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Univ.of 

Toronto 

; Library 




^ 






— THE 






Marine Engineer 

And Naval Architect. 



An Illustrated Monthly Journal of Marine 

Engineering, Shipbuilding, Steam Navigation, 

and Electrical Engineering. 

Edited by Reginald Wm. James, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., Etc. 



Vol. XX XIV. -From August, 1911, to July, 1912. 



lonfron : 

OFFICES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS AND PUBLICATION, 3, AMEN CORNER, 

PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C. 



1912. 



\\ 



X 



v 



INDEX. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



,na between Warships and Merchantmen, 6 
ol Industrial enterprise, ■ |7 
iration ol London, 189 
Pranchlflc and Seafarers, 460 
French Naval Disaster, 
"Hawke" -"Olympic" Collision, 251 

■ 
[nstituti in ol Naval architects, 1 ,,,-.. 

Jubilee Meetings "I the Institution ..1 Naval Architects. 1 

launching Risks, 

Liability for Seaman's Wages, 106 

" 1 .1 r . ter, The, 00, 105 

Loss "I the " Titanic," 371 

Marine OH Engines, 325 

Murine Propulsion, Comparison ol Systems, 37* 

dp Engine* 1 
Naval Architects, Institution of, 1 
Naval Engineers, 33 

1. Che, -' ' 
125 
OU fuel, 66, 148 , „. . -. 

"Olympic" -"Hawke Colhslon, 188 

Relative Possibilities ol Power Systems tor Marine Propulsion, 372 
Review ur, 187 

irers and the Franchise, 460 
Sir Philip Watts, 
Submarine Disaster, - s 7 
Superheating In Marine Boilers, 371 
Thames Ironworks, 147 
"Titanic" Disaster -Senate Report, 159 
■ Titanic " Engineering statf Memorials, 115, 400 
■' Titanic," Loss of the, 37' 
Watts, sir Philip, 2, 107 

GENERAL INDEX. 

Ibell, Pro!. W. S., Safety of Ships at Sea, 266 

imant," 11. M.S. (IUus.), 141 
\lims P E Pressure Tool Co., Birkenhead Dock 
" \i 1 ,n." Steamship, Booth s.s. Co. (DJua 
.Mr-lii]., The Naval, 7. (17 

Urship, Wreck ..1 the Naval (IlltlS.), 75 
v.ix." Launch ol H.M.S., 346 . 

inker, Mr. J. W., Senior Engineer White star i.m. |Hlu< 
Allan Line, 

ntre Line Battleships (IUus.), 
Amalgamation ol Shipping Fleets Mail Lini 
Amazon steam Navigation Co., 10 Mall Lines, 43 
kuchoi Une, >i 1 Mail Lines, 67 

Andrews, Mr. Tims., 378, 463 , T , 

A „.,,, ipondents, see Separate Section of In.l. v 

Antwerp, 384 . 

Application ol Turbines t" Ship Propulsion, la 

" Aquitanla's " stern Frames, !-•■. . „ . 

sxgentlni Battleships "Moreno" and "Rlvldavia (IUus.), 1-1. 386 

"Arnfried" Cargo steamer uuu-.i, 167 

Arrangements and Amalgamations, see Mall Lines, 327 

Austria lp"Zrinyi" (Illus.). 161 

an Liner " Kaiser Franz Josel I. (IUus.), 89, 481 
i.in Lloyd Co., sec Mail Lines, 107 
Maxilla tery for Internal Combustlon-Engined Vessels (IUus.), 

295 

u ry for Ships (IUus.), 120 
Av.ry, Ltd., Messrs. W. & T., Shi,.', Model Machinery (Illus.), 270 

•• llan.lv " I Illus. 1, 442 

, . Ltd., Messrs., The Julia:. 
Mi \ 1 . Wave Motion, etc., 477 
Battleships (Urns.), " New Zeadaud." ,16 "Florida," 34 ',. Orton, 34; 
2,5; " Conte W Cavour," 70 i "Jean Bart, 125 ; /r ".?. ' '.: 
" Chatham." I'm: " Monarch." .7. , 2... . " I.ion. 201 

" i.artinouth," .-17: "Thunderer," 293, 477; ■' 
■• , ; , 16; " BMgoIand," 170 i " Kaiser. 470 

Beardmore 1 ; ' OU Engine niius.), 87. 135 

Beldam Packing (Tuns.), 40a 
Belgian state Railway, see Mail Unes. <>7 
Hell Henry, Memorial at Birthplace (TJlus.), 10 

11.11, Mr. I With the " Tltfl l f >4 

■■ 11. nhi 1 1," Btoull i.\' 126 

I ! ISps^Se. -. Geared Turbine Ch, I 

BlogSphl"es?Mr™H Mr. J. W. Alexander Chi White 

Star Une, 23; Mr. Hugh Thomson, Iaith Supt. Englneei 

Win. Thomson, I^-ith, 1 7 S 
Blrkenh ID ' Illus.), 192 . „ , ■ 

,| kgrlcultUR au.l Fish. 
Board i.iuiries, sec Mail Lines, 2J4, 189 

..( Tra.le En 
1 of Trade Instructions for Examination ol Engl 



Dartmouth," 



(IUus.), 333 



Boiler Troubles and th. ir Prevention (Illus.), 33' 

.lex 
Booth S.S. I " \i.lan," 243 

si, 11 . Senior Engineer, White Star Une (Illus.), *3 
Steam Engine Indli . 78 

Brave Engineer, A, [04 
Brazil Straker & Co., Ltd., Messrs., 347 

Breakdown Experiences, 375 ,, .. ,,,-.,. ,,„ 

Bristol , ,, . presidential Address, Naval Architect 

Hriti-i Steamship Co., sei Mail I 

British "' the, 83 

435 
'■British Standard," B.O.T. Enquiry, 

liritisii Vessels Launched and Engined during 19". 214. -'74 
British P. ealai 

ham," i,, "Monarch," 171, 201-, "1 1, 

rhunderei 13, 477 
iiritisi, War, hip Machinery, 1 Uty Vi 1 47 

I w,. 200 11 1' M itOT .IUus.), 39 
Brook, J Motor Barges (IUus.), 8a 

Mr. w. J. Willett, Presidential address, Liverpool Engln. 
Societj 
Bulkheads and w ipartments, 428 

to mark Sunken Ship-, see Mail Lin. 
[•he "S 

Hurst Deck Stea > „ „ „.„ T . ... 

Canadian Pa Prino Ui Man Unes, 3=8 

Canals' Motor Navigation Syndicate, Ltd 

Canal Train. MotOl Barg. Ilia-. , - 
Cancellation 

I 
■ Carmauia." The lire 01 the, 470 
"Carpathla," The Cunard Liner (Illus.), 377 

450 
Centenary ol Steam Navigation, 478 

Line Battleships 1 Illus. 1, 34 
Chadburn's Telegraphs on the " Medina." 136 

14" 
"Chatham," Hriti Illus. I, 163 

Chatham Dockyard it. )8, 74, 146,389,431., 176 

ton, Messrs., Birkenhead Docks, 195 
Clyde-Built Dn 1 

Cal strike an.l Sailings, see Mail Lines, 327 
Cochran Boiler, Oil-fired (Dlus 

IUus.), 76, 77, 107 

1 Warships, " New / ilai d," n 
1 Reciprocating and Turbine Engi 298, 348 

1,111- ol Marine Propulsion (IUus.), 39a. 430, 4<>7 
Ships, 303 
1 eering and Naval sxchltecture, ir, 40 

1 1 », mi " Italian Dreadnought [IUus.), 70 
384 
, " Hopp. r Dr. dg. 1 111 

1 1 Hon ol Index 
Crude Oil Marine Engines, 1)5 o_«j._i 

Cummin-, Mr. W. B nery for Internal Combustlon-Engined 

. .. „ __„ 

Cunard ""■'• i! '' ■ Carmauia. 



470 



474 



• Sclandla 



Cunard Company, see Mail 1 r. 427. 

Dangers of the St. Lawrence, see Mail Lines 
Danish East Asiatic Co.'s " Jutlandia," 10, 11 

meUes, The Dosing ol the, see Mall Lines, 1-" 
■' K.M.S 111 
Deck S 

,f S lipyards, Engineering Worl 

Devonp '49, -'"". - ';• »93 

Combined Reciprocating and Turl.m 

Dicldn W., Birkenhead l'o.k-. 

1 >i. -el Engini . ' 
Diesel-Engii 

Marin. Engine Evolution, 

1,1 Engini . ,,-..,.,„ 

dwlthotha tarinc Propulsion, 

,,i„ u ',' ( 1 RJng, NavlgaUon toner. 

, sir Win. E. Smith. K I 

|67 

I Work, T. I. 

Diinn 1 , . 

Birkenhead iliu.. . 19a; Uvo '03 ; Immlngnam, 

Ih. N.u l.ondon, 497 



IM'I V 



i Rente, see Mail i 
cfotd .v Sons, Ltd., Messrs. Win., Sdl-trime . )55 

Ui 1' . rwo-Cycle oil Engines, 171 
- Duuslcv " B.O.T. Enquiry, 

Durbar Yacht " Medina 1 ' in Mall tines, 151 

•• Eastern Countii 

Editorial Notes, see separate section ol Index 
Elder, Dempster Co., see Mail Lines, 
Electrical Exhibition, i-*-* 
lClcctric.il Bteerin f, 

Electri '■4 

Electric Fan, The " Band] " (Illus.), it-* 
Electric Steering Gear, 263 

Electro Deposition, Modern Dcvlopuicuts in. 478 
" Blingamlte,'' Steamship, see Mail Lines, 210 
" Hi Paragu ch <>t the (Illus.), 

Engin pbullders in Scotland, Presidential Address, 115, 160,416 

Engincc Era I ation of, B.O.T. Instructions, 81, 252 
Bnglneel Titanic " (111: iso, 463 

Engineer-Surveyors, \ Situation for Survey 
Engine-room Artificers and Warrant Engineers, 202, 260, 428 
Brbnann Boiler Water Controller Co 
Examination of Engineers, Bi, -•--* 
Exhaust le>ilcr and Silencer illhis . 

Exhibitions— Rubba 1 Lectrical, (22 j Motor, 164; North of England, 

202; Non-1'errous Metals, --'.s. (26, i'h Smoke Abatement, 198; 
Oil Engineering, 477 
Experimental Tank, The National, tr, 
Federal steam Navigation Co., see Mail Lines, 254 
Feed-water Regulator and Governor (Ulus.), 72, 268 
" Fellcitas," Motoi S, 1 ;7 

Fifty Years' Changes in British Warship Machinery, 4; 
Fifty Years* Developments in Mercantile Ship Construction, 46 
Fleets ol flic Mail Lines, s, 42, 67, r.07, 150, 210, 253, 289, 327, 384, 426, 474 

ol the Narrow Seas, sec Mail [fines, 13 
Floating Dock for Battleships, 
Floating Dock for Rotterdam (Illus.), 95, 97 
" Florida." U.S. Battleship (Ilius.), 34 
Foreign Notes, see separate section of Index 
Foreign Vessels launched and Engined during 191 1. 225, -71 
Fottinger "Transformer, 291 
French Battleship "Jean Bart" (Illus.), r.25 
French Battleship " Liberie " Disaster (Illus.), 66, 103, 10s 
French Submarine Salvage Boat (Illus. ), 122, 123 
" Frieda," The, see Marine Propulsion, 433 
Galvanizing and Plating, 69 

Gas, Coal and OU-Engined Vessels, 16, 40, 86 ; see also Marine Motor Notes 
Gas-driven Cargo Vessel " Holzapfel I." (Illus.), 130, 131 
Geared Turbine Channel Steamers (Illus.), 341 
Geared Turbines compared with other Systems of Marine Propulsion, 392, 

43°, 467 
German Motor-driven Lifeboat (Illus.), 275 
German Warship " Moltke " (Illus. 1, zo 6 
Godson, Dr. Clement (Shipwrights' Company) (Illus.), 19 
Gordon, J., Alison & Co., Birkenhead Docks, 195 
Grayson, Ltd., Messrs., Birkenhead Docks, 195 
Great Lakes of America, Shipping on the (Illus.), 152 
Great Western Railway, sec Mail Lines, 68 
" Guildford Castle " (Illus.), Union Castle Line, 245 
Haigh, Mr. B. P., Electrical Steering, 85 
Hall-Brown, Mr. E., (Illus.), Presidential Address, Institute of Engineers 

and Shipbuilders in Scotland, 113, 160 
Hamburg-America Line, see Mail Lines, 253, 328 ; " Imperator," 438, 466 
" Hantonia," Geared Turbine Channel Steamer (Illus.), 341 
Haslam Foundry* and Engineering Co., Refrigerating Engine (Illus.), 168 
Hastie & Co., Ltd., Messrs. John, Steering Gear, 263 
" Hawke " — " Olympic " Collision (Illus.), 76, 77, 107, 289 
Heath & Co., Ltd., Messrs., Lenthall-Baugh Tide Indicator (Illus.), T7, 73 
Heavy Oil Engine, The " Djinn " (Illus.), 347 
Heavy Oil Engines, 438 
Hele-Shaw Martincau Steering Gear 1 Illus 
" Helgoland," German Battleship (Illus.), 470 
" Herman Sauber," The (Illus.), 355 
Heroic Engineer, sec Mail Lines, 289 

Hindley S: Sons, Messrs. E. S., " Holzapfel I" Engines (Illus.), I3r 
History of the Steam Engine Indicator (Illus. ), 78 
Holvhead Breakwater and Skerries Light (Illus.), 479 
Holzapfel, Mr. A. C, Suction Gas Engine, 395, 430, 467 
Hotzapfel Exhaust Boiler and Silencer (Illus.), 483 
" Holzapfel I.," Gas-driven Cargo Vessel (Illus.), r3o, 111 
Hughes & Sons, Ltd., Messrs. Henry, Ship's Compasses, 304 
Ice-making, see Refrigeration Articles, irr 
Immingham Dock, 469 

" Imperator," Hamburg-America Line, 438, 466 
Imperial Merchant Service Guild, Guild Gazette, 39 
Indestructible Paint Co., Ltd., 250 
Industrial and Trade Notes, see separate section of Index 

Industry, Fruit of, 290 

Institute of Marine Engineers, Annual Dinner, 163 

Institute of Marine Engineers, Papers contributed to the, 78, rr2, r33, 152, 
(69, r7r, 262, 295, 344 

Institute of Marine Engineers, Presidential Addles-. 291 : Annual Meeting, 336 

Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, Presidential Address, 
ir5, 160, 4t6 

Institution of Naval Architects, Jubilee Meetings, rr, 46 

Institution of Naval Architects, Papers contributed to the, 12, r3, 46, 47, 
333, 338, 34r 

I ustitution of Naval Architects, Spring Meetings — Annual Report, Presidential 
Address, 329 

Insurance, National and Mercantile Marine, 288 

Internal Coinbustion-Engined Vessels, A u xi li ary Machinery for (Illus.), 262, 
29s 

Internal Combustion-Engined Vessels, Notes on, r6, 40, 86, 132, 170, 2r2, 
309, 349, 398, 438, 47o 

Internal Combustion Marine Motors (Illus.), 20s, 200, 30T, 390 

International Congress of Navigation, The Twelfth, 484 

International Mercantile Marine Company, ic 1 

International Rubber Exhibition, 10 



[sle "i Man Steam Packet Co., ee Mail Lines, 108, 474 
Italian Dreadnought, " Conti Dl Cavour" (illus,), 70 
" Iccruin,'* Salving the, 7 

" |, an Halt," Fll in h I'.altl. -Iu|i lllluO. 12", 

i.i. lan. Mi \. i . shi] i'.i iic. on 'he Great Lake: ol America, i 

fubllce Meetings ol the [ustitution ol Naval Architects, 11, 46 

funioi Institution "i Engineers, Breakdown Experienci . 

•* Jutiandla," Oil-engine d \ 1 el, (O, 164, 1 ; Steering Gear, Illustrated, 163 

" k.ii ler Iran/ JOSI I 1." (Illus. I, 69, r 8l 

" Kais.i ,'* German Battleship (Ulus. j, 470 

ECean, Mr. F, .1., st,.mi Turbine Theory, c6g 

Kennedy, Mi. Rankin, Marine Je1 Propulsion, 120 

ECing, Mi. I. Foster -Navigation Congress Dimensions "I Sea-going Ves - 1 

484 
Knudsen, Mr. I., Diesel-engined " Selandia " (Illus. 1. 
Labour Unrest — Fruil "I industry, 19c 

" 1 nia,*' The Cunarder (Illus.), 42, 43 

■■ i.a France," French Liner (Ulus.), 402 
Lamport & Holt, Messrs., 5, 427 

Lang, Mr. W. Yeysey, Details of a Marine Engine, 344 

Launi 11 "i tin *• Ajax," 1 t 6 

Launches and Trial Trips, see separate section ol Index 

Launches in iyn, 214, 274 
Leakage Steam in a Parsons' Turbine, 189 
Lee, Mi '■ P., Electro Deposition, 478 
Lengthening Steamers, sec Mail Lines, 44 
Lenthall-Baugh Tide Indicator (Ulus.), 17, 73 

Letters to the Editor, see separate Section ol lndex 

" Libertc " Disaster, The (Ulus.), 66, 103, 103 

Lifeboat, Motor-driven (Illus. 1, 27=, 

Life-saving Jacket, The " Nevsink " (Illus.), 450 

Lighthouses (Illus.) — South Stack, 68 ; Menai, 203 ; Skerries, 479 ; Holyhead 

Breakwater Light, 479 ' 
Lightkeeper, The, 148 
"Lion" Battleship Cruiser (Ulus.), 206 
List of Vessels Engined in rgrr, 219, 274 
List of Vessels Launched in 1911, 214, 274 
Liverpool Barge 8t Coaling Co., Birkenhead Docks, 196 
Liverpool Engineering Society, 159. 266, 429 
Liverpool, Port of, [92 
Liverpool's New Dock, 303; see also Presidential Address, Mr. W. J. 

Willett Bruce, Liverpool, Engineering Society, is-, 
Lloyd's Register, 123 
London Dock, The New, 497 
Lubricator, Stern's Sight-feed (Illus.), 484 

" Lusitania," The — Record in quick turns — see Mail Lines, 68 
Mail Lines, The, 5, 42, 67, 107, 150, 210, 253, 289, 327, 384, 426, 474 
"Mairi" Motor Yacht, 135, 212, 309 

Manchester Association of Engineers, Papers read belore the, r2o 
Manchester Ship Canal, 6 

Marine Boiler Explosions, 44, 118, 235, 306, 330 
Marine Boiler Failures, 429 
Marine Engine, Details of a, 344 

Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture Congress, rr, 46 
Marine Engineering Practice, Present-day, us 160 
Marine Engineers and Naval Architects, New York, 298, 348 
Marine Engineers, Institute of, Annual Dinner, 163; Presidential Address, 

291 ; Annual Meeting, 336 
Marine Engineers, Institute of, Papers contributed to the, 78, 112, 133, 152, 

169, 171, 262, 295, 344 
Marine Jet Propulsion, 120 

Marine Motor Notes, 16, 40, 86, 132, 170, 2r2, 264, 309, 349, 398, 438, 470 
Marine Motors, Internal Combustion (Illus.), 205, 260, 304, 390 
Marine Oil Engines or Turbines, A Comparison, 197 
Marine Propulsion, Comparison of Systems (Ulus.), 392, 430, 467 
Marine Refrigeration, Notes on, 166, 191, 252, 292 
Marine Steam Turbine from 1894 to 1910, 13 
Marquis of Bristol (Ulus.), rr 
Marquis of Graham, Motor Y'acht "Mairi," 135, 212, 309; Presidential 

Address, Institute of Marine Engineers, 291 
** Mauretania," see Mail Lines, 384 

Mavor, Mr. H. A., Electric Drives for Screw Propellers, 84 
"Medina," P. & O. Liner (Ulus.), 136, 137; see Mail Lines, 151, 290 
Memorial at Birthplace of Henry Bell (Illus.), 165 
Menai Lighthouse (Ulus.), 203 
Mercantile Marine and National Insurance, 288 
Mercantile Ship Construction, Fifty Years' Developments, 46 
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, Birkenhead Docks (Ulus.), r92 ; New 

Works, 303 ; see Mail Lines, 44 
Models of Ships for the Experimental Tank (Illus.), 270 
"Moltke," German BatUeship-Cruiser (Illus.), 206 
" Monarch," H.M.S. (Illus.), 171, 2or 
" Moreno," Argentine Battleship, 386 
Morty, Mr. G. L., Breakdown Experiences, 375 
Motor Barges for Canal Traffic (Ulus.), 82 
Motor-boat " Felicitas " (Illus.), 136, 137 
Motor-driven Lifeboat (Ulus.), 275 
Motor Exhibition, 164 

Motor Racing Boat " Tyreless III." (Ulus), 39 
National Experimental Tank, 11 
National Insurance and Mercantile Marine, 288 
Naval .Airship, The, 7, 36; Wrecked (Ulus.), 75, "8, 317 
Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Papers read before the Society of, 

New York, 190, 298, 348 
Naval Architects. Institution of, Jubilee Meetings, n, 46 
Naval Architects, Institution of, Papers contributed to, 12, 13, 46, 47, 333, 

338, 341 

Naval Architects, Institution of, Spring Meetings— Annual Report, Presi- 
dential Address, 329 

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Congress, rr, 46 

Naval Construction, Director of (Illus.), 259 

Naval Matters, Past and Prospective, 14, 37, 73, i° 8 , 149, 200, 255, 293, 
1-. )88, 4 |6, 47i 

Navigation Congress, The Twelfth International, 484 

"Nevsink" Life-saving Jacket (Illus.), 450 

"New Zealaud," Launch of the, 1" 

New Zealand Shipping Co., see Mail Lines, 47s 

Nippon Yusen Kaisha, sec Mail Lines, 290 



INDEX. 



Non-Ferrous Mel . 

"Normannla" and " Hantonia," Channel Steam. 

North Atlanti ill Lines, 42 

i ol Engineers and Shi •, 467 

•• North Point," 1 

N.I'. Pump Bucket 

i »bitu u lection >■( to 

. '■'. lU i 

nil-en. " Jutlandia," 40, 164; " Selandia," 333 

■■.212. 264, jo ; .8,470 

1 ill Engineering Exhibition, 177 
1 >il Engine, The " Djlnn " llllus 
ciil Engines ot Turbines, A Comparison, 197 
Oil-fired Cochran Boiler (Illus.), 304 
1 >il Mortal Englni -. 1 ru 

" Olyn pic "—" Hawke " Collision (Illus.), 7*i 77. '■ ' 

Itish Warship Machinery, 47 
30 
< ir.lc, Mr. 1: I... Diesel Oil Engl . 407 

Orient I. ir.tr " 1 irama " illus 
■■ Orion," II. M.s. (Illus 

I . 
" Papanui," Th. 

Mail Company, see Mail Lini 

Navigation - ; ! 

Paint '."r Battleship 
■■ Palmetto " Packing, 477 
Papers contributed to the Institute "I Marii rs, 78, 112, 133. 152, 

Paper- contributed to the Institution ol Engineers and Shipbuilders in 
. 416 
ributed to the Institution ol N'av.il architects, 12, 13, 333, 338, 341 
tributed L> the Liverpool Engineering Sociel 
Papers contributed to the North-East Coast Inst, ol Engineers and Ship- 
bull I 
Papers contributed to th Saval Architects and Marine Engineers, 

11 pai rinn and Reversing Propeller, 1 

■■ Parisiana," Thi 

barles A.. Marine Steam Turbine from 1894 t<> 1910, 13; 

.red Turbines, J93, 410, 407 
5' Turbine, J 
Pembi -"'. 256, -94 I 7, 476 

: il W llllll- 
I Work in 51 Illus.), 306 

in Ship Repair Work. 213 
i Marine Engl . -13 

Portsmouth Dockyard 14, 7, 73, 108, 200, 255, 293, 345, 388, 436, 475 
Power fnstaUati. -hip-. 201 

< Mail T.im 
nt-day Marini Engineering Practice, 115, 160 
■' rrin P.R. Co., 247 

Propeller, The "Paragon" Steering ami Ri 
Pump, A new t] 1, 8 

1 n Mary," II M S 
Quick turn by " I.usitania," A. -cc Mail Lines, 68 
Rateau, M Ship Propulsion, 12 

Rational Application >>i Turbines to Ship Pn 

avail & Co., Ltd., Messrs., Auxiliary Machii 120 

Red] 1 Turbine Engines, Combined (Illus.), 298, 348 

Recipi impared with otha Marin, Propt 

Refrigerating Apparatus lor Marine Transport (Illus.). 3. 48, no 
Refrigeration — Cooling by Air Circulation, 3; Tin- Absorption System, 48: 

Print ■ \ir Cooling, rro; Ice-making, irr ; Compressed Air 

Apparatus, 112: Cooling ■>", 112 

Refrigeration, Notes on Marine, 166, 191, 252, 292 
Refrigerator Log Book, Kxtract from a (Illus), 113 
Retire ngineers II. C. Boyle and .1 W. Alexander, Whiu 

" Richmond " s.s. An unusual incident, see Mail Lines, 
" Rivitlavia." Argentine Battleship f, 386 

" Riviera," Tin- S.I.. & c. Ry. Co.'s (Ulus 
hambeau," French Liner (Ulus.), 174 
" Roebuck," The case of the, see Mail Lines, 68 
Rolling of Ships at Sea, 83 
Ronald Tri-t & Co., Ltd . Mi . 268 

nthal, Mr. J. II . Crude lid Marin. Engines, 85 
Rotoplunge rump (Illus.), B, 403 
Royal Mail Steam Packet 10, 253 

.' Merchant Seaman's Orphanac 

,) Sanitary Instituti 
Royal Tour. The, see Mail I.im 
Rutherford :-. A.. Birkenhead Docks 

Mail Lines, 108, 

Sailings and the Coal Strike, see Mail Lini 

Salving the " Ivernia." 7 
Sanitary Instituti 

ipt. II Riall. Heavy Oil Engini 

-Her-. I-.Uvtt 

. UK '1 I Illu- 

[rimming 1 1 

n, Mr I'.., 1 lil 

innon, Mr. 1). M . 1 lil Engine 1 ' 

^89, 436, 476 
building Returns of the World, :n, 271 
Shipr 

Shipping II - Mail I. in 

Shipping on the Great Lakes of America i 
Shi). Rational Application of Turbines to. 1: 

Ship Repair Work, Pneumatic Took in, 213 



, 












III . . 

I 

Ihi," 211 

" Guild Alice," 247 ; 

I 
Ship*! 

270 

Ship-, The Rolling ■ 

Shipwrights' I 440 

■ Diving \\ ■ rk 1 111': 

Sight-feed Lubricati 

1:. 

Sinclair. Mr. Wm., Kiln. Book, 112 

Smith, with th. " Titanii 

Smith. Mr. J. Reney, Mann. Boiler Fa 
Smith, Sir \t I 

tl Hunt Exhil 
lllicall Mail -Mail I. ill. - 

South Eastern and Chatham Railwaj Co.'s " Ri' 

Stability Indii 

Steam 1 
Steam 

Steam Naviga Illus. i, 165; 

306 ; I 478 

Steamship Centenai ■ 

Steam Turbine, Marini '3 

Steam Turbine Tl 

.74 
Steering, Electrical 

" Jutlandia 
Stern'- "Flotteur" Lubricator (Illus. 

Steward' 

Submarine Salvage boat. French (Illus 
Subn 
Suction Gas Engines ami Prod 

m 1. a- Engini 1 with other Systems of Marine Propulsion, 

392, 430, 467 

Summary ol Shipbuilding lor 19ZI, 214, 274 
Surgeon- at s.a, see Mail Lines 

Swan, Hunter & Wighat n, Ltd., Messrs., 1 

ngton, Wm., 306 

Work (Ulus. 
Thearle, Dr, s. J. P., Mercantil. 

Xhen [ulator and Governor (IUu 

Thomson, Capt. Wm., Hai er, Leith, Retirement, i7 ; 

n, Mr. Hugh, Leith Supt. Eng., Retirement (Illus 

- Thunderer." II M S. |UlUS , -■. ,. 477 

Tide Indicator (Illus.), 17, 73 

"Titanic" Engineering Staff Memorial-. In-t. ol Marine Engineers' Fund 

420, 460, 4M ; Liverp luthampton, 460 

" Titanic " Engineers, Obituary (Hlu .463 

" Titanic " 1 461 

" Titanic," I 417 

"Titanic," Resolutions oi Sympathy, 4' 
Mr. W. A . - 

n ol Index 
Trial Tri] section ol Index 

Trist & Co., Ltd., Messrs. Ronald, reed-water Regulator, etc. (Illu- 

213, 268 
Turbine and Ri mbtaed (Illus . 2.18, 348 

. Application i" Ship Propulsion, 12 
Turbine, Marine Sti 

Turbine- or Marine Oil Engines, A C01 197 

Two-Cycle Oil Engini 
"Tyreless 111 " |IUus 
Union Castle Co., ei Mail I 

ol N.w Zealand, 51 . Mail Lin. 
r S Battl 
United States I egraph Act, set Mail Lines. 

7) 

" Venoge," The (Dili 
Engined In 191 
Launched in 1911, 

Walker. Mr. R. 1 

WaUsend-Howden - "104 

■ah," Tin Lost, see Mail Ltai 
Warning to Officer! antile Marine, see Mail I.; 

Warrant En| 

Building, : 
War-hip Machinery, Fiftj nges in British, 47 

New Zealand," 16 ; " Florida," 
art," 125 ; 
ham," 163 " Monarch," 171 201 . " I. ion 
" Darl 
dav la Kaiser, 

Regulator, 1 Ulus.), 

Wati rtight i on partment and Bull 

■Mint- llllu- 

Wati-. Sir Philip, Warship Build! ipwrights' 1 

rn Di velopmcnts in High 1 ity, 477 

W.cx U 

• Mail I, in, 
Willi HI 

White. Sir Willi, 
Whit, - 
White Star I 1 

Whit. Retirement J. W. 

Alexander 



■ 07 



I 0, 467 



" /.riu\ 

" Morell. 
' 470 



Moltke,' 



Ki\ i- 



r- 



[NDEX. 



1 jcam oi 1 ngineers, 198, 4'.<> : B.O.T. En- 



275 



Wigham & Son, Messrs. fol™, Ci I 1 ring 1 ngini -. 1 19 

Wilde. Ueut. H. T„ 

•Bruce, Mr. W. J., Presidential Addn rerpool Engineering S y, 

Wlreli • ^7^. 475 

\\'.>rk completed during 1911, -;i. -74 

Work on hand i" Britlsli Yards, ign, -■;',, 274 

• n hand in Foreign Yards, i-.n. 234, -'"4 
World's Shipbuilding Returns i"r 1911, 214, --74 
Worshipful Company of Shipwrights (lllus.i, 19, 266, 440 
Wreck ol the N.iv.ii Airship " Mayfly " illlus.), 7^ 
Yarron 8 1 Motor-boat "1 ' ll11 1 ' 

. Mi 11 1 . Water-Tube Boi 1 1 Imeni . , |8 
Austrian Battleship IHlus.), »'■ 

PARAGRAPHS. 

■* Acheron," ll.M.s 
" Aquitania," The Cunard, ;:>, 47S 
,," R.MS 1 

350, 461 
.! Lsian Inst. o1 tfari '■ ineers, 88 
'•Australia,*' Armoured Cruiser, 122 
Back to the Land, 76, 1 1> 
Baili j S ( d . Ltd., Messrs. \\ H 
Beldam's " Packini 

...... 1 . 

Board ol Agricultui e, . 1 
i Trade Chanj 
quiries, 480 
■ 
BromeU's Patents Co., 305 
British Corporation, 301, 356 
Brooke Motors, 1 \$, 362 
Calendars, 270 
Catalogui 

hip, 
Chambers, Mr John, 252 
Club for British Subjects in Rotterdan 

in & Co, (Annan), Ltd., Messrs., ;6, [46, J99, 4'>7 

. . Of a I m:;iv, 356 

1 " Cent< narj 

lidated Diesel Engine Co., 390 
■■ Conte Hi Cavour," 119 

ation Durbar and British Merchant Service, no 
Dermatiiu Co., Ltd.. 44, 137, 148 
Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, 189 
Exhibition ol Non-Ferrous Metals, 104 
Faculty of Engineering, 469 
Fatal Accident at Manora Point, 
Ferguson & Timpson, Messrs., 138 
Ford N: Co.. Messrs. MoncriefT P., 209 
'■ Forfarshire " Anniversary, 95 
Fraser & Co., Ltd., Messrs. W. J., 308 
German Naval Architects, 497 
Gratitude and Kindly Feeling, 34 
Griffin & Co., Ltd., Messrs. Charles, 466 
Harland & Wolff, Ltd., Messrs., Liverpool Works, 307 
Haulbowline Dock Extension, 87 
Heavy Oil Engines, 292, 403 
Holme Crane Patents Co., 307 
Hydroplanes for the Navy, 308 
Ice and Cold Storage Association, 439 
" Imperator," 356 

Imperial Merchant Service Guild, 4, 317 
" Indian Empire," Accident on the, 170 
Institute of Marine Engineers, 7. 22, 34, 95, 213, 403, 439, 
Institute of Metals, 53, 281, 304, 41/ 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, 
Institution of Civil Engineers, 356 
Institution of Electrical Engineers, 301 
Institution of Naval Architects, 255 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 375 

International Engineering and Machinery Exhibition, 164, 191 
International Marine Motor Exhibition, 4 
International Shipping and Oil Engine Exhibition, 1 . 1 
Iron and Steel Institute, 48, 401, 437 
Isherwood System of Ship Construction, 442 
" Jackall," H.M.S., 81 
" James Watt " Anniversary, 206 

Japanese Mercantile Marine Bureau, Annual Report, 478 
Junior Institution of Engineers, 288, 362 
" Kongo " Japanese Cruiser, 437 
" Lampedusa," S.S., 36 
" Lion," H.MS,, 173, 206 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping, 302 

Lloyd's Register, Shipbuilding Returns for Quarter, 30th June, ion, 
Lockwood & Son, Messrs. Crosby, 290 
London Shipping. Who's Who, 2 

Machine Tool and Engineering Association, 22, hi. 191 
Milton, Mr. J. T., 401 
Manchester Association of Engineers, 202 
Man's Humanity to Man, 260 
Man's Inhumanity to Man, 297 
Marconi Telegraph Co., Ltd., 41, 444 
Marine Circulators, 355, 374 
Marine Magazine, 435 
Marine Society, The, : 
Martell Scholarship, 67 
Matthew Keenan & Co., Ltd 
Mi writ Jointing, 473 
Moss vV Co., Messrs. H, J 
Mosses & Mitchell, Messrs., 473 
Newcomen, Thos., Proposed Memorial, 326 
Non-Ferrous Metals Exhibition, 104 
North-East Coast Inst, of Engineers and Shipbuilders, 41, 120, 206, 295, 356 



444. 4 6 9 
189, 206, 403 



Messrs., 16, 163 
Steamship Circular, 22 



oil Steamship! 

■■ oh inpi. " and " Titan li " Sailings, 1 [9 

" i trgarita," Bollndei j-Engincd Coast* r, 

Palm 1 r Shipbuilding & Iron Co., Ltd , 6 

P . & O Co 1 1 

Pi fa & Co., Ltd , Mi 1 Henry, 191 

Pollock, Son- S Co., Mi 1 fame: , 1 |6, 19] 

P01 !iv drometer, Ltd., 1 j8 

Porl "i 1 rla g< tw, 1 : 1 

Portable Roekel ^pparatu ; . 478 

Pi irtabli Vice, 156 

PubH »h< 1 '■■■ Innouni ementi , 11, 148, 126, \go 

Refrigerating and Compressing Machinery, ■<■ ■ 

Rj inn. . Porn stl Shipbuilding Co., Ltd . ■ 

Right to Work. The, 8? 

Rot bel apparatus, 478 

Royal Navy List, 18 

Saukcv, Capt. II. Kiall, :<t >., \*> ; 

Scott's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co,, Ltd., 1 19 

" Seguranca," S.S., ' 7' 

Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering for 1911, m s 

Shipwrights Companj , 1 36 

Sir John Cass Technical Institute, 1 

Smoke Abatement Exhibition, [62 

Smooth-) >n Manufacturing * - , . :6, ,, 

Society of Engineers, 120, (02, \i<> 

Solicitude oi a Hoard, 34 

Steam Boilers, Annual Report, Inspectoi oi Factories, 198 

Steamship Centenary, 275 

Submarine Signal Company, 2, 156 

Suter, Hartmann & Rahtjen's Composition Co., Ltd., 292, 458 

Swansea, New Tug for, 362 

Technical Education, 275 

"Texas," U.S. Dreadnought, 417 

Thornvcroft & Co., Ltd., Messrs. John I., 391 

"Titanic" and "Olympic" Sailings, ii't 

"Titanic" Engineers, 480 

Toope's Asbestos Covering Co., Ltd., 

Trade of Hull, 332 

Trinity House, 46 ; 

Vice, Portable, 356 

" Violeta," Thornycroft Motor Launch, rgr, 265, 150 

Wailes, Dove & Co., Ltd., Messrs., 49, 53, 401 

Webster's Ships Compositions and Paints, 202, 437 

Western Eh etrie Company, Ltd., 420 

Wireless Telegraphy, 191, --70, 473 

Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, 186 

TRADE NOTES. 

Barrow, see North-West of England 

Belfast, 57, 130, 180, 242, 281, 317, 362, 4°9, 449, 49" 

Clyde and Scotland, 24, 53, 9 1 , I26 . '7 6 . 2 3 8 , 276, 312, 357, 4°4. 

Dockyards, The, 14, 37. 73, i°9, 'S ' 2 °°' 2 S5. 2 94. 346, 388, 4 17, 

Hartlepools, The, see Tees and Hartlepools, 

Hnmher and District, 25, 55, 9 2 , I2 7, 177, 2 39, 2 78, 314, 359, 406, 

Isle of Wight, see South ol England 

Manchester Ship Canal, see Mersey 

Mersey and Manchester Ship Canal, 27, 56, 94. 129, 179, 2 4i, 280, 

408, 448, 488 

North-West of England, 27, 57, 94, 129, l8 °. 2 4 2 . 28 o, 316, i to8, 

Southampton, see South of England and Isle of Wight. 

South of England and Isle of Wight, 26, 55, 93, 128, 178, 240, 2 79, 

407, 447, 488 
Tees and Hartlepools, :i, 54, 9-', 127, 177, 23S, 277, 313, 35S, 405, 
Thames, 27, 56, 93, 128, 179, 240, 279, 315, 360, 407, 448, 488 
Tyne, -'04, -'77. |i I, )58, 4°5, 445, 486 
Wear, 204, 277, )I3, 358, 405, -146. 486 



445, 485 

47' 

446, 487 

|I5, .'»'. 
448,489 
3M, 359, 
t4 (l . 486 



FOREIGN NOTES. 



50, 90, 124, 1 74, 204 



_ 66, 11 18, 350, 443, 4^0 



OBITUARY. 



Andrews, Jr., Thos.. 378, 380, 463 
Arthur. Nicol Sinclair, 175 
Bell, Joseph, 377. 381, 4 6 4 
Bull, John C, 401 
Crow, George Busk, 48 
Edwards, D. C, 138 
Goffey, Col. J., V.D., 450 
Goodwin, Gilbert Smith, 4 so 
Graham, Capt. A., 88 
Hume, Graydon, 138 
Peat, Aaron, 483 
Redwood, Bernard B., 138 
Smith, Capt. E. J., 378, 380, 463 

Titanic" Engineers, 379, 4 2 °, 4°3 
Ward, John, 351 
Wilde, H. T., 379, 381, 464 
Wormald, Capt., 483 
Zimmerman, Robert, 268 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Ilritish Naval Engineer, 419 

Experiments with Water-Tube Boilers with a special reference to Superheating, 

374 
Proposed "Titanic" Orphanage. 419, 463 
The "Titanic" Disaster, 373, 4'9 
"Titanic" Engineers' Memorial, 419, 4<*j 
"Titanic" Liverpool Fund, 419 



INI 






ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Estimating Co I il Material, etc., lot SUpbntU 
joinlnR Au-tr.iii.in Commonwealth Naval Force, 356 

BOOKS REVIEWED. 

>troductlon to the Studj 1 I Pw I. by 1 1 I rislei 

\rc Lamp- a» Apparatus, bj I H rohii 

Control, by J. B. C. Kershaw, .-71 

Cold Storage, U Heatlng and Ventilating on Board Ship, bj Sydney 1 Walker, 

K N 

(Knees but lea Alllages, by M m I and Bronlcn 

land and Mann. w..rk. by A 
tory "I Shipowners, Shipbuilders and Marine Engineers, 191a, 400 
by P. W. 1 1 
etrlc Propulsion ol Ships, by 11. M. Hobart, 
glen,, W. I Crawford, D.Sc., 213 

, ,,,. irv [ n tern by J. W. Kershav 

Manual on Heal 1 ngini ,Stea 
1 jth Edition, 172 
Elementary Workshop arithmetic, by 11 \ Darling, :?' 

md Shipbuilders in Scotland, t» ! ions, Vol. l.l\ .. -mi 

Fighting Ship-, ton, Ed. by Fred f. Jane, ; 
Annual and Naval v. ai B 

. abetons, by W. Stross, 173 
ipping, Who's Who 191s), 400 

Hand! k on the Gas Engine, by Herman 1 

Hints on ie eal Duties ol Shipmastei 

and Cold* Storag< Trades Dired 400 

Internal Combustion Engines and G 1 by C. W. Askkng and E. 

Liquid Fuel ami its Apparatus, by w. 11 tl 

Id's English Directory and Gazetteer (1912), .100 
Marin. Engine Design, by E. M. Bragg, 21 
Marine Engineering Estimates an.l 
Marin by J. W. Sothen 

Marine Steam Turbines, Messrs. Bauer ami Laschc, 17; 

"Mechanical World" k f " r "9 Ia i '74 

banlcal World " Pocket Diary for 1912, 274 
" Mechanical World " Pocket Diary and > 1 >9' 

Merchants, Manufacturers and Shippers, 
Mill and Factory Wiring, by K. C. Derey, 
Motoren und Winden flit dieSee- und Ktlstenfischerei pach dem Prei 

■ 
, 1 tc, by s. K. Broadfi ol 

Naval Annual, 19K, Ed. by Viscount Hythe, 482 
Navy League Annual. [9x1-1912, 272 

Notes on the Practical Duties of Sbipmast' Wilkes, jj 

nil Fuel, by Sydney H. North and I 
Pearson's Nautical Almanack. 273 

Re(r , , 1 1 \\ alii Taylor, 272 

R t .|„ , ■ d Merchant Shipping ol all Nations, Bureau Veritas, 172 

Royal Navy List. Witherby & Co., 272 
Scientific and Learned Societies Year I l <"*k, 273 
Sell's Telegraphic Addresses (1912), 400 
Shin Wiring and Fitting, hv ] | n, 27s 

Shipyard it a ilicd to Warship Construction, by N. J M 

Sketches of Engine and Machine Details, by W 
Steam Turbine Design, bj Fobn M »n 

[grams, by Mi 
ting "( Motive Power Engines, by R. 1 
Thermodynamics of the steam Turbine, by C. il- Peabody, --12 
Traite- de Metauograpble, by Felix Robin, 
Vahe and Valve Gearing, nth I t. 172 

Verbal Notes and sketch,- for Marine Engineers, 7th Edition, by J. W. 

Sothern, 172 
Whlttaker'a Arithmetic of Electrical Engineering, 271 
Whii irical Engineers' Pocket Book, by K Edgcumbe, 

Who, [912, A. & C. Black, 272 
Who's Who, Year Book, A. S C. Black, 272 
Writer-' and Artist "Yea L. & C. Black 

BOARD OF TRADE EXAMINATIONS. 

, -,22, 360, 4'.i. 444. 48' 

PATENTS ABRIDGMENT RECORD. 

I, 104, 146, 186, 250, 28f>. 



2 72 






LAUNCHES. 



. 1 ( I 

I ; , I 8 J 

La, 1 1" 
Utoa, 
Udan, 

Uert, 247 

Alizarine, 141 
Alnnmuth, 

Aln. ; 1 \ 

Andrew Han I 

. 

Vngi >1 1 

Annan Hani, 141 



Anv. rsvillr, 

■ 
- 1 1 

Arabistaj 
Ardoyrn 

■ 

Atlanti 

Atna, 

Austral 

■ 



Bald or, 

II, 61 

Barman 

1, 141 

■ 1 
mphUl, 6a 

. . .. 

-' i t 
BedUngti 

■ 
Blaxland 
Bonac Law . 

: -1 
t , -47 

-47 

■ 

Burand 1 

Burma 

Burmal*! 

Cadmu 

Cairndhu, 1 82 
Calrngowan, 1 , 1 
Cairnnill 
1 alt utta 
Camptx U 
Camrx In 

Cay Roman 

140 
Chalcedony 
Chclohsi 

Ciult.-ni.iti. .' 1 ■ 

*. h« nal 
Ch< rbui 
Chevingtoti 
Chindo, 182 

■■.. ■ 
1 Birmingham, ^7 
I ■ 
Citj "i Poh 
Clan Davidson, 
Clan MacEwen, , [0 
Clan Macnaughton, 30 

Clan Ma* I ■■■■ 
■■ I 

Clyde, 411 

Constant star, .- 1 1 

ix , 183 
Coramba, 100 
Cordelia, 1-1 

■ 

1 
■ 

Cotswold Nam: 

Crayford, 182 

40- 

o( T.il. do, 
,411 

Dalewood, 1 10 
Daniel 3( 
1 lanici 2 1 7 

Davara 
1 raybr< al 

■ 

1 >- 
Urlli 

id, 1 1 1 
Dim1 
Dinorab 
Duchi 

- . tor 

■ ill, r8a 

El Tim. 

' 

1 8a 
Bran ai 

184 

tit 



4>I 

I 

• 141 
1 t I > 

1 

Halifa 

! 

Harroga 

Hartfoi 

Hera 

Hilda 

Hind 

Hochela 

Hond< 

Horngartli 

1 1 

Hurunui, 1 4 1 

Hyltonia 

• 

Lndrani 
tndrapui 

1 slewi 11 i 
[tapura 

I 

a, 412 
411 
■ 
I 
Jiquilis* 

I 
Kamouraska 

Karl s^ 
Karramatta 
ECatoa 
Killing! 

Kina 

Kuala 

- . ntina, 492 

■ 

La Palma, 

Lapwing 

1.1. on v CastiUi 

• 

Lilian.. 

Lingau 
Lord Airedali 
Lord ' 

Lord K ■ 
Lord Li 

Lurlim 
Lynton ■ 

■ ia 
Makarini 

Mar. 1 II- 

Maskbu 

■ 



I\DI \ 



I , 1(2 

i. :<i 
■ 
■ 

Merlin, 246 
Meroe, 

Mu dad \nm 1 
Milford Hal 
Minster. 20 

' ftgcl, |8 , 

Monl • . 

Montebello, 140 
Montoi 
Morialta, 100 
tfountpark, 

Nankin 

.■■..- 

Nellie Dodds, mi 

Nervion, 492 
Nt n tbbotshall, 28 j 
Mew Londoner, 491 
Newtownards, 4 .1 

Normaiibv, 

■ 

Xormanton, in 
Northern, 
Ncn Engton, 

Oakfii 1 I 
Omi Mam, 
Opouri, 1 j.- 
Orama 

u . 28 

1 fswald, .(i 2 

; 

Paignton, 1 39 
Patriotic, Ku 
Peebles, 60 
Penolver, 192 

Perall 1 

Ploughboy, 366 
Princess Royal, $21 

Prin. SO] hia, 183 
Princes? Victoria, 367 
Prosper III., 4^2 
Pidganbar, 320 

Quebra, 520 

Queen Adelaide. 18 , 

n Alexandra, 411 
Queen Empress, 453 
Queen Loui«. 

Raindrop, 284 
Ramos. ;s 4 
Ranella. 4S1 
Ranvik. 318 
Rawson, 97 
Redesmere, 99 
Rena, 98 
Risaldar, ,: 1 
Robert Coverdale, 96 
Robert Vassall, 454 
Rockpool, 410 
Roddan 
Rondo, j 
Roselands 
Ruysdael. 282 

Saba, 493 
■ Hugo 

Saltburn, 24 

Samarinda, | • 
Sanda, 142 
San Dunstan 
Sandfly, 60 
Sangsta* ; 
San Mateo, 29 
Santaren, 24 \ 
Sant Tookaram, 521 
Sculptor, 141 
Shwedagon, 41 r 
Siamese Prim 
Silver Line, 491 
Sir Richard Aw.lr 
Sixaola, 101 
Skuli Fogeti, 1S2 
Sorrento, 366 

Point, 319 
SI 1 reorge, 4 ; 1 
Standish Hall 
Start Point, 366 
Steinsta 
Stiklestad, 320 
Stockport, 28 
Strathderry, 61 
Strathgeldie, 6r 
Strathmore, 321 
Strathtummel, 100 
Strathurie, 100 



SUtton, l ;■) 

Swirl 

. 
tulthyblus, 

'. 28a 
Tempo, 282 
Thornhlll, 60 

n 

1 284 
rorci llo, 492 
Torridgi 

Transp irtci 

Trent 
Tl. ■ 

Turkistan, [40 

Twickenham, \<> \ 

142 

IV- 1 1 

tJbbergen, 319 

\ auban, [84 
Veuturia, 284 

is, 452 

\ m handel, 98 

VVabana, [82 
Waimana, 102 
Wandila, 194 
Warilda, 246 
Waterford, 410 
Westoe, B 

West Wales. j=,i 

William Graj , 
Wiltshire ,284 

Wimborne, 140 
Winchester, 494 

■! . 282 

Winlaton. -h-- 
Wirral, 61 
Wollongbar, 30 

Yarrowdale, 491 
Yi Looiili 2 1 1 
Yorkton, :> t 
Yurimaguas, 2S4 

Zealandic, 30 
Zvir, 4 s2 

Vessels not named. 

Cargo steamer (Charles Connell and 

1 I, 367 
Dredger for Argentine (Win. Simons 

and Co., Ltd.), 367 
Floating Hospital {Wm. Thomas and 

Sons), 366 
Hopper Barge, 100 
Hopper Barge (The BIyth Ship- 
building Co., Ltd.), 96 
Hopper Barge for North-Eastern 
Railway Co. (BIyth Shipbuilding 
Co.), sS 
Hopper Dredger (Wm. Simons and 

Co., Ltd.), 183 
Isherwood Steamer, 455 
Passenger Steamer (Caird & Co.), 493 
Screw Steamer (Goole Shipbuilding 

Co.), >■ 
Screw Steamer (Northumberland 

Shipbuilding Co.), 364 
Screw Steamer (Ramage & Ferguson) 

367 
Steam Whalers (Smith Dock Co 

Ltd.), 98 
Steel Screw Coaster (Jos. T. Eltring- 

ham & Co., Ltd.), 181 
Steel Screw Fleeter (Cochrane and 

Sons), 182 
Steel Screw Steamer {Wm. Dobson 

and Co.), 139 
Steel Screw Steamer (A. McMillan 

and Son, Ltd.), 412 
Steel Screw Steamer (Northumber- 
land Shipbuilding Co.), 463 
Steel Screw Steamer (Messrs O- 

bourne, Graham & Co.), 96 
Steel Screw Steamer (Russell & Co I 
412 

1 w Steamer (Russell & Co.), 



Iron 



Steel Screw Steamer (Tvne 
Shipbuilding Co.), 141 

Steel Screw Steamer (Wood, Skinner 
and Co., Ltd.), 410 

Twin-Screw Steamer (Ailsa Ship- 
building Co.), 412 

Two Steel Screw Tugs [Goole Ship- 
building Co H 

Two Trawlers (Hall, Russell & Co 
Aberdeen), 142 



Acajutl.i. 1 s, 
Udan, 248 
Uert, 368 

Vnglo-Californlan, 496 
Arab, 322 
\i abi t.ui, ,,(. 
Vt* adian, 249 
Ixdoj n,, 1 
ixruora, roa 
Arracan, 322 
\ i" <■, 368 
Itna, 103 

\li I, 1, . I I ; 

Baron Erskine, 1 , , 
Baron Jedburgh, . ■ 
Barrowmore, 102 
Bern factor, 496 
Benguela, 102 
Birchfield, u 

Black Head, 40 s 
Blaxlaud, 456 
Borodino, 1 ( ; 
Hriertoii, <•: 

Brisbani 
Brocklesby, 412 
Brooklet, 62 

Cairngowan, 248 
Cairnhill, 368 

Campania, 368 
Cayo Romano, 143 
Chelohsin, 185 
Chenab, 102 
Chevington, 369 
Chiltern Range, 249 
Chinese Frince, 62 
City of Birmingham, 185 
City of Poona, 368 
Clan Davidson, 368 

Clan Macgillivray, 142 

Clan Mackenzie, "103 

Clio, 456 

Coramba, 143 

Cordelia, 497 

Cotovia, 144 

Cots wold Range, 368 

Crayford, 248 

Dalebank, 102 
Dalewood, 184 
Dago, 413 
Darnholme, 61 
Demodocus, 496 
Demosthenes, 102 
Den of Airlie, 142 
Deptford, 322 
Dinorah, 456 
Dunkerquois, 61 

Egremont Castle, 144 
Ekma, 249 
Electra, 369 
El Uruguay o, 457 
Eskbridge, 457 
Eskwood, 142 
Essex Abbey, 145 
Eucadyne, 250 
Exmoor, 496 

Fishpool, 496 
Fitzroy, 495 
Florentia, 413 
Freland, 495 

Galway Castle, 14 s 
Geddington Court, 322 
Gifford, 185 
Glenbridge, ro3 
Glenslay, 184 
Gloucester Castle, 102 
Gorjistan, 102 
Gourko, 285 
Gunbar, 322 

Harden, 496 
Harpalyce, 31 
Henrik, 31 
Hochelaga, 413 
Hooton, 368 
Hopemoor, 62 
Horngarth, 285 
Hurunni. 285 
Imataka, 143 
Indrapura, 250 
Itapura, 415 
Izgled, 102 ' 
Jabiru, 248 
Japanese Prince, 143 

Kangean, 456 
Karamu, 496 
Karl Schroers, 457 
Katoa, 457 
Kina, 31 
Kirkoswald, 496 



TRIAL TRIPS. 



Koopa, 144 
Koursk, 61 

Cat onla, 249 
i.ioin, don, 496 
i..l Palma, 1 1 ; 
1..1 Senora, 1 1 ■ 
Ceorj v Castillo, ; 6 , 
11 ' ttia, 457 
in, 248 
Luise Horn, 496 

Uaci don la, 369 

M.il-.u. I. ,. , 

Makarinl, 4s; 
Maloja, 142 
Marci Hi . !■, 
Marguet tte, 1 1 
Margui 1 tte, 1 
M.nv Baird n 
Mary Horloi 1., 1 . 
Media, 248 
Meroe, 184 
Mexican o, [68 
Mogileff, 62 
Montoro, 249 

Nigaristan, 62 
Normanby, 104 
Normanton, 4^7 

Novington, 49(1 
Number 7, 122 

Ockley, 457 
Orama, 185 
Orangemoor, ;i 
Oreland, 31 
Oristann, [4 : 
Otto Trechmann, 144 
Overton, 184 

Patriotic, 4r2 
Peebles, 143 
Penhale, 185 
Princess Alice, 14^ 
Princess Sophia, ,22 
Princess Victoria, 456 
Progress III., 457 
Prophet, 322 
Pulganbar, 413 
Queen Louise, 413 

Ranella, 497 
Ranvik, 368 
Redesmere, 144 
Rena, 248 ■ 
Rokkosan Maru, 62 
Roselands, 143 
Rothley, r43 

Sagona, 369 
Salonica, 496 
Saltburn, 322 
Sangstad, 103 
San Mateo, 102 
Santaren, 285 
Scawby, 185 
Shwedagon, 497 
Siamese Prince, 104 
Sixaola, 184 
South Point, 368 
South .Shields, 144 
Stiklestad, 368 
Swift, 185 

Thorpswood, 368 
Tivives, 185 
Trentwood, 496 
Trevalgan, 103 
Trevanion, 413 
Turkistan, 185 
Tysla, 143 
Ul, 62 

Vaigatch, 62 . 
Vandyck, 142 
Vard, 102 
Vauban, 456 
Vryhandel, 143 

Waimana, 248 
Westdale, 248 
Westmoor, 144 
\V. st Wales, 496 
Wimborne, 249 
Windsor, 322 
Wollongbar, 143 
Wyvisbrnok, 412 

Yarrowdale, 4g6 
Yi-Loong, 321 

Zealandic, 144 

Vessels not named. 

Steamer (Swan, Hunter & wighaxn 

Richardson, Ltd.), 4S6 
Steam Tugs (Edward Haves), 62 



Printed by Percy Lund, Humphries & Co.-, "EST The C 



:ountry Press, Bradford; and 3, Amen Corner, London, E.C. 



8498 



ST, rat THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



The Marine Engineer 

And Naval Architect. 
LONDON, AUGUST, IQII. 

THE INSTITUTION OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS. 

THE fubilee Meetings of the Institution of Naval 
Architects, which had been postponed from last 
year owing to the death of King Edward VI I. 
mark an important event in the history of the 
Institution. The fact that the Congress was opened 
by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, and was attended 
by a distinguished company, including many delegates 
of foreign Ministers, of Marine and Foreign Societies, 
is in itself a feature of great distinction. For a 
scientific profession and an Institution connected 
therewith of the national importance as that of the 
naval architect, ever) thing was planned and carried 
out with that thoroughness and generosity which was 
worthy of the occasion. The papers read were for 
the most part of an historical character, and although 
much was of necessity ancient history the interest in 
the subject matter is largely maintained and increased 
by the fact that the authors of the papers were those 
who had been actually engaged in the making of that 
history. Dealing first with the Institution itself the 
paper setting out its internal history was contributed 
by Sir William White. The author sets out the 
condition of naval architecture in i860, when the 
Institution was founded during a period of transition 
in regard to the design, construction and propulsion 
of ships, and when the steam re-construction of our 
navy was being effected after long hesitation and 
much opposition. The Institution started with a 
membership at the end of the first year of 324 and in 
191 1 it reached 2,047. The association of the Institu- 
tion with outside bodies was alluded to and strong 
testimony was afforded of the value of the work done 
from a national standpoint, in appreciation of which 
the Admiralty have for years made an annual grant 
to the funds. Passing on we come to the paper con- 
tributed by Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Oram on " Fifty 
Years' Changes in British Warship Machinery." 
Coincident with the founding of the Institution was 
the period when the paddle-wheel was discarded and 
the screw propellor adopted in its stead for war 
vessels. Prior to i860 the motion was transmitted 
through gearing, but in that year the direct-drive 
was adopted. Steam pressures had increased from 
30 lbs. to 250 lbs. while the I.H.P. per ton of 
machinery had increased from 5-67 in the Warrior to 
13-64 in the Neptune. The progressive development 
as set out in the paper affords very interesting read 
but probably one of the most instructive features is 
that of the changes of personnel. For example, in 
i860 the Flagship of the Channel Squadron, the 
Royal Albert, of 500 N.H.P., had seven officers and 



twenty men in the engine-room, while in 1910 the 
Neptune of 25,000 S.H. P. had seven officers and 224 
men. The history of the steam turbine from 1894 to 
1910 was treated by Sir Charles A. Parsons, than 
whom there is no one who is more entitled to, or is 
more able to contribute the record. 

May we now pass from our own particular history 
of naval architecture, which has had such a marked 
effect upon the present position of our great empire, 
and turn to that which must strike ev^ry one as the 
most significant matter dealt with at the Congress. 
We refer to the development of the shipbuilding 
industry in Japan. Three papers were read, viz.: 
" The Progress of Naval Construction in Japan " by 
Rear- Admiral Motoki Kondo, "The Progress of Naval 
Engineering in Japan " by Engineer-Rear-Admiral 
Terugoro Fujii, and the " Development of Merchant 
Shipbuilding in Japan" by Dr. S. Terano and Mr. M. 
Yukawa. It will be gathered from the first paper 
that although the Japanese had never constructed 
ships according to European methods till 1861, when 
the keel of the first warship was laid down, they have 
now four navy yards and three repairing yards. It 
was not till 18S7 that an iron ship was built and not 
till 1906 that the first battleship Satsuma was launched, 
so that this remarkable development has taken place 
in about a generation. The Yokosuka navy yard 
was about 18 acres in extent in 1865 and employed 
960 men, while to-day its acreage is 116 and 8,000 
men are employed. This yard is equipped with all 
appliances necessary for the construction of the 
heaviest engines and boilers. The graving docks are 
four in number, the largest one being capable of 
taking ships of the largest dimensions and is equipped 
with a gantry fitted over the whole length, having 
several cranes ranging up to 30 tons. The Kure navy 
yard is the second oldest yard and was commenced in 
1889, and since the Chinese war has been greatly 
developed. During the past sixteen years seven 
warships and fifteen destroyers and torpedo boats have 
been built, and to this yard is due the honour of 
having turned out the first armoured vessel built in 
Japan. The Sasebo navy yard was started in 1890 
and has five large docks and one small one, v. 
the Maidzura navy yard is the most recent, as it was 
only opened in 1901. 

Admiral Fujii's paper shows that the total horse power 
of the Japanese Navy has increased from 70,000 in 1890 
to 1,800,000 in 191 1 and that 28% ofthe total I.H.P. of 
warship machinery comes from Great Britain. The 
history of the development of propelling machinery is 
n and concludes with the statement that both Curtis 
and Parsons turbines are being installed in new ships 
under construction. In dealing with the cost of 
machinery it is shown that the cost of manufacture 
in Japan is slightly less than in Europe and America, 
but that wages in Japan are constantly on the in- 
crease. The paper by Dr. Terano and Mr. Yukawa 



TIIK MARIN I- ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



shows the rapid growth of the Mercantile Marine 
due to the provisions of the Shipbuilding En< om.igr- 
inent Act, for in 1 886 the total number and tonn 

tered steamers above 20 tons was 230 and 
>o respectively, while in iqio the figures are 
10 and 1 ,200,000 respectively. All these records 
1 snd to show what .1 remarkable nation the Japanese 
are, foi p y iu the course of one generation the 

shipbuilding has passed from the construction of 
I unks to that of battleships and fast ocean-going 
steamers. There could hardly be more eloquent 
testimony of the great capacity of this people for 
imitating others, and not only this, but the carrying 
out of such a policy on sound commercial lines. 
There is much food for the deepest thought as to 
what we can learn from those whom in the past 
we have done so much to educate, and it will be well 
if due consideration be given to many useful lessons 
that have been set forth as the result of practical experi- 
ence and great administrative capacity of a race whose 
powers of development have startled the civilised 
world. The Congress will, we feel sure, not only do 
much for the cause of naval architecture in particular, 
but from a national standpoint tend to widen our 
views of perspective in general, which is what one 
would alwavs desire in a great nation. 



SIR PHILIP WATTS. 



THE position of Director of Naval Construction is 
not only a very responsible one, but is also one 
which is very exacting in its calls upon the 
physical organization of the holder. We were 
therefore not altogether surprised at the announce- 
ment recently made that the present director, Sir 
Philip Watts, would retire at the end of six months. 
Both Sir Philip and his predecessor, Sir William 
White, came back to the Admiralty from Messrs. Sir 
William Armstrong, Whitworth & Company, Ltd., of 
Elswick-on-the-Tyne, and we believe, in each case, at 
considerably lower remuneration than had been 
received at the latter place. It will be recognised 
generally, and by those who are capable of judging it 
will be demanded, that men of high scientific attainment 
must be retained by the State for the purpose of con- 
trolling the scientific side of naval construction, and to 
any commercial man there does not appear to be any 
reason why a properly qualified man should receive 
less in the Government service than in that of an out- 
side employer. This question of remuneration has 
already been the subject of enquiry in the Llouse of 
Commons, but it is hoped that when the matter is 
settled the remuneration will be on a scale which is 
compatible with the responsibilities of the position 
and the arduous character of the work involved. It 
will be interesting to many as to who will succeed Sir 
Philip, but whoever it is he will have a high 
standard to work up to, judging from that which has 



been set by him and his predecessors in office in the 
persons of Sir Edward Reed, Sir Nathaniel Barnaby 
and Sir William White, the latter two of whom are still 
with us, and take a deep interest in this branch of 
engineering, as was exemplified by their presence and 
activity at the Naval Architects' Congress last month. 
The period during which Sir Philip has occupied the 
position has been one of marked progression, not only 
in the matter of speed of ships, but in the offensive 
and defensive powers of their armament and the 
effect of the policy inaugurated during his tenure of 
office must have an effect which will last for years 
after he has retired. We feel that every one will 
cordially wish that the rest of retirement will enable 
Sir Philip to recuperate his energy, enjoy his well- 
earned relief from official responsibility, and be long 
spared to lend his assistance in the same manner as 
his predecessors have done before him. 



Technical Books. — The publisher of this journal will be 
pleased to forward, on receipt of cash with order, any technical 
book published. 

Submarine Signal Co., Thames Entrance, Barrow 
Channel. — An unmanned gas boat for experimental purposes 
has been moored by order of the Trinity House about two 
cables N.E. by N. from No. I Barrow lighted buoy. The gas 
boat is fitted with an automatic submarine bell actuated by 
the movement of the boat, therefore the number of strokes 
per minute will not be uniform. 

" London Shipping, Who's Who," recently published, is 
an annual publication following on the lines of " Liverpool 
Shipping, Who's Who." The book consists of a directory, 
personal and official, to the shipping and allied trades in the 
Port of London, and is published at the office of the " Journal 
of Commerce " in London, and Charles Birchall, Ltd., Liver- 
pool, at the modest price of is. It is a useful little publication 
and well worthy of perusal. 

Lloyd's Register Shipbuilding Returns for Quarter 
ended June 30, 191 1. — Vessels under Construction. — 
From the returns compiled by Lloyd's Register of Shipping 
it appears that, excluding warships, there were 496 vessels 
of 1,476,394 tons gross under construction in the United 
Kingdom at the close of the quarter ended June 30, 191 1. 
The particulars of the vessels in question are as follows : — 
Steam : 459 steel vessels of 1,466,797 gross tonnage, wood 
and composite, seven vessels of 192 gross tons ; sail, 17 
vessels of 8,686 tons ; 13 vessels, wood and composite, 719 
gross tons. The tonnage now under construction is about 
102,000 tons more than that which was in hand at the end of 
last quarter, and exceeds by 358,000 tons the tonnage build- 
ing in June, 19 10. The figures are the highest reported in 
the society's quarterly returns, being 62,000 tons more than 
the previous record total, which was reached in September, 
1901. The figures for June, 1909, viz., 745,000 tons, have 
been practically doubled in the last two years. Of the vessels 
under construction in the United Kingdom at the end of June, 
371 of 1,000,528 tons are under the supervision of the sur- 
veyors of Lloyd's Register with a view to classification by 
this society. In addition, 64 vessels of 237,072 tons are 
building abroad to the society's classification. The total 
building at the present time under the supervision of Lloyd's 
Register is thus 435 vessels of 1,237,600 tons. With regard 
to foreign and colonial shipbuilding the amount of tonnage, 
excluding warships, under construction at various ports 
abroad, according to latest returns received, are placed against 
the respective countries. Vessels of less than 100 tons are 
not included. Gross tons — Austria-Hungary, 54,750 ; Bel- 
gium, 6,283 ; British Colonies. 1,470 ; China, 976 ; Denmark, 
13,962 ; France, 126,180; Germany, 255,906; Greece, 170; 
Holland, 78,325; Italy, 19,991; Japan, 34,239; Norway. 
16,948 ; Portugal, 1,100 ; Spain, 3,838 ; Sweden, 8,061 ; 
United States, 97,803. 



August, 1911. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AN!) NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



REFRIGERATING APPARATUS FOR 
MARINE TRANSPORT. 

(Contmuid from fiagt 397, Vol t»i 



Cooling by Air CIRCULATION. 

COOLING by brine circulation is an advance upon cooling 
by direct expansion, but both methods are subject t" 
one somrwh.it serious drawback, vi . the p 
moisture remaining in the cold store, and in 
frozen upon the expansion or brine i nj •■ ■ — . All produi 
moisture, and it is one of the problems in connei Lion with 
the efficient commercial transport of different forms of 
produce, that as little of the moisture as possible shall b< 
from it. Meat, for instance, weighs lesson arrival 
.it the port oi destination than when it was delivered into 
the ship's hold, because a certain 

been extracted from it. This applies more particularly ti 
case of chilled beef. On the other band, the presence of 
moisture in a cold chamber, no matter what the Subsl 
may be that is held there, has a very deteriorating effect. 
rience shows that it is cold, dry air winch preserves all 
produce best, and that provided the air does not extract 
too much of the moisture of the produce, the initial coi 

and the preservatii f the low temperature required, is best 

obtained by the aid ol a current of cold, dry air circulating 
through the cold i I 

\ current of cold, dry air is obtained either by pacing air 
that is to be circulated through the chamber, over a grid of 
expansion coils, over a grid ol brine pipes, as shown in Fig. 1 1 . 
or over a spe< Ial apparatus described It low, in which liquid 
brine is kept in circulation, and the air to be cooled and dried 
is made to p tSS over or through it. 

All brine, it should be mentioned, has the double property, 
when at a low temperature, ol cooling air that is p issed over 
it, and of abstracting moisture from the air. The s.dts men- 
I, sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium 
chloride are all what is known as liquescent. That is to say. 
they readily absorb moisture. Everyone is familiar with 
the trouble there is with salt on the mess tables, particularly 
in certain muggy atmospheres. The salt absorbs moist 
and forms its. It into lumps, sometimes even becoming almost 
liquid. Calcium chloride, if placed in the path of air carry- 
ing moisture, such as that which has come from a cold chamber, 
will abstract the moisture from the air. 

An important property of air should be mentioned here. 
viz.. its capacity for absorbing moisture. It varies with the 
temperature, rising very quickly as the temperature rises, 
and falling in the same ratio. Hence, if air at a certain 
temperature is passed over substances containing moisture, 
it will absorb a certain portion of the moisture from them, 
and if it is afterwards cooled to a lowei I ire, it will 

part with a portion of the moisture it carries. Hence, the 
simplest method of cooling and drying air that is to be circu- 
lated through a cold chamber, is to pass it over a grid of 
either brine pipes or expansion coils. In the ships which 
carry fruit, such as bananas, this method is employed ; 
a grid of expansion coils being fixed in a small 
chamber provided for the purpose the refrigerant bi 
carbonic acid, and the air being kept in circulation tin 
the chamber, over the expansion coils, and thence to the cold 
store and back again. The moisture brought from the cold 
store condenses upon the surfaces of the expansion coils, and 
freezes there, the ice having to be knocked off periodically. 

It is not wise to use direct expansion ammonia coils in 
same way, for the reason stati ibility 

of a leak of ammonia, and its being earn 

Then- are several forms ol the other mi i ".ling and 

drving the air. In one method, that used at the Vil ' 
Docks m London, a number of corrugated iron plates are 

suspended vertically over a trough, in a chamber provided 
for the purpose. Cold brine is delivered to a perfoi 
pipe or trough above the i 

to trickle down o\.r the ... trough 

below. The air to be cooled and dried is forced through tin- 
chamber, and between the corrugated iron pi I 
and bai k t.. the i old stori I ooling in I pei 

formed partly by direct contact r with the cold 

faces of the corrugated iron plates and of the cold brine, and 



partly by eva] 

. r hand the solution 
hire from the air. and thi 
by the trough below the 

- 

Fig. i owing 

In another form tl I 
trough containing brine 

-. ing ill the trough, 
that portion ol the 





tV»PO»"C» "Van* 


- 






7^^> 






A.IM POW'S 








OR SC Oft'D IN 




t 








COt-O Cn*MOt» 








^^^ > 






CuAf-eCA TOfit . 




PtPC TO 


*^^> 






t 












V u ( 


oy 




*lft POftTt 




*<M - 


COl-O *•* OUC* 




^U\ 






u 





brine. Ili i . . loling is very mu< h 1 1 

the - ted plaf I drum brin 

quantity of brine out of the trough on I 

air that is p issing over it. I he skin of brine upon the drum 

absorbs a ci lantity of moisture from thi 

it on i gh below, in the com 

HOW nil- \: 

through the cold chambers by mean- ol du 
employed to drive the air through I 

isarily very much larger than pip 
ilation of brine, or for expansion coils, and are, th.-r. 
usually tixed outside ol the cold chambers. I" thi 
holds tit t.-d for air cooling, the ducts are fittei - 
the holds, and areol medium h 




to walk along It will 

-In. t brin 
to the hol 

- 

■ 

- 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT 



August, 1911. 



ducts below. Where several chambers have to be supplied, 
providing thai I tain the same kinds of produce one 

duct is led to the neighbourhood oi all the chambers from 
each side oi the cooling apparatus, and branch ducts are led 
from the main duet to eai h chamber. Sliding ports control 
the passage oi the air from thi ducts into the chambers, 
both on the going and return side. In the case of the holds 
1 ior the ca ! "it such as bananas, 

the duets at the i le are fitted with several pairs of sliding 
intervals .don- the hold. 1 hese ports can be regu- 
lated at will, and it 1 D3 their aid that the cir- 
culation oi the air through different parts of the hold is 
practically the same. It will be understood that the port 
nearest the air cooling apparatus will get the best supply of 
air. it it is Open to the same extent as the ports farther away. 
]i .m easy matter, however, by regulating the openings of 
the ports, to provide for this. Fig. 13 shows the arrangement 
ue pipes in the hold oi a steam trawler. 

Wliere there is more than one chamber and the produce in 
the two or more chambers is not the same, or where any one 
of the chambers carries any produce that emits an odour, 
such as onions, oranges, etc., or again where any one of the 
chambers carries produce that is particularly susceptible to 
odours, such as eggs, the going and return ducts for the 
supplv of air to each chamber must be separate. 

The Differences between the Apparatus for the 
different Refrigerants. — As explained above, the arrange- 
ments of every compressor system of refrigeration are exactly 
the same, whatever the refrigerant may be ; but there are 
certain differences between the apparatus employed. The 




Fig. 13. 

pressures at which the different substances will liquefy vary 
very considerably, and the volume of the gas that has to be 
dealt with, and hence the sizes of the compressors also varies. 
Ammonia is most frequently used on shore, and is used to a 
considerably extent on board ship. Its pressure at o c F., 
that is to say, the pressure at which, other things being the 
same, it would assume the temperature of o°F., is 30 lbs. per 
square inch, and conversely when the pressure is reduced to 
that figure, the temperature is o°F. Carbonic acid, on the 
other hand, has a very high pressure. At o c F. its working 
pressure is 310 lbs. per square inch. Sulphurous acid has a 
pressure of 10 lbs. per square inch at o°F. 

At the same temperature, o°F., 1 lb. of ammonia occupies 
a volume of 9/1 cubic ft., while carbonic acid only occupies 
a volume of 0"277 cubic ft., and sulphurous acid 7*35 cubic ft. 
This means that when the liquid ammonia, carbonic acid and 
sulphurous acid respectively are allowed to expand in the 
expansion coils, when the pressures mentioned above are 
reached, and when the temperature of o°F. is reached, 1 lb. 
of the respective gases occupy the volumes mentioned. This 
leads again to the difference mentioned in the size of the 
compressors. The relative volumes of the compressors re- 
quired to handle the refrigerant necessary to perform a 
certain cooling effect is as follows : — Ammonia 23-3, carbonic 
acid 3"24, and sulphurous acid 61-7. 

Again, the different substances vary very considerably in 
their refrigerating effect. That is to say, a given weight 
of each of the three substances, when expanding from the 
liquid to the gaseous condition, abstracts a different quantity 
of heat from the surrounding substances. In expanding from 



the liquid condition to gas at o°F\, 1 lb. of ammonia will 
absorb 555'5 B.Th. units ; 1 lb. of carbonic acid will absorb 
123*2 heat units, and i lb. of sulphurous acid will absorb 
i7i - 2 heat units. 

It would appear at firsl as U ammonia is very much more 
efficient than either carbonic acid or sulphurous acid, and 
particularly than carbonic acid, but tins is not correct. 
According to measurements that have been made, ammonia 
is more efficient than carbonic acid, but the relative ratio of 
their efficiencies is not great. It will lie remembered th.it 
the work that has to lie done is mainly in the compressor, 
and that though carbonic acid gas has a small capacity for 
absorbing heat per lb., its relative capacity per cubic foot is 
not greatly different to that 0! ammonia, and it is the volume 
of the gas which counts when it has to be compressed. At 
minus 4°F. the relative volumes of 1 lb. oi (he three refriger- 
ants an — ammonia 10*33 cubic ft., carbonic acid 0-312 cubic 
ft., and sulphurous acid 8'oG cubic ft. 

\gain, though the pressure to which carbonic acid has to 
be compressed is so very much higher than that to which 
ammonia and sulphurous acid have to be compressed, the 
quality of the gas to be dealt with is so much smaller, that the 
compressor itself is also very much smaller, and the matter 
fairly well equalizes itself. 

It was mentioned above that the gases all have to be com- 
pressed to a certain figure in the compressor, before they are 
delivered to the condenser. These again vary with the 
substance. With ammonia, the pressure at which the gas 
is delivered to the condenser ranges from the neighbourhood 
of 100 lbs. per square inch upwards ; with carbonic acid it is 
in the neighbourhood of 900 lbs. per square inch upwards, 
and sulphurous acid in the neighbourhood of 40 lbs. per 
square inch upwards. 

As mentioned above, also, the pressure at which the gas 
has to be delivered to the condenser varies with the tem- 
perature of the cooling water. The higher the temperature 
of the cooling water, the higher has to be the pressure to which 
the gas is compressed before it enters the condenser. As 
marine engineers are aware, with steam, pressure and tem- 
perature increase and decrease together, in a certain ratio. 
With the gases named, ammonia, carbonic acid and sul- 
phurous acid, the same thing rules. On refrigerating plant 
the gauge is arranged to show the pressure of the gas and its 
temperature. Gauges are usually placed over the condenser 
and in the neighbourhood of the suction pipe of the com- 
pressor. When water cools a gas, so that it condenses to the 
liquid state, it is evident that it can only reduce the tempera- 
ture of the gas to a certain number of degrees above its own 
temperature. It is sometimes possible, with care, to extract 
the latent heat from a gas, so as to allow it to assume the 
liquid form, at a temperature only a few degrees, say, 5°F., 
above that of the cooling water. It is wiser, however, to 
allow for a difference of io°F. between the temperature 
of the cooling water and that of the condensed gas. Hence 
a temperature of io°F., say, above that of the cooling water 
is the lowest temperature to which the gas must be raised, and 
the corresponding pressure is that which must be produced 
in the compressor. With ammonia, for instance, with cooling 
water at a temperature of 55°F., the condenser gauge pressure 
will be 103 lbs. per square inch, or thereabouts. With cooling 
water at fio°, the condenser pressure rises to 1 1 5 lbs. per square 
inch, and so on. The increased pressure, it will be under- 
stood, demands an increased amount of work in the com- 
pressor, and therefore increased power. 

The same remarks apply to the use of carbonic acid and 
sulphurous acid. In hot countries, the condenser pressure 
is increased, owing to the higher temperature of the cooling 
water, while in temperate and in colder countries, if re- 
frigerating apparatus are employed, the condenser pressure 
is correspondingly lowered. 



The International Marine Motor Exhibition. — An 
exhibition under the above name will be held at Copenhagen 
in 1912, from July to the end of August. 

Imperial Merchant Service Guild. — Considerable 
interest attaches to the appointment of Mr. j*Eneas L. A. 
Mackintosh as Junior Assistant Secretary of the Guild. 
Mr. Mackintosh did duty as navigator with the Antarctic 
expedition under the command of Sir Ernest Shackleton. 



August, iqii. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



3i million dollars have been >n of 

-hips out of the grand surplus. This seems a 

led alone. Hut wh I '1" 

ny*s property on i^t 1 > 
stood at just undei 170, millions of dolla innol 

ird a depr. under j per cent, i 

iember that much of th< put 

i en at that timi 
• with thi ps coming cm, with 

promised, and with the 
ident that tin- p 
■ Only brighter than foi somi 
iv. It l- the hea 
shares which bear the organisation down. 



SALVING THE " IVERNIA.'* 



INSTITUTE OF MARINE ENGINEERS. 
\ Kit to the Royal Botanic Society Gardens. 

AT the Royal B [une 

tion and concert w< 
the tnstitul I The 

visitors spent the I rt oi the evening in looking 

through the large conservatories and gardens, after u 
a reception was held in the main conservatory by the Presi- 
dent, the Most Hon. the Marquis of Graham, C.V.O., I> I... 
accompanied by the Marchioness of Graham, to whom a 
bouquet •'. iy Miss Ni Hie al a pre- 

limin i whin me 

presid introduced by Mr. J. T. Mill I nman 

I). A concert the 1 urge 

hall adjoining the conservatory, the urtisl k ing Miss 
inson, Miss Janie Blake, the Misses Crichlow, Mr. 
v Woollven and Mr. H. J. Silcock. 
\ very pleasing ceremony followed, when the High Com- 
missioner for N id, the Hon. Sir William Hall- Ji 
K.C.M.G., made the presentation of the Gold Emblem of 
N.w Zealand, given l>v the in ■ Zealand 
t.i Mr. Frank Reddaway, J.P., ol \ vote oi 
thank*, which sed by the President and seconded 
by Mr. A. 1". Battle (member of Council), was accord' 
William for attending at some personal inconven 
to make the presentation. 

During the evening selections were given by the Salerno 
Orel It the direction of Mr. Clive Parsons. 



THE NAVAL AIRSHIP. 

IN reply to a question asked in the House of 
Commons recently it was stated that the r 
airship at Barrow would be ready for her trials at 
the end of July, but there seems every reason to believe 
that it will be some time in August before she again 
emerges from her shed. Various alterations are 
being made in the airship with the view of making 
her as efficient as possible when her trials, which are 
to be exhaustive, take place. Much interest is centred 
in the ship and in the possibilities of her success. 
Her designers are sanguine she will achieve all they 
claim for her. The problem has been solved that she 
can float safely, which means that she can land 
safely on water wherever her captain may wish to 
alight. It is probable that even army airships will 
have to be provided with reservoirs in which to alight 
so as to prevent accidents which have frequently 
happened when they have alighted on land. How- 
ever, the Barrow airship is regarded much as an 
experiment, but her designers and builders are so 
sanguine of her success that they believe she will be 
the beginning of a fleet of airships to be used in con- 
nection with the navy. The Yickers' firm have had 
great experience in the building of this ship, which 
will be valuable in the future. 



Tl I E great feat of salving the Ivernia was 
brought to a successful conclusion by the 
Liverpool Salvage Association on Saturday, 
July 8th, when the vessel safely reached the Mersey 
from Queenstown Harbour. 

The Ivernia, escorted by three tugs, made the 
journey under her own steam at nine knots, and was 
first berthed at the Canada Tongue, where she dis- 
• il sufficient cargo to enable her to enter the 
t Float, Birkenhead. While lying in the Corkbeg 
Shoal filled with water from end to end, no less than 
twenty-three portable pumps were used, of which 
sixteen were oil motors. A special smoke helmet, the 
invention of diver Fabeau, was used in discharging 
the cargo. The hull was buried in sand up to the 
turn of the bilges. Compressed air was used to dredge 
a channel, enabling the divers to patch the fracture. 
In the chief one under No. 2 hold were found pieces 
of wreckage embedded, supposed to be parts of the 
wreck of an American ship thirty or forty years old. 
A high wind once drove the ship off the shoal into 
deep water, when the draught became 54 feet, a 
disaster being averted by the scuppers having been 
previously plugged, the vessel being safely towed 
back on to the shoal. The whole operation has been 
a most difficult one, the success of which has been 
greatly due to the use of the motor pump, which forms 
an important part of the Association's equipment, 
these pumps having to often work under water. 

Not only was the Ivernia a vessel amongst the 
greatest which have ever called for the ship-raising 
salvors' services, but she is believed to be the only 
big vessel which has ever presented a state of tin 
where every compartment of the ship was thoroughly 
flooded, the engines and boilers being, however, for- 
tunately undamaged. The vessel is appointed to re- 
commence her sailings in September. 

At the time of going to press the Board of Trade 
inquiry into the casualty has just completed, the 
finding of the court, delivered on the 22nd July, being 
to the following effect : T'tat the serious damage sus- 
tained by the Ivernia was the consequence of the 
wrongful act of the Master in navigating the vessel 
at too high a speed in the increasingly thick weather. 
The Court, however, was satisfied that the course set 
by the Master from the Old Head of Kinsale was in 
itself a safe and proper course had it been made good. 
This was not done owing to some unknown error in 
the compass, for the non-discovery of which the 
M aster or other officer appeared not to blame. 
Taking all the circumstances into consideration and 
the long service and great experience of the Master, 
the Court did not deal with his certificate, but severely 
censured and ordered him to pay £50 towards the 
cost of the inquiry. 

Marine Society. — The quarterly Court ol G 
wa- held at the offices. ( 

on 21st July. Admiral Sir 11. Bowdcn Smith presiding. It 
was that during the three months ended on June 

nty-four l>"\-, of | r parents had been admitted 

to the War spit 

1 that the normal numb 
now tWarspit id of 200 as formerly, 

1 tion of the So> 
work. It must not be h ■ r. that the slv; 

had room for a further 200 boys it funds were forthcoming. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



A NEW TYPE OF PUMP. 

Till', marine engineer is pre-eminently interested 
in the question of the efficient pumping of 
watei Both in the ordinary operations of 
steam raising, of salvage and in the handling of 
liquid cargoes the success of the performance very 
largely rests with the way the pumping is performed, 
and the cost at which it is done. 1 hump recent yeai s 
the controversy as to the best type of pump to use 
has rested chiefly between the advocates of the 
reciprocating pump with its positive action, and the 
believers in the rotary drive of the centrifugal type. 
Both systems have much to recommend them, and it 
is therefore of interest to refer to a new type of pump 
which stands midway between the two, inasmuch as 
it combines the direct action of the plunger or piston 
with the rotary motion of the centrifugal. This 
pump, which, although only recently put upon the 
market is attracting a considerable amount of atten- 
tion, is constructed upon a system devised by Mr. 
Vincent, of Cardiff, and already applied to a hydraulic 
transmission system to take the place of the clutch 
and gear box of a motor car, and is being 
placed upon the market by the Rotoplunge Pump 
Co., Ltd., of Albert Chambers, High Street, Cardiff. 
The construction of the pump will be seen from 
Figs. 1 and 2, showing respectively the side and end 
cross-section of the arrangement. It will be noted 
that the outer casing of the pump is so shaped that 
adjacent to the inlet and outlet branches are two 
segmental ports of large area arranged round the 
circumference of a rotating drum. This drum is 
turned by means of the pump shaft, to which it is 
solidly keyed. In its mass, radially to the centre at 
angles of 60 degrees apart, are bored circular holes 
which form cylinders for a set of pistons shown. 
The width of the drum is sufficient to accommodate 
two sets of cylinders side by side, so that there are in 
each pump twelve cylinders and pistons rotating with 
the drum. At each end of the pump casing on the 
interior surface of the end covers are formed circular 
grooves or guides which, however, are eccentric with 
the main axis of rotation, the centre of the guide 
circle being vertically over the centre of the shaft and 
removed from it a distance of one half the depth of 
each cylinder in the drum. Projections on the rods 
of the pistons engage in these guides, and therefore, 
as the drum rotates, the pistons slide along the 
cylinders, each making a complete stroke and return 
for every revolution of the drum. It was stated above 
that the entering and leaving ports for the water 
extended nearly round the circumference of the drum. 
Their division extends over a segment slightly over 
the bore of one cylinder at the top and bottom of the 
casing. Owing to the eccentricity of the guide-paths, 
each piston, as the corresponding cylinder reaches a 
point vertically over the shaft, reaches the full exten- 
sion of its outer stroke as shown in Fig. 1. As the 
rotation continues (counter-clock-wise in the drawing) 
the cylinder passes the dividing segment and reaches 
the inlet port ; the piston then commences to move 
inwards, drawing water into the cylinder. This con- 
tinues as the cylinder passes downward, the motion 
of the piston being gentle at the start, being at 
maximum velocity when the cylinder is horizontal, 
and diminishing to zero when the cylinder is verti- 



cally below the shaft. Hence all shock on the water 
or irregular reaction on the pump is avoided. As the 
, ylinder reaches the bottom of the casing it passes 
behind the lower division segment and, full of water, 
with its piston at the inner extremity of the stroke, 
passes forward to the discharge port of the pump. 
Here the water is ejected from the cylinder by the 
piston, at first gently, then with increasing velocity 
till the cylinder is horizontal, and then with diminishing 
velocity as the circle is completed, the water therefore 
being discharged without shock. This in principle is 
the action of the pump which is most simple in con- 
struction. 

It is hardly too much to say, perhaps, that this 
system of pumping may possibly create a revolution 
in pumping practice. We have a positive rotary 
plunger pump with no valves to get choked with dirt 




or chips, and which has been found capable of creating 
a vacuum to within half-an-inch of the barometer. It 
will consume the exhaust of the engine, thus making 
the engine more effective and silent, as well as avoiding 
the nuisance of exhaust steam flying about. There 
can be no water hammer and therefore no reaction. 
It requires but a small consumption of fuel, a 9-in. 
diameter pump worked by a single cylinder 
(without flywheel), 8 in. diameter, and 1 ft. stroke 
with steam at 60 lbs. pressure and when running 
at 200 revolutions per minute has been found to 
discharge 60,000 gallons, or about 270 tons per hour 
on an overall head of 40 ft. It can be regulated 
to suit any flow required. The pump works equally 
well at the slowest revolutions possible as it does at 
full speed, and will not lose its water which is a 
positive quantity at each revolution. It never requires 
priming, and it is very accessible as the whole of the 
plungers can be withdrawn and replaced in a very 
short time. The wear and tear are obviously 
practically nil. It will pump semi-solids and is 
specially adapted for ship's ballast or circulating pump 



August, 1911. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



for marine and land work, for discharging oil in bulk, 
for salvage work, and in fact, for all classes of work 
where large quantities of water have to be removed 
in a short time. It occupies very little floor space; 
the floor space taken up by the above-mentioned 
pump, including the engine, is 2 ft. 6 ins. by 
5 ft. 8 in., and is of comparatively small weight, 
and is easily handled. It is quite silent, and then 
no perceptible vibration. No special foundations are 
required, which is a distinct asset on board ship, and 
it is stated'that its positive action is so good that it 
can be used to measure a quantity of water. 

It is a well-known fact among practical engineers that 
if a body of water has to be discharged in quick time, the 
best pumps to be employed are generally those of the 
centrifugal or rotary type, the ordinary reciprocating 
pump being cramped in its action and bein^ very waste- 
ful of steam (consequently of fuel) owing to so much 







Fig. 2. 

reaction taking placing. In the system under con- 
sideration the good qualities of both rotary and 
reciprocating pumps, and the bad qualities of neither 
are claimed. Fig. 3 shows the compact appearance 
of the pump. At the time the photograph was taken 
the pump was running at 200 r.p.m. on a rather 
temporary foundation and was discharging water at 
the rate of 1,000 gallons per minute through a 
discharge pipe. The suction pipe through which 
the water was drawn from the river below was also 
9-in. in diameter. Some very interesting tests 
were recently carried out by Mr. J. G. Walliker at 
Cardiff, before a number of prominent engineers, on 
a pump built by Messrs. Stothert & Pitt, Ltd., the 
well-known engineers of Bath, to determine its 
mechanical efficiency and its power of producing a 
vacuum. 

Mr. Walliker records that on a vacuum test the 
pump showed 2905 in. when the barometer was 



standing at 3015 in. The results of Mr. Walliker's 
tests.' in the following tables: — 

BRAKi II 

\IK. 



1 
of 


Steam 


Revolutions 
Minute. 






Bnke 




lb 










I 

! 


5° 
42 


128 


l : ull open 


lull open 


756 


3 


3° 


104 








1 4 


25 










5 


20 












Pig. 3. 

PUMPING TESTS. 

I 



N'uiii- 


Steam 


Revolu- 


Seconds Tilling 


Number of 










Mniuti-. 


















per cent. 


H r 


1 














J 






28 








3 


3° 


123 


39 


770 






4 


25 




5« 








5 


20 




1 min filling 
tank 

; id 
250 









The suction and del 
height from water level to 



inside diameter , 

25 It 6 in , and 



10 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AN D NAVAL A RCHITECT. August, 1911. 



action to centre of discharge, 4 ft. 6 111 1 here 

two right angle I dve was fitted at the 

n pipe, 3 ft below watei level allowing foi 

n, the total over-all head is equal to jj ft. 

This pump dischai 1 r full bore through dry pipes 

$3 tt head over all. including 25 ft 6 in. suction, without 

priming, in > s seconds 

An additional test, carried out to ascertain the fuel 
consumption, gave ulie following results for a one-hour 
run : Steam pressure, 60 lb. per square inch ; revolu- 
tions, 200 per minute; lift, 25 ft. 6 in ; head over all 
(allowing for friction), 33 ft. ; water delivered, about 
270 tons : coal consumption, 118 lb. 

It should be noted that these tests were carried out 
on a pump which was newly manufactured. It is 
easy to understand that if it has been worked 
continuously for a few weeks and then retested, 
the efficiencies would reach a still higher percentage. 
As the figures stand, however, there is no doubt 
that a most remarkable development in the design of 
pumping plant has taken place, which merits the at- 
tention of all marine engineers. 



INTERNATIONAL RUBBER EXHIBITION. 

THIS Exhibition, which was held in the Agricultural 
Hall, Islington, from June 24th to July 14th, proved 
to be not only an improvement on its predecessors, | 
International and more or less local, which we have seen, 
but an excellent display, and a very great success as an 
exhibition. The previous International Rubber Show was 
held about three years ago, and while it was of educational 
value and importance, the more recent one was a great 
advance, and represents an interval of exacting work on 
the part of the promoters and the organising manager, Mr. 
A. S. Manders, to whom congratulations are heartily 
accorded. Not only were visitors to the exhibition enabled 
to -ee the products from the various rubber producing 
countries of the world in the different stages from the 
latex or milk-like juice which flows from the tapped tree 
to the crude rubber as shipped to the manufacturing 
centres, but also highly interesting specimens of native work- 
manship, large photographs of the lands in different stages 
of development, from the wildness of uncultured nature to 
the well cared for plantations — the results of capital har- 
nessing knowledge and experience, science and art, labour 
and power, to bring greater and more wide spread interest 
into the world of finance and commerce, and at the same 
time to meet an ever growing demand for an article which 
has become more and more important each year. The 
Knowledge and Experience of those who have been connected 
for many years with the rubber industry was well exempli 
fied at the exhibition. The samples of manufactures shown 
by Messrs. Alden & Co., The Colonial Rubber Co., North 
British Rubber Co., The Continental Caoutchouc and 
Gutta Percha Co., The Guayule Rubber Co., The Dunlop 
Rubber Co., The Levland and Birmingham Rubber Co., 
Irmco Rubber Works, Millwall Rubber Co., The 
Northern Rubber Co., The United Malaysian Rubber Co., 
The Re-inforced Rubber Co., and others. The machinery 
and tools shown by Messrs. Aylesbury and Garland, D. 
Bridge & Co., The Birmingham Iron Foundry, Bertrams, 
Limited, Brown &■ Davidson (Ceylon), J. & P. Hill, Hamp- 
son Bros. ; The Crude Washing Co. ; Warner, Ph. Pfleiderer 
and Perkins; W. H. Cochrane & Co.; Francis Shaw & Lo, 
John Gordon & Co.; Howarth Erskine; Macfarlane and 
Robinson ; Riley, Hargreaves & Co. ; Robert Warner and 
Co. ; Wallach Bros. ; and others. While the books on the 
rubber industry on sale or advertised by Messrs. J. H. 
Bussey, The India Rubber Publishing Co., and the jour- 
nals specially devoted to the claims of rubber and allied 
industries, gave evidence of the desire to impart informa- 
tion derived from experience. The Science and Art which 
have been brought to bear upon the treatment of rubber in 
order to obtain the best results from it in the manufacture 
of the many articles and preparations for which it is 
suited were well illustrated at the stands of Messrs. A. H. 



\l,l,n S Co.; Vlfred Smith; The American Wax Co.;. 
\, me Chemical Co.; The Canadian Mineral Rubber Co.; 
The British Recovered Rubber Co.; J. Barton Faithful and 
Company; Elias Pure Rubbei Process Co.; and others. 
Labour and Powei were also well represented, the former 
b\ natives present from some "l the exhibiting countries 
and states, also by means of photographs showing the 
), operations carried on in the fields and plantation 

lo coolies 01 aborigines, as : rding to the temperament 

and habits of those indigenous to the soil so is it necessary 
to employ or import labour. The power element for sei- 
vice at the growing, the distributing and manufacturing 
centres was illustrated at the stand, oi Messrs. Blackstone 
and Co.; Crosslej Bros.; Davey, Taxman & Co.; Hoinsby 
and Sons; Riley Hargreaves & Co. (suction gas engine 
and producer) ; and others. 

During the exhibition the visitors were further enlight 
ened and interested in the rubber industry by means oi a 
cinematograph which showed the history of a plantation, 
beginning at the wilderness of growth which had to be 
cut down, burned and cleared, then the land hoed, 
levelled, seeds planted, the growing plants watered and 
tended, till in the course of time the trees become ripe for 
tapping. Xext the gathering of the latex in buckets, its 
removal to the collecting stations, where the buckets are 
emptied into tanks mounted on wheels and taken to the 
factory where it is coagulated by a process similar to that 
of butter and cheese making. The prepared crude rubber 
is then rolled and dressed, weighed and packed ready foi 
shipment. All these processes were shown as if in actual 
operation on the screen, and it was quite evident that the 
audiences fully appreciated the realistic display to which 
they were treated. The catalogue prepared and issued 
by the promoters was quite in keeping with the importance 
and excellence of the exhibition. It contains several in 
teresting articles bearing on the rubber industry and its 
development, historical sketches of the producing terri- 
tories with statistics to illustrate the rise and progress of 
these, and golden forecasts of the future possibilities. It 
would appear that the markets of the world can take as 
much rubber as can be produced; the effect of over produc- 
tion would tend to lower prices, but with the numerous and 
increasing outlets for its use, a fall in price would prob 
ably tend to open up fresh outlets. The number of com 
panies which were floated during the craze last year has 
no doubt included several which have an existence only 
in name, but many have started on good soil and will 
begin to produce in the course of another year or two. The 
Belgian exhibit was very interesting and artistic. On 
the walls were arranged weapons of war and of the chase, 
with specimens of the various kinds of masques worn on 
warlike demonstrations and expeditions; photographs of 
the Congo territory, showing the aspect of the country 
before and after cultivation with the Aborigines in various 
attitudes to illustrate their habits and customs; a series 
of photographs of sufferers under the influence of sleeping 
sickness illustrated the virulence of this disease. Imitation 
Edelweiss flowers were on sale for hospitals and research 
work in connection with the amelioration and cure from 
the attacks of this scourge. The sales of these flowers were 
inaugurated by the Queen of the Belgians. An oil paint- 
ing of the King and another of the Queen were hung m 
the centre room of the Belgian exhibits. Space forbids 
further enlargement by commenting on the many speci- 
mens which were on view — to convince one that Africa 
contains enormous possibilities. America, France, Ger- 
many, Japan, the Netherlands were represented, and con- 
tributed to the fund of information pro bono publico. 
Brazil, as became an old and well tried producer of rubber, 
was well in the front of the building with a pavilion, 
although somewhat bare of exhibits. African States, 
Malay States, the Straits Settlements, India and Ceylon 
each claimed attention, and had their claims allowed, as 
all had something of their own to show to interest the eye 
and mind The exhibits from British Guiana, Gold Coast 
Colony, Jamaica, Madagascar, Trinidad, Tobago, Uganda 
and other regions all served to emphasise the fact of the 
international value and importance of the exhibition, and 
beyond this we are impressed with the enlarged and en- 
larging areas adapted for the cultivation of rubber, while 
on the other hand it is remarkable the innumerable outlets 
there are for the product in so many different directions. 



August, ion. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



ii 



The Institute of Naval Architects. 

JUBILEE MEETINGS. 




The Most Honourable The Marquis of Bristol, Rear-Admiral, President. 



THE International Congress in Naval Architecture and 
Marine Engineering with which the Institution of 
Naval Architects celebrated its Jubilee, opened on 
the 3rd July in the evening with a reception by the Presi- 
dent, the Most Honourable the Marquis uf Bristol, Rear 
nil K.N., and the ! 'Val I'nited 

: e Institution. It will be remembered that the cele- 
bration of the jubilee of the founding of the Institution 
in i860 had to be postponed last year owing to the 
lamented death of King Edward VII., who had been asso 
ciated with the Institution for many years. Space does 
not permit us to give the names of the representatives of 
the many societies and institutions present at the meet 
ings, suffii <• it to say, that delegates from all the foreign 
nical societies and the most important British insti 
tutions were there to assist in the general rejoicing on the 
attainment of it-, jubilee by this most important Institution. 
A very busy week had been provided for, several event? 
having been arranged, including visits to the Coronation 
Exhibition, Festival of Empire, a trip flown the Th 
in the Royal Sovereign, when the fitting out of the 
Thunderer wa . and on ti the 4th a 

reception was given by The Rie,ht Hon. Lord Bra 
G.C.B., past president of the Institution. 



The Experimental Tank. 

On the 5th of July the opening of the National Experi- 
mental Tank at Teddington by Lord Raylei"h drew a 
large number of members and friends. It will be remem- 
bered that the idea of a National Experimental Tank 
its inception and realization to Mr. A. 1. Yarrow. i- 
tank has been designed by Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, the con- 
na-ting for the building, carriage, and electrical equip 

being done by Messrs. I 1 r & Co., Ltd.. 

the special equipment for making and shaping the models 
has been provided by Messrs. \V. & T. Avery, Ltd. There 
are two tanks, the dimensions of the larger one bein 

th 549 feet over all, breadth 30 ft. on the watei line, 
and depth of water 13 ft. 3 in. along the middle line. 
The length allows of a steady experimental run of from 
loo to 200 feet, and at low speeds considerably more than 

thing in the neighbourhood of 350 feet being 
sible at seven miles per hour. At the north end docks are 
provided for storage purposes, and a shelving beach at 

ti end to break up the waves generated by the model. 
The dimensions of the small tank are : Length, 
having a uniform section 31 i ft. in length; breadth ; ft. j 
depth, 3i ft. The models used in the experiments are 
made of paraffin wax, provided by Messrs. Price & Co., 



12 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



and vary in length Erom 14 to aq feet. They are shaped 
, b\ .1 sha] Lchine, and partly by hand. The 

wax is melted in 8 ilvanised tank surrounded bj 

hot * made so that the wax 

, n .,\ be brought to and maintained at any temperature 
desired. rhe model when completed is towed Erom .1 
Darriage at the end o) a dynamometei arm, along the 
surface of the covered waterway. The carriage 1- ela 
trically driven, and travels at any speed from I foot to 25 
runs "ii two sets of rails laid on top 
of the tank walls. . 

\ crowded wound up in a most pleasant 

mannei \ visit to Windsoi Castle on the 8th July was 
undertaken bv command of Mis Majest\ the King, and 
al hundred guests went down by spei ial train from 
Paddington. The state apartments were inspected, and 
1 three hours' stay the party returned by the 
same route. 

Referring to the earlier part of the Congress, the pro- 
offi allj opened by ll.R.U. the Duke oi 
1 1, ,1,1 , 11 the . ( th lulv, in the Grand Hall of the 
tn Rooms in Gt. Queen Street, Kingsway. 

Address by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. 

The I Kike in addressing the members said it was his 
pleasing duty, as honorary president, to welcome all those 
who had come to attend the Jubilee meeting of the Insti- 
tution. He appreciated the enormous advance that had 
taken place in naval architecture since they last met in 
International Congress in the Diamond Jubilee of Her 
late Majesty Queen Victoria. We had merely to look at 
the great ships now sailing on the waters to see the enor- 
mous advance made during the last fourteen years, such 
advances not being made without consummate skill, con- 
summate knowledge, and great application. Those who 
had the pleasure of attending the Naval Review at Spit- 
head, could not help comparing the ships at that review 
with those of only nine years ago, and it must be recog- 
nised that the advance was something colossal. We did 
not know where finality in size was going to end, but 
we must certainly recognise the wonderful combination 
ol skill, knowledge and mathematical knowledge that pro- 
duced the wonderful ships of the present day. 

After Rear-Admiral C. J. Briggs, Controller of the Navy, 
on behalf of the First Lord of the Admiralty, had extended 
a welcome to the foreign members, the President of the 
Institution, the Marquis of Bristol, delivered the presi- 
dential address. 

Presidential Address. 

The Marquis touched upon the honour done him by the 
Council and members in selecting him ■ as their president, 
and said that the occasion of their meeting was a com- 
memorative one, for the founding of their society fifty-one 
years ago marked an epoch in the history of naval archi- 
tecture which synchronised with the first construction of 
sea-going iron ships, with the introduction of protecting 
armour, and with the advance to a position of great im- 
portance of the naval engineering element. He did not 
propose to pursue the contemplation of these subjects, as 
they would be dealt with in the papers to be read before 
the Institution. After stating that a much earlier society 
for the improvement of naval architecture was founded 
shortly before the close of the eighteenth century, but whose 
existence was a brief one, his Lordship continued : We 
live in a period of incessant change and movement. One 
had only to glance back to the time of the last Inter- 
national" Congress," held in London in 1897, to see what 
remarkable developments had taken place in that brief 
period. Mr. Goschen, the then First Lord of the Admir- 
alty, in his speech of welcome to the Congress, expressed 
the hope that the outcome of that meeting would not result 
in discoveries whii h would make obsolete our fleet as it 
then existed. Since then fourteen years have elapsed, and 
what has happened? Displacement and speed have gone 
up by leaps and bounds, gun-power for attack and armour 
for defence have increased in efficiency with almost equal 
rapidity. Concentration of power has led to the creation 
of warships undreamt of in 1897. Improvements in pro- 
pelling and auxiliary engines, and the introduction of new 
forms of fuel and combustion, have brought about equally 



startling results in speed, power of endurance, and methods 
oi propulsion. Submarines, the dream of that fascinating 
writer, Jules Verne, are an accomplished fact; and if 
their range of a. lion £01 attack was not yet equal to that of 
Captain Nemo's famous Nautilus, they were undoubtedly 
.1 great potential Eactoi in out organisation foi defence. 

In the sister art oi merchant-ship construction the ad- 
v, imes made in recent years have been almost equally 
great, and the Transactions of the Institution contained 
remarkable evidence of the progressive spirit that had 
animated the designers and constructors of ships and their 
machinery during this period. Well deserved is the 
recognition that has now been freely accorded to this 
Society. Its growing membership and financial prosperity 
are valuable assets, but more valuable even than these is 
the 1 >nstant and sympathetic interest of the great admin- 
istrative departments of the State. The presence of their 
di tinguished representatives that day was a strong and 
welcome proof oi tins friendly attitude. But, above all, 
they valued the gracious action of their Sovereign in ex- 
tending his patronage to the Institution. By the granting 
a 4 a Charter of Incorporation, His Majesty had undoubtedly 
established it upon a new and permanent foundation. 

The Internaticnal Congress in Naval Architecture and 
Marine Engineering, which forms the principal feature 
of the Jubilee Meetings, was intended primarily to 
bring together from all parts of the world the 
great leaders in the sphere of industrial activity. 
These were the men whose brains had conceived 
the mighty structures, the floating fortresses and palaces 
that composed our fleets of war and commerce. To 
their energy and skill, to their infinite capacity for taking 
pains, to their splendid victories of mind over matter, 
was owing whatever they possessed of value to those 
"that go down to the sea in ships and do business in great 
waters." That they should be honoured on this occasion 
by the presence of such distinguished representatives of 
other nations is a compliment of which they deeply appre- 
ciated the value and significance. The Council desired to 
signalise the present occasion and to do honour to their 
guests from abroad by adding to the roll of honorary 
members the names of H.M. the King of Norway, H.M. 
the King of Spain, H.M. the King of Sweden, H.I.H. 
Prince Henry of Prussia, H.I.H. Archduke Ferdinand, 
H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, H.R.H. the Duke of 
Genoa, Prince Roland Bonaparte, Lord Rayleigh, Admiral 
Dewey, Admiral Togo, and Admiral Ijuin. Concluding, 
he would ask H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught to accept 
their hearty thanks for his great kindness in coming at 
considerable inconvenience to preside over their inaugural 
meeting and to allow him in the name of all those assembled 
to send a message of loyalty and homage to His Majesty 
the King, Patron of the Institution of Naval Architects. 

The Papers. 

The papers down for reading during the Congress num- 
bered twenty-one, and included contributions from the 
representatives of the following foreign countries, France, 
Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, U.S.A., but it was found 
necessary in order to cope with such a number that several 
had to be taken as read. Below we proceed to give 
abstracts from some of the papers and others we have dealt 
with editorially in this number. 

The Rational Application of Turbines to Ship 
Propulsion. 

In this paper, by Mon. A. C. E. Rateau, the different 
points of efficiency of the turbine and the reciprocating 
engine were briefly referred to. He left out of considera- 
tion the proposals to employ toothed gearing or electric 
motors, and confined himself to what had been accomplished 
with the steam engines themselves. The necessity of 

effecting a combination of the two kinds of engines had 
been foreseen since 1900. In 1906 the French destroyer 
Voltigeur, which had attained a speed of 31.4 knots, 
against 28 knots required by the contract, was fitted with 
a reciprocating engine on the centre shaft and turbines 
on the wing shafts. She had undeniably demonstrated 
the superiority of the system, because below 20 knots the 
consumption was slightly above that obtained in destroyers 
of the same class fitted with reciprocating engines, while 



August, iqn. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



13 



above 20 knots, notwithstanding thi pn 

W hich and. mditions were no 

nmption was less than with othe 
dest , .1 with turbines only. fhis was due to th« 

superior effici. lined with mulucellular turb 

|„ M Bateau' arrangement wi 

which the propulsivi h ~ tS) 

h pair (pun and .larboard) being worked by an 
lutely independent set ol engines. In 

ve the wing shaft, and exhausted 

a turbine which drov* the innei shaft. rhe reciprocating 
enEines and the turbines w. op a 

power equally distributed on the foui shafts when running 
Vt maxhnum speed. At cruising speeds the reciprocating 
• ,„„ 1, mo re power than the turbines. 

Such an arrangement afford. 1 advantages. For 

th.- same weigh) "'"-'y l " ' "' P">pelling 

engines, there would be an increase of the 

,, , s pe, cent, to 20 per cent., which corresponded 
to an increase ol 1] S Pe> cent, to : pel cent o 

Se maximum speed ay, 1 to 1.5 knots for battleships 
.mended for 20 knots. At cruising speed the coi 
would probablv be less than that of ships with re if««ating 
Bly, and it would not reach one-half of that with 
turbines, while by comparison with the latter the radius 
," action would be doubled, or, if preferred, the fuel supply 
might be reduced. If it were intended to adopt the 
bined system for small vessels such as scouts and d. 
it would be necessarv to employ an arrangement similar 
to that of the VoUigeur. The almost universal opinion, 
however, was that it was wise to abandon • the use of 
i,ng eng.nes for scouts and destroyers, and the 
lered turbines and liquid fuel essential. I he 
dinVultv was to obtain a good efficiency at ordinary cruis 
inK speed an arrangement proposed by the author 

tn e ; nre turbine maintained constantly a rela 

hieh velocity of rotation at low vessel speeds, and, 
in consequence, The ship was 

each shaft being driven by a tui 
bine Only the two wing turbine, were arranged 
going astern. The centre turbine was fitted with a steam 
inlet at the forward end and with a by-pass slighth 
The exhaust of this turbine was connected with pip 
forward inlets of the wing turbines, and also by pipi 
inlet, further aft. The wing turbines also had inlets 
for live steam. All these pipes were fitted with valves. 
When cruising at t S knots the centre turbine received 

m and exhausted into the forward end of the wing 
turbines which then received no other steam. If the 
speed had to be increased the 'ass was opened, ror 

,,,.>„., speeds livi rould be admitted into one or 

both ol the wing turbines. By this arrangement the centre 
turbine always worked at great speed but the power 
developed on the three shafts would not be equally .1 
buted as at low speeds the centre shaft developed relatively 
more power than at high speeds. At low speeds, nearly 
all the powei being on the centre shaft, the slip of its 
propeller was great, say, from 25 per cent, to 30 per 
while the slip of the Wing propellers was small. Hies 
conditions would exist so long as the live steam was 
admitted to the centre turbine only. V ' steam was 

admitted into the wing turbines the work produced by the 

ne turbine increased very little, thi 
being almost entirely due to the wing propellei Theii 

slip while that 

the on of the 1. 1 '''•" , 

that ' t the wil Thus the r* d been 

lined, wherebv at ordinary cruising speed a 
turbine did duty as a cruising turbine having a very high 
rotation. This paper concluded with a reference 
of propellers. 



The Marine Steam Turbine from 1804 to 1910. 
Thi, paper bv the lion. Sir Charles Parsons traced the 
history of the marine steam turbine from 1894 to 1910. He 
said that the application of the -team turbine to the pro- 
pulsion of vessels was entertained as early as 1884, but 
its development was n I nsidered till 1892, 

when the economy of thi ag turbine as applied to 

drivi „g ed that of the compound recip- 

ting tne purpose. 1 he first order 

from the British 



Admiralty, and at about the same time Messrs. Sir W. G. 
rong, Whitworth & Co., placed an order for the 
machinery of another similar destroyer, the Cairo. it 
was very' early realised that the suitability of thi 
for steam of 'very low pressure would find an important 

in ships by working the turbine from thi 
haust eating engines, but not until 1901 was the 

the Velox, a 30-ki 
laid down as a speculation bv the Parsons Main 
Turbine Company. Her main propelling machini 
nearly a duplicate of tl er's, but in order to un 

onomy at speeds below .3 knot,, two triple 1 
engines of 150 h.p. each were coupled to the L.P. tUTl 
through flexible and detachable dul 

Imiralty placed the 1 the third 

1 Amethyst with turbines, and for three 
with reciprocating engines of 10,000 h.p. The compara 
live trials of these vessels had a great influence upon thi 
future of the turbine. The first turbine battleship, the 
Dreadnought, was laid down at Portsmouth in October, 
1905. At full power her steam consumption was 134 
per shp. per hour, while in the battleship 

the class it averaged 13.01 lb., and in the three cni 
of the Invincible class 12.03 lb. With reciprocating 
engines nearly 16 lb. would be a fair average, and it thu, 
followed that a great reduction in boiler weight, 
missible. Again the high efficiency of the low pn 
turbine made it well worth while to pass the exha 
from the auxiliary engines to this turbine instead of to 
the condenser. Indeed, the exhaust steam in some battle 
ships had been proved to be alone sufficient to drivi 
vessel at a speed of five to six knots. The coal consump- 

at full power of the three 26-knot armoured era 
of the Invincible class ranged from 1.2 lb. to 1.7 lb. per 
shp per hour, the average for the three sin; 
1.47 lb. per s.h.p. In the three cruisers of the Mm 
ciass with piston engines, it was 1.8 lb., and in the six 
cruisers of the Duke 0/ Edinburgh or Warrior class 2.1 lb. 
per i h p. per hour. On the 30 hours' endurance trial at 

ent 01 the total power, the turbines also pn 
more although the advantage was 1 >ked^ 

In the mercantile marine, the first vessel to be fitted with 
turbines was the Clyde passenger steamer, King 
and her success led to the construction of a second 
for the Clyde passencer traffic in 1003, and in the 

. the Queen was built for the Dover and Calais route. 
\il thi ;e vessels had three shafts, the high-pressure turbine 
in the centre exhausting into two low-pressure turbines on 
the wing shafts. The first vessels to be fitted with tur 
bines for Transatlantic service were ordered by the Allan 
1 ine viz., the Victorian and Virginian, and the adoption 
of turbines in preference to reciprocating engine, for the 
Mauritania and Lusitania of 70,000 h P- completed the 
1 the turbine into all classes of fa hi h 

it was at the time deemed suitable. Turbines of the 
sons ing built in the engineering works 

of France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Spain, Bel 
uium, Sweden, and Denmark, as well as in Japan am 
United States ol America. At the end of last year the 
Parsons steam turbine, which had been, or were r* 
applied to marine propulsion had an aggregate h.p 
reeding =;,ooo,ooo. Sino ; tion of the turbines 

of the Turbinia in 1897, which were in series on the 
and on three shaft,, there had been no very notable in 
in economy in steam per s.h.p. The chief governing 
factors wefe weight and cost dependent on a limited sur 
urbine, which was governed by the maximum 
speed of revolution allowed by the propeller, and from the 
beeinning a iud '> ad been a rr,vt,d at ^ 

twlen turbine and propeller. Such limitations would, 
however be materially reduced should geared turb 
come into use, and higher co-efficients of turbine 

mpatible with mod. 
first cost and weight; tl 

would be more easily dealt with, and «*«•»» 
propulsive efficiency thereby would be substantial. 1 he 
author proceed : the combination system and 

to the use of redud " ^V^Vne tu 

the propeller, and finallj me details about the tur- 

bine P vessels at present building or recently bu.lt m v., 
of the world. 

(To be continur . 



M 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



NAVAL MATTERS— PAST AND 
PROSPECTIVE. 



[From c:<> Ou'ii Correspondent). 



Portsmouth Dockyard. 

JT li announced that 0U1 new battleship the Ol 

is to be commissioned in November to relieve the 
Hibcrnia in the Second Divi ion ol the Hume Fleet. 
The battleship King Georgi I. is making steady progress 
and will be launched about a month before the Orion 
hoists the pennant. The cruiser Drake, now being re- 
fitted, has been ordered to relieve the Powerful as- natHiip 
on the Australian station. Owing to the amount of work 
involved in the refit, it is not expected that the Drakt 
will take up her duties before January. I hi being lelieved 
the P merfui will return home and take up duty at Devon- 
port. The destroyers Bonetta and Osprey, of the Fourth 
Flotilla, were m collision at Berehaven on July 5th, while 
leaving the harbour, the Bone/to having her bows badly 
twisted above the water line. Temporary repairs were 
effected and the vessel came hire escorted by the Osprey, 
which was uninjured. A sad mishap occurred on board 
the battleship Superb, whi< b was re-commissioned at this 
port for the First Division of the Home Fleet at the end 

1 May, three of her crew having been suffocated by 
poisonous gas that had accumulated in the ship's hold. 
The gas is said to have been generated by decayed pota 
toes. The battleship Hercules is to be commissioned on 

i 1st 1st as flagship of the Vice-Admiral commanding 
the Second Division of the Home Fleet, relieving the King 
Ed-jjarJ VII., which is to be the flagship of the Vice- 

> lmiral commanding the Third and Fourth Divisions. 
The battleship New Zealand, now in the Second Division, 
is to join the local sub-division of the Home Fleet. Her 
name is to be changed on recommissioning on August ist. 
when she will become the flagship of Rear-Admiral Limpus 
in place of the Prince George, which joins the Devonport 
sub-division. A berth is being dredged for the new 
floating coal depot, which is to have a capacity of 20,000 
tons, and will be placed further up the harbour than the 
present depot, the capacity of which is 12,000 tons. The 
museum in the yard, which has been in course of forma- 
tion for some years, has now been formally opened, the 
ceremony being performed by Mrs. Tate, wife of the 
Admiral-Superintendent, in the presence of the principal 
officers of the yard and their wives. Engineer Rear 
Admiral J. J. Frost, who has just been promoted to that 
rank, entered the service in 1876, and became engineer 
captain in August, 1907. Since August last he has been 
on the staff of the local division of the Home Fleet under 
Rear-Admirals Brock and Limpus. 

Devonport Dockyard. 

The construction of the battleship Centurion is proceeding 
apace, and doubtless in a few weeks a date will be named 
for her launch. As to the cruiser Lion, the second stage 
in the arming of that vessel was commenced on July 17th 
bv the lifting on board of the first of the sixteen 4-inch 
quick-firing gun mountings. The main armament equip- 
ment is practically complete. The Lion will shortly be 
placed in dock at the North Yard to prepare for her steam, 
gunnery and other trials. She is expected to be ready 
for commissioning by Christmas. There are quite a large 
number of ships in dockyard hands, including the cruisers 
Euro-pa, Defence, and Blake, and the mine-layer Apollo. 
The Europa is to undergo a thorough overhaul, ^72,000 
being the sum allowed for the repair of the vessel. Several 
destroyers are in hand, including the Arun, whose refit is 
mainly concerned with the engine room department and 
the re-tubing of the boilers. The destroyer Sunjish, of 
the Sixth Flotilla, arrived on July 6th for repair in com 
pany with the Bruizer. The former vessel was clearing 
her moorings in Waterford Harbour the previous morning 
when she was carried on to the bows of the destroyer Havock. 
While the Sunfish was trying to get clear of the Havock 
her stern collided with Torpedo Boat No. 041;, striking 
the latter vessel on the starboard quarter. The Sunfish 



was mih slightly damaged. The Bittern, of the Fifth 

Destroyei Flotilla, has arrived with a main shaft broken. 

She was at tactual exercises in liantry Bay, on the west 
coast "t Ireland, when the damage was discovered. The 
vessel was escorted heie by a flotilla of destroyers which 

was proceeding up Channel. The Bittern, although only 
able to use one engine, averaged ten knots during the run 
1 1 "in Ireland. The gunboat Ringdove's refit has been 
completed and she left on July 17th to resume fishery pro- 
tection duties on the coast of Scotland. The Greek 
cruiser Georgia Averoff has been ducked in consequence 
ol having sustained damage to her hull by touching a 
rock when entering l'lymouth Sound on July ist without 
a pilot. Nearly 60 feet of her plating was torn out or 
frai tu red, and the damage will take until the middle of 
\<< 11st to repair, while the cost will be about ,£4,000. The 
uf the I ilth Destroyer llutilla, has been paid off 
until she can be taken in hand for re-tubing. Such 
defects are to be completed as will enable the vessel to 
proceed under her own steam to Pembroke Dock or Haul 
bowline. The destroyer Tcviot has proceeded to Gib- 
raltar, where she will be taken in hand for re-tubing. On 
arrival there she was paid off, her crew being transferred 
to the Kestrel, which returns to England. Six submarines 
of the B class — Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 — are to leave 
here under escort of the scout Pathfinder and the cruiser 
Bonaventure for the Mediterranean on August 14th. The 
first three of the submarines are to be stationed at Gib- 
raltar, and the last three at Malta. Among the ships 
sold at the sale on July nth, was the battleship Camper 
dow.i, which went for ^28,000 ; the battleship Repulse, 
which was sold for ,£33,500 ; and the destroyers Contest, 
Shark and Hardy, which were sold for ^1,760, ^1,575, and 
^1,400 respectively. The Lynx, Daring and Spitfire, 
lately serving in the Sixth Destroyer Flotilla, are to be 
placed on the sale list. They were built seventeen or 
eighteen years ago, and were all originally capable of 
steaming at twenty-seven knots. 

Chatham Dockyard. 

Work in the yard has been rather quiet of late, Chatham 
having been practically deserted since the vessels were 
sent to take part in the Coronation review and the Fleet 
exercises. Our new cruiser the Chatham is progressing 
fairly well and will shortly be launched. The Thames, 
depot ship for submarines, has been taken in hand for 
refit, and the destroyer Derwent has been docked for re 
pairs to her machinery. The destroyer Cherwell is also 
in hand, and the Ghurka, Scorpion and Cossack are ex 
pected to arrive immediately to be refitted. The scout 
Patrol arrived for that purpose on July 14th, and the 
destroyers Mosquito and Grasshopper on the 20th. Several 
of the yard craft went to Portsmouth during the Cor- 
onation review, and the Commander-in-Chief at that port 
has expressed his appreciation of the manner in which 
they were handled and the service they rendered. The 
letter stated that not the slightest accident occurred, and 
added that this was greatly to the credit of the officers 
and crews. It has been announced that the new floating 
dock is to be berthed in Saltpan Reach, but nothing has 
been heard as to where the dock is to be worked from. 
The general impression is that it will be worked from this 
yard, because we are more familiar with battleship repairs 
than our neighbours at Sheerness. It will, however, be 
much easier of access from Sheerness than from Chatham. 
It is believed by many that the day is not far distant when 
the Admiralty will increase the usefulness of this yard, so 
that we can accommodate Dreadnoughts and refit them. 
The difficulty at present is that the vessels cannot pass 
through the locks or be received into the docks. It seems 
to be generally understood that the depth of water in the 
river is the difficulty, but that is by no means the case. 
The armoured cruisers Indomitable and Inflexible were 
got in without any trouble when they came in for refit. 
At the beginning of August Captain N. Grant-Dalton will 
relieve Captain A. D. Ricardo as captain of the yard, the 
latter officer's time having expired. It is interesting to 
note that three of the fifteen engineer commanders who 
have recently been promoted to that rank belong to this 
port. Engineer-Commander H. E. Rock has been 
appointed to our new cruiser, the Chatham; Engineer- 
Commander J. Maxwell is serving in the Aquarius, repair 



August, 1911. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



15 



ship of the Third Destroyer Flotilla; and Engineer-Com- 
mander J. J. Kirwin i> the second assistant to the engin- 
eering manager. 

Sheerness Dockyard. 

Instruct! now been or laying the moor- 

ings of the Midway Boating h is being built by 

Messrs, Swan, Hun: .ham Richardson, in Saltpan 

h, near Port Victoria. The dock is to be ready for de- 
livery before the end of the year. The battleship Common- 
wealth, of the Nore Division of the Hume Fleet, when at 
Spithead for the review received from Lady Northcote the 
gift of the people of Australia. A number of Australian 
visitors went on board the vessel, and they • ived 

"ii the quarter deck by Vice-Admiral Prince Louis "t Hat 
tenberg and the captain. The gift, which is of Australian 
design, material, and workmanship, consists of a silvei 
challenge shield, a silver model of Captain Cook's 
the Endeavour, and an endowment fund to provide prize; 
1 he men. The ocean-going destroyer Nautilus, whose 
delivery had been delayed for various reasons, is now- 
ready for commissioning for service in the Fir>t |)e-troyei 
Flotilla, in relief of the Rothcr, one of the "River" boats, 
whi.h is to join th I lotilla. When the Nautilus 

joins the First Flotilla it will then consist of twelve 

f the ocean-going - 
1 hi destroyer Stour has completed her refit and rejoined 
the Third Flotilla. Quite a large number of destroyers 
are in hand refitting, including the destroyers Zebra and 
which were damaged in collision during night 
exercises; the Boyne and Usk, of the Third Flotilla; the 
Recruit and Ex-press, of the Devonport Flotilla ; the 
Charger, of the Sixth Flotilla. The refits of Torpedo 
Boats Nos. 11 and 12 have been completed, but Submarine 
C 9 is still in hand. In view of the large number of 
vessels using Harwich as a base, the Admiralty have given 
directions for C115 (ex Tourmaline), to be stationed there 
as a floating coal depot, her place at this port being taken 
by C109 (ex Agincourt), which has been fitted with the 
1 appliances for coaling ships and is capable of storing 
nearly 10,000 tons of coal. The battleship Camferdown, 
the last of the Admiral" class, which was towed here 
from Harwich, has been berthed in Kethole Reach, where 
she will remain until she is removed by the Shipbreakin-j 
Company of London, who purchased her at Devonport for 
>oo. The value of the dredging operations in th< 
new channel over Sheerness bar was again shown on the 
recent departure of the battleship Hercules, which left the 
Midway three hours before high water and had six feci ti 
spare under her keel. Engineer-Captain D. W. C. Griffin, 
who had served on the Home Fleet staff here since May. 
1909, has retired from the Service on account of age. 

Pembroke Dockyard. 

The cruiser Amfhion is making rapid headway. The 
framework and all the deck beams are in place, the outer 
plating is being proceeded with, and the heavy plating on 
the lower and upper decks is also being expedited. A 
to the cruiser Active, the machinery has all been put on 
board. The decks over the engine rooms have been closed 
down and the large casings over the engine hatches, whii 1 
were built away from the ship, have been put in place. 
The basin trials will take place about the end of Si 
ber, and the vessel will no doubt be out of hand by the 
end of the year. Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.'s staff 
accomplished the work of getting the turbines of the Active 
on board very smartly, the six being placed in the vessel 
in two days. It is understood that our new ship will be 
laid down on No. 1 slip, where the Defence — the las) 
vessel built there — was laid down in February, 
Torpedo 1 033, 041, 04; and 049, of the 

flotilla, which accompanied the Devonport Flotilla on a 
nu-ht run to Waterford, returned on July nth. No. 04: 

damaged in collision with the destroyer 
Waterf.rd. and she has been docked for repair 
injuries are on the starboard quarter. The other 
in hand are the destroyers lichen and Kennct. Improved 
arrangements are being made for distributing hydraulic 

r at the yard, the existing sources of power having 
sometimes proved inadequate. Additional power will 

also be necessary for working some of the machinery pro 
posed to be installed in connection with the new patent 



slip for destroyers which 1 to be constructed. Mr. J. 
Rogers, assistant construi tor at this yard, is to be 
gratulated, he having be 1 to relieve Mr. A II 

c.onld as constructs ge at Haulbowline, the lattei 

officer taking up an appointment in connection with the 
Creek Navy. 



THE STEWARD STEAM GENERATOR 



IN our issue of January, 1908, we gave a full di 
and illustrations of a new form of Steam generator 
which had not only the merit of small weight and volume 
for its evaporative capai LI had the useful qu 

of being practically " fool-proof." On that occasion we 
expressed our interest 111 the future of this boiler, which is 
the invention of Mr. G R Steward, of 54. Y01 
end, and we have been looking forward to tl ment 

of the matter. Recently we had the pleasure of being pi, 
at a test of the evaporative capacity of a boili 
and we confess that we ■ irprised at the duty 

rmed, but were struck with the capacity of the boiler 
in giving dry steam under working conditions of considerable 
210 lbs. of water were evaporated ill 41 1 minutes 
with a consumption of 1-55 gals, of petroleum, which 
the rate of 17 lbs. of water per lb. of oil. As the i 
fitted with an efficient superheater the II. P. developed from 
the steam generated through an efficient compound 1 ; 
should be at least twenty, and, having regard to the small 
size of the boiler, viz. : — 2 ft. 6 ins. high by- 2 ft. dian 
and a weight of about 6 cwt., the result is most satisfactory, 
and clearly indicates that 111 spite ot what has been done in 
design of boilers in thi i^ still room for beneficial 

topment. We are of opinion that the Steward boiler 
11 worthy of further development, judging from the results 
obtained and having regard to the simple and inexpensive 
character of construction. 



THE "PARAGON" STEERING AND 
REVERSING PROPELLER. 

THIS interesting propeller is now making headway, 
in many applications, for marine propulsion, and 
the " Paragon " Marine Propeller Company, of 
11, Hush Lane, Cannon Street, London, inform us 
that they find it difficult to cope with the demand both 
at home and abroad. At the moment they have in hand 
a most interesting application of the invention, in the 
form of a 35-ft. boat on the Thames, in which two 
propellers will be driven from one engine, no rudder 
being necessary, for both steering and propulsion. 
Ahead, astern, port or starboard is accomplished by 
means of the propeller. Moreover, what is most 
attractive is the fact, that without slowing the engine 
the thrust can be varied on the boat and thus the 
boat-speed regulated. 

Instructions for a large installation on the yacht of 
a prominent member of Parliament have recently been 
received, in which Mr. Durtnall's well-known electrical 
system will be used for the driving of the propeller, 
and the electrical power generated by means of a new 
type of internal combustion engine, which was 
described in his recent paper before the Institute of 
Marine Engineers. It is anticipated that at least 
20 per cent, more work will be extracted from the 
fuel by this means. This is the third repeat order 
from the same source for this novel and efficient 
propeller. 

We are informed that the sale of the American 
patents for the " Paragon " propeller is about to take 
place, but competition with this country is, in that 
case, debarred. 



10 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



GAS-COAL AND OIL-ENG1NED VESSELS. 

ENQUIRIES during the past month have been more in 
evidence than orders foi gas engined vessels; these, 
however, may be booked lata as a result oi pending 
aegotiations. Several oil cargo steamers to meet the grow 
ing demand for oil fuel and other purposes have recently 
been placed on order, and it is probable that one 01 more 
,ii these will be fitted with oil gas engines; Mich would only be 
fitting and opportune, and the question oi cargo working 
now admits ol easier solution than formerly, although ex- 
perience is still lacking to justify the claim to the most suit 
and com en lent form in which to apply the power -steam, 
electrw 01 pneumatic. At the International Rubber Ex- 
hibition held during the end of June and beginning of July, 
several of the rubber producing territories gave in their 
pamphlets indications of a development of oil fields ; of 
these, Trinidad appears to be a promising place for Imperial 
service in view oi the increasing number of Government 
vessels fitted lor burning oil fuel, thus enforcing the necessity 
for colonial and crown lauds being encouraged to not only 
develop oil fields, but to stock quantities for local distribution. 
It is well known that in Australasian waters New Zealand 
is capable of development in respect of oil supply, so that 
there are many portions of the Empire where stocks might 
be kept from local production, and the argument which 
applies to oil for fuel to produce steam also applies to the 
manufactured oil which is suitable for direct use in the cylin- 
ders without the interposition of the boilers. The British 
Admiralty have now under consideration the question of 
oil-driven engines to be fitted in some of the vessels pro- 
jected for construction, so that the need of many supply- 
stations is becoming more important. The new Engine 
(Motor) Co. have been giving special attention for some 
years to the production of a two-stroke engine, which will be 
reliable and economical. Their motor for aviation has been a 
success and their most recently constructed marine engine 
bids fair to demonstrate the conviction of Mr. Mort that this 
engine can hold its own with any four-stroke engine, in 
economy and flexibility. The Blackstone engine works with 
crude oil and our attention was called to it at the Agricul- 
tural Hall as a handy engine for marine work, in which Scotch 
shale and other crude oils may be used, the cost of the oil is 
less and the consumption is stated to be about half a pint per 
b.h.p. The engine is started by compressed air stored while 
the engine is working. Messrs. Davey, Paxman & Co. had 
a suction gas engine and producer on show, a type which 
awaits development for marine service to follow on after the 
experimental work done in the " Rattler." This firm has a 
very complete catalogue sheet giving the standard sizes and 
full particulars with prices of their " Paxman " gas engine 
and plant for laud work. A similar one for marine work is 
much wanted, as standardization would greatly assist both 
buyer and seller, reducing cost prices and tending to economy. 
It is difficult to standardize with a varying market, but there 
are engines in demand within a short radius of power of each 
other which might be made duplicates in respect to many 
of the parts. Messrs. Brooke have a good type of marine 
motor, upon winch they are still exercising their ingenuity 
and we hope to iUustrate their latest and most perfect pro- 
duction in the course of next issue. Messrs. Crossley's 
exhibit at Islington was worthy of attention, the name is 
sufficient to recall the history of the gas engine, although 
there was nothing to show for the marine service. 

The arrival of the Holzapfel I. in the Thames with a cargo 
of coal from the Tyne has excited a good deal of interest and 
speculation as to the results. These have been so far satis- 
factory, and with the experience gained will be improved 
upon in future runs. The Fottinger hydraulic reversing 
and regulating gear seems to have given satisfaction. 1 In- 
experience in connection with the Vulcanus is being 
awaited with expectation and it is such experience- 
that will encourage or deter prospective owners who are 
considering the question of gas engines for vessels on the eve 
of being placed on the market. Some of the British types 
of oil engines are now being developed in the right direction 
and with care and attention to details these will come to the 
front, after the quiet and cautious persistency now being 
pursued has been crowned with deserved success. The 
adoption of oil engines for small craft by the Japanese has 



been verj marked and the waj thai the average man man- 

i he ma< hinei \ as the \e boats ply to and fro in the 

harbours and bays -hows the adaptability oi the race and 

the application to inastei tei hnicalities; SU( h are the thoughts 
suggested to our witnessing the passing to and fro oi the 
boats in question in fapanese ports. On the Continent the 
i . of the oil engine for small era It and canal barges is becom- 
ing more frequent, and in Antwerp this is specially the port 
wh "■ such can be use.] with great effect, from the ferryboat, 
which is plying across the dock for passengers to save many 
wearj footsteps, to the large barges which tralhc through 
the canals or around the coast line. For canal and coastal 
traffic the oil engine is an ideal motive power agent. 
When enquiries can be met by a standardized and reliable 
motor produced by reliable firms, the orders will assuredly 
follow-. 



Messrs. Matthew Keenan & Co., Ltd., have recently 
secured the contract to cover with their various composi- 
tions, boiler, pipes, etc., at the Queen Mary's Hospital, 
Carshalton, amounting altogether to over 100.000 feet. 

The 34th annual volume of " The Marine Engineer and 
Naval Architect" begins with this issue, and affords a 
favourable opportunity for intending subscribers to send in 
their names. They are respectfully referred to the form 
printed on page xxv., which should be filled up and sent to 
the office at 3, Amen Corner, London, E.C. The annual 
prepaid subscription is 7/6, including postage, sent direct 
from head office to any address. 

The 33rd volume, tastefully bound, is now on sale. 478 
pages of good reading matter, price 7/6, or by post securely 
packed, United Kingdom and Canada, 8/- ; other countries, 
8/6. Binding cases may now be obtained from the publishers, 
price 1/6, carriage 3d. extra. A complete index to volume 
xxxiii. is presented with this number. We shall be pleased 
to undertake the binding of readers' parts in publishers' 
cases at 2/6 per volume. Prices for other bindings quoted 
for on application. Back numbers in stock. 



LAUNCH OF THE "NEW ZEALAND.' 



THE launches in July had a notable send-off in the 
consignment to the water of the cruiser-battle- 
ship New Zealand, the first naval ship presented 
to the Imperial Navy by any of this country's over- 
seas dominions. The vessel, which is being built at the 
charge of the New Zealand Government, was sent off 
the stocks at Fairfield on July 1st, in the presence of 
an immense and exceptionally enthusiastic concourse 
of spectators. The Fairfield Shipbuilding and En- 
gineering Co. had pressed forward the work of com- 
pleting the vessel up to the launching stage, owing to 
the presence in this country of the many distinguished 
visitors from the Colonies, many of whom were present 
at the launch. The christening ceremony was per- 
formed by Lady Ward, the wife of the Rt. Hon. Sir 
Joseph Ward, Bart, Prime Minister of New Zealand. 
The New Zealand, which when completed will 
displace about 19,000 tons, is an armoured vessel of 
590 ft. in length, 80 ft. beam and 26 ft. 5 ins. draught. 
She will be propelled by Parsons' turbines driving 
four shafts developing 43,000 I.H.P. to give a speed 
of 27 knots. The New Zealand will carry eight 12-in. 
and four 6-in. guns, and two 21 -in. torpedo tubes. She 
was ordered 15th March, 1910, laid down 21st June, 
1910, launched as above stated and is to be completed 
by June, 1912. 



APGUST, I'd I . 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



'7 



NEW TIDE RECORDER. 



T I IKK I an many instanci ordinary work 

of a navigator where the approximate height 
of the tide is an important matter for determina- 
tion, which under ordinary 1 in mnstances is arrived at 
l>y a process of calculation. Take for example, when 
caught in a fog not far from land and uncertain of his 
position, the only method a navigator has of rinding 
his position is by taking a series of soundings and 
comparing the same with the soundings given on the 
chart, but before making the comparison the height of 
the tide above low water level must be calculated in 
order to reduce the soundings to the chart datum. 
Or again, when entering a tidal harbour it is necessary 
to know if the tide has risen sufficiently high at a 
n time to have the required depth of water over 
the bar, or equivalent!)' he may want to know at any 
time the depth of water over a particular bank or 
shoal. Further, when anchoring in places where 
there is not much water it is important to know if the 
vessel will remain afloat at low water. 

The calculations in matters of this kind are rendered 
unnecessary by the use of a simple device which 
rs. I bath & Company, Ltd., of London and 
Crayford. have put on the market under the title of 
the Lenthall-Baugb Tide Indicator. This instrum 
gives at a glance the height of the tide above the low 
water level of ordinary spring tides at any hour 
between high and low water, also the time from high 
tide that the tide should be any particular height, and 





Fig 2. 

thus calculation from special table or diagrams is 
entirely avoided. 

The indicator is made in two forms. The mechanical 
model is shown in Fig. 1, and can be screwed securely 
to any bulkhead or partition. In using this type the 
pointer F is set to the figure on the outer scale 
representing the depth of water at ordinary spring 
tides. The arm D is now moved round about the 
centre of B, in the position indicating the actual time 
intermediate of high and low water at which the depth 
is required. The arm D and the pointer F being 
geared together, the pointer during 
the movement comes back to the 
figure corresponding to the inter- 
mediate period, and thus the depth 
can be read directly off the scale 
without further trouble. 

The simple model is shown in 
Fig. 2, and is made of wood in the 
form of a box. In this type the 
arm is swung round to " high water," 
and the pointer on the arm is adjusted 
to the depth of water represented by 
the parallel lines in relation to the 
side scale. The arm is then swung 
round to the desired time after "high 
water," and the depth is read of! 
from the position of the pointer 
relative to the scale. 

As an interesting feature affecting 
the admitted reliability of the instru- 
ment, it may be mentioned that an 
ded trial of some weeks has been 
made on one of the steamships of 
Trinity House, and as a result 
o) the trial the Elder Brethren have 
ordered four of these instruments to 
be supplied for use on board their 
vessels. 



i8 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. August, 1911. 



FOREIGN NOTES. 



France.— The new steamer the Cortex, belonging to the 
Comp issinet and built at Newcastle, is on her way 

to Marseilles where she is to undergo her contract trials in 
presena oi the postal commission. Tin- steamei lida irom 
ived .it St. Nazaire for her trials, rhis vessel 
been built .it the "Chantiers de la Loir,," the 
time occupied in building being one year, has cost 780,000 
francs. She carries fres"h water tanks with a capacity of 70 
tons. The vessel is built oi teak wood and is superbly fitted 
out Her speed is 13 knots. She belongs to an English 
. my, which is under the control of the Egyptian govern- 
ment, and is to be employed (or revictualling the Red Sea 
lighthouses. The interior is divided into compartments to 
the gasoline and petroleum required for each lighthouse, 
and below there is another compartment for cement, hydra 11 hi 
lime and building materials. 

\ large steam yacht has just been delivered for the Prince 
,.1 Monaco by the Forges et Chantiers de la Mediterranee, in 
whose yard she was constructed. The Hirondelle, for such 
is her name, went through her trials in a most successful 
mannei and is to undertake her first trip on the Atlantic 
Ocean, as she is to go to Canada, where she is to be used in 
1 title research, of which the Prince is a zealous devotee. 
She displaces 1600 tons. Her propelling machinery consists 
of two twin triple-expansion engines, each independent of the 
other, developing 2200 h.p. and giving a speed of 15 knots, 
the boilers working under natural draught. Wireless of 
the latest description is installed and she has also an apparatus 
for submarine sound signals. The vessel will no doubt be 
everywhere admired as a notable production of the French 
shipyard. 

New Zealand. — A twin-screw steamer of steel is required 
for Otago for tug and salvage purposes. Tenders are invited 
up to the 6th September to be addressed to the Harbour 
Management in Otago, New Zealand, from wdrence the terms 
and particulars will be forwarded on application. Plans and 
specifications can be inspected at the office of the High Com- 
missioner for New Zealand, London, at the Mersey Harbour 
Board and the Clyde Navigation Trustees. Copies can be 
obtained from the High Commissioner on deposit of / 10 for 
plans and 10s. 6d. for specifications alone. 

Germany. — The Freemantle, a new tank steamer of the 
German-Australian Steamship Co., has arrived at Hamburg 
and went into dock to have her bottom painted. The trial 
runs were very successful at Geestemunde, where she was 
built. The machinery consists of a triple-expansion con- 
densing engine, and on the trial run a speed of 14 knots per 
hour was obtained. 

Kiel. — The new floating dock of the Admiralty has been 
stationed in the inner harbour where it is secured to eight 
30-ton stone anchors. The enormous size of this floating 
dock makes all ships appear small in comparison It has 
a length of 230 metres and is able to take a ship of 40 000 
tons. It is said to have cost seven million marks. This 
is a further proof that our German competitors are losing no 
time in equipping themselves so that they can cope with even 
larger vessels than they are now building. 

The s.s. Hellas of the Hamburg-America line has been 
bought bv Japan. She was built at Stockton in 1894, and 
she is of '2,438 gross tonnage. A Buenos Aires shipping firm 
has bought the Amuses from the Hamburg-Cosmos Line. 
This steamer was built in 1896 at Glasgow and is of 4,552 
gross register tons. ^11,000 was the purchase price 
paid for her. 

The formerly Britksh steamer Bradford, sold to Germany 
when she was renamed Hanna, has now been sold to Turkey. 
She left Hamburg showing the Turkish flag and bearing the 
new name Sivin, given to her by the purchasers. The 
Harlingen of Sunderland, able to carry 1,550 tons, has also 
changed hands. She has been sold to Germany for £\ 5.500. 

I TAL y. — Messrs. M. W. Martinolich, of Lussino. recently 
founded a new steamship line and purchased three cargo 
steamers of a new type in the United Kingdom, each of 7,000 
tons burden (the Africana, Carmen and Butterflv). Later 
they also bought another vessel of 8,ooo tons. Two other 
cargo steamers, it is said, will also be required, of great ton- 
nage, so as to have a fleet of six ships of the newest type. We 
trust British builders will take note of this. 



The Socicta Union of Ragusa also recently bought the new 

cargo steamer /)<//■• w (7, 1 Ions) in the United Kingdom. 

rhis ship is buili nn the latest principles of naval architecture. 

1 he \uti.. Hungarian Merchant Marine is continuing to 
build large vessels. Recently the new steamer Wien oi the 
Austrian Lloyd Co., constructed a1 the Lloyd yards, was 
successfully launched. The Wien is a fine steamer of about 
9,000 gross tons making 18 knots per hour. She will be 
employed for the Alexandria line and fitted with every con- 
venience to carry 150 first-class, 80 second and 30 third-class 
passengers. Naphtha is to be used as fuel for the eight boilers, 
each oi which Ins lour furnaces, instead of coal. Naphtha 
1 also to be adopted for the other Lloyd steamer Helouan, 
now being built. Consequently the largest Mediterranean 
vessels binning liquid fuel will be Austro-Hungarian. The 
power of the engines of the Wien is 10,000 h.p. The success 
of the use of this fuel on a large scale is awaited with great 
interest in Austrian shipbuilding circles. 

Japan. — We hear that our enterprising allies have placed 
orders for two battleships with the shipbuilding yards of 
Mitsu Bishi' in Nagasaki and Kawasaki in Kobe, neither of 
which has as yet been engaged in building an armoured 
vessel. The displacement of each ship is to be about 27,000 
to 28,000 tons. The artillery equipment is to consist of ten to 
twelve cannon of 1 2-1 3.5 inches diameter. Considering the 
achievements of Japan we have no doubt that the results 
will be most satisfactory. 



CATALOGUES RECEIVED. 



Messrs. Wailes, Dove & Co., Ltd., Newcastle. Patent 
bitumastic solution and enamels. 

Messrs. Perkin & Co., Ltd., Leeds. Price list and particulars 
of vertical petrol and paraffin engines. 

Bowesfield Steel Co., Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees. Steel sheets 
and accessories. 

Hoffmann Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Chelmsford. Ball 

bearings applied to machine tools. 

Sienien Bros. Dynamo Works, Ltd., London. Installation 
accessories. 

Messrs. E. G. Appleby & Co., London. " Phoenix " liquid 
controllers and high-speed friction saws. 

ROYAL MERCHANT SEAMEN'S 
ORPHANAGE. 

A FESTIVAL in connection with the Royal 
Merchant Seamen's Orphanage was held under 
the auspices of the Princess Louise, Duchess 
of Argyle, at the Royal Botanic Society's Gardens, 
on July 22nd, when there was a large gathering of 
subscribers and sympathisers. The special object of 
the festival was to arouse enthusiasm and raise funds 
to assist in covering an overdraft on the working 
account of the orphanage, and both these purposes 
were fulfilled. It was a pathetic sight to see the boys 
and girls from the orphanage at Snaresbrook giving 
their drill display and to hear them lifting their voices 
in harmonious song, reminding one of their condition 
in life and appealing to the heart and purse strings 
for the support of such an institution. 

Purses containing notes of the amounts subscribed 
and collected by the stewards acting on behalf ot the 
Orphanage, were handed to the Princess, and the 
total amount proclaimed was about ^"3,600. The 
claims of the Orphanage on the sympathy and help 
of all seafarers and of those who in any way are 
benefited by business done on the face of the waters, 
are commended for consideration. 

The Royal Navy List and Naval Recorder for July 
has just been published by Messrs. Witherby & Co., High 
Holborn. The publication is an extremely useful one and 
merits the support of all persons interested in naval affairs. 



August, iqii. THE MARIN E ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 

The Worshipful Company of Shipwrights. 

. ment Gods I U. V.D., Master. 



I-. 




o 



Sir 



N July 17th. Dr. Clement Godson, ML. CM., V.D. 
was installed as Master ..1 I L Worshipful Company 
.,1 Shipwrights with Mr. |. Bell White, the Right Hon. 
Edward Clarke, K.C.. P.C., Colonel and Alderman 



Sir William H, Dunn 
F.R.S., as Wardens, 
elected to the Freedom 
Mr. A. W. Sim] 



and Sir Philip Watt,. K.C.B 

The following gentlemen were 

and Livery of the Company : — 

of the Fairfield SI 

I 11. Boolds (Vickers, Ltd.) 



and Engini • ring Co.. Mr. 

Mr G. J. Carter (Sir W. 1 . \ m trong, Whil Co.), 

Mr. II. B. Rowell (R. A W, Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.) Mi 
T. G. Owens (Vickers, Ltd.) Mr. P. S. Brown (Caledon - 
Mr. I. law-- (Caledon Co.) and Mr. C. Coburn. In tin 
evening of the same day a Livery dinner was K iven at the 



Fishmongers' Hall. London Bridge, to which had been invited 

a large number , ] r ' ,,s ; 

rii,. \i iso id >t I lement Godson) presided over a distinguished 

my, which included the Lord Mayor, the Earl oi Lytton, 

loughmore, Lord Devonport. !'.< Mr 1 nomas 

Bart (president Royal Collegi ol Phj icians), Sir 

W H White K.C.B. . F.R.S., Admiral Sir M. Culme- 

Seymoui Henry T. Butlin, Bart, (president Royal 

iryto 

K Bart, Sir James 

Crichl t.D etc.. Dr. S. West, B sir 

Vdolphu \ 1 I 

CJIG H. Busk; Prime Warden of tne 

Skinners Company. Sir Henry Morris. Bart, (president Royal 



20 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, ion. 



Society oi Medicine) Mr. Alfred Aston, Col. Sir Reginald 
1,D I di HaviUand Hall, 1" R.C.P., R( u Admiral 
E. F. Inglefield Mr. Roberi Cobay, Master of the Carpenters 
Company, Mr. 1". O. Streeton, Mastei »: the Skinners Comp my, 
Mr. 1. BeU White (1st Warden), Sir Edward Clarke i tad 
Warden), Col. and Alderman Sir W. 11 Dunn (3rd Warden), 

p Watl 1th Wardi a), Mr. C. B. Lockw 1 

F.R.C.S.. Sir Frederick Bridge, Prof. J. II. BUes, Dr. R. \. 
Gibbons, MP.. Mi ! mens President Institute 

of Civil Engineers, Mr. C. Gould May, M.D., Mr. D'Arcj 
Power, F.R.C.S Alderman Sir William Treloar, Proi 
Welch, Sir I. Fortescne Flannery, Lt.-Col. the Hon, I. \. 
1 . Devitt, Col. R. Saxton White, Mr. R, K 
Bevis, Col. T. i well (treasurer), etc. 

\n : -t :, si,- W. H. White proposed " rhe 

Imperial I the Crown," which w ided tob) 

\dn i Culmi Seymour and Surgeon-General Babtie. 

Sir Edward Clarke gave tin- "Lord Mayor, Sheriftsand ("oi i ii ii a- 

tion," on whose behalf the Lord Mayor suitably responded. 

Professor Biles in toasting "The Mercantile Marine," said 
that the merchant shipping of the world, and more especially 
oi this country was stupendous, 40,000.000 tons of shipping 
were now afloat, a figure which clearly indicated the vastness 
of the industry. Mr. T. L. Devitt, in responding, contrasted 
tin- Great Eastern with the recently launched White Star 
mammoths, and said that the progress which had been 
attained to-dav was dm- to the skill and ingenuity of the naval 
architect and marine engineer. The toast of " The Visitors," 
proposed by Mr. J. Bell White was responded to by the Earl 
of Lytton and Sir Thomas Barlow. 

The Earl of Lytton said : " I am sure that I shall be 
expressing the feelings of all your guests when I say that 
we are very grateful for the hospitality which has been 
extended to us to-night by this ancient and honourable 
Company. We have had an excellent dinner, we have 
found ourselves in most distinguished company, we 
have listened to very eloquent speeches and, lastly, our health 
has been very cordially drunk. For all these things we offer 
vou our most sincere thanks. I confess my vanity was greatly 
flattered when I first found myself selected from this 
distinguished company of guests to respond to this toast, 
but as the dinner proceeded and 1 had time to think the matter 
over, especially while I listened to certain allusions in the 
speeches which have already been made, I began to feel more 
humble, for I realized why it was that I had been singled out 
for this honour. It is because, like the Lord Mayor, I also 
am a member of an unreformed Corporation. We have been 
reminded to-night that we live in an age of progress, and one 
of the sad results of what is called progress is that some things 
have a tendency to become obsolete. I presume I have 
been selected to speak to this toast because, like the hansom- 
cab driver, I represent that which is becoming obsolete — an 
hereditarv legislator. I will not follow the example of the 
gallant admiral who responded to the toast of the Imperial 
Forces and give you my reflections on the history of the 
depreciation of the House of Lords. That would be too 
melancholy a topic for so convivial an occasion. I will dis- 
miss the subject by saying that I consider that agitation is as 
ill-deserved and as profitless as the depreciation of the navy 
of which he spoke. Whatever may be said against the House 
of Lords I for one am proud to belong to it, I shall always 
uphold it and I am ready to serve in it as long as I am per- 
mitted to do so. As Sir William White said, this is a moment 
to talk, not of institutions, but of men, and I want- to offer 
my personal thanks to your 'Master for his kindness 
in inviting me to this dinner. I see Dr. Godson in a new 
light to-night. Hitherto I have known him rather as a 
launcher of men than of ships. But I know him well enough 
to be convinced that he would grace any position 
to which he may be called. It was with the greatest regret 
that I heard of his recent illness, and at one time I feared that 
I might be deprived of the pleasure of meeting him to-night. 
I should like to take this opportunity of congratulating him 
on his recovery and wishing him all success in the honourable 
position which he now holds as Master of this Company. 
In whatever capacity I have known Dr. Godson, whether it 
be as professional adviser or private friend, whether as guest 
or host, I have always found him the kindest, most genial 
and best of men. In the name of your guests I offer you 
our most cordial thanks." 

The toast of " The Shipwrights' Company," proposed by 



Mi. Aston iv. is cordially greeted, and Dr. Godson, in 
ing, aid "Inn ponding to this toast I thank Mr. Aston 

*rerj «. K for the kind waj in which he has spoken of our 

Company, and for the far too flattering words he lias used 
in connection with myself, and I thank you all for the 1 ordial 
manner in which vou have received the toast. \s regards 
our Company, I 1 in truthfully --.i\ that, having been one of 

its 1 iverj 11 ioi upward oi twentj seven /ears, I have 

never known it in such a condition oi prosperity, and with 
such an aspect oi increasing pro perity, as at the present 

time. During the lasl two years no less than twenty- 
two m « members have joined our Livery, eighteen oi whom 
are in some wa\ 01 other 1 onnei ted with shipping, many of 
these in most prominent and leading positions 111 regard to it. 
foi example, Lord Cnverclyde, Sii fames Lyle Mackay, now 
Lord Inchcape, .md Sir Charles Parsons. Surely this speaks 
for itself. Probably Lord Pirrie, when master two years 
ince and Professor Biles, my immediate Past Master, and 
others, may have influenced some of these in wishing to come 
into our Company, but I am convinced the great attraction 
to them was the knowledge of the good work we have done 
and are doing in providing for the technical education of 
students in the art of shipbuilding, and in naval architecture, 
notably since 1897, when Sir William White occupied the 
chair I now do, and Alderman Sir Horatio Davies was one 
of his wardens, besides being Lord Mayor of London. They 
took up the matter warmly, and made an appeal to the 
City Companies and the great shipowners, with the result 
that ,£4,000 was collected and put in trust, the deed bearing 
date April, 1899. Since then, by the exertions of certain 
members of the Company, another ^2,000 has been collected, 
so the money now invested stands at about ^6,000. This 
has enabled us, in addition to giving pecuniary assistance for 
expenses, to give annual grants for prizes to deserving stu- 
dents in evening classes at all the great naval ports where 
Royal dockyards exist, and in a considerable number of centres 
of shipbuilding for the mercantile marine. The amounts, 
though small, are found to be of great value to young nun 
of the working class for purchase of books and mathematical 
instruments required for their instruction. Ever since the 
formation of the Educational Fund the Fishmongers' Com- 
pany, which has so kindly lent us this hall this evening, as 
on so many former occasions, and which I am glad to see so 
well represented this evening at our table among our guests, 
has given ^50 per annum on a triennial grant at the disposal 
of the Committee of the fund — and, in 1908, the Skinners' 
Company generously followed its excellent example. We 
are equally glad to see that Company well represented among 
our guests to-night. Besides the Master, we have a Past 
Master, my friend and kinsman, the proposer of this toast. 
i I know what kindly feelings he had towards us in regard to 
allowing the triennial grant of £52 10s. to go on for another 
three years when the first came to an end a few months since, 
and for this continuation we are very appreciative. With 
these grants and our own invested trust money we are able 
to give three scholarships of ^50 annually to selected pro- 
mising students in naval architecture in the University of 
Glasgow, the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, and the 
Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Besides the Fish- 
mongers' and Skinners' Companies, we are indebted for pecu- 
niary assistance to the Goldsmiths', Clothworkers' and 
Carpenters' Companies, and we hope to see others following 
their example. Sir William White, the chairman of the 
Trust Fund, who has unquestionably done more for it than 
anyone else, could tell you much more than I as to its results, 
but this I know, from having been now forseveral years a mem- 
ber of its committee, that not a few of those students who, on 
account of impecuniosity, would have been unable to con- 
tinue having tuition without the assistance given them by 
our Company, have reached positions of importance and 
responsibility in the shipping service of the Admiralty, and 
in the mercantile marine. It was found possible to include 
two new centres last year in the list of educational authorities 
to whom grants have been made — the Glasgow and West of 
Scotland Technical College and the Clydebank Technical 
Institute. But, owing to the limited funds at our disposal 
we, the committee, to our great regret, have found it im- 
possible to give assistance to some very deserving cases 
recently brought to our notice. So, as our income increases 
there is plentv of scope for us to do more, and it is a national 
service we are rendering. I should like from the chair to offer 



August, 191 i. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



21 



our congratulations to those of our in. -in 1 >«r -. who hav 
d from His Majesty coronation horn 
Pirst, Lord Br a Past Mas! 

dignity of an Earl, He was to i this 

evening, and most kindly promised to relieve me by pro- 
posing one of the toasts ; but he li 

1 from coming, lint ore have his son. Col. Brassey, with 
OS, I rejoice to six-, and. I will ask him to accept our hi 
congratulations, and convey them to his father. Second, Sir 
William T. Lewis, a member of the Court oi 

d created a Peer undei the title of Baron Merthyr of 
Senghenydd, in the county of G i, and third. Sir I 

Mackay has also b» 
in Inchcape of Strathnaver in tin' county of Sutherland. 
We congratulate them both warmly. We now ion:, to mi 
John Wrench Towse, who is happily here with us, and we offer 
him our sincere congratulations on his knighthood. And 
last, but not least, we come to Sir Charles Parsons, whom 1 
ought to have admit 

Assistants, but his engagements would not allow hi 
leave Newcastle. ' have we to congratulate him 

on his coronation honour of K.C.B., but upon one he tells me 
he sets a D ter value on. just awarded to him !>■ 

Council of the Royal Society of Arts (with the approval of 
the President, U.K. If. the Duke of Connaught), who, I 

rstand, presented it to him on Friday last al Cla 
I bnise — the Ali 
' for his experimental researches into the laws governing the 

nt action of steam in i 

'The beneficial re-nits which have followed upon 
these inventions include a cheapening o > luction of 

mechanical power, greater economy and speed for steam* 
and the first successful solution of the problem of ro1 
engines, which long had baffled many other invent 
Wi igree with Sir Charles that thi I is sometl 

proud of. but more so his laborious work which gained it, and 
we feel that we have to congratulate ourselves still more on 
having so scientific and distinguished a man a member of 
our Court of A as he will be when lie ha b 

come up to be admitted as such. V very much that 

so many of our distinguished members have been prev 
unavoidably from attending th to-night. We miss 

Sir Thomas Sutherl I I 'irrie greatly. I he latter 

asked me to express his regrets. He is now on his way to 
America in his latest ship, the Olympic, the model of which 
many of you must have seen in Cockspur SI coronation 

di oration, looking straight up Pall Mall, a triumph in ship- 
building, the largest ship afloat, f understand. 1 saw the 
model just now still up, as I drove down here, with ' 50,000 
tons ' written beneath it, but, of course, with the work the 
Shipwrights' Company is doing in education in the art of 
shipbuilding it is certain to be surpas long. In 

conclusion, I hope to prove myself worthy of the ; 
position I occupy as M is important Company — I 

shall, at all events, do my be-t in its inti innot 

do more." 








Arms of the Shipwrights Company 



REVIEWS. 



Marine Engine Design. B Hragg. I 

Co., Ltd I'm a, Ss. nett. 

written by an American Col 

on th 1 a marine em 

in thi of marini tudents ol 

1'iii'.. 

ol the Sub :iil in dm, ting the mind of ti 

with and the 1 • 
• ith them, the book will serve a p 

the .id'. and 

h a 1. it. ■ 
text book knowledge from the 
ial production 

day by day. The author pr< : 
n to the desirabili: data 

keeping in connection with the <!• 
and whenever possible, co-efii 
should be determined from dataofsimil 

> ■ 
aimed that an engine has been designed for its work. 
to us to be quite the proper 
this branch of engineering is in every sense a progret 
lie conducted in rel 
ind not according to any cast iron formulas laid 

: the 
subject. There is little in the book that has not already 
been treated by other authors, but it may be pointed 
that the 172 pages of the book are not burdened with 

1: n- and illustrations of engines of various types that 
all very soon after publication only have an histori' al 

est. 

Oil Fuel. By Sydney H. North and Edward Butler, 
M.I.Mech.E. London: Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd 
Second edition. Price 6s. nett. 

When the first edition of this book was published in 
it was conceded that it formed a concise record of 
development and progress of the application of oil fie 

c purposes at the time. Much has been done in the 
subje hat date, and as the first edition has been 

out of print for some time, and the work is being contin 
ii has been decided to 
b is the one now under 
been thoroughly revised by Mr. Edward Butler, and 
iw deals with all purposes for which liquid fuel 
plied, e nal combustion As an 

indication of the scope of the volume, it may be said that 

ds with the sources of supply, the economic aspe 
liquid fuel, chemical combustion of fuel oils, conditio; 
11 in fui early methods and ex| 

meiits. modern burners and methods, oil fuel 

naval, loo m tive, road vehicle, launch and 
llurgical purposes, and last but not least oil fuel 

for d --ti> purposes. Some di ertain oil 

burning apparatus which were obtained too late for < 1 
fication have been included in an appendix. It would 
ir that nothing has been left uni ■ nsure the 

being up to date, but to be cot everj 

tial feature 

The Corrosion of Iron and Steel. By J. Newton Friend, 
Ph. I 1 and D.Sc. (B'ham.). 6s. nett. London: 

Longmans, i.reen & Co. 

This volume represents very interesting matte of particu 
to both the users and manufacturers of iron and 
:thor has collected in a comparatively chea] 
small book, all the numerous tests that have been 
made for year-, past. It is to be noted that those whi 
] works on this subject have apparently been 
manifestly ignorant of the work of previous investi 
. and it often is a fact that the 
ud even re-discovered by others. I 
t ur e 11 i- so vast and s., widely scattered that 

been exceedingly difficult to become thor- 
quainted with it. The author commences with 
-quisition upon iron generally, its history and econ- 



22 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



omic value, and points out that the call for iron has in- 
creased so rapidly since 1900 that if the present rate of 
supply be continued the demand in 19.20 would be 100 
million tons, aud the question is then obvious, where will 
this increased amount of iron come from? It is therefore 
irtant to consider the corrosion of iron, and if means 
are disc, >vi irresl this corrosion, and thereby to pro- 

long ib.' life "i iron, -in immense service would be done 
to the world. The various questions as to the action of 
air and water upon iron air dealt with, and it is pointed 
out that it is not the water vapour in the atmosphere which 
stimulates the corrosion of iron, but it is the condensation 
of ~iuh vapoui to foini drops of liquid water. The action 
of steam upon iron is then discussed, and the various 
theories 1 corrosion are clearly set out. Then comes the 
particulai question as to whether an acid is essential to 

.1.111. and from tins question it is set out that liquid 
water ami oxygen alone are sufficient to effect the corro- 

of iron, but this is probably due to the inclusion of car- 
bonic acid in the air. The author shows that pure water and 
pure air combined are without visible action upon pure 
iii n. tun it is difficult to get the iron generally pure. The 
rate of corrosion of iron exposed to natural forces is given 
attention to, and it has been found that with a large super- 
ficial area of water in which iron is immersed very largely 
extends the rate of corrosion. The flow of water if gentle 
which covers iron is found to very greatly increase the 
rate of corrosion as compared with when the flow is greatly 
increased. The action of various acids upon iron is gone 
into, and it is noted that cast iron which is to resist the 
action of acids should be made of the white variety if 
possible. The alternative is the use of alkalies with iron 
and it is stated that moderately strong solutions of caustic 
alkalies preserve iron from corrosion at ordinary temper- 
atures for an indefinite time. Much other information is 
civen in the volume which forms an excellent summary 
of all the tests existent upon the corrosion of iron or steel, 
and of great use to those interested. 



Cold Storage, Heating and Ventilating on Board Ship. 

By Sydney F. Walker, R.X. Ss. nett. London : 
Constable & Co. 

This is a welcome volume, treating as it does on very im- 
portant subjects, which come within the scope of marine 
engineers to manipulate to the best advantage or suffer 
under when things are not what they should be. Under 
the first heading various systems of refrigeration are de 
scribed, and the methods generally in use for obtaining 
cold are noted with description of the process. A valu- 
able portion of the book is devoted to what are termed 
faults, and here the engineer who is, or may be, called 
upon to take charge of refrigerating plant, will find hints 
to guide him to put his hand upon what is wrong in a 
detail before a serious defect occurs. The portion of the 
volume devoted to heating describes the several systems 
which have been adopted, with the economic value of each, 
so also in connection with ventilation, a subject which for 
many sections of the machinery department, and the living 
quarters of the steamer's staff has not received the atten 
tion which it ought to have. 



Notes on the Practical Duties of Shipmasters. By 

Captain W. Harry Wilkes, Lieut. R.N.R., extra 
master l-'.R. Met. Soc, younger brother Trinity House. 
2s. 6d. nett. London : Chas. Griffin & Co. 

This small volume has been published for the benefit of 
those officers who are looking forward expectantly to occupy 
the position of master, and a study of its pages will cer- 
tainly serve a wise purpose in giving an idea of the 
duties of a master, and help to relieve the awkwardness 
attaching more or less to a new position. The various 
documents necessary in entering and clearing a vessel at 
terminal ports or ports of call, are all enumerated, with 
the mode of procedure in dealing with officials ; hints as 
to the exercise of tact and firmness ; survey certificates : 
advice as to loading and trim, v. ith method of arriving at 
the stability for safe working ; hints regarding bilges and 
ballast tanks, and other details in connection with the 
duties of a master. 



THE INSTITUTE OF MARINE ENGINEERS. 



Visit to Beckton tias Works. 



WE are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Goulden, chief 
engineer of the Gas Light & Coke Co., for the oppor- 
tunity of amplifying, and bringing more up-to-date, 
tin- li,-,, 1 iption o! tin- method of purification of gas as now 
carried out bv the in, ist recent system, termed the " rotation 
system, under which the gas passes through sets of eight 
purifiers each, of winch there are fourteen sets at Beckton. 
Under present-day conditions the gas is divided into several 
Streams through these purifiers, each stream passing through 
two or more boxes 111 series and finally through two catch 
l,o\es. Iii general these purifiers are charge,! with hydrated 
oxide of iron, arranged in layers or wooden grids. In some 
cases manganese dioxide is used instead of oxide of iron. 
In passing through these purifiers the gas is freed from the 
impurity, sulphuretted hydrogen. In some cases some of 
the boxes are charged with slaked lime, the gas passing 
through these before the oxide boxes. The function of the 
lime is to remove the carbonic acid and more particularly to 
reduce the sulphur compounds other than sulphuretted 
hydrogen, the purifying material for coal gas now consists 
exclusively of oxide of iron at Beckton. 



Association of Engineers-in-Charge. — By the courtesy 
of the chief engineer of the London County Council the mem- 
bers of the Association were enabled to pay a visit to inspect 
the important sewage pumping works at Crossness, Kent, on 
July 29th. 

The Machine Tool & Engineering Association, Ltd. — 
This Association has been formed as a result of a meeting 
of machine tool-makers and factors exhibiting at Olympia 
in 1 910. The primary object of the Association was to 
exercise control over the organization and frequency of 
exhibitions, which, it was felt, were being overdone. A 
meeting was held in London with the promoters of the 
exhibitions to be held in 1912 and 191 3, and in consequence 
only one show will be held in 1 9 1 2 , instead of the two originally 
proposed. This show promises to be most successful, and 
at the present date over £5,000 worth of space has been 
applied for. The registered offices of the Association are 
at 104, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Institute of Marine Engineers. — Open Essay Com- 
petitions. — In addition to the essay competitions promoted 
by the Council of the Institute of Marine Engineers for the 
different sections of its membership, an award of £2, in books 
or instruments, or towards the payment of class fees is 
offered to apprentice engineers throughout the Kingdom 
for the best essay on the subject, " Improvements in Work- 
shop Practice in respect to Machinery and Fitting." The 
paper to be the sole work of the competitor, to consist of, 
approximately, 2000 words, to be signed with a nom-de-plwne 
(the name and address of the writer being also enclosed in a 
sealed envelope with the nom-de-plume written on the 
outside), and to be delivered addressed to " The Secretary, 
Institute of Marine Engineers, 58, Romford Road, Stratford, 
London, E.," not later than September ist. 

Messrs. H. E. Moss & Co., in their steamship circular, 
feel confident that the improvement in steam shipping will 
be continuous for some time to come. The large passenger 
companies, as well as those engaged in general trade, have 
done uncommonly well and are well booked ahead. For 
months past the regular lines, in order to fulfil their engage- 
ments, have had to charter a good deal of outside tonnage 
and must continue to do so. Trade in the United States is 
expected to boom shortly and reflect itself, as it always does, 
on Europe and especially England. Prices for new steamers 
continue to advance, being fully 10 per cent, higher than in 
January last. Oil fuel for steamers is now becoming more 
generally adopted, especially by the Navies of the world. 
The internal combustion engine for marine purposes has made 
rapid strides, chiefly for larger cargo steamers than hitherto. 
Messrs. Moss & Co. anticipate great changes and develop- 
ments in the near future. 



August, iqii. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER WD NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



23 



The White Star Line. 



RETIREMENT OF TWO SENIOR ENGINEERS. 




H. C. Boyle, Esq., R.N.K 

TW( ) of the senior engineers of the White Star 
Line recently retired after long periods of sea 
service, and we have pleasure in reprodii' 
their photographs, with a few notes on their careers. 

Mi. J. \V. Alexander is a native of Forfarshire, and 
served his apprenticeship at Dundee, where he was 
born in 1852. Technical schools were not so much in 
evidence fifty years ago as they are to-day, but to those 
who were eager to learn there was no lack of teachers, 
and in Dundee the services of David Hodge — honour 
to him -were at the disposal of young men like 
[. \Y. Alexander, who desired to improve their educa- 
tion by evening study after working hours. At the 
age of twenty he joined the White Stai Line as sixth 
engineer of the Oceanic, and in 1874 was promoted to 
third engineer of the Celtic, transferred to the Adriatic 
in 1877, and promoted to second engineer of the 
Celtic also in 1877. Six years later he joined the 
Britannic as second, and was transferred to the Cufic, 
built at Belfast, in 1888. His promotion to chief 
engineer followed in 1889, when he was appointed to 
the Runic. He afterwards sailed as Chief Engineer 
of the ( ■ ic, Civic, Britanm , 1 • . , and in 

February, 1006, he joined the new Oceanic, thus 
bringing about a coincidence on his retirement in 
April of leaving the service from the new steamer of 




J. W. Alexander, Esq , K N R 

the same name as the old one he entered the service 
in. His continuous sea service covers a period of 
over thirty-eight years, in the course of which he has 
crossed the ocean 912 times, or a distance of some 
3,100,000 miles. Our best wishes are with Mr. 
Alexander and his wife in his retirement. 

Mr. H. C. Boyle was born in Greenock in 1856, 
and served his apprenticeship with Messrs. Rankin 
and Blackmore. When twenty-one years of age 
he went to sea from Liverpool in the Leyland 
liner Ligurian. After obtaining his certificates he 
sailed for a time as chief engineer. Joining the White 
Star Line he was in 1881 appointed third engineer of 
the Arabic, and about foui years later he was trans- 
ferred to the Gaelic. In 1886 he received promotion 
to second engineer on the Adriatic, ami to chief 
engineer of the Runic in [890. Eighteen months later 
he was transferred to the Boric. In [898 he under 
took the course of three months' training at Ports- 
mouth in connection with the Royal Naval Reserve, 
and then rejoined the Bovu . I le afterwards sei ved in 
the Germa • .nine. Celtic, Baltic . and in [907 he 

joined the Adriatic, remaining until his 1 it at 

the end of May. We regret that the immediate cause 
e retirement from sea service is due to want of 
robust health, but trust that a respite from the exac- 



24 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



tions of duty will quite reinstate him in health and 
strength. Mr. Boyle's record of service is not quite 
so long .is that of Mi. Alexander; he has, however, 
crossed the Atlantic 600 times, and has voyaged a 
distance of 1, 800,000 miles. The changes made in 
the engine room and the responsibilities added to the 
engineers during the term embraced by the experiences 
of these engineers, have been many and great, 
embracing electric light, heating and ventilation of all 
passenger accommodation by mechanical means, 
refrigeration, forced draught, high boiler pressures, 
multiple-expansion engines, and other improvements 
carried out with a view to the greater comfort and 
additional luxury of passengers, as well as to the 
more efficient economy in carriage and means of 
transit. 

The managers of the White Star Line, Messrs. 
Ismay, Imrie & Co., as a mark of appreciation of the 
successful service of these two gentlemen, presented 
each with a solid silver inkstand suitably inscribed. 



Industrial and Trade Notes. 



THE CLYDE AND SCOTLAND. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 

Shipwrights' Wages. — The wages paid to, and the hours 
worked by the members of the Associated Shipwrights Society 
vary considerably in different shipbuilding districts, and for 
some time the shipwrights on the Clyde have been paid, 
generally speaking, from is. 9d. to 2s. 3d. per week less than 
those of the North-east coast of England, while their week 
has been slightly longer. Efforts at equalizing the rates to 
some extent have for a considerable time been made by 
the workmen ; and in a conference with the employers, held 
in Edinburgh on 12th ult., it was agreed that Clyde ship- 
wrights should be granted an advance of an eighth of a penny 
per hour as from July 26th, and another similar advance as 
from October 26th. The two advances will raise the aver- 
age rate paid in the district from £1 17s. lid. per week to 
£1 18s. 3d. per week. 

Six Months' Tonnage Output. — The tonnage output on 
the Clyde for the first six months of the year reached a figure 
which is the best on record with the exception of that for the 
corresponding period of 1906, which was swelled considerably 
through the launching of the Cunard Company's leviathan 
steamer Lusitania and the British battleship Agamemnon. 
The half-year's aggregate amounted to 309,850 tons and 
included such notable items as the battleship Conqueror, 
22,500 tons ; the P. & O. liner Medina. 12,500 tons ; the 
Orient liner Orama. 13,000 tons; the Shire liners Argly shire and 
Shropshire, each of 11,000 tons ; the Booth liner Hildcbrand, 
10,000 tons ; the New Zealand Shipping Co.'s liner Remuera, 
1 1,200 tons ; the Anchor liner Cameronia, 10,500 tons ; the 
Union Castle liner Gloucester Castle, 8,000 tons, and the 
11. M. cruiser Yarmouth, 5,258 tons. 

New Contracts. — Since the advent of July, fresh shipbuild- 
ing orders have been neither plentiful nor of the first impor- 
tance, although the period has not so far been altogether 
barren, and fresh work is known to be pending. The following 
are the most important contracts which have been booked 
since the writing of last month's notes, given for the most 
part in the order in which the firms securing the contracts 
are found located on the river. 

Messrs. The Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
Ltd., Govan, have been commissioned by the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Co. to build two new " Empress " steamers 
for their Atlantic service. The distinguishing feature of these 
vessels will be their speed, and their horse-power is expected 
to be 45,000. 

Messrs. Alexander Stephen & Sons, Linthouse, have re- 
ceived an order from the Compagnie Beige Maritime du 
Congo for a steamer of 7,500 tons deadweight. 



Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., Whiteinch, who are .it present 
building an oil-engined steamei have received an order for 
anothei steamer of a similai type, but larger and more power- 
ful ii "in the East \ siat ie Co. 

Messrs. Mackie & Thomson, Govan, have contracted to 
build ,1 small steami r for 1 he 1 leneral Steam Navigation Co. 

Messrs. Napier & Miller, Old Kilpatrick, have received 
an order from Canadian owners to build an ice-breaking 
steamei of 1.600 tons, and about 260 It. in length. 

Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd., Clydebank, according 
to the remarks ol the chairman, Sir Charles McLaren, at tin- 
annual meeting of the company in Sheffield, in order to place 
themselves in as favourable a position as their great rivals 
for taking orders for foreign warships, have been compelled 
to increase then capital. It was in this direction they were 
looking for the future prosperity ol the Company. Although 
the orders on hand were large, they were really kept back by 
the difficulty ol getting enough skilled labour. Last year they 
delivered eleven vessels. They had at present in hand the 
Aquitania for the Cunard line — the largest vessel ever laid 
down, and for which they had almost to reconstruct their 
shipyard, the Australia, the " Dreadnought" cruiser for the 
Commonwealth, the Orama for the Orient Line, two steamers 
for the Federal Line, the cruiser Southampton, three destroyers 
for the British Navy, a yacht, and the machinery for the 
Queen Mary, one of the largest of the new " Dreadnought " 
cruisers. He hoped the Admiralty would take a more gener- 
ous view of the great armament works like their own. Share- 
holders put millions of money into these concerns in the 
belief that the Government departments would cordially 
support them, and it was a matter of great surprise to him 
to find that the Admiralty and the War Office rather took 
the credit for cutting down prices and getting work done 
for next to nothing, when they ought to feel that it was their 
duty to support them on fair terms and to give out orders 
fairly all round. The most recent order received by Messrs. 
Brown & Co. at Clydebank is for a powerful and splendidly 
equipped steam yacht for the Duke of Bedford, the order 
having been placed and the designs prepared by Messrs. 
G. L. Watson & Co., of Glasgow. 

Messrs. Wm. Denny & Bros., Dumbarton, have received 
an order from Messrs. Cowans, Sheldon & Co., Carlisle, to 
build the boats for two 150-ton floating cranes, intended to 
be worked in conjunction with two " Dreadnought " floating 
docks at present being constructed. The cranes will be the 
largest of their kind in the world, and will each lift a working 
load of 150 tons at a radius of 90 ft. They will be tested 
with a load of 200 tons at that radius. The boats on which 
these cranes are to be erected will be 177 ft. long, 80 ft. 
beam, and have a draught of 14 ft. They will have twin 
screws, and with the weight of 150 tons on deck will have a 
speed of j\ knots. 

Messrs. Wm. Hamilton & Co., Port Glasgow, have received 
an order from Messrs. Grace Bros., London, to build an Isher- 
wood type steamer of 8,000 tons. 

The Greenock and Grangemouth Dockyard Co., Greenock, 
have received the contract for an oil-carrying steamer which 
the Anglo-American Oil Co. recently (as already recorded in 
these notes) placed with Messrs. D. J. Dunlop & Co., Port 
Glasgow, the recent loss of whose principal, Mr. David J. 
Dunlop, has necessitated the transfer. 

The Clyde Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Port Glasgow, 
have contracted to repair the extensive damage sustained 
by the Egyptian cruiser Abd-el-Mouazu through stranding 
on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. 

Messrs. G L. Watson & Co., naval architects, Glasgow, 
have placed, along with larger contracts elsewhere noticed, 
one for a twin-screw motor yacht with Messrs. McGruer and 
Co., Clynder. Intended for a Clyde owner, she will be 
56 ft. long and have steel frames and teak planking and deck. 
The interior fittings will be of walnut and mahogany. Her 
twin screws will be propelled by paraffin engines of 26 b.h.p., 
estimated to give the vessel a speed of nine knots. 

Messrs. Hawthorn & Co., Ltd., and Messrs. S. & H. Morton 
and Co., Leith, both of which firms have carried on business 
at that port for over a century, have completed arrangements 
for the amalgamation of their concerns. The yards will 
continue to be occupied and staffed as at present. 

The Caledon Shipbuilding Co., Dundee, have contracted 
to build two steamers for Messrs. Elder, Dempster & Co., 



ST, I'll I. 



THE MAklNK KNlilXEEK AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



25 



Liverpool. Th H in length, and are 

intended foi the West African coasting trade. 

Messrs. Mackay Bros., Alloa ived an order, from 

South American owners, to build a 600 I >er. 

Messrs. A. Jeffrey & Co., Uloa, have obtained .1 contract 
from I. en. inn owners in! two 50 i"n barges. 

Shipyard Purchase. — The Inch Shipbuilding Works, Port 
« hit h, until his demise about two months ago, were 
carried on 1>> Mr. I>. J. Dunlop, ba\ onditionally put 

chased by Mi. Donald Bremner, until lately commercial 
partner in the Clyde Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 1 td 
Port Glasgow, and previously with the nun of Messrs. John 
Brown & Co., Ltd., Clydebank 1 1 ■■ Inch work were estab- 
lished by M 1 ■ Dunlop in [871, and consist of 

shipyard, engineering shops iking and repairing 

works; and it is Mr. Brenmer's intention to form a In 
liability company to continue and develop the business in 
all its branches. 

New Rolling Mill at Parkhead. — Messrs. Win. Beardmore 
and Co., ParkheadForgeand Steel Works, < I I irted 

into regular work a new rolling mill for armour plates of the 
largest size, which is believed to be ■ t in Great 

Britain. The firm 1 rable success in the 

manufacture of their own patent 111 armoui plates, large 
contracts having recently been secured from the British 
Government. The width of plate which the new mill will 
be able to produce will be about 1 ^ ft. 6 in., this meaning an 
addition of about three fi-ei to thi usual width of plate rolled 
by the ordinary mills. Scum- time ago the firm also com- 
pleted a new smelting shop for the preparation of the heavy 
ingots required for guns and armour plates. The largest 
ingots run up to 90 tons required for the [3-5 guns. The 
new smelting department consists of six furnaces, four of 
which are capable of taking charges of 60 tons ; the other 
two being of smaller cap 

Shipyard Appointments. — Commander W. H. Wood, 
engic manager, and Mr. John Paterson, chief 

tanf to. Mr. Luke, shipyard manager, have been appointed 
local directiors at the Clydebank works of Messrs. John Brown 
and Co., Ltd. Mr. W. R. (,. Wilson, who for upwards of five 
was yard manager to Messrs. Robert Duncan & Co., 
Port Glasgow, has been appointed to a similar position in the 
Hebburn-on-Tyne yard of Messrs. Palmer & Co.. and took 
up his new duties at the end of July. 



THE TEES AND HARTLEPOOLS. 
m out 1 >wn 1 1 nl.) 



Messrs. Blair & Co. keep very busy with work on hand, 
they are reported to have secured several contracts for local 
steamers and some building on the \\ 

Whitby. 

Messrs. Robinson's Steamship Co., Ltd., have recently sold 
the s.s. Duke 0/ York, of 3181 gross tons, with engines 24 in., 
39 in., 65 in. by 4.' m. stroke to foreigners for about ,£25,000. 

Middlesbrough. 

Messrs. Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., Cleveland Dockyard, 

keep very busy having a good amount of work on hand, and 

it is rami iu xpect to secure an order for a large cargo 

1 tor Liverpool owners. 

Messrs. W. Harkess & Co., Ltd., are very busy ; they have 

|u-t uri id two small steamers ol about 

I ft. long I' 'l Ml I I l( in; ,1- 1 ,'. 1 ■'., I IV. t pool. 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co. continue to be very 
busy. rhey ai 1 to have recently secured several 

is for foreign account, both land anil marine, be 
being busy in then - r 

Messrs. Smith's Dry Dock Co., South Bank, continue . 
I ive also secured contracts to build and • 

mall stea ft. long for Messrs. I 

Dei 1 1 verpool. 

oi the late J. W. Watson have : 
the s.s. Gertrude, of tdweight, to British 

owners. 

Trade in the district is considerably disorganized owing 
to sectional strikes m the various shipyards. 



Stockton and Tnornaby. 

Messrs. Richardson, Duck & Co. continue to be fairly busy 
with work on hand ; ted to haven 1 ured 

the order to build a medium 

Messrs. R. Ropner & Sons are fairly busy ; they are re- 
ported as having seemed the contracts to build two medium- 

1 Watts, Watt & Co ■ ■■■ 1 

that they w.ll now be bu to come. 

Messrs. Craig, Taylor & Co. report nothing new during 
month, but are fairly busy and expect to secure an order for 
a cargo steamer reported as being 111 the mai ! 

West Hartlepool. 

Messrs. W. Gray & Co. continue to be very busy, launching 
lei nearly every week ; they have recent d the 
tract to build a cargo steamer of about 5,700 tons dead- 
weight for Messi Bros., London, also a cargo steamer 
for Mi 1 rrei hman, shipov net -- ol this port. 

Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Harbour 
1 »oi kyard, continue to be very busj and are reported to have 
secured the contract to build a small cargo steamer for 
. 11 owners. 

The Central Marine Engine Works oi Mes irs. W. Gray and 
Co. are very busy in all departm. nts , thej have secured the 
contracts to supply both engine and boilers lor the several 
steamers to be built by their firm. 

Messrs. Herskind & Co. have recently sold the s.s. lona. 
of 2,050 gross tons, to Greek or Russian owners, for about 
£8,5C.o. 

Hartlepool. 

Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Middle-ton 
Yard, keep very busy in both the new work and repair de- 
pai tinents. They are report d as having secured the contract 
to build a large cargo steamei for Liverpool owners. 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., continue b 
very busy. Besides the work on hand they are reported as 
having secured both contracts to supply the machinery foi 
the cargo steamer, to be built by Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding 
and Dry Dock Co. They also have several large con- 
densing plant installations on hand, their system of 
" Contraflo " condensation giving great satisfaction. 



THE HUMBER AND DISTRICT. 



(From our Own Correspondent.) 

THE shipping trade of the port is just now reco\ 
itseli alter the prolonged strike of sailo a and 

dockers. Owing to the action of the men in not 
discharging perishable cargoes many loads of fruit had to be 
taken to the Corporation destructor. \t the time of writing 
the Hour mills are still closed down. 

\i a ne. tiny oi the Dumber Conservancy Hoard Works 
Committee. .1 li ttei was lead trom the Admiralf 
contemplate the establishment of an oil-fue! installaf 
facing the river l tuml 1 a short distant e from Kill 
extending riverward ol the river lines, and a jett o It. 

long, 10 ft. wide, with a T-head 200 fl i provided. 

C. Pickering, Esq., J. P., principal of the firm oi Messrs. 
Pick' H ildane, tr.i \ rs, ol Hull, has presented 

a park of 52 acres and has also had houses built on the • 
at the entrance to the park, for old fishermen and endowed 
same. The park is beautifully laid out with la) < 
bridges, etc., and th utrance cost £1000. 

An elter tor the use ol seamen and fishermen is 

about to be built on the south coast of Iceland. The scheme 

II in hand, over £^Hi has been raised, and the COD 
will shortly be commenced. The need of these sir 11 
unfortunately only too well known to Hull fishermen ; since 
1898 about forty trawlers have been wrecked on the treacher- 
ous low-lying coast, and | ough 
the native, are vei I have given succour to 

many fishermen, wh ould have perished, many 

weary miles have to be tramped before 

and oftentimes shipwrecked crews have undergone 
terrible privation-. 

Earles' Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. — This 
firm are keeping fairly busy with new and repairing work. 



20 



111K MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. August, 1911. 



The latest addition to the Wilson Line fleet, R.M.S. Bayardo, 
underwent her trial trip on Saturday She if .1 beautiful lined 
steamer with .1 cruiser's stern, which will, it is said, diminish 
vibration, and will be under the command oi .1 well-tried 
servant in the person oi Captain Soulsby, late of the R.M.S. 
laro, and the machinery is in charge oi Mr. Woodhead, for 
many years chief engineer in the Wilson Line mail steamers. 

Hull Central Dry Dock and Engineering Works, Ltd., 
have been fairly busy during the last month on the following 
steamers, s.s. TangernlBnude, s.s. Fredheim, s.s. Shad Thames, 
s.s. Emma, in the Company's Graving dock, and have also 
had the Alexandra Graving Dock engaged. Several of above 
steamers have had extensive repairs, and opening out of 
boilers and machinery for Lloyd's survey. A number of 
other steamers have been under repair. 

Goole Shipbuilding and Repairing Co., Ltd., have been 
very busy on repair work on several Goole steamers and 
others. They have been successful in booking a contract to 
build a steamer tor Leith owners, 220 ft. long and with a 
speed of 12 knots, for a large powerful tug boat for the 
Wilson Line of Hull. Orders and a coasting steamer for 
Xorth-east Coast owners have been booked. This yard has 
been very successful in securing orders for new steamers 
and repair work under the directorship of H. Craggs, Esq. 

Messrs. Amos & Smith, Ltd., Engineers and Boilermakers, 
are working night and day to compete with their orders. 
Further orders tor boilers and machinery for trawlers, etc., 
for delivery next year have been booked. The outside 
start have not been quite so busy lately owing, no doubt, to 
the late strike. The steam hopper barge lately launched 
by the Blyth Shipbuilding and Dry Docks Co., Ltd., for the 
North-Eastern Railway Co. has had powerful machinery 
supplied by this firm. 

Messrs. Woodall & Co., engineers and boilermakers, have 
been employed on the s.s. Dunstad, boiler repairs, etc., and 
the s.s. Loma has had extensive repairs carried out on deck 
and engine-room. The works are fully employed completing 
orders for their patent handiblocs. 

Messrs. Cooper & Co., Ltd., engineers and boilermakers, 
Neptune Engine Works. — The pattern, moulding and boiler 
shops of this Company are fully employed and they have some 
very expensive repair work now going on in the docks on 
several steamers. The branch shop at Alexandra Dock and 
the graving dock in the old harbour, have been well booked 
up, and are still well employed. The public graving docks 
belonging to the railway companies have been engaged by the 
firm, to execute their work. 

Messrs. C. D. Holmes & Co., engineers and boilermakers, 
are exceedingly busy building boilers and machinery for 
trawler owners for Grimsby and Hull, and their patent 
compound winches for trawlers. The branch shop at Alexan- 
dra Dock has also been kept busy. 

North-East Coast Engineering Works, Ltd., have been 
working on the following steamers, in some cases requiring 
very extensive repairs — s.s. Esperama de Larrinaga, s.s. 
Tcmpus, s.s. Harmony. The s.s. A ridani is now undergoing 
heavy repairs, viz., new rudder, propeller and several plates 
in bottom have to be dealt with. This establishment is now 
in a position to contract for any heavy damage repairs and 
execute same with despatch, their machinery in their works 
is up-to-date and can handle any repair work. 

Thomas Tate, engineer, boilermaker and ship smith, has 
had a fair month of repairs in foreign and coasting steamers, 
viz., the Austrian steamer Marina, s.s. Taffy, s.s. Flyda, 
retubing boilers and several minor repairs on coasting and 
local tug boats. 

Messrs. Cochrane & Sons, shipbuilders, Selby, are still 
contracting orders lor coasting steamers, trawlers, drifters, 
but cannot guarantee delivery this year. Several of the 
departments are working overtime, to complete orders. 

Messrs. Cook, Welton & Gemmell, Shipbuilders, Beverley, 
have launched four vessels this month. The yard is very 
busy and orders still come in. 

Messrs. Stuart & Craig, engineers and boilermakers, have 
been fairly employed on the following steamers and sailing 
ships ■ — S.s. Penlee, s.s. Gyda, s.s. Svea, s.s. Orlanda, s.s. 
Miranda, tug Stanley. The above steamers have had engine- 
room and stokehold and some deck repans. Sailing ships, 
Gantocd Rock, Mezley, Queen Elizabeth, Charles Gounod. 
Deck repairs, donkey boiler repairs and new water tanks, etc. 



SOUTH OF ENGLAND AND ISLE OF 
WIGHT. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 

Messrs. J. Samuel White & Co., Ltd., East Cowes, I. of W. 
— H.M.S. Ferret. — Good progress lias been made with work 
on this vessel, and it is expected that her official trials will be 
completed early this month. The vessel is a torpedo-boat 
destroyer, and the lust vessel oi last year's programme. 

On the 8th of last month the Royal Motor Yacht Club 
held their regatta off Netley. The programme consisted 
of five races. The competing boats, several racing for 
the first time this year, included Zigorella, Nigella, Sylvia 
and Maple Leaf III. The first race was won by 
Mr. T. Thornycroft's cruiser Shoveller, the hydroplane 
Sylvia being second and Nigella third. The Sylvia 
won a handicap on the American tournament style, beating 
Shoveller, Zigorella and Shrimper in the order given. In a 
handicap for boats exceeding 10 knots Meteorite and Hip 
secured first and second prizes respectively. The weather 
conditions were ideal for racing, and the programme was 
one of the most interesting ever carried out by the club. 

Southampton Harbour Board. — At the usual monthly 
meeting of the above held on the 18th of last month it was 
decided to accept provisionally the tender of Messrs. Henry 
Lovatt, Ltd., London and Wolverhampton, for the recon- 
struction of the Town Quay. The highest tender was 
£19,822, the lowest being Messrs. Lovatt's, which was £14,391. 
This tender was accepted subject to the detail drawings of 
the proposed reconstruction being approved by the Board's 
engineer. 

Messrs. Day, Summers & Co., Ltd., Northam Ironworks, 
Southampton. — Last month this firm shipped two new boilers, 
which they have constructed for the s.y. Capercailzie, 772 
tons, and s.y. Sea Snake, 108 tons respectively, and are now 
busy with a new boiler for the s.y. Invincible, 451 tons, to the 
order of the owner, Mr. Herbert Squiers, of New York. The 
s.y. Alberta, 1322 tons, which has been lying at her mud 
berth at the Company's yard for about eighteen months, has 
been sold by Messrs. Little & Johnston, and is now fitting out. 
The s.y.'s Matador, 233 tons, and s.y. Latona are fitting out, 
and the s.y. Schievan, 440 tons, has taken up a mud berth 
and will lie up. The firm have just received the order from 
the P. & O. Co. to convert their steamer Somali into a troop- 
ship for the approaching trooping season. 

Repair Work. — Considerable repairs have been carried out 
on the Tilbury Dredging Co.'s dredger Mercurius, and also 
to one of the large hopper barges. The cable ship Minia 
and the United States training ship Ranger have also 
been under repair. 

Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., Southampton. — 
H.M.S. Ariel. — The boilers were shipped on board this vessel 
last month, and the deck closed up and riveted. The sister 
vessel, the Acheron, was launched on the 27th June, and the 
following particulars apply to both vessels. Both vessels 
are of a special type included in the 1910-11 programme, and 
built to the firm's design — Length b.p., 251 ft. 9 in. ; beam, 
26 ft. 4 in. The propelling machinery consists of a twin set 
of turbines of the Parsons type, designed to give a speed of 
29 knots. Steam is supplied by three large water-tube 
boilers fired by oil fuel. The armament consists of two 
4-in. and two 12 -pounder guns, and there are two torpedo 
tubes. 

Armoured Motor Patrol Boats. — The first four of these 
boats have been under trial, and two have been shipped to 
their destination. Good progress is being made with the 
remainder. An order has just been booked for two twin-screw 
steam tugs for the Autofagasta & Bolivia Railway Co. The 
keel of the first boat is already laid, and the second will follow 
at an early date. Repair work. — A number of troopships 
have been in the firm's hands for refitting, and the repair 
department generally has been well occupied. The usual 
number of small jobs have gone through the shops. 

New Development in Torpedo-Boat Design. — It is an- 
nounced locally that the Admiralty have placed an important 
order with Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft & Co., Southampton, 
for a special type of torpedo boat, the propelling machinery 
of which will embrace internal combustion engines in com- 
bination with turbines. The internal combustion engines 



August, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER ANT) NAVAL ARCHITEl !. 



27 



will take the place- of the reciprocating steam vhich 

have hitherto been employed in many in I duty 

of propulsion at cruising speeds. The turbine, as is well 
known, is not suited for this duty, owing to the great falling 
off in efficiency .it the slower speeds of revolution wh< n 
ing. Ii tins new departure be .1 success it will have a 
very far-reaching effect upon torpedo boat design. 

The White Star Company. — The Adriatic, artei i 
ilry docked, left Southampton for Liverpool last month, and 
in future Liverpool will be her home port. She ha 
placed by the Olympic. .1111 1 the service will be run bytbethrei 
vessels, uix.. Ohm;: and Oceanic, ft is rumoured 

tint the Majestic will follow the Teutonic m the Co. 's Canadian 
service after the .irnval of the Titanic. The new sailing list 
prepared by the Company only allows the vessels three days 

m port at each end of thl ■■■ hereas previously a 

was allowed. 



THAMES. 

{From our Own Correspondent.) 

The Shipping Strike. — The outstanding feature of the 
past month has been the crisis in the shipping ti 
Primarily the demand is for an increase in the dockers' wages 
of 2d. an hour to 8d. and is. per hour for overtime instead 
of 7d. Conferences have been held at the offices of the Port 
of London Authority, but the results are not satisfactory. 
Meanwhile at the Surrey Docks thiee hundred men acti 
came out, which at once showed itsell in the shape oi 
of business in the trade, ships being held up both outwards 
and inwanK. \s regards seamen and firemen concessions 
have been made. The Atlantic Transport Line, which 
consists of a large fleet and employs a numerous body of men, 
were enabled to adjust what difficulties they had very satis- 
factorily, the demand of the men for a representative to be 
present at the paying off of a ship being agreed to. Another 
company which was able to settle points of disagreement was 
the General Steam Navigation Co. As regards the dockers, 
the position of the Port of London Authority is that this 
body employs between 7000 and 8000 men, and therefore 
the Chairman, Lord Devonport, is presiding over the 
joint conferences which include shipowners, wharfingers, 
master lightermen and the National Transport Workers 
Federation. The employers have agreed to increase the 
6d. rate to yd. and overtime at ad. as against 6d. It seems 
likely that on these general lines there may be hope of a 
settlement. In the meantime there are no actual men out, 
the dispute at the Surrey Docks being settled. 

St Paul's Bridge. — The question which has been in dispute 
for some time as to the line this new structure should take 
has been settled and the Corporation's original proposal 
agreed to. This means that instead of approaching the south 
of the Cathedral in the centre, the road will pass to 
the east of the building, and the bridge across the river 
will not be on the skew, which the alternative proposal 
would have caused it to be. On the whole the result 
seems satisfactory and it will be possible for the bridge to be 
built in masonry, whereas on the skew principle it is put 
forward that steel would have had to be used. 

The Marine Society. — The anniversary meeting of this 
society has been held on board the War spite, where there are 
now 246 lads in training. Among the company at this 
function was the president, the Karl of Romney. Admiral 
Sir N. Bowden-Smith, the Bishop of Rochester and the 
Hon. S. E. Marsham. 

MERSEY AND MANCHESTER SHIP 
CANAL. 

( From our Own Correspondent.) 

C 1 iNSIDERABLE new work has been put into the water 
during the past month, both Admiralty and merchant 
tonnage. Enquiries have been fairly numerous, 
including some new destroyers work for the British Admiralty. 
The Mersey had quite a fleet of large steamers lying at anchor 
during the strike, which, fortunately for this port, was 
happily of short duration. 



Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co. — Work continui to be very 
brisk in all the works, the wet basin at 

present containing no less than fitting out. H.M.S 

ler to submarine depot ship, was launched on 
June 12th. 1 in 1 the first of a new type of vessel, and with 
her 1 1 n will have a smart appearance. More than 

usual into rest was manifest at this launch, due to tie 
of the Colonial delegati these vessels have clipper 

stems, long bridge and tor. castle deck and have two m 
I leir principal dimensions are — Length, 190 ft.; breadth, 
32 it. 6 111., and depth to upper deck, of 17 ft. Officers 

ters are placed amidships, while there is an 1 
workshop aft of engine-room. A large electrical installation 
supplies (lower for the workshops, ship's lighting, search- 
lights, wireless telegraphy and charging the batteries on 

nes. Triple-expansion engines are supplied with steam 
from two water-tube boilers, in separati tokeholds undei 
the closed stokehold system, giving the vessels a speed of 
about 13 knots. On July 15th the Argentine destroyer 
Tucuman was launched, the christening ceremony being per- 
formed by Senora Trueba, the wife of the lieutenant-com- 
mander of the vessel. This is the fourth vessel of this type 
now building, the San Luis, Santa Fe and Santiago are now 
undergoing trials and outfitting. The British destroyers 
Lapwing and Lizard are nearing the launching stage, while 
the Moating dock is showing its huge proportions above the 
11111 1 dock in which it is being built. The powerful tug 
ordered by the Port of London Authority is now in frame, 
a number of shallow draught barges and lighters are ready 
for shipment abroad. The Norwegian steamer Bucentaur is 
still in dry dock, the whole of the tanks for carrying oil having 
been removed. The Isle of Man steamers, Empress Queen 
and Prince of Wales have also been in for repairs, etc. 

Messrs. Clover, Clayton & Co. — The various dry docks 
belonging to this firm have been kept busy with a large 
range of work. The Ravonia, which ran on the rocks at St. 
Ives Head and was later beached for temporary repairs, was 
brought to Birkenhead and placed in dry dock and has had 
extensive repairs successfully carried out. 

The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. — The Liverpool 
City Council at their meeting on the 5th ult., passed a re- 
solution conferring the freedom of the city upon Mr. Robert 
Gladstone, the late chairman of the Dock Board. Mr. 
Gladstone was elected a member of this body on Jan. 3rd, 
188 1, and was appointed chairman on 21st December, 1889, 
which position he held until the 26th January, 191 1, during 
which tune some ^8,000,000 was spent on works. 

The world-famous " Nimrod " left the Mei ey on July 
5th for Dudinsha, Siberia, on her business-pleasure cruise 
under the command of Captain T. Robinson. The owner. 
Captain V. Webster, intend tudying the commercial needs 
of this part of Siberia, and to this end is taking out a special 
cargo of goods suitable for that part of Russia. 

The "Olympic." — This vessel passed Plymouth on the 
4th Julv on her return voyage, when she carried 2,275 pa 

and beat her outward speed, making an average of 
22 knots. 



NORTH WEST OF ENGLAND. 



(From our Own Correspondent.) 

Barrow-in-Furness. — July was an eventful month it 
Barrow in the sense that not only was a Chinese cruiser 
launched from the yard of Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., but that 
Admiral Togo paid a visit to Barrow, where his flagship the 
Mikasa was built, and where there is now under construction 
a Japanese battleship cruiser, which is larger than the same 
class of vessel, the Princess Royal, now being fitted up in 
the same yard for the British Admiralty. Barrow aroused 
itself to the importance of duly recognising Admiral Togo's 
visit, and not only was this naval hero well entertained by 
the linn, but by the Mayor of Barrow as well. The Admiral 
was accompanied by two 

Tone. Barrow has already built two warships for Japan, and 
nother on the stocks, and has also built submarines and 
other naval features, and is now building engines for sub- 
marines which are being built in Japan. There is every 
prospect of further orders from Japan, and in Barrow t 

very large contingent of Japanese gentlemen who are 



28 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. August, 1911. 



serving their apprenticeship with the Vickers' firm, or are 
inspecting the work which is being done for the Mikado's 
navy. 

A Chinese Training Cruiser. — There was launched from 
the Barrow yard on the 14th July a training cruiser for 
China, and although this is only a comparatively small 
lieved it will be the forerunner ot other ships 
red i"! 1 hina's ai « navy. The principal dimensions of 
the ship jusl launched .are — Length between perpendiculars, 
!. , breadth moulded, 23 ft. 9 in. ; mean draught, 13 ft. ; 
displacement about 2500 tons, speed about 20 knots. Sin- 
in armament of two 6-in. quick-hring guns, one carried 
on the forecastle deck and one on the poop deck ; four 4-111. 
quick-tinug gun.-, placed on the upper deck, two at the aft end 
of the forecastle, .uu\ two at the fore end of the poop ; two 
14-pounder quick-firing guns, one on each end of the upper 
amidships ; six 3-pounder quick-firing guns, three 
carried on each side of the upper deck in the waist and 
two impounder quick-firing guns placed on the bridge. 
Shi is also fitted with two iS-iu. revolving deck torpedo 
tubes, one on each side of the upper deck aft. The design 
has been made by the Vickers' firm with the view of enabling 
the ship to be instrumental in giving knowledge of the work- 
ing of modern warships by the Chinese. 

H.M.S. "Dartmouth." — The scout cruiser Dartmouth is 
now on her trials on the Clyde. It is expected she will 
prove an even greater success than H.M.S. Liverpool, built 
at Barrow, and that she will be one of the fastest vessels in 
the navy. 

H.M.S. "Princess Royal." — The greatest possible activity 
is observable on this vessel, which is being fitted up in the 
Buccleuch Dock, Barrow. Her boilers and engines are being 
fixed, and the thousand and one incidentals of a great war- 
ship are being attended to by all the general trades employed. 
Efforts are being made to get her ready for her trials early- 
next vear, notwithstanding the delay occasioned by the 
boilermakers' lock-out. In this respect Messrs. Vickers, 
Ltd., are thoroughly well equipped with every up-to-date 
appliance to ensure celerity of production, and they have 
great resources at command which are being employed to 
ensure smart completion of the vessel. 

The Montreal Floating Dock.— Quite an army of men 
are already employed in the construction of this dock, which 
has to be ready for delivery early next year, when the St. 
Lawrence is free from ice. The Vickers' firm are now deliver- 
ing to the Canadian Government a powerful tug boat built 
at Barrow. 

Premium Bonus and Overtime. — There is a movement 
among the engineers in this district to do away with premium 
bonus, but a majority of the men in Barrow are against it, and 
so are the masters, as they say they would have to double 
their workshop accommodation if the men returned to time 
work. The boilermen are also agitating against working 
overtime, but the majority of them are not in favour of any 
change. 

Engineering. — The engineering shops are very busy and 
full of orders, and both in the marine and gun mounting 
departments great activity prevails and is likely to continue. 

Haematites. — The haematite iron trade is very quiet, and the 
output has had to be reduced. Prices are lower at 63s. for 
makers' iron and 61s. 3d. for warrants cash. 

Shipping.— Exports of iron and steel have fallen off con- 
siderably. There is a decrease of over 108,000 tons compared 
with the corresponding period of last year. 



REVIEW. 



Brix-Bootsbau. By Akademischer Verein Hiitte and Wilhelm 

Ernst Sohn, Berlin. Price 9s. 
This is a 4th edition of " Praktischer Schiffsbau Bootsbau", by 
the late A. Brix, formerly Privy Councillor to the German 
Admiralty. The book deals mainly with small craft and 
contains a general description of boats such as are used by 
the Navy, mercantile marine, yachts, lifeboats, pilot boats, 
and boats for communications, trading and sport. There 
are sections dealing with the designing, construction and 
building of boats, the machinery for equipping the same and 
maintenance. The book deals very exhaustively with the 
whole subject matter and has 328 illustrations. . 



LAUNCHES AND TRIAL TRIPS. 

LAUNCHKS-English. 

Stockport. — On May 15th, the last of the five steamers 
ordered from Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
Ltd., Hull, by the Great Central Railway Company, for 
quick passenger and cargo service between the ports of 
Grimsby and Hamburg was launched. The principal 
dimensions are: Length, 205 ft.; breadth, 36 ft. extreme; 
depth, 18 it. 6 in. niuulded. The vessel is constructed of 
steel, and has been built under special survey to Lloyd's 
100 Ai class, Board of Trade latest rule, and in accordance 
with the German Emigration Laws, and the Hamburg 
Harbour Authorities requirements. She is of one-deck 
type, with poop, long bridge, and topgallant forecastle. 
There is ample accommodation for passengers — state-rooms 
for about 100 first-class are arranged in a commodious 
house on the bridge deck, with several four-berth cabins 
on the main deck. A special state-room of large dimen- 
sions, fitted up in luxurious style is provided on the main 
deck amidships. Rooms for about 10 second-class pas- 
sengers are arranged under the poop. The third-class 
passengers, about 300 in number, will be berthed in fore 
and after 'tween decks. The arrangement and fittings 
of galleys, pantries, etc., are thoroughly up-to-date, and 
include all the latest improvements. The vessel is pro- 
vided with all necessary cargo gear for rapid loading and 
discharge, and will be fitted with a special type of steam, 
hand, and telemotor steering gear. A complete installa- 
tion of steam heating, electric lighting, bells and telephone 
will be fitted. 

Kina. — On May 15th, there was launched from the Nep- 
tune Works of Messrs. Swan, Hunter and Wigham Richard- 
son, Ltd., the Kina. The vessel is being constructed to 
the order of Det Ostasiatiske Kompagni, of Copenhagen, 
and is intended for their service between the Far East and 
Europe. She is 385 ft. in length by 53 ft. beam, and is 
designed to carry 8,200 tons deadweight. She is being 
constructed to attain the highest class in Lloyd's Register, 
and will be a cargo vessel of the highest class. Her 
auxiliary machinery is of the most modern and improved 
description, and there are very complete arrangements for 
working the vessel and for loading and discharging her 
cargo, including 12 steam winches and electric light. The 
propelling machinery consists of a set of triple expansion 
engines, supplied with steam by four single-ended boilers. 
Both engines and boilers are being constructed at the Nep- 
tune works. 

Orangemoor.— On May 16th, Messrs. Wm. Doxford & 
Sons, Ltd., launched from their yard at Pallion, Sunder- 
land, a turret deck steamer built to the order of Messrs. 
W. Runciman & Co., Newcastle. The dimensions are: 
Length, 306 ft. ; breadth, 51 ft. ; moulded depth, 2b£ ft. 
The deadweight of 7,100 tons is carried on a moderate 
draft. Messrs. Doxford have supplied the engines and 
boilers. The classification is with Bureau Veritas. 

Barrowmore. — On June 13th, Messrs. Richardson, Duck 
& Co. launched from their yard a finely modelled steel 
si rew steamer of the following dimensions : Length over- 
all, 375 ft. ; breadth extreme, 50 ft. ; depth moulded, 26 ft. 
8 in. ; gross tonnage about 3,730 tons. This vessel, which 
has been built to the order of Messrs. Wm. Johnston & 
Co., Ltd., of Liverpool, will take the highest class in 
British Corporation Registry, and has been built under 
special survey. She is of the single deck type, with a 
tier of main deck beams on which a sparred wood deck 
will be fitted. The erections are poop for cargo, bridge 
amidships with accommodation for captain, officers and 
engineers in houses on bridge deck, and topgallant fore- 
castle for crew. A cellular double bottom throughout and 
peak tanks are fitted for water ballast, and equipment in- 
cludes electric light throughout, six steam winches (five 
fitted with Wilson's patent chain drive), double derricks 
throughout, including two 12-ton derricks, derrick tables 
and cross-trees on masts, steam windlass with quick warp- 
ing ends, stockless anchors, steam steering gear, etc., etc. 
The engines, by Messrs. Geo. Clark, Ltd., Sunderland, 
have cylinders 24 in., 40 in., 67 in. by 45 in. stroke, steam 
being supplied by two main and one auxiliary single- 
ended boilers, having a working pressure of 180 lbs. 
Messrs Wailes, Dove & Co.'s Bitumastic Enamel was 



August. 1911. 



THK MAKIXK KXGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 






applied t.. tin- bunkers, tank tops, bilge pockets, and th< 
cellular double botl 

Isleworth Oi |ui 14th, Mi rs Ropn< 1 1 Ltd . 

Stockton-onTees, launched from then shipbuilding yard, 

a stc : the following dimensions, viz. : 

; breadth, ;-• ft ; depth, 30 ft. 3 in. I hi 

will b. • 1 lyd's, having 

deck, poop, bridge and T.G. forecastli \ mmoda 

aptain, offii 1 1 s and engineers in 
deck, crew in forecastle The vessel has 

built to the oid. i ol Mi 1 - Britain 3 

Ltd . London '■! Watts, Watts S I o., 1 td . 

the supen ision ol Mr. \\ . V. 1 

London. She will be fitted with double bottom foi water 

ballast on the cellular print iple, all lore and aft, and 111 

ks, and fully equipped with an up-to- 

ling quick warping stea Mass, 

gear amidships and 

powerful ir aft, 1. win h 

pliances for loading and 
discharging cargoes expeditiously are verj , and 

include eleven steam winches, double derricks to 1 
hatch, steam being supplied by a large donkey b 
working at 120 lbs. pressure per square inch. The <n 
will be of the triple expansi Blair & 

■ es, of about 2,200 I.H.P., having 
boilers 15 ft. in. by 11 ft. 6 in., 180 lbs. steam 
pressure. 
San Mateo. Wood, Skinner and 

Ltd., successfully launched from their shipyard at 
Hill Quay-on-Tym 1 11-r win- h has been 

built by them to the order of Mr. Otto Thoresen, of Chris 
tiania. The vessel is a \n Andres, 

■i> ted by the builders for the same owner. 

She has tw mplete . the upper one being 

sheathed with wood. Water ballast is provided in the 

ind aft and in after peak 
tank. The vessel will be specially fitted with all the most 
modern arrangi fruit carrying for which trade she 

is intended. The propelling machinery has been con 
strutted and will be fitted b I The North I 

Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., of Wallsend-on-Tyne, and 
is of the latent improved triple expansion type, supplied 
with steam by three large multitubular boilers working at 
a hmli pressure under forced draft. Both the ship and 
the engines have been constructed to the requirements and 
under the special survey of Det Norske Veritas for their 
highest classification. When completed the San Mateo 

will be commanded by Captain lierbom, of Christiania. 
Chenab — At Birkenhead there has been launched a new- 
er for Messrs. James Nourse. I td . ol Liverpool and 
London. The vessel, which was named Chenab, has been 
illy designed and constructed for the carriage of 
lies beween Calcutta and the West Indies. Her 'tween 
decks run unb : nd aft. On the main 

deck specially prepared houses have been erected, and 
• will be fitted up as a hospital and dispensary for the 
medical treatment of the coolies. The Chenab is a vessel 
of 3,005 tons gross, 2,200 tons nett, and 5,000 tons dead- 
weight carrying capacity. 

Yorkton. — There has recently been launched at Sunder- 
land a single-decked steamer, which has been specially 
built for the Canadian I and which is to take 

the highest .lass n. British I '.rporation for this trade. 
The leading di are: Length b.p., 250 ft.; breadth, 

42 ft. 6 in. ; and depth, 1S ft. 6 in. Deck-houses are 
placed aft over ma. hinery, with sun-di . and over 

the topgallant forecastle is fitted a Texas house. The 

titted with 
in bulk, and is built with det ever frames in order 

ise with pillars ["hi main engine's are by the 

North Eastern Mai ti • ering Co., Ltd., Sunderland, 

and have cylinders 17, 28, and 46 in. in diameter, by 
33 in. stroke, steam being supplied by two large boilers 
working at a pressure of 185 lb. per square ini h The 
vessel has beei ted to the order of Messrs. J. & 

J. T. Matthews, of Ton ada. 

Minster. — On June 27th, tl 
shipbuilding and repairing yard of' P. Austin 4 

Ltd., the 1 Lloyd 

urvey, bur dei of M< 

in Clarke & Co., of London, and being the seventh 



im. ted by them foi thi 

designed • lit on a light 

draught ot water, and is specially adapted for thi 
coal trade, in. luding large water balla that 

m all kini thei . 

I he will be supplied by the Nortl 

, Ltd., the da I: ma. hinery, im lud 
1 win. li.-s and steam windla irke, 

, Ltd. ; St. 1 mkin and 

Co., and steam will be supplied 1 m a Cod 

(Annan) multitubular donkey boil 

seamless flllll.. 

Armora. On June 27th, Mi Osb aham and 

Co., launched from their yard at Hylton the steel screw 
steamer Armora, which they have specially ted to 

the order \] a n 

She is a single deck. by 40 ft. i£ in., by 

20 ft. 8 in. moulded, with poop, long bridge and foreca 
Built to carry about 3,300 tons on a shallow draught, she 
takes Lloyd's highest class and has deep bulb angle fram 
absolutely clear holds, large hatchways capable of 
enabling the largest class of machinery to be shipped and 
harged in a prompt manner. ['hi vith 

the most modern appliances for economical and qui. k v. 
ing of cargo, and has an ample outfit of derricks and 
winches capable of lifting 10 tons. Water ballast is 
throughout double bottom and in both peaks, 
launch the vessel proceeded direct to the works of the N.E'. 
Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., at Sunderland, to receive 
her machinery, which has cylinders 21 in., 34 in., 56 in., 
'< (6 m., with two large boilers driven at [80 lbs. pressure. 

Siamese Prince. On June 28th, the Siamese Pr, 
built to the order of Mr. James Knott for the Prince I 
Limited, was launched from the yard of the Sunderland 
Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. The leading dimensions are : 
Length, 410 ft.; breadth, 54 ft. 4 in.; and depth moulded 
- ,s tt. iin. She is classed 100 Ai Lloyd's, and has com- 
plete shelter deck, with 'tween decks below running right 
fore and aft. The ordinary quarter pillars have been 
pensed with by an arrangement of tubular pillars widely 
spaced. Ample provision is made for water ballast in 
cellular double bottom, both peaks, and also in deep tank 
at after end of machinery space. The loading and dis- 
charging facilities are of a special character, 16 derricks 
being fitted on mast tables and four on derrick posts for 
the purpose of working the six hatches, and a 30-ton der- 
rick is also provided to work from either mast. The deck 
machinery consists of 12 steam winches, steam steering 
gear fitted up at after end of engine room, and direct steam 
windlass, the whole being worked by a large horizontal 
donkey boiler situated inside the casing. A hand steer- 
ing gear is fitted in deck-house aft. Accommodation is 
provided on top of shelter deck amidships for 12 pas- 
sengers, together with captain, officers and engineers, 
whilst a commodious saloon is tastefully fitted' up in pol- 
ished hardwoods. The crew and petty officers are situated 
under shelter deck aft. A room for carrying mails and 
specie is fitted up in a large store room underneath shelter 
deck amidships. A complete installation of electric light 
is fitted throughout the vessel, and the accommodation is 
provided with stea 1 . and an efficient sanitary ser- 

vice. The main engines are by the North Eastern Marine 
Engineering Co., Ltd., Sunderland, and have cylinders 
27 in., 4; in., and 74 in. by ;i in. stroke, steam being 
led by three large boilers working at a pressure of 
180 lbs. per square inch, which are fitted with I 

1 arrangements. Messrs. Wailes, Dove and 
Bit applied to bin 

Faci, Meknassi, Marakchi, & Lord Salisbury.— On 

June 28 and 29th, there were latin, hed from the yard of 

Sons, Selby, three 
steamers for French owners and one steel s rew trawler 
II vners. The vessels will be replete with all the 

' improvements f..r the trade for which they art 
tended, and will be fitted with powerful triple 1 

mith, Ltd., and Messrs C. 1 1 

II lines & Co., Ltd., of Hull. 

LAL'NCHRS Scotch. 

Den of Airlie On June 27th, tl I at 

Pi rt Glasgow a cargo steamer named Den of Airlie, for 






THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. August, [911, 



- ndee. Hei dimension 
11 , breadth, 54 ft. -■ in. ; 
moulded depth, 29 it. 2 in.-, with .1 gross tonnage ol 5,2 
She has been fitted £01 a limiti .1 numbei oi pa engei 
and will have a sheltei deck. Messrs. Wailes, Dove and 
Bitumastii 1 ovei in il to tank top 

in engine and boilei rooi and th 11 Bituma itii I'm. mi. I 
akers, etc. 
Clan Macnaughton On hm. 28th, Messi Uex 

. i, s Sons, 1 '.1 . I.. mi. hed a large finelj modelled 
screw steamei for the Clan I. me. She has been con 
st rue ted t.. British Corporation requirements, hei dimen 
sions being: Length, 430 ft.; breadth, 53 it. f in.; depth, 

. to sheltei dei k. 1 11 1 for the Eastern trade, 

equipm. I derrii ks, in. luding one of 40 

tonS] .1 numbei oi powerful winches to facilitate 

the handling oi hea Bi ides having .1 cellulai 

.1. uble bottom, ilir vessel has .1 deep tank amidships cap- 
able of carrying 1,600 tons watei ballast. A complete 
installation oi electrii light has been fitted, also Bow, 
McLachlan's -nam steerin amidships and a hand 

aft, fitted with I, vail'- patent brake. The machinery, 
which has also been supplied by the builders, consistsof aset 
- tripli expansi n engines, having cylinders 29 in., 49 in. 
,.n,l v. in diameter, with a stroke of 60 in., and supplied 
with steam from three large single-ended boilers fitted with 
Howden's forced draught. Messrs. Wailes. Dove & Co.'s 
Bitumastic Enamel ha- been applied to bunkers, etc. 

Halifax. — 1 In June 29th, there was launched from the 
yard of Messrs. Napier & Miller, Ltd., Old Kilpatrick, 
the double screw ferry steamer Halifax, built to the order 
of the Dartmouth Ferry Commissioners, Dartmouth, Nova 
S. oti'a. The dimensions of the vessel are : Length, 125 ft. ; 
breadth. 4S ft.; depth, 13 ft. lin. ; with a toss tonnage of 
about 600 tons, built under the rules of Lloyd's Register 
for their highest class. The vessel has a complete main 
deck with promenade and awning decks above, three 
watertight bulkheads, and has been specially built for 
ferry service between Dartmouth and Halifax. Accommo- 
dation for passengers is arranged in large deck houses on 
ea h side of main deck, with a driveway in the centre of 
ship for wagons and teams. The vessel has been fitted 
with electric light throughout. Machinery is being sup- 
plied bv Messrs. Aitchison Blair, Ltd., Clydebank, and 
consists ' of two sets of compound engines and two navy 
boilers. 

Orama.— The Orama, the latest addition to the fleet of 
fine mail and passenger vessels owned by the Orient Line 
was launched at Clydebank on June 27th, by 
Messrs. John Brown & Co., Limited. The Orama 

is the sixth liner built for the Orient Line within the past 
three years. The leading particulars of the Orama as 
compared with the Orsova, which was launched at Clyde- 
bank in 1909, are as follows : Orama— Length over all, 
569 ft.; length b.p., S50 ft.; extreme breadth, 64 ft.; 
depth from shelter deck, 42 ft.; depth from chart-house, 
84 ft.; gross tonnage, 13,000 tons; speed, iS knots. 
Orsova— Length over all, 553 ft.; length b.p., 535 ft.; 
extreme breadth, 63 ft. 3 in. ; depth from shelter deck, 
46 ft. ; depth from chart-house, 80 ft. 9 in. ; gross tonnage, 
12,036 tons; speed, rS knots. Accommodation is provided 
for about 450 first and second-class passengers, and over 
630 third-, lass. The owners have planned the vessel sc 
that there will be a large number of berths on the promeiv 
ade, bridge, shelter, and upper decks. The rooms will 
be large and airv, so as to be suitable for the Australian 
trade. On the after end of the promenade deck there will 
be a first-class smoke-room and verandah lounge. For- 
ward of this there will be a range of one-berth first-class 
state-rooms, and at the forward end there will be the 
lounge and writing-room. The after bridge deck will be 
used as a third-class promenade space, and the central 
bridge deck will be divided between the first and second- 
class" On the after end of this deck the second-class 
smoke-room and music-room will be situated, while imme- 
diately below, on the shelter deck, there will be a good^ 
sized 'third-class smoke-room and music-room. The first 
and second-class dining saloons, for r88 and 178 passengers 
respectively will be on the upper deck. Three holds and 
one 'tween deck space forward have been insulated for 
perishable cargoes. The hull has been built throughout 
in conformity to Lloyd's highest class, and is sub-divided 



b\ 1.. watertight bulkheads. The propelling machinery 
will drive tuple screws, ami will consist .'t a combination 

..1 reciprocating engine- ami turbines. Th.' Orama will 
have two independent sets ..1 four-crank inverted, recipro 
eating, triple expansion balanced engines working in con 
junction with a low pressure turbine. The cylinders will 
be oi -•;-'. in. and ,|j in., and two at 47 in. diametei respei 
lively, with a stroke ol 54 in. Strain will In- supplied 
by two double ended an.l five single-ended cylindrical 
boilers worked 1111. lei forced draught, an.! constructed £01 
a working pressure ..I 215 lbs. The boilers will be 
arranged in two boiler-rooms between watertight bulk 
heads, an.l with coal bunker- at either sicfe. 

Wollongbar. Messis. The Ailsa Shipbuilding Co., 
Troon, launched the twin screw steamer Wollongbar. on 
I une 30th. The vessel is E01 the North Coast Steam 
Navigation Co., Sydney, N.S.W., and a distinguished 
pary of Australians was present at the launch, including 
ilir Right Hon. Andrew Fisher, Premier ol Australia, the 
naming ceremony being performed by Mrs. lisher. The 
vessel, which is the largest ever built by the Ailsa Co., 
and the largest in the service of the owners, is 285 ft. long 
b.p., 40 ft. broad, 25 ft. deep to awning deck, and was 
designed by Mr. Charles McAllister, the company's marine 
superintendent. She is classed with the British Corpora- 
tion Registry for passenger costal trade, and has a.. 

modation for about 300 passengers. The machinery, being 
supplied by the builders, consists of two sets of triple 
expansion, balanced engines, with four cylinders, 29 in., 
48 in., 56 in., and 56 in. diameter respectively, and a 
39 in. stroke, capable of giving a speed of 18 knots. The 
Marquis of Ailsa, in proposing " The North Coast Steam 
Navigation Co.," traced the history of the Ailsa Ship- 
uilding Co. from its inception by one of the Dukes of 
Portland almost a century ago, and pointed out that 
formerly in wooden shipbuilding and latterly in iron, the 
company had an honourable place in Clyde seafaring 
annals." Mr. Hendry, of Paton & Hendry, Glasgow, 
. agents in this country of The North Coast Steam Naviga- 
tion Co., suitably replied for the owners. 



LAUNCH-lrish. 



Chelohsin.— On June 29th, there was launched at Dublin 
a twin-screw passenger steamer for the Union Steamship 
Company of Vancouver. Her dimensions are 175 ft. 
between perpendiculars by 35 ft. moulded breadth by 
22 ft. 6 in. to the awning deck. The vessel is fitted with 
electric light, searchlight, steam heating, electric fans, 
and all modern appliances for the comfort of passengers, 
and to meet the special requirements for service in the 
waters of British Columbia. The machinery will be sup- 
plied from Belfast, and will consist of two sets of triple 
expansion engines of about 1,500 horse power, and capable 
of driving the vessel in her loaded condition at a speed 
of 14 knots. 

ZealandiC— On June 29th, the twin screw steamer 
Zealatidic was successfully launched at Belfast by Harland 
an.l Wolff, Ltd. The new vessel, which has been built 
for the White Star Line, for the Australian and New 
Zealand service, is 477 ft. long by 62 ft. 9 in. beam, and 
about 8,000 tons gross register, and has been specially 
designed for the trade. She will have very large cargo 
capacity in six holds— two for general cargo and four 
holds insulated for carrying frozen cargo. The deck 
machinery and appliances for working ship and cargo 
are of the most complete and approved type, there being 
in addition to the steam windlass, 19 steam winches and 
21 derricks. The steering gear is of Harland & Woltts 
well known make, and is capable of being worked by 
telemotor from the flying bridge. The refrigerating 

machinery is placed at the after end of the engine roonv 
The vessel is lighted throughout with electric light, and 
is fitted with electric bells in saloon, state-rooms, captain s 
room, smoke-room, and chart-room. There will be accom- 
modation for a number of first-class passengers, with a 
comfortable saloon, smoke-room and state-rooms; and a 
feature of the ship will be the accommodation specially 
arranged for over 1,100 third-class passengers in enclosed 
rooms? with space on shelter deck arranged for third-class 



Augu st, 1911. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AM) NAVAL ARCHITECT. 






smoke-room and dining room, and also a third-class ladies' 

.1 provision that will doubtless be mm j 
The propelling mai binei 

expansion engines on the "balanced" principle. Mi 
Wail)--. Dovi 1 Bitun ti Covering 

applied to holds, tank tups, etc. 



BOARD OF TRADE EXAMINATIONS. 



igu 



TRIAL TRIP5. 

Kina. -On June i6th, the new steamer Km.i sailed from 

of a very satisfactory trial 

trip. The steamer has been built and engined at the 

Neptune Works of Mi Swan, Huntei 8 Wigham 

1 of Det Ostasiati ske Ki mpagni, 

a, and is intended foi theii lim 

hi is of the shi Iti i 
:t. in length, by 53 ft. beam, and will i 
i tons deadweight. She has b attain 

the highest .lass of Lloyd's Register, and is in every waj 
a su| argo steam. most modem typi Thi 

propelling machinery ..insists of a set of triple expan 
engines, supplied with steam by four single-ended boilers. 
all constructed at the Neptune Works. On the trial trip 
everything worked without a hitch, giving at) 
all concerned, and propelling the vessel at a speed 

ly 13 knots. The owners were represented on the 
trial trip by their superintendent engineer, Mr. Wittrup, 
whilst the builders were represented by theii din 
Mr, 1 ; . I '. Twi 

Orangemoor. On [unc 16th, the turret 
Orar built and engined by Messrs. Win. Doxford 

and Sons, I'd . Sunderland, to the order of the M 

Line, Ltd. (Messrs. W. Runciman & I astle, ran 

a successful trial. ["hi 

broad, and of 264 ft. moulded depth, can 
deadwi derate drat 

Birchfield. On June 17th, this large and finely 

[oseph I.. Thompson 
1 1I1. \.,i tli Sai .building \ aid, Sun 

derland, was taken on hei official trial trip. The trial 
was thing working 

ilily and giving the utmost q. The ov 

1 bj 1I1. ]. nd( in. \l 1 . 1 . Rogi 

ei whose personal supervision the ship and engi 
have bee! i.d; and the engine builders. Ml 

John Dickinson & Sons, Ltd., by Mr. J. A. Bowden. Sei 
Launi hes, June. 

Oreland. — On June 17th, thi 1 earner Or, 

1 by The Northumberland Mnpbuilding Co., Ltd., 
1 1 iv. don-on-Tyne, to the ordei if Messrs. Norcur. 1 
Limited (Fred Drughorn, Ltd., London managers), left the 
Tyne for hei official trial trip. The 1 ed in 

way sal and a speed of 11 knots was 

obtained. See Laum hes, June. 

Harpalyce On June .nst. this handsoi 
steamer, built by Messrs. William Gray & Co., Ltd., to 
J. .v C. Harrison, Ltd., of London, 
her trial trip. A speed of ij knots was atl 
ne-. running smoothly and well, and the pi 
of ship b.mg entirely satisfactory. The vessel 

to Cardiff to load. See Launches, July. 
Mary Baird I In I um 26th, 

Hair J . built I i 1 Ltd., 

St. I. ktoi ..I Messrs. J . W. Baird 

for the Baird Ship; 1 , Ltd., Wi pool, 

was taken to sea foi her trial trip, which proved I. 
satisfactory. During the wl the run 1 

worked with il ' smoothne 

run- a E Ilj knots was attained. 'I he OV 

as being ven hi with 

the ship and ■ Immedial the trial, the 

ed to West Hari 
1 aptam G. H. nches, July. 

Henrik On |ulj 5th, the tine screw sti nrik, 

built by Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., Ltd., •.' I eland 

ird. Middlesbrough, ti Bruus 

I, Kiosten 

1 for her official trials. The tn 
essfully, and the vessel, undei 
T. K. Simonsen, proceeded direct to Blyth. See Lam 
July. 



4th i ' A 

le, J . 

4th- Sargeani 

4th 

1 1 tii — McDonali 
isili Bennett, II 
[8th Brannon, B 

iC denotes First Class : 2C Second Class 



Ex iC N. Shields 
Ex iC Liverpool 

:ow 
Ex iC N. Shields 
Ex iC London 
Ex iC London 
Ex iC London 



April 20th, 191 1 



Agar, J A 

Alexander, W S 

d, S. F. .. 

Allen, J 

Anderson, J 

I ...... 

Calder, J . 1 1 

Carter. J 

Cormack. (', 

Cossar, J 

Crozier, C 1 1 
Da G. W. . . 

e, W II .. 
'■ I 

CJ 

Furneaux, \\ I ■; 
Gilford, AC... 

I rlennie, J 

Goodall, J 

Grainger, T 

K 1 

I I irner, II 
Jones, I'M 
Kay, II S .... 

Mi I e id, W 

Markham, A . . 

Marks, T 

Nelson, H 

Oliver. T \V ... 

I 'ark. H 

I S 

Quigley, K 

Kappa, EC. 
Redhouse. A I 
Reed. AH .. 
Ronthwaite, H. 
Rutter, W. J. .. 
Slater, C W .. 

Todd. I) " 

Waddell, I. P 

Ward, A 

Watson. E. A... 
Watson. I' R . . 

Watt. A 

Wignall. W. .. 
Wilson. T II .. 
Yates, G 



iC London 
2C Glasgow 
2C London 
2C South'ton 
2C Glasgow 
iC Liverpool 

iCN Shields 
2C < .lasgow 

2C W Hart 1 
2C N SI 
2C W Hart 1 
21 N Shields 
2C Car.lilt 
1 1 mdon 
irdiff 
tC Livi 
2C Cardiff 
2C W Han I 

eith 
2C W 
iC Card ill 

.■rpool 

' ith 
2C N 

iC Cardifl 

2C Liverpool 
2C N Shields 
tCN Shields 
2C Liverpool 

iC Glasgow 
erpool 

I : 

iC London 
iC London 
iC N. Shields 
iC Liverpool 

1 don 
2C South'ton 
iith 

i igow 
Shields 

erpool 
2C Leith 
iC Cardifl 



iril 27th 

Armit, 1 . 1 '■ . . j> ' Aberdeen 
Auld. C A .... 2C Aberdeen 

Barron. G 2C Sunderl'd 

Bowden, W .. iC Bristol 
Bowman, H. .. tC London 
Brown, I . . .:C Sunderl'd 

Cursiter, | 

Dalgarno. W . . 1 > 
Dettmar. | II [C 1 
Gilbertson. 1 

T iC Bristol 

I ! -enock 

W \ . . ii ' .reenock 
1 

lane. W iC B 

McKelvey, G.W. 
McKenzie, M 2C I '.reenock 
McKersie. J. .. iC Londn'ry 
McWhirter, G. 2C Liverpool 



... 

ile, J 

O'Neill, J 
Phillips, j E . 
rtson. A. . 
Rodger, R. C. 
Scorgie, G. C. 
Smith, H. ... 
■ V. 

I 
Whyte, |H 



2C Hull 

rdeen 
2C Greenock 

erpool 

rdeen 
iC Greenock 
■ rdeen 
iC Sunderl'd 
2C London 
2C Greenock 



May 4th. 



Ansell C. N. .. 

od, S. C. 

on, C. E 

Bird. J 

Boalch, H 
Brawley. W 
Campbell. J 
Canning, I 
1 1 ivies, 1 1 I 

I lavies, J W . . 
English, A E 

iith, [ \ 
Greig, W 

II , A 

Heppel, T D... 
Jones, K F 
Jones. W I 
Kelly. T. S 

. W A . . 
M I uhlan. R 
T 

e, C. A 
Morgan, F 

n, M. T. 

,F I 

O' Donovan, G 
O'Keeffe, W . . 
Orchard, G A 

rson, E H. 

m, H C. . 

Ham, A R 

Rigbv. W I 
Rowe. W 

ison, K A 

Scott, J M 

Scott. 
Shaw, \ I 

Steuart, T 

1 
Warv, ick, G 
Wheeler. H B 

th.W. 
Williams, R 
Williamson. S. 



iC London 
2C Cardiff 
2C Sou; 
2C N. Shields 

iC ( ardiff 
2C Glasgow 
2C N. Shields 
I . erpool 
2C Liverpool 
2C Cardiff 
iC Glasgow 

21 leith 

iC Glasgow 
iC London 
iC London 
iC Cardiff 
. 1 

irdiff 
2C Liverpool 
2C N Shields 
•.<" N SI 
iC N. Shields 
2C N Shields 
iC Glasgow 

erpool 
iC South'ton 
iC Leith 
2C Cardiff 
iC South ton 
2C London 
2C Liverpool 
iC Liverpool 
iC Glasgow 

isgow 
■ .lb 
iC London 
iC Gla 

bields 

nields 
iC South'ton 

.rpool 
iC Cardifl 
2C London 



1 ith 



■■ \ .... 

Aiken. E 

.J 

• ID 

II 

Gallov 
Greenaway, W, 



enock 
Shields 
ibields 

.don 

i.iclds 
iC Hull 
2C Hull 

rpool 
iC Greenock 
iC Liverpool 



32 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



August, 1911. 



Hamilton. | M !< I nndon 
Heriot. \ M • ■ ->' 1 ondon 
Hoffmann, F . . iC Liverpool 
\ .... u' 1 ondon 
D ... iC N Shu-Ids 

Lulham, W ...•<' I 

1 vim, V iC 1 

\ ... zC G reenock 
,-. 1 .... 2C Greenock 
Mitchell. W .. iC 1' 

, I iC N. Shields 

\ 2C N. Shields 

Phillips, R. 1. .'i Dublin 

w .... iC N Shields 
Sanderson, K .. A' N. Shields 

'.en, J. B. iC London 
Stenhouse, D...2CN Shields 
1, G .... iC Liverpool 
\ . . 2C Liverpool 

M.u [8th. 

Aitken. C 2C South 'ton 

Burn. W 1CN Shields 

Caley, F 2C Liverpool 

Cameron, J .... ^C London 
Chatterton, II 2C Liverpool 
Cummings, L . . 2C W.Hart'l 
Dagg. W iC N Shields 



I lishington, f.G tC ( Glasgow 

is \ iC London 

1 .... .'I ' I IVI'I pool 

Fyall, r -t'l on. ion 

Hamilton, R . . 2C Cardifl 

II irrow, W. . . iC Glasgow 
Henderson, T. iC Glasgow 

1 [olthusen, I 2C London 

Howard, G 2C \\ II. ml 

Innes, J. 2C Gla 

|eiiiie, F 2C N.SI11. Id: 

Liimsden, D. .. iC Leith 

M. Kay, C 2C N. Shields 

Moloney, J. E. iC London 

Oxberry, J 2C N. Shields 

Pe irson, B 2C N. Shields 

Petrie, C 2C W. Haiti 

Prydie, J 2C Glasgow 

Ridley, J 1 C Glasgow 

Service, J 2C Cardiff 

Smith, A 2C Cardiff 

Stalker, E iC N. Shields 

Stevenson. \Y 2C Leith 
Thompson, A. iC W.Hart'l 

Turner, J 2C South ton 

Watts, F 2C Liverpool 

Winfield. J. .. 2C South'ton 
Young, W iC Glasgow 



I Ik- turbines are arranged to drive dynamos 6, the waste 
water passing to a tank c which supplies tin circulating water 



The Marine Engineer and Naval 
Architect Patent Record. 

Comfiled by Messrs. E. P. Alexander &■ Son, Chartered Patent 
Agents, 306, High Holbom, London, W.C. 

5487. Thrust Bearings. End-thrust in both directions 
on shafts of turbines, centrifugal pumps, dynamos, ships' 
propellers and other machines is relieved by discs for each 
direction of thrust, acted upon by fluid under pressure, 
arranged on the shaft so as to increase or decrease the thrust 
on the discs automatically bv the axial movements of the 
shaft. Discs D, E on the spindle W are acted on by fluid 
supplied to the pipe F, which passes through passages between 
the fixed partition H and the cylinder C fixed on the shaft. 















vvA' D 






w\sSc23' H 




1 


cT-;| \ 




J 






,1 




' 


, 






V 





As the shaft moves axially by unbalanced end thrusts, the 
passages ;, I are opened and closed, and fluid enters the 
chambers bounded by the discs D, E more or less freely. 
At the same time, the' passages k, m are closed or opened and 
allow the fluid to escape to the pipes G, and thus the axial 
pressure on the disc D is increased and that on disc E is 
decreased if the shaft moves to the left and a thrust in the 
reverse direction is balanced by increased pressure on the 
disc E. 

6127. Ships. Power, obtaining from ship's way. — In 
plant for obtaining auxiliary power from the motion of a 
ship, a bell-mouthed pipe d at the bow opens into branch 
pipes h in which are turbines a backed by thrust bearings c. 




for the condensers. Each of the pipes h is fitted with a con- 
trolling valve and a by-pass /, also fitted with a valve, leading 
directly to the tank :. 

6646. Turbines. — In marine turbine installations, the 
steam passes through one or more impulse stages followed 
by a reaction sect on, whence the fluid passes through further 
impulse stages before delivery to the lower pressure reaction 
section or sections. A four-shaft installation comprises 
high-pressure turbines a, b, low-pressure turbines c, d. and 
cruising-turbines e, f. the latter consisting of impulse sections 
g, h. and reaction sections k. in. The turbines a, b may also 
be provided with impulse stages followed by a reaction 
section. Under cruising conditions, steam is supplied from 
a pipe o to the turbine e, and afterwards flows by a pipe n 
to the turbine /, in each case passing through both impulse 




and reaction sections. On delivery from the turbine /, the 
steam is passed in any desired manner through the remaining 
turbines. In the example shown, it passe- through a pipe p 
to a branch pipe 7, whence it is delivered to the port and 
starboard sets in parallel. When the turbines a b are pro- 
vided with impulse stages, arrangements may be made for 
admitting live steam to the turbines e, t in parallel when 
required. In cases where an impulse section receives live 
and exhaust steam alternately, or both simultaneously, 
double sets of inlet nozzles are provided. For high speed-, 
steam is admitted direct to the turbines a, b, the turbines 
e, I running idle. 



September, ton. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



33 



The Marine Engineer 

And Naval Architect. 
LONDON, SEPTEMBER, iqii. 



NAVAL I NGINI I RS 

Till present trend of education, relatively to naval 
rs in the navies of Great 
mi ai!. 1 the I nitc d Status of \iiM-ii, a, is 
receiving attention from other countries than those 
domestically interested therein. We note that in an 
article on "Naval Engineers" in the naval annual, 
" Jane's I is," writti well-known 

writer on naval matters, Mr. Charles de Grave Si 
the question of the "universal type" of naval engineer 
tin discussed, and the views of the Italian Naval 
Authorities are set out. A special commission was 
appointed by the Italian Minister of Marine to con- 
si, lei and report upon the matter, and the conclusion 
arrived at by this tribunal is well worthy of serious 
ation. It was unanimously agreed that the entry 
into the navy and the earlier training of naval officers 
and engineer officers ought to be uniform for both, 
but the feasibility or desirability of the "universal 
type" of officer was decided in the negative. It is 
pointed out that a change of such a radical nature 
should not be made unless absolutely indispensable in 
the interests of the service, and this cannot be shown 
to be the case, for the experience of using machinery 
for over fifty years past has certainly shown evidence 
that the difficulties in the service are such as not to 
justify any such change. The nature of each class of 
officer is clearly defined from which the conclusion as 
to the efficient performance of duties is deduced. It is 
pointed out that the chief engineer's duties are execu- 
lequiiiiiij apacity and technical ability ; he 

must be a thorough specialist in the working ol the 
engines and all relating to them, and one in whom the 
commander can place the greatest reliance. Such 
specialization can only be attained in the most complete 
manner by avoiding the unnecessary military nauti< al 
studies. Comparing these duties with those ol the com- 
mandei oi a vessel it will be found that of the latter there 
is one of a very specialized kind, as he ought to know- 
how to employ in the fullest possible way the po 
of the vessel he commands. In him you must have 
one who has I the science of government, he 

must be highly educated in both naval and military 
ni. liters, and from the commencement of his service 

t develop the capacity ol I 
more important responsibilities as time goes on. 
knowledge must be universal, and hence he cannot be a 
specialist in any one of the subjects of which he is 

nizant. For example, he ought to ha 
knowledge of navigation, artillery ami torpedoes, but 
he ought not to be a hydrographer, a gunner or a 
t orpedo engineer in the strict sense of the word. It 



is beyond contention that it is possible to con- 
centrate in one single person all the technical and 
id all the intellei tual and moral 
qualities which are needful to fulfil indifferently tin- 
dutie ami commander. These views 

expressed by the Italian Ministei ol Marine, are 

lutely identical with those of a large number of 
thoroughly practi< al naval engineers of experience, and 
the larger the experience the stronger the convii lion 
that it is foolish to attempt the impossible task of 
i ramming into one human frame an 'amount ol 
-pec ialistic knowledge which three or four such 
organisms could not effectively retain. There is an 
old savin- that an engineer is born not made, and tin 
idea of telling off a man to be an engineer would 
seem to indicate that the propounderof the suggestion 
was ignorant of the basic features of capacity and 

ii e. Mr. Sells' view, that the only way to secure 
thorough efficiency is for the two branches to be 
restricted to the two professions respectively seems to 
us to be the sound one, and the greatest care should 
be taken in watching the new line of development as 
far as the British Navy is concerned. 

LABOUR UNREST. 

Till', recent upheaval in the labour market is a 
matter for the most serious consideration of 
those who watch the change in the economic 
conditions that obtain from time to time and appreciate 
the effect that they must have upon the life and prosper- 
ity of the nation. The past three or four years have 
n the development of an attitude by the labour 
element which every level-headed man must look on 
with much misgiving. There is little doubt that the 
inilammatory utterances of political speakers, the 
promises made of great benefits to be granted with no 
sacrifices, and the ambitious policy of the labour 
agitator are largely, if not wholly, responsible for the 
demoralization that has taken place as shown by the 
want of appreciation of the responsibilities of labour 
as a national duty. The striking of first one class of 
workers and then another without notice, and some- 
times without an\ tion of grievance is a most 
disquieting feature affecting the welfare of the nation. 
The so-called "leaders" of the workmen belonging to 
unions have lost all control of those whom they were 
elected to lead, and the incidents of the recent strikes 
show clearly what was made quite patent in the ship- 
building strikes of last year, that whatever agreement 
the leaders make on behalf of the men, the men 
expect the employers to abide by the terms while 
they can tear up the . Qt whenever they like. 
The trouble at the root of the matter is that the 
unions, which represent in most cases only a minority 
of the workers of each class, have been striving 
get recognition of the right to represent the whole of 
the workers of the particular trade, but this is clearly 
unfaii and unju I to the majority of the workers who, 



34 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, 1911. 



by their own volition, have decided not to join a union 
or to be represented thereby. Looking at another view 
of the matter from the standpoint of the liberty of the 
subject, it is a most unwarrantable thing that a 
minority of workers in a business, like a railway, 
should attempt to paralyze the life of the nation with 
twenty-four hours' notice of cessation of work, and to 
carry out their ifitention with menace to the public 
safety, involving the necessity of calling out the mili- 
tary to control the transit of food and other necessary 
goods. The Government are to be congratulated on 
the firmness they have shown in dealing with the situ- 
ation, particularly by their efforts to bring the opposing 
parties into the zone of practical discussion of the 
matters at issue, and by the appointment of a Special 
Commission to collect evidence and report upon the 
work of the Conciliation Board. One may express a 
hope that the statesmanship shown will put an effec- 
tive stop on the welfare and prosperity of the nation 
being interfered with by those who are paid to pull 
down rather than build up, on the false cry of benefiting 
those for whom they pretend to speak. 



Gratitude and Kindly Feeling. — It is worthy of note 
that recently a workman who received an injury was treated 
in the Western Infirmary, Glasgow, and, after being dischai ged 
cured, returned to his employment. Shortly afterwards he 
called at the ward and gave £2 to be spent on something 
for the ward which would help to alleviate the sufferings of 
any patient. Subsequently he made another visit to the 
hospital, and stated that his employer had treated him so 
kindly and well that he was pleased to be able to give ^5 to 
the funds, and expressed at the same time his thanks for the 
treatment he had received in the ward. 

The Solicitude of a Board. — The result of a recent 
action brought by the Board of Agriculture against the 
master of a steamer for having on board an Eastern sheep 
which had in the course of the voyage sniffed the atmosphere 
of a restricted French port, was opportune and a cause for 
congratulation inasmuch as the law on the subject by common 
sense interpretation was against the restrictive and narrow 
view of the Board's officials. It is right and necessary that 
importation of animals with disease or suspicion of disease 
should be guarded against, but in the case referred to and 
probably in similar cases there was, according to the report 
given of the case before the court, no intention beyond pro- 
vision of food for the crew on board, besides the animal did 
not hail from a restricted port. There may possibly be a 
reason for the view taken by the Board in its solicitude for 
the safety of the public health, and it may be a rational 
and commendable one, but this does not show in the report 
of the trial or the finding of the court. 

Institute of Marine Engineers. — Proposed Syllabus 
for Autumn Session, 1911-1912: — 
Monday, October 2, Discussion on Mr. E. Shackleton's paper, 

" Modern Developments in British and Continental Oil- 

Engine Practice." Paper : " Notes on Two-Cycle Oil 

Engines," by Mr. F. Duncanson, B.Sc. 
Monday, October 9, Discussion. 
Monday, October 16, Fuel Test. 
Monday, October 23, Paper, " Steam Turbine Theory," by 

Mr. F. J. Kean, B.Sc. (Member). 
Monday, October 30, Discussion. 
Monday', November 6, Paper, " Specification of the Engines 

of a Tramp Steamer," by Mr. W. Veysey Lang (Member 

of Council). 
Monday, November 13, Discussion. 

Friday, November 17, Annual Dinner at the Hotel Cecil. 
Monday, November 20, Paper, " Notes on an Extract from 

a Refrigerator Log Book," by Mr. Wm. Sinclair (Member). 
Monday, November 27, Discussion or Fuel Test. 



ALL-CENTRELINE BATTLESHIPS. 
H.M.S. "Orion" and the U.S. "Florida." 



THE advent of the Orion marks a noteworthy epoch in 
the annals Oi British battleship construction, both 
from the point of view of design and armament, In 
her is introduced the American system of gun distribution 
the placing of the five turrets along the keel-line instead of 
two being en echelon, as in the preceding Neptune class — 
together with the resuscitation of the huge 1 3-5-111. gun 

after a lapse ol twenty years. 

The abandonment of the wing turret in favour ol the 
centre line position may mean a lot or very little. It may 
be taken as an admission that tin Neptunt * and Indefatigables 
are comparative failures, or it may simply mean that the 
1 3-5 111. gun is too heavy a gun to fire across decks — possibly 
both. No official details have been published of the results 
obtained from tin- Neptune's trials, but there is now the best 
ol ground for believing that the off guns will only be lived 
'cross decks under exceptional circumstances, and that her 
broadside must only be reckoned as eight big guns. The 
trials also proved that the superposed turret cannot fire 
dead astern without very seriously affecting the men in 
the lower one. 

As, however, the Orion was laid down before the Neptune 
was completed, the reason for the change in design must 
chiefly lie in the second supposition, that whatever the effei 1 
of 12-in. might be, the 1 3-5-01. gun is too heavy for en echelon 
work. 

The reason why the 12-in. was dropped was simply that 
the demand for more powerful battleships, and the impossi- 
bility of properly " controlling " more than ten guns made 
the introduction of the 13-5-10. a sine qua non. Twelve 
12-in. have been mounted in many ships, but British naval 
opinion is against such a battery, and the increased calibre 
means greater hitting power and longer ranges. We have 
now eight battleships under construction which mount the 
13-5-01., and already foreign nations have ordered capital 
ships carrying even heavier weapons. The comparison of 
the Florida and Orion is simply made to show how England 
has picked up the lee-way in design which at one time she 
looked like losing. Undoubtedly the American Delaware 
was a far superior ship, as regards fighting qualities, to the 
first seven English "Dreadnoughts" — that she was better than 
the three Neptunes is also generally conceded. Now at a 
bound we have made up the lee-way and produced something 
much better than anything yet afloat on the other side, by 
adopting the centre-line distribution and bigger gun simul- 
taneously. We may be accused of lack of initiative, but 
the suggestion that the Orion was so designed because the 
U.S. Government had seen fit to favour the centre-line is, 
of course, ridiculous. The British ship could not have 
carried her guns en echelon, and consequently we join the 
highway of design that leads to the ideal battleship, not in 
America's footsteps, but from a side road of increased calibre 
which brings us out ahead of her. 

The external characteristics of the Orion may be best 
gathered from our illustration of the ship, made from her 
at Portsmouth, where she is completing for sea. It will be 
seen that the second and fourth turrets are raised to give a 
theoretical fire ahead and astern over the fore and aftermost, 
and that the third is placed amidships between the super- 
structures, and has a wide arc of fire on either beam. A 
secondary battery of twenty 4-in. guns is distributed over 
the superstructures so as to allow for a good all-round con- 
centration. These are protected by small shields. It was 
rumoured that 6-in. weapons were to have been mounted in 
an armoured upper deck battery, but it is unlikely that 
anything bigger than a 4-7-01. will be carried in our battle- 
ships for some time to come. Other nations consider q-in. 
to 67-in. guns as the best guard against torpedo attack, but 
it is evident that the 4-in. is still regarded as adequate pro- 
tection by the Admiralty. The light shields do not, of 
course, constitute any protection for battle — they are more 
as screens against 12-pounder projectiles from attacking 
torpedo craft, giving that imaginary security which even a 
canvas screen round a gun will afford. 

All are lifted for fire-control, though details on this point 



September, i-ii i. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



35 







II M S 




S Battli 



36 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. SEPTEMBER, 19II. 



arc lacking. Just forward oi the bridge is the 1 -' in. conning 
tower, which is oi novel design there being no eye slits, bui 
on cup >la "ii the top in tead. ["his 
will accommodati il oiler's bead without expo ing 

the inside oi the towei to splinters 1 ti 

rhe 11 bridge is small and narrow and encircles 

ih- lor.- funnel, winch is much narrowei than the after om 

The single tripod 111.1st supports the upper control station 

and ob ervation platform. It will K noticed th.it the greatei 

number of the boats are carried out ol harm's waj behind 

an armour screen between the mast ami second funnel, being 

manipulated by derricks only. The aftei superstructure 

contains eight 1 in. gun and oughly hexagonal the 

1 being curved in to allow foi the amidships 1 5 • s ' ' 1 ■ ^mis 

being trained past it. It is surmounted bj a -null armoured 

c ami the searchlight and standard compass platforms. 

The b iri .>i 1.5 calibres and weigh 70 tons. lhc\ 

Ih. projectile with a muzzle velocity of 282] i. 

seconds and muzzle energy oi 69,000 1. tons 1 xactl} what 

titntes her armour protection is as yet uncertain. The 

plan shows the extent Ol the belts, anil it is known thai 

amidships these arc oi 1 j in with diminution to 6-in. to 4-in. 

at tlie how and stern. A space oi aboul 20 It. is left at the 
extremities which is unprotected except by sub-division 
■ bull, rhree torpedo tubes firing the new 21-in.Hard 
castli torpedo are fitted, one being below water on cither 
side and one astern. Compare this with the huge armament 
01 ten tulies which the new German battleships carry ' 

Driven by Parsons turbines of 27,000 h.p., the Orion has 
a designed speed ol 21 knots and is expected to touch 22-5. 
There arc lour screw- and two rudders. Her normal coal 
supply is 900 tons, with a maximum of 2,700 tons oil fuel, 
while the class of lour ships arc variously titted with either 
Yarrow or Babcock & Wilcox boilers. 

The Orion was laid down at Portsmouth November 29th, 
1909. and launched on August 20th, 1910. She is to go on trial 
during September. Her sister ships are — Conqueror, com- 
pleting at Messrs. Bcardmore's, Glasgow ; Monarch at Els- 
wick, and Thunderer at Blackwall. A further four known as 
the King George V. class, which will have increased dimen- 
sions, are now reaching the launching stage. 

1'he U.S. Florida is an enlarged and improved Delaware, 
and she and her sister, the Utah, are on trial prior to commis- 
sion. On a full-load displacement of 23,000 tons the Florida 
carries an armament of ten 12-in. and sixteen 5-in. guns. 
The former are mounted in five turrets disposed as in the 
' ' n, except that the third is raised to fire over the fourth 
and fifth. Their heights above water are — No. 1, 23 ft. ; 
No. 2, 40 ft. ; No. 3, 32 ft. ; Nos. 4 and 5. 25 ft. The turrets 
have 12-in. faces and 8-in. backs. The 12-in. guns are of 
45 calibres, weigh 53 tons and fire an 850 lb. projectile with 
a m.v. of 2.800 f. seconds and m.e. of 46,195 f. tons. 

Her sixteen secondary guns — designed for battle or torpedo 
defence — are disposed as follows : — Two are right up forward 
in sponsons on the upper deck — not on the main deck as were 
those in the Delaware before removal — and another couple 
in 6-J-in. casemates just below the conning tower. Amid- 
ships is a 64-in. battery containing eight, while astern four 
more are in casemates. They are all separated by 2-in. 
splinter bulkhead with a -Jin. wall at the rear. 

As may be gathered from the plan, the belt protection is 
complete, the armour amidships being 11 in. and 3 in. at the 
bow and stern. This belt is 8^- ft. wide. Along the lower 
deck side from the 1st to the 5th turret base is a 10-in. strake 
8 ft. wide, while above this is the battery wall. Special 
protection includes sub-division and powerful pumping 
against mine or torpedo damage. 

The machinery consists of Parsons — not U.S. Curtis — 
turbines ot 26,000 h.p., and steam is generated by fourteen 
Babcock boilers. An excess of about one knot is anticipated 
above the designed 2075 knots speed. The Florida's normal 
coal supply is 1,667 tons with a maximum of 2,500 tons ami 
400 tons oil. 

Two submerged torpedo tubes (21 in.) are titted. The 
different arrangement of the masts and funnels lrom those 
in the Delaware should be noted. 

Of the two ships, the Orion is far the more powerful, al- 
though the displacements are very similar. The 5-in. guns 
of the U.S. ship are not so advantageously placed, but fire 
a 60-shot as against the British 31 lbs. 



1 ii' d 1 ions, etc. oi th, ships ire : Orion, 58 1 it. 

(ovi 1 ill) SSI It. beam, .■;■', It. draughf (mean), 12,680 tons. 
Florid ' 'i'ii (ovei all), 88j it in am 18 | n draughf (mean), 

, lulls (lull In. id). 

Broadside, to iy$ (1250 lbs.) 12,500 lbs. 

1012 ( 850 lbs.) 8,500 lbs. 

THE NAVAL AIRSHIP. 

IT has been expected that the naval airship No. 1 
would make her appearance again on the waters 
of Cavendish Dock, alter the alterations which 
have been made in her, and it was definitely arranged 
that she should emerge from the airshed on the 17U1 
August, and that she would then start her flights, but 
it was announced late in the day that owing to a 
scarcity of hydrogen, and the difficulty of getting 
supplies of gas during the continuance of the strike, it 
would probably be a fortnight before she would be 
ready to take her first flight. This is, of course, a 
great pity, as the best of weather for aviation purposes 
has been experienced during the past month or two. 
The construction of an airship is, however, a delicate 
undertaking, and everything which has been done has 
been of an experimental character. There is, further, 
every desire to make a success of this first airship, 
and those who are dealing with her will throw no 
chance away. The vessel has cost a deal of money, 
and the frequent alterations which have taken place in 
her design have run up the bill. The experts, how- 
ever, declare that the delays have been necessary, and 
that when the vessel is ready for flight she will fully 
justify all the hopes which have been centred in her 
success. During the month, Commander Schwann, 
who has charge of the airship, had a nasty accident 
with a hydroplane, which he has had constructed for 
him to work in connection with the airship when in 
the air. He was experimenting with this hydroplane 
in Cavendish Dock, when in pulling a wrong lever 
she suddenly dived into the dock, causing much 
damage, and risking the lives of those on board. The 
plucky Commander managed to swim to shore not 
much worse for his ducking. The hydroplane has 
since been repaired and is expected to be of consider- 
able advantage to the airship, whose flight may be 
expected in September. It is intended she shall 
undergo exhaustive experiments in the dock at 
Barrow and in Morecambe Bay, where she will be 
accompanied by H.M.S. Hermione. Later on we 
learn that it has been found necessary either to 
lengthen the vessel to carry the weight she was 
designed to carry or to reduce the weight. If this be 
true her trials may be delayed for some time. The 
cutting of the airship in two and inserting another 
section will naturally mean a few months' t extra work, 
and this would mean she would not be available for 
trials until November, when heavy winds are invari- 
ably experienced in Barrow, and this might possibly 
mean delaying the trials until the spring of next year, 
but the aeronautical experts are determined to make 
her a satisfactory ship, no matter what delays arise, 
and it is therefore probable she will be lengthened so 
as to enable her to carry a heavier weight than she is 
capable of at present. 



The s.s. " Lampedusa." — This vessel was launched on 
the 10th August by Messrs. Mackie & Thomson, Govan. 
Messrs. Cochran & Co. (Annan), Ltd., have supplied one of 
their donkey-boilers fitted with patent seamless furnace. 



September, ion. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



37 



NAVAL MATTERS-PAST AND 
PROSPECTIVE. 

{Prom our Own Correspondent.) 

Portsmouth Dockyard. 

Till ection with the battleship 

n is progressing itisfactorily indeed. 

Hei steam and gunnery trials .< 
September, and should the) prove successful, wl 
is evi to hope will be the case, the vessel wil 

commissioned by the middle oi November, which wil 



team trial-, ..ff Beacby Head, towards the end of July 
a steam pipe burst, rw being killed and 

injured. At the inquest the jury expressed admiration 
of tl Lii ke, I 'hie! 

imson and Engine-Room 
Artificer Rimington, who went into thi I while it 

was full of si. . jcue their shipmates. The 

Pathfinder has goni er Bona- 

r i to thi Med irting six rabma i ines, it 

having been decided to have submarine flotillas at Gib 
raltar and Malta. Some i 

led out here with a view to deciding whel 
uld advantageously be provided with 
bands around their hulls for lifting purposes in tin . 




V"" r-^ESSSfcfr t 



f 



Flan of the Urion. 




Plan of the Florida 



within the two years' limit, she having been laid down 
mbei 29th, 1909. 'Ili' •■ will be the first 

British Dreaa to he armed with the 13.5 inch gun, 

and the trials will therefore be of considerable import 
ami-. It is u; that the vessel will proceed 1 

Mediterrai Initial firing tests. The battle 

ship King George !'. is making \' 

and, altfa will be '.11 the building slip 1. 

longer than the usual time, td • • 

thai shr will be completed within the stipulated 
■ I "f two ■• Uthough it ha- not been definitely 

stated, it is confidently believed that tin- King will launch 
the vessel in October. The cruiser Edgar, of the Fi 
Division of the Home Fleet, which recently went on a trip 
1 1 Australia with III that station, is 

to be taken in hand for a machinery defect. While the 
Kangai . o) the Fourth Destroyei Flotilla, was carrying 



t Two 1 raft of the obsolete Holland type were 

takei ighbourhood of the Nab Lightship, the 

1. and sunk with steel hav. 

tnd their hulls, subsequently being raised by lighters. 

It 1 that th' floating dock which is being built 

. Ltd.. at Barrow-in Furness, will be 

by th. end "t the year. \ iti foi it has been 

Iged in Fountain Lake— that portion of the harbour 

between the dockyard and Whale Island. The cost 

imodation f"r the dock will be about 

£115,000, including th' machinery, and £70,000 

been allowed ork in the current estimates. 

Devonport Dockyard. 

The battleship u continues to make good pro. 

. but no announi ement has yet been made as to when 

be launi hed. That event cannot be very far 



38 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, 1911. 



distant, seeing that the vessel has been undei construction 

even and a half months. A quantity of the armour 
■'■ <Lult' protection has heen delivered, and 

these have been Ma. ked alongside No s Dock, into which 
the vessel will be mi ! on after slie takes the water. 
With regard to the cruiser Lion, the water testing of her 
boilers has commenced, and on August nth steam was 
raised in the foremost boiler to assist in providing the 
pressure powei fot conducting the test. The barbette and 
other adjustment work in connection with the 13.5 inch 
guns is in .111 advanced stage, and the 4-inch guns and 
mountings have been lifted on board. At the end of July 
the harbour was so congested that it was found necessary 
to berth several ships in the Sound. A number have since 
left and probably by the end of August over forty vessels 

I sorts and sizes will have left the port. The repairs 
to the cruiser Indefatigable, necessitated by the leakage in 
the fore part of the hull, have been completed, and she 
has rejoined the First Division of the Home Fleet at Port 
land. The battleships Rami Hies and Resolution, of the 
Fourth Division of the Home Fleet, have been paid off 
and towed to the Motherbank, off Ryde, where they will 
probably remain until sold out of the Service. The 
destroyers Locust and Quail have been sent to Pembroke 
foi retubing, and the Cygnet is to be sent to Haulbowline 
about the middle of September to be similarly treated. 
The destroyer Brazen has completed her refit and has been 
commissioned for service in the Fifth Flotilla. Sub- 
marines Bb. By and 58 left on August 14th for Gibraltar, 
and Bg, Bio and B11 for Malta, to form flotillas at those 
ports. The submarines proceeded to the Mediterranean 
under escort of the Bonaventure, depot ship for sub- 
marines, and the scout Pathfinder. Our local submarine 
flotilla is to be brought up to its former strength. It has 
already been augmented by the arrival of £4 from Ports- 
mouth, and on September 1st Bi is to be transferred from 
that port. The flotilla has been temporarily strengthened 
by the addition of C13, C14, 015, C16, and Cr7 from 
Portsmouth, so that the number is at present the same as 
before. The torpedo gunboat Sharpshooter, which has 
been doing duty as a seagoing tender to the Devonport 
submarines, is to be recommissioned on September 1st for 
service with Section III. of the submarines at Harwich. 
We had a visit on August nth from the Prince of Wales, 
who, accompanied by Captain Campbell, of the battleship 
Hindustan, in which the Prince is serving as a midship- 
man, landed and made a tour of the yard. Besides visit- 
ing the battleship Centurion, which is being built in the 
South Yard, the party proceeded to the North Yard, where 
under the* 160-ton cantilever crane was the new cruiser 
L-ion, being got ready for her steam trials. In the basin 
was the tenth British battleship of the Dreadnought type, 
the Colossus, which was only commissioned a few days 
previously for service in the Second Division of the Home 
Fleet ; while in an adjoining dock was the Greek warship 
Georgios Avero/f, which is being repaired as the result of 
having grazed a rock in entering the port without a pilot. 

Chatham Dockyard. 

No announcement has yet been made as to the date of 
the launch of our new cruiser, the Chatham, but no doubt 
the announcement will soon be made, as the vessel is almost 
ready to take the water. Her first keel plate was laid on Jan. 
3rd. All doubts as to the floating dock in the Medway have 
now been put at rest, Mr. McKenna having stated that the 
men working on the dock will be conveyed to and from 
Chatham. It is estimated that the men will spend one 
and a half hours daily in making the journey to and fro. 
If the journey lasts beyond the ordinary working hours 
of the yard they will be paid for the extra time at the 
usual rates. There has been much speculation as to 
Admiral Sir Charles Drury's successor as Commander-in- 
Chief at the Nore, but it has been announced that Admiral 
Sir Richard Poore has been selected for the appointment, 
and that he will take up the duties on August 29th. 
Admiral Drury reaches the age for retirement for his rank 
on the 27th, and it looks as if he will be advanced to the 
rank of Admiral of the Fleet and fly his flag as such for 
a day before vacating the post. Sir Charles Drury is 
one of the few Canadian officers in the Navy. Having 
completed his two years as captain of the dockyard, 
Captain Ricardo has been succeeded by Captain Grant- 



Dalton. Anothei . hange is that Captain F.rskine, lately 
commanding the battleship Venerable, has succeeded Rear- 
Admiral Tliursby as Commodore of the Naval Depot, the 
latter officei vacating consequent on being promoted to 
Bag rank. The battleship Bulwark is to pay oil 1 

September 1st tor a refit, win. h is to cost about ,£80,000. 
In future the Mechanicians' Training Establishment is, as 
l.u as possible, to undertake the repairs of steamboats 
belonging to the depot, and also of all boats attached to 
establishments in the port which are not allowed a repair 
staff, or where the necessary repairs are beyond the capa- 
city of the staff. The defects which cannot be made good 
by the Training Establishment will be dealt with at the 
dockyard. Commander Carr has relinquished his 

appointment at the Training Establishment to proceed to 
Colombo to take over the command of the cruiser Psyche, 
which is to recommission there for further service on the 
Australian station. Commander Innes, lately command- 
ing the battleship Canofus, has succeeded Commander 
Carr. We had a distinguished visitor on August nth 
in the person of Mr. Meyer, the Secretary of the United 
States Navy, who was shown over the establishment by 
the Admiral Superintendent. The Dockyard Awards 

Committee have granted Mr. Harris, chargeman of engine 
fitters, £5 for a suggestion as to machining teeth off 
pinions of 21-inch submerged torpedo tubes. 

Sheerness Dockyard. 

We still have enough repair work in hand to keep us 
busy, fresh vessels having come in as others have been 
completed. The destroyer Zephyr has had made good 
the damage she received to her stem on June t4th in col- 
lision at the mouth of the Thames with the Zebra, and 
has proceeded to Harwich to relieve the Porcupine on 
duty with the submarine floilla at that port. The Zebra, 
which lost a 6-pounder quick-firer in the collision, has 
also been put right, and has gone to Dundee to relieve the 
Teazer in attending on the submarine flotilla there. The 
destroyer Express, which has had a retubing refit, has 
been commissioned for service in the F'ifth Flotilla at 
Devonport. The Boyne, of the Nore Destroyer Flotilla, 
has had her defects put right and has proceeded to the 
F'irth of F'orth to rejoin the flotilla. Another destroyer, 
the Snapper, which damaged her propeller whilst on her 
way to Scotland, has been fitted with a new port pro- 
peller and has resumed duty. Submarine Cq, which met 
with a mishap to her bow when going into Hartlepool at 
night at the end of January, has completed her refit and 
has resumed duty with the flotilla at Harwich. While 
in dockyard hands she was fitted with a new bow 
casting made by Messrs. Vickers, Ltd. Two other sub- 
marines, Ci and C4, have been taken in hand for refit. 
Other vessels in hand are the torpedo gunboat Led a and 
the destroyer Charger, while the destroyer Usk is being 
prepared for service on the China station, it having been 
decided to replace three of the old vessels in the Far East 
by more modern craft. The cruiser Juno is having some 
defects in her dynamos put right, and when completed 
she will go to Lamlash to join the ships of the Nore Divi- 
sion of the Home Fleet for battle practice. After doing 
duty here for over six and a half years as assistant to the 
commander of the yard, Commander D. J. Munro has gone 
to Rosyth as King's Harbour Master, he being the first 
officer "to hold the appointment. Many congratulations 
were received by Captain Munro from his numerous 
friends here. Another change has taken place. Engineer 
Lieutenant W. Briggs, who had been nearly four years 
in charge of the drawing office, has left and has been 
succeeded by Engineer Lieutenant W. Canwan, who for 
the past few months has been on duty in the engineering 
branch at the Admiralty. 

Pembroke Dockyard. 

Our new cruiser the Amphion continues to make very 
satisfactory progress. She has been now five and a half 
months under construction and is in a comparatively for- 
ward state. The steel plates forming the decks and plat- 
forms are in place and the plating of the bottom and top- 
sides for over half the length of the vessel is also in place. 
At her present rate of progress she should be ready for 
launching about the end of November. The cruiser Active 
is to be dry-docked on August 2Sth to have the angles, 



September, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



39 



RACING BOAT "TYRELES'S III" 



THE illustration shows one of the gas engines 
fitted in the specially designed racing boat 
Tyrekss III. The engines were constructed by 
Messrs. J. W. Brooke & Co., Lowestoft. There are 
two sets fitted in the boat in the same fore and aft 
line, the propeller shaft of the forward set is below 
that of the after one ; the forward propeller is a little 
abaft midships and the after one at the transom. The 
cylinders are 6^ in. diameter by 8 in. stroke, each set 
developed 200 h.p. The boat is 40 ft. long by 6 ft. 
6 ins. be. mi, and the photograph reproduced shows 
her action in the water ; the speed attained was 33 
knots steady running. 



— 



TyrtUss III , at 33 knots. 




Reproduction of photograph of one of the Brooke motors, developing 200 HP., fitted in the International boat, Tyreless III 



svhi. h were rivetted to her outer bottom, to keep the 
launching cradle in position, removed and also to have 
her under- water fittings overhauled, her gun sights tested, 
and generally prepared for her steam and gunnery trials, 
•.hi h are to commence on October 2nd. The engineer 
adjusting the turbines and securing them 
to the seatings, whii h work must be done while the vessel 
1- afloat. The basin trial is to take place during the last 
week in September. The destroyer Locust, which 
recently paid off at Devonport from the Fifth Flotilla, has 
arrived to be taken in hand for retubing. The Quail is 
to arrive from the Western port not later than August 

for a similar purpose. The refits of the Kennel and 
lichen are being expedited. A special effort is being 
made to get the Kennel ready for her three hours' full 

r trial at sea, which is to take place about August 

The vessel when ready is to be commissioned for 

service in the Mediterranean. The refit of the lichen 

should be completed early in September, her basin trial 

having been arranged for September 4th, and her full 

power trial five days later. The contra, t for the new 

patent slip for destroyers has been given to Mi Keif 

and Sons, of Plymouth, who have commenced work. The 

_mal estimated cost of the slip was ,£14,000, which was 

increased to £22,000 last year, but of this £5-00 was spent 

surveys and preliminary work. Messrs. Keif's tender 

was £17,695. Doling the current financial year the sum 

of £^3,500 is to be expended upon the work. 

THE IMPERIAL MERCHANT SERVICE 
GUILD. 

THE Guild Gazette, which is the journal of The Imperial 
Merchant Service Guild, of August 12th, contains 
ting points recorded with 

the Mercantile Marine. The services which have been 



rendered l>y Lord Muskerry and the House of Lords towards 
improvements and amendments of grievous hardships in 
the sea-faring community are refi rred to in many of the 
pages, and it docs appear that much has been done by the 
Upper House to help to put crooked things straight, while 
elsewhere the reverse poli( 5 seemi .1 to rule. The 1 li 
of London, which has been hammi red at l>y many and oft, 
received the consideration of the Guild, and protest was 
.mist it (hi the ground of cutting off food stutts to 
the detriment of the United Kingdom. The loyal support 
given to the shipping firms by the ship's stalls of officers 
(including engineers) durin is commented 

upon, and evoked from the Guild a letter of appeal to thi 

on to embrace the opportunity of manifesting 

th. 11 appreciation by ini 1 : 'ier considera- 

Notification had already been made by th.- Whiti 

Company of advances which it was to be hoped estab- 

lished a precedent. The wish is expressed that .. movement 

might spring from the seamen and firemen to improve theni- 

1 t to discipline : this wish is echoed in many 

quarters, and, on th.- other hand, it ha lid that if 

the conditions were improved tin men would improve. 
Comment is made as to the barbarous methods of s,tnk 

induce a rise in wages, and of the more excellent way of 

moral suasion, and ie fact that the modern ship 

1 his statt « hi. 1 
1 us had, thi iderate. I h. Koyal 

Naval Reserve training arrangement to as now 

very inconvenient for thi drill. 

Ih. sight tests for officers is a vexed question and is discussed 
in all its bearings everal other disabilities under 

which tlv 1 suiters, including his want of facility 

for voting. With this nun I ie Guild is given a 

photograph of I ry, Mr. I. W, Moore, 111 the I 

when present it the Coronation of King 
111 w estminsti 1 \l.bey, 



40 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT September, ion. 



THE NEW OIL-ENGINED LINER 
AT GLASGOW. 

Progress with the Machinery. 

IT is expected that the twin-screw oil-engined liner 
now building on the Clyde will be ready for her 
trials in about three months. The hull is now 
plated, and the engineers have satisfied themselves 
in regard to the problems brought about by the con- 
struction of oil-engined vessels on so large a scale for 
ocean service. One of the sixteen cylinders is set up 
in the workshop at Stobcross and is seen running 
under as nearly as possible service conditions. In the 
making of this cylinder all the necessary exhaustive 
experimental calculations had to be thought out, but 
the cylinder has proved so thoroughly satisfactory that 
all the other cylinders are now being made on the 
same model. 

This large oil liner — as was mentioned in the 
Marine Engineer and Naval Architect some time ago — 
is a steamer of 5,000 tons gross and 7,000 tons dead 
weight, now building by Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., 
Ltd., Glasgow, for the Danish East Asiatic Company 
of Copenhagen. The oil engine is a new adaptation 
of the Diesel type, and the shipbuilders are associated 
in this departure with Messrs. Burmeister & Wain, 
Copenhagen, who for a number of years have been 
identified with Diesel engines. 

In the engine room of this large steamer there will 
be eight cylinders driving each of the two shafts, and 
as they are each to be of 21^ inches in diameter, and 
exactly similar in design, the work of making the two 
sets will, now that preliminary difficulties are solved, 
proceed rapidly in the large engineering workshops at 
Stobcross. The cylinders will be arranged in series, 
one behind another on their respective shafts, and the 
design of the machinery is such that if any one or 
more of the cylinders break down at sea, these can be 
thrown out of gear, and the shaft can be driven by 
those which remain in working order. That is to say 
each cylinder is an independent unit, but each eight 
or any smaller number may be coupled up so as to 
work as one piece of machinery. By the adoption of 
this design it is evident that it would be almost im- 
possible to have a complete breakdown and the liner 
brought to a full stop. 

Another feature that called for close attention in 
connection with the application of oil power on so 
large a scale is that of the starting arrangements. All 
the horse power on either side will not be started at 
once. Compressed air apparatus will start one 
cylinder on each or either shaft. When this first 
cylinder is so set going . by the compressed air it 
will then set its nearest neighbour running, and this 
one in turn will start the next in the series, and so on 
until the eight on each of the two shafts are all running. 
Stopping and reversing will be simple manoeuvres. 

It is no secret that the Glasgow firm entertain the 
highest expectations of the economical and satisfac- 
tory working of this Danish liner, and a series of 
demonstration trials will be run at the earliest 
possible time. 

The Hamburg- American line have two cargo motor 
vessels on the stocks building just now. One is of 
5,500 tons, and the other of 4,700 tons, while a 
British-owned oil-engined vessel of 3,000 tons is being 
constructed for Messrs. Furness, Withy & Co. on a 



yard at Middlesbrough. The engines are being made 
by Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Middles- 
brough. As showing the economy resulting in space- 
saving by the substitution of oil engines for steam 
engines it may be added that the Toiler, built at 
Wallsend-on-Tyne for the Canadian canals, will carry 
nearly 3,000 tons, or about 97,000 bushels of grain, an 
increase of about 15,000 bushels over the largest 
canal carriers fitted with steam machinery. 



GAS-COAL AND OIL-ENGINED VESSELS. 

ONE of the Continental sailing vessels formerly 
referred to as being fitted with gas engines 
to give auxiliary power when required, 
the Quivelly, has been reported on arrival at her 
destination. During the voyage to New York the 
engines are remarked upon as having proved 
of great value, they were underway about two- 
thirds of the voyage while adverse weather was ex- 
perienced, they were also utilised for working the ship 
into harbour, this itself being a saving, and altogether 
the venture has been a success. A controversy is 
being waged among fishermen and in circles where 
they congregate as to reliability results, based upon ex- 
perience of oil and steam motors for fishing boats : 
opinions are given on both sides, and from these it is 
gathered that some of the oil motors have failed at 
critical times and spoiled catches, and this to a 
greater extent than steam motors. We have over- 
heard discussion also on the subject of steam versus 
oil engines for land vehicles, among those who use 
such ; these discussions were probably initiated by 
recent articles and correspondence on the advantages 
and disadvantages of the two systems, and neither for 
land vehicles nor for fishing craft have advocates failed 
to give good reasons for their preference for steam as 
the motive power. The long experience of steam has 
brought nearer to perfection steam engines of all kinds 
and it is but natural that its advantages in respect to 
simplicity and flexibility should be more manifest, 
especially when the boats' machinery is in charge of 
those whose mechanical knowledge and deftness of 
hand are rather below than above mediocrity ; at the 
same time our observations as to the adaptability of 
the Japanese and other Easterns towards running 
successfully the oil-engined boats so much in evidence 
in the spacious harbours and bays abroad, lead us to 
think that too little care and attention are paid to the 
training of the drivers. In the East and elsewhere 
certificates are granted to men who qualify as drivers 
of steam launches and other small craft, and from 
what we can gather it appears that the establishment 
of such a certificate would be a great advantage both 
to owners of small craft and engine builders. Drivi 1 s 
of vehicles are required to have a licence and 
even a farmer cannot drive his dog. cart with 
his wife as a passenger without one — a some- 
what peculiar anomaly — and it would seem quite 
as necessary for the driver of a motor-driven 
vessel to have credentials of some sort ; pro- 
bably as time goes on the difficulties as to reliable 
chargemen will be lessened as experience is gained, 
meantime the reputation of motors and motor builders 
is sometimes in the balance owing to preventible 
occurrences. The tests to pick out the most suitable 



September, iqii. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



4i 



motor craft to sail in the International race resulted in 
three being chosen to represent Great Britain, Maple- 
leaf III., The Pioneer and Tyriless III . ; these three 
vessels have given good results in speed to show a 
liasis foi choice, from the 50 knots of Mr. Mackay 
Edgar's hydroplane, Maplcleaj III., fitted with twin 
screws; and the 40 knots of the I Hike ol V\ 
minster's hydroplane Pioneei with single screw, to the 
30 to 35 knots of Mr. Gordon Pratt's specially 
designed boat with twin screws, Tyreless III. These 
vessels were all to have been shipped in good time for 
the original dates fixed for the races in New York, 
but owing to the block of traffic caused by the disloca- 
tion of sea-borne material, they were delayed and 
negotiations were opened to alter the dates to cover 
the time of the delay, so that it is hoped all three may 
take part, and if speed and sustained running com- 
bined can, with one or other of them, overcome their 
opponents, the trophy, which has been held in America 
for three seasons, might be brought back: there are 
fears, however, that a postponement may be impossible. 
The proposed combination of the oil companies in Scot- 
land with a view to reduction of working establishment 
expenses, will probably take effect, and result in a 
happier condition both for the market and the share- 
holders of the various isolated companies, while their 
customers should also be better served. The anarchy 
and strife which were allowed to run loose, in London 
and Liverpool, especially during August, unhinged 
many trades, and amongst them motorists suffered for 
want of the vital spark or the spirit wherewithal to raise 
it. The rules and regulations as to the storage of low- 
flash oils required to be modified and amended to give 
more encouragement to stock them in larger quanti- 
ties; some of the regulations are unreasonable, even 
with regard to fairly high Hash-oils. An interesting 
and comprehensive paper on " Modern Developments 
in British and Continental Oil Engine Practice," 
by Mr. E. Shackleton (associate member) has just been 
published by the Institute of Marine Engineers. The 
discussion on the subject is fixed for Monday, Oct. 2nd, 
by which date some data may be available to show- 
to what extent the author's strong advocacy of the 
gas-oil engine over the steam engine is justified, 
especially as several of the oil-engined vessels referred 
to in the paper as in course of construction are now in 
action. The complete paper was printed in our May 
issue, so that we need not comment upon it further 
than commend it for perusal. Messrs. Barclay, Curie 
and Co. are well advanced with the large vessel they 
have in hand, and probabl] 

the trials will take place. Each of the twin screws is 
to be driven by a Diesel type of engine of eight 
cylinders, comprising eight units, each of which is 
self-contained, working on a crank shaft about 21" to 22" 
diam. There are difficulties to be overcome to make 
the gas engine amenable to the exigencies of marine 
service, and Messrs. Barclay & Curie have sought 
to overcome these in constructing one unit complete 
for testing purposes before completing the sixteen, 
which comprise the two sets. The auxiliaries are to 
be worked by steam, including the compressor for 
starting tl agines. Several of the enquiries re- 

ferred to previously have resulted in placing orders for 
oil engines for small boats and fairly sized yachts. 
Owing to the success which has attended the cruising 
oil-engined boats in the West of Scotland wal 



many of which have made extended running cruises 
during the holiday season, encouragement has been 
oiven to increase the number, and engine and boat 
builders are likely to reap a good harvest. Messrs. 
Mirrlees, Bickerton & Day, after having attaim 
name for their gas engines in connection with land 
work, electric light and small boat for marine service 
may have an opportunity soon of entering for lai 
marine sets. Some of the large oil companies are 
employing small craft fitted with oil engines to a 
considerable extent in eastern waters, yet there has 
been little development of such in this country, 
although the Bi Petroleum Co. put an oil- 

cari\ toi on the Thames this year, while the 

lo American Oil Co. recently issued specifications 
for a similar vessel. Several British firms are 
tendering and it is hoped that one or other will be 
successful in obtaining the contract for both hull and 
motor. Referring to the lack of continuous g 
records among tl raft, possibly a closer 

touch between the fishermen and the builders might 
result in good to all concerned. A standardized 
motor of simple construction for a fleet of vessels 
would serve to familiarize the men with the motors in 
common service. Marine motors have been more in 
evidence this season on the Norfolk and Suffolk 
Broads for private pleasure and passenger service, 
also a few cargo barges which ply to and fro. The 
oil-engined yacht for the Marquis of Graham is not 
yet delivered by Messrs. Beardmore, but is nearly 
completed ; the trials of this vessel will be interesting. 
on account of the engine being of a special construc- 
tion, simplicity and lightness being claimed as features, 
while it is directly reversible. There are a few barges 
building about the Thames with provision made for 
oil engines, the orders for which have been held in 
reserve meantime. 



North-East Coast Institution oi I : eers and 
1 builders. — The 28th session of this Institution will open 

early in ' >< tolnr. 

The Marconi Telegraph Co., Ltd.— A contract has b 
entered into by the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd., 
and the Italian Government foi thi 1 r< 1 tion l>y the Company 
of a 60 k.w. station in the vicinity of Rome. The building 

an.l material are being supplied by Marconi's Wirt l< 
t*i li graph Co., Ltd., the erection oi the masts being carried 
out through the intermediary of the Italian agency. Six 
towers in iron and wood of the Coltano tyj i ted, 

two eacl - '75 metres high and the remaining lour each 

45 metres in height. rhesi will support a multiplejw 
aerial of a total length of 360 metres, the surface occu 
by the aerial will be about 14,000 square met! 

ting the building, which will 
contain engine, power, battery and operating room 
waiting and stall rooms, and the necessary adjuncts. In 

1), which will have a flooi 
25 ft., there will be installed duplicate 50 b.h.p. Diesel oil 
engini driving, by means of a belt, a 30 k.w. con- 

tinuous current dynamo. Two 32 k.w. low-frequem j 
inducta ill be provided for regulating the frequency 

■ it to the v;du> 

two 32 1 
formers will be installed to transform the alternating 
current bj Itage 

for the condensi 1 s, I he rei 1 iving a t of 

ive all word- com]" 
In addition to the \ 

will also be furnisl 
Poldhu, and will have a normal power 
of 32 k.w. and overload up t" I"., k w. the exact arc-: 
■ of the plant for this overload has not yet bei D 

mined. 



4- 



TI1E MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, iqn. 



THE LATEST CUNARDER. 



Launch of the " Laconia " at Wallsend. 

The latest Cunarder, the Laconia, the third addition 
to the Company's fleet built in the yard of Messrs. 
Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson & Co., at 
Wallsend-on l'vue in the last twelve months was 
launched on Thursday, July 27th, in the presence of a 
distinguished gathering. The Franconia, the Anconia 
and the Lad ma have been turned out in quick suc- 
cession to the Mauritania. They are smaller vessels, 
but the Laconia is still the biggest vessel built in 
England this year. 

Mrs. W'hitelaw Reid, wife of the American 
Ambassador, performed the christening service of the 
new vessel which draws its name from that hollow in 
the Peloponnesus which is shut in by the mountains of 
Arcady, and the name is also that of a town in New 
Hampshire. The vessel will cruise in the Liverpool- 
Boston service before she goes voyaging between New 
York and the Mediterranean. 

The Laconia interprets the last word in comfort in 
sea travelling. She is fitted with Herr Frahm's anti- 
rolling tanks. These consist of two water tanks 
placed on each side of the ship amidships divided into 
compartments and connected across the vessel at the 
top by air trunks, and at the bottom by specially con- 
structed water passages. The tanks are partially 
filled with water, and the movement of the ship is 
checked by the water flowing from one side to the 
other through the passages. The water in the tanks 
can be regulated to suit the cases of any change in 
movements by opening or closing valves fixed in the air 
trunks. The Laconia is the first British vessel, and the 
first North Atlantic liner to be fitted with this system. 
Everything that can be devised for comfort of pas- 
sengers is employed on the vessel. The scheme of 
decoration is throughout most artistic and tasteful. 
It is a branch of Georgian known in America as 
Colonial, the only variations being in tone and colour, 
the dining saloon in white, floor in blue and white ; 
writing room in delicate green, smoking room in grey 
sycamore. The ceilings are carried out in fibrous 
plaster on Adams moulds. The second-class accom- 
modation is quite equal to that of the first-class a few 
years ago. 

The Laconia is 625 feet long, 72 feet breadth over all, 
depth from top of houses to keel 90 feet ; gross ton- 
nage, 18,200 tons; displacement, 25,000 tons; height 
of funnels 140 feet above lowest furnace bars, 
diameter of funnels 17 feet six inches; height of 
masts, 200 feet above the keel. 

The engines have been installed by the Wallsend 
Slipway and Engineering Company. The vessel is 
fitted with two propellers, each consisting of four 
manganese bronze blades secured to a cast steel boss, 
and each propeller is driven by a four-crank quadruple- 
expansion engine of latest marine type, having cylin- 
ders 33, 47, 67 and 95 inches diameter, with a stroke 
of 60 inches. Piston valves are found in the H.P., 
first M.P. and second M.P. cylinders, the H.P. valve 
having an assistant cylinder. Both are dynamically 
balanced on the Yarrow-Schlick-Tweedy system for 
reducing vibration. There are six large double-ended 
boilers, eight furnaces under natural draught, the 
boilers being in watertight compartments. A roomy 



workshop has been built adjacent to the engine-room. 
For discharge of ashes and clinkers, Crompton's 
atmospheric hoists and Stone-Lloyd's expellers will 
be used. There are three engines and dynamos for 
the electric installation. 



THE FLEETS OF THE MAIL LINES. 



(From our Own Correspondent.) 



The Future of the North Atlantic Trade. 

IThavingbeen announced that tin oca Cunarder Aquitania 
will undoubtedly be bigger than either the White Star 
steamships Olympic and Titanic, or the new German 
liners Europa and Imperator of the Hamburg-American 
line, it would seem that for the moment increase in size is 
checked. Time has to be marked to allow dock and harbour 
accommodation to adapt itself to the rapid increase in dimen- 
sions and draught. But the keenness of competition will not 
be stayed even for a time. So new modes of attracting 
traffic are in contemplation. Increased speed does not appeal 
to the shipowner who would have to do something remarkable 
to substantially outdo the paces of the Lusitania and Maure- 
tania, and the cost of driving a 50,000-ton ship at a 
speed of something approaching thirty knots is enough to 
make the boldest pause. So attraction is to be sought in an- 
other direction, according to an article quoted from the 
" New York Herald," and luxury is to be the bait in the next 
new steamers. When one knows of the conveniences of 
existing ships — swimming baths, Turkish baths, gymnasiums, 
cafes, Ritz-restaurants, suites de luxe and such like, one 
wonders how greater luxury can be even contemplated. 
But apparently expenditure for expenditure's sake is to be 
relied on to ensure the patronage of the vulgar rich, and 
pictures by the old masters are to be provided to please and 
educate the eye. Genuine old masters are, of course, not 
only costly, but limited in number, whilst the output — 
except, of course, of the " fakes " which are turned out for 
the special benefit of the American millionaire — is not to be 
increased by demand. Apart from the vulgarity of using 
the treasures of the past for advertising purposes, one may 
object that the exposure to the sea air is, quite apart from and 
in addition to the ordinary perils of the sea, quite likely to 
further limit the stock available to the next generation. 

If new attractions are indeed desirable, might it not be 
better to devote some thought and expenditure to the work 
of improving the design of the new ships in regard to then- 
safety under exceptional conditions ? Within the last year 
or two we have seen that even the finest specimen of the 
modern shipbuilder's art is not quite immune from the 
ordinary risks of navigation. The statement that " the new 
ship has so complete a system of bulkheads as to be practically 
unsinkable—she would float in perfect safety with any two of 
her principal compartments freely open to the sea," has been 
shown by collision and by stranding in different parts of the 
ocean to be a boast which experience altogether does not 
justify. Might it not be well, therefore, to divert a little 
of the money which it is proposed to spend on old masters 
to the more unobtrusive object of multiplying and strengthen- 
ing the new ship's bulkheads, and to devising some means 
of more satisfactorily dealing with outbreaks of fire ? There 
is a lesson to be learnt from the inquest held on the visitor 
who was unfortunately killed in the recent fire at the Carlton 
Hotel in London. The corridors of the hotel — which was 
believed to be absolutely fireproof — were lined with wooden 
panelling, and one of the expert witnesses assured the Court 
that there was no surer way in which the flames could spread 
from one part of an hotel to the other than by panelling. 
The passenger accommodation of our great ships is full of 
wooden bulkheads, separating the various state-rooms from 
one another, and of wooden panelling decorating the cor- 
ridors and public rooms. Cannot this warning be taken to 
heart by those who are responsible for the design of the next 
new liners, and whilst minimising the woodwork introduced 
into the passenger accommodation, might it not be possible 
to devise some arrangement by which sliding iron or steel 
plates could be provided — as in warships — which might close 



September. 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



43 



the opening between the various decks in time of i 
and so tern I an outbreak of fire and < he< k the inflow 

of water, not only liy the Longitudinal and transverse bulk- 
: but also by the various decks ol tl» •. the 

a modern warships. 

The Amazon Steam (Navigation Company. 

Sh in the Amazon Steam \ ; 

. 1 1 1 • - 1 all, to bi : fortune. 

A little while ago, when it was announ their con- 

tracts with the Brazilian Government could not be renewed 
and thai the Company must therefore dispose ol it- fle< I 
go into voluntary liquidation, it seemed a- tho were 

■ pecially as their -.hips being, oi coursi 
designed for a peculiar river trade, would be highly unsuit- 
able for ordinary commercial purposes. The liqui 
the Company have, however, recently issu 



n Company wh irchased the fleet 'it the old 

lied the Amazon River Steam Navigation Company, 
Limited, it has a capital >>i • in one pound sb 

lli'- head in Brazil . it will 51 

the local advantages which the old concern « and 

it is in < lose finani ial tou( li with the Vnglo-Brazilian Bolivan 
Syndii ate, Ltd, 

The (Meets of the Narrow Seas. 

Whatever sneers and they are many— can be ju-tiii 
launched against th< am and 1 ■ 

Railway-, there ( annul be said tn be mm U fault to be found 
with the recent organization oi thi hip fleet, 

v provided the most antiquated and 
ally <>n the night Bei \ 
1 lull came a changi I hi turl ad at 

once capti- minds oi the management. The Q 






,i>iiiii'> J^ 




•■•■Mi 




The Laconia, the latest Cunarder, 18.200 gross tonnage Length, 625 feet ; breadth, 72 feet 

Builders, Messrs Swan. Hunter & Wigham Richardson. Ltd . Wallsend. 

Engines by The Wallsend Slipway & Engineering Company, Ltd. 



shareholders m whi< h they make the pleasant communii 
that they have been able to sell the whole fleet, and wil 
most of the Company's assets in Brazil, to a new v .■!.■ 
and are thus enabled to at once make a return of /12 10s. a 
share, with the prospect of further substantial remittal 
in the future. There 1- one point in the circular whii 
worthy of record and commendation. It is pdinted out that 
there have been in its employment some very old and faithful 

lit, of the Company, who will by the liquii 
thrown out of employment with no prospect of further 
engagement on account of their age mestisma 

the sh v will sanction I ation of a 

sum future payments to be made to them 

in order that the liquidator- may form a fund from which 
due to those wh 

spent in building up the Company's prosperity. One can 
hardly imagine that there will he any dissentients from this 
proposal. 



was. I think, the experimental ship. Anyhow t 

early 111 the held for a • innel turbine-engined ship, 

having tried her and proved her ad\ they 

quickly ordered more. The present addition- the Ri 

and the Engadine bring their numbers up to seven — sufficient 

to maintain all their pa— cng. 1 ith this class of ship. 

And whilst they ha-, quiring good ships they have 

not forgotten to scrap the old. The paddlers to remain 

their li-t- were the tine, sisters Dover, Calais and 

Warden, which wen- built at Dumbarton some fifteen 

ago by the Messrs, Denny, One ol the-, -hip- was 

sold a few monl I, the Dover, has fol- 

: her. Shi ^ross 

register, and of 280 ft. in length. She 1- to be towed to 

inger, where hei new owner- a fin ers — 

propose to break her up. 

Though I spoke oi ■ no longer 111 11-' it must 

not be pi 'Mimed that there are now no pa , 



44 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, 1911. 



and Calais station, ["he English Railwaj Company uses 
none. Bnt the French mails are carried by two steamships 
undei the French Bag and these are still paddlers, the 1'tts 
de Calais and the Nord. I lu- Folkestone and Boulogne route, 

being of course entirely under the South-Hastini anil Chat- 
ham management, is served entirely by turbine-engined ships. 

two other channel paddlers, besides the Dover, are in the 
market, ["hey are the Prina llbert and the Vitte de 
Douvres oi the Belgian State Railway. I'hev wen- built 
as long ago as the year [886 at Hoboken by the Cockeril] 
Company for their present owners. Their length is about 
.'71 It. and their tonnage about 860 gross register. The 
first-named vessel was lengthened in [889. Like the British 
mail steamers, they are to be sold because of the progress 
ot the turbine-engined vessels. The Belgian Government, it 
should be noted, prefer the sale by tender 111 sealed envelopes 
to the sale by auction usually adopted on this side of the 
Channel. 

Whether it be to supersede the disabled Roebuck or not, 
1 do not know from the particulars as yet announced, 1 nit 
the Great Western Railway has placed with Messrs. Swan. 
Hunter & Wigham Richardson an order for a new Channel 
steamship. At first it was stated that she was to be rifted 
with geared turbine engines. But a later announcement 
gives her quadruple-expansion engines, balanced on the 
Varrow-Tweedie-Schlick principle, which leads one to imagine 
that she is for one of the English Channel services of the 
Company, as the higher speed demanded on the Fishguard 
route would probably make turbine engines essential. 

The Report of the Engineer 

to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board shows what a 
tremendous bu 'mess it is to keep clear a navigable channel 
and to deepen it to modern requirements. During the year 
1910-11 the five dredgers in the employment of the Board 
shifted from the Bar and the Queen's and Crosby channels 
a total of no less than 18,364,890 tons of sand. Of this total 
just over three millions of tons were taken from the bar 
itself. It appears that, in the twenty-one years that have 
passed since the work of dealing with the bar was commenced, 
over 46J millions of tons of sand have been taken from it. 
Whilst altogether the Board by its dredgers in that period 
have lifted about 171 millions of tons. This total, as far as 
I can see, does not include the amounts which have been 
shifted from the berths off the landing stage and from the 
dock entrances. But probably, though this work has been 
a vast convenience to the big liners of to-day, the amount 
of spoil raised in the process has not been enough to visibly 
affect the immense totals already given. 

The Union Steamship Company of New Zealand 

has secured a contract for. the conveyance of a monthly mail 
between Auckland and Vancouver, which will afford through 
communication between London and New Zealand in a 
schedule time of thirty-three days. The first despatch from 
London was announced for the 23rd August, whilst the first 
inward mail may be expected here on the 4th September. 
It would appear that correspondence intended for the New 
Zealand mail via Suez on the 22nd September must be 
specially addressed as to be forwarded by that route, as in 
the absence of some such indication all mail matter will be 
sent via Vancouver on the following day. 

Emigration to South Africa. 

We may expect to see something of a boom in land settle- 
ment in South Africa, if the Union-Castle Company — as it 
assuredly will — obtains a renewal of its mail contract, for 
the Union Government has announced that it has made 
arrangements to grant a limited number of assisted passages 
to the wives and children of persons permanently employee! 
in the States of the Union. The assistance promised consists 
of reduction of 20 per cent, off the standard fares to third- 
class passengers and 1 5 per cent, to intermediate in suitable 
cases, whilst grants will also be made to the travellers. These 
will vary from £5 in the case of adults travelling third class 
down to £ 1 in the case of their younger children. In addition 
to this special facilities will be given for the transport of 
emigrants' furniture and personal baggage. On the South 
African railways considerable concessions in fares will also be 
made. As the distance between Britain and the Cape is 
but half that to Australia, and as the country has none of 
the rigours of the Canadian climate, we may expect to see 



a considerable movement oi population thither when once 
the Union Government turns its serious attention to the 

work ol populating South Alma's fertile lands. 

Lengthening Steamers. 

It is curious to notice that two steamships ol the Elder 
Dempster Companj are in process ol being lengthened on 

tin- Clyde. Tiny are the 'Anna ami the Mimi/i which air 

being Lengthened by some thirty feet by then builders, the 
Clyde Shipbuilding and Engineering Company. One would 
have thought that the desirability from an economic point ol 
view of constructing steamships ol adequate length had been 
recognised 111 the seventies, when so many ol the liners ol (he 
principal companies underwent the process, when the success 
ol Messrs. Ilarland & Wolff's long White Star steamships 
demonstrated the advantages of relatively narrow ships. 
Exceptional cases, such as the China, the Scot and the Augusta 
Victoria, were not to be wondered at. But that new ships 
should almost immediately be lengthened alter all the ex- 
perience that has been accumulated, does seem a little re- 
markable, especially as Messrs. Elder Dempster's fleet is not 
the only one to be treated in this way. Two brand-new 
steamers of the Booth Steamship Company — a line whose 
chairman is accounted one of our most up-to-date ship- 
owners — are being similarly treated. 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries 

seems to persevere in its old policy oi hampering British trade. 
A week or so ago it organized a prosecution of the British 
India Steamship Company at the West Ham Police Court 
for bringing a sheep into the Royal Albert Dock on board 
the steamship Colaba without a permit from the Board. 
It appears that the vessel in question shipped certain sheep 
at Calcutta for the consumption of the Lascars who formed 
part of her crew. On her voyage home the ship did call at 
Marseilles, which is a scheduled port whence sheep cannot be 
shipped without such permit. The owners of the Colaba 
pointed out that the sheep came, not from Marseilles, but 
from Calcutta. This did not satisfy the Board. But it was 
enough for the police magistrate. He held that the order 
of the Board was ultra vires, and that the contention of the 
shipowners was correct. Accordingly the case was dis- 
missed with ten guineas cost against the official department 
which brought it. It is to be hoped that this experience will 
afford a much-needed lesson as to the desirability of restrict- 
ing prosecutions to cases where injury is done or risk of 
infection run. The Legislature did not pass the acts under 
which the prosecution was brought, merely to enable officials 
to show their brief authority. 



The Dermatine Co., Ltd. — Mr. C. R. C. Hart, formerly- 
general manager of this Company, has now been appointed 
managing director. 

Those who are interested in this journal, but do not care 
to subscribe, through being often abroad and thinking copies 
may not reach them, are notified that no pains are spared 
by the publishers in securing proper despatch of copies. If 
the subscriber will send in a list of places and dates where he 
may be at certain times, no difficulty should arise in copies 
being received regularly. Whether an address is changed 
once or a dozen times a year it does not matter. Careful 
note is taken to ensure proper delivery. 

Boiler Explosion. — The report has recently been issued 
by the Board of Trade in respect of a preliminary enquiry- 
held into an explosion from a boiler on board the steam line- 
fishing vessel M. A. Dodds, which occurred on April 28th, 
when the vessel was off the Aberdeenshire coast. No one 
was injured by the explosion. The casualty was due to cor- 
rosion of the plate on the water side, which appeared to have 
begun at the side of an imperfectly fitting stay, in consequence 
of which the plate became so thin that it was unable to with- 
stand the ordinary working pressure. The observations of 
the Engineer Surveyor-in-Chiei to the Board of Trade were 
as follows : — " The explosion in this case was not serious in 
itself, but the vessel was temporarily disabled and was towed 
back to port as the proper water level in the boiler could not 
be maintained. The local wasting of the plate had occurred 
at a part difficult to see. The boiler is about nineteen years 
old, and, in consequence, requires careful inspection if such 
explosions are to be prevented in future." 



September, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



45 



WATER-HAMMER. 

By a Naval Engineer. 

Till, study of the care and effect of water- 
hammer action is of particular importance, and 
it is hoped that the following general observa- 
tions will not In; devoid of interest. 

From the perusal of various reports of explosions 
and minor accidents due to water-hammer, the 
following points may be gathered, taking as a typical 
case the run of steam piping shown in Fig. I. (1) 
After the conclusion of a run and lires have died 
down, the boiler and the steam in the system cools 
down, leaving a deposit of water which drains 
eventually to the lower part of the bend G E of the 
steam pipe. (2) On "raising steam" and opening the 
main stop valve A, this deposited water is not con- 
verted into steam, but remains as water in contact 
with saturated steam at the same temperature, so 
that this particular deposit of water is in an extremely 
unstable condition. (3) The accident, when it occurs, 
nearly always does so upon the opening of the engine 
stop valve B, and then opening drain cock C. The 
action of opening the engine valve causes the steam 
to rush along the pipe at a speed of something like 




V > ^ 




Fig. 1 

6,000 feet per minute, at which speed the steam 
obviously possesses considerable kinetic energy. (4) 
Under these conditions the fracture usually takes 
place in the neighbourhood of the bend C E I ». 

The chief theory so far put forward, and it appears 
to be a very practicable one, is what is known as the 
•• Projectile Theory.'' It is supposed that upon 
opening the drain cock the surface of the water becomes 
ruffled and broken (more especially so if the cock be 
suddenly opened wide) and indeed has been shown, in 
experiments with glnss tubes, to present a wave-like 
appearance. The quickly moving steam picks up the 
particles of water, or crests of the small waves and 
dashes them against the sides of the pipe bend with 
considerable force, so causing the damage. The first 
impact is at once followed by a series of mi pacts as each 
successive wave rea< lies the bend, so intensifying the 
effect, Fig. j. It may be it-marked that this wave 
effect ma- ily and safely demonstrated by using 

thick glass tubes and a steam pressure only slightly 
exceeding that of the atmosphere. 

The obvious preventivi 1 ire, presuming that 

the man in charge is aware of the presence of t hi 
is to shut either the main stop valve or the engine 
valve (preferably the main stop valve), so 1 ausing the 
steam in the pipe to revert to a --dead" condition, 
when tin i In- safi l\ draini d, and once drained 

can be kept drained. It is evident that in the event 
of the man in i harge not shutting the main stop valve 



the whole cause of the trouble lies with the drain cock 
C, and it is with reference to this cock that a few 
additional remarks may be made. 

With the same conditions existing as before, it is 
obvious that for a drain cock to be effe< th e, (1) it must 
be large enough to deal with the quantity of water 
formed at any time ; (2) it must be so placed that it 
will carry away all the water in a reasonable time; 




(3) this water must be carried away, as far as possible, 
without causing the surface to break into ripples. 

Dealing with these conditions, the size of the cock 
is easily determined and should be as large as is con- 
veniently possible. (2) The position of a drain cock such 
as is indicated in Fig. 1 is perfectly correct as regards 
the draining of the pipe when the steam is dead, but 




Fig 3 

when the steam is in motion some of the water from 
G to C can undoubtedly be got rid of, but the pres- 
sure and momentum of the steam will prevent the 
portion of water from C to E from flowing down the 
orifice. A small slant of the pipe will not be sufficient 
to counteract this action. (3) \Yitb the present form of 
cock, as soon as it is opened, a difference of pressure 



L 




g^-^k^^\\\\\\\ \v\vvv,\tr 



F'g 4- 

is caused and water will be blown out, and a kind of 
vortex formed above the orifice, as shown in Fi^'. 3. 
This hole will at once be filled with the on-rushing 
steam, and according to the projectile theory the 

on oi watei tiom C to E will be picked up and 
dashed against the side E D, causing hammer action. 
From this the fa deductions may be made: 

The correct position for a sin^lt- drain cock is not 
as shown in Fig. 1 . (2) Theorifice of the cock is not of 
the correct form. 



4" 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, 1911. 



In conclusion, the following suggestion may be 
made, which i^ particularly applicable to cast pipe 
bends, but may also be applied to any pipe bend. 
The correct position for the drain cock is at the pipe 
bend, and the bend should be modified as shown in 
Fig. 4. The bottom end of the bend is cast to form 
a hollow cone (or otherwise formed in the case of 
drawn pipes). The bottom end of this is flanged and 
a sprint; loaded valve V, which can also be operated 
by hand, is fitted, this valve blowing oil to the drain 
tank or as is convenient. This " safety drain valve " 
should be loaded to say 50 lbs. per square inch above 
the working pressure. 

The opening of this valve will not cause the surface 
of the water to become ruffled to anything like such 
an extent as with the ordinary cock, and in the event 
of water-hammer taking place the excess pressure 
produced by the blows would be relieved by the 
compression of the spring. 

The projectile theory does not account for all effects 
due to w-ater-hammer, as the momentum of the 
projectile of water, although considerable, cannot be 
great enough at low pressures to cause such con- 
siderable damage as has been caused. 



THE INSTITUTION OF NAVAL 
ARCHITECTS. 

Jubilee Meetings. 



(Continued from page 13.) 



Warship Building, i860 — igio. 
In his paper on warship building, Sir Philip Watts 
(raced the progress that had been made from 1S60 to 1910. 
He said that the birth of the Institution of Naval Archi- 
tects witnessed the launch of the Warrior, the first 
armoured sea-going warship for the British Navy. At 
that time the two most powerful Navies were those of Great 
Britain and France, and the heaviest gun carried was the 
bN-pounder. An important change in the design of war- 
ships took place in 1863, when the late Sir E. J. Reed 
became Chief Constructor. The size and penetrative 
power of naval ordnance was increasing and there were 
then introduced shorter and handier ships provided with 
a complete double bottom and carrying a smaller number 
of the heaviest guns then made mounted in a short central 
battery built above the ordinary water-line armour, the 
latter extending from stem to stern. All those principles 
were embodied in the Bellerophon, laid down in 1863. 
She had a displacement of 7,550 tons, 6,500 i.h.p., and a 
speed of 14 knots. She carried ten 12-ton guns capable 
of penetrating 10 in. of iron armour at 1,000 yards. All 
war vessels built before 1865 had single screws and simple 
engines, the average weight of machinery being about 
35 cwt. per i.h.p. The Penelope, launched in 1S67, was 
the first important armour-clad vessel built for the British 
Navy to be fitted with twin screws, and the armoured 
corvette Pallas, launched in 1S65, was the first armoured 
ship to be fitted with compound engines which gave a 
considerable reduction in fuel consumption. While the 
armour-clad steam Navy of Britain was in course of 
creation important events were taking place in America, 
for it was during this period that armour-plated ships 
took part for the first time in actual engagements. These 
engagements showed that wooden unarmoured ships were 
helpless against the smallest armour-clad vessel, and at the 
same time brought into prominence the turret system of 
mounting heavy guns, which had been invented by Captain 
Cowper Coles several years previously. The British 

Admiralty then decided to build sea-going turret ships, 



" l which the Monarch was the pioneer. It was soon 
recognised that full sail power was, on the whole, a dis- 
advantage in turret ships, and an important step was 
taken when the Devastation — the first mastlcss twin-screw 
sea s'oing turret ship, built for the British Navy— was laid 
down 111 1869. She was 285 ft. in length, 9,190 tons dis- 
placement, her sides were protected by 12 in. of iron 
armour, and she was fitted with two revolving turrets, eai h 
'aiiying two 35-ton guns, capable of penetrating 15 in. "I 
in hi at 1,000 yards. She had twin-screw engines of 6,650 
i.h.p., giving a speed of 13.8 knots. In France up to the 
year 1873 nearly all the armoured ships had wooden hulls, 
and the turret system was only represented in coast defence 
ships. The German armour-clad ships had iron hulls 
and sea-going turret ships were represented. The Italians, 
who at that period began the reconstruction of their Navy, 
showed great originality in ship design. In the British 
Navy compound armour was first used on the turrets of 
the Inflexible, laid down in 1S74. The Sans I'areil, built 
a few years later, was the first battleship to be fitted with 
triple expansion engines. In England after several iron- 
clad rams had been constructed the British advocates of 
the ram designed the Polyphemus, the offensive powers of 
which depended entirely on the ram and the torpedo. The 
Hood, built in 1S89, was the last turret ship constructed 
for the British Navy. The Majestic was laid down in 
1893, and was followed by the Formidable and London 
classes, these ships having a speed of 18 knots and being 
afterwards fitted to burn oil fuel as well as coal. The 
Dreadnought, the first ship of all the big gun type, was 
the first battleship to be fitted with turbine machinery. In 
that vessel, the three Bellerophons, and three St. Vincents, 
the guns in the wing turrets were not available for use on 
both broadsides, while in the Neptune, Colossus, and Her- 
cules they were, the turrets being placed en echelon. In 
the four ships of the Orion type four guns could fire directly 
ahead, four astern, and the whole ten on either broad- 
side. A more powerful anti-torpedo-boat armament had 
been given to the ships which followed the Dreadnought. 
An Act was passed in 1906 providing that in 1917 the 
German Navy should possess 38 battleships, 20 large 
cruisers, 38 smaller cruisers, besides torpedo craft, etc., 
all of the best types ; and in 1907 the Nassau, Posen, 
Rheinland, and W estjalen were laid down. They were 
455 ft. in length, of 18,600 tons displacement, and 20 knots 
speed, and were armed with 12 11 in. guns (mounted in 
six barbettes), 12 5-9 in., and 16 3-4 in. guns. They had 
an armour belt 12 in. to 4 in. in thickness. The next 
three vessels, Thuringen. Heligoland, and Ostjriesland, 
laid down in 190S, were 490 ft. in length, of 21,650 tons 
displacement, and 30,000 h.p., and were armed with 12 
12 in. guns mounted in six barbettes (two pairs at each 
end of the vessel and one pair on each broadside), and 14 
5.9 guns. The vessels laid down in 1910 were reputed 
to be still larger. In the American Fleet the North 
Dakota was fitted with reciprocating engines, and the 
Delaware with Curtis turbines, the former developing on 
trial 28,570 i.h.p., and the latter 31,820 i.h.p. Parsons 
turbines were fitted in the next four ships, which were laid 
down in iqog. Of these, two ships, the Utah and Florida, 
were similar to the Delaware with regard to dimensions, 
protection, and speed, and they carried a similar arma- 
ment, but were of 1,825 tons greater displacement; while 
the Arkansas and Wyoming were 550 ft. in length and 
of 26,000 tons displacement, and had engines of 28,000 h.p. 
to give a speed of 20.5 knots. They were protected by 
Vanadium steel armour of 8 in. to 11 in. thickness on 
the sides and barbettes, and carried 12 12 in. guns and 
21 5 in. guns, the former arranged in six pairs, all on the 
middle line. In the projected battleships to follow these 
two vessels the main armament was to consist of ten 14 in. 
guns. 

Fifty Years' Developments in Mercantile Ship 
Construction. 

This paper dealing with 50 years' developments in mer- 
cantile ship construction was presented by Dr. S. J. P. 
Thearle, chief ship surveyor to Lloyd's Register. Had 
there been no Great Eastern to take into account, the 
author said, the progress of mercantile shipbuilding would 
have been an instance of gradual development. As long 



September, i., 1 1 THE MA RINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



47 



miction of the Himalaya at the 
Thames Ironworks showed that the foremost iron I 
builders could even then design and build a good ship I" 
the year i860 the mercantile marine of the 1 nit 
dom consisted oi 27,663 vessels, of 4,658, lis - tons net 
register, ot whii h 25,663 vessels, of 4, .104,360 I 
were propelled by sails, and 2,000 vessels, of 454,3-!; tons 
net, by steam. At the end of December, 1909, the m< 1 
bant shipping of the United Kingdom consisted of 21,189 
Is, "i 11,585,878 tons net, or 18, 40.',. '01 tons gross 
in these 9,392 were sailing v< els, of 1,301,060 
net, or 1,407,469 tons gross register, and 11.707 \essels, 
measuring 10,284,817 tons net, or 16,994,732 1 were 

steamers. In order to realise the expansion which had 
take place it should be noted that while the steamer ton 

had risen from 4^4,3^7 10,284,818 tons, the 

sailing tonnage had been reduced from 4,204,360 tons to 
1,301,060 tons. The cargo carrying capacity of the 
present day in comparison with 1S60 was in the ratio of 
6 to 1. The average tonnage of ships in i860 was for 
sailing vessels 164 tons, and for steamers --7 tons, while 

in the average gross tonnage was over 3,000. The 
early strain colliers were the progenitors of the tyi 
mercantile steamer of today, but it was not until about 
the year 1SS0 that the cellular double bottom in anvil 
like its present form appeared in ships of the mercantile 
marine. Even as late as 1SS9 the two fastest and largest 
vessels in the Atlantic passenger trade were constructed 
without double bottoms and with ordinary floors and double 
angle-shaped keelsons standing upon them. During the 

lew years the question of double-bottom constnii 
had received much attention from ship builders, and it 
had been suggested that the strength of a cellular double 
bottom was in most cases in excess of the requirements 
arising from stresses at sea, and even from ordinary dry 
docking. The necessity for carrying a certain amount 
of water ballast had more to do with fixing the depth of 
floors and girders than strength requirements, and various 
arrangements had been devised for diminishing the weight 
of the material in the double bottom without reducinj 
water ballast capacity. Time would show whether any 
or all of these arrangements would prove sufficient in the 
different circumstam es which might arise. In recent 
developments there was a rapidly growing tendency to 
omit angle side stringers in holds and to compensate for 
their omission by increasing the thi the shell 

plating. This detracted in no degree from the strength 
of the structure, but had the advantage of cheapening pro- 
duction. With regard to pillaring, the first step in a 
progressive direction was when tubular pillars were intro- 
duced, but great changes had been made during r< 

in lonne. tion with beams and pillaring. Beams 

now for the mosf part fitted at every frame. The 
influence of the Bulkhead Comm [891 was to be 

in the practice of to-day, when the general practice 

to use vertical stiffi \lanv important de 

partures in steel ship construction had been made during 
the last few years, including the turret steamer, the trunk 

icr of the Doxford and Ropner types, and the 1 
lever frame wing tank steamer built by Sir Raylton I 
and Co., but the most interesting recent development in 
ship design was that of Mr. Isherwood. I'pwards of 90 
vessels on his designs, representing about 356,000 
gross, had been ordered by different ™l 40 

of them had been built and were at sea. The experience 
so far obtained regarding their structural efficiency had 
been generally satisfactory. 

Fifty Yfvrs' Changes in British Warship Machinery. 

This papier was contributed by Engineei vi e-Admiral 
Sir Henry J. Oram. He remarked that the founding of 
the Institution coincided with the period when the definite 
abandonment of the paddle wheel as the means of pi 

of warships had occurred and tl had been 

adopted in lieu. In all the warships built in 1 
propellers were arranged for. The earliest ships with 
ew propellers had engines designed on the same lines 
as those fitted in paddle forking at l'>w 

lutions. These were adapted I I by 

means of gearing, whii h in< reased the revolutions 1 
screws as compared with those of the engine; but in i860 



the gearing had been dispensed with, and the engines on 
order were of the horizontal type and designed to drive 
the sci 1 The engines worked at from 34 to 105 

r.p.m. at full power, with piston speeds varying from 
200 to 550 ft. per minute. Tl e under construction 

in i860 were generally of the box tubular form, working 
at a steam pressure of about 20 lb. per sq. in., the earlier 
box flue boiler having been discarded. ' if the types of 
marine engines manufai Hired in i860, the prin< 1; 

I thi three leading makers and distinguished by 
the names ol these firms. Mi Maudslay's was a 

double piston-rod engine with piston rods over and 111. 
the crank shaft communicating with crossheads and 
guides tittr.l on thi ink to thai ol 

the • ylinder. Tins design was known as the " return 
connecting rod " engine, and with the single screw then 
fitted it allowed the horizontal engines to have a longer 
stroke necting rod. The trunk engine made by 

M( iv IVnii was a favourite type, the absence of a pi I 
rod making a short engine well suited for the space avail 
able in a single screw ship. Although with the lower 

i remarkably well, difficulties 
with the trunk became pronounced as the steam pressure 
rose, and ultimately led to the abandonment of the type. 
A development of the above design was by Messrs. 
Humphreys, Tennant & Co., and consisted of leading one 
piston rod to a whii hi d to 

the 1 rosshead and guide on the opposite side of ship to that 
of the cylinder. This design, therefore, also had the 
return connecting rod. The design, however, which was 
principal!) ea with tin rtessi Humphreys 

was the direct-acting engine, having the connecting rod 
between the cylinder and the crank, the disadvantages of 
the shorter connecting rod being accepted. This was the 
prototype of the direct-acting engine which ultimately 
became universal, and, as the introduction of twin screws 
allowed of longer strokes being arranged for, the direct- 
acting engine of horizontal type with connecting rod 
b-tv.eeii cyiindei and snail oecame the universal piacticc 
from about 1871 until the introduction of the vertical 
engine. The change from the horizontal to the vertical 
type was made in 1S85 for the large ships, but sloops and 
gunboats continued to have horizontal engines till 1887-8. 
With the further rise of boiler pressure in 1887 came the 
fitting of triple-expansion engines, which at first were of 
the three-cylinder variety; bm. as powers increased, the 
low pressure cylinder was divided to reduce the size, and 
tin four-cylinder triple expansion engine became common. 
The more important improvements effected during the last 
50 years had been in the direction of economy of fuel and 
reduction of weight of machinery and of the space occupied 
by it. Concurrently with th.-se ai increased life 

and reliability of the mad sen obtained by 

attention to details of construction and quality of work- 
manship and material. Much had been done to satisfy 
the constant demand for reduction in weight by selc 

longer materials foi ed pan-. 

Development in the method of production of the materials 
used included the invention 1 the Siemens furnace and 
the production of mild steel of trustworthy and uniform 
quality in forgings, plates, and castings; the manufacture 
of high-class seamless steel tubing for boiler tubes and 
steam pipes; tin production of corrugated and other simi 
lar forms of furnaces, bigh-l . metallic and 

asbestos packings, and other devices required for high 
pressure steam. There had also been a multitude of ini 
provements in machine tools, some oi which, 'org- 

ing presses, rivetei ig machines, weldin. 

gauges, and measuring machil ng accural 

manship had been essential to the turning out of 
high-rlass work, and made possible many of the advances 
now under review, while many others, if not essentia 

con tin tion, had had a ma I on rapidity of 

production and reduction of cost. Improvement in econ- 
omy had been chiefly effected b> e increases of 
h, in the earl'. the intro- 
dui tion of steam jai kets and superheaters produced some 
direct saving at the lower pr< The simple expan 
sion engines of about 1S70, with steam of 30 'b 
and fitted with steam jackets, superheaters, and surface 
condensers, were fairly economical, and were a consider- 
able advance on those immediately preceding them. The 



4 8 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, 1911. 



gain in economy which resulted from the use of compound 
engines using strain of 60 lb. pressure over the best 
previous type oi simple surface condensing engines using 
30 lb. pressure was from 30 to 35 per cent., and after about 
1872 the new engines t'01 ships ..1 the Royal Navj were 
being made of the compound type. The original steam 
pressure of 60 lb. was increased about the year 18S0 to 
90 lb., and then rapidly rose to 120 lb. After the prac- 
tical J one or two vessels fitted with triple expan- 

sion engines the ordinary compound engine was aban- 
doned in favour oi the triple expansion type. The success 
of this type in association with higher pressures was un- 
doubted, and since 1SS5, with a few minoi exceptions, all 
new reciprocating engines of the Navy had been on the 
triple expansion principle, with sic. an piessure beginning 
at 130 lb. and increasing to 155 lb. in 1887. A further 
gain in economy of about 1 c; per cent, was thus effected. 
For several years after 1887 the pressure was not advanced 
beyond 155 lb., except in the case of the torpedo gunboat 
SpeeJ which worked at a pressure of 210 lb., the steam 
being generated in water-tube boilers of the Thornycroft 
type. This vessel was noteworthy as being the first appli- 
cation of water tube boilers on a considerable scale in the 
British Navy. The pressure was gradually increased 
until, in 1895, several cruisers were ordered with an 
engine pressure of 250 lb. This was the maximum pres- 
sure for which machinery installations for the Royal Navy- 
had been designed. The most important development in 
the period under review was the introduction of the steam 
turbine, which was accompanied by a lowering of the 
boiler pressure from that in use at the time with recipro- 
cating engines, as the advantage to be gained in economy 
by the use of very high pressures did not appear to be 
commensurate with the increased weight involved, espec- 
ially as in the turbine a more fruitful source of economy 
existed in the direction of lowering the back pressure. The 
i.h.p. obtained per ton of machinery including water had 
increased from 5.67 in the Warrior to 13.64 in the Neptune, 
and the floor space occupied by engines and boilers had 
decreased from .785 sq. ft. per h.p. in the former ship to 
•357 sq. ft. in the Collingwood. After briefly referring 
to the methods that had been adopted for increasing the 
quantity of steam produced from a given weight of boilers, 
to changes in the methods of working auxiliary engines, 
to electric generating engines, to the introduction of liquid 
fuel, and to the use of internal combustion engines in sub- 
marines and small craft, the author made a few remarks 
respecting the officers and men who had charge of the 
machinery and the changes which had taken place in their 
iharacter and numbers. Comparing the total numbers 
employed in the engine-room department of a first-class 
ship in i860 and 1910, he showed that the Royal Albert, 
of 500 n.h.p., the flagship of the Channel Squadron of i860, 
had seven officers and 20 men, while the Neptune, of 
25,000 s.h.p., the present flagship of the Home Fleet, had 
seven officers and 224 men. The seven engineer officers 
in the Royal Albert consisted of one chief engineer, two 
first assistants, two second assistants, and two third 
assistants, of whom only the chief engineer appeared in 
the Official Navy List, while the 20 men consisted of five 
leading stokers and 15 stokers, which staff had to be 
supplemented by hands from deck for coal-trimming when 
the ship was at sea under steam. The gradual reduction 
in the comparative number of engineer officers compared 
with men was evident. In i860 mechanics entered for 
the service of the engine-room obtained recognition as 
junior officers. Such procedure would, of course, now 
be impossible, owing to the large increase in the number 
of mechanics carried on a warship consequent on the great 
extension of mechanical appliances which had recently 
taken place, and, although the number of engineer officers 
in modern warships was small, there had been no diminu- 
tion in the amount of mechanical skill proportionately 
present. 



The Iron and Steel Institute. — The autumn meeting 
of this Institute will be held at Turin on October 2nd and 3rd. 
Members wishing to attend are requested to send in their 
names at once. Various papers will be read. A prospectus 
giving an outline of the travelling arrangements has been 
issued by the Institute. 



REFRIGERATING APPARATUS FOR 
MARINE TRANSPORT. 

(Continuid from page 4. ) 

The Absorption System. 

IN the absorption system, which, as explained above, has 
so far only been applied to ammonia, the varying ability 
of water to hold the gas 111 solution is made use of. It 
will be remembered that pretty well all gases can be dissolved 
in water. The latest view of the leaders of the new science 
of Thermo-chemistry is, that when a gas is dissolved in water, 
it assumes the liquid state, giving up its latent heat to the 
water in which itis dissolved. The ability of waterto dissolve 
different gases increases as the temperature falls. It also 
increases as the pressure to which the surface of the liquid 
or to which the gas that is being delivered to the liquid is 
exposed. At ordinary barometric pressures, for instance, and 
at 32°F., 1 lb. of water will dissolve 0-899 lb. of ammonia gas. 
At 42 - 8°F. the lb. of water is only able to dissolve 0-765 lb. 
of the gas. At 50°F. the quantity is reduced to 0-684. And 
so on till at the boiling point of water the quantity of gas that 
can be held in 1 lb. is only 0-074 lb. 

With varying pressure and varying temperature, the 
following figures hold. At ordinary atmospheric pressure, 
and at 32°F., 1 lb. of water will dissolve 0-899 lb. of ammonia. 
At nearly 2 lbs. above atmospheric pressure and at the same 
temperature 32°F., the lb. of water will dissolve 0-98 lbs. of 
ammonia. At nearly 4 lbs. above atmospheric pressure, and 
at the same temperature, the quantity of gas has risen to 
1-077 lbs. 

At higher temperatures the same increase in the quantity 
of gas that can be dissolved by water takes place. At 2i2°F., 
and at ordinary atmospheric pressure, 1 lb. of water 
dissolves 0-074 lbs. of gas. At nearly 8 lbs. pressure above 
the atmosphere 1 lb. of water will dissolve cii lb. of the 
gas, and so on. 

The absorption apparatus consists of two principal parts, 
known as the generator and the absorber. The office of the 
absorber is to dissolve the gas which has done its work in the 
evaporator coils, and to hand it on as explained below, to the 
generator. The office of the generator is to deliver the gas, 
under the necessary pressure, to the condenser, in the same 
manner as the compressor does. The generator and absorber, 
with the accessories described below, together perform the 
same office as the compressor does in the compressor system. 
The generator and absorber both usually consist of iron or 
steel drums, partially filled with water. In the generator 
there are pipes into which steam can be delivered, for the 
purpose of raising the temperature. The cold gas from the 
evaporator coils passes to the liquid in the absorber, in the 
same manner as it is drawn into the compressor by the action 
of the compressor piston. When the apparatus is working, 
there is a continual delivery of gas from the water of the 
generator, due to the heating of the latter, a continual passage 
of the heated and compressed gas through the condenser, 
where it is condensed to the liquid form, a continued passage 
of gas through the evaporator coils and a continued solution 
of the gas which has done its work in the evaporator coils, 
by the water in the absorber. It wall be easily understood 
that as the gas is driven off from the water in the generator, 
by the aid of the heat in the steam pipes, the liquid would 
become poorer and poorer in gas, unless it was supplied with 
a fresh quantity. On the other hand, the liquid in the 
absorber would become richer and richer in gas, unless it was 
continually relieved of a portion. Hence there is a continued 
passage of heavily charged liquor from the absorber to the 
generator, and a continued passage of weak liquor from the 
generator to the absorber. It is an important feature in the 
absorption system and it is claimed as an advantage that the 
only mechanical apparatus in connection with the plant are 
a small pump employed to keep the ammoniacal liquid in 
circulation between the generator and absorber, and the 
pumps for the circulating water and the brine pump where 
brine is employed. The weakening of the solution in the 
generator and the strengthening of the solution in the ab- 
sorber, as gas is driven off in the one and is received in the 
other, facilitate the exchange of weak for strong liquid. The 
weak solution of ammonia always tends to rise to the top, and 
conversely the strong solution falls to the bottom. The gas 



September, igii. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



4<» 



from the evaporator is delivered to the upper part ol the 
liquid in the absorber, and the water whi< U h 
and more saturated, gradually (alls to the bottom. On the 
other hand, the water that has been deprived "1 it- gas in the 
generator rises to the top. I ten< e the suction oi the ammonia 
pump is connected to the lowi r part ol the absorber, and thi 
delivery to the upper part oi the generator. Fig. 14 is a 
ram showing the refrigerant circuit in the absorption 
system. 

It may be noted en passant that the necessary pressure 
required lor the condensation oi thi 

.a which it has to be delivered to the condenser, is obtained 
by the continuous delivery of the gas ,n ,,lr gas space in the 
generator, Che action 1- very similar to that oi thi I 

' As marine engineers know, the increase ot pressure 
which takes place in a steam boiler, when team is continu- 
ously raised, without being drawn off, is dm to the pri 
ol the increased quantity of steam. Similarly, in the genera- 
tor of the absorption system, the continuous delivi 1 
by adding to the quantity of gas present, creates the necessary 
pressure. The same requirements hold with the absorption 
system, in the matter of the pressure to which thi ga 
to !>•■ lefore delivery to the condenser, as with the 

compress!-, the pressure at which the gas can be 

condensed, is ruled by the temperature of the cooling water, 
and this pi. ssure must be produced in the generator or the 
apparatus will not go on working. 



oi having two 
pipes one inside the other, is employed. In the " Exchan 

rtain amount oi coolin weak hot liquor from 

the general arried out, in addition to thai 1 

by contact with the cold liquoi The hot 

Liquoi thi ;eneratoi givi up a much of its heat as can 

ranged lor during it-, passage through the " Exi 
cold, strong i bsorber, an 

1 coohng ■ ire it 

to the absorber. Winn the apparatus is at work the 

mtinuouslj ontinually absorbed, 

and Hi ■ iuou of liquor between the 

generator and absorber, the hot liquor being also cooled on 
its waj 
In addition to the above apparatus, other accessories are 
11 j \ with steam, so with ammonia, when thi 
is driven off from thi not usually Come away 

alone, ["here is thi uble in the absorption sj 

of r< 1 1. with watc 111 coming away with the 

gas, thai there is with steam in a steam boiler. Tl 
is met in the case ol the absorption system by the provision 
ot apparatus called the Analyse) and the Rectifier. Both 
apparatus are designed to separate tin- watery 
nr from the ammonia gas. The analyser consists of a 
number of perforated baffli plat through which the gas and 
itery vapour pass on their exit from tin- generator. The 
baffle plates throw back a certain portion of the watery 




Fig. 14 
Diagram of Absorption Plant, showing Generator, Absorber. Condenser and fc. vaporator 



It will be understood that 111 order that the generator shall 
deliver gas continuously, the water 111 tl 

kept at a high temperature. Ontheothei l.inordei 

the .: ! 1 , ill i untune i" receivi thi • is which 1 1 

over from the evaporator, the temperature of tl 111 it 

must be maintained as low as possible. Tin- weak liquor 
coming from the generator is at the high 'are rulme, 

in that apparatus, while the strong liquor coming Iron 
absorber is, or should be, at the- low temperature ruling in 
that portion of the apparatus. If the weak liquor lie, 
generator is allowed to deliver straighi to 1 
Willi iculty in the way of thi latter performing 

its work, by raising the temperature oi the liquor already 
there. The strong liquor from the absorber, if it is deh> 
low temperature to the generator, will lower the | 
peratureoi the liquor aire intity 

of heat re. pnred to cause a continuous delivery oi thi 
To meet the,.- difficulties, a very ingenious apparatus has 
been devised, known as the " Exchanger." In the 
changer." which has vai being 

one of the liquors passing through pipes, while the other 
liquor passes around the pipe . liquors an- brought 

into close conjunction. The "Exchanger" consists usuall) 
of another drum containing pipes, through which as explained 
abov ontinually passing, I 

liquor occupying the body of the drum around the pipes. In 
a recent modification of this arrangement the met" 



ir into the main bo.lv ..t the Liquid in the generator. 
In tie 1 , the- gas 1 I to the coolin ici on of 

circulating water. Ammonia gas has the same property 
of absorbing watery vapour that air has, though there ari 

figures, so far as the writer is aware, showing 1 

1 1 ■ . The same rule holds, however, that as the 

temperato 1 does its capacity for, absorbing 

the vapour of id vice versa. Hence when the 

is cooled, it loses its ability to hold watery vapour, in pro- 
portion to the extent oi the cooling, the 1. -.nit being thai 
watery vapour is condensed and deposited, and fin. I I 
back to the mam generator.. 

In the latest lorin .if absorption plant, that ma ll :.- \I, -sr,. 

Ransomes & Rapier, the drums are mounted one above the 

two drums, one being the generator, and the other 

form the base of a sort of pyramid. Above 

are mount.-d the absorber, the exchanger and the red 

iMulating pump and 
d tor the 1 ondenser, the 
■ 

(To be continued. J 

The Cunard Liner Laconia." With referem . to this 

I, recently laum hi ' at VVallsend, M. ssrs Waili - Dove 

and ' mcl has been applied to the 

bunkers .\<t,\ cellulai double bottoms, etc., and their patent 

" Bitumastic " covering to tank top in boiler rooms. 



50 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September. 1911. 



FOREIGN NOTES. 

GERM VNY. 
The new twin-screw steamer for the Hamburg-South 
American Steamship i'"in|'.inv has recently lurn launched 
at Hamburg and has been given the name Cape Finisterre. 
Her displacemenl is 20,000 tons, the engines develop 11,000 
11.1'. and impart to tin- vessel a speed of i; knots. 1 lie 
chief dimensions are : — Length, 170 metres; breadth 20 
metres. The vessel is divided into four classes. The first 
contains :g N : ds in spacious rooms placed amidships 
v decks, the state-rooms and cabins being on the uppei 
deck, each of which has its own hath and dressing-room. 
There are four complete " Hats," consisting of two rooms 
and the usual accessory rooms for attendants, etc. Broad 
stairs and a lift enable a convenient intercourse between 
the 5t 1 class saloons and the main decks. An innovation 
which will be much appreciated is the dining-room for children. 
there is also .1 swimming-bath and a gymnastic hall and 
.1 "dark-room " for the use of travellers; a telephone 
.1 at their disposal. The second class is fitted up for 
passengers on the main deck, and has its own dining- 
room, a ladies' drawing-room and a smoking-room. Between 
econd and the third-class there is a Ila.-class for 120 
passengers with two dining-rooms and a promenade deck. 
Between decks there is accommodation for 870 passengers. 
It is a special feature of the Cape Finisterre that the rooms, 
cabins, etc., are airy, lofty and amply dimensioned, well 
lighted, and have a very efficient ventilation. The steamer 
starts on her maiden voyage in November. The Cape 
Pierre will be fitted up with the latest improvements 
to ensure efficiency and comfort. Anti-rolling tanks and 
" wireless " are being installed. The furniture of the cabins, 
drawing and dining-rooms are to be most comfortable and 
luxurious. 

Four large steamers just built in German yards have been 
fitted with " Howden's " forced draught. They are, res- 
pectively, the Schildthurm, of the " Hansa " Company, a 
cargo steamer, of 5.000 tons, which on trial made 14J knots. 
Furst Bulow. of 9,000 tons, for the Hamburg-America Line. 
On her trial run the engines developed 4,000 H.P., and a 
speed of 12 knots was obtained. The Adelaide, of 9,600 
tons displacement, for the same line, is well equipped for 
handling cargo expeditiously. Refrigerating apparatus has 
been installed, as meat and other perishable goods will be 
carried. The fourth vessel is the Muansa, for the German 
East Africa Line, of 9,000 tons deadweight. She is fitted up 
with requirements necessary for the hot climate where she 
is to do duty. 

The s.s. Wiegund, built at the yard "Vulcan," at Bremen, 
was recently put through her trials, which proved very 
^.itisfactory as regards fuel consumption and speed. The 
chief dimensions of the vessel are: — Length, 127-4 metres; 
breadth, 16-41 metres ; and her displacement is 8,000 tons ; 
she has three decks and seven bulkheads. The cargo is 
loaded through seven hatches which are served by eleven 
winches and derricks, two of which can lift 30 and 40 tons. 
The Wiegund is equipped with electric light and "wireless." 
The triple-expansion engine of 3.350 I.H.P. will give the 
Wiegund a speed of 12 knots, and is supplied with steam 
by three boilers of together 800 sq. metres heating surface 
working w-ith forced draught on the Howden system. 

Very shortly orders will be placed by the German Govern- 
ment with two private yards for two battleships, the one 
to replace the Kurfurst Frederick Wilhelm, and the other 
the Weissenburg, as both these vessels have been removed 
from the German Navy list. The order for an armoured 
cruiser is also to be placed with a private German firm. 
This may mean that requirements for the mercantile fleet 
mav have to be built abroad. 

Competition for a yacht with auxiliary motor. — The length 
of the vessel is to be 10 metres, and it is specially desired 
that foreign engineers should compete. For particulars, 
applications are to be made to the Secretary, Deutscher 
Yacht Verband in Berlin. The first prize is £20 and the 
second £15. The designs should be in the hands of the 
Secretary, Mr. Ilgenstein, 14, Dresdener Street. Berlin, by 
the second of October. 

The shipping Company " Hansa " has just placed an 
order with a Hamburg yard for a cargo steamer of 9,000 
tons, length 133-2 metres, breadth 17-1 metres, draught 



7-6 metres. The engine is to be of the quadruple-expansion 
type and to develop 3,000 H.P. to give the steamer a speed 
of 11 knots. The new steamer is to be delivered in June, 
1912. 

The Schloss building yard at 1 larburg has secured several 
orders for Brazil. A tugboat of 13 metres length with com- 
pound engine of 00 H.P., speed 9 knots. A passengei steamer 

1 I ;; metres length, 7 metres in breadth, with an engine 
of 325 H.P. This In 111 has further orders for various steamers 
for Peru and Italy. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 
An order for a large dock, able to receive " Dreadnoughts," 
has been placed with a German firm for the Government 
dockyard at Bahia Blanca. The order has been ratified by 
t he Legislative Assembly, which has made a grant of 7,000,000 
gold pesos for this purpose. This order is considered to be 
an immediate result of the visit of the Von der Tann to South 
America. 

TURKEY. 
Tenders are invited for eight coastguard steamers of 
various sizes, two at 200 to 250 tons, two of 1 50 tons and four 
of 75 tons. The sealed tenders to be sent by the 14th 
September to the Director-General of Coast-Guards, Constan- 
tinople. 

BELGIUM. 
The Belgian Government demands 2| million francs for 
the purpose of building two new Turbine Mail Steamers, for 
the Ostend-Dover line, to replace two older paddle-steamers. 
These new steamers are estimated to cost 4,300,000 francs. 
Shipbuilders may obtain particulars by application to the 
Belgian Government. 

CHINA. 
The gunboat which has been built for China in the 
" Germania " Shipbuilding yard at Kiel has satisfactorily 
completed her trial runs, and is now being dismantled in 
order to be transported in parts to its destination. We hope 
that British shipbuilders will be able to secure their share 
of orders for China. 

The "Vulcan" at Stettin has also a river gun-boat in 
hand for China, and this has been so far completed that 
trial runs have been undertaken, which gave complete satis- 
faction. The contract trial is to take place shortly, when 
the members of the Chinese Embassy at Berlin will be present 
The guns will also be tested after the trial run. This river 
gun-boat will also be dismantled, taken to pieces and trans- 
ported to China. The boat is lightly built and is of very 
shallow draught. The final passing of the boat will take 
place after it has been pieced together again in China. The 
Chinese intend to build up a fleet of river gun-boats, as they 
are of great use on the big rivers of China. 
RUSSIA. 
It is the intention of the Russian Government to impose 
an import duty on steam and other vessels which are imported 
into Russia. This is to come into force very shortly. Ship- 
builders who have hitherto built vessels for Russia will thus 
lose a good customer. It is further decided to pay a sub- 
stantial premium for every vessel built in Russia to encourage 
shipbuilding. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 
The Secretary of the Admiralty, Mr. Meyer, is on a voyage 
to Europe with the intention of visiting shipbuilding estab- 
lishments on the Continent and in this country. Rumour 
says that the placing of orders for machinery forms a part 
of his mission. We hope that British shipbuilders will 
secure advantages from the visit. 
FRANCE. 
The armoured cruiser Dupuy-de-Lome, which has been 
struck off the list of men-of-war on account of its having 
become unserviceable, has been sold to the Peruvian Govern- 
ment. The destroyer Fourche, which is equipped with 
Rateau turbines, has recently attained a speed of 34 knots. 
ITALY. 
On August 10th, the new battleship Conte di Cavour was 
successfully launched at Spezia. The dimensions of the 
vessel are as follows :— Length between perpendiculars, 
168-96 metres; beam, 28 metres; draught, 8-452 metr £ s '■ 
displacement, 21,500 tons; turbines, 24,500 H. P., and her 
speed will be 22 knots. She will carry 994 men, including 
officers. In all her armament will consist of forty-six guns 
and there will be three submarine torpedo tubes. 



September, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



51 



TELEPHONES FOR DIVING WORK. 

WK have been favoured with some particulars 
ol the patent apparatus that the well-known 
lii m of Messrs. Siebe, Gorman & Co. of London 
use for communicating with divers when at w 
below the surface of the water, and which from 

irtance of the subject seem to us to call for 
notice. The first apparatus of this kind dates bai k 
about thirty years, but the system was naturally 




Telephones for Diving Work by Messrs Siebe. Gorman & Co , Ltd 



somewhat crude at the beginning, the wires being 
nd either round the air pipe or passed through 
the same. There were disadvantage tiowi 

these methods, because I ki n g 

varies and sometimes several lengths of hose are u 
In the end the life line was substituted foi the hose- 
pipe and by this means the wire was inserted in the 
line itself. This life line is, of course, a necessity to 



the diver and therefore the change was made will 
any additional complication. Whatever the depth at 
li .liver is working, then- are only two 
connections, one at the helmet end and the other at 
the battery. Besides, by a device of the firm's, there 
is no strain on the telephone conductors of any 
kind whatever, ["he instruments too, both for diver 
and attendant are perfectly watertight, which in 
submarine telephoning will be seen to be imperative. 
he Admiralty pattern apparatus a bell is always 

fitted at the at ten - 
1 /ii 11 end of the 
line but the com- 
munication is said 
ti. be so loud that 
it is not necessary 
to fit a buzzer in 
the helmet to call the 
diver's attention. 

With these pre- 
liminary remarks as 
to the apparatus 
generally we des- 
cribe and illustrate a 
system by Messrs. 
Siebe, Gorman and 
Co., worked under 
the Graham- Davis 
patent, by which it is 
possible for an atten- 
dant on the surface 
to speak to two 
1 livers separately or 
simultaneously, or 
the two divers to talk 
to one another when 
under water, the 
telephone wire being 
in the diver's signal 
line. It will be seen 
from the illustration 
how convenient the 
langement is. 
There is only one 
battery box and one 
hand telephone for 
the attendant's use, 
so that the working 
pai ts may be as few 
possible, the 
rouL;h usage whii h 
such apparatus re- 
ives rendering this 
-liable. The cable 
too can b..' connected 
and disconnected on 
the linn's system 
very readily from the 
helmet. Care is also 
taken that the transmitter and receiver in the helmet 
are perfectly watertight. The cells in the battery are of 
the best type and securely fitted in a strong teak box, 
while at tin- diver's end of the life line a plug connector 
rew on to the socket in the helmet, 
receive] in the helmet is fitted above the div< 
head and the transmitter on one side convenient for 
use. A loud sounding bell which the diver operates 



52 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. SEPTEMBER, 1911. 



by pressing a contact piece inside the helmet is also 
fitted to enable him to ring up the attendant. When 
not in use the attendant's instruments are placed 
inside the battel v box, which has a special division 
for holding them'. The fact that the Admiralty use 
Messrs. Siebe, Gorman & Co.'s apparatus exclusively, 
is a sufficient indication of its quality for the purpose. 



ROYAL SANITARY INSTITUTE. 



Till annual congress was held at Belfast. July 24th to 
th, presided over, by Lord Dunleath ; a health 
exhibition was also opened hv theLordl.ieutenant.who, 
with Lady Aberdeen, has taken a deep interest in sanitation 
and the improvement of the home life of the people of Ireland. 
The Lord Mayor and Corporation welcomed the congress at 
a luncheon in the Town Hall. At the meetings in the Tech- 
nical Institute many papers were read bearing on improve- 
ments in sanitation and healthandsickness prevention; several 
ot these were of interest to engineers and some especially to 
marine engineers. Principal Francis C. Forth read a good 
paper on " Technical instruction in Belfast." in which he 
stated " the instruction had led to increased skill of hand on 
the part of the working men. also to a result which the com- 
mittee regarded as of much importance, namely, the pro- 
duction amongst the students of a deeper interest in their 
daily labours and a more scientific attitude of mind towards 
their work." "Allotment gardens" (Mr. C. W. Black), 
■• The disposal of refuse in the tropics " (Major R. J. Black- 
ham). "Trials of precipitants at sewage disposal works" 
(Mr. J. P. Wakeford). "Sewerage of upper falls districts" 
(Mr. D. R. Taggart), were also read in the engineering section. 
Town planning and the building up of Belfast were interesting 
subjects, and "The geology of Belfast and neighbourhood," 
by Mr. Jas. Munce, was of special interest, showing the 
relation between the soil and certain diseases. " Influence 
of building regulations on architecture " (Mr. H. D. Searles- 
Wood), "Artificial lighting of hospitals" (Mr. Jno. Darch). 
"National sanitoria " (Mr. E. T. Hall), were also valuable 
papers. On the closing day, at a conference of engineers 
and surveyors, the President of the Section (P. S. Cowan, 
D.Sc), gave an interesting address on the position of inspec- 
ting engineers and surveyors, with the important duties of 
their calling. Important papers followed on the "Discharge 
of sewage into tidal waters" (Mr. Wm. Harpur), "Dust 
nuisance" (Mr. J. S. Brodie), "Tar macadam" (Mr. J. 
Parker), "Belfast tar-macadam plant" (Mr. H. T. Gullan). 
In the veterinary inspectors' section the President (Mr. Jas. 
A. Jordan) dwelt in his address on the branding of meat so 
that customers might know what they were purchasing, 
whether home, foreign, chilled or frozen. Mr. W. G. Barnes 
gave a paper on " Meat branding and uniformity of inspec- 
tion," in course of which he indicated that although Great 
Britain was well ahead in comparison with other nations in 
respect to sanitation, it was far behind as to meat inspection. 
There was a movement on foot to arrange for an international 
standard of meat inspection, and a conference was ^to be 
held on the subject. "Meat inspection in Belfast" was 
read by Dr. Henry O'Neill (Chairman Belfast Markets Com- 
mittee), in which he described the procedure adopted, and 
testified to the care and efficiency of the service rendered 
to the community by the inspectors. The "Modern ab- 
attoir and its methods" (Mr. J. Sherwood New), dealt 
with a description of the building, the plan of which originated 
in France, and had been gradually improved by experience 
in respect to its general arrangement and methods of work- 
ing. The Port Sanitary Authorities' conference was presided 
over by Dr. Robert Thomson, who in his interesting address 
gave an historical sketch of Belfast and its Lough. Dr. 
Herbert Williams read a paper on " Plague precautions in 
re the destruction of rats." " Importation of unsound food " 
was discussed in a paper by Dr. W. Hannah, who reviewed 
the important part which frozen meat had exercised among 
the population of the country, especially the poor. The 
total supply of beef available for the United Kingdom in 
igio was 1,209,000 tons, and of mutton and lamb 604,000 
tons, being 597 lbs. beef and 29-8 lbs. mutton and lamb per 



head oi population , this quantitj was equal to about 62 per 
cent homi grown and 38 per cent, foreign. The value of grain 

imported was London £19, ,000, Liverpool £16,000,000 

during the year. The Chinese pigs were again interviewed, 

and their condition staled I.' be free from blame. The 
"inedible" fat difficulty was referred to, as were the pre- 
cautions taken to ensure that M should not be used for food 
stalls. The defects found in frozen meat were described 
and the precautionary measures adopted to intercept the 
unwholesome parts, ["here were othe: papers and discus 
sions on health questions, embracing the home and school 
life, sanitation, heating and ventilation. The whole congress 

in its various sections was a derided SUCCeSS and should I"' 

productive of good to the nation. We congratulate the Royal 
Sanitary Institute, while we also express the opinion that 
Belfast, the Mayor and Corporation deserve thanks and 
credit for the warm support given to the congress. The 
Lord -Lieutenant and Lady Aberdeen were worthily thanked 
for their good work and' influence in connection with the 
health conditions of Ireland and its people. 



REVIEWS. 



Marine Indicator Cards. By J. W. Sothern. London : Cros- 
by Lockwood & Co. Price 5s. nett. 
The author in his preface says he wishes to supply a want 
for a really practical work on engine diagrams, and though 
it would perhaps have been thought the subject was one 
that had been sufficiently discussed already, yet it is easy 
to see that you can treat it in such detail by an expert that 
many new features may be brought forward, and this is just 
what we find here. We have first descriptions of the various 
instruments used, and these have in recent years been very 
much improved. The illustrations show this, but we also see 
in addition how the indicator lever is worked from the cross- 
head and then the methods employed for obtaining the 
mean pressure from a diagram. The necessary data required 
with cards are then given and examples furnished with 
how to obtain the i.'h.p. A description follows of an 
Amoler Planimeter, which enables the area of a diagram to 
be measured exactly. How to find the effective pressure 
on looped diagrams is also shown, with their general principles 
enunciated. We see how to get at the piston positions 
on a diagram, also negative and back pressure areas are 
pointed out with compression and lead, and the author with 
his opportunities is very clear on the faults shown by dia- 
grams. This, of course, is most important, as it is what we 
learn by means of the indicator and where generally the 
valves are wrongly set or other derangements. There are 
numerous examples of these various faults, and readers will 
be much interested, being all practical examples as they are. 
We find, for instance, cards of h.p. and i.p. cylinder with 
division plate in condenser broken, and in the same case 
after repair was effected. Leaky piston rings give a faulty 
card and with the remedy we see the corrected diagram. 
The effects of decreased exhaust lap, slide and piston valves 
wrongly placed or loose on spindle, loss of vacuum and even 
one L.P. cover broken ; these and others show the variety 
of faults the marine engineer has to deal with in practice. 
The author next proceeds to give expansion curves according 
to Boyle's law, and from thence he deduces the effect on 
terminal pressure by an alteration in the h.p. cut-off. Here 
the scientific part of the subject comes in, then follows the 
effect of crank sequence on diagrams and an alteration of 
cylinder ratio. Crossed diagrams are a peculiar feature, 
being the indicator connected up to the l.p. cylinder, for 
example, and the lead fixed to the h.p. Air-pump cards 
are more common, while the plates showing the position of 
piston and valve with the diagram that results are very 
elaborate. Patent valve gear diagrams follow-, and those 
from steering gear engines and compressor cylinders of dry 
air and ammonia machines and four-cycle petrol engines. 
How to obtain steam consumption from diagrams and to 
combine them with the hyperbolic and saturation curves and 
saturated steam tables, closes what is certainly the highest- 
class volume on this subject we remember to have met with, 
and one that certainly enhances the author's reputation. 



September, 



H|I t. 



nil- MAKINI- ENGINEER AND NAVAL \l« 111 I'ECT. 



Fighting Ships, 1911. Edit i I. Jane. London 

Co., Ltd. 

rhis invaluable naval annual has now entered upon its 14th 
having grown from .1 mere pen and ink pi< Eui 

the world's navies t" a 500 odd page 1 ompendium which g 

a photogi 

Hying the naval ensign the world ovei 

ird than last 
information and increased number oi photographs, ol 

v. hi. h 

md the Italian Beel 
novel plan ol 
the " Conl 1 >s and thi ns in the 

intents ol many ol the smallei in be tah. 

rhe photograph ol the rebuilt /.' 
ni interest to thosi who rem 1 this sluji with six funnels, 

rhose pages dealing with the German Navy are natui 

ui t! 

new photographs, include 

the M irate. Amongst th oi the 

Kaisei class is given then torpedo armament— which is a 

■ 1st \ alual 1 
unsuspected size, rhi latest I .S. ships are verj remarkable, 
and 
completed ships, rhe nu >>t int 1 tl [a] 

first 
■ published in this country. PI rly all the I 

1 en and fullei details a ppi in led 1 nan 
hitherto been available, while photographs of the sn 
trap " gun oat like wh is -1 1 >1 > 

play an important role in war, have been gathered togi 
from all , world. Mr. I 

and what errors and omissions then 
[atei pul 
fuller detail. i the end ol the boob di 1 

tn the progress ol « from the pen oi Mr. 

volume. 



TRADE ITEMS. 



Messrs. Wailes, Dove & Co., Ltd., have recently issued a 

r knife and letter opener, 
advertising their "Bitumastic" enamels and solutii 
( tun have found it 

t.i extend their telephone sen ii 
is N J7, Central (3 lines), with prr 

exchange, 

Messrs. W. H. Bailey & Co.. Ltd., nding out a 

ribing the well-known Bailey power pumps 
and bi I he " Kdster " air compn 

Toope's Asbestos Covering Co., Ltd., inform us that do 

nding Jum have more than doubled 

their sales of sectional and plast: Iv in 

exportation, and have had to add three new machines foi 
making thi mal coverings, rhe addition of the 

new machines will greatly >ut, which 

mounts to per The stafi has 

been constantly employed day and night pace with 

rhe asbestos mattri d to 

almost 100 pel cent. I lie Company is in a 
thae 

Messrs. T. W. Broadbent, Ltd., iflet, No. 

Iternating 1 urrent in otors 

for 1 1 : one phasi 1 ircuits. 

The Clydesdale Chemical Co., Glasgo' Partii il 
" Caktm. foi thi team 

boil' 

The Consett Iron Co., Ltd. P the Company's 

manufactures and omprising tables and 

tests 

Messrs. Siemen Bros . Dynamo Works, Ltd. A leafli 
domestic motor equipment. 

Messrs. Barry, Head & Co., I ondon, havi 



The In--tiii 1 Mutual Autumn meeting 

•itut' will be held at [ 
nd 22nd. 



Industrial and Trade" Notes. 



THE CLYDE AND SCOTLAND. 



The London and Glasgow Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Co., 1 ro\ an sini e taking o\ ei thi 

t r uc ti ng I 
fitting "at basin, and a new building 

Admiralty 

work ; and thi • rn 

is perhaps thi ' note, in the 

irders, to b this month. The < . 

' to build 1 

desti oyers of tl which vi 

thi I - mdon and Glasgo rhi 

contract, and the similai with Messrs, John 

Brown & Co., 1 lers which 

the Vdmiralty placed foi twelve ol the twenty destro 
providi d foi in this yeai '- pi 1 igrammi 

1 tnainder ha\ ing gone else- 

1 1 Yin- firms, Messrs. Swan. Hunter & Wigham 
l< 1 1 hardson, and Messi s. 1 law thorn, J 

thi 1 '"" '.' I 1 ■ la . ■ ' ■ Ci i 

John Brown .\ Co. being next. II nged 

md it is understood that 

the whole twelve bl 

rhi vessels will ha\ » a ■ t of 1 

smular to the $; km I the "Tribal" 

but will have moi n inery. 

in: lane- are to In i shaft horse power. 

Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd., I 

lei, a- above indicated, lor time ol the 1 , edo- 

1 with Clyde and I yne yards 

tish Admiralty. The Clydebank firm who are now 

i.ii 1 ' occupied with shipbuilding as well ering 

work of in ted to build and 

It. in length 
i no .ii Steamship I o. ol 
/' .i i md. 

The Scott Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Greenock, 

lild three non-propelling 
! ' have 

now had ■ thi Admiralty of their 

i ii ' adnought " battleship I ilossus. 
Ml., Ii. i various final trials, she left thi- 

ii August 
iptain I iiidlev K.S ! I l n the 

id .lu ision 
.■ted in a little ..\. i t" . •nlly- 

cquip] ! 

was placed with Messrs. S. ..tt ..n Maj 

i ite was driven on July 19th, 1909, by 

Mrs 1 C. Si ..it. and the vessel was launched on April 

, .i|\ I. .-ilea pel l.il III. .1 '.\ I .,id\ I 
I he C llOSSUS 1- ol ' D 

in length betwi breadth, 

with ,1 mean draught ..1 placement 

give 

hei a sea spee.l ' in. and si> I 

BrunS. 
Speed Trials of New Vessels. 
ot watei ai Skelmorlie, and the trial trip arena on thi I 

nlivcned 
of threi 
1 in. ..t thesi was I 

three 
twin which w. 1 

in May last \ 

thcr two 

\\ hiteini ! he Guild/01 

lion m August 4th. 

\ ,. , . 'Ian 



54 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Skptkmbkr, 1911. 



M.ssrs. Alex. Stephen a Sous. Linthouse, and launched 
1 lnu yard about the end oi June, ["he thud vessel on 
tii.il was tin- double-screw Eerrj steamei Halifax, which was 
built by Miv-is. Napier iS Miller, Old Kilpatrick, to the ordei 
,.t tin Dartmouth Ferry Commissioners, Nova Scotia. The 
machinery oi tins vessel, consisting ol two sets of compound 
engines, was supplied bj Messrs. Atchison Ulan I t.l, 
( i\ di bank. 

High-Speed Channel Steamer. A noteworthy fact has to 
be announced in connection with the first voyage oi the 
1 the latest addition to the Beet oi the South-Eastern 
and Chatham Railway Co.'s Cross-Channel steamers, whose 
progress in the yard oi Messrs. Denny Bros., Dumbarton, 
was noted in these columns from tune to time, Leaving 
Boulogne, on JJinl July, on her return voyage, with a large 
party on board, including the Boulogne Chamber ol Commei 1 e, 
she accomplished the run to Dover in one hour three minutes. 
It is interesting to note th.it the Riviera is the lust passenger 
\(ss,l ut ted with water-tube boilers, and this notable per- 
nice will make it possible to further shorten the journey 
between London and Paris. 

Messrs. James Adam & Sons, Gourock, have received 
two important orders. One is from the Yacht Club Argentine. 
Buenos Ayres, tor the construction and erection of a slipway 
with yacht carnages, etc., capable of docking vessels up to 
80 tons, and will be used by all the racing yachts belonging 
to the club, which include 40-tonners, 12 metre. 8 metre, 
and 6 metre boats. The work will be superintended per- 
sonally by Mr. Janus Adam, who leaves Gourock shortly 
for Buenos Ayres. The second order is from the British 
Admiralty for four cutters, two 30 ft. in length, and two 
32 ft. in length, to be delivered to H.M.S. Southampton by 
end of year. 

The British Hydraulic Foundry Co., Ltd., of Whiteinch, 
have been commissioned by the Belfast Harbour Commis- 
sioners to supply sixty-six sets of cast-iron bilge blocks for 
the new graving dock at that port at the price of £\i 10s. 
per set of four blocks. 

Amalgamation of Tube Makers. — Rumours emanating 
from reliable sources are afloat as to the amalgamation of 
all the leading firms of tube makers in Scotland into one 
concern. In fact, some time ago the parties interested 
signed a preliminary agreement. The following companies 
are concerned in the scheme : — The Wilsons and Union 
Tube Co., David Richmond & Co., David Marshall & Sons, 
James Eadie & Sons, Hendry Bros., Ltd., the Caledonian Co., 
the Coats Co., and the Tradeston Co. Messrs. Stewarts and 
Lloyds are the only exception, but they will be large share- 
holders and nominate a director on the board. The concern 
will be known as the Scottish Tube Co., Ltd., and the capital 
will be £600,000. It is expected that the prospectus will be 
issued in October. 

The British Oxygen Co., Ltd., Elverton Street, West- 
minster, London, whose branch works at Polmadie, Glasgow, 
have recently undergone considerable extension and thorough 
re-arrangement to cope with general business demands, are 
alive to the importance of the field — as yet quite unex- 
ploited — which lies before them in repairs to ships and 
machinery afloat. In conjunction with acetylene gas the 
power and possibilities of the specially devised oxy-blowpipe 
are simply marvellous in regard to cutting as well as welding 
of metals. This is being demonstrated almost every day in 
practice on land in connection with foundry work, boiler- 
making, ship-repairing, ship-breaking, etc. (not to speak of 
railway locomotive and tramway work — somewhat outside 
our province); but more notable still — from our special 
point-of-view — in practice afloat. A recent case reported from 
Aberdeen is worthy of notice. Through one cause or another 
the combustion chambers and tube plates of a boiler on 
board a tug steamer collapsed, and instead of laying the 
vessels up in dock the owners enlisted the services of the 
British Oxygen Company's staff and plant, and by a well- 
devised plan of cutting, heating, welding, and replacing of 
parts, thorough repairs were effected in situ in two days' 
time, which otherwise would have taken weeks to effect 
with the boiler unshipped — if indeed a new boiler altogether 
had not been found to be necessary. Ship-repairing firms 
on the Clyde, as elsewhere, are rapidly being impressed with 
the economies ol the newer methods of repair. 



THE TEES AND HARTLEPOOLS. 
[From out Own 1 orrespondent.) 

Middlesbrough. 

Messrs. Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., Cleveland Dockyard, arc 
still very busy with work on hand, and are reported as having 
secured the order to build a largo steamer for Liverpool 
owners. 

Messrs. W. Harkess & Co., Ltd., continue to be very busy, 
having a good amount of work on hand and to start with, but 
no new orders are reported during the month. 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co. are reported to have 
secured the order to construct the oil engines for a cargo 
steamer to be built on the Tees for Messrs. Furness, Withy 
and Co., of West Hartlepool; they continue to be busy in 
nearly every department. 

Messrs. Smith's Dry Dock Co. are busy with work on hand 
and have a fair amount to start on, all departments being 
nearly full up both on new and old work. 

Stockton and Thornaby. 

Messrs. Richardson, Duck & Co. continue to be busy with 
work on hand ; although nothing new is reported during the 
month they expect to secure an order for a steamer that is 
in the market. 

Messrs. R. Ropner & Sons are busier than they have been 
for some time, having quite a considerable amount of work 
on hand and to start with, which will keep them busy through- 
out this year. 

Messrs. Craig, Taylor & Co., are fairly busy ; reports are 
that they have secured an order for a cargo steamer but lack 
confirmation ; they, however, have a considerable amount 
of work on hand. 

West Hartlepool. 

Messrs. W. Gray & Co. continue to be very busy ; they have 
just laid down the keel for their 800th steamer, which is on 
an average of eighteen steamers per annum, since the 
formation of the Company ; nearly every berth is occupied 
in both yards. 

Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Ltd., 
Harbour Dockyard, continue to be very busy both on new 
and repair work, the capacity of this yard being taxed to the 
utmost. It is reported they are likely to secure an order 
for a small coasting passenger steamer, as they have recently 
constructed some very efficient steamers of this class, notably 
the s.s. Stephen Furness and the Teessider. 

The Central Marine Engine Works of Messrs. W. Gray 
and Co. continue to be exceptionally busy in both the marine 
and specialty departments ; indeed, the output is such that 
a record for this firm is likely to be established, having work 
on hand other than for the steamers building by them at 
the shipyards. 

Messrs. Crosby, Magee & Co. are reported as having placed 
an order for a steamer to be built on the Isherwood principle 
ol about 6,000 tons deadweight, through Messrs. A. H. Walker 
and Co. , with Wearside builders, for early delivery. 

Hartlepool. 

Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Ltd., 
Middleton Yard, continue to be very busy; good progress is 
being made with the large twin-screw meat boat for a Liver- 
pool syndicate. They are reported as having secured an order 
to build a steamer for Messrs. Houlder Bros., Liverpool, a 
sister ship now being built for the same owners. They are 
also kept very busy with repair and dry dock work. 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., still continue 
to be very busy in every department. They are reported as 
having secured the contract to supply the engines and boilers 
for the Houlder Bros.' steamer to be built by Messrs. Irvine's 
Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Ltd., and which will be a 
duplicate set now on order for the same firm. They haw- 
also secured several contracts for condensing plants, all of 
which will be on the " Contraflo " system, which is gaining 
ground daily over the ordinary systems. They are now as 
busy as can be expected, except perhaps in the marine de- 
partment, where night shift has been dispensed with. 



September, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



53 



The strike on the North Eastern Railway has interfered 
considerably with tin- various works in the locality, overtime 
being suspended and great inconvenience being experienced 

■ 1 ii« to shortage of coal ami iron. 



THE HUMBER AND DISTRICT. 

Hull Marine Engineers' Association.- A part] oi mem 
and friends <>t the dumber district branch, accompanied by 
the President, Mr, 1 .. Grace and Vice president, < oum iUoi 
1 1 1 ivingstone, recently spenf .1 most instructive and en 
able day at Sheffield. The party visited the Brightside \\ 
. ow ring 1 - a< res oi g oun I of Messrs. ( .muni II, I aird and 
1 o. where the work carried on was oi special interest to the 

party, not onlj 1 the magnitude of the concern, 

but much of what was seen was connected with marine 
practice, and yef represented a branch of engineering with 
which Hull 1- not familiar. Ifter .1 can ful inspei tion of th( 
work- the party proceeded to the King's Arms Hotel, where 
an excellent lunch was served. \it. 1 luncheon .1 section of 
the party proceeded to the engineering works oi Messrs. 
Lockwood & Carlisle, and were much impressed with the 
splendid conditions under which the employees worked, 
every consideration being given to the health and surround- 
ings of the men. 

\ meeting of the membi rsoi the Marine Engineers' Associa- 
tion was held On the 17th August at the rooms. Dock Street, 
and a large number of members attended to welcome the 
genera] secretary, Mr. W. L. Marshall, from London, the 
vice-president, Councillor Livingstone, being in the chair. 

Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., are keeping 
fairly busy with new and repairing work, and are building 
.1 largi 1 for the Indian trade, also two passenger 

steamers for the St. Petersburg trade, which will be fitted 
up with refrigerating appliances for carrying Siberian butter, 
fowls, etc. The vessel will have a fair sea speed. It is 
rumoured that the Company has secured an order for ferry 
steamers from the Gri it Central Railway to ply on the 
[lumber, carrying passengers between Hull and New Holland 
in connection with the tram service. The s.s. Harrogate has 
just run her trial trip, and has been handed over to her 
owner-,. Wilson and North-Eastern Railway Co. Sin 
been built for the Hull and Antwerp trade and is fitted to 
carry horses and fruit. 

Hull Central Dry Dock and Engineering Works, Ltd., have 
been fairly busy in their own dry dock, and have had to 
engage the Alexandra Dry Dock. The following steamers 
have been docked : — s.s. Shad Thames, s.s. Silvei Wings, s.s. 
William Middleton, s.s. Silver dale, s.s. Khorazau, s.s. Ded- 
dington, s.s. Southville, s.s. Anlonie, s.s. Skanduborg, s.s. 
Kirkham Abbey. Several of these steamers have 
docked for Lloyd's survey. Work on the following sti aj 
has also been done — Duke of Clarence, Arlington, Olympic, 
Asiatic. Pontyprid, Paul Pair. Russland, Flauyl and / 
wood. The s.s. Reidan is now in thi 1 ompany's graving 
dock. The general manager of the Company. Mr. Hall has 
been unwell for some time, but it is pleasing to note he is now 

on a fair way to in overy. 

Messrs. Stewart & Craig, engineers and boilermakers, have 
had 1. paii woi k on the toil.,.' 5. Lit ('< 1 < 

I laegerborg, and also the following sailing ships — 

General de Sonio and Ebrin. Enqt raving-dock 

work have been received from sevi hip comp.u 

Messrs. Amos & Smith, engini boilermakei 

only moderately employ* ir work, but have 91 

new vessels fitting out with new machinery etc. I he 
workshop is running night and da; with new older- 

coming 111. The branch shop it Alexandra Dock has beer 
fairly well d in graving dm k work on 

of the Wilson Line. 

Messrs. Cooper & Co., Ltd., engineers and boilermakers, 
have been fairlj busj with repair work on sevi 
both afloat and graving-dock work rhe moulding 
boiler shops have been fairlj busy. This Company's graving 
dm k in the old hai bom has been well booked up with coasting 
-trainers and are still fully employed . the branch shop at 
Alexandra Dock has also been kept busy with repaii etc. 

Messrs. C. D. Holmes, Ltd., engineers and boilermakers. - 



ire t nil \ engaged in building trawlers and 
drifters machinery foi local and other owners. The firm's 
patent compound winches and auxiliary machinery foi 

1 - .11 . liiiding gri 1 the trawlei 

ownei ( " ful and well-finished winches, 

1 he 1. 1. in. h --hop .it \ l< ■ xandra I >o< k has had a good number 

of ships in tor ovei hauling an mt for Lloyi 

sui vej . 

Fish Dock Engineering Shop, 

machinery, slipping trawlers for Hull, 
sighting and drawing tail shafts, etc., for Lloyd's annual 
survey. 

Messrs. Cochrane & Sons, shipbuildi I 
busv building trawlers and drifters foi Grimsby and Hull 
and other owner-. They have had a litt with the 

platers, but all are at work again 
launched last month and ordi but 

in mam cases deliver) cannot be guaranteed at a stated 

Messrs. North-East Coast Engineering Works, Ltd., have 
been fairlj busj with the following — s.s. Eftikhia dry docl 

and new rolling chocks and propeller fitted, 1 1 iin d 

and lined up, and 111.11 hinery overhauled. S.s. Iran, Sallwell, 
and Fox all have had general n i 

hi.. I. \ numbei ot steamers coming to this port are 
booked for graving dock and n 1 

Messrs. Brigham & Corrie, engineei and boilermakers, 
have leased a graving dock in Old Harbour for small coasting 
steamers, tug boat etc., and have built a large fitting and 
machine shop. This firm is now prepared to i i ati n 
on all classes oi steam. 1- of large and small tonnage. i 
have also a machine -hop on M. Andrew's Dock. This 
establishment is a well known one on the Tyne, and they are 
expecting a good shari ot patronage, both from local and 
rynesidi owners when theii steamers come to the 1 lumber 
ports. 



SOUTH OF ENGLAND AND ISLE OF 
WIGHT. 



(From our Oum Correspondent.) 

Messrs. J. Samuel White & Co., East (owes. Isle ot Wight. 

II. M S. Ferret left the builders' yard last month, and 
ceeded to Sheerness to undergo team mals. The first of 
the Revenue Cruisers for the Cuban Government has 
Li mi. he. I and i- rei eiving hei mai hinery. Si veral additional 
order- have been booked and thi boatshop continues busy. 

Labour Matters. — The Southampton branch of the Seamen 

and Firemen's Union have taken action with regard to the 

6n lii i. .11- ..I labour and rates of pay, under which the sailors 

and firemen employed by the Isle of Wight and South of 

England KM. S.I'. Co. carry on their duties, and have 

tccessful in getting th panj togi ml ci mcessions 

to thi yees. Overtime for seamen and firemen will 

now count from 8.30 p.m. instead ot from [0 p.m. as pre- 
viouslj and firemi a in n i > ipt ot union 1 ites will get an 1 
shilling for Sundaj work. Seamen will get an advani 
is. (id. per week. Shore firi men now m eipt 1 will 

get 28S. (111. P'l' Week. I I I I. . .'lit Ij oil 

and returned to work, have still somi 
grievances. When the men resumed work it was undei I 
ih.it the question oi wage- should be considered by .1 
committee at an early date. Nothing has been done, and 
the mi that they wouli some- 

thing was iniiiiedi.il. \- .1 result the 

coal porters were given an advance of .1 farthing pel ton, but 
trimmers' wagi reat 

to strike. They wire, however, prevailed upon to 
nine with thru work pending .1 satisfactory result of 
negotiation- proceeding in London. The trimmers' demand 
ton, 
t month two of the stean ged in the new fruit 

service between the West Indies and Southampton wen 

ii in connection with the (Inn. u seamen who 
tituted the crew. The local branch of the Seamen's 
Union issued a notice to the effect that utiles- th. 1 
were sent away they would not disi ! 
\it' r ah.. tion the 1 • ntraini d 



56 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Septembe r, E911. 



for I ondon and local men signed on aftei which the cargo 

ol bananas, was disi hai 

n nit was Hi \ ei j gi md 'I" '" " ervici 

1 ess. 
New South American Service. \- was intimated undei 
the heading " l'lu- Fleets ol the Mail I ines " in last month's 
issue, a reconstruction oi the firm ol Messrs. I amport and 
Holt had been effected, whereby three gentlemen associated 
with tin- R.M.S 1 imi direi tors oi the new 1 ompanj 

In this connection a new South ^merii 111 ervici whosi 

;sts will be in ilu' hands oi the R.M.S.P. Co., will 
inaugurated. ' ssel • building foi 1 hi sei v ii e will 

De ,1, Liverpool .mi the ;th oi eai I' month ami 

„,U pro, , ed t" Rio de laneiro Montr Video and Bueno 
calling at Vigo and Lisbon, rhey will depart on the 
Buenos Vyres i tiling .it Rio di 
Madi 11 a I isbon \ igo and on to Southampton 
e passengers will be landed and afterwards they will 
proceed to Liverpool. This service will be maintained by 
the " V " ti amei s three in numbei . viz',, the Vandi : 

Vauban and 1 eai h ol [2 torn , 1 hese vi el 

1, ing constructed bj Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co. 
t-named is neai U ready toi delivei 5 and 
will sail from Liverpool on th< 5th of Octobei 

New Cape Steamers.— Tin- Gloucestei Castle, ol the Union 
Castle Line, sailed on her maiden voyage from Southampton 
at the < ml <>t last month. Sin is one oi three sister vi ■ 1 1 • 
intended for the Company's intermediate service. I I" 
vesS e] ai ibout ;oo E1 long and 8000 tons gross, each 
[)„. ■..,!, I 1 .,,.,,■ ■ < '.astlt 1, are nearing com- 

pletion and will shortly take up their positions in the 
Company's sei v 

Messrs. Simpson, Strickland & Co., Dartmouth, S. Devon. — 
This firm keep fairly busy with new and repair work. They 
have recently received an order tor a 43-ft. steel launch 
which 1- to be fitted with compound engines and water-tube 
boiler. The launch is for foreign account. A handsome 
4: tt. mahogany launch, fitted with triple engines and 
water-tube boiler, and having a speed of 12 miles per 
hour, has just been delivered to Miss Emily Windsor, of 
Dartmouth. A 23-ft. steel launch is on order for foreign 
account, to be fitted with one of the firm's 8 B.H.P. petrol 
motors. A 50-ft. launch for a mail boat is finished, awaiting 
delivery, whilst several steam and motor-boats are in hand 
to the order of the Admiralty. The motor-yacht Cachelot 
was hauled up last month and will be lengthened, the forward 
part of the boat being entirely rebuilt. 

THAMES. 

[From our Own Correspondent.) 
Dock Strike.— The labour dispute has caused an eventful 
time. Ships have been held up, and the trade of the 
port paralyzed, and other trades joining in sympathy, 
the country generally may be described as having been 
in a condition such as has not been known in the present 
generation. The docks most concerned were the Albert, 
Victoria, Tilburv, Surrey and Commerical. Arbitration has 
been resorted to and Sir Albert Rollit appointed to conduct 
the Court. The award was generally in favour of the men, 
and the Port of London Authority have already increased 
their charges in consequence to pay for the extra handling 
costs. In connection with the dispute a meeting of vast 
dimensions has been held in Trafalgar Square, the largest 
since 1889. The dockers' dispute has. however, necessarily 
affected other trades— carmen, lightermen— and hence the 
general recent dislocation of trade. The docks being an 
organized piece of machinery, the whole system gets thrown 
out of gear when once a start has been made, and goods are 
stored at the docks at such an advantage in cool stores that 
an upheaval such as we have recently witnessed prevents 
deliveries of food supplies. A shortage ensues, in fact. 
The difficulties of settlement have been partly caused by 
the Short Sea Traders, who did not consider themselves 
bound, by the award. The Port of London Authority also 
decided to put returned strikers on six months' probation, 
which decision created further discontent, and there have 
- n minor troubles. The lines that have been chiefly 
affected are the Shaw. Savill & Albion, the Atlantic Transport, 



the British India and the P. & O. Co, I hi lattei Companj 
havi used Vntwerp as a port, as the) wen unabli to unload 

in the 1 harm ndi avoui being to gi 1 the goods at ross 

to an east-coasi port and thence to London b\ rail, Su< h 
cumbersome methods 1ur.n1 great losses to the shipping 
, ommunitj . « hit h mu -1 1" deti imi ntal to tin ti ide oi 1 he 
port and the community .it large bu1 it is to be hoped the 
final settlement is mm actuallj 1 1 ai hi .1 

London Dock Improvements. Before the strike assumed 
the proportions H did the Por1 oi London Authority had 
,!,., 1, i,., i on thru improvement ■ to be taken in hand at earl) 
date. [These improvements' will be found referred to in 
/ ... Warint Engineer and Naval Irchiteci oi March this 
year, and it will be seen therefrom the vast nature oi the 
proposals the Authority are undertaking and the fai n ai hing 
, ho 1, tei they will ha\ e on the port as a u hole. 

New Vessel! The Aberdeen Line have in the Demosthenes 
a fine addition to their fleet. She is [1,300 tons and wa 
built at Messrs. Harland <S Wolff's yard. Lying in the 
Royal \lbrit Dock, she was booked to sail for Australia on 
the jisi alt., and liri hst included a full complement ol 
passengers. Every device eems to have been employed to 
make the vessel up-to-date in every way, and only first and 
third-class passengers are carried. 

The "Worcester" Training Ship. -A visit was paid 
recently by the Lord Mayor to this vessel for the annual 
prize distribution. At the function Sir Thos. Sutherland 
was present, also Admiral Sir E. Freemantle, T. L. Devitt, 
Esq., and many more well-known people interested in sea- 
faring. Sir Thos. Sutherland presided and the Lord Mayor 
presented the prizes and made an encouraging speech to 
the cadets. The visitors were conveyed to and fro on one 
of the " Belle" steamers in the beautiful weather thai has pre- 
vailed for so long a time. 



MERSEY AND MANCHESTER SHIP 
CANAL. 

[From our Own Correspondent.) 
Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co.— Two launches have taken 
place at this yard during the past month, viz., H.M. Destroyer 
Lapwing on' July 29th, her sister vessel the Lizard being 
just ready to take the water ; the second launch being H.M. 
Tender to depot ship Alecto, launched on August 29th. The 
sistei ship to the latter is now finishing in the wet basin prior 
to going on trial. The cruiser Melbourne is now well advanced, 
as is also the super-Dreadnought, while the floating dock is 
revealing its huge dimensions. The four Destroyers for 
the Argentine are now finishing trials, and it is expected will 
shortly be handed over to the Government. A large tug 
for the Port of London Authority is well in frame, while 
various barges are completing for foreign owners. According 
to a statement by Mr. R. R. Bevts. who has just returned 
from Canada, it is possible that Messrs. Cammell. Laird and 
Co. mav secure the contract for the Canadian Navy. In 
this event it is rumoured that a shipbuilding plant will In- 
laid down at St. John, New Brunswick. It is also rumoured 
that this firm have recently secured a large dredger contract 
lor continental owners. The large wet dock is at the time ol 
writing filled with tugs and other craft laid up owing to the 
dispute. The large steamer Rowanmore is in dry dock, the 
tug Peacock has also been in ; other work is also on hand as 
soon as towing facilities are available. 

Messrs. H. & C. Grayson. — Work has been held back 
recently due to the disturbances in the various yards of this 
usually busy firm. An event of additional importance was 
the handing over of the steamer Poderoso to her owners, the 
P.S.N. Co. after a successful trial last month. This vessel is 
a combined tug, salvage and water boat, built to Lloyd's 
requirements. She will be used for salvage work, also 
for laying of heavy mooring cables in deep waters; for the 
latter purpose a powerful combined winch and windlass has 
been fitted forward, controlled from the bridge. A salvage 
pump has been fitted on deck capable of delivering 160 tons 
of water per hour, while a large warping winch is fitted aft. 
One of the holds is fitted to carry water, while large bunker 
capacity is available for making long voyages along the 
Pacific Coast, where the vessel will be located. Large repairs 



September, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



57 



uI on the oil tank ami 

■ 111 while boilers and tank el rem wed 

cm the steamei / agh, also rep 

The New Royal Liver Building. ["his palatial buildi 
situated upon 1 watei front, and one ol the i 

landmark ' : eld. 

In this building many ol the leading steamship 

builders, are making theii I rs. It ma I 

ol interest in this ci to note the I 

lifts fitted by Messrs K '-'■ Co., Lt 

well-known makers oi .ill km. I- oi lifts for marine purpo 

per minute, and serving ele\ en Hi 

ipeed "i (oo fl 
minute, and five similai lift ing numb 

rhere are also two goods lifts all ed with all 

the latest safety and other appliam 

The Isherwood System. The rapidity with which I 
sj stem ol longitudinal f ram in 
markable i ' ■ it so built was I 

ompleted in November, I 

ners built and now building represent 
t.ni- lui li ol tin- success has been due to the en 

ol Mi S 1 ' hambers thi I iverpool representativi ol Mi 

Islxi ■'. 

The Manchester Ship Canal. The half yearly meeting ol 

tin- Com pan} was held in Mai rd, when 

hairman remarked that the strike had m ! the 

d under review. \ it had to be 

119 being an increa 
there being i in working expenses 

ndise carried was 2 tons, 

1 Fyffi 

had withdrawn their banana boats to 1 larston, du 

ies, but othei 1 1 ■ ning 

up. The grain trade was extending, the Salt Union had 

coin; • Runcorn ami a good demand was 

anticipated for Manchester's cotton goods, wl n and 

work- at Partington would be in inside ql 

ears. 

Ih. view in Salford Dock on July 

26th, great interest being shown in this 

that lias com. into the canal. Mr. Caird, for 
the ownei M rurnbnll led, and si 

that seventeen plan n tested in their tank l.\ 

builders M O 'Ins vessel was 

Imilt. The principal dimensions arc length 547 ft., breadth 
1 li t.i li.lt. 1 .I. . k 1 I ■ hi. 'lit 

. 1 01 ti ms deadweight of cargo can be lauded 

in New Zealand in thirty-six days without change ol bottom. 
Two sets ol quadruple 1 xpansion engines will develop 
i.h.p., giving thi | knots. Vccon 

is provided foi 1 ngers and « ii 

died. 
Death of Well-known Shipowner. I tth took : 

Vugusf 11th at N.-w Brighton ol Mr. Isaiah Weaver, in 
his 72nd year. Mi 

111.I took an active part in the revolution from 5 
-team. 

The Cunard Line. CTie new I 
launched at Wallscnd is n fei red to in anothei 1 olumn. 



NORTH- WEST OF ENGLAND. 

,'»i Correspondent.) 

A Turkish Battleship. Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., ha- 

idnought " from the I urkish Go' 
ment, and a similar ordei l.l-wick tirm. This 

I as even 1 
British battleships which have recentlj 

• me- in design « hii I. are liki I 
in other vessels yet to be built She ■ 1 tons 

displ Hid will ha I "f -i '" will 

ml ten 14-in. guns, the largi 
ship, and she will 
..in. gun-. The heavy gum w 

all the ten to be fii while four 

ol t! ii be fired fore and aft. I he vessel has ti 

com pi 1 • 



Chilian "Dreadnoughts." It 1- ■ the 

01.I.1 

Republii .■ ng Whit- 

worth I I : Illa- 

tion 1- wanting. Pr. ents have not 

ileted. I 1 
displ and will ' ted with vei j hi 

guns. The) will outclass the Vrgentini "Dreadnouj 
win. h a ordered in A and in 

.11.1 thi \ 

A Russian " Dreadnought. "•■- The V 
booked an order to build the first Russian " Dreadnought" 
it Nikolai, 11 ■ 

to bring this ya 1 d \ 1 ■ ■ 

1. rd. r 1- to be given out and thi arc that the Vickers' 

1 o. will gel 1 

A Big Programme of Work. It will n 
of w ork i" 

when it is i mben in hand the British 

! 1 cruiser P ' I 

[apam n larger dimeni 

u Royal, a hug lont 

capable ol lifting a ship ..1 .■; ti ral submai 

foi thi British \.lnn 1 eral smaller orders \ 

! paid in nplbyed 1 

'. ckei firm. 

H.M.S. " Dartmouth. " — The trials hip- 

cruisei havi taken place during the month on the Clyde, 
.11.11111.1 over a being in • - 

iii.n. The trials ware a marked success. 
A Small Order. The Brazili nl have pli 

an or.l.r f. oat with the Vickers' firm to be delivi 

it Rio I"] Mian, buill at Barrow for 

the Ca & Montreal. 

0W ; : in lii- already buil! a pi iwei ful 1 • izil. 

Submarines.- -Although little 1- said now a. lavs about 
submarines, thi ■ 1 peciall; itted up for t ln- 

bran ' 1 uction is kept busily employed in the building 

' D " 11.' I " ! ' 'i - -I 5oi . thi 

submarim bi ing discai ded. 

Brisk Engineering. It is understood in a with the 

[Turkish ban 1. ship that tl nun will 

01 both the Harrow and the Elswick ships. 

ncal buildi ilian battleship 

1 Elswick, together with I and 

the Lion, and they have other 111 in hand. 

1 i ; il.ly the largest in the world. 

: to keep < gi ing in all it 
ment - 1 1 is now verj full ol work. 

The Hasmatite Trade. Depi the 

1 .,11 11. id. , and tin- has been 
railw ...ices. 

iut 6 js. a 1 
Shipping. Tl and 

er shrinkages in of iron and steel orted. 

BELFAST. 



' anient ) 

Messrs. Harland & Wolff. All the berth- oi 
P lam upied at y ■ ifficiei 

for a cot \t the 

fitting-out wharvi Mi ssrs Hi four new 

1 representing 1 te torn 

tanii and ■ 

in. 1- built for the I nion- 
O. I I it ion 

t.i tin- lug. volumi ol m w tonnagi the Royal Mad Sti 

.1- laid up in 
extensive '< the exi 

nger accommodation 1- being gutted out, and new 
■ the most up to -1 l.-i 1 1 and luxul 

1 the 
iting . tin . 1 1 . but rarely that M< 
1 1 nl irid S \\..ltt have m 

extension of premises and plant on hand, and ' the 

mated at the main entrance to thi 



58 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, 1911. 



arc bong rebuilt. Rapid progress is being made with the 
fitting out of the Titanic- Early in September the latest 
addition to the Belfast Steamship Company's fleet oi high- 
class cross-Channel steamers will be laun< hed from the north 
end ot the Queen's Island. She is to be named Patriotic, 
and will have more extensive passenger accommodation than 
any other vessel running bit ween Belfast and English or 
Scotch ports. 

Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co. — This firm is also fully 
booked up with orders which will keep both yards m full 
swing lor a long period. On the first ot August they launched 
a further addition to the large lleet of fruit steamers which 
they have from tune to time turned out. Tin- vessel referred 
to is the Peralta, built to the order of the Tropical Fruit 
Steamship Co. She is a vessel ot 5000 gross tonnage, a 
sister-ship of La Senora which is being completed for sea. 
A similar steamer named Sixaola, building for the same 
owners, will shortly be launched from the south yard. The 
fitting out of Messrs. Lamport & Holt's new twin-screw 
steamer Vandyck is being brought to completion. The 
Vandvck is a vessel of 12,000 gross tonnage, and is the first 
of three liners ordered by the same owners from Messrs. 
Workman, Clark A Co. for the Company's new monthly 
passenger and chilled meat service between Liverpool and 
Buenos Ayres. The bottom damage repairs to s.s. Egra 
(British India Co.), which went ashore after completion of 
her speed trials, have been carried out, and the vessel has 
sailed from Belfast. 

Messrs. MacColl & Co. have lately had a considerable 
run of repair work. At the present time they have a French 
sailing ship and three coasting steamers in hand for dry- 
docking and repairs. 



LAUNCHES AND TRIAL TRIPS. 

LAUNCHES English. 

Cherbury. — On June 15th, there was launched from the 
shipbuilding yard of Messrs. John Blumer & Co., North 
Dock, Sunderland, the screw steamer Cherbury, for 
Messrs. Charlton & Thompson, of Sunderland. She is 
of the single deck type, with poop, bridge and forecastle, 
perfectly clear holds, and is specially adapted to carry 
a large deadweight on a light draught. Water ballast is 
provided in the double bottom and also in the fore and 
after peak tanks. The accommodation for captain, officers 
and engineers is arranged amidships. The discharging 
gear is thoroughly up to date in every respect. Engines 
will be fitted by Messrs. John Dickinson & Sons, Ltd., and 
the winches and steering gear by Messrs. John Lynn and 
Co., Ltd., of Pallion. 

Volhynia. — On June 29th, there was launched from the 
yard of Messrs. R. Williamson & Son, Workington, a 
steel screw steamer of the following dimensions : Length, 
17s ft. ; breadth, 27 ft. ; and depth, 13 ft. 4 in. She is 
designed to carry about 750 tons deadweight on Lloyd's 
freeboard. The vessel has been built to the highest class 
at Lloyd's, and will be propelled by triple expansion 
engines, having cylinders 14, 24 and 40 in. in diameter 
by 27 in. stroke, steam being supplied by a cylindrical 
steel boiler 14 ft. 6 in. in diameter by 10 ft. long, working 
at a pressure of 180 lbs. 

Harrogate. — On June 29th, the handsomely modelled 
single screw steamer Harrogate, built to the order of 
Messrs. Wilson's and North-Eastern Railway Shipping 
Co., Ltd., was successfully launched from the yard of 
F.arle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., Hull. 
This vessel is intended for the Hull and Hamburg trade, 
and is specially adapted for the carriage of cargo and 
horses, and will run in conjunction with the new fast 
steamers //:///, York, and Darlington, thus ensuring a 
quick service between the two ports. The principal 
dimensions of this steamer are : Length, 255 ft. ; breadth, 
36 ft. moulded; depth, 17 ft. 4 in. moulded. She has 
been constructed of steel throughout to Lloyd's 100 Ai class 
and to Board of Trade latest requirements. The vessel 
is of the single deck type with long poop and forecastle, 
saloon and boat decks extending over the accommodation 
amidships ; this accommodation consists of a large steel 
deck house in which are berthed the officers, engineers, etc., 
the captain's house being situated on the saloon deck 



adjoining the navigating bridge. The crew's quarters 
are in the forecastle. She has two steel pole masts, each 
arranged to take four large steel derricks (01 the speedy 
handling of cargo, these derricks being capable of lifting 
3, 7, and 12 tons each, the whole of the derricks being 
worked by powerful steam winches of the most up-to-date 
description, and on the forecastle an efficient steam wind- 
lass by Messrs. Clarke, Chapman & Co. is fitted. The 
-lining engine is placed in the poop aft, and is worked 
by the telemotor system from the navigating bridge, and 
hand screw gear on poop deck, both of whi. h have been 
supplied by Messrs. Amos & Smith, Hull. The ship will 
be fitted up with electric light and bell installation, the 
saloon, officers' and engineers' living rooms are all heated 
by approved steam radiators. All the work throughout 
the vessel is of the very best description, with latest im- 
provements. The machinery, which is being constructed 
by Earle's Company, consists of a set of triple expansion 
engines having cylinders 2c4 in., 34 in., and 56 in., by 
39 in. stroke, supplied with steam at 1S0 lbs. pressure, by 
two large cylindrical boilers, the whole of the machinery 
being of the best quality and finish to Lloyd's and Board 
of Trade requirements. 

Hopper Barge for North-Eastern Railway Company. — 
On July 5th, the Blyth Shipbuilding and Dry Docks' Co., 
Limited, launched from their shipbuilding and graving 
dock works a 600-ton steam hopper barge built to the order 
of the North-Eastern Railway Co., which has been spec- 
ially constructed in connection with their various docks 
and harbours. Powerful propelling machinery will be 
supplied by Messrs. Amos and Smith, of Hull. This steam 
barge is the first of two which the Blyth Shipbuilding and 
Dry Docks Co., Ltd., are constructing at present for the 
railway company, and has been built to class 100 Ai 
Lloyd's, to the specification of T. M. Newell, Esq., chief 
dock engineer to the N.E.R. 

Atna.— On July 6th, Messrs. Win, Doxford & Sons, Ltd., 
launched from their yard at Pallion, Sunderland, a single 
decked steamer, the Atna, built to the order of Wilhelm 
Wilhelmsen, Esq., of Tonsberg. The dimensions of the 
vessel are : Length, 403 ft. ; breadth, 53 ft. 6 in. ; moulded 
depth, 28 ft. 10 in. ; and she will have a deadweight 
capacity of about 8,700 tons on a moderate draft. The 
engines and boilers will be supplied by Messrs. Doxford. 
The vessel has been built to the classification of British 
Corporation and Norwegian Veritas. 

Westoe. — On July nth, there was launched from Messrs. 
Wood, Skinner & Co.'s shipyard, Bill Quay-on-Tyne, the 
new ferryboat Westoe, which has been built for the Tyne 
Improvement Commission. The vessel is of the following 
dimensions: Length, 115 ft.; beam 30 ft.; breadth, 43 ft.; 
and mean depth moulded n^ ft. It is intended for the 
vehicular traffic between North and South Shields. Two 
large gangways are fitted on either side, and the vessel 
generally is constructed to cope with the heaviest vehicles. 
A new feature is that, instead of the present type of 
paddle-boats, the Westoe will be fitted with twin screw 
triple expansion engines. 

Imataka. — On July 12th, Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., Ltd., 
launched from their Cleveland Dockyard at Middlesbrough 
the fine steel screw steamer Imataka, specially constructed 
to the order of Messrs. Booker Bros., McConnell & Co., 
Limited, of Liverpool, London and Demerara, for their 
line of steamers running regularly from Liverpool to 
Demerara direct. The vessel has been built under special 
survey to Lloyd's 100 Ai class, and is of the single deck, 
shelter deck type, her principal dimensions being 297 ft. 
by 42 ft. by 19 ft. 6 in. moulded. She has a large steel 
deckhouse on shelter deck with cabins amidships for 12 
saloon passengers and the ship's officers. The captain's 
room is on the top of the saloon with a smoke room aft 
thereof, and there is a chartroom and flying bridge above 
same ; while the crew will be berthed in the forecastle. 
The vessel will have four holds and four hatches, and is 
equipped with 10 derricks, five steam winches, steam wind 
lass, hand and steam steering gear with all the latest and 
most modern arrangements for the safe and rapid handling 
of cargo. She is fitted throughout with electric light and 
has a large refrigerated house in shelter 'tween decks for 
carrying fresh provisions, while her Nos. 2 and 3 holds 
are insulated for the carriage of frozen meat. The vessel 
is to be fitted bv Messrs. Blair & Co., Ltd., of Stockton-on- 



September, iqii. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



59 



I • • -, with triple expansion engines, having 
23 in , j:i in., and 61J in., by 30 in. sttoke, supplied with 
!■ 1111 From two large single ended boilers working at 
ire. 
Normanby. On July iath, Messi William G 

Ltd., launched thi me steel screw -teamer 

nanby, which they have built for the London and 
Northern Steamship Company, Ltd., Messrs. Pyman Bros., 
Ion, managers. The vessel 1- of the shi 

; will tak.- the high in Lloyd' • Ri e 

Her dimensions are: Length overall, 40S ft. 6 in.; breadth, 
53 ft, 6 in. ; and depth. 25 ft. ;J in. The saloon, state- 
iptain's, officers' and engineers' n ■ is, el , are 
in houses ..n the bridge deck, and th< moda- 

tion forward. The hull is built with deep bulb 
frames dispensing with hold beams and leaving large clear 
holds, , ellular double bottom and fore and aft peak bal 
tanks, ten steam wine hi k tables and 

double den teach hatch, steam steering geai 

amidships, hand si rew ; 1 direct steam wind 

fre-h water distiller, steel grain divisions, 
anchors, telescopic masts, boats on deck overhead, and 
all requirements fur a first-class cargo steamer. Triple 
expa are being supplied bv the Central 

Mann.- Engine Works of the builders, ha riders 

26 in.. 4.' in., and 70 in. diameter, with a piston strol 
. and three large steel boilers for a working 
of 180 lbs. per square inch. 
Japanese Prince -fin July [2th, the Japanese Prince, 
the latest additiun to the Prince Line fleet of steamers, was 
successfully launi hed from the -hipvard of Messrs. 
ford & Sons, Ltd., Sunderland. The vessel has been built 
with complete shelter deck and 'tween decks, and her 
dimensions are: Length, 410 ft.; breadth. -4 ft. 4 in.; and 
moulded depth aS ft. 1 in. Her gross tonnage is 4,880, 
and deadweight capacity S.ioo tons. The engines and 
boilers will be supplied by Messrs Doxford. The vessel 
has been built tn the classification of Lloyd's 100 Ai, and 
while under construe tion the hull and engines have been 
under the supervision of Messrs. J. T. Trail and 1 
Pringle, superintendent for the Prince Line. 

City Of Lincoln.— On July 13th. there was launched from 
the Jarrow shipyard of Palmer's Shipbuilding and 

Ltd., the handsomely modelled w -teamer 

■ucoln, built to the order of the Ellerman I 
Limited, of London and Liverpool. The vessel is over 
420 feet long, and has been built to the highest .lass in 
Lloyd's Register. She ha- complete 'tween decks, with 
long bridge, poop, and forecastle, and is fitted with 
tudinal girders under the beams and wide-spaced hold 
pillars, giving clear holds for cargo Water balla 
provided for in cellular double bottom all fore and aft and 
in deep tank and aft peak. The vessel is lighted 
electricity throughout, and is fitted with a very con 

11 of derricks with -team winches for rapid working 
of cargo. She is to be fitted with triple expai 
engines, also manufactured by Palmer's Company, which 
will give her a speed of between 11 and 12 kn - 

Brisbane I ra July 14th. Messrs. Swan. Hunter and 
Wigham Richardson, Ltd., launched at Nev I'vne 

a fine steel screw steamer whi. h they are building for the 
German-Australian Lin.-, of Hamburg, for that company's 
service between Kui Australian port-. The vi 

i- 444 rt - 'n length by ;; ft. beam, and is being constructed 
to attain the highest class in Lloyd's Register. She will 
. arrv g.300 tons deadweight, and her propelling machinery 
will consist of a set of powerful triple expansion engines, 
supplied with steam by four la led boilers, all 

of which are being constructed at the Neptune Works. 
The auxiliary machinery for working 1 T . ■ erself, and 

for loading and discharging her cargo, is of the most 
modern and complete type Tin- intended 

to receive an installation of wireless telegraphy. Capt. 
H Schfltt takes command of the vessel when completed. 

William Cray. — There has been launched at South 
Shields a powerful twin s. rew tug of the following dimen 
sions : Length, 95 ft. ; breadth moulded, 24 ft. ; and depth 
moulded, 12 ft. 6 in. She has been built to Lloyd's 100 
Ai class for towing purposes. The deck equipment i- 
of the late-t type, including -team windla-s and -'- 
steering gear. The propelling machinery consists of a 
f twin-screw compound surface-condensing engines, 



tble of developi II P. steam 1- supplied by 

large multitubular boilers having a working pr< 
I 10 lb. Tin-re 1- also fitted in the engini 

pump, and a special vertical 
1 tiie pump 1 apabli -,>o gallon- 

minute. The 1 en built 1 the North 

in Railway Co., and is intended for service at 
Hartlepool. 

Glenbridge. On July 25th, Messrs Irvine's Shipbuilding 
and hi their hat tx 

yard, West Haiti. -pool, the steel 

buill to ti. Ml. urn, Lund .V Co., ,,1 Whitby 

and tlepool. The Glenbridge is 362 ft. in length 

by 51 ft. J in. beam extreme by -■', ft. ; in. depth moulded, 
bavin [weight cap.,, ity of ( 

Of tl k lindg.- and : 

and is built to Lloyd'- highest ... - ' ■ llular double bot 
ighout, and she has large fore and after- 
tanks for water ballast. The 1 | with deep 
frane igitudinal stringers, giving clear holds f, , 
stowage of bulkv cargoes, and 1- divided into seven v. 
tight coin; of six water-tight bulkhi 

I gram divisions are fitted throughout the holds, accord- 
ing to the latest Board of Trade requirements. Four 1 

ovided with eight powerful steam winches 
worked from a ilai donkey boiler, and all the latest 

improvements an- ini luded for the rapid loading and dis 
charging of cargo. A powerful quick warping steam windlass 
is fitted forward, and steam-steering gear amidships, with 
hand-screw gear aft. The captain, officers and engineers will 
be berthed in house- amidships, and the crew and firemen 
in t; tie. The lighting, ventilating and sanitar) 

arrangement- have received special attention, the most 
improved method- being adopted throughout. Triple ex- 
pansion - agines will I I fitted by Messrs. Richard- 

sons Westgarth * Co., Ltd.. Hartlepool, having cvln, 
2; in.. 40 m. and 67 in. bv 4; in. stroke, with two large single- 

1 boilers working at a pressure of 180 lb-. A " Con- 
traflo " condenser of the latest type, together with patent 
furnaces, evaporator, etc.. will be fitted. Messrs. Wailes, 
Dove Co Bitumastic " enamel has been applied I 

bunkers, engine and boiler-room tanks, and their "!: 
mastic " covering to the tank tops. 

Sangstad. On Jul) tl. Messrs. Hubert Thompson and 
Sons. Ltd.. launched from their Southwick yard a -ingle deck 
steamer, built to the order of Messrs. A. I . K: , Co.. 

1 saker, Norway, and the fourth vessel they h 
for the-, own.r-. 11. 1 principal dimensions are Length 
betwi cu ■ . • th, 44 ft. 6 in. 

depth moulded. 22 ft. 3 in. Sin is built to take the highest 
. lass in Det Norske Veritas, an 1 1- constructed on the 
frame principle with one deck leaving the ho 

UCtions. The erections consist of poop -' ; It., bl 
74 ft., both available foi cargo if required, and topgallant 
foreca-tle for the accomm, ■. officers and crew. 

Large and spacious deck houses arc arranged on top of the 
bridge deck foi I . , , . the saloon 

b.-mg fitted up in polished oak I 1 iui large h, • 

ways with double derricks fitted to eacl ti h having 

nek with gear capable of lifting 20 tons. There are six 
powerful steam wia a large multitubular donkey 

boiler of ample capacity for 1 !,-, u 

machinery, steam windlass and steam-steering gear. II.. 
- by Messrs. Hie North Eastern Mann,- Engineering 
1 td., Sunderland, have cylinders 21J in., 1.6 in. and 50111., 
with a stroke of : eing supplied by large boilers 

working ,1 bs. per square inch. 

Eskwood. On Jul) -■ W. Harkess & Son. 

I td laun imer Esktt ood from I 

yard at Middlesbrough. ["his vessel has been built to the 
ordei of Messrs. The Meteor Steamship Co., Ltd.. of Middles 
brough (Messrs K A. Constantine & Honking, managi 
.in.l : igned for their co 

dimensions are 195 it. by jo it. by 1 3 ft. toin.; sh,- ,- builf 
to Lloyd's highest class and equipped with a very up I 

tallation of deck machinery, including double winches 
h hatchway, also double derricks and steel n.. 
enabling her to handle every description of cargo with the 
utmo • b. She has very large hatchways and 

idapt her specially for thi argo 



no 



rill' MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Skptkmbkr, 



tr.uk'. .mil ^he will tons O light 

draught ol watei Hei engines are being fitted on board bj 

Messrs. Blaii S Co i I 3tockton-on-T am i 

intended to drive her ,i speed <>t toj knots loaded ["hi 

Eskw ■':.•' i- .1 sister vessel, but with sundi 5 improvement 

the- which vessel was delivered to the owners 

tnij I bin 1 very satisfactory trial nip. 

Trevalgan. [ulj 11 then wai launched from the 

shipbuilding yard oi Messrs. John Readhead a Sons, Ltd., 

West south Shields .1 steel screw steamei built t,, 

the order oi Mr.<rs. Rdward 11 tin & Son, St. [ves Cornwall, 

.in.l named th rhi vessel i of the improved 

typi to I loyd's highest class, and under theit 

. 1 I survej having poop, extra long bridge and topgallant 

istle with deep girdei framing, and having cellular 

doubli bottom .ill fore and aft with largi aftei peak tank 

for water ballast. The outfit ol the ship is very complete 

for general and yum trades, with shifting boards all fore 

and aft, and trunk feeders as hatchways \ lull equipment 

oi steam winches and derricks is fitted for the rapid loading 

and discharging oi cargoes. She will carry a deadweight 

irgo ol 7 550 tons on a light draughtof water. The vessel 
will be fitted with triple-expansion engines, also constructed 
bj Messrs. John Readhead & Sons, Ltd., having cylinders 
26 in., 42 in, and 69, in., with 48 in. stroke, supplied with 
steam from two large steel boilers working at a pressun ol 

Jo lbs. per square inch. ["his is the fifty-sixth vessel built 

above firm by Messrs. John Readhead & Sons, Ltd. 
Thornhill. —On July 26th, Messrs. Short Brothers. Ltd., 
launched from their yard at Pallion, Sunderland, a steel 
screw steamei to the order oi Messrs. The Taylor & Sanderson 
Steam Shipping Co., Ltd.. of Sunderland, making the twenty - 
eighth vessel built for this firm and representing a gross ton- 
nage ot 70,0 10 tons and a cargo capacity of 125.850 tons. 
- : will take Lloyd's highest class and is built on the Isher- 
wood patent system with poop, cargo bridge and forecastle 
and one deck laid. Her leading dimensions are — length 368 ft., 
beam 51 ft. and depth moulded 26 ft. \\ in., and she is de- 
1 to carry a cargo of 6,600 tons on a light draught. Water 
ballast is provided throughout the double bottom, which is 
carried out to the sides of ship and in fore and after peaks. 
Five extra large hatchways are fitted and as there are no 
pillars the holds are well suited to carry large pieces of ma- 
chinery. The vessel has centre line steel bulkhead, between 
hatches and six water-tight bulkheads. Chart house and 
captain's room, with wheelhouse above and two flying bridges. 
are on fore end of bridge deck. Electric light is provided 
throughout the ship and steam heating to accommodation. 
For loading and discharging double derricks are provided to 
each hatch, eight of these being worked from derrick tabli 
on masts, with cross trees above and the remaining two from 
spe< ially designed posts at cross bunker hatch. Nine steam 
winches, steam-steering gear placed in engine-room, worked 
from standards on Hying bridge, and wheelhouse and con- 
nected by rods and chains to rudder head. Steam windlass 
and steam ash hoist will be fitted, driven from a large multi- 
tubular donkey boiler in engine casing and exhau ting to a 
winch condenser. The propelling machinery will be installed 
by Messrs. George Clark. Ltd., of Sunderland, and consist ol 
triple-expansion engines with cylinders 25 in., 41 in. and 
67 in. diameter and a stroke of 45 in., taking steam from two 
large multitubular boilers of 180 lbs. pressure. 

Peebles. — On July 26th. the Northumberland Shipbuilding 
Co., Ltd., launched from their yard at Howden-on-Tyne the 
finely-moulded screw steamer Peebles, built to the order of 
Messrs. B. J. Sutherland & Co.. Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
The vessel is ;ox> ft. long by 49 ft. by 29 ft. 4 in. deep, and 
has been built under special survey to the highest class at 
Lloyd's. She is fitted with long bridge, long poop and top- 
gallant forecastle, the accommodation, which is very ample 
being placed in steel houses on the bridge deck. This steamer 
has been specially designed with a view to rapid loading and 
discharging of homogeneous cargoes, the hatchways being 
very long and wide, and are arranged for grain carrying 111 
bulk, a complete set ol shifting boards being fitted throughout 
to latest Board of Trade requirements. Ample deck gear is 
provided, consisting of nine steam winches by Messrs. Clarke, 
Chapman & Co., Ltd., Gateshead-on-Tyne, and a large 
number of cargo derricks to ensure the expeditious handling 
of cargoes. The propelling machinerj will be supplied by 
Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co I td., Sunderland, 



1 1 'M,!-,! ing ol engim 1 with cylinders • , in. , 1 1 in., 69 in, by 
is in stroke three large iteel boilers working at 1 s " lbs 
pri nre. The steamer will carrj about 7,700 ton on a 
light draught and steam about to knots loaded at sea 

Sandfly. On July t6th, Messrs. Swan, Hunter & Wigham 
Rii 1. nds, in, Ltd., successfully launched from their Wallsend 
ihipyard the Sandfly, a •; non-ocean-going torpedo-boat 
destroyer. I he work oi 1 onstruction oi the Sandfly is in an 
meed tage, si 1 1 hat ihe will be ready foi team ti ials at 
hi earlj dati 1 in Wallsend Slipway and Engineering I 
in constructing the propelling machinery, which consists 
oi .hi a nan gen lent . ,i Parsons turbines driving three ieparate 
shafts. The three boilers of the Sandfly are ol the watei 

tube type, and the furnaces are fitted with an oil burning 

in -t.iii.it ion. 

Michael Angelo and Lord Knollys. On July 27th, there 
were launched from the yard ol Messrs. < ochrane & Sons. 
Si lb\ , two sti el si rew traw lers the pi in< ipal d mien lions being 
133 tt. 4 111. l.\ 23 it. by 12 it. w in. moulded. The vessels 
have been built to the ordei ol Mi isrs. Pickering <S Haldane' 

Steam Crawling Co. and Hie Yorksl Steam Fishing Co,, of 

Hull, and will be replete with all the latest improvements 
for the fishing trade. Powerful triple-expansion engines will 
be fitted by Messrs, <;. n, 1 [olmes & Co., Ltd.. oi Hull. 



LAUNCHES-Scotch. 

Lady Bacon.— On July 25th, Messrs. Brown & Co., 
Greenock, launched the steamer Lady Bacon, which they 
have built for Messrs. John Deacon, Ltd., Liverpool. The 
vessel, which will be employed in the coasting trade, is 
142 ft. in length, 24 ft. in breadth, and 10 ft. 10 in. in 
depth (moulded). Messrs. Gauldie, Gillespie & Co., 
Glasgow, will supply the machinery. 

Baron Semphill.— On July 25th, Messrs. A. Rodger and 
Co., Glasgow, launched the steamer Baron Semfht'll, which 
they have built for Messrs. Hugh Hogarth & Sons, Ardros- 
san. The vessel, which is of the shelter-deck type, has 
been constructed to the highest class of the British Cor- 
poration. The steamer is 270 ft. in length, 4c ft. in 
breadth, and 19 ft. in depth (moulded), and has a dead- 
weight carrying capacity of 3,200 tons. The machinery 
will be supplied by the builders. A Cochran (Annan) 
Donkey Boiler with Patent Seamless Furnace has been 
supplied and fitted. 

Duchess Of Norfolk.--! in July 25th, Messrs. David and 
William Henderson & Co., Ltd., Partick, Glasgow, 
launched the handsomely modelled paddle steamer Duchess 
ol Norfolk, which they have built for the London and 
South Western and London, Brighton and South Coast 
Railway Companies for their Portsmouth and Isle of 
Wight traffic. The dimensions of the vessel are : Length, 
19S ft., breadth, 26 ft., and depth moulded 9 ft. She will 
be fitted throughout in the most up-to-date manner, the 
first-class aecommodation, which is aft, being of the must 
complete character, while the second-class will have com- 
fortable quarters forward. The machinery, which is also 
by the builders, is of the compound diagonal type, with 
1 ylinders 27 in. and 51 in. diameter, and a stroke of 
54 in. ; she has one doudle-ended multitubular boiler, 
working at a pressure of 130 lbs. This vessel is practi- 
eallv a duplicate of the Duchess ol Richmond, built last 
year by Messrs. Henderson for the same owners. 

Mont CeniS. — On July 26th, Messrs. Napier & Miller, 
Limited, launched from their yard at Old Kilpatrick, a 
span deck steamer of the following dimensions : Length, 
365 ft.; breadth, 49 ft.; depth, 27 ft.; with a gross ton- 
nage of about 4,000 tons, designed to carry fully 6,500 tons 
on 23 feet draught. The vessel has upper and main 
decks, long poop and topgallant forecastle, cellular double 
bottom, aft peak tank, large hatches and clear holds, nine 
steam winches, and has been built to the requirements ,,1 
the Bureau Veritas for their highest class. Machinery is 
being supplied by Messrs. D. Rowan & Co., Glasgow, and 
consists of triple expansion engines, also two main boilers 
and a donkey boiler. The vessel has been built to the 
,,i,l,i ,,1 Messrs. La Societe Generate de Transports Mari- 
time- a Vapeui ol Marseilles, through the intermediation 

of their agents, Messrs. II. E. Moss ,v Co., oi Liver] I, 

Li nd, hi and New, astle. 



September, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



61 



Balvenie. On [ul 17th, then launched at Gn 

a steamei I n~ deadwi capacity 

■ I, win. Il 

Balgany, which was launched i"r the same owners about 
The dimen 11. in length 

nil' ulars, jo ft. 6 in. in breadth, and 
14 it. 6 in. in depth moulded. Sin- will have tripli 

flinders, 17 in., 27 in., and 44 in. 

- lively, with a stn • ■ in. Thi vhich 

will b ■ '1 in the the last 

same owi • 
Strathderry and Strathgeldie. On Jul) 27th, two new 
-team trawlers, built to the ordei of the Aberdeen Steam 
Trawl were launched by Messrs. 

Hall, Russi rdeen. I named re 

tivel) Their dimen 

gtb, iij ft. inn.: breadth, 21 ft. '1 in.; and depth, 
1 .• it. 8 ii' ' n engines are being supplied 

by the bui 
Wirral On July -.7th, Messrs, Russell S Co., I 

launched the steamei Wirral, which the} have built 

i ihn Edgai 8 Co., 1 The dii 

of the VI Length, 385 ft.: breadth, .; 

8 in. ; depth moulded, - 1 

Messrs. David Rowan S 1 -gow, 

will supply the machinery. Messrs. Matthew Keena 
and t "., Ltd., have th( ■ iters 

and steam pipes with theii patent n 
position. 

Hind. 1 >n July 281 the 

destroyer Hind I << ol 

eight in course of construction in Clyde yards. 

Berna On lug. nth, there was launched at Point 
house thi thi i 

las Mihanovich, Ltd.), 

n. Th. whii h is intended for passenger 

the Rivers Plate and Parana, is 275 ft. in 

■li over all, 64 it. in breadth nsons, 27 ft. in 

... and oi about 1,700 tons gross. 

Cuildford Castle 1st ulh, the liner 6'/</7 

as launched at Whiteinch, for the Union Castle 
Steamship Co. The Guildford Castle is a sister ship to 
Casllc, which has just been completed by 
the Fairfield Company, and the Galway Castle, which was 
launched at Belfast in April last. She is also similar 111 
nearlv e\~ "th Castle, built on the ' 

; 
ded 1 "i the Hi ■■ ' -tie Line's intermediate 
African services. She is a twin 1 earner of a 
8,000 tons gri' in length, 54 ft. 3 in. in breadth, 

and 33 ft. 6 in. in depth. She will have accommodation 
ol the be>t type for a large number of first, second, and 
thit '-rs. 

Anchoria I In August 15th, thi launched from 

the yard of M( I K. Stephen & Sons, Ltd., Linthouse, 

TO large steamers they have on order for the 
Indian Service of the Anchor Line (Henderson B 
Limited). Thi > ted to the hi 

1 the British C01 poration, and hn dimen 
: 420 ft. by 53 ft. by ^ ft. In additi' 
having a large cargo apacity, accommodation 

has been provided for a numb' 

j.ment for dealing with cargo is also very ample, 
1 hi propelling mai hinery, 
has also been by the buildei '~ of triple 

engines having cylinders 2S in., 46 in., and 
ind three large double-ended 
boilers, with a full equipment oi aus 
Bedlington On Vugust 15th, Messrs. Archd. McM 
-. Ltd., Dumbarton, launched the steel 

re at 
tent building foi Messrs. 1. B. Pi 

The vessel which has .1 deadweig 
9,300 ton iwing din 1 Length 

breadth. ;<) ft. ; and depth 30 ft. 
ted w i'h ' leai holds, and large 
water ballast ir double 

bott ieak, and in deep tank amidships. 

the latest arra 
- u „l •.,', dation is pro\ ided ' 



and ■ rew. 'I he mai binei y, whicl r, is 

lavid Rowa 
and both : machinery ha lilt undei 

\l r. [oseph Roa . onsull 



LAUNCH Irish. 



Peralta On Vugust i-t. Messrs. Workman, Clark and 

■ : theii S 
new steamei 

itly launchi Jouth Yard, and now appn 

ing ' .11 ih. Alexandra W ha 1 ri 

;,ooo, and 
has been built under special su: 
in the British 

' « nli thi 
I rade, and the 1 nited Sta 

ii" pa engei 10 immodatii 1 
modious and comfortable, 'I" di ral 1 and furnishings 
being of the most artistii and luxurious character, while 
the private and publii rooms are well lighted and • 
ated throughout. Thi 

and prepared foi 
thi .image of fruit, cargo in bulk, the preservatii 
this cargo being ensured by an efficient installation 
I nery from which the cooled air is - 
'i b. ducts to each tnpartmenl 'I he 1 '---'-I 1 

to be propel le ties, having 

all tin hi ' tuxiliary appliai I with 

bi from five single-ended steel boilers waking under 
draught. 



TRIAL TRIPS. 



Koursk. — On June 27th, the s.s. Koursk had a successful 
trial trip at sea. This vessel has just been completed at 
the Wallsend Shipyard ol -wan. Hunter & Wigham 

Rii hardson, Ltd., to the order of the Russian Volunteer 
ITeet of St. Petersburg. Her leading dimensions are 
420 ft. over all with an extreme breadth of 51 ft. She is 
to carry 8,500 tons d.w. on a moderate draught. I hi 
been constructed by The Wallsend 
Slipway & Kngineering Co., and worked throughout the 
trial without a hitch, giving the vessel a speed of ovei 11. 
knots. The engines are of the triple expansion type, and 
the boilers have been fitted with Howden's forced draught 
The Koursk carries the highest classification certificate of 
Is, and also a Suez Canal certificate. In addition 
to the large cargo capacity of the .ship, comfortable a< 
modation has been fitted amidships for 30 first-class | 
sengers. In the 'tween decks there is accommodation for 
about 1,200 emigrants or troops. Steam heating has been 
installed in all living accommodation and in emigrant 
accommodation. In the after end of the vessel a commo 
dious hospital has been arranged, fitted with all requisites 
for dealing with cases of accident or illness. During the 
trial the owners were represented by Prince Maurocordatc 
and the Borneo Co. (the agents of the Russian Volunteer 
in England) by Mr. J. D. 
Dunkerquois. 1 In July 6th, the s.s. Dunkerquois, of 
about 2,000 tons gross register, built to the order of The 
.1 Vapeur du Nord, Dunkirk, by 
1 ampbeltown Shipbuilding Co., Campbeltown, and 
tied by Messrs. David Rowan & Co., Glasgow, ran 
at Wi The vessel is two-decked with 

aid top gallant ! has been con 

t, ,1 in exci El loyd's highest 1 lass I 
general carrying trade. On the trial an average 
1 knots was obtained, and everything passed off 
factorily. 
Darnholme On July 8th, the cargo stea 

c built bv M bert II 

Ltd., at their Southwick Yard, to the on 

mas Smailes & Son hip Co., Ltd., of Whitby, 

taken out to sea for her official trial. The trial trip 
I, the engines running with the ul 
smoothness, and a mean speed of over 1 ■ 4 knots was 



62 



THE MARINE ENC.INKER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. September, 1911. 



ined, and the owners expressed themselves highly sat 
isfied with both the vessel and her machinery Vftet the 
trial the vessel proceeded to Archangel undei th< com 
mand ol Captain Gray. See Launches, July. 

Chinese Prince On July 8th, the s.s. Chinese Prince, 
lately laui t 1 rothers, Ltd . Sunderland, left 
the VVi official trials. The trial was in ever} 
way a success, the engines working sn thl\ and steadily 

and a mean speed of i-' knots brine, maintained. See 
Launches, July. % 

Vaigatch On July 12th, the st< unei V< which 

has b< in built b VIi rs. Swan, i I unt< i S w i gharri 
Richards n, Ltd., at then Neptune shipyard, Newi istli 
i upleted a verj Bui i essful trial trip. I hi 

tier is 2i ; tt. in li tigth b] )2 n bi im, and hold - the 
highest class in Lloyd's Register. Hei propelling ma 
chinery, which con ists ol a iet ol triph expansion engines, 

.■. thei with the boilt i s, bi i nstructed at the 

Neptune Works. She is intended foi the passengei ser 
1 Uchangel VIourmain Company, ol Archangel, 

and has well-furnished : modation amidships foi 24 

engers, including a spai ii ius dining saloon, 
comfortable smoke-room, and state-rooms. There is accom 

dation forward foi 3 nd-class passenger-, while 

200 third-class passengers are provided for in the 'tween 
aft. ( in the trial trip a -peed of i2| knots was 
.111. in thing working to the satisfaction of all cor 

tied. 
Hopemoor. -• in Jul}' 13th, the new screw steamer Hope- 
-. built by Messrs. John Readhead & Sons, Ltd., West 
Docks, South Shields, to the order of Messrs. Walter Run 
1 iman & Co., Newcastle, was taken to sea on her official 
trial trip. After the trial, which was in every way satis- 
factory to all concerned, the vessel returned to the Tyne 
to load for Civita Vecchia under the command of Captain 
Rogers. This is the twentieth vessel built for the above 
firm by Messrs. John Readhead & Sons, Ltd. See 
Launches, July. 

Brierton. — On July 14th, the s.s. Brierton proceeded on 
her official fully loaded trial trip in the Hartlepool Bay, 
afterwards proceeding on her voyage to Genoa. The 
machinery and all auxiliaries worked very smoothly, and 
on the run between Hartlepool Light and Whitby High 
Lights an average speed of 12 knots was obtained, which 
was considered highly satisfactory, seeing the vessel was 
fully loaded. See Launches, July. 

Nigaristan. — On July 14th, the s.s. Nigaristan proceeded 
on her official trial trip, and after adjusting compasses m 
the Hartlepool Bay, proceeded to the measured mile for a 
test of her speed. The hull and machinery have been 
constructed to the specification and under the personal 
supervision of Mr. A. Walker, superintendent engineer to 
rs. F. C. Strick & Co., London and Swansea. See 
Launches, July. 

Mogileff. — On July 1'Sth, the large steel screw steamer 
left was taken to sea for her trial trip. The Mogi- 
has been built on the Tyne to the order of the Rus- 
sian Volunteer Fleet Association of St. Petersburg. The 
1 I was fully loaded with a cargo of coal. The trial 
was a long one, was entirely successful, and gave every 
satisfaction, a mean speed of about 12^ knots being 
obtained. Amongst those present at the trial were Prime 
Maurocordato, Prince Kokouatoff, Mr. Speshnieff, and 
Mr. Tcherepanzeff, representing the owners. The chiei 
dimensions of the vessel are: Length, 412 ft.; breadth, 
52 ft. ; and depth moulded, 29 ft. 9 in. She carries over 
8,000 tons deadweight on a moderate draught of water. 
The Mogileff is arranged for the accommodation of 1,150 
emigrants under' the shelter deck, with accommodation in 
the house above for 30 first-class passengers. The pro- 
pelling machinery has been supplied by the Wallsend 
Slipway and Engineering Co., Ltd., and consists of triple 
expansion engines having cylinders 27, 45, and -5 in. by 
48 in. stroke, steam being supplied by three boilers work- 
ing at 180 lb. pressure. After the trial the vessel returned 
to the Tyne to take in stores prior to her sailing for Con- 
stantinople. 

Ul. — On July iSth, the new steel screw steam yacht VI, 
730 tons V.M. and 854 tons gross, built at Leith for II 1- 
Imperial Highness thi \i hduke Charles Stephen of Aus- 
tria, went on her trial trip in the Firth of Forth, with 
most satisfactory results. Notwithstanding that the yacht 



was in In 1 deepi 1 ea going trim with ovei zoo tons oi 
and tores on board ind although .1 verj si rang wind 

bli ring, on vari in ovei thi measured mile al 

Gullane .1 speed ol 13 to 1, 1 . knot was easily attained 
without iiihlnh pressing the boilers. See I. ami. In .. July. 

Brooklet. On July 21st, the hand: ■ teel icrew 

built by Messrs. Win. Graj & Co., Ltd., 
for Mi 1 \. 1 .lb n. 1 Bro , tt est I lartlepi ol, had hei 
tiial trip. Tin- vessel has been built to Lloyd's highest 
1 1 . and in 1 prim ipal dimension i an I ength ovei all, 
146 it. 6 in.: breadth, .17 it. 6 in. j and depth, 25 ft. 7'. in. 
She has long brid e, 1 p, and topgallant forecastle. Thi 

loon, 1 iii room . 1 tpt tin's, 1 IN ers' and engineers' rooms. 
eti . are fitted up in houses on thi In nig.' deck, and the 
crew's berths in the forecastle. Ilea engines are of the 
triple expansion type, supplied from the Central Marine 
Engine Works ol the buildei . and have cylinders 25 in., 
40 hi , and 65 in, diameter, with a piston stroke of 42 in. 
Steam 1- generated in two large steel boilers made for a 
working pressure "I t8o lbs pei square inch. 

Rokkosan Mam.— On July 22nd, the fine steel screw 
collier, Rokkosan Maru, built by Sir Raylton Dixon and 
Co., Ltd., of Cleveland Dockyard, Middlesbrough-on-Tees, 
to the order ol Messrs. Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, Ltd., of 
London and Japan, through Messrs. Glover Bros., London, 
proceeded to sea for her official trial. The vessel is of 
the latest and most improved type of patent "Cantilever" 
construction with top-side water ballast tanks, to class 
100 Ai at Lloyd's, single deck type, with poop and fore 
castle and engines aft. ller principal dimensions are : 
275 ft. by 42 ft. 3 in. by 20 ft. 6 in. moulded, 
and she has a deadweight carrying capacity of 
ever 3,000 tons on a light draught of water. She 
has four large hatchways, three holds absolutely free from 
all obstructions such as beams, pillars, or web frames, and 
perfectly self trimming owing to the sloping sides of the 
top-side tanks at each side of the ship, and of the total 
amount of about 1,100 tons of water ballast which the 
vessel can carry, about one-half of this quantity will be 
contained in the top-side tanks. The vessel has two 

masts, eight derricks, large donkey boiler, four boats, elec- 
tric light, hand and steam steering gear, and is equipped 
with nine steam winches, steam windlass, etc., and all the 
latest and most modern appliances for the rapid handling 
of cargo. Triple expansion engines, placed aft, 21, 35, 
and s7 i"- by 30 in. stroke, supplied with steam by two 
large single ended boilers, working at 1S0 lbs. pressure, 
have been fitted by Messrs. Blair & Co., Ltd., Stockton- 
on-Tees. The trials passed off most successfully. 

Steam Tug for the Eastern Mediterranean. — Mr. Edward 
Hayes has just run the trial trip of a steam tug built for 
the Eastern Mediterranean. She is a sister boat to others 
supplied to the Admiralty, many foreign governments, 
harbour boards, shipping lines, etc. Her length is 51 ft., 
breadth 11 ft., draught about 4 ft. 3 in. She has four 
bulkheads and steel tloors of extra depth to give great 
strength in case of grounding and to minimize vibration. 
Forward of the collision bulkhead is the cable locker, the 
remainder of the fore part of the boat being used as a cabin 
for the crew and provided with lockers, cupboard and 
folding table. Aft of the cabin, between steel bulkheads, is 
the machinery space. The main engine is a " Hayes " 
standard C.S.C. open front type, having cylinders 8 in. and 
16 in. by 10 in. stroke. The crank shaft is balanced and 
cut from a solid piece of Siemens-Martin steel. Automatic 
lubrication and water service are both fitted. The air. 
circulating feed and bilge pumps are worked off the L.P. 
crosshead by long rocking levers. The boiler is of the 
marine return tube type built under Lloyd's survey for 
120 lbs. working pressure. A bilge ejector and auxiliary 
feed pump are also fitted in the engine-room, the latter 
drawing water either from the fresh-water tank or the boat 
side. All the upper woodwork is of teak. The aft space is 
arranged to sleep extra hands if required. A hand slip 
towing hoop is mounted on a stout oak post and a towing 
bow is placed aft. The boat is provided with a stout canvas 
awning, mounted on galvanized iron uprights, and hand 
railing. Her specified speed was 12 miles an hour, but she 
easily exceeded this on her trials, and on her coal consumption 
test proved herself to be very economical. She was easily 
handled and is a good rough-water boat. 



[■EMBER, I'lH. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



63 



BOARD OF TRADE EXAMINATIONS. 

Note— iC den ,lss - 



May 25th 

A1l.1m-.iMi, W 
Allison, II 

Atkin. B 

Barr, W 

n, v\ 
Blaxland, R . 
Brimer, \\ 
Browning, 1 

Bullock, L 

Cameron, A 

■ J 

Cole, C 

I 

Dodd, U 

Duncan, P 

G 

1 

< rilchrist, T 

Herriott. W . 

Hodgson, F.. . • 
II 

Hynd, M .... 

Irvine. W 

Kenny, T ■ • ■ ■ 

l.am 1 

1 ,ewis, W 
I uren, \ 

M. Neill, H. . 
1 ison, C. . , 
bit, W .... 

O'Hara, D ... 

1 'erkins, W ... 

Simmons. J 

Simpson. K 

Smaill. W. A . 
mpson, H. 

Turzell, W.... 

Walker, T. ... 

Wall, r 

Wal 31 in, F . . . 

Watson, H — 

Watson, W. R. 
dall, T S 

Wright, C. ... 



UN Shields 
K Liverpool 

rdeen 

iC Sun 
2( ' I iverpool 
iC N SI 
2C \l» 

.nock 
Shields 
2C Hull 
2C N Shields 
nderl'd 
2t' Liverpool 
[C N Shields 
iCN Shields 
istol 
lull 
.rpool 
2C Sunderl'd 
1 I .ndon 
enock 
ndn'ry 
1 1 ; 

k' N Shields 

enock 

lull 

,21 I ondon 

.-rdeen 

nderl'd 

1 enock 

1 mdon 
nderl'd 

ristol 

[I I ndon 
Shields 

. zC Si 

. 2C Sunderl'd 
. 2C N. Shields 
. iC N.Shields 

iC Li" 

2C Sunderl'd 
. iC Sunderl'd 



Lucock, T 

M. t Iregi 1 . D. 

Mi 1 .0 gor, I' . . 
M 111 1. \\ 

in. 'I 
Mundell, I . ■ 


' 

I ■ • ■ 
Silverthorn, J. 

le, I 

\\ 
Thompson, J . . . 

1 r, A 

Wells (' 

Whitewri 
Whitton, W, 
Williams. I 



June 

Aikman, T. 
Anderson, A 
I 
ford, S. . 
Burrell, J. ... 

t, T 

Byles, T ... . 
Campbell, 1 1 

1 
1 \ . . . 

t humming, A 
1 ■ . ■ can, R 
■1 ton, A J. 

Elliott, I 

Elliott, W .. 

Ellis, R 

Fordbam. A 
1 iamble, W. 
, 
Hunter, A 
Hutton, S 

W. . . 
.... 
1 
Jor 

ndreth, E. 
Lloyd, II. .. 
r hart, I 
1 1, C 



1st, 

! almouth 

1 

. 1 1 

i 
. 2C Leith 
. iC I 
. iC London 

' Glasgow 
. 2C Cat 
. 2C N Shields 
. iC 1 

\ Shields 
2C London 

• ■Mast 
. 2C Liverpool 
. iC London 
;ow 
2C Liverpool 
. iC G 
. 1 1 ondon 
ndon 
. 2C Liverpool 
. iC Liverpool 
. 2C N.Shields 
, jCN Shields 
. iC Liverpool 

,.2f 

I '. 



.•rpool 

2C Lo 

■1 i,|, ;ov 
[I 1 . 

1 1 ardifl 
i< Livi 
2( Bi 

' 

I 

,1 I ,i 

2C N Shields 
1 i eith 
[I Liverpool 
iC Gli 
2C Glasgow 
2C Cardiil 



Jum 

Bennett, R iC 

Binns, 2C 

Boundv, W. .. 2C 

Brodie, W iC 

Dodds, C 2C 

Fergus.. n, W . . [C 

1 . in, C. . . iC 

■ ington.T. 2(" 

I . . . . 2C 

Johnstone, J .. iC 

\ . . . . 2C 

W. . .. 2C 

Lawson, A it 

Marks. P iC 

Martin, J iC 

Mee, P iC 

Hanson, C tC 

Richardson, G. iC 

Taylor, F 2C 

Thomas, W. . . iC 

Thoms, W 2C 

Whitelaw, T. .. 2C 



London 
N.Shields 
Liverpool 
Liverpool 
N Shields 
gow 
N Shields 
N Sh 
N Shields 
Liverpool 

I _'0W 

[on 
Glas^; 
Liverpool 
Liverpool 
Glasgow 
N Shields 
Liverpool 
London 
London 
N Shields 
N Shields 



June 15th. 

■ . S iC 

Alexander, J. . . iC 

Baxter, H iC 

Black, K 2C 

Court, A iC 

Duncan, R. . . iC 
. . . 2C 

Graham, 15 iC 

Harland, C iC 

Hewitson, 1" . . 2C 
Hutchison, R . . iC 

]estv. W iC 

Jones, F 2C 

Laird, D 2C 

I 1 it: 

McCullum, N -'' 

ertson, I . . iC 

Smith, P zC 

Sykes, W 

Iker, W . 
Young. A . . .. iC 



Hull 

Dundee 

Liverpool 

:iock 
I 1 .-rpool 

- pool 
Hull 
Liverpool 

pool 
nock 

rpool 
Liverpool 
Dundee 
Hull 
London 

enock 
1 lundee 
Hull 
Hull 
London 



|un. 

Agar. W iC W Hart 1 

Alison. W . 

Andrew, J iC Leith 

Ball. R. iC Liverpool 

Becker. E II ■ zC South'ton 
Bowen. I " 'ardifl 

Buntain. K . .. tC Glasgow 



11, 1 ■' I 

1 1 .. .. 2C Cardifl 

tel, A .... zC Glasgow 
1 lii k on, P.. 

i-ll , ... i( -south'ton 

I I iverpool 

I ■ )! ' 

ty, W " Gl isgow 

Hall, G zCN.Shi 

Ha=elhurst, 1 2C N Shields 

Hastie, \ iC N Shields 

iC Cardifi 

. , . I 1 , iC London 
[o n,V\ .... iCN shields 

Johnson. S 2C N Shields 

Johnstone', a. . . tC Glasg 

Kent, ] iC Cardiil 

King, I iC Ci 

Levi J iC Cardilt 

Liddell, R iC Leith 

Little, W ii Liverpool 

Lloyd, A ... ■ ' liff 

Mackenzie, J G 2C Liver] 1 

McNaught, T. iC Liverpool 

Maguire, J 2C Cork 

! ipstone, II... iC N Shields 
Mylrea, W. .. 2C Borrow 

Ison, ) iCN Shields 

Platts, T 2C W. Haiti 

ce, A 2C Liverpool 

Russell, J iC London 

Russell, c; 2C W Hart'l 

Sinclair, F 2C Liverpool 

Smillie, A 2C Glasg. 

Smith, C iC Cardilt 

Taylor, H 2C Liverpool 

Thomas, R .... iC N Shields 
Turner, G . . . . 2C London 
Welton, S tC N.Shields 

Wilkinson, E. iC Liverpool 

Wilson, D 2C Glasgow 

Woolcock, T. .. 2C Cardifi 
Young, W 2C South'ton 



June .: |th 
Anderson, J. ..iC Aberdeen 
Brecknell, J . . . 2C Liverpool 

Clark, J iC London 

Cormack, W. . . 2C Hull 

r, iC Liverpool 

\ iC Bristol 

Crook, H iC Liverpool 

Davies, A iC Liverpool 

Davies, S zC Li 

English. T " 

Grant, F iC Hull 

Lloyd, G ■ 

Lodge, W ' 

Mac Donald, j A. 2C 1 

irlane.W. iC Greenock 
11 

Morris, H. " 

in, I I 

Signal, S zC London 

Smith. W iC Aberdeen 

O iC Liverpool 

Williams. A. - . tC Bristol 

T iC Sunderl'd 

II A .. 2C Greenock 

July 

Armitage, |. . 

Batchen, G tC Glasgow 

Blackman. W ." ' N Shields 
|. 11 ardifl 

\ 
a, L 1 



Cordiner, A. . . zC South'ton 

■ Ids 

Ids 

I larling, \ 2C N.Shields 

Ids 

irdin 
pool 

pool 
1 . . ,1 1 
. . .-'" 1 
ths, J ... -' ' 
- on, A 

Hill, II iC South'ton 

1 W zC Cardifl 

Jamieson, J..... |ow 

[ohn D iC Liverpool 

[ones, T 2C Liverpool 

Mai kintosh, |. 21 

llan. J. .. 2C N.Shields 

■ . J 2C 1 . 

\ . . iC Leith 

Peddie, A 2C N.Shields 

Peel, I iC N 

1'orter, J 

Scott, D 2C Belfast 

G 2C I.. 

Stedman, E. . 2C South'ton 

tis, J 2C Ca 

Talbot, E. :... 2C Cai 

ion, W. .. 1 L 
Watson, W .. 2C Liverpool 

[ eith 
Wilkinson. A .. zC N Shields 

Wilson, H zC N Shields 

on, J iC Glasgow 

dward, H zC Liverpool 
iger, J 2C Leith 

July ijth. 

Adams, W 2C N.Shields 

Blacl k, [. 2C Greenock 

lass, D zC N Shields 

tord. S 2C London 

Coggon, F iC Hull 

He, 1 .... 2C Greenock 

Dawson, R .. iC London 
tthwaite, ] zC N Shields 

Dyer, K 2C Liver] 

ms, D zC N Shields 

magan, J. .. 2C Liverpool 
Gib- 1 1 pool 

Goodfellow, K 2C N Shields 
W. .. 2CN Shields 
Hoilingsworth.J zC N Shields 
I i m rd, J . . . " Hull 
Hutchinson, T. 2C N Sh 1 

jack. II don 

[aggs, W .... iC Hull 

.1 .rpool 

Jones. T ' ' rpool 

Kjode, J 

rpool 
Mi blister, II 2C Greenock 
Mi Intyre P . • -'' Greenock 
M 1 - m R . ■ n I 

Mann, J zC N 

!,-,. 1 . .:(' N Shields 
Maj ne, |, . . . . -C London 

M ir, I .' tC I Hindee 

Phillip, T. ' ' -nock 

: pool 

. • . enock 

Liverpool 

I . . 2C Liverpool 

.lie, II .... zC N Shields 

Greenock 

;, G 2C Hull 

id. I \ "ock 

, A .. iC L01 
Woollons, I •■ 2C Lon 



64 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Siumkmhkk. iqii. 



I ul - 



park, 1 1 
|. . . 
Birchall, \ 
k. S 
veil, A 
ey, V 
Butterworth, l< 
\ 
[ell il 
per, W 
in, ! 
Crawfoi i ' 
b 1 
: lie. I ■ ■ 

i w. . . 

'is. W 
Hackworth, E 

Hann. A 

Higlev, H 
Hughes, J . 
Jones, ] W. 
Kelly, [..... 
Ladd, J 



iC W Hart I 

it-difl 
[( \ Shields 

2 C W Hart'l 

i 
iC Leith 

I verpool 
Bdon 
erpool 
ith'ton 
tC W Harfl 
lasgow 
jC London 
2C Cai 
2< \\ Hart'l 
i I >ndon 
2l South'ton 
2C Liverpool 
i<" Liverpool 
iC Liverpool 
. r.irdiff 



I aw, R iC N Shield 

M. Callum, \ zC N Shields 

m, i ;hee, C -•' ' I ive' pool 
Mi Kaj 1 * ' ' o\\ 

Mi Mill in, D ' ' la ■ ;ow 

Majoi r tC! ondon 

Malabai , A , 2C Liverpool 
Morrell, A . . 2C W Harfl 
Osborn, J, iC London 

Pearne, E. . . . . 2C ( .lasgow 

Peers, G 2C N Shields 

fair, J iC Glasgow 

Run im in, | tC 1 ivei 1 1 

Sanderson, I iC W Harfl 
Smith. \ E 21 ' 1 ondon 

Smith, A 1' ■ 2C Cardifl 
Smith. W. .... 2C W. Han I 
Stevens, W . . iC Cardiff 
Taylor, 1'. . iC W Hart'l 

Thomson, [. . . 2C Liverpool 
Waugh, W. . . 2C W. Harfl 
Wheatcroft, J. 2C London 
Whitfield, W. iC N. Shields 

Wilson. G iC Glasgow 

Young, C T . . iC Leith 



The Marine Engineer and Naval 
Architect Patent Record. 

Compiled, by Messrs. E P Alexander &■ Son, Chartered Patent 
' 16", High Holborn, London. W.C. 

8554. Ships. Relates to hinged metal plates for protecting 

tin sides and bottom, etc., of water-tight doors, hatchways, 
and for preventing pieces of coal and other objects from 
striking against them and deforming them. The plates 
c, g. hinged to the sides of the frame, are of curved form, 
and are provided with swellings f, h. which engage the curved 





-''— B 



9036. Turbines combined with rotary engines. \ power 
plant comprises turbines and rotary engines in combination. 
In a ship propelling plant with three shafts, the centri sh.iii 

1 is driven by rotarj eng and the outer shafts are 

driven by turbines 5 actuated b) the exhaust from the 



FIC I 



upturned ends d, i of the protecting-plate e hinged to the 
step. The parts are so arranged that the turning of the 
plate c by the sliding of the door in the direction A, B. auto 
matically effects the turning of the plates c g. The pro- 
tecting-plates may be applied to vertically-sliding or hinged 
doors, etc., inclined planes or bevels being arranged to cause 
the turning of the plate c. 

8671. Ships, etc. In that type of self-ejecting barge for 

ge, oil, etc., in which a large hold A having a double 

bottom B is disposed amidships and is provided with one or 

more longitudinal gutters, troughs, etc., terminating in a 



pocket or well D whence the sewage, etc., is discharged by 
means of a pump E through a suction pipe El, the pump E 
is actuated from the driving-machinery of the barge, for 
example through a clutch adapted to connect the main 
i ngine shaft to the pump shaft. 




rotary engine,-., either combinations are described. The 
turbines may be ot any construction, and the rotary engines 

may be of any construction in which reciprocating parts are 
entirely eliminated, but are preferably of the type described 
in Specification 15,311 09. 

Propelling Ships, etc. Comprises an apparatus for 

; aerial and marine vessels, and consists of two 
blades at right-angles mounted on arms 6, which are in the 
same plane. The arms are pivoted to the ends of the dn\ ing 
shaft 1 by the pin 5 and engage a cam surface 7 1 of such 
shape that, as the shaft 1 rotates, the blades will be moved, 



9047 

prope" 




so that, when one blade is horizontal and effective, the other 
blade is merely cutting the air or water ami moving vertii ally. 
Reversal of the direction of motion only reverses the upward 
movement, the forward propulsive movement being unaltered. 
Two sets ot apparatus as above are used, and driven in opposite 
directions by a single worm actuating two worm-wheels. 

9462. Ships, etc. Relates to structures built up of a set ies 

of flanged plates, the flanges serving to strengthen them. 
In the application to ships, the plates are formed with ribs 
or flanges 2 disposed at a short distance from each edge, and 
arranged so that the end of one plate overlaps the end of an 




adjacent plate to which it is riveted. Longitudinal I-beams 
are used as keelsons and engine-bearers, and may run the full 
length of the vessel. In a modification, the plating is carried 
out vertically, the ribs 2 in this case acting as transverse 
frames. 



. ma. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



The Marine Engineer 

And Naval Architect. 
London. OCTOBER, iqii. 



COLLISIONS BETWEEN WARSHIPS 
MERCH VNTMEN 



VND 



WE are [uite sure that the greatest possible 
v will !» foi the White Stai 

Company on the serious disaster that lias be- 
fallen them by the temporary putting out of commis- 
sion of the Olympic, at the commencement of her 
career, as the result ol being rammed by 11 M.S. 
Hawke. The circumsta der which the collision 

took place are as remarkable as they are unfortunate. 
The huge liner, with some 3000 persons on board, had 
left Southampton for Cherbourg, and was proceeding 
along the Solent in the middle of the day in clear 
weather and was rammed in the starboard quarter, 
apparently without the slightest warning or excusi 
a protected cruiser of over 7000 tons displacement and 
12,000 horse power, which was following her at a speed 
somewhat 1 than her own. Until the enquiry 

which will naturally follow takes place one can only 
reasonably assume either that something had gone 
wrong with the steering gear of the Hawke, or parti- 
cularly in view of the close proximity of the two vessels 
to one another immediately preceding the collision, 
that the suction of the larger vessel in passing through 
the water set up a diverting influence on the smaller 
vessel and drew her out of her course. The public will 
await with the deepest interest the result of the 
enquiry into an accident which will affect a large 
number of people, as we understand that all the berths 
on the Olympic had been booked up for some months 
ahead, and it is thought that the time occupied in 
effecting the repairs will probably preclude the v< 
from crossing the Atlantic: again this year. We belii 
that only temporary repairs can be effected at South- 
ampton, and the vessel will be taken round to 
Belfast for the permanent repairs. While we are 
on the subject of this collision we may usefully refer 
to a discussion which took place in the House of 
Commons in August last between Mr. Fred Hall, 
M.l'., and the Financial Secretary to the Admiralty. 
It appears from the questions put by Mr. 1 [all and the 
answers given by the Financial Secretary that in June 
last the battleship King Alfred collided with a merchant 
steamer called the Cheapside, with the result of total 
destruction to the latter. Under the Merchant Shipping 
V 1 the liability is limited to .{.'$ per ton of the registered 
tonnage. \s no cause of action could lie against the 
man-of-war or the Lords of the Admiralty, the owners 
sued the commander of the A red, who 

defended by the Treasury Solicitor. The Court held 
that both vessels were to blame, and th< i 
proceeded to assess the claims on this basis by consent 
of both parties. It will be understood that this 
procedure does not make the Admiralty liable, but 



estimates the damages which they*"usually | 
voluntary payment when a man-of-war has blame put 
upon it by the Court. The- point raised by Mr. Hall 
is a very important one for shipowners, and has 
reference to the 1 laim put forward by the Admiralty, 
which included in round figures ' ,,1 foi cost of 
repairs, ,{,'1,200 for loss of use of the vessel, and .^2,554 
for loss of time and expenses of the officers and crew 
during the time of detention. It was claimed by Mr. 
Hall that it is a hardship upon the liritish shipow 
because, if he happens to get into collision with a 
battleship, naturally, the cost of crew and officers is 
exceedingly greater than would be the: case with 
regard to two merchant ships. The question was 
whether it was necessary to maintain 32 officers and 
590 men on the ship for three weeks, while repairs to 
the amount of ,^"334 were being effected, and, if so, 
what were they doing. If work of re-fitting, apart 
from work necessitated by the collision, was carried 
out during the period, it was unfair that the shipov. 
should be debited with the whole cost of the w; 
and provisions of the ship's company for the three 
weeks. The Financial Secretary in his answer, after 
explaining the fact, expressed the view that he could 
not '.;o behind the finding of the Court, and. if he had 
contented himself with this, perhaps the question 
could have been considered to be answered, but the 
further explanations he thought fit to give, certainly 
start a new train of thought altogether. We a 
with him, that the men were, no doubt, busy on the 
ship during the three weeks, and that it was not 
practicable to dispense with the crew for that period, 
to find new jobs for them and to reassemble them 
at the end of the period when the repairs were 
made, but on being pressed as to the actual work 
performed, he said that the men were going on with 
their ordinary duties — theii ordinary training duties 
and their ordinary military duties — and the Registrar 
admitted the claim in full. It would be interestin 
know whether, if at all, the Registrar had any know- 
or evidence as to the composite character of the 
duties of a crew on a man-of-war, and if so how the 
duties appertaining to the work of the ship as far a- 
the collision repairs were concerned, were separated 
from the training and military duties, and what basis 
of differentiation could be adopted in assessing 
damages if such a separation of duties could be made. 
The short point is, is it fair that a shipowner should 
be debited with the cost relative to training or mili- 
tary duties which must be carried out somewhere for 
the benefit of the nation simply because they are 1» 
<-d out on a ship which is being repaired owin 
collision. On the face of it, we must confess that it 
seems to us obviously unfair to do so, as the proper 
should certainly be on the number of men 
employed wholly on the repairs or a proportion of the 
time of the whole crew by eliminating the time spent 
lining and military duty. There appears to be a 



66 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



October, 



1911. 



distiii' in ei>etween a merchantman and a man- 

of-war, as with the former the laying-up is a complete 
stoppage of beneficial use and is a dead-loss to the 
owner, while with the latter the beneficial use from 
the national standpoint does not cease as far as train- 
ing and military duties are concerned. The subject is 
well worth) ol the .mention of shipowners, for we see 
no reason why they should be penalized with damages 
which the nation does not actually suffer. 

mi- FUEL. 



IT is interesting to note the results obtained by 
American engineers in the matter of oil fuel, par- 
ticularly in view of the development that is taking 
place in its use on this side of the Atlantic. In the journal 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
setting out the transactions of the Society at the San 
Francisco and Boston meetings, a most interesting series 
of papers were read upon the subject of oil fuel, which 
formed the basis of a topical discussion on the matter. 
Space will not allow us to deal with all the branches 
of the subject treated, but we may perhaps usefully 
refer shortly to the paper on " Oil Fuel for Steam 
Boilers," by Mr. B. R. T. Collins. The result of the 
author's experience is that weight for weight oil has 
calorific value 30% higher than high-grade coal, and 
having regard to the less volume occupied by oil com- 
pared with an equal weight of coal, 50% more oil fuel 
can be stored in the same space as a given amount of 
coal. Oil is found not to deteriorate by storage like 
coal, and maintains its heat value indefinitely. The 
chimney area is only 60% of that required for coal, 
hence a smaller amount of heat is lost by reason of 
the smaller amount of air heated and discharged 
through the chimney. The higher heating efficiency 
is effected not only by the use of less excess air, owing 
to more perfect combustion under good control, but 
also due to a more equal distribution of heat in the ; 
combustion chambers, as doors do not have to be 
opened, and a very small amount of soot is deposited 
on the tubes. Owing to the heat being more evenly 
diffused over the entire heating surface of the boiler, 
the amount of heat absorbed by the metallic 
surfaces is raised. Again, smoke can be entirely 
eliminated, and as no cleaning of the fires is 
necessary, the boiler can maintain its maximum 
capacity continuously, which means less boilers 
in commission for a given power than when coal is 
used. The cost of handling is much reduced, as the 
oil can be pumped from any reasonable distance; 
there is an absence of dust and ashes, consequently 
the engine room is much cleaner and less wear and 
tear occurs in the machinery. The use of firing tools 
is avoided and no risk of damage to furnace linings 
from this cause obtains. It is found that the shrink- 
age and loss of handling oil is much less than that of 
coal, while the labour bill for firemen, coal trimmers 
and such men is enormously reduced. The author 



claims that from 35 to 50% increase of capacity over 
coal takes place by the substitution of oil therefor de- 
pending on the quality of coal and cost of handling 
same, but i( one is to understand that a boiler will have 
its capacity increased by this amount as a result of a 
mere substitution of fuel, we do not think this result 
could be proved in practice with a boiler of average 
design working under normal conditions. The dis- 
advantages of oil fuel may be summarized as: Low 
dash point, as it should not be lower than i40°Fahr., 
where the danger with men of ordinary intelligence is 
no more than with coal ; and in the case of feed-water 
with high scale-making quality the cost of repairs is 
likely to be higher when adopting oil owing to the 
intense temperature developed in the furnace unless 
a proper refractory setting is provided for burning 
oil. The discussion which ensued on this paper was 
of a most interesting character, and indicates the 
solid grip that American engineers have of this par- 
ticular subject. 



THE FRENCH NAVAL DISASTER. 



P 



all countries 
and navy in 
sustained in 



will 
the 
the 



HE sympathy of the people of 
go out to the French nation 
tremendous loss they have 
catastrophe which has deprived them of a splendid 
ship of war, and has further resulted in the immediate 
loss of over 200 valuable lives, and nearly 200 
injured, many of whom, it is feared, cannot survive. 
The battleship Libevte, one of the finest and latest 
units of the French fleet, was lying in Toulon harbour 
when she was blown up on the 25th September, as a 
result of a series of explosions. At the time of going 
to press the cause of the explosions is not definitely 
established, but it is thought that they were due to 
the spontaneous combustion of gunpowder. Another 
report states that the explosion was caused by a fire, 
with which the men had been contending for some 
time, reaching the powder magazine. Several French 
men-of-war were in the harbour at the time of the 
accident, and so great was the force of the explosions 
that most of them had men killed or injured ; neither 
did the vessels escape injury, and on page 103 we are 
able to give an illustration of the damage done to the 
Republique. On the same page is an illustration of 
all that remains of the Liberie, which at high water 
cannot be seen, a buoy marking the spot where she 
lies. Toulon harbour was strewn with wreckage. 

The Libcrte was launched at St. Nazaire, in April, 
1905, and was completed for sea in 1907. Her dis- 
placement was 14,900 tons, speed about 19 knots, and 
her cost was nearly ,£"1, 600,000. The vessel was of 
the following dimensions : length over all, 452 feet; 
beam, 79J feet ; maximum draught, 28 feet ; and she 
carried a complement of 793 men. Her sister ships 
are Democratic, Justice and Verite. 



October, 1911. 



THE MAKINh L.V. INKER AND NAVAL ARCHITFXT. 



THE "PAPANUI." 

Til E fa< t that ill-luck seems to dog certain vessels 
would reallj appeal to be indisputable. Look 
at the histoi unship Papanui, which 

was built for the New Zealand Shipping Company in 
she was constructed I ll-known and 

spei ted firm, Messrs. Wm. 1 lenny & Bros., of 
Dumbarton, who have turned out several n the 

same fleet as that for which the Papanui was built. 
Her sisters have all done well. There is no possible 
reason that can he add int for her ill-luck. 

Yet that she was unlucky hei history shows. Her 
iii-.t n she struck an uncharted 

rock off Waterhouse Island, Tasmania. Thereby she 
sustained most serious damage, and was in fact cast 
from the New Zealand Company's tleet in conse- 
quence. No blame for what occurred could be laid 
upon her construction, management or navigation. 
Then came her troubles in n-anl to repairs. It was 
determined by her new owners that these should not be 
effected in an Australian port, presumably on account 
of the excessive cost of work dour undei the Common- 
wealth systi m. There were objections to giving her 
clearance, on the ground of the sufficiency or otherwise 
of the temporary repairs which had been undertaken 
to enable her to get away. Eventually she was put 
under the Nicaraguan flag. 

She made th sje to Japan in safety, and was 

there repaired, as described and illustrated in the 
issues of the Marine Engineer and Naval Architect 
of February and May. [911, and put in an efficient 
state again. She returned to Australian waters, 
ungratefully abandoned the Hag which had proved so 
useful to her and assumed again British registry, this 
time at Melbourne. Then she was - I to bring 

passengers to London for the Coronation festivities. 
< >n the voyage she was considerably delayed by 
machinery difficulties, and even got into the overdue 
Now, apparently, the end has come. Returning 
to Australia, via the Cape route, she embarked some 
347 steerage passengers in London, and all seems to 
have gone well till she reached the South Atlantic, 
when a bunker fire broke out on the 5th Septen 
After five days' exertions it was subdued. But after 
passing St. Helena another bunker proved to have 
lit tire also, and the master resolved to put 1 
tbe island. In doing so he seems to have been 
well advised, for the second fire proved serious enough, 
and had he not put into a port ol refuge there would 
probablv have been ninth loss of life to deplore, 
vessel reached St. Helena on the evening ol the 1 1 th 
September, and it became necessary to land the 

<-ngers. By 5 a.m. the following morning the 
work impleted, accommodation being provided 

for them on shore. This duty was carried put none 
too s by eight o'clock that morning the vessel 

ablaze fore and aft and had to I"- beached in 
Jamestown bay, where the wreck was abandom 
So ends an unlucky career, fortunately without any 

of life. 



I m VI \i i 1 .jI the Institu 

tion of Naval Architi Martell Scholarship 

in Naval Architecture, nt the value 

three years, to Mr. Albert Percy Cole, of Portsmouth Dock- 
vard. 



THE FLEETS OF THE MAIL LINES. 

hi.) 

Cancellation of a Certificate. 

IT is not often 
a in trim 
though 111 the sixtii more 

tha :. \ Court at 1 lound 

right to " ca as mastei 

held respectively bj 
offio the steamship General Wot) ["hi 

1 the morning of the 28th June, with a 

lle\V Ol twenty tiller holds and thirt) Was 

in tlie St 1 n her voya bee when she 

iship 
\ collision took place between the two vessels. 
I hi mastei m iti ani I helm im in of 1 

posts and, seeking their own board th< 

Aranm ire. Thai and 

the second officer of the G '■ who was of! • 1 u t \- 

when the collis 00 urred, being awaki the impact, 

md ordered the crew to their boat stations. 

1 hus all on board neral 

went down, and then- was no loss of life. Bui the 

a a 1 ithing judgment I opinion that 

I ieir 1 ondui t the master and chi I I hi lost ship 

had shown thi unfitted evei again to be 

to take command. 

The Belgian State Railway, 

as 1 mentioned last month, has cast from nty- 

five-year-old paddlers. lint it still n I in on it I veral 
still n far as oni 1 1 

never really be rei 01 its mail and passengi 

Surely the management would be well advised to 1 lear away 

these oil 1, tin other companies, notably the 

th Eastern and ' aatham Railway, are in the habit of 

ling notici as to thi names ol the vessels which are, or 

can I"- employed in the pa engei ervici 1 1 I : 

rnment were to k'et n<l of the other vessels winch it 
never again use it might > I by its line, for 

peopli to use a line which retains old 

Is, from th that, under pressure ol circumst m 

they may some day find themselvi d an old vessel 

wliu ! brought -"it again to 1 i gem y saili 

Not only I- the Osti ce bringing new and improved 

vessels on to its station but it is giving further faciliti 

lling public by giving additional opport 

third class pa engei i hi e have long been carried in the 

imers and now the annoum emi nt is made that on 

■ iter the [st October, 1911, these opportunities will also 

■ 1111,1 by their less wealthy clients in thi and 

trains which maintain the afternoon sailings. \ line which 

is so up to date would surely be well ; to I lear its 

' 1 it the older \-essels. 

The Anchor Line, 
bj the despatch from the Clyde on the 13th September ol 

its new steamer Cam gated the old ! I ithe 

position ot reserve ship, and is thus in the position ol b 

■, York with a well 
1 twin-screw liners. I 

.- ever since the coming 
imbia 111 1 1 

The White Star Line, 
which a few weeks ago took over from the Red Star Lim 

inland, and gave her the nam. ol /.' Jgtc— which 
has been the name ol twi 1 ol the Bi 

has now resumi 1 of another vessel which for some 

flown thi flag. This is the steamship 

I 
White Stai and Sha-w Savill I ween 

and 1 ra hei return to her old owner 
ship the 1 ' r would 

it 111 the t 
the Whit. Star Line amongst thi 
the Combine will assume more and more overwhelming 
ortions For the same Shaw-Savill and White Star 
Mi ssrs Workman. Clark & Co., on the 12th September, 



6S 



Fill' MARINE ENGINEER AND NAYAI ARCHITECT. October, 1911. 



launched a new twin screw linei ol the imi ize as the 

I'lus vessel will be known as the Waimana. 

The close connection 

,veen the Pacific Steam Navigation Company .1:1.1 the 

Royal Mail is vi leni ed b) the rei en1 announcement 

t in 1899 at Barrow b) Messrs. Vickers, 

Son S Maxim : >\ named companj and now trans 

R03 al M ul will in future be known as the 

' Two recent cases 

have shown the importance ol those in charge 

steamers kei ping 1 good look-out, especially during the line 
thei 1 he fine weather tempts small boats to venture 
out, and it is obvious Hi it the) are unable to protei I thi m 
selves by keeping out ol the waj ol fas! steamers. The first 
Mi .1 o( the steamship Stir, • ol South imp 

ton, which, ofi the entrance to Poole II rrboui .it the beginning 
ilj ran down a small sailing boat, the Osiris, with the 
result tint one ol" the two men in chargi of the boat, together 
with the lady and her two children who had hired the little 
vessel, were drowned. The rule ol the Company which owned 
the steamer was that there should always be a look-out forw trd, 
but in fine weather this obligation seems to have been omitted 
l.v the master who. from the bridge, fulfilled the duty him- 
self. In the Stirling Castlt the bridge is behind the funnel, 
and thus over an arc of seventeen degrees the view to star- 
board from the port sick- of the bridge was obscured. Simi- 
oi ourse, there was a like area on the other bow ob- 
:d from the starboard end of the bridge. The mastei 
sighted the Osiris when from three-quarters of a mile to 
mile away. He thought he would clear her, and went to a 
position whence he could not see her, and remained there 
till it was too late to do anything to avoid the collision. In 
the result a Board of Trade inquiry suspended his certifii ate 
om tradi master for a period of twelve months. Hardly 
■. 1 this inquiry finished when another case of a similar nature 
occurred. The coasting steamer Winstanl V, of Dublin, ran 
down a small boat on the last day of August in clear weather 
just after leaving Dartmouth. Again the little boat was 
not seen till too late. Again there was no look-out forward 
the master having taken that responsibility upon himself. 
In this case the master left the bridge and went down to the 
wheelhouse because the crew were engaged in washing down 
the bridge and the decks. From the wheelhouse it was 
impossible to see so small an object as a boat on the bearing 
in which this little vessel lav, as the steamer was in ballast 
and down by the -tern. Of the two men lost in this accident 
only the body of one was. up to the date of the inquest, 
recovered. A coroner's jury, considering that the master 
had been guilty of more than ordinary negligence 
brought in a verdict of manslaughter, and he was committed 
for trial at the Assizes on the coroner's warrant. The lesson 
of these two case, should be taken to heart generally and 
-on no account should a proper look-out be omitted under 
any circumstances. 

The case of the " Roebuck" 
is another example of ill luck. This steamer, which is a well- 
known member of the Great Western Railway's Channel 
Islands Beet, was built in 1899 at Barrow by Messrs. Vickers, 
Son & Maxim. She was nearly destroyed by an accidental 
fire at Milford in 1905. but was repaired and restored to her 
work. Xow she has' had another narrow escape from loss, 
this time by stranding, when running at 19 knots speed in 
fog on to the Kains Rock. Guernsey. At first her position 
looked serious and the passengers had to be taken off. Sensa 
tional reports .were circulated in the press as to inefficiency 
of life-saving appliances on board. It is satisfactory therefore 
to know that the question of the condition of the ship's boats 
and life-belts was thoroughly gone into at the Board of Trade 
enquiry and that the allegations referred to were pronounced 
to be totally without foundation. The Ro buck is now 
undi 1 ri pail and will no doubt soon be on her station again 

The Great Western Railway 

according to a somewhat surprising announcement, made 
arrangements for the discontinuance of its Brittany service, 
which is maintained between Plymouth and Brest, and for 
whose extension there was but recently acquired one ol the 
steamships which had up to that time served on the mail 
ervice of the Harwich rout-. It is further stated that the 



Nantes ervice of th Greal Western may also be abandoned, 
The " l.usitania" 

li 1 le a remai kable rei ord in the waj ol quit k turns. In 

aboul nini 1 la; and a hall sin- has steamed some nine 

a mill 1 Ins woi ks out, quite roughly, al about 

|,„, miles a da) or, lay, ovei nineteen knots including 
itoppages When wi 11 ne ml" a 1 lii 1 these stoppages are 
terminal not merely halts a1 ports of call, it may well be 
, [aimi d that thi Clj debank buill linei has done that which 
i, , nevei been approached by the performance ol any other 
Vi el. l'he epitome of her tups seems to have been as 
fi illows : 

(111 WARDS. 
1,11 l.ixei pool I a. 111 . 28th AugUSt 

Leli ' 'in 1 a itown 1 p.m., 28th \11gust. 

Arrived Ambrose Channel Lightship (the timing place of 
1 he in ers), 5.45 a.m., 2nd Sept. 

I lelll « AKlis 

Left Ambrose Channel Lightship 7.40 p.m., 3rd Sept. 

Arrived Liverpool Landing Stage, 8 a.m., oth Sept 
Outwards Again. 

l.elt Liverpool 5 p.m., 1 ith Sept. 

Left Queenstown 10.45 a.m., 12th Sept. 

Arrived New York to p.m., 16th Sept. 
By these means she taught up her turn which had been 
interrupted by the Liverpool strikes and regained nine lost 
days. Her stay in New York was now from the night of 
Saturday, 1 6th September, till her schedule date of Wednes- 
day. 20th September, for the return voyage. During her 
sta\ in New York at the beginning of September, a stay 
which between the two passings of the Ambrose Lightship 
was only thirty-eight hours, she not only dealt with the 
inward and outward crowds ol passengers, but 111 twenty-one 
hours she shipped 5500 tons of coal, all the needful provisions, 
engers' baggage, and had 40,000 pieces of ship's linen 
sent to the laundry and returned to the ship. Her homeward 
run was a good one, averaging 240, knots and occupying but 
four days twenty hours and fifty minutes to Daunt's Rock, 
and her turn round 111 Liverpool was quite as fine a perfor- 
mance as that in New York. She thus beat the record out and 
home established by the Mauretania some months ago, and 
having done that established a new and more difficult one by 
rushing back on a third crossing and effecting it in a time 
surpassing the most sanguine hopes of those interested. 



THE SOUTH STACK LIGHTHOUSE. 

ONE of the most interesting of the many light- 
houses around the coast is that of the South 
Stack, off the Island of Holyhead, which is 
linked to the Isle of Anglesey by the railway em- 
bankment. A recent visit impressed the importance 
of this lighthouse upon us, and imparted double pleasure 
due to the influence on our memory of a former visit 
paid during the early part of the American Civil War, 
the fiftieth anniversary of the first battle of which was 
recently celebrated. We witnessed then the steaming 
performance of an intending blockade runner against 
one of the Holyhead to Dublin mail boats. The 
Mountain Cliff, at the foot of which, divided by a 
gorge but united by a suspension bridge, rests the 
rock whereon the lighthouse stands, is nearly an 
hour's drive from Holyhead station. The descent 
from the cliff is by means of about 550 steps to the 
suspension bridge, under which some hundred feet or 
so below rush the waters of the Atlantic, mingling 
with those of the Irish Sea. The scene is magnificent 
in summer, and one can well imagine the grandeur in 
winter under the influence of a raging storm, with the 
terrific waves breaking on the rock-girt shore. 

The lighthouse was erected in 1809, when the 
light was produced by oil lamps, with burners 
aggregating 16,000 candle power. In 1873 the light 
was altered, and improved in 1909 to its present 



M K, MI I- 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAV.M ARCHITECT. 






high efficiency. There are about ioo steps from the 
lighthouse entrance door to the light. The diop 
apparatu . which is six- es once per 

minute and shows bright for half a second, then shaded 
for nine and a half seconds. The apparatus is suppoi ted 
by a bat! 

be held up on revolving rollers, lest the mercury should 
escape by any means. The present light is equal to 
275,000 candle power, and is supplied by an oil vapour 
lamp. I h 1 blast is by means of compressed air 

contained in a reservoir charged by means of a set of 
Hornsby oil engines. The Mersey Harboui Hoard 
has also 1 immunicating station al the 

lighthouse. The North Stack is within view of the 
lighthou , rojecting rock about a mile to 

the north nearei Holyhead. 1 kwater, which 

was built during [84510 1 ting sight, 

and forms a protection to the harboui . It is nearly two 
mile-- long, with a lighthouse at the outer end, while 
about two miles out 1 he Skerries with the 

lighthouse upon the island. 



GALVANIZING AND PLATING. 



Tl IK usual course of galvanizing and plating by the 
application of heat has objei lions to its use for 
1 1 1 \- reasons, and the introduction of a means 
of coating metals with a protective covering, without 
these objections, may be looked upon as most de 
ble. An opportunity was afforded the writer 
recently of inspecting a process and the results, which 
appear to justify the claim that metals may be coated 
with protective skins without being subj 
influences which tend to injure their initial structure 

'ill the surface for fine work. Thus iron 1 
ami nuts were treated ami the deposit of zinc was so 
Oth and (lean that no difficulty was experienced 
m 1 onnection with the threads in screwing the nuts 
on and off. Brass, coated with tin, and aluminium 
with brass, were also shown, both in the process and 
the results. Metal deposited on wood was also shown, 
and it was explained that the whole art of galvanizing 
and depositing could be carried out by the process, 




The South Stack Lighthouse. 



In October, 1859, while homeward-bound from 
Australia with a large number of passengers, many of 
whom were returning with their families to the homes 
they had left years before, the Royal C) 
driven ashore and wrecked olT the coast ol Anglesey. 
The voyage had been, up to the time the vessel came 
within sight of Holyhead, a prosperous one, and 
survivors from the wreck stated that all had been 
goin^' well and happily on board, passengers and crew 
looking forward with eager expectation to their safe 
arrival in 1 .i verpool, and messages had been 
Queenstown to waiting friends. In order to give an 
opportunity to see the Great Eastern, then laying at 
Holyhead, the coa iched sah ;h for 

fine weather, but when night drew on the wind rose to 
a hurricane and the --hip drifted. The anchors were 
go and the engines (auxiliary) kept going to ease 
the strain on the cables, but all in vain. I 
parted, and the wind and the waxes engulfed both 
ship, men, women and children. I re about 

460 lives lost. Most ot ed ashore 

and buried in the churchyards around Moelfra I 
To these a pathetic interest is attached, as one visits 
the locality. 



which has. aftei much laboui and many experiments. 
been brought to its present stage by Mr. Merino, an 
Italian chemist and expert, upon whom the mantle of 
his si ientifii father has fallen. Depositing of silver 
or tin alloy on earthenware has been treated with 
great success, judging from the samples shown and the 
fine polish; and as the stren the vessels is 

increased by the addition of the metal, the process 
promises to be of great value in connection with ships' 
dining saloons, where a silvei outside and earthenv 
inside tend to a nice show and cleanliness. The 
treatment of condenser tubes and ferrules by the 
process is one direction in which some careful tests 
might be made in view of the corrosive action which 
place. Messrs. Harvej A- Co.. Ltd., of Norfolk- 
House, Laurence Pountney Hill, have the process 
undei their charge with a view to its development in 
the various directions of which it is capable, and these 
seem to be many, when its possibilities in connection 
with metal, wood and earthenware are considered. 



' \ H. F. You 

to thi 



70 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



i >< imki r, mi i 



ITALIAN DREADNOUGHT 
"CONTE DI CAVOUR." 

THE Conte di Cavour, Italy's second "Dreadnought," 
was launched at Spezia last August. In design 
she is quite the must unique of the many and 
varied types of battleship which come under this 
heading, and possesses the proud distinction of 
mounting the most numerous all-big-gun battery yet 
put into a modern warship, which consists of thirteen 
1 2" guns. 

As may be seen from the plan, these are carried in 
live turrets, of which two are raised to fire over the 
fore and aftermost and the remaining one is amidships 
between the masts. These three lower gun-houses 
carry three guns apiece, while the raised positions 
1 ontain the ordinary twin-mounting. All can be 
trained on either beam, and five axially ahead or 
astern, giving her a fire concentration of 11,050 lbs. 
per broadside and 4250 lbs. in the latter directions. 
For comparative purposes we append a table showing 
the fire concentration and mam details of her con- 
temporaries. 



The anti-torpedo battery is carried along the upper 
deck and consists of eighteen 4*7" guns, while a tertiary 
armament of fourteen 14 pounders is distributed over 
the superstructures and turret tops. These are not 
shown in the plan, as their exact positions are uncer- 
tain. A somewhat novel and original way of spacing 
the 47" guns has been adopted in order to provide for 
a heavy end-on fire. The hull side is deeply recessed 
in a series of steps fore and aft of the two centre 4-7" 
ports so as to provide accommodation for four ^'uns 
forward and three aft per broadside. 

Turning again to the main armament, the actual 
battle-value of this huge collection of ordnance is a 
somewhat debatable point. As we have mentioned 
in preceding articles, the maximum number of guns 
that can be " controlled " from central range-finding 
stations is ten. What system is in use in the Italian 
navy is uncertain, but unless they have some such 
arrangement of the range-finders as is in vogue in 
Germany, i.e., one to each turret, whereby the groups 
of guns would be under five individual controls, it is 
unlikely that the fullest use will be obtained with the 
best results from the thirteen guns. 



MI 





i ii^ ;; : - : '4; : : :t ry-::: 




J L 



(>^ED 



1 r 

Plan of the Conte di Cavour. 






Nation. 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 
in tons. 


Speed.| Armament. 


Broadside. Axial 

(Not including 

tertiary or 4" guns). 


Orion 


Great 
Britain 


22,600 


10 i3*5"guns I 

21 16 4" .. 1 


lbs. 
12,500 


lbs. 
5,000 


Arkansas 
Jean Bart 

Veritus Unitis 


U.S.A. .. 
France . . 

Austria . . 


26,000 
23,000 

20,000 


20-5 
20 

21 


12 12" ., 1 

21 5" ■, ' 
12 12" ,, 1 

22 5*5" 11 1 
12 12" ,. | 
12 6" 

18 smaller ' 


10,800 
10,426 

12,740 


3,640-3,700 

astern 
8,156-8,320 

astern 

8,157 


Sao Paulo ... 


Brazil . . 


19-25" 


12 12" guns 1 
21 22 4*7" ., 1 


10,605 


7,080 


Heligoland ... 


Germany 


22,800 


20 5 


2 12" ,, | 
14 5 9" .. - 

14 J 4" .. ' 


S.47* 


f>, 240 


Sevastopol ... 


Russia . . 


23,000 


23 


16 47" .- 1 


9,056 


2.356 


Moreno 

Conte di 1 
Cavour i 


Argentine 
Italy .. 


27,940 

21,500 


22-5 
22-5 


12 6" ,, 

12 4" ,, 1 

13 12" „ ) 
18 4'7" ., J 


11,402 


7,o[0 
4,602 
4.558 
astern 



The three-gun turrets are now no longer a novelty, 
although it so happens that the Cavour is the first ship 
so fitted to be discussed in these columns. In any 
case they can only be regarded as a weight-saving but 
risky device employed faute de mieux in order to crowd 
in an increased number of smaller guns instead of 
substituting fewer guns of larger calibre. The Cavour 
could, and would, doubtless have been armed with ten 
13-5" had these pieces been available in Italy, and for 
this reason her being fitted with thirteen 12" can only 
be looked upon as a temporary expedient to produce 
a more powerful ship than her neighbours, pending 
the introduction of the iy$", 14" or even 16" gun. 

The armour protection is somewhat light for a ship 

•Current plans incorrectly give her no forecastle deck, and 
these 47" carried in groups of four, one and four instead of four, 
two and three. 



October, tgii. 



III! MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



7i 



m 



•Bit 1 




Launch of the Cant h Ca out al Spezia. 



of her size, but taken in conjunction with the arma- 
ment and designed speed of 22-5 knots with 24,000 
1. 1 1. P., it is proi ably a good deal more extensive than 
could have been allotted to a similar ship built else- 
where. In our article on the Napoli (Aug., 1909), we 
mentioned in passing the Italian ability to 



all-round ship on a given displacement than couli 
produced elsewhere. Where robustness is not the 
essential that it is to some nations, weight in 
mtlings, supports and frames can be reduced to 
what in our own ships would be probably b( 
the minimum, added to which t he wholesale use of 




As the Cavoui will appear when completed. 



7- 



TIIK MARINE KNCINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



QCT( '[UK, I'll I. 



asbestos fittings and hollow metal-work wherevei 
possible, and you have .1 drastic saving in weight 
u in, h ( in be utilized in other dire< tions. 

On paper the 1 is, with the exception of out 

" Orions," the most powerful ship afloat, added to 

which she has a highei designed speed than any 

battleship built or building, except the Russian 

■ l 'li.ua " class, and could therefore choose her own 

range in action, ami maintain the best manoeuvring 

positions. In practice her lack of displacement must 

re or sometime: either in her ability to 

stand continuous firing, big-gun hammering, torpedo 

attack by below-watei protection, or seaworthiness 

and speed-keeping in heavy weather. As she stands, 

the Cavour is a monument to Italian 

ingenuity in weight saving. 

The thickness of the belt (water line) is uncertain, 
but will doubtless be similar to that of the Dante 
which preceded her, i.e., 10" amidships with 
continuations 6" forward and 4" aft. The protective 
deck is if only. An 8f" strake covers the lower deck- 
side and forms a redoubt, while the battery is behind 
5" armour. The big gun barbettes and turrets have 
protection, and there are two 11" conning towers 
of a novel pattern. Details of these are lacking, but 
from the model of the ship they appear to be three- 
storey structures and will probably contain the central 
gun-control stations. The tripod-masts will be a good 
deal lighter than those fitted to our ships and carry a 
small observation platform, wireless rig, etc. 

It is also reported that the funnel-bases are to be 
armoured, but no confirmation of this can be obtained. 
In view of their close proximity to the 4-7" battery 
guns, it is most likely that this necessary precaution 
will be taken against having the flats permeated with 
smoke and fumes from pierced uptakes. 

The Cavour class will have their steam generated in 
Blechynden or Babcock boilers, and be turbine- 
driven. Their coal supply is not likely to differ much 
from that of the Dante Aligheri, which is normal 1000 
and maximum 2500 tons. 

British pattern " Bullivant " torpedo-nets will be 
stowed along the battery deck. 

Two sisters, the Giulio Ctesare and Leonardo da Vinci, 
are building at the Odero and Orlando yards re- 
spectively, and all three ships are to be completed by 
I9I3- 



THE 



THERMO-FEED AUTOMATIC 
WATER REGULATOR. 



EXPERIENCE has shown that uniformity of 
water level in boilers tends largely towards 
efficiency of operation and economy of fuel and 
much ingenuity has been displayed in the design of 
apparatus for the purpose. In all devices of this 
nature there must of necessity be a certain range of 
movement or variation in function in order to get 
any governing effect at all, for if set too close no 
operation takes place at all and the device is rendered 
absolutely inoperative for practical purposes. 

We have much pleasure in describing a feed regu- 
lator which is being put on the market under the 
above title by Messrs. Ronald Trist & Co., Ltd., of 
London and Glasgow, and which possesses distinct 
claims to merit for ingenuity of construction and 



simplicity ot design. The device is illustrated in the 
adjoining sectional diagram and consists essentially of 
three elements, viz.: a float chamber with Boat, a 
steam and exhaust valve operated by the float and a 
power device for closing a spun- pir.-rd lecd 1 hei k 
valve adapted to be normally open. The chamber 2 
is 1 onnected to the water space of the boiler by means 
of the pipe 3, and to the steam space by the pipe 4. 
The chamber contains a float 5 which co-acts with a 
float lever 17, pivoted at 20 in the control valve 
casing 11. This valve stem 14 connected to the 
lever 17 has two oppositely disposed valves 12 and 
13, which engage two seatings in the casing 11. A 
screwed cap 28 on the casing enables those valves to 
be adjusted in their relative distance from one another 
and a pipe 27 at the rear of the valve 13 leads to 
the exhaust, while a pipe 23 connected to the casing 
at a point between the valves 12 and 13 passes to a 
diaphragm chamber 24, having a diaphragm actuating 
in opposition to a spiral spring mounted on the stem 
of the feed check valve 25. The tendency of this 
spring is to maintain the valve 25 normally open. 

With this simple description it will be readily seen 
by reference to the diagram how the device works. 

When the water rises above a certain level in the 
boiler and the float chamber, it will raise the float and 
float-lever, drawing the controlling valve endwise in 
such a manner as to close the valve at 13 and open 
the valve at 12. Steam will then flow through from 
the float chamber 2 by means of the pipe 23 to the 
diaphragm chamber 24, closing the check valve 25, 
thus shutting off the water supply of the boiler. As 
the water level drops in the boiler, the float 5 will 
lower and tend to close valve 12 and open valve 13, 
and allow the pressure which is in the small pipe 23 
between the controlling and regulating valve to be 
exhausted to the atmosphere, and then the valve 25 
will open again and the boiler will be supplied with 
water. 

In actual practice the controlling device will be in 
an intermediate position for the majority of the time, 
so that both valves 12 and 13 will be strictly open, 
and a little steam will blow through from float- 
chamber into the open air. This small escape of 
steam shows proper working condition, and indicates 
a substantially constant water level, which is the 
condition desired. The parts are so simple in form 
and so easy to adjust that the device may be taken 
apart or put together by an ordinary mechanic in a 
few minutes. 

The controlling valve arrangement may be removed 
as a whole by taking off two nuts where it is bolted to 
float-chamber and pulling it out therefrom, the float 
lever being withdrawn from float-chamber. The cap 
28 on end of controlling valve should then be 
removed, the valve 13 and lock nut unscrewed. The 
pin 20 can then be removed from end of float lever, 
and the valve 12 and valve stem be pulled endwise 
out of valve casing. 

To put the controlling valve together again, replace 
the valve 12 and valve stem in valve casing, put the 
fork on the float lever 17 in a slot in the valve 12, 
then put in the pin 20 in end of float lever ; now 
screw on the valve 13 until both valves 12 and 13 
are seated, then turn back valve 13 three-fourths of a 
turn and the valve will be set. 



October, iqii. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



73, 



The three-way cock placed on the pipe 23 leading 
from the controlling valve to the regulating valve, 
enables a person at any time to open the regulating 
valve independent of the float-chamber. In other 
words the boiler can be fed by hand by means of this 




HH 




.INLET 
FEED 
WATER 



The Thermo-Feed Automatic Feed Regulator.; | 

cock, and thus have a higher water level if desired at 
,mv time, for example, when shutting down the 
boiler. * 

THE LENTHALL-BAUGH TIDE 
INDICATOR. 

IN our August issue we gave an illustrated descrip- 
tion of an extremely ingenious instrument under 
the title of a " New Tide Recorder" and having 
regard to the great interest aroused by it we think it 
desirable to supplement the description so as to more 
clearly indicate the working of the instrument. As 
previously stated the arm D to which the hour hand C 
is rigidly attached is geared to the pointer F. but it 
must be understood that the gearing is of such a form 
that the ratio of movement of one to the other can be 
varied so as to correspond with the variable relations 
of the height of high water and the half mean spring 
je. This function is automatically affected when 
i is being moved to the height of high 
water on the tide gauge E, when the hour hand I 
in the vertical position. The circular tide gauge E is 
made to rotate relative to the fixed dial by means of 
the milled head A. When the instrument is to be 
used the hour hand is just set to the high water or 
vertical position and the circular tide gauge E is set 
by means of the head A, so that the half mean spring 
range in feet is opposite the arrow on the dial so 
marked. The indicating hand F is now turned by 
means of the milled head B so that it is opposite the 
figure corresponding to the height of high water taken 
from the Admiralty Tide Tables. The instrum. . 
now ready for use for the particular port and tide for 
which it is set, and to find the height of the tide at 
any hour it is only n rcessary, by means of the handle 
D, to set the hour hand C to the time from hi^h 
water, either before or after as the case may be, as 
indicated on the particular tide scale, either 4, 5, 6, 7, 



or 8 hours tides, which action simultaneously moves 
the pointer F round to the figure on the scale E, 
which indicates the height of the tide at that hour. 

With reference to the i\\e scales on the instrument 
it will be understood that the six-hour scale is the one 
principally used, but at certain ports the tides are 
irregular and take rather a longer or a shorter time to 
rise than to fall, take Southampton for example, and 
for such ports the other scales are used according to 
the circumstances. 

To give an actual example of use of the indicator, 
say it is required to ascertain the height of the tide at 
Pembroke on October 19th, 1910, at 9.45 a.m., the 
following illustrates the procedure as far as the 
factors are concerned : — 



Half mean spring range at Pembroke ... 

Height of In. 1 (from Admiralty 

table) 

hours. 

Time of hi<^h water (from Admiralty 

table) 6 

Time at which height is required ... g_ 
Time from high water 



Ft. 

II 



In. 

3 



24 6 

minutes. 

13 a.m. 
45 a.m. 



3 3 2 



The tide gauge E of the indicator is set with 1 1 ft. 3 ins. 
opposite the arrow and the pointer F is set to 24 ft. 
6 ins. On turning the hand C to three and a half hours 
from high water on the six hours scale, the pointer F 
will move round to 7 ft. 9 in., which is the height at 
9-45 a.m. 

The price of the " Mechanical" model is £5 10s. 
nett, and the "Simple" model /"i is. nett, and the sole 
makers are Heath & Co., Ltd., Crayford, London, 
and 2, Tower Royal, Cannon Street, E.C., who will 
be pleased to send descriptive pamphlets to those 
interested. 

NAVAL MATTERS PAST AND 
PROSPECTIVE. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 

Portsmouth Dockyard. 

THE battleship Orion 1- now carrying out her trials and 

by the time these lines appear in print will probably 

have returned h " lst tlu ' na S o£ R 

\dmiral H. G. King-Hall, who 1- to sui miral 

Division ..1 the Hoi n October 

19th. In connection with 1 i vessel, which, 

a new devii e finders in the- fire- 

' u- principal 
feature being the introduction oi the 
The battleship Kin ■ is making satisfactory pro 

and it has been announced that the vessel is to be 
launched on Oct s 

Holstein instead ol by the King, as was anticipated, llu- 
leb will have been a month longeron th. build- 
ing slip than the Ori m, will be larger than that vessel, but in 
all essential principles she will be similar. Thi Wing 

DU ilt with nor any of the officers or 

men of th. yard, except those engaged on the ship, being 
allowed to go anywhere near the slipway, and even naval 
officer-, i, t a permit. It is understood that His 

rta, will shortly be broken up and a 
' nvv . it. The yacht, which is a paddle 

• 

variably used it 
wnel the mainland and the Isle of v. 

Repair work is plentiful, including I 

which came in on September 1 sth for a 



74 



mi m\kinf knv.ixkhk and nayai. architect. 



October, 191 1. 



and the cruisers Drain and Argonaut. th . • ■..... ,.1 
the same squadron, will 1 1 refit, in prepari hei 
for . in 1 \ as cruisers •« hii b 
are ■ King to India. 1 1" Vfi ./;< ./ in 
which the King and Queen will -~.nl is t" be com 
missioned at this port on Octobei loth, Hie mm, ill 
defects put rigW arc the destroyers Boxer, 
: ' , 1/ .;; . .111.1 Minstri I. 
I rdent, which was built eighteen years ago bj 
hornycrpfl & Co it Chi wii 1.. .mil which n 1 entlj 
returned from I ■ an to be sold on Octobei 
Submarine li. which sank some years ago with 
disastrous results appi ars to have been now lost beyond re- 
covery. Experiments were recentlj c; 1 ou1 at Spithead 

with the idea of endeavouring to see 11 ;i submarine could be 

raised, and sin- was accordingly sunk, but up to the presenl 

she has not been Located. Fortunately sin- had no crew, 

\\, had a distinguished visitor on September 5th in the 

11 ..I Mr. Meyer, tin- Secretarj of tin- United States 

Department, who made the round ot the naval . itab 

lishments at thi port, including the Gunnery School at 

mil and. almost needless to say. the Victory. He 

went up tin- harbour ami inspected the school tor boy 

artifii 

Devonport Dockyard. 

The cruiser Lion is now undergoing her preliminary trials, 
and there is every prospect that she will be ready for com- 
missioning bj November 29th, two years from the date she 
was laid down. In the matter of speed she is expected to 
make a record for a vessel of her size. The torpedo net de- 
fittings ot the Lion are. owing to the great length of the 
ship, tlir most extensive yet fitted at this yard. The battle- 
ship Centurion is to leave the slip during the third week of 
November and the launching gear is being got ready. Con- 
siderable repairs have to be made to the gear, which was last 
used on the occasion of the launch of the Lion, thirteen 
months ago. The battleship Colossus has left to join the 
Second Division of the Home Fleet. As a result of experi- 
ence gained during the steam trials of the vessel it was 
decided to increase the height of the foremost funnel, and the 
work was accordingly carried out. As originally fitted, the 
top of the funnel was marly in line with the upper bridge, 
rendering that position very unsatisfactory as a navigating 
platform, owing to the escaping gases and smoke. The refit 
of the cruiser Europa is nearing completion and she has just 
had four new funnels lifted on board. The vessel is having 
a most extensive refit, including a thorough overhaul and 
refit of the main and auxiliary machinery and the boiler 
installation, while the magazine-cooling machinery has been 
thoroughly brought up-to-date. It is understood that she 
will be commissioned for special service when completed. 
The destroyer Asun has completed her refit and the Electra 
and Coqiitlt: have been paid off in readiness to be taken in 
hand for retubing and refit respei tively. The Panther, of 
the Fifth Destroyer Flotilla, has been docked for the repair 
of her propeller, which was damaged in collision with Yar- 
mouth Pier. Letters received at the port state that the 
cadets' training ship Cornwall had a narrow escape from 
becoming a wTeck when she struck an uncharted rock at Cape 
Sable. Nova Scotia, near the spot where the Canadian 
cruiser Niobe grounded. The Cornwall nevertheless towed 
the Niobe to Halifax, and Captain Ley has been thanked by 
the Naval Department at Ottawa and also complimented on 
his skill and seamanship. Temporary repairs are being 
effected to both vessels at Halifax dockyard, and it is stated 
that early in November they will return here for the damage 
to be permanently made good. The battleship Royal Sove- 
reign has been paid off and is to be towed to the Motherbank, 
where the Ramillies and Resolution, the first two of the class 
to be removed from the effective list, are berthed. The new 
coaling depot at the north-western end of the North Yard 
will, it is anticipated, be completed early in November. It 
will be one of the best-equipped coal depots in the world. 
The Greek cruiser Georgios Averoff has left us after a stay of 
nearly two months. Her repairs entailed the removal of 
about thirty of the bottom plates and also sections of the 
main keel. Advantage was taken of the vessel's stay in dock 
to improve the armament fittings, the alterations being 
carried out by Messrs. Armstrong, who installed the original 
fittings. 






Chatham Dockyard. 

Oui new cruiser, the Chatham, is to be Launched on Novem- 
ber oih. Mir vessel, which will be in an advanced stage 
when she leaves the slip, is being built under the superin- 
tendence ni Mi 1 R Bate .111111 constructor, who, it is 
understood, will not remain here nun h longei as it is probable 
that he will be promoted before long, it is not yet known 
who will name the Chatham. No public launch has taken 
place i" the yard Eor five years, the last big launch having 

been thai of the cruiser Shannon. The re I'M oi the cruiser 

Cressv has been completed. The work was of a more exten- 
sive 1 iiara. ter than was at first antu ipated, the vrssri being 

ntti.l with thirt} Belleville boilers, the majority of winch 
were in such a state as to necessitate their being almost 

entirely reconstructed. The engines were also thoroughly 

overhauled. The cruiser Dido has been completed and has 
been commissioned for servii e in the Nore Sub division of the. 
Home Meet. She has since embarked mechanician classes 
for training. The new cruiser Falmouth has been com- 
missioned at this port tor service in the Second Division oi the 
Home Fleet. There is every probability that she will pay an 
early visit to her na.iii.sake port. The battleship lUil.oark, 
of the Nore Sub-division of the Hum.' Fleet, was paid off on 
September ist for a long relit, for which the sum of £68,831 
is provided up to the end of March. There are also in hand 
the cruisers Hyacinth and Pactolus, the latter being converted 
into a submarine depot ship, while four submarines are und< r 
construction. The destroyer Eden has completed her refit 
and on September 12th was commissioned for service in the 
Nore Destroyer Flotilla, which she joined at Kirkwall. The 
Grasshopper, having completed her refit, has proceeded to 
Fortrose to rejoin the First Destroyer Flotilla, and the 
Nubian and Zulu have come in from Fortrose for refitting and 
docking respectively. Engineer-Captain W. F. Pamphlett, 
who is on the staff of Vice-Admiral Prince Louis of Batten- 
berg, commanding the Third and Fourth Divisions of the 
Home Fleet, has been awarded the Good Service Pension of 
£150 a year which was vacant by the retirement from the 
service of Engineer-Captain J. W. Hole. Engineer-Com- 
mander J. A. Murray, who had been serving since March, 
1908, on duty with the captain of the yard, has been placed 
on the retired list with the rank of engineer-captain, and has 
been succeeded by Engineer-Commander A. E. Tompkins 
from the cruiser Hyacinth. Captain Murray was almost at 
the top of the engineer-commanders' list, his rank dating from 
August 28th, 1898. He entered the service in July, 1881. 

Sheerness Dockyard. 

It has been announced that the refits of the destroyers 
serving in the Nore Flotilla are to be jointly undertaken by 
this yard and Chatham, half being allotted to each establish- 
ment, but the change will probably not make any more work 
for us. The destroyer Usk, having had an extensive refit, 
has been commissioned with a nucleus crew as tender to the 
Actaeon until she is manned with a full crew for service on 
the China Station. The Rennet, which is to go to the Medi- 
terranean to relieve the Wetland so that that vessel can also 
go to the Far East, has arrived from Pembroke and is acting 
as tender to the Actaeon for the present. The destroyers 
Waveney. of the Nore Flotilla, and Recruit are still in hand, 
the latter being prepared for service in the Devonport Flotilla. 
The ocean-going destroyer Nautilus, built by the Thames 
Ironworks Company at Blackwall, was commissioned on 
September 12th for service in the First Flotilla, the vessels 
in which are now all turbine-propelled and of the ocean-going 
type. The delivery of the Nautilus was delayed almost a 
year owing to damage received in a collision when steaming 
down the Thames for trial. Torpedo boat No. 36 met with 
an accident when at exercises and was dry docked at Leith 
on September ist with her bottom holed forward, rudder 
damaged, and propeller blades chipped, the damage having 
been caused by the vessel going ashore on Inchkeith Island 
in the Firth of Forth. Temporary repairs were carried out 
at Leith and the boat came on here a fortnight later to be 
thoroughly overhauled and made seaworthy. Torpedo-boat 
No. 1 1 1 has been paid off for a refit, and three other boats are 
in hand — iVos. 9, 29 and 30. Submarines C2, C5 and C6, of 
Section III. of the Submarine Flotilla, have arrived to be 
taken in hand for refit and Ci and C4 have been completed 
and rejoined the flotilla. During the strike this port and 
Chatham were called upon to furnish six picket-boats for 



I ber. igii. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



7^ 




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76 



Till MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



October, 1911. 



duty in the Th - on guard duty in the 

vicinity of the London docks, but twelve hours after their 

ime news came !<■ hand that the strike 

itaii ( ■ M Paine has su< 1 eeded 

Commander Dawson in command oi tin- Aclaeon, the torpi do 

p It is underst : thai part ot the establishment 

will before very long be transferred to buildings previouslj 
used as Sheerness Gunnery School, and that further develop- 
ments are in contemplation. Engineer-Lieutenant W. 
■ \s recently succeeded by Engineer-Lieutenant 
G. W. Cannan I it-engineer in charge of the drawing 

office, has been appointed to the cruisi I \ \tal. Mr. A. 
• oi the tug Alliance, and Admiralty pilot at 
this port, lias been presented with a silver watch and chain 
by the Empress Mane I'eodorovna of Russia for his services 
in piloting the Imperial Russian yacht Polcu Star from 

rness to the Tongue on the occasion of Her Majesty's 
n cent departure from England. 

Pembroke Dockyard. 
\i length the authority tor commencing our new un- 
armoured cruiser has been received. The vessel, as regards 

rnal form and her main fittings, is to be similar to the 

id Amphion, but she will, it is understood, differ 

somewhat in her internal arrangements. According to a 

rumour, which is understood to have an official source, she 

will have three feet more beam and be fifty feet longer than 

two vessels mentioned. Her cost will probably amount 
to £267,000, of which £76,931 is to be spent on her before 
March ust. /i 1,100 being for dockyard labour. The vessel 
will be laid down on No. 5 slip, on which the Amphion is being 
built. The latter vessel will not be launched before Decem- 
ber, which will be nine months from the time she was laid 
down. The two shaft tubes, which were delivered a short 
time ago, on being subjected to water tests were found to be 
leaky and were condemned, one by the makers and one by 
the Admiralty. It is reported that the drawings of all the 
underwater fittings have not yet been approved, and this 
may cause further delay. The cruiser Active has been 
docked to have her bottom cleared of the angles which were 
riveted to her for the launch. Her steam trials, which were 
announced to have taken place early in October, have been 
postponed. The reason is said to be because the capstan 
and capstan engine have not yet been delivered, while an- 
other probable cause of delay is the non-delivery of the 
electrical fans for ventilating the engine rooms. The de- 
stroyer Kennet has completed a retubing refit and has had 
her propelling and other machinery overhauled. She was 
commissioned on September 6th and three days later pro- 
ceeded to Devonport and thence to Chatham. She will 
shortly be sent to the Mediterranean. The Itchen has also 
completed a retubing refit, which occupied five months. She 
was commissioned on September 1 3th by a Chatham crew for 
service in the Nore Destroyer Flotilla, which she has since 
joined. The completion of the Kennet has permitted the 
refit of the Quail, which has arrived from Devonport, being 
put in hand. Her refit is to be thorough, both as regards 
the hull and machinery and boilers. The refit of the de- 
stroyer Locust is also being carried on, it being confined to 
the boilers and engines, a thorough refit of the hull having 
quite recently been carried out at Devonport. 



Back to the Land. — The views which have been advanced 
and advocated for some years to the effect that shipbuilding 
should be restored to the Thames have become more con- 
centrated within recent weeks under the auspices of those 
specially interested in the neighbourhood of the East End 
of London and its general well-being, with its citizen army. 
It is curious to watch how the case is looked at from the 
point of view of the army of workers and its self-elected officers 
who are doing their utmost, and to some extent succeeding, 
in their efforts towards drawing away from the Thames 
the work still remaining. The local strike of ironworkers 
and the demands they have made are not calculated to 
encourage the revival of an industry, which those of us who 
saw its outlets fifty to sixty years ago look back upon with 
regretful reminiscences, fearing that the spirit which then 
plaved havoc with it, and crushed some of the master minds 
who with painstaking efforts had developed it, is still around 
the mid reaches of the Thames, the lower reaches and South- 
nil may afford possibilities. 




The rent in the starboard quarter of the Olympic. 



Photo. C.N. 



October, iqu. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



77 



THE "OLYMPIC" IN COLLISION. 

Till. White Star Liner Olympic and the 
class cruiser Ha . on ofl ( 

5, on the ZOth of last month. Both 
vessels were proceeding towards Spithr.nl, the cruiser 
being behind the Olympic. She gradually overhauled 
her, and struck her a violent blow on the starboard 
quarter. Tugs were immediately signalled, and the 
was eventually towed back to Southampton. 
The cruiser bad just completed steam trial alter a 
thorough overhaul at Portsmouth. The Olympic was 
carrying over 2,000 p; at the time of the 

collision, and counting the crew there were nearly 
3,000 souls on board. Hei draught shortly alter the 
collision was about 30 ft. forward and 40 It. aft. The 
cruiser had her bows stove in. but arrived at Ports- 
mouth later in the afternoon under her own sti 
going stern first. A rain squall prevailed at the time 
of the collision, but the conditions were not such as to 
obscure either vessel's view ol the other. The damage 
done to the ( onsists in a large slanting hole 

in the stai hoard quarter near the stern, It is a great 
;ular hole extending nearly to the water 
line, measuring about 15ft. bj 10ft. The stout plating 
has been crumpled like papei and forced into the ship 
for 5 or 6 ft. On the water-line is a smaller hole. V 
soon ?s the Olympic was berthed divers were sent down 
and they reported that the vessel had sustained great 
damage below the water-line, a hole 30 ft. in length 
discovered. 
The damage to the Olympic is being temporarily 
repaired as quickly as possible, and on completion 
the vessel will proceed to Belfast to dry dock, and be 
permanently repaired there. 



The Hawke has been dry decked at Portsmouth, and 
an unexpected amount of damage has been revealed. 
Practically the whole of the cruiser's ram and her 
stem casting has been torn away. Some 12 ft. of the 
upper deck is twisted, her plating ripped (.pen and her 
bows, from the force ol the slantwise impact, twisted 
round to starboard. 

A curious legal point, and one of much consequence 
to shipping companies, is likely to be thrashed out in 
the Law Courts at an early date. The men are 
claiming a month's wages under Section 162 of the 
Merchant Shipping Act. They were offered pay for 
three days, covering Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, 
as they ceased work on Friday evening. This they have 
refused, and the question at issue turns on the legal 
point as to whether the Olympic is a " wreck," in which 
case the Company's action would be upheld. A simi- 
lar case does not appear to have arisen, and the parties 
concerned intend thrashing the matter out in a friendly 
manner so that the point will not again be in dispute. 

It is unfortunate that the ship should be compelled 
to leave the port on account of lack of dry dock 
accommodation. The Trafalgar dry dock is under- 
going reconstruction, and the work is of a very 
difficult nature, but no time is being lost, and when 
completed the dock will be able to accommodate 
vessels of even greater size than the Olympic. The 
Olympic left the dock on this occasion an hour earlier 
than on previous sailings, for the reason that the tide 
served best then, and the officials decided to take every 
advantage offered for swinging the vessel. A deputation 
from the Harbour Board w itnessed her departure, as the 
matter of marking the swinging ground has been under 
discussion by the Board, and it is under consideration 
whether lights or buoys shall be utilized for the purpose. 




The damaged bows of the Cm 



Photo. 7 



3 



Hit MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL AKt'lllTKi T. 



I )i fOBER, I'll I . 



THE STEAM ENGINE INDICATOR. 
Its History and Application. 

THE steam engine indicator occupies a place in 
the long list of inventions handed down to us 
from that illustrious father of the trade — James 
Watt. The original idea ol the indicator was to 
register the steam pressure in the cylinder at all 
points of the stroke and hence to enable the rate at 
which the engine was doing work to be known. Even 
to-day that is its chief function, but it tells us also 
scores of other things — about the setting of the valves 
and the condition of their working faces, the condition 
of the piston rings, the amount of compression, the 
terminal pressure, the power distribution throughout 
the various cylinders and so on. This little instru- 
ment is, without exaggeration, the key to the 
behaviour of the steam and therefore to the economical 
working of the entire plant. 

Watt's primitive indicator consisted essentially of 
a cylinder of about one inch diameter, which could be 
connected to or disconnected from the engine cylinder 
at will by means of a tap at the bottom of the former ; 
a piston was carefully fitted into this and from the top 
of this piston a small rod passed vertically upwards 
through a guide and terminated in a pencil arrange- 
ment for describing the diagrams. Between the 
piston and the small vertical guide a spiral spring of 
known strength encircled the piston rod. The pencil 
was made to bear on a sheet of paper fixed to a board 
which slid in a guiding frame backwards and forwards, 
always " in step " with the engine piston — i.e., when 
the engine piston was at the extreme end of its stroke 
the board also had traversed its full course in one 
direction, and when the engine piston was at - 4 or -5, 
etc., of its travel the sliding board found itself in that 
same relative position. Watt derived the sliding 
motion of the board from one of his parallel motion 
radius rods by means of a cord made to connect these 
parts. To the other end of the board he attached 
another cord which passed over a pulley and then had 
a weight suspended from its lower end. The function 
of this second cord carrying the weight was to keep 
the driving cord always in tension. When the pres- 
sure in the indicator cylinder remained constant (e.g., 
atmospheric pressure), and the board was made to 
reciprocate, a horizontal line was drawn on the paper 
on the pencil being applied to it. In the same manner, 
when the driving cord was disconnected and the 
pressure inside the small cylinder was altered, the 
application of the pencil to the paper produced a 
vertical line. It was the combination of these two 
motions that formed and that still form that celebrated 
outline termed the " indicator diagram." 

Watt's indicator, although, no doubt, a heavy and 
clumsy piece of mechanism, was quite in place and 
all that the engineering world of that day was ready 
for. It involved all the elements necessary for giving 
a diagram to tell to what advantage the precious fluid 
was being utilised — yea, in its simple structure were 
embodied nearly all the principles of our most modern 
instruments by the best makers of to-day. 

The next important step in indicator manufacture 

•Prize Essay by " Rocklight " (Mr. J. D. Boyle), written for 
the Ritchie Award — Graduate Section, Institute of Marine 
Engineers. 



was taken by M. Naught. He disc aided Watts' 
sliding board arrangement and put in its place a 
vertical, cylindrical barrel. The paper was wrapped 
round this and held last by a clip at each end. The 
driving cord now made the barrel rotate backward: 
and forwards about its axis and a volute spring 
placed inside was used to keep the siting in tension. 
Mi Naught also continued the walls of his cylinder 
upwards, thus enclosing the spring, and he attached 
his pencil arrangement to the bottom of this latter. 
From these few lines it will be observed that this 
instrument was much more portable and compact than 
Watt's; hence it came far more into every-day use 
than ever its predecessor had done. 

The man who now introduced a new design of 
indicator into the market was Richards — an American. 
His was a vast improvement on anything that had 
hitherto come into use. With the McNaught and other 
early indicators, if a decent-sized diagram was desired, 
a very weak spring had to be used and hence the 
piston had to move through a considerable distance. 
Now, with the sudden rise and fall of pressure in the 
cylinders of many engines at the beginning and end of 
the stroke respectively, the reciprocating parts of the 
indicator had acquired considerable momentum before 
they reached the point of equilibrium between the 
force exerted by the spring on the top of the small 
piston and that set up by the steam pressure below. 
The result of this was that the pencil, instead of 
coming to rest immediately at the desired height, 
carried out a few jerky movements on either side of it 
and as the horizontal motion of the paper was simul- 
taneously going on these vibrations of the pencil pro- 
duced irregularities in the curve. With the McNaught 
indicator it was possible to get a smooth curve by the 
use of a strong spring, but then the diagram described 
was so small that it was of little practical value. 
Richards saw that a strong spring and a short stroke 
should be employed. He fulfilled these conditions and 
multiplied the piston movement at the pencil point 
four times by means of a system of levers. In this 
respect all modern designers have followed suit. 

Although it is now close on fifty years since the 
Richards indicator first came before the public, it is 
to-day, in its improved form, the chief favourite with 
many experienced engineers for every-day use on 
engines running as fast as 120 or 140 revolutions per 
minute. Of course, many engines of this period run 
much faster than that, and then, with the Richards 
indicator, the old vibration objections crop up again, 
so that it, too, in turn, is being rejected in favour of 
newer and finer instruments. Prominent among these 
modern indicators are the Thompson, the Crosby, the 
Tabor and the Mclnnes-Dobbie. The pistons of these 
have strokes of about f-in. or J-in., while the vertical 
movement of the pencil is generally six times that 
amount. Their piston springs are all of the double- 
coil type. This enables the spring to exert its pressure 
equally at two points on opposite sides of the piston, 
instead of on one side only, as is the case with the 
single-coil spring. 

The moving parts in the Thompson indicator are 
much lighter than those of Richards'. This improve- 
ment has been safely carried out owing to the neat 
arrangement of levers in the former. Several modi- 
fications of this instrument are now on the market. 
For very high pressures it may be had with a very 



October, [911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 






small piston area, while for specially high speeds a 
-mailer size of rotating drum may be used. 

The Crosby indicator has a very light and compai i 
multiplying gear so that this instrument is specially 
adapted for high speeds. The double-coil spring 
carries a ball at its lower end, which tits into a socket 
e top side of the piston ; this forms a very neat 
connection and is much lighter than the usual brass 
collar arrangement. 

In the Tabor indicator radius links have been done 
away with and a vertical plate with a curved slot m it 
acts as a guide. A small roller fixed to the pencil 
lever moves in this slot and the design is such that the 
line of motion of the pencil point is always parallel to 
the axis of the paper drum. 




possesses also a very large connection to the engine 
cylinder — hence there is no excuse for the pas-; 
becoming choked up. 

When the indicator is to be used it is generally 
screwed on to a three-way cock I to a pipe 

connecting the two ends of the i ylinder. 

has already been n I, the indi< ator barrel must 

move always " in step " with the engme piston : hi 
the cross-head is the favourite pan from which to 
borrow a motion for the former. Fig. 2 is an illus- 
tration of one ul the commonest forms of reducing 
gear. The motion here imparted to the barrel is 
hardly an exact duplicate of that of the cross-head, but 
provided the radius link is fairly long and the driving 
cord not too short either, the error arising from the 
use of this motion may easily be neglected. The 
cord is connected to the driving pin as shown and 



Figure [.—Richards' Indicator. 

A Revolving Drum. 1'.— Pencil Parallel Motion. CC- 
Clips for attaching paper to Drum. D. — Cylinder Coyer. 
E— Steam Passage from Engine Cylinder. F. — Spring 

G — Piston II Hole to allow of free escape of anv steam 
leaking past piston 

Up to the present time, as far as every day use and 
1 irdinary wearand tear instruments g< ■. Messrs. Bobbie, 
Mt limes. Ltd.. seem to have said the last word in 
indicator manufacture. In their latest designs the 
parallel motion gear and other moving parts have been 
reduced to the limit in insistent with strength 

and rigidity. The parts exposed to heat are sheathed 
invuli inite thisenables the instrument tobehandled 
much more comfortably. The piston spring is 
from the cylinder and well-exposed to the temperature 
ot the atmosphere : as the strung springs used in this 
twentieth century are < ily weakened by 

having their temperatures raised, this 1 hangi 
without doubt, a step in the right direction. Like a 
few other modern manufacturers this 1 has 

inserted a strong, adjustable spiral spring inside the 
cylindrical drum in place of the volute spring intro- 
duced by McNaught many years ago. A • 
hardened, practically non-expensive, steel piston, with 
a spec ial arrangement for lubricant and the accumula 
Hon of dirt, is fitted in this type of indicator. It 




E 2. 

\ Radius Link. B. -Indicator Driving Lever. C. — Driv- 
ing Pin (fixed in lever slot). D. — Driving Cord. E.— Engine 
Crosshead. 1- Fulcrum pin (fixed to column) about which 
B swings 

thence to the indicator. It is adjusted to its proper 
length — so that the barrel rotates an equal amount on 
either side of the pencil — by means of a clip. A simple 
form of clip is shown at Fig. 3 : it consists of a plate, 
generally of brass, with three holes in it. The cord 
is passed through the holes as illustrated and a hook- 
on the end of the piece of cord attached to the barrel 
is slipped into this upper loop. 

The indicator is generally heated through to 
with, then the three-way cock is opened to the 
atmosphere and the atmospherii line is described 
the application of the pencil to the paper, 
instrument is now connected to first one and then the 
other end of the cylinder and thus diagrams from the 
two sides are described. These "cards the 

work done during each of the two different stroke 
the engine, or taken together, they tell the amount of 
work the prime mover is doing per revolution — hence 
the power is easily calculat' 



So 



THE MARINE ENGINKER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. October, 1911. 



If too great a "drop" of pressure is occurring 
between the boilei and the cylinder, the indicatoi may 
be applied to the steam chest or to some other part in 
the passage of the steam between the two first 
mentioned spaces, so that the position of throttling 
may be spotted and steps be taken to have things 
rectified. During the taking of a steam chest diagram 
the motion of the barrel should be exactly the same 
as when the instrument is being applied to the 
cylinder in order that the points of maximum and 
minimum pressure, etc., in the chest may be accurately 
noted. The indicator, of late years, has been used 
also to give diagrams off various types of pumps. 

Many new types of indicators have lately been 
patented and brought into the market. Some of these 
are almost perfect instruments. Their chief departure 
from the old lines is that a beam of light, which is cast 
from a lamp by means of a system of mirrors on to 



1 

i 



* 



B 



Figure 3. 

A. — Hook Connection to Indicator. B. 
Driving Pin. C. — Knotted end of Cord. 



-Connection to 



the paper, moves up and down and shapes out the 
diagram. The engineer, however — at least the British 
engineer — delights more in things mechanical than in 
purely scientific arrangements, and that explains, 
perhaps, why we do not see these magic pencils of 
light, instead of those ordinary metallic points, 
focussed on the diagram paper in every large and 
important engine-room, both ashore and afloat. 

So we see that the indicator, like its parent the 
steam engine, has had quite a varied life during the 
last few score years. Watt got it to slide along, 
McNaught made it go round, Richards made it go 
smoother and faster, and our experts of to-day are 
still attempting to accelerate its speed without 
increasing the momentum produced in the moving 
parts. 

" RoCKLIGHT." 



CLYDE TRUSTEES. 
River and Dock Improvements. 



Till', annual meeting oi the Clyde Trustees lor anally 
examining and settling the accounts lor the yeai 
in. hug 30th June List, w;is held in the Hall oi the 
Trust, Robertson Street, Glasgow, on Sept, 5th, and in the 
afternoon the Trustees embarked upon the steamer Duchess 
of Argyle, which conveyed them on their annual inspection 
ul new works to various parts of the harbour and docks. 
Sir Thos. .Mason presided .it the annual business meeting, at 
which it transpired that last year's revenue had been the 
Largest in the history oi the Trust, amounting to £577,322 
;s. 2d. exceeding the previous year's revenue by practically 
£22,000. The extra expenditure necessary to obtain this 
increase only amounted to £5490. More satisfactory still, 
the surplus revenue last year amounted to £71,933 OS. 6d., 
and compared with the previous year showed an increase 
of £16,500. An increase in the tonnage of vessels arriving 
.0 and departing from the port of 143,000 tons over the 
previous year, gave them an increase of revenue amounting 
to £3400 ; while an increase over the previous year in tonnage 
of goods, imported and exported, amounting to 262,000 
tons, accounted for an increase in revenue of almost £10,000. 
The estimate of capital expenditure for last year was £1 32,292. 
The actual expenditure incurred was £78,048. Among the 
larger items of expenditure were £31,000 on Rothesay Dock, 
making a total capital expenditure on that undertaking to 
June 30th last of almost £570,000, exclusive of land. A 
further sum of about £20,000 would be required during the 
current year. On Yorkhill Quay £to,ooo was expended, 
making a total capital expenditure to date of £260,000, on 
that work, which was now practically completed. The 
estimate of the capital expenditure for the current year 
amounted to over a quarter of a million sterling of work, 
which, as far as was possible, however, would be revenue 
producing when completed. £30,000 had been allocated to 
the new granary at Meadowside; £104,310 would be required 
for a new dredger and four new hopper barges, which addi- 
tional plant would hasten the dredging of the channel to a 
still greater depth. 

On the tour of inspection in the afternoon, the new quays 
and sheds at Yorkhill and the operations in connection with 
the construction of Govan high-level ferry first came under 
observation. At Yorkhill it was noted that the new berth- 
age was fully equipped and was proving a most valuable 
addition to the harbour. On the other side of the river the 
London and Glasgow Company have constructed a fitting- 
out basin on the site of the yard formerly occupied by Messrs. 
Robert Napier & Sons, and now new vessels built by them 
do not require to be in the river. The works now in progress 
will do away with the chain ferry at Govan and its trying 
inclines, and there will be substituted an elevating deck ferry 
similar to those already at Finnieston and Whiteinch. 

The company then landed at Meadowside to inspect 
the new sheds there and the site of the new granary. 
The quay wall at Meadowside is the latest and one 
of the finest in the harbour. It has a length of 1616 
feet and is designed to afford a depth of 28 ft. at low water, 
and about 40 ft. at high water spring tides. The shed is 
1640 ft. in length by 100 ft. wide, and is divided into three 
sections. The granary will be 312 ft. long by 72 ft. wide 
inside, and 14 storeys in height. There will be accommodation 
for 20,000 tons of grain in silos and 1 1 ,000 tons on floors. 
The contract for the machinery has been placed with Messrs. 
Spencer & Co., Melksham, Wilts, but the contract for the 
building has not yet been decided upon. 

Proceeding down the river, the vessel steamed slowly past 
the dock lands of Shieldhall, Shiels, Braehead and Elderslie. 
On the ' Elderslie grounds there were seen marked out the 
basins and large graving dock, the construction of which 
was sanctioned by Parliament this session. The basins will 
have a water area of about 32J acres and a depth of 30 ft. at 
low water and over 40 ft. at high water of spring tides. The 
dimensions of the graving dock are to be such as to enable 
it to accommodate the largest war vessels and mail steamers 
likely to be built for a longtime. In addition to these works 



October, 1911. THE MA KIM I NGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



81 



ssionauthorizi .1 the Trust 
model Renfrew Ferry. In place ol the existing chain ferry 
there willbe substituted n ting boat similar 

it Finnieston and Whiteinch. On the south side 
the recess will be set back and the river will be wid< 

•on with the intended large works to thi eastward 
ol the ferry. Under this Act it i> also intended 
struct the west side ol Renfrew Harbour, widen the Ferry 
Road, and bring in a new in from the Glasgow and 

• i West in R ilway, Renfrew branch. 
At Rothesay Dock, Clydebank, into which the steamer 
sailed, an .nlilition.il si t ol engines has been installed in the 
engini two more coalii making tour in all, 

ted and Drought into usi orth quay 

oi the inner basin, while on tin- south quay ol the same b 
the two transporters tor handling ore have- been completed. 
: leaving Rothesay 1 1 town 

the rivi r, and attenti i ning 

oi thi : Newshot [sle. This work, along with 

the other widenings, was authorized in 1904. The porl 
at Blythswood and (nchinau weri ection 

with the launch and pass ol the Lusitania in 1907, 

and the portion along Newshot [sle is now being done 111 
connection with the new Cunarder Aquitania, which is at 



to the pipe when partly liiled with the water of 
condensation from previous use, and the opening of 
steam, it may be suddenly, and not gently— contrary 
to the chief's orders, we can safely add — set the mass 
in motion, gaining momentum in its course, till the 
force was enough to enlarge, and then, as the material 
thinned down, to hurst it open as shown. 

EXAMINATION OF ENGINEERS. 



THE following instructions to examiners and not: 
led by the Marine 
I 1. pai talent oi the Hoard of Trade. 
The attention of the Board ol Trade 11 to 

the circumstances attending thi death ol a fireman 
British ship. I he I to remove a manhole 

door of a boiler in which a vacu rawn 

into the boiler and so seriously injured that he died 
same day. Examiners should be careful to direct the atten 
tion of candidates to these occurrences at the vivd-voce 
examinations for First and Second-Class Certificates, ques- 
tioning thi their appreciation of the great importance 




Views of Burst Ueck Steam Pipe. 



present being built at Clydebank. 1 ength 

of about 5640 ft., and an area of about 12J acres, and the 
width add' (I to the waterway will vary from jo it. to 156 it. 

! i lor the river dyke is excavated, and I 
of the material will be dredged and carried in hopper b 
to the place of deposit in the sea off Garroch 1 [1 



BURST DECK STEAM-PIPE. 



Til E illustrations shown are from photos of a deck 
steam pipe. They are interesting of themselves, 
and especially so in view of the article in last 
issue, dealing with bends and droops in steam pipes, with 
a view to show the best system of drainage to prevent 
water hammer action. It will be seen that the pipe 
illustrated has enlarged considerably before actually 
opening up, showing that the copper was ductile. 
The valve for opening steam to this pipe was some 
distance awaj also the shut-off valve for this 

particular section. Probably the steam was opened 



of eiifinn • 

themselvi neither pressure ol steam nor a 

boil' 1 

In future, ' andidal ' may 

be allowed to use their own t our-figure 'ogarithms 

if they so desire. In allowing the usi iners 

should 1" irly carefu contain no 

not or other inform er printed or written, 

apart from the actual tal>I' ithms and trigonometrical 

ratio- the commencement of the examination 
anv tables which the candid should be 

examined I I >ther matter is contained in them. 



The H.M.S. /' kail, a 268 -knot 

the shipyard oi M< ssrs. R. and 
W. Hawthorn 

9th. Thi the tir-i red*from I 

builders undei I II, and is the 

twenty-seventh I built by them for the British 

rnment. ry, which 

con-' Work-, [ 

as turbines supplied by -team from 
water tube boili 



B2 



THE MA RINE ENGINEER AND NAVAI. ARCHITECT. October, rgii. 



CANAL TRAFFIC MOTOR BARGE. 

T! 1 I illustrations show the first cargo motor barge 
placed on the canal by a recently-formed 
company, with the object of testing the 
feasibility of developing the traffic between London 
and the provincial towns. The experimental runs 
to Birmingham have been satisfactory, and it is 
expected that a regular traffic will be instituted, and 
prove a great boon to districts on or near the canals 
which branch into London waters. The barge is of 
usual picturesque type, with the special fittings 
and accommodation, which form so interesting a 
feature in these vessels. The driving-power is 
obtained from a 10 H.P. Brooke paraffin engine, Fig. I, 
as illustrated. It is fitted aft with the starting and 
reversing lever, so placed that it can be manipulated 
by the steersman. The desiderata for an engine to be 
run for a lengthened period beyond the ken of the 
workshop and the expert, have been steadily kept in 
view by Messrs. Brooke in the design and construction. 
The engine works on the " Otto " principle, and is 
made as simple as possible, with the working, and 
especially the vital parts readily accessible. The 
engine is started up neither by petrol nor compressed 
ait, but by heating the head by means of a blow-lamp, 
and when started, the lamp is laid aside, the engine 
being then capable of control without further heating 
up. The governor manipulates a small by-pass valve 
shown in Fig. 2, which controls the supply of oil to the 
cylinder, and may be regulated to suit the desired 
speed, the glass indicator shown on the engine 
indicates the passing oil due to the governor action, 
and is thus a valuable adjunct. The fuel oil pump is 
driven by a cam, the discharge is through a non- 
return valve to the spraying jet situated in the hot 
head of the engine. This pump and connecting gear 
are so fitted on a bracket that the whole can be 
readily disconnected and replaced when required for 
examination and overhaul ; included in the details is a 
regulator for setting the amount of oil to the pump, 
to suit the load and working conditions of the engine. 
The starting valve handle is so fitted that it is within 
easy reach of the fly-wheel, and can be readily touched 
by the hand of the chargeman when starting up. The 
lubricating oil pump is driven by gear; the lubricant 
is forced through a strainer to an adjustable valve, 
thence to the bearings ; after doing its duty, it collects 
in a receiver, which admits of being readily supple- 
mented, in the crank chamber, ready for another turn ; 
a pressure gauge is fitted to show the pressure of the 
lubricant. The reversing gear, Fig. 3, is an interesting 
detail ; it is of a simple epicyclic type. For going 
ahead, a clutch is used composed of beech blocks 
compressed between two cast-iron plates, and is 
operated by means of a sliding cam B, which raises 
the two arms C and forces the surfaces together 
through the two adjusting screws A. For the astern, 
the other casing D is held by a brake band E, 
which i<- compressed by means of a double-threaded 
screw F, thus bringing the gear wheels, enclosed in 
the casing,, into operation. The parts which require 
cleaning from time to time are readily accessible, such 
as the spraying jet, the non-return valve, the by-pass 
valve and the oil strainer. A good deal of traffic 
passes through the canals by the towage of barges, 
but there is great room for development, and a 
thoroughly organized regular service which can be 




relied upon for despatch and delivery of goods, would, 
no doubt, obtain sufficient custom and patronage to 
make it a commercial success. The length of the 
barge is 71ft. 6ins, beam 7ft., draught with 30 tons 
loaded, 3ft. 6ins. She has been proved capable with 
the 10-h.p. oil engine of towing another barge of 




similar dimensions loaded, and can pass over practi- 
cally all the canals of England. During the past 
summer, owing to the continued absence of rain, the 
draught of water in some sections of the canals has 
been somewhat of a detriment, but with the prospect 
of a steady traffic before the canal authorities this 
might be obviated. The name of the Company is " The 
Canals' Motor Navigation Syndicate, Ltd.," of Norfolk- 
House, Laurence Pountney Hill, London, E.C. 




Views of the Canal Motor Barge and its Launching 
Length, 71ft. TS in. ; Beam, 7 ft.; Draught, with 30 tons loaded, 3 ft. 6 in. 



I l( fOBER, 10,11. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



83 




**'■ 




Fig 1 





Fig. 3- 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

WE have pleasure in placing before our readers 
abbreviated reports of some of the papers read 
recently before the Engineering Section in 
the latter part of the Portsmouth Meeting of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

THK ROLLIING OF SHIPS AT SEA. 
Bv Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D.. I 
The address delivered by Professor J. H. Biles, as 
President of the Engineering Section, dealt with some 
questions concerning the rolling of ships at sea. He 
remarked that engineers had thought that if a vessel 
had a certain metacentric height and a certain range of 
positive stability she was quite safe from the action of 
a series of waves of any kind known to exist, but the 
occasional mysterious disappearance of ships in cir- 
cumstances which led to the assumption that they 
had capsized rendered it desirable to review the 
grounds of this belief to see whether there was any 
known possible combination of circumstances I 
might cause disaster. After describing 
tions on the problems of rolling carried out fifty years 
ago by Mi. W. 1'roude and at a later date by Mr. R. 
E. Froude and Colonel Russo, of the Italian Navy, he- 
mentioned that it had been his intention to b 
before the section the results of an experimental studj 
on lines similar to those followed by the last-named 
investigator, but extended to a wide range of types of 
ship, waves and resistance; but though the apparatus 
was practically complete an accident had incapacitated 
him from carrying out the work proposed. In con. 



1 



8 4 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



I )l I mi; l K, I'll I 



elusion he thought enough had been said to show 
what a field of investigation was open to the experi- 
menter. The little done and published by Colonel 
Russo was only for three battleships of about the same 
size. For the great bulk of the ocean wayfarers 
nothing had been done. If it was possible to deter- 
mine the kind of rolling likely to take place undei 
stated conditions, it seemed desirable to do so. In all 
that had been said it would be seen that it was pos- 
sible to determine experimentally the kind of rolling 
which would take place in a ship which was snug and 
seaworthy. But it was also possible to study the 
effect of loose water in a ship under the same set of 
conditions as to waves, lading and form of ship. This 
part of the subject had not received any experimental 
treatment except in a very limited number of full-sized 
ships. It was quite conceivable that some conditions 
of loose water associated with some conditions of sea 
might produce large angles of inclination. The 
subject had been treated as one in which it was 
probable that the kind of waves met with at sea would 
be uniform in size and period. That this was not so 
was a fact with which every one was more or less 
familiar. The effect of a uniform system of waves 
was rapidly to induce a condition of uniform rolling. 
But any deviation from uniformity of sea immediately 
introduced non-uniformity of rolling, and generally 
greater extreme angles of roll. Any experimental 
study of the action of waves upon a ship must include 
a variation in the character of the waves. The field 
of investigation was thereby widened, and the search 
for large angles of inclination made more laborious. 
But the work was of a kind which could be done by 
many people, and could be done fairly rapidly, so that 
there seemed to be no insuperable objection to doing it. 

ON ELECTRIC DRIVES FOR SCREW 
PROPELLERS. 

By Mr. H. A. Mavor. 
The problems of marine engineering have until 
recent years been solved by the application of various 
forms of the reciprocating steam-engine, and the form, 
power, speed and general arrangement of power-driven 
vessels have been developed in connection with this 
means of propulsion. The advent of the steam turbine 
and more recently of the explosive type of recipro- 
cating engine has opened up new lines of development, 
and in certain departments there is evidence that these 
lines involve the use of intermediate devices between 
the power-producing and the power-absorbing ele- 
ments of the machinery. The necessity for these 
devices arises when the properties of the propeller in 
respect to the best rate of revolution for the highest 
economy are incompatible with the same conditions 
as applied to the requirements emerging from the 
power generator. The divergence in these properties 
may be very small or it may be very great. If the 
divergence be small, there is generally little or no 
advantage in respect of fuel economy to be gained by 
the interposition of a transmission arrangement, with 
its necessary mechanical or other losses ; but even in 
such cases it may be that the transmission arrange- 
ment otherwise unnecessary may provide means of 
dealing with requirements which the steam turbine or 
internal-combustion engine are incapable of meeting. 
For example very rapid manoeuvring at full power 
requires in the case of the steam turbine a separate or 



partially separate reversing equipment, and in the case 
of the explosive internal-combustion engine the most 
convenient device hitherto produced is the one of 

compressed air in the working cylinders for producing 
the required changes in the direction of motion. It is 
to be understood that there are many cases where the 
intervention of a transmission arrangement does not 
appear to offer any advantage in fuel economy. The 
limitations imposed upon the designer by the beam 
and draught of the ship and the weight to be carried 
may altogether exclude the use of the transmission 
devices and necessitate the direct application of the 
power to the work. For example, in high-speed 
shallow-draught vessels, or in vessels where the speed 
is high relatively to the dimensions of the ship, the 
sacrifice in economy by running at a high rate of 
revolution is not so great as to warrant the introduc- 
tion of any intermediate gear which would increase 
the weight of the vessel and therefore the power to 
drive her. Some suggestions have been made from 
time to time for applying transmission arrangements 
to vessels of the type of the Lusitania and Mauritania, 
but these are not in the opinion of the present writer 
by any means favourable cases for transmission 
arrangements. The advantages of electric transmis- 
sion over other competing methods may be most con- 
cisely stated by pointing out the deficiences of the 
other two methods as compared with the electrical. 
In the case of the mechanical transmission by the 
tooth-gear which has been carried out by the Parsons 
Marine Steam Turbine Company and by the Westing- 
house Company in America the results at sea appear 
to be quite satisfactory, but we are still left with the 
necessity of providing a reversing turbine, and while 
there are means of connecting two separate units to 
the same shaft, frequent and sudden reversal of motion 
of the propeller by means of the reversing turbines 
would probably disturb the satisfactory running con- 
dition of the gear, so that while it has been demon- 
strated to be suited for long distance runs it remains 
to be proved that it will stand the rough-and-tumble 
service of a vessel where there is much " backing and 
filling " to do. The weight, price and economy of the 
mechanical transmission-gear appears to show no 
advantage over the electric gear, as the same economy 
and weight per shaft horse-power can be guaranteed 
for the electric transmission as is claimed for the 
mechanical gear transmission. This arises from the 
fact that the gear ratio can be made higher. The 
other competitor is the Fottinger hydraulic trans- 
mission, an interesting and ingenious proposition. It 
has one apparent advantage over the mechanical gear, 
viz., that it is less rigid in its character, but it is not 
so flexible as the electric transmission, and it also 
lacks the possibility of convenient application or with- 
drawal of individual units, although it might be 
developed in this respect. The efficiency claimed for 
it is as high as can be attained by electrical means. 
The costs and weights are not known to the author, 
but the experience of transmission with high-pressure 
water is not uniformly encouraging, and for an equal 
range of adaptation, it appears certain that the electric 
transmission will be cheaper and more efficient, and 
the convenience in manoeuvring is entirely in favour 
of the electric gear. To show that the advantages 
claimed for the electric gear can be realized in practice 
a vessel has been built and experimental trials and 



O ctober, 19 11. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



85 



demonstrations have taken place in the presence of 
the leading shipowners and shipbuilders on the Clyde. 
I he author believes he is justified in claiming that he 
has proved that the claims made as to convenience 
and rapiditj of manoeuvring and the practibility of the 
whole arrangement have been fully demonstrated. 
The actual economy to be gained is a question of 
study of individual (uses. Many of these have been 
gone into, and although in some it has been found 
that thru- is no room for electric transmission, others 
to offei conditions favourable to the use of the 
electric arrangement, which has always against it the 
handicap of additional cost and usually of additi.Mi.il 
weight. It has therefore to win its way against an 
initial disadvantage which is rather hard to overcoi 
but the indications are that the ultimate advantages 
in many instances are such as to warrant the additional 
expenditure in view of the economy to be gained. 
Drawings and photographs ofthe experimental vessel, 
and also general arrangement of equipments which 
have been designed and compared with the normal 
equipments for the same 'essels, were shown. 

CRUDE OIL MARINE ENGINES. 

I;, Mr. James H. Rosenthal, M.I.N. A.. M.I.M.E. 
This paper was not intended to touch at all upon 
the engines used in launches and yachts which work 
with alcohol, petrol or paraffin, and in which such 
fluids aie vaporised and exploded by an electric 
spark, but was intended to be confined entirely to 
engines which may be suitable for larger craft, to 
work entirely with crude oil of a high flash-point, i.t.. 
not explosible. As the author believes that such 
engines are only possible generally in the larger 
powers if they are reversible, the paper was confined 
to two types representative of this description, via. : 
(1) Those in which the engines are single-acting and 
the oil is ignited by means of a heated chamber or 
hot pot; and (2) those in which the Diesel cycle of 
combustion is used, and the burning or combustion 
of the fuel is effected by air compressed in the 
cvlinder to a temperature at which the spray of crude 
oil will ignite and burn. The question of the supply 
of crude oil was also touched upon. The class of 
engine under (1) which, as far as the writer is aware, 
is the most largely used for the propulsion of small 
vessels is that introduced by Messrs. J. & C. G. 
Bolinders, of Stockholm, under RundlofTs patents, 
and is made in sizes of from 8 h.p. to 350 h.p. 
The class of engine under (2) is made by the 
Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nuernberg, for which in 
Great Britain Messrs. Harland & Wolff, Ltd., Belfast ; 
the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., 
of Go van, Glasgow ; Messrs. Yarrow& Co., Ltd.. Glas- 
gow : Messrs. |ohn Samuel White & Co., Ltd., of 
it Cowes, Isle of Wi<,'ht ; Sir W. G. Armstrong, 
Whitworth, & Co., Ltd.. of Newcastle-on-Tyne: 
Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., of Birkenhead, 
and Messrs. Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd., of London and 
Renfrew, are licensees. '^This engine is made single- 
acting and double-acting and on the two-cycle 
principle I Bolinders engine is also of the two- 
cycle type and is single acting. Two-cycle means 
that it receives a charge every time the piston reaches 
the top of its stroke. The same applies to the single- 
acting Nuernberg two-cycle engine. In the double- 



acting two-cycle Nuernberg engine a charge of oil 
is injected each time the piston 1 the top 

and the bottom oi i Both types ol engi 

were described, and the methods adopted for reversing 
likewise, and the written matter was explained by 
illustrations and lantern pict > 

ELECTRICAL STEERING. 
By Mr. B. P. Haigh, B.Sc, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

Electrical steering offers considerable advantages for 
steamers as well as for vessels propelled by internal- 
ustion engines, for the improved economy cor- 
responds to a saving of weight in boilers and fuel. 
Difficulty has been experienced in obtaining a reliable 
system of control, capable of dealing with the power 
necessary to put the helm hard over in emergency in 
the shortest possible time, and possessing sufficient 
sensitiveness to enable an ai 1 mate course to be kept 
by moving the rudder promptly in small angles. 
Sensitiveness is shown by absence of "time lag" 
between the movement of the hand-wheel and the 
corresponding movement of the rudder, and in this 
respect electrical gears promise an improvement on 
steam gears, whose economy is reduced when large 
control valves are fitted. Sensitiveness also requires 
an absence of undue "idle travel" of the hand-wheel, 
but a certain small amount is nevertheless desirable. 
The steering motor may be started and stopped for 
every motion of the rudder, but it is preferably kept 
running continuously, mechanical control being intro- 
duced either in the form of hydraulic transmission or 
in the form of magnetic clutches as developed by the 
writer of this paper. In the latter type of gear two 
magnetic clutches are employed, these being fitted at 
opposite ends of the motor ; and, as no gearing is kept 
continuously in motion, the wear and tear, as well as 
the current required, are reduced to a minimum. The 
clutches prevent the shock of the sea being trans- 
mitted to the electrical system, and as they have 
considerable flywheel effect, the current taken by the 
motor does not fluctuate widely under normal 
conditions, and the steering gear may therefore be 
supplied from the ship's lighting generator. To 
economise power it is advantageous to arrange the 
gear so that greater leverage is obtained when the 
rudder is hard over than when amidships, and by 
doubling the leverage in this manner a saving of 
30 per cent, may be made in the motor power. 
Drawings were shown of a steering gear suitable for 
an 11^-inch rudder post, and of a smaller gear of the 
same type, built by Messrs. Brown Brothers & Co., 
Ltd., of Rosebank, Edinburgh, suitable for a 7-inch 
post. When tested against an artificial hydraulic 
load the latter gear developed a torque of 50 foot-tons 
at the rudder-post and showed an efficiency of over 
50 per cent, at half load. It was found capable of 
moving the tiller through 70 in 25 seconds and 
ponded to motions of the hand-wheel equivalent 
of helm. 

SUCTION-GAS ENGINES AND PRODUCERS. 
By Mr. W. A. Tookey. 

Notwithstanding that during the last ten years or 
so, a very large number of suction gas plants have 
been installed in all quarters of the globe, with 
I faction to purchasers, as is evidenced by the increasing 



86 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



I >i fOBEK, I'll I 



demand foi these simple and economical apparata, it 
is a fact that figures rei ording the actual performances 
with regard to fuel consumption, cost of maintenance, 
■ pair, eti ,an diffii ult to obtain. ^ et, in ordei 
properlj to appreciate the claims advanced by the 
makers of gas engines and gas producers, it is very 
necessary that such records should be available, so that 
nparisons in.i\ he made with competing types oi 
motive-powef generators, and mote particularly those 
which, according to test figures, would appear to com- 
i nly, if not, indeed, to surpass, gas power- 
plants in reliable and economical working. The 
author has collected from his own tests, and those 
available from various sources, representative per- 
formances of suction-gas plants of various sizes when 
under test, not only when the power can be deter- 
mined by means of some form of brake dynamometer, 
but when generating electric current — so taking into 
'.mt the efficiency of the combined gas-electric 
set — and also, when raising water under different 
•■ heads," indicating the comparison between fuel con- 
sumed, and foot-pounds of work performed in such 
circumstances. However, inasmuch as " test " figures 
are usually obtained, under what must be admitted to 
be abnormal conditions — no account being taken 
of standby losses, wastage of coal in charging, in 
removal of ashes, etc., the engine and producer being 
worked at a constant and regular output, for but a 
limited number of hours — further figures were pre- 
sented, which enable the average performances of 
suction gas plants of moderate power to be noted. 
These figures have been compiled from the statements 
of factory owners in Great Britain and in European 
countries. They take into account the variations of 
consumption due to the different grades of fuel used ; 
they reflect the influence of variations of output, of 
load fluctuation, of length of standby periods, as 
well as the effect of the variation in the human 
element in maintaining, or otherwise, those conditions 
which make for the best gas- making and lowest 
consumption of fuel per unit of power delivered. 
Mention was made of the recorded performances of 
suction-gas engines and plants with regard to non- 
stop runs, as in information of this character it is 
possible to realize how reliable are these installations, 
and what little attention is really needed, provided 
always that the engine is properly correlated to the 
producer, and the latter to the quality of the fuel and 
rate of combustion. Figures representing the con- 
sumption of lubricating oil were also given, as being 
of special interest in view of the criticisms that have 
sometimes been made in this respect. The experiences 
of users with regard to the cost of maintenance and 
repairs, were also referred to. The question of capital 
outlay was next considered, for engines and producers 
fixed complete upon foundations, with piping and all 
accessories. No figures were quoted for buildings or 
space occupied, as, after all, these items, though of 
importance, vary so much in value' that no useful 
purpose would be served by any assumption. Having 
thus dealt with the more important considerations 
that come under survey in the application of gas 
power, some attention was given to the comparative 
costs of operation of liquid-fuel engines of the Diesel 
type, which, although more efficient as regards 
utilisation of heat units, available in the fuel for 
conversion to power, yet require several conditions to 



be fulfilled before the higher economy becomes 
apparent in the pocket of the manufacturer. Similarly, 
some points were suggested with regard to the i elath e 
performances of steam engines of the high pressure, 
superheated, compound, condensing, semi-stationary 
type, to direct attention to the fact that, although 
according to test results, it would appear that suction- 
-.r, plant'- are threatened l>\ a < ompetitor, whic h oilers 
equal economy of operation, there are claims of a 
negative: kind, which must incline the balance of 
advantages in the favour of the gas-power plant, at all 
events for moderate powers. 



GAS-COAL AND OIL-ENGINED VESSELS. 

THE international motor-boat race has been run, t he- 
Americans have again scored a victory and retained 
the trophy. Dixie IV. was first at the goal, being 

followed 1>V two other liu. 1.1s lielcin (lie /'.-.'I., , I . 1 III MuImuI 

Westminster's hydroplane, arrived. The note of warning 
sounded at the meeting of the British Association by Sir 
Wm. Ramsay, as to the coalfields of Britain becoming ex- 
hausted in less than two centuries if the present rate of 
consumption is continued, may have the effect of furthering 
the adoption of the gas engine, as well as giving an impetus 
to the thoughtful and inventive engineer to redouble his 
efforts to economize steam and fuel. There are still some 
districts abroad where fuel wood can be obtained almost 
for the gathering, even in the neighbourhood of oil districts, 
and steam can be used in small vessels with greater economy 
than gas, but these are isolated cases, as oil motors show a 
clear gain in fuel economy over steam. With regard to 
comments recently made on the subject, the South African 
port of Cape Town is about to have a store house for oil fuel 
erected under the auspices of the port authority. A very 
fine motor launch about 45 ft. long was recently despatched 
to Russia for the Czar by Messrs. White, of Cowes. The 
engines are the Wolseley type, six sylinders 6-5 in. by 7 in.. 
the speed being fully 900 revolutions per minute. The 
aerial express service inaugurated by the postal authority 
from London to Windsor is another token of the advance of 
motor power. We have before us one of the missives bearing 
testimony to the success of the venture. The side propellers 
fitted by the Ailsa Crag Motor Co. are highly interesting, as 
they can be fitted to an existing yacht or other vessel without 
the necessity of stern tubes and central shaft. The engine 
may be placed on deck and the motion transmitted by means 
of pinions and universal joint to the propeller shaft or shafts 
led down into the water to give the immersion to the pro- 
peller. A new oil tank vessel capable of carrying 14,000 tons 
has been placed with Messrs. Krupp for construction, to be 
fitted with Diesel engines. Auxiliary power is being fitted 
in a three-masted schooner for the fish trade by the Diesel 
Engine Co. The engine is of four cylinders type capable of , 
exerting about 200 h.p. Reference was made a few months 
ago to the development of canal traffic and a company has 
now been formed for the purpose of carrying this forward. 
Our readers are referred to another column in this number 
where the matter is dealt with and illustrated. 

The Dutch oil-engined trader Cornelia has been doing good 
work; visiting the port of Aberdeen recently with a cargo of 
■ 1 ineiit, she excited a good deal of interest on account of the 
motive power. The vessels now in hand at Glasgow, Ardros- 
san and Middlesbrough, in which oil engines are to be fitted, 
will no doubt help in their results to bring forward more of 
the same for British owners. The Ardrossan vessel is to be 
fitted with Bolinders engines of 500 h.p. 

At the British Association meetings the subject of oil 
gas marine engines occupied attention on the introduction 
of papers by Messrs. J. H. Rosenthal and C. Day, when the 
views advanced were favourable to the use of this class of 
engine for cargo or ordinary coasting vessels, but probably 
not for large passenger or war ships. Vessels of moderate 
size are now held in view for Admiralty requirements with 
gas engines, and as the many small boats and launches sup- 
plied for the service have proved satisfactory, the step to the 
larger craft for coastal and other purposes naturally follows. 



October, ign. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 






The Holzaptel I.. 1 ••! ■■> and Vulcanus arc each doing service 
which may be qualified as good as far as can u gathered. 
i oming m ". ith ii" Bolinders type 

oi engini , to run from the CI Mersey, 1 iffi \ and 

Bristol Channel will be an additional interest to tho 
in the waters ; with regard to the Vulcanus, on a voyage from 
Hamburg to the Black Sea and back, the engines behaved 
well and proved reliable. The cylinders were kepi i losi 
tour days, t lm-i showing thai diffii altie in i onn 
with accumulation were not great. The new vessel for the 
same owners under construction in Holland is to be fitted with 
engines oi six cylinders, each 24 in. diametei by 36 in. stroke. 



using Tarakan crude oil, with very 

steady running and 10m j 

to -42 pini per B.H.F I hi B 

1 evi 1 sibli 1 wheel ci 

shaft which co fuel valvi and compn .,] air 

mlets to give an impulse in - bred direction. 

successful running oi small coasting vessels has ^ 1 v . n an 

bj to thi tl ghts ot owners of sailing barges and 1 

craft, and Me 1 . Buller (Bristol) are laying down v. 
for local trading pui ! be fitted with oil engines, while 

other iinns have the subject under consideration in the com- 
petition for trade. 




Haulbow 1 i-.i Dock 
1 n'sion. — The 
al dm kyai 
Haulbowlini 

ally op>ened on August 
when Hi 

ked. 

I'm: Right to Work. — 
[I to note 

thai the qui stion 1 

right to work " was re- 
el to at the recent 

' MIOll I 01 g 

Probably il was realized 

any ol those who 

present, as n pri - 

senting a larger number 

who were absent, that 

m during the 

vapourings ol July and 

Augu si carried 

to thi '.'i ■ of mad- 

v. ho 

claimed the righi to work 
should have had I 

Claim allowed without let 

or hindrani e The u 
mi is the abu 
ment, and betokens 
an ei ft is mat- 

ilationthat 
the " 1 if lit to work " is 
1 "i" 1 ded, and no doubt 
the thoughtful and 
sponsible members oi the 

unity will endi 
the \ ii tyrannical 

hurt- 
ful to t hi 1 

il welfare 
Hon ol indusb 
tin want ol it in its Ii 
mate sense a few v 

howed the workers 

many things, lieu 

old. and has given them 
problems to pondei 
at their leisure in con- 
nectio . and 

during 
■.Li 



Ileardmore type of Reversible Crude Oil Engine, with 3 cylinders, 

loping on trial tests 95 H II P 



1 rank shaft 1; in. diameter, the engine being of the di 
reversibli I lie- auxiliary power 1- to be derived 

from steam for cargi k work, from which it mav bi 

inferred that air compression for this purposi has nol found 

Ivan 
er dm to defei tive wires or in ' 

irli I 1 1 

The reversible crude oil engine of i;n Kill', for the Marquis 
■ ■I Graham's yacht has been undergoing trials at the works 
of Messrs. Beardmore, and a set oi 95 I',. H. P., also forayacht, 
has been under a nine-day non-stop b t ai the same works. 



11. M.S. " \. heron." —The torpedo-boat destroy 

tl\ 1 iiinehed by Messrs. John I. Thorn-. 

and Co., Ltd., from their Woolston Works. Southam] 

She has been bu ud is 

of thi pe included in the 1910-1911 programme. 

dimi a th 2 5 1 ft. 9 in, ndiculars, 

breadth 26 it. t in. The pro] 

twin turbines, steam In in 1 

large water-tube boilers tired by oil fuel. Tl 

first destri vith a two-shafl arrangement 

of turbine inn hinery, 



B8 



THE M\K1NE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



October, 1911. 



REVIEWS. 

Shipyard Practice as applied to Warship Construction. Bj 
N, |. McDermaid. London: Messrs. Longmans, Green 
and i'". 12s. 6d. nett. 

I'he author says the volume embi 1 com 1 oi lectun 

deliv ' and we find, as we maj expect, an 

entranci a to the details of the subject. There is no 

preliminary wh ■ • ■ V good E< ature 1 : thai 1 hi kefc h 

the Ifterary matter they illustrate, and it is 
to follow the text readily, ["he building 
slip with its attendant keel blocks leads up to the pr< paration 
ot the frames, and the beginnings oi the vessel in the keel 
and double bottom From the led on to longitudi- 

nal framing and plating, the bending oi beams to the shape 
required, the testing of the correctness oi the operations as 
they go on, and as 1 tie vessel advances in construction we come 
in the warship to the question of armour and arrangements 
for barbettes and magazines. Shaft brackets and then 
constructive details arc fully gone into, with those of their 

neighbour the rudder. Engine and boiler seatings are 
next discussed, and the matter ol funnel hatches. By this 
time launching arrangements are fully described, with the 

nations made for completion oi the body of the ship. 
such as testing I \ water to ensure tightness of the plating 
and riveting. Light and ventilation require considerable 
attention, especially the latter, because of the numerous 
sub-divisions there are in warship design. It may not be 
generally known, too, that the magazines have to be cooled, 
necessitating a CO a installation. The pumping, flooding 
and draining arrangements oi a man-of-war are very elaborate, 
all eventualities having to be provided for when the ship 
goes into action. These are all closely noticed and diagrams 
shown. The system of taking in oil fuel is seen, with the 
necessary means of ventilation. A section is devoted also 
to valves connected with the hull, and these with their fittings 
are numerous. All the details of water services, fresh and 
salt water supplies, are found here, and such items as the 
messing arrangements for crew and officers' cabins. No 
point seems too unimportant to receive the author's attention. 
We expect to see torpedo net defence in a work of this char- 
acter, but we also find boat davits and accommodation 
ladders. Coaling ship is another matter closely followed 
out, and in a warship this is important. We have to pass 
over many particulars of interest, but steering gear calls 
for some notice. We do not get maker's designs but 
general principles underlying all systems, with closely 
reasoned mathematical formulae for the screw gear and some 
special makes. It is impossible for us to follow the author 
further, but we may say that the drawing office and laying off 
procedure in the mould loft are very complete. How the 
moulds are constructed is fully shown. Launching of ships. 
inclining experiments, docking and boat building finish what 
is probably the most thorough epitome of the details of the 
subject it is possible to have. The sketches are apparently 
drawn specially and are of the most minute character. As a 
whole the labour involved must have been very great, though 
lightened probably as the outcome of lectures delivered at 
the Royal Dockyards. Considerable credit is reflected upon 
the author for the way in which he has combined these 
lectures into what is likely to prove a standard volume of 
reference. 

Hints on the Legal Duties of Shipmasters. 3rd edition. By 
B. W. Ginsburg, M.A., LL.D. London : Messrs. Griffin 
and Co.'s Nautical Series. ;s. nett. 

The author is to-be congratulated on the demand for a new 
edition of his book, the skeleton of which was outlined 
about fifteen years ago at one of the meetings of the Ship- 
masters' Society, which we can recall with pleasure. Since 
the first edition was published, so many changes have taken 
place and conditions have so altered that the work has been 
entirely revised and brought up-to-date. Starting at the 
foundation, the early years of training are defined and infer- 
entially and sympathetically, shipmasters are exhorted to 
the duty and privilege of teaching the rising generation — 
the apprentices and cadets, to whom the nation will look in 
days to come to take command and acquit themselves 
worthily, and for this they must be equipped not only to 
pass the standard but to aim at higher things. Board of 



Irele and naval COUrl enquiries are described and then 
areas oi jurisdiction tated. The duty which the shipmastei 
owes to the shipowner is next laid down, and certain cases 
ire 1 iied to show the law lie, mug on critical points of action. 
Che master's dutj to the crew is iet forth in connection with 
engagements, agreements and articles, whether .11 the home 
01 .1 Eon ign port, with a 1 itation from the Merchant Shipping 
\c 1 ; apprenticeship indentures and how to deal with them. 
1 ndei the heading of discipline many valuable hints are 
e including one which may be emphasized, although 
nowaday - if is seldom that the wisdom underlying it is not 
recognised. " The less the master interferes with the work 
of the chief engineer's department thi bettei " die offence! 
against discipline an defined, with the penalty attaching to 
each at the home port or abroad. The provisioning oi the 
Ship with the rules regulating the supplies ; surveying of food 
stuffs and medicines forms a chapter extended to treat of 
accommodation, unseaworthiness and imposition. The law 
as to advance and allotment notes, money orders, right of 
wages, death, shipwreck, illness, left behind, proper return 
port, sale of ship, volunteering to the Royal Navy, payment, 
lien of wages, suits foi wages, are all interesting details which 
tend t" ihow how closely the seafarer is followed in all his 
courses, devious or otherwise. VI vice on the treatment of 
passengers next claims the attention of the reader, with the 
regulations as to the various necessities which arise under 
the Board of Trade Passenger Act. The financial liabilities 
of the shipmaster are stated in a few concise paragraphs and 
the duties expected and demanded of him in respect to cargo 
of various kinds, inclusive of dangerous goods. Freight, 
lien for charges, bills of lading, receipts, conditions, deviations, 
barratry, jettison, are subjects of value to those who are 
interested directly in ships, and light is given in the pages 
of this book. Safety on the sea, collision, defence, blame, 
the law on collisions, report of accidents, salvage, right of 
award, wrecks, underwriters, steerage passengers, quarantine, 
customs, coasting voyages, dutiable goods, clearances, have 
each paragraphs devoted to them, while the closing chapters 
are devoted to pilotage, dues, offences under pilotage, pilot 
flags and signals, use of Hags, distress and ordinary signals, 
safe ports, reporting arrival, discharge, official log, protests, 
etc. A very useful series of appendices is given where 
much useful information may be obtained in respect to 
certificates, agreements, regulations of the Board of Trade, 
underwriters, life-saving, load line, carriage of cattle, etc. 



OBITUARY. 






Captain A. (iraham. 

IT is with great regret we announce the death of Captain 
A. Graham, of Hull. The deceased had served for 
many years as master in several steamers belonging 
to the firm of Messrs. Wm. Brown, Atkinson & Co., Ltd., 
and of late years acted as marine surveyor. He was 
warden of the Trinity House, and for several years 
chairman of the British Shipmasters Association. During 
his lifetime Capt. Graham had rendered valuable service to 
the Humber Conservancy Board, and at the time of his death 
was vice-chairman of the Marine Committee. Deceased had 
also been interested in the work of the Newland Homes (for 
sailors' orphans) and the Southampton training ship. The 
funeral took place from Capt. Graham's residence, the body 
being interred at the Hull General Cemetery. 



Australasian Institute of Marine Engineers. Wel- 
lington Branch. — At the annual general meeting of the 
Institute, held on the -'4th July last, Mr. A. R. Hislop, 
secretary of the Institute since 1S92, tendered his resignation, 
desiringj he explained, to devote more time to his own busi- 
ness. The Institute unanimously passed a resolution regret- 
ting the resignation of Mr. Hislop, after twenty years of 
splendid service for the Institute. The resolution told of 
the great work done by Mr. Hislop for the engineers of 
Australia, for which he had received honours and praise from 
abroad. His Actof Parliament, passed in 1897 by practically his 
individual efforts after three years of strenuous work, stands 
out prominently amongst the many great reforms placed to 
his credit. Mr. Hislop will retain his life honorary associate- 
ship of the Institute. 



October, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



01 



Industrial and Trade Notes. 

THE CLYDE AND SCOTLAND. 

i Fi >>>: ■ . 1 la 1 1 ' >m tp indent.) 

Work Accomplished and in Prospect.— Three-fourths <>t 
the year have now sped, and in the r tupping output 

the Clydi has shown more than the average ai tivitj 
briskness in launching tonnage would havi ed but (or 

the fact that in many of the yards .1 dearth in the supply oi 
workmen ha- rienced. Full squads of rivi 

and .1 good number of Boilermakers have been broughf Irom 
the Midlands oi England and have been to the 

yards "l Messrs. Scott & Co., Caird nock 

and Grangemouth Dockyard I 

\ . . t ..11 ,,1 the ironworkers (the holders on) havi within 
the last few weeks, been agitating tor a larger share <>i the 
moneys earned bj the riveting squads. For every shilling 

each riveter, the share oi the hold 
ninepence, but the latter have insisted on getting 1 
and at the moment of writing arc on strike ovi 1 the demand. 
not only applies to most of the Clyde yard-, but to the 
yards in Leith and Dundee. Indignation has been widely 
expressed by the strikers at their being called " labourer- " 

by the riveters, their contention being that they are really 
skilled worker-. Riveter- on theil mon- 

strating that by enlisting a third mi theii own calling 

to do the m, work can proceed at least as quickly. 

Booking- oi fresh work have been neither plentiful nor of any 
great importance, but further reference is made later to all 
orders recently placed. Clyde builder- on the Admiralty 
iist are at present tendering for sets oi engines lor two 1 ruisers 
which are being built in Government yards. Expectation 
1- rife also among private naval buildei as to the call for 
tender- lor the three battleships and five second-class crui 
which are to go to the private builder- this year. Specifica- 
tion Shortly expected. 

Additions to Anchor and Allan Lines. — The new Anchor 
liner, Cameronia, which, like manv oi her predecessors, is from 
the stocks oi Mes • D. & W.'Henderson & Co., Partick. 
having undergone successful trial-, sailed from the Clyde on 

her first voyage to New York on September 12th. A view 
of the vessel is given 1 1st where in this issue. Thedirecto 
the Allan Line, early in September, issued to a numb 
Shipbuilders invitations to tender for the two large steamers 
which they are to build for their Liverpool-St. Lawrenci 
service. The vessels ar. to be Si > than the 

turbine -te. mier- Victorian and Virginian, which are 521 I 
in length. They an- not to be fast mail steamers, but will 
knot-. They will be twin screws, and 
propelled by reciprocating engines. 

Messrs. A. & J. Inglis, Pointhouse Shipyard, who on S. pt. 
;th launched a paddle steamer ot some note in the 
Pena and 60 ft. in width, for tram ferry 

service in South America, havi an order from Mi 

. J. Burns, Glasgow , lor two thi 

ad .old Ireland. 
The Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Govan, 
n commissioned to build and engine lor Mi 
I Burn ; ' .oner of high 

intended for the services of Messrs. Burns between Scotland 
and Ireland. The new vessel ' in length, 

will have commodious cabin accommodation, and 1- desi 
to carry a large number of cattle and a quantit) oi 

steamer will be in every way in 

hitherto employed in the night .Hand and 

Ireland. On the 1.. I 1 airfield at the present time are 

two pairs of high-speed steamers one pair for the Canadian 

61 Railway Co.. and the other lor the London and Si 

Western Railway Co.— m the designs of whose hull 
machinerv several new departures are being made. The 
Canadian Fa vessels will be propelled bj Parsonstni 

• only of high and low. hut of intermediate expansion 
applied to four shafts ; and they will have crui-er 
(never before adopted in merchant vessels oi tin- size) and a 
rudder in the form of a hug. -pel. su in only one 

pintle. 

Messrs. D. & W. Henderson & Co., Partick, al 
August, launched a steamer of about 1,800 tons, built to 



1 the Vdelaidi Steam h ; for their 

worthy point 1 
with tl hl ' r 

triple-expansion engines will be supplied from two boilers 

.eater tub.- type by Mi si Babi 01 k a W 
Notable New Dredger for Panama Canal. Messrs. William 
Simon- A Co., R( mow. on Sept. 1 2th, launched an extremely 

powerful l>u< kef hop] 

order ot the United Stati Government, 'or carrying 

heaw mi.: "' dredging at tl,. Pam 

Canal. An illustration of tin- notable - 
where in this issue. 

Clyde Dredging and Ferry Plant. — Mcs-rs. Lobnitz and 
Co.. Renfrew, h lirly entered upon the construi tion 

redger for the Clyde N 

and Ol tWO Ol tile 1,,:; 

The contract pri 

■ 

Che dn dger is to bi 
in April, 1 ■ iarges af 

February, March and Vpril. The civde Trustees will 

at an earlv date the question of ordering at least one 
iting ferry. \t the present they have tine,- such 
vessels, two on service and one in reserve. 

Messrs. Wm. Denny & Bros.. Dumbarton, have secured 
the contract from the Compa: ilantica of Cadiz for 

two 1 ■. steamers oi about 490 ft. long, in which 

one turbine set and two set- of reciprocating engine- will form 
the propelling power. The vessels are to develop a speed 
of about is knot-. 

Messrs. Wm. Hamilton & Co., Port Glasgow, have received 
an order from the Droogdok Maatschappij Soerabaja, An 
dam, for a floating dock $00 ft. in length, intended tor So 
baja, Java. The dock will be built and delivered com; 
and towed to Java. At present Me— rs. Hamilton ar. 
of the busi m the Clyde, having on hand order- tor 

nine vessels, ranging in S ■ ■ ' to 500 ft. in I. Dgth. 

Messrs. Murdoch & Murray, ship 
received about the end oi August an order fron 
owners foi a cargo and passenger steamer he I 

,. m gem nil de launched 

lor the same servii ■■ on Si pf 7th I 
order- fur several barges for shipment lor tor. 

The Greenock and Grangemouth Dockyard Co., Greenock, 
received about the middll Oi August orders for tl 

.,1 between 0.000 and 7,000 tons. The order- are 
understood 1.. havi been placed by Glasgow firms, and the 
Is will be supplied with their machinery by Greenock 
marin. 1 nig firms. 

New Shipbuilding Firm. 1 ndei thi title of 
Bremner & Co Ltd a nev company has acquired the 
shipbuildin ring, boilermaking and repairing busi 

• Port G] jow, which was established In- M< 
Cunhffe & Dunlop in 1871, and sit " by 

th. lit. Mr. D. J. Dunlop a Co. Mr. Donald Bremner, who 
was as-ociated with the Clyde Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Co., Port 1 for nine y ul,n ,h ' 

1 lydebank Shipbuilding and 1 

ior. The 1 Mr. Thou: 

lately engineering m Me 1 D. S W. Hem!. 

.,.1.1 1 . Hid I 

Enem lunsmuir & Jack 

Govan. and Messrs D. Row ship 

building dire, tor 1- Mi I Barker, laf tl the 

Shipbuilding and Engineering Co and 

formerly with Messrs. Raylton. Dixo Middlesbrough, 

and Messrs. Harland a Wo 'he works 

ontained, with a fitting-out basin within the premises. 
Both 111 equipment and personnel the works will be brought 
thoroughlv up 1 nd made capable of dealing with 

it, in length. 
Messrs. Ramage & Ferguson, Leith, I 
tract from the Unio 
mall -tear 
Aberdeen Floating Dock. -The new Boating dock which 
was built 

nd ot Aug 

Dundee Fitting-out Facilities. -- II in Shipbuilding 

and Engineering Co Dundee, have for - ; 

■ 1 1 

ilities at the harbour for the fitting 



■'-• 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. OCTOBER, 19IL 



,nu ot ves el ,'• size. In a l< tter to the 1'in-t latebj 

the Company state thai the week previous they had received 

idei for the const™ tion oi a sti amer 

530 it. long by "i it. 6 in. in breadth, but owing to narrow 

and to the lack oi .1 suitable 1 rane to put 

machinery and boilei : thej had to allow the oppoi 

t mi 1 1 \ to pass rhej asked what prospects the Trustees 

could li> >1< 1 out "i providing the necessary modern crane 

facilities. In the course oi discussion M was itated thai i1 

position t hit the shipbuilders oi Dundee were 

nut able to quote'for the modern class oi vessel. There 

was no use in Dundee having docks 11 they were not capable 

ccommodating modern vessels, ["he letter was remitted 

ommittee. 

Oil-engined Coaster. -- 1 'he Vrdrossan Dry Dock and 

Shipbuilding ( are building lor .1 Glasgow firm a roasting 

vessel of 14- ft. in length, 25 it. in breadth and to it. in 

draught. Sin- will bepropelled In .1 four-cylinder, Bolinders, 

direct, reversible, crude-oil engine oi approximately 500 

i.h.p., sufficient powei it is estimated, to give the vessel a 

sea-speed oi fully 8J knot- Shewillbe the first full powered 

oil engined coaster for British waters, and will be classed 

too \ 1 at Lloyd's. 



THE TEES AND HARTLEPOOLS. 



(From our Own Correspondent.) 

Whitby. 

Messrs. Rowland & Marwood have recently added to their 
fleet the fine screw steamer Rrh shrou^h, and Messrs. Milburn 
and Lund have recently had launched the s.s. Glenbridge ; a 
sister ship will be launched next month. 

Middlesbrough. 

Messrs. Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., Cleveland Dockyard, 
continue to be very busy, having recently secured an order 
for a cargo steamer for early delivery. Enquiries are still 
plentiful for better-class work, as prices are rising even in the 
face of keen competition. 

Messrs. W. Harkess & Co., Ltd., are reported to be likely 
to secure the order for a small steamer for Liverpool owners ; 
they continue to be busy on both new and old work. 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., are very 
busy ; besides a very fair amount of marine work on hand, 
they have in course of construction a large gas engine about 
60 ft. long, building to the order of the Cargo Fleet Steel Co. 
They also have a considerable amount of specialty work 
on hand. Nesdrum boilers, contraflo, condensers, etc. 

Messrs. Smith's Dry Dock Co., Southbank. continue to be 
very busy ; they have the s.s. Carnarvonshire converting 
her into a whaling vessel for Norwegian owners. Also Messrs. 
Wilson's, of Hull, s.s. Bassano undergoing repairs to bottom 
and general overhaul. The s.s. Garonne, of Christiania, is 
undergoing extensive overhaul and repairs. 

Messrs. Gladstone & Co. have recently sold their s.s. 
Cvnus, 3368 gross tons, to German owners through the Ship- 
ping Agency, and Messrs. J. M. Leonard & Sons, Ltd.. have 
sold the s.s. Italia, 410 gross tons, to British buyers. 
Stockton and Thornaby. 

Messrs. Richardson, Duck & Co. are expected to secure 
an order for a cargo steamer that is in the market ; they, hi iw 
ever, continue to be fairly well off for work. 

Messrs. R. Ropner & Sons. Although fairly busy, nothing 
new is reported during the month. They have a fair amount 
of work on hand, but there is still room for improvement. 

Messrs. Craig, Taylor & Co. continue to be fairly busy. 
They are reported as having booked an order for a cargo 
steamer which, with the work on hand, will carry them into 
next year. 

Messrs. Blair & Co., Ltd., continue to be very busy. They 
have recently booked one or two orders for machinery for 
boats t ' be built on the Tees and Wear. Competition, how- 
ever, is very keen amongst engineers, there being a very little 
margin of profit, too small to allow for a single bad contract. 
West Hartlepool. 

Messrs. W. Gray & Co. continue to be very busy and to 
book orders, except for the smaller class of vessel such as 
coasters. They recently had another fire at their old yard, 
which will cost them altogether about £1000, as a vessel 
nearly finished will require about half a dozen new plates, 
perhaps a frame or two. 



Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Harbour 
Vard continue very busy; as recentlj reported they 
were likely to secure the order for another steamer for the 
I'vne and Fees Steamship Co, The contract now placed is 

about the same si/.e as the Teessider, but oi less power, but 
the proportions oi the Ship are expected to enable her to do 

1 he same speed. 

Messrs. W. Gray & Co. 's Central Marine Engine Works 

continue as busy as ever; they have a g I reputation for 

drop lorgings and to eope with the work have had to put 
down two additional hammers. Alterations have also had 
to be made to their foundry specially set apart for ship 
and general castings, in addition to their foundry for marine 
work. This firm is well booked ahead for at least twelve 
months. 

Hartlepool. 

Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Middlelon 
Yard, continue very busy. They have just booked a repeal 
order of the large twin-screw meat boat lor a Liverpool 
syndicate building to Messrs. F.splen & Son's specification, 
and which is reported as being the largest vessel built at 
this yard. In the repair and dry dock department they are 
reported to be booked up to about Easter. 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., are busy 111 
all departments. They have secured the contracts to supply 
the engines and boilers to be fitted to the boats building at 
both yards of the Irvine Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co.. and 
they also have a fair amount of work on hand for theii 
specialities, condensing plants, etc. 



THE HUMBER AND DISTRICT. 



(From any Own Correspondent.) 

THE Humber training ship, Southampton, moored in the 
Ilumber. with over 175 boys on boartl, was run into 
at midnight by the Wiison liner Juno ; fortunately all 
damage was above the water line. She drifted from the 
river. The tug Presto, belonging to the Wilson line, towed her 
into Alexandra Dock ; the young tars behaved verj well 
undet the ordeal. 

Goole New Bridge. — The Aire and Calder Navigation's 
extensive scheme of improvements and extensions at Goole, 
workon which has been proceeding for over eighteen months, 
was opened on the 17th ult. The new bridge is a fine piece oi 
engineering work. It is a swing bridge with a 50-ft. span. 
and over 40 ft. wide to carry the street traffic over the Aire 
and Calder Canal ; it will be operated by hydraulic power, 
and the time of moving vessels through will he reduced to a 
minimum. 

Goole Shipbuilding and Repairing Co., Ltd., have launched 
from their Victoria Shipyard a handsomely modelled steel 
screw fleeter, for Messrs. Kilsall Brothers and Buching, Ltd., 
of Hull and Manchester. 

Messrs. Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., 
are still very busy with new ships and repairs. The patent 
slips have been fully employed, the boiler and engine shops 
are working at high pressure. 

Messrs. Hull Central Dry Dock and Engineering Works, 
Ltd. — This Company always secures a great share of repair 
and dry-dock work of ships coming to Hull. Besides using 
their own graving dock, they have had to engage the Hull 
and Barnsley Railway Co.'s graving dock. The following 
steamers have been undergoing repair, also graving-dock; 
work : — S.s. Hillbrook, s.s. Star of Australia, s.s. Athenic, s.s. 
Jevington, s.s. Roona, s.s. Antigone, s.s. Olof. 

Messrs. C. D. Holmes & Co., Ltd., engineers and boiler- 
makers, are very busy completing triple-expansion engines, 
boilers, etc.. for trawlers and fleeters, and coping with orders 
for auxiliary engines and compound winches. The branch 
establishment at Alexandra Dock has had several ships in for 
opening out machinery for survey, etc. 

Messrs. Amos & Smith, engineers and boilermakers, have 
still to run machinery night and day to complete orders, 
consisting of engines and boilers and auxiliary machinery for 
trawlers and fleeters. They are well booked ahead with 
orders. The branch works at Alexandra Dock are fairly 
well employed dry-docking several Wilson liners and other 
companies' steamers. 



October, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 






Messrs. Cooper & Co., Ltd., engineers and ikers, 

Neptune Street Works, have been (airly well employed with 
nutMi!.- work, opening out boilers and machinery for survey for 
md graving-dock work and general repairs. The 
boiler and moulding shops keep fairly busy and the Company's 
graving dock, situated on the old harbour, is fully emplo 
with coasting and small steami 

East Coast Engineering Works, Ltd., have bi busy 

on the following vessels: -S.s. / ,; ed with new 

donkey boiler and connections and general repairs to 
tank, keelson and deck repairs; - tern damage 

and 1 itlur repairs ; s.s. Manchuria, s.s. fnvicta, frames ; 
s.s. Norlands, s.s. Bruilo, s.s. Guslaf, s.s. Fredheim and s.s. 
bridge, new plates fitted. 

Messrs. Woodall & Co., engineers and boilermakcrs, ar< 
keeping fairlj busy with general repair w< iallj 

amorj 1 iting st< amers. rhe out sidi stall i 

ployed at the 1 hi tram powei tatii mling 

machinerj el rhe smiths' shop continues very bu 
,,,1 ordi 1 has been ret eived from .1 South Coa ard to 

forge a stern pi 

Messrs. Cochrane & Sons, shipbuilders, Selb] art I ked 

well up with orders for new trawlers eti ind working 
overtime t" cope with the work. They are —till boo 
new contrai ts bul cannot guarantee delivery. Two trawlers 
tor Grimsby owners were launched last wei l< built to Lloyd's 
requirements and rules. 



SOUTH OF ENGLAND AND ISLE OF 
WIGHT. 

(From our O «/.) 

New South American Service. -As intimated in last 
month's n. ■ ■>. service to South Vmerica will shortly 

be in I by Messrs. Lamport & Holt, the ve 

calling it Southampton on the return from the Plate. The 
vessel the - - Vandych, has con plet d her trials, and 
been accepted by the owners and will sail from Liverpool 
on the 5th oi this month. 

Messrs. Harland & Wolff, Ltd. rhe Great Western Railway 
steamer Roebuck is in drj doi b at Southampton ui 
going extensive repairs by this tirm. Practically the whole 
ot the bottom will have to be renewed and it will be 
considerable time before the vessel will be abli to take 
up hi in the Company's service. In addition to 

the extensive repaii to tl R ick, Messrs. Harland and 
YVoli big repair job under weigh on thi i 

Transatlantiqui ! rhe vessel has been 

lying in the new wet dock near the firm rei ting shops, 
it is understood that to effect repairs the engines will 
lift) d out of the ship. The vi ssel has twin screws, 
driven by triple-expansion engines with cylinders .11 in., 
'...fin. and ioo in. diameti tively, witha pi ton I 

ot '.;$ in., from which it will I I that then- will be 

some very heavy lifts to removi from the ship. Th 

I v. ,i- built in i 
The British and Irish Steam Packet Co.'s sti uni 
/.<],/: in arrived at Southampto i on tl i i ith ol last 

month. She is thi dition 1.. thi Companj ' B 

Messrs. Day, Summers & Co., Ltd., Northam I 
thampton. Last month the cargo boat G. I 
tons, which was ashore at Guernsey, was hauled up on the 
shp at the above yard for repairs. rhe damage to the bot 
and the double bottom is very extensive. The firm have 
secured an order fro I Co. for 

oat. The following yachts have come up to thi 
yard and taken up berth '.inter: S.v.'s Conq 

wner) and 
I (own.r Sir John fackson). 
Messrs. J. Samuel White & Co., Ltd., 1 Isle ol 

Wight. H.M.S. Fern t torpedo bi ear's 

naval programme, completed her trial torily about 

llie middle ol la-t month, and is now being ly tor 

hand tin; ovei to the Admiralty. During last month \ 
naval st< amboats have been despat British and 

foreign account. The revenue cruisei 10 has 

■ irj trials and will shoi tly be d( li' 
She is to the order ol the I Govi rnment. The boat 

shops are very busy, and work continues plentiful. 



Messrs. Simpson, Strickland & Co., Dart outh 

he above firm I lers 

■ towards the winter's work \ ; ft ga 
steel motor launch his been ordered foi -south American 

.m launches are in h 
lor the American Lin delivered early in 

fixed steam launi h is on 

or.hr and will have a triple engine, and an oil fired water-tube 

st.-am pin Imiralty is out and 

ran her trials last month, and will be handed over -. 

shortlj i tm i ttei for the Vdmiralty for om 

oi I f.M. Royal 5 ai ht wa i ipli ted and i 

month \ im launch is awaiting delivery to one ol 

the la Le Union Steamship Co., of New- 

ail. I'he , in the motor whaling yai ht 

lot, are now in an advan. 

i.l, ted. This vessel is b forward 

part entirelj rebuilt. \ I pair work is in 

hand and layin is taking up a good deal ol 

atti at ion. 

Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., Woolston Works. 
Southampton. British Admiralty Work. H.M.S 
This \-ess.l has ted her speed trials i b 

and last month the machinery was being opened up lor 
inspection preparatory to handing the vessel over to the 
Vdmiraltj H.M.S Iriel l sisl el was successfully 

launched from the Company's 26th of last month, 

and is now fitting out \ ired Motoi I ' 

Eight oi thi vi els have completed successful trials, and 

th. 11 .]. tination, and others ai 
to follow. The two twin screw tugs which the nrm are building 
are well advanced and will shortly be ready for launching. 
Repair Work. The Repaii Department I 

id during the past month with work on a numbi 
troopships v.,, hts, eti 

Southampton Docks. ' it rumour is in circulaf 

here to the effe< I th it thi I m [on I South-'W Iwaj 

Compam have purcha ed about 400 acres ol the Western 
shore frbm Mr. Tankers ill. I 

of constrn. ting qua foi 1 1 igth our miles along 

the Wi tern bank oi the river (tchen. There would bi 
railway acci ss to thi is a branch line from 

;.. Portsmouth runs past the site. Tins rumour was 
in circulation about a year ago, but the land reported bought 
by the Company then was only about half that now said 
lurchased. The opening ol the new wet 

tot to i. ased the 1 ongestion at tl 

[reat extent in bra accommodation is 

very badly needed, tf the Western loped 

we will have a here to that obtaining 

at Liverpool and I5irk.nl 

THAMES. 



{From our Own Correspondent.) 
Settlement of Dock Strike. — This dispute, which was 
beginning to 1 umi very proportions, has happily 

nplet.lv, edit must 

.,, ,, Mr. |. tor this settlement. 11.- it is who 

1 as chairman oi eri nccs t 1 Id. The 

lighterage agreement was the outcoi 

ings between the coalowners and the lightermen. The 

increases of pav all round rang.- from [0 percent., and as much 

in sum.- ... shows the price that has 

paid in this in taw '-. .ther . lis pm I veen 

the short sea traders and their seamen and firemen. W 

111 future for the formei month and tin- 

latter £$, and w. ! ters' dispute 

tween the shipowners and the 
National Iran 1 in much the same 

form of agreem - two. These are all nrm and 

,1 show thi tiling autho 

; ,s the men as well as the Government had had 
enough ot th. ■ nght had 

weeks lie position ot affairs was looking serious 
want of coal the dredging ol the river had to be stopped, and 

when ' 

week from the river bottom it will be seen tl. 

mity. The repairing 
trad.-, whii tically all I -hips 



04 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Oi mm k, i,,u 



on the river, has suffered too Mi. boilermakers and ship 
wrights struck work for better terms. It will be seen what 
i the new scale will have on this industry ["he opera 
- objected to piece work in tins department. However, 
10 more has come to light in this connection itistobepre- 
,,. thai ill have now settled down 
lost time. It is surprising how few accidents 
arosi consequence oi the disturbance. Barges held up 

n, ■ oi any sort and liable to drift about to the 
detriment oi navigation generally. Yet il anything unto 
ward has occurred we have nol heard oi it I In position 
generally was summed up by Mi Cattarns, oi the short sea 
; he said competition will not admit of any 
furthei expenses whatever, ["he limit has therefore been 
ed ii we a< i ep1 this statement. 
New Liner. — The P. & O. Co. have by tins time despatched 
their new vessel the Maloja, which "as due to sail on tin- 
23rd ult. from London. 

Thames Shipbuilding. — It will be remembered thai the 
Thames Ironworks Co. had a floating crane specially built 
for fitting out the Thunderer, and this has been successfully 
brought into use by lifting the two barbette mountings, each 
[hing 150 tons apiece. The company-built vessel the 
27-knot 00 destroyer Nautilus, lias passed her trials 

and gone into commission. 

Motor Fire Launch. — The Fire Brigade has recently had 
built a new lire float which draws only 4 ft. of water and will 
therefore be able to approach closer to river side fires than 
the vessels now in the service. The trials have taken place 
on the river, the launch being from designs by Messrs. Wells 
and Kemp, the well-known naval architects. 

New Thames Tunnel. — A new tunnel is about to be com- 
menced at Woolwich for pedestrian use only, and to connect 
Xorth and South Woolwich. The tunnel will be 550 yards 
long and 11 ft. 6 in. wide, and for part of its course will be 
10 ft. below the bed of the river. Spiral staircases will give 
access to the tunnel at each end, the shafts for the stairways 
being 70 ft. deep on the north and 60 ft. deep on the south 
side. 



MERSEY AND MANCHESTER SHIP 
CANAL. 



{From our Own Correspondent.) 
Messrs. Cammell Laird & Co.— After the recent labour 
unrest the various large contracts in hand by this Com- 
pany are now being pushed forward. H.M.S. Lapwing 
is in the wet dock receiving her machinery, while 
her sister ship Lizard is expected to be launched 
about the first week in October. These are fine service- 
able sea-going destroyers of the new "Acorn" class, 
and are expected to have a sea speed of 27 knots. H.M. 
tenders to depot ship Adamant and Alecto are also both 
fitting out in the wet dock, and will shortly be ready for trials. 
These boats are of special interest, due to their being 
the pioneers in the class of Admiralty vessels due to the 
era of the submarine. Their dimensions have already been 
given in our pages. The main-sweeping submarine signal- 
ling and wireless telegraphy apparatus, and- the large 
electric installation for supplying power for the workshop, 
charging the batteries on submarines, etc., impart additional 
interest to these craft. Work is proceeding steadily on 
H.M.S. Audacious and Melbourne, also on the 30,000-ton 
floating dock, upon which craft the utmost secrecy is being 
observed. The new steamer for the L. & N.W. Railway Co. 
is in frame and is being expedited, while the tug boat for the 
Port of London Authority is picked and plated. The repair 
department, whose headquarters are now in the Royal Liver 
buildings, under the able management of Mr. Roy Laird, 
has been very busy. The destroyer Lively has been in for 
repairs and is now on service again. The Johnstone liner 
Quernmore, and the sailing ships Cambusdoon and Grande 
Duchess Olga have been in dry dock. The Booth Liner Benedict 
is receiving new decks and floors, and the work is expected to 
take about six weeks. The keel has been laid of a steam 
wheel steamer similar to the Francisco Salles, with dimen- 
sions of length no ft., beam 22 ft., depth 5 ft. for Amazon 
service, while an order for sixteen barge frames for Colombo 
has also been secured. An interim dividend of 2-J- per cent, 
has been declared on the preference shares. 



Messrs. Clover, Clayton & Co. With the improved facili- 
ties now enjoyed by this linn at their Bukrnlir.nl yard. .1 

large amount ol repair work has been dealt with. Oi special 
interest is the repair of the coasting steamer Race Fisher, 

which was 111 collision with the dock wall at Runcorn, A 
temporary wooden bulkhr.nl, strengthened with cement, was 
built in by a staff of repairers, the vessel bring thru floated 
into dry dock, when permanent repairs were carried out. 
Che steamers Argyll, Iris and Lillebonne have all been in 
for collision damage, while the usual overhaul and refitting 
has kept the docks fully ot 1 upied. 

Messrs. H. & C. Grayson. --This firm have been well known 
foi their large repair contracts. The most noteworthy work 
recently secured is the extensive repair work to the hull of the 
Cunard steamei Ivernia, which is being undertaken in the 
Brocklcbank dock. Such rapid progress lias been made with 
tins work that at the time of writing the vessel is expected 
to undock in a few days. The steamers Duke of Lancaster 
and York are being reboilered, while the North Wales steamer 
St. Tudno and the I.O.M. Mona's Isle are in for collision 
repairs. 

The Mersey Dock and Harbour Board. — Now that the 
labour troubles are over, work on the new Gladstone Dock 
is progressing well, and it is hoped that the undertaking will be 
completed in the estimated time. On August 22nd tin- 
Board's North-west Lightship was sunk through bring 
struck by the s.s. Pacuari, the crew just having time to take 
to their boat and were later brought back to Liverpool. The 
accident happened early in the afternoon, thus enabling .1 
relief lightship to be placed in position before dark. 

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal. — A remarkable condition 
of affairs on this canal has been caused by the continued 
drought. Traffic has been impeded and in places entirely 
suspended. All the locks between Skipton and Wigan have 
been closed for a month, and there has been no traffic to 
Blackburn from Manchester or Liverpool, which usually 
consists of about 5000 tons of coal, grain and raw cotton and 
manufactured goods every week. It is ten years since such 
a serious stoppage took place, and a week's rain is required 
to restore the water to its proper level. 

The Allan Line. — It is reported that tenders have been 
asked for recently for two new steamers of about 520 ft. in 
length and of 18 knots speed to be fitted with reciprocating 
engines, thus being of the intermediate type. While it is 
known that the Canadian people are not satisfied with the 
speed of the fast mail steamers, it is evident that the Allan 
Line have need of these two steamers, which will probably 
be used to strengthen the St. Lawrence, also the Newfound- 
land and Halifax services. When Canada has spoken it is 
quite certain that this progressive company will be prepared 
to meet her needs. 

The Development of Fishguard. — Only as recently as 1906 
was the Fishguard Harbour constructed by the G.W. Railway 
for their service to Rosslare, 54 miles distant. On August 
29th the Wilson liner Highland Warrior embarked passen- 
gers there on her maiden voyage to South America. Thus 
in the short space of five years vessels of the Cunard, Booth. 
Blue Funnel and Wilson liners have come to use the harbour. 

Lamport and Holt Line. — The s.s. Vandyck arrived in the 
Mersey after successful trials on Sept. 12th from the builders' 
hands. Messrs. Workman. Clark & Co. 

White Star Line. — The death took place recently of Mr. 
Henry Isaac Thorpe, late assistant victualling superintendent 
of the White Star Line. Pursers and stewards from liners 
in port attended the funeral, while after the service the 
"Last post" was sounded by the bugler of the Arabic. 
Mr. L. C. Shipley has been appointed to the vacant position. 
The triple-screw steamer Laurentic has recently made a new 
record by making the round trip between Liverpool and 
Montreal in thirteen days four hours. 



NORTH-WEST OF ENGLAND. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 
Barrow. — There is no shrinkage to note in the general 
activity in the shipbuilding industry of Barrow. Indeed, 
the indications favour the continuance for a long time to 
come of briskness in all departments. This is as well assured 
by the work which is in hand as by the certain prospect of 
good orders to follow. The Vickc-rs' yard has never been as 



October, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



J95 



fully employed parity will permit of. Thai i 

course, speaking of the shipbuilding side of the works. 

Dgineering side business has been very brisk lor a con- 
siderable period, and this state of things 1- likely to 
.1- well in the inarm.- shops as in the gun-mounting di 
ment. 

The Cruiser " Dartmouth. "—The trial trips ol this vessel, 
built at Barrow by the Vickers' linn, pa 

1 26 knot-* bein I I without 

the aid of her full power. She is now ready t<>r b 

trials and will leave Barrow before theend of September 
with that objei 

H.M.S. "Phoenix." — This torpedo-boat destroyer, built 
for tlu- British Admiralty, is now ready lor launching. This 
is tie er for thU type of craft which ha 

ow builders for some years past !"it a- Messrs. Vickers, 
ol warships it was ' i keep 

in touch with this 1 lass of vessel, and with that view to 
that dal momj whii b 1 an onlj be gained by 

that other 
it modern equipment and any firm 
which ilc. Lttention to warship construction must 

isarily have all the knowledge which can be obtained. 
I'll.- r . a to believe th els' Company will 

in th,' future be in for more ami more of this class of work. 
Chinese Cruiser. The small Chinese cruiser built at Barrow 
urly ready for her trials. She has a very smart api 
ance though she would do some tall travelling. 

Government have an ambif ogramme ol 

hip construction in hand, and it i- more than pro; 
that some ol the orders lor large and small vessels required 
: ing into life a new navy for China will come to Barrow. 
Turkish " Dreadnought. " —The Turkish ' Dreadnought" 
ordered from Messrs. Vickers, Ltd. i- being laid down on the 
berth from which the British battleship cruiser was launched 
It was thought tins berth was left open 
for a .-till larger vessel, which n is will be bu 

several other berths in the yard on which 
1 war can be laid down Hlis Turkish 
11 delivered in less than two years 
The Japanese Battleship Cruiser. — The strict 
is being observed is to the details and design of tins monster 
battl Ibr progress in o ■> is very 

■ able. She 1- beginning to hit her -ides, and to assume 
shape and form. She will be a prodigious ship ol war. and 
when mounted with the modem ,un- of great calibre she will 
mak, on.- oi the most formidable vessels ever designed 
warfare. 

H.M.S. "Princess Royal. "—Much headway is required 
to finish this big vessel by March in next it a whole 

army of men are employed on her in va 
an.! b the work to be don.- m her is being dis] 

1 way which i- only possible when everybody is working 
at high 1 Some delay to this ship occurred owing 

to the lock-out of boiler makers, but gradually the arrears 
ol work are being overtaken and there 1- rea on to believe 
very little will n I with the ship when her contract 

time tor building exp 

H.M.S. " Lion." I battleship cruiser, bu von- 

port, ha - ' 

ilmost immediately. So 
taken in these to the Pi 

and her engines are a duplicate of tin- latter ship. 
Spying. \ number ..f unauthorized people having en- 
I to obtain information about the naval airship, 
Mibmann, - and other things in progr.-s undei it the 

Vickers' yard, it has been found nei guard the 

dock ■ '- rrow with men from H.M.S. Hermione, ami an 
extra statt ot policemen has been provided in th.- several 
department- of Messrs. Vi only tor the pro- 

m ..I property, but in order to kei , "i all 

in the yard. 
The Steamer " Arizona. "—One of th.- sen the 

month was th. I the Middlesbrough steamer Ai 

which was undergoing alterations at Messrs. Vickers' works 
the view to h.-r being utilized to carry gun-, and muni- 
to some place unknown. Th.- owners state that 
the steamer was bound for a South African port, and other- 
alleged she was intended for the Portuguese Loyalists. At 
any rate she was - ized by the Customs and will have to be 
dismantled. 



The Haematite Trade. pression still prevails in 

lb.- haematite iron trade, and prices are at 64s. for mixed 
mer Nos. at f.o.b. and 62s. }d. warrant sellers ' 

Shipping. -Ihe shipping trade is very quiet, and ex] 
of iron and steel continue to show marked shrinkagi 
figures ot last year. 

NEW FLOATING DOCK FOR 
ROTTERDAM. 



MESSRS. Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, 
Ltd., have added another important floating 
dock to the long list of those which they have 
already built for the British Admiralty, Colonial and 
Foreign Governments, and various Companies in 
many parts of the world. On the 8th September, 
they launched from their Wallsend Shipyard a new 
floating dock, built to the order of Wilton's 
Engineering & Slipway Company of Rotterdam, being 
the second that they have built for this Company. 
The dock is 365 feet long and 81 feet wide. It is a 
double-sided self-docking dock of the type known as 
the " Bolted Sectional," designed by the eminent 
floating dock engineers, Messrs. Clark & Standfield 
of Westminster. This type is the latest improvement 
in floating docks, and combines the advantages of the 
great longitudinal strength of the "Box" type, with 
facilitv for self-docking. The dock is built in three 
sections, which are bolted together, and are discon- 
nected only when self-docking is required for painting 
or repairing the under-water parts. Any two sections 
of the dock can lift the third section to a height 
sufficient to allow barges and workmen to pass 
underneath. The pumps are centrifugal, and are 
driven directly by electric motors. The installation 
is divided into three parts, each- one working one of 
the sections of the dock independently. 

The three sections of the dock were launched 
separately, about half-an-hour elapsing between each 
event, and shortly after the whole dock was bolted 
together in the river. An illustration of the dock 
appears over page. 

Institute or Marine Engineers. — The opening 
1 Id on Monday, October ' 
discussion is gas engines for marine work, and all interi 
in tin I are inviti •• the 

Institute are held on Monday evenings at 1 I I Romford 
Road I mual dinni 

at the Hotel Cecil on Friday, November 17th, with the presi 
dent, the Marquis of Graham 1 i : lairman. 

\ Anniversary.— On September --th. r- 

auxiliary pa. 1.11.- vessel of 500 ton- left Hull boun.i 
a northern port with twi n steerage 

niters and eighteen of a stall including two engim 
in Humble, who was in command, had his wife with 
him. aving, the weather became rough ; to 

add to the .bill, ult were disabled and 

passing St. Vbb's Head the ship struck on Farn Rock. 

Lis of distri 1 the ear of the lighthouse k. eper's 

;hter, who volunteered to go with her father in their 

old by their action saved 
the lives of those who would otherwise- have shar. 
oi th.- fourteen who were engulfed in the waters. Thus 

Darling immortalized her nam.- and gave an mr 
andi: of enthusiasm for duty in the face 

of danger which was carried over the land to the steps of the 
throne. 






nil- MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. October, 1911. 



LAUNCHES AND TRIAL TRIPS. 

LAUNCHES English. 

Aidan. On |ul) 27th, there was launched from thi yard 
of thi I on Shipbuilding Co Ltd. of Willington Quaj 

on l"\ 11 a steel screw steamei foi Mi isrs. The Booth Steam 
ship Co., Ltd., oi Liverpool, and <>t the following dimensions, 
i ibout !9o ft breadth ;ofl depl li moulded 

; ; it. 9 in., and ta^class ioo A 1 at Lloyd's sheltei deck rule 
with long bridge. Hiis vessel has water balla'st fitted righl 
ill on the cellulai system and also in deep tank, 
and 1- also fitted with all modern improvements for the rapid 
loading and discharging oi cargo, including nine double 
ndered steam winches, direct-acting steam windlass and 
.1 mi ! han 1 stei ring gear with combined telemotoi gear 
by Messrs. Broun Bros. ,\ Co., ltd., o! Edinburgh, and 
electrii light equipment bj Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works, 
I t>l rhe vessel is handsomely fitted up amidships with 
luxurious state-rooms for a large numbei oi first-class pas- 
sengers under the bridge deck, with commodious dmmg 
saloon, smoke-room and bar on top of bridge duck. A verj 
orate arrangement oi refrigerating chambers is to be 
fitted up on bo ird. I In- shelter deck aft is also fitted up for 
a large number of third-class passengers with dining saloon 
and entrance house and forward end ot the shelter deck is 
up for accommodation oi the crew. The engines, 
which are supplied by Messrs. The Wallsend Slipway and 
Engineering Co., Ltd., of Wallsend. are of the triple-expansion 
1 ype, having cylinders -'4 in. . 4' 1 in. and 67 in. by 4* in. stroke 
and working at a pressure ol 180 lbs. 
Steel Screw Steamer. -< in July 27th, Messrs. Osbourne, 

Graham & Co. launched from their yard at Hylton a steel 
•-crew steamer which they have constructed to the order of 
Messrs. Pile & Co. She is a raised quarter decker 221) it. by 
j6 tt. by 13 ft. 6 in. depth moulded, and has been classed 
under special survey at Lloyd's for the Argentine Brazilian 
coasting service. The vessel is well equipped and has three 
large hatchways, double derricks, etc. Water ballast is in 
the fore and after peak and in after tank. Accommodation 
is fitted up 111 houses on the bridge for the captain, officers 
and engineers ; crew in forecastle. The vessel is to be 
fitted with engines having cylinders 15 in., 25 in.. 40 111. by 
27 in., with one large boiler capable of maintaining a good 
speed at sea. 

Linaria. — On July 27th, Messrs. William Dobson & Co. 
launched from their shipbuilding yard at Walker a steel screw- 
steamer built to the order of Messrs. Stag Line, Ltd., of 
North Shields, Messrs. Joseph Robinson & Sons, managers. 
The vessel has been built to the highest class of the British 
Corporation, and has the following dimensions : — Length 
between perpendiculars, 551 ft.; breadth, 48 ft.; depth 
moulded, 24 tt. 6 in. The specification is a very full one, 
adapting the vessel to all the modern requirements of the 
grain and other bulk cargo trades. The machinery, which 
is being constructed by the North-Eastern Marine Engineer- 
ing Co.. Ltd., of Wallsend, is of the triple-expansion type, 
with cylinders 22 1 in., 36I in.. 62 in. by 42 in. stroke, and 
there are three large boilers. Messrs, Wailes, Dove & Co.'s 
" Bitumastic " enamel has been applied to the engine and 
boiler-room tanks. 

Kamouraska. — On July 27th. there was launched on the 
Tyne the steel screw steamer Kamouraska. which has been 
built to the order of Messrs. E. F. & W. Roberts, of Liverpool. 
The principal dimensions of the vessel are : — Length, 375 ft. ; 
breadth, 51 ft. 9 in. ; and depth moulded, 30 ft. 9 in. The 
vessel has been built to Lloyd's highest class on the Isherwood 
system with wide-spaced transverse frames and bulb-angle 
longitudinals, as a single-deck ship without hold beams, 
and arranged throughout on the self-trimming principle. 
The propelling machinery will be of the triple-expansion type 
with cylinders 26 in.. 44 in. and 73 in. by 48 111. stroke, steam 
being 'supplied by three boilers working at 1S0 lbs. pressure 
under forced draught. The naming ceremony was per- 
formed by Miss Edna Roberts, daughter of Mr. Edmund 
Roberts senior partner of the owners' firm. 

RoselandS. < in July 28th, Messrs. William Gray & Co., 
Ltd., launched the handsome steel screw steamer Roselands, 
which they have built for Messrs. The Wilson Shipping Co., 
Ltd.. West Hartlepool (Messrs. Joseph F. Wilson & Co., 
managers). She will take the highest class in Lloyd's Re 



gistei and is oi the following dimensions, vi . Length ovei 
all, 387 ft. ; breadth, 51 ft. 3 in. ; and depth, 28 ft. 6 in., with 
long bridge, poop and topgallanl forecastle. The saloon, 

til. M captain's, officers 1 and engineers' rooms, eti 

will be fitted up in houses on tin- bridge deck .n\^\ th :w' 

berths m tin- forecastle lie- hull is built with deep frames, 

Cellular double bottom and alt-peak ballast tank, eight 

steam winches, steam-steering gear amidships, hand screw 
gear aft, patent direct steam windlass, shifting boards through 
out, stockless anchors, telescopic masts with line ami alt 
rig, boats on deck overhead, and all n quirements for a first 
.lass cargo steamer. Triple-expansion engines are being 
supplied by The Central Marine I- ngini W orks ol t h.- builders, 
having cylinders 25 111.. 41 in. and 68 111. diameter with a 
piston -Hoke oi 4S 111,, and two large steel boilers with a 
working pressure ol 1 So lbs. pel square inch and with a view 
1 M obtain higher speed when requii ed, a large auxiliary boilei 
has been added, also with a working pressure of [80 lbs. per 
square inch. A C.M.E.W. winch condenser and auxiliaries 

ol the latest type, also steam ash hoist have been fitted 
Messrs. Wailes, Hove .V Co.'s " Bitumastii " enamel has been 
applied to the tanks and their patent " Bitumastic " covering 
to the tank tops. The trial trip was run on the [6th Sept., 
and was very satisfactory, an average speed of 1 1 knots being 
attained. Later the vessel left for Hull, where she will lo.nl 
for the River Plate. 

Robert Coverdale. — On July 28th, Messrs. William Gray 
and Co., Ltd.. launched the handsome steel screw steamer 
Robert Coverdale for Messrs. Coverdale Brothers, West Hartle- 
pool. She will take the highest class in Lloyd's Register and 
is of the following dimensions, viz. : — Length overall, 36] ft. 
111. ; breadth, 50 ft.; and depth, 25 ft. 11 111.. with long 
bridge, poop and topgallant forecastle. The saloon, stab 
rooms, captain's, officers' and engineers' rooms, etc.. will be 
fitted up in houses on the bridge deck and the crew's berths 
in the forecastle. The hull is built with deep frames, cellular 
double bottom and large aft-peak ballast tank, seven steam 
winches, steam-steering gear amidships, hand-screw gear aft, 
patent direct steam windlass, large horizontal multitubular 
donkey boiler, shifting boards throughout, stockless anchors, 
telescopic masts with fore and aft rig, boats on deck over- 
head and all requirements for a first-class cargo steamer. 
Triple-expansion engines are being supplied by The Central 
Marine Engine Works of the builders, having cylinders 
2, in.. 4e>>. in. and 67 in. diameter with a piston stroke ol 
45 in. and two large steel boilers for a working pressure of 
180 lbs. per square inch. The trial trip was run on the 1 5th 
Sept., and though the weather conditions were not of tin 
best, the results obtained were highly satisfactory, the mean 
speed being 1 1 knots. 

Lord Ridley and Lord Airedale. — On July 28th, two steam 
trawders were launched at Messrs. Smith's Dock Co.'s Middles 
brough shipbuilding yards for the Port of Blyth Steam Fishing 
and Ice Co. , Ltd. One vessel was named the Lord Ridley , the 
other vessel the Lord Airedale. It is expected that the 
nucleus of the fleet of trawlers building for the Blyth Co. will 
soon be completed, when operations will be commenced at 
the port of Blyth. 

Chalcedony. — On July 20th, there was launched from the 
yard of Messrs. Cochrane & Sons. Selby. a steel screw trawler, 
the principal dimensions being 140 ft. by 24 ft. by 12 ft. 7 in. 
by 13 ft. 6in., moulded. The vessel has been built to the 
order of Messrs. The Kingston Steam Trawling Co.. Ltd., of 
Hull, and will be replete with all the latest improvements foi 
tin fishing trade. Powerful triple-expansion engines will be 
fitted by' Messrs. Amos & Smith, Ltd.. of Hull. 

Hopper Barge. — On August 10th, the Blyth Shipbuilding 
and Dry Docks Co., Ltd., launched from their shipbuilding 
and graving dock works a 600-ton steam hopper barge, built 
to the order of the North-Eastern Railway Company, which 
has been specially constructed in connection with their 
various docks and harbours. Powerful propelling machinery 
will be supplied by Messrs. Amos & Smith, Ltd., of Hull. 
This steam barge is a duplicate of the vessel recently launched 
by the Blyth Shipbuilding and Dry Docks Co.. Ltd.. for the 
Railway Co.. and has been built to class 100 Ai Lloyd's, to 
specification of T. M. Newell, Esq., chief dock engineer to 
the N.E.R.. and under the general supervision of G. Shaw, 
junr.. Esq. 

Egremont Castle. — On August nth, Messrs. Craig, Taylor 
and Co., Ltd., launched from their Thornaby shipbuilding 



October, 1911. THE MARINE I NGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



97 



yard, Thornabj 1 n I modelled 

mer ol 1 1 1 « - following dimension \26 ft. by 

_• in. by _;-' it. mould 

con 1 ' in tion, to thi ■ ! 1 in Llo 1's Re 
gistry, under special survi top 

gallant fo water ballast in double bottom fore and 
md "i peaks. The double bottom also ha 1 uilly 

carriage oi oil fuel. She is equipped 
with patent din windlass with quick-warping 
iteam-sti eleven steam winches, large multitubular 
donkey boiler, teak wheelhouse, [fire-extinguishing service 
throughout telescopii masts to Main Ship Canal 

requirements, special derrick arrangement im Luding ^o-ton 
ml .ill the latest improvement id loading 

and discharging. The a 1 for capt.i 
room ap in de< k houses amid- 
ships, the engineers being in deck-hou ingine 
nd the crew in the forecastle. \ iplete installa- 
tion of electric light on the doubl inciple is 
fitted by the Sunderland Forge Co in also 
fitted to accommodation. Her engines have been con- 
structed by Mosrs. Blair & Co., I' the 
cylinders being - - s in., i" in., 75 in in 1 with 



lit derricks, and will be '.pupped with six 

■ ,md tele 
motor control. \ complete installation ol electric light and 
hells will be fitted throughout the vessel. She will al 
equipped with all the must modern appliances for the rapid 
handling of cargo. Triple expansion engines having cylii 
25 in., 41 111. and 70 111. li nke, supplied with I 

by t)i lilers 15 ft. 6 in. by 11 ft. 6 in., 

working a1 bed by Messrs. Job 

Dickinson & Si nd. 

City of Birmingham. <»n August 12th, there was laum hed 

the Hebburn yard of Mi P Shipbuilding and 

Iron Co.. Ltd., the handsomely-modelled sti 
senger and cargo steamer City of Birmingham, built to the 

of the Ellerman Lines. Ltd. I 
long, is built ol teel md is rigged as a tv and- 

aft schooner. She has been built to tl 
Lloyd's Registry. She has accomnn il>out 

130 first-el. Dgers on the shelter and bridge de< ks, with 

smoke-room and lounge on boat-deck over ; and for about 
econd-class passengers at the forward end of poop. 
lie vessel i to be fitted with a large outfit of steam winches 
and : for the rapid manipulation of cargo. Sh' 




New Floating Dock for Wilton's Engineering Co , Rotterdam. 
Built by Messrs. Swan. Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Ltd Launched Septeml* 



three boilers working at 180 lbs. pressure, with Howden's 
forced draught, feed heater, feed niter, winch condei 
1 i-ton evaporators, self-tipping ash-In 

Lancashire Shipping 
(o.. Ltd. (Messrs. James Chambers A: Co.) Liverpool. 

Meroe. 1 >n August [2th, Messrs. Sir Raylton Dixon and 
Ltd., launched from their Cleveland Dockyard, Mi. I 
broils crew passenger and cargo which 

to the order of Messrs. James Moss and 
Co.. of Liverpool Her principal dimensions are %4; ft. 
B.P. 1'V 45 it ft. 6 in depth moulded 

being constructed to the highest class at British Corporation 
and is of the two-deck type with poop, bridge and fore. 
with large promenade deck above bridj 
deck is situated entrance hall and lounge for first-class 

.■■ rs also first-class dining saloon and smoke-room luxuri- 
tastefully furnished. Below the bridge 
hand provided for about sixt\ 

On tl large steel hou 

teering gi entrance hall 

and lounge, while 1. -rooms sintal.lv equipped 

provided for about thirty-eight second-class | with 

large dining saloon. The vessel his four holds, four hatches, 



amp] ision rooms for the passengers, and 

will be lighted with electricity throughout. Sh.- is to be 
fitted by lur builders with quadruple-expansion engines to 
give .1 good speed. 

Cornwood. I'hei i launched on the Wear the 

mer Cornwood, built to the order of Messrs. Win. Fran, i 
Fenwick & Co., Ltd., of 1 id Sunderland. The vessel 

is of the Colin i riving 3.IOO tons on .1 

draught, with raised quart ml full poop, absolutely 

clear hold- and large self-trimming batch . I ngines will 
tted by the North-] istern Marim Engineering C 

1 Wailes, Dovi 

jmastic" enami to holds, bunkiis 

lar double bottoms, "Bitumastic" covi 

ips. A C nan) Donkev Boiler with 

Patent Seamle tted. 

Rawson. launched on the Weai the 

milt to the order ol the 
c ompany (Nicolas Mihanovich), Ltd 
Rawson has accommod and 

third-class | She will carry about -. 

I is equipped with a complete cargo g 
including • tricks for ten and twenty ton lifts. The 



9 



THK MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. October, 1911. 



propelling ma( b lists oi triple-expansion engines, and 

large draught. Messrs. Wailes, 

" Bitumastic " enamel tta been applied to 
engine and boilei room tanks, and then patenl " Bitumastii 

ing t>> the tank top. A Coc in.m (Ann, m) Donkey Boilei 
with Patent Seamless Furnace has been supplied and fitted. 
Two Steel Screw Tugs. -The Gooli Shipbuilding andRepah 
ing Company have recently launched from their Victoria 
Shipyard, Conk-. two nely» modelled steel screw tugs, 

■ following on 1 ngl h ovei all [05 it. t. in. 

by 23 it. by 11 11. the vessels have been built to I loyd' 

ami undei special survey, ami are fitted Willi steam 

windlass, steam i i ad nici cabin accommodation. 

The vessels are to be fitted with Salvage Pumping Plant. 
Tripli oi ■■ power will be fitted by 

M srs 1 a i li ' ; Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., of 
Hull. I'll.- vessels are being built to the order ol I lie Argentine 
Navigation Company (Nicolas Mihanovich), Ltd. These are 
the last two tugs oi four that the firm have built for the 
same owners. 

Harfat. — t >n August 12th, there was laun. lied at North- 
men a screw steamer for Messrs. John Bacon, Ltd., of 
the following dimensions t Length, 95 ft.; breadth, 20 ft. 
6 in. ; depth moulded, 7 ft. 3 in. The vessel was named 
Harfat. 

Steam Whalers.— On August 15th, at the shipyard of 
Messrs. Smith's Dock, Company, Ltd., Middlesbrough-on- 
Tees, the launch took place of three finely modelled steam 
whaling vessels, no ft. long, which have been built to 
pass the requirements of the British Corporation. 

Tysla.— On August 17th, Messrs. Win. Doxford and 
Sons, Ltd., launched from their yard at Pallion the 
shelter deck vessel Tysla, built to the order of Messrs. 
Fearnley & Eger, Christiania. The dimensions are : 
Length, 405 ft. ; breadth, 53^ ft. moulded ; depth, 28 ft. 
10 in. The deadweight capacity will be 8,750 tons on a 
moderate draught. The engines and boilers are being sup- 
plied by Messrs. Doxford. The vessel has been built to 
the British Corporation and Norwegian Veritas classifi- 
cations. 

Overton. — On August 24th, there was launched from 
the yard of Messrs. Jos. T. Eltringham & Co., South 
Shields, a finely modelled steel screw cargo steamer, 
which has been specially designed for the coasting trade, 
and which is being constructed to the order of the Over- 
1 hi Steamship Co., Ltd., of Liverpool. Messrs. Eltring- 
ham iV Co. have also under construction a duplicate vessel 
for the same owners. 

Borodino. — On August 24th, there was launched from 
the yard of Earle's Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ltd., 
lluli, a finely modelled steel screw steamer built to the 
order of Messrs. Thos. Wilson, Sons & Co., Ltd. She 
is intended for the Russian passenger and cargo trade. 
The length of the vessel is 31S ft., breadth moulded 42 ft., 
depth moulded icj ft. n in. She has been constructed of 
steel throughout to British Corporation highest class, and 
to Board of Trade latest requirements. The vessel is of 
the shelter deck type, and the accommodation consists of 
state rooms for about 27 first-class passengers, spacious 
dining saloon, lavatories, bath rooms, etc., all the cabins 
being" well lighted and ventilated and well furnished, to 
ensure the comfort of passengers. She has two steel pole 
masts and very efficient appliances for the speedy handling 
of cargo, the derricks being capable of dealing with heavy 
lifts: the derricks will be worked by powerful steam 
winches of the most up-to-date description ; and a steam 
windlass by Messrs. Emerson, Walker & Thompson will 
also be fitted. The steering engine is placed in deck- 
house aft, and is worked by the telemotor system from the 
navigating bridge; powerful hand screw gear is also pro- 
vided, both of which have been supplied by Messrs. Amos 
and Smith, Hull. The ship will be fitted up with electric 
light and bell installation ; the saloon, officers' and en- 
gineers' living rooms are all heated by steam, and the 
work throughout the vessel is of the very best description 
with the latest improvements. Triple expansion engines 
are provided by the builders, steam being supplied by two 
large steel boilers, designed to drive the vessel at a good 
-peed on a minimum coal consumption. 

Rena— 1 hi August 25th, this steamer, built by Messi 
Wm. Doxford & Sons, Ltd., Sunderland, for Wilh. Wil- 
helmsen, Esq., of Tonsberg, was launched at the Pallion 
Yard. She is a sister vessel of the Atna recently com- 



pleted by the same firm. The steamers ar< 81750 tons 

deadweight, and have a \oyagc speed ol 11 knots hilly 

ed. she is fitted with triple expansion engines, and 
Howden's forced draught boilers. She has been built 
la Norwegian classification under special survey. 

Oristano. On August 25th, there was launched from 
the yard of the Northumberland Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 
Howdon-on-Tyne, the s.s, Oristano, which has been built 
1.' tin ordei "I Mi is, I unless. Withy & Co., Ltd., Wi it 
Hartlepool. The \essel is 390 ft. long by 49 ft. beam by 
21 1 It. deep, and has been built under special survey to 
the highest class at Lloyd's. She is fitted with long 
bridge, long poop, topgallant forecastle, the accommodation 
win. h is ample being placed in steel houses on the bridge 
deck. Careful attention has been devoted to the loading 
and discharging gear, and a complete outfit for the rapid 
handling of cargoes arranged for, consisting of nine steam 
winches by Missis. Clarke, Chapman & Co., Ltd., Oates- 
head-on-Tyne, a large number of cargo derricks and steam 
windlass by Messrs. Emerson. Walker .V Thompson Bros, 
.she is fitted with the usual water ballast arrangements for 
light passages. The machinery is to be supplied by 
Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., Sunderland, 
consisting of engines with cylinders 25, 41, 69, by 48 in. 
stroke, three large steel boilers with 180 lbs. pressure. 
The vessel will carry about 7,500 tons on a light draught, 
and steam about 10 knots loaded at sea. 

Aquamarine. — On August 26th, there was launched 
from the yard of Messrs. Cochrane & Sons, Selby, a steel 
31 rew trawler, the principal dimensions being 140 ft. by 
24 ft. by 13 ft. 6 in. moulded. The vessel has been built 
to the order of Messrs. The Kingston Steam Trawling Co., 
Ltd., of Hull, and will be replete with all the latest im 
provements for the fishing trade. Powerful triple expan- 
sion engines will be fitted by Messrs. Amos & Smith, Ltd., 
of Hull. 

Vryhandel. — On August 28th, Messrs. Irvine's Ship- 
building and Dry Docks Co., Ltd., launched from their 
Harbour Dockyard the steel screw steamer Vryhandel, 
built to the order of Messrs. Scheepvaart Maatschappij 
Gylsen, Antwerp. The dimensions are : 289 ft. 6 in. by 
40 ft. 2 in. by 20 ft. 6^ in. The vessel has a single 
deck, with poop, bridge and topgallant forecastle, and 
has been built to the British Corporation Registry's 
highest class. A double bottom is fitted throughout on 
the cellular principle, and the after peak is arranged as a 
trimming tank. She is constructed with bulb angle frames 
and longitudinal stringers, giving clear holds for the 
stowage of bulky cargoes. Four watertight bulkheads 
divide the vessel into five watertight compartments: there 
are four large cargo hatches, with a steam winch to each ; 
the bulwarks have been specially strengthened for the 
carriage of deck cargoes, and the vessel is replete with 
all the latest improvements for loading and discharging 
expeditiously. A powerful quick warping steam wind- 
lass is fitted forward for working the cables, and steam 
steering gear is fitted amidships, with hand screw gear 
aft, and a large multitubular donkey boiler is also fitted. 
Accommodation for the captain, officers and engineers rs 
arranged in deckhouses amidships, the crew and firemen 
being berthed in the forecastle. The cabins are heated 
wdth steam, and the sanitary, ventilating and lighting 
arrangements are effected on the most improved lines. 
Triple expansion engines will be supplied and fitted by 
Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., Hartlepool, 
having cylinders 20^ in., 33 in., and 54 in. by 36 in. 
stroke, with two large single-ended boilers, working at a 
pressure of 180 lbs. per square inch. The trial trip was 
run on the 16th September, the engines working smoothly 
and a speed of about 11 knots being obtained. A Cochran 
Annan Donkey boiler with patent seamless furnaces has 
been supplied and fitted. 

Hampshire Coast.— On September 7th, Messrs. \\ . 
Harkess & Son, Ltd., launched from their yard at 
Middlesbrough a steel screw steamer, 195 ft. by 30 ft. by 
13 ft. 10 in. moulded, built to the order of Messrs. F. H. 
Powell & Co., of Liverpool. She is designed with large 
cubical capacity to carry 1000 tons on very light draught. 
She has extra large self trimming hatchways and clear 
holds, and is fitted with heavy deck machinery of modern 
type for the quick handling of cargoes. Her engines will 
be fitted by Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd., 
of Middlesbrough, and are capable of driving her a 



October, i n i 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



99 



speed "t toj knots loaded. 

Cotovia. 1 in Septembei 7th, Messrs. Irvine's Ship- 
building ami Dry I >.« ks Co., Ltd., launched trom theii 
Middletoo Shipyard, Hartlepool, the amei 

■:■;•:. built to the ordei >t Messrs. Knov iter, 

i 1 tin Frumentum Steamship Co., Ltd., and 

designed by |oseph Tempei of London. The 

dimensions of the ' by 50 ft. 3 in. by 

27 it. ; in. depth moulded, having a deadweight tarrying 
. r 6,500 tons on a light draft. She is of 
tin- single do k type, with poop, bridge and forecastle, and 
1- built to Lloyd's highest class. Water ballast is tarried 
in cellular double bottom, also in an extra large aftei 
peak tank. Ili' '''1 with deep bulb 

iving exceptionally 
clear holds, the vessel h.n in 

' tin owners' grain trade on the South 
Am. t. Six watertight bulkheads are fitted, 



ust steam is utilised, and the evaporator is of tin 
1 vertical radial type. 

Redesmere On September 7th. /tsmere, built 

•: order oi Mi ' Herbert " Man 

Chester, Eoi the Wal I. id., was laui 

from the yard of th< Sunderland Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. 
II11 principal dimensions an l th B.P., 
breadth, 42 ft. S in.; and depth moulded 21 ft. 9 in. She 
is a single dt bridge and top gallant 

astle, and will take Lloyd's too Ai .la--. Foul 
derricks on tables are fitted 1 >r working the 

. ma. him ry ■ onsisl 
steam winches, tint, t -team windlass, and a steam si 

_ear fitted up al d of bridge, the wl 

worked by a I 

u is provided m h 
and engineers, the sailors and firemen being berthed in 
the forecastle. The sal i ■ 1 amidships, and is 




Bucket Hopper Dredger Corozal, built by Messrs. Simons & Co., Ltd . Renfrew, 
for 1'nited States Government. 



divid 

there are seven large hatches spe. tally arranged for the 
use of grain elevators, six powerful steam winches are 
fitted, and all the latest improvements are included for 
the rapid loading and discharging of cargo. A power 
ful quick warping steam windlass i- fitted forward, and 
-team steering gear amidships, with ha aft. 

llu captain, officers and engineer will be berthed in 

- amidships, and the sailors and firemen in th 
I he lighting, ventilating and sanitary arra 
received special attention, th. method- 

being adopted throughout. Triple 1 engines 

will be supplied and fitted tr. Ki.hard-.n-. V. 

garth A: Co., Ltd., Hartlepool, having cylinders 2; in., 
40 in., and 6S in. by 4S in. stroke, with three large 
boilers, working at a pressure of 180 lbs. per square 
inch. A feature in the design of the ma. hinery is the 
adoption ol the . ompleti 

ing and feed heati > b .th main and 

traflo type, independent 
feed pumps, cascade filter, and 
heating arrangement, whereb- the whole of the auxiliary 



I fully fitted up. The wholi .1 th< accomrn 
tion, including :! s, is heated by -team. 

The main engines are supplied by the North K. 
Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., Sunderland, and have 
cylinders 21 in., 35 in., and 57 in., by 311 11 
steam being supplied by two large boilers working at .t 
pressure of 180 lb 1 in. h. 

Cayo Romano.- 1 in Septembei 8th, Messrs. William 
1 launched from their shipbuilding work- at 
Walker a steel screw stea {land 

and Co., of London, foi the. ["his 

built to the highest cla d's, and 

the following dimensions Length between per;.- 
3,4 ft., breadth 48 ft., depth moulded 28 ft. ;j in. 
model is ■ fine and there are t laid, 

with poop, bridge and bovi l l • 1 elling 

ual tripli ..I it 

ha been nstrucl \ irth Eastern Mai im 1 n 

1 
eter, with j; ii 
applied by tin- ended boilers working with 

Howd. m of forced draught. 



[00 



Till- MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. October, 1911. 



LAUNCHES Scotch. 

Coramba On August 15th, there was jaunched al 

n the twin screw steamei Cora "-. which has been 

h ,„l, ,,. -,i: ,j thi North 1 oasl St( im Navigation 

N.S.W The vessel has been con 

., . [ a i , las. ui the British 1 orporation 

,1 W as di bj Mr. Charli M blister, 

Sydney, N S.V\ 

Clenetive. On A d, then was launched al 

VVhiteinch the whii h has been buill Eoi 

Mess i , . rdinei S < . Glasgow. The ■• el, 

which has been constructed to Lloyd's highest 'lass, is ..1 
Tripli 1 will be sup 

plied Messrs. Matthew, Keenan S Co., Ltd., have com 

pleted the contract foi boilei and pipe irings on board 

Maunganui. On August 24th, the twin screw iteamei 
was launched by the Fairfield Shipbuilding 
and Engineering Co., G < the Union Steamship 

Compam A N land. The vessel is 430 ft. m 

,h. 55 tt. 6 in. in breadth, 42 ft. 6in in depth to 
promenade deck, and of about 7,000 tons gross. She 1 
divided into nine watertight compartments, and there are 
five decks— boat, promenade, iippd. mai "> ;l " d ]nV!el - 
v ommodation is provided for 244 first-class, 175 second^ 
, lass, and 80 third-class passengers, and for a crew of 
136 men. There is a spacious entrance hall which con- 
tains the main stairway leading to the upper deck, and 
the lounge and music room and smoking lounge are on 
the promenade deck. Forward of the main stairway there 
is a dining saloon over 50 ft. in length and extending the 
full width "of the vessel. The tables are arranged on the 
cafe principle, and are capable of sitting 144 persons. The 
nd-class dining saloon has sitting accommodation for 
no persons. The first-class staterooms are on the Bibby 
system, with berths for one, two, or three persons. For- 
ward of the main saloon is the third-class saloon, with 
seating accommodation for 58 persons, and state-rooms 
adjacent. The propelling machinery will consist of two 
sets of quadruple-expansion balanced engines. Steam at 
a pressure of 220 lbs. will be supplied by two double-ended 
and two single-ended cylindrical boilers adapted for forced 
draught. 

Swift.— On August 26th, Messrs. Ramage & ierguson, 
Ltd., launched from their shipbuilding yard at Leith, a 
finely modelled steel screw steamer built to the order of 
the General Steam Navigation Co., Ltd., of London, for 
their Continental trade. Built to the highest class at 
Lloyd's, awning deck type with bridge amidships; the 
principal dimensions are : 24s ft. B.P. by 34 ft. 5 in. by 
24 ft. 3 in. depth to upper deck. Triple expansion engines 
with cylinders 23 in., 37J5 in., 62 in. diameter by 39 in. 
stroke, and large boilers working if required under forced 
draught supply the propelling power and a high rate of 
speed is expected at sea. The latest cargo appliances are 
fitted, among which may be noted seven powerful steam 
cranes and electric lighting is installed throughout. 

Morialta.— On August 28th, there was launched from 
the yard of Messrs. David & William Henderson & Co., 
Limited, Partick, Glasgow, a finely modelled twin screw 
steamer, which they have built to the order of The 
Adelaide S.S. Co., Ltd., Adelaide, South Australia. Ihe 
dimensions of the vessel are : Length between perpendicu- 
lars, 240 ft. ; breadth moulded, 40 ft. ; depth moulded, 
16 ft. ; and is built to the requirements of the British Cor- 
poration for their highest class. Designed for the pas- 
senger coasting trade, she is fitted up in a highly finished 
manner for 150 first-class passengers, for whom the vessel 
is replete with everything that can add to their comfort; 
the staterooms being large and airy, so as to be suitable 
for the Australian trade. The propelling machinery, 
which has also been constructed by the builders, consists 
of two sets of triple expansion engines, each having 
cylinders 16 in., 27 in., and 43 in. diameter by 33 in. 
stroke, two water tube boilers by Babcock & Wilcox, for 
a pressure of 200 lbs. The Morialta is the sixth vessel 
built by Messrs. Henderson for the Adelaide Co. 

Strathtummel & Strathurie.— On August 28th, there 
were launched at Aberdeen two trawlers, built to the order 
of the Aberdeen Steam Trawling & Fishing Co. The 
vessels are of the following dimensions: Length, 115 ft.; 
breadth, 22 ft.; and depth, 13 ft. Triple expansion 
engines will be supplied. The vessels were named Strath- 
tummel and Strathurie. 



Essex Abbey On August 31st, there was launched at 
Greenock the screw steamei which has been 

built t" the 01,1,1 ol Mi 1 11 Meldrum & Co., London. 
1 1,1 dimi nsion in 150 fl b} ;o ft. 6 in. by 26 ft., and 
she will ,.m\ ., total deadweight o) 6,250 tons on 21 ft. 
6 in draught The engines will be oi 1,700 indicated 
horse power. Captain Walker will command the ship 
on delivery to her owners. 

Hopper Barge On September 5th, there was launched 
at Port Glasgow a first-class hoppei barge Eoi the Port 
,ii London Authority. The vessel was put into the water 
with steam up, being almost completed and ready for 
sailing. She is tilted with all the latest appliances, is 

200 it. long, and has a tonnage ot 1 

Kuala 1 in September 6th, there was launched at Dun- 
dee a s, rew steamer named Kuala, built to the order of 

the Straits Steamship Com] v, Singapore. She is 

built to the highest class in the British Corporation 
Registry for spei ral trading, and also to the Board of 
Trade requirements for carrying passengers and cattle. 
The principal dimensions are : Length over all, 236 ft. ; 
breadth moulded, 35 ft. 6 in.; and depth moulded, 14 ft. 
2 in. The vessel has a long poop and bridge combined, 
and a topgallant forecastle. The saloon is in a large 
deckhouse on the bridge amidships, with state-rooms ad- 
joining, and also on the deck above. In the deckhouse 
aft there is accommodation for second-class passengers. 
The machinery consists of triple expansion engines, with 
cylinders iS in., 28^ in., and 48 in. diameter respectively, 
and a stroke of 33 in. Steam is supplied by two large 
steel boilers working at a pressure of 185 lbs. A Cochran 
Annan Donkey Boiler with patent seamless furnace has 
been supplied and fitted. 

Emerald Wings. — On September 6th, there was launched 
at Port Glasgow the steamer Emerald Wings, which has 
been built to the order of Messrs. Norman Hallett & Co., 
London. This vessel is a duplicate of the steamer Bright 
Wings, built for same owners. The vessel has been de 
signed for a deadweight carrying capacity of 5,500 tons, 
up an exceptionally light draught. She has been built 
to Lloyd's highest "class on a very full specification. 

Lord Bacon— On September 9th, there was launched at 
Greenock the steamer Lord Bacon, which has been built 
for a Liverpool firm of shipowners. The vessel is one of 
360 tons, and is intended for the coasting trade. She is 
a sister ship to the Lady Baton, put into the water about 
two months ago. The new steamer will be engined in 
Glasgow. 

Corozal. — On September 12th, Messrs. Wm. Simons and 
Co., Ltd., Renfrew, launched an extremely powerful bucket 
hopper dredger which they have built to the order of the 
United States Government for carrying out some of the 
most arduous underwater cutting to be done in connection 
with the Panama Canal. The dredger is of the twin 
screw type, and will make the voyage to the Pacific Coast 
under its own steam. The vessel has a hopper capacity 
for 1,200 tons of dredgings. The bucket ladder is de- 
signed for dredging up to a depth of 50 feet. The vessel, 
which has been named Corozal, is propelled at a speed of 
10 knots per hour by two sets of triple expansion surface 
rondensing engines supplied with steam from two cylin- 
drical multitubular boilers, constructed to Lloyd's require- 
ments for a working pressure of 180 lbs. per square inch. 
A complete outfit of the most modern auxiliary machinery 
is provided in the engine room, including independent air 
pumps, circulating pumps, feed pumps, feed heater and 
filter, etc. The dredging gear is of the most massive 
description, and is arranged to give three speeds of 
buckets to suit the various kinds of material to be dealt 
with The dredging gear can be driven by either of the 
main propelling engines. Two sets of buckets are pro- 
vided, one of S4 cubic feet capacity for dredging soft 
material, and one of 3s cubic feet capacity for dredging 
stiff clay. The bucket ladder is a steel girder of excep- 
tional strength, and an idea of the enormous strength of 
the bucket chain may be conveyed by the statement that 
the ladder with its chain of buckets, links and pins, 
weighs upwards of 240 tons. The upper end of bucket 
ladder is supported on independent pivot shaft and the 
lower end is controlled by powerful steel wire rope tackle 
and independent steam hoist gear which is designed tor 
raising the ladder at a speed of 10 feet per minute. 
Steam manoeuvring winches are fitted at bow and stem 
each driven by independent two-cylinder engines, and each 



October, 1911. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



103 



and Wigham Richardson, Ltd., of Wallsend-on-Tym . 
Mr,,;-. 1 Idei Dempstei •■ Co., Ltd. A series of runs 
were made on tin- measured mile near the mouth of the 
Tyne, and an average speed of 12J I 
The mail and boilers have 1 by the 
Wallsend Slipway and Engineering Company, the threi 
large boilers being equipped with forced draught. ["hi 
leading dimensions of the Bet ■ ! all, 
436 it , beam, 53 ft.; and moulded depth, (-• ti. Hei dead- 
weight carrying capacity is about ■,. tons. Although 

mmodation i"i 

first 1 1 engei s ai The 1 1 latii m 

for the .lew has 1 uilly planned, and is more 

ious and comfortable than Usual. In the hold 

spao 10,000 feel has been insulated and refri- 

gerated. The 'tween decks have sidelights, and are 
planned so as to be fitted for troops I need, or, 

alternatively, to carry cattle. Electrii light is fitted 
throughout the ship, and also fire-extinguishing 

an ample service of fresh water. An unusually fine 



himself highly satisfied with both vessel and her 
machinery. Aftei the trial the vessel pn the 

Tyne to load bunk. • I. .hum he,, Septemb 

Atna. On August 24th, this steamer, built b\ Mi 
U'm. Doxl . Ltd., of Sunderland, foi Willi. Wil 

Esq., "i Tonsberg, went on hei trial trip, when 
a speed of i.'J knot, was regi ired mile. 

eded fc 1 take 
load for Australia, 1" ol the new Norwegian 

Australian Lini 1 

Clenbridge. 1 in Augu 1 joth, 
. ei ded on hei offii ial I lai tlepool Hay. 

Ugh iui the trial thi all auxil i; 

w.nked very smoothly, and It of a long trial, 

extending over six hours, a speed ol 11 knot, was ob- 
tained, the owners expn 
1 unci 1 1 1 be 1 . 

Trevalgan On August 30th, the new s. rcw steamer 
Trevalgan, bui I hn Ri dhead ons, Ltd., 

\\ ,,1 Docks, South Shields, t" the ordei -1 Mi 




The Remains of the Liberie in Toulon Harbour see page 66). 



iipiipment has been provided for handling cargo, with an 
extra large number of winches and powerful derricks to 
lift weight, up to 30 t 

Clan Mackenzie —The large shelter deck steamer Clan 
Mackenzie, built and engined by Messrs. Win. Doxford 
and Sons, Ltd., Sunderland, to the order of the Clan Lini 

Ltd. (Messrs. Cayzer, Irvine & Co., Ltd.), 1 
gow, ran a successful sea trial recently, when a speed of 
14 knots was obtained. See Laun lie-, July. 

Brisbane. — tin August 19th, the Brisbane. the lat< 1 
addition t., the fleet ol thi Deutsch-Australische D.G 
Hamburg, sailed from the Tyne. This vessel has been 
built at the Neptune Works of Messrs. Swan, Hunter and 
Wigham Richardson, Ltd., and is intended for si 
between European and Australian ports. she 1, 114 ft. 
in length by "i ft. beam, and has been constructed 
attain the highest .la-- m Lloyd's register. She will 
carry 9,300 ton ight, and her auxil, 

and appliances, both for manoeuvring the steam. 1 hi 
and for working her . argo, are of the most improved de- 

tion. Her ma>ts are arranged for wireless tele- 
i 1 propellii 

rful tripli ipplied with ti 

from I gle-ended boilers, fitted vith Howden' 

been made at the Nep- 
Works. 'hi the trial trip everything WOl 

Eactorily, the speed attained being about 13^ knots. 
Sangstad t 23rd, the first 

ier Sangstad, built by Messrs. Robert Thompson and 

. Ltd., at their South wii k Vaid, to the order ol Mi 
A. F. Klaveni ' f 1 er, Norwaj . was taken out 

■a for her official trial. The trial trip was 
successful, the engines running with the utmost smi 
11.--, and a mean speed of 11 knots was easily attained, 
and Captain Raastad on behalf of the owners expi. 




The damage done to the Kifubhaue by the blowing up 
of the Libtrti (see page 66) 



104 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. October, 1911. 



Edward Ham 8 Son, St. [ves, Cornwall, was taken to 
sea on hei official trial trip- Attn the trial, which was 
in ever] wa} | to all concerned, the vessel re- 

turned to the lytic to load foi Port Said undei the com 
mand ol Capti in 1 ren. See Launches, September. 

Normanby. On August 31st, the handsome steel screw 
steamer, 1 built by Messrs. Wm Graj & Co., 

Ltd., to the ordei ol The London ,V Northern Steamship 

Ltd. (Messrs. Pyman Bros., Lorid managers), 

had her trial trip. The umi.i1 manoeuvring for adjust- 
ment uf compas es, eti . having been accomplished, a run 
tst was made to Whitby, during which the 
ana ol both ship and machinery was highly sat- 
ines tunning smoothly and well, and the 
mean speed of ship being 12^ knots. 

Siamese Prince. — tin September 2nd, the 
Prince, built by the Sunderland Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 
to the order of Mr. James Knott for the Prince Line, Ltd., 
was taken to sea on her official trial. The trial was in 
every way most satisfactory, everything worked well, and 
a mean speed of \\\ knots was easily maintained. There 
was a large and representative company on board, and 
those present on behalf of the owners expressed themselves 
as very highly pleased with the vessel and machinery. 
On completion of the trial the steamer proceeded direct 
to Xew York, to take hei plai e in the owners' trade, for 
which she has been specially designed. See Launches, 
August. 

The Marine Engineer and Naval 
Architect Patent Record. 

Compiled by Messrs. E. P. Alexander &■ Son, Chartered Patent 
Agents, 306, High Holbom, London, W.C. 



11,314. Cabin and Deck Lights. A 

mosquito screen is adapted to be placed 
within the frame of a side or port light, 
and to be secured therein in such a way 
as to enable the glass holder to be closed 
or opened when the screen is in position. 
The mosquito screen A is provided on 
one side with ringer pieces E to facilitate 
its manipulation, and on the other side 
with hoops or tongues l r , which are 
passed through gaps C 3 in a ledge C 2 on 
the frame C, the screen being then rotated 
to cause the hooks F to engage the ledge C 2 . 
Alternatively. the hooks F may engage 
projections on the frame C. 

11,561. Determining Stability. Apparatus for deter- 
mining the trim and metacentric height comprises a table A 
bearing a longitudinal profile diagram of a ship and support- 
able alternatively upon longitudinal and transverse horizontal 
pivots B, C. A platform F. of determined weight slides in 
nc 1 Jt 




11,821. Driving Gear for Boat Propellers. A reversing- 
gear for screw propellers is modified to give .1 change-speed 
drive ahead or astern. An intermediate simit *, arranged 
between the motoi shaft a and the propeller shaft c, carries 
at its ends 1 hit eh discs p, s, whit b can co opi rate with clutch 
discs h. v on the motoi shaft and propeller shall, respectively. 
Bj operating a lever II 2 , the hall I can be directly clutched 
up to the shaft a, Ol a reverse motion can be obtained through 



longitudinal guides, and carries a laterally-guided weight H 
having a graduated arm J working across calculated " G.M." 
lines F. A weight O proportional to the light weight of the 
ship is then placed on the table so that the whole balances 
on either pair of pivots. Loose weights P indicating cargo 
and the like are then placed in assumed positions. The 
scale J is adjusted until the table balances about its longi- 
tudinal pivots, and the metacentric height is read on the scale 
J at the point cut by that one of the " G.M." lines for the 
dead weight that the weights P represent. The fore-and-aft 
trim is obtained by moving the platform E until the table 
balances about the transverse pivots C. 




a loose clutch disc q, which co-operates with the conical 
surface 11 and the gear-wheels d. f, k. The spindles iv on 
which the intermediate gear-wheels / are mounted also carry 
wheels f 1 gearing with a wheel k l loose on the shaft z but 
integral with a clutch disc s 1 , so that by operating a clutch 
disc v 1 through a lever H 1 the propeller shaft can be con- 
nected through the reducing-gear directly with the shaft ; or 
with the loose clutch disc q and thus give a drive at reduced 
speed ahead or astern. 

A BRAVE ENGINEER. 



THE Cunard line steamship Carmania had to put 
into Halifax on her outward voyage from Liver- 
pool towards New York at the beginning of 
September. The cause of this visit — a most unusual 
thing nowadays for high-class passenger steamers — 
was said to be the inefficiency or shortness of supply 
of the coal which she had taken on board at Liverpool 
during the shipping strike. But there was also 
machinery trouble, and it became necessary to shut 
off one of the turbines. Time was of course of the 
greatest importance — for time had been lost in huge 
quantities over the strike — and it was of the highest 
importance to avoid delay while the machinery cooled 
off to get at the valves. The temperature of the 
space into which entrance had to be effected to deal 
with the stop-valve is said to have been 200 degrees 
Fahrenheit. The chief engineer called for volunteers 
to close the valve and Mr. A. C M'Cutchon, the 
third engineer, stepped forward and was accepted. He 
endured this temperature for something like ten 
minutes, whilst he effected his purpose, and thereby 
saved the steamer about twenty-four hours' delay. 
It is said that he failed five times to effect the opera- 
tion, but exhausted and almost unconscious he did the 
work on the sixth attempt. 

Exhibition of Non-Ferrous Metals. — An international 
exhibition of metals other than iron and steel is in course 
of arrangement by Mr. Fred. W. Bridges (organizing manager), 
under the presidency of Sir Gerard A. Muntz (president, 
Institute of Metals). 'The Royal Agricultural Hall, Islington, 
has been booked for the occasion, from May 6th to 18th next 
year, and the prospectus is about to be issued to the trades 
concerned and those interested in metal work of all kinds. 
Judging from the experience which the organizing manager 
has gained in previous exhibitions he has been connected 
with, and the results achieved, the success of the exhibition 
now being organized is assured, and we join in best wishes 
for the attainment of such a result. 



November, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



105 



The Marine Engineer 

And Naval Architect. 
LONDON, NOVEMBER, ion. 



T 1 1 E 



UBERTl DISAST1 



Tl I E terrible catastrophe which overtook the I rench 
navy at the end of September, and of which we 
gave some illustrations in our last issue, has 
aroused the most sincere and heartfelt sympathy, not 
only of the British Naval Service, but ol the whole 
British nation. This calamity has not only cost" 
France a magnificent and useful vessel, but the toll in 
human life is a heavy one, and has occurred at a time 
when it seemed that after considerable sacrifice the 
French navy had been brought up to the standard 
and position among naval powers which its ancient 
traditions show it lias occupied in the past. Nothing 
could cited the admiration of the civilized world 

more than the splendid and courageous behaviour of 
those brave men who, taken by surprise in a totally 
unexpected situation, faithfully obeyed the comma 
of their officers and went to their doom in silence and 
with the greatest heroism. An official enquiry is 
being held on the matter, and we are not desirous in 
any way of attempting to prejudge the matter, but it 
may be interesting to review some, of the opinions 
which have been expressed as to the cause of the 
disastei. It is clear that both a fire and a series of 
explosions took place, and it will be interesting to 
ascertain as to whether the fire preceded the first ex- 
plosion or vice verm. It the former, then it might be 
said that tin ammunition was not primarily respon- 
sible for the results, but if the latter, then a reverse 
conclusion must be come to. It is somewhat signifi- 
cant that Admiral Bellin, who is in charge of the 
Second Battleship Squadron has, if our information 
is correct, ordered all the B powder and all shells 
a given age to be removed from the ships. It has 
been reported that the Admiral has no doubts in his 
own mind that the cause of the accident was the 
itaneous combustion of the propellant powder in 
the same way as occurred in the previous case of the 
]ena. It must be understood that there are two distinct 
types "I powder in use. one designed foi propelling the 
projectile fmm the gun. and therefore of a slow burn- 
ing . Iiai.u ter and burning from the surface only in 
order to reduce the initial pressures, while the 
i- designed for use in shells so as to set up the big 
initial pressure to produce the greatest disruptive 
effect. Experience has shown that the lattei 
which is termed a hi is very stable in 

composition and little 01 n< 1 feat is felt as to spontam 

.ion taking place with such powder, 
former, howevei much more con 



nature and much more r<ad\ to be influenced in com 
position under variations ol atmospheric conditions 
and temperature, has for year- past aroused feelings 
of anxiety as to unreliabity, with the result that when 
us.-d. not only is the greatesl d in the 

manufacture, but must rigid inspei tion and testing is 
.1 out periodically, and the storage is effected al 
temperatu idered safe. By reason of tl 

precautions the British navj has been free from those 
unfortunate accidents which have overtaken other 
countries. 

I he slow burnin may be divided into two 

distinct 1 lasses, tho uprising nitro-glycerine and 

those comprising nitro i ellulose as an essential factor. 
( )ur powders are of the lust type, and we a 1 .ted 

with Germany, Japan, Italy, Argentine Republic and 
Brazil in the us.- of this type, while the second ty| 
used by France, Russia and the United Stat. 
America. The countries which have specially experi- 
enced considerable trouble and had serious accidents in 
this matter an- 1 ranee and the I nited States, while the 
immunity enjoyed by Russia may be due to the fact 
that the temperature which her ships are usually 
in is below that encountered by the ships of the other 
two countries. A further point to be borne in mind is 
that the service under steam of the Russian ship 
very limited, consequently the accumulation of heat 
by its long continuance is hardly likely to occur com 
pared with thi when ships are under steam foi 

long periods, or are cruising or lying in a zone of high 
temperature. It will be remembered that great naval 
disasteis of tins nature in the past include the British 
sloop Dottrel, in [881, and the cause was attributed to 
patent drier- us.-d in painting the ship: the United 
States i/:'.".,ai If. in.. i'i (898; the Japanese Mikasa, 
at Sasebo, in 1005; the Brazilian Aquitaban, in 1906; 
the I nn. ii Jena, in [907, and the Japanese Matsushuna, 
in 1908. Views expressed at the time of these 1 
have been changed from time to time as experience 
and knowledge have been gained, but the real cause, 
based on absolutely reliable conclusions, still remains 
a mystery in nearly every case. There is no . 
that our immunity is in a large measure due to the 
care and constant supervision where the .use of un- 
stable substances is being dealt with, but it is in 
of course to have any idea how near we may ourselves 
have been to a disaster which the French n 
has sustained more than once. We understand the 
Irencli Minister of Mai in.- has already taken steps to 
arrange foi the laying down of another ship to fill the 
gap caused by the destrui tion of the Liberie, so that 
no time is being lost in making good what must be 
acknowledged to be a serious and sudden depletion 
of naval strength. Just as wi : to Press we 

learn that the result of the enquiry is that there is no 
question of treachery or sabotage in the matter, but 
that the accident was due to the explosive known as 
powd.-i B. 



lot> 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, io.ii. 



[NCRK \S1- I' Kl- SI'ONSI i-.ii 1 l'll-'S 



Till valui J money having depreciated to an 
appreciable extent during recent years, and 
especially in the course of the present year, the 
question of increased remuneration to those with fixed 
scales of pay, became an obvious one for considera- 
tion and adjustment by all employers who were not 
regardless of the rules of equity. The horizon usually 
betokens the coming of a storm, and certainly signs j 
were not wanting to show to the thoughtful man ol 
business, months before it came, the storm which 
was brewing in the ranks of industry. Several points 
in the concessions and in the settlements were not 
dealt with in a manner conducive to the best interests 
of the nation, or indeed for that matter to the 
best interests of either employers or employees, 
due doubtless to the hurry and rush of things, aggra- 
vated by the want of accurate knowledge of the de- 
tails in connection with the different classes of work. 
The increases given to the rank and file of seafarers 
and others have tended, not only to add to the cost of 
living all round, but have placed at a disadvantage I 
those whose rates of pay were not dealt with in an 
increased ratio ; they have thus been made to realize 
that they have become less able than formerly to meet 
the claims upon them financially. When we consider 
the duties of the sea-going engineer, his responsibili- 
ties and the demands continually made upon him to 
learn new accomplishments and keep himself abreast 
of the times, we cannot but say that his remuneration 
should be kept well in advance of those he is called 
upon to direct and govern in the engine-room and 
stokehold. He has a fairly long training as an appren- 
tice, he requires to devote much time to study, and 
has to provide himself with tools and books in order 
to be prepared for the exigencies of his service as a 
marine engineer. Our pages have contained records 
of how emergencies have been met and difficulties 
overcome by marine engineers, sparing not themselves 
so they might accomplish work to save the property 
entrusted to their care, or avoid a detention for the 
sake of furthering the interests of those they served. 
The responsibilities of the marine engineer have greatly 
increased and are yearly increasing owing to the pro- 
gressive demands upon his resources, and upon his 
time at sea and in port. To minimise the consump- 
tion of fuel and consumable stores, oils, etc., and safe- 
guard the interests of the shipowner by personal at- 
tention to details are routine duties, and beyond these 
he is called upon, according to the special nature of 
the voyage or trade, to acquaint himself with 
and oversee systems of refrigeration with all the 
demands as to preparing the hold chambers for 
the meat, seeing that it is fit to be received 
on board, and thus not only to become responsible for 
the shipment of the cargo, but to exercise a watchful 
care over it during the voyage, and deliver it sound 



and good, fit for the market. Tins is but one of the 
many additions which have been made to the 
machinery department of a steamship within the last 
thirty years or so. Most of the steamship companies 
have spontaneously increased the pay of their officers, 
both deck and engine, and there is no doubt they will 
reap good return for their action. It is wise to 
recognise the work of those who work with a willing 
and anxious desire to place duty on a high standard 
and give due recompense. Those who have been 
tardy in their recognition of the value of the services 
rendered by their officers— deck and engine -are being 
approached by means of letters and deputations in 
order to have brought before them the desirability of 
increasing the remuneration of both arms of the 
mercantile marine service. This applies as well to 
some of the Government and Harbour Board service 
vessels and to chief engineers and juniors alike. 



LIABILITY FOR SEAMEN'S WAGES 

A LEGAL point of considerable interest to the 
shipping community has been raised in con- 
nection with the accident to the Olympic. It 
would seem that after the collision, on the return of 
the ship to Southampton in a condition so serious as 
to preclude the voyage being continued, it was 
decided to patch her up and send her to Belfast 
for repairs, to dismiss a certain number of the 
crew, and as a result notices were given and three 
days' pay was offered in each case. This was refused 
and a month's pay was asked for, evidently under the 
provisions of section 162 of the Merchant Shipping 
Act, which sets out that in the event of a seaman 
being discharged before a month's wages are earned 
without any fault on his part and without his consent, 
then he shall be entitled to receive in addition to the 
wages he has earned due compensation not exceeding 
the amount of one month's wages. In order to test 
the point a seaman and a fireman took action before 
the Southampton Borough Justices to make the 
owners of the Olympic liable under the section for 
compensation. The owners in their defence to this 
action relied on section 158 of the Act, which pro- 
vides that where the services of a seaman terminate 
before the date contemplated by reason of the wreck 
or loss of the ship he shall be entitled to receive wages 
up to the time of such termination, but not for any 
longer period. The bench were equally divided and 
the chairman in announcing the fact stated that the 
bench were unable to decide as to whether the Olympic 
was a wreck or not. The matter will now have to go 
to a Superior Court and the short point to be decided 
will be whether the Olympic, damaged as she was and 
not able to go on her voyage or to be beneficially 
employed in an ordinal) sense, was in point of law a 
wreck or not. It will be a matter of interest as to 
what course the Divisional Court will adopt if the 



November, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



107 



case is appealed, as it must necessaril) be dealt with 
on the question of law it a wreck real lj is in 

a case such as the one in question, and the Court will 
have to decide the case in ai e with the evidence 

after having directi a the law involved. Ifthe 

justices had decided either one way or the other on 
the question of wreck, as a matter of fact, on tin- 
evidence given, the Divisional Court would have only 
dealt with the law on the subject and have sen; 
case back to the justices with direction 01 have 
tinned the le^al grounds on which then decision was 
based. Whatever the decision of the Superior Court 
may be it will serve a useful purpose in making clear 
the principle upon which such claims can be ba 
not only for th t of the seaman, but also for the 

shipowner, who naturally wants some legal guide to 
enable him to form a reliable estimate of his final 
liability in the matter of wages in circumstances 
analogous to those of the Olympic-. An interesting 
point would be that if the Olympic was not a wreck 
under the circumstances because it did not touch the 

ml. would it have been a wreck if the dan 
had been such as to cause her stern to drop down 
sufficiently as to rest on the bottom of the Solent ? 
It is quite conceivable that a very small variation in 
the circumstances might have brought about this 
result with practically no alteration in the actual 
damage done to the hull. We await the decision of 
the Superior Court with interest. 



DIRECTOR OF NAVAL CONSTRUCTION 

AS fi ted in our columns some time back, Sir 

Philip Watts, K.C.B., L.L.B., D.Sc, F.R.C., 

will shortly relinquish his appointment as 
I )ii ector of Naval Construction. He will be succeeded 
by Sir William E. Smith, at present Superintend 
of Construction, Accounts and Contract Work. Sir 
William Smith joined the Construction Department 
of the Admiralty in i 373, and has been concerned in 
the designing and building of several of our famous 
war vessels. He also designed the Discovery, the 
vessel used in Captain Scott's tiist Antarctic 
expedition. 

THE FLEETS OF THE MAIL LINES. 



(From our Own 1 ndent.) 



The "Olympic" Collision. 

THE I 'resident I Imiralt j I livisii m 1 ii thi 

:t having already appointed .1 day foi the 
(.1 tin .11 Ik. 11 arising out oi ' m in the Si 

between II. M.S. // i the Whi1 teamship 

'if. it would not be proper to comment on the actual 
.•ling that casualty. But it 
permitted to remark that some of the 

sudden abandonmi 
for some of her wealthy pass* how theii 

it and tin 'ir pov I and 

well built is the liner that it is I all that ■■■ 

their 'it jar — c\. 

vicinity oi the contact— and many ol the i were 

unaware that their vessel was mmed by a warship. 



The Austrian Lloyd, 

I tilth ami 

: I 

and \ 
ing tl 

The United States Wireless Telegraph Act, 
whit hi . ady 

tied up an ut in the 

Court:, on I law 

all pa 

with 11 on ■ I tw hundred 

upwards, must be provided with approved install 

wireli iiy and rau 

to use them. the 

ton linei 
her in 
port. 
ship. Sn apparent! 

■i il.ltl. HI. I 1 

however, tl that 

; ! signed on as pursi 
1 1 and st' in fact, I sup- 

ticii .,1 tin Vmerican Courts will be I 
putting a man on thi ike him a 

meml . and that it may 

signin 1 colourabli loaking up tin- 

taking oi ion of the Court will he 

awaited v lerable interest by a good many p& 

besid [ones, oi the Temp a tual 

defendant, and who is liable under the V I 
than five thousand dollars for the breach, if proved. If 
" signing on " be not sul 
class 
class. 

1 1 11 11 1 1 [ bi lie-s .-. in ships carrying \r, 
cattlemen 1 I his is di n 

i is said ti the 

...■ping ii, hip. 

But it would be .1 sei ious thing 
haply hold that thi > tlemen is 

the fitting up ol wireli js installations. 

The difficulty of deciding 
on thi boast that hi uted 

any gnat facility in common use is well known, rhen 
recently been litigation to settle on thi 

invention of SO ' ' l.gtaphv 

ot which 1 have just spoken. Thei 

the Swedish engim er ivery 

ol the screw propellor, and so «.n. Just recently 111 the 
columns ot the Journal 

Now ii 1- onl) withii 'I oil 

lias been il pn idui I and >i oil 

in bull much shoi I 

Armstrong, of Elswick, who are certainly the 1 

Known builders oi tank-, claim that the I 

munde, was the pii el, whilst M Henri Rieth, ol 

erp, puts forward a prior 

rs. I M. I . nnard I 1 I ..ugh. 

The 

ileum in tank- 1 ksauf put But 

when 

a tat I'P. winch 

built 
purpi 
hrou. by fitting 

1 her holds and 
valves, pipes and pumps. [Tie difl 

lid to 1" a tinker. 
tankei mi 

1 

1 that tin. 
the serious qui stions m oked with 

on th nd put such impediments in I 1 the 



ioS 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



is venture was an excellent 
way of meeting cutties' which presented themselves, 

trong's vessel, which undoubtedly 
i an ied the de\ 1 lopment a step further and made the Glui ksauj 
typi oi su( h vessels. Bui it must 
onceded that sim e the 1 i 1 imi ou1 mi i < ssi\ e 

:, ut the class have embodied further and further im- 
provements. On thai account we cannot disregard tin- claim 
,,t the vessi I oi [886 to bi a tankei We regard her as a 
valued and important link in the chain oi development. 
\n.l it we do tins we must also admit that the idea embodied 
hi in, 1 sow was also an important > ontribution 

to the same development and a step towards that perfection 
which seems so nearly attained to-daj 

The Happenings of the Itala-Turkish War 
have so far not been oi great importance to the mercantile 
V steamship named the Vetei London, which, though 
under the British Bag, is manned l>\ a Greek crew with a 
master named Papadaimis, was seized by the Italians and 
subsequently released, whilst a launch sent out from this 
countrj i" the Red Sea has been sunk by the vessels of the 
same power. Hut there seems every probability that this 
vessel can be raised. [ndeed the remarkable thing about 
this war from the naval point of view seems to be that very 
little damage has been done and throughout the names of 
the vessels concerned have not been allowed to transpire, so 
that .^ yet the record is practically a blank. 
Wireless Telegraphy. 
The difference of ideas and policy in West and East is 
strongly emphasized by the treatment of Mr. Marconi's in- 
vention in the United States on the one hand and in Russia 
on the other. We have seen Mr. Jones, master of the Tcmplc- 
more, being prosecuted with the utmost rigour of the Ameri- 
can law for not carrying an installation, whilst almost at the 
same time attention is called to the fact that the Russian 
Government disapproves of " wireless " being fitted to 
merchant vessels, and notifies that it will only allow instal- 
lations to be made under most exceptional circum- 
stances. These two extreme cases seem very good argu- 
ments for the principle that it is very much better for the 
State to interfere as little as possible with commercial enter- 
prises. Our own Postmaster-General's Report, recently 
published, shows that if left to themselves shipowners will 
adopt and develop useful facilities, for the number of 
radio-telegrams handled by the Post Office between ship and 
shore showed an increase of no less than 28-4 per cent, over 
those of the previous year. 

The figures themselves are interesting as showing how 
much more passengers on board ship want to communicate 
with the shore than people on shore want to speak to the ship. 

1909-10 1910-11 

From shore 3,266 . . 5.640 

From ship 27,727 ■■ 34. 161 

This increase is explained by the fact that whereas the number 
of British ships fitted with installations was but 130 a year 
ago it is now no less than 290. The fact is that till the last 
few months only ships on the narrow seas and on the North 
Atlantic were fitted. Now the mail steamers to Australia 
and the East, as well as to South America and the Cape, are 
taking advantage of the facility, and soon — without legislative 
interference, no passenger steamer under the British flag 
will be without it. Meanwhile, as the official report says, 
" many cargo vessels " are also adopting it. To cope with 
the increasing work and to further facilitate communication, 
new stations are to be erected by the Department at New- 
castle-on-Tyne — to serve vessels plying in the North Sea — 
and at Valentia to pick up messages from the Atlantic. 
Further, the existing station at the Lizard is to be replaced 
by a new installation to be situated at the Land's End. 
What will perhaps make the figures in next year's report even 
more favourable than those in the present is the announce- 
ment that, with a view to encourage the use of the system, 
substantial reductions in charges are to be made in respect of 
messages from vessels engaged 111 the coasting trade and in 
the cross Channel services — the fee in the latter case being 
cut down to as little as twopence a word. 

Safety at Sea. 

From time to time figures are published showing how, on 
the whole, and in spite of occasional disasters, safety at sea 



is steadily increasing. I was looking over some of my old 
noles a lew days ago, and I remarked what a fateful yeai 
[878 was toi He' seaman. I'o name but a lew ol the disasters 
and 1 could give main more there was the capsizing of 
II Ms / ,■,,. | , earlj in the year, and then, in the holiday 
season when the weather is presumably good, such terrible 
disasters as the ramming ol il" (,'»,m t 'i h'minsi off Samlgate 
and the sinking ol the Princess Alin- in the Thames. The 
;cience oi subdivision has progressed a good deal in the 
generation that has intervened, or. the Hawke being a hum h 
moii' formidable fighting unit than the old lion in Willithn, the 
Olympit might have fared a good deal worse than she did. 
Bui the lossss oi the Grossa Kurfust and the I'tincess Alice 
are not forgotten. My notes told me ol a forgotten tragedy 
oi evi 11 a more terrible kind. The year 1878 was one when 
there was acute trouble in the Near East and a British built 
steamship of little over a thousand tons moss register took 
on board some three thousand Circassian refugees. She 
encountered a heavy gale and the first trouble was the ship- 
pine, ol a sea which swept some forty of the hapless passengers 
overboard. Four hours later lire broke out in the fore hatch, 
and to crown the trouble the vessel struck on a sandbank. 
The master gave orders to close the hatch to cope with the 
lire, with the result that no less than five hundred more 
refugees lost their lives. My note is taken from the " Times " 
of the year concerned. Much ink was spilled over the hard- 
ships endured by the Europeans who were hurried from 
Tripoli to Malta the other day. but, uncomfortable as they 
undoubtedly were, they came off better than these miserable 
Circassians. 

The Isle of Man Steam Packet Company 
has published statistics regarding the working of its recent 
season of 191 1. It makes or mars its year in a period of 137 
days — before and after that there is only the regular pas- 
senger traffic, as distinguished from that of the excursionists 
and tourists, to deal with. TheCompany served no fewer than 
thirty-seven ports and it has steamed 181.865 miles with its 
thirteen steamers, carrying altogether a total of a million 
passengers, a number which constitutes its record, being the 
biggest year's work of its long history. It is noteworthy that 
one of its vessels, Ben My Chree, has passenger accommoda- 
tion for no fewer than 2714 persons. It would hardly seem 
that the recent labour troubles had effected any very con- 
siderable reduction of this Company's work. 



NAVAL MATTERS -PAST AND 
PROSPECTIVE. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 



Portsmouth Dockyard. 

THE battleship King George V. was launched on October 
9th by Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, with 
whom was Princess Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein. 
On the conclusion of the religious ceremony the vessel was 
named by Her Royal Highness in the customary manner. 
and she then applied the chisel and mallet to sever the rope 
by which the weights were suspended, when the huge ship 
moved steadily into the water. A reception was afterwards 
held by Rear-Admiral and Mrs. Tate, when the Admiral 
presented Her Royal Highness with a water-colour drawing 
of the King George V. as she will be when completed. The 
mallet and chisel, enclosed in a carved oak casket, were 
presented to the Princess by Mr. Apsey, the manager of the 
Constructive Department. The vessel was berthed in Foun- 
tain Lake for the launching ways to be detached, after which 
she was removed to No. 5 Basin in readiness for being placed 
in No. 15 Dock. The battleship Orion has completed her 
gun trials, which, with the other tests imposed on her, are 
officially described as having resulted very satisfactorily. 
The vessel is now being prepared for commissioning. A 
report has been 111 circulation that during the gun-mounting 
trials the firing of the 1 3-5-inch guns weakened the supports 
of the guns of the secondary battery, but the report is under 

st 1 to be without foundation. Our new battleship is not 

to be commenced until early in January, although £182,289 
has been allowed for her up to the end of March. Only half 
that amount was expended on the King George V. in the first 
three months of her construction. The cruiser Hawke does 



November, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



109 



not appear to have been materially d imaged by her collision 
with tin- Olympic. The plate iwn from 

tem of the water-line to a poinl lofl ibaftthi temhead 
on the npper deck is broken and twisted ovei to ■ i " >;ir< 1 
at an angle of 45 degrei \ ni .-■ b m will, then fore, be 
required, rhe cruisei Vrah has completed her refit and 
1 1. ut hei trials. She is now being prepared foi com 
missioning as flagship on the Australian Station, when 
relieves thi ■!. The battleship Illustt also 

completed her refit and has joined the Devonporl Divi 

.,1 the Home Fli et. The destroy* rs Ostrich and Fairy, oi 

flotilla, ha- - off for a refit. On < >< tobei 

the 1'. & ' >. liner Mi dina was 1 ommissioned by Captain 1 
field as flagship ol Rear-Admiral Sir Colin Keppel foi thi 
King's voyage to India. The same day there was an aui tion 
when the destroyer Ardent, now al Chatham, was sold (or 
£1 ,400 and the storeship Industry for £1,100. The tag Manly, 
failing to realize the reserve price, was withdrawn hi 
cruiser Terpsii hore, which is en . ■ . 1 . 1 -. in- at this port, 
is to be relieved by the cruiser Sappho, when she will be 
removed to the Motherbank and placed on the non effei ti 
list. The new lock is approaching completion, anil it is 
expected that the water will be letin before' 
is still, however, a lot of work to b done, bu1 it is antii ipated 
that the work will be finished and the loi k ready for use bj 
the early part ol next summer. The dry dock which is toi un 
parallel with the lock is also making good progress, and it will 

probably be finished in about a year's timi \ fatal accident 
ptember 29th. \ teel 1 ylinder charged with 
compressed air was being ti ted in the torpedo-tube shop 
oi the ni h 1 " turv when it exploded, two men being so badrj 
injured that they died shortly afterwards, while seven other 
men wen- also injured. At the inquest it was stated that 
the cylinder was an old American make, the steel being 
thinner than a British-made cylinder. A verdict ol \ 
dental death " was returned thi jui ting thai Vmeri 

can cylinders be discarded. 

Devonport Dockyard. 
1 in- Admiralty have fixed Saturday, November i.sth, as 
ill, date foi ii" launch of the battleship Centurion, but at 
present it is not known who will perform the naming cere- 
mony rhe vessel was laid down on January ibth. and as 
sh.- will lie kept on the building slip for ten months, whii b 
month beyond the average foi recent ships, she will be in a 
very forward condition when she takes the water. I In 

armoured cruiser / which is being completed at thi 

North Yard, will not be commissioned probably until early 
m the New 5 - ai instead oi bj the end ..1 Novembei as was 
anticipated, It appeared when writing last month as it the 
vessi 1 was quite ready for her preliminary trials, and a captain 
was appointed to her on Septcmbe: loth, but an anexp - ti d 
delay has been caused owing to the port shafting having been 
found to be slightly out of line Pri are being n 

so that our new battleship can be laid down as so,,ii as possible 
after the Centurion is launched. The drawings were received 
some weeks ago and it is understood that the vessel will be 
an improved King George V. Thi allowed in the 

1 I of March is £162,520, of which £17,170 

'i labour. The new slip, whii b is one of thi bi I in tin- 
world, will not, therefore, be allowed to remain vacant for 

five ire. nth, as m the year [OIO-II. Two of the four 

i the ' mi scort for the Ki 

voyage to India, thi D ind Argyll, are having a general 

overhaul prepai their journey to the 

The battleship //;' rnia has completed hei annual 
■ and resumi IS flagship ol the rear-admiral 

..id Division oi the Home Fleet ["hi battleship Ma 
of the Fourth Division ol the Horn. Flei I has also i» en 1 
pleted rhe en is oui oi hand, after having 

undergone a relit costing over £46,1 md I to be 1 

In will justify the large expenditure which has been in 
curred in making 1 I Inothei large refil will be 

that ol the cruiser S title j, of the Fourth Division oi the Homi 
1 ■ which £62 lowed. The vessel is to be paid 

oil on Novembei 15th. 1 cruisei Blake, the depot ship 
for our local flotilla ol de troyers has had her armament 
strengthened by thi inch guns, her arma- 

ment hitherto consisting oi foul 6-inch guns and four 
12 pounders, it is understood thai the depot ships Blenheim 
and Si ' I have their armaments similarl) streng 



thened. rhe battles! 

I, just yet Both I hat '. . . I and her 

which will shortly pay off , are toremainat buo 
in the Hamoaze until the Admiralty thinks it advisable to 
offer them for sale, there being naturally a limited ma 

ing that thi be broken up in a 

in tune, lie- only vessel of the original the 

• 1 ommission at this port will be the 

Empress ol fi Vfi '-I P Pa; di I int constructor 

in charge of the Constrw < ger's drawing ol 

been appointed Adm ol Messrs. 

Scott & 1 G 101 k, to ■ ..- building of the 

battleship \jax Hi place of Mr. J. Smith, wfa 

leaving the Government servici up an appointm 

with Messrs. White & 1 t 1 owes. 

Chatham Dockyard. 
It has been annoum ed that Lai ' I ' ' the 

Lord-Lieutenanl oi Kent, will perform the naming ceremony 
at the launch oi thi cruiser CAa i»i on November oth. It 

lity thai the dab- 1 lashes with that on whii I 
and corporations of Chatham. Rochi tei and Gillingham 
are chi en is civil ill be unable to be 

nl rhi work oi placing the machinery in position is 
earned out buttle irt of the work will noi 

done until aftei thi vessel i launcl d I hi ngines and 
machinery an bi ing supplied by the Thames Ironworks Co. 
Tin- battleship / 11 has arrived foi a refit, after which 

she will rejoin the Second Battle Squadron. The cru 
/ . ,'/< and Juno have also conn- in for their annual refil 
The Natal, of the Second Cruiser Squadron, is being prep 
for escorting duties in connection with the King's visit to 
India. The Shannon, the flagship of the squadron, is to 
arrive for refit on November 4th. The cruiser Blanche, 
which is attached to the Fil ' Di troyer Flotilla, struck a 
rock on Pent land Skerries, between Orkney and Caithi 
on October 3rd, but got oil without assistance. She came 
here a week later for an examination oi her hull and for her 
annual refit. It was found when the vessel was placed in 
dock that her sti m wa 1 ted and broken from the '■■ 
line to the keel. A inw stem will have to be fitted and 
several bent and damaged plat replaced ["hi Mosquito 
and Zulu having completed their refits li it on October iotb 
to rejoin the First Destroyer Flotilla, but the latter \ 

had t turn on account of a d( f< cl developing in one of her 

turbines. ih, < Mohawk of the same flotilla, have 

arrived for refit. Thi di troyei Usk and Kennet left on 
October 16th for thi ' dina and Mediterranean stations 
respectively. They call at Devonport, where they will be 
joined by thi Ribbi On arrival ai Malta the Kennet will 
relieve the Wetland whii h will go to the Far East, when- the 
Usk, Wetland and Ribl 11 to relieve the Hart, Janus and 
Handy respectivelj lie < hina destroyer flotilla will be 
greatly improvi d bj the substitution oi vessels oi the "river " 
:■! tin oldi r di Submarine I) 8 was launched 

on Septembei 23rd, thi naming ceremony being performed 
by the Hon. 1 I ijoi I .- m • orge 

Barker, commanding the I 1 tern Coast Defences. DS is 
thi ' ighth ubmai ii ha been built at this -. 

D7, the first of the new typi ha carried out her 1 
trials oil Sheern satisfactorily. She will be 1 

for service at an early dati 

Sheerness Dockyard. 
Tin Noi. Di h Divi ion is being completer) 

organized, and at the same time greatly improved. With 

ipproaching completion oi the new ocean-going v. 
of tin ; ■ . . are being taken by the Admiralty 

the 27 1 1 in the division b 

the oldest of the relieved boats being 

1.1.1 I - ". 

her place taken by the Cynthia from Devonport, and instrui 

turns have been given for the former vessel to be removed 

to the obsolete list, rhe Snappt 1 will !»■ paid ofl on o< tober jo 

and prepared foi sale, when relieved by the Brown from 

mport. 1 Hasty will also be placed on 

they an- relieved 1. Cygnet and 

ra, which are now in the Fifth Destroyei Flotilla at 

Devonport. Anothi ale is the 

1, whii h is to 1 l.\ the R ■ ru I on 

refit at this yard, torpedo boat No. 36, 



11(1 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November cgn. 



ot thi I i ilia, w hii li w 

through striking .1 submerged rock ofl [nchkeith Island, has 

been paid ofl and placed in 1 ad m lintenam e 

I until her repairs are completed. Her sister boal 
\ • 9 : oi the ami flotilla have 1 ompleti d their 

refits and left for Dundee, where the torpedo boats of the 
tlotilla have been carrying out exercises, the destroyers being 
similai ed ofl the Orkneys, l'he Erne, oi thi SFon 

Destj I tilla, arrived from Harwich on Octobei [6th 

and was dry ducked for the repair ol damage i" hei bow, 
which was benl ovei toward porl and flattened neai the 
water line, rhe Ern was damaged through anothei de 
stroyi to collision with her. rhe vessels in band 

undergoing refits are the sloop H i 1 , the destroyer Waveney 
and torpedo boal \ , ■ ol thi ["hird Destroyer Flotilla 
the destxoyei Recruit and boal Vo lii, oi the Nore 

Destroyer Division ; torpedoboats Vos. [8 and 115, tenders 
to thi torpedo ichool ;hip I ctaeon, and submarines C 2, C5 

and 1 urn j Submarine Flotilla. While the collier 

Fernhill, winch commenced coaling the ships of the Horn 
Fleet in harbour on October [6th, was on passage from 
Cardiff to the Medwaj two explosions occurred in one oi her 
holds, bu1 none oi the crew were injured. The cause of the 
is unknown. 

Pembroke Dockyard. 

The trials of the new cruiser Active were not postponed as 
it was at first anticipated would be the case. The basin trial 
took place on October 6th with satisfactory results, and about 
a week later the vessel left for Devonport, carrying out a 
thirty hours' trial on the way, other official trials taking 
place on succeeding days. After the Active returns the 
work on the hull and fittings, which is in a very forward stati 
will be completed, and the turbines and other machinery 
opened out for examination and reconnected. The twenty- 
four hours' acceptance trial will then take place, and the 
vessel will be commissioned about the end of December or 
early in January. The Amphion continues to make good 
progress. The navigating bridge has been lifted in and the 
rudder shipped, while the conning tower has also been placed 
in position. The conning tower and navigating bridge have 
not been put on board in the case of previous ships, while 
on the building slip, but it has probably been done in the case 
of Amphion so as to find work for the men engaged on her 
construction. The representatives of the Parsons Company, 
the contracting engineers, arrived towards the beginning of 
the month to make preparations for boring out for the pro- 
peller shafting and for putting in the under-water fittings. 
The work of boring should take much less time than in pre- 
vious vessels, as there are to be only two shafts instead of 
four. The reduction is owing to the introduction of a new 
type of turbine, with which the Amphion will be the first 
vessel of the Royal Navy to be fitted. The new turbine 
combines the principles of the American Curtis and the British 
Parsons turbines. There is no further news as to the new- 
cruiser which is to be laid down after the A mphion is launched, 
nor has the date of that ceremony been made known The 
destroyers Quail and Locust are still in hand refitting. We 
have had a visit from Dr. Macnamara. M.P., the Parlia- 
mentary and Financial Secretary of the Admiralty, who 
received deputations in support of the annual petitions for 
the redress of grievances. The deputations represented 
workmen of practically every trade and class employed 111 
the yard. 



REFRIGERATING APPARATUS FOR 
MARINE TRANSPORT. 



(Continuid from pagt 19 1 

Relative Efficiency of Direct Expansion, 
Cooling and Air Cooling. 



Brine 



Coronation Durbar and the British Merchant Ser- 
vice. — The Government of India is officially honouring 
the merchant service by issuing invitations to the principal 
steamship lines trading to India, viz., the Peninsular and 
Oriental Steam Navigation Co., the British India Steam 
Navigation Co. and the Ellerman City Line, inviting them 
to send representative captains of their ships, accompanied 
by their wives, to attend the great Indian Durbar, to be held 
at Delhi. Captain Geo. Whish, M.S.G., commanding the 
Ellerman liner City of London, is one of the fortunate mem- 
bers of the Imperial Merchant Service Guild who will be 
present. Captain Whish served his apprenticeship in the 
City line, and with the exception of a short interval, has been 
in the employ of that Company during his professional career. 
Mrs. Whish will join her husband's ship at Karachi. 



It will be easily understood from what has been stated lie fore 
that the direct expansion system, in which the expansion 
coil are fixed directly in thi 1 hamber, or tank of water to be 

led, in" I I" the most efficient. Next in efficiency come 

brine cooling, and next air cooling. The reason is as follows : 
Vs liming a difference ol temperature ot lu'l'.. between the 
cooling agent and the substance cooled, when direct expansion 
is employed, the refrigerant has only to be allowed to assume 
a temperature 10° below that of the cold chamber, or of the 
produce, and the volume oi the gas to be dealt with, either 
In the compressor or by the absorber and generator in the 
absorption system, increases as its temperature falls. With 
brine cooling, the brine has to be at a temperature 10° below 
that of the produce, and the gas in the expansion coils must 
be io° below that of the brine 01 20° below the temperature 
of the produce. Hence the volume of the gas to be dealt 
with will be larger, and the work done by the compressor or 
its equivalent in the absorption system will be proportionately 
larger. With air cooling the same thing rules. The air 
must be a certain number of degrees below the temperature 
of the produce, the brine must be a certain number of degrees 
below the temperature of the air, and the gas in the expansion 
coils must be a certain number of degrees below the tem- 
perature of the brine. As mentioned above, with care, it is 
possible to work to moderately close figures, closer than a 
difference of io°F., but in making calculations it is wiser to 
allow for this difference. 

Notwithstanding the greater efficiency of the direct expan- 
sion system, the brine cooling and air cooling are being more 
and more adopted, because of the greater convenience and 
the better results produced. 

Quantities Used with Refrigerating Plant. 

The quantities used with refrigerating plant will be a little 
puzzling at first sight. Firms who make refrigerating appara- 
tus list them as J-ton, i-ton, i-ton, 2-ton plants, and so on. 
These figures do not mean the weight of the apparatus but 
their capacity for refrigeration, in terms of the equivalent 
capacity of a ton of ice. The English ton, or long ton, as it is 
sometimes termed, is 2240 lbs., the American ton, or short 
ton, as it is often termed, is 2000. Each lb. of ice in melting 
to the liquid form will absorb 142 B.Th. units, and therefore 
the short ton of ice will absorb 284,000 B.Th. units, and the 
long ton 318,080 B.Th. units. The refrigerating plant that 
is designed to do the work known as a ton of refrigeration, will 
perform the equivalent of the cooling effect of a ton of ice in 
twenty-four hours. That is to say, an American one-ton 
machine should abstract 284,000 B.Th. units from the sur- 
rounding objects in twenty-four hours, or 11,833 i n onc hour 
or 197 in one minute. The British one-ton refrigeration 
machine will abstract 318,080 B.Th. units in twenty-four 
hours, 13,253 in one hour, 220 in one minute. 

There is not space in these articles to give the calculations 
necessary for the size of machine required for any particular 
work, but it may be mentioned that the calculation is not a 
difficult one. Every quarter of beef, for instance, required 
the abstraction of a certain number of B.Th. units to reduce 
it to freezing point, and a further number to freeze it. It of 
course requires the abstraction of a smaller number to reduce 
it to the chilling temperature. The same thing holds for 
other produce. 

\lso with a chamber of a given size, and with a given 
insulation, the rate of leakage through the insulating walls, 
floor and ceiling are known approximately. The number 
of heat units leaking into the chamber per minute or per hour 
can be calculated, and the quantity of cooled air that is neces- 
sary to be passed through the chamber to abstract the leakage 
heat, can also be calculated, and from it the quantity of brine 
and the quantity of the refrigerant that has to be handled. 
The result of the calculation should give the number of heat 
units that have to be handled per minute or per hour, and 
that rules the size of the plant that is required. The work 
to be done in cooling the produce when first shipped, if it 
has not been already cooled on shore, is usually the largest 



November, 1911. Till' MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



in 



part of the work, and nil 

shall be fixed than would be a with 

the l'-.ik.i: 

Ice Maki 
board ship work, ice making will not Ik- much in 
evidence, but it may be useful, and the writer believi s it is 
practised in some ol the great liners to manufacture a certain 
quantity ol ice t"r table use. In the tropics it is very nice 
t.. have a lump of ice in oie Americans also, as 

rs ol The Marine know, always requii 

supply of iced water at their meals. Iced water, that 
say, water at the temperature it would assume it a certain 
quanf I had been melted in it, tan be made by the aid 

g apparatus, without the aid of ice at all. 
There are apparata "ii the market m which ooled 

by tlie aid of a coil of pipe, in which cold brine is circulating, 
the water being enclosed in a tank provided fi 
from win. , red. Cai 

acid could be empli une purpose, and would 
probably be pi was it 

would have no unpleasant effect, while d the brine 

leaked the effect upon the water WOul tinctly un- 

ant. 



either filled with brin I in" circulation C 

circulating through the evaporator tank is explained in con- 
nection with tb 1. or the I 
may be u tract 1 it from the cans by 
convection currents, the - placed in the 
tank itself. It ome means to agitate the 
water in t that is always 
:it in water, a portion ol which might be locked up m the 
udy appearance that is SOmi I 
seen. 

For board ship work, the cans may be placed in any con- 
venient position, wl 

low temperature. All that is required 1- that the heat shall 
<<iii the water, mi such a manner that the id- 
will freeze, not in layer-, but in one- solid black. 

\ciTY for Ice Making and Refrigeration. 

It i- necessary to give a warning as to the capacity of the 
different plants, i -ton, 2-ton, e1 - cold 

rid when used to make ii - \ i-ton plant will not 
make one ton of ice in twenty-four hours For calculation 
it is usual to take a l-toi being able to make half 

a ton of ice in twentv-four hours. The reason of this is as 




On shore, ice is manufactured in three in cans, in 

plates an»: Probably the- only method that would 

be employed on board ship would be the can system. In the 
lystem, as its name imp] 

len at the top, the blocks weighing 
from I cwt. up to 6 cwt. The cans are square in section, 
but slightly pyramidal in form, the lower ends being smaller 
in section than the upper ends. For making ice distilled 
water is employed, unless the ice i> required lor purj 
where its purity is not of importance. On- 

.itages claimed for manufactured ice over natural ice 
is the fact that the purity ol the water, and therefore ol the 
ice, can be ensure 1. With natural ice the water may contain 
germs of disease, which carry the- i imers. 

On shore, the usual method of making ca large tank 

is formed open at the top, th ■ : msu- 

me manner as - 
are placed in the tank, each cm being filled with dis- 
tilled water nearly to the top, and the space around them is 



follows : — The cooling effect of a ton of ice is really a 1 

al quantity. Ice is taken to be actually 
What may be termed stable ice, ice that will not be 
sloppy with a slight change ot te mperature, is alv. 
very much lower temperature than 32°F. In addition to this, 
when ice has to be- made from water at ordinary temperatures, 
it has to be cooled from, say, 7o°F., or usually a higher tem- 
perature when distilled water is employed, down t 
temperature, and after the ice- is formed, its temperatui' 
to be - : S°F. or more, in order to make it stable. 

The latent heat of water as a liquid, the heat which I lb. of 
water at 32° will liberate in forming ice at 32 , is 142 B.Th. 
units. The heat required to be i from 1 lb. of \ 

at, say. 70° to the- 1 Uure of 32 , is 38 B.Th. 

units. 1 b "'ut half that of water, so 

that s B.Th. units per lb be abstracted from tl 

: med from distilled n 
th. number ot required to be abstracted from the- 

lb. of water. 111 reducing it to the freezing temperature, will 



112 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



be higher. In addition to this, there is the loss by brine 
cooling, and sundry other losses, so that the practical rule 
has grown up ot allowing to every refrigerating plant of a 
certain capacity halt that amount as ice making capacity. 

Cooling by Compressed Aik. 

One other matter remains to be mentioned, viz., the method 

of cooling by the aid of compressed air. It was used to a 
considerable extent in the early days ot relngeratton appara- 
tus, particularly on board ship, on account of its great sim- 
plicity, and the fact that no refrigerant, no foreign agent, 
such as ammonia or carbonic acid, was required. In com- 
pressed-air refrigerating apparatus the property is made use 
of with which marine engineers will be familiar, that when 
air is compressed it is heated, and if the heat is abstracted 
from the compressed air and the air is subsequently allowed 
to expand, 111 expanding it will extract the heat necessary 
for its expansion from surrounding bodies, and will in the 
process be cooled to a very considerable extent itself. It 
will be seen that providing the arrangement can be properly 
carried out, a compressed-air system furnishes the cold dry 
air, at first hand, that is furnished by the elaborate systems 
that have bean described above. The reason why the com- 
pressed air system is gradually being disused is because of the 
higher efficiency, the lower running costs, all things being 
taken into consideration, of the systems in which one of the 
refrigerants mentioned is employed. With small apparatus 
the compressed-air system is good on account of its sim- 
plicity and the increased cost does not matter. With large 
apparatus, however, such as are necessary for the large 
cargoes of meat and other produce that are now carried, the 
question of the power employed and the running costs 
generally are of importance. 

The Compressed-Air Apparatus. 

There are several forms of apparatus in which compressed 
air is used for refrigerating purposes, but they all run on the 
same main lines. In all of them there is a compressor, similar 
to the compressor of an ammonia or carbonic acid apparatus, 
but using only air. The compressor is of comparatively small 
size, and is double acting. Air is drawn in at each stroke 
through the suction port, and during each stroke is being 
compressed to a certain pressure and driven out through the 
delivery port when the pressure reaches a certain figure. 
After compression the air is cooled and dried. There are 
various apparatus for cooling and drying the air, but again 
all are on the same main lines. In all of them water is em- 
ployed, which is sometimes broken up into very small quanti- 
ties, as by trickling over the surfaces of different objects 
designed for the purpose, and in those apparatus the air is 
made to pass over the wetted surfaces of the objects. In 
others, the air is cooled by circulating water. Air, it will be 
remembered, has a certain capacity for absorbing moisture, 
which increases with its temperature. The hot air therefore 
coming from the compressor will first absorb a certain quantity 
of the moisture on the wetted objects it meets, and in so doing 
it will be itself cooled. In order that the water present shall 
evaporate, it must absorb a certain amount of heat, and 
this is largely taken from the air which absorbs it. As the 
air passes on it is cooled more and more, and being cooled, 
loses its capacity for holding moisture, the moisture which it 
brought over from the compressor and that which it has taken 
up from the cooling apparatus, being deposited upon other 
parts of the cooling objects, the air then passing on in a 
comparatively dry state. If the apparatus is well designed, 
the air should be quite dry when it issues from the cooling 
apparatus. After passing through the cooler, the air enters 
a second cylinder, in which there is another piston, the con- 
necting rod of which has its crank upon the same shaft as that 
of the compressor, the two being at right angles to each other. 
In the expansion cylinder the air is allowed to expand, doing 
work upon the piston, which thereby assists the work of 
compression in the compression cylinder. The expansion 
cylinder is very much larger in diameter than the compression 
cylinder. In expanding the air has its temperature very 
much lowered. It is claimed by the makers of some com- 
pressed-air apparatus that the air issues from the expansion 
cylinder at a temperature of minus ioo°F. The air passes 
from the expansion cylinder, through a duct into the chamber 
to be cooled, and the warmed air, which has done its work 
in cooling the air of the chamber, and the produce held in 



the chamber, is sucked back to the compressor through 
another duct, usually in the upper part of the chamber. 
["here is a continual circulation of the air from the chamber 
to the compressor, thence to the cooler, thence to the expan- 
sion cylinder, thence to the chamber, and so on. 

A certain amount of water is lost by evaporation in the wet 
forms of cooler, and is made up from an independent supply. 
It is important also that the expansion cylinder at any rate 
should be very close to the chamber to be cooled, as the loss 
by leakage in the duct, with the air at the very low tempera- 
ture it is made to assume, is considerable. That is to say, 
the leakage of heat through the walls of the duct, into the air 
that is passing to the cold chamber, is very considerable, and 
if the duct is long the efficiency of the machine is very con- 
siderably reduced. Fig. 15 is a diagram of an American 
form of compressed air cooling apparatus. 



NOTES ON AN EXTRACT FROM A 
REFRIGERATOR LOG BOOK.* 

By Mr. Wm. Sinclair, M.I. MAR. E. 







cd 




01 


6 


T3 


2 












(A 


















Crt u 


C J. 




u 


"o 


"o 






V 

Q 


1 
p 


V 

p,rt 


4J 7 

C u 
OB. 


a. 

DC 


Da 
d 
B 


X 
6 


X 
6 


> 


Remarks. 






H 




V 


1) 


Z 


z 






Aug. 


p.m. 


















15 


2 






58 


60 


60 


60 




Started machine 2 




4 






42 


40 


54 


52 




p.m. 




5 






38 


34 


4 2 


40 








7 






33 


27 


34 


32 








10 






26 


25 


— 


— 








12 






26 


22 


— 


— 








am 


















16 


2 


>. 


Ss, 


22 


20 








S=s 






6 
9 


C 
to 




12 
8 


20 
20 


24 


23 


c 

c 







12 


c 




c 




4 


20 


— 


— 


Stopped machine, 




p.m. 


u 













U 


overhauled valves, 




3 








36 


30 


26 


26 





put in calcium 




6 




"I 


22 


17 


22 


23 


H 


chloride in refrige- 




7 






20 


15 


— 


— 




rator to increase 




8 






16 


11 


20 


20 




the density 




10 






14 


7 


16 


18 








n 






13 


6 


13 


14 








a.m. 


















! 7 


1 






— 


— 


10 


II 








4 






10 


4 


9 


IO 




Started loading meat 




8 






10 


4 


8 


8 




8 a.m. 



The above is a portion of the log of a marine 
refrigerating plant, consisting of an ammonia com- 
pound Linde compressor and a brine refrigerator 
working on Nos. 1 and 2 insulated hold space, the 

r , • 6" & IO" 

size 01 compressors being - — 

In order to lead up to the remarks in this short 
paper and to help in understanding the working of 
ammonia with brine refrigerating machinery, a few 
points will be briefly touched on. 

The refrigerating medium, ammonia gas, in a 
saturated condition (that is, saturated in the same 
manner as steam is understood to be) has constant 
properties, so that given the pressure the temperature 
is obtainable along with its latent heat of vaporiza- 
tion, relative volume, etc. When ammonia liquid 
vaporizes, the latent heat necessary for the production 
of the vapour must come from an outside source or 
the liquid will freeze itself and evaporation will cease, 

* Read before the Institute of Marine Engineers. 



November, 1911. THJ MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAl ARCHITECT. 



"3 



so that if the evaporating ammonia is surrounded by 
an uqi ongealable liquid, heat will be abstracted from 
this liquid, .m,l it this evaporated gas is compressed 
and simultaneously cooled the gas will be condensed 
into liquid form and be again ready for evaporating. 
A refrigerating plant on the brine system, then, 
consists simply of an evaporator, a condenser and a 
pump for drawing the evap [as from the 

evaporator and compressing it into the conden 
the uncongealable liquid (brine) surrounding the 
evaporate! pipes is pumped through pipes in the 
1 bambers, picks up heat and returns to the evaporator. 
There are, as will he seen, three principal transfers 
of heat : (1) from the hold to the brine, (2) from the 
brine to the ammonia, and (3) from the ammonia to 
the condensing water, and unless there is between 
steps a difference of temperature level, 
heat will not tlow from the one to the other ; for 
instance, if the hold temperature were 40 and the 
brine in the pipes in the hold also 40', no flow of heat 
could take place from the hold to the brine ; the brine 
would require to be nearer 30 to do useful work. 





Brine 


rlotd 


Ten i 1 ■ 




Temperature. 


40 


60 




28 


40 


53 


25 


34 


4' 


20 


27 


31 


>3 


^5 




«3 


22 




8 


20 


— 


5 


20 


2J5 


- 12 


20 




-19 


20 


— 


-.1 


3° 


26 


8 


>7 


22 5 


6 


'5 


— 


1 


1 1 


20 


— 2 


7 


'7 


1 


6 


13 5 




— 


105 


-8 


4 


95 




4 


8 



This at once opens up a n 
in order to make the mattei 



view of the log, and 
plain the various times 




Keeping these notes in view the log can now be 
examined. It is an ordinary everyday log, and 
usually glance only at the final results, thai 
hold temperatures, for, to speak practically, the other 
columns as they are here written are meaningless. 
Temperature of brine and temperature of Lias in 
refrigerator coils should bear a known relation the one 
to the other, but here are temperature of brine and 
pressure of refrigerator standing side by side, and we 
cannot compare them. Temperature of hold and 
perature of brine, however, can be compared, and. 
looking at these two, it would appeal that the I 
peratures came down smartly, hung for some hours 
at 20 , and, after an upward movement, fell steadily : 
more than that we cannot state with any degree of 
certaintv. 

But suppose we turn up a table of properties of 
saturated ammonia and mark down against 
refrigerator pressure its corresponding temperature, 
we then get with the average hold readings three 
columns of temperature, thus : — 



and temperatures are shown in the form of a diagram. 

On referring to these figures and the diagran 
will be noticed that there is on a; e 7° 

difference between the hold temperature and the 
brine temperature. Between the brine and the 
ammonia r, the difference varies more widely. 

N01 must tlie log be brought under severe censure for 
this. As stated earlier in the paper, pressure and 
temperature are in constant relation and can be 
governed by the person running the refrigerating 
plant. 1 me valve does it all. known as the regulating 
valve. It is the only valve that can be varied m a 
refrigerating plant during the working cycle, and it is 
the key to the whole system. Now if this valve be 
opened so that the evaporating temperature in 
refrigerator coils is 1 2 to 1 than the tempera- 

ture of the brine, then the machine is doing its 

k, and as perature in the brine tank falls, 

so the engineer running the plant must handle the 
dating v; give the necessary result of 

difference in temperature level. 



ii 4 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAI ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



In the running of an ammonia compressor oi tins 
type there is .1 practical rule thai most enginei 
work to, . . that it the delivery pipe to thi condenser 
is (ust warm enough to prevent the hand remaining 
on it, thru (assuming all mechanical details are right) 
tin- plant is working as it should, The explanation 
ol this rule is this : Suppose the regulating valve to be 
1 far enough to pass more liquid ammonia into the 
evaporator than is actually needed to refrigerate the 
brine, then the ammonia gas is drawn into the com- 
sor still possessing some of its property of 
irbing heat, and during the compression process 
the curve will approximate to the isothermal line by 
reason of the heat of com pus-ion being taken up by 
this gas. All saturated gas machines are designed so 
as to take some advantage of this, and it has been 
found that when the gas comes back to the com- 
pressor at such a temperature, on being discharged at 
condenser pressure its heat is as stated above, then 
that plant is being worked as it was designed to be. 
If the delivery pipe is too cold the regulator is to be 
shut in ; on the other hand, if too hot, it is to be 
opened out. 

This plant was being handled along these lines, and 
on referring to the figures it will be noted that at 
6 a.m. on the 16th the brine temperature stood at 20 
and the ammonia at 8°, six hours later the brine still 
stood at 20 , but the ammonia had fallen to — 19° and 
still on the " hand feel " test the plant was working 
well and the regulating valve was being gradually 
closed down. Obviously, then, the ammonia gas was 
being drawn into the compressor without evaporating 
to the degree it should have done, for the brine was 
not availing itself of the ability of the ammonia gas 
to absorb heat during its evaporation ; the brine could 
not, therefore, be coming in contact with the pipes in 
the evaporator where the ammonia was expanding, 
and as the evaporator was full of brine the inference 
was that the brine was freezing on the evaporator 
pipes, and so covering them with ice which would 
act as an insulator. 

The brine was about 1,200 specific gravity and the 
freezing point of this brine is — 12 , which as it was 
not intended to come any lower than about 3 would 
seem to be ample margin, but with slow circulation in 
the refrigerator and having in mind the necessary 
low ammonia temperatures to reach 3 brine tem- 
perature, 1,200 brine was not dense enough. 

A start was accordingly made increasing the brine 
density. This caused the rapid rise in temperatures 
shown, which is most apparent on the ammonia 
figures. Then the increasing efficient working of the 
machine becomes apparent, as it will be noted that 
all three lines commence to fall in proper ratio until 
the working limit of the plant of the insulated 
capacity is reached, shown by the gradual flattening 
out of the curves. 

To explain this latter point about the working limit 
more fully, take the machinery as running at 3 p.m. 
on the 1 6th — 

Ammonia gas suction temperature . . 23 

,, pressure .. .. 361b. 

Brine temperature . . . . . . . . 30 

Sea temperature . . . . . . . . 62' 

Tables of saturated ammonia give us at this gauge 
reading — 



I leal ol v.ipnt i/atinn .. 541 2S U.T.I per lb, 

Volume ol vapour in lbs. 

percub. ft 5488 B.T.U. per lb. 

As the liquid ammonia leaving the condenser will 
be about the temperature of the sea water, viz., 62 , 
and the brine is at 30 , 32 is taken cooling the liquid 
ammonia itself before any outside work is done. 
541-28 
32-00 



509-28 = nett refrigerating value of the liquid, 
I In low-pressure compressor or gathering cylinder 
is 10 in. diameter x to in. stroke single acting at 
120 r.p.m. 

Volume swept by piston per hour in cub. ft.= 
78-54 X IPX 120x60 



and the B.T.U. per hour 



1728 



78-54 x 10 x 120x60 509-28 



1728 5-488 

As refrigerating machinery is rated in tons ice melted 
per 24 hours, and a ton ice mejted -142x2240 = 
318080 B.T.U., the machine would be theoretically 
rated as follows : — 



78-54 x iox 120x60 509-28 24 



:23 tons. 



1728 " 5-488 318080 

But take the final reading at 8 a.m. on 17th : — 
The gauge reading is 10 lbs. suction gauge. 
Brine temperature, 4 . 

The heat of vaporization of the ammonia is 560-39 
and volume 10-860, sea water 62 — 62 — 4 = 58°. 
560-39 
58 



502-39 nett B.T.U. per lb. 
Machine refrigerating capacity — 
78-54 x 10 x 120 x 60 502-39 

■ X — 



24 



— 1 1-6 tons. 

1728 io-86p 318P8P 

At this point the B.T.U. extracted by the machine 
about equals the B.T.U. leaking through hold insula- 
tion, and to further reduce the suction temperature 
would mean that not sufficient weight of ammonia 
gas was being circulated in the evaporator coils ; the 
working limit of the machinery on this capacity is 
therefore reached. 

From the above notes it will be apparent that a log 
for a refrigerator should be carefully taken and as 
carefully analysed, and in many instances the source 
of any inefficiency in a machine can be discovered at 
a glance by setting out in a diagram form the 
different temperatures. 

It must not, however, be expected that the curves 
should show absolutely symmetrical lines, and to find 
this on a plant, unless it was an exceptionally well- 
regulated plant, would give rise to suspicion, for very 
few, if any, of even well-run plants, will make a first- 
class showing on this method. 

Were the machine to be one working on the direct 
expansion method, the intermediate step of heat 
transfer from the room to the brine would be omitted, 
and the heat picked up direct by the expanding 
ammonia, but in this latter case there would require 
to be at least the same difference in temperature in 
one stage as there was in the brine plant in two 
stages. Air is not so good a conductor of heat as 
brine, and unless there is this great difference in 
temperature level the heat will not flow. 



November, iqn. THE MARINE ENGINEER AM) NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



US 



INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS AND SHIPBUILDERS IN SCOTLAND. 

Presidential Address. 



PRESENT-DAY MARINE ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND ITS DEVELOPMENTS. 



,■ i. ...rj ■>,.,».> ^ii^,^^^.A'^-.!z-x: A -/-^iu.^Tj,u.:xii^v-^ 




c».Y:r.c 



rr.-yrrsn-Y-.v: r. r . r. r.vm-rrr 



r.iyr.nrt^iVr'rr.r-iVTTYrrii 



E. Hall-Brown, Esq., President. 



A I the first genera] meeting of the fifty-fifth session of 
the Institution of Engineei Shipbuilders in 

Scotland, which was held in the Rankine Hall of 
Institution on Tuesday, 24th October, there was a 1 
large attendance, and after some routine business the- new 
president, Mr. I Hall Brown whose portrait wi 

4ed to give, delivered his , Idress. Its 

1 t was entire!) concerned with marine engineering from 
the point of view ot presenl daj pracl 



at their proper value the various proposals at present being 
made to alter that practice with the object of attaining 
ificiency and economy. Further than referring 
shorth to one 01 two point- having direct bearing upon 
,- practice, the address did not deal with 
gineering. 
Fro idenf da land, ..1 the inf 

of the triple compound engine til] the introduction of the 
nianii outstanding innovation had 



110 



THE MARIN E ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Novkmber, 1911. 



proposed in marine engineering, the period had not, how 
been on o tii in but rathei oi ci m ;olidat ii m aftei 

an important advance. Improvements in detail had been 
made from time to time and the aggregate result was a 
distinct improvement in economy oi fuel as compared with 
the earliest examples oi the triple compound engines. I in 
introduction oi quadruple compound engines and then 
adopt n ome shipowners dors not radically affect the 

correctness of tins statement ; the development from triple 
to quadruple, accompanied with an increase in the working 
pressure being simply a furthei movement along the lines 
laid down when the first compound engine was designed. 
Once the principle oi multi stage expansion had been adopted, 
and proved to be attended with economy, it was simply a 
question of degree whether the lull expansion oi the steam 
should take place in two, three or more stages. Similarlj 
as soon as it was proved economical to use steam of 80 lbs. 
pressure rather than steam of 30 lbs. pressure it bei ime 
a question of practical workmanship rather than of any 
theoretical consideration what working pressure should be 
used. 

For a considerable time practical considerations relative 
to the construction of boilers of large size limited the working 
pressure which could be used commercially. These diffi- 
culties have now practically vanished, and boilers can be 
constructed suitable for any working pressure it is desired 
to use. The gain to be obtained from increased pressure is, 
however, a diminishing quantity even when measured solely 
by the amount of heat required per unit of work. When 
the increased cost of engines and boilers for higher pressures 
is also taken into account, it becomes apparent that with 
the present type of reciprocating engines no great advance 
in boiler pressure is probable over that at present in everyday 
use. While steam pressures up to 300 lbs. have been used 
it is probable that, viewed from a commercial standpoint, 
equally economical results could be attained with lower 
pressures. 

The introduction of the marine steam turbine, which will 
be associated for all time with the name of the Hon. Sir 
Charles Parsons, did not in its earlier stages seriously affect 
the supremacy of the reciprocating engine. This state of 
affairs has, however, gradually changed during the last ten 
years, and although at the present time it is not clear that the 
balance as regards fuel economy inclines more to one type 
than to the other, there are directions in which the turbine 
is undoubtedly supreme. This is especially the case in 
vessels of the largest size and speed. The recent successful 
application of speed-reducing gear to the steamer Vespasian 
has further widened the field of application of the steam 
turbine, and rendered its adoption for vessels of moderate 
speed possible. 

It would seem as if marine engineers did not yet quite 
realize to what an extent the successful application of the 
steam turbine has revolutionized, and will still further 
revolutionize, marine engineering. The stupendous fact that 
a novel invention, entirely discarding the traditions of 
marine engineering, has proved such an enormous success 
has entirely changed the mental attitude of marine engineers 
and of those responsible for the building of seagoing vessels 
of all kinds, and has engendered a much more sympathetic 
attitude towards proposed developments in various directions. 
It is to this change in the mental outlook that I attribute 
the present enthusiasm for new developments, however bold 
and untried, and while success may not crown every effort, 
I look forward to an enormous advance in marine engineering 
practice as a result of the present activity. 

The attention which the internal combustion engine, 
especially of the Diesel type, is at present receiving from 
marine engineers reminds one of the period from 188 1 to 
1886, or thereby, when the subject of radial valve gears 
was very prominent, and as there are valuable lessons to 
be learned from the experience of that time, I may be par- 
doned for referring to it at some length. It had always bi en 
known that the steam distribution given by ordinary Stephen- 
son link motion was very imperfect, but the directions and 
simplicity of the gear, and the fact that it was thoroughly 
understood and easily adjusted by any ordinary engineer, 
were, and are, strong points in its favour. At the period 
to which I refer it seems to have dawned suddenly upon the 
marine engineering world thata valve-gear giving a more 



equal distribution of steam to the outgoing and incoming 

strok ■ "i the piston would be productive oi economy, and 

.1 11 nil there was an enormous production oi "radial 

valvi geai " designs <>i all sorts ami kinds. To mention a 

lew ol the designs produced I may recall Hie names o) Hack- 
worth. Joy, Kirk, Bryce Douglas, Brock, Bremme, WylHe, 
Mm tun and many others. These geais generally gave a 
1 unci 1 an in an 1 in: 111 distribution ol steam than the Stephenson 
link, and it is probable that their adoption in sonic cases 
was assisted by the fact that generally they permitted of 
the valves being placed at tin- front or back ol the 1 ylinders, 
and si, reduced the overall length ol the engines. Unfor- 
tunately for the various inventions it was not found that 
the better distribution oi steam led to any measurable 
degree of economy, while the gears generally cost more to 
manufacture and were more expensive to keep up than 
the older gear. It was also found that they were thrown 
more out of adjustment by the inevitable wear-and-tcar 
than the ordinary gear, and were more difficult to readjust. 
As a result, radial gears, after the first period of enthusiasm 
fell into gradual disuse, and so far as I am aware, none of 
them are being manufactured to-day for marine purposes. 

After this period of somewhat ineffectual activity it would 
seem that marine engineering developed very slowly along 
the traditional lines of improvement, and owners and engineers 
alike seemed disposed to consider the type of engine definitely 
fixed, and any divergence from the standard type was 
generally subjected to very adverse criticisms, and met 
with a hostile reception. It is, however, being gradually 
recognised that the time has come for a further advance, 
and new proposals are to-day receiving more favourable 
consideration than ever they have hitherto done. Many 
causes have contributed to this result, but as it is said that 
" nothing succeeds like success," I believe the success 
of the steam turbine has contributed more to this change 
in the mental outlook of marine engineers than any other 
single cause. In the long run nothing but good can come 
of the endeavours now being made to improve the economy 
of the marine engine. To attain this result with a minimum 
expenditure, it is necessary that each possible line of advance 
should be carefully studied, and its advantages and disadvan- 
tages accurately estimated. 

As a starting point for such an investigation let us take 
an ordinary triple-compound engine working with saturated 
steam of 180 lbs. boiler pressure, the steam being generated 
in ordinary return-tube boilers of the Scotch type. The 
first point to be noted is that the engine exists for the purpose 
of driving the ship, and its performance is to be measured, 
not by the amount of fuel required for the production of a 
unit of power at the engine, but by the amount of fuel required 
per unit of power expended upon the actual propulsion of 
the ship. This implies that to obtain the highest results 
the conditions must be such as correspond with maximum 
propeller efficiency, and consequently the speed of revolution 
should be fixed by the propeller and not by the engine. 
With a reciprocating engine this is quite a simple matter, 
but with a direct-coupled steam turbine it has always been 
necessary to make a compromise with a corresponding loss 
of efficiency both at the turbine and at the propeller. 

Although a screw propeller is a fairly elastic instrument 
as regards the proportions corresponding to maximum 
efficiency, it should be recognised that any great departure 
from standard practice as regards either diameter or pitch 
is likely to be followed by a substantial loss. In the case 
of an ordinary cargo vessel of full form, for instance, to 
either reduce the diameter of the propeller or to reduce 
the pitch so as to allow of increased speed of revolution, 
will invariably reduce the efficiency of the propeller. The 
importance of this point is now being recognised both for 
cargo vessels and for vessels of finer form and higher speed, 
and speed-reducing gear is being applied both to cargo vessels 
and high-speed torpedo-craft. In a paper which I read 
before the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders in January, 1890, I advocated high-speed 
engines for cargo vessels, the engines being connected to 
the propeller shafting by means of gear-wheels, so as to 
reduce the speed of the engine to that of the propeller. I do 
not know that there were facilities at that time for such a 
gear, but in any case the proposal was never carried into 
effect, and the first application of such a reducing gear of any- 
considerable size is that in the s.s. Vespasian. This subject 



November, iqn. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



117 



of gcarcii reciprocatit will be rv itei on 

itinir my object 1- to point out that it 1-. now fully 
recognised that the proportions and speeds oi revolutt 
propeller- in ordinary practice are such as correspond generally 
to a high effi< iencj and that anj gr< at divergem e from this 
practice will result in diminished el 

It 1-. therefore evident that in considering the vain 
an engine fn screw propulsion, account must be takei 
the -p.-.-. 1 .it which a iiiu-t lie- run ti> obtain maximum 
efficiency, and it that !»■ different from thai com ponding 
tn maximum propeller efficiency, arrangements must be 
made by gearing 01 mission systems to suit 

the differing speeds, or allowance must be made for lo 
efficiency at the propeller before comparing with other p 

ers working .it speeds suitable for the propeller. 1 
speed "i a steam turbine 1-. always too high foi I 
propeller, and it is in this connection tl 1 for 

a speed-reducing gear first became icute. i : 

proposed rhat bine 

cut tooth fitted to thi Vet ,' 1 tan . eli 

transmission 1 driven b; th< ti cm tui 

to an electric motor on the p nd the hy- 

draulic system associated with the n 1 ottingcr. Each 

system has mi 1 iwn, and time alone can show which 

will secure most general adoption. The high efficiency of 
accurately-cut tooth gears, and the success which has attended 
the installation in the Vespasian will have the tendency to 
incline mechanical engineers to favour tli.it system. 

Uthough the steam turbine is thi ne case of 

divei gence from th l si r propeller 1 iught 

to run, it is evident that some ot the proposals now taking 
form for fitting internal to ships will 

Milter from the same cause, and 111 estimating the result to 
be obtained from the use of these internal-combustion engines, 
this is a point which must be allowed for. It may 1"' that 
tin- will be rectified in future either by introducing reducing 
gear or by designing the Hi 

that ma) nt from thi 

I»nl a-going v.---. -1- driven 1>\ means of oil engi 

that the speed attained is const! 5s than would 

result from th. jines developing 

the same amount of power. 

Returning now to the tuple-compound engine working at 
lbs. pressure, which 1 proposed to use as a basis of com- 
parison : A well-constructed engine of this class will have 
a mechanical efficiency of 04 to 95 per cent, when driving 
its own air-circulating and feed pumps. The speed ot 
lution can 1 by the requirements 

ut'l the engine designed ti 1 that 

the maximum propellei attained Such 

ngine will require 1}\ lbs. steam pel III I' pel hour. 
equivalent, with ordinary good coal, burned in the furnaces 
of a Scotch boiler having an effil tency of 70 per 1 
consumption of r; lbs. per f.ll.F. per hour. This ei 
may be considered the development of the consen 
policy oi the last twenty years, and cannot 1" iaid to 'I'll' I 
in any material point from the first tri und engine 

produced. Built, .1- it usually is, with three cylii 
threi iced .it angle- . 

ngine gives .1 fairly uniform turning moment which is 
greatlv in favour of prop and the load- 

the various parts are moderate h -iking 

nre. It is. therefore, a fairly cheap engine to build 
and to keep in repair. An additional advantage, and one 
of great import nt of such an 

engine presents no difficulties to the average -agoing 
engineer. With coal at 12s. pel ton, winch is the price of 
good steam coal trimmed on board in G Harbour, 

a triple-compound engine will give 10 horse-power for one 
pennyworth of fuel. 

While the design ot the triple-compound engine is to-day 
practically what it was twenty years ago. it must 1 1 
Supposed that no attempts have be. n mad' to attain gl 
economy in the use of fuel. Although the us.- of 

-till almost universal in British-owned vessels, 
there is every indication that a ' 1 land, the ad van t 

tly Lad to it- adoption. While 
th.- economy to be obtained by the use ol sup 

has en ■■'' ' thi pi cti al difficulties which 

med mam 9 ti nded to 

make marine engineers exceedingly cautious with 



• •' difficulti now 

ly ..v. none and steam oi fairly high supei 

1 and used a- safely as saturated steam, 
and that without any great alteration in the design of 

mount "t saving which may 1 by 

the U very considerable, and may 

amoun .t the coal consumption with 

a superheat oi to d g Fah. In Si htm 

; as u-u ll boilers, thi 

■- liich are of small dia placed withm 

the ordinary firi of thi no alteration ': 

required in gn of the boiler, while the alt 

betwi the use oi -teel 

stop valve- for the superheated -bam, together with steel 
or iron pipes for the main mi; ad a 

1 design ol piston valve rings with a steel piston valve 
body for the II I Hie packing for th.- II 1'. 

rod 1 : othei supei heating systems on 

■ is having adv own. 

I 1 .1 1 1 % instam e thi om w hi h I rtensively 

and sui 1 essfull The point H I 

1 wish to mak< without any gi tion, 

-up. -i ifi ly used in an ordinary triple- 

compound engine, and very considerable economy n 
from it- use I loubtless -till greater economy will be attained 
it the engini - are specially designed for the use of superheated 

steam. 

Aii interesting attempt to attain a high degree of fuel 
economy by the use oi extremely high working pn 
conjunction with su] d multi-stage feed-water 

ig is to bi fi mnd in - rank engin Inch- 

mona and Inchmarlo, built at the Central Main: 

Works, Wi t 11 Hi- ( I. Having decided to use a working 

ire of 300 lbs. per sip in., it was considered that expansion 
should take pla< iges. The objection 

to four stages and foul - ylinders was that with four cranks 
it - pi, ii .in-!- , there wen onlj foui impulses per revolution, 
whili ompound engine gave six imp'! 

volution. It was then fi I to use five cranks, 

and so obtain ten impulses per revolution. The resulting 
turning moment 1 1 :tn un form, and should result in 

a high propeller efficiency. The superheaters were placed 
in the upf I w.-K- entirely heated by the waste heat 

ping to the funnel. Personally, however. I should not 
expect a high degree of superheat to be attained in this 
manner Probably as superheated steam was only then 
coming into use under modern conditions, it was not con- 
sidered desirable to aim it too high a degree of temperature. 
St mi for the multi-stage feed 1 from the 

ivers and ti- mi thi boilers direct, so that the feed water 
entered thi boilet at pra tically the temperature of the 
1. There were many other points of interest in con- 
nection with these remarkable engines which will well repay 
study. Although 1 have not been able to obtain data of 
any oi the machinery of either of these ships, 

1 have been a— und that in actual service the consum] 
of coal did not exceed 1 lb. per ill I 1 . per hour. That 
arrangement 1 - n the two vessels referred to 

was a costi- one mu 1 be sell evident, and it is probable 
that further a m in its rail; I develop- 

ment has been prevenl 'of the installation. 

The question of cost is one which the engineer is apt to 
to give insufficient attention to ; it is, 
nevertheless, a tnatt.-r of vital importance, especially in 
marine engineering, when thi of depreciation and 

insurance are extremely heavj , nil a small capital expenditure 
is a very great advantage. The great im: which 

Mr. Mul 1,1 . attached 

to uniformity ol turning moment, reminds one that tl 
a point affecting propeller efficiency which is 1 

looked. \ -cr.-w propeller will only work at maximum 
efficiency when revolving uniformly, and any lack of uni- 
formity in turning moment produce- a very sensible diminu- 
tion in effii 1. ti. v. I .mi unfortunately unable to give any 

figures regarding this. It is .1 point upon which there have 
laments, but it i- one well worthy of 
ttention in view of the proposals for the exten- 
sive use of int n .ngine- which, unless 1 
with >1 to be very irregular in 
ilar veloc 1 

{To be continued.) 






THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAI. ARCHITECT. November, ion. 



MARINE BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

RIT'ORT Nn. .'1140 deals with thi explosion from thr 
main boiler nl the s.s, I tallantyn The ex- 

plosion 1 on the 8th .March List when the 

1 was about ,; miles from the harboui entrance, Vrbroath 
No pi injured bj the explosion. The boiler is made 

ol steel, and is ol the ordinary cylindrical, multitubular, 
single-ended marine type. It is fitted with three furnaces 
ol the " Morrison " section, with coned ends, and separate 
bustion chambers. A circumferential crack about " in. 
in length developed at tin- bottom oi thr coned neck at thr 
combustion chamber end ol thr port furnace, through which 
watei from thr boiler was blown oul into thr stokehold. 
I'Ih- explosion appears to have been caused in' a latent defei 1 
developing into an open crack, owing to the expansion .mil 
contraction oi thr furnace under working conditions. The 
observations oi the Engineer Surveyor-in-Cbief are as follows : 
This report deals with thr failure oi a sectional cone necked 
furnace. The explosion was not of a violent nature, though 
as a result the vessel was disabled, the pumps being unable 
to maintain thr level ol tin water in the boiler, due to tin 
leakage. Thr furnace cracked at the cone neck, due, it 
is thought, to thr development of a latent defect which was 
caused by thr boiler having been strained when it was sub- 
merged under full steam pressure en a previous date. 

Report No. 2059 deals with thr explosion from a boiler on 
board the steam trawler Loch Maree. The explosion occurred 
on the 5th June last. No person was injured by the explosion. 
The boiler is made of steel, and is of the ordinary single- 
ended marine type, with three furnaces and separate com- 
bustion chambers. A hole about ^-in. in diameter was 
formed in one of the plain tubes in the starboard wing of the 
boiler through which the water and steam escaped into the 
stokehold. The cause of the explosion appears to have 
been that the tube was chafed through by the movement 
of an internal feed pipe, which had become loose and rubbed 
against it. The observations of the Engineer Surveyor-in- 
Chief are as follows : — This report deals with the failure of 
a smoke tube in the boiler of a fishing vessel. A small hole 
was formed in the tube by the chafing action of a loose internal 
feed-pipe. The explosion was of a minor character ; but 
those in charge of the engine-room were unable to effect 
repairs, and the vessel was towed into port. No person 
was injured. I have to add, however, that it is a dangerous 
expedient to try to stop a defective tube by wooden plugs 
at the ends, owing to the high pressure tending to force them 
out. Fatal accidents have resulted through the adoption 
of this improper method of repair. In this case one of the 
plugs was blown out, but struck the smoke-box door. 



THE NAVAL AIRSHIP. 

DURING October a commission of enquiry into 
the causes of the disaster to the naval airship 
at Barrow was held on board H.M.S. Hermione, 
lying in Ramsden Dock alongside the broken vessel. 
Evidence was here taken, not only from the men who 
built and the handymen who helped to launch, but from 
aeronautical, naval and engineering experts whose 
opinions are considered of value. The enquiry lasted 
six days, and the commission has since its termination 
been busy in drafting a report which will be submitted 
to the Admiralty prior to any decision being come to, 
either as regards making good the damage done or 
determining whether or not to build another airship 
on designs which experience and science suggest as a 
better flying machine than any yet designed or built. 
The opinion of those who have had experience with 
airship No. 1 is that it would be much better to build 
a new vessel than patch up the wrecked vessel. They 
base their suggestions on knowledge gained in the 
building of the first ship, and on certain imperfections 
in her design which have been discovered during the 
process of her construction. 



THE SUBMERSIBLE ELECTRIC MOTOR. 

ONE of the difficulties in reference to the working 
of electric motors in the past has been the risk 
of failure when employed in wet or even clamp 
places. I "i many years past great efforts have been 
made to overcome these difficulties by enclosing the 
motor in different kinds of casings, so as to make them 
perfectly water-tight and air-tight, but success has 
not crowned these attempts in every case, as the heat 
generated has set up conditions invoking condensa 
tion, and the insulation of the armature has broken 
down. 

Submersible Motors, Ltd., of 23, St. Swithin's Lane, 
have put on the market a motor, which, although 
quite open, can be submerged in water, and will work 
perfectly without any serious practical risk of failure. 

The solution of the problem appears to reside in 
the fact that instead of trying to keep the water out, 




Fig. 1 Admiralty Type. 

watei is allowed free access to the working parts, 
while the stator windings are enclosed in rubber 
insulation, high current densities are employed, water 
is used as a lubricant for the bearings and as a cooling 
agent for the parts of the machine from which heat 
has to be extracted. A special jet of water is also 
arranged to play on the stator lamination in the air 
gap. This jet is supplied by a pipe from the pump 
casing, so that when the motor is working out of the 
water the same conditions are set up as when 
submerged. 

Fig. 1 represents a perspective view of one of these 
motors with pump combined, Fig. 2 is a view of a 
warship with water-tight compartment furnished with 
submersible pumps, and Fig. 3 shows the application 
of such pumps for salvage purposes. 

The motor can be attached to any type of centri- 
fugal or other pump, and can be lowered either in the 
combined form or mounted on the same bed plate into 
the water, and thus avoid any necessity for priming. 
For salvage purposes the arrangement appears to 
have special merit. Take, for example, the case of a 
large vessel stranded on a rock-bound coast, exposed 
to the sea, and full of water from end to end, and 
which would be generally considered an apparently 



November, rail. nil. MARINE ENGINEE R AND NAVAL ARCHITEl I. 



hopeless case, owing to the necessity of the provision 
- it du int, with the attendant 

risk of its being wa bed away on the approach of heavj 
weather. With a submersible motor plant lowered to 

any deck below water, anil plai ed in position by 
divers, and worked from generators on the sal 

ongside or at a distam e away, these 

culties disappear at once. If heavy weather 

should come on, it would be only necessary to dis- 

c onnei t the < ables and clear oft, while the pumps and 

motors, being under water well down in the hold of 



the ship, would he in comparative safety, so that on 
the weather moderating the plant could be immediately 
stalled up again by merely come lies. 

It is obvious that tins type ol motoi is verj applj- 

boat hoists, winches, capstans and anchor 

windlasses, as seas breaking aboard 01 spra) covering 

the motor will not interfere with the working ot the 

plant in any w 

i laimed by the manufacturers that the Sub- 

mersible Motoi Pumping Plant is as indispensable to 
the battleship as to the liner, as in the form< r case it 




Fig 




may be the means of keeping the ship afloat and 
enabling her to continue the engagement, when under 
ordinary conditions she would be obliged to leave the 
fighting line, while in the latter case, a passenger ship 
fitted with numerous water-tight compartments, in 
accordance with modern practice, and provided with 
these pumping plants, would inspire confidence among 
the passengers and be an important safeguard in the 
event of collision or grounding. 



Fig. 3. 



Wiiite Star Liners " Titanic " ami " Olympic." — The 

ie will leave Southampton on her first voyage to Nev 

York on April t< th. 1912. It is stated th 1 the Olympic. 

itlj in collision with 1 r Hawke, will resumi 

sailings on November 29th. 

I .ie di Cavour." — Tin- omit yards in which the 
sister ships of th Cavour, an Italian 1 1 lit." 

which formed the subji ctol an arti l< Ocl 1 number, 

are being built are as follows, viz,, the Giulio Casan .it the 
Ansaldo Armstrong yard unite, and thi / uardo 

da \inci at thi I ted in the 

October 1 

The .Machine Tool and I BRING \ssociation, Ltd. 

— A notable addition to the Board "1 the Machine Tool and 

Engineering Association, 1 td., was made at the last meeting 

by thi election to a eat thereon oi Mr. Edwin Adams, of 

S. Hulse A Co., Ltd. The association contain. 

being the following : — Cravi a Bro . Ltd., Hulse .v. Co., Ltd., 
Birmingham Small Aim- Co., Ltd., S. ' Ltd., 

ConsoUdat. I natic Tool Co., Ltd., B. & S. Massey, 

Roberts Bros., Hoffman Manufacturing Co., Ltd.. Dron and 
Lawson. Ltd., and J ! I 1 Ltd. 



120 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAI ARCHITECT. Nov ember, 1911. 



MARINE JET PROPULSION. 

ON Friday, October 13th, Mr. Rankin Kennedy, 
C.E., of Glasgow, read a paper before the 
Manchester Association ol Engineers on the 
above systi m ol marine propulsion. The jet pro- 
pellei is an old device for the propulsion of vessels 
and Mr. Kennedy agreed that r.u h practical test of 
the system had been .1 sorry failure, but he held that 
the fault was DOl flue to any inherent detects in the 
system, but entirely to the use of very inefficient 
machinery ami faulty design. From the paper it may 
be gathered that there are three systems of jet pro- 
pulsion, viz. : — 

1st. That in which the water is taken into the 
vessel, and the velocity of the vessel impressed upon 
it, by an expenditure of energy, which is lost, and 
then has a velocity impressed upon it by a pump 
discharging it through a jet, the reaction propelling 
the ship. 2nd. That in which the water is taken into 
the pump at the velocity of the ship, is accelerated by 
the pump and discharged through a jet, the reaction 
propelling the ship. 3rd. That in which the water 
enters the vessel at the velocity of the vessel, and 
this velocity is reduced to a value between 5 ft. and 
10 ft. per second in a venturi expanding tube, before 
it enters the pump, the velocity being converted into 
pressure. The pump then increases the pressure on 
the water, which in discharging through a converging 
nozzle acquires a velocity the reaction of which propels 
the vessel. The first system has been proved a failure 
by direct tests. The energy lost in impressing the 
velocity of the ship upon the incoming water reduced 
it to a hopeless inefficiency and the pump used had an 
efficiency of about 48 per cent. only. The second 
system has also been tried and proved a failure, but 
from different causes. The failure was here due to 
the great losses in the centrifugal pump taking the 
water in at the speed of the ship — 30 ft. to 40 ft. per 
second — and the pump itself being inefficient. The 
third system, which the author says is really the only 
truly scientific one, has not been tried on a large scale, 
but as it steers clear of the obviously inefficient 
practices of the other two, and may be worked with a 
highly efficient pump, it may be reasonably expected 
that jet propulsion on this system would show really 
what it could do in comparison with other systems of 
propulsion. Mr. Kennedy thought that something of 
the nature of the new Humphrey gas pump would be 
necessary to make the jet propeller compare favour- 
ably with the ordinary propeller. 



The Society of Engineers (Incorporated) will hold an 
ordinary meeting on 6th of November. A paper will be read 
on " Two-cycle Engines " by Mr. Robt. W. A. Brewer. 

The Sir John Cass Technical Institute. — The opening 
lecture of the courses of instruction on " Fuel " was given 
by Mr. Brame oh October 16th. The lecture was. an ex- 
tremely interesting one. 

North-East Coast Institute of Engineers and Ship- 
builders. — The twenty-eighth annual meeting was held in 
N i H castle-upon-Tyne on October 27th. The president, Colonel 
R. Saxton White, V.D., delivered a brief address, and Mr. 
Ernest Saxton White, B.Sc, (member) read a paper on " The 
relationship between residuary resistance horse-power and 
forms of vessels." A synopsis of the paper is as follows : — (a) 
Various methods of calculating horse-power ; (b) Factors 
in the forms of vessels affecting residuary power ; (c) Com- 
bination of factors to give an exponent of the designed speed 
for residuary power ; (d) Table of results. 



AUXILIARY MACHINERY FOR SHIPS. 

Till-- development of machinery for propulsive 
purposes operated by other means than by steam, 
has given an impetus to the design and manu- 
facture of auxiliary machinery of special type to deal 
with the new 1 onditions. This development is par- 
ticularly noticeable in the matter of internal combustion 
engines. 

We have much pleasure in giving some particulars 
o! a very interesting auxiliary plant for use in oil- 
driven or gas-driven launches or ships, which Messrs. 
Reavell & Co., of Ipswich, have recently placed upon 
the market. This plant is illustrated in Fig. 1, and 
consists of a Reavell patent Duplex compressor, gear- 
driven from a Reavell vertical high-speed oil engine, 
while at the opposite end the oil engine shaft is 




♦5.<t-*^?* * R 



■ 



Fig- 3 



directly coupled to a centrifugal pump. The com- 
pressor is used for pumping up the compressed air 
receivers from which the supply of compressed air for 
starting the main engines is taken. In ships having 
large Diesel engines, of course, there are usually other 
engines in addition to the main engines for which this 
compressed air would be used, and in this connection 
it is interesting to note that in cases where compressed 
air for starting Diesel engines is required, needing a 
pressure of from 800 to 1000 lbs. per square inch, a 
" Reavell " compressor capable of working at this high 
pressure can be very easily substituted. For engines 
of the ordinary type, however, pressures from 250 to 
400 lbs. per square inch, are generally used. 

The centrifugal pump can be used for a variety of 
purposes, such as drawing water from the bilges, or 
for circulating and other duties, and the full power of 
the engine can be utilised to drive it, if necessary, as 
the pinion driving the compressor is arranged so that 
it can be slid back, so as to throw the latter out of 
gear. It will also be noticed that a pulley is fixed to 



November, iqu. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



121 








2- 

Auxiliary Machinery fur Ships by M ivell & Co [p 



12.: 



nil-: MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



the flywheel of the engine, and if necessary the full 
power of the engine can thus be utilised for driving a 
dynamo or other machinery by belt, as the compressor 
can be thrown out of gear as described and the suction 
watei can be shut off from the pump, so as to prevent 
it from absorbing power. 

We understand that Messrs. Reavell & Co. have 
recently supplied two sets, as illustrated, to the well- 
known firm of Clyde shipbuilders, Messrs. W. Beard- 
more & Co., and it is interesting to note that one of 
them is installed on the Marquis of Graham's yacht in 
connection with the Beardmore engine mentioned on 
page 87 of our October and current issues. 

The firm have made a speciality of oil engines for 
electric lighting, and one of these sets is illustrated in 
fig. 2, and represents a type of which several have been 
supplied for ship lighting. The advantages of oil engines 
for ship lighting are numerous, and among them maybe 
pointed out the fact that it is not necessary to keep a 
donkey boiler, with its attendant fireman, in service to 
keep steam up while the ship is in port, as the oil 
engine can be started up instantaneously and needs 
practically no attention once it is set running, the 
lubrication being on the splash principle and entirely 
automatic. 

As an interesting comparison we show in Fig. 3 a 
very neat and compact steam lighting set which 
Messrs. Reavell manufacture to supply the needs of 
customers who require sets driven by steam. 

ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION. 



THE Electrical Exhibition which was opened on Sept. 
23rd at Olynrpia, London, and closed on Oct. 21st, 
has added further proof to the popularity and the 
value of exhibitions as a means of adding to the general 
knowledge of what can be done by means of electric power. 
Since the last electrical exhibition held three years ago at 
Manchester, many improvements and advances have been 
made in fittings and appliances, as well as in the more econo- 
mical supply of current and in greater economy in the use 
of it. The economy was well^illustrated by the lectures 
given and by the diagram displayed by the lecturer, when 
it was set forth what one B.T. unit of current could do in the 
every-day matters of life, whether for household purposes 
or trade — lighting, heating, cooking, machine work, etc. 
An interesting note in the catalogue by Mr. Justus Eck, 
M.A., deals with the improvement made in arc lamps of 
recent years, so much so that its efficiency has been increased 
fivefold without sacrificing its durabihty. The emission of 
heat from a paraffin oil lamp is stated to be 3,644 calories per 
hour and the products of combustion 2,360 eft. of CO2 per 
hour, while the improved flame arc lamp emits but 20 calories 
and vitiates the atmosphere by only -5 eft. of CO2 per hour. 
It is recalled to us that the first exhibition of electrical work 
was at the Crystal Palace in 1S81, since when we have seen 
remarkable changes. The first exhibition of the series, of 
which this year's is the third, was held at Olympia in 1905, 
and between that date and the present a great work has been 
done. It is to the Electrical Manufacturers' Association that 
our thanks are due for the series and for the enlightenment 
which has been afforded by their means — we congratulate 
the Association on the success which has attended their 
ventures. A large section of the exhibition was of special 
interest to the householder, more so than in former years, 
hence there was a closer appeal to visitors whose interests 
were more of a general than a specific character. The 
demonstrations at several of the stalls were interesting and 
impressed the value of the exhibits. The vexed question 
of the delicacy of the lamp, especially the metal filament, was 
argued by ocular demonstration, and the devices adopted 
to prove the strength of the filaments were convincing, the 
jerky swing and the vertical jump with several lamps at- 
tached were good illustrations of what the electric lamp of 
to-day can withstand. Great improvements have been made 



in the fittings and connections, and each maker vied with 
another in the designs to minimise labour and improve the 
conditions of working to lessen risk to the operator and 
consumer. 

Amid sui h .1 displaj <'! fittings and connections as well as 
oi appliances and combinations, with which the various 
stands were loaded, one's sense oi gratification at the obvious 
improvements tends U> shade the desire to single out for 
Special notice those firms of whom there were several — which 
excelled in appealing to the engineer, apart from the house- 
holder. These are and will be referred to at length in this 
and other issues oi this journal, so that we may confine our- 
selves here — with perhaps a few exceptions — to a few general 
observations. As the pioneers 111 the manufacture of lamps. 
the I .lison-Swan Co. claim attention, and the small pamphlet 
issued by the firm is interesting historically, as it points out 
that Sir J. Wilson Swan, in 1880, made the first carbon fila- 
ment lamp, while simultaneously with this, Mr. T. A. Edison 
was experimenting in the same direction in America. Ex- 
periments made by the Company with a variety of metals 
with a view to manufacture lamps with metallic filaments 
resulted in the adoption of Tungsten filament lamps, which 
are durable and economical of current and are manufactured 
for voltages of from 2 to 260 and with candle power of from 
1 to 1000. There are several metal filament lamps on the 
market, and most of these were on view, the Tantalum, 
Sunbeam, Brimsdown, Osram, Luxrae, Gral, Mazda, Metalite, 
Pope. etc. The advantage gained by the use of the metal 
filament is made manifest in the reduction of current as 
compared with the carbon filament lamp, and although this 
comes home quicker to the householder who pays for the . 
current per unit than to the engineer who has ample current 
at disposal, there are many steamers where the electric plant 
has little or no surplus margin to begin with and the tendency 
is to add on lights from time to time until the machine is 
overloaded, and it is a question whether to reduce the candle- 
power where less can serve or watch the switches closely 
so that the number of lights may not be exceeded. The 
latter expedient is fraught with risk. In view of this the 
metal filament lamp is now largely adopted for ship work 
and is giving satisfaction. The oil motors for dynamo 
work on exhibition were of great interest and each type is 
worthy of an illustrated descriptive article. A Mirrlees 
Diesel engine of 150 B.H.P. coupled direct to a dynamo was 
running with four different kinds of oil, supplied from tanks 
to show the wide range of fuel with which the engine would 
work. A good assortment of fine instruments and accessories 
for testing and recording were on view, which might be re- 
ferred to on another occasion, some indeed have previously 
been illustrated in our pages. 

FRENCH SUBMARINE SALVAGE BOAT. 

THIS interesting craft was launched from the yard 
of the Loire Works, St. Nazaire, on the 22nd 
September, to the order of the French navy. 
The French fleet of submersible craft is the largest in 
the world, and it is to be wondered at that she has not 
built such a vessel before. The vessel, which has 
been built with much secrecy, is of a strange general 
appearance, as the accompanying illustrations show. 
She is not self-propelling, as the German salvage boat, 
and her conduct during salvage operations will be 
watched with much interest by all interested. The 
main particulars of the vessel are as follows : — Dis- 
placement loaded, 2,300 tons ; length over all, 328 ft. ; 
main breadth, 84 ft. ; breadth of each hull, 20 ft. 8 ins. ; 
space between each hull, 42 ft. 8 ins. ; depth, 26 ft. 
3 ins. ; draught when light, 4 ft. 7 ins. ; lifting power j 
1,000 tons. The lifting power will be electrically driven. 

The Armoured Cruiser " Australia.'' — This cruiser, build- 

I ing for the naval service of the Commonwealth of Australia, 

was launched on the 25th October from the yard of Messrs. 

John Brown & Co., Ltd., of Clydebank, by Lady Reid, wife of 

the High Commissioner. The vessel is turbine-driven, and her 

I tonnage is 18,800. 



November, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



'^3 



LLOYD'S REGISTER. 

AT the close of the year ended 30th June. [911, 
10,400 merchant vessels, registering ovei 21 
million tons gross, held 1 I signed by the 

imitteeof Lloyd's Register. Classes were assigned 
by the committee to 616 new vessels. Their registered 
gross tonnage amounted to 1,098,476 tons. As com 
pared with the figures for the pn twelve months, 

the present return shows an increase of 165,420 tons 
as regards steamer--, and 3,1 10 tons as regards sailing 
vessels. Possibility of internal combustion engines 
being employed as the motive power of large merchant 
vessels was becoming a question ol immediate and 




l-'rencli Submarine Salvage Boat Before the launch 




Stern View of the French Salvage Vessel 

practical importance. Mr. Milton, the Society's chiel 
engineer-surveyor, made visits to many of the firms 
on the Continent who have given special attention to 
this form of engine for marine work. In the spring 
of this year, Mr. Milton wrote an important paper on 
' I liesel Engines for Sea-going Vessels," embodying 
the results of his investigations, which was read at 
the meetings of the Institution of Naval Architects. 
The paper and the discussion thereon have been re- 
printed, and will be supplied to shipowners and others 
interested, upon application. At the present date there 
are building, 01 about to be built, with a view to classifi- 
cation in Lloyd's Register, twelve merchant vessels 
which will be fitted with oil engines. The largest of 
these vessels will exceed 8,000 tons gross, and five 
others will be of 4,500 tons gross and upwards. The 



majority are to be propelled by means of large Diesel 
engines. One set, of the double-acting two-stroke 
cycle type, has been erected and is now undergoing 
exhaustive trials in the shop preparatory to being fitted 
on board. The othei i are all single-acting, 

and include examples of both the two-stroke ami fi 
stroke cycle types. During the twelve months ended 
30th June, 1911, fifty-four steamers of upwards of 
5,000 tons each have received the 100 Ai class, and 
five vessels, each exceeding 1 0,000 tons, have been 
assigned this classification since lie issue of the last 
annual report. At the present date, there are several 
vessels exceeding 10,000 tons, which include the 
Aquitania (45,000 ton aid Laconia (18,000 tons], 
each being built to the Society's class. The Society's 
returns for the quarter ended 30th September, 191 1, 
show that the tonnage in course of construction under 
the survey of the Society's surveyors was 1,198,792 
tons gross, of which 195,295 tons were being built 
abroad. Thirty eight vessels of the Isherwood type 
of 157,299 tons, have been built to the Society's 
classification, while thirty - four others, of over 
155,000 tons, are now in course of construction under 
the Society's survey. The scantlings approved for 
the Isherwood vessels are such as to afford the full 
structural strength represented by the Society's classi- 
fication stand. ird. There has recently been an un- 
usually great demand for new steamers intended for 
carrying oil in bulk. At the present time practically 
the whole of such tonnage is being built under this 
Society's survey for classification and in accordance 
with the Society's rules for such vessels. The grow- 
ing tendency in the direction of widening the frame 
spacing of steamers, dispensing with side stringers, 
and making double bottoms more readily accessible, 
receives the careful attention of the Society's technical 
staff, who are always ready to assist shipowners and 
shipbuilders in giving efficient expression to their 
wishes in these and other particulars. During the 
year there has been considerable development in the 
carriage of refrigerated cargoes, especially from the 
Argentine Republic. The most recent vessels are 
subdivided into numerous separate chambers fitted 
for carrying either " frozen " or " chilled " cargoes, a 
much larger proportion of the cargoes now being 
"chilled " than was formerly the case. There are now 
139 vessels holding the Society's refrigerating 
machinery certificate (Lloyd's R.M.C.), and twenty- 
seven vessels in course of construction which will 
be equipped with refrigerating machinery and 
appliances under the special survey of the Society's 
surveyors. For some years past the services of 
the Society's surveyors have been sought for the 
survey during construction of large cold stot 
buildings, together with the refrigerating plant in 
connection therewith, and the arrangements necessary 
to carry out this duty in a propel manner are now re- 
ceiving the consideration of a special sub-committee 
appointed for the purpose. Since the issue of last 
year's report the question of an international agree- 
ment on the subject of the load line of ships 
has been further advanced by the adoption of the 
British freeboard tables and rules by Sweden, whose 
freeboard regulations, like those of Germany. I'" ranee 
and Holland, are now formally recognised in this 
country. Certificates of classification of Lloyd's 
Register are now recognised by the French authorities 



124 



111K MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVA1 ARCHITECT November, u,ii. 



as exempting vessels from undergoing inspection at 
the hands of the Government surveyors, and surveys 
held 1>\ the surveyors to this Society air .1. 1 epted by 
the Governments ol several other countries, including 
e of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russia and 
Spun. There are now recorded in the Society's 

registei book 1,013 vessels fitted with uiicless tele- 

graphii installations, and 566 with submarine signalling 
apparatus. The numbei and gross tonnage of yachts 
classed in the Society's register ol yachts are 672 
yachts ol 1 m. 447 tons. Of these, 324 of 107,823 tons 
are steam yachts and 302 of 8,519 tons are sailing 
yachts, while 46 of 3,105 tons are luted with internal 
combustion engines. The largest sailing yacht built 
this year in the United Kingdom is the Waterwitch, 
352 tons (Thames measurement), which is classed in 
the Society's registei of yachts. The Enchantress, a 
sailing yacht of about the same tonnage, which was 
built Sn'the United States this year, holds the Society's 
class. The year under review is noteworthy for an 
important amendment which has been made in the 
constitution of the Society, providing for the direct 
representation of shipbuilders and engineers on the 
general committee of management. 



Howalt, Kiel, while carrying out hei trials in the Baltic 
attained a ipeed of 22 knots, a record for German Dread 
aoughts. Her contract ipeed was 20-5 knots. 

L"hi three battleships, the ""In . i,,, which the Admiralty 
lii placed with German firms, are to be engined with turbines 
hi three different types. I lie Ersatz Kurfuerst Friedrich 
Wilhelm is being built .it Hamburg and is to l»- fitted with 
turbines <>i tin typi oi the General Electric Co. Parsons 
turbines .in to be installed mi the battleship S, which Wil- 
helmshaven is building, and tin- third ship, Ersatz Weissen- 
bioi:, being built by a v. ml mi tin- Weser, mil be engined by 
Bergmann turbines, rhis action oi the Admiralty will 
in. 1 1 ilr comparisons between the three types to be made, and 
tin- results .in- awaited with great interest. 

\ cargo steamer was recently launched from a shipyard a1 
Vegesack for the- Hamburg-American line, and was given the 
name Uckermark. The vessel has a deadweight capacity 
of 8,400 tons. Her length is 120-41) 111. ami beam 10-105 m. 



FOREIGN NOTES. 

U.S.A. 

RECENTLY the wife of the President of the Argentine 
Republic christened the Dreadnought Rivadavia on 
the launch taking place at Quincy, Massachusetts. 
The vessel has been built by the Fore River Shipbuilding Co. 
for the Argentine Republic, and is of the following dimen- 
sions : — Displacement. 26,000 tons ; length, 585 ft. ; beam. 
. it. She is turbine driven, designed horse power 39,500, 
speed 22-5 knots. This is one of the battleships which were 
so stronglv competed for by our builders, who were, how- 
ever, underbid by the Americans. 

The orders for the eight destroyers latterly passed by 
Congress will be placed as follows : — William Cramp & Sons, 
four boats at 756,000 dollars, the Bath Ironworks two boats 
at 764,000 dollars, the New York Shipbuilding Co., one boat 
at 777,5oo dollars, Fore River Shipbuilding Co., one boat 
at 779,459 dollars. All vessels have to be delivered twenty- 
lour months from date of contracts placed in August last. 
The battleship Utah obtained a speed of 2 1 64 knots at the trial 
run, the engines developing 28,477 h.p. 

The General Electric Co.. of Schenectady, has entered into 
an agreement to engine the fleet coaling ship Jupiter, now 
building on Mare Island Navy Yard, with a new system of 
propulsion. 

The New York Shipbuilding Co., of Camden, New Jersey, 
launched on September 23rd the battleship Moreno, which 
they are building for the Argentine Republic. The Moreno 
is a sister ship of the Rivadavia, building for the same country. 

Germany. 

The torpedo destroyer Cordoba, which has been built at 
the Schichau yard at Elbing, has just made her trial run at 
sea off Pillau, fully equipped. The run was very successful 
and a speed exceeding the contract speed of 32^ knots was 
attained. The machinery worked faultlessly, so that the 
Argentine Commission was highly satisfied. The second 
boat La Plata, will also be ready shortly to undergo its trials. 

The s.s. Albany, sister ship to the Freemantle, has just 
been launched at Geestcmunde. Her dimensions are : — 
Length, 142-76 m. ; beam, 17-37 m., with a deadweight 
capacity of 9,500 tons at 702 m. draught. There are seven- 
teen derricks ami fifteen sti am winches provided to serve the 
seven spacious hatches. The sixteen derricks have a carrying 
power of 5 tons and one of 25 tons. A " wireless " plant 
is installed. Her engine is a triple-expansion of 3,000 i.h.p., 
speed 12J knots. The Albany is being built to the order of 
the German Australian Steamship Co. 

The new super-Dreadnought Helgoland, built at the yard 




The Argentine Dreadnought Rivadavia, built by The Fore River 
Shipbuilding Co., U.S.A., ready for launching. 

The hull is constructed with'horizontal frames to the highest 
class of the German Lloyd. The speed of the vessel will be 
li£ knots per hour and her engines triple-expansion of 2,700 
i.h.p. 

An order for five coaling vessels has been placed with a 
German yard by the Admiralty. This is a first step towards 
creating a fleet of special service ships for the purposes of the 
fleet, such as workshop, convoy and hospital ships. The 
Admiralty has at present only one coaling vessel, the Titania, 
with the cruiser fleet in the Far East. 

Various sales of second-hand steamers have been effected 
by German owners. The s.s. Scotia, 628 tons, has been sold 
to Swedish buyers for about 40,000 krone. The salvage 
tugboat Borkum has been sold by the owners, a steam-tug 
company, to a firm in Russia to be employed in salvage work. 
The tug' and ice breaker Walter has also been sold to Russia. 
The Nixe, of 1,553 tolls - has Deen bought by a firm in Norway 
for the price of ^3,400, the Helicon, 1,550 tons, has also been 
sold to that country. 

The fishing steamer Nordsee has also changed owners, 
having been bought for Sweden for M22,ooo. The s.s. Elsa, 
of 500 tons, built at Flemsburg, has been purchased by 
Messrs. M. H. Blan & Co., of Gibraltar. The s.s. Albano, of 
the Hamburg line, built in 1886 by Messrs. Harland & Wolff, 
has been sold for 255,625 francs to the Messageries Maritimes. 
She has been given the name Breton, and will be put on the 



November, ign. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND N AVAL ARCHITECT. 



125 



illes-Havre-London route for cargo ] 
\ new steam Waunsa, b 

Hamburg yard foi the German East Virican Line It. 
trial runs wi re most sal \ quadruple engiri 

3,300 h.p. gives the Mam lofi2knots. Herdimen- 

sions I 1 ngth, 1 J2-6 mi I 

draught with a dead u 7 metres. 

is dealt with by fifteen 3teara winches and twenty-eight 
derrii ks, two foi lifting I 1 ' ' 

gerating apparatus and other neci rangements 

for the tropn s are provided. 

Prance. 
Tin- two most powerful battleships for the French fleet 
launched on the 22nd and 23rd September vis., Jean 
Bart and Courbet, from the Brest and 1. orient yards r. 
tively. rhej were laid down in [910 and are to be tora- 
The leading . I : ment, 

2 ; ^67 tons ; length, waterline, 541 ft, 4 in. ; breadth, ii 
draught ioj ft. ; machine] j Pai sons turbim 



purpose will be equipped with .1 "wireless" plant. 
smaller boats ol 140 tons also I of policinf 

th ,1 Chinese yard. 

Italy. 

Rei ■ ntly the Italian ironclad ci u 
under trial in the Bay ol Naples ran on to the Pausil 
rocks. A preliminai nation led to the di 

two wide rents through which the water pourei 
at the time ol itriking thi rocks wa [9 knots. Driven high 
mil. it w.i mpossible to gi ven when 

.1 hei guns. Sin- - on 

1 ah and towed into graving dock. It will tab- a 
considerable time and a large sum oi money before the 

I will be in commission again. Thi 
laid down at Castellamare in 1906 and launched July 
27th. 1 

Argentine. 
The Sunt li Ainriu a developn 
in ci mm ction w ith tl in1 1st thirty i 




The French Battleship Jean Bait las she will appear when completed), launched a short time back from the Brest Yard. 



Belleville and Niclausse ; designed h.p., 28,000; speed, 21 
knots; coal capacity, normal, 900 tons; maximum. 2,700 
tons. Each vessel will Larry '141 officers and men, 

Holland. 
A barge was recently launched .it a shipyard in Ba 
ii . Fred I >rughorn in I ondi m I I"' length 1 ■ too m. 
and the 1 1 >ns. I he I 

;..!•:. launcl 1 ■ ■ 1 tutch 
shipyards have various other orders in hand, anion;; them 
being a canal boat ■>( 550 tons and two coal lighters to a 
Swedish order. 

Peru. 
It is reported that Peru has placed 

Mil, marines with American shipya I French ship 

Ol \rgent. ml I 
•■it, 1 to the order oi a Peruvian shipper. 1 ai 
Mtlitta is to navigate the rivers and will be a " floating 
liaz.i I ' ives can 

ment- The Melitta will start shortly for its destinal 

in under her own steam. An English I aptam 
will take her out and will command her in Peru. 

China. 
The Government i ' ■'" 

th a 1 bini se shi 

I liese cruisers ale '■ 



has been very considerable. The meat trade has been so 
well established, while thi re which has 1 

n connection with thi stock of cattle, thi 
and ; 1 ding anim tten 

to the abattoii havi 1 on! 1 il mti d to the prosp 
oi the Repu 

Canary Isles. 
An addition to the oil engim tstal 

service here has been made 1 ling of three 

launi I tenders to 1 lro "> 

tne ■ 1 Is rhese launchi 

fitted with Parsons (Southampton) oil engines of about 
h.p., giving a speed of fully 05 knots. 
Durban. 
Messrs. Brooke supplied the oil engines and machine: 
about is h.p foi a cruiser yacht 55 it. long, built bj 
Natal Yacht Co. The boat hi earance and 

credit to the build. : 1 number ol n 

boats now plying about the pi the port. 

Russia. 
Tlic Gat >' Dreadnought," was launche 

laid down in I 
1909, and has there! 
months. 1 bi displacement is about -\ ton length 



[26 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, [911. 



Industrial and Trade Notes. 



THE CLYDE AND SCOTLAND. 

[From our Own Correspondent.) 

The New Cunarder. — The exact dimensions of the new 
Cunard lini r Aquitania, which is being built by Messrs. John 
Brown 8 Co. Clydebank, have not yet been published, but 
the following may be accepted as authoritative as regards 
the length of the vessel : — Length, 865 ft. between per- 
pendiculars, which is 12 It. 6 in. greater than the Olympic, 
the largest vessel in the world, and 103 ft. greater than the 
/ usitania. With her " overhang." or counter, the Aquitania 
will be on; tt. 111 length. 

The New Allan Liners.— Twelve leading shipbuilding firms 
have tendered for the construction of two new Allan liners 
of about 15.000 tons gross, 570 ft. long, 69 ft. broad and 
46 ft. deep, to carry 250 first, 525 second and 1,000 third- 
class passengers. As to propelling machinery, the firms 
tendering have been given a free hand ; and the engines 
may be either reciprocating or reciprocating and turbine. 
The vessels will have a sea speed of 18 knots — one knot faster 
than the Victorian and Virginian, the turbine-propelled 
vessels added to the Meet six years ago. 

Messrs. Alex. Stephen & Sons, Linthouse. who, early in 
October, launched the second of two large steamers built 
for the Indian service of the Anchor Line, and have still 
must of their berths occupied with vessels of large tonnage 
and good class, are to build two steamers of good size and 
with extensive cold storage accommodation, for Messrs. 
Elders & Fyffes, London. 

Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., Whiteinch, have added 
to their stand in the Scottish Exhibition at Kelvingrove, 
Glasgow, a model of the Diesel oil-engined ship, Jutlandia, 
which they are building for the East Asiatic Company, of 
Copenhagen. It is expected that the vessel will be launched 
this month and run trials in December. 

Messrs. Wm. Denny & Bros., Dumbarton, have received 
an order from the Turbine Steamers, Ltd., Glasgow, for a 
large, powerful turbine steamer of the most up-to-date 
class, with special manoeuvring appliances which will enable 
her, if required, to sail on the upper reaches of the Clyde. 
The vessel will be ready to take her place next season on the 
Inveraray — Campbeltown route. The vessel now ordered from 
Messrs. Denny is to replace the Queen Alexandra, which was 
seriously damaged by fire some time ago. The latter vessel 
has been sold to the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. for their 
coasting trade. Early in October she was towed from 
Greenock to the yard of Messrs. Denny Bros, at Dumbarton, 
where she was built in 1902, and where she will undergo 
extensive repairs at a cost of £9,000. These having been 
completed, she will proceed to Vancouver for daylight service 
in that region. Messrs. Denny have also been commissioned 
by the Campania Trasatlantica, of Cadiz, to build two triple- 
screw steamers for service between Cadiz and Monte Video. 
The vessels will be about 490 ft. in length, and are to develop 
a speed of between 17 and 18 knots. They are to be fitted 
with turbines and two sets of reciprocating engines, and are 
to have accommodation for a large number of passengers. 

Messrs. Napier & Miller, Old Kilpatrlck. — Since certain 
orders, chronicled in our " Marine Motor Notes " column, 
were received, Messrs. Napier <x Miller have been commissioned 
by the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, through their Glasgow agents, 
Messrs. A. R. Brown, McFarlane & Co., to build a passenger 
and cargo steamer, classed 100 Ai at Lloyd's, and of the 
following dimensions : — Length, B.P., 345 ft. ; breadth 
moulded, 46 ft. ; depth moulded, 28 ft. The vessel is specially 
designed for the Eastern trade, and will have a speed of 14 
knots, and be fitted throughout with electric light. The 
mach: aery, which will be supplied by Messrs. Dunsmuir and 
Jackson, Govan, will consist of a set of triple-expansion 
engines, having cylinders 25 in., 41 in. and 68 in. diameter 
respectively, with a stroke of 48 in. Special interest attaches 
to the condensers, which are to be on the " Contrafio " 
principle, by which a high vacuum is maintained economically 
with high temperature sea-water. 

fr The Clyde Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., Port 
Glasgow, have received an order for an oil-engined vessel 



intended for service on the Great Lakes of America. The 
vessel will be 325 ft. in length, and will have Diesel oil engines 
of over 1,000 I.H.P. The engines, .is well as the hull, will 
be constructed l>\ the Clyde 'Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Co., and will be of the Carcl hi en type. I'his is the first 
oil engined vessel ordered from any firm in the Greenock — 
Port Glasgow district. The same firm have also on hand 
two large cargo-steamers, and are busily engaged in repaii 
work. They are repairing and lengthening an Elder-Dempster 
liner ; and the paddle steamer Caledonia is being altered and 
repaired for the Caledonian Steam Packet Co. Besides 
this, the firm are electing three sets of engines for vessels 
building at Trieste, and these will be shipped to that port 
shortly. The firm have also completed the extensive 
machinery and structural repairs to the Egyptian gun- 
boat Abd-el-Monavm, and the renovated vessel is to leave 
for Alexandria shortly. 

Messrs. Robert Duncan & Co., Port Glasgow, have received 
an order from Messrs. \V. S. Miller & Co., Glasgow, for a 
single-deck steamer of 6,400 tons deadweight carrying 
capacity. 

Messrs. Murdoch & Murray, Port Glasgow, have con- 
tracted to build a steel saloon paddle-steamer for Mr. John 
Williamson, Glasgow. The vessel will run on the Clyde 
next season, and will have compound surface-condensing 
engines by Messrs. Rankin & Blackmore, Greenock. Messrs. 
Murdoch & Murray have also received an order to build, for 
Australian owners, a passenger and cargo steamer, which 
will be engined bv a Glasgow firm. 

Messrs. Ferguson Bros., Port Glasgow, have received an 
order from the Clyde Shipping Co., Glasgow, to build and 
engine a powerful, single-screw tug for that Company's river 
service. The vessel will be similar to the Flying Serpent, 
launched in February last ; and it is of interest to state 
that the vessel now ordered is the eighth of its kind built 
by Messrs. Ferguson Bros., within recent years, for the same 
owners. 

Messrs. Scott's Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Greenock, 
have received an order from the Holt Line to build and engine 
a large passenger and cargo-steamer of 12,000 tons for that 
Company's new Australian service. This is a notable aug- 
mentation of the large amount of tonnage which Messrs. 
Scott have on hand. This includes several large merchant 
liners and the super-Dreadnought Ajax, and a Government 
depot ship. It is expected that the firm will launch the Ajax 
in the early part of December. There is thus every promise 
of the present year proving a record one for heavy warship 
launching on the Clyde. 

The Dundee Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. have 
received an order from a Newfoundland firm for a mail and 
passenger steamer of 900 tons. 

Messrs. Ramage & Ferguson, engineers and shipbuilders, 
Leith, have lately put through very successful trials the 
twin-screw passenger steamer Koopa, built for the Brisbane 
Tug and Steamship Co., Ltd., Brisbane. Queensland. On 
the measured mile in the Firth of Forth, a speed of over 
16 knots was obtained. The requirements of the contract 
as to speed and trim, draught and stability, which were of 
the most difficult nature, were fully conformed to. The 
vessel is 192 ft. long, by 28 ft. beam, and 16 ft. 6 in. depth, 
and is propelled by two sets of triple-expansion engines, 
steam being supplied by large multitubular boilers fitted 
with Howden's system of forced draught. 

Dock Extension at Leith and Newhaven. — Leith Dock 
Commission have authorized the placing of an order for a 
new hydraulic swing bridge at the Old Dock with Messrs. 
Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne. They 
have also agreed to accept the offer of Messrs. Cowans, Sheldon 
and Co., Carlisle, for the provision of a crane of no tons 
capacity and capable of lifting to about 80 ft. above the 
water level of the dock, and projecting 42 ft. from the face 
of the quay. It will thus reach considerably beyond the 
centre of the largest steamer which could pass through the 
locks. The foundations, sidings, etc., for the crane will 
cost about £2,800, and the crane itself about £8,000. A 
sub-committee of the Dock Commission have reported in 
favour of proceeding with a long-mooted extension of New- 
haven Harbour, and the linking of it up with the Port of 
Leith. This extension will embrace an area of about 30 acres 
and involve an expenditure of £200,000. The contemplated 



November, iqii. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



127 



work includes the deepening of the Newhaven entrance 
channel. SO that fishing vessels may inter at any State of 
the tide. The building of a market and the provision of 
lor the fishing trade. This part of the project 
will be proceeded with as soon as Parliamentary Powers are 

ned The larger part ol the scheme — the linking up 
oi Newhaven and Leith — will not materialize for some tune ; 
but when undertaken will involvi in 1 xpenditure of £400,000, 

■ill include the lengthening of tin- pier and the deepening 

of Leith entrance channel. The line new graving : 
which has been under construction for some time, wit! 

trance from the Imperial l>ock. is now practically completi 

and onl) requires some of the pumping plant and othei 
power equipment to make it ready for being brought into 



THE TEES AND HARTLEPOOLS. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 

Whitby. 

Messrs. The Robinson Steamship Co. have sold the s.s. 
Meadowfield. of 2750 tons deadweight, to Messrs. Maclay and 
Mclntyre, of Glasgow, for about £20,000. 

Middlesbrough. 

Messrs. Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., Cleveland Dockyard, 
are reported as having secured an order for a cargo steamer 
for local owners. They continue to be very busy, having a 
good amount of work on b 

Messrs. W. Harkess & Co., Ltd., report nothing new during 
the month, they, however, continue to be busy both on old 
and new work. 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co. continue to be 

fairly busy with land work as well as marine work; good 

progress is being made with the oil engines for the cargo 

ier building to the order of Messrs. Fnrness, Withy & Co. 

Messrs. Smith's Dry Dock Co. continue busy in all depart- 
ments, though nothing new is reported during the month 
They expect one or two orders for small steamers that are in 
the market. 

Messrs. Constantine, Pickering & Co. are reported as having 
placed four orders for steamers of about 5000 tons deadweight, 
one locally, on Hartlepools and at least one with 

rs. J. Blumer & Co.. Sunderland. 

On October the 17th the transporter bridge over the Tees 
was opened by H.R.H. Prince Arthur. This contract was let 
to Sir William Arrol & Co., Ltd., in June, 1909, to be built 
in twenty-seven months for £68,000. It is 850 ft. overall 
and 570 ft. between centres of towers across the river. Most 
of the works closed to celebrate the event. 

Stockton and Thornaby. 

Messrs. R. Ropner & Sons expect to secure an order for 
a cargo steamer that is in the market ; they are only fairly 
well off for work. 

Messrs. Richardson, Duck & Co. report nothing new during 
the month, although fairly busy, having a fair amount of 
work on hand. 

Messrs. Craig, Taylor & Co. are reported as having secured 
an order for a cargo steamer, but nothing definite is known ; 
they, however, continue to be fairly busy. 

Messrs. Blair & Co., Ltd., are very busy and have booked 
one or two orders for local boats which will keep them busy 
for about nine months to come. 

West Hartlepool. 

Messrs. W. Gray & Co. continue to be as busy as ever. 
Quite recently they have booked an order from Messrs. 
Constantine & Pickering, of Middlesbrough, for a cargo 
steamer of about 5000 tons deadweight. 

Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Harbour 
Yard continue very busy. Besides old work dry docking, etc., 
have sufficient new work to keep them busy till Easter. 

The Central Marine Engine Works of Messrs. W. Gray and 
Co. continue to be very busy. They are reported as having 
secured the contract for the machinery for Messrs. Con- 
stair kering & Co.'s boat building by them. They 
continue ti their speciality department for drop 
forgings. Th ■ s.s. Chicklaie. belonging to the Horsley Line, 
has been sold to British buyer- 



Hartlepool. • 

Messrs. Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. an 
busy as ever. There is nothing new to report during the 
month, but they have a good amount of work on hand which 
is expected to keep them busy up to midsummer. Ol 
for tramp steamers are scarce, and as prices are getting 
firmer for the better class of steamer competition is \ 
very few shipbuilding firms being able to show a divi 
of recent j 

Messrs. Richardsons, Westgarth & Co. are very busy. 
New work is scarce, but they have a good amount on hand, 
which should keep them busy for some months tocome. They 
have a fair amount of condensing plant installations on 
hand, the contraflo system of condensation being fitted in 
every instance, very excellent results being obtained. They 
are also fairly busy in their extensive spi |iartment. 



THE HUMBER AND DISTRICT. 

(From our Own Cortes* 

Messrs. Earle s Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., 
are fairly busy with new work, and repairs on several Hull 
owned and other steamers, and their patent -lips 1 
fully employed. The Company have been successful in 
obtaining the contract for two new steamer- specially adapted 
for the ferry traffic between Hull and North Lincolnshire 
for the Great Central Railway Co. Is are to be of 

light draught, not exceeding 4 ft., which will, it is hoped, 
enable them to cross the number at all stat. • ol the tide 
regardless of sand banks, and will have nearly a fiat bottom. 
Another feature is that they will have a rudder at both ends 
[he keels have been laid down and it 1- that they 

will be ready next spring. 

Messrs. the Hull Central Dry Dock and Engineering Works, 
Ltd., have had to employ the use oi outside dry docks fur the 
following strainer- undergoing heavy repairs and opening 
out boilers and machinery lor Lloyd's survivors, notably the 
s.s. F.mpress, which was picked up on the coast, living 111 
distress through broken propeller shaft, etc., has been in 
graving dock and is now very near ready for sea again. 
Star of Australia, s.s. Zillah, s.s. Farringlord, s.s. Arosa 
Sjostad, all dry docked. Other jobs include going undel 
repairs s.s. Dungeness, s.s. Black/); ' .' s.s. 

New Pelton. This Company is noted for the prompt manner 
in which they deal with breakdowns and temporary repairs, 
etc. ; in tins category may be placed the -.s. T. G. Hutton, 
s.s. Gripfast and s.s. Lisette. 

Messrs. Stewart & Craig, engineers and boilermakers, have 
had a fair month of repairs, etc., including the s.s. Atdcnbearg 
in graving dock, bottom sighted, cleaned and painted and 
new propeller fitted and other repairs ; also s.s. Fantoft, new 
foremast fitted, new winch, lift boat repairs, etc. ; s.s. Mar- 
getha, new cylindi 1- fitted on windlass and other numi 
repairs. 

Messrs. the North-East Coast Engineering Works, Ltd. — 
This firm has had the following steamers and tug boats in 
for repair during the month S.s ! abuan, and s.s. 

Hawthorn ; tugs Winchester, Powerful and Chester, and sailing- 
barque Procyon, deck repairs, etc. Work placed with tin- 
firm meet- with quick despatch ind the works are well 
equipped to deal with all kinds of repai: 

Messrs. Woodall & Co., engineers and boilermakers, have 
been fully employed and have effected a number of repair- 
on local and other steamers 111 engine-room and deck. Tin 
outside staff are fully engaged at the Corporation works on 
boilers and machinery repairs, and the smiths' shop is still 
busy on forgings for several railways and shipyards. 

Messrs. Cooper & Co., Ltd., and boilermak 

are fairly busv with ship repairs, opening out boilers and 
machinery for Lloyd's survey and graving-dock repairs. The 
firm's own graving dock is fully employed with coasting 
r and moulding and pattern shops 
are fairly busy, and the branch repair shop at Alexandra 
Dock seem- at all times to have a good share of work. 

Goole Shipbuilding and Repairing Co., Ltd., keep fairly 
busy with repair and new work. Several ■ have 

come to grief m the 11 umber near Goole. and the Company 
expect to liave some extra repairs. 

Messrs. Amos & Smith, engineers and boilermakers, have 



[28 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, iqii. 



been successful in securin m w orders foi boilers and 

machinery for trawl ■ rhe shop machines ari working 

night and mplete the numerous orders, rhe brani h 

.,i Alexandra Dock is fully employed with deck and 
engine-room repairs and ock work. 

Messrs. C. D. Holmes, Ltd.. i ngineers and boilermakers, 
arc still booking ordei s for boilers and machinery foi trawlers 

and Heel local and Grimsbj owners, and the firm's 

patent steam winch for trawler work is a pei ialitj in great! 
demand, rhe branch shop a t \li xatulra Dock is well equipped 
to deal with all sorts ol engine and graving dock repairs. 

Fish Dock.— fhe great amount ol general repairs around 
this particular dock is well catered for; the patent slips and 
ways on the dock are owned by the North I astern Railway 
Co., and an well employed in putting trawlers through 
Lloyd's annual survey. 

Messrs. Cochrane & Sons, shipbuilders, Selby, arc well 
i ih ;ad for trawlers, drifters, etc., and have to work 
overtime to cope with the amount ol orders in hand foi 
Grimsby and Hull owners. They are all built to Lloyd's 
requirements and rules. Two large trawlers launched las! 
week were tor Grimsby and Hull owners. 



SOUTH OF ENGLAND AND ISLE OF 
WIGHT. 

rom our Own Correspondent.) 

Collision. — On the 5th of last month a collision occurred 
oil the fsle of Wight. The full-rigged steel sailing ship, 
Wiscombe Park, of Liverpool, owned by Messrs. Chadwick. 
Wainwright & Co . was fast settling down when the tugs 
arrived. She had sustained serious damage amidships on 
the port side. The tugs towed the vessel inside the island 
and got their powerful pumps to work. Eventually the 
vessel was towed to Xetley and put on the mud. and pumping 
operations continued. Later she was safely towed into the 
Inner Dock. The other vessel was the tramp steamer 
Columbia, of Cardiff, which received extensive damage to her 
bows. Fortunately the steamer struck the sailing vessel 
only a glancing blow, otherwise the latter must have sunk 
almost immediately. 

The White Star Co. — The Olympic left Southampton on 
the 4th of last month for Belfast, after being temporarily 
repaired, and every effort will be made to complete the 
repairs as early as possible so as to allow the vessel to take 
up the sailing on November 29th. The sailings previously allot- 
ted to her will be taken by vessels of the American Line. The 
Majestic will complete two more voyages from Southampton 
before being removed to Liverpool to be placed on the Co.'s 
Canadian service, on which she will run in conjunction with 
the Teutonic. She is to undergo extensive alterations to the 
passenger accommodation for this trade, and will be trans- 
formed into a two-class vessel. The Titanic is scheduled to 
make her maiden voyage on the 10th of April next, and the 
summer service will be maintained by the Titanic, Olympic 
and Oceanic, meanwhile the sailings are being performed by 
the American and Atlantic Transport Line vessels. 

Labour Dispute. — The steamer Serbistan arrived at South- 
ampton about the middle of last month with a cargo of 
Persian barley and maize. The shore hands declined to 
unload the cargo unless they were paid an extra 3d. per 
hundred quarters on account of the alleged dirty nature of the 
cargo. At the time of writing the vessel was lying idle in 
the Inner Dock, but it was understood she would proceed to 
Weymouth to discharge. 

Southampton Harbour Board. — It is announced that the 
Board of Trade enquiry into the constitution of the above 
board will be held at Southampton some time in November, 
the Board of Trade being represented by three Commissioners. 

The Needles Lighthouse. — Mr. Parsons, the lighthouse 
keeper at the Needles, has retired after thirty-five years' 
service with the Trinity House authorities. \s our readers 
will be aware, the lighthouse is situated on the outermost 
of the three large rocks at the western extremity of the 
island, and cannot be approached from the shore and only 
by water when the weather is fine. During bad weather 
in the Channel the lighthouse is cut off from all but telephone 
communication with the coastguards on the high cliffs above. 

Messrs. Day, Summers & Co., Ltd., Northam Ironworks. 



Southampton* Several yachts have arrived at the yard and 
taken up mud berth, foi the winter, and las! month several 
were slipped and painted, including the fsle ol Wigh! steamers 
Balmoral and Lorna Doone. The cargo boa! G. Player left 
the yard abou! the middle o! last month alter completion 
ofextensive repairs occasioned by damage received on the 
,11.1.1 ol Guernsej a! the end ol iugust. Good progress is 
being made with a new 96-ft. tugboat, and also with the 
iteamei for Liebig's Extract of Meat Co. The firm have 

1 U booked several orders for iron castings and forgings, 

and are also carrying out a considerable amount ol engine 
work on board the s.y.'s Tolanda and Albion. The s.y. 
Cassandra, 230 tons, built by the linn in 1X00. has been 
purchased bj an [talian naval officer, and made a remarkable 
voyage to Italy at the beginning of October, averaging 10 
knots the whole way out 111 spite of continuous gales and 
1 u . 1 \ y weather. 

Messrs. J. Samuel White & Co., Ltd., East (owes, Isle of 
Wight. -The lust of the Revenue cruisers lor the Cuban 
Government hit for Havana last month, and was reported 
" All well at Las Palmas." The second cruiser for this 
Government is launched and preparing lor trials. H.M.S. 
Ferret has successfully completed her trials, anil has been 
handed over to the authorities. 

Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., Woolston Works, 
Southampton. — British Admiralty Work. —The following 
torpedo-boat destroyers are in hand : H.M.S. Acheron and 
II. M.S. Iriel. The former was dry docked last month, and 
wall shortly be handed over to the Admiralty. The Ariel was 
launched 011 the 26th September, and is now preparing for 
trials. The shipment of further armoured motor patrol 
boats has been suspended during hostilities between Turkey 
and Italy. Two twin-screw tug boats for South America 
were launched last month and are now fitting out ; also a 
small stern wheeler for the same destination, completed 
successful trials, and was shipped about the end of the month. 
New Orders. — The British Admiralty have placed an order 
with the firm for two steel paddle tugs, each of 690 tons. 
Orders have also been booked for two 60 ft. steel barges, 
an 80 ft. barge for the Crown Agents for the Colonies and a 
55 ft. motor launch, in addition to several small jobs. Repair 
Work. — The repairs department have been busy during the 
month with work on troopships, yachts and cargo steamers. 



THAMES. 



(From our Own Correspondent.) 

The Recent Dock Strike. — This matter has not ended 
without leaving some aftermath. We get it in the form of 
meetings of congratulation from the one side and for pro- 
tection from the other, and in the meantime there has been 
a recurrence of a smaller strike at Deptford, which is now 
settled. The Sailors' and Firemen's Union have held their 
annual dinner, and satisfaction at the terms obtained was 
the keynote of the majority of the speeches. When we turn 
to the other side of the picture, we find manufacturers 
on the river binding themselves together more closely for 
their mutual interests to compensate for the altered con- 
ditions arising from the terms of settlement of the strike. 
As to the local disaffection at Deptford wharf, this was with 
the L. B. & S. C. Railway Co., the owners, as to payment 
for waiting time. However, as we have stated, the Company 
being firm, with minor concessions a settlement was happily 
effected. 

Shipping Companies. — The P. & O. Co. will this month 
put into service their new 11,000-ton vessel the Ballarat, 
intended for only one class of passengers via the Cape to 
Australia. We chronicle the fact because it is a departure 
taken much advantage of by the emigrants who use this 
type of boat, and which bids fair to revolutionize the trade 
to this part of the world. The Company's steamer the 
Medina, to be used for the King and Queen's voyage to India, 
claims much attention at the present time. She has been 
handed over to the Admiralty since the early part of last 
month, and has been having alterations made at Portsmouth 
to fit her for her particular service. The Orama. the new 
13,000-ton liner belonging to the Orient Co., is due to leave 
London on her maiden trip to Australia on the 10th inst. 
She is the first mail steamer in the Australian trade to be 



November, 1911. 



THE M\KINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



1 -"1 



fitted with .1 1 ngines and tur 

and has triple screws. Other improvements I 
long « hi< li is w ireli ; 'hy. 

Warship Building. In view the 

I hames' 1 I irds warship < ontrai ts, inti 

attai hes to thi 1 og made ti 

ng was held at Green 
Town Hall, presided over by the Mayor, when a resolution 

by the Admiralty, \t thi Linn isi ["own Hall anothei 

gathering took place with thi in view. It is 

contended thai the I not be allowed, in the 

r oi shipbuilding, to fall into desuetude for lack oi 

the 1 i\ ei would 1" nei ded 

in wai time as .1 haven and depot for repairs. It is obvious 

it practice is not afforded in peace time by the distribut 

w hen thi 1 t evei should di 

ould 
-up]..,, 1 were fui n 1 no I his is the 

; al burdi n of seems to contain 

miIIk u-nth reasonabli gi ound I on 

St. Paul's Bridge. i has a. ham.. I a furl 

and the County Council and 1 
with a view to settling the designs oi tramwaj 

le as to their plans t"i tin- propi 
bridge and approaches which the tramways will pass over. 
I hi -1 heme now bids fair to become a very large one. 

MERSEY AND MANCHESTER SHIP 
CANAL. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 
Messrs. Cammell. Laird & Co. Great activity pn \ 
in all the departments of this exl ird and there is 
ever} prospect oi a busj win< ntred 
tin the large amount oi Admiralty « oth 

on October 1 it! I Handle} . « ifi oi Majoi Handli 

unmell, La & O I ' 
Lapwing, is now rei ichinery in the Wei l 1 

Tins dock t presi nts .1 verj busj aspect I hi 

irmania is under th 
turbii which it is expected will detain her foi 

w eek gentine destroyers their 

finishing touches, while tl 1 ers Lizard and La 

being outfitted, also the depot ship tenders Adamant 
and Uecl I hese latti 1 g co md present 

H 1 and I " 

advancing in tl traction, while the largi 

[or Portsmouth impresses one with its 
proportions as it advances towards completion. 

innel steamer for the London and North \\ 
way is being plated and all the work in connection with 
tins ,11 advanced state. The la oat for the 

n Authority will shorl 
1 . small 

mill h, while various lighters and bargi - are ki 
I ! Hooth lim 1 /.' 
Si veral Imj 1 
ts have recent!} been completed, amongst 
d the boilei uptaki 
,,„ /),,/, York and I t/ast. 

the two fi nt; a sul. contract. 

Messrs. H. & C. Grayson.— This nun have been kept ■. 
busy with general repair work in then various yards h 

in hand, t! 
lllt , rest being the < ' This vi — I. it is 

expected, will now 1 le back at w oi k attei having had the 
t,„ v . rebuilt and extensive botti 

This woi 1 mplished in less than three month- 

she arrivi ti iwm. 

"White Star Line.'— The Zealandit left Belfast foi Gl 
on i h tober [2th to take up her run on tl 
of tl iny. Her length ; 9 >"■ 

and grOSS ton:; 

I |„ ted, will make her i 

S,, u , o Ni v. York on Vpril toth 

th took pla 

with the Whit I was 



with tins line's 



well l.i i iv a shippii I nnei 

ote that it 
led to build a largi di j pbuilding and 

engineering works Levis, Q rhis 

. length oi 1051 1 tt. from outei 
,,nd will 1 k be used in threi 

will be provided at high and 20 tt. at low wati r. 
Manchester Ship Canal. The ch d dues on the 

canal have 

qui st was hi 
upon the body oi Mi , 1 lubi 1 1 ' ongn ve. 1 ' [ineer 

Oi the canal, who was found in the 1 anal with a shot wound. 

nervous br lakdown. 
the n the canal oci urred on 

i ' 
\in, ii. an Oil Co. 1 and the 

l.uil. lim,' where the B 

the Eccli md Manchester Fii Bi 

;,i 1, Qgth ubdui d » b i1 might havi been a disastrou i on 

id the plai 
and thi paini bl tered. 

Mersey Dock and Harbour Board. The last week in 
Si pti mlier mai ki d the i ompletion oi the first twelve months 
work on the new ( rladstom Docl at the north end of the har- 
bour. On January 4th the outer embankment was completed 
- to shut out the tide. 10,000 cubic yards have 

1 xcavated to a depth oi 50 it. About two-thirds oi 
the walls with theii i' :: ;s a I : on thi Boor to 

the coping oi the walls I will be 59 it. In a few 

wei k ' 1 in., the exi ' gun. 

The eiiti.m. . to 1 will be 40 

wil] 1 epth of 35 fi on a [O it. tide. The dock will 

as a drj 01 wei dock, and will accommc* t Is oi 

October 7th oi Mr. I lavid Jari 
who was 1 ' ' mi 1 of the board, for six 

■ I thi 1 mi. ii" ' I ommitti 1 

Birkenhead Ferries. Mr. F. S. I 
appoint. '.1 manage] o) thi mi oi [70 applii ants. Mi . 

Legge has foi 1 >me tin 1 mtani and 

joined thi 1 1S78. 



NORTH-WEST OF ENGLAND. 



(From our Own Correspondent.) 
Barrow. — Very considerable activity is observable in the 
draught men's departments ! Vickers, 

Ltd., in the work of preparing 1 I British Admiralty 

orders whi rivate builders, and i 

are also busy with othei b ndering and designing for ships 
of various types. Some time ago it was intimated that the 
Vickers' firm intended to go in for tirst-class commi 
tonnage, and thej havi tor some ti ering 

for some oi th 

now so busy with Vdmiralty work for the hi 

! 

further orders from thi me sour 

,1 the moment I : 

oi Messrs. Vicki 

: vious period in it 
irth 111 the number oi workmen wei rhis 

condition of things is likely to improve in the early futui 
much of the work in hand Inl- 
and there is th •■ long their commitments 
u ,ll he all the work 

ted on tm 

[ ition 

on all jobs, which means not onlj the employment oi a I 
number oi men, but in ma cessity of ovei time 

being worked. 

Another Admiralty Order I he Vickers' lirni ha% 
the order for one oi josl u,i\ en 

bj the Admiralty. She will have 5.440 tons displace) 
orse power giving a speed 

H.M.S. "Phoenix." 1 the 

" Acorn " launched early in * 

1 will be driven !• J 



130 



THE MARINE ENGINKER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



actuated by steam gen. rated by means oi oil fuel. No • oal 
will be carried She is now being fitted with her boilers 
and engines, and in the course oi .1 few months she will bi 
ready foi her trials, which should prove interesting. 

H.M.S. " Dartmouth."- This scoul cruiser, having finished 
hex builder's trials with eminent success, and having had 
lu-r engines opened out, left Barrow on the 17th ult. foi 
trials prior to going into commission. 

The Chinese Cruiser. - The small Chinese cruiser built a1 
Barrow is now read) foi her trials, but whether she will be 
allowed to leave Borrow, seeing thai a civil war is on toot 
in China, remains to lie seen. \t any rate no other Power 
is involved in the meantime. Sin is evidently destined to 
be a quick vessel, as her lines indicate celerity of movement. 
and especially so as her engine-power is known to be verj 
adequate. 

H.M.S. "Princess Royal." — The masts ot this vessel have 
been stepped, and much advance has been made during the 
month in the internal liftings of the ship. Her boilers and 
engines are being fixed and several of her I3'5 guns have 
been mounted. By the end of the year, or in January next, 
it is expected she will be ready for her trials, notwithstanding 
the delay which occurred by the industrial unrest which has 
been experienced 

The Japanese Battleship-Cruiser. — Very little information 
is available as regards this huge vessel building at the Vickers' 
yard, owing to the strict secrecy which is enjoined by the 
Mikado's Government. The progress of her construction, 
however, is very rapid, and it can be seen week by week 
that considerable advance is being made. The engine- 
shops are very busy with her engines and boilers and auxiliary 
machinery, and particularly so now that the engines of 
1 IMS. Lion and H.M.S. Princess Royal are out of the shops. 

Turkish Battleship. — This vessel, which has to be built 
and delivered in under two years, is already lifting her 
massive sides, and progress in her construction is assured 
by the arrival of material of all sorts ready for lifting to its 
place the moment it is required. There is quite an army 
of Turkish inspectors and others connected with this vessel 
in Barrow. Indeed, the town is now very largely full of 
Turks, Chinese, Japanese, Russians and others for whom 
the Vickers' firm is doing work. The chances are that other 
nationalities will soon be represented in Barrow, as it seems 
almost certain that a Chilian battleship will be built here. 
Much of the work in connection with a Russian battleship 
to be built in the Black Sea is being done at Barrow, the 
draughtsmen especially being very busy with this work. 

Other Orders. — Considerable activity is evinced in the 
submarine department of Messrs. Vickers' works, and in 
the building of the huge Montreal floating dock, which is 
making great progress. 

Engineering. — Apart from the engines of the Turkish 
and Japanese warships building at Barrow, orders are in 
hand for the engines of the Brazilian battleship building at 
Elswick, together with other marine work, and the gun- 
mounting department of the firm was never busier than it 
is now. 

Dredging. — The work of improving the harbour of Barrow 
by deepening and broadening the channel out to deep water 
in the sea outside is proceeding satisfactorily. Several 
powerful dredgers are at work. The making of a deep-water 
berth in Walney Channel is also receiving attention. This, 
when completed, will enable a large vessel to ride in 30 ft. 
of water at the lowest tides. 

Shipping. — The shipping trade is inactive, and exports of 
iron and steel are down 161,000 tons on the year. 



BELFAST. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 

Work in Progress. — According to Lloyd's returns for the 
quarter ended 30th September, there were twenty-four 
vessels, with an aggregate of 253,808 gross tonnage, under 
construction in Belfast. These figures speak for themselves 
as to the highly satisfactory condition of the shipbuilding 
trade on the Lagan. They constitute, in fact, a record for 
the port. Orders continue to be booked, and these, together 
with the new tonnage at present in hand, ensure a long period 
of prosperity. 



Messrs. Harland & Wolff. — During the month of October 
the fitting out oi the Union-Castle liner Galway Castle and 
the W'lntr Star liner Zealandic has been completed, and both 
vessels have sailed from Hell. 1st to take up their respective 
stations. The Galway Castle is a twin-screw vessel 452 feet 
long, 56 feet beam, with a gloss tonnage o! about S.OOO, 
and the Zealandic also twin-screw — is 477 feet long, by 
62 fei 1 9 iiu lies beam, and also about 8,000 gross tonnage. 
I'lie lattei \esscl has been constructed for the Company's 
Australian and New Zealand trade, which is run in conjunction 
witli the Shaw, Savill & Albion Company. Within a few 
davs ol writing, the Omen's Island firm will launch from the 
south end of their yard one ol tin' large steamers whii li they 
have under construction for the Royal Mail Steam Packef 

Company, whilst another vessel building at the north end 
is also neai ing the launching stage. The Olympic duly arrived 
from Southampton, and on Saturday, 7th October, was 

docked 111 Hie new graving doi k. ( ', I progress has already 

been made with the repairs to the damage caused by the 
Hawke. The extensive alterations to the Royal Mail S. P. 
Co.'s Ortona — which has been renamed Arcadian — are also 
being pushed on rapidly. 

Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co. have despatched the new 
fruit steamer Carillo, which was launched under the name 
La Senora. She is another addition to the large fleet built 
by them for the Tropical Fruit Steamship Co.. and they have 
two similar vessels at the fitting-out wliarves for the same 
Company. One of these, the Sixaola, will be ready for sea 
within a few days of writing. The Carillo is 379 feet long, 
by 50 feet beam, with a gross tonnage of 5,013. She is 
propelled by triple-expansion engines having cylinders 27 in., 
45 in. and 75 in. by 54 in. stroke. In addition to these fruit 
steamers, they have the Shaw, Savill & Albion liner Waimana, 
launched on 12th September, fitting out. All their building 
berths are occupied with vessels of considerable size in 
various stages of construction, and they wall shortly put in the 
water, one from the north yard and one from the south yard. 

Messrs. MacColl & Co. — This firm recently completed the 
engining of the new twin-screw passenger steamer Chelohsin. 
which was built by the Dublin Dockyard Co. for the Union 
Steamship Co., of British Columbia, Ltd. The Chelohsin, 
which is the second vessel constructed by the Dublin builders, 
and the third engined by Messrs. MacColl & Co. for the same 
owners, is 175 feet long, by 35 feet beam, and 22 feet 6 inches 
to the awning deck. After a series of successful trials under 
various conditions the vessel sailed on her 14,000 mile voyage 
to Vancouver. 



THE GAS-DRIVEN CARGO VESSEL 
"HOLZAPFEL I." 



SINCE the trials of the Holzapfel I., the first sea- 
going cargo vessel fitted with gas engines, an 
illustrated description of which was given in our 
March issue, very little news about the ship's per- 
formances and movements has come before the public. 
This arose from the fact that at first start off the 
vessel met with a collision, and various delays arising 
from the newness of the machinery on board and from 
the lack of familiarity of certified marine engineers 
with this type of machinery. Various adjustments of 
the machinery had also to be made before the vessel 
was able to do regular and satisfactory work. The owners 
naturally preferred to say nothing till they had some 
substantial facts to place before the public, which 
they are now able to do. The vessel has now carried 
the following cargoes : — Tyne to London, 242 tons of 
coke ; London to Llanelly, 330 tons of scrap iron ; 
Llanelly to London, 330 tons of lime ; London to 
Cork, 330 tons of hardwood and cement ; Cork to 
Newhaven, 251 tons of oats; Guernsey to London, 
340 tons of granite ; London to Tyne, 340 tons of 
chalk. 



November, 1911. 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCH 111' I. 



'3' 



The voyages under notice have been performed bj 
the vessel in a satisfactory manner, ami the consump- 
tion of fuel has been most moderate, varying from ->5 
to 33 cut. of coal per 24 hours, while other vessels of 
her size driven In steam engines consume more than 
double that quantity. Naturally, a was found on 
starting off that many small improvements could be 
made in 1km machinery ; many of these have already 



arine gas m-ines for sea-going vessels, and they 
have no doubt that, after the completion of the im- 
provements now in hand, she will be able to com; 
very successfully against steam-driven vessels of her 
size in the coasting trade. 

The transformer and gas engines are a complete 
success, and the owners see no diffii ulty in fitting 
vessels of almost any size with complete installatioi 





Type of Engine, by Messrs. E. S. Hindley & Sons, as fitted in the Holzap/d I. 



latent Cylinder Jacket, 
by Messrs. E S. Hindley & Sons. 




Gas-engined Vessel, Holzapftl I , discharging at Blackwall. 



been completed, and the rest will now be done in the 
Tyne, where the vessel is undergoing a general over- 
haul at the Middle Docks, South Shields. The owners 
believe that by her past performam es the Hoi apfel I. 
has already established the practicability and econ 



gas plant, gas engines and hydraulic transformers, 
involving considerable saving in fuel as com- 

pared with steam engines of similar power. Plans 
have been con onj unction with the Power 

Gas Corporation of Stockton-on-Tees, for suitably 



i3- 



TIIK MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November. k»ii. 



installing on board cargo vessels ol considerable size, 
gas plant consuming practically any class of coal and 
fitted with tar extractors, and in this connection the 
practical experience of the Holzapfel 1. has been of 
utmost value. An illustration of the vessel discharg 
ing at Blackwall accompanies this artit le. 

The Holzapfel Marine Gas Powei Syndicate of 57, 
Fenchurch Street, London, B.C., will be pleased to 
give information and quotations to shipowners, ship- 
builders and engineers, cither for transformers alone 
or for complete installations of gas plant, gas engines 
ami transformer according to the practical experience 
which they have had from the vessel's past perform- 
ances. 

In connection with this vessel a few words on the 
engines which have been supplied by Messrs. E. S. 
Hindley & Son, of Bourton, Dorset and London, may 
be of interest. The type of engine installed is of 
180 h.p., has six cylinders, iof ins. x 10 ins., running 
at 450 r.p.m., and is fitted with equilibrium throttle 
valve controlled by a crank-shaft governor contained 
in the extension of the crank case, similar to that 
used on the best high-speed steam engines. All the 
bearings are lubricated on the forced principle from a 
pressure pump, the oil being filtered each time .it is 
returned to the oil well. A feature of the design of 
the Hindley engine is the jointless but expanding 
water jacket, which gives great freedom for expansion 
between the inner and outer cylinder wall, and at the 
same time leakage is impossible. This is an important 
feature and has been met with great favour by users 
of gas engines generally. The greatest consideration 
has been given to the design and details of the 
Hindley engine and it is very substantially built 
throughout. By the courtesy of Messrs. E. S. 
Hindley & Sons we are able to give illustrations of 
their engine and patent cylinder jacket. 



MARINE MOTOR NOTES. 

THE voyage of the Toiler to Halifax for service in Cana- 
dian waters has recorded an epoch in the history 
of the oil-engined vessel, after her preliminary coast- 
ing trials under the watchful care of the builders. The 
consumption of crude oil by the engines is stated to have 
been under two tons per day on the way out. and her be- 
haviour on keen commercial service will be interesting to 
record. Messrs. Swan. Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Ltd., 
have a Diesel engine of 400 b.h.p. in hand as a result of the 
success attained by the Toiler, the engines of which were 
built by the Aktiebolaget Diesels Moterer of Stockholm, the 
vessel being built to the British Corporation Rules. 

At the Scottish Exhibition held in Glasgow, there has been 
placed by the builders (Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co.) a very 
interesting model, about 9 ft. long, of the Juttandia, expected 
to run her trials this year. The exhaust fumes from the oil 
engines are to be discharged through the mizzen mast, a 
method which reminds one of the Comet and, by contrast, of 
the Olympic, one of the funnels of which serves as a ventilator. 
Besides the oil engines for driving the twin screws of the 
Juttandia, another great point of interest will be the electrical 
power wmches and deck machinery and the entire absence 
of steam. Messrs. Parsons (Southampton) have in hand, 
besides other work, sets of oil engines for the Admiralty, the 
boats for which are being built at Cowes and on the Leven. 
As formerly noted, several vessels are about to be placed 
on order, amongst these are one to Messrs. Vickers, Sons and 
Maxim, to be fitted with a type of Diesel engine associated 
with details of another well-known type, while the Leven 
and the Clyde are fortunate in having several vessels in hand 
and on order ; Mr. Brock's 60-ft. yacht to be fitted with 
80 b.h.p., also others about the same size. Lighters and 



barges fitted with oil motors are increasing around the coast. 
rivers and canals, as maj !«■ noted from tin- various port 
paragraphs, and it is interestingto observe that Messrs. Sulzer 
were among the pioneers in constructing oil engines for 
marine service, A cargo barge over [00 ft. long, which was 
built and fitted with a 4.5-h.p. oil engine fully six years ago, 
by Messrs. Sulzer, is running on the great Swiss lake cco- 
nomically. The order received by the Clyde Shipbuilding 
Co., Port Glasgow, on the south bank of the Clyde, for a 
vessel J20 It long to he fitted with oil engines of 1000 h.p., 
1 another addition, not only to the number of vessels, but 
to tin 1 number ol builders who have undertaken to pin their 
1,11th to the oil engine. In this case the type is to be that of 
Messrs. Carel Fi en 5. 

The discussions which have taken place at the Institute 
of Marine Engineers, inaugurated by the paper previously 
referred to, proved useful and instructive to the audiences, 
judging from the appreciative comments made. The points 
touched upon embraced the two-cycle v. four-cycle type ; 
flexibility and reversibility ; economy over steam ; lubrica- 
tion, classes of oil and possibility of oils not being up to 
sample, thereby causing deposits ; the oil market being at 
the mercy of the unmerciful trusts or the soul-less corpora- 
tion ; the advantages of the coal gas engine as represented 
by Holzapfel I., which Mr. Holzapfel pleaded was the most 
likely type to suit the British marine engineer. A number 
of lantern views added greatly to the value of the discussion, 
amongst these were the Quivelly, the French converted sailing 
vessel remarked upon in our previous notes, and the Beard- 
more oil engines, which were kept running on trial for some 
time prior to being fitted in the Marquis of Graham's yacht. 
The Swedish Diesel Motor Co. supplied an oil engine for the 
Polar expedition vessel Fram, formerly driven by steam, the 
saving in space and other conveniences having commended 
the change to Captain R. Admundson. The cargo vessels 
now in course of construction are to be fitted with different 
types of oil engines, Diesel, Bolinders, Carels Freres, and 
combinations of these, so that there will be a good prospect 
of discovering the most suitable for marine practice. In 
the return of vessels surveyed by the Government inspectors 
of New Zealand during 1910-11, exclusive of fourteen sailing 
vessels, appear the names of seventy vessels fitted with oil 
engines among a total of 354, or one-fifth of the whole. The 
largest engine is 120 b.h.p., and several are of 80 to 90 b.h.p. 
In his report Mr. Robert Duncan, the chief inspector, states, 
" The gas and oil engine and gas-producer engine seem to be 
displacing the steam engine, except where steam is required 
for manufacturing purposes. Most of the engines referred 
to are imported, and are sold at prices against which it would 
be impossible for firms in the Dominion to compete. This 
is not only a great monetary loss to the Dominion, but it 
also restricts the education of our young and rising engineers 
in the engineering trade, who miss the opportunity of seeing 
such machinery manufactured and handled while they are 
serving their apprenticeship. The gas engine has evidently- 
come to stay as a cheap power, and in Great Britain and on 
the Continent of Europe the experiment is being tried of 
introducing this engine as motive power for the propulsion 
of ships." 

The price of Scotch shale oil has slightly advanced recently. 
This is not an undesirable point, as the market readily steadies 
and adjusts itself. The question of the original base of 
mineral oil was discussed at a meeting of the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy, when Mr. E. Costo read an interesting 
paper on the subject, projecting the view that the origin 
was more likely to be inorganic than organic matter composed 
of vegetable and animal. The coming months will probably 
have the effect of encouraging the building of some more large 
vessels, as those now in hand show themselves fit foreconomical 
duty. At present reliable data from all sources is not sufficiently 
public to judge results from, indeed the evidences in some 
respects are contradictory, and it complicates the question 
of how far it is safe to carry a guarantee, especially with the 
unfortunate case of a South African venture recently deter- 
mined in the law courts. The London County Council is 
about to order another fire float fitted with oil motor pro- 
pelling and pumping machinery, thus showing that the 
float built and engined for the Thames last year by Messrs. 
Thornycroft has given satisfaction. There are a few enquiries 
from the Continent under consideration by British firms, 
such may be taken as a compliment. Messrs. Beardmore 



NOVEMBER, ion THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



133 



and Co. have secured orders during Octobei foi several 
engines, one a I 50 b.h.p. foi 1 rude oil, I 

being buill by Messrs. Vosper, Portsmouth, to thi 
the < rown Agent for the Colonies. Messrs. Napii t a Miller, 
iked an order t"r an auxiliary v< 
;i.i tons displacement, to bi -• hoi ■■ and '" 

auxiliary power in the form >■•■ ngine and 

suctii vessel is to 1»- used for surv< 

me firm have 
,ns for Mi Williams, "t St. Di 

utli Wales, whii h 1- to l"- fitted with gas en 
in ;j; h.p. l>\ M S. Ilin. II. y and Sons, ol Bou 

Dorset, and with gas produi ers by the 1 
tii.n ..1 Stockton-on rees. These orders constitute a class 
..1 work which will be watched with k.-ni interest by ;ill 
velopmi nt ..1 gas propulsion. 
Messrs Hindley have in hand an auxiliary schooner to be 
with mi. turn gaf eng plant, the reversing 

to be bj Messrs. Dickinson ■ Browne, Guildford. t"he 
many oil-engitieil lishing boats mm .it am! aboul Y.u mouth 
well in evidenci and appeal to be oi jjood account. \i a 

ted in the pro 
1 canal from the I orth b it was pointed out 

that some thii ty to forty years agi from 

igemouth to the Clyde was one ol the mosl remuni 1 
undertakings in Scotland; the revenui ed by un- 

lopmenl of the traffic. This lias probably been rep 
nit' .1 most of the canals in Britain and then is no 

sti with a good and effii ii 
..I motor-driven kirges such as have been illu I 



hands of the oil engine builders. With regard to the 
revolution speed of Diesel system motors, it appeared 
desirable to lose a little in propeller efficiency ami 
have a higher revolution engine, as the lower speeds 
invoked, to an extent, and in some circumstances not 
alwa; trry deposits on the piston. He 

quoted tin advantages claimed by the M. A. N. Co. 
tor the horizontal Diesel engine, but did not advocate 
this type for marine service. 

A communication was read from Mr. Walter Pollock, 
who emphasized the importance of simplicity of 
design, handling arrangements and lubricating. I It- 
mentioned a case of a can tarrying 30 tons, 
being fitted with a 15 B.H.P. Bolinders motor, doing 
the work in half the time at a cost of 3£d. per mile, 
against the usual cost of 1 id. per mile. This engine, 
he said, had the advantage of direct reversibility. 
Mr. F. M. Timpson said that most of the discredit 
attached to the marine motor industry was due to tin- 
fact that makers of engines for land work had con- 
structed marine engines without a knowledge of marine 
conditions. He did not think horizontal engines 
would be considered for marine service. With regard 
to lubrication, for two-cycle engines in small vessels 
the cost was extremely low. 




The Vtnogt, fitted with a 45 h.p oil engine by Messrs. Sulzer Bros. 

I Set Mai >■ ■ 'tes). 



for work on Lake Geneva. 



OIL ENGINE PRACTICE. 

FURTHER discussion took place on October 2nd, 
at the Institute of Ma I ineers, on Mr. E. 

Shackleton's paper. "Modern Developments in 
British and Continental Oil Engine Practice." Mr. 
Alexander Boyle ;ident), who presided, said 

it was a fact of the greatest importai: trine 

engineers that Die-el engines wen- m being, and had 
been constructed to take the place of steam engines in 
many sea-going -hips, and he considered it highly 
necessary that marine engineers should have, not only 
a general knowledge, but an intimate knowledge of 
the details of such engines. 

The author introduced the discussion by reading an 
addendum to his paper, in the course of which lit- 
he considered the question of rel new 
marine oil engines would have to be left largely in the 



Mr. J. T. Milton said he disagreed very strongly 
with the author's opinion that engineers of large ex- 
perience in the making of marine engines should have 
no voice in determining the different sizes of internal 
combustion engines, but should leave the matter to 
the makers of gas engines. The best results v 

where marine engineers worked in co-opera- 
tion with the makers of gas or oil engines. The 
vertical type of engine was undoubtedly superior to 
the horizontal for marine work. In the heavy hori- 
zontal engines the pistons could not be kept tight. He 
noticed that in describing a certain type of Diesel 
engine the words "the unavoidable resi. unit 

lubricating oil in the cylinder " were used. 1 
marine engines, the presence of "unavoidal 

m long VI .He 

did not think it quite correct, as stated by the author, 



'.'.4 



THE MARINE HNGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



that a slowei running engine necessarily involved 
tan j 1 ylindi r. rhe claims of three 

distinct types of engine were now being generally con 
sidered ; the 4-stroke cycle, the 2-stroke single-acting 
aiul the 2-stroke double acting. Without question the 
I stroke was the most economical, but that was only 
one consideration out of many. The 2-stroke single- 
acting was a cheaper engine, but the work of scaveng- 
ing reduced its effjcien< y by about 10 per cent. The 
2-stroke double-acting engine also had defects inherent 
in its constitution. Mr. Wm. McLaren referred to 
a Mirrlees Diesel engine on exhibition, giving a varia- 
tion of four different classes of oil as fuel. He thought 
the time of 3 seconds given for reversing from lull 
ahead to full astern was scarcely practicable. The 2- 
stroke engine, in his opinion, would be the most flexible. 
Mr. D. 1 lulme said he failed to see how the 4-stroke 
engine could be more economical, when it had double 
the number of cylinders. Mr. F. Schubeler said it 
was easily possible to run marine Diesel engines dead 
slow at about one-seventh of their normal speed. In 
addition to other features, viz., smaller cylinder, doing 
away with exhaust valves, etc., the main advantage of 
the 2-stroke cycle over the 4-stroke type was that the 
question of reversibility could be solved with simpler 
means. 

In the course of a brief reply, Mr. Shackleton said 
the remark with reference to horizontal engines was 
made, but he certainly did not advocate putting a 
horizontal Diesel engine on board ship. In all oil 
engines there was a certain amount of residuum left 
behind. With regard to the general question of the 
internal combustion engine, one had to be guided 
principally by the makers, and the necessary experi- 
ence was largely with the gas engine makers. 

The discussion was adjourned until October 19th, 
when Mr. John McLaren (Vice-President) occupied 
the chair. 

Mr. Shackleton opened by replying to some of the 
points raised at the previous meeting. He admitted 
that the present uncertainty as to a fuel oil standard 
was very unsatisfactory. The fuel economy of oil 
engines varied very much ; in some cases it might be 
about 10 per cent., while in others it might be even 40 
per cent, over steam engines. 

Mr. R. W. A. Brewer said one disadvantage against 
the oil engine was that the price of liquid fuel was not 
governed by the laws of supply and demand, but was 
a purely artificial one, due to the fact that the supply 
was controlled by a very few large companies. Another 
point against it was the high initial cost, caused by 
the necessity for the very best workmanship and 
materials used in the construction of internal com- 
bustion engines of high pressures. The successful 
internal combustion engine for marine work would 
have to be an engine which followed the ordinary gas 
engine practice, in which the pressure was not so high, 
and would have to be on the 2-stroke cycle. One dis- 
advantage of this type was that of carburation. Mr. 
P. A. Low pointed out that the Diesel engine did not 
carburate, so that the difficulty urged by the last 
speaker did not apply to it. In regard to the difficulty 
mentioned that the Diesel engine depended largely on 
the action of valves, he said this also was the case 
with the ordinary marine engine. Mr. A. C. Holzapfel 
said a disadvantage of the Diesel engine, or any re- 



versible engine working direct on the propeller, was 
ih, 11 when the propeller was lifted out of the watei 
and racing took place, the action of the governor was 
reduced to siuh an extent that when the propeller 
dipped back again into the water the engine was apt 
to stop, and had to be restarted by compressed an. 
( ias engines, in his opinion, would be more suited to 
the necessities of British marine engineers than oil 
engines, whii halways had the great objection of the 
uncertainty of the price of fuel oil. He had had a gas 
engine running for 3! or 4 months in a cargo vessel, 
working in all weathers, and it had given every satis- 
faction. Mr. L. W. Johnson said most of the fuel oils 
were supplied with a guarantee that they were free 
from an asphaltic basis, and so long as this was the 
case there was no danger of deposits on the pistons. 
With regard to the stopping of marine Diesel engines 
after racing had occurred, Messrs. Sulzer Bros, had a 
very ingenious device, which came into play under 
such conditions, and which practically eliminated such 
a possibility. The time occupied in reversing a 100 
B.H.P. launch engine from low to full speed was li 
seconds, and complete reversal from full speed ahead 
to astern was accomplished in 2 seconds. 

Mr. F. Schubeler showed some lantern illustrations 
of various Diesel engines. He agreed that the price 
of fuel oil is getting cheaper rather than higher and 
that the supply was enormous. He admitted that 
great advances had been made in gas engine practice, 
but thought gas engines in general had several dis- 
advantages for ship propulsion owing to the difficulties 
of combustion under small loads. Another drawback 
being pre-ignition and back-firing. He considered that 
thegreatest inconvenience were the gas generators. The 
necessary adoption of auxiliaries diminished economy, 
and meant the reversal to conditions which the Diesel 
engine did away with entirely. Mr. Low also showed 
various lantern illustrations. Mr. F. M. Timpson 
showed an illustration of a 130 B.H.P. 2-stroke cycle 
crude oil engine on the semi-Diesel principle, which he 
described. Mr. W. McLaren said, with regard to the 
question of vibration, he understood the Diesel engine 
was a constant thrust engine. He presumed the clutch 
would not be considered for large powers in marine 
work. Marine engineers should remember that if an 
engine was very easily reversed it was easily stopped. 
Mr. Shackleton, in the course of his reply, said the 
statement as to the reversing engine stopping under 
bad weather conditions had been often confuted. The 
engine was so governed as to prevent such an occur- 
rence. The double-acting oil marine engine was 
adopted, as marine engineers would not accept an 
engine with a gudgeon, they insisted upon a crosshead. 
With regard to the question as to whether the gas 
engine makers were most competent to manufacture oil 
engines, he pointed out that the first builder of a 
Diesel engine was a maker of gas engines. He an- 
ticipated that the tendency would be for the prices of 
oil fuel to decrease rather than advance. 



International Shipping and Oil Engine Exhibition, 
Newcastle. — We have been informed that arrangements have 
now been completed for transferring the Newcastle Exhibi- 
tion oi Marine Oil Engines and shipping from November, 
1911, to March, 1912. This will permit engines to be shown 
running under their own power, a feature that makes an 
exhibition particularly valuable. The consent of all those 
who booked space for November has been obtained. 



November, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITEl I 



135 



THE BEARDMORE OIL ENGINE. 



A\'< )N ST< >P trial run of this t-iif^iiic: of 130 b.h.p., 
for the Marquis of Graham's yacht, has 1 
tried out at the Dalmuir Works, foi 

hours, to test its reliability m v. The oil 

used was rarakan, with a sj ravityof-g 

I ih., the flash point being calorifii 

18,830 b.t.u. 

Tins class of engine is made to suit the requirements 
of the various types of vessels, drifters, fishing bo 
barges, pleasure boats, yachts, etc., and is designed 
accordingly with the number of units or cylinders 
calculated to he most serviceable and give the best 
results for the type. It ha features which are 

worthy of note and may be described. The system 
of vaporization admits of the engine using any kind 
of oil, and while running the change can be made 



uncoveis the exhaust ports and the pressure gradually 
falls; at a later part of the stroke the air ports are 
uncovered and the compressed air from the crank 
chamber enters for scavenging purposes; this com- 
pletes one cycle and is repeated as the engine works 
on its steady course. The oil is supplied from a set 
imps drivi are set and 

adju 1 the req ty to the pul- 

verizer ready foi eai li stroke. A governor of the 
centi .ntrols the oil supply to the 

power re air for mingling 

with the oil at the pulverizer is kept at a uniform 
pressure of 400 lbs. by means of a two-stage com- 
pressor, which is driven from the main shaft by a 
separate crank. The pulverizer is constructed of a 
ins of rings, and the oil with the injecting air 
in passing these becomes sprayed and readily vaporized 
as it passes into the cylinder timed by the cam shaft 




The Beardmore Crude Oil Engine of 130 B.H.P for the Marquis of Graham's Yacht. 



from refined to crude oil by merely changing the 
supply tank cocks. The engine is on the low-pressure 
Diesel two-cycle system, and the compression takes 
place in the crank case. During the compression 
stroke, the piston forms a paitial vacuum in the crank 
chamber ; this opens the inlet valve w hich admits air. 
The piston is now compressing the charge of air from 
previous stroke to a pressure of 150 lbs. ; when 
the piston reaches the end of the stroke the pulvei 
discharges a charge of oil and air at a piessure of 
400 lbs., against the hot vaporizer, with the result 
that the ignition takes place and the power stro! 
formed. The heat of compression and combustion 
maintains that of the vaporizer, while the engine is 
started at the outset by the blow lamp. < m the 
downward path of the piston, on the power stroke, it 



motion. The engine is started initially by compressed 
air stored in the engine room ; its admission to the 
<ler is by means of cams and lexers specially 
fitted and when the purpose is accomplished these are 
readily thrown out of gear. The lubrication iseffi 
by a combination of sight feed and an oil pump, the 
pipe 1- for the effn 

oiling of all the working parts. 



Brooke Modi;- Mil. ["he Rajah ol Sarawak 1^ having 
a small launch 1'iiilt t"! him in which is being installi 
12-h.p. " B 
pure 1 ' ipore. A " 

1.) 11.11, I lie Sultan 

,,1 Johoi 1 I'- C.M.G. 1 heii 1 I " the 

Kuching river. Sarawak. 



1 36 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



NEW P. AND O. LINER " MEDINA." 



The King's Yacht Pro Tern. 

Til! New Peninsular and Oriental steamship 
Medina which, not long after her launch by 
Messrs. Caird & Co., Greenock, on March 15th 
last, was selected to convey the King and Queen in 
V ivember to India, in pursuance of the State \ isit to 
the " Durbar " celebrations, left the Clyde on Sep- 
tember 23rd, en route for Plymouth and Southampton, 
at which latter port she will be docked and receive 
internal furnishings, the fitting of which will be 
superintended from Buckingham Palace. With hull 
coated in white, set off with a broad blue and gold 
band along her upper works and with her two funnels 
and an extra pole-mast amidships, the huge vessel, 
570 ft. in length, as she steamed about the Firth of 
Clyde on her preliminary trials, looked not at all the 
conventional " liner," but, with her fine sheer, accen- 
tuated by the gold strip, distinctly yacht-like. The 
illustration herewith is from a photograph taken while 
the vessel was adjusting compasses. 

Selected for the high honour, and with modifications 
of one kind and another in her internal economy, the 
Medina is yet a sister ship to the Maloja, built by 
Messrs. Harland & Wolff, Belfast, which left the 
Thames on her first voyage on ordinary service on 
September 23rd, the same day as the Medina left the 
Clyde. The Maloja has accommodotion for over 450 
first-class and 220 second-class passengers, and a 
crew — between Europeans and Lascars — of about 
160. The Medina, on her Royal voyage, will carry an 
abnormal crew of navy men to the number of about 
480. The general particulars of the Maloja essentially 
apply to her sister ship. They are the largest vessels 
in the P. and O. fleet and are the ninth and tenth of 
the " M " class. Their gross tonnage is 12,500, 
and fully loaded their displacement reaches about 
20,000 tons. In length 570 ft. and breadth 62 ft. 9 ins., 
the vessels have seven steel decks, ten watertight 
bulkheads, and a double bottom extends right fore 
and aft, the depth and strength being increased under 
the engine-room, giving great rigidity to the structure. 
There are twin sets of engines on the quadruple- 
expansion principle and specially balanced. The 
arrangements for working ship and cargo are of the 
most approved kind, hydraulic power being employed 
to load and discharge cargo. The engines, cranes and 
other appliances have been fitted by Messrs. Brown 
Bros. & Co., Rosebank Iron Works, Edinburgh, and 
the pumping engine, of that firm's three-cylinder auto- 
matic compound type, is said to be the largest and 
most powerful of the kind ever installed on board ship 
for hydraulic power for cargo working. Of the ten 
cranes on board, six are of 3-ton capacity, two of i-ton 
capacity, and the remaining two are luffing cranes. 
There are also four hydraulic bollards, each driven by 
a three-cylinder hydraulic engine, for working the 
boat falls. Steam is used for the powerful windlass 
forward and the steering gear aft, the latter being 
operated by telemotor from the bridge. Electricity 
for lighting and for ventilation is fitted throughout, 
the supply of fans and punkahs being very plentiful. 
The Marconi wireless telegraph system is installed. 



HIGH-SPEED MOTOR BOAT 
" FELICITAS." 

MESSRS. YARROW & CO., Ltd., Scotstoun, 
whose building stocks and works generally are 
well occupied with important contracts for 
torpedo destroyers and other naval units, are con- 
stantly engaged producing specialized craft in which 
high speed, shallow draught, or other knotty problems 
are involved. The firm have just completed the 
motor yacht Felicitas, built for Mr. Nicolas 
Mihanovich, junr., of Buenos Ayres, ordered 
by Mr. McKinnon of the same city. The speed 
attained as the mean of several runs on the Firth of 
Clyde by this little vessel — 60 ft. long by 9 ft. beam — 
with a load of three tons on board, was 25-3 knots, 
this being 1-3 knots in excess of the contract speed. 
The propulsive machinery consists of five sets of 
Yarrow-Napier, four-cylinder, petrol motors, arranged 
to drive three propellers. The two wing propellers 
are each driven by two four-cylinder engines placed 
in tandem, while the central propeller is driven by a 
single four-cylinder engine. The reversing gear is 
fitted to the centre shaft only. A small cabin for the 
owner is fitted aft. The hull is built of steel, and the 
general design and construction of the vessel is 
similar to the motor-despatch boat, Mercury II., which 
was built by the same firm for the British Admiralty, 
and in which it may be remembered the late King 
Edward and Queen Alexandra, with the King and 
Queen of Spain, went for a short trip during the 
Cowes Regatta Week a few years ago. The Yarrow 
firm, it is understood, have arranged to begin the 
manufacture of oil engines of the Diesel type, having 
improvements suggested by their own great experience 
of the conditions to be fulfilled in high-speed craft. 



CHADBURN'S TELEGRAPHS ON THE 
" MEDINA." 

WHEN this vessel was built for the P. and O. 
Company it was fitted with a telegraph on 
the wire and chain system that is in common 
use throughout the merchant service, but has been 
discarded by most of the Navies in favour of the rigid 
shaft system, which is much more reliable. When 
the Medina was chartered by the Admiralty it was 
decided to have a naval pattern telegraph, and 
Messrs. Chadburn were entrusted with the order. In 
the telegraph fitted, the instrument on the bridge has 
a wheel handle, which makes one revolution for each 
order. It is connected to the receiving dial in the 
engine room by hollow steel shafting and bevel 
wheels, the whole of the gear being supported by 
patent ball-bearing brackets. The special feature in 
these telegraphs is their reliability, and by an 
ingenious arrangement of gearing the pointers are 
made to jump from the centre of one order to the 
centre of the next, while the hand wheel travels 
through a small arc. During the remainder of the 
revolution of the hand wheel the pointer is locked in 
its mid-position, and a stop is arranged so that the 
hand wheel cannot be turned past the extreme order. 
Messrs. Chadburn also fitted the usual admiralty 
pattern rudder tell-tale, consisting of a ball and flag 
attached to the yard-arm, and worked by shafting and 
bevel gears from the rudder head. 



November, :<,n THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 






Hyltonia. On Sepl ith, M iham 

1 o. launched li ling yard .it 1 1\ iton 

i . ter ship 

s.s, t/ mil I I Monitor pa 

I hi "■■'■ n. i - i lairo th unched two 

ind which is besides the Hyltonia the onlj \ 

the M tor patent has yel been applied has proved 

.in nnquali ..ill vi ssels ai e the 

Ericsson Shipping Co Ltd oi Newcastle-on I cm- and 
■ '...in -in Gi Co ha ■ ' uill both ships, 

rin Hyltonia's leading ilii Length 

lepth, 
a deadweight tons on .1 modi rate dra 

oed for 1 - .1 single-dec 1 

with a poop bridge istle. She has four hatchways 

and her ho solutely clear. Watei ballast is provided 

in tin- double bottom, and in peak tanks .11 each end .>i the 
1 which, combined with I rrugations 

•s the shi] and 

reduces motion and vibi minimum Hei saloon 

and 1 lious deckhi 

amidships. 1 1 1< 1 ngineers and 

berthed in side houses on tl" bridge. Vs in I oi the 

nes « ill bi put in bj thi North-! lastern 
in- Engineering ' South Dock ["hi engines are 
triple-expansion steamed by two large boilers 
a pr- noi nuil draught, ["hi Hyh 

the British Corporation Registry. Messrs. \' 
1 Bitumastii " enamel has been applii 
the hunkers and their " Bitumastic " covering to the tank 

I 

ChO-Sen Maru I I ber 10th. there was laiin 

.,11 the 'I • hi h has beet 

built Vfi VI. Samuel .v 1 .... on behall 

,,1 th. Osaka : aisha, Osaka, Japan. The prin 

cipal dimensions oi th. re: Length, 315 It : 

breadth, 44 tt. ; and depth moulded -'7 ft. < in. Sh 

ible ..f carrying a deadweight 
erate draught oi water. Thi twi 01 

te di ' ■ 1 ; ecastle Thi 

lei ha~ been built thi I I m ol fram 

■,, Lloyd' highest lass under special survey. \it, 1 
the launch the steamei was taken to the works of the 

ng Co., at Wallsend, 

where ~h. will b. fitteil With til .oil II! 1' hlllclY 

with . vhn.leis 22, 37. and 61 in. by 4.; in. stroke, with 
I b\ two multitubular boilers 13 ft 6 in 
. working at a pn 
of ,s,, [bs., and apable of propelling thi • el when 
laden at a speed of 10 knots. 

Macedonia. 1 ith thei unched on the 

W, ., teamer named the 

• ■ ■ .i.l.r .it the Nat 
Co. Ltd. of G rhi vessel has been 

1 the requirements ..i thi 
■ 

! , I ■ It 

Ith 57 ft. . depth to |H Built Oi steel 

will taki I and 

• ments oi 
oi It.il-. and Vm 
for passengers grants. I : ■ 

pass, m is very extensive, and excellently 

up. It is entirely 1 ontained in two long rang 
- upon th. shelter and promenade decks 

well as guiles de 
Irawing-rooms. Thi 01 the 

engers. Thi thud 
best 
lines. I i 
ek church the latter being of Gothii design, a dis- 
pell as h\ . 

whili 

nsion engii s !| h. k and 

■ 
drauj '"' ;l 

high 

Drypool & Sutton ber uth. tl • 



the pi in. ipal dimec 
being 141 it. 8 in. bj 24 it. by 13 It. 4 in. mouli I hi 

vessels 1 rs. The 1 

. Ltd . ol Hull, and will be replete with all 

will 
b 

ith. Ltd., and I I'll 

and Co., Ltd., oi Hull 
Transporter tembei 12th, the Blyth ship 

ding and Co., Ltd., launi hi their 

: uilding and E 

porter, built to the order oi thi 
l.ine, Ltd. 1 Mi Jno. Kidl. \ . Son & I nil'. . 

1 .'.hi. h measuri 

m length, with a bi ft. 9 in., has b. • 

under Lloyd's special su theii highi I She 

I the raised quarter deck type bavin, hort 

.. and t ipgallant ition 

ptain is in the bin and 

..ers in poop, whilst the 1 rew will be berthed in 

[r I hi 

: bl ial and WOOi lia>. ing -I" 1 lall'. I 

trimming hat. 1 -I ■ ■ best 

and 1 !■ aim foi thi quick and 

thi I la trii lighting in 

stallation will be fitted > I by Mi 

11 name Works, Ltd. Triple expai 
wer will be supplied by Messrs. The 
North Easfe rn Marine I Co., Ltd., 1 : 

land. 

Paignton. On Septembei 12th, there was laui 
from the shipbuildi 1 tablishmenl 

\l, is. S P. Ausl ' . Ltd., thi llier 

nlon, . las-, d too Vi in LL yd' R< gisti undi 1 ip© ial 
survey, to the order ol Mr. Thomas Wilton, of Dartmouth 
She is designed to any about 3,100 tons deadweight on 
a light d I water, including ampli . i last 

V . om- 
modal fitted in the 

engineers in houses on bud-, deck, and crew in thi fori 
castle. The mi upplied by Messrs. John 

Ltd 'in win. hi 5 mil - : 

bv Donkin .v Co. 

Flicker 1 tember 12th, The 1 

and Repairing ' ., Ltd., launched from theit Victoria 
Shipyard a handsomely modelled steel ■ rew 

Kelsall liros. & 1 Ltd., of Hull and 

ter. Thi ' 5e ' : 

I. , ,, , ii '. in. by u ft. 11 in. depth moulded. 
Shi . onstructed to 

has two large tin; hold, capable 

of holding 40 to 50 tons oi watei ballast. The machi 

been built by Messrs, Earles Shipbuilding and En 
1 Hull. This 1- the thirty ninth 

win. h the Goole Shipbuilding and Repai 
built for Mr. Beecl 
Tafna. On September 

Win : 

Shipping ' Ltd I 
Ltd.] London ■■'. 
is of the single-deck type. Length 185^ ft. ' breadth, 
;o ft. ; : adweight 

ition is with Llo 
100 ' supplying tl 

boilei g ■ .instruction the 

mperinten '• '" behall 1 

Steel Screw Steamer. 1 m Septem William 

Dobson fc Co. laui ' ipbuilding 

Walk 

ol the I. an 

Kail v. 



14" 



TIIK MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



large single-ended boilers with Howden's fo tught. 

The vessels have been sp nstructed toi the owners' 

1 ith the most modi m in mgi ments for 
; discharging ■ irgo 
Goldenfels. ' in Septembei 22nd the large iteel screw 
stcamei G s wa mi - Eullj laum lv d from the Nep 

tune Shipyard of Messrs. Swan, Huntei <S Wigham Richard 
i vessel is b ti u( ted to the ordei oi the 

Hansa Steamship Co oi Bremen, and is the looth \ essel built 
for that company, of which no fewei than thirt) have been 
ed ai thi Mi ptuni \\ orks. I h. steamer 
in length bj ;8 11 beam, and w ill cai tyn 
tons deadweight. She is being constructed to obtain the 
highest class in Lloyd's Registrj ha teak decl and will be 
a fine examp in up-to-date cargo vessel. She will be 

equipped with 1 li 1 trii lighting, togethei with a mosl complete 
illation of auxiliary machinerj foi loading and discharging 

and for manoeuvring the ship herself. The propelling 
machinery is also being supplied by Messrs. Swan Huntei 
and Wigham Richardson Ltd., a1 then Neptune Works, and 
will consist of a set of four crank quadrupli i tpansion engines, 
balanced on the Yarrow Schlick and [weed) system, and 

plied with steam by three large boilers working under 
d di aughl 
Dalewood. 1 >n Septembei 23rd, Messrs. Robert rhompson 
ami Suns Ltd. launched from their Southwii k Yard .1 finely- 
led 1 Li trimming collier, built to the order of Messrs. 
Win. France Fenwick & Co.. Ltd., oi London and Sunder- 
land. The vessel is oi the raised quarter-deck and well-deck 
type, and will take the highest class a1 I loyd's. Her prin- 

1 dimensions are — Length overall, 308 ft 9 in. ; breadth, 
> ii in. ; depth moulded, 20 it. 9 in., and she will carry 

l] i ut J, 500 tons deadweight on a light draught of water. 
Sin is fitted with bulb-angle framing, the holds being left clear 
of all obstructions for discharging with grabs. There are 
four very large hatchways arranged to make her perfectly 
up-to-date as a self-trimmei and to facilitate rapid loading 
and discharging. There is also a large shoot for discharging 
ashes overboard from the fiddley casing. Four powerful 
it am winches with latest improvements are supplied, with 
st. am from a large vertical donkey boiler, and in addition 
to the usual derricks, four gaffs are fitted, the masts being 
strengthened for this purpose. To enable her to make quick 
return vovages ample water ballast is provided throughout 
the cellular double bottom and in fore and after peaks, the 
former being divided longitudinally and athwartships for 
trimming purposes and fitted with large tank suction pipes 
and extra large ballast donkey for quickly pumping out water 
ballast. The inside of holds, bunkers and engine and boiler- 
room tanks are coated with enamel. The mooring arrange- 
ments have also received special attention, steel wire com- 
pressors being fitted on the poop and forecastle decks, as well 
as the usual large fairleads and bitts. Accommodation for 
the captain and steward is provided in the poop, the saloon 
ig tastefully fitted up in polished oak. Spacious rooms 
for the officers and engineers are arranged at the sides oi the 
casings under the bridge deck, the petty officers and crew 
being berthed in the forecastle. At the forward end of the 
main bridge a steel house is arranged for the captain, with 
lower flying bridge on top. also teak chart house, the latter 
carrying the upper flying bridge. The engines.. of the triple- 
expansion type, are by Messrs. The North-Eastern Marine 
Engineering Co.. Ltd., Sunderland, having cylinders 22% in.. 
37 in. and 61 in., with a stroke of 42 in., steam being supplied 
by two extra large boilers working at 180 lbs. pressure. 
During construi tion the vessel and her machinery have been 
under the personal supervision of Messrs. Thompson, Eyres and 
Beyers, of Sunderland. A Cochran (Annan) Donkey Boiler 
with Patent Seamless Furnace has been supplied and fitted. 
Wimborne. -On September 23rd, Messrs. Craig. Taylor 
and Co., Ltd.. launched from their Thornaby Shipbuilding 
Yard. Thornaby -on Tees, a very fine screw steamer of the 
following dimensions, viz. : — 430 ft. by 55 ft. 6 in. by ji ff 
-\ in., moulded to bridge deck. She is built of steel on the 
single-deck type with poop, long bridge and topgallant 
forecastle to Lloyd's highest class, but has in addition to same 
increased scantlings to the owners' special requirements. 
She has large water ballast capacity in double bottom fore 
and aft, and in peaks, and is equipped with patent direct 
team windlass with quick-warping ends, steam-steering 
gear, large multitiilnil.u donkey boiler, six special steam 



winches, double derricks miv large hatches and all the 
latest improvements for rapid loading and discharging. I he 
masts and funnel havi been arranged to suit Manchestei 
Ship Canal require inent shifting boards are fitted through 
out 1 ei 1I1, carriagi of grain cargoes and all has been arranged 
lo a complete and lull specification, ["he accommodation 

aptain spare rooms and officers is neatl) fitted up in 

dei k houses amidships on bridge the engineers being in deck 
houses alongside engine casing, and the crew in the peep with 
special mess rooms, bath rooms, etc, The whole ai < ommoda 
tion has been arranged on a very ample scale, giving each 

compartment extra large cubic and flooi s] Hei engines 

have been constructed bj Messrs. Blair & Co., Ltd., Stockton, 
the cylinders being 18 in (6 in, 75 in. by 48 in. stroke, with 
three large boilers working at [80 lbs. pressure. I lie vessel 
has been built i" the order "l Messrs. Evan Thomas Radcliffe 
and Co. Cardifl uudei thi superintendence oi 'aptain 
lleskeih Mr, Maxwell Hill ami Mi. James. li is interesting 

1 ite that this vessel is the longest, and, we nndei stand, the 

largi st vessel that has yet been built at Stockton. 

Acajutla. On September 25th, there was launched from 
the Neptune Shipyard, Newcastle-on Tyne, ol Messrs. Swan 
Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd a steel screw steamei 
winch they are building to the ordei oi the Salvador Railway 
' 11 I M I onilon intended tor their Central Vmerican 
service. I hi steamei which is named Icajutla is a hand- 
some vessel with clippei bow. She Is 22-^ ft. ill length by 
J3£ tt. beam, is built to attain the highest class 111 Lloyd's 
Register, and will have a Hoard oi Trade passenger certificati 
Well-furnished accommodation is to be provided for twenty- 
four first-class passengers. The finest of coffee conies from 
Salvador, and the Acajutla is well fitted and ventilated for 
carrying it. She has electrii light and fans, refrigerating 
machine and every requisite tor service in a hot climate, the 
propelling machinery will consist of a set of triple expansion 
engines,, winch, together with the boilers, are being con 
structed by Messrs. Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson. 
Ltd.. at their Neptune Works. The Acajutla is practically 
a sister vessel tn the Sulvudm . built two year- ago h\ Messrs. 
Swan. Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Ltd. That vessel 
made her long run of 12.500 knots out to Salvador without 
a stop, and has since made a name for herself tor the regularitj 
of her passages on the coast. Messrs. Swan, Hunter and 
Wigham Richardson. Ltd., have a third vessel in hand for 
the Salvador Railway Co. 

TurkiStan. — On September 25th, Messrs. William Gray and 
Co., Ltd.. launched the large steel screw steamer Turkistan, 
which they have built for Messrs. Frank C. Strick & Co., 
Ltd., of Swansea and London. The vessel will take thi 
highest class in Lloyd's Register and is of thi following 
dimensions, viz. —Length overall. 384 tt. 6 'n. ; breadth. 
50 It., and depth jo ft. Sh. is a handsomely modelled 
vessel oi the double-deck type with poop, long bridge and 
topgallant forecastle, having very tasteful cabin accommoda- 
tion in houses on the bridge deck for passengers, captain and 
officers and is fitted throughout with electric lighting, i hi 
vessel has a cellular double bottom and after-peak tank for 
water ballast, and in addition there is a deep tank or hold 
compartment fitted for water ballast abaft the engine-room 
gi\ ing a total capacity for water ballast of about 2.000 tons. 
The whole of the outfit, including steam windlass, steam- 
steering gear, ten steam winches, with return exhaust to winch 
condenser of the contratlo type, is oi the most approved 
description. The machinery is made by the Central Marine 
Engine Works of the builders, being oi the triple-expansion 
type, with cylinders 28 in.. 46 in. and 77 in. diameter, with a 
piston stroki oi 18 in. She is fitted with a contraflo mam 
condenser. Weir's feed pumps and heatei and large steel 
multitubular boilers working by Howden's forced dran ht 
at a pressure oi 180 lbs. per -quale inch. The vessel and 
machinery have been constructed under the superintendem e 
of Mr. Archibald Walker on behalf of the owm 1- 

CentO. On September 20th a steel steamer of about 
3.699 tons gross, named Cento, was launched at Sunderland. 
Owners, Messrs. R Nicholson* Sun-. Port of Registry 
Liverpool. 

Montebello. — On Septembei 27th, there was launcl 

from tin yard oi Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
Ltd.. Hulf. the finely modelled steel screw steamer Montebello, 
The ship has been built to thi ordei of Messrs. Thus, Wilson, 
Sons & Co., Ltd., Hull, and 1- intended for the Bombay trade 



November, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



141 



the principal dimensions being: — Lei dth, 

50ft. ; m. moulded 1 ft 9 in. mouldei I. 1 

has been constructed oi ' ioyd'a highest class and 

Board oi Trade latest requirements, and is fitted foi carrying 

a large quantity ot water ballast in the cellular 

and aft-peak t.mk. She is a well-de< ked ship and ha^ a 

poop, bridge ani tie deck, two sti and 

I; posts which arc very 
le speedy handling oi cargo, the derricks ible 

iling with heavy lifts, and worked by eight powerful 

oi ili> most up-to-date Iso a 

tram wini 1 l>. Ill'' Sti 

ing engine is placed in house in poop, and is worked by the 
telemotor system from tin- navigating bridge; powerful 
hand-screw gear j s also fitted in the poop aft. A large deck- 
house is pi end of bridge deck foi the 
accommodation of captain and officers, with captain's chart 
room situated neai thi navigating bridge, the engirj 

the engine 
e deck, the seamen's and 
accon being in the forecastle. The ship will be 

fitted up with electric light install I doon, offi 

and engineers' living rooms arc all boated by steam, and the 
work throughout tie of the very I tion 

with the latest improvements. Triple-expansion 
constructed by the builders have been fitted, having cylin 
25 in., 41 in., 69 in. by 51 in. stroke, supplied with steam by 
three large steel boilers working at 180 lbs. 

Alizarine. — On October all Messrs. Willian i' 1 and 
Co. launched from their shipbuilding works a1 Walkei 
small steamer Alizarine, which they have built t" I 
of Messrs. Hurt. Boulton a: Haywood, of London, for carrying 
oil in bulk. The dimensions of the vessel 
by 10 ft. 6 in. The hold is divided into 
partments for oil cargo, and there is a complete systi 
heating pipes for use when can \ ite. I he machinery 

is being coi I id., of 

ire 11 in.. 1 3 in. and ji 1 in. 
and iS 111. stroke. 

Annan Maru. On O th, then- w . the 

- rs whir), h 
ed on behalf of 1 Shosen Kaisha, of Osaka, 

is built on the tsherwood systci 
framing to Lloyd's highest class undei special survey, and 
is of the following dimensions: — Length, .; 1 ; ft ; breadth, 
44 it. ; depth moulded. 27 it. ; m. ; and is , apable of carry- 
ing a deadweight ot 5,000 tons on a moderate draught of 
water. The vessel has two compi a poop, 

bridge and forecastle. Alter the launch th- was 

,e works of the Nor: 

Co., Ltd.. at Wallsend, where she will be fitted with tri 

expansion machinery having cylinders 22 in. 37 111. and 01 111. 

! in. stroke, taking steam from two multitubular boilers 
13 ft. 6 in. in diameter by 11 ft. ', 111. long, working at a 

are of 180 lbs. per square inch. I he vessel will b: 
speed, when loaded, ut to knots. Aim tl 
Chuira said that this was the mm u 

by the Osaka Company, and liki le 1 

1 ship, the Chosen Maru, would give a good account of 

Detmold. I in 1 > tobi 1 6th, 

■ t,, ile order ot the Lydford Steamship I 1 td 
Newcastle, of which Mr. Win. Holzapi iging 

owner. The Detmold is an up 

with poop, bridge and 
designed to carry a deadweight ot about 7,700 tons upon a 
moderate draught. Her principal dimen I ogth, 

385 ft.; breadth extreme, 50 it. 4 in.; depth moulded, 

l_ l 111. She has been built under special survi 
Lloyd's highest , lass, and to the Hoard oi 
for carrying grain cargoes in bulk. Provision is mac 
ottom throughout and in alter , 
propelling mac hinei ting 

trip. a engines having cylinders -; in.. 

66 in. in 
14 it. ; in. diameter by 10 it. ', in. long, with a working 

per square inch. I lining constm 
tie- i! under th 

Mr. 1 Mr. R. J. Ma uper- 

intendent iptain Winter, who will take command. 



Calrngowan. < >u October 6th, thi 

Win. 1 1 - in the ordi 

Cairn I ' 

istle, was launi led. rhe Cati 

11 . 
moulded depth ; the dead v Ithe 

.cation is with the British ' orporation Mi 

applying t ilers. Mr. C. 

Waldie ( .inns ' action of tie- 

vessel Gibson. Messrs. Wa ind 

Co.' B tumastic " enamel ha to the boiler- 

tank and 1 
Steamer for Northern Commercial Syndirate.— On Occ 
7th, there was launched from the Iron 

Shipbuilding Co 1 ly-on-Tyni 

screw steamer built for Messrs. The Northern Commercial Syn- 
dicate Ltd. I R M, Sul '• ■ 1 

NeW< .1 lie ell I \ lie ,||l'l , ,| th'' I' ,11' 

th, .1 1, cut ' \y ft. 6 in. ; depth moul 

25 ft. 7 ill., and to class 100 \ i .it I loyd 1 on I 

rule. This vessel has water balla t fitted right fori 

on the cellular system and is also fitted with all modi 

i ir the rapid loading and discharging of cargo, 
including live double cylmdered steam winches 
steam windlass, large multitubular donkey boil< : 
steering gear by Messrs. I li Co., and screw gear aft. 

The engines, which aresuppUed I i The North Eastern 

Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., oi Wallsend, are of the ti 
expansion | in.. 40 in. and ',; in. by 

stroke, with two larj boilers and working 

at a pressure of 1S0 lbs. 

Abbas.— On October 7th, Messrs. S. P. Austin i Son, 
Ltd., launched from their shipbuilding and repairing estab- 
lishn Wen Dockyard, Sunderland, tl crew 

steamer Abbas, to be classed 100 At in LI ester 

under special survey, and built to the order ot Messrs Step! 
son, Clarke 'c Co of London, this being the eighth vi 
consti ' l"i the same 1 -die is designed 

to cai deadweight 1 in a light draugl 

and is fitted with large hatchways specially adapted 
for the ow net s' coal trade. 1 d aft, will 

be supplii ■ I s,, 11Si Ltd., the 

luding foul steam winches, .steam wi 
lass and team 1 ip tan bj Messrs. Clarke. Chapman & Co., 
Ltd. ' Donkin & Co., andst 

will be supplied foi these from a Cochran (Annan) vertical 
multitubular donkey boiler with [latent seamless furnace. 
The construction oi the vessel has been superintended by Mr. 
I S. Hunter, on behalf of the owni 

LAUNCHES Scotch. 
Hurunui. 1 >n September 25th, there was launched at Port 
."w the steel screw steamer Hurunui for the New I 
land Shipping Co.. Ltd. Her dimensii -Length, 

ft. ; beam, 62 ft. 9 in. ; depth, moulded. 34 ft 
with a deadweight carrying capacity of 9,000 toi 
steamer has been specially di 
cargo trade of the Com] reen New Zea 

London. Insula! ry for the carrying 

1 commoda 1 
ber ot lirst-class passengei Built to Lloyd 
class and to Board of Trade demands, the vessel will be 
supplied witl it Glasgow. 

Fluent. On September 27th, 1 ~ launched at South - 

wick the large •. steamer Flu 

addition to the fleet of Mr. fames Wi toll, Sunderland. 

11 construi I highest class, and is 

of the single-deck type, with cleai hoi 
and long combined poop and bridgi and topgallant foreca 
The dimensions | it loin.; 

th moulded, 26 tt. Tripl ngines will be 

supplied by the ' ngineering 

Ltd., Sue hi.. 41 in. 

and 67 in., with ipplied by three 

Baroda. 
cently lame hed the singl 1 Baroda. which 

the British Ind I he 

t. 111 length. 46 tt. in bn in. in 

depth, and 

Sculptor. Mi Co., Ltd., S 



>4- 



I'llK MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



the steel screw steamei Sculptor, which 

they have built to the ordei of Mi • I. a J. Harri on 

: pool. She h.is been buill to Lli and 

is fitted u ith all the late 1 1 1 qui i1 foi thi rapid and 

lent working of cargo [rip p him. hi engines, « ith 
the latest improvements, are being supplied bj Mi 
Dunsmuii Ltd.,Govan Messrs. Matthew Keenan 

and Co., Ltd., have completed the contract tocovei the boilers 
nnl ste 'in pipes on board. 

Tyne. Messrs. Fleming <S Ferguson, Paisley, havi recently 
launched the budget dredgei /w which the) have built 
to the order ot the 1 \ 11. ■ Improvement Commission, New 
castle, ["he vessel is designed foi dredging close up to quaj 
walls, ami the buckets are ol specially strong construction 
foi lifting ocl etc. I he dredgei which is to be used in 
connection with the improvements now being carried out on 
the river Tyne, will be capable ol raising 80 tons per houi 
from a depth of 4; it. 

Two Trawlers. Messrs. Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen, 
ecentlj lum hed two trawlers one foi the Peterhead 
trawling I o. and thi othi c for the Standard Steam Fishing 
Co., Aberdeen. J In- dimensions ot the Peterhead vessel are : 
1 1 agth, 1 i; it ; breadth, 22 it. ; depth, [3 it. Hie Standard 
1 1 vessel is 115 it. bj 22 it. by 1 ; ft. Boilers and engines 
foi 1 a< li vessel ari being supplied by the builders. 

Media.— On ;th, there was launched from the 

yard oi Messrs. Alex. Stephen & Sons, Ltd., Linthouse, the 

ond of two large steamers they have built for the Indian 
service of the Anchor Line (Henderson Brothers). Ltd. Like 
her sister ship the I m horia, which was delivered last month. 
the vessel has been constructed to the highest requirements 
of the British Corporation, and her dimensions are 420 ft. by 
53 It. b) 33 tt. In addition to having a large cargo-carrying 
capacity, accommodation has been provided for a number 
of passengers. Her equipment for dealing with cargo is also 
very ample, and of efficient design. The propelling ma- 
chinery, which has also been provided by the builders, con- 
sists of triple-expansion engines having cylinders 28 in., 46 in. 
and 77 in. by 51 in. stroke, and three large double-ended 
boilers with a full equipment of auxiliary machinery. 

Sanda.— On October 10th, there was launched at Dundee 
a steamer which has been built for the Clyde Shipping Co. 
The vessel, which was named Sanda, is of the following 
dimensions : — Length overall, 259 it.; breadth, 35 ft.; 
depth, 17 ft. S in. She is of 1 .200 gross tons. The machinery 
consists of triple-expansion engines, having cylinders 20 111!. 
3i in. and 53 in. by 39 in. stroke. The vessel is intended for 
theCompany's Irish trade. A Cochran (Annan) Donkey Boiler 
with Patent Seamless Furnace has been supplied and fitted. 

Opouri.— On October 10th, there was launched at Paisley 
a steamer of 600 tons deadweight capacity, which has been 
built to the order of Messrs. Reece Brothers, Lyttelton, 
X.Z.. for their coal and timber trade to and from Australia. 
Triple-expansion engines of 700 i.h.p. are being supplied. 
The steamer was named Opoun by Miss Orr, Wellington. X.Z. 

TRIAL TRIPS. 

La Senora.— On September 5th, this vessel left the 
Alexandra Wharf and steamed down Belfast Lough for 
adjustment of compasses, and to undergo her speed and 
general machinery trials, and under all conditions gave 
the utmost satisfaction, an average speed in excess of the 
contract requirements being attained. See Launches, 

June. 

Vandyck. — The new twin screw steamer Vandyck, built 
and engined by Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co., Ltd., 
Belfast, together with her sister vessels Vauban and Ves- 
tris, at present in course of construction bv the above 
firm, have been specially designed for the British and 
South American service of the Liverpool, Brazil and 
River Plate Steam Navigation Co., Ltd. (Messrs. Lam 
port & Holt, Liverpool, managers). The principal dimen- 
sions of the Vandyck are: Length, 511 feet; beam, 61 ft.; 
tonnage about 10,000, and the construction of the vessel 
has been carried out to the requirements of the highest 
class in the British Corporation Registry of Shipping. 
She has six decks. The vessel is propelled by twin 
si lews driven by two independent sets of quadruple ex- 
pansion engines balanced on the Schlick-Tweedy prin- 
ciple, by which vibration is practically eliminated. In 



the passengei .1 nodation the closest attention has been 

given to securing the utmost comfort for the first and 
econd-cla passengers, while the spaci reserved £01 emi 
grant: are well adapted for tins class oi passengers. She 
will carry 250 fii t-cla 1 passengers. On Septembei 8th 
the Vandycl left Uelfast and proceeded to the Clyde where 
peed trials wen- run on the measured mile, these being 

highly satisfactory, a speed in excess oi the tract having 

been attained. \ftetwards the vessel proceeded to Liver- 
pool. See I. ,11111, lies, July. 

Maloja 1 in Septembei ijth, this fine large twin screw 
steamer, built by Messrs. Harland & Wolff, Ltd., for the 
Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co., left Hell. 1st 
after adjustment of compasses and iucci isful trials, and 
proceeded to London, from whence she will sail on hei 
first voyage to the East on the 23rd September. The 
Maloja is a passenger and mail steamei ot the highest 
class, of the distinctive P. & O. type, and a splendid 
cxampli ol British shipbuilding. 1 he new ve: ;e] is 

569 ft. long by 62 ft. 9 in. beam, with a gross tonnage of 
12,500, and constructed on the latest and most approved 

1 tice. She lias two steel pole masts and two funnels, 

ten watertight bulkheads carried up to the spar deck, 
seven steel decks, and the double bottom extends right fore 
and aft, the depth and strength being increased under the 
engine room, giving great rigidity to the structure. The 
Maloja has accommodation for over 450 first-class and 
about 220 second-class passengers, and, needless to say, 
the various public rooms, also the staterooms, are fur- 
nished and decorated in a style well in keeping with the 
traditions of this famous line. The first-class dining 
saloon on the spar deck extends the full breadth of the 
ship and will seat about 320 people. Special attention has 
been given in the ship to the ventilation both natural and 
mechanical, and in the public rooms as also the staterooms 
it will be found that the arrangements for the comfort of 
passengers have been carefully devised. The supply of 
fans and punkahs throughout the accommodation is very 
liberal. The arrangements for working ship and cargo 
are of the most approved type, including ten hydraulic 
cranes, anchor crane and steam windlass. The steering 
gear is of the builders' well known make, and capable of 
being worked by telemotor from flying bridge. The 
vessel has large insulated cargo holds. She is fitted 

throughout with electric light, and provided with an in- 
stallation of wireless telegraphy, the Marconi house being 
on the promenade deck above the officers' quarters. The 
Maloja has two sets of quadruple expansion engines 
arranged on the " balanced " principle, also constructed 
by Messrs. Harland & Wolff, Ltd. The McNab (British) 
Indicator Co., Ltd., have supplied, for use on board, their 
marine register and indicator for recording on the bridge 
or elsewhere, the actual engine movements. Messrs. 

Matthew, Keenan & Co., Ltd., have applied their patent 
non-conducting composition to the boilers and steam pipes, 
and they have packed the casings of the engine and boiler 
rooms with their patent bulkhead lining. 

Den Of Airlie. — The loaded trials of the new steamei 
Den ol Airlie on the measured mile have been carried 
out with satisfaction, and the vessel has left for New York 
on her maiden trip. She was built at Port Glasgow, for 
Dundee owners. See Launches, August. 

Clan Macgillivray. — The steel screw steamer Clan Mac- 
gillivray, built at Walker-on-Tyne, for Messrs. Cayzer 
Irvine & Co., of Glasgow, has been taken to sea for her 
trials. The vessel made a number of runs on the meas- 
ured mile, and attained a mean speed of 14^ knots. After 
the trial she proceeded to Middlesbrough to load cargo. 
The Clan Macgillivray is a large shelter deck single screw 
steamer 430 ft. long, '53 ft. 6 in. beam, and 29 ft. depth 
moulded to upper deck. The propelling machinery is of 
the triple expansion type manufactured by the Wallsend 
Slipway and Engineering Co., Ltd., and has cylinders 
29, 49, and 80 in. by 60 in. stroke, steam being supplied 
by three boilers 16 ft. 4 in. diameter by ir ft. 9 in. long 
working under forced draught at a pressure of 200 lb. 

Eskwood. — The s.s. Eskwood, built by Messrs. W. Har- 
kess & Son, Ltd., to the order of The Meteor Steamship 
Co., Ltd. (R. A. Constantine & Donking, managers), of 
Middlesbrough, has just been taken for her official trial 
tiip. She was loaded with about 1,030 tons cargo and 
bunkers on a draft of 13 ft. 4 in. A mean speed of io^ 



November, 1911. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



i43 



knots was obtained on several runs on the measured mile. 

The owners and Mr. Win. Constantine who rape: 

thi vessel during construction, were highly satisfied with 

ill' ship and engines, the speed in 

ontrai t. the ti tals the 

1 eeded to see ] Lunches, September. 

Imataka. — The s.s. Imataka, built by Sir Raylton Dixon 

and Co., Ltd., of Middlesbrough, and engined by Messrs. 

Blair & Co., Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees, t.. the order of Messrs. 

r Bros., McConnell & Co., Ltd., has just undergone 

a most successful trial on the East Coast. During the 

trial trip of six hours' duration, the engines, of which the 

cylinders are ^3 in., 375 in., 6i£ in., by 39 in. stroke, 

worked with the utmost smoothness; the new design of 

■user proved very efficient and easily maintained a 

high vacuum. The engines ran to 80 revolutions and 

developed 1,850 I.H.P., for which the boilers supplied 

an ample head of steam. Fully loaded the ship attained 

a speed of 13 knots, being well above that contracted for. 

i.iber. 

Peebles.— On September 16th, the steel screw steamer 

Peebles, built by Messrs. The Northumberland Shipbuild- 

Co. : Ltd., Howdon-on Tyne, to the order of Mi 
B. J. Sutherland & Co., Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tvne, left the 
Tyne for her official trial trip. After the trial trip, which 
proved satisfactory in everj way, the vessel returned to 
the Tyne to load for Bombay under the command of 
Captain Wallace. See Launches, September. 
Japanese Prince— On September 16th, the steamer 
Prince built by Messrs. Win. Doxford & E 
Ltd., of Sunderland, to the order of The Prime Line, Ltd., 
(James Knott, Esq.), Newcastle, had her sea trial. See 
Launches, September. 

Princess Alice.— The steamship Princess Alice, the 
latest addition to the fleet of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Co., has just successfully completed a series of exhaustive 
- at sea off the mouth of the river Tyne. A high 
speed was maintained and the machinery and boilers 
worked to the entire satisfa tion of the owners. The 
vessel has been fitted with the McNab Marine Register 
and Indicator instriu; 

Roselands. Or September 16th, the steel screw steamer 
/, is, built bj Messrs. W. Gray* Co., Ltd. roth order ol 
p ping Co.. Ltd., Wesl I I 

Wilson & I ". managers), was taken on hertrial trip 1 
formance oi the ship and machinery was 
an average speed of 11 knots being a1 Mter the 

ompleted her trial she returned to the hai 
when a number of gui : ul " neon. 

,/, is lefl foi Hull to load foi 
River Plate. For Launch, sei Octobei 
Vryhandel.— On September 16th, the Vryhand, pro 
iffii lal trial trip in Hartlepool B I 

u built by Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Docks 
pvaart Maatschappij G ol Antwerp. 

I hroughoul the trial thi dl auxiliai i 

verj ■ about 11 knot 

lie I " L A 

Cocl n) Donkey Boiler with Patei 

has been supplied and fitted. For I 

Borodino. On September 19th, this vessel, built by 
M. pbuilding and Engini Hull, 

the ordei oi Mi 

ial trial trip. I 
..I ship and machinery gave great satisfaction to all con 

1 tunch, 
1 1 ■ sue. 

Rothley. On September 20th, Un- 
built by the Blyth Shipbuilding and Drj Docks Co., Ltd., 
sea tor trial. This vessel, which is the 
tion to ti steamers owned I". I " l< " 

Ltd. (Messrs. Stephens, Sutton & Stephens, 
N. 7 1 vne. managers), ha under 

1 vej [01 th 

ih, with a 1 

having poop, bridgi 
1 
ind for t' ers in 

sidi the bridge tie topgallant 

castle, [he !■ pecially*adapted foi l 

cargo, grain and wood trade, having large hatches ale: 



holds and is equipped with gn of deck 

inery, ini In and 

I I I ilir Hill. .: I . 

11 d power b [he 

Maine I Co., Ltd. Wall- le 

-is in., 41 in. and 68 in. by 45 in. stroke, worki 1 lbs. 

ure. The repn oi owners builders and 

11 board during the I Bed with 

ship and mat hinei j ults 

' Hied. The hull and machinery have been built 

under the snpervision ol Mr. C. Landreth, of N 

lie. 

Baron Erskine. On Se| II Hogarth 

and Sons' new stei >n Er shine, built by Mi 

! McMillan & Son. Ltd., Dumbarton, ran trials on 
Firth of Clyde, when a speed of 1-' knots was <■ I he 

dimensions oi - el are: — Length be! pen 

diculars, 415 ft. ; breadth, 56 it. ; and it. 9 in. 

[he a supplied bj Mi D vid Rowan 

and Co < .1. sgi iv Oi ipl ds, which ■■ 

ine\ factory, the ste 1 li it forCarddi ; 

Essex Abbey. On September 27th, the spi ed trials ol 
new 6,2 ;i .-inn cargo steamer ! 

built .11 Greenock to the ordei ol Mi srs. II. Meldrum and 
Co., London, were successfully carried out on the Firth of 
Clyde. Despite the unfavourable weather conditions, the 
vessel, in light 1 ined the high speed of 14 knots on 

the measured mill of! Skelmorlie, with the coal consumption 
well within the limit. For Launch, see Octol 

Tysla. -i in October 2nd er Tysla, 

built and engined by Messrs. Win. Doxford Ltd., 

Sunderland to the ordei ol Missis. Fearnli r, of 

Christiania, for Den Norske Alnka og Australialinje, ran a 
successful trial, when a mean speed ol 1 3J knots was obtained. 
1 In- Tysla has been built to British Corporation and Nor 
wegian Vi ifications, and 1 ties were 1 

sented a< the trial; also present wen Mr. \. Nicol, Captain 
Mr. \. Kuts. For Launch, see October issue. 

Oristano. — OnOctober6th tl 
built by Mi I!.. Northumberland Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 

Howdon-on-Tyne, to Messrs. Furness, W 

and Co. I ' I ' 'ii tlepool left the Tyne for I 

trip. I 1 , trial trip proved in every waj satisfactory 
and a speed of 11 knots was obtained. For Launch 
October issue. 

Cayo Romano. (In Octobei oth, the new steamer 1 
Hi , built bj Messrs. William Dobson & O . for 

the ( ayo Line, Ltd., was taken foi hi 1 trial run oft 1 
Alter the trial the 1 or Bordeaux. F'or 

Launch, see Octobei issue. 

Coramba. — On October ,ti the new twin-screw 
mba, buill 1 for the North Coast Steam Na^ 

tion I N.S.W.), ran trials on the Clyde. The 

machinery worked satisfactorily, and a speed in 

.1 requirements was attained. The Coramba sails 
for Sydm 1 Capi Sh •• en built undei the 

superinti m : Hendrj 1 1 

For Launch, see October 1 

Galway Castle. 1 1 oth, this large twin si 

mer, built 1 land & Wolff, Ltd B 

for the Union-Castle Line, left Belfast and. a 
factory trials on the Clyde, proceeded to Hamburg. During 
traction tl has been under the supervision ol 

Mr. (ohn last. R.N.R., superintendent and Mr. 

C. W. Shute, the Company's naval architect Foi 1 lunch, 
■ 
Wollongbar. The new twin screw 1 

I. 1 Wollongbar, built at Troon tor the North O 
Steam Navigation Co., Sydney (N - d her 

official trials in the Firth tithshe 

six-hours full -; ge compan; ts on 

board. The trials the 

contract - 

een built to 
1 

nd depth 
nidation foi and 

fort\ TopeUing 1 

linder bala 
engines, with four -ingle ended return hi 



>4l 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. November, 1911. 



Zealandic. On < 1 in-, nil.' large tw in 

Mult by Mi ■ 1 1. n land S w orfl Ltd., foi tin 
\n ii .iii. in sen 1. e, li it Belfast aftej atis 
factor; trials 1 For Launcl August issue. 

Cotovia. 1 11 .-til. the s.s 1 pi o( eedi ii on 

hei official trial trip in Hartlepool Baj throughout the 

the engines and all auxiliarii worked verj satisfactorily 

tin- vessel 1 I 1 in n .- .... ,i ., peed oi 12 knots, 

whi( li «.i tisfactory to all on board ini luding 

the owners' representativi 1 in vet .1 and hei machinerj 

have beet superintended during construction bj 

Mr. W. I. Steel of Li mi li m « hi ■ has bei n residing in Hart le 

pool since the It keel I'.n I. aunch.: see October issue. 

Redesmere. On October 12th the s.s ... built 

by the Sunderland Shipbuilding I o., I td. to the order of 

Messrs Herbert Watson & Co., oi Manchester, foi the Watson 

1 td., was t.ilu n to sea on her official loadi d 

trial. The trial was in every way mosl satisfactory, and 

everything worked well Mi Herbert Watson, who was 

present, expn sed himseli as highly pleased with the vessel 

and her machinery. On completion oi the trial the ship 

proceeded direct to Palermo to take hei place in the ownet 

Mediterranean trade, for which she is specially designed. 

lei I .uiiii li -re October issue. 

Egremont Castle.— On October 14th, the s.s. Egremont < astle, 
built by Messrs. Craig, taylor & Co., Ltd., Thornaby Ship- 
building Yard, Stockton-on-Tees, was taken to sea for her 
trial trip, which proved highly satisfactory. During the 
wholi ct the trip everything worked with the greatest smooth- 
ness, and a speed oi i| knots was maintained. The vessel 
has been built to the order of the Lancashire Shipping I o., 
Ltd. (Messrs. James Chambers & Co.). Liverpool, under the 
superintendence of Messrs. ]•;. H. Bushell, Fletcher & King 
of Liverpool. Captain Hendy, of Liverpool, and Mr. A. H. 
Sutcliffe (resident inspector), and they all expressed them- 
■ thoroughly pleased with the ship and engines. Im- 
mediately alter the trial the vessel left for Tampa under 
command of Captain B. V. Smith. She has been fitted with a 
complete set of McNab Direction and Revolution Indicators. 
For Launch, see October issue. 

Koopa. -The new twin-screw passenger steamer Koopa, 
built and engined by Messrs. Ramage & Ferguson, Ltd., foi 
the Brisbane Tug and Steamship Co., Ltd., Brisbane, Queens- 
land, has completed a most satisfactory trial trip on the 
Firth of Forth, a speed of over 16 knots being obtained on 
the measured mile. A feature of the trial was the absence 
of vibration, the vessel proving herself most comfortable at 
.ill speeds. The requirements of the contract as to speed 
and trim draught and stability which were of the most diffi- 
cult nature, were fully conformed to, and Mr. H. E. Campbell, 
representing the owners, expressed himself as being highly 
pleased with the results obtained. The vessel sailed for 
Brisbane under the command of Captain R. D. Taylor. 
For Launch, see October issue. 

South Shields.— The new vehicular ferry South Shi, Lis. 
winch has been built for the service between North and South 
Shields by Mi ssrs Wood, Skinner & Co., Ltd., Bill Quay, to 
the order of the Tyne Improvement Commission, has run her 
official trials. The vessel is of the following dimensions : — 
Length overall, 115 ft. ; beam over sponsons. 43 ft. ; beam 
overall, 30 ft. ; depth moulded, n£ ft. She is a departure 
from the present type of vehicular ferryboats, being twin- 
screw instead of paddle. She is also fitted with double gang- 
ways to facilitate the traffic, and the alteration in design of 
vessel will permit many more vehicles to be accommodated. 
On the trials the vessel was loaded as she will be when carrying 
the heaviest weights, and maintained an average of 9-9 knots. 
The stopping,- turning and manoeuvring trials were also all 
very satisfactory. The twin-screw triple-expansion engini s 
worked without the slightest hitch and with an entire absence 
of vibration. Besides the main engines, the vessel is fitted 
with double friction gear hoisting engines for the gangways. 
Amongst those present were Mr. N. G. Gedye (engineer to 
the Tyne Improvement Commission), Mr. C. H. Tate (naval 
architect), Mr. McClintock (manager of Howdon Yard), 
Captain Frith (harbourmaster), Mr. Dixon (ferry superin- 
tendent), Mr. L. Skinner (Wood. Skinner & Co.), Mr. George 
and Mr. Thos. Baird (Baird Bros.). 

Otto Trechmann. — On October 14th, the handsome steel 
screw steamer Otto Trechmann, built by Messrs. William 
Gray & Co., Ltd., for Messrs. Trechmann Bros., West Hartle- 



pool, had hei trial trip. A run wai madi to the 1 j ni and back, 
with eminently satislai ton results both in regard to the per- 
formance "l slap and machinery, the average speed oi ship 
being 12 knots, \lt.r disembarking hei vi itors, the vessel 

p led on hei voyage to Cardiff to load, The Otto Trech- 

< the 1 ight ii I. .inn 1 Me 1 s. \\ ilium ( .i.i\ & Co., 
1 td have built foi Missis. Trechmann lims. Sin 
will take the highest class in Lloyd's Register, and is of 
the following dimensions, viz.: Length overall, 382 ft.; 
breadth, 51 it. i, in, , and depth, -• 1 ft. in in., with extra 
long bridge, poop and topgallant forecastle. The saloon, 

state-rooms, captain's, officers' and engineers' 1 ns, etc., 

will be fitted up in houses on the bridge deck and the crew's 
berths 111 the forecastle. The hull is built with deep bulb- 
angle frames, cellular double bottom and large alt-peak 
ballast tank, eight strain win. lies, steam-steering gear amid- 
ships, hand-screw gear aft, patent direct steam windlass, 
steel middle line bulkhead for grain cargoes, stockless anchors, 
telescopic masts with lore and alt rig, I mats on deck overhead, 
and all requirements for a first-class cargo steamer. Triple- 
expansion engines are being supplied by the Central Marine 
Engine Works of the builders, having cylinders 25^ in., 40J 
in. and 67 in., with a piston stroke of 45 in., and three large 
steel boilers for a working pressure of 180 lbs. per square 
inch. Messrs. Waile.s. Dove & Co.'s " Bitumastic " enamel 
has been applied to bunkers, boiler-room, and their " Bitu- 
mastic " covering to the tank tops. 

Westmoor. — On October 16th, this steel screw steamer, 
built to the order of Messrs. Walter Runciman & Co., New 
castle, by Messrs. John Readhead & Sons, Ltd., West Docks, 
South Shields, was taken to sea on her official trial trip, 
which proved satisfactory in every way. The vessel is 
of the improved single-deck type, and is built to Lloyd's 
highest class, and under their special survey. She is 
375 ft. in length by 51 ft. by 28 ft. 9 in., with poop, 
long extended bridge, and top gallant forecastle, and 
is fitted throughout with shifting boards and grain 
feeders in compliance with the requirements of the 
Grain Loading Act, and well equipped with a large number 
of steam winches and derricks for the rapid handling of 
cargoes. Steel houses are constructed on the bridge deck 
for accommodation of captain and officers, and also for 
engineers and apprentices. She has a double bottom for 
water ballast as well as a large after-peak tank. The vessel 
will be fitted with triple-expansion engines, also constructed 
by Messrs. John Readhead & Sons, Ltd., having cylinders 
26 in., 42 in. and 69 in., by 48 in. stroke, steam being obtained 
from two large steel boilers of 180 lbs. pressure. There is 
also a large marine type donkey boiler. 



BOARD OF TRADE EXAMINATIONS. 



1911 

July 27th Harvey, C. 
27th — Makwell, J 
27th— Metcalf, H. 
27th— Feel, F . . 
27th — Richardson, R 
27th — Watson, W 



Extra First Class. 



Ex iC N. Shields 
Ex iC Hull 
Ex iC N. Shields 
Ex iC N. Shields 
Ex rC N. Shields 
Ex iC London 



Note — iC denotes First Class : 2C Second Class. 



July 

Annan, J. 

Back, F 

Batley, F. . . 
Bevin. G. 

Birch, A 

Bristow , H . . 
Carter, H. 
Cawthorn, A. 
Cromar, T. . . 
Davies, J 
Dempster, D. 
De Werpe, A. 
Dodds, W. . . 
Downing, A 
Dowsen, M. 
Finkle, N. .. 

Gale, F 

Gordon, J. 
Guthrie , \ . . 



27th. 

. . 2C N. Shields 
. . iCN. Shields 
. . rC N Shields 
. . 2C Liverpool 
. . 2C N. Shields 
. . rC Hull 
. . rC Sunderl'd 
. . 2C Hull 
. . iC Greenock 
. . rC N. Shields 
. . 2C Greenock 
. . iC Sunderl'd 
. . rC Greenock 
. . 2C Aberdeen 
. . 2C N. Shields 
. iC Sunderl'd 
. . 2C N. Shields 
. . 2C Loidn'ry 
. . iC Aberdeen 



Hardy, C 2C 

Harris, C iC 

Hogg, M iC 

Hughes, F iC 

Hutton, H iC 

Jarman, J rC 

Lidgey, F 2C 

Lindegreen, T. 2C 

Low, C. rC 

Miller, J rC 

Nicoll, J 2C 

O'Halloran, 11 iC 

Parker, T iC 

Potts, A iC 

Quine, L 2C 

Rainford, A . . 2C 

Ramsay, A iC 

Richardson, A. 2C 
Richardson, T. 2C 
Robson, A . . . . 2C 



Liverpool 

N. Shields 

N. Shields 

Liverpool 

Londn'ry 

Aberdeen 

Bristol 

Greenock 

Aberdeen 

London 

Aberdeen 

Greenock 

Sun<ierl'd 

N. Shields 

Liverpool 

London 

Greenock 

Liverpool 

Hull 

N. Shields 



November, mii 



THE MARINE ENGINEER A.ND N T \\'\I. ARCHITECT. 



M5 



Sim. J 2C Aberdeen 

Stott. F . . . .. iC Sunderl'd 
Story, E. .. . . 2C London 
Summerill, T .. 2C Bristol 
Walker, A . . . . 2C London 

Wesley, P 2C Sunderl'd 

Williams, R P 2C Greenock 
Williams, K .. ->C N Shields 

Wilson. II 11' N Shields 

N Shields 

August jrd 

Adams. II .... 2C Belfast 

Bilsland, R. .. iC I-ondon 
Clare, W .... 2C Liverpool 

Cook, J -:(" Liverpool 

Crighton. A .. it" South ton 

Dunn. K iC N Shields 

.... 2C Liverpool 
ell, I .. .. 2C Liverpool 

1 w iC Liverpool 

i eith 

Islip, T iC Cardiff 

Jordan. T iC London 

King. K iC South'ton 

Lewis A .... 2C Cardiff 
McGillivr.iv, A. 2C Gla 
Malcolm. G. .. 2C Belfast 
Merson, | .... 2CN Shields 

K 2C N. Shields 

rson, A . . 2C South'ton 
Richardson, W zC Cardiff 
Round, J . . . . 2C Liverpool 

Sim. J 2C South'ton 

Skerratt. W. .. 2C Cardiff 

Taylor. D 2C I-eith 

Taylor, P tCN Shields 

Telford. R .... 2C N Shields 
Tookev, A .... iC London 
Walker. J iC Leith 

August 10th. 

Beattie. J 2C Liverpool 

Caldwell. D. .. 2C Greenock 

Carter, H iC Liverpool 

Craige, R 2C Liverpool 

Cunningham. D. 2C Greenock 
1 1 Vg irne, A . . 2C London 

ie, J 2C Dundee 

er, W tCN shields 

Finn. J 2C N Shields 

Galloway, j. .. 2C Liverpool 
Guthrie C .... 2C Greenock 
Harbottle. A . . 2C N Shields 

Hedley, W 2C X Shields 

Henry. J 2C Dundee 

Jackson. J iC N. Shields 

Jellard. J 2C Liverpool 

Kyle. G. fields 

Legg, J iC Dublin 

Lilly. II iC Liverpool 

Lindsay. R rpool 

Lunn, j 1 C N. Shields 

McCaughin, W i(" Liverpool 
\1' Ewen, W .. 2C Greenock 
Marshall. J. . . 2C Greenock 
Miskin, G . . . . 2C London 
Monteith. R .. iC Greenock 
Morris. D . . . . iC London 

lat. J iC Liverpool 

I'aterson. S. . . 2C Greenock 
Shearer. S . ... iC Liverpool 
Sheraton. K .. iC N Shields 

Smail. R 2C Greenock 

Smethhurst. \ rpool 

ire. O iC I.ondon 

Tiddeman, E .. 2C London 
Tullock. L .... iC N. Shields 
Wilson, R . . . . iC London 

DSt 17th 

Allan. W .... iC W Harfl 
; son, R . . 2C Leith 



. W .... 2CN Shields 

r, A i'I '-'ih 

. I iC 1 Has 

urdifl 
•.•hell. I ' . . 2( ' 1 .1 isgow 

Care. I". 2C Cat 

pool 
juhoun, W. iC ( rlasg 

I lair. ( , iC London 

pool 
1 laniels, F . . . . 2<" I.ondon 
D ■ urdifl 

nie, I • • ;ow 

m. 1 2t" Leith 

is. II .. iC London 

Elder. J 

.... rC London 
1 .endall, W. . ' uth 

. 1 2C W Harfl 

Groves, A 2C < ardifl 

Harlow, | tC < 

! . . . . 2C Liverpool 
!l 1 
Hudspeth, E .. 2C London 
Hughes, II .... i ( ' Liverpool 
[amieson, W. .. iC Glasgow 
Jessop. c. .... tCN Shields 

Jones. W 2C N Shields 

Jordan. E 2C Cardiff 

Kelly. J [OW 

Kendall, J . . . . i<~. I'lym 
Knowles, B . . iC Cardiff 
Linton. ( ', . . . . 2C ( 
Liscombe, H . . 2C Cardiff 

Logan. J iC Glasgow 

kenzie. D. iC Glasgow 
McKinney, T... i(" Liverpool 
eod, I ....i('( rlasgow 
Matthews, J . . 2C Liverpool 
M '1 1) telsi m, V tC N Shields 
Murchie, J .... 2C Glasgow 

: ay, J 2C Glasgow 

I'aterson , A . . iC < rlasgow 

Ip. J 2C South'ton 

Sowerby. C. .. iC N Shields 

Stark. G 2C W Hart'l 

Stenhouse. J. .. iC" N Shields 

Steven, J iC Glasgow 

Storm, J iC Cardiff 

Thomson, D. .. iC London 
Townson. G. .. 2C Liverpool 

Walters. T iC Cardiff 

Wbicber, L . . 2C Cardiff 
Whincop, W .. 2C N Shields 
Williams. W. .. 2C Carditt 

Wright, E 2C N. Shields 

g. A .... tCN Shields 

Augusi 24th. 

Archer, H iC Hull 

Allison, R iC Greenock 

Arthur, R iC Sunderl'd 

nes, T . . . . 2(" Liverpool 

Birch. T 21" Sunderl'd 

Blake. I. iC N Shields 

Bruce, E iC Liverpool 

Cairnes, G 2C Sunderl'd 

Christie. G iC N Shields 

Cockle, C 2C Bristol 

Collinson, D. .. 2C London 

Cowell. I : iC N Shields 

dimming. A .. 2C N Shields 
Douglas, G. .. iC Greenock 
Dyer, B 2<" London 

.■combe. W. i(" Sunderl'd 
uson. A .. 2C Greenock 

bes, G ... 11 \ Shields 

Hall, H iC London 

Herbert, J 2C N Shields 

.:. I 2CN Shields 

; pool 

□aghan, E iC I.ondn'iy 
Kerr, \ .... nock 



■n, S 
aid, J 
Marrs. 11 
Milne. A 

hell, R . 

Neill, E 

Penkevman, S 

• . J 

Quested, W . 
Rhynas, J ... 

Scott, J 

Scott. M 

Skinner, W . 
Smyth, J ... 
Vincent. J 
Watson, W 
Wilson, A 

Wilson. B 

Yorston. R. . . . 



ndon 
eenock 
. iC I ..ndn'ry 
• enock 

-hields 
erpool 

ndon 
.ii'l "ndon 

■enock 
ndn'ry 
Shields 
ndn'ry 

ndon 
. 2C London 

'•enock 
. 2< Liverpool 

.enock 



August ,-iist. 

Anderson, J. .. 2C Glasgow 
Buscombe. W. iC C. 

Carson, W 2C Liverpool 

Chapman, T .. 2C N Shields 
Coppock, N. .. iC Cardiff 
Crawford. J. S. 2C Bi 

Donati, F 2C (ardifl 

Douglas, L 2C South'ton 

Forrest, W tC I.ondon 

[man 1 1 iC Falmouth 
Grainger, B. iC Leith 
Harrington, L. iC Cardiff 

Jenkins, H iC N. Shields 

Jones, E 2C Cardiff 

Jordan, W 2C Glasgow 

Kemp, H. .. iC Ca 

Lewis, W iC Cardiff 

Ling, 1 iC Glasg 

Lund, B iC London 

Mclntyre, J. . . 2C Liverpool 

Paul, F 2C Liverpool 

Phillips, F . . . . 2C Cardiff 

Phillips, V 2C London 

Roseburgb, V. 2C N. Shields 

Ross, J 2C Leith 

Rowe. H iC London 

Sherwin. S iC London 

Stark, A iC Lmdon 

Weddell. W .. 2C N. Shields 
Wharton, G ... 2C London 

September 7th 

Anderson. A .. 2C Glasgow 
Armstrong. R. iC N Shields 

Bain, A tCl rlasg 

Barber, J tCN Shields 

nchard, W iC N. Shields 

Brown, F 2C Hull 

Cooper, G 2C London 

Darroch, C. . . 2C Glasgow 
Dickinson. A . iC N Shields 

Foster, S 2C Liverpool 

I orrest, A 2C Glasgow 

( .arrow, J 2C Glas. 

Greenhorn. F. iC N. Shields 
Hamnett. J .. iC Liverpool 

Harrop, G iC Liverpool 

Hughes, W. .. 2C Liverpool 

Hume, J iC Glasg 

Huntingdon. E 2C Liverpool 
Kennaugh. . . 2C Livi 
Kinmoni '< shields 

Laird, M iC G 

Lang. T 2C Liverpool 

1 ney. J . . . iC London 
Mackie, I 

Malcolm. \ . . 2C I ■':.< 
Martin, D . . . . 2<" ( dasgow 
Nelson. | . . 
Orange, H. .. 

\ Shields 



V 

Smith, J ... 
• W . 
n, J 

Septem 

Alexander, J . 
Baker. A 

■ •r. W 
Fisher 

II 

W .. 

dl, H. 
Klottn 

Leviss. I . . . . 
McClelland. J 
Mitchell. W 

Pate. D 

Pearson. W, 
Peters, W. .. 
Russell. G. . . 

Scott, T 

Sims. G. 
Smith. W 
Walker. J .. 



.' I 

ndon 

l*r 14th 

. . 2C Greenock 
. . iC N Shields 

elds 
Dundee 
.plar 
Liverpool 

. iC ( Iree 

. . 2C Dublin 
.. 2C N. Shields 

\ shields 
. 2C N. Shields 

Dundee 
. . iC Greenock 

Liverpool 
. . iC Gree- 
. . 2C Greenock 
. . 2C N Shields 
. . iC N Shields 
.. 2C N. Shields 
. . 2C N Shields 



September 21st 

Atkinson, R. .. iC N. Shields 
Bamborough.W. 2C Leith 

Bell. C 2C N Shields 

ker, J 2C W Hart 1 

.right, J... 2C Liverpool 
Chalmers, T. . . 2C Glasgow 

Crooks, R 2C South'ton 

1 1 iC Glasgow- 
's. K 2C South'ton 

. dson, J . . 2C T .eith 
Edmunds. D .. 2C Cardiff 
Fairweather, J. 2C Cardiff 

Iawcett, T 2C W Hart'l 

Fowler. W 2C Glasgow 

Frv. T 2C Liverpool 

in, W iC N Shields 

Goodman. R, .. iC London 

Grivas, K. iC Cardiff 

Hartas, J 2C W Hart 1 

D 2C I-eith 

Henderson, F. iC Glasgow 

II sie, J 2C Glasgow 

Hughes. E 2C Cai 

Johnson. M .. 2C Cardifl 
Lambert, A. .. 2C Liverpool 

ie, R 2C W Hart'l 

Mi 1 ormick, J. iC I. eith 

Mi I 21 W Harfl 

McLachlan, F iC Cardifl 

or, I iC Glasg 

Melville, | iC London 

Miller. A 2C W Han 1 

Munro. W 2C I^ith 

ton, I .... iC N Shields 
O'Connell. M tC London 

Pattison. J 2C London 

arth K . . 2C Glasgow- 
Rankin, E iC Cardifl 

i,H ,.iCN Shields 
Richards D . . iC London 
■ bins. C. A 

irffetter, II 2C Liverpool 
Smith. W .... 2C W Harfl 
Snowdon, G. . . iC N Shields 

Tod, W 2C Leith 

Turnbull. J . . 2C W Harfl 

Watkins, J .... 

White: iC London 

:OW 



: -l" 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Novi. mi-.mc 191? 



September 28th. 
Baker, 11 »C Sunderl'd 



Brand. ( ' 
Cameron, K. 
Cockburn, G 
Cotton, C 

1 >a\ ies. J 



iC At* 

zC i',:. 

iC N.Shields 
[C Bri itol 
.■(' 1 iverpool 



h, D 2C London 

m, D. C 2C London 
Everingham, F. iC Hull 

dwin, I . . 2C .Liverpool 
Harvej w - ■ tC Sunderl'd 
[ohnstone, A... 2C Greenock 

Jones, E 2C Liverpool 

MacDonald, R. iC Liverpool 
McKenzie, A. .. 2C London 
Matthews, C. . . 2C Liverpool 
Miti hell, \ .. iC N Shields 

Muir, C 2C London 

Paterson, A .. iC Greenock 
Richardson, W iC London 
Robertson, f. 2C Aberdeen 
Robertson. W. 2C Aberdeen 

Spencer, j 2C Greenock 

Smith. G. 2C Dover 

Tegart, W iC L'nderry 

Thomson. R. .. 2C N Shields 
Wallace, A 2C Greenock 

October 5th. 

Akers. O iC Cardiff 

Alexander, J. . . iC Glasgow 

Berry, C iC Liverpool 

Campbell, L. . . 2C Belfast 
Carson, H. D. 2C Glasgow 

Conpar, D iC Glasgow 

Coombes, W, .. 2C Cardiff 

Cotts, E 2C Glasgow 

Cresswell, F. . . 2C Cardiff 

Dawson, C 2C Leith 

Dickie, J iC Glasgow 

Duncan, J iC Liverpool 

Gray, W iC London 

Grey, G iC N.Shields 

Gillard. S iC Cardiff 

Godfrey, T 2C N.Shields 

Hannay, J. .... 2C London 

Helps, C 1 C South ton 

Hemphill, H .. iC Belfast 

Hogg, J iC Cardiff 

Inniss, A 2C Liverpool 

Kemp, W iC Liverpool 

Lamb, W 2C Glasgow 

Lindsay, G iC London 

Lock, T 2C Cardiff 

McFarline, H. iC Liverpool 
McLeod, J iC Glasgow 



Malloy, 1: zC N Shields 

Mitchell. R .. 2C South'ton 

Moore, H 2C Liverpool 

Mmr, \V iC N Shields 

1 earson, W. .. 2C Glasgow 

Peden, T 2C Glasgow 

Pollock, W .... tC Glasgow 

[ley, A 2C Glasgow 

Rainev. R iC London 

Ramsay, N. .. 2C N.Shields 
Rodgers, | . ... zC Liverpool 

Rogers, T iC Falmouth 

Rose, J iC Liverpool 

Scrimgeour, W. iC Liverpool 

Sonter, R 2C Leith 

Stirling, J. .... iC Glasgow 

Thomas, E iC Cardiff 

Townsend, J. .. iC N Shields 
Treweeks, H. .. 2C N.Shields 
Twelvetrees, G. 2C Liverpool 
Watson, J . . . . 2C ( Hasgow 
Whicher, S. .. iC Cardiff 
Williams, A . . 2C Cardiff 

Wilson, D 2C Leith 

Wright. M. .. iC N.Shields 

October 12th 

Banks, J iC Greenock 

Byrne, R 2C London 

Caird, G iC Greenock 

Chambers, G. 2C N.Shields 

Coslett, J iC Liverpool 

Cuthbert, G. . . 2C Greenock 

Devine, J 2C Dublin 

Dew, J iC Greenock 

Dryden, E iC N.Shields 

Economides, D. iC N.Shields 

Ellis, J. H 2C Liverpool 

Gillett, W. J. .. 2C London 

Glass, D iC Liverpool 

Gregg, B iC London 

Hardie, D iC Liverpool 

Harwood, C. . . 2C London 

Hill, W. E iC Greenock 

Hobby, F 2C N.Shields 

Jeffrey, D 2C Greenock 

Lloyd, F 2C Greenock 

Matheson, R... 2C Greenock 
McArthur, C... iC Greenock 
McFarlane, L. 2C Greenock 
McMurchy, J. iC Greenock 

Monro, H iC Greenock 

Murdoch, A. .. iC Greenock 
Roberts, G.B S. iC Greenock 
Stephenson, F. 2C London 
Unsworth, F. .. 2C Liverpool 
Wilkinson, R... iC London 
Yanekian, K. . . 2C South'ton 



The Marine Engineer and Naval 
Architect Patent Record. 

Compiled by Messrs. E. P. Alexander &• Son, Chartered Patent 
Agents, 306, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

13,494. Protecting Ships ; Air-casings. Comprises a flat- 
bottomed hull having the greatest draught forward and the 
maximum beam towards the bows. The greatest width c, d 
is about one-eighth of the length, and situated at a distance 
of one-third of the length from the bows. The difference 
in draught fore and aft is about one-quarter of the draught 



FIC.2 




upon its in 1. 11 1 ipherical bags or balloons, is situated between 
n and the ship Metal tubes foi compressed air are also 
iituated a1 the bottom oi the hull to avoid sinking. 

14,118. Turbines, [el wheels oi the kind described in 
ipecification [3,98 'io are provided with an improved 
arrangement oi inlet ports. \ three-waj cock admits the 
motive Muni for forward 01 reverse driving to passages 1 oi e, 
which are disposed a1 different points and alternate levels 




along the length oi the cylinders enclosing the roto: 
rhese rotors are provided with pockets of the shape shown 
in Fig. 4, extending between circular pa( ked flanges h, Fig. j. 
The motor is applicable for driving ships with two propellers. 
14,865. Turbines. Axial-flow Type ; Reversing. A re- 
versible turbine is made with two concentric sets oi black's 
0, p for high and low pressure working respectively. Two 
inter-connected valves g, one at each end of the turbine, arc 
provided for reversing. Each valve controls two inlet ports 
h, j leading to the blade sets ,,, p respectively, and an exhausi 



FIC.2. 




port i. When one valve connects the ports A and j the other 
connects the ports j and i. In the position shown, steam 
passes through the port h to the high-pressure blades 0, 
whence it passes through the corresponding port h at the 
other end of the turbine. It is then passed to the low- 
pressure blades p, and finally passes through the port j to 
the exhaust port i. 

15,124. Steam Generators. Feed-water, controlling ; alarms, 
low-water. Float apparatus for controlling the supply of 
feed-water, or for operating a low-water alarm, comprises 



<"IC2 




aft. To prevent damage by grounding, a steel cuirass / is 
fitted to the bows, and a thick sheet of indiarubber, having 



an adjustable tube / in the top of the generator or vessel and 
in communication therewith, a rod h formed at its top with a 
valve adapted to seat in the tube /, and a float b attached 
to the lower end of the rod. 



December, iqn. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT, 



147 



The Marine Engineer 

And Naval Architect. 
LONDON, DECEMBER, iqi 1 ■ 



THE THAMES [RONWORKS AND THE COMMERCIAL 
SUCCESS OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPR1 

TI I E announcement of the fact of the appointment 
by the Chancery Division of the High Court, of 
a receiver and manager of the Thames Iron- 
works Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, did 
not cause any surprise to those who, like ourselves, 
have been acquainted with the economic conditions 
which have obtained in reference to engineering and 
shipbuilding on the banks of the Thames for the past 
thirty-five years. The aspect of the case is a very 
significant one, not only from the standpoint of in- 
dustrial London, but from the national standpoint, of 
the existence on the Thames of adequate repairing 
facilities for naval vessels in the case of war. Re- 
viewing the past, what do we hud, but that the old- 
established firms of Maudsleys, Humphreys and Penns 
have ceased to exist, and the engineering and boiler 
works of the latter have been absorbed by the Thames 
Ironworks, which remains the sole instance of re- 
presentation of a manufacture which in the past has 
been one for which the port of London held a world- 
wide reputation. Two otliei g firms have 
migrated to other parts of the kingdom, viz. : Messrs. 
Yarrow have gone to the Clyde and Messrs. Thorney- 
croft to Woolston. Those who have made a study of 
the economic conditions obtaining in London for many 
years past have long recognised that the cost of the 
raw material delivered in the Thames, the high cost 
of living, the consequential higher wages and the in- 
creasing burden of local taxation, must in time produce 
such a set of conditions that the remunerative utilisa- 
tion of capital must necessarily cease to be a possible 
accomplishment, and render London a place which was 
not in a position to successfully compete witli other dis- 
tricts where the conditions were much more favourable. 
It came as a surprise to many that the Admiralty saw 
their way to place the order for the Thunderer with the 
Thames Ironworks, as no authority has a better op- 
portunity of judging of the prospect of commercial 
successofcarryingout such an order than the Admiralty 
itself. To take one point, for example, in going round 
both the naval and private yards one cannot but be 
remarkably struck by the extensive means that have 
been adopted to reduce the cost of manufacture, by 
the installation of labour-saving appliances, and by 
the reduction of the amount of unnecessary transport 
of material. This is a process of reorganisation that 
has been in continual operation and during periods 
of great commercial activity when the burden of 
sinking fresh capital is comparatively a light one. 
These conditions however cannot obtain with regard 



to a concern which has been straggling for years 
against adverse trade conditions, and has only received 
spasmodic support in the form of orders for that class 
ol work which specially demands improved methods 
of manufacture, the cost of which can only be covered 
by a succession of such orders carried out under sound 
economic conditions. The loading up of financial 
burden on the shoulders of the employer by the im- 
position of high municipal taxation, by greater liability 
under the Workmen's Compensation Act, and by the 
proposed further burdens under the National Insurance 
Bill, appear to us to tend in the vers- opposite direction 
to that in which trade unionists desire development to 
take place. This position has been forcibly pointed 
out in a letter written by Dr. John Inglis, of Glasgow, 
and appearing in The Times of November 13th, the 
contents of which form subject for serious thought 
by all those who have at heart the welfare of the 
industrial community of this country. Dr. 1 nglis states 
from an experience of more than half a centurv 
that the fierce competition in the industry of ship- 
building and marine engine- ikes it difficult for 
any but the more fortunately placed establishments to 
keep their position within the solvent group, as the 
capital employed is large, the risks great and the 
technical skill not inconsiderable. He assumes that 
the capital invested is £"180 per man employed, and 
the profits realized on the average do not exceed £"5 
per man, or about 2$ per cent, on capital, after proper 
allowance for depreciation is made. The workman's 
share in wages is from £"70 to £"100 per annum, and 
the employer, who finds premises, workshops, 
machinery, materials, designs, buyers of the finished 
product, takes all risks and finances the workman 
weekly, while often waiting years for his own remunera- 
tion, need not be grudged the £5 per man per annum 
against the above workman's annual wages. But of 
this profit of £5 per man he has to survey the world 
for orders and collect money for paying his own and 
sub-contractor's workmen, and has to meet other calls 
as under. Workmen's compensation absorbs about 
24s. per man per annum, and equals 3 ioi in the £ of 
income tax, or 134 per cent, on capital. The Insur- 
ance Bill, it is calculated, will probably mean an 
additional 23s. per man per annum, equal to 4.7 in the 
£ of income tax. or 1 2 9 per cent, on capital, and death 
duties recurring every twenty-five years will require at 
least 7 2i per man to be set aside each year to meet 
them, equalling 1 5 per £ of income tax. These super 
taxes amount to ii per cent, on capital, or £i 4s. 2W. 
per man employed, or 9 io\ per £ income tax, besides 
the usual 1 2. which is a heavy tax in the time of peace. 
Dr. Inglis concludes his letter by citing a piece of advice 
of Mr. Ruskin to working men, which we think it desir- 
able to reproduce. ''You need not think that, even if you 
obtained a majority of representatives in the existing 
Parliament, you could immediately compel any system 
of business broadly contrary to that now established 



148 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



December, iqh. 



by custom. It you could pass laws to-morrow wholly 
Favourable to yourselves as you might think, b i aui e 
unfavourable to your masters and to the upper classes 
of society, the only result would be that the riches of 
the country would at once leave it, and you would 
perish in riot and famine." It would be well lot out 
national welfare if this advice were taken to heart by 
the working men of this country, whose dependence 
on the domestic utilisation of capital in a remunerative 
manner is of a much greater importance than they 
appear to appreciate, judging by their actions and 
words of the past few years. 

OIL FUEL. 

WE have in the past given particulars from time 
to time as to the use of oil fuel in steamers, 
and as we know that the subject is particu- 
larly interesting to some of our readers we shall 
continue to do so from time to time. A series of 
comparative experiments as to the relative values of 
oil fuel and coal fuel have recently been made on 
steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the 
results have been reported by Captain Troup, who 
occupies the position of manager of the British 
Columbia coast service of the railway in question. 
The first vessel dealt with was the Princess May, 
which at the time was undergoing repairs, and as under 
the old conditions of burning coal the desired speed 
was not always attained, a change was considered 
absolutely necessary. The working of vessels through 
certain channels at certain states of the tide necessi- 
tated a rigid time table, but it was found that the time 
losses due to cleaning of the fires and handling the 
ashes involved frequently the losing of the tide and 
the necessity for anchoring, causing a further loss of 
time. Since the installation of oil burners it is found 
that this vessel can maintain her average with only 
two boilers in place of the three necessitated by coal. 
A marked improvement in the steaming qualities of the 
boilers is shown, owing to the steady pressure of steam 
which is maintained not only from watch to watch, 
but also from day to day. In order to further test 
the question the steamer Princess Charlotte was fitted 
with oil burning apparatus. Her boilers are six in 
number, and each boiler has three furnaces, each fitted 
with Cyclone burners. Equally good results have 
been achieved as with the other vessel, and it is found 
that three and three-quarter barrels of oil will per- 
form the same duty as one ton of Vancouver Island 
coal. In order to maintain a substantial supply of 
oil to meet all reasonable contingencies the railway 
company have constructed a large tank having a 
capacity of about 55,000 barrels, in conjunction with 
a smaller tank of about 1,000 barrels capacity placed 
near the wharf. The transfer of oil from the large 
to the small tank is effected by a pipe line and steam 



pump, while the oil from the small tank is pumped 
by an electricallj driver pump directly into the oil 
tanks of the steamet at the rate of .about 1,0,10 
gallons per hour. 

SHIPBUILDING AND MARINE 
ENGINEERING FOR 1911. 

OUR coming Januarj number will be an cut. nurd and 
spe< in 1 1: in [t will < mil, un, hi addition in man} 
original artii les b) well Known writers, .in exhaustivi 
return oJ tin vessels and marine engines built throughout thi 

world. It is the in., i i tchaustive list r >u 1 >1 1 s.1 1< < 1 and Ei 

a complete record oi 1 in utmost use i iference. It should 

be m the hands oi .ill those connected with the shipbuilding 
ami marine engineering industries. The numbei lias a rapid 
sale and orders should be placed now. 



THE "LIGHTKEEPER. 



THE Society which publishes tins journal twice a year 
has in view the very worthy object oi sending literature 
to those whose days arc spent in solitary places ot 
the earth — the lighthouses of tin' roast lands and islands. 
1 lur sympathy has been invoked in tin' direction ot assisting 
to make known the Society, and we do so with pleasure, 
realizing that we owe much to the vigilance of the lighl 
keepers, and that their duties are carried on amid 
monotonous surroundings. The portrait of the keepei 
of the Menai Lighthouse, Mr. Young, appears 111 the winter 
issue of the " Lightkeeper," along with several others located 
in different parts of the world among them Mrs. Dan. 
Williams, who has been keeper of the Little Traverse Light- 
house. Michigan, for fifteen years, her total service being 
thirty-eight years. It is with regret we note that if the gloomy 
forebodings which herald the issue of the. winter number 
now before us are fulfilled — ami we hope they will not be — 
tin " Lightkeeper " will cease to exist as a publication of 
tin' Society from which it emanates, by reason of the cost, 
as the balance-sheet shows adeficit on this part of the work. 
An appeal is made for voluntary contributions to the funds 
of this mission and for subscribers to the magazine, if it is 
in be kept afloat. On this point it may be said that the 
usefulness of such a magazine is beyond doubt, affording 
a link between the beneficent mission and those it seeks to 
keep in touch with. The pages contain matter of interest, 
and the illustrations are good. At the same time it is well 
that the funds should not be so far encroached upon for the 
sake of the publication, and it is suggested that a less expensive 
medium with a wider circulation on commercial lines would 
serve the purpose. The " Lightkeeper " combines information 
on the subject of lighthouses, lifeboats and cognate matters 
with the inculcation of higher motives in life and action. 
The Hon. Director of the mission is Mr. Samuel A. Strain. 
21, Linenhall Street, Belfast. 



The Dermatine Co. — The extension of the factory of 
tins Company since the occasion of a former visit paid to 
it with a view to examine their products and methods of 
manufacture, has been completed, and the pressure which 
was laid upon the valve-making department especially has 
been relieved, so that the firm can now cope with orders from 
new customers, which formerly could not be dealt with, 
in connection with the Anchor bush valve, formerly described 
in our pages. 

Back to the Land. — The increasing burdens which are 
being placed upon the industries of the country will tend, 
ultimately, to bring home to the nation the mistak, :s made 
by the present-dav style of rushing through of legislation, 
without due consideration of the pirobable effects on various 
departments of life. The letter in the "Glasgow Herald," 
bearing upon the Insurance Bill, by Dr. John Inglis. show 
one aspect of it. Haste and rush are commendable when a 
fire has to be overcome, but when law and regulations with 
abiding results are framed, time and calm judgment are 
needed. 



December, iqii. Til! MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



'49 



NAVAL MATTERS PAST AND 
PROSPECTIVE. 

>wn Corral 

Portsmouth Dockyard. 
' I "HE most interesting event >.t late was the departu 

tin the King and Queen for India which 

' tool vember i i th. I he Ri ij 

.1 which was painted pure white, was escorted i>\ the 
'. iinl and i ii j^ 

painted light grey. A few days previous to 1 1n-. 

from the Lords of the Admiralty. Mr. 
Winston Churchill, the new First I 

submarine depot at Fort Blockhouse ami embarked in 
Subm tin a twi In run, while Rear Admiral 

itroller <>i ' with Sir ] 

tin Director of Dockyards, received ns ol workn 

In tin- afternoon their Lordships landed from tin- Admin 
divided into Lrtii i me ..t v. ! 
■Mill tin I irst Lord, made a tout <>i i ! while tin 

othei members of tin 1 Board i 

ments. An official dinner was given on boa icht 

in tin- evening. An intimation was issued 
further inspection arranged to take place was postponed ami 
their Lordships returned to London. On the roth t! 

with In- secretary, Real Admiral l re 

turned, and Mr. Churchill boarded tin- ;; knot destro; 
' ami went lor a trip past the Nab lightship at lull | 

placed 
"ii sheers in No. ; basin !"■ hei boilers I 
d ami lor the side armour-pl ■ ' i 

i- receiving her finishing touches. She will 

it is understood, be the tlagslnp of the rear-admiral second in 

command of the Second Division of tin Horn' Fleet. It 

was reported when tin- vessel carried out her gunnery trials 

broadsidi 

mi. on. -nt tii.it the) threat ned t.> 
her . ins useless. Dr. Ma. oamara que t ii mi i 

the II ding 

was purposely 

the oil bath casing o lining 

g displaced. No other damage was d the 

i gun armament was in no w 
lie battleship Neptune, the flagship of the I r-in- 

f of the Hon has come in for a i. i i [hi repairs 

to the cruiser llauhe. which was damaged in collision with 
the liner Olympic, 1 ' and the 

will probably occupy about three months. \ b 

instead ot a ram like that which Hie vessel 
The crui ently compl 

gh refit, is to be commissioned on No\ th to 

relieve th.- Powerful as flagship on the Australian Station. 
\s th. Royal yacht Victoria and Albeit will not be re. | 
this winter advantage is to lie taken ol her annual overhaul 
thoroughly renovate the state I ittli 

paid off for a refit. 
htv and Rocket havi ii paid off 

prep Real Admiral Moggridg taken 

niand of the local division of the Hon 
to h'.-ar-Admiral Limpus, and has hoisted his : 

Zealand, which vessel i- mi.il the Zealandia 

on December 1st. It is interesting to i r William 

Smith, the new Director of Naval Construction, entered this 
yard as a rope-house boy half a century ago. 

Devonport Dockyard. 
Ih< Admiralty yacht Enchantress arrived here on Novem- 
-t with the Lords ol the Admiralty on board, including 
Mr. Winston Churchill, the new First Lord. Next morning 

i of tie- yard was made visits being paid to ' 
-hip Centurion, <he new torpedo ruiser 

'I North Yard. In the 
blishments were visited and in the evening their I 
-hip 

1 "V I I i 1 

turned to I ondon. \ i 
Mr tii 

hall, th.- I ' 1 1... ken.!- and se\ I turns 

it workmen v. I h.- battleship was 

launched on the afternoon of November i8tb Mrs. Winston 



■ rming the naming 
I 
witm 

Brown 

pleted bj I 

4th. 

the battleship laid down. Si 

th th.- turbines ol i 
' i ials of th ken 

in Nov 

ghtl) out ol alignm 
tins was n to r. gauge th. 

turbines and al Ijusl their turbine blades so a- to 

prevent waste with 

new propellers and ilight 

equipment, which will give an illuminating power oi 

this 
ted that the \. 

wall ' i .Iltll til. thn.l week :ii 1 I' ' ' llll.el 

Ii is und • le / ion » I n 

Hi 'I Will ././, as flag 

l hi ii.'". battleshi] 
Novembei i'.th from the I .. ke.l 

prepai.it.n I icia I trial ' hun- 

111 the Ihanie- II, e pur]iose oil 

1'iber 29th. Ii the new cruiser Dart 

h will not 1 lace 111 the Atlantic I 

until the n He of Deo coi 

at tin ....it on Octobei 24th and subsequently proi 

■ .1 turbini del 1 She 
returned here and thi lefects ow being put right, ["hi 

1 trials of the cruisi su 

ful and the vessel will shortly be commissioned. It is belii 
that she will he acquired b) the Commonwealth of Aust 

training cruiser Cornwall 
ha- returt ■ . ntful \ m 

left here in Ma ig for a couple oi months 

ent to thi . ... 

Niobe, when thi ill also got aground, but eventually 

both vessels wer. I Halifa: Ibe 

wall sustained temporarily 

repaired at Halifa* flu when entering the 

Sound on the night ..I th, collided with an 

outward bound steamship and was -truck on the port side 
a hoi Seal had I 

in dock at months undergoing 

h th.- Panther near!) 

months ago, and she was only just returning to tin- 
Chatham Dockyard. 

The prm ,1 oi the month has launch oi 

1 Chatham the k.el of which was laid on Januari 
i ony was performed by I 

. len wife . ' : I 1 t of Kent. \ a 

ill balloon 
filled with confetti ovei thi vessel's bows, the confi 1 1 1 falling 
tors. 1 l.r Ladyship n 
th a paint aj 1 and an oaken 

casket containii ised in the ( eremon) 

The Chatham i launched of a new I 

lent on the " Falmouth 
class. Her dimensii 1 Length overall in. . 

beam. 40 ft. 10 in. ; draught mean). 15 It. o in. . 

displacement 11.1'. J5.000. The 

two ire the Dublin and Southampton, which 

are building in pri' while the 1 and 

Sydney buildin Australian Governm. • thi 

same design. the flagship of the Second 

Cruiser Squadi • annual 1 

was, ii 1- i-t large vessel launched 

flag- 
ship "l th. First 1 1 ha- also 

The d.i: 

■ . I. the pro 
injui harp end ol th. line. 

the '' 

..1 th. . 1 1. and dav and night 

shit' n her. Tl 



t50 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. Dfxemhkr, i.jii. 



which had been employed for the past >.\ in lis on the 

Nonh Sea survey, has come in to berthed in the steam 
basin foi the winter months, and the l ritor has also arrived, 
The latter vessel has been occupied during the season in 
taking soundings oi the aew channel leading from thi Nore 
into Sheerness llarboiu and .iNn . m Minams work in the 
Thames estuary and at Dover, die surveying officers have 
illotted an office in which to work up the results oi 
their season's work tor the preparation ot new charts. We 
shall shortly be losing Mr. E. Bate, senior constructor, who 
ha-* been selected,-to succeed Mr. W. Ilo. k,i.l.i\ as chiei 
constructor at Hong Kong. Mr. Bate has been here six 
and a-hali I he is now in i harge of the construction 

.■I th« Chatham. The successor to Mi I artwrighl Reid, the 
[intending civil engineer, who is to take charge ol the 
work al Rosyth, is to be Mr. II. Oakley, superintending 
i i\ tl rngmci i at I long Kong, anil he will take over the duties 
at the beginning of the new year. 

Sheerness Dockyard. 

We have plenty of repair work in hand. The Thrasher, of 
the Devonport Destroyer Flotilla, has been docked for the 
replacement of a damaged plate on the port side below the 
wati i line abaft the coal bunkers, where she had been struck 
in a heavy seaway by the hydroplane of Submarine C 10, 
which she was convoying from Harwich to this port. The 
Thrasher has been put right and has gone on to Devonport, 
and Submarine C 10 has since come in for repair. Submarine 
C 26 has also come in for a refit from Dundee. She had a 
very stormy voyage and took four days on the journey, being 
convoyed by the destroyer Teazer. Another vessel has come 
in lor repair. Early on the morning of November 1 5th the 
vessels of the First Destroyer Flotilla were returning to 
Harwich from exercises in the Channel, when a collision 
occurred between the Scorpion and the Danish sailing schooner 
Fyn. The destroyer had a hole made abaft her engine- 
room and she also lost one of her funnels. She was taken 
in tow by the Renard and brought to this port. The schooner 
was suhseqently found waterlogged and abandoned near the 
Goodwins. The torpedo-gunboat Jason has been taken in 
hand for a long refit, which is to include the retubing of her 
water-tube boilers. The destroyer Erne, which recently 
came into dockyard hands for the repair of damage sus- 
tained in collision with the destroyer Wear at Harwich, was 
placed in dock within three hours of her arrival. Her stem 
piece for a considerable distance was bent over to port and 
a new stem piece and some new plates are being fitted. She 
will be out of hand very shortly. The Recruit has completed 
an extensive refit and has been commissioned for service as 
senior officers' destroyer in the Nore Destroyer Division. 
She has relieved the Dasher, which has been placed in charge 
of a care and maintenance party to be prepared for sale. 
Torpedo boat No. 113 has been paid off for her boilers to be 
retubed, and No. 111 has completed refitting and has re- 
joined the Nore Destroyer Division. Submarines C 2. C3 
and C 6 have also completed their refits and on November 10th 
proceeded to Harwich to rejoin Section 3 Submarine Flotilla. 
Harwich is in future to be the mooring base of the destroyers 
of the Nore Flotilla, moorings having recently been completed 
there for twenty destroyers. We shall lose our captain- 
superintendent on December 1st, and on that day Captain 
Torlesse will be succeeded by Captain Prendergast, from 
the battleship Implacable, in the Atlantic Fleet. It is an 
interesting fact that Gillingham's new mayor, Councillor 
J. Davis, served for over forty years in this yard and at 
Chatham. He came to Sheerness as a trade boy at the age 
of fourteen and subsequently served as a smith for two 
years, when he was transferred to the Naval Store branch. 
He went to Chatham in 1883 as foreman of storehouses. 

Pembroke Dockyard. 

The cruiser Active has returned on the completion of her 
trials, which are said to have been exceedingly satisfactory. 
The horse-power should have been 18,000 according to the 
contract, but it worked up to 21,000 during the full-power 
trial, and the maximum speed over the measured mile was 
at the rate of about 26 knots. With regard to the cruiser 
Amphion, defects have been discovered in one of the cast 
steel shaft brackets and it is probable that a new bracket 
will have to be fixed. The launch, which had been fixed 
for December 4th, may therefore have to be postponed. 
The bracket has been built into the ship and bored for the 



eller shafting. Oui new vessel is to be built in No. 1 
lip and thi first keel plates were laid on Novi tnbei 15th. 
1 he delaj in laying thi vessel down was dm to the non 
deliver} oi the material E01 making the keel plates, Plates 
ari upplii '1 i" u and thej havi to bi bent to shape aftei 
,1, livei j . I'h. j are alwaj \ 1 » n1 . old at 1 hi i yard undi 1 a 
hydraulii press, and in the process one was fractured. This, 
,,1 course, neci ssitated an investigation and there will pro- 
bablj be some delay in manufacturing the plates. Mn 
captain-superintendent must have been highly gratified 
when informed by the Admiralty that it had been brought 
to th, 11 notice that the unarmoured crui ei Blonde, winch 
was built at this yard and commissioned in May last, was 

, ompleted for 1. s than tin > at. ol . ost. M3 Lords 

then fore 1 ongratulated the yard officials concerned. Captain 
Muinl\ will leave us on December 5th, when he will be suc- 
ceeded as superintendent by Captain Grant, ( aptain Mundy 
came here three years ago. and he was at that time about 
sixty down the captains' list, lie is now fourth, and before 
very long he should be promoted to rear admiral. 



THE FLEETS OF THE MAIL LINES. 

(From our Own Correspondent.) 

The Dangers of the St. Lawrence. 

THE experience of navigators, shipowners and under- 
writers in the past has shown that the River St. 
Lawrence, beautiful though its scenery undoubtedly 
is, has proved somewhat of a death trap, as far as shipping 
is concerned. The natural result has, of course, been that 
to some extent the rates of insurance for vessels trading to 
ports on the river has been high. But those interested in 
the prosperity of the ports of Quebec and Montreal have 
never ceased, during the last decade at least, to work for 
the improvement of the river itself, and for the provision 
of every safeguard to navigation which modern science can 
suggest. They have had their reward in one thing. Such 
vessels as the Megantic and Laurentic, of the White Star- 
Dominion line, now pass safely up and down the river, 
though even towards the end of the last century the limit 
of safety would hardly allow steamers of one-third their size 
to be engaged in the regular St. Lawrence trade. Within 
the last ten years, the old equipment of the lighthouses has 
been modernized with the latest types of lights and fog 
sound-signals, whilst the newer discoveries in the way of 
submarine bell-signals and wireless telegraphy have been 
pressed into the cause of safety. Meanwhile the navigable 
channel has been deepened from 27 J ft. to 30 ft., and it has 
at the same time been extended till it has a minimum width 
of 450 ft. Thus it is claimed that the once-dreaded '* dangers 
of the St. Lawrence " are no more, and that there is no reason 
why the trade should any longer be hampered by what 
those interested allege to be excessive rates for insurance. 
The President of the Montreal Harbour Board has just issued 
a pamphlet in which the enterprise of the Canadians in 
improving their great waterway is set out with justifiable 
pride. Major Stephens, the writer of the book, refers to 
the extent of their work, empha izing his points by a com- 
parison of the present condition of the river with that of 
but ten years ago, and puts forward an earnest plea for a 
lessened rate for underwriting vessels traversing these waters. 
The South African Mail Service. 
An extraordinary rumour as to the future of the Union- 
Castle Steamship Company was rife at the middle of Novem- 
ber. As I think most readers must be aware, the present 
contract for the conveyance of the mails between this country 
and South Africa runs out in another twelve months, and 
the Union Government has called for tenders for a new service. 
In its advertisements it announced that 'no tender would 
be entertained from any proposed contractor who would 
not bind himself to refrain from the existing practice of 
giving rebates on freight. Accordingly the Union-Castle 
Line — loyal to its allies in the South African conference — 
did not send in any offer, and shipowners generally — recog- 
nising the fact that Messrs. Donald Currie & Co. were fighting 
the battle of shipowners in every regular trade — refrained 
from tendering either. So only one offer was sent in in 
response to the advertisements. To be accurate, I believe. 



December, lyii. THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



151 



three alternative offers wen- subn 

trum on.- source - and that was not a shipping company, but 
a private individual. Even tin of the Union Gm 

ment realized that they had not got 1 In sort oi offer that 
would be much use to them, and they did not accept it. So 
now tiny are 111 the position oi having less than a year to 
run under the present contract and nothing to take its 
Ihey talk boldly enough oi budding and running tie 1; 
mail fleet to do the work, airily explaining that the ni 
ships could be provided tor a trifle of 3$ millions sterling. 

ibly that nia\ I But there are no ships sui- 

tor t. it tin- moment, nor are there likely 

to be. For out Company's flee! 

really adapted to the trade do not exist. Eleven months 
is not a long time lor the construction o! mail steamers and 
for the org uuzation ot a mail service. Moreover, the uianage- 
. lapping venture 1- 11. .1 .p. as the ma 1 

lilt to get tie I 
work the undertaking, even it the ships could be provided, 

with, that, human nature being what it is, the Government 
line would meet with deadly opposite 

Conij ' not the least from Mi i ! oald Currie 

Co. So some brilliant person started thi 
problem was solved! lor tie South African Govern- 
ment had purchased the Union-C and would run 
it Itself! The story was evidently believed on the Stock 
when it came out, tor the stocks ot the Company 
jumped upwards. But the rumour was soon denied, 
the future of the South African -Mail contract is still OE 
ol the gods. 

The Royal Tour. 

Just prii commencement of the Royal Tour to 

India it was announced in the Press tl Medina has 

been listed in the Admiralty record as ship No. 308, of 12,500 
1 [.P., lor flagship 1 1 >> 

Imiral Sii ( olin K 
1 . of the M 

about 12,500 tons gross Bui she is now treated 

: sign. She is spoken 
ol as 11. .M.S. .'■/ Una. S en according to the words 

I have qu n the Navy l.ist. Then why. may 

I ask, not give her her displacement tonnage, as is given 111 
the case ot other ships 111 tl, t ? Surely there is 

one at the Admiralty who is capable of calculating 
at of such a vessel at her service draught. 
It tli such person, tl ne at 

the 1' in i.eadenhall Street, or at the build 

yard, who could furnish the neci It ma) 

ill thing but I attach some importance to it, and for 
tin.- reason. In the days when the White Star liner Celtic 
mercantile ship afloat, I was more than once 
disputes between laymen a- to whethei 
biggest ship in the world was a merchant ship or a big battle- 
ship, and on one occasion much sui when 
inswi r was given in favour of tl, hip. Any 
Navy List will m Medina — 
; 1 s to be ot 
not too modern an, In point 

is :i: warships, 
hi 1 tonnage would appear as at 1 il to that of a 

Dreadnought, and people nowadays think size the one 
of quality. 

A Warning to Officers of the Mercantile Marine. 
A curious application was made th J to the Judge 

of the Admiralty Division. It was made by counsel on 

l! ol the owners of the steam-tug Washington, ol Antwerp, 
which, when sheltering in the I (own- during the I 

weather at the beginning oi November, was served with 
process by the officia Imiralty— she being 

then within the jurisdiction of tl and therefore 

liable to arrest — to answer a claim for damage alleged to 

been sustained by the British -team-tug Gauntlet, by 

a collision bet bmg 

some considerable tune previous! «'! tie 

rving the mast I with pre 

dd put into Hover. The o .ever, 

and tie tug went straight across to Flushing. 
Her owners, who are the Salvage Association of 



and explain' il that they 
m no wa . ting at 

nought the authority oi the High Court ot Admiralty. They 
had ordered the tugmaster to come back again, but he took 
no notice ol them, any more than he- had done ol the official, 
and so tl ieii explanation oi tie -t.'t' oi things, 

and tendered bail in respect ol their ship. The Court ace 
the statement made on th and recognised that they 

had not in any way abetted the master 111 his contempt. 
What tat' await: lot ilcitrant master, if ever he is 

found again m the jurisdiction, remains to be seen. 

The Increase in Cargo Companies' Fleets. 
One of the char.e not 

only the ol individual ships, but also 

growth ol mercantile eel illy of what maj 

called tramp companies. Some of these companies are of 

recent origin. Hut that fad does ni have prevented 

their rapid exti ns ii in. I ake foi thi Si el oi 

1 company whosi at Hull, and whose 

are called bj I milar to. and, in most cases, 

tical with those of the more famous White Star Line 

of Liverpool. 

The fleet of Messrs. VV. II. Cockerline & Co. has incre.i 
rapidly indeed. In the Register for 1901-2 they were credited 
with but a singli the Pacific, which has been disposed 

of during thi " Chi number of their vessels 

has soon b nportant, as witness the following table 

ot their present fleet : — 

\* 11 Gross 

Ship. built. BuiH tonnage. 

Graphic .... 1902 R. Dixon, Middlesbrough .... 3,295 

Olympic .... 1903 Irvine's, Hartlepool 2,217 

Britannic .. 1904 W. Gray, Hartlepool 3.487 

tic ... . 191 .J Irs I lepool 3.027 

Atlantic.... 1904 W < rtlepool 3,016 

Adriatic.... i. j Irvine' llntlepool 3,028 

Germanic .. 1905 Irvine's, Hartlepool 3.377 

I utonic. . . . 1905 W. Gray, Hartlepool 3,604 

nthic .. 1905 R. Cragg brougb .... 3,686 

Athenic .... 1906 Sunderland S.8.C0 4.078 

brie.... 1906 Sunderland S.6.C0 3,403 

iblic... 1900 Sunderland S.B.Co 4,281 

tic .... 1907 Sunderl.i 1 1 3.589 

ic [91 I I einess, Withy & Co., Hartlepool 3,801 

The last-named vessel was formerly the Bessborough, and 
was purchased by Messrs. Cockerline's and renamed in 1910. 

Line never had a J tcific, though thi 
Collins I. in 1 Liverpool Company 

likels to select or any of its future ships. 

Cambric is a designation that 1 been born 

White Star fleet Hut all the other names are familiar, 
though it will be observed that some of them — notably ' 
Olympic were in use on the I lumber long before 
Mersey claimed it. 

A Shipmaster and some Stowaways. 
\ from Port of Spain. I taki 

the facts from 11 nal oj Commerce. The ves 

of the Royal Me) - ket Company have for some 

by large 1 oi stowaways, who 

rently force theii way on boai 
of tie the crews anil the local polic ' 

aboard they are practically safe from arrest or detection 
for there are main ol their own colour and class prop 
Carre ;ers, and the attempt to identify 

who havi tiously aboard is practically 

impossible. That being so. a brilliant ii to have 

struck one shipmastei 1 tillard, of thes.s. Thames. 

He pi nil sticky paint and awaited 

the 
number of about lint was applied to their 

1 hi \ ••■ to the police and . hai 

From the master's point of vi ued 

well, for the 1 idi< uli ted and so 

own to the red-headed. But the m,i 

laded to look ahead. Some 

taken the law into his 

own hands and I I upon the would-be 

n handing them over to the police 

and formally charging them sh he was well ae 



C52 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. December, khi. 



i>i the fact that there h to puisne against 

such offenders. He chose, in addition, to do whal no doubt 
j sin, m thing. Bu irly guilty 

of at least • on the men. lh aof only 

assaulted them, hut further held them up to the derision 
of their friends and n \ a of the sufferers 

ha? obtained a verdicf foi £15 damages Eoi the assault, 
and other suif ending, rhe Steamship Company, 

however, stood by its officer, anil has entered an apj 
So tii. ' comment at the moment is not desirable. 

But I notice the «case because it maj interest engineers, 
lor we have been told that ships' engineers ought nof to 

be entrusted with the task of maintaining discipline ng 1 

the 11. ■■ ol their own department I. personally, can 

hardly imagine an engineei of anj 1 sperience bi ing so little 
able to realize the responsibilities of Ins position and the 
rights oi tl 1 ii iji 1 1 generallj .1 i to take such .1 course as 
that which commended 1 elf to Captain Guillard in the month 
of July. 191 1. The storj savours more of the long past .lavs 
of Midshipman Easj than of the prosaic times oi the twentieth 
century, when every man is as good as his neighboui (and, 
m the opinion of some 1 bet ter too 

The Oil-Engined Ship. 

It is announced that the German American Petroleum 
Company has placed an order with .Missis. Krupp for three 
twin-screw Diesel-engined tank-steamers. Oi these ships, 
one is to have a capacity of 15,000 tons of oil. her two sisters 
being but half her size. Meanwhile the largest sailing vessel 
m the world — a five-mastei to be known as La France — 
has been launched at Bordeaux. This vessel is oi n.ooo 
tons displacement and 6,500 ton ster. She too 

is to have twin-screw Diesel engines for auxiliary purposes. 
I his seems at first sight to be a reversion to an ancient 
practice ami one that, when tried, proved a failure, for 
there were several attempts at the use of auxiliary steamers 
as long ago as the forties. But it is contended that the 
oil-engine takes up so much less room and requires so much 
smaller a staff to manage it that the old objections to an 
auxiliary equipment no longer apply. Indeed, the experience 
of the four-masted auxiliary 7 barque Qtievilley, of Rouen, 
is said to show that in actual practice the Diesel-engine, fitted 
as an auxiliary, is of great advantage to the big sailing 
vessel. 



WHITE STAR LINE. 



THE report that the White Star Line has placed an order 
with .Messrs. Harland & Wolff for a vessel of lugger 
dimensions than anything afloat or building, while 
lacking confirmation in official quarters, has had colour lent 
to it by the fact that the Belfast Harbour Commissioners 
have under consideration the question of widening the 
entrance to the new graving dock. There is no doubt that 
the White Star Company contemplates the ordering of another 
steamer of big proportions, and it may be taken for granted 
that the dimensions will be such as to entitle her to be called 
"the biggest vessel in the world." The present width ol 
entrance of the graving dock in question is 96 feet, and the 
Commissioners propose to increase this to 100 feet. The 
extreme length is 887 feet, ami when the dock was being 
constructed provision was made lor lengthening at a com- 
paratively small cost ; the top end is, as a matter of fact, 
merely of a temporary nature. Should the necessity for 
widening the entrance and lengthening the dock arise in 
the near future, the harbour authorities may be relied upon 
to do what is requisite. In the May issue of The Marine 
Engineer it was pointed out that the Olympic completely 
tilled this dock, and that no vessel of appreciably bigger 
dimensions could enter it. It seems clear, therefore, that, 
although it is some years since the building of the dock was 
first started upon, the Commissioners did not then look far 
enough ahead in deciding upon the size of the dock ; more 
especially so in view of the fact that it is now a great many- 
years since Lord Pirrie predicted that a vessel 1,000 feet 
iong would yet be built, and that, possibly, m his own day. 
There appears to be every prospect of his prophecy being 
realized within the next two or three years. 



SHIPPING ON THE GREAT LAKES 
OF AMERICA. 

By Mr. A. E. Jordan. 



THE Great Lakes of America should be seen to be 
really appreciated ; it is perhaps difficult to 
realize the enormous amount of traffic which is 

iimed to their waters unless one has seen them for 
himself. Lake vessels, however, carry more tonnage 
undei the American flag than all the others in the 
l.'nitetl Slabs put together, and the figures given 
hereafter will give an idea of the vast commerce on 
this inland sea of tresh water. The Nett Registered 
Tonnage of the vessels which passed through the 
sue/ Canal in 1910 was 16,311,955, whilst that oi 
those through the Detroit River during the lake 
season of 1910 (eight months) was 58,821,282. 

The approximate sizes of the different lakes, length 
and greatest width in statute miles are : — Superior, 
350x150; Huron, 230x140; Michigan, 330x77: 
Erie, 240 x 55, and Ontario, 190 X 50. The larger 
vessels, however, are unable to get into Lake Ontario 
on account of the size of the locks in the Welland 
Canal, these not being able to take vessels over about 
260 feet in length. The water surface of the Great 
Lakes is about 90,000 square miles and the distance 
from Buffalo at the eastern end of Lake Erie to 
1 Hdutb at the head of Lake Superior about 1000 miles. 

The volume of commerce which passed through the 
Soo Locks to and from Lake Superior only, for the 
years 1909 and 1910 was as follows: — 

Season 1910. Season -j 

Steamers, number .. .. .. '7.674 16,463 

Sailing Vessels, number .. .. 1.890 I .l§7 

Unregistered, number. . .. .. 1 ,335 954 



Total number 

Lockages, number 

Nett Registered Tonnage 

Freight, short tons (2,000 lbs.) 

Passengers, number 

Hard Coal, short tons.. 

Soft Coal, short tons 

Flour, barrels 

Wheat, bushels 

Grain, bushels. . 

Manufactured and pig iron, short tons 444,669 

Salt, barrels 528,610 

Iron Ore, short tons .. .. .. 41,603,634 

Copper, short tons .. .. .. 148,070 

Lumber, 1,000 ft. Board measure .. 603. roi 
Building Stone, short tons .. .. 9.635 



20,899 10,204 

14.569 I3.57 1 

49,856.123 46,75'.7 I 7 
62,363,218 57.895,149 

66,933 59. 94 8 

1,658,844 1,412,387 

11,854,883 8,527,639 

7.576.7S9 7.094. 175 

86,259,974 it3, 253, 501 

39,245,485 46.519.45 1 

522.281 

651,091 

40,014,07.^ 

127,212 

552. J8° 

1.784 

General Merchandise, short tons .. r, 411, 549 1,140,344 

The season of 191 1 has been a rather bad one for 
the Lake trade, the freight carried up to September 
tst being 31,488,323 tons, against 40,046,800 for the 
same period in 1910. The season of navigation on 
the Lakes is about eight months, from April to Decem- 
ber. Early in December the ice commences to form 
in the rivers and straits, especially in the North, the 
Straits of Mackinac and the Soo River soon becoming 
frozen up solid, which stops all traffic to Lake 
Superior and it is usually the end of April before all 
the ice gets away. The level of the different Lakes 
varies considerably. Lake Superior is 602 feet above 
sea level and Lakes Huron and Michigan 581 feet ; 

•Contributed to The Institute of Marine Engineers on 
November 27th, by Mr. A. E. Jordan (Member) 



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THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



DECEMHHR. Kill. 



between 5 and Huron there are locks, t\\ 

these, tlu Poe and the Weitzel locks, belong to the 
United Slates, and one, called the Canadian lock, to 
Canada : the latter is the largest and last year handled 
, s per cent, of the tonnage. There are no dues to pay 
for any of the locks nor are there any light, harbour, 
pilotage, port dues, etc., payable by vessels anywhere 
on the Lakes. 

Lake Erie is about eight feet below Huron, the 
irence in the'levels being taken up in the St. Clair 
and Detroit Rivers, where there is a current running 
down into Lake Erie, no locks being necessary. The 
level of Lake Ontario is 247 feet above the sea and 
326 feet below Lake Erie ; the famous Niagara Emails 
at the eastern end of Erie discharging the surplus 
water into the Niagara River, which tuns into Lake 
Ontario. There are 25 locks in the Welland Canal in 
Canada, which goes from Port Colborne on Lake 
Erie to Port Dalhousie on Lake Ontario, through 
which vessels not longer than about 255 feet go, 
generally laden with grain from the ports on Lakes 
Superior and Michigan to Montreal ; the majority 
of the lake vessels, however, are unable to go east 
beyond Buffalo on account of their size ; they are 
built on the Lakes and when a bad season comes 
along they have to be laid up ; in 1908 a number of 
vessels did not make a single trip all the season. The 
following table gives a comparison of the total Lake 
traffic which passed through the Detroit River from 
1902 to 1910. 

imber 

Freight, Tons. Estimated value 
44.260,506 .. 6440,834. 640 
46,817.245 .. 47t.917.830 
42,792,326 . . 453,59S. 656 

55,508,360 . . 522,888,751 

i'3,SoS,57i .. 662,971,053 

71,226,895 .. 697,311,302 

54,oS6 750 . . 614,425,480 

67.789,369 .. 732.803,079 

73,526,692 .. 771,294,055 

The average freight rates for the ten years ending 
1910 were as follows : — 





Number 


Year 


of passages 


1902 


33,000 


1903 


33."3 


1904 


29.472 


1905 


35.599 


1906 


.. 35,128 


1907 


34,149 


1908 


. . 27,883 


1909 


32,296 


1910 


• • 33.638 



,000 lbs.) 



Iron ore, from head of Lake Superior to Ohio ports 

(gross ton 2,240 lbs.) 
Iron ore, Marquette to Ohio ports 
Iron ore, Escanaba to Ohio ports 
Soft coal, Ohio ports to Milwaukee (nett ton 
Soft coal, Ohio ports to Duluth 
Hard coal, Buffalo to Chicago 
Hard coal, Buffalo to Duluth 
Wheat, Chicago to Buffalo (bushel) 
Wheat, Duluth to Buffalo 

Iron ore is F.O.B. and 
the ship for discharging, 
is paid by the ship for 



15 cents 
$4.12* 



per 
per 



shovelling, 



Cents. 

74* 

fi7i 

574 

434 

34 

43 

334 
1 "46 
1 S4 

ton is paid by 
1,000 bushels 
trimming and 
tallying grain. Coal is handled in and out without 
chagre to the ship. 

The lake freighter differs considerably from vessels 
built for ocean traffic. The draught and beam are fixed 
by existing conditions; the draught is limited to 18 to 19 
feet to and from Lake Superior and about 20 feet for 
other parts, owing to the shallow places in the water- 
ways connecting the different lakes, and the beam 
by the width of the entrances of the Canadian and 
Weitzel locks, which will not admit vessels of over 
60 feet; the Poe lock has gates 100 feet wide, but 
should anything happen to it a vessel over 60 feet 
beam could not get into Lake Superior; moreover 
the discharging berths are built to handle vessels not 



exceeding 60 feet, so that this is at present the limit, 
most of the larger vessels being 58 feet beam. The 
largest boats are 605 feet long over all, 58 feet beam, 
52 t.) 33 feet deep and can carry 12,000 tons; their 
Hues are necessaiily very full and they have practi- 
cally llat bottoms; they have 36 hatches which are 
about two thirds of the vessel's beam and are 12 feet 
apart centre to centre fore and aft; the hatch covers 
are made of steel-plate flanged at the ends and tele- 
scope over each other from the centre to port and 
starboard sides of the hatch, being handled by wires 
led to the mooring winches. 

The deck is perfectly clear from forecastle to poop, 
there is no cargo-handling gear on board, the only 
machinery on deck being mooring winches. The 
pilot house (wheel house), captain's quarters and 
navigating bridge are right forward on a high fore- 
castle deck, with accommodation for deck officers and 




Stern Frame of Passenger Steamer, 233 ft. long, 40 ft. beam 

part of the crew under this deck. Many of the vessels 
have fine accommodation for three or four passengers ; 
the quarters for officers and crew are all well fitted up 
and as a rule have shower and tub baths, the captain's 
rooms in the modern vessels are far superior to 
those in any cargo boat on salt water. 

The engines and boilers on all the bulk freighters 
are aft under a raised poop, on the deck of which are 
berths for the engineers, greasers, firemen, etc., also 
the galley and mess rooms ; nearly all the vessels are 
lighted by electricity and have telephones from the 
forecastle to poop, which are especially useful in bad 
weather. 

The hold is quite clear, there being no hold beams 
or stanchions, but heavy, deep, arched girders are 
fitted under the deck between the hatches, there are 
generally two divisional bulkheads, but these are not 
water-tight, there being no water-tight bulkheads 
between those of the forepeak and stokehold ; all the 
modern vessels have side tanks which run up to 



December, iqii TIM': \l \KINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 



155 






within 10 or n feet of the deck, as well as a double 
bottom which is about 5 leet deep, the side tank b 
in U t a continuation of the bottom tank. 

The floors arc made of 15-inch channel bars, the 
lower flange forming the frame bottom bar, they are 
spaced three feet apart and have a deep floor plate 
every 12 feet, the vessels all have Hat keel plates and 
a water-tight centre keelson; I usually four 

fore and an plate girders on ide attached to the 

upper flange of the channel floor, with a continuous 
angle on one side and a lug on the other and inter- 
costals between the floors .connected to the bottom 
plating with the usual shell bars. 

Tin- lank tops have no wood ceiling and the holds 
no side bilges, the tank top plating (in vessels which 
have no side tanks) extending out straight to the side 
plating', heavy bra< kets above and below connecting 
the tank top plating to the side frames and to the 
bottom channel floors. 



tank top plating with a 1. iped plate bracket ; 

the side frame is a 9 to 12 in< li channel, according to 
the size of the ship, and is bracketed to the de< k 
beam and to tank top ; the floors at both ends of the 
ship as she I are carried up to the 

tank top, bein^; bent and bevelled to suit the lini 
the vessel. The shell plating used is all very la 
the average size of plates being from 25 to 30 feet in 
length and 6 to 7 feet in width. 

While there are a number of line passenger and 
general cargo boats, the majority cf the vessels are 
built expressly for the iron ore and coal trade, the 
lake term for them being bulk freighters, the general 
cargo boats being called 1 freighters. 

loading and discharging of the bulk cargoes is done 
with surprising despatch, the loading berths jut 
into the watei and are so arranged that a chute can 
be put into each hatch, all being spaced 12 feet centre 
to centre; the discharging docks arc fitted with over- 







A Typical Lake Freighter. 530 ft long. 56 ft. beam. 6.924 I 



In the building of lake vessels no scrieve boards 
are used, all the plating, floors, frames, brackets, 
intercostals, girders, beams and other parts are shaped 
and marked off from carefully made templets, called 
moulds, and all holes punched before any parts are 
erected. A set of moulds can be used for a number of 
els of the same size. It is claimed that a consider- 
able saving is effected by the mould method over the 
d 1 nevertheless the cost to the shipowner 
for a vessel built at any American yard is greater 
than for one of the same size built at home) and that 
the work is done much more quickly. The time for 
building saj a 9,000-ton ship is sixty to ninety days 
from laying the keel until the trial trip is run — a number 
of vessels have been turned out in much less time than 
this: one. the /. Q. Riddle, built by the American 
building Co. in 1906, 552 ft. x 56 ft. x 31 ft., 
mpleted in fortv-rive days. 

F01 over three-quarters of the length the bottom 
tloors are all the same, straight lengths of 15-inch 
channel, the turn of the bilge being formed by an 
angle bent to shape and joined to the floor and to 



head travellers from which grabs, called clam shells, 
are worked, the latest pattern, named the Hulett, 
after the inventor, lifts 15 tons at each hoist. 

All the discharging machinery is operated by 
electricity, and in August ol tins yeai a vessel loai 
with 10,234 U ross tons °f > l ° n ore was discharged at 
itabula in four hours and six minutes with four 
15-ton Hulett machines, the average tons per hour 
per machine was 637-6 and the average tons per hour 
from start to finish for the four machines was 2550-5 
tons. Unloading commenced at 6.30 a.m. and was 
completed at 10.36 a.m.. this being a record for dis- 
charging ; the record for loading is 10,1 1 1 tons of ore 
put into a vessel in thirty-nine minutes. These of 
course are record times, but in any event the usual 
time to load is not more than two or three hours and 
to discharge from six to twelve hours. Lake vessels 
have an advantage over their deep sea brethren, as 
the captain has practically no ship's business to 
attend to ashore, so that as soon as the vessel is loaded 
or discharged she can get away. Vessels have made 
as many as thirty-eight trips during the season by 



156 



HE 



MARINE KM.INKKU AND NAVAL A RCHITECT. DECEMBER, igii, 



ind only carrying ore from Lake 
Superioi to Ohio 01 Lake Michigan ports ; an averagi 
number ol trips foi .1 vessel taking a cargo both way! 
is about twenty for the season oi eight months, or 

lit twelve days tor each nip, two cursors being 
handled in and out ; the longest passage, h.uu I'.nttalo 
to Duluth, takes about foui days, 

rhe wages paid on the lakes are high compared 
with those on deep sea vessels, but the cost of every- 
thing in America is so much greatei than at home 
1 do not think the nun are much better oil in the 
end. rhe 1 aptain gets from £400 to .£'500 a year, all 
Othei pa) being monthly: chief engineer about /■;-,. 
assistant engineei £"25, mate ( :-, second mate /."19, 

wheelsmen (quarter-mast ei si / 10, greasers and tile- 
men 'in tos. to 'it ios., and deck hands £6 6s.; 
all provisions are found by the ship and all hands are 
well fed. 

I he i'i lini cj in all the freighters is fitted alt, the 
boilers are ol the usual return multitubular type and 
1 all for no comment, the engines are nearly all triple- 
expansion, three cranks, and not having salt water to 
contend with they all have jet condensers : no copper 
pipes are used ; the mam and other steam pipes are 
steel and water pipes ordinary iron piping with 
screwed connections. The method of fitting pro- 
pellers is somewhat curious to us ; a large number of 
the tail shafts are parallel, the propeller is bored an 
easv tit and keyed on with a fitted, driven key : then 
a heavy band shrunk on the end of the shaft. Com- 
paratively few of the shafts have cone ends with fitted 
propellers secured with a nut ; there are no brass 
liners on the tail shafts and no corrosion takes place, 
and as the vessels are laid up for about four months 
every year there is no necessity to draw the shafts for 
periodical inspection. The stern bush is made very 
long and is generally cast iron or steel filled with 
lignum vitae, usually having white metal run between 
the strips. It is fitted so that it can be removed for 
re-wooding without drawing the tail shaft or removing 
the propeller. The after-coupling is disconnected and 
shaft and propeller jacked aft a sufficient distance to 
allow the bush to be drawn out ; the bush itself is 
made in halves and in three or four lengths connected 
together with dovetail or figure 8 keys, and has tapped 
holes in the after-ends of each section for draw bolts. 
The stern frame of lake vessels lends itself to this 
operation as it has no rudder post, the weight of the 
rudder being carried on a bearing collar on deck and 
a bottom pinlte, which goes into a bushed hole in the 
overhung sole piece of the stern frame, steadies the 
rudder and keeps it central. These rudders are huge 
balanced affairs often 8 feet wide. They can be dis- 
connected on deck and turned at right angles to the 
ship, which gives plenty of room to get the propeller 
and shaft sufficiently far aft to allow the sections of 
the stern bnsh to be drawn out. After the latter has 
been replaced the stern tube is filled with heavy black- 
oil and kept full with an oil pump. These bearings run 
for several seasons without requiring re-wooding, and 
give no trouble. Most of these vessels can easily be 
tipped sufficiently to get at the stern bush, so that re- 
wooding is often done afloat ; built propellers are the 
rule, and when a new blade has to be fitted this is also 
done afloat. 

The engines of any of the bulk freighters seldom 
develop more than 2,000 I.H.I'. A typical case is a 



vessel -,o,| feet long and S| feet beam, which 'allies 
9,000 tons and has engines 23", (8" and 63" with \ ■" 
stioke, developing about 1.950 1.1 I.I', and running 
about 10 statute miles on a consumption of 1 -7 lbs. oi 
coal per 1.11.1'. pel hour. As soon as the season of 
nagi\ at ion is over, early in December s the \ essels are 
taken to win tei quarters and laid up, the machiner) 
is all opened out, cylinders, etc., drained, all working 
paits oiled and sea cocks filled with heav) blai k oil 
to keep out the frost. 

The Southern end of Lake Michigan and the I >etroit 
River are kept open all winter. One oi the distiru tive 
features of the Lakes, the railway cat ferry, tuns all 
the year round. These vessels are specially built foi 
breaking ice, and carry complete trains (without the 
locomotive). The car deck is fitted with three 01 turn 
sets of rails and the after-end of the dei k left open so 
that she can be backed against the end of the railway 
tracks and coupled up in line with the rails, the car 
slip being raised or lowered to suit. The cars are then 
run on" to the deck and secured with dogs. Some of 
these car ferries are fine twin-screw boats with an 




Kidd s Patent Anchor Pocket 

upper deck fitted with cabins for carrying passengers, 
several of them running across Lake Michigan, a dis- 
tance of over 70 miles, their cargo consisting solely of 
freight trains. There are also ferries for taking passen- 
ger trains from Detroit to Windsor, about half an 
hour's run across the Detroit River, but they are now 
building a tunnel under the river there for the 
Canadian Pacific, one being already in operation from 
Sarnia to Port Huron on the Grand Trunk Railway, 
so that trains can run between Canada and the States 
without using the ferry. 

The package freighters are in most cases owned by 
the Railway Companies, and pick up cargo from the 
different railway terminals. They have large side 
doors through which the cargo is wheeled on hand 
trucks from the railway cars, the boat's deck being 
nearly level with the dock ; they have their engines 
aft and a line of shafting runs the full length of the 
'tween decks, with friction drums at each hatch to 
handle the cargo in and out of the lower holds. 

A number of fine passenger boats are run during 
the summer. One distinctive vessel is the whaleback 
steamer Christopher Columbus, which was built in 1893 
for the Chicago Exhibition, and is now running daily 
between Chicago and Milwaukee ; she is 364 ft. x 
2J ft. ■ 24 ft., has engines 28", 42" and 70". with 42" 



December, 1911. Till MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. 

H 



t57 



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1 r 




11 — 



Gban_d Trunk ^L 




1 1 M ii liigan Car Kerry. 



stroke, single screw, a- [8 miles per hour. 

The City oj Cleveland is a paddle stea ■ ft. x 

S4 ft. ■ 22 ft. 3 in. built in tnd runs between 

eland and Detroit. She has compound diagonal 
engines with 54" ll.l'. and two 84" L.i'. cylindersand 
troke. She is owned by the Detroit and Cleve- 
land Navigation Company. \\ ' a number ol 
othei pa lis, and have recently launched 
me 472 ft. x 55 ft. x 22 ft., with engines 
having a 62" H. P. and two 1 >. with 102" stroke. 
There are also excursion boats running from thelowei 
laki lands at the head of Lake Huron 
and to Lake Superior, the number of passengers who 
I he Soo I .< 11 ks in 1910 being oeai I) 
67,000. 

During the late autumn the lake region is subject to 

very torms which cause a big sea to rise; a 

number 1 have foundered, amongst them some 

of the 10,000 tonners, and have gone down in Laki 

Superior with all hands, without a vestige ol them 

ever being recovered : it is said that this lake is 

200 fathoms deep in places. In 1910, nineteen 

vessels al losses and forty-nine live wen 

ten of thi '-Is were burnt ; four foundered, 

ini hiding a car ferry of over 5,000 tons: three win 

sunl llision and two stranded and broke up, 

ter being a 12,000 tonner. A very bad 

up which is similar to that in the North Sea. 

■ k whin there is much 

wind, and one has to be well used to these short hea 




seas to go out on any of the lakes in a storm, without 
being affected. 

A good deal of damage is sustained by the boats 
during the season, especially through groundings and 
collisions. Whenever possible the dama 
up to enable the vessel to keep running until the season 
is over, so that the repairs keep the yards busy most 
of the wintei months. All the shipbuilding \ 
have dry docks, of which there are about thirty over 
250 ft. long, besides numerous smaller ones ; sixteen of 
the docks are over 400 feet long, and the largest is 
764 feet with an 80 feet entrance ; all the graving 
dinks are made of wood, with the bottoms heavily 
piled, and there are also steel pontoon docks at 1 >ctroit. 

The American Shipbuilding Company has eight 
shipbuilding yards at various places, all of which 
have dry docks, and also two yards with dry docks 
only. The (ireat Lakes Engineering Company has 
three yards and dorks. Toledo Shipbuilding Company 
has one. Manitowoc Shipbuilding and Dry Dock 
Company one and Collingwood Shipbuilding Com- 
pany one. These yards build all classes of vessels, 
make their own engines and boilers. During 
1910 (exclusive of Canadian yards) the lake ship- 
builders launched 51 vessels, 20 being bulk freighters, 
3 package freighters, 2 passenger steamers and 3 car 
ferries, the remainder being tugs, tenders, dredgers, 
etc. The bulk freighters had a carrying capacity of 
194,500 gross tons, five carrying 12,000 tons each, 
four 10,000: eight 9,000 and three 7,500. In 




Ice In Dry Dock at S 



158 



THE MARINE ENGINEER AND NAVAL ARCHITECT. DECEMBER, igil. 



practically all cases, lake vessels are launched side- 
ways into a slip alongside the building ways, and in 
some cases they are launched into a " dry dock." 
des the above-mentioned yards, there are others 
on Lake Ontario, and many smaller ones which build 
tugs, fishing boats, dredgers, motor boats, etc. 

\s before stated, the majority of the repairs are left 
until the winter, when the boats are laid up, and often 
have to be done under very severe conditions ; one 
\ essel went into the dock at the Superior Shipyard on 
a Christmas eve, and there was so much ice in the 
dock, that when the water was first pumped down, we 
found she had over three feet of ice between her 
bottom and the keel blocks. She had to be floated 
again, steam led into her tanks, and the bottom swept 
with heavy booms, it taking three days to get her 
safely landed on the blocks ; then to make the survey 
we had to crawl under her bottom on top of huge 
blocks of ice, to ascertain the damage, so that the 
cranes could be put to work lifting the ice away from 
the damaged parts before the men could get to work 
cutting out. The temperature at Superior goes down 
to 40 below zero, but the air is fine and bracing, and 
when there is no wind, the men can work outside with 
the temperature 15 to 20 , but when it gets below 
15 , all outside work has to be stopped ; the ice in the 
northern harbours and rivers gets so solid that 
scaffolding is erected on it, and a waggon with two 
horses and two or three tons of plates can be driven 
over it with perfect safety. 

Lake vessels suffer very little from corrosion ; the 
holds, top sides, decks and deck erections are painted, 
but the shell plating below the light water line is left 
bare, and suffers no ill effects ; the insides of the tanks 
are not coated, nor is any cement used excepting in 
the fore and after peaks. 

The channel floors lend themselves to efficient and 
economical repairs, as the damaged parts can be cut 
out at any point without shifting butts, new pieces 
fitted and joined to the existing part, with back bars 
of the same section, and a face plate fitted on the 
inside, giving the joint of a 15-in. channel, with i-in. 
face plate, a sectional area of 6£ in. more than the 
original. 

The use of pneumatic tools is universal on the Lakes ; 
all cutting out, drilling, caulking and most of the 
riveting is done by air, in fact, it would be almost 
impossible to get the work done without it, as while 
there are plenty of skilled men (most of whom have 
come from home yards) at the larger works, at some 
of the smaller ones a man may be a carpenter, 
working to-day at the planking of a wooden vessel 
(of which there is still a number), and to-morrow he 
may be riveting up plates on the bo