

Wanaka, lake, (Ngaitahu Wananga, historical re- 
dialect) . citals. 
Wakatipu, lake. Whakatipu, to rear, grow, 

create, foster. 
Kaikorai. Kaika Ra, sun eaten 

(Ngaitahu). 

Otago, harbour. 0-Takou, thy red ochre. 

Waihola, lake. Waihora, spreading water. 

Manapouri, lake. Manaw r a-pouri, gloomy 

heart. 
Monowai, lake. Manowai, extermination. 

WHAKATAUKI MAORI MAORI APHORISMS. 

Ka hou ki te whenua, he Tungoungou: ka puta ki te 
rangi he Pepe: Sink into the earth, as a chrysalis; 
emerge (therefrom) to the sky (heaven), as a butterfly. 
Said of body and soul. 

He nui Tangata e heke ana ki te Po; he iti Tangata 
e kake ana ki te Rangi: Many persons are sinking to 
Darkness Eternal; few persons are ascending to the 
Sky (Heaven). 

He Kotuku rerenga tahi: a Kotuku (bird) of one 
flight (i.e., like angels' visits, etc.). 

Ki a rongo Koutou, hore mai he taringa, e ai ko 
Tawhaki: "Kahore he Tira o raro, i hoki ake ki runga" : 
"Hearken ye, turn hither an ear, thus spake 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 127 

Tawhaki": "No company from below (death) has ever 
returned upwards (to life)." 

E koa e ngd Mauku 6 roto o te Motu, kd mate a 
Maruwehea: Rejoice ye ferns within the Woods, 
Maruwehea is dead. 

Me poupou te tahi aho, me korewa te tahi:~(Jse one 
fishing line perpendicularly, the other floating near the 
surface. (Do not put all your eggs into the same 
basket). 

He td kakaho e kitea, he td ngakau e kore e kitea: 
Deviating and fanciful processes in reedwork are per- 
ceivable, those of the heart (mind) are imperceivable. 

He heu uta ka kitea, he heu moana e kore e kitea: 
The traces of (a being) ashore may be discovered, those 
upon the ocean may not. 

"He tad huata e idea te karo, he tad kl e kore e 
tdea" : While the thrust of a spear-shaft may be effec- 
tively parried, that of a shaft of speech, may not. 

Mua ata haere, muri tdtd kino: Front advance 
leisurely, rearmost hurry incontinently (delay not). 

E tata mate, e roa taihoa: While delay retards, death 
overtakes. 

Ka mahi rd koe, te riri a te "Taeo," ara, a te Too. 
(He mango Urerua) Hdere i mua, moou Heretaunga: 
(Haste in advance for thee Heretaunga (The early bird 
gets the worm). 

Ma tini, nid mano, k-d rapa te wliai: By many, by 
thousands, the object will be attained. (Unity is 
strength). 

Hohonu kaki, pdpaku uaua: Deep neck, shallow 
muscles, or "Greedy but idle withal." 

Nd toou kahawai ngako nui, to aroaro tahuri ke: 
'Tis the fatness of thy fish, which causes thee to turn 
(from us). The wealthy scorn those of poor estate. 



128 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

He tangata to Tu, lie tangata and to Rongo; ka koe i 
ware-ware: Tu is a force, so also is Bongo you forgot 
(the latter). 

Kd mihi au, ki te kowhatu i tunua ai te Moa: Now 
I greet to the stone once used to roast the Moa (cook by 
steaming in a Maori earth oven). 

Ko te uri o te Rangi, e kore te Mango e tunua ki te 
alii; ki te tunu te Tangata i te Mango, ka tde te piro 
ki te ihu o Rangi, kd mate tend Tangata : The descend- 
ants (Immortals) of the sky will not roast Shark with 
fire; should Man (mortal) roast Shark, the smell thereof 
will reach the nose of Heaven and that Man shall die." 
("0 my offence is rank, it smells to Heaven"). 

Pu ana a roto, ke ana a waft 0: inwardly precise, out- 
wardly otherwise ( Un reliable . ) 

Ko te tokomaha o Rangiwhakaanyi : Tis the numbers 
of lightness and ease. (Many hands make light work.) 

He pakanga td te ngdrahu, lie pakanga ki te Motu- 
motu; he pakanga td te motumotu, he pakanga ki te 
ngdrahu : Charcoal battles with firewood ; firewood 
battles with charcoal. 

Kd kai kopu, kd iri whata: When hunger is satisfied, 
store the residue. (Wilful waste makes woeful want.) 

Te kakl ururua, d au mahi : Thy actions, O voracious 
neck! (Greediness to choking). 

A au mahi, e Ware! Thy actions, O slave! 

A te Rangatira d ana mahi: the acts of a nobleman. 

He Awhato koe na, Kia Tukeri iho, ka puta ake, Ara! 
he Kumara! Thou art a caterpillar. To dig down 
(sink) then reappear. Well, well, as a Kumara! 

Hdere Koe i tc ara a Taihoa, ki a tde ai koe ki aua 
atii: Go thou upon the pathway of by and by, in order 
that thou mayst reach No-where. 

Kapo rere te Kuri : The dog snatcheth suddenly. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 129 

Ko te motuhanga i a Raumano : 'Tis as the severance 
of Raumano. (A tract of land which suddenly dis- 
appeared from the mouth of the Patea river.) 

Ko te manu huna a Tdne : 'Tis the extinct bird of 
Tane. (Refers to the extinction of the Moa. Also said 
of a canoe lost at sea.) 

E hara i te Toko, tu ake, he toka hdpai mai no ngd 
ivhenua : 'Tis not a native or original rock, 'tis a rock 
raised hither from other lands. 

Kimi kau : vain search. 

He wdewde tapeka ki te ara rlpeka: a foot which 
diverges crosswise. (At right angles; from right to 
wrong; from the pure to impure.) 

Ngatitoka u, Ngatitoka Mere : Settled tribe, wandering 
tribe. 

E kore a Taranaki e ngaro, Tie harakeke tongai nui no 
roto no Waiwiri: Taranaki (tribe) shall not perish, 
decay will invigorate (them,) even as the flax plants 
from within Waiwiri. 

Kd pu te ruha; Kd had te rang at alii: age sinking to 
the grave ; the youthful vigorous. 

Ngaro d moa: lost to sight, extinct after the manner 
of the Moa. 

He taringa whitirua: ears listening to two things at 
once; (and hence retaining nothing). 

He taringa muhukai: Ears whose only interest lies in 
food-calls. 

He pounamu kakano-rua: A bi-coloured greenstone. (A 
person of two minds. Two-faced.) 

Rdngai Mdomdo kd taka ki runga d Nukutaurua, e 
kore a miiri e hokia: A shoal of Mdomdo (ditrema 
violacea) which passes to the south of Nukutaurua, does 
not retrace its way. (Expresses a determination to 
continue that which is undertaken.) 



130 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Awhea rd te puta ai te Upoko tdona Marama nei: 
ancient curse at the moon. 

Kd ngaro i te ngaro a te Moa: disappeared, even as 
hath the Moa. 

Te ran o Piopio: name of a feather of the extinct 
Moa. (The feather was worn as a plume by Kowhai- 
kura.) 

Moe ana te mata hi tuna, ara ana te mata hi taua: 
The eel fishers' sleep is tranquil, that of the warrior 
disturbed. 

He aha te kai e whara i d iaf What harm can he do? 
What can he accomplish? 

Ko te Tai i whakaklia e Marutawhiti: 'Tis the sea 
inundation act, of Marutawhiti. (Refers to a sub- 
mergence, after the manner of a huge tidal wave, at 
Hokianga. 

E hara te Toa taua, he toa pdhekeheke; kd pa ko te 
toa mahi kai, e kore, e paheke : The fame of the warrior, 
is perilous (slippery) ; that of the industrious cultivator 
is not so. 

Te toa taua, ma te taua; te toa piki rdkau, md te 
rdkau; ko te toa mahi kai, md te huhu, md te popo, 
Md te hanehane : The warrior becomes a victim of war ; 
the tree climber a victim of the tree; the industrious 
cultivator sinks peacefully to the grave and his end is 
a natural one. 

E hara te kai a te tangata, he kai tongitongi; kd pd 
nd tdona ringa ake, tino kai, tino mdkona: Food from 
another person is not desirable (to be desired), 'tis eaten 
sparingly; but that secured by one's own hand 
(industry) is eaten with such relish as to prove com- 
pletely satisfying. 

He dha, to kai? He para to kai, taka ana ngd hua 
6 te whakairo : What is thy food ? An Para were they 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 133 

food, the traces of tattoo-ing should frisk upon thy face. 
(Said of highly relished food.) 

Kua mdda te Tdewa: The potato is now cooked. 
Saying of Te Whiti, the Parihaka adviser and leader of 
his people. The potato in question was a figure for 
the Maori people, cooked by European fire-arms and 
acts of confiscation. Being cooked the Europeans might 
eat it, without further formality. 

Kdkariki i tunua, kdkariki i otaina : 'Tis a parroquet, 
whether roasted, or eaten raw. ("A man's a man for a' 
that.") 

Kd mate Ru kai horof kd ora Ru kai whakatonu: 
The volcano swallows and destroys, the earthquake pre- 
serves intact. (The wasteful glutton is condemned, the 
frugal commended.) 

Ko ngd kerikeringa o Ruaumoko: 'Tis the fissures 
cleft by the volcano. (Said of the Whanganui river 
channel, which, tradition alleges, was cleft open when 
Ruapehu and Tongariro were active.) 

Kd mau td Maid ki taana ringa, e kore e tdea if 
ruru: That which Maui seizes, cannot be wrested from 
his grasp. (Maui personifies the forces of attraction 
and repulsion. He is a puller down and builder up. 
In popular story he is credited with having recovered the 
North Island, N.Z., from the deep; hence its name, 
" 'Te ika a Maui" the fish of Maui, and "Te ahi a 
Maui" the fire (volcanic) of Maui. 

Ngdpuhi taniwha-rau: Ngapuhi's demons are legion; 
(disturb not their peace.) 

Te upoko rite 6 Hawaiki: the perfect headdress of 
Hawaiki. 

Atua kd kura i te Rangi: Waiho te mate mo Hapopo: 
God manifests his power in the heavens, yet abandons 
Hapopo to a miserable fate. 



132 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

SELECTED PHRASES. 

Tau ana te ivehi : awe inspiring. 

Nga manu 5 Rehua: the birds of Sirius (locust and 
cricket) . 

Nga karere o Mahuru : the messengers of Spring, 
(Kawekawea and Pipiwharauroa, Swallow and Cuckoo). 

He kupu irirangi : words of divine import or sound. 

Te Kura korero : the divine gift of speech. 

E purutia paitia ana : held in willing claims. 

Tangi te roria: Sounds the harp. 

Te hoa o to-oku taitamarikitanga: the companion of 
my youth. 

He tangi noa : an empty sound. 

Te moana riri: the angry ocean. 

Matua kite, Mdtua rongo: first opportunity to see, 
first opportunity to hear. 

Ko ahau kua whakaorangia : my being is now pre- 
served. 

Kei a wai te pono : Who has the truth 1 

Korero wahakore-. silent testimony, voiceless speech. 

Hei 6 ake md tama roio : to sustain the inner man. 

I te aroaro makanatanga o te Rd: in the warm 
presence of the Sun. 

Ka tangi mai te reo : The voice then sounds hitherward. 

Whakarongo, whakarongo kite uru: List, list to the 
surges of the West. 

Ki a hei taakn ate i te tau o taana tiki: to encircle 
my liver with the loop of its image (being) . 

Ko te Whatitiri tuhia iho o ona ara ki te Uira: 'Tis 
the Thunder whose pathways are recorded in Lightning. 

Ka whakaraupeka i aku mahara: My fond reflections, 
gathering, muse. 

Ko koe, e Tail e arohatia nei e au : 'Tis thee, Tai ! 
whom I thus sadly mourn. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 133 

Te Atarau 5 Poutama, the moonlight of Poutama. 
(Beautiful). (Said of fine moonlight in which to shell 
karaka berries.) 

Ed pa te Kdwatawata aroha: touched with the pangs 
of sympathy, affection, love. 

Te maid huatau : the face of beauty. 

Kd tangi a au ki te hunga kua kopania atu ra ki te 
Tatau o te Po: I mourn for those who are now enclosed 
by the Gate of Night, (i.e., of death). 

Te wa,ho, runanga, Too, ra ki te riri, e: the eloquent 
in council and valiant in war. 

Taaku hau-kdinga: my beloved home. 

Taaku whenua tupu : my native land. 

Kua nunumi atu nei i to-oku aroaro: now vanished 
in silence from my presence. 

Kia ora koe: Health, long life and prosperity unto 
thee. 

/ ngd tumanaako e whakarau noa nei : in the presence 
of these piles of shattered hopes. 

Ka rapupuku ngd whakaaro : The thoughts muse. 

Tauwhdinga whakanunumi: vanishing hopes. 

Ngd hihi o te ata : the beams of the morn. 

Te Hau mihi ata: the "incense-breathing morn." 

Tau ana te tlare i te rdkau: the pleasant fragrance 
of the woods. 

Kia tia pdruru ki te kotore Huia: to dress the hair 
with Huia tail-feathers. 

Tau ana te rangimdrie: Peace reigned supreme. 

Te kakaratanga o nga mahi toa: the perfume of 
heroic deeds. 

Kia rewa noa iho ahua i te ahuareka: dissolve me into 
ecstasies. 

Ki te whai do, ki te do-mdrama: to the bright light of 
eternal dav. 



134 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Ka tatdo te koliu ki te motu : The fog drapes the woods. 

Te tino koha, he atawhai ki te tangata: the precious 
gift, humanity to man. 

Ata whakahdhd e ngd hau, te ngaru e momoe mdriri: 
Breathe soft ye winds, ye waves in silence sleep. 

Ko te kupu-kl e kore rawa nei e tdea te whakahoki- 
hoki : As the spoken word can never be recalled. 

He arolio pumau : a fixed regard, an unending 
devotion. 

Ko ngd umu 6 Rongomai : 'Tis the ovens of Rongomai 
(lunar craters). 

Tihei mauri-ora, matihei, here i te kdkano o te rangi: 
Sneeze living soul, sneeze, bind the seed of the sky 
( heaven, life). 

Te whakahiangongo o te ngd-kau : the aspiration of 
the heart. 

Te mata o te whenua : the face of the earth. 

Hoki mai e roto ki te puia nui ki Tokaanu: Return 
my soul to the precious waters of Tokaanu. 

Kia urupu tdtou, kaua e taukumekume : Let us be 
united and let not variance divide. 

Kia kotahi te ki : Declare with one accord. 

Ka koea te ara o Puanga: The advent of Rigel (in 
Orion) is proclaimed and sanctified. (Rigel is the star of 
' the Maori new year, June) . 

Ko ngd tapu-wde o Rehua : 'Tis the invisible footfalls 
of Sirius (peculiar rumblings "heard at nightfall, when 
Sirius is on the meridian, midsummer). 

Ka whakahua i taana tangi: Then sang his lament. 

E Rua au, e Moe au, e Awa au : I am a descendant of 
Ruanui, of Moerewarewa, and of Awanuiarangi. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 135 

KORERO-TARA, or FABLES. 

The Locust and the Ant. 
Tdtarakihi : 

Hohoro mai, e te hoa, 
Kaua e whakaroa, 6 I; 
A-ra-rd! ka turua td te Popokorua! 
Rawe noa td ngd taki-whakahau. 

Popokorua : 

U mai tdua ki te keri, 

I te rua, mo te Ua o te rangi 

Mo te Makariri wero i te Po nei, e; 

Me te koJii mai and i te kdkano, e, 

Hei ake md tama-roto, 

Kia or a ai, e I nd. 

Tdtarakihi: 

He pai aha koia tdaku he noho noa, 
Piri ake ki te peka 6 te rdkau, 
Ina, ind noa ake ki te Rd e whiti nei, 
Me te whakatangi Kau i aku paihau, e 
Ta ra rd ta, kita, klta, 
Ta ra rd ta, klta, klta, 
Wiri 6 papa, toene, toene, 
Wiri o papa, toene, toene. 
Or 

Locust : 

Haste hither quickly O my friend, 
Do not delay, the call attend; 
Wondrous the ant's creative skill. 
Harmonious with instructor's will. 

Ant: 

Come hither, and together bore 

A pit, to shield from rains which pour 



136 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

From wintry skies, with piercing blast; 
And here collect the seed and grain, 
Which shall our inner selves sustain, 
To live till winter's night sweeps past. 

Locust : 

What is my chief, nay, sole delight 1 ? 

To cling me close to branch of tree, 

To bask in sunshine warm and bright 

And rustle these my wings with glee. 

(Singing ) Ta ra ra ta, kita, kita, 
Ta ra ra ta, kita, kita; 
quivering sides sound your refrain, 
quivering sides sound your refrain. 

Moral, pleasures are transient, permanent comfort 
can be secured only by prudence and industry. 

Note, The songs of the locust and cricket ("Ngd 
Mann o Rehua, or, the birds of Sirius, midsummer) are 
very highly esteemed by the Maori. 

Nga karere 6 Mahuru, The messengers of spring. 
(Mahuru is spring personified. The messengers of 
spring are the cuckoos; the Pipiivharauroa, or shining 
cuckoo, and the Kawekawea, or, long- tailed cuckoo.) 



CHAPTER XII. 



ON THE TOHUNGA. 

By tohunga is meant an initiate, a metaphysician, an 
adept. Amongst the principal orders of tohunga 
were the: 

Tohunga 6 Rongo, (of Rongo, god of Peace and 
Plenty.) 

Tohunga o Tdne (of Tdne, lord of light whose symbol 
is the sun.) 

Tohunga o Tu (of Tu, god of war.) 

Tohunga karakia: ritualist, intercessor. 

Tohunga kokorangi: astrologer, astronomer. 

Tohunga-ki, or Matakite: seer, diviner, prophet. 

Tohunga tuhi mata : fortune teller. 

Tohunga whakakite ivairua: spiritualist (one who 
produces spirits). 

Tohunga ndnd : anatomist, physician. 

Tohunga whakapd: specialist (one whose knowledge 
enabled him, when so required, to prevent a fruitful 
woman from further conceiving). 

Tohunga tito ivaiata: poet and historian. 

Tohunga mdkutu : magician, wizard. 

Tohunga korero : orator. 

Those were collectively the advisers, teachers, guides, 
counsellors, historians, and law-givers of the people. 

There were also the experts : 

Tohunga td-moko : expert tattoer. 

Tohunga whakairo : expert carver. 

Tohunga tdrai-ivaka : expert canoe-making instructor. 

A tino tohunga (see "tino") was of the highest class; 
a tauira was an acolyte, disciple, or subordinate. 

137 



138 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 

Mahunga, the whole of the hair of the head. 

Huruhuru, hair. Makawe, lock of hair. 

Tumuaki, crown of head. Mdtenga, upoko, head. 

Pane, takataka, noddle. Roro, brain, spinal marrow 

Roro-iti, little brain (cere- Rde, forehead, brow. 

bellnm). 

Rahirahinga, a o ngd Pewa, hair-arched eye- 



kanohi, temples. 
Tukemata, eyebrows. 

Kamokamo, eyelashes. 
Ko.ru. eyeballs. 

Kanohi, eye. 
Ihu, nose. 

Pongd-ihu, nostril. 



Moremorenga, point 

nose. 

Ngutu, lip. 
Ngutu raro, lower lip. 



brows. 

Rape ) r , 

Rewharewha] eye 

Pi-kanohi, corners of eye- 
lids. 

Karupango, whatu, pupil 
of eye. 

Mata, face. 

Kaka o te ihu, bridge of 
the nose. 

Poniania, lower part of 

nose, 
of Pdpdringa, cheeks. 



Ngutu runga, upper lip. 
Kauwde, jaw. 

Kauwde runga, upper jaw. Kauwde raro, lower jaw. 
Mdngai, mouth. Waha, inside of mouth. 

Pdkiwaha, inner sides of Kiritai, hiako, skin cuticle. 

mouth. 
Kiriwai, mucous mem- Putaputa kiri, pores of 

skin. 

Niho tapahi, incisors. 
Niho matai, or niho kopua, 

back teeth. 
Tako, gums. 



brane. 
Niho, teeth. 
Niho pu, molars. 



Pdewai, visible gums. 
Arero, tongue. 
Ngdo horomi, epiglottis. 
Korokoro, throat. 

Pu-kauwde, chin. 
Hoi, lobe of ear. 



Piki-arero, roof of mouth. 

Pona korokoro, or, tenga, 

Adam's apple. 
Taringa, ears. 
Torino, ear drum. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



139 



Pu-taringa, ear-tube. 
Tdturi, wax in ear. 
Kopako, back of neck. 
Ua-mutu, nape of neck, 

upper end of spinal 

column. 
Toto, blood. 
Tahei, taumanu, pdemanu, 

collar bone. 
Tdkakau kikopuku, upper 

arm. 

Keke, armpit. 
Ringa, arm. 
Manawa-ringa, pulse. 
Pona-ringa, knuckle. 
Angaangamate, back of 

hand. 
Makaurangi, spirals of 

finger-tips. 

Toinui, koromatua, thumb. 
U, nipple. 
Rara, or, ivhiti-uma, breast 

ribs. 
Raramutu, or, whitimutu, 

short ribs. 
Pito, navel. 

Iho, or, uho, umbilical cord 
Hope, waist. 

Whekau, bowels. 
Manawa, breath. 
Au, gall. 
Ateroa, pancreas. 
Whatukuhu, kidneys. 

Matakupenga, net of fat 

covering bowels. 
Uaua, muscle, sinew, vein. 
Kikokiko, flesh. 
Tuara, back. 



Kohamu, back of head. 
Weto, wax in eye corners. 
Kaki, neck. 



Uaua toto, blood veins. 
Pokohiwi, shoulder. 

Kikowhiti, forearm. 

Tuketuke, elbow. 
Kauititanga, wrist. 
Ringaringa, hand. 
Kapu, paroparo, palm. 
Toi, maikara, fingers. 

Maikao, maikuku, finger 

nails. 

Uma, rei, chest, bosom. 
Rara, or, whiti, ribs. 
Rara, or, kapewhiti, seven 

true ribs. 
Kaokao, sides. 

Kopu, belly. 

Puku, stomach. 

Kone, or, tia, pit of 

stomach. 
Ngdkau, heart. 
Ate, liver. 
Polio, diaphragm. 
Whatumanawa, lungs. 
Taupd, fat covering 

kidneys. 
Takapu, takapau, womb. 

Taraihi, taraena, nerves. 
Matii, ngako, hinu, fat, oil. 
Aroaro, front. 



140 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Ure, kiko, membrum virile. 



Iwi tuaroa, spinal column. Whetia, or, iwi, bone. 
Totoine, sacrum, lower end Tinana, body, trunk. 

spinal column. 
Mutu, lower end of spine. 
Teke, tore, pudenda mulie- 

bria. 
Kin matamata, foreskin. Ngahu, sebaceous matter 

beneath foreskin. 
Paraheka, semen. 
Tero, kotore, anus. 



Kaho, testicles. 
Tongdmimi, bladder. 
Kumu, posterior. 
Himu, hip. 
Wde, leg. 

Tupehau, part of leg be- 
tween foot and knee. 
Ateate, calf. 
Pungapunga, ankle. 



Papa, breech, hip. 
Huhd, thigh. 
Turi, knee. 



Kauangawai, above ankle. 
Wdewde, feet. 
Raparapa, upper surface Kapukapu, lower surface 

foot. of foot. 

Rekereke, heel. Matimati, toes. 

Konui, great toe. Koikara, toe nails. 

Remu, back of the heel. 

(Tapu-wde, footfalls. Takahanga, footprints.) 

BONE-SYSTEM. 

Koiwi, complete skeleton. Angaanga, skull. 
Papa o te angaanga, roof 

"of the skull. 
Pii-karu, eye-sockets. 



Pu-taringa, ear-cavities. 
Pakoko, shoulder-blade. 



Papahua, joints of jaw 

bones. 

Ponga-ihu, nasal passages. 
Papakai, shoulder bone. 

scapula. 
Koko, socket. 
Kokako, thigh bone. 



Hononga, joint. 

Pona, knuckle joint. 

Iwi tuaroa, spinal column. Mutu, coccyx. 

Tahau, tibia and fibula, leg 

bones. 
Pa hikoinga, hip bone, A o te kaki, collar bone. 

pelvis. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



141 



Rei 6 te tarauma, or, Mona- 
mona, breast bones. 

Turipona, knee bone. 

Kapiti, small bone of fore- 
arm. 

AILMENTS AND 

Kua mate, kua hemo, dead. 
Kaikino, cold-b 1 o o d e d 

murder. 
Whakamate, put to death. 

Roria, poisoned. 

Whati poro, compound 
fracture. 

Whara, bruise, hurt, crush. 

Nanati korokoro, to 
strangle. 

Materoto, still born. 

Mate paerangi, chronic ill- 
ness. 

Whakakd, inflammation. 

Kohi, or, kohi-d-kiko, wast- 
ing disease, consumption 
-(as waning moon). 

Mate tuwhenua, dropsical, 
leprous. 

Ngene, goitre. 

Polic, matapo, blind. 

Nawe, scar. 
Porangi, deranged. 
Paremo, to be drowned. 
Motu, cut. 
Win, shivers. 
Katirehe, quinsy. 
Ringa kero, Avithered hand 
or arm. 



Wheua kakl, neck bones. 



DISEASES. 

Matemate, ailing. 
Kohuru, murder. 

Whakamomori, seek death, 
suicide. 

Whati, fracture. 

Takoki, taui, out of joint. 
Maru, badly bruised. 
Whaturama, rupture. 

Mate kirika, burning fever. 

Mate urutd, epidemic. 

Korue, Mate kongenege, 
dying of old age. 

Ngoio, Kume, manawarua, 
huango, asthmatic, bron- 
chitis. 

Pukaki, scrofulous, tumour 

Pakiivhara, Paipai, syphilis 

(modern). 
U'auawhiti, contracted 

sinews. 

Ira, birthmark. 
Porangi, subject to fits. 
Wera, burn or scald. 
Tu, pierced. 
Kupapaahi, pyrites. 
Kikoliunga, gangrene. 
Ringa kawiu, shrunken 

arm. 



142 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Einga hukihuki, contracted Ua kaki, ricked neck. 

arm. 

Niho tunga, toothache. Huahua, pimples. 
Maremare, rewharewha, 

wharowharo, cough, bad 

cold. 

Wharo, phlegm. Huhare, spittle. 

Koipuipu, blisters. Komaoa, ulcerated. 

Ngaruru, ngdhoahoa, head- Kiritona, wart, stye. 

ache. 

Mdngiongio, chilblains. Kanohi keko, squint-eyed. 

Kikiki, to stammer, stutter. Pirau, tongako, matter, 

pus. 

Taematuku, purulent, mat- Whewhe, boil or abscess. 

tery. 

Hakihaki, itch. Iroiro, worms, thread- 
worms. 

Mate huia, cramps. Huiki, state of extreme 

cold. 

Toriwai, watery eyes. Muna, patito, ringworm. 

Puku, swelling tumour. Ilaud, cripple. 

Hake, hunchback. Wde-hape, bumble-foot. 

Whito, dwarf. Mate ivahine, mate toto, 

menstruation. 

Tl nga taringa, ringing Kupd, flatulence. 

noise in ears. 

Koripi, koangi, mate tiko- Raoa, choked. 

tiko, diarrhoea. 

Marido, ulcer. Ruaki, vomit. 
Tuwheke, covered with Mate rehea, paralysis, help- 
sores, less. 
Ringa mutu, lost arm. Wde mutu, lost leg. 
Ngehengehe, weakly, faint. Toti, to limp. 
Kanohi karapa, cross-eyed. 

(NOTES. 

Mamde, pain. Inati te mamde, agonising 

pain. 

Whakamauru, to relieve of Mauru, eased of pain. 

pain. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Whakakiha, to gasp. 

Tiko, to evacuate. 
Hamama to waha, open 

your mouth. 
Kukua to ringa, close your 

hand. 

Tit aha, turn (yourself). 
Wharoro o waewae, stretch 

out your legs. 
Noho tu, sit up. 
E tu ki rung a, stand up. 

(The word mate, may 
foregoing terms expressing 
it is preferable to use it.) 



Niho tetea, to gnash the 

teeth. 

Mimi, to urinate. 
Kopia to mdngai, close 

your mouth. 
Whatero to arero, put out 

your tongue. 
Hupeke o waewae, draw up 

your legs. 

Takoto, lie down. 

be prefaced to any of the 
ailments, diseases, and so on ; 



TAKARO, OR, SPORT AND PASTIME, DRILL. 



Whakakite waewae, or, 
Tutu ngarahu, war 
dance or drill. 

Whakahoro rakau, war- 
spear drill. 

Haka, male posture song. 

Titl-tourea, drill with 
staves. 

Reti, sliding on land. 

Moari, swing from pole 
placed beside a cliff or 
river-bank (an exciting 
and risky pastime). 

Whakaangi manu Aute, 
scientific kite-flying (a 
national sport). 

Kotaha, stone slinging. 

Tdkaro mamau, wrestling. 
Tdkaro omaoma, foot races. 



Whakarite rakau, mimic 

duel. 
Poi, female posture song 

(with Poi ball). 
Moki, surf -swimming with 

planks. 
Piu teka, dart throwing. 



Whakatere Waka, canoe 
racing. 

Tdkaro tupeke, leaping. 

Whawhai mekemeke, fight- 
ing with fists. 



144 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Poutoti, stilting. 
Rukuruku, diving. 



Kaukau, bathing. 
Whakangau Kiwi, hunting 

kiwi with dogs, 
instru- Plrori, game of hoops. 



Piki rdkau, tree climbing. 



Wha k at angitangi, 

mental music. 
Td Potdka, top spinning. 
Ti, Matimati, finger game. Karihi taka, finger game. 
Koruru, played with five Whai, cat's cradle. 

pebbles. 
Tokoraurape, K e r et do, Purorohu, bull-roarer. 

jumping Jack. 
Purerehua, whizzer or Ripi, game of ducks and 

buzzer. 

Piupiu, skipping. 
Korero tar a, story telling 

(popular winter p'as- 

time) . 
Ruriruri, ditty contest 

(ditties to be original). 

Makamaka, panga, riddles. Kanikani, a dance. 
Mu, draughts. 

NOTES. All games were termed tdkaro, but a house 
or hall of amusement was termed a Whare Rehia. 



drakes. 
Taupupuni, hide and seek. 



Papa, contest ground. 
Toa, victor, winner. 



Piro, end of any game. 



LAW OF TAPU. 

That the law of tapu (lit., ceremonial restriction, 
conventionally sacredness) was universally observed 
throughout Polynesia, the records of early observers 
quite clearly establish. The head of a person of any 
particular standing, was always regarded as being tapu. 
But, in addition to the head, the whole person of an 
Arilii (overlord) was tapu, and was so by birthright. 
Similarly, the whole person of a powerful tohunga 
(initiate, adept, priest) who in ritualistic practice 
(karakia) maintained personal communication with the 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 145 

gods of his fathers, was also tapu; for the secluded tuahu 
(altar) which he daily visited was held in itself to be 
an extremely sacred spot. Here, when communing (ko) 
with the gods, a high priest would on the most solemn 
occasions, provide himself with stone eye-covers (karu- 
powhatu), a kind of stone spectacle-shaped arrangement, 
balanced, similarly, on the nose, but without apertures 
for the sight. He also used a stone mouth-piece (waha- 
powhatu), a kind of stone lips, held over the mouth, 
with an aperture for the emission of sound, i.e., the 
words of his ritualistic address to the gods. The stone 
eyes were used on the principle that should a god reveal 
himself, the mortal eyes of the tohunga were unfit to 
look upon him; the priest must see with the spiritual 
eye only. The stone lips were used on the principle 
that he must not expose to the gods his mortal, therefore 
vulgar, lips. But, behind all this, there existed the firm 
belief that the gods themselves both looked and spoke 
through stone mediums. (Doubtless in the evolved or 
created works of solid matter). Finally, those who 
assisted the tohunga in the disposal of the dead and in 
the subsequent work of exhuming (liahunga) the bones 
and removing them to their permanent resting place 
were also placed under the more or less temporary ban 
of tapu. So far then personal tapu. 

In addition to personal tapu, articles of every con- 
ceivable nature came under the law of tapu. This could 
be imposed in various ways, but chiefly by the thing to 
be tapued being formally ritualised or touched, whether 
intentionally or not, by a person whose hand was 
permanently or temporarily tapu. In its turn any such 
article communicated such tapu to any person not other- 
wise tapu, who had touched it, whether intentionally or 



146 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

not. Thus, an ordinary person who (and this would be 
unintentional) stepped on to a tudhu, or any sacred 
burial place, would instantly become tapu. If such 
person did not then die, as he sometimes did, he would 
be isolated until the tapu was duly removed from him 
(whakahoro) by a tohunga. It has been a matter of 
common occurrence under these circumstances, for a 
person to die before the services of the tohunga could be 
brought to his aid. It may be laid down that all forms 
of tapu, excepting that inherited, or that acquired by 
a powerful tohunga, could be effectually removed by a 
tohunga. And as it was the business of women to attend 
to household matters and the dressing and handling of 
food, very few women indeed were regarded as being 
personally and permanently tapu, but some were. 

Food was placed under tapu by means of ritualistic 
observance; and there was a class of food which was 
sacred to the gods. This consisted of the first-fruits of a 
crop, the first bird of the season, the first fish taken by 
a new and important canoe, and so on. Such were 
known as popoa, or, koropd (sacred food), and were 
taken to the tohunga to be dressed under his instructions, 
and by him offered up to the national gods. That brings 
us to our next point. 

THE KOROPATU. 

Food, in general, contaminated tapu. No person 
whose hands were tapu might touch food, whether for his 
own consumption or that of another. If he did so even 
unintentionally a double wrong would be done, (a) An 
infringement of his own tapu and (&) a wrong trans- 
ference of tapu to an article which was one for ordinary 
human consumption. It was therefore imperative for a 
person under tapu to avoid places where food was either 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 147 

stored or cooked. Indeed, if on a sunny day he noticed 
by his pathway a basket of food, a calabash of drinking 
water, or any food utensil, he would make a detour so 
that even his shadow might not rest on the object. In 
short, then, a person under tapu whose hands were not 
tapu might feed himself with the aid of a fern-stalk 
(used as a fork), but he may not touch the food with 
his hands. He required to be fed by another, and in the 
absence of a feeder, he might kneel down, then stoop and 
pick up the food with his mouth. On the other hand 
a person completely under tapu absolutely required to 
be fed by an assistant. Apparently these facts led to 
the adoption of the feeding, and drinking vessel, termed 
the Koropatu. This is a funnel-shaped vessel the inside 
top of which is fairly level so as to conveniently hold 
food. Upon this top the feeder sliced the food with a 
fern-stalk and then pressed it down through the funnel 
into the open mouth of the one fed. By this means the 
food did not even touch the lips of the eater, those lips, 
for instance, which had recently conversed with the 
national gods; food being gross might not touch those 
lips. Any residue was promptly taken away and 
deposited on the nearest sacred place, where it would 
not be further touched or eaten by another; for it was 
tapu and anyone eating of it would die. Drink was 
taken through the funnel in the same way, being poured 
into the funnel from a calabash; any residue in the 
calabash was emptied upon a sacred place, just as was 
done with food residue. 

ON AEIK1. 

A tribe is made up of a number of sub- 
tribes, the members of which descend from a 
common ancestor, or, ancestors. Each sub-tribe 



148 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

is practically independent, its recognised chief, 
by seniority of birthright, being known as the 
Ariki. The term Ariki has the genealogical significance 
of father-in-chief. One Ariki differs in power and 
influence from another. For instance, a first-born son 
of an Ariki marries a first-born daughter of another 
Ariki. Their family is known as the whanau-Ariki, that 
is, the Ariki family. The descendants of each of this 
Ariki family are said to belong to the oho- Ariki, that is, 
the Ariki-line ; but the descendants of the first-born take 
precedence, owing to seniority. A tribe may be com- 
pared to a tree whose branches represent its sub-tribes. 
Each branch of the tree is independent of the other, 
but all are dependent on the main stem or trunk. The 
main stem of a tribe is composed of those who have 
descended on the senior line from the ancestor or 
ancestors from which they sprung. On this line is 
found the Upoko-Ariki, head-Ariki, or the Tino-Ariki, 
Supreme- Ariki ; who, as the terms signify, is absolute 
Ariki-of- Ariki, or, lord-of -lords. He is the head of the 
stem, and therefore of all its branches. 

The Maori was a staunch believer in the law of 
primogeniture. An Upoko-Ariki who was descended in 
an unbroken male line for a number of generations, was 
regarded as something divine. His person was abso- 
lutely sacred. He was classed as Ariki-rangi, being 
closest in descent to, and therefore representative of 
Rangi, the sky-father. He was also known as the Ahu- 
rewa, sacred-pillar; the Amo-kapua, cloud-bearer; and 
the Pou-whenua, land-pillar, of his people. 

As no efforts were spared to instruct such an one 
in the past history, traditions, lore, philosophy and 
science of the race the whole of the Orders of the 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 149 

Tohunga, or, priestly, body, frequently vested in him. 
He was exceedingly tapu, so much so that food which 
his shadow has rested upon would not be eaten; it was 
tapu. On occasions, in the midst of a battle, an 
imminent reverse has been turned into a victory by the 
bringing forward of an old Upoko-Ariki to the point of 
danger. A desperate rally has ensued to save him from 
falling into the hands of the enemy, and a defeat thus 
averted. 

ON FLAX-WOVEN MANTLES AND GARMENTS. 

(Whakakdkahu, to dress.) 
Kdkahu, a garment, dress, or robe. 
Kahakaha, of finest silky-flax material. 
Kahu-kekeno, of seal skin. 

Kaliu-kuri, Kahu-waero, or, Mahiti, of dogs' hair. 
Topuni, or, Kuparu, of dogs' skin, black hair. 
Pdtutu, or, piiahi, of long white hair of dogs' tails. 
Kahu-Uiwi, or, ari-kiwi, of kiwi-bird feathers. 
Kahu-toroa, of albatross feathers. 
Kdkahu-kura, or, kura-whero, of choice red feathers. 
Kahu-kuku, of pigeon feathers. 

Kahu-tdniko, of finest flax with deep ornamental 
border. 

Korirangi, having white thrums of untwisted flax. 

Korowai, or, parairai, having black twisted thrums. 

Piupiu, piliepilie, kaitaka, or. Jiitau, a girdle, or, kilt. 

Maro, worn by girls. 

Konekcneke, material dressed only at intervals. 

Polteka, or. koka, of coarse material. 

Ngeri, a rough mantle. 

Piiweru, very shaggy mantle. 

Ua-rua, a cloak and cape combination. 

Pekerere, or dorere, a handsome cape. 



150 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

WAR-WEAPONS, AXES, ADZES, ETC. 

Mere Pounamu, or, Patu-pounamu, a well-shaped 
polished greenstone club. 

Patu-onewa, or, kurutai, of same shape, dark-grey 
stone. 

Tumere, or, meremere, of same shape in hardwood. 

Patu-pardoa, of same shape in whalebone. 

Kotiate, lobed weapon of hardwood, or, bone. 

Waha-ngohi, whalebone battle-axe. 

Tewhatewha, battle-axe of hardwood. 

Pou-whenua, heavy club-headed spear. 

Hani, or, taiaha, a handsome staff with carved tongue. 

Kai-rdwaru, same unfinished. 

Tdoroa, a long spear. 

Tdo, or, tlmata, an ordinary spear. 

Patu, a weapon of any kind. 

Hoeroa, a kind of harpoon with dart attached. 

Pardoa-roa, a weapon of whale's rib. 

Pou-tangata, greenstone axe used as a weapon. 

Kopere, kotaha, or, piu, a sling. 

AXES, ETC. 

Toki aronui, or, toki umarua, a broad axe of stone. 

Toki tltaha, a stone axe somewhat X-shaped. 

Toki panehe, or, toki pdnekeneke, a kind of small adze 
for finishing work and for carving. 

Purupuru, or, wluio, used as a chisel. 

Matakautete, or mira-tuatini, saw-like knife made of 
shark's teeth. 

Pdoi, tuki, or, kuru, a stone pestle or pounder. 

Toka, a sea-swept rock. 

Kdmaka, rock. 

Kowhatu, or, ichatn, stone. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 151 

Pounamu, greenstone (the hardest and most service- 
able variety). 

Mata-a-tuhua, obsidian procured at Mayor Island 
(Tukua). 

Mata-a-waiapu, or, huatawa, dark-grey variety of 
stone. 

Kororariki, very dark and hard stone. 

Kahurangi, light variety of stone. 

Manutea, white hard stone, like quartz. 

Koko-tangiwai, transparent variety of greenstone. 

Inanga, dull whitish variety of greenstone. 

Tutde-koka, dark-spotted variety of greenstone. 

Kawakawa, common dark variety of greenstone. 

Kuru-pounamu, or, tara-pouncmu, a greenstone 
eardrop. 

Koropepe, or, manu-mata-ka, a snakelike design in 
greenstone. 

Hei-tiki, or, tau-tiki, a greenstone image, or effigy. 

MAORI HOUSES. 

(The buildings of an ancient well-ordered village 
comprised the following) : 

Whare, house. 

Whare-kura, Whare wananga, college, or, temple. 

Whare-maire, or, whare-ahiahi, residence of leading 
priests. 

Whare-runanga, council house, or hall. 

Whare-whakairo, large building with heavily carved 
woodwork. 

Whare-manuwhiri, guest house. 

Whare-puni, place of popular resort. 

Whare-matoro, wooing house for young of both sexes. 

Whare-tapere, or, Whare-rehia, play-house. 



152 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Whare-huihui, meeting house. 

Whare-kdkaho, superior reed house occupied by 
chiefs. 

Whare-Mdori, ordinary family dwelling house. 

Whare-umu, or, Kauta, cook-house. 

Whata, or Pdtaka, raised store-house. 

Whare-taud, house of mourning. 

Wharau, shed. Wharau-waka, canoe shed. 

Komanga, or, timanga, a raised platform, unroofed ; 
food-store. 

Marriageable persons of either sex usually slept in 
the family dwelling house. There were cases where a 
half-dozen or more bosom friends of the same sex would 
occupy a separate house. Such houses were known as : 

Whare-Tamawah/ine, house of young women. 

Whare-Tamatama, house of young men. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



ON THE TERM EURA. 

The many references to the Kura to be found in chants 
and the various ritualistic services, make this term one 
of peculiar interest to the student. The Maori was a 
great lover of wisdom and philosophy, and it is to these 
subjects that the term Kura primarily applies and 
always in a sacred sense: 

Kura, precious treasure; sacred wisdom and phil- 
osophy; wisdom-culture; divine law and natural 
phenomena. 

Kura-korero, divine speech. 

Kura-wananga, sacred recitals upon chronological, 
historical and scientific systems. 

Kura-Harakia, sacred ritualistic services and cere- 
monials. 

Kura-tawhiti, recitals of the ancient philosophic 
teachings upon life and death: of first causes and prin- 
ciples, and man's evolution and destiny. (Figuratively, 
the Kura-tawhiti was a tree which stood on the centre 
of the earth, the ancient sacred wisdom-tree. Divine 
birds from heaven were fabled to visit it, as messengers 
of the gods). 

Kura-tangata, the divinity of man. 

Whare-kura, the sacred college, temple or hall in 
which Tohungas taught, practised, and expounded to 
youth the highest forms of scientific and religious 
philosophy and history. 

Te Kura wawaaM-rangi, wdwaahi-whenua; the sacred 
wisdom which treats of the known laws applying to 

153 



154 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

heaven and earth, and of man's capacity to use such 
wisdom to the performance of semi-miraculous acts. 

Papa-kura, tablets and figures of precious stones 
displayed and used in the Whare-kura. 

Whata-kura, precious stones or jewels used in connec- 
tion with the most sacred ritualistic services. 

Tohi-kura, sacred ceremonial and baptismal ritual. 

The Aurora Australis phenomenon is known as "Nga 
kurakura 6 nine-nui-te-Po,"ihe sacred splendours of the 
illustrious goddess of darkness. 

Te Kdhui-Kura. 
E piki, e tama, i te ara tietie, 
Ko te ara 6 Mahuru i eke ai ki runga ra, 
Toetoea ngd harakeke ki runga 6 Huarau, 
Whatua Mdnganui, tlhdoa te kau-whakakopuni : 
Ka pahure ki reira te Kdhui-Kura 
Te Kura i pupuni ki runga ki a Rehua, 
Te Kura i riro ki Tapono-o-te-rangi, 
Te Kura i riri ki te anu-mdtdo, (the coldest regions of 

earth) 

Te Kura i tuhi, te Kura i liana, 
Te Kura i rapa, te Kura i uira. 

Kura-tdonga, the most valued material possession of 
man. 

A PHILOSOPHIC LAMENT. 

(As it is to their universal custom of paying funeral 
honours to the dead that we are indebted for the pre- 
servation of much of the philosophical cult of the Maori, 
a typical specimen is here given of a lament which is 
sung to the assembled mourners, the deceased person 
being meanwhile laid out in state.) 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 155 

He Tanga-tawhiti. 
E muri akiahi kia nohoia iho, 
ArohiroM ana te rere mai a te do 
Nd runga Pukawa, e t. 

Terd pea koe kei roto o Arakari, 
Arakari atu, te whai riri koe, I. 

Atu te wai-nguha nd Tu-Puanga, 
Ndana Puanga-nui d Rangi, koe, I. 

Tenei, e Koro, kd taka i d au 
Whakararawa i te rangi, 
Rangi-nui 6 te Po, e i. 

Hdere rd koe i runga te tukutuku, 
He hekenga-d-rangi iho, 
Kd rewa ko te motu nd I. 

Wdahia e koe ko te haku d te rangi, 

Ka rarawa to waha, Whaitiri-mdtakataka, 

E hau i runga ra, e I. 

A tahu atu koe te ahi a Tahu-rangi, 

Whakautu i runga ra 

Ka ngangana i te rangi, nd t. 

Takahia e koe kd ru te whenua, 
Kia whakaoioi nga kaha o raro, 
Oidi te Po, e I. 

A tomo atu koe ki roto Kai-mirumiru, 

Tdkiri manawa o Ranga-whenua, 

Ka aranga te haunui, no Apaapdrangi, nd I. 



156 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Tangohia mai ai ngd whatu i reira, 
Kd tu ki waho ra te whatii-kai-tangata, 
Kd noho ki runga ra te whatu-kai-ariki, 
Ko Kdkai-te-rangi, nd t. 

(Translated by the Author) 

O shades of eve compose my wearied soul, 
To contemplate the circling orbs of space; 

Which round the lofty throne of Sirius roll, 
To whom Pukawa* yields translucent grace. 

Thy fitful path but sped thee to the tomb, 

Perchance of Arakari't broad domain, 
Once more to merge with all-primeval gloom, 

Where earthly foibles as her powers were vain. 

The pregnant fluid inhered the azure sky, 

E'er Rigel was conceived, through whom thy birth; 

Thou stood 'st a conscious drop commingled nigh, 
Then turned to heaven disrobed of baser earth. 

And thou hast soared along the path divine, 
Which drew an AngelJ down to allot thy bounds; 

For me, the buoyant earth shall tune my line 
To the grand chorus of celestial sounds. 

What tho' in solemn stillness you depart 
To rend the womb Eternity and Time; 

The pealing thunder, lightnings vivid dart, 

Announce thy entrance to yon haven sublime. 

Spark of immortal fire, thou shalt fan 
That flame vulcanian, Tahurangi' fire, 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 157 

When heavenward shoots its radiant-columned plan 
And quakes the earth with subterranean fire. 

Kai-mirumiru, should 'st thou choose, explore, 

Earth's mighty heart shall throb to give thee way, 

Deep whence primordial rocks their masses pour 
In shattered fragments to the light of day. 

And man their solid virtues wed to art, 
In polished weapons vengeance to allay; 

Thee higher triumphs sages taught apart, 
Thou dew-drop tinctured with celestial ray. 

*Pukawa-nui, te wai-whakaata o Eehua, or, 
Pukawa-nui, the reflecting waters of Sirius. 

\Arakari, a mythical burial-place. 

%Se hekenga-a-rangi iho, or 
A descent after-the-manner-of -heavenly beings. 



MAORI FLUTE MUSIC. 

(The words here set out were distinctly produced by 
an expert player. The words are ordinary words, not 
gibberish.) 

Tdpdepde rd, ki te tu-d-pde tu- 

ku atu ai rd, kdria e hara mai ki 

a tdtari-d-tau kia kopa te Marama mu- 

ri ake ai rd ka nunumi whakararo ki 

Taaku matua rd i te ake-rautangi hd- 

ra mai e te ran, ka titiro i d au nd, 

E tia taaku kiri kei te anga kahitua, e- 

tahi rdpea kei tde Ropeti ki 

Raro o ngd muri, ki te hoa kowhatu 

Ru-d-nu-ku. 



158 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

(ID 

E uru e uru ki kurakurdrangi 

E uru ki wharaurangi, kdria au e pd-tu, 

Kdria au e pdtu kia tdria atu 

Te hau-taua i d Maru, ka pdtu ai au: 

Kia oti, kia oti to koekoe ahorua, 

Ka tahuti dke, ka tahuti dke, kei te Kiokio d au, 

Kei te mahau-whare taaku kdinga, 

Kdhore rd i te mahau-whare, kei te Horo taaku kdinga; 

E whakamau atu ana, e whakamau atu ana, 

Ki te hukahuka o te tai nei 

E-^-TdTu. 

NAMES OF MAORI SONGS, CHANTS, ETC. 

Pike, most solemn funeral dirge. 

Una, death-chant, introducing genealogy of deceased. 
(Males only.) 

Tangi-tawhiti, lament with references to original home 
of Maori. 

Tangi, lament. 

Waiata tautitotito, history-teaching disputation song. 

Waiata, song. 

Waiata karakia, religious song. 

Karakia, religious chant. 

Waiata Poi, Poi song and dances, females. 

Haka Haka, song and dance, males. 
Puha, or, Ngeri, songs of defiance. 

Whakatutu, or, Whakakitekite waewae, war-dance, 
drill songs. 

Kai~oraora, a curse-song, or, eat-you-alive song. (Some 
of these are horrid.) 

Waiata Hanihani, songs of irony and satire. (Some 
of these are tragically comic.) 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



159 



Waiata aroha, or, Waiata whai-a-ipo, love songs. 

Ruriruri, or, Poo, short love ditties (very popular; 
often extempore.) 

Waiata taunu, or, Keka, jeering, reviling songs. 

Whakaaraara Pa, sentinel songs. 

Oriori, lullaby. (This means far more than the 
English lullaby.) 

MAORI LOVE-DITTIES, OR, RURIRURI. 

(The translation preserves both the sense and the 
rhythm of the Maori.) 



Hokihoki tonu mai ko 
Te wairua ora, 
Ki te awhi-reinga lei 
Tend kiri, te tau. 

I moea i te po t 
Konei to tinana 
Oho ake k\ te do 
Papaki kau, S te tau. 

Nei taaku hoe lea haruru 
Te akau ki PSeroa 
Kei reira ko te ipo e 
Tangihia net, e te tau 

He pikinga tu-tonu te 
Pikinga i tua ra, 
MS te nui o te aroha 
Ka eketia, S te tau. 



Fond spirit of my darling how 
Oft me you re-visit, 
Encircling my form with tender 
Dream-embrace, my loved one. 

Dreaming 'neath the starlight methought 
Thy form was beside me. 



Lo when I awakened how I 
Missed thee, my beloved one. 

My paddle shall soon sound by the 
Coastline of fair Paeroa, 
There dwells the one darling for whom 
I now mourn, my loved one. 

Steep are the cliffs yonder to him 



Who fain would surmount them, 
Love only may conquer and reach 
Those heights of my loved one. 



160 

I tawhiti te aroha 
E pai ana tend, 
Panga mai ki te uma ku 
~M.am.ae ana, 8 te tau. 

O mata purotu ana 
Me te whakakiki mai, 
Noho ana te aroha 
Rekakreka, e te tau 

He moenga hurihuri 
Te moenga i Ted raka, 
Huri atu hurt mai ko 
Nga mahara, e te tau 

He kainga Tikareti 
Nooku ki Poneke, 
Mokemoke te rere a 
Te auahi 8 te tau. 

Pinea ko e au ki te 
Pine o te aroha 
Te pine e kore nei e 
Waikuratia, 8 te tau. 

Aikiha ma tena e mau 
Mai na i to uma, 
Naaku i here atu ka 
Tino pai rau-a, 8 te tau. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

When love was unknown it was then 



Well with this poor heart, love; 

Now it wrings my breast, ahl the sweet 

Pain of it, my darling. 

Those beautiful sweetly-speaking 
Eyes of my beloved one, 
There beauty, love, pleasure lies 
For me only, my darling. 

Eestless was my sleep precious one 
In yon sleeping chamber, 
From side to side turning I felt 
Lonesome and sad, loved one. 

Lighting my frail cigarette I 
Seek thee, ah how vainly, 
Lone drifts its faint smoke-wreaths in 
The city of my loved one. 

Wilt thou be mine own in the sweet 
Bonds of love eternal, 
Sweet bonds such as rust not nor 
Can e'er loosen, my loved one. 

Snow-white the silk 'kerchief which 
Adorns thy gentle bosom, 
I tied its dear bow in s\ sweet 
Ecstasy, my loved one. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 161 

HE TANGI-TAWHITI. 

(Ko Ta Turaukawa.) 

Taaku tamaiti, e, kd whano ka wareware i a Au koe rd : 
Kitvhea koe, e tama? kia wliakauru mai 
Ki roto ki to whare ki Te Waha-o-te-rangi, 
Ko te whare tend i taia ai Tonga, 
Ki runga te tai-hoa, e rd. 

Nd te Kdhuitara i hoehoe te Uhi. 
Taia ki te rangi ka kikiwa kei runga, 
Taia mai Whiro ki Wl-te-kai-whara, 
Taia Maru ki roto Pdririta, 
Kd kino toona moko, tapd o ona ingoa 
Ko Mokohukuwaru, ko Tu-tangata-kino, e rd. 

Iri mai, e tama, i runga o Kunerangi, 
Te waka o Rehua /:o Tdwhaki te ika, 
He ngaki i te mate o te Whakatutu-o-te-rangi ; 
Te waka rd rd te Nganginga-o-te-rangi, 
Te Pakora-o-te-rangi, o Tu-wharekura, 
1 mate mai ai a la ki Whiu-to-kawa e } rd. 

Takoto kau Edkuru ki te ihu o te waka, 
Ndana i kaid kdhore i whdki, 
Rangona ki te tangi a Tautini-ariki. 

Te Hoe o Rehua ko Raparapa-te-uira, 
Toona Tata ko Whakawaha-taupata, 
Toona Matira ko Matira-amoamo, 
Toona Aho ko Tiritiri-ki-matangi, 
Te Pdua ko Mai-rehua-kai, 
Whakanohoia te Mata ko te Iwi-o-Rona, 
Houhia ki te Here ko Pdepde-te-iria, 
Te Ture-i o te rangi, e. 

He lira Mere mai no Rupe ki te kimi mai i d Hina, 
Tutaki mai 'no ki te roro o te whare, 
Whakatorohia mai me ko Hirihiripua, 

M 



162 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Kd whati toona tara i whakangaua ki te timu, 
Kd whiu te kaki tohungia he tangata, 
Ko Rupe te rangi, e, rd. 

Tend and rd te mea i hdere ai a la, 
Tohungia ki te waha ka kotamu ngd ngutu, 
Mdhiotia mai ko ngd korero i hdere ai la : 
Whakaturia te tawhito, Rangiuru-te-ikiiki, 
Whakahekea te wdewde ripeka, 
Whakatakotoria ko Kauika, ko Tongitongi, 
Tdwhiritia whakakopea ki te Kauhanga-nui, 
Kua riro iho 'no i te pikinga-matua 
I a Taketake, rd; 
Porotaka mai ai ngd pararau, 

Ka kitea kakekakekd i te ngaunga a te taketakeroa, 
Tapd 5 ona ingoa ko Paihau-kihia, 

Ae d, e tama, ki' noho mai koe } 
He wetenga iho taaku pu-terei: 
Ahuatia mai ko te one-pdtaka, 
Ko te tau ki tahaki, ko te peka ki tahaki, 
Wlhakahekea te ngana ki wdenganui 
Ki te whdwhdrua 

Ruia atu ai te Kura-tawhiti hei whakautu, 
Ki' kore e hunaia mai e Mahuia-i-te-rangi : 
" Nau mai e Rupe, e noho, kdria e Mere, 
" Ki' rongo mai koe : 
" E rua tau ruru, e reu tau wehe, 
" E rua tau mutu, e rua tau kai; 
' ' Ko ngd kai hei papare mdau : 
" E rua 6 uta, e rua 5 tai, 
' ' Kotahi to te Po, moea mai ngd mata : 
" He tokotoko Tad kotahi te turanga, 
" He tokotoko Rangi, 
" Kd ngaro te kai, kd ngaro te tangata. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 163 

" Huna iho rd ki roto Rua-popoki, 
" Roto Tureikura, ngd umu 6 Rehua, 
" Te umu tangotango rua a Hauwaha, 
" Itiiti, mdrekareka, e tama, kuru mahoki, 
" Ko te umu tend o te Ao-kai, e." 

Kd hua ahau, e tama, 
Kua kotia atu' no te kaha mo te Po, 
I to whdnaunga, 

I rangd mai ai te au o te pukupuku, 
te tonatona, o te tahumate, o te kundwhea; 
Pukai rawa atu i te aroaro o Matariki, 
Here-kikini, o Here-momotu-kai, momotu-tangata, 
Ki runga Wderotd: 

Nekea e Puanga ki runga 6 Rarotonga, 
Whakaturia toona wliare ko te Maru-do-nui; 
Nekea e Whakaahu ki runga o Hawaiki, 
Whakaturia toona wliare me ko Rangi-d-io; 
Ko ngd tokorua a Tai-ngarue i maku ki runga r, 
Hei tohu mo te rangi, e. 

Eauaka, e tama, e hdere numinumi, 
Aronui to Mere ki roto te Tatau, 
Te Whare 6 Miru i roria ai a Kewa; 
Tenei and a Au kei te whakaronga ake, 
Tenei, tenei mutu 

Te toko i roto i toona whare paroparo nei ; 
Terd and a mutu e tihei i a mauri-ora, 
Ka rukuruku, a. 

E kata mai, e tama ma, ngd iwi nei, 
E kore e Kataina ka rongo' no a Au: 
Nd Hukudo te Korohiko, 
Ko te rdkau i tunua ai te Mod; 
Kd rewa ona hinu ko te aitanga a te Rd turn. 
A rongo ano a Au 



164 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Nd Kura-te-ahuru te Horopito, 

Ko te rdkau i tu ai a Weka : 

He Rona te tde ki mua te Ahurewa, 

Kl' kai' tti-hau, kl' kai' tu-pdoa; 

Kl, whakaturia te tapu o te angina, 

He whakahekenga atu toona wdewde too,, 

Mo toona turanga i te tini 5 Tu-tonga-nui, 

Kd hinga toona ika ko Te Matatu-no-Whiro, 

Utaina ki runga ki toona waka 

Ki Mahurangi, e. 

Ae a, e tama, ki, noho mai koe, 
A whakdhua a Au ngd hlringa nei : 
Hlringa te hihiri, hlringa te mahara, 
Hlringa te hotahota, hlringa ata-mai; 
Hlringa wareware, 
Kdhore he hlringa i te kai, no i a la: 
Hlringa te manumea, hund ki uta ki a Tdne, 
Hlringa te hohonu, 
Makd ki tai ki a Tangaroa-matanui. 
Heoti and, e tama, Tangaroa-kai-tai, 
Kei roto o Wharerimu, kei roto o Whareone, 
Kei roto o Wharepapa, o Ruaki-pduri. 
Ko te whare tend i tltaria ai ngd ika rlki nei: 
Ko Puna-te-waro i hdere mai ai te Kokopu ki uta, 
Para-whenua-mea 

I hdere mai ai te huku 6 Tunaroa ki uta: 
Ndana i whdnau whare-huhi, whare-repo, 
Te utuutu-matua te whakapoungd wai; 
Ndana i kdwhaki au-kume, au-rona. 
Nd wai and, e tama 
A Tangaroa i hdere mai ai ki uta, 
E whano ana a la ki te roto-d-Hau, 
Ki Hawaiki nui rd, ki Rangiriri, e. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 165 

E hara koe, e tama, i te wai nui nei, 
No ngd matamata ki rung a Whatanganui, 
No ngd kurde ki runga Haumdtdo; 
He mdwhakitanga koe no Ngarue-te-rangi, 
No ko Mdnawa, no ko Matamata-raututu; 
A tau and koe te Ata-d-pohea, 
I ka/ihoratia e 6 tupuna i roto o Tdrere, 
Ed tupu koe, e Tama! e 1. 

DIDACTIC LAMENT or EPIC POEM 

(Of Turaukawa.) 
(Translation by the Author.) 
My son: (0 lessening memory depart), 
By faith I bid thee, wheresoe'er thou art 
Thy chamber enter, (blest immortal's lot) ; 
Heaven's organ, whence Creation's dawn begot 
The music of the spheres, whose glories grace 
The southern orbs of circumpolar space, 
Which down the stream of time with force divine 
Hath shed a lustre on thy heaven-born line. 

But Powers rebellious marred the wondrous plan, 
They from the poles a duller process span, 
'Fore heaven's azure front traced dark-limned clouds, 
Till direful gloom the moving Earth enshrouds. 

(So man in arts offensive truly apt, 
Dark spiral lines with equal skill adapt.) 
Such as at Wai-te-kai-whare, Whiro graced, 
Whose deep-scored form their sable hues embraced. 
At Poririta god-like Maru shared 
Such doubtful honours as the "Moko" spared; 
The badly-wrought design his surnames show 
"Mokohukuwaru," and " Tutangatakino. " 

Cling fast O son, to Kunerangi's frame, 



166 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

The soaring bark which Sirius gave to fame, 
Which when the wars of the Creation sped 
Bore Tawhaki, the first-fruits of the dead; 
That bark of destiny whose names reveal 
A history 's mystery one would fain conceal : 

Thou, whiu-to-kawa, smote life's sacred breath, 

Thou, bitter-anguish, saw Tawhaki 's death. 

A naked thief, all prone upon the prow 
Of the canoe, death's seal upon his brow, 
Extends his length, unwilling to confess 

His crime, Rakuru, paid the last redress. 
Fate of a fallen thief, made history 
By the loud murmurs of Tautini-ariki. 

The paddle of Sirius is named Raparapa^te-uira, 
His bailing- vessel, Whakawaha-Taupata, 
His cross-stay, Matira-amoamo, 
His fishing line, Tiritiri-ki-matangi, 
His Paua, Mai-Rehua-kai, 
The bone of Eona provides a suitable barb, 
Fastened with the lashing, Paepae-te-iria; 
In a concordance with divine law. 

So dove-like Rupe by fond love distraught, 
O'er fields of space his sister Hina-(uri) sought, 
At length, fast by the chamber's porchway met, 
Where hostile-spear was thrust with ready net 
To slay the Irirdl, but th' impervious wing 
Received the point, the barb all shattering; 
Then tost his lordly neck, as man is wont, 
'Twas Rupe-the-divine they thus affront. 
(A larger purpose still his bosom fills, 
His people to preserve from present ills, 
Of famine, deadly plague and pestilence, 
These, these had moved his god-like spirit hence.) 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 167 

Their murderous skill thus passively opposed, 

At once his beak (lips) his message now disclosed: 

His words and acts the sacred truth display 

Full to the light of that still-glorious day : 

He upraised the ancient and holy food-pillar, 

He revealed the mystery of the cross-feet, 

He displayed the symbols Kauika and Tongitongi, 

He made a wave-offering towards the great-throne, 

Such as had been ordained 

From the time of the original ascent 

He described a circle with enfolded outspreading wings, 

He deplored the direful effects resulting 

From long-continued human transgression; 

Therefore his surname, Paihau-kihia. 

(Methought, son, thou wouldst have stayed with me, 

And I expound these mysteries to thee) ; 

He fashioned the Circle in sand, 

He illustrated the tendency to deviate 

From a straight line, 

He adjusted the plumb to the true centre of the 

concavity : 

He so advanced his soul's most earnest plea, 
Discoursed the fruit of wisdom's sacred tree, 
Divine Mahuia, by human woes imprest 
Might not refuse to grant that prayer's request, 
And He replied with solemn heavenly air 
Addressing thus His suppliant Messenger: 

Come unto me thou weary Rupe, rest 
Free from those sufferings of an anguished breast, 
Nor vain shalt thou, all guiltless, intercede 
For fallen man, yet hearken and take heed 
To these decrees, by which the wrath of heaven 
Shall be appeased and man's past sins forgiven: 



168 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Two years the silent worm shall still devour 
And waste the Earth with all-consuming power; 
Two years for man all heavenly aid denied 
To reap the food of folly, vice and pride; 
Two years again whilst wrath divine shall cease 
And man fear heaven, knowledge give increase; 
Two years then harvests shall abundance yield 
And heavenly bounty add to fruitful field ; 
A tithe of which to heaven shall man bestow 
And thus prove mindful whence his blessings flow. 
All this ordained, heaven 's higher will declare 
And bid meet dues your contrite people spare: 
Two parts of those of land, two of the sea, 
One, of the Night, forever sacred be. 
Those few reserved, all else be theirs to claim, 
Yet bid them reverence, also fear, our Name: 
Teach them: When Mortal hands the furious spear 
Launches in space, but one its thrust need fear; 
Not so the heaven-directed staff when tossed, 
Mankind and foods sink impotent and lost. 
(Their efforts are but feeble who have erred, 
Them heaven can blast with but a single word: 
Robed with Infinity, unswayed by time, 
Our ways are measureless, our heights sublime: 
Man's ruling passion craves superior worth, 
He scorns the Power to whom he owes his birth: 
Let him from acts presumptuous forbear, 
Nor yet again heaven 's wrath almighty dare ; 
Whose pregnant mind material things immerse, 
Gives force to Time, bounds the wide Universe; 
'Stablished the Earth and its attendant good, 
The Fount-of-life and all sustaining food.) 
With that, O son, methought dark evil Powers 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 16{> 

Had been repressed, even ere thy natal hour, 

When, as divine Mahuia had decreed, 

The germs of desolation did recede/ 

To hurl their masses 'gainst the Pleiades North, 

Whose frigid caves engulfed their dreadful wrath, 

Restrained their might to plague the torrid zone 

At Waerota, and man and food dethrone. 

O'er Rarotonga Rigel set her line, (Tropic of Capricorn.) 

Her pillar, Maru-ao-nui, as ensign. 

O'er Hawaiki, Castor flung his light, (Tropic of 

Cancer.) 

His pillar, Rangi-a-io, gleaming bright: 
Bright pair of Tai-ngarue thus set on high 
As glowing symbols for the Sun-swept sky : 
Whose monuments dared further ills approach, 
Nor 'twixt those lines their horrid powers encroach. 

(Tropical lines of Capricorn and Cancer.) 
Do not, my son, advance with timid awe 
But boldly enter at the open door 
To Mini's realm, where Kewa was betrayed, 
For lo, even I perceive all undismayed, 
This unseen atom of a vital flame 
Still moves all-conscious in its earthly frame; 
A struggling soul awaiting its release 
To plunge with thee on thro' the shades to Peace. 

Whilst neighbouring peoples all-derisive laugh 
(Whose vacant minds so fit them for dull chaff,) 
My earnest purpose knowledge to secure, 
Be my defence their tauntings to endure. 
In earlier years with joy I fondly heard, 
Our Patriarchs recite truth's sacred word: 
How Hukuao became the deity 



170 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Of Korohiko that once valued tree 

Within whose folds such virtue found retreat 

The Moa was roasted solely by its heat; 

Its melting oil so flush all flowing run 

With the low season and declining Sun. 

How Kura-te-ahuru the patron grew 

Of Horopito which famed Weka slew. 

(When wars proud test fulfils our dearest vows 

And Victory's circling wreaths adorn our brows, 

Success in arms as due to his high aid, 

Be to the god-of-war first honours paid ; 

Before all other duties whatsoe'er, 

This just observance be our anxious care.) 

When Mahurangi saw their hosts retreat 

And Tonga's valiant lay at Whiro's feet, 

No thanks were offered, Weka failed his trust 

And fell, the victim of an ill-timed lust. 

Vain hope, O son, that thou wouldst linger nigh 
And I recite how cycles ceaseless ply, 
How cycles are by epicycles caught, 
Such as the cycles of revolving thought : 
Cycles of cheerless gloom, of tender hope, 
Of oblivion, cycles with cycles cope. 
Zoologic cycles Tane's forests sweep, 
Cycles marine affect the vasty deep, 
There Tangaroa abides all lordly grand, 
Within his sanctuaries of kelp and sand, 
Primeval rock-bed, darkness most profound, 
Far from the sights of earth or human sound; 
There the deep clefts, the gathering abyss, 
Whence sudden poured the smaller-specied fish, 
When submarine volcano forced the way 
And saw those scattered to the light of day. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 171 

The Carboniferous period's mottled sea, 

Caused the bright trout towards our streams to flee : 

<3reat heaving waters surged from main to shore 

And landward brought the tail of Tunaroa. 

That cataclysm shaped the deep morass 

Whose fissures still disclose each mighty crash, 

When fountains of the deep, heaved from their base, 

Tore all-resistless o'er the ocean's face, 

Diverting in their wild tumultuous force 

The equatorial counter-current's course, 

And sudden gave the sovereign of the sea 

Dominion over great Hawaiki, 

Our ancient home whose loss we still deplore, 

Snatched to the deeps his sceptre stretches o'er, 

With Rangiriri, lake which shimmered bright, 

Lake-of -the- winds, now vanished from the sight : 

Thus waters, son, brought Tangaroa inland, 

Our lands, our lake are now at his command. 

Mayhap, son, thou wert not truly great, 
Whatanganui 's summits thy old-time estate, 
Haumatao 's headlands too as truly thine, 
Branch of Ngarue-te-rangi 's sacred line: 
Beyond Matamata-raututu, Manauea, 
Thou glorious as Te Ata-o-Pohea, 
Displayed by thine ancestors with just pride 
(Where deeds of prowess could not be denied:) 
Whose beauty graced Tarere as the Sun, 
And made thee illustrious, O son ! Son ! 



CHAPTER XIV. 



ON MARRIAGE CUSTOMS AND LAND RIGHTS, 
Woman and land, or, "He wahine, he oneone," are 
two subjects which from a Maori point of view are 
to be considered together. According to the Maori the 
one is the exact and sole equivalent of the other. As 
he prized the land above all other material possessions 
he thus paid a high compliment to his women. 

As to the land and the manner in which the original 
right, or, "take," thereto is acquired, there is: 

1. The law of moral-force, or, "Mana." 

2. The right of discovery and occupation, or, 
' ' Whenua-kite-hou. ' ' 

3. The right of physical force, conquest and occupa- 
tion, or "Raupatu." 

4. The right of continuous use and occupation and of 
successfully holding land against opposition and attack, 
or, "Na te ring a toa." 

5. The right of long-continued use and occupation, 
free and undisturbed, or, "Te Ahi-ka-roa." 

6. The right under cession, or, "Tuku." 

1. The right under gift, or, "Koha"; marriage- 
dowry, or, "Pa-kuwha"; and by adoption, or, "Tama- 
riki whangai, Tamariki taurima." 
8. Ancestral rights, or, "Take tupuna." 
As to the right of moral-force, or, Mana. In the case 
of a powerful section of a tribe ordering off another 
section and occupying the lands of that section, where 
such occupation continues through their children's 
children, a first-class title of ownership is transmitted. 

172 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 173 

As to 2, the right of discovery and occupation. This 
was a right which was universally conceded. It entered 
into the proverbial lore of the race in such forms as: 
Haste in advance and secure (the rights attaching to the) 
first-anchorage, (i.e., of first arrivals), or, "Haere i mua, 
moou Heretaunga"; in other words: The early bird 
gets the worm. 

As to 3, the right of conquest and occupation. It is 
unnecessary to cite instances, obviously, Bight was 
Might, and Might was Right. 

As to 4, the right acquired by long continuous use and 
occupation and of successfully resisting opposition and 
attack. This was the right of the victorious arm, or, 
ringa toa. 

As to 5, the right of continuous occupation, free and 
undisturbed, where permission is neither asked for nor 
given, and where nothing is paid by way of tribute 
a first-class title of ownership is acquired. 

As to 6, the right under cession. There are many 
instances of land being held under the right of cession. 
Where a chief in the presence of his fellow chiefs and 
tribe cedes a parcel of his territory to another chief and 
his followers, immediate and continuous occupation 
under that cession establishes a perfectly good title. 
Land was ceded to an ally in return for warlike assist- 
ance ; it was also ceded as compensation for adultery, or 
murder. 

As to 7, the right under gift, such as marriage- 
dowry, etc. This was perfectly valid, because recognised 
by Maori custom; so also was the right acquired by an 
adopted child where the family or sub-tribe recognised 
such adoption. Maori custom encouraged the adoption 
of the children of blood relations, but discouraged the 



174 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

adoption of those who were not the children of blood 
relations. The adopted child succeeded to the lands of 
an adopting parent, but, where the adopting parent had 
a family, the adopted child would succeed in common 
with the true children. Continuous occupation was 
imperative. 

As to 8, ancestral right, or take tupuna. Obviously the 
rights of a grandparent descended to his grandchildren 
and heirs throughout their generations, where continuous 
use and occupation obtained. In the case of any dispute, 
a claimant simply had to prove that his ancestor or 
grandparent held a good title, and then proceed to prove 
his genealogical descent and the fact of use and occupa- 
tion being continuous. Having proved that, his claim 
became perfectly valid. 

FIXITY OP TENURE. 

These necessarily brief indications as to the origin of 
ancestral rights to land must serve to inform the student 
as to the basis of Maori land tenure. Although the strong 
Law of Right was admittedly pre-eminent, this form 
of land tenure was by no means as changeable and vague 
as some would lead us to believe. That cases of sudden 
and sweeping changes of proprietorship were not 
numerous is indicated by the incontrovertible fact that 
the principal tribes of the North Island have from 14 
to 30 generations held and occupied their respective and 
original tribal territories. (See Government Map 
1869) . The fact is that where such Law of Might existed, 
each independent tribe fortified itself against attack, 
and so returned blow for blow when that attack came. 
Intertribal wars were many, but few were made with the 
avowed object of land conquest. "War appears to have 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 175 

been regarded as a national game, a thing to practice 
and become proficient in. Far from fearing death the 
Maori appears to have courted it, and none died with 
more resignation than he who fell on the field of battle 
whilst engaged in vindicating the honour of the tribe, 
or injuries real or supposed; "He mate a ururoa." 

We pass on to consider the questions of inheritance 
and of the individual rights to land and to the disposal 
of land. It has been urged that Maori land was held 
by the tribe in common. To a certain extent this is true, 
but it should be realised that there were individual as 
well as tribal rights : that certain chiefs and individuals 
disposed of their lands without consulting their fellows : 
also that one chief held paramount rights and that fellow 
chiefs held rights differing in proportion and degree. 
The superior chief of a tribe may but not necessarily 
be its superior land chief. Where a chief can trace 
his descent back through a male line of firstborns to a 
remote ancestor who was acknowledged to be the tribe's 
superior landed and warrior-chief, his claims are para- 
mount. Such a chief was recognised as the tribal land- 
pillar, or, " Pou-whenua" ; his mana was absolute, his 
word was law, his was the status of an Ariki. 

This being understood we may proceed to a general 
consideration of common or individual tenure. Each 
individual member of a tribe held a separate and inde- 
pendent right to the possession of the soil which he 
occupied and cultivated. But with important excep- 
tions such occupier and cultivator, being very properly 
regarded as an unit of the tribe, might not dispose of 
his holding without reference to his tribesmen. The 
broad principle involved was this : no cultivator has the 
right to dispose as he pleases of his holding, because the 



176 MAORI-ENQLISH TUTOR 

land iii general is the property of the collective tribe 
which holds it against the might of another tribe. 
Therefore, to allow an individual to dispose of his 
holding as he thought fit would be contrary to good 
tribal policy, he himself having a voice only in the 
working and disposal of the tribal lands. As with the 
tribe and sub-tribe so with the family. A family would 
work a holding in common and each individual male 
member possessed an independent right to a fair share 
of that holding. He might elect to parcel this off and 
work it exclusively, but, if he attempted off-handedly to 
dispose of it the family would step in and forbid the 
transaction. For, apart from the consequent complica- 
tion of tenure which such a disposal would involve, a 
new-comer might walk away in the face of outside danger 
and leave the family in the lurch. An individual 
member of that tribe requiring more land outside of 
the family holding would be obliged to prefer his 
request to the tribe, which would put him in possession 
of a new available plot, mark off the boundaries and 
leave him in possession. Constant use and occupation 
secured this plot to his children and descendants, but 
these no longer had a claim in the original family 
holding, though they still had a voice in the general 
management. In the rare case of a family dying out to 
a single surviving and childless male member, custom 
permitted him without particularly consulting the 
tribe to place some of his next of kin of the same tribe 
in possession. The land then descended to these as users 
and occupiers; and they based their claims simply on 
the fact of having been put in possession by the 
hereditary owner. Their original rights in other lands 
from which they might have parted were lost, and their 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 177 

permanent rights existed only in the lands which they 
now occupied. In the case of a family visibly dwindling 
down, an aggressive chief holding adjoining lands, who 
desired to enlarge his holding, sometimes arbitrarily 
forced matters by taking or attempting to take a slice 
of that family's holding. A particular instance may 
here be given of such a proceeding as it serves to prove 
amongst other important things that an individual 
held specific land rights and also that he guarded those 
rights most zealously. A certain minor chief in passing 
over his holding noticed a rudely-carved and ochre- 
smeared post erected some two hundred yards inside of 
his boundary a running stream. He at once recognised 
it to be what is known as a land-taking post, or, "Poit- 
tango whenua." Now the act of setting it up there was 
an unjust act, for it was contrary to the settled principle 
that allowed to the individual or family the quiet 
occupation of lands within certain boundaries or 
holdings. That being so the course to be taken by our 
chief was clear he could summon a council of the tribe 
which would promptly order the offender to remove the 
post. Our chief was, however, a man of some spirit. 
Having correctly attributed the act to his neighbour, 
he carefully considered the matter and decided to remove 
the post himself. In further considering the most 
effective way of removing and destroying the post, it 
presently occurred to him that the post might be encased 
in a species of tapu an interference with which might 
react in some shape of evil upon himself (as a matter of 
fact the post was tapu, for it had been the subject of 
most potent ritualising by a tohunga) . In this dilemma 
he very properly sought the assistance and services of a 
tokunga. Having made his arrangements our chief 



178 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

at dawn took a digging implement, an axe, a few raw 
potatoes, or uwhi, and with his granddaughter, a girl 
of thirteen, proceeded to the spot where the post stood. 
Arrived there he directed the girl to dig around the post 
until it was loosened. He in the meantime busied him- 
self in procuring kindlers, oven-stones and water, and 
in digging a small oven-hole in the ground, into which 
he placed the kindlers. He then, by the method of 
friction, produced fire, and applied it to the kindlers. 
By this time the girl had succeeded in loosening the post, 
and he pulled it down. Taking up his axe he then 
proceeded to cut from the post sufficient wood to heat 
the oven-stones, and placing this on the fire he carefully 
spread the oven-stones over all. Ere long the wood had 
burned away leaving a few hot cinders and the now 
glowing oven-stones. These were sprinkled with 
cleansing water, rearranged, and some half-dozen washed 
potatoes were nicely spread thereon. A liberal applica- 
tion of water now caused the steam to rise in a column 
from the heated stones which were then quickly covered 
over, steam-tight, and the pent-up steam was left to do 
its work of cooking. After the expiration of some half- 
hour the coverings of the oven were removed, and taking 
up one of the cooked potatoes the chief flung it into the 
hole from which the post had been withdrawn. He then 
asked the girl to eat the rest of the potatoes, which she 
did. She thus literally ate of the tapu for, the food had 
been cooked by means of firewood obtained from the 
tapu post. Then leaving all traces of his retaliatory 
work as it was, the chief took up his tools and conducted 
the girl straight to his tohunga. A canoe was then 
launched upon which the trio embarked and the chief 
paddled it to the deep mid-stream. There the tohunga 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 179 

immersed the girl bodily in the water, after which she 

was taken on board and the canoe was returned to the 

bank. The tohunga now took the girl to the family 

pdepde where she was made to bite the cross-bar, the 

toJiunga meanwhile reciting a ritual as follows: 

Ngaua i te pde 

Ngaua i te pu 

Ngaua i te more, 

Ngaua i tua 

Ngaua i waho 

Ngaua i te upoko 5 te atua, 

Ngaua i a Rangi e tu nei. 

Ngaua i a Papa e takoto nei, 

Koia ngd tapu nei, 

Ka kai koe i te upoko 6 te atua, 

He atua kahu koe 

He tere te wiwl, 

He tere te wawd] 

Hdere i te rangi nui e tu nei, 

Mahihi ora. 

Or 

Bite of the barrier (which the opposing tapu set up), 
Bite of the base, 
Bite of the trunk. 
Bite of the far side, 
Bite of the outer side ; 
Bite of the head of the (opposing) god: 
Bite it as Rangi stands above us (the sky-father) , 
Bite it as Papa lies beneath us (the earth-mother) ; 
Therefore these ceremonial restrictions, 
So, thou eatest even of the head of the (opposing) god, 
Thou (the opposing god) art but an effeminate god! 
(of little power) 



180 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Which hovers anigh 
Anon hovers afar-off: 
Avaunt, in the light of this day ! 
(My daughter) thou art saved. 

That being ended the girl was again taken and 
immersed in the stream, and with this final cleansing of 
the tapu the proceedings closed. In this way the girl 
medium who had, as it were, offended the gods by 
desecrating the tapu of the post was considered to be 
absolved from guilt by ceremonials proper and complete. 
In these ceremonials both sexual-forces, male and female, 
or, te hau tama-tdne, and te hau tama-wahine, had 
been represented, and necessarily so. The sky-father 
and the earth-mother had been invoked and propitiated ; 
and fire, water, tree and stone, those necessary purifying 
elements, had been freely used. The gods were thus 
propitiated, and those taking part might then regard 
themselves as having been freed from harm or evil. As 
it had not been convenient to go to the distant tribal 
tuaahu, or, sacred altar specially set apart for services 
to, and dedicated to, the gods, the girl had been taken 
to the pdepde. There, domestic fires had not burned 
neither was cooked food taken; for, where tapu was 
involved, the burning of ordinary domestic fires and the 
presence of ordinarily cooked food was an abomination. 
The presence of the cross-bar served as an eternal 
symbol of the barrier which the presence of the tapu 
imposed. The whole proceedings were done with a view 
(a) to destroy the force of the opposing tapu, (&) to 
free the girl and party from any baneful influences, 
and (c) to appease the anger of the gods for the trespass. 
Incidentally, these ceremonials presented a very formid- 
able bar to any further proceedings on the part of the 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 181 

original offender who had set up the post. No further 
proceedings were, in fact, taken by him, nor further 
intrusion made. The post remained to rot on the ground, 
and these particulars were incorporated in the history 
of that land and its boundaries and served as a useful 
lesson to posterity. 

HEREDITARY TENURE. 

European authorities have declared that prior to the 
advent of Europeans there was no such thing as a 
settled system of Maori land tenure. But an adequate 
knowledge of the subject discloses the fact that there 
have existed, from the remotest times, well defined and 
settled boundaries, as between tribes, sub-tribes, families 
and individuals. Moreover, the right least open to dis- 
pute is the ancestral right of land. It is a common 
occurrence for a Maori to establish his individual right 
to certain lands as being inherited from the admitted 
rights of an ancestor of some fourteen generations before 
him. A system which ensures, throughout fourteen 
generations, the transmission of rights to lands whose 
boundaries are well known and admitted, is surely 
"settled" enough for anything. Furthermore, if such 
precise references to land and boundaries as those here 
following, references which were daily heard in every 
Maori village long prior to the advent of the European 
have any meaning at all, they indicate a settled system 
of recognised land-tenure; for instance: My land, your 
land, their land: my boundary, your boundary, their 
boundary: the inland boundary, the sea boundary, the 
hill boundary, the river boundary: boundary post, 
boundary rock, boundary tree, etc. Note also the exist- 
ence of bird reserves, rat reserves, fishing reserves, fern- 



182 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

root reserves, etc., etc. ; together with such references as 
just rights, or, "take tika," and unjust rights, or, 
"take he"; and also the old-time custom of "Owhaki," 
by which a dying chief verbally bequeathed his lands 
and possessions to his representatives. It is necessary 
to emphasise this, because, as already indicated, marriage 
customs and the system of land-tenure are to be con- 
sidered and must stand or fall together. 

LAND TENURE IN ITS RELATION TO 

MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. 

Hereditary tenure then was based upon the rights of 
an ancestor or grandparent, who was recognised as being 
the root, or, "take," to the land. In such rights, grand- 
daughters in common with grandsons held apparently 
good domestic claims. Yet, as to the disposal of the 
land, the rights of the granddaughter were very much 
restricted. Primogeniture was so exclusively confined 
to the male line, that a female who had grown sons had 
much more voice therein than one having merely 
daughters, and this latter had more authority 
than a married woman who was childless. Notwith- 
standing these facts, however, a grandson was proudly 
referred to as the grandson of such and such a chief- 
tainness; and a granddaughter was just as proudly 
referred to as the granddaughter of such and such a 
chief. And now as to the disposal of lands. A dying 
chief usually made a verbal disposal, Owhdkl, of his 
property and lands in this form : All of my lands and 
cultivations are for my sons, with the exception of my 
piece of land at Wai-kowhai, that is for my nephew 
Hura absolutely. My eel-weirs, bird-reserves, slaves and 
personal property are all for my sons. My wives are for 
my brother. Although the chief had daughters it will 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 183 

be observed that they were not included in the inherit- 
ance, and this has its explanation. By marrying the 
young men of the tribe, who under these customs were 
the real holders of the property and lands, the chiefs 
daughters would be properly provided for. Yet that 
was not the sole reason for their being thus excluded, 
there was another and, to the Maori, most excellent 
reason. It was necessary to provide against the con- 
tingency of a daughter electing to marry into another 
tribe, thus weakening her own tribe and, by bearing 
children, strengthening that other tribe and probably 
future enemy. The lands and properties were therefore 
bequeathed to and held by the male children and 
grandchildren only, for these usually remained with the 
tribe and assisted to hold the lands against those who 
would forcibly take it from them. It was also clearly 
foreseen that if daughters and granddaughters were 
allowed equal land-rights with the males, they would, 
by marrying into other tribes, cause very serious com- 
plications in matters of land tenure, which would other- 
wise remain simple enough. There was, however, a 
custom known as Pa-kuwha, under which a daughter or 
sister marrying a stranger, with the sanction of her 
family, was provided with a marriage dowry compris- 
ing a well-defined area of land. This custom necessitated 
her husband remaining with her tribe and assisting it 
in every way, even against the attacks of his own tribe. 
Should he go off himself, or carry off his wife and 
family, the lands so given reverted to the brothers and 
cousins male of his wife, and neither the husband nor 
wife could lay further claim thereto. It is proper to 
add that brothers invariably took a leading part in the 
question as to the marriage of a sister. 



184 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

As we have seen, a dying chief in making his verbal 
will said : My wives are for my brother ; and we may now 
proceed to consider the very interesting Maori custom 
of the bestowal of widows. There was a recognised 
obligation imposed on the brother of a deceased husband 
to marry his child-bearing widowed sister-in-law, or, if 
past child-bearing to be her legal guardian. Therefore 
when a man's brother died leaving a widow or widows, 
she or they remained at the immediate disposal of the 
elder surviving brother of the deceased chief. He alone 
might wed the widow or else waive his right in favour of 
a younger brother or cousin male. No mere stranger 
might wed the widow, for this would amount to a whaka- 
heke tupu, or, a lowering of the dignity of the male 
relatives of the deceased. The widow's marriage 
ceremonial took place after the lapse of a fitting interval 
following the death of her husband, during which 
interval she wore widow's weeds. In the interval should 
an outsider dare to attempt liberties with the widow, a 
council was summoned by the affronted brother-in-law 
and the offender would be mulcted in a heavy fine, which 
would include lands, as satisfaction for his trespass, and 
in very serious cases he would be killed outright. 
Widows therefore did not enjoy the free disposal of their 
persons, and they suffered the consequences attending 
either unintentional or deliberate attempts to do so. 
A dying chief in a farewell address or kupu poroporo- 
a-ki, might leave his widow to a favourite and younger 
brother. In this disposition an elder brother would not 
interfere, provided that such younger brother did not 
proceed to dispose of the widow in any manner opposed 
to custom, or, good tribal policy. In this we have the 
main reason why widows were not allowed to dispose of 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 185 

their own persons as they might please, just as we have 
seen that a man might not dispose of his own land as 
he pleased. Such liberty in either ease would tend to 
conflict with, and be opposed to, good tribal policy; 
for, in the case of a widow and family, she might elect 
to join another tribe taking her children with her, and so 
weaken her husband's tribe whilst strengthening that 
other tribe. In all of which we find a simple and com- 
monsense reason for a custom which gives to surviving 
male relatives complete authority over widows. Writers, 
possessing for the most part a merely superficial know- 
ledge of the matter, have striven to show that such a 
custom points to a condition of female slavery, declaring 
that such women are regarded as merely goods and 
chattels and similar property. Nothing could be further 
from the truth. Far from being regarded as a mere 
property of her new lord, a widow was commonly 
honoured and treated with deferential respect, if not for 
her own sake, then, as the relict of the deceased chief, 
whose memory is revered. To treat her otherwise would 
be, from a Maori point of view, to offer insult to their 
own dead; few Maoris indeed would do that. Moreover, 
in a majority of cases, widows had already borne 
children to their deceased husbands, a fact which in 
itself gave them influence and authority in Maori eyes. 
This question need not be further argued. 

It has already been indicated that in the case of 
adultery, when an injured chief is willing to accept and 
demands compensation, land is included as compensation. 
The Maori considered that land was the only true 
equivalent to woman; that, in short, women and land 
are similar or identical in value or nature. The 
following statement of an old and experienced chief 



186 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

puts the case frankly and clearly: "Ki a au 
nei, e rua tahi ngd wdhine o tenei Ao; ara, ko 
te wahine tangata nei, nd, ko te wahine one- 
one. E rua enei mea e rite tahi ana; te wahine, te 
whenua. Ma te wahine kd tupu ai te hanga nei te 
tangata, md te whenua ka whai oranga ai. Whai hoki, 
ki te tangohia to ivhenua e te iwi ke, kd ngau te pouri 
ki roto ki d koe; nd, ki te tangohia to wahine e te tangata 
ke, kd tupu hoki ko taua pouri and. Ko ngd putake 
nunui end d te whawhai. Koia i kiia ai : He wahine, he 
oneone; i ngaro ai te tangata." Which being translated 
reads : I hold that in this world there are two species of 
woman, namely, the human woman and the earth woman. 
Woman and land are two very similar things, for, while 
woman is the medium which gives mankind being, land 
is the medium whereby that being is nourished and sus- 
tained. It therefore follows that if thy land be taken 
from thee by another tribe, gloom will gnaw into thy 
vitals; similarly, if thy woman be taken from thee by 
another man, the selfsame kind of gloom grows within 
thee. These are the principal causes of warfare. And of 
them it is said: Woman and land have caused man to 
disappear (by slaughter). 

From all of which the reader may gather, as should 
writers on the subject of aboriginal or native marriage 
customs, that a knowledge of aboriginal systems of land 
tenure is a first essential. A full and proper investiga- 
tion of the whole subject would probably show that the 
evolution of a regular system of land tenure and the 
evolution of the custom of marriage and re-marriage are 
parallel; that, in short, the evolution of a regular system 
of land tenure and the evolution of the system of mar- 
riage and re-marriage are parallel and one; and that 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 187 

marriage connections were formed with a strict regard 
to the stability of land tenure. 

KINSHIP AND MARRIAGE CONNECTIONS. 

Men married to sisters are denominated hoahoa-tdne, 
or, male- (married) comrades, and women married to 
brothers are termed hoahoa-wdhine, or, female- (married) 
comrades; perhaps, husband-comrades and wife-com- 
rades. A wife referred to her husband as her hoa-tdne, 
and a husband would refer to his wife as his hoa-wahine. 
A man, however, generally referred to his wife as his 
whdereere, literally, the mother-of-his-children, from 
whdea, mother. The sisters of a man's wife are termed 
his au-wahine, i.e., wives by courtesy, or, prospective 
wives; for he might wed the unmarried ones either 
before or after his wife's death. Similarly, the brothers 
of a woman's husband are termed her au-tdne, i.e., 
husbands by courtesy, or, prospective-husbands; for, as 
already noted, on the death of her husband she becomes 
the wife of a surviving brother. A man 's brother-in-law, 
or, tdokete, is he who marries a man's sister; a woman's 
sister-in-law is one who marries that woman's brother. 
A man's sister is his tualiine, a woman's brother is her 
tungdne. A man's elder brother is his tuakana and his 
younger brother is his teina. A man does not, as 
Europeans do, speak of his "brother" merely, leaving it 
an open question whether he speaks of a younger or an 
elder brother; Maori terms are much more specific. A 
woman 's elder sister is her tuakana, her younger sister is 
her teina; here again there is no plain "sister." 

With the Maori, collateral kinship with uncles and 
aunts came to be considered as almost identical with 
the actual kinship of brother and sister. A brother 



188 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

referred to his brother's children as "my children," and 
not as "my nephews and nieces"; similarly a sister 
referred to her sister's children as "my children," and 
not as "my nephews and nieces." A brother referred 
to the child of his sister as his irdmutu, or, nephew; 
a sister also referred to the child of her brother as her 
iramutu, or, nephew. Children referred to the brothers 
of their parents as matua, or, fathers; and to the sisters 
of their parents as whdea, literally, mothers. Con- 
sidering the social and domestic system of the Maori, 
it is but natural that things should be so. For instance, 
when a child's father died the mother wedded the 
brother of his dead father; and when a child's mother 
died, the child's father wedded the unmarried sister of 
the child's dead mother. So that, apart altogether from 
the question of consanguinity, the brother of a father 
and the sister of a mother came to be regarded as the 
future father or mother of a child, and not merely as 
an ordinary uncle or aunt. A child's actual uncle was 
his mother's brother, for he could not become anything 
closer for instance, a parent by marriage; on the same 
principle a child's actual aunt was his father's sister, 
who could not effect a closer relationship. 

Parents largely held their children in trust for their 
immediate relatives and the tribe generally. If a child 
that was under the care of its parents met with an 
accident and lost its life, a taua-muru, or raiding party, 
was organised against those parents by the relatives 
and tribe. This party proceeded to the parents' 
residence and stripped them of their possessions. The 
object thus served was a two-fold one; it was a warning 
to other parents to be careful of the children, and it 
secured compensation for the loss of a member of the 
tribe. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 189 

Parental control was rarely of a strict nature ; because, 
if children had reason to complain of it to their uncles 
and aunts, these promptly severely scolded the parents 
and in many instances relieved the parents of further 
control by taking off the children. On the other hand, 
the discipline practised by uncles and aunts was usually 
very strict, they being more particularly responsible 
to the parents, and also to the tribe, for the proper 
upbringing of the children. From this discipline the 
children realised that they could not escape. They also 
discovered that their uncles and aunts had more 
authority over them than had their actual parents, con- 
sequently they became amenable to this discipline. 

A father had little to do in regard to the disposal 
by marriage of his son or daughter, the matter being 
one for the assent of his male relatives. In this dis- 
ability we are reminded of the disability of the male 
land-owner to dispose of his own share of land as he 
pleased ; for, in either case he might do something which 
was opposed to good tribal policy. The cases appear to 
be on all-fours. A fond father might otherwise consent 
to his daughter going off with a suitor from some 
distant tribe, and that would be opposed to good tribal 
policy; marriage with a distant tribe was commonly 
discouraged. A maiden who evinced a disposition to do 
so would be warned in a friendly way in such words as 
these: Marry one of your own tribesmen; then, if you 
happen to be thrashed by your husband, it will be by one 
of your own kindred. Whereas if you marry a stranger 
and be thrashed by him, he may exult over you by 
submitting you to such indignity: 0, the shame of it! 
Put in that way the argument was usually effective. 
Owing largely to his knowledge of tribal lore and policy, 



190 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

and to his experience, a grandfather had peculiar privi- 
leges as to the betrothal of a granddaughter. 
A grandfather has disposed of the question 
of the immediate and perhaps not wise be- 
trothal or marriage of a granddaughter by saying: 
"Waiho mdaku and e huhuti taaku pu-mauku," or, let 
me attend to the plucking of my tender tree-fern, (I will 
consider the matter). When a youth or maiden 
exhibited a natural desire to associate with one of the 
opposite sex, the elders at once arranged to have such 
an one married. In this way free intercourse between 
the sexes with its kindred vices was guarded against. 
Whilst the propagation of the physically or mentally 
unfit was rigorously discouraged, that of the fittest was 
in every way encouraged. Slaves were mostly enforced 
to celibacy and none dared force or assault a female 
slave of a chief, for this offence punishment was swift 
and certain. Adultery was commonly punishable with 
death. A well-born child was baptised with the most 
solemn ceremonials ; a child that grew up without being 
so baptised was regarded as a common or unhallowed 
child. 

PLURAL MARRIAGES. 

Husbands did not continue intercourse with wives 
during the period of gestation, a separate dwelling being 
provided for, and occupied by the wife. This was done 
on the principle that the child would otherwise become 
a mentally deficient weakling. This practise accounts 
in part for plurality of marriages, without which the 
observance would be inconvenient not to say impossible. 
The following incident serves as an illustration: Paora 
Tuhaere, a well known and highly respected Maori chief 
of the Auckland district, when about to pay an extended 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 191 

visit to the Province of "Wellington, was interviewed 
by the Ven. Archdeacon Maunsell. Although a Maori 
scholar himself, the Archdeacon secured the services of a 
capable interpreter, apparently for the purpose of 
making his communication more formal and weighty. 
The following account of what then took place is verbally 
accurate : 

"Say to Paora," began the Archdeacon, "that I hear he 
is going far South, and that he will be away for some 
time." This was done. 

The Archdeacon resumed : "Say to him that he and I 
are now old men and that, consequently, we may never 
meet here again." This was done. 

The Archdeacon continued: "Say to him that I have 
something very serious to ask of him, and that I do so 
owing to his being a lay-reader and a consistent church- 
worker, and because of his influence." This was done. 

The Archdeacon went on : " Say to Paora that the bad 
custom of having two wives ("moe punarua") is still 
going on amongst his people, and that I want him to 
give me a solemn assurance that he will in future do 
everything in his power to stop it." This was done, 
and, after an interval of silence, Paora asked in a piqued 
tone of voice: 

^Has that European finished speaking?" The Arch- 
deacon replied that he had. 

"Now, you tell him," said Paora," that I am unable 
to give him the assurance that he asks for." This was 
done. 

Paora continued : ' ' Tell him that, as he himself knows, 
it is a custom of the Maori and has been a practice 
from time immemorial." This was done. 



192 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Paora resumed : ' ' Tell him that far from being a ' bad 
practice,' as he says, it was a good practice, a practice 
infinitely preferable to that of the Pakeha people." 
This was done. 

Said Paora: "Tell him that by our custom when the 
wife of a Maori becomes pregnant, her husband ceases 
to have intercourse with her; that she is carefully put 
away until her child is born and baptised." This was 
done. 

Paora continued: "Tell him that by this custom the 
Maori was enabled to grow a race of chiefs, of noble 
and handsome men and women, physically and mentally 
strong, a race of rangatira and tohunga." This was 
done. 

Paora had now risen to his full height and his voice 
vibrated with the passion and eloquence of racial pride : 
"Tell him," thundered Paora, "that whereas the birds 
of the air and the beasts of the glades cease to pair when 
the female is fertilised and for long intervals, to my 
certain knowledge the Pakeha, with his model one-wife 
system continues to occupy the same apartments till 
within a very few nights of the birth of a child. Such a 
practice as that is to the Maori most abhorrent 
("rihariha rawa"} and I will not advocate it, come what 
may." This was done. 

After a short interval of perfect silence the Arch- 
deacon, realising that Paora had concluded, turned 
away and slowly left. They never met again. 



CHAPTER XV. 

ON TIME. 

Past : 

7 te Po atu, when primeval darkness still prevailed. 

I-na-mata ke atu, ages and ages ago. 

I-na-tnata noa atu, ages ago. 

I-na-mata, an age ago. 

/ a Nehe ra and, at the dawn of history. 

7 mua ke, long, long ago. 

7 mua, formerly. 

I te oranga o tooku tupuna, during the lifetime of my 
grandfather. 

7 te oranga o tooku matua, during the lifetime of my 
father. 

7 tooku whdnautanga, at my birth. 

I a au e ora nei, during my own lifetime. 

7 era atu tau, some years ago. 

7 enei tau nei, a few years ago. 

7 terd atu tau, the year before last. 

7 tau houanga, early last year. 

7 tenei tau, this year. 

7 era atu Marama, some months ago. 

7 enei Marama nei, a few months ago. 

7 terd Marama atu, the month before last. 

7 te Marama kua pahure nei, last month. 

7 tenei Marama, this month. 

7 enei ra nei, some few days ago. 

7 tetahi ra atu, day before yesterday. 

I-na-nahi, yesterday. 

I-na-po, last night. 

/ wdenganui po nei, last midnight. 

193 



194 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

7 te ata-po nei, ere this day broke. 

I te pu-dotanga nei, at this day-dawn. 

7 te ata-tu nei, early this morning. 

7 te ata nei, this morning. 

7 te ata dd-atea nei, towards this noon. 

7 te Ed poupou nei, at noon to-day. 

7 mua tata ake nei, a short time since. 

7 no, kua nei nei, a few moments since. 
Present : 

7 nd i a nei, now. 

7 na i a nei tonu nei, at this precise moment. 
Future : 

A kua nei nei, presently. 

A ko ake nei, shortly. 

A i a nei, to-day. 

A te tu-ahiahitanga, at early eve. 

A te ahiahi, at evening. 

A te newhatanga o te Ed, when the Sun rests on the 
horizon. 

A te toremitanga o te Ed, when the Sun sets. 

A te ahiahi po, at nightfall. 

A te po nei, during this night. 

A wdenganui po, at midnight. 

A te ata-tu dpopo, early to-morrow morn. 

Apdpd, to-morrow. 

A tetahi rd, day after to-morrow. 

A. enei rd nei, during the next few days. 

A tenei Marama, during this month. 

A tenei Marama ake, during next month. 

A enei Marama, during the next few months. 

A tenei tau, during this year. 

A ton hoii, at the new year. 

A tenei tau ake, during next year. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 195 

A tera tau atu, at the year after next. 
A enei tau nei, during the next few years. 
A mua ake nei, at some future time. 
A te wd 5 tooku oranga, during my lifetime. 
A mua lie ake, at some distant future. 
Ake nei, henceforth. 

A-ke, d-ke, d-ke ake, future unending, on until time 
fails. 

Tera tu-mua, the day before. 
Te rd tu-muri, the day after. 

SUN, MOON, STARS; PLANETS AND 
CONSTELLATIONS. 

MAORI LUNAR CALENDAR. 

(Night, the Moon, was the time measurer. This lunar 
calendar with slight variations is recited in New 
Zealand, the Chatham Islands, Tahiti, Earotonga, 
Hawaiki and Easter Island; thus proving a wide use 
and common origin.) 

1. 0-Whiro, (hiding away 16. Rdkaunui. 

as Whiro, the robber.) 17. Edkau-matohi. 

2. Tired, first visibility. 18. Takirau. 

3. 0-Hoata. 19. 0-Ike. 

4. 0-Uenuku. 20. Korekore. 

5. 0-Koro, or, Mdwete. 21. Korekore-turua. 

6. Tamatea-kai-ariki. 22. Korekore-piri-ki-Tanga- 
1. Tamatea-wdnanga. roa. 

8. Tamatea-d-io. 23. Tangaroa mua. 

9. Tamatea-ivhakapau. 24. Tangaroa roto. 

10. Huna. 25. Tangaroa kiokio. 

11. Ariroa. 26. 0-Tdne. 

12. Mdu-haru. 27. 0-Rongo. 

13. Maurea. 28. Mauri. 

14. 0-IJua, Atua, or, Atua- 29. 0-Mutu (lost to sight). 

ivhakahdehde. 30. Mutu-ivhenua. 

15. 0-Turu, or. 0-Hotu. 31. Takataka putea. 



196 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

STARS RULING MONTHS. 

The New Year was ushered in by the heliacal rising 
of Puangarua, the beautiful star Rigel in the constella- 
tion of Orion. It was a time of thanksgiving, feasting, 
joy and merriment throughout the Maori area of the 
Pacific: "Ka koea te ara 6 Puanga," or, The advent of 
Puanga was praised and proclaimed with prayer. 

1st June, Puanga, Rigel in Orion. 2nd July, Puanga- 
hori, Procyon. 3rd August, Whakaahu, Castor. 
4th September, Te Kakau, Regulus. 5th October, 
Whitikaupeka, Spica. 6th November, Rerehu, Antares. 
7th December, Eaiwaka. 8th January, Urudo. 9th 
February, Poututerangi, Altair. 10th March, 0-tama- 
rdkau. llth April, Whetu-kaupo. 12th May, Whetu- 
kura, (End of year.) 



THE MONTHS BY NUMBERS, OR, AGRICUL- 
TURIST'S CALENDAR. 

June, He tahi, ko Puanga tenei. July, He rua t Tie 
mama Takurua. August, He torn, mate whd. September, 
Ko te whd tuturu. October, He rima Ko, he rima 
Ketuketu. November, He ono tahitahi (weeds). 
December, He ma-rua whitu. January, He warn, he 
iwa iti. February, He iwa. ("Ko te warn me te iwa, 
kp Urudo ki te Po, (bringing dews), ko Matiti kai-wai 
ki te ad. Te tomairangi, te hauku, na tend, tangata na 
Uruao"). March, Ko te Ngahuru tenei, ko te Kura-tuhi. 
April, Ko te Ma-tahi o te tau, ko Ngahuru taitahi, tenei. 
May, Ko te Md-ruaroa, ko Ngahuru tairua, tenei; ko 
Matariki tdpuapua. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 197 

THE SEASONS OF THE YEAR Nga wd (or, ao) 
o te Tau. 

Hotoke, Makariri, winter. Mahuru, Koanga, spring. 
Raumati, summer. Ngahuru, autumn. 

Matiti 'kali-wan,, midsummer Takurua, midwinter. 

It is said that Sirius (Rehua) under the name of 
Takurua, presides over the midminter days, (he is then 
a day star) ; and that under the name of Rehua, he 
presides over the midsummer nights, (he is then at the 
zenith at nightfall. It is, however, certain that Takurua 
is a name commonly applied to midwinter, and Rehua 
(as well as Matiti kaiwai) is a name commonly applied 
to midsummer. What appears to be certain is that 
Rehua is the name for Sirius, and that Te Putahi nui o 
Rehua, is the true name for the constellation of Canis 
Major. 
Tau kai, year of plenty. Tau tuku roa, year of scarcity. 

WINDS. 

Mata-wJid ki te rangi, or, the four cardinal wind- 
points ; literally, the four faces to the sky, also Nga wha 
o te rangi. 

Tonga, south. Uru, west. 

Marangai, east. Pd-whakarua, north-east. 

Pdrera, north-west. Pu-tonga-marangai, south- 

Tonga-ma-uru, south-west. east. 

Pounui, southerly. Tu-d-raki, northerly. 

Tu-d-uru, westerly. Tu-d-marangai, easterly. 

Hau-whenua, land breeze. Muritai, sea breeze. 

Kotiu, or, Tokerau, north. 

Pderoa, wind blowing along the shore. 
Whakadri, wind which rises at night, blows with great 
force, and ceases before morning. 



198 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Runga, literally, up, south. Raro. literally, down, 
north. The reason for south being up, and north being 
down (Maori style), is because the Sun apparently 
sinks down to the north (winter), and then gradually 
rises up to the south (summer). 

"Tdne provided two permanent winds, the north and 
the south." 

Rd-whiti, sun-crossing; name for the equator. 

THE PLANETS. 

From the fact that planets are perceivable 
before dark and after dawn and when sunlight has 
caused the brightest fixed stars to disappear, planets 
are known to the Maori as Whetu-do (lit. dawn, or, day- 
stars). For the same reason they are also known as 
Whetu-mdrama (lit. the clearest, most readily perceived 
and distinguished). 

Whiro, Mercury (steals off as a thief and hides). 

Venus, as morning star, Meremere; as evening star, 
Meremere tu ahiahi (ahiahi, eve). These names are 
commonly applied in winter. As a morning star Venus 
is also known as Tdwera, and as evening star Rere-ahiahi. 
These names are commonly applied in summer. 

Mars, Mataivhero (Red-face). 

Jupiter, Kopu-nui (lit. great-paunch). That descrip- 
tive name sufficiently indicates the Maori appreciation 
of the apparent size and bulk of Jupiter. But there is 
more, for of Jupiter the Maori says: "Ko Kopu-nui te 
whetu nui, ma, e whakawheturangi na i d ia; e whaka- 
dhua ana i d ia kia rite ki a Tama-nui-te-Rd" : or, That 
great white star travelling in the daytime is Kopu-nui; 
he would divide the honours with the great ruler of the 
day (the Sun). Kopu-nui is classed as a male star. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 199 

Saturn, Paredrau (lit. chaplet). Of this planet the 
Maori says: l 'Ko Parearau te whetu karu-pounamu na. 
He pouaru tend no reira i kdkahu ai i toona pare" : or, 
That green-eyed star is Parearau. She is a widow; that 
is the reason why she wears her (widow's) circlet. 

By a study of the present work and from other infor- 
mation which is abundantly accessible, the student may 
learn that Maori names are in the main essentially 
descriptive names. They are descriptive because the 
Maori intended them to be informing, and this they are 
to a degree. To this rule their names for the different 
planets offer no exception, and it can be readily shown 
that these names apply to the planets as shown by the 
recognised European names. That the Maori has a repu- 
tation for extreme keenness of vision is a widely known 
and accepted fact. It is recorded that he has easily 
distinguished, with the naked eye, two of Jupiter's 
satellites. It is therefore a matter for legitimate enquiry 
as to how he came to name the planet Saturn the 
"Chaplet," or perhaps, the "Circlet-wearer," seeing 
that science has revealed the fact that Saturn is sur- 
rounded with a ring. In the meantime there is no doubt 
whatever that the Maori names for the planets are both 
ancient and original. So far as is known Maori know- 
ledge of the planets ended, as is shown, with Saturn. 

Meteor, known as a Tu-mata-kokiri, and Matamata- 
kokiri. 

A comet was known scientifically as a Pu- 
ihiihi-rere. a Pii-rere-ahuj and au-ahi-roa; (embryonic 
fire-current) ; names indicating its cometary character. 
A comet is also familiarly known as "Te Manu i te Ra," 
or, the Bird at the Sun. What the European knows as 
a "double tail," the Maori preferred to describe as 



200 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

wings. Therefore the reference to "the bird," winged 
bird. There is reason, to believe that Halley's comet 
is known to the Maori under the proper name of Rongo- 
mai. That the Maori apprehended some danger from the 
close presence of a comet is shown by the caution: "Kei 
werohia korua e nga kihi a Te Manu-i-te-Rd," or, Be 
careful, lest you two be pierced by the bright points of 
the bird at the Sun. Children were taught to call a 
comet Upokoroa, or, Long-head. 

THE MILKY WAY AND CONSTELLATIONS. 

The Milky Way was known to the Maori as "Te Ika- 
matua a Tangaroa" or, the Parent fish of Tangaroa; 
also as Te ika o te Rangi, the fish of the sky. It is also 
known as Te Mangoroa, or, the Long Shark. Tangaroa 
is Lord of the deeps of space, familiarly Lord of the 
Ocean deeps. But, it is his mythical son, Tinirau, who 
is the local deity presiding over the ocean ; he resides on 
the mythical sacred isle of Motutapu. It is to Motutapu 
that Hinemoana, otherwise Hinauri (sister-wife of Maui) 
swims, to join Tinirau. It relates to a solar lunar myth. 

The constellation Orion is recognised as Tau-toru. 
Its principal star is Puanga, or in full, Puanga-rua 
(Rigel). The Maori classes Puanga as the most beautiful 
star (or, double-star, Puanga-rua} visible. Tautoru, or 
Orion, is described as being a mighty hunter, and he 
figures in the Constellation in the capacity of a bird- 
snarer, (kai-dhere, or, kai-tdkiri manu). His Pewa, or 
bird-snaring apparatus, is easily distinguished. Its 
shaft (or, tatd o Tautoru) is the perpendicular row of 
stars below, and to the right, of Rigel. The joint (or, 
tuke o Tautoru) is the star immediately below Rigel; it 
forms the necessary elbow to the before mentioned tatd. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 201 

The blossom-cluster (or, pua-tawhiwhi 6 Tautoru) which 
the hunter uses to attract the birds to the top of the 
Pewa is Puanga itself (Rigel). Puanga-rua is thus said 
to be a cluster of beautiful and attractive stars, which 
at times display a white, anon a golden, but principally 
an azure light; thus constituting a blossom-cluster. Of 
Puanga it is said: "Puanga is the Aiiki-st&r of the year. 
From the signs shown at its annual re-appearance in the 
east, the Tohunga were able to foretell the nature of the 
coming spring and summer season. Should its rays flash 
southward, it was the sign of a bad season; but, if the 
rays were directed northward, it was the sign of a very 
good season. 

Rigel, in Orion, and Castor, in Gemini (or, Puangarua 
and Whakadhu) are described as the pair of twins of 
Tai-ngarue (Ngd tokorua a Tai-ngarue) : 

"The pair of Tai-ngarue cast up above, 
As signs, for man, in the sky." 

Of Whakadhu (Castor) it is said: Whakadhu is the 
star and Wlwkaahu is the month. The reason is, because 
Whakadhu ushers in the Spring, when plants and foods 
of all kinds are stimulated to growth (whakadhu), and 
man himself is stimulated to cultivate foods. 

The Constellation of Canis major is very well known. 
Its leading star is Sirius (Rehua). The attendant train 
of Sirius ( i( Te putahi nui 6 Rehua") is the line of stars 
leading southward and culminating in the great star- 
triangle. That triangle enframes the mirror, or reflector, 
of Sirius, known as Pukawanui, (Pukawa-nui, te 
wai whakaata o Rehua). Te Taumata o Rehua, 
and Te Huinga o Rehua, are also familiar references. 
Of Sirius it is said: Sirius made his appearance 
originally as a flaming star from out of the 



202 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

dark-hole (coal-sack) in the Milky Way, and he 
flew with lightning speed athwart the sky. After a 
prolonged interval of flying he settled down where we 
now see him, and gradually assumed his present well- 
defined form. In midsummer, when Sirius was in the 
ascendant at early evening, if thunder-rumblings were 
heard, the old-fathers would cry out : Hear the rumbling 
of the footfalls of Rehua-: "Get on, Sir, and take some 
of us poor mortals with you. ' ' The reason why the old- 
fathers said this is, that the season of midsummer is a 
most trying time for the aged and physically weak ; and 
many then die. Again in the early mornings of mid- 
winter Sirius appears above the eastern horizon. This 
being coincident with severely cold and stormy weather, 
the season is known as TaJcu-rua. The name Te Kdhui- 
Takurua (or, the Takurua group) apparently then 
applies to Canis major. At this period, too, death was 
busy carrying off the aged and the physically weak, and 
the cry would be heard : Go, loved one, go, taken by the 
Takurua group. For these reasons Rehua, (Sirius) is 
apostrophised as Rehua the man-destroyer. Mythologic- 
ally, Rehua is said to be the most brilliant of the sons 
of Rangi. 

Of the constellation Aquila, or, Pou-tu-te-rangi, it is 
said: Pm^tu-te-rangi is the house of Taranga, the 
parent of Maui by his wife Mahu-ika. Mahuika also bore 
the hawk-bird, which is a fire-god. That is the reason 
why the feathers of the hawk-bird are ruddy coloured. 
Maui east his father's house down to the first heaven. 

The constellation of the Southern Cross is known as 
Te Putea-iti-d-Reti (Tamarereti) , and also as Te Kahui 
Rua-mddhu. This "Maahu" is the star of the South 
which : ' ' has left its place in pursuit of a female. When 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 203 

it secures the female, it will come back again to its true 
home. ' ' The Coal-sack is known as Te Rua 6 Mdahu, or, 
the Pdtiki. 

The constellation of Argo is known as Te Waka o 
Tamarereti, or the canoe of Tamarereti. Its leading 
star, Canopus, is known as Au-tahi. Tamarereti is said 
to have sailed away to the ice-barriers of the South in 
very ancient times. He did not return, and after many 
years the ancients professed to recognise his canoe in the 
constellation of Argo. 

Te Huihui 6 Matariki, or, the group or assembly of 
Matariki, is the name universally applied to the Pleiades. 
Matariki is apparently the name of the star Capella: 
mythology seems to connect the Pleiades with Capella. 

Canopus is known as Au-tahi, or Ao-tahi, literally, 
the lone one. It is said that it is so called because it 
avoids accompanying the stars of the zodiac. It is 
regarded by the Maori as being a particularly sacred star. 

As already indicated, a constellation is known as a 
kdhui-whetu, literally star-group, also Huihui, literally 
assemblage. 

The equator is known as Te Whitianga Rd, or, Te Ra- 
whiti, which literally signifies the Sun-crossing place. 
This explains why so many of the equatorial islands are 
known by some form of Whiti. For instance :Tahiti, 
Tawhiti, Te Whiti, Tonga-whiti, Fiji, apparently a cor- 
ruption of Whiti. Ra-whiti is thus quite properly a 
name for the East. It is, however, incorrectly inter- 
preted to mean Sun-shine, whereas it literally signifies 
Sun-crossing; Rd-hana means Sun-shine, also Rd-ura. 
Referring specifically to sunshine, sun-glow, or, sun- 
heat, the word whiti does not occur. For instance, the 
summer-group " Kdhui-matiti," has as its members: 



204 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Matiti-kura- Matiti-hana- Matiti-mumura; Matiti-kai- 
wai; Matiti-raurehu; Matiti-rau-tapatu; and Matiti-rau- 
dngina. These are said to have three homes, doubtless to 
correspond to the three months of summer: 

1. "The first house is named Te Ata-uraura. The 
home is named Te Ata-i-toea. The Kdhui-Matiti is the 
presiding Ariki." 

2. "The second house is named Pii-wewera and the 
home Pu-mahana. The Kdhui-Matiti is the presiding- 
Ariki." 

3. The house is named Rangi-tuhia and the home 
Rangi-whakaawa. The Kahui-Matiti is the presiding 
Ariki." 

In this we have a complete Maori statement of the 
various aspects of the Sun in all its splendour, and the 
term whiti does not occur. 

The Kdhui-Takurua presides over the winter months. 
Its members are Wero-i-te-ninihi; Wero-i-te-kokoto ; and 
Wero-irte-whakataka Pungarehu. Also Tukurua-d- 
uru; Takurua-d-ngana, and Takurua-d-io. 
(Extract from letter, to "Te Wdnanga" newspaper, of 
Aperahama Taonui, dated from Kaipara, 16th August, 
1877.) 

"Terd tetahi Whetu, ko Matariki. E klia ana kdhore 

ona kdinga, whakataukltia ana ko "Matariki kdinga- 
kore." Heoi kua mdtauria he kdinga and tdona. Ka 
rumaki a Matariki i nga Tangaroa o Mei 16, kd tde ki 
Maukahau, po-whitu ki reira. Ka hdere ki Tararauatea, 
po-whitu ki reira. Ka hdere kd tde ki Papa-whakatangi- 
tangi, pd-whitu ki reira. Ka hdere kd tde ki Titore- 
Mdahu-tu po-whitu ki reira. Ka whakaputa a Matariki 

1 nga Tangaroa 6 Hune 16. Puta pu ake ko te hiku o 
Mangoroa; kd puta ano hoki a Whdnui, te whetu o te 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 205 

hau-raro. Ko te wehenga tenei o te tau a te Maori, koia 
te waiata: 

Kd puta Matariki, kd rere Whdnui, 
Ko te tohu o te tau, etc. 

Ka pdtata mai te Ao, kd huri te hiku o te Mangoroa, 
kd whai ki te torengitanga o te Ed. Ko te mdtenga kd 
huri ki te marangai, ki te tatari atu ki te putanga mai 
o te Rd. E klia ana e te korero tara: Ko te Mangoroa, 
te teina ko te Rd; koia i aroha tonu ai kia rdua." 
Translation : 

There is a certain star known as Matariki ( ?the 
Pleiades). It has been urged that it has no home; 
therefore the saying: "Homeless Matariki." However, 
it is known that it has a home. When Matariki dis- 
appears with the waning moon of the 16th of May, it 
then goes on and spends the seventh night at Maukahau. 
It then goes on and spends the seventh night at Tararau- 
atea. It then goes on and arrives at Papa-Whakatangi- 
tangi, where it spends the seventh night. It then goes on 
and reaches Tltore Mdahu-tu, where it spends the seventh 
night. Matariki then reappears with the waning moon 
of the 16th June. It reappears exactly in the tail of 
the Milky Way; co-incidentally with the reappearance 
of Whanui (the star Vega), the star of the North. This 
is the division of the Maori year (that is, of the Old year 
from the New year). Therefore the song: 

Matariki reappears, Whanui starts its flight, 
Being the sign of the (new) year, etc. 

When dawn approaches the tail of Mangoroa (long- 
shark, the Milky Way) turns towards the West. The 
head (of the Milky Way) then turns towards the East, 
to await the rising of the Sun. It is fabled that the Sun 
is a younger brother of the Milky Way, therefore their 
affection towards each other. 



206 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

TE RA. TE RAUMAT1. TE RANG1. 

Nd, ka rewa ake a Tdwera. 
Ka pu-do te Rd. 
Ka ngakde te at a. 
Ka do atea. 
Ka ata-tu. 

Ka whakaputa ake te Rd i te pde. 
Ka Moiri ake te Rd i te pde. 

Ka totoro hdere ngd hihi o te Rd. 
Ka kanapa te Rd. 
Ka Plata ngd hihi. 

Ka hahana te Rd ki runga ki ngd toropuke. 
Ka maiangi Mere ake te Rd. 
A ka hahana ki roto ki ngd rdordo. 

Kd ura te Rd. 

Ka mdrama ake te kikorangi. 

Ka ivhakamdrama te Rd i te do. 

Ka whakamahana te Rd i te do. 

Ka poutumdrotia te Rd. 

Ka tikdkd te Rd. 

Ka ngatata te whenua. 

Ka tit aha atu te Rd ki te pde ki te uru. 

Ka tu-ahiahi. 

Ka tdiri atu te Rd ki te pde. 

Ka newha te Rd ki te pde. 

Ka toremi atu te Rd ki tua o te pde. 

Ka pouriuri. 

Ka whakaputaputa ngd Whetu. 

Kua po. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 207 

THE SUN (also Day). THE SUMMER. THE SKY 

(also Day). 

Now floats aloft Tawera (Venus, as morning star). 
Then dawns the daylight. 
Then breaks the morn. 
Then (it becomes) clear light. 
Then 'tis early morn. 
Then appears the Sun on the horizon. 
Then rises the Sun above the horizon. 

Then stretches forth the rays of the Sun. 
Then gleams brightly the Sun. 
Then glisten the beams. 
Then shines the Sun on the hill-tops. 
Then rises the Sun still higher aloft. 
And then shines into the valleys. 

Then glows the Sun. 

Then the firmament becomes transparent. 

Then gives light the Sun to the world. 

Then gives warmth the Sun to the world. 

Then the Sun attains the meridian. 

Then scorches the Sun. 

Then cracks the earth. 

Now declines away the Sun towards the horizon 

of the West. 
Then 'tis early evening. 
Then droops away the Sun to the horizon. 
Then perches the Sun on the horizon. 
Then sinks away the Sun beyond the horizon. 
Then dusk supervenes. 
Then appear the Stars. 
Now 'tis night. 



208 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

TE PO. TE MARAMA. NGA KAHUI WHETU. 

Nd, lea to a Meremere-tu-ahiahi. 
Ka kitea ake nga Whetu. 
Ka kimokimo nga Whetu. 
Ka nekeneke hdere nga Whetu-mdrama. 
A Whiro, A Meremere, a Matawliero, a Kopu-nui, a 

Parearau. 
Ka ngaro ko Mdahu-Tonga. 

Ka nohonoho nga kdhui-whetu. 

Te Mangoroa, te ika-matua a Tangaroa. 

Manaako-tea, Manaako-uri, nga Pdtaritari 

hau. 

Te Kdhui Rua-Madhu. 
Te Rua o Mdahu-Tonga. 
Te Rua-pdtiki. 

Te Punga o te waka a Tamarereti, 
Te waka a Tamarereti. 
Te tauihu o te waka a Tamarereti. 
Te taurapa o te waka a Tamarereti. 
Te Putea-iti a 'Reti. 
Autahi, te whetu tapu. 



Rehua, te putahi-nui d Rehua. 

Tautoru, te tuke a Tautoru. 

Te Pua-tawhiwhi o Tautoru. 

Pitangarua, Puanga-kori. Whakadhu. 

Nga tokorua a Taingarue, ara, a Puangarua, 

a Whakadhu. 

Matariki, te Huihui o Matariki. 
Te Kakau, Whitikaupeka, Rerehu. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 209 

THE NIGHT. THE MOON. THE STARrGROUPS. 

Now, sinks away Meremere-tu-ahiahi (Venus as evening 

star) . 

Then are seen aloft the stars. 
Then twinkle the stars. 
Then move along the planets: 
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. 
Maahu-Tonga is invisible (the star of the South). 

Now the star-groups resume their positions. 

The Milky Way, i.e., the Parent-fish of Tangaroa. 

The light Magellan cloud, the darker Magellan cloud: 

(the wind-sifters.) 
The group (adjoining) Maahu's chamber (the Southern 

Cross). 

The chamber of Maahu-Tonga, 
The Flat-fish pit, 
(The Coal-sack, or dark pit.) 
The anchor of the canoe of Tamarereti. 
The canoe of Tamarereti, Argo. 
The ornamental stem of the canoe of Tamarereti. 
The ornamental stern-post of the canoe of Tamarereti. 
The Little (jewel-) casket of (Tamare-) 'Reti, (the 

Southern Cross). 
Canopus, the sacred star. 

Sirius, the great train of Sirius (constellation of Canis 

Major) . 

Orion, the flower-vase of Tautoru. 

The flower-cluster of Tautoru (the beautiful star Rigel). 
Rigel, Procyon, Castor (in Gemini). 
The Pair of Taingarue, namely, Rigel and Castor. 
Capella, the Assembly of Capella (the Pleiades). 
The constellation of Leo ; Spica, Antares. 



210 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Ruawahia, Pou-tii-te-rangi. 
Me. te mano tini 6 nga Whetii, 
I tihakanohoia atu e Tdne. 
Kia tau ai te matua, a Rangi, 
Koia "Te Kahui o te Rangi." 

Ka ioaenganui po, 

Ko te weheruatanga o te po. 

Ea kumekume mai te ata. 

Ka ngarongaro ano nga tini whetu, 

Ki raro o te uru-pae. 

Ka morewa ake te Marama, 

Pukoroa ana te Marama, 

Kua kohi te Marama. 

Ka tata pu-ao te ra. 

Ka pu-ao te ra. 

Ka ao-atea (carelessly written "Awatea.") 

Kua rewa ake te Ra i te tu-a-pae. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 211 

Arcturus, Altair (in Aquila). 
And the many thousand of the stars, 
Planed thither by Tane (Lord of Light), 
To adorn the sky-father, i.e., Rangi, 
Known as "The groups of the Sky." 

Now 'tis mid-night, 

'Tis the equal division of the night. 

Then draws hitherward the morn. 

Then disappear again the many stars, 

Beneath the western horizon. 

Then soars upward the Moon. 

Haloed is the moon, 

Waning is the moon. 

Then approaches the early dawn of day. 

Then dawns the light of day. 

Then 'tis clear dawn. 

Now soars aloft the Sun from the (eastern) horizon. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



WHANGA. TATARI. TAIHOA. 

These semi-allied terms with different degrees of 
force convey the sense of wait awhile and by and by. 

Whanga and tatari speak of waiting 1 during a reason- 
able and fairly well understood length of time, which 
time is invariably shorter in the case of whanga and 
longer in the case of tatari. 

As a verbal noun Whanga speaks of a Haven, a Bay 
or a Harbour into which canoes run to temporarily 
await the passing of a storm or the subsiding of rough 
seas. As a verb whanga speaks of an action which is 
proceeding and which, as it were, opens and closes with 
a single act ; of something which is near and impending. 

Tatari is more elastic than whanga as to time-limit. 
It invariably speaks of an interval of time during which 
several acts quite foreign to its particular subject 
may be attended to. But. and this is important, in the 
cases of both whanga and tatari it is understood that 
in reasonably due course the particular matter in 
question will receive attention. 

The term taihoa, or, by and by, speaks of a time so 
absolutely indefinite as to allow for a total lapse of 
any further attention being given by the speaker to 
the subject referred to. In particular then taihoa 
speaks of to defer, to procrastinate, to delay. 

The following may be accepted as good examples of 
native usage and of the lexical meanings of these 
terms: 

212 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 213 

Whanga. Hoake ki mua, ka whanga mai an, koutou i a 
mdtou: Go along in front, then if necessary 
you may wait-a-little- while for us (to overtake 
you). 

Tatari. E hoki koe ki te kdinga, ki reira tatari mai ai 
i a mdtou: You may go back home and await 
us there. (We shall be there in a day or two) . 

Taihoa. Ko taaku Uupu tenei ki a koe, taihoa ; mdaku 
e ata whakadro ake to mea: My word to you 
is this, bide-the-time ; my careful consideration 
will be given to your matter. (Some day.) 



TABLOID TRANSLATIONS. 

INTEKPKETATIONS OF CERTAIN MAOEI TERMS. 
(Meanings shown by the words in heavy type.) 

WHANGA. 
I wait a little while and then 

Am joined by friends I would not miss; 
Gregarious, man must mix with men 

Or wanting those lacks frendships' bliss. 

TATARI. 
I wait for one short day or two 

Or may be more or may be less; 
Time comes and goes as I and you, 

But I'll be with you in the stress. 

TAIHOA. 
I stay my hand, delay the while, 

What needs this furious rush and roar 
Whose frantic haste I view? and smile, 

I bide the time and breathe: Taihoa. 

MAN A. 
I speak of potency, the right 

To order things as I may deem; 
I, nothing wanting, have the might 

Which clothes authority supreme. 



214 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

TAPU. 
By ceremonial usage I 

Become a sacred entity; 
A thing forbidden, that the eye 

Alone may dwell upon and see. 

MINAMINA. 
I like, enjoy full many things 

Towards which my senses me incline; 
The cult of taste most surely brings 

Such joys as may be deemed divine. 

HIAHIA. 
My only wish (I do aspire, 

Alas that it is vain), 
Is that which wells the sweet desire, 

To see thee once again. 

HO A. 

Friend of my youth companion of my days, 
Wife, husband, sharer of our mutual ways. 

TENA KO KOE. 

That being you I greet you, 'tis a treat 
To greet those whom we know or chance to meet. 

TAUHOU. 

I greet you, stranger, welcome to our gates, 
Come, share the cheer provided by the fates. 

KAI-TOBO. 

A visitor approaches here 
And him we greet in tones sincere. 

MANUWHISI. 

Most welcome guest, of all our board and cheer 
Be thou partaker through the rolling year. 

TAN GAT A. 

Man mostly human is, his part divine 
Oft sunk too deeply in that inner shrine. 

KUEI. 

Thy acts are vicious and I call thee dog, 
A beast who sets even callous souls agog. 

MATE. 

I speak of illness and (with fcwa), 
Of death, which comes alike to rich and poor. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 215 

MOHIO. 

I speak of knowledge and of one who knows, 
Who gains experience as he comes and goes. 

KA PAI. 

'Tis good I say and know it so to be, 
Pai rawa, very good, 'twixt you and me. 

KA KINO. 

I say, 'tis bad, because it so appears, 
And badness is a source of stress of tears. 

KIA OEA KOE. 

Health unto thee and ever prosperous days, 
May life's best treasures be with thee always. 



KIA OB A. 
py, happy 
Of joys and comforts and indeed of wealth. 



I speak of life, of happy, happy health, 



HOMAI. 

Give (unto me), accept my blessings too, 
And thanks which show deep gratitude to you. 

HOATU. 

Give (unto him), he needs it more than I, 
I've noted that by many a longing sigh. 

AEOHA. 

Here dwells a sympathy, a love for thee, 
A sorrow, pity, sweetest charity. 

TAAKU AEOHA KI A KOE. 
My love towards thee is truly great, 
In life no thing can this abate. 

TU-TANGATA. 

Strange man art thou of manners bold, 
Of ways and speech by none extolled. 

KA PAI KOE. 

You are so good, I know not why, 
But you are good and so am I. 

E NOHO BA. 

Bemain in peace, I must away, 
A fond farewell to all who stay. 



216 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

HAESE BA. 

You take your leave, I say: depart, 
Farewell then, go in peace, my heart. 

EAEEE MAI. 

Come here (to me), I want you so, 
Need I add that, you surely know. 

HAEBE ATU. 

Go away, be off, I need thee not, 
Nor for thy presence care one jot. 

MO AN A. 

I call thee ocean and across thy face, 
My forefathers canoed their watery pace. 

TAI. 

The sea which girts New Zealand's isles, 
Are fair and sweet as beauty's smiles. 

WHENUA. 

Land of my sires and my dearest joy, 
I love thee better now than when a boy. 

ONEONE. 

This soil is my inheritance from those 
Who held it 'gainst the assaults of mortal foes. 

ONEPU. 

The sands of life when running low, 
Give food for thought: where do we go? 

MOEMOEA. 

I am a dream a common thing you know, 
Yet none may understand me, that I trow. 

NAU MAI, NAU MAI. 
Approach, come forward, welcome too, 
A happy welcome we extend to you. 

MOE MAI. 

Sleep on fair lady happily dream 
And soft as fairy footfalls seem. 

TANGI. 

Weep on and for thy lost one mourn, 
That loved one from thy presence borne. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 217 



KATA. 

I love to laugh, I would be gay, 
Why not? life's but a transient day. 

TAAKU IPO. 

Thou art my love, all else to me 
Is naught, since I can love but thee. 

WAI AT A. 

A little song I send to thee, 
A song and you'll remember me. 

EHEIEUEI. 

Love-ditties very welcome are, 
When rayed by one's bright distant star. 

WAIATA-POI. 

A Poi-song and dance of grace, 
A dream of girlish sinuous pace. 

HAKA. 

A posture song and dance which gives, 
An end to care; man joys and lives. 

KOTIEO. 

This is a girl of tender years, 
With ready smiles and ready tears. 

KORINE. 

A maiden this maturing fast 
Whose maidenhood shall soon be past. 

WAHINE. 

A woman this, a wife to scan, 
Far differing from her fellow, man. 

WHAEA. 

They call me mother, even so, 
It speaks of heartfelt joys and woe. 

MATUA. 

A parent, father, filled with pride, 
To family duty e'er allied. 

TAMA. 

They call me son, tamaiti, boy, 
To some a pest, to others joy. 



218 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

TAMAEINE. 

A daughter and a timid one, 
Who looks with awe on life begun. 

THE SUN, MOON AND PLANETS. 

BA. 

Lord of our day the Sun on high, 
The mighty one which rules our sky. 

MAE AM A. 

The Moon, moonlight, at night supreme, 
The lover's joy, the poet's theme. 

WHIEO. 

Faint Mercury of silver sheen, 
Lost in Sun-fires and seldom seen. 

MEEEMEEE. 

Venus whose bright and quivering rays, 
Announce the dawn and eve of days. 

MATA-WHEEO. 

The planet Mars, red-face, unkind, 
A sign of war when Moon-aligned. 

KOPU-NUI. 

Hail, Jupiter: rotundly -great, 
Who walks by day to seek thy mate. 

PAEE-ABAU. 

Green Saturn, garland-wearer thou, 
A widow, as our myths allow. 

WHETU. 

Distant and beautiful to sight, 
Star of the evening, star of light. 

KAEAKIA. 

A ritual this of reverent awe, 
Propitiate to the gods and law. 

IN GO A. 

'Tis but a name, as chanticleer, 
For hatred or for love Sincere. 

TAB A. 

A mountain peak, as "Tararua, " 
And "Taranaki, " to be sure. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 219 



TO-TAEA. 

A tree of spiny leaves is here, 
So tara point and barb and spear. 

TATAEAMOA. 

Tie bramble this whose prickly shoots, 
Are sore to those who pluck its fruits. 

TABAMEA. 

The fragrant spear-grass this, and hung 
A scented-necklet for the young. 

TARAKIHI. 

A spiny fish, to palate good, 
Most excellent of finny food. 

KAI. 

Kai is to eat, 'tis also food, 
For: what is eaten must be chewed. 

KAINGA. 

Home of our childhood and our tears, 
For tender thoughts of passing years. 

TAKABO. 

We play and gambol in our youth, 
Become more staid with age and truth. 

KANIKANI. 

Dance on in youth with lissom limb, 
And supple body's added vim. 

KOBE BO. 

To speak and, what we needs must, say, 
Our thoughts and meanings to convey. 



LAKE NAMES. 

TAU-PO. 

A settled-gloom hangs o'er this lake, 
Whene'er our distant view we itake. 

EOTO-BUA. 

Thin-crater-lake (a wondrous name), 
Once subject to volcanic flame. 



220 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

EOTO-IT1. 

A narrow-lake when brought to view, 
And narrow 'tis, I say to you. 

EOTO-MA. 

White-lake, with shell and limestone strewn, 
All white beneath the Sun or Moon. 

BOTO-EHU. 

They name thee turbid-lake aright, 
For thou art turbid to the sight. 

BOTO-MAHANA. 

Warm-lake, thou too are rightly called, 
Whose waters boil and melting scald. 

EOTO-A-IBA. 

A dotted-lake of isles is here, 
Well known to hardy mountaineer. 

WAI-KABE. 

Expansive-surfaced-water, this, 
A lake of beauty, myths and bliss. 

BUA-PEHU. 

The belching-chamber of this Mount, 
Is snow-wrapped to its steaming fount. 

TABA-WEBA. 

This lake the adjoining mountain names, 
Whose heated-peak gave fiery flames. 

WAI-WEB A. 

Hot-water, neither less nor more, 
Discharged at time with belching roar. 

HOBO-WHENUA. 

Earth-swallower thy subsidence shows, 
A subsidence thy shores disclose. 

O-MA-PEBE. 

Of and for Pere, ejecting force, 
When Pere runs her fiery course. 

TAKA-PUNA. 

Rim-cratered-spring whose awesome deeps, 
Eeveal old Vulcan's busy steeps. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 221 



EOTO-KAKAHI. 
Prolific lake in shell-fish food, 
Fresh-water bivalves sweet and good. 

WAI-EAEAPA. 

This lake its flashing-waters show, 
To those who cross its steeps of snow. 

BOTO-MAKABIBI. 
Cold-lake, and cold it is to me, 
Its bathers shivering bodies see. 

MANA(WA)-POUEI. 
A gloomy-heart, I'd have you know, 
A heart distressed by war and woe. 

MANOWAI. 

Exterminated, we are done, 
Conquered by foes our race is run. 

HAWEA. 

Thy name is: 'Feared,' I know not why, 
(Fearsome of foes in days gone by?) 

WAITAKI (Waitangi). 
Here sounding-waters dirge and moan, 
Though heard afar they weep alone. 

WHAKATIPU. 

To add-increase, to make-to-grow, 
To foster-well this name doth show. 

TE ANAU. 

The swaying-reeds thy shallows grace, 
And lend a name to run thy race. 

WAIHOLA (Waihora). 
Here outspread-waters find a place, 
Not difficult nor hard to trace. 

WANAKA (Wananga). 
The orator 's-recital, spent 
On cosmos and divine descent. 

MAEINA-PUA. 

Here moonlight-blossoms greet the sight 
And brighten up each passing night. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



TE TAMARIKITANGA, KI TE TANGATA- 
TANGA, Kl TE KOKOHEKETANGA. 

Whanau. Na, Ka whanau te tamaiti. 

Tangi. Ka tangi te tamaiti. 

Ngote. Ka ngote u te tamaiti. 

Moe. Ka moe te tamaiti. 

Ara ake. Ka ara ake te tamaiti. 

Noho-tu. Ka nohu-tu te tamaiti. 

Tupu. Ka tupu te tamaiti. 

Ngaoki. Ka ngaoki haere te tamaiti. 

Tu aku. Ka tu ake te tamaiti. 

Hikoi. Ka hikoi haere te tamaiti. 

Haere tu. Ka haere tu te tamaiti. 

Oma. Ka oma haere te tamaiti. 

Taka.ro. Ka takaro haere te tamaiti. 

Kata. Ka kata te tamaiti. 

Hamama. Ka hamama te waha o te tama. 

Au-e. Ka au-e te tama. 

Mamae. Ka mamae te tama. 

Takoto. Ka takoto iho te tama. 

Whakatika. Ka whakatika ake te tama. 

Hiakai Ka hiakai te tama. 

Kai. Ka kai te tama. 

Hiainu. Ka hiainu te tama. 

Inu. Ka inu te tam,a. 

Korero. Ka korero te tama. 

Kaukau. Ka kaukau te tama. 

Whiwhi. Ka whiwhi hoa te tama. 

Rahi-hdere. Ka rahi-liaere te tama. 

Mahi. Ka mahi te tama. 

222 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



223 



OF THE CHILDHOOD, TO THE MANHOOD, 
TO THE OLD-MANHOOD. 

(Verbalised phrases.) 

Born. Now is born the little son. 

Cries. Then cries the little son. 

Suckles. Then suckles breast the little son. 

Sleeps. Then sleeps the little son. 

"Wakes up. Then wakes up the little son. 

Sits erect. Then sits erect the little son. 

Grows. Then grows the little son. 

Creeps. Then creeps along the little son. 

Stands up. Then stands up the little son. 

Steps. Then steps along the little son. 

Walks. Then walks erect the little son. 

Runs. Then runs along the little son. 

Plays. Then plays about the little son. 

Laughs. Then laughs the little son. 

Bawls. Then bawl the vocal organs of the son. 

"Wails. Then wails the son. 

Suffers pain. Then suffers pain the son. 

Lies down. Then lies down the son. 

Rises up. Then rises up the son. 

Hungers. Then hungers the son. 

Eats. Then eats the son. 

Thirsts. Then thirsts the son. 

Drinks. Then drinks the son. 

Talks. Then talks the son. 

Bathes. Then bathes the son. 

Secures. Then secures friends the son. 

Increases. Then increases in stature the son. 

Works. Then works the son. 



224 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Kaha-hdere. Ea kaha-hdere ake te tama. 

Whiwhi. Ka whiwhi mohiotanga te tama. 

Pakari-hdere Ka pakari-hdere ona whakaaro. 

Ka tai-tangatatia a ia. 

Uru. Kd uru a ia ki ngd huihuinga kaumdtua. 

Whakarongo. Ka whakarongo a ia ki 6 rdtou akoranga. 

Tohungatia. A, ka tohungatia a ia. 

Whakauru. Ka whakauru ia ki ngd take korero. 

Whakapuaki. Ka whakapuaki i ona whakaaro. 

Whakadri. Ka ivhakadri a ia i toona mohiotanga. 

Waiata. Ka waiata i taana waiata. 

Whakahua. Ka whakahua a ia ki ngd tikanga 6 mua. 

Whakamau, Ka whakamau, ka pwi i taana Patu. 
plot. 

Kua tangatatia a ia. 

Wawata-puku. Nd, ka wawata-puku te tangata nei. 

Titiro-matatau. Ka titiro-matatau a ia ki te Puhi. 

Titoa. Ka titoa e ia taana waiata whai-a-ipo. 

Pai-mai. Ka pai-mai taua Puhi nei ki a ia. 

Tonoa. Ka tonoa e ia hei wahine mdana. 

Whakadetia. Ka whakadetia e ngd whanaunga. 

Taumautia. Ka taumautia rdua. 

Whakaritea. Ka whakaritea he Hdkari. 

Huihui. Ka huihui ngd whanaunga, te iwi hoki. 

Whai-korero. Ka wliai-korero rdtou. 

Whakamoea. Ka whakamoea taua toko-rua 

Whdnau. Ka whdnaii d rdua tamariki. 

Pakari. Ka pakari ake ngd tamariki. 
Whakamoemoea. A, ka wliakamdemoea atu rdtou. 

Whdnau. Ka whdnau d rdua nei mokopuna. 

Kaumdtuatia. Ka kaumdtuatia te tangata nei. 

Kuiatia. Ka kuiatia hoki taana Makau. 

Pd. Kd pa te mate kongenge ki te kaumdtua 

nei. 

Piko-iho. Ka piko-iho taana tuard. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



225 



Increases. Then increases in strength the son. 

Acquires. Then acquires knowledge the son. 

Matures. Then matures apace his ideas. 

Becomes. Then becomes a youth doth he. 

Enters. Then enters he the assembly of the elders. 

Hearkens. Then hearkens he to their teachings. 

Becomes-wise. And then becomes wise doth he. 

Enters. Then enters he to the subjects debated. 

Declares. Then declares his opinions. 

Displays. Then displays he his knowledge. 

Sings. Then sings of his song. 

Refers. Then refers he to the practices of yore. 

Grasps. Then grasps, brandishes his weapon. 
He has now become a man. 

Amorously- Then amorously-inclines this man. 

inclines. 

Scans-ardently. Then scans-ardently he the maiden. 

Composes. Then composes he his song of love. 

Favourably Then inclines favourably the said maiden 

inclines. unto him. 

Solicits. Then solicits he (her) as a wife for himself. 

Agreed-to. Then (it is) agreed to by the relatives. 

Betrothed. Then betrothed (are) they two. 

Appointed. Then is appointed a (marriage) feast. 

Assemble. Then assemble the relatives, the people also. 

Make-speeches. Then make they speeches. 

Put-to-bed. Then (are) put-to-bed the said couple. 

Born. Then (are) born their children. 

Mature. Then mature upward the children. 

Put-to-bed. And then put-to-bed (wedded) also are 

they. 

Born. Then born are their grandchildren. 

Becomes-aged. Then becomes aged this man. 

Becomes. Then becomes aged also his wife. 
Touches. Then the infirmity-of-age touches this old 

man. 
Bends-down. Then bends down his back. 



226 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 



Pin. 
Tata. 

Huihui. 

Marere. 

Poroporo-a-ki. 

Hemo. 

Tangi. 

Au-e. 

Whakakdka- 

huria. 
Whakanohoia- 

tutia. 
Tiaina. 
Whakatakotoria. 

Whakaturia. 

Tukutukua. 

Huihui. 

Tau-pu. 

Vhungatia. 

Tataia. 

Rangona. 

Tangi. 

Karakiatia. 

Mahia. 

Whakanohoia. 

Kauhoatia. 

Whakatata. 

Knrakia. 

Whakanohoia. 

Nehunga. 
Eiro. 
Hari atu. 



Kd piri a ia ki taana moenga. 
A, kd tata taana mate. 

Nd, ka huhui mai ona whanaunga, te iwi 

katoa. 

Ka marere te kaumatua nei. 
Ka poroporo-d-ki te kaumatua nei. 
Kd Jiemo te koroheke nei. 
Kd tangi taana whdnau, 
Ka au-e te iwi nui tonu. 



Ka whakakdkahuria te tupdpaku nei. 

Ka whakanohoia-tutia ake te tupdpaku nei 

Ka tiaina ki te hou-manu te upoko. 

Ka whakatakotoria atu ngd Mere-pounamu 

me ngd Patu-rdkau ki te taha. 

Ka whakaturia atu ngd Taiaha, ngd Tdo. 

Nd, ka tukutukua ngd Karere. 

Ka huihui mai ngd rangatira maha. 

Ka tau-pu te aroha ki runga ki a rdtou. 

Ka uhungaiia te tupdpaku. 

Ka tdtaia ngd korero whakapapa. 

Ka rangona ngd tangi-tawhiti. 

Ka tangi tonu ngd wdhine. 

Ka karakiatia ngd karakia tapu. 

Ka mahia te kauamo. 

Ka whakanohoia te tupdpaku ki runga. 
Ka kauhoatia atu e ngd Tohunga. 
Ka whakatata atu rdtou ki te Ana. 
Ka karakia hdere te upoko-tohunga. 
A, ka uihakanohoia atu te tupdpaku ki te 
Ana. 

Nd, ko te nehunga tend 6 ioona tinana. 
Ko te wairua i a, kua riro ki te Beinga, 
Me te hari atu i te Hdmano. 



Clings. 
Approaches. 

Assemble. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Then clings he to his bed. 
Then approaches his death. 



227 



Now then assemble there his relatives, the 

people all. 

Sinks. Then sinks this old man. 

Speaks-farewells Then speaks farewells this old man. 
Dies. Then dies this old man. 

Mourns. Then mourns his family. 

Wails. Then wail the people altogether. 



Dressed. 
Sat-up. 
Set-in. 
Deposited about. 

Stood about. 

Despatched. 

Assemble. 

Settles-keenly. 

Lamented. 

Recounted. 

Heard. 
Weep. 
Recited. 



Then is dressed this corpse. 
Then is sat up this corpse. 
Then is set the head with the bird-feathers. 
Then are deposited about the Greenstone- 
Meres and the wood-weapons to the side. 
Then are stood about (it) the staffs, the 
spears. 

Now then are despatched the news-bearers. 
Then assemble there the chiefs many. 
Then settles keenly the sadness upon them 
Then lamented is the corpse. 
Then are recounted the historical genealo- 
gies. 

Then are heard the ancient epic poems. 
Then weep continuously the women. 
Then are recited the rituals holy. 



Constructed. Then constructed is the litter. 

Placed. Then is placed the corpse thereon. 

Shouldered. Then it is shouldered away by the adepts. 
Approach. Then approach they to the Cave. 

Ritualises. Then ritnalises along the head priest. 

Placed. And then is placed away the corpse m the 

Cave. 

Burial Now is the burial that of his body, 

Gone. ' But, the spirit it has already gone to the 

Reinga, 
Conveyed. And has conveyed away the soul. 



228 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

RHYMING SLANG, OR, KORERO HUNURU. 

A. kind of rhyming slang obtained among certain 
sections of the young. This slang was formed by the 
intrusion of a consonant, and the increase and repetition 
of the vowels. Its practice may be illustrated by taking 
an ordinary sentence such as: Me hdere tatou ki te 
kaukau, nel (We shall go to bathe, shall we?), a phrase 
which with the aid of the consonant r by the process 
indicated becomes: Me-re-ere hd ra-ara-ere <z-ra-ara-to- 
ro-oro-wru Jh'-ri-iri e-re-ere fca-ra-wru &a-ra-wru, ne- 
re-ere? Again, with the aid of the consonant w, the 
phrase: E pa mai koia, becomes: J-we pa-wa-wa-wa- 
i-wi fco-t-wi-a-wa. 

In which examples, as will be noticed, the letters and 
syllables in black type are mere verbiage. 

By this simple if cumbersome method the speakers 
concealed their subjects of discussion from the unin- 
itiated. But such forms are speedily acquired. More 
technical systems were therefore formulated, amongst 
which it is found that a whole sentence is reduced to one 
or two words and then treated in the foregoing or some 
similar manner: E hdere ana koutou ki heal, is reduced 
to "ki hea?", and this is secreted away in the following 
verbiage: TJCi-ri-era tiri-era M-ri-era? It is quite 
impossible for the uninitiated to understand this form 
of slang. The following patter is practised: Hlniri, 
hdnara, honoro, henere, hunuru, thence the term: 
"Korero hunuru." 

Tempting though it be, an enquiry as to the probable 
history of this secret gibberish, jargon, or cant, is 
beyond the scope of this work. Some declare it to be 
an adaptation of Fairy language, others, that it was 
used by priests. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 229 

MAORI HYMN TO THE CREATOR. 

Composed by the Author. 
Lord whom our wandering fathers bore 

From sea to sea, from shore to shore, 

And sacred Mana gave; 

When far upon the trackless main 
They cried aloud to Thee, nor vain 
Thou didst their wearying hearts sustain; 
Oh Eangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 
Be with us still, however few. 

Be with us Lord, nor set at naught 
The precepts our forefathers taught 
As our inheritance; 
Thy deeds recited oft and sung 
In ancient home and mother tongue 
Ere seeds of bitterness had sprung: 
Oh Eangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 
Be with us still, however few. 

Thy many titles Lord are found 

Above, beneath, and all around 

Oh Eangi, "Heavenly One," 

Thy name of Rongo, "Prince of Peace," 

Tane, 'who lifts the world with ease," 

Tu, "where dread vengeance sets her crease": 

Oh Eangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 

Be with us still, however few. 

Lord, Thou hast known us thro' all time; 
Of every sea, and land, and clime, 
Thou art the pilgrims' hope. 
Our infant lives were vowed to Thee 



230 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

With sprinkling branch of sacred tree, 
"Me tohu e koe ton Iwi" :* 
Oh Rangi! Bongo! Tane! Tu! 
Be with us still, however few. 

Shrine of the Kura, treasure rare, 
The seal of truth in earth and air 
Prom Hawaiki's font; 
Lord of the city, camp and plain, 
Lord of the mighty guard maintain, 
Hear us, the flax fast smokes amain. 
Oh Rangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 
Be with us still, however few. 

Lord of the nations 'twas to Thee 
Our fathers earthed the sacred tree, 
The ever blessed Toi; 
In Thee our tribes were blessed of old, 
Thy boundless greatness e'er extolled, 
This remnant pitying Lord behold! 
Oh Rangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 
Be with us still, however few. 

Our twilight burdens, Lord of day, 

Pierce with a shaft of brightest ray, 

Shine in our aching hearts; 

Support us with Thy guiding hand, 

Teach us to know, to understand 

Thy power and wisdom, wrought and planned! 

Oh Rangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 

Be with us still, however few. 

Lord teach us still to watch and pray 
For that blest time when owned Thy sway 

^Preserve Thee Thy people. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 231 

In all the toiling earth; 
From Hawaiki's old estate, 
Oh may Thy wisdom permeate 
Throughout our councils small and great : 
Oh Rangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 
Be with us still, however few. 

Lord take our struggling spirits hence, 
And lay not up our soul's offence 
For future punishment; 
But to Thy mansions in the skies 
Oh bear us swift as lightning flies, 
To share Thy home in paradise: 
Oh Eangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 
Be with us still, however few. 

Lord, when our circle is complete, 

Be Thou our centre of retreat, 

Its pillar and its base; 

Even as our spirits sink to earth, 

Oh grant our souls that bright re-birth, 

To blend in pureness with thy worth : 

Oh Rangi! Rongo! Tane! Tu! 

Be with us still, however few. 



APPENDIX. 



CEITICAL NOTES ON THE 

EEV. E. MAUNSELLS' " GEAMMAE OF 

THE NEW ZEALAND LANGUAGE" 

(FOURTH EDITION, 1894.) 
(BY THE AUTHOR) 

When one has put his hand to the plough there is no looking 
backward. 

Not even a sentiment of reverence for the author, resulting 
from long acquaintance, can, for one moment, influence the 
candid criticism of a work which not only abounds in minor 
defects, but is marred by fundamental errors and exhibits in 
a very marked degree the most irreconcilable matter. 

A number of the examples given by the Archdeacon consist 
of careless phrases picked up from indifferent speakers, or 
those using in an endeavour to make themselves understood by 
the Pakeha a species of "Pidgin" Maori, as the English do 
in speaking to the Chinaman of Hongkong. Again, many are 
drawn from imperfect translations in the Maori Bible, while 
not a few are ordinary English idioms, put into Maori, and 
therefore often meaningless, ' ' Te pelieatanga i meatia at 
(page 18), stated to mean. "The manner in which it was 
done, ' ' being an example of meaningless Maori. 

Throughout this work, the want of a clearly-defined system 
of instruction is strikingly observable, and obviously, it must 
be a matter of great difficulty to write a regular connected, 
and intelligible criticism upon material brought together in such 
confusion as has been done in the book referred to. 

Referring to the pronunciation and letters of Maori, he 
says, Page 1: 

NAME. 

A. a, as in fall, fat. 
E. e, as a in acorn. 

Now with regard to the letter a, neither of these sounds is 
proper to it. 

232 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 233 

As to the letter e, the student must especially avoid giving 
to it the dipthongal ce sound, so distinctly heard in the a of 
acorn. 

Mr. Maunsell proceeds to show that a has three sounds, 
and he gives a "classified list" of words to illustrate this, 
in columns marked 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In the first column 
he indicates the uses of the a in "hat" sound, e.g., "Patu 
to strike." There being no such sound in Maori, his examples 
are altogether wrong. In the third column he insists that the 
a in "wall" should be used, as "whana to kick," and this 
sound being not proper to Maori, his examples are consequently 
wrong. 

He passes on to e, and assures us that it, "Is pronounced 
as a in bate, hate, etc." Further comment is unnecessary. 

It is sufficient merely to note that he expresses himself quite 
confident as to the "Diphthongal character" of Maori vowels. 
There can be no diphthongs in a tongue such as Maori, in 
which each vowel demands and receives its full independent 
measure of sound. 

Passing on to consonantal sounds, he asserts that the letter h 
"Is not known on the western coast of New Zealand, to the 
southward of Mokau, in the district of Taranaki." 

Let us pass along this west coast, from Mokau southward, 
and note what are actually the names of principal places, 
streams and tribes, en route: 

Mowhakatino, Pukearuhe, Parininihi, Huirangi, Ngatirahiri, 
Te Hua, Waiwhakaiho, Te Henui, Huatoki, Ngamahanga, Ahu- 
ahu, Haurangi, Hangatahua, Punehu, Ngatimoeahu, Ngatite- 
whiti, Waiwheranui, Pungarehu, Parihaka, Waitaha, Okahu, 
Ngatihaupoto, Ngatituhekerangi, Ngatikahumate, Pukeko- 
whatu, Puniho, Tawhitinui, Otakeho, Mangawhero, Te Inaha, 
Te Aroha, Te Hokorima, Mawhitiwhiti, Waihi, Owhangai, 
Ketetahi, Hawera, Tawhiti, Tangahoe, Hapotiki, Whareroa, 
Manutahi, Taumaha, Whenuakura, Te Ihupuku (at Waitotara), 
and so on to Whanganui. 

We have throughout indications of the free use, by these 
people, of the letter h. Furthermore their land grants disclose 
the fact that their tribal and proper names are as well fur- 
nished with this letter as are any others over a similar area, 
in any part of the Island. 

One need only remark, that in the names of the two Tara- 
naki chiefs and leaders of Parihaka, names as familiar as 
household words for the past thirty years, h, is included: Te 
Whiti and Tohu, or more fully Te whiti-6-Eongomai, and Tohu- 
Kfikahi, in which latter we notice two of these letters. These 
chiefs are connected with the Ngamahanga, Ngati-te-whiti, and 
Ngatimoeahu and Ngaruahine tribes, and the bulk of their 
lands are situated at Parihaka, Fungarehu, Onetahua, Hanga- 
tahua, Ahuahu, Hauranga, and Patuha. There is no lack of h's, 



234 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

one notices, connected with these representatives of the "West 
Coast" and "Taranaki District" people. 

Moreover the genealogies and songs of these people abound 
with this letter. And finally the following terms can be heard 
by anyone in the daily speech of the Taranaki people: Haere, 
noho iho, Kei whea? Eei aha? Kei te whare, Hoa, Whenua 
Pakeha; while the names of Tohu and Te Whiti are forever on 
their lips. 

Sufficient examples have now been given to prove that 
Mr. Maunsell's statement is incorrect. 

Mr. Maunsell falls into error in the use of the letter 7i. 
His readers will find the necessary h uniformly omitted from the 
words whakatoi, whakatakariri, whenua, whanaunga, whakama, 
whakatekaina : (whakamakia evidently being regarded as 
the passive form of whakama) whakatokia, whakatongia, 
whakauria, whakakdkahuria, whakamakanga, wTiakatekanga, 
whakarere, whakarongo, whakarangona, whare, whakamana, 
whakamdtau, whakapaia, whakapaingia, whakatangata, and 
whakatupu. All of these terms, with the one notable exception, 
are words of ordinary use. The exception is Wakamakia, a 
term which is not used by the Maori at all. 

Eeferring to the letter t, he states (page 8): "It is not 
pronounced like the t in temper, tea, etc." As to the first 
in point of fact, t is, in many instances pronounced similarly 
to the t of "temper" (as in our definite article te for 
instance); while in the case of "tea" it exactly approximates 
in sound to that of "Tl" (name of the New Zealand cabbage 
tree), and to Ti-ti, (name of the New Zealand mutton bird); 
terms, it may be added, of universal use. In some instances, 
the Maori tongue being laden with vowels which pive to its 
words a soft, musical and rhythmic flow, the subsidiary sharp 
hiss, common to the European pronunciation of t is corre- 
spondingly softened. In pronouncing t the tongue should not 
touch the teeth, as in this, or in that, or in any other way. 

Mr. Maunsell's remarks as to sub-dialects are apposite 
although somewhat exaggerated; for "One swallow does not 
make a summer." Nor does lie state in instancing elided 
letters that a marked emphasis usually fills the place of such 
elisions. 

As to the uses of the definite article, he quite wrongly 
states, page 10: "Sometimes it is employed instead of the 
English a: for example, He mea kaha te Hoiho: A horse is a 
strong thing." In this sentence, however, the Maori is definite, 
and not indefinite The horse is a strong thing. 

Indeed in each example given the refuted article should 
appear in the translation, " T.e tini o te Kaipuke": the number 
of the ships. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 235 

Of the indefinite article he, he also wrongly states (page 12) 
that: "It is used sometimes where no article would be em- 
ployed in English, e.g., "A hoatu ana e ratou he moni Tci a ia: 
And they gave him money." 

This would be read by a Maori to mean, and should be 
translated: And they gave some money unto him. 

If Mr. Maunsell's interpretation of the sentence be re- 
translated into correct Maori, the article will not be found 
included: A hoatu moni ana ratou Tci a ia": And they gave 
him money, literally, and they gave money unto him. 

Speaking of a as an attendant of the personal pronouns, he 
says: (13) "I runga i a Hone, above John." 

The proper expression is "upon John." I runga alee, is 
"above." On nouns he says (18): 

"Ko tona moenga tena: That is where he slept." 

Correct reading: That is his bed. 

' ' Te pumautanga o te whakaaro : the full assurance of 
hope. ' ' 

Correct reading: the fixity of the thought. Neither assur- 
ance _nor hope is expressed in the Maori text. 

' ' Te whakangarungarunga o te wai : the troubling of the 
water. ' ' 

Correct reading: the wavy-ing (making wavy) of the water. 
The verbal ngaru, wave, has nothing to do with "trouble" in 
Maori. 

"Te peheatanga i meatia ai: the manner in which it was 
done." 

This alleged Maori phrase is meaningless. Te ahua i mahia 
ai correctly expresses his English. Compare the Maori texts. 

Again: "Te patunga poalca: the place where the pigs are 
killed. Correct reading: the pig-killing; place, waahi, is not 
mentioned, nor is it inferred in the Maori text. 

"7 taku oranga: while I live." 

Correct reading: while I lived. The 7 here, is distinctly 
the sign of the past tense. The Maori phrase is therefore 
more suitable as the motto for a tombstone than as the expres- 
sion of a living person. 

Of nouns, he continues (21): 

"In some trisyllables the first syllable of the plural is 
pronounced long: as in matua, tupuna, wShine, tangata. 

Note: Examples of these two latter heads are not of 
frequent occurrence." 

All this is misleading. In the first syllable it is imperative 
to use the long sound in expressing the plural, and it is equally 
imperative in expressing the singular to use the short sound, 
which sound he does not give. These two rules are absolute. 

Of the pronouns he says (28): 

There is no word in Maori to denote the pronoun 
Its place is generally supplied by some artifice of the construc- 
tion, as will be shown in the Syntax. 



236 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Now if we take a plain every-day case, we will find that 
this positive assertion is quite opposed to facts: 

First speaker: "Ko to toki tenei? Is this your axe? 

Second speaker: Ae, Ico ia tend: Yes, that is it. 

So that instead of "some artifice of the construction" being 
necessary, we see from this plain and simple instance that 
unquestionably the pronoun "it," ia, exists in Maori. One 
might give a hundred instances. 

With respect to tense, he says (35) : 

"Tense. Maori abounds in a variety of forms for denoting 
modifications of time. They are designated by verbal particles, 
adverbs, prepositions, and the articles he and te placed in 
connection with the verb. The force of these, again, is, in a 
large majority of cases, determined by the context; and we 
believe ourselves to be correct in saying that there are, in this 
language, but few absolute forms for determining tense. For 
example: I reira e moe ana: There was he sleeping, or there 
he slept. ' ' The first false impression that unusual care marks 
the translation, seeing that two versions are given, is dispelled 
by the fact that the pronoun he which appears in each, is not 
justified by the Maori text. 

By was and slept, we are evidently to understand, that we 
are here presented with a genuine example of the past tense, 
which is not the case; for two absolute and distinctive tense 
signs, are crowded into the example. It is as though a Maori 
teaching his people English, were to say: 

"These English have no idea of expressing time. Here 
is an English sentence: There had been, was, is sleeping; and 
then the teacher proceeds to translate this into equally aimless, 
hopeless Maori. 

I now translate his English, "There was he sleeping, or 
there he slept," into correct Maori: 

"I moe and a ia lei reira: I moe a ia i reira. 

Again: 

Mo te aha Jcoe i riri mai ai Jci a au? Why are you angry 
with me? 

There is no with in the Maori text, and its correct rendering 
ia: What did you anger unto me for? 

Again: "Ka haere ahau: I will go." 

It is sufficient to state that Tea is not a tense sign. He 
goes on to instance the tense in compound sentences: Akuanei, 
tae rawa atu, Icua mate: It will come to pass, that, when I have 
got there, he will be dead a remarkably free interpretation, 
which discovers two persons "I" and "he" neither of whom 
is referred to in the Maori. 

Again: 

"Kua mate ahau, e ora ana nga rakau nei: I shall die 
before these sticks decay." 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 237 

Here the Maori text is outrageously bad, and the inter- 
pretation entirely differs from it in sense. Let us have the 
literal translations of each, first the Maori: 

Kua mate ahau, e ora ana nga rakau nei: Me now dead, 
these sticks are living (sound). 

"I shall die before these sticks decay": Ko au e mate 
wawe, Tea pirau ai nga rakau nei. 

Again (41) : 

"7 reira ahau i te ata nei: I (was) there this morning." 

In this case it is difficult to understand why the past tense, 
i, is only assumed (was), its sign i being so clearly in its 
proper place. 

Again: "Ka liaere a Ihu: "Jesus went." 

As already stated, Tea is not a tense sign at all; neither 
can it of its own force, indicate tense. 

Again: He tini aku korerotanga ki a ia: Many (have been) 
my conversations with him. 

Correct reading: My speakings (nga) unto him have been 
many. There is no with in the text, and the substantive 
speakings, refers to the past; this is only, however, assumed 
by Mr. Maunsell ("have been"). 

Again: Ka haere' ahau: "I will go." 

Here ka is wrongly supposed to indicate future tense. 

Speaking of verbs, he says, (52) : 

"Indeed (as we have already observed), our impression 
is that, the more we examine, the more we shall be led to 
think that a genuine verb is by no means a common thing in 
Maori, and that substantives, adjectives and other classes 
are the fountains to which most of the verbs of the language 
may be traced (see also his paragraph, page 34)." 

In brief, what he wishes us to understand is: 

1. That a genuine Maori verb is rarely found. 

2. That Maori verbs are mostly derived from substantives, 
etc. Now, scholars will readily admit, that there exists in 
Maori a wealth of substantives. A careful examination of 
these will show, that fhe large majority of them are apparently 
directly derived from verbs, in the following manner: 

Verb. Passive. Substantive. 

Takeke, to mesh a net Takekea Takekenga (meshing) 

Kupe, to inclose Kupea Kupenga (fish net) 

Hi, to hook up fish Hiia Hlnga (fishing place) 

Tango, to take Tangohia Tangohanga (taking) 

Tono, to send, demand Tonoa Tononga (sending) 

Hoe, to paddle Hoea Hoenga (paddling) 

Tiri to plant Tiria Tiringa (plantation) 

Totoa, to excel Toloatia Totoanga (excelling) 

Titiro, to look Tirohia Tirohanga (looking) 

Kite, to see Kitea Kitenga (seeing) 



238 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Verb. Passive. Substantive. 

Korero, to speak Korerotia Korerotanga (speaking) 

ATco, to teach Akongia Akongo (student) 

Mohio, to know Mohiotia Mohiotanga (knowledge) 

Matau, to learn Matauria Matauranga (-ing) 

Moe, to sleep Moea Moenga (bed) 

Tanu, to bury Tanumia Tanumanga (burial) 

And so on with a number of genuine verbs, numbering 
thousands, from which we form our substantives, by the fore- 
going natural process, from the simple to the complex. 

Mr. Maunsell would teach us that we have few genuine 
Maori verbs, and for this few we are entirely indebted to sub- 
stantives, and other things; whereas the very reverse is the 
fact. 

Indeed, the most common nouns, are traceable to verbs. 
Take, for instance, the various names for a slave:- 

Pononga, to be entirely subject to the will of another. 

Herehere, bound, held in bondage. 

Ware, to adhere, adherent. 

MoTcai, for (to) eat. 

Taurekareka, to embody satisfaction, a pleasant tie, captive. 

Tutu-a, to attend commands. 

All of these terms, or verbal expressions, from which the 
noun, slave, is derived, demonstrate the inaccuracy of Mr. 
Maunsell's statement of the principles relating to verbs and 
substantives. 

Of the prepositions he says (54) : 

E, by (applied to the Agent, not to the instrument) is 
always fixed to the agent when a passive verb precedes; e.g , 
(1) Kua kainga e te kuri: was devoured by the dog. Now Kua 
is the sign of the perfect tense, not that of the past "was": 
moreover kainga is a substantive, not a "passive" verb, 
neither does it mean "devoured." 

E is the auxiliary verb "do" prefixed to nouns, pronouns, 
proper names, and substantives, when the leading verb is 
either active or passive, to indicate the "doer" of an action. 

Correct reading: 

The dog has now eaten (it). 

(2) Kua kitea e Hone: was seen by John. 

Kua perfect tense, is again made to do duty for the past 
"was." Kitea means "found, discovered, traced, detected, 
solved"; not "seen." 

For instance: Kua kitea e Foil te waka: Pou has now 
found the (missing) canoe. 

Kua kitea e Tai te tikanga o te maka: Tai has now solved 
the scheme of the puzzle. 

Correct reading: "Kua kitea e Hone." John has now 
found (something). Unfortunately this, as many other 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 239 

examples is such broken Maori, that we can only speculate as 
to whether John found; he may have traced, detected, or 
solved anything. 

Again: Kua patua te ngaru e te ua: The waves were 
beaten down by the rain. 

Here for the third time (page 35), the perfect kua is used 
for the past or imperfect "were." 

E as usual points to the doer. 

Correct reading: Eain has now beaten (tranquilised) the 
waves. 

Again: 

" Kangia e te ahi: kindled upon by the fire." Here kangia 
is the passive form of lea, scorch. See his next example: 

' ' Ngaunga e te ra: scorching by the sun. ' ' Ngaunga is the 
substantive of ngau, bite; it has nothing whatever to do with 
"scorching," for which see previous example. E indicates 
the "doer." 

Again: 

"E Tcore e ahei te hapai e ahau: The lifting cannot be 
accomplished by me, i.e., "I cannot lift it." 

Here ahei is made to do the work of a totally different 
term, that is, taea, the important difference in sense being that 
the speaker tells us that: 

"It will not do for me to lift (it); or, 7 must not lift (it). 

Mr. Maunsell's translation would lead us to understand that 
the speaker declares, that he is, owing to its weight or bulk, 
"unable to lift it." 

Passing on to i, he says: 

With: 

Ki a haere atu ahau i a koe: Shall I go with you! 

Correct reading: 

Am I to depart at thy instance? "I" does not mean 
"with." 

Again: 

Ka riro mai i a au: will depart with me. 

Of this translation, three, of the four words, are quite foreign 
to the context: 

"Will" indicates a tense, which does not exist. 

"Depart" is diametrically opposed to mai, of the text. 

Compare: Ka riro mai i a au te waka: Then I obtain and 
bring hitherward the canoe. 

Again: 

3 From: I hea koe? From whence do you (come) I 

Correct reading: Where were you! "From," is neither 
expressed nor implied. 

Again: 

4. To: I a au tenei kainga: This is my larm (or 

possession). 



240 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Here i, the sign of the past tense, by Mr. Maunsell is 
entirely ignored. The correct reading is: I had this home 
(formerly). 

Again: 

Kahore he maripi i a an: There is no knife with me. 

Correct readings: I have not had a knife. I did not have 
a knife. 

(Note: The "To" of these subjects, can neither be dis- 
covered in the original, nor in the writer's translations.) 

Continuing he says: 

Under this head (i.e., i) may be classed some instances 
that cannot well be reduced to any of the above rules: 

E hara Icoe i te rangatira nolcu: You are not my master. 

Correct reading: You are not it, the master of me. In 
such cases i largely assumes the office of ia, the pronoun of the 
neuter gender. Can anything be more simple or to the point 
than this? 

Again lei, with (denotes the instrument), e.g.: 

Patua ki te raTcau: beaten with a stick. 

Here 'beaten" assumes a tense, which does not exist in the 
text, moreover te is the definite article the, not the indefinite 
"a." 

Let us translate the translation back, into its true 
equivalents: I patua me he raTcau; and now give the exact 
meanings in English: Beaten as if it were a stick. 

Let us now put his English into a line with the original 
text, thus: Beat with the stick; put this into exact Maori: 
Patua me te rakau, and present the exact Maori meaning and 
sense of this in English thus: Beat, together with the stick. 

Tried by these simple rules, which include the assistance 
of me, our direct form of with, we find the whole thing to be 
radically wrong. 

Correct reading: Patua "ki te rakau: beat to against the 
stick; to the stick, beat. 

The Maori does not use the expression "beat with a stick." 
As we have just seen, when the Maori equivalents of these 
terms are joined in a sentence, and re-translated, they convey 
an entirely different meaning from that. The reason for this 
is that ki, "to," preserves its true character of ' ' towards, ' ' 
and "against," which is quite in accordance with the require- 
ments of Maori idiom. 

Thus the sentence I akina ki te kuri te kowhatu: (The 
stone was cast to (against) the dog), has the same meaning 
as I akina ki te kowhatu te kuri. 

The word with, finds a place in such sentences, only as a 
translator's expedient. Translators' expedients, however, are 
not calculated to properly define first principles of grammar. 
What the student requires are meanings based upon the root- 
ideas of words, so far as ascertainable. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 241 

Continuing the discussion of "with" he says: 

E kore e ora ki tena: will not be satisfied with that 
quantity (of food). 

Correct reading: That is not sufficient to satisfy (hunger.) 

Again: 

E korc e oti ki tena: will not be completed with that. 

Correct reading: That (quantity of material is not suffi- 
cient to complete (the work in hand.) 

He goes on : 

"It should, however, be noticed that lei is sometimes found 
in other uses of the word with, in which no instrumentality is 
designed, e.g., 

"Takti matting a ki a koe: my working with you, i.e., my 
work in your service. ' ' 

Correct reading: My working unto you. 

Again: 

E riri ana ki a koe: is angry with you. 

Correct reading: is angering unto you. 

He continues: 

This last example, however, might perhaps be most cor- 
rectly translated at, as in the following: 

E titiro mai ana ki a koe: is looking at you. 

Correct reading: (He) is looking hitherward, unto you. 

Having given further erroneous examples, he concludes by 
presenting "a few" which he declares to be "difficult to 
reduce to rule." The first example will serve to illustrate 
all: 

11 E noho ana koe ki te kai man? Are you staying from food? 

Correct reading: Are you abstaining, to the food for 
yourself. ' ' 

By the proper use of "to," "unto," and "in reference to" 
the student will readily gather the meanings of the phrases 
containing the alleged difficulties. 

Again: 
Ko, at. 

Ko reira noho ai: at that place stop. 

As this sentence stands, ko means "is to" not "at." The 
phrase, however is sadly imperfect; it requires the inclusion 
of one, or more persons, to complete the sense: e.g. 

Ko rcira a ia noho ai: He is to stay there. 

Again: 

"Ko reira korero ai: Then speak." 

Corrected: Ko reira ratou korero ai: They are to speak 
there. 

Compare his version with Ka korero: then speak. 

Ka korero ai koe: You may then speak; or the imperiously 
defiant, Tt'na korero: Now then! speak! 

Having thus erred with ko, our verb substantive, he proceeds 
thus (101): 



242 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

"The student lias already seen that Maori is defective in 
particles of illation, comparison, and copulation. The want of 
a verb substantive, which is so useful as a copula in other 
languages, will often, where accuracy is desired, cause both 
clumsiness and obscurity of construction. ' ' 

Xo statement could be more misleading than this, "Here we 
have in Maori an abundance of particles, which serve to clearly 
define all shades of thought, and also to illustrate the similarity 
or difference existing, to the most minute detail, in observed 
phenomena; and a verb substantive par excellence." 

He says (23): 

Xote: Comparison in Maori, is formed by periphrasis, for 
which vide Syntax. 

Premising, for the benefit of the uninitiated, that peri- 
phrasis is to go roundabout in expressing an idea, we will 
consult this "Syntax, " remarking as we pass along that the 
following forms of comparison are absolute: 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Pai, good Pai ake, better Tino pai, best 

Mua, fore Mua atu, former To mua, foremost 

Iti, little Iti iho, less Tino iti, least 

(See alee, upward, and iho, downward.) 

We now reach the "Syntax'' (page 119), and note the 
leading explanatory clauses, and examples hereon, seriatim: 

The comparative degree is denoted in various ways in 
Maori: 

(a) The first, and most common, is similar to that adopted 
in the Hebrew, viz.: by putting the preposition i (from) after 
the adjective, e.g., e Jcaha ana a Hone i a Pita: John is stronger 
than Peter. 

Remarks: The "Preposition" i (from) as has been demon- 
strated, is, instead of "from," the sign of the imperfect past 
tense, signifying were, had, did. The foregoing hybrid example 
is noticeably encumbered with e. .ana, the twin signs of present 
progressive action. When this tense rules the sentence, as in 
the present case, the verb which they embrace, if correctly 
translated, will in every reasonable instance include the 
terminal-Mi#. The form of the text is inadmissible, but, such 
as it is, it reads that "John is strongwu/ than Peter." 

(&) Sometimes there is joined to the adjective some adverb 
of intensity, e.g., e kaha rawa ana a Hone i a Pita: John is 
much stronger, etc. 

Bead: John is very stronging than Peter. 

(c) Sometimes it is denoted by the adjectives ngari and 
Rangi, the verb following in epanorthosis: e.g., e ngari a Hone 
i a Pita, e kaha ana (Untranslated). 

Of these bad examples, the last is probably the worst. 
What Mr. Maunsell intended to show, is presumably that, 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 243 

"John is stronger than Peter." In order to express this cor- 
rectly we say: Kalia alee a Hone i a Pita. If John is ever so 
much stronger we should say: Kalia Ice a Hone i a Pita. 

(d) Sometimes, the comparative is denoted by some 
approbatory, and the positive by some disapprobatory term, 
e.g., e pai ana tenei paraikete, e kino ana tera: This blanket 
is good, that is bad. 

In this fresh subject, we again notice, e-ana, in the leading 
position; and that the final tera "the other," is translated 
"that." (Note page 88 where ena is translated "the other.") 

Compare with: He paraikete pai tenei, he mea kino tend: 
This is a good blanket, that is a bad one. 

As Mr. MaunselJ's remaining examples are largely scriptural 
translations, which, it will be readily granted, is rather an 
uncommon mode of presenting genuine Maori examples either of 
comparison, or of anything else, we may now turn to his 
teachings upon: 

The superlative degree. Maori has no direct form to mark 
the superlative, but expresses it by various circumlocutions- 
(a) by the definite article prefixed, with or without some word 
of intensity; e.g., Ko au te kaumatua: I am the eldest son. 

Remarks: The context does not admit of a "son" of any 
kind. If the article te, is compelled to carry, as Tie represents, 
the whole burden of the sentence, it will resolve into the 
negative te, and reverse the meaning, whatever that may be, 
of the example. For instance, the text with the ordinary form 
of article reads: I am the old man If te be given the 
importance and the necessary accent which Mr. Maunsell sug- 
gests, the meaning would be: As for me, it is impossible for 
me to become an old man. 

Compare, however, with the proper forms: 

Ko au te taina matamua: I am the first-born son. 

Ko au to matou tuakana: I am our family's senior (by 
birth). 

Ko au te tama kaumatua: I am the eldest son. 

In excluding the son from his example, Mr. Maunsell 
deprives the thing of its whole force; a force which he un- 
wittingly imagined could be secured by relegating foreign work 
to the unassuming definite article te. 

Again: 

"Ko te tino noliinolii rawa tend: That is the least." 

Correct reading: Verily that will be too small. 

Again: 

"Ko te nui tenei o nga rakau katoa: This is the largest 
(lit. the large one) of all the trees." 

As already explained, the definite article will not bear 
such undue pressure, without adopting the negative. 

Correct reading: This is the uniform size of all the trees. 
Neither comparison, nor degree, is expressed or implied. 



244 MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 

Let us turn to Mr. Maunsell's remarks toiiching "the want 
of a verb substantive. ' ' 

Mehemea ko Poroa: If it be Poroa. Ko ia: It is (he). 

Ko wai hei haere? Who is to go? 

Ko au: I am. 

Ko wai Tie lioa mfiou: "Who is to be a companion for you? 

Ko Icoe, Ko ia cm i liaere mai ai: You are, that is why I came 
along. 

Nd wai tend i whakarite: Who arranged that? etc., etc. 

Ko wai tend: Who is that? 

Ko au: It is I. 

Ko Icoe, d ko wai koe: It is you, and who are you'? 

Ko au rd, ko rangi: I am rangi, to be sure. 

Ko wai rawa rd ia! Who ever can it be! (sotto voce). 

Ko rangi aha Icoe: What rangi are you? 

Ko rangikura au tama a Te Rangihdeata: I am Rangikura, 
son of Te Rangihaeata. 

E tama! e tama! he alia koe te ki waive mai ai: O Son! O 
son! why did you not say so before, etc., etc. 

(Compare, ko wai tenei? with Nd wai tenei?). 

The language abounds with these and similar forms of 
usage of the verb substantive. Furthermore fco is "To speak," 
which is synonymous with "To "be." 

Each example ought, in a technical work, to contain in itself 
whatever is necessary to make it intelligible, but Mr. Maimsell 
constantly leaves the reader to draw whatever conclusions he 
may please. 

He does not seem to be aware that there must of necessity 
be a limit to the various meanings of a word. For instance, in 
at least four different places he uses the expression: "He kino 
te tutu: Disobedience is sinful." Now the radical meanings of 
kino are: bad, objectionable; those of tutu: mischievousness, 
meddlesomeness. These meanings they convey to the Maori, in 
the above quoted sentence, and not the meanings which Mr. 
Maunsell gives to them. 

Te rongo, is disobedience, its literal meaning being, (one) 
who will not hearken to instruction. 

Turi: also, is disobedience, and obstinacy. It means literally, 
(one) who turns a deaf ear to instructions. 

He is "wrong"; it also implies "vice." (See To-Jie: "to 
persist" in wrong-doing). 

Hara is "crime, guilt." 

And so on to finer distinctions, for the Maori had both a 
moral and a physical world. 

Not to defraud Mr. Maunsell of due praise, it must be allowed 
that his observations on the Numerals (part 1.) are in the main 
just. 



MAORI-ENGLISH TUTOR 245 

To those who know me I need offer no explanation for 
these critical notes; to those who do not I will at once own 
that I am quite aware, that criticism which apparently con- 
curs with interest, is likely to be suspected, and liable to 
misconception. But I am solely concerned with the sweeping 
away of error, and I trust that these notes will be found, 
upon reference to the Grammar, to be fully justified. 

My reason too is fully convinced of their truth and useful- 
ness as a guide to those who wish to be accurate regarding 

THE MAOEI TONGUE. 

Could we but use thee, as thou canst appear, 
In all thy parts so excellently clear; 
Tuned to her tender accents, sadness tell, 
And stir the scornful note to passion's swell: 
To rhythmic measure happiest songs unite, 
And climb nor fear to fall to rapturous heights. 
In aphorism apt, and brightly terse, 
Strong and harmonious in resounding verse. 

Let no one charge me with having crushed moths with a 
club, neither complacently assert that some of the matters 
treated of are mere trifles. It is by painstaking and judicious 
attention to trifles that perfection is slowly attained, and 
perfection is admittedly no trifle. 



INDEX. 



A., sounds of, 1; table, 1; and, 1; 
future tense, 194 ; in antonyms, 
67; and pronouns, 36; in verbs, 
83 ; personal article, 76 ; prefix 
to proper names, 1. 

A and o ; a general, o exclusive, 
38; active and passive, 39. 

Accents, 4. 

Active verbs, 83 to 104. 

Actions, repetition of, 76. 

Active voice, 58. 

Adjectives, 48 ; follow nouns, 75 ; 
must agree with verbs, 81. 

Adverbs, 48. 

Adoption, 173. 

Adultery, 190. 

Adzes, 150. 

Ae, yes, 3 ; sounds of, 6. 

Agricultural calendar, 196. 

Ahei, 8. 

Ai, verb auxiliary, may, possible 
to be, 8. 

Ailments, 141. 

Albino, 35. 

Alliance, 115. 

Alphabetical tables, 1 to 5. 

Amorous, 225. 

Amphibian, 109. 

Angel, 156. 

Ant and locust, 135. 

Ann, also, 13. 

Antonyms, 67. 

Aotea, 106. 

Aouri, 106. 

Aphorisms, 126. 

Appendix, 232. 

Arcturus, 211. 

Arero, tongue, 20. 

Argo, 203. 

Ariki, 147, 175. 

Aroha, 215. 

Articles, 31, 76; to personal 
names, 119; precede each sub- 
stantive, 76. 

Aspirated h, 2. 

Author. 156, 165, 229, 232. 

Axes, 150. 

Battleaxe, 150. 

Bay, 212. 

Beneath, 15. 

Beauty, 138. 

Bird at the Sun, comet, 199. 

Birds, 116. 

Black, 107. 

Blue, 108. 

Bone system, 140. 



Born, 223. 
Boy, 217. 
Brown, 108. 
Burial, 227. 

Calendar, lunar, 195. 

Cancer, 169. 

Canis Major, 197, 201. 

Canopus, 203. 

Capella, 203. 

Capricorn, 169. 

Causation effected by prefix, 7, 76. 

Certainty, 49. 

Chants, 158. 

Chaplet, 199. 

Charity, 215. 

Chatham Islanders, 114. 

Childhood, manhood, to old age, 

223 

Children, 188. 
Coal-sack, 203. 
College, 153. 
Colour, 105. 
Come, 17. 
Comet, 199. 
Comparatives, 19. 
Compounds, wh, ng, 1. 
Connections by marriage, 187. 
Consonants, 1 to 5. 
Constellations, 200. 
Conquest, 172. 

Construction of sentences, 61. 
Continuity of action, 76. 
Contrariety, 10. 
Critical notes, 232. 
Cross, Southern, 202, 209. 
Crossing Sun, 203. 
Custom, 191 ; marriage customs, 

182. 

Dance, 219. 

Day, 207. 

Daystar, 198. 

Dead, first fruits of, 166. 

Death chant, 158. 

Demonstrative pronouns, 45. 

Diagram, xii. 

Dialects, v. 

Didactic lament, 165. 

Differences, 10. 

Digraphs, 6. 

"Dinornis," Moa bird, 113. 116, 

170. 

Diphthongs, 6. 
Directive particles, 17. 
Diseases, 141. 
Disposal by marriage, 189. 



246 



INDEX 



247 



Distributive pronouns, 46. 

Ditties, 159. 

Divinity of man, 153. 

Down, North, 17, 198. 

Dress, 149, 227. 

Drill, 143. 

Dual forms, 52, 59. 

Dual tense, 57. 

Dye, 108. 

Dying chief, 184, 227. 

E, 2 ; functions of, 11 ; sign of 
future tense, 2, 51; sign of 
vocative, 1, 11; numeral prefix, 
2 ; sometimes indicates the 
passive, 81 ; in verbs, 67, 83. 

Enumeration, 22. 

Epic Poem, 165. 

Equator, 203. 

Equatorial counter- currents, 171. 

Extremes, 67. 

Fable, 135. 

Faded, 109. 

Female, 33, 118. 

Fish, 110. 

Fixity of land tenure, 174. 

Flax garments, 149. 

Flute music, 167. 

Forms of relative pronouns, 43. 

Future possessive, 41. 

Future tense, 51, 56. 

Gender, 33. 

Go, 17. 

Grammar, 75. 

"Grammar of the New Zealand 

language," 232. 
Green, 108. 
Grey, 107. 

Groups of stars, 209. 
Groves, 116. 
Growth, spring, 201. 

H, always aspirated, 2. 

Ha, 69, 85. 

Haere, a verb of motion, 17. 

Hawaiki, 169, 171. 

He, indefinite article, 31. 

Hereditary land tenure, 181. 

Hoki, 13. 

Hoko, 26. 

Home, 219. 

Houses, 151. 

Hues, 105. 

Human body, 138. 

Hymn, 229. 

7, 3; sign of past tense, 1, 193; in 

verbs, 67, 84. 
I was, I had been, I have been, 

I have become, 77. 
la, it, 36, 46. 
Imperative mood, 59. 
Incorrect forms corrected, 41. 



Indefinite pronouns, 47. 
Indicative mood, 52. 
Tndigo, 108. 
Insects, 109. 
Interpretations, 213. 

Jupiter, 198, 209, 218. 
Jussive tense, 60. 

Ka, 65, 69, 87 ; a numeral prefix, 

1 ; not a tense sign, 64. 
Kahore, misuse of, 66. 
Kai, indicates the agent, 12. 
Eano, colour, 106. 
Ke, difference, 10. 
Ki, to, 42. 

Kia, 7 ; a numeral prefix, 3. 
Kinship, 187. 

Ko, verb substantive, 20, 43, 49. 
Koa, 14. 

Korero, to speak, 20. 
Koropatu, 146. 
Kura, 153. 

Lake-names, 219. 

Lament, 165. 

Land and women, 172. 

Land rights, 172. 

Land tenure, 182. 

Letter sounds, 1 to 5 ; none 

silent, 2. 

List of verbs, 83. 
Locust and ant, 135. 
Long sounds of vowels, 1 to 5. 
Love, 114, 159, 217, 225. 
Love ditties, 159. 

Ma, 71, 89; for, 1. 

Male, 33, 118. 

Man, 33. 

Mnna, 213. 

Mangu, black, 107. 

Mantles, 149. 

Manu, birds, 116. 

Marriage connections, 187. 

Marriage customs, 172. 

Marriages plural, 190. 

Mars, 198, 218. 

Matariki, 203. 

Me, must, 11. 

Measurements, 30. 

Mercury, 198. 

Meteor, 199. 

Milky Way, 200. 

Misuse of the word kahore, 66. 

Mode of comparison, 19. 

Modes of salutation, 37. 

Months, 196. 

Moon, 133, 195, 218. 

Moral, 136. 

,Va, 72, 93; belonging to, 1. 

Na and no, 38. 

Names, corrected, 125 ; of lakes, 
219; of places, 120; proper, 
118; of songs, etc., 158. 



248 



INDEX 



Negatives, 59, 65. 
Kga, the plural article, 31. 
Ngahuru, tenth, 24. 
Night, 209. 
Noun and gender, 33. 
Noun and substantive, 75. 
Numbers, 1 to 5, 22. 
Numbers of personal pronouns, 
iii., 36, 76. 

O. 4, 68, 84; of, 1. 
O and a, differences, 38. 
Ordinals, 5. 

Orange, 105. 

Pa, 72, 93. 

Para, colour, 105. 

Parents, 188. 

Particles, 14, 17. 

Parts of human body, 138. 

Past perfect tense, 55. 

Pastime, 143. 

Past possessive, 39. 

Past tense, 53. 

Perfect tense, 51, 55. 

Perfume, 114. 

Philosophical lament, 165. 

Phrases, selected, 132. 

Pity, 215. 

Place names, 120, 219. 

Planets, 198, 218. 

Pleiades, 203, 205. 

Plural marriages, 190. 

Poem, 165. 

Possessive pronouns, 37. 

Prefixes, verbal, 81. 

Present possessive, 40. 

Present tense, 51. 

Prepositions and particles, 14. 

Pronouns, 36. 

Pronunciation, 5. 

Proper names, 118. 

Proverbs, 126. 

P, 9. 

Purple, 108. 

Ra, 72, 96 ; the Sun, 1 ; yonder, 48. 

Rakau, trees, 111. 

Rawa, very, 10. 

Red, 107. 

Regular, use of tense signs, 61. 

Reptiles, 109. 

Rupe, 166. 

Ruriruri, love-ditties, 159. 



Slang, 228. 
Song names, 158. 
South, up, 17, 198. 
Southern Cross, 202, 209. 
Speech, 20. 
Sport, 143. 
Stains, 105. . 
Star-groups, 200 to 211. 
Stars ruling months, 196. 
Subjunctives, 64. 
Substantives, 75. 
Summer, 207. 
Sun, 1, 72, 207. 
Sun-crossing, 203. 

Ta, 72, 97; to print, 1. 

Tables, A, E, I, O, and U, 1 to 5 ; 
of personal pronouns, 36; of pos- 
sessive pronouns, 37. 

Tabloid translations, 213. 

Tawhaki, 166. 

Tajm, 144. 

Te, definite article, the, 31. 

Tekau, ten, 24. 

Tenses, 51. 

Tenure, 181. 

Terminals, verbal, 78, 83. 

Time, 193. 

lino, superlative, 10. 

Tints, 105. 

Tohunga. 137. 

Toko, 25. 

Tnnu, precision, 9. 

Topu, to double, 28. 

Trees, 111. 

Tu, strange, 12. 

Tua, ordinal prefix, 5. 

Turaukawa, Poem, 161. 

Tutelary deities, 113. 

U, table, 5 ; in antonyms, 68 ; in 

verbs, 84. 
Up, SoutH, 17, 198. 

Venus, 198, 218. 

Verbalized phrases, 223. 

Verbal nouns, 83. 

Verbs, list of, 83 ; mood and 
tense, 51; passive, 60, 75; sub- 
stantive, ko, 20, 43, 49; 
auxiliary, Ai, 8; position of, 61, 
75. 

Voice and speech, 20. 

Vowels, 1 to 5. 



I TFo. 74. 102 : time, space. 1. 


Salutations, 37. 


War weapons, 150. 


Saturn, 198, 218. 


Whaka. a causative prefix, 7. 


Scents, 114. 
Sea birds, 117. 


Whakaharahurtt, exceedingly, 10. 
Whanga, a bav, haven. 212. 


Seasons, 197. 


White, 107. 


Selected phrases, 132. . 


Widows, 184. 


Senses, 19. 


Winds, 197. 


Shades, 105. 


Woven flax, 149. 


Short sounds of vowels, 1 to 5. 




Sirius. 201. 


Yellow, 108. 


Sky, 207. 


Youth. 34. 



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