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Ca*^ )'S?.i 3./jr 


Igarbarti College l^ibtatg. 



laccnduu of Henry Bright, Jr., who died U Wmter. 

own. Mu*.,in 1686, are endtled to hold KhoUnhipi la 
larvud Coile^, aUblilhed in iKSo under the will of 

il Wilthuo, Mui., wEth one half the Income ol till* 

LcKscT- Such dacendantB fulinir. othi 

ellglbl* to th- —'--' — --'— ■"- -"■ 


mhlpi. The will requirei 



Received Jj-LLQ. ^J., /» 





















F. B. S. C. 

1889 \?X 



(From Quebec Morning CkrtmieU, Uth Jnlj, 1888.] 



*' The annouDcement of the appearance of a new book from 
Mr. J.-M. LeMoine, F. R. S. C, will be haOed with delight by 
the readers of our author's ** Seaside Series " of works on Cana- 
dian historir, legends, traditions, &c. ** The Explorations of 
Jonathan Oldbuck, F. G. S. Q., in Eastern Latitudes '' is a 
new book, fresh from the press this very week. Possessing all 
the charms of novelty, freshness and ori^nality, it yet re-intro- 
duces us to a number of old and very welcome friends and faces. 
Being the outcome, as Mr. LeMoine tells us in his prospectus, of 
more than ten years of travel by land and by sea, it goes without 
saying that the history and traditions acquired and stored away 
for the present work, and the pen pictures with which it is so 
graphically, artistically and elaborately illustrated, were not 
concealed under lock and key in the author's study at Spencer 
Grange, until Mr. LeMoine was prepared to spring them all 
upon us by surprise. Such are not the author's methods. He is 
not afraid to show us his partly finished work, but takes his 
friends into his confidence, and aUows them, as his work pro- 
gresses, to peep into his sanctum and examine some of the matter 
that is to enter into its composition. And so it comes that most 
of the Chboniclb's readers will readily recall the fugitive little 
bits of rustic scenery, the small marine pieces, the miniatures of 
Lower Canadian portraiture, the folk and legendary lore of 
Eastern Quebec, that Jonathan Oldbuck, with true Sam Slickian 
errantry has more or less irregularly contributed to these 
columns. Mest people nowadays find life too short to keep a 
perfect collection of scrap books duly and daily indexed, and 
many are compelled to pass over even such entrancing sketches 
as those of Jonathan Ofdbuck's explorations, when found is such 
ephemeral form as contributions to the columns of the daily 
press. Now that these old friends are to be had in a new dress 
and amid new surroundings they are sune of a hearty welcome 
from all who have enjoyed the pleasure of their acquaintance. 
Arranged in the volume before us with much that is new and 
OTi^al, these sketches take the reader through nearly all the 
pttrishes and seaside resorts of the eastern section of the Pro- 
vince of Quebec on both shores of the St. Lawrence, as far 

down as ihe Magdalen lalands in the Golf, and also aloneside 
our far famed salmon streams, which give the Provinoe so lajjve 
a revenue and might be made to yield a great deal more. The 
descriptions of these latter are deeply interesting and add largely 
to the interest attached to the book. Thiere is also a picture of 
Prince Edward Island and an entrancing sketch of '^The C^ise 
of the Hirondelle, " into which is woven some very interesting 
legendary matter. 

** Our readers will thus see that the major part of the book 
is entirely new, while no portion of it has previously been 
published in book form, if we except a couple of pages on a trip 
up the Mistassini reprinted from our author's '* Historiciu 
Notes," and the fact that the same work contains an abridgment 
of the first chapter of *' Explorations, " entitled ''Quebec to 

'* To all Lower Canadians who desire to become acquainted 
with the history of their own Province and the interesting legen- 
dary and sporting lore of its seaside resorts and of the principal 
inland and riverside parishes of its most romantic localities, Uiis 
book will prove a veritable treasure house of information. It 
makes delightful reading, and possesses the merit of being 
instructive as well as agreeable. In Quebec and at our various 
summer resorts it should prove the most successful holiday book 
of the season. Its every page is replete with internal evidence 
of the conscientious work which Mr. LeMoine is doing as one 
of the toilers in the deep mines of historical and archssolosical 
research, and of the diligence that he has displayed in sinking 
his shaft of enquiry down to the veiy rock bottom of fact. It 
has not diminished from the value of this work, that he presents 
to his readers the remnants of traditionary lore from which he 
has separated and refined the pure ore of historical truth. The 
latter is rendered more valuable by contrast with the other, 
while it by no means kills the romance in what is still tradi- 
tionary that it is shown to be of legendaiy origin. This histori- 
cal data is very correct, and there is compressed into small space 
an immense amount of valuable matter, descriptive not only of 
the localities explored by the author and of the folk lore con- 
nected witl them, but also of the men and events thrt have 
made them famous. Future historians will have good cause to 
thank Mr. LeMoine for his successful efibrts in collecting so 
va^t and so valuable a store of material, — which left without a 
compiler, would at an early date have disappeared from view or 
died with those from whom our author derived it. *' Jonathan 
Oldbuck " wiU strike many as the best of Mr. LeMoine's books. 
It is calculated also to interest a wider circle of readers than 
any of his other works." 










Past Prendent, of Royal Society of Canada, Ist seotioiu 
'' " of Literaiy and Hiatoiical Society of Quebec. 

Cor. M. liaaeachuaetts fiiafcorical Society. 

Cor. BL New England Historical Gleneological Society. 

Cor. M. Hiatorical Society of Wisconsin. 

Membre de la Sod^t^ amSricaine de France. 

** ** d'Histoire Diplomatiqae de France. 

iy&4ga6 R^onal de la Sooi^t^ d'Etnnograpnie de France. 

(Oopy riffht.) 


SdUan of '< Le Ccmadiin " and " rEvenmmt.'* 


%^^ ■ Co^ /3<?;6 5./vr 

Entered aooording to Act of Parliament, in 1889, by J. If. 
LbMoink, in the office of the Minister of Agriculture 



of New- York, 

For several years the Vice-President of 
the Canadian Club of New- York and its 
enthusiastic supporter ; whose able pen and 
influence have ever been used to make better 
known his native Province, Quebec among the 
citizens of the Great RepuUic. 

Spencer Grange, 

15th July, 1889. 



Thirty ymn ago^ in Mooidanoe with a phm ooDoeived at a 
gadiering of f rieDdi, I undertook what then waa to mOt and 
what has been ao, ever ainoe— a Ubor of love : placing in a light 
form, before a candid paUio the brighteat aa weH aa the darkeit, 
pagea in Canadian annah with their Tariooa aooompanimenta. 

Thua originated, the four leriea of the volwnea, known under 
the emblematio title of kapub lbayis. 

The favor with which my firat efliiaiona were reoeired, led 
me to delve deeper in the mine of Canadian hiatoiy — ^mnaty 
old lettera— illegible BL S. accumulated on n^ library shelvea. 
There indeed, I found ample occupation for many long, but 
pleasant winter eveningly forgetting the houra whilat the north- 
em blaat waa howling, amidat my leafleaa oaka and old pines. 

Indulgent readera have followed me» through the unfre- 
quented patha of Canadian hiatoiy, archeology, legenda. Tailed 
by short sketchea of Canadian scenery, flowers, birds, fishes, Ac 

I now lay before them, with all its short comings, a familiar 
itinerary of travel, by sea and by land, covering a score of years, 
over the moat picturesque portion of the province, to complete 
the chain of works originally projected* 

Ifay it meet with the same cordial support extended to ita 


.4 .. N 



Beauport — Ms history — Scenery — Warlike CJironidee ; 

Its Oaiaract. 

I can recall a very pleasant hour, on a mellow September 
afternoon, in 1886 — spent under the hospitable roof of 
Herbert Molesworth Price, at Montmorenci Cottage. Our 
antiquarian friend had gathered there some well known 
Quebecers. I can remember the following : Owen Murphy, 
Esq., ex-mayor of Quebec, the Hon. John Hearn, L. C. 
and one or two others, to meet a distinguished son of the 
Emerald Isle, on a visit to Quebec : Justin McCarthy, 
Member of the Imperial Parliament, the brilliant historian of 
" Our Own Times." 

It was a pleasure to recapitulate to this eminent litttra- 
teur^ the historical incidents of the past which^had marked 
the locah of the seven miles' drive from the ancient capital, 
to the renowned waterfedl. 

An excellent turnpike road leads past the Dorchester 
bridge, (erected by Asa Porter, in 1789, and called after 
Lord Dorchester, then Governor-General of Canada) — 
through a double row ol neat cottages and white (arm 
houses, to the foaming cataract of Montmorenci. 

Previous to 1789, the St Charles was crossed by a scow; 
and, at low water, by a ford, and, by a ferry, at high tide. An 
incident of the blocade of Quebec, in 1775, connects this 

— 6 — 

ferry with the " first oblation of blood made upon the altar 
of Liberty at Qaebec " says Judge Henry, one of the annalists 
of the war: (i) 

" On the afternoon of Nov. i6th, " the guard was relieved. 
Lieut. Simpson commanded it. His guard was composed 
of two and twenty fine fellows of our company. When the 
relief guard came, a Frenchman of most villainous appear- 
ance both as to person and visage, came to our Lieutenant, 
with a written order from Colonel Arnold, commanding 
him to accompany the bearer, who would be our guide 
across the river St. Charles to obtain some cattle feeding 
beyond it, on the account of Government. The order in 
the first instance, on account of its preposterousness, was 
doubted, but upon a little reflection, obeyed. The call 
'* come on lads " was uttered. We ran with speed from the 
guard-house some hundreds of yards over the plain to the 
molith of the St. Charles where the ferry is. Near the ferry 
tras a large wind-mill and near it stood a small house re- 
^[tabling a cooper's shop. Two carts of a large size were 
passing the ferry heavily laden with the household stuff, and 
women and children of the townsmen flying from the 
suburbs of St. Roque, contiguous to Palace Gate, to avoid 
the terfible and fatal effects of war. The carts were already 
in a large scow or flat-bottomed boat, and the ferrymen, 
seeing us coming, were tugging hard at the ferry-rope to 
get off" the boat,, which was aground, before we should 
arrive. It was no small matter, in exertion, to outdo people 
of our agility. Simpson, with his usual good humour, urged 
the race, from a hope that the garrison would not fire upon 
us, when in the boat with their flying townsmen. The 
weight of our bodies and arms put the boat aground in good 
earnest, Simpson vociferously urging the men to lift the 
boat, directing them to place their goods in my arms, stand- 
ing ^on the bow. He ordered me to watch the flashes of the 
^annon of the city near Palace Gate. Jumping into the 

. (1) " An accurate and interesting account of the hardships and suf- 
ferings of that band of heroes who traversed the wilderness in the 
4>ampaigii agidnst Quebec, 1776," by John Joseph Henry, Esq., late 
President of the Second Judicial District of Pennsylvania — Lancaa- 
^r, printed by William Greer, 1812." 
Henry, according to the preface written to his daughter, was born 

miter mid-deep, all but Sergeant Dixon and myself, they 
were pushing, pulling and with handspikes attempting to 
float the scow. One of the carts stood between Dixon and 
myself ; he was tugging at the ferry-rope. Presently " a 
shot " was called ; it went wide of the boat, its mark. The 
exertions of the party were redoubled, keeping an eye upon 
the town, the sun about setting in a clear sky, the view was 
beautiful indeed, but somewhat terrific. Battlements like 
these had been unknown to me. Our boat lay like a rock 
in the water, and was a target at point blank shot about 
three-quarters of a mile from Palace Gate, which issues into 
St. Roque. I would have adored all the saints in the 
kalendar if honor and their worships would have permitted 
the transportation of my person a few perches from the spot 
where it then stood, by the austere command of duty." The 
result of the firing was that Dixon had a leg shot off, and 
died of tetanus the next day, while the vile Frenchman, 
aghast and horror-stricken, fled from us to the city. He 
turned out to be a spy purposely sent by Government to 
decoy and entrap us, and he succeeded but too easily with 
the vigilant Arnold. The blood of Dixon was the first 
oblation made upon the altar of Liberty at Quebec. 

One of the most conspicuous landmarks in this neighbor- 
hood towards the shore, at La Canardi^re (i), in a line 
with Hedleyville, is Maizerets; a long two story farm 
house, belonging to the Quebec Seminary, where their blue- 
coated boys, each Thursday, spend their weekly holiday, 
since time immemorial, walking back to the city with the 
descending shades of evening and awakening the echoes df 
the Beauport shore with their jolly old French songs : La 
Claire Fontaine^ — Par derr&re chez mon JPire^-^£n rvif/ant, 
ma BcuU roulant, &c. ; the usher in charge, with hi^ long 
black cassock flowing to the night wind, merrily joining in 
the chorus. 

Z7oT. 4th, 1708, at Lancaster, Penniylvani*. In the USX of 1775^. 
being then 17 yean of age^ he Joined » r^mfnt of men nifed,!^ 
Jjancatter Co., for the purpose of joining Ajrnold, who at that t^e 
was stationed in Boston. 

(1) Would Xa Oamardih'€ have taken its nameftbm liMmg, in 
Conner days, the resort of innnmeiable cemardBi 

- 8 — 

In 1778, the historic old mansion was rebuilt^ after having 
been ruthlessly burnt to the ground by Col. Benedict 
Arnold's rude followers, in the fall of 1775. 

In 1850, it was enlarged to its present size ; a diminutive 
island, christened in July, 1852. St. Hyacinthe (i) — was 
added in the centre of the sheet of water in rear of the 
house, and communicating, at high tide, with the St. Law- 
rence. It is provided with row boats, canoes, &c. 

This long, narrow pond, served in 1759, in lieu of a 
ditch, to one of General Montcalm's redoubts; for a 
succession of years, in summer, it has been the source of 
unspeakable delight, on every weekly holiday, to the Semi- 
nary scholars — Crede exptrto. 

On the 7th March, 1850, the pupils, in solemn conclave, 
and after exhaustive discussion of several names proposed 
^ among which that of Montigny (after the great Bishop 
Laval, Abb^ de Montigny, founder of the Petit Shninaire 
in 1668) came prominently to the front — decided that 
their pleasant trysting place should be known to succeeding 
generations as Maizerets. 

Maizerets is the name of the venerable Superior of the 
Quebec Seminary, during whose protracted tenure of office^ 
this valuable property was acquired by this educational 
institution. Revd Louis Ango des Maizerets closed his 
career, on the 22nd April, 1721, at the ripe age of 85 years^ 
loved and r^retted. 

The main road, overhung by wide-spreading elms, leads 
past the lofty, tuneted dome, extensive buildings and plea- 
sure grounds of the Prmnndal Lunatic Asylum^ founded in 
1845 ; first, in Col. Gug/s roomy stone stables, (2) adjoin- 

(1) To commemorate the presence of the St. Hyacinthe College 
Iwys, then on a visit to the Qnebec SemiBary scholars. 

(2) This commodious receptacle of Col. Gngy's stud was taken 
down in 1887. 

— 9 — 

ing the Duchesnay Manor, by three of the leading physi- 
cians of Quebec, Doctors James Douglas, Joseph Morrin 
and Joseph Fremont, and then transferred to the present 
location. The east wing, occupied by the females, stands 
on the site of the old Chdteau de Bontu^ where Judge de 
Bonne, an active politician in his day, and also a learned 
jurist, resided for years, in the early part of the century. No 
more suitable, nor healthy locality, could have been selected 
as a home for the i,ooo unfortunates, bereft of reason, and 
over whom the Provincial Government is expected to 
watch. The streamlet, known as the Rivihre des Taup&res^ 
winds through the leafy seclusion and flows under the 
rustic, iron, suspension bridge of Glenalla, now Villa Mastai. 

During our war with the United States, in 1812-14, this 
diminutive, though deep brook was assigned as the western 
limit of the paroled American prisoners — some 40 odd, 
officers and privates — taken at Detroit, &c. ; among them, 
Generals Hull, Winchester and Chandler ; they were at first 
located in the ChdUau de Bonne, Capt. Mathew BelPs 
cavalry escorted them to Quebec in the winter of 18 13, 
and they were placed in the house, No. 81, St Louis street 
— in which the historian Hon. Wm. Smith expired, on 17th 
December, 1847 — now the residence of Sheriff Chs. Alleyn. 
Their fellow prisoner, taken at Queenston, Col. (afterwards 
Genl. Winfield Scott), had the run of the city on parole. 
Col. Scott won laur«ls in the Mexican war, and acquired, on 
account of his bustling activity and love of display, the well 
remembered sobriquet of old Buss and Feathers, The stately, 
athletic Colonel, however lived under parole with Colonel 
(afterwards Major General) Glasgow, the Commander of the 
Quebec Garrison, in 181 3. In 181 7, we shall find him again, 
within our walls, an honored guest, under the hospitable 
roof, at Marchmont, Grande Allhe^ of Sir John Harvey, who 
subsequently became Governor of one of the British 

— 10 — 

The eastern parole limit of the unhappy (i) warriors was 
the second stream occuring on the road to the falls : le ruts- 
seau de Vaurs^ Bear Creek, whose waters yet furnish motive 
power to mills in the second range of Beauport,and, until a 
few years backi to an extensive grist mill, now in ruins, form* 
erly owned by the late William Brown. In 1759, this stream 
had, at this spot, steep banks, since solidly bridged over,, 
as portion of the public highway. The hollow formerly 
eating was then designated, and frequently appears in 
Chevalier Johnstone's and Capt. John Knox's diaries of the 
siege, as the "ravine at Beauport. " What lively scenes 
Benedict Arnold's myrmidons enacted in this locality during 
the crucial winter of 1775-6? 

Col. Jos. Bouchette mentions the erection here of a dis- 
tillery, about 1790, by the Hon. John Young. 

A year or two later, Prince Edward — Her Majesty's father 
— then a jolly Colonel of Fusiliers, twenty-four years of age,, 
might have been met, on bright summer mornings, trotting 
his pair of Norman ponies over the Beauport road, from 
Haldimand House to the city, with the fascinating Madame 
de Saint Laurent at his side. 

Haifa century later, in 1841, the Curb de Beauport^ the 
Kevd. Abb^ C. Chiniquy, the idol of the Beauport teato- 
tellers, was raising the Temperance pillar which now, on the 
north side of the road, attracts the attention of tourists. 

Let us hie back to this historic ruisseau de Pours, 

What gave it its sporting name ? 

I have a faint remembrance of a bear story, more than 
two hundred years old, in which the local Nimrod, Seigneur 

(1) The Qwhec Mercury of 9th November, 1813, advertises for the 
capture of Abraham Walter, pilot, native of Grandfield, aged 24 years 
who had deserted from Beauport on the 6th November, 1813. Captain 
Kempt, the agent for the prisoners of war, offers for his apprehension 
one guinea reward over and above the Provincial reward allowed in 
snch cases. 

— 11 — 

Giffard, whilst lying perdu for wild geese — one spring — on 
the sedgy banks of this river, is stated to have spied a huge ' 
bear roaming in the neighborhood, mayhap in quest of the^ 
seigniorial mutton. Gaunt, tired, possibly unconscious of 
evil intent, Bruin was lapping the crystal draught of the 
rmssean. To substitute in his long duck gun, slugs, for goose, 
shot, was the affair of an instant for the sporting Laird, and 
lo ! Bruin's brave spirit was wafled to where all good 
bears go ! 

Let us cross Bear Creek close to the front door of the 
Beauport Manor and ask about the Seigneur. " Who was 
the first Seigneur of this flourishing village ? " I hear you. 
Here is what we read in history : 

Seigneur Robert Giffart or GifTard, Steur de Beauport^ a' 
native of Perche, left old for New France, in 1627. Later 
on, we find him an English prisoner of war. Taken oiv 
board of Rocmont's fleet, he it was who gave the parish its' 
name, and, as its^ first Seigneur, watched over its feeble' 
beginnings. We shall find him a practising surgeon at 
Quebec, in 1634 : the calling at that distant time must 
have been a bit of a sinecure. 

He applied for and was granled by the Company of New 
France, the Seigniory of Beauport, on the 14th January,' 
1634, according to a Parliamentary return printed in 1852 ; 
on the 3iJ^t December, 1635, says Colonel Bouchette. 
GifTard had several sons and daughters ; two of the latter* 
married the brothers Juchereau, the sires of the warhke 
clan of Duchesnays who occupied the Beauport manor for 
nearly two centuries. 

Robert Giffard, a man of importance in his day, was 
elected Church Warden, at Quebec, in 1646. It is recorded 
that the Jesuit Fathers selected his house, at Beauport, to 
celebrate their first mass. The lettered and sporting Escu*' 

— 12 — 

lapius died on the 14th April, 1668, and was buried in the 
cemetery at Beauport. 

Let us now knock at the chief entrance of the Manor I 

Had we, with us, Jean Guion, we might possibly have a 
chance of meeting his worthy contemporary, Fran9ois 
Boulld, Seignior Giffard's faithful farmer of the 14th March, 
1634. Alas ! Both are enjoying their long rest, for the last 
two hundred and fifty years, in yonder rustic necropolis. 

But I was forgetting that of the venerable Duchesnay 
Manor some disjointed ruins are all that now remain, of a 
residence endeared to Canadians for having been the head- 
quarters of the chivalrous Marquis of Montcalm during the 
thrilling summer of 1759. The circumstance of the sojourn 
of the French General, at that Manor, had so aroused the 
cupidity of the Quebec treasure-seekers after the hurried 
departure of the Gallic legions, that cellars and outer-courts 
were more than once dug up for gold and silver, supposed 
to have been concealed and forgotten there, prior to their 
hurried retreat These Doustirswivels might have saved 
themselves much labor, many midnight vigils, suffumiga- 
tioas and incantations, under suitable planetary influence 
^r searches, — with or without " a hand of glory, by the 
light of a taper, manufactured from the fat of an executed 
murderer, — when the clock strikes twelve at midnight " — 
had they chosen to bear in mind, that during the drooping, 
closing years of French rule, the chief circulating medium 
at Quebec was card money, supplemented with Bigot's 
Bills on the French treasury — destined to be dis- 

Some time after the destruction by fire of the old Manor, 
in 1879, ^ mysterious inscription was unearthed from the 
ruins. Mrs. Gugy, the owner of the property kindly for- 
warded it to the President of the Literary and Historical 
Society for examination. It gave rise to a very lively discus- 
sion in the English and French press, in which the leading 

— 13 — 

Quebec antiquaries took part : — Rev. abb^ Verreau, Count 
D'Orsonnens and others : 


(To the Editor of the Morning Chronicle,) 

Dear Sir, — " I have pleasure in laying, with your permis 
sion, before the members of the Literary and Historican 
Society, through your columns, the enclosed communicatiol- 
Xeceived this day, with the plate and inscription to which it 
relates, from the widow of the late Col. B. C. A. Gugy, of 
Darnoc, Beauport. It sets forth the recovery, from the 
Beau port Manor House, of a lead plate, affording a writen 
record of the laying of the foundation stone, on the 25th 
July, 1634, of the histoiical homestead of the fighting 
Seigneurs of Beauport, — the Giffard, the Juchereau and the 
Duchesnay. The fac simile and description of the inscrip- 
tion, on comparing with the lead plate itself, forwarded for 
examination by Mrs. Gugy, are so accurate, that they leave 
little for me to say. Nay, I should i)e inclined to detect 
here the hand of an antiquarian, had I not strong suspicions 
that Mrs. Gugy's amanuensis in this case, is her clever 
daughter, Miss Gugy. 

" The massive old pile alleged to have been the head- 
quarters of the Marquis of Montcalm, during the siege of 
Quebec, in 1759, and in which many generations of 
Duchesnays and some of CoL Gugy's children were born, 
became the prey of flames in 1879, 'tis said, by the act of a 
vandal, an incendiary; thus perished the most ancient 
stronghold of the proud feudal Lairds of Beauport — the 
stone manor of Surgeon Robert Giffard — the safe retreat 
against the Iroquois of the warlike Juchereau Duchesnays, 
one of whose ancestors, in 1645, had married Maiie Gifart 
or Giffard, a daughter of the bellicose Esculapius from 
Perche, France, — Surgeon Robert Giffard. Grim and defiant 
the antique manor, with its high-peaked gables, stood in 
front of the dwelling Col. Gugy had erected, at Darnoc, in 

— If — 

1865 : it rather intercepted the view to be had from this 
spot, of Quebec. One of the memorable landmarks of the 
past, it has furnished a subject for the pencil of CoK Benson 
J. Lossing, author of the " American Revolution," and 
" Life of Washington," who, during his visit to Quebec, in 
July, 1858, sketched it with others, for Harper's Magazine^ 
where it appeared, over the heading " Montcalm's Head- 
quarters, Beauport," in the January number, 1859, page 180. 
" Whilst the deciphering of some of the letters I.H.S. — 
M.I. A. at the top of ihe inscription are likely to exercise 
the ingenuity of our Oldbucks and Monkbarns, to whose 
intelligent care I shall leave them, the plate itself and its 
inscription will furnish to the student of history an indefea- 
sible proof of the exact spot, and of the date, when and. 
where stood the oldest of our seigniorial manors, — that of 
Robert GiflFard, on the margin of the ruisseau de VourSy at 
Beauport, in 1634. 

J. M. LeMoine, 


Literary and Historical Society's Rooms, 5th April, 1S81, 

N. B. — Mrs. Gugy has kindly consented to leave on our 
table, during ^he week, for the inspection of the curious, this 
suggestive old plate. 

J, M. LeMoine, Esq^Ure, President Literary aiid Historrcal 

Society, Quebec: 

Beauport, 26th March, 188 1. 

" The tablet found in the JSlanor House of Beauport by 
some workmen, last summer, and only recently restored to 
the proprietors, is a circular plate of lead or pewter much 
injured by the fire which consumed the building. 

" Owing to the unwillingness of the men concerned to give 
any information, it is difficult to learn much as to the where- 
abouts in the building it was found, nor what other articles 
may have accompanied it, but as far as can be ascertained 

— 15 — 

this oval plate (about % of an inch in thickness) was rolled 
up and contained a few coins and some document ; the first 
cannot be traced and are spoken of as " quelques sous; " the 
latter, tney say, crumbled into dust at once. 

"The inscription as well as can be deciphered, is as 
follows : — 

I.H.S. M.I.A, 

LAN 1684 IiB 





" This is rudely butdeeply cut into the plate,and underneath 
may be seen in patches traces of a fainter etching, part of 
which may be a coat of arms, but this is uncertain ; under* 
neath can be seen a heart reversed^ with flames springing from 
it upwards. All these are enclosed in a larger heart, point 

" The enclosed rough simile may give an idea of the 
lettering at the top of the circle, the plate itself being about 
nine inches in diameter. 

(With Mrs. Gugy's compliments.) 
"Damoc, 26th March, 1881. 


(To the Editor of the Moniiiig Chronicle, ) 

* I 

" Whilst regretting the loss of the coins and dry-as-dust 
document accompanying the inscription of the Beauport 
Manor, on account of the light it might have thrown on this 
remote incident of Canadian history, let us examine the 
case as it stands. 

~ 16 — 

" This rude inscription of 25th July, 1634, gives priority 
as to date to the Beau port Manor over any ancient structure 
extant in Canada this day. The erection of the Manor 
would seem to have preceded by three years the foundation 
of the Jesuits' Sillery residence, now owned by Messrs. 
Dobell and Beckett, which dates of July, 1637; Who 
prepared the inscrip.ion ? Who engraved the letters ? Who 
cut on the lead, the figure of the ^'flaming heart?" The stars? 
Are they heraldic ? What did they typify ? Did the plate 
come out, ready prepared from France ? Had the Acadk- 
mie des inscriptions^ etc, or any other academic, any hand in 
the business ? No for obvious reasons. 

'' The lead-plate was imbedded in solid masonry. It is 
too rude to be the work of an engraver. Could it have been 
designed by Surgeon Giffard, the Laird of Beauport, and cut 
on the lead-plate by the scnbe and savant oix\it settlement, 
Jean Guion (Dion ?) whose penmanship in the wording of 
two marriage contracts, dating from 1636, has been brought 
to light by an indefatigable searcher of the past — the Abbd 
Ferland ? probably. 

" But if the lettered Beauport stone mason, who never 
became a Hugh Miller, whatever were his abiUties, did 
utilize his talents in 1634 to produce a durable record, in 
order to perpetuate the date of foundation of this manor, he 
subsequently got at loggerheads with his worthy seignior, 
probably owingto the litigious tastes which his native Perche 
had installed in him. Perche, we all know, is not very distant 
from Normandy, the hot-bed of feuds and litigation, and 
might have caught the infection from this neighborhood. 

" Governor Montmagny, in the space of eight short years, 
had been called on to adjudicate on six controversies which 
had arisen between Giffard and l\is vassals, touching boun- 
daries and seigniorial rights, though the learned historian 
Ferland, has failed to particularize, whether among those 
controverted rights, was included the Droit de chapons and 
Droit du seigneur; could the latter unchaste, but cherished 
right of some Scotch and German feudal lords, by a misap- 
prehension of our law, in the dark days of the colony, have 
been claimed by such an exacting seignior as M. de Giffard ? 
One hopes not. 

" Be that as it may, thestone mason and savant, Jean Guion 
had refused to do feudal homage to " Monsieur de Beau- 
port," and on the 30th July, 1640, six years after the date 

— 17 — 

of the inscription, under sentence rendered by Governor de 
Montmagny, he was made to do so. 

" Francis Parkman, on the authority of the historian 
Ferland, will tell us how Jean Guion, vassal of GifTard, 
Seignior of Beauport, on that memorable 30th July, 1640, 
performed the stately ceremony of Foi et hommage, at this 
very manor to which the inscription refers : 

" In the presence of a notary, Guion presented himself 
at the principal door of the Manor House of Beauport. 
Having knocked, one BouU^, farmer of GifTard opened the 
door, and in reply to Guion's questions if the seignor was at 
home, replied that he was not, but that he, Boull^, was 
empowered to receive acknowledgments of faith and homage 
from the vassals in his name. '' After the which reply " 
proceeds the act, '' the said Guion, Being at the principal 
door, placed himself on his knees on the ground, with head 
bare, and without sword or spurs, and said three times these 
words : " Monsieur de Beauport, Monsieur de Beauport, 
^ Monsieur de Beauport, I bring you the faith and homage 
" which I am bound to bring you on account of my fief Du 
" Buisson, which I hold as a man of faith of your Seigniory 
" of Beauport, declaring that I offer to pay my seigniorial 
" and feudal dues in this season, and demanding of you to 
" accept me in faith and homage as aforsaid." {Old Regime^ 
p. 246.7.) 

" Who will decipher the I.H.S. — M.I.A letters at the top 
of the plate ? Is there no descendant of the haughty Seignior 
of Beauport, Rob. Giffard, to give us his biography, and tell 
of his sporting days ; of the black and grey ducks, brant, 
widgeon, teal, snipe, and curlew, &c., which infested the 
marshy banks of the stream on the Ruisseau de POurs^ on 
which he had located, first his shooting box, and afterwards 
his little fort or block-house, against Iroquois agression ? Dr 
Giffard was a keen sportsman, tradition repeats. Did the 
locality get the name of Canardihre on account of the 
Canards^ the ducks, he had bagged in his day ? Who will 
enlighten us on all these points ? " 

J. O. 
Quebec, 8th April, 1881. 

Qctbt.— Would I.H.8. stand jfbr Jt9UA ffcmintun SalvoU&r f and 
m^. for Maria^osephtu-Anna ;— the Holy Family^asks Dr. W. 

— 18 - 

The Beauport strand was privileged, by its proximity to 
Quebec to play a conspicuous part in the numerous sieges 
which have beset the old city. 

There, in 1690, 1759, 1760, 1775, the invader left in 
marks of blood, his foot-prints. Some of Canada's most noble 
sons found there a glorious death, others a no less glorious 
record of services rendered to their country. 

During the occupation by the English of Quebec by the 
Kirkes, 1628-33, Beauport, with the exception ofth^Ferrm 
des Angesy had little to do with these unauthorised con- 
querors, as peace had been proclaimed between England 
and FraAce, when the Kirkes took Quebec. It was very 
different in 1690 — A/^r^Juchereau, Monseignat, Walley and 
Davis, have each a stirring tale to tell. Admiral Sir William 
Phips' abortive attempt to capture the old rock, on the i6th 
October, 1690, whilst his second in command, Major John 
Walley, landed and headed a detachment on the Beauport 
flats, has brought out creditably the successful and stout 
resistance offered by Count de Frontenac, ** speaking from 
the mouth of his cannon, " and whilst his lieutenants, Pre- 
vost, Longueuil, de Ste. H^l^ne, at the head, of his regulars 
and Beaupr^ and Lorette volunteers, met and routed Major 
Walley's Puritan Boston host. 

What an exciting discovery it must have been for the 
sentinels on the Sault-au-Matelot batteries, when they, at 
day break, on the i6th October, 1690 — spied the slowly 
moving lights of the Massachusetts fleet, thirty-four armed 
vessels, gliding past the Point of Orleans, and casting anchor 
in view of Quebec, thronged with soldiery, — in their French 
eyes, merciless heretics, who, " it had been reported, meant 
to kill them all, after cutting off their ears to make neck- 
laces " ? 

A grand spectacle awaited Admiral Phips' entrance in our 
port. As Parkman well remarks : " One of the grandest 
scenes on the western continent opened upon his sight The 

— 19 — 

wide expanse of waters, the lofty promontory beyond, and 
the opposing heights of Levi, the cataract of Montmorenci, 
the distant range of the Laurentian Mountains, the warlike 
rock with its diadem of walls and towers, the roofs of the 
Lower Town clustering on the strand beneath, the Chdtcau 
JSf, Louis perched at the brink of the cliff, and over it the 
white banner spangled mxh fleurs-de-ltSy flaunting defiance 
in the clear autumn air. " 

The dramatic account of Admiral Phips' repulse has been 
too often given and too well, for me to attempt to repeat it 
here. I shall confine myself to a bare mention of a few inci- 


dents which happened during the week of alarm, which 
inarked the operations of Major Walley, on the Beauport 
beaches, in his vain attempt to cross the St. Charles at the 
ford and assail the city in reverse. Walley's van, though 
brave levies of Massachusetts fishermen and farmers, had 
no mean enemy to contend with. In one of the engagements, 
trontenac in person sallied forth at the head of looo 
soldiers — Montreal, Three Rivers and Quebec men — to 
wait on the south side of the St. Charles, near the ford, for 
the appearance of the invaders, whilst Baron de Longueuil 
and his chivalrous brother, LeMoyne de Ste. Hdlfene, headed 
the Canadian Militia. Both were wounded, Ste. H^l^ne 
fatally. He was buried on the 4th December, 1690, in the 
Hdtel'Dieu cemetery, at Quebec. His two other brothers, 
LeMoyne de Bienville and LeMoyne de Maricour, won 
laurels in this memorable campaign, whilst the sturdy 
Seignior of Beauport, Juchereau de Saint Denis, more than 
sixty>four years of age, in the act of leading his armed 
peasants, lost an arm. For his bravery, the French Monarch 
awarded him a patent of nobility. He was more fortunate 
than his companion-in>arms, the Chevalier de Clermont, an 
officer of distinction, who was killed. 

The Boston invaders, on re-embarking, had been com- 
pelled to leave behind 5 cannons, 100 lbs. gunpowder, and 

— 20 — 

40 or 55 cannon balls. A detachment of armed peasants 
from Beatiport and the adjoining parishes, aided by 40 
scholars from the St. Joachim Seminary, led by le Sieur 
Catrif a fighting inhabitant, of Ste. Anne du Petit Cap, 
' seized and held the guns, in spite of the detachment sent 
from the fleet to recapture, them. Governor de Frontenac 
was so well pleased with their spirited conduct, that he pre* 
sented one of the captured guns to the Seminary scholars 
and another to the Sieur CartL (i) 

The little Church, in process of construction in the Lower 
Town Market Place, since 1688, and still in existence, was 
named, in commemoration of Phip's defeat. " Notre-Dame- 
de-la- Vtctoirey* and King Louis XIV ordered a handsome 
medal to be struck, in memory of it — the well-known Kebeka 
JJberata Medal. 

The occupation of Beauport and adjoining parishes round 
Quebec, by Arnold and Montgomery's New Englanders, in 
1775-6, gave rise in this localitvto many strange incidents, 
unrecorded by the general historian. The following, I 
gather, from an account recently furnished me : — 

" Seignior Duchesnay, at Beauport, in 1775 — His farmer, 
Vincent Giroux ; current prices of horses, cows, sheep, 
chickens, turkeys, geese, that fall. Jeremiah Duggan^ 
the hair-dresser : the part he played in the blockade of 

" The following document occurs among the family 
records of the late Henry F. Duchesnay, Esq , M. P., for 
Beauce. Mr. Duchesnay was a lineal descendant of that 
fighting seignior of Beauport, Juchereau Duchesnay, who 
lost his arm, in 1690, whilst repelling the invasion of Phips 
and who received from the French King, letters of noblesse 
for his meritorious conduct. 

It purports to be a true copy of a claim made by Seignior 
Duchesnay, in the fall of 1776, on the Government for 

(I) {Cowra cPffistoire du Canada, Fbbland.) 

— 21 — 

indemnity for losses suffered whilst upholding the King's 
authority. The losses are on farm produce, &c. The claim 
is sworn to before Hon. Thomas Dunn, a loyal official of 
the period. The Caldwells, ADsops and others had preferred 
similar claims for which His Excellency, Guy Carleton, had 
them indemnified. The document is curious as indicating 
the current rate of prices of several objects still in general 
use. A rapacious Irish hair-dresser, rejoicing in the name 
of Jeremiah Duggan, was a leading figure in this raid on 
the Tories, as the Loyalists were then styled. 

" The Duchesnay stone manor, the head - quarters of 
General de Montcalm during the siege of 1759, after being 
the family seat of the Duchesnays for nearly two centuries, 
became about 1845 the property of the late Colonel B. C. 
A. Gugy. 

StcUemeivt of the losses to Mr. Duchesnay by the Ameri^ 

can inv<monf in 1775, 


Vincent Giroux, farmer, residing in a house belonging 
to Mr. Duchesnay, Seignior of Beauport,declares under oath 
that at the end of November, 1775, there came to Mr. 
Duchesnay's residence at Beauport, a band of about fift^ 
armed rebels, commanded, as they asserted, by one Jere- 
miah Duggan, also present. 

" That the said Duggan, who was well known to depo* 
nent,entered the house, asked for eatables and told deponent 
that he (Duggan) knew that deponent had fattened a cow—* 
that he had killed pigs ; and that, at the instant, Duggan 
declared himself master of the house. 

'* That on this day Duggan and comrades seized all 
articles of furniture — removed them to the garret of the 
house, locked the door of the garret and took the key away. 

" That the said Duggan visited other farm houses, leaving 
other rebels in charge of M. Duchesnay's house, forbidding 
them to interfere with the garret, where the furniture was. 

" That this guard remained at this house — but that 
other parties of rebels succeeding one another, broke into 
the garret and catried away the furniture stored there, a 
few days before Christmas. 

" That from date of entry of the rebels, in the said 
house — that is from the end of November, 1775, to the 


— 22 — 

beginning of May last, (1776), they took the live stock, 
house furniture, grain, hay and other objects belonging to 
the said Mr. Duchesnay. " 


I. — A gray horse, six-year-old, with a 
cushioned cariole, worth at least $52, 
Mr, Duchesnay having instructed de- 
ponent not to let the horse alone sell 

under $40 313 livres. 

2. — Another black horse, for which Mr. 

Duchesnay wanted $30 180 

3. — An old cariole and harness 30 

4. — Eight oxen worth at least $20 each . . . 960 

5. — Four milch cows worth at least $8 each. 192 

6. — Fifteen sheep worth at least $i 50 each. 1 35 
9. — Three young pigs worth at least $1.50 

each 27 

10, — About 230 lbs. fresh pork, worth about 

10 sous per lb 115 

1 1. — 100 boards and deals 40 

1 2. — 1,000 cedar pickets for fencing 24 

12}. — Two fowling pieces 14 

12. — One trunk with lock and key worth. .. 36 

i3i. — A box locked {contents unknown) 9 

T4. — A roasting apparatus, new 24 

15. — A stove pipe 18 

16. — A woollen tapistry (tapisserie) dama- 
ged, &c 150 

17. — A green serge curtain 12 

18, — Nine easy cane chairs worth$i.5o each. 65 

19. — Twelve straw seated chairs, new 18 

20. — Twelve straw seated chairs, old 12 

2 1. — Six wooden chairs. 9 

22. — Two small tables with drawers and a 

large one with its cover. 9 

23. — A bed cover of green serge, ornamented 

with velvet 18 

24. — A piece of coarse Canadian linen, about 

20 ells, worth 30 sols per ell 30 

" I 














— 23 — 

35. — A copper pan 6 livres. 

26. — ^A cpridiron -. 2.8 " 

27. — Two kitchen andirons 4.10 " 

28. — A skewer for roasting 1.4 " 

29. — An iron stove shovel i . 10 " 

30, — ^Twenty tumblers 12 

31. — Eight dishes of fine delf 30 

32. — ^Three dozen tureens 7.4 " 

33. — Four turkeys, 16.10 — four geese, 6 

livres 22.10 " 

34. — Seven potdets^ 7 livres — xs pairs of 

pigeons, 18 livres 25 

35.— -^A new bed mattrass, on which Mr. 

Duchesnay slept 48 

36. — Twenty panes of glass broken, 12 livres 

— 22 bags, 40 livres 52 

37. — About 80 bundles of oats — \ to the 

minot — to 20 minots of oats, 30 sols. . 30 
2i^, — 600 bundles of Timothy hay, for which 

$8 per hundred had been offered .... 288 






Total 2,858.2 livres. 

The old record very clearly discloses the worth, in 
1775, of numerous house utensils, cattle and farm produce, 
some of which have not apparently much increased in value 
after a hundred years. Hay does not, each fall, fetch more 
than $8 per hundred bundles at Beauport ; horses seem 
higher in value. Turkeys and geese are a tiifie more in 
price. The 15 couple of domestic pigeons "lifted "by 
Jeremiah Duggan's pals, from the manor, recall by their 
presence, the old feudal privilege of the seigneur, to keep 
pigeons — le droit de colombitr — as Lord of the Manor ; 
^in this case might have been added, Sic voSy non voMs, The 
Beauport andirons may yet, possibly, be doing duty in 
some antique New England home, with the picture of the 
" Mayflower " over the mantlepiece. Jeremiah and his 
hungry gang of raiders, bent on having their fat goose for 
Christmas, 1775, with great foresight inspected, and with 
:success, the seigniorial larder ; carrying away the kitchen 

— 24 — 

utensils ; a roasting apparatus, a skewer, a gridiron (without 
even asking for " the loan ** of it) and a goodly supply of 
cedar pickets, to do the cooking and broil the steak. * 

On the 6th May following, the English frigate " Lowest* 
toff," rounding Pointe Levi, was the signal for the hasty 
departure of the unlucky Sons of Independance and the 
occasion for loud English cheers, when the standard of 
Britain was run up the flagstaff on Cape Diamond. Hurrah! 

A central figure in the parish of Beauport, in full view of 
the city and of the green Isle of Orleans, stands out : the 
Roman Catholic temple of worship. The diminutive struc- 
ture of 1759, has been replaced by the large and handsome 
edifice of our own day. 

Who could tell of the fervent orisons and daily prayers 
sent up to Heaven, during the ever memorable summer of 
1759, in the cherished fane, to avert the war of extermina- 
tion, of which the colony ¥ras threatened? It adjoined 
Montcalm's headquarters ; its steeple, on the 38th June, 
17599 ^^ selected by Governor de Vaudreuil as a safe and 
suitable observatory from which he could feast his eyes on 
the sure destruction of the English fleet, then lying, since 
the 23rd June, at anchor near the Island of Orleans. Mon- 
sieur Deslouches, a French naval officer, had designed and 
equipped at great cost, several " infernal engines " to wit ; 
five fire-ships and two large rafts, which he had sent down 
at ten o'clock that night from the Lower Town, with the 
ebb, to wipe out the British squadron of 60 ships ? 

Capt. John Knox, of the 43rd, an eye witness and an accu- 
rate observer, in his Journal of the Skge^ pronounces the 
display the grandest flre works, conceivable. Though, accord- 
ing to Montcalm, who had no faith in them, they had cost 
" a million, " they turned out worse than a failure. Some 
having been set on flre too soon, grounded before reaching 
the fleet ; others, were courageously taken in tow by the 
fearless British tars, in their boats, and run ashore, where 

— 25 — 

their rigging and hulls blazed away until the morning " with 
no other harm, says Parkman, than burning alive one of 
their own captains and six or seven of his sailors who failed 
to escape in their boats. " Knox relates how the " air and 
adjacent woods reverberated with sonorous shouts and 
frequent repetitions of alls well^ from our gallant seamen on 
the water. " 

The whole of that night scene evidently was one of dismal 
and appalling grandeur. 

What would you give for the prospects of promotion in 
the French Navy, of Deslouches, the originator of this costly 
and primitive torpedo experiment ? 

Governor de Vaudreuil, dejected and crestfallen, hurried 
back to his doomed city. 

Parkman vividly recalls this incident : 

" There was an English outpost at the Point of Orleans ; 
and about eleven o'clock the sentries descried through the 
gloom the ghostly outlines of the approaching ships. As they 
gazed, these mysterious strangers began to dart tongues of 
flame ; fire ran like lightning up their masts and sails, and 
then they burst out like volcanoes. Filled as they were with 
pitch, tar and every manner of combustible, mixed with 
fireworks, bombs, grenades, and old cannon, swivels and 
muskets loaded to the throat, the effect was terrific. The 
troops at the Point, amazed at the sudden eruption, the din 
of the explosions and the showers of grape shot, that rattled 
among the trees, lost their wits and fled. 

" The blazing dragons hissed and roared, spouted sheets 
of fire, vomited smoke in black, pitchy volumes and vast 
illumined clouds, and shed their infernal glare on the dis- 
tant city, the tents of Montcalm, and the long red lines of 
the British army, drawn up in array of battle, lest the French 
should cross from their encampments to attack them in the 
confusion." (Montcalm and Wolfe^ vol. II, p. 211.) 

The Montmorenci falls are still known to old French 
peasants as La Vache (the Cow) on account of the resem- 
blance of their foaming waters to milk, though others have 
attributed the name to the noise, like the bellowing of a 

— 26 — 

cow, which is made by the roaring torrent pending the pre* 
valence of certain winds. They present, when swollen by 
spring floods or by autumnal rains, a most imposing spec- 
tacle. The volume of water, though much less than that 
of Niagara, falls from a much greater height, viz : 375 feet. 
When the sun lights up its brilliant, prismatic colors, the 
undulating mass of foam, rainbow-tinted, assumes hues of 
marvellous brightness. Beauport's wondrous cataract may 
be seen under various attractive aspects. 

I have ridden back from it to the storied city, at sunset^ 
watching entranced, the departing orb of day, shedding its 
golden rays on the quaint, old metal-sheathed roofis of 
Quebec, and the city windows looking westward ; the whole 
panorama, a realm of fairy land lit up with the quivering 
sheen of diamonds. 

I also remember, on a bright, starry night amid-winter, 
contemplating in dreamy, rapt silence, a novel spectacle, 
seldom vouchsafed to Quebecers. The icy peak or cone 
at the foot of the cataract, had been scooped out by an 
enterprising city restaurateur^ to represent a vast, glittering 
palace, provided with icy couches, seats, &c., a cold, bright, 
but fitting throne for the Frost King, illumined by weird 
Chinese lamps, reminding one of Cowper's glowing descrip- 
tion of imperial Catherine's Russian ice palace of 1787 : 

Silently as a dream, the iabric rose, 
Ice upon ice, the well adjnsted parts 

Lamps gracefully diBposed, and of all hues, 

Illumined every side 

So stood the bright prodigy 

ConviTial table and commodious seat 

A scene of evanescent glory, once a stream 
And soon to glide into a stream again 

(Tot Task, book V., 127) 

— 27 — 

About a mile and a half from the bridge, occurs the 
geological curiosities, denominated the Natural Steps ^ adja- 
cent to cascades of three or four yards in depth. 

" The Rocks are so-called because they exhibit," says, 
Lossing, " a series of rectangular gradations resembling 
stairs. They are composed of shaly limestone and supposed 
by some, to have been formed by the abrasion of the waters, 
and by others, to be original in their shapes. For an eighth 
of a mile the river rushes in irregular cascades among these 
rocks, in a very narrow and tortuous channel, its surface 
white with foam, and here and there sending up fleeces of 
spray. On the bold, rocky bank we sat, watching the rushing 
waters, and made an early dinner of sand witches.'' 

Sweetser adds that fine specimens of trilobites have been 
found in the vicinity. 

Over the strand at the foot of the fall, adjoining the vast 
saw mills of the Messrs. Hall & Price, a muddy beach of 
more than a mile broad extends at low tide. You can now 
at this spot hear the whistle of the Quebec^ Montmorenci ^jaA 
Charlevoix Railway conveying its myriads of halt and 
rheumatic pilgrims to La Bonne* Sainte Anne^ a cherished 
shrine, fourteen miles lower down. Very different scenes 
greeted here the eye on a sultry July afternoon (the 31st in 
1759) ; a deadly encounter between Britton and Gaul. Read 
the oft, told tale in Garneau and Park man. Wolfe paid 
dearly for his ill-timed and rash assault, from an unprotected 
position on the beach : attempting to scale the wet, per- 
pendicular heights flanked with earth works, protected 
by woods, bristling with cannon and crowned by expert 
French-Canadian marksmen. He lost nearly 500 men, 
in killed and wounded, including those scalped by 
the Hurons and other savages. The dauntless English 
leader and his rash grenadiers made a grave mistake and 
the heroic Frenchman Montcalm failed to make the most 

— 28 — 

of a victory which the tide and elements brought to an 
unsatisfactory close, (i) 

Apart from the historic interest, the Beauport heights 
and beaches are calculated to awaken, as being the arena 
of the great struggle between Wolfe and Montcalm, during 
the whole summer of i759> it is a locality (2) noted for its 
grand river views and strikinT; scenery. As early as 1782, 
they have attracted the attention of distinguished strangers. 
That year we find General Frederic Haldimand, the Gover- 
nor-General of Canada, located there, and extending the 
hospitality of his pretty lodge to the beautiful (3) Baroness 
Riedesel, the wife of the Brunswick General who had come 
over, in 1776, to fight under General Burgoyne, the rebel- 
lious New Englanders. 

(1) A full account of the siege of Quebec and battle of Beauport 
Flats, appears in the Maple Leaves, for ] 864, and in Quebec, Pad and 

(2) The Montmorenci Fall^whose extreme height is 275 feet- 
supply the motive power to the electric works, which light up the city 
of Quebec, seven miles distant. This stupendous water power is also 
being made available for the working of a new and extensive cotton 
£Eicfory, in process of construction at the foot of the cataract, at a 
cost of $25,000 — It will give employment to 1000 operatives : its 
<hief promoterB are : A. F. Gault, B. Whitehead, Morrice, of Mont- 
real, and H. M. Price, of Quebec. 

(3) Frederica von Massow, afterwards Baroness de Biedesel, was 
Wn in Germany, in 1746. 

Her fftther, Herr von Massow, held under Frederick II, a high 
military command and was the parent of several children. 

At the age of sixteen, in 1 762, the lovely << blue-eyed maiden " as 
described in the Memoirsj married Baron de Biedesel, a dashing 
captain in a regiment of Foot, — subsequently placed, in 1776, at the 
head of the contingent of 4.OOO Brunswickers, forming part of the 
16,900 furnished to England) out of 20,000 promised, by treaty, on 
behalf of the smaller German States — to serve in the impending 
conflict between Great Britain and her North American provinces ; 
Which ended in the Declaration of Independence, in 1783, by the 
inauguration of the Model republic. 

On the 8th June, 1776, the Baron landed at Quebec, with his 
Brunswickers, from on board H. M.'s frigate Pallas ; his wife and 

— 29 — 

This brave, pure and beautiful woman thus describes her 
visit to Montmorenci Fall^ : — " During the summer of 
1782, we passed several weeks very pleasantly at Quebec. 
Gen. Haldimand had built himself a house upon the hill, 
which he called Montmorency, after the great and famous 
waterfall of that name. He took us (Baron Riedesel and 
the Baroness) over to his house. It was his pet and cer- 
tainly nothing could equal its situation. This celebrated 
cataract of the Montmorency plunges down from a height 
of one hundred and sixty-three feet (Bouchette says 25 1 
feet) with a frightful din, through a cleft between two moun- 

While the General was pointing out to us this magnificent 
spectacle, I accidentaly let fall the remark, that it must be 
splendid to have a little house directly over the cataract 
Three weeks after he again guided us to the fall. We made 
our way up the steep path and over pieces of rock that were 
united by little bridges after the manner of Chinese gardens. 
When we at last reached the top, he gave me his hand to 
assist me into a little building which hung directly over the 
iall itself. He was amazed at my courage, when, without a 
moment's hesitation, I immediately entered it But I assured 

tliree children, being allowed to follow him, nnd reaching oar shores 
^not as the Baron had fondly hoped in the following antumn, but 
merely and much to his and her regret, on the 11th June, 1777, in the 
frigate Blonde. 

Madame Riedesel, seems to have united In an eminent degree the 
devotion of a true woman, to the courage of a heroine, during the 
incredible hardships — dangers and hair-breath escapes, of the field 
of battle — in captivity — on lea — on land ; which marked this pro- 
tracted and bloody campaign : her sweet manner — graces of person — 
her fortitude, apparently lent her a charmed Ufe, amidst scenes of 
slaughter, disease and deatti. 

It is that portion of the adventurous career of this singularly 
gifted lady, during her sojourn at Quebec, in 1777, and again on her 
return in 1782, as disclosed in her Letters and Journal, translated 
ftom the German, by the American historian William L. Stone, 
author of the "Life of Sir William Johnston,'' that now engages our 

— 30 — 

him that I was not in the least afraid, when accompanied 
by such a careful man as himself. He showed us how the 
house was fastened in such a situation. The manner of it 
was this : he had caused eight strong rafters to be extended 
from the bank, some distance over the chasm, through which 
the cataract plunged down. There, beams rested for a third 
of their length upon the rocks, and upon them the house 
stood. It was a frightful but majestic sight, nor could one 
remain in the house long, for the din was horrible. Above 
this fall they catch very fine trout, which, however, once 
cost an English officer his life. He was springing from one 
rock to another, in order to catch them, when his foot 
slipped from under him, and he was carried away by the 
strength of the current ; nothing was ever found of him 
afterwards but a few mangled limbs. 

" We were also at this fall once in the winter, on which 
occasion the various and strange figures made by the ice,, 
afforded a magnificent spectacle. " — (Memoirs of Baroness 
Riedesely pages 203-4.) 

A pjrtion of the lodge incorporated in the more modern 
mansion exists to this day. It is mentioned and advertised 
for sale in the old Quebec Gazette^ on the ist December, 
1 791, as " the elegant villa of the late Sir Frederic Haldi- 
mand, K. B., delighttully situated near the Falls of Mont- 
morency, with the farm house, &c., " and so it is. 

His Royal Highness, Edward, Augustus, fourth son of 
George III, and father of our beloved Sovereign, subse- 
quently Field Marshal, the Duke of Kent, had landed at 
Quebec on the 8th August, 1791, from H. M. S. ships 
" Ulysses " and " Resistance, " from Gibraltar, in command 
of the 7th or Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. The cottage 
orne at Montmorenci took his fancy to that degree, that he 
made it his summer retreat and passed the winter months 
in a large dwelling still bearing the name of Kent House, 
facing the new Court House on St Louis street ; 1791-3 

— 31 — 

brings back to us the memory of some of the darkest times 
for old France, when the hatred of England was at its height. 
On what footing was then the social intercourse between 
the descendants of France and England, in the former seat 
of French power in Quebec ? It were difficult to give this 
question a very full answer. Downing street had just given 
the colony a new constitution, the constitution of 1791, but 
our Parliament had not met, and the English and French 
were waiting events. The Royal Duke, with his fine regi- 
ment had landed in the Lower town, on the nth August. 
It befitted the authorities, clerical, civil and military, toge- 
ther with the gentry, to organize a grand levee, to pa7 
homage to the Sovereign's son. But who did call at the 
Chateau St. Louis where the levee was held ? No court jour- 
nal to tell us ; and social events were very meagrely reported, 
in Neilson's repository of news : the old Gazette, Nothing 
much to guide us but an entry in the Quebec Gazette of the 
1 8th August, 1 791, of the names of those who signed the 
address. Can we not then re-people the little world of Quebec 
of 1 791, and recall some of the chief actors in the pageant 
at Government House ? 

Let us walk in with the " nobility and gentry " and make 
our best bow to the scion of royalty. There, in full uniform 
stands His Excellency, Lord Dorchester, the Governor- 
General, one of our most popular administrators. Next to 
him, that tall, athletic military man, is the Deputy Governor^ 
Sir Alured Clark ; his chief is to set sail in a few days for 
En^and ; he looks eager to seize the reins of office. Round 
him, there* is a bevy of judges and Executive Councillors, 
high state officials, all done up to kill, a Pancienne mode, by 
Monsieur Jean Laforme, court hair-dresser, with powdered 
periwigs, ruffles, jabots and formidable pigtails. Here is 
Judge Mabane, grave and thoughtful as usual. Secretary 
Pownall, Hon. Messrs. Finlay, Dunn, Harrison, Samuel 
Holland, the Surveyor- General ; Collins, Col. Caldwell, 

— 32 — 

Fraser, Adam Lymbumer, Messrs. Lester, YouQg, W. 
Smith, jr., close to his learned father the Hon. Chief Justice 

There is a separate but no less brilliant group, in which 
you may perchance recognize the bearers of old historic 
names : Messrs. de Longueuil, Baby, de Bonne, Duchesnay, 
Duniere, Gueroult, de Lotbiniere, de St. Ours, Dambour 
gbs, de Rocheblave, de Rouville, de Boucherville, Lecompte 
Dupr^, Bellestre, Taschereau, de Tonnancour, Panet, de 
Salaberry and a host of others. 

But I hear you ask : " Were all these grandees present *' ? 

Most assuredly, if they happened to be in the city at that 
time. It was a point of convenances. 

The bigjburly colonel of the 7th Fusileers, Prince Edward, 
aged 25, courteous and dignified, gives each of his father's 
lieges a hearty shake of the hand and seems hesitating 
whether he will not deliver right off, the pretty little speech 
which however, histor}' tells us, was uttered some time after 
at the hustings of the Charlesbourg election, where stump 
orators seemed inclined to stir up a war of races. 

" Away " exclaimed the Prince to the excited voters, 
^' with those hated distinctions of English and Canadians ; 
" you are all my august fathers's beloved subjects. *' 

The main portion of Haldimand House, at Montmorenci, 
is just as Prince Edward left it. The room in which he used 
to write (the collection of the Duke's letters, published by 
the late Dr. W. J. Anderson, shows what a voluminous 
correspondent, what a thoughtful patron and protector he 
proved himself to Canadian youth) is yet in existence ; a 
table and a chair — part of the furniture — are to this day 
religiously preserved, pleasing souvenirs of other days. 
Haldimand House is now the residence of Patterson Hall, 
Esq., the co-proprietor of the extensive saw mills at the foot 
of the falls. 


Its mirades. Baib St. Paul — Kalm^s mining explo- 
raJtvyMj in 1749 — Earthquakes and Siege anecdotes. 

W.-H.-H. Murray describes as follows : 

Canada's Holy Shrine: 

" On the north shore opposite the lower end of Orleans 
Island stands the church known over the world as Za bonn^ 
St€. Anne, It is the Canadian Loretto ; the shrine of holy 
pilgrimage, and to it thousand and tens of thousands flock 
each year. They come, not singly, but in whole parishes, 
headed by their curi, A motley crowd ; the aged and the 
young ; the white-haired grandma and the toddling child ; 
the strong and weak : the sick and well ; the rich and 
poor ; the man with perfect body and the cripple wretched 
in his deformity ; all throng to this shrine close by the St. 
Lawrence tide at the base of the Laurentian Hills. Why do 
they come, these thousands ? What charm is in this place 
potent enough to draw so vast a multitude? What good or 
gain do they obtain by coming ? Fair questions and fair 
shall be the answer. They come because they claim they 
get great good to soul and body both. Some come because 
they are heartsick and would say their prayers in some holy 
spot, and seek help of God through the interceeding of a 
pure soul long gone, who stands as one of the Saints before 
Him, and hence has favor in asking. But others come 
because they are sick in body, and tormented with physical 
pain, and are pressed dire with mortal ailments, so that the 
bright days are full of misery and the long hours of dark 
night with groaning, and these — the man with the stout 
staff to aid him hobble on, the cripple with his needed 
crutch, and others yet who may not walk, are borne on 

— 34 — 

litters and mattress — all these come to seek help of the all 
healing God, through his sweet Saint, and deliverance from 
their dreadful maladies and the mortal ills that sorely beset 


and they do say — I question not the truth of it, for I have 
asked to the end of answering years ago, and beyond it, and 
to-day only note what I do see in wandering, and let the 
answer go undebated — they say that on this spot, under the 
Laurentian Hills on the St Lawrence river, in the year of 
our Lord, 1887, great miracles are wrought, even as of old 
times, and that the sick are healed, the blind are made to 
see, the deaf to hear, the lame to walk with ease, and those 
nigh unto death have strength and vigor come back to 
them ; and that, too, suddenly, and through the intercession 
of that once good woman and now pure soul, the good Ste. 
Anne. Nor is proof lacking of the truth of this, for you see 
the crutches that cripples who hobbled to the altar on them 
with such eflfort, threw from them on the instant, that they 
prayed ; and staffs and stout sticks numberless ; and ban- 
dages too, such as open sores have over them ; and splints 
and many ingenious contrivances to strengthen structural 
weakness and lessen human pain. Lo ! are they not all 
here in heaps where they have been thrown from the hands 
of the recovered and healed ; as with great joy and a hap- 
piness indescribable, they dashed the hateful things away, 
as prisoners might dash their chains down on the dungeon 
floor when after long waiting, they were suddenly freed of 
them. " 

The following quotation occurs in the Maple Leaves^ 
for 1863 : 

*' Steaming down the channel north of Orleans, the first 
object of interest that strikes the eye after the beautiful and 
varied scenery of the parishes of L'Ange-Gardien and Cha- 
teau-Richer, presenting every diversity of hill and dale, 
wild, rocky promontory, and advancing and receding moun- 
tain and forest views, is the pretty church of Ste. Anne, 
nestling under the brow of a steep hill, with its tall spire 
glistening in the rays of the morning sun. Standing on a 
gentle undulation sweeping up from the river, the church 

— 35 — 

of Ste. Anne, or La Bonne Ste, Anne, as it is more fre- 
quently called, forms one of the most attractive features in 
the landscape. Hither annually repair the blind, the lame, 
the halt, the rheumatic, and those afflicted with every 
species of bodily ailment, who come to invoke the inter- 
position of the saint to make them whole. Crowds of per- 
sons thus afflicted, with their friends or relatives, are then 
to be seen on the roads with the above object, to pray, or 
return thanks. That cures, either partial or whole, have 
been effected by these annual devout pilgrimages, there can 
be little doubt, as several have been attested by eye witnes- 
ses. A number of crutches left behind by persons cured, 
were formerly hung up in the church, but within late years 
they have been removed to the sacristy. On entering, the 
eye is struck with the neatness of the interior and the beauty 
of the decorations. 

" The walls are adorned with strange paintings, of a pri- 
mitive nature, with singular explanations. 

*' One is a wreck scene, with Ste. Anne represented as des- 
cending from heaven to the aid of a fleet during a storm, 
with the following curious inscription, copied verbatim et 
litieraiim : — 


*' Another painting on the wall immediately opposite 
represents the landing of emigrants sometime before the 
year 171 7 ; another not far distant, a squadron of three war 
vessels, bearing a tri-colored flag of red, white and green." 

♦ ♦ 

" Over the main altar, may be seen Lebrun's painting of 
Ste. Anne, presented by the vice-roy de Tracy. The two 
paintings over the two smaller altars were executed by 
Father Luc Lefran^ois, a friar who died in 1685 — a pre- 
sent from Bishop Laval. Here follow the paintings in the 
nave of the Church from the left : 

ist A picture of St. Louis — King of France. 

2nd A small painting representing the French King's 
ship Le HkroSy just when escaping imminent danger 


— 36 — 

3rd An ex-voto, depicting Father Peter and the crew of 
the ship Le Saint-Esprit^ in the act of making a vow to 
Saint Anne. 

4th A canvass, representing the vessel Le Royer^ caught 
in the ice and miraculously saved by the intercession of 
Saint Anne. 

It is hard to forbear a smile, on viewing at the top of this 
canvass, Saint Anne quietly teaching the Holy Virgin to 
read without her apparently realizing the scene of danger 
enacted at her feet 

Really, nearly all these pictures have no other merit, 
except as recalling Uie grateful souvenir of gratitude which 
they commemorate. Some are caricatures. 

5th An ex-voto of Louis Cypret saved from shipwreck, in 

6tli Another shipwreck scene, exhibiting a ship's crew, 
making a vow to Saint Anne and Saint Antoine of Padua. 

7th Over the side door, a small painting portrays roughly 
a forest and a man crushed under a tree ; in the foreground 
is seen a small dog, which looks as if he was carrying some* 
thing away. An old Legend, relates that a Canadian 
named Dorva), while at work, alone in the woods near 
Tadoussac, was crushed under a tree he had hewn down, 
and had his leg broken. Pinioned under the fallen trunk, 
and without hopes of help in this wilderness, he uttered a 
prayer to Saint Anne, who immediately inspired a means of 

He took a piece of bark, soaked it in his blood and gave 
it to his dog, telling him to go and seek help, at the 
neighboring dwellings ? The faithful animal, divining the 
thoughts of his master, ran to Tadoussac, his restless 
movements and the piece of bloody bark, which he placed 
at the feet of those he met, awakening attention. Some 
followed the animal, who brought them to his imprisoned 

— 37 — 

master. Thus delivered, Dorval hastened to accomph'sh his 
Yov and to deposit an ex-voto, as a token of his gratitude. 

Sth On the right side, at the entrance of the stairs, leading 
to the gallery, there is a small picture on wood, repre- 
senting a shipwreck on the St. Lawrence, between the two 
churches of Beauport and Levis : a fearful caricature. 

9th Shipwreck of Mr. Gaulin's ship. 

loth Marine view, copied by Mr. Plamondon, artist from 
an ancient ex-voto. The ship of Mr. Juing, a Quebec mer, 
chant, chased by three Dutch men-of war, escapes mira- 
culously, through the intercession of Saint Anne. Just 
at the eve of capture, . a cloud hid the ship from the 
view of the enemy, affording it time to seek a refuge at the 
mouth of the Saguenay. 

nth Saint Anne and the Holy Virgin, at whose feet, 
kneels Mademoiselle de B^cancour, of Three Rivers, later 
on, a nun, in the Ursuline Nunnery of Quebec, under the 
name of Ifoly Triniiy, 

12th A miniature representing a Madame Riverin, of 
Quebec, in the act of kneeling with her four children, at 
the foot of the altar of Saint Anne." 

(From La Fite de la Bonne Sainte Anne, abb6 H. R. CiSGRAnr.) 

* * 


Base Sf. Pauly at the base of the Laurentides, sixty miles 
lower down than Quebec, on the north shore of the St Law- 
rence, was a terra incognita^ which for yearsi I had longed to 
explore. Its mineral deposits, sulphur springs, the fantastic 
upheavings of its soil, its hidden volcanos and their deep 
mutterings, had ever invested it in my youthful eyes, with 
weird attractions ; strange indeed are its chronicles. Among 


— 38 — 

other niarvellous occurrences, the Jesuit Jerome Lallemant 
relates how a small mountain, on the shore, in 1663, a quarter 
of a league in area " bad toppled over into the lap of the St. 
Lawrence, and as with a rebound from its watery bed, had 
risen to the surface, a diminutive island, presenting a wel- 
come haven against storms " ; one would be apt to fancy 
that this eccentric diver, is none else than Ile-aux-Coudres, 
kad one not the precise testimony of Jacques Cartier, who, 
on his ascent of the St. Lawrence, in September, 1535, found 
the green isle moored in its present location ; this was, be 
it remembeted, long before the phenomenal earthquake of 
1663, was supposed to have played its pranks. 

I shall have occasion hereafter to expatiate on these ter- 
rific convulsions of nature, in 1663, 1791, 1870, &c. 

In verity this is par excellence^ the land of earthquakes. 
Baie St. Paul was famous long ago for its mines also ; as 
early as 1739, the French Intendant Hocquart, had pre- 
vailed on his sovereign, to detail two able German mining 
experts from France, Forster, senior, and Forster, junior, 
whose mission was to enquire about the mineral wealth of 
the locality, and who reported six rich silver and lead mines 
at Baie St. Paul. 

Ten years later, a distinguished savant^ Kalm, the friend 
and disciple of the great Linnaeus, was to rip open the 
bowels of the earth, with pick and hammer, in this classic 
land of the north. 

One follows with lively interest Professor Kalm, in his 
minmg explorations, at Baie St. Paul, during the summer 
of 1749. 

The learned man, accompanied by his Fidus Achates, 
Lars Yungstroem — who came over to America with him in 
the Mary Gally^ in the triple capacity of courier, gardener, 
florist, on the invitation of the Governor-General, joined a 
party of distinguished French gentlemen, who* left Quebec 

— 39 — 

in a rowboat, on the 29th August, 1749, for Bale St Paul, 
to explore its mines. The Swedish botanist had been pro- 
vided with an excellent cicerone^ Dr. Gaulthier, the King's 
mirgeon in the colony, and also a good botanist ; the party 
was composed of the Governor-General, the Marquis de la 
Jonquiere, who had just succeeded to the noble and brave 
Comte de la Galissonniere, and the latter, also accompanied 
Kalm and several sporting friends, who, well provided with 
fire-arms, no^doubt cared more for game than for mineral 
deposits, except when converted into the coin of the realm. 

It was during harvest time ; the pinnace seems to have 
taken the north channel, between Orleans and Ange-Gar- 
dien \ as at present, it was considered too narrow and too 
intricate, on account of its shoals, to admit of the safe 
passage of large ships. 

Kalm, speaks with rapture of the grand view presented 
from Montmorenci, by the city " with the vast powder 
magazine, crowning its summit — a building by its size 
dwarfing the others." It seems to have stood on the summit of 
Cape Diamond ; this is the first formal mention I have yet 
met of this imposing structure. The fertile Isle of Orleans 
with its sedgy beach, emerald meadows, golden wheat fields, 
vine-dad heights is there noted down, as well as the Grande 
RiT%tre^ lower down than La Bonne Sainte-Anne ; the 
Seminary Lyceum, farms, &:c., at St. Joachim, are all taken 
in by the keen observer, who must have had ample time to 
write up his diary, as the wind compelled the party to take 
shelter for the night, at St. Joachim. 

Next day, the Canadian " Argo," after a stormy passage 
under the frowning Cape Tourment and skirting the rocky, 
abrupt, ptne-clad cliffs of the Laurentides, crossed the 
entrance of La Petite Rivilre^ and landed at 5 p. m., at Baie 
St. Paul, on 30th August ; the pahsh priest hurried to 
receive, under his hospitable roof, the distinguished 
-explorers. Nothing seems to have escaped the prying eye 

— 40 — 

of the Swedish savant ; the trees, flowers, sand of the 
shore, the soil and its weird convulsions, the dialect of the 
Indians he met, the birds, the frogs, even that ubiquitous 
pest of an American forest in summer, the sanguinary mos- 
quitoe, are noted ; the latter is discussed, compared with 
his sanguinary Swedish cousin. 

" The houses, he says, are lit with porpoise oil, and when 
it is possible to get it, with seal oil " ; no gas, nor electric 
light in those primitive days, be it remembered. Sept isf, 
finds the jolly mariners at Terre d*ib<ml€tnent: thus 
named from the convulsive upheavings of the soil, by 
earthquakes, a wild but fertile land. At twelve o'clock 
noon, they reached the airy Cap-aux-OieSyy (Goose Cape), 
but no game could the philosopher discover, except a 
solitary raven, and nothing here to gladden his scientific 
Swedish heart, except that the greatest number of the plants, 
were the same, here, as in Sweden. 

On their way back to Baie St. Paul, the Nimrods of the 
party spied a grey seal gambling in the wake of the pinnace, 
but beyond gun-shot, the wise creature ! 

September 2nd^ the explorers wended their steps to the 
mountain, a little to the south of the Priest's Mill where 
veins of silver and lead were said to exist ; the mountain, 
a conglomerate of granite, whitish lime stone, redish quartz 
and black mica .... 

Lead occurs here in the shape of protuberances, of the 
size of a pea — and more rarely in lamina or small sheets, 
one inch square .... 

" The mine, he says, is not sufficiently rich to pay for its 
working. The sulphur spring in the vicinity yields water of 
a bad taste, which is worse, on the approach of rain. It is 
used by the inhabitants as a cure against itch." 

*' The same day (2nd September, 1749) the explorers 
visited another vein, said to contain silver, near Cap-au- 
Corbeau, Then follows a very scientific disquisition on 

— 41 — 

mineral deposits and their formations; but I cannot find 
any explicit statement on this silver mine, or its probable 
yield et pour cause 1 Kalm then mentions an industry 
apparently flourishing at Baie St. Paul, in 1749, but extinct 
under that name at present, the manufacture of tar (goudron) 
from red pine. Could it be our Canadian balsam ? After 
noticing the valuable eel fisheries all along the north shore 
of the St. Lawrence. I must bid adieu to the Marquis de la 
Galissonniere's sympathetic friend and admirer, and resume 
my short notice of Baie St. Paul and its earthquakes. 

" The lofty promontary, east of St. PauFs Bay, opposite to 
Isle aux Coudres, is known as Capau-Corbeau, " This cape 
has something of the majestic and of the mournful. At a 
short distance it might be taken for one of the immense 
tombs erected in the middle of the Egyptian desert by the 
vanity of some puny mortal. A cloud of birds, children of 
storm, wheel continually about its fir-crowned brow and 
seem by their sinister croaking to intone the funeral of 
some dying man." — (Sweetser,) 

Between St. Paul's Bay and the Isle-aux-Coudres, is the 
whirl pool, called Le Gouffre^ where the water suddenly 
attains a depth of 30 fathoms, and at ebb-tide, the outer 
currents are repelled from Coudre Island to Cap-au-Cor- 
beau in impetuous eddies. Before the Gouffre began to 
fill with sand, schooners caught in these eddies, described a 
series of spiral curves, the last of which landed them on the 
rocks of Pointe d ia Prairie^ an object of dread to mariners, 
entailing loss of life; the Gouffre has lost its terrors in 
the present day. 

* ♦ 

The history of Bate St Paul, humorously remarks its 
annalist,(i) seems to take one back to prehistoric times. 

Pierre Boucher, Governor of Three Rivers, wrote on the 
-8th October, 1663 to Colbert, Louis XI Vs famous intend- 

<1) « T. C. " in VAheilUy for Nov. and Dec, 1859. 

— 42 — 

ant, " that there was not yet a living soul at Baie St Paul."^ 
How fortunate, adds the genial historiographer ! else had 
any mortal been located there during the appalling throes 
of nature, caused by the great earthquake of 1663, whea 
the mountains took to moving round, like frisking lambkins^ 
sicut agnioviumy he must have died of fright ! 

Twenty years later, in 1683, we are told that three femilies 
composing 31 souls, were settled there, and that the public 
roads were both difficult and dangerous. This seems more 
than likely, seeing that until 181 2, there was no other mode 
of access to this mountainous district in summer than by 
water conveyance, or by trusting to a favorable state of the 
tide and travelling on foot or on horseback, along the beach 
under the stupendous, overhanging cliffs, at low water, until 
the anxious wayfarer, bound for Quebec, reached St Joachim. 
As an instance of the perils of the route, we read of the 
melancholy end of one of the first pastors of St Anne, Revd. 
Mr. Filion, who careless of the turn of the tide, had ventured 
over this rough road and was drowned, on the 6th July 
1679 (i). His body, discovered on the beach at La Petite 
Rivihre^ was towed by a young girl, behind her canoe, to St. 
Anne du Petit Cap and buried there, in the church, says an 
old memoir, with the handsome gold cross, which he wore, 
at the time of his death. 

The present highway, among the lofty capes, was cut 
through the bush, by the Government, in 181 2, and rendered 
quite practicable by further repairs in 181 8, through the 
parliamentary influence of Hon. P. De Salles Laterrifere, 
though the absence of human habitations, except at intervals 
of six or nine miles, renders this route undesirable during 
January storms, especially at night. I can speak from 

(1) Another version eays he was drowned out of a canoe. 


— 43 — 

The violent earthquake of 1663, which, Father Jerome 
Lallemant says, " extended over a surface of twenty thou- 
sand leagues," seemingly changed the surface of the whole 
valley of the St. Lawrence below Quebec, " altering the 
beds of smaller stream*?, producing hollows and elevations ' 
in various places, and throwing down hills in the valleys.'* 

It left nowhere deeper traces than in the vicinity of Bate 
S/. Paul and Eboukments, 

" In the vicinity of Pointe aux Alouettes (Lark Point, at 
the entrance of the Saguenay), an extensive wood was 
detached from terra firma^ slid over the rocks in the river, 
where it remained, some time with the trees covered with 
green foliage, amidst the seething waters. " 


Mh'e de V Incarnation, the annalist of the Ursulines Con- 
vent at Quebec, furnishes a thrilling account of this terrible 
Easter Monday, — 5th February, 1663, — when it began. 
Globes of fire and brilliant meteors had already been seen 
at Quebec, on the 7th January, and, on the 14th, two mock 
moons, each surmounted by a crown of vaporous matter, 
brilliantly illuminated, had startled Quebecers ; let us hear 
this eye-witness describe the convulsions and horrors which 
lasted until the 5th August following : " The first shock of 
earthquake took place on February 5th, 1663, about half 
past ^y^ in the evening. The weather was calm and 
serene, when we heard a terrible noise and humming sound 
like that of a great number of heavy carriages rolling over a 
paved floor swiftly. After this, we heard both above and 
below the earth and on all sides, as it were a confused 
mingling of waves and billows, which caused sensations of 
horror. Sounds were heard as of stones falling upon the 
roofs in the garrets and chambers; a thick dust spread 
around ; doors opened and shut of themselves. The bells 
of all our churches and clocks sounded of themselves ; the 


— 44 — 

steeples as well as the houses swayed to and fro, like trees 
in a great wind. And all this in the midst of a horrible 
confusion of furniture turned over, stones falling, boards 
breaking, walls cracking, and the cries of domestic animals, 
of which some entered the houses and some went out ; in 
a word, it seemed to be the eve of the day of judgment, 
whose signs were witnessed. Very different impressions 
were made on us. Some went forth for fear of being buried 
in the ruins of our house, which was seen to jog as if made 
of cards ; others prostrated themselves at the foot of the 
altar as if to die there. One good lay sister was so terrified 
that her body trembled for an hour without ability to stop 
the agitation. When the second shock came, at eight 
o'clock the same evening, we were all ranged in our stalls 
at the choir. It was very violent, and we all expected death 
every moment, and to be engulfed in the ruins of the 

building No person was killed." — (History of the 

Ursulines of Qu€bec^ vol. I p. 243-4). 

War as well as the elements has bequeathed to BaU St, 
J^au/f a memory of sorrow. Among others, the fierce com- 
mander of Wolfe's Rangers, Capt Gorham, left his footprints 
on this distant strand. One reads of his reporting on the 
15th August, 1579, to his commander, the results of his 
devastations on the homes of the Bate St. Paul peasantry, 
where he had landed on the 4th from his ships, with his 
detachment of 300 men, one-half of whom were Rangers — 
the remainder, Highlanders. The settlement, consisting of 
about 50 farm houses and barns, was given to the flames by 
him. He says he Ijst but one man, though the Baie St. 
Paul peasants, before retiring with their valuables to the 
woods, had opened, with their long duck guns, a brisk fire 
on the ruthless invaders. He further reported that he had 
ravaged by fire and sword the next settlement — Mai Bay — 
thirty miles lower down, inflicting similar treatment on the 
porpoise fishers and bittern eaters of Isle-aux-Coudres, and 

— 45 - 

Irom thence, crossing over to the south shore, he had burnt 
the dwellings at St. Anne and St. Roch, after carrying away 
as many sheep and as much farm produce as his ships could 

They also captured two prisoners, one Tremblay, of 
Eboulements, and J. - B. Grenon, a Hercules, it would 
appear^ whose athletic feats, if tradition is to be credited — 
ultimately saved his life, whilst his comrade was unhumanely 
hoisted in the air and flung on a board from the ship three 
times before he was quite dead ! ! ! The same experiment 
was triedi it is said on Grenon, but main force failed to 
make him bend to the fatal instrument of torture ; Captain 
Gorman, struck, with such extraordinary muscular power, 
had him pinioned and brought him a prisoner with him 
to Montmorenci, in order to save his life. Thus secured, 
tradition adds, that a British tar took a brutal pleasure in 
taunting him and cuffing his face — when he begged, from 
the captain, as a favor to have for a few minutes the use of 
his fists to protect himself, and on a repetition of the un- 
worthy treatment, Grenon, with the back of his hand, hit the 
sailor, who fell and expired in a few minutes. Grenon's 
strength became quite proverbial ; to this day, one hears 
** Fort comme Grenon J^ (i) 

I must bring to a close thispleasant gossip of other days 
and from the dizzy height of Cap-au-Corbeau, give a parting 
glance to the grand panorama spread at my feet. There 
meanders many hundred yards below, the boisterous Remy, 
and the erratic Rivihre des Mares^ ever ready after spring 
freshets to change its course and seek new channels on the 
sapdy shore, unearthing trunks of trees of an unknown era ; 

(1) I am indebted to a writer in VAhtiXU^ for November and 
IDecember, 1859, signiDg T. C^ fbr a large portion of the information 
summarised in this sketch ; on his authority these traditions of the 
siegeof 1759, rest. 

— 46 - 

— there winds the roaring Bras^ at the foot of the St. Antoine 
hills, and the sweet, murmuring St. Michel streamlet, and 
there cluster, beyond the valley, the white cottages of St 
Antoine, Perou, St. Jerome, St Jean, St. Joseph and St. 
Flavien, cosily nestling in the green Laurentian gorges, 
whilst to the south, slumber in their perennia,l majesty, the 
glad waters of the grand old St. Lawrence 

I am not in possession of the particulars of the memor- 
able earthquake of 1791, but the press has furnished ample 
details of the last catastrophe. 

An eye-witness, the Revd. J. B. Plamondon, the Parish 
Priest, gives, in ih^ Journal de Quibec, of the 22 nd October, 
1870, a graphic account of the phenomenon which had so 
startled the inhabitants of Baie St Paul, on the 20th of that 
month. " About half-past seven a. m.," says he, " a fearful 
clap of thunder struck terror among the residents. The soil 
began not merely to quake, but to boil and surge, so as to 
produce giddiness in persons indoors and outdoors. The 
dwellings seemed to be on a volcano ; the crust of the earth 
was rent asunder at fiv^ or six different places and ejected 
in the air columns of water, six, eight and even, fifteen feet 
high, mixed with sand, which spread itself on the surface. 
Scarcely six chimneys remained standmg in the whole vil- 
lage. The walls of houses were thrown to the ground ; 
stoves, cooking and other utensils were capsized. Our 
Convent is uninhabitable ; three chimneys and the ceiling 
of the attics are down ; three of the pupils and a maid ser- 
vant have been struck, but none seriously, by the falling 

The church has seriously suffered ; a portion of its front 
fell, with a piece of the arched roof; the walls are so cracked 
that it is doubtful if they can be repaired. The alarm was so 
great that for three or four minutes, we thought it was all up 
with us. We are still in a state of dread, as from time to 

— 47 — 

time other shocks occur, but less violent. Every one fears 
the approaching night, doubtful where he may be to-morrow. 
Had the catastrophe happened at night time a great los$ of 
life would have ensued. Not a house escaped intact, in a 
radius of four leagues. At the very moment I write the 
earth is quaking ; who can tell me whether I will be spared." 
A month later the soil continued to shake, and on the 22nd 
November, a Stygian darkness followed a new upheavel of 
the earth, attended with a violent wind and murky weather 
with brilliant aurora borealis at night. The residents were 
worn out by these incessant alarms and in utter despair." 
Such are some of the exciting experiences of the denizens 
of this volcanic region — Baie St. Paul. 

Thus holds forth history. Let us see the embellishments 
tradition supplies to the melancholy record. " When the 
English fleet ascended the St. Lawrence, it came to anchor 
at Isle-aux-Coudres, on the eve of Ascension day, in June, 
and spread such terror among the islanders that the majo- 
rity of the women were sent across to Baie St Paul and 
sought refuge with the families of that parish-^-not quite one 
hundred in number — in the forest. The French authorities 
had ordered that Isle-aux-Coudres and the Island of Orleans 
should be evacuated at the approach of the English. These 
families remained thus concealed all summer until Septem- 
ber, under Revd. Mr. Chaumont's charge. The male por- 
tion of the fugitives emerged from their hiding place — gene- 
rally at night — to look after their farms or to build on the 
shore, sand redoubts to shield them from the enemy The 
remains of those earth works, styled canons^ are visible to 
this day. Capt. Gorham acknowledges but one casualty 
among his men, but tradition points out that he lost several, 
and that, when despatched, the Islanders threw their bodies 
in a pond near the chapel, close to a spot memorable for 
an engagement known as Pointe D'Aulac. 

— 48 - 

Two Islanders met their death at the hands of the English. 
One of them, Charles DeMeules, as appears by the church 
register, was scalped ! 

Yatching, on the St. Lawrence, at Tadoussac, so attractive 
in our day, amid summer, had serious drawbacks, in 1663. 
Such at least was the experience of Sieur de Lespinay^ who 
was taking in his yawl, the Governor's secretary, M. de 
Maz^, from Gasp^ to Quebec. 

" Opposite to Tadoussac, the river rose and fell with the 
waves, with a tremulous and unusual motion, causing much 
alarm among the passengers. Casting at the same moment 
their eyes towards land, they saw a mountain moving and 
tumbling over in the river, so that its summit was level 
with surrounding land. Scared, they steered from the shore, 
lest some fragments should reach the boat. A short time 
after a large ship, at the spot, felt a similar shock : the 
terror stricken sailors prepared for death : the billows were 
agitated and lashed in every direction, without any apparent 
and known cause (i). 

- It was my pleasant task to relate elsewhere (Chronicles of 
the St Lawrenceey pages 244-45,) on the authority of Revd 
abb^ H. Raymond Casgrain, the pious legend,current at Isle- 
aux-Coudres, respecting the death of a devoted missionary. 
Father Labrosse, in 1782, at Tadoussac, andtne superna- 
tural circumstances attending it ; how father Labrosse after 
prophesying the hour of his death was found at twelve 
o'clock at midnight, dead, with his head resting on his hands 
on the first step of his chapeL 

(1) Oowi cFHiitoire du C7anak2a— Firland, Vol. l^p, 488. 

— 49 - 
A Prince Edward Island poet thus holds forth : 



Fierce blew the strong Bontheastem gale, 

The sea in mountains rolled, 
A starless sky hong wildly tossed. 

The midnight hour had tolled. 

Is that a sea — is this an honr — 

With sky so wildly black, 
To launch a barque so fhiil as that. 

Ye men of Tadoussac? 

Strong though your arms, brave though your hearts^ 

As arms and hearts can be, 
That tiny skiff can never live 

In such a storm-awept sea. 

Where Saguenay's dark waters roll 

To swell St. Lawrence tide, 
Down to the beach that stormy night 

Four stalwart fishers stride. 

On through the surf the frail boat speeds, 

And see— before her prow — 
The giant waves shrink down and crouch. 

As if in homage low. 

Calm as the surflM^e of a lake 

Sxmk deep mid wooded hills. 
The track spreads out before the boat, — 

The sail a foir breeze fills ; 

While all around the angry waves 

Bear high their foamy scalps, 
And frowning hang like toppling crags, 

Cer passes through theJAlps, 


— 50 — 

Who stilled the waves on GalliUe, 

Makes smooth that narrow track,- 

'Tis fiiith that makes your heart so bold, 
Ye men of Tadoussac I 

Fierce blows the strong southeastern gale 

Around the lowly pile, 
Where dwells the lonely missioner 

Of Coudre's giaaiy isle. 

His psalms are read — ^his* beads are said, — 
And by the lamp's pale beam. 

He studious culls from sainted page 

Sweet flowers on which to dream. 

But see he starts! strange accents come 
Forth from the flying rack — 

(t Funeral rites await your care- 
Haste on to Tadoussac I " 

And from the church's lowly spire 
Tolled forth the passing bell. 

And fBLT upon the tempest's wing 

Was borne the funeral knell. 

That night along St. Lawrence tide. 

From every church's tower. 

The bells rung forth a requiem 

Swung by some unseen power. 
• •«••• 

The storm has lulled and morning's light 
Pierces the shifting mists. 

That hang like shattered regiments 
Around the mountain crests. 

From brief repose, the anxious priest 
Forth on his mission speeds, 

Cer pathless plain, by hazel brake 

Where the lone bittern breeds. 

— 51 — 

At length upon the Eastern shore 

Ended his weaiy track ; 
Where wait the hardy fishermen— 

The men from Tadoossac. 

*^ Heaven hless yon," cried the holy man, 

I know your high behest, 
Ood's friend, and yours, and mine has gone 

To claim his well-won rest." 

^ Unmoor the boat — spread out the sail,'' 
And o'er a peaoeftd track, 

Again in eager flight, the boat 

Shoots home to Tadoussac. 

Before the altar, where so oft 

He broke the holy bread, 
Clasping the well-worn crucifix 

The priest of Qod lay dead. 

■Cytwas a solemn sights they say. 
To see that calm cold face^ 

Upturned, beneath the sanctuary light. 
Within that holy place. 

Happy LaBrosse ! to find for judge 

Him, whom from realms above 

Thy voice had called to dwell with men— 
A prisonor of love ! 


Chatlottetown, P. E. I., March, 1885. 


ITie Chateau promenade as seen by the Swedish savant 
Kalm, in August, 1749. Dufferin Terrace described 
by Adirondack Murray, in August^ 1887. 

Our sturdy old fortress abounds with such striking view- 
points — is replete with so many quaint and picturesque 
nooks and corners, that one can easily realize the gifted 
Henry Ward Beecher's feelings, when writing to the New 
York Ledger, from Quebec, he said " We rode about as if 
we were in a picture-book, turning over a new leaf at every 
street such indeed is our " old curiosity shop. " 

Some spots in fact seem in the eyes of the reflective, 
cultured tourist as if haunted by the ghostly presence of the 
illustrious dead, once moving instinct of life, in these 
romantic purlieus. 

Conspicuous for its scenic beauty and historic memories 
may be reckoned the new and superb boulevard, 
began by the Earl of Durham, our Vice-roy, in 1838, at an 
elevation of 182 feet over the level of the St. Lawrence — 
on the foundations of the old Chdteau SL Louis, destroyed 
by fire, four years previously, on 23rd January, 1834 : ft 
had then in length, perhaps, 200 feet and sixty feet in 
breadth. It was prolonged under the Dufferin plans to 
1,420 feet in length. 

This terrace unique in the world, for its commanding 
position, was, on the 9th June, 1879, solemnly opened out 
to the public, by Their Excellencies, the Marquis of Lome 

— 53 — 

and H. R. H. the Princess Louise, and at the special 
request of the Mayor, and the city council and in presence 
of a great concourse of persons, officially named the 
Pufferin Terrace, after its public spirited originator, the 
Earl of Dufferin, our previous Governor-General. 

From 1620 to 1834, the Castle St. Louis was the official 
residence of the representative of royalty, under French and 
under English rule. Several of these vice-roys, proud Dukes^ 
distinguished Earls, martial Counts and Barons, occasionally 
held there their court, in quasi regal, style, in order to keep 
up the prestige of France's Grand Monarque (Louis XIV) 
and thereby impress, the surrounding indian tribes with 
his might ; or as worthy representatives of the British 
crown in the new world : Champlain, de Montmagny, 
Dailleboust, Lauzon, D'Argenson, de M^sy, de Cour- 
celles, stern old Count de Frontenac, La Barre, Calli^res, 
de Vaudreuil, de Ramsay, de Longueuil, de Beauharnois,. 
de la Galissonnibre, de la Jonqui^re, Duquesne ; General 
Murray, Sir Guy Carleton, Sir F. Haldimand, Lord Dor- 
chester, General Prescott, Sir James H. Craig, Sir George 
Prevost, Sir James Kempt, Sir John Coal Sherbrooke, the 
Duke of Richmond, Earl Dalhousie, Lord Aylmer. 

A curious glimpse of this famous promenade and of its 
promenaders, in August, 1749, appears in Professor Kalm's 
Travdsin America^ in 1747-51. 

Let me introduce to the reader the Swedish savant, in 
the words used in my inaugural address, as president of the 
Literary and Historical Society^ of Quebec, on 3rd Decem- 
ber, 1879 : 
. " On the 5th August, 1749, a distinguished traveller, re- 

commended by royalty (i) — accredited by academies and 
universities — Professor Kalm, the friend of Linnaeus, landed 
in the Lower Town. His approach had not been unherald- 

(1) The Kings of France and of Sweden. 


— 54 — 

'ed, nor unexpected ; advices from Versailles having pre- 
viously reached the Governor of Canada, On stepping on 
shore from the " canopied " bateau^ provided for him by the 
Baron of Longueuil, Governor of Montreal, Major de Ser- 
monville, the officer to whose care he had been committed, 
led him forthwith to the palace of the Count de La Galis- 
sonnifere, the Governor-General of Canada, who, he says, 
received him with "extraordinary kindness." His Excel- 
lency at that time, the recognised patron of literature and 
the arts, in New France, in anticipation of the Professor's 
arrival, had ordered apartments to be got ready for the illus- 
trious stranger, who was introduced to an intelligent guide, 
Dr. Gaulthier, royal physician, and also an able botanist. 
Kalm, henceforth, will be an honored, nay, a familiar 
guest at the Chiteau St. Louis, yonder, during his stay in 
Quebec, and, a nightly promenader on the Chateau gallery 
overlooking the St. Lawrence. 

The Professor tells how cheerfully he paid to the crew, 
comprised of six rowers, the usual fee or pour-boire to escape 
the traditional " ducking " to which all travellers (without 
excepting the Governor-General) were otherwise subjected 
to, on their first visit to Quebec or to Montreal. 

A man of mark was the Swedish botanist and philosopher, 
not only by his position among European savants^ but also 
as being the special (i) envoy of the Royal Academy 

(1) Baron Sten Charles Bielke, of Finland, had proposed to the 
Boyal Academy of Sciences, at Stockholm, to send an able man to 
the Northern ports of Siberia and Iceland, as localities which are 
partly under the same latitude with Sweden ; and to make there 
such observations, and collections of seeds and plants, as would 
, improve the Swedish husbandry, gardening, manufactures, arts and 
sciences. Professor Linnaeus thought that a journey through North 
America would be yet of a more extensive utility, the plants of 
America being then but little known. Kalm^s mission to America, 
however, was due to the initiative of Count Tessin, a nobleman of 
merit, on his becoming President of the Royal Academy ; to the 
learned botanist Linnaeus ; and to the influence of the Prince Boyal, 
subsequently King of Sweden, and then Chancellor of the University 
'Of Upsala. 

— 55 — 

<>f Sciences, at Stockholm, and as the representative 
of the three Universities of Aobo, Lund and Upsala, 
Vho had supplied the greater portion of the funds neces- 
sary to carry out his scientific mission, which lasted nearly 
four years. Provided with passports and recommendations 
to the Swedish Ministers at the Courts of London, Paris, 
Madrid, the Hague, we find Peter Kalm sailing from 
Upsala on the 1 6th October, 1747, accompanied by Lars 
Yungstraem — an assistant, skilful as a botanist, a gardener 
and an artist. 

The disciple of Linnaeus, after having successively visited 
Norway, came to England ; and after spending some time 
there, he crossed the Atlantic, viewing New York and 
Pennsylvania, and finally Canada, noting down, day by day 
in his journal, countries — men — manners — animals — 
trees — plants — ores — minerals, &c., with accuracy and 
in detail. His travels are the subject-matter of two large 
volumes, illustrated with plates, maps, &c., and translated 
into English, in London, in 1771. 

Here is what he has to say of the vice-regal residence and 
its gallery or veranda. 

'' The Palace (Chiteau Saint-Louis) is situated on the 
west or steepest side of the mountain, just above the lower 
city. It is not properly a palace, but a large building of 
stone, two stories high, extending north and south. On the 
west side of it is a court- yard, surrounded partly with a wall, 
and partly with houses. On the east side, or towards the 
river, is a gallery as long as the whole building, and about 
two fathoms broad, paved with smooth flags, and included 
on the outsides by iron rails, from whence the city and the 
river exhibit a charming prospect. This gallery serves as a 
very agreeable walk after dinner, and those who come to 
speak with the governor-general wait here till he is at leisure. 
The palace is the lodging of the governor-general of Canada, 
and a number of soldiers mount the guard before it, both at 

— 56 — 

the gate and in the court-yard ; and when the governor, or 
the bishop, comes in or goes out, they must all appear in 
arms and beat the drum. The governor-general has his own 
chapel where he hears prayers ; however, he often goes to 
Mass at the church of the RkolletSy which is very near the 

What a charming picture Herr Kalro draws of the Gover- 
nor-General of New France — the Comte de LaGalisson- 
ni^re^ This nobleman, by his " surprising knowledge ia 
all branches of science, " has quite captivated the philoso- 
pher. " Never, " says Kalm, " has natural history had a 
greater promoter in this country, and it is even doubtful 
whether it will ever have his equal here.** A statesman, an 
orator, a great sea-captain, a mathematician, a botanist, a 
traveller, a naturalist : such, the Count. He knew about 
" trees, plants, earths, stones, ores, animals, geography,, 
agriculture, &c., writmg down all the accounts he has 
received : a perfect encyclopedia of knowledge. What scien- 
tific discussions must have taken place between the illus- 
trious promenaders — about ships, colonies, commerce : a 
dozen and more french vessels were lying at anchor at their 
feet, says Kalm. Nearly a century later, we can recollect a. 
splendid display of English vessels : in May, 1838, in the 
days of the pompous Earl of Durham. 

Line-of-battle ships — stately frigates, twelve in number i 
the Malabar — Hastings — Comwallis^'Inconstant — Htrcu^ 
les — Pique — Charybdis — Pearl — Vestal — Medea — Dee — 
and Andromache^ a fitting escort to our shores of the able, 
humane, unlucky Vice-Roy and High Commissioner, 
with his clever advisers — Turton, BuUer, Wakefield,. 
Hansome, Derbyshire, Dunkin, cum multis aliis. 

The French had built ships at Quebec nearly a cen- 
tury before Kalm's visit. Colbert had authorized Inten- 
dant Talon to offer bounties ; a ship was on the stocks in 
1667. Doubtless, when Kalm left Quebec in the fall of 

— 57 — 

i749> ^^^ shipwrights were actively engaged on the hull of 
the King's ship " L'Orignal, " (i) which, in October of 
1750, broke her back on being launched at Diamond Har- 
bor. Shipbuilding, however, was doubtless checked by the 
instructions sent out by the french court, and seems to 
liave had but a precarious existence under British rule, until 
1800. When Kalm visited Quebec, in 1749, it was the sea- 
port of all Canada : " There were thirteen great and small 
vessels in the harbour, and they expected more. " In our 
day, we have seen thirteen hundred square-rigged vessels 
registered as the arrivals of the year ! 

Let us bid adieu to the genial and learned Stockholm 
savantj the inmate of the adjoining CMteau for forty days, 
in the summer of 1747, and greet a gifted son of Boston, 
the marvellous and sympathetic word-painter Murray, in 
August, 1887, when his yatch, the Champlain was moored 
binder Quebec*s frowning battlements. 



Mr. W.-H.-H. Murray, in his letter from Quebec to the 

Boston Herald^ says : — 

" Last night this great promenade was thronged with a 
gay multitude. The moon was at the half, and the St. 

(1) The Aheillej a small literary journal published within the 
^allg of the Seminary of Quebec, under date of 19th January, 1878, 
contains extracts from the 3rd Volume of the Journal desJ^suites. One 
of these extracts runs thus : « October, 1 750, King's ship " L'Orignal," 
built at Quebec, was lost in launching at Cape Diamond. " 

We likewise read in the first Volume of Smith's History of Canadaf 
page 224 : " Oct. (1760). This year, a ship of the line, a seventy-four, 
was -built at Quebec, but was lost, having broken her back in getting 
off the stocks at Gape Diamond. " 

The last timbers of this old wreck were removed ftom the river 
channel in November, 1879, by Captain Gigufere's (Governments Lif- 
ting Baige. Many fragments have been converted into ^fialking 
sticks and toys of various designs. A selection of these well preserved 
Canadian oak planks has been presented to, and accepted by H. B, 
H. Princess Louise, to pannel a room in her English home. 

— 58 — 

Lawrence, far below, flowed silver white. The white sail* 
of ships hanging in their brails and all their yards and ropes 
gleamed like pale glas«. Quebec's best band was playing, 
and the well modulated music flowed out upon the air, and 
swelled and sunk \n melodious waves along the sloped 
glacis of the great fortress and across the whitely flowing, 
river. The white-haired man and the golden-headed child^ 
the brunette and the blonde, the black-coated priest, the 
students of Laval and young graduates of Harvard and 
Yale, were mingled in the throng. In the pauses of 
the music of the band, a Spanish student, dressed in the 
habit of Cordova, was playing light Spanish airs and 
love songs that have been sung a thousand years under the 
listening windows of Saville, with dark, amorous eyes gaz- 
ing down approvingly upon the serenader. Anon the 
" Marseillaise " swells up its sudden and fierce clash of 
sound, as a turbulent sea sends up its crests ragingly, and 
over all the vast space filled with the moving throng, a hum 
qf many voices rose, vague, indistinct, suggestive. 

" It was a lovers's night in truth, and many a vow was 
whispered and exchanged, I warrant, and many a loving 
glance was given and returned, I know, for lovers were 
plenty all around me as I strolled along, and we old fellows, 
who have done with love-making ourselves, still have an eye 
to see and a heart to enjoy, thank God, the lovemaking and 
the mating going on around us, as we stroll down the way 
which leads us gently, as our old hearts trust, to the lovers 
and the loving, whose arms were once so warm and lips so 
sweet, as we were held and kissed by them in the old, sweet 
days so sadly gone. It is near sunset with us now white- 
headed confreres of mine, and some of us are glad of it, 
as weary men, afield, are glad of gloaming. But they who 
should know — for they talk confidently — tell us that beyond 
the sunset we shall come to another sunrise, all dewy and 
fragrant, as the first one was, only sweeter, and all our fresh 
young life, yea, all the warmth and loving of it, and all the 
joy and gladness, along with those who made it so sweet to 
live and be, shall be ours again. If we were sure that it 
were so, then were it well if we did hurry on out of the 
globing and stand face to face with that far sunrise spee- 
dily. Again the music rises and swells out above the river. 
It is the hymn of parting — '* God Save the Queen " — and 

— 59 — 

farewells are being spoken by many, and many a hand is 
being pressed and many a loving glance exchanged. Soon 
the vast throng are gone and I am left alone. The great 
promenade is tenantless, silent, lonely. A few sounds come 
up from the lower town — the barking of a dog, a babe's cry, 
a captain's hail to his ship, the strong, robust call mellowed 
by distance — and the white moonlight lying softly on whar- 
ves and rivers, on silent parap)et and chiming steeple. The 
silence of the place grows weird, the glamour of the old past 
is on me and I see uncanny sights. Men and women 
lung, long dead— dead these hundreds of years — pass me. 
Is not that man, the man in that angle there, Champlain ?^ 
Surely it is he, the very same the man who crossed the 
ocean 20 times, who shot the Iroquois chief near Ticonde- 
roga on Lake Champlain, who founded this city 250 years 
ago, and whose dust is under the altar there in the great 
basilica ? And who are these coming this way ? Surely this 
is he, the brave old Lord de Frontenac, the old bluff savior 
of Canada. My lord, I greet you ! This city belongs to 
you and Champlain. See, there goes Laval, ambitious priest, 
and better scholar, who founded the great university yonder 
before John Harvard left his gift to letters in Massachusetts^ 
See how old Frontenac frowns at him. And who is he in 
the angle of the promenade gazing southward ? La Salle ? 
Incredible ! Why, his body sleeps beneath the flowers of a 
Texan prairie. Montcalm and Wolfe arm in arm ! Brave 
captains, you fight no more. Look ! look ! Those two in 
the deep shadow of that old elm, that girl and young English 
middy there. By heavens, that is Nelson, my Lord of Tra- 
falgar, flirting with the lovely Mary Simpson ! My God, this 
ground is haunted, and the dead of new and old France alike 
are here. I'll get me to the yacht and say my prayers. 
Beshrew me, this is a ghostly spot in truth ! " 



Montcaim before the battle — TRe retreat — Port Jacqiies 

Cartier — Its relics. 

Nothing is more pleasant on a mellow September after- 
noon than a sail up the St. Lawrence, or a ride over the 
Queen's highway to the commanding site, where of yore 
frowned Fort Jacques Cartier, at the confluence of the 
raging Jaccjues Cartier stream with the St. Lawrence. The 
distance is inconsiderable : twenty-seven miles at most. 

Fort Jacques Cartier played an important part in the 
fallen fortunes of France, in Canada, directly after the rout 
of the French host, on the Plains of Abraham. Two 
days after the overhelming defeat, it afforded a much 
needed refuge to the demoralized French squadrons. It 
served also as a useful store house and arsenal, for the supplies 
and seige implements, brought from Montreal on sledges 
during the winter of 1760, to storm Quebec in the spring. 
In Sept. 1760, it was forced to capitulate, though commanded 
by a brave soldier, the Marquis d'Albergotti ; Gen. Murray 
took possession of it, when, it was dismantled ; barely a 
foundation now remains to tell of its former strength. 

Courteous reader, let us unveil the past and follow on 
foot de Levi's jaded warriors, over this road, then pretty 
miry from the showers of the 13th September 1759 ; we shall 
have in his A. D. C. Chevalier Johnstone, a well informed 
military cicerone, but ere we leave the soldiers' white tents 
in rear of the site on which now stands Ringfield — the coun- 
try seat of George Holmes Parke, Esq., on the Charlebourg 

— 61 — 

road — let us recapitulate some of the thrilling episodes of 
that eventful Thursday. At 5 a. m. we shall meet the intrepid 
Montcalm at Beauport. Johnstone who was with him, tells 
how anxiously he had spent the preceding night with his 
leader and Col. Poularier, the commander of the Royal 
Roussillon regiment, walking from the arm/s headquarters 
(the Duchesnay Manor) to the ravine, at Beauport, close to 
the ruisseau de Vours^ until i o'clock in the morning. Mont- 
calm, it seems, was much agitated, from the uneasiness he 
ielt, as to the fate of the boats and provisions, which de 
Bougainville was to send from Cap Rouge, the army having 
provisions for two days only. Johnstone considered Mont- 
calm's mental sufferings on that night, as a presage of the 
cruel fate which awaited him some hours later. 

At day break, the French battery at Samos, near Sillery, 
fired some guns ; this indicated an untoward occurrence. 
Still Montcalm never could bring himself to suspect, that 
the enemy, were deploying on the heights of Abraham, 
unknown to him, though de Vaudreuil, encamped much 
closer to the city, must have known it. However, the 
September mist having lifted, his A. D. C. (Marcel), 
bringing no tidings from de Vaudrcuil's camp near the 
bridge of boats, Montcalm sent Johr* stone to order to their 
tents the army which had passed the night in the trenches, 
and then returned to his lodgings, " after drinking some 
dishes of tea with Johnstone," quaintly says the latter \ a 
trooper was dispatched to VaudreuiFs camp to enquire the 
cause of the firing from the Samos battery and between six 
and seven a. m., Montcalm with Johnstone rode towards 
the bridge of boats, and to his surprise, on nearing de Vau- 
dreuiFs lodging, he was confronted with the spectacle of 
Wolfe's army upon the heights of Abraham, firing at the 
Canadians scattered among the bushes. Montcalm 
exchanged a word with de Vaudreuil, as the latter emerged 
from his lodging, when, turning to Johnstone, he said, 

— 62 — 


The affair is serious ! run at the top of your horse's speed 
to Beauport ; order Poularier to remain there at • the 
ravine with two hundred men, and to send me all the rest 
of the left to the heights of Abraham with the utmost dili- 
gence." Here there seems to have occurred a miscon* 
ception, or error, in the orders given, which Johnstone 
discusses openly asserting that instead of thrusting the 
French battailons between the town and the English, Mont- 
calm ought to have marched by Lorette (ancient) to Ste. 
Foye — join de Bougainville's grenadiers and placed 
Wolfe's army between two fires — that of the city guns and 
that of Montcalm. The Marquis met with another draw- 
back : the disobedience of de Ramsay, the Governor of 
Quebec, who refused to send him the field-pieces he asked 

Of the eventful battle and subsequent disorderly rout, 
mention has been made elsewhere. Let us not tarry at Cap 
Rouge, reached by the French troops, at 4 a. m. on the 
14th September, nor at the pastoral settlement of St. Augus- 
tin, proud to this day, of its little lake and its Calvaire (i) 
erected in 1798. We shall also hurry past Pointe aux Trem- 
bles, its orchards and its tobacco plantations, as well as the 
small parish of Ecureuiiles, Here we are on the shore of the 
roaring Jacques Cartier stream, which we shall cross by 
the bridge and land at the base of the airy site where 
stood the old Fort. With the exception of the ditch, inha- 
bited by a colony of noisy frogs, and some strange configu- 
rations of the land, no vestige scarcely remains of the once 
proud fortress. It must have covered three or four acres in 
area and, was inaccessible on three of its abrupt sides, 
except on its northern face, which overlooks a swamp \ a 
splendid position for a fort, it must be acknowledged. 

(1^ A diminutive wooden structure, to shield against rain, a full 
sized figure of our Saviour on the cross : where the peasantry in the 
evening assemhle to pray. 

— 63 — 

Within this very structure and in the adjoining houses^ 
some 10,000 regulars and militia must have bivouacked 
that night, [14th September 1759]. Levi on his way from 
Montreal to take command at Quebec, after fully fortifying 
it at all points, left there as commander, an experienced 
French officer, of the name of Dumas ; the friar, Father 
Alexis Dubuiron is said to have acted as almoner to the 
troops, or at least, to have been an inmate of the Fort 

In April 1760, the Montreal militia and regulars, on their 
way to re-take Quebec rendez voused there. Fortune, at 
first, smiled on them ; they inflicted a memorable defeat on 
the 28th April, on General Jas. Murray, who re-entered first 
Quebec, his long-legged highlanders being swifter of foot^ 
than Levi's warriors, fortunately for him. 

Though Murray was censured for quitting his intrench- 
ments to risk a battle at Ste. Foye, against a superior force, 
Levi's desperate venture, was named LafolU de Lhi^ Levi's 
folly. A brave deed is recorded, in Sept. 1760, when 
Murray besieged and took the fort ; an inhabitant of the 
Bois de VAil^ one Joseph Lamotte, rushed out under a 
withering fire and spiked a cannon, returning safe. 

** Not many years back says the Abeille^ of 5th July, 1850, 
there stood in the neighborhood, a large pine tree, dead from 
old age. The owner of the land on hewing down this 
veteran, was much surprised to find imbedded in its trunk 
thirty old gun barrels and twelve silver cups ; the gun stocks 
were much corroded by worms ; the cups, however, were in 
a good state of preservation though blackened by time and 
damp ; they were about three inches in height and of the 
weight of five silver dollars." 

Quebec, June 1888. 



Winter Travel in the Olden Time between Quebec and 
Montreal — Wayeide Inns — The Grand BarofkS of 
Portneuf and Their Ferocious Dogs — Perrot, the Bald. 

To one blessed with a placid, enquiring and observant 
mind, with good digestive powers superadded, the old style 
of travel from Quebec to Montreal by easy stages in winter 
was not without its pleasing episodes. Of course the mode 
of locomotion, in summer, was by steam, until the close of 
the session, when on, or about, the 22nd November, the 
river steamer of those days, the " Accommodation " went 
into winter quarters. This takes us back to the lively times 
of Little King Craig, as that charming raconteur, De Gasp^, 
styled sturdy Sir J.-H. Craig, who meant to govern Canada, 
in the same absolute way he previously commanded his 
own regiment. 

There was then a continuous, though not a large, stream 
of travel, from western Canada to Quebec. Members of 
Parliament congregated here, as at present, during the ses- 
sion. Judges and barristers attended Circuit or other courts, 
business men visited the capital, &c. The wayside inns, 
carefully licensed by Government flourished. No such fraud 
as the modern temperance hotel, with its execrable whisky 
was then in existence ; none would have been tolerated ; 
occasionally, then as now, an easterly snow storm blocked 
up the winter roads ; those travelling by the stage as it was 
then called, had to wait until Boreas had spent his fury, 
beguiling away the time, as best they could, with cards or 

— 65 — 

books — frequently by paying a flying visit to the parish 
magnates. First, to the Cure, generally a genial, hospitable, 
pleasant, white-haired old gentleman ; the village doctor, 
usually a talkative, 2Lxde;ni patriate ; the parish notary, a stiff- 
necked, quaint official, the legal fac-totum of the parish, 
whose deportment on such occasions became more dignified 
by the addition of a white choker and black coat. 

In these happy days the Canadian peasant, untainted by 
the^present new fangled theories was as a rule, a genial host to 
meet 3 perhaps, in agriculture a trifle behind the times, 
but justly and truly a fair representative of that nationality, 
which our late fellow-townsman, Andrew Stuait, K. C, styled 
" un peuple gentilhomme. " When oiher amusements failed, 
travellers could get both amusement and instruction, by 
listening to the quaint legends about Indian scalping — 
thrilling anecdotes bequeathed from father to son, anent the 
great siege of 1759 — narratives of the plundering raids 
during la guerre des Bastonnais^ in 1775, related with 
that charming bonhomie which distinguished these village 

The Grand Trunk Railway, opened in 1853, killed off the 
good old stages. Two rival lines, the Red line, owned by 
Michel Gauvin, in Couillard street, the Blue line, by S. 
Hough, ran on alternate days. The charge from Quebec to 
Montreal, involving, in duration, a trip of two days, was $10, 
meals and sleeping quarters extra. Punctually at 6 a. m. 
every week day (except when a heavy storm interfered) 
Gauvin's or Hough's long, covered sleigh, provided with 
curtains and seats for four travellers, and a driver, pulled up, 
in the dusk of a winter morning, in front of the old Albion 
Hotel, in Palace street, or of Schleup's Globe Hotel (now 
the St Louis Hotel), in St. Louis street. Two stout Cana- 
dian horses, tandem style, with strings of heavy grelots 
round their necks, took the stage at a brisk trot to St. 
Augustin, at Brunei's hotel, where a relay of fresh horses 

— 66 - 

awaited. The next relay was put on either at Cap Sant^, or, 
at noon, at Marcotte's or Hamelin's hotel, at Deschambault, 
^here a plain but substantial meal awaited the travellers : — 
pork, chops, sausages, a beefsteak and vegetables, (i) 
Another stoppage or two occurred before reaching Ostrom's 
hotel, at Three Rivers, at 9 p. m., when the snow-roads were 
in good condition. .There an ample fare was provided for 
the numbed travellers, whose first care, on reaching, con- 
sisted in asking for the coup tPappitit^ a glass of West India 
Shrub — a stimulant much in request in those days — 
unknown in ours — or a tumbler of sangree (mulled wine.) 
At dinner, some of McCallum's or Molson's prime ale was 
served in foaming tankards. When the Judge was travelling 
on circuit with a few members of the Bar, His Honor 

(1) At the breaking up of the winter roads in April, travel would 
byinecessitj, nearly cease for a week or two : and travellers, being 
few, the culhiary department, at the way side Inn, suffered in a cor- 
responding ratio. Loud were the complaints at this season, of the 
tmlucky travellers. A well remembered Quebecer — that incurable 
practical joker. Solicitor General Charles Ogden, — having to attend 
the criminal term in Montreal, in April — , stopped for dinner at 

An ancient shanghai rooster was served, so tough, so forbidding 
in aspect that, the Solicitor General and confrhre^ instantly ordered, 
by way of staving ofif hunger — an omelette au lard. " I will yet be 
'even " quietly remarked the Canadian jurist — on leaving the Inn : — 
Madame^ never treated me so." The two travellers reached safely 
Montreal that night. 

The Court being over. Solicitor General Ogden and his confrere 
iook the Blue line to return to Quebec, stopping, as usual for dinner, 

at the lun at where the week previous they had fkred so poorly, 

when. Lo 1 and behold their dread enemy, the old rooster, made again 
his appearance on the dinner table. Mr. Ogden, assuming one of his 
most tragic airs, vowed he could not dine without mustard and 
asked for the mustard pot — : the mustard pot was hunted for high 
and low : Madame insisting she herself had placed it on the table. 
The eminent jurist, turning round sharply towards the mistress of 
the Inn. — said * " I do declare, this is the old cock, served, to us 
last week, and I can prove what I say." Madame became pale with 
rage or dismay, when Ogden, turning over the inauspicious fowl, 
inserted h\afork in the irikde and pulled out triumphantly the carpus 
•delictif the missing mustard pot inserted by him, surreptitiously, in 
the rooster, the week previous I Tableau I 

— 67 — 

irould occasionally order a beverage easily obtainable then, 
but difficult to procure at present, a bottle of sound 
Madeira. A rubber of whist, a cigar and then to bed, in 
order to start a fresh, in the grey morning, so as reach at 9 p. 
m., at the end of the remaining 90 miles, Dumaine's livery 
slables, Montreal, where the tired horses were stabled, after 
having been changed for fresh ones four times in the 
course of the day. 

The travellers at the end of the journey would separate, 
sometimes reluctantly, after summing up pleasantly the 
number of upsets, they had had in snow-drifts, recalling with 
loud guffaws the energetic and numerous sacr'es^ uttered by 
the impatient Jehu each time he had to turn his horses in 
the snow to make a rencontre and occasionally to unharness 
and hitch on again his sturdy roadsters. 

Five hours of smart driving with the Red Line of stages, 
had brought me to the picturesque banks of the river Port- 
neuf, about 40 miles from Quebec. I had crossed the lofty 
Jacques Cartier bridge, scanned the commanding position, 
viewed with interest the half -filled ditches of the historic 
Fort Jacques Cartier, which on the 14th September, 1759, 
sheltered the panic-striken, bedraggled French squadrons, 
in full rout from the conquering foe, then bivouacked on 
the Plains of Abraham ; here, the brave Marquis of Alber- 
gotti took his stand and successfully defied Murray's clay- 
mores untill the i** September of the following year. The 
site of this old fort is very accurately described in Chevalier 
Johnstone's Memoirs of the siege, re-published by the Lite- 
rary and Historical Society of Quebec. It was indeed the 
best rallying point the French troops could secure, prepara- 
tory to the final attack on Quebec, on the 28th April, 1760, 
a victory which in the end was tantamount to a defeat. On 
the eastern shore of the Jacques Cartier, there exists still 
structures and unmistakable traces of the vast mills esta- 
blished there by the wealthy AUsop family as early as 1773. 

— 68 — 

Fabulous sums seem to have been spent in developing the 
titnber trade in this locality. But let us hie on to a spot rich 
in ancient lore— once sacred to Baronial pride, and to those 
multifarious burthens and restrictions in the tenure of land, 
of which Hon. L.-T. Drummon d, by act of Parliament, 
relieved us in 1854. God be praised ! 

Here, on the banks of the river Portaeuf, flourished two 
centuries and a half back a whole race of warlike, proud 
French seigneurs raised to be Barons by Louis XIV ; here, 
lived Sieur Pierre Robineau, seigneur de Portneuf, as early as 
1636, and his noted son, Baroa Ren^ Robineau, the father 
of a patriarchal family of children, nine in number, appai- 
ently as full of mischief as the boys of our own time. His- 
tory tells of the wicked tricks they played on their father's 
censitaires by frightening them out of their senses, with 
the pack of ferocious hounds kept at the Manor, osten- 
sibly to protect its inmates from Iroquois' treachery. The 
peaceful settlers of Portneuf dare not pass the Manor, and 
not without reason. The Seigniorial hounds, on one occa- 
sion, nearly ate up an unfortunate old squaw. (Histoirt du 
Cap Santk^ page 34.) Martial tastes ever distinguished the 
race. Seigneur Pierre Robineau in his youth served in 
France as an ensign in the great Turenne's regiment. The 
future Baron returned from France in 1644, after ho»lding a 
commission in a French regiment of dragoons. His father 
was a member of the Company of One Hundred Partners, 
founded by Richelieu in 1627, to whom the French King 
had ceded Canada. Attracted by the richly wooded cou-n- 
try and by the eel, sturgeon and salmon fisheries on the 
Portneuf, he settled there and made clearings. 

The title to the land was signed in 1647 only, and not in 
his favor, but in favor of Sieur de la Potherie, whose daughter 
he married on the 7th July, 167 1 ; the land was ceded by 
deed, on behalf of the great monarch of France to Rdn^ 
Robineau, the son of Pierre. In 1 681, as a reward for meri> 

— 69 — 

torious services rendered by father and son, the signiory of 
Portneuf was erected as a Barony ; R6n6 Robineau became 
by Royal letters-patent, Baron de Portneuf. 

The Barony, however, was not without its internal trials, 
social as well as foreign : of course, the main enemy conti- 
nued to be the ubiquitous Iroquois. Discord and civil strife 
soon crept in, under guises which would not be considered 
insuperable to-day. The annals of the adjoining parish of 
Cap Sant^, recently collected in book form by one of its 
venerable pastors, Rdv. M. Gatien, under the supervision of 
a fellow of the Royal Canadian Society, Abb^ Casgrain, 
disclose among others, an incident which at the time shook 
the settlement to its base. *' In 1709, an inhabitant of Port- 
neuf, publicly taxed one Perrot, who lived at Deschambault» 
with being a " bald head, " unpelL The chronicler adds 
that such really was the case ; " like Chicot, mentioned by 
the historian Faillon, who survived the loss of his scalp, 
Perrot being pretty tough had survived also the loss of his 
wig, love locks to boot ; the scalping having been done by 
those exquisite operators, the Iroquois, with remarkable 
nicety, one would imagine. 

By some curious process of reasoning, the charge was 
considered by the Deschambault folks, a dire insult to the 
whole settlement, one which blood alone could wipe off 

Preparations were made for the fray ; the fight to come 
off on the feast of Pentecoste. Soon the news of the impend- 
ing struggle reached the ears of the Intendant and Minister 
of Justice, at Quebec ; Jacques Raudot, was not an official 
to be trifled with. He forthwith put forth an ordonnanu 
which was to be read at the church door, inflicting impri- 
sonment and a fine of six livres against any one mixing 
himself up with the fray. The capitaine de la cdte was also 
instructed to forward to Quebec-*- in chains possibly — the 
culprits. War was thus averted aed peace at last restored 
between the belligerents. Intendant Raudot appears to 


— 70 — 

have had other troubles of less magnitude, which, with a 
few ordonnances, he succeeded in quelling, such as the 
order of presenting the pain bhti (holy bread) on Sundays, 
&c., &c. 

To revert to the Portneuf feudal magnates. Several sons 
and grandsons of Baron Portneuf took up military service 
in the colony. A worthy descendant, the Rev. Ren^ Robi- 
neau, parish pnest of St. Joachim, fell during the siege of 
1759, on the 23rd August, whilst leading on bravely his 
parishioners against the invaders of the soil. Another per- 
ished in 1 76 1, on the coast of Newfoundland, in the melan- 
choly shipwreck of the ill-fated " Auguste," whilst returning 
to France. The seigniory of Portneuf, after changing hands 
several times, was acquired by the Ursuline Nuns of Que- 
bec, in 1744. These ladies held it many years. Later on, it 
was purchased by the late George Burns Symes, of Quebec. 
At his death this fine property reverted to his daughter 
Clara, at present the Marquise de Bassano. 



The Deschambatiit Manor — Its Past and Present. 

In my last I described a pleasant winter trip to Portneuf, 
by the old Red and Blue lines of stages, extinct more than 
thirty years ago. 

I have a few words to say respecting a delightful visit I 
made by railway recently to the old seigniorial manor of 
Deschambault, in the sunny month of June. Deschambault, 
Cap Lauzon, as it is styled on old charts, contains a beauti- 
ful cape studded with trees. It lies on the north shore of 
the St. Lawrence, forty-five miles from Quebec An agri- 
cultural district, it was not favored by the profuse expendi- 
ture of money, on behalf of Quebec merclvmts, like Portneuf 
by Mr. McNider, in 1805, by W.-B. Coltman, a leading St. 
Peter street merchant, in •1806, and subsequently by the 
late Hon. £. Hale. ' 

The first seigniors, Jacques Alex. Fleury, seigneur d'Es- 
chambault and Joseph Fleury, seigneur De la Gorgen- 
difere, were important personages in New France, in their 
day, under English rule. Louis- Joseph Deschambault, who 
had retired to France with his aunt, the Marquise de Vau- 
dreuil, was named Aide-de-Camp. There is little, howeva*, 
here or elsewhere, to remind one of their doings in feudal 
times, in Canada. Seigniorial dues having been commuted 
in 1854, by Act of Parliament, no noisy coops of crowing 
cocks and hens, chapom vifs et en plumes^ are driven now by 
the peasantry to the seigniorial manor, at Michaelmas j as 

— 72 — 

of old, the eleventh fish caught in the river is not handed 
to the Lord of the manor. 

A peasant can keep tame pigeons without fear of a fine ; 
he may even grind his corn whenever he likes, cook his 
bread when, how and where he thinks proper. These 
memories of a dim, unregretted past are rapidly fading away. 

Here and there we may collect from tradition episodes 
of the great conflict in 1759, between France and England, 
narratives of the passage of Arnold's ruthless invaders in 
1775*6. One thing however, to regret, is the gradual disap- 
pearance of the old seigniorial manors; one so loves the old 
manors. There are, however, some few exceptions to the 
rule. It is pleasant to record them, and commend the spirit 
of the proprietors in endeavoring to preserve the few links 
that yet connect the past with our own times. 

The present possessor of the manor of Deschambault, 
Mr. G.-M. Fairchild, jr., has the spirit of the antiquarian 
and an intense love for old traditions and customs ; the 
manor so long as it remains in his hands will rear its hoary 
head, undisturbed by the vandalism of modem architects. 

One bright, eariy June morning, when all nature seemed 
alive with joyous revelry in the warm sunshine of young 
summer, I stepped from the trajn at Portneuf Station and 
was cheerily greeted by my friend S...., who was there 
with his buckboard, to drive me to Deschambatilt. 

The road from the station is down a tortuous hill along 
side the noisy, brawling, madly tumbling, foam-covered 
Portneuf river, entering its final race ere emptying into the 
St. Lawrence. What a delicious green the fields have taken 
on ! and how fresh the young verdure of the maple and birch 
beside the hemlock's deeper tint ! Among the softly mur- 
muring pines and balsams of the higher hillside, I hear my 
little friend, the white-throated sparrow, uttering in clear 
tones : Sow-thc wheat / saw-the wheat// soTV-the wheat / / 1 
but with his accustomed shyness, keeping well out of sight 

— 73 — 

After a glimpse of a mill through the trees, and a short 
distance further on, we come upon the old grist mill that in 
years gone by contributed many a sack of flour towards the 
supply of England, now alas ! doing very little more than 
;grinding up oats for the neighbouring farmers. A dusty 
Bieal-covered miller sticks his head out of a window and 
irishing us a bonjour ! returns to his work. A few moments 
more, and we come to the village of Portneuf cosily nestled 
under the hill on the bank of the St. Lawrence. A little 
ifrheezy market boat is tied to the wharf, and the entire popu- 
lation of the place has turned out to Yf^Xcomt Josette or speed 
Baptiste^ or bargain and barter for all kinds and sorts of 
farm produce. We pass the pretty little church, and the 
presbytery where Abb^ Provencher wrote his work " La 
Flore Canadienne. " Did Herr Peter Kalm botanize here in 
1749 ? How I should have enjoyed botanizing through the 
neighboring fields and woods, I thought ! The seigniory of 
Portneuf was created a barony in 1681. It belonged to Che» 
valier R^nd Robineau. He is mentioned as being exceed- 
ingly prosperous, inasmuch as he thoroughly understood 
the needs of his people. 

Caifadian Barons' were permitted scaffolds, jibbets, whip- 
ftiog^sts — ^ prisons and other civilizing apparatus. Did 
the pompous old Baron have either, or did he consider him- 
self safe inside of his massive walls with his fierce hounds ? 
Who can tell ? 

The country seat of the learned Sir James Stuart (he 
expired in 1853) Baronet, in his lifetime Chief Justice of 
Lower Canada, is on a plateau on the right of our road and 
commmands a fine view up and down the river. It is a subs- 
tantial stone building and was much resorted to by the old 
Baronet in his closing years. The property is now owned by 
the Sewell Bros., grandsons of the great Chief Justice 
Jonathan SewelL 

— 74 — 

We are now in the parish of Deschambault, and to the- 
left of the road on a long point of land jutting into the river^ 
stands the Manor of Deschambault, with its numerous out- 
buildings looking not unlike a small village. The house is 
massive stone building,some ninety feet frontage with a piaz2a 
extending around three sides of it It stands within fifty feet 
of the St. Lawrence, and as it is but some fifteen feet above 
high water mark, its proximity to the river lends an addf* 
tial charm to it. The rooms are low, studded with massive 
floor beams blackened with age. Open fire places abound 
in which in ye olden time vast fires were kept up in winter. 
Some of the division walls in the house are of heavy ma* 
sonry with curious little closets let in. The house is full of 
strange nooks. A valuable fishery is attached to the pro- 
perty, and a small artificial pond near the house is full of 
living fish taken from the weirs. There are but few finer 
snipe grounds in Canada than a little higher up the beach^ 
and as for ducks and geese in the spring and fall they are 

What an ever changing scene the river presents, as one 
views it from the piazza ! Now it is an ocean-steamer proud- 
ly breasting the current of the Richelieu rapids and leaving 
behind her a vast trail of smoke and foam, while descending 
the rapids is a small fleet of lateen-rigged batteaux driving 
along like race-horses under the influence of favoring wind 
and cun-ent, followed perhaps by a large raft of square 
timber covered with small sails and cabanes^ before which 
burn bright wood-fires, and to our ears comes faindy the 
sound of a violin. The tide is almost out and quaint weed- 
covered rocks rear their heads throughout the bay ; the 
river contracts ; yon distant island, a wee speck at high 
water, now joins the main land. The scene changes ; the 
tide rushes up, and meeting head winds and the rapids, a 
heavy sea rises and the water is covered with white caps.. 
Dark clouds gather in the west and come swiftly forward^ 

— 75 — 

and the thunder, in angry voice, gives warning of a heavy 
shower and squalls. The water turns dark and threatening^ 
and the small craft hasten to shorten sail and make things, 
snug. The storm breaks, and while we sit beliind the closed 
Tyindows, watchtng it, we see two large waterspouts form and 
go tearing across the river to break on the opposite bank. 
It is but a summer shower and soon disappears down the 
river, and the late afternoon sun breaking out again, bathes 
the opposite shore in a flood of crimson light reflected from 
littly foamy cascades that break over the cliffs. 

Fointe Platon House, Seignor Joly's happy .home> 
shows its roof and chimneytops above the trees. The spire 
of the Church at Cap Santd is fairly ablaze. The village and 
beautiful Church of Deschambault, on the high point, are 
brilliantly outlined against the western sky,the whole forming, 
a coup (Tosil of surpassing beauty. 

Mr. Fairchild (i) intends shortly, 'tis said, to retire from 

(1) George M. Fairchild, jr., is indeed qnite a voluminons writer 
on is^e, forest and field sports. For years, a copious contribator to 
the colnins of Forest and Stream and other sporting magazines, he is 
an especial fevocite with the lover of rod, gan and snow shoe. 

Possessed of good descriptiye powers, a keen observer, there is an 
odoor of the pine grove pervading his pages, in which yon may 
occasionally detect the murmnr of the waterfiill and tally-ho of the 
honter : let ns hope, he will soon set to rescue, from the columns of 
magazines and periodicals his graceful sketches of forest life in the 
Lanientian range, north of our city. The following are some of his 
best effusions, which ere long will be collected in permanent form 


Winter Sports in Canada 1873 

Bummer Sports in Canada • •. 1874 

Quebec to Lak$ Si, John 1874 

A snow shoe tramp to the Sagicenay River } 875 

WxTOtr Life vn the Fw North 1876 

Ccrnip Fires in the Far North. ..«•• • 1876 

On the Jacques Oartier ....•• ••.....'. 1876 

Malf Hours with Christopher North in his shootiiig Jacket 1878 

CaribouhwUvng in Canada t 1880 

NoUsofaoi Angler in the North ••• 1881 

Trout tails and stiow shoe trails • « 1888 

** Canadian Leaves " that rare volume of good things was brought 

— 76 — 

Active commercial pursuits in New York and take up his 
permanent residence in the Manor. With his literary tastes 
and fine library of Canadian works, he is likely to make the 
old house a Mecca for our litterateurs and students of Cana- 
dian history, and again shall it rise from out of the past and 
be known of men. 

28th Jane, 1888. 

oat under Mr. Fairchild's editorship, as was Notes on the JetuitSf a 
H. S. S., belonging to the Neilson Estate. 

Oar snow shoe clabs and Canadian lUterati are hidebted to the 
President of the Oritani Snow Shoe Club and Vice-President of the 
Canadian Club of New-York^ for various courtesies and for the open 
handed hospitality, extended to them, when visiting the Empire 
city. Hackensack, Mr. Fairchild's country seat nerr the Hudson 
recalls to his Canadian friends, many pleasant memories. 

^ Clickety-click, our snowshoes say, 
And over the hills and far away 
We leave dull care for another day. 
And quickly and joyously take our way. 

Through the woods, with their n:antle deep, 
Through the swamps in their winter sleep, 
In single file, with cheeks aglow, 
We leave our trail in the sparkling snow. 
Clickety-click, our snowshoes say." 

( JV«m a Bnowihoe Song by (?. Jf. FalrcMld, Jr.) 

The President of the Orltanta In hla SportlHC Jacket. 



Megantic — Us pioneers — its asbestos mines -^ its beau- 
tiful lakes — Dr. D.-H. Howard's map. 

Inyemess, 7th March, 1889. 

A rapid change has taken place in the weather, it is more 
than moist ; old Sol went down in tears ; in fact, it has 
turned to rain. No chance of any outside barbarian invad- 
ing our little parlor in this snug wayside Inn. 

Let us take advantage of the hush of the evening to con- 
fide to our trusty diary, our glimpses during the past week, 
of Megantic, amidst its breezy hills. 

How delightful it was during the severe weather of yester- 
day, warmly clad, to skim briskly in a well equipped cutter, 
over the Alpine drifts — our pnly thoroughfares at this 
season ! Winter too has its sunshine. 

To a native in good health, the grating of the " beau- 
tiful " crackling under the steel runners, accompanied with 
the lively tinkle of the sleigh bells, recalls the winter joys of 
his boyhood, the " trotting " matiih — the snowshoe tramp 
— the toboggan slide on the village common. 

Here we are comfortably housed for the night in that 
favored section of our rugged, but fair, land of the north, 
styled the Eastern townships ; a little kingdom of itself, of 
bush, pasturage, lake, mountain and valley, watered by 
several deep or rapid rivers, and by innumerable trout 
streams : the St. Francis, the Coaticook, the Becancour^ 

— 78 — 

' the Nicolet, the Beaurivage, the Chaudiere, the Etchemin^ 
and their tributaries. 

In the days when our famous wheat lands of the west 
were but a howling wilderness, this expanse rejoiced ,in the 
proud appellation of the Garden of Lower Canada. Its 
hardy settlers hailed from England, Scotland, Ireland, the 
Orkneys — ^a concrete mass leavened by the sturdy descen- 
dants of the United Empire Loyalists from beyond the 
border and by a sprinkling of French Canadians; they 
hewed their way, the brave fellows, through the maple and 
pine groves, at the dawn of the century, (i) 

Where stood of yore, the solitary log hut of 1802, now 
looms out the roomy farm-house, surrounded by orchards, 
meadows, cattle sheds, with the little Kirk or parish church 
peeping over the hill close by. 

" Stand where'er you will^sarrounding you the homesteads are abouncU 

And the curling smoke ascending from the chimneys everywhere ; 
You may hear the roosters crowing, bleating sheep, and cattle lowing 
And the woodman's axe resoun(Ung through the forests here and 


(A. McKiLLOP.) 

Several extensive counties have been created : Arthabaska 
and Drummond, Megantic, Wolfe, Compton, Richmond ; 

Date of some of the Government grants. 

(1) Inyerness, Sir R.-S. Milnes, Wm. McGilvray, 9th Aug. 1802. 
Wolfestown, Sir B.-S. Milnes, Nicholas Montour, 14th Aug. 1802 
Thetford, Sir R.-S. Milnes, Dr. John Mervin Nooth, 10th Nov. 1802 
Broughton, Sir B.-S. Milues, Henry Jenkins and W. Hall, 20th 

Oct. 1800 
Tring, Sir B.-S. Milnes, sundry persons, 20th July 1804. 
Kelson, Sir R.^. Milnes, officers and privates, Can. Mililia, 2l8t 

April 1804. 
Halif^, Sir R.^. Milnes, Benjamin Jobert, Ist Aug 1802. 
Compton, Sir R.-;S. Milnes, Jesse Pennoyer, 13th Aug. 1802. 
Somerset, Sir R..S. Ijplnes, officers. 

Frampton, Sir James-Henry Craig, sundry persons, 9th Sept. 1808. 
Leeds, Sir George Prevost, Geoige HamUton, 7tM!)ec. 1812. 

— 79 — 

picturesque villages, mining locations of fabulous wealth : 
Inverness, Leeds, Coleraihe, Thetford, BrDughton, Tring^ 
Nelson, Somerset, &c. 

Beauce, the adjoining county, has its Pactolus, perhaps 
two ; its auriferous streams, the Gilbert and the Famine. 
Megantic is equally proud, and rightly so, of its asbestos 
and antimony mines, &c. 

Forty years have nearly elapsed since the railway breathed 
here the spirit of life, and lo ! the portals of the honored 
region were opened to the outer world ; first, the Quebec 
and Richmond division of the Grand Trunk Railway ; next, 
the Quebec Central^ forerunners both of other lines to follow, 
now actively pushed forward. Boston evidently will soon be 
tapped direct and open out a short rout. 

The soil of the Eastern Townships is not however uni- 
formly fertile ; it is in many places rocky and poor. A great 
portion is suitable for the growth of cereals and root crops; 
a still greater tract is well adapted for pasturage and grazing 
Sherbrooke, Quebec and Montreal get some of their choicest 
Easter jomts from the Eastern Townships, whilst English 
and American capital seeks investment in their exhaustless 
mineral deposits and Canadian merchants export to Bri- 
tain, the valuable products of their forests. 

The exuberant harvests of our western territory has had 
a disquieting effect on the old country yeomanry of the 
Eastern Townships ; several, of late years have dreamed of a 
new Eldorado in the wheat fields of Manitoba — in the ran- 
ches of Calgary — even in the sheep walks of British 
Columbia. " Go West, young man " Horace Greely's stirring 
advice has also been dinned in the willing ear of the sons of 
the hardy Megantic farmer of other days. 

Jean Baptiste having discovered that his farm on the 
Lower St. Lawrence, exhausted by two centuries of remor- 
seless and unskilful tillage, threatened to give out, was 
ready to purchase ^nd in the Eastern Townships for his 

— 80 — 

heirs, sold with mild regret, his long, narrow strip of worn 
out soil, where rotary crops and artificial fertilizers were 
unknown and resigned himself to become a landed pro- 
prietor under the free and common soccage tenure of 
Megantic, Compton, Richmond, &c ; thus, township estates 
have rapidly changed hands of late years. At present the 
R. C. Chapel stands side by side with the temple of Pro- 
testant worship. It will require their united prayers to dis- 
pel some of the clouds gathered by politicians over the soil. 

The population of the county of Megantic foots up to 
22,000 ; Inverness counts about 360 souls, one quarter 
of which are of French lineage. 

Just as I was preparing to fasten the clasp of my cherished 
diary, regretting, I had not time to note more about Megan- 
tic, I received a very welcome visit. Mr. D.-H. Howard, 
the active and intelligent young editor of the Weekly 
Review^ having heard that I was desirous of learning some- 
thing about the annals and mining resources of the place, 
kindly called and submitted for my inspection a map of 
that section of the country, most carefully prepared by 
himself, showing the boundaries of the adjoining counties 
and even, each lot in detail, as laid out and miniatured on 
the Township Cadastral plans, of record in the Registry 
Office, on which he hacnnscribed every county or parish 
road ; conspicuous among them, I could follow the old 
military road, the Craig Road, cut out to the frontier, in 
1809, by direction of Sir James-Henry Craig, then Gover- 
nor-General of Canada, (i) 

The two railway lines were also clearly indicated. 

(1) Traced out originally, in 1800, by Joseph Kllbome, Deputy 
Provincial Land Suryeyor, at the expense of Joseph Frobisher and 
other land holders in the townships through which it passes ; in 1809, 
detachements of troops were employed in clearing and making the 
road and erecting bridges over the rivers. — (Bouchette, p. 672.) 

— 81 — 

Let us hope the Province, or the Railway or Mining 
Companies, will take hold of such a valuable map — assume 
it and by having it printed, render it available to the public. 

Mr. Howard was good enough to furnish me with infor- 
mation of the several mining companies now working the 
asbestos and antimony Mines in Megantic, Thetford, Cole* 
raine, Broughton, &c. I have pleasure in mentioning the 
leading companies. 

Johnson's Company, Bell's Asbestos Mining Co. (Limit- 
ed). King Bros., Ward Bros, and Ross, (lately disposed of), 
Anglo Canadian Asbestos Mining Co., the Megantic Mining 
Co., Frechette Mining Co., W.-H. Lambly, La Compagnie 
Minibre de Coleraine, Dr. James Reed, Louis Werthiem, 
Scottish Canadian Asbestos Co., Thetford Mining Co^ 
Johnston and Loomis. 


f^Haveyon heard of great Megantic, where the sights are so romantic ? 
That the trayeller often lingers on the landscape he admires ; 
Stands to view the winding riyer, while the balmy breeases quiyer, 
On the vast extending yista, where the ylsion neyer tires. 

There are rough and nigged monntains, there are floods and flowing 

There are loyely lakes expanding in the yalley to be seen ; 
There are peaks that cast their shadows oyer undulating meadowsi 
But the winter scene is grandest where the woods are eyer green. 

In the darkening distance yonder, there are hills that stood the 

Of the ages long departed ere this continent was known ; 
Lofty woodland most enchanting, syWan ranges gently slanting 
Downwaid,to the chain of waters that for centuries haye flown." fl) 


(1) Suggested during a sleigh ride oyer the hills that oyerlook 
Lake Joseph and the yalley of the Thames, to the beautiful estate 
of the late Col. Chab. Camfbbll, near the Village of St. Ferdinand, 
on the shores of Lake William, HalifiuE. 

— 82 — 

" Truly has the bard said, the landscape of Megantic is 
most lovely ; but though the hills and dales, mountains and 
valleys are grandly beautiful, yet they are eclipsed by the 
charming aspect of the lakes, that run through the county 
— four in a string, pearls on the '* Thames " necklace ; the 
tipper one, Black Lake, is situate in a wild region, full of 
minerals and where now are worked several rich asbestos 
quarries. A few miles further down runs Trout Lake, well 
deserving its name, and below that again, its waters emptying 
themselves into Lake William, one of the most lovely lakes 
to be seen in the wide universe ; both hidden between high 
mountains, clothed to their summits, in summer, with the 
most luxuriant vegetation, where abound the stately elm, the 
wide spreading black birch, the magnificent maple without a 
branch for 40 or 50 feet, from the ground and then branching 
out with enormous limbs that keep other giants c^the forest 
at a distance and make these woods have a park-like appear- 
ance. Here and there, the mighty pine, cedar and spruce 
give variety to the monotony that would otherwise be, if there 
were but one description of timber. The lake itself is about 
5 miles long and from ^ to t^ broad, having the most 
lovely points or capes as seamen would call them, jetting out 
into its waters and which form picturesque bays which pre^ 
sent even on stormy days when the outer-water is studded 
with white caps, a placid and mirror-like appearance, so pro- 
tected are they by the woods or hills that surround them, 
from every breeze that otherwise might ruffle their surface. 
In one of the recesses of these sunny bays, has sprung up 
within a couple of decades, the large village of St. Ferdinand, 
with its stately church, seminary, convent and various fac- 
tories, surrounded with prettily designed houses and cot- 
tages, and where ** all save the spirit of man is divine. " When 
first the traveller catches a glimpse of this romantically 
situated village, when topping the crest of the hill on the 
Gosford Road, from which he looks down upon it and the 
Bay, he becomes lost in bewilderment at the beauty of the 
scene, and if, at the time when the Angelus bell might on a 
still evening be ringing, his senses become enraptured by the 
musical chimes which air, water and the eternal hills echo, 
throw back and assert that an omniscient One reigns, and 
gives, to us, poor mortals on earth, a faint view of paradise. 
Truly St. Ferdinand is a favored spot. 


— 83 — 

" And lastly comes Lake Joseph or as the Scotch who 
settled upon it, call it, Loch Lomond ; it vies with Lake 
William, in its beauty, but lacks its breadth." 

" One of the most impressive scenes, the writer ever wit- 
nessed, happened upon its shore, more than twenty years 
ago. A revival had taken place in the township among the 
Baptists on a Sunday, in the month of February, with the 
thermometer indicating 20° below zero ; a hole about 30 
feet by 10 feet was cut in the ice, close to the banks of the 
lake and there stood around it, a crowd of stern, ascetic 
looking people, reminding one of those who contended with 
Claverhouse, in the days of the Covenanters. From this 
crowd surged out continually candidates for immersion and 
in this icy bath were they received, and completely immersed, 
both men and women. The intensity of the cold was such 
that men were employed with poles to keep the water free 
of the ice, continually forming and yet though the distance 
which they had to go to obtain shelter, and a change of 
clothing was at least 100 yards, so great was the effect of 
the religious ceremony on their minds that none of them, as 
far as could be learned, experienced any ill effects from 
this hyperborean bath. 

" Claymore. " 

BBAUCE.— (Ste. Marie.) 

JJie Poot-^rvnlB of the Invader in 1775. 

** There was much mortality amongst the bullocks, sheep and pigs 'fit 
Beauce this year (1775) ; our hen roosts suffered equally." 

(From the Diary of a Beauce farmer.) 

Much respected reader, hoping you have rallied from the 
hardships of our recent trip and that you are read^/to accom- 
pany us in the leafy season through the gorges of Bic,. 
revelling amidst the weird and majestic scenery of the 
Lower St. Lawrence, as far and farther, than Matane and 
Metis, " the land of the Gael," we will, with your leave,, 
indulge in a short ramble nearer home. Come then and 
view the picturesque Chaudifere Valley, " following the 
winding of the river to the parish of St. Mary, straggling 
through a flat and rich country," having at present, as it 
appears to have had in the days of Benedict Arnolds 
according to Bancroft, " for its ornament many low, bright^ 
white-washed houses, the comfortable abodes of a cheerful, 
courteous and hospitable people." 

You are now within the district of La Nouvelle Beauce, 
not than sunny Beauce of old France, " the land of com, 
wine and oil," but the Beauce of New France, wheat and 
gold producing, rich in its alluvial pasturages, mineral 
deposits, populous j and though skirting the classic soil of 
wooden-nutmegs, hickory hams, spiritualism, lynch law, and 
woman's rights, as yet untainted with the virus of demo- 
cracy ! 

— 85 — 

Several parishes : St. Isidore, St. Malachie, Ste. Clairei 
St. Anselme, St. Elz^ar, Ste. Marguerite, St Edouard, Ste. 
Henedine, Ste. Marie, St. Joseph, St. Fran9ois, St George ; 
half a score of populous townships, Tring, Broughton, St* 
Ephrem, Buckland, compose the judicial district of Beauce 
— a substantially built Court House and jail, looming from 
the top of the heights, mark out St. Joseph as the judicial 
centre, chef-lieu or county town, as it would be styled 
amongst our brethren of Ontario. 

In this spacious temple of Themis, surrounded by hh 
not overworked judicial officials, Coroner, Shedfif, Protho- 
notary, &c, His Honor, Mr. Justice Pelletier, — holds 
forth his quaterly sittings, with that suavity of manner pecu- 
liar to the race he sprang from. During term, the lawyers 
following Circuit, generally put up at one or the other 
of the two village hotels, close to the Court House. The 
echoes of Beauce still repeat the practical jokes and good 
humored chaff, exchanged in winter between the gent- 
lemen of the long robe, at their peHt$ soupers^ in which 
framage raffine^ and London stout were constant guests. 
We all know that lawyers on Circuit understand how to 
enjoy themselves, even if old Judges Cockbum and Bar- 
rington had failed to tell us. 

But amidst this gossip, I was forgetting that I intend to 
make this letter chiefly, if not entirely, historical in its aim. 
We shall then, you and I, go in for history. 

I soon struck a sympathetic cord with the Ancient 
Canadians, who have ^ a habitation and a name " on the 
fertile banks of the Chaudiere. It was only necessary to tell 
them I was curious of hearing all about la guerre des Bos- 
tonnais^ of which their forefathers must have known a great 
deal Many were the traditions handed down of that eventful 
period ; thrilling were the souvenirs of war and plunder 
poured in my willing ear. 


— 86 — 

To satisfy one worthy villager, I had actually to walk a 
long distance from my hotel at St. Mary, to see the spot 
where stood the seignorial manor of Seigneur Gahiel Elzkar 
Taschereau^ who, for having been true to his allegiance, had 
his goods and chattells seized and sold at auction by Arnold's 
soldiery — the men, whom nothing but " love of country, " 
as Bancroft says, had led across our border. " At a farm 
close by, " said one of my cicerones, " on the proprietor 
coming from church on a fine Sunday in November, 1775, 
he was surprised to find the fat porker he intended for his 
Christmas dinner znd. jours gras with his throat cut, and a 
row of fat chickens and gobblers, who would gobble no 
more, surrounding the porker, with a squad of Bastonnais 
wearing long knives, looking on." It is now more than one 
hundred years since the " horsedealer *' Arnold came pouring 
down along the Kennebec, with his shoeless, half-starved 
bands of " tavern-keepers, blacksmiths, butchers, tanners, 
hatters," all ** pretending to be gentlemen, and whom, every 
tnan jack of them, the great historian Bancroft, with a wave 
of his magic wand, transforms into heroes. 

How singular, too, that a very trifling incident — the 
change of a word — should have added so much to the 
extraordinary terror which the modern Attila and his iron- 
dad Huns were spreading in the Chaudiere Valley, " Each 
man *** bore a rifle-barrelled gun, a tomahawk or small 
axe, and a long knife, usually called a scalping knife, which 
served for all purposes in the woods. His under-dress, by 
no means in a military style, was covered by a deep ash-co- 
lored hunting shirt, leggings and mocassins, if the latter 
could be procured *** " {Henrys Journal,) 

" The Canadians who first saw these (men) emerge from 
the woods, said they were vitus en toile — clothed in linen. 
The word toilt was changed to iole — iron plate. By a 4 
mistake of a single word, the fears of the people were 
greatly increased, for the news spread that the mysterious 

— 87 — 

army that descended from the wilderness was clad in sheet* 
dron^ (Lossing's Field Book I, p. 195.'* 

The several journals of the expedition published by the 
Rhode Island Historical Society, by our own Literary and 
Historical Society — the comprehensive work of the Hono- 
rable George Bancroft, affords us ample data on this 
unlucky and desperate venture : — " The detachment (i) 
which Washington, as he thoughtfully brooded over the 
future, without hope of a speedy termination of the war, sent 
against Quebec, consisted of ten companies of New England 
infantry, one of riflemen, from Virginia, and two from Penn- 
sylvania, m all two battalions of about eleven hundred men. 
The command was given to Arnold, who, as a trader in 
y^rs past, had visited Quebec, where he still had corres- 
poodeots. In person he was short of stature, and of a 
florid complexion ; his broad, compact frame displayed a 
strong animal nature and power of endurance ; he was 
complaisant and persuasive in his manners ; daringly and 
desperately brave j avaricious and profuse ; grasping but 
not sordid ; sanguinely hopeful ; of restless activity ; " intel- 
ligent and enterprising." The next in rank, as Lieutenant- 
Colonels, were Roger Enos, who proved to be a craven, 
and the brave Christopher Greene, of Rhode Island. The 
Majors were Return J. Meigs, of Connecticut, and Timothy 
Bigelow, the early patriot of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Morgan, with Humphreys and Heth, led the Virginian rifle- 
men ; Hendricks, a Pennsylvanian company ; Thayer com- 
manded one from Rhode Island ; and like Arnold, Meigs, 
Dearborn, Henry Senter, Melvin, left a journal of the 
expedition. Aaron Burr, then but nineteen years old, and 
liis friend Mathias Ogden, carrying muskets and knapsacks, 
joined as volunteers. Samuel Spring attended as chaplain. 
Boats and provisions having been collected, the detachment, 

J^) Bancroft's History of the United States. 

— 88 — 

on the evening of the 13th September, marched to Bedford^ 
On the 19th, they sailed from Newburyport, and on the 
morning of the 20th were borne into the Kennebec. They 
passed the bay where that river and the Androscoggin hold 
their " merry meeting ; " on the 21st they reached the two- 
block-houses, and one large house, enclosed with pickets,, 
which stood on the east bank .of the river, then known a$ 
Fort Western, on the site of Augusta. An exploring party 
of seven men went in advance to discover the shortest 
carrying place from the Kennebec to the Dead River, one 
of its branches, along a path which had already been 
marked, but which they made more distinct by blazing the 
trees and snagging the bushes. The detachment followed 
in four divisions in as many successive days. Each division 
took provisions for forty-five days ; on the 25th, Morgan 
and the riflemen were sent first to clear the path ; the fol- 
lowing day Greene and Bigelow started with three com- 
panies of musketeers ; Meigs, with four companies, was next 
in order ; Enos, with three companies, closed the rear. 

" They ascended the river slowly to Fort Halifax, oppo- 
site Waterville ; daily up to their waists in water, hauling 
their boats against a very rapid current. On the 4th of 
October they passed the vestiges of an Indian chapel, a 
fort and the grave of the missionary, Rasle, (who died in 
1724). After they took leave of the settlements and houses 
at Norridgewach, the fatiguing and hazardous course lay up 
the swift Kennebec, and they conveyed arms and stores 
through the thick woods of a rough, uninhabited and almost 
trackless wild ; now rowing, now dragging their boats, now 
bearing them on their backs round rapids and cataracts^ 
across morasses, over craggy highlands. On the nth, the 
party reached the dividing ridge between the Kennebec and 
the Dead River. The ir road now lay through forests of 
pines, balsam, fir, cedar, cypress, hemlock and yellow birch, 
and over three ponds that lay hid among the trees, and 
were filled with trout. After passing these, they had no 
choice but to bear their boats, baggage, stores and ammu* 
nition across a swamp, which was overgrown with bushes 

— 89 — 

and white moss, often sinking knee-deep in the wet turf and 
bogs. From Dead River, Arnold, on the 13th, wrote to the 
commander of the Northern army, announcing his plan of 
co-operation. Of his friends in Quebec he inquired as to 
the number of troops at Quebec, what ships were there, and 
what was the disposition of the Canadians and merchants, 
and he forwarded his letter by an Indian. 

" On the 15th October, the main body were on the banks 
of the Dead River ; following its direction a distance of 
eighty-three miles, encountering upon it seventeen falls, 
lai^e enough to make portages necessary, and near its course 
a series of small ponds choked with fallen trees, in ten or 
twelve days more they arrived at the great carrying place at 
the Chaudi^re. On the way they heard the disheartening 
news that Enos, the second in command, had deserted the 
enterprise, leading back three companies to Cambridge. 
Yet, the diminished party, enfeebled by sickness and deser- 
tion, with scanty food, and little ammunition, still perse- 
vered in their purpose to appear before a citadel, which was 
held to be the strongest in North America, and which the 
English officers in Canada would surely defend to the last. 

^* The mountains had been clad in snow since September ; 
winter was howling around them, and their course was still 
to the North. On the night preceding the twenty-eighth of 
October, some of the party encamped on the height of land 
that divides the waters of the Saint Lawrence and the Atlan- 
tic. Some went barefooted for days together. Their clothes 
had became so torn they were almost naked, and in their 
march were lacerated by thorns ; at night they had no 
couch or covering but branches of evergreens. Often for 
successive days and nigkts they were exposed to cold, 
drenching storms, and had to cross streams that were swell- 
ing with the torrents of rain. Their provisions failed, so 
that they ate the faithful dogs that followed them to the 
wilderness. Many a man, vainly struggling to march on, 
sank down exhausted, stiffening with cold and death. Here 
and there a helpless invalid was left behind, with perhaps a 
soldier to hunt for a red squirrel, a jay, or a hawk, or 
various roots and plants for his food, and to watch his expir- 
ing breath. ♦ ♦ * ♦ The men had hauled up their 
barges nearly all the way for one hundred and eighty miles, 
through hideous woods and mountains, often to their knees 

— 90 — 

in mire, over swamps and bays almost impenetrable, which- 
they were obliged to cross three or four times to fetch their 
baggage ; and yet, starving, deserted, with an enemy's coun- 
try and uncertainty ahead, officers and men, inspired with' 
the love of liberty and their country, pushed on with invin- 
cible fortitude. 

" The foaming Chaudiere hurries swiftly down its rocky 
channel. Too eager to descend it quickly, the adventuress 
had three of their boats overset in the whirls of the stream, 
losing ammunition and precious stores, which they had 
brought along with so much toil.'' 

Let us interrupt for a short time Bancroft's glowing 
account of these dauntless heroes — " Officers and men, 
influenced with the love of liberty and their country, pushed 
on with invincible fortitude," in order to bear the opinion 
of an eye witness, Col. Henry Caldwell, one of Wolfe's 
veterans, the head of the Canadian Militia : — "A great 
part of their army," says he in his letter to Gen. Murray, 
" was also composed of Europeans. * ♦ * Of the prisoners 
we took, about loo were Europeans, chiefly from Ireland ; 
the greater part of them engaged voluntarily in Col. Mc- 
Lean's corps, but about a dozen of them deserting in the 
course of a month, the rest were again conflned, and not 
released till the arrival of the /w, when they were again 
taken into the corps. You can have no conception what 
kind of men composed their officers. Of them we took, 
one Major was a blacksmith, another a hatter ; of their 
Captains, there was a butcher, a tanner, a shoemaker, a 
tavern-keeper, &c., &c. Yet they all pretended to be gen- 
tlemen." Persons who saw the rabble of Pigeon Hill and 
Ridgeway, will readily understand of what " illegant gintle- 
men " the invading army was composed, Bancroft to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

April, 1888. 

BBAUGB. — (St. Joseph). 

iS JbwpA — Dr. SenUr^a Diary — The New Englanders 
cro88 ihe border in 1775— Ift« French Oanadicms 
eroM the border in 1875 — The Monroe doctriney ae 
v/nderetood in Canada. 

St. Joseph, Beauce, 10th Dec., 1888. 

Doubtless this cherished land of our birth is a favored 
spot in God's creation, on this green — pardon, whitened 
earth, the trouble is that when the mercury sinks to the" 
" thirties," one rapidly fails to discover its superior advan- 
tages over milder climes. 

Who, all considered, would readily exchange our bright 
summer skies and our cold, but bracing winter, for the 
malaria of neighbouring cities, for the chills and fever of 
many of the grand watering places from Cape Cod to Flo- 
rida, with the periodical recurrence in the west of blizzards, 
occasional cyclones and Septennial grasshoppers. 

Such the patriotic thoughts uppermost in my mind this 
day, as I stepped from the light cutter in which a hardy 
Norman pony had drawn me briskly from the remote, snow* 
crowned hills and lone land of East Broughton. 

Not that I was feeling like the great Victor Hugo, when- 

he visited les Anglais across the channel — a prey to spleen* 

Oh ! no, but I winced under the keen mountain air and 

longed for some heat-generating agent — were it even Pain-. 


" Pour me gu6rir dn spleen, 
J'entrai dans nne Inn 
Oil je bus du Gin, 
God Save the Queen i " 

(From Hugo* 8 last EnglUh ballcul.) 

— 92 — 

I was wondering, whether, like Shenstone, I too could 
count on a warm welcome at the village inn, when on 
ascending the lofty (i) steps of Monsieur Groleau's hostel- 
rie, I was greeted in French by the urbane landlord as 
follows : " Savez le bienvenu; vous\me sembUz gelh; prentz une 
petite larme; la bonne liqueur est presqii aussi rare ^ la Beaucc 
qt^au temps des Bastonnais^ il y a centans etplus,^ Strangely 
enough in order to follow the foot-prints of the Bastohnais, 
I had with me a written proof of the truthfulness of his 
assertion, in the shape of Dr. Senter's Diary of the Quebec 
Blockade, in 1775-76. 

Taking Mr. G — ^'s greeting and allusion to the Yankees 
of '75 as auspicious, I replied : ** You are right, mon ami, 
stimulants in Nov., 1775 were indeed scarce, and Dr. Sen- 
ter, the surgeon of Arnold's army (2) mentions how " a 
quart of New England rum " cost him a " hard dollar " — 
the only " agreeable " thing he had yet met with since he 
had crossed the border " he added. 

Tradition, however, has told you, I suppose, that the 
doctor and his braw men fared better, a little distance fur- 
ther, on enquiring at " an old peasant's house, where was a 
merry old woman at her loom, and two or three fine young 

(1) Dwellings, on the banks cf the river Chaudi^re, have to be raised 
many feet above the level of tiie river course on account of the tremen- 
dous spring floods. Each year about the 18th ApriL the river overflows 
the whole Chaudi^re valley fbr miles, lending fertility to the meadows 
but causing also, occasionally, inevitable loss and devastation. In 
April, 1885, at three a. m., the flood suddenly rose thirty feet through 
the obstruction caused by ice and under the action of a warm son, 
flooding the parlor floor of the village inn six inches deep ; the jam 
gave way next day and the water receded. To meet these dire con- 
tingencies, every house on the river bank is provided with boats and 
canoes, so as to be prepared to retire at a moment's notice to the hills 
with the household gods. 

(2) The <* Journal of Isaac Senter, " Physician and Surgeon to the 
troops detailed from the American army, encamped at Cambridge, 
Mass., on a secret expedition against Quebec, under the command of 
Colonel Benedict Arnold, in September, 1776, published by the fftatO' 
ruxU Society qf Pennsylvanw, Philadelphia, 1846. 

— 93 — 

^rls/' from whom they purchased eggs, rum, sugar and 
sweetmeats, &c., a delightful change in their diet which, on 
some days had consisted in dog's flesh and a " bouillon, '' 
made out of mocassins, deer skin breeches and other such 
tidbits, boiled to a jelly. But let us allow the New England 
doctor to speak out about this hilarious old dame. " On 
finding out who were her visitors, immediately she fell to 
singing and dancing Yankee Doodle with the greatest air of 
good nature." Can any one furnish me the name of this 
sprightly old dame ? After settling the Bill, the famished 
sons of Bellona took their departure; if the truth were 
known, possibly without causing any regret ; bent, however, 
on returning. 

On the 5th November, 1775, a Sunday, the invading host 
reached the Church or Chapel of St. Mary, thirty miles from 
Quebec, where they mention having had " a good enter- 
tainment, roast turkey, Spanish wine, &c." 

I shrewdly suspect the cellar and larder of loyal Seigneur 
Gabriel Elz^ar Taschereau (then absent), supplied the menu 
for the gargantuan feast of the starving patriots, dying to 
fetch us, unappreciative Canadians, the boon of liberty ; 
but ere they left for Quebec, Senter's Journal furnishes the 
particulars of an incident which happened a few miles 
higher up, at Satigan. 

In reply to the oration delivered by the Indians, at Sati- 
gan, Beau.ce, on the 4th November, 1775, to CoL Benedict 
Arnold on his arrival, the Colonel returned the following 
Jlrtful answer : " Friends and Brethren, — I feel myself very 
happy in meeting with so many of my brethren from the 
different quarters of the great country, and more so as we 
meet as friends, and that we are equally concerned in this 
expedition. Brethren, we are the children of those people, 
-who have now taken up the hatchet against us. More than 
one hundred years ago we were all as one family. We then 
differed in our religion and came over to tfajs great country 

— 94 — 

by consent of the king ; our fathers bought land of the 
savages and have grown a great people, even as the stars of 
the sky. We have planted the ground and by our labor 
grown rich. Now a new king and his wicked great men want 
to take our lands and money without our consent. This we 
think unjust, and all our great men from the river St. Law- 
rence to the river Mississipi, met together at Philadelphia^ 
where they all talked together and sent a prayer to the king, 
that they would be brothers and fight for him, but would 
not give up their lands and money. The king's army at 
Boston came out into the fields and houses, killed a great 
many women and children while they were peaceably at 

The Bostonians sent to their brethren in the country, and 
they came in, unto their relief, and in six days raised an 
army of fifty thousand men and drove the king's troops on 
board their ships, killed and wounded fifteen hundred of 
their men. Since that they durst not come out of Boston. 
Now we hear the French and Indians in Canada have sent 
to us that the king's troops oppress them and make them 
pay a great price for their rum, &c., press them to take up 
arms against the Bostonians, their brethren that have done 
them no hurt. By the desire of the French and Indians, 
we have come to their assistance, with an intent to drive 
out the king's soldiers ; when drove oflT, we will return to 
our own country, and leave this to the peaceable enjoyment 
of its proper inhabitants. Now, if the Indians, our brethren, 
will join us, we will be very much obliged to them, and will 
give them one Portuguese per month, two dollars bounty, 
and find them their provisions, and their liberty to c/iuse 
their own officers." 

This insidious address delivered by the double traitor, 
Benedict Arnold, to the rum-loving Aborigines of the Chau- 
diere, just one hundred and thirteen years ago, affords at 
the present juncture ample food for reflexion. Bearing in 

— 95 — 

mind the way in which the red man has been dispoiled of 
his hunting grounds and oppressed by faithless officials, 
under the Stars and Stripes, it would, I wean, require more 
than one " Portuguese " to make him quit his snug Indian 
reserves under good Queen Victoria, and seek the protection 
of Uncle Sam. 

There are raids too, across the border, at present, but of 
a peaceable character j the raiders bear the olive branch,, 
though it would appear they have serious designs ; they^ 
meditate the implanting of a Roman Catholic Nationality, 
in the old Puritan colony of Massachusett ! A Boston con- 
tributor to a well known New York publication (i). Dr; 
Pros. Bender, in an elaborate article supported by statistics 
and the census, points out the constant and ever increasing 
influx of the French Canadians in New England, showing 
that this prolific race, has in its own country, without the 
help of emigration, increased from 65,000 in 1760 to 1,700,- 
000 in 1888, a most incredible result 

" Of late years, says Dr. Bender, a significant movement 
of these people is that in favor of naturalization. They have 
not, like the Irish or Germans, shown haste in this matter, 
one reason being their nearness to their native land, in 
which the French language is so largely spoken and their 
religion so widely professed : another being the absence of 
exciting political or material objects. They have 45 natura- 
lization clubs, with many others in course of formation, in 
which lectures in French are given on the privileges and 
duties of citizenship. It is believed that within ten years 
there will be few if any of them not naturalized, all being of 
late fully alive to the importance of this step. Many have 
been successful in business, and several have entered the 
New England legislatures : one, the Massachusetts ; four, 
the Maine ; two, the Connecticut ; two, the New Hamp- 
shire ; and two, the New York ; and they are found among 
municipal councillors, aldermen, &c. They support in New 

(1) New York Magazine of American History, Nov., 1888, « New 
Trance in New Engird, " statiBtics thereon, ac. 

— 96 — 

England and New York, 9 newspapers ; have 287 French 
societies, with a total membership of 43>o5i. This is a most 
creditable record, in so brief a period, showing capacity 
for union and political management." 

This New France in the New England of the future, 
may, like the Monroe Doctrine, be in the womb of time, 
when the Coutume de Paris is expected to supersede the 
last of the Blue Laws of Massachusetts, and when the 
Beaver, the Maple Leaf and the Tricolor, replace the Star 
spangled banner, on Plymouth Rock ! 

. About that time, probably, the coming New Zealander, 
standing, in London, at the base of the Trafalgar column, 
will be trying by dint of a native interpreter to decipher 
Paradise Lost. 

BBAUCB. — (St. Francois.) 

Th4 Bobolink '-T' Le Ooglu. 

{J)oli6h(myx ori^yvortut) 

St Fxftn^ols, 7ih June, 1883. 

. Here I am at last safe from railway heat and dust, on this 
lovely 7th of June, and for lack of else to do, musing and 
sauntering until tea-time, on the green bank of the mur* 
muring Chaudih^Cy following its graceful windings. What a 
true landscape here of the Canada of, modern, as well as of 
olden times ! The full tide of spring is on us. Heigho ! 

How many generations have sought and found rural quiet 
in these fertile wheatfiekls spread before me 1 How many 
old Norman or Breton love ballads since the first settlement 
ui 1735* have been hummed by French lad and lassie in 
these rich pasture-lands of La Nouvelle-Beauce ! Who can 
portray the ever varying, revolving-seasons, the welcome or 
unwelcome incidents which have swept over this blithe, pas* 
toral region ; how many April ice-shoves,floods, inundations in 
the valley of Beauce ! How many glowing spring ripples have 
furrowed this serene, historic stream, since the day— distant 
indeed, — ^when the Jesuit Gabriel Druillettes, the first Euro- 
pean to ^iscend it to the Kennebec, left his Sillery mission, 
on the 2 and August, 1646, to plant the emblem of his &ith 
amidst the wild glens of New England. Yes, the time was 
when the winding Chaudiire resounded to the deadly Indian 

— 98 — 

History tells of the Penobscot Indians,Sabattis and Eneos, 
escorting on the 7th October, 1775, ^^ unconquerable 
■Quebec, Arnold's trusted German scout, Jacquith ; history 
tells likewise of the successful march of Arnold's famished 
but hardy braves, through trackless wilds, ice-bound streams 
irom Cambridge to cold Canada, in the Autumn of 1775. 
With the graphic Diary of Arnold's surgeon, Dr. Isaac 
Senter, open before me, I might almost be tempted to fancy 
I hear the measured tread of the invading host, recruited 
in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New-York and distant 
Virginia, skirting the northern bank of the river, from the 
Kennebec, all along to St. Mary, where, we are told by Dr. 
Senter, much needed rest and good cheer, in the shape of 
** Roast turkey and excellent Spanish wine " awaited them ; 
though the same may have been contributed, mayiiaps 
grudgingly, from the larder and cellar of the Seigneur of the 
parish, loyal Gabriel Elzdar Taschereau. 

I can conjure in my mind's eye, the good time and hearty 
meals, which followed these protracted hardships, such a 
prolonged fast, as marked the course of the invaders through 
our Canadian wilderness. Lt.-Col. Green, of Rhode Island, 
Majors Return-J. Meigs, of Connecticut ; Timothy Bigelow, 
of Massachusetts ; Capts. Humphrey, Hendrick, Morgan, 
Sethe, — pledging one another in bumpers of Prime Bene- 
carlo, drinking " to the fall of Quebec," to the death of the 
•* Saxon tyrant," whilst young Aaron Burr, a lad of nineteen 
summers, is thoughtfully conversing with his older friend, 
Major Mathias Ogden. The hoarse tumult of war then, the 
•hrill word of command of the New England musketeer, or 
the Rhode Island rifleman echoed across the waters, carrying 
dread to the heart of the leafiest glen of Beauce ; now, the 
mellowest of sunsets illumines the emerald, undulating 
uplands to the North, whilst the spruce and fir-groves on 
the hills, loom out over the southern shore — turbans of 
^eenery and gold. Far off, softened by distance, the shrill 


— 99 — 

railway wlystle is heard this is the nineteenth century 
speaking out. Directly across the river Chaudikre^ in a vast 
level meadow, dotted here and there with a majestic elm as 
a shade tree, may be seen the lithe form of a sturdy Cana- 
dian lad, rejoicing in his ^^^ mocassins and bonnet rouge^ 
with eye intent on the furrow, guiding a docile pair of oxen, 
yolked to an antique Norman plough, resting on wheels : 
— this is the seventeenth century. 

What is this wild, gushing, rollicking music high in the 
air overhead ? 

It is the hilarious, *' mad music " of the bobolink, the 
rival of the European lark — as Burroughs has it — *' the 
bird that has no European prototype, and no near relatives 
anywhere, standing quite alone, unique, and, in the quali- 
ties of hilarity and musical tintinnabulation, with a song 
unequalled." Audubon and Wilson had introduced him to 
our notice in our most tender years. ** He has already a 
secure place in general literature, having been laureated by 
a no less poet than Bryant, and invested with a lasting 
human charm in the sunny page of Irvine, — and is the only 
one of our songsters, I believe, the Mocking-bird cannot 
parody or imitate. He offers the most marked example of 
exuberant pride, and a glad, rollicking holiday spirit that 
can be seen among our birds. Every note expresses com- 
placency and glee. He is a beau of the first pattern, and 
rnilike any other bird of my acquaintance, pushes his 
gallantry to the point of wheeling gayly into the train of 
every female that comes along, even after the season of 
courtship is over and the matches all settled ; and when she 
leads him on too wild a chase, he turns lightly about and 
breaks out with a song that is precisely analogous to a burst 
of gay and self-satisfied laughter, as much as to say '^ Ha / 
Jial ha! I must have my fun ; Miss Siiverthimbie^ thimble^ 
ihimbky if I break every heart in the meadow ^ see^ see^ Beef 

— 100 — 

At the approach of the breeding season, the bobolink 
undergoes a complete change ; his form changes, his color 
changes, his flight changes. From mottled brown or brindle 

he becomes black and white 

his small, compact form becomes broad and conspicuous, 
and his ordinary flight is laid aside for a mincing, affected 
gait, in which he seems to use only the tips of his wings. It 
.is very noticeable what a contrast he presents to his mate 
at this season, not only in color but in manners, she being 
as shy and retiring as he is forward and hilarious. Indeed^ 
she seems disagreeably serious and indisposed to any fun 
and jollity, skurrying away at his approach, and apparently 
annoyed at every word and look. It is surfMising that all 
this parade of plumage and tinkling of cymbals should be 
gone through with and persisted in to please a creature so 
coldly indifferent as she really seems to be. If Robert 
O'Lincoln has been stimulated into acquiring this holiday 
uniform and this musical gift by the approbation of Mrs* 
Robert, as Darwin, with his sexual selection principle would 
have us believe, then there must have been a time when 
the females of this tribe were not so chary of these favors 
as they are now. Indeed, I never knew a female bird of 
any kind that did not appear utterly indiffei'ent to the charms 
of voice and plumage that the male birds are so fond of 
displaying. But I am inclined to believe that the males 
think only of themselves and ot outshining each other, and 
not at all of the approbation of their mates, as, in an ana- 
logous case in a higher species, it is well known who the 
females dress for and wl)om they want to kill widi envy ? '^ 

Such our jolly little friend, with the black and white 


Leuis'^Its martial records of the past — Its first settler. 

Next to a summer cruise, on board of one of our com 
modious yatch^, along the green isles, or rocky shores 
of our noble St. Lawrence, down amidst the rippling surf 
of the Bai€ des Chaieurs^ the land of herring and cod, 
there is no more attractive trip than a July or August 
ramble from Quebec to that ultima thtde, the Magdalen 
Island group. 

Prior, however, to casting anchor, under the lofty and 
verdant capes of La Demoiselle^ at Amherst harbor, many 
hundred miles of sea and land intervene ; the whole alive 
with the memories of a historic past and to which siege, 
battle, legends, Indian ambush, shipwreck in its direst form, 
lend a powerful, an unflagging interest. 

* * 

Levis, the point of junction of several railways : the 
Intercolonial, the Grand Trunk, and the Quebec and Cen- 
tral Railway, is a thriving town of 13,000 souls, facing 
Quebec. It is rather ambitious ; not to say jealous of its 
venerable western neighbor. Tolerably well equipped with 
temples of worship, for its various congregations, the bulk 
of which are Roman Catholic, it rejoices in a flourishing 
Academie CommerciaUy convents, a public hospital of grand 
dimensions, a respectable City Hall and markets, a first 


— 102 — / 

class hotel and several minor hotels. Shipbuilding, the 
timber trade at Indian Cove and other berths for ships, 
and latterly, its vast iron-workshops, have made it what 
it is. The two first industries have well nigh departed, 
but a kind Providence sent the afflicted town a Pactolus, in 
the shape of a new line of railway, from St. Charles to the 
Levis Ferry, cutting into valuable river lots ; a solace and 
comfort to the workingman, no less than to the landowner, 
should the Courts of Justice uphold the monumental claims 
for compensation, of some of the latter. 

About trwenty-eight years ago, the locality .was known under 
the name of St. Joseph of Levis. 

Increase of population and the exigencies of trade soon 
necessitated several sub-divisions and dismemberments of 
this vast territory, which in the days of one of its late sei- 
gneurs^ — Sir John Caldwell, — represented the seigniory of 

The eastern portion is still called St. Joseph, but in virtue 
of successive, legislative and canonical decrees, it grew 
into the town of Levis ; the villages of Bienville, of Lauzon ; 
the parishe.« of Notre- Dame of Levis, that of St. David de 
I'Aube Riviere, the populous parish of St. Romuald. 

Pointe Levi played its part, a not unimportant one, in the 
deadly struggle of 1759, and in the dark days of 1775. 

Brigadier General Monckton, at the head of the 43rd and 
15th Regiments, with the aid of some ferocious Rangers, 
paid Levis an unwelcome visit in June, 1759, having a 
brush with the natives, and their Indian allies, taking three 
prisoners and wounding three. On nearing the Church of 
St. Joseph, the British were met by a brisk fire ; Captain 
Campbell, of Frascr's Regiment (the 78th) who, with his 
company, held the church, returned the fire — probably with 


— 103 — 

. Vsjidt's/bumal makes mention of a fighting Levy seignior, 
T)y name, Monsieur Charest, who seconded by one Legris, 
^ brave volunteer, and by thirty bloodthirsty Abenaquis 
ravages, lay in ambush on Ihe 3rd July 1759, ^^^ ^^o 
ceeded in making a prisoner and carrying away eight 
British scalps, killing in all, about thirty of the enemy. 

Levis, like many other Canadian towns, has its annalist 
and trusty historian : M. J.-E. Roy, who will enlighten any 
person desirous of looking up the history of this growing 

The Pointe Levi Church (St. Joseph), it seems, according 
to an entry in the diary of old James Thompson, had been 
set apart by Wolfe, as an hospital for the wounded, in 
anticipation of the coming engagement on the Plains of 
Abraham. Thither the wounded of both armies were con- 
veyed, on that eventful 13th of September, in boats from 
the shore, at Wolfe's Cove ; on the crest above, the victo- 
rious army was encamped. 

James Thompson, the brave Highlander, who had volun- 
teered for the campaign, under his friend Capt. David 
Baillie, and who had lost all hope of a commission, by the 
death of his protector at Louisbourg, appears on that day 
to have acted as Hospital Sergeant, after the battle. 

He describes very graphically how the wounded prisoners, 
among the French, reached the hospital. The process of 
carrying the Freacl! down to the boats, crossing them over ; 
and then conveying them on rude ambulances, or hand- 
barrows on which canvass was stretched, was a very tedious 
one. James Thompson, a perfect Hercules of physical 
strength, teUs how he lost patience, and how he laid hold of 
a FrenchoMn sorely hurt, and carried him in his arms all 
the distance — some four miles — from the Levis landing to 
the church of St. Joseph, the hospital, and that without 
stopping to rest." 

— 104 — 

" I felt pretty exhausted " says he, " when I reached the 
hospital, and what was worse, I had with the blood-stains, 
ruined my uniform. The poof devils of Frenchmen uttered 
loud cries of pain, when we had to move them, but we could 
not understand a word of what they said. One had the flesh 
of his cheek hanging on his shoulder, a blow from a sword yr 
on attempting to escape his captors. When the French sur- 
rendered as prisoners, matters went smoothly with them, but 
woe ! to the prisoner who attempted to outrun a Highlander t 
Whack ! a blow from the claymore and all was settled. " 

On the 5th February, 1760, the ice-bridge took across the 
St. I^wrence, before the city. Captain Saint Martin, of the 
French army, made an attempt with 800 men to take pos- 
session of the English post in the church of Pointe Levi ; 
General Murray in person crossed over with the 15th, 28th 
and 78th (Highlanders) and some light infantry and two field 

He failed to arrest the French in their flight, and returned 
that night to the city with fifteen prisoners, and without lose- 
ing any of his own men. 

In November, 1775, Col. Benedict Arnold and followers 
were delayed. a whole week at the landmg, at Levis, Cra- 
mah^ having taken the precaution to have all the canoes 
and boats removed in time, to the Quebec side. Finally with 
the help of thirty-five canoes, furnished him by the Abena- 
quis of the Chaudiere, he succeeded \A effecting a crossing 
in the vicinity of Wolfe's cove, despite the presence of two 
British men-of-war, the " Leopard " and the *• Hunter, " 
anchored before the town. 

The Levis heights have in our day, been enlisted as 
auxiliaries, in the defence of our city, by the construe- 
tion, at a cost of ;^ 176,805 of three vast earthworks, with 
masonry and casemates. These forts, at one mile distance 
from one another, are intended to be armed with Moncrief 

— 105 — 

|[uns of heavy calibre ; they are further, so built, as to be, in 
-case of need, easily breached by artillery, from the Citadel, 
tfo as to become untenable by an enemy who might have 
<:aptured them. 

The eastern fort is protected by a lofty blufif — from 
whence, t'is said, a plunging fire might be brought to bear 
on the deck of any iron-clad, attempting to ascend beyond 
the Island of Orleans, which would infallibly sink it. All 
three forts mutually support and flank each other ; their 
lines of fire sweep the whole front, and the interval between 
-each fort, 1800 yards. They are connected by a military 
road and covered-way, which as well as the forts, can be 
taken in reverse from the Citadel and rendered untenable. 

The Point Levi casemates and forts have restored Que- 
bec to the proud position it occupied fifty years ago ; it is 
still, notwithstanding its changes, the Gibraltar of North 
America. Lievis is the birth place of our melodious bard, 
Frechette, and the adopted home of a poet and earnest 
field naturalist, the Revd Duncan Anderson, late pastor 
•of the Levis Presbyterian Church. 

In 1850, a singular discovery was made in its Roman 
Catholic cemetery, an iron cage, with some fragments of 
human bones, which after perplexing the antiquaries of the 
old capital, turned out to be the instrument of torture of 
Marie-Josephte Corriveau, condemned to be hanged, and 
after death, exposed in this iron cage, where four roads meet, 
as a warning to erring humanity. Marie-Josephte Corriveau, 
appears to have been a second Lafarge ; having murdered 
her two husbands, she was tried and convicted by a military 
tribunal of the period — 1763 — presided by Lt.-Col. Morris. 
The curious will find her history in the Maple Leaves for 

Pointe Levi, formerly Cap de Lhis, was not called after 
le Chevalier de Levi, the hero of the battle of Ste. Foy, in 
1760, but commemorates the name of one of our first vice- 

— 106 — 

roys. The historian Ferland gives the family a biblicaF 
origin and allows it important privileges. " The Levi 
family, says he, claims descent from the patriarch Jacob, by 
his son Levi. It is related, that there was oilce in the Levi 
femily a picture representing the Virgin Mary, whikt a 
ihember of the Levi family stood hat in hand. Two inscrip- 
tions threw light on the matter, " Couvrez^vous^ mon cousin^ 
sSays the Virgin •* <^est mon piaisir, ma coustne" replies the 
descendant of Levi. — Cours d*Mstoire du Canada^ Vol. I^ 
p. 214. 

Pointe Levi can claim among her most notable early 
denizens a hardy pioneer, whom Mr. Jos.-E. Roy, his- 
biographer, styles The first colonist of Levis, 

GuiLLAUME Couture, 1608-1702. 

There are several interesting types to be met with among, 
the early settlers on Canadian soil, which, thanks to some* 
painstaking antiquaries, are gradually asserting themselves. 

The most recent we know of is Guillaume Couture, the 
first settler of Levis, a character strikingly monographed by 
Mr. Joseph-Edmond Roy, of Levis, in his late publication •.- 
Le Premier Colon de Lhvis. 

It was a happy thought, which prompted this promising 
young writer, to draw so bountifully from his abundant store 
of historical lore, in order to place prominently before the 
general reader, a figure of the dim past, hitherto known to 
few beyond our antiquarian delvers : Faillon, Ferland« 
Suite, Viger, Faribault, Scadding, Sandham, Verreau ; 
Couture evidently belongs to that sturdy, intelligent class 
of pioneers — intense lovers of forest adventure and adepts 
in the knowledge of Indian dialects : the Marsolet, Charles 
LeMoine, Hertel, Nicolet and other hardy voyageurs-inter^ 
pretts in the days of yore. He now looms out as one of 
the most remarkable of the class. 

— 107 — 

More fortunate than many of his compeers, he rose suc- 
cessively to the envied position oi a seigniorial judge, a- 
negotiator of treaties, a commander of militia, adding 
even to other honors that of recorder of deeds {notaire)^ a 
very special functionary in those distant times. 

Guillaume Couture was born in the famous old Norman 
town of Rouen, in 1617, according to the antiquary Tan- 
guay ; in 1608, theyear of the foundation of Quebec, accord- 
ing to the historian Ferland. We owe to Rouen several other 
worthies : Nicolet, le Tardif, Marguerie, Hertel, Marsolet, 
the Godfrey and alii. 

Couture seems to have landed at Quebec, in the service 
of the Jesuit Fathers, in 1640. He soon made his mark as 
an intrepid voyageur, an able linguist, employed by mis- 
sionary labor and Government. Imagination likes to recall 
the young, adventurous and athletic woodsman, escorting 
the enthusiastic and youthful surgeon, Ren^ Goupil (i) and 
Father Jogues, through boundless forests, &c., towards the 
Iroquois country, bearing, as it were, their lives each day 
in their hands, and prepared to s.^al iheir faith with their 
life blood. 

History has handed down the account of their hazardous 
voyage, with forty followers and twelve canoes, penetrating 
m the heart of this redoubted land, under the guidance of 
theHuron brave. Chief Eustache Ahilsistari — of their falling 
into an Indian ambuscade, in the islets of Lake St. Peter — 
of the horrible tortures and death inflicted on several of the 
parfy — of Couture's marvellous escape, though not without 
a mutilated hand — of the joy of his friends on his return 
after his long captivity, and, as it were, from another world. 
Couture had been employed for twenty years as interpreter 

(1) Ben6 Qoupil was killed by the Iroquois on the 18th October^ 
1646. Father Jogues was massacred. The youth, Jean de Lalonde^ 
who accompanied them, shared the same &te. 

— 108 — 

in the Huron and Mohawk missions, where he was invited 
to accompany, in March i66i,an expedition originated by 
Governor D'Argenson, to explore the northern portion of 
Canada, towards Hudson Bay ; this expedition had to turn 
back on account of Indian hostilities. In 1663, a second 
expedition was fitted out for Hudson Bay. Governor 
D'Avaugour placed Couture at the head of it, and the hardy 
voyageuroxi his arrival claimed possession of this remote land, 
erected there a cross, and deposited a brass plate, on which 
the royal arms of France were engraved. It was protected 
by lead plates, and buried at the foot of a large tree. Later 
on, we find Couture assisting Father Henri Nouvel, on his 
missionary labors among the Montagnais, the Papinachois 
and Esquimaux tribes, on the north shore of the St. Law- 
rence, from Tadoussac to the entry of the gulfl 

The indefaticable voyageur-interprHe left Quebec on the 
31st May, 1665, with Father Henri Nouvel, for this distant 
land ; after sufTeilng shipwreck, near Rimouski, they called 
the lower point, Father Point, after Father Nouvel, and 
wintered there. 

Mr. Roy's little volume is brimful of antiquarian lore, 
gleaned at the purest sources. We read among other details : 
"In 1 610, no church had yet been built in the Cote de 
Lauzon, though eight churches are mentioned as existing 
that year, in the Quebec settlement : the Quebec parochial 
church, the Jesuits, Ursulines, Hotel-Dieu churches, the 
little Sillery church, that of Chateau-Richer, of Ste, Anvu 
du Petit Capy and that of St, Jean ^near the Coteau Ste. 
Genieve), at Quebec. The last two were built of wood, 
with stone foundations, the six others, of stone. Abbd 
de la Tour (i) states that the church of St. Joseph 
de Levi was erectfed in 1677, by the Abb^ Morel, 
its pastor, evidently the first temple of worship opened 

(\) Vie de Monseigneur Laval n. 170. 

- 109 — 

on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, one league 
below Quebec. A few years back, the ruins of a structure 
of some magnitude were unearthed, on the beach of St 
Joseph, in Charland's shipyard. Were they the remains of 
the first church ? Were they the sione foundations of Bis- 
sot's tannery, erected at the suggestion of intendant Talon ? 
or else the mouldering remains of the Manor of brave 
Seigneur Charest (alluded to in Panet's Diary of the Siege 
of 1759)? 

The church of 1677, Mr. Roy thinks, was the same as 
that destroyed by fire, on the 14th February, 1830 : the 
present church was erected on the site, the foundations 
extending but a few feet beyond. The old church was used 
as a place of worship, by all the settlers from Berthier (en 
bas) to St Jean Les Chaillons. 

We gradually follow the adventurous career of George 
Couture. No doubt, the. patriotic militia officer, like the 
bellicose, though sexagenarian Seigneur of Beaupost, Juche- 
reau de St. Denis (Duchesnay), kept his powder dry, burnt 
some in 1690, when Sir William Phips invaded Canada 
and landed detachments at Riviere-Ouelle, Pointe-de-Levi 
and Beauport^ The patriarchal clan of the Couture, at Levis, 
now 112 strong, coiid at present furnish, at least, two com- 
panies for such an emergency ! ! ! 

Mr. Roy occasionally indulges in some graceful word 

Easter Sunday, 1648, when the first mass was celebrated 
at Fqtnte-de-Levyy appears to have been a red letter day for 
the swarthy sons of the forest and their trusted ally, GuiU 
laume Couture. Let us hear his industrious biographer : 
" On the 1 2th April, 1648, the rare denizens of Quebec 
-who may have stood on Governor Montmagny's veranda (i) 

<1) The Dufferin Terrace aow occapies the east end of this spot. 

— 110 — 

to watch the Easter sun rise above the horizon, might have- 
noticed, under the Levy Heights, two canoes impelled by a 
dozen, vigorous oarsmen. The morning was bright, and 
the cool atmosphere seemed to call forth all the exertions 
of the canoemen. Below, some floating ice still flecked the 
rapid stream. The bows of the canoes were covered with 
raw sheep hides, as a protection against the inroads of the 
icy floes. 

The canoes after skirting for sometime the solitary beach 
opposite, all at once obeying a stroke of the paddles, 
ouched ground at an indentation in the shore, since honored 
with the poetical name of " Joliette's Hole." Scarcely had 
the strand been reached, when one of the inmates, a vigor- 
ous fellow, sprang ashore and offered his arm as a support, 
to a companion more aged, who carried, strapped to his 
shoulders, a heavy package. Immediately there issued from 
beneath the hoary pines, lining the bank, a group of Indians, 
and a report of musquetry reverberated from the neigh- 
boring heights. Where, then, were bound, this little band 
of voyageurs^ at early dawn, on a spring morning ? Were 
they a war party of ferocious Iroquois, bent on harrying the 
isolated settlements, on the Cote de Beaupr^, or at the 
Island of Orleans ? 

" Were these water conveyances the ordonnance pinnace 
sent from Quebec to greet His Excellency, Governor d*Ail- 
leboust, returning from France, or were they simply canoes 
bearing missionaries to the distant missions in the old settle- 
ment of Norembega ? 

The doubt was very soon ended. 

The man carrying the package wore a long black 
cassock ; it was Father Bailloquet, conveying his portable 
altar, and prepared to solemnize on the Easter morning, the 
first Mass, at Levis ; the musquets discharged were 3. feu de 
;oie, on the part of the Red Skins." 

We have seen Couture, the voyageur^ let us see the Judge. 
A Judge-Seneschal was an important personage under the 

— til — 

old r^ime. " The duties of a Seigniorial Judge " adds Mr« 
fiioy, '* were such that the office was no sinecure. He had to 
decide every kind of lawsuit, preside at inventories, seques- 
trate estates — ap^ser Us x^Z/r^^—dtscharge the duties of a 
modem coroner. " It is well kaown what a litigious spirit 
actuated our ancestors, so many of whom were of Norman 
descent ; as such, inclined to perpetuate the love of their fore»- 
fathers for litigation, (i) What other amusement could they 
indulge in during their long, idle winters? A searcher of the 
past furnishes a return for the jurisdiction of Quebec, of 434 
suits, originated from 26th September, 1663, to 23rd August, 
1664, in a population of about 1,500 souls; nearly one 
lawsuit to every four persons. 

Some of these legal battles, about precedence in the 
reception of the pain-bent and eau-benite by different 
classes of officials, &c., were fought to the bitter end, before 
the Judge, or the officials Couture laid aside his judicial 
functions to accept the office of Capiiaine de la Cote, com- 
mander of the militia ; as such, it was his prerogative to 
receive first from the Governor the public ordonnances, and 
proclamations, to have them read at the church door on 
Syndays, and then enforced. He also was charged with 
ordering the corvkes (forced labor), take the census, oversee 
work on public roads, convoke the meetings of settlers." A 
iiTorthy man was he, devoted to the service of his religion 
and his king ; companion of the martyr Jogues, comrade of 
Rend Goupil and Lalonde, he was the rival of Nicolet, the 
Indians bestowed upon him that name. If Quebec is proud 
of the probity, and of the devotion of such good men as 
Hebert and Couillard, its first inhabitants, one of the oldest 

{\y Mr. Roy in a note, recalls the rather profane adjuration with 
which, according to an old legend, the Normans w«re in the hatlt of 
closing at nighty the Lord's Prayer : Hon. DUu^ je ne loous demcmde 
pas de bierif metUz^moi geulement d, c6U d% quehju^un qui en posside. " I 
ask not for riches, Lord, let me merely be located clo^ to any one 
who possesses some. 

— 112 — 

parishes of the country, that of Pointe-de-Levis, is happy 
to be able to bring to the light of day, the name of Guillaume 
Couture, its first settler, first Judge-Seneschal, first Captain 
of Militia." The sturdy old colonist closed his useful- 
career, at an advanced age, at Levis, in 1702 ; doubtless he 
now sleeps the long sleep somewhere in God's Acre, in his 
flourishing old settlement. 

** Harlaka, — Beaumont, — St. Charles, — St. Valier, — 
St. Michel, — St. Thomas, — MorUmagny.^^ 

Harlaka ! such is the name painted on the St. Charles 
Railway station, at the junction of the Quebec Central, and 
Intercolonial Railways. Who can tell, what the railway 
magnate had in his mind, when he ordered this harsh, 
Indian word to be affixed over the door of the station ? A 
correspondent, signing Ladioton in the Levis newspapers, 
Le Quotidien, furnishes the following anent Harlaka : — 
** T?is an Abenaquis word, he says, and also the name of 
one of the remote villages in Levis : it meams * he who has 
succeeded in reaching a place ; ' this interpretation, we opine, 
leaves a wide margin to commentators. 

In 1682, Governor. La Barre, intent on protecting Quebec, 
against the inroads of the Iroquois, established on the shore 
of the Chaudiere, near the falls — ^about six miles from its 
mouth, an outpost of Abenaquis : the Marquise de Boichc 
paid the cost of this Indian mission. It was placed under 
the charge of the Jesuits, — had its church and a popula- 
tion of 1,000 souls, men, women and children. The Abena- 
quis had named it KikouteSaun, village of the river of the 
meadows ; the Jesuits called it after St. Fran9ois de Sales. 
It was deserted in 1702, by the Abenaquis, who settled at 
Becancour and Pierreville ; no traces of it now remains, 
but three villages in the back concessions still bear Indian 

— 113 — 

nahies : Toneata, Saras to and Harlaka, Sarasto was the 
ancient name of Saratoga in the United States \ Toneata 
was the well remembered cognomen of several islands under 
the French regime, in the neighborhood of Kingston. The 
orthography of Harlaka and Sarasto, is not yet well defined 
Some write Arlaca^ Orlaca^ Arlaqua^ Arlacet. Sarasto is 
occasionally transformed into Sorosto^ Sarasteau. Pious 
commentators have of late made it into Saint Rousteau. 
Respecting Saint Rousteau, asks La Patrie, which came 
from Sarasteau, where is the denizen of Beauce, who has 
not read in old notarial documents, Saint Igan^ for Sarti- 
gan, but the most apocrypt canonisation seems to have 
occurred in the Eastern Townships. There, Saint Folk for 
Stanfold ; Sainte Ivrognesse for Inverness ; Saint Morissettty 
for Somerset. 

♦ ♦ 

In 1853, there dawned for the Lower St. Lawrence a new 
era, the railway era : British enterprise, British capital per- 
sonified, in the grand old Railway Co., Jackson, Peto, 
Brassey and Betts, our first railway kings. 

What an inestimable boon this enterprising firm con* 
ferred on this northern region, by the introduction of the 
iron horse, as a locomotive agent ! 

What an element of expansion for the whole Province ! 
Who now cares to revert to the postal service in the 
old style, to our former mode of winter travel, relays 
of jaded horses, sweltering in August, under pyramids 
of mail bags, or plodding laboriously their way in 
winter through snow drifts from Quebec to Halifax* 
Instead of that household institution, the telephone, 
or the electric telegraph, flashing news from one hemis- 
phere to the other, Quebec had first a monthly, — 
subsequently, a bi-monthly service of sailing ships in summer. 

— 114 — 

and depended for tidings of the approach of the regular 
traders, iti their ascent up the St. Lawrence, on the appear- 
ance of the black balls, dangling each morning from the 
Citadel flag-staf!. 

Railways here, as elsewhere, portended a great awakening, 
welcome harbingers of a new life. 

One cherished institution, however, of the past, especially 
dear to winter travel through the Quebec parishes, disap- 
peared under the new r^-^w^, the cosy wayside inn. The way- 
side inn stood generally in the vicinity of the parish church ; 
a paying monopoly it was, in each village, guaranteed to its 
proprietor by Royal license, for the benefit of the public. 
There the Ciery pa/riots of 1837-38 — assembled to drink in 
bumpers *• Long life to Papineau " ; there, the election 
<:ommittees were formed ; there, the noisy maquignons met, 
to test on the Sunday, after vespers, the speed of their 
Norman trotters, or amblers. 

There, the belated traveller was sure to find a kind wel- 
come, a warm bed, ham and eggs ad libitum^ a foaming 
tankard of McCallum or Molson's XX — occasionally on 
bitter winter days, a refreshing cup of steaming, spiced 
^angreey and such sangree alas ! those prized creature com- 
forts have possibly disappeared for ever ! To the wayside 
licensed inn of other days, has succeeded, those odious 
frauds, the Hbtel de Temperance and the Repos des Vbya- 
^eurs, with their creaking sign boards ; a bastard outcome 
of our crude temperance legislation. To the unsuspecting 
wayfarer, a delusion and a snare. 


The belt of land in rear of the river settlements is not to 
be taken as a criterion of the quality of the soil, in an agri- 
cultural district. The railway company in quest of level 

— 115 — 

country for the construction of a line, naturally gave the 
preference, in order to save cost, in acquiring the right of 
i¥ay, to poor land provided it were easily graded. 

Beaumont is quite an old settlement, a portion was 
granted, on the 3rd Nov. 1672, by Intendant Talon, to Sieur 
des Islets de Beaumont ; another portion was conceded, on 
the loth April, 17 13, to Sieur Couillard de Beaumont, by 
the Marquis of Vaudreuil. Its church is ancient, and the 
ruins of the presbyt^re date back to 1722, or thereabout. 

The wheat fields of Beaumont had attracted attention 
early under French rule. Town Major Hughes Pean 
owned mills and land in this neighborhood in r758. Beau- 
mont was formerly famous for its eel, shad and sturgeon 
fisheries ; its proximity to Quebec, gave it the benefit of a 
daily city market for this important source of revenue. 

Saint Charles is a kind of second range, though thickly 

Saint Michel, one of the largest parishes of the County of 
Bellechasse, is seen standing out in bold relief from the 
deck of passing river craft ; amidst its neat, white dwellings 
which fringe the elevated river shore, peers its R. C. church, 
until lately, rich in sacred paintings, the greater part sent 
out from France, in 18x7, by the Abb^ Desjardins, of Paris, 
to his brother, also an abb^ and acting then as chaplain of 
the Hotcl-Dieu monastery at Quebec. Several of these 
pictures were the work of old masters : Murillo, Romanelly, 
Champagne, Boucher and others ; the church having been 
struck by the electric fluid, its valuable contents were con- 
sumed in less than one hour. A line of steamers touches 
<laily at the St. Michel pier ; many Quebecers take advan- 
tage of it to spend the hot season in this cool retreat. 

At St. Michel, was born on the 15th October, 1803, the 
Hon. Antoine Norbert Morin, one of the leading figures in 
our Parliamentary debates during the stormy days of 1837. 

— 116 — 

Mr. Morin was also one of the founders of the Minervc 
journal, at Montreal, in 1827, and jointly with the Hon. 
Louis-Joseph Papineau, was recognised as the father of the 
famous 92 Resolutions, in 1834, when the first break in the 
party took place by the secession of the Hon. John Neilson, 
of the Quebec Gazette^ and of Messrs. Cuvillier and Quesnd, 
of Montreal ; two years later, in 1836, another break hap- 
pened. Mr. Morin, after filling with acceptance the oflices 
of speaker of the House of Assembly, of Provincial Secre- 
tary, of Commissioner of Crown Lands, of Codifyer of our 
Laws, expired, an honored Judge of the Superior Court, at 
Ste. Adele, county of Terrebonne, on the 28th July, 1865. 
In a neighboring parish the inhabitants still |X>int out with 
pride, the Maple Grove hut, where the incorruptible 
patriot, hid, during the winter of 1837, to escape the court 
martials of the vieux brulot, — Sir John Col borne. 

The stern old Waterloo warrior had earned that nickname 
from the French - Canadian peasanty, from his ruthless 
manner of dealing with the disaffected parishes, on the river 
Chambly, where the houses and barns were burnt by his 
troDps indiscriminately. 

A peasant, each night, brought on snow shoes, food to the 
patriate Morin, in his solitary cabin, in the deep woods ; 
though a large reward was offered for his capture, there 
were none base enough to earn it. 

But the Intercolonial Express^ is hurrying us past the 
green woods, and fertile fields of St. Valier ; we just catch 
a glimpse of the Bois de Boulogne^ between Berthier and 
Montmagny, wherein on 24th June, 1837, the St. Jean- 
Baptiste Society, or rather the patriots of the adjacent 
parishes, had met to hear the dictator Papineau discourse 
on the wrongs of Canada, with entrancing eloquence. This 
takes us back half a century ; one may find in the Album du 
Touriste^ a narrative of the incident by an eye-witness ; let 
us quote freely from the same : ** A memorable festival was 

— 117 — 

indeed, says the author, the fHe St, Jtan-BapHste at St 
Thomas ! in 1837, with what flowing periods, did colonial 
grievances inspire the fiery orators 1 the cry, of course, was : 
" The grinding tyranny of England towards the French race 
in Canada, Its mfants du sol were little better than Russian 
serfs !" How eloquently Papineau expatiated on the sub- 
ject ? followed by Lafontaine, Tach^, Morin, Girouard, Le- 
toumeau ! such enthusiastic cheering from the smaller fry of 
patriotes: some on horseback, some on foot. After the 
lapse of half a century and when sober thought asserts its 
sway, some of the modes proposed to redress the grievances, 
do seem strange, and of more than doubtful efficacy to 
reduce to submission stubborn old England. The Cana- 
dian Militia armed with wooden cannon, rusty muskets and 
pitchforks, were to meet in battle array, England's disci- 
plined regiments led by Waterloo veterans : Sir John Col- 
borne, Sir James MacDonald. The firm resolve to refuse 
the use of all imported goods — the vow to wear nothing but 
home-spun coats, breeches and straw hats — the promise to 
abstain from all imported wines and spirits and drink noth- 
ing stronger than spruce beer ! ! ! How patriotic all this 
sounded in 1837 ! 

Alas ! how we must have degenerated ! The Canadian 
Demosthenes on his way to Elamouraska to visit a leading 
patriot, Jean-Baptiste Tach^, brother of the late Sir E.-P. 
Tache, stopped his carriage at the village school to receive 
an address. 

Half a century takes us back to the unregretted feudal 
tenure of land in Lower Canada, when the seigneur alone 
had the right to own pigeons — when all grain had to be 
ground and pay tithes to the banal mill — when sales of 
real estate were heavily handicapped by vexatious dues — 
droits de quint — de lods et ventes, — de retrait — all enforced, 
with the exception of the famous droit du seigneury which 
does not appear to have ever been exercised. The laird of 


— 118 — 

the Manor could also order a corvU — forced labor — when 
ike thought it prop>er. 

The last corvee^ ordered at St. Thomas, took place about 

■^35 ; Mr. J. Oliva, (i) ordered his retainers, to bring horse 

and sleigh in the woods, to draw the logs for his mill, to the 

river edge for the spring drive. Seigneur Oliva had for his 

-•successor a portly, jovial Englishman, by name William 

iRandall Patton. Seigneur Patton had but a qualified admi- 

Tation ifor the seigniorial tenure and vetoed corvkes. The 

genial seigneur expired in 1853. Haifa century back, there 

were yet extant in the country-parishes surrounding Quebec, 

what may be styled ofT-shoots of the French revolution of 

1789, professional men holding the free-thinking doctrines 

• of Voltaire, Diderot, Dalembert ; social levellers, haters of 

kings and priests. The spread of education, new currents 

of thought, and other causes have rid the country of these 


The leading spirit, at St. Thomas, during the insurrec- 
tionary period of 1837, was without doubt the popular 
village physician, Dr. Etienne-Paschal Tach^, born there 
on the 5 th September, 1795. 

Dr. Tach^ was a fiery, eloquent gentleman ; in a measure, 
^ self-made man, who had smelled gunpowder, on more 
than one Canadian battle-field, during, the war ol 181 2. As 
a Lieptenant in the Chasseurs CcMadUns^ he figures advan- 
tageously, at the disastrous battle of Plattsburg, where his 
^company alone lost eighteen men. At the union of the 
Provinces in 1841, Dr. Tach^ succeeded as member for the 
county of Llslet, his late friend Jean-Charles Letourneau, — 
a type in his way. Notary Letourneau was an educated. 

>(I ) Since these lines were penned, I have learned that the Laird 

«<tf the old Couillard Manor, at St. Thomas, was not the real Seigneur^ 

that the allcfdged cotvU, was intended merely to take advantage of 

the spring flood, in the RivUre du Sud, to float down the saw logs 

4or his mUl. 

— 119 — 

fSTofessional man of the old school, with a smack of Voltaire, 
at one time, in his social opinions; very French as to physique, 
?style of dress, oratory. He wore his hair, like his beloved 
niaster, Papineau, turned up in front en toupet ; a white 
cravat, a faultless, black-coat cut away tike a judge's, com- 
pleted the recherchie toilette of this antique^ sprightly village 

Dr. Tach^, from his earnest, fervid nature, would doubt- 
less have been dragged into the thick of the bloody miUe^ 
had he been a denizen of St. Eustache^ or St. Charles ; the 
extreme views of the Fils de la liberie^ in the Montreal 
district, would have carried the day with him ; Had lion- 
hearted Chenier, at the Church of St. Eustache, called out 
for a volunter to back him, Dr. Tach^, if there, would have 
been his man and yelled oiit " ready ". But distance from 
the arena of strife, as well as some of his surroundings at St. 
Thomas, helped to restrain him. The timely secession of 
the Quebec wing of politicians from the party bent on armed 
insurrection ; John Neilson and his colleagues, Cuvillier, 
Quesnel, in 1834, followed later on, in 1836, by another 
batch of patriots, R.-E. Caron, Hector-S. Huot, T.-C. Aylwin, 
Etienne Parent, Dunbar Ross, Ls. Fiset and others, saved 
in the end much effusion of blood in the Quebec district. 

St. Thomas, in 1837, had a species of club of enthusiastic 
patriots : Edouard and Stanislas Valine, Ls. Casault, J.-B. 
Fournier, Gilbert Lavergne, Prudent Tfitu, Ls. Blais and 
others — under the guidance of L^tourneau and Tach^, 
their oracles. 

Who could then have forseen that the fiery Doctor, by 
accepting, with Baldwin and Lafontaine, the concessions and 
^ew constitution, offered by England in 1840, should blos- 
som forth into a belted Knight, H. M's Aide-de-Camp, a 
Minister of the Crown, the President of the National San- 
hedrin, which gave us Confederation, — z. pink of loyalty, — 
the Parliamentary orator, who boldly proclaimed that the 

— 120 — 

*^ last gun fired on Canadian soil for the flag of England 
would be by a French Canadian. " 

One thing certain is that he was not thinking of that "gun*^ 
in 1837, if he thought at all of firearms, in that disturbed 
period; that when Police Magistrates Symes and Young: 
sent a posse of police to search the cellar of the Doctor,, 
during the insurrection, they where not in search of that 
famous gun of the future. However, they did find a gun in 
this dark abode, the toy cannon of the Doctor's little son, — 
now, our worthy Deputy Minister of Crown Lands. They did 
not, however, boast of their discovery. 

History has indeed some strange teachings. 

One of the most popular cries in 1837, among the en/ants: 
du sol was " Abat les Bureaucrata \ " " Down with the- 
holders of public offices ! " then monopolised by the British* 
family compact. This cry would fail to rouse much enthu- 
siasm among the enfants du sol to-day et pour cause ! 

Did the English element in 1837 ever really realize the 
nature of the issues debated in misruled Canada ? This is- 
very doubtful. It was npC in reality a feud of races a duel 
between French and English, though to rivet the attention 
of England, politicians strived to make it so in Lower 
Canada, whilst in Upper, this was not considered feasible. 

The leading changes advocated by Mr. Papineau have 
not, by any means, a French ring about them ; such, for 
instance, as the liberty of the press, abolishment of impri- 
sonment for debt, trial by jury, the control of public revenue 
and expenditure, independence of the judiciary, the abolish- 
ment of sinecures, of absenteeism, of pluralities of offices. 

The first speakers in our national Parliament, Papineau^ 
plre etfils^ knew something of the British constitution, and 
instead of looking to France for precedents and help 
they appealed to English precedents, to English liberty, ta 
the Anglo-Saxon neighboring commonwealth for sympathy 
and allies. 


— 121 — 

The most noticeable U. E. Loyalists of Quebec, from 
tBoo, had certainly much to do with the aggressive stand 
taken towards the French majority in Lower Canada, but 
the head and front, the " Fountain of power " as Robert 
Christie styles him— of the English party was not a U. E. 
Loyalist. The Hon. H.-Wistius Ryland, one of the most 
^* level heads " of the times, who had landed at Quebec 
with his protector Lord Dorchester, in 1795, was the secret 
guiding spirit for a quarter of a century, in Lower Canadian 
statecraft Had the insurrection in Lower Canada, in 1837, 
been a mere struggle of the Frerch element against the 
English, it could scarcely have enlisted from an adverse 
nationality as it did, such devoted partisans as Wolfred and 
Robert Nelson, Thomas-Storrow Brown, McDonald, W. 
Scott, Neil Scott, 0*Callaghap, Tracy, the fighting men of 
the period, whose opinions were in advance of those of 
John Neilson, Cuthbert, De Wilt, Leslie and others. 
Intense and protracted colonial misrule, intolerable abuses, 
kept up for the benefit of an exclusive party, to the 
prejudice of men of all nationalities in Canada, such was 
doubtless one of the moving causes, which stirred up the 
Canadian Hampdens of 1837, to join the French in the 
disproportionate struggle of that day. 

It is only necessary to refer to the public records of the 
time, to see that there were more than two parties in Lower 
Canada, seeking predominance and power. 

The GrevilU Memoirs^ Vol. Ill, P. 125, under date of 
20th December, 1835, make mention of a rather remarkable 
letter, addressed to Henry Taylor, of London, by Mr. T. 
Frederick Elliott, a nephew of Lord Minto, and secretary to 
the famous Gosford Commission, which letter Greville 
takes as constituting an excellent exposi of the political 
situation of Lower Canada. This epistle was submitted to 
the British Cabinet and seems to have attracted much atten- 
tion on their part. 

— 122 — 

It runs thus under date of 24th October, 1835, '* People- 
have been accustomed in England to hear of only two par- 
ties in Canada, the English and the French, but there are 
in fact three parties, the official, the English and the French, 
besides some important French classes, altogether distinct 
from the party which goes by that name. 

The official, or as the French term is Bureaucratic party^. 
is composed of a few old men, holding the highest offices- 
They seem to be fond of privileges, jealous of interference^ 
and ready to take offence at any inquiry into popular alle- 
gations . . . , 

Very different from this feeble corps, is the real '* English 
party." It is composed of all the merchants, with an admix- 
ture of considerable landholders, and some of the younger 
and more intelligent civil officers. It possesses much intel- 
ligence, much wealth and still more credit .... 

This imposing body, moreover, has great advantage at the 
present moment in the moderation of tone, which it can 
assume in contrast to the violence of its adversaries .... 

It is fully as ambitious of dominion as the French party, 
and, in my opinion, prepared to seek it by more unscrupu- 
lous means .... 

(Brymner's Report on Canadian archives, 1883, page 

But enou&;h for the present, of the lights and shadows of 
other days. 

Let us, from the railway step into one of these jaunty — 
eminently national vehicles — the buck-board drawn by a 
lively tnarche-donc / Ere the railway whistle shrieks, we have 
just time to take a peep at the sounding waterfall of the 
Riviere du Sud^ in the basin of St. Thomas, past the mossy 
old Patton Manor, as of yore, enzoned in majestic elms and 
grand old oaks : thence let us hie back, past convent, past 
school-houses and Court House, after getting a glimpse o£ 

— 123 — 

the turrets of the roomy Tach^ Mansion^ next to the former 
home of old Notary Letourneau. In rear of the handsome 
parish church, looms out the little rural cemetery, in which 
amidst many peaceful slumberers, stands forth the marble 
tablet, recording the private worth, and public service of 
Sir Etienne-Paschal Tachd, gathered to his fathers, full of 
years and honors in August, 1865, aged 70 years : the father 
of the settlement. 

The Hon. Louis-Joseph Papineau. 

One of the most conspicuous figures, now and hereafter,, 
in the annals of the Province of Quebec, will doubtless be 
that of the fiery spirit, who orifi:inated the insurrection of 
I S3 7. 1 find inserted in an old Diary of mine, a note recording 
my first glimpse of this famous agitator and eloquent states- 
man, Louis-Joseph Papineau ; it dates of my early youth — 
in 1837. 

Far be it from me to attempt to |X)rtray in extenso, the 
eminent statesman's parliamentary career — as his historian 
or biographer. This may be practicable, when a few decades 
have passed over and the embers of the political cauldron, 
so lively in 1837, shall have sufficiently cooled to be handled 
with safety or advantage ; let us wait until the contempo- 
raries of this stormy period have been gathered to their 
fathers ; let us possess in peace our minds, until the momen- 
tous changes, brought about in a great measure by the 
outbreak of 1837-8, have finally fruited. 

To some few, L-J. Papineau appears in no other light but 
that of an ignis Jatuus — a rabid, merciless demagogue, who 
had raised the whirlwind of popular frenzy, without the 
power to quell it, not even when his own head was at stake : 
a madman, who to oppose the mighty power of England*. 

— 124 — 

had nothing stronger at command than ' wooden cannon ' 
served by raw peasants, (i) 

To others, his career seems surrounded with the divine 
halo of patriotism : he was the Hberator of an oppressed 
nationaHty ; — the unrelenting foe to Colonial misrule. His 
memory will survive in imperishable lustre. 

Let us then be satisfied to wait until time and impartial 
history have pronounced their final, their irrevocable verdict. 

I have stated that the first view I had of the great Speaker 
of the Canadians' Commons, dated more than forty years 
back. vVhy was it so vivid ? Why did it leave such a 
lasting impress in the " haunted halls " of memory ? 

That Mr. Papineau had a remarkable physique : that he 
blended in his person the courteous demeanour, the lofty. 

(1) Neilflon's Qxu^ttec GfazUti for- 3Lst Nov., 1838, fumishes a fidr 
specimen of these bitter, and undignified revilings, pending this ta^ 
tricidal conflict. 

To lAie Editor of the Quebec Cfazette. 

Sift. — By letters of the 16th instant from Terrebonne, it is ascer- 
tained that all was then quiet there, though the Loyalists firom the 
knowledge of the fickleness of tneir neighlx)r8, were not without fear 
of a renewal of the attack on their persons and property. The report 
that the Honble Mr. McKensie and the Honble Mr. Masson had been 
made prisoners by the insurgents, turns out to be incorrect. Those 
gentlemen having had timely notice of the approach of the GK>th8 
and Vandals, to sack their beautiful village, fortified Mr. Masson's 
house, where they took refuge, accompanied by their families and li 
other loyalists — all determined to spill the last drop of their blood 
in their own defence. 

Thus garriftonned and resolved, this gallant little band was beseiged 
for a day and a night, by a party of upwards of 200 country clowns, 
decorated with bonnets rouges, armed with flails, pitchforks and nisty 
guns, loaded with marbles and commanded by a cow doctor— a half- 
starved country notary and a briefless lawyer. 

Altogether the scene seemed a burlesque upon warfare, a species of 
mummery got up to create alarm, in which the smell of tobacco 
and garlic predominated over that of gunpowder. At last, however, a 
parley took place between the besieged, and a motley group of the 
beseigers, who having obtained what they supposed, a redress of some 
imaginary grievance, dispersed peaceably to their respective homes 
to boast of their exploit en mangeant la soupe pour se fortifier Vestomac, 


Quebec, 20th November, 1838. 

— 125 — 

proud deportment of the ancient French seigneur^ with the 
fiery delivery of a modern French orateur parkmentaire^ ail 
who saw him, in the midst of debate, felt inclined to admit. 
He was scrupulously neat in his dress, even when an octo- 
genarian. He carried his well proportioned head, high ; 
his hair was cut rather short and terminated in an erect 
toupety well suited to his grave style of face : his coat, of 
black cloth with the petit collet^ resembled in cut, a Judge's 
coat. It may not be out of place to recall here the leading 
traits of his parliamentary career. 

Louis-Joseph Papineau, born in Montreal, in 1789, was 
the son of Joseph Papineau, for many years member for 
Montreal, a notary by profession, and highly distinguished 
for the simple but very effective style of his forensic oratory. 

Joseph was born in Montreal, in 1752. 

The young Louis-Joseph was educated at the Quebec 
Seminary, and had for class-mates, amongst others, the 
genial and talented author of the Canadians of Old. 
Philippe A. DeGasp^, Esq. : Mr. DeGaspe', in his Memoirs^ 
has recorded several interesting particulars of the studi- 
ousness, (i) wit, and eloquence of the budding statesman. 
Young Mr. Papineau's abilities had so impressed his friends, 
that he was returned to Parliament whilst yet a law student, 
in 1809, two years previous to his admission to the Bar : 
he represented the county of Kent — now the county of 

(1) L^O. David, in an interesting biographical sketch of the great 
^agitator, recalls a trait of his ready repartee, when a mere child. 
One day, Mr. Papineau, sr., had a numerous dinner party of gentle- 
men : Joseph-Louis drew near his father and took his seat, as was cus- 
tomary when there was no company present. 

His indulgent parent beckonned to him to go and sit at the next 
table laid out for the juveniles, adding << when you have beard on 
your chin, my boy, you may be allowed to sit at table with grown up 
persons.' a 

GrestfiUlen, LouifrJoseph, accordingly took a back seat. Just 
tiien the house cat, draw near his chair : he scared her off " saying " 
you, pussy, you have a beard, go to the next table : ^ the joke caused 
« hearty laugh all round. 

— V26 — 

Chambly — for twenty consecutive years, he represented io 
Parliament the west ward of Montreal. In 1812, although 
no lover of the British Government, true to his all^iance, 
he served as a captain in the militia, until 1815 : having to- 
escort to Montreal some American prisoners, he left the 
ranks aiul refiised to take his place, until the band of the 
escort had ceased playing ' Yankee Doodle ', in derision of 
the captives. Three years after his entrance in his legisla- 
tive halls, he was chosen as leader of the French Canadian 
opposition party, a position which he held until the insur- 
rection of 1837. For twenty years, from 181 7 to 1837, he 
was Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. In 1820, (i) he 
was elevated to a seat in ihe Legislative Council. In 1822, 
we find him selected in conjunction with the late Hon. 
John Neilson, as a delegate to proceed to England to oppose 
the Imperial plan for the union of Upper and Lower 

(1). An intelligent conrespondent calls our attention to a speech 
of the Hon. Loni^. Papineau daring the elections at Montreal, in 
1820, and fbrwaxds us a valuable extract — vainable because of the 
source from which it comes. The period at which Mr. Papineau 
delivered there sentiments was immediately after the death of George 
the Third ; but they are especially pertinent to the present time, 
when, as oar correspondent observes, there exists in this section of 
the Province a party usunliy styled " Young Canada," ardent admi- 
rers of the Government of France, and who, no doubt, imagine it 
would be a gn'eat blessing if these Provinces were under its paternal 
care. Having alluded to the generally prevailing sorrow of the people 
of Canada at the loss of their sovereign, Mr. Papineau continued : 
'< And how could it be otherwise, when each year of his long reign 
" has been marked by new favors bestowed on the country. To enu- 
" merate these, and to detail the history of this country for so many 
" years, would occupy more time than can be spared by those whom 
" I have the honor to address. Suffice it then, at a glance, to compare 
<' our present happy situation with that of our fathers on the eve of 
" the day, when George III became their legitimate monarch. Suffice 
<< it to recollect that under the French Government (internally and 
« externally arbitrary and oppressive) the interests of this country 
" have been more frequently neglected and maladministered than 
•< any other part of its dependencies. In its estimation, Canada seems 
« not to have been considered as a countrjr, which, from fertility of 
" soil, salubrity of climate, and extent of territory, might have been 
" the peaceful abode of a numerous and happy population ; but as & 

— 127 — 

Canada : a mission crowned with complete success, the 
obnoxious measure having been withdrawn. His share in 
the rebellion of 1837, we all know : he had to fly to the 
United States : and a price put on his head. 

In 1839, ^^ crossed the Atlantic and buried himself in 
seclusion, in the city of Paris, for eight years, with no other 
familiars but Lamennais, B^ranger, and a few other French 
master-minds. Through the exertions of his great adversary,. 
— Lafontaine, he was subsequently pardoned ; he received 
also through the same influence, ;^4,5oo arrears of his pay- 
as late Speaker. His thrilling accents were soon again 
heard in the legislative halls, but times and politics had 
changed : many of the reforms previously asked for had 
been granted : the great tribune found in 1847 the soil 
yielding under his feet : another master-spirit, (Sir) Louis- 
Hippolyte Lafontaine, had come to the front. 

" militaiy post, ^whose feeble garrison was condemDed to live in a. 
" state of perpetoal warfare and insecnrity, frequently suffering from 
« fismine, without trade, or with a trade monopolized by privileged 
" companies, public and private property often pillaged, and personal 
« liberty daily violated," 

After going on to speak of the transfer of the Province to George 
III, and to pay a well deserved compliment to that Monarch at the 
expense of Louis XV, he proceeds as follows : — 

*< From that day the reign of the law succeeded to that of violence — 
« from that day the treasures, the navy and ths armies of Great 
** Britain were mustered to afford us an invincible protection against 
** external danger ; from that day the better part of them laws became 
" ours, while our religion, property and the laws by which they were 
*< governed remain unaltered ; soon after are granted to us the privi- 
« leges of its free institutions, an infaillible pledge, when acted upon, 
" of our internal prosperity. Now religious toleration ; trial by jury, 
« that wisest of safeguards ever devised for the protection of inno- 
" cence *, security against arbitrary imprisonment bv the privileges 
" attached to the writ of habeas corpus ; legal and equal security 
'< afforded to all in their person, honor and property ; the right to 
«< obey no other laws, but those of our own making and choice, 
<' expressed through our representatives ; all these advantages have 
'< become our birthright, and shall, I hope, be the lasting inheritence 
** of our posterity." 

Such was the view taken of the position of Canada, so fax back aa 
X820, by this celebrated French Canadian. 

— t28 — 

One of the changes Mr. Papineau had so warmly advo- 
cated in i837,an elective Legislative Council, strange to say, 
found an echo later on. A brilliant constellation of youth- 
ful Montreal lawyers, the Dorion, Doutre, Papin, Labreche- 
Viger, Laberge, Laflamme and others, made it a plank of 
their platform in the Avenir newspaper. Mr. Papineau was 
the oracle — the high priest of this ardent, eloquent and 
patriotic band, who have lived mostly, all of them, to see 
themselves, released from the cold shades of opposi- 
tion in order to enjoy the highest offices in the gift of the 
Crown and people. The fiery statesman, withdrew for ever, 
in 1854, from the arena of politics : he was in the habit ot 
passing the winter season at Montreal, in the society of a 
few tried friends : the summer months he devoted to his 
family at his elegant Chateau^ Montebello, in his seigniory 
of La Petite Nation^ on the green banks of the Ottawa : 
here, amidst his plantations, his flowers, his birds and books, 
he found sincere fiiends, and trusty advisers, in those dear 
old authors, Montaigne, Seneca, Plutarch, Bacon, &c. ; of 
their intercourse, he never tired. Here, on one mellow day 
in September, 1871 (the 28th), at the ripe age of 83 years, 
"death released his noble spirit, not however with the usual 
accompaniment on his part of a son of Rome. Mr. Papi- 
neau, like Sainte Beuve, refused to see, in his last moments, 
the R. C. pastor, though his remains were placed by loving 
hands in a tomb in his own private chapel at Montebello, 
which chapel he had had consecrated by the R. C. autho- 
rities some years previous. 

The power wielded for a quarter of a century over the 
masses in Lower Canada, by Mr. Papineau, was something 
marvellous, though the influence his impassioned appeals 
exerted, may seem incredible to those who never witnessed 
the display. Mr. Papineau had unquestionably several of 
the attributes which Quintillian and others assign to the 
public speaker. His domestic life was spotless : his tastes 

— 129 — 

elevated — pure ; his education and fortune had opened out 
to him the choicest stores of learning : Vir probus dicendi 
perifus^ he certainly was. 

Was it then surprising if, at the peroration of a fiery 
onslaught on colonial abuses — or at the close of a scathing 
denunciation of the ostracism of his race, attempted by the 
grasping bureaucracy which then invaded every avenue ta 
preferment — or even, to justice, was it surprising to hear 
deafening cheers and frantic spectators, seizing hold of the 
fearless speaker and carrying him in triumph to his hotel, or 
his home? No parliamentary orator in the Province of 
Quebec ever struck so surely, so powerfully, the popular 
chord, as did this indefatigable champion of popular 
rights ?(i) 

In June, 1837, when I saw him first, he was in the zenith 
of his fame, though coming events were already looming 
out portentously. 

A split in the party of the patriots was at hand, the Hon. 
John Neilson and some others, had refused to abet armed 
resistance to British rule : in this they differed from the 
patriots of the Montreal district. 

A grand gathering of the NationcUitt Qanadienne was to 
take place on the 24th June, 1837, in a beautiful maple 
grove owned by Captain Faucher, at St Thomas : the festi* 
val, dear to all Canadians, the JF^te de la St Jean Baptiste, 
was to be solemnized here by all the " patriotes " of ever so 

(I) < I^' Bays his biographer, L.-O. David, < posterity, oblivious of 
his genius, ever dare to ask wfaiat Papineaa had done for hisooantiy, 
let his voice reply from his tomb : ^ Je vons ai fiut respecter, J'ai 
appris an monde que dans un coin de TAm^rique quelqnes milliers 
de Fran^ais, vaincus par les armes apr&s une lutte h^rolque, avaient 
sn anacfaer lenrs droits et leurs liberty des griffes de leurs vain- 
qneuTS. J^ai, pendant trente ans, guid6 mes com patriotes dans des 
combats qui ont faAt radmiration des nations ^trang^res, et j'ai appris 
k mes fiers conqu^rants quails ne pourraient jamais enchatner ma 
patrie.'' * 

— 130 — 

many counties, not only by the destruction of hundreds of 
lovely young maple trees as is now the unhallowed custom, 
but in a much more appropriate manner : by speeches, a 
banquet with — music — songs — a display of artillery and of 
cavalry. The Demosthenes of Parliament was to address 
the people, on their wrongs and the mode of redress, 
flanked by the f/ite of the House of Assembly, Sir E. P. 
Tachd (then Dr. E.-P. Tach^) his friend, Notary Jean- 
Charles L^tourneau, M. P. P., for Islet, Messrs. L.-H. La 
Fontaine, Girouard, Fortin, A.-N. Morin, cum multis aliis. 
The fire eaters of two or three counties met accordingly, 
.and what with oratory, mild punch, music and songs, the 
discharge of fowling pieces, and the presence of the best 
trotting horses of the three counties, mounted by warlike 
young peasants in neat white and grey uniforms with wreaths 
of maple leaves, the pageant was a memorable one, and very 
creditable to the enterprise of the " patriotes. " 

A full account is given by the Canadien newspaper of the 
.3rd July, 1837. Onc^ \\\^fete ended, the liberator in a 
showy carriage, followed by much uf the " rank and fashion " 
of the disaffected counties, was to drive all the way to 
Kamouraska, to visit an important personage of the day : 
J.-Bte. Tach^, brother to Sir E.-P. Tach^, whose services 
to Canada subsequently, invested him with a knighthood 
and the honorary title of aide-de-camp to the Queen. 

It was judged suitable that popular respect and ovations 
should attend the march of the Hon. Louis-J. Papineau, 
not only amongst grown up men ready to bleed for their 
■country, but even amongst prattling school-boys. Thus, was 
brought in, the parish school of St Thomas. It was so fated 
that in " jacket and frills " I found myself a juvenile 
inmate of this rustic academy. Our schoolmaster's name 
was Mercier. Dominie Mercier was no less celebrated for 
the zest and vigour with which he wielded the birch rod 
over the shoulders of his refractory subjects, than for his 

— 131 — 

•demonstrative patriotism amongst their fathers : he was 
^hat then was styled " un bon patriote, " ready to vote 
<iown at a moment's notice, the importation of any dutiable 
English goods : broadcloth, cutlery, tea, &c. (t) Mr. Mer- 
■cier was determined his school should offer ocular proof of 
the glowing patriotism, which, there bubbled up, like, from 
a fountain. The great statesman, Papineau, being pressed 
for time, could not stop, even to receive addresses : it was 
then decided by the Dominie, that an address, brief but 
gushing, should be delivered to the liberator, as the carriage 
rolled past the school, on its way to Kamouraska. To the 
tallest boy was allotted the envied honour of acting as 
spokesman. He, as well as his comrades, for the nonce had 
been suitably drilled in court etiquette : all the " hopefuls " 
were to stand in line on the road side, and when in presence 
of the carriage, the tallest was to advance three steps, right 
foot first, take off his cap, and deliver in a loud, measured 
voice the patriotic salutation or address : 

" Honneur et gloire au brave et gdndreux De'fenseur de 
nos droits ! 

Hourah ! Hourah ! ! Hourah ! ! ! " 

These three hourraHs were to be given with deafening 
cheers, all hats off ; so it was ordained, and so it was done. 
The defender of our rights gracefully bowed to us. As the 
tallest of the boys was your humble servant, the entry in 
this old diary may be relied on. 

(1) During this stormy period of 1837, some of the more entha- 
■siafltic patriots, in order to dry up England's revenue in the colony, 
had gone so fiir as to discard every article of raiment on which duty 
ipvas levied. A professional man, I knew, wore home spun breeches, 
coat ditto, a straw hat, a neck-tie ot Canadian linen and beef mocas- 
sins with the traditional round toes. 

— 132 — 

The Riviire du Sud and its tributary, the Bras St Ntco- 
laSy at Montmagny, are both spanned by two solid bridges 
for passengers and two railway bridges also. The next station 
is at Cap St. Ignace, a prosperous village of about i,8oo 
souls, with a point jutting out in the St. Lawrence, opposite 
Crane Island Manor — known as Le Petit Cap, Next comes 
Islet, an extensive village, facing the west end of Goose 
Island — renowned sporting grounds, both — the population 
of Crane and Goose Islands, may tot up to 850 ; on the 
first island, a handsome new church is just completed — 
and the second now belongs to the Hotel-Dieu Nuns of 
Quebec : to this fertile isle, the Granville legend lends a 
romantic interest. The hamlet of St. Jean Port-Joli and that 
of St Roch-des-Aulnaies, follow : in the pretty village of St. 
Jean-Port- Joli, is still extent the decayed old manor of its 
talented seigneur, Philippe-Aubert DeGasp^, who at the age 
of 77, all at once discovered he could write and that remark^ 
ably well — in proof whereof his, exquisite book " I>es 
Anciens Canadiens." 


Let us cast a rapid glance on the chief parishes, we shall 
meet on the lower St Lawrence, as the iron horse hurries 
us through. A public spirited pastor, Revd. Charles-F. 
Painchaud, has left at Ste. Anne de la Pocatibre a durable 
monument of his enlightened interest in this old, now 
populous settlement, conceded as a seigniory, by Intendant 
Talon, to Demoiselle Marie-Anne Juchereau, widowj of 
sieur de la Combe-Pocatibre, on the 29th October, 1672. 

In the year 1827, Curd Painchaud devoted his savings to 
founding a splendid college, for the higher branches of 

— 133 — 

.education. The institution, through successive bequests, 
has much extended the sphere of its usefulness. A hand- 
some chapel, vast wings, a model school of agriculture and 
farm have been added by other benefactors : Revd. Messrs. 
Proulx, Gauvreau, Pelletier, Pilote. An admirable site had 
been originally selected for this stately pile of buildings 
facing the St Lawrence, close to a lofty pine-crowned cape. 
The college numbers about 230 pupils and 30 professors ; 
Ste. Anne boasts of a weekly paper devoted to agriculture^ 
La Gazette des Campagnes, Revd. Messire Painchaud 
closed his career on the 9th February, 1838, and was 
buried at Crane Island, his native parish. I have published 
elsewhere the touching and eloquent letter received by this 
earnest missionary of progress, in 1827, from the illustrious 
Viscount De Chateaubriand, Vide Album du Touriste. 

Biviire OudUj the home of Ex. Chvemor LeMier and of 
the Rev. Abbi H.^R. Oasgrain, F. R. 8. C.—Tha 
porpaisea of RMire OuiUe. 

Rivibre Quelle, seventy-nine miles from Quebec, is a 
flourishing village — with a port for schooners ^ forming 
part of the populous county of Kamouraska, for a quarter 
of a century, famous as the arena of most turbulent election- 
eering campaigns. 

Here more than once, met at the hustings two sturdy 
champions — the Hon. Jean-Charles ChapgASf a conserva- 
tive, and the Hon. Luc Letellier de Saint-Just, a liberal — 
both Senators, the latter, as Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec, 
well remembered for the coup d*itat of 1878; and truly 
when they did meet, then began the tug of war. 

Governor Letellier's residence may yet be seen at a spot 
called Les Cdteaux, about a mile from the parish church* 


— 134 — 

There, devoted friends and loving relatives closed his eyes, 
in the welcome slumber of death on the 28th of January, 
1 88 1. One mile and more past the bridge, on the banks 
of the St. Lawrence, occurs a well-known landmark for 
mariners — a promontory projecting in the St. Lawrence, 
styled La Pointe de la Rivifere-Ouelle, during more than a 
century a busy fishing stand for the capture of the lordly 
porpoise, found there in droves during the summer months. 

Before describing this important industry, be it known 
that Rivi^re-Ouelle gave birth to one of the most indus- 
trious and brilliant members of the group of savants, and 
litteratiy selected by the Marquis of I>orne, in 1882, to con- 
stitute the Royal Society of Canada — the Rev. Abb^ 
Henri-Raymond Casgrain. Close to the parish church, on 
the river bank, still stands the antique manor of the respected 
Seigneur Casgrain, the father of two Abb^s.. a senator and 
a member of Dominion Parliament. 

Rivifere Quelle, sung in prose and verse by its gifted son, 
is known far and wide, as much for its weird, Indian legends 
as it was, until lately, from being the haunt and landing 
place /ar excellence of the white porpoises of the northern 
portion of this continent. 

A few years back, happening to visit my friend the Abb^, 
in his ancestral home, at Riviere Quelle, he gave me a full 
• account of the mode of capture of the porpoise, on the coast 
and kindly conducted me to the rocky shore, on which are 
visible to this day, the imprint of a man walking on snow 
shoes, referring me also to a paper he published on this 
subject, and a portion of which appeared in a condensed 
form in that standard Magazine of sport, Forest and 

It would appear that this branch of industry dates as far 
back as the end of the seventeenth century — 1680-1699 — 
when King Louis XIV granted M. de Vitry, a member of 

— 135 — 

The Sovereign Council of Quebec, authority to place nets at 
4his spot for the capture of the porpoise, together with a 
subsidy, "in rope oneor two inches thick, io,ooolbs. of cod 
line, " and what was still more handy, " 500 livres ** in hard 

Though the munificent grant was repeated for M. de Vitry, 
more than once, the venture failed. In 1705 another attempt 
was made ; since that date weir fisheries for porpoise have 
always continued in use at this locality. The first regular 
grant of the right to fish at the Pointe of Riviere Quelle, was 
registered by Intendant Raudot, on the 20th July, 1707, in 
favor of a co-partnership composed of six inhabitants — all 
neighbors, who were authorized to catch this unwieldy fish 
on the river frontage of their lands by the King of France, 
the seignior of the fief, le Sieur de Boisheberty consenting. 

The tenth part of the porpoise oil paid over to the seign- 
iors of Rivifere Quelle since 1748, is not a seigniorial due ; of 
the fishery right, droit depkhe^ in favor of the first occupants 
of the soil. It is a voluntary tribute, paid under a special 
agreement betw^n the tenants and Madame de Boishebert, 
the widow of the son of the first seigneur, M. de la Boutheil- 
lerie, in consideration of services rendered them by the said 
seignior in a contestation as to territorial limits, which had 
arisen between themselves, and the inhabitants of Ste. Anne, 
and also in consideration of a further promise on the seign- 
ior's part, to continue to help them. 

In June, 1752, Intendant Bigot published a singular 
ordonance, imposing heavy fines on any sportsman who 
^ould have the audacity to discharge his gun on the Point 
of Rivi^re-Quelle, and also on proprietors allowing their 
cattle to stray anywhere near the beach. The products of 
these fines was reversible to the church fund of the parish. 

On the 25th of January, 1798, Messrs. Lymburner and 
Crawford, two leading Lower Town (of Quebec) merchants 
of the day, took a lease of the Rivibre-Quelle porpoise 

— 136 — 

fishery. Instead of looking after this important undertaking 
Hiemselves, they intrusted it to careless agents, who, by 
their profuse expenditure, luxurious, or riotous mode of 
living, entailed on their employers, losses so great, that 
Lymburner and Crawford were glad to ask, in 1804, for a 
cancellation of the lease. 

Marvellous and endless were the stories related touching: 
the firm's magnificent mansion, on the wild-wooded, some 
said haunted, point of Rivi^re-Ouelle ; the spot was also a 
fiivorite resting place for the canoes of the numerous 
Indians then ascending, or descending the St. Lawrence. 
This, doubtless, gave rise to some of the most sensational 
legends of the locality ; but history also furnished its quota 
of stirring traditions during the sieges of 1690 and 1759. 

The oldest inhabitant could relate how some of the yawls- 
and pinnaces attached to Admiral Phip's fleet, in attempting 
to land at the point, in October, 1690, had sustained a 
withering fire from some unseen foes hid by the rocks on 
the shore — ^the youthful chasseurs of the parish, led on and 
placed in ambush by their warlike priest, *M. de Franche- 

Who has not also heard of the weird old picture so gush- 
ingly described by the Abb^ Casgrain, now existing in a 
lateral chapel of the parish church ? Though valueless as a 
work of art, it is a prized ex-voto, presented to the church by 
the son of a French officer, charged by the Governor of 
New France to carry despatches in the depth of winter, to 
the French posts on the Lower St. Lawrence. This youth 
had seen his aged parent succumb to the Vintry blast after 
losing, in an encounter with the Iroquois, his pocket compass 
and viewing his Indian guides shot down before his eyes ; 
the old warrior before expiring had made his son vow to 
present a picture to the first church he should meet, and he 
himself had been rescued from a most miserable death — 

— 137 — 

starvation in the woods— by a traveling missionary, passing 
by. How graphically all this is told by the abb^ ? 

" It was by mere chance," says Casgrain, " that the dis- 
covery was made how stakes could be utilized to arrest the 
progress of the gigantic fish — the porpoises." The apparatus 
is cotnposedofaweirof stakes from i8 to 20 feet long, planted 
about one foot apart in the mud, about one mile and a half 
from high-water mark and which is dry at low water. Each 
Spring 7,200 poles or stakes are used. Formerly these stakes 
were held together with ropes. The semi-circle forming the 
fishery is a mile and a third in length and ends in a curve, 
^vG acres from the extreme end of the Rivifere-Ouelle pointe. 
There lies the entrance, for the fish to come in, called 
racavc. The weir is built out between the 5th and 25th 
April, when the caplin and smelts come to spawn close in 
shore. The spawning takes place at the flood. The hour of 
flood for the porpoise is his dinner hour, when he gorges 
himself on caplin and smelts. A meager, famished creature 
on his arrival, he becomes, after eight or ten days feasting, 
bloated with fat even to eight inches thick. 

A wonderful gazzler he gets to be, with digestive powers 
which nothing can appal. 

Caplin and smelts are a sleep-producing food ; after a 
square meal on such, the porpoise naturally feels languid 
and sleepy, an easy prey to his captor. 

In the school of porpoises there occur some cunning 
veterans, which the fishermen style savants or coureurs dc 
loches. These sly old sea foxes have escaped from dangers 
innumerable, and can steer their way fearlessly through the 
stakes. Occasionally one may be seen stationed at the 
entrance of the fishery, warning his comrades to shun the 
treacherous stakes, and when they disregard his note of 
alarm, barring their passage. Should the giddy youths per- 
sist in entering, old reynard will show them how to creep 

— 138 — 

out of the stakes. These veterans can only be trapped whea 
a long course of over-feeding makes them fat, stolid and 

Nothing more striking than to yiratch from the point of 
Rivibre Quelle a drove of porpoises, on a calm summer day,, 
gulping down in myriads the small fish within a stone's 
throw from the beach, swimming in hundreds close to the 
surface and spouting from their air holes the briny surf^ 
which falls back, in the sun like a glittering shower of 
pearls, into the sea. 

It is while securing thus their prey, that the porpoises, 
heavy and sleepy, rush heedlessly into the fishery entrance. 
Once inside, instinct tells them to seek deep water ; they 
thus cross the fishery diagonally and meet the lofty stakes- 
which look to them like a wall, whose points, set in motion 
by the tide, scare them. They then retrace their course and 
seek to escape in deep water, but the excursion takes them 
back to what is known as the raccroc^ where the shallow 
water warns them of impending danger. They then appear 
dazed, and do not show themselves at the surface. 
After a few more attempts to escape, they seek the deepest 
water within the slakes, and swim round slowly ; this is 
called sounding. During all this time the tide is running 
out and the huge creatures — some of them 25ft. long — 
remain an easy prey to the harpooners. 

During the high tides porpoises occasionally drift ashore 
on the beach, but this does not happen during neap tides. As 
many as 500 have been formerly caught at one tide, and the 
catch of a season has reached the figure of 1,800. 

In 1867, ^o<> porpoise were killed in one night, this was 
considered remarkable ; harpoons and lances are used to 
despatch them. The harpoon has projections which open 
out, and the harpooner stands erect in the bow of his canoe 
or boat \ the fish when struck rushes away, along with the 


— 139 — 

boat, which is carried through the water with the velocity of 
an arrow. 

For some years past, the white porpoise seems to have 
deserted its old haunt at Rivibre-Ouelle ; by some the fre- 
quent noise of the passing steamers is assigned as a cause. 
They have been pretty plentiful this summer at the entrance 
of the Saguenay River, and on the north shore of the St. 
Lawrence — ^where they are not caught in weirs and har- 
pooned — but shot with a rifle from a boat and harpooned ; 
a doubtful process. 

Abb^ Casgrain pointed out the curious human foot-prints 
on the rock of the point, where also I saw the indenture 
and marks of snowshoes, in the solid shelving rocks; 
another fruitful subject of mysterious surmise for the legend- 
loving dwellers in Rivifere-Ouelle. " The foot prints of the 
d — 1, said one fisherman. " But why should Lucifer have 
left his warm home ? another replied, " to ramble in winter 
on snowshoes over the rocky shore. " Mystery ! mystery I 
but all in keeping with the weird and tragical legend of 
Madame Houel, the widow of M. Houel, a contrdleur-gineral^ 
under the French regime who gave his name to the parish, 
and furnished Abb^ Casgrain the frame work for his fasci- 
nating legend " La Jongleuse, " of which a short notice, 
from the " Maple Leaf, " published in New- York, may be 


Let us describe this famous old watering place, on the 
lower St Lawrence, five miles lower down than this back 
range, St. Paschal railway station. It was conceded on the 
14th July, 1674, toSieur de la Durantaye. A lineal descen- 
dant, seignior of the Kamouraska Isles, Sieur de la Duran- 
taye fell into the clutches of Major Robert Stobo, in the 
spring of 1759, when this brave but unscrupulous officer, 

— 140 — 

escaped from a Quebec prison, was on his way to join the 
English fleet at Louisbourg, aad returned with it to capture 

St Louis de Kamouraska possesses a handsome church 
and a convent. An Islet poet, Arthur Casgrain, in a humo- 
rous epic, has sang the ineffable charms of this favored 
land, opened up to the outer world by the construction of 
the Grand Trunk Railway, in 1855. 

Kamouraska its '' verdant isles like a handful of emeralds 
dropped by the angel of the sea, " — its soft, sandy beaches, 
its " graceful mermaids, " its shady groves, have during the 
leafy months, fired more than one son of Phoebus- Apollo. 
What an arcadian region from June to September ? To me, 
it recalls the poetie effusions of an esteemed confrirc^ A.-B. 
Houtier, F. R. S. C, whose lyre so tuneful in the hey-day 
of his youth, is now set aside for the grave ermine of the 
judge. " Kamouraska, says he, is a modern village. It has 
its hotels, its restaurants, its shops and its shop-keepers, its 
notaries, doctors, lawyers, its athletes ; alas ! its gin palaces 
and their inmates, its Fausts and Margueritas, its Romeos 
Apd Juliets, its Paris, its Menelas, its Helene ; it nearly had 
its Trojan war. A newspaper it has not, but some of its 
elder dames fill up its place advantageously." And next 
comes his graphic description of the Petit Cap^ to the north- 
east, " on whose base the billows of the St. Lawrence fret 
and whose spruce-crowned summit, give it the aspect of an 
old Druid with a thick head of hair. A sacred spot where 
the warblers of the grove congregate, as well as dreamers 
and lovers. What weird, romantic tales, could be heard 
here, had the wind-stirred trees, the gift of utterance ? " 

Amidst this delightful gossip, I could not help noticing a 
thoughtful look on the face of a fellow passenger sitting 
next to me. After a few seconds, he said sententiously : 
'^ Do you not think that for an unsophisticated bachelor, 
seeking health in such a seductive spa as Kamouraska, 
peril lurks, especially if he should be unfortunate enough 


— Ul — 

to be classed as to his means or expectations, as un Milord 

" True, " said I ; *• harken, however, to the philosophical 
maxims, recently promulgated by a French Sage of note, 
for the benefit of tourists in general and in particular for 
such a Telemachus as you make yourself out, travelling 
abroad without his mentor." 

M. Boucher de Perthes in his letter C X E V I thus 
admonishes youthful travellers : " As to love makmg, says 
he, you must abstain from it entirely. For your life, dare 
not wink m return to a girl, especially if she is pretty and 
young. There would of course be less danger, were she 
ugly, and still less, were she old But even when possessed 
of these two advantages, beware of her, unless you have 
made sure, that she has not a husband, nor a lover, nor a 
father, nor a mother, nor a brother, nor a sister, nor a niece, 
nor a cousin, nor ever heirs of whatever degree ; else, the 
least trouble which might befall you, might be the treat- 
ment inflicted on Heloise's lover — (Abelard) — and this 
might mar your matrimonial schemes ! " One more word 
anent the elysium of owx jeunesse doree^ before bidding it 

One of the most striking features m the landscape, is the 
<:luster of green isles, dear to pic-nic parties, facing the vil- 
lage, each having its history or legend : Martinique Island, 
Providence island, He Brdl^e, Crow Island, with the larg- 
est of the group, Grosse He, standing out with its beacon, 
a luminous sentinel, over its smaller sisters, during the 
silent watches of night. 

" From the river, the white village of Kamouraska might 
be taken," says a poet, " for a herd of sea gulls or swans, 
lighted on a point of land, or swimming in the surf, when 
the mirage lends its illusions to the scene." 

Sweet haven of delight during the dog days, adieu ! 
^dieu ! 



— 142 — 


Riviere du Loup^ an important centre of the Intercolonial 
and Temiscouata Railways, has of late years evoluted into 
the progressive town of Fraserville. Though its seignior is 
a Eraser and in addition, a public benefactor of the town, 
he was not The Eraser, on the memorable occasion, in i868|. 
when it was attempted to reconstruct this ancient and valiant 
Scottish clan, and to name provincial, county and parish 
chieftains. In 1868, the head chief The Eraser, was the 
Hon. John Eraser de Berry, L. C. Saint Marc, near Mon- 
treal and not Eraserville, enjoyed the honor of being the 
head-quarters of this eminent " 58th descendant of Jules de 
Berry, a rich and powerful lord, who gave a sumptuous feast 
to the Emperor Charlemagne and his numerous suite at his 
castle in Normandy, in the 8th century." The Saint Marc 
chieftain maintained that De Berry regaled Charlemagne 
with strawberries (/raises^ in the French language), and that 
the Emperor was so greatly pleased that he ordered that he 
should henceforth be know as Eraser de Berry and from 
him the Clan Eraser traces its descent. This pet scheme 
of the Hon. John Eraser de Berry, naturally called (i) forth 

(To the Editar of the Momiiig Chronicle.) 


(1) Sir, — I have been much gratified by your liberal and flattering 
notice of the late " gathering of the clans" at Mrs. Brown's Restau- 
rant. At the same time, 1 feel it my duty to supply an omission in 
your account of the proceedings, and also to bring proof of a feet of 
which you seem to entertain some doubt. 

It was decided at the meeting that the chiefs and others who 
should attend the gathering, in May . next, should be requested to 
appear in full Highland costume. During the discussion which arose 
on the subject, a proposal was made to have the kilts of itoffe du 

SzySf but this was immediately quashed by our worthy chief, who 
as ordered a web of the real clan tartan from the << land of the Gael, ^ 
so that he and the fifty-eighth descendant may make an imposing 
appearance on the eventful day. At the same times he strongly 

— 143 — 

a deal of curious and harmless banter in the English and 
French press. The numerous and very respectable Fraser 
clan in the Province of Quebec, having branched oflf into 
so many, so varied septs, some having quite forgotten the 
traditions of the land of the Gael — its national costume 

recommended the elansmen to learn the name of the aeveral portioned 
of their national costume, such as philibeg, sporan, claymore, Skene- 
dhu, AC., and to provide the articles required. All present agreed to 
follow his advice, with one exception, a modest man, who is ashamed 
to show his legs, and who swore, with emphatic nncri that he would 
wear his culaUes on the occasion. 

With reference to your implied doubt as to the lineal descent of 
our chief from Jules de Berry, I am happy to say that, I can bring 
unquestionable proof of the interesting foct. In a rare work, (whi^ 
may be found in the circulating library of the " Cercle liUeraire de St. 
SauveuTy^J entitled ; " ffigtoire du Clanne Fraisere depuis la creation," 
par Q. Fraisere. Farisy A. D. 1167, Tome 7, page 573, is an account 
of the identical banquet given to Charlemagne, by the nobleman 
above referred to. It was on this interesting occasion that the fomily 
received its name. The knight, on bend^ knee, presented a plate 
of strawberries to his guest, who, surprised at the pleasing incident, 
— ^for the fruit was not in season— exclaimed, (the Emperor's know- 
ledge of the French was limited,) Hallo 1 fr^iiaes, Sir de Berry I — and 
condescended to partake. After enjoying the lucious fruit, he ordered 
that to commemorate the event, his host should for the future bear 
the title of Fraisere jocularly adding (Charlemagne was fond of capi-^ 
tal jokes,) that no one could fail to see the derivation of his name, 
for he had it both in French and English — Fraiser de Berry It will 
thus be seen that our chief is not descended from a man of straw, 
! but from a man of draioberries. 

I The clan, however, existed long before this period. No reasonable 

! doubt can be entertained of their direct descent from one of the sons 

I of Noah, and perhaps they existed even before the deluge. Indeed, 

the rare work above mentioned gives in tome I, page 125, an affidavit 

from an eye witness, who deposed that he saw Japhet going into the 

I ark, carrying a large tin lx)x with a brass padlock, (Tiibal-Cain's 

patent, probably,) on which was inscribed in white letters "Papiers 

des Friseurs." These were no doubt, papers relating to the clan, 

I though some critics, (envious of our antiquity) insinuate that they 

were only Madame Japhet's curl-papers, stored away for use in the 

ark, and locked up to keep them from her quarrelsome sisters-in-law. 

I Again I thank your. Sir, and beg to inform you that whenever you 

I eall at my house, the bumper of Glenlivat is at your service. 

! L.-X. Eraser, 

Notaire gilie^ 

Quebec, 26th Feb., 1868. 

— 144 — 

and language, the idea had ultimately to be abandoned 
as impracticable. 

Fraserville, with its handsome new Roman Catholic 
temple of worship, ornate villas, prosperous store-keepers, 
numerous hotels, and increasing population, was well 
worthy of becoming the county town — a distinction, until 
recently, enjoyed by its rival, St. Louis de Kamouraska. 

At the roaring waterfall, close to the extensive Intercolo- 
nial Railway station, the stream rushes wildly over a cliff 
about 80 feet high, then pauses to rest in the deep pool 
below ere blending its dark waters with the St. Lawrence. 
Fraserville is the terminus of the Temiscouata Railway, (i) 
just now opened to traffic; a thriving new line 81 miles 
long, recently built from Riviere du Loup to Edmunston, 
N. B., to connect with the New Brunswick Railway, at 

It opens out the settlements and lumbering establish- 
ments on the Madawaska valley, skirting for twenty odd 
miles the shore of the picturesque Temiscouata Lake, the 
home of the Touladiy (Great Grey Trout) of the pointus^ 
{white fish) and of ordinary lake trout. 

The Temiscouata Lake, with its winding headlands, 
green slopes and deep ravines, bids fair to attract crowds 
of anglers, though the Touladi — which attain as much as 
15 lbs in weight — are caught chiefly with bait on night 
Hnes, or by trolling, at the mouths of the rivers which dis- 
charge in the lake : this fierce denizen of the liquid element 
is also captured on night lines in winter under the ice, in 
the lake. 

I saw some very fair specimens taken there, on 21st 
June last — when I visited Edmunston — a lovely village of 
Acadians on the Madawaska. Monsieur Hubert, the pro- 
prietor of the village hostelry, informed me that life had 

(1) Temiscouata, in Indian dialect << Winding Biver. " 


— 145 — 

not always been so easy at Edmunston ; that his great- 
grand father, one of Col. Lawrence exiles of Sept. 1755, had 
settled, here, bringing his family from Acadia, in his birch 
canoe and grinding the corn daily for its subsistence in a 
portable hand mill. 

On a height which commands the lake, stands old Fort 
Ingalls — to be fitted up — t'is said, as an hotel for tourists ; 
until 1850, it was garrisoned by 200 British soldiers. 

The principal settlement on the lake shore is Notre-Dame 
du Lac^ founded in 1861 — population about 300 souls. 

St Modeste, St. Fran9ois, St. Honor^, St. Louis, Fort 
Ingalls, Notre-Dame du Lac, Ste. Rose, St. Jacques, Otter- 
bum and Edmunston are the chief railway stations. 

Rivibre du I^oup with its sloping hills, dotted with villas, 
closed in by Pointe d Beaulieu^ and by the river pier, in the 
distance, appears with advantage from the village. Its former 
name, is said to have originated in the olden times, when 
the phocse, laups-tnarins^ were in the habit of congregating in 
large droves at its entrance in the St. Lawrence, making 
night hideous with their cries ; long since, they have 
changed their haunts. 


I can recall Cacouana, in 1854, when it was but an 
inconsiderable village, and when the want of a railway and 
a wharf compelled one to land in a small boat, whilst a hay 
cart and horse were driven in the surf to receive the 
baggage from the boat. It is now the Brighton and Biarrits 
of Canada, m much request by our rank apd fashion during 
the hot spell, from tropical June to cool September ; its 
capacious St. Lawrence Hall can accommodate 600 guests, 
and the smaller hotels and cottages of the peasantry, 
receive as many more travellers and pleasure-seekers. A 
number of Quebec and Montreal merchants and pro- 

— 146 — 

fessional men, have selected for themselves pleasant retreats, 
on the lofty bank skirting the highway, handy to the beach 
and sea-bathing. Lake Saint Simon, a few miles in rear, 
furnishes good sport to the angler, whilst riding, driving and 
pic-nics, &c., fill in the spare hours of leisure. A good beach, 
pure, cool air, brilliant northern scenery, grand river views 
from the heights and excellent railway accommodation : 
such are the specialities of Cacouna — 4j4 miles from the 
railway station. 


There is nothing very noteworthy about the parish of 
Jle Vette^ Green Island, which borrows its name from the 
-verdant isle facing the village. 


It leads to the extensive, old village of Trm Pistoles^ 
where the Intercolonial Railway passengers stop twenty 
minutes for lunch. The veterans of the Quebec Bar 
tell of a famous law suit, originated in this parish by 
a change having been made in the public road — which was 
laid out to r#n on the slope of a hill, instead of in an 
adjoining valley ; the residents above would have nothing 
to do with those living below, even in spiritual matters. 
Each portion had its Roman Catholic church for years. 
Better counsels at last prevailed, chiefly through the wise 
and conciliatory action of the Bishop : the lower church 
was ultimately closed, much to the regret of the Quebec 
limbs of the law. « 

What about the name ? 

" About the year 1700, according to a tradition in my 
family, said to me. Monsieur D* Amour, a descendant of 
the proud old seigniors, a fisher from France had established 
his hut on the rocky banks of the river. One day, a hunter 

— 147 — 

hailed him from the opposite shore, asking how much he 
"would charge to ferry him over. 

" Trots PistoleSy^ said the disciple of old Isaak, who was 
also the ferryman. 

— <* What name does that river go by?" asked the sportsman. 

** It has none as yet, but will be christened soon " replied 
he of the ferry. 

— " Call it Trois Pistoles^ my friend," said the hunter. 

" Such is the tradition current for more than a century in 
my family, " said Monsieur D'Amour, once the active 
caterer for the railway restaurant." 

Extensive lumber establishments, provided with rich 
timber limits, lately existed on this river. 

The train next stops at two small stations, St. Simon 
and St. Fabien. 


St Fabien is a succession of hills, with a very unin- 
teresting landscape, and a frugal, industrious and peaceful 
population. St Simon shut out from the river view, between 
two mountains, is monotonous in the extreme. The road 
runs at the bottom of a valley, with sloping pasture-lands 
and farms on each side, a distance of some six miles. Lake 
St. Simon, very accessible from Cacouna, behind St. Simon, 
nearly skirts the highway at St Fabien. We soon reached 
that picturesque and incomparable Bay of Bic, which made 
the divine Emily Montague, according to Mrs. Brooke, 
exclaim in 1767 " I wish I were Queen of Bic ! " Amidst 
these Alpine heights, the Intercolonial Railway runs ; at 
one spot, near Bic, the train glides along a mountain gorge 
two hundred feet in the air. Formerly the highway from St 
Simon to Bic, lay on the beach, at the base of stupendous 
cliffs, and was safe at low water only. Occasionally the 
waves washed over it at a great height ; incautious travellers 
have found there a watery grave. 

— 148 — 


Instead of a large village here, at the beginning of this 
century, there was scarcely one house to every nine miles of 
road. Tradition still points out the spot where a dreaded 
way side inn existed, kept by a repulsive old crone of the 
name of Petit. During winter storms, belated travellers 
seeking the shelter of Madame Petit's roof, in some instances 
were never heard of again. Dark and fearful were the tales 
circulated about Madame Petit 

Bic is called, in Jean Alphonse's Routier, Cap de Marbre: 
it went also by the name of Le Pic. Jacques Cartier, ia 
1535, named the harbor itself— ^/i?/ St/ean^ having entered 
it on the anniversary of the day on which John the Baptist 
was beheaded. Under French rule, the Baron d'Avaugour, 
in 1663, and the famous engineer Vauban, thirty years later^ 
had planned an important part to be played by Bic in the 
general system of defences contemplated to consolidate 
French power, in Canada. Quebec was then to receive 
most extensive fortifications. Bic was to be a harbor for 
the French men-of-war to be retained in these waters. It 
still cherishes fond hopes of becoming a winter harbor of 
refuge ; though the S,S. Persia^ Capt. Judkins, had a narrow 
escape from destruction and had to run for Halifax, leaving 
her boats behind when the remainder of the troops were 
disembarked at Bic in 1861, on landing English troop there 
in December, on account of the Trent embroglio. Bic is 
likely to play a part, in some of the wild and impracticable 
schemes put forth to navigate the St Lawrence, during the 
close season of winter. The seigniory of Bic was granted by- 
Count de Frontenac, 6th May, 1675, *^ Charles Denis de 
Vitr6, an ancestor of Denis de Vitr^, who was made to 
accompany the English fleet to Quebec, in 1759, as one of 
Admiral Saunder's pik)ts. 

— 149 — 

Bic Island, Biquet, Cap Enragt, lie BrOik, Cap h rOri-^ 
gnal and especially the cave of Islet au Massacre are fami* 
liar names to the coaster or mariner of the lower St Law- 
rence, in quest of a haven during our autumnal storms* 
Mr. J.-C. Tach^ has rescued, in the Sairtes CancuUennes^ the 
particulars of the great Indian Massacre, of which the cave 
was the theatre, in the remote days of New France. 


At the entrance of Bic harbor, there exists a small 
island. For a couple of centuries back it has been known 
as L Islet au Massacre^ Massacre Island. A deed of blood 
marks the spot. Tradition supplements several details, 
unknown to history, of the homble scene of yore enacted 
at Bic. Two hundred Micmac Indians were camping 
there for the night ; the canoes had been beached ; a 
neighboring recess or cavern in the lofty rocks which 
bound the coast offered an apparently secure asylum to the 
warriors, their squaws and papooses. Wrapped in sleep,, 
the redskins quietly awaited the return of day to resume 
their journey ; they slept, but not their lynx-eyed enemy, the 
Iroquois ; from afar, he had scented his prey. During the 
still hours of night, his silent steps had compassed the 
slumbering foe. Laden with birch-bark fagots and other 
combustible materials, the Iroquois noiselessly surround 
the cavern ; the ^Etgots are piled around it ; the torch 

Kohe / Kohe ! I Hark 1 the fiendish well-known war- 
whoop ! The Micmacs, terror stricken, seize their arms ; 
they prepare to sell dearly their lives, when the lambent 
flames and the scorching heat leave them but one alterna- 
tive, that of rushing from their lurking place. One egress 
alone remains ; wild despair steels their hearts ; men, 
women and children crowd through the narrow passage 


— 150 — 


amidst the flames ; at the same instant a shower of poisoned 
arrows decimates them ; the human hyena is on his prey. 
A few flourishes of the tomahawk from the Iroquois and the 
silence of death soon invades the narrow abode. Now for 
the trophies ; the scalping, it seems, took some time to be 
done effectually. History mentions bui^z'tf, out of the two 
hundred victims, who escaped with their lives. The blanched 
bones of the Micmac braves strewed the cavern, and could 
be seen until some years back. This dark deed, still vivid 
by tradition in the minds of the Ristigouche settlers, is 
mentioned in detail in Jacques Cartier's narrative., (i) 

. I detach the following from a former Diary. 

Bic, 28th February, 1883. 


" Chance made me to-day the witness of an occurrence 
which may, perhaps, be worthy of note. Yesterday a frail 
boat of only twelve feet keel, manned by two vigorous 
young Canadians, arrived at Bic, after a successful passage 
with oars alone from Mille Vaches on the north side. The 
distance is at least twenty-one miles. It is well known how 
choked the river is with ice in the month of February. *! 
questioned Mr. Napol6on Blanchet, one of those intrepid 
adventurers, as to the dangers of such a voyage. He replied 
as if the undertaking: was an ordinary occurence, and said 
that in the following week he intended to cross from 
the south side, at Portneuf to the north side, where the 
distance from shore to shore is still greater. " Are you not 
afraid, '' I asked him, *' of a snowstorm or a gale of wind, 
arising during so long a passage, and that your vessel may 
founder ? You have no sails, nothing; but simple oars to 
take yo'i across." He replied : " We select fair weather and 
leave the rest to Providence." 

(I) Jacques Oartier, second voyage, GL| IX. 

— 151 — 

What a true type, I said to myself, of the hardy Cana- 
^an of old 1 When D'lberville set out in April two 
centuries ago for Hudson's Bay, perhaps the forefather of 

Napoleon Blanchet was one of his party. At any rate, he 

ought to have been. 


Rimouski, one of the largest counties in the Dominion, 
extends from Bic, inclusive, to Cape Chatte and still further 
down, on the St. Lawrence, a distance of 150 miles Seven- 
teen parishes : St. Simon, St Mathieu, St. Fabien, St. Cecile 
du Bic, Town of St Germain, Parish of St. Germain, St. 
Blandine, St. Anaclet, St. Donate, Ste. Luce, Ste. Flavie, Ste. 
Angfele de Merici, St Octave de Metis, UAssomption, 
McNidei, St. Ulric, of which six or eight on the river banks, 
and the remainder in the interior, together with seven 
townships, Township of Matane, St. Jerome de Matane, 
Ste. Fdlicitd, Townships of Cherbourg, Dalibert, Romieu, 
constitute this extensive county. 

The counties in the province of Quebec, generally com- 
pnse from thirteen to fifteen parishes ; it is pleasant to fol- 
low here the onward march of progress for the last fifty 

The abolishing by the Hon. L.-T. Drummond, in 1854, 
of the feudal tenure^ in land ; the public security given to 
land titles by registry offices, founded in 1842, by Sir L.- 
H. Lafontaine; the decentralisation of justice, by Sir George, 
Ktienne Cartier, in 1857, who substituted to the five old 
judicial districts, Quebec, Three Rivers, Montreal, Gasp^ 
and St Francis, twenty-two new districts, providing each 
with a court house, a resident judge, a sheriff, prothonotary 
and local law officers ; but especially, the construction by 
English capitalists : Messrs. Jackson, Morton, Peto, Bras- 
:sey and Betts of the Grand Trunk railroad, supplemented 

— 152 — 

later on by its powerful auxiliary the Intercolonial railway^ 
built with Canadian money, which procured easy and cheap 
access, for the peasantry to our cities, and to the United 
States : such have been among the chief factors under our 
parliamentary leaders which have completed the general 
awakening of French Canada, inaugurated — it is true and 
to be regretted — with civic strife, by Louis- Joseph Papi- 
neau, in 1837, 

Later on, came the great constitutional compact and com- 
promise, entered in by our leading statesmen — the confe- 
deration of the several provinces into the Dominion of 
Canada which gave British Americai a status among nations^ 
and to each province, a new life. 

It were hard now to recognize in the flourishing new town 
of St. Germain, rejoicing in its district judge, bishop, cathe-- 
dral, colleges, convents, &c. — accessible by rail in six hours, 
travel from Levis — the puny parish of Rimouski of yore^ 
reached from Quebec, after a laborious week's journey, on^ 
miry roads or through January snow drifts. Truly, ought the 
year 1867, be marked in red letters, for the Rimouskites. 

The seigniory of Rimouski and Saint Barnab^ was con- 
ceded on the 24th April, 1688, by the Marquis de Denon* 
ville, to sieur de la Cordonnibre. It now belongs to the heirs 
Drapeau, represented by the Hon. Mr. Justice Ulric Tessier, 
who occupies the old seigniorial manor during the summer 
months ; there are several co-seigneurs. 

Rimouski, in verity, dates back to 170 1 : it was erected 
as a parish in 1835, and by act of Parliament, it was a year 
later, incorporated as a town, under the name of St. Germain 
de Rimouski. On the i6th May, 1867, it was created an 
episcopal see and Bishop Jean Langevin (previously Princi- 
pal of the Normal School, at Quebec) its first bishop, took 
possession of his diocese. It is the capital of the county of 
of the same name, with a population of a,ooo souls : its cathe- 
dral cost upwards of $50,000. 


— 133 — 

The Rimouski river, which rises in two considerable brani- 
ches in rear of the seigniory and falls into the St Lawrence^ 
is a good salmon stream. It is crossed at the west end of the 
village by a beautiful iron bridge, resting on four piers and 
two abutments. 

The scenery along the river is attractive. 

A wharf, three-quarters of a mile long, has been constructed 
by Government, about half way between Rimouski, and 
Father Point, so called after Rev. Father Henri Nouvel, 
who wintered there in 1663 ; there, the English mails are 
landed or taken on board the ocean steamers. A branch of 
the Intercolonial runs down to the wharf, so that no time is 
lost in despatching the mails or passengers, after the arrival 
of the steamer in the bay. 

Facing Rimouski, lies a low, deserted and wooded 
island, about a mile from the shore, with a channel nearly 
dry at low water ; it is a most effectual barrier against the 
swell of the gulf. St. Barnaby still bears the name, under 
which it was known, in 1629, to the Kirkes, when they 
rendezvoused there, on their expedition against Quebec. 
The island is three miles long. For years, it was the quiet 
home of a mysterious old hermit, Toussaint Cartier, by 
name, as appears by a notarial deed, executed in 1728, 
between him and seigneur Lepage, of Rimouski. " Many 
times," familiarly writes, Mr. Elzear Gauvreau, in a Rimouski 
journal, " La Voix du Golfe, my grand father Charles 
Lepage, spoke to me about the hermit, whom he had per- 
sonally known, and who used to relate how he had been 
shipwrecked on the island in 1723, and made a vow in 
consequence. He was very religious, and would spend 
hours in his oratory at prayers He used to shun the sight 
of women." 

The hermit died aged about sixty years, on 30th January, 
1767, as appears by the Rimouski church register, after 

— 154 — 

spending forty-three years, on this solitary isle. He had not 
always been a woman hater, if the author of the " History 
of Emily Montague, (i)" is to be credited. This curious old 
novel contains an interesting letter, addressed by Col. Rivers 
to the heroine of Mrs. Brooke's romance, dated 13th Oct- 
1766, explanatory of the cause of the seclusion, practised 
by Toussaint Cartier. 

Some of the adjoining parishes, Ste. Luce, Ste. Flavie^. 
Sandy Bay, Metis, Matane, nestle on sunny, deep bays, in. 
which a winding rivulet or rapid river discharges. 

At St. Octave de MAis, Sir George Stephens, the C. P. R. 
millionnaire has his sumptuous lodge, close to the Metis 
river, which he has acquired as a salmon fishing preserve. 

At Little Metis a curious spectacle greets the eye. An 
entire settlement of Scotchmen, imported from the Land 
O' Cakes, some sixty years ago, by the seignior of Metis,- 
the late Mr. McNider, numbering about 100 families. They 
have pushed their settlement as far back as the fifth range 
or concession. I was surprised to find they could support 
two churches of the Protestant faith, a Presbyterian and a 
Methodist Church. The children looked wdl clad, healthy 
and contented. I asked a wee lassie where she was bound 
for. " To meet my mither ayount the hills " she readily 
replied, with charming simplicity. The public road, for more 
than forty miles, runs level like a bowling green, on the 
edge of the broad St. Lawrence, so broad here, that the 
opposite shore cannot be seen, whilst the railway strikes 
across the lofty ridge towards the Metapedia valley. I have 
seen the picturesque scenery of Metis under many aspects. 
Long will I retain, however, the vivid impression it made 
on me, whilst travelling through, before the era of the 

(1) The History of Emily Montague — 4 volumes — London, 1 783. 
This curious ola novel, Uie first Canadian novel, was written at 
Siliery, near Quebec by Mrs. Francis Brooke, whose husband was^ 
Chaplain to the imperial forces. 


— 155 — 

Intercolonial railway, on the 15th November, 1868. With 
the first winter roads, the sky was bright, and frosty the 
air; amid the boom of the surf on the beach, the tinkle of 
our sleigh bells was scarcely audible. Merrily, we bowled 
along, in the s(^emn silence of a Sabbath afternoon, to 
where duty called. 

On our right stood the Metis kirk, lit up with the expiring 
rays of the setting sun, whilst a bevy of rosy-cheeked, 
youthful worshippers poured out of its portals, homeward 
bound ; and far away in the blue east, a mere speck on the 
bosom of the great river, a noble ship, the S, 5. JVestortan^ 
also homeward bound, carrying back our late Governor 
Lord Monck and his fortunes. One of those radiant sunsets 
with which autumn occasionally consoles us for the loss of 
summer, was pouring on the waters its gold and purple 
light, whilst a pair of hardy fishers were tugging lustily, at 
their oars to make the entrance of Metis Bay. What a scene 
for a painter ! 


" ! give me a cot in the valley I love 
And a trout fly on my summer hook." 

What vast progress has been made in the development 
of our fisheries ? how many instructive and entertaining 
books have been written on our salmon streams,and on pisci- 
culture, since the time, long ago, when a learned physician, 
Ur. Wm. Henry, Superintendent of Military Hospitals, in 
this Province, stationed at Quebec and Montreal, in 1828, 
described in detail in 1839, the trout and salmon fisheries 
of the rivers Jacques Cartier and Murray, in the county of 
Charlevoix. Indeed his work in two volumes, " Trifles 
from my Portfolioy^ stands in the eyes of the faithful disci- 
ples of Ausunius and of Columella, as a prized record of 
our early fishing days. 

— 156 — 

The sketches gathered together in the learned doctor's 
portfoh'o show not only the skilled angler, but also the 
charming conversationalist, the writer, elegant and even 
classical, the careful observer of nature, the great traveller, 
the social man and also the skill ful practitioner of his 
art ; one of the sketches exhibits him as one of the anato- 
mists appointed by the English Government to take part in 
the official autopsy of the body of Napoleon I, at St. Helena. 

The writings of Dr. Henrys, delightful volumes which 
amateurs now dispute over, have carried the fame of the 
Jacques Cartier as a fishing river to every quarter of the 
globe. We should not be surprised to learn that the 
renown of its rocky falls, of its rapids, the reputation of 
the Ranous SL/eatiy of the Grands Rets, were, thanks to 
him, known to the savage tribes of Central Africa ! 

The names of Henry and of his genial successor at the 
Jacques-Cartier, the late Charles Langevin, have been 
associated for half a century with this raging stream and 
with the neighborhjod of the bridge of Louis D^ry upon 
this river. Mr. R. Nettle has even taken the trouble to 
furnish a comparative table of the salmon scores of our 
excellent fellow-citizen from 1850 to 1856. Mr. Langevin 
has given his name to an artificial fiy, it seems, of wonderful 
efficacy in causing salmon to rise : the Langevin salmon fly ; 
and the name of Henry is still borne by one of the 
descendants of the former proprietors of the old D^ry 
bridge. I made this discovery in the following way : 

In August, 1883, with a youthful (i) Kinsman, I was des* 

' cending in a bark canoe one of the treacherous rapids of 

the great outlet of Lake St. John. Mr. Wm. Griffith, 

the owner of the celebrated fishing station on this rapid, 

had kindly granted a permit to my companion, who, in 

(1) The late Mr. AngustxiB Mazham, teller, in the Union Bank« 

— 157 — 

less than an hour, had filled the canoe with superb 
Wa-na-nich, weighing on an average 4 lbs each. The 
Wa-na-nich, called by the English, land-locked salmon, is 
extremely lively at this season, and takes any fly. I had 
the curiosity to ask of the old canoeman who managed our 
craft, his name and the place of his birth. " I am Henry 
D^ry ; I was born at Dory's Bridge on the Jacques-Cartier," 
he said, pushing up his red tuque and turning his quid. 
** Honord or Henri " said I, " which is your name ? ** Nei- 
ther one, I or the other, sir," he replied, " but Henry Ddry, 
My name is that of a benefactor of my family, Dr. Henry, 
whom you might have known in Quebec, perhaps, sixty 
years ago. He used to come salmon-fishing every summer 
to the Jacques Cartier River." 

" I knew him not, I replied, but I know of whom you 
** speak." 

There remains many other things to be said with regard to 
this facile writer, who, I believe, was the first to draw atten- 
tion to our salmon streams. I shall confine myself for the 
present to notice, as I go along, the interesting account found 
in his book, of a fishing trip which he made from Montreal 
to Mai Bay, in June, 1830, with a friend. Major Wingfield, 
of the Sixty-sixth Regiment. They seem both to have par- 
taken very heartily of the hospitality offered under the roof 
of Mr. Chaperon, which if I remember right, lies a little to 
the east of the Nairne Manor. Their guide was one Jean 
Gros ; Jean Gros having lost his paddle in a rapid at the 
head of the fall in the Mai Bay stream, they were nigh taking 
a cold bath in the river. A few emphatic oaths from the 
Doctor attracted the attention of some neighboring people, 
iwho threw planks and poles to ^e distressed mariners. The 
canoe reached the bank before it was caught by the rapids. 
The story of the sufferings, which the black flie, midge, 
and mosquitoe inflicted upon them is very amusing ; but a 
luminous ray soon came to brighten the overpowering gloom 

— 158 — 

This was the taking of five salmon, weighing 105 lbs., and o^ 
forty-eight trout, which averaged 3lbs. each. Dr. Henry and 
his companion sailed next, to Duck River and Black River, 
twenty miles lower down. 

Except a few articles in the newspapers and magazines, 
we meet with no treatises on our salmon and trout rivers 
between 1839 and 1858, barring a useful work on piscicul, 
ture and on the protection of our rivers, entited Salmon 
Fisheries of the St Lawrence by a respected teacher of 
Quebec, Mr. Richard Nettle, now an employee, at Ottawa, 
in the Inland Revenue Department Mr. Nettle, con- 
vinced that his tastes and his special knowledge might 
be utilized to the profit of his adopted country, put forth a 
volume which did so much to call public attention to a 
hitherto ignored source of revenue that the Government of 
the day, at the special instance, we are told, of His Excel- 
lency, Sir Edmund Walker Head, created the post of Super- 
intendent of Fisheries, of which Mr. Nettle became the first 
incumbent. Here, his labors, his love of angling, and his 
literary proclivities were of real service in the organization 
which Parliament, later, adopted. Mr. Nettle was one of 
the first among us to call attention to the success in pisci- 
culture attained in France by the pioneers in the discovery, 
two poor fishermen of the Vosges, Gehin and Rdmy, which 
success Mr. Coste later on developed in so lucid a manner. 
Mr. Nettle enumerated our salmon streams ; insisted 
on the importance of protecting fish and game in the spawn- 
ing and breeding season; gave plans of fishways to be 
erected in mill sluices ; furnishtd camparative tables of the 
yield of the most fruitful rivers of the Old World, protected 
and unprotected ; dilated at length on fishculture, which. 
Mr. Seth Green has so well carried on at his establishment 
at Mumford, in the State of New York. In short, the writ 

— 159 — 

Ings of Mr. Nettle were very acceptable to all friends of 
progress. Some obstructionists, it is true — the men of the 
nigogue (i) — in a word, the advocates of destruction of fisb 
at tytxy season, even that of spawning and reproduction, 
endeavored, but in vain, to trip him up. Nettle was destined 
to triumph and did. 

Later on, his name was enrolled by the side of that of 
Fortin,Cauchon, Sicotte, Mitchell, the patrons and promoters 
of our actual fishery organization. 

Aside from the excellent annual Reports submitted to the 
Legislature by the Hon. P. Fortin, during seventeen years 
commander of the Canadienne in the coast service, aside 
from Judge Routhier's little work " En Canot, " apart from 
some well-written pages in which the elegant pen of our 
friend A. N. Montpetit is revealed, Canadian literature 
contains no lengthy work in the French langu )ge upon the 
subject of our fisheries. It is to English writers of Canada 
and the United States that we owe a series of instructive 
and amusing works — some elaborately illustrated — upon 
our salmon rivers ; we propose to pass rapidly in review the 
most notable. 

In i860, the celebrated English house, Longman, Green^ 
Longman & Roberts, printed m London, kdition de luxe^ 
the volume Salmon Fishing in Canada^ by a resident 
with illustrations^ for Sir James-Edward Alexander, Colo- 
nel of the 14th Regiment. This officer, known to the literary 
world by his explorations in America, in Africa and else- 
where, a great lover of angling, had during his sojourn in 
Canada made the acquaintance of the Rev. Dr. William 
Agar Adamson, D. C. L. Almoner or Chaplain of the 
Legislative Assembly. Sir J. E. Alexander took charge of the 
publication of the journal, or notes on his fishing, which 

(1) The nigogite is the Indian name of the spear used to kill salmon 
by torchlight. 

— 160 «- 

had been prepared by Dr. Adamson. It is a work of nearly 
400 pages, illustrated by numerous wood cuts, beautified by 
vignettes representing sporting adventures sometimes bur- 
lesque, It comprises twenty four chapters, descriptive of 
jolly fishing excursions after salmon and salmon trout, on 
the eddies, in the rapids of the Saguenay and its tributaries, 
on the Escoumains, in the Petite Romaine, on the Sault 
au Mouton, at Portneuf and Bersiamites, on the Sheldrake, 
Godbout, Matane, Metis, Trinity, Pentecoste, Marguerite 
and Moisie rivers, without omitting a voyage to Labrador 
with some of the whalers of Gasp^ in search of whales ; the 
whole seasoned with scraps of poetry, with little poems 
improvised for the occasion, with anecdotes aglow with 
keen repartee and Attic salt. In this salmas:undi of 
salmon, we find a little of everythmg, even of music. Two 
annot^^ted Canadian songs precede the appendix, Moore's 
Boat Song of 1804, translated into French and set to music, 
and the touching complainte of the regretted Gerin Lajoie : 

" Un Oanadien errant 
Loin de Bes foyers. " 

The appendix contains documents, reports, and the 
following pieces, several of them of great importance : 

I. The memoir read by Dr. Adamson, before the Cana- 
dian Institute of Toronto, in 1858, and on which, later, 
was founded in great measure our legislation for the protec- 
tion and artificial propagation of salmon, ** On the Decrease, 
Restoration and Preservation of Salmon in Canada.'' 

II. " Observations on the Habits of the Salmon Family." 
By William Henry, Esq., M.D... Inspector General of 

III. " Fishing in New Brunswick and Canada." By 
Colonel Sir J. E. Alexander, F. R. G. S. and R. A. S., 14th 

— 161 -^ 

IV. Extract of the ** Report of Commissioner of Crown 
Lands, Canada, 1860." 

V. •* Salmon and Sea Trout Fisheries of Lower Canada.'^ 

VI. "Report of Crown Lands Department, Fisheries, 
1858." Hon. P.-M. Vankoughnet. 

Dr. Adamson's book, after a quarter of a century, con* 
tinues to delight amateurs, and sends us each season its 
quota of anglers. 

In the spring of 1863, I published, under the title " Lts 
FUhirits du Canada^*' a summary of certain studies, the 
work of leisure hours during the long winter evenings. The 
treatise was divided into two parts. In the first, I described 
the results obtained in the Old World by the method of fish* 
culture of Goldstein,already introduced in the Province since 
1858, but of which Gehin and Remy, the fishermen of the 
Vosges, became, without knowing it, the most illustnous 
apostles in France, and which a learned member of the 
Institute who was at the same time professor in the College 
of France, Mr. Coste, had had accepted by the French and 
several other governments since 1855, in a treatise (i) 
translated into almost all languages. This new method of 
propagating, restoring and protecting the fish in lakes and 
rivers, was followed by several sketches of trout lakes and 
salmon rivers, which I made known in detail to the amateur- 
anglers of Canada and the United States, inviting them to 
share our riches. 

The second part presented an historical review of our 
deep-sea fisheries, and suggested a number o& mend- 
ments and changes in the organization of our coast service, 
and in the legislation affecting the Canadian fisheries. Such 
as bounties, fishways for the salmon, compulsory mspection 

(1) Instroctions Prntiqnes sar la Piscicoltore. Beconde Mition. 
Paris. Librairie de Victor Masson, 1866 

— 162 — 

of the herring and fish oil, the fitting out of gunboats to 
protect our coast against poachers when ever the provisions 
of the treaty of 1818 should be fallen back on. 

I am happy to have seen several of my suggestions incor- 
porated in our statutes, and the cruisers, at the moment at 
which I write, are the order of the day. My little work 
procured for me the encouragement of the Prime Minister 
of the time, Hon. Mr. Sicotte, later known, from the legisla- 
tion which he procured to be enacted as " the Father of 
Fisheries." The Hon. Mr Cauchon, then in his palmy 
days, dedicated to me an extremely eulogistic article in the 
Journal de Quebec, But let us pass on. 

In 1862, a member of the New- York Bar, Robert-B. 
Roosevelt, son of Judge Roosevelt and author, among 
other works, of " Ganu Birds oftJu Norths " published at 
New York, under the nom de plume of ** Barnwell, " a 
useful treatise of 324 pages, under the title " Game Fish of 
the North. " Mr. Roosevelt, while describing in detail his 
favorite amusement, has made deep researches as to the 
different species of sea and river fish which he considers 
game fish. He discusses their specific characteristics, their 
habits, classification, the time of spawning and the methods 
of taking them, the material for, and the manner of pre- 
paring, the artificial fly ; the whole accompanied by agreeable 
reminiscences of his fishing in the New England States, in 
New Brunswick and in the Province of Quebec. His book 
is a useful and charming vade mecum for the anglers for 
trout and salmon. Mr. Roosevelt is a civilized man on his 
vacation, sighing for the solitude of the woods, of our lakes 
and of our salmon reaches. Happy Mr. Roosvelt ! 

In 1873, Harper Brothers, of New York, printed in an 
illustrated octavo volume, the numerous articles upon the 
trout and salmon lakes which the author, Charles Hallock, 
had scattered through the magazines and periodicals of the 
United States. This ardent sportsman, for a number of 


— 163 — 

years editor-in-chief of the weekly journal Forest and. 
Stream, a paper of wide circulation in the United States 
and Canada, had cast his fly over most of the northern 
rivers of the continent; no one, therefore, seems better 
authorized than he to treat of angling ex cathedrd. 

By his " Fishing Tourist," Mr. Hallock has done an inex- 
pressible service to the disciples of Izaak Walton. His 
'Guide Book embraces : i. Long Island. 2. The Adiron- 
dacks. 3. The Alleghanies. 4. New England. 5. The 
Schoodics. 6. Nova Scotia. 7. Cape Breton, 8. New 
Brunswick. 9. Baie des Chaleurs. 10. The Lower St. 
Lawrence. 11. The Saguenay. 12. Labrador and New- 
foundland. 13. Anticosti. 14. The Ottawa District. 15. 
The Superior Region. 16. The Michigan Peninsula. 17. 
The " Big Woods." 18. The Pacific Slope. 19. Bloom- 
ing Grove Park. 20. " Natural and Artificial Propagation," 
without taking into account a valuable study of the natural 
and artifical propagation of fish in the United States and 
among us. The programme is extensive, is it not ? and 
Canada comes in for a large share of it. 

Salmon ; trout, red, white, gray ; pike, barr, pickerel, 
whitefish, black bass, maskinonge, everything which brea- 
thes, moves, frisks in the liquid element, finds its place in 
his admirable list. 

Charles Hallock, the indefatigable Secretary of the Ang- 
ling Club — the Blooming [Grove] Park Association — will 
tell you in what month, at what date, at what hour of the 
day, be the weather clear or cloudy, the fish ought to bite ; 
what lure, what fiy will tempt it ; stating beforehand and 
^ith precision the fiy to be used ; the kind of canoe ; the 
guide whom you should choose ; without omitting the outfit 
for the trip ; the usefulness of canned provisions : lobster, 
sardines, ham, chicken ; specifics against the bites of the 
mosquitoe ; even to the necessary stimulants, tea, coffee ; 
prohibiting strictly the use of spirits in camp, and extolling 


— 164 — 

as a beverage the fresh water of the neighboring spring 
for he who desires to retain a stout arm, a strong leg, 
quick wits for a successful struggle with Salmo salar^ the 
valiant king of our rivers, rushing fresh from the depths of 
old ocean. 

To Hallock, one might imagine, was revealed his vocation 
as an angler, a little while after he had escaped from the 
arms of his nurse. This is how he paints the sunshine of 
his youth, the happy time when all within us sings : 

" It is now twenty-six years since I cast my first ily among 
the green hills of Hampshire county, Massachusetts. I was 
a stripling then, tall and active, with my young blood bound- 
ing through every vein, and revelling in the full promise of 
a hardy manhood. My whole time was passed out of doors. 
I scorned a bed in the summer months. My home was a 
tree-embowered shanty apart from the farm house, and 
crowning a knoll around whose base wound and tumbled a 
most delectable trout brook. Here was the primary school 
where I learned the first rudiments of a sportsman's educa* 
tion. In time I came to know every woodchuck hole in 
the township, and almost every red squirrel and chipmunk 
by sight ; every log where an old cock partridge drummed ; 
every crow's nest, and every hollow tree where a coon hid 
away. I heard Bob White whistle to his mate in June, and 
knew where to find his family when the young brood hatched 
out. I had pets of all kinds ; tame squirrels and crows^ 
hawks, owls and coons. All the live stock on the farm were 
my friends. I rode the cows from pasture, drove a cosset 
four-in-hand, jumped the donkey off the bridge to the detri- 
ment of both our necks, and even trained a heifer so that I 
could fire my shotgun at rest between her budding horns. 
I learned where to gather all the berries, roots, barks and 
' yarbs ' that grew in the woods ; and so unconsciously 
became a naturalist and an earnest student of botany. As 
to fishing, it was my passion. There were great lakes that 
reposed in the solitude of the woods, at whose outlets the 
hum and buzz of busy saw-mills were heard, and whose 
waters were filled with pickerel ; and, most glorious of all, 
there were mountain streams, foaming, purling, eddying 
and rippling with a life and a dash and a joyousness that 

— 165 — 

made our lives merrj, and filled our hearts to overflowing 
^ith pleasure." 

We need not be surprised if for this enfant terrible^ a 
suitable field was required for his devouring energy, nor 
that he found it in the stirring scenes of angling, as Lace- 
pede has it : 

'* Fishing with the line brings back to the child his 
sports ; to ripe age its leisure hours ; to old age its pleasures \ 
to the sensitive heart the brook close to the paternal roof; 
to the traveller, the busy repose of the people whose sweet 
quiet he has envied ; to the philosopher, the origin of the 

Frederick Tolfrey, of England, that dashing young Royal 
Engineer officer, whose rod and line wipped so many of 
our lakes and who enriched our sporting annals by his 
Sportsman in Canada^ published, in 2 vols, in London, in 

The Pleasures of Anglings by George Dawson. Sheldon 
& Co., New York, 1876. 

This is a charming volume, artistically illustrated, which 
the historiographer of a famous fishing party on the Casca- 
}>edia, George Dawson, of Albany, gave to the public 
ten years <ago. Mr. Dawson describes the rudiments of the 
ait, fishing with a worm, &c, which is, in his eyes, the 
prosaic part of his subject j then he serves us up a dish in 
his own style — ^Ambrosia — the poetic side of this incom- 
parable amusement. 

Angling has more than one smiling aspect. Let us not 
forget it. 

Here is one of the delicious chromos of angling as he 
understands it : 

*' It would be a great mistake, he says, to believe that 
fishing consists only in catching fish. The taking of the 
inhabitants of the streams and the rivers is indeed the 


— 161 — 

basis of the art ; but the soul, the spirit of the recreation, 
is found elsewhere. — 

" They are greatly in error who suppose that all there is of 
fishing is to fish, that is but the body of the art Its soul and 
spirit is in what the angler sees and feels ; in the murmur of 
the brook ; in the music of the birds ; in the simple beauty 
of the wild flowers which peer at him from every nook in 
the valley, and from every sunny spot on the hillside ; in the 
moss-covered rock ; in the ever-shifting sunshine and shadow, 
Which give ever-varying beauty to the sides and summits of 
the mountains ; in the bracing atmosphere which environs 
him ; in the odor of the pine and hemlock and spruce and 
cedar forests, which is sweeter to the senses of the true 
-woodsman than all the artificially compounded odors which 
impregnate the boudoirs of artificial life ; in the spray of the 
waterfall ; in the grace and curve and dash of the swift-rushing 
torrent ; in the whirl of the foaming eddy ; in the transparent 
depths of the shady pool where, in mid-summer, the speck- 
led trout and silver salmon " most do congregate ; " in the 
jevived appetite ; in the repose which comes to him while 
xeclining upon his sweet-smelling couch of hemlock boughs ; 
in the hush cf the woods where moon and stars shine in 
upon him through his open tent or bark-covered shanty ;in the 
morning-sonfl; of the robin ; in the rapid-coursing blood, 
quickened by the pure, unstinted mountain air which impart 
to the lungs the freshness and vigor of its own vitality ; in the 
crackling of the newly kindled camp-fire ; in th^ restored 
health, and in the one thousand other indescribable and 
delightful realities and recollections of the angler's camp life 
on lake or river during the season when it is right to go 
a-fishing. It is these, and not alone or chiefly the mere art 
of catching fish, which render the gentle art a source of 
-ever growing pleasure. '* 

For a lover of nature, for a skilled angler like Mr. Dawson, 
existence in the valley of the Grand Cascapedia must have 
l>een passing sweet, very full, surrounded as he was during 
€hts firit and memorable excursion by cnoice spirits and 
sympathetic fellow travellers. The morning call brought 
together in the same camp the eminent President of our 
Supreme Court, Chief Justice Ritchie ; the learned Chief 

— 167 — 

Justice of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, Judge Gray, 
tike friend oi Francis Parkman, a profound jurist, of magni- 
iicent presence, endowed with social qualities which made 
liim the idol of a numerous circle of friends, as Mr. Dawson 
likes to repeat ; of Col. D. Aichie Pell, of Staten Island, 
the bard of the trip ; of Mr. R.-G. Dunn, of New York, and 
finally of General Arthur, who later, was called to fill the 
iunctions of President of the United States. 

These men of science, study and business had their ren- 
dez-vous on the sweetly flowing banks of the Cascapedia, 
whose fishing privileges they had leas^ that year. This is 
only a small portion of the distinguished men, who have 
passed their vacations in this anglers paradise 

The pen and pencil of Chs. Lanman, has immortalised 
more than one Canadian Salmon pool and trout stream. 

Sport with Gun and Rod in American Woods and Waters^ 
edited by Prof. Alfred-M. Mayer, New York, The Century 
Co., 1883. 

The American Salmon Fisherman^ Hy.-P. Wells, 1886. 

Geo.-M. Fairchilds, jr., New York, has also contributed 
some excellent sporting sketches^ in Forest and Stream^ 
Outings &'c.^ these old favorites of the sporting craft. 

The journey from Quebec to the salmons streams in the 
Bay of Chaleurs is made with a speed and an amount of 
comfort which leaves nothing to be desired. One travels 
from Levis to Dalhousie by the Pullman cars of the Inter 
colonial R. R. ; from Dalhousie to Paspebiac, New Rich- 
mond, Gasp^, &c., in the steamer Admiral, commanded 
by the excellent Captain Dugal, a thorough seaman. 

If salmon and trout angling in Canada gives unutterable 

— 168 — 

delight to amateurs, it has also its utilitarian aspect for the 
economist. Our salmon rivers must number more than sixty ^ 
Canadian lakes and trout streams — especially since the 
opening of the new railway leading to Lake St. John — 
are counted by hundreds. Our rich neighbors of the United 
States have nothing like it A kindly Providence seems to 
have almost given us a monopoly of this wealth. It is for 
us to use it to the best advantage. Let us protect and 
make known far and wide our salmon rivers, rich sources 
indeed of revenue for the public domain. 

In 1863 we pointed out to amateur anglers in the little 
treatise, " Les Pickeries du Canada^^ our salmon streams as 
follows : 

North shore of Lower St. Lawrence 

Esquimau. — A stream which formerly furnished 52,000 
salmon annually. 

Corkewetpeeche. — Near the preceding, good number of 

St Augustine. — Equally full of fish. 

Sheeps Bay. — Good salmon station. 

Little Meccatina. — Fine salmon river. 

Netagami. — Deep stream with fiaills ; trout in abundance ; 
salmon go up as far as the falls. 

Napetiteepe. — Empties into a large bay ; salmon abound 

Etamami. — Celebrated for its salmon. 

Coacoacho. — Empties into a fine basin ; good for salmon. 

La Romaine. — Large river, but not deep ; filled with 
silver trout of an exquisite flavor. 

Musquarro. — Rapid stream, steep ; good for fly or nets. 

Kegashka. — Salmon abound in the bay ; the rapids pre- 
vent their ascent. 

— 169 — 

Grand Natashquam. — Famous stream, filled with the 
finest kind of salmon. 

Agwanish. — North-east boundary of the Seigniory of Min- 
g^n ; large stream, full ot fish. 

Pashashieboo. — Of moderate size, and contains some fish, 

Mingan. — Good for nets and fly ; the basin always con- 
tains large salmon. 

Le Manitou. — Branch of the river Mingan, ^ually well 
known and full of fish. 

St. John. — Large river, excellent for salmon, 

Le Ruisseau k la Pie. — Small rapid stream well stocked 

Sawbill. — Large stream. Nets are set there. 

Le Manitou. — A perpendicular fall obstructs its entrance^ 
Trout and salmon collect at its mouth. 

Moisie. — Renowned for its large salmon. Good for fish- 
ing with nets or fly. 

Lower Ste. Marguerite.' — Swarming with salmon and trout 
Pentecoste. — Deep, rapid brook. Its mouth is full of set 

Bay of Trinity. — A favorite station for those who fish 
-with fly or net. 

Godbout — A stream whose fame has extended far and 
wide. The net fisheries in this stream are very profitable. 

English River. — Empties into a deep bay. Salmon and 
trout abound there. 

Bersiamites. — A large river with many branches. The 
scenery is fine. Filled with large trout. They rise to the fly 
only on the branches. 

Nipimewecawnan. — A tributary of the Bersiamites. A 
fairy-like brook with cascades. An earthly paradise for those 
who fish with the fly. 

— 170 — 

La Jeremie. — Small trout are caught here | fur trading: 


Les Colombiers, as far as Plover and White Rivers, — 
are good for salmon. 

Laval. — ^Very picturesque water course, interrupted by 
little rapids and narrow and deep basins. 

Portneuf. — Nice fly-fishing for trout as far as the first 
fall ; the salmon go higher ; nets are set as far up as the 
tide is felt. 

Le Sault au Cochon. — The falls are so high that they 
prevent the ascent of the salmon. Filled with trout 

Le Grand Escoumain. — Celebrated in the past for its- 
salmon. The milldam has a fishway. The bay is filled 
with salmon, which are taken with nets. 

Les Grandes Bergeronnes. — Pretty good for salmon and 
trout. The two rivers are but a few miles from Saguenay 
and Tadousac. 


Ste. Marguente (Upper). — Principal branch of the Sague- 
nay. Trout and salmon in abundance. They are taken, 
with fly and net 

Little Saguenay. — Quite a considerable river. Fishing 
with line and net. 

St. John (Upper). — The same as last 


Black or Salmon River. — Formerly full of fish. 

. Murray. — ^Waters a superb valley. Salmon aie taken. 

- Du GoufFre. — Much deteriorated. 

Ste. Anne. — A pretty stream. Recently the salmon fishing 
has been below the fall. 

- 171 — 

Montmorenci. — Has a cataract at it$ mouth. Toward its 
source in the basin below the £all, it afTords fair trout 

Jacques Cartier. — Celebrated small salmon river. 


Rivibre du Sud. — Montmagny. Promised to become} 
Fe-stocked with salmon. (A fallacious hope.) 

Rivi^re-Ouelle. — Abundance of salmon. The dam is 
broken down (1863). 

Grand Metis. — A large river with a dam. 

Matane. — Beautiful salmon stream. 

* Ste. Anne. — Formerly abounded in fish. 

Mont Louis. — Important stream. Better thought o£ 
recently for its sea trout than for its salmon. 

Madeleine. — Clear ; good for salmon. 

Dartmouth. — ^A large river which empties into the Basin 
of Gaspd. Salmon there, in abundance. 

York. — The same as above. 

St John (of the South). — Same. 

Grand River. — Stocked with salmon. Turns a mill. 

Grand Pabos. — Salmon stream. 


Grande Bonaventure. — A great river with several impoiv 
tant tributaries. Salmon abound there. 

Cascapedia. — The Great and Little Cascapedia supply ^ 
quantity of salmon, — a choice fishing station. 

New River. . The bay is good for salmon fishing. 

— 172 — 

Ristigouche. — A noble stream, with magnificent tributa* 
ries, situated at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs. Fre« 
quented by thousands of salmon. 

Matapedia. — Branch of the Ristigouche. The salmon go 
up it nearly forty miles. 

Mistouche. — Branch of the Ristigouche. Salmon river. 

Tide is felt in nearly all of these rivers. Those on the 
north side of the stream (Ristigouche) flow through grand 
and picturesque rocks. Nearly all are fed by lakes. 

The following extracts from the New- York Herald^ for 
May last, sums up tolerably well, salmon fishing in the Pro- 
vince of Quebec. 

" As salmon is the king of fish, so salmon fishing is the 
king of sports. The sport bears the stamp of royal approval, 
for did not the Prince of Wales visit the Metapedia when 
in America in i860, and do not the Indian guides point 
out to-day with patriotic pride the Prince's pool ? " 


Lord Dufferin, when he arrived in Canada, as soon as his 
official inauguration was over, repaired to the same spot, and 
burlt himself a cottage on Tadoussac Bay, now the property 
of Sir Roderick Cameron, of New-York. The Marquis of 
Lome and the Princess Louise, during their stay in Canada, 
also made it an invariable rule to spend several weeks in 
this paradise of Nature, and in spite of other engagements 
always made it a point to fish the vice-regal river, the Grand 
Cascapedia, for which each Governor-General pays an 
annual rent to the Province of Quebec of $500. The 

— 173 — 

Marquis of Lansdowne and his successor, the present Vice- 
roy, Lord Stanley, have followed the example set them, (i) 

It is not, however, the royal and noble patronage of the 
salmon fisheries that have given them their fame. Rather 

(1^ I am enabled, thanks to the Hon. H.^. Anson, A. B. 0., to 
fbrnuh an analysis of the score of flsh oanght by EUs Excellency, 
Lord Lansdowne's party, at the Gascapedia River, during the summer 
of 1887. 


" Fish caught by His Excellency the Marquis of Lansdowne's 

party, from the 26th June, 1887 : 
330 salmon weighing 7,277) lbs. Averaging 22} lbs. 56 salmon 

over 30 lbs. Largest 41 lbs. Smallest 4 lbs. 

Through the kindness of His Excellency Lord Stanley of Preston, 

I am also in a position to Aimish an extract firom the list of the 

salmon caught by his party, in the Great Gascapedia, during the 

season of 1888. 

« The Great Gascapedia Biver was fished in July, 1888, by His 

Excellency, Lord Stanley of Preston, and party : 
Gapt. Joceline Bagot 

A.-H. McMahon, A. D. G., Grenadiers Guard 
The Hon. Victor Stanley, B. N., and also by 

Her Excellency 1 Days fishing • 1 fish 

Mrs. Bagot 4 ** 6 »' 

HissLyster 1 " 1 " 

MissBarrett 1 '• 1 « 

Mr. Campbell 6 " 6 " 

His Excellency, 35 fish— 13 days fishing— 24.7 lbs 

Gapt. Bagot, 89 fish and 1 grilse— largest fish, 43 lbs— 21 days 

A.-H. McMahon, 35 fish " 39 '' 16 « 

Hon. Victor Stanley, 63 fish ". 39 J< 17 " 


Sir John Bose, July Uth to 28th, 20 fish 
Golonel Lane, " 11th to 18th, 13 << 
E. Jenkins, Esq " llth to 28th, 30 " 

Total number of fish, 300— Total weight, 7,692 lbs— Average, 
26.6 lbs 

Beet Pools — Almond's 34 

Big Gamp 31 

Limestone 28 

Ledge 27 

Parson's 24 

Lasy Bogan 17 

Bock 17 

Gaptain's 16 

Tent 14 

Big Pico 14 — 29 Pools in alL 

— 174 — 

has it been the sinnual influx of American visitors which has 
caused the opening of the season to be eagerly awaited id 
New-York and Boston, Chicago and St. Louis. To these 
anxious watchers the news that the season is unusually well 
advanced this year, that the fish are numerous and in first 
class condition, and that the prospects were never better 
than now will be welcome. 


" Billy Florence, the actor, is one of the most notable of 
these visitors. President Arthur, in his lifetime, was another, 
and the membership rolls of the fishing clubs down below, 
contain the names of men who are best known as busy 
workers in busy Gotham. 

" The only way of reaching the salmon country is by the 
Intercolonial Railway, and from Rimouski, to its entrance to 
New-Brunwick, the line is dotted with stations, which seem 
to be especially built for the reception of the fishermen. At 
Rimouski the sportsmen begin to leave the train, and those 
who have not been fortunate enough to secure one of the 
largest rivers, step off to try their luck in the numberless 
smaller ones. Twenty-five miles travel in a canoe up the 
Rimouski River brings one, after a more or less heavy por- 
tage, to Lake Quatawamkedgick, and thence-forward the 
fisherman is happy. 

" The Mic-Mac Club have their station on the Rimouski, 
and although not so lucky as some of the other parties, they 
have a reputation for big catches. Its membership is com- 
posed wholly of Westerners, J,-L. Hugh, of Chicago, and E.- 
T. Allen and C.-B. Byfnham, of St. Louis, being its chief 

" Further on down the railway is Little Metis, a village of 
some importance as a signal station for the vessels navigat- 
ing the St. Lawrence, and. hQi:e,.top, with little trouble, the 

— 175 — 

Salmon angler can obtain his heart's desire. The best spot 
of all, however, is Metapedia — Ceder Hall is the railway 
station — and here is the lake of the Metapedia Salmon 
Club, one of the richest organizations in the whole district. 
Its membership includes such names as Dr. T. Warden, J.» 
H. de Mott, J.-L. Cadwallader and John-G. Heckscher, of 
New York, Metapedia, in Algonquin, means musical 
waters, and here, in the midst of one of the most romantic 
regions of Canada, do staid brokers and business men come 
to recuperate. 


" The Metapedia has over two hundred rapids, now swift 
and deep, now gently rippling over golden gravel and silver 
sands. Here and there are deep pools in which are salmon 
of astonishing size. For early fishing the Metapedia has 
especial fame, and it was at the junction of the Causapscal 
that Princess l^uise landed a forty pounder in 1879. 

Sir George Stephen, the ex-president of the Canadian 
Pacific Railroad, controls three of the best rivers, and 
again this season will have General Sir John McNeil, V. 
C, and General Sir Donald Stewart, of the British army, as 
his guests. 

The Ristigouche Salmon Club, whose grounds are at 
the junction of the Metapedia with the Ristigouche, go in 
for style. 


" They have the finest club house in Lower Canada, and 
one befitting their members, who include W.-H. DeForest, 
A.-D. Weeks, G.E. Pollock. J.-L. Caldwallader, H.-H. 
Robbins. Robert Goslet, Isaac Catlin, jr., Samuel Thorn 
and James-M. Waterbury, of New York. This is the club 
of which Chester A. Arthur was for many years president 

— 176 — 

Catches of salmon weighing twenty to thirty pounds are 
common, and it is only when they bring the scales over the 
latter figure that they are considered worthy of mention. 
The Ste. Marguerite Salmon Fishing Club lease the west 
branch of the Ste. Marguerite river, at a yearly rental of 
$310. Their return to the government of last year's opera- 
tions shows that they caught 46 salmon, weighing 310 
pounds, the largest being 28 and the smallest 10 pounds. 
Among the members are James Grant, N.-C. Bemey, W.- 
B. Williams, Henry-S. Williams, W.-B. Wheeler and Obed 
Wheele of New York ; Gard-T. Lyon, of Oswego, and Dr. 
Ashton, ofDobbs Ferry, (W. Russell, of Quebec) 

Other rivers are leased by individuals, such as the Escu- 
minac and the Nouvelle by John Maitland, of New- York ; 
the Bonaventure by Will.-H. Thorne ; the Grand river by 
Colonel Walker, British Royal Artillery ; the Dartmouth by 
Will.-H. Lane, of Boston, who has the distinction of paying 
the heaviest rent of all — $520 — for a catch of 24 salmon, 
weighing 496 pounds ; the York by Charles-B. Barnes, of 
Albany ; the Laval by Sir R.-W. Cameron, and the Matane 
by Sir Alexander-T. Gait. 


" The St. Anne des Monts River, leased by Henry|Hogan, 
of Montreal, gave the biggest salmon caught last year — ^a 
beauty weighing 49 pounds. It was hooked by a New York 
gentleman, one of Mr. Hogan's party. 

The Ristigouche River, on the New Brunswick side of 
the border, is a prime favorite with visitors. 

Here " Camp Beatrice, " owned by W.-J. Florence ; 
*^ Camp Albany, " belonging to J.-M. Lansing, Dudley 
Alcott and Dean Sage, of Albany ; '* Camp Harmony, " on 
the Upsolquitch, started by Charles-F. Laurence, of New 
York, who had a lease of Brand Brook last year, will have 

— 177 — 

to miss his salmon this year, as he is on a tour around the 
world. Dr. Baxter, of Washington, has bought a famous spot 
on the Metapedia, called " Dan Eraser's, '' and has 
announced his intention of coming along early in June ; 
and R.-G. Dun, of New York, is also expected at an early 


" The more adventurous of the fishermen do not confine 
themselves to the south side of the St. Lawrence, however. 
Mr. K-Pendleton Rogers, of Hyde Park, Duchess County, 
N. Y., has a lease of the Little Saguenay River, at a rental 
of $345, and will be on hand as usual. He will deviate 
from the usual track and reach his destination by steamer 
from Quebec. 

Others more adventurous still choose the wild coasts of 
Labrador for their fishing, and already several parties of 
Englishmen have announced their intention of crossing the 
" herring pond " to try their luck in the running waters of 
that bleak coast Mr. CoUingwood, a wealthy land owner of 
Tiverton, Devonshire, is the pioneer in these excursions, and 
is expected this week with a party of friends. He will fish 
the Natashquan River. It was in order to reach this stream 
that, some twelve years ago, the Duke of Beaufort, the pre- 
sent Duke of Sutherland, W.-J. Florence, the actor, and 
poor dead Ned Sothern paid the captain of an Allan steamer 
£200 sterling to go out of his way a few miles and drop 
them in a small boat, whence they got to their destination. 


** This Natashquan River — Natashquan means " where 
the seals laid " — is one of the best salmon rivers in the world 
but has a dreadful reputation. There it was where, some 
years ago, Walter Macfarlane, one of Montreal's merchant 

— 178 — 

princes, lost his life, and numerous other disasters are 
attached to its name. 

The most remarkable of these is the death of a young 
English guardsman, named Astley, who had been up there 
with a party of friends and had had remarkable luck. 
Before starting out, they had been given a chart of the river 
with the dangerous places marked. Chief among these was 
the Devil's Whirlpool. They were warned not to go near 
it, as contact with it meant certain death. However, just 
as their fishing had ended, and they were on their way back 
to the seacoast, they began to break up their remaining stores, 
and offered them as prizes to the Indian guides, who battled 
for them by races in their canoes. Just as they reached 
the head of the whirlpool, young Astley, who was of noble 
birth, related to an English ducal family, offered to make a 
wager that he could successfully run this whirlpool. Turning 
to his Indians he asked one of them to accompany him, but 
without avail. The chief of the tribe had forbidden them 
to do so and besides the certainty of death was too terrifying. 
Finally one of the young bucks spoke up, and sa3dng he had 
no wife or mother to mourn his loss if he died, he volun- 
teered to accompany Astley. 



" Farewells were said and the two started, notwithstanding 
the protests of Astley *s friends, who watched their every 
move with feverish anxiety. The l»ttle bark canoe sped on 
into the whirlpool and there were hopes it would pass 
through. But just as it reached the centre it whirled round 
and was engulfed. The Indian saw what was coming and 
jumped, but was barely in the air when a shot from the rifle 
of one of Astley's friends on shore made him share the fate 
of the Englishman. Their bodies were recovered about two 
miles down the river, disfigured beyond recognition. The 

— 179 — 

man who fired the shot was never known, but the actioh 
angered the remaining Indians, and they left the strangers 
to find their way to the coast as best they could. What the 
motive of the murderer was, in killing the Indian will pro- 
bably never be know." — New York Herald, 


{}aspi Basin — Morpheus^ Domain-^ Bobbing for mac- 

herd — Lt. Governor Oox. 

26th August, 1887. 

Here am I again, after an entire revolution of the circling 
year, pacing the promenade deck of the staunch steamer 
" Admiral," in Gasp^ Bay. Our ever watchful commander, 
Capt. Dugal, is giving directions to the wheelsman not to 
hug too close that treacherous sandy spit on which Com- 
mander Orlebar, R. N., ran aground in August, i860, his 
big ship ** Hero," bearing Albert of Wales and his fortunes, 
much to the surprise of the old salts. Our alert and cour- 
teous purser, Mr. Bogue, by way of fitting himself soon tu 
take the command of a steamer, is amusing himself usefully 
in casting the lead from the bow of the boat, to acquire a 
personal knowledge of every foot of ground in this ticklish 
part of the bay. Now we have shot past the light schooner 
anchored on the edge of the bank ; soon we shall be in the 
Narrows, abreast of the R. C. church and flag staff. A few 
minutes more our spring hawser is fast on Veit's wharf. The 
clank of the engine and wheels has ceased on the captain 
pulling his bell. The local aristocracy, tourists and a sprinkl- 
ing of fishermen crowd round the outstretched gangway, to 
welcome expected friends. Various are the enquiries 
exchanged. " Has mackerel struck in the bay ? " " Any Par- 

— 180 — 

liamentary elections this fall ? '' " Any more Yankee pirates 
caught ? " " Any room at the hotel ? " O'er the lofty fir- 
groves, casting on the water their dark shadow, the Queen 
of Night is shedding her mild radiance. It is half-past eight 
p. m. " Twenty and a half " suggests an Intercolonial Rail- 
way superintendent ? But what does that signify ? Sanford 
Fleming and his enlightened, new-fangled scheme be did- 
dled ! The Gaspesians would never know when it is time 
for them to rise in the morning by his " thirteen and four- 
teen hour system." The last cormorant, poised on his black 
wings, has gone to rest. The American consul has hauled 
down the " stars and stripes " at sunset. 

An impressive silence reigns on the deep, placid, lapsing 
waters, broken only by the faint tinkle of a cow bell, the 
bearer of which is browsing over the dewy meadows com- 
manded by Fort Ramsay ready, as of yore, to belch forth 
a salute should Albert of Wales, or any of his royal brothers 
again drop anchor in Gasp^'s historic bay ; its cannon,, 
like diminutive beasts of prey crouching in the dim twilight, 
dot the apex of the hill, which overshadows the busy ware- 
houses, and roomy dwellings of the prosperous, and numerous 
LeBouthillier clan. 

The new arrivals escorted by friends are slowly wending 
their way up the tolerably steep ascent to Baker's Hotel, or 
to Mrs. Dumaresq's snug quarters further on. The basin is 
studded with a few coasting crafts ; a trim Yankee man-of- 
war is anchored close to Commander Wakeham's saucy- 
steam cruiser ; a boatswain's shrill whistle floats over the 
waters, from the " Hail Columbia " armed craft, while a 
Cadiz brigantine is moored at the wharf to exchange her 
cargo of salt, for " merchantable codfish " ; her wet sails 
.are not yet furled, a passing shower having rufHed the bay- 
that afternoon. Let us have our cheroot and Scotch night- 
cap and then off, to sweet oblivion and the " balmy restorer '* 

— 181 — 

in our state room, for Gasp^ Basin is the kingdom /ar 
excellence of the drowsy god. 

♦ * 

At dawn, I was startled by a voice, shouting from a yawl 
which came alongside, " Mackerel ! Fresh, quite fresh from 
the bay ! " whilst a flood of purple light streamed through the 
open window. It was the peerless orb of day, invading my 
bunk. Dressing hurriedlv, I rushed on deck to witness one 
of the grandest sights Gaspe Bay has in store ; a sunrise on 
the waters, on a bright summer morning. It was truly 
superb. To the south-east, the long yellowish spit of Sandy 
Beach, stretching more than three miles down the bay ; on 
the opposite side, the shore trending far away, with a back, 
ground of pine and fir clad hills, dim by distance, with 
here and there a fisherman's hut and boats on the strand^ 
or a farm house, in the centre of a green meadow, or of a 
waving grain field, awaiting a few more warm touches of 
Old So]« to don its golden mantle. Far away I could dis* 
cern the diminutive black hull of the light-ship, intended to 
guide the mariner round the edge of the bank. I walked on 
shore, ascended the heights and took in, to the b^t of my 
ability, every feature of the fair landscape, and then looked 
round, for busy husbandmen at work, in the early morn, 
but Morpheus, I found, was the king of this happy land ; 
there were none to be seen. 

What a delightful haven of rest, I thought, Gasp^, must 
be for an overworked, sleepless, heat and malaria tormented 
New Yorker ! Exertion, commercial activity, seem here out 
of place, an anomaly, a delusion, a snare. 

I recollect once meeting one of those distressed New 
Yorkers. He was just returning from bobbing for mackered, 
in a boat, where he had spent the afternoon, with an ample 
umbrella to intercept the rays of the meridian sun, beating 


— 182 — 

on his devoted head ; he had caught two mackerel and was 

" What a glorious spot," said he to me, " to recuperate 
exhausted nature ! No noise, no telegrams, no bank trou- 
bles, no corporation frauds, no boodlers ! no presidential 
elections ! ! sleep, bracing sea air, incomparable lands- 

" The natives, I admire hugely ; there indeed you have 
character, though some may construe it of a negative kind. 
They rise when it suits ; they do not go about nervously, 
like us. No feverish haste with them, no rush to catch the 
train. They look to the sea more than to the land for their 
daily subsistance. I have made a special study of them. 
The elder folks seem as if they could sit and smoke all day ; 
they gossip pleasantly at times about their neighbor's affairs 
it noon, take a walk, or crack mild jokes when the sun is 
down ; above all, they retire early, sleep sound and long, 
ftappy fellows. 

Even their dumb animals, I fancy, but perhaps it is only 
a. fancy — catch the pervading influence and get into easy 
ways. Our house dog barks in a subdued, measured manner ; 
the fastest gait I have detected in their horses is a quiet 
shuffle between a trot and an amble ; the cows chime in with 
the rest and sport in the meadows a diminutive bell, whose 
metallic tinkle lulls them to sleep ; roosters are objected, 
to in the settlement, their loud crowing is calculated to 
awaken the old dowagers at dawn. 

** I should imagine that worthy old Lt. -Governor Cox, in 
1774, instead of horses on his carriage, when he travelled 
from the shire town, New-Carlisle, to Gaspd Basin or Perc6, 
had a span of sturdy, young, sober-minded oxen, like that 
illustrious Rot d^ Yvetot : — 

" Quatre bceufs, d'an pas majestueux et lent, 
Promenaient dans Paris, le Monarque indolent." 


— 183 — 

Uncle Sam's earnest, humorous theoiy of Gaspesians tickled 
Tne, I must confess. It brought back to my mind those 
•dreamy personages so graphically delineated by De Quincey. 

I had been told that great travellers had occasionally 
■seen queer sights, in the Kingdom of Cod and Mackerel. 
The very next day, I learned of a strange modus operandi 
which in times of yore obtained in the treatment of criminals : 
it happened some time after Confederation and came to 
hght in the following manner. 

The Government in order to correct some abuses, which 
had crept in the administration of justice and especially in 
the disciphne of the prisons, named a commissioner. On 
his arrival, at one of the jails, he found the jailor, on the 
-Court House steps, smoking a gigantic Dutch meerschaum, 
seated in an easy chair ; the following dialogue took place : 
The jailor : — 

" Mr. Commissioner, I am happy, to make your acquain- 
tance ; you are sent by Government, it is said, to straighten 
up matters generally. Won't you step in and see how we 
manage here : my turnkey is out, on the banks catching his 
winter supply of cod. The jail is well patronized ; I have 
•eighteen prisoners to look after, all in capital health. " 

— " Well, said the Commissioner, let us see them. " 

Are you in a hurry, replied the genial janitor ? Could you 
not call after sunset ? and I will have them all in attendance, 
in apple pie order. " 

— " Well, not easily : in fact I must see the jail and its 
inmates right off, to make up my report, " retorted the 

" Sorry, your honor should have so little leisure ; the fact 
is, when the weather is fine, I turn out my captives at eight 
a. m. sharp, they take a lounge round the country, do up my 
garden, catch a few fresh trout for my dinner \ at sun down, 
all return safe to their quarters. I treat them well and they 
do not mind being deprived of their evening's amusements. 
I wanted to change this practice when I was appointed, but 

— 18i — 

the county member interfered, he had a friend to look after. 
Wait until the evening, they are looking up my two cows 
which strayed away in the woods and I promise you to trot 
out every man jack of the eighteen. " Tableau ! 


A U. E. Settlement — the caldwell manor. 

New Carliflle, 26th AQgust^ 1887* 

" A place lying out of the way of innoyation ; therefore it has tlie 
pure, sweet air of antiquity about it. '' — 

CLeigh Hunt's « Southgate.")— 

After many peregrinations here I am again at the loved 
old home of King George's faithful adherents, the United 
Empire Loyalists of 1783, New Carlisle, Baie des Chaleurs^ 
on my way from Paspebiac. After wishing success to my 
excellent Boniface, Mynheer Clemens, whose cosy hostelry 
crowns the heights which overhang the fishy realm of the 
warlike, but not over-prosperous Paspyjacks, I have admired 
the airy position of ex-Lieut.-Governor Robitaille's roomy 
mansion, as well as the stately structure in process of 
erection by his brother, the Inspector of Customs. Soon 
other matters engaged my attention. 

" Are you not the gentleman who hunts up old manus- 
cripts, deserted castles, ancient ruins, shipwrecks, histories, 
legends or every kind?" was one of the first greetings 
extended to me. 

I looked up aud found myself confronted by a jolly, 
round-faced New Carlislian, holding in his arms a bouncing 
two year-old baby, a credit to the kingdom of herring and 
cod, and whom he appeared to care for as the apple of 
his eye. 

" Well, I said, go on. Suppose I should, do you know of 
any law to prevent ? " 

— 185 — 

" Not by any means, Squire, " he briskly replied, and the 
jolly paterfamilias went on to inform me that I was but a 
few yards from the oldest house in the settlement, the iden- 
tical log house built more than one hundred years previous 
by tbe Land Surveyor Vonden Veldon, who had been 
employed by the Government to lay out in square lots, the 
site of the future shiretown. New Carlisle, now the chef- 
lieu of the populous County of Bonaventure. Its dimensions 
were 30 by 20 feet, with a wing at the east end. The dwell- 
ing, he said, originally had but one story, with a mansard 
roof, on which a diminutive story had been added a species 
of attic or cock-loft, lit up by two diminutive windows two 
feet square. The house has quite an historic interest ; here, 
lived occasionnally brave Lt.-Governor Cox, about 1774. 
In the spacious cellar, which can store 500 bushels of pota- 
toes, may yet be seen a recess, in which he may have kept 
his wine. A strolling court was held here at times by the 
Imperial magnate. At the east end of the dwelling, a spot 
is shown where of yore existed a whipping post ; tradition 
mentions the whipping there of a blackman for some 
delinquency or other. Governor Cox,however, sojourned also 
at another house near by. You may yet see the solid chairs 
said to have belonged to him at Caldwell Manor. " 

Go on, my friend, I chimed in ; I know something about 
the defunct Governor. The Lieutenant-Governorship of 
Gasp^ was one of the many sinecures, which roused the 
patriotic ire of the Papineau party, in the old House of 
Assembly, In 182 1, the House tried to abolish the sinecure, 
on the grounds that the incumbent was often an absentee 
from the Province. The salary had been reduced from 
;;i^i,ooo to ;;£3oo. In 1825, it refused to pass this item in 
the civil list. In 1831, Lord Aylmer alluded to it in his 
message to the House, expressing the hope "that if the 
place is abolished, the incumbent will be indemnified." 
Nicholas Cox, a distinguished British officer at the battle of 
the Plains of Abraham, under Wolfe, had been conspicuous 
by his gallantry at the blockade of Quebec in 1775 ; he had 
served at Louisbourg and commanded a company of the 
47th at the siege of Quebec in 1759. Sir Guy Carleton had 

— 186 — 

named him on his stafif. In the Lieutenant-Governorship 
of Gasp6, he had succeeded a Mr. Elliott. He was pen-» 
sioned in 1780 on account of his infirmities, and had for his 
successor Col. Francis LeMattre, Adjutant General of the 
Provincial Militia, who resided at Percd and died in Ste. 
Famille street, Quebec, on the 13th February, 1805. 

The old Quebec Gazette records the death and militaiy 
funeral of Lieutenant-Governor Cox, who died 8th January^ 
1794, at the ripe age of 70. 

I feel much interest in what you state ; but do not forget 
Lt. -Governor Cox was also '* Superintendent of the Labrador 
Fisheries," and spent large sums of Imperial money in 
building up King George's pet colony at New Carlisle. Mr, 
C — (such must be his name), then offered to escort me to 
the historic house, which after the days of Governor Cox,, 
and the departure of the Land Surveyor Vonden Velden 
and his successor McDonald, came into the possession of a 
U. £. Loyalist of the name of Caldwell, a man of note and 
substance, in the State of New- York, in 1783, whose pro- 
perty was confiscated, and who was glad to avail himself of 
the royal bounty in wild lands offered to the expatriated 
loyalists by the Sovereign of Great Britain, George III. I 
took advantage of the offer of my new cicerone. Soon both 
of us were ensconced within the sacred precincts of the 
" oldest house " the Caldwell Manor. We had not long to 
wait, and were courteously greeted by two very intelligent 
and active, aged damsels with an unmistakeable Presbyterian 
air in all their belongings. 

They told me that their father was bom in New- York, and 
accompanied his father to New Carlisle, just then laid out 
for settlers by Government. The house had been but little 
altered since its construction. On my noticing panels all 
round the room to a height of about three feet, they informed 
Kie that instead of lath and plaster partitions, such as I now 

— 187 — 

saw above the pannels, there were square pickets with can«i 
tass, and paper to coyer them in early days. The ceiling had 
an ttnmistakeable antique aspect ; the '* wide throated ** 
chimney-place in the west gable, had been removed, but the 
pannels hiding its nakedness, still remained. 

I saw the historic chairs, and felt like a Lieut.-Governor 
on seating myself on the highest. Two old hand-painted 
China tea cups were shown, oi a most antique pattern ; 
one was cracked. I was pleased to see that the pieces had 
again been knitted together. " Take great care of these 
treasures, said I, they are more precious than gold." 

These worthy dames represent the third generation 
of Caldwells, who had nestled under the roof of the 
Caldwell Manor ; they seemed quite satisfied with their lot, 
had never had the curiosity to visit Quebec, did not care 
to see It, nor Montreal. " Our father, who d:ed more than 
30 years ago, said the eldest, has often told us of his youth- 
ful days, at the Manor ; of the excitement caused in the settle- 
ment by the arrival at Paspebiac, of the first missionary, a 
clergyman by the name of Dreep ; of his riding down to Pas- 
pebiac,then as now,the port and roadstead for foreign vessels, 
of his trip back to New Carlisle, with His Reverence 
mounted on our parent's horse, whilst our dear father walked 
at his side, through a bridle-path ; of the eagerness of the 
youths and maidens, rushing out of the loghuts, to catch a 
glimpse of what a real live clergyman might look like ; of^ 
the first marriage in the settlement — our father being the 
bridegroom, and his bride our beloved mother." She could 
not say whether these clerical visits were annual, but she 
again appealed to her excellent memory to repeat what her 
father had told her about subsequent visits of the clergyman 
when one, when two babies were born ; " of the hard lot 
of the unlucky parson, whose room in the second story 
Was on such occasions, invaded by infantile music, to that 
degree, that His Reverence had to retreat to the cock-loft" 

— 18S — 

already described, and which was shown to me, — to prepare 
his sermons for the mission. " Our father, she added, was a 
shipbuilder, and built a whole fleet of schooners. In addi- 
tion to the Caldwell clan, there are yet at New Carlisle 
several descendants of the first settlers : the Shearers, Bebees 
Scotts, Munroes. Let us hie away, and say good-bye to the 
hospitable old home of the U. £. loyalists of 1783, and wish 
success to ex-Lieut Governor Robitaille's darling railway 
scheme, destined to revolutionise the whole county, even 
if its stock is not snapped up at once as gilt-edged invest- 


" Prince Edward Isle! fit subject for the lays 

Of sweeter minstrel : how shall I aspire — 

As best I may — to celebrate thy praise ; 

Whose praise might well employ the noblest lyre ? 

• . • • nearest to my thoughts, while thoughts remain 

Must be thy flowing streams, thy woods and fertile plain. ' 

Teu IsLAiTD MofSTRBL — Johii Lepoge^ 

" Flowing streams, woods and fertile plains/' such indeed 
irould be an appropriate motto for this green, sunny and 
populous little Kingdom. 

There it stood, the sea-girt isle, basking in sunshine, 
fanned by old ocean's cool breezes, from the commence- 
ment of days, through that remote age when sighted in 
X497, by Sebastian Cabot, discovered, in 1523, by Verazani, 
down to the happy times, centuries later, in 1797, when its 
legislature, under the guidance of its speaker, J. Stewart, 
and Lieut-Governor Ed. Fanning, passed an Act of Parlia- 
ment (the Act 39, Geo, III, Cap. I), to substitute for its 

— 189 — 

old French name of He St Jeauy Saint John's Island, that 
of the Commander of the Forces in the Maritime Provinces, 
Prince Edvvard, fourth son of His Majesty George III. 
Though the preamble of the Act avers that it was thus 
intended " to perpetuate (in omne volubile (zvum) the grate- 
ful remembrance of that peculiarly auspicious, and happy 
period of this Island having been under the command of 
Lieutenant-General His Royal Highness Prince Edward, 
Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Forcesj in the Dis- 
trict of Nova Scotia, Islands of St. John, Cape Breton and 
Newfoundland, &c., '' there was something more than a 
gush of loyalty to the House of Hanover. A drop of the 
practical, an atom of utilitarianism permeated the *' grate- 
ful remembrance." The inmates of this fairy land, no more 
than less favoured mortals, are free from the taint of utilita- 
rianism. The Act adds that the new name ought also to 
have for effect to prevent English letters, parcels and mer- 
chandize intended for the Island, from miscarrying, and 
being conveyed by mistake " to St. John, New Brunswick ; 
St. John, Newfoundland, St. John, on the Labrador Coast, 
or elsewhere. " 

This far-sighted admixture of selfinteresf into their 
native, guileless and pastoral ways, has helped, on more 
emergencies than one, to bring the Islanders to the surface, 
apart from the grand national scheme of Confedera* 
tion, so gracefully accepted by them in 1873, at the hands 
of Sir John MacDonald. 

At the moment we write these lines, comfortably seated, 
facing the rippling waters of the Hillsborough river, in view of 
Government House, whose Khedive, Sir Rob, Hodgson, is 
preparing to abdicate on the morrow, and from whence 
issued, in 1873, the mighty scheme of Confederation, 
pregnant with a far-reaching future, we are confronted by 
the Island press, teeming with bitter denunciations and 
remembrances, this time not ''auspicious," which Dominion 

— 190 — 

Day evokes. For the life of us, we fail to see how the 
jaunty little Island has suffered by the terms of the co-part- 
nership entered into with her big sister Provinces. That 
era of Arcadian bliss, of the lo p. c tariff, when Dominion 
Day existed not, has, indeed, passed away. Why then moum^ 
as if there was no hope, because a blight has fallen on ship- 
building, because timber should have been manufactured 
in excess of the market demand, and bank dividends should 
have shrunk ? Is Prince Edward Island worse off than her 
neighbours? We opine not. Confederation exists as a /a// 
accamplL It has opened to our insulated brethren the markets 
of all British North America; provided funds, some $8oo,« 
ooo, to extinguish vexed proprietary questions, and rights, 
thereby healing a festering sore of long standing ; completed 
the line of Island Railway, at an enormous cost, continues 
to run it at an enormous loss. The Dominion, even, pater- 
nally undertook to solve at a heavy outlay the naturall7 
insoluble problem of winter-steam navigation, to connect 
the Island with terra firma ; provides for the expense of 
the civil list, of the fishery and other services ; all this in 
exchange for what ? Why, in exchange for a meagre custom,, 
excise and postal revenue. To an unsophisticated outsider, 
Confederation for the Island means tangible and substantial 
benefit. Prince Edward Island is, undoubtedly, smarting, 
though not to the same extent, as the rest of the world, 
under commercial depression. Shipping may be under a 
cloud — a dark cloud, &c., but the backbone of the Island, 
its agricultural resources, is sound ; and in spite of bad 
times and low prices, its industrious and intelligent farmers 
are hoarding up their spare cash, not in old socks, like our 
kiexkdi/eanBaptiste of the Province of Quebec, but in solid, 
well-managed savings banks. 

In addition to their large returns in oats, potatoes, hay, 
stall-fed cattle, the £sirmers, and they are the bone, and 
sinew of the place, are resuming, and with marked success 

— 191 — 

the culture of wheat, the raising of which, the weevil had fcAr 
several years interrupted. 

Unlike the bustling communities on ferra Jlrma, the 
Islanders, though a little depressed, are not restless, tur- 
bulent, steeped in crime and social rebellion. Foreign 

customs, new-fangled ideas, 'tis true, are not encouraged ; 

they are quite happy without them ; they luxuriate in their 
own thoughts. They are progressive, too, but in their own 
traditional way. They look to legislative action for perfecti- 
bility in the human species ; they believe in the efficacy of 
an Act of Parliament, even beyond the most sanguine hopes 
of Lord Eldon, or any Chancellor of the Exchequer. Their 
last and most notable effort is to moralise the people 
by Act of Parliament. True Patriots have found it, 'tis said, 
in the Dunkin Temperance Act, and total abstinence is the 
order of the day in Charlottetown. Summerside, and various 
other seaports, are crowded, a portion of the year, with jolly 
tars and old salts, who would as soon give up the ghost as 
abjure their pipe and their glass of grog. The hotels are run oa 
the cold water, and spruce beer principle, a blissful change^ 
we are told. Let us hope the Draconian edict may flourish 
more in Charlottetown than it did in Boston and in Ontario. 

The omnipotency of an Act of Parliament, however, was 
believed in, nearly a century back. Thus we find on their 
statute book, page 90, the Act of George III, Cap. VI, inti- 
tuled : " An Act for quieting the minds of His Majesty's 
dissenting Protestant subjects. " This " quieting of the 
minds of His Majesty's subjects " by Act of Parliament 
opens out a rich vain of inquiry ; 'tis quaint, if not original ^ 
perhaps it may be both. One should like to be informed 
whether another legislative decree achieved all it purported 
to do by its title, viz : the 26 George HI, Cap. XIV, " An 
Actio prevent the multiplicity of lawsuits P 

A law sanctioned by the Legislature six years previous, 
viz : in 1780, places in a curious yaiAx/a-position objects very' 

— 192 — 

dissimilar. The title runs thus : " An Act for preventing 
the running at large of stone horses. . . . and the killing of 
partridges at improper seasons." (20 Geo. Ill, cap. V.) 
Grouse were likely meant. Is not this making game of the 
birds ? Our readers must forgive us for serving up these 
airy nothings ; the only plea we have to offer in extenua- 
tion is a hot wave in the atmosphere, which makes the 
consideration of serious subjects, a task ultra vires. In our 
next we shall mount the historical horse. 

Charlottetown, P. E. Island, 3rd July. 1879. 

Sea-Side Hoteli Bustico Beach, 6th July, 1879. 

Before plunging into historic lore, let us tusticaU for one 
day, in the sweet seclusion of green woods, on the shores of 
the sounding sea, amidst the hamlets of the descendants of 
the exiled Acadians. Possibly some of them may know 
something of old Pierre Leblanc, and his dispersed friends, 
which Longfellow forgot to tell us. 

RACicoT,(i)as it is known to the French of the seventeenth 
century — RusticOy to the present inhabitants ; such will be 
our haven of rest ; there, shall we rusticate. The much 
vaunted spot, will it come up to our expectations ? A few 
hours will tell. 

That almighty Confederation bribe, the Railway, is just 
now landing us at Hunter River Station, seven miles from 
Rustico, where Squire Newson, the enterprising proprietor 
of the Sea Side Hotel, keeps in readiness a line of stages. 

(1) This old French fishing poet protected of yore, by a fort, 
which stood on Roland's Point, takes its name from a Frenchman. 
H. Badcot, who returned to France, when England took posiessioii 
of the Island. 

— 193 — 

Why is it called Hunter River Station ? Is there anything 
there to specially attract the P. E. Island Nimrods ? was 
one of our first questions to the stage driver, a well-to-do 
Scotch farmer. 

— " The story is long, sir, but, I shall tiy and make it as 
short as I can, " — retorted our Jehu. 

" Do not mind the length, " we replied : " the road to 
Rustico will be longer than your story." 

Thus discoursed our charioteer : 

"In the reign of good Governor Smiih, long before I 
was born, in fact, at a time when speculators in land flecked 
to our Island, there came an English officer bent on trying 
his fortune here. He was good looking and young ; rich, 
some said. The doors of many of the quality, having marri- 
ageable daughters, were opened to him. He won the aflfec- 
tions of a young lady, the name I forget. She had beauty, 
he had wealth ; they were engaged. The wedding was to 
come off in the ensuing spiing. The young laird in the 
meantime got to be a great sportsman : he was, when not 
sparking, con>tantly blazing away at bears, cariboo, loups- 
cerriersy martins and partridges. He organized a great hunt, 
under the guidance of Micmac Indians, at the extreme end 
of the island. Illness overtook him in the depth of the 
woods ; one solitary Indian watched over him. No tidings 
came to the desponding young lady : wearied at last with 
hope deferred, she accepted as true a report that her lover 
had perished from illness and cold. Time rolled on : the 
charm of a discarded lover slackened. A few months, and 
another wedding day was fixed on. All was joy, feasting, 
sunshine in her island home. Biidal dresses were ordered, 
as well as plum cake \ sprightly maidens and beaux clustered 
at the ball ; the clergyman was preparing to read the maiv 
riage service ; the bridgrcom longed to slip on the mystic 
nng, when a loud knock at the parlor door startled even 
the aged clergyman. The door was thrown open, when who 
should rush in frantically, but the long absent lover. Taking 
in at a glance the end of all his fond hopes, he retreated 
outside rapidly without saying a word. The young lady 
fainted ; there was no wedding that day ; but, instead, 
sorrow^ confusion, tears all round. Probably illness might 
have impaired the mind of the English officer; instead 

— 194 — 

of claiming his bethrothed, he rapidly struck out for the 
adjoining woods. Search was made for him that day ; 
the next — and the next ; all in vain. Many weeks after, some 
trappers descending the river banks, the river you now 
$ee, came on the remains of the poor gentleman. Hunger 
and exposure had probably caused his death. As the 
coroner was living miles away, a hole was dug in the red clay, 
and there he has rested, until some years ago, when the 
island having become more populous, and a survey having 
been ordered to settle a boundary question, it was debated 
by one of the party whether the British officer was buried 
there or not. A search was made. Sure enough, at the 
place indicated by old people, were found the skull and 
bones of Mr. Hunter. I could take you now to the very spot, 
the river has ever since been called Hunter river. " 

Such the version given me by my Scotch charioteer. On we 
jogged over soft, pleasant roads, of porous red soil, like the 
rest of the island ; drawn by a powerful grey mare, a worthy 
descendant, we were told, of the famous horse ** Messenger," 
who has left a numerous progeny, and an honored name, 
among the Islanders. 

From Hunter River to Rustico, lies a fertile rolling 
country, whose potato and oat fields,and hen roosts, are occa- 
sionally inclosed with a solid red stone fence. A clump of 
fir, spruce or white birch, diversifies the landscape We 
rapidly closed in with a mill stream, alive with jumping 
trout. To the west, a neat green hedge, reminding you of 
Quebec hedges, showed that a Scotch gardener had tried 
his hand there. Three churches are here visible, an English, 
a' Presbyterian and a R. C. temple of worship, the latter 
flanked on one side by the Farmers' Bank of Rustico ; on 
the other, by a lofty, handsome structure, to be opened next 
July as a Roman Catholic convent. 

The Rustico Bank discounts for the fishermen and the far- 
mers ; a method of banking requiring, one should imagine, 
more than one safeguard, to ensure lo p. c. dividends, such 
as this favored institution, with a capital of ;^3,ooo, has 
been paying. 

— 195 — 

10 p. c dividends out of a capital of ^3,000, loaned out 
probably, @ 7}^ p. c, inclusive of manager and clerk's 
salaries I this is z tout deforce which would make the fortune 
of any Montreal banker, even with issue treble of capital ! 
Rustico, by the Church Registers which begin, in 1812, was 
a R« C. Mission, ministered to then by Rev. Louis Beau- 
bien, who left in 1818 and died, at Montmagny, about 1873. 

It was the episcopal seat of the late Bishop McDonald, 
who lived here thirty years, and ultimately died at the 
College of St. Dunstan, in Charloltetown. 

An enlightened R. C. Missionary, Rev. Mr. Belcour, 
seems to have been the Guardian Angel, and regenerator of 
the poor Acadians. Instead of encouraging them to isolate 
themselves from their enterprising Scotch and English 
neighbors, he bade them imitate their ways of tilling the 
soil, and housing themselves. The rustic damsels, instead 
of covering their persons with their uncouth rag petticoats, 
their dragnet and coarse cloth, were told that their morals 
would not be tainted, by wearing dresses and bonnets like 
the Scotch, and Irish lasses, their neighbors. 

Rustico has also its legend ; a pious one, connected with 
its chapel, in which on special, red letter days, long, long 
ago, sweet, powerful, mysterious voices blended with the 
choir, heard by many, unmistakeable by their compass ; 
" the good angels of heaven, " said the descendants of 
Acadians " encouraging them to persevere to the end, in this 
vale of sorrow." These sweet voices of other days are now 
silent. An urbane gentleman, educated in France, drove 
us to visit the Acadian Patriarch of an adjoining settle- 
ment — New Glasgow. The patriarch, by name Mr. Dorion, 
aged 88, was absent. Alas ! with him departed our 
hopes of spicy bits of local information about the compa- 
triots of Evangeline, their joys and their sorrows. New 
Glasgow is a sweetly, pretty pastoral land of oats, and pota- 
toes ; an elyseum for patriotic hens, laying day and night, 

— 196 — 

here as elsewhere, for the profit and comfort of the Islanders. 
The export of eggs, as all can see, who cross in the Shediac 
steamer " St. Lawrence " or " Princess of Wales " is a mine 
of infinite wealth. The eggs are carefully put up in square 
boxes — 2 feet by i feet 3 inches — with paper trays ; each egg 
fitting in its grove — an ingenious contrivance of their Boston 
customers : the same boxes, going to and fro all summer : 
representing a trade of many millions of eggs. Happy 
Islander s,to own such patriotic hens ; hens of angelic ins- 
tincts — the saviours of the Island ! May their shadow, 
feathers and laying qualities never grow less ! Did Evange- 
line ever own such hens ! 

Prince Edward Island has some years back, discovered in 
the black soil, which gathers at the entrance of its creeks 
and rivers, a compost, which is a fertilizer of wondrous effica- 
cy ; a portion of the winter is devoted to drawing with teams 
this incomparable manure, which combines marine detritus 
and shells, and is extracted through the ice, by an ingenious, 
though simple machine. This black soil, called Mussel 
Mud, lasts more than twenty years on land, and excells any 
stable manure. 

In New Glasgow, the Scot as usual prospers fabulously, 
and finds worthy competitors in the English and Irish. 
Some few Acadians are now following suit, and several own 
well cultivated and good farms. Land is high in price now 
all over the Island. 

On a sunny green slope, we were shown the paternal roof 
of LieuL-Governor Laird. The sons of Scotia have reason 
to be proud at New Glasgow, P. E. I., as well as in old 

— 197 — 


It was a welcome change to quit the dusty train, and take 
possession of even one of the diminutive state rooms onCapt. 
LeMaistre's staunch little steamer, the Btaver^ which lay 
moored to the Pictou wharf, waiting with steam up, for the 
arrival of the Halifa:f train. A weird whistle, a pull on the 
captain's bell, and the Beaver was churning the briny deep, 
en raute^ vii Georgetown and Souris, for the Magdalen 
Island group. 

I longed to set foot on the land, so considerately handed 
over on 8th June, 1798, by the British Government, through 
Lord Dorchester to Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir) Isaac 
Coffin, in recognition of the services rendered by him to 
Britain, pending the war of Independence. 

Jacques Cartier, had, on the 22nd July, 1534, sighted 
these solitary isles : then, the undisputed kingdom of the 
walrus, the seal and the lobster ; they were named Ramses, 
Bryon and Aldzay. Thirteen in number they acquired later 
on, their present names : Amherst, Entry, Grindstone, 
Alright, Coffin, Wolf, Deadman, Grosse Isle, Bryon, Gannet 
Rock, Little Bird Rock, Gull Island. They assume the 
form of a horseshoe, and lie at the entrance of the Gulf of 
the St. Lawrence ; about forty<five miles in length, their 
greatest width is thirteen miles, and they are connected by 
double sand bars forming lagoons. In 1663, the Company 
of New France granted these islands to Sieur Francois 
Doublet, a mariner of Honfleur, in France, and on the ist 
February, 1664, Sieur Doublet associated himself with 
Fran9ois Gon de Quimpe, and Claude de Laudemar in a 
fishing speculation. In 17 19, we find the French King 
ceding this territory to Lecompte de St. Pierre, at the 
instance of the Duchesse of Orleans. Later on, in 1757, 
four Acadian families were located there : the Boudrault» 


— 198 — 

Chiasson, Lapierre and Cormier ; Hhey had come from St. 
Peter's Bay, in Prince Edward Island, and found employ- 
ment under an enterprising Bostonian, a retired English 
Officer of the name of Gridley, who had opened an estab- 
iishment to trade in walrus and seal oil. 

Poetry, marine disaster, as well as the war of the elements 
bas invested this sea-girt domain with a weird halo. We all 
remember Tom Moore's harmonious lines, when on a dark 
September evening in 1804, he sailed past the dreaded 
shores of Deadman's Island, which derives its name from 
the fancied resemblance of its contour to thai of a corpse 
iaid out for burial ; but our's was not a ** shadowy bark ", 
4ior a phantom ship : 

There lieih a wreck on the dismal shore 
Of cold and pitiless Labrador, 
Where, under the moon, upon mounts of frost 
Full many a mariner's bones are tossed, 
Yon shadowy bark hath been to that wreck, 
And the dim blue fire that lights her deck 
Both play on as pale and lirid a crew 
As ever yet drank the churchyard dew. 
To Deadman's Isle in the eye of the blast, 
To Deadman's Isle she speeds her fisist ; 
By skeleton shapes her sails are furled 
And the hand that steers is not of this world. 

The Beaver had several stoppages to make, and pictures- 
<jue headlands to pass, before reaching the anchorage, at 
Amherst, the port of entry, where I landed in a boat, and 
made my way to the Custom House on the hill. 

Amherst is named after Lord Amherst, so intimately 
associated with our war of the conquest ; to the Acadians, 
its chief inhabitants, it is known as Havreau-Ber, It con- 
tains about sixty houses ; it is eleven miles in length, and 
not more than four at its greatest breadth. My attention 
■was directed to Point Gridley, where the worthy English 

— 199 — 

Officer is said to have concealed a treasure, and soon I 
noticed the two curious hills called Les Demoiselles ; one 
of which in Amherst harbor has the shape of a lady reclining, 
a " sleeping beauty " in a flowing robe. 

Then there is Cap-de-Meule, exhibiting the profile of a 
most dignified contenance, along a grim grey ledge of rocks ; 
one can distinguish the nose and the chin. An imaginative 
passenger vowed he could see a big, black tear trickling 
from one of its eyes. 

Another Cape rejoices in the name of Fotnt^ au Pain, 
because vessels from sea call here first for bread, pain. At 
break of day I was pacing the deck of the little Beaver^ 
watching a moist, but gorgeous, sunrise. At breakfast, Capt 
LeMaistre aware of my desire to be acquainted with the 
history of the Islands, which now loomed out in the hazy 
distance, introduced me to a well informed Prince Edward 
Islander, Miss A.-M. Pope, who had come on board, the 
night previous, when we touched at Georgetown, Prince 
Edward Island. Miss Pope was fall of ^land lore and was 
kind enough to place at my disposal, a New York Magazine 
article, (i) she had written on the Magdalen Island group, 
from which, with her leave, I shall make several excerpts. 

" In speaking of the Magdalen Island group visited by 
Bishop Plessis, in i8ti, which he correctly. likens to the 
formation of a horse-shoe, one notices Sandy Hook in 
Amherst Island, and Cape Alright, at the extremity of the 
island of that name, which guard the entrance to the beau- 
tiful sheet of water known as Pleasant Bay, while between 
the two, stands Entry Island, a picturesque sentinel. We 
steam carefully past Sandy Hook with a due respect for 
that dangerous shoal, pass under the lee of Entry Island, 
and, making for a crescent-shaped cove, come to anchor 
about half way between the eastern extremity of Amherst 

{1) In and rownd the Magdalen Islandsj by lliss A.-M. Pope. 

— 200 — 

Island, known as Point Gridley, and the curious conical 
brace of hills called Les Demoiselles. 

From the grass-grown pinnacle of Demoiselle Hill the 
view is superb. At one's feet the quiet gray village edged 
with light fishing stages, stretches away to Gridley's Point, 
on the extremity of which stands a tiny Protestant Chapel ; 
staring defiantly across the bay at the beautifully propor- 
tioned church of Notte-Dame^ on the opposite headland. 
To the west, lies Basin, the sun setting behind its wooded 
hills, and lighting up the surface of its placid lagoon, in 
which are reflected as in a mirror the spire, the house tops, 
and the boats that dance on its waters. Curving round the 
bay on the north-west, stretches the horse-shoe of land, now 
rising into bold headlands, now sinking into low sand-ridges, 
whilst in all directions on the blue water float the white sail 
of the fishermen. Beyond Entry Island twenty-one leagues 
to the south, is the high, blue line of the Cape Breton coast, 
and to the south lost in the horizon, the low shores of 

Prince Edward Island. " 

I was invited by the Captain of the Beaver to accompany 

him in a five miles drive over the smiling meadows, woods, 
and sandy lagoons of this quaint land. Soon we reached 
VEtang du Nord^ where we visited a thriving lobster canning 
factory, owned by a Mr. Leslie ; he kindly presented us with 
some magnificent specimens of the Crustacea. During the 
journey I learned much about the resources of the " King- 
dom OF Fish '' as the Magdalen group is styled. 

It appears that as many as 20,000 seals have been killed 
around these shores, in one season; they pup about ist March, 
and disappear during the spring, returning probably to the 
cool, foggy shores of Alaska ; the small skins raw are worth 
50 cents each, the large ones $1.50. They are salted, and 
sent to England to be prepared, and the fat, cut up in bits, 
is rendered down by the action of the sun in huge tanks. 

— 201 — 

the oil let out by faucets into barrels, and sold, according to 
its grade, paUy straw color^ and so forth. 

But let us hear Miss Pope describe this Arcadia of the 
finny tribe. " One beautiful summer morning, she says, 
we started to drive to Grindstone Island, to visit the pretty 
little village called L'Etang du Nord, an expedition that 
perhaps more than any other gives an insight into the pecu- 
liarities of the Magdalen Islands. About eight o'clock we 
left Amherst village, and drove along by the side of a spark- 
Hng lagoon, in which the fishing boats were beginning to be 
astir. At every few yards we met one of the quaint little 
wooden carts so numerous here. They are several sizes 
smaller than the usual farm cart, and are perfectly innocent 
of springs, or paint, or any modern improvements. These 
charett$$ are drawn by small, sturdy ponies with wonderful 
powers of endurance, which jog along regarding hills, dales, 
plains or ditches, with the most stolid indifference. Soon 
after leaving the shore of the lagoon we pass what looks 
like a mineral spring, judging from its rusty, oily appearance. 
Near here is also a pretty little fresh water river, famous for 
the plentiful trout that lurk in its waters. An attractive 
feature of the brooks,and ponds here,is that they are frogless. 
St. Patrick must have taken this place under his special 
protection as not a frog, toad or snake has ever been found 
on any part of the Magdalen Islands. Not &r from La 
Rru&re^ we turn into what is called the * Mountain Road ' 
and here we see for the first time the curious formation of 
these lofty hills.'' 

" They are for the most part conical in shape^ but near the 
top there b almost always a deep hollow ; sometimes four 
or five peaks surround one of these hollows. Others are on 
the hill side, their cavernous depths shaded by stunted 
pine-trees ; some are dry, and along their edges delicate 
Michaelmas daisies and trailing vines grow in profusion ; 
others, again, are full of water, and their sullen fathoms have 

— 202 — 

never been sounded, around and upon these hills are found 
fused ironstone, cinders, terfJEi, lava, and other signs ot 

The geology of the Magdalen Islands is well worthy of 
study, furnishing many rich, and varied specimens, not only 
of stones but of minerals. 

After leaving the mountains, the road, which, by the 
way, is disgraced by some very bad bridges, lies through 
a level country, where among the short brushwood we 
gathered an abundance of blueberries, and of the small red 
berry known in Nova Scotia as fox berry, also another 
ground fruit, small and hard, of a light grey colour with 
dark spots, called by the Islanders Mohoks, These berries 
make excellent preserves. The large cranberries grow in 
great abundance on the dunes, and find a ready market in 
Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Another berry 
found here in swamp-land is the lake apple, so abundant in 
Labrador — a small, juicy, white fruit, in appearance resemr 
bling a white raspberry ; it is in season in July, as are the 
wild strawberries that grow here in the greatest profusion. 
Raspberries also are plentiful, and wild currants. In our 
search for fox berries, we came across several varieties of 
ferns, but all such as are commonly found in the adjacent 

At a distance of about eleven miles from Amherst village 
we took the shore \ and how is it possible to describe the 
charms of that wonderful sea-road ? From the deck of the 
BedvtTy Amherst and Grindstone had appeared two distinct 
Islands, but now we saw an immense sheet of sand that con- 
nects them, and which at low tide forms a safe and pleasant 
roadway — safe at least, if one has a. pilot; for deep and 
dangerous quicksands abound on every side, and woe be to 
the luckless adventurer whom nightfall should catch on 
these shoals ! along the chain of high ridges run the posts 
of the sorely needed, and much-prized telegraph. Against 

— 203 — 


the western shore the surf beats in, incessantly chanting it9, 
never-ending dirge over those whom its pitiless waters 
have engulfed. But very calm and beautiful was the sea of 
St. Lawrence that summer day, and its waves murmured ^ 
softly and cooingly, as they twined strange wreaths of wild 
sea-grasses round our horses' feet, and brought us delicate 
mosses and dainty shells, as if to allure us to venture nearer 
to their treacherous depths ; but ever and anon the gentle 
waves broke against the wooden wall of some ill-fated wreck 
that, lodged in the tenacious sand-bar, stood grim testimony 
to the truth of Mr. Stedman's beautiful poem : 

•' Woe, woe to those whom the islands pen I * 
In vain they shnn the double capes ] 
Cruel are the reefs of Magdalen ; 
The Wolfs white fang what prey escapes ? 
The Grindstone grinds the bones of some, 
And Coffin Island is craped with foam ; 
On Deadman's shore are fearfal shapes. " 

On the eastern side of the sand-bar, to our right hand, 
stretches the beautiful lagoon called Havre-aux-Basques, 
that has quite a deep channel in which a schonndr can winter. 

It is shut in by a low marsh-land (called here the Bara- 
chois) (i) rich in cranberries and blueberries, and in the 
spring time a great receptacle for gannet's eggs. It is after pass- 
ing the shore of the gulf and the lagoon, that the destructive 
features of the landscape are seen. All around us for miles 
stretches a vast unbounded plain of shining sand, crossed 
here and there by httle gullies in which our tired horses 
cool their weary feet On one side the telegraph posts stand 
lean and gaunt, in the sand-hills, interspersed here and 
there with the broken masts of some ill-fated vessels. These 
sand-hills produce an abundance of grass of which cattle 
are very fond, and at this marine harvest some men were 

• (1) Bar^bon^? 

— 204 — 

-working heartily. To our right as far as the eye could reach 
the sands were dotted with women digging clams. These 
women come from a long distance in their little carts, and 
their patient horses wait their mistresses' pleasure. Owing to 
some atmospheric peculiarity every object seemed magni- 
fied, and away out on the horizon these little horses, and 
their industrious drivers assumed giant proportions.*' 

The bird Isles, Iks aux Oiseaax described by the Jesuits, 
as Les ColombUrs^ dove cots, in 1632, are two bare rocks of 
red sand stone, three-quarters of a mile apart, the largest 
known as Gannet Rock is 1,300 feet long and 100-140 feet 
high, lined with vertical cliffs. These isles are haunted by 
immense numbers of sea fowl, gannets, guillemots, puffins, 
kittiwakes,and raizor-billed auks \ immense quantities of eggs 
are carried thence by the islanders ; they are mentioned by 
Herriot, in 1807. Loiter on Audubon notices them in his 
great work,and, in i86o,thelateDr. Henry Bryant, of Boston, 
on his way from Quebec to Labrador, visited the Magdalen 
Island group, and gave an excellent history of its avi-fauna 
which, I reproduced, in the Chronicles of the St Lawrence. 
Charlevoix visited these islands, in 1720, and wondered how 
in such a multitude of nests every bird immediately finds 
its own. We fired a gun which gave the alarm thro' all the 
fiying commonwealth, and there was formed above the two 
islands, a thick cloud of these birds which was at least two 
or there leagues around. The naturalist Chas.-B. Cory has 
also described the birds frequenting the Magdalen Islands, 
Miss Pope thus alludes to her ascent of the rock. *' The 
Great Bird x\%ts to a height of 140 feet perpendicularly from 
the sea. It has four acres of ground on its summit. Here 
(in 1872). a light house was built where, on a salary of twelve 
hundred dollars per annum, a man is content to live almost 
alone in the middle of these raging waters. To call upon 
this gentleman requires more '^ pluck" than is usually 
demanded on a visit of ceremony. By the aid of a crane 

— 205 — 

and windlass, a wooden box was lowered into which we 
packed ourselves with, it must be confessed, a slight mis- 
giving. The word was given and this primitive elevator 
began to ascend ; up we went past countless denizens of 
the feathered kingdom, gannets, puffins, guillemots and 
gulls, birds of all sizes, shapes and colours. The air was 
full of birds, and the air was also very unpleasant by reason 
of the contents of these birds' larder, being somewhat decom- 
posed ; everywhere, scraps of decaying fish and bits of egg 
shells, birds lame, fearless almost to stupidity. The ascent 
took about half an hour. Those who possess the spirit of 
adventure will find it well worth their while to call on the 
lighthouse keeper in his " sky-parlors " on Bird Rock. The 
light on the top is a fixed light visible for twenty-one miles. 
With the station is connected a telegraph-office to report acci- 
dents. The noise made by the birds is something deafening." 

{A naturaliit in the Magdalen Islands, by 

0H8.-B. COBT, Botion, 1878.) 

During my short stay at Amherst, I learned with satis- 
faction of the efforts made to improve the breed of cattle — 
especially horses, on the island : the R. C. pastor, Revd M. 
Boudreault has gone to considerable expense, in importing 
from France choice specimens of the Norman and Percheron 
equine race. One thing I would not have cared to eat was 
the island pork, which seems fed, chiefly, on fish and 
lobster offal. I met along the shore several droves of pigs 
luxuriating on this repulsive offal, which must necessarily 
give to their flesh a very undesirable flavour. The 
walrus, common about the year 1800, according to Mr, 
Cory, is now a thing of the past, though its tusks and bones 
are often exhumed ; but the lobster, the ubiquitous lobster 
is still a potent factor in the wealth of these islands, though 

— 206 — 

he has lost the magic power, he was supposed to wield of 
yore, over " ladies fair " who love sardines. 


" It happened when the son was high, 

And the wind blew fresh and free, 
When the bottle-nosed whale was lunching on shale, 

And washing it down with the sea. 

It was close bj the side of a lonely stream 

That foamed on a desolate strand ; 
A ladj &ir was sitting there, 

And a box was in her hand. 

She raised the box, and she gave it a shake. 

And she smiled when she found it was full ; 

Then she played on a fife with the edge of a knife, 
Keeping time with a three-foot rule. 

And this was the song that the lady sang : 

" Just open this box for me ; 
I love sardines when they're boiled with beans. 

And mixed with the sands of the sea." 

The sound of her voice was sweet to hear, 

And was wafted o'er many a wave, 
Till at last it fell, like a siren's spell. 

On the heart of a merman braye. 

He listened awhUe, then smiled a smile 

As he looked at himself in the glass. 
Then dressed with speed in an ulster of weed 

And trousers of tangle and grass. 

He went to the place where the lady sang, 

And he heard what she'd got to say ; 
She told him the dish was sardine fish, 

But he bolted clean away. 

— 207 — 

For hlB biother4ii-law was of kin to a skate ; 

The skate was of high degree ; 
And ereiy one knew it was perfectly true 

Sardines were the cousins of h% 

With a terrible frown he dived straight down 

To the depths of the ocean green ; 
His trousers he tore and his ulster, and swore 

They would never again be seen. 

But the lady sang as she sang before : 

" Just open this box for me, 
For I love sardines when they're boiled with beans, 

And mixed with the sands of the sea." 

She sang this same, but as nobody came, 

She thought it as well to try, 
So down on the rocks she hammered the box, 

And then she began to cry : 

" Oh, I love sardines when they're boiled with beans, 
And mixed with the sands of the sea. 

I am dying for some. Will nobody come 
And open this box for me ? " 

Now aU alone, close under a stone, 

A lobster was lying asleep ; 
At the sound of her cries he rubbed his eyes, 

And picked himself up for a peep. 

He could open the box without any knocks, 
So he went and he offered his claw. 

At the sight of the beast her misery ceased, 
And she asked for a shake of his paw. 

He gave her his claw on the desolate strand, 

But he never would let her go. 
« My lady," says he, ^ you'll come with me 

To the regions down below." 

— 203 — 

He took the lady straight away 

To the depths of the ocean blae, 

And whatever became of that beautiful dame 
There is nobody ever knew. 

There are some fblks say on the Ist of May 
She Is seen with a glass in her hand, 

And that she was sold to the merman bold 
Who came to the desolate strand. 

But eyeiy night when the moon shines bright 

The ghost of the lady is seen, 
All dressed at her need in an ulster of weed, 

And her hair is a bright sea-green. 

(W.-D. Soott-Moncrleff; in Sdrper*t Magcuine,) 


Mistasrini Folia — The Birds and Fishes met at Lake 
St. Johuy Saguenay District^ Province of Quebec, 

HaviDg had occasion to visit that fertile, and pictures, 
que valley of Lake St, John, I availed myself of the 
opportunity to note, en passant, the birds and fishes of the 
place. In a short sojourn of one week, what especially struck 
me was the presence of several well-known members of the 
feathered race still in full song, whilst, around Quebec, they 
had been silent for several weeks : here follow the names of 
those I actually heard or saw, as copied from my diary. 

" De Chene Hotel, St. Cyriac, township of Kenogami, 2nd 
August, 1883, 5.30 a. m. — Weather overcast, threatening 
rain this morning ; a perfect concert of birds round me. 

Robins. — A number singing in the trees surrounding 
the hotel. 

Hermit thrush. — There goes the metallic fink/e, tinkle 
of my melodious friends ; three or four answering one 
another, from the fir, and spruce trees, and calcined trunks 
of trees, spared by the great fire of 1870, and standing soli- 
tary sentinels on the mountain side. 

Wilson's thrush. — Two or three, carolling merrily in the 
neighborhood, attracted probably by the limpid trout stream> 
which my companion is preparing to whip for speckled 

Song-sparrow. — Once heard. The top of the morning to 
you, friend Rossignol! Does your wife know you are out ? 

— 210 — 

Summer yellow bird. — A pair or two flitting round. 

Canadian goldfinch, — Four or five seen perched on a 
fence rail. 

White-throated sparrow, — How shrill his whistle 1 Are 
you, welcome harbinger of summer, a lineal descendant 
of the Sifleux^ the Whistler, which the author of " Wake- 
Robin, &c./' John Burroughs, tells us he heard, in these 
very regions long ago, when he was visiting I^e Jacques- 
Cartier." (i) 

Vesper sparrow. — A few bars of his weird melody 
wafted by the wind to me from an adjoining pasture. Why 
I might almost imagine myself, on the St. Louis Road, at 
Quebec, homeward driving past that broad pasturage at 
Marchmont — so dear in May to the Vesper Sparrow — " the 
poet of the plain,** as Burroughs styles him. 

Golden-winged woodpecker. — " Le Pivart crie — sigru 
de pluie^^ — " the Rain Bird — shrieks, a true sign of coming 
rain," says my white haired landlord, old Dechesne. The 
gaudily dressed Woodpecker, a true ant-eater, known to the 
French peasant under no other name than " Pivart," did 
not, as he occasionally does, prophesy in vain. Rain we 
soon had, in buckets full. 

3rd August, 1883, under the hospitable roof of the 
log-house built by the woodmen of Lake St. John, on Alma 
Island, near the Grande Dkharge \ we found few birds here. 

Chicadee. — I heard far off, in the dense woods, the 
quaint voice of the Canadian Chicadee saying " Qui es-tu " ? 
Who are you ? 

Red-throated diver. — Whilst our bark canoe is swiftly 
gliding over the rippling lake under the experienced hands 
of that prince of fishers, Henry Dery, and his trusty friend 
Gaudreault, of GtandMont^ we had ample time to make a 

<1) Locusts and Wild Honet, J. Burroughs, page 223. 

— 211 — 

basty survey of the innumerable wooded isles, which 
dot the lower end of the lake not far from its main dis- 
charge. On rounding a sandy grass-fringed point, we 
tumbled unexpectedly on a squad of these graceful denizens 
of the liquid element — the Red-throated Diver — more than 
twenty, we thought. " Twenty-four young ones and the 
old mother " chimed in our genial old friend D^ry. '' I 
know them well, and have counted them, what is more ; 
having met them on two recent occasions at this spot, when 
paddling to Alma Island. See the care the old Dame 
takes of her chicks — two families, I should say, obeying 
one mother. Does it not look like a pic-nic of school girls 
out on a frisk with the demure school mistress?" 
We assented. 

Wild pigeons. — During my stay, I saw but four. Previous 
to the great bush fire of 1870 the northern mountain ranges 
were infested with them. Did this dire conflagration, which 
swept over so many hundreds of miles of this formerly well- 
wooded district, destroy all the bushes whose berries they 
so eagerly devour ? One thing certain : the Passenger 
Pigeon, formerly so abundant in this Province, in fact so 
numerous even in the immediate vicinity of Quebec, that 
large flocks have been known to light on the Glacis and 
Ramparts of the city, have quite deserted us. A straggler, 
perchance, an unmated solitary cock bird, may occasionally 
be met ; at most, a few birds, where thousands congregated 
twenty-five years ago. 

Hawks. — At Rivihe au Sable^ near Chicoutimi, a dimi- 
nutive hawk flew over a field ; the distance was too great 
to make out whether he was a sparrow or pigeon hawk. He 
turned, and lit on the short bough of an isolated, calcined 
trunk, standing in a field. The tree had a cavity in it, and 
he seemed in the act of feeding his young, his nest being 
probably there. 

Crows. — A great scarcity of crows noticeable. 

— 212 — 

Great northern diver — Le Huart \ this stately aquatic 
bird is common on the Lake. Breeds doubtless on some 
of the secluded islands, strewn all round. 

Canada goose. — ** Large flocks seen last fall. Very nume- 
rous formerly." Has Mr. Price's steamer on the Lake scared 
them ? 

Brant. — " Common in autumn ; " we saw none. 

Ducks — "The Scoter, and Black, and Gray Duck common 
in the fall." We saw some ducks in the distance, but could 
not identify them. Our canoemen, both aged men, told us 
of the quantities of ducks and geese which formerly sought 
the retired islands of Lakes St. John and Mistassini as nesting 
places. The influx of settlers, the steamer's whistle, the 
persistent inroads of French Canadian Chasseurs have driven 
them further north. 


Lake St. John is renowned for its land-locked salmon — 
wa-na-nish is the popular name. A Quebec angler would 
go fairly wild over the excitement, experienced by a couple 
of hours' flyfishing in the pools of the Grande Decharge — 
at the eastern outlet of the lake. August seems to be the 
month selected by this noble fiih — the wana-nish — to 
ascend the roaring rapids of the lake, when the adjoining 
pools are alive with them. There are three pools at 
the great discharge. The remous de la Vacke CailU — so 
styled on account of its creamy colour, and consisting of 
the froth which floats in clots on its dark tide — is the best 
fishing spot of the whole lake. I have since learned that 
the riparian rights and fishing privilege had been acquired 
from the Government by Wra. Griffith, Esq., of Quebec ; if 
so, no doubt, Mr. Griffith will appoint a guardian and pro- 
hibit all seine fishing. This done, that pool will be very 
valuable. Another celebrated remou or pool, is that known 
as Remou d Caron. 

— 213 — 

The fish attain up to 5 lbs. — though some have been 
known to weigh as many as 9 lbs. An adult wa-na-nish is 
extremely vigorous and when held by good tackle, the sport 
he affords is rare. Once hooked, then, a rush — then, six to 
eight lively jumps three feet and more clean out of the 
water ; then a rush again. It takes about ten minutes to 
kiU your fish and land him. Nothing is more exhilarating 
than the sight the pool presents on a favorable August day. 
The wa-na-nish comes up to the surface, showing among 
the firoth, the curve of their back, and slightly-forked tail 
above water, a tiny porpoise, you would say. They taka 
the fly three inches or so under water, and dark flies seem 
to please their fancy more than very bright ones. When the 
voracious big pike that mfest the lake are all destroyed, the 
wchna-nish are likely to increase in number very much. Lake 
St. John contains also Dore, Whitefish — which the natives 
call ouiteouch suckers and a coarse fish known as Cat- 
fish, with an enormous head. They attain to a great size r 
three feet and more in length. There seems to be few trout 
in the lake. Have those ogres, the pike, gobbled them up ? 


Lake St. John, 17th May, 1889. 

I readily accepted the invitation of Mr. B.-A Scott, 
manager of the Roberval Lumber Co. to form one of a 
small party desirous of exploring, in the Perihonka, the 
falls of the Mistassini river, 20 miles from its mouth ; a feat 
never yet performed by steam« The Peribanka^ launched 
last autumn, was subsidized by the provincial government 
for the promotion of the colonization of the Lake St. John 
xlistrict, by facilitating communication between the different 
settlements on the lake. It is a handsome and powerful 
craft — 97 feet keel — built expressly to draw; but little water 


— 214 — 

— ^so as to adapt herself — ^to the shallow waters on the lake 
shore — ^though there is a depth of loo feet in the centre. 

The present time seemed particularly suitable for 
exploring the numerous tributaries of Lake St. John, as 
the spring-overflow of the great lake, eighteen or twenty 
feet, was at its height. The river Mistassini is two miles 
broad at its mouth, tolerably deep in some parts, 300 
miles long and dotted all through with innumerable, beau- 
tifully wooded isles. Its banks are wild and unsettled, 
except a straggling thatch-covered house, here and there, 
about eleven miles from its entrance. The Peribonka 
made the ascent to this unexplored region in charge of 
an experienced old woodsman, a special pilot for the 
occasion, amidst sunshine and rain accompanied by very 
vivid lightning and thunder. The little boat would rush 
through a fog bank, slacken off speed or stop, just as the 
soundings and fog permitted, always under perfect command. 

At 9 P. M., the fog having increased, it was judged 
prudent to anchor for the night. The stream being deep 
with a bold shore, the Peribonka was moored in front of a 
woodman^s hut, cldse to the bank. Our party landed with- 
out any trouble: the whistle was blown; we listened in 
rapt silence to the tremendous echo leaping from one range 
to the next, — no steamer had ever ventured there before. 
The woodman and trapper, monsieur Lalancette, jr., sur- 
rounded by his numerous progeny, rushed to the beach and 
discharged his fowling-piece, inviting us to visit his modest 
roof. The ceremony of shaking hands over, Madame Lalan- 
cette gave us most graphic sketches of her forest life —free 
from the scandal bustle and noise of the outer world. 

Few white men, in summer, ascend the Mistassini in their 
canoes ; in winter, the lumbermen use her house as a 
camp. She told us of an eccentric professor • and two 
students camping on the shore last summer, professer Julian 
C. Jaynes, of Hartford, who, she vowed, lived on roasted 

— 215 — 

firogs and broiled crows, after skinning them ; she added an 
anecdote about a bull-frog, which much amused us. 

Professor Jaynes, according to madame Lalancette must 
have been no ordinary angler ; he is stated to have caught, 
at the foot of the Mistassini falls so many Wa-n^-nish, that 
his creel full, he deemed right to return the rest to their 
native element. 

Monsieur Lalancette, related with gusto^ his various 
experiences as a trapper of otter, minx, even of beaver, 
though beaver were getting, he said, very scarce. No red 
deer, and few caribou on the shores of the wild Mistassini, 
but occasionally, bears on the hills in the blueberry 
season. During his whole career, he had, he said, trapped 
in a steel trap set for otter, but one carcajou (wolvereen)^* 
but then he was a wopper ! — as fierce, with his lacerated 
paw, as ten thousand wild cats ! ! 

— " Any round here " inquired my sporting friend ? 

I do not think so, replied the disciple of fur, fin and- 

This exciting camp gossip went buzzing through our brain, 
the live long night, when we retired to our improvised bunks, 
over one of which floated the Union Jack to scare away the 
musquitoes, probably ; no other noise, in the pitchy dark- 
ness, but the breck ! breck I of professor Jaynes friends, the 

About midnight, my sporting friend awoke, sprung up, 
vowing, he had heard the howls of a carcajou^ close to where 
the Peribonka was moored : the door of Madame Lalancette's 
hut opened, to let in her disconsolate pet — ^the house dog, 
J^rincCy forgotten in the damp fog outside, whining ; then, all 
was again wrapped in silence. 

At break of day, the Peribonka got up steam ; with the 
loveliest sunshine, we steamed up to the mysterious falls 
which few white men have seen ; none certainly,from the deck 

— 216 — 

of a steamer : the patches of froth and soon after, the roar 
of the falls hidden by three intervening islands were noted* 
These islands girt with rocks, create strong and dangerous 
rapids. The Petibonka turned back : on a council of the 
authorities, it was decided to try the rapids again. We shot 
past the two last islands and came in full view of the roar- 
ing cauldron ; but no further could we go, and the descent 
was made at race-horse speed. An old trapper fired a gun 
in response to our salute, the steamer's whistle ; the effects 
in these wild woods were loud, grand, indescribable. One 
incident much amused us : the terror of the sheep and of 
some cows, on hearing the boat's whistle ; they retreated 
at a gallop up a hill— concealing themselves in a thicket 

Such my pleasant experience of a visit, the first ever 
made by a steamer, to the falls of the Mistassini, where 
the celebrated French savant, Andr^ Michaux, was botonis- 
ing, on the 22nd August, 1792. 

Doubtless if the water does not get too low, from the 
summer drought, the Peribonka, will more than once, be 
put in commission to explore this inaccessible fastness of 
the north. 





IN 1886 


The commodore of the vatch club J. U. Gregory. 

Mac of the isles Sagaman, Sportsman, Navigator. 

Jonathan Oldbuck Antiquary, Naturalist, Discoverer. 

Carleton ... -m, ... ..m ... • Sailing Master — Old Mariner, 
Jean Lavoie.. Steward, Chef-de-cuisine, Weather-prophet 

Napoleon Maturin Able-bodied seaman. 

Flibertv-Gibbet ^ Cabin Boy. 

Fox. ^ A Sillery Collie. 

Sgenb : —Sometimes on board the HIRONDELLE 

Sometimes on Shore. 



The seal Islanda — Their game — Their Legends* 

" On the bosom of a river 
Where the sun milooBed his qaiyer 
Sailed a vessel light and free 
Morning dew-drops' hung like Manna 
On the bright folds of her banner 
And the zephirs rose to fon her 
Softly to the radiant sea.** 

Basin of St. ThomaSy 10th sept., 1886. 

" Just ease her off a point or two, Commodore, don't hug 
these muddy flats too close ; they run out nearly three miles 
from the mouth of the Basin ; I have known them well from 
my youth. Now, I think we can sail clear of this land-locked 
harbor. Do you see that group of white dwellings ? There, in 
1837-8, used to be one of the strongholds of the Patriots of 
1837 ; and in 1759 the ruthless invader of the soil left his 
indelible mark on these Canadian homes. " Such the words 
of Jonathan Oldbuck, more generally known as the Anti- 
quary, the respected guest of the Commodore of the Quebec 
Yacht Club. 

— " Trh bien^ Monsieur V Antiquairey^ replied the burly 
Commodore. ** I always thought St. Thomas, or Montmagny, 
as it is now styled, was rich in historic lore. Dame Nature 
seems also to have played some strange prauks in scooping 
out these channels amid the shoals, and in forming this 
sheltered basin at the foot of the foaming water-fall of La 
HivUre du Sud, Miaht not the removal of these boulders 
in the basin, and a little judicious dredging of the mud, make 
this into a snug harbor for the coasting craft, and even foreign 
vessels ; that is, provided the neap tides of summer did not 
choke the harbor with mud ? " 

— 220 — 

— "Do you see," said the Antiquary, " those eel-fishery 
stakes, nearly covered by the tide, a mile from the shore ? 
There, or close by, stood, at the end of the last century and 
even later, the Roman Catholic parish church. The river 
had eaten away the clay soil which clothed the whole area 
occupied by the old church, and its cemetery, and even 
beyond. A new church site became necessary. In 1S22, the 
present temple of worship was built two miles inland. 

The harbor has also undergone a great change within a 
hundred years ; tradition tells how its entrance was once 
spanned by a single plank ; the shores are now more than a 
mile apart. " 

— ** Carleton," said the Commodore, "shake out two reefs 
of the mainsail, we have yet plenty of flood, and with such 
a spanking breeze on our beam, we can yet make Cap 
BriiU^ before the turn of the tide. I shall show our friends 
as we sail past, the spot of the memorable shipwreck of the 
Prench man-of-war L Elephant^ stranded there in September, 
1729. We will, once there, drop down with the ebb under 
the dizzy heights of Cape Tourmente, so named by Cham- 
plain, and where I have shot in December more than one 
woodland caribou. They come every fall from the interior, 
pick their way through some of the pine-clad ravines of the 
sombre cape, to this abrupt shore below, lap up the salt lick, 
and return. I recollect shooting one close to the cross 
you may have noticed on the summit." 

This landmark, erected in 1869 and since enlarged, seems 
from the river like a white speck amid the blooming shrub- 
bery. The party looked out, as the yacht sailed past, for 
some of the ravines in the neighborhood of the three dimi- 
nutive lighthouses perched on the rock high above the St. 
Lawrence ; a few fine old pine trees grow there, which, 
with the lofty Cap Tourmente, form part of the vast 
seigniofy, ten leagues in front, of the Quebec Seminary. 
More than two centuries back Bishop Laval selected 
the Piiit Cap of St. Joachim — which our excursionists can 
see to the west — ^and the reedy meadows, and fertile grain- 
fields at the base for a settlement, where he, in verity, 
established in Canada the first model farm. Through a gap 

— 22t — 

in the waving tree-tops, they also caught a glimpse of the 
Chateau Bellevue, where, under the shade of green groves, 
the Laval University and Quebec Seminary professors each 
year spend their well-merited August vacation. This is 
assuredly one of the most picturesque spots in all Canada. 
During the occupation of the country by the French, inward- 
bound ships used to follow the north shore of the St. Law- 
rence as far up as Cape Tourmente, probably because the 
south channel was narrow ; and then cross over, past Pointe 
Argentenay, on the eastern end of the island of Orleans, in 
the direction of the Point of St. Michel, on the sDuth shore, 
thereby avoiding Beaujeu's bank, and the dangerous St. 
Thomas shoals ; this channel is now used chiefly by the 
Richelieu Co. line of steamers, conveying tourists to Murray 
Bay and the Saguenay. 

** Bout ship, let go and haul,*' sung out the Commodore, 
and the Hirondelle, flapping her white wings in the breeze, 
turned from the frowning cape, shot ahead like a sea swal- 
low, and pointed for a low ledge of rocky islands, after pass- 
ing the Baitures Hates, a famous resort for Canada geese, 
and snow geese, leased by the Quebec Seminary to a 
Quebec sportsman. The rocky isles, on which the surf 
rippled, were barely vi-ible in the distance. 

** There, gentlemen, " exclaimed Mr. Oldbuck, " there 
are the famous Seal Rocks." 

Forty-five miles below Quebec, about mid-channel in our 
noble river, which even here expands in breadth, to twenty- 
one miles, there rises a bleak, uninhabited island, at low tide, 
five miles long, by one mile broad. From time immemorial, 
it has been known to the English as Seal Rocks or Seal 
Islands ; to the French, as Battures-aux-Loups-Marins, 
Doubtless the seals, for ages as plentiful here as the walrus 
were on the Magdalen Islands, up to the middle of the last 
century, have now found a safer and more secluded habitat 
in the for North, though each winter they still venture to 
the ice-bound coast. Long after the seals had bidden adieu 

— 222 — 

to these solitary Canadian downs, the native sportsmen put 
in an appearance. For many years past, with each autumn, 
and often in advance, the gunners found their way to this 
loved sporting ground. A few years ago a cluh of sports- 
men of St-Tean-Port-Joly, purchased this game resort from 
the Provincial Government (i) The August high tide, 
exceptionally high, reduces the seals' old haunts to about 
one mile in length and seven acres in width. At the north- 
west point there exists a diminutive mound or knoll, on 
which are perceptible, among the few other signs of vegeta- 
tion, a grove of spruce, fir and wild cherry trees. Conspi- 
cuous to this day is the ancient apple tree, of which Mr. De 
Gaspd, in his " Memoirs, " records that " one half bears 
sweet, and the other half, sour apples ; though there exists 
no trace or record of the tree having ever been grafted." 
This shadowy relic of the past, still endures, and yielded fruit 
this very summer. Thereto hangs a tale of woe, with which 
doubtless the Antiquary will favor us. 

The other portion of Seal Rocks, bare at high water 
(though there is an instance on record of a party of sports- 
men having once to seek asylum in their boat to escape 
the rising flood), trending southward, is very properly 
styled the SportsmetCs Refuge, A channel running north-east,, 
and south-west separates the shore, where stands the refuge, 
or shooting box, from the mound or knoll, known as Chati- 
gny's Knoll, the channel fordable at low tide only. 

It is well called the Sportsmen's Refuge, and here only,^ 
in a rude hut erected by them, they find shelter against the 
easterly gales, which sweep over this forlorn shore with 
great violence. 

(1 j Seal Islands and Shoals, in Biver St Lawrence, opposite Biver 
Trois-Sanmons, were rented on April 18, 1854, to O.-B. Fournier, of 
Islet, at an annual rent of $60.40, cent redeemable by payment of 
capital at the rate of 6 per cent, to Government of Province of 








— 223 — 

^ po^ Animal and vegetable life is indeed scanty on this soli* 

Qtmnn, ■ tary down. Few if any singing birds there ; the minstrels of 

to this the grove seek the companionship of man. What use, indeed, 

sports- wocdd be to them the sweet gift of song, without an appre- 

It from ciattve audience ? Each summer, however, a colony of noisy 

h ^ crows, detached from, and not missed by the black hordes 

) aboQt frequenting the adjacent group of islands, and whose head- 

: north* . quarters are Jle-^ux-ComeiiUsj Craw Island, a few miles to 

noil, 00 I the west — claim possession, doubtless by prescription, of 

vegeu* . the fir and spruce grove overshadowing Chatign/s KnolL 

CoQS{i Here, some nest. Occasionally may be heard overhead and 

Mr. De ^ seen, a hoarse old raven, winging his heavy, laborious flight 

If bess \ toward the bleak ledges of Cape Tourmente, to the north- 

re exists I west, or mayhap, further north, to his callow brood among 

;iafted.' ' the cloud-capped peaks of Passedes-Monts^ in the Saguenay 

district. His funereal, unearthly kroroc^ kra-ac^ seems in 
keeping with the dismal aspect of the land. In September, 
a silvery gull occasionally lights in the mellow sunshine 
amid the eddies round the shoals, in quest of smelts. Save 
the report of a gun, or the whistle of a passing steamer, no 
^pg I sound invades this lone, arid beach, quite extensive at low 



b water 
f sports 



re only» 

re with 

— " But," asked the Commodore, " why did not the sports- 
men build on Chatigny's Knoll, so well protected by trees ? " 
" For divers cogent and powerful reasons," retorted Mac 
of the Isles, " which we will allow the Antiquary to expound 
to us ? But before we hear him, let me speak of the game. 
At Seal Rocks, as elsewhere in the Province of Quebec, the 
law tolerates no spring or summer shooting. The island is 
especially famous for ducks, and the ist of September is the 
time fixed by the Legislature for the opening of the season. 
These downs seem to particularly attract the old and young 
' birds, returning at the beginning of September from their 

' breeding grounds at Hudson's Bay, in seveial islands on the 

*^ j^ of I Labrador coast and some of the solitary isles of Lakes St. 

^gjjtof \ John and Mistassini. Tired out by storms they congregate 

yisoe ^ I in vast flocks on the reedy, muddy, and sandy beaches of 

Seal Rocks at low tide. At present the locality supplies the 

— 224 — 

Quebec markets with quantities of game, such as Canada 
geese, a few snow geese, black and gray ducks, brant, blue 
and green winged teal, snipe, god wits, golden plover, ring 
plover, and smaller beach bird««. The minor game are 
ushered in with the high tide of August, about the 2 ist of 
that month, and precede duck shooting. The season lasts 
about three months, August, September and October. Mr. 
Toussaint, of Quebec, proprietor of the island for the last 
eleven years, intrusts the care of his preserve to a game 
keeper who lands at Seal Rocks about Aug. i, and leaves 
about beginning of November." 

You, seignior Mac of the Isles, said the Commodore, 
you must know something of this famous island. 

— The little I may know, you are welcome to, retorted 

When a young man, said the island chieftain, one 
August afternoon, whilst returning to Labrador, in my yawl 
TAe Outardty I was skirling the green beaches of PoinU-h- 
la-Prairie^ on Coudres Island. Our little craft close-hauled, 
with a fresh breeze of north wind, was rapidly nearing Seal 

" The sky has an ugly look," remarked my sailing master 
— by name Carleton — a grim, old salt who prided himself 
on being weather wise. Had we not better seek a good 
anchorage for the night, and take advantage of the first flood 
to-morrow morning. Should this breeze hold out, the Napo- 
leon wharf in the Quebec harbor will see us early." 

Carleton, though naturally a taciturn, reserved man, had 
a knack of getting garrulous, whenever a magnum of 
Mountain Dew, or prime old Jamaica warmed the cockles of 
his old heart : that day, being the anniversary of his wed- 
ding, he had joyfully drank long life to his cara sposa — - a 
demure and elderly personage, residing on an Island close 
by. I assented and then, that being my first voyage to 
Labrador, I enquired from him what might be the name of 
the low isle we were approaching. 

— 225 — 

— Seal Rocks, he replied : I can recollect it as far back 
as 1807 — when I passed it on a trip to England, not of my 
own choice. I was one of Simon Latresse*s party, on the 
13th September of that year : we had been attending a ball 
in St. John suburbs, at Quebec : the Press gang followed 
us : we ran ; poor Latresse was shot, and I was kidnapped 
and sent on board of H. M. {ng3LteB/ossom,C2Lpt Pickett :(i) 
I was an active cabin boy in those days and soon got to 
swallow my hard tack, pork, and gill of Jamaica, as merrily 
as any other jack tar on board. 

— It was then, I presume, I added, you got your English 
historical name of " Carle ton " ? 

— No, Sir, replied my nautical friend ; no, that name 
had been bequeathed to me by my father to perpetuate, 
he s.iid, the extreme kindness shown to him by one of the 
greatest men England ever sent out to govern Canada — 
Sir Gay Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester. 

Sir Guy Carleton had been instrumental in saving the 
life of my beloved father, whom he found in 1798, adrift in 
a dory, opposite Deadman's Island, one of the Magdalen 
Group, where my father had gone in quest of lobsters, and 
been blown out to sea. Capt. Coffi 1, at the special request 
of Lord Dorchester, had sent one of his boats, in a heavy surf 
and brought back my father, whom His Excellency styled 
his waif. Proud I ever was of bearing the name of such a 
good man, and when I risked my own life to save that of 
others, opposite to St. Thomas, and received from Sir E.-P. 
Tach^, a medal in consequence, I used to think oPdear 
Governor Carleton's kindness toward my own father. 

— ^Well, said I, shall we try and fetch the anchorage of 
Pointe-aux-Pins^ at Crane Island, or else anchor under the 

(1) N. B. — The details of the melancholy incident appear In Ze 
CtviUxdUny a Quebec news sheet founded in 1806 and stUl in exis-' 


— 226 — 

lee oiSealJRocks — spread our tent, under Chatigny's tree — 
make a fire, cook our repast, and then sleep like princes in 
this snug arbour. Never shall I forget the look of dismay, 
which spread over Carleton's withered, pock-marked face ; 
" not for a kingdom, said he in a hollow voice. '' 

— ^Why not ? I retorted. 

There are five generations of your family, whom I 
have, at dififerent times, conveyed in my yawl from their 
Island Home to Quebec, or to St. Thomas — I hope I may 
yet be long spared (i) to attend on them ; but I must 
leave you to your fate, should you persist in your present 
idea of sleeping on Chatigny's Knoll. 

Why, the place is haunted ? — 'tis well known — yes, 
haunted ! 

The time was, long ago, when a devil-may-care Gasp^ 
iisherman, I also, laughed at the superstitious awe in which 
this knoll was held on the coast. 

One fall, I had sailed from Perc^ for home in October, 
in a fishing barge with a comrade. On All Saints Day^ we 
reached IsU-aux-Coudres and landed there. I was desirous 
of attending High Mass, on the spot where Jacques Cartier 
had had celebrated the first mass said in Canada, on 7th 
September, 1535. The sermon was all about the dead. My 
companion a neer-do-weil, managed after mass, to purchase 
from a trading schooner, a bottle of " old Jamaica " en 
esprit^ to use his expresison. He swallowed a portion, and 
took the remainder on board ; we anchored that night at 
Seal Rocks : he landed, saying he defied all the evil spirits 
of the place, and would sleep at Chatigny's Knoll I 
remained on board, and was reposing quietly under the main- 
sail, which served as an improvised tent when, about mid- 
night, I was awoke by the loud cries of my comrade on 

(1) This nonagenarian sea-dog expired in March 1889, at Crane 

— 227 — 

shore, he begged to be taken on board, vowed that the place 
was infested with revenants^ spirits. In vain I pleaded the 
difficulty of landing in the dark, and begged of him to wait 
until morning. The voices he fancied he had heard, were I 
added, the ciies of young seals or of loons, both of which 
at times resemble much human voices, and the groans 
were caused doubtless by the grating of the trunks of trees 
against one another, under the action of the wiod. 

In fact, he did not even wait until the boat had touched 
the shore but waded out in the surf. Once on board, he 
crossed himself devoutly and vowed that no, never would 
he put his foot on Seal Rocks : above all, never would he 
dare sleep there, on the eve of All souls Day, I firmly believe 
that the powerful sermon about the dead he had heard 
at Isle aux Coudres, the day previous, had worked on his 
brain during the still hours of night — possibly also, his 
imagination heated by the potent fumes of the ^^ Jamaique 
€n esprit " had caused him to mistake for the wails of the 
departed, the discordant cries of young seals, and of the 
water fowl, which swarm round the island, mingled with 
the moaning of the night wind among the trees : but, he 
insisted that he had communed with the revenanis or 
spirits of the dead, let loose, as is popularly believed, at 
mid-night on the eve of All souls Day, their annual festival. 

Carleton's long yarn was here interrupted by the lively 
voice of the commodore. 

— Come, Seignior antiquary, said he, let us have the his- 
tory of the remarkable Knoll. 


— Gentlemen, replied Jonathan Oldbuck, you shall have 
the dismal tale, as my old friend DeGasp^, narrated it to me ; 
— mind it is not a Legend. " Long before I was born, said 
DeGasp^, two young men — friends from their youth — lived 

— 2-28 — 

in the same parish on the south shore, opposite to Seal 
RockSy near neighbors. Rarely could one have met two 
beings, of dispositions so unlike, and still friends. One, 
named Pierre Jean, was as repulsive, physically, as he was 
morally ; a tall, ill-favored individual, swarthy like an Indian ; 
his mother was a squaw, he was possessed of tremendous 
bodily strength, which he was proud of exhibiting. His 
rude dialect, or rather /a/^/V pointed him out as an Acadian, 
by birth.: a blank his mind seemed to be. His chum, 
Chatigny, was a handsome, fair-skinned youth of middle 
height, with soft, expressive eyes. Ever kind and obliging, 
he had won all hearts ; whilst his comrade was detested 
on every side and rightly so ; else how should his pretended 
friendship for Chatigny turn, all at once, into implacable 
hatred. One sunday, after vespers, Pierre Jean, happening 
to meet his friend, said to him in his broken dialect, with a 
sarcastic smile : '' Chatigny, if you, are a man, return me 
this rock which I shall hurl at you, and suiting the deed to 
the word, he threw an immense stone towards his friend, 
who had retreated about fifteen feet to be out of the reach 
of the deadly missile. 

The rock fell a few inches in front of Chatigny, who 
stooping seized hold of the boulder, and threw it with such 
force that it lodged, close to Pierre Jean's feet. The specta- 
tors were astounded : none had ever suspected that Chatigny 
was endowed with such superhuman strength. 

Pierre Jean, humbled, concealed his wounded pride, 
even complimented his friend on his muscle, but, it was 
remarked that a gloomy scowl contracted his brow. 

Soon after, the two chums, apparently as friendly as ever, 
started for a hunting excursion to Seal Rocks, but strange 
to say, one only returned in the sail boat in which they had 
crossed over, Pierre Jean. It is not stated how he accounted 
for the dis-appearance of Chatigny : a casual remarks 

— 229 — 

uttered by him afler his return created a dark surmise as to 
his comrade's fate. . 

Once, whilst taking his evening meal, he remarked " If 
Chatigny had a plate of this soup to night, he would relish 
it exceedingly ! " 

These words spoken with a sarcastic air, coupled with the 
unaccountable absence of Chatigny, induced the distressed 
relatives of the latter to cross over to Seal Rocks, in search 
of him ; there, awaited them a melancholy spectacle. Cha- 
tigny, lay under the shade of a spruce tree, nearly dead. He 
was made to swallow a few drops of cordial, when he 
seemed to rally enough to speak and said : " If Pierre Jean 
had heard my moans of anguish, he never would have had 
the inhumanity to allow the friend of his childhood to die 
of hunger. Great God ! what were my feelings of despair, 
when on returning from shooting, I found that he alone 
had dragged over to the water, the boat, which his efforts, and 
mine combined, had scarcely sufficed to draw on the shore. 
I then took in at once his cruel scheme. But tell him, I 
foigive him," and Chatigny expired. 

Such is the outline of the weird narrative embodied in 
the DeGasp^'s Memoirs anent Chatigny's KnolL 

Ma Oame. — Lieut.- Oovemor LeleUier. 

The yacht was careening over under a stiff westerly breeze ; 
the flood tide had just turned ; an experienced old yachts- 
man, Mac of the Isles, held the helm. The low rocky 
shores of Seal Rock were fast disappearing as the Hiron- 
delle, close reefed, plowed merrily through the surf in the 


— 230 — 

direction of St- Jean-Port- J oly Church. To the noith a flock 
of silvery gulls were disporting themselves in the shallows, 
while the descending orb of day shed his mild radiance on 
the leaping Waters. 

— " Pass around the Garcias, " sung out the Commodore 
to the cabin boy. " Let us have a glorious smoke before cast- 
ing anchor at McPherson's House, Crane Island." 

— " We have plenty of time before reaching there, replied 
the Antiquary, ** suppose, most illustrious Commodore, you 
give us one of your jolly hunting stories, an account of the 
grande chasse d'automne you made with the lamented Luc 
Letellier at Sorel." 

— " Well, gentlemen, be it so, light your cigars and giwQ 
me your attention. 

" The famed hunting resorts, " said the Commodore, 
" about fifty-five miles lower than Moatreal, on the St. Law- 
rence, and one hundred and iwcnty-five above Quebec, are 
known to Quebec and Montreal chasseurs as the lies de 
Sorel. These islands and surroundings are the favorite 
feeding grounds of the bnipe and various kinds of plover, 
curlew, woodcock and other beach birds, as well as several 
varieties of ducks, the black or du:^ky duck, redhead, divers 
or fall ducks, blue and green-winged teal, in fact all the 
aquatic birds frequenting the fresh waters of the Province 
of Quebec. S 3rel Islands consist of He du Moine, He des 
Barqyes, He k la Pierre, He de Grace, He du Pads, He St. 
Jean, He aux Grues, He aux Ours and many others leas 
noted, the Commune de Yamaska, la Baie du Febvre, les 
Bales de Maskinong^ et de Yamachiche, with the miles of 
reeds which skirt Lake St. Peter, on b )th shores, as well as 
the islands, some of which are covered with soft maples and 
other deciduous trees, while the others are simply reedy 
islands, when the water is very low, and at other times com- 
pletely flooded. On the higher iandjs, which are commons 
under the control of the municipalities, the farmers of the 
vicinity allow their young cattle, horses and hogs to run 
wild. The latter, being much given to feed upon the bulb 
of a variety of reeds, loot them up, making bare patches, 
which are capital feeding grounds for snipe. One, however, 
needs a quick eye to mark a bird down, should he drop 
into the high reeds or wild hay near by ; or the service of a 

— 231 — 

fiist-class retriever, else one is sure to lose many more birds 
than are brought to bag. 

" On the sandy point of some of these islands, such as 
Pointe au P^caud or lie au Sable, flocks of golden plover, 
curlew or beach birds may be often found, and late in the 
fadl numbers of Canada geese on their juurney to the south, 
light and feed in the bays and even in the fields backs on 
the higher lands. When the ice breaks up in the spring, 
thousands of muskrats are slaughtered by the inhabitants. 
Some have been known to kill in one season 200, with a 
simple weapon — an iron spike fastened to a pole — to pry 
the rodents out of their winter quarters, — disturbed by the 
motion of the ice, lifted from its winter bed by the rush of 
the waters duiing spring freshets. 

** In October, 1866, I visited the Islands of Sorel, 
accompanied by Lieut Montgomery and Ensign Lane 
of the Rifle Brigade, one of H. M.'s crack regiments, 
then quartered in the favorite garrison town, Quebec. 
Just twenty years later, one of the party, now Lieut.-Col. 
Lane, on his return from British Columbia to Halifax, 
where he is now stationed as military secretary to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Lord Alexander Russell, burst into my 
sanctum where I was enjoying a quiet smoke, and related 
to me his sporting adventures, since the capital sport he 
and I, had enjoyed on that memorable occasion when we 
tramped through the marshes at Sorel, bagging one hun- 
dred and fifty snipe in two days to our three guns, and 
bringing back a champagne basket full of birds. We had 
listened to the stories of the French Canadian guides anent 
the marvellous bags of snipe, woodcock and duck got by the 
late Colonel Alphonse De Salaberry, Judge Coursol, W.-H. 
Kerr, Harry King, Fred. Austin and hosts of others who 
flocked each season to these islands. Well do I remember 
the snug quarters on one of these beautifully wooded spots, 
for many years the favorite hunting box of Judge Coursol 
and his friends, with its rows of nails all around well under 
the eaves of the roof, hanging fiom which could be seen 
bunches of snipe, woodcock, duck and plover, placed 
there in the shade and cool air for preservation, and my 
own pleasant quarters in a room of the He au Raisjn or He 
k la Pierre lighthouse. 

— -232 — 

"Of the old guides of those days one is still hale and 
hearty and happy to lead a party to the haunts of game. 
Maxime Monjeau, of lie du Moine, although now near his 
70th year, covered with silvery locks, can yet handle a. 
paddle and bring down a duck when it comes to his decoys 
in I^ Baie du Moine (opposite his little shooting cnbin 
annually set up on the edge of the island, and where he 
happily passes his days, having handed over to his sons, his 
home, further west on the lie du Moine). He continues 
to enjoy the sports to which he is so devotedly attached. 
Another, poor old Bapliste Martel, of La Baie du Febvre^ 
now fully eighty years of age, still talks and dreams of the 
day when he tracked the grizzly bear in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, where he spent twenty-five years of his earlier life in 
the employ of the American Fur Company as a vqyagfur. 
Upon his giving up this occupation, with his hard earned 
saving*:, he purchased a home and a few acres of land near 
his native village, and tried to settle down to the toils of a 
small farmer's life, but he could never thoroughly do so. He 
would cheerfully drop the spade cr hoe, and conduct the 
sportsmen from Quebec or Montreal to the woodcock, 
coverts on the uplands, or snipe marshes of the renowned 
Baie du Febvre. He is now very feeble. I was recently 
told by a neighbor of his that la&t summer the poor old 
man begged his son to drive him to the old duck grounds 
bordering, the lake that he might once more feast his eyes 
on the beloved haunts of other days. He was carefully 
seated in a cart well filled with straw, and slowly driven 
down to the lake shore, which cheered him up wonderfully. 
He asked his son to stop the horse, and stretching out his 
withered arm, pointed out the many spots so dear to his 
memory, rapidly relating his exploits with the many gentle- 
men he had guided over the spot, and the big bags of game 
they had shot. Feeling weak and tired the poor old chas- 
seur completely broke down; in sobbing words he bade 
farewell to the loved spot, and was conveyed home, as he 
said, to prepare himself for another world. Poor old Bap- 
tihte, how often have I followed him over the coverts and 
what glorious sporting hours we have spent together ! 

** Of the other guides of twenty years ago, one was a 
remarkable character called Charlo Paul, a capital fellow 
when not given too much spirits. He has now joined the 
'great majority,' doubtless in better hunting grounds,gathered 

- 233 — 

to his fathers. Charlo did not live to the ripe old age of 
Maxime or Baptiste, no doubt owing to his love for strong 
waters to which they where not so much addicted, and 
evidently live the longer in consequence. 

" Twenty years ago among the islanf!s and b.iys below 
Sorel, large and varied bags of game could be made. On 
more than one occasion a brother sportsman and myself 
have been the foriunate possessors, after three or four days 
of shooting, of as many as 40 to 50 ducks, 60 to 70 English 
snipe, and 30 to 40 golden and other plover, and have come 
home thoroughly revived in health and spirits. 

" On one occasion, I had the honor of having the 
lamented Hon. Luc Letellier de St. Just, then Lieutenant 
Governor of the Province of Quebec, as my guest, our 
quarters being in the lighthouse at the east end of L'lle h, 
la Pierre. It was during a week's living in one small room 
with this renowned politician, that one learned to love him 
as few men have been loved by their own sex. On this 
occasion, our bags of ducks numbered among us, na'nely : 
the Governor, his Aide-de-camp, Capt. F.-E. Gauthier ; his 
cousin, P.-B. Casgrain, M. P., and myself, from 40 to 50 
-ducks per day, and some snipe shot by me. It was on this 
memorable occasion that the Governor of the Province of 
Quebec and companions narrowly escaped with their lives. 
The popular and always obliging Captain Labelle, then in 
command of the steamer Quebec, plying between Montreal 
and the city of Quebec, had offered to stop his boat and 
take us off the island on his way down when we would 
desire it We despatched a messenger early one day to 
Sorel, about seven miles off, to notify him that we would be 
all ready when he would pass that evening, and to request 
him to please stOD his boat to take us on board. By some 
means the message was not delivered to Captain Labelle. 
We, however, not knowing this, made our preparations, got 
all our baji^age, game, dogs and ourselves with the lighthouse- 
•keeper and one man, in a small boat, very much overloaded, 
but as we only intended going out a short distance in the 
shallow water to meet the steamer's boat which we expected 
^would draw too much water to come near the shore, we did 
not fear any danger from swamping. We saw the steamer 
about 9 o'clock at night coming full speed, evidently paying 
no attention to us, when we actively swung a lighted lantern 
to and fro to draw attention. 

— 234 — 

" After the steamer had passed us the captain was evidently 
informed of our attempts to stop her ; knowing the Gover- 
nor was of the party, he ordered the boat to stop and 
reverse, the channel being too narrow to turn her. The 
Governor, with his usual anxiety to give as little trouble as 
possible when he was personally concerned, insisted upon 
our attempting to reach the steamer by the man sculling 
our boat out to her. This, against our advice, was done. 
The current being very strong, and the huge wheels of the 
steamer churning the water against it, created a strong eddy, 
which drew us under the guards of the steamer. Being in 
the forepart of the boat, I caught hold of one of the paddles 
of the wheel and with difficulty hung on to its slimy surface. 
The Governor received a very severe blow on the head 
from one of the stays which nearly stunned him, and we 
greatly feared our boat would swamp as it filled with water. 
One man completely lost his presence of mind and dropped 
the oar overboard ; to the great strength and coolness of 
the Governor we owed our lives. He called for a ladder. 
This being let down, we rapidly mounted it just in time to 
escape from being crushed by the great wheel, which was 
immediately after set in motion ; fortunately the boat con- 
taining the lighthouse keeper and our luggage had drifted 
away from danger, and eventually was propelled ashore. 
When we reached the cabin, we found we were much 
bruised but not seriously hurt ; our clothing was covered 
with slime ; we presented a sad appearance. Means were 
taken to give as little publicity as possible to this incident. 
This was the last shooting expedition of Governor Letellier 
de St. Just. Some months after his health broke down ; he 
sopn after died, sincerely regretted by all who intimately 
knew him. His gun, an excellent lo-bore, was sold by me 
to Judge G.-P. Hawes, of New York, who, I believe, still 
retains it. 

" I fear I have digressed very much from the subject of 
describing the shooting grounds of Sorel. I can only say 
that occasionally fine bags of snipe, woodcock and ducks 
are still made there, but 1 find that the number of the dis- 
ciples of the gun, since the past twenty years, have wonder- 
fully increased, as well among the amateur sportsmen wha 
shoot tor the pleasure of an outing, as the pot-hunter who- 
slaughters game night and day for the market. 

— 235 — 

'' Snipe are such capricious birds that one can occasion- 
ally make as large bags as formerly, but not so often. Wood- 
cock are very much more scarce. As to black or dusky 
ducks, mallard and wood ducks and teal, the great number 
destroyed at night on their feeding grounds has been the 
cause of driving these valuable birds to other and safer 
quarters. The pot-hunter chooses a favorite spot among the 
reeds which extend out on the shallows for nearly a mile 
from shore ; with a sickle he cuts off the heads of the reeds, 
well under water, in a space large enongh to make an open 
water basin of about 30 to 40 yards diameter. On the edge 
of this basin he plants a number of trees in front and on 
each side of his logcanoe or dug-out, which he carefully 
conceals, and then sets out in the most natural order from 
ten to twelve live ducks fastened by a string, with a soft 
leather loop to a leg and anchored with a stone or half a 
brick in about 3 feet of water. These ducks, which are a cross 
between a wild black duck and an equally black domestic 
one, make perfect decoys, and call any passing birds to 
them and to sure destruction. 

" On both sides of Lake St. Peter such caches may be 
found occupied by one or two pot hunters every three or 
four acres apart, night after night, before and after the ist 
of September, notwithstanding the game laws being strictly 
against it. You may well imagine such work has greatly 
interfered with the pleasures of being quietly paddled 
through the reeds and getting a true sportsman's shot at a 
rising bird, for the ducks now shun those dangerous feed- 
ing grounds. This, however, only applies to the species of 
duck visiting the shallow waters near shore. The bluebills 
and other fall ducks, called by some, the divers, siill fre- 
quent the lake in enormous numbers ; in fact I have seen 
this fall as large flocks as I ever saw on the waters in Florida, 
where, from their number covering such great space, they 
are called rafc ducks. 

" For the lover of shooting, possessed of a good dog for 
snipe, and another for woodcock, and who can spare the 
time, I know of no more delightful spot to camp on than 
some of the beautiful islands of Sorel. The scenery is charm- 
ing ; the channels among the many islands most intricate 
and interesting ; the different fresh-water fish, from the mas- 
kinong^ to the perch, plentiful ; and intelligent and reliable 
guides with canoes may be had at the usual charge^. . But 

— 236 — 

lie who possesses a light draft sail boat, with fair accomnko- 
dati6n for a genial companion and self, and who can sail 
away with his quarters to new spots made bare by the fall- 
ing of the waters, which often occurs to the extent of from 
5 to Sin. in one night, especially if the weather is dry and 
the wind blows strong from the west, such a one will find 
snipe, when others on the old ground are wondering if 
there are any birds left in the country. My experience 
shows that snipe have a strong liking for new ground, and 
he who can follow them or take advantage of being on some 
new, known spot where the waters uncover, is sure to be 
rewarded for his pains." 

— '* Commodore, we have enjoyed our sea voyage, shall I 
say, enormously : one day's duck shooting on those rocky 
isles would have capped the climax to our felicity — but Seal 
Rocks are a game preserve. We hold no permit from 
Monsieur Toussaint, the proprietor, to scatter death and 
destruction among the winged denizens of his blessed isle, 
•which would merely need the presence of some of Calypso's 
nymphes to render, its sojourn dangerous to the Jeunesse 
dorke of Quebec." 

— How stands the enemy, Carleton ? what is the state of 
the tide ? and with those castellated clouds banked up in 
the west, what wind can you promise us, Mr. weather-prophet 
Lavoie ? enquired Mac of the Isles. 

— ^Well, mon capitaine^ retorted gruflf old Carleton, with a 
curious wink in his eye, I think that unless the sun soon 
«hows his face, we are in for a blow of north-west wind : 
the yatch will pitch and toss like a pea on a hot stove. I 
hope no one here has forgotten his sea legs in Quebec : 
The flood wont set in for an hour yet however. Jean Lavoie, 
once a splendid specimen of the hardy and genial Canadian 
mariner — able to handle a yatch in the ugliest sea, a good 
type of the '* peuple gentilhomme, " as the gifted late 
Andrew Stuart, once styled the French Canadians, a favorite 
of Mac of the Isles, but now too old to navigate the craft, 
had been shipped as steward. He was a capital raconteur 
and his Islands friends used to say he could '* talk like a 
Curi,^ Mac of the Isles, who knew of old Lavoie's special 


— 237 — 

talents, addressing the Commodore, and the antiquary said : 
** We are bound to wait here yet a full hour for the turn of 
the tide, suppose we ask that old sea dog, who is brimful 
of Canadian stories, to give us one of his best yarns, picked 
up when he was an old ** voyageur " — his story of lie des 
Serpents is a capital one. 

— ^We readily assented and asked the steward to draw 

— Monsieur Lavoie, making us one of his politest bows, 
appeared flattered by our request, and resting his athletic 
irame on the mast, he opened thus : 

— ^What shall it be, gentlemen ? the story of the lie-au- 
Massacre, at Bic ; of the Micmacs of the Kapsouk; of 
Mademoiselle de Granville's prisoner, at Goose Island, or 
that of the Witch of the St. Lawrence ? 

None of us had heard this weird, melancholy tale related 
or if some of us had read it, in abbe Casgrain's volume of 
Canadian legends, we felt curious to see, what now was the 
popular version, bearing in mind, the strange transformations, 
popular legends occasionaly assume. One and all we replied : 
77i€ Witch ! The Witch I f The Witch, 

Gentlemen, gravely retorted the aged mariner, I can 
merely pretend to give a brief outline of a legend which 
occupies, more than eighty pages in abb^ Casgrain's volume : 
to which you can with advantage refer. 

Of all the legends, I picked up in my youth and in mature 
years, none took my fancy more than La/ongleuse, I pre- 
vailed on my grand son, just now finishing his course of 
BelleS'Lettres^ at the Quebec Seminary to write it out for 
me, from my dictation ; you will perceive how cleverly he 
has done it. I have since committed the story to memory. 
Here goes my version, aided by abbd Casgrain's narrative. 

— 238 — 

Suppose we start about midnight from the shore, just 
below the old Lower Town church, with Le Canotier^ for 
such is the name of the expert canoeman went under : he 
was an Indian : 

Among his tribe he was known as Misti Tckinipek^ that 
is, the Great Snake, either on account of his rapid move- 
ments, or else perhaps, from the circumstance of his having 
the likeness of a snake tatooed on his brawny chest. 

The canoe also containes two other figures : a young 
woman of stately carriage and elegantly attired, but with a 
sad, anxious face, and a boy of eight or ten years of age^ 
her son, who was resting on her lap his uncovered head. 
This was Madame Houel, whose husband was an important 
personage in the colony, as an associate of the Company of 
Hundred Partners, He had met with a serious accident ; 
hence, his wife had undertaken this hazardous night voyage, 
at a time when all Canada rang with reports of the sanguin- 
ary raids of the tireless and remorseless Iroquois. 

One after the other had the city lights disappeared ; the 
last visible from the receding shore being the solitary ray of 
the lamp burning in the sanctuary of the old church. 
Carried on the night wind came the faint roar of the Mont- 
morenci FalU; through' a rift in the clouds, banked up in 
the north-east, floated the new moon. 

The boy, suddenly starting from his sleep, asked his 
anxious mother whether she did not see, far away, walking 
on the water, a woman in white^ and then, nestling closer, 
he shuddered and begged of her to protect him against 
this dreadful apparition. 

'' Sleep on, my darling, " she softly replied, with a sigh, 
sleep on ; I shall awake you in time to see the beautiful 
sun rise. " Le Canotier, in a sm-^thered voice, whispered to 
Madame Houel what he thought of the apparition which 
had alarmed her son, adding that childhood was chosen. 


— 239 — 

of God, and that children saw revealed, things hidden 
from older mortals ; that, doubtless, the vision of her boy 
presaged the neighborhood of the Matschi Skoueou^ whose 
diabolical incantations among the Indian tribes had been 
attested to by the missionaries ; that probably, at this very 
moment, the Maishi Skotteou was leading the dreaded 
Iroquois to some fresh murderous onslaught. 

La Dame aux GlaieulSy the Matshi Skoueou, in the eyes 
of the Pale Faces, is a powerful enchantress. The glances of 
her sea-green pupils in the dark are like burning coals, and 
throw a spell round her helpless victims ; her bushy hair, 
black as a loon's wing, festoons her reed-crowned head like 
a cascade of running water. Her bronzed features, her 
scaly skin, her sardonic laugh, her violet-blue lips, cause a 
shudder to all beholders. She raises, as she goes, a cloud of 
bluish sparks, to which darkness lends the weirdest forms ; 
a veritable salamander, whose very vestments are proof 
against fire and flame, is the Matshi Skoueou, 

Evening is the time she selects for her fearful mysteries, 
when the zephir dies in the tree-tops ; when all nature 
slumbers, when the erratic Will-o'-the- Wisp capers over the 
green meadows in the forest clearings, or on the greenish 
waters of the reeking swamp ; when the bats noisselessly 
skim the pond with their transparent wings, or hang on by 
their prehensile claws to the angles of m^IIs ; when the pipe 
of the frog, the note of the red-eyed toad, tho hou-hou of 
the bird of night, supersede all other sounds, then is the 
time when La Dame aux Glaieuls lights among the rushes 
on the river banks, in the vicinity of swamps, to cull rushes 
— a fitting wreath for her head, previous to invoking the 
Manitou^ or Great Spirit. All at once the rushes and alders 
are seen to bend and rustle, even on a calm night, yielding 
before her, as she plunges in the liquid element ; her head» 
amidst the wild rushes and rank grass, assuming the bright- 
ness of a meteor. 

— 240 — 

Beware, oh ! beware, at such times especially with a new 
moon, to venture close to the river shore. Danger lurks all 
round you, on land, on sea ; horrible is the fate of the inno- 
cent victims who then become her prey. 

She invents tortures worse than heated collars, worse 
than scalping, worse than the agony of a slow fire. 

When the helpless native's heart throbs with pain, when 
his hair is erect with horror, his eyes starmg with fright ; 
when his livid lips are blanched with terror, when anguish 
racks his whole frame — the near harbinger of death — ^then 
is the time for exultation of the fearful witch, intent in 
catching the secret voice and revelations of the foul fiend 
who inspires her. 

The canoe was gliding noiselessly on, when all at once, 
after some mysterious, distant mutterings, two loud rep arts 
from fire-arms proclaimed the presence of the dreaded 

" Seven savages in that canoe, " said Ichinipek, " We 
are between two fires ; on our right the Iroquois, on our 
left, the Matshi Skoueou, Let us back water ! Madame, your 
boy must stop crying, else we will surely be captured Lie 
down both of you in the canoe." 

Tchinipek, fearing that if he fired, the flash of the gun 
would indicate their whereabouts in the darkness, strung 
his bow and shot an arrow, with unerring aim, right to the 
spot, from which the Iroquois had fired, killing one of their 
warriors j but the same instant an Iroquois bullet struck Le 
tanoiier's paddle, splitting it in twain. The struggle looked 
hopeless — two against six — ^when Tchinipek, full of resource, 
decided to let himself drop silently in the water, and, after 
a few vigorous strokes, swam unperceived to the other canoe 
and, with a sudden jerk, upset it, launching the inmates in 
the water, and, in the confusion, striking two or three of 
them with his tomahawk. 

— 241 — 

Madame Houel imagined having seen in the water the 
dark form of a woman, stretching over her arm to seize 
hold of her boy. Was it La/ongleuse f 

This gave Madame HoueFs canoe a respite. It reached 
the shore. Z^ canotier and his friends camped there until 
morning. At sunrise, Le canotier took his gun, and sought 
the woods to kill some game for their breakfast. 

A horrible scene awaited his return. A pool of blood and 
three corpse. He very soon recognized the livid remains of 
Tchinipek, who evidently had dearly sold his life ; two 
dead Iroquois lay there to prove it, but no trace on the 
sand of the beach indicated what had been the f;teof 
Madame Houel and of her son. 

On scanning the horizon, Le Canotter noticed in the dis- 
tance two canoes crowded with Indians. 

Having given vent to his sorrow in loud ejaculations, 
which the mountain echo seemed to repeat, on the shore 
he dug a grave, in which he dep >iited the remains of his 
beloved friend. Removing from a sapling, its green leaves, 
he placed the trunk at the head of the grave, with a transver* 
sal branch — a rude cross. Then removing the scalps from 
the two dead Iroquois, he planted Tchinipek's knife m the 
centre of the post, and hung to it the reeking scalps, a 
fearful but suitable trophy for an Indian warrior. 

The second act of this appalling drama opens with the 
landing, many years subsequently, at the Pointe, at Rivifere 
Quelle, of two men, one advanced in years ; his companion 
an athletic and handsome youth — Lt Canotier and the son 
of Madame Houel. 

They are made welcome at the solitary dwelling of the 
Pointe, and being que tioned as to the object of their visit, 

— 242 — 

young Houel relates, for the information of his hospitable 
entertainers, the narrative of his sufferings, and of those of 
his mother, when they were captured by the savages ; how 
the diabolical old witch — the Matshi Skoueou — the adviser 
of the tribe, ever intent on devising new modes of torture 
for prisoners, compelled Madame Houel's son to aid in the 
hanging to a tree of his beloved and devoted parent ; how, 
after tracking the Iroquois along the coast, Le CanoHer lay 
in ambush and managed to secure the fire arms of the 
savages, while engaged in one of their orgies, and succeeded 
in shooting down, or disabling nearly all the party. Le 
Canotier was too late to save the life of Madame Houel, 
whose body was slill hanging to the tree, but succeeded in 
rescueing her tortured son, just as his eyes were ready to 
close in death. 


Governor De Montmagny^s Game Preserve, 

Now Mr. Oldbuck, let us have, if you please, the sketch 
you have prepared of Governor Montmagny's enchanted 

The antiquarian, taking a seat near the helmsman, held 
forth as follows : 

That quaint old repository of historical lore, the " Rela- 
tions des J^suites," makes mention, among others, of two 
picturesque islands in the St. Lawrence, thirty-six miles 
lower than Quebec. P^re Le Jeune alludes to them at an 
early date as the inviolate sanctum and breeding ground of 
millions of ducks and teal, whose loud voices made the 
whole place vocal in the summer season. We are told, 
however, that in that annie terrible^ 1663, as memorable as 

— 243 — 

the present (1886) is likely to be for Charleston, South 
Carolina, owing to frightful and continuous earthquakes, the 
s(m1 rolled and quaked, some added, ** to that degree that 
church steeples would bend and kiss the earth and then 
rise again." This last feat, from its novelty, would doubt- 
less have been particularly attractive to witness from a 
balloon, for instance, or from the deck of a ship ; from 
anywhere, in fact, except from old mother earth. Such are 
some of the notices our early annals- furnish. Governor de 
Montmagny seems to have set his mind at procuring these 
islands as a game preserve for himself and friends. In May, 
1646, Louis XIV made a grant of these islands to his 
trusty lieutenant holding court at the Chateau Saint Louis, 
at Quebec. A famous Nimrod, one would fain believe, 
was this Knight Grand Cross of Jerusalem and Governor of 
Quebec, Charles Huault de Montmagny. He left his name 
of the flourishing county of Montmagny, which includes his 
cherished shooting box. Of the bags of game he annually 
made up on the verdant and swampy beaches of his isles, 
of the roasted black duck, teal and snipe he had served up 
to his merry little court within the sacred precincts of Castle 
of St. Louis, we have no record save the faint tracings of 

Nature itself seemed to have predestined this group of 
green, solitary isles as the home of the aquatic tribe. It 
afforded it more than a pleasant haunt during the spring and 
fall ; a breeding place in summer, it contained an hospital 
for the infirm and wounded birds of the neighborhood. 
M^re Juchereau, of the Hotel Dieu Convent, at Quebec, in 
her diaiy, under date of July 8, 17 14, when with eight of 
the saintly sisterhood and the Almoner, Rev. Messire Thi- 
bault (with the sanction of the Bishop, she adds), was visit- 
ing by water conveyance Big Goose Island, then recently 
purchased by the monastery and held by it to this day, will 
describe con amore this singular rock, still known as roclier 

— 544 — 

de rHdpital : " We returned, " says she, " from our excur- 
sion, which had lasted eight days, perfectly delighted with 
the beauty and fertihty of the spot. Among the most strik- 
ing objects, " she adds, " there is a large rock, which frontk 
time immemorial fi;oes by the name of the Hospital, because 
any Canada goose {outarde) or other sea fowl wounded by 
fowlers, hurries to this rock, like unto an asylum, where 
relief is at hand. The feathered tribe have here delicate 
appliances, in which art would seem to play a greater part 
than nature. A number of holes of various sizes are scooped 
out of the solid rock. The tide flows into them, the sun 
warms the tidal water remaining therein. The invalid birds 
bathe and luxuriate in these tepid reservoirs. When shal- 
low water is required, they resort to one of the smaller cavi- 
ties, or else plunge into a larger one, as they may fancy. 
They repose on the heated stone or else lie imbedded in the 
moss to cool themselves. In hospital we noticed sick or 
wounded outardes (Canada geese). They apparently reco- 
gnized us as Hospitalieres nuns. We were careful not to 
scare them, and ascended to the summit of the Hospital rock, 
from which the eye took in a wide expanse of water — a sea*** 
Such is the bright picture drawn by good Mother Juchereau 
de St. Ignace, the annalist of the monastery. 

Whence the name of Crane Island ? That erratic wan- 
deier, sung by Hora, Gruem a^venam^ the wary crane 
having also sought the island as a trysting place during the 
spring and fall migrations from Florida to the far countries 
and Hudson Bay, the place was called after it. Crane Island. 
Under French rule the law lent its protection to the game 
it contained. Special ordonnances de chdsse were passed to 
that effect and some legislation to protect the ducks, &c., 
at the period of incubation 'also took place under the early 
English Governors ; at one time several varieties of aquatic 
fowl resorted for food or incubation to its vast meadows^ 
clothed in luxuriant, coarse grass called rouche-'di subtan- 


— 245 — 

tial fodder for cattle. Pot-hunters having undertaken to hunt 
with dogs the fledglings, in July, before they could fly, the 
arent birds resented such unsportsmanlike practices and 
sought other breeding places in the more secluded isles, on 
the Labrador coast or in the neighborhood of Lake St. John. 
They still return in the fall. 

Among the early proprietors of these islands, figure th^ 
names of some of the officers of the dashing Carignan- 
Sali^res Regiment, subsequently to whom we find the name 
of a descendant of Baron Charles Le Moyne de Longueuil. 
In 1775, the Seigneur was M. de Beaujeu, brother of the 
famous de Beaujeu, who, in 1755, took part in the memor- 
able battle of the Monongahela. In i759» he had been 
intrusted with the command of an important post, that of 
Michilimakinac in the west, for his services and devotion to 
the cause of His Most Christian Majesty, he was decorated. 
De Beaujeu, at the head of his censitaires^ was a sturdy 
chieftain; nor did he hesitate during the winter of 1775-6 
to cross over and join the succor, which De Gasp^, Seigneur 
of St. Jean-Port-Joly, Couill^rd, Seigneur of St. Thomas, 
and an old Highland officer, Thomas Ross, of Beaumont, 
made a noble effort to pour into Quebec. The skirmish 
with the Continentals and their Canadian allies took place 
at St. Pierre, Riviere du Sud, and is known in Canadian 
annals as Paffaire de Michel Blais, It was a rout for the 

It is curious to follow the warlike Seigneur de Beaujeu 
upholding the standard of England in 1775-6 — the same 
standard he had successfully opposed before the desertion 
of the colony by France. De Beaujeu's name still survives 
on Bayfield's old charts — in that of the shifting sand bank, 
in the St Lawrence opposite the Manor House. It is proper 
to state that his winter expedition of 1775-6, to relieve His 
Excellency, Guy Carleton, blockaded in Quebec, ended in 

a disaster, nearly costing him and his followers their lives 



- 246 — 

Capt. de Beaujeu expired at Crane Island in June, 1802, 
and was buried at Cap St. Ignace, opposite. 

In our early sporting days we recollect hearing from the 
oldest inhabitants of the islands, quaint anecdotes, relating 
to their aged and warlike Seigneur de Beaujeu. It would 
seem that on great holy days the Chevalier de St. Louis 
took particular pride in wearing in his button-hole the red 
ribbon of the order sent out to him by the King of France, 
Louis XIV. Age and infirmities creeping on, the old lion 
used to remain in his den the greater part of the day, and 
when the tenants brought the rents and seigniorial capons at 
Michaelmas, more than once, they had to kindle the fire on 
the very spacious hearth, inclosed by an antique *' wide- 
throated chimney," which to this day is a subject of curio- 
sity to all visitors, so as to render the hall tenantable. 

Recently there were lying on the shore at Crane Island, 
near the church, an antiquated rusty cannon, brought from 
Cape Brdld on the north shore, opposite to Crane Island. 
In 1859, a similar cannon, measuring in length 5fl 8in. and 
i2in. in diameter, was presented by a resident of Crane 
Island, Capt. Lavoie, to the Quebec Seminary ; at that 
period some of the timbers of this old wreck were still visible. 
History furnishes full details of the wreck, at Cape Brftl^ of 
the French man-of-war Elephant^ on Sept. i, 1729, carrying 
to Quebec some of the most noted men in the colony, 
Bishop Dosquet, Intendant Hocquart and others ; the 
cannon we saw at present forms part of the antiques and 
curios, gathered together in the Museum of Herbert Moles- 
worth Price, esquire, at Montmorency Falls, near Quebec, 
the antiquary is very proud of this relic of the past. With 
the exception of the de Beaujeu seigniorial manor on the 
lower end of Crane Island, rebuilt and enlarged by McPher- 
son I-^e Moyne, esquire, of Boston, the new seigneur, who 
occupies it during the summer months, all the dwellings 
stand on the northern side of the island ; a thick belt of 

— 247 — 

forest trees hides them from view, except when the steamer 
takes the north channel — the old French route — when 
they are faintly seen in the distance. The locality ranked 
as a parish, under the name of St Antoine de Tlle-aux- 
Grues> as early as 1683, when it comprised but three 
faunilies, in all fifteen souls. In 1678, Pierre de Becart, 
Sieur de Granville, was the seigneur. 

Crane Island— six miles in length — during the " leafy 
months " is noted for its salubrity and attractiveness. A 
highway, as level as a bowling green, runs from one end to 
the other, and umbrageous woods, descending to the shores, 
intersect the portion of the island which is not under cul- 
ture. A dense grove of graceful maple and oak trees, some 
thirty acres long, fringes the crest of this plateau at the 
west point facing the anchorage, well known to every river 
pilot, La Pointe aux Pins. The Marine and Fishing Depart- 
ment in 1866 erected a lighthouse on a pier which now 
connects with the shore, also a number of beacons on the 
land and recently, gas buoys in the channel, near de Beau- 
jeu's shoal. In the rear of the lighthouse the ground rises 
in successive terraces, studded with dwarf parasol pines of 
singular beauty, and leads through natural avenues to the 
wooded and umbrageous plateau above, known as " Le 
Domaine du Seigneur, " a cool, delightful spot for a picnic 
ot/I^U champHrty of which Quebecers seem fully disposed 
to avail themselves with the permission of the owner. These 
picturesque highlands have also their heather, a fuzzy, 
graceful carpet of juniper bushes, weighted down each fall 
with fruit. When September crimsons the adjoining maple 
groves, a visit to this elysium is a thing to be remembered. 
Few sites in our gorgeous Canadian scenery, can surpass 
its river views, extending to Cape Tourmente, Cape Mail- 
lard, and over the innumerable islets on the north side 
basking in sunshine at your feet. 

— 248 — 

The old manor, with its green groves, orchard, ample 
veranda, flagstaff and numerous outhouses, is in full vien 
from the steamers ascending the south channel. Some 
distance in rear are two antiquated wind mills — the head 
quarters of the snipe shooters ; — to grind the island wheats 
beyond this a string of pretty, white cottages extending 
to the west end of the island ; the parish church of course^ 
as in all Canadian scenery, looms up in the center. As a 
river view, nothing can surpass in grandeur the panorama 
which the lovely St Lawrence here unfolds on a radiant 
summer morning, when with the rising tide a fleet of swan- 
winged merchant men emerge from the Traverse far below, 
in the direction of the church of St. Roch des Aulnets : at 
flrst dim, white specks on the horizon, gradually growing 
larger and larger, on the bosom of the glad waters ; each in 
succession, crowding on your gaze, top sails, top gallant sails 
and royals all set, a moving tower of canvas advancing 
toward the island shore — ^at times so close that you can hear 
the voices of all on board. 

It was at one time contemplated to divide in lots the 
west end of the island for sportsmen wishing to build their 
shooting lodges in proximity to the several Ashing and 
shooting grounds in the neighborhood, such as He St. 
Marguerite, Battures-aux-loups marins (Seal Rocks), Roches 
Plates and St. Joachim beaches. Such is Governor Mont- 
magny's game preserve of 1 646. 



Matdot — Pilot — Ste. UrstUa^s Dogs — Baron Robineiau^s 
Hounds — Niagara — Vingt sols. His father — Le 
Chien D^or — Montgomery — Niger — Cerberus — 
Citron — Cabot — VaiUant — Wolfe. 

Many dogs have had their day, in the New as well as the 
Old World, though so far few, chroniclers have told their 
tale. Could not America boast of a pre-historic dog — as well 
as of a pre-historic man ? Whence came those dogs noticed 
by Jacques Cartier and the early explorers, at Stadacona and 
Hochelaga, and how did they come there ? Can they trace 
back to the Aryan era ? — is their origin Chinese, Tartar, 
or Mongolian ? or what were they before evoIuHng into Cana- 
dian dogs ? 

Alcibiades' friend, was doubtless a great dog. We read in 
history of that remarkable swimming feat of Xantippus' dog 
which cost him his life. Parkman mentions the victory gained 
over a wolf, on the shores of Lake Ontario, in 1 751, by Abbd 
Piquet's dog " Cerberus " (Montcalm and Wolfe, i Vol. 
p. 69). 

Racine in his Plaideursy introduces us to that theivi^ 
mastiff '* Citron " tried before Judge Dandin for havisg 
abstracted a Maine capon. {Les Piaideurs^ Act II. Scene 
XIV). Our own annals record the names and feats of more 
than one eminent Chien de qualiti. 

The name of one of our most ancient streets in Quebec, 
brings up the subject for discussion : Sault-au-MaUloi Street^ 

— 250 — 

in the Lower Town. Was it thus called, as Father Dii 
Creux has it, on account of a dog, beanng the name of 
'* Matelot" leaping from the cape, in the street one hundred 
feet below. ScUtem NauH^ vulgo vacant ab cane hujus nominis 
qui alicts ex eo-loco se prcRcipitem dedit, " (i) I have been 
asked whether the dog belonged to Champlain ? Another 
version indicates a merry tar as having taken this desperate 
leap, under the effects of the *' ardent. " GrammaHci 

Then there is that fierce mastiff slut " Pilot " described 
by Father Lalemant, in 1647, as leading each morning to 
the woods her litter of savage pups, taking with them a 
ramble round the Fort, at Montreal ; scouring the under- 
brush and scanning carefully every bush to discover a 
skulking Mohawk. Woe betide the unlucky whelp who 
^ shirked his work ! " Pilot," would worry, snap at him — 
baying fiercely if a lurking foe was in the neighborhood. 
'' Pilot " meant business, she evidently had little in common 
with Sir Leoline's dog, described by Samuel Taylor Coleridge,. 

'< a toothless mastiff, 
Which from her kennel beneath the rock 
Maketh answer to the clock 
Four for the quarters and twelve fbr the hours 1 
Ever and aye by shine and shower 
Sixteen short howls, not over loud I " 

A few years later, in 1660, one comes across the noisy 
pack of hounds, une douzaine de grands chiens^ used by the 
Ursuline Nuns, at Quebec, says Marie de r Incarnation^ as 
sentinels at the Convent Gate, to herald the approach of the 
merciless Iroquois whom they hated and hunted relentlesly 
as the Cuban bloodhounds hunt the blacks, whereas the 
Indian dogs loved Redskins. Whence came these French 

fl) Greuxiui. Historia Cahadensis, p. 204. 

— 251 — 

It would seem that some of the Seigneurs of that day 
freely used this mode of protection, too freely, we are 
occasionally reminded. Thus the Robineau, Barons of 
Portneuf, became quite obnoxious, on account of the fero* 
cious hounds they kept at their mannor, on the river Port- 
neuf; these animals, when at a loss for marauding savages 
to worry, — attacked the censttaires and travellers as well, (i) 

No entry occurs in the journals of the great siege, of any 
dog having scaled with Wolfe, the Sillery precipice, on that 
fatidical 13rd day of September, 1759. The only mention 
we can recollect of any dog in Knox's voluminous Journal 
is that of the Golden Dog — le Chien d*Or^ — bearing the 
mysterious inscription : 

^ Je Bois un chien qai ronge Toe 
Ce faisant, je prends mon repos/' 

which now again is visible on the frontispiece of the City 
Post Office, over the door, CapL Knox, ot the 43rd, on 
entering the city after the capitulation, on the i8th Septem- 
ber of that year, took a note of this yet unexplained inscrip- 
tion and inserted it in full in his Journal of the Siege, 
Vol. II. 

Our poets and novelists have frequently made it do duty 

since that date ; in 1871, when the old building was razed 

to make room for the new, a lead plate was discovered 

.under the cornerstone with the date of the building " 1735" 

and the name of the owner 

" Nicholas Jaquin dit Philiber 
ma p086e 3 aoiit 1736." 

Who then will unravel the mystery of the Chien (TOr 
which defied.all the archaeological lore of Jacques Viger ? It 
gave birth to one of our most thrilling novels : ^* Le chien 

(1) Histoire de la paroisse du Cap Sant6. 

• — 252 — 

b'Or," by William Kirby, of Niagara, F. R. S. C, which has 
since been translated into french (i). The canine species 
has found warm friends among the poets in all ages; 
" Boatswain " and " Maida " as typical and honored dogs, 
will live in story so long as the works of Byron and Scott 
are read ; so will rhe " Peppers " and " Mustards, " " Bran *' 
and ** Bevis. " Lockhart tells how much Scott felt the loss 
of one of his faithful companions, sending on the day of his 
death an apology to an acquaintance who had asked him 
out to dine, alleging that he could not go having just learned 
of the death of an old friend. Our own Laureate, L.-H. 
Frechette, in one of his best effusions, has a kind word for 
his dog « Vaillant" (2) 

History also mentions two warlike dogs, Niagara and his 
father Vtngt sols^ who played a part in our early campaigns 
1688-1704. (3) 

The charming old raconteur De Gasp^, in his Memoirs, (4) 
describes a handsome large spaniel which the luckless Bri- 
gadier-General Richard Montgomery had owned, and which 
followed his remains to the grave, at the foot of our citadel, 
remaining there for three days without taking any food, 
howling in anguish and tearing up the frozen sod. Charles 
de la Naudibre, an uncle of this writer and aide-de-camp 

(1) The Montreal joarnal L'£tendard contains M. P. LeihUfa 

(2) Pdle-Mdle— Frechette— p. 79. 

(3) line petite note que nous adresse notre ami, M. Pierre Margry : 

Void poor votre jomnal, Fari^^OanadOf on loiiTenir qui vons per- 
mettra dans nn moment oti Farm^e s'appliqae k tirer partie des 
ohiens ponr diven usages, de montrer I'emploi qa'on en fidsait au 
Canada Ik la fin da XVIIe sidcle. 

II y atnit de 1689 k 1704 nn chien 6tabli pour coorrier de Oham- 
bly k la Pnirio de la Madeleine. Ce chien avait ohtena one ration et 
^tait incorpor6 snr le Me des aoldats sons le nom de " Monsieur de 
Niagara.** II 6tait fiU d'lm autre qni s'appelait " Yingi^ote * et avait 
aervi de lentinelle k Kiagam an temps de M. Des Beig^res. 

— (Xe Oanadien, 24 dte. 1887.) 
<4) Memoires de DeGasp^ pp. 40-44. 

— 253 — 
to Lord Dorchester, then Governor-General, by dint of 


kindness coaxed the faithful animal to his own house, where 
he at last got reconciled to his fate ; he was thought mtich 
of by his new master. " Montgomery, " such was his name, 
fared better than a fat Newfoundland dog which had fol- 
lowed to Quebec, through the Kennebec route, one of the 
Brigadiers comrades, Capt. Dearborn : the pangs of hunger 
at one time were such that the Newfoundland dog was 
killed and cooked for the brave New Englanders, so deter- 
mined to provide us Canadians with the sweets of republic 
can liberty ; the only excuse for thus dispatching the 
^* friend of man " was gaunt famine ; one day a barber's 
powder bag and a pair of old moose hide breeches (i) were 
boiled and then broiled for the sons of Liberty and the next, 
Capt. Dearborn's companion, was made into broth and 
served as a substitute for bear's meat, alas ! (2) 

Mr. DeGasp^ further describes at page 52 of his memoirs 
a superb collie dog which His Excellency Lord Dorchester, 
in leaving Quebec, in 1796, had presented to his father, the 
loyal old seigneur of St. Jean Port Joli, who, twenty years 
or more previously, had risked his life in an expedition he 
and the Scigmurs de Beaujeu, of Crane Island, and Couil- 
lard, of St. Thomas, aided by a warlike French priest, Rev. 
Messire Chs.-Fran5ois Bailly, of St. Pierre, Rivibre du Sud 
^afterward Bishop of Gasp^), had organized to go to the 
relief of the sorely beset capital during the winter of i77S-^- 
'' Niger " was the name of this live token of friendship ; a 
cherished and intelligent dog, " Niger " ever was. History 
tells of another eminent individual of the canine race : by 

(1) <• Old Moose hide breeches were boiled, aod then broiled on 
tiie «€als and eatea ; a barber's powder bag made a soup la the 
coQCM ot the last three or fcur days before we reached the first set- 
ikttent in Canada.^' 

(3) Ware's Joomal. 

— 254 ^ 

name "Cabot," thus called after the discoverer of New- 
foundland, Sebastian Cabot, and presented with " a massive 
silver collar and steel chain," on the 25th of July, i860, by 
the Newfoundlanders, to the Prince of Wales, on his visit 
to our shores : " Cabot " was indeed a beauty ; a shaggy, 
brave and grand dog. 

About the time " Cabot " became a prince's dog, a 
magnificent St. Bernard mastiff answering to the name of 
** Wolfe, " was presented by a Montreal friend to the 
writer or these lines, on his taking possession, in i860, of 
his present homestead, a lineal descendant, he liked to 
believe him of " Barry," or Mr. Mocdona's favorite St. Ber- 
nard, " Tell." 

" Wolfe " was indeed a noble fellow and reliable friend. 
He proved a most efficient guardian of the grounds. His 
stature, strength, majestic demeanor and deep loud baying, 
attracted wide attention and-inspired visitors with respect not 
unmixed with awe : such was the opinion entertained of 
him by the urchins of Bergervilie, that, with the aid of a few 
legends about his ferocity adroitly dropped by the gardener, 
none had the hardihood to cross the frontier after nightfall ; 
and though ^* Wolfe " has some time ago joined the great 
majority, the terror of his name still lasts ; he is supposed 
still to stand sentinel at night. 

In perusing Dr. Kane's interesting Journal of Arctic 
explorations, I have at times been inclined to doubt whether 
his dog stories are all exact. I have nothing to say against 
*•' Old Grim." I am also prepared to accept the doctor's 
authority for the lunacy overtaking his team, under the effect 
of intense cold and prolonged darkness, but I really am 
inclined to think the alleged ** voracity " of the canine 
individuals overdrawn, when he depicts them as ready to 
gulp down a whole feather bed. (Vol. I, page 64.) However 
from time immemorial dogs been voracious, witness those 

— 255 — 

dogs seen by Queen Athalie in her dream, crunching up 
the flesh and bones of her mother. 

Des lambeaux pletns de sang et des membres affreux^ 
** Que des chiens dhorants se disputaient entre euxJ* 

Who has forgotten Burns' " Twa dogs, " " Caesar, " the 
Newfoundland " o'high degree " like " Cabot. " 

<< keepit for his honoar's pleasare ; 

whalpit some place fiir abroad 

Where sailors gang to fish for cod, 
His locked, batter'd, braw brass collar 
Show'd him the gentleman and scholar ; 

The t'other was a ploughman's collie 
A rhyming, ranting, roving billie, 
Wha' for his friend and comrade had him 
And in his freaks had Luath ca'd him. 


I love my dog — a beaatifnl dog, 

Brave and alert for a race ; 
Beady to frolic with baby or man ; 

Dignified, too, in his place. 

I like his bark, — a resonant bark, 

Musical, honest, and deep ; 
And his swirling tail and his shaggy coat 

And his sadden, powerfol leap. 

^ Oh, never a corpulent pug for me, 

Nor a Spits with treacherous snap I 
Never a trembling pattering hound. 
Nor a poodle to live on my lap I 

No soft-lined basket for bed has Jack, 

Nor bib, nor luxurious plate ; 
But the doorstep brow, that he guards so well, 

And the lawn are his royal state. 

— 256 — 

Ko dainty leading-ribbon of silk 

Mj grand, good dog shall fkiet : 
No golden collar needs he, to show 

He's a very ezpenslye pet ; 

Bat Just my loTing voice for a chain, 

His bound at my slightest sign, 
And the fidth when we look in each other's eyes 

Proclaim that my dog is mine. 

He'll nerer be carried in anns like a babe, 

Nor be dragged like a toy, all a-curl ; 
For he piondly known he's a dog, does Jack, 

And I'm not that sort of a girl. 

— JBessu Hill J in St Nic?u>las. 

A good time, I trust, is« yet in store for this most inter- 
esting portion of the brute creation, and if this sketch of 
some celebrated dogs can help in stimulating still further 
the praiseworthy efforts of our leading citizens in organizing 
dog shows and offering prizes, to promote purity in the 
various breeds of these faithtul friends of man, my object 
will have been attained, ample my reward. 

Spencer Grange, April, 1886. 


NoU for page 64, 

Stiam havioation — Thb Turf — Sir Jambs-H. Craiq, 1810. 

A student of Canadian histoiy has recently enclosed me the follow. 
ing epistle, from an aide-de-camp of Lieat^^Govemor Gore, << Upper 
Caoiada, " to Ck)lon6l Clans. 1 crave leave to add a few comments. 

Among otiier pleasant gossip, it affords a curious glimpse of the 
mode of travel from Tork (now Toronto) to Qaebec, at the dawn of 
the century, and from the number of exalted personages alluded to 
in the letter, the document seems to possess more than the passing 
interest of the hour. 

Of course, we all know that navigation by steam had existed from 
Quebec to Montreal, six months previous to the 1st July, 181 0,«— date 
of letter. 

Crowds had hurried down Mountain Hill on the 6th and 7th 
November, 1809, to see to Hon. John Molson's wonderful crafty 
" which no wind nor tide could, stop, " — the steamer << Accommo- 
dation, " measuring seventy-five feet keel. We have made progress 
since then, the old *' John Munn ^' steamer, measured 312 feet, if we 
recollect well. The Quebec Mercuryy after fully describing the first 
naatkal phenomenoB, adds *- << A mast was to be^fixed in her for the 
purpose of aging s sail when the wind is ftvorable, which will occa* 
slonally accelerate her headway. '' Her speed was not much to boast 
oi, she having taken sixty hours, including flftaen hours at anchor, to 
perHonn the passage which now occupies ten. 

Lady Gore, the wife of the Lt.-Govemor of Upper Canada, seems 
to have fbund a considerate friend in Lady Johnston, at LaChine. 
One would have liked to see the historis house of Robert de LaScUle, 
at LaChine 79 years ago. Let us hope its remains won't disappear 
from the Fraser homestead. The distinguished travellers met with 
good cheer at the Chateau St. ZouU from that sturdy but hospitable 
old soldier, Sir James-H. Craig, the Governor-General of Csnada, in 
the midst^ of the turmoil and excitement^ which the seizure of the 

— 268 — 

Ccmadien newspaper and the jailing of the M. Ps., Btanehette, Tache- 
rean, Bedard, had caused a few weeks prerions. Little King Qaigg 
though in ill-health, was the kindest of hosts and readily gave up 
his own quarters to the Lieut.-GK)Yernor. We are next brought in 
presence of the Quebec Turf Club, and on referring to the Quebec 
iSfaaeUe for July, 1810, we find that the races lasted three days, the 
{th, 6th and 7th July. A large sprinkling of the military as usual 
among the patrons of this exciting sport ; we notice the name of a 
well remembered Lower Town merchant, W. Coleman, Lt^ol. 
Thornton, Lt^Col. Pye, Ifajor Heriot, J. Bitchie, &c. The Quebec cup 
was given by His Excellency the Q'OYemor«General, Sir James- 
Henry Craig, the ladies' cup by Lady Q-ore, wife of the Lieut- 
OoYemor of Upper Canada. We are next reminded of the presence 
in the Ancient Capital of that braYC soldier. General Sir Isaac Brock. 
General Brock had been a denizen of Quebec, since 1802, and left us 
in 1810 to go to Western Canada as commander of the forces. In 
181 1, he was administrator of that ProYince ; he fell nobly at Queen- 
ston Heights on the 10th October, 1812. One of the officers who 
served under him in the 49th, the late Lt.-Col. John Sewell, stated 
to us that in the latter years of his residence, he lived in a house in 
Garden street still existing and fronting the site in rear of which 
now stands Cumming's ferrier shop. " Every one then knew and 
loved the tall old bachelor, as he was styled. 

J.-M. L. 

Copy of letter from Major Halton, Aid-de-Camp to Lleut.-Govemor 
Gore, to Col. Claus. 

Quebec, 1st July, 1810. 

Mt Dbab Claub, — ^While I restive minutes ftom my usual hurries, 
I shall indulge myself with giving you a brief notice of our journey. 
We had a very pleasant voyage to Kingston of eight and forty hours, 
and Mrs. Gore most luckily was not the least sick. She did not go 
ashore there, but set off for Montreal in three hours in a batteau 
prepared by Major Trotter and finished by Major Halton. With a 
little hurrying and dkfew of the usual inconveniences we landed at 
LaChlne the fourth day, where we found Lady Johnson very kind 
but looking very ill. 

She insisted on our making her house in Montreal our quarters, 
which the Governor and Mrs. Gore did. 

Jim and myself first encamped before the house and afterwards 
^Ff ent to Esther's. 

— 259 — 

Various plans having been canTassed for our route here, we deter 
mined at last upon the steamboat, which McGilveraj and the Gover- 
nor took to themselves. 

We left Montreal on Thursday last at 12 and arrived very plea- 
santly on Friday evening within about thirty miles of Quebec, when 
a squall came on and a head wind which obliged us to anchor fbr 
eight or ten hours, but we got under weigh on Saturday early and 
landed at Quebec about one o^clock. While the wind was fiftir we did 
▼ery well, but when not so, we were most terribly smoked. 

Mrs. Gore was sick during the squall and most dreadfully bitten 
by mosquitoes, who boarded us In a calm, firom the Islands near Lake 
St. Pierre. Mrs. McGillveray is In better spirits than we expected ; 
she sails for England on Tuesday with old Tod. 

Sir James has received us not only with the greatest attention but 
really with the greatest kindness. The instant we arrived, he sent 
down Colonel Thornton in a boat and his carriage in great state to 
convey Mrs. Gore to the Chateau, where he has given up his own 
bed-room and suite of apartments to Mrs. Qore and the Governor. 

I am at Eempt's and Jim at General Brock's. Mrs. Gore has gone 
under a great deal of fatigue, but her tuneful tongue was running 
until eleven last night and she is gone to church with Sir James 

The races begin on Thursday, and I presume we must stay to 
them. How we return I don't know yet. 

The " Spitfire" arrived fh>m England a day or two ago. I do not 
hear she has brought any particular news. If I can regret anything 
it is not having you to plague, and away from Dawney. 

Believe me ever yours, 

Wm. Hal ton. 


I^ote for page 69. 

Jean Chicot, a Montrealer, says Abb6 Faillon, was scalped by the 
Iroquois, near Montreal, on the 6th May 1651. Survived fourteen 
years. — (Hidoire de la Colonie Fran^aiae en Canada^ Vol. II, p. 121.) 

JSTote for page 212, 

Mr. Grijffith has now several Guardians on his pools. 



cjLosi: s£Aseivs-HuifTiife. 

!• Moose and caribou From 1st Feb. to let Sept. 

SU Deer '* Ist Jan. to Ist Octob. 

N: B,^The hunting of moose^ caribou or deer with doge or by means 
of anaret, trapt. dke., i» prohibited. 

No person honUeman or Indian Aa« a rights during one aeaeim*s 
hunting f to kill or take alive— unlet* he hoe previouely obtainwi a per- 
mU/rom the Commieeioner or Crown Landa for that purpoae^-more 
than 2 mooaei 3 caribou and i deer. 

After thefirat ten day a of the eloae aeaaon^ all railwaya and ateavn- 
boctt eompaniea and public carrier a are forbidden to carry tJie whole 
or any part {except the akin) of any mooae^ caribou or deer^ without 
being authorized thereto by the Cfommiaaioner qf Crown Landa, 

8. Beaver, mink, otter, marten, pekan. 
4. Hare* 

6. Musk-rat (only in the countiw of 

Maskinon^, Yama8ka,Richelleu 
and Berthier) 

•• Woodcock, snipe, partridge of any 

7. Black duck, teal, wild duck of any 


(except sheldrake and gull.) 
N. B.— Nevertheless in that part of 
the Province to the East and North 
of the counties of Bellechasse uid 
MontmiN^ncy ,the inhabitants mav, 
at all sea.8on8 of the year, but onlv 
for the purpose of procuring food, 
&C., shoot any of the birds men- 
tioned in No. 7. 

From 1st April to 1st Nov. 
" 1st Feb. to 1st Nov. 

Ist May to Ist April follow- 



1st Feb, to 1st Sept. 

15th April to Ist Sept. 
And at anytime qf the year, 
between one hour after aunaet 
and on« howr before aunriae, 
it ia alao forbidden to keep 
ezpoaed, during aueh prehi- 
\biied ?u>ura,lurea or decoy a, ^e„ 

> Prom Ist March to 1st Sep. 

— 261 

%, Birds known as perchers, such as 
swallows, king birds, warblers, 
flycatchers, woodpeckers, whippor- 
mlls, finches, (song-sparrows, red- 
birds, indi^ birds, &:c.,) cow-bunt- 
ings^ titmice, goldflnches, grives, 
(robin, woodthrushos, &&,) king- 
lets, bobolinks, grakles, grosbeaks, 
huoiming birds, cuckoon, owbi,&c.. 
except eaglos, falcons, hawkd ana 
other biros of the fiEiloonidsB, wild 
pigeons, king-fishers. crows,ravens, 
waxwings {r4collei8i^ shrikes, jays, 
magpies, sparrows 8uid starlings. . . 

9. To take nets or egg>) of wild birds. .. At any time of the year. 

N. B.— Fine of |2 to $100, or imprisonment in default of payment. 

No pergon who ia not domiciled in the Province of Quebec^ nor in 
thai €^ Ontario can, at any time, hunt in this Province without Jiaving 
prevxouMly obtained a license to that ^ectfrom the Commissioner ^ 
Crown Lands, Such permit is not transferable. 

Fee : {20.00. 
** 9 10.00 for members of a " fish and game Club " duly incorpO' 
rated in the Province of Quebec. 

1. Salmon (angling) From 15th Aug. to 1st Feb. 

2. Speckled trout, {salvenilusfontinalis). 

3. Laxge grrey trout, lunge and winninish . 

4. Pickerel 

0. Bass and Maskinong6 

6w Whiteflsh 

1st Oct. to 1st January 
15th Oct. to 1st Dec. 
15th April to 15th Kay 
15th AprU to 15th June 
19th Nov. to 1st Dec. 

Fine of |5 to $29, or Imprisonment in default of payment 

N. B.— Angling by hand, (with hook and line), is the only means 
permitted to be used for taking; fish in the lakes and rivers under control 
of the Government of the Province of Quebec. 

No person, who is not domiciled in the Province of Quebec, can, at 
any time, fish in the lakes or rivers under control qf the Oovemment 
cf this Province, not actually under lease, without having previously 
obtained a permit to thai effect from the Commissioner qf Crown Larhds. 
Such permit is only for the time, place and persons therein indicated. 

Department of Crown Lands. 
Quebec, 8th May, 1889. 

£• E. TA€B£, 

As8Uft(mt-(hmmiMioner of 
Crown, Lcmds, 





Beauport — Its history — Scenery — Warlike Chro- 
nicles — Its Cataract — Duke of Kent's Lodge.. . . 5-32 

II. — La BoNins Saintb-Anne. 

Its miracles — Baie St. Paul — Kalm's mining explo- 
rations, in 1749 — Earthquakes and siege anec- 
dotes 33-52 

III. — DuFFBKiN Terrace. 

The Chateau promenade as seen by the Swedish savant 
Peter Kalm, in August 1749. Dufferin Terrace, 
described by Adirondack Murray, in August, 1887. 52-60 

IV. — Quebec to Fort Jacqubs-Cartier. 

Montcalm before the battle — The retreat — Fort Jac- 

ques-Cartier — Its relics. 60-64 

v.— Quebec to Portneup. 

Winter travel in the Olden Time between Quebec and 
Montreal — Wayside Inns — The Grand Barons of 
Portneuf and their Ferocious Dogs — Perrot, the 
Bald 64-71 


The Deschambault Manor — Its Past and Present .... 71-77 

— 264 — 

Vn. — ^MeO ANTIC. 

Its pioneers— Its railways — Its asbestos mines 
beautiful lakes — Dr. D.-H. Howard's map, 



Vni. — Beauge. — (Ste. Marie.) 

The Foot-prints of the Invader in 1775 — Lt. CoL 

Oaldwell's opinion of them 84-91 

IX. — Beauce. — (St. Joseph.) 

Dr. Senter's Diary of the siege— The New £nglander< 
cross the border in 1775 — The French Canadians 
cross the border in 1875. — The Monroe doctrine, 
as understood in Canada 91-97 

X. — Beauce. — (St. Francois.) 
Bird Chapter — The Bobolink — ie €h^u 97-100 

XI. — Quebec to Magdalen Islands. 

Levis — Its martial records of the past — Its first 
settler — Harlaka — Beaumont — St Charles — St 
Valier — St Michel ~ St Thomas — Papineau — 
Cap St Ignace— Islet — St. Jean, Port-Joly — 
Ste. Anne de la Pocati^re — Rivi^re-Ouelle — Its 
Porpoise Fisheries — Its Legends — Kamouraska — 
Fraserville — Cacouna — He Verte — Trois Pis- 
toles — St Fabien — St Simon — Bic — Its Her- 
mit — Bimouski — Metis — Sir George Stephens — 
Our Salmon aud Salmon trout rivers — Writers on 
Salmon and trout rivers — Dr. Henry — Richard 
Nettle — Dr. W. A. Adamson — Robert B. Roose- 
velt — Charles Lanman — Charles Hallock — G. 
M. Fairchield, jr. — Grasps Bassin — Morpheus' 
Domain — New Carlisle : A. U. E. Loyalist settle- 
ment — ^The Caldwell Manor — ^A Glimpse of Prince 
Edward Island — Charlottetown — Rustioo— Mag- 
dalenlsland Group 100-209 

— 265 — 

XII. — Quebec to lake St. John. 

Mifltasaini Falls — The Birds and Fishes met at Lake 
St. John, Saguenay District, Province of Quebec, — 
Ascent of the first steamer to the Mistassini Falls. 209-217 


The seal Islands — Their Game — Their Legcntls — 
Sorel and its Game — Lieut. Governor Letellier — 
Crane Island, Montmagny's Game Preserve 217-248 

XIV.— On some Historical Dogs. 

Matelot — Pilote — Ste. Ursula's Dogs — Baron Robi- 
neau's Hounds — Niagara — Yingt-sols, his father 
— Le Ghien D'Or — Montgomery — Niger — Cer- 
berus — Citron — Cabot — Vaillant — Wolfe 248-256 


The Early mode of Travel — Scalping not always fat^l 257-959 











J. M. LiiiMOINE, F.H.S.C. 

K N (i L I S II . 

LEGENDARY LORE OF TUK LOWER 9t. I*.V\VRENCE, <! toI. in.32) . . 1862 

MAPLE LEAVES, (Isi. Sorles) (1 vol. iu-80) 1863 

" ' (2nd Scrioa) a vol. Uv8o) 18Gt 

" (3rd SoPies) (1 vol. in-8o> 1865 

THE TOURIST'S NOTE BOOK, (1 vol. in^i by Cosniopolito 1870 


(A memoir) (I vol. In (>1) 1870 

TRIFLES FROM MY PORTFOUO, (Now Domimon Monthly) 1872 

MAPLE LEAVES, (New Sorics) 1875 


THE TOURIST'S NOTE BOOK, (second edition) 1876 

CHRONICLES OF THE St. LAWRENCE, (1 vol. in-8o) 187a 


THE SCOT IN NEW FRANCE, a I>ecturo before L. & H. Soc'ty 1880 


PICTURESQUE QUEBEC, on Encyclopedia of Quebec History, d vol. 

in-8o) 551 pages 1882 



Oldbuck, F. G. S. Q 1889 


L'ORNITHOLOGIE DU CxVNADA, (2 vol. in-8o) 1880 

ESS AI SUR SIR WALTER SCOTT, poele^ |t>mRncicr, historion 1862 

NAVIGATEUIiS ARCTIQUE8-l>anklin-M'Cluro-Kano— MrCliHtock. 1862 

LES PECHISRIES DU CANADA, (1 vol. in-8o) 186^ 

MEMOIRE DE MON TC AI.M, VENGEE, (1 vol. in-32) 1865- 




QiicSboc 1874 



dos (Scolcs 187T 


CHASSE ET PECHE, 30() pages 1887 

Cfe-dcre filled by 



Opposite Post Office, Quebec, 




. j^ {tit Ji i."--] 


J. M. LeMOINE, f. r. s. c. 



Editors of " L'Emttmeul " 10, FoWv/ik Urtet 

[From Montreal Gazette j 4th August, 1894.] 

I have been favored with advance sheets of the new volume 
of Maple leaves, by Mr. J. M. LeMoine, president of the 
Hoyal Society of Canada. My first duty is to correct a possible 
misconception. This volume is not a second edition of a 
former work of the same title, but consists of papers never 
before published in book form. The first series of Maple 
Leaves was brought out in 1863. Its success induced the 
author to continue the series in 1864, 1865 and 1873. Since 
this last date, Mr. LeMoine has contributed to various perio- 
dicals in the United States and Canada a number of essays 
on a wide range of subjects, marked by his characteristic 
charm ofstyle and intimate knowledge of his country*s annals. 
I have already in a general way indicated the contents of this 
attractive book,which, while comprising some things to be found 
nowhere else, sheds a fresh, warm light on many topics touched 
by less sympathetic pens. As the title implies, Canadian his- 
torj', romance, folk lore, biography and adventure take up the 
most of the five humtred pages, but this list does not exhaust 
Mr. LeMoine's themes. His book on Canadian Ornithology^ 
now out of print, was one of the most successful of his works, 
and his admirers will be glad to know that his beloved birds 
have a place assigned them in these latest Maple Leaves. 
The late Xavier Marmier was one of Canada's best friends in 
the old land. Mr. I^Moine portrays him as he found him in 
his own hospitable home. Then we are invited to accompany 
the author to Edinburgh, where the Scotchman in him grows 
rapturous over the haunts ot Scott ; to Normandy, the home of 
his fathers, where his observing eye sees the source of many a 
Canadian usage and expression. A paper read before the Folk- 
Lore society in this city treats of some venerable oaths. The 
paper on the Beaver club gives a vivid picture of old Montreal 
in the days when Nor'westers ruled the roast. Of old Quebec 
the reminiscences are, as might be expected, rich and vivid. 
Not the least pleasing feature of the book is Mr. LeMoine's 
tribute to his brethren of the pen, Abbe Bois, Garneau, 
De Gaspe, etc. Mr. William Kirby, the able author of •* Ckitn 
d*Or" prefaces the book with a sketch of Mr. LeMoine's 
career, while a portrait of him in winter garb, and a view 
of Spencer Grange and its vineries fiom the flower garden 
in the rear adds not a little to the reader's satisfaction. 
Such, in briefest outline, is this latest (but, his admirers will 
hope, not last) volume of Maple Leaves, It is entirely worthy 
of its name and of the reputation therewith associated. The 
work is dedicated by permission to the Countess of Aberdeen." 

John Rbadb. 


WORKS OF J. M. LeMOISE, f. b. S. c. 

EHeLI 8H . 



i— M'Clore— kaoe— HcClintock. . 



(iiirn. notre Hcrle, )c CardiDal, I'Uiaeau Blea 

Z. Lea Ambivcs 

3. Lm Aborieiin 

4. Lve Pones eue 

5. The Left U« 
e. LeG«ni;ra1.Si 

9. Lni ^Itmenle qui coi 
10. lln IJomenieiir Consmuiionnei, 
CHASSE ET PECHE, 300 pft«e<... 

la coiute de la Uilia 

Anelaia do Qui^bcc, 

int Is popuUtion de la 

l)<<a£nl Jam«a Hur- 

17S4-W, l!O0 

rovincBdednibec. t606-l<B2 




6t'i -CtiUi , 

Like a virgin goddeas in a primeval world, 
Canada still walks in unconscious beanty 
among her golden woods and along the 
margin of her streams, catching bat broken 
glances of her radiant majesty, as mirrored 
on their surface, and scarcely dreams as 
yet of the glorious future awaiting her in 
the Olympus of nations. — (From Lord 
DuFPBRiN*a aprach at Belfast » Yith June,. 


F» R, o» C. 


Editors of ^^ V Ee&nemmf' 30, Fabriqne street 



^^?s^. ^v3;vj 

"^ / • •• ... / 

>■ . 

W ( \. ^* / 

Kegistered in the office of the Minister of Agriculture, in 
conformity with the law passed by the Parliament of 
Canada in the year of 1873, by the author J. M. LeMoinb. 


Her Excellency 



Are, by permission, respectfully inscribed 

by the 

Spencer Grange, 

1st June, 1894. 


A Biographical Sketch of the Author of ^^ IMaples Leaves " 


WM. KIRBY. F. R. S. C. 

'' My first acquaintance with the subject of this notice dates 
as far back as J 863, when J happened to be in Quebec, 
watching the progress of a bill introduced in Parliament, 
previous to Confederation. 

To beguile a leisure hour, it so happened I had purchased 
a volume styled ^' Maple Leaves — a budget of historical, 
legendary and sporting lore^ by J. M. LeMoine ". I was so 
eaptivated by the dramatic interest infused into two out of 
several sketches it contained, Chdteau Bigot and the Golden 
Dog J that I vowed to a fiiend, I wouM make them the 
groundwork of a Canadian novel. Thus originated my Chien 
d^Or romance. 

Few have had such opportunities as Mr. LeMoine for 
studying the lights and shades of the old Province of Que- 
bec. His early training, social entourage — ^love of books — 
antiquarian tastes and familiarity with the English as well 
as with the French idiom j his minute explorations by sea 
and by land of every nook and corner of his native province 
and even beyond it, the whole jotted down day by day in 
his diary, naturally furnishes him with exceptional facilities 
to deal with Canadian subjects in a light or in a serious vein. 

Two attractive departments seem to have engrossetd his 
attention from the first, the study of early Canadian history 
and of popular ornithology. 

In fact one of the first additions he made to his charm- 
ing rustic home, at Sillery, near Quebec, was the erection of 
an aviary for the friends of his youth, the birds of Canada ; 
and an ample museum for the preservation, by the art of 
the taxidermist, of specimens of the Canadian avifauna. 

It may not be out of place to follow this indefatigable 
writer, in his rather extended literary career. 

Struck, in 1861, with the lack of any French work to 
guide Canadian youth attracted to the study of bird-life, Mr. 
LeMoine published that year, in two volumes, a manual on 
popular ornithology ] and, in order to allure the student to 
this healthy and delightful pursuit, he imparted to those 
volumes a strong, fragrant literary aroma. Whether it was 
due to the novelty of the subject or to the contents of the 

— 8 — 

work, it disappeared from the book stores in less than one 

In 1862, he helped on a literary confrhrt in a small literary 
venture by contributing an interesting article, under the 
caption " Tht Legendary Lore of the Si. Lawrence ". 

The next year, with the view of promoting the study of 
Canadian annals, he began his valuable series which ran over 
three years, under the well-remembered name of Maple 
Leaves : the first series was devoted to general subjects, 
^egends and quaint old customs ) the second, to rescuing 
reliable records of Canadian battle-fields and siege narratives : 
the third depicted chiefly the old manors and scener}- round 
Quebec. That year, he found time during his leisure moments 
to write, for V Opinion Publiquej a short French essay on 
Sir Walter Scott, as poet, novelist, historian j a lengthy 
review of the arctic explorations of Franklin, McClure, Kane, 
McClintock j he also published a treatise on the river and 
deep-sea fisheries of Canada, which elicited warm encomiums 
from the French press. 

In 1865, General McLellan, having alluded disparagingly 
in a speech he made, to the memory of Montcalm, for his 
supposed approval of the Fort George massacre in 1757, Mr. 
LeMoine took up the cudgels for his favourite hero and con- 
futed by Bancroft's, the Abbe Piquet's narrative and by 
others, the statement made by the luckless warrior of Bull 
Run renown: this booklet, intitled La MSmoire de Montcalm 
VengSe, met with hearty recognition in Canada and in France. 

Various efiusions of a historical character, fell from the 
writer's prolific and versatile pen, in 187(1, in Stewart^s Quar- 
terly Magazine, New Monthly Magazine^ Befford's Reviewy 
Forest and Stream and La Revue Canadienne. In 1873, a 
selection of his best Canadian sketches, were published, 
under the old familiar name of Maple Leaves j new series." 
The same year also ushered in his valuable French work 
V Album dit Tonriste, 

Quebec Past and Present, edited in 1876, is probably as a 
book of reference, the most useful historical volume ever put 
forth by the author. It embodies the whole history of the 
ancient capital from its foundation up to 1^76 ] the edition is 
exhausted long since. Possibly, no literary composition of 
Mr. LeMoine, by the reminiscences it recalled to him, was 
more pleasant to indite than the publication, in 1878, under 
the title of Chronicles of the St. Lawrence, of his multifarious 
excursions to the kingdom of herring and cod, on the G-asp6 

The bulky volume of 550 pages, style<i Picturesque Quebec 
from the mass of quaint information disseminated through its 
pages about the old city's streets, squares, eminent inhabi- 
tants and fortifications, completed the history of the romantic 
city ; the literary research involved in this work was too heavy 

— — 

a task for one man alone to undertake, and I for one, was 
happy in being apprized by letter, that a much needed rest, 
was granted the author, after his long official career and that 
in July he was to sail per ^' S. Moravian " for a short tour to 
Europe, from whence he brought back with a re-invigorated 
frame, an ample fund of infoimation, reminiscences and 
anecdote which he subsequently freely used in the series of 
lectures he was called on to give before the Literary and 
Historical Society of Quebec, of which he had been five times 
re-elected president. Long before this, his writings and 
researches had obtained recognition on behalf of scientific 
societies in Canada and abroad. The SocUti d/ Ethnoyraphie 
of Paris conferred on him a diploma, as D6l^.yu6 R^yional at 
Quebec ; he was made a member of the Socl6i6 d Hisioire 
Diplomatiqvey presidecl over by the due de Broglie ; his name 
was inscribed on the register of the New England Historic 
Genealoyical Society ; on that of the State Wiaconsin Histo- 
rical Society ; of the Soci6t6 Hislorique of Montreal; of the 
Genealoyical and Biographical Society of New York ; of 
the Institut of Ottaira ; on the roil of the Instiiut Canadien 
of New York j on that of the Royal Society of Canada ; (1) 

(1) Wbilft these pngcs were goinpr through the i.res?, our friend has been 
unaniinous^Iy elected Prepident of the Rofjuf Sori* tj/ of Canaila, the hiffhest 
position in iiternture or science, open to a Canadian. 

[MoiUrp.ul Star, 30th May, 1S:»4.] 


" Arr.onff Canadian writen" no one is more favorably known than Mr. 
J. LeMoine, the newly-elected president of the Royal Society of Canada. He 
belongs to one of the oldest Canadian families, bt'in^f a dL'^k;endant of Jean 
LeMoyne, who was a seigneur of three fiefs, (Ste Mane, la Noraye and (jas- 
tineau) and a near relative of Charles Ije.Moync, Baron «)f Longueuil. His 
House at Spencer (» range, Sillery, is a literary man's j>arudise : here Mr. 
LeMoine has entertained some of the most eminent writers and scholars of 
our time. Dean Stanley, Charles Kingsley. Sala, Howells, (lilbert Parker: 
the historians <*arneau and Ferland have all partaken of the hospitalities of 
Spencer Grange ; the late Francis Parkinau was a frequent visitor, and in 
the preface to some of his works acknowledges the valuable aid rendered him 
by Mr. LeMoine. For over thirty years hardly a year has passed that we 
have not to welcome some new product of his pen in French or English. His 
best known works are Ornithologie du Canada (2 vols.). Les Pecheries du 
Canada, Maple Leaves, L' Album du Touriste, Chronicles of the St. 
Lawrence, Quebec Past and Pres^ent, Monographies ot Esquisses, and Pictu- 
resque Quebec, all works of historical value. In addition to these. Mr. 
LeMoine has contributed numerous articles to the magazines and the daily 

Eress. Imbued with a deen love for the history and traditions of his country, 
is writings are replete witn graphic narratives of incidents that have oecured 
during the old regime, as well as stories of Canadian life and character of 
more recent date. To tell the story of our past is the chief delight of his life, 
an^ he tells it truthfully and impartially; he jars no feelings of race ana 
creed, for Mr. IxiMoine's ideal is a Canada whose people shall bo neither 
English nor French, but Canadian. In conclusion, we may say that the 
Royal Societ]^ of Canada could not have selected one more deserving of the 
honor of president of that distinguished body than the historian of Quebec." 


— 10 — 

of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania ; of the Massa- 
ehusetts Historical Society; of the SociSU Am6ricaine de 
France; of the New Brunswick Historical Society ; of the 
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia ; of the 
American Historical Assoeiationy Saratoga ] of tne American 
Philosophical Society J Thil&delphiA ] of the Society of Cana- 
dian Literature^ Montreal j of the Folk-Lore Society of 
Montreal; of the Natural History Society of Montreal; of 
the Audubon Society of the United States : of the Trinity 
Historical Society, Dallas, Texas. His last aiplomai was one 
recently received naming him President of the Quebec Com 
miitee of the Alliance Scientijique of France, composed of 
J. M. LeMoine, President, Honb. Judge A. B. Routhier, Jos. 
Edmond Roy, F. R. S. C, Dr. N. E. Dionne, F. R. S. C, Ernest 
Gagnon. In 1.S82 he became a corresponding member of the 
American Ornithologist Union, 

In 1885, at the instance of a distinguished French naturalist, 
Mr. Lescuyer, Mr. LeMoine's name was put forward to attend 
in Vienna the Permanent Iniemattofial Committee of the 
European Ornithologists organized under the auspices of His 
Royal Highness, the archduke Rodolphe and presided by a 
celebrated European savant, Dr. Rodolf Blasius, a similar 
distinction having been offered to the Washington ornitho- 
logist Dr. Kart Meriam which he accepted. 

However the call of duty kept Mr, LeMoine at home j he 
was thus deprived from participating in a most distinguished 
honor, tendered to very few on this continent. 

Probably, the distinction, he prized the most, was his selec- 
tion by the Marquis ot Lome to organize, with the assistance 
of Mr. Faucher de Saint Maurice, the French section of the 
Royal Society of Canada and his subsequent unanimous elec- 
tion as its first president. 

The Transactions of this learned association since 1882, 
each year, contain an elaborate essay of Mr. LeMoine on 
some department or other of Canadian history. 

In 1887, he read, by special invitation, before the Canadian 
club of New- York, a memoir : Madame de Champlain, 
Madame de la Tour, Mdlle de Ver chores, the Canadian heroines. 

An intimacy of many years standing and access had to his 
papers, &g., has furnished me with accurate data about the 
historian of Quebec. 

I recall to memory, no more pleasant episode in his lite- 
rary career than the surprise prepared for him by the elite 
of the Quebec gentry, whose homes Mr. LeMoine had so 
happily and so graphically described, when they presented 
him, in 1882, at the Grarrison club, during a champagne lunch, 
a Dominion Flag, for the new tower of Spencer Grange, with 
a suitable address. 

— 11 — 

In 1887, our author found means to steal many hours from 
his researches on Canadian history, to write an attractive 
volume on Canadian sports ; as there yet was no such work in 
French, in Canada, Chasse ei P^che filled in a lacuna, long felt 
and deplored among the votaries of gun and rod. 

Mr. LeMoine's last publication is a light volume of 30() 
pa^es : The Explorations of Jonathan Oldbuckj in which the 
writer furnishes from his diary of travel, a series of extracts, 
highly instructive and occasionally brimful of quaint humor/' 

[from " The Land we live in"] 


" I pray you, let us satisfy our eyes 

With thie memorials and the things of fame 

That do renown this city. " 

— Shakespeare. 

Quebec, founded by Samuel de Charaplain, on the 
3rd July, 1608, is the capital of ihe province, bearing 
the same name — the oldest of the several provinces, 
confederated in 1867, as the Dominion of Canada. 

There is no city in America more famous in the 
annals of history, and few on the continent of Europe 
more picturesquely located. 

Whilst the surrounding scenery reminds one of the 
unrivalled views of the Bosphorus, the airy site of the 
citadel on Cape Diamond, recals Innspruck and Edin- 

" The Gibraltar of America, " bristling with artillery, 
sits defiant on a rocky promontory, at the confluence of 
the St. Lawrence and St. Charles rivers, 180 miles from 
Montreal and over 400 miles from the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence. It has, by the annexation of St. Sauveur, about 
80,000 inhabitants, with six chartered banks, several 
Masonic lodges, five French and three English newspa- 
per. The chief business of the city until a few years 
back was shipbuilding, and the exportation of lumber ; 
latterly, the high rates of labour, enforced by arbitrary 
regulations, bids fair, unless arrested, to carry to other 
ports a notable portion of the returns derived by the 
workingman from this latter rich mine of industry. 
Quebec, since the days of Bishop Laval, has continued 
to be the seat of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in Can- 
ada ; the elevation of its archbishop to the dignity of a 

— 14 — 

Roman Cardinal, in June, 1836, was attended with a 
most imposing pageant and general illnmination. 

Of late yeara several important manufactories have- 
sprung up, especially in the populous suburb of St. 
Koch ; the city derives material benefit from the 
convergence here of several lines of railway, connecting 
with the transatlantic steamships, and making it a 
depot of immigration and of freighting ; the erection of 
the projected bridge across the St. Lawrence at or a 
little higher up than the city, whilst supplying the 
missing link in that great national work, the Canadian 
Pacific railway, will remove the disadvantage inflicted 
by the winter Levi crossing; seven or more lines of rail- 
way will then land their passengers and freight in the 
city ; the place will have ceased to be SLCulr-de-sac dur- 
ing six months out of the twelve. 

Quebec is built nearly in the form of a triangle, 
bounded by the two rivers, and the Piains of Abraham. 
It is divided into the Upper Town and Lower Town, 
the former standing on an enwalled and strongly forti- 
fied blufl' three hundred and fifty feet high, while the 
latter is built on the contracted and reclaimed strands 
between the cliffs and the river. Hence its name of the 
" Walled City of the North." Several of the streets by 
their names, Grande AlUe, Couillard, La Montague, 
etc., recal the narrow paths of early days, when M. de 
Puiseaux, reached, in 1640, his Sillery home, at Pointe- 
^-Puiseaux, under the leafy shades of the intervening 
Sillery woods, through the Grande AlUe, the main 
forest avenue; or when le Sieur Couillard, about 
1618, located his lares, near the spot where Hope Gate 
stood, or where Champlain, in 162iJ, had the path 
enlarged, which led from the lower to the upper town — 
d la Montague. This explains why these very ancient 
highways are narrow — occasionally crooked — often very 
steep; peculiarities which help to make it the most 
quaint, picturesque and mediaeval looking city in Amer- 
ica — beautiful and healthy, withal. "Take mountain 

— 15 — 

and plaiu," says Eliot Warbnrtou, *' sinuous river, and 
broad, tranquil waters, stately ship and tiny boat, gentle 
hill and shady valley, bold headland and rich, fruitful 
fields, frowning battlement and cheerful villa, glittering 
dome and rural spire, flowery garden and sombre forest 
— group them all into the choicest picture of ideal 
beauty your fancy can create, arch it over with a 
cloudless sky, light it up with a radiant sun, and lest 
the sheen be too dazzling, hang a veil of lighted haze 
over all, to soften the lines and perfect the repose, — 
you will then have seen Quebec on a September 

** The scenic beauty of Quebec," says Dr. John 
Charlton Fisher, " has been the theme of general eulogy. 
The majestic appearance of Cape Diamond and the for- 
tifications, the cupolas and minarets, like those of an 
Eastern city, blazing and sparkling in the sun, the 
loveliness of the panorama, the noble basin, like a 
sheet of purest silver, in which might ride with safety 
a hundred sail of the line, the gi-aceful meandering of 
the Eiver St. Charles, the numerous village spires on 
either side of the St. Lawrence, the fertile fields, dotted 
with innumerable cottages, the abodes of a rich and 
moral peasantry, the distant Falls of Montmorency, the 
park-like scenery of Point Levi, the beauteous Isle of 
Orleans, and more distant stiU, the frowning Cape 
Tourmente, and the lofty range of purple mountains, of 
the most picturesque forms which bound the prospect, 
unite to form a coup d^oail, which, without exaggera- 
tion, is scarcely to be surpassed in any part of the 

The Walled City has been truly styled the key to 
Canada, and the Levi earthworks, casemates and new 
forts, to meet the requirements of modern warfare, still 
make good this proud boast. It was considered so 
when its citadel was crowned with the Fleur de lys of 
old France. It may yet be called on to play a part in 
the future. Under its gi'im, mossy walls, the two fore- 

— iG — 

most nations of Europe were once arrayed in deadly 
stiife, to decide the fate of empire in the new world. 

As far back as 1535, its green banks offered a refuge 
and winter-quarters to Euro|)eans : the city must ever 
awaken the deepest interest in the eyes of every student 
of history. " Viewed from any one of its approaches, it 
impresses the stranger with the conviction of strength 
and permanency. The reader of American history, on 
entering its gates or wandering over its squares, its 
ramparts and battle-fields, ))Uts himself at once in com- 
munion with the illustrious dead. The achievements 
of daring mariners, the labors of self-sacrificing mis- 
sionaries of the Cross, and the conflict of military heroes 
who bled and died in the assault and defence of its 
walls, are here re-read with tenfold interest. There, 
the lover of nature, in her grandest and most rugged 
forms, as in her gentle and smiling moods, will find 
around it an affluence of sublime and beautiful subjects.*' 

The wintering of the venturesome Jacques Carrier on 
the shore of the St. Charles, in 1535-6, by its remote- 
ness is an incident of interest, not only to Canadians, 
but also to everv denizen of America. It takes one back 
to an era nearly coeval with the discovery of the conti- 
nent by Columbus — much anterior to the foundation of 
Jamestown, in 1607 — anterior to that of St. Augustine, 
in Florida. 

Lengthy discussion has taken place as to the origin 
of the names Canada and Quebec. Some assert that 
Kannata, the Iroquois word, signifying " a village " or 
" collection of huts ", was given indiscriminately to the 
whole of this vast region, by the early navigators ; and 
that Quebec owes its name to the exclamation of the 
Norman sailors " Quel bee " ! " What a promontory" ! 
whilst other-j with good reason think it was derived 
from a v.oid in the Algonquin language signifying " a 
straight ". 

A faciful derivation is that attributed to the Spanish 
word a-ca-nada. Nothing here, uttered by some 

— 17 — 

Spanish sailors on viewing the sterile aspect of som« 
headland. The Suffolk seal inscription, pictured by 
Hawkins, has been proved to mean Caudebec, a town 
in Normandy, and not Quebec. But let us not tread 
rashly on the ground of the antiquary. 

Subsequent ages have ratified the sound judgment of 
Champlaiu in selecting the commanding site of Quebec 
as the location of the great fortress of French power in 
America, the " fulcrum, which for a century moved the 
continent from the shores of the St. Lawrence to the 
Gulf of Mexico ", though at one time, the sheltered 
shores of the St. Charles were freely talked of, as the 
proper site of the then nascent settlement. 

How oft', indeed, has the storm of battle raged 
furiously round Quebec's hoary ramparts, bristling with 
guns lying in ambush, like huge beasts of prey, ready 
to poynce on any assailant ; its solid walls and crenel- 
ated bastions, erected by skilled French engineers, and 
costing fabulous sums to France ; the present Citadel, a 
noble structure planned by the French Engineer de L^ry, 
recommended by the Duke of Wellington, was built 1823- 
1830, This comparatively modem work, the materials 
for which were hoisted 350 feet, from the St. Lawrence 
below, by the first railway in Canada, cost England 
millions, under the supervision of Col. Durnford. 

Many and murderous were the indian raids around 
Quebec at the dawn of the settlement, Champlain having 
injudiciously taken part against the Iroquois, in the 
incessant wars they waged against the Huron and 
Algonquin tribes, hutted in the vicinity of the Fort. 

Quebec, more than once the battlefield of England 
and France, in the New World, had to bear repeatedly 
the brunt of the rivalry of these two powers, uncon- 
nected then by treaties of commerce. 

Five sieges, in 1629, 1690, 1759, 1760, 1775, have 
left their unmistakeable footprints round its battlements. 

Had the bulk of the citizens, the sons of old France, 
in 1775 and 1812, sided with the invader, there would 


— 18 — 

not likely be at present, in this fair Land of the West, 
any loving subjects to greet Victoria, as Queen. 

It might not be an uninteresting subject of research, 
to tmce the complex origin of the 80,000 souls com- 
prised in the population of the Ancient Capital. 

For years, Quebec meant New France, though its 
successful rival, Montreal, very soon played an impor- 
tant part in colonial affairs. New France in fact was 
originally peopled by emigration from Brittany, Nor- 
mandy, Perche, Poitou, Anjou, Aunis, &c., industrious 
and moral peasants, hardy fishermen, adventurous 
mechanics in quest of homes and a livelihood free from 
the heavy imposts then beginning to weigh on the 
French nation. An important class soon came to the 
front, in a country in which the Indian dialects had to 
be studied and used : the class of french interpreters, 
composed of men, who eventually attained imj)prtant 
situations of trust ; one of whom was for a time charged 
with the administration of the colony, the Baron de 
Longueuil ; let us also mention others such as Marsol- 
let, Nicolet and Couture. 

Great care seems to have been practised in the selec- 
tion of colonists, by the public companies and later on, 
when Quebec became a crown colony, by the king ; 
unlike the mode of colonizing which obtained for the 
Isle of St. Christophe and other islands. 

The disbanding of several companies of the dashing 
Carignan Eegiment, brought out here by the Maixjuis of 
Tracy, in 1665, through the infusion of new blood raised 
the standard of colonists, adding a refined element to 
the sparse population. Louis the Great had tempted 
the officers, many of whom were connected with the 
French nobility, to settle in Canada, by royal gifts of 
waste lands, offering to the privates farm stock and 
land as well. This accounts for the names of several 
old seigniories, called after their first proprietors, all 
military men : Sorel, Chambly, Verch^res, Berthier, 
Granville, Contrecoeur, Varennes, Rougemont, La Val- 

— 19 — 

trie, La Parade, De la Naudifere, etc. Many of these 
refined Canadian gentilahommea, however, appear to 
have more attended to the heading sanguinary raids on 
the peaceable hamlets of New England and to border 
warfare generally, than to ploughing and harrowing their 
broad acres. 

The conquest of the country in 1759-60 brought out 
from Britain an important accession of Enghsh and 
Scotch adventurers in and around Quebec ; the wealthy, 
a prey to that " earth hunger' which distinguishes the 
Saxon race, and anxious to acquire estates for their 
sons and daughters. 

The exodus in 1783-4 of the United Empire Loyalists, 
from the adjoining, heretofore, British Provinces, recog- 
nized in 1783 as an independent nation, was but slightly 
felt at Quebec. This progressive element, the founders 
of Western Canada, were, however, represented in that 
city, in 1786, by the late Chief Justice of New York, 
the Hon. William Smith, appointed in 1785 by King 
George III, Chief Justice of Quebec ; by his son, Wil- 
liam Smith, the historian of Canada, and later, in 1789, 
by his son-in-law, the learned Jonathan Sewell, another 
U. E. L. from Massachusetts, who, in 1809, became 
Chief Justice of Lower Canada, and died in 1839, leav- 
ing eighteen sons and daughters. 

The Eeign of Terror in Fjance in 1793, which sent 
over a colony of distinguished French Royalists to 
Western Canada, added nothing appreciable to the cen- 
sus of Quebec, with the exception of a few zealous 
French priests, who were provided with cures, in and 
round the city. The banner of St. George, instead of 
the white lily of France, floating on our bastions, 
secured the city against the invasion of the delegates of 
Couthon, EobespieiTe, Danton, Carrier, etc. ; no scaffolds 
were erected in the upper town market place, and 
French noblemen and French priests were welcome 
among us, without the constant fear of the guillotine 
before their eyes. Quebec was not Cayenne ! 

— 20 — 

One word about another element — a law-abiding one 
— in our complex population, felt, but whose origin re- 
mains yet to be enquired into by our ethnologists : 
the Grerman element. Whence and at what date came 
among us these notable men — the Wurtele, Hoffman, 
Hesse, Ampleman, Ruthven, Von Koenig, Von IfUaud, 
De Rottenburg, Idler, Seybauld, Bowen, Stoepleben, 
Reinhart, Colback, Hind, Wolfif, Eckhart ? How many of 
them can seek for their ancestors amongst the Bruns- 
wickers and Hessians, who landed at Quebec in 1776 
under Baron Rediesel and with the various shiploads of 
Germans, chiefly from Wurtemburg, who emigrated 
to Canada to escape conscription during the early 
Napoleonic wars and previous. 

The Pozer family dates back to old George Pozer, the 
millionaire, as he was styled, but he did not come 
direct from Germany; he had first settled in New 
York and then returned to England, landing at Quebec 
in 1791. 

The Irish population of Quebec became considerable 
about 1823, when emigration was flowing from the 
green Isle to America ; emigration increased to very 
large proportions about 1847 ; the Irish headquarters 
in the city then were in Champlain street. The Irish 
settlements, in the townships and round Quebec, date 
back as early as 1815. 

They grew in importance and numbers, under the 
wise guidance of a venerated priest, the Revd. Father 
McAIahon, living in amity with their English neighbors ; 
they founded a national society in 1835. 

The great bulk of the population of the city still 
French, is not by any means oblivious of the father- 
land, beyond the seas. 

" Few cities, says M. Marmier, " offer as many 
striking contrasts as Quebec ; a fortress and a commer- 
cial city together, built upon the summit of a rock as 
the nest of an eagle, while her vessels are everywhere 
wrinkling the face of the ocean; an American city 

— 21 — 

inhabited by French colonists, governed by England 
and gaiTisoned with Scotch, the Highland, — 78th — 
79th — 93rd regiments ; a city of the middle ages by 
most of its aacient institutions, while it is admitted to 
all the combinations of modern constitutional govern- 
ment; an European city by its civilization and its 
habits of refinement, and still close by, the remnants 
of the Indian tribes and the barren mountains of the 
North ; a city of about the same latitude as Paris, 
while successively combining the torrid climate of 
southern regions with the severities of a hyperborean 
winter ; a city at the same time Catholic and Protes- 
tant, where the labors of our (French) missions are still 
uninterrupted alongside of the undertakings of the Bible 
Society, and where the Jesuits driven out of our own 
country (France) find a place of refuge under the segis 
of British Puritanism." 

Leiires stir VAmiriquej X. Marmier, Paris, 1869. 

A striking feature about Quebec scenery is the exten- 
sive groups of handsome manors which encircle the 
brow of the Capital like a fresh and fragrant cha- 
plet of flowers, though it would be idle to seek in 
a certain number for architectural excellence, old-world 
dimensions, old-world splendor and ancient construc- 
tion. As a rule, they are the pleasant and healthy 
abodes of the high dignitaries in church and state as 
well as the prized mansions of successful citizens, 
in the professions, commerce, etc. " Nowhere indeed 
are to be found ivied ruins, dating back to doomsday 
book, moated castle, or mediaeval tower. We have no 
Blenheims, no Walton halls, nor Chatsworths, nor 
Woburn Abbeys, nor Arundel castles to illustrate every 
style of architectural beauty, rural embellishment and 
landscape. Dainpierre, Rochecotte, LaGlaudini^re, Chan- 


— 22 — 

tilly, Loches, Chin(3n, Marly, may have suited old 
France: they would have been out of place in new 
France : Canadian mansions, the best of them, are not 
the stately country-homes of 

" Old pheasant lords, 
Partridge-breeders of a thousand years." 

typifying the accumulated wealth of centuries or patri- 
cian pride ; nor are they the gay chdteaux of la BeUe 
France. In this Canada of ours, oft we have had to 
do without the architect's skill ; nature had been so 
lavish in her own lordly decorations, that art could 
be dispensed with. Our country-seats possess attrac- 
tions of a higher class, yea, of a nobler order, than brick 
and mortar, moulded by the genius of man, can impart. 
A kind Providence has surrounded them in spring, sum- 
mer and autumn with scenery often denied to the tur- 
reted castle of the proudest nobleman in England. 
Those around Quebec are more particularly hallowed 
by associations destined to remain ever memorable 
amongst the inhabitants of a soil moistened by the blood 
of heroes (1)." On one of these historic sites, more than 
one century ago, was decided the fate of French Canada 
— let us say, by its ultimate results — of North America. 
The majority of these cool retreats, scarcely visible 
from the high road, lie perduSy under dense groves of 
oaks and pines, the remnants of the forest primeval, 
on the lofty banks of the noble St. Lawrence, from 
Cape Eouge to Cape Diamond, eight miles ; and from 
thence to the foaming cataract of Montmorenci, seven 
miles to the east; whilst others stand embowered in 
rustic seclusion amidst trees and flowers, under hoary 
pines and verdant maples, like sentinels on the Ste. Foye 
heights, watching the meanders of the St. Charles 
flowing below, amidst golden wheat fields and green 

(1) Picturesque Quebec, p. 271. 

— 23 — 

glades, with the blue " turban of the Laurentides " in 
the distance as a back- ground. 

Foremost, may be mentioned Spencer Wood, PoweU 
Place, as it was styled, in the days (1780-96) of General 
Henry Watson Powell ; a noble domain of about 75 
acres, occupied by His Excellency Sir James Hy. 
Craig, Governor-General of Lower Canada, in 1807, and 
purchased in 1849 from the late Hy. Atkinson, as a 
gubernatorial residence for the Earl of Elgin, then 
Governor-General of Canada : it is now the official resi- 
dence of His Honor, the Lt.-Governor of the Province of 

Marchmont— The country seat of Thos. Beckett. 




Spencer Grange 


Montague Cottage 




The Highlands 

Kirk Ella 

Beauvoir Manoir 







Holland House 

Poplar Grove, 


Morton Lodge 

Alta Mont 



Bandon Lodge 



























































of Hon. Evan John Price. 

of John Burs tall. 

of Arch. Campbell. 

of James M. LeMoine. 

of Lt.-Col. Jos. Bell Forsyth. 

of Alfred P. Wheeler. 

ot Chas. E. Levey. 

of Albert Furniss. 

of Lieut.-Col. Wm. Rhodes. 

of Thos. Stockwell. 

of Robert Campbell. 

of Richard R. Dobell. 

of Lt.-Col. Ferd. Turnbull. 

of Gustavus Stuart, Q. C. 

of Wm. Herring. 

of John Neilson 

of George M. Fairchild, jr. 

of Simeon Lesage 

of Frank Ross. 

of V. Chateauvert, M. P. P. 

of Robt. Hamilton. 

of W. Carrier. 

of Hon. David A. Ro^. 

of Andrew Thomson 

of Hon. Frs. Langelier. 

of Hon. Jos. Shehyn. 

of J. C. Guilmartin. 

of Alph. Charlebois. 

Haldimand House — (Duke of Kent's residence, 1791-4), the 
country-seat of Paterson Hall. 

Montmorenci Cottage — ^The country-seat of Herbert Moles- 
worth Price. 

— 24 — 

Coucy rle-Cas tel — The country seat of Hoji . Judge Taschereau. 

Hessle Grove 



Villa Mastai 





of J. H. Botterell. 

of A. F. Ashmead 

of George Holmes Parke. 

of Hon. A.C. R.P.Landry. 

of Sir L. Napol6on Casault. 

The above are the most noted country-seats round Quebec ; 
there are several others in the environs, most picturesquely 
located and affording striking views of the city. 


No spot in the environs of Quebec is more calculated 
to attract the attention of tourists than the lofty plateau, 
where the English and French armies met in deadly 
encounter one murky September morning in 1759. 
Parkman, Casgrain, Bancroft, Warburton, Smith, Haw- 
kins, Garneau, Ferland, Beatson, Miles, and other 
historians have vied with one another to furnish graphic 
accounts of this famous battle ; the plains, covering 
about 32 acres, were called after an old Scotchman, 
Abraham Martin, described in old titles as " Maltie 
Abraham Martin dit TEcossais," pilot on the St Lawrence 
to the French King. 

The area is bounded to the south by the summit of 
the cape overlooking the St Lawrence ; to the west, by 
the Sillery woods ; to the north, by the St Louis road ; 
and to the east, by a loftier plateau, extending to the 
foot of the present citadel ; formerly, the plains are 
supposed to have comprised to the north the whole of 
the intervening expanse as far as the Ste Foye road, 
and even beyond. 


Bi-Centennial Anniversary of the Eepulse of 
Phips before Quebec, 23rd October, 1690. 

Amidst the many thrilling scenes and dramatic inci- 
dents chronicled in the annals of the five sieges at 
Quebec — 1629 — 1690— 1759— 1760— 1775— there 
are few calculated to create deeper emotion, than those 
recalled by the week of peril and of dire alarm for the 
beseiged extending from 16th to 23rd October, 1690. 

On Monday, the 16th October, 1690, Louis de Buade, 
Comte de Palluau et Frontenac, had just held for one 
year the reins as Governor-General of New France, at 
Quebec. The anniversary of his return to Canada would 
likely have called forth a festal display and public 
rejoicings, as the mere presence of the intrepid veteran 
was reckoned a tower of strength to the struggling 
colony, sorely beset by merciless Indian foes ; but, on 
that eventful morning, an astounding announcement 
blanched many cheeks : a powerful hostile squadron 
from New England, with decks crowded with troops, 
had anchored abreast of the unprepared, ill-fortified city. 
History depicts the fiery old Governor at the head of his 
staff, anxiously scanning, from the lofty terrace of the 

— 26 — 

CMteau St Louis, the recent arrivals from sea : thirty- 
four formidable ships-of-war, which, after rounding 
Pointe Levy, at dawn, had taken position at 10 o'clock 
a. m. ; the smaller craft lying towards Beauport, whilst 
the flag-ship and larger vessels had anchored in the 
stream. This meant war : life or death to the alarmed 
denizens of the beleaguered citadel. 

But what was Quebec in 1690 ? Champlain's cher- 
ished settlement of 1608 had had time to expand, 
increasiug in population, growing stronger as a military 

Its first residents, 'tis true, had long been gathered to 
their fathers ; the old Scotchman, Abraham Martin, 
King's pilot ; that universal genius, the land surveyor, 
Jean Bourdon ; the trusty apothecary, Louis Hebert, 
first settler in the upper town ; Guillaume Couillard, 
patron of the Basilica ; the hardy and skilful interpreters, 
Nicholas Marsolet, Jean Nicolet, were no more, but they 
had left descendants, sons and many grandsons, great- 
. grandsons innumerable. By the influx of colonists from 
Normandy, Brittany, Perche, etc., the population had 
increased to 1,500 souls. When Champlain left Quebec 
on the arrival of Capt. Kirke, in 1629, 22 persons, viz., 7 
men, 8 women and 7 children, constituted the French 
population of Quebec. 

Talon and Hocquart, ablest of Intendants, had, with 
the help of the wise Colbert, been the avowed promoters 
of colonization, commerce, manufactures, ship-building, 
in the Great Louis' pet colony. The higher grades of 
education had been cared for — some think even too 
much : the Jesuits College founded in 1635 ; the Sirai- 
naive des Missions Etrangh^es, created in 1663, the 
Petit S^minaire, in 1668. Well regulated convejitual 
institutions, fostered by pious noble French ladies, 
taught the young idea to shoot, whilst*a progressive 
but absolute ecclesiastic, of noble birth (Monsignor de 
Laval-Montmorency), had taken charge of the church 

— 27 — 

and of religious foundations. The colony had indeed 
expanded, though a species of close borough to outsiders 
and despite monopolies and absolutism. 

Another marked increase to the census soon took 
place after the disbanding and settling in Canada of 
the famous French regiment brought over from France, 
in 1665, by the pompous Marquis of Tracy ; the 
Carignan-Sali^res Eegiment formed by the Prince of 
Garigoan and commanded by the dashing Col. de 
Saliferes. The King had promised extensive tracts of 
land on the shores of the St. Lawrence to the ofl&cers 
who would found families in Canada. Hence, the 
origin of the French Seigniories granted to French 
officers, several of whom hailed from the titled gentry 
of France. In many instances, their names were 
bequeathed to their broad acres, and are borne by them 
to this day ; such as Capts. Saint Ours, de Berthier, de 
Saurel, de Contrecoeur, la Valtrie, de Meloises,Tarieu de 
la Parade, de la FouiUe, Maximin, Lobiau, Petit, Kouge- 
mont, Traversy, de La Motte, La Combe, de Verchferes, 
whilst their gallant troopers, allured to settle in Canada 
by grants of land and farm stock from the Government, 
were not slow in falling in love with the lively, bright- 
eyed Josettes of Quebec and Montreal. Soon, says an 
old chronicle, the parish priest had his hands full, with 
marriages ; and, in due time, with christenings. Many 
of these patriarchal families could successfully, in after 
years, have claimed Col. Rhodes* premium of 100 acres 
for the twelfth child. 

Social intercourse at Quebec in 1690, though on a 
limited scale, was apparently of good form, according to 
reliable writers. Charlevoix, a contemporary historian, 
who wrote the history of the colony, in 1720, speaks in 
high terms of the French societies of that and of previous 
periods : " Manners were refined ; no boorishness ; the 
language spoken, pure and no accent perceptible in the 

— 28 — 

families, they were stroug and well formed, the daugh- 
ters lively and handsome. " (1) 

« Quebec in 1690, says Dr. N. E. Dionne, F. E. S. 
C, had its Governor. The chief of his staff was Philippe 
Rigaud de Vaudreuil ; the Intendant^ a man of distinc- 
tion, was Bochart de Champigny. The city had a 
Sovereign Council, a Court of Priv6t4, a Court of 
Admiralty, a Commissary of Marine, an Overseer of 
Public Soads, a Gh'and Voyer, two bishops, Jesuits, 
Friars, Ursulines and HospitaliireannnBf secular priests, 
notaries, physicians, bailiffs, architects, and even a 
public hangman, 

" The administration of New France was carried on 
by a Council, of which all the members resided in 
Quebec. It consisted of the Governor, of the Bishop, 
of the Intendant, of several Councillors, and of a Royal 
Attorney (Prociiveur du roi). It was composed of 
Louis Rouer de Villeray, the friend of the Bishop, an 
avowed partisan of the Jesuits ; consequently, no friend 
of the Governor. Other men of mark at the Council 
Board were Mathieu d'Amours de Chauffbur, Nicolas 
du Pont, Sieur de Neuville, Charles le Grardeur de 
Tilly and Charles Denis de Yitr^." 

Among the leading men at Quebec, in 1690, may be "^ 

mentioned the King's Attorney-General, F. M. F. Ruette 
d'Auteuil, Claude de Bermen, Sieur de la Martiniere, 
judge and lieutenant-civil ; Charles de Monseignat, 

(1) Tout est ici de belle taille, et le plus beau san^ du 
monde dans les deux sexes j I'esprit enjou6, les manidres 
deuces et polies sent coinmuns k tous ; et la rusticity, soit 
dans le langage, soit dans les fa^ons, n'est pas meme connue 
dans les campagnes les plus 6cart6es. NuUe part ailleurs, on 
ne parle plus purement uotre langage. On ne remarque memo 
ici aucun accent. — Charlevoix, 

Vide Colbert's letter to intendant Talon, 20th February, 
1668, quoted by Parkman, p. 416. — Old Rboimb. 

— 29 — 

secretary to Frontenac and the author of a full account 
of what took place, at Quebec, in 1690 ; Pierre Becart, 
Sieur de Granville, who had been taken prisoner by 
Phips, near Murray Bay, where he had been sent to 
watch the New England fleet. Jacques Petit de Ver- 
neuil, George Begnard du Plessis, Treasurer of the 
Marine ; Paul Dupuis, Seignior of Goose Island ('pro- 
cureur du Roi en la privdU), and for years the pious 
Seignior of the Island, and father of fifteen children ; 
he was reputed to be a saint. In such a haunt of game, 
his sons must have been ardent sportmen, one would' 

Michel le Neuf, Sieur de la Vallifere et de Beaubas- 
sin ; Jean-Baptiste Couillard de TEspinay, Lieutenant 
of the Admiralty ; Ren6 Chartier de Lotbini6re, Lieu- 
tenant of the Pr6v8t^ ; Franqois Provost Major et 
Commandant of the Castle ; Augustin Eouer, Sieur de 
Cardonnifere ; Pierre de la Lande, Sieur de Gayon, 
Gervais Beaudoin, Physician to the Ursuline Nuns ; 
Timothy Roussel, Physician to the Hotel-Dieu Nuns ; 
Louis Chambalon appointed, later on, a Eoyal Notary ; 
Etienne Dubreuil, Notary to the Quebec Seminary. 

The numerous class of merchants, some of whom 
traded with the West Indies, were represented by 
Charles Perthuis, Charles Aubert de la Chenaye, Fran- 
cois Hazeur, Denis Eiverin, Francois Viennay Pachot. 
Guillaume Bouthier, Jean SebiUe, Nicolas Volan, Jean 
Gobin, Pierre Tetu du Tilly, Raymond du Bosc, Simon 
Soumande, Charles Macart, Denis Roberge and a num- 
ber of others. Dr N. E. Dionne, author of a prize essay 
on Jacques Cartier, from whom I have borrowed these 
details, has added a tableau of the men of mark in 
Quebec, in 1690, a portion of which I subjoin (1). 


Gouvemeur G6niral de la Nouvelle-France. — Louis de Buade, 
comte de Falluau et de Frontenac, Chevalier de I'ordre de 


— 30 — 

The fortifications of Quebec, though of a rudimentary 
nature, in 1690, had been much improved by the new 
work of defences and the palisades ordered by Count 
Frontenac in the spring, on the northwestern, unpro- 

Iniendani,-^ Jean Bochart, sieur de Champigny, Norais, Ver- 
neuil, etc. 

Grand Privdi des marichaux de France Paul Denis, sieur 

de S. Simon. 

Lieutenant particulier de la Pr&odtS, — Ren6 Louis Chartier 
de Lotbinidre. « 

Lieutenant de VAmiraut6. — Jean-Bap tiste Couillard de P£s- 

Conseillers du Conseil Souverain — Louis Rouer de Villeray, 
premier conseiller j Mathia8d'Amours,de Chauffeur j Nicolas 
du Pont, de Neuville ; Jeane Baptiste de Peiras ; Charles 
Denis de Vitre j Charles le Gardeur de Tilly. 

Procureur g€n6ral du Roi F. M. Ruette d'Auteuil. 

Greffier en chef du Conseil, — Alexandre Peuvret, de Gau- 

Huissiers. — Guillaume Roger, premier huissierj Rene Hu- 
bert, du Conseil : Joseph Prieur, de la Prev6t6. 

Controleur. — Pierre Benac, c. g6n6ral ; Pierre Chevalier, 
pour les MM. de la Compagnie ; Antoine Gourdeau, sieur de 

Trisorier de la Marine, — ^George Reguard du Plessis, sieur 
de Morampont. 

Grand Voyer, — R6ne Robineau, sieur de B6cancourt, fils du 

Hydrographe du Roi,— J, B. Louis Franquelin. 

Archiiectes. — Claude Bailly, Jean le Rouge, Fran9ois de la 

Notaires, — Claude Aubertj F. Genaple de Bellefonds j 
Gilles Rageot : Etienne du Breuil, Seminaire. 

M4decins, — Gervais Beaudoin, des Ursulines ; Timothe 
Roussel J Nicolas Sarazzin j Jean Leger de la Grange j Ar- 
mand Dumanin j Pierre du Roy. 

Garde-magasin. — Charles Catignan. 

Colonel des Troupes, — Louis Philippe Rigaud de Vaudreuil. 

Major et Commandant de QuSbec Frs. Prevost. 

Capitaine des gardes — Michel le Neuf, sieur de la Valliere. 

Ex6cuteur des kautes q?m tjre^r.— Jean Rattier. 


Mgr Frangois de Laval de Montmorency, retire. 
Mgr Jean-Bte de la Croix-Chevrieres de St-Valier. 

— 31 — 

tected side of the town, towards the Ste. Foye road and 
Plains of Abraham ; though no guns were placed on 
the summit of Cape Diamond commanding the town 
until 1693. Town Major Prevost in the absence of 
Frontenac, then in Montreal, had very judiciously 
pushed on vigorously to completion these new works, 
and placed in position batteries wherever he could, 
" The cliffs along the St. Lawrence ", says Parkman, 
" and those along the tributary river, St. Charles had 
three accessible points, guarded (until 1871) by the 
Prescott Gate, the Hope Gate and the Palace Gate. 
Prevost had secured them by barricades of heavy 
beams and casks filled with earth. A continuous line 
of palisades ran along the strand of the St. Charles, 
from the great cliff called the ' Sault-au-Matelot ' to the 
Palace of the intendant. At this latter point began the 
line of works constructed by Frontenac to protect the 
rear of the town. They consisted of palisades strength- 
ened by a ditch and an embankment, and flanked at 
frequent intervals by square towers of stone.. Passing 
behind the garden of the Ursulines, they extended to a 
windmill (Dupont de Neuville's) on a hillock called 
* Mt. (>armeV and then to a brink of the cliffs in front. 
Here there was a battery of eight guns near the present 
Public Garden (Le Jardin du Fort), two more, each of 
three guns, were planted at the top of the Sault-au- 
Matelot ; another at the bamcade of the Palace Gate ; 
and another near the windmill of Mt. Carmel ; while a 
number of light pieces were held in reserve for such 
use as occasion might require. The Lower Town had 
no defensive works ; but two batteries, each of three 
guns, eighteen and twenty-four pounders were placed 
here at the edge of the river " efficiently directed by Le 
Moyne de Ste. H^l^ne and Le Moyne de Maricourt, two. 
brave brothers of Le Moyne de Longueuil, also serving 
in this memorable campaign. 

— 32 — 


We shall now view the 8tui*dy chieftain, Count Fron- 
tenac — who, on his return to Quebec, in 1689, was 
christened the Saviour of Canada — such as history 
depicts him — undismayed, striding across the lofty 
teiTace of the Ch&teau Saint-Lous, surrounded by his 
staff — but surveying with suppressed feeling, the 
unwelcome Massachusetts fleet moored in the offing 
below. Among the restless group of officers, one might 
have readily recognized by their prominence as well 
possibly as by their familly Ukeness, Charles LeMoyne^s 
four dauntless sons ; de Longueuil — de Sainte-H^Jfene, 
le brave des bi^aves, destined to an early grave — de 
Bienville and de Maricourt. There stands, silent, next 
to the Count, Frontenac*s trusty adviser and lieutenant, 
town-major Francois Provost and close to him Villebon, 
Valrenne, Clermont and Frontenac's clever secretary 
Charles de Monseignat ; in the back ground and con- 
versing in whispers may be noticed, some of the high 
civil officials : Intendant de Champigny, Ren6 Chartier 
de Lotbiniere, Euette d'Auteuil, the King's attorney 
general and others : they exchanged with bated breath 
their views, without daring to advise the impatient, 
impetuous Governor. 

* * 

T'is a cool, bright October moniing: a hoar frost 
whitens the dropping roofs of the dwellings and ware- 
houses of the lower town : the sun is just piercing 
through a veil of autumnal vapour, hanging like a pall 
over the foaming cataract of Montmorency : the fir, oak 
and maple groves, sitting like a diadem, on the western 
point of Orleans, opposite Quebec, are all aglow with 
the gorgeous hues of the closing season, prior to the fall 

— 33 — 

of the leaf. An indistinct white spot in the purple 
distance — the first snow soon however to melt away 
— crowns the lofty peak of Cape Tourmente on the 
North shore of the St Lawrence. 

One by one the hated, black hulls of the frigates, 
emerge, a hideous reality, from the rising fog : thirty- 
four Boston men-of-war, flaunting defiantly at their 
mast heads, the dreaded flag of the mistress of the sea, 
old England. The damp, dropping sails, frosted over, 
are being stowed away ; the ships have all swung with 
the tide ; a vague, and ominous silence pervades the 
public squares and usually noisy market-place. " How 
is Monsieur le Goitverneur to defend the city " ? one 
asks : some few have faith in the sturdy, able, old 
warrior, to whom fear is unknown. The majority incline 
to take the gloomiest view of the future. " Let us pray 
to the Virgin " ! repeats, with upturned gaze and trem- 
bling lips, the lady superior of a monastery, just returned 
from visiting the Bishop for advice. 

Towards two o'clock, a boat put out from the 
admiral's ship bearing a white flag. Four canoes leave 
the lower-to^tn to meet it midway. It brings an officer 
bearing a letter from Sir William Phips to the French 

Let us allow the brilliant biographer of Frontenac, 
Francis Parkman, to describe this incident : 

" He, (the bearer of the flag of truce) was taken into 
one of the canoes and paddled to the quay, after being 
completely blind- folded by a bandage which covered 
half his face. Provost received him as he landed, and 
ordered two sergeants to take him by the arms and lead 
him to the governor. His progress was neither rapid, 
nor direct. They drew him hither and thither, delight- 
ing to make him clamber in the dark over every pos- 
sible obstruction ; w^hile a noisy crowd hustled him, and 
laughing women called him Colin Maillard, the name of 
the chief player in blindman's buff ; amid a prodigious 

hubbub, intended to bewilder him and impress him 

— 34 — 

with a sense of immense warlike preparations, they 
dragged him over the three barricades of Mountain 
street, and brought him at last into a large room of the 
Chateau. Here they took the bandage from his eyes. 
He stood for a moment with an air of astonishment and 
some confusion. The governor stood before him, haughty 
and stem, surrounded by French and Canadian officers, 
Maricourt, Sainte Ht^lene, Longueuil, Villebon, Val- 
renne, Bienville and many more, bedecked with gold 
lace and silver lace, perukes and powder, plumes and 
ribbons, and all the martial foppery in which they took 
delight, and regarding the envoy with keen, defiant 
eyes. After a moment he recovered his breath and 
hjs composure, saluted Frontenac, and expressing a 
wish that the duty assigned to him had been of a more 
agreable nature, handed him the letter of Phips. Fron- 
tenac gave it to an interpreter, who read it aloud in 
French that all might hear." 

It was a summons, to Frontenac on behalf of their 
Majesties, William and Maiy, King and Queen of 
England, to surrender the colony and closed thus. 
" Your answer positive in an hour, returned by your 
own trumpet, wdth the return of mine, is required upon 
the peril that will ensue." 

" When the reading was finished, the Englishman 
pulled his watch from his pocket, and handed it to the 
governor, Frontenac could not, or pretended that he 
could not see the hour. The messenger thereupon told 
him that it was ten o'clock, and that he must have the 
answer before eleven. A general cry of indignation 
arose ; and Valrenne called out that Phips was nothing 
but a pirate, and that his man ought to be hanged. 
Frontenac contained himself for a moment, and then 
said to the envoy : — " I will not keep you waiting so 
long. Tell your general that I do not recognize King 
William ; and that the Prince of Orange, who so styles 
himself, is a usuiper, who has violated the most sacred 
laws of blood in attempting to dethrone his father-in- 

— 35 — 

law. I know no king of England but King James." 
This interview was ultimately brought to a close by 
Frontenac'a proud retort. " I will answer your general 
only by the mouths of my cannon *' and he eventually 
did so, and much to the point. Major Walley, in his 
journal, republished in Smith's History of Canada has 
given full particulars of the operations he commanded 
on the Beauport shore ; the idea was for the EngUsh to 
cross in their boats or ford the river St. Charles, ascend 
by the coteau Ste. Genevieve and take the city in 
reverse, whilst Phips would fiercely cannonade it from 
his ships : the spot, where Wolfe 69 years later ascended, 
at the Tuisseau St. Denis, was pointed out to Phips but 
he would not alter his original plan. 

Nothing seems to have been done that day (IGth) ; in 
the evening there occured "a great shouting, mingled 
Avith the roll of drums and the sound of fifes," in the 
Upper Town, when, in reply to an English officer's 
question, a French prisoner in the English fleet, of the 
name of Granville, captured whilst reconnoitring 
opposite Mai Bay, informed him it was Calli^res, just 
arrived from Montreal with 700 or 800 men, many of 
them regulars. Space precludes ray developing in detail 
Major Walley's operations and repulse at Beauport, 
where the local militia gave his men a warm reception, 
though Quebec had to deplore the death of a valuable 
of&cer — le chevalier de Clermont — and the ultimate 
loss of Sainte-H^lfene, who, wounded in the leg, Hn- 
gered until 3rd December following, and was buried on 
the 4th, in the Cimeti^re des Pauvres, adjoining the 
H6tel-Dieu Monastery. 

Let us now take up Parkman's narrative : " Phips 
lay quiet till daybreak, when Frontenac sent a shot to 
awaken him, and the cannonade began again. Saint 
H^lene had returned from Beauport ; and he, with his 
brother Maricourt, took charge of the two batteries in 
the lower town, aiming the guns in person and throw- 
ing balls of 18 and 24 pounds with excellent precision 

— 36 — 

against the four largest ships of the fleet. One of their 
shots cut the flagstaff of the Admiral, and the Cross of 
St. George fell into the water. It drifted with the tide 
toAvards the north shore ; whereupon several Canadians 
paddled out in a birch canoe, secured it and brought it 
back in triumph. On the spire of the Cathedi-al of the 
Upper Town had been hung a picture of the Holy 
Family as an invocation of divine aid. The Puritan 
gunners waited their ammunition in vain attempts to 
knock it down. That it escaped their malice was 
ascribed to miracle, but the miracle would have been 
greater if they had hit it." 

A furious cannonade was kept up all this time 
between Quebec and the Massachusetts fleet. Mere 
Juchereau de Saint-Ignace, a HoteUDieu nun, draws a 
very dark picture of the interior of Quebec during this 
dreadful week. The nuns restricted themselves to a 
daily morsel of bread, and the loaves which they 
furnished to the soldiers were impatiently devoured in 
the shape of dough ; terror and distress reigned in the 
city, " for ", in her simple but afl'ecting language, 
everything diminished except hunger." To add to the 
general confusion, the English squadron kept up a 
tremendous cannonade, more to the alarm than to the 
injury of the inhabitants. " It is easy to imagine how our 
alarms redoubled ; when we heard the noise of the cannon 
we were more dead than alive ; every time the combat 
was renew^ed the bullets fell on our premises in such 
numbers that in one day we sent twenty-six of them 
to our artillery-men to be sent back to tlie English. 
Several of us thought that we were killed by them ; 
the danger was so evident that the bravest oflBcei's 
regarded the capture of Quebec as inevitable. In spite 
of all our fears we prepared different places for the 
reception of the wounded, because the combat had 
commenced with an air to make us believe that our 
hospital would not be capable of containing those who 
might have need of our assistance. But God spared 

— 37 — 

the blood of the French ; there were few wounded and 
fewer killed. Quebec was very badly fortified for a 
siege ; it contained very few arms and no provisions, 
and the troops that had come from Montreal had con- 
sumed the little food that there was in the city." " The 
fruits and vegetables of our garden were pillaged by the 
soldiers ; they warmed themselves at our expense and 
burned our wood." " Everything appeared sweet to us 
provided we could be preserved from falling into the 
hands of those whom we regarded as the enemis of God 
as well as our own. We haa not any professed artille- 
rymen. Two captains, M. LeMoyne de Maricour and 
M. de Lorimier, took charge of the batteries and 
pointed the cannon so accurately as hardly ever to 
miss. M. de Maricour shot down the flag of the 
Admiral, and, as .soon as it fell, our Canadians boldly 
ventured out in a canoe to pick it up, and brought 
it ashore under the very beards of the Euglish." 
" The Lower Town had been abandoned by its inhab- 
itants, who bestowed their families and their furniture 
within the solid walls of the Seminary. The cellars of 
the Ursulines Convent were filled with women and 
children, and many more took refuge at the Hotel-Dieu. 
The beans and cabbages in the garden of the nuns had 
all been stolen by the soldiers, and their wood-pile was 
turned into bivouac fires." " At the Convent of the 
Ursulines, the corner of a nun's apron was carried off 
by a canon-shot as she passed through her chamber. 
The sisterhood began a iiovenay or nine days' devotion, 
to Saint Joseph, Ste Anne, the angels, and the souls in 
purgatory ; and one of their number remained in prayer 
day and night before the images of the Holy Family." 
** The Superior of the Jesuits, with some of the elder 
members of the order, remained at their college during 
the attack, ready, should the heretics prevail, to repair 
to their chapel and die before the altar. Rumour exag- 
gerated the numbers of the enemy, and a general alarm 
pervaded the town. It was still greater at Lorette, nine 


— 38 — 

miles distant. The warriors of that mission were in the 
first skirmish at Beauport ; and two of them, running 
oflf in a fright, reported that the enemy were carrying 
everything before them. On this the villagers fled to 
the woods, followed by Father Germain, their mis- 
sionary, to whom this hasty exodus suggested the flight 
of the Holy Family into Egypt. The Jesuits were 
thought to have special reason to fear the Puritan sol- 
diery, who, it was reported, meant to kill them all, after 
cutting off their ears to make necklaces." 

Seldom was a military expedition worse planned and 
less efficiently carried out. Parkman affirms that the 
troops were composed of undisciplined Massachusetts 
fishermen and farmers, ill-supplied with ammunition 
and worse-oflf for artillerists to point their guns. After 
a whole week of ineffective siege and furious cannona- 
ding, the luckless fleet, on Tuesday, the 23rd October, 
1690, disappeared behind Point L^vis and set sail for 
Boston. The flag of the Admiral's ship, captured by 
Maricourt's boatmen, was borne in triumph to the 
Cathedral, where it remained until the great siege of 
1759 ; Bishop St. Valier sung a Te Deuvi ; and, amid 
the booming of the city guns, the image of the Virgin 
Mary was paraded from church to church, followed by 
priests, citizens and soldiery. The auspicious day closed 
with a grand bonfire in honour of Frontenac, the Saviour 
of Canada, who was more than ever idolised. 


*^ We burned, and destroyed upwards of fourteen hundred 
fine farm houses." — Journal quoted by W. Smithy the historian 
of Canada. 

" A priest with about four score of his parishioners have 
fortified themselves in a house, a few miles to the eastward 
of our camp, on the north side of the river, where they indis- 
creetly pretend to brave our troops. ..The priest who fortified 
himself on the north side of the river, sent a written invita- 
tion to an officer who commanded in a house in his neigh- 
borhood **to honor him with his company to dinner, with an 
assurance that he, and any officer of his detachment who 
would be kind enough to accompany him, should return with 
the greatest safety j " he added, " that as the English officer 
fought for his king and for glory, he hoped he himself would 
be excused for fighting for his poor parishioners and defending 
his country." 

" The unfortunate priest is defeated j a detachment of light 
troops laid an ambuscade in the skirts of the wood near his 
fortified house, and as soon as the field-piece was brought up 
and began to play, he with his men sallied out, when, falling 
into the ambush, thirty of them with their leader were 
surrounded, killed and scalped : the reason of their being 
treated with such cruelty, proceeded from the wretched 
parishioners having disguised themselves like Indians. In 
this rencontre we had five men wounded. 

** The parish of Kichet, with the stately house lately occu- 
pied by the indiscreet priest, called Chateau Richer, are now 
in flames." — Knox's Journal^ of the siege of Quebec, Vol, IL 

Canada, like England, was conquered ; in one case an 
Anglo-Saxon kingdom was overrun by Norman inva- 
ders : in the other, a Norman colony was wrested by the 
descendants of Anglo-Saxons from its French masters ; 
both invasions left behind them a " Memory of 
sorrow." In both countries the conquest was a boon, 
the means of extending public liberty. In the first, the 
Saxon and Norman blended and formed a composite 

— 40 — 

nationaKty, stronger than each of its separate elements 
could have constituted it : in the other, will like causes 
produce like results? Time will tell. 

Let us hear a conscientious historian : — " Are 
you," asks the learned Abb6 Ferland, " desirous of 
studying antiquities, traditions and old Canadian cus- 
toms ? Go then and examine the ruins of Chateau- 
Eicher and the remains of the house of the Sieur 
CaiT^ (1) : you will notice in the Church of Ste. Anne, 
the offerings of the Marquis of Tracy, of the Chevaher 
d'Iberville (2) ex votos suspended to the walls shortly 
after the middle of the 17th century ; you will meet 
with families there who still own the lands conceded to 
their ancestors about the year 1640; in the lialntant 
of the C6te de BeauprS, you will recognize the Norman 
peasant of the reign of Louis XIV., with his chronicles, 
his songs, his superstitions, his customs. 

" But since I now have you on the soil of this Cdte 
de Beawprdy I shall lay before yoii an episode of the 
war of 1759, of which the locality we now occupy was 
the theatre. This narrative will serve to disprove the 

(1) Carre ivas that fighting habiianij who, at the head of a 
company of young Canadians, rushed up to Quebec, in 1690, 
to repel invasion. After the departure of Phips, the French 
commander was so pleased with Carre's bravery, that he made 
him a present of two small cannon used in the siege. 

(2) " One is a wreck scene, Ste. Anne is represented as 
descending from heaven to the aid of a fleet during a storm, 
with the following curious inscription, which is copied verba- 
tim et literatim : — 


" Another painting on the wall immediately opposite 
represents the landing of emigrants sometime before the 
year 1717 j another not far distant, a 8quadi*on of three war 
vessels, bearing a tri-colored flag of red, white and green. 
Out of this last, one could extract no meaning, further than 
supposing it represented some notable instance of the saint's 
providential intervention. 

— 41 — 

English chronicler (Knox) — whose name heads this 
communication. A priest massacred by the English, 
— a convent of nuns burned by them : that is the only 
true portion of the English writer's record. 

" Twenty years ago, at the foot of the cape on which 
the Chaiteau-Eicher Church is built, the blackened and 
crumbling walls of this convent could yet be seen: 
there they stood, a silent but eloquent monument of 
the horrors of a war in which buildings sacred to 
religion and to science, were ruthlessly destroyed by 
the hands of a civilized nation. Rebuilt through the 
exertions of the Eev. Mr. Baillargeon, when he had the 
spiritual charge of the Ch^teau-Eicher parish, this edifice 
was in part restored to its original destination : it is 
now the parish school. 

" 'T was on the evening of the 23rd June* 1759, a 
number of women and some old men were standing in 
groups in front of the church of Ch§,teau-Eicher ; close 
by a bonfire, in honor of the patron saint of Canada, 
St. Jean Baptiste, was slowly flickering out. Gaiety 
was the order of the day; several children, with live 
coals in their hands which they agitated high in the 
air, were trying to imitate an Indian war-dance, such 
as they had seen performed by a band of Ottawas which 
had visited the place a few days previously, at the 
invitation of the governor of Canada, the great Onontio, 
as they called him. It was evident the older folks 
entered little in the innocent fun and frolic which 
occupied the mind of the juveniles ; surrounding the 
cur^ of the parish, the Eev. J. F. Duburon, who at this 
moment was standing on the point of the cape on 
which the parochial church is erected, some old people 
appeared in earnest conversation ; the respected pastor 
had rested his telescope on the twig of one of the stunted 
cedar trees which grow in the crevices of the cape, and 
was scanning the horizon in the direction of the Tra- 
verse, just then lighted up by the last rays of the setting 
sun, whilst his parishioners were surveying the majestic 

— 42 — 

expanse of water before them, the green beaches dotted 
with kine, and the fertile uplands clothed in verdure, 
showing fair promise of a luxuriant harvest. * Watch 
well, my friends, along the north shore capes, if you do 
not see small white objects ! They seem to be like sails. 
Oh, if it only were the relief for the colony, from 
France ? what a rich joke we would play upon the 
English ! Look now at the effect of the sun on the white 
sails ! * At that moment a vessel, crossing from Cape 
Tourmente in the direction of the channel, which was 
then used between Poiute d*Argentenay and Madame 
Island, could be distinctly made out. * Count them ! ' 
hurriedly exclaimed the reverend gentleman ; * one- 
two — three ! ' 

" But the sun has gone down ; the shade of the lofty 
capes reaches as low as the traverse^ shutting out all 
objects from view. 

" * My poor country ! ' exclaims the priest, closing 
the si)y-glass ; ' my poor country ! what is to become of 
you, should these be English ships ? What with Sir 
William Johnson, and the New England militia to.wards 
Lake Champlain, you stand a poor chance, now; that an 
enemy shows himself in the very heart of Canada. * 

" * Cheer up ! reverend sir, ' retorted the village 
notary ! ' we have at Quebec, Montcalm and a fine 
army to defend us ; and have we not aLso there one of 
our own people, a Canadian, the Marquis of Vaudreuil ? ' 

" ' My dear notary, let us place our hope in God ! 
we have but little help to expect from men/ gloomily 
rejoined the minister of religion. 

"*What?' said the warlike N. P. (1); "do you 
forget how often French soldiers and Canadian militia 
have repulsed the New Englauders ? ' 

" I do not, I assure you, good friend ; but, then we 
were united, and had no traitors amongst us ; — to-day, 

(1) N. P. Notary Public. 

— 43 — 

dissentions and jealousy exist between the French 
regulars and the Canadian militia. We can trust our 
leaders ; but, my dear notary, rest assured that those 
"who have plundered our treasury will find means to 
effectually conceal their rascality. If there is not 
treachery, there will certainly be lukewarmness dis- 
played, in the defence of the country. I warn you of 
the fact." 

** At that moment the arrival of a messenger from 
Quebec interrupted the conversation." 

" Here is a letter for you, reverend sir. I am also 
the bearer of two other letters for the priests of the 
neighboring parishes." 

" * Thank you my friend,' replied M. Duburou — ad- 
ding, * Have you seen your brother since he has joined 
the regiment in Quebec ? " 

" ' Oh yes, sir, and I can tell you that he is not afraid 
to meet an Englishman, even should he resemble Old 
Nick himself Our boys are in high spirits there, and 
they say that if they meet any more of the kilties, 
Scotch Highlanders, such as they met at Carillon, they 
will lead them a dance. My brother, pointing towards 
the earthworks near the Falls of Montmorency, said : 
" * Look there ; if the English presume to attack us, with 
these w^orks to protect us, we will give them the d — 1 
to eat." 

" The cur4 having glanced over the letter, read out 
aloud the contents, thus : 

" * Sir, — The English fleet is coming up the St Law- 
rence. Agreable to the plan decided on by the governor 
general, you and your parishioners will take to the 
woods, with whatever you can carry away of the church 
property. You will use your influence over your people 
to make them remain in their hiding-places so long as 
the English are in the vicinity of Quebec. May the 
Almighty soon deliver us from such unpleasant 
neighbors, &c. 

" * t H. M., Bishop of Quebec' 

— 44 — 

•* * Just as I thought/ added M. Duburon ; * it is the 
English fleet we have just seen lower down than the 
Traverse. With a fair wind, to-morrow they will be in 
front of the city. To-morrow, we shall start for the 
woods ; you,' addressing the village notary, * please 
notify the inhabitants of this fact, whilst I dispatch 
these letters to the priests of Ste. Anne and St. 

" The Eeverend Mr. Duburon, my readers will 
remark, does not seem to be of such a warlike disposi- 
tion as the historian Knox makes him out. Neither 
does the notary. Monsieur Crespin, appear to have been 
a more fighting character than his pastor. He held 
from his seigneur a kind of judicial office, and lived in 
state at the seigniorial manor, which was called the 

" Monsieur Crespin was a man of peace : his motto 
was, Cedat ai^nis toga : and having made a bundle of 
his * records,' he placed his greffe under his arm, and 
followed by Madame Crespin and Monsieur Crespin, 
junior, his son and lawful heir, he sorrowfully directed 
his steps towards the forest. 

" During a short period, a great uproar existed in all 
the settlements of the Cote de Beaupri,, Each parish 
had a place of concealment for its inhabitants at the 
foot of the mountain. It was a general stampede from 
the Falls of Montmorency as low down as Cape Tour- 
mente. The valuables too heavy for removal to the i 
woods, were deposited on the skirts of the woods ; the 
farm cattle were driven back to out-of-the-way grazing- 
grounds ; women, children, and old men, after bidding 
a sorrowful adieu to the homes of their youth, hurried 
to the interior with what they valued most. Some 
old men who were removed in their beds, were taken 
back in the fall in their coffins. 

" Several births took place in the woods, and baptism 
administered. A few years back a venerable old man 
died at Ste. Anne, who was born on the banks of 

— 45 — 

Riviere aux Chiens, under the shade of a walnut tree 
(un noyer), which he used to call his godfather ; in 
commemoration of the fact, the word * Noyer ' was 
added to his family name, and his descendants bear it 
to this day. 

" Two months had run over, Wolfe's army was kept 
in check by Montcalm, and could not advance on 
Quebec. Eendered impatient by the vigorous defence, 
which threatened to render abortive their expensive 
expedition, the English vented their revenge in the rural 
districts by pillaging and burning the houses. It was 
easy to follow the march of the invaders in the lower 
parts of the district (1) of Quebec, by the blaze of the 
conflagrations they had lit up. Generally, the lives of 
prisoners were spared — they were even allowed to 
choose between the alternative to perish of cold or of 
hunger during the coming winter. Until then, the Cote 
de BeawpH had escaped the common fate ; the scouts 
from the mountain were gratified to find their houses 
still uninjured. At last their turn came. The com- 
jmnies of the Louisbourg Grenadiers, under captain 
Montgomery, were instructed to take possession of all 
the cattle, and to burn all the houses from Cape Tour- 
mente until Ange-Gardien. 

These troops followed the shore until they had got 
opposite the Grande Ferraey at St. Joachim, where they 
landed and began their awful work. The Quebec Semi- 
nary owned at this spot a magnificent farm : close to it 
was the preshyUre and church of St. Joachim. Philippe 
R^n^ de Poitneuf, the priest of the parish of St. Joa- 
chim, was a member of the ancient family of Becancour. 
Several of his ancestors, and three of his brothers, had 

(1) The dwellings at Riviere-Ouelle, Ste. Anne, St. Roch 
and St. Jean Port-Joly, were burnt and pillaged, even the 
banal mill of Three Salmons, the only means for the inhabi- 
tants tff grinding their corn for a distance of thirty miles, was 
consigned to the flames. 

* • 

— 46 — 

served with distinction in the army ; and he himself 
was not the man to fly from his parish at the sight of 
the English. Some forty of his parishioners, all handy 
with the gun, seeing the Scotch soldiers busy burning 
the church and presbytdre of St. Joachim, and being led 
to believe that their own homes would soon share the 
same fate, determined to defend their property. Well 
armed, they ensconced themselves on the declevity of a 
thickly- wooded hill, which commanded the road the 
enemy had to follow. The brave citr^ considered it his 
duty, to stand by them in this emergency ; he therefore 
remained to encourage them by his counsel, and admi- 
nister spiritual rites. The Canadians fought well, but 
a superior force threatening to surround them, they 
retired, leaving behind seven or eight of their comrades 
killed or wounded. The Highlanders had dearly bought 
their advantage, having lost several men by the bidlets 
of the Canadian chasseurs. Many years after, Lieut. 
Fraser, who had been present at this engagement, asked 
an old man named Gagnon, if he had not grieved for 
the death of a brother of his who had then fallen ? 
* No,' washis stern reply, ' for I avenged his death on the 
spot : I fired eight shots, and each time brought down 
one of your men.' Though seriously wounded, M. de 
Portneuf followed his parishioners in their flight. But, 
weakened by loss of blood, he fell on a stone, which is 
yet pointed out, near the mill : the enemy soon came 
up, and hacked him to pieces with their sabres. This 
melancholy event took place on the 23rd of August. A 
few days later, the priest of the next parish, the Reve- 
rend Mr. Parent, his friend, gave Christian burial to 
M. de Portneuf 8 remains, and to those of seven of his 
flock. His body lies inside of the church, but outside 
of the railings and close to the seigniorial pew. 

" The work of destruction having been completed at 
St. Joachim, the English detachment, with a similar 
errand on hand, marched upwards, towards the Mont- 
morency, on whose banks the bulk of the forces were 

— 47 — 

camped. After crossing the river Ste. Anne, the scouts 
noticed a group of men at the spot where the cross road 
begins, which leads through the woods to the back 
range of St. Fereol. Some soldiers were sent in this 
direction, but fearing an ambush, they returned without 
striking a blow. It was only a small band of chaa- 
seurs of Saint Fdr^ol armed with fowling-pieces, but 
impelled merely by curiosity to see what those English 
looked like whom they were told were the enemies of 
God and of France. The sight of his Satanic majesty 
would not have been a greater curiosity for these simple- 
minded peasants than that of an Englishman was in 
their excited imaginations in those stormy times. 
During the few days of march of the Scotch companies, 
the peasants of Ste. Anne and Chateau-Richer, could, 
from their lofty hiding places, witness the conflagrations 
which consumed their houses and farm-buildings. At 
Ste. Anne's, the church and four houses only escaped 
the torch, and even then, if we credit a local tradition, 
the church, which was fired three 1 imes, only escaped 
through the especial protection of Sainte Anne ! In the 
whole extent of Chateau-Richer, a bakery alone was 

" When the British arrived at the village of this 
parish, they took their lodgings partly in the convent 
and partly in the houses situate near to the church, and 
busied themselves in carrying away the cattle and in 
destroying the harvests which were not yet cut. 

" In the meantime, the ChS,teau-Richer people became 
tired of living in the woods ; the nights got cool ; they 
were threatened with starvation, and many wished to 
find out how matters stood, on the shores of the St. 
LawTence. At the request of the Rev. Mr. Duburon, 
two lads, Gravel and Drouin, undertook to go and 
explore for the rest. When they got on the heights 
behind the church of the parish, they saw large crowds 
of men ascending the Ange-Gardien Hill. Red coats 

— 48 — 

and glistening steel soon marked them as British troops. 

* They are on the move, they are off for Quebec/ 
exclaimed Di-ouiu, after a fev/ moments of observation ; 

* a good riddance ! Let us go back and tell our people.' 

* Of course/ replied the other ; * but suppose we take a 
run to the convent and see what is going on there/ In 
a trice they got there : Drouin's hand has just seized 
the handle of the door, when it was violently thrown 
open, and twenty Highlanders pointed their guns towards 
them at the word * Surrender/ As if struck by an 
electric shock, the young men bounded off towards the 
hills, and a discharge of musketi*y followed ; a bullet 
grazed Drouin's hair and akin, whilst the Highlanders 
seemed particularly anxious to catch Gravel, a very tall 
youth. But fear adds wings, and sooii they left 
their pursuers in the rear ; the noise of shot fired after 
them in the leaves got fainter and fainter, and after a 
laborious race of three miles, they arrived quite exhausted 
and speechless amongst their comrades. 


" Quebec had surrundered. About the end of Sep- 
tember the cur^ of Chateau-Eicher had arrived from 
the mountain, leading his flock, and set to work to erect 
huts on the spot where their homes had previously 
stood. The young folks felt delighted at again seeing 
the banks of the St Lawrence ; the old men shed tears 
at having lived to see the day when the English were 
masters of the country ; the fathers of families pondered 
sorrowfully over the waste and destruction which had 
befallen their lands. Monsieur Crespin, N. P., was 
cogitating on the legal difficulties which would surround 
him if he bad to administer justice in the English lan- 
guage ; it was doubly trying to a man of his years, after 
the trouble he had taken to master the French tongue. 



— 49 — 

Behind the crowd, on stretchers, were conveyed the two 
youths, Drouin and Gravel ; they had not yet rallied 
from the effects of their race. 


" Sixteen years had passed over. Brought to the 
lowest ebb, by the pillage (1) and destruction perpe- 
trated by the British soldiery, the inhabitants saw a 
brighter future in store for them; some had even 
retrieved their losses. Amongst the latter might be 
counted Gravel, who was now a pater familias, and 
whose loyalty had been rewarded by a lieutenancy in 
the militia. One day, an English officer of rank called 

(J) The canny Scots who played such a conspicuous part 
in the War of the Conquest, if they did sufier in their numbers, 
rather increased their " material guaranties ". 

" The following interesting anecdote is told of Eraser's 
Highlanders. It is related from the words of the venerable 
Mr. Thompson, who was present at the battle of Montmo- 
renci : 

" General Murray, being in want of funds to carry on his 
government during the winter, summoned all the officers and 
enquired if they had any money, and if their soldiers had any 
money that they could lend to the Grovernor until the supplies 
arrived from England in the spring. We were told of the 
wants of the governor, atid the next day we were paraded, 
every man, and told that we should receive our money back, 
with interest, as soon as possible j and in order to prevent 
any mistake, every man received his receipt for his amount, 
and for fear he should lose it, the Adjutant went along the 
ranks, and entered in a book the name and sum opposite to 
every man ; and by the Lord Harry ! when they came to count 
it up, they found that our regiment alone, Eraser's Highlan- 
ders, had mustered six thousand guineas ! It was not long 
after we had lent our money, that one morning a frigate was 
seen coming round Pointe Ijevi with supplies. We were soon 
afterwards mustered, and every man received back his money, 
with twelve months interest j besides the thanks of the general." 
— Hawkin's Picture of Quebec. 

— sc- 
at his house. He was the bearer of an order to the 
militia oflBcers to furnish him with relays of horses to 
travel. As he spoke French iSuently, the lieutenaift 
thought he would drive him himself. * What ruins 
are those ? ' enquired the Englishman when he passed 
close to the convent. ' Why, one could see them from 
St. Joachim, and even from Quebec! 

" * It was formerly a convent, sir ; it was destroyed 
in '59 when the country was ceded : I have reason to 
know something about it. I can tell you I felt toler- 
ably nervous on that day.' He then related his and 
Drouin's mission, their utter surprise, and how they 
w^ere chased, also the serious illness which it caused 

" * Well, my friend,' said the English officer, * I see 
you and I are old acquaintances. We have met before. 
I was the lieutenant in charge of the company stationed 
in that convent, to prevent any attack on our rear. I 
saw you come down the hill, and it occurred to me we 
might get important information if we could catch one 
or the other of you two. Before I could utter a word 
of French to you, you were off. We fired, in hopes of 
frightening you and making you surrender. If you 
gave us no information, we had a hearty laugh at your 
expense. I have just arrived from England, and I felt 
curious to revisit this portion of the country, which I 
once visited in a very different \vay. I am glad to 
meet in you an acquaintaince, at a time when I have 
to meet in the field an older acquaintance still, in the 
person of my old friend General Montgomery.' " 


THE WAR OF 1759-60 (D 

In a previous article mention was made of the light 
shed by the recent publication of the de Montcalm and 
de Levis correspondence on a momentous and imper- 
fectly undeibtood period in Canadian annals : the era 
of public plunder and riotous living which immediately 
preceded the loss of the colony to France. I promised, 
with the aid of these documents, to exhibit the two 
illustrious French Generals under novel aspects. Before 
setting to work to fulfil this promise, it may not be 
amiss to relate how the correspondence — perfect literary 
treasures — have been opened out to the reading public. 
It took Abb6 Casgrain, the compiler — or rather the 
discoverer — nearly four years to complete this arduous 
task, involving annual voyages to Europe. Here are his 
own words rendered in English : " The discovery of 
MSS. of the highest importance, and which had escaped 
the researches of historians, induced me to write this 
history. When, in 1888, 1 was superintending in Paris 
the transcribing of the letters exchanged by General de 
Montcalm with his family during his Canadian cam- 
paigns, I learned from his great grandson, the Marquis 
Victor de Montcalm, that his relative, Count Eaimond 
de Nicola'i, had in his possession some of Montcalm's 
writings. I called on the Count with a letter of intro- 
duction from the Marquis. It would be hard to depict 
my surprise when, instead of a few letters only. Count 
de Nicolai spread out before me eleven volumes in 

(1) " Guerre du Canada, 1756-1760." By L'Abbe H. R. Gas- 

— 52 — 

manuscript, among which I spied General de Mont- 
calm's journal, the journal of Chevalier de Levis, their 
correspondence, that of de Vaudreuil, de Bourlamaque, 
Bigot, and of a crowd of civil and military officers of 
Canada, with Chevalier de Levis' narratives of several 
expeditions, dispatches and letters from the court, at 
Versailles. Nearly all these documents had never been 
published. For more than a century lying buried in the 
recesses of a provincial library, they had thus escaped 
the eye of the student. 

" General de Levis, whilst iu Canada, was in the 
habit of noting down in his journal the incidents of his 
campaigns, and also retained copies of his active corres- 

" At the death of de Montcalm, de Levis became the 
trustee of all the documents which the dying General 
had bequeathed him. De Levis even went to the trouble 
of having transcribed carefully his journal and his cor- 
respondence ; arranged by oi*der of date the letters of 
the divers peraons with whom he had intercourse in 
Canada, and had the whole bound with a degree of 
carefulness — nay, of elegance, as to denote the impor- 
tance he attached to it. 

" That invaluable collection is to-day the property of 
Count de Nicolai. The Province of Quebec is now the 
owner of a copy made, the publication of which began 
in 1889, is to be borne by the Provincial authorities as 
to cost. 

" The persual of these MSS. — whose publication I 
am to direct — gave me the idea of writing the history 
of the epoch which they cover — which is, undoubtedly, 
the most interesting in our annals. Every incident of 
importance, pending the war which ended French rule 
in Canada, recalls the career of de Montcalm and de 
Levis. Of all the historians who have described this 
period, Mr. Frs. Parkman is the only one who has done 
so in detail. He performed his task with such ability, 
so much science, that none can make it a matter of 

— 53 — 

question ; but, as I have just stated, documents of 
paramount importance were not then available. I have 
completed this collection by having transcribed all the 
records relating to the same epoch — 1755-1760 — which 
are deposited at the Marine, Colonial and other war 
departments in Paris. This series alone comprises 
nineteen large folio volumes. I also dived into the 
Archives Nationales^ and into the leading libraries in 
Paris, in addition to some provincial libraries and 
family archives. I have already mentioned the Mont- 
calm library ; let me add that of de Bougainville. The 
copy of the MSS. of the famous navigator, which relate 
to Canada, is made up of his journal and of his corres- 
pondence. It contributes two large folio volumes of 

1184 pages of close writing other searches were 

made in England, chiefly in the British Museum and at 
the Public Eecord Office, in London. 

" The correspondence between de Montcalm and 
Bourlamaque, acquired a few years back by a wealthy 
and cultured Englishman, Sir Thomas Phillips, bf 
Cheltenham, was transcribed under the auspices of 
Mr. Parkman, who kindly allowed me to have a copy 
made. In the United States and in Canada I had access 
to innumerable letters and documents written during 
the seven years war. In Quebec, the archives of the 
Quebec S^Tninaire, of the archives and of the religious 
corriTnunauUs, supplied me with valuable data. I may 
add to the mass of manuscript records the innumerable 
books, brochures and newspapers relating to that era — 
which I have carefully scanned. I think I can say that 
no work of any importance on those times has escaped 
my attention. Among the printed works I am bound 
specially to name Desandrouin's Journal and Malartic's : 
the first,^ of 416 pages, was printed in 1887, and was 
previously unknown ; the second, printed in 1890, of 
370 pages, was known through some fmgments only. 

" Search for materials is insufficient ; one must also, 
in writing, inspect the localities. To that end I have 



— 54 — 

travelled over the territory which formerly constituted 
New France — from Cape Breton to Pittsburgh, old fort 
Duquesne; from the extreme end of Acadia to Lake 
George, so as to understand the localities to which the 
incidents refer. The portrait of de Montcalm, which 
prefaces the first volume, was engraved from the original 
belonging to the present representative of the family, 
the Marquis Victor de Montcalm. That of de Levis, 
prefacing the second volume, was executed horn a 
photograph taken fiom the portrait of Marechal de 
Levis, owned by Count de Nicolai. The plans of Oswego, 
William Henry, Carillon and of the battle of Ste. Foye, 
were engraved from the originals in the collection of 
Marechal de Levis." 

■The two bulky volumes, ** Guerre du Canada, 1756- 
1760," just published by the Province of Quebec, under 
the supervision of Abb^ Casgrain, are not, let it be 
understood, a mei*e compilation of letters, etc. They 
also embody the thoughts and theories of a brillant 
litUratewr, and of a learned historian. 

To the Abba's friends who are acquainted with the 
painful ailment — partial loss of sight — which he has 
laboured under for years, compelling him to dictate to a 
secretary, it is a mystery how he could have achieved 
such a splendid monument of learning, research and 
industry. Eev. AbbA H. E. Casgrain is again spending 
the winter in Paris, prosecuting reseewches in Canadian 
annals. (The Week.) 

Quebec, Feb., 1892. 

, '•/-, 


A graphic and novel portraiture of Montcalm and 
Levis (1) is revealed in their correspondence, published 
by that industrious searcher of the past, Abb^ H. R. 
Casgrain, F. R. S. C. These hitherto unpublished letters 
exchanged between the two Generals, during the last 
lustre of the French regime in Canada, entirely corro- 
borate and complete the spicy narrative of the unknawn 
hand who wrote the " M^moires sur les affaires du 
Canada, 1749-60 " ; one of the publications of the 
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. 

The scarcity of food noticeable in 1755 — through 
war, bad harvests and plundering public officials — 
ended in a famine in 1757-8. The Commissary Doreil 
wrote on the 28th February, 1758 : " The people are 
dying of hunger. The refugees from Acadia, for the 
last four months, live on horse flesh and dry cod fish, 
without bread ; more than three hundred of them have 

died. Horse flesh is quoted at six sols per lb Half 

a pound of bread is the daily ration of the soldier ; his 
weekly ration consists of three lbs. of beef — 3 lbs. of 
horse flesh — two lbs. of peas and three lbs. of codfish. 
Since 1st April, the famine being on the increase, the 

people are restricted to two oz. of bread " Dussieux 

adds that during this time, the carnavaly until Ash- 
Wednesday, was t^ken up at the Intendant Bigot's 
with gambling at a fearful rate " un jeu k faire trembler 
les plus determines joueurs," Bigot losing at cards more 
than 200,000 livres. 

(1) " Guerre du Canada," 1756-1760. " Montcalm et Levis," 
par l*abb6 H. R. Casgrain. Quebec : L. J. Demers and Frdre. 

— 56 — 

There is, among others, a characteristic letters, written 
from Quebec, on December 4th, 1757, by the lively 
Marquis of Montcalm to his second in command at 
Montreal, Brigadier- General Levis. The following is a 
short excerpt. The General, whilst directing his able 
lieutenant at Montreal to stop the beef rations for the 
troops and to substitute in lieu, horse flesh, jocularly 
enumerates the various dishes which ahorse flesh -menw 
can supply, and adds : " At my table horse flesh is 
served in every possible form, except in soup." The 
bill of fare reads quite artistic in French : — 

Fetits p&tes de cheval d. I'Espagnole. 

Cheval a la mode. 

Escalopes de cheval. 

Filets de cheval k la broche avec une poivarde bien liee. 

Semelles de cheval au gratin. 

Langues de cheval en miroton. 

Frigousse de cheval. 

Langue de cheval boucanee, meilleure que celle d'orignal. 

Gateau de cheval comme les gateaux de lievres. 

Montcalm adds that this noble animal (the horse) is 
far superior (cooked) to elk, caribou or beaver. 

There was some grumbling, and there might well be, 
among the troops and the people when it was attempted 
to impose horse flesh for nourishment. The reduction in 
the quantity of food had, the month previous, caused 
disorder. The soldiei-s, billeted on the town folks for 
want of barracks, had been spurred on by the citizens; 
the colonial corps, less broken to discipline than the 
regulars, refused to take their rations, in Montreal. 

In the absence of de Vaudreuil, then in Quebec, 
Levis held the supreme command in Montreal. He 
overcame this first outbreak by firmness combined with 
tact. His explanations were so persuasive that the 
soldiers even cheered him. 

On de Vaudreuil's return it was the people who rose 
in rebellion on finding the daily quarter of a pound of 
bread replaced by horse flesh. The women crowded 

— 57 — 

round the Governor's palace and demanded an inter- 
view. He admitted four within, demanding what they 
wanted. They replied " that the horse was the friend of 
man — that religion protected his days — that they pre- 
ferred to die rather than feed on his flesh." 

De Vaudreuil cut short the interview saying, ** That 
should any of them again cause trouble, he would cast 
them into prison and hang half of them." He then told 
them to go to the slaughter house and ascertain for 
themselves that the horses killed were in the same 
good condition as the oxen slaughtered. 

This failed to satisfy them ; they returned home 
uttering seditious remarks. The mob held that the Com- 
missary, Cadet, gathered up all the broken down horses 
in the country to have them converted into food, so 
much so that a used-up phig was named a Cadet. This, 
however, did not prevent the army from gi'umbling. 

An instance is mentioned of four troopers of the 
B^arn Regiment having brought to the Chevalier de 
Levis a mess of horse flesh, cooked in their style ; Levis 
made the soldiers breakfast with him on a dish prepared 
by his own cuisinier, and they declared their own pre- 
ferable. He then handed them four livres, for them and 
their comrades to drink his health. 

Then follows, in this curious series of letters, the 
recipe given by the Eegiment La Reine for making 
soup — by combining horse flesh with beef ; the boiled 
beef to be eaten in the morning and the horse flesh to 
be made in a. fricassee for the evening meal. 

Reserving for another article glimpses of Montcalm's 
every day life in that boodling era, as disclosed in his 
letters, now for the first time brought to light, and in 
which the charming goddesses he worshipped in Parloir 
street, Quebec, will be introduced, I shall close these 
cursory notes of the learned Abb(3's volumes by dwelling 
on the more varied style of menu, which was in 
modem times supplied to starved cities and garrisons. 
Bismarck's white cuirassiers, in 1870, had reduced the 


— 58 — 

cultured Parisians to live on horse flesh — when an 
inventive maitre d'hdtel, recommended possibly as a 
side dish — the " white, black and red " rats of the ^avis. 
The Parisian gourmets, if limited as to their carte de 
cuisine, had, however, a delightful poet to sing the 
praise of their new esculents and to promise them, in 
1870 — the revanche which, however, is to begin later on. 
Hark ! to the cheering lines of Theophile de Banville, 
now recently deceased : — 

Dans un coin recule du pare, 
Les rats assis sur leur derriere 
Regardent monsieur de Bismarck 
Sous les ombrages de Ferridres. 

Les yeux enflammes de courroux 
Et lui tirant leur langues roses, 
Les pet'ts rats blancs, noirs et rouz, 
Lui murmurent en codur ces choses : 

" Cuirassier blanc, qui te poussait 
A vouloir cette guerre etrange ? 
Ah 1 meurtrisseur de rois, c'est 
A cause de toi qu'on nous mange ? 

Mais ce crime tu le paieras, 
Et puisque c^est toi qui nous tues, 
Nous irons, nous, les petits rats. 
En Prusse, de nos dents pointues. 

Manger les charpentes des tours, 

Et les portes des citadelles 

Plus affames que les vautours 

Qui font dans Pair un grand briiit d'ailes. 

Tu nous entendras dans le mur 
De ton grenier, ou I'ombre est noire, 
Tout I'hiver manger ton bled, mur, 
Avant de grignoter I'armoire. 

Puis, nous rongerons I'ecriteau 
Qui sacre un nouveau Charlemagne, 
Et meme le rouge manteau 
De ton empereur d'AUemagne," etc. 

{The Week,) 
Quebec, January 28, 1892. 


For those desirous of following the main incidents of 
the memorable Seven Year's War, 1756-63 in Canada, 
as well as studying the social record of the period in 
its minute details, two recent standard works are now 
available : Parkman's, " Montcalm and Wolfe " for 
the English reader, and Casgmin's, " Montcalm and 
Levis " for French Canadians. 

The story told by both writers may be the same, but 
the frame- work, the colouring, the lights and shades of 
the picture often materially differ. Nor is the summing 
up of the case and the verdict likely to be entered, the 
same ; for here, we are face to face with two different — 
shall we say antagonistic, schools of thought ? 

This extremely interesting phase of the subject, lack 
of space forbids us entering into. We shall merely, 
confine ourselves to a few glimpses of the two French 
commanders in their every-day life. 

Able generals, Montcalm and Levis unquestionably 
proved themselves ; both equally free of the taint of 
malversation of office and speculation ; as such, very 
unlike the members of La Grande SocUU, of which 
Francois Bigot, the Intendant, was the High priest. 
But was their influence and that of their military fol- 
lowers morally beneficial to the colony? Old memoirs, 
corroborated by the recently published coiTespondence 
of the military leaders, leave strong grounds to doubt. 

The sole object of French ofiicers in accepting com- 
mands, in what they styled the Canadian wilderness, 
was military promotion. At each page of the coiTes- 
pondence, we find them asking, as Abb^ Casgrain well 

— 60 — 

puts it, " dee grdcea " promotion, resting their claim 
on court favour ; the King's concubine in those days 
was the fountain of honour; or, on the recommendation 
of some of the minions of an imbecile monarch. As 
Frenchmen, they were ever ready to fight ; but often, we 
notice them the slaves of inordinate pleasure. 

Quebec as well as Montreal, they strived hard to 
make, according to Parkman's expression, " a sparkling 
fragment of the reign of Louis XV, dropped into the 
American wilderness". They succeeded, in its most 
sorrowful aspect. 

Quebec, in fact, as to gambling, soon got to be the 
Monte Carlo of the continent. High play and immor- 
ality reigned supreme amidst public misery and ghastly 
famine. Whilst the unfortunate people were dying in 
the streets for want of bread, leading oflBcials, civil and 
military, were crowding at the faro tables or nightly 
gorging themselves in banquets, which the rising sun 
jljlone brought to a close. Even the high-spirited and 
studious Montcalm was an abettor of gambling. De 
Vaudreuil thus reproves him : " Que n*arrete-t-il lui- 
meme le jeu effroyable auquel se livrent les oflSciers de 
son arm^e " ! The marquis apparently overlooked this 
vice. The result was disastrous to the morale of his army. 
Impecunious subalterns had to borrow and borrow 
heavily from the rich roturiers of trade, at Quebec and 
at Montreal, to keep up in expenditure with Bigot's 
clique of wealthy parasites ,and public robbers. 

The "M^moires sur le Canada, 1749-60," whilst show- 
ing up the rogueries and immorality of the enriched, 
low-born Lovelaces and Lotharios who paid court to 
Bigot and to his chere amie, do not spare the chevalier 
de Levis, who took to France his mistress, the wife of 
Penissault, one of Bigot's coufedemtes. It seems her 
pretty face won her favour, even with the great state 
Minister, Choiseul. The church tried in vain to put a 
stop to these public scandals. Bishop Pontbriand was 
not slow in raising a note of warning. Abb<5 Casgrain 

— 61 — 

tells how the good pastor put forth a mandement so 
energetic, on the 18th April, 1759, that Montcalm took 
exception to its terms and reproached the Bishop for 
having unsparingly condemned " the indecent masque- 
rades " of the preceding winter, and for asserting that 
" a house of prostitution was-estabUshed near the 
ramparts of Quebec." 

Was the Intendant here aimed at '< 

If the lives of the leaders were not pure, what could 
have been that of the French troupiers t Female virtue, 
love of country, disinterestedness, true manliness, 
were evidently relegated to a l:)ack seat in this steeple- 
chase of riot, robbery and wantonness. True, there was 
yet in the colony a party — not a very numerous, nor 
strong one, — le parti des Iwnnitea gens ; de Vaudreuil, 
de Lery, Tach^, La Come, de Beaujeu, de Longueuil, 
and some other men of note belonged to it. 

Even de Bougainville, who is credited with making 
several pretty speeches — Bougainville, the learned 
Fellow of a London society of savants — Bougainville, 
the mathematician, destined later on to immortalise 
his name as a navigator, was nothing but a reckless 
gambler **unde8plusforc^nd8Joueurs."(l) "Though 
he affected to be a rigorist," says the Abbi5, " his daily 
life resembled that of his friend, dissolute but brave 

We are reminded to be brief. 

Abbe Casgrain's work (2) completes some data, pro- 
bably left out intentionally by Frs. Parkman, as to 
Montcalm's too great intimacy with certain facinating 
ladies, in Parloir St., Quebec. In a letter the general 
WTote to Bourlamaque, whom he had left in Quebec, (3) 
he says : " I am glad you sometimes speak of me to 

(1) " Guerre du Canada," vol. II., pp. 13 and 14. 

(2) •' Guerre du Canada," pp. 337 and 338. 

(3) Parkman's " Montcalm and Wolfe," vol. I., pp. 452-5. 


— 62 — 

the three ladies in the Rue du Parloir, and I am flat- 
tered by their remembrance, especially by that of one 
of them, in whom I find, at certain moments, too much- 
wit and too many charms for my tranquility. " More 
than once in his correspondence, allusion is made to 
these charmers, who were nigh making him for a time 
forget the absent Marquise, his olive trees, and the 
chesnut groves of his beloved Condiac. 

The Abb6 thus describes Parloir street — a narrow 
thoroughfare which skirts the very wall of the Ursu- 
lines Chapel, where the gallant rival of Wolfe has 
slumbered for 133 years in the grave scooped out by an 
English shell : " Little Parloir street was one of the 
chief centres, where (in 1758-59) the beau vionde of 
Quebec assembled ; two salons were iu special request : 
that of Madame de la Naudi^re and that of Madame 
de Beaubassin ; both ladies were famed for their wit 
and beauty. Montcalm was so taken up with these 
salons that in his correspondence he went to the 
trouble of locating the exact spot which each house 
occupied ; one, says he, stood at the corner of the street 
facing the Ursuline Convent ; the other, at the corner of 
Parloir and St. Louis street. Madame de la Naudifere, 
Ti^e Genevieve de Boishebert, was a daughter of the 
Seigneur of Rivifere-Ouelle, and Madame Hertel de 
Beaubassin, n^e Catherine Jarret de Verchferes, was a 
daughter of the Seigneur of Verchferes. Their husbands 
held commissions as oflBcers in the Canadian militia. It 
was also in Parloir street that Madame P^an, often 
refeiTed to in Montcalm's letters, held her brilliant 

The charm of Madame de Beaubassin's conversation 
seems to have particularly captivated Montcalm, as he 
frequented her salon the most of the three. " At the 
Intendance, or at Madame Plan's house, he managed to 
forget his exile and troubles; at Madame de la Naudifere's, 
he was interested in what he saw ; but at Madame de 
Beaubassin's, he was under a spell." Notice is also 

— 63 — 

taken of a tall young oflScer of the name of Boishebert^ 
from Acadia ; no favourite of Montcalm, he seems 
to have divided with him the sunshine of Madame de 
Beaubassin's smile. This juvenile rival, he advises Levis 
to send back to his native Acadians. Of course, when 
the gorgeously-attired, ruffled, scented, redhaired, mag- 
nificent Intendant Bigot, dropped in at Parloir Street 
for a chat, ordinary callers were momentarily hushed 
to silence, amidst the profuse attentions showered by 
laquais on the wealthy patron, who, frequently, was 
accompanied by Major and Madame P^an. The Abb^ 
notices among other habituds, " the Longueuils, St. 
Ours, de la Naudifere, Villiers, Dr Arnoux and his wife 
and several ofl&cera of the land forces ; Bourlamaque, 
grave and reserved, Bougainville, a Jansenistin opinions 
and caustic in his remarks, occasionnally unpleasant ; 
Roquemaure, full of whims." 

In shoit, adds the Abb^, the higher circles of Canadian 
society at Quebec presented a sorry spectacle ; the 
example set by arrivals from France, demoralized 
society ; the disorders of war and the license of the 
soldiery in a great measure helped to consumate its 

" One witnessed a state of things that could not last; 
disorder from the top to the bottom of the social ladder. 
The end evidently was not far-off ; a dreadful storm was 
brewing overhead. Would it engulf everything ? None 
could tell. People averted their faces ; dared not look 
into the future; tried to drown care in dissipation.' 
'Twas a mad race for pleasure. Society, blinded, was 
levelling on a volcano." 

Let us turn to less sombre vistas. Montcalm had one 
true and able friend in Levis, the most level head in 
the colony. More than once, as revealed in the corres- 
pondence, Levis acted as peacemaker between the 
impetuous Montcalm and the weak, vacillating, butt 
obstinate, de Vaudreuil, the Governor-General of Canada 
and commander-in-chief of the forces. This duality of 


— 64 — 

command led to endless trouble, and bitter recrimina- 
tions between him and Montcalm. De Levis' accom- 
modating ideas on matrimony are amusingly set forth 
in a letter he addressed to a powerful lady friend in 
France, Madame la Mar^chale de Mirepoix. We trans- 
late : — 

" * With respect to the marriage that the Chevalier 
de Mesnon has proposed to, you for me, you know I 
never had much inclination for matrimony. I would 
dread marrying some one you might not like, and that 
would imbitter the remainder of my life. If you can 
select for me a wife, I will take her readily, provided 
she meets with your approval. So you can reply as 
you think proper to the Chevalier de Mesnon, whose 
friendship and remembrance I will ever prize. Should 
his selection not please you and you should come across 
another person to your fancy, you can arrange as you 
like. I will honour any arrangement you may make. 
This is all I have to say on this subject. Rest assured 
I wish I could find a mate as attached to you as I am. 

" We are likely to be vigorously attacked and will 
fight to the death." 

After hearing such a candid declaration of this Platonic 
but brave Romeo, one is led to regret that the French 
match-maker, Madame la Mar^chale de Mirepoix, did 
not send the Chevalier a brand-new French wife from 

It might possibly have deterred the gallant son of 
Mars from carrying away to France the handsome, 
Madame Penissault, the daughter of a Montreal trader 
and the mistress of Major P(5an, " qui se d(5domma- 
geiiit, " say the Memoirs, " sur les femmes de ses 
subordonncs." The Pom}>adour legime evidendly was 
not limited to France. Its close on the Heights of 
Abraham was in more ways than one, beneficial to 
Canada. (The Week). 

Quebec, 1892. 



Many quaint and interesting vistas of primitive 
Canada are disclosed in a recent, elaborate work : His- 
tory OF Canada, "by William Ktngsford, F, R. S. C. 
Mr. Kingsford seems to have availed himself with great 
felicity, of the new and ever-growing materials for his- 
tory, so industriously garnered at home and abroad, in 
our Public Record Oj^ce, Ottawa, by our untiring 
archivist Douglas Brymner. 

A curious account of the mode of winter travel has 
thus been handed down to us, being the personal expe- 
rience of a witty French Royal Engineer, M. Franquet, 
who visited Quebec and Montreal, in 1752. 

To this agreeable summary of Mr. Franquet's journal 
which appears at pages 574-5-6 of Kingsford's III 
volume, the author has appended, by way of contrast 
and illustration, the narrative of a more recent partie 
de camjMgney at Chateau- Richer, P. Q. Franquet's 
memoirs, add one more proof to many others, that 
social life in and round Quebec in the palmy, early days 
of the Bigot regime, was a round of pleasure, heedless 
of the future. Hear what the light-hearted Frenchman 
Franquet has to say : " In the morning (8th February, 
1752) the Governor started, attended by Duchesnay, 
the captain of the guard, his secretary and servants. 
Some carioles were sent before him to break the way. 
The Intendant proposed that the other members of the 
party should pass the day where they were. The invi- 
tation was accepted. There was dinner, supper and 
heavy play. " The following day, the Intendant*s party 
returned to Quebec. 

— 66 — 

This trip was preliminary to a second journey, which 
took place a few days afterwards. As a rule the Inten- 
dant did not proceed to Montreal until March ; but 
owing to his presence being indispensable to the organi- 
zation of the Ohio expedition, Bigot arranged with 
Duquesne that he would be in Montreal about the 13th 
of February, and he had to start some days previous 
to keep this engagement. Some officers of the garrison 
were to accompany him, and several ladies desirous of 
rejoining their husbands were included in the invita- 
tion. Mesdames Daine, P^an, de Lotbini^re, de Repen- 
tigny, Marin, the wife of an ensign, doubtless a relative 
of the Captain of the name in command of the expedi- 
tion, and du Simon, wife of a merchant. Franquet, 
whose duties took him to Montreal, was one of the 
number ; during the journey Madame Marin was 
assigned as his compctgnon de voyage. 

The baggage was sent to the Intendant's Palace six 
days before leaving, so that it could be leisurely for- 
warded, the ti-avellers taking only what was required 
for the journey. Franquet describes the court-yard on 
the morninj of the 8th, when the start was made. The 
cariolee of the guests had two horses; they were 
driven in tandem fashion, the roads being to narrow 
to admit any other arrangement. It, indeed, would have 
been impossible, on two sleighs meeting, tor two pairs 
of horses to have passed in the deep snow. The carioles 
of the servants had one horse ; there was a full staff of 
attendants with a complete batten^ de cuisine. 

An early dinner was given at the Palace, with all 
the deliberation and ceremony, as if no start was to be 
made. On the first afternoon they reached Pointe-aux-^ 
Trembles, a drive of nineteen miles. 

Here Bigot gave supper, and after supper there was 
faro. They stalled at seven the following morning, 
having taken coffee with some biscuits. At Cap Sante, 
twelve miles distant, they breakfasted, and made a halt 
of two hours ; in the afternoon they reached Sainte- 

— 67 — 

Anne-de-la-P^rade ; the day's drive was twenty-six 
miles. Bigot was again the host for supper, with the 
attendant amusement of play. 

The start was made betimes the next morning, for 
the distance was long. Madame Marin was the sister 
of Madame de Eigaud, wife of the Governor of Three 
Eivers, whom she desired much to see. She therefore 
proposed that her sleigh should stop at Three Rivers, 
for the party proposed to drive through the place with- 
out stopping. Franquet assented and they were followed 
by Madame Daine and M. de Saint Vincent. Madame 
Marin found her sister indisposed and confined to bed. 
She,however, ordered dinner for her guests, and after- 
wards they went to her room for coffee, and to chat an 
hour. As they were at dinner they heard the guns fired 
in honour of the Intendant as he was passing onwards. 
They left Three Rivers at three, Bigot had determined 
to make the halting place at Yamachiche, fifteen miles 
to the west of Three-Rivers, and the horses were 
changed at the Cap dela Madeleine, nine miles to the 
east of the town. Franquet calls the place Ouachis. It 
had been an unusually long journey, forty miles. There 
was, however, supper and play, as usual. 

The 11th was Sunday, so the party went to early 
mass. Madame Daine made the collection. After 
breakfast they started, and took to the ice at Lake 
Saint Peter, passing the villages of River du Loup and 
Maskinong^. The shore was again followed at lie au 
Castor, and the journey continued to near the He de 
Dupas, which must have been about Berthier. 

They had met together, and were taking some 
refreshment before commencing play, in which they 
were to engage until supper, when they were agreeably 
surprised by the appearance of the Governor, M. Du- 
quesne, with the husbands of the two ladies, Pean and 
Marin, and two Canadian officers, Duchesnay and Le 
Mercier. The distance was about fifty-five miles from 
Montreal ; with good sleighing the drive may be looked 


— 68 — 

upon as an ordinary matter. Until the days of railways, 
in modern times it was not unusual to drive twenty- 
five or thirty miles to a ball, and the appearance of the 
party from Montreal need create little astonishment. 

Madame Marin was suffering from headache, and 
was laying down. It was thought by her compagnes 
that the presence of her husband would restore her to 
health. This was not the case, and she was absent 
from the supper and faro. Whatever the cause, the 
party retired at nine. 

On the following day they drove to Pointe-aux- 
Trembles, forty-live miles from Berthier. The journey 
was broken at Saint Sulpice, twenty-nine miles distant, 
where they made a halt of two hours and took break- 
fast. From Berthier, Duquesne took possession of 
Madame Marin, and Franquet was left alone (1). They 
selected a house for supper, but as there was no room 
large enough for the party to meet, some partitions 
were removed. Faro followed the supper, and as it 
was the last night they were to be together, they played 
later than usual. 

The next morning, having only ten miles to reach 
Montreal, they did not leave until two. They arrived 
at Montreal early, and with the exception of Madame 
Marin, they were all received at the Intendance. On 
this evening the supper was 'given by Duquesne. 

The journey reads as if it had been a more serious 
matter than it really was. There was no distress in the 
colony ; it took place before war broke out, when pro- 
visions were cheap and plentiful. Most of the officers 
were proceeding on duty to Montreal, and it was by no 
means the last occasion in Canada when an ofiScial tour 
had been made one of pleasure. The objectionable 
feature is, that the additional expense was at the king's 
cost. It is included in this history from the light it 

(1) '* Le general m'avoit amen6 la malade/' p. 206. 

— 69 

throws on the habits of those in good position, o The 
French Canadians loug retained their ancient gaiety, 
and in a modern times those whose memory takes them 
back a few years may recollect such trips, although not 
made on the same scale. 

I append a memorandum from one whom I am 
certain, can only state what is true, which shows that 
the custom prevailed to within half a century back, 
Canada has changed since those days in many respects. 

" One bright frosty day in January, 1843, a party of 
young people between ages of eighteen and twenty-two, 
most of them connected, started in sleighs to Chateau- 
Richer, about 15 miles below Quebec, to visit a near 
relation, the seigneur of the place. He was a widower, 
left with a large familly of sons and daughters, Avho 
were all present, the elder sons having come from 
different parts of the province to attend. The brother 
of the seigneur assisted him in receiving his guests ; 
he had aided in bringing up his seven sons, for the 
mother had died at the age of thirty-six, leaving liim 
with ten children, and he had never again married. 

" On our an-ival we took off our winter wraps and 
prepared ourselves for dinner. We had the good appetite 
of youth, sharpened by the wintry air of our two hours' 
drive. After warming oiirselves at the large stove, we 
were ushered into the dining hall, in which was spread 
a long table, covered with viands of all kinds. Pig in 
all shapes was served up, as Porc-frais, bcmdins, 
sausage, in fact, in every form to be imagined. We did 
ample justice to the good things. Tea and coffee followed, 
and dinner being over, we put on our wraps again, and 
started on a snow-shoe tramp across the fields and over 
the cliffs; we also toboganued down the hill. The 
weather continued bright, and we enjoyed the glorious 
sunset, remaining out until after five o'clock, when we 
returned to the house, and arranged ourselves for tea, 
which was as plentiful as the dinner, and we all enjoyed 
it as well. We adjourned to a large drawing-room, where 

— 70 — 

we spent the time in round dances and games. There was 
no piano, so we sent for the village orchestra, two habi- 
tant girls, to sing for us to dance cotiUons and contre- 
danceSy which they did untiringly for a couple of hours. 
This we continued until eleven o'clock, when all retired 
to rest. We returned to Quebec next day. I am not 
without experience of balls, with all the accessories of 
decoration, lights and fine music ; but I never recollect 
to have passed a more pleasant evening. We all knew 
one another, and we brought to our entertainment 
cheerfulness, geniality, good manners, and youth. Two 
of the ladies are now the wives of retired generals of 
artillery in England." 

This charming glimpse by Mrs. Kingsford of social 
amusements in a Canadian home of the past, to be 
thoroughly understood, requires a few words of explan- 
ation, which I, more than once a favored guest, at the 
houses he describes, can easily supply from personal 
recollections of my sporting days on the Chateau-Richer 

1. The Chateau-Richer Manor of 1843 was an 
antique tenement one hundred and ten feet in length, 
divided here and there by wide-throated chimnies. 
A massive Three-Rivers stove, of the Matthew Bell 
pattern, heated the ample hall ; the parlor was hung 
round witli family oil-portraits. Its hospitable laird, 
Lt. Col. William Henry LeMoine, C. M., counting 
many friends. Among the Quebec sportsmen whom 
September each year attracted to the Chateau-Richer 
manor and snipe marshes, I can recall, among others, 
the late Hon. Justice Elzew Bedard, of the Court of 
Appeals, Judge Louis Fiset, his friend Hector Simon 
Huot, ' William Phillips, Errol Boyd Lindsay, Narcisse, 
Juchereau, Charles and Philippe Duchesnay, Dr. Joseph 
Fremont, father of the late mayor of Quebec, who 
like William Henry, Robert Auguste, Alexandre Olivier 
LeMoine, the three eldest sons of the " Seigneur," 
— all present at this memorable r^v/nion de famUle, — 

— 71 — 

have since joined the great majority. Possibly the 
veteran hunter, Pitre Portngais, who for half a century 
glories in having each spring flushed the first snipe, 
may more than once have knocked at the door of the 
mossy old manor, on his way to the snipe marsh. 

2. The ancient chatelain had the attributes of, and 
met with, the respect accorded to a good seigneur of 
the old Ti^gime, without owning a seigniory. He held 
important trusts, and in his quality oi Com^niissaire des 
Petites Causes and Justice of the Peace dispensed 
justice evenly ; more than once the chosen arbitrator 
in parish feuds. 

3. The " unmarried brother, " who assisted his 
brother in bringing up his patriarchal family, died in 
1851. His younger brother, W. H. LeMoine expired at 
Villa Saint Denis, Sillery, in 1870, aged 85. One of 
his fair grand-daughters recently became the spouse of 
Lieut. -Governor Angers, at Spencer Wood. 

4. Two of the ladies present at the fSte de faraille 
are now the wives of retired General oificers; Miss 
Harriet LeMesurier, the wife of General Clifford ; 
Miss Sophia Ashworth, the wife of General Pipon. 
Their friend, Miss Caroline Lindsay, who married Major 
Ross, then of the 85th Foot, died in London, Ontario ; 
her sister married Mr. W. Kingrford, the Historian. 


The industry and patient research displayed by our 
French annalists, Garneau, Bibaud, Ferland, Faillon, 
has unquestionably left but little unsaid or unnoticed, 
on the old regime of Canada; albeit the manner of 
presenting facts may widely diff'er ; whilst the glamour 
and rainbow tints, with which the historian Frs. Park- 
man has invested this remote period, seems to have 
rendered it instinct with life. 

More than one circumstance of recent occurrence are 
of a nature to encourage the modern delver in the rich 
mine of colonial history to delve still deeper. In 1872, 
a Public Eecord OflBce was opened, an annex, as it 
were, of the Department of Agriculture ; the best man 
in the whole Dominion of Canada, probably, Douglas 
Brymner, was selected as its head ; specialists, such as 
the Abbds Verreau and Tanguay, B. Suite, Jos. Mar- 
mette were asked to co-operate ; we all know their 
cordial and effective response. 

It is now apparent to careful observers that the 
lacuna, hitherto sorely felt with respect to reliable 
records for describing a later period, the English regime 
is being rapidly filled in. In more than one promising 
essay, is apparent the beneficient influence of the new 
light, of wider horisons opened out ; there are many 
satisfactory indications ; probably, no where more visible 
than in two late histories of Canada, Mr. B. Suite's 
and the more recent work of Wm. Kingsford, F. E. S. C. 
Another healthy incident, worthy of notice, is the 
awakening of each province, since Confederation, to the 

— 73 — 

sacred duty of garnering and preserving its own historic 
records, in which are revealed the struggles, material 
and intellectual progress of its inhabitants from their 
rude beginnings to the present day. I am more parti- 
cularly reminded of this at the present time by the 
perusal of the annual report, the Annuavrede VInstitut 
Canadien of Quebec, for the year 1889. 

Amidst other interesting matter, it contains summa- 
ries of no less than seventeen (1) hitherto unpublished 
M&nioire8y compiled by a distinguished engineer officer 
sent out from Fmnce, Col. Franquet, who came to 
America, in 1750, as Chief Engineer of Fortifications ; 
he had been charged by the king of France with the 
duty of foitifying Lonisbourg, in Cape Breton, which he 
did, though it had to succumb, in 1758, to the victorious 
arms of Wolfe, despite the heroic defence it made. 
Franquet landed at Louisbourg, in 1750 ; in 1851, he 

(1) Voyages et M6moires sur le Canada, par Franquet. 

1752. Voyages de Quebec aux Trois-Rivieres, Montreal et 
au Lac St-Sacrement. 

1753. Voyages de Quebec au village de Lorette Sauvage. 
Memoire pour les principaux endroits parcourus de Mont- 
real au Lac St-Sacrement. 

1753. Voyage par terre et sur les glaces de Quebec a 

1753. Voyage par terre, de Quebec a la Pointe-aux-Trembles 
pour accompagner M. le General dans son voyage a Montreal. 

Premier sejour a Montreal. 

Voyage au Lac des Deux Montagiies. 

Second sejour k Montreal. 

Sejour aux Trois-Rivieres. 

Du Fort St-Frederic. 

Du Fort de Chambly. 

De la Rividre de Richelieu. 

Du Village Precancour. 

Du Greinsing. 

Memoire sur les moyens d*augmenter la culture des terres 
du Canada. 

Quebec 1753. M6moire sur le projet des ouvrages proposes 
pour d^fendre la basse-ville et la haute. 


— 74 — 

crossed over to Isle St. Jean (Prince Edward Island). 
In 1752, he extended his peregrinations to Quebec, 
Three-Eivers, Montreal, Lake St. Sacrement ; during 
his three years stay in Canada, he visited and reported 
on innumerable forts. It is some of the memoirs he 
wrote about this time, I purpose to examine and com- 

In 1754, Franquet returned to Louisbourg in com- 
pany with the Chevalier de Drucourt to put in order 
the old works of defence, and carry out the instructions 
of the French king as to new works. Franquet was 
even more than an experienced engineer officer; his 
memoirs exhibit him as possessed of literary attain- 
ments ; he evidently was a close observer of men and 
things generally, though his timely reports to the king 
on existing abuses and needed reforms seem to have 
remained unheeded in those degenerate days, in which 
coming events were already, though dimly, casting their 
lurid shadow before them. 

New France in 1751-4 wfis administered by the 
Marquis Duquesne. DuquesnedeMenneville, a captain 
in the Eoyal Navy, was a descendant of the famous 
admiral Duquesne, who had shed lustre on the reign of 
Louis XIV. He was brave and able, but a blight 
affected the colony: the profuse expenditure and in 
some cases, the wholesale pilfering of some of its high 
officials. A burthen to France it was even in 1751, 
losing gradually its former prestige. Was the Marquis 
gifted with a species of second sight ; and when in 1754, 
he asked for his recall, could he even then detect on the 
wall faint tracings of an ominous hand pointing to its 
loss to France a few years later ? Some are inclined to 
think so. 

In 1754, however, there were yet but distant mutt er- 
ings of the gathering storm, and even Madame de 
Pampadour, the royal concubine, would have shrunk 
from daring to rejoice openly at the possible loss of 
Canada to France. 

— 75 — 

The Marquis Duquesne, who had landed at Quebec 
in July, 1751, was not long before setting earnestly to 
work to carry out his royal master's instructions con- 
cerning the measures to be taken to eject English 
traders from the valley of the Ohio. One of his first 
tasks was to order a general review of the regulars and 
militia available and to enforce discipline : the country 
could furnish 13,000 fighting men, it was found. The 
following year was spent in preparations for the coming 
campaign. In the spring of 1753, Capts. Marin and 
P&in were dispatched with men towards the seat of the 
threatened trouble, in accordance with plans matured 
the winter previous ; this brings us to the 1 4th Janu- 
ary 1753, when His Excellency started by land, of 
course, to make arrangements at Montreal for the king's 
service. Col. Franquet will be our cicerone. Franquet's 
M. S. S., procured, in 1854, from the archives of the 
war office in Paris, was that year added to the collec- 
tion of Canadian historical documents. 

It remained for long years ignored, except to a few 
curious students of Canadian annals. In 1876, it was 
my good fortune to obtain for the first time access to 
these instructive memoirs. In 1889, the Institut Cana- 
dien of Quebec made a selection of their contents for 
publication in its Annuaire. Under date, 14th January 
1753, Col. Franquet describes the trip by land, he was 
invited to take under the considerate charge of Inten- 
dant Bigot, from Quebec to Pointe-aux-Trembles, to 
escort the Commander-in-Chief, on his annual voyage 
to Montreal. 

" Each year," says Franquet, " it is customary, nay 
necessaiy, that the General in the colony should go to 
Montreal in January, returaing to Quebec in the 
ensuing month of August. Among other official business, 
the following appear to be the principal duties which 
attract him there." 

1st. To select and name suitable officers to command 


— Te- 
at the king's posts iu the upper country — lea pays d!en 

2nd. To regulate the number of soldiers required at 
each post. 

3rd. To limit the proportion of vehicles for their con- 
veyance and the amount of provisions necessary for the 

4th. To provide each post with the arms and stores 
requisite for their defense and maintenance for one 

5th. To deliver permits to traders for leave to trade 
at these posts. 

6th. To fix the number of assistants required by the 
traders and by others for the king's service in order to 
be able each year to keep exact count of the number 
of persons leaving the colony. 

7th. To receive the delegates of Indian tribes, who 
each year visit Montreal to bring offerings to the king ; 
to warn and advise them of what the French sovereign 
expected of them and to present these delegates with 
necklaces as tokens of their good faith. 

There were several other important subjects which 
engaged the attention of the General-in-Chief, in his 
annual visit to Montreal, embodied in other memoirs 
addressed by Franquet to his sovereign. 

The 14th January was the date selected for the 
departure of the quasi-regal exT)edition for Montreal, 
quite a gala day. An invitation from the courtly 
Marquis to form part of it was as highly prized at 
Quebec as was an invitation from the French sovereign 
to a courtier to join the royal excursion from Paris to 
Marly, so says Franquet. Bigot had selected a party of 
the elitey ladies and gentlemen, to accompany with 
him the General as far as Pointe-aux-Trembles, twenty 
miles west of Quebec, on the north shore of the 
St. Lawrence ; all were to be Bigot's guests at dinner 
that day and, at breakfast, the following morning. 

— 77 — 

The Marquis's staflF consisted of Capts. de Vergor, 
St. Ours, La Martiniire, Marin, Poau and Lieuts. St. 
Laurent, Le Chevalier, de la Koche and Le Mercier, 
whilst Bigot's party comprised Mesdames Pean, Lotbi- 
niere, Marin, de Eepentigny and du Linon, with Col. 
Franquet, Capts. St. Vincent, Dumont, Lanaudiere and 
Eepentigny. The gay cavalcade in single sledges or 
in tandem left the upper town at 10 a. m. The meet 
took place most probably, facing the chateau St. Louis, 
where the great Man^uis held his little court. An 
old-fashioned storm attended with intense cold then 
prevailed ; the usual salvo of guns at the departure of 
a Governor could scarcely be heard in the howling blast, 
and blinding snow drift, as the party drove through St. 
Louis Gate. Soon, we are told, diverging north to 
follow the Ste. Foye road, passing close to Ste. Foye 
church, until it reached the heights of Cape Rouge, 
where the road skirted the hill : a dangerous spot and 
liable to end in an upset and violent descent into the 
valley below, had it not been lined with trees, which 
kept the vehicles from rolling down from this dizzy 
height. No bridge existed in those days on the St. 
Augustin stream. His Excellency crossed on the ice. 
" In summer a canoe is used to ferry across foot pas- 
sengers ; horses ford the stream at low tide, or are made 
to swim across at high tide. " 

On ascending a hill, the road runs on the St. Augus- 
tin heights to a grist-mill, which adheres to the face of 
the hill and is set in motion by a mill-race and wooden 
viaduct built on trestle-work over the high- way. The 
travellers then descended by a steep and narrow road 
to the shore of the St. Lawrence^ where the parish 
church of St. Augustin was erected. From there the 
party took to the ice on the St. Lawrence, and then 
ascended Dubois' hill, which was so encumbered with 
snow that the drivers had to assist one another to get 
the sledges safely past oue by one. After a few miles 
more of arduous wintry travel, Franquet dwells on the 

— 80 — 

feet square enclosed by curtains " with seats with 
blue cushions " ; a dais over head protected the inmates 
from the rays of the sun, and from rain. Choice wines, 
cordials, spirits, eatables, even to ready cash; every- 
thing necessary to human sustenance or pleasure was 
abundantly provided. There was nothing ascetic, about 
the bachelor Bigot. Ladies of rank, wit and beauty, 
felt it an honor to join his brilliant court, where they 
met most charming cavaliers, young officers of the 
regiments stationed at Quebec. Col. Franquet seems to 
have enjoyed himself amazingly, having " a good time " 
all through, and describing some of the merry episodes 
which occurred on the trips at Three-Eivers and other 
trysting-places of the magniticent Intendant. What a 
terrible awakening, six years later, in Paris, for the 
faithless official when the grim old Bastille opened its 
remorseless portals to immure Bigot and his public 
plunderers of France and of Canada ! 

The remainder of this memoir contains some appro- 
priate remarks on the various items of expenditure 
involved in these ofi&cial excursions of high French 
Officials. Each vehicle in winter, except those for the 
servants and the supplies, are drawn by pairs ; each day's 
expenses of the driver foot up to 70 and 75 francs. To 
which are to be added the expenses incurred by the 
Grand Voyer, who has to start a few days in advance 
of the General or Intendant, to have the roads beaten ; 
exclusive of extras, his charge varies from 7 to 10 
francs a day : in winter the country folks have to 
provide their own horses and carioles to execute his 
orders. The alacrity with which they turn out indi- 
cates their more or less zeal for the king's service ; 
relays of horses have also to be furnished by the 
parishioners whenever the General travels and sum- 
mary punishment is sure to evertake trangressors in 
this respect-shorter or longer periods of incarceration. 
Services to the king are generally paid in Canada ; too 
much so. The state pays for the vehicles, the board and 


— 81 — 

lodging of the drivers, the services of public officials or 
any special mission. Franquet, in his memoirs, proposes 
the following remedies to these growing and ruinous 
abuses : 

1. The heads of the Government to travel merely on 
sheer necessity. 

2. That, as a suitable escort, four tandems only be 
allowed for conveying them — their secretaries, cajjtain 
of the guard and lackeys and six one-horse vehicles to 
convey their equipage on the road. 

3. That 30 sols be allowed for lodging over night in 
the country parts for the master and 15 sols for his 
servant, each to pay for his meal. 

4. That to diminish corv4es, the number of carioles 
in winter to be furnished by the peasantry, to precede 
high public officials be limited ; that the militia guard 
be suppressed; that the king should open out public 
roads, twenty feet broad, to be kept up by the owners 
of the land under the direction of the militia captain of 
the parish. This, says Franquet, would do away with 
the expenditure of keeping up a Orand Voyer, The 
shrewd engineer officer was right, but Orand Voyers (1) 
continued to flourish in Canada for nearly a century 
later, until 1841. Franquet was clearly in advance of 
his age. 

(1) The last Grand Voyer was the genial and handsome 
Lieut.-Col. Antrobus, subsequently appointed A. D. C. to the 
Sari of Elgin, Govemor-Greneral of Canada. 


[From The Land tee live in]. 


We are indebted to J. M. LeMoine, the Histo- 
rian of Canada, for the following extract from a letter 
evidently written in ] 759, by Major Robert Stobo (1), 
a famous Virginian ofBcer, — then a prisoner of war at 
Quebec, — to Col. George Washington. Mr. LeMoine 
says that this extract is all he could find of this 
interesting letter, in searching through the family papers 
of an antiquarian friend ; there is yet enough of it to show 
that " Still to the last, kind vice clung to the tott'ring 
wall " of the French dynasty in Canada. 

" Dear George. — You will find this a lengthy epistle, let 
me hope, a curious tale of colonial doings. I can put forth no 
other apology for boring you, than the imperative necessity 
I experience of occupying my mind : else ennui and nothing 
to do would, I fear, soon drive me hopelessly mad. Fouryeai's 
of prison life for a full-blooded Virginian is rather too much at 
one stretch. 

I will prepare for your eye a startling, but truthful record 
of court intrigues, elegant profligacy . and public plunder. 
Some years ago, on my visiting London, my kind protector, 
Lord Bute, procured me an entrSe to the fashionable society 
of the metropolis. I saw its great men. I saw their vices. 
I have not forgotten my disgust at seeing the vices of some 
of the painted jezabels surrounding our king — around virtuous 
Queen Caroline. I noticed those visions of purity and loveli- 
ness, the Bellendens, the Lepells j my friend Smollett intro- 
duced me to the patriotic Pitt, the brilliant Walpole ; one 
figure especially did I loath, that Royal favorite, Lady 
Yarmouth j she who sold a bishopric lor £500. Peg Woffington 

(1) Robert Stobo, a hostage at Fort Duquesne, sent down 
to Quebec, in 1755, as a prisoner of war, escaped and served 
under Wolfe, at Quebec in 1759. 

— 83 — 

is a marvellous creature, but what say you of her preux 
Chevalier, Edmund Burke ? 

Hampton Court was not a bit worse, nay, in fact, it was 
much less dissolute than Versailles. The Hanoverian King 
had La Walmoden; the French monarch, La Pompadour: 
his Minister of Finance, at Quebec, has la . If vice and 

profligacy flaunt in open day at the French Court, amidst le 
beau monde, do not imagine that the beau monde of Quebec is 
free from it. 

There are of course here exceptions : Montcalm, Vaudreuil ; 
several of the old families are free from the taint } but there 
is a coterie vile and profligate, and some add to their vices, 
lowness of birth ; one link connects all this clique — public 

The French Treasury is robbed on a colossal scale by the 
Tntendant Bigot and his minions. Ijb, Walmodenand La Pom- 
padour have, at our little Canadian Court, a not unworthy 
representative. If a man wants place or promotion in Canada 
he must stand well with Bigot's fair charmer. 

Madame P6an is unquestionably a femme charmante a 
smiling, benevolent, spiriiuelle beauty. Her marriage by 
Bishop DuBreuil de Pontbriand dates of January, 1746. Her 
husband is a Captain in the colonial troops, and Town Major 
of Quebec. 

You won't wonder at my minute information respecting 
every man connected with the government of the colony, 
when you recollect the facilities I enjoj^ed during several 
months that I was free, on parole, to roam far and wide in 
Quebec and even as far as Montreal. 

Since my close captivity, I have had many visitors in my 
prison, and the honorable family, whose head I saved, as you 
know, from impending death, has not deserted me in my 
hour of trouble, even though many of the fashionables have 
done so. Monsieur Duchesnay, Madame and her two lovely 
daughters have done all which lies in their power to soften 
the horrors of my captivity ; one of these daughters is a per- 
fect angel of love and intellect. With your permission, 1 shall 
describe seriatim Bigot and his group. 

Fran9ois Bigot, the thirteenth French Intendant at Quebec, 
is a.s warlike a little Game Cock as ever strutted amidst a 
flock of submissive hens. He is a native of Gruienne and 
belongs to a family distinguished at the bar ; before his 
appointment, at Quebec, he had been Intendant of Louisiana. 
In stature, rather short ; his frame is well knit, his carriage 
erect, his courage beyond question. He loves show and plea- 
sure to excess, dotes on cards, hunting and good living. The 
government expect him to entertain suitably the highest 
officials j they pay him niggardly and allow him to make 
profits out of the trafSc in peltry^ merchandize, etc., like hi& 

— 84 — 

This is wrong. Dabbling in trade, speculating in fur and 
provisions is not the thing for an official whose status is only 
second to that of the governor 6t the colony, and whose palace 
and surroundings is far more luxurious than the Chdteau Si. 
Louis, the Vice-regal residence in Quebec. Bigot robs the 
French Treasury and has done so for years. A succassful 
scheme has been concocted by our w^orthy Intendant to 
further this object. 

He has formed a partnership with his Secretary, Dechenaux, 
his Commissary (reneral, Cadet, and the Town Major, Capt. 
Hughes Pean, the Treasurer of the Province ; Imbert, seconds 
them. P6an, however, pays a higher price than an honorable 
man should for the gold he pockets ; so say the scandal 
mongers^ and his beautiful spouse is much too intimate with 
the gay bachelor Intendant. 

Vaudreuil, in his stately chateau, overhanging the St. 
Lawrence, is quite a secondary object of attraction for the 
giddy crowd of fashion and elegant vice, which weekly sit 
down to cards and suppers at Bigot's palace, facing the St. 
Charles, on the north side of the capital. 

It is there you will see the jolly Intendant, pirouetting in 
a dance round the festoned walls and gilt awnings which 
decorate this fairy abode, whilst the people are starving in 
the streets. 1 myself was more than once asked to partake of 
those luscious peiits soupers where pdt^s aux foies grcu and 
Burgundy wine lit up more than one youthful face ; my 
poverty alone shielded me from the dangers of eeartij piquet 
and vingt-et-un. Bigot, 'tis said, in one season lost as much as 
200,000 livres, equal to £10,000. 

Major Pean's duties often take him away from the city. In 
1753, he was selected to explore our frontier ; he owns large 
flour mills at Beaumont, which he frequently visits ; he either 
does not know or does not care what Madame does to beguile 
the tedium of his absence. 

Madame P^an occupies a spacious dwelling in St. Louis 
street, where her entertainments a«e much sought after. 
There is not a young French Lieutenant, not a Commissary 
Clerk, who would not fight a dozen of duels if her fame 
required it. 

The Intendant is a constant visitor at her house. Place and 
patronage, ft*om the highest to the lowest in the colony, is 
bestowed at her recommendation. She quite beats poor Lady 
Yarmouth, who merely sold a bishopric for £500. More than 
one old family refuses to visit her. 

Brassard Dechenaux, Bigot's Secretary, is of low degree. 
His father was a poor shoemaker : he was born in Quebec and 
received the rudiments of his eaucation from a notary, who 
had boarded at his fathei'^s house. 


Mr. George MuiTay will receive the thanks of students 
of Canadian history for the interesting note by him, 
which appeared at p. 161, Vol. I, Canadiana, on the 
death of General James Wolfe. He therein impartially 
reviews the conilicting accounts of the mode of his 
death and furnishes the names of the various persons 
who helped carry the hero to the rear when wounded. 
There are for the honor, more than one Eichard in the 
field ; four champions so far. 

Lt. Brown's letter to his father subsequently the 
Earl of Altamonte, could not be more circumstantial ; 
" he was the person who carried Wolfe off the field," 
and the General died in his arms. But "a grenadier 
of the 28th (Bragg's) and a grenadier of the 58th 
(Attstruthers'), also lay claim to assisting the dying 
warrior ; whilst a faithful Highland sergeant, by name 
James McDougal, like a loyal Scot, is stated to have 
attended Wolfe dying ". Each of the above may have 
had'a share in the coveted privilege ; let us consult a 
standard authority on Canadian history on this disputed 

Few writers in America or elsewhere, have devoted 
to the study of our annals a whole life-time ; few have 
had access to such masses of documents, siege-narra- 
tives, etc., as Francis Parkman, the conscientious and 
brilliant historiographer of Montcalm and Wolfe. Not 
confining himself to books, Mr. Parkman made special 
visits to Quebec, to study every inch of the battle-field 
of 1759, and of the sites adjoining. I am in a position 
to testify to the fact, by personal experience, having* 
among other occasions a recollection of a prolonged and 


— 86 — 

minute survey he and I made, in 1878, at his request, 
of the historic locale, at Wolfe's cove where the English 
troops disembarked at early dawn on the 13th Septem- 
ber, 1759, in furtherence of his great work, " Montcalm 
— Wolfe," which he was then preparing, and w^hich 
appeared in 1884. Parkman's description of the death 
scene is as follows : " Wolfe himself led the charge at 
the head of the Louisbourg grenadiers. A shot shattered 
his wrist. He wrapped his handkerchief about it and 
kept on. Another shot struck him and he still advanced, 
when a third lodged in his breast. He staggered and 
sat on the ground. Lieutenant Brown of the grenadiers, 
one Henderson, a volunteer in the same company, and 
a private soldier, aided by an officer of artillery, who 
ran to join them, carried him in their arms to the rear. 
He begged them to lay him down. They did so, and 
asked if he would have a surgeon. " There's no need," 
he answered ; " it's all over with me." A moment later 
one of them cried out : " They run ; see how they run " ! 
" Who run ? " Wolfe demanded like a man roused from 
sleep. " The enemy, sir ; Egad, they give way every- 
where ! " " Go, one of you, to Colonel Burton," returned 
the dying man ; " tell him to march Webb's regiment 
down to Charles Eiver to cut off their retreat from the 
bridge." Then, turning on his side, he murmured, 
"Now, God be praised, I will die in peace ! " and in a 
few moments his gallant soul had fled." 

It will be noticed that Parkman associates four of 
Wolfe's comrades-at-arms to the honour claimed by 
Lieut. Brown, of attending the dying hero in his last 


This reminds one of another debated point of Cana- 
dian history ; the name of the man who fired the shot, 
which at Prfes-de-Ville, on that fatidical Sabbath, the 

— 87 — 

3l3t December, 1775, laid low Brigadier General 
Richard Montgomery, the brave but luckless leader of 
the invading host from New England. 

Sanguinet's Journal* mentions two distinguished offi- 
cers in the French Canadian Militia, Chabot and Picard. 
One English account gives the credit to Barnsfare of 
Whitby, the captain of a transport wintering that 
season at Quebec, whilst another siege-narrative selects 
as the hero of the day, Sergeant Hugh McQuarters, R. A., 
who expired in Charaplain street, Quebec, in 1812. 

On examining the testimony set forth, the case might 
in my opinion, be summed up thus : Lieut. Chabot and 
Picard were undoubtedly on duty at Pr^s-de-Ville post, 
on the morning in question, Captain Barnsfare pointed 
the fatal cannon, and Sergent Hugh McQuarters applied 
the match. 

« « 

Another inference may be drawn from Parkman's 
narrative of the death of Wolfe ; it will be noticed that 
no mention occurs of the part alledged to have been 
played in the tragedy by the English deserter, whose 
story appears in Hone's " Table Book ". Parkman spent 
years searching through the archives of Canada, France 
and England, and acquired the most complete and 
reliable data possible, on even the minutest incidents 
of the gi'eat siege of 1759. It has been my privilege, 
on several occasions, during his many visits to Quebec, 
to discuss with him the particulars of the death of both 
heroes of the battle of the Plains of Abraham, and never 
was the mode of death suggested by the Table Book 
mooted. I was well aware and so was the learned his- 
torian, of an analogous anecdote, contained in a foot 
note, to be found in Dialogues of the Dead, concerning 
the death of Montcalm, and as the incident may be 
new to several. I herewith subjoin the passage and 

— 88 — 

foot note, as related by an eye-witness, Levi's aide-de- 
camp, the Jacobite Johnstone, serving under Montcabn 
at the battle of the Plains of Abraham : " The Marquis 
of Montcalm, says Chevalier Johnstone, endeavoring 
to rally the troops in their disorderly flight, was wounded 
in the lower part of the belly (1). He was conveyed 
immediately to Quebec, and lodged in the bouse of Mr. 
Arnoux, the King's surgeon, who was absent with Mr. 
de Bourlamaque j his brother, the younger Amoux 

having viewed the wound, declared it mortal 

He begged of Arnoux to be so kind and outspoken as 
to tell him how many hours he thought he might yet 
live ? Arnoux answered him that he might hold out 
until, three in the morning". I may hereafter refer 
again to the spot where the brave Marquis expired : 
another disputed point in Canadian history. 

As to the Wineisor painting by West, of the death of 
Wolfe, I have about as much faith in it as Sir Robert 
Walpole is said to have had in history. That big Indian, 
depicted by the artist, in a sitting position on the 
Plains of Abraham and watching disconsolately, the 
dying General, is quite enough to stamp the whole 
scene as unreal — a picturesque mise en 8cd7ie for 
efiTect, invented by the genius of the eminent American 
painter. Wolfe had no Indian in his ranks, at least 
history mentions none. 

If any Red-skin lurked in the neighborhood, he must 
have been one of the Lorette Hurons amongst Mont- 
calm's auxiliaries ; the chief interest, he would have 
felt towards the English chieftain, would have been a 
longing for his red-haired scalp, to add to his savage 

(1) ''It was reported in Canada, that the ball which killed 
that great, good and honest man, was not fired by an English 
musket. But I never credited this." (Foot note to Chevalier 
Johnstone's Dialgoues). 

— 89 — 

In an old engraving of the death of the hero in my 
possession and for which I am indebted to the sporting 
antiquarian, George M- Fairchild, jr., of Eavenscliffe- 
Manor, near Quebec, Wolfe is depicted on the ground, 
lying on his side, apparently in great pain, supported 
and surrounded by six men in uniform, one of whom 
bears the regimental colours. 

West's big Indian is dropped out. Under the plate 
may be read the inscription : 

General Wolfe expiring on the Heights of Canada, 


" The names and memories of great men are the dowery of 
a nation. They are the salt of the earth, in death as well as 
in life. What they 4id once, their descendants have still and 
always a right to do after them. " — Blackwood, 

A Quebec barrister, snatched too soon from fame and 
friends, thus embodied in verse Canada's motto : 

" Sur cette terre encor' sauvage, 
Les vieux titres sont inconnus ; 
La noblesse est dans le courage, 
Dans les talents, dans les vertus." 

F. R. Angers. 


True nobility must consist, for us, in courage, talent 
and virtue ; such we consider the genuine guinea's 
stamp ; the rest is all'plated ware, which once tarnished 
by vile acts or unworthy sentiments, not all the blue 
blood of all the Howards could rescue from contempt. 

On one point the Latin and the Teuton of Canada 
do seem to understand one another thoroughly, viz., 
in their estimate of monarchical ideas. They respect 
the sovereign and honor his chief men, the nobles — 
not the men of pleasure such as those with whom 
Louis XV, surrounded his throne and oppressed his 
subjects, but honorable men such as Victoria and the 
English people are proud of ; well represented by that 
aristocracy of merit " specially charged to perpetuate 
traditions of chivalry and honor ; " whose door is open 
to the people, bls their highest recognition of popular 
merit ; whose worth is testified to by the English as 
well as by the French ; who is eulogized in high terms 
by men of commanding intellect, such as Montesquieu, 

— 91 — 

Montalembert, Guizot, Chateaubriand. (1) Merit is 
then the touch-stone which wrung from these brilliant 
writers the unqualified praise they bestowed on the 
nobility of Great Britain. 

Let us see w^hether we can apply this test to one of 
the oldest and most honored names in our own history ; 
we mean that of the Baron de Longueuil. 

In former times, we had bloody wars to wage ; mer- 
ciless foes existed on our frontiers ; the soil then found 
generous and brave soldiers to defend it : men who 
went forth each day with their lives in their hands, 
ready to shed the last drop of blood for all they held 
dear, their homes, their wives, thdr children. Has the 
stout race of other days degenerated, grown callous to 
what its God, its honor, its counliy may command in 
the hour of need ? We should hope not. We said the 
Baron de Longueuil. 

Wlio was the Baron de Longueuil ? With your per- 
mission, kind reader, let us peruse together the royal 

(1) " The nobility of Great Britain is the finest modern 
society since the Roman Patriciate, " has said the illustrious 
Chateaubriand. His vast researches, his presence at the 
English court as French ambassador, in 1822, had given him 
ample opportunity of judging. This estimate does not quite 
agree with that of the author of " Representative Men," 
Emerson : " Twenty thousand thieves landed at Hastings. 
These founders of the House of Lords were greedy and fero- 
cious dragoons, sons of greedy and ferocious pirates. They 
were all alike j they took everything they could carry. They 
burned, harried, violated, tortured, and killed, until everything 
English was brought to the verge of ruin. Such, however, is 
the illusion of antiquity and wealth, that decent and dignified 
men now existing boast their descent from these petty 
thieves, who showed a far juster conviction of their own 
merits, by assuming for their types the swine, goat, jackal, 
leopard, wolf, and snake, which they severally resembled. 

"It took many generations to trim, and comb, and perfume 
the first boat-load of Norse pirates into royal highnesses and 
most noble knights of the garter j but every sparkle of orna- 
ment dates back to the Norse boat." — English Traits, 

— 92 — 

patent erecting the seigniory of Longueuil into a barony : 
it is to be found in the Eegister of the proceedings of 
the Superior Council of Quebec, letter B, page 131, and 
runs thus : " Louis, by the Grace of God, King of 
France and Navarre, to all present. Greeting : It being 
an attribute of our greatness and of our justice to 
reward those whose courage and merit led them to per- 
form great deeds and taking into consideration the 
services which have been rendered to us by the late 
Charles Le Moyne (1), Esquire, Seigneur of Longueuil, 
who left France in 1640 to reside in Canada, where his 
valour and fidelity were so often conspicuous in the 
wars against the Iroquois, that our governors and lieu- 
tenant governors in that country employed him con- 
stantly in every military expedition, and in every 
negotiation or treaty of peace, of all which duties he 
acquitted himself to their entire satisfaction; — that 
after him, Charles Le Moyne, Esquire, his eldest son, 
desirous of imitating the example of his father, bore 
arms from his youth, either in France, where he served 
as a lieutenant in the Regiment de St. Laurent, or else 
as captaiu of a naval detachment, in Canada, since 1687, 
where he had an arm shot off by the Iroquois when 
fighting near Lachine, in which combat seven of his 
brothers were also engaged ;— that Jacques Le Moyne 
de Ste. H^lfene, his brother, for his gallantry, was made 
a captain of a naval detachment, and afterwards fell at 
the siege of Quebec, in 1690, leading on with his elder 
brother, Charles Le Moyne, the Canadians against Phips, 
where his brother was also wounded ; that another 
brother, Pien'e Le Moyne d'Iberville, captain of a sloop 
of war, served on land and on sea, and captured Fort 
Corlard in Hudson's Bay, and still commands a frigate ; 
that Joseph Le Moyne de Bienville was commissioned 

(I) He was nephew to the celebrated Surgeon Adrien 
Duchesne, his protector at Quebec. 

— 93 — 

an ensign in the said naval detachment, and was killed 
by the Iroquois in the attack on the place called Eepen- 
^'g^^y ; that Louis Le Moyne de Chateauguay, when 
acting as- lieutenant to his brother, d'lberville, also fell 
in the taking of Fort Bourbon, in the Hudson's Bay; 
that Paul Le Moyne de Maricourt is an ensign in the 
navy, and captain of a company in the naval detach- 
ment, acting in the capacity of ensign to his brother 
d'lberville ; that, in carrying out our intentions for set- 
tling Canada, the said Charles Le Moyne, the eldest son, 
has spent large sums in establishing inhabitants on the 
domain and seigniory of Longueuil, which comprises 
about two leagues in breadth on the St. Lawrence, and 
three leagues and a half in depth, the whole held from 
us with hautCy Tnoyenne et basse justice^ wherein he is 
now striving to establish three parishes, and whereat, 
in order to protect the residents in times of war, he has 
had erected at his own cost a fort supported by four 
strong towers of stone and masonry, with a guardhouse, 
several large dwellings, a fine church, bearing all the 
insignia of nobility; a spacious farm yard, in which 
there is a barn, a stable, a sheep-pen, a dove-cot, and 
other buildings, all of which are within the area of the 
said fort; next to which stand a banal mill, a fine 
brewery of masonry, together with a large retinue of 
servants, horses and equipages, the cost of which 
buildings amount to some 60,000 livres ; so much so 
that this seigniory is one of the most valuable of 
the whole country, and the only one fortified and built- 
up in this way ; that this has powerfully contri- 
buted to protect the inhabitants of the neighboring 
seigniories ; that this estate, on account of the exten- 
sive land clearings and work done and to be done on it, is 
of great value, on which thirty workmen are employed ; 
that the said Charles Le Moyne is now in a position to 
hold a noble rtink on account of his virtue and merit : 
for which consideration we have thought it due to our 
sense of jXistice to assign not only a title of honor 

— 94 — 

to the estate and seigniory of Longueuil, but also to* 
confer on its owner a proof of an honorable distinction 
which will pass to posterity, and which may appear to 
the children of the said Charles Le Moyne, a reason and 
inducement to follow in their father's footsteps: For 
these causes, of our special grace, full power and royal 
authority. We have created, erected, raised and decor- 
ated, and do create, erect, raise and decorate, by the 
present patent, signed by our own hand, the said estate 
and seigniory of Longueuil, situated in our country of 
Canada, into the name, title and dignity of a barony ; 
the same to be peacefully and fully enjoyed by the said 
Sieur Charles Le Moyne, his children and heirs, and 
the descendants of the same, born in legitimate wedlock, 
held under our crown, and subject to fealty (foi et 
hcnyimage avec (Mnombrement) according to the laws 
of our kingdom and the custom of Paris in force in 
Canada, together with the name, title and dignity of a 
baron ; — it is our pleasure he shall designate and qualify 
himself baron in all deeds, judgments, &c. ; that he shaU 
enjoy the right of arms, heraldry, honors, prerogatives, 
rank, precedence in time of war, in meetings of the 
nobility, &c., like the other barons of our kingdom — 
that the vassals, arHh^e-vassaux, and others depending 
of the said seigniory of Longueuil, nohhraeid et en 
roture, shall acknowledge the said Charles Le Moyne, 
his heirs, assigns, as barons, and pay them the ordinary 
feudal homage, which said titles, &c., it is our pleasure, 
shall be inserted in proceedings and sentences, had or 
rendered by courts of justice, without, however, the said 
vassals being held to perform any greater homage than 
they are now liable to ........ • This deed to be enregistered 

in Canada, and the said Charles Le Moyne, his children 
and assigns, to be maintained in full and peaceful 
enjoyment of the rights herein conferred. 

"This done at Versailles, the 27th January, 1700, ia 
the fiftieth year of our reign. 

*^ (Signed) Louis." 


— 95 — 

We have here in unmistakable terms a royal patent 
conveying to the Great Louis' loyal and brave Canadian, 
subject and his heii^s, rights, titles, prerogatives, vast 
enough to make even the mouth of a Spanish grandee 
water. It is a little less comprehensive than the text of 
the parchment creating Nova Scotia knights, but that 
is all. 

Tlie claims of the Longueuil family to the peaceable 
enjoyment of their honor are set forth so lucidly in the 
following document, that we shall insert the manuscript 
in full ; — it was written in Paris by an educated English 
gentleman, M. Falconer. 

" When I was in Canada, in 1842, a newspaper in Montreal 
contained some weekly abuse of the Baron Grant de Lon- 
gueuil, on account of his assuming the title of Baron de Lon- 
gueuil. It appeared to me to be somewhat remarkable that a 
paper which very freely abused people for being republicans, 
and effected a wonderful reverence for monarchial institu- 
tions, should make the possession of monarchial honors, in a 
country professedly governed by monarchial institutions, the 
ground of frequent personal abuse, and was certainly a very 
inconsiderate line of conduct. 

^^ But it was in fact the more blameable, as the possession 
of that honor by Baron de Longueuil is connected with some 
historical events in which every Canadian ought to feel a 
pride, as being part of the history of his country. 

" I can of course only give a short note of the family of 

*< In the early settlement of Canada, one of the most 
distinguished men in the service of Government was Charles 
Le Moyne j he was in the war with the Iroquois, and contri- 
buted veiy materially to the pacification of the country and 
the defence of the frontier. He dad eleven sons and two 
daughters j the names of the sons were — 

** 1st. Sieur Charles Le Moyne, Baron de Longueuil. He 
was Lieutenant du roi de J a ville et gouvemement de Montr 6aL 
He was killed at Saratoga, in a severe action. 

" 2nd. Sieur Jacques Le Moyne de Sainte-HeUne. He fell 
bravely at the siege of Quebec in 1690, was hurried, in the 
CimetUre des Pauvres^ in rear of the HdtelDieu, at Quebec. 

"3rd. Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, who was born at Mon- 
treal, in 1662, was the third son. He made his first voyage to 
sea at fourteen years of age. In 1686, he was in an expedition 
to Hudson's Bay, under Sieur de Troyes. In the same year. 


— 96 — 

the Marquis de Denonville made hitn commander of a lort, 
established in this expedition^ and for his conduct in this 
post he received the thanks of the Governor of Canada. In 
1690, with his brother, de Sainte-H61ene, he attacked some 
Iroquois villages, and prevented the attack of some Indians 
on Lachine and La Chenaye. He was made captain of a 
frigate in 1692 — ^his instructions being dated 11th April of 
the same year. In 1694 he made an attack on Fort Bourbon, 
where his brother, de Chateauguay, was killed — but the fort 
was taken. On the 21st October, 1695, M. de Pontchartrain 
wrote to him a letter of commendation. In 1696 he carried 
troops to Acadia. He visited France in 1698. He left it with 
three vessels, in order to make a settlement in the Missis- 
sippi j he was the first person of European origin who entered 
the Mississipi from the sea ; he ascended the river nearly one 
hundred leagues, established a garrison, and returned to 
France in 1699 ; in consequence of this success, he was decor- 
ated with the cross of the order of Saint Louis. In 1699 he 
was again sent to the Mississippi ; his instructions were dated 
22nd September of the same year, and directed him to make 
a survey of the country and endeavor to discover mines j 
this voyage was successful, ^nd he returned to France in 1700, 
and was again sent to the Mississippi, in 1701, his instructions 
being dated August 27th, of that year ; he returned to Fi'ance 
in 1702, and was made ^^Capitaine de vaisseau." On July 5th, 
1706, he again sailed for the Mississipi, charged with a most 
important command; but in 1706, on July 9th, this most 
distinguished discoverer and navigator died at Havannah. He 
was born at Montreal, and obtained an immortal reputation 
in the two worlds. 

^* 4th. Paul Le Moyne de Maricourt, capitaine cTune compa- 
gnie de la marine. He died from exhaustion and fatigue in an 
expedition against the Iroquois. 

" 5th. Joseph Le Moyne de Serigny, who served with his 
brother, d' Iberville, in all his naval expeditions ; we subse- 
quently find him holding a lieutenant's commission in the 
navy at Rochefort. 

" 6th. Fran9ois Le Moyne de Bienville, officier de la marine. 
The Iroquois surrounded a house in which he and forty others 
were located, and, setting fire to it, all except one perished 
in the flames. 

<' 7th. Louis Le Moyne de Chateauguay, officier de la marine. 
He was killed by the English at Fort Bourbon — afterwards 
called Fort Nelson by the English, in 1694. 

" 8th. Gabriel Le Moyne d'Assigny — dipd of yellow fever, 
in St. Domingo, where he had been feft by his brother, 
d'Iberville, in 1701. 

" 9th. An toine Le Moyne — died young. 

— 97 — 

" 10th. Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, * Knight of 
the Order of St. Louis/ whose name is still remembered with 
honor among the people of New Orleans ; he was, with his 
brother, a founder of that city, and Lieutenant du Roy d la 
Louisianej in the Government of the Colony. 

" 11th. Antoine IjeMoyne de Chateauguay, second of the 
name Capitaine cPune compagnie de la Marine d la Louisiane. 
He married £>ame Marie Jeanne Emilie des Fredailles. 

" Such are the nauies of eleven sons j ten of whom hon<«*- 
ably, and with distinction, served in the government of their 
country, receiving in the new colonies the honors and rewards 
of the King, who made no distinction between the born 
Canadian and the European. 

" There were two daughters, sisters of the above j the eldest 
married Sieur de Noyan, a naval officer, and the second Sieur 
de la Chassagne. 

** In a memorial of M. de Bienville, dated New Orleans, 
January 25th, 1723. after setting forth his services, he des- 
cribes himself as Chevalier of the order of St. Louis, and 
Commander General of the Province of l^uisiana ] he states 
in it, that of eleven brothers, only four were then surviving : 
Baron de Longueuil, himself, Bienville, Serigny, and Chateau- 

fuay, and that they had all received the cross of Knights of 
t. lx>uis. 

** The patent creating the Seigniory of I^ongueuil into a 
barony is dated 19th May, 1699. It relates that the late 
Charles Le Moyne, Seigneur of Longueuil, emigrated from 
France to Canada in 1640, and had highly distinguished him- 
self upon many occasions — that his son, Charles Le Moyne, 
had borne arms from an early age, and that Jacques Le Moyne 
de Sainte Heldne, was killed by the English at the head of 
his company when Quebec was attacked, on which occasion, 
the said Charles Le Moyne, leading on the Canadians, was 
also wounded. It also names with honor d' Iberville, de Bien- 
ville, de Chateauguay, de Maricourt. The patent then states 
that on account of the services rendered by the family, Louis 
XIV had determined to give to the Seigniory of Ix)ngueuil, as 
well as to the said Charles Le Moyne himself, a title of honor, 
in order that an honorable distinction should pass to poste ■ 
rity, and be an object of emulation to his children to follow 
the example which had been set to them. It therefore creates 
and erects the Seigniory of Longueuil into a barony, to be 
enjoyed by the said Charles Le Moyne, his children and suc- 
cessors, et ay ants cause, and that they should enjoy the honors, 
rank and precedence in the assembly of nobles, as are enjoyed 
by other barons of the kingdom of France. 

" This patent is remarkable therefore for creating a territo- 
rial barony — that is, whosoever possesses Lon^jueuii, whether 

— 98 — 

male or female, is entitled to the title and distinction of a 
baron of the kingdom of France. I had some doubts if it was 
so, but submitted the case to a very eminent lawyer, at Paris, 
who assures me that there can be no dispute on the subject. 

" There was another barony erected in Canada, in 1671, in 
favor of M. Talon, the Intendant of the Province: it was 
called (1) * La terre des Islets,' which I believe is at this time 
owned by some religious community. However, I have pointed 
out above the title which, under a monarchy, this family has 
to distinction in Canada. 

" The cession of Canada by France to England made no 
change in the legal right to hold honors, and a title to honors 
is as much a legal right as a title to an estate. 

** No person by the cession was deprived of any legal 
right. At Malta, the old titles of honor are respected, and 
the Queen recognises them in the commissions issued in her 
name in Malta. Whatever right French noblemen had in 
Canada under the French government continues at this time : 
in this instance the honor is greater than most titled Euro- 
pean families can boast of. 

" It is not, however, as a family matter I regard it. I wish 
you to remark that it was a Canadian who discovered the 
Mississippi from the sea, (La Salle having failed in this though 
he reached the sea, sailing down the Mississippi), and also 
that the first and most celebrated Governor General of Loui- 
siana was a French Canadian." 

Here ends M. Falconer's ably written paper. The 
Le Moyne originally descended from the Count of 
Salagne, en Biscaye, who enlisted on the side of 
Charles YII, in 1428. This count married Marguerite 
de la Tremouille, daughter of the Count des G nines, and 
Grand Cliambellan de France, one of the oldest fami- 
lies of the Kingdom. We must now leave to our readers 
to decide, and we are willing also to accept for the 
house of Longueuil (2) the motto — 

" Sur cette terre encor sauvage 
Les vieux titres sont inconnus ] 
La noblesse est dans le courage, 
Dans les talents, dans les vertus.'^ 

(1) Chateau Bigot stands within its limits. 

(2) The Baron de Longueuil was succeeded by his soa 
Charles, born 10th December, 1656. He served quite young 

— 99 — 

The gracious act of Queen Victoria, in officially 
recognising the rank and title of Baron de Longueuil, 
the most distinguished colonist under the French regime 
whilst it rendered tardy justice to colonial merit, has, 

in the army, where he distinguished himself, and died Gov- 
ernor of Montreal, 17th of January, 1729— he was the father 
of upwards of fifteen children. The third Baron of Longueuil 
was Charles Jacques Le Moyne, born at the Castle of Lon- 
gueuil, 26th July, 1724 5 he commanded the troops at the 
hattle of Monongahela, 9th July, 1755. He was also made 
Chevalier de St. Louis and Governor of Montreal, and died 
whilst serving under Baron Bieskau, as the Marquis of Vau- 
dreuil states in one of his dispatches, the 8th September, 
1755, at 31 years of age, the victim of Indian treachery on the 
border of Lake George. His widow was re-married by special 
license, at Montreal, on the 11th September, 1770, to the 
Hon. William Grant, Receiver-General of the Province of 
Canada ; there was no issue from this second marriage, and 
on the death of the third baron the barony reverted to his 
only daughter, Marie Charles Josephte Le Moyne de Longueuil, 
who assumed the title of baroness after the death of her 
mother, who expired on the 20th February, 1782. at the age 
of 85 years. She was married in Quebec, on the 7th May, 
1781, to Captain David Alexander Grant, of the 94th, by the 
Rev. D. Francis de Monmolin, chaplain to the forces. Capt. 
Grant was a^nephew of the Honorable William Grant ; his son 
the Honorable Charles William Grant, was fourth baron, 
a member of the Legislative Council of Canada, and seigneur 
of the barony of Longueuil. He assumed the title of 
Baron of Longueuil on the death of his mother, which 
event occurred on the 17th February, 1841. He married 
Miss N. Coffin, a daughter of Admiral Coffin, and died at his 
residence, Alwing House, at Kingston, 5th July, 1848, aged 
68. His remains were transferred for burial in his barony. 
The fifth baron who assumed the title married in 1849, a 
southern lady, and for a time resided at Alwing House, at 
Kingston. The house of Longueuil is connected by marriage 
with the Babys, De Beaujeus, LeMoines, De Montenach, Dela- 
naudidres, De Gasp^s, Delagorgendieres and several other old 
families in Canada. 

(Since these lines were written, a full History of Longueuil 
has been published in Montreal by Messrs ^\ex, Jodoin and 
J. L. Vincent, with a ground Plan of the Baron's Fort and 
Chateau, at Longueuil). 

— 100 — 

also had for effect to draw atteutioD, to a phase in our 
annals, at one time obscurely known : the resident 
french nobility. Although primitive Canada, carries 
on her escutcheon, many of the famous names of old 
France : Eichelieu, the Prince of Cond^, the marquis de 
la Eoche, the count of Soissons, le chevaher de Montma- 
gny, Laval, the marquis of Tracy, count La Galisson- 
niere, the marquis of Beauharnois, the marquis of 
Montcalm, Levi, several of these proud dignitaries, 
though watching over the cradle of the nascent colony, 
were never residents of New France. 

A memoir (1) of 16(*)7, attributed to Intendant Talon, 
mentions that the nobility " La Noblesse " counts but 
four old nobles, in the colony, adding that four other 
heads of families, were honored the year previous, by 
the French King, with Lettres de Noblesse — in addition 
to the nobles among army oflBcers, who had settled in 
Canada, the w^orthy Intendant, thinks this number 
insufl&cent to uphold the king's authority and suggests 
to the minister, that His Majesty should increase it by 
sending in blank, eight ^oyoX Patents of nobility ior 
eight of the most meritorious colonists, to be selected; 
such practice having taken place the year previous." 

In a subsequent memoir' (2), attributed to Intendant 
Hocquart, and apparently written about 1736 when 
the Marquis de Beauharnois was Governor and Hoc- 
quart Intendant, it is stated that " there were a few 
noble families in Canada, but that so many sons are 
born to them, that it produces a number of Oentils- 
hommes, younger sons, of gentle birth to be provided 

(1) Mimoire sur V6iai present du Canada, 1667. Documents 
publics en 1840, par la SocUii LiiUraire ei ffisioriqtie, 
Quebec, p. 5. 

(2) M^moire 8ur le Canada, d'apres un manuscrit, aux 
Archives de la Marine, a Paris, 1736, p. 2. — DocumeDt public 
par la Soci6t6 Liti^raire ei Eistorique, Quebec, 1840. 

— 101 — 

The memoir then quotes as follows, the names of 
these leading families : 

Families. Branches. 


" Lb Gardeur -{Courcelle, 

[TiUy de Beauvais. 

rDenys de la Ronde, 

Denys i De St. Simon, 



D'AiLLEBOUT -^^,T^^®*; 1 


{Des Mousseau. 

Cette famille est etablie 4 Boucher- 
ville, pres de Montreal. L'ain^ 
qui est ag6 de pres de quatre- 
vingt-dix ans, a plus de cent qua- 
tre-vingt-dix enfants, petits en- 
fants, frdres, neveux et petits 


La Valtrib I Tou tes ces families vie nnentdur6gi- 

St. OcRS ] ment de Carignan, envoy6 en 

Meloises I Canada en 1667. 

Tarrieu de la Peradb. \ 

LeMoyne -^ C'est la famille des Longueuil. 


Boucher (1). 


Hertel fCes deux families sont tres nom- 

OoDEPROY \ breuses." 

Damours ■! , 

The memoir among other matters suggests, that of 
reserving for the sons of the Canadian nobility commis- 

(1) The family of the venerable Governor of Three-Rivers, 
Pierre Boucher, has branched oflf into many septs and revives 
to this day, .in the (Boucher) de LaBruy^re, de Montizambert, 
de Niverville, de Montarville, de Grosbois and alii. 


— 102 — 

sions in the French navy " so as to draw closer to the 
mother-county, the Canadian nobles and the settlers. " 

A cursory glance at the above, " will show that with 
the exception of the LeMoyne, the St. Ours, the Bou- 
cher, the others named have well nigh disappeared, as 
notable families in Canada. The third Baron de Lon- 
gueuil, who was killed in the action at Ticonderoga, in 
1755, left one daughter, who succeeded him as Baro- 
ness de Longueuil in her own right. Her cousin as the 
male heir, brought an action claiming the title. The 
case was tried in Paris, and the High Court decided 
against him. This lady married Capt. Grant, of the 
94th Regiment, and the title descended through her to 
her son, grand-father of Charles Colmore Grant, the 
present Baron de Longueuil. 

In a reply to " Modern Society, " a London journal, 
who had asserted that " the title of Baron de Lon- 
gueuil possessed no legal existence " the Baron wrote : 

" Wlien my father died I determined that unless the title 
were officially acknowledged I would not use it. I therefore 
brought the matter before the Canadian Government, claim- 
ing the recognition of the title by Her Majesty. After a most 
searching investigation they decided that, according to the 
law of Canada, the title legally existed there, and that under 
the treaty by which Canada was ceded to England I was 
strictly within my right m claiming an official recognition of 
it. The claim was accordingly forwarded by the Canadian 
Government to the Colonial Office, who again subjected it to 
a strict investigation. After some delay, caused by questions 
which arose between the two (jovernments on international 
law as affecting the case, the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies submitted the question to Her Majesty in person, 
who was graciously pleased to give orders for the recognition 
to be at once accorded. It was gazetted, and I was presented 
at the next Levee by the Secretary of State for the Colonies (1) 
as upon the recognition of the title. The matter from the 
beginning was a strictly legal question, and was settled in a 

(1 ) " The Queen held a Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace 
on the 25th of February, 1881, when the following presenta- 
tations were made : Baroness de Ix)ngueuil, by the Countess of 
Kimberley, also Baron de Longueuil, of Longueuil, Province 

— 103 — 

fitrictly legal manner through the proper channel ; interest 
had nothing to do with it. I may add that the title is 
historic in Canada, and that the barony belongs to me now. " 

[From Quebec Morning Chronicle^ 30th December, 1880.] 


We are permitted to extract from a letter by yesterday's 
mail, to our fellow- townsman, J. M. LeMoine, from Charles 
Colmore Grant, Esq., of London, enclosing the following 
official excerp from the London Ofiicial Gazettt, resuscitating 
the most honored French title of the Province of Quebec. 

Extract from the <* London Gazette " of December 7th, 1880 : 

" Downing Street, December 4th, 1880. 

" The Queen has been graciously pleased to recognise the 
claim of Charles Colmoro Grant, Esq., to the title of Baron 
de Longueuil, of Longueuil, in the Province of Quebec, 

" This title was conferred upon his ancestor Charles Le 

of Quebec, Canada, (on recognition of the title) by the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies. " 

" Debrett's Peerage " for 1881 thus writes of" Canada's only 
Baron " : — The recent recognition by Her Majesty of a Cana- 
dian barony in an exceptional circumstance, and the gentle- 
man (Baron de Longueuil) whose title has been acknowledged 
holds the remarkable position of being the only subject of 
the Queen who is a colonial peer, and who at the same time 
has not any precedence. The feudal barony is entirely 
exceptional, and is the only Canadian hereditary title exist- 
ing. The patent of nobility signed by King Louis XIV, 
granting this title to Charles Le Moyne for distinguished 
services is remarkable as creating not only a territorial 
barony, but also conferring a title of honour on himself and 
his descendants, whether male or female. The cession of 
Canada to England by the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, made no 
change in the legal right to hold honors. Since this period 
each successive head of the family has, by assumption of right, 
used the title; but it was not officially recognized by the 
British Government until December 4th, 1880. 

— 104 — 

Moyne, by Letters Patent of Nobility, signed by King Loui& 
XIV, in the year 1700." 

" 18 South Park Lane, 

London, December, 1880. 
Dear Mr. Le Moyne, 

I write to tell you the news which I am sure will interest 
you : the Queen has recognised my claim to the title of my 
family. I enclose you a cutting from the Gazette^ giving the 
official recognition 

I need hardly say, that I feel very proud to have been the 
means of rescuing an old and honored name in the history 
of our country from oblivion and of showing the world, not 
only that in days gone-by Canada gave birth to men who left 
their mark upon the times in which they lived, but also that 
the Canada of to-day is not ashamed to honor their memory 
in the person of their descendants. For this result I have 
greatly to thank Sir John Macdonald and Lord Lome 

My thanks are also due to yourself for your kindness in 
assisting me with regard to the history of my family, and 1 
hope next spring to have the pleasure of seeing you again 
and conveying my thanks in person. 

With kind regards, believe me. 

Yours sincerely, 


J. M. Le Moyne, Esq., 

Spencer Grange, Quebec. 


One of those soft, bright September evenings, just as 
the lessening beams of the setting sun glinted over our 
church spires, and over the gilt vane of the new city 
gates, — Lord Dufferin's parting token of interest in the 
** Walled city of the North," I happened to be stand- 
ing on the lofty arch which spans St. Louis Gate, in com- 
pany with a trusty friend of the Ancient Capital, Wm. 
Kirby, F. R. S. C, the admired author of the "Golden 
Dog " novel, — that day, my honored guest, at Spencer 

Our gaze took in from end to end the suggestive 
panorama disclosed by this aristocratic thoroughfare. 
"Why not compare notes," said I, "on the men and 
incidents of the past, connected with the dwellings 
lining the street ? " 

As I proceeded, quoting history and naming the old 
and new residents, my esteemed friend, the Niagara 
poet and novelist, seemed as if inspired by this pensive, 
dreamy scene. How often since have I regretted not 
having prevailed on him to commit to paper his glowing 
thoughts ? 

— •* St. Louis Gate ! " said Kirby, — " I mean the old 
gate — why that takes one back more than two hundred 
years. One would like to know what King Louis XIII 
replied to his far-seeing Prime Minister, Cardinal de 
RieheUeu, when he reported to him that a crooked 
path in wood-crowned Stadacona, leading through the 
forest primeval, by a narrow clearance called la Orande 
AlUe, all the way to Sillery, was named Louis street; 
that he, Bichelieu, had ordered that his own name 

«-106 — 

should be given to another, forest-path near the Coteau 
Ste. Genevieve, now Richelieu street, and that it ran 
paralled to another uneven road, called after a pious 
French Duchess — d'Aiguillon street, whilst the street, 
laid out due north parallel to St. Louis street, took the 
name of the French Queen, the beautiful Anne of 
Austria. Did the royal master of Versailles realise then 
what a fabulous amount of Canadian history would be 
transacted on this rude avenue of his budding capital 
in New France?" "Suppose," said I to the poet, " we 
saunter down the street as far as Dufferin Terrace, 
refreshing our memory and feasting our eyes on the 
pageants and stimng events of yore — of which this 
street has been the arena ? " 

— " A sight which doubtless powerfully appealed to 
every British heart must have been the spectacle pre- 
sented at St. Louis Gate, on the afternoon after the 
suiTender of the keys of Quebec, by de Ramsay, to Bri- 
gadier General Townshend : the 18th September, 1759. 
Let us peer through the mist of years, and watch the 
measured tread of Wolfe's veterans. The three com- 
panies of Louisbourg Grenadiers and some light infantry, 
under the command of Lt. Col. Murray " preceded, " 
says Capt. Knox, their comrade in arms, " by fifty men 
of the Royal Artillery and one gun with lighted match, 
and with the British colours hoisted on its carriage, the 
Union flag being displayed on the citadel. " " Captain 
Paliser with a large body of seamen and inferior officers 
at the same time took possession of the low town, and 
hoisted colours on the summit of the declivity (Moun- 
tain Hill) leading from the high to the low town " 

Halt! says Murray to his victorious men, on reaching 
through the battered city, " the grand parade (the Ring) 
where the flag-gun will be left- fronting the Main guard. " 

Such says this contemporary historian, Capt. John 
Knox, of the 43rd, the mode of taking possession of 

— 107 — 

— " There, on your right, I added, is the steep, winding 
ascent to our famous Citadel, built on plans originated 
about 1756, by the celebrated engineer de Lery and 
submitted by the Royal Engineers, approved of by the 
Duke of Wellington, and constructed, 1821-32, at a 
cost of $25,000,000. Up to 169o, the French had not 
thought necessary to fortify Cape Diamond ; in 1694, 
St. Louis and St. John's gates were erected. In 1775, 
Capts. Gordon and Mann, E. E., had drafted a plan for 
a temporary Citadel. In 1779, it was begun by Capt. 
Twiss, R. E. In 1793, Capt. Fisher reported it had 
gone to decay and applied at head-quarters for plans to 
protect St. Louis and St. John's gates. 

Shortly after his arrival in Canada, Lord Dufferin 
selected this very airy post for his summer, holiday 
home after each Parliamentary recess. A noble terrace 
and ball-room were since added ; Princess Louise, one 
of Queen Victoria, daughter??, and her. consort of the 
lordly house of Argyle, occupy it at the present moment. 
Let us not intrude, at this late hour, on the privacy of 
these cultured city guests. Her R. H. may possibly, at 
this very instant, be engaged in painting, from the 
Prince's Feather Bastion, — a gorgeous Canadian sunset 
just as the sun god is giving his last kiss to the green 
groves of Levis and dropping an expiring ray on the 
chasm of placid waters 850 feet below, rushing their 
wavelets to the ocean, whilst Lord Lome is revolving 
in his own mind, the best means to secure long life and 
success to his pet creation, the Eoyal Society of Canada. 

Art and Literature, stalking hand in hand ; is this 
not a winsome sight for you and me, my dear poet ? " 

But to revert to our gi'im, casemated citadel, who 
now will indite the garrison chronicles of the hundred 
and one dashing British regiments, previously quartered 
there ? 

They too, had their days of scares and of dire alarms, 
in 1837-8, when those rank rel)els, the Chasseurs 

— 108 — 

CanadienSy (1) meditated mischief and were only, as 
they later on pretended, prevented by a bright moon, 
from creeping up, under the veil of night to surprise 
the sentries and take possession of the impregnable 
fortress, to which had been removed for safe-keeping, 
the specie of our Canadian Banks. If successful, 
according to some rabid tones of that period, les Anglais 
were all to be " shot, piked or hamstrung I " 

Life in the casemates and on the hog's back was not, 
however, always perilous, precarious, uncertain. Times 
were, when returning after the Saturday tandem drive, 
in winter, from Billy Button's noted rustic hqgtelry, at 
Lorette, the absorbing to])ic at mess, was a projected 
garrison ball on the citadel, or a moose or cariboo hunt 
on the Laurentian ridge, north of Quebec, or at Les 
Jardins, in rear of Baie St. Paul, under the guidance 
of Vincent, Gros Louis, Taliourenche or Tsioiii, the 
trusted Huron Nimrods of Indian Lorette. There were 
also for the jolly red coats and the city belles, days of 
tears or of joy, wlien the regiments on their removal to 
other garrisons, claimed or forgot to claim some of the 
Quebec or Montreal fair ones as their not unwilling 

As we liuiTy past, let us glance, at the gorge of the 
west bastion 'on the ascent, the spot, where rested 
from the 4th January, 1776, to the 16th June, 1818, 
the remains of Brigadier General Richard Mont- 

(1) To a stalwart old chasseur of 1837-8, J. P. Rheaume, I 
am indebted for the form of the oath taken. The candidate 
for initiation was admitted in a room, then blindfolded and 
made to kneel between two men, one of»whom held a pistol 
to his ear, the other pointing a poniard to his heart. The 
form of oath was then read. The candidate swore to keep 
secret the proceedings of the Pairiofes, in the approaching 
rising, consenting to have his throat cut if he failed. The 
bandage was then removed and the oath signed. 

(For further particulars, see p. 252-3 of " Picturesque 

— 109 — 

gomery, until their removal to St. Paul's Church, 
New York, at the request of Jane Livingstone, his 
sorrowing widow who had a suitable monument erected 
to his memory. Let us hai], as we pass the Garrison 
Club, founded on the 11th September, 1879, the shades 
of all those eminent Koyal Engineer officers, who, of 
yore, vied w4th one another in devising plans to n^ake 
our fortalice impregnable: Golher Mann,Twiss,Bruyferes, 
Dumford, Duberger, By, the founder of Bytown, now 
Ottawa. In this long, low building, for years the head- 
quarters of the Eoyal Engineers, the Quebec Garrison 
Club now holds forth ; (1) adjoining, enshrined in garden 
plots and shade trees, still stands the old Sewell manor. 

(1) The early histoiy of the R. E. office in Quebec is inter- 
woven not a little with our old system previous to Respon- 
sible Government, when the commanding officer of Royal 
Engineers was a most important personage, and second only 
in authority to the Governor-General himself, who was also 
a military officer and commander-in-chief. In those days, 
before the Crown Lands were vested in the Provincial Gov- 
ernment, the C. R. E. sat at the land-board, in order to retain 
reserves for the Crown, or for military purposes, and in other 
ways to advise the Governor-General in such matters j but 
unfortunately all the old and -interesting records of that 
period were removed with the head-quarters under Sir John 
Oldfield, R. E., to Montreal, in 1839 and destroyed bv the great 
tire in 1852. 

At a very early date after the conquest, the R. E. office was 
located in a wing of the Parliament House, near Prescott 
Gate, and also in the old Ch&teau St. Louis ; but upon the 
purchase of the present building, with the land attached, at 
the foot of the Citadel hill, from Archibald Ferguson, Esq., 
on the 5th July, 1819, removed thither, and there remained 
as the C. R. E. quarters until the withdrawal of the troops, a 
few years ago, in accordance with the change of policy in 
England, in regard to the Colonies, requiring Colonel Hamil- 
ton, R. E., the last Imperial Commandant of this garrison in 
1871, to hand it over to the care of the Canadian Militia, 
whose pride it ever will be to preserve and perpetuate the 
memories of the army of worthies and statesmen who have 
sat and worked within its walls." — (Morning Chronicle^ 
Christmas Supplemenij 1881.) 

— 110 — 

built by Chief Justice Jonathan Sewell, in 1804, where- 
this eminent jurist and ripe scholar closed his long and 
distinguished career, on the 12th November, 1839. The 
chronicles of his spacious, old mansion, now the quarters 
of the commandant of B Battery, would, alone> fill a 

At the corner of d'Auteuil and St. Louis streets, ou 
a lot owned, in 1791, by the Chief Justice's father-in- 
law, Hon. Wm. Smith, an eminent U. E. Loyalist and 
our Chief Justice in 1786, a double, modern residence 
now stands. It was occupied, in 1860, by our Governor- 
General, Lord Monck. Divided since, into two tene- 
ments, it is owned and tenanted by Judge G. N. Bosse 
and by Judge A. B. Kouthier, F.JK.S.C. At the next 
house, resided and died on the 17th December, 1847, 
the Hon. W. Smith, son of the Chief Justice and the 
author of Smith's History of Canada, the first volume 
of which was published at Quebec, in 1815. In 1812-3 
the American prisoners taken at Detroit, &c., occupied 
for a time this tenement. For years, it was the cosy 
. mansion of the late Sheriff AUeyn, and has been since 
fitted up and leased as the Union Club. 

We have just walked past a wide expanse of verdure, 
fringed with graceful maples and elms, sacred to mili- 
tary evolutions, the Esplanade, extending from St. 
Louis to St. John's Gate, facing the green slope, crowned 
by the city fortifications. On our left, you can notice a 
low, old rookery. One hundred years ago it sheltered a 
brave U. E. Loyalist family, the Coflins ; it was since 
purchased by the City Corporation. In this penurious, 
squeezed-up local, the Recorder daily holds his Court. 
Next to it, with a modem cut-stone front occurs our 
modest City Hall, acquired from the heirs Dunn, at 
present quite inadequate to municipal requirements. 
On one corner, opposite, dwells the Hon. P. Pelletier, 
Senator ; on the other, Sir H. L. Langevin, for years 
one of our leading statesmen. Within a stone's throw 
up St. Ursule street, still exists the massive, spacious 

— Ill — 

mansion of the late Sir James Stuart, Bart. This eminent 
jurist closed there his career in 1853. The house was 
afterward bought by his nephew, the late Judge of 
Yice-Admiralty, George Okill Stuart, who expired in 
it, in April, 1884. At the death of Judge Geo. Okill 
Stuart, this spacious homestead, was purchased in 1894 
by Mr. Wm. McPherson, son of Sir IJavid McPherson. 

One would imagine the street was predestined to be 
the head-quarters of our ermined sages, ever since the 
Court of La Sin4chuu886e sat about 1660, at the eastern 
end in a stately building, since removed. On, or near, 
the site now- stands the dwelling and study of James 
Dunbar, Q. 0. Let us try and name some of these 
eminent gentlemen of the long robe : Judges Lotbinifere, 
Mabane, Monk, Dunn, Elmsley, Sewell, Ren6 Edouard 
Caron, (subsequently a respected Lieutenant-Governor), 
Van Felson, Jos. N. Boss^, Tessier, Bonaventure Caron, 
Guillaume Pelletier, 6. Bosse, Routhier, Duval, Tasche- 
reau, Fiset, Maguire, La Rue, Cr^mazie, Chauveau. The 
sons of Esculapius, have of late invaded the locality, 
without, however, any perceptible increase in the death 
rate ! Some barristers have held out in that street for 
more than a half century. Sir N. F. Belleau occupies 
still the house he acquired in 1835. One land mark 
of our Republican neighbors will some day or other 
disappear, cooper Gqbert's little shop, where were laid 
out, on Sunday, 31st December, 1775, Richard Mont- 
gomery's stifiTened remains brought in from Pr^s-de- 
Ville. Two handsome new structures now replace the 
Montgomery house, indicated by an inscription. 

There stands solitary, half-lit up by the departing 
orb ofday,a roomy, old, not very ornate edifice, familiar 
to you. In rear is seen from the street the lofty, solid 
wall of historic Mount Carmel ; Judge Geo. J. Irvine's 
dainty floral walks, and some lith Lombardy poplars, 
occupy the place where of yore was erected Dupont de 
Neuville's wind-mill and cavalier. No trace now of 
the frowning, three-gun battery, in position in October, 

— 112 — 

1690, a portion of the city' defences against Admiral 

On this site, a deal of stimng and some social inci- 
dents of Canadian history were enacted. Here was the 
mansion, where on 4th February. 16(37, Judge L. 
Theantre Chartier de Lotbiniere, Lieutenant General of 
the French King, gave the first grand ball in New 
France, possibly, in North America. Watch the magni- 
ficent Marquis of Tracy, introducing to the distinguished 
host, his gorgeously, habited young guardsmen, sprigs 
of the French nobility ; he is followed by Governor de 
Courcelles, Intendant 'lalon and other dignitaries. 
Such a novelty as a grand ball — among la crSme de la 
cri'nie of society, at Quebec, did not pass unheeded ; a 
pious ecclesiastic wrote an account of it to France, 
expressing, hesitatingly, the hope " that no evil results 
might follow " ! 

Nearly a century later, stood here the head-quarters 
of Brigader-General James Murmy — the Commandant 
at Quebec. Old memoirs tell how rudely our first 
Governor's sleep was interrupted on the night of the 
26th April, 1760, by the oflBcer of the watch, admitting 
to his presence, the half-frozen French cannonier, whom 
Capt. McCartney, of the sloop-of-war " Eace Horse," 
had had rescued that night from the ice-floes carried 
by the tide past Quebec. British troopers conveyed 
him up Mountain Hill, to General Murray's oflticial 
head-qyarters on a " sailor's hammock" . The ill- 
fated sergeant before expiring had just, on swallow- 
ing cordials, i-ecovered enough strength to tell, defiantly 
one may suppose, the alarming tidings of the ar- 
rival of Levi's 12,000 men at St. Augustin, on their 
march to Quebec. Sleep did not revisit the astounded 
warrior that night. Orders weriB promptly issued for a 
large body of troops to go, at break of day, and gather in 
Murray's detachments at the outposts, at Sillery, Ste. 
Foye, Ancient Lorette, &c. 

— 113 — 

This was not, however, the only exciting experience 
the stern General was doomed to encounter, at Quebec. 
On the 9th May, 1760, writes Sergeant James Thomp- 
son one of Mun-ay's stalwart troopers, General Murray 
was startled by the news of the appearance round 
Pointe Levi, of a ship-of-war, the ** Leostoff," a fresh 
arrival from sea, " seen tacking across and across be- 
tween Pointe Levi and the opposite shore." Was she 
English or French ? As yet she had showed no colors. 
Was she a friend from the white cliffs of old England, or 
a foe from Brest or L'Orient ? Hope and relief or defeat 
and surrender ? 

The news he says, " electrified " the, who 
was at that moment •* in a meditative mood, sitting 
before the fire in the chimney place." All uncertainty 
ceased when the "Leostoff" hoisted the meteor flag of 
England, in response to the English colors, ordered by 
Murray to be displayed from the Citadel. The whole 
city gun3 roared out a salute ; on the 16th, the arrival 
in port of the " Vanguard " and the " Diana," other 
english frigates, meant that the old regime was closed 
for ever. 

The French legions, expecting an immediate attack 
on their trenches, took to flight, leaving their breakfast 
still cooking in camp. 

This solid edifice, the bright home of Judge Elmsley 
at the dawn of the century, was subsequently acquired 
by the Ordance Department, as an officers barracks for 
one of the regiments of British troops stationed at 
Quebec, and has remained ever since as quarters to the 
Dominion staff of officers. 

A pkn of Quebec, dated 20th May, 1756, signed by 
Land Surveyor LeMaistre-Lamorille, and contersigned 
by Intendant Bigot, assigns M. P(5ftn, as proprietor of 
lot No. 17, on the plan in rear of the " Officers' Quar- 
ters " and opening up on St. Genevieve street, whilst 
M. de Meloises appears to have owned lot No. 30 to 
the east, comprising also a mill on Mont Carmel (de 

— 114 — 

Keuville's Mill of 1690,) and also the lot where the 
Ofi&cers' Quarters now stand. 

In the dwelling existing there, prior to 1800, accord- 
ing to M. de Gasp4 originated the fire, which burned 
down the Jesuit's Church and Convent, on the 6th 
September, 1796. The site is now partly occupied by 
the Anglican Cathedral, erected 1800-4. A blazing 
shingle carried from St. Louis street, by a violent west 
wind, set fire to the roof of the RecoUet Church. M. de 
Gaspd, a spectator, has left a most graphic account of 
the conflagration. — (Memoirs of P. A. De Gasp^.) 

Colonel Forrest, who has had access to the title deeds 
of the ancient mansion, writes thus : — 

" Quebec, 15th April, 1891. 

J. M. LeMoinb, Esq., Quebec. 

Dear Sir, — In reply to your note of 14th instant, I 
beg to say that I am anxious myself to learn the truth, 
regarding this old building. I have gathered some 
scraps of information which though disconnected, I 
shall now furnish in the hope that they may be useful 
to you in supplying some missing link in your interest- 
ing notes on St. Louis street. 

officers' quarters. 

The property in question served as ofl&cers' quarters 
to the regiments assigned to the old Jesuits barracks 
during the many years that British troops were stationed 
in Quebec, the officers occupying the present building. 

The grounds are 132 feet broad, fronting on St. Louis 
stieet, 135 feet on Ste. Genevieve street, with a depth 
of 401 feet. This property is said to have belonged to 
the Ladies of the H6telDieu, who conceded it to Jeaa 
B. Morin, Sieur Rochebelle, on 19th October, 1670. 

— 115 — 

Then follows a long interval, which to me is a blank,, 
as I know nothing of the vicissitudes through which 
this property passed, until it came in the possession of 
the Intendant Bigot, or rather of his favorite, Madame 
Ang^lique de P^n ; nor can I find out who occupied, 
it between the years 1759 and 1796; when this build- 
ing was, on 6th September, 1796, burnt down. 

On 3rd January, 1803. (There seems to be a misprint 
in these figures. Mrs. Elmsley became a widow only 
on 29th April, 1805, when her late husband, the Hon. 
John Elmsley, Chief Justice and President of the 
Legislative Council and member of the Executive 
Council, expired at Montreal much regretted. Quebec 
Mercury of 4th May, 1805), Mrs. Widow Elmsley 
acquired this property from Hon. James Monk, and on 
the 5th April, 1811 ; she sold it by her procurator, Hon. 
John Hale, to Deputy Commissary-General Edward 
Couch, representing the English Government. It con- 
sisted of the grounds already described, a two story 
stone building, fronting on St. Louis street, together 
with a stable and coach-house in rear. 

The following year, 1812„Lt.-Col. Sheaf, R. E., acting 
under instructions from England, built on the south 
west corner of the property the " Garrison Hospital," 
(until lately occupied as the District Court House, since 
the conflagration of the latter on 1st February, 1871,) 
for the use of the troops quartered in Quebec, and 
especially for that of the 44th Regiment, then stationed 
here, lie stable and coach-house were subsequently 
replaced by the two small buildings used respectively 
as ofl&ces for the Quarter-Master General and for the 

The main building was, as you know, occupied by 
the British Regiments as "officers' quarters" until 
1871, and on the following May, I was placed in charge 
of it and have occupied quarters there ever since ; and 
yet, neither the beautiful Ang^lique, nor the terrible 
La Corriveau have ever come back to inform us whether,. 

— 116 — 

it is indeed the veritable building, in which they together 
plotted their nefarious schemes, or whether the real 
Bigot Mansion was totally consumed by the fire of 1796, 
and the present building altogether another and different 
one, although built upon the same spot and sprung, 
Phoenix-like, from the same as his. " 

Ever yours truly, 

W. H. Forrest. 

Col. Forrest's letter, among other valuable informa- 
tion, furnishes a clew, to the oft' debated origin of the 
old Military Hospital, where judges, jury and lawyers 
have had to do penance for nearly twenty years — 
sweltering during the dog-days amidst- the tainted 
atmosphere of those dark hospital walls— reeking with 
the fever microbes and bacilli of 60 summers. It was 
indeed, a relief, to remove to the new Court House ! 

I was here interrupted by my genial friend. You 
have omitted one not unimportant episode. Here also, 
added Mr. Kirby, lived and flourished the beautiful 
Ang^lique de Meloises, Madame Hughes P^an, Inten- 
dant Bigot's charmer. In the rosy days of my youth 
and romance, when Quebec appeared to me like a poem, 
I described it as follows : " The family mansion of the 
des Meloises was a tall and rather pretentions edifice, 
overlooking the fashionable Eue Saint Louis, where it 
still stands, old and melancholy, as if mourning over 
its departed splendors. Few eyes look up nowadays to 
its broad facade. It was otherwise when the beautiful 
Angdlique sat of summer evenings on the balcony, sur- 
rounded by a bevy of Quebec's fairest daughters, who 
loved to haunt her windows, where they could see and 

— 117 — 

be seen to the best advantage, exchanging salutations, 
smiles and repaxtees with the gay young officers and 
gallants who rode or walked along the lively thorough- 

— " Enough 1 Enough ! Poet, my friend. These were 
festive times, but was there aught in them to make us 
proud ? " (1) 

Now my dear friend, we are getting near to sacred 
ground. Shall I say " Sta, viator, heroem calcas ! " for, 
a hero expired here ; I do verily believe. 

Tarry with me one moment, within the lobby of this 
long, narrow, high-peaked, antique, French tenement 
facing Parloir street. Doubtless its active present pro- 
prietor, Mr. P. Campbell, livery stable keeper, will ere 
long replace it, alas ! with some modern structure more 
suitable to his calling. (He has done so). 

With due deference to the opinions of others, 
methinks this was in September, 1759, the surgery of ^ 
Dr. Amoux, Jr., where Montcalm was brought wounded 
from the Plains of Abraham, through St. Louis Gate 
and where the illustrious patient had his wounds, 
attended to. (2) 

(1) It sometimes happened, says Col. Cookbum, R. A., in 
those days, when a gentleman possessed a very handsome 
wife, that the husband was sent to take charge of a distant 
post, where he was sure to make his fortune. Bigot's chh'e 

amie, was a handsome Madame P , in consequence of 

which as a matter of course, Mr. P. became prodigiously 
wealthy. Bigot had a house that stood where the Officers 
Barracks, in St. Louis street now stands ; one New Year's Day, 

he presented this house to Madame P , as a New Year's 

gift ] such was the magnificence of this gentleman." 

{Quebec and its Environs in 1831). 

(2) At 8 p. m., on the 14th, his mortal remains, in a rude 
coffin, were laid in the hole, within the Ursuline Chapel — 
which a shell from the English fleet had made. We notice, 
as we pass, the entrance to the hoary old Monastery alive 
with memories of eld. 

*' A curious pictorial plan or map of the original Convent 

— 118 — 

— " On what grounds, enquired Mr. Elirby, do you 
settle on this spot, as the locality where expired the 
hero ? No one yet has cleared up this debated point." 

Captain John Knox, a contemporary, appears to me 
quite astray, in his account of the event; even Frs. 
Parkman and subsequent historians, have failed to solve 
the problem. 

— " Well, I replied, the disquisition would involve 
much more space than this sketch could afford." 

I challenged investigation, in a French essay, in 
1871, in V Album du TourisU ; I repeated the challenge 
in an English review, in 1890, the Canadian Anti- 
quarian, of Montreal, but no one, so far has picked up 
the glove. 

What a sorrowful sight, this artistocratic thorough- 
fare must have disclosed, about noon, on the 13th 
September, 1759, when Wolfe's intrepid rival, with face 
bronzed by Italian and Canadian suns, was returning 

is still in existence. In this St. Lewis street appears merely a 
broad road between the original forest street, and is called 
'< La Grande Allee/' without a building immediately on either 

" At a little distance to the north of " La Grande A116e," is 
a narrow path called ' le Petit Chemin,' running parallel, and 
leading into the forest. The house of Mde de la Feltrie, the 
founder of the Convent, is described as occupying, in 1642, 
the corner of Garden street. The Ursuline Convent stood at 
the north west of Mde de la Peltrie's house, abutting on " Le 
Petit Chemin,^' which ran parallel to St. Louis street, and 
fronting towards Garden street. It is represented as being a 
well proportioned and substantial building, two stories high, 
with an attic, four chimneys, and a cupola or belfry in the 
centre. The number of windows in front was eleven. In other 
compartments of this interesting map, are seen La Mire de 
riucamation instructing the young Indian girls, under an 
amcient oak tree, and other nuns proceeding to visit the 
savages. In La Grande Allee, the present St. Louis Street, we 
see Mr. Baillebout the Governor on horseback, and Mde. de 
la Peltrie entering her house, &o, 

<< This plan is probably the most ancient, as it is the mos 
interesting representation extant of any portion of Quebec* 

— 119 — 

from his last battle-field, supported by two grenadiers, 
on his black charger, and courteously greeting, but with 
down cast countenance, some poor women, horrified at 
his appearance, and telling them that he wai^ not 
seriously hurt and not to weep for him ! 

Varied indeed are the incidents and spectacles 
recalled by this historic street. 

At the comer opposite to this spot lived Abb<5 Vignal, 
previous to his joining the Sulpiciens, in Montreal. In 
October, 1661, he was captured by the Iroquois, at La 
Prairie de la Magdeleine, near Montreal, roasted alive 
and partly eaten by these fiends incarnate. 

On a cold, blustery Sunday morning, in December, 
1775, the peaceable denizens of St. Louis street, were 
startled from their sleep at 5 a. m., by the loud voice 
of the officer on duty, Capt. Fraser, rushing down the 
street, towards the main guard at the Recollets, exclaim- 
ing at beat of drum " To arms ! To arms ! ! ** The 
solitary sentry making his rounds on the St. John 
bastion, in the gathering storm, had reported an armed 
body of men, as if marching to etssault the city gates. 
It was the feint entrusted to Col. Livingstone, while 
the Commander-in-Chief, Eichard Montgomery, and his 
intrepid lieutenant, Col. Benedict Arnold, were marching 
under cover of night intending to meet him at the foot 
of Mountain Hill which they were to ascend and storm 
Quebec. — Sed Diis aliter visum ! 

Facing Garden street we shall meet the Academy of 
Music and next to it, the St Louis Hotel. 

On, on we go, past the imposing new Court House, 
completed on the site of the former one, dating back to 
1814 and destroyed by fire 1st February, 18/1. 

In this neighborhood also, in 1764, Brown and Gil- 
more printed, twenty-four years before the London 
Times, the first number of the Quebec Gazette " two 
doors higher than the Secretary's office " wherever the 
latter may have been. The venerable sheet died of old 

— 120 — 

age 110 years later, in 1874, merged into the Quebec 
Morning Chronicle, 

There still stands on the east corner of Haldimand 
and St. Louis streets, the spacious, modernized old 
Kent House, the winter-quarters, 1791-94, of H. R. H. 
Prince Edward, Queen Victoria's father, the colonel of 
the 7th Fusiliers, at that time in garrison at Quebec. 

The Quebec Gazette of the 4th March, 1794, adver- 
tises the mansion as '' Miss Mabane's elegant house. 
No. 6 Port St. Louis street " ; it was then occupied by 
the Lord Bishop Mountain, the first Anglican Bishop. 

Next to it, is the high peaked, antique Commissariat 
Building, purchased in the early part of the century, 
from old Peter Brehaut — fitted out with solid iron 
shutters, by the Imperial Government for the safe 
keeping, before the era of banks and police in Quebec, 
of the specie paid out to the troops and army con- 
tractors. At the departure of the Commissariat Staff, 
in 1871, it was put in thorough repair by the Dominion 
Government, and is now used as the Militia Bureau 
and residence of the D. A. G., Lt.-Col. T. J. Duchesnay, 
Commanding 7th Military District, and President of 
the Quebec Garrison Club. 

Now we have reached the east end of St. Louis street, 
where it is intersected by Des Carriferes street, leading 
to the Cape. I can scarcely forbear telling you of a 
sight I witnessed here in the troublous days of 1837-8. 
Geneml Theller and Colonel Dodge, the Yankee sym- 
pathizers, had escaped the night previous from their 
cells on the Citadel, by drugging with laudanum in 
porter the British sentries on their beat ; it was estab- 
lished that they had then let themselves down from 
the Bastion by using the flagstaff haUards. All Quebec 
was on the alert. The Commandant of the garrison, 
Sir James Macdonald, an old Waterloo veteran, had 
worked himself into a white heat, when he heard of the 
escape of the American prisoners. The sentries were 

— 121 — 

doubled at the city gates ; no vehicles allowed to leave, 
except after undergoing a searching investigation. 

I can re-call the bakers' carts and other vehicles 
filing down St. Louis street to Prescott Gate ; and 
fancy I can yet hear the profane language uttered by 
the Jehus on being challenged and stopped by the 
sentries. Few then were aware of the mode of escape 
of the distressed warriors ; the captives had been con- 
cealed by those rank rebels, the " Chaaseurs Canadiens, 
a secret and daring club, each member bound by a 
terrible oath to promote the rising of the patriotes.'^ 
The Ora/nde Place (or Ring) to the east of the Court 
House for two centuries or more played an important 
part in city pageants, public meetings, military parades. 
Until the year of the castle's destruction by fire, in 
1834, the Tandem and Driving Clubs in winter used 
to meet there and the first drive each fall, presided over 
by the English Governor, occupying the adjoining cha- 
teau, was a memorable one. The Ring was planted with 
shade trees by the Mayor of Quebec, Thomas Pope, 
Esq., in 1862 ; recently, it has been provided with a 
fountain and a jet d'eau. 

On the site adjoining the residence of James Dunbar, 
Esq., Q. C, No. 1 St Louis street, one would now seek 
in vain for any vestige of the Palais or S6n4chau884e 
of 1664, where sat the Sovereign Council. In 1665 it 
was allotted as the residence of the proud Marquis of 
Tracy, on his arrival from France. Francis Parkman will 
acquaint us with this great dignitary of the ancien 
rSgi/me : — 

" When Tracy set sail he found no lack of followers. 
A throng of young nobles embarked with him, eager to 
explore the marvels and mysteries of the western world. 
The King gave him two hundred soldiers of the regi- 
ment of Carignan-Sali^res, and promised that a thousand 
more should follow. On the thirtieth of June, 1665, he 
anchored in the basin of Quebec. The broad, white 
standard, blazoned with the arms of France, proclaimed 

— 122 — 

the representative of royalty, and Pointe Levi and Cape 
Diamond and the distant Cape Tourmente roared back 
the sound of saluting cannon. All Quebec was on the 
ramparts or at the landing-place, and all eyes were 
strained at the two vessels as they slowly emptied 
their crowded decks into the boats alongside. The boats 
at length drew near, and the lieutenant-general and his 
suite iknded on the quay with a pomp such as Quebec 
had never seen before. 

" Tracy was a veteran of sixty- two years, portly and 
tall, * one of the largest men I ever saw,* writes Mother 

" The Chevalier de Chaumont walked by his side, 
and young nobles surrounded him, gorgeous in lace and 
ribbons and majestic in leonine wigs. Twenty-four 
guards in the King's livery led the way, followed by four 
pages and six valets ; and thus while the Frenchmen 
shouted and the Indians stared, the august procession 
threaded the streets of the Lower Town, and climbed 
the steep pathway that scaled the cliffs above. Breathing 
hard, they reached the top, passed on the left the dila- 
pidated walls of the fort and the shed of mingled wood 
and masonry which then bore the name of the castle of 
St. Louis, passed on the right the old house of Couil- 
lard and the site of LavaFs new seminary, and soon 
reached the square between the Jesuit College aud the 
Cathedral. The bells were ringing in a frenzy of wel- 
come. Laval in pontificals, surrounded by priests and 
Jesuits, stood waiting to receive the Deputy of the 
King ; and as he greeted Tracy and offered him the 
holy water he looked with anxious curiosity to see 
what manner of man he was." 

Let me, in closing, point out the vanished splendor 
of the historic pile, which cost both France and England 
fabulous sums, from 1620 to 1834, to keep it in repair. 
How many proud French Viceroys held here their quasi- 
regal court, to impress the surrounding savage tribes, 
with the idea of French power ? How many distinguished 

— 123 — 

Englisli noblemen succeeded them ? Champlain,de Mont- 
magny, d'Aillebout, de Lauzon, d'Argenson, d'Avau- 
gour, de Mesy, de Courcelles, de Vaudreuil, de la Galis- 
Bonnifere, de Eamezay, de Beauhamois, de Longueuil, 
de la Jonquifere, Duquesne ; General Jas. Murray, Sir 
Guy Carleton, Sir Fred. Haldimand, Lord Dorchester, 
General Prescott, Sir J. H. Craig, Sir George Prevost, 
Sir J. Coap Sherbrooke, the Duke of Richmond, the Earl 
of Dalhousie, Sir James Kempt, the Earl of Aylmer. 

I am sure, my dear poet, you must have seen much 
in the antique chateau which the historian Parkman 
failed to discover. 

Professor Pierre Kalm described it in 1749 as follows : 
— " The Palace is situated on the west or steepest side 
of the mountain, just above the lower city. It is not 
properly a palace, but a large building of stone two 
stories high, extending north and south. On the west 
side of it is a court-yard, surrounded partly with a wall, 
and partly with houses. On the east side, or towards 
tho river, is a gallery as long as the whole building, 
and about two fathoms broad, paved with smooth flags, 
and included on the outside by iron rails, from whence 
the city and river exhibit a charming prospect. This 
gallery serves as a very agreeable walk after dinner, and 
those who come to speak w^ith the Governor-General 
■wait here till he is at leisure. 

" The palace is the lodging of the Governor-General 
of Canada, and a number of soldiers mount the guard 
before it, both at the gate and at the court-yard ; and 
'when the Grovernor or the Bishop comes in or goes out, 
they must all appear in arms and beat the drum. The 
Governor-General has his own chapel, where he hears 
prayers ; however, he often goes to mass at the church 
of the RecoUets, which is very near the palace." 

— Ton, Mr. Kirby, have found the secret of surround- 
ing the historic pile, where so much of Canadian history 
was transacted, with a rare glamour of romance. 

Let me quote your own words : " The great hall of the 

— 124 — 

Castle of St Louis was palatial in its dimensions and 
adornment. The panels of wainscotting upon the walls 
were hung with paintings of historic interest, portraits 
of the Kings, Governors, Intendants and Ministers of 
State, who had been instrumental in the colonization of 
New France. 

" Over the Governor's seat hung a gorgeous escut- 
cheon of the Royal arms, draped with a cluster of white 
flags, sprinkled with golden lilies, — the emblems of 
French Sovereignty in the colony. Among the portraits 
on the walls, beside those of the late (Louis XIV) and 
present King (Louis XV), which hung on each side of 
the throne, might be seen the features of Eichelieu, who 
first organized the rude settlements on the St. Lawrence 
in a body politic, a reflex of feudal France ; and of 
Colbert, who made available its natural wealth and 
resources, by peopling it with the best scions of the 
Mother Land, — the noblesse and peasantry of Nor- 
mandy, Brittany and Aquitaine. There, too, might be 
seen the keen, bold features of Cartier, the first disco- 
verer, and of Ghamplain, the first explorer of the new 
land, and the founder of Quebec. The gallant, restless 
Louis Buade de Frontenac, was pictured there, side by 
side with his fair countess, called by reason of her sur- 
passing loveliness * The Divine.' Vaudreuil, too, who 
spent a long life of devotion to his country, and Beau- 
harnois, who nourished its young strength until it was 
able to resist not only the powerful confederacy of the 
Five Nations, but the still more powerful league of 
New England and the other English colonies. There, 
also, were seen the sharp, intellectual face of Laval, 
its first Bishop who organized the Church and educa- 
tion in the colony : and of Talon, wisest of Inten- 
dants, who devoted himself to the improvement of 
agriculture, the increase of trade, and the well-being of 
all the King's subjects in New France. And one more 
portrait was there, worthy to rank among the statesmen 
and rulers of New France, — the pale, calm, intellectual 

— 125 — 

features of M6re Marie de rincamation, — the first 
Superioress of the Ursulines of Quebec, who in obe- 
dience to heavenly visions, as she believed, left France 
to found schools for the children of the new colonists, 
and who taught her own womanly graces to her own 
sex, who were destined to become the future mothers 
of New France." 

— " Well said," my eloquent friend ! I chimed in. You 
seem to have left little to add anent the whilhom splendor 
of the old Chateau St. Louis. One thing yet remains to 
complete the ornamentation of the historic site on which 
it stood : A Monument to the immortal founder of 
Quebec ; worthy of Champlain, worthy of Quebec. To 
me it is a dream of my youth. May we both be spared 
to see it ! " 

Spencer Grange, 

Christmas Eve, 1890. 


To the Editor of Canada, 

Benton, New Brunswick. 
Dear Sir, 

I have pleasure in tendering the following for publica^ 
tion. It is the English version of a dry-as-dust docu- 
ment which an esteemed fiiend, now deceased, the 
late Henri Duchesnay, Esq., M. P., for Beauce county, 
P. Q., allowed me to transcribe from the volimiinous 
French correspondence inherited by him from his sturdy 
ancestors, the Duchesnays, seigniors of Beauport^ oppo- 
site Quebec. 

Among the old noblesse of primitive Canada, few 
rank higher than the warUke Juchereau Duchesnays — 
now represented, at Quebec, by the athletic and worthy 
Brigade-Major and Deputy-Adjutant General, Lt.-CoL 
Theodore Duchesnay, and the numerous and highly 
respected clan of the Taschereau, of Beauce, P. Q., 
from which sprang our present archbishop. Cardinal 

J. M. L. 

Quebec, December, 1891. 



Quebec, 1759. 
Beine Marie Duchesnat to Hermine Taschereau. 

My Dear Mine. — You doubtless are wondering why 
I did not write sooner to you. I have enjoyed my 
holidays very much, though not exactly as M^re St. 

— 127 — 

George would approve of; the fact is the town has been 
uncommonly gay. Our Intendant (Bigot), the young 
men say, is a galant hoTiime, My mother, with a sneer, 
says he is nn peu trop galant, and that she would 
rather cut our heads off, than that we should ever 
darken the doors of his glittering palace, for such, 
really he has made the Intendance. 

There seems no hurry for school girls attending balls, 

either at the Intendance or at the Chdteau St-Louis ; 

though a young French Lieutenant I was introduced to, 

last week, told me he thought it an abominable shame 

that grown up ladies, like Clementine and myself, 

should be debarred the pleasures of la bonne 8oci4U^ 

even if we should be younger than our appearance indi-. 

cates; for you must know that I am quite as tall as my 

mother, though only fourteen years of age. Much of 

my time, this summer, has been taken up with showing 

round that handsome English Captain (1), who saved 

my good father's life just as the Indians were going to 

scalp him. This captain, as you know, is a prisoner on 

parole, and has had every liberty to wander about 

Quebec and the vicinity. Not only is he handsome, he 

is young and witty ; his repartees would grace a Paris 

salon, — his daring and courage manifest themselves in 

his very foot-steps. He is full of prevenances for the 

ladies, accompanies my mother on the streets, dines 

occasionally with my father. 

(1) Major Robert Stobo, after three unsuccessful attempts 
succeeded in escaping from his prison in Quebec, in May^ 
1759. He was a hostage taken at Fort Duquesne in 1755, and 
brought to Quebec, — where he was to be tried as a spy. He 
was commander of a Virginia corps. He joined Wolf's fleet 
at Louisburg, returned with him to Quebec, and is credited 
with having shown him the spot where to land and assault 
the city. Evidently our charming young friend was not proof 
against the fascinations of the brave, but unscrupulous, Vir- 
ginia captain. A full account of his adventurous career,, 
appears in Maple Leaves, 1873. 

— 128 — 

But of late my poor father, and it grieves him much, 
seems to mistrust the gay captain, whose only fault 
appears to be too great a curiosity to learn everything 
concerning the doings of our Government in Paris and 
in Quebec. His inquisitiveness at times certainly sur- 
prises all hands, and he is, when alone, constantly wri- 
ting ; some say he is gathering secret information, for 
his friends in Virginia; others, actually go so far as to 
say he is preparing a plan of Quebec and the fortifica- 
tions ; with what object I cannot see. Our gmtitude 
towards the saviour of our father is, of course, as it 
ought to be, boundless. I speak unreservedly. I 
would not wish you to think for a moment that I could 
cherish for Captain Stobo any other feeling than that of 
esteem and gratitude. 

For all that his tournure^ conversation and looks are 
such, that many a girl would select him as un h^ros de 
roman. Major P^au, as you know, is often away, and 
his lovely wife, forgetting the early piety instilled in 
her at the Ursulines Convent as far back as 1735, gets 
herself much talked about. Her wondrous beauty, her 
accomplishments, her sweetness of manner, are calcu- 
lated to create envy in this little world of ours ; and I 
think there is no foundation for these slanders. As just 
stated, I do not yet form part of the grand Tnonde, 
and do not know all that is going on. One thing I am 
sure of, one portion of the society is all that it ought to 
be ; I mean the ladies and the gentleman, my father 
and mother associate with. We go to-morrow to sup 
with Monsieur Jean Tach^, an eminent merchant who 
has a pretty country-seat on the south side of the Ste. 
Foye road — the same who was, as you remember, 
charged with a diplomatic mission to the court four 
years ago, to plead the cause of the colony with the 
King's ministers. Bigot and his gay entourage are 
not likely to be there. Your turretted old manor of Ste. 
Marie (Beauce) cannot be very gay, though your lively 
cousins, the LaGorgendiferes, are a host in themselves. 

— 129 — 

Do you still adhere to your former idea of keeping a 
diary of what may happen to you daily ; if so, please 
copy into it my epistle and your answer, and when I 
go up to Beauce next summer we shall read over our 
letters, and ascertain the changes which have happened 
since the date on which the letters were written. I long 
to meet you in that noble avenue of waving elms, on 
the sounding banks of the river Chaudierfi. Cannot you 
sketch for me that dear old feudal dungeon of yours, 
elms and all, and make interest with the good old ourS 
of the parish to take it to us in Quebec, as you have 
no post, nor postmen, yet ! 

A singular feeling, a craving for something, has come 
over me this summer. My harp and my drawing have 
ceased to please ; I could (previously) practice for hours. 
Lieutenant Stevenson of the Rangers, to whom I com- 
plained, jestingly, said he could think of nothing so 
likely as love at my age, and that if Capt. Stobo were 
not so much my senior in years, he would swear the 
captain was for much in the case. Stevenson is not a 
bad fellow by-the-by, only I wish he would not be 
incessantly joking at my expense. My pious mother 
says that there is only one fault to be found with 
Stevenson : he is a heretic; She seems determined 
to bring him over to the true faith." 


From my French Prison, Quebec, 

Christmas Day, 1755. 

Dear George, — " Is not mine a glorious finale — for 
me, your trusty and well beloved compagnon d'armes : 
don't be surprised at my getting to learn French. I am 
now prisonnier de guerre. Here is your dashing leader 


— 130 — 

of a Virginia company, condemned to a regime of bread 
and water, instead of Madeira punch, prairie chicken 
and quail, as of yore. My luxurious campaigning seems 
now like the dreamy shadow of pleasures past, though 
not forgotten. In this lonesome French dungeon shall 
a descendant of Montrose give away to despair ? Never, 
never ! Ah ! sweet hours- of my childhood, ye are indeed 
far away. Dear old Glasgow, the Elysium of my youth, 
dare I recall thy cherished memories ? On the eve of 
closing my career, I can well retrace how it began. 
When a roving school-boy, I was playing the soldier, 
mustering and drilling my noisy squad of schoolmates, 
little did I then dream what life's realities had in store 
forme! And you, my dear old relative, who taught 
me so early to live and die like a man, let me waft you 
my blessing across the broad Atlantic. John Mitchell, 
my sire, my early friend, I shall not die unworthy of 
you. I thank you for having nerved my arm and inspired 
my young heart with your thrilling stories of Bruce 
and Wallace, always closing your gentle advice with a 
request that I should remember that I was a descen- 
dant of James Graham, the great Earl of Montrase. 

Yes, George, I shall never forget my grandfather's 
parting words, when I left Scotland for my adoptive 
country — for America. " Bob," said he, " my boy, watch 
the grand, the stern features in that picture on the 
wall ; see the eye following you ! Do you know what 
that great man lived for ? He lived for his country ; he 
left an undying fame as a soldier. Be worthy of him ! 
His name was Montrose ; some of his blood courses in 
your veins.*' I have no hesitation, my dear George, in 
this solemn moment to recall to you these family 
memories — ^to you, whose life has ever been inspired by 
similar sentiments. This is Christmas day, George* 
Twenty-one such days have revolved for you — twenty- 
eight, forme. We have both seen death on the battle- 
field, and Indian warfare has more that once added to 
it additional horrors, but neither you nor I ever shrank 

— 131 — 

from it, at the call of duty. You were the wise leader, 
the dutiful son, the truthful man, and I the rash cava- 
lier, maddened with success, intoxicated by the praise 
of my fellow-men, bestowed more on my good looks 
and good dinners, than on my virtues. I am, however, 
prepared to seal my opinions with my blood, if the 
enemies of my country wish it, — but enough of this 

If this should be my last letter, let it contain for my 
friends a record of what has occurred to me since that 
unlucky stroke of fate which has landed me where I 
am. Let me hope this letter will involve me in less 
trouble than my epistle of July 28th last, in which I 
enclosed the plan of Fort Duquesne. Poor Braddock 1 
that fatal day, which brought him defeat and death, will 
also, seemingly, bring me to the block. Doubtless he 
thought my letter and plan safe in his custody, but the 
savages plucked the damning record from amongst his 
baggage. Therefore, I am, I am told, to grace a gibbet 
on the highest pinnacle of Cape Diamond. My French 
jailors load me with every opprobrious epithet. I have 
ceased in their eyes to be a hostage, as such inviolate 
in person by the law of nations ; and if England has 
really disavowed the terms of the capitulation of the 
Fort, was I still to consider myself a hostage for the due 
execution of these terms ? was I not then an ordinary 
prisoner of war, as such not precluded from aiding my 
country by communicating information about the enemy, 
even should 1 forfeit my life by so doing ? But 
enough on this point ; if ever we should meet on this 
side of Styx, of which, I confess, the chances seem faint 
at present, we will discuss this knotty point of the 
usages of war and the duties of a paroled prisoner. 
There are some incidents personal to myself at the 
taking of the fort, which I did not impart to you. 
For surrendering, we had excellent reasons. Those 
Tiine hours we stood exposed to the galling fire of the 
French and their murderous allies^ the Indians, will 


— 132 — 

never be forgotten by any of those who survived. We 
could not hold out any longer ; what would have availed 
us firing at foes carefully entrenched behind trees ? No 
relief at hand, our palisades crumbling and defective, 
it would have been an act of inhumanity to sacrifice 
the lives of any more of our devoted Virginians. That 
merry fellow, Munro, my ensign, I shall never forget 
his rueful countenance when I conveyed to him your 
order to hoist the white flag. " What, Captain ! " said 
he, " are we then reduced to this, you and I, who so 
lately organised this pleasure-party to thrash the 
French ? Why, our good cheer was the envy of all ! 
our venison, quail and comfits, with a full team behind 
to draw the King's ammunition, viz. a butt of Madeira, 
and crowds of camp followers. " Captain, captain, I shall 
never survive it ! " But he did survive it. He w^as 
luckier than my poor lieutenant, to whom, on becoming 
a hostage, I surrendered my then useless sword. My 
dear George, did you not know my buoyant, mercurial 
nature, you would wonder how I could find space to 
record all these trifles, with death staring me in the 
face ; but death has stared me in the face before this, 
and I generally succeed in staring the unwelcome 
monster out of countenance. You, no doubt, will be 
surprised to hear that the athletic French officer, Pean's 
friend, whom I purchased for forty pistoles from the 
Mohawks, just as they were preparing to scalp him, 
has turned up in Quebec. Whflst I was here on parole^ 
I used to meet him in the best salons, at Vaudreuil's, 
and at the petits-soupers of that charming little rascal. 
Bigot. His name is Duchesnay : he is Laird of a Sei- 
gneurie facing Quebec. His manor, at Beauport, is 
within three miles of the city. It contains two budding 
beauties of uncommon promise. Gratitude made him 
extend to me, in my wretchedness, a helping hand ; his 
doors were ever open to me. I sometimes wish I had 
never crossed the threshold. " 




The era from 1774 to 1791, that is, the seventeen 
years of our colonial existence governed by the constitu- 
tion of 1774, known as the Quebec Act, without being 
particularly brilliant, of a surety challenges the serious 
attention of the investigator of the past. A poorly recor- 
ded era it ceitainly was ; happily the documents throw- 
ing light on the same — scant though they were for- 
mely — are rapidly accumulating, since the creation 
at Ottawa, under the auspices of the Department of 
Agriculture, of a public archive oflSce, presided over 
by the Genius Loci, Douglas Brymner. 

To the modern annalist, the task of the historian is 
much less arduous than it was to our patient toilers 
who had to wade through piles of illegible manuscript. 
What was denied to students previous to Confederation, 
is now readily granted, since 1867 : free access to the 
treasures of historical lore in the British Museum, the 
archives of the War Office, the Tower of London, and 
the British Public Record Office. These priceless stores 
of information, until Confederation, had been veiled for 
state reasons which it is unnecessary to discuss at 

Several English jurists, without visiting Canada, the 
advocate-general, Sir James Marriott, the attorneys and 
solicitors-general Yorke, de Grey, Thurlow, Wedder- 
burne, through the memoirs, official reports and state 
dispatches they were called on to lay before the English 
king, are either identified with this epoch, or else have 
helped to make its history. 

— 134 — 

Others, like Juge Mabane and Baron Mas^res, had 
the advantage of being located in our midst, and acquir- 
ing, through their ofl&cial positions, the information 
they sought. The force of circumstances made them 
eye-witnesses of our struggles ; they were privileged to 
study on the spot the varied and exciting phases of this 
era of transition. 

A well-known antiquary, the Rev. Abb6 Louis Bois, 
has written the biography of the first, the upright and 
persecuted Judge Mabane, who expired at his villa, 
Woodfield, Sillery, in 1792. I shaU attempt to give a 
brief sketch of the second. Baron Masferes, attorney- 
general for this province, from 1766 to 1769. 


On the 19th of May, 1824, England was mourning 
the loss of one of her most distinguished sons, Francis 
Mas^res, Baron ofthe Exchequer, jurist, mathematician, 
linguist, historian, publicist. The popular voice styled 
him " The Veteran of Science," while Literature pro- 
claimed him the Maecenas of men of letters in his town. 
That year death had closed his well-spent career. 
Mn seres, a fervent Christian, had bid adieu to the world, 
its pomp and vanity, at the advanced age of 93 years, 
in his beautiful villa of Reigate, in Surrey. Friendship 
had inscribed on his marble tomb, " Quando uUum 
inveniam parem 1 " — When shall we see his like ? " 

If Francis Mas^res, in spite of his Gallic name, was 
by his tastes, aspirations, convictions, loyalty, a true 
son of Albion, one might say, a typical Englishman ; 
he never forgot, and more than once showed it, that for 
his ancestors there had been once a loved home beyond 
the white cliffs of England, that glorious old France, 
for which they had been ready to shed their blood, and 
which contained the sacred depot of their ashes. 

It has been said that it takes three generations to 

— 135 — 

make a real English gentleman ; three generations had 
sufficed to make Mas^res a true Englishman. 

Francis Mas^res was bom in London on the 15th 
December, 1731. His father practiced as a physician in 
Broad street, Soho. His great-grandfather, a native of 
France, professed the faith in which were bom Henri 
IV, Catherine de Eohan, Cond^ and Coligny. 

Three of his brothers had held commissions in the 
French army. 

For the Masferes, as well as for scores of distinguished 
French families, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
in 1685, was the signal of departure ; it meant poverty, 
sorrow, exile. Preferring the latter to the sacrifice of 
his religious views, Mr. Masferes, the ancestor of the 
Baron, sailed for England. 

King William III, cognisant of his merit gave him 
military employment in Ireland, and later, in Portugal. 
From thence he returned with the grade of colonel. 

His son, a physician, having left Broad street, pur- 
chased a house in Eathbone Place, which ultimately 
went to his grandson ; a brother of the Baron, occa- 
sionally spent there many happy days. 

Francis Masferes graduated at the University of 
Cambridge, 1752-56. The young M. A. very soon dis- 
played rare aptitude for science and literature. He gave 
himself up, heart and soul, to these pursuits, without 
striving very hard to acquire riches, though that 
fickle Goddess, yclept Fortune, more than once smiled 
upon him. 

Whilst at Cambridge, he published the following 
essay : ** A Dissertation on the Negative Sign in 
Algebra, containing a Demo'astration of the Rule 
concerning it" His aim was to facilitate for beginners 
the study of that science. Mas^res abandoned the 
university to study law. On being admitted to the 
English Bar, he followed the circuits, without gaining 
much distinction. Later on, however, his knowledge 
of English jurispnidence was so profound that the 



— . 136 — 

membeiB of both houses of Parliament would come to 
him for advice. (George III sent him to Quebec, in 
1766 as attorney-general tx) replace George Suckling, 
who had succeeded J. A. Cugnet, an eminent French 
barrister. In 1765 the proclamation of the Stamp Act 
had set all New England in a blaze. Me^^res rendered 
at this juncture, by his writings, good service to 
England ; he was subsequently made Cursitor Baron of 
the Exchequer. 

'^ The most important (1) matter with which Masdres was 
connected during the three years that he lived in Quebec 
was the famous law-suit of Walker, of Montreal. As Attorney- 
General he represented the crown in that cause, which at 
that time made so much noise, and which Maseres relates 
with many details in his volume, bearing as title, " Additional 
Papers,'' published in 1776. Apart from his first "Plan of 
act of Parliament ", which he had printed in London before 
leaving for Canada in 1766, all his writings concerning Canada 
were not published until after his return to England, which 
took place late in the autumn of 1769, although it seems 
very probable that the greater part of his studies were pre- 
pared during his stay in Quebec. Thus his public work in 
1772, having as a title, " Plan of a General Assembly of the 
Freeholders of the Province of Quebec ", was written at 
Quebec in 1767, as is indicated by a note written by Masdres 
himself, in a copy of this pamphlet which I have met with. 
In this work he suggests the establishment of a House of 
Assembly, of which all the lords of the province shall be 
members, with an equal number of tree-holders, that is to say 
that a person shall be elected by the free-holders ot each 
seigniory to represent the interest of these in the House of 
Assembly. He proposed also to give to the cities of Quebec 
and Montreal the right to elect each two representatives and 
to Three-Rivers, one, to further in this assembly the commer- 
cial interests of Canada. He calculates that by this manner 
of election, the representation will be composed of about two 
hundred and sixty members. The assembly will met every 
year at a fixed time. Notwithstanding his animosity against 
the Catholics, he cannot avoid recommending in this scheme 
that the famous test oath should no longer be exacted from 
Catholics, and that another should be substituted which 
would be Jess offensive. 

(1) Biographical Notes on Baron Masires, Phil^as Gaonok, 

— 137 — 

Among the political writings on Canada which Masdres 
published during the years 1772 and 1773 were found two 
projects of acts of parliament which made some noise. They 
all nad the same title, but were written at different periods. 
The first was printed in 1772, and the second in 1773. The 
title reads as follows : '< Draught of an act of parliament for 
settling the laws of the Province of Quebec." 

On ceasing (at his own request) to continue as 
attorney-general, he was asked to act in London as 
agent of the Protestants of Canada, and charged with 
advocatiDg their civil and their religious rights. 

The arbitrary treatment meted out by intolerance to 
his ancestors, in France, seems to have ever rankled in 
his mind ; he cordially hated Boman Catholics (1). His 
was another distinguished name to be added to the 
group of clever delegates charged to advocate in England 
colonial rights and immunities by the English minority 
or French majority in Canada : Etienne Charest, Adam 
Lymbumer, Louis Joseph Papineau, Denis Eenjamin 
Viger, John Neilson, (Sir) James Stuart, Arthur H, 

In 1779 the Recorder of London appointed Maseres 
his deputy. 

In 1770 the Court of Common Council made him 
president of the Sheriff's Court in London. He held 
this appointment until 1822, two years before his 

The year 1784 found Maseres deeply immersed in a 
dispute with the Royal iSociety of London, touching 
the dismissal of the mathematician, Huttoii. 

In 1800, Maseres published a dissertation " On the 
Resolutiiyab of Affected Algebraic Equations, " with 
profuse scientific notes. 

(1) Governor Carle ton, in a letter to Lord Hillsborough, 
rightly censures Masdres' too *< fervid Protestant zea]'' at 
Quebec, and rebukes his rooted prejudices against Roman 
Catholics as unworthy of such a learned man. 

— 138 — 

Though our former attorney-general is known to us 
principally through his fourteen memoirs and reports 
on Canadian affairs from 1766 to 1791, mentioned else- 
where, it was in the exact scieaces, parliamentary law, 
philosophy, and parliamentary history of England where 
he made his mark and where he so laboriously toiled. 

I subjoin the following list of his scientific publications : — 

1. " The Elements of Plane Trigonometry, with a diserta- 
tion on the nature and use of Logarithms, " 1760, 870. 

2. Montesquieu, Views of the English Constitution, tran- 
slated with notes, " 1781, 8 vols. 

3. The Principles of the Doctrine of life Annuities, " 
1783. 1 vol., 4 20. 

4. The Moderate Reformer ; or a proposal to correct some 
abuses in the presentestablisment of the Church of England, '' 
1791, 6 vols., 4to. 

5. Enquiry into the Extent of Power of Juries on Trials, 
for Criminal Writings, 1792, 8vo. 

6. Scriptures Logarithmic, '* 1791-1807, 6 vols., 4to. 

7. Bernouilli's Doctrine of Permutations and Combina- 
tions with some Principles of Algebra, " 1799, 8vo. 

8. May's History of the Parliament of England, which 
began 3rd Nov., 1640 ; a new edition, with a preface, " 1814, 

9. Three Tracts Published in Amsterdam m 1691, and two 
under the name ot General Ludlow to Edmund Seymour and 
other persons ] a new edition, with a preface, 1813, 4to. 

10. The Irish Rebellion ; or a history of the attempts of 
the Irish Papists to exterpate the Protestants j by. Sir John 
Templer j a new edition, with preface, 1813, 4to. 

11. The Curse ot Popery and Popish Pains to the Civil 
Government and Protestant Church of England," reprinted 
in 8 vols., 1807. 

12. Memoirs of the most material transactions in England 
for 100 years preceding the Revolution in 1688 j " by James 
Welwood, 1820, 8 vols. 

13. Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars in England, 
temp. Chas. I. and Cromwell Usurpation, " 2 vols., 8 vo. 

14. View of the Ancient Constitution of the English Par- 
liament. " 

Mr. Phileas Gagnon, in some interesting Biographical 
NoteSf on our former Attorney General, gives as follows, a list 
of Maseres Works on Canada. Several things will be found 
in them which are but little known up to the present time. 

1766. A sketch of an act of parliament for tolerating the 
Roman Catholic religion in the Province of Quebec ; for 

— 139 — 

encouraging and introducing the Protestant religion into the 
said province, and for settling the laws and augmenting the 
pubbc revenue of the same. By Francis Maseres, Esq., then 
lately appointed His Majesty's Attorney-General for the 
Province of Quebec, in North America. London, printed in 
April, 1766. 

This work is the first that Mas^res wrote on our affairs. As 
may be seen by the date of his arrival in Canada, he wrote 
this small treatise before leaving London to come here. At 
the end of this pamphlet, which was re-printed in his '* Occa< 
sional Essays " in 1809, he says that he prepared this plan 
of Act of Parliament at the request of Carleton and Chief 
Judge Hey, and a few copies only were printed for the infor- 
mation of the Marquis of Rockingham and of Mr. Dowdeswell, 
Secretary of State, of Charles Yorke, Attorney -General, of 
Mr. Grey, Solicitor General, and other persons in the employ 
of His Majesty who had the task of seeing about the govern- 
ment of Quebec. Not one copy of this act was given to the 
pubhc. This work of Masdres never came before the English 
parliament j of which Masdres complained bitterly, pretend- 
ing that they were afraid of clashing with the Catholics. 
Haseres himself had no such scruples. 

1767. Things necessary to be settled in the Province of 
Quebec, either by the King^s Order in Council, or by Act of 
Parliament. Without date, nor where printed, nor special 
title ] ten pages in folio. 

A verys interesting document written by Maseres in 1767, 
"while he was Attorney General, at Quebec, but printed under 
this form only at the close of the year 1772, as he says him- 
self in a note at the end of this pamphlet. 

1767. Plan of a General Assembly of the Freeholders of the 
Province of Quebec. Without date, nor where printed, nor 
special title, as the one which preceded it. The paging was 
continued from the precedent under the same size, and filed 
from the 11th to the 20th pages of this curious document, 
"which was also prepared while Masdres was Attorney-General 
at Quebec in the year 1767. 

These two works in our constitution were very probably 
printed by Masdres so as to cause the English government to 
share his ideas on the kind of constitution which should be 
granted us. In fact one sees there a resum6 of all that 
Maseres preached at the time of the discussion of the bill of 
Quebec, m 1774. 

1772. Draught of an Act of Parliament for investing the 
Governor and Council of the Province of Quebec. Without 
an Assembly of the Freeholders of the same with a power of 
zaaking laws and ordinances for the peace, welfare and good 
government of the said province during the space of fourteen 

— 140 — 

years. 4 pages in folio, a document without date nor place 
of printing, but certainly printed, in 1772, as is indicated by 
a manuscript note on a copy in my possession. 

1772. Another plan of Act, bearing exactly the same title 
as the preceding one. 

At the end of this document are found notes on the power 
of taxation in this province. The word ** second," written by 
the hand before the word '^draught," at the commencement of 
the title in the copy which 1 have in my possession, would 
indicate that Masdres had had a second scheme printed, 
more complete than the first, for the information of the 
English minister, for this last document is composed of 12 
pages instead of 4, as the preceding one had. The latter was 
re-printed in the " Quebec papers, " vol. 1 , page 50. 

1772 (First.) Draught of an Act of Parliament for settling 
the laws of the Province of Quebec. 

1773. (Second.) Draught <&c., like the preceding document, 
1772. A collection of several commissions and other public 
instruments proceeding from His Majesty's royal authority, 
and other papers relating to the state of the Province of 
Quebec, in North America, since the conquest of it by the 
British arms, in 1760. London, 1772, 311 pages in quarto. 

1 773. Account of the defence of a plan of Act of Parliament 
for the establishment ot the laws of the Province of Quebec, 
drawn up by Mr. Francis Maseres, English lawyer, afterwards 
Attorney General of His Majesty, the King of Great Britain, 
of the said province, against the objections of M. Francis 
Joseph Cugnet, Canadian gentleman, secretary of the Governor 
and counsel of the said province for the French language. At 
London. Printed at Edmund Allen's,. Bolt Court, Fleet 
street. M.D.C.C.L.X. XIII. 159 pages in folio. 

As in all the other works, Maseres says in this one that he 
could wish with all his heart that the Canadians would adopt 
the Protestant religion, would learn the English language and 
adopt the English laws, or, at least, forget those of France. 
He also makes known to us who those were whom Gen. Car- 
le ton had charged to prepare the extract known by the name 
of " The Abstract of Gentlemen ", and which was published 
in London in 1772. He mentions " Frs. Jos. Cugnet, the 
learned M. Jacrean, of the Seminary of Quebec, and the very 
intelligent M. Pressard, of the same seminary, and Mr. Des 
Chensand, as well as other clever persons who worked there 
during three years at the request of General Carleton. 

1774. Quebec commissions. London, 1774, folio. During the 
year 1774 he inundated also the English papers with his prose 
against the French Canadians. It was especially the Fublic 

Advertiser which had the honour of publishing the first, ^the 

letters of Junius J and the Norwich Mercury which had the 
privilege of causing his writings to be circulated. 

— 141 — 

1775. An account of the proceedings of the British and 
other Protestants, inhabitants of the Province of Quebec, &c. 
London, 1766, 510 pages in-8. 

This volume, notwithstanding all the falsehoods which it 
contains, is of considerable importance tor the history of our 
country, from the conquest to 1775. This volume, with the 
preceding one, are what historians call the " Quebec papers '' 
of Mas^res. 

1776. The Canadian Freeholder, in two dialogues, between 
an Englishman and a Frenchman settled in Canada, showing 
the sentiments of the bulk of the freeholders of Canada 
concerning the late Quebec Act, with some remarks on the 
Boston Charter Act, and an attempt to show the great expe- 
diency of immediately repealing both those acts of parliament, 
and of making some other useful regulations and concessions 
to His Majesty's subjects, as a ground for a reconciliation 
with the united colonies in America. London, vol. I, 1776 ; 
vol. II and III, 1779. This work is a malevolent attack upon 
all that is French and Catholic, and an apology for England. • 

1809. Occasional essays, chiefly political and historical. 
London, 1809. 607 pages, 8vo. In this volume are found 
many writings on Canada, among which we shall mention a 
history of the Canadian nobility in 1775. There are to be 
found also important details on the work done by the English 
Government, so as to permit Mgr. Briand to go and &ave 
himself consecrated bishop in France, to be able to till the 
functions of the Episcopate in Canada. Maseres especially 
accuses Edmund Burke, private secretary of the Marquis of 
Eockingham, one of the men in the English cabinet at that 
period, of making use of all the influence which he had with 
nis master, to grant that permission to Mgr. Briand, and even 
lets it be understood — while contradicting this step — that 
Burke had received his education in a Jesuit College, in Bel- 
gium, and would not later have embraced Protestantism, but 
to improve his condition in the political world. This volume 
contains also a collection of ignoble things against the Catho- 
lic Church. Maseres never could digest the bill of Quebec, 
the adoption of which, by the English Parliament, proved to 
the Protestants, whose agent he was, that all their work, for 
a number of years, to crush the Canadian Catholics, had been 
a clear loss. I should be very glad to know any other docu- 
ment on Canada, published by Maseres, which we have 
omitted in this list. " 

Phil^as Gaomok 

Quebec, 1891. 

It seems nearly incredible that so much scientific 
research and literary work could have sprung from one 
man's brain. 

— 142 — 

His purse was generously placed more than once at 
the disposal of literary, but impecunious merit. Masires. 
lent the Rev. J. Hellins the money to pay for the 
publishing of the excellent translation he had made of 
Dontia Agensi's treatise IiistitiUioni Analytiche. 

He once lent $6,000, for a term of twenty years 
without interest, to an indigent author, to edit a work. 
In spite of these generous acts, his estate at his death 
was of milch greater value than one could have been 
led to believe. His sojourn in Quebec afforded him 
ample facilities to study closely the wants of the colony, 
the weak points of the administmtive system, the bicker- 
ings and friction between the new subjects — the French 
Canadian's and the King's old subjects, recently arrived 
from Britain. Though a trusted adherent of the King, 
he took sides against him on a point of vital importance 
to French Canadians. 

" Mas^res, when Attorney - General for the Pro- 
vince of Quebec," says the historian Bibaud, Jeune, 
" denied that the King had any right to legislate for 
Canada without the co-operation of his Parliament, 
and according to Masferes, the French laws (1) had been 

(1) " From the year 1763 the English laws were put in force, 
instead of the ancient French laws which governed thil) pro- 
vince before the conquest. There were continually complaints 
on the part of Canadians who found themselve molested. 
The EngUsh Government, desiring to give a reason as to 
what gave occasion for these complaints, sent to Quebec, 
about 1773, one of the under-secretaries of state, of the name 
of Morgan, to make a collection of all the French laws which 
ruled the country under French sway, — a task which Morgan 
accomplished, it is said, with the greatest fidelity. Instruc- 
tions were at the same time sent to the Governor, to the 
Chief Judge and the Attorney -General, to give all the assist- 
ance possible to Mr. Morgan, and charged each of them to 
supply the English Government with their personal opinion, 
as well as with the result of their conference together on 
this question. The reports of these various officers, who 
differed obviously among themselves, were placed before 
the Privy Council, and from thence referred to the Board of 
Trade. They were then sent to the two principal officers in 


— 143 — 

the laws of Canada from 1764 to 1774. The Advocate- 
General, Marriott, maintained the contrary. One can 
easily imagine the chances of promotion Masferes must 
have lost by thus rudely thwarting the plans of such a 
self-willed, obstinate sovereign as was George III. The 
Eoman Catholics must also have felt gmteful to him 
for his efifoits to have the obnoxious Test oath modified, 
A warm friend to popular liberties, he had another 
wrong, in the eyes of the King — he was a Whig. An 
implacable foe he ever was to religious intolerance and 
arbitrary power ; standing up firm for the maintenance 
of order and public authority. 

The study of the Greek and Latin classics was 
Masferes' delight. Homer, Lucain, Horace were his 

law (or legal oflBcers), viz., Solicitor-General Wedderburne 
and Attorney -General Thurlow, with orders for each to make 
a report upon what was placed before them. There was in 
the reports of these juriconsults, as often happens among 
learned people, a divergence of opinion j but both agreed 
generally in showing much sympathy, — thus going against the 
ideas of Masdres. It was apropos of this that Maseres published 
his '* Draught of an Act of Parliament for settling the laws 
of the Province of Quebec." It is to the large and liberal views 
contained in these reports of Thurlow and Wedderburne that 
we owe all the liberties granted to the Canadian Catholics 
by the famous Act of Quebec of 1774, which so much enraged 
the Tories of that time. " 

" After his return to England, Maseres continued to occupy 
himself with the affairs of Canada. He took a very active 
part in the cause of Du Calvet. He contested with the greatest 
vigour the illegality of the imprisonment of the latter by 
Haidimand ; it is said even that he contributed a large por- 
tion to the expenses of the law-suit which took place in this 
connection. At the death of Du Calvet, Maseres charged 
himself with the education of his son, of whom nothing waa 
heard afterwards. One would like to know, perhaps, what 
Roubaud thought of Maseres, with whom he had much 'to do. 
In a letter to Haidimand, dated March 23rd, I7S5, which was 
found in the archives, at Ottawa, after having related a coni 
versation which he had with him on the subject of the impri- 
sonment of Du Calvet, he expresses himself as follows; 
*^ During the course of this important conversation, M, 

— 144 — 

favourites among the ancients ; he had them hy heart, 
it was said, whilst he doted on Milton among modern 
writers. He liked and spoke fluently, the language of 
his ancestors, the French, the pure, old French of 
Louis XIV, the idiom of Racine, Corneille, S(5vign^ ; 
making fun of what he styled V Argot Parisieny he 
good humouredly jeered the French emigris who fre- 
quented his salon, on their modern effeminate accent, 
though at all times ready to extend to them the hand 
of friendship. Round his hospitable board, says an 
old memoir, were grouped Archbishops, Bishops and 
other eminent members of the French clergy, safe in 
England from the guillotine of Robespierre. Amongst 
others, might be noticed a dignitary of the Parliament 
of Paris — an exile — greeted with a hearty welcome in 

Masses expressed himself in a tone of vehemence and agit< ^ 
ation, which surprised me in an Englishman. He had none ' 
of the coolness of the nation ; there was vivacity ; Gascon 
quickness ; in a word, he was a hotheaded enthusiast. I 
am not surprised that the head of Du Calvet burns and his 
hrain evolves anger and violence. He is at a good school, and 
will go far under the lessons of his master. When the English 
Parliament prepared the Act of Quebec in 1774, it heard the 
testimonies of a good number of persons, who were reputed 
to know the country and its wants. Among those who were 
interrogated were found Carleton, Chief Judge William Hey, 
Marriott, the Solicitor-General, M. de Lotbiniere, a native of 
Canada, and belonging to the body of the nobility of this 
country — a well thinking man and proprietor of immense 
seigniories, next to Maseres, — and finally Maseres himself, 
who was known to have resided in Canada, and who should 
have acquired special knowledge on the question in point. 
He pretended there, among many other assertions, difficult 
to prove, that the Canadians would be very glad ir England 
would not grand to the clergy the right to reclaim their tithes 
before tribunals, and he insisted that many Canadians had 
refused to pay their tithes since the conquest, — in building 
on the fact that Lord Amherst had refused to grant the right 
to deduct ; the reserving this question for the good pleasure 
of the King of England. He said also that he believed that if 
immediately after the conquest they had begun gradually to 
replace the Catholic priests, who died, by Protestant minis- 

— 145 — 

Masferes* Villa at Reigate. Though Masferes despised 
the levellers of 1793, as well as Voltaire's subversive 
doctrines, he knev7 how to appreciate the clever wri- 
tings of the author of Zaire. Scrupulously honest, 
unassuming, of an even, happy disposition, what espe- 
cially delighted him was the bringing together, at 
Reigate, congenial spirits, lovers of the exact sciences. 
He could not bide the suriy dogmatism of the famous 
Dr. Samuel Johnson. On one occasion Maseres met 
the old bear, at his publisher's store ; the critic as usual 
launched out in unmeasured raillery of the contempo- 
rary writers, naming Hume and Voltaire. That was 
enough ; Maseres declared he would have nothing more 
to say to him. The Baron was a great chess player ; 
he knew how to lose a game, with such charming 

terS) the Canadians would have been satisfied ; but he dit not 
dare say that it would be prudent to do it at that time. He 
alleged also that he believed that if the Protestant and 
Catholic creeds were left on the same footing in this coun- 
try , there would be more pleased than those who were 
displeased. If Maseres occupied himself as much with the 
affairs of Canada after his return to England, it was that he 
acted as agent with the English Government on behalf of the 
Protestants that were in Canada, and this lasted a good 
many years. He had frequent communications with the chiefs 
of the English party, whose interests he watched ; the latter 
kept him posted with what transpired in the country, as may 
be seen from the large correspondence which he makes 
known to us in his Quebec papers. Before him, the agent of 
the' English party in Canada was one Fowler Walker, 
a lawyer of reputation, practising in the Court of Chancery — 
one who did more than any other in having Murray recalled 
from the government of Quebec. This, poor Murray had, 
nevertheless, but given fair play to the French Canadians 
during his administration. He was the same Walker who 
directed the movement to prevent Mgr. Briand from taking 
the title of Bishop of Quebec, which was at last granted to 
him. Maseres says that he was the best informed person in 
the affairs of Quebec whom he had met. {Occasional Essay s^ 
page 369). 

, PniLEAS Gagnon. 


— 146 — 

bonhomie, that a friend of his once observed that of 
all his acquaintances, Maseres was the only player on 
whose face, a defeat or a victory could not be read. 

Contemporary memoirs display The Veteran of 
Science, in the swe^et seclusion of his home ; at times, 
under a reverential aspect, recalling the tender piety 
and singleness of heart of the illustrious Sir Isaac 
Newton, who through respect for the Supreme Being, 
whom he styled the Gentleman above, never pro- 
nounced his revered name without uncovering his 
head. Until his dying hour, the Baron's was the decorous 
bearing, the exquisite good-breeding, the simple but 
punctilious costume of the gentlemen of the long robe, 
— the three-cornered hat, the heavy, powdered wig, the 
delicate, frilled shiit of olden days : such his daily 

To those who might love to re-people old Quebec 
with the men who, in the flesh, roamed through its his- 
toric thoroughfares, at the era following the great seige 
of 1759, when the 527 dwellings and public edifices 
destroyed by Wolfe and Saunders' shells, were springing 
from their ashes — imagination would fain depict the 
cheery presence of the courteous dignitary strolling 
through the Ming towards the Chateau St. Louis, or, 
hurrying down Palace Hill, in the direction of the Inten- 
dance, in search of documents from the archivist J. A. 
Panet : parchments of commissions, certificates of land 
grants, patents of French nobility, for his work " An 
account of the Noblesse or Gentry of Canada; " or else, 
disputing at the corner of a street with the learned 
Cugnet, anent an article of the Custom of Paris, or else, 
attending the sittings of the Superior Council, presided 
over by the Governor ; or perhaps, even like some of 
the luminaries of our day, leisurely strolling up St. 
Louis street in the direction of the Grande MUe, after 
office hours, for his " daily constitutional. "' 


Complex elements in our population, duality of lan- 
guage, diversity of customs, traditions and creed, in 
Canada, as well as the change of masters, in 1759, in 
the old French Province of Quebec, added to successive 
and widely-differing political regimes have had for 
natural outcome equally varied estimates and diversified 
records of our historical past. 

Two schools, two currents of thought, often, we say 
it with regret, unsympathetic in their teachings, have 
sprung up. Writers of history have drifted unawares into 
two or more widely-apart literary channels ; the pen of 
the annalist, seemingly more than once, obeyed the 
promptings of his nationality. In portraying some of 
the deadly feuds dividing our ancestry, the British or 
the Grallic blood would tell ; let us be candid ! 

'Twere more than chimerical to expect* among our 
historians entire unity of sentiment on events, absolute 
absence of party leanings, notwithstanding the high 
sense of truth and honour pervading the theme of 
many of them : the facts evolved may have been the 
same, the grouping and colouring differed toto coelo. 

Shall the lesson of years, shall the teachings of changes 
"be lost on us ? Shall we continue forever to keep our 
eyes fixed on the dead past, insensible to the living 
present, insensible to the march of destiny ? God forbid I 

National life enlarged and safeguarded by the solemn 
compact of Confederation, a scheme devised and 
accepted by all political parties and by every races, small 
provincial communities expanded into vigorous maturity, 
a new order of things, new wants created by novel 
circumstances, interests doubled in magnitude, old poll- 


— 148 — 

tical ulcers healed, ' or in process of being so, the 
exigencies of commerce, our wondrous, military, trans- 
continental railway-network are these factors of the 
present these factors of the future to be ignored ? Are 
there not here momentous issues for the calm study of 
the statesman, as well as for the cool, dispassionate, nay, 
sympathetic consideration of every true Canadian ? 

Whilst the carping demagogue vainly attempts 
to thrust into the face of heedless listeners tiie 
" bloody shirt " of past, forgotten errors and wrongs, 
let the true patriot proudly flaunt the banner with the 
inspiring device, ** Union is Strength ! " 

With these promptings uppermost in our minds, let us 
take a hasty glance at the honoured roll of Canadian 
annalists ; later on, we may submit their works to the 
verdict of an impartial public. The most prominent of 
the English writers may be summed up as follows : 

Baron Francis Maseres, 1731-1824 ^Various Memoirs on 

Quebec afiairs. 

William Smith, 1769-1 847 ^History of Canada, 2 vols. 

Robert Christie, 1788-1856. — Parliamentary History of 

Samuel J. Watson, 1837-1881 Constitutional History of 


John Chas. Dent, 1841-189C. — ^Canada since the Union, 1840. 

Dr. Henry H. Miles, 1818, living.— School History of Canada. 

Rev. W. H. Withrow, 1830, living A Popular History of 

the Dominion of Canada. 

John McMuUen, 18', living. — History of Canada, 1760-1855. 

James Hannay, 18', living. — History of Acadia. 

Beamish Murdock, 18', living, — History of Nova Scotia. 

William Kingsford, 183', living History of Canada. 

Francis Parkman, 1823-93. — Series of Historical Works on 
French Canada, 1535-1760. 


MichelBibaud, 1782-1857.— His toire du Canada, 153;>-1844. 

Fran^ois-Xavier Garneau, 1809-1866. — His toire du Canada, 

Abbe Jean-Bte. Ant. Ferland, 1805-1866 Cours d'Histoire 

du Canada, 1535-1759. 

Abbe £t. Michel Faillon, 17S0-1871 Histoire de la Colonie 

Frangaise au Canada, 1535-1675. 

— 149 — 

Le Commandeur Jacq.Viger, 1787-1858. — Bibliothdque Cana- 

Geo. B. Faribault, 1789-1865 Antiquaire, &c. 

Benj. Suite, 1841, living. — Histoire des Canadiens-Frangais. 

Abbe Cha. H. Cauchon dit Laverdiere, 1 326-1873.— Histoire 
du Canada pour les 6coles. 

Abb6 Hospice A. Verreau, 1828, living. — Invasion du 
Canada, 1775. 

Abbe H. R. Casgrain, 1829, living. — Montcalm et L6vi, 

Abbe Cyprien Taoguay, 1819, living. — Dictionnaire Gen6a- 
logique des Families Canadiennes. 

Abb^ Louis Bois, 1 813-1 869._Soto, Joliette, Marquette, La 

Br. N. E. Bionne, 1850, living Histoire de Jacques-Cartier j 

Biographie de Champlain. 

To which might be added two talented essayists : 
Joseph Pope and Hiram B. Stephens, B. C. L., the 
winners, like Dr. Dionne, of Lt. Governor Angers gold 
and silver medals ; subject : " The early Explorers of 
the St. Lawrence. " 

Possibly we may dwell, at some other time, on the 
special features of the narratives written by the above. 

J. M. LeMoine. 

Spencer Grange, Quebec, Sept., 1892. 



To those conversant with the literary movement^ 
shall I say, intellectual awakening, attributable as one 
of the results of the political upheaval in 1837-38, it 
must be a gratifying spectacle to witness its progress, 
as evinced by the constant accessions of works in 
seveial departments of Canadian letters, especially 

French literature, unlike English letters in the Pro- 
vince of Quebec, has but slightly benefitted by the 
importation in our midst of writers from old France. 
With the exception of a few brilliant French journalists 
(and some of them wisely expatriated themselves for 
fheir country's good) — with the exception of a very 
learned historian — the Sulpician FaiUon, the province 
has had mainly in her literary pursuits to depend on 
its indigenous or native talent. 

However interesting this inquiry into our past, might 
prove, the subject, if properly treated, would take one 
much further than the scope of this a magazine article 
would permit. 

Whilst wafting across the sea a grateful remembrance 
to the distinguished nobleman, the Marquis of Lome, 
for the impulse communicated to Canadian letters, by 
the creation of the association which he placed under 
the special patronage of our sovereign, through the priv- 
ilege he obtained, of calling it the Royal Society of 
CanacUiy I shall confine myself to noting a few very 
useful contributions to the annals of the French pro- 
vince of Quebec, issued of late years. 

How much more easy it will be hereafter to compile 
a reliable and circumstantial chronicle of the eight pro- 

— 151 — 

vinces of the Dominion of Canada, when it is borne in 
mind that each of them has active, loving, indefatigable 
delvers in the rich mine of its early history ; that the 
Dominion Parliament, as well as the Provincial Legis- 
latures, consider it a duty, nay, a crowning glory, 
to show the deep interest they each feel in Canadian 
annals, by substantial grants to unearth and make 
known through the noble art of the printer, the literary 
treasures lying unrevealed, unproductive in its public 

I subjoin noticeable publications recently put forth 
calculated to furnish " materials for Canadian history " 
in the Province of Quebec : 

fitude Biographique sur le Chevalier Noel Brulart de 
Sillery, fondateur de Sillery, pres Quebec, par PAbbe Louis 
Bois, Quebec, 1855. 

Notes Historiques sur Sillery, par l'abb6 J.-B.-A. Ferland, 
Quebec, 1855. 

Histoire de I'lled'Orleans, par L.-P. Turcotte, Quebec, 

Ndtes sur la paroisse Ste-Anne de la Pocatiere, par Tabbd 
O. Paradis, Quebec, 1869. 

Chroniques de Rimouski, par I'abbe Chas. Guay, Quebec, 

Histoire d'une paroisse (Riviere Quelle et St-Denis), par 
rabb6 H.-R. Casgrain, Quebec, 1884. 

Le premier Colon de Levis, par J.-Edmond Roy, Quebec, , 

Histoire de la paroisse du Cap Sante, par I'abbe GMtien, 
Quebec, 1887. 

Histoire de Charlesbourg, par I'abbe Chs. Trudelle, Qu6bec, 

Notes sur la Bale St-Paul, par I'abbe Chs. Trudelle. 

Histoire de I'lle-Verte, par Charles Gauvreau, Quebec, 
*• des Trois-Pistoles, par Chs. Gauvreau, 1889. 
" de Jx>ngueuil^ et de la famille de Longueuil, par 
Alex. Jodoin et J.-L. Vincent, Montreal, 1889. 

Mon voyage k Tadoussac, par J.-Edinond Roy, M. S. R. C, 
Quebec, 1884. 

Notes sur le Canada, par Paul De Cazes, M. S. R. C, 1882. 

Histoire de St- Jean et du Sidge du Fort St- Jean, 1775, par 
Lucien Huot, Montreal, 1889. 
« de Boucherville X X 

— 152 — 

Histoire des Trois-Rividres, Benj. 3Ulte, 1889. 
<' de St-Augustin, par A. BSchard, 1885. 
'^ de Saint-Francois de la Beauce, par Vabbe Dumais, 

** de Saint-Jean de Matha, par Pabbe Provost, 1888. 
" de Yamaohiche, jiar l'abb6 Caron, 1892. 
" de St-Fran^oie du Lac, par Beng. Suite, M. S. R. C, 

" de rile-aux-Coudres, par Tabbe Maillouz, 1879. 
** du Vieux Lachine, par D.Girouard, 1890* 
" de Berthier et du Oomte de Berthier, par labb^ 

Moreau, 1893. 

(The following occur in Annttaire de Ville-Marie). 

Histoire de Saint-Eustache, par de Bellefeuille, 1871. 

^< de la Visitation de Tile Dupas, par l'abb6 Plinguet 

« de Saint-Roch de r Achigan, 1867. 
" de Saint-Hermas, 1867. 
" de Sainte-Philomene, 1867. 

'* de la Pointe-aux-Tremblesy district de Montreal, 
" Les !Qourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest : r6citB 
de voyages, lettres et rapports in^dits relatifs au Nord-Ouest 
Canadien. Publics avec une esquisse historique et des anno- 
tations.' ' Par L. R. Masson, Premiere s6rie, Quebec : A. 
C6te et Cie., 1889. 

A very distinguished literary man among the above 
is the historian Feiiand, who died at Quebec in 1866, 
just as he had prepared for publication the second 
volume of his " Cours d'Histoire du Canada " ; the cor- 
rection of the proofs, however, fell to the lot of his zealous 
friend, the late abb^ Laverdi^e, who expired, in 1873. 

AbW Louis Bois, for forty- one years Cur 4 of Mask!- 
nong^, an indefatigable searcher of old MSS, and 
crabbed, musty documents, died a few weeks ago, 
bequeathing a mass of historical notes, to the ColMgt 
de Nicolet. Though he was a copious writer, he 
refused to sign any of his writings, after a qujurel 
with the antiquary, Jacques Viger. L. P. Turootte 
died about eight years ago, shortly after writing his 
« Histoire du Canada," 1841-1S67. 

The Abb^ H. R. Casgrain is too favourablyknown to 
require any special mention, and when these lines 

— 153 — 

appear, he will likely be on the broad Atlantic, seeking 
more genial climes, during the winter months. 

Mr. J. Edmond Eoy, F. E. S. C, and Mr. Charles 
Gauvreau, two youthful students of Canadian annals, 
both able and loving labor, will, it is to be hoped, yet 
furnish long literary careers. 

A respected Montreal merchant, Mr. Lucien Huot, 
in his spirited Chronicles of St. John, near Montreal^ 
and of its historic fort and siege in 1775, has shown 
than even a busy bank director can find time for active 
and useful literary pursuits. Honb. L. E. Masson, 
oneofoui- late Lt. Governors, has. proved that even 
the stately, secluded beautiful groves of Spencer Wood 
are not inimical to literary pursuits. 

(The Canadian Bibliographer), 

Quebec, December, 1889. 



The tomb has recently closed over a ixTiter whose 
name was a house-hold word for antiquarian pursuits 
in the Province of Quebec, and whose publications on 
historical subjects have reached far beyond the land of 
his birth — the Abb6 Bois, F. R. S. C, Maskinong^ 
P. Q. . 

Louis Edouard Bois, first drew the breath of life on 
September 13, 1813, in an old tenement, corner of 
Notre Dame and Sous-le-Fort streets, lower town, 
Quebec, on the spot where the founder of the city, 
Samuel de Champlain, had erected the " Abitation de 
' Champlain, " two centuries previous. At a very tender 
age he was sent to an English school kept by Mr. 
Marsden, the father of the late Dr. Wm. Marsden, 
where, doubtless, he acquired that knowledge of the 
English idiom which enabled him in after-life to pro- 
secute, in English as well as in French, his interesting 
researches in matters of history. M. Bois completed 
his education at the Quebec Seminary and College of 
Ste. Anne. He was inducted in holy orders, in 1837, 
and removed, in 1848, to the flourishing old parish of 
. Maskinong^, in the district of Three-Rivers, where he 
expired in September, 1889, after a prolonged illness, 
having been in charge of this cure, forty-one years. 

The old cur^ made a noble use of his pecuniary 
means and leisure hours for the promotion of historical 
studies and publication of rare documents, unearthed 
by him in the dusty vaults of the Quebec parlia- 
ment, where were stowed away in dire confusion the 
priceless provincial archives. Aided by powerful friends, 
in Parliament and a devoted publisher in Quebec, 
Mr. A. Cot^. the Abbd Bois succeeded in obtaining 

— 155 — 

public grants of money and private help, to have repub- 
lished in 1855 the Cramoisie collection of the " Rela- 
tions des J^suites" and the four volumes of MSS. which 
Honble Jean Blanchet induced the Mousseau Grovem- 
ment to edit. 

More than once the writer of these lines has had 
occasion to thank the learned man for valuable inform- 
ation freely tendered on Canadian topics. The his- 
torian Parkman, also, is not slow in giving the Abb4 
due acknowledgement for documents used by him in 
writing his late volume, "Wolfe and Montcalm" ; and 
one of the pleasant thoughts of the old antiquary during 
his failing years, was the recognition he received from 
the founder of the Eoyal Society of Canada, Lord Lome, 
by the diploma conferred, placing him amongst the 
twenty original members of the French section of the 
society. The following, though not all of them bear the 
author's signature, are his chief works : 

1. Notes Biographiques sur Monseigneur de Laval : A. C6t6 
et Cie, 1848. 

2. Notes sur Pile d^Orleans, A. Cote et Cie, 1850. 

3. Etudes et Recherches Biographiques sur le Chevalier 
Noel Brutart de Sillery, 1855. 

4. Notes sur Michel Sarrasin, Medecin du Roy d. Quebec, 

5. Le Naut'rage de I'Auguste, 1860. 

6. Notices sur les Explorations de Soto, Joliette, Marquette 
et La Salle, 1861. 

7. Eloge Historique de M. le Marquis de Montcalm ^ 
<annota) Extrait du Moniteur de France, 1861. 

8. Etudes Biographiques sur M. Jean Raimbault, Archi- 
pr§tre, 1870. 

9. Notice sur M. Joseph 0. Leprohon, 1870. 

10. Etudes Biographiques sur le Colonel M. Dambourges, 

11. Esquisses du Service Postal, 1759-1775-1875. 

.12. Etude Historique sur le Juge Adam Mabane, 1884. 

Also an innumerable series of articles in the press. 

We learn that his vast collection of MSS., notes and auto- 
graphs, medals, engravings, and splendid libranr of historical 
works was bequeathed by him to the Seminary of Nicole t, P. Q. 

Quebec, Nov. 30, 1889. 


Much respected reader, with your permission let us 
have a ramble, a short one though it be, over the 
" pastures green " of Canadian literature. It wiU add 
to our zest and sharpen our appetite, when we resume 
our " Notes on the Lower St. Lawrence. " Shall we 
dignify these " green pastures " with the name of a 
garden ? If so, rest assured that as such it will be, at 
best, but a pale copy of those, radiant under European 
suns. Our lawns are less velvety ; perfumed groves, 
brilliant parterres and rockeries are here wanting. 
The beds and borders might be better filled ; the 
flowers, of hues more vivid, more varied ; the curves 
to the avenues, more majestic ; the terraces artistically 
sloped ; the entire landscape, in fact, more imposing. 
But if deficient in art is not the land rich, rich in the 
eztreme, in native beauty ? 

In this northern Elysium we call our home, our 
sweet Canadian home, has not nature herself provided 
for us the soft violet, the graceful ferns, the scented 
eglantine, the perfume-breathing wild rose, and the 
myriads of bright sweet blossoming perennials with which 
Spring decks every nook of the forest, every mountain, 
glen, whenever Winter relaxes his grasp ? 

Our literature resembles our wild flowers in their 
uncultivated grace ; like them, in order to put forth 
blossoms of promise, it needs the sunshine of sympathy, 
the fecundating showers of public support ; like 
them, too, it would occasionally be the better of the 
pruning-knife of criticism, to remove its sapless twigs 
and its ungainly branches. 

— 157 — 

These considerations forced themselves on me with 
increased power recently, when, on entering my quiet 
sanctuvi, I spied on my table in neat paper-covers, 
presentation copies of two volumes which amongst our 
litterateurs of French extraction are now like house- 
hold woitis. 

The first was : — 

FRANgois DE Bienville. — Scenes de la Vie Canadienne 
au XVII Sifecle, — Par Jos. Marmette. Quebec: — 
L^ger Brousseau, 1870. — 300 pages (1). 

More than once, the fascinating elf of Eomance has 
become the handmaid of History, lighting up with her 
magic rays and investing with all her nameless 
graces, the prosy records of the past. 

The memorable example of the author of Waverley 
was sure to call forth in every country de voted disciples, 
most earnest followers. 

Our own land, full of literary promise, if not of 
mature fruits, had its own stirring chronicles, teeming 
with the warlike deeds of a " far-reaching ancestry, " 
redolent of forest-scenes and Indian warfare ; and the 
French reader owes thanks to Messrs. Chauveau, De 
Gasp^, Taoh^, Faucher, Madame Craven, Mr. De Bou- 
cherville and others ; but the historical novel, as 
understood by Sir Walter, did not yet exist. Undoub- 
tedly the French element in Canada had achieved 
much in literature and progress since the emancipation 
of the colonial mind by the new constitution whieh, in 
1841, gave us responsible government ; a deal however 
still remains to be done. 

Thanks to Mr. Joseph Marmette, the historical novel 
in its attractive form and high aspirations has at 
present amongst us a " habitation and a name." 

(1) The second, from the same pen, is styled : L'Ixteiv>ant 
Bigot— .i^oman Canadienj — Montreal : Geo. E. Desbarats. 

— 158 — 

The early days of Canada abound with incidenta of 
most dramatic interest, inexhaustible stores of mate- 
rials for the novelist. 

" The French Dominion is a memory of the past^ " 
says Parkman, "and when we wake its departed shades,** 
they rise upon us from their graves in strange romantic 
guise : again their ghostly camp-fires seem to bum, 
and the fitful light is cast around on lord and vassal 
and black-robed priest, mingled with wild forms of 
savage warriors knit in close fellowship on the same 
stern errand, A boundless vision grows upon us ; an 
untamed continent; vaste wastes of forest verdure; 
mountains silent in primeval sleep; river, lake and 
glimmering pool ; wilderness oceans mingling with the 
sky, such was the domain which France conquered for 
civilization. Plumed helmets gleamed in the shade of 
its forests ; priestly vestments in its dens and fastnesses 
of ancient barbarism. Men steeped in antique learning, 
pale with the close breath of the cloister, here spent 
the noon and evening of their lives, ruled savage hordes 
with a mild parental sway, and stood serene before the 
direst shapes of death. Men of a courtly nurture, heirs 
to the polish of a far-reaching ancestry, here, with their 
dauntless hardihood, put to shame the boldest sons of 

In the brightest spot of this romantic horizon, 
during the quasi-regal sway of the proud Count of 
Frontenac,in 1690, are located the incidents and scenes 
which constitute the historical novel " Francois de 
Bienville," the hero, one of the illustrious brothers of 
Baron de Longueuil. 

In fact, the whole of the siege operations, at Quebec, 
in 1690, as narrated by eyewitnesses — Major Walley, 
Mere Juchereau de St. Ignace and contemporary 
writers such as LaHontan, Charlevoix and others, 
closing in with the glorious deaths of the two brothers 
St. H^lene and De Bienville and lighted up by the 
sweet face of Marie Louise d'Orsy and some secondary 
actors : such the plot of the novel. 

— 159 — 

Louise d'Orsy is the daughter of a French nobleman 
who, in crossing over to New-France, in 1689, was 
taken with his pretty daughter and his brave son, pri- 
soners of war, and carried to Boston where the fattier 
dies, leaving his children to shift for themselves. The 
son, Louis, being a good swordsman, teaches the Boston 
youths of the day the arme blancJie, and Mdlle d'Orsy, 
to stave oflf want, teaches drawing and embroidery. 
Amongst the pupils of Louis, there is a proud and 
revengeful young English ofl&cer, named Harthing, who 
eventually proposes for the high-born French girl. She 
scorns the offer with hauteur. He vows revenge on 
brother and sister, when they leave Boston for Quebec. 

The following year Lieut. Harthing accompanies Sir 
William Phip'a fleet. His pride spurring on his deadly 
revenge, induces him to connect himself with a fierce 
Iroquois chief. Wolf Fang, who had previously been a 
prisoner of war in the Chateau St. Louis, wherefrom he 
was released through the secret machinations of an 
avaricious publican named Jean Boisdon. Harthing is 
the bearer of the flag of truce sent by Phip's to Fron- 
tenac, whom Frontenac ordered to be blindfolded before 
being admitted to deliver Phips's arrogant message 
about the surrender of Quebec. It is unnecessary to 
state that all here is strictly historical ; aU except the 
secret visits of lieut. Harthing and his friend the 
Iroquois chief. Wolf Fang (1). Every detail of the siege. 

(1) The faults we are inclined to find are not numerous, 
but still they exist, and I have too much respect for my 
young literary friend to deceive him. To any one conversant 
with the height of the precipice at the Grand Battery, over- 
looking Sault-au-Matelot street, at Quebec, it will naturally 
appear incredible that even an Iroquois could jump down 
without being dashed to pieces. The dialogue of sturdy old 
Frontenac during the siege does not seem quite natural. Per- 
haps Mr. Marmette might be charged with being too prolix in 
his descriptions and not lively enough in his dialogues. These 
faults, however, are redeemed by many beauties. 

— 160 — 

including the bombardment of the city, the engagement 
of the English under Major Walley and repulse at the 
Beauport Flats, is most vividly depicted ; the costumes 
of the French officer, French soldier, French peasant of 
1690, even to the wines served and dishes partaken of, 
at camp or in the Chateau : every trifling incident is 
well portrayed and authority quoted, in mostly every 
case. The novelist seems to have drawn copiously from 
that great source of antiquarian lore, Monteil — Amans 
Alexis Monteil — the historian of the French people 
from the 13th to the 17 th century. Mr. Marmette 
could not have selected, in the whole history of the 
colony, a more glorious era for the supremacy of the 
Gallic Lily than that of Frontenac, the epoch which 
saw Sir William Phip's proud fleet of thirty-four ships 
of all sizes repulsed before Quebec. He has given to 
the tableau all the dark tracings pecuhar to the times, 
the rancorous feelings of the Briton and the Gaul car- 
ried from across the sea. The book placed by a good 
ti^nslation and appropriate nates before the English 
reader, would no doubt meet with a ready sale. 

Let us now have our say on the personages of the 
second novel, intended to portray the guilty existence 
in Canada of that illustrious plunderer, Intendant Bigot. 

About one mile and a half north of the populous 
village of Charlesbourg, that is five miles from Quebec, 
there lies, in the gloomy depths of the Laurentides, a 
dreary and most melancholy ruin, the fastrcrumbling 
walls of a spacious house, call it a chateau if you prefer ; 
the English know it under the name of the Her- 
mitage, the French, under that of Beaumanoir. It is 
quite certain these hoary walls existed here prior to 
1759 ; that they were used as a shooting-box, if for 
nothing else, by the French intendant and his pleasure- 
loving friends. They have given rise to a variety 
of legends in which love, revenge, lust and plunder 
each played their parts. 

— 161 — 

I can well recall the curious interest this time-worn 
pile excited, in the ardent minds of a bevy of blue-coated 
seminary pupils in 1843, — of whom I was one, — when 
our Reverend Professor, one bright Thursday morning, 
led us through the forest-paths to see the ruins of Cha- 
teau-Bigot ; — ^how, one and all, we ruthlessly invaded the 
subterranean passages and cellars of the Chateau, to 
carry away relics and trophies of a distant past ; how 
one of the tallest stepped triumphantly to the front and 
exhibited " the big toe joint, " as he styled it, " of the 
luckless Caroline, poisoned by the lawful spouse of the 
French intendant." We only found out some years 
afterwards that the Intendant had never been married, 
and that this portion of Mr. Amed^e Papineau's stirring 
legend was unsubstantial, like the " baseless fabric of 
a dream." What would this have signified then had we 
known it ? We were prepared to believe the wildest 
legend that mortal could have fabricated about the 
mysterious ruins. Twenty years after, I revisited 
these desolate halls. All-devouring time had pressed 
hard on them ; but as I gave a full narrative of this 
visit in the first series of my Maple Leaves, in 1863, 
I shall not repeat it. 

History tells that several Quebec ladies took refuge 
at this Chateau during the bombardment, in 1759; 
and when Arnold held the environs of the city during 
the winter of 1775-76, we also are informed that some 
noierchants of note sought there an asylum for their 
loyalty to " Farmer " George. 

It is within the portals of Beaumanoir that several 
of the most thrilling scenes in Mr. Marmette's novel 
are supposed to have taken place. A worthy veteran of 
noble birth, M. de Eochebrune, had died in Quebec, 
through neglect and hunger, on the very steps of Bigot's 
luxurious palace, then facing the St. Charles, leaving 
an only daughter, as virtuous as she was beautiful. 

One day whilst returning through the fields (where 
St. fiochs has since been built) from visiting a nun in 

— 162 — 

the General-Hospital, she was seized by a strong arm 
and thrown insensible on a swift horse, whose rider 
never stopped until he had deposited the victim at 
Bigot's country seat, Charlesbourg. The name of this 
cold-blooded villain was Sournois. He was a minion of 
the mighty and unscrupulous Bigot. Mile de Roche- 
brune had a lover. A dashing young French officer waa 
Raoul de Beaulac. Maddened with love and rage, he 
closely watched Bigot's movements in the city, and 
determined to repossess his treasure, it mattered not at 
what sacrifice. Bigot's was a difficult game to play. He 
had a liaison with one of the most fascinating and 
fashionable married ladies of Quebec, and was thus 
prevented from hastening to see the fair prey awaiting 
him at Beaumanoir. The lover played a bold game, 
and calling jealousy to his aid, he went and confided 
to Madame P&n, Bigot's fair friend; entreated her 
immediate interference, and after some hair, breadth 
escapes arrived at the Chateau with her just in time to 
save Mile de Rochebrune from dishonor. 

Madame P^an was returning to the city with Mile 
de Rochebrune and Raoul, when on driving past the 
walls of the Intendant's palace, close to the spot where 
Des Fossfe street pow begins, her carriage was attacked 
by a band of armed men, a reconnoitering party from 
Wolfe's fleet, anchored at Montmorency. A scuffle 
ensued ; shots were fired, and some of the assaillants 
killed ; but in the mSlSe, Mile de Rochebrune was seized 
and hurried into the English boat commanded by one 
Captain Brown. During the remainder of the summer 
the Canadian maid, treated with every species of respect, 
remained a prisoner on board the admiral's ship. It is 
singular that Admiral Durell, whose beloved grand-soa 
was at the time a prisoner of war at Three-Rivers, did 
not propose an exchange. In the darkness and con- 
fusion which attended the disembarking of Wolfe's 
array on the night of the 12th September, 1759, at 
Sillery, Mile de Rochebrune slipped down the side of 

— 163 — 

the vessel, and getting into one of the smaller boats,, 
drifted ashore with the tide, landing at Cap Rouge» 
just as her lover, Saoul, who was a Lieutenant in La 
Bocbe Beaucour's Cavalry, was patrolling the heights 
of Sillery. Overpowered with joy, she rode behind 
him back to the city, and left him on nearing her home ; 
but, to her horror, she spied dogging her footsteps her 
arch-enemy the Intendant, and fell down in a species 
of fit, which turned out to be catalepsy. This furnishes, 
of course, a very moving tableau. 

The fair girl, supposed to be dead, was laid out in 
her shroud, when Raoul, during the confusion of that 
terrible day for French Rule, the 13th September, 
calling to see her, finds her a corpse just ready for 
interment. Fortunately for the heroine, a bombshell 
forgotten in the yard, all at once and in the nick of 
time igniting, explodes, shattering the tenement in frag- 
ments. The concussion recalls Mdlle de Rochebrune to 
life ; a happy marriage soon after ensues. The chief 
character in the novel, the Intendant, sails shortly 
after for France, where he was imprisoned, as history 
states, in the Bastille, during fifteen months, and his 
ill-gotten gains confiscated. All this, with the exception 
of Mile, de Rochebrune's character, is strictly histori- 
cal; but what does not seem so, is the tragical end of 
Bigot, to whose death, in mid ocean, eaten by a rave- 
nous shark, we are made to assist. The Intendant had, 
it appears, decided to expatriate himself, after seeking 
to enlist the former partner of his amours, Madame 
Fdan, who then resided in France ; but he became so 
shocked, on seeing the once lovely face eaten up by a 
hideous cancer, that he sailed alone. Why the novelist 
should have introduced, this very unnecessary " shark 
and cancer scene " is hard to make out. It was con- 
trary to history, and out of the general run of events. 

Mr. Marmette had before his eyes a brilliant example 
in the author of Waverley's failure whenever be tried 
to heighten interest by resorting to such fare-fetched 

— 164 — 

agency. Not even all Sir Walter's genius saved from 
ridicule and censure the story of the bodkin and the 
White Lady of Avenel. These slight blemishes excepted, 
Mr. Marmette has produced a novel of which he may 
well be proud. It is the second of a series ; the third 
of which, "Le Chevalier de Momac," will appear 
shortly in Mr. Desbarats' excellent paper, L'Opmion 
Publique. It is to be followed, we understand, by 
another story, with Du Calvet, as hero, and by a fourth, 
delineating our own times. Success, say we, to native 
talent ! 


I am indebted to the veteran of French Canadian 
literature, Hon. P. Chauveau, for a copy of the essay 
on early French poetry, read by him at Ottawa, on the 
2Cth May, 1883, before the Eoyal Society of Canada.. 
It covers twenty folio pages of the " Transactions " of 
the Society. As a youthful record of the graphic 
Canadian Parnassus, it seems a truly valuable addition 
to our literature. Mr. Chauveau successively passes 
in review the writers whose effusions have found an 
appropriate niche in the " Repertoire National," com- 
piled by Mr. J. Huston, from 1845 to 1850i He begins 
his discourse with a mention of the first poetical piece, 
" Le Tableau de la Mer," written aboiit 1734 by Mon- 
sieur Jean Tach^ — the ancestor of the late Sir E. P. 
Tach^ — once a leading spirit in our little commercial 
world under the Bourbons and whose country-house 
was located on the Ste. Foye road, on the domain, to 
which its owner, Major Samuel Holland, gave the name 
of " Holland's Farm " about 1780. His city residence 
and oflSces stood on the lot now covered by the 
Quebec Morning Chronicle building. * 

Let us, at the outset, tender our grateful thanks to 
Mr. Huston, for having rescued from oblivion, at no 
small labor and expense, the pristine poetical outfit of 
French Canada, by collecting and printing it in those 
three bulky volumes which constitute the Repertoire 

(1) '' Etude sur lea PoSsiea de Francois- JTavier Gameau ei 
8Hr les commencements de la 'PoSsie FranpaUe du Canada f par 
M. Chauveau J Prisident de la SocUii Boy ale du Canada j Ac" 


— 166 — 

The learned Preaident of the Royal Society divides 
early French poets into four categories : the first, those 
of the classical school, like Michel Bibaud, more or less 
successful imitators of the French poets of the 17th 
century ; the second class is championed by Mr. Joseph 
Quesnel and reflects the literary form of the end of the 
18th century and of the first French Empire ; the third 
class embraces those writers hailing from the European 
school of 1830, whose happiest exponents among us 
were Messrs. Turcotte, R^al Angers, Barthe, Derome 
and Garneau. A fourth category includes the romantic 
school, represented by Mr. Joseph Lenoir and other 
kindred spirits, the forerunners of the bright poetical 
galaxy of to-day : Cr^mazie, Frechette, Le May, Suite, 
Chapman, Poisson. 

Of course, those early " metrical musings " were not 
all master-pieces ; with original beauties unquestion- 
able, were blended a few rude defects. Some of the 
writers had had access to original polite learning and 
refinement in Paris and had profited thereby. 

Several like Mermet and Quesnel, were born in 
France ; elegant versifiers, a little colony of sweet 
singers bent on continuing on the historic shores of the 
St. Lawrence, the tender madrigals, gentle ariettas, 
amorous ditties, which they had learned to warble on 
the flowery banks of the Seine. 

Of this school, one meets with occasional traces in 
the light " Sonnets to Chloe ", the patriotic appeals in 
journals, on New Year's day, on which the carrier-boy 
rested his hopes of the usual New Year's gift — possibly 
accompanied, on a frosty morning with un petit verre de 
liqueur, (A far more toothsome offering than the 
ancient GvignoU^ which some old Canadian Druid 
wished lately to resuscitate.) 

When the Repertoire National is silent, one can 
appeal again for lyrical, burning verses to the scented 
pages of ladies' albums forgotten in old escritoires, with 
a faded rosebud, a lock of hair, or other dear, but melan- 
choly souvenir, alas ! 

— 167 — 

The patriot's muse, though neither unknown, nor 
unseen in former times, in 1830, stands out in bold 
relief. If not always irresistable, her veiled or open 
glance occasionally captivates you ; her sad, prophetic 
notes semi-historical, semi-poetical, are doubly interest- 
ing under the latter aspect. Strange though it may seem, 
some of our profound lawgivers, Sir George Et. Cartier, 
as well as some of our most stirring actors in the stormy 
era of 1837, to wit: the Honorable A. N. Morin, (who, 
it is said drafted, in 1834, the 92 Resolutions) and the 
Honorable Denis Benjamin Viger, with his long, though 
in the end, faulty record of political services, figure, in 
the hey-day of their youth, as votaries to Phcebus- 

Numerous effusions of a political or patriotic cast 
appeared anonymously from 1830 to 1837. It was not 
always safe to speak out during the closing period 
when Louis Joseph Papineau was uttering his fierce 
denunciations from the floor of our Commons. A 
Montreal poet of that period, J. G. Barthe, found it so 
to his cost and discomfort in a aircere duro. The fact 
is that the Waterloo hero, Sir John Colborue, had a 
very qualified admiration for Canadian grievances ; he 
had not had time to study them ? and his active 
Attorney-General, Charles Richard Ogden, did not 
believe in them. 

Out of about twenty-one or twenty-two poetical 
writings of Mr. Garneau, nineteen appear in the Reper- 
toire National^ with his signature. In more than one, 
you are reminded of B^ranger, whom he had seen in 
Paris, and whom he much admired. As an instance 
among many others, may be cited VEtranger (1833). 
Some of his poetical essays are tolerably lengthy ; la 
Pologne (1835) : au Canada (1837) ; la Revue du 
Soldat (1838) in which he indulges in a cursory review 
of the leading events in French History ; la Presae 
(1839), a New Year's Address ; Louise^ a Canadian 
legend, (1840) and lea ExiUa (1841). 


— 168 — 

Despite some blemishes, which it were easy to remove 
and a few mannerisms, peculiar to Mr. Grameau, these 
effusions commend themselves to the reader, by the 
enduring loftiness of ideas ^and the nobleness of the 
sentiments. In those creations of a less ambitious 
flight, the poet, has been still happier ; for instance 
those bearing the title, d TnonjiU (1838), lea Oiseava 
Blarica (1839) ; VHiver (1840) and le PapiMon (1841). 
In the first piece " d rrion fils " the influence of Stran- 
ger and his school is quite marked : '' let us quote the 
opening hues : 

^^Lorsque tu dors sur le sein de ta mdre 
Souvent mes yeux s'arrStent sur tea traits 
Ou les Zephirs sous la gaze legere." 

But space precludes me from giving more of this exqui- 
site poem. Garneau's Oiseau Blanc, has ever been a 
favorite. It is indeed pleasant to think that the blithe, 
hardy friend of our boyhood, the Snow-bird, should 
have furnished to both Garueau and Frfohette the 
subject of one of their most graceful effusions : — 
Garneau's Oiseau Blanc begins thus : 

*' Salut, petits oiseaux qui volez sur nos.t^tes, 
Et de Paile en passant, effleurez les frimas ', 
Vous qui bravez le froid, berc6s par les tempStes 
Venez tous les hivers voltiger sous nos pas." 

Frechette's Oiseau Blanc thus holds forth : 

" Quand sur nos plaines blanches, 
Le giyre des hivers 
Commence a fondre aux branches, 
Des sapins toujours verts ; 
Quand diez nous se fourvoie 
Avril, le mois des fleurs, 
Le printemps nous envoie 
Ces gais avant-coureurs." 

L' Oiseau Blanc and Les Fleurs BoriaZea, were the 
two poems which brought to Mr. Frechette his acade- 

— 169 — 

mical crowD. To Mr. Garneau, the incomparable 
Beranger seems to have been what Victor Hugo has 

been to our Leaurate Frechette, a beacon But this 

notice has already exceeded the prescribed bounds. Let 
us, however, take this occasion to repeat that Canada, 
though rich in literary talent, is above all others, proud 
of Garneau and Frechette. It is likewise a hopeful 
thought to indulge in that notwithstanding the petty 
jealousies and other troubles which beset her men of 
letters, a Sainte-Beuve, in the person of Hon. Mr. 
Chauveau, stands forth to discuss fairly and dispassion- 
ately their claims, and a splendid volume is provided 
in the Tkansactions of the Eoyal Society of Canada 
to announce them abroad and at home. 

J. M. L. 

* That beautiful hymn of Isidore Bedard, a brother of the 
late Judge Elzear Bedard, was a New Year's address ; its 
opening words are : 

" Sol Canadien, terre cherie," 
" Par des Braves tu fus peupl^." 

Quebec, 27th February, 1884. 


In the Career of a Canadian Novelist. 

There is no book more suitable to a tourist in Canada, 
than Wm. Kirby's novel, The Golden Dog — Le Chien 
cCOr — as it is known to the bulk of the population. 

It is founded on two incidents of Canadian history of 
a striking nature : the one purports to recall a deed of 
blood and revenge under the French rule. For more 
than one hundred years its ghastly memory has brooded 

— 170 — 

over a locality, very familiar to every Quebecer, where 
stood a massive stone mansion, razed, in 1871, to make 
room^ for the present city post-office, on Buade street. 
Over its chief entrance was, and is still visible, the 
mysterious inscription, in old French, under a crouch- 
ing dog gnawing a bone, the whole in gilt characters : 

« " Je suis un chien qui ronge Pes, 
En le rongeaot, je prends mon repos ; 
Un temps viendra qui n'est pas venu, 
Que je morderai qui m'aura mordu.'' 

This inscription and tablet, which was an enigma to 
Capt. John Knox, of the 43rd, and was noticed in his 
Diary of the Siege of Quebec in 1759, has been a hard 
nut to crack to all our local antiquaries (1). Instead of 
viewing it as a legend, some attempted to clothe it in 
all the majestic drapery of history. 

The other incident embodied in this historical romance 
relates the lawless amours of one of the most notorious 
high officials, in the days of the Bourbon lily, Franqois 
Bigot, eleventh and last Intendant in Canada of the 
French king. The story ends tragically. 

How did the novel originate, as the author is not a 
Quebecer, but an active Collector of H. M/s Customs 
at the town of Niagara. I am proud to say that two 
sketches in my Maple Leaves for 1863, according to a 
letter from Mr. Kirby, in my possession, furnished the 
frame- work of this entrancing tale : The sketch of 
the Golden Dog^ a legend ; and also the History of 
ChdteaU'Bigot, where the Canadian Lovelace immured 
his " fair Eosamond. " Mr. Kirby, as an author, has 
met with the same fate as many of his confrires in 
Canada ; his volume has been remorselessly pillaged, 
especially by United States writers. 

(1) The history of the Golden Dog appears in full in the 
History of an old House, at p. 89 of Maple Leatbs for 1873. 

— 171 — 

The first edition was published by John Lovell, at 
Bouses Point, N. Y., an elegantly bound volume adver- 
tised at $3 a copy. Five or six subsequent editions 
have sprung up since, in coarse, cheap, paper-covered 
books, sold at 40 cents each. 

I know of one pleasant set-off against the unjustice 
of authors, for the genial, whole-souled novelist : the 
appreciation of his charming work by one whom, 
above all others, he respects. Of the following I have 
a personal knowledge : 

In the month of May, 1883, the usual annual gen- 
eral meeting of the Royal Society of Canada took place 
at Ottawa. An ** At home " had been ordered in honor 
of the members, at Eideau Hall, by His Excellency the 
Marquis of Lome, the founder of the society, to 
whom Canadian letters owe a substantial debt of 
gratitude. Wm. Kirby, F. R. S. C, was one of the 
honored guests. Wiien the presentation of the members 
was over, Her Royal Highness, the Princess Louise, 
sent one of the A. D. C.'s to Mr. Kirby, intimating her 
wish to speak to him. The retiring author of " TKe 
Golden Dog " respectfully came forward, when Princess 
Louise conveyed to him publicly the thanks of her 
royal mother for the pleasure she had felt in perusing 
the brilliant Canadian novel. The genial author, is now 
engaged collecting into a volume his detached poems, 
published in magazines and reviews. Let him accept, 
among the greetings and compliments of the season, this 
pleasant souvenir of other days. — (The Metropolitan,) 

J. M. LeMoine. 

Quebec, Christmas eve, 1892. 

[From The New York Oenealogical and Bioffraphieal ReeordJi 

By J. M. LeMoinb, F. E. S. C. 

The following is a short summary of what was done 
in Quebec to rescue from unmerited censure the name 
of the brave but ill-fated commander, Richard Mont- 
gomery, who fell at Pr^s-de-viUe, at Quebec, on 31st 
December, 1775. Several years have now elapsed since 
I undertook to vindicate the memory of Brig.-Gen. 
Richard Montgomery, unjustly aspersed by several of 
our leading French historians in Canada, who had con- 
founded him with his barbarous brother, Capt. Alex- 
ander Montgomery. As some writers have still persisted 
in holding Richard responsible for the acts of Alexander, 
notwithstanding the convincing proof I adduced in the 
Saturday Beader, in 1866, it may not be amiss to 
recapitulate, the salient points in my memoir. The 
charge of atrocious cruelty, brought by French writers 
against R. Montgomery, rests on the supposition that 
he was the " barbarous Captain Montgomery, who 
commanded us " (the 43rd Foot) — ^alluded to in Lieute- 
nant Fraser's Diary of the Siege of Quebec, in 1759 ; 
the entry runs thus : " 23rd August, 1759 — there were 
several of the enemy (the French) killed and wounded, 
and a few prisoners taken, all of whom the barbarous 
Captain Montgomery, who commanded us, ordered to 
be butchered in the most inhuman and cruel manner. 

(1) For an article on the ancestry of General Montgomeiy^ 
see Record for July, 1871, vol. II, p. 233. — Editor. 

— 173 — 

particularly two who I (Lieutenant Eraser) sent pri- 
soners by a Serjeant, after giving them quarter, and 
engaging that they should not be killed, were one shot, 
and the other knocked down with a tomakawk and both 
scalped in my absence by the rascally Serjeant neglect- 
ing to acquaint Montgomery, that I wanted them saved, 
as he, Montgomery pretended when I questioned him 
about it; but even that was no excuse for such an 
unparalleled piece of barbaiity. After this skirmish, we 
set to burning the houses with great success setting all 
in flames, till we came to the church of Ste. Anne." 
(Siege of Quebec, 1759, Fraser), I also for a time 
accepted the version promulgated by my respected 
seniors, until the discovery, in the archives of the 
Litei*ary and Historical Society, of documents which 
the Society, at my suggestion, printed. I allude to a 
dry-as-dust MS. letter which I found one day in ran- 
sacking among some old papers. It bore date, " Quebec, 
15th June, 1776 ", was addressed to a general officer 
in England, the writer's friend ; the latter part of the 
letter was missing, and so was the signature. In com- 
paring date with context, it was easy for me to fix on 
the writer ; evidently it was Major H. Caldwell, unbo- 
soming himself to his old commander. Brig.- Gen. James 
Murray. At p. 7 occurred the following, in alluding to 
the city blockade of 1775 : " General Montgomery 
(brother of him you might remember at Quebec, and 
lately a Capt. in the 17th Regt. "). There was a 
luminous flash in these few words ; two Montgomerys, 
then, I said, served King George II, in America, in the 
summer of 1759, Eichard Montgomery of the 17th 
foot and Capt. Alexander Montgomery of the 43rd, the 
regiment detailed to ravage with fire and sword St. 
Joachim, Ste. Anne, etc., near Quebec, the command- 
ing officer of the detachment connected with the Ste. 
Anne butchery, as stated by his subaltern. Lieutenant 
Fraser. Being then in correspondence with the late 
George Coventry, of Cobourg, who had been charged 

— 174 — 

by the Honorable Wm. Merritt to tranacaibe MSS. 
on our late wars, I induced him to help me to clear 
up this point, and to write to the War OfiBice, in London, 
to ascertain what regiment, and how many Mont- 
gomerys, had served in the campaign of 1759, at Quebea 
On the 22nd September, 1866, Lieutenant-General 
Peel, Secretary at War, instructed hia secretary, Ed. 
Lugard, to furnish Mr. Coventry with full particulars 
in reply to his inquiry. This courteous letter was sent 
me by old Mr. Coventry. It established conclusively 
that Alexander was the name of the Captain Mont- 
gomery of the 43rd ; and the Montgomery of the 17th 
a lieutenant in 1759 — was named Richard. We all 
know that the name of the luckless leader of the storm- 
ing party, at Prfes-de-ville, Quebec, on the 31st Decem- 
ber, 1775, was Eichard Montgomery. My memoir, with 
the documents on which it rests, appeared first in the 
Saturday Reader, published in Montreal in 1866, a 
French version was put forth in the Album du Ton- 
riste, p. 3-6, printed at Quebec in 1872, and is referred 
to in detail in the Report of the Centenary Anniversary 
of the repulse of Montgomery and Arnold before 
Quebec in 1775. See Transactions of the Literary and 
Historical Society, of Quebec, for 1876. 

Spencer Grange; Quebec, 1890. 

p. A. DE GASPE. 


" The period through which M. de G-aspe has lived (1786-. 
1871) has been so eventful, and the public occurences of his 
earlier years, were so brimful of romantic interest that he 
could hardly fail to be interesting, while pouring out the 
budget of l;^is recollections, even to listeners on this side of 
the Atlantic." — London Review^ 29 Octy 1864. 

On a frosty April morning, in 1863, I recollect 
meeting an erect, dignified, white-haired septuagenarian 
on the square fronting the Basilica Minor at Quebec. 
A pleasant greeting mutually exchanged, afforded me 
the welcome opportunity of complimenting " the 
youngest of our writers," as Hector Fabre facetiously 
styles M. P. A. de Grasp^, on his admirable Andens 
Canadiens, just published, and in the perusal of which 
volume, I had revelled the evening previous. It was, 
seemingly, by a providential dispensation, it occurred 
to me, that it had been revealed to the genial Seignior 
of Saint Jean Port- Joly, that at the advanced age of 
76 years, he was still fresh and buoyant enough in 
mind to wTite a book, and that, an uncommonly good 
one ; though he had never dreamed before of under- 
taking such a task. 

Philippe Aubert de Gasp^, born at Quebec, in 1786, 
was of Norman lineage, a descendant of a wealthy 
seignior, Charles Aubert de la Chenaye, of Amiens, 
France, who had settled in this city, in 1655, and died 
there 10th September, 1702. 

— 176 — 

This Aubert de la Chenaye had received, in 1693, a 
patent of nobility — lettrea de noblesse — from his sove- 
reign, King Louis XIV, for important services rendered 
by him to Canadian commerce, as well as for his mili- 
tary record and that of his sons one of whom had met 
his death in fighting the Mohawks. 

M. de la Chenaye, who had come to Canada with 
means, had, through some lucky speculations in trade, 
increased his wealth, and subsequently acquired several 
valuable land-grants ; among others, the seigniory of 
Saint Jean Poit-Joly, a part of Rivi6re-du-Loup and 
Cacouna, in 1673, of Madawaska and I^ke Temis- 
couata in 1683, of Blanc-Sablon, Labrador and New- 
foundland in 1693. He closed his career, at Quebec, 
in 1702, a member of the Superior Council. 

His son Pierre was the first to assume the name of 
Gasp^. He had a son, Ignace PhiUppe, a knight of 
St. Louis, who married Mile Catherine de VilUers, a 
sister of the famous VilUers de Jumonville, whose 
tragic death at Fort Necessity, in 1753, while acting as 
an interpreter, cast a shade on the fair fame of Col. 
Greorge Washington. The worthy old Canadian grandee 
died on 26th January, 1787, at Saint Jean Port-Joly, 
at his manor restored from its ruins, it having with his 
grist-mill, like crowds of dweUing houses, shared in the 
rural conflagrations lit by the invading host under 
General Wolfe in the war of the conquest. He was 
succeeded by his son, the Honble. Pierre Ignace Aubert 
de Gasp^, a member of the Legislative Council, the 
father of the writer, who had married, at Quebec, 
Mile Catherine Tarieu de Lanaudi^re, and who expired 
in 1823, respected for his loyalty in helping as a 
juvenile volunteer, in 1775, to hurl back the invaders 
of Canadian homes ; and loved by his feudal retainers 
for his paternal rule over them. 

On the 30th October, 1786, we are told by M. de 
Gasp4 that a sickly baby, whose fretfulness much dis- 
turbed the rest of his aged grandmother. Widow de 

— 177 — 

Lanaudifere. was born in the old Lanaudiere home- 
stead, at the top of Mountain hill, Quebec : this antique 
dwelling, well remembered yet by many Quebecers, 
disappeared about 1843, to make room for the present 
roomy and solid structure now known as the Cardi- 
nal's Palace. " After three months' incessant infantile 
music of a very lively nature, writes the author of 
the Canadians of Old, I was transfeiTed to the modest 
manor of Saint Jean Port-Joly, the new manor, built 
on the site of the sumptuous one which Messieurs 
les Anglais had so ruthlessly burnt to the ground in 
1759." Here M. de Gasp^'spent the blissful hours of 
his childhood, on the shores of the great river, with 
a stretci of water before him, illimitable like his 
thoughts, extending to the stormy waves of the gulf. 
His parents sent him at the age of nine years to learn 
in the city, the first lessons, in a boarding-house kept 
by two prim, old ladies of the name of Cholette. He 
was soon promoted to the blue coat of a Quebec Semi- 
nary boy ; bright and mischievous, he went through 
his course of studies in this hoary seat of learning, was 
indentured as a law student to Attorney Greneral 
Jonathan Sewell, subsequently our respected Chief 
Justice, practised his profession a few years, at the 
Quebec bar, and was then offered and accepted the 
responsible oflSce of High Sheriff of the Quebec District. 
Alas ! had he been able to read in the future, what it 
had in store for him, or rather what the neglect of his 
official duties entailed on him, he would have shunned 
it, shunned it to the last 1 Ample means inherited, a 
strong love for manly sports and social life soon sur- 
rounded him with congenial spirits. Advantage was 
taken of his confiding and generous nature ; fair 
weather friends won his confidence ; more than one 
applied to him for temporary loans; their I. 0. U., 
bearing his endorsation, went to protest! Loss of office, 
followed by law proceedings and something much worse, 
overtook the open-handed, heedless sheriff. 


— 178 — 

" Alas ! " says he with some bitterness, in his stirring 
novel, through the lips of his hero, M. d'Egmont, 
" where are those days when friendly faces crowded at 
my festive board ? What has become of that hopeful 
dawn in my existence, when I trusted friends, when 
I had faith in gratitude, when the foul word ingratitude 
was yet unrevealed to me ? " 

M. de Gaspe, after his worst trial, retired from city 
life and buried himself amidst his books into the seclu- 
sion of his rustic manor for years ; let us follow him in 
his pleasant exile. 


Now that the reader has been introduced to the Laird 
of Haberville Manor, let us refer to his sympathetic 
biographer, the Abb^ Henry E. Casgrain. for a glimpse 
of his cherished home at St. Jean Port- Joly. 

It presents a not inappropriate type of the more modem 
Canadian seignioral manor, prior to the commutation 
of the seigniorial tenure, by act of pariiament, in 1854. 
Few traces now exist of the feudal grand mansions of 
olden times ; several of which, on account of their 
warlike records, were noted in Canadian annals. 

In vain would one seek, in our day, for the solid, oft' 
sumptuous stone-structure, with gibbet, lock-up, gate- 
posts blazoned with armorial-quarterings : such that 
of the high and mighty Seignior Jean Talon, Intendant 
of Canada and Baron d'Orsainville (1). 

In vain, to look for the loop-holed and walled fort, 
with guard-house, towers and platforms for howitzers 
to scatter destruction among the skulking Iroquois, 
watching from the next thicket for a white scalp ; such, 

(1) Talon's Patent empowered him to establish '* a goal, a 
four post gib))et...a post with an iron collar, on which his 
arms sliould be engraved." 

— 179 — 

as Baron de Longueuil's solid manor at Longueuil. (1) 
The neighboring banal oven, has crumbled to dust ; 
the banal grist-mill, on the brook, in view of the manor 
for greater protection — has ceased to grind corn ; both 
have disappeared. Mr. Dnimmond's seigniorial Act of 
1854, did not even recognize the not very profitable 
though prized privilege of the seigniorial dove-cot F 
Alas! the staunch, well guarded ancient manor, 
which sheltered the dignified Baron of other days, has 
disappeared " with the last of the Capulets ! " 

Here is what the Abb^ has to tell : " The sei- 
gniorial residence, which M. de Grasp^ has immor- 
talized in his Andena Canadiens under the name of 
the manor of Haberville, stands a few acres from the 
St. Lawrence, in front of a little cape crowned with 
pine, spruce and silver-birch trees. At its base runs 
the King's highway. A superb view of the river and 
its many islands, here opens out. Facing it, looms 
over the waters, the two pillars, well-known landmarks 
to mariners, the wood-pillar and the stone-pillar, with 
its luminous beacon ; one, solitary and barren, like the 
enchantress Circe's rock of Oea ; the other, evergreen, 
like the Isle of Calypso." 

(1) BaroD de Ijongueirs royal patent describes his Manor 
thus : {Seigniorial Documents — 1852, ps. 448 and -188) " He 
has erected at his own cost a fort supported by four strong 
towers of stone and masonry, with a guard-house, several 
large dwellings, a fine church, bearing all the insignia of 
nobility ; a spacious farmyard, in which there is a barn, a 
stable, a sheep pen, a dove-cot and other buildings, all of 
which are within the area of the said fort j next to this stands 
a banal mill, a fine brewery of masonry, together with a large 
retinue of servants, horses and equipages." 

In a recent history of Longueuil, it would appear that the 
new church ot longueuil has been built over tlie site of the 
glorious old Longueuil Fort. The werlike Baron api^arently 
appreciated a glass of sound ale, since he built a breweiy. 

Query : Is there any more of tlie Baron's XX in stock in 
Montreal ? 


— 180 — 

In the distance are visible Seal Rocks, Groose and 
Crane Islands ; further still, due north, Coudres Island ; 
on the opposite shore, four or five leagues away, the 
eternal, frowning range of lofty capes, the Laurentides, 
blue in the distance, doing duty as a back-ground to 
the glowing picture. 

The manor, now rtmning to decay, is a comparatively 
modern, a one-storied, high-peaked structure with two 
wings projecting towards the entrance. 

It traces back nearly to the era of the conquest ; 
having been erected to replace the building burnt by 
the English, in 1759. 

There was nothing remarkable about the style of this 
second Manor, except that its uniform whiteness and 
general neatness, brought it out agreeably, in relief 
and as a contrast amidst the surrounding greenery and 

A flower and vegetable gaixien, rows of fruit trees, 
M. de Gasper's pets, decked and overshadowed the 
avenue leading to the front entrance. 

Silence, desertion, decay have now replaced careful 
culture, the hum and bustle of life, the merry peel 
of laughter, which of yore echoed in that blithsome 
land, when M. de Gaap^'s large family circle was 
gathered there. 

I can recall the time when it was the abode, and 
meeting-plaoe of inmates and visitors as bright as they 
were amiable : the laird's hospitality was unbounded ; 
here met the families de Gaspi^, de Lanaudi^re, Baby 
and others ; M. de Grasp^ was the life and soul of every 
family reunion. 

His buoyant spirits, sparkling conversation, bound- 
less information on every subject, happy mode of 
conveying it, were marvellous. 

When the conversation began to flag, he used to take 
from the shelves of his well stocked library a volume 
of Racine, of Moliere, or of Shakespeare, and keep our 

— 181 — 

attention rivetted by his fascinating and animated way 
of reading aloud. 

So attractive this style of amusing others had proved 
that M. de Gasp^ has translated, for the benefit of the 
family cii'cle, in French and copied out in his own 
hand, nearly all the Waverly. Novels for evening 
readings. This furnishes a clew to, and the origin of 
the Canadians of Old, that fragrant blossom of spring 
amidst the snows of winter. A deep study of the 
master-minds in literature had sharpened his intellect 
to that degree, that this volume, like an antique 
Minerva, sprang from his brain, a complete and fully- 
equipped creation. Occasionally, to whet the appetite 
of his youthful listeners for intellectual treats, he would 
get them to act some of Berquin's exquisite, short 
dramas or a scene from the Arabian Nights. The grand 
salon on such occasions was put in requisition ; a few 
friends were then admitted on these gala nights, as 
well as a sprinkling of his tenants. 

Day time was devoted to shooting or angling excur- 
sions, saunterings on the shore, field or garden opera- 
tions on his grounds, with scraps of legal advice — he 
being a barrister — given gratis to neighbors and tenants 
from far and near. 

Now and then a fite champStre or picnic was set on 
foot to the adjoining hills, or under the shade of his 
verdant maple groves. The jolly young folks, approach- 
ing the manor on their return, were heard from afar, 
brimful of glee and boisterously repeating some old 
Norman or Canadian ballad : 

" Ramenez vos moutons, bergdre, 
Belle berg^re, ramenez vos moutons." 

— 182 — 



In the previous chapter, the reader has followed 
M. de Gasp4 through his bright, sunny boyhood, his 
boisterous youth, his sport-loving manhood, so full of 
promise and professional success at its dawn, in its 
zenith, clouded and very dark. 

His first work, Les Anciens Canadiens, by its fresh- 
ness and piquancy of style and by its wealth of old 
souvenirs, and traditions accumulated in its copious 
appendix, had quite taken by storm the little literary 
world of the *' Ancient Capital ; " congratulations, eulog- 
istic reviews and critiques, poured in from all quarters. 
De Gasp^'s heroes and heroines, Jules de Haberville, 
his lovely sister Blanche, Archy Lockeil, the old gen- 
tilhoifnme M. d'Egmont, were in every one's mouth, 
discussed, admired. 

** Les Anciens Canadians " was more than a pleasing 
tale, illustrative of early colonial life and Canadian 
scenes : it struck one as an artistic canvass, alive with 
romantic personages and dramatic events, I'ecalling the 
days of alarm, rout and blooshed of 1759. Under the 
veiled figure of M. d'Egmont, a careful eye could recog- 
nize the still genial, but saddened face of the Laird of 
Haberville Manor in his exile. 

In the graphic description of the shipwreck of the 
transport August e^ on the storm-beaten shores of Cape 
Breton, in 1761, the harrowing dro waning- scene of a 
group of distinguished Canadians expatriating them- 
selves and returning to France, was reproduced with 
marvellous, realistic effect. 


— 183 — 

The recognition, at Haberville Manor by its seignior, 
of the only survivor, Luc de la Come St. Luc, brought 
tears to many eyes. 

Mr. de Gasp^ had shown himself to be not a mere 
clever delineator of character and incidents ; his part 
seemed also to have been that of a gifted historian, with 
ample stores of material to draw from. He had, from 
the haunted halls of memory, summoned with striking 
felicity those whom in his youth he had known, 
admired and loved : men of martial aspect, women oif 
courtly nurture, who had sat at the festive board of 
Governor de VaudreuO, or taken a part in the revels of 
the magnificent Intendant Bigot. 

The first edition of Lea Anciens Ganadiens disap- 
peared, as if by magic, from the bookseller's shelves. 
The work soon met with a translator in Mdme Pennde ; 
very recently one of our most gifted poets, Geo. C. D. 
Eoberts, has placed it before the British public, in 
elegant English. 

The De Gasp^ Memoirs have a fault — a grave one. 
The facinated reader finds them much too short. 563 
pages to embody an account of so many varied incidents, 
covering seventy-nine years ; this is indeed a scanty 
and too concise a record. 

Such as they are, let us be thankfuU to the compiler 
who thus awoke to find himself famous at the ripe age 
of 79. 

As a whole, however, they are far from attaining 
perfection. Many pages relating to family history and 
ancestry might have been curtailed ; they must be of 
very secondary interest to the general reader. But with 
some short-comings, what a fund of wit, good-humored 
repartee, keen observation is mixed up ! I cannot pre- 
tend to disclose but short glimpses of social life, vistas 
of the domestic career of some of our Governors, so 
pleasantly told by M. de Gaspe, trusting those unwritten 
pages of history may amuse. 

— 184 — 

Mr. de Gasp6 evidently saw a great deal of several 
of our parliamentary leaders in days of old : L. J. Papi- 
neau, Hon'ble Louis Ignace d'Irumbery de Salaberry, 
Hon'ble Dr. Pierre de Sales Laterrifere (1), Hon'ble 
John Neilson, Hon'ble Eemi Valli^res de Saint-R^al. 
A practising barrister, he had splendid opportunities of 
noting the career of the most prominent members of 
the Quebec Bar : Hon'ble Jonathan Sewell, his pat7'on, 
Sir James Stuart, Valli^res de Saint-Rdal — all three 
successively Chief Justices, Hon'ble Frs. W. Prim- 
rose (2), Henry Black, &c. Many a spicy anecdote 
he has also to relate about his contemporary confreres 
of less note : Moquin, the incorruptible jurist ; Ls. 
Plamondon, the eloquent pleader ; the scholarly Solicitor 
General and statesman, Andrew Stuart, Q. C, who died 
in 1840, the father of our ex Chief Justice, Sir Andrew 
Stuart; courteous Judge Elz^ar Bedard ; upright Judge 
Panet, without forgetting the witty, jovial, dissipated, 
but gifted Justin McCarthy, a barrister, quite a char- 
acter in his day ; a victim in the end to that merciless 
destroyer, King Alcohol. 

Let us note some of De Gaspe's anecdotes concerning 
our Governors. 

The presence of the Canadian seignior and of his 
handsome family at the charmed circle of the Chdteau 
St. Louis, and later on, in those delightful fStes ckam- 
pStrea at Powell Place — now Spencer Wood — then 
occupied in summer by Sir James Henry Craig, our 
Governor, has afforded the author subjects for most 
pleasant souvenirs and some spicy anecdotes. If guber- 
natorial festivities in those days were not on so vast, so 

(1) Dr. Pierre Laterriere, went to London, studied medi- 
cine under Sir Astley Cooper and married there, an heiress j 
Miss Bulmer, the daughter of Sir Fenwick Buhner. 

(2) For years a leading Barrister, of the Quebec Bar — the 
uncle of the Earl of Roseberry, Prime Minister of Great 

— 185 — 

comprehensive a scale as at present, there was a cordia- 
lity in social intercourse, an abandon, un je Tie sais 
quoi, wliich in many cases seemed to soften the hearts 
of more than one rabid political opponent of the Gov- 
ernor. De Gasp^ has left a most seductive portrai- 
ture of a grand fSte chamjoStre held at Powell Place, in 
the lively era of Little King Craig, as he was then 
styled (1). It took place in 1807. Though Sir James H. 
Craig made, in our opinion, a grave mistake in his mode 
of administering the colony, which he seems to have 
taken for a military camp, the old martinet had his 
good points, and Mr. de Gasp6, though a firm upholder 
of the Gallic Lily, has the courage to give his testimony 
squarely in favor of the English Vice-Roy. 

The Memoirs cover seventeen chapters. 

In Chap. II, is related the merry interview of the 
Duke of Kent, at the Island of Orleans, about 1792, 
with a sprighty centennarian lady. The prince had 
asked the ancient damsel what he could do to please 

The spruce old Islander replied, " Dance a minuet, 
nion prince, with me ! I can then say that before 
dying I had the honor of dancing with the son of my 
sovereign (George III) 1 " 

H. R. H. led out his partner ; the minuet over, he 
gallantly conducted back his danseuae to her seat, when 
she made him a very dignified curtesy. We are next 
told of the heroic manner one of the Duke's privates in 
the 7th Fusiliers, who had deserted, had taken the 999 
lashes of the cat-o'nine tails. La Eose, such was his 
name, a Frenchman, reprieved from the death penalty 
for desertion, in a defiant manner thus spoke to his 
commanding officer; " Frenchmen require cold lead, 
not the whip, to be made to obey ! " 

(I) See Picturesque Quebec " A Fete Champetre at Powell 
Place," p. 343. 


— 186 — 

Another notable character in the Memoirs, is Father 
<ie Berey, Superior of the Franciscan Monastery, which 
stood partly on the site of the Anglican Cathedral, and 
was destroyed by fire on the 6th Sept., 1796. 

The Superior, a descendant of a noble French house, 
was a brusque, quick-witted, convivial old soul, who 
never forgot that at one time he had been a captain in 
the French Dragoon guards. I reserve for an other 
chapter some of his excentricities as related by M. de 

The author of the Canadians of Old, respecting the 
cession of Canada by France to England, remarks: 
" I never knew one of the people charge its loss to the 
" French King. Twas all the work of Ld Pompadour ; 
" she sold the country to the English ; " this was a 
" frequent and a bitter saying." 

Graphic is the passage, descriptive of the painful 
impression, caused by the news of the decapitation of 
Louis XVI. " In 1793," says he, " though aged but 
seven, a family occurrence impressed me so that the 
scene seems as of yesterday. It took place in the 
winter season. My mother, my aunt, her sister, Marie 
Louise de La Naudifere, were seated at a table chatting, 
my father was just opening out his newspaper. The 
family was trying to read in his face the tenor of the 
foreign intelligence, French affairs having of late been 
of a saddening nature. 

All at once my father, bounding from his seat, his 
great black eyes flashing fire, whilst a deadly pallor 
spread over his features usually so full of color, yelled, 
raising both hands to his head : " The monsters ! they 
have guillotined their King ! ! " 

Mv mother and her sister burst into tears and both 
leaning long on the sash, I could see the steam of their 
warm breath on the frosted panes. From that day I 
realised the horrors of the French Kevolution. A wave 
of profound sorrow swept over Canada ; all were 
deeply grieved, except a few rabid democmts. Some 


— 187 — 

months later there happened to be company at the St. 
Jean Port-Joly Manor. Among those present were Rev. 
Messire Peras, our parish priest ; Bev. Messire Ver- 
rault, pastor of St. Roch, and Rev. Messire Panet, pastor 
of Islet, brother to the first Speaker of our Canadian 

The animated conversation running on politics, was 
all Hebrew to me. 

— " To think," said Rev. Messire Panet, " that at the 
time of the King's execution there were in France forty 
thousand priests ! " 

— " What could they have done ? " replied Rev. 
Messire Peras. 

— " What could they have done ? " instantly rejoined 
Ciit6 Panet, thi owing open that portion of his clerical 
garment which covers the heart. " Shield his majesty 
with their bodies and die at his feet 1 That aught to 
have been their part, not emigrating." 

— " It seemed beyond belief," adds Mr. de Gasp^, 
" that a loyal people like the French should rise and 
assassinate a good sovereign, and that a chivalrous race 
should stoop to cut off the heads of noble women — still 
more noble by their dignified bearing: — in presence of 
the block." 

Mr. de Gasp^ tells how a distinguished Canadian 
gentleman, M. de Beletre, happened to be in Paris on 
the day when the King was beheaded. Aware of the 
real sentiments of the person with whom he was stopp- 
ing, he was amazed at seeing him leave home that 
morning, wearing a tricolor cockade and asked : " Where 
then are you going, my friend ? " 

" To the place of execution," he replied, ** to save my 
head, that of my wife, those of any childred and your 
own ! " 

He returned, threw himself into his wife's arms, 
weeping. " To-day," said he, " I have had the anguish 
of seeing the King's head roll at my feet." 


— 188 — 



The hold retained by the De Gasp^ Memoirs on the 
reading public is mainly due to the valuable and much 
needed light shed by them on the social aspect of a 
remote, rather misty period in Canadian annals. Unques- 
tionably the genial seignior of St. Jean Port-Joly, has 
invested with lasting charm this record of the stormy 
days of yore. His facile pen, aided by his marvellous 
memory and social position, brings one face to face with 
contemporaries of note, noteworthy men and women 
who existed one hundred years ago. We fancy we see 
them in flesh and blood ; we watch them gracefully or 
sorrowfully moving through the maze of the all-per- 
meating, overpouring drama of the time ; some of them 
unwilling, tenxDrised contemporaries of the appalling 
scenes, of blood proscription and anguish organized in 
France by Fouqiiier-Tinville and Robespierre. Occasion- 
ally, our old friend tries his hand at reproducing on the 
canvass a brief sketch of some distinguished French 
^migr^s : such as that of the devoted priests, the Abbe 
de Colonne, brother to the French Minister of State, or 
the Abb^ Desjardins, both glad to escape the guillotine, 
and find life secure under the aegis of British power at 
Quebec ; sueingfrom a protestant monarch, hesitatiogly 
but successfully, for a boon denied to them in their own 
favored, but distracted and frenzied country, the right 
to worship their maker according to their own lights ; 
sometimes, one is called on to greet an eminent person- 
age, happy to exchange the pomp and show of the old 
world for a secure Canadian home. 

At page 88, M. de Gaspe introduces us, as follows, to 
a village celebrity, still well remembered, in the settle- 

— 189 — 

ments of the Lower Saint Lawrence : a veteran of the 
Napoleonic wars, bent with years, but still jauntily 
sporting the medals and decorations awarded him by 
the Petit Caporal, for Wagram, I^na or Austerlitz. 

Let us translate : ** I advise, says M. de Gasp^, per- 
sons visiting Rivifere-du-Loup, to call on Monsieur 
Louis, a relic of the French army, decorated with the 
St. Helena medal ; and they will thank me. Our friend 
Monsieur Louis (he has as many friends as he has 
acquaintances) is a fine-looking old man, with face 
ruddy, simple manners, and a ready, taking address, 
recalling ingeniously, — but leaving out, the creditable 
part played in them by himself — the events of which 
he has been an eye-witness. This Nestor of the French 
army, through the kindness of a church sexton, a friend 
of his father, saw Louis XVI, and his family assist at 
a low mass in a chapel, the name of which I have for- 
gotten. From his father's farm, two leagues out of Paris, 
he remembers hearing the* boom of the great guns at 
the taking of the Bastille. Every respectable person in 
France, he says, shu(idered at the sight of the horrors 
committed on French soil. But stupor had seized hold 
of the population, no one dared raise a voice. 

Monsieur Louis had made the first Italian campaign 
under the great Napoldon and laid down his sword only 
after the disaster of Waterloo. He was then serving 
under General Grouchy ; he does his utmost to excul- 
pate his chief for not appearing in time on that battle- 
field, so disastrous to France. " The roads, says M. 
Louis, were so horrible that the Prussians had aban- 
donned their artillery and their heavy baggage and 
Grouchy was naturally led to believe that Bliicher 
could not have reached the battle field before night." 

" There is nothing strange, in Canadians of old, retain- 
ing before the French revolution of '89, their liking for 
France; their intercourse with their French compatriotes 
had not been much interrupted. Since the conquest, 
in 1759, several Canadian gentlemen, Messrs. de Sala- 

— 190 — 

berry, de Saint Luc, de L^ry, de Saint Ours, my two 
uncles, de La Naudi^re and others, were in the habit of 
speaking enthusiastically of France, of the magnificence 
and glitter of Versailles, of the kind heartedness of tlie 
King, of the beauty of the Queen, and of the aflfabihty 
of the whole French Court. M. de Salaberry had seea 
the Dauphin at the garden of the Tuileries, in the arms 
of a lady of honor, to witness the , ascent of a balloon 
launched by the Montgolfier Brothers. " This loveable 
and handsome child," used he to say, " raised his Utile 
hands to heaven, to which, after enduring horrible tor- 
tures, he was soon to wing his flight," and every one 
deplored the royal misfortunes and execrated the tor- 
mentors — les bourreaux, M. Louis Ren6 Glhaussegros 
de L^ry belonged to Louis XIV's body guard ; happen- 
ing to be absent on leave, on the 10th August 1793, 
he thus escaped the massacre of that day. On his 
return to Canada, he was in the habit of singing a 
touching lament which brought tears to the eyes of all 
who heard him. Though I was very young at that 
time and can remember it but imperfectly, I shall recall 
it and leave it to our poets, should they not like my 
version, to improve on it. 

Lady Milnes, the wife of Governor Sir Robt. Shore 
Milnes, asked M. de L^ry to sing this lament at a 
dinner given at the Ch&teau Saint Louis ; bursting into 
tears on listening to the first stanza, she left the table, 
but returning after ten minutes, she requested M. de 
Lery to continue : — 

" Un troubadour Bearnais, (1) 
Les yeux inond^s de larmes, 
A ses montagnards chantait 
Ce refrain, sourd d'alarmes : 
Le petit-fils de Henri 
Est prisonnier dans Paris I 

(!) Henri IV was a native of Beam, re-united to France 
by Louis XIII. 


— 191 — 

II a vu couler le aang 

I>6 oette garde fidele, 

Qui vient d'oifrir en mourant 

Aux Fran^ais un vrai modele. 

En combattant pour Louis, 

Le petit-fils de Henri. 

Ce dauphin, ce iils ch^ri, 

Qui faisait notre esp^rance ! 

De pleura sera done nourri I 

Le berceau qu'on donne en Franco 

Au petit-fils de Henri 

Sont les prisons de Paris 1 

Au pied de ce monument > 

Ou le bon Henri respire 
Pourquoi Tairain foudroyant? 
On veut done qu'Henri conspire 
Lui-meme contre ses iils 
Les prisonniers de Paris ! 

Fran9ais ! trop ingrats Frangais I 
Rendez JjOuis et sa campagne : 
C'est le bien des Bearnais, 
C'est le ills de la montagne ; 
Le prisonnier de Paris 
Est toujours le fils d'Henri. 

The Memoirs contain a graphic account of the tragic 
death, in 1811, of one of the uncles of M. de Gaspe, 
Charles de Lanaudifere, who, under General de L^vi, 
had been seriously wounded at the battle of Ste. Foye, 
on the 28 April 1760; he was then 16 years old. 
Charles de Lanaudi^re, a brave and intelligent French 
officer, M. de Gasp^ regrets to say, was not of a 
communicative turn of mind, else he might have consi- 
derably enlarged the budget of interesting anecdotes 
which our genial old raconteur had to impart. The 
author of the Memoirs, on mentioning the battle of Ste. 
Foye, chronicles a dainty tid-bit of seige narrative 
thus ; " One day, that my uncle Baby and myself, we 

— 192 — 

were driving past Dumont's mill, (1) he stopped the 
carriage and said : 

" You see this water course running north, well, 
during the engagement of 1760, there was lying on 
this plain M. de LaRonde, a brave officer, mortally 
wounded. We were retreating at the double, mown 
down by the English artillery and hacked by the 
Highlanders' claymores, when on passing close to this 
officer, he said to me, " A boire ! mon cher petit mon- 
sieur, je vous prie ! " (Water ! for me, dear sir.) I 
pretended not to hear him, the enemy was raining on 
us a hell-fire and had I tried to give him water, I likely 
the next minute would have had to ask my comrades 
for a similar service. 

We had been ejected for the second time from this 
important position, my uncle Baby added, but we 
reformed our ranks behind a grove of trees, of which 
you can still see remnants, and attempting for a third 
time the assaults with fixed bayonets, we crushed the 
enemy and left the mill (Dumont's) only to pursue the 
flying English and to try and thrust them into the 
River Saint-Chailes, so as to prevent them from regain- 
ing Quebec. This was a gi'eat blunder on our part ; 
the city gates having remained open fully two hours, 
we could have entered with the fugitives in the confu- 
sion. Several Canadians present at the fight have 
attested this fact to me." 

To return to the account of the death of M. de La 
Naudifere, who had an agreeable interview with George 
III, when still a French subject, and still more satis- 
factory meeting with His Majesty after the conquest, the 
English king having recognized him after an interval of 
fifteen years, this old 7nilit<iire, strange to say, caught 
his death from exposure, one cold September night in 

(1) It stood on the spot were the L§vi pillar was erected 
in 1855. 

— 193 — 

1811, on his way home, after dining at Ste. Foye with 
one Mr. Ritchie, from an attack of indigestion, having 
fallen from his horse, near the very spot where he had 
been wounded, at the battle of Ste Foye, fifty-one years 
previous, where he was found early next morning 



In the previous chapter, mention was made of the 
light cast on the social life of the representative of 
royalty, at the Chdteau St, Louis, and of the enter- 
tainments afforded the guests admitted within its aris- 
tocratic circles. 

judged from modern standard, vice-regal hospitality 
seems to have been neither plenteous, nor magnificent ; 
not . even when proud old Count de Frontenac was 
lording it in the heyday of his splendor, on the histo- 
ric old rock. Of the gluttonous repasts — festins d 
Toanger tout, of those unsatiable cormorants, the native 
Indians, we have most circumstantial records ; not so, 
of the entertainments of the early representatives of the 
Grand Monarque, in the citadel of French power, in 

'Tis a pity no court journal should have existed to 
tell all about the ton, as well, as of the order of prece- 
dence at the Governor's mahagony. 

I can recall, when in 1880, was mooted the question 
of what might have been, two centuries ago, at official 
dinners in the Castle St. Louis, the social status of the 
most illustrious colonist of the period, Charles LeMoyne, 


— 194 — 

created a Baron by Louis XIV, it was found impos- 
sible to produce any record establishing the place 
assigned to him by virtue of his royal patent. 

Thus has remained in abeyance the ticklish question 
whether Charles Colmore Grant, the lineal descendant 
of the Baron de Longueuil, so graciously recognized as 
a Baron by Her Majesty, the Queen, ought to take 
precedence on state occasions of Canadian knights, &c. 

The " period of high living, fast women and gambling " 
generally styled in Canadian annals— the Bigot regime 
is better known to us in this respect. Franquet and 
other contemporary chroniclers have left lively accounts 
of social customs, without forgetting those fashionable 
routs and charming petite aoupers of which the Inten- 
dance was the chief theatre before the conquest. There 
yet however remained several decades undescribed. 
M. de Gaspd has bridged over a large portion of the 

Whilst the Memoirs bring out in relief several impor- 
tant historical incidents, they also furnish a number of 
light, gossipy pages, and familiar anecdotes showing the 
inner-life and domestic ways of those at the top of the 
social ladder. 

M. de Gasp^ has a happy manner of setting forth 
some of those airy nothings. I append an example in 
point ; though, translated in a dififerent idiom, it neces- 
sarily loses much of its freshness and charm. 

One regrets that the old Laird of St. Jean Port-Joly 
has not furnished more reminiscences of the protmcted 
existence vouchsafed to him and comprising the admi- 
nistration of so many English Governors : Haldimand, 
Lord Dorchester, General Prescott, Sir J. Coape Sher- 
brooke, the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Dalhousie, 
Lords Aylmer and Gosford, Loixl Durham, Sir John 
Colbome, Lord Bagot, Earl Cathcart, Lord Elgin, Sir 
Edmund W. Head, Lord Monck. 

The following anecdotes relate to a serious trouble 
between one of our most beloved administrators, Lord 


— 195 — 

Dorchester, surnamed in 1775, the " Saviour of Canada " 
and the clerk of the weather. His Excellency had 
retained the sei-vices of an estimable old captain of 
militia (Captain Gouin, of Ste. Anne de la Parade) to 
drive him one bitter winter day. " I soon noticed, says 
Captain Gouin, that His Excellency's nose had become 
perfectly white from the intense cold. The Governor's 
nose was a marvellous one as to size ; I may be allowed 
to venture so far without disrespect to his memory. 
His Lordship, a thorough gentleman, as courteous to a 
peasant as he would have been to a king, spoke French 
like one of us, and was quite communicative. 

" Your Excellency, " says I, " pardon the liberty I 
take, but your nose is frozen to a crisp. " 

— ** What then is to be done ? " replied his Lordship,, 
raising his hand to his unfortunate nose. 

" Well I Hum ! Do you see, Tnon G^niral** retoited 
Captain Gouiu, " so far, my experience has been limited 
to dealing with Canadian noses ; an English nose might 
possibly require a different treatment." 

— " What would you do to thaw a Canadian nose ? " 
asked Lord Dorchester. 

" A Canadian nose, your Excellency, is inured to 
hardship, and we treat it accordingly." 

— " Just suppose," retorted the saviour of Canada, 
** that you are prescribing for a Canadian and not for 
an English nose." 

" Veiy well, your Excellency, but an other diflSculty 
may arise. Englishmen are not ail privileged to own a 
Governor's nose, and therefore proper respect and con- 
sideration is due. — '* 

— ** D — your eyes ! " ejaculated the agonizing Gover- 
nor, '* due respect and consideration be hanged ! Don't 
you see, my unlucky nose will soon be dropping off ! " 

" That remedy is inexpensive and close at hand," 
retorted the scared militia oflBcer. '* I have plenty under 
my cariole. Snow ! " Eub well I " 


— 196 — 


QUEBEC, 1796. 

Occasionally, the diguitaries representing Britain on 
our shores seem, in early times, to have playfully laid 
aside official reserve, mingling with the French colon- 
ists, through curiosity or possibly to judge by them- 
selves what the latter thought of their new English 

Some of these familiar interviews with King George's 
new subjects, were not without a spice of fun. 

" General Prescott, says M. de Gasp($, was much 
liked by the French-Canadians, and not unfrequently, 
sought other light than what he received from his 
entourage, much, in the end, to the disgust of the 
latter. I knew him in my youth : he was a diminutive 
old man — simple in his manners and dressed in w^inter 
as if he longed to imitate that famous personage of the 
Arabian Nights^ Sultan Aaroon. 

A Beauport fanner, in 1796, conveying to Quebec a 
load of fire- wood, met on the ice on the River St. Charles 
an elderly man wrapped up in a great coat, the worse 
of usage, and wearing a martin cap anything but new ; 
his red, bleared eyes were watery. Jeavr-Baptiste took 
compassion on the woe-lJegone wayfarer, who seemed 
tired and said ; " You look fatigued, p^re, my vehicle 
is not very grand, but you will fare better on top of 
my load than trudging in this heavy snow." 

The wayfarer readijy assented and took his seat on 
the load, when a lengthy conversation was exchanged 
between him and the kind-hearted farmer. 

On the sleigh reaching the foot of Palace Hill, the 
farmer was rather surprised to see that his new 
acquaintance, without apparent regard for his horse, did 
not dismount, but concluded that the poor old fellow 
was quite exhausted by fatigue and that after all, his 
mare, being a powerful beast, would not mind this 
additional light weight. 


— 197 — 

" Guard ! turn out ! " roared the sentry on duty, on 
the sledge passing the city gate. The elderly man raised 
his cap. Jean-Baptiste looked round, saw no military 
man in the neighborhood and also raised his ^red tvque^ 
saying, "Civility must be returned." The farmer's 
sleigh then continued, through Fabrique street, its ascent 
towards the wood market, which in those days stood on 
the square opposite the Basilica, conveying on his load 
his new acquaintance. 

" Guard I Turn out 1 " sung out the sentry at the 
entrance to the old Military Jesuits Barracks (removed 
in 1877.) The aged man saluted the guard and also 
returned the respectful salutation of several citizens 
standing by; Jean-Baptiate again raised his tuque^ 
bowing both to the guard and the citizens, apparently 
quite pleased to note the' progress good manners had 
made in the city since his last visit. 

Finally, he stopped his mare, when his new acquain- 
tance, with alacrity, descended from the load of wood, 
thanked him civilly for his kindness and slipped a coin 
in his mitten ; he had nearly disappeared in the distance 
when some one ran an(l met the woodman, asking him 
how much the Governor had paid him for the ride. 

" What Governor ? " brusquely replied Jean-Baptiate. 
" I am not to be fooled in that way ! " 

— " Look in your mitten ! " was the answer. 

He did so and pulled out, amazed, a gold coin, 
remarking. ** To think I was all the time under the 
impression of having done merely a charitable turn. 
Never will I judge of men by their appearance after 
this " ! 

^ [From the Star Jubilee Number.'} 



Dark days were on us in June, 1837, still darker 
days close at hand ; civic dissension, fierce, political 
agitation were ranapant ; a seer might have discovered 
at the end of the gloomy vista — hideous scaffolds. The 
month had opened with increasing alarm ; an indistinct 
dread of coming calamities pervaded the minds of the 
British population ; an unreasoning frenzy seemed to 
have taken possession of the erst loyal and peace-loving 
French peasant. Restless village politicians, stump 
orators from the cities, 'each Sunday after service, 
wrought him to wild transports. Rabid journals fanned 
the flame ; one voice alone above the din was heard, 
nay, eagerly listened to : the siren voice of the great 
tribune Louis Joseph Papineau. Alas ! that its stirring 
and patriotic appeals, thundered forth for years, on the 
floor of parliament, should ultimately have lured to an 
early grave many brave spirits ! 

Strife stalked through the land ; uprisings were 
imminent in the Montreal district; the Quebec section 
more distant from the focus of trouble, though les^ 
deeply agitated, was far from remaining passive. 

A mass meeting had been announced to take place, 
on the 24th June — the day of the national festival, 
St. Jean Baptiste's day — at St. Thofias (Montmagny), 
in the green arbor of Captain Faucher's beautiful maple 
grove, known as Le Bois de Boulogne. The orator of 
the day, Mr. Papineau, came there armed with all his 


— 199 — 

thunder : colonial grievances of three generations. Some 
hundreds of alert young French Canadian horsemen, 
neat in their home-spun coats, mounted on their Nor- 
man ponies and armed with their long duck-guns, sur- 
rounded the banquet tables festooned with maple leaves, 
and spread al fresco, with abundance of good rustic 
fare, but bereft of all dutiable wine .and liquoi's. The 
sparce French colony, forgotten a century previous on 
the shores of the St. Lawrence, had resolved to give a 
lesson to Old England, kill off her export trade, and 
thus dry up this source of mercantile profit! There 
were unfriendly lips which whispered that the Bois de 
Boulogne reformers would have difficulty in keeping 
up to fever-heat their patriotism on the national bever- 
age, spruce-beer. The wearers of home-spun were to 
receive important accessions to their ranks, by the 
arrival in the city of Quebec of the Montreal members 
of parliament, habited also in home-spun — says the 
historian of the period, Robert Christie — for the meeting 
ef parliament, which took place on the 8th August. 
This was a humorous incident in a very serious drama. 
When the last puff of smoke from the chasseurs' fow- 
ling-pieces had cleared away, the dictator, accompanied 
by prominent patriotes, Dr. (later Sir) E. P. Tach(5, 
Messrs. L^toumeau, Tgtu, Valine, and others, drove 
•down in open carriages, to meet, at Kamouraska, other 
active sympathisers. The writer, an eye-witness, vividly 
recalls the whole scene (1). 

Four days previous to this festival, on the 20th 
June, 1837, there was lying cold in death, in his 
turreted castle, at Windsor, the late sovereign of the 
realm. King William IV. Fifty years previous, as 
Puke of Clarence, he had landed in our midst on 
the 14th August, 1787, from the frigate Pegasus, a 
roistering midshipman. The City still retained the 

(1) Vide Explorations of Jonathan Oldbucky pp. 121-31. 

— 200 — 

memory of the practical jokes played by the royal 
middy, with his rollicking messmates, in our streets 
after night-fall. At five o'clock on that morning of 
June, 1837, the Archbishop of Canterbury and other 
noble state messengers were knocking at the gate of 
Kensington Palace and awakening from her sweet 
slumbers a gentle girl of eighteen summers, to announce 
to her that henceforth she was Queen of England. So 
she has continued for the last half century ; God bless 

Let us hie back home and recall Quebec, at the dawn 
of her auspicious reign, its aspect, style of building, 
mode of travel and status, political, intellectual and 
social. The suburbs of the city and the poition also 
within the walls were cut up with vacant lots, some 
affording pasture to cows. Innumerable one-stoiy, 
cheap, wooden tenements lined the streets. The great 
fires of May and June, 1845, and of 14th October, 1866,. 
made a clean sweep of some 3,500 : the era of modem 
cut-stone dwellings had, however, sprung up about 1840. 

Let us glance at our mediaeval Levis Ferry, of 1837 : 
a half dozen of flat boats, improved scows, propelled by 
paddle-wheels, through a shaft, round which revolved, 
in the summer months, four jaded, sweltering horses. 
This tread-mill exercise lasted to 1845. With the ebb 
tide and a brisk westerly breeze, the horse-boat, such 
was its name, in crossing from Levis, instead of landing 
its passengers at the Finlay Market Place, Lower Town,, 
often drifted down to the Island of Orleans, where it 
awaited for the flood to waft it back to the city, much 
to the disgust of belated travellers. JeaTi-Baptiste 
w^ould occasionally give utterance to an energetic sdcr^ I 

The winter travel from Quebec to Montreal was per- 
formed by the Blue and Bed rival lines of stages, with 
relays of horses every fifteen miles. It took two days 
with good winter roads to reach Montreal ; — of course 
a much longer time during heavy snow storms. 

— 201 — 

The shriek of the railway whistle in 1853 scared 
away, we think, forever, the Ked and Blue lines noble 
steeds. The wayside stables and inns have been closed. 
No telegraphs, nor railways, nor ocean steamers in those 
days, though our Royal WilliaTn, in 1833, had, the 
first shown how the ocean could be forded, with steam 
alone (1). The model of the pioneer steamer can yet 

(1) As a Quebecer I felt proud when publishing in 1876, 
Quebec Past and Present, to have an opportunity of giving 
full particulars of the pioneer of Ocean Steam Navigation 
built, within a few acres from my home, in 1831, 

Vide pp. 286-70 and p. 450, for its Custom House Register 
and other details. 

The subject was subsequently ably taken up by Jas. Steven- 
son, President Literary and Historical Society, Quebec : one 
of his successors, in the Presidential Chair, Archibald Camp- 
bell, of Thornhill, prepared an elaborate lecture, on the 
subject, which was published in the Transactions of the society 
and which accompanied to England the model of the Royal 
Willianif when it was honored, at the great Naval Exhibition, 
at Chelsea, with a Diploma, bearing the signature of H. R. H. 
the Prince of Wales. Capt. Frederick C. Wurtele, the active 
librarian oftheLiteraiyand Historical Society, not only wrote 
several excellent articles in the press, to vindicate Quebec^s 
claim to priority in ocean steam navigation, but also an 
elaborate pamphlet, embodying the whole evidence in the 
case ; others also took up the cudgels for Quebec. 

Laterly Mr. Sandford Fleming, the eminent scientist and 
past-President of the Royal Society of Canada, brought the 
subject before the Canadian Institute of Toronto, and suc- 
ceeded in procuring a bronze tablet, to be erected under the 
auspices of the Government, in the Parliamentary Library, at 
Ottawa, commemorating this glorious incident of Quebec 
history. It bears the following inscription : 

(Miniature of the Ship.) 

In honovr of the men by whose enterprise, courage and skill 
the " Royal William, *' the first vessel to cross the Atlantic by 
steam power, was wholly constructed in Canada and navigated 
to England in 1833, the pioneer of those mighty fleets of ocean 
steamers by which passengers and merchandise of all nations 
are now conveyed on every sea throughout the world, 

" Ordered by the Parliament of Canada, June 13-15, 1894." 

— 202 — 

be seen in the rooms of the Literary and Historical 
Society, at Quebec. 

Ships from sea were announced all the way from 
Rimouski, to the signal service on the Citadel of Que- 
bec, by means of balls hoisted to lofty poles, erected on 
the highest points along the sea shore. 

Banking facilities were merely nominal at that period ; 
some monetary institutions had hastened to forward 
their specie to be stored in the casemates of the Citadel, 
at Quebec, safe against " Canadian rebels and Yankee 
sympathizers," as the phrase then ran. Several Banks 
suspended specie payments, in 1837 ; on the 20th day 
of June, La Banque du Peuple, some of whose directors 
had been gaoled for having, it was said, afforded aid to 
the rebels, placarded a notice, that it was prepared to 
resume specie payments, when the other banks did the 
same. The crooked lanes of Quebec were lit with dim . 
oil lamps and Captain Pinguet's drowsy, old city- watch, 
called out the time or weather. " Twelve o'clock, " 
" Starry night, " as the case might be, after nightfall 
and occasionally, like more modern watchmen, were 
conspicious by their absence when a row occured. 
Quebec decimated by the cholern plague of 1832 and 
1834, scarcely numbered 34,000 souls. The insurrec- 
tion of 1837-38 with its alarms, bore good fruits, the 
blood of the fiery, earnest patriots had not been shed in 

A stem Waterloo veteran. Sir John Colborne, had 
ruthlessly stemmed the tide of popular ferment; an 
imperial statesman of recognized ability, the earl of 
Durham investigated its caiLses and prescribed the 
remedy, with the prescience of a seer. The union of 
the two provinces, Upper and Lower Canada, in 1841, 
though at best a makeshift, was the harbiuger of vast 
changes and manifest progress ; primary and elementarj" 
education received a powerful impulse. Some of our 
leading French writers have traced with great felicity 
to that period the marvellous awakening of thought and 

— 203 — 

intellect among the French element, which found an 
outlet in literature and history, etc. Our municipal^ 
judicial and registry systems were moulded. " Through 
the means of a well divised scheme of canals, the navi- 
gation of the St. Lawrence was facilitated up to the 
great lakes, and thus has been opened out to the pro- 
ducts of the West, that natural highway over which 
they floated to European markets. " A network of 
railways and telegraph lines, uniting with one another 
the great commercial and agricultural centres of the 
two provinces, was being perfected ; the gaps in our 
forests, through which rushed the iron horse, would soon 
be filled by hardy settlers. In 1854, a grand reform 
dawned on commerce, industry and agriculture : the 
abolition of the feudal land tenure. The province had 
outgrown the old order of things. Feudalism, instead 
of being, as in the infancy of the colony, a protection 
to the censitaire, had become a restraint upon 
his daily transactions ; capitalists refused to invest. 
For half a century, it had caused heart burnings : a 
statesman at last sprang up, the late L. T. Drummond, 
strong enough, though himself a seignior, to carry 
through Parliament, with the aid of Sir Francis Hincks, 
a measure of compensation, which in the end was 
accepted by all. In 1852, the Hincks-Morin Ministry 
had helped the establishment of a line of ocean steamers 
between Liverpool and Quebec. The year 1854 was 
memorable in maritime affairs, as marking the birth of 
the Allan Line of ocean steamers in Canadian waters ; 
Government granted them first to carry the English 
and Canadian mail, an annual subsidy of £24,000 
sterling, increased to £52,000 and then to £104,000 
for a weekly mail; reduced however, in 1873, to 
£26,000 sterling. The first steamship of the Allan 
Line, under contract with Government for mails, left 
Liverpool for Quebec, in 1856. This same year Her 
Majesty, on address of Parliament, selected Ottawa as 
the seat of Government. A great, and, as many believe, 

— 204 — 

a much needed modification in our judiciary system 
was introduced in Parliament, in 1857, by the late Sir 
George E. Cartier: the decentralization of our law 
courts. Twenty judicial districts were created for Lower 
Canada, with each a resident judge, staflF of Court House 
oflBcials, lawyers, etc. ; the Norman peasant of that 
recent period had the luxury of cheap litigation brought 
to his own door. Was it really a boon ? 

On the 24th August, 1860, H. R. H. the Prince of 
Wales inaugurated the opening of that grand National 
work, the Victoria Bridge, at Montreal. On the 10th 
August, 1864, delegates from the British American 
colonies assembled at Quebec, in solemn congress, to 
discuss the basis of a Confederation of the Provinces. 
The British Parliament, on the 8th March, 1867, sanc- 
tioned the Confederation Act, and Confederation was 
proclaimed on the 1st July following. It opened up 
undreamed of vistas of material progress for the united 
colonies and gave a new life and separate organization 
to each province, our own becoming again, as in 1791, 
the Province of Quebec. On the 1st October, 1874, 
the Eoman Catholic Episcopacy of Canada commemor- 
ated by an immense assemblage at Quebec, of the 
highest Church dignitaries of the whole continent, the 
erection two centuries previous, on 1st October, 1674^ 
of the first bishopric in New France, Bishop Laval's 
vast diocese, extending in verity from Hudson Bay to 
the Gulf of Mexica, from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean. Sixty-four bishoprics had sprung up since ; 
one and all were represented by their h^ad or by 
delegates, in the grand Quebec conclave, presided over 
by Bishop Laval's esteemed successor. Archbishop 
Taschereau, recently raised, by His Holiness the Pope, 
to the dignity of a Eoman Cardinal ; the city was 
illuminated and presented a most brilliant pageant. 
Quebec, like the rest of the Dominion, hailed with 
delight the completion of the Canadian Pacific Eailway, 
a worthy outcome of Confederation ; one of the most 

— 205 — 

gigantic undertakings in the whole world, conceived, 
engineered and built by energetic Scotchmen, aided by 
Dominion money and backed by one of their own race, 
greater than them all, Sir John A. Macdonald. It may 
not be amiss to close this hasty retrospective sketch 
with a notice of the development of the sciences and 
intellectual pursuits, as evidenced in the foundation of 
flourishing colleges and universities, without omitting 
the praiseworthy efforts of our late Vice-Roy, the 
Marquis of Lome, in the creation of the Eoyal Society 
of Canada for the promotion of science and literature. 

In this glimpse of the past, it seems difficult to forget 
the state of education, in 1837 ; and its development 
during the half century which followed ; let us even 
start earlier. History mentions as the pioneer of 
teachers in New France, the Franciscan Friar Pacifique 
du Plessis, who, in 1616, taught the Indian children 
on the spot where Three-Rivers was afterwards founded 
their catechism, and reading and writing as well. 
About the same time Father Jos. Le Caron, opened a 
school at Tadoussac. The Franciscan Friars had landed 
at Quebec, in 1615, but the capture of the place, in 
1629, by the Kerkes, drove them seemingly back to 
France, as well as the Jesuits, who had landed there in 

In 1632, Father Le Jeune wrote that he was busy 
at Quebec, teaching the young idea to shoot, to wit : a 
small Indian boy and a diminutive Ethiopian — un petit 
sauvage et un petit ndgre. That his scholars from two 
in 1632, were raised to twenty in the following year. 

In 1637, the Jesuits, or rather a young member of 
the order, R^n^ Rohault, son of the marquis de Gama- 
che, began the erection, on a lot of ground facing the 
old Quebec market-place, in the upper town, of the 
Jesuits' College, the crumbling, though solid walls, of 
which, succumbed in 1877, to the power of dynamite. In 
1663, Bishop Laval had founded Le Orand S6minaire 
of Quebec, for theological students ; five years later, in 


— 206 — 

1668, he built Le Petit SSminaire for classical studies. 
He also founded a School of Arts aud Agriculture, etc.> 
and a model school to supply teachers, under the green 
groves of St. Joachim held by his successors to this 
day. The Franciscan Friars returned to Canada in 1670,. 
where they did good service to education, especially 
after the closing of the school of the Brothers Charon. 
At the time of the treaty of the cession of Canada, in 
1763, Canada's educational outfit was indeed scanty,, 
nothing scarcely, beyond the Quebec and Three-Rivers 
convents, the Quebec and Montreal seminaries and a 
few schools, at both places, under clerical control. The 
ousting of the Jesuits from their possessions caused the 
closing of many educational resorts, intended for the 
poorer classes. In 1787, the attention of the Grovernor 
of the colony, Lord Dorchester, was drawn to this subject. 
A parliamentary committee reported, two years later, 
in 1789, in favor of a university, under a principal and 
four professors, with an elementary free school in each 
parish or village, and a superior free school for each. . 
county, in which bookkeeping, grammar, mensuration, 
navigation, land surveying and practical mathematics 
would be taught. Theology was left out of the course ; 
the king through his viceroy, to be the visitor ex- 
ofl&cio. A Board of Governors was to be created, 
formed of the judges, bishops, Protestant and Roman 
Catholic, and twenty other directors of both per- 
suasions. It was contemplated to use some of the 
revenues of the Jesuits' estates, in addition to private 
bequests, in order to maintain this university — which 
was to be located in the Jesuits' college. It was hoped 
that the Lihrai^ Association, which had sprung up in 
1779, would also cast its lot with the new institution (1). 
The university according to its charter was to be non- 

(1) Chauybau : L' Instruction Publique au Canada pp.. 

— 207 — 

sectarian. This absence of predominant religious teach- 
ing killed the project, as it did, fifty years later, the 
Royal Institution far tlie promotion of education^, 
founded in 1801. The charter, intended as a guarantee 
to both Protestants and Eoman Catholics, met with 
determined opposition from Bishop Hubert, whilst his 
coadjutalor, the fiery Bishop of Capse, Monseigneur 
Bailly, sided against him. (Smith's History of Canada.) 
In 1801, Sir R. S. Milnes, in his opening address to 
Parliament, invited the House of Assembly to enact a 
law appropriating some portion of the public domain to 
the support of public instruction, the act was entitled : 
An Act to establish free schools and to promote edu- 
cation. A Corporation was created under this law> 
styled the " Royal Institution, for the promotion of 
knowledge^.." It was to be under the Governor-Generars 
exclusive control. His Excellency was charged with 
the preparation of its constitution and by-laws, naming 
of teachers, etc. In 1803, sixteen townships were set 
aside and also a further grant of 40,000 acres of land, 
the proceeds of which to be divided between two semi- 
naries, to be erected, one at Quebec, the other, at Mon- 
treal. The whole matter, however, remained in abeyance, 
owing to troublous times, and the war of 1812, 1814, 
1818. On the 8th October, of that year, the Royal 
Institution was regularly organized by letters patent. 
The Anglican Bishop was named President. It was 
decided to place the schools under the surveillance of 
the clergymen of each locality and in places where there 
existed persons of different persuasions, the pastor of 
each persuasion was held to look after the welfare of 
the children belonging to his church. In 1834, it be- 
came apparent that, as a school system, the Royal Insti-. 
tution was a failure ; there were but 23 schools in opera- 
tion, 398 pupils were admitted free of charge and 690 
paid three shillings and four pence per month for 
schooling to the teacher, who also received a small 
stipend from Government, During a period of 40- 

— 208 — 

years, the Royal Institution, according to Dr. Meilleur, 
bad but limited success ; it had opened but 84 schools, 
the greater number of which had disappeared before 
the introduction of the Educational Act of 1841. Ele- 
mentary education engaged the attention of Sir Charles 
Bagot, in 1843 ; of Lord Metcalf, in 1 845 ; of the Earl 
of Elgin, in 1849-'50 ; of Morin, Lafontaine, Hincks, 
Viger ; each Cabinet introduced modifications and 
improvements in the system. In 1852, inspectors of 
schools were named, a new subdivision of the Province 
for school purposes took place ; superintendents of 
public instruction had been appointed. Dr. Meilleur 
was the first, a most efficient officer ; his successor was 
the Honorable P. J. 0. Chauveau, an able official and 
elegant writer. 

The 1321 schools of 1836 have now increased to 
5154 and the 36,000 pupils of that year are represented 
now by 256,549, taught by 7,541 school-masters and 
mistresses, twjcording to the latest official returns. 

The Province has doubled its population, its resources, 
its wealth, and with its vast facilities for educating its 
youth — the country's future hope — may we not indulge 
in the golden dreams, put forth on a public occasion, 
by one of Canada's most gifted friends : "Like a virgin 
goddess in a primaeval world, Canada still walks in 
unconscious beauty among her golden woods, and along 
the margin of her trackless streams, catching but broken 
glances of her radiant majesty, as mirrored on their 
surface, and scarcely dreams as yet of the glorious 
future awaiting her in the Olympus of nations ; " so 
spoke the Earl of Duflferin, at Belfast, on the 11th 
June, 1872. 

Quebec, June, 1887. 





Among the deuizens of progressive and modern 
Mount Koyal there are doubtless yet to be found some 
rare survivors of the times when the rich, sturdy and 
hospitable old Nor- Westers, to use the words of Wash- 
ington Irving, " held a lordly sway over the wintry, 
bov^ndless forests of the CanadaSy almost equal to that 
of the East India Company over the vohiptuoxis climes 
and munificent realms of the Orient" 

These were the palmy days when the Lords of the 
lakes and forests, with their strong, social instincts, 
founded the famous Beaver Club, where for nearly 
forty years, during the winter months, a sumptuous 
fortnightly banquet enlivened with toasts and songs, 
gathered in their spacious hall, the bulk of the wealth, 
commercial enterprise and intelligence of Montreal, 
together with any distinguished traveller from other 
climes, sojourning at the time in the city. 

The Beaver Club, says the Hon. L. R. Masson, (2) 
created in 1785, was the outcome of the coalition of 

(1) There was in addition a Summer Club for the Captains 
of the fur vessels, who in some instances were honorary 
members. The historian H. H. Miles, mentions also, a Mon- 
trealClub of much earlier formation, dating as far back as 
1760 : the Orey Beard Society or Cluh, composed of English- 
men settled in Canada, after 1759. 

(2) I owe to the excellent volume " Les Bourgeois de la 
Compagnie du Nord-Ouest " recently published by the Hon. 
L. B. Masson, a great portion of my data in this article. 


— 210 — 

Canadian enterprise, associated under the name of the 
Company of the North West, to secure a monopoly, if 
possible, of the fabulous wealth, the fur trade of the 
North West territory offered to a great company, able 
to control it through its thousands of trappeurs and 
voyageurSy located in its innumerable forts and posts, 
spread through the western wilds and trackless plains 
and lakes of the North. 'Tis true : another powerful 
monopoly existed there under animperialcharter,obtained 
in London, a century previous : the Hudson Bay Co. 

The hunting grounds, though they covered nearly 
half a continent, it seems, were too narrow for two mono- 
polies : there was not enough elbow room, apparently. 
Soon a deadly fued sprang up between the two power- 
ful associations whose resources and followers were 
marshalled by two chiefs, men of more than ordinary 
ability and energy : Sir Alexander McKenzie and 
Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk. 

The violent rivalry between the two companies, 
culminated in a battle royal under the guns of Fort 
Douglas, at Assiniboia, on the 1 6th June, 1816, in which 
the Governor of the Hudson Bay Co., Mr. Semple, who 
had succeeded to Mr. MacDonnell met his death, with 
many of his soldiers, at the hands of the Metis, led on, 
it was aveiTed, by the agents of the North West Co. 
This brought on a memorable trial where the jury 
returned a verdict of " not proven." 

Let us revert to the exquisite, fortnightly entertain- 
ments, from December to April, of the famed Beaver 
Club, our oldest Canadian Club (1). 

(1 ) Three celebrated clubs flourlBhed at Quebec, long before 
the Stadacona and St. James' Club were thought of. The 
lirst was foi*med, in Quebec, about the beginning of this cen- 
tury. It was originally called, says Lambert, the Beef Steak 
Club, which name it soon changed for that of the Barons' 
Club. It consisted of twenty-one members, " who are chieflj'- 
the principal merchants in the colony, and are styled barons. 
As the members drop off, their places are supplied by knights 
elect, who are not installed as barons until there is a suffi- 

— 211 — 

The origiDal members, we are told, nearly all Scotch- 
men, numbered nineteen ; their wealth, education, spirit 
of enterprise and intelligence made them important 
factors in the social and commercial world of Canada : 
mostly all resided at or near Montreal : they were 
known amongst the French element, in Montreal, a& 
" Lea Bourgeois du Nord-Ouest" 

Imagination can depict the nineteen magnates, sport- 
ing on their manly breasts the Company's gorgeous and 
large gold medal, with the motto Fortitude in difficiiU 
ties, thereon engraved — cosily seated at their mahogany, 
over their walnuts and wine, discussing the business 
prospects of the coming season, together with the hard- 
ships and perils encountered by them in forest and on 
lake, with occasionally spicy anecdotes about their 
hardy voyageurs and factors, and now and thea a sly 
wink exchanged about some beautiful Pocahontas or 
other, seen in their dreams or in their travels, for we 
know the sturdy Nor- Westers, were not all Josephs, 

cient number to pay for the entertainment which is given on 
that occasion." J. Lambert, during the winter of 1 807, attended 
one of the banquets of installation, which was given in the 
Union Hotel (now Mr. Morgan's emporium, facing the Place 
d'Armes.) The Hon. Mr. Dunn, the President of the Province^ 
and Administrator, during the absence of Sir Robert S. Milnes^ 
attended as the oldest baron. The Chief Justice and all the 
principal officers of the government, civil and military, were 
present. This entertainment cost 250 guineas. " The Baron's 
Club, says W. Henderson, was a sort of Pitt Clubt — all Tories 
to the backbone. It was a very select affair, and of no long 
duration. Among the members, if my memory serves me 
right, were John Coltman^ George Hamilton, Sir John Cald- 
well, Sir George Pownall, H. W. Ryland, George Heriot, 
(Postmaster and author). Mathew Bell, Gilbert Ainslie, Angus 
Shaw. (Notes of W. Henderson.) 

The other club went under the appropriate name of •' Sober 
Club " — lucus a non Ivcendo perhaps : it flourished about 
1811 } we believe one of the By-iawH enacted that the members 
were expected to get tight at least once a year. {Historical 
and Sporting notes on Quebec, 1889.) 

— 212 — 

How many intelligent, manly fellows had joined in 
good cheer, those fortnightly meetings, each winter- 
season ? At that same table had sat, in 1810, the clever 
Earl of Selkirk, worming out their inward thoughts and 
schemes, before turning savagely against them ! He 
died in 1820. Later on Lt. (Sir) John Franklin, had 
pledged in a foaming bumper the health of the club, 
whilst the northern blast was howling over the brow of 
the neighboring Mount Royal : — alas, to yield up, later, 
his noble spirit at the call of duty to a sdll wilder blast 
on the arctic shores, in 1848, the heroic fellow ! 

How many others have sat together at the festive 
board : brimful of life, buoyant with hope, heedless of 
forest perils : McGill the founder of McGill College, 
Benjamin and Joseph Frobisher, Sir Alexander McKen- 
zie, Simon McTavish, Eoderick McKenzie, his son 
Charles, Chs. J. B. Chaboillez, Simon and Alexander 
Fraser, James Forsyth, John Bicbardsou, John Gregory 
N. Montour, K. Grant, W. McGilvray, Peter Pangman, 
John Ross, Peter Stuart, Duncan .McGilvray, William 
Hallowell, Angus Shaw, Wm. McKay, John McDonald, 
Alex. McDougall, Alex. Mackay, Hugh McGillis, Alex. 
King, jr., James McKenzie, Desrivi^res, Moffatt, Gilles- 
pie, Frs. Ant. Larocque, Pierre de Rocheblave, John 
Duncan Campbell, John Mure, Alex. Ellice, John 
Willis, James Leith, D. Thompson, John Thomas, 
Roderick Walker and a host of others. 

The Beaver Club closed its doors, a very few years 
after the absorption of the North West Co., by the 
Hudson Bay Co., in 1821. 

A few rude old cups and pieces of solid plate crop up 
occasionally to tell their tale as silent witnesses of 
the past. McTavish's Castle — at the foot of the mount- 
ain, with a ghost in it as all respectable old castles are 
expected to have, has made room, for another eminent 
Scotchman's mansion. Sir Hugh Allan's ! 

Burnside Hall has disappeared. The Lm^da of the 
Lakes and Forests are gone ! 



It is our task, a pleasant one, to introduce to the 
notice of our readers, under the above heading, an 
important personage of Quebec in days gone-by, in fact, 
a man who filled a very high position under early 
English rule in Canada. Judge Adam Mabane, born at 
Edinburgh, in Scotland, about 1734, after enjoying the 
advantages of a University course, had successfully 
passed an examination as a physician. History exhibits 
him as advantageously known to the garrison of Quebec, 
as a successful medical practitioner from the date of 
his arrival, shortly after the Conquest. In those days, 
legal training and commanding talents did not crop up 
every day, among the heterogenous entourage of Brigdr. 
General James Murray, the Governor; when in 1764, 
it was judged expedient to substitute to the military 
regime, which had existed for four years, regular judicial 
tribunals, the sagacity, uprightness, extensive legal and 
general information of Dr. Mabane, readily pointed 
him out to the representative of Britain as a most 
likely Judge to preside over the new Courts under 
consideration. This preferment, however, was neither 
sought for, nor desired, but rather shunned by the 
learned but retiring Esculapius, whose whole time was 
absorbed by professional duties. It fact, the lucrative 
and then lofty position of Judge, was thrust on Dr» 
Mabane ; of this, there seems no room for doubt, despite 
all he could do to the contrary. In order to under- 

(1) Le jug e Adam Mabane, — Etude Historique, — A. G6U 6s 
Cie,, 1881. 

— 214 — 

stand fully the position of Canadian affairs, in 1764, it 
may not be out of place to remember that two antago- 
nistic parties existed ; first, the French, whose laws, 
language, religion, though placed under the aegis of a 
solemn treaty, were extremely distasteful to the bureau- 
cracy and new settlers : those who styled themselves, 
the the King's old subjects, the conquerors, who sought 
in the new colony homes and affluence for their Pro- 
testant sons and daughters and for themselves, honors 
and position. The French colonists were known as the 
King's new subjects ; they constituted the majority, 
the immense majority. The other party much less 
numerous, occupied all the avenues to office, the 
King's tried, loyal old subjects. The anglification of the 
French element, was the studied scheme of the poli- 
ticians of the day. Various were the plans suggested ; 
some crude in the extreme, to kill off the French 
nationality and make all Canada homogenous by the 
introduction of the parliamentary, municipal and agra- 
rian institutions of England. 

It did not seem to have struck these reformers that the 
time to make Canada homogenous as to laws, language, 
&c.,would have been when the victor dictated the articles 
of the capitulation of Quebec, subsequently ratified by 
that of Montreal and finally recognized in the treaty of 
Versailles, of 10th February, 17t)3. 

Had Canada in 1759 been an English colony crushed 
by the merceless heel of French soldiery, it is not 
unlikely the French Monarch of the period would have 
dealt with its laws, customs and nationality, in the 
same manner Louis XIV, wrote to his Canadian agent, 
de Courcelles to deal with the heretical inhabitants of 
New York, in 1689 — if ever he had the chance of 
doing so by conquest : disperse them. England, in 
1759, had been generous to the vanquished ; but what- 
ever may have been her motive, rights, immunities and 
privileges had been granted by treaty to French Canada 
— which she could neiver ignore, recall, nor withhold. 

— 215 — 

Judge Mabane, as one of the leaders among the 
dominant race, was often viewed by the sensitive, sullen 
or downtrodden French party, as un Anglais ; therefore 
an enemy, still the upright, impartial and unswerving 
position he assumed on many of the burning questions 
of the hour, made him distasteful to the British party ; 
it ended in his downfall and dismissal from the seat of 
justice. To a high-minded, sensitive man, accustomed 
to the sweets of office, the change, though borne 
silently — proudly shall we say— was gall and worm- 
wood. Retiring to his lovely rustic home in Sillery, he 
lived for a few friends — such as General Haldimand 
and General Biedesel, his familiars. He had also, 
perhaps, dearer friends, his books, and his family circle 
who idolized him. Even the green glades and enchanting 
landscape of Woodfield (Samos as it was then called) 
failed at times to bring joy and peace to the ill-used, 
able, once powerful judge ; like his predecessor Bishop 
Dosquet, the former proprietor of Samos, he too pined 
there, drooped and longed for a release from his 
earthly tenement. One bleak December morning, whilst 
a rising storm swept over the glades of his beautiful 
home and the hoary pines and old oaks of Woodfield 
sighed to the breath of the blast, the venerable judge, 
unmindful of his advanced age, sallied forth as was 
customary with him, on foot towards the city, across a 
path then existing on the Plains of Abraham ; the 
blinding snow-flakes had hidden the path. Wearied 
and exhausted he plodded on, until he lost his way and 
was met and taken home, chilled and nearly speechless. 
Inflammation of the lungs set in ; on the 3rd January, 
1792, all Quebec learned with concern of the death of 
old Judge Adam Mabane. We congratulate the author 
of this excellent biography for the research and ability 
displayed, and trust the Abb^ Louis Bois, from his 
cosy studio, at Maskinong^, will add others to the 
remarkable historical sketches due of late years to his 
prolific pen. 



A radiant light in the literary horizon of France is 
quenched : the Academician Marmier, the friend of 
Chateaubriand, of Thiers, of Rameau de Saint-Pfere, is 
no more. 

A cablegram apprised his many admirers and warm 
friends, in Quebec, of his demise, at Paris, on the 7th 
October, 1892, at the advanced age of 83 years. 
Xavier Marmier, the renowned traveller and brilliant 
litterateur, was born at Pontarlier, Department of 
Doubs, on the 24th June, 1809. His education care- 
fully watched over, was acquired in a provincial town ; 
his first effusions graced the columns of a journal pub- 
lished at Besanqon. 

A lover of literature and an ardent and successful 
student of men and manners in distant lands, Xavier 
Marmier, at an early age set out to realize the dream 
of his youth, foreign travel ; visiting Switzerland and 
Holland, before settling in Paris, where issued, iu 1830, 
his Eaquisses Po^tiquea. His ultimate knowledge of 
the German, Russian, and Scandinavian languages 
readily procured him the editorship of an important 
periodical, La Remte Oermanique, In 1832, we find 
him in Germany. 

In 1836-38, he was sent at the Government's 
expense, to make archaeological researches through the 
northern parts of Europe ; so successful was he, that in 
later years, this pleasant mission brought him the 
cordon of the Legion of Honour ; he became famous as 
a learned, genial and polished writer. M. Marmier 
next directed his wandering footsteps to Bussia, the 


— 217 — 

East, Algiers and America, garnering every where a 
lich store of knowledge. In 1838, he was appointed 
to the chair of foreign literature, at Sennes, and recalled, 
two years later, to Paris, viz : in 1840, where he con- 
tinued until 1846, in charge of the Library of Public 
Instruction ; he became subsequently librarian of the 
Library of Ste. Genevieve. 

On the 19th May, 1870, he was elected to the French 
Academy to replace an eminent savant, M. de Pon- 
gerville, deceased. In 1879, as Chancellor of the Aca- 
demy, the duty devolved on him of pronouncing the 
academical 4loge bi the great statesman and historian, 
M. Thiers, late President of the French Eepublic. 

A busy and prolonged literary career, 1830-1892, 
furnished the indefatigable, keen-witted traveller rare 
opportunities to indite books and for adding volume to 
volume, until the yearly, increasing series represented 
nearly a small library, of delightful and instructive 
reading, be it said. (1) 

Various, indeed, were the experiences of this many- 
sided author. 

One is wafted in his wake from the " floweiy banks 
of the Seine," so sweetly sung by Madame Deshouhferes, 
to the grim battlefields of the Empire, across the border. 

(1) (Euvres d^Xavier Marmier, Lettres sur PIrlande. Lettres 
Bur la Russie. Histoire de la litterature en Danemark et en 
Su^de. Histoire de Suede et du Danemark. Du Khin au Nil. 
Lettres sur PAmerique. Lettres sur PAlgerie. Les Voyageura 
Nouveaux. Lettres sur I'Adriatique et le Montenegro. Du 
Danube au Caucase. Un et^ au bord de la Baltique. Sou- 
venirs de Voyage. Chants du Nord. Lettres sur le Nord. Les 
Fiances du Spitzburg. Les Hasards de la Vie. En Alsace. 
Gazida. Hel^ne et Suzanne. M^moires d'un Orphelin. Sous 
lessapins. De I'Est a POuest. En Amerique et en Europe. 
L*Arbre de Noel. Les voyages du Nil, k la recherche de 
PIdeal. Robert Bruce, comment on reconquert un Koyaume. 
£n pays lointains. Nouveaux recits de Voyage. Contes popu- 
laires de difil^rents pays. Nouvelles du Nord. L^gendes des 

— 218 — 

in the realms of the Hapsburgs, catching, as one lingers 
under the ruins of a legend-haunted castle frowning 
over the rippling waters of the blue Danube or rushing 
Bhine, the weird light of other days ; or one ponders 
musingly over the splendid creations of Goethe and 
Schiller in the Yaterland. Anon, one climbs with the 
tireless voyagev/r, the desolate steppes of Russia ; or, 
later, journeys with him through the arid desert of 
Arabia ; or follows him through the jungles of India ; 
or the icy coast of Lapland. 

The scene changes and you hurry through soft, 
Italian climes, to face Rome's Imperial or Clerical mas- 
ters, mayhap to admire Greek heroism at Marathon, or 
to listen to the entrancing discourse of Plato or Socrates, 
under the portico of the temple of Minerva, at the 
entrance of the Pineus; every where through Mr, 
Marmier's writtings, shrewd common sense,' manly 
utterances, elaborate research — not unfrequently, impas- 
sioned eloquence. 

Multitudinous indeed are the vistas and the countries 
of which the genial sage of the Rue Sl Thoniaa 
(TAquin has left such glowing pen-pictures. 

One portion of the adventurous traveller's wanderings 
interest us more specially : his voyage to America, in 
1850, and sojourn at Quebec. 

In some sympathetic remarks scattered through one 
of his late works, he alludes to several Canadian lUt^- 
rateura, with whose writings he had become acquainted. 
He thus speaks of his old Quebec friend, the late Hon. 
P. J. 0. Chauveau, the doyen of French-Canadian 
littSrateurSj recently deceased. 

" I can recall at the time he was writing his earliest 
poetry," says Marmier, " the delightful moments I spent 
in his company and in that of some of his other Quebec 

" I was then, as I am still now, only an obscure 
traveller in this common-place world. But I had come 
from France ; wherefore, I met with a fraternal gi'eeting. 

— 219 — 

^* What a charming guide to meet on those fair shores 
of the St. Lawrence, which Voltaire styles ** Wild 
Lands " ! What romantic rambles we took round Cham- 
plain's city, to the Isle of Orleans, to the Falls of Mont- 
morency, to the village of Lorette ! At eventide we used 
to assemble under a hospitable roof, where the dis- 
course ran, not on ambitious republics, not on the 
ingenious theories of Darwin, but on the dainty scenery 
which we had enjoyed during the day, discussing its 
history and its poetry. Before closing, the youthful 
daughter of the house, sometimes sang a popular air — 
not La Marseillaise ; Oh, no ! but La Claire Fontaine. 
O the happy time ! " 

Mr. Marmier was familiar with the writings of 
Canadian writers and knew personally several of them. 
We find in the same volume, the following mention : — 
" Les excellentes ceuvres historiques de MM. Garneau, 
Ferland, Faillon, Tass^, Casgrain, Laverdifere, B^dard, 
Turcotte ; les curieuses dissertations de MM. Belcourt, 
Marcoux, Lacombe et P^titot sur les dialectes de 
plusieurs tribues indiennes ; les Etudes botanniques de 
M. TAbb^ Brunet et les Etudes omithologiques de M. 
J. M. Le Moine ; les Eomans Canadiens de MM. P. 
Chauveau, Tach^ G^rin, de Gasp^, Joseph Marmette ; 
les chansons populaires du Canada, ])ubli^es avec leur 
musique par M. Gagnon ; les chants nouveaux de M. 
Suite ; les chants Canadiens de M. Poisson ; les chants 
religieux de M. Eouthier; les idylles de M. I'Abb^ 
Gingras ; les odes nationales de M. Octave Cr^mazie et 
le charmant recueil de M. Frechette, couronn^ comme 
un livre du pays de France, par TAcad^mie Franqaise. 
A cette excellente collection, il faudrait ajouter deux 
petits volumes fort instructifs : Notes sur le Canada, 
par M. Paul de Cazes, Literary Sheaves, Litt^rature au 
Canada, par M. P. Bender." (A la Maison. La littd- 
rature Frangaise au ^Canada, par X. Marmier, 1883, 
p. 272.) 

— 220 — 

The incident which forms the heading to this paper 
occurred, during a sojourn, alas! too short, I was 
making in Paris, a few years back. It is noted in my 
dairy, under date of " Thursday, 11th August, 1881." 

After paying my respects to the eminent Oriental 
scholar, L^n de Rosny, who had named me a Delegate, 
at Quebec, of the SoeUU d'Ethnographie^ of which he 
was President, I hastened to call on the respected 
patron of Canadians, Xavier Marmier, with whom I 
had previously corresponded, and who had sent me his 
portrait by a mutual friend, M. Faucher de Saint-Mau« 
rice, of Quebec. 

The same cordial greeting extended to Quebecers 
accredited to Mr. Marmier, awaited me, I am happy to 
say, at his residence. No. 1 Rue Saint-Thomas cCAquin. 

I can well recollect his demure old housekeeper, 
Mademoiselle Annette, showing me up politely to her 
master's sanctum, a vast library in two compartments, 
au troi&iimet literaly crowded with books (1). After 
enquiring about his Quebec friends, Mr. Chauveau, 
Abb^ Casgrain and a few others, the academician's 
conversation diverted to recent works published in 
Canada ; he interrupted my replies, by asking me to 
follow him into the adjoining wing of the library, 
saying he wished to introduce me to some old friends. 

(1) '^ Marmier was a great book collector, and leaves behind 
him a colossal library. When he became too feeble to walk, 
his bath-chair might have been seen daily on the Quai Voltaire 
and other bookworm resorts, whither he repaired to amuse 
himself by looking at the second-hand bookstalls. His strange 
figure, with his long white locks and ascetic cast of counte- 
nance was familiar to every body in the neighborhood. A 
more amiable man could not be found. Of rare simplicity, 
he was the sworn enemy of noise and puffing, and lived a 
secluded life, surrounded by his books, which he loved as a 
miser loves his hoard. For the last' twenty years he was a 
vegetarian, feeding only on eggs and salad, washed down with 
a little wine and water. It was perhaps this sobriety which 
helped him to attain the ripe age of 84, tor physically he 

— 221 — 

Judge of my surprise, when, on his pointing to a shelf 
in the library, my eyes lit on the titles of several of my 
own works, neatly bound, which, it seems, he had 
himself ordered from Quebec, with other Canadian 

After a most cordial interview, the silvery-haired 
eavaifU, a handsome old man, invited me to a D^jevr- 
Tier d la Fourchette, as he styled it, on the ensuing 
Thursday to meet with some of his Paris friends, several 
leading gentleman from Canada, then visiting Paris. 
I gladly accepted, postponing any other engagement I 
might have on that day to the pleasure I anticipated at 
such a reunion. The DSjeuiier d la Fourchette, was 
fixed for 11.30, A. M., and reminded me, only that it 
was for an earlier hour of the day, of a recherche 
English luncheon. Punctually, on the appointed day, a 
sunny August forenoon, I attended. Our kind host 
expressed his concern that the summer vacation had 
taken to the Pyranees and to Trouville, some of the 
friends he had counted on to meet the inviUa from the 
shores of the St. Lawrence — among others, M. Rameau 
de Saint-Pfere, the author of " La France aux Colonies " : 
the names of the others, have since escaped my memory. 
I was happy to meet two compatriots, the Hon. J. A, 

was not a Hercules. Losing his wife and daughter at an early 
date, he lived alone. 

'' One of his keenest sorrows was the demolition of the 
house in the Rue Saint Thomas d'Aquin, where he had resided 
40 years, and when he was forced to remove to the Rue de 
Babylone it seemed to him as if he were removing into the 
world from which no traveller returns. And he was not far 
wrong, for death soon followed. That such a man should 
eschew all pomp and vanity was natural. Hence nobody is 
surprised that in his will he ordains that there shall be no 
official invitations, no military honors, no decorations, and no 
speeches at his funeral, which is to be that of the humblest 
pauper. After the church service his body will be conveyed 
to Pontarlier, his native town, and buried with the same 
austdre simplicity.^* 

— 222 — 

Chapleau, one of our leading Cabinet Ministers, and a 
brilliant young member of our Provincial Parliament, 
M. Faucher de Saint-Maurice ; both had been sojourn- 
ing in the gay capital of France a few weeks. We were 
all introduced to the Due de L^vi-Mirepoix, a wealthy 
Paris banker, also a stirring figure in the political 
world of the day ; the Duke was a descendant &om the 
chivalrous General de L^vi, Montcalm's right arm ia 
the crushing campaign at Quebec, in 1759. 

Our cercle intiTae afforded ample scope for the con- 
versational powers of our eloquent friend, Mr. Ghapleau^ 
and for the ready repartee of Mr. Faucher de Saint- 
Maurice. The bulk of the dialogue was borne by our 
genial entertainer and the Duke. Both belonged to 
different schools in politics. The Duke was an ardent 
republican, a pillar to the new regime, inaugurated at 
the downfall of Napoleon III, whilst Mr. Marmier was 
a robust Ugvtimiate et monarchiste^ a steadfast friend 
of the Church. It was refreshing to see with what zest 
and freedom these bright, polished, elderly gentlemen^ 
discussed the burning questions of the day, ti^e attitude 
of the Church towards the State, the poUcy of Gam- 
betta, then the hero of the hour in fickle Paris. It was 
a feu roulanty or rather a fusillade de hone mots and 
caustic replies, in which decorum guided the shaft of 

When a Canadian topic was mooted, we Canadians 
invariably put in our oars. Mr. Chapleau, as usual, 
made some capital hits : M. Faucher de Saint- Maurice, 
brought into play his wit and erudition. 

The talk, necessarily, with the Duke reverted to the 
past — " How was Canada lost to France ? " — " and saved 
by Chatham to Canadians " — I added, I was amazed at 
the hazy notions the wealthy Paris banker entertained 
of the career of his great ancestor, Brigadier General de 
L^vi, who to me had ever appeared as the most level- 
headed warrior France ever sent to defend her long 

— 223 — 

neglected colony ; in fact, in the art of war and in cool 
judgment, superior to Montcalm himself. 

The entertainment lasted from 11.30 a. m. to 2 p. m. 
exquisitely prepared, abundantly provided with light 
French and Bhenish wines, closing with the classic pttit 
verre de Chartreuse — \h.Q pousse-caf 6 oblige — of French 
cUjeun^a a la fourchette. 

Before breaking up, mine host took me aside asking 
me various questions, how I had found the interior of 
Normandy, which I had just visited, in quest of Pistres^. 
near Rouen, from whence my French ancestors had 
sailed two hundred and twenty years previous for 
Canada. I replied, I was charmed with my trip, and 
that I had a second pilgrimage on hand, to the banks 
of the Tweed, from which my maternal Scotch ances- 
tors sprang, in which I hoped to realize a dream of my 
youth and view Abbotsford, Sir Walter Scott's pictu- 
resque manor. Mr. Marmier then presented me with 
two of his works, on " The Wizard of the North." 

Ever since, I have kept up a regular correspondence 
with the illustrious 'Academician. On this day, alas ! 
the cable flashes across the Atlantic tidings of his 
demise. (1) 

(1) *' Le Gaulois states that Hon. Mr. Fabre, High Com- 
missioner for Canada, at Paris, placed a floral wreath on the 
coflin of the late Mr. Xavier Marmier, on behalf of the Hon.. 
J. A. Chapleau. Marmier was a sincere friend of French 
Canada. A deputation of the St. Jean Baptiste Society of 
Paris attended his funeral. 

" Mr. Marmier was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society 
of Canada, and bequeathed to it a set of his works." 

'' He leaves many bequests to the poor. One of the most 
curious clauses in his testament is the following : 

" In memory of the happy moments which I have passed 
in the midst of the second-hand booksellers on the quays of 
the Seine, moments which I reckon among the most agreeable 
ot my existence, I bequeath to these honest people a sum of 
one thousand francs. I desired that this money shall be. 
spent by them in a jovial banquet during which, they will be^ 

— 224 — 

able to amuse themBelves while thinking of me. It will be 
my thanks for the many hours which I have intellectually 
enjoyed in the course of my almost daily visits to the book- 
stalls which extend from the Pont-Royal to the Pont Saint- 

" Mr. Marmier was a good r aeon /^ur^ and one of his favorite 
anecdotes was one in which the Marquis Libsi-Carrucci figured 
as the hero. The two, on one of their walks on the boule- 
vards, turned into a second-hand bookshop. Libri dipped at 
once into a box of musty volumes, turned over a few pages, 
and said to the bookseller, '^ What is the price of this box? " 
" Sixty francs. " " Very well, send them home to me. " He 
sold them at 30,000 francs, for they were first editions of 
some sixteenth century Italian chronicles." — Paris Corres- 

Quebec, October 7th, 1892. 


[From The Week, 24th Nov., 1893.] 




Under the above suggestive caption, M. Faucher de 
Saint-Maurice, F. R. S. C, has added an other to his 
interesting and elegantly written volumes on Canadian 
history and others kindred subjects ; the safe-guarding 
of the French tongue in Canada, M. Faucher evidently 
thinks a live issue. ^Dear indeed, to every nationality 
is its language, even in places where, through lapse of 
time, isolation or political exigency, it has became cor- 
rupted from its pristine purity. Jersey and Guernsey 
are no exceptions. The industrious islanders, though 
staunch and loyal subjects of Britain, and, as protestants, 
one with her in faith, have not by any means forgotten 
or eschewed the language of their forefathers in old 
France. They are still, as Ansted says. " Normans, 
but Normans of the old school, though a Jerseyman 
would not like to be called a Norman. " 

A few years ago they plainly showed their earnest 
attachment to Norman customs, long since obsolete 
elsewhere, by resuscitating the famous " Cl/nneur de 
Haro'' of the days of Charlemagne, to obstruct a 
scheme of public improvement. 

Mr. Faucher's book goes to show how they have very 
recently evinced their partiality, between the two 
spoken languages of the islands, for that of their near 
neighbor, France ; he does not, however, allude to the 
not very distant epoch, after the barbarous raid in the 




— 226 — 

Channel Islands of Bobespierre's sa'os culottes^ when the 
very name of a Frenchman was obnoxious. 

We find here textually reproduced in Mr. Faucher's^ 
book a lively debate which took place on the I6th 
of February, 1893, in the Legislative Chamber of the 
" Etats de Jersey, " presided over by " E. C. Mallet 
de Carteret, Lieut. Bailli." It originated from a discus- 
sion of the provisions of a bill introduced to remove 
doubts as to the right of the members to address the 
Assembly in English, inasmuch as a very considerable 
portion of the islanders, using English daily, and in 
many cases exclusively, had declared that it is per- 
missible for any member of the " Etats " to address 
the House in English. 

Some of the arguments urged by the Legislative 
wisdom of Jersey, in solemn conclave assembled, were 
of a rather singular nature, and the debate itself not 
very decorous, although several judges and high officials 
were present. A learned member, Judge Falle, speaking 
from an experience of thirty years, and whilst recog- 
nizing the advantage of duality of language, avers that 
the Legislature • has several times declared that the 
members had not the right to use English in debate, 
and closes by proposing a resolution to the effect that 
the " Etats, " whilst they are proud of the protection 
accorded to the island by Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
and her pi'edecessors during so many centuries, and 
desire to reitemte their unalterable loyalty to the 
throne, feel that this sentiment is not impaired by the 
thought that they consider the idiom bequeathed to 
them by their forefathers too precious a legacy to allow 
it to be superseded or set aside, and " that only in 
the event of Jersey having to choose between giving 
up the French language or the protection of England 
would they consent to accept the first alternative." 

Judge Falle's amendment was carried on a division 
of 26 against 13. 

— 227 — 

The English spoken in Jersey is far purer than the 
French, which among the uneducated amounts to a 
species of patois and still the legislative wisdom of the 
island, by a large majority of votes, upheld the French ; 
their loyalty is above suspicion. Mr. Faucher recalls 
with evident satisfaction the encouraging words uttered 
at Montreal and Quebec, in favor of the French idiom, 
the language of Voltaire, Racine, Bossuet, Chateau- 
briand, by the illustrious statesmen connected with 
the administration of Canada — Lords Dufferin, Lome, 
L.ansdowne, without forgetting our late administrator, 
the Earl of Derby. The little work of Mr. Faucher 
challenges investigation at the hands of every candid 

Quebec, Nov. 16, 1893. 


To the restless plodder of this progressive age as well 
as to the thoughtful student of the past, a kaleidoscopic 
glimpse of the old order of things, in feudal Canada, 
under some of their picturesque aspects, may not be 
unwelcome. Under this inspiration, it would seem, 
was given to the public, in a review lately published at 
Quebec, La Kermesse, a rather striking letter from its 
truthfulness and also a dainty poetical effusion, writ- 
ten some sixty years ago, by the clever chatelaine of a 
seigniorial manor not many miles from Montreal, 
Madame de Bercy. 

» * 

Few indeed are the traces of the former oppressive 
feudal tenure of Canada, its seigneurs, its manors ; 
Lewis T. Drummond, himself a seigneur, grappled with 
and after protracted opposition, suopeeded in strangling, 
the ogre, in 1854, with the assistance of great leaders 
of pubKc opinion : Sir Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine, Sir 
Qeorge Etienne Cartier, Sir Francis Hincks and other 
distinguished members of our parliament. 

It may therefore, not be out of place, to recall, what 
a Canadian seigneur and a Canadian manor meant, prior 
to that auspicious date. 

Canadians owed feudalism on their soil to Cardinal 
de Bichelieu, as set forth in the charter of the company 
of Hundred associates, in 1627. So says Francis Park- 
man, a high authority on similar points : 

<< It was an offshoot of the feudalism of France, modified 
by the lapse of centuries, and further modified by the royal 
will." '* Canadian feudalism was made to serve a double 
end." The Old Regime in Canada, Parkman, pp. 243. 4-^. 

— 229 — 

It mildly reflected French aristocracy and supplied 
agents to distribute lands. It dififered from French, 
feudalism, the censitaire or tenant Was not bound to the 
lord of the manor by military service : " the royal 
governor called out the militia and set over it what 
ofiBcers he pleased *'. The settler's lot on Canadian soil, 
was far above, in degree of comfort and importance, 
that of the French peasant. He styled himself habitant ; 
he had come to habiter le pays, was proud of the title 
as it distinguished him, he being a permanent, from 
the transient trader, who arrived in the colony with the 
spring ships and returned to France in the autumn, and 
was perhaps only a government oflScial. Vast land 
grants or seigniories, were made to distinguished settlers 
or French officers, on the express condition of fealty and 
homage to the king, or his representative at the chateau 
St. Louis, at Quebec and, also, on the express under- 
taking of themselves, clearing or conceding to settlers to 
be cleared, the lands patented to them by the crown, 
tinder penalty of forfeiture of patent, a not unfrequent 

' Thus these large tracts of land were prevented from 
becoming waste. Canadian seigneurs, as a rule were 
not wealthy, though several, through their thrift and 
intelligence were prosperous. Among others may be 
noted, Berthelot, proprietor of the Comt6 de St. Laurent 
on the island of Orleans, facing Quebec; Jacques 
Le Ber, a Montreal trader, who accumulated wealth, 
some 6000 livres, wherewith, he purchased his patent 
of nobility; Eobineau, the owner of the Barony of 
Portneuf, near Quebec ; the younger Charles Le 
Moyne, later on, Baron de Longueuil, and whose title 
has been lately revived by our gracious Sovereign. Of 
the younger Charles Le Moyne, Frontenac the Governor 
says : " Son fort et sa maison nous donnent ime id^e 
des chateaux de France fortifies. " His fort was of 
stone and flanked with four towers. It was nearly 

— 230 — 

opposite Montreal on the south shore." {The OldBegvme^ 

Farkman traces in sombre colours, the career oi several 
of these gentilhomTnes fraufais and retired half-pay 
officers, who unable to keep up in lavish expenditure 
with the same class, basking in royal sunshine, at the 
Louvre or at Versailles, cast their lot in Canadian wilds 
— where the absence of suitable careers for their sons 
and a handicapped trade compelled them and their 
numerous offspring to stru^le with want ; many of 
them unfortunately taught to look down on honest toil 
as derogatory, one is reminded of a similar worthy class 
of British half-pay officers, eking out in the past a scanty 
livelihood, at Woodstock, Simcoe, London, Ont., or in 
the eastern townships of the province of Quebec. 

In dwelling on the brilliant career of the Longueuil, 
Mr. Parkman traces so graphic an account of the French 
gentilhomme, that I hope I will be pardoned for quo- 
ting it. ** Others learned the same lesson, at a later day, 
adapting themselves to soil and situation, took root, grew 
and became more Canadian than French. As population 
increased, their seigniories began to yield appreciable 
returns, and their reserved domains became worth culti- 
vating. A future dawned upon them ; they saw in hope 
their names, their seignorial estates, their manor houses, 
their tenantry passing to their children's children. The 
beggared noble of the early time, became a sturdy, 
country gentleman; poor but not wretched; ignorant 
of books, except possibly a few scraps of rusty latin, 
picked up in a Jesuit school ; hardy as the hardiest 
woodsman, yet never forgetting his quality of gentiU 
homme; scrupulously wearing his badge, the sword, 
and copying as well as he could the fashions of the 
court, which glowed on his vision across the sea in all 
the effulgence of Versailles, and beamed with reflected 
ray from the Chateau, at Quebec. He was at home 
among the Indians, and never more at home than when, 
a gun in his hand and a crucifix on his breast, he took 

— 231 — 

the war path with a crew of painted savages and French- 
men almost as wild, and pounced like a lynx from the 
forest, on some lovely .fann and outlying hamlet of New 
England. How New England hated him, let her records 
tell. The reddest blood streaks on her old annals mark 
the track of the Canadian gentiUtomme*' 

In order to complete the tableau of this fearful era of 
our border warfare, the Boston historian, with his usual 
felicity of expression, has in his last work, (1) narrated, 
the bloody raids on Canadia'n houses and hamlets of 
Rogers and his scalping Eangers, assisted by New 
Englanders — bloodthirsty avengers. 

Let us float down the stream of time a century and 
more, and catch a glimpse of the Canadian seigneur of 
later days. The midnight, bloody raid on New England 
hamlets, has lost its charm for the sturdy, country 
gentilhomme ; its ghastly memories rest in the tomb 
of Hertel de Eouville,Courtemanche and other worriours, 
though the oppressive rites and exclusive usages of 
early times remain. The cena and rente^ are still 
brought to the manor, at St. Martin's Day, with the 
noisy capons ; the banal mill, the seignorial dove-cot, 
the hated corvee, forced labour, the exclusive droit 
de chasse et de piche, are still enforced ; the raised, 
cushioned seignorial pew facing the altar, still awaits 
each Sunday, its honored occupant, who claims the 
first, or at least the second, sprinkle of holy water and 
slice of holy bread, from the parish priest and beadle. 
The Laird's manor is still rebuilt in stone and mortar ; 
stone being abundant and lime, home-made, not being 
AS of yore, imported in ships, equally so. One invariable 

<1) ^ Half Century of Conflict 

— 232 — 

feature of the past is omitted in the structure; the 
loop-holes for musquetry, in case of Indian assault and 
siege. Danger to human life has ceased, as every fort 
is garrisoned by British troops, and as the ferocious 
Iroquois, has been forced to bury his hatchet forever. 
The Canadian seignior, neglected, jeered at by France, 
in 1757, has accepted cheerfully the inevitable 
and unlike the deserted Acadian, has sworn without 
reservation, fealty to his new masters, who in return, 
kave sworn to protect him. 

We find a striking instance of this auspicious change 
in the readiness of the Canadian seigniors to rush to 
arms and save their homes and altars, from foreign 
invasion, in 1775-6. 

In the severest season of the year, in March, 1776 — 
three seigniors headed their retainers, and attempted to 
pour succor into Quebec, blockaded by New England 
soldiery, but defended by a brave leader of men, Guy 
Carleton— Capts. de Beaujeu, Seignior of Crane Island, 
P. Q., de Gasp^, seignior oiF St. Jean Port-Joly and 
CouiUard, seignior of St, Thomas, P. Q., aided by Lieut. 
Boss, late of the 78th Highlanders. 


Let us hear a gifted writer, the abb4 H. B. Cas- 
grain, describe a modern Seignorial Manor, that of 
the Hon. f Marc Paschal de Sales Laterri^re, which he 
visited, at Eboulements, fifteen miles west of Murray 
Bay, P. Q. 


" An imposing avenue leads up' to the Manor fes- 
tooned up to the eaves, with graceful climbing plants ; 
it peeps out from a grove of lofty trees. Tis an exten- 
sive stone-structure, adorned with two pavilions. Its 
solid, thick walls, in the old Canadian style, would 

— 233 — 

not ill-befit the bastions of a fortress *' were they built 
as a protection against Indian surprises. ** Facing the 
portico, a handsome garden, of goodly extent and cul- 
tivated with care ; in rear, a deep ravine, embedding 
a rivulet, which turns the seignorial grist-mill ; the 
latter, situate a few feet to the left, at the base of the 
great hill. Its dam furnishes a sheet of limpid water, 
fringed with alder bushes and young beech ; myriads 
of lively trout frisk there. Beyond, the eye rests 
pleasantly on a cultivated valley, which rises gently to 
the foot of the mountain-ranges. At one corner of the 
garden, on the brink of a precipice from whence comes 
the murmur of a little waterfall, there is a small chapel, 
half-hidden under a mass of verdure ; it is dedicated 
to the Virgin. A great family grief renders the spot 
sacred ; the untimely death of the seignor's eldest son, 
by the bursting of an old French cannon, long since 
condemned," but fired off, possibly, by the manor 
children on great fete days, St. Jean-Baptiste, &c., &c. 
Here comes, daily, the pious, sorrowing mother, to 
offer up a prayer in memory of her first-bom cut off in 
his prime. 

Where ends the garden, begin the Chemins Perdua^ 
the Stray Paths in the park. A truly Canadian land- 
scape in all its wildness : rocks, hills, valleys, steep 
declivities, gentle slopes, precipices, with the unceasing 
roar of the rivulet which flirts and whimpers through 
the park ; dashed into rapids, waterfalls, silvery sheets 
of foam gleaming here and there, through the curtain 
of green woods. 

The Stray Paths, carefully raked, wander in every 
direction, athwart the park ; a maze of ups and downs, 
curves, leading straight to rustic seats ; then, receding, 
and opening up unexpected vistas. It takes close to an 
hour to saunter through. 

Here a lofty plateau, discloses beneath you, through 
forest, clearings a glimpse of the St. Lawrence and of 
the Isle-aux-Coudres ; the green isle from this point. 

~ 234 — 

looks like a diDner table laid out >^ith white plates for 
the guests: the neat houses of the islanders, fleck- 
ing the shore. There, at a point known as the 
** Observatory ", yawns at your feet, a deep crevice in 
the soil, where the stream rushes past in a cascade. 
Just descend the narrow, tortuous path, which leads 
down to the dark abyss ; whip the pool with rod and 
fly, and you will fill your creel with dozens of speckled 
beauties. Several names are cut in the bark of the 
surrounding trees ; I read, the initials of (Sir) E. P. 
Tache and (Lady) S. Tacht^, with the date 1830. 

Further on, you meet a vale planted with fruit trees, 
where wild violets and daisys are mirrored in sunshine, 
in the wavelets of the crystal brook ; the latter seems 
as if it wished to tarry a while in its course,to catch 
the song of birds and the hum of grass-hoppers. This 
happy valley — so congenial to the reverie of a student, 
is styled at the manor ; " Le Vallon des Champs 
Elys6s," the Vale of the Elysean Fields. This is the 
only locality, in this section of Canada, adds the abb^ ! 
where I heard the chirp of this noisy summer visitant, 
the grass-hopper." 

Let us now ascend, resting our wearied legs, after 
such long and laborious rambles up to the gallery of the 
Citadel. Here, a loud, an involuntary exclamation is 
heard : admiration mixed with surprise I 

Far away, in the distance eastward, the boundless 
expanse of our majestic flood and its many isles, the 
whole with the blue Alleghany Mountains as a back- 
ground ". To complete this felicitous picture of a sunny, 
modern Seignorial Manor, the abb^ adds his own 
pleasant remembrance, of the interesting confabs and 
walks he enjoyed at the gloaming, with his respected, 
aged and cultured friend, the Hon. Marc. Paschal de 
Sales Laterri^re, the Laird of the Manor, who, he says, 
on festive occasions, ordered out the seignorial coach, 
drawn by a favorite white mare — " une blanche haque 


— 235 — 

n^e *', bearing the family crest, " Boutez en avant" 
Tecalling some of his former readings^ it reminded him, 
of a gentilhomme, of the era of Louis XIV. 


Amelie Panet (Madame Von Moll de Bercy), eldest 
-daughter of the Hon. Louis Antoine Panet, a Justice 
of the Court of Queen's Bench, at Montrecd, was born 
At Quebec, on the 27th January, 1789. 

Educated at the Ursulines Convent, of that city, she 
perfected her knowledge of literature, under the eye of 
her learned father, who in addition to French, taught 
her Italian, Latin and Greek, together with mathe- 
matics, with an insight in philosophical works. The 
charm of Miss Panet's conversation, her accomplish- 
ments, her musical talents and kindly disposition 
endeared her to a large circle of friends. Several of 
them leaders in the social circles of the day. We may 
mention the antiquary Jacques Viger — the Hon. Denis 
Benjamin Viger, Chevalier de Estimonville, Sir James 
Stuart, his talented brother Andi'ew, Hon. Louis Joseph 
Papineau, the learned Heim Heney ; in recent years, 
Judge Baby, himself a ripe scholar. 

Miss Panet selected as her partner for life, a man, 
in every respect, worthy of her ; William Von Moll de 
Bercy. She followed his fortunes and resided a short 
time, at Amherstburg, previous to their taking posses- 
sion of the Seignorial Manor, near Montreal, — a wild 
spot at that .period, but which her haip, her books and 
her literary tastes soon transformed into a gay, attrac- 
tive salon. Far away from social circles, but not forgotten ; 
there, she spent long and useful days ; there she died, 
on the 24th March, 1862, at the advanced age of 
73 years, much regretted. This many-sided, gifted 
woman, by her conciliatory mannei^s had won the heart 
of her husband's tenants in their daily intercourse at 
the Manor. Amidst household duties, at times tolerably 

— 23G — 

irksome, Madame de Bercy, found time to indite 
poetical efifusions and prose writings of considerable 
merit, though few so far have appeared in print. It i& 
one of her letters, written to a lady friend some sixty 
years ago, we shall attempt to translate, though it seems 
impossible to render into another idiom, her terse, 
elegant French, especially remarkable for its simplicity. 
It recallsthose quaint,gushing,masterly epistles Madame 
de S^vign6 addressed to her daughter, Madame de 
Grignan. Madame de Bercy is a favourible type of the 
cultured, Canadian Seigneuresse of other days. 

D»Ailleboust, 10 Nov. 1833. 

My dear, 

*' A part of what takes place when the Seignorial rents 
come in, which according to a good old custom, is at the last 
hour " a la queue du loup '', I have to be constantly on the 
move and to let you see my occupations, I will detail each 
monotonous day's work. I rise at day-break, to drive our 
hands from round the stove, which they cherish much more 
than their work. I then skim the milk, cook their breakfast, 
make my own coffee : a favorite fancy of mine. I like to have 
this beverage to my taste : of course, 1 then drink it. Not 
having anyone to talk to auring breakfast, I read from Saint 
Augustin, two pages " On grace. " I failed to take in their 
whole meaning. I was at my last bite and was closing the 
final passage of the volume, when two Kahitants, made their 
appearance with their rents. I was next busy sampling their 
wheat, to make sure it was dry and clean, in otie word, good, 
sound and merchantable wheat. (Where are the noisy capons ?) 
Afterwards, and without loosing sight of them, I watched them 
measuring and storing it in the granary. 

^^ On re-entering the house, 1 made an entry of the trans- 
action in two Registers, and wrote out for thein a receipt. I 
delayed the censitaires a few minutes, questioning them in 
order to iind out, if possible, if they had bought or sold lands, 
unknown to the seignior. Thus I discovered that both had 
sinned against the law of Lods et Ventes, Bearing in mind 
what they admitted having done, I rated them roundly on 
the score : they left. »' Well, said 1 to myself, some more 
business aispatched ! " 

^' As dinner follows closely on the heels of breakfast, in the 
country, 1 looked after other trifling details. That done, I 
decked myself with my hood and sabots and left to ascertain 
how one of my farm hands— an '< enfant du sol " to use a 

— 237 — 

popular expression, was progressing with the thrashing of 
the grain. I urged him on and then made sure that another 
farm hand was caulking properly the stable, a safeguard for 
the cattle, against the cold weather, closing in. 

'' In Canada, says Frs. Parkman, these payments, 
known as cena et rente were strangely diverse in 
amount and kind * * * A common charge at Montreal 
^as half a sou and half a pint of wheat for each arpent. 
The rate usually fluctuated in the early times, between 
half a sou and two sous, so that a farm of one hundred 
and sixty arpents would pay from four to sixteen francs, 
of which a part would be in money and the rest in live- 
capons, wheat, eggs, or all three together, in pursuance 
of contracts as amusing in their precision as they were 
bewildering in their variety. Live capons estimated at 
twenty sous each, though sometimes not worth ten, 
form a conspicious feature in these agreements, so that 
on pay day, the seignior's barn-yard presented an ani- 
mated scene. 

Later, in the history of the colony, grants were at a 
somewhat higher rate. Payment was commonly made 
on St. Martin's day, when there was a general muster 
of tenants at the seignorial mansion, with a prodigious 
consumption of tobacco and a corresponding retail of 
neighborhood gossip, joined to the outcry of the captive 
fowls bundled together for delivery, " with legs tied, 
but throats at full liberty." 

A more considerable, but a very uncertain source of 
income to the seignior were the lods et ventes, or muta- 
tion fines. The land of the censitaire passed freely to 
his heirs ; but if he sold it, a twelfth of the purchase 
money must be paid to the seignor." (Tke Old Regime, 
Parkman, pp. 249-50.) 

On returning from my ramble, there Game two sugar 
makers '^ sucriers ; " such is the name given to the woods- 
men who boil the maple sap into sugar. They wanted to lease 
some sugar bushes. These had been previously occupied by 
other parties. It was uncertain whether the late occupants 
wishea to return the same to the seignior. In all fairness this 

— 238 — 

had to be inquired into. The applicants did so, and gave me 
but equivocal replies. To make sure, I referred them to our 
forest ranger ] he, prudent man, sent them back to me. No 
bargain was made, and two long hours were thus lost. 

" I am worried and bothered. What is worse, I have to 
inhale the fumes of tobacco smoke ; tenant and lessee, with 
whom I must deal, are each wedded to a pipe, inseparable 
companions. I sat down tired out. Eventually, I collected 
my thoughts ; the latter tell me it is wrong to thus seek rest. 
I then drew near my writing-desk and sat to draft a Petition 
to the House of Assembly, of which my husband had scribbled 
on paper six lines in English, and my brother, three lines in 
French — in hieroglyphics ! I put in order, as best I could, 
these discordant elements. At the foot of the petition, the 
words " As appears by the annexed Plan " tell me my work 
is not yet done. Doubtless my husband drew the plan before 
he left : a second copy is wanted for the Legislative Council 
and a third, for the Governor. I sat to copy the plan and 
then cleaned it up. I was getting on well, when it began to 
get dark. Soon I failed to see any more. 

I then put-by my compass and brush, ordered a horse to be 
hitched to the cariole, as I had to meet a party before it got 
dark, a quarter of a league away. Got ready j threw a wrap 
over my shoulders — ^when 1 What ? ♦ ♦ • I felt faint. What 
did it mean ? Hum 1 I recollected that, hard pushed as I had 
been all day, I had forgotten to eat any dinner • • ♦ But, the 
vehicle is at the door. I will dine when I return. 

" I have returned and dined off, a cup of tea, with no 
other company but my own. I take up " Saint Augustin, " 
but the book had so mixed up my ideas in the morning, that 
I layed it down and picked up a newspaper. My eye wandered 
over the advertising column of " Houses to Let " and " objects 

^*Tea and reading alike short; I got through both. At 
last (this was in November), came the moment to draw closer 
to the house stove. I settled there. But this did not answer. 
I felt I must cheer up, and made three melancholy attempts 
to sing the complainte of poor Mary, Queen of Scots : this 
came to an end. Here I am, attempting to weary you witn the 
tale of my daily household duties. 

It will at least help to explain to you, how hungering and 
thirsting to see you, I must decline an invitation which would 
satisfy the craingsv of this double desire." — (The Canadian 


'^ Ou Chrismas Eve the bells were rung 
On Christmas Eve the mass was sung ^ 
That only night in all the year, 
Saw the stoled priest the chalice rear. 
The damsel donned her kertle sheen ; ' 
The hall was dressed with holly green." 


All hail to thee ! dear old Christmas Eve of our youth, 
with thy sweet, unforgotten memories, the long-looked 
for mease de Tninuit, with its flaming tapers, green 
arches and its grave, inspiring church music, without 
omitting the exciting homeward drive, over whitened 
streets and moon-lit snow, the sumptuous midnight 
repast — le rSveillon de Noel — and all the expected 
gifts of the morrow ! All hail to thee ! 

Other climes may rejoice in other, grander ways of 
solemnizing thy glories, but nowhere does your yearly 
advent gladden more hearts than in our Canadian 
land. And still to the student, you do come, as a 
mysterious masquerader, veiled under a strange guise, 
clad partially in raiment borrowed from a distant, very 
distant and misty era. 

Our modern Christmas customs are interwoven with 
pagan rites and ceremonies ; there can be no doubt on 
this point. 

" By such an amalgamation," says the * Book of 
Days,' " no festival of the Christian year was more 
thoroughly characterized than Christmas ; the festivi- 
ties of which originally derived from the Roman saturn- 
alia had afterwards been intermingled with the cere- 
monies observed by the British Druids at the period of 
the winter-solstice, and at a subsequent period became 
incorporated with the grim mythology of the ancient 

— 240 — 

Saxons. Two popular observances belonging to Chris- 
tians are more specially derived from the worship of 
our pagan ancestors : the hanging up of the mistletoe 
and the burning of the yule log." 

As regards the former of these practices, it is well 
known that in the religion of the Druids, the mistletoe 
was regarded with the utmost veneration, though the 
reverence which they paid to it seems to have been 
restricted to the plant when found growing on the oak, 
the favourite tree of their divinity, Teutanes, who 
appears to have been the same as the Phenician god, 
Baal, or the sun, worshipped under so many different 
names by the pagan nations of antiquity. At the period 
of the winter-solstice a great festival was celebrated in 

his honour When the sacred anniversary 

arrived the ancient Britons, accompanied by their priests, 
the Druids, sallied forth with great pomp and rejoicings 
to gather the mystic parasite, which, in addition to the 
religious reverence with which it was regarded, was 
believed to possess wondrous curative powers. When 
the oak was reached on which the mistletoe grew, two 
white bulls were bound to the tree, and the chief 
Druid, clothed in white (the emblem of purity), 
ascended, and, with golden knife, cut the sacred plant, 
which was caught by another priest in the folds of his 
robe. The bulls, and also human victims, were sacri- 
ficed, and various festivities followed. The mistletoe 
thus gathered was divided into small portions and dis- 
tributed among the people, who hung up the sprays 
over the entrances to their dwellings, as a propitiation 
and shelter to the sylvan deities during the season of 
frost and cold. The rites in connection with the mistletoe 
were retained throughout the Roman dominion in 
Britain, and also for a long period under the sovereignty 
of the Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles." 

— 2-il — 

Each year the revolving wheel of time brings round 
a festival dear to Christian nations : Christmas day. 
Since the fifth century, by common consent, its date 
is fixed for the 25th December ; various the displays 
and usages which mark the auspicious date in different 

In merry old England, the Lord of Misrule then for 
the time asserts his boisterous sway, among the young, 
whilst their demure elders look on the day as one 
sacred to family meetings. 

The " hopefuls " count, as a certainty, on a liberal 
allowance of plum-pudding, nuts and mince-pie, to be 
followed by games, music, conjuring, snap-dragon, 
whilst the yule clog is blazing on the hearth and the 
parlour hung with holly, invites the coy maidens to 
trust themselves for a moment under the mistletoe 

Of old, the good time used even to invade, in a 
oonspicuous manner,- those revered seats of learning 

The Boar's Hbad Carol. (1) 

(Sung at Queen^s College^ Oxford,) 

The boar's head in hand bear I, 
Bedecked with bays and rosemary ; 
And I pray you, my masters, be merryi 

Quot esiis in convivo. 

Caput apri defero 

Reddens laudes domino. 

The boar's head; as I understand, 
Is the rarest dish in all this land, 
Which thus bedecked with a gay garland 

Let us servire cantico. 

Caput apri. defero 

Reddens laudes domino. 

(1) " The Boar's head is the symbol of Odin, the old Norsk 
deity, and the circle is the symbol of the Sun. It is not an 
orange, an apple, or a lemon, though either was used sym- 
bolically. — {Karl Blind^s papers, on Ethic ideas of the Edda.) 


— 242 — 

Our steward hath provided this 
In honor of the king of Bliss 
Which on this day to be served is 

In Reginensi A trio. 

Caput apri defero 

Reddens laudes domino. 

Oxford and Cambridge, where the wassailers pom- 
pously introduced the grim boar's head, bearing in it» 
extended jaws an apple or a lemon, to the famous, very 
old health : 

Caput Apris defero 

Reddeo laudes JDomino. 
The bore's head in hande brynge I, 
With garlands gay and rosemary. 
I pray you still sing merely. 

Qui estis in convivis. 

The bore's head, I understande, 
Is the chefe servyce in this land 
Looke wherever it be fande. 
Serviie cum cantico I 

Be glad both man and lasse, 
For this hath ordayned our Stewarde, 
To cheere you all this Chris tmasse 
With bore's head with mustarde. 

— (Christmas Carolles by Wynkyn de Worde, 1521.) 

A delightful legend in England shed its glamour over 
Christmas : the legend of the miraculous thorn-tree of 
Glastonbury Abbey, in Somersetshire, " which tree 
always blows on Christmas Day." It had sprouted from 
the staff of St. Joseph of Arimathea, a dry hawthorn- 
stick, stuck by him on a hill, where the saintly gentle- 
man and his weary companions had rested ; that thorn, 
however, had been grubbed up in the time of the civil 
wars, but others had been raised from it in the lawns. 

In Scotland, the Lord of Misrule made room for the 
Abbot of Unreason, until the year 1515, when, it seems, 
this important potentate was dethroned by act of par- 

— 243 — 

The Church of Rome, the Church of England, the 
Greek Church, all unite in celebrating the festival of 
the birth of Chrht— Dies Natalia— '* Tjioel", as the 
French style it. 

In England, one day was deemed insufficient ; the 
joyful time was enlarged ; it began on Halloween and 
ended with Candlemas Day. 

In the country parts of old Fmuce, the peasantry 
solemnized the ffete with numerous, simple lays. Some 
of these touching carols and traditions came over, from 
old France to New France, two and a-half centuries ago, 
and flourish here to this day. 

That charming old traveller and graceful writer, 
Xavier Marmier, of the French Academy, relates some 
of the modes of keeping Christmas in the foreign lands 
he visited, after his return from Canada in 1850. Under 
his hospitable roof it was my privilege to be recently 
entertained. Beginning with his native province, la 
Franche-ComUy Mr. Marmier alludes to antique, simple 
Christmas lays — les viewx Noels — composed by the 
rude mountaineers and sung at night-fall. ** These were 
followed in my youth, " says he, " by tales of super- 
natural occurrences on Christmas Eve. " 

On that marvellous night a boulder on the moun- 
tain brow, shaped like a pyramid, turned thrice on its 
base during Midnight Mass, when the priest recited the 
genealogy of the Saviour. 

On that same night domestic animals were gifted 
with speech ; when the farmers entered their stables 
they told them, in doleful accents, how they had been 
cruelly used, half-starved and illtreated ; quite a 
revelation for the masters, in some cases. 

On Christmas Eve the sands of the sea-shore, lofty^ 
mountain-ridges and deep valleys opened out and 
revealed to the starry heavens treasures concealed in 
their depths. 

On that identical night the graves cast up the 
departed ; the old village pastor, dead for years, awoke 

— 244 — 

from his long sleep, rose in their midst, beckoned them 
to follow him, and, all to meet round the cemetery- 
cross, to join in reciting the prayers of the "nativity. 
This over, each one indulged in a glance at the hamlet, 
of which he was once an inmate, surveyed his former 
dwelling, then all vanished ; the silent grave reclaimed 
its tenants. " I was then too young, " he adds, " to 
attempt climbing the mountain -brow to witness such 
thrilling spectacles. My father owned no stables ; the 
only domestic animal we possessed was a tortoise-shell 
cat which had not a word to say. " 

" I can recollect the Swedish Christmas ; it is named 
Julnat, that is, the night of the wheel, because at 
that season of the year the sun's wheel turns towards 
the winter solstice. This name is an old Scandinavian 
designation, dating as far back as the pagan era ; but 
at present the Christian holiday is observed in a Chria- 
tian-like way, and recalls many pleasant memories. 
Julnat is an idle time for the diet ; the law courts are 
closed ; business ceases, to allow families to re-unite 
from afar. The thoroughfares resound with the tinkle 
of sleigh-bells and noise of vehicles bringing home 
youths and maidens to the paternal roof. It is a brisk 
time for match-making, family re- unions and pleasant 
surprises ; an aged couple wiU be deploring the absence 
of a cherished son from the family group, when possibly 
a jingle of bells is heard at the house door, and joyful 
accents proclaim the arrival of the looked-for guest, 
who possibly has braved the wintry blast to take his 
share at the Julnat. 

Then is the time of the verdant Christmas tree 
exposed to view on a lofty table, bright with flaming 
tapers, typefying the celestial light, which has spread 
from the manger, at Bethlehem, to the whole world. It 
is studded with the offerings selected by the good 
house-wife for her guests ; the eve of the Julnat the 
dwellings in cities and villages are aglow with lighted 
tapers, hung on the Christmas tree. The poorest Swede 

— 245 — 

must own a tree, even if he can afford but one taper. 
The festival lasts several days ; the farm animals even 
benefit by it ; that day they are entitled to an extra 
ration, whilst a sheaf of wheat is fastened to the bam 
roof for the wee birdies to peck at, lest food should fa,il 
them in the drec^ry winter. " — (VArhre de Noel,) 
In England, Cock Kobin is not forgotten at Christmas. 

** Amidst the freesdng sleet and snow. 
The timid robin comes ; 
In pity drive him not away, 
Bat scatter out your crumbs. 

And leave your door upon the latch 

For whomsoever comes ; 
The poorer they, more welcome give, 

And scatter out your crumbs. 

All have to spare, none are too poor, 

When want with winter comes ; 
The loaf is never all your own, 

Then scatter out your crumbs. 

Soon winter falls upon your life, i 

The day of reckoning comes : 
Against your sins, by high decree. 

Are weighed those scattered crumbs." 

Alfred CROWQxnLu 

** Here comes holly that is so gent, 
To please all men is his intent, 
Alleluia I 

Ivy is soft and meek of speech. 
Ivy is green, with colours bright." 

The Christmas holly, mistletoe, and ivy, sacred to 
Druidical worship, recalls another relic of similar origin, 
but handed down much modified, in fact, at present, 
nearly obsolete in French Canada. — La iGNOUfeK 

— 246 — 

Practised until some years back, in some of the 
oldest settlements on the Saint Lawrence, it consisted 
in a serenade by a band of juvenile masqueraders, 
knocking at doors and windows, with music and song, 
and begging for offerings, generally eatables, for the 
poor, with threats of revenge if gifts were refused. The 
benevolent custom degenerated, however, in drinking 
bouts ; the offerings diverted from the original object 
were exchanged for refreshments, not all of the Blue 
Eibbon type. 

A piece of pork, with the tail adhering. La CHiGNfeE, 
was the traditional offering expected. 

La Ignol£:e has its legends in prose and in verse, 
and closed the Christmas time just before the new year 
began. The curious will find an outline of these legends 
in the Edda, or sacred book of the Scandinavians. The 
mistletoe played an unenviable part in connection with 
the Scandinavian gods, Odin and his kind wife, Friga. 
Their colleague Balder, the god of poetry and eloquence, 
was supposed to have lost his life through the perjB- 
dious conduct of another denizen of Olympus, named 

We find in Mr. Gagnon's precious store-house of 
Canadian songs, this legend, or song, quoted thus, page 
240, as sung by the masqueraders : 

** Bonjour le maitre et la maitresse 
Et tous les gens de la maison. 
Nous avons fait une promesse 
De v*nir vous voir une fois l*an, 

Une fois Pan Ce n'est pas grand'chose 

Q*un, petit morceau de Ghignee 

" Un petit morceau de Ohignee, 

Si vous voulez 

Dites nous-le ! 
Nous prendrons la fiUe ain6e 
Nous y ferons chauffer les pieds. 
La Ignol6e I La Ignoloche I 
Pour mettre du lard dans ma poche ! 

— 247 — 

Nous ne demandons pas grand'chose. 

Pour Tarrivee. 
Vingt-cinq ou trente pieds de Chlgn6e 

Si vous voulez. 

Nous sommes cinq ou six bons drdles, 
£t si notre chant ne vous plait pas 
Nous ferons du feu dans les bois 

Etant k Tombre ; 
On entendra chanter Pcoucou 

£t la coulombe 1 " 

Christmas melodies, some of them, composed by 
great masters, fill an important space in Roman Catholic 
hymn books. To M. Ernest Gagnon, the painstaking 
collector of Chansons Populaires du Canaday I am 
indebted for the following " Cantique Populairb du 
CANADA-FRANgAis," Set to music by him, the words of 
which are ascribed to the eminent French Soman 
Oatholic divine, Fl^chier : 



Dans cette etable, 
Que Jesus est charaiant I 

Qu'il est aimable, 
Dans son abaissement I 
Que d'attraits a la fois 1 
Tous les palais des rois 
N'ont rien de comparable 
Aux beaut^s que je vois 

Dans cette e table. 


Que sa presence 
Parait bien en ce jour 

MalgrS Tenfance, 
Oik I'a reduit I'amour I 
L'esclave est rachete, 
Et tout I'enfer dompte, 
Fait voir qu'a sa naissanoe 
Rien n*est si redouts 

Que sa presence. 


— 248 — 


Plus de misdre : 
J68US, s'offrant pour nous 

D*un Dieu s6vdre 
Appaise le courroux. 
Pour sauver le p6cheur, 
II nait dans la douleuri 
Pouvait-il, ce bon Pere, 
Unir k sa grandeur 

Plus de misdre. 


S*il est sensible, 
Ce n'e^t qu^8l nos malheurs 

Le froid horrible 
Ne cause point ses pleurs. 
Apres tant de bienfaits, 
Notre coeur, aux attraits 
D'un amour si visible, 
Doit c^der d^sormais, 
S'il est sensible. 


Que je Yous aime ! 
Peut-on voir vos appas 

Beauts supreme, 
Et ne V0U8 aimer pas 1 
Ah I que Von est heureux 
De br&ler de ces teux 
Dont vous brdlez vous-mSme- 
Ce sont Id, tous mes vceux ^ 

Que je vous aime I 

— 249 — 

I'is Christmas Day 1 

To one another 
I hear men say — 
Alas ! my Brother, 
Its winds hlow better, 

Our Christmas suns 
No longer glitter 

As former ones I 
If this be so, 

Then let us borrow 
From long ago 

Surcease of sorrow ; 
Let dead Yules lend 

Their bright reflections — 
Let fond friends blend 

Their recollections — 
Let Love revive 

Joy's ashen embers, 
For Ix)ve is Life 

Since Love remembers. 

Earl of Duffbrin. 


" Salut, beau jour dore, Premier de Pan I 
Toujours, quand tu parais, dans un joyeux 61an 

Nous saluons ta bienvenue ; 
C'est toi qui viens sourire aux enfants si joyeux, 
Qui viens mettre en secret, dans leurs berceaux soyeux 

Mille jouets de toute sorte I 

" Les Qu^beccoiaeSy W. Chapman." 

The (1) 1st of January, held in the Soman Catholic 
Church as a great festival, is also observed as a feast in 
the Church of England. From time immemorial it has, 
in Canada, meant a merry-meeting for all ; a special 
gala day for the ladies to receive visitors ; a date pas- 
sing dear to the young, in view of the gifts and pleasant 
surprises it invariably had in store. 

In some provinces of old Fmnce it went under the 
popular and appropriate name of Le Jour dee Etrennea, 

(1) '< Although there was a general popular regard to the 
1st of January, as the beginning of the year, the ancient 
Jewish year, which opened with the 2oth of March, continued 
long to have a legal position in Christian countries. In Eng- 
land, it was not till 1752 that the 1st of January became the 
initial day of the legal, as it had long been of the popular, 
year. Before that time it was customary to set down dat^s 
between the 1st of January and the 24th of March inclusive, 
thus : January 3()th, 1648-49 ; meaning, that popularly the 
year was 1649, but legally 1648. In Scotland the desirable 
change was made by a decree of James VI, in privy council, 
in the year 1600. It was effected in France, in 1564; in Hol- 
land, Protestant Germany and Russia, in 1700 ; and in Sweden, 
in 1753 " Book of Days, 

— 251 — 

the Day of Gifts. Providence, in their eyes, seemed to 
have selected it, in bleak January, the severest month 
in the year, to bring to the domestic circle, with touch- 
ing religious observance, a warm gleam of sunshine. 

" In the quaint drawings which illuminate the Catholic 
missals in the Middle Ages, January, says Brady, " is 
represented by the figure of a man dad in white, as the 
type of the snow usually on the ground at that season, 
and blowing on his fingers as descriptive of the cold ; 
under his left arm he holds a billet of wood, and near 
him, stands the figure of the sign Aquarius, into which 
watery emblem in the zodiac the sun enters on the 19th 
of this month." 

It was Numa Pomphilius who named this month 
JTanuarius, in honour of Janus, the Pagan deity sup- 
posed to preside over doors — ty pefying the opening and 
closing of the year. Janus could look into two direc- 
tions at once ; the double faced, typical old villain, 
honoured among the ancients, is not without his repre- 
sentatives among the moderns. 

Scanning through the weird gallery of the past, the 
Fasti, of our native city, give us back the quaint 
figures of oiir Gallic ancestors, as they moved round on 
this festive day. 

Without venturing to assert that the family side- 
board on New Year's Day groaned under such pyra- 
mids of CTockignolles, iced gdteavx and bonbons, such 
an array of wine decanters and liqueur flasks, as was 
customary in the hey-day of our youth — when Blue 
Ribbonmen, alas ! were curiosities — we can positively 
affirm that reliable, written records remain of how 
things were managed in the " rock city " in the good 
olden time. 

Several entries occur in the private journal of the 
Jesuits, recently published, throwing light on the 
customs of New Year's Day and its presents, furnish- 
ing a gratifying picture of the cordiality which reigned 
among the inhabitants of New France. Let us open 

— 252 — 

the quaint volume and read an extract, (1) taking us 
back to the distant era when a Knight Grand Cross of 
Jerusalem, gallant Charles Huault de Montmagny, 
held his court, in Champlain's Fort, at Quebec, as the 
worthy representative of his serene Majesty, Louis 

These extracts will bring us face to face with several 
of the notabilities of the period. The Governor's visit 
over, the first we shall meet on 1st January, 1646, is 
Dr. Robert Giffard, an inmate of Quebec, a cultured 
professional man from Perche, France, seigneur of 

(1) ''January Ist, 1646, the soldiers went to salute the 
Governor with their guns ] the inhabitants presented their 
compliments in a body. He was beforehand with us, and 
came here at seven o'clock to wish us, a happy New Year» 
addressing each of the Fathers one after another. I returned 
his visit after Mass. (Another time we must be beforehand 
with him). M. Giffard also came to see us. The Hospital nun& 
sent us a letter of compliment early in the morning ; the 
Ursulines also, with beautiful presents : wax candles, rosa- 
ries, a crucifix, and, at dinner, two excellent pigeon pies. I 
sent them two images (in enamel) of St. Ignatius and of St. 
F. Xavier. We gave to M. Giffard the " Life of Our Lord," by 
F. Bonnet ) to M. des Chatelets, a little volume of " Drexelliua 
on Eternity " ] to M. Bourdon, a telescope and compass ; 
and to others, reliquaries, rosaries, medals, images, &g. We 
gave a crucifix to the woman who washes the church linen, a 
bottle of rum to Abraham, and four handkerchiefs to his 
wife J some books of devotion to others and two handker- 
chiefs to Robert Hache ; he asked for more and we gave them 
to him. 

" I went to see M. Giffard. M. Couillard and Mademoiselle 
de Repentigny. The Ursulines sent to beg I would come and 
see them before the end of the day. I went and paid my 
compliments also to Madame de la Peltrie, who had sent us 

''At home I gave to our Fathers and Brothers what I 
thought they would like best. I had given beforehand to F. 
de Quen, for Sillery, all he chose to take from my room and a 
choice present for Father Masse. — Jesuits^ Journal^ p. 24. 

— 253 — 

Beauport, in virtue of a grant dating as far back as 
1634; his solid Beauport manor seems to have been 
less attractive that winter than city lifS in Quebec. 
He is now trudging over the snowy streets towards 
the Jesuits College (the old Jesuits Barracks raized in 
1878), facing the Basilica ; let us wish him the com- 
pliments of the season ! He is followed by Juchereau 
des Ch&telets, the factor of the fur-company ; both will 
receive pleasant souvenirs, New Year's gifts from the 
learned professors at the college. 

•Another visitor is in view, Jehan or Jean Bourdon, 
savant, land surveyor (1), engineer, explorer, a species of 
admirable Crichton, who left his surname to that 
leading thoroughfare, St. John's street. Most appro- 
priate presents await him : a telescope and a com-* 

Other callers of less importance, socially, are gratified 
with petits prints, — rosaries, medals, images, etc. 

Even the laundress of the college is remembered. 

That shady (2) old salt, the King's pilot, Abraham 
Martin dit VEcossaia, who bequeathed his name to his 
Quebec estate, the historic plains of Abraham, comes 
in for creature comforts and carries away a flagon, 
probably of the " real stingo, from St. Domingo, by 
Jingo, " a bottle of French rum, and his wife, six hand- 
kerchiefs. Robert Hache, the greedy fellow, is not 
satisfied with receiving two handkerchiefs, but " asks 
for and gets more." 

•Louie Couillard (3) who, the year previous, had 
munificiently given the site on which was built the 
Basilica minor, also Mile de Eepentigny, (4) waited 

(1) Bourdon was chief engineer of the colony. 

(2) There Ib in the Journal des J^suites an awkward entry 
for his fair fame ; seemingly he was not a Joseph. 

(3) Couillard was son-in-law of the first settler, Hebert. 

(4) Mademoiselle de Repentigny was daughter of Le Gar- 
deur de Repentigny, commander of the fleet. 

— 254 — 

until the Reverend Fathers called on thera, as well as 
that accomplished, charitable and elegant French widow, 
Madame de la Peltrie, the founder of the Ursuline Con- 
vent, in 1(539. 

To a Silleryonian, it is pleasant to notice ako a 
remembrance in store for that good Father Mass(^, who, 
for more than two and a half centuries, enjoys the long 
rest under the nave of his little church, at the spot 
marked by his monument, at Sillery Cove. No other 
New Year's day, however, will dawn for the devoted 
missionary ; six months more only of sublunary exis- 
tence are vouchsafed him in his Sillery mission, where 
he expired among his tawny neophytes on the 12th 
May, 1646. 

Among the hallowed, primitive New Year's Day 
customs, perpetuated in some corners of French Canada, 
is that known as La Benediction Paternelle — the 
Father's blessing on his children ; it was generally deli- 
vered in the morning after Mass. 

Not always after High Mass. In some families, the 
touching observance took place much sooner. The his- 
torian of Montcalm and L(5vis, abb^ Casgrain, has related 
how the New Year was ushered in for the young hope- 
fuls, in the family circle of his late father, the Honble 
Chs. Eugfene Casgrain, at Rivifere-Ouelle, P. Q. " At 
early mom', says he, our mother woke us up, attired us 
in our Sundays best suit, and gathered us all together, 
with the house servants following, in the parlor : she 
then thrust open the bed room door of our father, who 
from his couch, invoked a blessing on all of us ranged 
kneeling round him, whilst emotion used to bring tears 
to the eyes of our dear mother. Our father in an impres- 
sive manner accompanied his blessing with a few words 
to us, liaising his hands heavenwards^ Of course the 
crowning part of the ceremony, was the distribution of 
the New Year's gifts which he kept concealed behind 
him ". — (Memoire de Famille, p. 206.) 

— 255 — 

ImagiDation reverting to the days of missionary zeal 
and religious fervour, long, long ago, readily conjures a^ 
striking picture of this touching old custom. 

History tells of that noble type of a Christian gentle- 
man, Pierre Boucher, Governor of Three-Eivers ih 
1653, the father of a worthy family of fifteen children — 
(he died in 1717, at the age of ninety-five) — blessing 
on New Year's Day the kneeling group of sons and 
daughters, listening, all in rapt silence, to the words 
of wisdom and kindness falling from the venerable 

History also connects his name with another prac- 
tice, observed annually, on the anniversary of the old 
patriarch's death, — the reading, in the presence of the 
assembled family, all kneeling, of his last will, styled, 
" The Legacy of Grand-Father Boucher." We shall, we 
hope, be forgiven for giving a few lines of this beauti- 
ful, spiritual Testament ; each member of the noble (1) 
patriarch's family is addressed in turn, whilst the wisest 
counsels mingle with the effusions of paternal affection. 
Like another Tobias, giving his dying blessing, he con- 
cludes, saying to all ; " Love one another sincerely for 
the love of God ; remember that you will one day be 
called, like me, to appear before God to render an 
account of your actions ; hence, do nothing of which 
you will later have to repent." 

" I do not leave you great riches, but what I leave 
has been honestly acquired. I would willingly have 
left you more, but God is the master of all things. 

" I have no enemy to my knowledge. 

(1) Governor Pierre Boucher, seigneur de Boucherville, 
near Montreal, the ancsetor of our late Premier Hon. M. de 
Boucherville, had been ennobled by the King of France for 
his bravery and for the services he had rendered in Canada, 
He is known to science by an interesting work published in 
1663, on the natural history and natural resources of 

— 256 — 

" I have done what lay in my power to live without 
reproach ; do the same ! " 

His closing words to his loving wife, and dear children 
are equally tender and touching. 

* * 

A century will roll over and the customs of the 
auspicious visiting day will still continue, though in a 
modified form. 

Doubtless, at the gloomy close of the old regime, 
when_the infamous Bigot and his godless crew held 
high carnival, at Quebec, the paternal blessing and the 
traditional religious observances on New Year's Day 
were on the wane. 

Gambling, boodling and profligacy in high places 
overshadowed the land ; General Montcalm's corres- 
pondence, recently published, points out to other joys, 
other observances at that period, though the crowning 
pleasure of the first week in January was not omitted 
— tirer le Odteau — the family evening reunion, at 
Epiphany, to draw the pea and the bean out of the 
colossal Jour des Rois cake. 

In January, 1758, General de Montcalm writes to 
the Chevalier de L6vis : " Grand souper au palais, j'y 
eu comme de mison la feve, et Madame Pfen fut ma 
reine." — Montcalm and L^vis, Gasgrain, Vol. 1, p. 

A supper, and a grand one, took place that night at 
the Intendant's. jjalace. Montcalm drew the magic 
bean ; he was the king and selected the fascinating 
P^an as his queen. 

A thoughtful, drooping New Yearns day was at hand 
for the following year ; the colony, deserted by France, 
expected a hostile fleet round Pointe-Levi with the 
return of spring. A more gloomy and exciting 
New Year's Day must have been for besieged and 

— 257 — 

blockaded Quebec, the 1st January, 1776, sixteen 
years later, when, stark, stiflf and frozen, the corpse of 
Brigadier-General Bichard Montgomery, borne by a 
military escort through the street of the city, was 
deposited in Gobert's house, on St. Louis street, and 
the besieged were making arrangements to bury their 
own and the enemy's dead. 

• « 

Another commendable custom peculiar to New Year's 
Day was La QvMe de VEnfanUJ^aua, — the collection 
for the Infant- Jesus ; for years it obtained in the coun- 
try parts of the Province of Quebec, though it is now 
obsolete, or nearly so. It was managed by the parish 
priest, driven round by the senior church wlrden. orby 
the beadle. The gifts gathered were distributed among 
the poor. 

In this benevolent, Christian-like excursion amidst 
the B. C. parishioners, strange to say, had been merged 
the hoary, druidical institution of La IgnoUe^ which, 
though described elsewhere, warrants us in adding a 
few remarks. " Christianity, " says Mr. J. C. Tach^, 
in accepting this druidical usage, had sanctified it by 
charity, just as it had allowed the Menhirs to subsist, 
by crowning them with a cross. " 'Tis probable those 
singular lines : 

'' Nous prendrons la fille <^n6e, 
Nous y ferons chauffer les pieds. " 

were a veiled allusion to the human sacrifices which 
marked the ancient Gallic rites. It recalls the song of 
Velleda, in the Martyrs of Chateaubriand : " Teutates 
" requires blood... on the first day of the century... his 
" voice has been heard in the druidical oaks ! " 

This traditional custom of running the ignoUe was 
kept up in the city and district of Montreal, until about 


— 258 — 

1860, when the Mayor, on New Year's eve, issued per- 
mits to lads to run the IgnoUe, so as to protect them 
from arrest by the police. This precautionary measure 
did not always prove effectual in preventing disorder; 
when rival Ignoleux met, some of them under the 
influence of the " ardent ", would get up a fight ; the 
victors adding to their store of gifts by despoiling the 
vanquished, of theirs. 

The IgnoUe which took place in Canada on New 
Year's eve was kept up in some provinces in France 
on the 1st January itself. 

Eight well can we remember, more than fifty years 
ago, the observances of the day in our youth, at St. 
Thomas, now Montmagny ; the pyramid ot^CrocHgnoUes 
on a table in the ante-room, to be served out by the 
courteous housemaid to the jolly young villagers calling 
shortly after day-break, and discharging round the 
house to wake up the inmates, their long duck-guns, 
which were answered by the ringing of all the house 
bells, whilst we boys (my brother and self) awoke from 
our slumbers, enjoyed the surprise of unconscious and 
unadvised town visitors, spending the holiday under 
our parent's hospitable roof, scared by the loud, unex- 
pected artillery discharges. 

But, alas! the quaint druidical Ignolde has had 
its day, and the charitable Quite de V Enfant- Jisua 
has followed. 

In closing these glimpses of a pleasant past, 
one other feature remains unrecorded, — the Etrenvies 
of the newspaper carrier's address on New Year's Day. 
He, also, the espi^le Gamin^ counted on and got his 
offerings, demurely pocketing innumerable small coins 
of the realm, his time-honoured perquisites. 

The practice, however, cannot have originated prer- 
vious ta the year 1764, when those enlightened Scotch- 

— 259 — 

men, Brown and Gilmore, printed, at Quebec, the first 
City newspaper, the Quebec Gazette^ though the custom 
outlived the venerable news - sheet, which expired in 
1874, aged 110 years. 

A diligent searcher of old records, Benjamin Suite, 
the historian of Three-Eivers, not many years back,, 
collected in a fragrant bouquet^ specimens of the most 
striking New Year's Day effusions, more or less poeti- 
cal, the majority without signature of writer. Among 
others, the one headed, ** Etrennes du gargon quiporte 
la Gazette de Quebec, aux pratiques, le lev janvier, 
1778, " doing high homage to the " Saviour of Canada '* 
(Lord Dorchester) is quite touching. In a subsequent 
one, even Sir Frederick Haldimand, no favorite with 
the French Canadians, especially with those of the 
Du Calvet stripe, is therein styled, Le Solomon du 
Nord ! 

Enough ! The French Canadian Parnassus has paid 
a merited tribute to this day of the year, above all 
others, auspicious for the young ; Crdmazie, Frechette, 
LeMay, Lenoir, Garneau, Fabre, Buies, Chauveau, Suite, 
Chapman ; nor has it been forgotten by Evan McCall, 
John Beade, G. W. Wickstead and other sweet singers 
in Canadian land. — (Dominion Rlvstrated Monthly.} 




On more than one occasion, the peculiar expletives 
used in French Canada, ostensibly to give emphasis to 
thoughts expressed, have seemed to me fit subjects for 

Their close resemblance to similar expressions^ 
resorted to, in seveml departments in France, seemingly 
point to a common, though distant origin. 

I purpose here submitting a few of the best known 
common forms. 

Unquestionably many of these expletives oijurona, 
conjure up ideas of lack of reverence for the name or 
for the attributes of the Deity. 

A french writer of some note, Laredan Larchey, in 
a learned disquisition on the subject, strives to show 
that in reality no disrespect is meant to the Almighty, 
whose name or divine attributes singularly distorted, 
are thus taken in vain by persons, in some cases, of 
strong religious proclivities. "Heaven, he says, has 
been ever called on to witness occurrences, which 
challenge astonishment or cause indignation." This 
would also apply to Canada, as illustrated by the daily 
exclamations heard in common parlance " Ah ! mon 
Dieu ! " BonU Divine ! &c., and similar terms used 
by devout sons of the Church. In either case, no 
disrespect is meant to the Almighty. Among Frendi as 
well as among English military men, swearing on every 
trivial occasion was formerly so common, that it was 


— 261 — 

considered as quite the proper thing. A witty French 
author asserted that " Ood Dam " 4tait le fonds de la 
langue anglaise " — the root of the English language ! 
whilst the Vicomte de Parny, an elegant writer, com- 
posed a poem in four cantos, bearing that profane title. 
Long before and after the British soldiers " swore so 
dreadfully in Flanders" ; long before and after Cam- 
bronne uttered his malodorous juron, on the Field of 
Waterlow — though, it must be confessed in extenuation, 
the incidents of the day were ugly enough to make any 
of Napoleon's vieilles moustaches swear most emphati- 
cally — swearing was indulged in all over Europe. 

Before venturing to compare the expletives of old 
with those used by New France, I may be allowed to 
quote, a peculiar, chirpy oath, in favor among the 
Voyageurs des Pays d*En Haid : " Tors mon drae au 
hoxit d*un piquet " / How the toasting of one soul's at 
the end of a fence-rail was to be done, was ever a puzzle 
to me. I could, however, imagine a raftsman, or 
Coureur -de- bois, wishing to be impressive, sand- 
wfching his broken french dialogue, with such words as 
" Alille Tonnerres ! " in imitation of the D under and 
Blytzen, in use in the Vaterland, 

Let us examine some french j^urorw .' 

" Jarniou" uttered by a blasphemous unbeliever in 
God, is derived from Jarni (je renie) and Dieu. — Je 
renie Dieu : I deny God. To escape the charge of 
impiety, persons, altered it to Jarnibleu or Jarnicoton; 
the origin of this expletive is quaintly related. 

T*is said Henri IV, had contracted the perverse habit 
of repeating " 1 deny Ood ". Father P. Coton, his 
confessor, had pointed out to him the impropriety of 
such language, to which the king replied, that with the 
exception of God's name, none other was so familiar to 
him as that of Father Coton. 

— Well, Sire, readily retorted the pious Father, say 
" I deny Coton, " hence Jarnicoton. 

— 262 — 

Many of these jurons were borrowed from Britanny 
others, from Provence, Languedoc, Normandy. 

The juroUy " par le sang du Christy " was nbridged 
to Sacristiy to evade the punishment which the law 
had in store for impious persons ; the french writer 
previously quoted knew a very pious woman, who 
when astonished or startled, exclaimed " Saprist% " 
adding, however, as a correctif, " Sapristi la Rose '* 
associating with it that emblem of innocence and purety. 

Similar scrupules converted " Parle sang deDieu" 
into " Par la sambleu " Palsambleu and other variar 
tions " Ventredieu " originally meant " Par le ventre 
de Dieu, " from which sprang " Ventrebleu, " 

" Ventre-saint-gris" must be an alteration of ventre 
saint du Christ. 

" Par le corps de Dieu " gave " Cordieu " and 
" Corbleu " ; everywhere, subterfuges to escape penal 
enactments ! 

" Tu dieu " is supposed to be a weak echo of " Par 
le ventre de Dieu'' abridged first in " ventredieu " and 
" ventrebleu ". * 

•* Le sacr&nom de Dieu " says Mr. Laredon Larchey, 
furnished many expletives ; amongst others, ** Sacr^ 
nom, " " Cre nom " and " Nom de Dieu, " " Norn 
d'un noTYiy norm d'une pipe, " nom d'un petit ban- 
homme" was an irreverent allusion to Jesus as an 
infant. " Nom d'un petit bonhomme de bois " alluded 
to popular sculptures representing our Saviour, borne by 
his mother, hewn out of wood. From " Par le sacri 
nom de Dieu*' proceed the abbreviations " Sa,credieUy" 
" CredieUy' " Sacrebleu, " " Crebleu, " " Saperbleu". 
Th difficult to find the origin of " Sabre de bois ", Mr. 
Laredon Larchey has for it a far-fetched explanation. 
Canadian ears are tickled with the following bequeathed 
by their Gallic forefathers. Parbleu ? Sakyrebleu ! 
Sacrelotte ! Saperlotte and even Saperlipopette, in- 
dulged in by Euphueists. One mild form of juron. 


— 263 — 

which I first recollect hearing from the lips of a saintly 
old CuH^ I thought quite picturesque : " Sac-A- 
papier ; " the erudite Mr. Laredon Larchey connects it 
with the period, when lawyers, in France, carried their 
briefs to court, in bags. It might be worth while to 
trace the origin of the most fashionable expletives in 
English Canada and beyond the border. 



In glancing over the contents of my portfolio, I 
discovered the following, bearing the signature of a 
well-known student of Canadian history at Quebec, 
Mr. T. B. B^dard. 

It is a scrap of history in French touching the Huron 
Indians visited in September, 1893, by Their Excel- 
lencies Lord and Lady Aberdeen, the recipients of a 
loyal address of these sons of the forest. 

" The incident, adds Mr. B^dard, took place in 1813. 

Quebec youths were mustering to defend their homes 
from invasion under the double inspiration of religion 
and patriotism ; the English Government had called on 
them, and the Indians, tolerably numerous at that 
date, also appealed to, had warmly responded." 

Col. de Salaberry, who won laurels in that campaign, 
on consultation with the authorities, had returned to 
their camp to inform the Hurons that the Gk)vernment 
had come to the conclusion of retaining them as a 
corps de reserve, in case Quebec should be invaded by 
the Kennebec road. 

But in spite of this, Joseph and Stanislas Vincent, 
two well-known Indian warriors, begged loudly to be 
allowed to serve actively in the Canadian VoUi' 

At the battle of Chateauguay, where 300 Canadians 
performed the glorious feat of defeating an enemy 7,000 
or 8,000 strong, the brothers Vincent swam across the 
river, in hot pursuit of the flying foe. But the two 
heroes, full of pluck and fight, whilst the engagement 

— 265 — 

lasted, Iiad rather misty ideas of the inexorable military 
code, and the battle over, made for home, without 
asking by " your leave." This flagrant breach of disci- 
pline could not be overlooked and a letter from Mr. De 
Salaberry, sr., to his brave son, the Colonel, is still 
extant, showing how the pardon of the delinquents was 
procured : 


" Beauport, 4th December, 1813. 

" My Son,— Joseph and Stanislas Vincent of your regiment 
returned to Lorette on the 2nd December inst., and hurried 
to meet me, full of regret and repenting of the breach of dis- 
cipline of which they were guilty : they have no excuse to 
ofier except to say that evil ' advice alone caused them to 
commit such an act of folly. They were told that the other 
Indian nations served in war, as Indians only, not as if they 
were soldiers enlisted to do so ; that they ought to have 
turned a deaf ear to such counsels, but that youth has not 
the experience of age ; that they appeal to me, as the father 
of the greatest warrior the English King possesses, and hope 
I will obtain forgiveness for them. I replied, I would appeal 
to your kind heart, and was persuaded you would grant their 
prayer, as a brave man is always merciful to those who submit 
and repent. I beseech you, then, to forgive them, seeing 
how they repent and have entire confidence in you. Probably 
my own prayer will be for much in this pardon, but there is 
an additional reason for clemency j the great chief also called 
on me and in his own and in the name of the other chiefs, he 
asked me to intercede in favor of their young men, telling 
me how much the nation loves and admires you, * the Great 

'< La. Salaberry. 

Mr. Bedard, who collected this incident from the lips 
of an aged Huron chief in 1879, furnishes as follows 
the names of the Huron braves, who to perpetuate their 
gratitude for the Hero of Chateauguay, contribued to 
the monument erected that year to Col. De Salaberry, 
at Beauport, at which celebration it was my privilege 
to be present. 

— 266 — 

Names of the Hurons of Lorette, subscribers to 
De Salaberry monument : 

Paul Tahoukenchje, Chief, 

HoNORfe Ho8enho8en, 

Maurice Sarenhess, 

Loms Tsodokeahina, 

Stanislas Tsonontalina, 

Adolphe Odoladet, 

Magloire Tsohahessen, 

Thos. NaSendothic, 

Alfred Oskanonton, 

Joseph Gonzague HodelantonSanoen, 

Malhice Ahmolen, 

Antoine TsinontSarces, 

Nofe HodeSateri, 

Antoine TiokSenk, 

J. Bte. Arsenharonhas, 

Francois Tekionde, 

Francois ThaSidet, 

Wilfrid Orite, 

Paul TsaSenhohl 

Quebec, Nov., 1 893. 



■** Oft in the woods we long delayed 
When hours were minutes all too brief, 
For nature knew no sound of grief ; 
But overhead the breezes played, 
And in the dank grass at our knee, 
Show pearls of our green forest sea, 
The star-white flowers of triple leaf, 
Which love around the brooks to be 
I Within the birch and maple shade. 

— (Lord Lornb's Poem on Quebec,) 

I have been asked to state what are the first wild 
flowers, noticeable in spring, at Sillery, and around 
Quebec generally. 

April snows have scarcely disappeared, ere the Wil- 
low with its golden catkins is in bloom. 

" The first gilt thing 
Decked with the earliest pearls of spring.*' 

In the neighborhood of warm springs, vegetation is 
of course more rapid than elsewhere. 

(1) These familiar and concise notes are based on a valuable 
paper on the Wild Flowkbs of Qubbeo, delivered before the 
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, by Samuel Sturton 
and recorded in its Transaciiona. 

They have had the advantage of revision and additions by 
a lover of flowers, George M. Fairchild,jr.y of Ravenscliffe, 
Cape Rouge, P. Q. 

— 268 — 

Those which are commonly called the first flowers 
of Spring, are the May-flower, the Symplocarpus or 
Skunk Cabbage, the Hepatica, the Spring Beauty, In- 
dian Turnip or Jack-in-the-pulpit, and Dog-toothed 

The May-flower or trailing arbutus (Epigaea (1) re- 
pens) is a trailing evergreen, with rusty hairs and 
pinkish, white flowers, which are sweet scented. It 
grows on sandy soils, beneath pine trees ; it occurs in 
the Gromin wood, at Montmorency Falls and on the 
north shore of the Island of Orleans. 

(1) Mr. St. Cyr, F. R. S. C, noticed the following, on the 
7th May, 1884, in full bloom, at the Island of Orleans : 

Hepatica triloba, Chaix. Liver Leaf. 

Dentaria diphylla, L. Bitter Cress. 

Asarum Canadense, (Gingembre.) Wild ginger. 

Trillium erectum, L. Deadly Nightshade. 

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Moench. (Bourse.) Shepherds 

Sanguinaria Canadensis, L. (Sang-dragon.) Blood Hoot. 

Cory 1 us americana, Walt. ( Noise ttier.) Hazel Nut. 

Erythronium americanum, Smith. (Aildoux.) Dog Toothed 

Carez roeea. Schkuhr. Rose Sedge. 

On the 13th May, in the Gomin Wood, in bloom : 

Epigeea repens, L. Trailing Arbutus. 

Alnus incana, Willd. (Aulne.) Black Alder 

Alnus serrulata, Wild. (Aulne.) Smooth Alder. 

Populus tremuloides, Michx. (Tremble.) Trembling Poplar 

Acer rubrum, L. (Plaine.) Swamp Maple. 

Taraxacum dens-leonis, Deaf. (Dent de lion.) Dandelion. 

Onthe ] 5th May, an excursion to the south-west of Island 
of Orleans gave as results : 

Aralia trifolia, Grey. (Petit Ginseng.) Wild Sarsaparilla. 
Viola blanda, Willd. (Violette.) Bland Violet. 
Shepherdia Canadensis, Nuttall. 
Thalictrum dioicum, L. (Pigamon.) Meadow Bue. 
Thalictrum purpurascens. D. 0. Tall Meadow Rue. 
Hepatica acutiloba, D. C. Acute Leaved Liver leaf. 

— 269 — 

Mr. Fairohild writes me as follows : 

" The flora at Cap Rouge, Crescent Cove, and the river 
beach during May and June, is the richest and most varied 
of any that I have ever found in so limited an area. The St. 
Lawrence river brings u})on her current, seeds from the far 
Western lakes and rivers, and casts them upon the warm 
and sheltering beach where they germinate and flower. A 
walk from Cresent Cove to Cap Kouge village at the end of 
May reveals a bank fringed with a profusion of wild flowers 
indescribably beautiful in their many colors and forms. In 
a walk of not over a mile J gathered thirty-seven distinct 
varieties, and this at the end of May. My list for this month 
is as follows. J give the common English name : 

Pussy Willows, Wild Poire, 

Alder Catkins, Columbine, 

Skunk Cabbage, Purple Flowered Clematis, 

Jack-in-the-pulpit, Elder, 

On the 23rd May, on Levis heights, in bloom : 

Mitella diphylla, L. Mitre Wort. 
Trillium erythrocarpum, Michauz. White Nightshade. 
Cei'astium vulgatum, L. Chickweed. 
Lonicera ciliata, Muhl. (Chevrefeuille.) Twin Flowered 

Caltha palustris, L. (Populage.) Marsh Marigold. 
Fragaria virgiuiana, Ehrhart. (Fraisier.) Wild Strawberry. 
Coptis trifolia, Salisb. (Savouyane.) Gold Thread. 
Viola cucullata, Alton. (Violette bleue.) Blue Violet. 
Viola pubescens, Aiton. (Violette jaune.) Yellow Violet. 
ActsBa spicata, L. var. alba Bigelow. Baneberry. 

On the 27th May, 1884, at La Canardidre, also in bloom : 

Strep top us roseus, Michz. (Raisin ette, rognons de coq.) 
Twist Foot. 

Viburnum lantanoides, Michz. (Bois d'orignal.) Hobble 

Actaea spicata, L. var. rubra, Michz. (Pain de couleuvre. 
Bain Berry. 

Ribes prostratum, L'H6r. (Gadelle sauvage.) Wild Currant. 

Tiarella cordifolia, L. Bishops Cap. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, Torrey & Gray. Shad flower. 
(Petites poires.) Wild Poire. 

Rubus triflorus, Richardson. Wild blackberry. 

Cornus Canadensis, L. (Cornouiller ) croquette.) Low 

•^Courrier du Canada^ 10th, 13th and 30th May, 1884. 

— 270 — 

Wild Ginger, Black Alder, 

Purple Trillium, Wild Plum, 

White Trillium, Wild Cherry, 

Spring Beauty, Choke Cherry, 

Dog-Toothed Violet, Bell Wort (large). 

Marsh Marigold, Bell Wort (sm^l). 

Wood Violet, Louse Wort, 

White Violet, Pink Moccassin Flower, 

Yellow Violet, Yellow " " 

Blue field Violet, White " " 

Wild Hyacinth, 

The Skunk Cabbage, a beautiful flower, thus called 
on account of its loud smell, grows in a very wet 
meadow. It is in shape like a common sea shell, with 
dark purple spots somewhat ressembling tortoise shell ; 
the half-buried flower appears to spring ready formed 
out of the earth, the flowers in the fall are succeeded 
^y a mass of red fruit. 

The Hepatica is a pretty little flower, appearing 
directly after or almost before the snow has disappeared 
It is a lowly-growing plant, the leaves and flowers 
springing directly from the ground, and the flowers 
appearing before the new leaves ; they are of all shades 
of color, pink, blue and white. At the Island of Orleans 
they are found near the ferry ; and at Point Levis, near 
the (upper) railway station. 

Nor must we omit mention of our May Trilliums, 
Columbines, Dog tooth Violets, Marsh Marygolds — ^the 
Buckbean, the Uvularia SeaaUifolia and Orandijlora 
the Wild Ginger plant, the Smiladna Trifolia^ the 
Dentaria^ the Ladies' Slipper Orchis, two varieties, of 
which the most beautiful is the Showy Ladies' Slipper, 
which grows in the swamp between the Ste. Foye and 
Little Biver Soads. Such are some of the gems which 
Flora in May drops along her scented paths around our 
city ; June, July, August, have other floral tributes in 

More than half a century back, the study of the wild 
flowers round Quebec, was in high favor; our city 
ladies, inspired by the noble example of Lady Dal- 

— 271 — 

housie, wife of His Excellency, the Earl of Dalhousie 
and her friend the Hon. Mrs. William Sheppard, of 
Woodlield, took a lively interest in this fascinating 
portion of the vegetable kingdom. The Transactions of 
the Literary and Historical Society bear testimony ta 
the efforts of these two cultured ladies to popularize 
here the study of botany. Later on, one could meet in 
May, botanyzing parties from the city, collecting the 
prettiest flowers of Ste. Foye and Sillery, under the 
direction of an enthusiastic old botanist, Mr. S. Stur- 
ton (1), to whom Quebecers are indebted for an interest- 
ing paper on our wild flowers. 



" Like treasures of silver and gold." 

In May last, I pointed out according to request, but 
in a very succinct manner, some of the Spring flowers 
noticeable round Quebec. I have since had an opport- 
unity of witnessing, on a late visit to Lake Kings- 
mere and the Chelsea Mountain near Ottawa, (2) how 
much climate or locality has to do> with the size and 
lustre of some plants. On looking over the list I 
published, I was surprised to find I had omitted men- 

(1) Mr, Sturton wets Professor of botany ^ in an Academy 
for young ladies in Quebec. 

(2) On the 2Ath May, 1884, at a pic-nic given by the Ottawa. 
Field Naturalists Club, at Dr. J. 0. Bourinofs charming rustic 

— 272 — 

tion of a plant well known to Quebecers, the blood 
root (Sanguinaria)^ a dimunitive flower of frequent 
occurrence, near the city, and barely waiting for the 
departure of the snow to push through its stem, on 
which a pure white inverted cap soon appears. 

^< My June list of wild flowers about Quebec is as foUowB, 
says Mr. Fairchild " : 

Bunch Berry, 

Wayside Plantain, 

Jewel Weed, 

Yellow Wood Sorel, 

Purple Flowering Raspberry, 

Common Mallow, 

Blue Flax, 

Labrador Tea, 

Black Snake Koot, 

Early Wild Rose, 

Blue Eyed Grass, 

Food Flax, 


Dog Daisy, 

Wild Sweet Clover, 


Blue Flag, 

Poison Ivy, 

Wild Sarsaparilla, 

Hedge Nettle, 

Partridge Berry, 

Dwarf Bleuberry, 

Black Mustard, 

Common Wild Mustard 

White Hawthorne, 


Pale laQrel, 

Small Cranberry, 


False Spikenard, 


Wild Clematis. 

Mr. Fairchild, mentions also the following : 

Wild Apple, 

Shad flower, 

Wild Forget-me-not, 

Pitcher Plant, 

Bass Wood. 

Bastard Maple, 

Wild Vetch, 

Beach Pea, 

Meadow Rue, 

Three Leaved Ginseng 

Twin Flowered Honeysuckle, 

Wild Strawberry, 
Twisted Stalk, 
White Clover, 
Hazel Nut, 
Trailing Arbutus, 
Trembling Poplar, 
Wild Currant, 
Wild Gooseberry, 

I am aware that there are omissions in this list, some of 
which are supplied, however, by those named by ^'' 
Sturton oc curing about Spencer Wood and the Gomin Bo^ 

G. M. Fairchild, J^ 

— 273 — 

(Sanguinaria CanadenBis.) 

In the dawning of the summer^ 

* Mid the forest bow'rs, 
Sat a wood-thrush gaily singing, 
To his mate, while softly springing, 

listening came the flow'rs. 

Murmurs on the restless water. 

In its rippling flow j 
While from tree- tops bending over, 
Nodding to the faithful lover, 

Shadows come and go. 

Hark ! a footfall in the bracken, — 

^nd a wailing cry, 
On the silence sharply ringing, 
Terror to the woodland bringing, 
By its agony. 

' Tis from her, the loved, — the gentle, 

Drawn through fear and pain ; 
While her mate is calling, calling. 
Listening for the answer falling. 
Ne'er to sound again. 

Sore the tender breast is wounded, 

By the hunter's dart ; 
She will soon for aye be sleeping. 
And the flowers o'er her weeping, 

That they thus must part. 

Bear her from the mossy shelter — 

From the peaceful nest ; 
Let her soft eyes, now fast closing. 
All life's light and lustre losing, 

On her lover rest. 

Lay her deep among the leafletS| 

On the breast of Earth -, 
Pray the Mother, all Life-giving, 
That the lost one, death out-living, 

Have a second birth. 


— 274 — 

And the leaves turned darker, darker, 

Like to blood in hue, 
On the grave oi her who perished : 
And the flow'rs her memory cherisned. 

That her story knew. 

Long within the forest quiet, 

Was a song-moan heard, 
Ever fainter, fainter growing, 
Till again spring blossoms blowing. 

Then a new life stirred. 

And the spirit oi the mourned one, 

Came in form so fair,^ 
Pure and white — a fitting token 
Of the heart all bruised and broken 

That had withered there. 

And the children call it Blood-root, 

When in summer hours, 
From the leaves its roots they sunder. 
While they at its red drops wonder, 

When so white its flow'rs. 

A. G. H. White. 

That lovely trailing evergreen, Epigoda repens — the 
May flover — ought it not to have had a fuller notice — 
the emblem of Nova Scotia, as the Maple Leaf is of 
Canada ? June does indeed revel in a wealth of floral 
treasures. This year, owing to the absence of a scorch- 
ing sun, several May flowers will prolong their exist- 
ence far into June, the Lillium picta, Dog-Tooth 
Violets, Ladies' Slippers, Kalmias, Sinilacina, &c. 

I love in early June to saunter under the green domes 
of nature to catch the melody of the robin at sunset, 
" to listen to the rustling music of leaves, to watch the 
ferns unrolling their fronds and to collect the mosses 
and the lichens"; sweeter still, for a lover of flowers 
and wild scenery, to add the traditional Spring visit of 
the grim fern-clad ruins of Bigot's Chateau^ at Charles- 
bourg, so thrillingly described in Kirby's "Chiend'Or" 

— 275 — 

novel, or else, to wander on the moist shores of Lake 
Calvaire, at St. Angnstin, — to gather in, at its first 
appearance, the big pond-lily, amidst tangled aquatic 
plants, styled by the Ca