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iCD 




Me | 

CD 

= Red Cross 



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M Macleod Moore 




[Photograph, Swaine, London. 

Lieut. -CoL Noel Marshall, Chairman of Executive Committee, 
Canadian Red Cross Society ; Col. H. W. Blaylock, C.B.E., 
Chief Commissioner Overseas: and Mr. K, J, Dunstan, 
Member of Executive Committee^ 

(Frontispiece.) 



Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



THE WAR STORY OF THE CANADIAN RED CROSS 
OVERSEAS 



BY 



MARY MACLEOD MGDRE 



LONDON: 

Published on behalf of the Canadian War Memorials Fund for the 
Canadian War Records by 

SKEFFINGTON & SON, LTD. 
34 SOUTHAMPTON STREET, STRAND, W.C. 2 

Publishers to H.M. the Kins 



DEDICATION 

1914 1919 

To all the men and women, at home 

and abroad, whose untiring zeal and 

boundless generosity made this story 

possible. 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. PAGE 

FOREWORD 5 

AUTHOR'S NOTE 7 

I. THE RED CROSS ENTERS THE STRUGGLE. 9 

II. OVERSEAS WORK AND WORKERS . . 21 

III. CANADA'S OFFERINGS .... 37 

IV THE STORY OF THE CASES ... 49 

V. A MOTHERING BUREAU .... 67 

VI. THE RED CROSS HOSPITALS AND HOMES 87 

VII. " ALL PRISONERS AND CAPTIVES " . . 105 

VIII. " CANADA-IN-HOSPITAL " . . .125 

IX. THE RED CROSS IN FRANCE . . .141 

X. THE RED CROSS IN FRANCE (continued) . 159 

XL THE WORK OF THE WOMEN IN FRANCE . 173 

XII. THE RED CROSS AND THE REFUGEES . 189 

CONCLUSION 207 

APPENDIX A. OVERSEAS OFFICIALS AND HEADS 

OF DEPARTMENTS 211 

APPENDIX B. CHIEF OVERSEAS EVENTS : STATE- 
MENTS OF ACCOUNTS AND OF SUPPLIES . . 217 

i* 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Lieut. -Colonel Noel Marshall, Chairman 
of Executive Committee, C.R.C.S. ; 
Colonel H. W. Blaylock, C.B.E., 
Chief Commissioner Overseas, and 
Mr. K. J. Dunstan, Member of Execu- 
tive Committee (Photo. : Swaine) . 

Frontispiece facing Title 

Canadian Red Cross Car in Princess 

Christian Ambulance Train . . Facing p. 39 

The Entrance to the Bureau, with Lady 

Drummond at her desk . 68 

" God's Acre " at the Duchess of Con- 
naught's Canadian Red Cross 
Hospital, Cliveden , 89 

Monument to Allied Prisoners of War 

who died in Giessen Camp, Germany. 107 

A Canadian Red Cross Recreation Hut . ,, 127 

The Canadian Red Cross in Germany . 161 

Motor Ambulance Convoy at Etaples . 175 

The Red Cross at Valenciennes, Nov. 

nth, 1918 175 



FOREWORD 

" I ESTEEM it a great privilege to record the feeling of 
pride and thankfulness experienced by all Canadians 
overseas in the wonderful work accomplished by the 
Canadian Red Cross since the outbreak of war. We 
are proud of the splendid generosity of Canadians at 
home proud of the enthusiasm and efficiency of the 
excellent organization which collected and dispersed the 
comforts, and proud of the devotion to duty, the tire 
less energy, the constant supervision and the apprecia 
tion of what was wanted of those who managed on this 
side of the water, and those who benefited in any way 
from the ministrations of the Red Cross are truly thank- 
ful the wounded, the sick, the tired and weary. Lives 
have been saved, many breakdowns averted and much 
discomfort removed, much suffering lessened by the aid 
received from the Red Cross. At the Hospitals, the Con- 
valescent Camps, the Rest Homes, the Dressing Stations, 
and on the battlefield itself, everywhere, were seen the 
Red Cross wagons and their attendants succouring, re- 
lieving and helping in every possible way. This help 
was not reserved for Canadians only. British and 
French Institutions did not apply in vain, and no nobler 
work was done by the Canadian Red Cross than when it 



vi FOREWORD 

helped to supply the needs and wants of the civil popu- 
lation in those French and Belgian areas from which 
the enemy was driven. Old and feeble men and 
women, suffering mothers, emaciated children, from all 
of whom the foe had taken the necessaries of life will 
on bended knee forever thank God for sending the Cana- 
dian Red Cross with its comfort, its succour and its sym- 
pathy. Now that the war is over it may seem to some 
that there no longer remains the same urgent need for 
the mission on which noble and unselfish women and 
men have been for so long engaged, yet it would be a 
pity and indeed a wrong if any helpers in the Canadian 
Red Cross should cease their labours for the cause of 
suffering humanity, and so while I am very imperfectly 
and inadequately expressing the appreciation of those 
who have been helped may I at the same time vouchsafe 
the hope that the Canadian Red Cross Society will con- 
tinue to direct the full energy of its organization to the 
relief of the poor, the needy and the distressed whither- 
soever dispersed. 

"A. W. CURKIE." 



[The message sent by Lieut. -General Sir Arthur 
Currie, Canadian Corps Commander, to the Annual 
Meeting, Canadian Red Cross Society, held at Toronto, 
February, 1919.] 



AUTHOR'S NOTE 

THROUGHOUT the war years, as I studied the activities 
of the Canadian Red Cross in England and in France, 
I wondered if the people who raised the money and 
knitted the socks realized in the very least what a help- 
ful part they were playing in the great struggle. 

The most that I hope for this little book is that it will 
give to the people across the sea who have worked so 
long and so faithfully for the sick and wounded, and for 
those who have suffered through the war, some clear 
and gratifying impressions of that many-sided, enter- 
prising, sympathetic organization they supported, which 
built itself up to be one of the wonders of the war. 

There is no attempt here to advertise the workers. 
To all of them it is the work that counts. One might 
mention a hundred names and still leave in obscurity 
five times the number who deserve praise and gratitude 
for all they have done for Canada's boys, and for other 
boys from every part of our far-flung Empire. 

The story begins with the outbreak of war. It ends 
but where and how can it end ? Not with the Red 
Cross stores arriving in Germany, to be ready for the 
demands of the Field Ambulances and Casualty Clearing 
Stations, nor with the feeding and clothing of the 
refugees. The influence of devoted unselfish labour 
extends over an incalculable future, and none can 
prophesy its end. 

London, May, 1919. M. MACL. M. 



CHAPTER I 

THE RED CROSS ENTERS THE STRUGGLE 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



THE splendid voluntary service of rich 
and poor alike, in the cause of the 
sick and wounded, the prisoners of war, the 
soldiers in the trenches, and the civilians 
who suffered as war went on, has been the 
bright side of a world tragedy. 

The black cloud of war is shot with many 
of these shining gleams. Of them the 
achievements of the Canadian Red Cross 
Society, from the outbreak of war until the 
last sick and wounded soldier ceased to 
need its care, illuminate tragic and glorious 
memories of the past few years. 

Aglow with high courage and an exalted 
sense of patriotism Canada entered the 
struggle as soon as the message flashed 

ii 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



across continents and seas telling the world 
that England declared war on Germany. 

As men eagerly mobilized for action, to 
take their part in what was to prove the 
greatest war in history, the Canadian Red 
Cross Society also mobilized on a war basis, 
to be ready to give assistance to the Medical 
Service of the Department of Militia and 
Defence as soon as possible. 

The Society was founded in Canada in 
1896, and during the South African War 
did valuable work for the sick and wounded ; 
but what the Society had done in the past 
was a mere foreshadowing of what its work 
was to become. 

When war began the Society had eight 
provincial branches, having under their 
jurisdiction 156 local branches. Inside a 
year there were 309. When war ended there 
were 1,303. 

The wave of enthusiastic patriotism which 
swept across Canada when war broke out with 
the suddenness of a crash of thunder, was 
only the forerunner of a great flood of pas- 
sionate self-sacrifice, of splendid generosity. 

12 



The Red Cross enters the Struggle 

Enthusiasm without perseverance and 
steadfastness accomplishes little. The enthu- 
siasm of Canada to comfort the sick, to bind 
up the wounds of the broken, to bring solace 
to " all prisoners and captives/' to befriend 
the afflicted among the Allies, went hand in 
hand with remarkable efficiency, unfailing 
munificence and a perseverance in well- 
doing that never slackened so long as the 
need for help existed. 

This generosity and enthusiasm was not 
confined to any section of the public, nor 
to any particular part of the country. It 
was universal. From the edge of the Atlantic 
to the shores of the Pacific, and away up to 
the far North where the Yukon Territory 
touches the Arctic Regions, people worked 
and saved for the Red Cross. They were 
of all ages, of all creeds, Many were very 
wealthy. Many were poor. It made no 
difference. All alike were rich in a zeal for 
helpfulness. 

The pair of socks made in the moments 
nibbled from a day packed with work and 
with care, was as much the outward and 

13 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



visible sign of a great love and longing for 
personal service as the cheque for thousands 
given by the wealthy man. The woman who 
knitted and the man who gave were kin, for 
they were sealed of the brotherhood of those 
who had offered their own sons for the 
cause, and now added what else they could 
to that great gift. 

The appeal of the Red Cross was com- 
prehensive. You read of the people formerly 
called the Doukhobors making large donations 
in money to the Red Cross Campaign Fund, 
and you heard of Indians and Esquimaux 
raising money to be sent to the Red 
Cross. 

From the Hudson Bay Post at Fort Chip- 
wyan, in Northern Alberta, a parcel was 
received early in the war containing knitted 
articles made by the Indians for the soldiers 
and sailors. The oldest adherent of the 
Canadian Red Cross was an Indian, a member 
of the Files Hills Indian branch at Balcarres, 
who was 107 years old when the war broke 
out. As soon as he received his treaty 
money from the Government he paid a fee 

14 



The Red Cross enters the Struggle 

*.' 

for membership in the Canadian Red 
Cross. 

Old French women knitted socks to be 
put in the Red Cross boxes, and the little girls 
in schools all over Canada worked hard for 
the soldiers that they might send Christmas 
greetings to hospitals. 

A children's branch in Quebec, for example, 
which was formed a month after war broke 
out, in one year made over 1,400 garments, 
packed 50 Christmas gifts and 68 Easter 
presents for wounded soldiers, besides collect- 
ing a great variety of articles for the comfort 
of the sick and wounded, gave garments to 
the Queen Mary's Needlework Guild, sent 
parcels to the men of the Royal Navy and 
to the crews of the submarines, and raised a 
considerable sum of money. Cheques were 
sent to the Queen of the Belgians, to the 
Prisoners of War Fund, to the Serbian and 
the Montenegrin Red Cross Societies, and to 
other good objects connected with those 
suffering through the war. 

The report of the branch for the first year 
naively stated : "No subscriptions have 

15 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



been asked for from grown-up people, but a 
great deal has been very gratefully received." 
The members of the branch were from five 
years old upwards. 

Offerings received were remarkably varied, 
and each testified to the anxiety of the giver 
to bestow what meant a real sacrifice. Such 
was the hundred-year-old linen pillow-case 
from the great-great-granddaughter of the 
original owner, and the five-cent piece which 
a small boy brought to the Headquarters 
one morning, with the statement that he was 
a Canadian and wanted to help. 

You found small boys devoting their holi- 
days to picking sphagnum moss to be used 
for dressing wounds, and you read of various 
persons giving all the proceeds from shops, 
tea-rooms, booklets and fruit-picking to the 
work of the Red Cross. 

One devoted member of the Society a 
small girl of seven made $31 (about &) 
by a " Fowl Contest " ; the ticket-holders 
drew lots for the bird, and the disappoint- 
ment of the losers was softened by an excellent 
Red Cross concert given by some of the men 

16 



The Red Cross enters the Struggle 

members. Gertrude Dafoe, of Green River, 
Ont., must have been a proud little person 
when that exciting evening ended. 

The people in Canada who worked hard 
to send something to the Red Cross were 
made happy by knowing that invariably 
their gifts filled a want. 

Some little Eastern Ontario schoolgirls 
sent to the Parcels Department of the In- 
formation Bureau in London a sum of 
money they had raised by their own efforts. 
With this a wheel-chair was bought for the 
use of helpless men. Very soon after it 
arrived word came to Headquarters that a 
Canadian soldier, a double amputation case, 
was arriving from a distant hospital, on a 
visit to friends, and was much in need of a 
chair for use while in London. The school- 
girls 1 chair was immediately lent, and the 
link between Canada and Canada-in-England 
was complete. 

Soldiers at the front did not forget the 
Red Cross as time went on, whether they 
had ever been its beneficiaries or not. Money 
was sent occasionally by battalions to provide 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



Christmas boxes for comrades who were 
prisoners of war, under the care of the Red 
Cross ; and at times a welcome gift of money 
for the prisoners was sent as proceeds of an 
entertainment given " Somewhere in France. " 

Men who had been cared for in hospital 
by the Society assigned part of their pay each 
month as a token of gratitude, and now and 
again a soldier's will was a mute reminder of 
the appreciation of the men for the organiza- 
tion through which their own people reached 
out to them a tender helpfulness. 

One such legacy came from a native of 
Serbia who had become naturalized in Canada 
and had joined the Army as a volunteer. He 
was killed in action, and his soldier's will 
instructed that whatever he died possessed 
of should go to the Red Cross. His few and 
simple personal belongings were carefully 
kept by the Red Cross, to be returned even- 
tually to his father in Serbia. 

One cannot think untouched of the people 
of Canada working for the sick and wounded, 
with brave hearts filled with anxious thoughts 
for their own, thousands of miles away. 

18 



The Red Cross enters the Struggle 

There were many whose gay and gallant 
men had left them with cheery words, and 
now lay very still under a foreign sky, un- 
moved by the thunder of the guns. Never 
again would they see their own free mountains 
and prairies and rivers and busy towns, nor 
could any loved voice rouse them from a 
dreamless sleep. Yet those they had left 
forever did not give way to selfish grief. They 
turned, in thought, from the side of a grave 
to take up again the work that would mean 
:omfort and relief to other suffering men. 

Much of the work for the Canadian Red 
Cross, through more than four and a half 
years, was sanctified by the unselfishness of 
bereaved women as well as by the memory 
of brave men. 



CHAPTER II 

OVERSEAS WORK AND WORKERS 



"T^ROM the beginning of the war until its 
close an amount and a variety of work 
was accomplished under wise leaders that 
would have seemed incredible in the early 
days, when we thought fatuously in months, 
not years, and in thousands, not millions. 

' What would you say was the work of the 
Red Cross ? " I once asked Colonel Blaylock, 
after hearing of some special effort. 

" Help," he replied modestly. 

Anything, from a big, splendidly equipped 
hospital to a package of maple sugar and a 
good tooth brush came under the heading 
of " Help " and the most carping could not 
deny that it was. 

It was Red Cross work to build that hospital 
and to hand it over to the military authorities, 
reserving merely the right to spend money 
on keeping it well equipped and its patients 
supplied with what they needed. 

23 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



It was Red Cross work to see that a tired 
boy, with a fractured femur which kept him 
awake at night, was sent the latest copy of 
the Moosejaw News or the Bridgewater 
Bulletin, to remind him of home. 

It was Red Cross work to lend stores to some 
other overseas society which had run short, 
and it was equally Red Cross work to send 
theatre tickets to Canadians in hospital 
who were fed up with the wards and longing 
to see a good show. 

The Red Cross was the friend of Everyman. 
If a man wanted a set of false teeth, his own 
having been damaged by the Hun, his natural 
instinct was to write to the Red Cross, and in 
the same spirit a woman whose husband, 
somewhat vaguely named Smith, had run 
away and might be with the Canadians, trust- 
fully asked the Red Cross to find him and 
return him to her. Soldiers wrote to have 
their leave extended, and mothers to send 
money to their boys. 

The Red Cross handed out cigarettes and 
Christmas stockings to wounded and sick 
men, and it quietly opened splendid homes for 

24 



Overseas Work and Workers 



tired nursing sisters ; it provided a car in a 
great ambulance train, and it built special 
wards for chest and for fractured femur cases 
in big hospitals. It supplied a thousand 
articles at a time to a general hospital in 
France during a rush, and it remembered to 
give a gramophone to some small hospital 
in England. It sent a wounded boy the 
cheering news that his chum from the same 
town, and wounded in the same fight, was 
sitting up, and it fed and clothed and be- 
friended Canadian prisoners of war through 
years of misery and privation and monotony. 

The Red Cross went up under fire to have 
surgical dressings and comforts that blessed 
and all-embracing word ready during great 
battles, and it built and made homelike huts 
for the men in hospital in the war- zone who 
were able to get up and found the wards dull. 

The Red Cross realized without argument 
that I am my brother's keeper, and promptly 
sent the Allies cases and cases of clothing 
and food, worth their weight in gold to the 
gallant little nations in distress. 

The Red Cross thought there was no use 
25 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



calling France an Ally and not playing the 
part of a friend well, with the consequence 
that 80,000 cases of supplies were distributed 
among French hospitals, and a splendidly 
equipped modern hospital was handed to 
France as a gift from Canada, with a lack of 
red tape which would make a Government 
official feel faint. 

The Red Cross took a large view of suffering 
caused by the war, with the result known to 
French and to Belgian refugees, who were 
fed and clothed with the gifts of Manitoba 
and Ontario, British Columbia and Prince 
Edward Island. 

A day at the Headquarters of the Red Cross 
told a thrilling story to anyone with ears and 
eyes. The eagerness to be of use, the enthu- 
siasm and the friendliness of these voluntary 
workers for the great maj ority were voluntary 
workers resulted in big things being done. 

" Here am I, send me/ 1 might have been 
the motto of every worker. 

The duties were not all interesting and 
inspiring. No work is that is done day in and 
day out. Fiery enthusiasm burns down and 

26 



Overseas Work and Workers 



the ashes are very cold. But whether it was 
thrilling, or whether it narrowly escaped being 
merely anonymous drudgery, the supply of 
workers never failed. 

There were some who toiled from first to 
last, at a sacrifice of comfort and ease and 
luxury and time. There were others who 
worked well, but through no fault of their 
own could not stay the course till the war 
ended. There were few who, having put their 
hands to the plough, looked back. 

No short and easy hours were allotted to 
the Red Cross workers. Early and late they 
were " on the job/ 1 Sometimes midnight 
found them working hard that none who 
trusted them might be disappointed. 

You went in the morning and found the 
Chief Commissioner beginning his day by 
talking to officials over the telephone, seeing 
a constant stream of visitors, offering money, 
advice, help ; reading cables from Canada 
about some important development, or mes- 
sages from France as to transport and supplies. 

You found Lady Drummond, in the midst 
of her workers, keeping her finger on all the 

27 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



departments of the Bureau, and in addition 
seeing soldiers and civilians bound on a variety 
of errands, and none was sent away unsatisfied. 

You looked into the Architect's room and 
found him busy with plans for building wards 
and huts and remodelling a building for 
a hospital. 

You saw a roomful of women filing informa- 
tion about wounded Canadians and writing 
letters to their people at home. You went 
into another and watched piles of letters 
being sorted and read, in which comforts 
were requested for sick and wounded men, 
or thanks were offered by the men themselves 
to the O.C. Parcels. You went into another 
room and women were packing quickly and 
skilfully these comforts and dainties to cheer 
up a man in hospital. 

You turned to the Prisoners of War Depart- 
ment and there the workers were sorting 
letters from the prisoners to their staunch 
friends, and filing carefully on cards the 
details concerning them. Plans for their 
increased comfort were being considered and 
their families written to cheerfully. 

28 



Overseas Work and Workers 



You went to the warehouses, which multi- 
plied as time went on, and walked through 
crowded avenues, bordered by cases from 
Canada, which were to carry comforts and 
relief to overstrained medical officers and 
matrons and sisters during a great rush, and 
a sense of home and its care to a man who, 
flushed with fever, smiled at the label, " Made 
in Canada/' on some gift. 

You looked at an ambulance passing and 

found it was labelled " Canadian Red Cross " ; 

you visited a hospital and saw a Canadian 

Red Cross store room ; you stood by the grave 

of a dead Canadian soldier and on his coffin 

lay flowers from the Canadian Red Cross. 

You went down to Shorncliffe and there saw 

weary men spending a happy hour in the 

Red Cross Hut, while they waited for a 

Medical Board. And at last you went to 

Liverpool, perhaps, and saw a hospital ship 

start with its load of convalescents, who were 

greatly cheered by the gift of cigarettes, games 

and books from the Canadian Red Cross. 

Canadian enterprise and energy founded 
the work overseas of the Canadian Red Cross 

29 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



a few weeks after the war began. Canadian 
generosity and zeal continued that work until 
the need ceased to exist. There was no 
Armistice for the Red Cross, for the sick and 
wounded, and the people of the lately occupied 
territory in France and in Belgium did not 
cease to need comfort and help when a 
paper was signed. 

Canada realized the need for prompt and 
efficient organization in England and in 
France, and arranged to meet this need when 
the Society was organized on a war basis. 
Colonel (afterwards Surgeon-General) G. S. 
Ryerson, President of the Canadian Red 
Cross when the war began, and Colonel 
Noel Marshall, Chairman of the Executive, 
who dedicated his whole time to the work 
throughout the entire period of the war, 
made their plans with special reference to 
the needs which must arise as time went on. 
They were supported by splendid committees, 
and behind them stood the entire population 
of Canada. 

The overseas work began with a tragedy. 
Lieut .-Col. Jeffrey Burland, of Montreal, 

30 



Overseas Work and Workers 



arrived in England in the autumn of 1914, 
full of enthusiasm to commence his duties, 
but was taken ill and died before he had 
done more than lay the foundations of a 
great work. The Assistant Commissioner, 
Lieut. E. W. Parker, by a sad coincidence 
died very shortly afterwards as the result of 
a chill. Lieut.-Col. C. A. Hodgetts, C.M.G., 
was then appointed the second Commissioner, 
and filled that post faithfully until the spring 
of 1918. He thus was in charge from the 
early days, when the work was done in a few 
rooms, and one warehouse was large enough 
for the early arrivals among Canadian, sup- 
plies, during the building up of the work, 
with its many ramifications, through three 
and a half years. 

The Assistant Commissioner in England, 
from July, 1915, to April, 1918, was Lieut.-Col. 
Claud Bryan, also greatly interested in the 
work of the Red Cross. 

Lady Drummond, who organized the In- 
formation Bureau of the Red Cross, to deal 
with the personal needs of the individual 
soldier, and was in charge of the Bureau 

3 1 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



throughout the war, was appointed Assistant 
Commissioner in April, 1918. 

In France, spending himself untiringly in 
carrying out the wishes of the Canadian 
people within a few miles of the actual 
fighting, one man was in charge from January, 
1915, when there was only one Canadian 
Hospital Unit in France, till April, 1918, 
when he became Chief Commissioner Over- 
seas, with his headquarters in London, and 
remained in charge until demobilization. 

This was Col. H. W. Blaylock, C.B.E., 
who, as Captain Blaylock, first helped in the 
London office and then was appointed in 
charge of the work in France as Assistant 
Commissioner. 

With the Red Cross in France for a year 
was Col. David Law, who was first in charge 
of Advanced Stores and then Assistant Com- 
missioner, from April, 1918, till December of 
the same year. 

In charge of the Advanced Stores for seven 
months to December, 1917, was the late 
Captain W. MacLeod Moore, M.C., who had 
organized that work. 

32 



Overseas Work and Workers 



A few months before the close of the war, 
Capt. Murphy took charge of the Advanced 
Stores and rendered memorable service, not 
only to the troops, but to the refugees and the 
people of the towns and villages long occupied 
by the enemy. From December, 1918, until 
demobilization, he was Acting Assistant Com- 
missioner. 

In addition to these officials much help 
was given by a London War Committee, 
appointed early in 1917, which had for its 
first Honorary President H.R.H. the Duchess 
of Connaught, who was succeeded, on her 
death, by H.R.H. Princess Patricia. Its 
members were Mr. G. C. Cassels, Mr. C. 
Cambie and Mr. F. W. Ashe, who formed 
a link between the Canadian Headquarters 
and the Overseas Commissioner. 

The Canadian people owe much to the great 
ability, the enthusiasm and the steadfastness 
of their representatives overseas. To their 
lot it fell to carry into effect what was planned 
in Canada ; theirs was the happiness of 
meeting face to face the men they worked for ; 
they were in touch with the needs and the 

33 3 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



emergencies brought about by a war which 
was at their doors. 

The business methods of the Red Cross 
were those of any other large concern where 
trained men combined knowledge and ex- 
perience and ability with wide vision and a 
large scorn of the methods of the Circum- 
locution Office. Great efficiency linked to a 
assion for the relief of suffering of all kinds, 
due, directly and indirectly, to the war, 
accomplished wonders. And though large 
sums of money raised in Canada were spent 
generously, the accounts were kept with such 
scrupulous care that the Headquarters of the 
Society in Toronto could trace month by 
month every amount expended in England 
and in France. 

One of the most remarkable features of the 
work of the Red Cross was that so much useful 
service was given by women who had had 
little or no experience of business methods, 
and had had no training in work which they 
afterwards accomplished with so much skill, 
and carried on for years as voluntary helpers. 

Women and girls, who, in the ordinary 
34 



Overseas Work and Workers 



course of events would have had no chance 
to develop a taste for business, organized and 
managed departments or worked under a 
leader, with a faculty which left one thinking 
hopefully of a future in which Reconstruction 
was a word impossible to evade. 

The men, from the responsible heads down 
to the orderlies and the hall porter, were 
imbued with the spirit of the Red Cross. 
Some organized and managed and carried 
out plans involving large sums of money, 
which they held in trust for the Canadian 
public. Others drove cars at the Front under 
fire, for hours which any Trade Union would 
have condemned, with the same matter-of- 
factness they might have displayed in driving 
through the streets of London or Montreal. 
They accepted shell-holes and shrapnel as 
commonplaces and they rushed their heavy 
lorries wherever the call was most urgent, 
the one fact worth considering being the 
need of being on time. Others, working in 
France at the base, or in England, sorted 
and packed for twelve or fifteen hours on end 
when the wounded were pouring into base 

35 3* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



hospitals and across to England, and the 
demand for small comforts was incessant. 

The link made between the Red Cross and 
the individual, by personal service, was strong. 

" I never had much use for the Red Cross 
in Canada," said a wounded soldier, " and I 
wouldn't let my wife work for it for a long 
time." 

" But why ? " asked his surprised visitor. 

Then came the old Wandering Jew of a 
story about the socks given to the Red Cross, 
and sold a " Made in Germany " story. 

" And you never tried to find out if that was 
true, or asked anyone to find out ? " 

" No, I didn't, but I'm sorry now. I was 
in hospital in France for Christmas, and was 
the only Canadian in the ward and feeling 
pretty bad so far from home when Sister 
came in and said : 

" ' Here's something for you, Canada.' 

" And sure enough the Red Cross had found 
me out and sent me a present. After that 
I thought ' that story couldn't be true." 
Which may not have been strictly logical, 
but was most gratifying. 

36 



CHAPTER III 
CANADA'S OFFERINGS 



A CANADIAN woman was visiting a 
military hospital with comforts for 
the Canadian soldiers, when the Sister, who 
had been admiring the kit bags and other 
gifts, said, half enviously : 

" I wish all the men got as much. Your 
Red Cross gives things worth while. But 
then you have the dollars ! " 

Like a flash the nearest Canadian, with a 
wink at his visitor, replied : 

" It's not the dollars, Sister. It's sense 
and cents." 

Here a little and there a little, the money 
was raised, until from distant Canadian towns 
and farms help went to the sick and wounded 
of all the British Armies and of the Allied 
Forces, as well as to the Canadians, and to 
the desolate and oppressed of the stricken 

39 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



countries of Europe. Russia, Belgium, Rou- 
mania, France, Serbia, Italy and Montenegro 
reaped the fruits of the generosity of the 
Canadian people, who knew nothing of in- 
vasion, who had never heard the sullen 
crash of the guns nor the hideous noise of 
the bursting bomb dropped from the sky, 
but nevertheless recognized their responsi- 
bility to those who shared with them the 
sorrows of the war. 

The fruit of the war work so far as figures 
go for none can sum up the far-reaching 
results of unselfish service and self-sacrifice 
is remarkable. 

Over a quarter of a million cases of supplies 
were received in England from Canada, while 
about 50,000 were purchased in England 
when convenience demanded that this should 
be done. The total value of these supplies 
amounted to about 12,600,000 dollars 
(2,520,303). The actual cash received in 
England for the Red Cross work amounted to 
over 5,400,000 dollars (1,076,957), while the 
cars and ambulances given by Canada were 
valued at 492,000 dollars (98,460). 

40 



Canada's Offerings 



Besides all this money for the work over- 
seas, Canada gave as an absolutely free gift 
to the British Red Cross Society the sum of 
6,600,000 dollars (1,332,176). 

These huge totals were not made up, as 
has been said already, by large sums given 
by a few rich people or organizations. They 
were the offerings of the whole community. 
They were the generous gifts of the children 
who saved their candy money, and of the 
men and women who put by a small sum 
monthly. 

I never read in London the business- 
like lists of cases of supplies from Canada, 
received week after week by the Red Cross, 
without seeing behind the numbers the people 
and the places connected with them. 

It might leave one cold to hear that in one 
week Ontario sent 700 cases, Saskatchewan 
200, Quebec 216, and so on through a list of 
the Provinces. But the thought of the love 
and the anxiety, the energy and the skill 
which went to the filling of the cases made 
the list of names and figures athrob with 
life. 

41 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



You looked at the name of Ontario, and 
you could see great, busy Toronto, full of 
people working for the Red Cross ; you 
visualized Aylmer, Copper Cliff, Hamilton, 
Kenora, Napanee, Sarnia, Waterloo, Glen- 
garry and scores of others, with their sewing 
parties, their anxious, industrious mothers 
and wives, talking as they worked of those 
who would find comfort in their gifts in some 
far-off Dressing Station, Field Ambulance, 
Casualty Clearing Station or Base Hospital. 

With the names of Manitoba, Alberta and 
Saskatchewan were linked the women in 
the scattered villages and towns and the 
lonely prairies, as well as in the cities, work- 
ing, working, working through the long 
winter evenings, and in moments snatched 
during busy days of seed-time and harvest, 
that they might help " the boys." 

You could see in your mind's eye the 
women of the beautiful Maritime Provinces, 
and the women of the Rockies at work ; the 
women of Montreal organizing and inspecting, 
and the women of rural Quebec weaving 
rugs on their handlooms, made from the 

42 



Canada's Offerings 



scraps left over from cutting out shirts, to be 
sold for the soldiers. 

Behind the neat inventory of so many kit 
bags, so many cases of bandages and dress- 
ings, so many towels, cases of clothing for 
hospitals, cases of maple sugar and of hot- 
water bottle covers, there gathered ever that 
great army of women, the mothers and wives 
and sisters and sweethearts of the fighting 
men, proudly and gladly bringing their gifts 
to lay upon the altar. 

In England and in France, as you looked 
at the cases and read the long roll of contents, 
you had a whimsical sensation of watching 
the hands of the workers, hands so eloquent 
in their muteness. 

There were the hands of the wealthy 
woman, well-kept, smooth and white, and the 
hands of the working woman, with their 
blunted nails and rough skin, the slim hands 
of the young girl, and the gnarled, veined 
hands of a worker's old age, beside the chubby, 
dimpled hands of the little girls, earnestly 
doing their best to help in the Great War. 

Busily all the fingers moved, slowly or 
43 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



quickly, according to the skill and the age 
of the worker. Sometimes the hands were 
raised to wipe away the tears which came 
as a woman thought of the man who was 
beyond the need of any comfort she could 
send ; beyond the sound of her voice, though 
she called to him in the stillness with the 
aching yearning of the Rachels weeping for 
their children throughout a stricken world. 

When the cases left all parts of Canada, on 
their way to England and to France, they 
were only at the beginning of a journey that 
in war time was full of hazard. Submarines 
and mines threatened every ship, and there 
were reasons why a vessel, bound for a certain 
port, such as Liverpool, might find itself 
suddenly heading for Bristol or Glasgow. 

Nor was this the end of the adventures of 
the cases. Sometimes they arrived on dry 
land, and then a difficulty arose as to sending 
them to London, for the War Office had given 
orders that only war material might be 
moved. 

Off the cases started again on another 
journey, and eventually some little mer- 

44 



Canada's Offerings 



chant steamer, lurching through heavy seas 
around the coasts of England, arrived in 
London, from Heaven and the Admiralty 
knew where, bringing the Canadian cases 
to the Red Cross warehouses at last. 

We were all very inexperienced about 
war conditions in the early days. So there 
was much need for the Toronto Executive 
and for the Commissioner in England to beg 
generous people in Canada not to send cases 
to individuals through the Red Cross, trust- 
ing that benevolent and efficient body to 
deliver them at the door, so to speak, like a 
city postman. 

Sometimes these Ishmaels arrived, without 
notice, with large sums of money to pay ; 
often the man to whom the case was directed 
was lost in space, with a vague address 
common to many in those days : " B.E.F." 

Even after the official Red Cross cases 
arrived in England, there was the cross 
channel journey for many to make, but 
despite mines and other dangers, and all the 
difficulties of transport, of which people in 
Canada can understand little, they continued 

45 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



to reach Boulogne with gratifying regularity, 
ready to be sent on to Hospital, Field Ambu- 
lances and Casualty Clearing Stations as 
needed. 

And all the heartaches and the generosity 
and the perils of the tossing seas in war 
time appeared eventually in a list as " Alberta, 
400 cases, Ontario, 750, Nova Scotia, 179,' ' 
and a catalogue of the contents. 

The total result of all this sewing and 
knitting, and making of dressings and 
bandages, collecting money, and packing and 
shipping is stupendous when it is considered 
that Canada's entire population is about 
eight millions. 

The first cases came over with the First 
Contingent, when it sailed from Quebec. 
These supplies were distributed among the 
hospitals in the vicinity of Salisbury Plain, 
for the benefit of the men who fell ill there 
in that memorable winter. They were given 
also to military and private hospitals in 
England and abroad ; some of them went to 
West Mudros, Lemnos. From that time 
until the end of 1918, weeks after the 

46 



Canada's Offerings 



Armistice was signed, the supplies con- 
tinued to come in a steady stream, until, 
at the latter date, the large number of over 
a quarter of a million cases (as already stated) 
had been received in England, and distri- 
buted among Canadian military hospitals in 
England, both direct from London and from 
the Shorncliffe Depot ; the headquarters of 
the Society in France for Base Hospitals, 
Field Ambulances, Casualty Clearing Sta- 
tions and Advance Stores ; the depot in 
Paris, which received and distributed cases 
for the French hospitals ; and among the 
other Allies. 



47 



CHAPTER IV 

THE STORY OF THE CASES 



A VISIT to the warehouses to see what 
was in stock was a most interesting 
experience. Even more impressive was a 
glimpse of how the books were kept. So 
well was this done that the socks sent from 
a Montreal branch, at a certain time, for 
example, or the towels forwarded from 
Victoria, British Columbia, could be actually 
traced to their final destination. If anyone 
had had the lack of conscience to trouble 
busy people to do this, it would have been 
possible to find out exactly at any time 
which hospital in England or in France 
received certain supplies. 

The Stores Department was divided into 
the (I) Administration, which dealt with all 
correspondence about supplies, all requisi- 
tions on Canada for supplies and goods to 

5i 4* 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



be bought in England, requisitions from 
Canadian Hospital Units in England, from 
the Branch Depot at Shorncliffe, in the care 
of Mr. and Mrs. Harcourt Vernon, and from 
the Society's Headquarters in France, besides 
those from any other organizations. Also it 
dealt with the methods of keeping records of 
all supplies, both received and dispatched, 
and with figures. (II) The Purchasing De- 
partment, which was instituted when it 
was found necessary to make a number of 
purchases in England. It gives some idea 
of the vast amount of work carried on to 
learn that the Purchasing Department in 
the first eight months of 1918 expended 
about 148,000, a large part of this sum 
being used for the equipment of hospitals in 
England and in France, and the purchase of 
supplies to be sent to Canadian Hospital 
Units in France. (Ill) The Warehouses, 
where the supplies were received and from 
which they were despatched. 

Among the goods purchased in England, 
chiefly with a view to saving time and 
tonnage, were furniture, articles for fancy 

52 



The Story of the Cases 



work, games, groceries, confectionery, fresh 
fruit, medical supplies, magazines and books, 
toilet articles and tobacco, cigarettes and 
smokers' requisites. 

Quantities of supplies from Canada passed 
through the bonded warehouse, because, 
though Red Cross supplies were free of duty 
to accredited hospitals, a record had to be 
kept of all dutiable articles received and 
dispatched. 

During the first three and a half years 
the following quantities of dutiable goods 
were distributed, giving some idea of what 
was presented to the Red Cross while war lasted. 

Cigarettes 36,908,280 

Tobacco 82,162 Ibs. 

Jams and Preserves 246,616 

Canned Peaches 488,778 

Cocoa 10,899 

Chocolate 37.877 

Confectionery, hard 10,021 

Maple Sugar 214,637 

Tea 32,024 

Coffee 11,603 

Dried Fruits 42,490 

Playing Cards 7<M5o pks. 

Chewing Gum 12,508 Ibs. 

In addition, in one half-year 1,750,000 
cigarettes and 1,400 Ibs. of tobacco were 

53 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



supplied direct by the manufacturer to the 
warehouse of the Red Cross in Boulogne, 
indicating the demand for such supplies, and 
I defy the most bigoted anti-smoking person 
or society to find any fault with a gift which 
gave such pleasure. 

The warehouses were situated in a part of 
London not familiar to the ordinary pre-war 
visitor, who knows his Strand and Regent 
Street and Piccadilly, but has never ventured 
to explore the district which lies near the 
river, towards London Bridge, identified with 
the leather trade. Perhaps future visitors 
from Canada will make pilgrimages to a 
neighbourhood so closely linked with Canada's 
work for the sick and wounded. 

The warehouses were to be found in Tooley 
Street, in Bermondsey Street and in South- 
wark Street, while one was in Chelsea. In 
the earliest days, that is, November, 1914, 
there was but one warehouse. At the close 
of hostilities there were six, including the 
bonded warehouses, with accommodation 
for about 50,000 cases. 

I walked through them all one day, after 
54 



The Story of the Cases 



studying records until my unmathematical 
brain reeled. I had learned that shipping 
lists containing total number of cases, case 
numbers and the contents thereof, were sent, 
showing exactly what was on its way from 
Canada ; that all supplies were checked 
with the lists by number, to see that nothing 
was lost (and to lose a case was almost un- 
known), that all cases were then allocated to 
one or other of the warehouses, duly recorded 
and posted to their respective folios in the 
Stores Ledger. 

Without knowing the proper terms for 
such good business methods, I can only tell 
you, who read this in Canada, that your 
case of bandages was entered, with every 
variety of bandage in a separate list, and 
the number of case after it ; that every case 
had its life history entered in those imposing 
books and on great sheets, and the smallest 
safety pin would have found it hard to escape. 
In the end, the destination of each article 
was duly recorded, so that I knew in which 
Canadian General Hospital in France your 
case had found a home. 

55 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



What happened to the supplies after they 
were all entered ? First, then, approved 
requisitions for all articles had to be sent 
from Canadian Medical Units or by the 
Headquarters of the Society in France. 
These requisitions were next examined at the 
London Headquarters, where they were 
authorized and then passed on to the Officer 
in Charge of the Warehouses, who forwarded 
the supplies at once to their destination, 
either by motor lorry for the Canadian 
Red Cross had its own adequate transport, 
both in England and France or by rail. 

Every month a tabulated statement was 
drawn up, which showed exactly the Medical 
Units in England and in France, and the 
other institutions to which the Red Cross 
sent supplies, with the total quantities given 
to each. In addition a Stock Sheet showed 
at the close of each month what was in each 
warehouse. At a glance one could see how 
many cases of bandages and socks there were 
upon which to draw in an emergency case, 
such as often arose when supplies were 
urgently needed by the wounded. 

56 



The Story of the Cases 



From the very beginning the Red Cross 
prided itself upon never disappointing those 
who asked for help. 

One morning, in the spring of 1915, 4,759 
articles, including shirts, socks, dressing 
gowns and many other comforts, were asked 
for in a hurry, to be delivered at Southampton 
Docks. Within six and a half hours the 
4,750 articles were packed and shipped from 
the Canadian Red Cross warehouses, and the 
workers were ready for the next order. 

It was interesting to see the cases in the 
warehouses, stacked high on all sides, and to 
learn the variety of the contents. 

Canned fruit, maple sugar, groceries, jam, 
boots and slippers, sticks, crutches, gramo- 
phones, invalid chairs, and cases and cases 
of clothing and medical supplies and of 
small articles were all to be found in stock. 

The supplies came under fifteen categories, 
comprising 665 different articles. 

For example, there were 19 different sorts 
of bandages, 13 kinds of bedding, 63 different 
articles of clothing, 37 of dressings, 171 of 
furniture and hardware, 32 of fancy work 

57 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



(supplied by the Parcel Department to men 
in hospital), 194 games, many of which were 
" made in Canada/ 1 81 of groceries, 47 of 
medical stores, 35 miscellaneous, 22 sta- 
tionery, 37 toilet articles and 8 which were 
connected with the needs of the smoker. 

The details of these totals were interesting. 
Imagine in one year supplying from Canada 
one million handkerchiefs, 868,629 pairs of 
socks, nearly 299,000 shirts, almost 80,000 
kit, comfort and personal property bags, and 
13 tons of candies and maple sugar. 

Two gifts from Canada in especial stand 
out in the minds of those who worked for the 
soldiers in hospital. They were apples and 
Christmas stockings. 

The apples which came over from Canada 
and were distributed to Canadian soldiers in 
hospital, as well as to other soldiers and to 
other units besides the Canadians, were a 
source of joy to the men. Wounded Nova 
Scotia and Ontario might argue bitterly as 
to the merits of the apples from their 
respective provinces, but they showed a 
united front to the Australian or the English- 

58 



The Story of the Cases 






man who dared to doubt that Canadian 
apples were the best in the world. 

Gifts of apples were made to many or- 
ganizations in England. The Fleet can 
testify to the virtues of the Canadian apple, 
for the Canadian Red Cross shared its cases 
with the men who guarded the seas unceas- 
ingly. Lord Charles Beresford, of the Navy 
League, writing on one occasion to thank the 
Chief Commissioner for 1,176 cases of apples 
for the Fleet, said that the apples were so 
valuable to the health of the men, it had 
been decided to try to give them one million 
pounds of fruit. Owing to the failure of the 
fruit crop in England in 1918, this would 
have been impossible without the help of the 
Canadian Red Cross. 

There were never more grateful recipients 
of apples than the sailors, for not only did 
every ship write its thanks, but almost every 
individual aboard signed the letter. 

As to the stockings, no small boy or girl 
who still believed in Father Christmas could 
have had more happiness out of a well- 
stuffed Christmas stocking than did Canada's 

59 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



sick and wounded men who were in hospital 
at Christmas-time. 

The stockings, made and packed in every 
Province, were shipped to England for dis- 
tribution in England and in France. They 
were the only gifts not shared with all other 
soldiers who might be in a Canadian hospital 
at the time, for they were meant as a reminder 
to each Canadian soldier that his own people 
were with him at Christmas. 

No matter where a soldier was, he received 
a stocking from home. One Christmas- 
time the Red Cross in France learned that 
there was a solitary Canadian soldier in a 
hospital about fifty miles from the Base. 
There was no time to be lost, so one of the 
V.A.D. drivers started off in her lorry, and 
delivered that one stocking in time for a 
happy Christmas morning. 

Last Christmas (1918) 38,235 stockings 
were received from Canada for the soldiers 
in hospital. Even this number was not 
enough, so the Parcel Department rose to 
the occasion and packed separately 4,075 
parcels containing ^Christmas gifts to eat 

60 



The Story of the Cases 



and to wear. These, though not contained 
in an actual stocking, gave much satisfaction 
to the men. 

The stockings were distributed in bulk to 
Canadian hospitals, but those for the men in 
" Imperial " hospitals were dispersed by the 
visitors among the individual men. It was 
a delightful task. For a soldier who has 
fought for years, and known all the horrors 
and privations of a long campaign, to be 
childishly excited and gay over a Christmas 
stocking, stuck with bright seals and tied 
with brilliant colours, is pathetic as well as 
amusing. For the time being, the most 
experienced warrior was a child again, 

" Sister took away my stocking till Christ- 
mas morning. She was afraid I would look. 1 ' 

" I'll hang mine up like a good boy till 
Christmas morning. Honest I will. Have 
a heart, Sister ! Don't take it away. I 
like to poke it." 

" Say, I wonder where that was packed ? 
Perhaps it's from my own home town." 

One boy took no chances. Explaining 
that in a world of disappointments and of 

61 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



surprises it was better to be on the safe side, 
he devoured at once all that was edible, and 
put away in his locker all that was wearable. 
He was thus able to give his undivided 
attention to superintending the unpacking 
of other men's gifts on Christmas morning, 
with that contented mind which is greater 
than riches. 

The melancholy casualties were those who 
arrived at hospital on Christmas Day, or a 
day or so after, and were obliged to listen to 
glowing accounts of the festivities and the 
presents. 

A man of over forty, with a wife and family 
at home in New Brunswick, who took ill 
on leave, was found by Sister to be unusually 
low spirited. Upon investigation it was 
learned that he was very lonely, and the 
thought of having actually " gone sick " 
too late to be included in the distribution 
of stockings from Canada was the last 
straw. 

It is an act of supererogation to mention 
that he was sent from the Red Cross a special 
Christmas parcel of his own, and enjoyed the 

62 



The Story of the Cases 



distinction of being the only man unpacking 
and gloating over gifts, while the rest of the 
ward looked on enviously and critically, and 
chanted the saga of past glories and of other 
Christmas cheer. 

Canadian gifts always popular with the 
wounded soldiers were maple sugar and jams 
and tinned fruit. Of the former 16,300 Ibs. 
were distributed at the last war Christmas, 
while nearly 20,000 of peaches, and 38,346 
Ibs. of jams went to the Canadian Hospital 
Units. 

Perhaps one of the highest compliments 
paid to the work of the Red Cross is found 
in a letter from an admirer who had visited 
more than twenty hospitals in England and 
in France, and was told by the nurses and 
patients that the fruit sent out by the 
Canadian Red Cross Fruit Kitchens was one 
of the inspirations of the war. 

Respect for good packing was combined 
with sentiment by the O.C. of a Canadian 
hospital in France, who testified that he had 
never seen a broken jar, and continued feel- 
ingly : " To see a glass jar filled with your 

63 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



cherries or peaches is like a glimpse of the 
homeland." 

These wonderful stores, ranging from 
chewing gum to the furniture of a hospital, 
and from Christmas stockings to a portable 
electric light plant, were at the disposal of 
all Canadian Hospital Units in England and 
in France. This by no means meant that 
only Canadians enjoyed them, for the Cana- 
dian hospitals were open to all patients, and 
frequently there were fewer men from Canada 
being treated than from any other part of the 
Empire. Thus the men from England, Ire- 
land, Scotland, Wales, Newfoundland, South 
Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the West 
Indies, besides other more remote places, were 
the beneficiaries of the Canadian Red Cross. 

In all the big Canadian hospitals there was 
a special Red Cross store-room, where supplies 
were kept, in the charge of a Red Cross orderly. 
From this store the men could obtain toilet 
articles, socks and other gifts, while linen, 
hospital clothing and medical and surgical 
supplies were at the disposal of the doctors 
and nurses. 

64 



The Story of the Cases 



For any supplies which were not in the 
store-room the Officer Commanding any 
Medical Unit, under the Army Medical Corps, 
or the Matron of a hospital, had only to 
indent for them, on forms supplied by the 
Society for the purpose, and the Red Cross 
delivered the supplies with admirable prompti- 
tude, taking in return a proper receipt upon 
its own receipt form. 

During the influenza epidemic, for example, 
the work of the Stores Department was 
greatly increased, for the calls were numerous, 
and many were of so pressing a character 
that Red Cross special lorries had to travel 
long distances to deliver the supplies, which 
were anxiously awaited. A rush order for 
5,000 influenza masks was filled in four days. 

The Canadian Red Cross does not boast, 
but it states with understandable gratifica- 
tion that it cannot recall any instance where 
it has been unable to respond to the demands 
made upon it. 

Worth recording is this fact, when one 
considers the long months of war ; all the 
sudden and terrible emergencies that arose 

65 5 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



as the fighting waxed and waned ; all the 
sick and wounded, beaten down by the War 
God, to be raised, cared for and healed by 
those who followed in his wake whose 
mission it was to save life, not to destroy it. 



66 



CHAPTER V 

A MOTHERING BUREAU 



5* 



T HAVE often thought (I should like to 
believe the idea was original, but it 
must have struck many other people) that 
if the Great War had nothing else to its 
credit it should be thanked for the develop- 
ment of the maternal instinct . 

At first blush this sounds as if a multitude 
of mothers had needed a war to stimulate 
their affection for their sons. But it is 
meant in a much wider sense. The woman 
who nursed the soldiers ; the girl ambulance 
driver who moved slowly and carefully to 
avoid jolting the suffering boy; the young 
V.A.D. working in a Recreation Hut in France 
and representing Woman to the men going 
back to the horror of the trenches ; the 
women writing letters to anxious mothers, 
visiting the wounded men in hospital, taking 

69 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



them out for treats, packing their parcels, 
trying in every way to ease their pain and 
unrest and home-sickness, and to take the 
place of the women at home who were too 
far away to pet their boys all these were 
" mothering/* whether young women or 
elderly, married or single. The instinct 
which moves one to protect and soothe and 
comfort had full scope during the war ; 
consciously or unconsciously women re- 
sponded to it. 

The Information Bureau of the Canadian 
Red Cross* Society might be called the 
Mothering Bureau, for its whole mission was 
to comfort and befriend the sick and wounded 
men, with whom it kept in touch until they 
were discharged from hospital, or until, in 
some sad cases, they passed " from this 
room into the next," far from home and 
kin. 

It was on the nth of February, 1915, the 
day after the first of the Canadian contingents 
landed in France, that the Red Cross Informa- 
tion Bureau was opened by Lady Drummond, 
with the sanction and support of Colonel 

70 



A Mothering Bureau 



Hodgetts, C.M.G., Canadian Red Cross Com- 
missioner. 

It was Lady Drummond's strongest ambi- 
tion to be of service, both to the men and to 
their families, and the Red Cross gave her 
her great opportunity, of which she made 
the fullest use. 

The Bureau began work with a mere 
handful of voluntary helpers in a couple of 
rooms. It extended its boundaries until it 
included departments for Inquiries for the 
sick and wounded and missing, Correspond- 
ence and Visiting, Parcels, Newspapers, and 
Drives and Entertainments and Hospitality 
to Officers ; all fully staffed and working 
smoothly and ably. 

These departments of necessity implied a 
vast amount of work and a large number of 
voluntary workers. Hundreds were engaged 
solely on the work of the Bureau. To 
mention that when the Armistice was signed 
there were over 1,300 hospital visitors gives 
some idea of what was done in this branch 
alone, and this was but one. 

The workers gave their services, and several, 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



both English and Canadian, were on duty 
practically from the time the Bureau was 
opened till the end of the war ; others for 
shorter periods. 

The Canadians represented every part of 
the Dominion. In this the workers at the 
London Headquarters were typical of the 
people of all Canada, who supported the Red 
Cross loyally throughout the war. 

The majority of the workers were the wives, 
mothers and sisters of soldiers, who thus, 
during a long period of strain and anxiety, 
and, in many cases, great grief, devoted them- 
selves to doing all in their power to ease the 
lot of the sick and wounded men. 

From the Bureau there radiated an influence 
which was felt in the fields of France and 
Flanders, in hospitals where wounded men 
lay restlessly waiting for the morning, and 
in homes throughout the Dominion of Canada, 
whence men had gone to fight. 

You felt it even as you entered the hall, 
and found it full of bags of Canadian news- 
papers or boxes for the Parcels Department. 

In the Reception Room you found a capable 
72 



A Mothering Bureau 



Canadian girl interviewing several young 
officers, who were being " fixed up " with 
invitations for their leave, for the people of 
the British Isles were most warmly anxious 
to meet and to entertain Canadians. 

In an adjoining office was the Head, in 
the centre of her helpers, and accessible to 
all who wished to see her. In the rooms 
beyond a host of busy workers opened and 
answered letters, filled up cards and indexed 
information. 

You called at the Parcel Department to 
see the O.C., who was anxiously wondering 
if the working materials for the badges the 
men were embroidering had arrived, and you 
dodged baskets of fresh fruit and boxes of 
fresh eggs, being sent to the wounded. 

Active workers were packing elsewhere in 
this department, where you found yourself 
surrounded by parcels with socks, sweaters, 
puzzles, materials for needlework and a 
thousand and one things to make the long 
days less wearisome. Each parcel, carefully 
tied and addressed, meant pleasure, benefit 
and interest to some Canadian in hospital. 

73 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



The wounded Canadian hardly arrived in 
England before it was disclosed to him that 
the Information Bureau was a Fairy God- 
mother of the good old kind of his childish 
days. 

On landing or on admission to hospital he 
was given a mysterious blue card, addressed 
to the Bureau and stamped. 

" Oh, yes ! " as he would tell you, " there's 
no bother about asking someone to stamp it. 
You just get another fellow to drop it in the 
letter-box, and the Red Cross does the rest." 
This, of course, after filling in your name, 
number, battalion, the name of the hospital 
and next of kin. 

Each soldier arriving in hospital soon had 
a visitor, who kept in touch with all Canadians 
admitted to her particular hospital. 

She asked a few questions, and as you 
if you were the patient rather diffidently 
mentioned some needs, because very likely 
you had arrived without anything, straight 
from France, she explained that the Red Cross 
would send whatever you wanted. Soon a 
kit-bag came, with toilet articles, a razor, 

74 



A Mothering Bureau 



stationery, pencil, and, of course, cigarettes. 
Then perhaps fruit, if you fancied some, or 
books, or materials for work, or a pack of 
cards. You craved maple sugar and maple 
sugar arrived with commendable promptness. 

Above all, you wanted news of home. If 
only you could see a paper from the old home 
town, telling what was going on, and what 
they were all talking about, you would feel 
more contented. Before you had time to 
suggest this, the visitor had made a note of 
your Canadian address, to ask the Newspaper 
Department for papers to be sent, and soon 
you were reading about new buildings, 
patriotic " shows " and the visitors coming 
and going. 

All these things and many more meant 
that the Information Bureau, having for its 
brains, its hands, its eyes and ears, sym- 
pathetic, thoughtful women, knew just what 
the Canadian soldier wanted, and saw that 
he got it. 

In addition, the Bureau knew what the 
people at home wanted, nay, more, what they 
craved with a sick and anxious longing, and 

75 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



that was tidings of the husband or son lying 
wounded across the sea. 

This matter of correspondence was one of 
the most important and valuable works of 
the Bureau. As each man was called upon, 
the visitor informed the Bureau of his wound 
or illness, his condition both bodily and 
mental, his needs and his general well-being. 

She reported to the Bureau every week, 
though she might visit much more often, 
and this report was filed on a card, which 
eventually held a complete record of the man's 
case. These reports formed the basis of 
letters sent often to the man's family as long 
as he was very ill, and less frequently there- 
after. 

Touching and grateful letters were received 
from the mothers and wives, who were glad 
to know that their sons and husbands had 
found friends. 

" He is my only son now, and I am a widow. 
The other son was killed in France/' wrote 
a mother. 

"I am so grateful for news of my dear 
husband, for he is not able to write much 

76 



A Mothering Bureau 



himself," said a letter from a wife, bravely 
keeping the home fires burning across the 
ocean. 

" Blighty would be a dull old place for 
wounded Canadians to come back to," wrote 
one soldier, " if it were not for you ladies. 
You are doing a grand work and we are sure 
grateful, I can tell you " ; while another, as 
he emptied his kit-bag upon his bed and 
exclaimed over the contents, said, " Just 
wait till I write home and tell them all about 
the Red Cross looking after the boys like this ! 
It's just grand, and lots of the Imperials wish 
they were as well cared for as we are. Sister 
thinks you are simply fine ! " 

After all the great fights in which the 
Canadians were engaged, a stream of inquirers 
called at the Bureau, and up to a late hour 
daily the workers were busy sending off letters 
and reports and entering records. As many as 
1,070 reports were sent out in one single 
day, but the average was 5,000 reports 
monthly. Many inquiries were made by 
men in hospital for friends of whom they had 
lost track, and inquiries from relatives of the 

77 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



men came by every post, averaging 4,000 in 
a month. 

The parcels, already referred to, were a 
great pleasure. Almost everything that 
could be thought of was asked for and 
supplied. Nearly half a million parcels were 
sent out from the time the Bureau opened, 
including thousands of kit-bags. These were 
in part fitted up in Canada, and contained 
the necessary toilet articles, to which were 
added " smokes " and valuable information 
regarding pay and free postage, etc. 

These bags went on journeys all over the 
United Kingdom, wherever there were Cana- 
dians in hospital, and those who made them 
and helped to fill them must be happy to know 
how much they were appreciated. 

In the Parcel Department, again, the busi- 
ness-like habits of the Bureau displayed 
themselves, for there was a card index kept 
from which it was possible to tell at a glance 
just what each man had received, and when, 
and inquiries regarding his comfort could 
be answered immediately. 

Often a convalescent soldier called at the 
78 



A Mothering Bureau 



Bureau to thank ladies for gifts, or to ask for 
a bag for small belongings, " like you got for 
Jones/' or for materials to embroider a 
cushion cover, " the same as Smith did when 
he was in hospital." 

Their letters told a grateful story. 

" My dear, kind friends/ 1 wrote a Canadian 
boy, " I do not know how to thank you for 
the kindness I have received at your hands. 
When the Comforts Bag came I was over- 
whelmed by the contents. If the people in 
Canada realized the good the Society was 
doing among the sick and wounded here 
the subscriptions would come in even better 
than they do.' 1 

" It's sure like Christmas/' wrote another, 
" and I was the kid looking at the Christmas 
stocking when I got your present s." 

Drives and entertainments for officers and 
men were also a feature of the work. When 
you asked the charming Canadian girl in 
charge of a chart, telling what was arranged 
for each day in the week, to show it to you, 
you were amazed to see the organization 
demanded for this work. A car was asked to 

79 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



take Lieut. out for the first time. Then 

ten soldiers were invited to the theatre, and 
the Bureau arranged to take them and to 
bring them back. A popular actor or actress 
called or telephoned and offered to arrange a 
hospital entertainment, and all the details 
had to be attended to. 

1 There was one stream of engagements, all 
for the pleasure of the sick and wounded. 
In six months alone 3,000 drives were 
arranged. 

Nor were the officers forgotten, for they 
were Canadian " boys " as well. It was 
hardly fully realized in Canada that all 
Canadian officers on furlough, or on leave after 
being discharged from hospital, had splendid 
chances to see the British Isles under delight- 
ful auspices, for the Information Bureau was 
inundated with invitations from people with 
fine houses and country estates, asking 
Canadian officers to be their guests. Any 
Canadian officer could apply to the Bureau 
and find himself a welcome and honoured 
visitor in an English or Scottish home. 
In three years nearly 3,000 Canadian officers 

80 



A Mothering Bureau 



were thus entertained by between 200 and 
300 hostesses. 

Each wounded officer received from Lady 
Drummond, as soon as he entered hospital, 
a kindly letter offering the services of the 
Bureau, suggesting callers, if visitors were 
desired, Canadian newspapers, or a drive, if 
the patient felt well enough to go out. 

The last sentence was most tactful, when 
one remembers that small things like answer- 
ing letters look large to a sick man, " If at 
present there is nothing we can do, please 
accept this assurance without feeling under 
an obligation to reply. " 

Tragic yet comforting was the part of the 
work that dealt with the killed and missing, 
and with those of whose death and burial 
details were desired. This was called the 
Permanent Casualties Branch, and the total 
number recorded from 1915 was 59,420. 

Fortnightly lists of the missing were sup- 
plied to the branches of the British Red Cross 
Society at home and abroad, and the searchers 
of the Society endeavoured to get news of 
those missing from the Canadian contingents. 

Sz 6 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



Later, the work was extended to embrace 
all Canadian depots and camps in England. 
All information obtained was filed, examined 
and, if necessary, revised before being sent 
by the Bureau when thought advisable 
to the relatives. It was, one need hardly 
say, of the greatest comfort to the sorrowing 
families, who had received only the terribly 
bald official notice. The little personal 
tributes brought the dead nearer ; they broke 
the awful silence. They gave the mourners 
a vivid picture of the last moments of one 
of the heroes of the war ; they put an end to 
that hope deferred which maketh the heart 
sick. 

Facts gleaned by patient questioning of 
wounded men from the same batteries and 
battalions were very pathetic. Each paper 
meant a heart-break for someone. One 
touched them reverently and read the little 
statements with wet eyes. 

" He was a fine officer. We loved him, and 
we'd have done anything he asked/' 

" He said to me in the morning, ' I feel so 
happy to-day ' ; then the attack came, and he 

82 



A Mothering Bureau 



stood up and shouted to cheer us on, and then 
he fell, and was very still and died." 

" I helped to bury him and I felt very bad. 
He was a splendid man and so popular with 
the boys. He never thought of himself, 
only of us." 

" He was my chum and I saw him killed " 

were among the sentences on the report forms. 

In one year 7,500 inquiries were received ; 

10,500 letters were sent, and 4,600 reports 

received from the searchers. 

The incidental work of the Bureau was 
varied and most interesting. Here, as in all 
the Bureau work, its founder's influence was 
felt. 

Soldiers came in to ask for advice about 
drawing their money ; or for news of their 
families in Canada ; or for help in getting 
furlough before returning to Canada. 

Letters came from mothers who had lost 
track of their sons, and each begged to know 
if her boy was wounded. If his name was 
not on a card the Record Office was communi- 
cated with, and the son gently urged to write 
home oftener. 

83 6* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



Sometimes a disabled man wanted to be 
met at a station and helped to obtain a suit- 
able room on his stay in London. Once in a 
while a man called at the Red Cross Bureau, 
to see if someone would take him in hand, so 
to speak, while he was in London on leave, as 
he had promised his mother not to get into bad 
company ! Honesty urges one to state, how- 
ever, that such a case was unusual. 

I have known a visitor make a savoury 
stew and take it to a special ward where 
an exchanged prisoner-of-war, very weak and 
listless, needed to be tempted to eat. 

" Those Red Cross girls are good/ 1 he 
remarked afterwards. " They set to and 
heated up that stew on my little stove, and 
I did manage to eat it, though I thought I 
never wanted to eat again." 

What did the Bureau do in the Great War ? 
It were easier to say what it did not do. 
To some it gave kit-bags, chewing-gum, 
cigarettes or a special crutch. To others 
renewed interest in a changed life ; to all the 
knowledge that they were cared for as 
individuals. 

34 



A Mothering Bureau 



It represented the unselfish kindness that 
placed work and thought for others far above 
personal needs and wishes and selfish sorrow. 
It linked the people waiting and watching at 
home to their men whose names appeared on 
the Roll of Honour. It was a deputy for all 
the mothers and wives longing to make the 
time of suffering easier. In a word, it 
represented a human and personal side to 
that awful thing called War. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE RED CROSS HOSPITALS AND HOMES 



'"T^HE early days of Red Cross work 
seemed very far away when on a 
glorious April afternoon many Canadians 
walked through the lovely green parks and 
woods of Cliveden, to the sheltered Italian 
garden where there lay at rest forty officers, 
nursing sisters, and men who had given their 
lives for the cause of Right, and were buried 
in that peaceful spot. 

A beautiful place in which to lie waiting 
for the day when the dead shall be raised. 
In the green grass are the graves, each with 
its small, flat stone on which is told the 
simple story of one who gave his life that 
others might live in safety. At one side a 
little fountain trickles and murmurs ; over- 
head the birds sing in the stillness ; all 
around the dead are sloping banks of green. 

89 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



High above the sleeping soldiers stands the 
figure symbolizing Victory over Death, which 
is the Canadian Red Cross memorial to those 
who have gone. 

At the feet of the noble figure are the 
beautiful words : " But the souls of the 
righteous are in the hand of God, and there 
shall no torment touch them. In the sight 
of the unwise they seem to die and their 
departure is taken for misery and their going 
from us to be utter destruction, but they are 
in peace. For God proved them and found 
them worthy for Himself." 

This Garden of God stands as a lasting 
memorial to the work and the sympathy 
which made the Duchess of Connaught's 
Canadian Red Cross Hospital a happy place 
for 24,000 patients from all parts of the 
Empire, who were cared for there during the 
war. 

When the Canadian Red Cross opened the 
Duchess of Connaught's Canadian Red Cross 
Hospital at Cliveden, in the lovely grounds 
so generously lent by Major the Hon. Waldorf 
Astor, M.P., and Mrs. Astor, who never 

90 



The Red Cross Hospitals and Homes 

ceased to be kind and generous friends to the 
hospital, the Society little dreamed that 
before the war ended it would have provided 
the Canadian Army Medical Service with 
hospital accommodation of about 3,700 
beds in England and France. But this was 
done by the erection, adapting, and equipping 
of special hospital buildings, by the addition 
of wards to existing hospitals for special 
treatment in England and France, and by the 
renting and equipping of existing buildings. 

The Duchess of Connaught's Hospital was 
begun with no beds, and by degrees pavilions 
were erected until a total number of 1,040 
beds were ready for occupation. 

This work of enlarging was followed with 
intense interest in Canada as well as in 
England, and it was a proud day for the Red 
Cross when the War Office stated that 
Cliveden Hospital was along lines superior 
to any military hospital in England, and the 
War Executive Committee, in a resolution, 
not only appreciated the valuable work which 
had been achieved by the Canadian Red 
Cross in connection with the hospital, but 

91 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



" congratulates Colonel Hodge tts, Canadian 
Red Cross Commissioner, on the perfection 
which has been attained in this hospital/' 

Their Majesties the King and Queen 
were among the visitors to the hospital, and 
Her Majesty Queen Alexandra was so pleased 
with her inspection that she gave permission 
for a ward to be called the Queen Alexandra 
Ward. 

As the hospital was the first-born of the 
Society there were many individuals and 
associations throughout Canada who had a 
special regard for this particular work of the 
Red Cross, and gave evidence of this regard 
throughout the years of the war. 

From the very beginning there were warm 
friends who sewed and knitted for Cliveden, 
while from the Atlantic to the Pacific money 
was sent to provide beds in the hospital. 
Some branches gave several beds at a time, 
and as a rule a new branch began its good 
work by collecting for at least one bed. 
Russell, Ont., for instance, during the 
first six weeks of its career, presented two 
beds to the Duchess of Connaught's Hos- 

92 



The Red Cross Hospitals and Homes 

pital. Other branches offered gifts towards 
the equipment, while dainties of various 
kinds, such as maple syrup, jam, apples and 
good plum cake, " made in Canada/' arrived 
with gratifying frequency. 

It was not only in Canada that this interest 
was felt. The kind-hearted people of the 
neighbourhood of the hospital sent fresh eggs 
each week to the soldiers, and often home- 
made cake for Sunday tea as well, which 
was welcomed with joy. 

Royal interest in the work of the Canadian 
Red Cross was again shown by His Majesty 
the King, when he graciously offered a site 
in beautiful Bushey Park, for a Canadian Red 
Cross Convalescent Hospital, and gave per- 
mission to have the hospital called the King's 
Canadian Red Cross Convalescent Hospital. 
This was erected and equipped for 406 beds, 
at a cost of about 24,000, and proved of 
much value. 

The I.O.D.E. Hospital, equipped by Colonel 
and Mrs. Gooderham, was also cared for by 
the Red Cross, though not a Red Cross 
Hospital, The next thorough Canadian Red 

93 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



Cross Hospital was the Special Hospital at 
Buxton, in the Peak Hotel, which was 
followed by the Princess Patricia Canadian 
Red Cross Hospital at Ramsgate, with its 
1,040 beds. Unhappily the frequent air 
raids made this healthy spot " unhealthy " 
in the war meaning of the word, and it was 
eventually removed to Cooden Beach, where 
the Red Cross erected new buildings. 

The latest and one of the most interesting 
hospitals under the care of the Red Cross, 
was the Officers' Hospital in the Petrograd 
Hotel, London, which was opened in response 
to the ever-growing demand for a hospital 
for Canadian officers in London, the I.O.D.E. 
Hospital having been found too small. 

The Officers' Hospital was situated in a 
very central part of London, close to Oxford 
Street, in a sunny, convenient hotel. This 
had to be adapted to use as a hospital, but 
in an amazingly short space of time from 
the date at which the premises were taken 
over three months to be exact the place 
was altered, adapted, redecorated and 
equipped with 170 beds, and opened to 

94 



The Red Cross Hospitals and Homes 

patients. The new hospital was a success 
from the beginning, as it was considered 
one of the most complete and best equipped 
of all the military hospitals in London, and 
yet another instance of the efficiency of the 
Canadian Red Cross Society. 

A hospital which is a monument in France 
to the Canadian Red Cross is the splendidly- 
equipped modern one at Joinville-le-Pont, 
near Paris, which was handed over to the 
people of France on July 3rd, 1918, when Sir 
Robert Borden made the presentation to 
M. Poincare, in the presence of Colonel Noel 
Marshall and Colonel Blaylock, representing 
the Society. It is a hospital of 520 beds, and 
the Red Cross also erected buildings for the 
personnel. 

In the case of all the Red Cross hospitals, 
the Society kept the equipment of all kinds 
up to date and supplied every need as it 
arose. 

If new instruments were wanted, even, 
the Red Cross supplied them ; if a special 
bed would make a weary man more com- 
fortable, the Red Cross sent it ; if certain 

95 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



contrivances for wounded shoulders and 
fractured femurs seemed desirable, the Red 
Cross saw that they were provided as quickly 
as possible. 

The enormous amount of detail work con- 
nected with these hospitals was apt to be 
overlooked. The work connected with the 
insurance of the Red Cross properties alone 
was a matter which required the most careful 
attention, while the accounts for equipment 
and for maintenance (before the Medical 
Services took over the big hospitals) involved 
an immense deal of labour. 

It must be remembered that all these 
fine hospitals, caring for thousands and thou- 
sands of sick and wounded men during the 
long years of war, did not exhaust the list 
of buildings for their use provided by the 
Red Cross. 

Constantly the Society erected and 
equipped in England and France recreation 
huts and games rooms, canteens, workshops, 
special wards for various types of cases, 
gymnasia, nurses' quarters and other build- 
ings, besides adapting some already in 

96 



The Red Cross Hospitals and Homes 

existence, to make them suitable for the 
needs of the patients or the nurses. 

Most of the Canadian hospitals in England 
and in France could point to some special 
building as the gift of the Red Cross, and in 
any emergency, or in the case of any need, 
the supplying of which meant extra comfort 
for the patients, the Medical Officers and 
the Matrons knew they had only to turn 
to the Red Cross to be sure of a speedy 
response. 

For the officers in need of rest and for the 
Nursing Sisters as well, the Red Cross cared. 
Moor Court, Sidmouth, Devon, was a happy 
home for hundreds of Canadian officers for 
a time before returning to the Front, and 
the Canadian ladies in charge successfully 
distracted the minds of their guests from the 
horrors of war. Devon is an ideal part of 
the world in which to rest and recover, and 
many gallant flying men and others will 
recall in future years the days spent in the 
balmy air, amid the soft greens and in the 
long cool lanes of one of the loveliest counties 
in England. The Red Cross also equipped 

97 7 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



the Manor House, Bexhill, for an Officers' 
Casualty Company. 

The Nursing Sisters had a warm friend in 
the Red Cross. In the very first winter of 
the war the Society opened a small rest 
house, lent by the Hon. Mrs. Graham 
Murray, and in charge of a Nursing Sister. 
Later on a home was opened at Margate, 
and Nursing Sisters enjoyed a rest in the 
bracing air until the air raids by the Germans 
made the whole East Coast unpopular. 
Finally, in January, 1918, a splendid rest 
house was opened in London, at 66, Ennis- 
more Gardens, S.W., a beautiful mansion 
lent to the Red Cross, fully furnished, by 
Colonel Gretton, M.P., and the Hon. Mrs. 
Gretton, who never ceased to be interested 
in their guests. 

It must have seemed a Paradise to the tired, 
nerve-racked nurses who arrived from France, 
and were made welcome by the Red Cross in 
most beautiful surroundings. For the time 
being the Sisters were at home. They 
received their own visitors whenever they 
wished, and many pleasant gatherings took 

9* 



The Red Cross Hospitals and Homes 

place in the big drawing-room of the Rest 
House or, in the summer-time, on the shaded 
loggia at the back of the house, where 
officers and Sisters who had shared the 
experiences of a strenuous campaign met 
and exchanged news of the B.E.F. 

The Sisters and V.A.D.'s represented 
Canada well, for at times there were nurses 
from every Province in Canada staying in 
the house, able to tell war stories of the 
East and of France, as well as of England. 

Some of them had been in bombed hospitals 
and some in torpedoed ships ; others were 
familiar with base hospitals in France, or 
with Casualty Clearing Stations within sound 
of the guns, while the V.A.D.'s included girls 
who were driving ambulances in France, as 
a constant stream of wounded men came 
down from the Front to the base, as well as 
those who had helped to nurse the soldiers. 
There was not one who could not also tell 
from personal experience something of the 
work, in both France and England, of the 
Red Cross, whose hospitality she was enjoy- 
ing, for its activities were far reaching. 

99 7* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



As time went on and demobilization began, 
the Rest House became more and more 
popular. London was crowded, and the 
Nursing Sisters arriving from France and 
waiting for a passage to Canada, would have 
found it difficult to get suitable accommoda- 
tion if it had not been for the Rest House, 
where as many as sixty at a time were in 
residence, the accommodation resembling the 
widow's cruse* 

There were many nurses beside those 
enjoying the comfort of the Rest Houses in 
London and in Boulogne (described in 
another chapter) who were indebted to the 
Society. At Bushey Park, for example, the 
Red Cross equipped a building as a Nurses' 
Home for the Sisters on duty, and the same 
thing was done for the Sisters nursing at the 
Red Cross Hospital at Buxton. In Buxton, 
also, was a Sisters' Convalescent Home pro- 
vided by the Society. A Nursing Sisters' 
Home was opened at Folkestone, and after 
the Canadian Red Cross Officers' Hospital 
in the Hotel Petrograd was established, the 
Society took over and equipped a house in 

100 



The Red Cross Hospitals and Homes 

London, not far from the hospital, for the 
accommodation of the Nursing Sisters con- 
nected therewith. 

The Society also provided and equipped 
a maternity home for the wives of Canadian 
soldiers stationed in the Seaford area, and 
while demobilization was progressing, opened 
a hostel at Buxton, where the wives and 
children of the soldiers could stay while 
they waited for the boat which should take 
them to Canada. 

A list of names and figures is necessarily 
uninteresting. Such an account as this gives 
little idea of all the care and thought and 
sympathy which lay behind the equipping 
of hospitals and homes, and the provision 
of huts and canteens, special wards and 
workshops. Yet those qualities made the 
spirit behind the bricks and mortar, the 
boards and the furniture a spirit breathing 
helpfulness and compassion and strong 
friendship for all whose only qualification 
was that they needed the help the Red Cross 
could give. 

To take one instance alone, what must the 

101 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



Canadian Red Cross Rest Hut at Shorn- 
cliffe have meant to all the thousands of 
tired and often lonely men who used it 
through the many months in which it offered 
them a,, welcome and a comfortable resting- 
place ? Daily, except on Sundays, it was 
open, and men coming from the auxiliary 
hospitals in the neighbourhood, as well as 
patients arriving straight from France, via 
Boulogne and Folkestone, tired and weak 
and homesick, found it a glimpse of home-life 
and comfort. Sick and wounded Canadian 
soldiers passing through Shorncliffe Military 
Hospital or waiting for a Medical Board, 
spent many cheerful hours at the hut, where 
the kindness and care of their own people 
still surrounded them and the hand of the 
Red Cross of Canada's many Provinces was 
stretched out to give " the boys " greeting. 

No record of this side of Red Cross work 
would be complete without special reference 
to the fact that from December, 1914, 
throughout the entire period of the war, Major 
C. F. Skipper, the well-known Cambridge 
architect, was responsible for the successful 

102 



The Red Cross Hospitals and Homes 

designing, adapting, and equipping of all the 
Society's hospitals, homes, recreation huts, 
etc., both in England and in France. 

HOSPITAL ACCOMMODATION PROVIDED IN 
ENGLAND AND IN FRANCE, AND COST OF 
BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 

IN ENGLAND 

Total amount expended on buildings and equipment 
erected, acquired or maintained by the Canadian 
Red Cross Society 170,771 135. 8d. 

Hospital accommodation provided for 3,175 beds. 

IN FRANCE 

Total amount expended on buildings and equipment 
acquired, erected or maintained by the Canadian 
Red Cross Society 88,233 I2 s- od. 

Hospital accommodation provided for 610 beds.* 

*As this book is being corrected for the press the announce- 
ment is made that the Canadian Red Cross has added to its 
long list of generous and useful actions the presentation to the 
London County Council, through His Majesty the King, for the 
use of delicate children, of the Canadian Red Cross Hospital 
at Bushey Park, completely equipped and freshly decorated. 
His Majesty has also placed Upper Lodge, Bushey, which was 
lent to the Canadian Red Cross, at the disposal of the London 
County Council. The King suggested that each ward in the 
children's hospital should be called after one of his children. 

In addition, the Red Cross has presented to the Corporation 
of Birmingham, for the use of children, part of the Duchess of 
Connaught's Hospital at Taplow, including Queen Alexandra 
Wards i and 2, Saskatchewan and Manitoba Wards, and 
nurses' sleeping quarters at Taplow Lodge (with full equip- 
ment), to accommodate 200 children; making a total number 
of over 700 beds in the two hospitals. 

103 



CHAPTER VII 

" ALL PRISONERS AND CAPTIVES " 



TTIFTEEN hundred Canadians were taken 
prisoners of war at the Second Battle 
of Ypres. Not a single man was captured 
who was not either wounded or gassed. 

The story of the Canadian Red Cross 
Prisoners of War Department begins with 
this inspiring fact. Its history of four years' 
work, for its duties did not end when the 
Armistice was signed, is worthy of the heroism 
of the men for whom the Department worked 
so magnificently and so efficiently. Canadian 
soldiers taken prisoner by the enemy never 
fell below the high standards of the British 
soldier as a whole. Courage, hope, pride and 
endurance were their conspicuous qualities. 

The tale of the years of imprisonment 
suffered by many British soldiers, from all 
parts of the Empire, under the brutal tyranny 

107 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



of the Germans, can never be told in all 
its completeness, partly because it involves 
a more receptive mind and a keener imagina- 
tion on the part of the hearer than the average 
person possesses. What is known, however, 
must thrill everyone with pride in such a 
race, for it is the story of a spirit unbroken 
by cruelty, hardship and loneliness. 

" I was a prisoner for three years/' said 
a Canadian corporal to the writer, " and I 
saw a great deal in that time. I never saw 
a British soldier, no matter where he was 
from, who had his spirit crushed by his im- 
prisonment. The Germans could not under- 
stand us. It was beyond them that a man 
could be ill-treated, half-starved, and con- 
stantly told that his side was losing, and yet 
keep a good heart and laugh in their faces." 

It was for over four thousand such men 
as this that the Department toiled un- 
remittingly, and saved its charges from 
starvation and despair. 

" Starvation/' may be taken literally. 
Men writing from Holland and from Switzer- 
land, and later talking in England of what 

108 



All Prisoners and Captives 



they had endured, spoke of the parcels as 
having saved their lives. 

In one letter this was vividly put. 

" At last I am able to write to thank you 
and your helpers/' wrote one man, " for 
what you have done for me and my unfor- 
tunate comrades who are still prisoners in 
the worst country on God's earth. I can 
assure you had it not been for the parcels 
which we got right through that miserable 
existence, well, there would have been only 
one thing for it about six feet of wood. 
I believe firmly all the boys would have 
been on the departed list by now, myself 
included. " 

" No one but a prisoner of war/' wrote 
another Canadian, " can appreciate what 
all the good things sent by the Canadian 
Red Cross meant to us. In fact, if it was 
not for you people back home I question 
if some of us would ever have seen the out- 
side of Germany again." 

I never hear certain sentiments usually 
prefaced by the words : " After all, the war 
is over, and we won, so why ..." without 

109 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



thinking of things told to me by repatriated 
men. 

I never hear of a " converted " Germany 
without recalling the indignant face of a 
Sister who told of a badly wounded man, 
just back from Germany, who woke in the 
night crying, " Don't ! Don't ! " with his 
arm across his face. And the story of another 
Canadian who, wasted and worn with pain 
and privation, asked a German orderly for 
a drink of water. The man brought it 
and bent as if to hold it to the lips of the 
helpless Canadian. Then, laughing, he sipped 
from the glass himself, and spat the water 
into the face of the wounded man. 

I .never hear anyone speak of the decent 
German people, led astray by rulers, without 
remembering the man from Toronto, a bad 
amputation case, who said he shivered when 
his nurse drew near, for she used to pinch 
him when she dressed the wound and twist 
the bandages. 

And I think also of the Canadian who 
lay in the bed next to a wounded English- 
man with a broken jaw and an injured hand, 

no 



All Prisoners and Captives 



The German doctor came to amputate the 
man's finger without giving him anything 
to deaden the pain. When the soldier in- 
voluntarily cried out the German struck 
him in the face, breaking open his wound 
afresh. 

The Second Battle of Ypres, when Canada 
read the heart-breaking lists of killed and 
wounded and missing, and her soul, as a 
nation, was born in anguish, threw into the 
hands of the enemy men who had been 
wounded when Canada saved the situation, 
and men who had suffered the horrors of the 
first gas attack. 

No sooner did the lists begin to trickle 
in than the Canadian Red Cross decided 
that help must be sent immediately to the 
Canadians thus suffering. Mrs. Rivers 
Bulkeley was asked to take charge of a 
Prisoners of War Department. She opened 
her little office of one room with two helpers. 
She remained in charge until the signing 
of Peace. Her first list contained 180 names. 
When war ended there were 4,500 on the 
files. 

in 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



Regularly the lists of all British prisoners 
of war were sent from the German Red Cross, 
through Geneva. From these lists, detailed 
and curt, Mrs. Rivers Bulkeley took the names 
of Canadian prisoners, with all details, and 
was able to relieve the minds of their families. 
Also to send at once the welcome parcels, 
of which about 90 per cent, reached their 
destination, though sometimes they were 
tampered with. 

If 90 per cent, of the parcels were received, 
the thought of the men who got none was 
saddening. This small remnant cut off from 
friends and help was a tragic band. About 
forty or fifty men were heard from once only 
by the Canadian Red Cross, and then silence. 
One post card had come from Limburg, 
which was a clearing station for correspond- 
ence, and after that nothing. 

Included in this Red Cross list were the 
officers and men who died in German camps, 
and those who were reported by the Germans 
to have died or to have been found dead in 
occupied territory, but were not registered 
in German camps. Their tragedies can only 

ZI2 



All Prisoners and Captives 



be guessed at. There were also those who 
died in other countries on their way, by 
degrees, to England and to Canada ; those 
who escaped (one officer and 88 other ranks) 
and the 355 who were repatriated before 
the Armistice. 

The list included also two officers and 
152 other ranks from the Newfoundland 
Regiment, 119 officers in other units, as well 
as officers and men of the Merchant Service, 
a few civilian and a round dozen of men 
of Allied nations who were helped by the 
Canadian Red Cross* 

The system by which the names were 
filed and indexed was well-nigh perfect. 
In the card index was to be found a complete 
record of every officer and man who had 
been a prisoner of war, so that it was possible 
to find in a moment in what camps each 
man had been, where he was at the time, 
and what he had received from the Red 
Cross. 

Mysterious numbers on the cards meant 
the German camps. A map on the wall of 
the Department showed where all the camps 

113 8 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



were situated and the use of a number saved 
time and trouble. 

The complete history of a prisoner was 
especially interesting when the word " Hol- 
land " or " Switzerland " occurred, and even 
more satisfying was the word " Repatriated " 
or " Escaped." Some cards told that a man 
had died in captivity, others held the name 
of a dead man of whom no other information 
was obtainable. 

The trials of the work would fill pages, 
for there were frequent changes in the regu- 
lations, on the part of both British and Ger- 
man Governments, which involved new rules 
for the Department and much anxiety lest 
the men should suffer. 

During the first few weeks the Depart- 
ment received the names of about twenty 
camps and hospitals in Germany where 
Canadians were prisoners of war. The chief 
ones were Minister, Giessen and Gottingen. 
From all came letters from the men asking 
for food and comforts, and parcels were sent 
at once. Money poured in from Canada, 
from the Canadian Red Cross Society and 

114 



All Prisoners and Captives 



from the friends of the men. Some of the 
latter informed the Department that they 
would care for their own men, while people 
in various parts of Canada offered to adopt 
a prisoner. 

At the end of the first year there were about 
1,400 Canadian prisoners of war, some of 
whom were assigning a certain sum from their 
pay to help in covering the cost of the parcels, 
while about 500 received parcels from people 
who sent money for the purpose. 

Towards the close of 1916 the whole 
question of prisoners of war was reorganized, 
and a Central Committee was appointed by 
the War Office to have full control over 
questions affecting prisoners. 

The Canadian Red Cross Prisoners of War 
Department became the Care Committee 
for Canadian Prisoners of War, under this 
Central Committee, which at once stopped 
all personal parcels, giving authority only 
to certain shops and certain associations 
to send parcels to the men. This caused 
great dissatisfaction to the men and to their 
families, but in the end everyone realized 

115 8* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



that there was nothing to be done but submit 
to the rules. 

The Canadian Red Cross finally decided 
to send three los. parcels fortnightly as 
the amount was limited by rule each parcel 
weighing ten pounds. This was in addition 
to bread, which was sent from Berne and from 
Copenhagen. 

The Canadian Red Cross sent to the 
prisoners a total of three tons of parcels 
daily, a ton of sugar and half a ton of tea 
weekly, which gives some idea of the amount 
of work involved. Every six months a good 
supply of warm clothing was sent to each 
prisoner of war, and once a year he received 
a greatcoat. On alternate fortnights the 
men were sent half a pound of tobacco and 
250 cigarettes. Books, games, gramophones, 
footballs and boxing gloves were also allowed 
under certain conditions and helped to make 
life more endurable for the prisoners. 

During the war 472,511 parcels of food 
and 57,745 of clothing, besides tobacco and 
cigarettes, were sent to the prisoners of 
war, at a total cost of 258,639 us. 5d. 

116 



All Prisoners and Captives 



For a long time the packing was done at 
certain large stores, under the auspices of 
a Red Cross worker, but latterly the packing 
was done by voluntary workers in a building 
close to the Red Cross Headquarters in Lon- 
don. Parcels were filled, packed and labelled 
with the greatest expedition and skill. As 
many as 1,000 daily were put up. A box 
started at one end of a long table empty, 
and passed from hand to hand until it was 
filled and tied up, and in the case where an 
" adopter " shared the expense the name of 
this friend was put on the label. All parcels 
were then entered in battalion order on 
Post Office dispatching sheets, with the 
name, battalion and number of each man, 
and a duplicate of the list was receipted by 
the Post Office, returned to the Red Cross 
and filed. 

The parcels were packed in sacks, and 
sealed by the General Post Office before 
leaving the Red Cross premises, and a Red 
Cross lorry took them to the station. From 
the time they left London they were not 
opened until they crossed the German frontier* 

117 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



An interesting feature of the packing, 
by the way, was the addition of extras asked 
for by the men. These included such articles 
as wigs, false teeth, hair dye, spectacles, and 
sewing materials, wool and knitting needles 
for the industrious. 

The cards from the men acknowledging 
the parcels were filed methodically, and a 
book, very carefully kept, had pages spaced 
in squares, under each man's name, in which 
were entered the dates of the sending of his 
parcels, and the date at which his receipt 
arrived. Careful record was also kept of 
the dates when a man was heard from. If 
three months passed without word the 
Department wrote for news of his welfare. 

The personal link between the Depart- 
ment and the men was strong, and the friend- 
ship of the Red Cross with the families of 
the prisoners of war was a comfort to many 
parents and wives so far away from their 
men. 

The correspondence carried on by the 
Department was necessarily enormous, for 
the Red Cross not only kept in touch with 

Tl8 



All Prisoners and Captives 



the men and with the families in Canada, 
but acted as intermediary with the Canadian 
Pay and Record Offices. Two and three 
hundred letters daily were received, and the 
cards of thanks and acknowledgment arrived 
in huge bundles. 

There were few grumbles in the letters. 
Most of them contained such expressions 
as these : 

" It fails me to express my gratitude for 
the fine parcels of goods and clothing/ 1 

" I have received three parcels, all in fine 
condition. You can imagine my thoughts 
when they come and I know I am not for- 
gotten/ 1 

" I think I can say we are the best pro- 
vided for in this camp/* 

" I can wish you all success and I do. 
Yours through thick and thin/' 

When the exchanged wounded prisoners 
reached England and were visited by their 
friends of the Red Cross, it was pathetic 
to find that one of the earliest demands was 
for news of the engagement in which they 
had been wounded and captured. Few of 

119 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



them even knew the name of the battle. 
Consequently they read with absorbed in- 
terest the account of the famous fight, 
and of the doings of the various units, 
and begged for news of their personal 
friends. 

None who saw them will forget the miser- 
able state in which some of the prisoners 
arrived, and their tales of the conditions in 
many of the German hospitals. Yet there 
was surprisingly little bitterness in the manner 
in which they told their stories. Many of 
them talked with an impersonal interest of 
their experiences, and some of them referred 
to " Fritz/* not with hatred, but as if he were 
some extraordinary freak of nature, rather 
amusing than otherwise. 

One Canadian was much annoyed with 
the German ignorance of British links. 

"When I was wounded and taken," he 
said, " they had to keep me till the next 
day without seeing a doctor, for our boys 
were sending over some souvenirs. When 
the doctor examined me he looked at my 
Maple Leaf badge, and said in good English : 

130 



All Prisoners and Captives 



' Serve you right, Yankee Doodle ! What 
business was it of yours ? ' 

" Say, can you beat it ? " 

I recall another cheerful ex-prisoner who 
arrived in England minus a foot. He told 
with glee of the unsuccessful efforts of the 
Germans to depress him. 

" Some of their good singers/' he said, 
" used to come to the hospital to sing to the 
patients about Germany over all and dope 
of that kind. Well, when they heard that I 
was part of the cursed English they came 
to call on me. As I didn't understand 
German well they told me in English that 
they were going to sing of their hatred for 
England and her wicked people, and they 
did, and made faces to show their fright- 
fulness." 

" And what did you do ? " 

" Me ? Say, I pretended to think they 
were doing comic stunts, and the harder 
they sang the more I laughed and beat on 
the side of my bed to show what a good time 
I was having. They didn't come again," 
he finished meditatively. 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



" Heinle wasn't such a bad boy where 
I was," said another ; " he did a little 
morning hate sometimes, but we hadn't 
such a time as Smith there. Tell her about 
your Fritzes, Smith/' 

One visitor cheered up her repatriated 
friends greatly, though quite innocent of 
any intent to be humorous. 

Two men from the same hospital were 
showing souvenirs, among them a photo- 
graph of a group of patients and nurses in 
a German hospital. 

" This is very interesting/' she remarked, 
" as one can pick out so easily the British 
prisoners from the German patients. Now 
this one, who looks like an escaped convict, 
could only be a Hun." 

" That's me in want of a shave," remarked 
her Canadian host, to the riotous joy of the 
rest of the party. 

When the general exchange of prisoners 
of war was begun in January, 1918, under 
the Hague Agreement, Mrs. Rivers Bulkeley 
was one of the Reception Committee, formed 
by the British Red Cross, to meet the men, 

122 



u 



All Prisoners and Captives 



to distribute flowers and cards with a message 
from the King, and afterwards to visit them 
in hospital. Sometimes this Committee 
waited weary hours at a London station 
for the men, and occasionally the monotony 
was broken by an air-raid warning. 

In November, 1918, came the Armistice, 
and the Canadians began pouring back to 
England, free men. One of their first visits 
was to the Red Cross office, where they 
registered their names, asked for letters, 
and thanked in person the ladies who had 
proved such staunch friends. 

Any day you might see in the ante-room 
of the Department young Canadians who 
had looked in to report themselves and to 
shake hands. Many had already been wel- 
comed by the Red Cross, for both at Ripon 
and at Dover, where the men landed, Red 
Cross representatives helped to receive them, 
and notified their friends by cable or telegram 
of their arrival, while at Dover there was a 
Canadian Red Cross Rest Room. 

London was greatly overcrowded when the 
men began to arrive after the Armistice, 

123 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



and there was a difficulty about securing 
accommodation. Quickly the Red Cross 
turned its Prisoners of War Packing Depart- 
ment into a Hostel, and within three days 
of the time the idea was suggested there were 
eighty beds ready. A total number of five 
hundred men enjoyed a comfortable bed and 
breakfast as the guests of the Red Cross. 
Nor had they found their way alone to this 
haven. They were met at the station by 
the Overseas Reception Committee, with 
lorries, and brought direct to the Hostel. 

The record of the Canadian Prisoners of 
War Department and of those whom they 
served is a fine one. There is sorrow too, 
mingled with pride and the happiness of 
release, for one remembers the men who 
were kept behind the lines by their captors 
and suffered a living death. Some of them 
saw the defeat of Germany and returned 
in safety to England and to Canada. Of 
others one can only feel sure that to the 
last they upheld the honour of the Empire 
and kept unbroken the spirit which has been the 
wonder of the world during the years of war. 

124 



CHAPTER VIII 



" CANADA-IN-HOSPITAL " 



' \7OU certainly are a nice bunch of 
ladies ! " was the verdict of a Cana- 
dian who, during months of hospital life, 
had learned to look upon the Canadian Red 
Cross visitor as his friend, and the Parcel 
Department of the Information Bureau as 
the Fairy Godmother of the wounded soldier. 
And to this, the testimony of a wounded 
man, the visitor might have replied with 
truth : " The same to you/' only changing 
the last word to " boys. 11 

Canada was very proud of her men in the 
field ; she had quite as much reason to be 
proud of them when they were sick and 
wounded, for they were a credit to their 
country and to their mothers under all cir- 
cumstances. 

The cheerfulness of these wounded men 
127 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



and boys was wonderful. Some of them 
were in great pain, many suffered from 
wounds which forced them to lie for weeks 
in one position, almost all of them were 
thousands of miles away from kith and kin. 
Yet they never complained, they were always 
grateful and smiling and responsive. 

If you greeted a patient with, "Well, 
how are you this time ? " he usually answered 
with a smile, " Oh, not too bad ! " and 
generally hastened to tell that there was a 
new " Canada " in the ward who was very 
ill, and perhaps the Red Cross would send 
him some fruit or a paper from home to cheer 
him up. 

The men always roused themselves to talk 
about Canada and about the war, and to 
tell scraps of news about other patients 
or Sisters or even the orderlies, for the shrewd 
eye of every patient observed the orderly 
who was officiously busy, and guessed that 
he was hoping to " put up " another stripe. 

Their kindness and unselfishness to one 
another was remarkable. Sometimes they 
squabbled among themselves, to the amuse- 

128 



Canada-in-Hospital 



ment of the u Imperials/* over the deeds 
of their respective battalions or batteries, 
or as to the merits of various parts of Canada. 
It was a favourite gibe for the Westerner 
to mention, in rather a clear, loud voice, 
that there had been nothing to go East for 
till it was time to sail for England and the 
war, to which the involuntary and quite 
obvious reply of the Easterner was : " The 
h 1 there wasn't ! " But this outburst 
was not supposed to be overheard by visitors. 
Despite these little breezes the Canadians 
shared their treats and their news ; they 
were eager that each should have whatever 
gifts and attentions were enjoyed by one ; 
they established a reputation for helpfulness 
with the nurses and they were always popular 
with the visitors to the military hospitals. 

Visitors were a fruitful and legitimate 
source of interest, amusement and entertain- 
ment. Some were charming. Of others the 
best that can be said is that they meant well. 

I have sometimes wondered what would 
have been the feelings of " Lizzie/' for ex- 
ample, if she had known that she was called 

129 9 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



so by the ward because she looked like 
it! 

There was also the lady who brought fruit, 
and flavoured it with good advice and some 
forebodings as to the future state of the 
recipients, both spiritual and physical. 
" Weary Willie " was an eccentric padre in 
whom some friends of mine delighted, and 
another visitor to a certain ward supplied a 
pleasing anecdote, but for obvious reasons 
he did not provide more entertainment. 

He was a busy old gentleman, interested 
in emigration and the bonds between the 
Old Country and the " Colonies. " Unfortu- 
nately he tactlessly chose to attach himself 
to a Canadian from the West, who was ill 
and tired and not interested in broad ques- 
tions affecting Imperial relations. His one 
simple reply to all inquiries was, " Beat it ! " 

The expression was unfamiliar, but there 
was no doubt as to its meaning, so the visitor 
retired on his base and all was peace. 

It never failed to amuse the Canadians 
that the names familiar to them were mis- 
pronounced, and that some of the visitors 

130 



Canada~in-Hospital 



to the wards were vague as to Canadian 
distances. To mix up Halifax with Edmon- 
ton, and to think that Ontario was a town 
in New Brunswick was a great joke, and to 
teach and be taught the pronunciation of 
such words as Saskatchewan and Okanagan 
passed some cheery moments. 

It is the barest justice to speak with warm 
appreciation of the great kindness of the 
people of the Old Country to the Canadians 
in hospital. Of the thirteen hundred Cana- 
dian Red Cross visitors, a large number were 
English and Scottish, and their kindness and 
devotion to the men, their real friendship 
for them, and their anxiety to make the time 
pass pleasantly and to relieve home-sickness, 
was as great as that shown by the Canadian 
visitors. 

Warm-hearted people wishing to enter- 
tain wounded soldiers generally gave the 
preference to the overseas men, and if an 
occasional lonely Englishman or Scotsman 
grumbled a little and wished he had had the 
sense to join the Canadians, who had so much 
more done for them, he was usually reminded 

131 9* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



by Sister or by the other patients that these 
boys were thousands of miles from home 
and had no mothers or sisters or sweethearts 
to call upon them on visiting days. 

Most of the " Imperials " took a great 
interest in the visits and presents sent by 
the Canadian Red Cross, and frequently 
someone on crutches or with a bandaged 
arm would hobble along cheerfully to find 
a new " Canada/' lest he be overlooked. 
Then with unselfish satisfaction he would 
present to him a visitor wearing a Red Cross 
badge with a maple leaf, and speaking the 
familiar Canadian tongue. 

" Say, are you a real Canadian ? " was 
often the wistful preliminary to a long and 
cheerful conversation, which ended in photo- 
graphs of " my mother and father/ 1 my 
" little sister " and, perhaps, " my friend/' 
who, oddly enough, was always a girl, being 
produced and admired. 

One's acquaintance became large, varied 
and interesting during the war. 

I include among mine a bare-back rider in 
an American circus, who used to sew indus- 

132 



Canada-in-Hospital 



triously and at intervals read Ella Wheeler 
Wilcox. Another friend was an ex-cowboy 
sniper, whose dream of happiness was to live 
in the most out-of-the-way place in British 
Columbia, by the side of a stream where he 
could catch trout for breakfast, and where 
there was no noise except the murmur of 
the water and the stirring of the wind in 
the tops of the pines. 

" I think/' he once observed meditatively, 
" that I shall marry a squaw, and then she's 
sure not to talk about the war.' 1 

I also knew a tinsmith, a miner, a number 
of farmers, a brakesman on the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, a man who taught swimming 
at a summer resort, several deck hands on 
steamers, an organist, a lumberman, a pro- 
fessional hockey player, an assistant in a big 
dry goods store, an actor in the " movies " 
and a barber. 

They were very unlike in their peace in- 
terests and in the setting of their past lives. 
They were much alike in the things that 
count. Great kindness, friendliness and 
modesty, a wonderful courage, a passionate 

i33 I 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



devotion to Canada, and a sense of gratitude 
which nothing seemed to obscure. 

Many of the visitors treasure among their 
souvenirs of the war the letters from the men 
written after they left hospital. 

" Believe me, it's women like you behind 
the men that makes this game worth while/' 
wrote one to his visitor, and another wrote : 
" It was good to have known anyone so 
kind/ 1 

A letter ending " your loving friend, Jack " 
(Jack was nineteen, and very home-sick for 
Manitoba) contains the sentence : 

" I have just been duck-shooting, and I 
wish you had been here. You could have 
gone with me." 

The age of " the boys " varied, though 
the majority were young. 

The oldest soldier on my list was a big 
miner of sixty " Forty-nine is my official 
age/' he remarked, winking confidentially 
and the youngest was a handsome boy of 
eighteen, who had been in the army two 
years and had seen much fighting. He was 
known as " Baby " to the nurses. 

i34 



Canada-in-Hospital 



In December the delicate subject of age 
was mentioned to him. 

" I'm nineteen/' he declared indignantly. 
Then, being truthful, he wavered : ''At least, 
I'll be nineteen in August." 

On second thoughts there was one even 
younger than Baby. He was a plump, 
cheerful person, rather like a jolly puppy 
and quite as lovable. He claimed to have 
joined at fifteen and to have fought for two 
years through many battles. He was longing 
to get back to Canada, and his comments 
upon life as he saw it and upon the ways of 
an older civilization were joyous hearing. 

The work of the Parcel Department had 
much to do with the popularity of the visitors, 
though this does not mean that the friendship 
of the patients was cupboard love ! 

There was nothing, in reason, asked for 
that the " Parcels Ladies " under Mrs. David 
Fraser, did not supply quickly. 

In one morning's post requests for the 
following articles came in from visitors and 
from the men themselves a Canadian flag, 
a book-rest, port wine and eggs for influenza 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



patients (which were at the hospital two 
hours after being asked for), a wreath for the 
funeral of a Canadian soldier ; requests to 
cash cheques and to change money, for a 
make-up box to be used at a hospital enter- 
tainment, and for a special crutch, besides 
letters of grateful thanks from the men 
and letters from mothers and wives thanking 
the Red Cross for doing so much for the 
boys. 

Other gifts supplied by the Parcels Depart- 
ment were air-cushions, games, puzzles, 
materials for fancy-work, French, Russian, 
and Spanish books, water-colours to sketch, 
tobacco pouches, lighters, special boots, ob- 
tainable on the order of the Medical Officer, 
letter cases, eau-de-cologne, books and maga- 
zines, while " smokes " were a weekly issue. 

The patients had a catholic taste in litera- 
ture and personal preferences which had to 
be respected unless the reputation of the 
Parcel Department as a Universal Provider 
was to totter. 

" I don't want this book, thank you/ 1 
said one man. " It's full of dope about love. 

136 



Canada-in-Hospital 



I want adventures and spy stories ; not all 
this silly stuff about girls." 

Meekly the visitor took the volume to give 
it to a man with more tolerance for the force 
that makes the world go round, and in time 
the Parcel Department sent another book, 
warranted to be full of the most delightful 
and improbable adventures. 

" Did you like it ? " asked the visitor 
hopefully, on her next appearance in the 
ward. 

The cynic turned upon her a cold eye. 

" A girl pinched the guy in the end," he 
said reproachfully. 

No literature, however, had the same 
popularity as the Canadian newspaper. One 
of the first shy requests always was, " I 
suppose you haven't a paper from . . . ? " 
Montreal or Moncton or Winnipeg or Prescott, 
as the case might be, and every newspaper 
was handed about among the Canadians 
and read to the last line. 

None who visited the wounded could fail 
to be impressed with the fact that the men 
loved their own people, as well as their own 

137 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



country, with a strong, unselfish devotion. 
Over and over again a suffering boy, lying, 
perhaps, with an arm fastened in a certain 
position by an arrangement of pulleys, would 
say, " If you write don't tell my mother 
just how I am. Say I'm doing fine." 

One had had his right eye removed as the 
result of an accident. " Tell her something, 
but not that. She'll feel awful." 

Finally a report was concocted. " I'll 
say your general health is good and you are 
sitting at the table for tea, but you have some 
trouble with your eye," suggested the diplo- 
matic visitor. 

" Sure, that'll keep her from worrying," 
said the patient, satisfied. 

The devotion of the men to Canada was 
equally noticeable and quite as touching. 

There was a party once, where the guests 
were Ontario, Alberta and New Brunswick, 
and the hostess a Red Cross visitor. The 
party included a drive to beautiful Richmond 
Park, with a pause to see the view from the 
famous Terrace. 

Many and admiring were the comments 
138 



Canada-in-Hospital 



of two guests, but after a silence, during 
which patriotism struggled with one's duty 
to a hostess, the youngest, whose native 
Province may be guessed, broke out : 

" Oh yes, I know England's very lovely, 
as you say, but don't you think Canada's a 
pretty nice country ? I don't believe there's 
anything better than Canada. Say, perhaps 
you never saw the Thousand Islands ? You 
wouldn't think much of other places if you 
saw them ! " 

" It's a beautiful country, and everyone 
is so kind, but me for good old Canada every 
time ! " was a frequent exclamation when 
leave and places visited while on leave formed 
the subject of discussion. 

The chivalry and kindness of the men to 
one another was very beautiful. One boy, 
who had been in bed for a long time recover- 
ing from wounds, was at last to go for a drive 
in a Red Cross car. When the motor arrived 
and he was searched for, he was found sitting 
on the side of his bed, and refused to go 
out. 

" But you have looked forward to it for 
139 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



so long ! What is the matter ? Sister says 
you may go." 

Then it came out, bit by bit. Smith (his 
chum), who, by the way, was a Welshman, 
on the other side of the ward, was feel- 
ing bad to-day, and anyway, they had 
always planned to go out together, and 
somehow it would make Smith feel worse to 
think other people could go out and have 
drives and he just lay there, and so, " No, 
thank you. Perhaps we can go together 
another time, but I guess I'll just stay round 
the ward to-day." 

The war has left us a host of sorrowful, 
tragic memories. Those who have been 
spared personal grief share the grief of the 
world. But among the war recollections 
are happy ones as well as sad ones, and not 
the least of the happy memories are of the 
hours spent, during four years, in visiting 
Canada-in-Hospital God bless him ! 



140 



CHAPTER IX 

THE RED CROSS IN FRANCE 



IN St. Paurs Cathedral there is the grave 
of its great builder, Sir Christopher 
Wren, and above it the words : " Do ye 
seek his monument ? Then look around." 
Visiting France on two occasions during the 
war, and seeing at every turn the wonderful 
work of the Red Cross in the war zone, hear- 
ing on all sides the appreciation of this work, 
and watching the unselfish enthusiasm of the 
workers, I thought that the Red Cross could 
have no finer monument though unseen 
than the gratitude and appreciation of the 
Medical Officers, Matrons, and men, and the 
knowledge that both were deserved. 

The Red Cross owes this success largely to 
the man, who founded the work in the days 
when there was only one Hospital Unit in 
France, and we still talked proudly of " the " 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



Division ; the man who fought the difficulties 
and trials inseparable from such work in war- 
time ; whose enterprise and sympathy built 
up a structure which proved a rock of strength 
and comfort to many in need of assistance in 
a time of stress Col. H. W. Blaylock. 

Col. Blaylock (then Captain) went to 
France at the beginning of 1915 with the 
idea fixed in his mind that there was but one 
guide to the work of the Red Cross in the 
war zone, and that : when help was needed 
it must be given and given speedily. Upon 
that rule he and those who worked under him 
based all their efforts. The success of these 
one learns from the many tributes paid to the 
Red Cross when the Canadian Units were 
preparing to leave France, Belgium and 
Germany after those strenuous years of 
" glory and of grieving/' 

" For the last four years the Canadian Red 
Cross has been the Soldiers' Friend. . . . 
There was never a time when a request for 
supplies or aid of any kind was not met with 
courtesy and dispatch, " wrote the Corps 

D.D.M.S. 

144 



The Red Cross in France 



" The list of comforts and necessaries 
issued by the Red Cross to the men in the 
field is too long to mention ; the amount of 
enjoyment given and relief from suffering 
obtained can never be estimated.'* 

" In all the spheres of its useful work I 
cannot too strongly express my appreciation 
of the service of the Canadian Red Cross 
Society. 

" It is difficult to express adequately how 
much the Medical Service of the Division 
has been helped in its work by the generous 
aid so freely offered by your Society." 

These messages were received from the 
A.D.M.S. of the various Divisions, while 
one of the most inspiring letters of thanks 
came from the O.C. of a Canadian Casualty 
Clearing Station, returning from the Rhine, 
where the Canadians saw the climax of their 
service. 

" Now, on the completion of our duties/' 
he wrote, " I wish again to express the very 
high appreciation of all ranks of this C.C.S. 
to the Canadian Red Cross, who have supported 
us so nobly. We are proud of your record 

145 10 



The Maple Leafs Bed Cross 



and proud of those who have had to stay at 
home, but who made it possible. Backed by 
you, we have lacked nothing that would add 
to the comfort or aid the cure of our patients/' 

Looking at the record of splendid work in 
France one wonders how it was started, for 
precedents were limited and the greatness 
of the need made it necessary that there 
should be few errors of judgment. 

If you ask Col. Blaylock this question, 
as I did, he will most likely reply with some 
appreciations of the Canadian troops, of the 
Medical and Nursing Services, and of his own 
staff, but with little detail of his share in the 
organization of Red Cross work. 

" One of my clearest memories/' he said 
one day, " is of that original crossing to 
France the second night after the German 
blockade. Travelling in the dark, with all 
lights out and a heavy storm raging, one 
realized for the first time what a change war 
had brought about. This was accentuated 
when we arrived at the quaint old seaside 
town of Boulogne, and found it practically 
taken over by our Army. 

146 



The Red Cross in France 



" We followed a steady course of getting 
suitable warehouses, organizing our stores, 
assisting our hospitals as they began to 
arrive and settle in France, and generally 
acting as liaison for all Canadians requiring 
direction or assistance as they passed through 
Boulogne/ 1 

(This, I may pause to mention, the Red 
Cross did throughout the war, and there are 
many grateful men and women who will 
recall what a friend in need the Society was 
to them during long or short stays in 
France.) 

" No heavy fighting, you will remember, 
occurred with our troops until the memorable 
Second Battle of Ypres. One then heard 
rumours in Boulogne that the Canadians had 
been heavily engaged, and that they had done 
well. We all felt anxious, but we were 
obliged to wait patiently for further details. 
A few hours after these disquieting rumours 
began to circulate I received a signal wire 
from the D.D.M.S., ist Canadian Division, 
to send him all the available Greely morphia 
units we had. Then we knew that grave 

147 10* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



events had occurred, and our anxiety was 
intense. In half an hour from the receipt of 
the message from the D.D.M.S. a fast tour- 
ing car was on its way to the Front with 
about 10,000 of these individual hypodermic 
injections. 

" That night gassed, wounded and maimed 
Canadians began to come in, and soon the 
hospitals were filled. For the first time 
it was brought home to us with horrifying 
vividness what War really meant, because, 
as we helped to load the stretcher cases on 
to the ambulances, or as we walked through 
the wards of the hospitals, filled with suffering, 
broken, gasping men, we saw among them 
many of our own friends, shattered and 
wounded, and we heard from them of other 
friends who were now no more. 

" When two or three days had gone by 
we knew at last what a wonderful part the 
Canadian Division had played, and that our 
men had made for themselves a name which 
would last throughout all history. 

" There are numerous memories of those 
years in France, but great events crowded 

148 



The Red Cross in France 



on so fast that it is difficult to choose from 
so many those which are most prominent. 

" A night which stands out in memory is 
the night of the arrival of the Second Division. 

" The transports were timed to reach Bou- 
logne at intervals of half an hour from, if 
I remember correctly, eleven p.m. A num- 
ber of us were waiting on the quay to see them 
arrive, and as midnight passed, and then one 
o'clock, and no boats had been sighted, a 
certain amount of anxiety made itself felt. 
About half-past one a transport was seen 
approaching the harbour, and soon entered. 
This proved to be the last and not the first 
of the boats which had left Folkestone. 

" A few hours after this a destroyer rushed 
into the harbour, playing its terrible search- 
lights, and megaphoned to the pier-head 
that one of the transports had been rammed 
in mid-Channel, and that all available assist- 
ance should be sent immediately. Tugs and 
boats instantly left, and I sent at once for my 
stores-keeper and lorry drivers, and got ready 
blankets and hot drinks in case such comforts 
should be needed. 

149 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



" Just at the break of dawn, after a long, 
anxious night, the crippled transport was 
towed into harbour, with every man standing 
to attention. Considering the accident had 
happened hours before, and that these men 
had been standing on the crowded transport 
all night, not knowing if they were going 
to the bottom or not, it seemed a wonderful 
example of discipline. 

" In speaking of our work perhaps I cannot 
do better than describe a typical Red Cross 
day during a Canadian action. I had been in- 
formed that a certain action would take place 
on a certain day, and that much assistance 
would be needed from the Red Cross. Load- 
ing up our lorries with warm clothing, cigarettes 
and comforts of all kinds, I proceeded to the 
Main Dressing Station, a few miles behind the 
line, reaching there just after the famous 
Canadian attack on Vimy Ridge had begun 
a bitter morning too, with heavy snow and 
sleet falling. 

" Shortly afterwards the first wounded 
began to come in, and during that day 
thousands passed through the Main Dressing 

150 



The Red Cross in France 



Station. Words fail one in trying to describe 
the horror of it all, but one noticed with 
wonder and admiration the cheerfulness and 
self-sacrifice of the wounded. No one seemed 
so badly hurt but that, in his opinion, the chap 
next to him was worse, and needed attention 
first. Men with arms hanging limp were 
struggling to help men whose legs were 
wounded ; everyone seemed to be thinking 
of his neighbour. 

" Throughout that time the only complaint 
I heard from the men was that they were cold. 
Hot drinks were provided for them, and every 
attention possible for human beings to give 
was given by the Medical Service. Then the 
stream passed on, through the Dressing Sta- 
tion, out to the ambulances and thence to the 
Casualty Clearing Stations. And this went 
on all day and all through that night. I 
marvel how the doctors and orderlies stood it." 

When -Colonel Blaylock speaks of " a 
typical Red Cross day during a Canadian 
action," it will be noticed that he modestly 
refers to the heroism of the men and the 
splendid services of the doctors and orderlies 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



rather than to the work of the Red Cross. 
Others, however, have borne witness again 
and again to the value of this work. 

From the very beginning help was given 
to the sick and wounded in the forward 
area, but in the early days the advanced 
depots were with General Headquarters and 
with the three Canadian General Hospitals, 
from which supplies were distributed to the 
Canadian Casualty Clearing Station and the 
Field Ambulances. Later on an Advanced 
Store was opened close to the headquarters 
of the Deputy Director Medical Services, 
in charge of an officer of the Society, attached 
to the D.D.M.S. This Store, which had its 
own transport, was stocked with all supplies 
likely to be wanted in a great rush after a 
heavy engagement. The idea was to give 
all the help possible to Regimental Medical 
Officers, to Advanced Dressing Stations, and 
to other posts in the forward area. From 
this Store the Medical Officer of each unit was 
supplied with a special parcel containing 
Greely hypodermic units, solidified alcohol for 
heating water, soups, chocolate, cafe au lait, 

152 



The Red Cross in France 



scissors, candles, matches and cigarettes, 
as well as socks and mufflers when the fighting 
took place in raw and cold weather, such as 
made Vimy and Passchendaele memorable. 

To Relay Posts, Advanced Dressing Sta- 
tions and Main Dressing Stations supplies 
were issued of dressing, socks, pyjamas, 
Primus stoves, oil heaters, scissors, biscuits, 
personal property bags (into which the 
casualty's little belongings were stowed for 
safe keeping), and many other comforts. If 
anything else was required the Medical 
Officers had many opportunities of notifying 
the Red Cross, as the officer in charge of the 
Stores accompanied the D.D.M.S. on his 
inspections. 

The Red Cross officer was constantly 
watching to supply needs. For example, 
the officer in charge of the Advanced Store, 
having seen many serious operations performed 
in the Advanced Dressing Stations by sur- 
geons who worked by a wretched light, 
thought of a means of relieving the strain. 
The outcome of this idea is appreciated in 
reading a letter of thanks from a Divisional 

i53 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



A.D.M.S. " The Red Cross electric engines, 
which provided 25 portable electric lights 
in our Advanced Dressing Stations, could 
only be appreciated by those who had worked 
for months by inefficient candle-light." 

What a picture that sentence conjures up! 
A small underground room, packed with 
badly wounded men waiting their turn for 
treatment. The muffled roar of the guns and 
the thud of a bursting shell not far away. 
The stifled groans of the suffering. And the 
surgeons working swiftly and unceasingly 
at their delicate task by the flickering light 
of a candle stuck in an empty bottle. 

The treatment for mustard gas adopted 
by the D.D.M.S., Canadian Corps, also gave 
the Red Cross an opening to do some good 
work. The treatment demanded a supply 
of baths and of pyjamas. The D.D.M.S. 
had only to speak of his needs to the Society's 
representative in the forward area, who 
telephoned to Headquarters at Boulogne, 
with the result that within four hours the 
necessary supplies were delivered. The result 
of having the remedy on hand was that when 



The Red Cross in France 



our troops encountered mustard gas shells 
they escaped very lightly. 

The conditions under which the Red Cross 
worked during the big engagements were 
indescribable. At Passchendaele, for instance, 
the ground behind the front lines was pitted 
with shell holes, and a sea of mud. Shell 
fire, gas, and bombs dropped from aeroplanes, 
all added to the difficulties of a task which was 
carried through splendidly by the Medical 
Officer, by the Chaplains and by the Red 
Cross representatives, who saved the lives 
of thousands of Canada's boys by their devoted 
labours. 

Through all the terrible days of the spring 
of 1918 the Red Cross kept its work at a high 
pitch of efficiency. As the Germans advanced 
Casualty Clearing Stations were lost and 
Field Ambulances wiped out. The wounded 
poured unceasingly into all the hospitals 
and the demands upon the Red Cross were 
heavy and insistent. The lorries travelled 
the long roads day and night with supplies 
for the wounded, and the fresh supplies, as they 
came in from England, melted away as if by 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



magic. In addition to all else, the air raids 
continued until the nerves of the bravest 
must have felt the strain, especially after the 
bombing of the Canadian hospitals and the 
consequent horrors. Yet not a single man 
or woman on the staff of the Red Cross in 
France applied to be transferred to England. 
The last spacious Hundred Days of the 
Great War saw the Red Cross straining every 
nerve to supply all demands, never failing 
the Medical Service no matter how difficult 
the conditions. There was great trouble 
in keeping up with the Canadian units as the 
fighting grew more and more fierce and 
the conquering Armies advanced. At times 
the Advanced Stores almost lost the Field 
Ambulances, and on some occasions the 
Stores had to move several times within a 
few days. Yet when the Corps moved near 
Amiens the Stores were ready, and when the 
Canadians arrived near Arras for the attack 
they found the Red Cross " open for business/* 
When the Drocourt-Queant Line was taken 
the Red Cross opened Advanced Stores at 
Queant, and finally, when the Canadian Corps 

156 



The Red Cross in France 



arrived at Bonn the Red Cross, close behind, 
was ready to distribute its stores to the 
Medical Officers and Sisters. 

Of the last days on the Rhine the O.C. of 
the ist Canadian Casualty Clearing Station 
wrote : " Our first and last Canadian patients* 
Christmas dinner on the Rhine was a huge 
success, thanks to the Canadian Red Cross. 
How those wonderful Christmas stockings, 
fruits, puddings, etc., were got here in time, 
with the roads and railroads in the condition 
they were in, is, I suppose, one of your secrets, 
but it spells efficiency/' 

The splendid achievements of the officers 
who organized and managed the work in the 
forward area are fully appreciated ; one 
does not forget, however, that but for the 
courage and devotion of the lorry drivers 
and orderlies, who, day in and day out, in 
all weathers, under shell fire and over broken 
roads, brought up the supplies, these results 
could not have been attained. Their work 
is anonymous, but they too are among the 
heroes of the war. 









CHAPTER X 

THE RED CROSS IN FRANCE continued 



BOULOGNE was, from the beginning, 
the base for Red Cross work. Facing 
the harbour, where hundreds of thousands of 
troops entered and left France during the 
years of the war, is the Hotel Christol, and 
there the many branches of Red Cross work 
found a home. The Societies were rather 
like one large family, for they were all linked 
together and worked sympathetically and 
harmoniously, having in view the one end, 
to give help where it was wanted. 

The Canadian Red Cross offices proved a 
little oasis for the Canadians whose duty 
took them to the base, and to the many going 
on leave or returning to the Front. Through 
those rooms during the war must have 
passed thousands of officers and men and 

161 ii 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



nurses, who always received a cheery greeting 
and whatever help could be given to them 
by the Red Cross before proceeding on their 
road. Many of them never passed that way 
again. 

Warehouses were also secured at Boulogne, 
and in these were stored the many cases 
shipped from Canada to England, and then 
sent across the submarine and mine-haunted 
Channel to France. From these warehouses 
the supplies were sent in the Society's lorries 
to the Canadian Medical Units as they settled 
in France for their grave work. By the 
beginning of June, 1915, the Assistant Com- 
missioner had received 3,400 cases without 
a single loss, and from that time until long 
after the cessation of hostilities the cases 
continued to reach France for distribution 
far and wide. (The total number received 
is given elsewhere in an appendix to this 
book.) 

Two thousand of the cases mentioned as 
having been received in France by the early 
part of June were in Boulogne before the 
Second Battle of Ypres, and nearly one 

162 



The Red Cross in France 



thousand were sent forward from the 
Boulogne depot at that time. The supplies 
were delivered very promptly, as witness the 
one incident of hypodermics being wanted. 
The A.D.M.S. sent a message that these 
were required at Ypres, and within four hours 
the units were delivered. 

The Matrons of the hospitals in France 
soon discovered that the Canadian Red Cross 
was their strong friend. Within the first few 
months of the work they were writing letters 
of warm thanks and describing how their Red 
Cross stores were arranged and guarded, and 
these expressions of appreciation were re- 
ceived by the Red Cross until demobiliza- 
tion. 

" Liberal as the Ordnance is," wrote one 
Matron, " I can safely say that without the 
Red Cross stores we would often-times not 
know where to turn, especially when a large 
convoy of sick and wounded arrives. At 
such a time the Red Cross stores are looked 
upon by the Sister, not only as luxuries and 
comforts, but as actual necessities. * . . I 
wish the women at home, who are so busy 

163 n* 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



making all these Red Cross supplies, could 
realize fully how much their work means to 
us who have had the great privilege given 
us of being sent over here to care for the sick 
and wounded. . . ." 

In each Canadian Hospital there was a 
Canadian Red Cross store-room, upon which 
the Commanding Officer and Matron could 
indent for supplies over and above those from 
Ordnance, but, in addition to what was con- 
tained in the Red Cross store-room, there were 
many articles asked for as likely to make 
a sick or wounded man more comfortable 
and happier. 

Jam, gramophones, crutches, chewing gum, 

nuts, work materials, coloured tissue paper, 

pipes, tobacco and cigarettes, tinned peaches, 

maple sugar, books, playing cards, chairs, 

tables, beds, even bird cages and sewing 

machines, stationery, pianos and cinemas 

were among the comforts which the Red 

Cross stood ready to give. The warehouses 

vhere these varied and fascinating supplies 

vere stored were treasure houses of the most 

surprising and enchanting kind, but only 

164 



The Red Cross in France 



the sick and wounded and those who cared 
for them held the keys. 

It was wonderfully interesting to see these 
things in the big storehouses, and to look over 
the books showing how each article was 
accounted for, but it was even more inter- 
esting to visit the great hospitals and to see 
the gifts in actual use. 

In one, crimson coverings on the beds had 
a cheering effect ; these were from the Red 
Cross. In another a gramophone was making 
the day hideous, or making life more bearable, 
according to the point of view. This was the 
gift of the Red Cross. In one ward, on my 
first visit to the war zone, the men were hard 
at work on Christmas decorations ; the 
materials were given by the Red Cross. In 
the Recreation Huts were billiard tables 
the present of the Red Cross. 

The gifts from Canada of clothing, dressings, 
blankets and socks were invaluable. In many 
instances it is difficult to realize how the 
hospitals would have managed without 
them. 

One memorable day in the autumn of 1915 
165 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



an order came out for all hospitals to increase 
their capacity by 50 per cent, and to be 
ready to receive the extra patients in forty- 
eight hours. 

That a hospital of a thousand beds had to 
be prepared to receive fifteen hundred patients 
meant a considerable demand for bedding and 
clothing. The order came on a Sunday, and 
by Tuesday the Red Cross had been depleted 
of every article of bedding, but the response 
from London was so prompt that every 
demand made by the hospitals was responded 
to on time. Bandages, sterilized dressings 
and anti-tetanic serum, as well as quantities 
of clothing, were among the necessities asked 
for in this emergency and supplied at once 
by the Red Cross. 

Socks, pyjamas and shirts were all supplied 
for an ambulance train with about 200 
wounded, who were practically naked, wrap- 
ped in blankets. As the O.C. of one Canadian 
hospital, which had asked for supplies for the 
patients as well as for the men in the am- 
bulance train, said, " The timely arrival 
of your three large lorry loads saved the 

<66 



The Red Cross in France 



situation for us, and made us able to clothe 
comfortably every one of the patients before 
transferring them to England." 

Those who have lived through such ex- 
periences as the rush after a great engagement 
know well the conditions under which doctors 
and surgeons worked. Others can but faintly 
imagine them. At the Casualty Clearing 
Stations the nearest to the front line that 
nurses were permitted to go the ambulances 
rolled up in a steady stream, and for hours the 
tramp of the stretcher bearers might be 
heard as they moved the wounded to the 
wards to which they were assigned. Many of 
the men were gassed and choking for breath ; 
others fearfully wounded, their faces ghastly 
and their clothes dirty and blood-stained. 
All must be cared for at once, fed and clothed 
in clean garments. 

The Medical Officers ana bisters worked 
without ceasing, so that the stock of dressings 
and of clothing dwindled rapidly. Yet al- 
ways they had behind them the Red Cross 
Society with its fresh supplies, and even as 
they worked the lorries were rushing up from 

167 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



the base laden with all that was needed by 
men and women fighting death. 

Or the scene is a Canadian General Hos- 
pital. As the staff awaits a convoy an air 
raid begins. The ambulances, carefully 
driven by women, move up with their suffer- 
ing freight while the crash of bombs and the 
roar of the anti-aircraft guns shakes the 
nerves of men already weakened by pain, 
who moan and cry out under the strain. 
But no matter what the danger, and no 
matter what the stress, the work of caring for 
the casualties goes on. Each ward is fighting 
its own battles, and part of the ammunition is 
the proper supply of pyjamas, dressings, 
towels and food. As these diminish a S.O.S. 
is sent through to the Red Cross. With all 
possible speed the necessary cases are loaded 
into the lorries, and soon they are on their 
way, in the cold and the dark very likely, 
to bring fresh comfort and relief to the 
doctors and nurses. 

The Red Cross constantly looked out for 
needs which the Society might fill, and was 
ready to make suggestions without waiting 

168 



The Red Cross in France 



to be asked for assistance. For example it 
fitted up the officers' wards of a Casualty 
Clearing Station and added many little com- 
forts not supplied by the military authorities ; 
it gave and fitted up recreation huts, attached 
to the Canadian hospitals (described else- 
where); it gave wheeled stretchers to move 
the wounded from the trenches to the am- 
bulances ; it gave bedside tables for the wards, 
and at times distributed flowers and fruit 
to the patients in the base hospitals. All this 
promptly and without red tape. 

This work went on from the beginning of 
1915 until the Red Cross was demobilized. 
At no time did the Red Cross fail to give help 
when it was needed, and to give that help 
promptly and readily. And at a time when 
every moment was precious, for the lives of 
men hung in the balance, this promptness was 
invaluable. 

This work was done, not for Canadians alone, 
but for the men from all parts of the British 
Empire, because the Canadian hospitals 
received all patients. 

Much help was given in France to the French 
169 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



as well. As far back as early in 1915 the 
Canadian Red Cross opened a depot in Paris 
for the distribution of supplies to French 
hospitals in need of assistance, as well as for 
the benefit of the Canadian General and 
Stationary Hospitals in that area. 

During the first six months of the Society's 
work 28,590 cases were allotted to 1,883 
French Hospitals, and by the end of the war 
over 4,000 French Hospitals had received as- 
sistance from the Red Cross of Canada, to 
the extent of nearly 75,000 cases of supplies. 
During the last year of the war alone about 
30,000 cases were distributed. 

The French hospitals were scattered over 
a very wide zone, and the wounded poilu in 
hospital near Marseilles might find himself, 
unconsciously, enjoying the kindness of the 
Canadian Red Cross as much as did the men 
who were wounded at Verdun and cared for 
in that neighbourhood. 

In Paris there were suitable warehouses 
for the supplies, which were distributed 
speedily and wisely as the need arose, while 
the Canadian Red Cross also maintained a 

170 



The Red Cross in France 



small motor ambulance convoy, which carried 
many thousands of patients. This work 
for the French was deeply appreciated as 
the labour of love given by one Ally to 
another. 

The gift to France of a modern, finely- 
equipped military hospital, at Joinville-le- 
Pont, Paris, crowned a long series of generous 
acts of friendship from the Canadian Red 
Cross, representing the people of all Canada, 
for, in addition to the supplies, large sums of 
money had been presented by Canada, for 
the work of the French societies for the sick 
and wounded, while, besides supplies distri- 
buted from the Paris depot, cases were sent to 
these organizations direct. 

The gifts to the other Allies, such as Serbia, 
Rumania, Italy, Russia, Belgium and Monte- 
negro, were offered generously by the Red 
Cross throughout the war. Early in 1915 
Serbia was being helped by Canada, and at 
the time of writing, which is May, 1919, one 
still finds money and supplies being sent to 
that valiant and much tried country. 

Most of these lands had been little except 
171 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



names to the average Canadian before the 
war. Now they represent friends ; unhappy 
suffering friends who shared with Canada 
mourning for the brave dead, and in addition 
had suffered invasion and privation. 



172 






CHAPTER XI 

THE WORK OF THE WOMEN IN FRANCE 




[Canadian Official Photograph. 

Motor Ambulance Convoy at Etaples, presented by the Canadian 
Red Cross. The ambulances were driven by women. 




[Canadian Official Photograph. 
The Red Cross at Valenciennes, Nov. llth. 1918. 

(To face page 175.) 



THE goal of the ambition of the average 
girl during the war years was to work 
in the war zone. There was something ro- 
mantic and thrilling about being so near the 
war as to talk to the men who had come down 
from the front but a few hours before. No 
sea nor Channel separated one from the great 
things that were being done by a wall of living 
men who stood between us and destruction. 

Yet the girls who did live in the war zone 
might have told the discontented that there 
was little romance and much hard work and 
sense of exile about their lives. They might 
have told this, but I know none who did. 
On the contrary, despite exile from most of 
the joys of young womanhood, from luxury 
and variety and from home ; living under 
discipline and upholding the standard of the 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



race in a foreign country, the women and 
girls who worked in France during the war 
were happily too busy to find much time for 
repining or for morbid self-examination. 
Slackers were not popular, and anyone who 
went to France and did not " make good " 
soon found herself either mending her ways 
or returning to England again. 

The Canadian women and girls who served, 
some of them for years and some for months 
only, were a credit to the Dominion, though, 
thanks to the Censorship especially, com- 
paratively little is known of their work. 
It was understood vaguely that So-and-So 
was " Somewhere in France," but few people 
could have realized what the life was like, 
nor exactly what So-and-So was doing. 

The V.A.D.'s who worked under the banner 
of the Canadian Red Cross were some of them 
motor drivers for the lorries which dis- 
tributed Canada's gifts to the hospitals were 
driven by women as well as men some of 
them in charge of the Recreation Huts 
attached to the big Canadian General Hospi- 
tals, some of them visitors to the Hospitals 

176 



The Work of the Women in France 

and searchers for the missing, some of them 
secretaries, and some of them industrious 
house-workers on the staff of the Canadian 
Red Cross Rest House for Nursing Sisters, 
which was one of the largest pieces of 
Imperial work done by the Society. 

In the last annual report of the Chief 
Commissioner Overseas, issued after the con- 
clusion of hostilities, he mentions what the 
conditions were like during those awful weeks 
in the spring of 1918, when the lorries were 
day and night on the road, taking supplies for 
the stream of wounded that poured in steadily 
from the front. In addition to all the work 
and all the heavy strain, the Canadian Red 
Cross was under orders to be ready to evacuate 
Boulogne instantly if the enemy's advance 
made it necessary. Air raids and bombard- 
ments were of almost nightly occurrence 
and no one who has not experienced them 
can realize the strain on the nerves but 
despite all the difficulties of that grave period 
in the story of the war Colonel Blaylock was 
able to state : " We did not have a single 
application for anyone to be transferred to 

177 12 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



England." This, coupled with the further 
statement : "I cannot speak too highly of 
the fortitude and the devotion to duty of 
all our staff, V.A.D.'s, orderlies and drivers/ 1 
is a fine tribute to the work of women as well 
as of men during a terribly critical period 
of the war. 

Boulogne was the centre of Red Cross 
activity during the war. All the Canadians 
who worked in the war zone are familiar with 
the high old grey town, with its cobbles, its 
busy quays, whose stones have been trodden 
by millions of troops since the war began, 
its markets, its sailors and soldiers, its many 
signs of British occupation, and to most of 
them the offices of the Canadian Red Cross 
Society and afterwards the Hotel du Nord, 
in which the Rest House had its home, were 
the nearest links with Canada to be found in 
France. 

Every Canadian, whether the officers going 
up to the front, or passing through to England 
on leave, or the Canadian Sisters going to and 
from Boulogne on their way to hospitals 
and Casualty Clearing Stations, blessed the 

178 



The Work of the Women in France 

Red Cross, but it was not until the spring 
of 1918 that the latter were able to find a 
temporary home under the shelter of the 
Canadian Red Cross. . Colonel Blaylock had 
long felt concerned over the discomfort 
endured by all Nursing Sisters who passed 
through Boulogne, and were obliged to stay 
where they could, sometimes in very un- 
comfortable surroundings. After some con- 
sideration it was decided to take a large hotel 
and fit it up as a Home where Sisters, not 
Canadians only, but all Nursing Sisters, from 
every part of the Empire and from the 
United States, might be sure of a good room 
and good food at a moderate charge. 

In February, 1918, the Red Cross entered 
into possession of the Hotel du Nord. It is 
a typical French hotel, facing the Channel, 
and built around a courtyard, forming three 
sides of a square, the fourth being the high 
terraced garden, which climbs painstakingly 
up a hill crowned with houses. Mrs. Gordon 
Brown, of Ottawa, who had previously been 
commandant for a year of a most home-like 
billet for Canadian V.A.D.'s, was placed in 

179 12* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



charge, and with the help of her girls turned a 
hotel into a real home, with the prettiest 
chintzes and freshest curtains, good china 
and restful furniture, and the willing service 
of a staff of charming Canadian girls. 

At once the Home became a success. Its 
fame went abroad and the news of its 
daintiness and comfort, its dinner, bath, bed 
and breakfast for five francs, at a time when 
prices were ruinous, spread through all the 
nursing services. From the date of opening, 
April ist, 1918, until the end of the same year 
alone nearly 7,000 English, Irish, Scotch, 
Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, South 
African, Newfoundland and American Sisters 
had stayed in the Home, and had enjoyed 
over 36,000 good meals. 

To be a V.A.D. at the Rest House was no 
sinecure, for the Sisters arrived at all hours 
of the day and night, and no matter when 
they came they received hot food and a 
welcome. 

There were various incidents connected 
with the House which became matters of 
course to the staff, but were highly disquieting 

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The Work of the Women in France 

to their friends who read of them in safer 
spots. These were connected with air raids. 
The large concrete cellar, entered from the 
courtyard outside, as well as from the build- 
ing, was reinforced by Canadian engineers, 
and the entrance carefully sand-bagged. 
When the raid warning came the guests and 
staff, sometimes to the number of 100, de- 
scended to the cellar by the light of electric 
torches, where they remained until the guns 
and bombs ceased thundering. There is no 
record of anyone " getting the wind up," 
though on one occasion a French servant, 
whose nerves were strained, is said to have 
screamed at a very close explosion, much to 
her own shame. 

When it is considered that some of the 
Sisters who were in the house at such times 
had been in hospitals which were bombed, 
and that the V.A.D.'s had probably been up 
for several nights and had to carry on next 
day as usual, their self-control and courage 
in telling stories and playing games while a 
raid was on are worth recording. 

The garden of the Rest House was one of 
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The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



the delights of the place, for the Commandant 
and her staff grew their own vegetables 
all through the summer, and to their ever- 
lasting pride and satisfaction were able to 
place on the table for Canadian Sisters a 
thoroughly Canadian dainty corn on the cob. 

There was much lamentation when it was 
rumoured that, on account of the rapid de- 
mobilization of the Canadian Sisters, the 
Rest House might be closed, and Colonel 
Blaylock was begged to keep the Home open 
as long as many Sisters from other parts of 
the Empire were passing through. This was 
done. 

Dame Maud McCarthy, the head of the 
Queen Alexandra Nursing Service in France, 
specially complimented the Chief Com- 
missioner on the House and its work, with a 
mention of the " charming V.A.D.'s." Nor 
were the nurses the only visitors who appre- 
ciated the Rest House, for Canadian women 
on sorrowful journeys to the graves of their 
dead were welcomed and tended with sym- 
pathy and courtesy at the Rest House. 

The work of the Canadian girls in the 
182 



The Work of the Women in France 

Recreation Huts began in 1916, when Huts 
were erected and equipped by the Canadian 
Red Cross in connection with Canadian 
Hospitals in France, for the benefit of men 
well enough to be out of the wards. 

The Huts were a stroke of genius. Men 
who were not ill enough or sufficiently badly 
wounded to be sent to England were often in 
hospital for some time, and after passing 
through a " Con. Camp " returned to duty. 
The Red Cross Huts were their happiest 
reminders of home and of a woman's care, 
for the Huts were in charge of Canadian girls, 
members of the V. A.D., who acted as hostesses 
and organizers, arranged entertainments, 
decorated their Huts for special occasions, 
and were often the confidantes of the boys 
and men, far from their own relatives, who 
shyly displayed family photographs and letters 
to these sympathetic friends. Many of the 
men never saw home and its people again, 
but they took back with them to the mud 
and drear of the trenches happy memories 
of a brightly-lighted, decorated hut, with 
music and laughter and fun, and of a girl's 

183 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



kindly, friendly face as she listened to the 
stories of home and of their war experiences. 

The Huts I speak from personal knowledge 
were a pleasant sight, with their walls covered 
with pictures, their bright curtains, and their 
tables piled with books, papers and maga- 
zines and writing paper. Billiard tables were 
always in demand, and a stage at one end 
suggested the delights of a " show/' As to 
the Hallowe'en parties, riotous Christmas 
parties and other festivities, are they not all 
written on the memories of the men from every 
part of the Empire who enjoyed the hospi- 
tality of the Red Cross, and were the slaves 
of " Sister," as they called the O.C. of their 
Hut? 

At Christmas time especially, the girls 
toiled to give their " Blue Boys " a happy day 
to remember, even though out in the war 
zone, with the dull rumble of guns to be 
heard. To state that the programme largely 
consisted of eating is only common truth- 
fulness, but there was a seasoning of games 
and of frolics, and a blaze of decorations, not 
to mention the music of suitable songs and 

184 



The Work of the Women in France 

carols warranted to make up the " best 
Christmas ever." 

The girls had many appreciative visitors 
to their Huts at all times, but in one hospital 
the least articulate guests were a contingent 
of Portuguese patients, who watched with 
large, sad, dark eyes all the proceedings, came 
early to the " shows/' which they enjoyed 
or endured in absolute silence, sat close to 
the stoves, also in silence, and after saluting 
their hostess went back to their wards to 
think of their own distant homes, far from 
this land of foreigners, speaking a tongue they 
could not understand. 

The Huts were not used as places of enter- 
tainment only. In times of great stress 
they were turned into hospital wards, and 
during the strenuous days of the spring of 
1918 these places, which had seen such gay and 
happy gatherings, echoed to the smothered 
groans of suffering men. 

The Canadian Red Cross Motor Ambulance 
Convoy at Etaples was a constant reminder 
to the army, wounded and well, of the gene- 
rosity of Canada. Sixty-five ambulances, 

185 * 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



bearing the names of Canadian towns and 
cities, and Canadian organizations carried the 
sick and wounded back and forth between 
railhead and hospital, or between hospitals, 
as long as the need existed. Nearly all the 
ambulances were driven by girls, V.A.D.'s 
(among them a certain number of Canadians), 
who lived in their own huts and took orders 
from their own officers. Their experiences 
would make an interesting volume, for they 
were always on duty and carried on through 
strenuous days. 

" If I get a ' Blighty ' I hope I'll drive in 
your car/' said a Canadian soldier shyly to a 
Canadian girl driver whom he met in London. 

And did he ? This is fact, not fiction, so 
I have to admit I do not know. But it is 
always possible that he did, for in one year 
alone the ambulances carried 180,745 patients, 
and he may have been one. 

The girls who drove the lorries for the 
Canadian Red Cross in France, though they 
were not allowed to go into the forward area, 
where the men went fearlessly, did splendid 
work. They carried the cases of supplies 

186 



The Work of the Women in France 

to the hospitals, and were familiar with every 
place in the Lines of Communication. Some- 
times they had their adventures, such as 
having a lorry break down late at night in a 
snowstorm and being obliged to seek shelter 
at the nearest hospital. Often they made 
long, wearisome journeys rather than dis- 
appoint a hospital or an individual man who 
was to get a Christmas present. And for 
them, too, there was the constant strain 
of air raids. The garage was in such a 
popular district for bombing that during the 
last summer of the war some of the cars and 
the men drivers went out into the country each 
night, so that it would be impossible for all 
transport to be destroyed if the garage were hit. 
From the very early days in France, 
Canadian women did good work in trying 
to trace the missing Canadians by inquiry at 
hospitals where men from their units were 
patients. This work was continued in Eng- 
land, and in time much information was col- 
lected for the relief of the anguished relatives 
of the men whose record closed with the awful 
word " Missing." 

187 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



Visiting was also undertaken by Canadians 
working at the base, who thus brought much 
pleasure and a feeling of home care to the 
Canadian men, so far from their own people. 

One cannot close this brief account of the 
work of women for the Canadian Red Cross 
in France without speaking of the many 
Canadian girls who, though they were not all 
working directly under the Canadian Red Cross, 
still upheld the credit of Canada's women as 
members of the British Red Cross V.A.D., 
while a number belonged to the Canadian 
Imperial V.A.D., of which Lady Perley was 
commandant. Many of them served for 
years in hospitals and won much commenda- 
tion from those in authority. The first 
Canadian V.A.D. to be mentioned in dis- 
patches was Miss Alice Houston, of Ottawa, 
for her courage and faithfulness in working 
while her hospital was being bombed. 

To them all one might offer as the highest 
possible praise that they were worthy of their 
brothers who fought under the badge of the 
Maple Leaf. 



188 



CHAPTER XII 

THE RED CROSS AND THE REFUGEES 



IN a striking report by the French Mission 
attached to the British Armies in 
France, which Field-Marshal Foch laid before 
M. Clemenceau, who thanked Sir Douglas 
Haig, Commander-in-Chief, the story is told 
of the part played by the British forces in 
feeding and caring for the people of the 
liberated towns and villages of France. It 
is a noble chronicle. For Canadians one 
sentence stands out. It is : " The Canadian 
Red Cross particularly distinguished itself 
in this fine effort." 

That simple sentence covers some of the 
most splendid work done in France, and in 
Belgium also, by the Canadian Red Cross, 
which has so proud a record of service. 

The weeks that saw a succession of victories 
until the Armistice was signed, saw also the 

191 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



restoration of their towns and villages to the 
people of those parts of France and Belgium 
which had been occupied by the enemy for 
years. Some were damaged, but not de- 
stroyed, and here the people had lived 
throughout the occupation, under the rule 
of a hated enemy. 

When the British troops entered the liber- 
ated towns, they found the unfortunate 
civilian population in a terrible state of desti- 
tution and privation. Many people had 
been hiding in crowded cellars for days during 
the bombardment, without food, worn with 
exhaustion and almost poisoned by bad air. 
Many were ill, for influenza was rampant at 
a time when people were least able to fight 
against its ravages, and many were gassed 
as well. What was needed was not only 
food and comfort, but medicine and proper 
treatment for the sick and wounded. All 
that was required was given, and as the 
official report says : " This was a marvellous 
effort of systematic and ingenious charity, 
which turned the British Army, even at the 
periods of the heaviest fighting, into a sort 

192 



The Red Cross and the Refugees 

of huge society for the relief of the liberated 
French people/' 

There was the question also of the refugees 
who had been taken away by the Germans, 
and were now returning. 

No one in peaceful Canada can realize what 
these people endured. One understands it 
to some extent after travelling, as I travelled, 
for many miles which had been war zone, 
but even then one fails to grasp the full 
horror that the people suffered. 

Whole towns and villages are now masses 
of ruins and wrecks. Roofs are torn and 
broken, houses are crumbling to pieces, and 
sandbags which have been banked at their 
base have torn and are pouring out their 
contents to mingle with the pieces of brick, 
the rusty metal and wire, and the mortar. 

A mass of rubbish is a church where the 
people heard Mass each Sunday, and where a 
simple, kindly curb instructed the people in 
their duty to God and man. A confusion of 
broken crosses and part of a stone wall in- 
dicates the cemetery where the dead were 
laid to rest in decency, but were not left in 

i93 13 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



peace. For mile after mile the country is a 
hideous welter of destruction the work of 
man. Yet the people clung to their homes 
until literally driven away, or until the 
terrible bombardments destroyed even the 
cellars in which they had been crouching. 
They had nowhere else to go. Many of them 
had never left their native villages until 
thrown out into the world, homeless, penni- 
less, hungry, with all that was left of their 
little belongings tied up in a bundle slung over 
the bent shoulders of a woman whose man, 
perhaps, had been killed in the war. 

The enemy drove them before him as long 
as they could keep on their feet, but as many 
fell behind, and as the German retreat became 
a rout, the poor people turned towards 
their old homes again. The roads were 
crowded with these pitiful victims of War. 
Old men and women, tottering and stagger- 
ing, kept on their way towards home until 
they sank down from exhaustion and died 
where they sat, with their lined, worn faces 
turned to the skies. Young girls were crying 
as they carried their bundles and helped the 

194 



The Red Cross and the Refugees 

older people. Emaciated little children clung 
to their elders ; babies, half dead with hunger 
and privation, were held in the arms of their 
half-starved and worn-out mothers. Push- 
ing, struggling, wailing aloud, the refugees 
poured through the roads along which the 
enemy had passed. 

All that was left of their belongings from 
once decent little homes, in which babies had 
been born, and where the dead, in awful 
dignity, waited to make the last long journey, 
was borne on their shoulders, pushed in hand- 
carts, or drawn by dogs. Sometimes even 
these poor remnants of home had to be 
taken from them to fill the shell holes, or 
were thrown to one side, that the troops 
helping to save their country might push 
along quickly enough. And all the time the 
guns thundered and the shells burst scream- 
ing over the towns and villages which the 
enemy was deserting. 

These were the people helped by Canada, 
where no bomb had f allen,and where the clamour 
of guns was heard only in dreams by women 
who prayed in their sleep for men far away. 

i95 13* 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



The Canadian Red Cross, which had kept 
in close touch with the troops throughout 
the most strenuous times, was ready to help 
the civilians as soon as they reached them. 
In some cases the Red Cross was in a town 
before the shelling ceased and while the 
Germans were still retreating from it. 

When the Red Cross arrived the people of 
the liberated towns were crawling up from 
the cellars, bleached from living underground, 
worn and gaunt and wretched, looking like 
ghosts of a once happy people. Many were 
dangerously ill, and the knowledge that the 
enemy was driven out had no power to move 
them nor to cheer them, for they were beyond 
caring. Among the suffering inhabitants 
were the poor old people in whom life was 
but a flickering, feeble flame, and some tiny 
babies who came into the world during fierce 
fighting, while the roar of the guns thundered 
in the ears of their terrified mothers. Many 
of the people were in rags, suffering from 
cold as well as hunger. 

To all the Canadian Red Cross brought 
proper food and warm clothing, as well as a 

196 



The Red Cross and the Refugees 

renewed hope for the future, after years of 
bending under the yoke of a brutal enemy. 

The Assistant Commissioner worked early 
and late to aid the people. With him was 
a loyal band of helpers, both at the base 
and in the areas over which the fighting had 
been fiercest. Whether he and his men were 
hurrying their lorries over torn roads with 
supplies, while the shells were screaming ; 
distributing food ; fitting up improvised 
hospitals with bedding and linen from Canada ; 
bringing medicine to the sick and bandages 
to the wounded, and cheering the people with 
kindness and goodwill ; or whether men and 
women at the base were packing and shipping 
with orderly haste that no time might be 
wasted in giving assistance, the Red Cross 
never failed. 

From Arras, for example, where many 
thousand refugees came through in a destitute 
state, Captain Murphy wired to the base 
for help for them, and inside of twenty-two 
hours a railway wagon of various goods 
arrived, and the foot-sore, destitute people 
were fed and clothed. 

197 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



I love to hear of these starving people of 
Arras, suffering from shell-shock many of 
them, who were told that food was coming, 
and despite all their misery had the heart 
to cheer for the Canadian Red Cross, and to 
force smiles to faces long accustomed to 
tears. It was a glorious thing to have been 
able, from across the ocean, to bring such 
comfort and help to the suffering. 

Throughout the great advance the Cana- 
dian Red Cross offered every possible support 
to the Canadian Medical Services, which 
gave professional assistance to each place 
through which the Canadian Corps passed. 
The work of the Field Ambulances, Casualty 
Clearing Stations, and other units was 
beyond all praise, and no description could 
do justice to their activities on behalf of the 
sick and wounded refugees at this time. 

Supply stores were established and dis- 
tribution carried on in some cases under 
fire at Somain, Erre, Aulnoy, Denain, 
Jemappes, Wallers and other towns and 
villages. In every effort made by the Red 
Cross and the Medical Services the Mayors 

198 



The Red Cross and the Refugees 

and Burgomasters were willing and grateful 
helpers. 

Often the poor people could not believe 
that the food and clothing arriving in abun- 
dance came as gifts from Canada. 

" Why do you tempt us ? " asked the 
Burgomaster of one town pitifully. u Don't 
you know that we have no money to buy 
such things ? " 

When he was told that the supplies were a 
free gift from Canada to her Allies he burst 
into tears. 

Sixty-three tons of comforts and dressings 
were thus distributed among the inhabitants, 
all carried by the Red Cross transport, with 
the help of the Canadian Corps when it was 
necessary to accept assistance. 

It seemed like a miracle to people who had 
been badly nourished for years, and were 
in the clutch of the influenza epidemic as well, 
to find themselves offered good soups and 
nourishing extracts, malted milk and cocoa 
for those who were ill ; special food for the 
little babies, and biscuits, pork and beans, 
sugar, rice, oatmeal and other supplies for 

199 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross * 

the rest of the people. Warm clothing and 
heavy blankets were also given, for the 
Germans had taken from the people all 
woollen materials. 

Cambrai, Valenciennes and Mons are great 
and stirring names because they are asso- 
ciated with the courage and valour of our 
triumphant troops. To Canada they mean 
more than victory. They speak of friend- 
ship and mercy, for Canadian generosity has 
for ever linked these places with the distant 
Dominion. In these old towns which have 
suffered so greatly for four years and more ; 
these places with their ruins and their deso- 
late spots, their ghosts of happiness and their 
spectres of a vanished security, the name of 
Canada will be remembered long and tenderly. 

Relief work was carried on in all of them, 
for soup kitchens and clothing depots were 
established by the Canadian Red Cross. To 
Douai also thousands of refugees returned 
after the Armistice, and had to be assisted. 
In every case local committees, in close touch 
with the people, helped to administer the 
supplies sent by the Red Cross. 

200 



The Red Cross and the Refugees 

The Canadian Red Cross was close behind 
the troops at Valenciennes. It was ready 
with food and other comforts the instant it 
was possible to find the people. It was the 
first to enter the old town to bring up from 
the hiding-places the hungry, half-dazed 
inhabitants. 

I saw in Valenciennes a certain house 
which commemorates Canada's reading of the 
verse, " Sick, and ye visited me ; I was in 
prison and ye came unto me." It was here 
that a soup kitchen was established to warm 
and feed the stream of refugees passing 
through the town. Of the vast number 
returning to their old homes when the Huns 
turned them adrift as they retreated, twenty- 
five per cent, died of exhaustion. 

I stood one bright spring day in an old 
building in Valenciennes and watched the 
refugees being clothed by Canada. 

At the door waited a queue of people ; 
quiet old men, for there were very few young 
ones to be seen ; patient women, some of 
them old, with handkerchiefs tied over their 
grey hairs, and some of them young and 

201 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



bareheaded, as is the custom among the 
peasants, and many children. The women 
looked worn and strained after all they had 
endured, and even the children were more 
pinched and graver than one can bear to 
see a child. All had come to be fitted out 
with clothing and boots and shoes from the 
supplies sent by Winnipeg and Cobalt, Hali- 
fax and Vancouver, and Moncton and fifty 
other places whose names are as familiar as 
are our own. 

Piles and piles of neat new clothing (all 
the Canadian gifts were good, and all new ; 
no worn and second-hand offerings were made 
to the Allies) lay on tables and stands, sorted 
out according to garments and sizes, each 
garment bearing a little Canadian Red Cross 
label, while rows and rows of footgear, big 
and small, such as many of the people had 
never seen before, were ranged on the floor. 

Close to the door stood a gendarme, in his 
picturesque uniform, who ensured that there 
should be no crowding and that each appli- 
cant should be dealt with carefully and at 
leisure. 

202 



The Red Cross and the Refugees 

Everyone admitted held a card, on which 
had been entered previously the necessary 
details of her family and of her needs. This 
she showed to the secretary, sitting at a table, 
who passed her on to one of the kind and 
capable ladies in charge of the distribution. 
The latter did all in her power to assist the 
other. She helped her to examine the things 
she required, and to measure the little child, 
holding to her mother's hand, with garments 
into which someone reading this may have 
set stitches. It was a very human little 
scene, for one remembered what all these 
people, gentle and simple, had endured under 
the heel of the brutal Germans, and now 
once more they were receiving comfort and 
kindness. 

In another centre gifts were being dis- 
tributed to people who came from the 
surrounding country for help. Some of them 
had trudged twenty miles to receive this 
assistance. They had walked over roads 
which had been shelled again and again, 
they had passed spots where the marks in 
the fields meant trenches and shell-holes ; 

203 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



they had come from ruins of their old homes, 
where they had improvised new abodes. But 
already, after all the misery and the priva- 
tion and the pain, Hope and even Happiness 
were putting out timid little new shoots. 
The very fact that the women were to receive 
free gifts for themselves and their children 
made the hard world they had grown accus- 
tomed to a little less sad and cruel. 

Historic Mons, whose name will never be 
forgotten by British people, for it stirs poig- 
nant memories of the early days of the war 
and glorious memories of its end, is also 
associated with the work of the Canadian 
Red Cross Society. 

The Grand 1 Place was very peaceful when 
I walked in it in the sunshine. Soldiers and 
townspeople went busily about their affairs, 
the shadow of war lifted from their lives. 
But as we stood outside the beautiful Hotel 
de Ville, where Canadians had been welcomed 
in the stirring days of early November, we 
looked towards a church up a narrow street. 
This grey Church of St. Elizabeth has links 
with Canada especially, for it was here the 

204 



The Red Cross and the Refugees 

wounded and dying were brought when the 
town was retaken, to enjoy comfort provided 
by Canada. The Canadian Red Cross had 
reached Mons in the early morning of the 
historic nth, bringing supplies for the people, 
wounded, sick and freed, whose gratitude to 
the Society was as keen as that felt for their 
deliverers from the enemy. 

Canada will not be forgotten in France and 
Belgium. In those grey towns, through which 
the Red Cross lorries pounded in their haste 
to bring succour, the name will become a 
household word. In all the battered villages 
upon which war had fixed a cruel grip, 
children will grow up in new cottages, built 
on the wreck of the old, who have heard 
among the tales of the Great War of the 
Canadians who rescued and fed and clothed 
them. 

Already the name is being kept green in 
many places by streets and roads, which have 
ceased to be Place Bavarie, for example, as 
in Mons, and have become Place Canada. 
In some other spot it will be recalled that, 
while war reached its climax for the Allies, 

205 



The Maple Leaf's Red Cross 



and the guns thundered, a Canadian band 
kept up the moral of the people by playing 
lively airs. Even the signs over some of 
the shops are changed as a compliment to 
Canada, and it will be set down in the annals 
of the country that the chimes at Mons 
played " O Canada ! " on Armistice Day. 

I was told by a French officer that the 
worst thing " les sales Boches ' had done 
was to poison the minds of the less educated 
people against the Allies, during the four 
years' enemy occupation. It may be that the 
clothing made in Canadian towns and 
villages, and the food sent from Canada to 
her Allies will be part of an antidote to this 
poison, for Canada has been an Ally in deed 
as well as in word and in intention. 



206 



CONCLUSION 



KITING of the work of the Red 
Cross in France and in England, one 
realizes that figures and facts convey but 
little idea of the human kindness which lay 
behind them. One can only paint a picture 
of what was actually achieved, which, how- 
ever faithful a picture, lacks the warmth 
and the life of the reality. For no words can 
describe the kindness, the sympathy, the 
compassion, as well as the devotion to duty, 
that inspired the efforts of all ranks. 

The personal element entered largely into 
the work of the Red Cross in all its branches. 
Few great organizations escape becoming 
mechanical. This was never the case with 
the Red Cross. Full of enthusiasm and 
inspired by a high purpose, it began its work 
for those who suffered through the war. 

209 14 



The Maple Leafs Red Cross 



With the same sentiments, to which have 
been added a deeper understanding, a fuller 
sympathy for war has taught many lessons 
its work nears its close. 

It is typical of the Red Cross that these 
last months should see its tenderness and its 
practical sympathy given to those who have 
sustained loss and endured pain as the result 
of the struggle. Not alone are the refugees 
among these sad sufferers. For to the fields 
of France and of Flanders there have 
travelled in these days, under the pitying 
protection of the Red Cross, many women 
making a pilgrimage to some spot which is 
forever Canada ; to a grave on foreign soil 
where lies one of the many men who freely 
and gladly offered up the present and the 
future, and went forth like a Crusader to 
fight for the right. 



THE END 



210 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX A 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY OVERSEAS AND 
HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS. 

OVERSEAS COMMISSIONERS I 

Lieut. -Col. Jeffrey Burland, Oct. -Nov., 1914. 
Lieut.-Col. C. A. Hodgetts, C.M.G., Nov., 1914- 

April, 1918. 
Col. H. W. Blaylock, C.B.E., April, 1918, until 

demobilization. 

ASSISTANT COMMISSIONERS IN ENGLAND : 

Lieut. E. W. Parker, Nov.-Dec., 1914. 
Capt. H. W. Blaylock, Dec., 1914- Jan., 1915. 
Lieut.-Col. Claud Bryan, July, i9i5~April, 1918. 
Lady Drummond, April, 1918, until demobilization. 

ASSISTANT COMMISSIONERS IN FRANCE : 

Col. H. W. Blaylock, C.B.E., Jan., 1915-April, 1918. 
Capt. (now Lieut.-Col.) David Law, April, 1918- 
December, 1918. 

ACTING ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER IN FRANCE ! 

Major D. J. Murphy, Dec., 1918, until demobiliza- 
tion. (For three months previously in charge of 
Advanced Stores.) 

OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF ADVANCED STORES IN FRANCE : 

Capt. G. W. Bridges. 

The late Capt. W. MacLeod Moore, M.C., May, 
i9i7~Dec., 1917. 

Capt. (now Lieut.-Col.) David Law, Dec., 1917- 
April, 1918. 

Major D. J. Murphy, Sept., 1918, until demobiliza- 
tion. 

213 



Overseas Officials and Heads of Departments 



OFFICER IN CHARGE OF ACCOUNTS : 

Major F. B. MacMahon, from Nov., 1914, until 
demobilization. 

ARCHITECT TO THE SOCIETY I 

Major C. F. Skipper, Licentiate R.I.B.A., M.S.A., 
and Fellow Royal Sanitary Institute, Dec., 1914, 
until demobilization. 

OFFICER IN CHARGE OF STORES DEPARTMENT : 

Major H. J. Testar, with Red Cross in both France 
and England, from Aug., 1915, until demobiliza- 
tion. 

OFFICERS IN CHARGE, PURCHASING DEPARTMENT I 

The late Mr. H. J. MacMicken. 
Lieut. H. T. Reade. 

OFFICER IN CHARGE OF WAREHOUSES I 

Lieut. R. J. Wood. 

OFFICER IN CHARGE OF TRANSPORT : 

Lieut. H. E. Hewens. 

LONDON WAR COMMITTEE, 1917-1919. 

HON. PRESIDENT I 

H.R.H. the late Duchess of Connaught, 1917. 

HON. PRESIDENT I 

H.R.H. Princess Patricia (Lady Patricia Ramsay), 
1917-1919. 

CHAIR : 

Mr. G. C. Cassels. 
Mr. C. Cambie. 
Mr. F. W. Ashe. 

INFORMATION BUREAU. 

Lady Drummond, Founder and Head, 1915 until de- 
mobilization. 
Mrs. Harrison, Private Secretary. 

214 



Appendix A 



HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS OF INFORMATION BUREAU. 

(A) INQUIRY, WOUNDED AND MISSING DEPARTMENT : 

Miss Erika Bovey, first in charge from opening 

until demobilization. 
Miss Ermine Taylor, second in charge for first 

two years. 

SPECIALLY IN CHARGE, " KILLED AND MISSING " : 

Mrs. Herbert Ellissen. 

Miss Marjorie Sutherland, Chief Assistant. 

(B) PARCELS DEPARTMENT : 

Mrs. David Fraser, in charge from March, 
1915, until demobilization. (Miss J. Fleet 
was in charge for a short time at the 
opening.) 

Miss Hagarty, specially in charge of packing 
from 1915 until demobilization. 

(C) HOSPITALITY : 

In charge of Miss B. Caverhill, Miss E. King- 
man and Miss L. Torrance. 

DRIVES AND ENTERTAINMENTS I 

Miss Shillington and Miss Perry for three 
years ; succeeded by Miss Armorel Thomas. 

(D) NEWSPAPERS : 

Contessa Pignatorre ; succeeded in 1918 by 
Mrs. Gibb Carsley. 

PRISONERS OF WAR DEPARTMENT: 

Mrs. Rivers Bulkeley, in charge from May, 1915, until 
demobilization. Chief Assistant : Miss Jean Bovey, 
from opening until demobilization. 

COMMANDANT CANADIAN IMPERIAL VOLUN- 
TARY AID DETACHMENT: 
Lady Perley. 

215 



Overseas Officials and Heads of Departments 



SHORNCLIFFE DEPOT: 

Mr. and Mrs. Harcourt Vernon, from Oct., 1915, until 
demobilization. 

REST HOUSE FOR NURSING SISTERS IN 

LONDON : 
Mrs. Charles Hall, from opening until demobilization. 

REST HOUSE FOR OFFICERS, MOOR COURT: 
Mrs. H. B. Yates first ; succeeded by Lady Allan, who 
was in charge until demobilization. 

PRIVATE SECRETARY TO CHIEF COMMIS- 
SIONER : 

Miss Mona Prentice (previously in Parcels Depart- 
ment) ; with the Red Cross from early in 1915 until 
demobilization. 

IN FRANCE 

PRIVATE SECRETARY TO ASSISTANT COM- 
MISSIONER : 

Miss Violet Butcher, V.A.D., for three and a half years 
until demobilization. 

REST HOUSE FOR NURSING SISTERS, 
BOULOGNE: 

Mrs. Gordon Brown (previously for one year in charge 
of Canadian V.A.D. Billet) ; in charge from opening 
until demobilization. 

PARIS DEPOT: 
Capt. R. M. Hardie. 

216 



APPENDIX B 

CHIEF OVERSEAS EVENTS. 
CANADIAN RED CROSS, 1914-1919. 



1914-15. 



Opening of the Duchess of Connaught C.R.C.S. 
Hospital, with the assistance of Major the Hon. 
Waldorf Astor, M.P. 

Opening of the C.R.C.S. Rest Home for Canadian 
Nurses at 13, Cheyne Place, S.W., kindly lent 
by the Hon. Mrs. Graham Murray. 

Seventy-eight nurses arrived from Canada to serve 
under St. John Ambulance Association. 

A " Canada " car contributed to the Princess 
Christian Hospital Train. 

Information Bureau opened by Lady Drummond, 
to gather and to transmit information re sick 
and wounded and missing Canadians, and those 
who were Prisoners of War ; to visit all sick 
and wounded Canadians and to supply them with 
comforts. 

Prisoners of War Department opened. 

Fifty-six motor ambulances provided. 

Canadian Red Cross supplies given, in conjunction 
with the Canadian Army Medical Service, to 
hospitals in France and in England ; besides 
comforts to Canadians in British hospitals. 
217 



Chief Overseas Events 



A depot established in Paris to distribute supplies 

to needy French hospitals. 
In connection with C.R.C.S. work at Boulogne 

Canadian women assisted in the search for 

missing and wounded. 
Canadian Red Cross Society erected and equipped 

a ward in the St. John Ambulance Association 

Hospital in France. 
Opening of Supply Depot at Shorncliffe, October, 



The King's Canadian Red Cross Convalescent 
Hospital opened at Bushey Park. 



1916. 



The C.R.C.S. Nurses' Rest Home, at Margate, opened 

April ist. 

The I.O.D.E. Hospital for Officers opened May nth. 
The Canadian Red Cross Special Hospital, Buxton, 

opened May i6th. 

The C.R.C.S. Princess Patricia Hospital, at Rams- 
gate, in process in equipment. 
Assistance given to C.A.M.C. in England, for 

16,000 to 18,000 sick and wounded Canadians 

monthly. 
Aid given in the erection and equipping of huts and 

other buildings to five Canadian hospitals in 

England and five in France. 
In France the monthly turnover was equal to the 

contents of 8,000 Red Cross cases of supplies, 
Recreation Huts erected, equipped and maintained 

in the Canadian hut hospitals in France. 
Large issues made to French Red Cross Societies, 

and 300 French hospitals were supplied direct. 
Five thousand cases per month distributed from 

Paris stores. 
Convoy of five motor-ambulances started in Paris 

in conjunction with B.R.C.S. 

218 



Appendix B 



The sum of 300,000 francs presented to French war 
societies as a token of sympathy from Canada. 

Fifty-nine C.R.C.S. ambulances working near 
Boulogne. 

Prisoners of War Department became Care Com- 
mittee for Canadians, under Central Committee. 

1917. 

Assistance given in France to five General and three 
Stationary Hospitals, four Casualty Clearing 
Stations, thirteen Field Ambulances, and four- 
teen small hospitals attached to Forestry, Tunnel- 
ling and other Companies. 

5,432 cases of supplies given to Belgian, Italian, 
French, Serbian, Russian and Roumanian Red 
Cross. 

Comforts distributed to 20,000 sick and wounded 
Canadians monthly, throughout Great Britain, 
in Canadian and British hospitals. 
London War Committee formed (see Appendix A). 
On April ist the following hospitals, opened by 
the C.R.C.S., were transferred to the Military 
Authorities : 

Duchess of Connaught C.R.C.S. Hospital. 
The King's C.R.C.S. Convalescent Hospital. 
The Canadian Red Cross Special Hospital, 

Buxton. 
The Princess Patricia C.R.C.S. Hospital at 

Ramsgate. 
Chest Wards erected in No. i, No. 3 and No. 7 

Canadian General Hospitals in France. 
Number of cases of goods distributed in Great 

Britain amounted to 30,160. 
Number of cases shipped to France numbered 

32,433- 

Advanced Store opened in France, adjacent to the 
Headquarters of the D.D.M.S., in charge of 
officer attached to the D.D.M.S. 

219 



Chief Overseas Events 



Portable electric lights provided for dressing 
stations at the front. 

Lieut. -Col. C. Bryan, Assistant Commissioner in 
England, visited Switzerland to inspect arrange- 
ments for Canadian Prisoners of War interned 
in that country. 

Canadian Red Cross Home for Officers opened at 
Moor Court, Sidmouth, December. 

1918-1919. 

C.R.C.S. Rest House for Nurses opened at 66, 
Ennismore Gardens, S.W., January, 1918, through 
the generosity of Col. and the Hon. Mrs. Gretton, 
who lent this house furnished. 

C.R.C.S. Rest House for Nursing Sisters opened 
at Boulogne, April ist, 1918. 

Col. Blaylock appointed Chief Commissioner Over- 
seas, Lady Drummond Assistant Commissioner 
in England, and Capt. Law Assistant Commis- 
sioner in France (April). 

C.R.C.S. Hospital at Vincennes, Paris, opened on 
July 3rd by Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Borden, as a 
gift from the Canadian Red Cross Society to the 
people of France. 

Opening of the Manor House, Bexhill, as an Officers' 
Casualty Company. 

London Motor Ambulance Convoy organized. 

Large supplies and grants given to Allies. 

Opening of small Maternity Home at Seaford for 
wives of soldiers. 

Highly valuable assistance given in food and 
clothing to refugees in France and Belgium. 
This help was offered throughout the last autumn 
of the war, and during the following winter and 
spring. Was specially referred to in report by 
French Mission. 

Establishment of small temporary hostel for re- 
patriated prisoners of war. 

220 



Appendix B 



Opening of Canadian Red Cross Officers' Hospital 

(Hotel Petrograd), London. 
Opening of Balmoral Hotel, Buxton, as hostel for 

soldiers' dependents awaiting repatriation to 

Canada. 
Unveiling of Red Cross memorial at the Duchess 

of Connaught's Canadian Red Cross Hospital, 

Cliveden. 
Bushey Park and Duchess of Connaught's Hospitals 

presented to British Government for the use of 

delicate children. 
Parties of Canadians taken to visit the graves in 

the war-zone, of relatives. 



STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. 



Transactions 


Year ending 


Cash Receipts. 


Disbursements. 


between 
























Department 


s. 










i 


s. d. 


i 


s. d. 


i s. d. 


3ist 


Dec., 


1915 


141 


,194 


15 


5 


126,479 


12 


7 


1,075 16 


I 


3ist 


Dec., 


1916 


256 


,698 


7 


o 


291,835 


13 


i 


7,l8o 2 


6 


3ist 


Dec., 


1917 


385 


>75o 


8 


2 


307,098 


15 


6 


198,712 9 


7 


3ist 


Dec., 


1918 


387 


,874 


2 


7 


459.415 


19 


6 


111,322 19 


8 



1,171,517 13 2 1,184,830 o 8 318,291 7 10 



22,1 



Chief Overseas Events 



STATEMENT OF SUPPLIES. 

FOR PERIOD COMMENCING NOVEMBER, 1914, AND 
ENDING DECEMBER SIST, 1918 

{. s. d. 

RECEIVED FROM CANADA : 

248,673 cases of supplies; jams 
and preserves, peaches 
and apples, valued at 1,971,118 6 o 

PURCHASED LOCALLY: 
46,768 cases of supplies, valued at 547,185 12 o 



295441 2,518,303 18 o 

TOTAL NUMBER OF CASES DISTRIBUTED 

To Hospitals in England . . 113,81; 

To Headquarters in France . 56, 

170,211 

To C.R.C.S. Depot in Paris for 

French Hospitals . . . 72,782 

Belgian Red Cross . . . 4,860 
French Wounded Emergency 

Fund .... 634 

Italian Red Cross . . . 5.394 

Russian Red Cross . . . 2,850 
Serbian Red Cross : 

Supplies .... 6,228 

Jams .... 900 

Peaches .... 100 

Roumanian Red Cross . . 800 

Wounded Allies Relief Fund . 360 

94>9 8 

265,119 

222 



Appendix B 



FROM THE IST OF JANUARY, 1919, UNTIL THE IST 

OF MAY, 1919, THE FOLLOWING SUPPLIES WERE 
RECEIVED AND DISTRIBUTED 

Number of shipments received 

from Canada. ... 27 

Number of cases received from 

Canada . . . 33,340 

Number of cases purchased locally 356 

33,696 



Number of cases distributed to 
Hospital Units in England and 
Sundries .... 16,099 

Headquarters in France . . 4,807 

Paris Depot .... 2,018 

For distribution to Canadian Ex- 
peditionary Force, Murmansk, 
Russia 355 

23,279 



TO ALLIED INSTITUTIONS 



Italian Red Cross 

Australian Red Cross (on loan) 

Canadian War Contingent . 

Roumania 

Serbian Relief Fund 

British Red Cross (apples) 

Anglo-Czech Commission . 



2,380 
652 
231 



383 
1,015 
107 



8,428 
223 



Chief Overseas Events 



SPECIAL CASES FROM CANADA FOR REFUGEES 

France and Belgium . . 424 

Serbia 389 

Roumania .... 394 

Anglo-Czech Commission . . 20 

1,227* 

5,159 cases of apples were distributed in January to 
our Hospitals in England and France and Canadian 
Camps in England ; 1,015 cases were donated to the 
British Red Cross Society. These formed the balance 
of the splendid consignment of 23,000 cases of apples 
from the Ontario Government, of which the majority 
were distributed during December, 1918. These figures 
are included in the foregoing number of cases distributed. 



*In addition to the 1,227 cases above mentioned, the following 
were allocated during the month of June : 

To France and Belgium ... ... 2,508 

Serbia 713 

Roumania ... ... ... ... 707 

Anglo-Czech Commission ... 50 

Italy 400 

4,378 

A further 925 cases are being sent from Canada, as this book 
is being prepared for the press, making a grand total to June 
3oth, 1919, of 6,530 cases for the relief of the stricken popula- 
tions of our Allies. 



Printed at The Chapel River Press, Kingston, Surrey. 



SKEFFINGTON'S 

SUMMER FICTION by the LEADING AUTHORS 



Our Casualty George Birmingham 

Author of " General John Regan," 
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Hope Trueblood Patience Worth 

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Open Sesame Mrs. Bailile Reynolds 

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This book consists of four novels. 

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The author knows how to rivet her readers' attention. Each 
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Ismay Waldron and Conrad Blick and Dr. Drew and Monsieur 
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2 Skeffington's Early Summer List 

The Taste of Apples Jennette Lee 

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Skeffington's Early Summer List 3 

The Upward Mrs. Kenneth Combe 

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The Lure of Gertrude Griffiths 

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Skef fington's Early Summer List 



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The Chartered Adventurer *.. aa. et 

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Agnes and Egerton Castle 

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Skeffington's Early Summer List 5 

Take One at Night Keble Howard 

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Skeffington's Early Summer List 



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The Locust's Years M. Hamilton 

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A novel that w ill appeal to every feminine reader. 



Skeffington's Early Summer List 7 

Skeffmgton's Recent Successful Novels 

SUSPENSE ISABEL OSTRANDER 

HAMMERS OF HATE GUY THORNE 

HER MOTHER'S BLOOD 

BARONESS d'ANETHAN 

THE WIFE OF A HERO (2nd Edition) 

NETTA SYRETT 

SIMPSON OF SNELLS 

(3rd Edition) WILLIAM HEWLETT 

THE WEDDING GOWN OF "OLE MISS" 

(3rd Edition) GERTRUDE GRIFFITHS 

CAPTAIN DIEPPE 

(8th Edition) ANTHONY HOPE 

CLAYMORE! (2nd Ed,) A. HOWDEN SMITH 
THE GREEN JACKET (3rd Ed.) JENNETTE LEE 
SUNNY SLOPES (2nd Ed.) ETHEL HEUSTON 
THE TEST SYBIL SPOTTISWOODE 

LOVE IN THE DARKNESS 

(3rd Thousand) MRS. SYDNEY GROOM 

ROTORUA REX (3rd Ed.) J. ALLAN DUNN 

BLAKE OF THE R. F. C, 

LT.-COL. H. CURTE1S 

TALES OF WARTIME FRANCE 

VARIOUS FRENCH FICTION WRITERS 



Skefiington's Early' 1 Summer List 



Skeffington's New 2/- net Novels 

Bound, and with attractive pictorial wrappers. 

Captain Dieppe - - . - Anthony Hope 

(A "Prisoner of Zenda " period novel). (9th Edition) 

The Smiths of Surbiton - Kcblc Howard 

(Keble Howard's greatest novel) 

Rotorua Rex J. Allan Dvnn 

(A fine stirring South Seas romance) 

The Stolen Statesman - William Le Quevx 

(Holds the reader's attention from start to finish) 

Fair Margaret - H. Rider Haggard 

The Way of the Spirit - - H/Rider Haggard 
The Window at the White Cat Mary Roberts Rinchart 

The Lone-Wolf - - Lovis Joseph Vance 

Tales that are Told - Alice Pen-in 

Chronicles of St. Tid Eden Phfflpotts 

Her Heart's Longing - EHie Adelaide Rowlands 

The Woman's Fault - - Effie Adelaide Rowlands 

The Leavenworth Case - Anna Katharine Green 

Sir Nigel - A. Conan Doyle 

Spragge's Canyon - - H. A. Vachell 
The Mysterious Mr. Miller - - William Le Queux 

The Great Plot - William Le Queux 

Secrets of a German Royal Household (20th thousand) 

(1/9 net) Hilda Maybvry 

The Life Story of Madame Zelle (30th thousand) *- 

Henry de KlalsaUe 
A Woman Spy (30th thousand) - - Henry de Halsalle 

"MARK ALLERTON'S famous novels ; 

In a Gilded Cage - Mark Allerton 

The Vineyard - Ma rK Allerton 

The Mystery of Beaton Craig - Mark AJlerton 

The Master of Red House - MarK Allerton 

The Maitland Street Murder - MarK Allerton 

The Devils Due - - - Mark Allerton 

The Mill MarK Allerton 



Skeffington's Early Summer List 9_ 

SKEFFINGTON'S 

NEW BOOKS OF GENERAL INTEREST 



Marshal Foch and his Theory of Modern 

War Captain A. Billiard Atferidge 

Author of "Murat," " Marshal Ney," " Famous Modern Battles/' 

" Towards Khartoum," etc. With an Introduction by JOHN 

BUCHAN. With Maps in two colours, 6s. net. 

A book of paramount importance, not only for all military mea 
but the general public, who here, for the first time, see the great 
French Field-Marshal as a man and a soldier. 

A book giving an intimate biographical sketch of the man 
whose genius may be said to have saved France and Europe at a 
critical moment ; containing a full and clear exposi of the theory 
and practice of strategy, based on Marshal Foch's own books, and 
on his operations in the present war. It is impossible to overrate 
the importance of this book, written in a graphic and delightful 
style, by this well-known expert on military matters and history, 
the man who was present throughout Kitchener's Soudan Campaign* 

Alsace-Lorraine 

30.. net. George Wharf on Edwards 

In one large handsome volume, elaborately gilded and boxed* 

Under the German exterior, the French heart of Alsace-Lorraine 
beats strongly. German rule cannot subdue her. German hate 
cannot conquer. French she is, and French she will remain. All 
the beauties of this war-wracked country are pictured and described 
in this volume. Boxed. 

Vanished Towers and Chimes of 

Flanders George Wtiarfon Edwards 

In one large handsome volume, elaborately gilded. Boxed. 30. net 

An exquisite volume with over 20 coloured plates and monotona 
illustrations from drawings by the author, and a frontispiece of the 
great Cloth Hall at Ypres that was. War-swept Belgium has lost 
historical buildings and other treasures that can never be replaced^ 
They are all fittingly described here. Boxed. A book that will 
be of ever -increasing value in years to come. Only a limited number 
available* 



io Skeffington's Early Summer List 

Vanished Halls and Cathedrals of 

France George Wharton Edwards 

Author of "Vanished Towers and Chimes of Flanders." 
In one large handsome volume, elaborately gilded* Boxed. 30s.net. 

Illustrated with 32 plates in full colour and monotone, from 
drawings made just before the War. This book of rare beauty, like 
its companion volume on Flanders, will be a perpetual and highly - 
priaed memorial of the vanished glories of this region of France. 
Only a limited number available, 

Birds and the War Hugh S. Gladstone 

M.A., F.R.S.E., F.Z.S., etc. 

Crown 8vo, with 16 Illustrations, 5s. net. 

The contents of this fascinating volume, which will appeal to 
both bird lovers and the general reader alike, include the following 
interesting subjects : UTILITY AND ECONOMY OF BIRDS IN THB WAR : 
Birds as messengers, birds as crop protectors, birds as food, and 
birds' eggs as food. SUFFERINGS OF BIRDS IN THE WAR : Effect of 
the war on birds in captivity and during severe weather ; destruction 
of birds at sea ; effect of air raids and air-craft on birds. BEHAVIOUR 
OF BIRDS IN THB WAR ZONES : Birds on the Western front ; birds 
on the Gallipoli, Macedonian Palestine and Mesopotamian fronts. 
EFFECT OF THB WAR ON BIRDS : Migration in war- time ; change of 
habits in birds due to the war. CONCLUSION : Ornithologists killed 
in the war, 

Medical Research and Human Welfare 

A Record of Personal Experiences and Observations 
during a Professional Life of Fifty-Seven Years 

6.. -t Dr. William Williams Keen 

This is an amazing record of the many ways in which human 
welfare has been promoted by the researches and experiments of 
the past century. Among tLese great medical and surgical advances 
are anesthesia, Pasteur's achievements, antiseptic and aseptic 
surgery, and the conquest or partial conquest of many diseases that 
have scourged mankind in the past, such as hydrophobia, smallpox, 
cholera, yellow fever, diphtheria, typhoid, bubonic plague, tuber- 
culosis and cancer. Now leprosy also seems in a fair way to be 
radicated. There are also interesting sections of the volume 
devoted to the economic value of the results obtained by scientific 
research into the diseases of animals and plants. 

The style is so vivid and enthusiastic, and so often humorous, 
that the book is uncommonly readable, and sare to interest medical 
men and laymen alike* 



Skeffington's Early Summer List n 

" Whys and Wherefores " 

Cron Svo cloth, 5.. n.t. Vfolet M. Methley 

Unconsciously we use many phrases in everyday life which are full of 
colour and meaning. Why do we speak of "Lynching," "Boycotting," 
"Carte Blanche," "Burking it," " Killed by Kindness," etc. ? Some- 
times we pause to ask how these household words crept into our langnge 
Throwing a searchlight into the darkness of the post, this book, in a 
series of intensely interesting, yet historically exact pictures, gires the 
"Why and Wherefore " of these and many similar expressions. 

The Lamp of Freedom 

A Ballad for English-speaking People* 

Lt.-Col. Rowland R. Gibson 

Crown i6mo, Is. 6d, net. 

The verses read with a fine swing, and the argument running 
through it, illustrated by historic episodes in England's continuous 
championship of freedom, is well sustained. 

It should also become popular in schools, 

Signs, Omens and Superstitions 

2.. ed. Astra Cielo 

It is the object of this book to review the subject of superstition 
without prejudice or condemnation, and to present the data and 
explain their origin wherever possible, leaving it to the reader 
to reject such beliefs as seem absurd and irreconcilable with modern 
culture. 

There are few persons, no matter how rational or level-headed, 
who are not given to superstition in some form. With some there 
is a deep-seated belief that evil will resulf from an infraction of 
a rule. With others an amused idea that if a ceremony does no 
good it can do no harm, and so to be on the safe side they carry out 
some mummery. 

Fortunes and Dreams 2.. ed. Astra Cielo 

A practical manual of fortune telling, divination and the inter- 
pretation of dreams, signs and omens. 

This book has been compiled for the use of intelligent people who 
desire to know the various ways in which events have been pro- 
phesied by occultists the world over, and who wish to test their 
own faculties and consult the " Book of Fate " in their own behalf. 
The various methods and tables are offered to the reader at their 
own value, without any special claim for their accuracy or efficacy. 
Each inquirer must determine for himself in how far he may trust 
the oracle that he has consulted. Some of the material is new and 
is not to be found in modern books of this nature. Most of the 
tables have been gleaned from very old authorities. 



12 Skeffington's Early Summer List 

Gems of Irish Wit and Humour 

2.. ed. Edited by H. P. Kelly 

This new and original collection of Irish wit is without question 
one of th best of its kind ever gathered together, and contains 
many specimens of droll Irish wit and humour. 

Readings from Great Authors 

Arranged for Responsive or other Use in 
Churches, Schools. Homes, etc. 

Cloth, 2s. 6d. ; paper, 2s. net. 

A new idea in the matter of selected readings from great authors 
is embodied in this little volume. These selections are arranged for 
responsive reading in public assemblies, as well as for private use 
in schools and homes. The authors have acted upon the conviction 
that the Christian Bible is only a part of the sacred literature of the 
race, and that other material from the great writers of ancient 
and modern times may well be adapted in our day for ritual uses 
as the Psalms of David were adapted in former days. The result 
is a book as inspiring as it is bold. Among the writers are such 
ancients as Buddha, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and such moderns as 
Tolstoi, H. G. Wells, John Galsworthy and Rabindranath Tagore. 
Wordsworth, Tennyson and Browning appear among the poets ; 
Lincoln, Mazzini and Woodrow Wilson among the statesmen. 
Special attention has been paid to the social message of modern 
religion, as embodied in the writings of Carlyle, Ruskin, H. D. 
Lloyd, Henry George, Edward Carpenter, and others. The subjects 
of the readings are various, running all the way from " The Soul," 
" God and Humanity," " Justice," " Faith," " Truth," to " Demo- 
cracy," " The Great City," " America," and " The Coming Peace." 

The Future Life in the Light of Ancient 
Wisdom and Modern Science LOUIS Elbe 

Crown 8vo, 6s. net., paper, 5s. 

This is a long work of over 110,000 words of rare ability and 
merit. It has gone into 120 Editions in France, and should" be in 
great demand in this country. 

Our reader expressed the opinion that it would be a crime and 
a loss to English Literature not to publish it in this country. As 
a book of Christian evidence it should prove invaluable ; many 
a searcher after truth will be afforded light, whilst many a waverer 
from the faith of his forefathers should once again return to the old 
paths. 

It is written in a fair and just spirit, and there is nothing in it 
which any fair-minded individual sceptic or Christian of any sect or 
religious persuasion can possibly object to* 



Skeffington's Early Summer List 13 

Modern Russian History 

In two large handsome ADPlttMf flll*1* KfUmillW 
volume*, 14.. net each. Ali:At*IlUCr AUriUlUV 

Professor at the Politechnicnm at 
Peter the Great in Petrograd 

This is an authoritative and detailed history of Russia from the 
age of Catherine the Great to the present. 

Parliament and the Taxpayer 

< -*> E. H. Davenport 

Barrister-at-Law, Private Secretary to the Assistant 
Financial Secretary to the War Office. With a Preface by 
the Rt. Hon. HERBERT SAMUEL, Chairman of the 
Select Committee on National Expenditure. 
The first book which deals with the financial control of 

Parliament historically and critically. It shows how Parliament 

has failed and how it may yet succeed. 

Odd Corners in Scotland 

William F. Palmer 

Author of "Odd Corners in English Lakeland," etc. 3/6 net 

Industrial Development of Palestine 

Maurice Me Farbridge VUL 

Langton Fellow in Oriental Studies in 
Is. 6s. net. the University of Manchester 

With a foreword by Maurice A. Canney M.A. Professor of Semitic 
Languages and Literatures in the University of Manchester. 

The Masque of Peace and the New Year 

'* Mary S. EutchizisoQ 

An excellent play for home-theatricals. 

What to Draw and How to Draw It 2/6 net 

"The Ideal Method." An instructive and entertaining book 
shewing how to draw. It is suitable for children and grown up 
persons alike. 



14 Skef f ington's Early Summer List 

SKEFFINGTON'S 
Recent Books of General Interest 

Tales of War Time France Translated by 

F *T*I^: William L. McPherson 

A fine volume of French fiction, ranking with that of Daudet and 
Maupassant, by such well-known writers as Pierre Mille, Fr6d6ric 
Boutet, Maurice Level, Ren6 Benjamin, Alfred Machard, 

Three Years with the New Zealanders 

With, mans and .any ^.(^ WCStOH, D.S.O. 



Thirty Canadian V.C.s 

2.. 9d. net. Captain T. G. D. Roberts 



A long, authoritative and spirited account in detail of the actions 
which have gained for Canada thirty V.C.s in the Great Wan 
Capt. Roberts has had access to the official records, and gives a 
great many entirely new and interesting facts, 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem illustrated. 
Past and Present s.. o.t. Rose G. Kingsley 

An illustrated and authoritative account of the Order of the 
Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, from the earliest time to the 
present day. It traces its history from the early body of military 
monks under whose auspices a hospital and a church were founded 
in Jerusalem ; follows them to the island of Rhodes, tells of their 
troubles there (through the seizure of the island by the Turks), and 
their subsequent possession of the Island of Malta, the government 
of which they administered until it was occupied by Napoleon in 
1798 ; and finally ends with the work by members of the Order 
during the present war. 

Three Anzacs in 

the War e.. 94. n .t. Lieut A. E. Dunn 

A book of irresistible charm. The story of three Australians who 
Yoltmteer for service across the seas, by the one who was left to 
tell the tale. 



Sk effing ton's Early Summer List 15 

The Prisoner of Daniel J. McCarthy, 

War in Germany 12.. sa. net. A.B., M.B 

An intensely interesting and deeply moving book by the repre- 
sentative of the American Embassy in Berlin during 1916. 

AMBASSADOR GERARD says : "I cannot praise too highly Dtt 
McCarthy's book. . . . The better treatment of prisoners is largely 
owing to his work . . ." A true book that will bring a comforting 
message to many a British home. 

With the Austrian Army in Galicia 

Octavian C. Taslauann 



Round about Bar-le-Duc Snsanne R. Day 

Second Edition. 6s. 9d. net. 

Nothing could exceed the charm of this war book, written with 
tenderness and real wit, giving a true and moving and inspiring 
account of the sufferings and the dignified attitude of the refugees 
from Northern France, among whom, and for whom, the authoress 
worked. 

Jim Crow's Trip to Fairyland 

C T S^ Kennedy O'Brien Martyn 

An original and attractive Fairy story for Children, with 20 new 
illustrations by the Author. Would make a delightful Christmas gift. 

Sauce for the Gander Violet ML Methley 

And Other Plays.,' Crown 8vo, doth, 2s. 6d. net. 

A Series of Short plays for either three or four characters. Among 
the titles are : " The Vengeance of Anne," " In the Dark," " A 
Matinee Idol," A Warm Reception," " A Hasty Conclusion," etc. 

" Can be heartily reocommended to all who have private theatricals in band.Daily 
Mail. 

Pompei : As it Was 

and As it Is Bagot Molesworth 

M.A., King's College, Cambridge. 
Imperial Quarto Edition on block-proving paper, 1 5s. net. 
Cheaper Edition, handsome binding. Art paper, 10s. net. 
The Destruction of Pompei Life in Italy in the First Century 
Italian Villas of the Period of Pompei And the Poetry, Painting 
and Sculpture of the Time. With Twenty-Eight Original Photo- 
. graphs of the Ruins and Wall Paintings in Pompei, taken by the 
Author. 

"A handsome volume. . . , The illustrations are large photographs taken and 
cleverly taken by the author, Mr. Bagot Molesworth. They include not only streak 
scenes, but pictures of the finest wall paintings and mosaic fountains found in Pompei." 
Daily Telegraph. 



1 6 Skeffington's Early Summer List 

The Drift of Pinions Robert Keable 

6s. 9d. net. Second Edition. Author of " A City of the Dawn." 

A collection of most remarkable miracles personal experience 
retold in a touching manner. A book that will make a special 
appeal to all those interested in the occult. 

Humour in Tragedy Constance Bruce 

3*. 6d. net. 

With an introduction by the RT. HON. THB LORD BBAVBRBROOK, 
Foolscap 4to, with over 60 very original and humorous pen-and-ink 
sketches by the author. One of the most delightful refreshing 
books that has appeared as yet, by a Canadian nursing sister behind 
three fronts. 

The Compleat 

Oxford Man A. Hamilton Gibbs 

With a Preface by COSMO HAMILTON. Cloth, 3s. 6d. not, 

This delightfully chatty book cannot fail to please all Oxford 
men, and, indeed, all those who have visited or are interested in 
Oxford. 

" Hardly a city ia England but will feel lifted up by the veracious pictures we owe 
to Mr. Gibbs' vivid penmanship." Morning Post. " A very well written book it is. 
Mr. Gibbs is clearly a great authority as to the river and the ring." Guardian, "A 
aeries of bright and amusing sketches in the life of an Oxford man. Its charm is that it 
has been written by one who knows Oxford life." Standard- 

Can we Compete ? Godfrey E. Mappin 

. fl , Definite Details of German Pre- War Methods in Finance* 

Trade, Education, Consular Training, etc., adapted to 

let - British Needs. With a Preface by Sir Robert Hadfield, 

A book of momentous interest that will be read by every in- 
telligent British man and woman with the eagerness commonly 
devoted to fiction. The author gives, for the first time, a full account 
of Germany's system of commercial and scientific education, con- 
sular training, etc., with statistics and tables of results. He proves 
the absolute necessity of reforms in England, if we would retain 
our trade in the future, and makes valuable and highly interesting 
suggestions as to how to avert disaster and to checkmate successfully 
the economic danger confronting the British Empire. 

Germany's Commercial Grip on the World 

6. net. Fourth Edition. HCStS*! MaUSGF 

The most exhaustive and interesting study of Germany's methods 
for world-wide trade. A book which all commercial men should 
not fail to read* 



Skeffington's Early Summer List n 

The Moxford Book of English Verse 



3.. 6d. net. Fourth Edition. 

1 340 1913. Foolscap 8 vo. 

A most amusing parody upon the famous " Oxford Book of 
English Verse." 

Sea Power and Freedom Gerard FiCimes 

Illustrated. 10s. 6d. net. 

A very important book, mainly historical, reviewing, from the 
Phoenicians onwards, the history of all the nations who have pos- 
sessed Sea-power, and showing how its possession depends on a 
national character which is, in itself, antagonistic to despotic rule* 

Edward Fitzgerald's Omar Kheyyam 

In French and English. Af&Af 60 Cf 1" XJtt 

Author of " L'Auberge," " Inn-of-Heart. " UUCW2 Ol XJ/S 

In small booklet form, leather bound, gilt edged, 2s. 6d. wrt., -vellum, 2*. 

Walks and Scrambles 

in the Highlands Arthur L. Bagley 

Member of the Fell and Rock Climbing Club. 
With Twelve Original Illustrations. Large crown 8vo, doth, 3s. 6d. net. 

" This Book has a real attraction. Many Englisbmsa would do well to follow Mr. 
Bagley 's footsteps over our British hills and mountains." The Saturday Rcvitw. 

" A more readable record among the mountains, valleys, and lochs of Scotland has 
probably never been published." The Western Morning News. 

The Cult of Old Paintings 

and the Romney Case Rickard W. Lloyd 

6s. net. With an Introduction by Sir Edward Poynter, P.R.A. 

Silver Store S. Baring Gould 

New and Cheaper Edition. Fifth Edition. 2s. 6d. net. 

A Volume of Verse from Mediaeval, Christian aud Jewish Mines, 
Includes ' The Building of St. Sophia " and many Legends and 
other pieces, both serious and humorous, which will be found not 
only suitable for home use, but also most useful for Public Reading 
at Parish Entertainments, etc., etc. 
" Many will welcome th attractive reprint of Mr. Baring-Gould's Poems." 



i8 Skeffington's Early Summer List 

Three Years in Tristan da Cunha 

Large crown 8vo, cloth, ?. 6d. net. j^ M. BtfUTOW 



" We wish we had room for even a few of the romantic and amusing details of both of 
which the book is full ; and must conclude by heartily commending it to the general 
reader." Church Quarterly Review. 

Saint Oswald : Arthur C. Champneys, 

Patron of the C.E.M.S. M.A. 

A Biographical Sketch, full of interest. Fcap. 8vo cloth, is. net. 

A Jester's Jingles F. Raymond Coulson 

Fcap. 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. net. 

A volume of forty-three pieces of humorous verse. 

Verses and Carols Ellen Mabel Dawsoit 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 3s. 6d. net, 

With the C.L.B. Battalion 

in France James Duncan 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. net. Chaplain to the 1 6th K.R.R. (C.L.B.) 

Gordon League Ballads(More) Jim's Wife 

(Mrs. Clement Nugent Jackson.) 

Dedicated by Special Permission to the Bishop of London. 
Crown 8vo, cloth. Second Edition. 2s. 6d. net. 

' A Third Series of these most popular and stirring ballads. They 
are seventeen in number, including many of striking general interest ; 
also six remarkable temperance ballads ; also three stories, specially 
written for audiences of men only, 

BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

Gordon League Ballads. First Series. 

Dedicated to H.R.H. the Princess Louise. 
Sixteenth Thousand. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. net. 

Including " Harry," as recited with such remarkable success by 
Mrs. Kendal ; also " Mother," and that most striking ballad, " The 
Doctor's Fee," recited by Canon Fleming. 
" The book is beautiful in its appeal to the common heart, and deserves to be widely 



We pity anyone who could read such veritable transcripts from life without 
responsive emotions. "Standard. 



Skeffington's Early Summer List 19 

Gordon League Ballads Second Series. 

Eighth Impression. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. net. 

Among the Ballads in this Second Series may be mentioned t 
M How Harry Won the Victoria Cross," being a sequel to " Harry " 
in the First Series ; " In Flower Alley," " Beachy Head : a True 
Coastguard Story of an Heroic Rescue " ; " Shot on Patrol : a 
True Incident of the Boer War " ; " Grit : a True Story of Boyish 
Courage " ; " Granny Pettinger : a True Story of a London Organ 
Woman " ; "A Midnight Struggle," etc., etc. 



Short Plays for Small Stages 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. net. COSItIO 

" Should prove a boon to clever amateur players, for all five of the Plays are simple, 
effective and quite easy to produce." The Lady. 

The Merrythought Plays 
cro-n^tlnfs 1 !;. ce,. Myrtle B. S. Jackson 

Six Original Plays, for Amateur Dramatic Clubs, Village Enter- 
tainments, Girls' Schools, Colleges, etc. Easy to stage, easy to 
dress, and easy to act. 

44 Some of the most lively and well-written little dramas that were ever written . . 
in short, this is a most useful and entertaining volume, which will soon be known wherever 
amateur theatricals are popular." The Daily Telegraph. 

The Great Historians of Albert Jordoii 
Ancient and Modern Times : M.A., D.D., ULD. 



Please Tell Miss Yonge, S. Baring- 
Me a Tale Gould, Miss Coleridge, 

and other eminent Authors. 
Thirteenth Thousand. In artistic doth binding. Super-royal i6mo, 3s. 6d. net. 

A Collection of Short Tales to be read or told to Children from 
Four to Ten Years of Age, 



sto Skeffington's Early Summer List 



Monologues and Duologues 

Snood Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. net. ]|f j|]*y 

These most original and amusing Pieces (some for men and some 
for women] will furnish charming and delightful Recitations for 
Public Entertainments, the Drawing-room, School Prize Days, etc., 
etc. They are thoroughly up to date. 

" Most welcome to those who are always eager to find something new and sometbraf 
pood. The Monologues will be most valuable to Reciters." Tfo Lady. 

Sisters in Arms cnwnavo.doth^.. net. fif. 0. Sale 



A series of Short Plays in the form of Triologues, Duologues, and 
Monologues, on thoroughly amusing and up-to-date Subjects. 
" Entertaining to read and should act well." Scotsman. 

In the Lilac Garden F. M. Whitehead 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d, Author of "The Withy Wood." 

A most interesting Story for Children, beautifully illustrated by 
the author. A charming gift-book Jor birthday or Christmas. 

Angelique of Port Royal, 1591-1661 

Demy 8vo, 448 pages, with frontispiece. New and El Wf C*rt**lA**o 
Cheaper Edition. Second Impression. 5s.net. JBl* !& &HHClr 

This Biography covers a period ofldeep historic interest. The 
intrigues of Richelieu, the Anarchy of Anne of Austria's Regency, 
and the despotism of the great Louis had each their special bearing 
on the fortunes of Angelique Arnauld. 

M The history of the Great Abbess, as unfolded in this most interesting work, will come 
to.thoae in .sympathy with the religion of silence, with an irresistible appeal." The Timtt. 

The Daily Biographer J. P. ShaWCTOSS, 

Consisting of Short Lives for every Author of " The History Rf.A. 
day in the Year. Demy 8vo, cloth, 5. net. of Dagenham." 

This original book contains a short but interesting and accurate 
biography of some eminent person for every day in the whole year; 
The dates are fixed by the birth or death of each subject. It is a 
book of deep interest, and full of information aa a valuable work 
lor reference* 

SKEFFINGTON & SON, 34, Southampton St., Straad, W.C.2 

(Publishers to His Majesty 'the King) 



University of Toronto 
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