ILLUSTRATED BY TRANSLATIONS OF TRADITIONS,
TO WHICH ARE ADDED
NOTES ON MAORI TENURE OF LAND.
EDWARD SHORTLAND, M.A., M.R.C.P.
LATE NATIVE SECRETARY, NEW ZEAI.AND,
"traditions AND SUPERSTITIONS OF THE NEW ZEALANDERS."
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
All rights reserved.
• • • •
Z(o I -5
^'3 5 ^vv-
TO THE MEMORY
SIR WILLIAM MARTIN
THESE PAGES ARE DEDICATED,
THE AFFECTIONATE TRIBUTE
A FRIENDSHIP OF MANY YEARS.
The Maori MSS. of which translations are now pub-
lished were collected by the author many years ago.
The persons through whom the MSS. wers obtained
are now, with one exception, no longer living. They
were all of them men of good birth, and competent
authorities. One who could write sent me, from time
to time, in MS. such information as he himself pos-
sessed, or he could obtain from the tohunga, or wise
men of his family. Chapters iii. and iv. contain selec-
tions from information derived from this source.
NJ The others not being sufficiently skilled in writing, it
was necessary to take down their information from
Q dictation. In doing this I particularly instructed my
^] informant to tell his tale as if he were relating it to his
"^ own people, and to use the same words that he would
use if he were recounting similar tales to them when
assembled in a sacred house. This they are, or perhaps
I should rather say were, in the habit of doing at times
of great weather disturbance accompanied with storm
of ,wind and rain, believing an effect to be thereby
produced quieting the spirits of the sky.
As the dictation went on 1 was careful never to ask
any question, or otherwise interrupt the thread of the
narrative: but wrote as nearly as I could every word.
being guided by the sound in writing any new and
strange words. When some time had thus passed, I
stopt him at some suitable part of his tale : then read
over to him what I had written, and made the necessary
corrections — taking notes also of the meanings of words
which were new to me. Chapters v. and vi. are with
some omissions translations of a Maori MS. written in
Chapter ii. contains a tradition as to Maori Cosmo-
gony more particular in some details than I have ever
met with elsewhere. My informant had been educated
to become a tohunga; but had afterwards become a
professing Christian The narrative took place at night
unknown to any of his people, and under promise that
I would not read what I wrote to any of his people.
When after some years I re-visited New Zealand, I
learnt that he had died soon after I left, and that his
death was attributed to the anger of the Aiua of his
family due to his having, as they expressed it, trampled
on the tapu by making noa or public things sacred — he
having himself confessed what he no doubt believed to
be the cause of his illness.
In Appendix will be found a list of Maori words
expressing relationship. It will be observed that where
we employ definite words for 'father' and 'brother' the
Maori use words having a more comprehensive meaning,
like our word 'cousin' : hence when either of the words
matua, &c., are used, to ascertain the actual degree of
relationship some additional explanatory words must be
added, as would be necessary when we use the general
A short vocabulary of Maori words unavoidably intro-
duced in the following pages, which require explanation
not to be found in any published dictionary, are also
printed in the Appendix, — as well as a few selected
karakia in the original Maori, with reference to pages
where their translations appear, as a matter of interest
to some persons.
Auckland, January, 1882.
Chap. i. — Primitive Religion and Mythology. Aryans and
Polynesians . . i
Chap. ii. — Maori Cosmogony and Mythology . . . . . . lo
Chap. hi. — Religious Rites of the Maori 25
Chap. iv. „ „ „ 38
Chap, v. — The Maori Chief of Olden Time 51
Chap. vi. — Claiming and Naming Land . . . . . . . . 68
Chap. VII. — The Maori Land Tenure ..88
Terras of Maori Relationship T06
Explanation of some Maori words occurring in following pages 107
Karakia Maori 109
p. 8 for **Pendora" read "Pandora."
p. 2 1 ,, "Herekeke" ,, "Harakeke."
PRIMITIVE RELIGION AND
ARYANS AND POLYNESIANS.
No/tf^e (Tavrw 700^ 70^6*9 eivai Geofs.
The religious feeling may be traced to the natural
veneration of the child for the parent, joined to an
innate belief in the immortality of the soul. What
we know of the primitive religion of Aryans and
Polynesians points to this source. They both
venerated the spirits of deceased ancestors, believing
that these spirits .took an interest in their living
descendants: moreover, they feared them, and were
careful to observe the precepts handed down by
tradition, as having been delivered by them while
The souls of men deified by death were by the
Latins called •* Lares" or "Manes," by the Greeks
*' Demons " or " Heroes." Their tombs were the
tem'ples of these divinities, and bore the inscription
" Dis manibus," **0eots x^oVtois;" and before the tomb
was an altar for sacrifice. The term used by the
Greeks and Romans to signify the worship of the
dead is significant. The former used the word
2 PRIMITIVE RELIGION ch. i.
'WaTpid^eiv" the latter " parentare," showing that
the prayers were addressed to forefathers. '* I
prevail over my enemies," says the Brahmin, " by the
incantations which my ancestors and my father have
handed down to me."*
Similar to this was the common belief of the Maori
of Polynesia, and still exists. A Maori of New Zea-
land writes thus : ** The origin of knowledge of our
native customs was from Tiki (the progenitor of the
human race). Tiki taught laws to regulate work,
slaying, man-eating: from him men first learnt to
observe laws for this thing, and for that thing, the
rites to be used for the dead, the invocation for the
new-born child, for battle in the field, for the assault
of fortified places, and other invocations very numerous.
Tiki was the first instructor, and from him descended
his instructions to our forefathers, and have abided to
the present time. For this reason they have power.
Thus says the song : —
E tanuiy tapu-nuif tapu-whakaharahara,
He mauri wehewehe na o tupuna,
Na Tiktf na Rangi, na Papa.
O child, very sacred — very, very sacred.
Shrine set apart by your ancestors,
By Tiki, by Rangi, by Papa.
The researches of philologists tend to show that all
known languages are derived from one original parent
source. The parent language from which the Aryan
and Polynesian languages are derived must have been
spoken at a very remote time ; for no two forms of
* La Cite Antique par De Coulange.
CH. I. AND MYTHOLOGY. 3
language are now more diverse than these two are.
In the Polynesian there is but the slightest trace of
inflexion of words which is a general character of
Aryan languages. The Polynesian language seems to
have retained a very primitive form, remaining fixed a
and stationary ; and this is confirmed by the fact that
the forms of Polynesian language, whether spoken in
the Sandwich Islands or in New Zealand, though their
remoteness from each other indicates a very early y
separation, differ to so small a degree that they may
be regarded as only different dialects of the same
language. The Maori language is essentially conser-
vative, containing no principle in its structure facili-
tating change. The component parts or roots of
words are always apparent.
When we consider the great remoteness of time at
which it is possible that a connection between Aryans
and Polynesians could have existed, we are carried
back to the contemplation of a very primitive condi-
tion of the human race. In the Polynesian family we
can still discover traces of this primitive condition.
We can also observe a similarity between the more
antient form of religious belief and mythological
tradition of the Aryans and that still existing among
Polynesians ; for which reason we think it allowable
to apply to the interpretation of old Aryan myths the
principle we discover to guide us as to the significa-
tion of Polynesian Mythology.
It was a favourite opinion with Christian apologists,
Eusebius and others, that the Pagan deities repre-
sented deified men. Others consider them to signify
4 PRIxMITIVE RELIGION ^h. i.
the powers of external nature personified. For others
they are, in many cases, impersonations of human
passions and propensities reflected back from the
mind of man. A. fourth mode of interpretation would
treat them as copies distorted and depraved of a
primitive system of religion given by God to man.*
The writer does not give any opinion as to which
of these theories he would give a preference. If,
however, we look at the mythology of Greek and
Latin Aryans from the Maofi point of view the expla-
nation of their myths is simple.
This mythology personified and deified the Powers
of Nature, and represented them as the ancestors of
all mankind ; so these personified Powers of Nature
were worshipped as deified ancestors. There is no
authority for any other supposition. With regard to
the two latter theories above referred to it may be
remarked that fiction is always liable to be interpreted
in a manner conformable to the ideas prevailing at
any particular time, so that there would be a natural
tendency, in modern times, to apply meanings never
originally thought of to the interpretation of mytho-
logy. Man in early days, ignorant of the causes of
natural phenomena, yet having a mind curious to
inquire and trace observed efi"ects to some cause,
formulated his conceptions on imaginary grounds,
which, although now manifestly false and absurd,
yet were probably suflSciently credible in the infancy
There is a notable mental condition of the Poly-
* Juventus mundi, p. 203.
CH. I. AND MYTHOLOGY. 5
nesian to which we desire to direct attention. The
Maori has a very limited notion of the abstract. All
his ideas take naturally a concrete form. This
inaptitude to conceive any abstract notions was, it is
believed, the early mental condition of man. Hence
the Powers of Nature were regarded by him as con-
crete objects, and were consequently designated as
persons. And this opinion is confirmed by the fact
that the researches of comparative philologists give
proof that all words are, in their origin or roots,
expressive of visible and sensuous phenomena,* and
consequently that all abstract words are derivable
from such roots. The absence, too, of all abstract
and metaphysical ideas from Homer has been noticed
by Mr Gladstone as very remarkable.
I have seen it stated in print that the New Zea-
lander has no sentiment of gratitude ; in proof of
which it was mentioned that he has no word in his
language to express gratitude. This is true; but the
reason is that gratitude is an abstract word, and that
Maori is deficient in abstract terms. It is an error
to infer that he is ignorant of the sentiment of grati-
tude, or that he is unable to express that sentiment
in appropriate and intelligible words.
The Aryans do not appear to have had any tradition
of a Creation. They seem to have conceived of the
Powers of Nature very much in the same way as the
* Max Miiller, " Science of Language." Farrar, '' Chapters on
Language," p. 6.
O PRIMITIVE RELIGION c„, ,,
Maori did, — namely, that the mysterious power . of
Generation was the operative cause of all things.
Hesiod in his Theogony relates that the first parent
of all was Chaos.
From Chaos sprung Gaia (= Earth), Tartarus, Eros
(=:Love), Erebus, a dark son. Night, a dark daughter,
and lastly, Day.
From Gaia alone sprung Ouranos (= Heaven), Hills,
Groves, and Thalassa (=Sea).
From Heaven and Earth sprung Okeanos (= Ocean),
Japetus, Kronos (= Saturn), Titans.
Hesiod also relates how Heaven confined his children
in the dark caverns of Earth, and how Kronos avenged
In the "Works and Days" Hesiod gives an account
of the formation of the first human female out of Earth,
from the union of whom, with Epimetheus, son of the
Titan Japetus, sprung the human race.
So far Hesiod's account may be derived from Aryan
myths. The latter and greater part, however, of Hesiod's
Theogony cannot be accepted as a purely Aryan tradi-
tion ; for colonists from Egypt and Phoenicia had settled
in Greece, at an early period, and had brought with
them alien mythical fables which were adopted in a
modified form, in addition to the antient family religion
of worship of ancestors.
Herodotus asserts that Homer and Hesiod made the
Theogony of the Greeks; and to a certain extent this
may be true, for the bard was then invested with a kind
of sacredness, and what he sung was held to be the
c„ , AND MYTHOLOGY. 7
effect of an inspiration. When he invoked the Muses
his invocation was not a mere formal set of words intro-
duced for the sake of ornament, but an act of homage
due to the Divinities addressed, whose aid he solicited.*
The traditions prevalent in Bceotia would naturally
be strongly imbued with fables of foreign origin ; and
Hesiod, who was a Boeotian by birth, by collecting
these local traditions and presenting them to the
public in an attractive form, no doubt contributed, as
well as Homer, to establish a national form of religion,
made up of old Aryan tradition and what had been
imported by Phoenician and Egyptian colonists.
Thus Zeus and the other Olympian deities formed
the centre of a national religious system ; but at the
same time the old Aryan religion of worship of ances-
tors maintained a paramount influence, and every tribe
and every family had its separate form of worship of
its own ancestors. The prayer of the son of Achilles,
when in the act of sacrificing Polyxena to the manes
of his father, is a striking instance of the prevalent
belief that the deified spirits of ancestors had power
to influence the destinies of the living.
" O son of Peleus, my father, receive from me this
libation, appeasing, alluring, the dead. Come now,
that you may drink the black pure blood of a virgin,
wliich we give to thee — both I and the army. And be
kindly disposed to us, and grant us to loose the sterns
* Horn. II., 2-484. Invocat. to Muses : —
Tell me now, O Muses, ye who dwell in Olympus;
For ye are goddesses, and are present, and know all things.
But we hear only rumour, and know not anything.
8 PRIMITIVE RELIGION en. i.
of our ships, and the cables fastening to the shore,
and all to reach home favoured with a prosperous
return from Ilium." *
Euripides would not have put these words into the
mouth of the son of Achilles had they not been in
accord with the sympathies of an Athenian audience.
'^Comparing the Greek mythological traditions, such
as they have come down to us, with those of the
Maori, some striking resemblance is to be observed.
First, there is the fact that both treat the elements of
nature, and abstract notions as persons capable of
propagating from each other by generation. In both
Light springs out of Darkness. The sons of Heaven
and Earth in both accounts conspire against their
father for the same reason— that their father had con-
fined them in darkness. And lastly the first human
female, in both, is said to have been formed out of
earth. The first woman, in the Maori Mythology,
drags down her off"spring to Po (= Night), meaning
to death. And the first woman of the Greek Mytho-
logy, Pendora, introduces all kinds of afflictions as an
heritage for hers.
It is also to be noticed that just as Zeus and the
Olympian Gods were national deities for Greeks, so
their old mythical deities — Po, Rangi, Papa, Tiki,
&c., were invoked alike by the whole Maori race,
especially in the ceremonies required to free a person
from the sacred restrictions comprised under the term
tapu. They were the Maori national Gods, for they
were their common ancestors. But at the same time
* Hecuba, 1. 533-9.
every Maori tribe and family invoked independently
each its own tribal and family ancestors, just as was
the practice of the Greeks and Latins.
lO MAORI COSMOGONY
MAORI COSMOGONY AND MYTHOLOGY.
An quoquam genitos nisi Coelo credere fas est
Esse homines. — Manilius.
The Maori had no tradition of the Creation. The
great mysterious Cause of all things existing in the
Cosmos was, as he conceived it, the generative Power.
Commencing with a primitive state of Darkness, he
conceived Po (=Night) as a person capable of beget-
ting a race of beings resembling itself. After a
succession of several generations of the race of Po,
Te Ata (=:Morn) was given birth to. Then followed
certain beings existing when Cosmos was without
form, and void. Afterwards came Rangi (= Heaven),
Papa (=Earth), the Winds, and other Sky -powers,
as are recorded in the genealogical traditions pre-
served to the present time.
We have reason to consider the mythological tra-
ditions of the Maori as dating from a very antient
period. They are held to be very sacred, and not
to be repeated except in places set apart as sacred.
The Genealogies recorded hereafter are divisible into
three distinct epochs : —
I. That comprising the personified Powers of Nature
preceding the existence of man, which Powers are
regarded by the Maori as their own primitive ancestors,
and are invoked in their karakia by all the Maori race ;
j,„ „ AND MYTHOLOGY. II
for we find the names of Rangi, Kongo, Tangaroa, &c.,
mentioned as Atua or Gods of the Maori of the Sand-
wich Islands and other Islands of the Pacific inhabited
by the same race. The common worship of these
primitive Atua constituted the National religion of the
2. In addition to this the Maori had a religious
worship peculiar to each tribe and to each family, in
forms of karakia or invocation addressed to the spirits
of dead ancestors of their own proper line of descent.
Ancestral spirits who had lived in the flesh before the
migration to New Zealand would be invoked by all the
tribes in New Zealand, so far as their names had been
preserved, in their traditional records as mighty spirits.
3. From the time of the migration to New Zealand
each tribe and each family would in addition address
their invocations to their own proper line of ancestors, —
thus giving rise to a family religious worship in addition
to the national religion.
The cause of the preservation of their Genealogies
becomes intelligible when we consider that they often
formed the ground-work of their religious formulas,
and that to make an error or even hesitation in repeating
a katakia was deemed fatal to its efficacy.
Ill the forms of karakia addressed to the spirits of
ancestors, the concluding words are generally a petition
to the Atua invoked to give force or effect to the karakia
as being derived through the Tipua, the Pukenga, and
the Whananga, and so descending to the living Tauira.
MAORI COSMOGONY ^h. n,
Te Po (=The Night).
Te Po-teki (=hanging Night).
Te Po-terea (=drifting Night).
Te Po-whawha (=moaning Night).
Te Ata (=The Morn).
Te Ao-tu-roa (=The abiding Day).
Te Ao-marama (=bright Day).
TeKore(= The Void).
Kore-te-tamaua (:=Void fast bound).
Te Mangu (=the black) sc. Erebus.
From the union of Te Mangu with Mahorahora-
nui-a-Rangi (=The great expanse of Rangi) came four
children : —
1. Toko-mua (=elder prop).
2. Toko-roto (=middle prop).
3. Toko-pa (=last prop).
4. Rangi-potiki (=child Rangi).
GENEALOGICAL DESCENT FROM TOKO-MUA.
Tu-awhio-nuku (=Tu of the whirl-
Paroro-tea (= white skud).
Hau-tuia (=:piercing wind).
Hau-ngangana (blustering wind).
Tiki-te-pou-mua (The ist Man).
* Whose wife was Hine-titamauri de qud infra,
t Whose wife was Puhaorangi de qu^ infra.
Tamatea was setUed at Muriwhenua, and his son Kahuhunu was
born there. The latter went on a journey to Nukutauraua
near the Mahia, and there married Rongomai-wahine, having
got rid of her husband Tamatakutai by craft. Tamatea went
to bring him home, but on their return their canoe was upset
in a rapid, near where the river Waikato flows out of the lake
Taupo, and Tamatea was drowned.
Korouaputa = Rakumia (f/
Pare-wahawaha=Te Rangipumamao Parekohatu=:
(f-) I I
GENEALOGICAL DESCENT FROM TOKO-ROTO.
After the birth of Rauru, the son of Toi-te-huatahi
and Kuraemonoa, while Toi was absent from home
fishing, Puhaorangi came down from Heaven, and
carried off Kuraemonoa to be his own wife. She bore
four children from this union : —
I. Ohomairangi. 2. Tawhirioho.
3. Ohotaretare. 4. Oho-mata-kamokamo.
From Ohomairangi descended : —
Time of Houmaitahiti.
Te Rangi-pumamao= Parewahaika=Te Whata
c„. „. AND MYTHOLOGY. 1 7
GENEALOGICAL DESCENT FROM TOKO-PA.
Kohu (=Mist) was the child of Tokopa.
Kohu married Te Ika-roa (=The Milky-way), and
gave birth to Nga Whetu (=The Stars).
GENEALOGICAL DESCENT FROM RANGI-POTIKI.
Rangi-potiki had three wives, the first of which was
Hine-ahu-papa ; from her descended : —
Haronga took to wife Tongo-tongo. Their children
were a son and daughter, Te Ra (=The Sun) and
Marama (=The Moon). Haronga perceiving that
there was no light for his daughter Marama, gave
Te Kohu in marriage to Te Ikaroa, and the Stars
were born to give light for the sister of Te Ra, for
the child of Tongo-tongo. ^^ Nga iokorua a Tongo-
tongo'' (=the two children of Tongotongo) is a
proverbial term for the Sun and Moon at the present
Rangi-potiki's second wife was Papatuanuku. She
gave birth to the following children : —
Rehua (a star).
Punga and Here, twins.
Hua and Ari, do.
1 8 MAORI COSMOGONY
Marere-o-tonga ) ,
Tu-matauenga ) j
RoNGO was atua of the kumara.
Tangaroa was ancestor of Fish and the PounamUy
which is classed with fish by the Maori. Tangaroa
took to wife Te Anu-matao (=the chilly cold) : from
which union descended.
All Te Whata-uira-a-tangaroa.
of the Te Whatukura.
Class. Te Pounamu.
Tahu was atua presiding over peace and feasts.
PuNGA was ancestor of the lizard, shark, and ill-
favoured creatures : hence the proverb ''aitanga-a-Punga*'
(=child of Punga) to denote an ugly fellow.
Tu-MATAUENGA was the Maori war God.
Rangi-potiki's third wife was Papa (=Earth). Tan-
garoa was accused of having committed adultery with
Papa, and Rangipotiki, armed with his spear, went
to obtain satisfaction. He found Tangaroa seated by
the door of his house, who, when he saw Rangi thus
coming towards him, began the following karakiay at
the same time striking his right shoulder with his left
hand : —
Tangaroa, unravel ;
Unravel the tangle,
c„. „. AND MYTHOLOGY. 1 9
Though Rangi is distant,
He is to be reached.
Some darkness for above,
Some light for below
For bright Day^
This invocation of Tangaroa was scarce ended when
Rahgi made a thrust at him. Tangaroa warded it off,
and it missed him. Then Tangaroa made a thrust at
Rangi, and pierced him quite through the thigh, and he
While Rangi lay wounded he begat his child Kueo
(=Moist). The cause of this name was Rangi*s
wetting his couch while he lay ill of his wound. After
Kueo, he begat Mimi-ahi, so-called from his making
water by the fireside. Next he begat Tane-tuturi
(=straight-leg-Tane), so-called because Rangi could
now stretch his legs. Afterwards he begat Tane-
pepeki (=bent-leg-Tane), so-called because Rangi
could sit with his knees bent. The next child was
Tane-ua-tika (=straight-neck Tane), for Rangi's neck
was now straight, and he could hold up his head. The
next child born was called Tane-ua-ha^ (=strong-
neck-Tane), for Rangi's neck was strong. Then
wa^ born Tane-te-waiora (=lively Tane), so called
because Rangi was quite recovered. Then was born
Tane-nui-a- Rangi (=Tane great son of Rangi). And
last of all was born Paea, a daughter. She was the last
^ This karakia is the most antient example of the kind. It
is now applied as suggestive of a peaceable settlement of a
20 MAORI COSMOGONY ch. n.
of Rangi's children. With Paea they came to an end,
so she was named Paea, which signifies ' closed.'
Some time after the birth of these children the thought
came to Tane-nui-a-Rangi to separate their father from
them. Tane had seen the light of the Sun shining
under the armpit of Rangi; so he consulted with his
elder brothers what they should do. They all said,
** Let us kill our father, because he has shut us up in
darkness, and let us leave our mother for our parent."
But Tane advised, " Do not let us kill our father, but
rather let us raise him up above, so that there may be
light." To this they consented ; so they prepared
ropes, and when Rangi was sound asleep they rolled
him over on the ropes, and Paea took him on her back.
Two props were also placed under Rangi. The names
of the props were Tokohurunuku, and Tokohururangi.
Then lifting him with the aid of these two props, they
shoved him upwards. Then Papa thus uttered her
farewell to Rangi.
** Haera ra^ e Rangiy e / ko te wehenga taua i a Rangi."
*• Go, O Rangi, alas ! for my separation from Rangi."
And Rangi answered from above :
** Heikona ra, e Papa, e! ko te wehenga taua i a Papa."
*• Remain there, O Papa. Alas ! for my separation
So Rangi dwelt above, and Tane and his brothers
dwelt below with their mother, Papa.
Some time after this Tane desired to have his mother
Papa for his wife. But Papa said, *' Do not turn your
inclination towards me, for evil will come to you. Go.
to your ancestor Mumuhango." So Tane took
CH. „ AND MYTHOLOGY. 21
Mumuhango to wife, who brought forth the totara
tree. Tane returned to his mother dissatisfied, and
his mother said, *' Go to your ancestor Hine-tu-a-
maunga (=the mountain maid)." So Tane took
Hine-tu-a-maunga to wife, who conceived, but did not
bring forth a child. Her offspring was the rusty water
of mountains, and the monster reptiles common to
mountains. Tane was displeased, and returned to his
mother. Papa said to him ** Go to your ancestor
Rangahore." So Tane went, and took that female for a
wife, who brought forth stone. This greatly displeased
Tane, who again went back to Papa. Then Papa said
"Go to your ancestor Ngaore (=the tender one). Tane
took Ngaore to wife. And Ngaore gave birth to the toetoe
(a species of rush-like grass). Tane returned to his
mother in displeasure. She next advised him, **Go to
your ancestor Pakoti." Tane did as he was bid, but Pakoti
only brought forth ^^rfy^^^^ (=phormium tenax). Tane
had a great many other wives at his mother's bidding,
but none of them pleased him, and his heart was greatly
troubled, because no child was born to give birth to
Man ; so he thus addressed his mother — •* Old lady,
there will never be any progeny for me." Thereupon
Papa said, ** Go to your ancestor. Ocean, who is
grumbling there in the distance. When you reach
the beach at Kura-waka, gather up the earth in the form
of man." So Tane went and scraped up the earth at
Kura-waka. He gathered up the earth, the body was
formed, and then the head, and the arms ; then he joined
on the legs, and patted down the surface of the
belly, so as to give the form of man ; and when he had
done this, he returned to his mother and said, ** The
22 MAORI COSMOGONY „. n.
whole body of the man is finished." Thereupon his
mother said, " Go to your ancestor Mauhi, she will
give the raho.'^ Go to your ancestor Whete, she will give
the timutimu, ^ Go to your ancestor Taua-ki-te-marangai,
she will give the, paraheka.^ Go to your ancestor Punga-
heko, she has the huruhuruy So Tane went to these
female ancestors, who gave him the things asked for.
He then went to Kura-waka. Katahi ka whakanoho ia i
nga raho ki roto i nga kuwha o te wahine i hanga ki
te one: Ka mau era. Muri atu ka whakanoho ia ko
te timutimu na Whete i homai ki waenga i nga raho;
muri atu ko te paraheka na Taua-ki-te-marangai i
homai ka whakanoho ki te take o te timutimu : muri
iho ko te huruhuru na Pungaheko i homai ka whaka-
noho ki runga i te puke. Ka oti, katahi ka tapa ko
Hineahuone. Then he named this female form Hine-
ahu-one (=The earth formed maid).
Tane took Hine-ahu-one to wife. She first gave birth
to Tiki-tohua — the t,%% of a bird from which have
sprung all the birds of the air. After that, Tiki-
kapakapa was bom — a female. Then first was bom for
Tane a human child. Tane took great care of Tiki-
kapakapa, and when she grew up he gave her a new
name, Hine-a-tauira (=the pattern maid). Then he
took her to wife, and she bore a female child who was
One day Hine-a-tauira said to Tane, ** Who is my
father.?" Tane laughed. A second time Hine-a-tauira
asked the same question. Then Tane made a sign:*
1 * ® Quaedam partes corporis genitales.
* Katahi ka tohungia e Tane ki tona ure.
j.j^ „ AND MYTHOLOGY. 23
and the woman understood, and her heart was dark,
and she gave herself up to mourning, and fled away to
Rikiriki, and to Naonao, to Rekoreko, to Waewae-te-Po,
and to Po.^ The woman fled away, hanging down her
head. * Then she took the name of Hine-nui-te-Po
(=great woman of Night). Her farewell words to
Tane were—" Remain, O Tane, to pull up our ofl'spring
to Day ; while I go below to drag down our ofl'spring to
Tane sorrowed for his daughter-wife, and cherished
his daughter Hinetitamauri ; and when she grew up he
gave her to Tiki to be his wife, and their first-born child
The following narrative is a continuation of the history
of Hinenuitepo from another source :^
After Hinenuitepo fled away to her ancestors in the
realms of Night, she gave birth to Te Po-uriuri (=The
Dark one),^ and to Te Po-tangotango (=The very dark),
and afterwards to Pare-koritawa, who married Tawaki,
one of the race of Rangi. Hence the proverb when
the sky is seen covered with small clouds " Parekoritawa
is tilling her garden^ When Tawaki climbed to Heaven
with Parekoritawa, he repeated this karakia : —
Ascend, O Tawaki, by the narrow path,
By which the path of Rangi was followed ;
The path of Tu-kai-te-uru.
* These were all ancestors of the race of Powers of Night.
* He otiy ka rere te wahine : ka anga ko te pane ki raro, tuwhera
tonu nga kuwha, hamama tonu te puapua.
* ^* Heikona, e Tane, hei kukume ake ia taua hua ki te Ao ; kia
haere au ki raro hei kukume iho i a taua hua ki te Po^
* Vid. Genealogical Table.
24 MAORI COSMOGONY, &C. ch. ir.
The narrow path is climbed,
The broad path is climbed,
The path by which was followed
Your ancestors, Te Aonui,
Now you mount up
To your Ihi,
To your Mana,
To the Thousands above.
To your Ariki,
To your Tapairu^
To your Pukenga,
To yoiu* Whananga^
To your Tauira.
When Tawaki and Parekoritawa mounted to the
Sky, they left behind them a token — a black moth — a
token of the mortal body.
Pare gave birth to Uenuku (=Rainbow). Afterwards
she brought forth Whatitiri (=Thunder). Hence the
rainbow in the sky, and the thunder-clap.
RELIGIOUS RITES OF THE MAORI.
Axx' a7? Sr) riva, fAavriv \pi'io/j.iv. — Hom. H. I-62.
The religious rites and ceremonies of the Maori were
strange and complex, and must have been a severe
burden, as will be understood from the translations of
Maori narratives relating to such matters contained in
these pages. To make these translations more intel-
ligible to the reader, a brief review of the subject is
now given in explanation.
The religious rites under consideration are imme-
diately connected with certain laws relating to things
tapUy or things sacred and prohibited, the breach of
which laws by anyone is a crime displeasing to the Atua
of his family. Anything tapu must not be allowed to
come in contact with any vessel or place where food is
kept. This law is absolute. Should such contact take
place, the food, the vessel, or place, become tapu, and
only a few very sacred persons, themselves tapu, dare to
touch these things.
The idea in which this law originated appears to have
been that a portion of the sacred essence of an Atua,
or, of a sacred person, was directly communicable to
objects which they touched, and also that the sacredness
so communicated to any object could afterwards be
more or less retransmitted to anything else brought into
contact with it. It was therefore necessary that any-
thing containing the sacred essence of an Atua should
be made tapu to protect it from being polluted by the
26 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. ra.
contact of food designed to be cat ; for the act of
eating food which had touched anything tapu, involved
the necessity of eating the sacredness of the Aiua, from
whom it derived its sacredness.
It seems that the practice of cannibalism must have
had a close connexion with such a system of belief.
To eat an enemy was the greatest degradation to
which he could be subjected, and so it must have been
regarded as akin to blasphemy to eat anything contain-
ing a particle of divine essence.
Everything not included under the class tapu was
called noa, meaning free or common. Things and
persons tapu could, however, be made noa by means of
certain ceremonies, the object of which was to extract
the tapu essence, and restore it to the source whence it
originally came. It has been already stated that every
tribe and every family has its own especial Atua. The
Arikt, or head of a family, in both male and female
lines, are regarded by their own family with a venera-
tion almost equal to that of their Atua^ They form, as
^ It is observable that Homer attributes special honor to a few of
his heroes, who appear to have been the male representatives of
their race, — as to Agamemnon of the race of Pelops, and to
Aeneas of the race of Assaracus. With respect to each of
them, it is mentioned that he was honored as a God by his
people. " ®ioi S' t)i tUto Sii/Aw." Among the Maori these
chiefs would have been distinguished by the title of Arikt.
Homer gives them the title "cva^ avSpy," the old meaning of
which words has been a matter of much inquiry. Mr Gladstone
(Homer and Homeric Age, vol. i. p. 456) says, "It seems to
me that this restraint in the use of the name 'ava^ av^puv* was
not unconnected with a sense of reverence towards it;" and he
suggests the word chieftain as its fit representative. Might not
its original meaning have been similar to that of Ariki?
CH. m. OF THE MAORI. 27
it were, the connecting links between the living and the
spirits of the dead ; and the ceremonies required for
releasing anything from the tapu state cannot be
perfected without their intervention.
On arriving one evening at a Maori settlement, I
found that a ceremony, in which everyone appeared to
take deep interest, was to take place in the morning.
The inhabitants were mostly professing Christians, and
the old sacred place of the settlement was, from the
increase of their numbers, inconveniently near their
houses; a part of it was, therefore, required to be
added to the Pa. I was curious to see in what way
the land required would be made noa. In the morning
when I went to the place I found a numerous assembly,
while in the centre of the space was a large native oven,
from which women were removing the earth and mat-
coverings. When opened it was seen to contain only
kumara, or sweet potato. One of these was offered
to each person present, which was held in the hand
while the usual morning service was read, concluding
with a short prayer that God's blessing might rest
on the place. After this each person ate his kumara^
and the place was declared to be noa. I could not
but think that the native teacher had done wisely in
thus adopting so much of old ceremonial as to satisfy
the scruples of those of little faith. In this case,
every one present, by eating food cooked on the tapu
ground, equally incurred the risk of offending the
Atua of the family, which risk was believed to be
removed by the Christian karakia.
By neglecting the laws of tapu^ Ariki, chiefs, and
28 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. m.
Other sacred persons are especially liable to the dis-
pleasure of their Aiua, and are therefore afraid to do a
great many ordinary acts necessary in private life. For
this reason a person of the sacred class was obliged to
eat his meals in the open air, at a little distance from
his sacred dwelling, and from the place which he and
his friends usually occupied; and if he could not eat
all that had been placed before him he kept the
remainder for his own sole use, in a sacred place
appropriated for that purpose: for no one dared to
eat what so sacred a person had touched.
The term karakia is applicable to all forms of prayer
to the Atua: but there are a variety of names or titles
to denote karakia having special objects. The trans-
lations of those now presented to the reader will, it is
believed, speak for themselves as to the nature of Maori
worship, and carry with them a more clear and full con-
viction as to what it really was than any mere statements
however faithful. It will be seen that a karakia is in
some cases very like a prayer, — in other cases for the
most part an invocation of spirits of ancestors in genea-
logical order, — in other cases a combination of prayer
The Karakia of Hineteiwaiwa.
Said to have been used at the birth of her son Tuhu-
ruhuru. It is of great antiquity, dating from a time
long anterior to the migration to New Zealand.
Weave, weave the mat.
Couch for my unborn child.
Qui lectus aqua inundabitur:
Rupe, et manuraea inundabuntur:
Lectus meus, et mei fetus inundabitur:
cH. III. OF THE MAORI. 29
Inundabor aquS, inundabor ;
Maritus meus inundabitur. ^
Now I step upon (the mat).
The Matitikura^ to Rupe above,
* * * Toroa *
* * * Takapu *
* * * to cause to be born,
My child now one with myself.
Stand firm turuturu^ of Hine-rauwharangi,
* * * * Hine-teiwaiwa,
Stand by your tia*" Ihuwareware,
Stand by your kona,^ Ihuatamai,
Chide me not in my trouble,
Me Hine-teiwaiwa, O Rupe.^
Release from above your hair, ^
Your head, your shoulders,
Your breast, your liver,
Your knees, your feet.
Let them come forth.
The old lady* with night-dark visage,
She will make you stretch.
She will make you rise up.
Let go ewe,^ let go take,^^
Let go parapara.'^'^ Come forth.
^ Haec ad effusionem aquarum sub tempus partus spectant.
^ The name of a powerful karakia.
* Turuturu, a sharp pointed prop, two of which are fixed in the
floor to serve as a frame for weaving mats — also used by women
in child-birth to hold by.
* * Names of lower parts of abdomen.
* Rupe or Maui-raua, brother-in-law of Hine-teiwaiwa.
' Addressed to the unborn child.
* The old lady referred to was Hine-nui-te-po, the mother of the
female ancestress of mankind.
9 10 11 Names of different parts of the decidua.
For tradition as to Tuhuruhuru and other names here mentioned
vid. Sir Geo. Grey's " Mythology and Traditions of New Zea-
land," p. 39 et seq.
30 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. in.
This karakta is still in use with the Arawa tribe in
cases of difficult parturition. When such cases occur,
it is concluded that the woman has committed some
fault — some breach of the iapu, which is to be dis-
covered by the matakite (=seer). The father of the
child then plunges in the river, while the karakta is
being repeated, and the child will generally be born ere
ever he returns.
The following form of karakia is also used by mem-
bers of the same tribe in similar cases:—
O ! Hine-teiwaiwa, release Tuhuruhuni,
O ! Rupe, release your nephew.
The ancestors of the father of the child are then
invoked by name. First the elder male line of ances-
tors, commencing with an ancestor who lived in Hawaiki
and terminating with the living representative of that
line. Then follows a repetition of the ancestral line
next in succession, and the third in succession, if the
child be not born.^ After which the tohunga addressing
the unborn child says, **Come forth. The fault rests
with me. Come forth." The tohunga continues thus —
Unravel the tangle, unravel the crime,
Untie -manuka, let it be loosed.
Distant though Rangi,
He is reached.
If the child be not now born. Tiki is invoked thus —
Tiki of the heap of earth.
Tiki scraped together,
When hands and feet were formed, ^
First produced at Hawaiki.
^ In the Maori MS., of which the above is a translation, the names
of the ancestors of the chief of the tribe referred to are given
in genealogical order, but are omitted here.
CH. ui. OF THE MAORI. 31
If the child be a male, it will be born — if a female,
the mother's line of ancestors must be invoked.
Intimately connected with the superstition respecting
things tapu is the belief as to the cause of disease,
namely, that a spirit has taken possession of the body
of the sufferer. The belief is that any neglect of the
law of tapu, either wilful, or accidental, or ^even
brought about by the act of another person, causes
the anger of the Atua of the family who punishes the
offender by sending some infant spirit to feed on a
part of his body — infant spirits being generally
selected for this office on account of their love of mis-
chief, and because not having lived long enough on
earth to form attachments to their living relatives, they
are less likely to show them mercy. When, therefore,
a person falls sick, and cannot remember that he has
himself broken any law of the tapu, he has to consult a
matakite (seer) and a tohunga to discover the crime, and
use the proper ceremonies to appease the Atua; for
there is in practice a method of making a person offend
against the laws of tapu without his being aware of it.
This method is a secret one called makutu. It is suffi-
cient for a person who knows this art, if he can
obtain a portion of the spittle of his enemy, or some
leavings from his food, in order that he may treat it in
a manner sure to bring down the resentment of his
family Atua. For this reason a person would not dare
to spit when in the presence of anyone he feared might
be disposed to injure him, if he had a reputation for
skill in this evil art.
With such a belief as to the cause of all disease it
will not be wondered at that the treatment of it was
^2 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. m.
confined to the karakia of a tohunga or wise man.
One or two examples of such cases will be sufficient
to explain this as well as to show the in-rooted super-
stition of the Maori.
When anyone becomes porangi or insane, as not
unfrequently happens, he is taken to a tohunga, who
first makes an examination as to the cause of the t
disease. He and the sick man then go to the water-
side, and the tohunga, stripping oif his own clothes,
takes in his hand an obsidian flint. First he cuts a
lock of hair from the left side of the sick man's head, and
afterwards a lock of hair from the top of his head. The
obsidian flint is then placed on the ground, and upon it
the lock of hair which had been cut from the left side
of the head. The lock of hair cut from the top of
the head is held aloft in the left hand of the tohunga,
while in his right hand he holds a common stone,
which is also raised aloft, while the following karakia
is being repeated by him.
Tu, divide, Tu, split,
This is the waiapu flint.
Now about to cry aloud
To the Moon of ill-omen.
Then the tohunga breathes on the flint, and smashes
it with the stone held in his right hand. After this he
selects a shoot of the plant toetoe, and pulls it up, and
then fastens to it both the locks of hair. Then diving
in the river, he lets go the toetoe and locks of hair, and
when they float on the surface of the water, he com-
mences his great karakia thus —
This is the Tiri of Tu-i-rawea,
This is the Tiri of Uenuku.
OF THE MAORI. 33
Where lies your fault ?
"Was eating a kutu your fault ?
Was sitting on tapu ground your fault ?
Unravel the tangle,
Take away the fault from the head
Of the Atua who afflicts this man.
Take away the disease,
And the mana of the curser.
Turn your mana against your iohunga,
And your whaiwhaia. ^
Give me the curse
To make as cooked food.
Your Atua desecrated,
Your tapu, your curse.
Your sacred-place-dweUing Atua,
Your house-dweUing Atua,
Give me to cook for food.
Your tapu is desecrated by me.
The rays of the sun.
The brave of the world,
The mana, give me.
Let your Atua, and your tapu
Be food for me to eat.
Let the head of the curser
Be baked in the oven,
Served up for food for me
Dead, and gone to Night.
The latter part of this karakia is a curse directed
against some tohunga supposed to have caused the
disease by his art of makutu.
Makutu was the weapon of the weak, who had no
Dther mode of obtaining redress. There is no doubt
but that it exercised a restraining influence, in a
^ A karakia so called.
34 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. m.
society where no law but that of force generally
prevailed, as a check to theft and unjust dealing
generally ; for there is among the Maori a firm
belief in and dread of its power. This is very
evident from the following account given by one of
themselves of the mode employed to detect and
punish a petty theft.
A woman is much vexed when any of the flax
scraped by her is stolen, and she consults a tohunga,
in order to discover the thief. Whether the flax has
been stolen from her house or from the water, the
woman's house must be tapu. No one' must be
allowed to enter it. This is necessary, that the
makutu may take effect, and the person who stole
the flax be discovered. So when the woman comes
to the tohunga he first asks her ** Has any one entered
your house .^" She replies **No." Then the tohunga
bids her return home, saying "I will come to you at
night." The woman returns home, and at night the
tohunga comes to her. He bids her point out her
house, and then goes with her to the water side.
"Having taken off his clothes, he strikes the water
with a stick or wand, brought with him for that pur-
pose, and immediately the form of the thief stands
before them. The tohunga thus curses it —
May your eyes look at the moon —
Eyes of flax be yours.
Hands of flax be yours,
Feet of flax be yours.
Let your hands snatch
At the rays of the Sun.
Let your hands snatch at Whiro,
Whiro in vast heaven.
cH.iii. OF THE MAORI. 35
Whiro born of Papa.
Snatch, snatch at your own head,
Perishing in the Night of Darkness,
In the Night of Death— Death.
Is the name given to forms of makutu employed to
counteract the curse of some other tohunga, or wise-
man; for whoever practises makutu, even though he be
skilled in the art, may have to yield to the mana of
some other wise-man who can command the assistance
of a more powerful Atua. The following is a specimen
of this kind of makutu —
Great curse, long curse,
Great curse, binding curse,
Binding your sacredness
To the tide of destruction.
Come hither, sacred spell.
To be looked on by me.
Cause the curser to lie low
In gloomy Night, in dark Night,
In the Night of ill-omen.
Great wind, lasting wind.
Changing wind of Rangi above.
He falls. He perishes.
Cause to waste away the curser tohunga.
Let him bite the oven-stones.
Be food for me,
The tapu and the fnana,
Of your Atua,
Of your karakta,
Of your tohunga.
Among the Atua much held in awe by the Maori were
the Atua noho-whare, or house-dwelling gods — spirits of
the germs of unborn infants. They are also known by
36 RELIGIOUS RITES ^a. iv.
the name Jcahukahu, the meaning of which word was
explained in a former publication.
The Maori has also a firm belief in omens derived
from dreams, and from any sudden movements of the '
body or limbs during sleep, all which signs are believed
to be warnings from the Atua.
There is a class of dreams called moe-papa, which are
very unlucky : and if any one has one of these dreams,
he will avoid going on a projected journey; for it is
firmly believed that should he persist in going he will
fall into an enemy's ambush, or meet with some other
misfortune. Hence the proverbial remark, if a person
has neglected such a warning, and has fallen in with a
war-party, ** He was warned by a moe-papa^ and yet
went." The kind of sleep denoted by this word is
described to be the climbing a precipice, the wandering
astray in a forest, entering a house, climbing a tree.
Such dreams are death warnings. They appear to be
such as we term night-mare.
The startings of the limbs or body during sleep are
called tahri, some of which are lucky, and some unlucky,
each kind being distinguished by a special name.
The lucky tahiri dixe —
The holai, or starting of the leg or foot in a forward
direction. It denotes the repulse of the enemy.
The iauaro, or starting of the arm towards the body.
The whakaara, when in sleep the head starts upwards.
It signifies that ere long the Arihi or his father will
The hipo, a very lucky sign. While a man sleeps with
CH. IV. OF THE MAORI. 37
his right arm for a pillow, if the arm starts so as to
strike his head, on awaking he will not mention it to
his companions; for he knows by this omen that in the
next battle which takes place it will be his good fortune
to kill the first man of the enemy.
The unlucky tahiri are —
The kohera, 3. starting of the arm and leg of one side
of the body in an outward direction.
The peke, a starting of the arm outwards from the body.
The whawhati^ a sleep in which the legs, the neck,
and the head are bent doubled up towards the belly.
This is very unlucky. The evil will not come to another
person, but attends the man himself.
The former takiri do not necessarily denote evil to
the individual sleeper, but to any of his companions.
38 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. iv.
RELIGIOUS RITES OF THE MAORI.
Tantum Relligio potuit suadere. — Lucretius.
You ask me about the customs of Maori men, and their
origin, how men came to learn them. This is the
source whence men learnt them. Their knowledge is
not from modern times. Papa, Rangi, Tiki were the
first to give rules to men for work of all kinds, for
killing, for man-eating, for karakia. In former days the
knowledge of the Maori was great, in all matters, from
this teaching, and so men learnt how to set rules for
this thing and for that thing. Hence came the ceremony
of Pure for the dead, the karakia for the new-born
infant, for grown men, for battle, for storming a Pa^ for
eels, for birds, for makutu, and a multitude of other
karakia. Tiki was the source from which they came
down to the tupua, the pukenga, the wanansa, and the
tauira. The men of antient days are a source of invoca-
tion for the tauira. Hence the karakia had its power,
and came down from one generation to another ever
having power. Formerly their karakia gave men power.
From the time when the Rongo-pai (= Gospel) arrived
here, and men were no longer iapu, disease commenced.
The man of former days was not afflicted by disease.
He died only when bent by age. He died when he
came to the natural end of life.
My writing to you begins with the karakia for a
mother when her breasts give no milk. After a child is
born, if the mother's breasts have no milk, her husband
CH. IV. OF THE MAORI. 39
goes for the tohunga. When the tohunga arrives the
mother and child are carried to the water-side, and the
tohunga dipping a handful of weed in the water, sprinkles
it on the mother. The child is taken away from the
mother by the tohunga, who then repeats this karakia: —
Water-springs from above give me,
To pour on the breast of this woman.
Dew of Heaven give me,
To cause to trickle the breast of this woman ;
At the points of the breast of this woman ;
Breasts flowing with milk,
Flowing to the points of the breast of this woman,
Milk in plenty yielding.
For now the infant cries and moans.
In the great night, in the long night.
Tu the benefactor,
Tu the giver,
Tu the bountiful.
Come to me, to this tauira.
After this the child is dipped in the water, and the
mother and child are kept apart. One whole night they
are kept apart, in order that the karakia may take effect.
The mother remains alone in her house, while the
tohunga seated outside it repeats his karakia. The
tohunga also instructs the woman thus — ** If the points
of your breasts begin to itch, lay open your clothes, and
lie naked." Some time after her breasts begin to itch,
and the woman knows that the karakia is taking effect.
Afterwards her breasts become painful, and she calls out
to the tohunga ** my breasts itch and are painful, they
are full of milk." Then the child is brought to the
mother. See what power the karakia of the Maori
This is a word, a thought of mine. There has not
40 RELIGIOUS RITES ^h. iv.
been any remarkable sign of late years, from the time
of the arrival of the Rongo-pai (=Gospel), like the
signs seen in this island when men were iapu, when
harakia had power. One sign seen in this island was
the Ra-kutia (=:the closed sun). At mid-day there was
darkness, and the stars were seen. After two hours
perhaps of darkness, daylight returned. Our fathers
saw this sign : but there are now no signs like those of
CEREMONY OF TUA.
When a male child is born to a Chief, all his tribe
rejoice. The mother is separated from the inhabitants
of the settlement, to prevent her coming in contact
with persons engaged in cultivating the kumara, lest
anything belonging to the mother should be accidentally
touched by them, lest the kumara should be affected by
her state of tapu ; for the sacredness of any rehu-wahine
is greatly feared.
When the child is about a month old, and strives with
its hands to reach its mother's breast, the ceremony of
Tua takes place. Two fires are kindled ; one fire for the
Ariki, one fire for the Atua. The food to be cooked on
the fire is fern-root. Then the tohunga takes the child
in his arms, and repeats this karakia : —
Breathe quick thy lung,
A healthy lung.
Breathe strong thy long,
A firm lung,
A brave lung.
Severing^ for your bravery,
♦ * tilling food,
^ The severing of umbilical cord is here referred to.
^„ ,^ OF THE MAORI. 4 1
Severing for wadding the weapon,
* * warding off,
* * seizing the first man,
* * storming the Pa.
The boy infant is stept^ over,
* * * * climbed^ over,
* * * * lifted in the arms,
The boy infant is free from tapu,
He runs freely where food is cooked.
Cause this karakia to flow gently,
To the Pukenga,
To the Wananga,
To the Tauira.
When this karakia ends the ceremony of Poipoi
(= waving) follows. The tohunga takes up the fern-root
cooked for the Atua, and waving it over the child
repeats these words : — *' This is for the Tipua, for the
Puhenga, for the Wananga. Eat it. It is the food
cooked for you to eat." The cooked fern-root is
then deposited on the sacred place. ; Afterwards
the child is taken in the arms of the female '^n'/;z', who
waves over it the fern- root cooked on her fire, and
touches with it different parts of the child's body. The
Arikiis said then to eat this fern-root, but does not
do so in fact. She only spits on it, and throws it on
'the sacred place.
If there are several female Ariki of the same family
of whom one is absent, a figure is made with weeds to
represent her. Then part of the fern-root is ofi"ered to
^ The female Ariki at these words steps over the child, and then
takes it in her arms.
42 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. iv.
the figure and is stuck in it. All these ceremonies take
place on sacred ground. The part of the ceremony —
that of touching the body of the child with the food to
be eat by the Ariki — is named kai-hatoa. After this the
child is free from tapu, so that persons of the family
may take it in their arms.
No further ceremony takes place till the child arrives
at youth, when his hair is cut, and the young person is
released from tapu. The hair must be cut in the morn-
ing in order to insure a strict observance of tapu ; for it
is not only the tohunga who must be tapu on this
occasion, but also the whole tribe. This tapu commences
in the morning, and no one must eat food while it lasts.
Should any one eat during that time it will be discovered ;
for if the skin of the child's head be cut while cutting
the hair, it is known at once that some one has eat food.
This is a sure sign. After the hair is cut the ceremony
of Poipoi is again observed, and the tohunga then raising
up his hands repeats this karakia, and the young person
is free —
These hands of mine are raised up.
And this sacredness here.
Your freedom from tapu
Make sure the obtaining.
Make sure the freedom.
Make it sure to Papa.
Give me my tu :
Lift up the sacredness :
Lift it up : it prevails.
My hands here are raised^ up,
^ As to the custom of raising aloft the hands while praying to
the Gods, compare Horn : II. Lib. 3 273, and other numerous
CH. IV. ^F THE MAORI. 43
To Tiki there these hands of mine,
To Hine-nui-te-po these hands of mine,
These now free from tapu.
Freedom. They are free.
CEREMONIES FOR THE DEAD.
When a man dies his body is placed in a sitting
posture, and is bound to a stake to keep it in a good
position. It is seated wich its face towards the sun as it
rises from its cave. Then every one comes near to
lament. The women in front, the men behind them.
Their clothes are girded about their loins. In their
hands they hold green leaves and boughs, then the song
called keka commences thus : —
Tohunga chants It is not a man,
. « J It is Rangi now consigned to earth,
" ( Alas ! my friend.
Tohu72ga ,, My evil omen,
» ,, i The lightning glancing on the mountain peak
Te Waharoa doomed to death.
After the hka, the uhunga or lament commences.
The clothes in which the corpse should be dressed are
the hahuwaeto, the hum, the topuni, and the tatata. The
lament ended, presents are spread to view, greenstone
ornaments, and other offerings for the dead chief. A
carved chest, ornamented with feathers, is also made,
and a carved canoe, a small one resembling a large
canoe, which is painted with hoTcowai (=red-ochre) ; also
a stick bent at the top is set up by the way-side, in order
that persons passing by may see it, and know that a
chief has died. This is called a hara. The carved
chest is called a whare-jangi. The corpse only is buried,
the clothes are placed in the carved chest which is
preserved by the family and descendants as a sacred
44 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. nr.
On the morning following the burial, some men go to
kill a small bird of the swamps called holcata, and to
pluck up some reeds of wiwi. They return and come
near the grave. The tohunga then asks " Whence come
you ?" The men reply, " From the seeking, from the
searching." The tohunga again asks " Ah 1 what have
you got } ah ! what have you gained } " Thereon the
men throw on the ground the hotata and the wiwi.
Then the tohunga selects a stalk of toetoe or rarauhe^ and
places it near the grave in a direction pointing towards
Hawaiki to be a pathway for the spirit, that it may go in
the straight path to those who died before him. This
is named a Tiriy and is also placed near where he died,
in order that his spirit may return as an Atua for his
living relations. The person to whom this Atua appears
is called the Tcaupapa or waka-atua. Whenever the spirit
appears to the haupapa the men of the family assemble
to hear its words. Hear the karakia of the haupapa to
prevail on the spirit to climb the path of the Titi.
This is your path, the path of Tawaki ;
By it he dimbed up to Rangi,
By it he mounted to your many.
To your Thousands ;
By it you approached,
By it you clung,
By it your spirit arrived safely
To your ancestors.
I now am here sighing,
Lamenting for your departed spirit.
Come, come to me in form of a moth.
Come to me your kaupapa,
Whom you loved.
For whom you lamented.
Here is the Tiri for you,
CB. ,v. OF THE MAORI. 45
The Tin of your ancestors,
The Tiri of your Pukenga^
Of your Wananga,
Of me this Tauira.
THE REINGA OR HADES.
When the spirit leaves the body it goes on its way
northward, till it arrives at two hills. The first of these
hills is a place on which to lament with wailings and
cuttings. There also the spirit strips off its clothes.^
The name of this hill is Wai-hokimai. The name of
the other hill is Wai-otioti : there the spirit turns its
back on the land of life, and goes on to the Rerenga-
wairua (Spirit's-leap). There are two long straight roots,
the lower extremities of which are concealed in the sea,
while the upper ends cling to a pohuiuhawa tree. The
spirit stands by the "upper end of these roots, awaiting
an opening in the sea weed floating on the water. The
moment an opening is seen, it flies down to the Reinga.
Reaching the Reinga, there is a river and a sandy beach.
The spirit crosses the river. The name of the new
comer is shouted out. He is welcomed, and food is set
before him. If he eats the food he can never return to
TALE OF TE ATARAHI.
There was a man named Te Atarahi, who remained
•five nights and five days in the Reinga, and then returned
to life. On the fifth day after this man died, two women
went out to cut flax leaves. While so employed they
^ Spirits on their way to the N. Cape are said to be clothed in the
leaves of the wharangi^ makuku, and oropito.
^ Vid. similar account. " Traditions and Supersitions of the New
Zealanders," p. 150, et seq.
46 RELIGIOUS RITES ch. iv.
observed the flower stalks of the flax springing up every
now and then, at a little distance from them. Then one
of the women remarked to her companion — " There is
some one sucking the juice of the korari flowers." By
degrees this person came nearer, and was seen by the
woman, who said ** the man is like Te Atarahi, why, it
surely is Te Atarahi." Her companion replied — " It
cannot be Te Atarahi, he is dead." Then they both
.looked carefully, and saw that the skin of the man was
wrinkled and hanging loose about his back and
shoulders, and that the hair of his head was all gone.
So the women returned to the Pa, and told how they
had seen Te Atarahi. ** Are you quite sure it was Te
Atarahi } " said the men of the Pa. And the women
answered, " His appearance was like Te Atarahi, but the
hair of his head was all gone, and his skin hung loose
in folds about his back." Then one was sent to look at
the grave where Te Atarahi had been buried. He found
the grave undisturbed, so he returned and said **Sirs, the
body is well buried, it has not been disturbed." Then
the men went, and examined the place carefully on every
side, and found an opening on one side, a little way off.
Then they went to the place where Te Atarahi had been
seen by the women, and there found the man seated on
a ti tree. They at once knew him to be Te Atarahi ; so
they sent for the tohunga. The tohunga, came and
repeated a karakia, after which, the man was removed to
the sacred place, and the tohunga remained with him
constantly repeating karakia, while the people of the
Pa stood without looking on. There the man remained
many days, food being brought for him. Time passed,
and he began to have again the appearance of a Maori
cH. IV OF THE MAORI. 47
man. At length he recovered and got quite well. Then
he told how he had been in the Reigna, how his relations
came about him, and bid him not to touch the food, and
sent him back to the land of Light. He spoke also of
the excellence of the state in which the people of the
Reigna dwelt, of their food, of their choice delicacy the
ngaro, of the numbers of their Pa, and the multitude of
the dwellers there, all which agreed with what the Atua
have said, when they visit men on earth.
NGA PATUPAIAREHE OR FAIRIES.
One day while Ruarangi was absent from his house a
Patupaiarehe or Fairy came to it, and finding only the
wife of Ruarangi within, carried her off to the hills.
When the husband returned home his wife could not be
found. He, however, traced footsteps to the hills where
the Fairies dwelt, but saw nothing of his wife. Then he
felt sure she had been carried off by the Fairies, and
returned sorrowing and thinking of some plan to recover
her. At length, having thought of a plan, he summoned
the tohunga of the tribe — those skilled in bringing back
love — those skilled in makutu — in short all the tohunga.
When these all assembled before him, he said to them
" The cause of my calling you is this. My wife has
disappeared." The tohunga replied " When it is night,
all of you leave your houses." So when night came every
one came forth from his house as the tohunga had ordered.
Then the tohunga skilled in restoring love stood up,
and after some while discovered that the lost woman
was with the Fairies. So he commenced a harakia to
make her love for her Maori husband return.
What wind is this blowing softly to your skin:
Will you not inchne towards your companion,
48 RELIGIOUS RITES eu. iv.
To whom you clung when sleeping together,
Whom you clasped in your arras,
Who shared your griefs.
When the wind bears to you this my love,
Incline hither thy love.
Sighing for the couch where both slept.
Let your love burst forth,
As the water-spring from its source.
When the tohunga had ended this hardkia he said to
the husband ** Go, fetch your wife. When she meets
you, be quick to rub her all over with Tcohowai (red-
ochre)." So the man went, and when night came he
lay down to sleep by the way side. While he slept he
saw his wife coming to meet him. With this he awoke
knowing well that the tohunga had spoken truly. At
day-light he went on his way, and after some time came
in sight of the Pa of the Fairies. No one was within
the Pa. AH had gone forth to look at the Maori
woman. Now a great desire towards her Maori husband
had come to the woman borne to her by the harakia of
the tohunga^ so the woman said to her Fairy husband
" Let me go and visit my new brothers-in-law." This
she said deceitfully ; for when her Fairy husband con-
sented, she went straight away to meet her Maori
husband, who, as soon as she came near, rubbed her all
over with kohowai^ and hastened home with her.
Meanwhile the Fairy husband awaited her return. He
waited a long while, and at last went to look for her: at
length he discovered footsteps of a man and woman,
then he knew she had gone off with her husband. So
the war-party of the Fairies assembled, and went to
attack the Maori Pa. But they found the posts of the
Pa daubed over with kokowaiy and the leaves used in the
CH. IV. OF THE MAORI. 49
ovens for cooking, thrown on the roofs of the houses :
the Pa too was full of the steam of cooked food. As
for the woman, she was placed for concealment in an
oven. So the Fairies feared to come near ; for how could
they enter the Pa in their dread of the hokowai, and the
steam of the ovens which filled the court-yard. So great
is their dread of cooked food.
Then the iohunga Maori all standing up sung a harahia
to put to sleep the Fairies.
Thrust aside, thrust afar.
Thrust aside your sacredness,
Thrust aside your tohunga :
Let me, let me mark ^ you,
Let me mark your brow.
Give me thereupon your sacredness,
You mana, your tohunga,
Your karakia give me,
To place beside the oven-stones.
To place beside the cinders,
To place beside the kokowai.
Now these rest on your head.
On your sacred places.
On your female Ariki.
Your sacredness is undone.
By the time this haralcia came to an end, all the Fairies
were seated on the ground. Their chief then stood up,
and^sung thus : —
Alas ! for this day
Which now oppresses me.
I stretched out my hand
To the mate of Tirini.
Followed were my footsteps.
And charmed was returning love,
^ With kokowai, or red-ochre. ^.
50 RELIGIOUS RITES OF THE MAORI, ch. iv.
At Pirongia there.
This the dreaded tribe is undone,
Tiki^ and Nukupouri^
And I Rangi-pouri:^
I carried oif the woman,
I the first aggressor :
I went to enter the house of Ruarangi,
To stretch out my hand,
To touch the Maori skin.
The boundary is oven-marked.
To prevent its being moved aside.
To guard the wife in safety.
He thought the power of his karakia would appear ;
but it could not conquer the devices of the Maori
tohunga ; for how could it prevail against the cooked
food, and the oven-stoves, and the kokowai, and the
many other devices of the tohunga. Hence it was seen
that the power of karakia was not possessed by the
Fairies. The only power given to them was to smother
^ Names of the Fairy chiefs.
THE MAORI CHIEF OF OLDEN TIME.
@iQs S'wj t/eto hrt/Mfi. — Homer.
The Chiefs who came from Hawaiki to Aotea-roa in
the canoe Arawa were the following : — Tia, Maka, Oro,
Ngatoroirangi, Maru-punganui, Ika, Whaoa, Hei, and
Tama-te-kapua. After their canoe was hauled ashore at
Maketu, these chiefs set out to explore the country, in
order to take possession of land each for himself and his
Tia and Maka went to Titiraupenga, at Taupo, and
Ore went to Taupo, and thence to Wanganui.
Ngatoroirangi went to Taupo, and died at Ruapehu.
Marupunga went to Rotorua, and died there.
Ika went to Wanganui, and died there.
Whaoa went to Paeroa.
Hei went to Whitianga (Mercury Bay). He was buried
at 0-a-Hei, on the extremity of the promontory.
Tama-te-kapua went to Moehau (Cape Colville).
Waitaha, son of Hei, and Tapuika, son of Tia, and
Tangihia, son of Ngatoro-i-rangi, remained at Maketu.
Tuhoro, and his younger brother, Kahumata-momoe,
sons of Tama-te-kapua, also remained at Maketu.
Their Pa was named Te Koari, and is still a sacred
place. Their house was named Whitingakongako.
Kahu had a cultivation named Parawai, which his
mother gave him.
52 THE MAORI CHIEF ^h. v.
While he was at work one day in his garden, Tuhoro
struck him, and they strove together. The elder
brother fell, and being beneath his younger brother was
held down by him on the ground. Then their children
and the whole tribe cried out, *' Let your elder brother
rise up." So he let him go ; but their quarrel con-
tinued with angry words. " Some day I will be the
death of you," said Kahu, "and no one shall save you."
Tuhoro, enraged, again struck Kahu ; but he was
thrown to the ground a second time by Kahu. Then
Tuhoro seized hold of Kahu's ear, and tore from it a
green-stone ; the name of this stone was haukaumatua.
Tuhoro kept it, and some time afterwards buried it in
the ground, at the foot of the post by the window of
their father's house.
After this Tuhoro resolved to follow his father, Tama-
te-kapua. So he went, he and all his children. He
left none behind. He went to Moehau, and there he
and his father both died.
When Tama-te-kapua was on the point of dying, he
said to his son, Tuhoro, *' You must remain sacred for
three years, and dwell apart from the tribe. Let there
be three gardens by the sides of your house, set apart as
sacred, in which you are to cultivate food for the Atua.
On the fourth year awaken me from sleep ; for my hands
will be ever gathering up the earth, and my mouth will
be ever eating worms, and grubs, and excrement, the
only food below in the Reinga (abode of spirits). When
my tuuia^ drops down, and my head falls down on my
body, and my hands drop down, and the fourth year
^ Point of junction of the spine and skull*
CH. V. OF OLDEN TIME. 53
arrives, turn my face to the light of day, and disinter
my papa-toiake.^ When I arise you will be noa (free from
If clubs threaten to strike,
You will see to it — Yes, yes.
If a war party is abroad.
You shall strike — Yes, yes."
Having thus said, Tama-te-kapua died, and was buried
by his son on the summit of Moehau.
The three years enjoined by Tama were not ended,
when Tuhoro commenced cultivating food as formerly ;
so the sacred remains of his father turned against him,
and he died.
A short time before his death, his sons, Taramainuku,
Warenga, and Huarere, assembled in his presence.
Whereupon Tuhoro said, " Your younger brother must
bury me." So the younger son was called. Ihenga
came and sat beside his father in his sacred house, who
thus instructed him : " When I am dead, carry me out
of the house, and lay me out naked to be your Ika-
hurihurP (twisting fish). First bite with your teeth my
forehead, next bite with your teeth my iahito^ (perineum).
Then carry me to the grave of your grandfather. When
1 am buried, go to Maketu."
" Why must I go to Maketu ?'
^' That your uncle may perform the ceremonies to
remove your sacredness."
^ Lower extremity of the spine..
2 Omens were gathered from the movement of the dead body. The
word fish or canoe is often used symbolically for a man.
^ The perineum and head are considered the most sacred parts of
the human body.
54 THE MAORI CHIEF ch. v.
" But how shall I know him ?"
Then the father said, " He will not be unknown to
** Ho ! some one will kill me on the way."
" Not so. You will go in safety along the sea-shore."
" But I shall never find hin^."
" You cannot mistake him. Look at his right ear for
a part hanging down. He is a big, short man, with a
sleepy eye. When you approach your uncle, in order
that he may know you, go at once and seat yourself on
his pillow. When you are both freed from sacredness,
search for the ear-drop of your uncle under the window-
'* But how shall I find it .?"
" You will find it. Dig for it. It is buried there
wrapt in a piece of cloth with manuka bark outside it."
So, when the father died, his naked body was brought
out of the house, and laid on the ground. The younger
son bit with his teeth the forehead, and then bit with
his teeth the tahito of his father, saying at the same time,
** Teach me when I sleep."
The reason why he bit the forehead and the tahito was
that the mana, or sacred power of his father, might *
inspire him, so that he might become his tauira, i.e., the
living representative of his mana and karakia. Then
the young man thus addressed the corpse : "If an enemy
attack us hereafter, show me whether death or safety will
be ours. If this land be abandoned, you and your father
will be abandoned, and your offspring will perish."
Then the corpse moved, and inclined towards the
CH. V. ^^ OLDEN TIME. 55
right side. Afterwards it inclined towards the left side.
A second time it inclined to the right, and afterwards to
the left side. After that the moving of the body ceased.
Therefore it was seen that it was an ill-omen, and that
the land would be deserted.
After this laying out of the corpse, its legs were bent,
so that the knees touched the neck, and then it was
bound in this position with a plaited girdle. Afterwards
two cloaks, made of kahakaha, were wrapt around the
corpse, over which were placed two cloaks such as old
men wear, and then a dog-skin cloak. Feathers of the
albatross, the huia, and the koiuku (white crane), were
stuck in the hair of the head, and the down breasts of
the albatross were fastened to the ears. Then com-
menced the tangt (dirge, or lament). Then the last
farewell words were spoken, and the chiefs made
speeches. The lament of Rikiriki, and the lament of
Raukatauri for Tuhuruhuru was chanted ; and the corpse
was buried on the ridge of Moehau.
Now, when the young man slept, the spirit of his
father said to him, "When you are hungry, do not allow
your mouth to ask for food ; but strike with a stick the
food-basket. If you are thirsty, strike the gourd." Every
night the spirit of the father taught the young man his
kamkia, till he had learnt them all ; after which he said
to his son, " Now we two will go, and also some one to
So they went both of them, the father's spirit leading
the way. Starting from Moehau they passed by Here-
taonga, Whangapoua, Tairua, Whangamata, Katikati,
and Matakana. There they rested. After that they
56 THE MAORI CHIEF ^h. v.
went on to Rangiwaea, where Ihenga embarked in a
small sacred canoe, while his travelling companion went
on board a large canoe. Then they crossed over to
Waikoriri. Here Waitara wished to detain him, but he
would not stay. He went straight onwards to Wairakei,
and the Houhou. He met a man, and enquired where
Kahu dwelt. The man said, " At the great house you
see yonder." So Ihenga went on, and having reached
the place where the Arawa was hauled ashore, he looked
about him, and then went on to the sacred place, the
Koari, and there left his father's ueta^ . He then ascended
the cliff to the Teko, and climbing over Kahu's doorway,
went straight on to the sacred part of the courtyard, and
seated himself on Kahu's pillow.
Meanwhile Kahu was on the beach, where guests were
usually entertained, busied about sending off a canoe
with food for the Atua at Hawaiki, and for Houmaitahiti,
food both cooked and uncooked. This canoe was made
of raupo (a species of bulrush). There was no one in
the canoe, only stones to represent men. There Kahu
was busied sending off his canoe, when his wife, Kuiwai,
shouted to him, ** Kahu, Kahu, there is a man on your
resting place." Then Kahu cried out, " Take him ;
shove him down here." The woman replied, ** Who
will dare to approach your pillow ; the man is tapu^
Then Kahu shouted, " Is he seated on my pillow ?"
'* Yes." " I am mad with anger," said Kahu ; " his
head shall pay for it."
Ihenga was dressed in two dog-skin cloaks, under
^ The ueta is a whisp of weeds or grass used to wipe the anus of the
corpse. It is afterwards bound to a stick, and is carried as a
CH. V. <^F OLDEN TIME. 57
which were two hahakaha cloaks. As Kahu went up
towards the Pa he asked, " Which way did the man
come." The woman replied, ** He climbed over your
By this time Kahu had reached the fence, and caught
sight of the young man.
He no sooner saw him than he recognised his likeness
to his brother, Tuhoro, and straightway welcomed him
— " Oh ! It is my nephew. Welcome, my child, wel-
come." He then began lamenting, and murmuring
words of affection over him ; so the tribe knew that it
was the young son of Tuhoro.
After the lament, Kahu made inquiry for his brother,
and the young man said, ** My father is dead. I buried
him. I have come to you to perform the ceremonies of
the pure and the horohoro, to remove my sacredness."
Immediately Kahu shouted to the tribe, "The marae
(courtyard) is tapu'' and led the young man to the sacred
house of the priests. He then ordered food to be
prepared— a dog of the breed of Irawaru — and while it
was being cooked, went with the young man to dip
themselves in the river. His companion, a son of his
brother, Warenga, remained with the rest of the tribe.
When they had dipped in the river, Kahu commenced
cutting the young man's hair, which is a part of the
ceremony of Pure. In the evening, the hair being cut,
the mauri,^ or sacredness of the hair, was fastened to a
^ The hair of the head, in this ceremony, was made fast to a stone,
and the sacredness of the hair was supposed to be transferred to
this stone, which represented some ancestor. The stone and hair
were then carried to the sacred place belonging to the Pa.
58 THE MAORI CHIEF ch. v.
Then Kahu went with Ihenga to the Koari, where the
ueta of the corpse had been left, and there chanted a
karakia. They then rested for the night.
The next morning the ceremony of the Pure was
finished, and the following harakia was chanted by
Complete the rite of Pure,
By which you will be free from
The evil influence of Po,
The bewitching power of Po.
Free the canoe from sacredness, O Rangi ;
The canoe of stumbling unawares, O Rangi ;
The canoe of death unawares, O Rangi.
Darkness for the Tipua, darkness.
Darkness for the Antient-one, darkness.
Some light above,
Some light below.
Light for the Tipua, light.
Light for the Antient-one, light.
The uwha^ is held aloft.
A squeeze, a squeeze.
Protection from Tu.
After this they went to partake of food ; and the oven
of the kohukohu^ was opened. While the oven was
being uncovered by Hine-te-kakara (the fragrant damsel),
she took care to turn aside her face, lest the savour of the
kumara and the steam of the sacred oven should come
near her mouth, lest evil should come to her. She did
not even swallow her spittle, but constantly kept spitting
^ Uwha, the bivalve shell used for cutting the hair.
^ Kohukohu, the plant chick-weed, in the leaves of which the sacred
kumara was wrapped.
c„. V. OF OLDEN TIME. 59
When the food was set before Kahu and Ihenga,
Ihenga took up some of the hohukohu in which were
wrapt two Tcumata^ and held it in his hand, while Kahu
chanted the following harakia : —
Rangi, great Rangi,
Long Rangi, dark Rangi,
Darkling Rangi, white-star Rangi,
Rangi shrouded in night.
Tane the first, Tane the second,
Tane the third, &c.
(Repeated to Tane the tenth).
Tiki, Tiki of the mound of earth.
Tiki gathered in the hands,
To form hands and legs.
And the fashion of a man,
Whence came living men.
And your first bora male
Now living in the light of day.
While Kahu chanted thus, the hohukohu was held in
tlie hand of Ihenga. Kahu then proceeded with the
direct male line —
60 THE MAORI CHIEF ch. v.
There ended the recitation of Kahu, and he went on to
his own proper line —
And to your offspring bom to life,
And to the light of day.
This is your kohukohu of the horohoronga.
To make light the weight of tapu.
He is free, he is released from tapt^.
He goes safely where food is cooked,
To the evil mighty spirits of Night,
To the kind mighty spirits of Night,
To the evil mighty spirits of Light,
To the kind mighty spirits of Light.
Then the kohukohu was offered as food to the stone
images, and was divided for Houmaitahiti, for Ngatoroi-
rangi, for Tama-te-kapua, and for Tuhoro, and was
pressed into their mouths^. This being done Ihenga
took up another hohuhohu, and held it in his hand raising
it aloft, while Kahu chanted the following harahia : —
For the evil old women of Night,
For the kind old women of Night,
For the evil old women of Day,
For the kind old women of Day,
Whose oflFspring is bora to life,
^ Hence the term horohoronga (=swallowing) given to the ceremony.
It is to be remarked that the distinguishing name given to various
ceremonies was taken from some striking circumstances connected
with it, — thus, a sacred oven is named kohukohu from the leaves
of the plant in which the kumara was wrapt : &c.
^j, ^^ OF OLDEN TIME. 6 1
And to the bright light of day,
This kohukohu is offered for you,
The kohukoku of the Ruahine.
He is free, he is no longer tapu.
The female Atua were then fed with the kohukohu as
in the former case. Then part of the kohukohu was
offered for the mother, Whaka-oti-rangi. ^
Turn away Night,
This is the kohukohu of freedom,
And deliverance from tapu.
This done, Ihenga took up another kohukohu, and held
it aloft in his hand, while Kahu chanted thus : —
Close up Night, close up Day,
Close up Night as the soft south wind.
The tapu of the food
And the mana of the food,
The food with which you are fed,
The food of Kutikuti,
The food of Pekapeka,
The food of Haua-te-rangi,
I eat, Uenuku eats.
I eat, Kahukura eats.
I eat, Rongomai eats,
I eat, Ihungaro eats.
I eat, Itupaoa eats.
I eat, Hangaroa eats.
^ I eat, Ngatoro-irangi eats.
I eat, Tama eats.
^ Kearoa and "Whaka-oti-rangi being both sacred female ancestors —
wives of Ngatoro and Tama, represented the Ruahine, the swal-
lowing of this food by whom was requisite in removing the tapu.
The tapu, or sacredness of Kahu, was supposed to be transferred
to the kohukohu, and when this was eat by the ancestral spirits,
the tapu was deposited with them.
62 THE ISIAORI CHIEF ^h. v.
This ended, Kahu proceeded thus :
If I fall from the precipice,
Let me not be harmed.
If I fall on the taramoa^
Let me not be scratched.
If I eat of the maihi^ of tohunga's house,
Let me not be harmed.
Be thou undermost,
While I am uppermost.
Give me your mana to strike down.
Close tight your spirit-devouring teeth.
Close tight your man-devouring teeth.
Then Kahu spat on the kohukohu, breathed on it, and
offered it to Tama, that is to say, to the image of Tama-
te-kapua. Kahu and Ihenga then ate the food cooked
for them in the sacred oven. Ihenga ate with a fork,
while at the same time he fed Kahu with his left hand.
The same ceremonies were observed at the evening
Eight days after the ceremony of Pure, the heart of
Ihenga conceived a desire. He was taken with the fair
face of Hinetekakara ; so he asked Kahu, "When shall
we two be free from /apu?" Kahu replied "We two
will not soon be free." " Oh ! be quick," said Ihenga,
•' that I may return to my elder brothers, to my mother,
and to my sisters." Kahu said, " You will not be dis-
missed soon — not until the /apu is completely removed
from you." ** How many nights, then, after this ?"
^Maikt are the two boards placed at an angle at front gable of a
house. If the wood of a sacred house were to be accident-
ally used as firewood for cooking purposes, anyone who ate the
food thus cooked would be guilty of a crime, to be punished by
the Atua with disease or death.
cH. V OF OLDEN TIME. 63
Kahu answered, ''Twenty nights."
" Ho ! what a very long time," said Ihenga, ** for our
The remonstrance of the young man here ended ; but
not long afterwards he persisted in the same manner.
Thereupon Kahu began to consider — ** Ha ! what is it
my nephew persists about ?" So he asked, ** Why are
you in so great a hurry to be free from tapu ?" Then
the young man spoke out, '* Whose daughter is the
maiden who cooks our food ?"
" Mine," replied Kahu.
" My fear," said Ihenga, " lest some one may have
" I thought there must be something."
" Do not let some other man have her."
" Your cousin shall be your wife," said Kahu, calling
the damsel : " Come here, girl, near the door."
The girl came laughing, for she knew she was to be
given to Ihenga.
Then said Kahu : " Your cousin has a longing for you."
" It is well," replied the damsel.
" Oh ! my children," murmured Kahu. He then
cautioned his daughter not to enter the house where
young people resort for amusement.
" I never go to the play-house," replied Hinetekakara,
" I always sleep with my mother in our own house,"
** You do well," said Kahu ;" ** in twenty days we
shall both be free from our tapuT
So they both continued to dwell in their sacred house
by themselves, and the damsel always cooked food for
64 THE MAORI CHIEF cm. v.
them ; and when the day fixed by Kahu came he sent
Ihenga in a canoe to catch fish to complete the cere-
mony of removing the tapu. The fish were caught,
and two ovens were prepared to cook them — a
sacred oven for the iohunga, or seers skilled in sacred
lore — and a free oven for the tauira, or those being in-
structed in sacred lore. And when the food was cooked they
assembled to eat it : the tohunga on the right hand fed each
other by hand, and the tauira on the left ate freely their
unsacred food. This was done to lighten the weight of
the tapu, in order that they might be free. When all
this was done, and they were no longer tapu, Hineteka-
kara became the wife of Ihenga.
The following morning Ihenga searched for the green-
stone kaukaumatua, and found it in the place where
Tuhoro had buried it. He then fastened it to the ear
of Hinetekakara, bidding her go and show the treasure
to her father. When Kahu beheld his lost treasure
hanging from his daughter's ear he gave utterance to his
feelings with tears and words of affection for his dead
brother, and when the ta7igt or lament was ended, bid
her keep the treasure for herself, and for her cousin.
Some time afterwards Hinetekakara conceived, and
Ihenga went to catch kiwi for her turdkanga.^ He took
with him his dog Potakatahiti, one of the same breed as
the dog of the same name which was devoured by Toi
and Uenuku." Crossing the swamp Kawa, he went to
^ Turakanga (=tlirowing down) was a ceremony in which a stick set
up to represent the path of death was thrown down. A form of
karakia was, at the same time, used.
« Vid : Sir G. Grey's " Mythology and Traditions," p. 63.
CH. V. OF OLDEN TIME. 65
Papanui, and arriving at the cross-road at Waipumuka
ascended the hill Paretawa. Thence he went on to
Hakomiti, and Pukerangiora, and began to hunt Mwi.
The dog feeling the heat, and becoming thirsty, went off
in search of water, at the same time hunting kiwi.
When he caught a hiwi he left it on the ground. At
last a ^/z^;/'ran a long way, and tried to escape by run-
ning into a lake where the dog caught it. The dog
then began to catch in its mouth the small fish called
inanga ; and having filled its belly returned by the way
it had come, always picking up the hiwi^ which it had
left on the ground, and carrying them in his mouth, till
he reached his master, laid them on the ground before
him. Seeing the dog dripping with water, Ihenga said
to his companions, *' Ho ! the dog has found water.
There is a lake below, perhaps." However they did not
then go to look for it, for they were busied about cooking
food. Meanwhile the dog began to roll on the ground
in front of Ihenga, belly upwards. It then lay down, but
not long after began to vomit, and the inanga were seen
lying on the ground. Then they went to look for the
water, and the dog ran before them barking every now
and then to let his master know which way he was going.
In this way they soon came to the lake. Shoals of inanga
were leaping on the water ; so they made a net with
breinches of fern, and having caught a great many, cooked
some for food ; after which they returned to Maketu,
carrying with them basketsful of inanga to show to
Kahu, that he might know how the lake abounded with
food. Ihenga named the lake "Te Roto-iti-kite-a-
Ihenga (=the small lake discovered by Ihenga), thus
claiming it as a possession for his children.
66 THE MAORI CHIEF ^h. v.
When they reached Maketu Ihenga told Kahu about
the lake he had discovered.
'* Where is it ?" inquired Kahu.
" Beyond the hills."
*' Is it a long way ofF.^"
" Yes," said Ihenga.
*' Beyond the first range of hills .^" inquired Kahu.
*' At the sixth range of hills," said Ihenga.
" Oh ! it is near," said Kahu.
Then Ihenga bid his companions show Kahu the food
they had brought.
But Kahu said, " No ; leave it alone till to-morrow."
The next morning the oven was made ready for the
ceremony of Turakanga. Hinetekakara dipped in the
river, and two mounds of earth were made — one for a
male child, and one for a female child. The path of
death was thrown down, and the path of life set up.
Then the woman trampled on the mound for the male
child with one foot, and with the other foot she trampled
on the mound for the female child. Then she ran and
plunged in the river, and when she rose to the surface
she swam ashore, put on her tawaru, and returned to her
When the food was cooked all the men assembled to
eat it — the men of the race of Houmaitahiti. There
were six hundred kiwi, and two baskets of inanga. And
as he was eating Kahu murmured, " Ho ! ho ! what
prime food for my grandchild/'
CH. V. OF OLDEN TIME. 67
After some time a child was born and was named
Tama-ihu-toroa, and when it grew strong in limb, so
that it could turn about from one side to the other, Kahu
said to Ihenga, *' Go, seek lands for your child."
68 CLAIMING AND ^h. vi.
CLAIMING AND NAMING LAND.
No place in the world ever received a name which could not
be accounted for, though there are hundreds of such names
of which we can now give no explanation. — Farrar on
Language, p. 22.
Ihenga set out with four companions. He went in a
different direction to that of his former journey. He
now went by way of Mataparu, Te Hiapo, Te Whare-
pakau-awe. When on the summit of the ridge he
looked back towards Maketu, and greeted his home
there. Then turning round he saw the steam of the
hot springs at Ruahine. Believing it to be smoke from
a fire, he said to his companions, " Ha ! that land has
been taken possession of by some one. Let us go on."
They entered the forest, and having passed through it,
came to a waterfall. Afterwards they came to a lake in
which was a large island. Proceeding along the shore
of the lake Ihenga gave names to various places. On
arriving at a point of land jutting out into the lake,
which he named Tuara-hiwi-roa, they halted ; for they
saw a flock of shags perched on the stumps of some
trees in the lake. They made snares and fastened them
to a pole to catch the shags, and placed the pole on the
stumps of the trees. Presently the shags perched on
the pole, and were caught in the snares, some by the legs
and some by the neck. But the shags flew off" with the
snares, pole and all. The young men thought they
would alight in the lake, but Ihenga said, " No, they
are flying on ; they will alight on Te Motu-tapu-a-
j,g^, NAMING LAND. 69
Tinirau." Ihenga had given this name to the island,
which was afterwards named Mokoia by Uenuku-kopako.
Then Ihenga went alone in pursuit of his birds along
the borders of the lake. He passed by Ohinemutu,
where he found the hot springs, and the steam which he
had supposed to be the smoke of a fire. When he
reached the hill at Kawaha, looking down he saw the
smoke of a fire burning below at Waiohiro ; so
he thought with himself, ** Shall I go on, or
no.^" He decided on the no; for he saw a net
hanging near a stage, on which there was food, so he
went to look for the tuahu or sacred place for the net.
When he had found it he forthwith set to work to carry
off the earth, and the posts, and the old decaying I'nanga,
in order to make a tuahu for himself by the face of the
cliff at Kawaha. Then he brought fresh earth and new
posts to the iuahu of the man of the place, and carried
away some posts partly burnt by fire. He also stript off
the bark from branches of koromuka and angiangi, and
fastened them together with flax, and set them up in the
inclosure of the iuahu belonging to the man of the
place. When Ihenga had done all this secretly, he
named his own tuahu Te Pera-o-tangaroa, and went on
to the place where the fire was burning.
4s soon as he was seen, the people of the place waved
their cloaks, and shouted cries of welcome. And when
the ceremony of uhunga was ended, the chief, whose
name was Tu-o-rotorua, inquired when Ihenga had come
to the lake.
** Ho ! this is my own land," said Ihenga.
" Where is your land .?" asked Tu,
70 CLAIMING AND .^3. vi.
*'Why, this very land," replied Ihenga. "I ought
rather to ask you how long you have been here ?"
" Why, I have been here this long time."
" No, no ! I was here first."
" No," said Tu, ** I and your uncle were first here."
Ihenga, however, persisted. " Ho ! surely you came
last. The land belongs to me."
" What sign have you," said Tu, " to shew that the
land is yours }'*
*' What is your sign ?" replied Ihenga. /
'' ktuahu;' saidTu.
"Come on," said Ihenga, "let me see your iuahu. If
your iuahu is older than mine, you truly came first, and
the land is yours."
Tu consented, and led the way to his tuahu. When
they arrived there, it had the appearance of having been
Then said Ihenga, "Now come and look at my tuahu^
and my ngakoa.^ So they went together to the Pera-o-
tangaroa, where they found a heap of decaying and
dried old inanga which Ihenga had brought there from
the tuahu of Tu-o-rotorua. So when Tu beheld them,
and the old burnt posts which Ihenga had stolen, he was
so puzzled that he was almost persuaded that Ihenga
must have been the first to occupy the land. However,
he said, " let me see your net."
"Come up higher," said Ihenga, "and I will shew you
^ Ngakoa were offerings to the Atua of fish and other kinds of food.
^^ ^j NAMING LAND. 7 1
my net." And he then pointed to a mark on a distant
ciiif, caused by a landslip.
" Why, that is a landslip," said Tu.
"No," said Ihenga, "it is a net quite new. Look at
that other net which is hanging up, and looks black ;
that is the old net."
Tu thought it must be as Ihenga said, so he agreed to
leave the land, asking at the same time who lived on the
"The name of the island, said Ihenga, "is Motu-
tapu-a-Tinirau. I named it."
Then said Tu, " Will you not consent to my living
" Yes," said Ihenga, "you may go to the island."
Thus the main land came to the possession of Ihenga.
Then Ihenga borrowed a small canoe belonging to
Tu, and went on in search of his flock of shags. He
found them hanging in a kahikatea tree near Waikuta.
He called the stream by that name because of the plant
kuta, which grew abundantly there. He named the
land Ra-roa, because of the length of the day occupied
in his canoe. He climbed the tree and threw down the
birds, and placed them in the canoe. Then he went on
and came to a river which he afterwards named Ngongo-
taha. There was a hill hard by to which he gave the
same name. The hill belonged to the Patupaiarehe or
Fairies. They had a Pa on the hill named Tuahu-o-
te-atua. He heard them playing on the putorino,^ the
hoauau,^ and the putara ;^ so he thought men must be
^ Different kinds of wind instruments resembling the flute, only
varying in their length.
72 CLAIMING AND ^^^
living there. He climbed the hill^ and when he got
near, he heard the sounds of the haJca and waiata : —
A canoe, a canoe,
A canoe of flax, a canoe.
Tie up carefully
With leaf of flax,
Whakatauihi made this haka. His was also the pro-
verb, •' ko /e ure tonu ; ko te raho tonuy He it was who
avenged the death of Tuhuruhuru.^
When Ihenga got nearer he perceived that they were
not men, but Atua. There was a fire burning on a tree.
So he stopt suddenly to look at them, while they looked
at him. " A nanakia" shouted one of them, running
forward to catch him. But Ihenga fled, and, as he was
running, set fire to the dry fern with a lighted brand he
had in his hand. The whole fern was ablaze, and the
tribe of Fairies fled to the forest and the hills. Then
Ihenga went back to look at their Pa which had been
burnt by the fire. There he found the kauae or jaw-bone
of a moa, so he named the place Kauae. He then
returned to the shore of the lake, and went on in his
canoe. He named the hill Ngongotaha, because of the
flight of the Fairies.
Ihenga paddled along the shores of the lake
giving names to many places as he went — Weriweri,
Kopu, Te Awahou, Puhirua — which last he so named
because the bunch of feathers fastened to his paiaha fell
off. At another place the inanga leaped out of the
* Vide " Traditions and Superstitions," p. 68.
CH. VI. NAMING LAND. 73
water, and some fell into his canoe, so he named it
Tane-whiti. Another place he named from a boastful
thought in his mind, Tu-pakaria-a-Ihenga (Ihenga's
boasting). He passed by the river Ohau. He had
named this river before, when he first came to the lake,
from the name of his dog. As the dog was swimming
across it was drawn in by a whirlpool, and so was
drowned. Next he came to the land-slip on the moun-
tain which he had made Tu believe to be a net. He
named it Te Tawa, because he left there a pole used for
pushing the canoe, which was made of the wood tawa.
The pole stuck so fast in the ground that he could not
pull it out, so he left it there. After passing the point
Tuara-hiwi-roa he came in sight of his companions.
The shout resounds, *• Oh ! it is Ihenga. Come here,
come here, sir — paddle hither." His wife ran down to
the water side as the canoe touched the beach.
'• See what food you have lying there," said Ihenga.
Hine-te-kakara caught up a bundle of rats, and when
she saw their teeth she exclaimed ** e, e, he mho kiore'*
(eh ! eh ! a rat's tooth). So the place was named Te
Niho-o-te-kiore. Again she made an exclamation of
admiration at the heap of birds, " In truth, in truth, a
wonderful heap. Come, sirs, come and look at it." So
that place was also named '* Kahui-kawau," or Flock of
Sh^gs. Then the birds were cooked, and the next day
they all departed to return to Maketu. They went to
fetch Kahu. The food, the shags, the bundle of rats,
the gourd of inanga, and the gourd of porohi^ — a
tempting bait to make Kahu come.
^ Porohi, a small fish of the lake.
74 CLAIMING AND ^„^,
They reached the Hiapo, and rested there the night.
Kuiwai and Haungaroa gave that name, because they
left their brother Hiapo there, and he died there.
Hiapo saw the koho hopping about the trees, and
remained behind while his sisters went on to Maketu
to carry messages from Hawaiki to Ngatoroirangi.
The next day they went on, and when they reached
Totara-keria they were seen from the Pa by Tawaki.
Then came shouts from the Pa, **Come, heaven-sent
guest, brought hither by my child from beyond the sky.
Come, come." They arrive — the tangi commences —
then speeches are made. Meanwhile food is being
prepared. When they had done eating the food, Tawaki
said to Ihenga, " Tell us about your travels. Whence
come you, lost one ?'
" I have seen a sea," said Ihenga, ** I found a man
** Who IS the man ?' asked Tawaki.
*' Marupunga-nui, and his son."
They all knew that the son was Tu-o-rotorua. So
Kahu inquired " Where is your uncle and his father.?"
"They remain there," said Ihenga, "I have made
them go to the island."
" Well done, son-in-law," said Kahu.
Then the food brought by the men was laid in a pile
before Tawaki in the courtyard of Whitingakongako.
And Tawaki said to his sister " Give some for me and
your father." So she gave the bundle of rats, and the
shags, and the gourd of inanga, and the other fish.
And Tawaki and his father sent them to their own
c„. V,. NAMING LAND. 75
As he was eating the food Kahu exclaimed " Ha ! ha !
food sent from the sky, food of Aotea-roa. Why that
land of yours is Hawaiki. Food falling into your
"Yes, yes," said Ihenga, "first kindle the oven. When
it is heated you fetch the food from that sea in baskets
Then said Kahu "Ah ! that land is a land for you, and
for your wife, and for your offspring."
*' Let us all go there," said Ihenga. To which Kahu
Then Ihenga said, " Let the mana of that land go to
you. You are the Arilci of that land— you and your
"Yes," replied Kahu. "Since you, my Ariki, are
so great a gentleman as to bid the younger brother's
son dwell on that land of yours. Yes — I consent that
we all go."
Then the food brought by Hinetekakara was por-
tioned among the whole tribe.
Ten days afterwards they left Maketu, twenty in
number, ten of the rank of chiefs, and ten men to carry
food. When they reached the small lake, discovered by
Ihenga, he said to Kahu "You are the Ariki of this
lake." Hence the song of Taipari —
By Hakomiti was your path hither
To Pariparitetai, and to that Rotoiti of yours,
Sea discovered by Ihenga,
Thereof Kahu was Ariki.
Thence they went on to Ohou-kaka, so named by
Kahu from a parrot-feather hou-haka, which he took
76 CLAIMING AND cm. vi.
from the hair of his head, and stuck in the ground to
become a ianiwha or spirit monster for that place.
When they reached the place where their canoes had
been left they launched two, a small sacred canoe for
Kahu, and a large canoe for the others. Then they
embarked, and as they paddled along coming near a
certain beach, Kahu threw off his clothes, and leaped
ashore, naked. His two grandsons, Tama-ihu-toroa and
Uenuku, laughed and shouted "Ho! ho! see, there go
Kahu's legs." So the place was named Kuwha-rua-o-
Kahu. In this way they proceeded, giving names to
places not before named, till they reached Lake Rotorua.
They landed at Tuara-hiwi-roa, and remained there
several nights, and built a whaia, or food-store raised on
posts ; so that place was named Te Whata.
Then going on by way of the Hot Springs, they
arrived at Te Pera-o-tangaroa, and Wai-o-hiro, the
stream where Tu-o-rotorua formerly dwelt. Next they
came to Ngongotaha, which Kahu named Parawai, after
his garden at Maketu.
After they had dwelt two whole years at Parawai Kahu
determined to visit his nephew Taramainuku. Taramai-
nuku and Warenga, the elder brothers of Ihenga, had
abandoned the land at Moehau. The former had gone
to the Wairoa at Kaipara, and the latter to the Kawakawa
at the Bay of Islands, and had settled there. So Kahu
set out with his son-in-law Ihenga, and his son Tawaki,
and some travelling companions. He left behind at
Parawai his daughter Hine-te-kakara, and her son
Tama-ihu-toroa. He also left Uenuku, the son of
Tawaki, and his wife, Waka-oti-rangi, to keep possession
of Parawai as a permanent abode for them.
cH. VI. NAMING LAND. 77
Arriving at the hills they rested, and Kahu sought a
shelter under a rata tree, which he named Te Whaka-
marumaru-o-Kahu (Kahu's shelter). Thereupon Ihenga
perceiving that Kahu was giving his own name to the
land, pointed to a matai tree ; for he saw a root jutting
out from the trunk of the tree resembling a man's
thigh ; he therefore named it Te Ure-o-Tuhoro. He
named it after his father's ure to weigh down the name
of Kahu, his father-in-law, so that the place might go to
his own descendants. And it went to his descendants,
and is now in possession of Ngatitama. As they went
on Kahu's dog caught a kakapo, so he named the place
Te Kakapo. A little further on they came to a part
of the hill v/here a stone projected from the face of the
cliff. Then Kahu chanted a karahta called Uru-uru-
whenua : —
I come to Matanuku,
I come to Matarangi,
I come to your land,
Feed thou on the heart of the stranger.
Put to sleep mighty spirits,
Put to sleep ancient spirits.
Feed thou on the heart of the stranger.
So he named the place Matanuku, which name remains
to this day.
' Arriving on the banks of the river Waikato he crossed
over and rested while food was being cooked. The
young men were very dilatory, and Kahu was angry at
their laziness ; so he named the place Mangare. After-
wards they came to the river Waipa, crossing which they
passed over Pirongia to Waingaroa, and thence along
the sea beach to the mouth of the river Waikato. Here
78 CLAIMING AND ch. vi.
they fell in with Ohomairangi. He came in Tainui.
He was the brother of Tuikakapa, a wife of Houmaita-
hiti, and mother of Tama-te-kapua and Whakaturia.
From Waikato they proceeded along the sea beach to
Manuka, so named by Kahu who set up a manuka post
there as a rahui or sacred mark. Here Kahu's compan-
ions embarked in a canoe, while he prevailed on a
taniwha or sea monster of that place, named Paikea, to
carry him on his back. At length they drew near to
Kaipara, and falling in with some of the men of Tara-
mainuku were conveyed by them in their canoes to Pouto,
where Tara was residing on the banks of the river
The tangi resounded, and speeches of welcome
followed — '* Come here, come here, my father. Come
to visit us, and to look on us. I have deserted your
elder brother and your father" (meaning their bodies
left buried at Moehau).
Then Kahu spoke — '* Welcome us, welcome us, my
Ariki. Behold us here. I the suffering one come
to you. I thought that you, my Ariki, would seek me.
But it is well, for I now behold you face to face, and you
also behold me. I and your younger brother will return
to our own place, that I may die on the land which your
grandfather' in his farewell words to me and my elder
brother named as a land for you. I was deserted by my
elder brother on account of our strife about the garden.
But that land is not for the younger brother only — no,
it is for all of you alike. But I will not part with your
CH. VI. NAMING LAND. 79
younger brother, and for this reason I gave him your
cousin for wife."
" It is well," said Taramainuku ; " has not your son,
Tawaki, a child ?"
" Yes, Uenuku."
" Then carry home with you his cousin to be his wife."
To this Kahu consented. So Taramainuku's daughter,
Hine-tu-te-rauniao, was given to Kahu to return with
him to Rotorua. The son of Uenuku -and Hine was
Then Taramainuku's wife placed food before the
guests, toheroa^ i eels, hinau^ ^ kumara, hue^ ^ and a basket
When Kahu saw the para, he asked, ** What food is
" It is para,^^ replied his nephew.
** And where does it grow ?" asked Kahu.
" It grows in the woods."
" Ho !" said Kahu, ** this is the food your ancestor
ate. It is the raho of your ancestor, Tangaroa. This
is the first time I have tasted para. You must call this
^Kahu returned homewards from Kaipara, but Ihenga
stayed with his elder brother. Kahu returned by way
of Waitemata, embarking in a canoe at Takapunga. He
^ Toheroa, a species of bivalve.
■ Hinau, berry of Eloeocarpus dentatus.
^ Hue, a small gourd.
* Para, a species of fern having a tuberous root.
8o CLAIMING AND ch. vi.
passed by Motu-ihe, and Paritu'.on the north of Waiheke,
and crossed over to Moehau. There he found Huarere
and his family. The tangi being ended, speeches were
made. Meanwhile food was prepared ; and when they
had finished eating the food, Huarere said, '*Yo\xx papa
(uncle) has been here."
" Who .?" inquired Kahu.
" Ho ! where is he }"
'* He has gone away," replied Huarere. " He came
in search of you. He set up a stone for a token for
" e, e, my papa, e, e," murmured Kahu.
Huarere continued : " After the arrival of your papa
he went directly to disinter the bones of Tama and
" That is well," said Kahu.
Having remained three nights Kahu and his com-
panions, with Huarere, climbed to the summit of the
mountain where Tama-te-kapua had been laid to sleep.
Therefore the mountain was named Moe-hau-o-Tama,
or Sleeping Sacredness of Tama. After three nights
Kahu went on to the forest, and set up a Ri, or sacred
mark, as a warning to prevent anyone from passing
further that way. It remains there to this day. Then
descending to the beach he turned his face towards the
mountain, and chanted a lament to the resting place of his
elder brother ; so that place was named Tangi-aro-o-Kahu.
He then went to see the stone which Ngatoro had set
up as a token for him. That place is named Te Kohatu-
c„. VI. NAMING LAND. 8 1
whakairi-a-Ngatoro, and the stone remains there to this
day. Then he climbed another hill, and placed a stone
on its summit. The stone was named Tokatea. Thence
they travelled along the ridge of the hills till they
reached a lofty peak. They ascended it, and remained
seated there, while Kahu looked about on every side.
"Ho! ho!" said Kahu, "this is an island," and turning
to Huarere, "your land, my child."
They went along the ridge of the hills that they might
see the goodness of the land. The goodness of the
land was seen, and Kahu said to his nephew, "The
goodness of the land is this; there are two flood tides.
The east tide flows while the west tide is ebbing."
Then they descended to the water side, where they saw
fish called aui,^ so they named the water Wai-aua.
Kahu and Huarere then parted. The descendants of
Huarere grew and multiplied there, and all those lands
became filled with them.
Kahu went on his way to Rotorua, and after several
days reached the place where the river Waihou divides
into two branches. There he rested, and when he felt
the soft sea-breeze over the rippling tide, words of afl"ec-
tion came from his lips ; so the place was named
Muri-aroha-o-Kahu (the regret of Kahu). On they went,
and climbing a lofty mountain Kahu looked towards the
sea, and thus gave vent to his aff'ection : "Ah 1 my love
to Moehau, alas for the land of my father, and of my
elder brother, far away over the sea." So that mountain
was named Aroha-tai-o-Kahu. Then Kahu turned his
face landward, and murmured words of affection toward
^ Aua, a fish resembling the herriag.
82 CLAIMING AND ch. vi.
the land at Titiraupenga, to Tia and Maka. Hence the
name of the other mountain, Aroha-o-uta-o-Kahu. They
then travelled along the mountain ridge which he named
Tau-o-hanga. This name belongs to the whole moun-
tain ridge from Moehau as far as the Wairoa.
At length they entered the forest which extends
towards Rotorua. Rain fell, and they were drenched
with water dripping from the trees. Then Kahu chanted
an invocation to Rangi, and the rain ceased. Kahu
named the place Patere-o-Kahu, from their having been
drenched with the rain. At the birth of the son of
Hopo, the child was named Patetere.
At length they passed through the forest, and arrived
at Parawai. Their journey was ended, for they had
reached the dwelling place of his daughter, and of his
daughter-in-law, and of the two children, Uenuku and
The following day Hinetekakara said to Kahu, '* Sir,
Marupunganui has crossed over to the main land."
•* Where ?" inquired Kahu.
Then said Kahu, '* To-morrow we will go to Motu-
So when daylight came they set out, and found
Tu-o-rotorua dwelling on the island ; but his father was
not there. Tu welcomed Kahu in these words :
** Come my tetna to your island to be its Ariki"
" Yes," replied Kahu, " this sacred island is mine ;
but do you, my Atiki, continue to dwell on it"
CH. VI. NAMING LAND. 83
Thus the island was given up to Tu-o-rotorua. But
the mana of the land was Kahu's. Hence the song of
Taipari before mentioned^; for Taipari sprang from the
race of Tama-ihu-toroa. Tama's son was Tuara, and
Tuara was an ancestor of Taipari.
As they paddled away from Motu-tapu Kahu bid fare-
well to Tu-o-rotorua — '* Abide there, my child, )0u and
your father. Alas ! that I have not seen your father."
** Go, sir, go," were the parting words of Tu. " Go
to guard your ancestor ; go to the Arawa."
Leaving their canoes at the Toanga they went on
towards Maketu. On the way Kahu's grandchild became
thirsty, and cried for water. Kahu had compassion for
the child, and chanted a Jcarakia, and when the karakia
was ended he stamped on the ground, and water came
forth. Hence that place was named Te Wai-takahi-a-
kahu (the water of Kahu's stamping).
Kahu afterwards remained at Maketu, and died, and
was buried there. When he died the mana of Maketu
went to his son Tawaki-moe-tahanga. When Tawaki
died, the mana-rahi of Maketu went to Uenuku, who
also died at Maketu when an old man. Then his son
Rangitihi abandoned Maketu, and went to Rotorua, and
settled at Matapara with all his family.
When Kahu left Ihenga at Kaipara at the dwelling
place of his elder brother Taramainuku, he thus bid him
farewell^*' Sir, be quick to return to your child, my
grandchild, Tama-ihu-toroa. Do not delay." So Ihenga
remained at Kaipara for a short time. Then travelling
84 CLAIMING AND ch.vi.
northwards he came to Ripiro. The food of that place
was toheroa. Kupe placed it there for food for his
daughter, Tai-tu-auru-o-te-marowhara. The great rolling
waves on that coast have been named after her. So says
the proverb, " Tai-hau-auru i whakaturia e Kupe hi te
Maro-wharar Gomg on they arrived at a certain place
where Ihenga ate all their toheroa privately in the absence
of his companions.
" Who has eat our food ?" inquired his companions.
" How should I know ?" said Ihenga.
"Why, there was no one but you. You alone remained
So they named the place Kai-hu-a-Ihenga. As they
were travelling they came to a hill. No water could be
found, and they were parched with thirst ; so Ihenga
repeated a harakia, and then stamping on the ground a
spring of water flowed. Down flew pigeons in flocks to
drink the water. So the place was named Waikereru
(wood-pigeon water). Afterwards they came to a swamp
and a small river. A tree had fallen across the stream
by means of which they crossed. But the dog Potaka-
tahiti was killed by the tree rolling on it. Then Ihenga
repeated a harakia, saying to the tree — ** O tree lying
there, raise your head, raise your head."^ And the tree
raised its head. Afterwards when he reached the higher
ground Ihenga saw a tree standing by itself in the centre
of the swamp. It v/as a totara tree. Then by the power
of his harakia he made a path for his dog that it might
^ " 7> rakau e takoto net, tungou, tungou " are the Maori words.
Tungou — avavivu — a sign of dissent with the Greeks, but the
common sign of assent with the Maori.
CH. VI. NAMING LAND. 85
go within the tree, and remain there for ever. And he
said to the spirit of the dog, *' If I cry ' mot, mot' you
must answer * au.' If I cry, * 0, o,' you must answer * o,
o.' If I say, * Come, we two must go on,' you are to
answer, * Go, you, I cannot come.' If a party of travellers
come this way hereafter, and rest on this hill, when you
hear them speaking, you must speak to them. If the
travellers say, * Let us go,' you are to say ' Go.' " So
the spirit of the dog was left to dwell within that tree ;
and ever since it mocks living men of the generations
after Ihenga, even to our time.
At length Ihenga reached Mataewaka at the Kawakawa,
where his elder brother Warenga dwelt. He remained
there one month, and when the new moon appeared he
and his brother Warenga went to the lake Te Tiringa to
fish. There inanga were caught, some of which Ihenga
preserved in a gourd filled with water, in order that he
might carry them alive to Rotorua. He also caught
some houra, or small cray fish, which he preserved alive
in the same manner. This done, the brothers parted.
Ihenga travelled by way of Waiomio, giving names to
places as he went. Te Ruapekapeka was named from
the thousands of bats found there in the hollows of the
trees. Also Tapuae-haruru, from the noise made by his
footsteps. The sons of his brother Warenga were his
companions. They made known the names given by
Ihenga. Maiao was one of these sons. The son of
Maiao was Te Kapotai, who was an ancestor of Tamati
The hill Motatau was so called from Ihenga talking to
himself. Going on they came to a river where Ihenga
86 CLAIMING AND
saw his own image in the still water, so the river was
named Te Wai-whakaata-a-Ihenga (Ihenga's looking-
glass). They came to another river, and dug up some
worms to throw into the water. The fish would not come
to the bait. Then Ihenga threw into the water some of
his inanga. Then he called the eels, but they did not
come. He called the inanga, and they came. He called
the worms, and they came. Then he called on Tangaroa,
and Tangaroa sent the eels. The mode of calling was a
Tcarahia. Going on he ascended a mountain. There he
called on Thunder. He commenced his karakia, and as
soon as it was finished thunder was sent, and lightning
struck the top of the mountain, which is still named
Whatitiri, or Thunder.
When they arrived at Whangarei they collected some
muscles from a shoal, and roasted them on the fire, and
that place is still called ''Te Ahi-pupu-a-Ihenga"(Ihenga's
The chief of that place was Tahu-whakatiki, the eldest
son of Hei. When the Arawa reached Wangaparoa Tahu
and his younger brother Waitaha quarrelled. So Tahu
and his family remained behind, while Waitaha and his
father went on in the Arawa. Then Ihenga embarked
in a canoe belonging to Te Whanau-a-Tahu. Two of
the sons of Tahu — Te Whara and his younger brother
Hikurangi- -went with him in the canoe. They touched at
Taranga,^ and sailing by Hautuni^ they reached Moehau.
During one month Ihenga remained with his brother
Huarere, and then went to Maketu. There he found his
father-in-law, and his wife Hinetekakara, and his son
^ The islands Hen and Chickens. ^ The Little Barrier island.
cH. Fi. NAMING LAND. 87
Tama-ihu-toroa. So he remained a short time at Maketu,
and then returned with his wife and son to Rotorua.
The inanga which he had brought with him from the
Kawakawa he placed in the stream Waitepuia at Maketu.
Before going to Rotorua he again caught them, and
carried them with him in a gourd of water, and placed
them in the lake ; but the koura he placed in the water
88 THE MAORI
Sunt autem privata nulla naturd, sed aut vetere occupatione, ut qui
quondam in vacua venerunt ; aut victoria, ut qui bello potiti sunt ;
aut lege, pactione, conditione, sorte. — Cicero de OflF., Lib. i, ch.
If you were to make inquiry from a New Zealander
as to his land-title, it would be diflScult to obtain from
him reliable information as to any general rules of
proceeding ; for he would at once consider some
particular case in which he was himself personally
interested, and would give an answer corresponding
with his interest therein. This may be due partly to
the inaptitude of the Maori to take an abstract view of
anything, which has been already noticed \ But it is
doubtless from this cause that persons having competent
knowledge of their language have expressed different
opinions on this subject, founded on information thus
There are three reliable sources, however, from which
such information can be obtained.
1. From Maori narratives, wherein matters relating
to their land-titles are incidentally mentioned.
2. From Proverbs relating to the disposition of land
3. From investigations of titles to land offered for
sale, or when in dispute among themselves.
In the early days of the colony disputes about land
CH. VII. LAND TENURE. 89
were of frequent occurrence, and the Government was
often appealed to by one or other of the disputants.
From the foregoing Maori narrative^ we learn that,
after the canoe Arawa reached this island, the crew did
not form a united and compact settlement at one place,
as might have been expected. The names of nine chiefs
are recorded who dispersed themselves north and south
of the place where the canoe was dragged on shore, each
going off in search of lands for himself and his own
Of these chiefs three went to Taupo, two to Wanganui,
one to Rotorua, one to Mercury Bay, and one to Cape
Colville ; at the same time leaving behind at Maketu
some members of their families. In the third generation
two divisions of the family who had been settled about
Cape Colville migrated, the one to the Bay of Islands,
and the other to Kaipara.
From the narrative above referred to it also appears
that the lands thus taken possession of were considered
as rightfully belonging to the first occupier and his
descendants, and that names were forthwith given to a
great many places within the boundaries claimed, these
names being frequently such as would make them sacred
to the family, from being derived from names of persons
or things to which some family sacredness was attached.
The chief of any family who discovered and took
possession of any unoccupied land obtained what was
called the mana of the land. This word mana^ in its
ordinary use, signifies power, but in its application to
Vid. ch. V.
90 THE MAORI ch. vn.
and corresponds somewhat with the power of a Trustee.
Thus mana gave a power to appropriate the land among
his own tribe according to a well recognized rule which
was considered tika or straight. Such appropriation,
however, once made, remained in force, and gave a good
title to the children and descendants of the person to
whom it had been thus appropriated. The mana of the
acknowledged representative of the tribe had then only
power over the lands remaining unappropriated, which
power was more especially termed the mana rahi or great
mana — the mana over appropriated land being with the
head of the family in rightful possession. In course of
time quarrels and wars arose between different tribes, so
that tribes nearly allied to each other united for mutual
defence and protection ; and all the Maori of New
Zealand came to be divided, for this purpose, into a few
large tribes, eachrepresentinggenerallythecrewof one of
the various canoes composing the migration from Hawaiki.
These being frequently at war with each other, it came
to pass that every man who did not belong to a particular
tribe was considered in respect to it as a tangata Ice or
It has been affirmed by many on presumed good
authority that no member of a tribe has an
individual right in any portion of the land included
within the boundaries of his tribe. Such, however, is not
the case, for individuals do sometimes possess exclusive
rights to land, though more generally members of
families, more or less numerous, have rights in common
to the exclusion of the rest of the tribe over those
portions of land which have been appropriated to their
ancestors. Their proverbs touching those who wrong-
cH. vii. LAND TENURE. 9 1
fully remove boundary-marks show this, if other evidence
The lands of a tribe, in respect to the title by which
they are held, may be conveniently distinguished under
two comprehensive divisions.
1. Those portions which have been appropriated, from
time to time, to individuals and families. f
2. The tribal land remaining unappropriated.
Whenever land is appropriated formally by native
usage, it descends in the family of its first owners
according to well recognized rules, and the mana of the
representative of the tribe ceases to have any control
over it. Their laws as to succession naturally tended to
render the greater part of such lands the property of
several of the same family as tenants in common ; but
an individual might and did frequently become a sole
The tribal lands never specially appropriated belonged
to all under the mana^ or trusteeship of the tribal rep-
^ Latterly a practice has been adopted of handing over the mana
of their land to Matutaera, the Maori king, or to some influen-
tial chief in whom they have trust, the object being to protect
it from clandestine sales, which have become frequent through
the action of speculators in land. The agents who act for men
of capital who enter into such speculations are always ready
to offer an advance of money as a deposit on land, and when a
Maori, especially a careless young man, visits our towns he is
too often unable to resist the temptation of gold to be had for
the mere signature of his name. When, however, such a trans-
action becomes known to the tribe it gives rise to much heart
burning and trouble ; but the thin end of the wedge being thus
92 THE MAORI
Long before our colonists came to New Zealand land
was of great value in Maori estimation, and was given
and received as a suitable equivalent or compensation
in certain cases.
Thus when a peace was concluded between two tribes
land was sometimes given up as a sort of peace offer-
ing, but in a remarkably equitable spirit, it was always
the tribe that had suffered least who, in such cases, gave
some land to compensate the greater losses in war of the
Such a mode of making peace seems to have been
adopted in case of civil war between divisions of
the same tribe, especially when waged with no prospect
of either party completely mastering the other, and with
the consideration of preventing both suffering such
serious loss as would render them unable to cope with
a common foe.
Also, in cases of adulter)' a piece of land would be
demanded by the injured person ; and his demand would
be respected, for such was the proper compensation for
the injury — land for the woman. But then a stratagem
was sometimes employed, for when the injured man
went to take profession, he might find his right opposed
by some of the owners of the land who had purposely
absented themselves from the conference whereat it was
introduced ere long others follow the example, till at length a
sort of forced consent is obtained to pass the land, to use the
common phrase, through the Government Land Court. It is
therefore not to be wondered at that this Court is not in good
repute among them, more especially since they have discovered
that a large share of the purchase money is swallowed up by
costs for survey, costs of the Court, and lawyers* fees.
CH. VII. LAND TENURE. 93
given up. And this unfair practice has sometimes been
seized on as a precedent in their dealings with the Pakeha ;
for they have too often shown a readiness to sell lands
to which they had only a joint right with many others,
knowing well that those others would repudiate their
Descent of Land.
1. Male children succeed to their father's land, female
children to their mother's land.
So says the proverb — '* Nga tamariki tane ka whai ki
te ure hi, nga tamariki ivahine ha whai ki te u-kai-poT
*• Male children follow after the male, female children
follow after the breast fed on at night."
2. If a female marries a man of another tribe — he
tangata he — she forfeits all right to land in her mother's
So says the proverb — '* Haere atn te wahine, hacre maro-
horey " The woman goes, and goes without her smock."
3. The children of a female married to a man of a
stranger tribe have no right of succession to land in their
So says the proverb — ** He iramutu tu ke mai i iarawahi
awa^'' — " A nephew or niece standing apart on the other
side of the river."
iBut there is a provision which can be applied to
modify this last rule. If the brothers of the woman ask
for one or more of the children— their iramutu— io be
given up to their care, and they are thus, as it were,
^ This proverb was also applied in case of a war as a sufficient
reason for not sparing such relation.
94 THE MAORI CH vu.
adopted by their uncles, they become reinstated in the
tribal rights which their mother had forfeited.
A NEW ZEALANDER'S WILL.
Under this title in a former publication^ I gave a
literal translation of a written communication which I
received from the celebrated Wi Tamihana Tarapipipi of
Matamata, as follows : —
" A certain man had a male child born to him, then
another male child, and then another male child. He
also had daughters. At last the father of this family
being at the point of death, the sons and daughters and
all the relations assembled to hear his last words, and to
see him die. And the sons said to their father : * Let
thy mouth speak, O father, that we may hear your will ;
for you have not long to live.' Then the old man turned
towards his younger brothers, and spoke thus : —
' Hereafter, O my brothers, be kind to my children.
My cultivations are for my sons. Such and such a
piece of land is for such and such a nephew. My eel-
weirs, my potato gardens, my potatoes, my pigs, my
male slaves, and my female slaves are for my sons only.
My wives are for my younger brother.'
Such is the disposition of a man's property ; it
relates only to his male children."
From this it appears that the head of a family had a
recognized right to dispose of his property among his
male offspring and kinsmen, and that his will expressed
shortly before his death in the presence of his family
^ Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders. Edit. 2,
CH. vn. LAND TENURE. 95
assembled for that purpose possessed all the solemnity
of a legal document.
is the term applied to a tribe reduced to a dependant
condition by a conquering tribe. The same authority
says, ** Hear the custom in regard to lands which are
held by right of conquest, that is lands fallen to the
brave fhua riro. i te toaj. Suppose some large tribe
is defeated. Suppose that tribe is defeated a second
and a third time, till at last the tribe becomes small, and
is reduced to a mean condition. It is then made to do
the work of dependants — to cultivate the land for food,
to catch eels, and to carry wood. In short, its men are
treated as slaves. In such a case their land passes into
the possession of the tribe whose valour conquered
them. They will not think of striving against their
masters ; because their power to fight has gone from
them. They were not brave enough to hold possession
of their land, and although they may grow numerous
afterwards, they will not seek for a payment for their
former losses; for they are fearful, and say among them-
selves, ' Don't let us strive with this tribe, lest we perish
altogether, for it is a brave tribe.' "
William Thompson belonged to a victorious tribe ;
his sentiments therefore have a natural bias in favour of
the sole right to the lands of the conquered tribe being
with their conquerors. If, however, a member of the
conquered tribe were to be consulted on this point, we
should learn that he had not abandoned all idea of a right
in the lands he had been allowed to retain, and was then
occupying. Instances could be referred to where the
conquered remnant of a tribe had regained power enough
96 THE MAORI CH. vii.
to re-possess themselves of the lands formerly their own ;
and in all cases where the conquerers have sold the
lands of their tributaries the latter have resisted the right
of the sellers to dispose thereof irrespectively of their
own interests therein.
One day a chief named Hanui and his travelling
companion Heketewananga fell in with the old chief
Korako seated in the hollow trunk of a tree, which he
had converted into a temporary abode. Then said
Hanui's companion, ** I will make water on the old man's
head, to degrade him (lit., that his growth may be
stunted)." Hanui was displeased ; for the old man was
his cousin, being the son of the younger brother of his
father Maramatutahi , that was the cause of his dis-
pleasure at the words of his companion. But that fellow
Heketewananga persisted. He would not listen to the
anger of Hanui, but climbed the tiee in order to make
water on the head of the old man. And when he had
done so, he jeered at the old man. " Ho ! ho ! now
then your growth is stunted because of my water; for
your head has been made water on."
With this Hanui and his companion went on their way.
When they were gone Korako also went to seek his son.
When he reached the bank of the river Waikato he saw
some boys on the other side of the river at play near their
Pa, and called to them, " Go and tell Wainganui to
bring a canoe for me." ** We will bring a canoe," said
the boys. But the old man said *' No. I don't wish
you to bring the canoe. Go and call Wainganui. He
himself must bring the canoe." So the boys went and
told Wainganui, ** Your father is calling you to go to
CH. vii. LAND TENURE. 97
him with a canoe." " Why did not you go ?" said
Wainganui. ** We offered to take the canoe to him,"
said the boys, '* but he was not willing. He said that
you must take the canoe to him." So Wainganui went
in a canoe, and when he reached the other side of the
river he called to his father to come down to him.
But his father said, ** Do you come up here to my side."
So Wainganui left the canoe and went to his father ; for
he knew that he had something important to say to him.
Then seating himself by his father's side he said *' What
means this that you have done ?" The father said, "My
son, I have been wronged by your uncle Hanui and by
Heketewananga." ** What sort of wrong ?" inquired
the son. ** My wrong," said the old man — *' my wrong.
Heketewananga climbed on top of my house, and made
water on my head -^ at the same time he jeered me, * Ho!
ho ! now then your growth is stunted.' " Then the son
said to his father, ** Ha ! you were all but murdered by
those men. Their act shall be avenged. Their heads
shall soon be struck by my weapon." Then turning in
anger he went back to his canoe, and returned to the
Without delay he called together the whole tribe, and
made known to them all that his father had told him.
After the tribe had heard the wrong done to their old
chief, they assembled at night to deliberate, and deter-
mined to go the next morning to kill those men. Then
they retired to rest. At daybreak they arose and armed
themselves, in number three hundred and forty, and set
out for the Pa at Hanui.
The men within that Pa were more than six hundred.
So when they saw the armed party coming to attack the
98 THE MAORI CH. vu.
Pay the six hundred rushed out to fight, and a battle took
place outside. The men of the Pa were driven back,
and the conquerors entered it with them. Then while
the men of the Pa were being struck down Wainganui
shouted to Hanui, " Be quick, Hanui, climb on top of
your house, you and your children and your wives." So
Hanui and his children and his wives climbed on the
roof of their house. But most of the men of his tribe
were killed, some only being left to be a Rahi, in which
condition they now remain.
It may happen that a tribe is driven off its lands by a
conquering tribe, who may hold possession of the
conquered lands for many years, but be, in their turn,
driven off by the assistance of tribes allied to the original
possessors of the land. It then becomes a question
what right the allied tribes acquire in the recovered lands.
A case of this sort came under my notice thus: I was
instructed to purchase for the Government a piece of
land of moderate size at Maketu to be occupied as a
Mission station. As I had built a house on this land on
a title of mere right of occupation, or as expressed in
Maori, " Noho noa iho^' and had resided there for some
time, I thought, naturally, that the persons, at whose
invitation my house had been placed there, were the
persons to whom the land belonged. An arrangement
was therefore made with them for the purchase of the
land required, and a price agreed on. One night
shortly after I was awoke from sleep by a knocking at
the door of my house. My visitors were a deputation
from some of the tribe Tapuika who had a small Pa
CH. VII. LAND TENURE. 99
below my house by the river side, at some distance from
the large Pa by the mouth of the river. Their business
was to warn me not to complete the purchase of the land,
the persons with whom I had contracted being, as they
affirmed, only occupiers and not owners thereof; whereas
their tribe Tapuika were the owners, and the mana of
the land belonged to their chief Te Koata. They came
by night because they did not wish their interference to
be knov;n publicly, as it would cause disputes. And it
did cause dispute when their nocturnal visit and its
object was made public the next morning. However a
good result came of it, for it was agreed that the question
of title should be referred to the decision of the chiefs
of the whole Arawa tribes.
A general assembly of the tribes consequently met at
Rotorua, when it was shown that the land I proposed to
purchase came within the old boundaries of Tapuika.
But several generations before the present the Fa at
Maketu had been taken by the hostile tribe Ngatiawa,
and the Arawa tribes, including Tapuika, had been
driven from the sea-coast to Rotorua and elsewhere.
When the flax trade with Sydney was in vigour, many of
the Arawa natives had been permitted to return to scrape
flax for sale to a trader named Tapsell who was stationed
at Maketu ; and at length the combined Arawa tribes
expelled Ngatiawa, and recovered the lands of their
forefathers. They then established themselves in force
at Maketu, and some of them marked out by boundaries,
and took possession of land originally belonging to
Tapuika, for their own use. Tapuika did not ofl"er any
objection to this, but now said that the land so taken
was merely given up for their occupation, and that the
lOO THE MAORI ch vn.
mana of their chief Te Koata over the land had never
been given up.
The decision of the chiefs of the Arawa, to which Te
Koata, who was present, assented, was that as Tapuika
could not have recovered their lands if unassisted by
other Arawa tribes, the land of Tapuika which had been
taken possession of by the fighting men of the combined
tribes now belonged to those men, or expressed in their
own words, " kua riro i te toa'' had gone to the brave.
This decision was important, as it established a
precedent of value in dealing with any lands similarly
circumstanced elsewhere in New Zealand — a precedent
being always a powerful argument with the Maori.
THE EARLY SETTLERS.
When foreigners, called by the natives Pakeha, first
came to New Zealand, they were admitted readily by the
Maori to dwell among them. They were allowed to
acquire land by purchase, and to form alliances with their
families ; and the children of such connections were
considered as belonging to the tribe of their mother.
They were never treated as belonging to a stranger tribe
— as tangata ke. Taku pakeha, toku matua, my own
pakeha, my father, were the common terms used to denote
their sentiment of relationship.
It is not to be wondered at that every tribe in these
islands was at first anxious to have Pakeha settlers
dwelling with them, and was ready to admit them to the
privileges of tribesmen, for through them they could
obtain what they most valued of the world's goods. But
CH.V1I. LAND TENURE. lOI
when dissensions arose between the two races, notably
about land, and issued in war, the feelings of those who
took up arms became modified, and their old friends, the
Pakeha, were no longer looked on as matua or fathers,
but rather as iangata ke^ or strangers.
THE WAITARA DISPUTE.
It is a recognised mode of action among the Maoris if
a chief has been treated with indignity by others of
his own tribe, and no ready means of redress can be
obtained, for the former to do some act which will
bring trouble on the whole tribe. This mode of obtaining
redress is termed " whakahe,'' and means putting the
other in the wrong. Strange to say, this very dangerous
principle of action, by whatever great evils it may be
followed, obtains the respect and not the censure of
the whole tribe for the person who adopts it.
Being in the neighbourhood of Matamata some years
ago, not long before the war broke out in Waikato, I
heard in conversation with a chiefs of Ngatihaua, who
had taken part in the war at Taranaki, that the reason
why Teira proposed to sell Waitara was to obtain
satisfaction for a slight put upon him by Wi Kingi in
connection with a private quarrel.^ I never had an
opportunity to verify the facts narrated, but there was in
them nothing improbable, and according to Maori usage
they accounted for Teira having acted as he did.
The land thus offered for sale was estimated to contain
about six hundred acres, the whole of which had, in
^ Paora Te Ahum.
• " Heiwhakahe mo Wiremu KingV was the expression used.
I02 THE MAORI ch. vii.
former years, been thickly inhabited, and apportioned
among a great many individuals and families. It was
therefore of the character comprised under our division
No. I . Teira and those mure nearly allied to him offered
to sell the whole six hundred acres, in opposition to the
wish of \Vi Kingi and others who claimed rights in the
That Kingi and his party had substantial claims to
portions of this land, and that such was the original
ground of his opposition to the sale appears from several
letters written by natives at the time as a kind of protest,
particularly from one written by Riwai Te Ahu in which
he says : " The reason why Wiremu Kingi and his party
made so much objection, when Teira proposed that the
place should be sold to the Governor, was the fear lest
their land and ours should be all taken as belonging to
A chief of great influence well supported has no doubt
frequently acted as if he could dispose of large tracts of
land without consulting others who had rights included
therein. But he never thought of asserting a right to
ignore m toto the rights of others not parties to the sale.
On the contrary, the chief and they who had shared the
purchase money would say to other claimants who had
not received any part of the payment, either that they
should be satisfied out of a future payment (for it was a
general, though an impolitic and bad custom, to pay by
instalments in such transactions), or that they might
themselves apply to the purchaser for payment of their
interests, or that they might hold fast to their own.
If before paying any part of the purchase money to
CH. VII. LAND TENURE. IO3
Teira, he had been required to mark out the boundaries
of those portions of the six hundred acres which he and
his party claimed, the onus prohandi .would have been
placed on the right man. It would then have been
discovered that those portions were detached and of
various shapes and sizes, and in some cases only to be
approached by narrow paths, and that some of his
boundaries were disputed. For all which reasons what
he could have rightfully sold would have been of little
value for the occupation of our colonists.
But in addition to any claim of Wi Kingi and others
whom he represented to the ownership of portions of the
six hundred acres offered for sale by Teira, they had a
further right not to be disturbed in their holdings, which
does not appear to have been considered at the time.
When the Te Ati-awa tribes determined to abandon
Cook's Straits and return to the lands of their ancestors
about Taranaki, they were still in dread of their old
enemies the Ngatimaniapoto. It was therefore arranged
among them, for their better security, that they should
form one united settlement on the south bank of the
Waitara — thus placing the river between themselves and
the common enemy. Supposing, therefore, that Wi
Kingi and his division of the tribe had no land actually
their own by ancient right at the place thus occupied,
they had acquired a right by virtue of the arrangement
made, a right recognised by old native custom, on the
faith of which they had expended their labour in building
houses, as well as in fencing and cultivating the land, to
disturb which, in a summary manner, could only be
looked on as an offensive act. We have seen also how
I04 THE MAORI ch. vii.
in relation to the dispute between Tapuika and the
Arawa tribes it was adjudged by general consent that
the latter had acquired a permanent right to the lands
which they had occupied under somewhat similar cir-
There, appears little reason to doubt that Teira's pro-
posal to sell Waitara was prompted by a vindictive
feeling towards Wi Kingi ; for he knew well that by
such mode of proceeding he would embroil those who
would not consent with their European neighbours. At
the same time it is a rather mortifying reflection that
the astute policy of a Maori chief should have prevailed
to drag the Colony and Her Majesty's Government into
a long and expensive war to avenge his own private
MAORI TERMS OF RELATIONSHIP.
TuPUNA. An ancestor — male or female.
Matua. a father, or uncle either patruus or avunculus.
Papa. The same.
Whaea. a mother, or aunt on either side.
Tama. Eldest nephew.
Tamahine. Eldest niece ; also used more generally.
Tamaiti. Son, or nephew.
Tamaroa. The same.
TuAKANA. Elder brother of males, elder sister of females;
also elder brother' s children in reference to younger brother' s
children, elder sister* s children in refereiice to younger
Teina. The younger brother of males, the younger sister
of females ; also the younger brother's children in reference
to elder brother's children, the younger sister's children in
reference to elder sister's children.
TuNGANE. A sister's brother.
TuAHiNE. A brother's sister.
Iramutu. a nephew, or niece.
HuNGAWAi. A father-in-law, or mother-in-law.
HuNAONGA. A son-in-law, or daughter-in-law.
Taokete. a man'sbrother-in-law,or sister's sister-in-law.
AuTANE. A woman's brother-in-law.
AuwAHiNE. A man's sister-in-law.
POTIKI. A brother s children, or sister's children; also the
youngest child of a family.
MoKOPUNA. A grand-child, or child of a nephew or
HuANGA. A relation in general.
Whanaunga-tupu. a blood relation.
Ariki. The first horn male or female,
Waewae. a man's younger brother: literally the foot.
Hamua. Syn. tualcana.
Maronui. a married man or woman.
Takakau. a single man or woman.
PouARU. A widow.
PuHi. A betrothed female^ also a female of rank restricted
He wahine taumaro. A betrothed female. N.B. — There
is a distinction between a Puhi and a wahine taumaro.
The betrothed female is a Puhi in reference to her
father's act of consent, and a wahine taumaro in
reference to her future father-in-law's act of consent
to the arrangement.
OF SOME MAORI WORDS REQUIRING EXPLANATION.
Ihi has the sense of tapu when occurring in karahia,
or invocations of spirits.
Kahukahu, the spirit of the germ of a human being:
also called Atua noho-whare, or house-dwelling Atua.
Verbi kahukahu significatio simplex est panniculus; et
pamniculus quo utitur femina menstrualis nomine kahu-
kahu dicitur Kaj i^oxrjv. Apud populum Novae Zelandae
creditur sanguinem utero sub tempus menstruale effusum
continere germina hominis; et secundiim praecepta
veteris superstitionis panniculus sanguine menstruali
imbutus habebatur sacer (tapu), haud aliter qu^m si
formam humanam accepisset: mulienim autem mos est
hos panniculos intra juncos parietum abdere; et hac de
causa paries est domus pars adeo sacra ut nemo illi
innixus sedere audeat.
Karakia. This word generally rendered by 'charm,'
does not signify what the word charm would mean, in
its popular sense. The word 'invocation' conveys more
correctly its meaning; for it is a prayer addressed to
spirits of deceased ancestors, in form somewhat like a
Kaupapa, one whom the spirit of an ancestor visits,
and who is its medium of communication with the living.
PuKENGA, a spirit, the author or first teacher of any
Tapairu, any very sacred ancestral Spirit: also some-
times applied to the female Ariki.
Tauira, a person who is being instructed by a iohunga,
or by the spirit of a parent or ancestor. He had to
submit to a strict fast of several days before he was
taught any important karakia.
TiPUA, or TuPUA, the spirit of one who when living
was noted for powerful karakia.
TiRi, a strip of flax leaf or toetoe so placed as to serve
as an imaginary pathway for an Atua. In sickness a
iiri is suspended above the head of the sick person to
facilitate the departure of the Atua who causes the
disease. A tiri is also suspended near the kaupapa,
when he desires his Atua to visit him. It is also applied
to signify the karakia used on such occasions.
ToHUNGA, a person skilled in karakia, also one skilled
in any craft.
TuAHU, a sacred place where offerings of food — first
fruits — for the Atua were deposited.
Wananga, the spirit of anyone who when living had
learned the karakia of his ancestors: thus when a tauira
died he became a wananga.
Mo te pikinga o Tawhaki ki te Rangi. — vid. p. 23.
Piki ake Tawhaki i te ara kuiti
I whakatauria ai te ara o Rangi,
Te ara o Tu-kaiteuru.
Ka kakea te ara wha-iti,
Ka kakea te ara wha-rahi,
Ko te ara i whakatauria ai
To tupuna a Te Ao-nunui,
A Te Ao-roroa,
A Te Ao-whititera.
Tena ka eke
Kei to Ihi,
Kei to Mana,
Kei nga mano o runga,
Kei o Ariki,
Kei o Tapairu,
Kei o Pukenga,
Kei o Wananga,
Kei o Tauira.
TE TUKU O HINE-TE-IWAIWA.— Z>»</. p. 28.
* Raranga, raranga taku takapau,
Ka pukeae te wai,
Hei moenga mo aku rei.
Ko Rupe, ko Manumea,
Ka pukea : e ! e !
Mo aku rei tokorua ka pukea.
Ka pukea au e te wai,
Ka pukea, e ! e !
Ko koro taku tane ka pukea.
Piki ake hoki au ki ninga nei ;
Te Matitikura, e ! e !
Ki a Toroa irunga,
Te Matitikura, e ! e !
Kia whakawhanaua aku tama
Ko au an ake ra.
Tu te turuturu no Hine-rauwharangi;
Tu te turuturu no Hine-te-iwaiwa.
Tu i tou tia me ko Ihuwareware ;
Tu i tou kona me ko Ihuatamai.
Kaua rangia au e Rupe.
Kei tauatia, ko au te inati,
Tuku iho irunga i tou hum,
I tou upoko,
I ou tara-pakihiwi,
I tou uma,
I to ate,
I ou turipona,
I ou waewae.
E tuku ra ki waho.
Naumai ki waho.
Mo te wahine i pakia nga u i te whanautanga o te
tamaiti. — vid. p. 39.
Nga puna irunga te homai,
Te ringia ki te matamata
O nga u o tenei wahine;
Te kopata i te rangi te homai
Hei whakato mo nga u
O tenei wahine :
Ki te matamata o nga u
O tenei wahine :
Nga u atarere reremai
Ki te matamata o nga u
tenei wahine :
Nga u atarere tukua mai.
Tenei hoki te tamaiti te tangi nei,
Te aue nei i te po nui,
1 te po roa.
Naumai ki ahau,
Ki tenei tauira.
Mo te whakapikinga o te ara o te tupapaku ana ka
mate, kia tika ai te haere ki nga mea kua mate atu
imua. — vid. p. 44.
Tena te ara, ko te ara o Tawhaki,
I piki ai ki te rangi,
I kake ai ki tou tini,
Ki tou mano :
I whano ai koe,
I taemai ai to wairua ora
Ki tou kaupapa.
Tenei hoki ahau
Te mihi atu nei,
Te tangi atu nei
Ki to wairua mate.
Puta purehurehu mai
, To putanga mai ki ahau,
Ki to kaupapa,
I piri mai ai koe,
I tangi mai ai koe.
Tena te tiri,
Ko te tiri a o tupuna,
Ko te tiri a nga Pukenga,
A nga Wananga,
Aku, a tenei tauira.
1 1 2 APPENDIX.
HE WHAKAMURI-AROHA.— Z'Z'^. p. 47-8.
Aha te hau e maene ki to kiri ?
E kore pea koe e ingo mai ki to hoa,
I piri ai konia i to korua moenga,
I awhi ai korua,
I tangi ai korua.
Tena taku aroha
Ma te hau e kawe ki a koe,
Huri mai to aroha,
Tangi mai ki to moenga,
I moe ai korua.
Kia pupuke — a— wai to aroha.
TE POROPORO-AKI A TAMA-TE-KAPUA. — Vld. p. 53.
E papa nga rakau i runga i a koe,
Mau ake te Whakaro ake. Ae, Ae.
E haere nga taua i te ao nei,
Mau e patu. Ae, Ae.
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