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HA )". 


II A V and MacKA V. 

[From ll: mi. BOTAl SOCIETI OF « anaim. 18 

cy/\ Q.-i-r-( 

s i\ . 1881 Ki7 Trans Rot 8oc Can ida 

XIV. Mart ■ .1 S />' nsi0tc&. By Geo. U. Hat. IIV/A an Appendix contain- 

iiKj <i List oj tht Marim Alga of tJu Maritime Provinces of ifu Dominion 

tada, with Not* 9. By Geo. Y . Hat, Ph. Ik. St. John, and A. II. M u 
K v . B A . B Sc . Y. S. Sc, Principal of Pictou Academy, N S. 

mmnnicated by Mr. .1. 1 letn her, May 25, I- 

The following paper includes observations thai have been mad.' on the marine sVlgaa 
N •. Brunswick during the past i\\<> years, together with Borne remarks <>n their 
nomic value, the occurrence of some rare Bpecies, etc. The localities visited have been 
various points on the southern shore of New Brunswick, including the Island of Grand 
sfanan, and the 1 m uaquel and Trai adie, with the Island- of Shippegan and Mi- on 

on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. To this is appended a preliminary list of the marine Algae 
of the Maritime Provinces, which the writer, with the assistance of Mr. A II. afacKay, 
of Pictou, li 'iily compiled for the Natural History Society of New Brunswick. Tin- 

list includes some eighty species of marine Algae, which, with the exception of an Intro- 
troductory List of New Brunswick Algae, published I>y the writer in L886. is the Rrsl 
attempt to arrange our Algic flora in such a form as shall lead to a closer investigation of 
these interesting plants, and stimulate further study in this direction. No Diatomaceous 
or other microscopic forms are included in the subjoined list, bul only those which may 
be easily detected by the eye, including chiefly the larger forms and those parasitic npon 
them. I mentioned in Dr. Farlow's " Marine Algae of New England," there 

have been observed, up t<> this time, on the shores of the Maritime Provinces, over eighty 

The marine Mora of the Maritime Provinces Is essentially Arctic in character, as may 

be inferred from their boreal position and their exposure to cold currents from the Arctic 

In t: New Brunswick, the paucity of the more delicate Bpecies of Algse 

• r chiefly in two ways: — 

tion of the tides on the Bouthern Bhore, as they sweep in and out of the 

ol Fundy esible for any bul the stronger fovms t<> maintain 

th- ■:. in sheltered coves, and Buch favored positions are rare on thii 

tlities (Prye's Island) in the neighborhood of Passamaquoddy I 
- thirty species were collected in July. 18$ 
_ The low sand [tending into the Gulf of Si L • nol furnish a 

a favorabl- '. _ A marked exception t" this, however, was found on 

uid Shippegan, jus! within Bay Ohaleura, where, a! 
d interestin ies nol observed on the southern 

shores. Th.'s-' ! t<. in another ; per. 

Th rise, which make npthe great hulk of <>ur A !■_■ distributed 

N ■ Brunswi k. Tie- Puci occur between tide 
ma: in this position in g mdan d ithern coast, wh 


the rocks for miles are clothed with them. On the sandy shores of the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, the Fuci miss the rocks which afford them a substantial foothold, and are of rarer 
occurrence. The zone of the Laminarise extends from low-water mark to several fathoms 
in depth. They occur in greatest profusion on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast, where, after 
a southerly gale, vast masses thrown up by the waves may be observed for miles along 
the shore. On the southern coast their occurrence is somewhat rare for a considerable 
distance east and west of St. John, probably owing to the strength of the tides which 
sweep them from their resting-places. Towards the mouth of the bay, however, they 
occur in greater abundance. 

Only two forms of Fucus are common on the coast of New Brunswick, viz., Fucus 
nodosus {Ascophyllum nodosum) and F. vesiadosus. These two species form nearly the whole 
covering of tidal rocks in the vicinity of St. John, and westward to Passamaquoddy Bay. 
Dr. Harvey, in his introduction to the " Nereis Boreali- Americana," remarks on the poverty 
of species of Fucus on the north-east coast of America, compared with the northern coasts 
of Europe. Of the four species found in abundance in Europe, two of these, F. serralus 
and F. canaliculatus, had not been found in America at the time of Harvey's visit in 1850. 
The latter has not yet occurred here. The former is mentioned in the supplement to the 
" Nereis " as having been found at Newburyport, Mass., but has not since been detected 
there or at any other point on the New England coast. A specimen of this plant, collected 
at Pictou by Rev. Prof. Fowler in 1869, is in the Natural History Society's Herbarium in 
St. John. It has not yet been reported from the New Brunswick coast. Two other spe- 
cies of Fucus occur here, confined as yet to a single locality for each, although they may 
be expected elsewhere, as Dr. Farlow describes them as common on the New England 
coast, viz., F. evanescens 1 found at Frye's Island, and F. furcatus just below low- water mark 
on the flat shores on the north-west side of Miscou Island. These two species have not 
yet been reported from Nova Scotia. 

Although the Fuci are excellent fertilisers, very little use is made of them in that 
respect in New Brunswick. Near the southern coast of the province they are used to a 
limited extent on grass lands. I noticed some fine fields of grass on Grand Manan, last 
August, w T here these plants had been used as a top-dressing. Applied fresh to the land 
after the grass has been cut, and kept moist by the fogs which prevail there, they rapidly 
decompose and melt into the ground. The experience of those who have used them for 
fertilising purposes goes to prove that they yield the best results when used fresh. Their 
value as fertilisers is diminished, if used for other than grass crops ; or if carted for any 
considerable distance from shore, owing to the expense of conveying so bulky a material. 
In some countries (Ireland and Scotland), crops of potatoes are raised by their means, but 
the crops thus yielded, though abundant, are of coarse and inferior quality. The ashes of 
the Fuci contain a large quantity of carbonate of soda ; and Dr. Harvey states that they 
were once cultivated on the shores of Scotland, where rocks were deposited to attract them 
to sandy or pebbly shores. The total amount of revenue, says the same author, derived by 
the proprietors of these kelp shores on the coast of Scotland, during the eighty years from 
A.D. 1*720 to 1800, was .£595,000. But this trade was long since destroyed by obtaining 

1 Quite as common at Eastport as F. vesiculosus, for which it might be mistaken." Farlow's Marine Algse of 
New England. 


bonate of soda more cheaply from other it , source ttom which iodine is 

isobtamed, however, it might be possible to utilise In luture the enor lucl „i 

'" s ' the Maritime Pro in< 

'Jnarice there seem to 1 , iv ,,„. ,,„.,,„ 

X k - The » BWd ^riety of form and nders the identifi. 

ij matter of some difficulty to the student The most generally diffused I 
vially m the Gulf of St. Lawrence, » Laminaria fon&ruris. This, wit] 
siticalupon it, formed the great mass of marine vegetation observed in the long lin< 

M a P ,, - v,h " ™ hem shores of Shippegan and Miscou. 

Ien ^ h Ihis plant, measured from hold-fast toend of blade ■• 

■»* Ih »f another, win. h wasall that could be obtained rrom the mass of debris in 

which it was imbedded, was 16 feet in length. Judging from the large size of this stipe 
t must have belonged ... a plant fully s altered in endless profusion along 

this shore, and thrown np from the I W ere the beautiful forms of the bright 

' wand ' fustissima, the latter not having been yet observed 

on tlu> southern coast of the provin 

Laminaria*, L. saccharin* and L agitata with the related species 
to, are found to a much more limited ext 
*•■ theGuli Lawrence than L. longicruris. The size of the latter among 

the islands at the mouth of the Bay of Pundy was raU ch less than what was observed in 
ih- unit ol St. Uwrence, and here it was replaced to a great extent by the other 
Laminarise just mentioned. 

Laminame are valuable as fertilisers, although I am not aware that formers in 
this province make any ase of them. The stems of Laminaria digitata s^n to be used for 
a variety ol purposes, amongst others, for the manufacture of sponge-tents 

only sea-plant thai has . commercial value with us is Rhodymenia palmata, ordulse 
I,unn - the B « 80n II "- «port of this seaweed from the shores of the Bay of Fundy 

•Id, at upwards of LOO tons, of which about 50 tons were recei 
and m St John. The selling price per lb. is from thre, ents delivered 

«■ • T,,1,!; i,,v -""- from dulse gathered on the Bay ol Fund last « 

in the vicinity of Dm! Barb 
md Manan rourite grounds for the collec- 

•1 During the lull in the fishing se in august, many turn th 

i to this industry. Much that is exported from St John find to the 

ing towns in th ■ England SI here it , o be in demand amo 

Among the edible Algm, that which occupies the highest pi 
I Ins W hen reduced to a jelly by boiling, and 
wishing qualities. Porphyral 
mand in China and on th 
-1.1, ttn d in 


■I to them, their q 



recognise them, might, in the case of shipwrecked mariners, be of great value in sustaining 
life for a considerable time. 

Among the rarer forms of Algae that occur on our coast the following may be men- 
tioned as worthy of notice : — 

Utothrix collabens, a small green Alga, found occurring at intervals on the inner shores 
of Miscou and Shippegan. This is a beautiful species, with tufted slender filaments of 
dark green, and does not occur on our southern shores, and but rarely in New England. 

Odonthalia dentata, though found at various points on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and on 
the southern shores of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, has not yet been detected on the 
New England coast. It is a very attractive species, of a deep red color, and occurs on 
rocks and stones in deep water. 

Polysiphonia fibrillosa, found oil the north side of the Island of Miscou in considerable 
abundance, has hitherto been detected only at one place north of Cape Cod, referred to by 
Dr. Harvey in the " Nereis." It is one of the most beautiful species of Polysiphonia, and 
growing abundantly in tufts in shallow water, is a delicate and attractive form. Another 
species that is collected for its beauty, although not a rare species, is CaUithamnion Pylascci, 
which I detected at Grand Manan, although I have not observed it at any point east of 
that station. Its occurrence, as well as that of forms common on the New England coast, 
may be expected on further investigation. 

List of the Marine Algje of the Maritime Provinces, with Notes. 

By G. U. Hay and A. H. MacKay. 


1. Clathrocystis roseo-persicina, Colin. On mud in brackish pond, Pictou harbour, 

MacKay ; on decaying Algae along shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence, Hay. 

2. Oscillaria subtortjlosa, Breb. On floating balls of Polysiphonia, Pictou harbour 


3 Lyngbya majuscula, Harv. Pictou harbour, MacKay. 

4. L. yESTUARii, Liebm. In brackish pond, Pictou harbour, MacKay. 


5. Ulva lacttjca, (Linn.) LeJolis. Pictou harbour, MacKay. 
(a). Var. RIGIDA, (Ag.) Le Jo/is and 

(/;.) Var. lactuca, Le Jolh, are common in tide pools along the southern coast of 

New Brunswick, Hay. 
(c.) Var. latissima, Le Jolis. Richibucto River, Fowler. Common in brackish waters 

along the whole coast of New Brunswick, Hay. 

OF \T.\\ BR1 NSWIOK. 171 

iMOBPH v. /. Jao 

:.\i \. /. 'nil 

\'.i: o icprrssa, L> Jolts Pictou h:irl...ur. MacKay Frye'a [aland, St. John, E 
\ ..• mxnon, Richibucto River, JJowler; Si John, Hay, 

7 I i • v i ii k v 1 v i On •uriint, Pictou, MacH Misoou [sland, // 

I Eopkibkii, (McCalla) Harv. Pictou Harbour, MacKay. 

::i\ oOLLi \g.) Tkur.l Grand Manan, Hay. 

1" i ha vri.Adt'Mr.M. ill'-', Sp Mohr.) Kutz Halifax harbour, MacKay. 

11. < t tjotjana, (Mont.) Kutx. Halifax, Harvey in " 1 Boreali-Americana." 

12, \l\ I Kuiz. Halifax, Harvey in N.B.-Am.; Shippegan Island, Hay. 

ircta, (DQlto.) P.E. Island, Dr. Jeans; Halifax, Harvey; Grand Manan 
and Frye's [sland, // 

14. C. LAN08A, [Roth] Kuiz, var. uncialis, Thvret, P. B. Island, Jeans; Halifax, Harvey. 

1"' ('. BUFS8TBI8, {Linn.) Kutz. Shippegan Island. Hay. 

16. C. ] esckoug. Prye's Island, Hay. 

IT Griff.) Han-. Halifax. Harvey ; North Miscon, Hay. 

18. G I lb Miscon Island, //'/>/ 

19. I LCILIS, iffn/i A'///;. Frye's [sland, Hay. 
Phtllttk l, Kutz. Halifax, Harvey. 

■2\ ScTToeEPHOn lomentabtus, Ag. Halifax, MacKay; Frye's Island, Oaraqnet, Grand 

M. in. in. // 

la latikolia. Grev. Halifax. Harvey. Var. zosters /.■ Jolis. Mouth of 
ton harbor. Kay. 

P. i; [sland, Jeans. 

Pictou MacKay ; BUouchibouguac Hay. Fowler. 

D. •.;:.:> /.■ i Halii // [sland, Grand Manan, Miscon, //<"/ 

Pictou, MacKay. This species nasi n found 

irbrau< a a stem formed of the- filiform frond of Chordaria 

ti"L t Pictou, in su< h a manner thai the whole appeared t<> be Inn 

pi adrum was : 1! i the micro ion of the branch 

bile thai <»i the stem Bhev . equal 

rdaria I Further examination, <>f . onrse, demon- 
interesting union. i I ' I I ad M mail. 

// /. i" i: i : md '■ 


28. E. confervoides, (Roth.) Le Jolis. P. E. Island, Jeans. Var. SILICULOSUS, Kjellman. 

Pictou, Mac Kay ; Frye's Island, Caraquet, Miscou, Hay. 

29. E. littoralis, Lyngb. Pictou, MacKay ; Grand Manan, Miscou, Shippegan, Hay. 

30. E. FASCICULATUS, Harv. Caraquet Bay, Hay. 

31. E. brachiatus, Harv. P. E. Island, Jeans. 

32. Ectocarpus, sp. A still undefined species. Shippegan Island, Hay. 

33. Elachistea fucicola, Fries. Pictou, MacKay; Halifax, Harvey; Frye's Island, 

Miscou, G-rand Manan, Hay. 

34. Leathesia DlFFORMis, (Linn.) Areschoug. Halifax, Harvey. 

35. Chordaria flagelliformis, Ag. Pictou, MacKay; Halifax, Harvey ; Frye's Island, 

Caraquet, Hay. 

36. Mesogloia DIVARICATA, Kutz. Pictou, MacKay ; Frye's Island, Hay. 

37. M. VERMICULARIS, Ag. Halifax, Harvey. 

38. Castagnea Zosters, (Mohr.) Thurel. Halifax, Harvey. 

39. Chorda filtjm, Linn. Pictou, MacKay ; Frye's Island, Gulf Shore, Fowler, Hay. 

40. Laminaria longicrtjris, De la Pyl. Halifax, MacKay and Harvey. Stipes three or 

four yards long have been observed. Prof. Lawson, of Dalhousie College, says that 
on taking charge, of chemistry on his arrival at Halifax he could get no rubber 
tubing in the city. "While his order was coming, he used the hollow stipes of this 
seaweed, which is always cast up in abundance on the Halifax coast, and found 
it to answer splendidly for the conduction of gas, MacKay. Around Grand 
Manan and the southern coast of New Brunswick the forms of Laminarise are 
variable and confusing, the two following species (L. saccharina and L. digituta) 
being most abundant, Hay. 

41. L. SACCHARINA, (Linn) Lamx. ? Pictou, MacKay ; Halifax, Prof. Lawson ; Frye's Island, 

Grand Manan, Hay ; Gulf of St. Lawrence, Foioler. 

42. L. digitata, Lamx. Pictou, MacKay; Halifax, Harvey, Lawson; Grand Manan, flay. 

43. Saccorhiza DERMAT0DEA,7)e la Pyl. Halifax, Harvey ; Grand Manan, Hay. 

44. Agartjm Ttjrneri, Post, and Ri/pr. Halifax, MacKay, Harvey, Lawson ; Grand Manan 

and Frye's Island, Hay. 

45. Alaria esculenta, Grev. Halifax, MacKay, Harvey, Lawson; Grand Manan, Hay. This 

species is used as food in Scotland and Ireland, where it is called badder-locks, 
henware, murlins, and also in Iceland, but it is not eaten with us, Dr. Farlow. 

OF \i :\v i : i : i \>\\ [CK 173 

Order III- CX)SPOEl 

46 asc»PHY] ' M nodosi m, L> Jolis. Pictou, i/ fi Halifax, MacKay and Hon 
very common on southern coa \ \ Brunswick, // ■>' 

\~, Fi 310ULOSU8, L. Pictou and Halifax ; Halifax, 23 The varieties 

of this -;>.■■ [i - are very abundant between tide marks >'ii ili<- Bouthern shores <>i 
\ ew Brunswick, half shore, Fowl* 

»^ V L. Pictou, Fowler ; Pictou and Pictou Island, MacKuy Not found else- 

where in N. E. A.meri 

P. r.\ nb, ig. Pi ind Manan, Hay. 

50. P. ftjboatus, .k Growing on the low, flal shores north-weal Bide of Miscou [aland, 
ond low-water mark, // 

61. Vatjchebia (?) Pictou, MacKay. 

Order IV.— FLORID&E. 

52. PoRPHYBA l.u'I.niata. Ag. Pictou, MacKay; Halifax. Harvey; Frye's Island and 
and Manan, Hay. 

58. Banoia FUSOO-PUBPUREA, Lyngb. Halifax, ILi,< 

■~>4 Callithamnion Rothii, Lyngb. Halifax. //<//■' 

I Pvi.ais.t.i. Mont. Southern Head, Grand Manan. washed ashore in great abund- 
ance at the . the clii 

1 . ^mericantjm, ILirr. V. E. Island. Jeans ; Halifax, Han 

"7 C. ( Halifax, H 

58. Ptilota eleoans, Bonne*. P. E. Island, ./■ 

Kuiz. Halifax, // and Bianan, Prye's Island, Shippegan, Hay. 

abundant. Pictou and Halifax, MacKay; 
[aland S K"ii. 1 is Bay, Fowler. Var. PROLIFERUM, 

Little Shi] // 

61. C tNNATUM, Kuiz. little Shi // 

- I 

Halifax, land, // 

I'mvi.: Halil 

Aiin; : Fries. Pictou and Halil iraquet, Prye's Island, 


Halil i Maud liui 


67. Chondrus CRISPUS, (Linn.) Stack. Pictou and Halifax, Mac Kay ; Meogone Island, 

Frye's Island, Hay ; Gulf of St. Lawrence, Fowler. 

68. Rhodymenia palmata, (Linn.) Grev Picton and Halifax, MacKay. Very abundant 

on the Gulf shore and southern coast of New Brunswick, Fowler, Hay. This and 
Chondrus crispus are the only seaweeds on our coasts collected for edible pur- 

69. Rhodophyllis veprecula, J. Ag. Halifax, Harvey ; Grand Manan, Hay. 

70. Euthora CRISTATA, J. Ag. Halifax, Harvey ; Grand Manan, Hay. 

11. Polyides rotundtjs, Grey. Pictou and Halifax, MacKay. 

12. Delesseria sinuosa, Lamx. Halifax, Harvey ; Frye's Island, Miscou, Hay. 

IS. D. alata, Lamx., var. angustissima, Hurv. Very abundant on south side of Miscou 
and Shippegan Islands, where it is cast ashore with the larger seaweeds, Hay. 

74. Gracillaria multipartita, /. Ag. Pictou, MacKay ; Kouchibouguac Bay, Foivler. 

15. Odonthalia dentata, Lyngb. Halifax, Harvey; Pictou, MacKay ; Kouchibouguac Bay, 
Foivler ; Shippegan and Miscou, Hay. Not reported south of the Maritime 

76. Rhodomela subftjsca, Ag. Halifax, MacKay ; Frye's Island, Grand Marian, Miscou, 
Hay. Var. gracilior, J. Ag. Kouchibouguac Bay, Foivler. 

11. Polysiphonia tjrceolata, (Dilhv.) Grev. Halifax, Harvey; P. E. Island, Jeans; 
Pictou, MacKay; Miscou and Shippegau, Hay. Var. FORMOSA, Ag. P. E. Island, 

78. P. Olneyi, Harv. Pictou and Halifax, MacKay. 

79. P. Harveyi, Bailey (?). Pictou, MacKay. 

80. P. fibrillosa, Grev. North Miscou, Hay. 

81. P. violacea, Grev. Halifax, Harvey; P. E. Island, Jeans; Pictou, MacKay; Kouchi- 

bouguac Bay, Foivler. Common along the whole coast of New Brunswick, Hay. 

82. P. nigrescens, Grev. Halifax, Harvey; P. E. Island, Jeans; Pictou, MacKay. Var. 

ftjcoides, Ag. Caraquet beach, Miscou gully, Hay. 

83. P. fastigiata, Grev. Pictou and Halifax, MacKay ; Frye's Island, Hay. 

84. Corallina officinalis, L. Halifax, Harvey. Common on southern and eastern 

coasts of New Brunswick, and usually found on shells thrown ashore by the 
waves, Fowler, Hay; Minas Basin, MacKay.